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Srrlfn: 20, UNTER DEN LINDEN. 


I. On the Formation of Greek Futures and First Aorists. 

By T. Hbwitt Kjt, M.A., F.RS. - ... 1 
II. Some Greek Etymologiea BjTebodorbAitirsoht, Esq. 16 
III. Remarks on a lately published Middle-Breton Mystery. 

By Whitlst Stokes, Esq. 22 

» IV. On a Chronological Mistake in the Pre&ce of M. Genitt, 

the Editor of PaUgrav. By Danbt P. Fbt, Esq. - 41 
_j- V. The Pedigroe of English Heroic Verse. By C. B. 

Catlkt, Esq., B.A. 43 

VI. Technical Terms Relating to the Manu&cture of Playing 

Cards. By Davbt P. Frt, Esq. .... 05 
VH. On the Sound of Initial T'^in En^ish. By Daxbt P. 

Fry, Esq. 82 

VIII. On Some Modem Greek Words. By Wilhelh Waoksh, 

Ph.D. 8fi 

IX. On the German PreBx "Ver" and Allied Forms. By 

T. Hbwitf Kxt, M.A., F.aS. - - . - - 93 

X. On Plural Forms in Latin, with a Singular Meaning, and 

especially on Viigil's Use of Menta. By T. Hbwitt 

Key, M. A., F.RS. lOS 

XI. The Middle-Breton Irregular Verbs. By Whitlbt 

Stokbs, Esq. 114 

XII. On the Phrase "Scot and Lot." By Danbt P. Fry, Esq. 167 

XIII. On Ribbeck's Virgil. By Wilhelh Wagner, Ph,D. 198 

XIV. On Jordan's Salluat. By Wilhelm Wagneb, Ph.D. - 241 
XV. On Phaednis. By Wilhelm Waoner, Ph.D. - - S4S 

XVI. On Furea. By Wilhelm Waonbr, Ph.D. - - - 250 
XVIL Four Metrical Inscriptions. Reprinted from the 

" Hermes." By Wilhelm Waoher, Ph.D. - - 260 
XVIII. Miscellanea Celtica, by the late R T. Siegfried. Col- 
lected, Arranged, and Edited by Whitley Stoebs - 2fiS 
XIX. Obituary of Franz Bopp. By Rdsbell Martikeau, Esq., 

M.A. 300 



XX. A Report, by Rdssell Mabtikeau, Esq., M.A., on "The 
Common Sense of English Orthography ; a Guide to 
Spelling of Doubtful and Difficult Words, by E. 
Jones" --------- 315 

XXI. On the Dialect of Cleveland in the North Ridiiig of 

Yorkshire. By the Rev. J. C. Atkinson - - 33flt 

XXIo. An Outline of Old English Phonology. By Dr. F. H. 

Stbatmakn - _ - 357 

XXII. Pynson's Contracts with Honnan for his Vulgaria, and 
Palsgrave for his Lesclmrciisementy with Pynson's 
Letter of Denization. Communicated by F. J. 
FuBNiTALL, Esq. 362 

XXIII. Words formed in Imitation of the sound Kar, as heard 

. II '. ' in Scratchiiig. By Prof. T. Hewitt Ket - - - 375 

XXIV. Observations on some Disputed Points of Plautine Pro- 

sody, suggested by the second volume of RitachCa 
Opvscula. By "Wilhelm Waoseb, Ph.D. - - 399 

Index and Errata. - - - - - - - 423 * 

(Appendix). List of Members. Minutes of Meetings. 
Treasurer's Cash Account. 


' A Glossary of the Dialect of the Hundred of Lonsdale By the 
late BoBsRT Backhouse Peacock. 

I. On Palaeotyjje ; or, the Representation of Stx)ken 

Sounds, for Philological Purposes, by Means of tb(> 

Ancient Types. By A. J. Ellis, Esq. 

II. On the I>ii>hthong " Oy." By A. J. Elus, Es*!- 





AND FIRST AORISTS.^ By T. Hewttt Key, Esq. 

As what I am about to contend for would at first view 
be thought very heterodox in a philological sense, I think it 
but prudent to prepare the way by some preliminary re- 
marks, and in doing so to start fiY>m first principles. 

The word tense, meaning time, is to be regarded mider 
two aspects, absolute and relative. In its simpler aspect it 
divides itself into three parts, — ^the past, the present, and 
future ; the first and last of which are infinitely large, the 
second infinitely small, so that the relation of the past or 
of the future to the present is, in mathematical language, in- 
finity of the second order. But in truth the past and 
future, though infinite in the contemplation of the phi- 
losopher, are, for the practical purposes of life, limited to 
the recent past and the early future ; while the present, 
though strictly but a point, is allowed in language to en- 
croach on both of its neighbours. Although the ho of hodie^ 
and the to of to-day mean what is present, yet the terms are 

■ Some additions, sogF^ested bj the duonirion whicli followed the reading, hare 
be«n nude to the p«per read. 


ftN**T*nt;'Vb]aSUTioif op'oaEEK* putI*res 

permitted in practice to include much of the mDmiug that 
16 really past, much of the afternoon or OTening that ia yet 
to eome. 

By the phrase relaiice time, I mean that view of time 
which grarainarians represent by the term ' perfect,' so that 
sn-ijisi, *1 have writtan,' apeaks of that which is now com- 
plete; hcripmram, 'I had T^Titteu,' of that which was already 
complete at sojue post time; acripsi'.rOy 'I shall have written,' 
of what will be complete at some future date ; and these, of 
coui-se, stand opposed to thoae other ideas, where the mot 
IB Bpolcen of aa imperfect, or still going on, viz., * I am 
Q-writing,' ' I was tt-vfriting/ ^ I shall be a-writiug,' where I 
purposely introduce the oldor form. There remain yet two 
other teusea, which speak of an act in the past and future, 
but without (tny clue to the precise point of time, what we 
may perhaps call a past aorist and a future aorist, ' ho wrotB>* 
and ' he will write,' referring to a mere point of time in the 
past and the future, and that without any limit ; and when 
1 Bay a mere point of time, I have the thought that the 
mind in dealing with the di&tant past or future^ is di^waed 
to regard not so much the dui-ation of an act, as tlie simple 
idea of its occurrence. It may be observed that I juat now 
changed ray prOnoun, saying ' he wrote,' or ' he will write/ 
not ' I wrote,' or 'shall write.' Had I used the first person, 
the idea of my own lifetime would have implied a limit in 
both these directions. 

Now when language was in its infancy, for thie, like all 
the other sciences^ must have had but a rude beginning, the 
thoughts of man being all but wholly limited, as I have 
said, to the recent past and early future, such aariat tensea 
could not have been in much request. Accordingly, there 
will be found evidence that the eo-citUed uoriste were in 
origin pa&t imperfects or rather present perfects. Again, it 
may be useful to observe that the notion of time ia insepar- 
able from that of space and motion, so that the measurement 
of the former has always a reference to movement in apace. 
But to mark the relations of movement and apace is the 
Hpnial office of prepositigns, and hence little wortls of this 


claae will be found to play an importaut part in the forma- 
tion of tenses. Thus, aa the portion of time which first 
coiuea under view ia the early stages of human development 
ia limited to that comparalively small amount which lies 
Dcflr the present, wo are able in our own lang-uage to Luclude 
the leading- ideas o( time in the three forms, — 'I am just 
come from writing,* ' I am^ a-writing/ sum in scriptionv, bo 
to flay, and ' I am going to write/ or, without the participle, 
' I am to write.' Here, the phrase * a-writing/ is made up 
of * writing,' an abstract substuntive, with a preposition a, 
out down from on. Indeed, our older language used the 
form, * I am on writing,' or ' in ivritiug,' just oa ' on board,* 
'in bed,' 'on sunder/ prece<led the shorter forms, 'aboard, 
abedf aaundor.' It was only in this way that our language 
acquired its &>ojillod imperfect participle ' writing^ Other 
longuagGS than English might be quoted in aupport of this 
g^ieral view ttat pre}M)sition» equivalent to our ' from,' ' in ' 
or *ou,' and ' to,* are severally used in the creation of forma 
to express the recent paat, the preaent, and the early future. 
The Latin fc^rijjttlf, by more than one writer^ has bad the 
notion of an oorist assigned to it in profei-ence to that of a 
present perfect. But in & former paper on this tense, I gave 
reasons, and I believe BufEcicnt reasons, for the view, that 
the word is made up of the three elements, ncfib, detiotiiig the 
act of writing, s, a genitivul suffix with the idea of ' from,' 
and e»t, * he is/ bo that the combination gives ub what we 
have just said, 'he is from writiag/ *il vient d' ecrire,' in 
other words * he boa just written.' 

For Sanskrit, I accept the statements, but not the couclu- 
sions of Bopp in his Vcnjkicfmuk Grnimtwfii:, In section 
513 of that work he commences his remarks on the ' Prae- 
teritum/ witb assertions, which but for the admisaiona which 
sooD foEow, might be thought soinowhat damaging to the 
"doctrine for which I am contending. '* The Sanskrit, he saya, 
LH for the expression of past time forma which represent 
of the Greek imperfect aoriet and perfect, without 
jver attaching to those several forma the gradations of 
meaning which belong to the Qreek tenses. In Sauakrit 


they are all employed without diBtiimtion in the seuee of the 
Greek aorist or imperfect. Moat frequently however tlie 
reduplicated preterite, which in form correaponda to the 
Greek perfect, supplies the place of the aoriat. A tense 
exclusively set apart to express the completion of an uction 
ia utterly wanting in Saaskrit." So saya Bopp, but soon 
after (g 588) he qualifies a similar statement by adding, in a 
note> that, " In the dialect of the Veda, the reduplicated 
preterite is often found as u tnio perfect, denotiug the com- 
pletion of an act.*' In the eame noto he shortly after says, 
" In the Veda dialect the tense moat commonly em- 
ployed (das vorheiT&chende Tempus) in the expre^Bion of a 
complete act, is the aorist." Unfortunately he doea not define 
which of his so-called aorista (for hie own book gives two) ; 
whether that represented by a-tlik-sh-o-m, /i-fUk-sh-fi-n, a-dik~ 
tth-a-tt which he himself with good reason treats as the 
equivalent of the Greek first aorist, i-hetK-tr-a, e-BeMc-o--o-?, 
€-£«/£- (r-€(i'), or that other aorist of very different form, for 
which his examples are uhodhiskam, abodhU^ abixihU, and 
nrakiihamt avtfK-Jthts^ nvafcsHf. Now, in this latter tense, Bopp 
thinks he finds the root of fhe verb 'to be,* doing duty as a 
suffix. To this I give a ready assent, and so claim it as the 
representative, so far, of the t^nae scripsi. I wish it to he 
specially observed that the final it of the third person, with 
its long vowel, agrees precisely with the Buffii of the old 
Latin /ecif, for /ecisf, as maintained and explained in my 
paper on Ritschl's Plautus (18U0-61), Of course the au- 
thority of the Veda in all philological enquiries is of in- 
comparably more value than that of the so-called classical 
wTitera of Sanskrit, who wrote at a far later date. 

Bopp alao himself draws attention to the fact^ that ^' The 
German preterite, which in origin coincides with the Greek 
perfect, and the reduplicated preterite of Sanskrit, has in 
like manner abandoned its proper perfect meaning ; while in 
Gothic the same tense doea duty for an imperfect and an 
aorist, and even a past perfect, but not to to the exclusion of 
the perfect." 

To bring out tliia last fact more distinctly it may he oh- 


served that^ as tho Latin /cei was in uU probability but a 
compreBsion of a reduplicated /ffiri (CoTuparo Bopp. % 548), 
BO the German preterites of ' sti-ong-' verbs were in all pro- 
bability but corruptions of old reduplicated forms, whicb are 
60 common in Gothic. Indeed, the Anglo-Saxon h^hf in its 
second ft bears e^Kdence, aa Grimm himself suggests, that it 
baa resulted from a fuller form corresponding to the Gothic 
perfect of reduplication kiiihdfi. But these perfects of the 
Gothic aro by all regarded os equivalents of the reduplicated 
Terbs, 60 common in Sanskrit and Greek, and nat very rare 
in Latin. 

Then again the weak verbs, as our own ' he loved," and 
the German, ' er licble/ when traced back, exhibit the sufiix 
in the iVnglo-Saxon, in tho form of rfc, /rtfo-de, and in the 
Gothic in the fuller form d^d, as is shown by a comparison of 
the suffixes of weak and strong preterites (D. G,, 840 and 
"645), especially in the dual and plural, viz. — 


Siny, — -t — 
Duai. — -uta — 
Phtr, -urn 'Uf* -\m 

-da -des -da 
— flp.duts — 
-ffc'fum -iit'ii\i\' dedna 

For a fuller examination of this question I may refer to 
the first paper of mine that over appeared in the Proceedings 
of this Society (vol. ii. p. 50), We thus arrive at a suffix. 
which there can be little doubt, is one with our own did, and 
the Latin d&ii — in other words, a perfect of rodupHcntion; in- 
deed for our language the only specimen that has survived. 

The Greek second aorist, say trvrroi', differs from the paet 
imperfect enfirrov, solely in the shorter form of the base, 
TVTT in place of tvttt ; but the additional consonant is no 
additional suffix, the formirr being but a dialectic variety, as 
shown by iraXefim and TrroXe^?, ttoKk and tttoX*?. Still 
the addition is not without effect By lengthenbg the 
vowel of a verb, we have, as a friend first iiugge^sted to me. a 
natural symbol of duration of time; as when we aay, 'he cume 
creeepimj along,' * he used to dramitcl out his words.' So a 
similar effect is produced by attaching to the one final con- 
sonant of a root, a secoiid consonant allied to it. Latin ientl-, 



for example, with its excrescent d, produces a fefiult. tlie 
Bame as the Greek reiv-, with its diphthong-. Thus e-rvTrr-ov 
16 mado up of the olciuouta ov for o^, (Comp. eruTTT'Ofi -tjv) 
representing ' I,' tuttt, the lengthened root and the ftugment 
e, which alone denotes 'past' hei*e, oa it doe& in eru^, 
ertffea, ereTvtftuv. But ennrov contains only the same ele- 
ments. Still through the very fact that eruTnov was specially 
available when duration of the act was to be noted, ennrov 
naturally got limittnl in practice to those caeee where it was 
desired not to expresa duration, and so came in the end to be 
eiclttsively employed as an aoriat. 

But it must alflo be observed that the very forms which 
pftas as Crreek imperfects are not unfrequently employed as 
aorists, and this especially in the Homeric writings, for in 
Attic (Sreek the usage seems to be limited to particular 
verba. A friend too informs rae that in Latin^j perhaps 
chiefly in legal language, traces of the i^ame habit may 
be noticed, as (fioebaf. in the orations of Cicero, for 'the 
witness deposed.' 

I next turn to the tenses exprea&ivc of ftiture time, and 
here have first to call attention to my long paper on the 
guflix ftg/i (1856, p. 295). I there had to deal largely with 
the Groek verbs in aa-a-ta, eo-o-cj, iira-ta, uenrw, and I gave my 
reasons for belie\"ijig that these suflisca were in reality all 
one, the change of rowel in its origin depending solely on 
the vowel of the root syllable, bo that we find Topajtfaf, 
fpe<jffw, ^e^X(0-tro>, opuo-ffw. Secondly, I pointed out that the 
suffix had probably, at first, a ;^ for its consonant, as in the 
nouns rapaj0 and opv)^, huapv^-, together with opy^o- 
(= opv)(o-, a trench for vineR) ; but not unfrequeritly bx- 
p-hanged its guttural for a labial aspirate, as in ypa^y 
compared with -^aap-ax- of x°P^^^^- Now, a guttural 
aspirate was for a Roman almost an iinpossibility. We find 
however a tract:; of this suffix in tm/t-o {== the German 
trfig-rn), whii^h I regard as a compression from M-^/t-o, and 
H) only a secondary form of the Latin tofio. A Greek 
aspirate generally passes for the Latin vocabulary into a 
medial ; and so I claimed* as a true repregentatiTe of the 


anSix ^X' '^^ ^ff which is seen in .//flf/ of frango, in plag of 
plftngo, and ^^jw/, for tMa ia the baae of the verbal adjective, 
straff-iilug, aad the verbal ab. s(rng~r8. The theoretic verb 
»traff ia represented in our language by the verb afrrrf\ or, as 
it used to be written, straw. The perfect sfran and Mrahim 
again, at once remind ua of the so-called first conjugation of 
Latin ; and V ventiir&d to iay in the paper of which T am 
making a partial giunmary, that the whole of the firet conju- 
gation is founded upon this model. 

But the Greek ;^ of the suffix, as I have Just said, passed at 
timea into a <^, as ypmp*&. We have a precise parallel to this m 
our lauffh, which though once, no doubt, pronounced with a 
gutturoJ aspirate/ and Btill so written, is now pronounced 
with a labial. As tho x ''* I-^atin took the form of ^, so the 
Gi-eek ^, which we arc told was also unpronounceable for a 
Roman, found its suhatitnte in a h. Thue, the Latin scrlb, of 
icrlbOj is rirtually one with tho Greek ypa.^, both having for 
their first idea what ia expressed in our 'ic[a)r-<itch, itaclf one 
with the Greek ;^a/MMrff-. But iu serlbt the vowel has been 
modified in tho eamo way as lingua probably supplanted an 
alder /miffua^ for it ia a special characteristic of the Latin 
language to substitute i for a. However the form ab, as 
more genuine-, maintained itself in a largo part of the vo- 
cabidary, as, for example, iu four hundred fidjectivcs, such as 
ftm-af/^ifi, in a large number of neuter nouna^ like roc-ab~ttlu, 
in over sixty participles, for participles in fact they are, such 
as ptor-hamifio. 

So far I have said nothing of the power of the suffix, tt 
may be remembered however that I took ' little ' as the primi- 
tive meaning of the corresponding su£u o;^, st^, ok of Greek 
substantives, and this on tho authority of Pott, backed also 
by a large amount of evidence, which is detailed in the 
original paper. For verba, the auffii aeema to carry with 
it the idea of 'little by little;' and tins has its parallel in 
what Dr. Johnson noted, that the syllable el or i?, so much 
used in English for the fonnation q^ diminutival nouna, 

' A gentltiniin gave pnmf "f tlii« by rt-ferriu-e Iu tUe rhjTne iV UtiU dnu 
(anght to ace Buch r^trrf. 


givcB to verbs the notion of frequentativea or the iteration 
of petty acts, as in spnrkk, f<piinkk, etc^ 

THe saiDG idea of repetition ia visible in the Latin language 
in not a few verbs of the a conjugation. I will at present 
request attention aolely to that little family of so-called irre- 
gular verbs, of which fficare is a reprosentativB. The aeries, 
friaire, fn'cui, /nctumf at once tells us that two verbs are 
here mixed up together — a verb of the consonant conjuga- 
tive /fif' and an .fi-yerb fric-a', eo that a is clearly a auffix, 
Thia suffix must originally have had a meaning, and no 
meaning is better suited than that of iteration. I may as 
well notice that m>ufre, favere, tonerc, though for the most 
part antiquated, had all of thorn in the olden time a distinct 
exiatence. Again, though (fotnerc is not t-o be found, the 
Grreelc language had beside Bafia-at, aorists eSafiovB.nd ehafiijv, 
which point to a consonant verb, bafi'. 

After arguments of this kind, (o whicli however it is im- 
possible to do justice in a brief abstract, I proceeded to claim 
the ah of the past imperfect amabam, and of the future nmaho, 
aa one with the o^ ao that in am-ah-a-iri the sole representa- 
tive of past time is the a which precedes m*. On the other 
hand in am-ah-o we have no suffix whatever of time. This 
difficulty however disappeared when I called to mind that 
it is a common practice in language to use preaente as 
future^}. And, ia fact, aa I then stated, ** An action declared 
to be imperfect at the pi'esent moment can only be com- 
pleted, if completed it is to be, in the future." I further 
quoted ttfu, 'I shall go,' era, 'I shall be;' €ffo^e, 'I shall be,' 
as presents in form, though futures in power ; and I might 
have quoted eaujiai, TrtOfLai., two words which are presents in 
form, yet exclusively used as futures, ' I shall eat,' * I shall 
drink,' eaffLca and Trivea doing duty as presents. The Latin 
language indeed often uses the present as a future, as in 
Duco fixorem, ' I am going to be married;' Quid ago? *what 
shall T do?* Sirik'ndum est ?rt/A(, literally 'the writing ia with 
me ;' but meaning * T must write,' which is essentially a 
future. Our own language abounds in such phraseology, aa : 
'he starts next Monday for|the North;' ' he is sixteen in May/ 



But, aboTe all, I appealed to the Slavic famil)' and the 
AUtboril}' of Dobrowsky, who says: TItuntur Slavi aubinde 
praesenti verbi singularia pro futafo^ as gnjathi, *veiuo et 

But after all the tense which we call a proseut has no 
mtrinsic title to the name, eeeing that in itself it possesses 
BO element which denotea timB. It contains only what de- 
fines the act, and what dofmea the agent ; the time being 
mere matter of inference. 

But of couree the present time, as being the one of most 
interest to U8, claime our first attention ; and etill more when 
special forms come into use for the past and future, for then 
the idea of present time only the more attaches itself to the 
remaining, unappropriated form. At any rate, it is a fact 
that the so-called preaettt is somewhat freely applied to both 
the past and the future — to the past, for example, in the 
historic present, and generally when the contest ia sufficient 
to fix the time> as in the Latin construction, Dum hapc tJicif, 
ahiif hora, for here the conjunction dum, 'whilst,' identifies 
the time of the two actions spoken of, so that the time not 
expreaeod in fficif, is determined by the tense of nAuV. Again 
in speaking of customs, the simple form, called a present, 
is only the more applicable, because it ia silent on the question 
of time. The phrase Lif/m's hi Occanam itifitiit was true in 
Cseaor'a time, is true now, and we may assume will continue 
to be true for all time short of a geological cycle. 

in the Semitic languages again it was for a long time 
matter of controTcrsy, and in England seema still to bo 
matter of controversy, whether a certain form is a future 
or not. Thus wo still find in current Hebrew grammars the 
broad assertion, that " Hebrew verbs have no fonn whereby 
present time can be indicated,' The book, to which I am 
referring, further lays it down that the indicative mood (in 
Hebrew) admits only of two tenses, the past and the future. 
It appears, however, that some grammurians regard the so- 
caUod future as an aoriat. This is the tcna preferred by De 
Sacy for the corresponding tenae in Arabic (% 327 of his 
gttunmar); while Caupari, who ia followed by his translator, 



I'mfrMWir Wngbt, tues the tenn * imperfect ;* and 1 
from ihci latter f^entleman, that in Gennany Ewald was tha 
fint to odtfpt this name for the tenee, add that his ej;ampLe ■ 
hu bDtm 90 generally followed in Germ&nj', that do other ^M 
term for the tezue aeetn» now to he in oae. Gesenius i 
however app«ani to have lent his Banction t^ the old doctrine 
that the twiae U strictly a future» and I^. Kalisch still 
ndhcrcn to the iame. 

Tlic urLKtuitublenew however of the name future will, I^i 
think, Iw uppuretit from an exiimination of Dr. Salisch'^s owa^H 
oxampluM. This writer divides tho employments of the teaee ^ 
into fourtooii bcoda, two of which alone refer to actual futures. 
Uis third aectiun spcakfi af the use of It as a present in such 
wiiitciKioH UK : * Tho nations mrdiiate vain things ' (Paalm H. 1), ^H 
' why 'lo you cotrt*; out?' (1 Sam. xviL 8); the fourth quotes: ^^ 

* Theu MoHca srt tiparf three (owns ' (Deut, iv. 41) ; the fifth: 

• Ho fountf it in a desert land . . ho observed it . . guarded it, 
\^c.' (l)eu(. xxsii. 10); the sixth: ' The earth ^jra/Ztfifff/ them' 
( Dxud. XV. 12) ; the fiovonth : ' This ia not dmte in our place ' 
(Grn, xxix. 3H) ; tho eighth : The righteous J^onrhh like the 
palin-lr(x> ' (PeinUii xcii, 1^) ; and: ' Thus In- mcfl to do year 
after year ' (1 .Sam. i. T)^ and so on. 

Now it is Buflicioutly strange that a future should bo used 
a« n present ; but nothiuj; to an ordinary mind can deem 
mare unreuonabU^ than to employ a future for a past. Ou ^ 
the other hand to employ a present cither as a past or as ^^M 
fatunv has nothing* in it n^'pulsive to common sense, for the " 
historian natuiully wishes to plaec his narrative before one 
with all the life of what is actually passing, ao Uiat a present 
i» ^weially suited for his purpose; and a^in, the seer or 
prophet desires to renli^t and perhaps actually' fancies tha\. 
he aen before him what ho is prophea^-ing^. 

llowuvcr, lo apply the tonn tens* to scriho and such forms, 
is Btrfctly not to be justilied, for tcnae has no other mcanine 
thm time. But vhen Be Sa<-y calls it an aorist, he cmplova 
teraiy beoanae to defiae b}* ue^tion ia olwaja 
Bol on ike oUter band it ia very doubt^ 
wbedMr ibe form hut anything in it lo limit it to tho notion 




* imperfect," i.e., continuous action. At any mte the Latin cetdit 
represents ^ he falls,' quite aa much as it represents 'he is 
bdlLng;' and when we Look back to some of the examples of 
the Hebrew tenee, aa just quoted from Kalisch's graminar, 
ve End coses ia which the notion of an imperfect ia quite 
imsuitable, as in * The earth swallowed them.' 

I repeat then that it is no objection to the use of am-ah-o 
a& a future, tbiat it contains no symbol of future time, and so 
in form is rather a present. On the other hand, aiimham in 
the a which falls between twt-nb and the pronominal suffix m 
has an additional element, which already denotes past time in 
rr-a-Tii, so that wc have a perfect equality in the two ratios, 
fTO : ertun^ and amabo : amahnvi. 

But it is by some maintained that in the middle syllable of 
ttm-^ab-o we have a shortened form of the Latin verb AaJ'V, the 
fitneas of which to serve as a suffix of a future is shown, they 
think, by the analogy of the French futures parlet'-ai, ete. To 
this howerer there appear to be a fatal objection in that 
the pa«t t«nse am-ah-am contains the very same element. ' I 
hove to do' has a tolerably close connection with the idea, ' I 
shall do,* but it can scarcely be said that ^ I had to do a 
thing ' is one or nearly one with ' I "was doing it.' At any rate a 
suffix supposed to denote Ijmo is utterlyoat of place in nouns 
like nn-ab-ulum, in adjectives like tm/'-sb-iii«, oi- such parti- 
ciples, BO to call them, as coniioHahundan. Yet in all such 
forms the euffii ia not out of place, if wc fiuppoao that it adds 
to the root verb the idea of continuance or habit. More 
eef>eciallv is tho argument valid for words such as coidioM- 
hwiiiitM in which the idea of iteration is so marked. And 
■gaia, the sevenil suffixes here spoken of are precisely such 
M are attached to verbsj but when I say * to verbs,' I mean 
the tJiemo or ' dhatu,* not n secondary tense. Indeed, it is 
contrary to tho habit of language to employ aught elae but 
the theme in derivation. Ilcnco jacuiuin, contrasted with 
renahulamj tells us that venab, as well aa Jtic, must be a verb 
theme. The Mituo evidence is given by n(-i/i-» /m--Uis, when 
pliLCcd by the side of ndrab-iiis ; and lastly um/m ia ao 
thoroughly a participial suffix that cottiionab mufit be a verb. 




I go back then to the forma amaham and amabo^ an 
venture a^in to say that in am-ah we have only an iteration 
of the idea contained in mn, 'love,' juat as we have it in 
amab-ilis and contiofia-bundns ; so that there lies in the 
syllable (tb itwlf nothing that denotes time. On the other 
hand, the a before the m m amabom does denote past time, 
precisely as It does in era-in ervBea, erxr^a. Thua (imah-o, 
having no representative of time, has no pretension in itself 
to the naiae of future ; and no better title to bo so used 
than SicWAo or eado^ I must not here repeat what I have 
Baid in my former paper of the fonoation of tenebam Umbo, 
KCihfftn »cif)0, beyond this, that the difference of vowel arises 
in the same way aa in the Greek verbs ep-eo-ff-iu netK-urtr-w, 

But if these tivo terms atnabam amabo originated in the 
way here suggested, the question naturally arisea what was 
the origin of the two tenses ypa'^m eypa^a, for leaving out 
of view the augment of eypa^jra, we have precisely the aarae 
relation in respectof form between I't'-a-m ^\\Aero,amfih-am and 
fimab-o on the one aide, and eypai^-afju.) and fpa^-m on the 
other. But in tracing back the <r of ypatfrw and eypay^a, we 
mnist be careful to avoid three errors commonly m&de by 
grammariaiLB. It is no unusual practice with them to give 
a preference to late forma, and treat them aa the normal 
forms, from which others are eiceptiona ; and thus practi- 
cally to deduce the older forms from those of more recent 
date, — in other worda, the longer forms from the shorter, 
both of which proceedings go counter to common sense. A 
second prevalent error is to look upon what they are pleased 
to c^ poetical forma as so many irregularities ^ forgetting 
Iho gpnernl principle that eci-called poetical words, though 
tliey have gone out of use for the ordinary purposes of lii'e, 
wore at one time household words, freely used by all, and 
coiiBtiluting part of the ordinary prose of the language; fl 
that in fact it was their antiquity alone which made them ^ 
i»w*pUiliI(i to the poet, and that this very antiquity cousti- 
tut(Mi tht'ir highcftt volcie for the philologer. Thirdly, the 
phrujic m,'tri gratia—ihongh wnetioncd by the practice of 
hutUnaun unci komo of our best dictionaries— deserves verv 




to be regurdcd with suspicion, as it is apt to be a 
the couecalraent of some misumierstaiidjiig. Now 
if we go beck to tlie peculiar foi-nis of Homeric language, 
we akt^ find that the suffix which boloiags ulike to futures 
and to first aorists is not a mere a- but a distinct ayllable, 
and that syllable provided with two sigmas, or, what ia 
nach the isamc, a single eigrna preceded by a long vowel, 
not merely so- but io-tr or j^o" or atrer or icror or vaa: Thus 
from Kop the base of Kopivvvfii,, we find a future Kopeo-ta and 
aa aorist e/eopta-a, or ritther txapeatra, if we may judge from 
Ih© reflective forma €Kop€ir<raTo Kopea-o-o/ieco? ; and if xopea-a- 
fftffli also oceurs, it ia more philosophical to regard it as a 
fomiption from Kopitra-afrOai, for it ia by abbreviation that 
wordfl get altcrM, and such abbreviation tirst shows Ibseilf in 
the language of com^mun life ; but a poet, when pressed by 
loetricat difliculties, will occadionally condeseend to borrow a 
term in common usage, though otherwise preferring the 
older and more elevated phraseology. So by the aide of 
eXaweo^ pronounced probably eX-a^f-w, we find old forma 
eKatr<r-e» fiit. and ij\a<T<Ta as well as tkacra and rfKaaa, as also 
without any <r a shortened e\oj (cXof). Apo-a again has an 
old future opotrtTta as well as apotrot. Aap-aoi too ia aocom^- 
paniefl by hafiaffaoj and tZapa<rtra ; and this verb is the more 
interesting as Homer uses even Zafiata as a future, the sole 
present for him being Safivijp,i ; and again the aorist ^afj/rjv 
clearly points, as we have already said, to a simple &t/* as 
the original theme. One more example must be sufficient. 
By the Bide of €pv-Qi, * I drag,' we have not a few fonna for 
the future^ epva-a-to and epva-aofxaty epva-a epvm and epvetrBtu. 
It may be well to note that in this verb the e aet-ma to have 
■npplanted an a, just as the Latin i^eHU and ct'ru have grown 
out q{ ff07iti {cf. fovu) and voru {for for-ti- fi-om /or-a -re 'to 
bore;' c/. our vb. hroacliy our ab. brooch^ and the Fr, broche, 
a *8pit'). Such a change ia very general in words which 
begin with a i: in. Latin, or a digamma in Greek, witne&a the 
Latin faster, vtrta, pen-o, refo, for which the old language 
had cmter, vorto, corro, eoto. Vflh again seems to stand for 
tn obsolete eoUo, if we may judge from the participle fo/sMJi 




and the ab. poinm. But this Tery verb roi or rel, * tew, drag/ 

is repreaented in Or^ek by the first syUablo of «p-v, or ai we ^m 

aboiild rather write it f^ffv. ^M 

Sow the suffixes etrff, aaa, etc., vbieh have been thna 
dAizued for the Greek futures, are, in form nt any rate 
identical with the Huffixes of the large clusters of Greek i 
vefbe^ which may be represented by Tap-aav-ta tp-&rff~a,^ f 
cfh-wrrr-ta, in many of which, however, the sibilant is ad 
mitted to have supplanted an oBpirated guttiiraL 

But I find my argriments here traversed by two sets of 
opponenta. First, Sanskrit acbolara find in the & or 60 of 
the T-q ti'n futures aaiaio, tenvbo^ the bA or tJiti of their enbstan- 
tiTO verb ; and in like manner the sibilant of the Qreek 
futures thej' hold to be one with a* of tuttnif ' I am.' How 
such a suffix is adapted to raise the notion of a future they 
do not inform ub ; and it seema enough to point out that as 
the verb *to be' enters into all the three forms, *I am from 
writing/ * I am a-vriting,* ' I am^ to write/ for that very 
reason it contributes nothing to denote either the paat or the 
present or the future. Similarly as a fr is an element alike ^M 
of the past amabam aud the future amabo, it is safe to con- 
clude that here again the ttb is no Buffix of time ; and what 
is true of the-ee, is equally true of the post eypa"^ and the fl 
future ypayireo. But Greek scholars make another objection: ' 
conteuding that the Terha of that language which have 
futuroe iu turof, eou, i*rot, otroi, wrm, derive these forma from ^| 
themes ending in u dental, a h, or t, or o-; and it is true that 
the nouns apor-pov cper-^Mw seem at first view to be strong ^ 
wittWHseH for a T aa the characteristic of ap-o-€a and ep-eav-10 ; ■ 
while atctoftoi with ita future axeaofiat and aori&t aKistr^tjifa* 
i», iKi (loubl , a deiit>nii»ativu verb from the neuter noun ^ 
eutto- luiMii. wm), and •nXeto with ite future TtXetrca, aor.f 

' lU.™ II..I .iilMlHiittnii <ir n T ft.f 11 1,'iitMirnI will b* spoken of i meanwhile 
Ibn uU\ iMin mi>tmu U u nilm « l<i Cmfimp of nn • rttJicr than a l^ tnd our 
*|. ,w, m\Mi I. a., J....I.1. „r llii> *um> -li-i-l., 1., iu t^ beow indirect tut ■trou* 

.rt-fc.M.* lU- n ril I ^«, II ,iKli„.l . ,,|i„T.„ Uv, .• Coaiimrc ,trat^ and Urtm, 

Z^ . ■ ""' '"'" '" "'" '•«'"' -'^"y; ""Id gL^nemllv all our 




TertXeo'fieu from the nouii T-eXea-. And 
thtit the Homeric forma for the future 
4piw<rv, reXf^crw, ^,, derive their two Bigmas from different 
aoorces, the first belonging to the theme^ the second to a 
spcwLal auifix of futurity. In tlio same way vofu^oj, token us 
the representative of a large number of verbs in fya, liae for its 
theme vojUtS, so that vcvofiur-ficu has a ff which represeats 
the £ ; aJid thus a future vo/j^iairai, liad it occurred (the aoriflt 
^uofufftrt from KOfu^-ta doee occur), would have been accounted 
$ot. Secondly, they urge that it ia a habit of the kter Ian- 
goage, inet^ftd of writing two sigmaSf to drop the theme-dental 
■Itogotiier before any cr without any compensation in the 
preceding vowel ; and thus, they say, arise the futures apoo'w^ 

Nov, a cafefiil reading of Buttmann's three scctioua (92) 

double thsmea, and (9-^ and 96) on the futures imd iirat 
Bori&tA. has coTjfirmed my previous belief that a guttural sufEx 
either oj^, e^, j^, o^, or try^, or a-y, eto., ia the origin of all the 
tiufilxM a^-vt, «^-w, etc., Bud this, thougt I fully admit that 
tlie {f has a cloee affinity to the dental, representing probably 
our Kogliali j\ or dt^ as pronounced in the uam^ of Otfiham, 
BodiAam {Oj-amt Boj-am), and bj- certain of the vulgar in the 
word offioux. Nay the form opurr-tc, if pronounced, as eeema 
likely to have been the ca&e, op-vtcho, had all but abandoned the 
original guttural sound {op-vy^, while op-xnT<T-a, i.e.y probably 
np-mh-Oy had still more thortjugldy done so. But if we adhere to 
the generally re<^ived doctrine that opva-a-ta preserved the 
|rtt)nounciation of two sigmas, like the French Jjaismnty 
fiiMrtu, we have in theee very words sibilant forms which 
have superseded older forms possesaed of a guttural, for they 
correspond to Latin verbs in uxc-o, f-^c-o, efe.' namant coming 
ftxnn. iWMwr, paramaiU from such a form aa parcsco, while the 
li$.hAU JfniicoHV tella us how Jitmsent was formed. 

The pAsaage from guttunds to dentals is^ in feet, of the 
moflt frequent occurrence. I pointed out lu a foixner pciper 
that nttngo and nfhugo, of the so-called Augustan and Sil^-er 
ngee, in later times took the form ruhrdo and albtdo. 

It thus becomes a difficult problem in the Greek vocabulary 



to anticipate what shape the futures and first aorUt* of verbs 
in ^ta are to take. Uai^t^, 'I play,' with (he noun 7ratS-f Trot? } 
leads ua to expect a o- iu the derived forma, and accordingly 
we have ■TrcTraiff/uM, and this in spite of the fact that ttowu, 
' I strike,' has the aamc perfect ; yet, on the other hand, we 
have the guttural in ejratx^i}v, as also in eirat^a, iraraixt^i 
TrrTraiyfiai, and in the dimmutiTe Traeyvtav, "a plaything." 
Buttmaon himself speaka of Kpa^-to, cxevaj-oo, rpt^-tu, oifut^-ta 
U8 clearly hariug a guttural for their ' t-haracter,' while in 
aptra^-o>, the juat quoted Trtu^-to, ^tef-o), and ovpi^-^f etc., eto*^ 
the character varica between a guttural and a dental. 

But when such ambiguity presents itself, the most nuturol 
inference is that the older and truer form was the guttural ; 
if only becfiuse, aa I have eaid, the passage from gutturals to 
deutals is the more funuliar change. This waa already noticed 
by the ancients ; and accordingly, in his joking way, Lucian 
speaks of an action brought in the Court of Vowels by k against 
T for robbery, and one of the facU brought in evidence is that 
the great Cyiois (Kvpo^) had been changed by some innova- 
tors in spctecU to Tvpos^ (Mr. Cheeae). Accordingly when I 
find two forma Ktpar' 'a horn,' and xepax- 'a horn,* I adjudge 
priority to icepcuc, though far the rarer form. Again, the 
Qreok Tpej^e**" I look upon as a corruption of «ce^c^-eii', and bo 
one in, rospoot of root with the Latin ^^ic- * run,' and identical 
with rnrric' u Hecoudiiry verb, whence the substantive 
rtirnc-uluni. Agaiu, the verb trt'tn-pt-e I am disposed to regard 
ua ft variety uf cretifeiY, of which rrr alone is radical, the 
truer nwt being seen 6r9t in the reduplicated xa^Kop of 
KtipKatp-Hw, a verb which Liddell and Soott actually 
• inupuni with trrm-eir for mcimiug, secondly in the Latin 
MdjittMivM eur-iiici-iw. imd utill better in the adjective of 
'i"*"i»>'nt /Afi^. Mhi- «hukiiig fevoTj ot ague.* Hence the 
rtHHAxX wrltrr im I'rtnuh IL^rlonym»» in oar own pages, was 
tlimnimhly ]i,.(i(i..,i in ith^ntiryiug/r^jM^rt with the French 
''''"^"•'' •'' 1^'"' *li" I'lMiiitT" «>f tlu> liipiid M has an exact parallel 
Iu Ut'ttutff IVoiii r;«'«*-"n'. in niy/.ti/rv fnuu an obsolete ab-empr^. 
K'lt If n t iMiii tUui uh.w out itf u guiiuml. it is no wonder 
'btit (ii^iMtiM Hud «^C» fchouUl 



co-»iat with tr^€iy€v<i, 



But the argument drawn from the greater probability of 
a guttural paasing^ into a dental than the converse, eeems 
6-tn>ngly oonfinned, by the fact that in. the Doric dialect the 
guttural forms were in greater favour than elsewhere, so that 
mpfiOTTco, Kofu^Wi v&pi^-at, and oveu the a- verba ^\a-w, 7eXa-w, 
have, gtauding by their aide, such forms as apfio-)^-ffr]v, tcofii^a>t 
3)j(jC'Ta¥ (ab. m.) T€-&\ay-ficvo^, e-ytXa^a ; and this considor- 
tion is all the stronger that the Dorians were m all matters 
fitrict CoDserratives, leaving change to their neighbours ; and 
with thesie change was ao abundant that out of our secondary 
verbs, formed originally with a suffix ax or tuft with the idea of 
paniatim, were deduced verba in a^a-ta with all the variety 
of roweb, verbs in a^-oi, etc., verba in acx-at, etc., and with 
loM of a consonant verbs in u-ttf, e-w, v-qj, etc. In Latin 
again there are first of all a few verhs with ss, aa fac-esa-o, 
Cfip'Ms-o, {itieip^m-o), i&e-ens-o, ptt-H$-0, which, losing their 
sibilants, give rise to /ac-i-o, cnp-i-a, (tndp-i-o), iac-i-o (or 
tatlier its compounds cficio, etc.), pet-i-0 (aa seem ill peiiei, 
peiitum peti(or) ; while lab-mc-o, ruh-eac-o, sc-tsc-o, etc., also 
losing their consonants, take the form lat/'(a)-o, itib-e-o, 
«C'i-o, for oven this verb ia of secondary formation, being 
derived from a stem sec, still perceiv*xl in scc-a-re, aee-nt, 
tvc^tum^ 'to cut/ and the equivalent of the German st*A of 
•eA-i*!! ' to see." The primai^ meaning ia here the physical 
one of division, as it is in tvktv (cf. vtd-ua, dkid- and dividuo-) 
and in eertt-ere 'to sift' and 'to see.' The suffix a^c, etc, 
sotnetiines pa&s into the perfect tenaes and sometimes not. 
In liise-c (for die-is) and BL-Ba(fc)-tTK- the suifis ia lost for 
such derived forms aa di-dic-i, dvvt-o-, Bi-BaK-ro-. But it ia 
■ubstantially retained in {ffin-a-to- from gn-anc-or, in c-re-tH 
from ci-'CSi'-o, in gn-o*-vi gn-o*-to- from gtt-osc-o, in. w-t-pi 
Kor^o-, re-sc-i'-i-i from *c-«c'-t» re-^c-w-o. Again, as hv-ac-rum 
impUea in my view lai'-ac-erc as an older derivative from 
latvTf than lata'-re ; ao I hold that the Liitiu arat-rum 
iapoT-pop) has supplanted a more genuine ar-ac-niwi (ap- 

To sum up the argument then (and to so long an argument 
a Bummary seems necesaarj-), I have endeavoured to show 




that the so-called future SaiA-omr-ai is but ft fuller and oMer 
form of hafx-a-6i, that it is ftctuallj a present rather than a 
future, and formed irom a ainiple rerb-root Sa^ (to) tame, 
that the iKrcr adds the idea of ' pauhttm ,* and qualifies Sofi- 
aa-<r- to express ' the imperfect orcontmuotta;' and that €-&afit- 
offff-a by virtue of its added a (to say nothing of the augment j 
introduces the notion of paet time; further that this <uto 
itaelf grows out of an older form aj^. Then as regards the 
Latin, the ah of at/iabam and ainaho., I have also traoed baol^^^ 
to the same a^ bo that ab-o aud ab-a-m of the Ijatin are u^H 
both parts identic&l wrilh tMror-ai end apxr-a-'p.) of the Greek.^^ 
For the one point which wants direct evidence, viz., that 
£-Safj^atnr'& must in origin hare been a past imperfect like 
tiom-ab-am, instead of an aorist, T can onlv rely on the general 
argument that aorist^ did not exist for the primeTal language, 
and that perfects and past imperfecta, already in existence 
for their own duties, were erentually forced to take i 
them an office which was not theirs. 


Bf TftvoitoaB AiTTUcitT, Etq. 
1. I^J/MJ?- 

Pott, in the second edition of his Etymological Rcaearohes 
(Vol. IL p. 368), coneiders ^pov as a compound of a deca- 
pitated «| with a root preserved in the Latin arer^, and be- 
lieves that, in it8 formation and meaning*, it corresponds com- 
pletely with the Latin ej-iii'idti.t. Not having been able to^H 
discover a single instaa<?e of a similar m^utilation of e{ ^^V 
ancient Greek, I shall endeavour to give a more aatidfactory 

There exists in Sanskrit a root kshd (ksh&yati), to which 
the authors of the Dhfl.tupS.tha have assigned the meaning ol 
decaying (hahaifd). As this root does not appear in actual 
use in modem Sanskrit^ it will be necessary to collect those 
paMag«« it occurs in the Tedic literature. In place 

of the Ufolcsa geuemllzutioQ of the Du.ti¥e grammarmns, we 
■re led by these passages to attribute to A-^Afi the more 
vigorous meanings of fo pan-h, to burn, to anioiddtr. The old 
participle perf. pass kaha-mn occurs in KityeLyaiia's^rautasil- 
tra, So, 8, 18, purOfld^c fa-fidinc 'cct^khtaM mmdpj/a tad eva 
punar nirvapct. Mhtde^ndatjdht' 'ju' ftnmijbijAt, " When the rice- 
ceke has beCD fiingcd (SchoL dtigdhe, burnt), one ought first 
to finish the rest of the sacriSeial rite, and then to offer a 
naw oblation. So too,^ when only a part ia burnt, because of' 
the contact." In later Sanaki-it we find knh&ma in com- 
moa use aa an adjective, Biguitying- slender, emaciated, weak. 
But these meanings have doubtless sprung from t]iat of 
' porched,' 'dried xip,' and we have a proof of this in the 
frequently occurring phrase hshHt-kAiidM(t-kan.Uifi, ' having 
an attenuated voice in consequence of hunger,' literally 
* having the throat parched with hunger.' The Greeks 
employ ^/w, the Romans ariditu, the Germans diirft in the 
same way. An important passage etanda in the Atharva- 
veda, vi. 37, 3— 

\6 nah ^ &p&d i^apatah <,-&pato yi^ ca nah ^^p4t ) 
(dne peehtnun n&'utkHhdtufm tam protj^ a&yimi mrity&ve || 
The Petersburgh Dictionary a. v. offers the following explana- 
tion : — " urahh&mci {von k^tft^im mit am) m. Abfiuduug." 
Bat it is impossible to account for the accent (V. vi. 2, 144) 
of dmkshdma if taken as a substantive, nor would the pro- 
posed meaning of ' atonement,* give a satisfactory sense. 
The fact is that dra-k-^hdma is the past participle of ava-kshd, 
and the true rendering of the verse cited ia : — " He who 
curses us without our cursing him, or who curses us when 
wo curse him, such a man I cast into the arms of death, as a 
dry bono ia cast to a dog." Aitareya Br^hmana III, 34. 
ydui fARiKSHANANY dmht, h krkhulk pfj^aro 'bfmraii. 
' Those ports which have become calcintsl (burned to cinders),' 
were changed into black animals.' The last, but most m* 
etructive passage occurs in theTaittiriya Brahmana II. 4, 1, 2. 
igne yo no 'bhidi'sati samano y^ ca niehty&h I 
idhm&syeTa praksM'j/ato mfl,' tilsyoc cheahi kim can& 1 1 

> MyHva^ nginahu ^uteahu ytnt IcrM^virAr^Hnr Aran kAA^i^hilni. 


"Agni, not an atom, as little as of smouldering" fuel, may 
remain behind of that man who asaaulto us, whether ho be a 
comrade or an alien." There renmui to be mentioned two 
derivatives of the root isAd. First the Vedic abstract fem. 
kshd-ii, occurring only in the Rig- Veda VI. 1, 5. ^ 

(^Q'rasyeva pr4aitih kshatir agneh j 

" The glare (SchoL yrtiM, flame) of fire resembles the rush- 
ing onward of a hero." Secondly, the adjective kshd-ra, 
caustic, astringent, salty, being as a substantive the name 
several astringent substances, such as potash, soda, alkali, etc.] 

The traneitioQ from the idea of exposing or being exposedj 
to hoat Into that of drj-ing or being dry, is very natural, and 
is proved by the analogy of several languages. The moat 
common term for dry in Sanskrit is fushka (an old miespell- 
ing for >tttsft-ka), Zend hu^kn. Lit. mums, all derived from 
the root ^uah, to bum, to dry up.* The Latin torridu* springs 
from tofirrt; (i.e. tareere) and dnds its counterpart in the 
Oothio tkmifitm, Gorman <iut't\ Hence, I believe, no parti- 
rular objection can be raised if we identify fi^-po? with tha 
abovo-montioued tathd-ma and kshd-m, especially as /xi is iifl 
very oominon Horivative suffix in Greek, e.g. •^vyP^'i, ^uSpo^, 
v$Kp6if, triKpu'i, vypo-i, Xa/t7rpq-f, etc. The Homeric a. \. ^pov 
in the vorso poj^Btt yap (ikya tcvfta Trorl ^ephv rjueipoio. in case 
it jV really it dialectical form for ^pop, woidd show the samm 
fthoitoniiig of an original d, as p.e-rpov compared with 
Skr. md'tra, Lat mf-tiri, O^tri^ 6>}ki}, etc. 

2. >jh«. 
itip Hijinerie (SXXtjwto^ and d->rq\xrjf a* induce us to s 
that Xtyfuu Iluh dnijii^nl i,ti initial consonant, I believe tha 
m DuM innldn.t. it haa been nn <r which waa lost, <rX bein^ 
um III' 1b^^ .'oTiil.inutiuna nvoiitfd in the beginning and middle 
of a <Ji,rk. Ijitiix, mid Sanskrit word, though common in 
iBulunic, Lihmui,,!,, and Oecan. 1 compare with \^iv 

• Ml., iintlvn li.mnHH^ili. itrnrv it VT«Rg\v 
hi i^<.iii<.i..„ hmi«ti il ^u,Sy^ti iri-uur („ 

am Ihr root itcA«r, to flow, 
, , , ** ^. bul its inflection after 

«tii»w»v «ri.A^-f. .i k..!^.''. ' '^nein*!^? >l meant 'tube tmnt/ In tbd 

II- nS,,';x;'^;;.'^ '^'•*'''' '»^ •'•'"^? ^^^ ">* ^^^ '-'« »^, ^ 

'•i'lritt i'inijM«»ii,i|, 




Old Saxon slac hebes, &kkmu hebetare» Age. »leaf{, Eng. ulaek^ 
Old Norso shkr remissusT laxus, sUfrkirin piger, desea, Ohg. 
«AaA Uxua, remissas. Cognate worda in Latin are hngmo, 
larus. The original form of tlie root waa, therefore, BLAG-, 
^ strengthened by a niHsal SLAKG. 

3. wjSwy- 

The Homeric poema, hfiing limited in, their compass, have 
not ftlwoya preserved the original meaning of certain words. 
Nt^u? ot'cuTs only in four passages of Homer, and there it 
■ignifiefi three times the belly, and once the female uterus. 
Bot according to Hippocrates it expressed any tubtilar veflsol 
of the body. Ho says (ed. Ktihner, Vol. I. p. 16) : ^€c 
££ TO ixtiiifui oit fiUaf v^hin>, oXKa irXi^lovif hvo fikv yap ttl rhi> 
ffiTw &E)(Qfieifal TE KoX a^maai, aXKai Be roirrewv wXeCov^, &? 
tcroo'tc otat Tovrio}!' €fiiKfjiT€v. otra y^p rStv pbiSAmv ie^et rrdpKO. 
Trepu^pia, P^v /xvv KoSAoutrt, Trdvra inj^vv e)(ei. In this sense il 
coincides entirely with the Sanskrit nddt f. 'any tubxilar 
organ of the body; an artery, vein, inteBtine, etc.' It oc- 
curs frequently, as well in the Ycdas, as in medical hooka 
of more modern date. 

£ustathiua tells us that i^fiv? is a synonym, of BcitK, an 
tmcle on tho father's or mother's eide^ According to Pollux 
m., 22, it signifies only a maternal uncle. o fiijTpci^ 
o&X^if OeuK, ^ p.7fTpti£€X^^, J) fiTjTpm'i, ^ vewQ<i, The same 
writer informs us (III, 16,) that in poetical language eren a 
mother's father was called clwov. In Hesychius we find the 
following glosses : pdwav tov Trj-i ftTjrpof ^ tou Trarpo^ 
aSe\^v ot S^ T^i* Tovrov a£f Xi^^f . And again : vdvvif' /ijp-pOT 
aZ(\^. N€i/w>9 and vdwi} are most probablj' assimilated 
from vfv-iov^ vav-1,1}^ and signify, juat as jun/rptw,' connected 
with the mother. 1 compare a rare Sanskrit term fof mother, 
lumely nmtA (R. V. ix. 112, 3). According to Weinhold, 
Msnnff is uaed for father in the provincial German of Silesia. 

< Conmn in 8»tukrit fHfi-v^a, Latin patmM. 'a htlier'i brotlior,' ihriip- 
wf», ' ft brot^er't ion.* 


on A LATW^rrrlOrai 


5. fiiw, few, fuXof. 
H^fi> for ^^fffl Is tie gfunated form of ttie root fu, and 
^aavov stands for ^oFavov. We find the Bame Tariation of 
vowels in ^ecu, «e-;^«a, ■j(6avo<!, root ;^. The Identity of 
fu-^jov witli the Sanskrit kshu-ni, a razor^ leads ua to the 
conclusion tliat Sanskrit tcK) must have posaesaed a root k»lm ^J 
with the meaning of ^veiv. This I recognize in the Taidio ^| 
kshnu, to whet, to grind a weapon, to polish. Kshnoira is, in 
the Vodas, a hone, a grinding stone. But k^hnu (k^hna^ii) 
ig no more a pure root than &rnu fiirndti'), to cover. Afl 
thia has arisen from rar-nii (trindti), so I imagine that knhnu 
is a contraction of A'«A?/-7iu, 7iUy the chaTacteristic mark of the 
Sanekrit fifth conjugation, having by the stress of its accent . 
caused the losa of the radical vowel, thus, ksh(u)-Ti6ti. The ^| 
umo phenomenon appears in ^rm, ^w&fi ffov su-ito-ti), to drip, i 
to flow, compared with the Greek vetv. The root correspond- ^ 
ing to lahu in Lituanian has the fonn sku-t : sktttfu, I share, ^^| 
T cut; Hkut-na, a baldheadcd man; hfirzd-skuffis, a razor ^^ 
(beard'cutter). From the same root is derived ^v-\cp, which i 
I conceive to have meant at first ' (wood) plamd (for build* ^| 
ing) ; compare Boppa ^laa^, M^or is it unlikely that kshu'-mAt 
a Sanskrit term for flax,' had as ita original signification, 'the 
cat-fh'ff, the stuff eleaned by being drawn through the teeth 
of the hatohei/ 

DLE-BRETON MYSTERY,' By Whiti.ey Stokes,; 

KvKWY dialect, no matter how insignificant in itsel/, caal 
throw Miitui light, if not on the birlh, at least on the growth and' 
|>litfii(lii! ilciiiy of its cognate and its neighhouiing languages. 
Hut Ui..u»ii iH iwporiiilly Important from three points of viewij 
liiwl, I'ti.iiL itA hriving tJjfliK'iiccd fo some extent the vo-f 

•iIJ**""^ '" '" '""" *'''' "■'"''' "'"■ '^"" "'• »« '*™"i "ipHfring ' tl» 
• U th»,u\ M)Hirj ,U J*M«, I'.i«.inii *t Ilf-.i.iT.>ctioa, Drttme Breton du 



cabulaiy, and perhaps the syntax, of French ; next, from 
\tA preserring gniitimatical forma, such aa the future in i, 
which are altogether or nearly lost in the other Celtic 
languag^e; and, thirdly, from ita containing a large and 
Taluable masa of balladic and dramatic literature. The fore- 
most living cultivator of this interesting language is a 
scholar whom ZeuBs. describes as " vir de Uteris arraoricis m 
primis meritus, cujus nomen clarissimum eat Th. Hersart 
de ]& Villemarque,''^ and whose Baraai Breiz, the songs 
of the Breton people, is not only a collection of fresh, 
pathetic^ and imaginative popular verse, but an important 
contribution to the materiala of Celtic philology. Encoura^d 
by the sncce^ of thia delightful book, H. de la Yillemarqud 
haa not flagged in hia study of the poetry and languages of 
the Celts. Besides shorter essays (among which I may men- 
tima that on the Bell of Stiral, with ita Old-Breton inscrip- 
tion, Pitturjic hti — Sweet-voiced art thou), he haa edited 
Legonidec's Breton-French fuid French-Breton dictionaries. 
He has publiflhod a good report on the principal Welsh MSS. 
In his BiJrd^s Bn^ktm he has printed in a modernised form, 
and made praiseworthy attempts to interpret, the difficult 
verse attributed to the Old- Welsh bards of the eiith century. 
In his Homans de la Table Romlc (founded on Lady Charlotte 
Guest's Mabinoyion) and his Myrdhmn he has endeavoured 
to appreciate what he culls the inspiration romanesque of 
the Celts. In the L^genfie CeUique. he has sketched their 
religious ^pop^e. He now dtscussee their dramatic literature, 
and reprints its most import^int relie i^om the oldeat existing 
edition — that of 1530 — of which a copy, one volume in 24^-, 
marked Y No. 6, 183, exists in the Biblioth^que Imp^riale. 
To this he adds some hitherto unpublished folh-laya on 
Christ's Pofision, which, to use hia own graceful language, 
"eentent moins Tenccns que la fleur de I'lijonc et de I'aubi^- 
pine." I trust sincerely that hU energy and enthusiasm 
will lead bira to edit, not only the Tremenran an jftron Maritt 
ha he petnzec ieirnes (Tr^pas de Madame Marie et ees quinze 
joies), and the Bufie^ mab den (Vie de 1' homme), which ar« 

^ ZtUM, Grammatiea Critua, p. &J9. 



found iu the same volume, but alao the Llrre d'fwures, Latin 
and Breton, printed in 1524, of which an unique copy la now, 
I "believe, in the library of a Breton gentleman. 

This is not the place for giving: ftii accoimt of the 
charming essay on the Celtic Theatre which M. de la Ville- 
marqu^ has preiised to the Middle-Breton play now published. 
One writea here as a philologist, not as a literary tiHtlc. 
I must, howeveTj observH with especial pleaaui-e that he does 
justice in this essay to Mr. Edwin Noma, whose Ancient 
Cornish Drama is the moat important addition that haa been 
made since the death of Zeuss to the materials of Celtic lin- 
guistics. On the other hand, I must express my regret at 
M. de la Villemarqud's silence as to the secular Breton playa 
analysed by Souvestre in his Demiers Breitum, and as to the 
other religious Breton dramas still, I believe, in manuscript. 
M, de la Villemarqu^ also omits all reference to the curious 
Cornish play Gicreans an Bi/s (Creation of the World),, which 
was printed (very incorrectly, it is true) as far back aa 1827. 
I must also protest against Ms attempt, at p. Ixi, to identify 
with the Maid of Orleans the Maximilla of one of the Cornish 
dramas, who is condemned to death by a bishop. The words, 
half English, half Cornish, ^* Thou hariot, for godtiffn blonde 
ro fhym Cit^f/l avel den (Give me counsel like a man)," on 
which. M. de la Villemarque builds his theory, are addressod, 
as will be seen by referring to the context at p, 202 of the 
first volume of Mr. Norria' work, not to a woman, but to a 
man, the bishop's crozier-boarer. The Englieh word 'harlot' 
(i.e. 'rBacal'), though now meaning 'prostitute,' is here, as is 
constantly the case in Middle-English, applied to a male. 
And, Iflstly,. on behalf of Zeuss, our dead master, I must 
declare that the assertion made by M. de la Villemarque, in 
a note at p, ivL* with regard to the Old-Welsh gloss on 
^' theatra/ ia altogether erroneous. The reading of the 
Oxford MS. i\ as Zeuss says, G. C. 1083, (jmroimaou, T 
examined it carefully before I left England. 

As to the text of the Mystery now published, T concur 
with M. de la ViUemarque to this extent— that the language 
Bgreed remarkably with that of the Buhet Sanies Nonn, the 



(ju&rry firam which. Zeuaa haa almost excluBively drawn the 
nmt^ml of the Breton part of his Grammaiica Celtkit. But 
I should be sorry to go ao fur as to attribute, "I'un et I' autre 
i tm tnSme auteur.'* Putting aside the gi'Bat artistio 
superiority of the Mystery to the JBu/ics, I find such, differ- 
ences, not merely in epellin^ but in word^foraas, as to point 
to different, though possibly contemporaneous, authors. The 
author of the Biikez, for instance, writes the preposition 
corresponding with the Gaulish ver, W. ffttor, Ir./ort always 
thus, roflr ; whereas the author of the Mystery writea it 
always oar. The Buhez (hereinafter denoted by B) has «c 
where the MijsUry (hereinafter denoted by M) hae cz or ». 
For thiG indefinite article B haa often ting, but M has always 
un. B has ao where M has nu {taol, B 10 ;= tanl, M 111. 
B has aon, where M has nv {Utouenhnt B 44 ^ lowenhat 
M 9''). B 10 has nrfffinf, while M 15" has arcJtnnt, * silver/ 
B is fond of compounds with ffuij^ ' true,' while M affects 
I'ompoundB with thoite, * evU.' B Ukea to inake its reflexive 
verba with the double pm-<em-^ whereas M is geDcrally 
Aatis6ed with the single em-. Thia list of differences might 
easily be lengthened. As to the date of the composition, 
M* de In Yillemttrqufe considers that both B and M belong, 
at least, to the fourteenth century, and that the latter con- 
tains granunatical forms which point to even a higher au- 
tiqoity. He cit^s the&e forms at p. cxiii, and among them 
are eight which he callfi " participles passive in at/* But on 
referring to the coutext> we find tbat^ with the exception of 
two {saniiffiat, M 76^ and cntcijiaf^ M 178*), of which one 
ifl a mistake and the other is so written for the sake of 
rhyme, the remaining six (a vrttcijfiiii, M 173*, 218*; ra 
tiUgai, M 76* ; ne guflat, M 93* ; fs catmaf, M 105* ; ra 
hamate M 106* ; fs fmaf, M 122*^; a furmaf, M 127*) aro 
all regular examples of the 3rd sing. pret. passive (aee 
Zenot, G. 0. 525). M. de la Villemarqu^ ought eurely to 
be satisfied with bo respectable an antiquity oa the four- 
teenth centurj', a date that, looking at the groat number of 
French loan-words in the language, and the comparatively 
modem forms of most of these loans,^ I should be disposed to 



conrider ae Bomewliat too remote. ConBider, for inatance, 
crachi/iy M 82* =^ eracAes. This caa hardly have been bor- 
roired very early, for the Old-Frencli form of cracher i» 
rachev, from the Old-Norse Ar^kui, eo that if SI had been 
coiQpo^ before the fourteenth century we ahould probably 
hare had rachfi. 

Some of these loan-words are interesting. For example: 
oAfljf, M 183*, 'astonished,' 'amazed;' O.Fr. hdip 
mioa%, M 134*, ennui, in odio ; anoazet, ii 61", ennu^A 
aseul, M 174*, adore {3rd sing, pres.); W. addoii, adorare; 

O.Ir, adrad, 
biniHy M 54"*, Ai/«n, M 74*, hisaig, M 33*, from cenin^ vihin, 

btouch, M 75»; Fr. hhc {m hloc\ O.H.G. bloc, block, 
bouta/^ M 13*; Fr. houter, M.H,G. bo^n, 'atoszen;' Eng. 

to bntL 
bouitlfou, M QSfi, pi. of bouzell-en ; It. bxtdiUo (LaX, hoUUw), 

O.Fr. boely ' boyau.' 
qttn^z, M 141', captm; W. caeth, Com. c&id (gl. bgtvmb), 

eaifPA (gL ancilla), Ir. cncht. 
rfi»tizqf, M 108*; Eng. to chastifte, Fr. ch&iier. 
cauteriou. M 12*, pi. o{ muter:; M.Iat. caMaria, OM, calauFt 

Jtivoneua p, 48; Com. mltor. 
t^dr, M 109^ Hceptre. 

<iwff»yu, 51 202*, f o?MfM« .- "W. vegin. Com. *ei?Ayrt, Ir. cimwmji- 
r.oan(i», M 12*, from rnwn^ ^ O.Fr. cotii/^, ' elegant,' *plea8ant.* 
fucmyat, M 46* ; It. fommiato. Com. cummyai, kerwag. 
coan, M 6" = Lat. c^uj, Com. co^/i, W. nryiMw. 
roo/r^/, M 197* 84**. with two raeanings, ' contraire ' and 

•ii^mtm' (of. *'?rt/aM). So in Modem- Welsh, cythrawl^ 

CftfUrAvim ; and in Middle- Welsh, hjtheu}^ demon. Z. 549. 
*^«rif\f, M ai»; Kr. roHPir/-; fo^^ry, M 4*. Fr. convive. 
rriti/n; M 2;^". 'cruditaa/ from crtz = i*fiuim, 
rMf'i-Lit, M LM"; o.Kr. cifhii, but "Prov. es/mVur, 'to frighten/ 
/mr, M liH"; (l.Kr, ylur, ' (^^aotK,' ' t&xe' (fontm, 'market'). 
/*'u*r. M 71*; UuiU./M., ' nheath ;' Fr./ourrmu. 




fimn, M II* Fr._/h"mff«; O.N. hrttHi ^'^^' ri-m^. 
f^t M 148*; Fr, •f-T^^ which. Diez compares with, Ober- 
I deutfich fjaifin. The Bret, oabi ^ ai here aa in ^oa ^^ 

TttMTOi', etc, 
thorn, M 44* ; Fr. chdmer. 
Jalm, M 1^5^ Jftcohm. 
hbetef, M 58*, hpuhtu^, or Fr. /optrfe. 
Aiu«7, M 111*, lainis; TV. /"/fst?, Ir. lesc. 
tenn, M 116*, ipgendvm; W. dar-ihn, Ir. t4g«nn, 
Ijfam, M 174*. fiff^mefi; Fr. ft>;i, 

mastinef, II 98*, pi. of maatm; Fr. m&tin, Eng, tnmtiff'. 
metar. M 14', O.Fr. wp5, now «wi!«, W. m^s, Eng. ?/m«*. 
rtwva, M 71", and *-ops, M 231S Fr. roi>. 
muH ut,llil 22^, win utm; Com. iw«nys, mfrt^s; O.W. munritoAw 

(gl. fomilia). 
ortolan. M 186\ horUflanm ; It offohno, 
pechrzr^s, M 87*^ p^chere»se, peecatrix ; W. pechaduregt Com. 

pirchyrin, M 206*, pereprintm ; W. pererm^ Fr. p^lMn, K&g'. 

popin, M 154*j jwiw/mViw* ; Fr. pampre. 

pt/ubr^ M lOS*" ; Fr. pourpn\ W. po/phor. 

prenfien, M 84* ; Fr. brandon. So pisaar B 154 ia Fr. fiLfarm. 

/TOBW, M 97*, pi. pHui^au, M 13* ; Fr. ;H/r^i. 

rami^, M 225^, Fr. rSrerie. 

m*fon^, M 330', ETubst. from rK«^; O.Fr. /-Ma^-?, *derb,' 

* heftig.* 
»q\te»l, M lo7^ Lat. iScdZ/i:; W, f/st/nwL 
•ffAwr, 3f 11", Fr. y^rtp^, with prefixed «. 
iticAou, M 20**, Fr, siV^c*. 

gordour, M 82*, from sort&j-im ; Fr. sorcier is from nortiAriuH. 
tptmnt, Jtponf, M 223*, 10*; It. ^^xitvnl!^, Fr. ^poutUN^. 
^ff/m, M 2U2»; Fr, faqiiin. 

Uiul, M 58% ^aiuto : UtitieH, M 138*, ' tablet/ W. tajiai. 
ttr^ftn, M 12D', tt'rtiaiia; TV. teirfkon, 
lyvie^ M 143", <^wi«^ ; Fr. ^ime. 
Irahinff, M 119'; t>a(,h)ini. 
whin, M 114*. pj/aim. Thift, lite jwftnoHffi from patronnst and 



other word^ in Modem- Breton, exempllfiefi the passage 
of n inf-o m, which occurs in the French ffeni?nenr (M. 
Bret., i-etiimHs^ M 11*), ^iamer, and frequently in English.^ 

In the Btikt'z Santcs Nonn, also, are eome interesting loan- 
words, which have not, I think, been hitherto noticed- 

almmoUf B 26, pi. of aluunnf ^ ehemostjua ;' W, ehtsen^ Ir. 

auiel, pi. mtichu, B 52, B 50, erangeiium ; Corn, away/, D 
924, attfj/i, R 2464. 

bcttjsl, B 166 ; Fr. te-n^llf-, ' fl small street.' 

koarai/gy B 132, qHadragemna, car&me (W. graiiyB, Ir. corgait), 

fi-hmei,'* B 8, B 102, 4ht:J. 

Jillor, B \m,Jinohi%fiUei(f. 

forMny^ B 6; O.Fr. /orArtMiV (for := Lftt. /oros). 

/oMflr, B 92, fufgur; O.Fr. eB-/oMWrc. 

cAa/i>ni^fl, B 186, ckanoines. 

tun, B i, j'e&nef Jejunium. 

joiis, B 40, yo/t, (why the * in the Breton word ? & misprint 
foT Jolif?) 

podou, B 180, pi. of;>d^; Fr, po^,^ W,pol, potyn. 

nebemff, B 4, dupidare. 

temor, B 96; Lat. thcmmirm (Plaut,): W, /^<w is fprno 
tr^Hor, Lat. themnrus. 

ritz, B 176, orrfo ; W. urdd-. 

So much for the loan-words in M and B, of which I have 

made a list of nearly 1,200. I will now mention some of the 

^ For eximiplei groiBTBin from profrgin, megrim firom migniHt (^^Npwfa), 
mtubiaoiii from motmeroxt (in Anglo-lriah, mutkamm)^ plum, prwrr, pnutum ,' 
\otKmv,!orem ; pilgxiai, ^i^/^Ww, pfri^riMMj,- at nradoin, d ranrftm ; Tenom, rmin/ 
maijor^m, marjol^inf, vellum, t'fdn. So iq iiilnut, Jjatim'er frooi Laiintr. So, 
M nr. Joyce has Tcmark^d (Procve^litijE^ K. I. Acnd^my ix. 239), in the Anglo- 
IriBh comiptiiitiA at Irish topo^phical nam^^s^ — Eilmainhjim ^ eelt ilaigrtentt ; 
9f oj^aeomb =r ma^ *f e/un ; Bhcf e EeUm = S/wfi £rtiii»uij. 8o in Welih, tatvutt^ 

' Wrongly fr:ip1um«d by tua (Beitr. iii. 164). 

' Time Words point to a Latin ' pStu* or p6tum, ' pot," from the root pA 
like the Bkr. ^/ro, pd-<KHn. Dl'?): is imsaCiarEicter^ as CO >cit. The Celtic pat, 
poi', pHiU, which he qvoteCi'Kra olivioiisly loone. I k&ow of nn Celtic dcrivntiYM 
from the root PA, eniwpt dn, B.f., 'a drinking vcaser = S-kr. prtwam, 
' trinkgescliirr ' B.Tt,. witli the nsniil Insa of _p in antant.Rnd It, ibiu, i'limm = 
i6«o. Ski. piVdjii, pi/iAmi, which wc also find in the Britisli languages (W. j/ad, 
O.W« «M— cf. JAfM IQ Jnv«nciu), Com. «w, Brrt, n-o. 





(y Celtic words contained in these two dramas — words 
which seem to m6 instructive and hitherto unnoticed. 

Amiegues^ B 96, now amiige%, ' midwife,' perhaps cognate 
with Lot. amiciQ, — i.e., arnb;aci4> ; with which Pott connects 
Skr. pApatf&m!, and Lottner tawroj. If this compariBon be 
correct^ amiegeg might be eipressed by a German umhulkrin. 

Asrec, B 16, * repentance,* 'sorrow,' (Com. eddrek» pi. 
edreffe, Ir. nidrechf mthnchaSy mtfdnjc, Z. 986, O'Don. G-r. 
609). Ebel has compared Goth^ idreiga. But &a the Celtic 
root seems RIE, the hiutverschiebung is wanting. Perhaps 
idrfiffaf like kilikn (Trvpyot du'wyaiop) ^ cefic/Wti, and kindint 

* governor' cf. Gaulish cintu ' first,' W. vfjntaf (Siegfried), may 
have been borrowed by the Goths from the Celts. The Old- 
Imh form, aitherrech, 'change* {aiiht-rrech forsna sunu Mil., 
dat. sg. dotn-aii/ufrriuch, which Zeuas connects with aUA/^ge, 
appears to belong to a difl'erent root ; and I would compare 
thia etzbst aithiWeeh (• att-yer-eti-co?), and the adj. oither- 
rocA, * other," with the Latin per-pera-m, aXfua^. 

Sfrwt. M 12*, partp. of t^inif, 'to boil,' M 13% W. tx^nffi, 
O.-Ir. herbal, — i.t'., U'l'vadf now bearbhadh^ I*at. /erceo^ The 
Domp&risona with /ertvo by Curtiiia (G. £. i. 268) and Meyer 
( Kulin'a Zeitschrift, viii. 274) appear to be very doubtful. The 
ItaLo'Oeltic forms point to an Indo-European BHARV. 

.5mW (f<}9t( in M 143* is apparently a misprint), ' gall." 
Com. bistei{g\. fel), bmh///, P 202, 2: W. bmf/, Goth, beiat, 
^6,tTi (Dief, G. W. I 292J. Can Latin /i^^, /efM, stand for 

* fealf * frnili? The loss of s^ in inlaut is not more surprising 
than the loss of H in the anlaut of {^t)H9 and {$t)locus, 

i?«i/rs, M 214*. * morning.' Ci.V^ . bort\ \t. hdnich {ctrn*a- 
hdrach. Lib. IIj"nm. fo. 8*} and buamck .i. mtitati i/wch, Cor- 
mac's Glossary. The etymology is obscure. 

Blein, M 105*, 190', * summit,' now kin, or nein, W. 

Bleut, M 201S now bif&d, 'farine.' W. bk%^, O.W. 
bhteit (gl. spumaticum), Com. blot (gl. farina), Ir. hldfh, 

* Sower.' J. Grimm connects Fr- b!i, O.Fr. bled. It. bmdo; 
but Diez, E. W. i. 64, very ingeniously brings these words from 
Lat. ahhta (M. Lat, nhlatnm, etc., fur »«•*«« kommt wirklich 



vor), Diez might have cited tlie Com. Aii-af/upr (gl. im^sie), 
where adper = W. a4fpf means ' brought ia.' 

Brotit, M 101% now hroiu/, *goad' = Corn, hroa (gL 
oculeua). The W. bnrt/d is a ' brooch.' But in Mod. Ir. brddj 
is a ' goad/ O.Ir, *br6t; These are all, I suspect, lottos ; for 
how else should the t be hard both in Irish and Brit^h? 
Of. perhape Sp. br-ote, ProY. brot, O.H.G. broz in Diez, K.W. 
i. 90. 

Qaehezl, B 30 (pi. gueheahn, M 162% 162% 189"; qwlmhu^ 
M 48^},nowA(^e/,A(ffi/,jW/,— 'nouvelle,' 'bruit,' 'fahle,' •conte.' 
I merely bring this word forward to mention that it ie pre- 
cisely the form which the Qaulieh cmedhn (Inacription of j 
Autun) might be expected to asaume in Breton. 

Queynian, M. XOS*, 'ae lamenta.' Cf. W. cirtfuo. Com. h/ny, 
O.Ir. coinim, ' dejdoro.' Theae words are compared by 
Diefenhach with Gxith. gratnon. But where is the lautver- 
schiebung ? Rather coiapare A.S. hvinan, QJA. htifM, 
' atriderc.' 

Knech, M 13*, 40* 133*, etc., 'haut/ generally in con- 
nection with indu, ' yaUey.' (Cf. the English phrase, ' by 
hill and dale;' Fr. 'par monis et iw^jr'). This ia the Ir. cnocc, 
[gl. gibbor, gL ulcus), ' montictilus,' W. cttttv (why not] 
cmcch ?), "bunch," 'swelling,' 'knob.' Zeuss, praef. vii., 
connects cnoec with the Old-Celtic cfi»o, 'Ap-xuvia, and W* 
cwn, cwnug, erchtjniad. The modem form of kiit'ch is kr^aeh. 
Compare, perhaps^ A.S. /tiinc ' collia.' 

Dazhu, M 4% 190*, 204", ' tears,' SoKpva, now da^hu, pi. 
of daemouen or dfi^laown. O.W. doer, now dagr. Com. 
pL da^row, Ir. d4r. \]}azlon must have arisen from ^d^tchroa^ 
the € being aspirated by the r. The change of /■ into { is 
common in Breton ; that of ch into z has already been 
noticed by Zeuag (G. C. 182), who adduces (ksrou, * incipere' 
= dechreu, Aoa, 'your,' M. -Welsh aivch, etc 

Diane, M 73% 'to escape.' W. di-anc, Cora, d^-anc^de- 
unv, from di. and the root AKK, Skr. anh, which Siegfried 
(Beitr. ii. 396) found reduplicated in O.Ir. t-dnac-sa, ' Teni,* 
rdncatar {ro-dnac-aiar), ' Tenenmt.' 

i^; M 78% (pi. /rffou, M. 104^'), now /rt, ^noae." Cora. 


leg, frie (gl. naris) fi-i^g, fnyge, CW 134, 140. The 
Bretoa fr<m or frcn, * nostril ;' tlie W.^ff'roen, the Com. trein 
(gl. naaus), "W. iriojn, Tr. urdw — perliapaeven the Latin (ruo, 
fmctnit, ' a big-nosed, man ' — all eesm to be connected, and to 
come from a root STRU^ lite W, Jfiicd, Ir. srvth, Skr. srota, 
Zend thraoln (See Kulin in tlie Zeits. f. vergl. Bpr. xiv, 224). 

Gah^t, M bb*, 189^ * called;' p.p. of gvrrei, 'to call.' 
Skr. root gr. The British Jonguagea^ like Greek (oT^eXXw 
^ dwt-^c\-F», grn&mi Benfey, yrjpvta) have this root in two 
forms. GAL and OAR (W, gfi^tr^ Corn, galmo, W. gair, gaivr). 
In Irish I find only the r-form {gair, ' vox ;* gdir, *a shout ;' 
daicaire =^ </o + orf + (jWiVtf, ' A «bout ;' do-ro-gar-t, doriticm-t 
(do-ro-od-ffar-f), * he shouted.' In Teutonic cf. A.S. ceallan, 
tnd aiHa in Mldfcalln, ' praeco,* 

Qobr, M SS*". ' praemium.' W. gobr, O.Bret, and W. • gopr=^ 
Ir. ./bcAr-itr. These forme, with. W. g&^bnrff, ' a reward,' Ir. 
rritkid (gl. emas) — point to 0.0. • ro-pn's, *vo-pri«, "jirltitis Cf. 
vpl'a'fMU, Lat. prf-c-ntmt Lith. pr^kid (Curtiua G. E. i. 239). 

Gof/, B 14, 'a Bail/ like Ir. ,fial, ' Telamen,' is, perhaps, 
borrowied from Lat. vilum. So Com. guil (gl. vfilum), goyi, 
H. 2331. 

Ooehiff, M 3*, 99*. W. ffffy/, E, t™// (Diefenbach). 

Groajr, B 204, jm/, M e^ 'lacio.' O.W. j/mh*, Corn. 
'gnraff, P 155, 1, Ir.fernim, root VAR, ' to make,' with which 
the Skr. fw/fl, 'action/ 'work/ may be connected. 

Goartoet, B 22 ; goartoa, M 3G\ B 26 ; gortos, M BB'' ; 
ffourtoz, M 1G2^ Corn. i/orfM, Goth, mrdja, O.H.G. ■tcartin, 
N.H.G. tearfen. As the lautverechiebung is wanting, as the / 
in tke Celtic forms is not aspirated, and aa the word ia not 
found in Welsh or Irish, I suspect a loan. 

Grizmt, M 222', ' roots / pi. of *grizi'enn, now grisim. W. 
\ffwrviddjfn. Com. gnieitm, leg. grueidhon (gl. radix); ^l,gwry- 
**cw» 687, grrretfiow ; C W 1828 ; perhaps Ir. fr^tu, from 
*Jrfd-m ; Lat. (v)ra:rfi:.r, ^/i;^ from. FpiSia ; Goth, vattrta, 

SenM, M 21^ 2d. pi. imperat. of *hc»t{f, now A^m^i. Fr. 
hmter, Eng. * haunt/ Diez (E.W. ii. 388) brings the Fr. 
word irom O.N. hfimta, * einen verloreneo oder abwesendeai 
gegenatand zuriick verlnngen oder aufnehmen/ If ao, hentiff" 




would be a loan from /tanffi: The converse more probably is 
the case. I agree with il- de la Tillemarque in thiDking^ 
that henfiffis Celtic and, like W. htfutimc, ' to travel,' derived 
from hent =^ Ir. sit, Goth, sitif/ts. ^ 

Hoer, M 130* horn; M. 9^ (for choei^, choar), 'slater,* » 
the Com. hair (gl. soror) — wroagly given by Zeiisa aa piur. 
A lat«T Cornish form is hoer, which occurs twice in C W 96. 
Other Celtic forma are W. chwaev, M.W, pL chfciort/d Z. 303, 
now chiciorydd; Ir. mtr, far, /iur, and Grael. pufthar, gen. 
Bg. peafhar, the chtc, a, /, and p^ all arising from «r. 

Liot^, M 6i', 'garden.' Com. liticorth, m hicort/t guith, 
MS. lu^orchguU (gl. virgridtum), loictirth, P 140, 1; 233, I 
= O.Ir. luh-gort, Lib. Armach. 17*, 1 : cf. hih-gaHoir (gL 
olitor), Z. 45, 744 = Bret. Itotzn'. Here lub = AS. iico/*, 
IST.H.G. laub and ^ffri =i X^/""***' f^ortuA. 

LOt * diea' ? (peoch deoch h ntau^ M 21^^ ' pax vobis hodie; 
goa ng lo Titan pan viomji ganet, M 22ii*, "woe to us to- 
day that we were bom,*') Ir, /t/d. Id. Ebel (Beitr. ii. 130) 
thmks that Ir. iaa and !aiihe are the same words, and iugeni- 
otisly compares Old-Slav, fito^ O.H,G. Ivnzo (Eag. (enty But 
I know of no instance in Breton or Irish where t between 
vowela has disappeared : in, cmil, berar, airecar^ ddh for *ethn, 
*ceMthl, *bcrtheir, *air€cihar, *ilath!f only prove that, in Irish, 
aspirated t Bometimes di^ppeurs when in contact with a 
guttural or a liquid. Therefore, though the comparison olH 
laiihe with lHo, ienso is probably right, I should be inclined 
to look elsewhere for the cognatea of iaa and lo, and to com- 
pare, perhaps, aa a vowel-flanked g is often loat, the Skr. r4f, 

Litfcf, B 94, 'lightning' (W. (fuched. Com. luAct (g! 
fulgur), luhes, K 129, iugbm, P 207, 2) ia now Im'hiflen, 
know of no other instance in Breton of the change of the 
aapirate guttural to /; which ia so common in English, and 
which occurs occasionally in Modern- Irish, as in faaidh for 
(do) ekuaidh (Ivit. O'Don. Gr. 48), BnM for Bmgh, etc. 
Matez, M 77^ 'servante.' Com. tmhtheid (gl. vi 
maghUlh, D 1727, maghtgth, B 3027, mnyUth, C W 
O.Ir. t^'mftf4<ieht (gl swperadulU virgo), Z. IIOS. 



JffSMr, M 2^5*, * aourriture.' C£,Com. mnkhr (gl. caupo). 
W. maf^thicr from maclkif, 'to feed,' * nuidit, root MAK. 

Abrtz, M 82*, ' uaked.' "W. and Corn, noeihy Ir, iwwAi, 
Lat. nm/ut, from *noidiiA, *iwffvtdris (as /r»or from \fnifjror) 
=s Goth, nnqraf/is. 

Poaz, M 234*. B 174 W. pocfh = coctaa, Treirroy; Lith. 
kfptaM ; Skr. jyalfa, irregularly for pakta. 

BetJUf B 3'2. /vb(t. M 77^ now red, * cold ' = "W. rheu?, 
CorxL reu (gL gela)» reaw, C W 120; O.Ir. read (gl. gelu), 
Z. 42 ; t tvtifh {gi in pruina), Southurapton Psalter (Library, 
St. John'H, Cambridge]^ fo. 56» If the initial p hna here 
been loet, we ' may compare tlie Britiah forms witli Goth. 
friux, 'cold;' the I r. with A.S. /ro,ii^ forst ; and all with 
lAtia pr-uina for 'pmslmt, (KuWs Zcits, xiv, 455) ; 8kr. 
jirufih, *to bum ;' O.H.G. Jhumn, Eng. /reeze. We cannot 
poaaibly compare (with Dicfenbach) ptyo?, if this and Latiu 
/rigrts be connectod. 

Rrut, M. 11', 'misfortune;' whence the adj. reuseudic, M 
164^ ' mtilheureira/ is perhaps the Corn, itr^f/t [leg. r^ih ?) 
R. R50, ct Skr, rud, ' to weep ; Latin rttdeiv, with which 
Ijottner (Zi^it^. vii. 20) compares O.H.G. riozan, Lith rttudt^H, 

?Vm>M44*, 109*, •hot' = TV. Uoym, Corn. /fl»W(gl. calidam). 
The only Irish cognate ia timmc, warmth ; tho dat. eing. of 
which, thnmi, occurs in Fiacc'a hymn, v. 32, The hoTdnesa 
of the m, and in the British forma the diphthong, rr;/, ui, oi, 
point to the loss of a letter. OompaTe> perhaps, Skr. fifjmat 
• hot,* root TIJ. 

Having thus noticed a few of the words which are int^^reat- 
ing from the comparative-etymologicul point of view, I will 
now mention some of the grammiiticai forms — those of llie 
numerals and the verb, — to be found in the Mijstsrif and the 
Buhez. In 90 doing, I will take occnsion to supply some 
of the defects, and correct some of the errors in the Breton 
part of the Qrtunmnflm Celttcn^ First, as to to the numerals. 
Exci-pring the cardinals for 1, 2, :i (raasc.)^ 10, l-j, riO, 100, 
1000, and tho ordinals for 1 cind !^, Zousa gives no Middle- 
Bnton numerals. Here follow those that I have found ; — 

Cardinals. — I,, "rt, M 4"; vnatt, M 57^ II., maen. dou, 



tiaoii, M 51^ 120-; fern. r//«, M 52»; <lmi, M 19*, 21; 
iteti, B 168. III., masc. ^ y, M 78^ ^^ B 66 : fem. ^yr, M 
151* rV., maec.pevar, M26»: fem. jM-^fer, M 145*. V*, 
pernp, M 146^ VI,, fittecA, M 146^. VII., mz, M 13^ 
X., d^c, B 158; rf^rr, B 118. XII., douzec, M 74". XV., 
pemdfe, B 12; j)rt»scf, M pr^f. lij. XXTV., p^uar bfoas 
varnugueni, pr^f. cvij. XXX., trctjont, M IS*", C„ cant, B 
86, 172. CCC, irn~mnt, M IS**. M., mil, M 61*. Lastly, a 
Kundred-tlioiLBaiid ie expressed by cant-mil in M 89*^, 128*. 

Ordinala.— I. quentaf, M 88*.' II., eil, eyl, M 30* TO** 
(Skr. (tnya). Hi., ^rtrf*', M 34", IV.. tuadc. pemre, M 38*: 
fem. j^rrf^rr^^ M aZ*". M., niifref-.M 13^. 

It IB in tKe verb, however, that the defects and errors above 
referred to are most serious. Thus Zeuss giyea no examples 
of the 3rd plur. pres. active, nor of the 2nd sing, and Ist^ 
2nd, and 3rd plural pret, act. He exemplifies the 2nd amg. fat. 
only by Ws(, ' eria,' the 2iid sing, future of the irregidbr verb 
ffoui^ <ftuirt^, *tpvTt^, Skr. hJt&ti. He exempliHes theaecondary 
Vfterito only by rosctfi, the 2nd plur. secondary pret. of the 
irregular verb ;¥(jf, ' to give/ Skr. root rd, Fi'si', * ait,' ' osto,' 
is his only exomplc of the 3rd sing, imperative, and he gives 
no example of tho 3rd plur. imperative, and hardly any of 
the secondary tenser of f>oui. The additional material now 
published by M. de la ViUemarqu^ enables us to supply 
most of these defects. Thus :^ 

Pros, indie, act. 3rd plur. a-stema: cawtif, M 139^ 

'odenmt;' C€m>nt, M 29^ 'desinunt:' m-stema : icrcront, 

M 227', 'loquuntur;' rencotit, M 24% 'debent' In fccfiront 

and retwant, (inf. imarei, rencoitt), the umlaut points to the 

M-conjugation, though the termination belongs to the d-con- 

jugation. In two casea, however, we apparently find the 

termination proper to the iVi-conjugation, Pa em senteiU ez 

dahhrfni ann bent beu, M 177% "when they obey me, they 

hold the way of life." (Inf. *een(i^, delchvliy 

Pret. act. 2iid sing. gui-rzsoU M 129^ ' vendidisti.* 

lat plur. gresomp, M SSO", ' fecimua.' 

2nd plur. lequ^sot, M !83*, ' posuisiis.* 

3rd plur, kquemnU M 11.5*. 'posuernnt ;' di^qut^moni, M. 
L0« • 



Fut. act. 2nd sing-, a-stems: quet^^ ?'«V)/, M 57\ 153", 
amabie; coezt/y M llO'*, cades; chomy, M 122*, remaiiebis ; 
■a-stcma : qnif^, B 64 ^ Lat. capies, mirai/, M 65*, morieris, 

Seoondaiy pret lat sing- gfi^i^s^emt, "SI SIS'*, cepiasem; 
creUen (leg. cretgenn)^ B 122, credidissem ; grasenn, M 82**, 

2iid sing, gnhes, M 15* ; ffelaen-de, B 74, potuiswe ; 
fjUil«fH, M SIS'*, ndiesea. 

3rd fling, ra/sf, M 234*', cepiaset ; chotme, M 205', reman- 
aiaset; diUurw, M 183^ liberasset; daczorc/isc, M 167*, 
expergefeciflset ; gaeiae, M 102!", vidissot ; wtfln-s^, M 64 ■, 
mortuus easet ; mirse, M 204*, protexisset ; scose, M 39*, 

2nd plur. gahech, M 153", potuissetia ; gouzfi/sech^ M 
40\ sustullsaetia ; tfuirpiec/t, M 21", mortul eesctia, 

Swmndary fiit. 3rd aing. casfe^ M 204", oderit; deurfr, 
M 72*. 

2nd plur. lesfech, M 21**, liqueritis. 

Imperat. 3rd aing. chomet, B 28; fnllet, M70*; manef, 

7* = Lat, Mzmeto. 3rd plur. bea^nt, B 08, ' eunto." 

The secondary foiros of bout are as follows : — 
Sf-conpah-t Presest. 
ejng. }trnuy M 6*, 24* 1 plur. hmnp, M 117* 

!hz, M 92^ 2 hcch, M 7" 

t^ M 92^ 3 benU H 10* 

Secondary Futube. 
sing- bihcnn, M 30** 1 plur. bihomp (leg. hikempT)^ 

fc*Acj, M 213* 2 fr/Ac/, M 229* 

AtAc, M 58^ 3 himt, M 219" 

Zeoas hofi also given hardly any of ttie forms of the 
irregular vci-bs. Of these I have aacceeded in forming a 
tolerably complete collection, which I hope to publish some 
day ae part of on csaay on the Breton conjugation. 

Of the errors into which Zeuas has fallen in treating of the 
the Middle-Breton verb, the most important is his mixing up 
the forms of the present and the future indicative. The 
Breton future active appears to me. as it does to the native 



grammartanB, clearly distinguiBliable trom the present. And 
furtlier, in, its firat and second persons, at leaet^ it aeema to 
offer an exact and interesting analogy to the Old Latin 
futures of the third conjugation — futures which, donbtleas, 
were originally optatives (Sea Schleicher, Comp. p. 549). 
Compare, for instance, — 

credif, M 148*", with Old-Latin • credem {dicim from *iieika- 
i-m actually occura). 


ci-edy, M 183*, ., 
ffffhi/mp, M 154, ,> 

guijf, B 152, I 
fjn^^et, M 208*^. ) 

The 3rd aiug. in o, and 3rd plur. in out of this tense, 
I should compare (if Breton phonetica allow "me to do 
Jio) with the Old- Latin conjunctive-endings 3f and diit, 
especially aa o and out are also the terminations of the 
3rd sing, and 3rd plur. of the Breton conjunctive (see Zeuaer, 
515). So in classical Latin, the Ist pers. sing, ftitv of tlie 
ijrd conjugation ia really a conjunctive-fonn. A second 
error committed by Zeusei, is hia giving^ at p. 504, IS as a 
termination of the 3rd aing. pret. active. The termination 
of this person is invariably AS, and the two examples quoled 
by Zeusa from B are Jir,<it persons singular ; cz brrtniz is not 
' putrefnctura est,' but 'putrefactua aumf and as to me ho 
prfntin, ' praestiti ea,' cited as an instance of impersonal con- 
jugation, the me ia bracketed in Sionnet's edition of the 
Ituht^i!, p. 15&, and is not, I believe, in the MS., but waw 
Lhruut ju by the editor, to the ruin of the octosyllabic metre \ 

Na grahen gitft rac secret voe 

[flic] ho pt-Mtii m «« y/i> phv. 

*' I would not do it, for it was secretiy 

1 lent thotn in a country church." 

AgAill. ut p. f>02, Zeuss miataltea the tense of ^(^Av^-rf/! 
Mooadary preU^rite), and quotes it as the Snd sing, pret., 
which always wula in not. Then, at p. 517, he translates 
monet, 'ins' by * ite ;* and, at p. 521, he translatea heulitj, 
' iequai'in/ (is if it were an infinitive, whereas it ia a 2nd 
«ng. cuTijunctive. At p. 636 he asserts that of the British 




I&ngtia^s Welsh alone has preserved the eecondary passive 
fomu. But the foTms in question are Btill used in Breton, 
M he might have found in Lcgonidec'ei grammBT;^ p. 54, 
where kared, ' on aimait,' ^ on aima,' and karr^ or kar/ed, 
'on aimeroit,' are given- And in M 58* we fiiid, vp hezef 
Hn nfp pe gani ez ea chief map ckn U'ayt^H, " woo be to him 
by whom it ehall be heard that the Son of Man hath been 
betrayed;'* and in M 134*, ez roe queii iemiei, seiner mm 
nir^ret e c^qttern sacrct, " he waa so stretched that his eocred 
bones were counted clearly." Here trnysset and niverct arc 
reapectively the 3rd siag. secondary prewnf passive of fmi/- 
nun/ and niveraf. So grm-t, M 84^ = tjori'l, M GS'', from 
jyriHT/r ' facio' ia another example of the eame tense and person. 
Then in B 190, we have propciet fjnel so ... . quertl 
twM ffanwt, " it was prophesied well before he had beer 
bora,'* where ffamct is the 3rd aing. secondary preterite pas- 
sive of tfttrrie/, B 44, now ff^tif/, Skr. Jfin. In Comiah, Mr. 
Norris quotes ytiker, D 537, as an example of the same tense 
and person. Here the r of the present has usurped the 
place of the / (or, as it was in Cornish, the «) of the secondary 
t^nse : d(inv<m*}fHt P 93, 2, would have been a better exoraple. 

Then at p. 638, ZeuBS writes — referring to the verb-aub- 
stantive, W. maf, pi. uidi^nt = Com. rm, pL mom (cf. perhaps 
O.N. m& and N.H.Q. rer-moijen) — " Armoricae linguae 
ignotae aunt hae formae." But in B 12, we find ma oz gouftez 
rn brx man, " lio is lying in this grave/' and in M the fol- 
lowing : na biecoaz a nep grec ma quen hirvoudet en bet 
man, M 14", ." never of any woman were such sobs in this 
world ; '* ema ann eaquep ouz da gortoa, M 61^, "the bishops 
are awaiting thee ;" ^ma an hoary entre me ha buy, M 146**, 
"the game is between me and you." 

Lastly, at p. 552, Zeues says that the Armorican verba 
signifying 'ire,' 'venire,' and *facere* want the peculiar forni 
of tbe preterite. This is true as to ober 'facere-^ But we find 
ay«2, ft, aex, (foes, 'ivit/ in M 161^ 181», 194**=^. a aeth. 
Com. etfi, t/fhfiffi, Iheth. "We also find df'nx, 'venit,* in M 4* 
= W. tfoeth. Corn, duetk, dnth; and dettzoch, 'veniatis,' in 
M 174* ='W, doefhaurh, Com. dufhmgh. 



I havo left myself but little 

to (jpeak of the manner 


in wliich, M. de la Villemarqu^ has edited liia text and 
executed his troDalation. In both respects lie deeervea high 
commendation, and the heortieBt gratitude of Celtic scholara^ 
Nevertheless, iLn the text there are some mieprints, of wliich 
I have made a list' for the benefit of future students of his 
work, and aa to the translation, I confess that I should havn 
been better pleased had it been, here and there, leaa para- 
phrastic, and, in some few places,, more correct. Thnsat p. 13^, 
(Trt pujie^au man so ktm tj tnn poaifi/m dan tui hiidur is trans- 
lated^ "de ces puita-li s'^Iaucent dea flommes cruelles destinees 
aux impudiques," Surely M, do la Villemarque would have 
remained "toujoura fran^ais" (pr^f., p. is) if he had kept 
closer to his Breton and written "ces puits-Ia sont pleins d'lin 
feu pi^nible poiu* los im^pudiquoa." So at p. 14', eno fte dctw 
na Wffftr im w-ann, tranalated "il n'y a rien quo desordre el 
confusion," ia rather, "il y a la ni mots ni maane." At p. 62*, 
tlahem avya [leg. dti pm-aptjii\, rendered by "e'oat raon opinion," 
is rather, "arise-toi." At p. 78^ mf a gvutj herrhnt e rempst/ 
[not rempjtij'] qwcni irtj cfez, Is thus renderedj "je ferai si Hen 
qu'iivant troia joura le nombro des siena sera diminu^." I 
ahould rather translate thus : " J'ubregerai son existence 
uvuiit trois joura/' At p. 82" Christ a&ys, Pezr, tna ear, U n 
tjoti/' me: carv, and this passage is thus rendered : " Pierre, 
iiion umi» toi qui m'aimais, lu le sais." But Buroly the right 
voraioii would be this; "Pierre, mon ami, tu Bais que je 
t'aimaiH." Then at p. 0P, Judas saya : 

Oitrt^ dotuir dr« truifarez 
Pardomt gear a pep ftirts 
Si* dicfis n ffaitafheiout. 

M, d43 lu Villemarqui5 tranftlates this : " Je peux done recevoir 
iiuiMi do Ml bontL^ miat^ricordiouse, qui eurpasse toute bont6, 

' ('"(TO 12^ ftir fomtfm, tk*i\ wmt^m (Com. osomopyoii, p. 26* 3) ; p. l4^ for 
ffUimtiu^ r«»l j/uirymtt; \\ Iflt", fi.r trt^nt, rmil trtymt ; p. 17^, for prmci, 
Y»tl f„mr< . ]i. :V1\ r..r vi<"rf, rriul v«m ; |i, 71^. forJKYjpl, ri'ttJ ««a>r; p. 116-, 
Inr hut lU, TfH*! hitin , p. lai'i, for ,iiir. rcaJ g>Mi ; u. iTi.\ for tompaez, reod 
".M/jMi. It. lai)", ^^^fumM'TDnlli■M»,' nid ywrwi; p. 138^ for aif, reiui 
*" if . II. I H'i", {,» MUfM rMil teuifitt ; i*. im\ lor pw if, n-iid perif ,- ti. \ 90, for 
if''l'<>**>\f'ttlt .■ V. n\\ ftir poum^i, iDpil po««*»( ; ,,. '^a2^ f«r r«i, rend «fp / 

|. m\ hr t,f^htti»^ mA pnr^Mifu . p. jat-. r^ «ir*«j, read ^»Uttir. 



pardon d la fin." He obviously regards goftr as equiva- 
leut to the prep, voar or oar, 'but,' and carez as meiming 
•bont^.' But, first, his rendering passes over the a which 
comea after goar ; secondly, roar or oar never, bo far as I 
know, asffumes the form goar ; thirdly, eaics does not mean 
*boat^,' but 'faute/ 'blame,' or 'peche,* and is cognate with 
O.W. rami (gl nota, gL nequitiae), ka-i/d, Z, 538, now certjdd. 
Com. rara, Ir. ^vif'/'f, catrifjud. The word occute again in 
M 101*, where Annaa aaya to Pilate of Jesus : 

Cbiist ha mab doe ha roe yyez 
En hem gra pkn^ ha certcn bcz 
A Tezaf cares mar bez cuyt, 

which I would render thus : ** II sg fait le Chriet et le File dc 
Dieu et aussi Roi ; et eois certain qu'il y aurait du blame, 
a'il aerait libre."' Then in B 50 : te goar guirionez mur 
emeux mm dellozet, "thou kuowcst the truth, if 1 havu 
deserved blame;*' and in B 174: mazoQ'e cala mez catozet, 
'*» that I am blamed in abundance of shanae-*' Having 
thufl got an idea of the meaning of carez, one may venture to 
trausliite the passage above cited from M 91" thus : " Puis 
doucemont de sa mia^ricorde, a la fin je pourrais ^tre tin 
bomme {goar) pardonn^ de chaque p^ch^." At p. 99** Judas, 
ia despair, says to the dovila : duvt guni mil mfar dtim or/nvJif, 
which M. de la ViUeiQarqu^ thua renders : "Venez, regardoz 
Imoi au fracaa du tonnorre." Surely this ia quite dreadful 
enough when literally translated : " Venez avec millo cria 
pour me regarder." At p. 105, the frat or 'witness,* who 
prefaces every scene with an argument in five-ayllablod 
metre, saya of Christ : 

" £ffuyt penn na qwin, 
Nae eren then nutn, 
Bytooaz ne queynimi** — 

,, according to M. de la Villemarquifi, *' Et pourtant il ne 
oe ptAignit jamais ni de la tete, ni du doa, ni des liens qui le 
aerraiont par le milieu du corps." Surely niein here, as in 

I H. de U ViUcmBTim^'H truuUlJan la i *^ II M fiit passai pour Iq Christ et b 
PUf de Ditu, pour n\ atusi; et ccrtRineracol' U la deriondra, qn'oa y prenne 
rardo, u a)) le Uisae Ubr«." 



M 144*, i& the plural of mtiffh * atone/ I would translate 
thiis : " II ne se plaignit jaraaia, ni do la t^te, ni du dos, ni du 
trainement pardessua les pierrea." At p. 150", Mary says 

of criminalB : 

A die mervell dre ho dellit. 
Ha dre merit disheriiet ; — 

!>., "qui m^ritent la mort pour leur p^ch^ et (aont) 
dignement d^sh^n'tea." This, M. de la Villemarque rendere 
by " digncs dc mort et indignea d'L'garda." Surely tliie 
Tersion by no meaua conveye the meaning of the Breton 
poet. LMtly, at p. ISS*, after Christ's resurrection, the 
wilneae singing the words of the angel, telle the daughtcrfi 
nf Bethany to relat-e the event to Jesua' disciples and lo 

Sao en galile, 

ffii ffitelo arr», 

Roc maz vtte f Iry, — 

i.f., " Et qu'il lea rcverra en Galilee, car c'^tait aa parole," 
M. do la Villomarque's translation ('^dites lour qu'il vous 
i-evcrrn en OaliU-o, car c'^^tait son intention") here seems 
wrong in two placcB— first in following over cloaely the text 
uf \vHi Vulgate, Marc. xvi. 7 (" sicut dixit vobiB"), and trans- 
lating fio by ' vous,' which would he ox or hoz (me oz suppli^ 
B 08; hoz prdnjf, B 36), of which probably the modem 
ho ' vos' id i; corruption ; aoeondly, in rendering bjy by 
' iuU'utlon.' Ill) often occurs in B and M, hut always 
uicniUM 'them;^ /lo {/of^fh, B 204, 'oppignerabo eoe;^ /lo 
lo-f^ftH, H l/iH, • praestiti ea " (scuta) ; Ao s^cAji*, M 4". 
' Hiceavit, doti^rait, ooa' (t>., pedes Chriati). The Middle- 
Brnt^m fin * tlioni,' like the O.Ir. *«t* and *so in. etarru, 
rtarrit. '/.. ;{ 12, for vUu + mi, c/nr + so, is = O.Lat. aosy ' eoa.' 
Ihy (wliirli ulao awsms to ticciu- in iht? phrase ntctn-hry, men- 
Ory, M HI**; mrmbn/, M 10^4a^ 207") appears to be cognate 
with the Ir. brialhrn; * verbutn,' (O.W. co-bruunl gl. verbalia, 
M.W. hrtti, ■ mugirr,' soonia Skr. bi% ' loqui) ;' mr t/w? tw 
r Ary i» a ttili-nihly oloae tninelation of the phraae in Mark 
xvi. 7, fraf'uiv thtrf, ' aieut tlixit/ 

' Wr«in(lj- mmlBreH by 7,t>im \Q. C, 395) ' roftam eo*.' 



fine, I trust that M. do la VUlemarqu^, if lie cou- 

ids to read them, will not be offended by the freedom 

Oif tbeae criticisms. There ia no divine right in the republic 

of letters. If my concluflions Are correct^ he mtl, doubtless, 

scoept them with the candour of a true scholar: if they are 

[vTony, my errors will, at all events, indicate the places 

rhere the ^I'catest Uving master of the Breton language 

%y udefuUy remoTe the misconceptions of his readers. 

WtAJimt, 1866, 

PALSGEAVE.—By Danht R Fry, Esq. 
M. OeNiNr in his introduction to the reprint of PoIb- 
grave^fl ** Leaclarciaaement Ab la Langue Francoyse," haw 
made a curious chronological error, which it is worth M'hilo 
to point out. 

He aeems to be patriotically anxious to prove that Pals- 
l^rave was not the iirst (a^ asserted by Baker) who reduced 
iG French language to grammatical rules. He cannot beai* 
the idea that this merit should belong to an Englishman, 
^and claims it for his own countryman, Geoffi^y Tory do 
I Bourgee, whose work, Cha?np Fieury, published in 1529, be 
^bonsiders may have even " evoked " the grammar of PaU- 

V With regard to the date of Palflgrave's work^ be proceeds 
to state: — 

"Ici je dois signaler une singularity qui n' a point Aik 
^remikrqu^e dea bibliograpbeB. On lit an frontiapice la date 
le 1S30^ et au dernier feuillet : * acheve d' impriraer le 18 
lillet 1-530 ' ; mais le privilege da roi plac^ en tt^te du volume 
est date de notre chateau d' Ampthyll, le 2 Septembre, 1' an 
do notre r^gne xxii. Or, Henry 8 ^tant parvenu au tr6ne 
en 1509, apri^s PAques, la vingt-dcuxi(}me ann^e de son regno 
est r aan^e 1531, et le Champ Jkurtj avait paru au com- 
meacem^eat de 1529, Cela fait done de bon comple un inter- 



valle de troia ans." He adds — "II mo paniit certain 
1' ouvroge de Palsgrava eat nntidat^ sur le froutiapice." 

Now the simple fact is, that Heuiy VII. died on the 22nd ^ 
April, 1509, and Henry VTII. began tia reigii on that day t^fl 
couaequently, he completod the 23nd year of his roign on tho ^H 
21iSt April, 1531 ; and it follows that the 2nd September, in 
the 22nd year of his reign, was the 2nd September, 1530 

It seema difficult to understand how M. Genin could h&ve 
faUen into so strange a mistake in the computation of tho 
dates ; but it is certain that he has done eo ; and it is clear 
that bia inference, as to tho " interval of three years 
between the two works of GeofErey Tory and Palsgrave, is 
altogether erroneous. There does not appear to be an 
reason to suppose that Palsgrave's work was antedated. The 
closing Bontenco is aa follows : *' Tho imprintyng fynyshed 
by John Haukyus, the sviii. daye of July. The yere of our 
lordo God M.cq.c.c.c. and xxx." The printed book (and not^H 
the M.S.), waa submitted to Henry the Eighth; for fho^^ 
" Privilege" referring to it expressly states that tbo author 
" hath, at his proper coate and charge put (it) in prynt ;" 
and this " Privilege/' granting the copyright for seven 
years, was " given under our signet, at our manor of n 
Ampthyll, the aoconde day of September, the ixii. yere of^| 
our mygne." As this was the 2nd Sept., 1&30, what ground" 
can there bo for doubting tho statement made in the book 
itself, that tho printmg was finished on the 18th day of tliQ^| 
July preceding t' And if this be so, the frontispiece ie not^i 

P.8. — At the meeting at which this paper was read, Mr. 
Uonry G. Bohn> in confirmation of the view that Palsgrave 
id not to bo considorod as later than Tory de Bourges, stated 
" that Pidsgravo's groat work, which extends to considerably 
inom than ftf^O pages fulio, aud is of rather complicated 
printing, bcving of mixed typo, must have been a long time 
lit pnt»», ],robaljly threo years ; while the C/uimp Flmnj of 
Tory t\ii Udiirgi'N m a. smull thin volume in roman type, of 
muuA-\y uno-third tho numbur of pages, and would be rapidly 





lu a sabsequent note Mr. Bohn adds — "Palsgrave, in hifl 

)fiu!e, boOstB of having douo what had never before been 
Wttemptcd ; and aa ho was long resident in France, and 
taught French both there aud in EugUnd, he muet have 
_kiiown accurately what had been done, 

*" Herbert (the bibliographer) was of opinion that the two 
porta of the work were printed before the tliird.. by 
Fynaaa, and I think it not improbable^ as John Haukyns, 
the printer, is not known to have printed more than thifi 
one hook. Under any circumstances I have no doubt that 
Palsgrave was preparing his book at least ten years before 
it waa printed* It would be ea*y to write a pamphlet on 
thia subject, but I have no time for more. 

" Mr. Watts, of the British Museum, will bo able to point 
out to you that there are French elementary books suppoeed 
to be earlier than Palegrave, e,g., Pynaon'a Booko to lemc 
to speke French. Alex. Barclay's Introduction to write and 
proDOunee French. 1521. But of this latter there is somo 
doubt, although Ilerbert describes a eopy in hie posaession, 
printed by Robert Cophmd, March 32d, 1521. Black letter, 
C. 4 in sixes. Bnmet aays that the French part waa proba- 
bly never printed, but merely the second part, which relates 
to Dancing ; relying I suppose, upon an imperfect copy in 
tho British Museum. But I IxjUeve all the book was 

"See moro on this subject in my edition of Lowndea^ pages 
CaC, Duwes, and 839 Boke." 

By C. B. Cavley, Esu.j B.A. 

Although we may roughly distingoush three systems of 
Temfication, founded on quantity as the Greek and Latin, 
on accent as the Italian and English^ and on the mere 
DimibeT of syllables in a line as the French and in part 
^tuB Spanish vereiii cation, yet^ aa these systems have b^ii 
Dped one &om another in a gradual and indirect way, 



it may prove worth wHle to consider minutely one apparent 
example of this proceas, -which I conjoctiu-D from consider- 
ing tho relations of the English heroic verse (hlank or ^J 
rhymed) to tho classical dramatic trimeter. ^| 

The latter has, it is true, a superficial resemblance to the 
alexandrine; but that position of the cae&ura which is usual in 
Eng'lish, and necessary in French ftlexandnnes, was ordinarily 
forbidden by the rulea of the ancient versification. But I 
begin with our verso of five feet ; and I will aaaume that 
it waa introduced chiefly by Chaucer, who muat have found . 
a like verse (passing by the arrangement of rhyme*) in the ^M 
Italian taltts ho has imitated, say in the Knight^a Tule and ^^ 
in Troilus and Oreesida, Wc must further, however, con- 
sider the characteriatica by which the English verse has 
come to differ from the Italian — if not in Chaucer, whose 
orthoepy ■ we might find it hard to analyse — at leaat in 
the nearest subsequent epoch of a Nourishing literature. If 
we begin with the number of syllables (which determines 
the ordinarj' name), and with the final cadence, we find that 
the English line is mostly indeed decasyllabic, and oxytouo 
(or ending in a atrong ayllable) ; whereas the Italian line is 
hondecosyllabic, and paroxytone. Nevertheless, this differ- 
ence seems to concern the writer more than the re&derj for 
the more Italian form ia not objected to in English verse ; 
mily it is less ob'^-ious, and supplies fewer rhymes ; whilst iu 
Italian voree, eveu as early aa Dante, we find lines in the 
more English osytone form^ like — 

" Non OTiift pur ilair orli» fatto criwb ;" 

and bosido the triplet thus ending in icch, we have in 
the Comedy four triplets in f, four in i, and five lines 
in i\ ac^cented. I may add a triplet in 'in in the Pro- 
vim^al dialort. Rut the verso bofl a third form, tq which 
tlui Itiiltiui prt>sody givos the name of arfrwc w/o, or slippery, 
biMig II dodwaaylliihio form, and not like the alexandrine, 
but jiriijHintxytonPj like— 

"Oiii iH'ii (lorU run ilp' (liiri mar^iLi," 
with imolhcr bno nml anotlier tripiot in the Comedy ; 
bi«iili<a which wli^^lr pkys havr subscN^uontly been written in 



irueciolo verse, and avowedly on account of ite reeem- 
to the clasijicul senariuB, In EnglUh we liave a few 
soch proparoxytone lines, jocularly used to introduce an in- 
genioua rhyme, as m Byrou's — 

" UiilUd oui crabbed, baj^h, and Northern guttural^ 
Wlilcli we're obliged Ui his*, and spit, and Bputlcr all." 

Bot in blank verae thia form ia Tery scarce, though I have 
fotmd Bome eix or eight instances of it in Milton's Sanutou 
Agon%9tt», aa (in the dialogue) : — 

" BcsiJts. h«w vile, cpntemptitile, ridieul-jus," 
Oniy such a line hiboiirs under this diaadvantag©, that by u 
pttmimciation slightly artificial, but still usual, it may be 
rwid as an alexandrine, or may suffer a curtailment of two 
Byllables at the beginning, and still appear a readable heroic 
line, and capable of rh ymin g with one that ends in a strong 
flyllable. We might thus treat the following lines, again 
from the Sn/mon Agoimfes ; — 

" Sponi'd them to death bjr troopt. The bold AscUamte." 
" Jfo jnimiey of a Subbath day, and loaded ao." 

of which, though really a -^(Irucciokj may possibly have 

intended for an alexandrine, aa you will perhaps judge 

I read the wholo passage : — 

" Bat iftf-est he who stood aloof, 
^Mi^n ipfluppartably liia foot advanced 
Itl BCOm of tbeir proud MtOa and w Jj-llkft took 
SpumMl them to ileatb bf troopa. The bold AKaloDite 
Fled Erom liu lioa mmp ; oM warriors turned 
Their plated bauVa nnder bis bficl ) 
Or grovelling, soiled their eresttd h^lmetd ia the dast, 
Then with what trivial weapon oame to hand. 
The jiw of a deudiLsa, hb swoid uf booe, 
A tbonftud forbskiiu fi^ll, the llowei of Ptileflline, 
Id Bunith-lecbi rumoua to this iay. 
T^Wi by main force pulled up, and on hia ahouldere bur« 
Tbs g«te* of Asia, post and massy bar, 
TTp to tha hill by Hebron, seat of giants old, — 
No jonmey of a aabbnth day, und loadM] do." 

Kow, in Italian, the tdruccioh (or^ aa we may more con- 
anienily call it, tho proparoxytone) line docs not labour 
ider these disadvantages, because it ends in a syllable 
vhtcli is incpiUbly weak, and which no reader can think of 




strengthening. Bven in Eng-lisli the strongthoning or hall- 
atreugtliening of such a ayllablo is not exactly pleasing 
to the modem ear ; but it is a licence, T think, founded on 
an antique usage, and derived from those times when our 
language was pronounced in great part Trith a French ^1 
accent, and contained many osytone words which have slnoe ^^ 
become (by a confusion of the primary and secondary 
uocentg) proparosytone. Thus Ascalonite would have been 
originally oxytone. This view may be sui£eieutly recom- 
mended to you, I think, by barely quoting a few of the most 
prominent lines in Chaucer's Kmy/ii's Tale, viz. : — 

>' 'WMLame, aa olde stories tcllea aa, 
Tber iiTdc a knig'ht, that hight« Tbcseus ; 
In Athena he wae Xotii and giciveniflur, 
And in lus time sriche a conqueroar." 

But we have now to consider that, although the accentual 

reading of particular words may be more arbitrary in English, 

j-et the English verse requires a greater number than doca the ^j 

Italian of the regular pariayllabic accents, ao that its rhj-fhrn ^M 

bears a atricter analogj' to the iambic metre. 1 mean that, in ^^ 

Rnglinb literature, most heroic verae has five regular accents, 

or at leoat four ; we find very few lines contented with three 

oi- less ; and theao we have sometimes a difficulty in reading, 

witnosH Milton's — 

" Orn Sah of the tm, md fowl of tV nir." 

Fi>r. Lott. 
" Through tbe mfiuitc hoM i nor iea for that" 

" Fpt bis people of old ; what hinders noic f" 

Samt. AffM. 
wheroaa in Italian it ig comparatively common to have but 
thriK^, or even but two, regular accents in a line, aa in the- 
lirit etunsuEi of Tasuo'e Ort-usakmrne Lih^mta — 

. " Cnnlo I'arroi jiiotOBO, e il capitsna. 

" Non oiriMmdi hi frfint<i in Eliwnft." 

■ad In Unnto'M ComMij — 

" Hd vuol campai d'eito loco wlTByjio ;" 

lh»«nly Wx^A rii!u boing llmt either the fourth or else tho^ 

•tlUi ■ylldlihi luiiFiL Imv hcci iiloil, and the tenth anyhow, Ou 

Ow tMwv IimikI, lli*^ hultan verse ia more limited than the, 

BT C. B. CATLliT, ESQ., B.A. 


glish in tto number of syllables preeedrng and t«nnin- 
ftting with the last accent; for the Italian has uevor more 
than ten, excopt as the number is compensated by olisloiis 
and vowel glides (which are indeed numerous and complex), 
vhereas in English, though elisions are scarce and implead- 
ing to the modem ear, yet other modes are occaaionally 
pnctiacd of bringing in extra eyllablea in & trisyllabic foot, 
— an anapffiet, or a tribmch, which is somewhat preferable. 
Not to refer to words which may be easily contracted, aa every 
tut tv^ry, we have such a foot in many Shakespcrean lines, 


" Or by oppocing end th«n. To die ! To aleep !" 
1^^^ HamM. 

^^^^^V "Bnthtnrof Qawdor? Tbo tbailQ ^f QswdorlivesV 

^ Maehsl h . 

^Msid I know not whether we ahould count those lines !ii 
^W^aiWw Lo-f(, which might perhaps be variously scanned — 

^^H *' With imptlu.a\a recuH btiiI jarriDg soigtiil." 

^^F " Created bugnf that i\rim tha occnm tXvaam." 

Hut there is a peculiarly extensive use of this licence in 

Iiwsinger's Comedy, the Citif Matfam, as in the following — 
'• Or wilt tltDUi hoirg keeper of the cimIi. 
Like BO u« thut earricA dnintiM, feod nti UititleB? 
Aro yaa goiiUeTi)«n bom } Tou liave no gallant tinictutri^ 
Of gentry in you! You am na iaechnaic3> 
Nor Bervc mme ncjedy ahopkcppcr, who stirvoys 
Hiri^rery daj*! Uklng! You ha\& in your koeping 
A iDSH of wcaitli. from which you mny take boldly, 
And flO Way be discovered. 2/e'g Ao rich biau 
That knawa &11 be pogs^fca, and leflres nothing 
For the iervsqts to raake prey of. I bluslj for you ! " 

Nevertheless, I think there is no approach to this form of 
pentapodic verse, either in Chaucer, or in the generality of such 
tion-dromatic authors aa have been at all atudioue of polish 
and harmony, except within a very recent period. It may 
be observed that Colfridge, in his ChrisUihef, although ho 
prolesBee not to write by the number of syllable*, but the 
number of accents, yet mixes trisyllabic feet with dis- 
svllabic only in lines of four and not of five feet. And 
this difference is but natural, because the tetrapodic line lias 
most affinity to the loose rhythms of the alliterative versifies- 




tion which pTevailed in England before the RomoneBque 
forma penetrated. Yet we find the pentapodic line con- 
tuina a moderate admixture of trisyllahic feet in. Tennyson's 
veree, thus — 

" Sg. Hj'fM were wed, and merrily rang tlie bella, 
And merrily ran the years, seseu happy years." 

— EhocA Ardtn. 
" A Suh of njou-jealoiuy ckared it to her," 

— Vivian, 

Putting all together, we shall find that the English versi- 
fication ia the more tolerant of irregularities in the number of 
Byllables* the Italian of irregularitiea in the amtngement of 
accents. The ground of these peculiarities is probably toj 
be found in the fact, that in Italian the quantities of syilablea^ 
are pretty equally balanced, whereas in English they are 
very unequal. For we nmy with truth say in general of 
Italian, what ia but eaid erroneously of Englibh, that everj^f 
accented syllable is also a long one- For if the accented^^ 
vowel is not lengthened by position, it ia inevitably length- 
ened by nature, as in mono, from tmlnttSf which is certjiinly 
pronounced tudno. The only exceptions are in final syllahlea^H 
aH ill mV, tttitd, of which the former kind, ending in con*^| 
MonEmts, are usually compensated by the position of words, 
and tliii latter (ending in vowels) not numerous enough to 
liayt! iiiuoh oHbct on rhythms. On the other hand, the un- 
ucoenttHl vowels are reckoned short, but have, I think, a 
nuiro indefinite duration than in English. These relative 
tpiiiiEjUtLL's b(<iug nearly the same in Spanish, may ho illi 
trutiti liy r«>me of the beet of modern sapphics, namely, 80hi< 
ttl' Villi'giiNi, <)(' the sixteenth century, in which you will fine 
ill"! n»:<:ont<'d syltablea uniformly treated as long, except inl 
till' iiruiKT nuTiii'H, imd the unaccented, where no poaitiou 
(iiuVfUtN tliiiir iK'^in^ shortened, us common. Thus in 
I riitialat iou of llnruce*** /ttfcgtr t^ifai", we read — 

" Kl i)ii{i ill <:iiUti>, y «n [iliii» |i'Uro, 

Yii 11.11 naoiiTiA, yn tin uh>u lurtto, 

Llbpn cnmlrifl i 
O (iUh ru Mliln U nnnowi Sirtv, 
U ptH ia BdtU k hif«M titrra. 
Vui il ifK, I il BLdaapt ny% 
T»n «»UbnidM. 

c, a 






To asl d«l lobo ni la aana obligo, 
Anteft abuyt-Rta »ii ronz denuedn, 
QuABcIo on el moiite a Lalnge lo oantci 

Diiloaa amorea. 
Iti«D 1^, que Dauoia mUitar do tteaa 
Eatrc eoB rabrea Bcm^Jaatfi mDoitio, 
lYi In Gctulia qui? Iconca tiac», 

Uftdre de liiif ub. 
Ponmc do nim^ lu Bmadaa aurna 
Sopkn, y stumpro dc rigor u visLc, 
A ttiyo cUoia l^arevs prometQ 

Ni«blas J niere. 
Fonoie do el cniro di^ la Itu TeVrt 
I4ie>gii a l« hombr«B la TiTanda, alompro, 
DnlpG quo hflblas I^^ol^^ te de aimirttJ, 

Dulcc que lies, 

Altogetbe^r the structuro of tbo Italian language doea not 
favour the replacement of diaayllabic feet by trisyllabic, 
because this would moke the time very unevon. It seems to 
favour, however, those accentual irregularities oe. which I 
have lately touched, becauae they coiupensato for the same- 
ness ■which might otherwise be folt from the greater ^vennesB 
in the lengths of tho ayllablee. Having now comparod an 
English and an Italian rhythm, I come to the second port of 
my paper, in which I have to compare the Italian rhythm 
with the classical furm of verse, whichsoever it may he, from 
which it has been formed and derived, not^ I believe, by 
suddenly replacing metrical laws by rhythmical, that is, 
qtiantity by accent ; but by modifying the rules of Latin 
Terstfication in which quantity is to a certain extent sup- 
ported hy accent and made to work with it to the produc- 
tion of a musical combination of words, or, I would say, of 
syllables and pauses. 

Tho Italian heroic line ot enrit'casiilttbo (as it is generally 
colled, though legitimately comprising ten, eleven, or twelve 
syllables), has been often compared with two Latin metrical 
lines, the initial of the Sapphic stanza, and the hendeoasyUabus 
of OatuHus. Each of theae is Utnited to eleven syllables, and 
the Dsual cssuros induce upon them such a rhythm in Latin, 
that they can often be read like English blank verso, still 
more often like Italian, which, as I have said, is somewhat lese 




regularly nccenttd. Thus wo have aapphics -^ 
five porisyllabic occents, as — 

" Tie ctULUP, magni Joris eK dearufii," 

where I suppose the word et haa a secondary i 
others with three, like — 

" Integer Titw scelMfequft JIOMI*," 

while lines with fewer regular accents, like — 

" Mercuri, facunda nxptm AtlimtiB^" 
may be fouiid in Horace, but are evidently rare e^^ 
tional. The Catullian hendeeasylJabi have oftenti 
much of the bimik Terse accents as the fl&pphic> as in' 

" Quoi duno Icpiilum niiMun libellutn," 

which muy be turned into a aapphic by an easy transpo 

" Qaoi nanun datm lepidom libelltmi ? " 
■omctiiB^ leas, as in — 

'* Docti*, Jupitflfj &t Uborliini ■" 

Yet even this lino would satisfy the ItaUan rules, if t! 
ff were emphatically pronounced. Like thia ia the 
of most liues in Tennyson's ' experiment,' aft— 
" All ID qaantity cartful of my DLotion," 
though, we find one or two in the heroic rhythm, aa— 

" O bUUtat mngiuiiiu, regard me rather." 

On the whole, however, I am inclined to think that 1 
decasyllabic and sapphic, which may well be termed 
tastical and dainty" metres, Lave had leas to do with 
popular rhythm which in the beginning required 
where the support of rhyme, than another metre I 
which even in classical Latin was in a peculiar de( 
and imperfect. I will oboerve as a mere curiosity, 
some liBtin lines quoted by Amador do los RioSi' i 
mens of the literature of Spain in the early part 
twelfth century, we find a strange instance how the 
metre, by a lux observance of quantity and a sc 
stricter observance of the usual accents, could da| 
into u modem endecaaillabo. It ia worth while to 
' Jlitttrm triiit*. T«i. u. App. SI. 


imperfect riiyTne in tfae composition, Wng aa assoimDC^^ 

the last Billable, which, howevei-, is uniformly unaccent..^^. 

I will read the following from nn early Po&ma del Cid — 

*' EiBj g'utarani poenumua refenre 
Pork et Pirrlu, dccbqii ^t ^oee \ 

MtUti poetx plarim^m in Uada 

Quffi consrriptfire. 
8ed pagaitorum que TOtebunt ticti, 
Dum jitm Yilg6C&&t tetuatale multa ! 
Modo caiutmaa Bodsrici dota 

Principis beUa." 

X will leap a little farther on to find one true 3apphic — 

*' EiP4 Iretatdo popoU catemp," 

I proceed to say that, on the other hand, if we can only 
suppose that the sthuca'olo la originally a genuine form of 
the Italian eudecaBilkbo, we shall be readily tempted to 
believe that the latter i& derived from the Latin aenariuB ; so<j 
ob\'ious is the reBemblance. "and so many senam may b© 
found which are bona fide adruccioH ; or, I may say, 
tdrucdoli which are bona fide senarii. Compare — 

** Be«[u> ill«it qui prociU acg^&x" —Bortter. 

^< ParUndo andiii pa Han mMtraneki 6v7iiiB."^~Damtt. 

They eeem moulded exactly on the same laws; for a senaHus 
with regular cesuras and no trisyllabic feet con seldom fail 
to have an accent on either the fourth or sixth syllable^ 
which is, as we have seen, the principal rule for the acceut- 
iiation of the Italian line. And if we consider on what con- 
ditions the senariua caa be read as a regulated sdmceiolOf 
the principal or only ones seem to be thnt the line shoidd 
contain no trisyllabic feet, or, by the EngUsh dramatio 
standard, aa few aa pmsibLe; and that it should end in a 
trisyllabic word, or weak inMiosyllable. Of oourfle, if thaj 
last word be a digsyllable, you get a kind of scazod accent^ | 
which appears uncouth to us, like — 

aitd the strong monosyllabic ending m naturally rare ia^ 
Latin. Sut I should suppose that the nature of the lines 
which are Udt sdnicciolo had made them harah and objeo- 



tionable, evoa in I^tinj when that langnage began to loao 
tho delicacies of its nnciGnt pronunciation. I suppoao t}iat 
at this time Latin was pronounced, as it stiU is on tlic 
continent, HIcb the Romaaesque language in each region, 
iind, in particular, so that tlio aMented syllables were almost 
miiversnily Itaig-theued. Read in this way, the Benarii end- 
ing in diaayilables would become bad seasons, as — 

" PnltTua nuu bobns exerept sDu ;" 
ond this particular line, aa it happens, con hardly be reed 
othorwiae by an Englishman. Mow tho scazon ia, I think, 
an unpleasing vereo in itself, though it is an effective one in 
un ironieid or a sarcastic style, like — 

** Fuiaero ^|uotuIam cajiiMi tibi solcdi, 
Cum YcntiLtbu, quo poella ducabat, 
Amutd no'bis, quuiitum amabitur nullla." 

On like gronnds, it ia natural that trisyllabic feot should 
have fallen out of the more popular fonne of quasi-iambic 
voi'hiliiiuliou, jis requiring u nice obaervance of q^uantily in 
tho reading. And if I have now shown how tho senariua 
may Inivc piiHsod into the Italian ndnicciolo, X may mention 
on»i miyvv pctiiit in w!iich the colloquial pronunciation would 
fueilitntd tho transition from the sdrttcctolo to the ordinaTy 
fonii of llio imifcuHiUtiho. I mean that there are a great 
nunilHvr u{ Latin words which easily lose the penultimate 
■yliublio, wlion it ill fnrmod by an i and followed by another 
vowrl, iiH in KngliHh wo road mrjotm like neffo-sfit/h, and m 
tin It^iliiui would road it down to the last letter like the 
iiioiloni worti nrijo^f, via,, as iutj(htvifi according to the 
Kuglir^li uw« (if cnrtiwnanta ; thus it appears that the senorius 
whiiih I hiivu quottMii to you ua a vdnteciolo — 
" Iloniuj lUc ijui pnwol aegotiis," 

TnUdl In* vrry gf^neroUy read, and has very long been read, as 
(in rHiftraHifJitt'f proper. 

I nt4^| iKil obaiTve how the Latin spuarius is formed 
IWmm \)w Hrpnk itimbio trimi^ter, as the relations hare been 
MiMi-ougbly <'xamiti,^i. T\\v Chri^fm Patios, attributed to 
Hrt.gnty Nariiinnon (n» othrr works of tho same period), is 
H-ilMnn lit nn irn^gulur w dobam-d iniubic m«sare, which 




may be considered with a fow exceptions (besides the lines 
taken from Eufipitlrs), as coiiBigtiiig of three teti^-Hyllabic 
metres, la each of wliicli the ihltd eyliable k ekoft, and the 

S others commoti. Ttue — 
aa — 
ELxceptiooal lines (or false quautitiee) sometimea occur, as — 
But I have aeea later Byzautme compositions, ostenaibly 
in the iambic trimeter acatalectic, in which even the third 
syUable of the dipcxlia seems to hare no fixed quantity. The 
modern Greek accentunl verse appears to resemble the Italiau, 
not that the most favoured forms of verse in the two languages 
have eiaetly the same niimbGr of feet or syllables ; but that 
they admit analogous deviatioas &oiu a rigid s^'minetry in 
the arrangeinent of the strong- and weak syllabloa. It is 
alfio obseiTable that, according to the Greek rulca, any mono- 
syllable {at any rate, if it be a mere article or particle) may 
be reckoned strong or weak^ ad Uhihim, The rtdc is a natural 
one ; for the ear ahrinks from an equal accent on conaeeutivo 
eyUablcM, and from an inordinate number of syllablea read 
without any accent : hence arise irregularities in the intona- 
tion of monosyllubleB, which may bo readily obacrved in most 
langoagoa. T must add that " the words el/wu, I am, elaai^ 
thou art, tUvtu, he, she, or it is, 6<ym, rao-o?, ttoo-o?, tto&ov, 
&TT<HW, Sttov, oiroD, TTore, irirre, and others inclinod by the 
I genius of the language, may, according to circumatanceH, 
^B be accented or not.'' (Christojtottlo, cited in Jufes David's 
^^ Grammatical Paralkl^ translated by John Mitchell).* 

' Thii licence raipht, howeror, occasion somo suqiriBe in tho Greek lunguago. 
beMUM in writing \l wc murk somi- fiiouosyiliLblL-a with un accent and Imvo 
othen iiniasrlE«d, liy ccrtoan rales wbicJi aw as ia<&v:x\h\9 u they bto pan- 
il»tieAl. I Bpeak chieily in T^Uientx to the ao-cnlloU proflUk* ; beovufi of worda 
pprfbctlT aiiDUor in iiii;niRcatioii, or ut Ii?rkst in weight, txmta nre OBtcnsibly dia- 
linfui*bctl lis li>aic, I'thcts us aloDic ; cumiMro ri, rA witli 5, i, dI, al ; or irpbi 
*itti ittf i¥„ HI ; a.a*\ oWnre tlmC tho importcLUt-woiU oti'xa cotnnionlT Itft irithiiut 
sn awent wlK^n.- iJinplinaiB and euphony may Becni to n»^niro oao. But I mn p«r- 



Pasaing by these collateral affinities, and the douVte sug- 
gested by the aapphic metre and the CatulUaa hendecaBjUabuB, 
I may bum up this paper as repreeenting (1), that the EngUfth 
heroic Terse is derived from the Italian t^fit^sa^ilialo by cut- 
ting off in the majority of linea one final syllable — ^the Italians, 
having done the same thing; but rarely* (2), the endecaaillabo 
is formed in the wme manner from the sdrucciolo, which oc- 
casionally reappears in its place. (3), the sdntccioh is derived 
from the Latin eeoariua, retaining the moat prevalent accen- 
tuation in at least the initial portion. (4), the Latin senarius 
ifl formed from the Greek iambic trimeter acatalectic ; but 
hasi UBunlly a somewhat more regular accentual rhythm. It 
ta only in the second ond third points that I believe my view 
an original one. 

vmded thkt tha amiuion of the vritteo: iccent m at) thcao vorda ii n mBre matter 
of conrcniono!, 4nd baa ueTer been of the sligUtest u*e to dcMrnuoe tiiieir propor 

Sironiinciatiolii. Id miOm of dienl the rcceirea usa^e is T^^oeiTarne-nilHl by JU Gob- 
upiveniMH to pernpicnily, i» it helpi na to dutin^uh i article from & Telati»e ; 
but of others ve muEt sscV n dilTercnt nccoTint. I observe then, that all ih<? pra- 
olitici b^i^EH wllb a Vowi?!, bcin^ the following, according to Matthiie : — oii, obic, 
4&Xi ^i *U i*\ <lf. 't< ^k, H,, a, ii, oif m., uadei certain restrictions Th^ae it[« k.11 
then short ooiUTnon wuida, whk-h are natUT^lly nm^uin bored ^th n Bpintiu; and if 
to iho ■piritiu you added an accent, you would be twic« 04 toag aboQt wnting 
thum ju pu aru about making the baro Letters of ivhich they &re compo«*d. Thii 
■ma n nuij^iiico which <:o()yist« fdimd they could nafely mitigate by leaTine tte ac- 
cant, if Dt>t the breathing, l-o the ropdcr's iiuR^ontiDn : tmt thay retimed the 
ai;c«nC in % irlnlive nntl i relntiTP, % ^ cnnjuiiotiotu, etc. ; b«cftiu« iheMi wordd 
owurrcd Ii'*« froquenllj'. or for the aate of snalog^j or perspicuity. Tho case in 
much thti umti nu Lf I should oumfuily dot my Vi in the middle of wordci but 
omit thu diit Iti MiTc n littli? timo in tho oomTnon bilit«rft] And trilitenil wordi be- 
gtUninK with Ibii I^itttir, via,, if, itt, w, ir, >'», eirppting cm h a word of rara 
aiHurri.'n('c. In' iioume irlipn I juilgD th»t i article ho^ aa much ri^ht lo on accent 
M T&, I t]u rmt iJuny thnt tho ucc&nt of eithcir word may vanish wbies the ear 
roquirva, u, i)frbiiji% whi'n n mare impart^nt vurd foUoni wbi«h M accent^ oa 
the flr»l lyllnhlrt. llwt w mu»t not lupect orthography and gniDiiOAr to gluci- 
dUo th(«<i iktiilU wtth jwrlffit acouruf. 




Danbt p. Fbv, Esq, 

The following is a list of technical terma which are, or 
hmTe been, in use in the manufacture of playing-cArds ; some 
of them (»uch as Mackling or MacuLing, Mat, and Retree) 
being aUo ui lue tn the printing and other trades. 

The information has been derived from the factory of 
Moisra. lio La Rue and Co., the well-known Gurd-makera and 
manufacturing stationerst of fiunhill Row, London. 

I Aivkrtw»t IB. Playing-cards of the fourth or \aw&ui 

f Mtrry Andretpa, } class or quality, 

I Bookloard, 8. An upright board or atop on the cutting- table, 

^H^ ttgoinst whioh the cardboard is pushed, so that the 

^^ cards may be cut of the samo lengths 

ETf Btmi, T. a. To fold the cardboard bo as to stiffon it (or 
r th© tTSTeTBea cut fi-om it), in order to prevent it from 

' bending when pushed against the backboard. 

To Break the hack of the paper, v. a. This phrase describes a 
manipulation for romoving the crease of the original 
I folding, which is porformed thus : — 'The paper is 

I opened out flat, and whILit half the sheet is raised 

\ TorticaXly with one hand* the hori2ontal portion of 

I the paper b^ing hold firm, the uplifted back is gra- 

y dually pressed against the table by the other band. 

To Damp, t. a. To moisten the paper for printing. 
Doubter, s. The top or bottom sheet of thick paper or card- 
board in a ' plank' of work. In pasting, a few waste 
Bhaeta at the top and bottom of tho ' phtnk' are pasted 
to protect the work ; and these are called Doubkn. 
8m 'Plank/ 
Fine^, e. The top or bottom sheet of thick paper or card- 
board^ used for protecting the work in hot-prossing 
or milling. 



Fort, 9. An oiled sheet (usually large enoug-li for twenty 
cards) formerly used in making the etencilling-plate 
for etencilling thtj colors of the court-cards or the pipe 
of the other cards* 

Sat^rySf a. Playing-cards of the second class or quality. 

Head, e. A ream of paper pasttsd into boards. 

HighlitnderB, a. Playing-cards of the third class or quality. 

Jeu, (pron. Jno) a. A wrapper for a pack of cards. 

To Lay, V. a. To place on a table succesaiTely every card, so 
that B series of 200 packs at kat results. In the 
laying, the cards are ranged, according to their degree 
of perfection;, in three qualities. 

To Leese, (pron. kece) v.a. To bunuah or polish the card- 
board by rubbing with a smooth flint. 

Leeser, (pron. kecer) s. Burnisher ; polisher. 

Leesing, (pron. leccing) s. Biimighing ; polishing. 

To Lick the phnk, v. a. To remove with the index finger 
the superfluous pAste from the edges of a 'plank' of 
work, while in the press. See ' To wipe,' 

Littress, a. Two sheets of paper pasted together, forming 
the inside board in a sheet of playing-- cards. 

Littr ess-paper, s. Paper, always of inferior quality, used as 

To Mackle, \ t. a. To spot, stain, soil ; to set off newly 

To Macuie, 3 printed or painted work* 

Mackkd, adj. Spotted, stained, soiled. 

MacMings, a. \ Soiiing'paper ; sheet of paper put be- 

Machlin^-papert s. 

Machling-sheetSt s- 

twGon printed sheets of playing-cards, 
to prevent rubbings setting-off, and 
Mat, adj. Dead, or dull; as» a fnat surface on coloured paper, 

i,c. not bright, not ahining, not lustrous. 
Mattress, \ e. Rejected pln3^ng-cn^d3> thrown out for some 
Mattrm, } defect, and placed at the bottom of the sorted 
bundle^ to be afterwards made up, and sold at a 
cheaper rate, as cards of inferior quality. FtTUt 
MaUrts3 is a term applied to cards wbicTti are leas 
defective; Common M. to cards which ate i 



defective. '• From tho Gazette of 1684-5. we find 
tihat occGfiional sales of playing-cards took place, and 
the prices realized wen. — ' the mattriss, lOa. 6(/. per 
groas; fine uoattrisses, 12s. per gross; finca^ 16«. per 
gross ; and supei^es, 21«. per groaa.'" — The Stationer 
and Fhncy Treukn RpgMcr^ September, 1866. 
Merry Andrfwg, a. See * Androwa.' 

To Mingle, v. a. To place papers, or cardboardB, intended to 
be pasted^ in such a way, that the paster can readily 
take up the sheets in the order in which they are to 
be pasted. For example, for a two-sheet catd-board 
they are laid in twos and twos j for a tkree-sheet card- 
board, alternately m twos and ones. 
foffuiSf 8, Playing-cards of the first class or best quality. 
To Open^ V. a. To separate card-boards after drying. As 
they are generally hung in twos, the edges adhere to- 
gcther, and require eeparating. 
To Paint, V. a. To stencil ; to color the pips or the court- 
cards by the process of stencilling'. 
■'o^i^m, a. Stencilling-sheet, perforatt?d for the purpose of 

atencilling or 'painting' cards. 
To pin, T. B. To pass two pins of copper-wiro through the 
edges of the cardboards for the purpose of suspending 
them from the drying lines. 
\Plank, a. A pilo of sheets of playing-cards, on a plank, juat 

pasted, and ready for prossing. 
PointSf a. The pipa on playing-cards. 
To Prick, T. a. To make the holes for receiving the wiro 

pins. See • To pin.' 
\To Puil doitii thi tcorfc, T.a. To take down the sheets of paper 
from the lines on which they have been hung to dry. 
\Jietreet adj. Rejected ; blemished ; oa Retree paper, i.c, papei- 

with fiome defect. 
Tb Round, v. b. To trim the edges of the card-boards^ ao fta 
to make two of them etralght and at right angles to 
each other. 

\ Sixain, (pron. Bi&scn) b. A wrapper to hold half-a-dozen 
packs of cards ^ 



11 tke 

7*0 Sixahty (pron. sizztn) y. a. 1 . To make up peob 

in parceU of half-dozeos. 2. To make up parcels 
containiiig any number of articles. ] 

Sixaininff-paper, b. Wrappinj^-paper ; paper for wrapfwra. 

To Sorft V. a. To airango the cards in aorta ; i.e. ail tka 
kinga together, all the queens, and bo forth.. 

Task, B. Two reams of paper pasted in double sheets^ maktuj 
one ream of card-board. 

Tete, (pron. teef) a. Courfc-cardt 

To Trt/, V. a. To examine the backs of the cards with te- 
ference to their colour, and to place together ihoae of 
exactly the same shade : aUo, to examine the faces, 
and to place together the perfect and tho imperfeot^| 
rospectively. ^* 

To TotcTit T. a. To clean the backs of the stencilling-'aheets 
with a brush. 

Ihtenhp-bi'ush, e. Brush nsed for totening. 

7'ravet'at;, e. Strip cut ai long, from a aheet, to be suhsequentl] 
out at a/iort into single cards : Ut cut into traverses = 
to out into strips. " The tuovcablo blade, by beingj 
then cloBod, cuts the cardboard into eight narrow] 
^pSi coUod traverses, each containing five carda.' 
Bradshaic's Journal April, 1842. 

Trencftef, e. A wooden board on which the coloira uaed 
[Hiintiug the cards are placed. 

7b Trim, v. a. To remove tho rough edges of card-boards. 

7\cos, 8. Two card-boEirda adhering: together at the odgea. 

To Unpin, t. a. To remove the wire pine. See ' To pin.' 

To Wipf, \\ R. 'To lick the plank* (mupj'a) ia to remove tha' 
puato from the edges of a pile of pasted work. * To ] 
wipe* applies to the whole subsequent operation ofl 
wiping the board on which the paated work reata^ and 
the pnsted work itself wheti removed from the preas. 





'Wyr^<^r<' I'nvi'i^Hling to after any remarks on the deriTafcion) 
ot" tbi- t.Mivi;>r words, it- is adrisable to direct attentioa to 
th<' i'li'ih'li tt-( liiiii-nl torraa. I hare met with two valuable 


lists of thoee terms; one, published id 1762], the other, 
tventy years latert in 1782. 

The first is ooataiiied in the elaborate work, entitled 
*' DeMurtptione dee Arts at Metiers, i'aitea on approuv^es par 
Meaneora de I'Acad^mie Koyale d^ Sciences : arec Figures 
tsi tailie-douoe, A Paris^ 1761. Avec approbation, et pri- 
vilege du Roi;" (23^ \oia., fol.^ published at interTais, between 
1761 and 1783). I am not aware that there is any work in 
English which is at all comparable to this reisarkable pw- 
m, or indeed of the aame kind. The technical voca- 
aw appended to the description of some of the trades 
axe of much interest and value. The list relating to playing- 
cards is subjoined to the treatise entitled — " Art du Cartier : 
Par M. Duhamel du Moncean: 1762." (Vol 6.) 

The second liat ahove alluded to is gireo. in the "£i*ct/clo' 
pi^ Metkodiqut," It isi appended to the treati^, ' Tart du 
outier/ in the dirision of the work relating: to ' Arts et 
U^tierB M^aniquos/ published in 1783. It ia more exten- 
sire than the tirst-mentioned list,- — comprising, indeed, 
nearly twice the number of words ; many of them, however, 
being' merely the names of the individual court-cards, such 
MM Ar^ne, Cesar, etc. 

The list given by M. Duhamel dn Moncean is printed 
below, and it will be found to throw much light on the oi%in 
of the English termA. 


Abattre rottfrrtgc, c'est dter des cordes lea feuiUes qnauad 

ellea sent seehee, 
j^'uaUr Au cotiptan^ on lei oart^^ c'eat importer nne petite 

quantity du bord arec lea cisoaux, lorsqne lea cartes 

aont trop grandes. 
.AMOriir, o'est ranger lee cartes de fafon que touted oelles 

d'une m^me espece se trourent ensemble, par exemple, 

toutea les Bois, et«. 
Bai**r, On dit que dea cartons se sont bais^ qnand les 

trute se eont coutre-nuarqu^. 



Bmi^e, Voy. Couche. 

Carfier, Voy. Papier. 

Chaujfar, o'cflt expoaer au feu lee cartons ayant de lea Hsser- 

ContjyassagPf divisions qu'on fait au compos but uuq feuille do 

papier^ pour bieo placer les pointa. ^_ 

Corromjirn lea coitpeaux, cost Ics couper daua le aena de leii|^| 

longueur, pour qu'ila faesent une espece de gouttiere, 

dont la partie concave soit vers le cflte dela peinture. 
Concha. Former lea couclies oa La bout^e, c'est ranger les 

cartE^B par joux dans uno boito qu'on nomme Boute, 
Coupon <m Coupeatt \ tranche de carton peint qui coutiei 

qnatre cartee en hauteTiir, 
Docket, On appelle ainsi los cartea d^fectueuaea qu'on 

au Tcbut, lorequ'on fait le triage. 
D^jiinyhr ; action d'otcr les ^pinglea qui ont aervi k mett 

les Stresses, I'ouTrage, ou les cart-ons d T^tcndoir. 
Double. On nomme ainsi deux cartons qui tiennent ensembl 

par Ics boids, et c[u*il faut sepater. 
Spin^U'r, c'eet pasBor au bord dos ^treaaoa ou cartons, un 

do fil de laiton pour les ^tendre au afehoir. 
BphchfJrje. On nomme ainsi 1' operation qui 6e fait pot 

enlover lea ordurea et les hros [Ar(Mrs(P)] qui s'api 

foivont fiur lee feuiUea colleee et s^ch^ea. 
Etau ; plancbe qui a'^leve verticalement sur la table du tran^ 

oheur : cotto planclio sort a appuycr le bord du carton, 

do fa^on que Ton puisso couper toutca lea cartas 

ni6mc gnmdout. 
Etmdagp, action d' ^tendro, 
Btrndoiv, lieu oti on dtcad. 
Etntiirti, lUst ttttacbor par lea tpinglcs S 1' ^tcndoir lee fcuilles' 

Eitvnoif. On aommu oinsi dea fcuillea de main-bntne colli5ea 

Fffiur. On uuunnc aliisi loe eart^a lea plus blanches. 
I^nU, CurtiM du proinier et du second fond : la blanelieur de 

mill's du pruiuier fond est inferieure k celles qu'on 

iiiJiiiiiiii Itt /ltfitf\ Ivo Bocond fond est compoao rIo_ 

eart-ivs dont In blnnclitiur e«i infi'Tienrp 4 coUe du j 

iiilrr fiiuil. 





A«fMi^. On nommc ainsi des pHs qui bo fost an papier. 
AvMcMf tampon de lisieres ou de crm qui scrt eL appuyer le 

papier fnotii aur le inoule pour imprimer Ics traits. 

On &it auaai dea frottons do pieoea de ehapeau pour 

aavonnor les cartes. 
Hahiliage. On nomme oinsi I'op^ration de peindre ou on- 

luruiuer lea figures. 
Ingtriniure; fcuille Ae papier imprimee uycq de la peinture i 

Lmer. On liaae 1^ cartons en les frottant avoc iin caiUou 

bicn poll. 
Mam ftrimg. Voy. Papier. 
MaHruac. Voy. Triaille. 
Jf«i*r au eiscfju. Voy, Trancher. 
MUcTt c'eat entre-mSler les feuillea de diSerents papiera, ou 

les difierenta cartona pour les mottrc dans Vordre con- 

[H Venable pour les coUor. Meier en gris, ou pour lea 
^ ^treasea. Meier en ouvnige. Meier on blanc. 
Stoitir. Moitir le papier, c'eet le p^n^trer d'eau, pour qu'il 
a'appHque micus Bur le mouIO], et qu'il prenne plua 
enactment lea traits. 
Mouioffe. Voy. Moulcr. 
M&uie, Plaziolio de bois ou de cuivre qui aert k imprimer leB 
traits dea tetes ou d^a figures. Lea moules dea tetee 
portent lefl Rois, Dames et Valets noirs^ piquo et trefle ; 
^ tee TOouleB dea Valets rouges portent remprclnte dea 
" Valets do cceur et de carreau, 
MquUt^ c'est imprimer lea traits des figures ou doa t^tes snr 

Acu feuillcs do papier an pot, 
Papitr. On emploie pour fairo lea cartes, trois sortee de 

papier j aavoir k main-btunc, au pot et cartier, 
Pairona. On nomme ainsi les imprimures d^coup^ca poor 
cbaque couleur ; il y a des putrona rouges, dea patrons 
jauncs, gris, blancs, noirs, 
peindre, c'est enluminer les cartes avec diff^rentcs couleura. 
Piqucr. On piquCj c 'eat- li -dire, on pasae une epingle dans les 
fouiUes qui eortent de la preaso pour lee 6tendre au 




Piatine. Planche Ae bois but laquelle on mot lea couleurs. 
Plot/er. Ploj'er uajeu, c'eat reUTeloppei* dans utt papior. 
Point. Les cartee de pointy taut en noir, pique et trefle, qu'en 

rouge, coDur et carrsau, sont depuis le premier poiil1f^| 

ou QBj ju&quW 10. 
Panmge. Action, de pusser una pierre-ponc« sur los ^treasefi 

pour lea rendre plus uniea. 
Pot, Voy. Papier, 
Recouler, c'eat visiter rme eeconde fois lea cartes pour Toil 

fl'il n'en rat poe pa&ec de bmnes parmi lee blanches. 
Rogner, c*est dresser avec les cisoaux, lea bords du cartoD. 
Mompre le pspiet', c'est ouvrir les mams de papier, et les 

plier en sens contraire de ce qu'ellea etoient en rame^ 

pour eff&oer le pU du milieu. 
Mompre les cartons, c'cat les plier pour leur donuet la foi 

d'une gouttiere. 
S4parage ; action de eeparer les Stresses et les trartons qui 

Bont sees, et qui sont adJierants per tcurs bords. 
T<x^- Les Oartiera nomment ainsi les piles de feuilles de 

papier, ou de cartons melees ou non mMeea. 
TeAtM, Lee cartes de ti&tefl ou figures, sont lea Jtois, Dames 

Valets, taut rouges que noirs. 
Toreher^ c'eat nettoyer les tas qui sortent de la presse 

en dter la colle qui en Rort par espression. 
TVucA*. Fairc la tonche, c'est arranger lee aixaisa par sort 

^fieur^ secondes, etc., ©t ensuite les plier dans un papier. 
Trancfier, c'est diriaer les cartes avec des ciseaox. On 

tranche aux grands ciseaus pour faire leg conpeaux,_ 

et am petits ciseaux pour diviaer lea cartes, ce qu'< 

appelle franch^r par carfax. 
Trarvrter, c'eat s^parer le carton par coupeaux. 
Triage. En faisant le triage, mi 6tB lee teuillea, ^trgtsei, cartes 

ou cartons qui se trouvent defectueui ; dans le triage, 

on oxaraine encore lea cartes pour les ranger euivant 

knr blancheur, et mettre an rebut chiles qui sont 

tnauT&JMea. ,^H 

Trvttiie. On Qomme ainsi lea cvrtes lea plus impar&ites, ma^^ 

qui nAanmoins peuvent entrer dans les jeox : quel- 

qiu^'Un* leur donnent le nom de MaUre^^eJf^ 




With respect to the Eng-lish terms, the following: obeer- 

ntiose »re now 6ubmitt«], aeriBtim: — ■ 

AnthwSf OT Merry Anffrvws, b. — So called from the device 
(a Merry- Andrew) on the wrappers used for thia par- 
ticulftr sort of cards. A writ-er in the Stntiomr and 
fhttcif Trtttiff Sf^iytrr, of September 1, 1866,ob»erve8 — 
"The diflbrent qualities of cards arc distinguiBhed 
as Mo^ls, Harrys, HighlanderB, and iferry Andrews, 
The origin of these terme we haTe endeavoured to 
discoTer, but without auccesB, and in collecting the 
facta here given, we have not found an alluaion to 
their etymology in. any of the numerous works 

In BradffhfTfr's Journal No. 94. I6th April, 1842, 
which coataias a detailed accoimt o? the proaesB of 
card-m^ng, in the factory of Messn. De La Rue 
iindOo. (see Chatio on Playin^-OaidB, pp. 272-278), 
it IB stated ■— 

*' The beet cards are called Moguls, tha othera 
Hanys tad High Inn d^ere, — the inferior cards consist 
■of those which have any imperfection in the iia- 
preasioD, or any marks or specks on the surface." 

The name of Andretrn, or Merry AM/irtrSt was not 
mentioned in Brad^hau^'s Journal in 1842 ; but Mr. 
Warren De La Rue states ttat it " i& at leaat 30 years 
old, and has probably existed for 50 years or more." 

Sackhoarti^ s. An Eng^lieh word, with a Bpecial application. 
The corresponding French term ia Etau. 

Bmdj T.U. An English verb^ specially applied. 

Bnak ike Bad- of the Paper, v.a. The corresponding expres- 
uon in French is, Hompre le papier. 

Dump, v.a. An English verb, specially applied ; like the 
Freach moiiJr. 

Ihttblert 8. This seems to he derived from the French tloubtttref 
*. f.=lining ; from douhhrj v. a. =: to line clothes ; to 
aheatbe ships. [Donhiure is the lining of clothes j 
doubiagt^ the sheathing of ships.) Douhl^r may possibly 
b« an English noun, formed from the English verb to 



double ; but having regard to ita meaning, I think, 
upon tlie whole, it is more likely to be an AxLgIicized^_ 
pronunciation and adaptation of the French noiul^| 
doxihlurv. Thifl word, however, diies not OLCur in the 
lists of the French technical (erma ; and Double, whicll \ 
is there given, haa a very dlfierent meaning. 

AiNM, s. This eccmB to bo merDly a epecial application 
tlio ordinary English word Fence, signifying defence. 

Fort, a. Thia doea not appear to be readily deducible from 
the English noun Fort ; and it is doubtless derived 
from the French adj- Fort, Forte ^ strong, stout — 
the material used being a strong or stiff sheet of paper 
or cardboard. In the deecription of the paper called 
' Maiu-brune/ quoted below (see under ' Littress,' 
infra) from the Ettajcl Mdh, 1782, ft ia aaid : " U yj 
en a de mince et de forte" The word may now, por-( 
haps, bo considered as obaolete, the process of sten- 
cilling cards ha-ving been discontinued. Chatto (on^y 
PlajTng-Carda, 1S48, p. 272} saya: '•Until a com-fl 
■ paratively recent period, the coat cards, after having ^' 
boon printed in outline from wood blocks, were 
coloured by meaua of stencils ; but at preeent, in 
this country, the colours are all applied by mcana of 
the preas." 

Harrys, a. So called from the device on the wrappers used 
for thia porticiUar aort of cards ; tho device being a 
picture of King Henry the Eighth. See 'AndreteSt' 

ttixtdt 8. This is probably a special application of the ordinary 
Kngliah noun Head; which sometimee meaos ft specific 
diTiaion. or distribution of things ; aa, ' twenty head 
of oxen/ or, *the various heada of a discourse.' 

Jyitlwdirrjr, a. So called from the device on the wrappers 
used for this particular sort of cards. This device is 
the picture of a Highlander in full costume. See 
*AMdrf«n,* supra, 

Jm (or Jnr\ a. The French feu, s. m., means a pack of 
cuds, as well as a game uf cord^ I ant not aware 




lin^tethf^r the Frencli manufacturers, like our own, 
IVB extended the term to a "wrapper" for a pack 
of cards. Certainly no such, meaning is aaaigned to 
it in tte abDve-mentioned lists of French technical 
terms; where, under ' Ployer,' wc3 find— "Ployer un 
jeu ; c'eet I'eaTelopper dans un papier." It is 
worth remarking that the Bnglisb hoa an ad- 
vantage over the French in possessing two words 
to distinguish between a pack and a ff/tme of cards; 
both of which are expressed in French, by ths single 
word Jeu. So, likewise, in German^ eiu spiel hrkfe, 
means a pack of cards, as well ae a game ; and 
Chatto (p. 41) quotes from the Calcutta M'lgaziuf, 
1815, a statement that in BUndostanee the two words 
ffury'fe/H (of Persian origin) and fm (Bengal), are re- 
spectively used " to denote either the game or a pack of 
cards." Formerly, in England, what we now coll a 
pack, was termed a pair of cards. If jeu, in French, 
means a wrapper^ it will have three distinct meanings 
in reference to the same subject matter. 1. Oame. 
2. Pack. 3. Wrapper, If it has not this tliird 
meaning in French, it ia curious that we should have 
given that meaning to it^ and at the same tinie have 
dropped the other two meanings, which belong to it 
in French. 
v.a. An English rerb^ specially applied. It answers to 
the French eouchc, former fes concfwa, 

J^feott or Z^ese [with the s pronounced sharp,, as in the leem 
of a house], v. a.» French lisser, v. a. ^ to polish by 
rubbing. In French PoUr is used with reference to 
hard Bubslances, like steel, marble, or ebony ; Lisier, 
with reference to lighter materials, such as linen, OT 
paper. In the Eucydop^die. M^thodiqtt^y 'lisaer' is 
thus defined : — *'c'est frotter lea cartons avec un 
caillou poli, pour rendre les cartes douces, polies, 
luisnotes, coulantes." 

Lick, V. a., ia clearly a metaphorical application of the ordi- 
nary English verb ; the process being performed by 



the finger, — not by tlie tongue. The French verb is 
torch r — to ^inpe ; which is defined in the JSncycio- 
pedtf MHfmh'qur, as follows : — " Torcher ; c'est enlever 
ftTec un pineeau fort dousy trempe dans de I'eau froide, 
laa bavures de colle que raction de la presae fait 
sortir des taa de feuilleB nonvellenient colleea." See 
* Wipe,' itifra. 
Litfre^x, 8. If the following conjecture be correct, the origin 
of this word is certainly curious. The parallel French 
term ie ^tresae/ and it eecma to be extremely pro- 
liable that UtlresH ia simply I't'iresse^ — the French 
article having become incorporated with the subatan- 
tive word, in the English pronunciation, either by 
mistake or otherwise. £!tresse ia thus defined in the 
E/itf/rfopkiie Meihodiqtte ; — " EtrcsBes ; union de deux 
feuilles de papier colleea ensemble, soit qu'on ait 
rc^uni duux feuilles do mainbrune, ou bien luie feuiUe 
de niainbrune et nne feuille de pot moyen, ou enfin 
une feuille de mainbnme et une ftuille de cartier." 
— ' ' Etresses doubles i c'est la reunion de deux etressee 
qu'on n'a paa separces au aortir de retendoir, et 
qui n' adht'TOiit que par les bordures ; ce sont ordi- 
nairement les Stresses coraposeee d' une feuille de 
earlier et d* une feuille de ttminbrunc; on laleee le 
cartier a. Tintcrieur pour conaervor aa blancheur." 

M. Buhomel du Monceau sayfi (p. 8) : — " II fait 
oinsi un nouveau taa de feuiHeis coUees deux ^ deux ; 
ct cela forme ce qti'on norame I'Efressv, qui dans lee 
cartes k quatre feuilles, doit fitre au milieu de I'^paia- 
Bour de la carte." 

In the Encychp^die M^thodique, it is Bt«ted (p. 
468) : — ** On appelle Mrrnjte deux feuilles coUees ainsi 
ensemble. Dana lea cartons A quatre feuilles, V^trcMS 
est composL-e de deux fouilloa de mainbrune, ou d" une 
feuillo de mainbrune et d'une feuille de papier de 
pot commun. Dans lee carton^ d trois feuilles, titresse 
eat lo resultat de la reunion d'une feuille de main- 
brune et d'une feuille de earlier, et pour lora on en- 



coUe suGC€'SBiTement udo feitille de mainbrunfl et une 
feuille de papier cartier." 

[*Mainbrune* is defined as follows ; — " Pdpier grie 
qui entre dauB V interiour dea cartons et leur ote la 
transpareiice ; il y en a de mince et do/ortf/^^ 

The derivation of rf/resse ia not perhapB quite clear; 
but the older form must of course have been csfreaae ; 
and it msy be remarked that itrrsUhn (eifn-sUhn) 
means a prop. The StreiMP is an interior gupport, the 
Hre&ilion, an exterior one ; both, though in di^erent 
ways, bearing the afresa or strain. But whatever may 
be the origla of Hrva'*c, I think it may be reasonably 
conjectured that the origin of Htiress is f^lnme, 
rarA/c,"! V. a. This is from the French mncukr, t. a., which 
JTocij^)} is likewise a technical term, used in the printing 
trade. In the *' Dictionnaire tie I* Acad4mie Franfoine, 
noruvelle edition^ & Iijon, 1776," it ia dchnod aa 
follows : — 

" Maculer, V. a., Tacher, borbouiller. H ne se dit 
que dee fcmllea imprim^es et dcB estampos. (H ne 
faut pas battre dea feuilles fralchement imprim^aBf de 
peur de les maculer). 

** On dit anssi, que Dm /cuiUes noui>eik>ment if»- 
primies maaikni. Et dans cette phrase il eat neutre." 

I uia not sure whether it is used as a neuter verb in 

It has given, rise to several derivatives, which axe 
of English formation; as mackkd, adj.^ tnacklingn, a. 
This last word difibrg both in form and meaning, from 
the French fiMcukturc, B,f., which in Dictiommire de 
r Atadi^mi^, 1776^ is defined thus: — 

*' MELCulature, s. f. Terme d' Imprimerio. Feuille 
si zoal imprim^e, gi mal tin^c, qu'on ne s'eo scrt or- 
dinairement qu' tL faire dea euveloppes. (Cette feuille 
ne vaut rien, c'eat une maciilature. II faut enve- 
lopper cela avec dee maculaturea). 

"On appello par extension, Macuiature grist, une 



feuille de gros papier gris qui sert d'^enveloppe & uae 
rame de papifr." 

In English, jmicklmy-jtaper is paper used to prevent 
macklmg,— not to produce, but to prevent it. The 
Bame remark applies to inackHtig-HheftK. TLis is worth 
nolicc. In such LOmhinationSj the first term of the com* 
poiisd usually expresses the object to be accomplished, 
the act to be done^ or the thing to be made; but in tlie 
present instance it expressee the reverBe, that is to 6ay, 
the object to be avoided, the act to be prevented, the 
thing to be escaped. Drawing-paper means paper for 
drawing; a diiiing--room means u room for dining; 
playing-carda are cards for playing- ; and, indeed, 
such compounds are almost £dways best explained 
by tJie word " for," as indicating the purpose to 
which they refer. Eut tuackh'ntf-pupet' is not paper 
for niackliug ; on the contrary, it is paper for 
avoiding that result. Blotting-paper has a Bimllar 
Bense ; it is not paper for producing blots, but for 
preventing or remo^-ing them. This divergence or 
oppoeition of meaning deserves consideration ; fts it 
prevails somewhat extensively. We see it in such 
Terb8 as ' to dirt,^ and ' fo dmi/ — the first of which 
means, to put the dirt on, the second, to take the dust 
off. Indeed, tho verb 'to dmt' is occasionally used 
also in the opposite sense, viz., 'to sprinkle with dust.* 
Mat, adj. This is, no doubt, the French mnt, matte, adj., 
which is defined in the Dictmirtaire d( PAcadetnw, 
1776, as follows :— 

"Mat, Matte, adj. fie T se prononce). Qui n* a 
point d'^ulat. II ne se dit guerc que des mt^taux 
qu'on met en cpuvre, sans y donner le poH (Or mat. 
Argent mat. VaisscUe matte). 

On dit en peinturo, Vti cohris mat, une couhtir 
fnatte, c'eat-A-dire, qui a perdu son (^clat." 

The corresponding French verb is mattr (not tualer). 

" Matir. v.a. Rendre mat de I'or ou de Targeut. 
Bans le poUr ou le brunir." 





And the following U perhaps a related nouu — 

" En M^tallurgie, on appelle Math, La mati^re 
m^tallique impure qu'on obtieut par la premiere fonte 
du mineral. On dit, Matte dr atn-rf, matte tie piomb, 

It would lead me t^^o far a-field to consider the 
pos-sihle relationa of this word mttf, referring np- 
parently to dullneea or deadnesa of color, with other 
words of & similar fonn, in varioua languages, having 
meanings connected moro or less with death, or dif- 
ferent degrees of dcadneas, in reference to diflerent 
Be-nses or different subjecte, such as dull in color, diiw 
in light, flat in tasle, — faint, weak, exhaiiated, — 
fainting-, faintneas, faintheartedness^ — to quench, to 
quell, to kill. It will suffice t* mention, in oiir own 
language, the rtintr (or death) of the king at cheas ; 
and the old English ittate {both verb and adj^J, in the 
sense of downcast or subdued in mind (see Mr. 
Wedgwood's references^ in his Dt'cfionftrt/ cf Engli^^h 
Etynmlogt/, both under Maff, toI. ii, p. itSfin, i\nA Afiiatf, 
vol. i, p. 45). These, however, are connections which 
either doubtful or remote; and in tie specific, 

chnical sense of the word now before ue, it seems to 
Vb directly deducible from the corresponding French 

'JfstifMs (or Miiftrisa). s. TliiB word la doubtlees the French 
maUrfUKtu, which is mentionod in tho list given above, 
tmder the word UriaiUe* M. Duhamel du Monceau 
also savs (p. 32) : — '* On etpiire aiissi les cartes, 
• • • lea plus belles se nomment la j!cuf, parce- 
qu'eUes sont les plna blanches et les plus nettes; 
la seconde ^tXg se J^oTamf^ premieres axi prcwipr fonrf i 
la troisieme sorte, fiecoiides ou seromf fmi»i. Q-Uclquea- 
UHB font une quatrieme sorte. qu' ils nomment vmi- 
tressps ou tr'miUt'i^; enfin, les cartes tachees ou decollt-cs 
aont mises au rebut, forment ie *t^c/tff, et eont vendues 
6 la livre." 

In the Ennjclopedif MithoiUqne, the following entries 



occur : — " MaltrcBses ; eont des cartes du quatrifime 
lot ct d& la dcmiere qucditc qui pui&BO eiltrer duha 
lee jeux." 

" TriailleB ; ce sont lea cartes do la demiere qualite 
et qui peuvent malgr6 cela entrer dtms les jeux. 
Voyez Mattresses." 

Why these cards were called inaifrea^es, I am not 
able with certainty to say ; but there eeemg little room 
to doubt that the English word mattress la this French 
word angliciaed, aad that the French word was not 
borrowed from ours. It is true that the English word 
woB in use at least as early as 1684-5 (seo Matffm, 
Bupra), and thtit M. Duhamel du Monceau, in 1762, 
Suva Ihat "some persons" call these cardia "maltresseB," 
B£ if the practice was not general ; etill the French 
word in ita actual form, is a real word with a definite 
meaning, nnd as tvo have taken so many other terms 
from the French, we have probably taken this also. 
With regard to the origin of the French word, I may 
offer the following conjecture. In the old atatutea 
rcguhitiQg the trade of the * cartiera' in France, 
which were renewed in 1581^ confirmed in 1594, and 
abrogated in 1776 (see Enct/cL Meth p. 477), it waa 
proTided that the work of oxamining the '^tresaes' 
should be performed by the widows and daughters of 
maators. " H y ^toit ordonn^ de faire frier et ^/u- 
chcr les Hretsps par les veuves on les fiUes do maltrea, 
commo uno re&sourco pour les families qui n'avoiebt 
pns ri'^uasi dans lo commerce." — {Encycl, Mitht 1782, 
p. 477). " Par les Stataita des Marchands Cartiera, 
iIb sent obligee de faire ^plucher par les veuves, ou 
lc« filles do Maitres: c*eet une petite reseource pour 
loH fiimitles qui n'ont pas bien reussi dons leur com- 
moroo." — (Duhamel du Monceau, 1763, p, 12). It is 
tnip that this fttat«ment is confined to the ^treMses, bat 
if thw Miino privilege was extended to the playing 
f.ardn ihuwHulvoH, tlio cards thrown out on examina- 
ilnii may have boon colled meUtrf^se*^ as being the 




Special work of the r4?atr<s de Jtwitrei, It will be ob- 
served tluit Buliamcl du Monceau epeBks in the 
present tense, the Eiwyd. MMh. in the past ; because 
the Statutes were in force in 1762, but not in 1782, — 
having been annuUed, m stated aboTC^ in 1776. 
fcrrtf Amlrcws, a. See * Andrcica,* aupra. 

Mtngify v.a. An English verbj epecially applied. French, 

Moffu/s, s. So colled from the device on the wrappers used 
for this parttcuLir sort of cards ; the device being a 
f&ncy 'sketch or picture of the Great Mogxil. See 
* Aiidretr^,' supra. 

Open, T,a. An Englieli verb, specially applied. It answers 
to the French atpurer: see ''Sepurage,' in the list 

Paini, \. a. Tins lb the English eqmvalent of the French 
verb pemdrt; which has the eame special meaning. 
" Peindre ; c'eat appliquor, par le moyen des patrons 
lee cinq cotdours dans ks vides des figures moul^es, 
ou bien dans les vides patrons destines pour les 
pointa."— ifrtcyc^ Mclh., 1783, 

In this ingtonce, the French word has been trans- 
latod rather tjian adopted : that is, the English form 
of the word [paint) ia used in the sense of stencilling, 
being suggested by the corrcaponding French word 
(//et/idrr], much in tho same way aajijH/ffJvi is uaed for 
the sttmciUiag-sheet, instead of pdtfoti. See ' PcUtern* 

jPaiifTH, 8. This seems to be a special application of the 
ordinary'' English word pattern, and not a direct ap- 
propriation of tho French patron, though it may hare 
been suggested by that word, which has %lao the aamo 
special signification. 

"Patrouncr, v^a. Termo do Cartier. Enduire do 
coidcur, au moyen d'^un patran ^vid^ aux endroits oil 
la couleiir qa^ou emploie doit paroltro," — Did. de 
CAcaiL, 177d. 

" Patrons ; ce sent des feuilles ^'impTimttre, d5cou- 



pees el evldees pom- enlummer convenableraent lea 
CQiileure 9ur lee feuilles de pot mouleeB ou non moul^es; 
il y B des patrons pour les cinq couleurs qtii aervent 
fi peiadre lea t^tea ; il y en a ausai pour les point a de 
chaqtie couleur et pour chaque nombre de points." 

" Imprimure ; sorte de papier enduit but les deux 
fac^B de plusieura couches d^une pointure a I' huile, 
et qui sert a. faire dea pafrotm." — Enri/cL Mefh., 1782. 

The English word pattern is a modiiiCEitLon of the 
English word patron. In old English, the latter 
word waa used in that sense. The Promptovmin Par* 
tnihrum (a-D. 1440) has the following entry: — 
"Patrone, forme to werk by, exemphr.'* Mr. Wedg- 
wood {Etym, Diet. J toL ii, p. 493) has probably ^ven 
a correct account of the process of thought by which 
the extension of moiining took place. "Pattern. — 
Fr. palrofi, patron, master nf a ship or workshop, 
hence a pattern, the inanimate master by which the 
workman is guided in the conetmction of anything.** 

Mr. Wedgwood, however, does not advert to the 
special senw of a stencilliug- sheet, which is a still 
further extension of the meaning ; such a sheet being 
Dot merely a model to work by, but an instrument to 
work with. It is worthy of remark that the same 
extensions of meaning have taken place both as regards 
the French patrmt^ and the Engli&h pattern. In 
English (as frequently happens in our language, and 
I believe far more frequently than in the French, in 
which similar distinctions are noted by a difference of 
gender) a slight change in the pronimciation has been 
adopted to mark the difference of signification. I am 
not prepared to state precisely at what period this 
change took place ; but it may have been about the 
middle of the I6th centurj^ perhaps between 1530 
and 1550. PalsgraTe, in Le&ckrctssement de h Langue 
Fran^oyw (a.d. 1530), gives the English word 
patron (not pattern) in the sense of * example ;' 
and the earliest authorities cited by Richardson 






for the use of pattern are TJdal and Gaecoigne, both 
belonging to the latter half of the sisteenth century. 
The quotation froia Udol is taken from hk trans- 
ktion of the Paraphrases of Kroemtfi, published 
in lool. Being a. word which had come to be 
in common tifie among uneducated workmen, it would 
naturaUy get corrupted ; and pttfron. would almost 
certainly be first pronounced paffero?i, and then 
paiiem, I believe, indeed, that all eo-called trans- 
positions of r have come about in this way. There 
^_ is no real transposition ; but the r, for convenience of 

^^P ntterance (not for the sake of euphony), is rounded 
^^ft off with a Yowcl before as well aB after it ; and after- 
^^ wards the second vowel gets ejected altog^thei-. 
I Pm, V. a. This is the English equivalent of the French 
' ipingfer. (Compare ^ Faint,' ' Patfem* and * Points.^) 

PtanJt, 8. This is an ordinary English word, with a speciol 

Points, «- This may bo {like pmnt, and pattfru, and pin, 
Bupra), a special use of the lilnglish yvord point, sug- 
gested by the use of the French word. In the Diet, dv 
i'Acn(l4iuk, 1776, three significations witt reference 
to carda are assigned to the French word j&om/, a.m., 
but not one of thero refers to the pips. They all 
refer to the counting or scoring of the points of the 
game. In common parlance we confine the word 
pmtH to the score, and speak of the spotfl on the cards 
themselves as /j»}w; but in the factory, the technical 
term for the pips nppcors to be poinfii. This, how- 
eirer, does not seem to be the precise meaning of the 
French technical terra; which, according to the de- 
finitions given by M. Duhamel du Monceau, and the 
Enetjchp^die M^ffiodiqrfc, refers not to the pips, bat to 
the cards on which the pips are marked, as distin- 
guished from the t^fes or court-cards. 

'* Points ; cartes oii sent dietribudes les figures des 
coeurs, ded carreaux, des piq^uee et des trellee, dans uii 
certain ordre et en certain nombre, depuis I'aa jusqu' 




au dis.*' — Eiic^cl. MHh., 1782. (Compare _;>u = 
wrapper, supra.) 

Prit^, V.B, Tliis answers to the Frencli piquff^ which meaasJ 
to niFiJce tho hole for the pin. — '*PiquGr loa t'trcssea, 
piquer lea doubles ; c'est y faire uu trou avec un 
poin9on pour introduire T^prngle qui les suspend aux 
conies do retendoir."— £»«VA'^- ^^^K 1782. 

Pull dotcn, v.a. This answers to the Frcntih abatfrf l*oit(-rage, 

lietree, adj. This is perhaps tho French adj. retrait, or it may 
be a corruption of rHir^\ though neither of thcae 
words appears to be used in French, in the sense of 
rejection. The nearest analog}' in meaning deems to 
be the application of retrait, adj., to wheats or other 

" n eat auBsi adjectif, et bo dit Des bl^s qui m&ris- 
aent eaua se remplir, et contiennent heaiicoup moina 
de farino quo lee bK's bien couditionn^s (HU retrait, 
Avoine retraite. Les bl^s versi^s sent enjeta ^ ^tre, 
retraits)."— Ztio/. de VAcad,, 1776, 

It seotna to be taking a short step to apply the' 
same term to fipoilt, blemished, or inferior paper; 
though retrait, a« applied to wheat refers to shrink- 
ing rather than spoiling^ — to inferiority in quantitVu^H 
rather than quality. Mr. Warren De La Rue thinka^^ 
that the word is a corruption of retir^, Metrce paper 
is j>aper which ia set aside on account of some defect^ 
and Bold accordingly at a lower price. Indeed^ there 
are different degrees of Jlctree, ha^'ing reference to j 
different degrees of defectivenees. 

Hounds v.ft. Thia is no doubt a corruption or adaptation of 
tho French verb, MGgncr, (q, v,), under the iuiluence 
of a supposed reserablanoo or analogy to the IlngHsh 
word round. Cf. Ta^ik, infra. 

Sixain, 8. and v.a. In French, Nunin, un., meana half-a- 
doKon packs of carda. 

" Sixain, s.m. (X bo prononce comme Z). TTn' 
pAquct de six jeux de cortea." — Dwt. de I'Acad.f 




" Lea cartes se vendent par jeu, par HiKain, et par 
groese,"' — (Duhamel du Monoeau, p. 34). 

In English the word mea-na a " wrapper" for half- 
a-dozen packs. Compare * Jeu,' supra. 

The Dictionary of the Academy, 17Tt>, does not 
give any correaponding verb; but in Cotgrave's 
French and English Dictionary (1611), I find the 
following : — 

" Sixen^r, To yeeld aii for one ; also, to come forth 
by halfe-dozons, or by sis Eind six together.'* 

In EugUsh, likewise, a verb hoa been adopted, 
which means, primarily and strictly, to make a 
package of half-a-dozen packs of cards, hut which, 
in the usage of the factory, has acquired also an ex- 
tended fienso, BO as to include packages contain- 
ing any number (or rather, perhaps, somo definite 
number) of articles of the same sort, such as packets 
of envelopes. 

Sort, T. a. This is Miother instance of the omploj-ment of an 
XInglish oquivalentj instead of the mere adoption of 
the French terra. For the detioition of amortir, see 
the list given above, from M. Duhamel dn Monccau. 
Compare 'paint,' and 'pin,' supra. 
T^kf e. Mr. Warren De La Rue siiys, he "feels certain" that 
this word is a corruption of the French fas, s.m. But 
it is to be observed that (whether rightly or wrongly) 
thu word is in fact pronounced tmh by the workpeople, 
and is used to denote a definite quantity of specific 
work, bearing in this respect a close resemblance to 
the ordinary word tmh\ of which, perhaps, it may be 
merely a special application. The signification of the 
Frmich term m more general. " Tas ; piles de papiera 
d^^tressefi on de cartons, mSlos on non m^les. — £nc'jcL 
J/I^M.,1782i See also " Tas," in the list given above, 
from H, Duhamel du Moaoeau, 1762. At tho same 
time, the £/ifyc/. JIf(f/A. (p. 468) certainly says — "Quand 
on a form4^ un tas d'une ramcou d'uzie rame et deniie, 
c'est-a-dire, qu'on a coU^ 250 ou 376 ^treasoe, on 



porte ce taa sous !a preese ;" and again — " On ne met 
sous la prease qu'une rame ou une rame et demie.'* 
If, howerer, we had borrowed the French word la 
modem timee, should we not have pronounced it tah 
or tfiic, according to the French pronunciation, and 
not ta^s? In such words as frail (pron. ii-aff) and 
dclat (pron. edtih), we omit the final conisonant, though 
the words have come into current uae. Still, the 
question must be admitted to he one of some difficulty* . 
There is a tendency, for inatanco, to pronounce the ^M 
final f m tmii, which is in more common use than ^^ 
^int ; and Shakespeare puns upon the French word i 
bras, ae if in his day it was pronounced brass, or at ^M 
least was understood to be so pronounceable. To the " 
inquiry, " Eat-il impossible d'esu-happer la force de ^j 
ton frm^?"— Pistol replies, " BfVss, cut?" (Hen. Y.)fl 
If tnm was ever really in uae, task may have been ^' 
afterwarda substituted for it, either cuphonltB cmisa, or ^J 
because it was a known English word^ coming close ^| 
to the other in sound, and not very distant in signi- ^ 
6catioQ. This process of substitution, or replacing a 
strange or foreign word^ by a familiar one more or 
leaa resembling it, is by no means uncommon. Task, ^M 
though not a real equivalent, may nevertheless in this ^ 
way have taken the place of tfim, Yery much as paint, 
and pin-, and pattern (which, however, are real equiva- 
lents), stand in the stead of pei'ntfre, and (fpttiffkr, and 
patron, Mtiss is sometimes pronounced tftmk by illi- 
terate people ; vide *' Mrs. Brown's Visit to the Paria 
Eshibitioa" of 1867, by Arthur Sketchley. She calls 
the Exhibition, "o great iiuisk of things;*' and when 
she slipped down, she aaya she "got up a reg'lar moAk 
of mud." Cf. Round and Roff tier, supra. 
Tete, s, French fete, s^f. = head ; and also court card. It is 
not easy to say whether this means a card with the 
picture of a head upon it, distinguishing it from the 
numeral cards ; or whether it means a chief 
superior card; or whether (as maybe the case) it 

ei or ^J 



bines the two ideaa. But it is necessary to obaerre 
that the word in English is tcte, not teste ; that in to 
say, the word has beeu borrowed from the French in 
modern times, after having lost its original s. The 
questioa oa to the period when thia and Bimilai* 
changes foot plaoo in French, has already been 
slightly discuB^d in this Society, and it calls for a 
full investigation, having regard to ita important 
bearings upon the history of the English as well as 
of the French language. Thus, after having lost the 
old word hostel^ we have in recent timea borrowed 
the modem word hotel ; and having once had the 
word tester to denote a bedstead with a head or 
canopy to it, as well aa a certain coin with a head 
upon it, we have now borrowed the French word for 
another purpose, in ita modern form, iiiSf without the 
#. There are two questions, which are quite distinct ; 
first, when did the French cease to pronounce the » 
in words of this kind ; second, when did they drop 
the * in spelling. The first is a very difficult quea- 
tion; as to the second, I am disposed to think that the 
change was gradual and occupied some time, hut 
that in a general way it may be considered as having 
been effected during a period of Teara compriaing the 
later portion of (he 17th, and the earlier portion of 
the 18th centuries I am. not in possession of any 
evidence to show when the word leie was adopted in 
the manufacture of playing-cards in this country; but 
without any other evidence than the word itself, it is 
clear that we must have borrowed it at a time when the 
French pronunciation of it was /M', and not tmte^ 
It« use is confined to the trade ; in common parlance, 
the picture cards (formerly called coat-cards) are 
termed court-cards, and not fttes. It is a curious cir- 
cumstance that in M. Duhamel du Monceau's list, the 
word in the vocabulory is spelt iesks, though in the 
explanation the ordinary s[>eUing, tetett^ is adopted : 
{vide mpro). It is not easy to account for thia. It 



may bave been q mere misprint ; but this doee not 
Beem very Hkely ; and it would be interestiDg to 
know whether the old form^ of the word was retained 
in the t«:hnic!al usage bo late as 1762, In the Encitd. 
Meih., 178<J, the word in the vocabulary is printed 

Toten, T.a, I have failed to obtain any satisfactory clue 

the origin of this word. The o ia pronounced lon^, 
— tdtvn : and in form, tho word is analogous to sucli! 
verbs as ichitcn, hfacken. Its meaning, tboreforej, ia t& 
mnke ioie ; but what ia tote ? It seems to mean ckan 
or in a proper aUite for m«; and it may poseibly be 
another form of the nautical term, *' to make all taut." 
Mr. "Warren De La Rue suggeata that it may be a 
corruption of the French verb dter ; with the mean-- 
ing, — " 6ter la oonleur Buperflue," i 

TVffiWi^, 8. Neither the French irarerSf a.m,, nor frarerae, a.f., 
appears to be used in the eeu^ae of strips or cuttings ; nor 
is such a aense attached to the ordinary English word 
traverse. The French lists, however, give the verbjj 
trtiverset*. Ae to M, Duhamel du Moaceau, vide' 
supra; the Emt/d. MetJi. ia as follows: — "Traverser; 
c'eat a^parer ou trancher les cartons par coupeaux ; 
ce qui les partage on quatre bandea aur la hauteur.'* 

Trencher^ s. The corresponding French term is Plattne. 

Trim, v.a. This answers to the French, ajmter It^ mupeau* 
ou It's cartes. 

Try, v. a. Thia is clearly from the French verb trier. That 
verb ifl not included in either of the French Ksta abovu 
mentioned ; but thoy both give the noun tHagf, For 
thia word, in M- Duhqmol du Monqe^u^a list, mk 
aujyrn ; the definition in the Encifcl. MtfhodiqHP^ is m 
follows: — "Triftgea; il y a plusieurg triages ; on trie 
loH mainbrunesj et on lea aeparo suivant leur force 
ot Irur /ipuisacur ; les ii-treeaee ou cartons qu'on met 
nu rebut Inrscjiii'ilH sont dt»fectueiut ; lea cartes, en 
iiKiituiit piirini lea di-chet^ cclles qui aont tachoea ou 
(Uu:«>116oH ; ut eufm on trie leBoartos en lea rongeant 




par lota suiTont leur dpgr^ de blancheur ou de fineSM." 

(As to (rimlle, Btse Mattress, supra). 
TVw, 6, French double, 
Umpitif T.a. See 'Pin.' French dipiughr, 
Ipe, v.a. See 'Lick.' French torc/wr'. 

' Of thoBo wnrdft which aeem to have hecn borrowed from 

the French, it may be obseiTed that, in some cases, tlieir 
fonns (like ^/c) arc comparativoly modem ; yet it 19 clear 
that the manuiacture of plapng-cards in this coimtTj ia at 
leaat four centurioB old. This appears from the great Pro- 
tectionist Statute of Edward the Fourth (3 Edw. IV. a 4), 
eimctcid in 1463. The first chapter of this Statute imposed 
restrictions on the export of wool ; the second on the im- 
portation of corn ; the third, on the importation of silk 
manufactures; and the fourth, on the importation of tht> 
nrious manufactured goods epEcificd in the Act. It ia a 
tolerably long li§t, and includes ** playing-carda," which are 
dwignatefl in tho original French text, "cardea a juer." — 
(Sec Siutulcs of the Rffilm, na printed by the Record Com- 
muBon, in which the French text of this statute is ta-ken 
from the oontemporary entry on the Rolls of Parliament.). 
This shows that tho French i m. carti-s hud already passed 
over into the English d in cardes; and this is worthy of notice, 
lis I believe that English is the only language in which this 
change haa taken {.ilace. Even In Lowland Scotch the form 
was Cfti-ffjn, or earth, with a t. 

This Statute, passed in 146;j, is a document of much 

interest in reference to this subject ; as I believe it contnine, 

not only tho first mention of the maiiufacturo of playing 

cords, but the first mention of plajnug- cards themselves, that 

bfiA yet been met with in England. T pass over the two 

j g ames of " Rox, et Regina " (referred to iu the 38th Canon 

^Bf ihe Council of Worcester, a.o. 1240^ see Ducangc), and of 

^vQualdor Reges " (referred to in Wardrobe Accounfa of 

^^tfiuarti /., A.n. 1278, seo Anstis' Bioi^k Book of the Garlic, p. 

307 Ji, IIS it is not known what either game really was; and 



also tlie allusiDQ to Jack Napes in tlie ballad about tbe Duke 
of Siiifolk (circfit A.n. 1450 ; see MS. Catt. Veap. B. ivi, ^J 
printed by Mr. Wri}>bt> in PoUtlcnl 8ongs, for the Master of 'V 
the Rolls; and MS. Lambeth, 306, fol. 51, printed by Mr. 
Fumival, in. Poliliail, etc., Foemi, for the Early English 
Text Society), as I am not aware of any ground for sup- 
jjoeing that playing-- cards were ever termed Napm in thia^f 
eoimtry, and I apprehend, therefore, that Mr, Chatto*s 8ug- " 
gestion that "* Jacfc-a-Naipes " meant " Ja<;k of Cards '* 
{Hist, of Phyhig Cards, 18-i8> p. 231), may be diamissed 
without further discussion, beyond the remark that, in thf 
ballad in question, the description of Jack Kapee " with 
clog and his chain " certainly implies a reference to an aj 
and has no connection whatever with plajang-cards. At 
present, thereforep we may consider that the fii'st mention of 
playiug-cards in England, as well as of their manufacture^ 
that haa yt^t been mot with, is the Act of 3 Edw. IV. c. 4- 
It may bo inferred from that Act, that playing-cards were at- 
that time in extensiro use, and that their manufacture was of 
some importance; as th<; preamble sets forth that the Act waB^^ 
passed u|>on the gi-ound that the artificers, men and women, in-^^ 
habiting and residing in the city of London, and other cities, 
towns, boroughs, and villages, in England and Wales, had 
piteously shown and complained, that they were greatly im- 
poverished, and much hindered and prejudiced of their worldly 
increase and daily living, by the great midtitude of divers coi 
modities and wares pertaining to their mistenes and occu] 
tions (.iK'ing fully wrought and made ready for aole, as w* 
by the hands of strangers, being the King's enemies, 
others in England and Wales), fetched and brought from' 
beyond the sea, as well by merchants strangera, as denizens.^^ 
and other persons, whereof the greatest part in substance waji^| 
deceitful, and nothing worth in regard of any man'g occupa^' 
tioii Qi- prufit ; ami that, in consequence, the said artificer 
could not livp by their misteries and occupations, as they had 
dont^ in tinuvs jmst. but that divers of them, as well house- 
hi.UU'i-s OS hireliny;s, and other servants and apprentices, 
woi* ftt thnt tim* unoccupied, and did hardly live, in great 

BT DANBY f. Fftt. ESQ. 


miecrj-, poverty, and need ; whereby mimy inDoaveaienceB 
had grown beforE^ that time, and thereafter more were likely 
to come (which God defend ■), if due remedy were not pro- 
Tjded* Wherefore it was e^nacted thct no importation of the 
Icreut articles enumerated should tliereafter be aUoTred. 
A fiinular Act was passed twenty years afterwards, 1483-4, 
in the mga of Richard III. (1 Richard III., c. 12), in which, 
hsmvver, playing-cards wore not mentioned, though "cards 
r wool," and " card-makera," i.e., makers of card^ for wool, 
ero epcciEed, and also " painted papers." 
I am unable to cite the technical terms in use in 1463^ in 
le nmnofactiire of playing-carda, but if wo had them^ now 
ore us, 80 that we might compare them with the Hat given 
tb« ooDunencement of this paper, the comparison would 
doabtleee be calculated to throw much light on the history of 
that manufacture, aa well oa on the history of our language. 

At present, the forms of the French words we have 
borrowed seem to show that thoy hitvo been adopted, proba- 
bly, within the last two centuries ; and the question there- 
fore arifies, whether the manufacture was diacontinued in 
England 5ub<4equently to the reign of Edward the Fourth, 
Bxid oftcrwarda re-introduced from Franco ; or whether at a 
later period, improvements were introduced from France, to- 
er with the French terms relating to them. The in- 
troductioQ of such terms may also, to some extent, be due to 
the employment of B^rench workmen in the English factories. 
!t is important, however, to note that a conaiderable number 
of the words contained in our list are either Engliah words 
frith & special application, or English equivalents of the 
Frenck terms, or English modificatioofi of the French terms, 
though, there ia undoubtedly a French element, there lb 
a distinctively English element. If we iay tripe instead 
of torcfter, or even pin instead of ipinghr, and if we em- 
>loy the word Jen to aignily a ' wrapper,' it is clear that we 
not simply borrowing from tbo French. It ia quite po8- 
UOf ulao, that in some instances the French may have 
od from us, and that the English technical term may 
original, aud the French the copy or aduptatiod. 





In his paper on playiiig-cards in Archrrahgia (vol. yrn, p. 
158)^ Mr. Gough says : — " The art of papcr-raakiiig was not 
introduced into England before the roig^i of Henry VIT," 
If Eo, tho cards manufactured in England in the reign of 
Edward the IV. must, it may be pregmned, haTO been rnado 
of paper impor{.cd from abroitd. The atatute of 3 Edward 
IV., c. 4, contains no prohibition on the importation 
paper; and the roBtriclion in the Statute of 1 Biohard III., 
c. 12, is confined to "painted papera." 

I may conclude by remarking; that similar eoUoctiona 
technical terms in use in other trades and mannfact 
woxild be valuable and interesting, though they may be troublo 
some to make ; the changes which take place in such terms 
from time to time are often important to history, and unless 
the terras be recorded whilst they are living, and before the; 
become obsolete, they are liable to be wholly lost, and to 
away for ever, as they are not always pre^^erved in the lite 
ture of the time^ either by casual references or otherwise. 

By Datjby p. Fbt, Esq, 

The history of the two sounds, or two varieties of sound^. 
which we now represent in Enghsh spelling by the digraphi 
tk, — as well as the hifltoty of the diflcrent modes in whic} 
we have at different periods represented them, — would be 
interesting to trace ; but I do not propose to enter upon the 
inquiry now. My present object is simply to point out th<d^| 
classes of worda to which, the two sounds, when occurring 
initially, are respectively confined, at least in our modern, 

Tlio flat (or soft) sound is heard in thine; the sharp (< 
hard) sound, in thin. 

The following is a list of the worda (taken from Johnson' 



Dictionary) in which the flat (or soft) sound occurs at the 
beginning : — 





















art, def. 














■ >. 





Thitherto ... 









Themselres ... 

• •• 





Tho (=. then) 



























Thereabout ... 





Thereabouts . 




(and the other compounds with there) 

It is not necessary to give a list of the words in which the 
initial th is pronounced as a sharp (or hard) aspirate, as it 
may be stated generally that in all words except those above 
mentioned (whether of Saxon, or of Hebrew, Greek, Latin, 
or any other origin), the initial ih is invariably so pronounced ; 
except, of course, in those few words in which it is pronoimced 
like f ; as thyme, Thames, Thomas. 

Now it will be observed that, with the single exception (if 
it be an exertion) of the conjunction though (and its com- 
pound, although), all the words in the above list (in which 
the initial th hak the flat (or soft) soimd) are pronouns or pro- 
nominal words (adverb, conjunction, definite article), which 
are either connected with the personal pronouns thou and 
the^, or with that demonstrative term, of which the simplest 
form is the. I separate they from tfte for convenience ; though, 
no doubt, theif is only a derivative form of the same demon- 
strative term. 

^ These are obBolete. 

' In the compoand, Although, the soand of the ti is unaltered. 



How far theee facta will throw aay light upon the 
of theac words,' I do not dow propose to cooaider; 
Beema to me that some aingle letter (like the A. 5. %) 
very usefully and conveniently be adopted in our i 
BpiQlliiig for the flat (or soft) soimd of ih, leaving ^< 
(or hard) aound to be still repreaented by the esta 
digraph, fh. The appropriate digraph for the flat (i 
Bound wouldj of course, be d/t ; but a aingle letter ia j] 
respect far more convenient than a digraph. 




%ou 1 



%ine fl 



*y 1 






%ee ■ 




«ey 1 



%eir W 



^eirs f 







m. {a) 










































(and the other com|>ounda with there) 

' For ittstanccT if the 0. E, verb, to lh<i= to ^w, im^reaae, tkmo, J 
wn* [ironountwl with a sharp (or hard) initml,. it would Ihcrt-by be dist 
HndHporaU'd frtrm tit (ijcflqite art,) = fir. Tie ilefectaof our orttiograj 
flTer, nndar it difficult to SKertain whether it wu n> prDimuticcd ar nat. 

WiLHELM Wagner, Ph.D. 

J. otKartrat}, 

The ancient Greek aXam-eK- {aXwnrT}^) is formed with a 
diminutival suffix ; the root itself ia still acen in aXonroc 
aKayTr£ieai&ij^, •jravoupyof which Heaych. gives on the authority 
of Sophoclee, and in aXanrd y oKcirm}^ mentioned by the same 
lexicographer. Compare also Lithuanian Idpp ' fox,' idptfkas 
'yoimg fox.' See 0. CurfiuSf Gn^chisehe ctymohgie (first 
ed.) I 324. In the fablee of Babriaa, one of the names of 
the fox ia K€f&ii e.g. 19, 2, (rf. 77^ 2, aXeyTTijf /cepSmr}} 'the 
shrewd one;' in the same way dXtJTra} might be formed, 
which would in modpm 0reek become aXorirov, and such is 
the form now actually in use : see an extract from K. 
Oikonomos' irept Ttft yvrtrrufi trptx^pa'i, p. 571 in Mullach's 
Grammar, p. 177. There is also an interesting poem of 540 
lines entitled TciZapov, \vkov ki oKaxnrav^ ^fffyris'i'i atpata^), 
written probably in the sixteenth century ; the change of ta 
into ov is, in modem Greek, of the most frequent occurrence. 
By a further corruption of the vowel of ths root, we get 
aXfTTow, which is the form given by A. Somavera, ' Teaoru 
della lingua Greca-Volgare,' Paris, 1709, 

2- av t'n Neuters. 

In modem Greek a w is frequently added to neuters in a : 
SvofAav, KXavftav, -rrpwyfUMv etc. Mullach, who mentions this. 

' OrifiiDilly rmd Msy 3, 1867, but ial»oqti«iUy rti-writton. 

* Edited "by J. Grtmm in his ' Sentlachmben libor Remlurl Fucb>,'p. 76-90. 



p. 163, calls the v "& barbaric addition ;'* but I think himj 
hardly justified in aaying- bo, when I consider auch corres- 
ponding Latin forms aa iiojacn, etc, and the Greek verb 
ovofiaivtc staudiug for ovopniv-j-a}, teaching ua, I think, thatj 
in Greek, too, ovofMr- was only a aubstitute for an original] 
ovofiavT, a presumption which may also be defended by thai 
co-existence of a Latin cognomen with cognomentiim -^^ but,J 
at all events, a nominative ouofmi' would be a truer repre- 
Bentativo of the original form than oifofia. An instance of thia 
kind ought to make scholars carcfid ia dealing nith modern 
Greek forma, and ought to teach them to consider the aJnglsj 
poinU* very attentively before calling any deviation from thai 
ancient language " a modem barbarism.'^ 

3. ox = ^^ 

Another illustration of the fact that th^ modem Q 
language furnishes us sometimes with forma of greater 
originality than the ancient language possesses, may be 
found in the case of the preposition ef, which is known.] 
to be a compression of cah-is, ^outside,' in Sanskrit, whic 
in itself presupposes an older form cagh~ig. Now the Latin 
ec- in ecfem', and tho Greek ix preserve the pure root, 
but a form ij( would be even nearer to its onginat form 
and an o would, of course, give us the vowel in even greater 
purity, ox is, however, one of the forms under which the 
ancient preposition e* appears in the dialect of the hrr dmnja-O'^, 
and inatances of it have been collected by Passowin his ind 
to the Carm. pop. p. G25*. It is, of course, easy enough her«i! 
again to say that o% is a "barbarism;" but considered in 
the light of comparative philologj', there can be no doubt 
that this "barbaric" form ia more like the original GrsGco- 
italic form than that sanctioned by the usage of the cla 
language. In the same way we find of^u in the Erotokrito; 
p. 30 and 69 (Venice, 1817), 



' See alar> Loo Meywr, vwjfl, grflmm. 2, 71 ff., 103. Another riew is taken 
moit phiioldgars, e.g. G. Ciirtiui, I 26a mnd Prof. Key, Trana, 1805, p. 64, 



4- fieyat and ^LeydKoi. 

The common laodem Greek form is now /ieyuXo^ with the 

»mpar. fieyaX-^epo'i, saperl. /rFyiflro?. But there waa & 

period when the langaagQ aeems to have been, uncertain 

vhicli to choose throughout, /ieya? or li^aXos, for Me find a 

complete singular of fieyai: gen. fjtsya, dat. fieya, ace. fi^au. 

^KCompare the following lines, which are all token from me- 

^^dieval poems : — 

I'f TTjv TToKiv rou jSaciXeo)?, rov fieya KoivtrravTivov 
Bt0>i.. rif; KovyK, IIpoX. 4JG (Bucbon), 
TOt) Tovpxov fieya Mayoufth- koX too aae^efndrov 
Tkren. 551) od. Elliasen. 
Koi £^Xa' KixBurroi t^ Kparet- a-ov rw /j-eya 
H Ptochoprodr. Kara tou 'Hy. 603, cd. Korace. 

n the last line, the MS, gives >irya without an iota eub- 
Acriptum. 1 prefer taking this view of the matter, although 
I am well awaro that in the eame period a general confiuiou 
of oasaa had infected the knguQge. As this fact is perhaps^ 
in its full extent, new to many, it will not be out of place 
to giv^ here some of the moat flagrant instances. Thus, a 
tjominutive Buppliea the place of an accusative in the follow- 

Iiug line from the poem -n-epl ^Xtapiov koI TtKar^iai^^jiopT)^ 
(^- 57.) 
ftaretT^^av Kal rov dvi}p eVeti^i t^? yuval/eo/^, 
and the same takes place in a Line from the Bt^wtf t^ 
Rovyic£<rTa^, UpoK* 1188, 
rijv Bvyarrip rov dTri<rT(\im>, Bi^^^jv oXtrfoi j(p6p<n 
which in ancient Greek would mean — 

Tipf iaVTou Bvyaripa awiareiXevp oKlrfcJv iT<iJv Biafidvrav. 

tjfor is thitf an isolated iastance, t/*. tliuf. 1194 and 1195 : 
fAe p.Tf)(_av{Av Kal <fip6v7](rtif hriaaev tci evXayij&Tf 
T^f BvyaTTfp rov (ia<ri\£w*{, ijalvov rov " Popnrepjov. 
In the same way Ovyarijp appears as dative in the poem on 
Belthandros, t, 21, where the editor (Herr Ellissen) does not 
show much familiarity with medieval compositions in chang- 
I FerhApa we fthoold add ravra ufter Lbu vord. 



ing it into OvyaTpL In the poem on Platziaflora, v. 222, 
Trarijp stauda as dative : 

vlo-i irmjKoov 'TTOTijp yevoO, vU, vh Xdfip'i. Again, in the 

same poem, (114) x^P*-^ repreaeata a notninatit^e, and irX-^prti 
129 stands iustead of (.lie accusative TrX^pyj. 

5. plj(Vf^ ' ^ throw/ 

Classical scholars do not aeem to be agreed about the 
origin of the verb plTn-at. A base pi<f>' has been assigned to 
this verb by Bnttmann and Cui-tiua on the evidence of the 
aonst ipp{/^v ; yet there is no doubt that there is also a base 
pm- aa seen, in jotTnj and }>t.Trl^ai. But neither ptir- nor p(.^- 
can be the full form of the root oa it appears in Greek, aa aU 
Greek words commencing' with a p have suffered a loss of 
flomc kind before this letter, and in the present instance this n 
ia, moreover, proved to a &?rtamty by the OTidenoe of^H 
Homeric metre, O 171, '^vj(pr} {m5 ptirrji; al&p7fyev£o<; Bopiao; ^Hl 
and that there was originally a digamma before the p, may 
be inferred from Priaciaa'a words (I p. 24). 'AeoleB loco 
afipirationiB digamma ponentea in dictionibuB ab p incipienti- 
bus,' etc. We thus arrive at a base fpi<^-* ; and even this ^^ 
might be supposed to be but a compression of a fuUer form ^M 
Pipuft- or Fapcufi-^ This wo»ild seem very probable, when we ^^ 
compare the word with the German icer/vn or rairpa in its ,^j 
Gothic form.^ Wer/en itself has for its fuller form an older ^M 
WiTr/en, as can be easily shown by the imperfect tcarqf, which ^^ 
J, Grimm (Gramm. 1, 862) gives aa a variety of tear/ for 
ancient High German, and no contemptible argument seems 
to me to exist in the form mauhrot'tjf (instead of the common ^H 
German maitiwtirf = tuo>if~warp in English) which occurs in ^^ 
a vocabulary of the year 1429. (See Weigand'a Wdrterbnch, 


At this point the question would arise, what might be the: 
origin of these ba^ea Ffpuft- and tmra/. Prof, Key considers ' 
Ftp- as the original root, and o^ or >t^ as a diminutival suffix, 
Fop being identical with tbe root seen in ter-to and Fap-a^^ 

» Dawes, MiK. Cnt, eA. Kidd. p. 28«. 
* Fott, £tyni. FoiKh. 1, 167, inl fd, 




thuB oiiginally^ meaning 'to whirl round;' "for," as Prof. Key 
ohseires, '* throwing takes ita strongest foiin when preceded 
by gyration." Tli« dlminutiTal bu&sl he contends here to 
inrolve tho notion of repetition. On the other hand, it haa 
been pointed out by Sanskrit acholars thut in Sanskrit nu- 
metous Toote are capable of forming new bases by the oddition 
of a p, by which process causal verbs are created : e.g. from 
yifr * to go' we get in Greek wtt-t-o? * to make go,' Le. ' to 
throw* and in close correspondence to this a Latin, iac-io, for 
the interchange oi" tt and c ouglit not to prevent us from 
connecting these words; ^f. troT^po^ and xor^po^ in Greek 
itself, where we have in Latin an original cutero-. Now in 
precisely the same w&y» wo got from a Sanskrit ri ' to go/ a 
caxisal arj}-i * to make go/ and thia would bo all but identical 
with the Greek pvw- * to throw.' This coincidence aeema the 
atrongor, aa the Sanakrit causal nrpi is actually used in this 
sense, e.g,, sdrdn aijifjfjitum, ' sagittas mitere,' sea Bopp's 
' Qloaaarium ComparatiiTxm Linguae Sanscritae/ (3rd ed.) 
p, 10. And od far as regards the digamma, wci would simply 
obeervo that the same attaches itself to the Sanskrit word* 
Uitu producing vap 'to throw,' for this is the original mean- 
ing of the word in the ancient Vedic hymns^ and ' serere' only 
a later application (Westerg. Had. Ling. Sanscr. p. 212), and 
AD r is apt to disappear in many instances.' 

But setting aside the q^uestion of the original etjnnology 
of the ancient Greek piw- or pt^f-t I contend that in the 
modem Greek pi'xyat or pixrca ' to throw^' we ought to reciog- 
iU2e a direct descendant or rather brother of piip-, with an 
iutarchange of ir and k (or ^ and x) which woidd be a paral- 
lel case to lav- and iac- as quoted above — an interchange 
which iSf moreover, not unheard-of in modem Greek. Thus 
e.g. we find kuivov for iriavbi (Mull. p. 96) and Za^Tv\oti for 
hdtrtifKK (id. p. 45, note.) But in so doing, I am fully aware 
of tlie different den%'ation given for this word by A. Koraea, 
but I believe I can show it to be utterly wrong. According 
to tKis scKqIot, tbe word ought to be spelt with an ij instead 

I Sucih ii. dE leavt, the view takc-n by tha emitieat Suukrit echolh;, Ptof. 
QoUitiiokrrf vb« kindl)- u«iated ihc pieMiit wrilw with hu Inrnvd Kdrioe. 



of an i, in order to indicate its connexion with the ancient 

pr]rfvvfi.i,. But let us consider the arguments te brings for- 
ward in favour of his theory^ as contained in the second 
volume of hia "AraKra, p. 319. He obsetves, " some scholars 
perversely mis this up with plirroi, and orroueously write 
pij(wa. Our word pt'm-to is quite identical with that of the 
ancients, while pjjx}^ or (nJKTto is, as I aaid before, derived 
from ptjyvvoi. Proof of which is to be found in the word 
pi/crdpwi' ur rather prj/crdpiop, meaning a spear. Another 
proof is, that instead of the exprosaion eppij^e (fiavijv used h 
the ancients, we do not Bay eppi-yjre fpavTjv, but eavpe iftc^vrjv. 
To consider hia last argument at once, I will simply observe 
that there ia an immense distinction between eppij^e t^i^jj. 
and fppi-'^^ tf>' in ancient Greek : that the first means * rum.- 
pere vocem,' (Verg. Aen. 3, 139) ' to let the voice b 
forthj' (aft^r a preceding silence, and with some effort), 
suiBciently shown by the use Hei-odotus makes of this phras 
who has it three times : once (1^ 85) of the dumb son of kin 
OroeauH, whose voice suddenly hreaka forth when he sees hi 
father's life in danger ; then (2, 2) of the children removed 
from human intercourse by king Paammitichus for the pur- 
pose of umking his curious espBrlmont of distrovcriug the 
original language of mankind (Se\oiy uKova-at -rwv •jrat&ioiv, 
ijin-iva (f>eavi}v pij^ova-t irpmTqv) ; and thirdly (5, 93), of 
audience breaking out into assent to a proposal concernin 
their own line of action, phmciv ^xavrpf^ avBrjv, X070U5 
similar acc-uaativea) is used in a very diflerent senae, mcanin 
cither ' to cast words forth,* in speaking inconsiderately, ■ 
in, wasting them. And thus Koraea himself, on the very ne: 
page to tho one adduced above, quotes the phrase piirrei tSl 
"Koyia rov which he cxpluius XaXel ;;^;ajpi? va eruWtjyi^eTai, 
X^tpls vA TTpotT^eTTtj Ti uTTOTiXfa-fia excvv va «ra/M«cFf to \6yia 
Tou. Yet t!ie phntse ra Xoyia pixjei occurs in a line of the 
|)<)(4 Srilointm in the sensi? of the ancient Greek plirr^t. \6yovi 
iA. SoXtofioO rit eupufKOftem. "Ev KepKvpa, 1859, p. 128.) 

lint 11 liMjk rit tho mctinings assigned to plj^yto in an; 
mudiTu (Jn^nk Uicliouary would be sufficient to show that 
IhU Word ban nothing in common with the ancient pt'/YVvpAf 



whose TariouB meaning I have carefully studied in the last 
edition of Stephanas* Thesaurus. First of all, the meaning 
*to throw* (*gettare, buttare,* as Somavera says), perfectly 
agrees with pLfrrto, while the nearest approximation among 
the various senses of pijywfu would be that of ' letting loose/ 
or * letting break forth.' A few instances will be sufficient 
to show this. Solomos who generally writes in the dialect 
of his native isle, says, (p. 93,) ^ xSpij ipl>lj($V'^ ^^^ i^i' 
Xf^vl}, 'the girl threw herself into the lake.' On the other 
hand, Herodotus, speaking of Arion throwing himself into 
the sea, says, ph^i fuv ^ rrjv doKmrtrav icavrov, and nobody 
can deny that pi^pn/fiai h \lfiV7]v or ddXaa-a-tiv would be sim- 
ply absurd. Again, tbe same Solomos has (p. 92) t^ $ppi^e 
Oft op^Mvorpo^eio ' he put them (literally, he threw them) 
into a foundling-house.' 
But let us also consider the metaphorical use of the word 

plxya rh ^Kififiard fiov or funuufs ci*? Tiva ' I cast my eyes 
on a person,' is a phrase given by Somavera and Koraes ; but 
Skarlatos Byzantios in his Dictionary has phrrw 'fifjartaU 
'lancer des oeiUades.' 

^l'Xy» TTTcUffifiov elt ia-hra, ' I throw the blame upon you,* 
Scnnavera; but S. B. phrrw t^ a<f>aKfia ew oXXoi' 'rejeter la 
&ate snr un autre.' 

pl/ertu or pi'xy^ tA vKap^la or xoi? "Kayyov^ *jeter le sort,' 
Koraes ^At. IV 476, and again, S. B. gives the correspond- 
ing phrase, pitrra) ret j(ap7td 'tirer les cartes.' {8d\Keiv 
KKijpoiK is the ancient expression, ' sortem mittere' in Latin.) 
Hence plicT7j<; in modem Greek means ' sorcier,* 6 fiatn-evofievof 
Z$k icK^poav according to Koraes, and ptieroKoyiop to fiifi\(op 
TO ireptejfpv tA? ^fv7^<ret9 r&v xK-qpav. 

^Cicr(o or plyyw •TrXoiov eh rriv daKaa-<rav, * lancer un vais- 
seau k la mer' according to Koraes ; S. B. again gives the 
same phrase with piwra). 

piyvm Kord 7179 'to throw to the ground,' Koraes; plirrto 
tcareo, Sk. B. 

Is it possible to give a stronger proof of the identity of the 
two words ^lxyt» and pLirrta, than seeing them thus constantly 



used for one another? Nor can tliia bo due to the mere 
crotchet of a grammarian, for I need not show that in all 
the phraeea quoted p/jyvvfu would be entirely out of place, ^j 
while pmrm is always quite in its place, and aurely the co- ^| 
exiatenco of two such forms as pItttw alougaide with plxrio ^* 
cmd plx"*^ ahould not surprise us in a language containing 
elementB of such great Tariety as the modem Greek language 
is commonly admitted to pQasesa. Ab regards pi'xyoa itself, 
it ia formed from a base pt.x- or puc- in the same way as 
&dj(im is derived from Beix, or ^uitj^ytit from Buok (Erotocr. 
p, 27.) 

Aa concerns the argum>eut Kopaes deduces from pucrapiovt 
^a epear/ I am quite at a loss to understand it ; for what can 
be more natural than the use of a verb meaning ^ to throw' 
for the instrument called by the Eomane 'iaculum* ? 

After all, the moat specious argument as yet alleged in 
favour of the derivation from ptf/wfit, consists in a possags 
of Artemidorus (p. 56, 13 Hercher), quoted by 8k. B. in hia 
Ae^ucov TTJI? eW- yKaxTT. a. v. p^frcoi: efioff TrdKaUiv icaX . . . 
jCn^fo* rhv avrtTraXov, which he explains f»Txy^' '""i'^** *<itA 
7t}?. But Liddell &.iid Scott will suffice to show that here ^^ 
too we have one of the meanings of pifyvvfii: it means, so to ^^ 
Bay, ' to bt't'tife & man down/ i.e., ' to fell him, to knock him 
down.* Nor is the passage in Artsmidorus the only one in 
which pr^fwfM haa this meaning, as Stephauus and Hercher 'a 
Index will show. 

I will finally observe that there seems to be a alight trace^ 
left of the ancient pr^f- ' to break' developed into a verb 
jy^tCTto in the phrase p^xrw izXoiov ei; ^epwi * to ureck a ship 
on sands' (i^chouer), in which sense Demosthenes (p. 1289, 4) 
iranploys the verb pif/wpu : parfrjifoi ttjv i^vv irXiovtrap cf 
AirfVTrrov. This aorlst ippdyj has also been preserved in 
the modern language : vA P^JJt ^ ^v^^'UMTTt;, ' let the thread 
break,' Possow 591a, 5. 


FORMS.— By T, Hewitt Key. M.A, 

In my paper on ta>a and ita analog^uea (Trans. 1854, p. 69) 
I had to dwell upon the fact that inaeparable prefixes are apt, 
as Grimtn says^ to undorgo violent changes both as to form 
and ^wer ; and upon the further fact, that in consequence 
of this Liability partii.'lefl of totally different origin not un- 
froqaently pass into an identity of fonn, thus bringing about 
a confoaion, which ends in the disuse of both pretixes, and 
the employmont of ftresh forma of speech to make up the 
eODflequent deficiency. It is probably in this way that our 
own Language has pretty well ceased to employ prefixes in 
the formation of compound Terbs, finding it more convenient 
to take the simple verb and place after it an independent 
pn|K»ition ; as, ' he put upon me, ho put me quite out, he 
put me up to something, he put thia bad practice doipn, he 
put ojf the meeting, he put the door io, he put hia hat ffw, 
he wooild not put in more thou sixpence/ Similarly we have, 
take Mp, tftke nff, fake in, taha to, with peculiar moaninga, 
which give much trouble to the foreigner, ae they are often 
left unexplained in our dictionaries. We have now no verba 
eompoimded with a prefix to, although the Anglo-^xon bad 
many such, including both those in which to was an equiva- 
lent for the Latin ml, and others with i& = Gk. B«i, dis of 
the Latin, tor of Old Norse, and Zfr of German^ as to-hrek, 
to-brf^t, to-herc, to-rsce, to-remf, to-nlired, to-skafir, to-sicitiK', 
of Chaucer; io-rlerr, to-d^/e, to-drnti, to'parf, of the * Ayenbite 
of Inwyt' (a-d. 1340). Even the Bible (Judgca ix. 53) hoa 
the words, 'A certain woman cast a piece of a miltistonc upon 
Abimelech's head, and all tohrake his sculL' ; — and so also in 
Shakspere wc find : — 

" Where (I'.c whereas) these two Christian armies might 
The blood of malice in a vein of league. 
And not tospend it so unmannerly." 

King JfhH, r. 2. 


" Then let them all encirclG Mm aboutj 
And, fairy-like, (opmch the unclean knight. 

A similar case of the accidental confluence of prefixes 
originally distinct, and a consequent disappearance, ia to bai 
seen in the particle of. Here three independent words Iiavai 
fallen into an identity of shape. Thus in the older forma oM 
OUT language, whether called Ajiglo-Saxon or Old EngUsh,^ 
we have this little woi-d representing in turn what apjiearsl 
in Latin and Greek oa nh airo, oh em, suh inro, Bsamplea r 
of the first abound in Gothic in the form a/^ and also in 
Anglo-Saxon, both in the form o/n, as q/tt-t/r(fan, * to drive 
off,' Qfa-hmwan, ' to cut off,' and o/-/ei-iau, 'to cany off, qA 
irufjii, 'to run off.' The Danish and Sweilitih also have 
uiimbcrless instances ; but here, aa in Gothic^ the origiu&l, 
vowel was preserved, af, not of. , 

With the word errt, I am strongly inclined to connect our' 
own (?/?, the / of which I look upon aa excrescent ; and in 
fact both the corresponding form afar of the Gothic, and the 
fonn aftftna of the same language, compared with tUaiui, prova 
that after should be divided aft-er, so a« to leave cr alone for 
the comparatival suffix; and thus Grimm seema juatiticd in 
hia division afl-»ma of the euperlutive, although Bopp (V. G. 
^ 294) takes a different view. That nf ia the stem (Gnind- 
wort) is of course conceded. There seems the more reason 
for rejecting the view of the Sanskrit scholar, because in the 
preceding section of his book his arguments for a divisioa 
of the Gothic iddar, nUlar^ hindar. Germ, itttk-r, nkdci-t 
hinter, so as to give the dental .rf or ^ to the suffix, are com- 
pldoly upset by the fact that our own language distinctly 
claims it for the firat portion of these words by the simple 
forma iritfi, ncath {beneath), hind {Uehtmi, Airuhtoaf, himi-wJi€ei)\ ■ 
and the difficulty as to the meaning of triih, is removed by 
the consideration that our teifhatatiii Is one in meaning with 
the German mdcnhhm. Nor indeed is there any substantial 
distinction of meaning, for iriih means 'union' whether for 
friendship or war, putjuare tecum, &s well as eoncUiare iecttm ; 
and indeed contra of the Latin is a secondary form from con 
or cum, precisely bb u>ider from an old wid (sk our wih)\ 




and therefore was well suited to form the compound coantty- 
dance (Fr. cotdvf-dftnae), whore again union, but not hostility 
is Been. But to return to errt, and ita northern representa- 
tiyes. I find one of these in the prefix of the Anglo-Saion 
of-Oiriiin 'ask after,' o/'riiinu *i"ide afteT,' of-apyran 'search 
after," and qf-^ilajt 'besiege/ (obsidere) ; as also in the Old 
English of-Ht'chf ' seek for/ o/sfiifie ' send for' (* Ayenbite of 
Iiiw\*l', Mr. Morris's preface, p. Ixvi), and perhaps in the 
Anglo-Saxon of-hcffan 'to lie upon/ 

Taking sub and vtto next, I quote from my paper on ava, 
p. 61, the forms in our northern didects which 1 hold to re- 
present these ; vj;:, : Goth. ui\ Old and Mid. Germ, iit\ Mod, 
Germ. auj\ Old Fris. op or up, Dut^cb op, Norao and Swed. 
upPt Dan. lyj, Eng. upt but Old Eng. also qt\'* Now in the 
examination of the Germ, auf, I find much that reminds me 
of what I came across in the study both of ava and its repre- 
sentatives Mid of the Latin re. Thus for German, leaving 
out of view the numberleas instances where the idea of up is 
distinctly retained, I land (1) above sixty where the idea of 
' opening' appears ; (2) some eight of ' beginning,' auf-hluheHf 
au/'brausen, au/^jmnmffu, auf-krdhen, (n{f-krci9clieu. a^f-Z^f/tfTi, 
aHf-HfH/zf'Hf oHf-tohfH ; (3j of 'loud noiae/ six: au/-ltichent 
nuf-rocfiein, ouf-m^cn = recitaro, nuf-tnaroh^t, ftu/-«cftftttuben, 
auf-sfohufu : ("4) full fifty where ' completion' is denoted ; (5) 
with the notion of * back:' auj'-bekalf^n 'reserve/ atiJ-haUen, 
' hinder' {= inhibere), avf-krdmpein, auf-etreifeln; (6) not lesa 
than fifty meaning ' agflin / and (1), what is of much interest, 
nearly fifty in which the idea expressed by our English pre- 
fix UH, i.e., the reversal of a former act, shows itself^ viz. : — 



































auf-sctr alien 
















To these I add two corresponding Swedish verbs, upp 
tavka =. OHj-deckea and vpp-lom = atif-lonett. 

The Anglo-Saxon, beaidea its many verbs compounded 
with of = ' off' (Latin ab), retained a few, as we have seen, 
where of =^ ob or ctti ; and ugtiin it has a amall group in 
which of ^^ the Grenu. aitf, aa of'stamlmt =^ auf-'Ste/itm, of-gtfau 
= auf-gebcn, of-delfnn ' dig-up,' of-frrttan =. auf-fnsscn, of- 
habbfin^ ' retain/ like auf-halhn ; with which we should no 
doubt include of-hUndan 'mjike blind/ of-munmi 'remember/ 
of'lician * dislike/ qf-ihincan ' repent/ o/~anntin ' refuse/ from 
unnfin 'give/ And I further quote agnin from Mr. MorrieV 
preface to hia edition of the * Ajenbite of Inwyt/ or iron 
the body of the work : o/~tfu'ncke = \foftAinf,\' 'repent/ o/^(?li 
' forgo/ of-hfiihie ' withhold,* of-take ' overtake/ of-»('ntk 
* deserve.' The last two verba eeem to call for a little explA* 
nation. If of-iake and over-take mean, aia by etymology they 
should mean, 'catch ifp* we have what is still a familiar 
phrase for the game idea. Then of-serrt' may well mean, like 
the Latin emeritus, * serve out one's fidl time.' The same old 
Engliah work which supplied theee examples has also of~ 
(ickaed for 'thoroughly questioned/ of-dret for 'thoroughly 
frightened/ and of-tyened for ' thoroughly enraged/ Of-guo 
and offfiioinyt' alao occur in the index of the siune book, 
with the translation ' meriting or deserving/ but how this 
meaning ia to be assigned to them, I do not see. ' Overgo- 
ing/ like the Latin 'tronegredi' might mean transgresaion, 
passing the border of what ia right, and to correspond to the 
Germ, perge^en ; but we cannot assign to the aimple of ' up' 
the nation of the comparative ofier. M 

But as the words mf/t, hind, as bos been Just noticed, lea? 
to secondary forma, tctd-cr JniU-er, {hinder), and the Bimple 
preposition in to ini-er in Latin, «Mrf-er £ng., unt-er Germ., 
so two at least of our propositions also assume a comparatival 
suffix. Thue, to tuke tirst the forme allied to trri-, we have, as 
has been already said, aft and ajier in English, together with 
the Gothic afar without the excrescent t ; and in the Ang.- 
Sax. orernoon (I take it from Boswoi-th'a Dictionary) wo have 
probably a variety of our afUnwon and no compound from 
the more familiar preposition over. 

Whetlior fur siol farther stand in the relation of compara- 
tires to a-n-o a(t and th.e Aug.-Sax. nf 'off' I Trill leave for 
future conBidemtion, But on the other hand, aa the Latin 
hua alongside of sub both mper and suht-ar with an ei- 
croscent ( (pronounced and frequently spelt in good MSS. 
mpf-er), and m the Groek tfio has v^rep from iw of Ono, so we 
iind both upper and ortr in English and iiber in Cferman. 

But when a preposition has given birth to derived forma, 
it is very common for the initial Towel of the original word 
to disappear. Thus by the aide of the compomtive ^v^pot 
we have the adverbs evep0£u and vepBev. So again the same 
prepoBition ev scflms to have formed a secondary' ^^-"iOC ^h^oce 
'wX-a and 'pv^-io^ and with an excrescent f,. 'wkt-, Lat. 'noct-t 
'nijjht* or rather *(sun)-down;' a derivation which receives 
strong support from the Old Norse use of vid ' down,* to de- 
note the time when there is no visible moon. — (Trana. 1864, 
p. 92). 

Similarly, with the usual change of asperates with each 
other, we have 'neuffi^ 'ni'tfi(-er) of English, oorresponding to 
enef-eri, emf-ra, cut down to t'nferi, infra in Latin ; and 
on the other hand, the final asperate of the theoretic ev-V)( is 
softened down ; and then with the loss of the initial vowel we 
have the verbs v^v-at, Lat mi-o ; and in allied languages; the 
propOBition itseli' appears with a loss at one or both cndB, as 
ntig of ml ' down' in Lithuanian, ni in Sanskrit, w// iii Osaetie, 
At the commencement of my paper on the Greek ev {ibid. 
p. 85, etc.), I have given otlier parallel eosee. 

With this preparation I venture to elarm the familiar 
Germ, prefix ver as a corrupted comparative of anf in other 
words, as a decjipitated variety of uber ' over.' The cor- 
responding Ang.-Sas. prefix of-er has in its /the verj^ sound 
which 19 heard in the initial consonant of rpi\ But the best 
proof of the substantial identity of the two forms, will be 
found in the meanings, as seen, first in the following indi- 
vidual words; cfr-hrurken 'to bridge over,' Ang.-Sax. o/fr- 
h'i/cffean; tw-JUIiren and rer-aHen, ' to become superanuated,' 
compared with Ang.-Snx. ofrr-fjcnre * antiquated,' and ofcr- 
eaid the same; ver-kehren 'o\'erturn,' ver-fahren and ver-fiihr^tt 




'transport'; rcrnchlafen mk 'overaloep' oneselfp rersehmsen 
'overshot/ verschtitgen 'etriko (a ball) out of bounds,' fcr- 
aprtugen * strike a billiard ball off tho table;' tf^neaUen 'atl- 
ininistGir/ and r^pntcser 'manager/ i'.*. *OBe set over others/ 
rer-ksc?i * call f names) over / ver-hehfen ' cover over' — Aug.* 
Sax, o/};r-/i.efmi ; vcraeken 'over-look/ Lf. 'neg-lect/ ver-achfen 
* overlook/ i,e., treat with contempt, verdunhi'ln ' darken over/ 
Vertichmcn I would place alongside of the Lat. intelfcget'e^ 
and OB I assign to tbiB for ita literal translation 'pick up 
(knowledge)/ ho vernthfnen may "WoU mean ' to take up 
like the Scotch uptake (see paper on ova. Trans. 1854,' 
p. 60). 

Secondly, I aet doTn* a whole clasa of words in which the' 
notion of ' over' (' covering') in it-s physical sense ie undeni- 
able ; rerhlfchpn, rfrbieieti, tci'dncficn, rcrdielen, vereisen, vet- 
giil^T^i, tcrgia^en, vergolden^ verklciden, terlackcn, verlareen^ 
rerintten, verhdern, ve.rmfjnffiln, irrmooxeuy rermorfefn, tvr- 
panzern, verpkhen, verqitecken, terrasen, verreiarrn, eern'nden, 
rersanden, tvrsehalen, cerschatmen, verschienen, t^rgoJtH/en, car- 
nchindeln, rerschJdmmen, verschleiern, rerRchmuizm, verachreieitf 
Wi'tiUhern (Comp. Ang.-Sait, ofer'Syifrmu}, tefst^ttfn, wrsli 
bern, vertafe/n, rerzaitnen, rerzinken, verzinnen, terzuckerrit 
gether with v^t'deckm, ccrbiilkn, termakn. 

Thirdly, a claaa of words with the meaning of * overmnch, 
excess/ cerbhittn 'bleed toexhauatiou/ rcrjiicgen 'fly too far/ 
verhiizpiit ' overheat/ verkktfern ' climb too high/ rerkj>cheik. 
' overboil/ rerp/e^em 'pepper too much/ rerremten (sich) 'run 
too far/ versalzen 'oversalt/ rfrmnern 'make too sour/ «■«■■ 
schnekkm 'cut too short/ rerwhtcdrmtn *Bwarm too raiichf 
tierspiiten (sich) 'come too late/ ivrs/f (p?« (dch) * climb too 
high,* venumcn * oversweeten/ T'erwurzen ' spice too much,' 
versartefn 'spoil (a child) by too much tenderness/ (with 
afif-zarfcln the same), rerznckurn ' sugar too much/ 

Fourthly, with the notion of transferring and so changing, 
bartering, selling, paying : v^randem^ verdeutschen (comp. 
the genera] term uiieritefzefi)^ rergriecAen^ verfahren; wrtau- 
schen, terknit/en, vencechseln. 

Fifthly, the notion of * passing over/ ' getting to the end 



o 'oonBuraing all/ of wMch tlie esamplGS aro too 
lerous to quote. 

Sixthly, tlie notion of exceas is akin to that of miadoing^ 
as: perdeuf^H 'misinterpret,' verdr/'Aen 'distort/ verdf^ek^n 
* misprint/ verkthen 'lift in the wrong wiiy/ Kerkalban and 
ftriammen (cf. our OTWcarry), verkenmn 'mistake/ rerleiten 
' mislead/ verrathen ' bctmy,^ verfechnen ' miareckon/ rer- 
nu'ltH ' tlerauge/ im-hiebvn ' mis-ploco/ varscAleppen ' mis- 
place/ verwieffeH (iich) 'make a miatftke in weighing/ ter- 
tmhn^i 'spoil (a child)/ verziihkn * misreckon/ vcrziehen 'draw 
wrong/ rt'rzielf.n (sich) 'misa ones aim/ And with tht'ae 
may be included the notion of dcatruction or negation in the 
words cefbietm 'forbid/ vi^-gc&set^ ' foTget/ ('— Aug.-Sss. 
i^ergiian), cerhoren {=^ uherhoren ' not to hear/ and Ang.-Sax. 
<ifrr'h«rran OT ofcr'hyran)\ verienien 'unlearn/ t'erMM/t(Ang.- 
Sax. afrr-don, out fordo); vcrnchtroren 'forswear/ with which 
otHnpare the Ang-Sai, o/er-cy^an. 

So far only the fuller forma (in qfer) of the Aug.-Sax. have 
been quot-ed ; but of coiirsc this language has for as the 
ordinary form of the prefix^ like the Danish /or and Swedish 
Jot. And the fact that Ang.-Sax. posseased. both farms adds 
greatly to the argument which treats the German ver e» the 
result of decapitation. 

It must no doubt be admitted that It is di^cult at times 
to &nd in the prefix an explanation of the m^eaning which it 
oonTeys to a verb. But the verb rer-difmm may well mean 
'serre all one^s time,' and so correapond to the old English 
o/-9rrvc above-mentioned, as haTiDg the meaning of 'deserTe/ 
But the beet proof that the prefix vcr is but a decapitated 
uAw 18 foimd in the German vocabulary itself^ as will at once 
be seen fay prefixing first ver and then uber to the following, 
and eo testing their substantial identity : -blerlten, -bleien, 
-Wucken, -tiachen, dcckfu, -dunkeln, -fahren, -gattern, -g^iispit 
-(fohlrn, •hiiren, -kochen, -lasmvn^ -kdcrn, •mooBcnt -olen, 
'Pffjfi^rn, -picheii,-mizen, -whimsfn, -Jichfeien, -scAwWe?*, -Jtchnurcn^ 
'ulw^n, spvingeii, -tafehi, -zhuien. 

In Latin it has been for a long time the habit of aeholara 
to identify with our own /or oi forswear ^ford^, forlorn, forget. 


forgire, the jwr of p&riunts, perdo, pereo, pfrirtw, p^rfidas ; 
and no doubt Triih reaaon ; and to these may be added per- 
vidm, B.% found in Horace's 

" Quiun tuft perTidcQS, ocuHs male lippus inunctis, 
Cur in amiconim vitiia tam ccmis iicutum ?" 
for it seems to have been an unnecessary proceeding on the 
part of Bentley to give up the reading* of all the other MSS. 
in favour of one. It is scarcely a grave difficulty that the 
Latin language also used permdcfv. in another sense, seeing 
that we give two very different meanings to our overtook, 
and tiie Germans to their i-crsehtn and uberschen. But the 
Latin seems tc have exnraples where the prefix per has the 
original meaning of ubfr, fH^r — tiz. perceli- 'kno^jk over,' 
' upset/ aa seen in the use of this word in the very oldest 
writere, as with phmfnun in Cato, querent in Ennius, to isay 
nothing of Plnutua and Terence, both of whom have tbe word 
in its true physical sense. Fcnwt- again means ' overturn,* 
* upset,' as with pi/ius proccT-as Enn,, nuhis and furrtm Plant., 
and especially iu '* Si rei obstabit obviom, regem ipsum priue 
perrdrttio" (Stic, IT. L 14), The meaning ' over' gives the 
beat interpretation to the compounds perftind-, perlin-, and 
pemng-> A further claim must bo put in for the intensive 
/jw of adjectives, like permagnus pcnmiitus, especially when 
wo compare this Trith {rtr€p as a prefix in the adjectives 
-atrSEVT}';, -aTOTrot;^ -eXa<j>pOf;, -teaXo^j -\afnrpfK, -wtKpo<;, -troXv^, 
-cro^o?. The assumption hero made ie that super was cut 
down to prr, and the loss of two letters may offend ; but 
such loss may well have been gradual, first otie letter 
disappearing, and then the other. Thus, the Lat. suh (pro- 
nouncpd aup) seems to have lost its sibilant in one deri- 
vative, viz. : ripen'o iiper/us, the root syllable of which is 
the same as op of our op-en and our preposition up. This 
will be more readily accepted if contrasted with op-en'o op- 
t-rtnK. That ap-eri- and op-ert- (with their participles ap-er- 
fo- op-cr'to') liavo their origin in prepositions is a matter on 
which I have little doubt, the fri of these words corresponding 
Ui Ihc rli fA' gtp'eli- (nfp-u/'fO'), the root of which is one with 
flaflrnf flaTrr-w; and indeed a BufHx rr orff ia well known in our 



own language as in quitter, »hhcr from quake, shake, gambol 
and gat/ibfr froia game^ But as to the root-eyllables up and <tp, 
my first Ihought was divided between ab 'irom' and 'ob ' to,' 
for ' opening' \& separation and ' shutting' is re-union, and 
indeed we oiiraelves have the phrase ' put to,' in the aenae 
ol * shat.' The other alternative was to look out lor preposi- 
tions gigniiying ' up' and ' down,' which would correspond to 
our phraaea *put the window up' and 'put it down.' Now 
our own verbs ope and open, the Genn, offhn and o^neti, the 
Dutch open and opencn connect themselves beyond a doubt 
with the seveml prepositions up^ nuf, and o/), to aay nothing of 
such a word oa the Germ, aufmachen * to open.' But where 
am I to find an op ' down' for ' op-cri- P I answer, in the 
oA of occid- ' fall down,' ' die,' * set as the sun,' occid- *cut down,' 
<qfpet- and oOi* ' go down,' i>, ' die,' occuba- * He dead,* 
ohifT' 'tread down,' opprtm- 'press down.' The Sanakrit 
gives this prefix in the shape nm 'down/ and the Latin 
also has it in the nb * down' of ahici- (abiecfo-) * throw down/ 
ab-aorbe- 'suck down,' (ifftio- 'dash down,' appos- (appon-) 
'Bet down.' The German too has this very form with the 
nase of down in severtd words, espet^ially in htr-ah, /n'tt-ab, 
and nb-irdrh 'downwixrd/ I am not blind to the fact that 
on this theory np-eri- might as well have signified ' to open,' 
and (ipcri- ' to shut.' But language is somewhat arbitrary 
and uncertain in such matteis. 

The adverb perendie ia sometimes apoken of as a hybrid 
word, made up of the Latin f/(> and the Greek ^epap, or 
SanaU. param ; but here again, without denying the identity 
of the three words, •n-fpav, param, and peren, I would claim 
the last as a native and a corruption of superen, whence the 
adverb ttipern-i *from above' (with a suffix like ind-e, und-e, 
and the Greek tyrrierS-e, etc.), so that perrmiie shall correspond 
in its first element to the iibei^ in uber-morgcn of precisely the 
8&m« meaning. This theoretic pcreu or perfin exiBts, though a 
little disguised, in the contracted form (ran. Before an r the 
Latin language was much given to a change of consonant. 
Thas trsm-ere, as has been often noticed, is a corruption of 
ertmere (Fr, craiadre and Old Fr. cremir). A thoroughly parat- 

-.s.-r .. 


lei example to our theory nbont tram, is seen in the adjective 
irnuquiUus for planquiUm, a double dim. of p/ancttSf as that 
again is a dim. of phna^^ The verbs trddo, frdduco, frdicia 
Heem formed from iran rather than irarrs ; and the co- 
existence of two forma, one with, one without an «j is seen in 
nmny of the prepoaitions, aa ab, sirt, oh, t:c, di. It may be 
noticed too that thia theory brings the French particle tri»t 
* very/ eo commonly used with adjectives, into immediate 
connection with the Latin per and Gr. inrep of the aame 
habit. Even within the limit-s of the Latin language we 
have what ia really identity in the two forma trans-fuga and 
per-/uga ' deserter,' or more literally in German, Uber-faafur. 

In the Greek language I would first observe that certain 
compoundg with the fidl form vvrejo present peculiar meaninga 
which go far to support the doctrine that ver is a shorter form 
of iihcr, viz., irTr^popaoj vw^piBeiv ' oveTlook,' and vn^po'irroi 
' slighted ' compared with rrrsfhcn, overlook, and rerrtchfen. 
Indeed, thia last word is possibly the analogue of a Greek 
inrfp-oTrr-Q^m, for the tt of thia word appears cm a. c in. the 
Latin oc-uius, while ae itaelf is seen in the Lith. ak-i-a, aa 
also in ac-fritu-m 'in. the ti^-inkling of an eye,' * in eincm 
(iugenl/licf>r,' to adopt Br. Ebel's explanation of the word 
(Kuhn's Zeitaehrift iv. 320) ; and then a. cm Latin should ba 
representtid by ch in German, while the o again should give 
pliiCG to an a. In both tw/d and ottt the t I regard aa ex- 
crescents Again, in vTrepcvyan/i^oftai, irrrepfiaxofiai, vTrepaXrfecu, 
vTTspar/pvTrvtfa, 'li<^ht, titc.,/or' — , we have au explanation of 
the I'fT* in ccrJ'echtt'H and mrdtcidigen ; and above all vir^p- 
aTTQKpLv-ofiai ' answer for' correspooda with all accuracy to 
ver-aattcorUn. Then again, the negative power of VfT, though 
in itwlf it meana ' ubcr,' is in agreement with the uao of 
inTEpKciipo'; ' over or beyond the time,' hence * at wrong times,' 
like ff*atpOT— to quote the words of the Ijexicon, 

But the Greek also seeras to have a decapitated variety : 
frap for (nr^p, or jrapa for inrapa ; for we cannot but think 
that that language WiOa in posseBSion of two diBtinct words 
TTapa, which have accidentally taken the same form. From 
tlie words in which irapa means 'presence,' or 'by the eid© 






of»* I woiUd aeparata those in wliick is to be found the idea 
of ' OTcr/ or ' wliat is wrong,' or ' negation.' No doubt tkere 
are casea where 'passing by' and^paseing over' afford equally- 
good e^qslAUfttiotis of the oxcesdiye^ But to trapairrjBa- ' leap 
over* and so ' transgress,' and Trap-opt^-, alike in the sense of 
' oatatepping one's own boundaries/ or ' driving another oyer 
them into banishment,' the notion of orw seems alone appli- 
cable. So with TTopoipe' when used cither of ' transferring 
A ooTse,' or 'drawing over to one's own eide.' The yerb 
•wapa^fu may well mean ' persuade/ if it have for its literal 
translation ' to talk over/ 'iibet-red^n.' The same applies to 
irapa'TTtt&oi. In iraptiZi^fU and trapakafiffavto, irapa 'over^ 
ia suited to denote a transference of property, like Irmis in 
the Latin irario. Then in not a few worda the notion of 
coyermg is added by Trapa which suits well, if this be a 
vaiiety of wirep, as 'jrapaKaXvTrr-f and, what is probably the 
Bame word at bottom, irapaKpvirr-, Trap(i\£i^-, 7rapafi7rej(;-, 
inipaircTa\<t- * covered with plates (of silver, etc.)/ wapa^ 
Treravifv-, Trapa7n}\wro- ' besmeared with mud/ •jrapawaip^^- 

* cover with a lid,' wapaaictjvQ-, Trtkp-wnrt^-, irapaj^pi-. So 
too trapa^vXaiTff- will bear the translation * watch over/ 
•vapovpo- that of ' one who watehea over/ Again I cannot 
bat give the preference to "rrapa ^ iiber over 'Trapa ' by the 
mdeof/iusuch coses aa 7rapau&s-^=' oettiii^teu,' Traparfffpa-, 
wapoxfio^', TTopii^a-, irapriKiK-, compared with vefyaJtren, (?*r- 
aiieftf the Aug. Sas. ofer-geare o/er-eaM and our own mper- 
annrtatfd. So alsq Trapa^eTT- Trapopa- must go with Horace's 
pernde- with the German ubersthvn, versehen of like meaning, 
Ang.-Sax. /or-jfCOft ' despise/ and our own oceriook. Here 
indeed something ia to be said for those who find the expla- 
nation in ' looking by the side of/ but when we come to tlie 
sense of hearing the explanation fails. Still there can be no 
doubt that we must class Trapaxovm and TrapaKpoaofj^t ' hear 
wrong/ or 'fail to listen to/ with the German verba ubsr- 
MvreOf verhiiren (aich), and the Ang. Sai. ofer-heoran or ofer- 
Ayron, all of liko meaning. Then the adjectives TrapaOepp.o- 

* over-hot/ TTopaToXjUo- 'foolhardy/ wapaiMmipo- * exceeding 
auBt«re * (I take the translations from L. and S.), are at ono 


witli the German ubrrfatig ontl Greek vTrfpXafiwpo-, etc., "SrWIe 
TTflpopo- corresponds to inrepKaipo. To these I add two rare 
words, which aJiko seem to show that irapa. is a corruption of i 
virapa, viz., ^' irapttirayo^ (or Trapircvyo'j) * the uppfT boU of a 
door ' (Ileysch)," aud ■rTapa<raov 'a ^oj;sail ' = Lat. supptirxm, 
Afl to ere«>y of TTflptwetoi*, I iroiild snggest the po&sibility ofj 
its having supphmted a fuller tre-^-tw, which, aa a dim. of 
a form ce^, would correspond to the Gcnnaa seg-i-l, our 
$a\l ; and, on the other hand, the word snpparnm (there lb 
also a reading mparum with a single j») seema to confinn. the 
orgument that Trapa of iraptKreiov is, as elsewhere, a corrup- 
tion of a fuller irrrapa. 

With this evidence before me of the close connection be- 
tween Trapa and the prepositions inrep^ nher and rer, I am 
stroDgly of opinion that we should in all the cases, where 
the notion of wrong or negation liea in the prefix trapa, 
claim it as a totally different word from napa 'by the side of.' 

But I muat return for a short time to the Teutonic family 
of languages to say a few words on a Norso prefix which 
seems to be allied to ttoso whii;h we have been discuseing, 
viz. o/, in the sense of too much aa given in Raak's Grammar, ^i 
(§ 302), via., in of-mikitl ' too much/ of-gmnali * too old,' 0/>^H 
mfmttta 'too soon,' o/semf 'too late," of-iif *g-luttony/ oA^^ 
dryckja ' drunkenness.' Here all would have been intelli- 
gible if instead of the aimple of we had had some comparative 
as ofer, for then we should have had forms correspondingf 
to the Ang-8ax. ofer-catnn 'to overeat' and ofer-etol 
glutton, etc. Possibly the explanation may be that, in 
cordance with the law that irregular comporativeB, j 
bMauso of that irregularity, are permitted to drop the fin; 
Hu£.x, for example bef, mo, kng, less, of our own language, in 
place of letfcr, more, longer, fesaer ; ma [mdh)^ sat, auf, 
Latin, in place of tnnffis safis aftenim, so this Noree o/may be 
a curtailed variety of ofer. This would serve to justify the 
u«e of <f-is/ened * very angry.' and ofgnoimj * transgression.' 
— (Tho Ayonbite of Tnwyt, pp. 66 and dio). But for thrf 
OMo of ttf-iakc (p. 43), I have already pi-ovidcd in another 




ing with a German particlo, I am somewhat digi- 
as feeliag myself txj be an intruder, and the more 
•o &B my knowledge of the langiuage is a very loose one. At 
tile giune timtj an outsider is often alive to difficulties which 
never pr^^ent tbemsplTes to a native, for the simplG reason 
that a mother toIlg^le is acquired without much exercise of the 
nosoning powers. It is probably due to this cause that thoro 
so f«w good grammars of any modem language. At any 
,t«, in my owti case it was the mability to find satisfactorf ex- 
planations of the inseparable prefixes of German that induced 
me at dilferent times to look with some care into the facta as 
presented, by dictionaries, and then to connect auch words 
with the equivalent forms of the kindred lan^ages. It is 
in this way that I have dealt with the insepaTable prefixes 
en/, tmttfr, tr, z^ty and, vi^r, and their ropreaentatives. I do 
ot expect my views to be blindly accepted. It will be 
lOUgh if I stir up an intelligent enquiry into the subject on 
the part of those who are better qualified to dtial with it. 


VIRGIL'S USE OF MENTA.—^^ T. Eewttt Ke^', 

One of the most serious hindrances to a right understand- 
ing uf the Latin vocabulary is the doctrine, often propounded, 
that tlie poets by some fiferange licence might use a plural for 
1 singvlur. But whenever such an assertion is made, the 
I conclusion is that the true meaning of the singular 
been mis understood. In the eecoud volume of our * Pro- 
ceedings/ (p. ^-iOj) I dealt with the noun castra, connecting 
the word with c4ri the root of caM-ere ' to cut/ eo that the 
ringuhur cmitritm, when yet in existence, must have eigni- 
fiud * a cutting inatruuient/ and I gave perhaps an undue 
preference to the notion of * axe/ Mj'^ present thought ia to 
translate cmfra by the more general term ' trenching tools/ 
■0 as to ineltide with the ordinary axe, the piek-axe, spade, etc. 
In the third vol., (p. 209) I confirmed what I had previously 

I 1 si] 



stated by pointing to the verb cmtrare, as Imving not merely 
the notion of cvirare like our own English verb^ but being 
applicable in the more general sense of cutting, and in fact 
ufied in coanection with such accuaativea aa (truitdineta, vitvs, 
arhuaia^ caudfiH Cfttiihrum. Yet after alL there was a gap in 
my theory, for although trenching tools are esaeatial to the 
making of a camp, and although the phrases rnovere oastra and 
pomte ca^fm already obtain in thia way thoroughly satis- 
factory translatiooHj yet there la a wide difference between 
the took employed and the resulting camp. This gap I now 
propose to bridge over by the auggeatian that the casirorum 
meiator in laying out the proposed form of a camp, marked 
the outline by having the tools thomselveg deposited aa he 
went along where they would presently be needed. On the 
completion of this duty, tho figure would be duly repres^ited 
to the eye by tho scries of tools. 

But the ufle of a plural form to denote a eiugular idea ia 
so inconvenient, that when the use of the word in the Binga- 
lar with its origintil meaning has passed away, there is an 
irresistible tonilency to call the singular again into serrice 
with the new meaning hitherto limited to the plural. Hence 
canlrumt ' a fort,' at last established itself, and still more the 
diminutival c^sf^ihitu, ' a little fort.' It should be noted, how- 
ever, that in the connections, caatrum^ Inm (Verg. ^n. vi. 
766), c. Minervae (Apulorum) of the Itineraries, and c 
Miuervae (Bnitiorum) of Varro (ap. Probum et Verg. Eel. 
6), the word is of a totally different origin and meaning 
We have now a noun belonging to the same family with the 
so-called adj. eastua, 'pure/ and the sb. caaiu- "^purifying/ 
These evidently point to a verb, and the verb really exists 
in the well-known cnrire (^(anam) • to card wool,* that is, 
' purify* it, for Varro is no doubt right when he explains 
the term (L. L. 63,) by pnrgare, and connects it with 
mrire. In Grreek the root is represented in the adjec- 
tives ica6~apo- and k€vo-. In thia view castnun is ' a place 
of purification,' ' a shrine,' and so identical in power with 
delnhrum from lav'cre. Again thia second caatrum has also its 
derived verb ca^trarfi ' to purify,' whence ca^trare nna eaccU 



*to wtrain' wine, of Pltny, and perhaps msfrart lihelhs of 
Martial (\, 3C)> In the liitter poaeagQ thfre may possibly 
be B double -en tx*ndre. 

Another word in which the true meaning of the gingular 
is commonly misaod ia /urea. This word^ ag I have already 
u&8orled in our pages, is in fact a compression of a trisyllabic 
/w-ip-a, the first syllabi© of which is seen in the veth for-a-rc, 
and virtually in. fml-en; for the r and d are interchangeable 
in these worde, just aa in auH- &b. 'the ear,' and audi- vb. 
' heu.' Our own language alao aliares the interchange, for 
the root, in obedience to Bask's law, appears with a b, &a 
hore and bod- in bodkin^ whether we use this noun with 
Shakesp«re in the sense of "^a dagger,' or in reference to the 
little inBtmment which belongs to a lady'e workbox. Then 
as regards the meaning of /urea, it ia, as I have already 
point-ed out, ' a prong.' Hence, hi'/trco^ and tri*/urco- obtain 
their meaning of ' two-pronged* and ' three- pronged.' It 
was at first then only as a plural that it could bo employed 
to denote ' a fork.' Some of our dictionaries indeed venture 
to give as the original meaning of /itrca ' a two-pronged 
fork,' quoting in proof Virgil's ftircasqu^ bicornea, which 
however rather point:* the other way, for if the noim. already 
denoted a two-prong(?d instroment, the epithet bkornet would 
be Buperfluoua, However the phrases Fufonc and Furcuiae 
Caudinae for the fork in the road near Caudium wore estab- 
lished at & time when it wa* still necessary to use a plural to 
denote * a fork.' So Plautua {Peraa ad. fin.) has, * et jjost dabis' 
(manus) sub /ufciA^ where later writers would hare said sub 
/urea. It is true that in the Casina (2, 6, 37) we find, ' ut qni- 
dom tu hodio canem et furcam foras;' but hero we may well 
suspect that the poot wrote y^frcffa, and that the singular was 
an adaptation to later usage introduced by others. Such 
changes may be proved to have taken place in the text of 
both Plautus and Terence, juat as haa happened to the plays 
of Shakeapere, 

The nouns /ora^fs, /m-p^x, and /or/ex^ have suffered much 
in tbe hands of our modem lexicographers, who have followed 
<he guidaQce of the author of the hook entitled * Varroniauus.* 



The Writer of that work thought he saw in the iSrst part d! 
llbMe words tho adverb /brw, aud he was disposed to deduce 
the final syllable from the several verbs cap-to, jxfcl-o, and 
/ac-io. But iti truth the three forms are only dialectic 
variotioB of the Bamo word. From fore- of furc-a it was 
thought desirable to form a derivative by the addition of 
tho diminutival suffis cc ; but this woidd have led to an uu- 
pleoaing form, forc-ec-, and hence to soften the sound a labial 
was substituted for one of the offensive gutturals; and so 
arose the three varietiesj forc-cp-^ forp-ee-, forf-ec-. But af^| 
forctp-t standing for forcec-, could only mean a small prong^^ 
it required a plural to denote the more complex instrument 
consisting of two claws. Thus forcipes, as ' a pair of pinchers' 
for the extraction of teeth, is used by Lucilius : uncis /orcifn- 
hm <irntftt ertJkre (ap. Charis, I. 74); but the lat«r writer 
Celsus in the same sense habitually uses the singular* The 
word is also used as a plural for the * blacksmith's pinchers' 
ill Cato ; but here again both Virgil (Geo. iv, 175 and -^n. 
xii. 404,) and Ovid (Met. xii. 277), have (vnaci fordpe ferrtu^^k 
or jerrttm forcipe curm. It was from the consideration o^^ 
this special use of the pinchers that some etymologists would 
derive the word from the dAyformm 'hot* and cap-ere. But 
th« connection -with /urea is confirmed by the fact that wl 
Pliny {ix. 31, 51,) ascribes to the crab bntchia dt-nticulai 
foreif»htt9 {al. /fxtjicihts), Appuleius (ApoL p. 297, 4) 
of the /tircae canci^rtnti. Again the familiar noun rfi&tro' 
{m or m) I may safely asume to have meant originally '^^ 
single tooth of a rake,' or 'a scraper with but a single poiq^H 
or edge.' Hence Terence, Virgil, and Ovid agree in the nee6 
of a plural to express the more complicated rake with many 
leeth. Stilly as these wore permanently combined in one in- 
■tnment^ it was found in the end conx'cnient to use the word 
in the singular, aud as auch it occurs in the later writer^^^— 
Hmy and Seneea. ^| 

Anotlier example is bigae, which is of course a contraction 
«f iywyv, and so being an adjective requires a noun t^quae to 
eoHpktte the meaning, ' two mares yoked together for the 
pvrpose of drawing a chariot ;' and in this form it is em- 

'fey f. SEWlTf KEV, M.A. 

ployed by Varro, Virgil, and Ontullua j but again tlie imitj- 

of the <x>rabma1ion becoming fised^ eventually later writers, 

Tacit«8, Pliny, Suetonius, and Statiu&, exliibit bt'tfa aa ft 

angular. Precisely the same fate attended the uae of 

piodrigae * four marca yoked together for drawing a carriage," 

^fiff the word is a plural in Cicero and Virg^il, but is ex- 

^Hbaoged for a singular quadriga in Propertius, Pliny, Martial, 

^Bnd tHpian. If it be here objected, that Virgil and Pro- 

^^erliQS being conteraporar}' might have been expected to use 

both of them either the singular or the plural, a legitimate 

aasver seems to be found in the consideration, that the 

higher style of Virg-il'a poetry ■vr&uld justiiy, if not require, 

the nse of the older form. 

A seventh example ia earn-, the plural of which denotes *a 
net,' in Virgil (speaking of a spider's web), and Ovid gene- 
rallv ; but the aingulor with the same meaning is found in 

Kr. (A* A. iii. 554j) and Seneca. Henco it seema reaaonablp 
^flUppose that the singular word originally meant ^ a single 
Hk of a net.' At tho same time it muat be admitted that 
many little nets are at times united to form one large net. 
^m EighlhJy, /ofii-s aa a plural, like our own equivalent in form 
^Blnd meaning bfllo}rj<t is the only shape known to Cicero, Vir- 
gil, and Horace, and t}us agrees witli tho fact that the in- 
rtmment consists of two flaps ; but Livy (xxxviii. 7)^ Persius, 
^and Juvenal have in the Bame sense the mere singular. 
^H As liiera originally meant but a single character of the 
^Hfabftbet, a plural was neeca^ary to denote ' words or 
^^HKngs;' yet Ovid and Martial have the word in the 
angular with the sense of a letter or epistle. 

It was once the fashion in school books to say that fimma 
was used poetically for the singular, meaning * a threshold.' 
This error however has long been thrust aside, aa it is 
knoim that a door has two fimitm, the /. mpiTUfs or * lintelj' 
the {. infen'ifs or * threshold,' the word aigiiifyiug what car- 
penters caII • a tie,' and being derived, not indeed from Hgti-re, 
which would have given li^ameii, bnt from a lost Jig-^re 
which has also produced a noun lir-fnr (not ligntor). Still 
in not a few instances the singular ia used to denote a gate 
Hot entrance. 



CuTTtis IB another word as to which our leslcone are un- 
satiafactorj. It is, clear that in not a few passagM the plural 
of this Doim is used in speaking; of a singLo carriage, as In 
Virgil (^n. x. 574) Efiimdmitqiie ducem rapiuntque ad litora 
curms ;* and Ovid (Met. 2, 6), of tho chariot of the sun : 
* Vaeti quoque rector Olyropi non regat hoa cumis,* Again 
the same poet (Trist. 3, 8, 1,) has 'Nunc ego Triptolemi 
cuperem conacendere currua.' So in Lucnn (vil. 570): 'Mavora 
agitans fii verbere aaevo Palladia stimulet turbatoa aegido 
cumu/ Further that currus did not in itself mean a car- 
riage, la shown by Yirgil s nee of the word in speaking of 
the plough (Georg. i, 174) : * ativaque, quae currua a torgo 
torqueat inios.' Now tte phrase regere mrrus has a spooial 
fitnessj, if currus means etrictlj- 'a wheel/ for it is the wheel 
which a driver ha& to look to, &nd again, in addition to the 
general argumenta of thia paper, the use of cwr^us in Virgo's 
description of his 'plough' confirms the doctrine. Kay, it ia 
probahle that mere rollers came into use before carriages. 
Moreover, the word roU ia but a variety of ichiri and hurlf 
and the la&t word in Scotch ia a sjTaoaym for wheel in the 
term hurl-barronf (Jamieson), Nay in Scotch Hurler by 
itself means ' one who drives a wheelbarrow ;* and the simple 
verb hurl ia applicable alike to tbo driving a wheel-barrow 
and to a ride in a carriage {ih. supplement). For the latter 
use I quote from the same : " if a frien^ hire a chaise and 
give ma a hurl, am I to pay the hire F I never heard of sic 
eitortion." Evea when kari has the sense of the Latin 
torqiffre (haatam), we have the notion of the circular move- 
ment which with the sling and lioman Ja-cnlum preceded the 
casting forward; but C(/r of curro is the equivalent of the 
hur or hir of our Aurrr/, kfir!, and the IJoraetahire kir-n 
(A.S. ^rn-an). From all this, I conclude that the circular 
movement seen in the rolling of a stone was that which first 
belonged to the root ; so that here too we have a mimetic 
word, an imitation of the sound heard in rapid (r/jirling. ^M 

These eramplee then are sufficient to eiitabliah the prlnci^^ 
pie that, when an object consists of two or more like parts, 
a word* in itself denoting one of these parte, is first employed 

3t f. HEWTTT KET, M.A. 

as a plural to denote the compound, but eTentually is &up- 
[lUiited by the eingular, whicli then alao denotea the com- 

With thiB premieed, I call attention to the use of a plural 
mmta iu the .^neid : 3'o^0 erinet irtcanaque me/Ua Bt-giv 
Rtrmani pnnuim qui hgihns itrbemj'undabti, etc. (^n. vi. 810). 
Now tbe ordinary meaning of vmtttum^ ' u ehin,' will not avail 
hmm, for we need not stop at the En^lkh phrase ' a double 
chia.* Mj own conviction is timt tko lirat meaning of mentum 

Iia 'ft jaw,' and thug tke plural irtenta would denote 'both the 
lawep' tbftt is ' the mouth,' or rather in the preBent pasaagc 
tboae part* on wHch the beard growa, both above and below 
\ be opening expressed by the word mouth. 
How readily words of the eamo stock arc employed to 
denote *tbe jaw,' whether upper or lower, the mouth made 
ap of both jawa, the chtQ, the beard, the cheeks, the gums, 
\9 well seen in those which begin with the syllable yev or 
gtn. Thus in Greek we have (1) ytvv- sub. f., to which our 
lessoona aesign the meaning; of ' onder-jaw,' and in the pi. 
' both jawB, the mouth with the teeth ;' (2) yevetov ' strictly 
the upper jaw, but usually the part covered by the beard, 
the chin, and later the jaw, the cheek ;^ (3) yeveia^- ab. f. 
'abeordr and in pL 'the cheeks;* (4) yi^a^o- ( ='yav-c^o-) 
lb. f. *the jaw, mouth; but strictly the 'lower jaw;' (o) 
yivBfiO^ flb. m. 'the jaw ;^ (6) Lat ffena- 'cheek;* (7) dem 
yfHUiaut 'a cheek tooth or double tooth;' (8) gmijitvz ' tha 
goma;' (9) Welsh g^ti 'mouth, jaw, and chin/;' (10) Fr. 
gan-ctchf ' lower jaw.' Next, with the changes of conso- 
naat to be eipcctedt (11) Sanskrit Aaww, 'the jaw;' (12) 
Gothic kiRnUf ' chin ;' (13j Old Germ, h'lini; (14) Eng. chin ; 
f 13) iaih, zanda^s 'jaw ;* and then, with a labial in. place of 
the fit (16) Gertn. ganmen and Eng. gutnuy together with (17) 
Buukr. jfimba 'the chin ;' (18) yafi^Xai ' jawB of lion, etc^, 
b«fik of bird/ 

But, as baa long been pointed out, especially by Bnttmann 
in hia Lexilogus, when treating of ^Xa? and (feXatro*?, a 
guttural often slips into a labial, probably through the inter- 
dttnge of ij'w or gtf>, first into fc, then into m, etc. We must 





therefore connect with the precefling family of Tvords (19) 
the Latin tmntiun, (20) the Fr. mi'titon of like meaniiig;„ and 
ttlao (21) Germ, nnmd {22) English uiouth, (23) the Gr. 
fiviTTaK- eb. m. 'upper lip or motiatache,* &b also (24) ftarrraK- 
sb. f. ' mouth, bcftk, upper lip.' And this with the more 
confidence when we find (25) a Welsh mmif ' a tnandibU 
whence is-fant 'lower jaw,' and gor-fant ' upper jaw.' 

But it behoves the philologer never to bo satiafied, unl 
he come to a verb, aa that from which the other parts of 
apeeoh are deduced. But the one among tho many meanings 
attached to yew;, menfvm, etc., which most readily connects 
itself with action ia 'the jaw,' as the instrument of mastica- 
tion ; and tho Latin verbs mand-ere and mamt-uea-re at once 
present therasclvca with the desired moaning and a suitable 
fonn, for oa the Latin Rcalf stands to the verb iicanci~ere, pre- 
cisely BO mdh to mand-erc. Indeed the combination nd and 
/ are frequently convertible, and the Latin seems generally 
to have a predilection for the liquid /. Thus the verb mbl-t^re 
* to giind,' has long been held to be of the same stock with 
mand^rt\ Many too of the allied langiiflges exbibit the form 
with an /, aa Greek /iuXt? and Latin moJfi 'mill,' with pi. 
fivKai. aa ' tho grinders^' or to use the Latin phraae the ihnieA 
mohtvs. So we have Lith. verbs, maJ-n, mttNn-u and maHi^M 
in-Ut Ruse, meljtt, Irish mnl-im, Goth, mnf^an. Germ, tnahl-e^^ 
(See Bopp's Gloasarium Sanacritum, v. mrid.) But Bntt- 
mann in his Lesilogua ("^ 48, on ov\cu, p. 198) justly observes 
that stamping or pounding wag a process older than grinding, 
and 80 ho fiuda the earlier sense in the Latin sb. mnit-to- m., 
and the Latin verb muka-re. To tbeae we rauat add the 
Sauskrit mridd, or mardd 'dust,' the Gothic ttiff^m/i * sand,,' 
and mtdda ' dust,' as alao our owu mi"t/'.f, whether applied t^^ 
earth well broken up or to brown sugar, and the Grermlj^| 
■nwhn-en^ zermahn-en 'to crush.' 

The Greek verb ^X-cktht-w too is said to have signified 
originally to beat and so make soft, as in dressing leather, 
or, we might add, in making a beef-steak lender. 

The snme scholar treata the Greek verb aX^-fn and 
nouns ovXat and dK^vpov as of the same stock. And if tliia 



just, we must add to the family the nouns ov\a n. pi, 
' ^uios' and oXfio- m. ' a mortar, knead in g-trougt, the lioUow 
of « doable tooth,* etp. The doctrine that crushing preceded 
l^indin^, ia confirmed by what we see in the equivalent 
words mortl-e-, * bite/ of the Latin compared with the Sausk. 
trtrid or inard, which ie translated * couter-ere.' Hence too 
we see that the Latin mori-nrio- n. has been justly claimed 
U belonging to the ftvraily. Further, the Prakrit haa nwl 
ia the place of the Sanskrit mard. 

Thus we have in this pair of word& what, as regards the 
letter-change, confirmB the doctrine whitih 1 put forward in 
s paper read April 38, 1854, that the verb oO'Soi-csco. etc., 
aitul ab. sard-es contain virtually the same root sj-llable. To 
the five ex&mpiles which I then quoted from Cicero, Horace, 
and Valerius Maximus in support of my argument, lot me 
MOW add, first from Cicero (Verr. II. i. 58). 

" Vt eum, cuius opera ipse multos anuo6 est in sordibus, 
paulo tamen obsoletius vestitum videret," and aecondly, from 
ForceUini's own pages, what is by itself decisive of the 
whole question, that as cfmolonc- hfid the two^not unconnected 
meanings, of 'becoming dirty on the surface,' and 'the 
haring gone out of use/ so a verb obsord-esc- itself was used, 
and that in both sensea. Thus, we have from Caeciliua as 
quoted by Nonius (%'ii. 604) : " Obsorduit iam, haec (a me 
acrumna miaeria" — where Nonius liimrtelf interprets the verb 
by ohsofeseerc — and " No coma fusa hunieris fumo obsoidescat 
smaro." — (Prud. Apoth. 214.) 

But to return to the word nip/j^wm, I find a little difficulty 
in three words, which by meaning and partly by form seem 
to claim connection with the family of ntof or jwt/ *crii&h, 
grind,* etc., viz: ftaaa-ofiat 'chow/ fMnra-fo 'knead' (with 
it* derivatives /tafw, fuvy^ia,) and maxilla 'the jaw/ Thus 
pi^h 8cr\"csi beyond all dispute to connect rmttiil-ere on the 
one side with imiriih on the other. Hut viaxilh and ftaatr-a^ 
imply a form fiay rather tliau fiaX. Yet X and 7 seem to be 
sounds utterly inconvertible, unless indeed we may say that 
the ^ HouDcli forms an intermediate link between them. 
Such was my contention in the late paper which compared 



6vyaT-'(p- &m\Jilia- ; and tho argument derives Btrengtli fro: 
tlie paralletiam eeon in tlie Greek fioyi-? and fioXif;. 

At any rate, the Latin nouns, which having a long rowi 
l>efore an 1, form diminutivea in ilh (or m/h), xiUa- seems 
owe the long- vowel of the simple noun and the .i- of t 
durinQtive to lin original guttural in thu Bj^llablc which p 
cedes tlie /. Thus aht for ahula^ panlo- for paucaio-, idlo' 
beaicle mnparfoXo-, pa/o- beside patiffo and tiila beside tcz-c, 
all to claim a lost guttural, wkich would account f< 



the forms axilfa^ jianxillum, faxillm, paxillas. The losa 
the guttural woiJd be exactly paruUel to what we see in our 
own words, nail^ hail, rati, sail, irain {iraggoji), rain boaide 
the Gprman naifcl, hofjcl, refffl^ set/fl, ^cafjen, rrffm, and iudoed 
the Latiu velum may Have grown out of an older sucgeiun^k 
and BO be one with tho German nffffl. (Sgd also my reraarka^ 
on the Greek noun vapa-a-eiov ' upper sail,' in tlie paper on 
the Qerman prefix ret;) i] 

By Whitley Stokes. 

These will be handled in the following order:— I. T 
Verb subsiantive. [1. The verb si«'iiif^'ing ' to have* III. 
DOEN 'to briug.' IV. DONET 'to come.' V. MONET 
'to go,' VL OBEU ' to do; VII. REIFF 'to give; 

I. — 77ie Verb SubstanHee. 

Seven roots are employtMl to signify tho verb substautiv* 
l'> I, 2^ AS, -r AS, 4=> AV, 5" MAG, 6* ST A, 7" BU, 
give theae roots in what I suppose to have been tlieir Old 
Celtic fynus. In Sanskrit they appear respectively as 1 ' i- 
re,' AS 'esse; AS iV^tfo*, AV 'ire/ MAH Ibr *MAUH 
' tiiagiius esse/ STHA * stare/ and BHU (=Lat. /«) ' esfle,* 
With BU, moreover, the roots DA (Skr. d/id ^jionerej GN- 
and VID * lo kucw,' are found fompuunded. 



l**. — THE ROOT I. 

This root occurs only in the preaent and secondary present 
inOicativc. It 19 found (fi) in its simple form, (b) com- 
pounded with the preposition de (=Ir, rfaj, and (c} compounded 
with the preposition ed (from ati). 


Sg. 01^, ouf, of, of, 

douf-me, edouf, aed&uff 

07ct, oude 

edi, ftfdi 

1 1 PI. 1 r^ ^ 

J t domp, edomp 

\ a f oucfi, ock 

douch, d&uchtii/, edottv/i 

Secondary Present. 

Sg. oann. doann, edoenn 1 PI. oamp 

Otis 2 oaeh 

oa, oe, -edoa, doit, aed&ae, edoa, cdo 3 *oant 


Present^ Sg. 1, Pan oicf AdM^ 'since I am blind,' B 104;^ 
preal ovf pepret, ' I am always ready,' M SB** ; ez ouf duet^ 
* I am cnmp,'' M 20"; ez Qitf emgi-aot den, * je mo jguia (ait 
homme,' M 29**; mcurbot of claff hac ezaf fall, ' I am very 
BLck and go weakly/ B 90 ; coz oJ\ ' I am old,' IJ 8 ; coezei 
^, 'I am fallen,' 1? 4 ; cz off soezet, *I am troubled,' B 4j 
flz ojf prenet, * I am rodeomed/ B 10 ; nen douf paa fantasy, 
'I am not a phantom/ M IBS'*; mar (/w_/ forget a drciuo- 
metal, 'if I am forged of bad metal,' M S*"^; mar doufme 
entrs don slouet, 'if 1 am bent in two/ M Si*; oz crenaff 
bepret f^zaedouff^ *tremt]inrr alwaya am 1/ B 198; en quic 
ganet nv.Lz-edQuf trist nieurbct w»/' pa en coufliaff, 'as I am 
born in flesh, very sad am I wlicn I think of it/ M 60*; pan 
aedoff aman voar an hent, * though I !»m liere on the road/ 
B 36 ; n-edof oi nep re disleal, * I am not disloyal to any 

) ThtoufhoQt this pspor 'H' ilenotet tlie B\*hti S^nte: if^tin, Vtaia, 1837t 
Mill * M ' (tcnut^s Lf Grand Mytiirt dt Jittti, Pam, IStid.' Iljpothetical Ittrms 
ten marked ititlt an natcmk on tbc left. 



people,' B 144; suppll eguiduff, e penet meurbet f 
' P^*y f**!" n^^» grcitlT am I in pcnanco ' B \9S. 

Sg, 2. Pardouet out, brcinau ez oui din lia Jinam, * tliou 
art parJoiied, uow art thou wortlij and sinless," M 15" i 
ran inaz out a Adam laniet, ' for thou art sprini<; from 
Adam,' M 65^; pan ohI dre t'ez a bubcz mat, 'since thou art, 
tlirough faith, of a ho]y life,' B 178; piou oiide, poban oude 
duet? '■who art tliou, whence art tliou com*? I M 18'; piou ^J 
oude dre nia |:^'lachar a lavar dif I ' who art thoUj, that in my ^M 
grief spealts to mei' M 89'; ma car pe da tra ez oudc deuet! 
■■ Mj friend, for whfit tliiug art thou tomeT M 70'; liau maz- 
ouilc, disempernincc ? ' htv! where art thou, MadDess ?' M 8B': 
ac a galile ondc querz? ''art tliou certainly of Galilee!' 
103^; mar doiuk da drouc enclinet, 'if thou art iiicliDe( 
to evil,' M 95V 

Sg. 3. Pan asrfy pardon, autroune;!,calsabonte5sagouezlLiin] 
'alnce there ia a pardon (asacmblyc rcli^ieuse), lords, pleiitj 
of ^oodaeas we shall know,' B 52 ; lauar dezaEf dluset ex\ 
aedit 'say unto tiiti, he is chospn/ B 2 ; qz voe an baradoi^ 
closet hac eveUe pk edi, ' Paradise closed, and thus it 
is/ M SS'* ; en quic humeri hoz eux fjuemeret, ez edj/ 
carantcz a mam ha mab, ' iu the humau flesh that you have 
taken is love of mother and eon,*' M S?*"; deredct ezedy, 
*sh5 is deceased,' B 146; M-edy ma mab hueci certea,j 
ytron, [ez] erfy ouz monet da mont valvar, ' where ie my swm 
Boa V ' Certes, lady, he ia going to Mount Calvary,"" Mj 
126^; dr-ez-edy iScriviH en lefrou bras, ' aa is written ii 
great books,,' M 30''; roet ttzeux da icorii' drezc^/y hou ent 
biniguet> 'thou haet given thy body, wherowith our soul u 
ble.Haed,"' M 57"; alianen reaon eo monet gant ma mab ganef 
pan fdt/, 'There is reason to go hence with my cljjld, smce it 
h bora,' B 98. I 

PI. L Soezet omp, 'we are troubled,"' M 5Q^i paarisset 
omp brcman, 'we are impoverished now,"" B 126; duet omp 
doz guelet, 'we are oom@ to se& you,"' B 140, 184; maz omp 
sourprcjiet, 'so that we are surprised* (!), M 70^; t:z-omp 
deuet eguyt e (jueuipret, '■ we are eoine iu order lo (-ake him,"' 
M 71*; no dump beiet sur^ ' we have not been sure,' M 235* 

coat, * siuce we are lipre umler a wood/ B38. 

PI. 2. Pan cuch plen ordveuet, 'since you are quit& ar- 
rangc^l,' B 54; pan ouck diusett * since you are cbosenT* 
B 1S8 ; duet mat ouch liuy, ' welcome are ye,' li 186 ; ma 
z -ot£ch oil en strif, 'ao tliat you are all in strife,' M lOl'j 
(•a ock clioasct, 'you aro elocted,"' B 186; m.tit douck rosaus- 
citi't, ' if you are r«su9citateii,^ M 194"; ne douch i^uet oil net, 
'jon are not all clean,'' M 53*; an doitchu^ glan broinan huy 
an bro contant J ^ are you not now — ^you and tlie country — 

ite content T M 11 2*; an doucku^f a drouc -predor, ' are you 
not of evil thought T M SSI"; pan a-cdouc/i brcman voar an 
bet, 'Jince you are now in the world,' B 142; pan ncdouch 

l&n dianafl:', ^ since you are here spotless,' B 142 ; pan 

nifih certen en eues, 'since you are certainly in the island,' 
B 16. 

PI, 3- Ottz mirct ez edont^ ' tliey are keeping,' M 217^; 
perhaps, an edlnd-y duet guenedo'J 'are they not come with 
theeTB 158. 

Secondanj Pteaent, S^. 1. Dif a lavaras ^z-oann guenvidic, 
'he said to me that I was happy,"" M 127''; en toull man ez 
oann manct, ' lu this hole I had reuiaiiied^ M 183^; eno ez 
oann clos liac obscur, 'there I was close and dark,' M SIJC*; 
neu doann fj^uet quen ferm dan lernien, * I was not so lirui at 
the tim^e/ M 231"} bezgoa^i gaut goaa ne di^an boaset, 'never 
villi a youth was 1 ui^cd * (to be),, B 50 ; an tour inaz edo&nn 
loe, ' tho tower where I was/ M 231*. 

Sg. 2. Pelra neuez so hoaruezet . . . uiaz Oaa dre burzut 
symadet! '^what new thing has happened that thou wast 
made mute by miracle?'' B 7t-> 

Sg. 3. Pan oa en coury entre tut e ty, ' when he was as a 
gneat (en coneive) among tho people of his house,' M 4*j pan 
oa dastumet eusul an princct, 'when the council of the 
princos waa gathered,' M 16^; pan oa gotchet net ho treit, 
*when their feet were washed clean,' M 19*; rae se ez-oa 
retarretaff, 'therefore it was necessary to forbid,' B 78; dre 
K-tfa proliciet, *as was propheciod/ B 1S4 ; pez fantasy oe dit 
iraifiAaf ao heny az glorifiaa P "^ what fancy was it to thee, to 



betray Htm who glurified thee?' M 129' j ez ai-riuas Mari 
Magdalen a yon e penel, ' there arrived M. M. who 
waa in penance,' M 4'*; da scouarn bloucb a yoa trouchet, 
* thine ear was altogether cut off,* M 76*; pell ayoa aban 
cmoa hoant daz guelut, ■■ it was long since I had a wish to ste 
thee,' M lOS*"; achiuet eo spes ma dosir a ijoa hir oz ma ^j 
inspiraff, * achieved is my desire which was Ion" inspiring- me,* ^| 
B 1S2; an place man aha diougaiiet, 'this place was fore- ^* 
told,' B 190 ; he man axoa goar hogarat, '■this was a loreable 
maiij"' B 208 ; mar doa rot, 'if it were necessary,' M 1*29''; 
me acdoae ma. hunan manct eguit da clovot, ' I had remained 
alone in order to hear thee/ B 60 ; pan edaa gryet, * when 
he was faateneil,' M 134'; gueueomp asczet ess cdoa, *with us 
he waa seated/ M 211'*; pan edo en LToas an lazr en pedas, 
'■ when In? waa on the crosa^ the robber bcaought him/ M 
las*"; ban bez a edo dygoret, 'and the tomb was opened/ 
M 200V 

PI. 1. Ez oamp meiirbet tristidic, ' we were very sorrowful/ 
M 199*"; quen iwtut evel tut mudet ez ez oamp neuse, 'we ^j 
were then as stupid as dumb people,'' M Sld^**. ^H 

PI. 3, Ha pan ouch a pep tn sagit a E_£fypt en houz aciiytas, ^\ 
'and when you wcro on every side subjects of Egypt, he 
delivered you/ M ISS\ 

Remarks : The present s^. 1, ouf {~W. ifffff. Corn, of, &f) 
with its /=^ an aspiratod wj, points to an Old Celtic *i!mit 
which, notwithstanding the difference of meaDing, I venture la 
equate with Skr. imi\ Gr. slfu^ Lat. fo/ and cf. Goth, f-dd/'/t '■ivi/j 
That the root i exists in Celtic ha& already been shown by 
Gliick, who rightly refers to that root the rivernarao AtvotJ 
Amiifi, now the Inn, (Tho Old Irish amm Z. 702, am Z.] 
476, with itis hard m, points to an Old Celtic *ammiz=* 
Aeol. £/A^i, Skr. asmi., Lat. 8»m). The 2d. ag, ou-i (=W. 
iry-/, Com. o-s from o-t) exhibits aa agglutination of tin 



' Bopp. y. 0. II', I6S, rcfert wo to the Skr. root ya, but how than can lie es- 

fUin tlio diird Bg. !/ witli its slinrt v<iw«l .' i-tHHx ciay welt roprtsflnt am Indo- 
liiTopnn *iimm from I ; nod that gUEation mny late plnco bcfarc thi; lioavy 
cndingB IS, I think, ytfivid K K*itit9n, ^-mnlie, wliioh are certainly ftom Ki : 
pf. Slav. ei-JuH ' qiiii'sco'.' 




poTSonat pronoun of the second singular to iin Old Celtic form 
like •*', •(,'/»"— Skr. (?s/»', Lat, is. The Sd. sg, { — Ir. «/ in 
tid * quanivis est,^ djand~id, 'cui est,' mamd^ nisi est/ tnad 
*«i est/ In tht< plural, om-p, like Com. o?j, points to a 
guuite-d form like *tmiw= Lat. i-tmiSy while tho Wulah ym 
^u = Skr. imaa, tfte^. So eiu-c/: (— Corn, oti^h) oxhibita an 
» agglutination of the personal proii<>uu of the 2d. plunil tu a 
form which, liko Lat. t-iis^ arose hy gunation. In Wplsh 
y-vch, as in Skr. I'-i^, Gr. f-re, the root ia not gunated. 
The 3d, pi. orU = Lat. eut^i^ Ir. »if (in cif ^qaamvis sunt,' nmi 
*8i sunt') = Skr. yanti. 

The .^eooiidHi'y present (or imperibct) 1. ap. wmn (Com. oti), 
is, as to It^ guuatod i^^^i-bam, aa to its termination, = Skr, 
Gr. jjeip. The n as the person-enditig seems prese-rved 
thiukcQeii like thoM iu the Irish 1st. sg, prca, indSo- active. 
The 2J. sy. oas is doubtless tor oaz (cf. (/outafvez * tolerabas,'' 
M 67* find yrt's 'raciebii3t* B 164) — the z arising from tho 
aoffixcd t of the pronoun — and it^ resemblance in termination 
to d«, ^i"} \a deceptive. The 3d. eg. on, c>e, (Corn, o, P 214, 
3, 4a may well be comparofl with dlt. rffi. Hut tho loss of 
iLe / must have taken pliMre early, for tho Corn, o intbcta 
vocalicftlly. I cannot explain the rr(-,(i,'/- in aftf^.ayoa'. Th^ first 
person plural oam-p is = dims, V^*"^- I" *-!*'*' *^'^- pJiJ'^l <iQ<K 
(Skr. ui-/^a, Xl-"^^), we have again th.0 suOLxcd pronoun. TLe 
'Sd. plural i have not met with in Middle Breton; but it 
was doubtless the same as the oiodem oant (Skr. diyan for 
•«(ya»^). Here the preservation of the t Boeina to show that 
a primarv'teniiinatiou is used torn secoutiar^.' 

2^— AS. 

Thin root is only found in the preaont indicative, in the 
forms is 'est' and ini^ or (compounded with a preposition) 
d-\nt ' sunt.' 

£xamp!es: Sg. 3 I can produce only a aiugle instance, 
which is found iu the inscription on the IJell of Stival, pub- 

I &o u ihe third of tho Iriitb 8e4joudttry pruecat «»Apir(ut, ' diwboat,' 
'■^rt«D*i' wlienj bnrfu (root liAar) ulasdA for btr-auti-tt* primary tnnHug »ith 



lieliod by the Ticomte de la Villeinanju^ : Pirturtic ii ti, 
^sweet-voiced art tliou.' 

PI. 3, Nac ynt licit da recUaff 'they are not allowed to be 
recited,' M 62*; presanl 7/nt rnc drpm a brpinan, Mhey are 
present before your face now,' B 153 ; un acr flaerius maz int 
confua mset ' a fetid air wherein they are dragged cDnfusediy/ 
M IS*" ; [larftit nieurbet di7it ' they are very perfect,* M 7* ; 
mar dini bihan (leg. loran =W. Ihft.'^hciH?), ' if they are dusty/ 
M 52^. 

Re-mark: Is (W.yi, Ir, is)=aS'ti^ itr^l^ e&-t\ the a is pre- 
served ID consequence of the person-ending boin^ of old affixed 
directly to this root. In the plaral, mt (O, Ir. it) haa lost an 
h (still perhaps found in the Old-Welsh hinU Z- 1090), whicli 
(as in Zend h^nti) arose from the s of the root, kept in Skr. 
s-anti ( for *AS-ANTI), Latin s-unt. 

3«— AS. 

This root is only found in the 3d. pers. sg. present, of which i 
the regular Breton form would be eus\ hut owing to the in-j 
fluence of French orthography, we generally find guj?, etw, or, 
witli a preposition coniponndad, deunr. 

Ejcamples: Nac etuc den gauet an crothe, 'there is not »j 
man born who would believe it/ M iS^ ; eno ae dewa: aa meus.\ 
na niann, ' neither iness nor manna h there/ M 14'' ', en bpfe 
lie deux quot nemet poan, * in the world is not aught save pain/ 
B 16 ; lie deu2 sy , ' tlipre is no fault/ M 23* ; ne detiz quet 
ay, M 28" ; no deuz mar en bet, ' there \a no doubt m the 
world/ M SP; aour nac argant mar deux gantaff, *gold or 
silver if there is with him,' B 10 ; entre mtmeaiou tan ez eu:g' 
rodou gant poanyou, ' between mouutaiusi of fire there are 
roads with painei/ M lO** ; ivez ez etix un rifier solace* *also ^i 
there is a river of ice/ M 11" | m^ meux clevet hac oz credafiT^H 
ez eux feu:iteun oz eyennaf, ' 1 have heard and [ believe (that) ^^ 
a fountain ia arising/ B 104 j lauar breman dirao an tacc pa ez 
eux apace voar an placen, ' eay now at once (lit. before th»| 
f3<?e)> for there is routn on this place/ B 164. See furthwl 
examples under III. 

Hemark : Mux, or to spell more organically, eus, is ^ Ooi 



evSf or us^ O. Ir. as. I have not found the corresponding 
form in Welsh. The preservation of the 5, the eu^ which in 
Breton regularly represents d, the fact that the Cornish ua^^ 
and Irish as, cauee the vocalic infection, and the absence of 
amlaat, all point to an Old Celtic form, like Skr. aste, Gr. 
^oTtUf where the spiritus asper is inorganic. For the use of a 
verb meaning sedere to express esse^ compare Span. 5€r=Lat. 

40.— AV. 

This root, when used to express the verb substantive, is in 
Breton only found in the 3rd sg. pres. and in the forms eu, 
eo, deu (= Corn. gew,jew, in nyn-jew * non est'), deo. 

Examples : Me goar ez-eu sapient, me conclu ez-eo a tut 
pradant, ' I know she is wise, I conclude she is of honourable 
people/ B 24 ; nac eu mar fier, ' however proud he is,' M 3*; 
nac eu mar net, 'however clean he is,' M 36**; ma z-eit ma 
caion estonet, 'so that my heart is astounded,' M. 40*'; mar 
deu ret, ' if it is necessary,' M 37^ ; mar deu duet an pret, ' if 
the time is come,' M 46^; mar deu possibl, 'if it is possible,' 
M 65*; mar deu gant el reuelet, 'as is revealed by an angel,' 
B 82 ; ne deu quet, men-goar net parfet, ' he is not, I know 
it, quite clean,' M 53" ; eff na deu ganet, ' he is not bom,' 
B 82 ; mar deo gueneochy studiet, ' if it it is studied by you,' 

Remark: Eu or eo {=* avit) is the W. yw, Com. yw, 
etc ' is.' Compounded with the preposition di, it occurs in 
deu ' comes' (see infra, at Donet). I have already referred it 
to the root av ' to go,' which will be considered infra^ under 
DONET. The same root seems to occur in the Irish verb 
substantive tdu^ tdi, tda, pi. taam, taaith, taaty where the v is, 
88 usual, lost between vowels. 

5«— MAG. 

This root is in Breton only found in the 3rd sg. pres. (ma, 
and with the prefix e, e-ma\ and in the 3rd sg. imperative 

' KjnuDjf ya bjB tM ma, < whateTer in the world is good (nwi, mat), P. 16, 8. 



Exampies : Srd sg. prea. Ma oz gouruez en bcz man, * he ia 
lying ill this tninb/ B 12 ; na hiscoaa a nop ^rec ma quea 
liirvonilet, * never of any woman are (wore ?J sneh sohs,* M 
1 4*; ema mh osquop ouz da gortos, * the bishops are awaiting 
thee,' M 61^; ema. an hoiiry cntre me ha buy, 'the game ia 
between you and me,' M liC; eww en abaty^ *ho ia iji the 
abbey; B 184. d 

Srd s^. imperat. Ma! em refferaf a graf nie de infinti 
divmite^ ' Bo it so ! I do refer myself to His infinite God- 
head,' M 198*. 

Remark: This form is found, with the regular loss of 
between vowels, in Welsh mae, ' t-st,^ pi. maetU^ * sunt/ 
Corn, tna, pL motis. C£ besides Skr, maA, the Goth. Ohg ai 
AS. maf^an ' posse.' For tlio chaii^ of meaning compare ti 
Ir. verb substantive ytY 'est/ = Latin vaUtt 

6".— ST A. 

This root, like the fonr last, is found only in the 3rd a^. p 

Examples: An boet so prcst, * the food ia ready,' M 7* 
hetnan so dan tut burzut, 'this is a miracle to the people, 
B '^^ ; rat! an niadaelez anozaf Stf da pri.^af, * fof the jjoodnesa 
of him ia to be prized,' M fJ^ It is often used with the plural 
ma requetou so compsou vcn, *my requests are vain speeches,* 
M 41" ; a querdon so \ ' are there cordis I ' M 73^ ; te ha Ma 
SO esceptet, ' thou and Mary are excepted,' M 68"'. It 
also used impersonally — mo $o, me zo, ' I dm,' M 14* IS* 
ni >io, *we are,' 13 128 ; liuy so, 'you arc/ M 53% 165\ 

The obscure form ma (oar-a!« act en hent, M 203*, * quo; 
quo jo me sois raia en route,' H,V.) appears to belong to this 

Remark: Neither form nor meaning prevents ua from equating 
80 with Lat. staf. St in anlaut sometimes becomes s in Breton 
cf. sac 'posture d'liQ corp3 qui est liebout' (W. nnf), pet-e 
'lever,' \V. st^/y^K whicli, liko the Ir. sessam (reduplicated) 
are certainly from STA, Skr. st/id: cf, too aebezafi' Mupi- 
dare; sanke^ to s((h^, pret. Uang.atecheit., Vtoth. &(igqvan.^ stem 
ataffgc ; serc'/iek ' amaut* from *stvcV<, W. sercA, Ir. serCf 



which Siegfried equated with trropyij.^ Aa to the meaning, 
cf. Sp. estar. 

50.— BU AND BUIA. 


Sg. biou/f hlof 1 PI. biomp 

2 bioch 

boe^ boa 3 

Examples: Sg. 1. Uniet ouf ann heur maz viouf den 
ooK an divlnite, * I was united, the hour T became man, to the 
Deity,' M 177* ; pan viof presantet iouanc en tempi Salomon, 
* when I was presented young in Solomon's temple,* M 39* ; 
dre doe beu, ne onn piou eu quet na ne viof e re nepret, ' By 
God alire ! I know not where he is, and I have not at any 
time been of his folk,' M 81^ 

Sg. 3. Nem boe quet dram fez, ' non fuit mihi, per £dem 
meam,'' B 158 ; hanvet voe Juzas, * he was named Judas,' 
M 6* ; pan voe debret an oan, * when the lamb was eaten/ 
M 19*; goude e quempret ez voe dereet da Annas, * after his 
capture he was taken to Annas/ M 75'' ; comps deoch penaux 
toa nampech am mecher, * to tell you how was the prevention 
of my work,' B 74 ; sanct voa heman, * he was holy,' B 908 ; 
ma stndi ma opinion voa gueneoch ha reson monet, * my 
desire and my design were to go with you and Reason,^ B 14. 

PI. 1. Ez viomp spontet, ' we have been frightened,' 
M 219* J goa ny lo man pan viomp ganet, * woe to us the day 
when we were bom !' M 293*. 

PI. 2. En signifiancc maz vioch lamet, * in token that you 
■men freed,' M 117». 

Remarks : Biouf (Com. buef, huf); boe (Corn, bue) ; biomp 
hioch (Com. buen, beugh) appear to belong to the present 

* In Welali compare tho foUonint; -.—Bm^u =s Lat. ^temere : a^ se £. ttttn^ 
Lat. tttUa, for *iter-lae, *iterulae; »en = £. ttain; »oJl='E..»tubbU; tyrtk, 'a fiill,' 
o'ShgM^irz; tyrthio, 'to fall = Nhg. ttirtm: aon, 'a nimour,' Skr. STAN, 
*to aound,' rrivu, Mbg. Btohnen: aain. Old Webb "sein = Ir. toin, from 
*$toni. (The t must hare been lost carlv if Gaulish Togi-*oflTUS, Vegi-sontut 
be connected witb tbis root). So in the loanword nvmwl from atimuiu*. 
Comuh keep* bt in anlaut better than Welsh ; cf. wiertn (gl. stella) and 
lU/miie (gl. palatum) =W. la/ii. 



stem bhuya of tlie root i/ffi," whioti Selileichcr has pointed oat' 
in Greek (i^ii^, but Aeoh i^ijmoJ, Uinbr. *fuif£ («f. the fiit«i 
fuicst)^ Irislt 6iji ' I am/ 

Sg. frfisfl/, hc.zif, bizr/f 1 PI. *be::mpt bizmp^ bihomp 

hezL hizi 


hezinl, hizint 


Examples : Sg. 1. Ma ua vezaf mam & berr amser ez reutif 
ma aperct, ' if I Ehiill not be a tiiothcr in ^ short time, I shall 
render up ray spirit/ B 9(5 ; na flaig quet dionzif her dra bezif 
beu, * do not stir from me so loug as I shall be alive,' M lOO*; 
dre hennez iraysset rhiff., *■ by him I shall be betrayed/ 
M 60* :, mar crtiel dre ma yaily ez mzxff griet, * so cruelly 
through my limbs I shall bo fastened/ M 43*; oz &bsautif est 
mzif cuit, ' in being absent, 1 shall be free,' B 60. 

Sg, S. Mar fellez ez tezi mezet ha punissct^ ' if thou iailest,! 
thou wilt be shamed and punished/ M 62* ; traytour ms^ 
blzhuyqiien dakhet, 'thou wilt always be held a traitor/ M 
61'*; en lech m,iz m^y bishuiquen, 'in the place where thou 
wilt be always,' M 89"; Autrou pan oisy ez roantelaez an 
quaez man conf, *Lord, when thou sliult be in thy kingdom, ra*^! 
member thia wretch/ M 141*; men lavar dit ez ^'^^y en de»^^ 
man guenef eu barndocf^, ' I gay it to thee, thou shalt this day 
he with me in Paradise,' M 14P. 

Sg. 3. Mar hez da grat, ' if it he thy pleasure/ B 48 ; ms 
hci: mat, mar ies profit, mar bez leal, ' if it be good,' ' if ther 
be profit/ ' if it be loyal/ B 128 ; mar htiz ret dif, ' if it 
needtlil to thee/ M 91* ^ certen bez a vezaf eorez mar bes 
cuyt, ' be thou certain of there being blame if he shall be free,' , 
M lOP : me men bout erouguet ma uem he^ e pris, ^ I wouldi^l 
bo banged if I shall not have ita value/ M 16*; eno ez pr'j- ™ 
noa Iia dew an re dieiig, ' there shall the slothful be, night and 
day,' M 12'; a pep lignez hep fiuvez em hez couf, '^ every race 
I shall remember without end," M 177'' \ goude e otferen %% 

• Or, m I vetitiire to think, BHAV. 
<if hhit m only appikreatly anomalotlSi 

ir BO, the Towel a ia the rsdupUcatioQ 

w santel oz hoii quclen, 'after Ms mass, the saint will be 
teaching us,' B 1S4 ; Ja liaiiter an crels dez vejto^ 'it will bo 
at mid-diiy,'' M 4'2' ; neni bezo, *I shall not have,' B 50; 
betrn am 6f;rtf me breraaii ? *what shall I hn-ve now?* M 18*; 
Ire^Dt (ligiier az I'czoy ' thoii slialt havo (lit. tllji erit) 30 
, pence' M 18* ; non bc^o, 'we shall not have,' (lit. non nabis 
erit), M 17^ 

PI. 1. Drez viztmp beo, ^ while we ahall he alive/ B 52 ; 
laezequftEit . . . v'thomp dren drase mar be gouzv[cz]et, *we 
shall be shamed through this thing-, if it be known,' M 2&0''. 
PI. y. Ma mam, refuse-t tnhet an pret man, * my mother, 
jroo will bo refused this time,' M SS**; hmioz ez v'tfiet eiioufme 
BCMidiiHzet, Uhis night ye will be affcndcd in tno,' M 63^; 

IeDO gueneompni cj! mhct qucn na clevhct quchezlou louen, 
*tliere shall you be with as tuitil you hear joyous tidings,' i 

PI. 3. Maz beziiit laquaet en semhlant a ynoczantet, * bo ^1 
^ that tUey will he placed in seinblance of innocence,' M 45*; 
H me a cafo tut dcputct oar ez ve^nt gae eoudaet^ "■ I will find 
ctioii'e people, provided they be well paid (bien suldyaj,' M 
168**; anber an avaticc ho ranrzon may rhini diprisonct, ^to 
make tLo ailvance of their ransom that thoy bo freed from 
prison.' B 204. 

Remark: Schleicher (IWitr, 1 50i) ha& compared hezaff 
(M.W. hydaf. Com. hethajffor h^dhaf) with tht^ Slav. ha-f!n, 
■ present with a ftiture nit-aninjj, eoinpounded of tlie roots hh6 
and (f/((i. He might also have compared the Slavonic with 
the Breton, Wolsh and Cornish imperEitive, where the same 
compound is found. Bezaf 'ero,'= O.Slav, bun-duh^ hf^^ 
' erit ' (Corn, hjth) = 0. Slav, buh-detl. In tho forms h^-zif, 
\ie-zi, h^-zlmpi hn-Mnt^ I recognize forma originally optatival, 
B and compare with the -dif, -d'l, -dimpt -dint (whence ztf, etc.), 
Old Latin forms like •erc-t/^wj, cr&v^i^.s, crS-f/t'/rens, cv^-d^ni. 
The -zo from -do in tlte third singular bczOi. is a conjunctival 
furm, and is = -ddt in O. Lat. crid&t. The liri^t and Beeond 
plurals, bhmp, bi/id (^ U. Iri.-^li biant, bkid, Z. 483, 104S) 
are apparently from the derivative root bkuya. 



Sg. henn 

Secoodary PriJMnt, 

1. PI. liemp 
brs 2. li€cA 

6e S. hent 

Thia tense is called by Legonidec the conclitioiiftl, 

Examples : Sg. 1 , Me a ve bizhuyquen den gao pnn vent 
gantaf, ' I should bo always a gay fellow U' I wore with him," 
M 6'' ; mar galhe na mar die be/af ez eenn reccvet da qnentaf, 
' if it could and if it ou"ht to be that I should be received the 
first,' M 94^ ; petra honrfb na venn mo din I ' what would. 
happen that T should not be worthyT'' M 92'; nipruell a graf 
gaut onn ha poan na ven [leg- venn] daSnet, ' I do die with] 
fear and pain, lest I should hp dnmncd/ B U32, 

Sg. 2. Foil cref ouz e desevout vcz edivout, dro oac outdir 
M-ight foolish wouldat thou be thinking of it, since thoa ai 
not worthy,"' M 92' : chcncln-t eu liii voar da diu guon rac 
na ven puUic bizuiquon, 'dunged is the colour on thy two 
checka, leat thou be uotorioua alwaya,** H 166- 

Sg. 3. L)re tjuement se, np galhe quet pardonaf da den ei 
bet mar he coni^et en pochet brae, * According to that, Hftil 
fChrist) coiild not pardon anyone in the world, if he wprO'J 
falleii into great sin^' M 92^; me gray enezliat oz an mab 
man na ie ^net, '■ I will watch as to this child, lest it be 
born,' B 90 ; ahanen resou eo monot ra<.- nam be blani oz chom 
amau, ' there ia reason to go hence^ bo that thero be not blame 
to nie staying here,' B 98. 

PI, 1. Rac mar bump re prim estimist ez vimp tamallet, ^for^ 
if we should be thought too prompt, we should bo blamed,' 
M 117*; ny a acohc cref ha devry salv ez remp ny licen- 
ciet^ 'we would strike strongly and earnestly, provided we^j 
were allowed,' M 72''. ^H 

PI. S. Ne ve quet ae enor deoch guplet ho o^uyr-mab onz^^ 
mervcU en croas hac ez vech neuse hep bout buancc ganl^_ 
regret, Hhia would pot bo honour to you, to see joiiP.^| 
true Son dying on a cross, and that you should bfv then 
without being wild with rf^gret,' M 38^ ; henncz ne ve qaet 
conipetatil ez 7'^^cA buy hep compasaion, Hliat would not be 





niting, that you eliould Ko witliont compass ion,* M 30*; nmr 
en lesaer ez neck loll ' if lio bti lut go, you would be Iboliish,* 
M 70* ; ne teeh quet car C^aar deaai" raar gnwt grace, '■ you 
would not be Ca:sar's friend if you do gmce to bim,' M 1 1^"- ; 
& lUebech pau ix'ch fur da dilivraf. 'yon ought, if you were 
ir»$e« to let (him) go/ M 118'; njar A^c/* aiiia[D] en ty man 
banes, ' if you sliould be » uua here in this bouse,"' B 20 ; 
BUUE goul<?n oil m»,t- becli a uq opinion, '■ I a$k if you are nil of 
one opinion/ B *22. 

PL S. Pau ve qnenieiit den ao en bet ne t'tTi^ hautcr en guer 
4a disolunaf, ' if thoro were (together) as many liuman beinga 
M there are in tbo workl, tljey wmdd not disclose in word half',' 
M 10* i bfl ho crim ez vent redimet ne cessont quet ouz ma 
ptdif. 'and of their (primes thai they be redeemed they eoase 
not praying me/ M 99'*; po gz ^ent en poan mauet, 'or else 
ihey would remain (lit. be remained) in pain,' M 23''; pe pz 
tent inanet hep Uete, ' autrement ils demouremient sans ran- 
' M S4-. 

Secondary Preterite. 

Of tbia tense I have found only the 3d, sg. bis8y bize^ and 
•of the iuoai]ing 1 am not qnitG sure, as the context in doubtful. 

Me gnelas un blazon ez vise ganet ba dreist pep re pz 

tize Bant, ' I saw a blazon that he would bo born^ and 

be a saint beyond every one/ B 90. The modern Breton 
fonns are: Sg. hhenn, UzeXf bizi : blzemp, bize(^h or bizach, 
bizfut. Hero there seems no combination of the roots bhii and 
dhoy ad in thi' Welsh imperfect (sg. bi/ddwn, byddif, bt/ddai ; 
Ipl. byddcTN. hjddech, lyddent), bnt z is written for s, and the 
corresponding Welsh forma are bttasim, etc. 

Second Form. 


1 PI. *hihemp 


2 Hiheck 


3 bient 

Exampk^: Sg. 1. Pan lavaras ez vikenn roet evel davat, 
* wbeu be said that 1 should be bound {reei for *regft ^ 


figntm) like a sheep,' M 30* ; quel npn grasenn pan mkenn 
far, ^ I should not have done it if I liad becu wiao/ M 82**. 

Sg. S. Pan mh€$ chomel hon Autron a guelaes, 'if tliou 
hadst staid thou wouldst have seen our Lord,' M Sl^'' ; 

Sg. 3. Gaell tike dezaff na tike quct gatiel, ' better would it 
have beau for him that he had never been bom,'' M 68** ; »D 
oignaniaiit a vihe guerzet try cant diner, * the ointment tliat 
would have been aold for 300 deniers," M 15*; pan na ve 
tlrouc-graer ne vlhc qnct derept dit, ' if he were not a male- 
factor, he would not have bern brought to thee,' M lOl*. 

Pi. 3, Ny a cafle (var, cafao) nije fjieexon do lacat en prison 
maz r.ient don questionet, * we should have taken care enough 
to put thein into prison where they might be cloaely ques- 
tioned/ M 23 9*. 


Sg. I PI. *bes:omp 

bez S hezfiU ^^t 

hezef 3 bezeni 

Sg. 2. Coot y ; e ly na rf* diee, ' couiJt them : do not he 
lazy in the house,' M 18^; autrou courtes, hez verttizua ha 
couraigus, * Courteous Lord, be etronfj and courageous.,* M 
69*; bez soutil em delivrancc„ 'be thou subtle in my deliver- 
ance/ M 96' ; na zrz flatrer na hent in^rateri, ' be not a, 
detractor nor haunt in^ratituds/B 6S; frt^^ liberal, 'be liberal,' 
B 63 ; na vez quct couetua, "■ do not be covetoua,'' B 68 j nwj 
80 hez cart ' therefore be friendly,' B 70. 

Sg. 3. En noa hezet.^ ' let it be at night/ M 49* ; ve oarse 
hezet da nep pe gant ea eu clevet mah den traysaet, ' woe then 
be to him by whom it is heard that the Son of Man has been 
betrayed,' M 58* ; mar deu poasibl hezet lamet au marv man 
han bam dioarnout^ ''if it ii [Ktsaible, let this death aud this 
condeniuation he removed from me/ M 6o*; hezet crueiffiet ! 
*let him be crucified/ M 106'^; naz i'czet douet, ' ne sit tibi 
dubium,' B 108 ; ozlf truez ho2 bezet^ * on me havs pity/ 
B 120 ; acli tnuJl' truhe? hoz hczcU ' ah, on mo have pity !' 
B 194 (lit. sit vobia misericordia). 

PI, S. Secret hezet, " be ye secret,' M 19* ; ma mam, en berrj 



ez duy an termen maz achefheur, bezet certen, an pez so 
ordrenet, * My mother, soon will come the time at which will 
be finished, be ye sure, the thing that is ordained,' M 2P; huy 
em ty dreist pep croeadur bezet, ' be ye in my house above 
every creature,* M 182* : ahano pur bet assuret, ' of this be ye 
quite assured,' M 58*. 

PI. 3. An peoryen bezent plen soutenet, 'let the poor be 
fuUv sustained,'* B 68. 

Remark : Here, as in Slavonic, we find compounds of bkii 
toAdkA. Bezomp (W. by-ddwn) and bezet (W. by-ddwch^ Com. 
he-dhough) are exactly the O. Slav, buh-demtl and bim-dHe^ 
cited by Bopp, V. G. IP, 521. In the 2d. pi. bet is = 0. Ir. 
bed, bith (Z. 488). The 3d. ag. bezet is W. by-dded. 


Sg. *m vezif. 1 PI. *ra vizimp. 

ra vezy^ ra vizi. 2 ra viket. 

ra tezo. 3 *ra vezint. 

Sg. *ra Venn. 1 PI. *ra vemp. 

*ra vez. S ra mck. 

ra ve. 3 ra vent. 

Of this mood, called by Legonidec the Subjunctive, and by 
Zeoas, 426, the Conjunctive, I have found but few examples. 
It comprises two tenses, of which the first is called by Legon- 
idec a * future,' and translated by ' que je sois,' etc., and the 
second a ' conditiona]/ and translated by ' que je fusse.' The 
first is nothing but the future indicative, with ra (Com. re, 
Ir. to) prefixed : the second is the secondary present, with the 
same prefix. 

Examples: Future Sg. 2. Duet mat ra vezy, Gabriel, *que 
tu sois !e bienvenu, Gabriel,' M 180** ; duet mat ra vizi, 
Nonita, B 76 ; duet mat, Davy, ra vizi net, B 178. 

Sg. 3. Joa roz (^ra-hoz) bezo, hon ostys, 'joy may there 
be to you, our host !' M 48'' ; roz bezo ioa, B 114 ; hoz peuch 
ron (=.ra-^/ion) bezo, 'may your peace be to us!' M60"; 
peoch Doe ro {= ro-{'Aoz) bezo hay, ' may God's peace be to 
you ! ' M 16P. 



n. 9. Duet mat ra vi/ict, ' que voua soyez ha bieuvoriBV 
M 43"^ ; duet mat en ty huy ha huy rnhikcl ! ' welcome in tho 
bouse be you and you !' B 113. 

Secoudarj'' Present, S^. 3, Je&us, huy ra tf graciet, ' Jesus, i 
be thou tEiaukedV M IS.T'j doe re [Ipg. ra?'\ ve nieiilet f"* 
' God be praised ! ' B lOS ; doe ra %^e nieulrt da quentafl', ' G'xl ' 
be praiaed first,' B 130. 

PI. 2. Duet mat ra rech^ ' be ye welcome ! ' M 50" ; ra wcA^ 
darnoupt, ' may yp be i-ut-in-pieces,' M 147*. 

Remark : This mode of fomiiug an optative, with the prefix 
ro, re, ifi very coninion in Cormsh (sw Norris"* Conmh Drama, 
II. 265) aud iu Old Irish, e. o;. ro-nsnddea., * nmy she protect 
ub!* r-Jsafflt huili sith ind rig, ro-hsatn hi flaith nime, '■mayi 
we all attain to tliw peacre of the King .' may we all attain to 
the kingdom of heaven!'' Colindn'a hynm. 


Of these there are forms for the present and the fiiture : — 

Present; bout, besaff" (be^a). 
Future : be^ouL 

Examples. — Present inf. BOUT : nie men bout erouguet, * \\ 
wish to be hanged,"" M 16"; bout cruriMet, * to be crucified,'' 
M SO*"; goude bout e maestr a ij, 'after being his maji>r- 
domo,' M 10**; endan poaii a bout lazet, ' under pain of being 
killed,"" M 18"; quent bout dcz, ^before being day/ M 61*. 

BEZAFF : pan deuont da i-:'^ff/anafvon, '■when they come 
to be souls,' M 13* ; pa songiaf ho bezqf duet hac em-graet 
den, *wlien I think of your beini^ eome and sclf-niade a ntan, 
M 24*i hop if^'ff^ Icnt^ 'without being baekward,' B 36 ; 
ie;ri7/'au3ter a prederjtfi' hac abatinaf a inen[n]uf, "- to be aus- 
tere, and to meditate and to atstain I wish," B 50 ; hep heznj 
anaflTct . . , , . 'without buing blemished' HX B 66 i laque- 
oniji trotant e tonnnsiutaf rac niaz soingaf e ir.c^ff/'saut, 'let us 
set quietly to tonnent him, for I tlnnk that he is {or tliat he 
will be!j a saint,' B 86 ; ez och choaset da 6o7(t£dponip patron. 
don instruafi", da hezajf \.^\^ lia guir-preilat, '■you are chosen to 
be a patron to us, to instruct us, to be a father, and a true prr- 


late/ B 186 ; ez galhe beza cher mat em poellat, * could there 
be good cheer in my mind ? ' M 9** ; me a crede beza crouguet, 
' I thought I should be hung,' M 119*. 

Future inf. BEZOUT : Ha bezout en e apoe an Maestr an 
Roe hac an croer, ' and the Master, the King, and the Creator 
to be in support (appui) of it,' M 8* ; pardonet en divez ez gallaf 
bezouU * pardoned at the end I may be,' M 9P ; serif ez lavar 
hezout roe'n luzevien, ' write that he says he will be King 
of the Jews,' M139*; arriu eo dez maz gouzvezher bezout 
nn mab bihan ganet, * arrived is the day on which it will be 
known that a little child will be born,' B 84 j fi^^ow^baelec a 
allegaff, * I intend to be a priest,' B 176. 

The present participle was, I suppose, expressed in the usual 
w^y by ouz and the infinitive, but I have not found an in- 
stance of its use. 

Preterite Participle Passive. 

BEZET : queraent unan so ganet so bezel forget a un pry, 
* every one who is bom has been forged of the same clay,* M 
95* ; goude bout hezet lazet, ' after having been killed,'' M 209*; 
nag oann bezeU ' 1 had not been,"* M 197* j ez omp bezet^ ' we 
have been,' M 199*; ne domp bezel sur, 'we have not been 
8ut«,' M 235*. 

A passive form in r is found B 16 : pan vezer aman ganet, 
*when one shall have been bom.* 


Several roots, e.g., VID, GNA, and KLU (Skr. vid.jflA, and 
jrw) enter into composition with bhu in the British languages, 
especially in Welsh. Of these, however, I find in Middle 
Breton examples of only three — hoarvout (now ckoarvout) *to 
happen,' aznawul (now anavout) 'to know,' and gouzout 'to 

Examples : HOARVOUT : Ez goux maz hoarvoe, ' it is 
known how it happened,' M 22P ; un guez arall an tra se rac 
na hoar/e goall, 'another time that this thing may not hap- 



peD evilly,^ T? 74; en dnj. se a possibl ve ez hoarfe 
'were it possible that thia thinjr LappeneiH' M 167 
divez ez hoarutf^o, Sit the end it will liappen/ M 119^i 
hoaruezet rez a koaruezo^ ' let happen the right that will 
happen,' B 168; Infinitive; na gallie /fHrrort/, ' it could not 
happen,' M 92'; Part, prct. p. potra novpx bo AaantejzeU 
' what new thing has happened I '* U ofl, 74 ; pe huy na guel 
pebcz sjTiou 60 hoarvczf't on hoz mctmi? 'do jou not 666, 
what signs have happened amongst us V M li?"*- 

Rcmarli : The firat element in ftoai'-vouf (= Corn. whar-/ot^ 
from * rr ha r( h • roH) -pomtB to a root •START 'to happen,' 
whence, posaiblj, the Latiu sors, mords. 

AZNATOUT, 'to know,' Prea. indie, Sg. 3. eJ:neu : 
ina fragilite a c^ncti, '' he knows my weakness,' M 90*; a G»- 
hle f u, hervoz pep unan a c-^ncu, ' of Oaliloe he is. as every ona 
knows, "■ M 101" ; qwen camiet eu uen ezneu dim, * so beaten ia 
he, no one knows him,'' M 130*^. Impersonally ; me a t'men; 
en mat, ' I know well,* M 6a'' ; men ezneu, ' I know it,' M 86"; 
huy n ezneu ma hoU secret, 'you know my whole secret,' 
M 95" ; huy a ezneu ploo pep lieDy, ' you know fully evei 
one; M 53V 

Imperfect, Sg. 3. Dre an bara y en aznaGoe, ' by the brea 
they knew him,' M 90^^ 

Future, Sd pi. Ny hfi gray qnen enaerret ma aznaribf 
ezouch Fallot, * we will make you so tight that you will kuoi 
you are deceived,' M 164*. 

Pret. Part. Pasa. Aznavezet en gnenez glan, "^it ia well knoi 

Remark : Aznavout (now anavout) = W. ad-na-hot^ Z.l 
G45^ now adnahod, is properly 'to recognke,'' from ad- ' ro-\ 
f/nfl, and thti inf. hout, lu az-nen (= •gati-u^ti) we have tho^ 
root lUicompounded with bhu. 

GOUZOUT, * to know/ 
- Sg. ffoun, (jon 1 PL gMSomp 

ffomot,. gOH»odd 2 ffousock 


GouzouT, 'to know.' 133 

Examples: Sg. 1. Ne goun tenn na caa a penn ennhaf, * I 
know not a bent (W. tyn) nor a capital crime (?) i in him," M 
114*; ne oun pez a leverez te, * I know not what thou art 
sajing,' M 78* ; ne gon gant glachar, pez a grif, * I know not 
with grief what I shall do/ M 21*. 

Sg. 2. Pezr negousot quet breman perac ez graf me, * Peter, 
thou knoweat not now why I do (this),' M 52* ; na gousot tra 
mystr an myster ? * kuowest thou not aught of (the) mystery of 
the mysteries?' M 206*; a ne gousode ez gallafme da achap? 
* knowest thou not that I can free thee ? ' M 118*. 

Sg, 3. Memeux cleuet, ne gous pet guez, ' I have heard, I 
know not when,' B 84 ; en kaer man ha oar an ploe ez gottx a 
certen erel maz hoarvoe, ' in this town and throughout the 
country it is known certainly how it has happened,'' M 221*; 
ez goar an hoi ardou, 'he knows all the arts,' fi 116; doe a 
goar [= W. duw atoyr^ Corn, dew-a-wor] ma poan oar an bet, 
' God knows my pain on the world,^ M 14*. Impersonally : 
me goar dre da natur a pechet ezout pur, * I know (that) 
through thy nature from sin thou art pure,' M QQ* ; me goar 
ez eu sapient, ' I know she is wise,^ 6 24 ; ne deu men-yoar, 
net parfet, ' he is not, I know it, quite perfect,' M 53' ; Pezr 
ma car, te a goar mez care, ' Peter, my friend, thou knowest 
(that) I loved thee,'' M 82* ; te a goar doe neu autreia, ' thou 
knowest, God, I yielded not to him,' B 44 ; ny en goar ace, 
'weknow it (well) enough,'' [acc^ Fr.a«se^]M 112*; nyeny^jar 
certen, ' we know it certainly, ' M 1 65* ; huy goar net a hy ao 
parfet ace, * ye know well if she is perfect enough,^ B 22 ; huy 
en goar, * ye know it,' M 22*. 

PI. 1. ne gottsomp pen lech ez eu techet, * we know not 
what place he is gone to/ M. 210*. 

PI. 2. iyvirit m&T gomoch, 'speak if you know,' M. 222*. 

' I doubt the accuracy of my yersion of this sentence. In the & 

kwtnan, ... 

of Houe. Other such instances in Cornish are : ny icon conrethaa ages dewan. Or. 
12S2, ' je ne sais comprendre votre chagrin ;' mj- ny won loverel prak gans pup 
na TCthaf lethys, 69fi, ' je ne sais dire pourquoi jo ne serai paa tue par chacun.' 
So in Breton i pan goiisoca ma naquat ' puisque toub saTcz me refuser.' B 40 
fmmqmt = W. «<iy"-; 



PI. 3. na ijmnont pea a greont quet, ' they know not 
they do; M. 139^ 

Remarks : 6-'o«m or ^o?i (better ^tfUMM.yonw), like Com. gc 
W. gwnn, Z. 557, In fnnaim (O'Don. Gr. 258j for *jindaim^ 
ia v'lndAmi^ root VIL). Tliis interesting trace of tlie 7tli 
cla3s in Saueknt ijiay be put sido bj- side with O. Ir* ieidnt ^ 
Un-q-uOi ri-na-cmiy of whicli Lottner (Beitr.T t.322^basalriL<ad^H 
Bpoken. The forms in the plural, and ^ou-^^ot, ^ou-a in th^^ 
Bg.j (from *ffond-mmpi *ffOnd-soc/i, *gQHd'Sont, *ffoud-so{ 
*ffoud-s),^t-c prffiterito- presents from the unnasalised root VI] 

The form ^oar{W,ffiri/t\ Corn, gor)^ pnints to an Old Cel 
•ciJr-atit fttid this I would connect witli Nlig. uahrcn^ ' to o| 
serTe/ trdAr-uehmen, ' to perceiTe," i.e, w&ren^ wtir-nemen^ 


Sgv 1 PK <]ionc^/imp 

f^QHzmzy 2 gou:viket 

Examples : Ez duy aun dez ma en ffouzfiezy, ' the day will 
come whea thou shalt know it,' M 52* ^ pftn aedy pardon, 
autrounez, cals a botitez & ^ouezhimp^ 'sincp, lords, there is a 
'* pardon/' plenty of goodness we ahall know/ B 52 ; liogaen 
huy ma en ^onzpi/tet so en uiatiec quen torticett 'but you — ^if 
you will know it, are in evil so entangled,'' M 104*;^ rac 
biscoaz queinent anqucn no ttougas grt'c par doz beny, ma en 
gouzoihct^ ' for never so much grief did woman bear equal to 
youra^ if you will know it,' M 39**. ^1 

Jhmnrk : Tlio forms gouz-ve-'zy and (jouz-i-»het arc conH^ 
pounds, the first of tbe roots r(V/, hhu and dhk^ and the 
8e<^ond of rid and hhu, or rather the stem hfaii/rt. Vf-zy 
and rihf:t reppectiFply mean, as we have seon, 'ens' aiid "^eritis/ 
In goufzhimp, now fftci-zimp. we have a regular formation 
from VID. 

' Lotltioir, [Cejtr. 11. 315V was the fimt (g L^gquc.'l ^(itli t-irtd Vllf the JiTms 
Jlnnail, Jfnlar, Jinnal«r, in Z. 490, to which. I can add Mcfitinnd "Hciebal' (Cur- 
liinc'B Glomarj-, *.v. MitDniiTiiuii man Ur), ntid eofinnam 'lit Bcmmoa,' mJintU ' ut 
a^ircnt,' from Midi^k' Iriali bouli* ; /wiwrfA 'scire,* O'Don. Supplement to 
O'Keillj. Lottner (u,h,) h (rrong in «up])Uilti^ tlwit tliu mmt v^ erer appenrs ns 
/( in Celtic. If ho. we Rlionld hnrf liacl it os^iiraf^l thus ■ /ffA or .^/A. Ftfiu, 
JHir,jSlemmmr,Z. iSO, /if-far Z, 10-10 Kiaml fav /fd-titir. Jid-Jit',' jUi-rrrmnutr, 
Jfd-ilffar, anil lire- prffileritO'prwtrUa, {like olBa), £i>rniP«l by nornlpiRing llie rriol 
*W with vid; u lo Writing t for hnnl rf, nt drf. *«e Zeuw, Bti, 70, 




Sg. gonffem 

Secondary Future. 

1 ^Pl. goufkemp 

Eramples : Ret ez (/oi!£'i'U7i me maz e [le^. eu !] aet, ' it is 
necessary that I sliould know whoro lie is gone,' M 310**; pa 
ffou/hemp pion vd a gra anii tiJiyson man ez ve hep truez 
labezet, *if we should know who it would he thai does this 
treason^ ha would he stoned without mercj,* M 58*. 

Bemat'k : These form 9 — uow ffou/cnn 'je sanrais,'_^o«/««;P 
•^noua sauriona ' — stand for gouz-rienn^ gouz-viemp^ViiiA come 
regularly from the root VID. 

Sg. yoK^rfii: 2 V\, ffouzetzity gouzuezet 

Examples : Sg. 2. Gouzi^z href, Joseph, dit dre nep hent ne 
g&lhent quct oher nep torfet^ ^ kuow in brief, Joseph, to tliee 
in no way could they do u,wy wrong/ M 184'. PK 9. gouzvUH 
ha ua tardit pas, * know ye and do not delay,' B 150 ; eno ez 
vez noa ha dea^ g&tizi^czet, an re dieug, ' there shall be night 
aad day^ know ye, the sloihfiil.' M 19'; en faecion se, gouz- 
eex^etf cz satiafihet doe, * in this fashion, know yc, you satUtV 
God,^ M 14*" ; rae menu yvez, gouzvt'zet^ ez ve an prophecy 
achiuet, ' I wisli also, know ye, that the prophecy to accom- 
plished,' M SO*". 

InGnitivti — ijouzout. 

Mratnpks ; Bet eu teureul sort da gouzout oerten pe heny fae 
gounezo, 'it is nocesaary to cast lots to know for certain who 
ahall gain it,' M 145* ; ma carhe goti.zont an dout se, ' I should 
tike that he knew this doubt, ^ M SOd^' ; me aia ^^ gc'uzout 
diouty pelra a mat a gra en abaty, ' I go» to know from 
her what good she doth in (the) abbey,' B 18, and aeo B ^4. 


Fut. Sg. 3. Arriu oo dez maz gouzuczker bezout ul mat 
bihan ganet, 'arrived is the day whi-ii it will be known that a 
little child will be born,' H 84, W. ffi/^ijhytkUr. 

Pret, part. pass. Me menx coniuret hac ameux eiiez 
gou€2et, ' I have conjured and have alao known," JB 88. 


MinDLl^BRETON mRIirun.AR VGRfia. 

11. The Verb 'to hav^.' 

Sg. avteiutt etneux, meur 1 ?1. hon7ietix, onneua- 

hoxeuXf ozeuz. 

azeux, ezeux 

m. en deveux \ 
f. he deveur I 


ho deveux 

Examples: Sg. 1. Ck>uden tristea ban trupz ffWtfuj* guelet 
'after the sadiieeB and the niiaery 1 have seen,' M 9** ; dren 
carautez arn sux ouz ma tat, '' through tlie love I have for my 
iather, M iiU" ; joa ametu glan^ ' 1 have pure joy,' B 26 ; nie^^i 
ameux tioant douK contpntaf, ' I have a desire to content you.'^H 
M 7^', ma tncnr coniuret hac aniciix cum gouezet, ' I have^^ 
conjured, and I have alfeo knoivn,' U 88 ; emcHX un bech am 
nech, ^1 have a wdglit -which grieves me,' M 123*"; gant 
nuouz bras emcuz ef clasquet, '■with great grief I have sought 
him,"' M 189' j em cundauzc emeux uu doutantc, 'in my con- 
flci&nc!t" 1 have a doubt,' B 30 ; me niettx un braouhet, ' I havej 
a liquor,^ M 143"; mo jnciJx clevct, 'I have heard,' B 104 ij 
nie mcitx aiiaf dioutaff, M have a hurt from him/ B 58; 
me ineuJC eoE^tit b clevet. ' I have fallen into sickness,' B 174; 
memefix unan, ' I have one,' M 145*; a me nametix lech, 'u*ai 
je pas Ueu ? M 21* ; nemmr esper a dihrift" Bac evaf giieneoch 
oar aun bet man, *I have not hope of eating or drinkiug wilh] 
you on this world,' M 54" ; nemeux na joa na cufl' ca car, * l| 
have neither joy, nor friend* nor relation,' B 8. 

S^. 2. Hon setTet a^ etw ententet, ''thou haat heard oi 
secret,' M IS**; au mat din diviu iiiliiiit az eux depitet, 'thox 
hast angered tlie gooduesHj worthy, divine^ infinite,' M 85" i 
ha te den dall ascwx gallout, ' and tliou> blind man, haat 
power/ B 103; roct ezeJtx difme da corff, 'thou hast given 
me thy body,'' M 57* ; discucz f* enx nerz, gra burzut, ' showi 
that thou hast power, do a miracle,' M 142''; eguyt ncu (;w*j 
quet dalehet pur an hent evel croeadur eguyt ae te az efix\ 
qucmeret quie a den, *ahhoni^h thou hast not quite held tli 
way like a creature, yot thou hast taken flesh ofa tmmaii body,' 
M (37*; te zeux graet trjij-^son, 'thou haat done treason,' M 

THE VERB 'to HAVE.' 137 

84*; naz eux oep remet, *thou hast not any remedy,'' M 92** ; 
nez eitx mecher a mennat delchell a querell, ' thou hast no 
business {metier) in wishing to maintain his quarrel,' M 106**; 
a te zeux^ hy santiffiat ? * hast thou sanctified it V M 76*'. 

Sg. 3, masc. E dom en deveux lequaet en plat guenef me, 
' his hand he has placed in the dish with me,' M 59* ; nep en 
deceux graet an fet se, 'he who has done this deed,' M 59*; 
nep en deueux cas, ' he who has a case,"" B 150 ; ef en deveuz 
gallout divin, ' ^c has divino power,' M 92*; heman dihay 
80 digacet eguyt gardis ma en punisset, dr^ deveux dellezet, 
' he la sent to you that you may punish him severely, for he 
has deserved it,' M 100*" ; nen deveux quet dellezet blam, *he 
has not deserved blame,'* M 149**; aoun cref araeux nen deoeux 
nech, * I have strong fear that he has not regret,' M 123'' ; nep 
en deuez ^nt fez carantez, ' he that hath charity with faith,' 
B 62. 

Sg. 3, fem. Deuotion he deueiu da donet da seruich doe, 
* devotion hath she to come to serve God,'' 1) 22 ; rac se monet 
he deueux hoantet, ' therefore to go she hath desired,'' B 138. 

PI. 1. leeteny honneiix np, *we have testimony,' M 23*; 
irez cafet entren bedis onneux ef, ' moreover, we have found 
him amongst the people,'' M 101'' ; lia Jesus onneux con- 
elaet da bout cniciflict, '■ and Jesus we have determined to be 
crucified/ M 118*; eno ann ael onneux guelet, 'there we have 
seen the angel,' M 199**; gant an estlam hon [leg. honn'] eux 
aman me leso an place man, ' on account of the disturbance (?) 
we have here, I will leave this place/ B 94 ; pebez mecher 
onneux ny a quen testeny ? ' what business have we with other 
evidence r M 80*; a ny ohhcwx oil hon mecherou? 'have we 
all our tools V M 135** ; nonneux roe en bet nemet Cesar, ' we 
have not a king in the world except Ceesar,' M 113*; mecher 
TUf neux [leg. nonneux'] quet a roedou, ' we have no business 
with nets,' B 32. 

PI. 2. Hoz eux quemeret, 'you have taken,' M 27*; 
Joa ameux glan pa hoz eux diouganet, ' I have pure joy in 
what you have foretold,'' B 26 \ houz eux y lamet, ' you 

1 This is the variant given in the note ; the text has a tt eux, which seems 



fro(d them,' M 17o* ; iiiciir truez ou^ erix bczet, 
voa have had,* M 176* ', os eu:c bauvet, 'rou 

i to 



namodj' M 41)''; ouz eujc guelet, 'you have seen/ M 54**; 
mar ox eux Iioanl prc&aut Uani caraDtez, ^if je hare now a 
dosiro for my love,^ R 120; Rtudiet a buy oz eux eli' euez nczet, 
'cojisider it" you have also epun It,' U 170 ; ox *"«x dif graet 
'you have done to me,' M 153*; noz enx great [It'g. graet] 
"you have not done,' M 36**; pan no^ eux d i fine ant reet^ 
an teir rBqiiet, ' aince you have not grauted to rat the three 
requests,' M 37** ;' ouzecb pa no; euai danvez, emeux truez, ' to 
you, rtinci' you hare not material, I have pity/ B 204 ; 
iirtM^ cux nieeher a ober goap, ' you have no business to 
niako mopkery,' M iGo*. The itaticisL^d forms in n&h euz 
'yoii have not a Irieud,"" M 21", and buy ho tntx gouzafvet 
a poati, "-you have ondurod much paiii,'M l74^ should pi 
bubly be noz eux and koz eux. 

PI. 3. Na demux quct dillezet queii, 'they have not 
deHLTVud oUuTwiise,'' M 99", ^_ 

Uetnark : Tbo only diiHculty arising from these forms U t4^| 
ftccouut for en'-'tico-ctts: * ho has,* hc-de^-eux ' she Uafl/ aod 
AO'deP-eux * tboy have.' En, he and ho are of course ' he/ '^abe/ 
'they," and eux or euz = dstc has been already noticed. What 
tlien ia dve^ or div wi it appeai-a (with the vowel unbroken) i^^| 
tlio wecoudary preterite? Thi& points to a pronominal furm^^ 
t'ontainitig a vowel-flankod in or b. Sueh a form ia found iu 
tho Latin i-hi, which, though only used as a locative adverb, ih 
till- iliitivo s;^. vi' the pnnioiinnal stem ;, wlien<.'e in Old Latin we 
havi! ;iIho thu arcunativii i-m, thw dative pi, i-hus (Bopp V.ti, 
S^iClj. A pn^nominal dative in b Ik tbund in Old Irish, l>otll^| 
in tliD i^iii'jnbir and tbo plnral. As to the Breton iHi"!, I would" 
Bi'parati" it tliu^, f/-(V, luid, looking at the above-quoted dcix, 
vfhoru the d is tbo relic of the proposition ^^i", Ir. </«, I would 
rrjj'ard if-tw-rax as niraning ci feae, iisj a^est and d-it--ili^ 
(for »^tV-f'*Af) ^ numniiig vi {me, its) a<ifner'ii. The absolute 
pniiaiLiiiN nn, hi\ ho wore then prefixed to preveut ambiguity. 
Thti i'dudiiiiulioii tirtntx (now Hfitz) appeal^ in Cornish (s( 
l» '17. n?. HOL', 1770) ftsy.(r^ where the /. as in joul 'devil/ 
Jvmn " •ttitiiou' etr., iw a Mirnpl ion of rf. 

TUB VEBB *T0 HAVK.' 139 

Sg. amoaet amboe 1 PI. *honnoae, *honnboe 

*azoae 2 ouz oae 

m. en deroe, en deffoe 3 ko devoe 

Excanples: Sg. 1. Gonden quenz amoae carguet eu ma 
eonraig a ioae, ' after the grief I have had, my heart is filled 
with joy,' M 180**; nen doanii quet quen ferm nam hoe un 
spoilt yen, 'I was not so firm that I had not a chiirfear,' M 
231*; da ober nem boe quet en bet man, ' I had not to work 
in thifl world,* B 50; ^em hoe quet anezefF, ' I had not aught 
of him,'' B 168; ncm hoe netra digant alan, ' I had not any- 
thing from Alan,* B 166 ; wem boe netra eux e madou, ' I had 
not anything of his goods/ B 170. 

Sg. 2. Now az or ez p64, 

Sg. 8. En devoe joa bras, ' he had great joy,' M 102" ; en 
tkvoe sechet, 'he had thirst,* M ISO**; dren guerches dinam 
en de^oe da mam, * through the stainless Virgin (whom) he 
had for a mother,' M 4*. The feminine was doubtless he devoe. 

PI. 1 is now hor hdi, 

PI. 2. Goude ann angoes ouz oae dif, * after the anguish you 
have had for roe,' M 18P. 

PI. 3. Huy ouz eux paeet an die ho devoae quemeret, *you 
hare paid the debt which they had contracted,* M 175*; no 
detoe nepret contredy, ' tliey never had contradiction,' M 28*. 

Remark : Devoe (now ddS) appears in Cornish corrupted 
into ffeve, where the p is to be pronounced soft. As to d^ffbe, 
it seems for div-|- rioe. 

Sg. am bezOi embe^o 1 PI. on bezo 
ez vezo 2 oz bezo 

m. en devezo, f. */ie devezo 3 */w devezo 
Examples : Sg. 1. An tut hac autronoz am bezo^ *■ the people 
and lords I shall have,' B 34 ; mem bezo mcur soucy, '• I shall 
have much anxiety,* M 61*; na netn bezo muy bizuiquen, * I 
will not have more for ever,* B 50 ; ma «b bezo hoz benuoez, 
' so that I shall have your blessing,* B 180. 


S^. 2, E^ ir^o iin chotat, ' thou ebalt hav^a buftut/ M 77* 
gueaefme queffraiiD n» I'ann cuyt ne^ vi'.:o quot, * with ra( 
co-share nor freehoUl ahalt thou hav^o,' M S2^. 

Sg. 3. Gant ma scourgez en tlcce^o^ ' with my scourge he 
shall got (il),' M lO?**; pijitl'^ant o.n anaft'uon ncn dettiJ^o del 
diefineB, ^I will pray with the ^ouls that no one have pain, 
B 134. 

PL 1. Rae treiiiionidy chetu y; hoaz on bf^o ouz troraei 
henoaz entromp, Mbr travellera, behold thorn; yet we shall 
have them to-night parsing amoug us/ M 200^; Kf mm bes^ff^M 
quet i rac Barrabaa onneux ohoiiaet, 'Hhn we will not have 
for wo have ehoaon Bnvrabas,' M 118*; aon be^o certen 
den on betj ' we shaU certainly not have a man m the world/ 
B 188. 

PL 2. Oz bezo oar ho crochenn ! 'you shall hare (it) oi 
your hide !' M TS"" ; oz bezo ef, 'you will have it,' M lo9";1 
huy oj: f^e^o oar houz clopcun, 'you shall have it on your 
akuU/ M 74*; clietu so ! No, noz ht'zo chonsl 'seethat! will, 
you uothiivo a choice?" M 132"; bizhuyquen finvezoc^tu Se.?< 
' never will you have end,* M SSS*". 

Remark : derezo as now written deciz^, not c/tiezo, as analo«;^ 
would load us to expect. 

Secondary Present. 


Sg. amort, emoa 


'onn on 


en fievoa 

OS! oa, Koj: boa 
ho devoa 

Examples : Sg. 1. Hoant raeur douz guelet me amoff, ' I 
a great desire to see you,' M 228*" ; ma emon sur displi^Iadur 
re, 'I had surely extreme djacomfort,' M 2-30*; un foUez 
oa ha memoa drouc-avis, *' it was a folly, and I had bad ad- 
vice,' M 233* J pell ayoa aban enioa hoant daz guelet, 'il 
has been long aince I hatl a desire to see thco,' M 100'' j dr« 
moa niour a guez dellezot, * as I had many linres deaerved,"" 
119" ; pan a diguenelf an oil ma hoU joa, no moa inuy,* since 
there goes from me wholly all my jtfv, — I had no greater,* 
M 130\ 


Sg. 3. Da toarmant n^ dewa hoaot quet, 'he had not 
desire to torment thee/ M 92". 

PL 2. Huy oz oa gouleunet apret don an ampeig am sarmon, 
' you had asked juat now the (cause of the) hindrance of ray 
sermon/ B 78 ; da clasq an vanesonou hoz boa golennet 
eguetou, 'to seek the venisons after which you had asked* (lit. 
' yoa had asked after them/) B 34. 

Remark : The form devoa (now rfda), I take to be d-iv-oa 
* ei {eae, its) ad-essef.' 

Secondary Preterite. 

Sg. em be 1 PI. *onn be 

az ve 2 ouz be 

mac. en divike, deffe 1 « • i j- ■ i 

iem.hedivike \ ^ Ho dzmhe 

Examples : Sg. 1. Gortos a ranque quen na ve duet an pret 
xa& em be quentafF gouzafvet, * it would need to wait until 
the time should hare come when I should have first suffered/ 
M 37* ; hoaz moz pethe pa em be moean na ve quet scuillet 
hoz goat, ' yet I would pray you, if I have means^ that your 
blood be not spilt/ M 42'* ; cz doutaf na ve nep sa&r lararet 
em be ef guerzet de disquiblyen, ' I fear that some talk be 
uttered that I have sold him to his disciples/ M 214)*. 

Sg. 2. Me gear . . . ne dlehes quet mervell eguyt bech a 
pechet na tra en bet az ve graet cam, '■ I know that thou 
oughtest not die on account of a weight of sin, nor of aught 
in the world that thou mayst have done wrong/ M QQ*; 
gallout en se oamoufme nez ve quet nemet ez ve dit bezet en 
credit, ' thou wouldst have no power over me herein, unless it 
had been entrusted to thee,' M 113*. 

Sg. 3. Ez compse ef deompny pardonaf da pep heny en 
dhihe contrition, *he said to us that he would pardon every one 
who should have contrition,' M 90** j aban en laquaet, da bout 
oar an maes nep en leshe en defe hoant, ' since he is put 
there he will have had desire for whomsoever would let him 
be out/ M. 226V 

PI. 2. Me ya da un lech dy ne dahech dez quen nouz be en- 




troifh brassDch ftz, ' 1 am gohir; to a place to wtiich. jou will 
not go ji day before you have had greater faith amongst Jf^i/^U 

Mfwark : Aa to rfjn'Ae bbb the remark on the present. Z)f/?t 
(now d^f^) is = (firifie, the provection off to/ being rcjularly 
causod by elieion of tlio subncqueiit towcI. 

The Optative. 
Of thia tense I have only found one instance — peocb rojc 
tezo ereaquet gueflVet ! ' may you altogether have peace in- 
crpiised !' or 'may j>eace be increased to you altogetherj'' 
M 199*. 

ham bezet 1 hon bezel 

haz peset 2 Aoz bezei 

Examples : Sg. 1- Racse a pret hum bezel \\y raaz if gant 
y dan k-ch ulitl, * therefore let me have it at onoe, that I ma; 
go with it to the high place,' M 132^ 

Sg. 2. TnigareiE haz tezei goude da poen pan ay nia spen 
an bet man, ' bavo thoii pity after thy pain, when my spirt 
shall ^a from thia world,' M 141"*. 

PI. 1. Rac &e nit' hii[i] pet^ hon bezel hy, ' tlierefore I pray 
jou, let us have it,' M 4§\ 

PL 2. Ozif truez /«>.;' bezet, ' on mo have ye pity/ B 120 
ouzif truhez hoz hzcf, B 194 ~ oiiff trnhez hoz bezet, B 196 ; 
nep aoun nnuz tczrt^ 'have ye no fear,' M 73* — nep aou 
aos bfzety M 155» = iwz bezef aoun quel, M 1S5''. 


For the iofinitive cu/oat is u§ed, 

ExmnpicH : A quement ae eu ma pechct na gallhenn que 
cafont ri3[uet, ' ia my aiu ao grcsat tliat I cannot have a remedy ? 
M S9'' J ri^/hnf pardon . . . . iie galles quet, Hhou canst do< 
have pardon,' M J12". 

Participle Preterite, 
Houz euz y laniot dren trngarci: ban iiieur trupz ouz eux 
fn'zef^ ' you have freed them through the mercy and the great 
pity that you have had !' (lit, * that to you is been,*) M \75\ 

DOEN, *T0 BEAR.* 143 

III. DOEN, 'to bear.' 

Act. Pres. sg. 1. dougaf^ 3. douc. 

Pret. sg. 3. dougas. 

Fut. sg. 1. douguif, 3. dougo. 

Sec. Pres. sg. 3. douque. 

Imperat. sg. 2. douc. 

pi. 1. douguomp, 9. dvuget, douguit. 

Optative sg. 3. ra dougo. 

Infinitive doen. Part. pres. ozdoen. 

Pass. pres. sg. 3. tlouquer. 

Examples: Act, Pres. sg. 1. Vetez ouz an knech an bech 
man ne dougaf tam, * to-day to the niouut' this weight I carry 
not,* M 133*. Sg. 3. piou eu heman a douc an dour ? 'who 
is this that carries the water ! ' M 48*" ; chede pez froez a douc 
moez ploe, * see what fruit thepeople''s voice bears,' M 120". 

Pret. sg. 3. Oar he [leg. e] chouc hon drouc a dougax^ ' on his 
shoulder he bore our sin,' M 3^; rac biacoaz qneraent Euiquen 
ne dougas grec, ' for never did woman bear so much grief,' M 
39^ ; pan oa corff Jesus lienet Nichodemus mat ha Joseph yvez 
en dougai hac en creis an bez y en auhezas, ' when Jesus' 
body was swathed, good Nicodemus and Joseph also carried it, 
and laid it in the middle of the tomb,^ M 156^. 

Fut. sg. 1. Ne dougui/ <\net^ ' I will not carry (it),' M 131" j 
querz en he douguif nie, ' certes, I will carry it/ M 132*. 
Sg. 3. Mar den da drouc, huy en dougo^ * if evil comes, (lit. * if 
it comes to evil,') ye shall bear it,' M IIQ**. 

Secondary Pres. sg. 3, Douque. I forgot to note where this 
form occurs. 

Imperative eg. 2, Chede un corden, da em-douc dan crouc ha 
douc hy, 'see a cord, betake thyself to the gibbet and bear it,* 
M 96* ; dal an lyzer man, douc ef ma en lenno, * take this 
letter : carry it that he may read it,* M IIG^ ; douc ef breman 
daz eontenancc, ' bear it now on thy forehead,** M 181*. 

PI. 1. Douguomp goasoniez dezy, 'let us bear service to her, 

> * Jusqn'au bont," H.V. But ifl not the allusion to Mount Calvary ? The 
•peaker ii Simos of Cjrene. 




n o4. PI. 2- DoHf/uU an tjiah bilsan da ba-dczalT, * bring ye the 
little child tn lie baptizeil/ ' B 9.S ; huj itiui- queret, douget liy, ^ 
' do you, if you like, carry it,' M ISP. H 

Optative Bg. 3. Au dysioul ra dougo an enefl", * may tlio dtvil 
carry tlie soul ! ' M IS**; dron doe iiip^n] onfU'o pen [= pe + 
an] diaoul 7'am donga, ' by the God» I will annuy him, or may 
the devil carry roe ! "* B S8, 

Tnfiuitive. Ez deuz en douar da rfocw hon g^lachar, 'lie came 
on oarth to bear our grief,' M 4*^ dn; \xqz caret ha i/tffw ho , 
becU ez ouf em graet den, 'through lovo of you, and to bear^f 
your burden, I have made inysHf man,' M 29^; ne dleafquet^^ 
en marv yen dtn'n anquen„ ' I ought not, in cold death, to hear 
grieC M 67" ; adrcf ex chimy[f ] da doen ma auquen, ' behind 
I will stay (Jt ch(>mcrm) to bear my grioti"' B o4 ; te aietix 
quemcret . . . then penet au fiechedou, 'thou hast taken (on 
thyself) to bear the punishment of tlie eius,"" M 68*; me ya. .i^| 
da (fofu merit an traytour, 'I go to bear the desert of a traitor,' ^^ 
M !)G^; cafot entrun bedia onueux ef hep doim da den pris, 
'wo have found liim among tho people, without bearing valua 
[i.e. doing hontmr] to any one,' 11 lOl*". 

Pres, participle acti%*e: (Xz doen dour, 'cariyin;^ water,' M 
47*; o~ (hen an croji?, ' hparing the erosg,' M l-JO'' ; oz d-o^\ 
fnls testcnv,, ' in hearing false witiiea^,' ]J 174. 

Ri'mark : The infinitive doen in the Welsh thryn, Com. (fo%i 

Passive ; 3d. s^. pres. iudit;. Na gou pe en nianyer en douquer 
quet, ' I do not know in what nianufr it is borne,' M 25*". 

Remark : If wc eoiupare these forms in c (g) with the Old 
Irish iuc/id (gl. tradita est) from do-uccad, do-n-uccuMa, 'whom 
I havo brought/ Z. 1054, we see that they are compounds of ^H 

' Ollior oinmplfs, in Bfoton, of Oic ubc of (Up inf. srfive for Ihc inf. pasrire (as 
to wliicli Buc !Si!i lei I'll er, Bcilr. I. 506) ure , rac nn mndnclejt unezaf *o da pri»af, 
' for hia K°<'dni^^« w li' I'L- prizi^J,' BI &" (So in Gcrmnn : ilpnn setnp fruT*? Ut au 
prt'isen, and in l''rt'tirli : wir .su Iwntf ost i\ loupr) ; niic ynt licit da rm'fnjf\ ' Ihey 
rire nut allcwetl to bo related,' M <32* ; ez roo dnrcet An AniiBfi da qumtiDftiaff, ' ht 
was brought to Annn* to hv queslimietl,' M 75'" ; ma ne queret e bnrn tizmnt dii 
ffrueiffin/, 'if tmu via not rondeniP him at once to 1m crncifitid,' M US'-. The 
Coruisli phrase gir«n by SdilMohfr, fft/llcr y tcritut, 'liL seeing fpipila^J of him 
(f/) ih poMiibl &,'=■' he ciiti bo seen,' * he is (o lie Been," does notappear to lio a goiHl 
lie ' "' ■ ' ~ ■ " _ . . - 

L-\iinip]e of litis pUedomentiQ, 

Bee other sach phrBses in Norm' drniaik 

tit Drttmaf ^M 

DONET, 'to OOHE.' 145 

the prep, rfi with a root ucc for *unc, *anc, which Ebel (Beitr. 
ir. 175) equates with irfK in ^veyieov. 

IV. DONET, ' to eome.' 


Sg. "deuaff 1 PI. *deuomp 

duez 2 deuhech 

deu 3 deuont, deont 

Examples: Sg. 2. Peban duez te? 'whence comest thou?' 

Sg. 3. An poan se a deu dre pechet, * this pain cornea through 
sin,' M 68». 

PI. 2. Mar em queret ret eu huy ho tut deputet ez deuhech 
gueneff, ' if you love me, it is needful that you and your 
chosen people come with me,' M 5*. PI. 3. homan eu guie da 
poDiBsaf an tut glDut[on] pan deuont da bezaf anafron, ' this 
is the way to punish the gluttons when they come to be souls,' 
M 13* ; mar deont da fin hac obtinaf ho saesinaf, ' if they come 
to the end and obtain to seize you,' M 23*. 

Remarks. • Duez = Com. dueth, duth; deu — W. daw, 
0. Ir. id (.i. ticfaidh, MS. R.I.A. No. 169, p. 229), deuhech 
=W. deuwck, Com. deugh ; deuont = W, deuant. The root 
seems AV *togo,' whence Gluck has brought the Gaulish 
riremame 'jIuo? and ^p-ara (now Evre) and the "Welsh awon : 
cf. Skr. avana festinatio y avani 'cursus/ 'flumen/ 'fluvius.' 


Sg. 1 *deuzomp 

*deuzout 2 deuzoch 

deuz 3 *deuzont 

Examples : Sg. 3. Ez detiz en douar da doen hon glachar, 
* he came on earth to bear our sorrows,' M 4*; evel quy dimez 
a deuz da guerzaf e tat, '• like a shameless hound he came to 
sell his father,' M IB** j ez deuz de quempret cals a tut, ' there 
came to seize him plenty of people,' M 64**; te az eux 
quemeret quic a den pan deuz dit donet en bet man, ' thou 




hast taken fleali of man when it cume to thee to come into tliis 
world,' M 07" ; ezif^eu^ uii flaterliagantquil epalv ascoaz ban 
Balver, ' there came au icsiiEtpr, and with (the) back of his 
baud h& struck our Saviowr,'' M 70". 

PI, 9. Dau Jra so ez {U'uj:Qck en bet, ' for this thing you 
eamp into the world/ M 174". 

Remark: Deu£ = W, dmth, Com, dueth ; dcuzock = W. 
doethatvck. Corn, deuth^ugh. 

Sg. 1 PI. deuhymp 

dy a det 

duy 3 

Examples: Bg, S, Gant an princpt ne rfy quet cuytj 'from 
the princefi thou wilt not come free/ M 02". 

Sg. 3. En berr ez dur/ an termen, * shortly the time will 
come,' IVI 21''; pan dw/ teniptatfon da faezaf encltnation roet 
eu racaon, so ytron bras, ' when temptatitin shMl come, to van- 
quish iuclinatioD there is given Reason, who is a great lady,' 
M 95" ; en berr ez duy an ameer, ' the time will come shortly," 
M IS-^"; maz duy dan prot caezret stat, 'ao that a beautiful 
state may (shall?) come at the tinip,' 13 104.' 

PI. 1. Pan dcuhi/mp aire ny a paeo, ^ when we shall come 
again, wo will pay," M 910*'. 

PI. 2. Mar del on ho rancuu un dro piou vezo oz delivro 
hay, *if you sliall once come into their hatred^ who will 
(there) bo (that) shall deliver you V M 23". 

Semark : Duy^ now deutd^ Corn, de, dij, 0. Ir. tl, 

SecoTitlary Present. 

Sg. 3. Na ell don eu bet chom yrezen tal an bez yen ma ne 

deuhv atn doanhye pleu, * no one in the world oould also stay 
near the cold tciinb, unleBS he should come who has grieved me 
sore/ M 102*; inaz ve huy en queniennhe me a erethe ez 
deuke prest, ' if it were that you ordered him, I i^hould think 
he would como at once/ M 223'*. 

^ ^f'liM in this page (0. C. 3flfi), fltrs in trAaaTaliiiK- UtifTf ^wn « ftt^fvUm, 
' (hold) a whiti? rube i^iivtry) abuat fbee," hy ' coilorp plbnin in collo tuo.' 

DONET, *T0 COME.* 147 

Secondary Preterite. 

Sg. 3. Ez lararas ez deuzye, ' he said that he would come/ 
M 232*. PI. 2. Deut mat ra vech pan deitzeck quent, * wel- 
come be ye since you have come first,' M 7*. 

Remark : Deuhe 8eema=W. deuai ; deuzech ( =W. deuthech) 
is perhaps a mistake for deuzoch (W. deuthock^ Com. dutheugk)., 
the 3d. pi. pret. 


Sg. deux, deuz 2 PI. deuet, deut 

deut 3 deuent 

Examples : Sg. 2- Deux alesse, na dale quet, ' come thou 
hence, do not delay,' M 61**; deux gant apetit, Runiter, ' come 
thou with desire, Runiter,' B 14 ; deuz^ comps un dra, * come, 
say one thing,' M 112^ 

Sg. 3. Deut hon maestrpan caro, 'let our master come when 
he shall like,' M 49^ 

PI. 2. Deuet guenempny m'atrou Pylat, ' come you with us, 
my lord Pilate,' M 238*; deut guenef hac en ho tretif guelhaf 
maz gnillif, * come with me, and I will treat you the best that I 
can,' M S* ; dyaoulou, Lucifer, ha te Sathanas, deut em requet, 
na fellet tam, * devils, Lucifer, aud thou, Sathanas, come ye at 
my request, do not fail,' M 97*. 

PI. 3. Mar meunont comps outaf deuent tizmat, ' if they 
wish to speak to me, let them come at once,' M 226*. 

Remark: Deuz=Com. dus, dues : duet^^W . deued ; deuet 
='W. deuwck, dewch. Corn, duegh, deugk : deuent=W. deuant. 
Com. dens, D 694. 


Donet, dont (=Com. dones, 0. Ir. toiniud). 

Examples : Saeson da donet^ ' the time of thy coming,' M 
37** ; egnyt ma donet en bet man, ' on account of my coming into 
this world,' M 67* ; guell eu deoch avisaf pe en faeczon ez 
gaell donet, ' it were better for you to consider in what fashion 
it may come,* M 116" ; deuotion he deveux da donet da servich 
doe, ' devotion hath she to come to serve God,"* B 22 ; gret dezi 
domet, ' make her come,'' B 74 ; so he study d<mt dan ty alias. 




■ her desire ts to cuaie to the Louse oftea,' B 18 ; troet eo em 
brut'' dont dauedouch huy en ty man, * it ia turned in my miiid 
to come to you in this house,' B 20. 

Pres. part, active oz donet. 

Example : An tmytour so oz donet dam quempret, ' the 
traitor t& ooiiiiiig to take me,^ M G9\ 

Pret. part, passive dfuet, diwf, deut. 

Examphs : Ma car, pe da tra ez omle rfeuef^ ' my irienJ, 
wherefore art thou come ? ' M 70" ; piou oudcs pebau oude (fuet ? 
* who art thou, whence art thou come ?^ M18*i dacorapsdeoch 
ez ouf durft * to speak to you I am come,' M SO* ; mar den 
dwt an pret, ' if the time is comsj'' M 46*; dm'i eo uuan ama[ii] 
dii hont leanes, 'come is some one here to be a nuu,' B 20; 
duet fift' diapell doz sGllet^ ' 1 am come from afivr to see you," 
B 38 ; deui mat ra vecli, 'be ye weh-ome/ SI 7^ 

Memarks : The infinitive domU when compared vsith O, Ir. 
t- ohiiitd^ appears to he derived from a compound of the prepo- 
sition tk^ du ' to,' and the root ON, in which we may pe-rbapa 
recognize the Skr. AM 'to go,' with the weakening^ of the 
vowel and the labial nasal ao common in Celtic. That AM 
exists on European soil has already been shown by Bupp, ^.G. 
P. 491, who connects Lat. ow-nus, for *atii-iimi with the root 

' Cr. O.'W; hmt (gl animua) Beitr. IV. 406. It ina¥ be worth hinting tlial 
tThft Celtii! fomna BH-T— Gnu'iBh flpaTPU-B< (ex roto ?) W. ^j'j^=0,W. •brH 
' mind,' braut, hiau'd, ' jutl^eiit,' (.ora. hryx, hret, bnts. It. krtlh, brtith, — may 
possibly thrtiiiir HgTit on tbt SalMpHinTi brat . . . and Ow Pparuii, hrateii {see 
Gorsaeu iu KuLn's ;!cit8t'hrift, it. 24 1, 247, 248), Kngg't"** iJctiTiticntion of Oscan 
trateit, with Latin paratit (ibid. vi. 29), btcnuAC *m!iraliir^Li.\.. imperotor, 
apiHUi fuulty, as the b in emhrafnr mny he due lo the TnciLnlizing; influence of the 
prec«dit)^ *'■- In tUo table of £iiiiitia, l\ni passurs gnoic pia ptflemiut pr*itfr pan 
.... detfiitud tipua t&monti pt-nim dohim oiatitim, siom inc eonionO mait egltHO* 
tafli']c(tt attttind pnn piewim WHATBia a»ti eedeix timnudi inifn trftc nom rfo/ 
tmaU'Ua] tani/wud timitwu eamiu pertutnuM may wtll bo tinuslated ^ai qiiis pere- 
marit (cdmitiii) jinui^irj^uaTU .... jurjto edsiiB in uomitio aica doto Ttinlo, te ca 
comilia muKih reipuMii;ae cnnsd quiLiu aUcniua ivti uut p^itiliuiLis [?] ciiustl, idque 
w do ccnntue Bent^ntta maiicaiu: partis perinicre,' (Jim tmb^ktion, except 
the Sard rati, is Oorsgen's.) Another Qspaii word, wliub may ptjsaibly he 
illuBtrattJ hy Celtic, is fiikdafed ' acdificabit," with, which I wooid connect 
tht) O. Ir. akdt a 'boilding,' (Conifien in Kuhu'a ^fiiahrift, v. &6, over- 
butilvj thitiUt EuppoKfs ailidafid to he mii-wriitpn fnr aidkaffd). So many 
fixiliuh alt4^^njpt8 biive been miidc, notably by the EcigliE.bnian Bethaiu, to 
explain Old Jtiilian wfjrJa hy wlmt v,as (lilhgfld to be Cetlie, ibot one in nlmost 
afraid lo put forwnnl such conjecturrB as tboso ahoT^e metis reftardicp hraMi a'aA 
aikdafed. But I »bel(«T myself UQd&r the Ebielda of Kbel (lieitr. il. 4^7), Aa<) 
Zeyu. Kuhn'it Kfitjs. lii, "4^ 75, wliprc, by the way, owing in a nnypl printftTH 
lsutV«rEchieban4;,p stands for n in tptitht, ajwd, ^tpodtn, refldtn'^f^t, okm/, ymotitr. 




in question. The other forms are from a root a ^ Skr. im, 
* to go,"* which however is not beiegtt. 

>2. o, 

a, in 




to go. 

PL deomp 


Examples : Sg. 1. Qucnifiit maz aff^ no guelaff gour, ' how 
inuch-soever I go, I see Dot a man,'' B 96; pan off" dren bro 
in# so noaz, *wlien I go through the country I am naked/ B 
206 ; penauK cjq/mc en he tiicc ? *■ bow do I go in her face/ 

Sg. 2. Preder maz e:: na maz dieez bezaf, " think where thou 
goest, and whoro thou oughteat to be/ B 79 ; pPDaux bz cj 
plen digiicnef ? 'how goest thon qtiite from \M<a'f M 137*. 

Sg. 3, A, lA : Pan a diguencfif^ 'sinco he goes from me/ 
M ISO' ; qnet ne caffech un banhe laez, rac oil gant an matcz ez 
a, ' yon would not get one drop of milk, for all goes with the 
maidserrant/ M 201*; ez-a merdeidi, 'seamen are going/ B 
14; mo ya dezo da guerzaf, 'T am going to them to sell/ 
M 18" ; e hoU goat aya digantaff, *all hia blood is going from 
him, M 108', Impersonally: me ta dan offeren, 'I am going 
to the uiass/ B 44 ; me ya gant brut da saludif, ' I will go with 
a will to salute (her)/ B 18 ; me ya bremeu da afvet doz dou 
dom, ' I am now going to kiss your two hands/ M 46**; me ya 
en kaer, 'I am going into (the) town/ M 61*; me ya maz 
gujiv ma BQulentT ' I am going that thou miyst see my science,' 
M Sfi"* ; ny a ya oar so davedaff, * we are going therefore to 
him/ M 47*. The obscure form tka, — me tka lem hant 
Nichodemug, M 927*i — which M. de la VillemarquG tranalatet 
'j 'arrive de ohez Nicodemus"', perhaps belongs to this verb. 

PI. 1* Mar deomp, querzorap seat', * if we go, let us travel 
lightly/ M 184^ 

PI. 2. Ne ouu pez a leverez te, Dapiou ou an den se hac aef 
evel 96 en o rout, * I know not what thou sayest, nor who ia the 
man whose road ye are going thus' [Ht. this man and ye are 
going like thia iu his road], M 78*. 


Remarks : Affy e~, n, are = tlie Corn, aj, pth, n. In Welsh 
the forma af, at, a are now used for the first ftiture. The root 
of the forma beginning with a and c is perlmps AS (AS 'to 
go,' which, however, is not hvh'ijt) ; that of the Breton 3rd 
sg. ia ia perhaps YA 'to go,'' which seems to occur in t€-vai 
and Lat. Janus, Janua (Benfej'J. 


This tense I haTB found only in the 3rd Sg. 

Eaiampkit ■ Ez aeJt- adarre Jemia, ' Jeaus went back again,' 
M 181" ; Antrou, lavar dif mar dac;; giiCBct, ' Lord, tell me if 
he went with thee ?' M 194" ; Joseph ab Arinjathia a y&z da 
Fylat da mennat cord' hon roe Jesaa^ 'Joseph of Arimathea 
went to Pilate to beg the body of our King Jesus,* M ISl*"; 
Joseph quent abardahez a yez do bezhat, ' Joseph before even- 
ing went to entomb it/ M 150*. 

Rcmarli^: A^z (now &az) \& — W. aetk^ Corn- cik. The 
Welah mih sooms to point to older forma, *m-t, (as heth, 
* milk,' = •lact,') and ^ank-t, in which t is the tecse-BigB, 
standings as Siegfried thought, for sL This root I take to 
be ANK, Skr. unc, which Siegfried first (Beitr. II, 396) 
pointed out in Celtic. D-ttez is otfjr compounded with the 
preposition rfe. I cannot explain yes:. 


Sg. i^ 1 PI. akimp, aimp 

y S eheuf^ dakech 

ahy, ay, iet, ielo 3 ahinl 

Ejpampifs: Sg. 1. Rac se bede Devy ez i^ hac en pediff, 
'theretbro I will go to David and will beseech him,' B 198; 
gueiiooch ha Martha yvfz ei-^/l *with jou and Martha also I 
will go,' M 102"; dent maz-j/ gant langiiis ha tristez, 'come 
ye that 1 may go with languor and eaduesa/ M 98'; rac ae 
apret bam bezet hy maz i/ ganty dan lech tihel en maea a 

■■ Sn nine (tri'Mth = ambarfaji, inaftAti, ' t(* ' ^ rnaHart^ 'to mitgnifV,' 
pitth ' agr&emoiil,' from pif^tuni, aud pcrliaps jpi^(A 'fwltivaled' {tir JaetA) 
■ripe,' from faetm, -whence also Corn. d*/-itifth "ft wildnnieaa,' P. 17, 3, mar 



quacr, ' therefore let ine have it at once, that I may go with 
it to the high place outside the town,'' M 132''; an iioU douar 
ez t/", ' the whole earth I will go through,' M ISO"". 

Sg. S. Quefl'raiin paa y ahaiiaa tiez Teso quet^ ' a. share, 
when thou shalt.go heiicf, thfui wilt not havp," M 52''; ret ea 
t^'Z uiirvy Lac i.-z y en boz, 'it la ntiL'essury that thou ahalt die, 
and go into a tomb,'' M GS\ 

.S^, 3, AHY, AV : me men «rouzout diouty pe a le^h rna 
DS pelech ez aJiy^ ' 1 wish to know of lior whence she was and 
whttiicr she will go,* B 34 ; mar comsez gou ez-ajr da hoi nut dan 
badoUt ' if thou apeakent falsely all thy property will go for uo- 
ikin;; ' {dan hadoit = Prov. en badn, Diez, E. W. i. 146), B 179 ; 
pan ay ma Kperet an bet ntan, ' when my spirit shall ^o from this 
world,' B 202 ; dan cador eternal oz ay^ ' to the eternal Beat it 
will go/ M 36*"; lyvyrit dann antrou an ty nisiostr an vpz en 
quemenn dezaf e apraataf, hac ez ay hep tardaf quet, ' Bay to 
the lord of tli(.4 house that the Master of the Law commands 
him to make it really* and that he will come without delay,' 
M 47'*; mar en barn an gentil Pylat t'z ay hon stat en drouc- 
atretj ' if the noble Pilate cundomus him, our estate will come 
into evil ruin,^ M llfi"; en ty maz ay, antreyt tizmat, "^ into 
the bouse where he shall go, t'liter ye quickly,,' M 47*^. lEL, 
lELO. me yc^ gueneoch buy, 'I will go with you/ M 155*; 
en lech uiaz querhet deomp hetus, me i/el joaue bras, 'let us 
go gaily whithersoever you wish : I sliall go very gladly,' M 
228* ; Maryet a ny a crethe monet de guelet P Mary Salome : 
a yel ? ya auraasuret, ' O Maries, should wc think of going to sec 
him?'' MaryS\lome: *^Bhan we^oP yoa, aaauredly/M184'*: 
oil ny a-iel de guelet, • we wUl all go to see her,' B 140 ; me a 
yeh hep quet dale muy, ' T will go without any more delay/ M 
CO**. (The variant here ia yef, and the metre shows that yeh 
ia wrong) ; me ... a ielo prest dren forest man, *" I will 
go through this forest/ B 34 j me ych preeant do rentafi*, ' I 
will now go to render thein,^ B 116. 

PI. 1- Hae ez-rt/wm^ bremaii dan ioa, '^ and we will now go to 
the joy/ M 182^ i ez-a merdoidi nmz-aimp en un leHtrat, 
* seamen are going so that we shall go in one royage,' 11 14. 
PL 2. En dtat eo dihuy predestinet pan ^heut an beth, 'in 



(the) state that \s predestined for you wlieti you shall leave the 
world/ M 37*; Nichodem a menu ez ehcui bet e iy, * Nico- 
demus wislipa that you will j;o to his house,' M S27* ; 
ouz pet pz eAeut, 'he fepge you that you will go,' M S?**. 
Me ya da un lech dy ue dahcck dez quen nouz be entfoch 
brassoeh fez, *I &ni going to a place whither ye will not go 
a day before you shall have greater faith among you,' M 62*, 

PL 3- Me a men dastura lignez hiunen ha ho disaeren maz 
akint guenof dan nef, ' I wish to gather the human race and 
deliver them, bo that they shall go with me to the heaven,' 
M 20*. 

Memarh: Theae forms of the person -endings are, as usual 
in the Breton futarea, optatival. As to the roots — for 
there are two— the h in aJiy^ abimp, d- nhech, and nkint, 
if it is not inserted merely to prevent hiatus, seems to 
point to the s of ^5 *to go,' aspirated between vowels. 
lEL is not easily explained^ exrept as a compound of two 
roots, ya and AR. Tu Welsh wo have the latter root aimply. 
ely ela ' ibit."* With at', which occurs in Irish {t-aJr, iar-'raim), 
Gliick connects the river-name Amm now Amo. 

Secondary Present, 
Sg. ahenn, dakenn 1 PI. *ehemp 

ahe, ysw, yt 


Examples : Sg. 1. ma peden . . . ez aken [leg. ahenn] 
breman ahansn, * ray prayer (that) I may now go hence,' B 16 ; 
mar em scohet ne dahnin, na ne galJhenn quet^ ' if you beat 
me, 1 ahoidd not go nor could 1/ ^ 133". 

Sg. 3, Pe en lech enta ez-€tke den hem-repoa dam goartos 
meP 'Whither then would she go to rest herself, to await 
me ?' M SS*' ; curun braa a apcm a yr/s drenn esquom, 'a great 
crown of thorns went through the boues/ M 1I5*; dan nou 
disquibl mat a ye oar ho troat eu em-discuezas, 'to the two 
good disciples who went afoot he disclosed himself,' M SOS". 

PI. 2. Quent ez ehef, paet, 'before you go. pay,' M 210*. 



PI. eomp 

quae, quea, que 2 

et, it 

act 3 


MONET, 'to go.' 163 

Secondary Preterite. 

Of this tense I have found only the 2nd Sg. azes (\V. 
aet^f), now azez. 

Examples: A ret oa ez azes breman ahanenP *was it 
necessary that thou shouldst have gone now from us P' M 213*. 


Examples : Sg. 2. Juzas dal an tarn bara man, debre ha 
quae, 'Judas, take this piece of bread, eat, and go,' M 60**; 
quae gant diligancc dave Juzas, ' go with diligence to Judas,' 
M 88*; quae, lavar dam priet na conaanto en marv Jesus, 'go 
say to my husband that he consent not to (the) death of 
Jesna,' M 116*; ael mat quae .... bede patricius, 'good 
angel, go thou unto P.' B 2 ; ael flam quae abreman bed 
patric, * bright angel, go now to P.,* B 6 ; quea [leg. gwac] 
oarse afvet, rac pret ve, * go then, kissed (by me), for it is 
time,' M 100**; que bede an tirant, 'go to the tyrant,"" B 86. 

Sg. 3. Lequet sae am Foil oar e chouc hac^ aet da Pylat, 
* put ye ray Fool's robe on his back, and let him go to Pilate,' 
M 104* ; aet gueueoch, me en ro dihuy, ' let him go with 
you — I give him to you,* M 118*. 

PI. 1; Cza, eomp, na gorteomp den, ' come ! let us go ! let 
us not await any one ! ' M 6* ; cza, oar se eomp pront, ny hon 
try, 'come, then, let us go promptly, we three !'^ M 155"; 
Jabann, deomp bet ennhaff, ' John, let us go to him,' M 47* ; 
deomp oar se pan querhet, ' let us go then, since you wish it,' 
M 48* ; sevet, deomp a pret, ma breuder, ' Rise ye, let us go 
now, my brothers!* M 69*; deomp da guelet pebez divez a 
graer dezaf, ' let us go to see what end is being wrought for 
him,' M 129* ; en lech maz queret deomp hetus, * whithersoever 
ye like, let us go gaily,' M 228*. 

PI. 2. Yahann ha Pezr et breman da Hierusalem, 'John 

^ lit. ' we oor three,' or, ' we, three of ua,' cf. the Old Irish w ndiit, ' we, a pair 
of ni.* 



and Peter, ^o ye now to .Jerusaleni,"' M 46* ; efh ha leveret 
disquiblyen cz eu daczorchet/ ' go ye and aay to the disciples that 
he ia arisen,' M 185* j ed-oW en maoa, ma list da ehanaf^ * go 
ye all forth, leave me to rest,' D ^Q-^ it de hambrouc, 'go je 
to lead him,* M 104''; i"^ scaf gantaf, 'go ya lightly with him/ j 
M 118^ ; ft oar ae apret, qiierzy t 3i:af, ' go ye then at once, farfl^f 
lightly, ' M 93tl*; ma aelox glan, it bremao 07, an tnou^ ' iny pur© 
angels, go ye now down,^ B 144; y/ gantaf^ lyvyrit scatiT hep 
bezaiF ven, *go ye with him, speak ye lightly, without being 
vain,' M 47* ; dalet hoa arohant, jjt gante/ ' keep your silver, 
go ye with it,' M 86" ; yt dagnitty da comp,5 outy try giier, 
'go ye to her, to speak to her three worda," B 34; ma aelez 
net, yt huy breman da quernhat Dery, ' my clear angol«„ 
ye now to seek David/ B 20G. 

Remarks : Quae (now i,-^y pi. lit = Oora. ke, pi. Kwcffh'^ 
U obviously from the root KI, which we find in kZm, ciOf cieo^ 
and 0. Ir, oU 'way; ' (Skr, ^i 'acucre,' with which Curtius, 
(t. E. couuecta tcm, is not, 1 believe, belfz/t). Aet (=^W. 
ned) and aent (W. aent-^ Corn, eji^) seem formed from the 
root I. In aet (Sanskr. Hu) and in aent we have gimatiou. 
The Ist. pi. eotn-p = Skr. nydma, tofiev, and the 2d. pi. et, it ^^ 
= Skr. ita, Gr. Ire. ^ 

Infinitive mmut. Participle pres. ozmonei. Part, prt^ 

£xfimp/fft : Inf. ez etudiaf mosiet e kaer, * I desire to go into 
town/ M l?* ; a quen atriz en hent re gaUienn me quet 
gneneochny monet en prot man ? * is the road so strait [Vn'-r 
from Lat. tstrk-tuH] that i onnld not go with you row ?'' M Q2^ ; 
gnell eu mount liep dale tuny, 'it is better to go without delay- 
ing more/ M 124^ ^ 

Part. prea. Me guol espres Jesu oz monct aman dre an rn,^^ 
' I sec Jesua clearly, going through the atreet,' M 1'24'' j me 
guel ung merch en oreson quen dison oz mottei, ' I see a maiden 
in prayer so noiselessly going/ I.i 34 ; ot/x^ tnonH me a gcel try^j 
* I see three going,' M 130". ^M 

Part. pret. Act ea dan place yen digiienef, ' it is gone to the 
cold place from me,' M 74"; daz em-coll az youll mat ezout 
ttety 'to destroy thyself, of thy good will art thou gonp,'M94'; 
Setu me graet fran? am langonr dre grace ?anct Devy settuy 

ODER, 'to jm* 


aef, • behold me made fre^ of my weakness j through Saint 
David's grace, beliold it gonc,^ B 198. 

liemnrk : The Lnfinitive of nwnct {= Cora. Tttonm, mo^, but 
W. mijned^ mynd) resemltlea the Latin mhifrc, in e-mlri^re^ pro* 
mine.r(\ which Benfey (Kuhn's Zeits. vii. 53,) refere to the Skr. 
Mt (pres. mlndti), 'to go,'' Here, then, perhaps, we have 
» aecoud trace of the Sanskrit 9th elasa to put with cluinim 
from KLU, k\v, Skr. fri* t^ottner, Beitr. ii. J}22). As to the 
vowol of ntd-m-t. it agree3 with that of the Lat, md-tco * I 
make to go," (Beiifey, Kuhn's Zeits. vii. 53). 

The part. pret. pass, ad \b obviously from the root I, 
though the diphthong is not easily expldQe<l. 

VI. OBER, Uo do/ 
S^- 9*-oaf, giaff 1 PI. 

gnws, gnz S O'^'^Hfh gnt^i, Sireit, grei 

ffrofij gra 3 greont 

EjrampfcH : Sg. 1. Ne gr'oitjf en bet man coiitanancc, * I do 
no favour (?) iu this world^" B 904; anezaff co ez gronjf fae, 

* of him it is (that) I make game,' * c'est de lui que je faia^,' 
B 172; ez j/m/'joae, '1 make joy,' M &* ; hoz trugarecat a 
rnf oz gueriou, 'I do thank you for your words,' M 15"; 
ma raeatr Paulinus hoe caret a graf, * my master Paulinus, 
I do love you,"" U 114; petra a. gra/Me da Jesn f 'what shall 
I do lo Jeau3?"' M 11^*; nis graf sy, 'I make not dejault,' 
MiiS" ; ne raff" le, 'I do not awoar/ (leg. me r. 1. ' I make 

Sg. 2. Bac maz ffr^ii^z clem, ' beforei thoii niakeat complaint,'' 
B 124 ; nea prlso den mar grez qmen dalch da termenyou, 

* no one will prize thee if thou dost so iiold thy ends,' (I'.f. ' si 
tu moutres tant U" hesitation,' H.V.) M 01'' ; petra cu a grez 
te amauf "^what i,§ it that thou doest here?' M 77**; hoguen 

Ciren pez yvez ma eta-gre^ roe? 'yet, why too is it tJiat thou 
makcst thyself a kingP' M 120^ ; col a grez manen ;/;■*,>, 
' thou dost lose if thou doeat it not,' B 164; pan gousoch ma 

' To ttiu root GLuck rtdeia tiit Gaalith rivet-nflmo MoinM, mw Ibe Maim. 



iiaquat ba na rez nep dJgaret mat, * since you can deny 
and thou make^t not any good exciiso»'' B 40, 

Sg. 3. Hoz conizou cref am j;roff trrevit,' ''your forceful woi 
mftke me grieved,' M SS"* ; comancc a ijro<i ma aiiqucn, ' mj 
nrief doth commence/ B 92 ; guelet eraeux un Lunvrebras at 
yra dreist may pridiriet, ' I have seen a great vision which 
makes me p-eatly aaddened,'' M 1]0''-116^ ^d 

PL 2. Ms GTot ez (jrui/t goii, * I think jou do falsely,' M 
104"; pez cleiu em drem a heman a grd bremanP 'what com- 
plaint before rae [lit. in my face], make you of tiro now P * ICh 
101*; ne vech qiiet car Cesar dezaf mar prurt grace, 'you 
would not be a friend of Ccesar's, if you do him grace,' M 1 12* j 
pell ere diouch ma youll ez ^rei brcman ann oU dann ol^ ' noii^l 
very long since againat my will you do altogetlier,' M 42* ; gou 
a ret mar em hastet huy, ' you do falsejy if you hasten me,'' M 

PI. 3. Na gonflont pea a oreont quet, '^thsy know not 
they do; M I39^ 

Sg. gri/ig^ p-is 1 PI. ffresomp 

grez 3 *gre%mit 

E-rampks : Sg. L En fftyis [lep;. grpa ?] me dre apctit 
equite, * I have done it through desire of equity,"' M 164*; 
coffs a gri'*, ne nacliis quct, •* I have made confeaaion, I liavoj 
not denied/ M 91*. 

Sg. 3. Ho pascaf e grez Moyses en deserz gant an mam 
*Mo3e3 did feed you in a desert wjtli the manna,' M 129". 

PL 1. Ez gresomp ny roatony re ouzide, ' we Lave dot 
^^at rudeness to thee/ M 230*. 

Sg. gruif, gnf 1 PL groMmp 

gruy, gry 2 grehmt^ grehet 

grodi/, graf/, grug 3 grehint 

Examples : Sg. 1. Fallacryez aorcerexou a grui/ a 
dou dez^ "^ wickedness, sorceries, I will do within two days, 
B 84 ; pidiff sent ha eanteset a grjf^ ' I will pray to saints a: 

91* ; dif lavar pez a. gnfy ' tell rue what I shall do,' M 95*" ; da 
heal evel tat ha patrom a ye//' da yueidon, ' follow thee like a 
&Uier and patron I will uiiEo Ireland/ B 14; alias pe n/ na 
tnta if me daz cafi'out, ' alas, what shaW I do, and where shall 
t« find thcc '(* M 191*; reutaf gracou a ijrijf, * I will 
jr thankfi,' B 98* 

Sg. 2. Ble az suply ez j/rtiy iin bid, * I heseech thee that 

thou wilt inake a sign," It lli4; mir na ffnit/ da dainnatiDii, 

'^Wft'aro that thou cJvnae not thy damuation,'' B 166 ; autrou 

■nec.quet neii jF»y, matreit ueguelchy bizhuyquou, *Hweet Lord, 

tliou shall Bot do it, my feet thou shalt never wash/ M 52*. 

Sg- 3. Me a ffrofir/ ma oreson, *I will make my prayer/ B 
134; me a. ijroat/ hoatitcc uq recjuet, '1 will make eagEirly a 
ceqtiest,* B 176; men groay cloarec, ' I will make him a cleric/ 
B 112 ; Autrou Doe, eza poz a graij ma caWn, ' Lord God, 
ihen what shall my heart do P M y4* ez dingray lion acrit, 
' be will undo our writing,* B 86 ; pan duy dit a gray mez, 
•when he shall coiiif he will do thee shame/ B 8G ; me gray 
ma grat, ina plii^adiir, * I will do my will (atid) my pleasure/ 
B 40; me ray antier ho matery, 'I will do your busineBB 
completely/ M IW** ; me he gmy ez presaut, ' 1 will execute H 
in thy presence/ M 97* ; hoaz me a tjraij hao alieuK rauy a 
reux eguet uameiix graci^ ' I will do still and ol\en more uf 
eril than I havt^doue/' M 119*"; me hoz (//v/y eontaiitet, 'I will 
make you contented/ B 112; ny ho gruf/ eu beixqueni cnaerret, 
*we will make you so confined/ M 164" ; ny en yn;y raliet, 'we 
will make him accoinpliahed* (Ht. 'rubbed/ 'grated : ' Sp. railar, 
Uiez, E.W, i. 339) B 112 ; y a gray, piost cals festou hac enorou 
ha madou dlt^ ' they will make feasts, and (dri) honours, and 
(^ve) goods to thee/ M 62*; me a gruy [leg. yrayYI berrhat 
a rerapsy, 'I will shorteu hi« existeuce/ M TS'*. 

^ Note here the iief^tfvo >i-&idf>tis. So in Frciicli^ Jf fi^mi bills dc m«I que je 
i^«i ai fiut. See Dke tii.* 380. 410. A similar idinna in Welan bu bt-'.'ii uytice'l 
by Spurt?!! (Grammar, p. 1^7). wW rfniiparos y rn/jf audyr a jft^n/fnsnt ^n tetil 
VAO y tUfnTonI inth H y a det auteHrit qui ecriveni mtntT qu'iii KH fiar/ml. Coni- 
pwiwn cf peRt«r or lew nJwoys inipUi^a a nepBtiun, As Spurrell reoiarlut — ^ 
»ytfrf/try vkB," A in croaur ihwi E/xt equivalent to Kin yw B mor/aicr ag A^ 
'fivtnottif grmt ft* -i.* 



PI. 1. Deux guenef bede Hlherdon [leg. Iverdon P] maa 
ffroahimp lioii trette, 'come with me to Irdand so tbat we 
may [&}is.\\ ?] make our treaty/ B 14 ; dBo[inp] da clefuet atat 
a badex liaz [leg. ha P] raai: (froahhnp oitsoii, *^ let us go to hear 
(the) state of baptism, <ind that we may make prayer,' B 52 ; 
na ne ffrtihi/mji qu6t quen treto, ^and we will not make anj.fll 
other arrangement,' M 118* ; roar bez luarv hon diaparty, pez 
a rahimp ni pia mij:;noii ? ' if death shall be to part us, what 
shall wo do, my darliug?' M 27". 

PL 2. Certen uen greheut bizbD^yqwen, ' certainly you shi 
never do it,' M SP; pian grchtuf buy oblation, *when yott| 
shall make an oblation,* M 5^"^ ; ne n'keut ? grt'kettt pe nw 
torro houz fry, ' will you cot do ? you shall do, or I will break 
your nose,' M 13P ; jservig cuf ufvel se an eil dcguile a grehet^ 
'service loving; (and) lowly like this, you sbaU do the one 
the other/' M 54''. 

PI. 3. Quf'iuent [a] vezo en bo caa ma^ ffrfthmt touUou, 
goulyou bras em menibrou, 'so ninda will hatred be in them 
that they wiU make holes, great wounds, in my limbSf^'^M 
M 43' ; ma guyseamant guonn a grakinl y quen ruz gant ma 
goat, 'my white vesture they will make bo red with my 
blood; M 43^ 

Secondary Preaeut. 




Sg. pmhetin^ gren 

1 PI. pfahfitnp 

2 prakech, prahet 
y 'grahent 

ffuenvj guerue, gnetire 
grake, grs€ 

Examples: Sg. 1. deoch ez grahcnn plen vileny liouz 
buy mar cniciflSbenn, 'to yoii I (should do a great outrage, i 
I should crucify your kipg/ M 113'' ; He gott pebez tra a gr 
AcnUj ''I know not what I should do,* M 218*; evel goas li, 
en seruicben guellaff maz gallen, ne gren [leg. ffreiin] quen, 
'like a liege vassal T served him as best I could, I did not 
otherwise/ B (3. , 

Sg. 3. Gouden niadnu ha beneficzou, an marvaillou ban eufroa' 
brae a guerue douz re hep merit, ' after the good things a>nd 

' LU. lo Ml fellow (eiU). See mj holo cm th6 Corninli Pawipn, 179, 3, 

tF, the marvi'ls and great deeds (that) he did unto your 
ffitliout merit,' M IGS"^; ha hoaz muy ez giunru digor 
ao mor ruz, 'and yot more, Hti did open the Red Sea^"' M 

ElS* da reparaf an criui a gueaie den en betli da qucntat^ ' to 
pair the crime which at first man romniittt'd in the world/ 
'. 27* ; piou votn an fidi a gururr au lotill man ? ' who was the 
firol that made this hole V M 137* ; certt^s, oie a goar, ne grahe, 
^■'pertaiuLy, I kiiow, he would not do (it),' M 90* ; na ve quen 
^P«in grahe lonen, ' nothing el^e would make nie happy,^ M 
191* ; l>eU en arhvestas, ha dre na grm brut un sot ef en re- 
patas, "long ho considered him, and, as lie made no sound 
(bruit)*, he thought him a tool/ il 102''; refus a grae he alies, 
•fihe did refuse often/ B 49- 

VI. 1 . Mc cret ne carech quet ez grahemp pechet en bet man, 
'I beliyve you would not lite (that) wo should commit sin in 
this world/ B 58. 

PI. 2. Mar dehatoch ez grnhech gou, ' if you dehated, you 
would do falsely/ M 147' ; lio grahcch hotus, ' you would 
make them happy/ M 225* ; ne talhe quet ez grahet quen,* 

I* U ne faudrait pas qne vous faasicz autremsnt/ M 40*. 
I Secondary Preterite, 

Of thia tenae I have tinly touod the Ist and 3rd sg. grasenn 
and grase. 
■ Eramjiles : Sg. 1. Quel nen gramnn pan vihenn fiir, 'I 

Bvhoald not have done it, if I had heen wise/ M SS**. 
" Sg. 3. En devoe joa bras Herodea dre se, credout^ ez guelae 

hae ez grace [leg. grane] preat un bid, * Herod had great joy 
throngh this, he believed that he would see, and that h« 
(Jesua) would do, a sign straightway/ M 102^. 


^■Sfp. 1 PI- grfomp, graeomp 

^M groa^ gra 2 grngt^gi-uct^grnHfgrif^graH 

^^^^Examplf^s : Sg. 2. Ma groa preservet, guerehez clouar, 

^B^m^d* la V~ thinking at 6urait, tramlaCet. 'coniae U ne fsinit ■.ucuii« mtrf ulle.' 
' * if. do la V, trnTknldtcH. ' voub He devii>t pari le fnire.' 

■ SseBU an liivtoricsi iaflaitive. 



' make me safe, dear Virgin !"" B 92 ; groa siu an croas Foar 
ma enep, ' make the sign of the cross on mj face,,' B 124 ; 
Qroa da requet pa[u] ez pHdaif, goiilen acler an pez a qniri, 
' make thy request eiuce I ask theej demand cleuriy the thiu^^ 
thou wilt desire,' B 1/8 ; ffra da echec, na prezec may, 'make 
thy check, preach no more,' M 19*; gra an raecher azeux 
prederet, ■■ dn the matter which thou liast thought of,' M 61'' ; 
ffra ef guyridic, pistiguet, 'irake it keen (and) piercing,' Mil 1", 

PI. 1. Grromj} fur un cusal aingulier, "let as prudently 
hold a secret conncil,' M 17"; greomp dezaf pepret guyr pedeii 
ha lequeomp hon creden enhaif, * let ns make to him always a 
true prayer, and place our faith in him/ M ^IS*^ ; doomp oarse 
ha graeomp hon propoa, rac chetu an nos hogoa duet, ' let us 
go then and accomplish our intention^ for see, the night (has) 
come near,'' M 161'; greonip ung ancliu dou trindetj, ' Itit ua 
bow [lit. uiake an inclination] to the Trinity,' B 72 ; antcrin 
ha dinam greomp an entt'rramant, ' whole and iaultless let us 
make the hurial/ B 140. 

PL 2, Qmyt e ereu ha duet gueneoch, • do je bind hira and 
let him como with you,' M 70"; pan ody en hoz ty gruf/t e 
matery, * since he ia in your house, do his business,' M 79**; 
na gruet quen nemet antren, ' do nothing eUe but enter,' M 
49' ; hennez heulyet ha na graet quen, ' follow ye him, and 
do not otherwise," M 47* ; na graet ay, ' make ye uo default,' 
M 49"; aa graei mar, 'make ye no doubt,' M 59*^; ma mam 
flam net, moz pet, gra^f joo.^, ' my bright, pure mother, I pray 
you make joy,' M ISP; maestr, assezit^ me oz pet, grf/t feat, 
' Master, sit ye down, I pray you, make a feast," M 7" ; raa 
maeatr qiier pn^ clier mat, 'my dear master, make you good 
cheer,' M 9'^; na grit dif caffou na saouzan, ' do not you cause 
to me griefs nor care,' B 38; na ,^iv/ quet ho pidtf, 'lie TJona 
faUea done pas prier' [lit, 'do not cause at all a praying of 
you'^], M 5"*; pan noz eux difnie antreet an telr requet an pe- 
dervet grei, * since you have not granted ii3e the tliree requests, 
do [lit. make] the fourth,' M 37** ; me en renoncc net na gret 
douet, ' I renounce him quite, do not ye doubt,' M 81" ; crachyt 
oar he fry ha gret e aeren, ' spit ye on hia nose and bind hii 
[lit. ' make ye a binding of him '] M 82^ 

OBBR, 'to bo.' 



Sg, 3. Doe aQ autrou ro gnny Louen, ' may (rod the Lord 
' m&ke you jojful,' M 9* ; da doo reomp graczou e maJou : ma 
hon ^ray louBD, * to God kt us give thanks for bis beuedla: 
luaj he make ua joyftiU' M 63", 

Infinitive Active : Oher. 

Sxampifs : Mez goaranto de ofiw, ' I will promise thee to 
fdo it/ M 14** i clescont prob ma disofttr, ' they seek a proof 
of my undoing,' M 23^ 

Remark: This (like O. Ir. op£«>) is borrowed from Lat. opera, 


Praa. indie. Me venn ez gmhcr rac ma emeux [leg, memeux] 
Bfl diliberet, * I wish that it b« done, for 1 have determined on 
this,' M 23"; au volante divin a veiin ez grahn antorin an fin 
din a detemiinas, 'thp Divine will wlshea that the worthy end 
it has determined on be accomplished entirely/ M il"; petra 
vo« da doe gouznf an chance hau viUanco las a graer dit dre 
caa ? 'why did Ood suffer [lit. what waa it to Gad to suffer] 
dlA tot and the cruel villany that la done to thee through 
Imtrod/ JI 127». 

Secondary Present. 

Exnmplfa : Da mab an guerchez ez gmH encrea bras, ' to the 
Virgin's Son there was done great Tiolence,* M 84' ; goret an 
CM, ■ le mal est Jait/ M 95^ 

Participle Pret. : grmt^ grH. 

£rampka : Pan voe graef an pechot quentaf, *when the first 
ein was eommitted/ M 30%=p. v. great [le^. graet ?] a, p. q. 
U 35* ; woude bout graet sfilv, * after being made whole/ M 
76* ; pa songiaf ho bezaf duet hac tm-graef den, * when 1 
think of your having come and made yourself man,,' M 24* ; 
ea oaf en eSet em-^ra«/ den, * I have in fact made myself 
man/ M 29*^ ; reaon ez ve gret) ' (there is) reason that it should 
be done/ B 124 ; reutaf giiicou a griff dan trindet pan o^gret 





mam laouen, ' 1 will reuder thankB to the Trioit/, since I am 
made a joyful mother/ B 98. 

Remark : Grotif, graf, ia the O. Wel&h guni^ Cum. garaf^ 
Irish /efatm, and the root of these forras is an Indo-European 
VAR^ whence, perhaps, the Skr. n-ata 'action,* ' work.' 

Sg. ronf, rof 
re, ro 

VIL REIFF, Ho give.' 


1 PI. rflmnip 

2 rtJiet, reit 
.3 reoiit 

Examples : Sg. 1 . Dihuy oar undro ez i-oaf nn gallout man, > 
* at the same time I give you this power/ M 56* ; ma malloez 
a ro{[f dan hilen, ' mj curse I give to tiie villain/ M 74* ; ma 
bouzellou da mil toucec a ronf an quentaf pret, hac ez roof 
ma fry da santat' pep Her infernal, 'my bowels I give in the 
first place to a thousand toads^ and I give my nose to ismell every 
infernal stench,' M 93^ ; un chapelet a ro/dit en signifiancc ez 
out souuercn oar holl heraudet, ^ a ehaplet I give thee in tokei 
that thoo art sovran over all heralds,' M ISO*"- 

Sg. iJ. Grec, men r*' dit da mab, '^ woman, 1 give him ta>\ 
thee for a eod,^ M 140'' ; na perac hoaz voe dit lazaf nep a re\ 
buhez, '■and' why, moreover, wbm it for thee to kill liim who 
giveth lilo ? ' M 150*' ; men re dit da ober pcz a quiry, ' 
give him to thee, to do what thou ehalt like/ M 153*; ma^ 
Juzas am eni-ro dihnj, Lucifer, 'I, Judaa, give myself to you, 
Lucifer/ M 07'': me en ro dihuy, * I give him to you,' M 
1 18^ ; dide me ro Ly da bout dil mam, ' to thee I givB her to | 
be to thee a mother,' M 140^ 

PL L Ez eu ret en rehomp de mam, ' it ie needful that wej 
give hjm to liia mother/ M ISO*". 

PI, 2, Dan diet m en e rehei ha me chonimo noaz, 'youj 
give it to this idiot, and 1 shall remain naked/ M 104^ ; ni 

' Na often Iibs tbc inBamng of 'and' or 'yea' ia Midiile Breton. 
in the Curuista I'luaittn, 25, 3, Cf. pcihajiti vol, not. 

So I thick 

REIFF, 'TO give/ 163 

reil diffuae nep respont mat, *you do not give me any good 
answer/ M 43*. 

PI. 3. Pez teeteny ha pez respont a reont y oarnouf, ' what 
testimony and what answer do they give nie ? ' M US'*. 

Remark : The 1st. 2d. and 3d. singular of this tense in 
Cornish are : rof, reth or reyth, re or rea : lat. pi. ren. 


Of this tense I have only found the 3d. sg. reas, roas (roazj, 

Examples : Ahane en laoias ha da Galile en reaa^ * thence he 
released him, and bestowed him in Galilee/ M 215^; eu punis- 
sion eo rom ma tat da hat Adam, * it is a punishment which 
my Father gave to Adanrs seed,"* M 65** ; da pep unan dan 
bihannaf ^ ez roas ment, squient, youU franc gantaf da bezaf 
for, * to every one, to the least. He gave mind, knowledge, 
freewill, therewith to be wise,^ M 94*; de qucr mam Mary, da 
bont map dezy, ez rom lalian he ny, hac en roas hy da mam 
benniguet dezafj ' to His dear mother Mary, to be a son to her, 
He ^ve John her nephew, and He gave her for a blessed mother 
to him,' M 140*; ez roaz dezei e corff glorius, 'he gave to 
them his glorious body,' M 19^; me ho roa hoantec en scecret, 
* I gave them wilhngly in secret,' B 164 ; me ros dezi un poes 
Un, * I gave her a pound of flax,' B 1G8. 

Sg. reif 1 PI. 

roy 3 rohini 

Examples : Sg. 1. Nep pe da ez reif nie an bara gluibyet 
dre hennez traysset viziff, ' he to whom I shall give the soaked 
bread, by him I shall be betrayed,' M 60*. 

Sg. 3. Men roy deoch, 'I will give him to you,' M 18*; 
gonlen scler an pez a quiri, ha dit men roy, ' ask clearly what 
thou wilt desire, and to thee will I give it,' B 178 ; an merch 
man a royf {leg. roy ?) mab bihan, ' this girl will bear a little 
child,' B 78. 

* Note the duplication of the n in this Buperlatire, owing to an assimilated y : 
hikmmmmf=wa. Uld Celtic* i>«c<iN/(int»-s. The some phenomeDon appears in the 
Comuh compantiTea. 



PI. S. Mar hen eatent an tut & pria nan re ys<*l ez rohini 
deomp cruel bresel, 'if the nobles or the commonB Lear this 
they will wage a.traiu£it ua [lit, they will give to us] a cruel 

Secondary Present. 

S^. rohe 3 PI. j-oA<-h/ 

Exampk's : Mar carhe, men rohc. dezaff, ' if he Hked I would 
give it to him,'' B 164 ; me amen [log, a menn] pidy ma dia- 
quiblion maz rohrnf hy ho benediction. ' I would pray my 
dieiciples tJiat they would give their bleeaiDg,^ B 118. 

Secondary Proterite. 

Of this tenae I have only found the 2d, pi. rtnech. 

Exnmple ; A huy profte , ... 62 rosixh lin de yuynou f 
' would you prove that you gave flax into her hands [lit. to her 


Sg. 3i Doe ra roy deoch ioa paradoes ! * may G}t)d give 
joy of Paradise ! ' B 16. 


Sg. 1 PU reomp 

rxi 2 reit 

*roet 3 roent 

Examples : Sg. 9. Ro avanc dif, ' j,'ive assistance to me,' M 
95** ; ro dif oarse manyer da raervell garv a un marv vil, 'give 
me then a way of dying cruelly a vilo dfiath/ M 96' ; iJic az 
pet, ro nn reqiiet dif, ' I pray thee, grant a boon to me,' M 
152^ ; ro y [MS. roy] breman a gosz an tat ntaz vezo burzut 
repTitet, ' give them now before the people, that it may be 
deemed a miracle,'' B 128. 

PI. 1. Da dne en place rromp graczou e Ttiadou, ' unto God . 
now let us give thanks for hia goad things,' M 03"; nn cedr^M 
yvez rraw/j-ny dezaf, 'a sceptre also let us give him,' M lOB^.^l 

PI. 2. Onau a pevar roquet da bihanhaf reit dif pan ho pedaf, 
*■ one of four boona at least graat me since I beseech yoii,'' M 




26*; de roe reit e glau, 'to hia king give ye liim at oncB,"" 
M 1U2* ; r«7 dif oar ae loman an eroae, *give ye me then the 
abaft of the cross,"" M IBS* ; dilmy ny a suply, Pjiat^ rcii deoiup 
tat a armou eguyt evezhat ait bez, ' we supplicate you, Pilate, 
give us armed men [lit. folk of arms] in order to Wjitch the 
lomb/ It 16G''j pan edonip amaii didau coat, rrit diff tlznmt 
ma pUgadur, * since we are here under a wood, give me quickly 
my pleasure,' B 40. 

PI. 3. Moent ef tiz do em-acuytaf, Met them give him up 
at once (in orderj to acquit thsmaelveEi,* M 914**. 

InEuitive : rei^, rei/^ rti. 

Ezampit'A : Bennoez roe tron ren preaeruo da rey/'dezafl" 
lez mat, ' the bleasiTig of tlio King of Thrones preserve him 
to give him a good life !* B 200 ; try cant diner, hep reif ter- 
men, da reiff Ad, peauryou, *300 pence, without giving time, 
(o ^^e to poor men,' M 15^; goudo rp{/' dit auctorite, 'after 
giTing thee authority,' M 85*; rei/rez dezaf a nn bevraig cref 
da pfviif, 'fit is) necessary to give him of a strong beverage to 
drink,"" M 143* ; me dicux un braouhet eguyt reif dezaf, ' I 
h*ve % drink in order to give him,' M 143'; nep na pria quetj 
rti de pe-auryen, ' he who does not care to give to poor 
people,' M 13* ; deomp affo da ret da gouzout dan tut so 
tnlivont hyrvoudus, Met ua go quickly to give to know to the 
people, who are mournful cduceruiug him,* M 309^ 

Part. Pres. Act : on reif. Part* Pret. Paaa. ; roet. 

Exampks : Os reif da gouzout, * giving thee to know/ B 
50 ; maestr roei ezeux difmo da corfF, ' Master thou h&st given 
me thy body/ M o7* ; da faezaf enelinatioQ roet eu Raeaou so 
ytron bras, * to conquer inclination is giveu Beaton, who i9 a 
great lady,' M Oo*; {h)a grace {h)a gallout bac an gulr ordreii 
de reDaff so roet dczaf, ' both grace and power and the trun 
dignity to reign are given to him^' B 78. 

Remarks : 'Die root of this word is RA, ' to give,' which is 
regularly weakened in some forma into ro; the re in others 
(aa in Lat. re-or, re-ri) appears to indicate a theme rdya (aee 




Kuhn, Zeita, viii. 69). For t^orreapondiug Corniah forms' 
Noiria CrD. ii. 289, In Welsh the verb ' to give ' ia 
(rown ' darem,' rhoid 'dares,' Pughe, s. v.) In Irish I have 
found the verb in the 3rd pi imperative act. and in the 3rd 
ag, 2dy. pres. pass, m-rtat [leg. ni riaf"] na danu diadi ar &a 
indeb dotnunde (gl. non turpe lucrum sectanles) Met thetn not 
give the divine gifts for their worldly gain,' Z. 1047 ; dig^ni 
cummen c^taig riihfp fri t'ladach macmaile odrae . . . . ar ech 
udonn rithts int ech sin fri cuhuan nam bretau ar cEiuniil ,o. 
arggitj * Cum men made a robe (which) wag given to Eladach, 
son of Mael-Odraj, for a brown horse. That horse was given to 
Colmdn of the Britonti for a cnnml of silver/ Lib. Arm. IT** 1^ 

Other verha, classed as irregular by LegoTiidec, are either a 
or ia- flteme. Take^ for inatanee, gaUont •■ to be able/— an ia- 
stem like all verba whose inhuitivea end in -out. 

Present Indicative VVctivQ. 
Sg. gallaff, M S9», 1 PL galhemp, M £23". 

galhe^, M 88^ S guelhef.^gam, M45^,B 1 

gwU,^ M 138". 3 galhmi, M 184-.3 

Pret. ag. 3. guUtm, M 95". Fut. sg. 1. guiUif, M 
ag. 3. gaUa^ B 4S, Secondary present eg. 1. ga/henn^ 
133' ; Hg. 3. galAe, M S4*. Secondary preterite, ag. 
galgis, M 15*; ag. 3. gaise, M 205*; ph g, galsech, 
153*. Conjunctive, sg. 3. galh, M 138*. Passive, prea. 
3. gather, M 34^. 

'' O'bBeTTD the umlaut. 

* Oburre the teimiimtiDQ -mi, not -wif, uid cf. aetitmi, dalckmt, T£, 177*< 


sin JrLT, tSflfl. 

C. xts. 


Tick expreseion "Scot and Lot," wliicli haa bMn brought 
very mueli into notico during recent political diacusaions, 
does not convey to our minds in the present day any really 
positive or detiuite idea, notwitlxstaiiding tliat the acta to 
whLch. it refers are among the conditions of the exercise of 
some of the most important of our political rights. 

In ScotlfLiid the phraee ie used as fi verb. Thus, in Sir J. 
Balfour*s Praclicks, ed. 1754^ p. 49, there is the following 
innmg". relating to a.u. 1583 : — 
'*Gif ony wedow buy and sell within bui'gh 
with the nichtbouris, ^cke mU i^mi ond iot with 
thame in tmatiounia and uthcrifl helpis ; and 
iiiclike gif nche doi» scot and lot, ache eould have 
libertie to buy and acll. — Leg. Ifttfff, c. 107." 

So also, in Scotlund, when a person petitions to be ad- 
mitted to a Royul Burgh, he engages that he will "scot and 
hi, wutch and ward ;" or, at least, this was the practice 
formerly (see Case of Linlithgxjw, House of Lordia, 1 775 ; 
1 Bouglaa^ Election Cases, 141 ). 

A similar use occurs occasionally in England (see the oath 
Freemen in the Cinque Ports, quoted below) ; but 
y, insteafl ol' using the verb *' to scot and lot," we 
use the nouns in connexion with certum verbs, which ex- 
plain and quality verj' materially the meaning of the phrase. 
ITius, we &B.y, ''To pay scot and lot;" " Tu bear scot and 
lot ;" " To pay acot and bear lot ; " " To rate, tax, or assess 
any scot or lot ;" "To assess a person to any acot or lot;" 
and so forth. Mr. Chiaholm Anstey, in a pamphlet on the 
question of Reform, employs in this connexion the verb 
"porfonn." In enumerating the conditioua of the Borough 
^ Franchise, as settled by the decisioua of the House of 





CommoDfi, lie mentioifls — " 3. Pajinent and performance of 
Soot and Lot." (Plea of the UnreprDsented Commons for 
restitution of Franchise : an hLstorii; enquiry. By Thomua 
Ohisliolm Anistey, Esq. London, 18(56, p. 114). 

Now, here we arc met at once by the questions, What ia 
"Scot?" and what is "Lot?" and what is the diffbrenoe 
(if any) between them ? and why are the two woi-da coupled 
together in one phrase — " Scot and Lot ?" 

In what seems to be a corrGsponding' modem phrase — 
" Rates and Taxes/' — each of the two words has a distinct 
and definite sense. Rates are the local leviesi, raised in 
particular districts ; Tases are the general imposts, con- 
tributed to the national Exchequer. Wafl there any similar 
contrast between " Scot" and " Lot P " 

But this is not the whole of the difficulty. We rauat also 
ask whether either " Scot " or " Lot " means anything more 
than the payment of money. We have the current expres- 
sion, '■' to pay scot and bmr lot ; *' and Mr* Chieholm Anetey 
speaks of the '* payment and prrfontianc€ of scot and lot '* 
(see above) ; and fm-lher on (p. 121) he refers to the 
"ruling" of the House of Coranione, to the effect "that 
there was an analogy between ^acnt' and public rates and 
taxes; between " lot ' and charges or liabilities of every kind." 

I do not find that the phrase " scot and lot " ever refers 
to any burdens besides pecuniary ones. I believe it is not 
suggested that any such additional meaning' is att-ached to 
the word "scotj" and the only question is, whetlier the 
word " lot " is ever used to convey this further sense. At 
present, I have not met with any aueh use of it, except in 
one instance, — that of tbo City of London,— whioh I will 
examine presently more at large. 


Both the words are Anglo-Sajtoa ; and moreover, the 
identical phrase (Scot and Lot), coupling them both togethei', 
appears to have existed at least as early aa the time of 
Edward the Confessor. It occurs in a law of William the 



Conqueror, wkichj as printed in the "Ancient Lawa and 
luatitutes of England," edited by Thorpe, and published by 
the Becord Commission, ataads aa foUowa (Svo. edition, vol. i. 
p. 491) :— 

" De jure Normannorum qui ante adventum Gidltelmi 
civea fucraiit Anglicaui. 

" Et oninis Francigena qui tempore Edwardi propinqui 
nostti fuit in Anglia particepa consuetudinum Anglorum, 
quod ipsi dicunt an htotc et an sa^te, persolvat decundum 
legem Anglonim." 

Here, it will be observed that the verb ia " persolvat," 
vbicb refers to the payment of money; and in all the 

tances in which I have met with the expreasiona^ — either 
the separate words or the joint phrase^ — until the year 1724, 
I find the ^me fact, namely, that aome kind of pa^onent, and 
nuthing islae, appears to be referred to. Both the words 
and the pkroso occur repeatedly in charterai atatutea, and 
other documents, from the reio^ of William the Conqueror 
to that of Henry the Eighth ; and some of these X will 
proceed to notice in ohronological order. 

The phrase occurs in several of the early documents be- 
longing to the City of London ; thus, in a charter granted by 
Henry the First to the citizens of London : — " Sint qnieti f/e 
achol et fii' hill* (" Ancient Laws," etc., ui «upfa, voL i. p. 5U2 ; 
see likewise Mr. Riley's "Liber Albua/* pp. IH atid 138) ; 
in the Regnlatioua of the time of Edvi-ard the Fii-at, — " quod 
cives aint in Lotto ei Srotio" ("'Liber Albus," pp, 335 and 
26fl) ; and in the articles conceded by Edward the Second, 
"Et quod omnea et ainguli • • ■ giat in hifo d $cofto" 
("Liber Cuatumamm," ed. Riley, part I., pp. 270-l).> In 

The entire possn^c, which is un important anJ iiitereetinp ottf^ is as follows : 
' £t «)U[jd omiio* ot smguli in libcrUte civitatis pra:'<JiicU^ t.'iiat«ute«, at libetUlibua 
c liKi'ris eooBuetudiTiibiiB ojuadem i^ivitatiK gmidcre Tdlenlm, sint in Lotto et Scofta 
et participw omniuTn oncrum pro Htatn fivitHtistjuBdem et pro LiberUtv cju-^Jera 
inanutcntTido, jmtn sflcrataocttna qu>n! fecerujil quDTido ad ItberUtom ilium 
&dmtwi fupTunt , et qui hw nutnerit, libortatcm ojiisJem liivitatiH amittnt. Et 
quod afnn«8 et siuguli do libertnEo civilatia ilbua eiiatentes et extra civiutflm 
oandem manentes, tut per «6 veX per suoe morcaadisiia Bum inrrn. rllttam civLtatcm 
«xerccntis, Bitil in Loffo 'f Snttta imm commuairiiP cjusdnin civildtiB pro 
saBrouuIieia suu prmdictiB; vel sLias a libertate fun aDLoroantnr." 



the French translation of the Itegulations of the time of 
Edwftrtl tlie First, " contribucions et uidce," appear to fce the 
terms employed to represent " ecot and lot." 

Ducange cites a passage from A charter of king Stephen 
in which Ihs words occur, " Clamo quiotum • • * • • 
de Hcoito ei httOf et geldo et dane^eldo" (Monast. Anglic, 
torn. 1, p. 779) ; and in the charter of foundation granted by 
Hcnrj' the Second;, to Waltham Abbey, we find, '* lit ipai et 
omnes sui liberi sint ab omul scotto et geldo, et omnibus 
ausiliis Ttegura, Tice-comitum, et omninra rainistralium 
eorum, et hudagio, et danegeldo," etc. (Liber Cuatumarum, 
ed. Ililey, Part 11., p. 659.) 

In the charter granted to the Cinque Ports by Edward 
the Fourth, on 23rd December, 1464-5, the word "scot" 
occurs in an important passage, which declares tha.t the men 
of the Cinque Ports ahall be free for ever, throughout the 
whole realm, of a variety of taxes, fines, and other payments, 
specifically enumerated, amongst whicli " scot" ia included ; 
■" quiott sint imperpetuura dc thcolonio, panagio, poDtagio, 
Itiagio, muragio, pa^sagio, lastagio^ stallagio, tallagio, oar- 
riagio, peisagio, picagio, terragio, et urtiio, et gildo, hidagio, 
scutagio, necnon, etc, — ab omni hujusmodi consuetud, per 
totum regnum et poteatatem nostram" (see " Charters of the 
Cinque Ports, Two Ancient Towna, and their Members. 
Translated into EngUsli;^ with annotstions historical and 
critical thereupon. Wherein divers old words are explained, 
and some of their ancient Customs and Privileges observed. 
By Samuel Jeake, son., of Rye, one of the aaid Ancient 
Towns, London: Printed foi* Bernard Lintot, at the Cross 
Keys, between the Temple Gates in Fleet Street, 1728 ;'' pp. 
57,58. The '* Advertisement" statea that this book was 
written in 1678), 

In all these charters, the word "scot" evidently refers 
to some kind of payment ; though its precise nature is not 

In the statutes of the Gild of St. Eatlicrine at Stamford, 
A.n, 1494, 10 Hen. 7, the oath taken by all the ' bredem and 
sustern' included this clause — "I shalbe redy at scott 




httft and all my duties truly pay** (The MS, is in Caiim 
Coll. Cambridge, and this extract hag been kindly aupplied 
to me by Mr. Furiuvall). 

In the reign of Ileury the Eighth, we meet with the expres- 
sions frequently. The Letters of Denization granted to 
Richard Pynson, the printer, on 26th July, 1513, contain this 
proviso : — " Proviso aemper quod predictua Hicardus PjTison, 
hotnagium ligeum nobis faciat, ac foft' et scoff contribuaf, 
sicut eetcri Hgei noetri coutribunnt" (Patent Roll, 5, Hen. 
Vm., Ft. 1, memb. 18).*^ In the statute concerning Oommifi- 
aions of Sewers, 23 Hen. 8, c. 5 (1&31-2), it is enacted (§ 5) 
that " if any personne or persounea berng assogged or taxed 
to any hiv or charge for any laitdea * * • do not pay 
the said hf/e and charge, &c. ;" and again (§ 8), that the 
Commissioners, for the purpose of defraying their neceaaary 
expenses, "shall have power and auctoritie to lymyte and 
assigne of the same rates, taxea, foitcs and waynes^ by theyr 
disciecions, suche reasonable sommes, »S.c." The word "acol" 
does not occur in this statute i and it ia somewhat i-emark- 
able to meet with the word "lot" thus divorced from its 
usual companion. In the amending Act, however, 3 and 4 
Edw- 6j c. 8 (1549-50), tho expression is — *' till akottes, iottes, 
and Bommes of money hereafter to be rated and taxed by 
vertue of suche commyssion of Sewere," etc. ; whilst in an 
Act passed in 1708 (7 Ann. c. 10) the expression, "any fot 
or char^ aaaessed or charged " by the Commission of Sewere, 
is recited, and adopted, Irom the Statute of Henry the 8th. 

' In the Letters of Denisation granted hj Queen RliEnbeth t« Hermnnio van 
Bronkccd, fin ISth OcUiWr, loQOi, the corresponding proriio requires biia oitl 
ohIT to pa^ aui conlributQ " Lult* etaci)tt',"l>ut also to pay tbe custome and 
tubridics " pro bonii et mGrchiiniliais sms ;" thus drawiog a distiQclion between 
lliem (Patent Roll, 2 Elual'eth, pt. 13, m. 2!i). 

' What in the niieaDiii^ of icaffiie* ? It aeems to bo us^, Ilka laltts, u ^ludvtn 

giH*r\i with " ratiw" bbq " lu»e« ;" but its etymology, in this mom, is nut *p- 

parebt. It appears to be diScreot, in id nn(ur«, from tbe vaia-sliiUiTig' (AS. 

irtcn-wQlI&f,) of the Saxon times. Tosmt [od. Muror, 1812, p. HI) Huys^ 

" Then neighbour, fur God'» nke, it' apy you seCf 

'* Good survuiit fiir diiiry-tiQiue, teuine btr Co me." 

ilB the edition of 1^73, it atanda "tc^a^^urAbcr tu me." It is unfortunute CbaL 
it. Mavor, in bia edition of TiuiKir motlcTBized the apc'lliag.) Wtclher thue 
tun wiirds are in any way cubiiut^ttid, I do not koow ; u I caJUiot expUlQ their 
ori^n, KQd c&n only gue«« at their tueoniog. 



Etch aa lata as 1833, the word " scot" is need, viz., in tlie 3 
ftnd 4 Wm. 4, c 22, ^'to amend the kwa relating- to Sewers," 
which provides (§ IS) for tlie apportiotimGnt between out- 
going and iacoming' tc'Tianta of auy " ecot or rate aasessed or 
impoged • • ■ under or by virtue of the Law of Severs." 

In tho preamble to 33 Hen. 8^ c. 9 ' (1541-2) complaint ie 
made to the King that howyers, jletcbers, stringers, and 
arrowhead 'makers, come from other parts of the country to 
reside and practise their craft in or near the city of London, 
" beinge no fremen of the same Cittie, nor beariug« uother 
scoit, ioff, nor other chardges within your saide Cittie." 

In the 35 Hen. 8, 0. 11 (1543), which (^^ 4) authorized the 
Juaticea of the Peace " to lot and tax" the Boroughs in 
Wales and Monmouth " for the portions and rates'* they 
were to pay towards the wages of their Burgessea in Parlia- 
ment, we find the word used as a verb, and in a transitive 

In a work entitled — " The History and Antiquities of the 
Ancient Town and Port of Rye, in the County of Sussex, 
with Incidental notices of the Cinque Ports. Compiled fram 
MSS. and Original Autliorities. By William HoUoway. 
London. 1847," — I find the aubjoined statement : — 

(p. 137 j. "The following waa copied from a manuscript 
preserved in the British Museum, written in court hand, on 
very old eoarae paper, by Dr. Meryon, who kindly lent it to 
me for insertion here : — 

" The Cnatoraal;^ or TJeag^a of the Commonalty 
of the Town, of Rye. Written a.d. 1568. 

*' 28th. Election of a Freeman, and his Oath. 

« • • • 

" Also he shall make hia oath un.der these words :— 
" I (A. B.) ahall faith and truth bear unto our sovereign 
Lord the King of England, and to his heirs kings of England, 

1 Minaheu (1st ed. 1617; Znd ed. 1625) refew to this Act ns c. 19. It is 
eitfaur the tiiitKur'fl ur tho printer'^ enror, Tb^n> ia na alliuion to Scot or Lot itt 
c. 19; And thoto can ho do douU thut Winslieu intended c. f, I abwrve thW 
ilifl error tiaa bEen followed by other wrttera, who hnve anpEkrcntly copied 
Miiulli£i:i or s^ih other, witbouL teelin^ the correctU'Csa of hia reureucBi 


and to tte Mayor and Jiu-uta and CDminonalty of the town 
of Rye from henceforth ; aad the state and the fninchisea 
and liberty of the aame town ahall help, keep and main- 
tain to tho beet of my power. And I ahall not in no wiso 
be knowing or conaenting^ to hreak them nor hurt them. 
And int/ ncot and lot of my goods and chattels, unto the afore- 
Baid commonalty, I bIhiU well and truly pay, and content 
when I shall be mnited and lotted : so God me help I 

"And then incontinently kiss tho mayor, and so he shall 
be accepted a freeman into the franchisee ; and he shall pay 
unto the mayor's eergeaut two shlllinge', and to the common 
oterk, for the entry, two pence.'* 

Whilst at AV^inchelaca the new freeman on taking; his nath 
kiBScd the Bible, it seems that at Eye he kiesed the Mayor. 
I have not seen the original MS., and the spelling is 
evidently modernized;^ but assuming it to be substantially 
eomot, it appears that in 156S, the freeman undertook to be 
content when " ecotted and lotted," and to pay hia *' acot and 
lot." Tho verb is *'pay," and applies to both " ecot'^ and 
**Iot." Thie shows that both the terms referred to some 
kind of payment, and also that the " acot" from which 
(amongst other pajnnenta) the men of the Cinque Porta were, 
OS already noticed, to be exempt throag-hout the realm was not 
the " 6cot and lot" to which they were subject m their own 

In all the foregoing quotations, both tho words, scot and lot, 
appear clearly to refer to pecuniary charges ; and in this sense 
they are need by Shakespeare, who died in 1016 :— " 'Twas 

' IiUsliuIl to be wiafaod i\vA an authentio coHectina iihnuld be made and 
jmMi'iliMJ, of the highly itnparUut and intertdting documents relatiiic both to the 
l.'iiiijij£< Ports a» u bMlf. anil a\so to Chti eeveral Porta, Towns, aaS. Mi^tnliGni iq. 
diTiauallr, which nm sttU piM!«srv?il m vitirtuUB pluced, but whiclk tuu ^ulf risli 
•/ baiiig l«t or dcstroyod- Ali who aru inetri^stwl m auch in<juine« will curdiftlly 

eoDOttr in tho follomnir rcmarkH^ naotcd from the Salarctutf HrritK of 23Td 
Konunbn, 1867.— ■■ The Ural stop m nny Hound tnvwtipition [of thf history pf 
the hoTDuifhs in KHKlnn'lj "oulil he the priqling of llie chatters nnd civic docu- 
mtMitJi (Fhlr-b our orchiTM contain. We urn this, us wc tuve urged it before, dji 
ittc Mjulcr of the Rolls; thorc aro no hiatorio ildcuinentB remaining for hig 
editon. bcytmd those in hnud, irbic^h cas at all compare is real importance with 
tliAM pricolet* rDcmorialfl of Iho past. The corporationa tn for tho moft part 
toe povr to print tho cnalGnt4 of tWLr luvhives thtsmselvM ; and it is just oqs qI 
tiwae ondertakitiga wliich need, and would abundantly repay, tho ud of tha 



ON TH^PWftASE "scot AND LOT.' 

lime to counterfet, or that liotto terraagunt Scot would liiivo 
paid me ^vfii and lot too." — (Henry IV. Act 5, scene 4.) 

Coke (who died in. 1633), in treating of the *' Courts of 
the Forests/' in the Fourth Part of his Inatitutcs, c. 73 
(written towards the close of his lifo)^ deals with " scot" as 
an obBolete, or at least antiquated word, requiring explana- 
tion ; and he interprets it accordingly (among a number of 
other technical tei-ma of the Forest, which he describes 
aa "ancient and obscure words,") in the following manner: — 

" [Quietura esse] de scoto, sea shoto, quando homines faciiuit 
coUectum inter se ad ab'quod obtinendum sen evitandum. 
Quietum esse de tali colleutl De tallugio, idem ut de seot^" 

Here he seems to regard " scot " as synonymous with 
'* tallage ;" and elsewhere (o. 1, " The High Court of Parlia- 
ment;" "Of Tenths"), he says: *' That which we call tax, 
tallage, tenth, and fifteen, the Snions called gehhim; we use 
the word changing g to t/t for ffckfiiig, f/vclding,'^ etc. And 
in a marginal note to c. 73, he adda — '* Gefdimt in Domes- 
day sotpc pro Scot Anglice.*^ So that he appears to have 
considered "scot," "geld," and "tallage," to be almost 
equivalent and convertible terras. 

Sfiof is of courfso a mere variation of Scot ; ' and in the 
charter granted by Charles the Second to the Cinque Ports, 
dated 23rd December^ 1668, the three words occur ("seolt. 
ahott. et lott."j, together with other ivordw relating to the 
taxes which might be imposed upon the iuhabitantfi ; "riz., 
" rationabil. et ratabil. taxaitiones, scott. ehott. ot lott. tallag. 
et rationabil. taxationes foiiununiter vocat. common fines, 
impositionea et pecuniarum summaa aolvcnd. infra certa tem- 
pera," etc.— " reasonable and ratable taxations, i^wt, fhot, and 
lot, tallage, and the reasonable taxations commonly called 
Common Fines, impositions, and sums of money to be paid 
within certain times," etc. — (See " Charters of the Cinque 
Ports, et<:. By Samuel Jeake," already cited, p. IfiS.) It ia 
not necessarily to be inferred from the occurrence of these 

' Tt events probable that H liniilBT diversity of proQunciation exirted in tho 
Ad^I'H- Sfiion ; m ve meet with tlio form leot a6 vgH as aceat and teect. I 
strongly BU^petl thai »es in A.S. reproBeDtcti a sauiti] very closely dliud Co thftt 
of th in Engliah. 




words, — scot, shot, and lot, — in this charter of Cimrks the 
Second, that the words hod at that timoany specific meaning, 
or that any taises were reollj' leviod at that tinio under those 
notn^ ; on the contrary, that this could scarcely have beyn 
the case is shown by the fact that Jctike, in hia work, which 
contains this charter, and which was written within ten years 
after the granting of the charter, found it necessary to 
cxphiin all the three words as if they were obaolete terms not 
generally understood, Tlie words were probably copied 
from former charttirs, and inaertod by way of caution, so as 
(a include whatever rights they might be found in law to 

It is remarkable that Madox, in hia "History and Anti- 
qiiitieH of the Kxchequer " (wntten in 1708), throws no light 
ypon the suhjeet. In that valuable work, I htve not met 
with any mention of either " ecot" or " lot," except an in- 
cidental reference to "Romscot" in the chapter on Tallage. 

Hitherto, we have foimd both the words and the phrase 
in question always refer to some kind of payment; and it is 
therefore a little surprising to encounter a different fomi of 
the expression in an Act which was passed in 1724 (11 Geo. 
1, c. 18) for regulating elections within the City of London, 
and other purposes, and which enacted (§ 7) that the right 
of electing the Aldermen and Common Coancilmen should 
belong to the Freemen, being householdcri*, "paiyiitfj scot as 
hereinal'ter is mentioned and provided, and bearing hi, when 
requirod^ in their several and respective wards.'" ^ 9 defined 
what was to be understood by " paying of scot ;" and §§ 10 
and 11 pj-ovided for the votes of partners and joint occupiers, 
"jHtyin^ their wo( in manner aforesaid, and bearing their 
ru^peftive proper lots, if rtjtiuired ;*' whilst g 12 enacted that 
the Act should "not oblige uny person to pity nui/ acot or 
b^ar any hi from the doing of which" he was otherwise 

Believing that the expression "bearing lot," a^ used in 
this Act (which, so far as regards this point, was repealed in 
1849) bad been usually understood to refer to the liability 
to serve the local offices, municipal or parochial, and not to 



PSHASB "scot and UCfT. 

the payment of taxes, and yet entertaining; some doubt upon 
the subject, having regard to the preTious history of the 
word,' I toHok the liberty of writing to Mr. Oke the follow- 
ing letter, to which he was obliging enough to send me tho 
eubjoined reply : — 

"imJune, 1866. 

" Dkah Sir, — A question hae arisen as to the preciee 
meaning of the words ' ecot' and * lot' aa used in the City 
of Loudon. It has occurred to me that in your extensive 
experience of the cuatoma of London, you might be able 
to enlighten me upon the true moaning of those words, at 
leaat as they are now or were anciently used in the City. 

"The 11 Geo. 1, c. 18, 5f 7, speaka of 'paying scot aa 
hereinafter is mentioned and provided, and bearing lotj when 
required, in their several and reapective wards ;' and § 9 es- 
pluins how ' ecot' is to be ascertained ; but the Act nowhere 
aaya what is meant by •bearing lot.' 



"Can you tell me in what way this phrase is actually un- 
deretood in tho City of Londou, and how it is practically ^j 
interpreted and applied P "^H 

" I hope you will be kind enough to pardon this intrusion ; ^^ 
but I know of no one to whom to apply for the information 
with ao much probability of success. — I am, &c. 

"Damby P, Fry. 

"(fSO. Okb, £Aq., Mamrioii House." 

'' 15a June, 1866. 

'* Dear Sin. ■ — Having no personal knowledge of the 
matters referred to in your note, I have been looking into 
the question you put in our booka of the Customs of the City 
(which arc singularly ban-en of praetical information) ; I 
have also seen the Town Clerk upon it, 

"The 11 Geo. 1, c, IS, a. 7, which you cite, has beea 
i-cpeoled by the 12 and 13 Vict. c. xciv. (local) a. 1 ; and 
B. 2 provides other qualifications for Voters at Civic Elec- 

" The Town Clerk, however, informs me that before tho 

^ See ilw tho remorlu of Loid Okabervie, vol. Ui. p^ 138. 



latter Act came mto operation, the pkraGe * bearing Lot/ etc., 
was understiMd to be the obligation to servo the office of 
Constable (beibre the PoUco Act of 1839), Beadle, IiiqueBt- 
nuin, or Common Councilman, to which the person wae 
appointed by the Ward authorities, and that on refusal to 
discharge the duties of any such office the person would be 

" I ought at the game time to polut out that a different 
meaning is given t<j the words * aeot and lot,* by Mr. Riley» 
in his Translation of the Liher Aihuji of the City, in Notes to 
Abstructs of Charters of Henry I. and Edward II, granted 
to the Citizens, which, however, rofer to Taxes. He eaya 
(p. 114J, ' Scol meana the money paid; and /ot the propor- 
tiozt in which the asaeasment was made.' Again (p. 235) 
' 8eot is the payment of contributions and ta^ces ; lot being; 
ih.0 swaeesment of it in certain due proportions.' 

" The Town Clerk's view must, however, be the correct one 
regards the Act you name, 11 Geo. I, c. 18, a. 7. The 
,e words occur in the Act aa to Disorderly Houges, 26 Geo. 
2, c. 36, a. 5. " Tours faithfully, 

"George C. Oke. 

"P*3(BT P. PaY, Etq,/' 

It thus appears that in the time of George the First the 
word "lot," in the expression *' bearing lot" = serving 
office, hod acquired a diflereat meaning from that which it 
boTc in the various Statutes and Charterd above cited, 
through the long period from the time of William the Con- 
qoeror^ or rather of Edward the Confessor, downwards. 
WTiethor the use of the word in this sense {= the burden 
of local offices) can be traced to an earlier date, 1 do not 
know ; I have not myself met with any instance of it prior 
to the reign of George the First. In this sense it is con- 
trasted with '* acot" by the employment of a diifereut verb, 
— '* To par/ euot and bcur lot ;" though the verb *' to bear" 
may also apply to pecuniary charges, as in the 33 Hen. 8, 
c. 9, already quoted, — " bearinge nother scott, lott nor other 
chard ges." 

In his interesting chapter on " the Parliamentary EisLory 


of Rye," Mr. llolloway (at p. 245 of the work above-men* 
lioued) says that in speaking of the " men of Ryo,*' In 
etudes all those who, having- resided for a year and a day in 
the town, and having ptiid their scot and borne their ht, con- 
sEdered theroaehes entitled to the privileges granted by the 
Cliarters ; and he adds — "By paying' their ijt^ot, we mean 
the discharging of all government and parochial taxes which 
were legally demanded of them ; and by bearing their lot, 
the filling- all parochial and other ofliccs to which they might ^j 
be appointed." But in tbe Freemen's Oath, already cite<l ^M 
under the year 1568, we have seen, that what the freeman ^^ 
undertook was not to pay hia eoot and bear hia lot, but to ^j 
*'pap hia seot rrnd lot ;" and that this was the invariable form ^M 
of expreasion is further sbown by the oath taken by Samuel ^^ 
Jeake, junior, on the 2nd July, 1690, and quoted by Mr. IIol- 
loway (p, 575), — " and my scots and lots of my goods and 
chattels to the aforesaid commonalty shall well and truly j>/ji/, 
when I shall be thereunto scottcd or lotted." Again, Mr. 
Holloway (p. 252) says that at the Parliamentary Election 
in 1826, votes were claimed by 30 " men born in the town, 
paying their scot and bearing their lot/' and by 32 " men 
not born in the town, but having resided in it more than a 
year and a day, and having paid their scot and borne theii- 
lot;'* but in point of fact, the Ilouse of Commons, in 1830, 
decided {p. 259) that the right of voting was iu native and 
resident houeoholdera " piifjing scot and lot/' I do not find 
anything in this decision about serving oflSce, or about any 
distinction between paying scot and bearing lot ; and I ap- 
prehend that no such diatinction really existed, and that the 
evidence given by Samuel Jeake, senior, in 1639, and quoted 
by Mr. HoUoway (p. 223) was correct, viz : — " that all the 
freemen were awom to paif scot and lot, which was always 
understood to bear part of their charges of the franchiaea ; 
but he never knew of foreigners to pay towards? the charge of 
the parish ; * " * ; that for the eleven years that he was 
town clerk, there never was a farthing charges paid, by any 
foreign freeman, towards the charge of bailiff to Yarmouth, 
or wharfage; but apprehended^ if shotted, they ought to pap; 


flY TIASHV P. FRY, E«tC). 




but never knew them «cott«d." It seems pretty clear that 
t}ie notion of "bearing lot." as something diiferent from 
" paying lot" te. in tliis case, at all events, a modem and 
erroneoy* interpretation. Jeake, in his work on the " Char- 
ters," takes a v^ry different view from Mr. Holloway upon 
this point. He says (p. Itl6, note), "Lot> the same with 
Scot and Shot, aa in the Statute 33 Hen. 8, c. 19." He had 
clearly no idea that " lot" meant " office," or anj-thing indeed 
but ■' lax." 

Although " lot," however, in the courae of time may have 
come to mean the charj>c of office, it is clear tliat it meant 
originally the charge of taxation ; and oven if it can be 
ehuwn to have included the acnae of office-bearing at an 
eerlicr period than that of George the First, it cannot be 
doubted that it likewise comprised the sense of tax-paying, 
as far back as its employment can be traced. 


We are thus led to the further questions, what kind of tax 
WES designated by " acot," and what by *' lot ; " and why 
were the two words coupled together in one phrase, " acot 
and lot?" 

In the English hmgiiage there are many expressionH of 
this kind, where certain words, ag it were, " run in couples ;" 
imd they seem to fall into two claaaee. In one class the 
second word is the ^amc as the first, slightly nioditied, — is, 
in fact, a derivative from it, and therefore poaacased of the 
ttuue general siguification as well as of the aame imttal 
letter ; r.g. lithe and lissom (lithesome) ; bare and barren ; 
part and parcel ; bag and baggage ; pack and package. 
In the other class the two words are diJlbrent, with 
significations more or less distinct ; and they usuallyj 
though perhaps not always, recommend themselves to the 
popular ear either by alliteration (which is initial rhjnme), as 
bed and board ; watch and ward ; or by rhyme (which is 
terminal alliteration), as art and part ; arriage and carriage ; 
and, in the present instance, acot and lot. This practice 



prevftilfl in the otter Teutonic languages ; and in Dutch thai] 
very phraae now in question occurs : — 

Dutcli — '* Schot en Lot onclerworpen zyn." 

German — " Sclioae und 8ohatzung unterworfFen ae}™." 
(Kramer's Dutch imd Germnii IHctianary, Nurenborg:, 1719. 
It will be obaorved thnt in the Dutch wc have the rhym*?, in 
the German the alliteration.J.' I 

Tlie Glossary to the " Ancient Laws and Institutes of 
Eiiglnnd/' with referGnce to some of the pagsages. quoted 
above, contains the following explanation : — 

" 6V7k)? aiKf Loih, Scot and Lot. All taxes in general are' 
usually understood under this denomination. Scot is the 
A.S. * soe&t^' money, tax, contribution ; * Contributiones 
publicfe srotta appellarunt veteros. Lot, A.S. ' blot,' son^, 
Sf/mhohtm, pars tributi sive solutionis alicujus, qiiaTti inter 
alios quis tenetur prtestare.' Spelraan." 

Mr. Riley? on the other hand, in his notes to the " Liber 
Albus'^ (p. 1 14}j says : '* This term [Scot and Lot] is derived 
from the Anglo-Saxon, and aigrtiiies all taxea levied rateably 
for purposes of State; 'scot* meaning the money paid, and 
* /oi' the proportion in which the assegaraent was made." 
Again (p. 235j :— " Scot is the payment of ctinti-ibutiona and 
taxes ; Lot being the assessment of it in certain duo propor- 
tions" (see also his remarks in the Glossary to the Liber 
Custumanmi). This explanation (if I understand it correctly) 
does not appear to be either natural or probable. It seems more 
likely that the two words referred to two different kinds of 
public charges or pajTnenta (like " Koteg and Taxos/'ji than 
that they referred to the payment and aaaessmeut of the eame 
tax. In the French translation of the Hegulatione of the 
time of Edward the First, the expression " coutribuciona et 
aides," seems to be used as the equivalent of " scot and lot" 
fsec above) ; and although "lot" may have meant originally 
the alhtmnd or apportionment of the tax, it must doubtless 

' Mr. HoeU hoA been kinrt enou^li to fiiniisli ma with snnic rnmarks on (he 
very good depression ; however, now it is obsolele. Wlicn your frieDd snys UlaE 

Dutflb eipreaaioiij from a fricntl of liis at Amhcni ; wlio eaye— "wii^of t»tat\A% 

TV good fJ^ .--- 

be bnj ravl with tbt? plinuui 'iwhot en lot Dtiderworp^n sijn,' thnt must nftturallj' 

be, 'flffl/P kIiuI tin lot (jnderwuTpifn zijn/ 
to jmy D iifrtain fjis." 

Tbcy who am in this coadiliiad bare 




liare meant oIhq, in a secondEiry Bense, the tax iteelf ; juBt aa 
the modein word '* rate" means not only the rate of charge, 
but also, and usually, tho actual charge. Whea a miin pays 
hk " poor-rate," be pays a certain amount, and not a certain 
mte ; although tho amount ia oomput*^ according to a cer- 
tain rate, — at so much, in the pound. So, '* to pay acot and 
lot" must doubtless have meant *'to pay that tax, or those 
(axee, called Seot, and also tliat tax, or those taxes, called 
Lot." Indeed, in the laws of WilUani the Conqueror (above 
cited) the espreBsionei occur in the ajngular numlaer — " an 
hlote/' and " an scote" — aB if they referred to some particu- 
lar tax called " a lot" and to some other tax c^aUed "a scot/* 
In the Statutes of Henry the Eighth (see above), wb find 
'* lot " used in the sense of a tax, in oonnexiofl with other 
words of a similar signification ; aa well as the verb " to lot," 
in tho sense of '*to allot" or apportion the charge. Wo 
have aUo found in several instances " scot'* used without 
" lot," and 'Mot" used without "ecot;" showing that they 
could hardly have meant the payment and a^sesament of the 
iijime tax. 

What parlieular taxes, if any, were reapeotiTely doaig- 
oated by the two names, it is not easy to say. Lord Gleu- 
bervie in his " Election Cases," in a note (e) on the Milbome 
Port Case (2nd ed. 1802, vol. I. p. 140) says;— "What 
it ift to pay mot and hi, or, Co pay scot and bear lot, is 
nowhere exactly defined. There is nothing very dietiact 
or satisfactory in what we find in Spelman on thie sub- 
ject. It only appears, from the authorities cited there, 
that those expressions were in use as fiir back as the 
Conquest." [The law of William tho Conqueror, as already 
pointed out (see above), shows that the phrase was current 

fore the tkinqtieet, that is, at least a* early aa the time of 
Edward the Confessor.] "It is probable that, from signify- 
ing somo special municipal or parochial tax, and duty, they 
came in time to be used, in a popular sense, to comprehend 
generally the burdens to which the inhabitants of a borough, 
or parish, as such, were liable. If the original aignifieation, 
were that in which those terms were used in the resolutions 




of the House of Commons, it ia very dear that the provisions 
uf the statute of Queen Elizabeth" [i.e. 43 Eliz. c. 3] " could 
neither regulate nor ascerUin who are pat/i^n of ni'ot and 
But h11 the deterininatiDna tjf the right of election are p' 
ierior to the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and wo must suppose 
that the House, in those determinations, made use of ' scot 
and lot' in the general popular sense, for, when they were 
made, I believe, no special tax or duty was known by those 
names." This was written by Lord Glenbervie in a note in 
his first volume ; but in the third volume of hia work, he 
examined the question much more minutely, and in a long 
and learned note, wrote as follows (vol. 3, p. It!?) : — " Upon ^^ 
as accurate an. investigation as I have been able to bestow oofl^l 
the subject, I am inclined to think that ' scot and lot' had ^^ 
not originally a specific eiguiiication expressive of any par-» 
ticular local or parochial taxes, as I once conceived [mpt 
vol. 1, p. 140)." He then refers to the similar espressTona ii 
Dutch, German, and other languages, to the Statutes ol 
Sewers, the 11 Geo, 1. c 18, and other matters, aad tntimat 
that he considcra it most likely that the two words wer 
nearly sjTionymoiiis, and were used in a general way to indi-j 
cate taxes of all kinds, without specific reference to any par-- 
ticular tax. He saj^e— " Scotf shot, or kt, therefore, was th< 
share paid of the particular contribution whieh happened to 
be iii contemplation when, the leim was employed, whether 
it was an assessment for the sewers, a reckoning in a laTerDj 
or the parochial taxes." 

The atate of the ease is really remarkable. The House 
Commons, having had occasion to determine, at vftriousl 
times, tho nature of the parliamentary franchise in different 
boroughs, found, or resolved, in man}' inetancca, that *' pay- 
in^; scot and lot" was one of the conditions of its exercise/ 
So far as I have observed, the expression used in theso re-soJ . 
Intions is, simply, — ** pacing scot and lot;" and I do not'' 
know on what ground it is supposed by Mr. Ohiaholm Anstey 
(see above) that those resolutions refer to the "payment 
performance of scot and lot." This point was ingeniouali 
argued in 1775^ both in the Seaford Case and in the 



torough Case (3 Douglas, Election Cases, 40, 74). In the 
Seaford case, counBel contended that " Wfifc/i aufi Word was a 
general duty, io wliich, by the oM statutes, the inhabitanls 
of towns and boroug-hs were liable in their turns. * • • The 
usage 18, according to the ancient law, to watch by lot, each 
man taking his turn. This therefore is as good n criterion 
of a scot and lot man as the payment of the poor rate." Tliis 
was answered, however, by counsel on Ihe other eide, who 
fiaid — " The practice of frafcft find ward * • • has long fallen 
into disuse. J£ it existed, it could have nothing to do witli 
the payment of Scot nnd Lot, being a sort of duty to which 
men in all situationa and circumatances were eqimlly liable, 
and for which nothing was to be paid." In the Peterborough 
case, counsel ventured on a bolder argument, which is con- 
sidered by Lord Glenbervie (vol. iii. p. 128} aa "rather in- 
geflious than conclusive/^ and which, I must confess, appears 
to me to be directly contrary to the facts. Counsel said — 
"'Paying ecot and lot* is a sort of corrupt abbreviation of 
Ibe pro[>er ancient expression which Was * paying scot, and 
ring lot,* the term ' bearing' having bt'on dropped in this 
iBld mnny other determinations of the House of Commons, as 
the word 'pajnug' is dropt in a Statute of Henry ^T^ll. 
where the citizens of London are said ' to bear scot and lot' 
f33 Hen. 8, c. D, § 2). 'To pay scot,' therefore, is to pay 
parochial taxes, and 'to bear lot/ to perform parochial duties, 
and discharge parochial offices," No authority is given for 
the statement that 'paying scot and bearing lot' was " the 
proper ancient expression ;" and (he inquiry instituted in 
the present paper suggests (I think) the conclusion that it was 
not. In all the passages quoted prior tfl the reign of George 
the First, the verbs used in connexion with *' scot" and " lot" 
are either "'pay," or "bear" in the sense of "pay," i.e. 
"bearing a pecuniary charge or burden;" and it is in the 
Act of 11 Geo. 1, c. 18, passed in 1734, that we have met 
for the first time with tho expression "pay scot and bear 
lot," used 80 as to contrast the one with the other, " scot" 
being equivalent to "local tax," and "lot" to "local office." 
The Peterborough case was argued in 1775, half a century 





after the posaing of this Act, Until same OTideiice caa be 
adduced to show that *'lot" meant "office" before 1724, the 
opinion that up to that time it meant exclusively some kmd 
of " tax" (whether general 01- particular) seemfi to be suf£* 
ciently eatablished. 

Although, aa we have aoea above, in the speciid. Act re^ 
luting to civic elections in thtj City of London, a distinction 
wa« drawn between "paying scot" and "bearing lot," yet 
in the general act of 26 Geo. 3, c. 100 {passed in 1786), to 
prevent "occasional inhabitants" in Borougha from voting 
in the election of members of Parliament, (he right to vote 
is dealt with as veated " in the inhabitiints pmjing ecot and 
lot/' and nothing ia said about *' paying"^ the one, and 
"bearing" or "performing" the other. 

In " Rogera on Elections, Election CommittoGB, and Re- 
gistration ; loth edition ; by Wolferatan, 1865/* p. 111^ it ie 
said — " To what crit.erion the House of Commons before the 
43rd Ellzr c. 2, resorted to ascertain who paid scot and lot, 
is unknown; there being no decisions on the right of election 
to be found in the journals prior to the reign of Jamea the 
First. Since that time the practice has been xuiiform fo 
refer to the Poor Rate aa a regiater of Scot and Lot votena. 
1 Doug. 149. Where there ia no existing Poor Rate, a 
Church Rate is admissible to sliow who are rated. 1 
Fowey, 0. and D. 134." If ia this poaeage the expreeaion 
" Hince that time" refers to the reign of Jamos the First, it 
is perhaps not strictly accurate. I ara not aware of the pre- 
cise date of the firet resolution of the IToiiBe of Commons on 
the subject ; bnt Lord Glenbervie (2nd edition, 1802, vol. 
S, p. 129) says, ** There are no decisions on the lighta of 
election in the Journals, till the reign of Jamea I. ; after the 
Poor Rate waa eatabliehed. Most of those concerning 
boroughs, where the right is dK^la^6d to be in persons paying 
scot and lot (of which there are in all about thii-ty, beaides 
agreements with regard to about twelve more) have been 
made either in the present" [i.e. I presume 18th] *' century, 
or towards the end of the laat" [i.e. I presume 17th] ; which 
would, of course, be a good deal (perhaps more than half a 
century) later than the reign of Jaraes the First. 



Ite resolutions of the House of Commons mention the 
tditioQ of " paj'ing Scot and lot;'' tliey do not define 
lywhePG, I believe, the meanmg of " scot and lot ;" but the 
OTidence taken in the reported c&ma related to the Poor 
Bfttee and Church Rates, which it seems to have bepn 
asBomed mig-ht be regarded ae being of the nature of " scot 
and lot," though it was perfectly clear that the Poor Rate 
was not an ancient tax, having been established' by 43 
Eli^. c. 2 (a.d. 1601). All theee decisions are subsequent to 
the Tciga of Elizabeth^ coramencing, apparently, towards the 
etnd of the 17th centxiry ; and what is truly remarkable is, 
that the precise meaning of " scoi and lot" being, as ft seemB, 
no longer known, the House of Commons took upon itself to 
givo a meaning to the words, by applying them to & tax 
which did not exist before the beginning of the 17th centwry* 
and which, therefore, could not possibly have been included 
in the original application of the phrase. The condition of 
" paj-ing scot and lot" was nominally retained ; but its practi- 
cal application was entirely changed ; and the fact is highly 
characteristic of the English people, and of that peculiar 
combination of progrei^sivo and conservative tendencies, 
which their politicial history exhibits. What was the prac- 
tical effect of thus altering the conditions of the Borough 
franchise, — whether it enlarged or reduced the number of 
Toters, or whether (as is moat probable) it enlarged the num- 
ber in some towns, and restricted it in others, — is a political^ 
or at least an historical question, which it would perhaps bo 
scarcely suitable to discuss in a philological paper. Bat 
whatever the effect may have been, it is clear that the 
change was brought about by the sole act of the House of 
Commons,, proceeding on ita own authority alone, and with- 
out the concurrence or cognizance of the other branches of 
the I*egislatnre, 

It is clear from the arguments of counsel in the different 
oasc4 (see especially Milbome Port, I Douglas 97; Seaford, 

1 In HTtn? that it vma HtailUlied bj- the i5 Elii. c. 2, I do net ]<»« ri^lit of 

ttatiiUis during tlic reigns at Hen. S, E<Iw. 6, Mary, Bad Elisa-bfltb, Tbe 43 
t.ti.2 was to & great exteat busd opoo 39 Blu. c. 3. 



3 Donglaa 21 ; and Peterborough, 3 Douglas, 63), and 
aUo from Lord Gleiibervie*8 notea (vol. 1, p. 140; vol. 3, 
p. 127), that ttt all eventa in 1775 tte true Tneaning of " scot 
and lot" was no longer known; and upon the whole it seems 
to TUGf from varioue indicfltionB, to be inoet likely that the 
emplojment of those terma in their original aenee (whatever 
that may have been) gradually ceased during the reigns of 
Elizabeth and James the First. 


If we now seek to recoYor that original sense, we find tho 
greatest difficulty in doing ao. I am not able to throw any 
additional light upon this point ; but the following: not^s 
may jjorhnpB Bcrva as hints towards a further investigation. 

The modem lexicographera, of eourse, do not help us. 
Bailey and Johnson, in their definitions, were evidently 
influenced by the decieions of tho Election Committees of tho 
House of Commons. Bailey (lat edition, 1721)' says; — "To 
pay scot and lot ; to pay anch charg<j8 and parish duties aa 
housekeepers are liable to ;" and Johnson's explanations 
(1755) are as follows ' — 

" Lot — Proportion of tjixes ; as, to pay acot and lot." 

"Soot^ — 1. Shot; payment. 2. Scot and lot : Parish pay- 

Ilere we have a. reference to ** parish " paymenta ; but Martin 
(1749) omitting the word " parish," defined the term thus : 

'* To pay scot and lot ; to pay such charges or duties aa 
housekeepers are liable to," 

Going back a hundred years, we find a much wider defini- 
tion. Minaheu, writing in the time of James the First 
(1617), says :—*' Scot and Lott • • • • signifieth a 
custumarie contribution laid upmi all subiects after their 
ahilttie;" and this explanation is borrowed by Coles {I7l31i ; ^M 
— "Scot and Lot, a customary contribution laid on all sub- ^^ 
jects according to their ability ;" as well as by other lexico- 
graphers, including Dailey.' This definition appeai-a to 

^ Se« ite next note, 

' I have BvC «eea tba flrat edltivD of Sule;, which I beJieve is Tei7 Bd 



contemplate general or national rather than local or mimi- 
cipal taxes, and so far agrees with Mr. Riley's explanation 
of the terra (see above), as signifying " all taxes levied rate- 
ably for purposoa of state." The same view appears to he 
supported by the preamble to the 3-3 Hen. 8, c. 9 (1541) 
already referred to, in which the citizens of London com- 
plained, to the king of the intrusion of strangera, "beinge no 
fremen of tho same cittie, nor bearinge nother scott, lott, 
nor other chardges within your aaido Cittie, as other Citizena 
and fremen of the oome Cittie doe and are bounde to doe 
and by their othea are sworn to doe, and whiche Cittizena and 
fremeu of your said Cittie, of the mysteries and crafts before 
reheraed, whiche have bene brought upp as prentioes from 
their youtlie, dwellinge within the freedom© of your said 
Cittie of London, are alwayes in readyneaa to furnyahe your 
Gracea ai&yrcs when they ahalbe oommaunded." This 
certainly seems to imply that the '* scott, lott, and other 
chardges" included euch general contributions as might be 
necessary " to fumiah his Grace's affairs," and were conse- 
quently not confined to the municipal taxes. 

On the other hand, the House of Commons, by adopting 
the poor-rate aa the equivalent or representativo of "scot 
aud lot,'* showed tliat in their view the term Lad. reference 
to local charges, and not to the general taxes. Indeed, as 
the Poor Rate under the Act of Elizabeth was levied, in 
parishes^ Bailey and Johnson wero justified in interpreting 
the decisions of the Klection Committees aa restricting the 
term to " parish" payments ; and in the Act of George the 
First, already mentioned (11 Geo. I. c. 18, passed in 1724), 
the rates and taxes to which the houaoholders in the City of 
London were required to contribute -'and pay their acot," to 
entitle them to vote in the election of Aldermen and Com- 
mon Council Men were declared to be — " a Hate to the 
Church, to the Poor, to the Scavenger, to the Oiphausj and 

Irat in the 4tb edition (1728) I (Ind the curious fact, thst he mte tieo dcHmtiotu 
flf Scot and Lolj one, uiiiler '^Lot," which I baye tpotad aboYe; tho otht-r, 
under " Scot," which is aimply k copy of Mineheu, The flrit ia probubly h« 
own '. and the IqcoaMsteiictjr oi the iwo de&mtio&i does not appear to bare oc- 
curred to him. 



to the Rates in lieu of or for the Watch and Ward, and to^ 
auch other annual Rates as the Citizens of London, inha- 
biting therein^ ahall hereafter be liable unto, other than and 
except annual aids granted or to be granted by ParHa- 
ment." Here we meet with un express exception of tlia 
general taxation, the "annual aids granted by Parliament;' 
and an express limitation of the term to rates of a local 

Are we then juatlfiod in inferring tliat " scot aad lot'* 
meant originally all the taxea to which a subject was liable, 
whether general or local, whether national or municipal, 
whether civil or eccleaiaatical, whether payable to the titatej 
or to the Church, to the Crown or to the County, the 
Ilundred, the City^ the Borough, the Parish, or other dis- 
trict; but that in the course of time the phrase came to be' 
Liittited to the local, or perhaps even to the municipal, taxesP' 
Or are we to suppose that the House of Commons^ in adopt- 
ing the Poor Hate aa the appropriate substitute, did eo iu 
ignorance of the true and original meaning of the phrase, 
and erroneously imagined it to be restricted to the locolj if] 
not to the raunieipul;, tiiics ? 

In endeavouring to find some answer to these queetions, it] 
will be eonvenient to examine the two words separately. 

The Act of George the Fiiat already mention^ (11 Geo. 
I. c- 18) speaks of the rates and lasea "to which" the house- 
holders were " to pay their Hcot*' and also of any householder 
who *' shall have paid hi« scot to all the said rates and taxes " 
(g y). Hero the word "scot" ia used as equivalent to 
*' ahare" or "proportion," referring to the individual con- 
tribution of each person, and not to the aggregate amount 
of the entire levy. This eccma to have been the original 
moaning of " lot"^ allotment^ apportionment ; and if it was 
also the original meaning of "scot," the two words, curiously 
enough, moat have been very ne^irly synonymoug. 

There ia another acceptation of ^'^ecot" and its variant, 
" shot," — in the sense of a tavern scorcj — which perhaps may 



ABaist OS here. Skolton (who died in 1529), in describing 
the tUirstj visitors at tko akliouse of Klyuoiu- Eumuyag, 

Anone cometh another, 

Aa drje ae the oth^r, 

And wytk her doth brynge 

Mele, salte, or other thynge, 

To pay for her scot 

As Cometh to her lot. 

— (ed. Dyce, ISH, re\. 1, p. 104, t. 28L) 

In thin sense, we find the word in the Romance languages : 
Itai, acotto — the reckoning at an inn; Span, escofe ^ club; 
oaootar = to club together, to pay one's share; Frenchj old, 
eeoot, nuxi,^ 6cot, viz : — 

" Kacotter : Erery one to pay hia shot, or to contribute 

dotnewhut towards it." " Diane r 4 escot: A dinner at 

an ordinarie ; or whereat every guest payes his part, or, 

ahare and ehare alike." " Parler par escot. To is^ieake 

by tumea, to heore one another epcak." — (Cotgravo, 


" ^ot — la quote-part que doit chaquo peraonne pour un 

rcpas conunun : la depenee qn^'on fait 4 Vhdt«llerie, au 

cabaret pour un repae." — (Diet, de I'Academie, 1777.) 

Mioaheu throws out a conjecture that theae words may be 

eonnet'tod with the Latin quota; which is not impossible; 

and they certainly contemplate the practice of a number of 

peTBons going to a tovem together, and sharing the oxpcnae, 

fa«;h paying liia qrioUi.^ Keverthcleaa, they seem upon the 

whole, perhaps^ more likely to be of Teutonic origin.' 

Just as scot = tavern score, ia found in the various 
Bomance languages, ao scot = public tax, i& widely spread 

' [□ Bdwnrd ttic Fourtti's Cl]iirl?r ia the Cinquo Porta ftlru^uJy quoted, DHiti- 
dim it RUida of tWir quittance "dc omnibtu antilili^ Btibeidih, eontribnciambufl, 
Illll^itT. ft fffff'* ijiubLidcUDilui^,'' iinil Agnin. "ctt^iniam, quint^milDciiniiin, mu 
■Ibun ^mtam vel taxurn quumc unique," — and in t)otb putiagtrs Jl^hIco trnnfiktot 
Qte HOM fMld by tml, uiiidiit^ the fulbiwirg note — " So huvo I seen il reiiHeTocI, 
tad uoeaniaglj trBoslnted it btri.'. ojid m i^tber pUces^ but probnbLv Q>totti 
su^ifles Fta-tioHt or rrapurliotf of any freal&r sum to be miiccl in ttk<i wtich." — 
(^ '•Cbartcn^ Ac.," pp. H», SL;) btill, it mUst bo tcnurked that in thaU 
pUHget the word in the Lstin teit is not »oot, but jptota, 

* MC'iuwH d^riren ('«>( from iba Ali^lo-Snxati ^mf ; nod iJiJi •- ''' Hr. Gajct 
cnrjrnt qur J40t avoitiCifr tormS d' exptotn; en i^uoy il h trompoit" (cd. 16II4j. 



throughoitt the Teutxinle and Scandinavian languages; e.g^ 
Du. schot ; Qfy. achoss ; Swed. skatt. In Shetland, at tlie 
pi^sent day, the Scandinarian form remains ; thus — " Scatt> 
tho name of a Danish tax still paid in Shetland ;" " To Bcatt, 
to subject to the tax denominated Scatt.*' (See Edmonston^s 
Etymological Glossary of the Shetland and Orkney Dialect; 
Philol. Trana. 1866.) It is quite possible that the two words 
are distinct in origin and have met accidentfllly on Engliah 
ground. On the other hand, it lb equally poBsible that the 
two words are one in orig'in, and have entered the Romance 
langnagea from a Teutonic source. 

Some etymologists trace the A.S. sceatj Qer. schoas = tax, 
to A,Su eceotan, Gei\ aehiesBen, ^= to shoot ; connecting' 
the two ideas by the act of " throwing down the money in 
payment." In following the history of the word " scot," 
however, we have found the idea of "sharing" to be often 
prominent, if not uniformly prevalent; ntnd the link between 
the ideas oug-ht to be, not the act of throwing down the money, 
but the fact of throwing together a number of eeparate con- 
tributions to a common charge or fund ; ns in Gc}\ " geld 
zueammen achiessen." (Cf. Gt\ ffVfj,^o\av, Lai. Symbolum.) 
This view accords with the definition of "scot^' given by 
Mathew of Westminster, "ex divcrsis rebus in unum acervum 
ag-gregatnm; " and certainly requires some other explauatian 
of the origin of the term than the mere idea of simple 

The word sccat (masc.) in A.S. has a great number of 
meanings, which difler so widely from one another, that it is 
very difficult to trace them all to a common origin ; and 
looting to the various forms of the coi-reaponding woi'ds in 
the other dialects, it admits of conjecture that in this instance, 
us in many others, several distinct words liad acquired in 
Anglo-Saxon one idcntLcal form. There are different spell- 
ings of the word in different MSS, ; but these appear to 
mark the different pronunciations, rather than the dillerent 

In the sense of a garment or covering, sceat seems to be 
connected with Dut. achooij Ger. iihoos, Goth, ikaut, Icel. 



tat, Dan. nf^Oif, Swed. skofe. Tho Eng. aJteet represents 
.S. M^'jte, or scefe (fern-), and not A.8. sceit (masc.)- 
In the spnse of a piece of money, or a Bmall coin about the' 
Titluo of a penny, sceat appears to b& the Gothic shttl, 
dcuarius ; which occurs in the Goapels of Mark and Luke. 
To tho question, "la it lawful to give tribute to Caesar?" 
(akuldu. iat gild g;iban Saisara P) Jesus replica (in Mark iii. 
15), "Atbairit* mis skafl;" (in Luke xx. 24)» "Ataugoifi 
mis ^katt;** " bring mo a penny/' The word here iiaed for 
" tribute" ia "gild" in the Gothic, and " gaful/' or "gafol," 
in. the A.8. ; and the word for the piece of money is " akatt," 
in, the Gothic, and "pening^," or "penig," in the A.S., 
"penny," in tho English; In the Greek, "Brjvdpiov." Tlie 
corre§pondiiig passag^e in Matthew is wanting in the Gothio, 
which is unfortunate, aa the Greek in Matthew (xxii. 19) 
varies from Mark and Luke ; using the phrase, " to v6f£ur/ia 
Tou KTfva^ov" (tribute- money), instead of the word " S^jvapiov'* 
To gkati and secaf, in this sense, the Old French i{^ote = 
"sorte de monnoie'* (Roquefort) was. no doubt related. 

In the sense of treaaure (whether generally, or in the 
gpeciiiic form of money, — cf. sceai-cod =. money-bag), sceat 
corresponds to the German schats ; Dutch, sckat ; whilst in 
the sense of tax or tribute, it is the equivalent of Dutch 
ichot, German schoss. In the Danish and Swedish there is 
only one form (Dan. shit, Sw. skatf) for both treasure and 

The great difficulty is to decide how far, on the one hand, 
the senses of share, portion, part, division, distribution, or 
contribution ; and on the other hand, the senses of money, and ' 
payment, and treasure, were connected with the sense of tax 
or tribute, ^ccai undoubtedly meant part or portioD, where 
there was no reference to money or payment ; as, eor^an\ 
iCCfUfti, rcgiona of the earth ; ^ and in the Dutch, there la the 

< In PrtirineUI English, &t least in tbo mtithem ooinitieB, ahol u etUl lued for ' 
a portign m tlimign tX Band ; '^' tho npiier shol," " the lower ghot." = the iippetT 
the lower diTJAioa, The late Mr. k«mbli.>, in noting sonm "Sttrrcy Proviii' 
cialuins," montioned — ^' Shut, a portion ol liiDd. A.S. icest (FotdBn fioeuttns, orbia 
tcmnim]- ''WiLl jqu let the upper shut Ih laid up for hay*'" — FKiliti. Traut. 
18M, p. 84. 



Bame usage ; aB, ttauthdiol — wall-partition ; whence Eug. 
wainscof. On the other hand, Ger. schalzen means to tax, and 
to pay taxes; wbiktsr/ja^^f^n means to appraise ; to value; to 
esteem. la Dutch, ^cfiafUn, aJid Swediali skatfa, or their 
donvativee, all theee meamngH are included ; but I am not 
tartain whether the sense of valuation attftched U> the A.S. 

If wo examine the different eorta of t&xee or paymenta to 
which the word was applied in A.S.> we bHeiU find the 
question become further involved. The church-scot {ciric- 
sceat)f waa not always paid iu money, but soraotimes in kind. 
Thorpe says it waa *' originally" a certain measure of corn ; 
and quotes with approval the etatement of White Kennett, 
" It was BometimeB a general word, and included not only 
com, but poultry or any other provision that was paid in 
kind to the religioua" (Ancient Lawa, etc., 8vo. vol. i., 
p, 104). On the other hand, Dr. Henry, in hia History 
of England (Book II., ch. 2, g 4), very distinctly atatea, " In 
the 7th and Sth centimes tho English clergy bad been sap- 
ported— by the produce of the landa which had been given to 
the church by kings, and other great men, — by a church scot, 
or tax, of one Saxon penny on every houae that waa worth 
thirty Saxon pence of yearly rent, — and by the voluntary 
oblations of the people," If, however, it waa originally, or 
even at any time, paid iu kind, it is clear that the word 

' Mr. no«ta' friead {M. Kroon), lo whoge wnimuiucatioa I lara olreadf 
raffirred, obKerrnj; ; — '^Tbe otymoici^ of the void uSoi seeniH U> be tbe baub as 
that of tlifi wonlfl tteAaiivr and arJiatIrn, Sc/mtUfi ia ito t^tUmali^ sQw&lHHly^B 
income or propcrtv, to dcUTiniac tlie tax he musL -pay. 8fhatU»g la also used in 
tha Bi^iflcndoQ OF tax va iU ntoflt geTicrd eenso. An etprcmiciti, for cnsUiiucH 
whkh OCCUrG aomi'tiTiiee, thait^h not of!cn, is : lehattm^ oan dt natuur ^faleii, 
for to du. Ia tha Unguiige oT tbe Fhsijuu tticrc oiiau n word, teoad, wbich 
baa the BOino al^iilic'Eitiuii an gcoi &lkd Kkat." Ifc adilii^ — -'' But to return to ttJiot 
m tul: it -wae originallj a tax pitid to tbe landijwners, by tliose tbat worn in n 
bottur condition than, tbia Bttfs (lyl'ia^i^iieiii), a sort of becmuu, who wbth ftuhjrct 
tc thtJ lord of the gTOOiid they eullitated in no point except that tbi;y had to 
pay a tax." A&d igain hi> lajra — "wAo^ ij on old tax, dua to th« landthefr an 
a Goit of rent. Now tbcro ih is our iKDguage a disdnccioa hctwscn iand*httir 
Bad landhttt; In the dofinition of teAot, the lintt word ia rwiuirud. It HigniflcB, 
Aovorvi^ii lord of the soontry; the second means iriaiiilv ktidownor. This 
definition of M-Aot is givoa in nTi old dociimcnt nititlcd '^InfunnnrLe'' (iDfomia- 
tu9ii)i sad uditnl by tha LLterurr Society of Leiden, in tho year 16QG. lI<»n«iTiaTi, 
in a diinerCatiall oU the 'gnifelyko l^dfiD,' thflt in, the taics of Lho Court nt 
IloUanii, written in the lust yi?ur« of tdo 18tb oentury (to be found in tl» diaer- 
tutions of Uio Uaivcnity of Lcidcu) euya that $eAot en tot arc Kjnionj'BU." 





aeeat waa iu that case applied to n payment wHch was not 
made la money. Moreover, it was not a ratsable asacaament, 
— it wiu uot a certaui amount mteed from a number of 
peraoufl ia proporUonato ahartSi'^but it ^as a fixed annual 
pajinent in respect of caiih property. So also, Ught-BCot 
{Jtoht-'jt9Cijtt or leo/tt-sccot) was to be paid " thrice in the year " 
(liaws of Ethelred, Ancient Laws, etc., vol. i. p. 309) ; or at 
Candlemas (ibid. p. 343) ; and aoul-scot (saul-sceai) waa to be 
"always paid at tbe open grave" (?*«/. pp. 309, 343); that 
ifi, not under a genoral osseasment, but upon a particular 
occasion. The Peter's pence, usually called Bomv-ft-oh, were 
alaa called Romescot ; and iveax-g^sccot is defined by Lyo — 
"pccuQia in ceram vel ccroos collata.'* Med-sceat, in the 
aenso of a bribe, refers to a voluntary payment, though poa- 
adbly with the indirect aiguiiication of an improper exaction; 
and tt-ipstm-^cmt (firom. frG83(wi = fruit, increase) meant usury^ 
which WHS then regarded oa a kind of exaction or extortion, 
and indeed a sinful one. 

In the charters and. statutoa subsequent to the Conquest, 
the word "scot," as we have seen, was often used in such a 
mnnn^ as to show that, although not accompanied by any 
ij^uulifying term, it neyerthe^iusa referred to some particular 
tax, being included amongst other woitla (such as gedd, 
danegt>ld, bidagc, scutagL') which were unduubte<ily descrip- 
tive of specific pajTncTits. A\1iat particular tax it was, that 
was thus deeignatod by the word "scot," cannot perhaps be 
now satififact Drily determined ; but it may be remarked that 
in " Lea Termea de la Ley," there is the following state- 
ment :- — "Scot est, quietum esse do quadam consuetudine, 
ricut de connnune Tallagio facto ad opus Vicccomitis vol 
BttUi^-i ejus," " Scot is, to bo quit of a certain custom, as of 
• common Tallage mfide to the uae of the Sheriif or Bayliff." 
This may have been, and probably was, the payment referred 
to in some of the charters under the name of scof ; and it waa 
perhaps the original, or the procursorj of the modem County 
Rate. The use of the word in this way, by itself. Is very 
different from its employment in conneiion with qualifying 
terms, which mark distinctly the nature of the paj^naent, such 



aar Sfitrecc-acol (or Sheriff-acot) ; kundrcd-scot ; church-scof ; 
and 80 forth ; and the difficulty is, to aacertain whether, 
wKen BO uaed, it referred to a particulur tax (such as the 
Sheriff's acot), or to a geoenil contribution to the public tax- 
ation. That it sometimes had one of these meaninga, and 
Boraetimea the other, I think there can be little doubt. The 
compound^^term scot-free meana "free from liability to con- 
tribute/* or at least, "exempted from^ contributing." 

With regard to " lot," Duconge defineB it thus, " Tributum, 
census quern quis tenetur praestare vel pro capita, vel pro 
fuudo aut mercibus ; ** whilst Spelman (aa we have seen) 
refers it to the A.S. A/o/, to which he ascribea two senses — 
1. Sora ; 2. Sjinbolura. Bosworth, however, does not 
aBsigTi the latter meaning to the word, and gives sors only 
aa the signification ; whilst to the verb hkotan he only 
a8aig;ns two meanings — 1. to cast lots ; 2. to appoint or 
ordain by lot At the same time, he baa the word ^* hhjtte = 
a collector, tributi exactor j'' as well as " khjila = one who 
casta lotSj, a fortune teller, sortilegus." The connexion be- 
tween casting lots and levying taxes is not perhaps very 
obvious ; but the two meanings may nevertheless be related^ 
the primary idea from which they both diverged being 
division, distribution, allotment. The same idea would also 
admit of a further extension, in reference to the compulsory 
discharge of local offices by the several householders in a 
district ; and it seems that at the beginning of the 18th 
century, if not before^ this additional application, of the term 
had actually taken place. It may be noted by the way that 
the A.S. has an initial A, — hlot, hleotan, hbjtta, hli/ik ; which 
eeems to imply a more ancient k, and possibly therefore, a 
remote connexion with the source of the ffr. kXcuo, K\i}po<;. 

Tn summing up the results, we may observe— 
1. That the word "soot" is Anglo-Saxon, and down to tho 
time of Elizabeth was used in the sense of a tax, public pay- 



or pecxmiary charge, — soraetmes with qualifying 
terms {e.^. church-scot) and sometimes alone ; and was ibus 
applied to a great variety of charges, general tis well as local, 
ccclesiaatical as well Eia civil, and also to occaBional or epecific 
pATineaU (e,p, eoul-scot), aa well an to rateable or propor- 
tionate payments (fi.f?. hundred-scot Ji; 

2. That the word " lot" is also Anglo-Saxon, and was like- 
wise used in a similar scnee, but apparently not in connection 
with any qualifying terraa ; 

3. That the phrase, " scot and lot" (or " lot and scot") was 
current in England at least as early as the reign of Edward 
the Confessor ; and upon the whole it seems most probable 
that, without referring precisely to any particular imposts, 
or classes of imposts, denoted bj' the separate worda, the 
combined expression was intended to indicate, and was under- 
stood to include, taxes of all kinds, though it was perhaps 
confined, in its actual application, to cities, boroughs, guilds, 
and other similar bodies or corporations, whilst the separate 
words were certainly not so limited ; 

4. Tliat the words are occasionally used as verbs, e.g. to 
scot and lot ; to be scotted and lotted ; to lot ; but generally 
oihor verba are employed to quality the nouna; and the ex- 
preedons " to pay Scot and lot," and " to bear scot and lot," 
on always found to have reference to pecuniary burdens ; 

5. That nevertheless, in the reign of George the First (i>. 
in 1724), the e^cpression "to pay scot and to bear lot'^ is uaod 
f 11 Geo. I. c. 18) so as to draw a distinctionj — " to pay scot" 
meaning " to pay taxes," and " to bear lot" being understood 
to mean *' to bear office ;" but whether thia latter meaning 
can be traced to an earlier date, is a question for further 
investigation ; 

6. That the use of both the words *' scot" and "lot" ap- 
pears to have undergone some change during and after the 
reign of Elizabeth, so that they gradually became obsolete, 
or at least antiquated, probably in consequence of the desue- 
tude of the payments which they had once denoted ; their 
place being subsequently supplied, in general usage, by the 
words *' rates" and "taxes"; 



7. That alttiough the phrase, " paying 8cot and lot/* waa 
retained in Ihe reaolutiotie of the House of Commons relating 
to the parliamentary franchiB© in boroughs^ ita meaning in 
this connection waa practically changed, at least towarda the 
ond of the 17th century, by being transferred and reetricted 
to the Poor Rate (or in its absence, to the Church Eat-e), — 
the taxes formerly designated by the terms " scot" and *' lot" 
Iwing probably no long^er paid, and the Poor Rate having 
been eatablUhed in 1601, towards tho close of Elizabeth's 
reign, and nearly six centuries after the time of EdwaTxi 
the Confessor ; OT perhaps it may be more correct to say, 
(hat in passing these resolutions the House of Commons did 
not giTG a new meaning- to " Scot and Lot," but merely, in 
cffbct, declared that persons now paying Poor Rat-es were to 
be eonpidercd, for the'purpose of the franchise, as being in a 
corresponding jweition to those who had formerly paid soot 
and lot ; thus really (by its own authority alone) creating a 
new franchise under an old name ; 

8. That in passing these roBolutions, the House of Oom- 
mona appeared to consider the Poor Hate (which was a paro- 
i;bial tax) as an appropriate substitute for scot and lot ; 
although it ia certain that in earlier times, the separate 
words " Bcot" and " lot" were frequently applied to payments 
of a rnuoh more general, and in many reepects very different 
character ; and it is also most probable that, with respect to 
raiinicipal bodies, the joint phrase "seot and lot" compre- 
hended all the public contributions to which the members 
were liable ; 

9. That tho new franchise with the old name, thus created 
hy restJutions of tlio House of Commons, contijiued for about 
150 yearfi, until the lieform Act of 1832 brought the lan- 
guage of the law into harmony with the facta, hj declaring 
the Poor llate> in express terms, to be the basis of the quali- 
fication ; 

iO, That " Soot" ^ public tax, exists in bU the Teutonic 
and Scandinainan languages, and in Dutch, moreover, the 
phrase ^*Bchot en lot" also occurs; whilet a similar term is 
found in the Homancc Languages as woU as in English, viz : 


jrr UAWBT p. TRT, 1MQ, 


"acot" ^= tavern score, which may, or may not, be the same 
word. It IB not necessary for the purpose of llie present 
paper to inveetigate thia point, thougt it is well worthy of 


•.• Since ttie foregomg paper was read to the Society, I 
have met with Mr. HomerahaTU Cox'a interesting work on 
"Antieut Parliaraentary Elections/' in which he discuaaes 
aonw of the questions that ore here oonsidered. He noticee 
Uie curioua word irothiPchcJtof. He says — ** Another scot 
mentioned in the same record" [the "Hundred Holla"] *' is 
icoiivaxischoi. Thus, in the return for North grenehow^ in 
Norfolk, Wariu de Moji(e Caniso is said to withhold 'four 
shilling and teTi[)enoo halfpenny of a certain annual render 
colled Modewei^cliot' (quodam annuo rcdditu qui vocatur 
wodewelschot) ; from which cspresaion it maybe conjectured 
that thia charge was peculiar to particular localities. In the 
utne retiirns ihire^schof ie twice mentioned," (p. 166). 

With regard to "lot/* he remarks that "the word ^clda 
(or ^t/fiiji) is ueed in antient docuinents as the equivalent of 
lot" (p. 174), and he refers (p. 176) to a charter granted by 
Edward the First to Hull, in which the Latin words "od 
geldam et scottum" are used ae the equivalenta of the Nor- 
man Frencli "ft lot et escot/' occurring in the petition 
(&Iadox, Firma Burgi, ch. xi. §. 4). Elsewhere (p. 171) he 
obaerres that "geldum" is used in Domesday for " djmgeld." 
I liave already noticed that Coke considered " geldum" to be 
often used in Domesday for "scot." But gtcu if "lot" had 
(toraetimed this restricted raenTiing, it is clear from many of 
the passages which I have cited, that it was also frequently 
employed in a much, more general aense. 

D. P. F. 



XIII,— ON RIBBECK'S VmaiL— By Wilheli* 
Wagnes, PI1.D. (Read Dec, 20, 1867.) 

In the brief but Gxcellent sketch of the gradual develop- 
ment of Gerinan philolog-y with regard to the study of the 
Latin langunge, which Mr. Mimra has given in the Intro- ^1 
doction to hia critical not'es on Lucrotiua (p. 34, Snd ed., ^M 
1866), he 8poalt& of Prof. Otto Ribbeck's edition of Virgil. ^ 
a work not then finiehcd, and gives it as his opinion that 
Ribbeck " Bhows himaelf a most devoted pupil of Ijachmann ;" 
but I may be allowed to doubt whether this designation 
would be much to Ribbeck'a own taste, though on Jlr, 
Munro's part it Was no doubt me-ant to be complimentary. 
At all events, it ia certain that in Germany Prof Ribbetk 
is always considered as one of the most devoted pupils of 
Ritschlt to whom he also dedicated big first work of note, 
the '* Tragicorum Latinornin Reliquia?^" 1852, Three years 
afterwards (1855), this work was followed by a similar col- 
lection of the fragments of the ancient comic writers besides 
Plautue and Terence ; both works of the greatest importance 
for the study of the Latin language. "Without now going 
into details, in which we might frequently be obliged to 
differ from Ribbeck'a criticisra, it may ou the whole be said 
that these two works were well-esecuted specimens of that 
critical method which was then taught by Prof, Ritachl, at 
Bonn ; but at the same time wo should add that the eome- 
what arbitrary, though, in Ritscbl's own case, ingenious 
trentinent of MS. authority in his Plautus had not been 
without influence upon a pupil who had received from his 
master all that may be acquired by careful training, though 
natural defects of taste and judgment showed themselves in 
these works but too plainly. But I think It the less just to 
dwell at much length on the shortcomings of these earlier 
perfonnancea of Ribbeck's, as he afterwards met with an 




implacable critic, " cui robur et jsys triplex circa pectuB crat/* 
— I mean Lucian Miiller, wbo in many pasaageB of his work 
tie re meirica (lft61), epeaka of Hibb&ck id a manner by no 
means compHiuentary, but unpleoaontly reminding modem 
readers of the mde savagenesB of scholars of the 16th century, 

. Four years after bis fragments of the comic poeta, that is, in 

1 1859, Ribbeck published the firat volume of his Virgil 
(Buoolice and Georgics), in 1861 the first six books of the 
./EIneid, and the next year the rest. After unotlier interval 

J of foxir years, the Prolegomena niade their appearance, in 
1866;, and, as I am informed, wo are to have in a few 
weeks the completion of the whole work, contJiining the 
poems ascribed to YirgiL with more or leas justice. 
Thongb it is qait<; natural that a work of such dimensions 
as Prof. Ribbock's edition of Virgil should offer almost 
endless opportunities for criticism, it is not my intention hero 
to enter into disquisitions as to tho readings of all those 
passages where I might either agree or disagree with tho 
Editor, though on this point too I ahali have to say a few 
words : here I mainly intend, giving a general idea of the 
kind of work done for Virgil by hts last editor, adding also 
a few of those observations which suggested themselves to me 
during the pcniaal of the work. 

Before commencing I would, however, just add that a 

"tmaller edition containing the text alone, with a very careful 
disquiailiou on Virgil'^s life, haa been lately published by 
Prof. Ribbeck, and this I shall have to mention sometimes, as 
I think I may safely presmno that it contains his latest 

Ribbeck's Prolegomena are by far the safest guide in 
studying the whole work,' aa they give a full account of the 
leading views of the Editor, He tells us they ought more 
appittpriutely to be called " Epilegomena," appearing as they 
do after the conclusion of the work ; but it is for thia very 
reASOn that tho Prolegomena may be looked upon as the 
boat part of the whole performance. How unfortunate, for 
instiince, was it that Ritschl wrote his Prolegomena lo 




on nil]Hi£ClCS VIRGIL, 

Plautus at a tiniQ wbL*n lie Lad only 0)i<' pby ready for press, 
and PO»ld not yet coramand tbe full resources of his own 
critical apparatus on the otlier plays. As it was, he arrired 
ttt niflDy conclusions in his Prolegomena, which he was 
obliged, Inter on, to ubaudoil ; nor waa it mere chance tbut 
bia edition cnnie to a etandatiU after the publication of nine 
playei : he percoivod tbut it wnidd be advisable to do his work 
all over agtiin with the experience he bad gained during its ^ 
progress. But yet how msstorly is the torso wo possess ; bo . 
important indeed that it alone would have been sufficient to "^M 
lead the study of the Liitiu langiiago into a different obannel. ^^ 
What frtV/ Ritachl'e Plautus bc5 aa It is now gradually rebuild- 
ing under the maater'a band in big retreat at Leipzig ! 
Warned by this example, Prof. Ribbeck wrote hia own 
Proleguraena when he could survey all his matprials ; and it i 
must be confessed that tbia is indeed a pcrfomiance against ^M 
which e%*en the spite of a Luciau MiilJer would be powerU'sa. ^\ 
Let ua commence with llie end of the volume; the "Index ^i 
Granimaticus " alone would moke it an important work for^| 
pbilologieal study. In Virgil wo enjoy the rare opportunity ^^ 
of posBCfising not less than seven MSS. of the highest an- 
tiquity, all of them written in capitals. Besides these, we 
have an abundanec of otlier early M8S., and are also uafiisted 
in our criticism by numerous referencea to Virgil made by 
nnei&nt grammarians and comjn en tutors. The Jlediceau MS, 
has long been considered as one of the oldest MSS. in ex- 
istence. Besides its readings, wo receive now for tJie firat. 
time from Prof. Ribbeck a complete collation of the Palatine 
MS. of an age not less venerable; and, in the same way, 
Piorius's Cod. Roraanus appears now in the Professor's own, 
and no doubt careful^ collation. I do not here mention the 
other MSS. in capitals, as they contain only fragraente of thfti 
text (in fact, not even MPR arc complet-o thronghout) ; but 
what 18 niorc important, 1 will here draw especial attention' 
to the twelfth chapter of the Prolegomena, "de acriptura 
codicnm antiquissimorum," which contains a general dis- 
quisition, embraiing rf// the earbest Latin MSS. we possess, 
and proving satisfactorily that not a single one among tbem 



con be attributed to an earlier period than the end of the 
fifth centuiy, though former authorities had aacribod some of 
them to a much earlier time, as, for instance, the famous 
Ambrosian palimpsest of Plautus had been ascribed to the 
age of Antoninus Pius by Cardinal Mai. In the same 
chapter Hibbeck shows conclusively that Virgil himself was 
not likely to write his own MS. with the scrupulous care 
bestowed by a youthful modern author upon his first pro- 
ductions for which he tries in vain to find a printer ; nay, 
Virgirs friends and editors, Tarius and Tucca, must have 
been sometimes uncertain as to the deciphering of the poet's 
handwriting : see Ribbeck, Prolegg. pp. 94 and 3G5. But 
though I am prepared to accept Ribbeck's conclusions on 
this point, I cannot agree with his reading in one of the 
passages to which he attaches his remarks, viz., jEu. iv. 
436. Dido sends her sister Anna to beg a small favour from 
j^neas, viz., a short delay of his departure : " extremam banc 
oro veniam," " this I ask as a last favour" (rightly explained 
by Ribbeck), " quam mihi cum dcdcrit, cumulatam mortc 
remittam." Here we find in Servius that Varius and Tucca 
read "dederw," though Ser\'ius knows and explains also the 
other reading " deder/^," which is given by our best MSS. 
MP, and is indeed the only one which seems to give a good 
sense, as Ribbeck shows by comparing v. 429 " extremum 
hoc misene def munus amanti." Our editor himself writes 
monfe instead of morte, and thus assumes that Varius and 
Tucca first mistook t for s, and then n for r. But what 
sense does he arrive at in this manner ? *' Magnos conieci 
reginam promiaisse montes auri argontique aliorumque praj- 
miorum in tam exigui beneficii gratiara." For this he quotes 
parallel expressions from Pers. iii. 65 (magnos months), 
Plautus Glor. 1065 {argenti motiHa hahet), and Tor. Phorm. 
68 {montis auri pollicemy. But arc these exactly to the 
purpose P We too may say " I promise you mountains of 
kisses" but what would "I'll cover you with a mountain" 
mean ? I am afraid we should find it quite void of any mean- 
ing; and it should be observed that in the Latin phrases 
* He might have added Snll. Cat. 23, i,— maria montit^e pctiireri. 


as bibbeck's vikoil. 

too Tve bave always th.e plural. This alone would Buffic 
upset Ribbeck'fi conjwiture; but certainly the difficulty of^ 
the passage liee in the second half of the line, and mor8| 
specially in the words morte rrmiUam. I think the most; 
natural translation of vniiam rcmittrre would be "to return a 
favour/' and thiB would here stand in its very tirat sense, u 
^ncna first mittU veniam, or to use the equivalent eipression 
(v, 42S)) flat mtinits ; aa for Anna, Wagner and Ribbock say 
we cannot understand vem'a of her share in the whole transac- 
tion, as this would lead us to suppose that Dido hero already 
espreases her intention of slaying herself, a resolution which 
19 only the very laat step Dido takes when all other hope ia 
g«ne, as it is only in v. 450 wo hear " turn vera infelis; fatis 
exterrita Dido mortem orat ;" and even when Dido is pre- 
paring for doath, she does not dare oponlj to show her inten 
tion to her sister (478-&03 and 630-640, and especialli 
Anna's own words, v. 675, *' me /ratuk petebas"). Is it 
therefore just tx) expect Anna would listen quietly to any 
inaimiation of this kind without replying to and reuiou- 
strating- with her sister ? Bat then again the wonls miserere 
Aot'oris create another difficulty, Ribbeck saySj " because she 
has to make requests of this nature," but diroctly throws 
doubt on his own explanation by adding that the woids may 
l>e due to an interpolation, "ex v. 478 imitatiooe," a suppoai- 
lion as untenable as possible | for lines left imperfect by 
Virgil occur always (so far as I have observed) at the end 
of a sentence, never in the middle. But to conclude, it 
seems to m,e that all the difficulties which editors find in thia 
passage arise from the wrong way in. which they seem to 
look upon it : I maan their habit of conaidering the whole 
composition as one continuous speech. Yet in the lines im- 
mediately following we find evidence to show that Virgil, at 
least, did not want them to be considered in this liglit, cf. 
V, 438 J'erfque rffertqufi, and especially 447 advidtti^ hi\ 
fdque hinc mcihui. Taking this riow, ia it not qui 
natural that as a laat means of making an impression upon 
the faithless lover, Dido should threaten to slay herself, — 
a means always common enough in the case of desperate 






ToTC? And would not thia be well expreaeed by cnmufatam 
morfe remiitam ? " If ho will ^nmt uic only this favour, I 
will return it with interest, by ridding him of" myself by my 
own death." The sarcasm contained in this sentonce eeoms 
to me to agree well enough with a scene auch aa we conceive 
to take place here : *' he is going to leave Dido, thua 
showing that he feels no longer any love for her ; he mil 
kill her by thua deserting her: let him only stay a few days 
longer, until better winds set in ; his heart's deaire shall be 
gratified nevertheless, the queen will kill herself." But why 
then is Anna silent all the time ? ^Yhy does not she rcmoD- 
atrate with her sister when she hoars that she intends to die ? 
I think if Virgil were to write his poem^ now-a-days, he 
would perhaps bring Anna a little more into the foreground; 
OS it is, she is httlo more than a dim mli^ty shadow through- 
out the whole of the fourth book, and the poot did not deem 
it necessarj' to trouble the reader at greater length with her 
emotions- But what she must have felt is after all sufficiently 
indicated, as aho is called miftern'ma mrur in the very next 
liae. The^c are the reaaona which have led mo to the con- 
clusion that the reading of our beat MSS. should be retained 

But to return to the point from which we started. Rib- 
b?ck ahowa that all our MHS. are descended from one archetj'pe, 
which was written " current! et minime laborioso etilo." He 
arrivoB at this comjlusion after a careful comparison of those 
various readings which owe their origin to mistakes arising 
from the similarity of letters, and which our knowledge of 
ttocieat writing enables us to assume would, in careless 
writing, he liable to be taken for csach other ; and his collec- 
tion of these mistakes is certainly of the most convincing 
chiuvoter, Tet there i& also another source of various read- 
Lugs which seem to run throughout our MSS. of Virgil, viz., 
readings arising cither from faulty pronunciation or pecu- 
liarities of dialect (and it is in thia Held that Schuehardt, in 
hii valuable work on vulgar Latin, haa gathered largo 
harvests from Ribboek's critical conuiientary), or also from 
vroug hearing on the part of the scribes, as we know that MSS. 



were frequently copied from dictation. Eibbcck hcsiliiitoa 
in many instances to recognise this Becond class, and j'et we 
should eay it is largely represented. I will here montiou one 
inatancQ in which two dificretit readings, at first sight quite 
irreconcilable, arc explained satis fact only by assuming- a. 
pecidiarity of pronunciation and Bpelliiig cotnmonly not much, 
known- Among the representatives of a Greek v in Latin, , 
we may now Bafoly reckon a short o : thus, to quote a very 
fuiuiliar instance, ayrcvpa passes into ttnodra ; and to givo 
another, trrvpa^ into ^torax. It was only last year that Prof. 
Fleckeisen, at Dreadeii, drew attention to this fact, at tbo^^ 
samo time pointing out sovoral other instances in which thia^H 
vowel change hud taken place, but which tad until then 
eitlior been overlooked by editorft, or even been intentionally 
removed from our texts. Thus we have the well-known titloj 
of a Plautiau play Pjifttdoln^ ^ W^vBvXo^, for a long time 
superseded by Kitschra iaventiou Pseudulut, but now suffi-*] 
cieiitly floeoimted for. In the same w^ay cocks or cocuks, thi^j 
Latin representative of the Greek KVK^Mr^ ; fagona :=\dyi 
(this spelling is not less admissiblo than lagovnn and hijtma)}^ 
and others which will bo found in the Ja/tri/uchfr^ 1866, p. 
10-13. Moro instances have been collected by II. Schu- 
chardt, Lc, 2, "356 ff., iiud I myself have recently added the 
word oesopnm (a kind of paint used by Roman ladies), olavirofi 
or ovTVtrr}, which the best IISS. of Ovid and Pliny spell withi 
an 0, though our editions invariably give ay: see my notice; 
in the Julirbuchcr, 1867, p. 4D0. Kow one of the strangest 
viiriouj* readings in all Virgil occui'3 in Eel. x b^, wKei 
Ity bl read " ire, libot Partlio torquers Gydoaia cornu Spi-1 
cala," of Cydonia, a town in Crgte : but Ma reads tihotionen ; 
how are wc to explain tliis ? Ribbeck accounts for it (p. '240J 
by showing that the sliapo of v was sometimes very mucltd 
like the r, and again that an h was substituted for a c (p. 
246), But what is to become of the o't 1 think that eithei 
Virgil himself wrote, or that the dlctater of our archetype 
prouoLiiieed cutloiiea ; and I am rejuly ia defend this supposi-j 
tion with the exactly parallel ease of the fruit fi7)Ka Kvhwviat\ 

' Se^aJiMJ Schuoh, on Apicius, p. 30. 



c&Qed in Latin mala cotonca^ or cptonia ; of. Piin. N.n. 25, 37, 
9wkt quar rocamus cofonea et Grtivri ajdonia^ and Mticrobius. 
Sot. vii. 6, 13, mnla . . . njihnia quae cotonia eocrit Cirio 
(Fleckeisen, Lc. p. 10, Schucbardt 2, 257), hence we have in 

L^Jtftlian cotognaioy the modern expression for the Greek 

* KvBavofJxKi {Ch. Th. Schut-h. ou Apicius, ii. 50, p. 45j ; ' 
iJic form in common use in the middle ages was cedonia^ very 
Tjauch liTie our assumed form eodonea. This seems to account 
Batiafactorily enough for the o ; &s to the change of c and i\ 
re have the choice between two possibilities ; either the 
mistake was occasioned by the resemblance of ahiipe, or the 
scribe misheard Uothnoa for Cofionra ; a mistake all tho more 
natund, as poho^tu and ^vS&tx'o/ieX* were cerljiinly both 
known to hie palate. Or did bo in his ignorance misUke it 
for a derivative from Rhn'loHy the ialaod':* Even this acems 
not improbable. 

1 (hiiik this instance is (|uito sufficient to bear out what 

_«e said before about the origin of our M-SS. of VirgiL It 
lains H'W for us to point out. that nothing can Hurpags the 
laboriousneBa and Iraracnse care with which Prof. Kibbeck 
Bcrutitii^eS the evidence of his MSS, in order to come to the 
conclusion fp. ci20) that tho first place among our M^. is 
due to tho Palatine MS., though the Schedae Vaticanae and 

'Teroneneea would hold the same rank, if we only poaaeeaed 
leii' tvidence complete. Ho then sjiys, *■' Paulo inferior, 
qnamquam adftnis Palatini, Modiceus, diffidcudum veru ple- 
riunque Romano,'' The latter part of his statement is espe- 
eifttly of great importance, as the authority of this. M8. haaboen 
recently used by I'rof, Fleckeiaen to force quantitiea on Virgil 
which the poet wa3 certainly quite unconsinous himacll' 
tn an. Bccurate and moat valuable diBquisitiou on the traces 
of original long quantities still visible in the prosody of later 
poets^ this acholar assumed for Virgil such lines oa the 
>wing {Ma. v. 1G~, 45a): 

cum claniore Gvas ruvincab&b ; ecce Cloauthiim 
artliiUH cilrtuittHjuw uiUsIt oasti ct)rtbi».i.,-, 

* It iDMi' iilai) liu obstTTcd liiirc thnt tho furm tjndtn»H, fi)' thp^ i^t^l. PvnIh 
(Vrhtu'lurclt, I.e.) leads us diici-'t ta th« tiurnnT) q^Hi4t whilti nor mt.'dievai wurd 
kU$ ta nivre like Lhs i*.-Tint, tnetationod above. 



. But in. the first, idl MSS. besides R add eit and in the second 
trt. Ribbeck haa not followed Fleckeiaen, showing here great 
tact ia not adorning liis text with a learned and tempting 
archaism. But even were the authority of the MS. R greater 
tlian Ribbeck teaches us it is, we should doubt the propriety 
of admitting the t-erminationa bat and if aa long iu a thesis, 
It is true, the aamo occurs in Ennius, Ann. 314 : 

noenuTO nimorea jiouebSt aute aaliiteni. 
But even in his period this may be considered an exception. 
In Flautua and Terence, and the prosody of their time, we 
scemaD.}'^ endings still appear with their originallong quantity 
in many paesagea, but the ending is then invariably under 
the influence of '* ietua," and the same rule holds good for 
Augustan proisody. Any student of Virgil knows that for a 
complete collection of cases beari^ng upon this qucetion he 
should consult Wagner'a twelfth " Qaeestio Virgiliana/* 
and there he will see that all in&tanccs only oonfirui my 
assertion. "We may hero also appeal to Lucian MiiUer, 
whom. Ribbeck once calls " metricoruui gloriosisaimus," but 
whom we are fully justified in also styling " accuratiasiraus et 
ingtinioBisainiuB." He treats of the whole subject of ayllablesi 
lengthened "in arai," at great length, p, 325 as., but, as it 
seems to me, he rather miasca tho right point in assuming 
that neither Virgil nor any of hia contemporaries were con- 
scious of the original length of these eyllablea, which they 
thought themaelvea entitled to use aa long, under the in- 
fluence of " arsia." An assertion of this kind seerae to destroy 
the continuity of development in a language. We know 
that Virgil was a diligent reader of Ennius, and finding 
these original quantities in bis predecesaor'a verses, why 
ehoidd ho have hesitated to uee them in hie own, whenever 
ho thought that the ears of the Romans of hia own time 
would still tolerate them ? 

But wbilo having thue to recommend Ribbeck's criticism 

on one point, we have at once to subjoin a passage in 

which he aeemg to violate the very law we have just laid 

down. In Mn xt. 877^ we m&et with tbs following line, 

ptUvIS:. et e flipeculis peroiissBe [tectnra mfttres 



wliere Servius obaervea, "jmMa liic compuit> ulibi produsit, 
nt L 47S, 

per temun ct versa pulvte inacribitiu haata. 
The fact itself is now, T may preaume, tolembly well 
IcTiown, although it was almoBt unkaowu before ibu appear- 
ance of Lacliiiiann'e edition of Lucretius (see his note on 
S, 853 p. 50). Prof. Key marlts ptdi'h in hia Grammar, 
p. 8. Sanguk we know to be in exactly the same condition. 
Lucian Miiller admits, of course, botb, p, 326; but with the 
curious observation, "fatendum tamen cauaam tam mirae 
proeodiae mixLimd apparere." Can it be possible that it 
never etruck so accompliahed a scholar that puli-is stands for 
jtulwia — comp. tho genitive jiHircr-ia, and the diminutive 
puhu-caUtH, — just as sffnj/Misisfor«sny«(Vf-s, com.^. mugnln-is? 
(See alw Bucheler, gnmdriea der lat. decL p, 6 and 7.) But 
in a tbesifi the terminations of these words appear alwaya 
ohort, <",g. : 

pnh-Is et umhnw — Hor. Od. iv, 7, 16. 
sanguis, vit hio vedtis cliripiturrniu omisu^Tib. I 6, S4. 
wugiits, ait, e^ilidiieq^ie tjuo atant robops visea, — Virg. A, ii. 639. 
aacgiilB hebet frigentque efietae iu corpora rires. — id. A. v. 3fl& 
Whik the original longquantitj'' reappears directly iu the arfiie : 
quidquid agit, sanguis est tamen ilia tiiiia. — Tib. i. 6, (i6. 
lutaoodemqu^ \-\a. ^ongul^ aiiimuBque B6cuntur.— Virg, A. l 467- 
Haviug established this law, we think ourselves justified in 
censuring Uibbeck for hie conjecture on the passage before 
mentioned (xr.877), where he says et ought to be omitted, " ut 
inpukin aervaretitr is longa," but we think wo have shown 
that just there we may expout the termination to be abort. 

Having got so i'ar in our inquiry, let me hero state at one© 
ihatj because in arsis Virgil lengthens many terminations 
originally long, I am by no means prepared to go the whole 
length of maintaining that all syllablea which he lengthens 
by arsis must therefore have been originally long. Yet 
ereii here I would claim some s}-Uables as originally long, 
where I have httle doubt that my assertion would appear 
extravagant to many aobor-minded scliolars. Lucian Miiller, 
p. 323, maintained that in Eanius' line Ann. 148. 
et ileDain oquilA pinoia obnixa volabat 



the long (juantity of the nom. n wtia due to nothing but arsia 
trnd cocaara. ; but it baa since been shown by various authori- 
ties that the a of the nom. appears long la Plautua in many 
paeaagea, and that Kamus has it herein its original quantity. 
What, then, is to become of Virgil's line Aen. iii. 464, 

dona deliinc auro gravia acctoque elophanto, 
which L. Miiller quotes on the same page, ascribing' the 
lengthening of the « of the neuter merely to imitation of 
Enniua P I may hero appeal to ray two psiiei-B on Plautian 
prosody printed in thetwcnty-eeeoad volume of the Rhciimcfte 
Mu-wifnit where 1 think I have ahown satisfactorily that tbp 
ending in question xvas originally long, and may he traced as 
such in not a few passages in Plautus and Terence. In the 
same way woidd I explain those iaataueea in which m« of 
the nom. appears long in Virgil, as I have shown that this 
ending ia in fact long in archaic writers : a theory in which 
I was aftcrwarda supported by Prof. Key, who at once, on 
reading my paper, suggested to me the analogous case of the 
Bo-called Attic declension in qjt. (For instances in Virgil 
sGBa.ii.S;iii. 189. ^n. v. 337; x. 720. Ed. vi.53.) I will 
now go a step further, and confess that I have a strong 
suspicion that the genitival sufBx us or ig (for ns is a more 
original form) was once long, and I will here give some 
of the evidence that may be brought to bear upon the matter. 
In my paper on Plautua {RhdHkches Mmcniu xsii. 121), I 
had to admit at least one exception to the rule, that " a word 
of an original dactylic measure would not btive two accents in 
Plautian prosody in case the following word commences 
with a vowel ;*' and when I wrote my second paper (ib. 428), 
Iwafl enabled to add a second exception. Curiously enoughj 
both are caacs in which the gcnitival suffix Is appears 
accented {virgittk and militia), i.e. according to the general 
habit of Plautus and Terence, this would lead us to the auppoai- 
tion that is appeai'ed long here. I see no reason that would 
account for thia unuaual quantity, and yet it may have been 
fio, as the Latin language seems to have possessed originally 
a largo number of long heavy suffixes, which were shortened 
as time went on. In general I think it advisable for us 


classical philologers to be satisEed that a fact is so or so, 
and when we have got so far, to expect further elacidation 
from comparative philology. But to continue, is it not 
strange that we should have three instances in Yirgil where 
the same suffix appears long ? — 

non te nuUiOs exercent numinis irae. — G. iv. 463. 

sicubi magna lovls antique robore quercus. — G. iii. 332. 

seu mollis violae seu languentls hyacinthi. — A. xi. 69. 
I may also mention here the ending mus, which as Corssen 
shows was originally long in Latin, and which has its parallel 
in the corresponding termination appearing long in old high 
German (mis) ; hence wo have in Virgil terga fatigamuB 
hasta, A. ix. 610, and consequently the passive ending mur is 
long, A. ii. 411, ohruimur oritxirque. But here I would stop, 
and would leave the rest to others. According to Prof. Key 
(Gram. p. 428), the principle of caesura is little more than a 
complacent means of getting over difficulties ; but in the 
present case assuming any syllable long in arsis to be one 
of original length seems more likely to lead us into fresh 
difficulties when rigorously carried out. I know that wo can 
easily account for the long quantity of or in amor (Eel. x. 6!», 
Mn. xi. 323 ; xii. 668) ; labor (G. iii. 118) ; melior (iv. 92) ; 
porSr (^n. ii. 369); dolor (xii. 422); domitor (xii. 550); 
and I am also perfectly satisfied as to the way in which 
Professors Fleckeisen and Key have accounted for pater {Mn. 
v. 521, xi. 469, xii. 13), and Prof. Key alone for the very 
frequent lengthening of que (and) in Virgil ; but after all, 
cases will remain which seem indeed full of difficulties. ITow, 
for instance, will Prof. Key account for the isolated length 
in puer, Eel. ix. 6C ? How will he account for PUiudda 
Hyadasque, G. i. 138 ? a case which is quite parallel to a lino 
in Ovid. Fast. iii. 105, 

quis tunc aut Hya4las aut Pleiadfa Atlanteas. 
In the last instances I should certainly advocate that theory 
which explains the violation of the legitimate quantity from 
the difficulty which the Poman poets would have found in 
using forms of this description in their verses, without avail- 
ing themselves of a licence which thoy found admitted by 
Homer and other Greek poets. But enough on this head. 



I ought to add that, besides hia old MSS. in capitaU, 
Kibbock has also availed himself of throe later MSS., aud 
occasionally mentions readings of others ; but he ahowa tbat 
all these MSS, are derived from tho eamo source. In 
page 361 of his Prol. he enumorates six MSS. which he says 
hare not been yet used for the text of Virgil ; and in the 
first place he quotes " fragmenta rescripta cum scholiis 
interlintjaribua quae in codice Arundeliano Musei Britamuci 
D. 30, extare uarrat Pertziua ;*' and as I have had con- 
siderable trouble with this MS. and lost a great deal of tim.e 
over it, T will here say what may be said on it> lest some 
one else might again be tempted to waste his time. Let me 
then mform you that tho MS. is noi Ln the British Museum, 
as the German professor supposes, although he had no boai- 
ncaa to do &o ; at least his authority, Mr. Pei'tz, says distinctly, 
that he saw the MS. in the College of Arras, where I found it. 
Well, and what are the "fragiu. rescripta "? Nothing more 
thftn throo leaves of a Saxon MS. of Virgil, — I should think 
of the ninth century, — and a Une which is still plainly 
legible shows that these loavoa belonged to the fifth book of the 
^neid.' How much it contained of it, I am not able to say, 
nor do I think it would be worth while to bother oneself with 
applying chemicals to the leaves (nor would the authorities 
of the Heraldic College allow this) in order to be able to 
read it. In the printed catalogue of the Arundel MSS, in 
the Heraldic College, a very accurate description of the 
whole MS- will be found, and I think wo need not trouble 
ourselves any longer about it. 

Besides this, Ribbeck mentions a Bodleian MS. " vel 
septimi vel noni aaec.," which he says has not yet been col- 
lated. In order to get reUable information on this MS., I 
applied to Mr. R. Ellis, the accomplished editor of CatuHua, 
and Mr. J. Conington, who both inform me that the supposed 
MS. of the ninth century is identical with the Bodleian MS. 
aaxj. li. whose readings have been published by G. Butler, 
Oxford, IS54, and whose value Bibbeck himself deflnes as 


' The line in qiwation ia tt^m hit Aentan toiatm neibm infit, v. r08. 



«qa&l to nothing, Prol. p. 348 ff. Mr. Conington lias, more- 
overi, provetl to me that Ribbcck's whole blunder ia due to 
his tiot consulting the authority he quotes from Waguer^a 
Virgil; yet as it ia, a pasaage in Butler's preface to his 
publiahed collation might easily have taught him that he 
was making two MSS. out of one. It must be confessed that 
the Profeasor haa been rather unfortunate in his st-atementa 
about English MSS, of Yir^. 

But now you would naturally aak me what use this last 
editor has made of his ejEcellent MSS., and what hie own 
text is like. In answering this question, I have to say 
fwtnethiug very harsh, but I think I am obliged to say it. 
The really -valuable part of the edition is the critical com- 
tnentarjr, ont of which I would advise readers to form their 
own tert (as in fact all critical students would do), but in so 
doing they will frequently have to differ from the editor. 
Let us own that it was a bold step from the scattered frag- 
monta of the ancient comic and tragic poets to the refined 
art and elaborate composition of Virgil; and how diiEcuIt 
Prof. Ilibbeck found it to abstain from hunting up archaisma 
in bis MSS., and to let them slumber in the notes instead of 
putting them into hia text, — of that the hr&t volume of his 
edition abomids with proofs. If I were to give you all those 
inatanees of perverse criticism which I have noted down, and 
which I originally proposed to mention, I am afraid that 
the time allotted to me would be too short, or that your 
patienco would bo exhausted before my catalogue waa half 
over* But you will allow me to touch upon some instances 
which I consider to be glaring spocimens of those " defects 
of taste and jud^nent," whicb> as Mr. Munro justly remarks 
(Lucr. p. 34^, make Ribbeck "not unfrequeatly misuse hia 
glorious opportunities, and push the matter to the verge of 

It may pcrhapa be known to you that the first Emperor 
of Borne was not without grammatical crotchets. Thua we 
are told by Suetonius (Aug. 87), that he constantly wrote 
JiiffM^j^ instead of sumusi a fact do doubt attributable to the 
prevailing pronunciation of w, somewhat like the French «, 



or our M in "business/' But what would you think of the 
servile mind of a young nuthor who ti-iea to gain the imporial 
favour by slavisMy taking up hia majesty's peculiarity of 
speech P I for one canuot gain any other impression frona 
Eibbcck's text, where we have, Eel. vii. 23, tutt m non 
pos^lmu8 oimips ; it is true PyMc rend possimus, but the 
I is in them already struck out and replaced by IT, bo that 
the Bcribe'e intention ia clear enough. But if Ribbeek may 
here claim some MS. evidence in hia favour, what shall we 
aay on EcL viii. 63, non omnia powftmrs omw& where all gooil 
SrSS. give a u, though c (and only ihia ra. 1) renda po&shmia 
to which the editor adds " reeto ut vidctur." Another 
iaetance of perversity is the obstinacy with which he forcea 
the spelling quodaunii upon Virgil, although hia good MSS, 
give quofnnnis in more than one instance. On the other 
hand, I haVL> never found adqw in hia text, though Wagner 
habitimlily has it ; and yet there is I>etter evidence for thia 
spelling than for quodmtnis, as Ribbeck'a own Ind. Gram, 
p. 397 will suffice to show. Again, iu the case of the word 
.tnbfimis, the editor seeras to lose all presence of mind when- 
ever he seee an opportunity of producing a pet form of hia, 
w)uch, however, we believe to be quite wrong ; I mean the 
form subHmfti, which Ilitselil in an unlucky hour dug up from 
aix pnssngea m the MS. B of PlautuSf wuppertiug it with an 
explanation that slavea used to be tied to the /imen stipcruta 
of a door in order to be whipped. Stifiliincn he thong^ht was 
originally an adverb, out of which the udjeeiive mb/imiH grew 
in course of time. Tlie whole evidence collected by Bitflchl, 
and of course put forward by him in the moat ingenious 
manner, has since been destroyed and annihilated by Prof. 
R. Klotz, of Leipzig, in a most elaborate excursus to hia 
edition of Terence's Audria, Leipzig, 1805. Any one who has 
had a little experience in MSS. will allow that in final fre- 
quently intei-changea with ?), and fresh inataucea of this fact 
may be furnished by E-ibbctik himself, p. 433, and thus 
mhfhtn'U might easily arise for mtblimetn. After all, Ritschl 
himself never dreamt of forcing mhh'mi'n on Virgil, as he 
dava oxpreaBly " bei Virgil auch an eine altc form subUnien 



ifu glauben, eine oUzTistarke zuinuthung '*; but Ribbeck 
<lid not find it too much for Lis own tuste, and consequently 
he makes ua read this monstrosity of q form in several plncea 
in his text; but, let it bo added, wherever he does fio, he 
always abandons the giudance of his got>d MSS. for some 
late one. The parallel case of preferring m to a leg^itiinate « 
has happened to hiin in YGgavd to the words forsan and 
■MtaUf whitb be repeatedly epella formm /onitam, though 
ya against the evidence of the metre. T will, however, 
that I have good reason to nssuine that Ribbeck is now 
rtipentant of these and similar blunders, xia his small edition 
exhibits them no longer : or wae he afraid of turning the 
heads of innocent school-boyB with extra vaganciea like these? 
I hope that the preceding obeervationB will not lead any one 
the belief that I am in favour of bad old spellings, and 
oidd advise editors to keep them even against theix' MSS. 
Oiiite the contrary, I am a zealous advocate in favour of the 
epoody and unlimited adoption of recogaisod good spellings 
^throughout our editions. Nor am T ignorunt of the greut diffi- 
ilties with which a careful and conscientious editor has to con- 
in this reupMt, ond the great control he has to exercise 
himself 80 as to avoid spellings of seeming genuineness and 
antiquity. In I'lautua and tbc older poets it Is much easier 
keep free from overdoing thin, aa their language is; more 
iloscly allied to the common language of every-day life than 
10 refined composition of later poets; and yet I will here 
•tifctui that in my own edition of the Aifliihrm I allowed 
snysolf, in several instanct^s, to be led astray by tempting 
spellings which I found in my MSS. and which I now know 
be without any foundation whatever. But there ia an im- 
enw diflerenco between Pkutus and Virgil. The latter 
■rtuinly avoided vulgar forms ; the former uses them. In 
act, in his period tlie standard of urhamtp by which later poets 
red their compositions did not yet e^dst, and ho used 
forms hccnuse they were familiar to hira^ and he knew 
;0 better. This is precisely the point where Ribbeck always 
rrs ; or does ho really think that bis j>oet wrote (igiufun rimi'w 
nd Bkiuilur formic which ho forces upou him eometimeSj not on 










the beet RutLority (Ind. Gram. 417) P' (In Pkutus I had 
UhicenQy aa I thought, on MS. evidence ; but that evidence 
turned out to be incorrect, and I was fortimately enabled to 
confess my error before the publication of my book.) Or 
does Itibbeck believe that Virgil himself wrote ec9okt for 
exuht, oa his test gives xi. 265 ? I am afraid he will not find 
many to support him. there. 

But setting aside theae exceBsee of criticism, it should be 
allowed that there ib a very fair share of what are i-eally 
well-authenticated, and at the same time new, spelIing-9 in 
Hibbeck's test. I will here briefly mention the adjectives 
in onsus and OJisus for which there ie the very best authority 
in the MS8. of Plautus and Virg-il, and which Kibbeck liad 
the courage to put into his text. I may be allowed to apeak 
at greater length of another spelling, which though at first 
sight very strange, is yet replete with interest for the philo- 
logical mind. G. i. 277, Ribbeck's excellent MS. P., i. e. the 
boat for Virgil, reads pciffiiitts Horvns, and this spelling has, 
I thinkj led me to the discovery of the real etymology of the 
name* First of all, it should be mentioned that A. Cornelius 
Cd.aus, a rhetor and philosopher under Tiberius, found Horcna 
in the best MSiS. that were to be had at his time, as Hibbeck 
BihowB satisfactorily, Prol. 26, and thus there is everj' reason 
to induce us to believe that Virgil himself wrote so. In 
order to add a little more authority to the spelling, I will 
mention that the excellent Ambrosmn palimpsest of Plautus 
gives the same orthography, Epid. ii. 1, 8(=^ 170 Geppert) 
S6tcrw/?crr-s liico Horco fidstm, and there we have moreover the 
aseiBtance of alliteration to contirm us in our belief that 
the spelling is genuine. I cannot state at present what the 
reading of B may be, but tho excellent MS. J^ in the British 
Museum, agrees with the Ambrosian MS. I turn to 
Preller's Homischc Mytbohrjie for further information about 
Orcns, and find there (p. 453) a quotation from Featus p. 202 
" Oreiim quem dwmm, ait Verriifs ab antifjuii dicfum Urag:tm,' 
and tho view that Orcug is connected with epKtK, i.i\ " a lock- 
up, prison." But I am by no mcana satisfied with this 

1 For tiieae \}l\gai fottai tce Stbu^^hordt 2, 21 f. 





deriTation. First of all, how is Wraffus to agree witli it P 
PreUer uppeals to the analogy of ^acuhifnun Hercuks Teen- 
nu-sfiAlcumfna, where the Romaus interposed a vowel between 
two coii!3oaautB in order to impart to these niunea a Latin 
appearance. But. did the Romans ever do so with nam&s 
of origiuul Lulia growth ? Secondly, I am satisfied that 
Orcws in Latin is rather the name of the god tHan of the 
;gion over which he presides. In fact, Preller himself 
'observes that in PLiutiiS, and in the fragments of the comic 
poets, Orcua is the usual name for the god of Death. Cicero 
is, therefore, quite right in using; the word simply as an 
e<juivalcnt of the Greek Pluto, Yerr. ii. 4, 50, 111, ut Vet'res 
alter Orcus ttnisse Ennam ei non Proserpinam asportasse, sed 
ipaam abripftisse Cererem tiihrdur, So Plautus, Epid. iii. 
,2, 27, iUmn .... mihi adtmpsit Orcm, and in another 
lago Peeud. 705, where I would propose to read Qmn 
6b cum tern Otrx^ rupen' ad htinc .sc nvlutty tho MSS. 
Ifiring rectpcr?, which may be defended by Moat. 499, nam 
me Acherunlctn rceipere Ofcus itoluit, but is agttinet the 
metre. Bee olao Bacch. 368: Poon. i. 2, 1:31 (337 G.) ; Asin. 
iii. 3^ 16 ; Cflpt. ii. 2, 33. But there are some passages in 
which an ejtpressiou occurs which will, I trust, lead ua to 
the right derivation of the word. First in Catullus, 3, 14 : 

At vobia miUc bO, nialiio tenebrae 
Orci quttc otiiuia bellti '.hivratis. 

Then in Burmann'e Authol. Lat. ii. p. 216== no. 1489, ii. 
p, 174 Moycr : 

Crjflpt, lUi Icpidiasiiut), 

heu heu, Orciia cum te vnravit, 

fleliciuiu mihi ntuue abstulit. 

The tbird in an Inscription quoted by Eutinann, who says 
that be took it from Heinsiua's papers, /tunc a dk senectuti 
meac sn'iufufii spem deiicia^qm toi**! abstuUt Orcu^ (see also 
Bunnann, ii. p. 67). 

It appears, therefore, that in. Italy one of tho popular 
representations of the god of Death was that of a di'roitring 
being, and we may asatiiue that this notion was really deep- 
jfooted in tbe minds of the people, as we find its traces even 



now-a-days in the superstitious belief of the Romanic nations' 
Thus the Dictionary of tt© Academy Delia CruBca telle ua 
" Oreo, chimera e bestta immaginaria," and the following 
aigniiicaat paasageg are quoted : 

Ma vattaue per Dio, vattene Sglio, 

Che I'Orco non ti aonta e non t'lngoi. Ar. Fur. 17, 43. 

Tu m*ha h. maDginre nn (lit poi come I'Orco. Morg. 19, 84. 

Dicendoglj, chf) 11 funr delle porta 

Un orci> v' fi ai pcrfido e cattivo, 

Che peraeguita Taonio insiDO a morte. Malm. 2, 50. 

The SEime occurs in French in the somewhat disguised 
sh&peo£ ogre (instead of orge, Scheler, Dlctmmairp. iVEttfuwl. 
Fi'dngaine, p. 2iJ9;. But if the Romanic lang^iagcs thua help 
us to establish the devouring character of this demon as an 
essential feature (I may alao add that in Anglo-Saxon we 
find ore, a demon devouring mankind'), they will further 
QBsiat U8 in bringing orctia together with the root ror, from 
which it is truly descended- The root vor appear in Latin 
not only in the derivative vora-re^ but also in can%}~i&r-v9 
and in i6r-ag-o. Orciis would thua stand for an original 
vof'cu9, or rather ror-ac-ws, a form which leads us direoi to 
VR-AG'-V8, as. given by Featua. and would \'irtually be iden- 
tical with ror-ajT, Now in the modem iV^eapolitan dialect wo 
have huorcv, and in ancient Spanish huergo and huerco; the 
Latter form I Und also in Basile's Pc-ntamerone (Napoli, 1788), 
i. p. 24. We have now, so tn suy, the whole history of the 
word clearly before ua. From an original uorcus, wo get 
either hnorcot huergo, huerco, aa in Itahan and Spanish, or 
the digamma is dropped, but the A preserved, and we have 
fforciis as in Virgil ; and with the disappearance of both we 
get the common orcus. 

In Greek the same root appears as 0op in jSopa, " greedy 
eatings swallowing ; " and I think it ia no small argument in 
favour of my derivation of the Latin orcus, that in the 
Albanian language (which ia only a very old branch of 
Greek), we find ^ovpx, as an equivalent lor the Latin rdr-dg-o. 

^ Compfln bIm' Iho H<-n-niovl]i. or ^rotcsquo head, in imr old Miraole-pU^, 
into vhich then browsUin who limwinl bad uJo, and otber Miinora, were ca^t. (F. J. 
Fumivill J 



Iti modern Greek we lueet with a domon called ^Soi/p/coXaKa?, 
which I propoee to translate " tlie wolf of hcU," au explana- 
tion q.uitc in harmony with the nature of the demon. 

Finally, it may be observed that an. S appears to have 
had a tendency in Latin to attach itself to words com- 
mencing with a Towel, a fact for which the curious will find 
much useful evidence in Coresen'a book on Pronunciation and 
in Hibbech's Imifx Grfunmifticus. 

Much space in Prof Ribbeck's ProU. ifi devoted to the 
discuasion of the question whether wo poaaess Virgil'a worka 
in Buch a form aa would have perfectly satiafied the poet 
kimself. In the ^neid, wc know that we have not wbot 
Virgil would have given the world, had he lived long;er ; but 
the Georgics have been commonly assumed to be perfect. 
£ibbeck haa done a ^reat deal to shake that belief; and in fact 
he ebows that even in the Georgica traces of different com- 
position may Btill he detected. Yet aa to the way in which ha 
traces it, whether by cLiminating lines, or assuming ^aps, 
or transpoeing lines, many ditfevences would no doubt arise 
between the editor and a reader more inclined towards 
conservative cnticism, and les3 prone to raah changes. And 
afWr allj there is not a single tianspoeilion of Ribbeck'a 
of such self-evident truth aa one propoaed by Peerlkamp 
after the puLhcatiqn of Ribbeck's firat volume, but justly 
recommended by liira, Proll. p. 45, and adm.iHed into the 
text of his smaller edition ; viz., Peerlkamp places G. li. 39, 
40, 42, 41 (where he also writca ffarr), 43, 44, 45, 46, between 
v^ 8 and 9, at the commencement of the same book, where 
they are undoubtedly in their right place. 

Jfor can I speak more favourably of Bibbeek's own con- 
jectures, of which he gives a complete list, ProU. 363-8. 
Here again we meet with many defects of taste and judgment, 
touBcMr. Munro's just expression. You neither expect, nor do 
you wish me now to enter at full length upon all the pasaagea 
which Ribbeck has couaidcred faulty and baa attempted to 
correct, but you will permit rae to eay just cnoug-h to aub- 
stantiate my own censure. Let toe first remind you of 
my prcroding' remarka on Ribbeck's monie, iy. 436, and 


ON ribbeck's vibgil. 

let me in justice add that I think the editor has presented na 
with exc<;llent emendutions of iit least two passages, Tiz-, 
Eel. vi. 80, whore he i^-ritoa alte for anff, and G. iv. 62, where 
he gives iifssoti mateud of the inssoH of the MSS,, althouj^li hia 
merit i« not very great in the latter passage, as Reiske had 
already proposed innsos. Hia conjecture on. JKu. v. 139 
(,/>(I((Am« instead of /;ii6i*(«) is also deserving of much praise. 
But let mo also select a epecimeii of misapplied ingcTiuity. 
^n. i. 396 the reading of tlie MSS. MRGy^b and of 
Serviua is aut mperc aut captm iam despednre vidmiur, from 
whicli P difFera, giving aid capfm (or capios) iam rcxpfrfare. 
Ilelying upon thia reading, and upon the general high 
character of the MS. P (tliough all critics, and none better 
than Ribbock himself, know that occaaionallj even the best 
MSS. give very bad readings), the editor reads aut capsos iam 
respirtare, " thej have either already alighted on the land, 
or they have all their thoughts turned to their enclosures," 
Por the meaning of rrnpeclare he qnotes Lucr. vi. 1234 
and might havo added v. 975. But what shall we do hci-e 
with capjii, ''enclosures for animale"? Bibbeck rejecta 
tffspcrtiire, bcoauBQ there ia " in deapectando per se spea 
perfugii nuLsi''; but are the swana here really looking fur 
n place of refuge P The preceding Ifnea will teach us quite 
diiFeTontly ; they are Ifit^fanf en, and fly oydinc /tf*iir/o, as birda 
do when the danger is over ; whence it follows that they are 
not looking out for places of refuge : in the aame way the 
danger of the Trojans is ovGr, part of them having already 
safely landed, others being in sight of land. In thia way the 
parallelism of ths two eventa is as complete aa can. be 
ilesiredj and the residing found :n Serviua (an authority fully 
as good as P) has a good meaning. But aoniething else will 
follow from our preceding remarksj viz., that the plujierf. 
titrharat, which Pierius saya ia found in several MSS. (later 
MSS. of course), deserves preference to the imporf. turbahat. 
In cades of tliis nature, logic and reason should always out* 
weigh the authority of the MSS. To quote an instance very 
similar to the present, let me ask you to compare Bentley'i 
note on Tcr. Aiidr. L 1, 80. 





But T see that it is time for me to conclude these retoarka, 
although I feel that I have not said one half of what 1 
origmally intended to aay. I bUqU, lioworer, be satisfied if 
I have only Bucceoded in drawing your attention to a work 
in which it seems to mo that everything has been achieved 
thftt caji be done by the utmost carefulneea and unwearied 
industry — a book with which no future editor or even 
careful student of Yirgil can dispense, while he hns at the 
same time to be on his guard not to be led oati'ay by Kibbeck'a 
own innovations in the text. 


fFfiruary 18*>6.; 
re\*ising what I had rend before the Philological 
aety, now more than two months ago, I feel the necessity 
of subjoining a few obficrvationa, partly in order to complete 
an investigation contained in my paper, partly to add some 
thonglit-s which have since then cnmo into my mind. 

First of all, in order to show how good it will be to keep 

in mind the rule which we have laid down above, with regard 

to the occasional occurrence in Augustan poets of antiquated 

llong quantities, I will here q^uoto anothor instance in whieh 

iGSlgth. of this kind has been perversely aaaumed. F. 

Bncbeler, speaking of an archaic hasfls in his " gnmdriss 

der lat. decl." p, 8, compares ifffi'i^ Iliacaa ifomos in Ilor. 

Od. i. 15, 36 : but though I would not absolutely deny the 

possibility of ifftiin^ in case is should be in arsis, yet in a 

thesis it is quite au impoBsibility. On the other hand, it is 

true that, according- to Horace^B invariable habit, we expect 

IB spondee in the first foot in a glyeonic verse ; though in the 

'Ode in question this law is twice violated, v. 24 aud iHi : 

Teiicer et Sthenelus, scieiiH 

igiiis Iliocflw ilonioH. 

I hardly think that anybody would assume & spondaic 
TeucSr, perhaps similar to puer in Virgil. Bentley, it is 
true, writes Tcucryque, but no recent editor seems to follow 
him. But he who composed the fifteenth ode in the first 
book was scarcely aware of the law observed by ITomce 



in hia own productions ; for let tna add at once that I do 
not think Horace Kirasclf wrote tlie poem in question. As 
ft poetical composition, it is, to bbj the least, very weak, and 
in it-s wliole device almost absurd. Even Mr. Mrteleans, 
who boasts of having admitted no conjectural reading into 
his text of Horace, is obliged to own^ — "This is probably an 
early composition of Horace, made up of materials from the 
Greek, and written merely to exercise his pen." But auch 
a vague excuse a6 thi*i will hardly hold good to ftccount for 
diversities of pi'osody and metre. Altogether, this ia perhaps 
an instrument not yet sufficiently Ufiod in Ilorace for drawing 
a line of demarcation between the genuine and epurioos parts 
of the odes. 

Another seeming exception to the rule in queatlon occurs 
in Horace, Od. iii. 5, 17, where we read 

mi uoti periret iminiis«ra.bilia, 
where it is again well worth while to compare the con- 
aervative Mr. Maoleane. " The fact is, that the two firat 
lines of the Alcaic atanza are composed of two separate 
measures, the trochaic and dactylic j and thoug-h lloruce 
usually employs a spondee instead of the second trochee, 
he does not do so here, nor did the Qrccks invariably : see 
Alcaeua (fr. 19 Bergk) to Sfjure Kv^a riitv vporipoyp ^vw XtIvu, 
and ffr. 35) ou ^(prf xaKoltn Ovfibv €TrLTphn)v, UpovKoyf/ofiev 
yap ovh^ aa-dfjkevoi.." But the beat authorities, avBp^<; KptriKth- 
TOTot, sGcm to look upon the matter in a light very different 
to Mr. Maclcane'a lights. To mention the first author of 
the true theory, Glarennua " vir sua aetata doutus,^^ asBentlcy 
says, " ait in caesura hac eemp&r longam ayllabam adliibere 
Horatium.'"' Bentley himaell' on iii. 2, 1, says " quamquam, 
ut iam vides, trochaeo hie uaus est parens huius carminia 
Alcaeus: nuraquam tamen Horatius, sed uhique spondeum eo 
loci posm'f,'' and as for Horace's reason in doing- ao, te obaerres 
on ii. 19, 15, "optimo conailio factum, uempe ut versus illi 
tardiores pauUo ffravioresque tettirent ad aute^ : nam aijle 
epondeo celeres nimium et sino pondere fenmtui-." This is 
80 true that not many would doubt it; nor would Mr. 
Macleoue have done so, unlesa for the purpose of accounting 



for a MS. reading — for MSS. are the highest autliority he 
worships, without, however, making much distinction be- 
tweeji MSS. of greater or less antiquity. With the exception 
of Mr. Macleone, 1 know of no ''authority" at variance 
with Glareanus's and Bentloy's observation. It is true that 
L&chmann, the German, did not approve of Bentley'a 
pmrenit but he ehowed hia Approbation of the underlying 
metrical observatioii by proposiiig Jumsell' perires : Comm. 
Lucr. p. 17. A scholar of muoh taste, though no "autho- 
rity " on Latin, K. Lehrs, again disapproves of perirent, 
which he justly says seems affected in Horace, though ad- 
misaible in such a poet aa Statius, but even as it ie, he 19 
inclined to prefer it to Lachmann's peritea, which is, indeed, 
too artificial to meet with any approbation.' As the reading 
stands^ there is no other way but to own that it frustratea 
all attempts of emending it, and at the eamo time it is 
not conformable to Horace's mode of composition. The next 
conclusion to be drawn from those premises has been di'awn 
by K- Lehra (Rhein. mua. xxii. p. 407). who shows, as it aeemg 
to me most satisfactorily^ that t. 16-24 are due to an inter- 
polator For the benefit of those among the readers of these 
philological jottiugs, who cannot at once lay their hands 
on the Kheinisehe Museum, I will here translate Lehrs's 
obserrationa : 

" "What reasonable acnse i& there in t>idi porim non clausaa 
H area tnarte coli popuhta tmstro ? Let ub try to understand 
the phrase. But however we may try, we shall meet with 
DonsoDse, Taking for a translation " I saw the gates not 
locked," it certainly is nonsense. "I saw the devastated 
fields cultivated by our aoldiera," ia, perhaps, no nonsense, 
tf we take it so f but what a style ! For whoever reads vidi 
ttrta cofi popuhia marfe ttmiro would naturally understand 
" I saw the fields devastated by our soldiers again cidtivated." 
And quite rightly so ; because, first of all, wo espect the idea, 
" the fields devasted f>i/ m,*' and require " b'j us/* whieli ia, 
however, miseing ; and secondly, because marie goea natur- 

^ Comsn, aptin, krit. boitr, ji, £60, muses the right theory altogether, in lluA 
as iridl u in otaei instances. 



ally with popafnia, aa marie should be understood v&py 
eiptessivelj, not merely fts a meaixingleafi^ figure instead of 
fxerciltts^ the anny, in aa far aa wo conceive it as devasta- 
ting and conquering. Last of all, -what ia said here woidd 
reeur in a very similar manner, v. 34 and 35, inchiding 
even marfc, which is very forcible there." 

Having thus dealt irith these two passages in Horace, I 
believe that I have considered all the passages which can be 
adduced to prove that even in the Augustan period syllables 
originally long could atill retain their old quantity, even 
in a thesis. An inveBtig-.ition of this kind soem&d the moro 
necessary aa an important proaodiacal rule had been entirely 
aet aside by such men as Fleckeisen, Corasen, O. Rihbeck, 
and F. Biicheler, the latter especially overdoing the matter to 
B quite ridiculDus extent. 

As a shght addition to "what I have eaid with regard to the 
original quantity of the genitival ending in, T will here 
mention a suggestion made by my friend E. R. Horion, viz., 
that an original long quantity is in this case also supported 
by the so-called Attic genitive in ffatrtXita'? or wdXeoj?. 

Lastly, I have to modify the statement I made coneeliiing 
lines left imperfect by Virgil himself. When making it, I had 
lost sight of the well-known passage ^n. iii. 340, which waa 
also noticed by Ribbeck, Proll. p, 70. T take this opportunity 
of staling that llibbcck is wrong wth regard to the reading 
of M, which has QFEM aa well as all the other MSS. This 
fact I owe to a communication of Prof, Coningfon, for whom. 
a friend inspected the MS, at Florence. If Eibbcck had 
known thisj, he might have saved himself all the subtle dis- 
quisitions the reader will find in the Proll. p, 71, and the 
dots denoting a gap which now disfigure his edition. 




[R«ad Msioh 20, 1868.] 

The fourth and last volume of Prof. O. Ribbeck's Virgir 
centaina tlie minor poems commonly ascribed to the author of j 
the Siicolics, Georrrica, and ^neid. 

BT WlLHKllfl W^OKER, PH.!*. 


In his prolegomena the Editor dlscussea the questioD v^hieli 
of these poems may be considBred aa fomin*; from Virg;ira 
h&nd, and it seems to wib that in genetal he preservea tlirough- 
ont ihia inquiry a praisc'wortliy trtin^poffuw}^ starting always, 
a» h© does, from passages in tlto ancient grammanaiia or other 
writers bearing on their origin, and not being led awaj by 
fanciPal or arbitrary impreBsions occasioned by the perusal of 
the poenis thonisclves. G. Bemhardy in hia "Gnmdrias 
der romischcn litteratur'^ (p* 484), says that a firm basis lor 
iovestigatin;; the whole qQestlon is jmind in the four larger 
poems only (Cules Oirii Copa Moretum) ; yet Prof. Ribbock 
commoncfs hie own inquiry with the so-callpd Catalecta; and 
vre think him fully juatifipd in doing so, asth^y alone realty offer 
■what Benihardy call? "firm ground.'*' Thenamcof "Catalocta" 
though seemingly as old as Ausonius,— who in his Grammato- 
maslix v. 5 (p. 203 ed. Btp.) attudes to the second poem : 
die quid fiignificcht cstalectn Maroriiji f in liia ' al' 
Celtanim posuit, fiequitur non lucidius ' tan ;'— 

yet does not, as Ribbeck shows, reat on very firm evidence, 
&a our MSiS. of Virgil, and one of Serviiia, seem to be more in 
iTOur of "Cataleptaj" whieh Bergk recently interpreted aa 
ms Karh XeTrra. If this be so, wo should \s\s\v to be 
inarmed of the reading of the oldest MSS. of Anaoniua in 
thfr pasa^'i^ just referred to ; but a critical edition of this poet 
18 as yet what we Geniiansi call "a devout wish." On the 
other hand, " Catalecta"''' seems no ill-chosen name for a collec- 
tion of enialler poem^ ; and as it is, moreover^ familiar to us 
from long habit, we shall oertainly kerp it utilil the evidence 
against it becomes ton powerful to be resisted. 

The number of the " Cataleeta," in our editions generally 
amounting to 14, has been raised to 17 by Bibbeck, as hia 
edition gives three pieces prefixed to the others in all our MSS. 
and attributed to Virgil. It is a remarkable fact that, through- 
OQt the '* Catalecta," and also in the Culex and Ciris, we can 
trace the influence of Catullus on the author or authors, who- 
ever they may be, But of a great number of poema among the 
Cataleeta(vii. x. vi. li, iv? iii.? i. viiii. xiiii. viii. xU.) Virgil ia 
or aeems the real author, as Ribbeck shows, pp. 6-11, and some 




of tliem are all tine more intereBtiog aa they introduce 
Virgil's early life, — e.g., the seventh [loera, in whith he 
farew^n to rhetoric on leaving the school of the rhetor Ejiidiua 
and entering that of the Epicurean philoaophor Siron ; — or to 
hia circle of friends, as Yarius and Tucca, or eTcn to his poeti* 
cal studiea^ as the aixth poem, whicli is a prayer addressed 
to Yenus to assist the poet in finishlug his ^neid, — a poem, if 
from Virgil's pen, probably written at Sorrento (ef. v. 12), 
tliougb I confess that I still harbour doubts as to the authen- ^i 
ticity of the poem, and that I do not £nd it easy to get OTer^f 
the expression Momajia oppuia^ v. 3, which I do not recollect ^^ 
in any other Latin writer. Nor can I help feeling surprised ^j 
at the ittOffniloqucntia of the last two Hnee, which hardly eeems ^| 
to agree with what we know of VirgiTs great modesty of cha- ^^ 
racter. As for the three poems added in Ribbcck's edition, ^J 
therei Is no reason why they should not belong to Virgil; ^| 
they contain again traces of the familiarity of their author ^^ 
with Oatullua» in whose manner (and, let me add, in whoso 
best manner) they are written. They are all three on the 
subject of Priapus ; the second in pure iambic aeuarii, in mani* ^fl 
feat imitation of Catullus' celebrated pha&clua ilk quern videtii ^1 
kospites and quh hoc potest videre, ijuis potest pat'i (xxviii.), 
and the third in the properly so-called "metnini Priapeum" 
which we find also in Catullus"' seventeenth poem O Cchnia 
qtifF cupis ponte (udere longo, and in the fragment on Priapus, 
hunc lucum tibi dedko consecroque, Priape (p. 168, Schwabe)* 
It is true that Ribbeck seems to deny the far:t of the second 
poem being in pure iambics : but my subsequent critical notea 
will, I hope^ show how little justified he is in this: yet even, 
in the CatuUian poem just referred to there is a line (20) 
where the MSS. mi^ht seem to justify a spondee in the 6rat 
foot, and Ribbeck actually admits it in his remarks on the 
poQm as printed in the Jahjrbiicher, 85, p. 377 ; but 1 am wn- 
vinced that Mr. Munro's emendation as mentioned by Mr. 
R, Ellis obviates all difficulties. I now subjoin a few obser- 
vations which have offered theroselTes to me during the perusal 
of these first three poems. 

I* 4, the best MSS. read ignaris, for which Ribbeck 


gives ^H 



i^narh^ OD the authority of a paper MS. at Leyden, which he 
c&Ilfl X ; i.e. i^nams is the conjecture of Bome scholar of the 
jburtfieuth or fifteenth century, preserved to us in the MS- in 
qaestion. To give my own opinion, i^jtari^ does not eeem 
altogether out of place : the '* ignorant" peasant buma Priapua 
withoat knowin^r that he is doinc; wrong ; but though I eliould 
keep ignarls were I to publish Virgil, yet do I not quarrel with 
those who prefer Ufnavis. I do thtnJc, Ijowever, that Ribheck 
might have eprired U5 bis conjecture ingrath^ as this would spoil 
the atfsonanee of the two words iffnem and ignaris^ which I 
liplievo to be intetitiona.1. Kibbeck <fUotc3 au insitance from 
the Giris v. 420^ whero the MSS. read ignai'ay aud he prints 
hifrtUa^ a conjecture of Heinsius ; but even there I niain- 
taio that the MS. reading is right, and indeed Haupt haa it 
in {lis edition, 

II* is, ffc9 I said before, written in pure iambic aenarii, 
though Ribbeck does not admit this, and certainly, if we 
merely look to the MSS. we find deviationa from this rule. 
So V. 3 ; but there Ribbeck'a own emendation is quite satis- 
factory. Then v. 6, the MSS. read tueor^ and Rihbeck keeps 
this ; but it ia easy enough to substitute iuof^ a form recurring 
111* 4, In V, 9, the MSS. vary so much in their reading tliat 
we are fully entitled to change the order of words so as to 
avoid the obuoxioua spondee *'ro coct,"" which we do by writing 

mihicLUO duro oliva ccieta frigore, 
and in doing bo, we omit y/awa, but keep qtie which is given 
by the bc^t MS. B ; yet as the MSS. differ so much, it ia 
also possible to read 

mihique glauca oliva ooota frigore : 
bat I shoutd not admit Muretus''^ and Heyae''s readings as 
laentioned in Ribbeck'a uotea.— In t. 14, it is the fault of 
the editor, ttot the MS.,, that we find a dactyl in the first 
place. J have little doubt that we should r&ad 
teoerque matre mugionte buoiilus, 
as BUCULUS and VACCULA are bo much like each other 
as to be readily intetchatiged ; and, in general, words are more 
liable to be changed at the end or at tho commencement of a 
line than in the middle. Again^^ r. Iti, the editor presents Ms 



with a spondee /?roin /u, but the MSS. read on\j proin^ wliich 
WG should pronounce in two BjllabW. In aaying^ so, I do 
not forj^fit that Lucretius, at lea,st, has proin as monoajUabiCj 
and that many poets entirely avoid the word (Lucian Miillor de 
re raetr. p. 269). I beltevf also that I am not wrnn^ in stating 
that Virgil never has ^jroiVj in his polished poems. In the 
two instancpa whero he has its eciuivalent, proinde {Mi\, xi. 
400 and 383), he admits synizesia of o't. But all this shall 
Bot prevent me from assuming a dissyllabic pronunciation of 
proin in onr poem, because Virgil's early poems ahould not be 
measured by th^ rigorous polish of his later and more 6iiishod 

Ill* 3, should, I think, be read in accordance with the 
best MS, H : 

q^U6rvu& arida rufitic^ fortnicata siecurit 

and at the sanje time the ^ov^ formieare be entered in our 
dictionaries. It is Xtmq^ Jormicarc occurs only hers, but there 
is no reason at all why it should be rejected : it is formed in 
precisely tho same manner as vsWcare morsicare claudicare 
etc. [see Mr. Key in our Transaction a, 1806, p. 31), in all of 
■which the suffix ic is identical wUh it^ as seen in cdimitare 
agitare etc. ; and it is interesting to find here that a late MS, 
H actually gives formitata. 

As re2;ard3 the other poems contained in onr CatalectBt we 
may safely assume them to be the productions of other writers 
than Virgil. This applies to no poem with more force than 
to the eleventh, on Messalla, which Virgil never cotild have 
written ; if he had, be must have written verses like those of 
a regular schoolboy, after he had immortalised himself by 
such a work as the Georgica (Ribbeck, p. 12). Ribbeck 
himself inclines to the opinion that Lygdamus is the real 
author of the poem ; but even if tliia be so — and there are 
no proofs for any supposition of the kind — we should gain 
very little, as Lyg;damus himself is but a shadow, of whom our 
positive knowledge is next to nothing. 

In the fourteenth pooni of the Catalecta, Virgil deploroa 
the death of a certain Oetaviug, whom Ribbeck shows to have 
been a countryman of Virgil's, and identical with the friend to 



whom the tlilrtcenth poem ia addressed. It was a happy 
thought of llibbeck'a to eonnect thU with the nieiitiou of 
Octavius in the opening lines of the Culex ; and as we are toM 
by Donatus that Virgil wrote this poem at the early age of 
sixteen^ it is not improbable that he then dedicated this 
juvenile production to Octavius Mu^a, mid that their friend- 
ship remained unaltered throu^^hout their life. 

In passing^ to the Culex, it may not, perhaps^ be without 
interest to give briefly the subject matter of the poem. A 
sheplierd falU asleep amidst his flock, and a poisonous suake 
advances to kill him; but a little gnat happening to atinn; 
him, he wakes at the critical moment. His first act is of 
course to hit and kill the gnat; but he is now saved from 
the anake, wliich he kills. In the following night the mur- 
dered gnat appears to him in a dream, and reproaches him 
with its death, g^iving at the same time a minute description 
of what is to be seen in Hades. The shepherd tlien places 
a tablet near the spot whore his life had been saved, as a 
niemoriaL of his gratitude towards the unjustly murdered gnat. 

As already observed, Yirgil wrote this poem when sixteen 
years old, and we fully concur with Ribbeck's ingenious defence 
of the poet'a authorship. When comparing this early pro- 
duction with the Georgics or the ^neid, we find of course an 
immense differeace uf style and language; but this alono isno 
reason for disbelieving the statements of tho ancients, which 
show that as far back as the time of Lucan the poem waa 
considered Virgilian. The difference in metrical observances 
is less marked than one might expect, and altogether we 
receive the impression that tho youthful poet had not UBeleaely 
studied the best poets of his tinie^au impression also con- 
firmed by the elegant eholianibic lines with which the student 
of eighteen or nineteen years inaugurated his philosophical 

The critical condition of the Culex is by no means very 
comforting. It is true, we may congratulate ourselves on 
possessing four MSS. ef aa high an antiquity as the ninth or 
tenth eerstnry ; but what are even these, when compared with 
tho rich apparatus on the three chief works of Virgil ? Close 




criticism has, moreover, ahown how iaulty many of the read- 
inga of Gven thege old MSS. are, and thus it cotuea to pass 
that there ia in this poem ample field for the mtical sagacity 
of editors. Those who blame modern critics for their 
proneneas to conjectures, will perhaps be astonished to hear 
that Cardinal IJeniho long a^o found himself obliged to Intro- j 
duce the most violent ehan^es in. order to get a readable text »^| 
and tho great Scalijier'a boldness in chansfin? reading's and ^H 
tranaposin<r lines detica all description. In our time, Moria ^j 
Haupt haa done nioBti 4nd indeed more than all his P*"^^! 
defeasors taken together, for thu emendation of the poem. (Let ^^ 
me add aleo that the sfime holds good for the other poenia 
in the " Appendix Virgiliana," with the exception of tho 
Dirae Ly<liii and tho Rosctufn). Ribbcck comes after Haupt, 
like the gleaner In a stubble-field when the rich har\-est 
has already been safely got in. But although hia merita 
chiefly consist in coHeeting and arranging a critical <?on]men-i 
tarj, while Haupt had confined himacif to placing his resulta, 
before the general reader in his little bijou-Yirgil, and 
defending hia conjectures in the " Monatsberichte" of the 
Academy at Berlin, yet we must &ay that Ribbeck has 
olleu found a substantial ear of good grain which bad escaped 
the eye of the great critic. To quote a few instances, I think 
that Ribbcck has very happy emendations of v. 170 and S45, 
and also that tho transposition of v, 98—103 after t. 57 was a 
very happy thonglit. But in other instances we find Haupt 
right, and \m suMessor wrong ; in nothing more than in thoae 
cases where Haupt^ despairing of emendation, gives the corrupt 
reading of the MSS. and merely adds an asterisk. In 
Bibbeck's edition there is do asterisk to he found ; or, in other 
words, Ribbeck thinks he can emend all that seemed im- 
possible to Haupt. In justification of what I have said, 1 wtU 
quote V. 371 whore the MSS^ give piocnia rapidis Libycae 
Carthtrffinis horrml, the metre alone showing that raptdis is 
corrupt. Ribbeck adds vae, which I cannot but consider a 
moat unnecessary word in this passage^ But even supposa 
vac to be riglitly added, we are still at a loss how to 
nndtirstaud rapidis, which seems by no means a very eigni-^ 

■ £Ui 


fieukt ftdjectiTe for (rmmpAis^ v. 370. I may be excused for 
proposing tere a conjecture of ray own, especially a-fter having 
blamed Ribbeck for hia hasty chaogea ; — but if I deserve 
bLarue myself I shall be content to take it; ouly I nifiy Bay 
UiAi my conjecture is baaed on repeated consSderatioQ of tbe 
passage, I believe tlieu that RAPIDIS should bo changed 
into the familiar UAE UICTIS ; a change by no mensa very 
rioieiil when we consider tho peculiarities of uiii?ial hand- 
writing. Thus, Ribbeck'a Prolegonieua to Virgil will furnish 
instanoes of tbe interchange beiw&3ii E. and U^ p. 254 ; and 
p. 239 we find examples of the interchange between 01 and D ; 
whilst d and CT are all but identtoal. It is a matter of 
coume tliat the words vae pieds form a parenthesis in the 

On© of the peciiUaritii?a of Ribbeck'a critictsra which I 
noticed in my first article, ia lesa conspicuous in tho present 
Tolame: I mean his predilection for archaic farmsv Yet even 
here we meet with ec caede Cul. 112, where ec ia Ribbeck's 
own conjecture, the MSS, briving ct^ for which Qembo had 
writien e<. Keeping this in mind, it is diffi^cult (o appreciate 
th« consistency (or perhaps inconsistency) of the editor in 
aikolher instance: Cir. 4:70, where liis text gireij e Jluctu, but 
hia MS. H has eC Jiuctia. If anything; can be learned from 
this instance, it senilis that we ought to write *?, or perhaps 
er in the passage in the Culex, as well as in the Ciris, without 
ascribing tbe least weight to the reading et. Aa & pendant to 
this, and also a new illustration of the taime3s f)f my criticism 
on Kibbe^k^ij inconsistency, 1 add another instance. Mr. R. 
ElUs observes on Cat. vi. 8, that the form /rapture seenie 

itirely unknown to the writers before Catullus, — and even to 
ullns himself,— all using fiaffrare ; in accordance with 
ihia, Ribbeck's excellent MSS. Pac2. and two MSS. of tbe 
^jrammarian Diomedes, who quotes the passai^e, r^ttA Jfagrantia 
mctia^ Georg. iv. 169 ; and in Aen, i. 436, where we have the 
same expression again, fagrantia is the reading of Ma, R, 
Fc, the old Cambridge MS. of Alacrobiue and 6ve MSS. of 
Priflci&n ; yet in the first place, Bibbeck*8 text reads /™^- 
laniiay in the \vLiiw /vograntia. I believe that Mr. Ellis 





might also include Virgil in his list of authors who 
flagrare ^ov fragrare. In the Muretuiu 101 all MSS. have 
Jlagrantia^ Uioagk Rihbeck has fragranlia ; and again, Cir, 
16S, fiagranth is the reailiuj^ of tho two old{?st MSS., wliile 
Ribbeck ^w^^ JragFanih on the solo authority of a MS. of thti 
sixteenth ceutury ! 

As concerns the MSS,, those of the Culex aro far superio: 
to those of which wo can avail ouraelves iu the Gins. I 
fact, the text of the hitter poem is in the most deplomble cot) 
dition, as wc have no MS. of it oIcIlt thau the thirtepnth 
century, at least at* far as v. 408, where the old BruxclleusLS 
begins. There la of courso a vast field for conjectural criticism 
in this poem, but to me it seeius so v.ntst a^ to be almost like 
a desert, and I for one shall not venture on oinendationa In 
the Ciria, unless bettor MSS. be discovered. In the Culex 
we are far better otf, and Bibbeck's critical apparatus may h 
effectually used by any one who may be desiioua of exercisiu 
his own ingenuity even after such men as S caliper and Haupt 
In an appendix to this articlo will bo found a collation of tlii 
Harleian MS. 25J34, foi' Culex up to v. 94 (which is all the 
MS. eontaiua), for the Copa and for the Moretum^ and some 
of the late poems added in Ribbeck'is edition. I thou<;ht 
it a kind of duty to add this collation, as my esteemed fflend 
E. R. Hortou had formerly coUateti the first 61 Itiics of the^_ 
Culex at niy request; though with no view to publicatioa^f 
and on the undcrstamling that the collation was not to be ' 
regarded as exhaustive. This I afterwards sent as a specimea 
of the MS. to Prof. Ribbeck; and certainly my astonish- 
ment was not .small on reading in his Prolegomena, p. % 

'^coutuiitCuUcia partem quae extat vi 

reverondissiuius (!) E. R. Horton." In my collation 1 think 
I have shown that the Harleian MS. ia, so to say, brother to 
Ribbeck'a G (in the Culex) or Sillig'a Colbortinua IV., and, 
moreover, that the latter is identical with Scaliger's '^ scheda 
Pithoei," or " nicmbraua Pithoei,'' or under whatever name h«^^ 
may quote it. Hence it followa that no special importance ^^ 
should be ascribed to the statements in Eibbeck*a cntii-'al com 
Dientary, in which Pithoeus' MS. ia quoted, and that 


(o say the Ifast, vRry unnecessary to quote G aud " membranEi 
Pitliaei " toj^etbcr for a rending, cf. Rlbbeck's note on Cul. 37. 
Id t. 15, Ribbeck giyes "astrifenini Q," and Scaliger quotes 
ihe same reading; fitun " schedae Pithoei/' But I bave already 

Laaid more tbau enough on tbi:3 comparatively late MS. 
Yft even a late MS- may be put to somo use. On V* 34 
my collation altows that O reada conl'mmt instead of Ribbeck's 
cunt iimuU, aud tbere cannot be the slit};htest doubt tliat 
this ia a last trace of an on,^inal quom timuH^ written in tho 
iMhotype from which all our MSS. are descended. I am 
dhrprised to find that this should have escaped Ribbeck, pspo- 
dally as he report!* the reading conlenuit from G ; aud eveu iu 
iwn aa found in Kl he might have traced recnnants of an 
original quom. This becomes all the more strange when wu 
find that in uthor pa-i-s-iges he gives quom gtnerally on the 

Iauthoriiy of V, a MS. of tlie fuurteenlli century : cf. 108, 
174, 187. 204. 227, 236, 306, 347, though this very MS. V, to 
which Ribbeck ascribea a peculiar '^ virtus," p. 41, &eema a very 
dangerous guide for criticism^ as it was do doubt written under 
the influence of some medieval grammarian, who applied hia 

I learning and critical sagacity to the corrupt text of a MS. of 
these pneiug. 
But if we allow that qmm fimtiit was the original reading, 
I (v. 34)t and observe that this quom passed into com in at least 
two MSS., wo abould not hesitate in reversing the case iu 
another instance, v. 217; where 1 at lea:dt do not doubt that 
^m Haupt is right in adopting coUucent from Ie« and Bembo, 
^1 while the MSS. givu cum (i.e. quom) iucent. Of course Haupt 
^H ie rij:;ht in printing conlacent rather than the assimilated form. 
^^^v I will give another instance Iu which a lata MS. ^ives a 
^H^Biiinc Bpc-UiJi^ : Mur. 72, where Eibbeuk, to my great 
^H surpriHci, priuta oltts, while even B gives kolus ("A surprascr. 
m. aiit." Kibb.). and the same is fuuud in the late MS. H, 
to -which I cau now add the HarEeiau MS, already meutiouied. 
That holtis is the genuine spelling, is borne out by many other 
MSS. and also by its etynsological couneiion with hfh'ola 
tin, "x^-oi) and ;^A^o? in Greek, and haris and harinas iu 
Sanakritj (Curtius, Gr. Etyrn., first ed., i. 170^) to which 




should also be add?<] tho olj Latin form of tlie word fohi^ 
(ibid. ii. 80). La^t of all, 1 bcive to add that Bltbeck hiTUsetf 
pi-inta hohtx Georg-. iv. 130. 

Again, Ciil. 201, Eibbeek might Iiave availed himnpH" of the 
reading of his MSS. iu ordar to iutroduee a genuine furiii, 
which will now probiilly he overlooked by many iu his uoles ; 
we mean Per&ophonc^ whiflh is there the reading of the 
excellent B (enibinuSj saec. is.) and Y (Thuatieua, saec. xi.), 
and ts also supported by (antabrigieiisis, saec. ix. vet x.)- 
Instances in which a tlreek c passes into o are by uo means 
Very scarce, as liaa bcnn shown by Fleckfisen, Jahrbucher^ 
1866, p. 3-9 and 244. From the instances which are there 
quoted it appenra that Ptohmaeus and evoi* Thlotnacffs aro 
genuine Latin forms of the nante, and were used aa sHeh by 
Varro, Cornelius NepnSt Cicero, and others; a supposition, 
moreover, supported by the occurrence of IlToXofifuoi Sn 
Greek itself, %vith which TptTrroXofi/i'jy a form found on a 
cup fi-orn Vulci (1. 1. p. 7), stunda on the sauic level. To 
Fleekeisen's eollection 1 may now add Persopkone from Virgil, 
and Penahpco from Catullus, lxi. 230 : the latter instance- 
was pointed out to me by Prof. Key. Aoother, Bcroniceo., 
Lxvi. 8, has already been admitted in Schwahe's text, and is 
morp fnuiiliar to U3, as Bepovl/cij is identical with our VerOMca. 

As I have commen(Tetl mentioning cases in which it 
seems to me that Ribbeck ought to hare put genuine forms 
into his text, instead of eondemning them to neglect and 
oblivion in \\in notes, 1 will hero add virectia, a form given 
by BY ill the lUrae, v. 27 j aud ^fi-utfcfifi, aijain given 
by the same two IISS. in the Rosetum, v. lU ; in the 
latter instance the Harleian MS. completing tlve evidence. 
As for is'rcctis; Prof. Key observes that it is "the form 
supported by the best MSS. iu Virgil and other wrttBTs," 
und /ruti'duM "statida in immedifite relation to thii uoilu 
frutex, a shrub." See Phil. Soo. Transactions, 1857, p. 317^ 

On the other hand, our stock of Latiir words is increased by 
a new word in Bibbeek'3 text of the Culex, v. 334, where the 
readings of the MSS, poiut to the douu pmcrmiien^ an ex- 
cellent word and which does not seem to stand in nwd of so 

moch excuse as Ribbock bcstowa on it in his Prolegomena, 
p. 40. 

1 hare now to add wliat t mysi^lf think I have found wlailo 
gle&niDg^ afler Ilaupt and Ribbeck^ vi^,, a few observations 
by which it eeema ti luo some passajrcs io the text of the 
Colex may be either illustrated or JeFeuded. 

V. 180. The reading of the MS3. \b Jlenhm eversis torque- 
tur eorparis orbis, and the exprcjssioii flcxies crersi aeems 
indeed Tcry appropriate to a serpent, whoso pecnhar manner of 
motion is, so to savi propelling and drawing itself back. Yet 
Heyno was not, as it eeoms, satisfted with it, and wa§ thereforo 
led to propose insersisy which is not, howovor, admittei] by 
Bibbeck. This oJitor tak^a for his starting point tho reading 
et oersiSf aa found in the untrnstwurthy HclmatndiensiB, saec, 
XT. and in a Casileenai* of thu- aame age ; honco lie gets en 
wrsiXf a readinn; which no doubt pleased bim on account of its 
gR^ihio character. As for inj-sclf, I confess that I am peifi:«tly 
well satisfied witli ei'er$is^ which I think I can also defend 
by the ]>anillfl esprogaion eversae ce)l>iCCS in Tertnco Haut. 
372, But if Ribbock would rather prefer eiceraiSt I shall 
not oppose a very obstinate resistanc*. 

V. 188 f. Of the death of the serpent : 

obiritum Jfoirti raiBrt : quoi diosiius omnia 
s^iiritii^ exce&ait senflUd. 

But tlio expression can hardly bo genuine. Ribbeck observes 
that semus should perhaps be taken a9 a g&nitivcj but sjiiritus 
aensus ueerud too harsh an QKprcse^ion even for the rude style 
of the Culpx i and surely Hoyna's judgment was lesj* arti&cial 
luid more true when he conjectured immbris for &ettBus. Mor&- 
Oiff-r, even the late Hclnista<^l>ensi9 nin.y tcarli us that sen&ui 
wa« meant for an accusative, as the scribe there substitutes the 
sinj^ular, semum. But as Hcyae'e mcmiris is far too violent a 
nge to be acceptable, I venture to propose another enwn- 
tion, viz., eJ!^cus&ff^ and by so doing atn enabled to keep 
tensits. The expreflsifln d'tssUm omufs ^iriiua eucussil sen- 
»«* is, T confess, at first sight somewhat unusual, and a prose 
writer would no doubt have eaid dmifo gpiritu omnes ^enms 
e-xciusi sunt ; hut setting the metaphor aside, we have hor« 



lianlly more than the same coaatraction aa in tremor ercussit 
poculum, which ia readily uuikrstood ; and as tor Uig expressiou 
alicui Citcutere saisus^ ive may quote the analogous phrase 
alicui mentem exculcre, which is used by Seiieea, Likud, 
and the younger Pliuy. 

V. 273 : 

nee maesta obtento Dilis femigine regna. 
But obfenfa is only the readinn; of the two late MSS. H, V, 
while obtenffi ia recorded as the reading uf all good MSS. 
Hence I gain by an easy clian^e the reading ohtutUy which of 
course I take to be a dative, instead of obtttUii, m we find 
Tnetfi concuhitH a-'ipectu in Virgil (aee Biicheler, grundrisa der 
lat. decl. p. 57). The construction of the passage is regna 
ferrutf'm& maeiita (abh qiial.) obtutu^*^'' Dis'^ kingdome of dusky 
colour cheorlesa to the eye."" 

As concerns the Ciria, I have here merely to state my 
entire concurrenca with Kibbpck's arguments, showing, aa 
they do, that the poeoi has nothing at all to do with Virgil. 
ItB critEeal condition has been noticed before. 

Wd havG now briefly to speak of the Copa and Mnretum^ 
two charming poems, wiiicli have been justly c-alled the only 
specimens of real ilhvKKia in Roman literature. I confi^aa I 
cannot see why they should not como from Virgil ; at all 
events, he might have been proud of being their author, as 
the delightftil reality and naturalneaa of both poems ia, in my 
opinion, far preferable to the refined but unreal deseriptiona 
of the Bucolics. There is also another feature in the Copa 
which strikes me aa being in hartnony with the Epicurean 
philosophy of Virgil, — a feature markedly expressed in the 
concluding words, 

]>ereat qui crostina curat ! 
Mors aurem vellons " vivita " ait " venio" — 

a charming idea, and highly characteristic of classical feeling 
aa opposed to a medieval " Dance of Death." In the couclu- i 
gion of the Moretum we notice the expression in diem ^euru^^^^ 
and who would doubt that the picture of this contentment ^^ 
with a lowly lot ia an^ain in harmony with Epicurean 
philosophy \ 


I have already giTeit some observations on the text of the 
Moretum : let ine uow add tLat, in my opinion, Ribbeck'a 
reading iattth rccipit manibns, v. 120, ia owing to little mora 
than a certain '' pruritus corrigendi,'" m the best MS. reads 
recipit rectus which \i&da to rticipit rectiSf where I think that 
recitM Blanda in the aenae of its compound porrectis. 

As for the Dirae, so long attribtited to Valerius Cato, 
I havo to offbr no obaeryatiana ; bnt in the pretty poem 
Lydia I think we should keep the MS. leading est 
rotris, v- 3, and put a semicolon after vot)is ; the con- 
struction mea Jbrmom pueUa est cob'ns is precisely the same 
as in V. 21 H tahh nunc eH mea quae fmi ante tohiptas, 
whiere Ribbpck, in order to be consistent, ought to have 
written in for eU In v. 7 I agree with the editor in believing 
tbe MS. reading intcrea to be faulty ; but instead of his con- 
jecture inter voh 1 propose tnierdum, a word which I (ind liaa 
been enperseded by interea in two MSS. Mor. 31. — V. 61, 
the MSS. read iVam, for which Ribbcck adopts G. Hermann's 
conjecture wfmc; I should prefer writing ?iC7j, where the em- 
phatic iteration in non mihif mm tantum seems quite in har- 
mony with the style of the poem, 

Aa concema the Dlrao and Lydia, it may as well be observed 
that the poems can neither of them belong to Virgil, but wera 
probably written by one of his contemporaries, who had met 
willi a tate like that of the author of the first EeIo£;ue. 

Tho other poems appended by Professor Ribbeck are of a 
comparatively late origin, as may e.ff. be seen in the Rosetuvty 
where we havn, v. 43, Uk% a quantity a.'jcribed to such poets 
aa Seneca, Martial, Juvenal, and Statins by Lucian Miiller da'j 
re metr. p. 339, to say nothing of the whole tone of the poem, 
whieb is sentimental to the extreme. 

In his preface Professor Itibbeck speaks with ill-disguised 
irritation of the " obtrectatorea " to whom ho gives leava] 
**accusare si once vel aliud agenti invito exciderint vel hebe- 
tiore iudicii aeutnino usum f't>felk'rint aut latuerint"^ — words, 
perhapd, arising from some adverse criticism which the writer 
may have experienced at the hands of German critics, though 
I am not in a position to state precisely what he is alludinv 


ON RlBBBmc'S vrROTt.. 

to, as many German publications must necessarily escape my 
attention, living, as I do, in ulliiiia Britannia ; but all I havo 
to add iu concluding my articles on Eibbock'a Virgil, is a 
sincere hope that tho Professor will not look upon myself aa 
one of his " obtreetatorea," fur 1 assure him that I entertain 
the highest respect for his great industry and his earnest 
endeavour to benefit the test of the Virgtlian poenia, though I 
too hfiTB tak^n exception to what he calls ^ hebetiiis iudioii 

Cod, Hapi,et. 2534. 

CuLEx. — As far at t. 51 / ffise only those readings wftieh 
icere not fq>ecijicd in Mr. ffortoii's collation. 2 ^ ^' si& 
5 Boticie, &H#q: added over the line in the same Hand 6 pat* i.e, 
pemtus {not paratos) 7 feritur ami over the line uel feretiir, 
i.e. dicetur : the reading of the Jirst hand is explained htftJte 
gUns mordetur 3 Posteriorus hut the two letter* or an 

marked mtk . . fo shoie thty are due to an error loqtur 

m, 1, over the lute ut;l loquctur 15 aatigeruni, not ae 

Hibbeck mys^ aatrigermm : Md form of the word M the same in 
our MS. as in liif/beek's II. 31 the liiie appears in our MS. 
asjollnwi : Agrestum bona (t/im is added oprr the line sore) sif 
secars, {t/i-m oter the line, q.) ^jt cura tenete (t.n?. tenentem) 

24 the MS. reads canis (cf. RibbecJcs G), which is explained 
h^ the glms benignis, and one might thus he led to Idiete that 
the scribe meant caris 25 allabero 27 ponitqne tcith Wta 
29 compellat 34 as Ribl/eck sat/a^ * tlmuit certo legi iion 

potuit in 0/ I state ichat the MS, reads coutimiiit (hut i added 
after u in dt^erent ink^ the same as the scholia), eon w vritten 
with the common ahbreniation, and the corrector then ad<ls cu 
over the line ; this con of our MS. points to the Qriginal quoin 
venientea 37 et instead of nl 38 maura m. 1, am^, m. 2 
or even m. 3 40 felicos (not felicis) 42 Again I have 

to state ichat Mr. Hortvn could not decipher ; the MS. had 
penetret m. 1., then g was marked bg . and s\. tcritten above : 
oter the letters Xr I see, moreover, the abbreriation for ra: pene- 
trat is also the original reading of the excdlent MS. S 
43 curru m. 1., but m. 2 corrects carru 47 gamlna (not 



gmmiiiA) 49 corperjk 50 uiridAncia gamin/i 51 Sorupen 
the glme aapera 53 uigultis 65 instead o/"qiiae thcr^ 

an erasure in ichicfi J see aomethmg like u 6H en of 
fruticurn w at^H^l over the line m. 2. 56 niiratur lit& Rib- 

hwk'a G 67 Imioet Iriai unda {like Itibbeck'$ G) 59 ilia 
tapain Hfce G 60 preciia : thea ingnita m. 1, hut co abided 

orvr ths line m. 2 iiiUna imtead of uuria ; %he same is the 
rmding founri in the ^m^mhrann Pilhoei^ irkich is nd otker but 
our friend G 62 our MS. Atre si, tkouoh set! ('.3 r^}orii!ii 

from G 63 Attalacia {cf Ribheck's Y) " 6+ Siiblae^iie- 

aro in one icord Jomoa lan^t Jike G 

65 lapidis ti/:f O 6Q insiead o/'Graiam tf/eJlS. has qt gtuin 
67 Alcouls referaat coetique 63 Concha bacca maris precio 

at w the rsading nfm. 2 irkick adds t ofer tfte line 69 {Xiiniiiie 
70 gemeutes m. 1, geinmantes m.2 71 Juris (ike G diaticta 
and thig no doubt is tk^. actual reading in ff, not distrtcta: 
ef. on P. 15. ligotiibiis like Q 73 illi like G litus (tf) 
rediniBUto 73 Omivque in nirH dt>n;cntom firaude remota: 
but in the margin deyeiido daceutotn, and again degendo is 
rtported from 74 pelleutomquo luccm : her6 th$ 

* mftnbrana Pithoei^ does not agree: hut did Sctiliger report 
acmratdy? 75 Tlimolia, ?n. 1., ihicn ike a ?iJas srustjd 

77 for TuUibua intns our MS, reads mollis iacus : the «amc 
reading ii reported from (ha ' schada Pithoei' but milliter 
racos from : did Sif^ig itmrfad kit MS. ? 78 Sed et per 
isf. G. ' eur reading poinh to the original spelling act) 
niftilftncia 70 Qwis unUke G bentcior 81 agnoscit 

83 Non vig MS. : and kas G rcallj/ Nee! For dum my 
MS* hat hie, and for omet tt gieea the ind, ornat 83 hhc 
etiontti3 tranacuDdit 87 pancliasia ihum &8 horbe 

assiuiit 8D duels 90 li oxiinit omnes 92Ciualibet 

babundet 93 locundoque Uget langueuoia corpora scmpno 
94 teiupe : here the MS. breaks a//*, like 0. 

CoiM.^l sirisca greca mitalla m> 1* mitellft fji. 2 

2 CL-alo daocta stc -i famoaa with theglos» iulhnii 1 oxcacie'ns 
chnUinos Sabosae 6 pocius Mbulo thoro 

7 tupbia ct tialibes 8 triaclia nerbis [oi^or the line the corr. 

iidda umbrib) 9 Eu et lueDalio 10 in ore £oaat 



11 diffusa 12 Et 13 etiam eroceo folore sic, but the 
dot $eems to be in a more recetit ink 15 Et que 

16 uimiDeis 17 iuncea 18 autumpnali cerea priina, die 
19 rubencia 20 et bromiua 21 centa for crucnta 

22 pendet 24 sed lion et uasto est 2o alibida ueni fessus 
26 nostrum 28 For varia the MS. reads uere idtA the gloss 
uel certe, and instead of aaepe it /tas sede 20 recumbans, 
but affain the dot is in ten/ black ink nunc luo with 

the £fhss, uel prolus 30 cristallo 31 h' i.e. hie 

32 straphio m. 1» tropliio m. 3 33 Formoaum 34 ha 
35 olencia 36 ista 38 arem m. 1, auretn m. 2. 

MoHETUM. 3 Siraulus 6 iuhertea 8 exhausto rvitA the 
gloss {b^ the same scribe) uol exusto fiimus 

11 Etupaa huinore carentea 13 aed recedit 14 compo- 

sitaquB with the glms nel oppoaitaque 15 clause q puidel 
hostia claiiis 16 terre ivith ike gloss uel terra 18 octaua« 
(jflos9 uel octoDaa) 19 assistitque 21 tunc 24 utraque 
26 asaiduuua giris 2T Touaa 31 cjbelen m. 1, cybalen m. 2. 

33 labrisque 35 Bpaciosa pvodigia 3^ knot in the MS. 
37 linjrna 39 iustum ueraatite finein 40 ninnua 42 Subaedit 
Biocera which is Chen changed to eim-ero 43 Emcudata ntitk 
a double corr, Et and umudata tunc Ilia 45 ia not in 
the MS. 46 Transnersat durata manu 50 ci bale 5S peragit 
(ylos3 uel peragunt) uulcaous uestaqtie partes 53 Simulua 
ora with a?i h added m. 2 58 parco Jbr sparto 69 uetis 
m. 1, uetus m. 2. asticti anuti 60 ens for herbis 
62 redtmita arundo 63 spacio 66 ullus regula 
67 plauieuB (ucl que over (he line) 69 Orti 71 apts curat 
subiuittere 72 Lolus Iracliia 73 runex malue 

i aire 

uioleque rubebant 74 esiecr capitis debencia 75 is not 

in the MS. 76 raequieg 77 is not in the MS. 78 demissa 
80 Set notlaque 81 humero 85 uultus nasturcia 

87 ortum 88 leinter 89 Quatuor GO uirentem 9 1 tremencia 
94 corpere 96 adicit in d^est buUuin 97 Tingit 

SSaspergit adlieeo 99 inserit 101 flai^^Tancia 

102 tunc aucco 103 girum 105 uaiiaytur 106 

datnpnat uultu 107 lacrimaucia terget Hi tAm for 

iain 117 distanqia 119 cibale 120 letis 121 simulus. 




BoSETUH. 1 mordencia 6 ortis 8 olerum 9 callibua 
m. 1, cauUbus m, 2 teretes patulis concludere. After 

gattas a later hand adds Nox assueta dlu fecerat illud idem. 
TXcn foUoToi in the text v. 11, and v. 10 is entirely omitted. 
13 frutectis 16 tingeret 19 forsitan unua ador {changed to 
odor, m. S) SO diffluit et S3 nascencia 24 Germina with 
the gloss uel ^ramina disparibus spaclis 26 hac 

tcith the gloss uel banc ienus et S7 primi m. 2, prima 

m. 1. nestigia 29 exinuabat 34 coUapsis 37 rutuli 

40 conficit una dies with the gloss uel ipsa 41 florum est] 
talis 44 Cum pubescent! iuncta senecta breuis and over 
pubescenti the gloss rosa 45 rutilua here unlike v. 37 

49 Collige. 

Car ET NoN.^1 monosillaba S nichil quod mth the gloss 
uel q; 3 ab his aunt siue negati with the omission ty omnia 
4 ocii quietis 7 Et faciles uel difficiles coutencio nata est 
uel nacta est 9 controuersi 11 leta 15 scola 16 placido 
Jar lento 17 omuis certat 18 Lux est is not in the MS. 
dies ergo dies istic 19 quociena, so again SI 

21 the last est is omitted S3 pauci quoque 24 silencia 
25 monosillaba. 

ViK BONUS. — 4 uulgi 7 diem quam 9 pendit 

10 proturbet et 11 choeat amusis m. 1, amusais m. 2 

13 is not in the MS. 14 sompnum 16 Quo tempore 
17 affuit with the gloss uel abfuit 18 sentencia 21 bonum 
et foret S3 Perstictis 24 dicta per omnia factaque. 

Professor J. Comngton's Letter on the Bodleian MS. of Virgil 
mentioned in Rihheck's Prolegomena^ p. 361. 

124, High Street, Oxford, 
Dec. 13, 1867. 

Dear Sir, — Mr. Ellis has reminded me that M. Kibbeck 
gjres an aoeount elsewhere of the MS. collated by Mr. Butler. 



My reason for Mentifyiug it with the MS. you ask aboutir 
tliat Mr, Butlor, iu kis Preface, eaya ''Codex est nietiibran- 
acoua foruia obbiiga, littoria LongobarJicia nitidiasime, ut 
rect© ait Wagnonw, scriptus, eeculi ix. (Vel potins vii, cf. 
Blume, Iter Italicum, toI. I. p. S^-i),*' one of the two passages 
in Blame to which Eibbeck refers. T do not know Blumc'a 
book, so that I cannot snj tliat he may not speak of mare 
MSS. than out! J yet, aa I said in my former letter, there ia 
anothisr MS. supposed to bo nearly of the samo antif^Tiity. 
Mr. Butler, however, speaks in hia Preface A& if he supposed 
that this was the only Oxford copy of any great importance. 
Mr. Butler saya that liia MS. is montioued by Wagner, "in 
quarta Virgilii Heyniani editione, toI. iv. p. 771." In my 
copy of Wagner, toI. iv. ends with pagp 749, so lliat T cannot 
verify thu reference. -Looking further, I aee that Wagnor 
mentiona the MS, in p. 624 of toI. it. of my edition^ and 
that tiie words whii:h I havo quoted from Mr. Butler, in 
brackets, are Wagner's own words, so that Mr. Butler may 
not himself have referred to Blume. From what Wagner 
says, however, it would seem tliat Blume mentions only tmo 
MS. I think, if you compare Ribbeck''a words with Wagnor 
!.c., you will see that the former has copied the latt^r^ which 
makea it probable that it may be merely an cverstght of hiB, 
and that from not attcndtn<f to Mr. Butlor^s words he has 
made two MSS. out of one. 

Binoe writing the above I have been to the Bodleian, and 
ha^e ascertained protty clearly that I am right in my sus- 
picion, The other old MS. la uot among the Canonici Col- 
lection, but has been much longer in the Library — how long, 
Mr. Cox could not tell me at the momenta He thinks it is 
as old aa the 10th century, at least. Its place in the library 
ia Auctarium F. 2. 8. I have abo referred to Blame, who 
simply says that the raoet important thing in the Canouici 
Library seema to bo a MS. of Virgil of the 7th or 8th 
ccntuiy. The earHer referenco to Blnme (p, 210 sg.\ merely 
speaks of the Canonici Library as having been purcha.sed by 
Oxford. It is rather annoying that a echohir like Mr, 
Uibbeck should give so much trouble as this matter his coat, 




partly by oardess reading and partly by tranecribing at 
aeoond-hnnd without saying expressly that he lifts done ao. 

Vours faithfully, 

J. CoNlNGTOy. 


By WiLHKLM WAasEB, rh.D. 

Ai,THorGH Profossor H. Jordan^s edition of Sallust is far 
in hulk than either of the two Taluable editions of the 
same author we have lately received from German acholflra 
(Kritz and Dietach), it may nevertheleas be pronounced to be 
of greater importance for textual ei-iticism than its preilecea- 
dora, in as far as it contains a satisfactory and lucidly ar- 
nuged critical commentiiry, in which oil superfluous cncum- 
brancoa of unimportant MS. readings have boon omitted, 
while at the same time we receive an accurate collation of 
the old manuscript at PariB, which alone, aa Professor Jordan 
was the first to show, forms a sound basis of Sallusfian 
cnticism. In Dietaeh^s notea the rcadiiig:a of this MS. Had, 
it is true, been communicated to the philological world, but 
the inconvenience of their being (so to eay) buried 
the rubbish of other various rcafliags without any 
ralue, some of the most important had been completely 
omitted — a fact owing to the carelessness of either the editor 
himself or the collator on wbom he had to rely. In an 
enay on Sallustinn criticism printed in the first volume of 
Ur. K. Hiibnar'e excellent journal* *' Hermes," Prof. Jordan 

' C. SnUnsti Crispi Cutilina Jiigurtha Hi^tnriiirum rt'liqctiBic potiorca, Hcn- 
rieos iordaiLiu rccognorit, B^rolim iipu'l Wi;idm:iiuio», MDCJCGLXVL 

* Parhnp« it may be inU'ri^tHiiK to muiiy iti lUi< Ti<iiili;[B ul tbi>B^ |*a{Hrs to tifkVa 
I few aburt biuts with rfgarJ U^iim jihilolsvgtcjil ma^minw [luUisbcd in Oemuiiiy. 
The twa oltleflt publicntinns i>r tliu imi nri: tho " RhoLnLeclio Uubcutii," origiuftlly 
fauadml by Siebuhr, ntid ut pn-seiU oJdLinl by Welokar and Ritsclil ■ ahJ llie 
"JabrbiJcl^cr fur Pbilntoipe unJ l^iiiUgug-itt/* edilcd by Fleck l'Ucd nmJ II. 
Maaiiu. Of ttLC§e the llrst is ibo vr^nu ul tbo foniivrly so-calkU "Bonn ^lihoo] 
of FbiI[jlogy," ttniX mObt of its contnbulunt iiro pupils vf F. IlitfnUl, the ed'ilot of 
FLkDtai and tlu " Priacne J^tiiufaLis Mauumc-uta Epigcaphicu ;" while iho 
Jakrlriicb^f nuinber among tbei: contributors Bckolnrs of all porttea, without 



shows by a scrupulous con side ration of a large numbor of 
deciisiTO passagos, tbat the Parisian. MS. is indeed our salest 
guide for the criticism of Salluat, and that no other MS. of 
thia author can be compared with it. In dealing with diffi- 
culties of tte test, the editor shovra himself very conservative 
ikroughoutj and is j ust aa exclusive with regard to the con- 
jectures of other scliolara as he is cautious in committing 
liimsGlf to any original emendation. As concerns this part 
of kis work, we are quite mlling to accept the majority of 
hia own conj ectures, few as they are ; but we may here men- 
tion an instance in which a mature consideration of the whole 
question has led us to a view different to that of Prof. Jordan. 
In Cat. 20, 7» tbe reading of F (the Parieian MS.) ia, cetcri 
omnes, ntrf-nui horn nohihs atque ignohik's, but it is easy to sea 
that tbere must be aometliiag corrupt in the expression! 
sfrenui hotii, ainco we necessarily expect words denoting 
oppoaito qualities in. the first part of the clause as well as we 
actually find them in tho second part, Jordan quotes Yictor 
Caes. 24, 9, where we find lorn malique nobtks atqni ignobtki 
in manifest imitation of the Sollustian passage, and Jordan. 
goes GO far as to say that Sallust wrote precisely the same. 

repnaenting any spcdoJ "sohool.'* Besides these, therc' iw alfio the " Philolopius," 
published at dbttingen, furtnicrly by Schticidewin, atitl st pic»ebt by E. r. 
Lentach ; but without wialiinc to say anytli.!>ig ofl^'iisivR In its coPtrihutoPB, it 
iDH^ yet b« stated that tho " PLilologiiE" u the most inajgnificant of tbe philo- 
logical magazinoa iu quafttion. I <Jo uot kauv foi vi\m\, reuaoa, but certain it is 
that Dt'ithur Rilacbl nor his '•Muactirn" was of Intt much favouretj bv the aun- 
sbLnc vf the protfctinn of tho rnis^iun govcrument, at nil events tlic jittte HUpport 
furiilL'rly givta to the " Museuai" *f;ls fioally withdrawn five years ngo : but» , 
D{]twilh&t.aiidii)g thin, it has hiclii;rta been alilii, and U;t mti hope wiQ he «o \a fUturv i 
to weflthcr all attempts to destroy its life, nnd eupersedo it by rivalry t-ven erf] 
tbo iLoblest kind. A funuidabtc rival of tha <'Rb. M." bus ri?cL-iitly anwa in a 
journal called "Horrat-!," editad at Iterlin, sinoe ISBS, by Mr Kmil Jliibner, 
originally a pupil of liiCscbl, but now piof&geor aX Uetrliit, and cni^a^ed in tbfl 
*■ CoqiUH IlMcripliiiniltn LitinnriLm," piiblLshins imtler Th. Mtinmiscn'a dlreistioQ. 
The " Hermes" nifty lirieUy be deaigniitcti tSie organ of Uiiupt'a "scliool," aud ifl 
tbwefor* iitioeasarily hostile to Cba "Kheiniscbfl Museum." Lei mc add th*t 
wbatt'vcr is printed in the" Hermes "« cwellent, and pluilqlogers surely have 
DO ri!n»Da to regret tho [tppi?aran?c of thia rival of the " Kb. M.," if indeed it was 
intended to be eueb a one, but ut tho samo timo it seems to mo that though it ba 
trae what ScliiUcr says — 

" For nought its power to slr*ngtb ean t«Acfa, 
Likt cmulatiim and endeavour," 
ypt it is not less true what the same poet aaya in another plafc, "da entl 
in fcurigem kampf die eifernden kiuftc : Groswa wirkct ibr fttreit, gr 
wrrkei iir tiund,'* and t for oue must regret that the philologies "Btrengtb 
of Uermnny should now bo divided into fau large camps. 







Tn Hie "Hermes" I., p. 234, lie observea " uiilesa we asawue 
mmecesaarily that Victor altered the phrase for his own pur- 
poec, "we ahall find it probable that sfn-imi ia a very old glosa 
of bfmi, whiph suhsequently superaedod the genuine expres- 
sion" — ^but let any one put tlie question to himaelf whether 
AoHi' stands in need of an explanation bj' a gloss sfrnwf, or 
rather slrenni should be explained by means, of the very com- 
mon word hofif, and we have little doubt that our unbiassed 
judgment would decide in favour of the latter aBBnmption. 
Tbia would* of courae, completely revej^e our opinion on the 
whole passage, as wo might now find it probable that Victor 
did alter the phrase for hia purpose, and seeing that he ehoae 
honi in the place of str$nni we presume that a gloss boni 
settled in our text and thereby expelled the word originally 
following, which of course was equivalent to Victor's mttHquf, 
Let us now compare Cat. 58, 1, ex ignavo sfrenmtm fieri, and 
Jtig. 57j 6j J'tittm iiipari boni (rfifif ignm'i ^rnnt, and we may 
then, perhaps, arrive at the conclusion that Sallust wrote 
teieri omnes, strciiui ignavi, nobUos aiqne ipiohiles. 

"Wo have also noticed a few passages in which the editor 
ongHl to have more closely adhered to the readings of his best 
il8. Thug, Cat, 14, 5> we do not understaTid why he should 
have abandoned ihe reading in P, eorum animi molks etiam d 
Jftiri dolis hand diJfJcuJii^r mpkbfjntur ; for atiam simply means 
"aa yet" (tho aaiue as efiamiittn), and ipfnfr in interpolated 
MSS. is bat a gloss of it. Or to give another instancej why 
doe« Jordan print ortrHur Cat. 34, 2, although P has orere- 
ttir? Jug. 72, 1 we find orercUtr m the text with a note 
" orerefur P, oriretur C." Again, it may seem strange to 
moot with pof-ntiet in the teit, Jug. 31, 10, while the genuine 
BpeUirg pnenitet is found p, 113, 4, in tlie Oratlo Lepidi cos. 
Again, one might well ho astonished to £nd that the editor 
repudiates the genuine form pos, as given by P, Jug, 73, 7, 
pos -mullas tcmpeslates ; as concerns pos, it will here suffice to 
refer to Ribbock*B Ind. gramm. to Virgil, p. 442. 

Tn the last instance we had to blame the editor for avoid- 
ing an ancient form which was borne out by the authority of 
hia beet MS.; on the other hand, we find tbat be occaeionally 




forcea obsoleto forma on liifl author in direct opposition, to the 
Buthority of the Bomc : t^.y. his test reads negiegi&set. Jug, ^j 
40, 1, but hia note teauhea us " negltyisset C, neylixisset FC,"^| 
according to wkich tkero oan bo no doubt that Salkiat em- ^^ 
ployed the oidinar}" form of the perfect, and indeed 7kyicffetit 
is quoted by Diomedcs I., p. 369 E., and Priacidn X., p. 626 
n. on no uthisr authority but Acmilius Macer. In another 
paaaago (or. Ijcp. cos. p. 113, 20) Jordan informs us that 
Gerlaeb*8 perfect inteUeffGrint rests on no authority at nil, 
and that the genuine reading ia intcUcget-ent. 

Wo find, moroovor, a very Btrango genitive, nunt'i. Jug. 
101, 7, and aro very much eurprieed to t^oe tin note on (lie 
passage in the critical commentary — yet we believe that the 
MS. authority would be in favour of a genitive nunti'i. Ac- 
cording to Lachmajin'a obscrvntion in his commentary oo, 
Lucrelins, p. 32G, adjectivea and adjoctival substantives in. 
hts Ibrm their genitiTes is i^ not in i : CatulUiSj t\i7,, has o 
mihi nuntii bead, 9, 0. In the eame way, Jordan prints soce. 
Jug, 70, 5, ID direct opposition to LQclimann*& rule. 

Agaiii> it might bo woll wortli knowing why the eclitnr 
spells promiscac in two paesages <,Jug. 26, 3, and ep. ad 
Cacsarem I,j p, 139, 17), wherfl tho MSS. read promisee, a 
good and genuine form, which is repeatedly used by Gelliug. 

In one instance it scorns to ua that the te^t is capable of 
emendation on the ground of a corrupt reading in P. Ju^. 
Gii, 3, we are told of Slartus, s^d is natm €t omrtem pueritiam 
Arpini aittis, ubiprimum uctas TtulUiae paiiensjftit, aU'pendiit 
/aciuadis, non Qraeca facutidta Tt^gue Jtrba7tis mtiudLtiis scse 
exercuit ; but the original reading in P rfdliihs waa after- 
words changed to mimditiis. Now, it may be that mUitUi 
ia but a repetition of imlitiae, which occurs but a little way 
before, but it may also be that we haTe to seek for some other 
word which. «>me3 nearer the traces of tho MS. reading than 
munditiisj which is, aftej all, a mere conjecture. Such a word 
we believe to have found in JnoUU'm, and we are of opinioa 
that Salluat actually wrote bo: cf. the Plnutian line Pseud. 
173, fo3, quae m munditiis moHitUs ddicmquc nctalulmn 
a^'ttis. It ia very natural that molliiiis was not the first con- 




jecture that shwild enter tUe taind of tlie corrector of P., lio 
being no doubt l«a familiar with the form 7noiritia than with 
moiJitka, thougli the first is constanlly used by Salluat him- 
Belf : cf. Jug. 70, 6 ; 85, 35, nnd or. Phil. p. 114, 16, 

I have znentioncd a few out of many thoughts which 
cnwaed my mind on perusing this valuablo edition of Sailust^ 
Ukd I ehall be eatistiod if my obscrrationg help to draw the 
atteuttOQ of Bcholars in this country ti> Jordan's ediHon, iind 
moTQ especitilly if Mi\ Long wiU revise hia own text of 
SuUust with its oasistanco the cexfc time ho has hia edition 

L reprml 


Dy W11.HI1.M Wagkbh, Ph.D. 

'* AiJTi* pnori Terentium legunt, aliter Hugo Grotlua," 
18 a well-known saying of the gre:it Dutch scholar and atatca- 
man, ft gnyiug a}>pliir.i.blu uot only to Terence, but to almost 
any author forioing part of the cHatomarj reading in schools, 
yet to no author with greater justice than to Pbaodrus. I 
will aot here speak especially of tliia couutry, thou-^h the way 
iu which Phaedrus 13 rc:id here— without the slightest regard 
to metre — and even more the way in which Phaodrus is cir- 
culated here '*withaotcs adapted to the Latin i^chool-p rimer," 
i» anything but pleasiuj^ to the heaxt of a scholar, or satisfac- 
tory to the conscience of a pedagogue* But dnea not Terence 
ahare the Bame treatment with Phaedrua? Did not 1 liear 
oai^ laat December Terejice'a Adelplioe acted at Westmiuater 
with a p run unci at ion so regardless of metre» so utttTty devoid 
of the music and harmony uf Tereutian versea, tliat for tlieaa 
boys— ajid let U8 uot bhinie thoiu, — tut rather say, for theif 
teacher'4, Bentley might have as well have left hia Sx^S/aff^ 
uuwrittcu? I feel certain tJiat Bentley gave his printer, 
houcnt Comoliiis Crownfitld, juat a.s omcli Iruublo, when ho 
insiated on hariug metrical accents in his editioua of Terence 
and Phaodrus^ aa I myaelf gavo to Mr- Clay 140 years after- 
wards, when I re-introduced into England what was in reality 
the invention of a great English philologer. But la it not a 


o^ PHiEDRra. 

shame that the common practice iu England in the nineteenth 
century aboul*l to all eiKls anJ purposea he pretty niueh the 
same as the ignorance or laziness of those whom old Priecio^^^ 
chastises at the bes;innin^ of his treatise^ "de metria fabularum 
Terentii," where lie says ''' miror quosdam vel abneg-^re osae^— 
in Tercntii comoeilua metra vel ea quasi arcana quaedam ^t^M 
ah omuibua doctis semota sihi eolis esse cognita conhruiare ; 
quorum ut vel iniperitiao vel arrogatitiac vitiuni eftugiamue," 
etc.? Does it not seeni time at last to reform thitj bad old 
practice, now that English, teachers aeem to bo aiivc to th< 
many shortcomings of their easy-goinn; troditional system ? 

But Grotius's word has to ua also another meaning : in oui 
boyhood we read Phaodrus, or, to be personal, English boys] 
read PhaedruSt in Bradley-White''s edition, without havinf^j 
the least idea of the muny difficulties which the same textl 
would present even to the cleverest scholar. Perhaps one 
two amons tho utimerous teachers who have to cram Phaedn 
into tho heads of youn^ boy^i, may have falli?n in witb' 
I3entley"'s famous edition, but thoy too were, no doubt, shocked 
by the boldness with which Bentley deals with tlio tc.vt,J 
and being thus deterred from criticism, tb)?y have gone oi 
with their drudgery, leaving graver difficulties to others, 
they have quite enough to do with the difficulties which tbeil 
author creates to the strugg-ling, striving, and, let tis hop^^ 
thriving minds of the youthful flock entrusted to their care. 

And yet the bold, and indeed, often rash, clianges wbich we 
uotiiro in Bentley *s Phaednis, are but the necessary cunse- 
quencea of the editor'iS endeavours to do justice to his author 
and his own understanding : and in many, nay, most casea, 
whero we rt-jtict Bontlcy*a conjectures, we arc obliged to admit' 
his reasons for a change, though very frcque^ntly he does not 
condescend to impart them to his readers, preferring to let-] 
them guess and try tlieir o^vn ingenuity: conf. the following 
worda iu liis Preface, " contenti fere rationem correctiouia 
uno verbo indicasse, nonnumquam ne udo quidem, studiost 
qui post me mea probatmut earn provinciam relinquens." 

Pr. Eyssenhardt, in his little edition of Phaedrua/ does not 

> rhaedii Tabiila^. Fr, Evueiiiiardt r«cogiiorit. fierolioL apud Weidminnc 



profess to give us a complete critical apparatus on the author, 
but we may be sure that his notea will tell us ei^orylhini; of 
real importance in the formation of the text. A little edition 
like this to bo bail for the cheap price of sixpence, will be a 
great benefit to such teachers as may perhaps be under the 
erroneous lutpre^aiDu that in Phaedrus, at least, criticism is a 
superfluity easily dispensed with. The fact is that the text 
of Phafdrus reata on a very uiisafe basis, and in many in- 
etftdcea ia ao corrupt as to render vain all endeavours of 
fimending it« 

I myself have little to aay on Eyasenhardt'a edition, except 
that I believa It to be made with much circumspect judgment^ 
especially in this, that the editor shows much tact in his aelec- 
tioD from the conjectures of former scholars. If I should 
mention anything which I should like to bbb changed in a 
second isaue, it would be, that all passages in which it vitta 
found necessary to introduce conjectural readicfig might be 
marked by priutlug them in italics. 

But aa it has been my Labit iu the preceding renews, I 
claim permission to add iV few conjectures of my own. 

iv. 7, 16 is given by Eysseuhariit and tho other editors as 

Idc ca^de patrls P^liadum infecit manus ; 
but it seems to me that Phaedrus would hardly have used 
patriA as a trochoe, inasmuch as l40 has tho first syllable of 
pater in the oblique cases short in the only two other instances 
where he uses the word : iv. 5, 30, o si mamM cdiia'ito scnsits 
pdti-i, and ill, 8, 9, erffo dd pdirvm decarrit iacsnra in vicevi-, 
though tho tatter instance may again bo considered doubtful 
by many. But the whole difficulty may be easily avoided by 
writing pictria; for though Phaedrus does not use the adjec- 
lire ftself in any other passage, yet ho has the noun in two 
lines with the first syllable short : iv. 22, 7 ; iii. prol. 65. 

In two other passages 1 perceived the truth of the old 
aayin^, " nil sub sole novum," when on consulting Valpy'a 
Variorum edition I found that my conjectures had already 
been anticipated by others : vit., r. 4, 4 "aliimque praedam ab 
il/ero ferri putana," where the MSS* give a/;o» but aftero seems 




quite neceaaary on account of both metre and gramttiar, as 
tliere are only two dogs mentioned in the fable— and i. 91 
(23) 12 

quod f^rre mertem cogor, bis videor mori, 

where tho MSS. have cerh without any meaning, and Eys- 
eenhfirdt writea Cfierii^, which seems not bo easy a change as 
inerienit this being moreover supported by the preceding words 
fortes imfifjne tuU Jf/As imnHtsTe. In tho first case tiip emen- 
dation had been anticipated by Cunningham^ in the latter 
by Burmann : in the first it Is besides borne out by an 
anonymous prose-writer, who uses the worda " alteramqne 
praedam ab altero ferri putana/' 

In another fable i. 20 (18), 5 ; 

on lis naturae melius quo deponeret 

we have a atriting instance of tha peculiar difficultiea of 
Phaedrian criticism, Tho expression onus naturae (icponer^ 
actually occura nowhere else of a child in the mothcr^a womb, 
and yet it is not quits impossible that. Phaedrus may have 
uaed it in that aense, as ho waa a formgner, and might not, 
therefore, bo fully alive to the strangeness ot' tho phrase. 
Bub on the othor hand it seems so easy to <-hange the text, 
that one is Inclined to believe that the MSS. are here at 
fault, not the poet. Eysscnhardt puts Heinaiug'a conjecture 
in his tex.t, onna maturam, in accordance with Ov. Fasti ii. 
46^, mafiirtimque utero molliter a^^er onat : but, easy aa this 
elian<re isj it ia not impossible to conjecture onus fi'inrae, in 
which case the genitive would bo "explicativus," like the 
French PiVfo de Park, or the Latin '-'■vox Vohfptnfia" "the 
word Pleasure" : cf. Key L. Cr. ^ 926, 1. I mention this 
merely to show how uncertain oven such conjectures as 
Heinsius^B tnaiurttm must be in an author like Phaedrus.* 

In the *^ supplementa" iv. 13 and 14, Eyssanhaixlt givea 
Dressler's versifications without the least change, though he 
might have altered what the metre alone shows to be wrong, 
e.g. ySy 26, he might have written koqH4 di'imi^ ; 14, 2, 
ilUt'ebrae dnhes ^sseni ortae el ^uhihlae^ and ib. 6, /ii(6 Jinx>sset 
dtque clam Fhoebi Iffnibua. 



Tn the BO-called " Fabulae Perottioae" t wotilcl suggest thre« 
eiQeDdations : 4, 32, wo should write 

quod Deg&ntibas 
ped^s habere, facile et ipse fLS&^Dtio : 
the MSS. givirg facik ipse consentio, for which Eyssenhardt 
writes witli XivisaXtiV faciUs eat consenaio. Then agacu 12,3, 
we sbouM read 

sonu^re taetae : b^lla rei?, sed me Hercules 
as mehci'ctiks in Phaedrua ia uever quaddsyllabic, but always 
triayllabic ; cf. i. £7, 7 ; iii, 6, 4 j 17, 8 ; t. 5, 22, and wrf is 
mopr-over wanted to make the passage more emphatic. In the 
third placB I think we ought to write 13, b, 

claram d^secuta^st f^mam castitudiuts 
the ilSS. gi\'ing cnsCue tn'ryimsr but thia I think is hardly 
admissible^ since the wnman in quoation was a matf^na, no 
virffo : cf. Petronitis^ narration on the same subject, p, 136, 
15 Biich. ma/rona qiiucdam Epheai fnm notaif erat pudicitiae, 
etc. Ill tnakin<^ thi» statement, I do not forget a note of 
Keightley's on Virgil, Eel, vi, 47, "The Lattua used their 
rir/^o .... to denote a young woman whether married or 
single." But this is simply an error, and Andrews ia right in 
Baying "n'r^o in gen. of young women even when their chastity 
is lost," an obaervatioii which also applies to the Greek 
TTopBevo^, where Keiglttley would be wrong again ; for (at least 
80 far as I kuow) neither the Greek nor the Latin word ia ever 
naed of a marrwrf woman. VirffO in fact corresponds to the 
Hnglish "maiden," whinih mftv also be used of an uncnarried 
young female even after the loaa of her eUastity, But if thia 
be ao, it follows that the word mrginit must he corrupt ; and 
do not differ so much as to make my emendation altogether 
improbable. The word castitudo ia noticed by Nonius, p, 85, 
10, "castitudinem pro castitate. Aecius Phoeniasis ibi/ds, ibi 
cunciam aniiqmm casfitudinern^ (586 Ribb.). 


Ma<^ /l*'*y<<^ j VVrf *r**rf n^Y 



Xn.— ON FtTRCA.— By Wiehelm ■WAONfeH, PI1.D. 

In the present volume of ourTransactione, p. 107^ Prof, Key, 

speaking of the use oi farcao in the plural, &aya, " It \& true 
that in the Casina ii. 6, 37 (=285 Geppert), we find ut 
quidem hodk tu eamm et ftircatn /eras ; but here we may- 
well suspect that the poet wrote furcas^ and tlie singular waa 
an adaptation to later aaage introduced by others." 

Now without disputing the prinid facie possibility of ft 
change of this kind^ I must at the aamo time express my 
entire disbelief in it. I think that Plautug actually wrote 
/itrcam in the singular, and this I support by quoting another 
passage which must have escaped Prof, Key when coufiniog 
his statement to one passage aa if it were quite isolated. 
Curiously enough, this passage occurs in the same play, the 
Casina ii. 8, 2 ( = 334 Geppert). 

cum fdrca in uE'bem tanquam carboni&rium 
and there the metre alone, if not critical tru^poirvtnj^ teaches 
us that the text is aa aound as possible^ 

Wagner, Ph.D. 


Quieum, dum haberet clausam in castello inimulam 
mort&lem, ad superos licitum esf./initani id diem 
pi6 pudensque vixit omni tempore — 
Auruneus j's erat, Fusius erat iiomine, 
6 maglster ludi Ijtterari Philocalua 

summi quom castit^te in discipulos suos: 

I. Tnacripticin in iAmblc aenariL on PhilocaJui. H kIi^qI master at Capua, ncR in 
the Niiti»nii.l Muacum at Naples ; on the atone the figure of titi old man, seated 
fin ft ktdd of throne, at hia riffbl hand a buy, a girl ul bis U-iTt, stsntlin^ more 
baci r both huliliD^ iii their hisiida Bomethin^ Tgry much like slates. The inscr. 
flnt publiihed by II. Nissen, Hermea 1 p. 147 m. Obsp^fVc ih*^ genitive Utttrari 
V. fi, quom fur cum v. 6, quni-quam v. 8, eiua t. 10, witli b monasylliibic pro- 
tLundaiion as irc hiiy& it w fretiU'Snth' ii> the comic piKtj, and p6o\t, ib. as coin- 
paiecl iiithfOi«(f in Momm&eiii'ji I. R. N. £409. 1-3. TmUftlate " "With nbom abe 




id^mqne testarn^nta §cripsit cum fide 
Dec quoiquam iu8 n/ydvit, la&slt n'^minem, 
ita rf^cucarrit vitam fidus sine metu — 
10 eiuB osaa duuc hie sita aunt, posit A . , ria viro. 


Qaa,m dulcis fuit ista, qaam benigna, 
quae cum Tiveret, in sinu iacebat, 
Bomni coDsda semper et cubclia. 
faciam male, Myta, quod peristi ! 
5 latrares modo, si quia adcubaret, 
rivalis domiuae Uceptio^a, 
o factum male, Myia, quod peristi ! 
idtum Lam tenet inaciam sepulcrum 
nee sevira potes iiec iiisilire 
10 nee blaadis milii morsibus renides. 


Templum hoc aacratum herdtim quoi Germinici 
August! nomen f^lix semper r^maneat 
BtirpEs suae laet^tur virtutel parens. 
Bam quorti te, Caesar, t^m/^rw iam eipoaci^t dotim, 
5 caeloque repetes n^Aem qttom mnndum reges: 

BT«d l^ithfnll^ And reipectttbly throtighoat until hijdity of doom, ss lonp- ss he 
hid bu mortal t>reAth shut up in the atmai^hnld (of his bremst), (as long as} ho 
»*i alloiTed to be nmong (he livini;, [ihon cnmM t1ie ptin^mttiesia dnwn to ». 9J, 
IQ. W bones rest here: A . . ru plued (this moTiumcnt} fi^ir her hunbnnd. 
1, animuiam : Moininsen coBiparei Iladrian'! an^mulii hoxjns eirtporU. 4. I haTo 
•dddd to. »s isrnt is nn impoasibililf, 6. fhiloealtui ia Mommaen'a readings 
CAtfot^lui Niuen'e, on Trhicli Hefther oWrv« that it ought to be Ka^,<ix«il^^tt, 
not xny-^KoXot. 7- MommHi^Ti t^uotet *Mtbr(iiriUB) qui teatninenta scripait annua 
xiv. tiuu iuriscnnBuU(D)/' Henzon 7236. S. nxarit is on llie stone, ncrcordln^ to 
Fioriilli *'t)recoi]uto du tit letters :" ihi Htffacit iiaaim6i.-B. 10. Jha wife's name 
U uot tc^tilij, 

11. Inacriptioti on a. dog. called Myin, rery likoljr tho propcrtj ef i uuntra 
fv. 6) '■ iho ivh.ri1e in imitutian of CMuIIu^. Tbi} .spcIliTig' aeri/f r. 6 h^owb tblt 
It bclongf to the Kcond century A,c. Found neur Auch iu Fmace, July ISM: 
Ilermed 1, p. 68. 

in. tnacHption in honour at Dnmitinn, who it here called CertnaQiciiaAagiutuB 

iSil. 3. 607. Uuint. i. 1, Ot : cf. Martial vi. 3), I meci . . . qtoii': rTUtinded 
■J (lAupt, b iM not coctHin, Niaaen aays " clahintcr (uEter o) cio iHUffbuchaUbq." 
3 viriktu BT viriuiti, JStuea, 6 jtwm myi^lt, Iwnt J^inen^ 7 fr llnupt. — Sm 
Qermoa l,p. ISl u. 



sint lici, tua quai aort© term* Imic imperent, 
reg^ntque no3 iclioibus r.r voteis sueis. 
L. AureHua L. f. Pal. Rufus priinopilaris Ipg. tlxW. 
m\\\ia.vit (tmpiciia imp, Caesoria . , , 


Incola Tifatae, venatibus incluta virgo» 
haec, Latoua, tuia statuit miracula lemplis 
cuDctis iiotns lionin^ ailvaruni cultor et ipse, 
laudibua inmensia vitae qui eervat hanorero, 
5 Delniatius signo, prisco de noniiiie Laetua : 
credo quidein donum nnllia hoc antea natum 
coUibus aut ailvia- — tautum caput esplicat umbria 

. quae verum — 

• • • 


IT, In the Natii^Dftl MiueURi nt Kaplce: see HermH. I, p. 156-159. 5 aiguQ 
"witli Ilia Sfisuiued name:" eee MommseQ 1. 1. p. 18%. 

E, T. SIEGFRIED. Collected, 
Edited by Wiiitlet Btokes. 

Aerakoed, ai 

More than a year ago, Dr. Todd, of Dublin^ sent me a box 
containing most of the MS. remains of my deceased friend ^J 
Siegfried, profeasor of Sanskrit and comparative philology in ^| 
the Irish University. The papera, Tvbich consist of over 
ihvtti thousand fragments, of all sizes, written in many ^_ 
characters and languageis, anfl Bome in pencil now almos^t ^| 
illegible, were in groat coufuaion ; and it was not ixW. the 
autumn of 1866 — fuur years after hia death — that I had 
leisure to decipher and arrange them. 

On Sanskrit, Siegfried left the following: — (1) Notes oi 
Pdnlni. (2) Notes on the Va.^asan^yi Prati9akhya. (3) Not-es 
on the Rik prfitifakbya. (-t) Notea on Vedic Grammar: phono- 
tica, declension, verb and accent. (5) Notes on the Atharvaveda, 






Ix. 8. (6) Notes on the Pa.iicata,nLni. (7) Notes on ^akuntalfi. 
(8) Lectare on the Vedas in two recensions, b<)th imperfect. 
(&) Vedica: (a) Vediache Literatar, (A) Volk dea Veda, (r) Lehre 
und Glaube dea Veda. (10) Sunskrit Litcratar, nacL Dr. A. 
Weber, JJerliPi 1849 : these are apparently Botes of lectures 
delivered by Prafessor Weber, of whom Siegfried was, 1 be- 
lieve, a pnpil. (H) Notes for lectares on Sanskrit jwrammar: 
These were prepared for Siegfried's clasa in tha University. 
(12) Short Sanskrit vocabulary. (13) Translation of twenty- 
niue hyrana from the Rig Veda. (14j Three ^lokaa of B. V. 
tL 75. (14) Translation of Atharvaveda it. 33. (15) Trans- 
lation (in English) of QakuntaU. 

On Zend, there is a larpe body of grammatical notes. 

On Greek : Notes on Greek phonetics. On Latin: Notes 
on Latin phonetics and Latin sufRxee. On both languages: 
copious uotea for a treatise which was to be called *^^ An Intro- 
duction to Comparative Philology for Classical Students/* 

Tliere are abo notes on Old Prussian and Lithuanian ; 
notes on Anglo-Saxon i notea on the hiatory of English pro- 

A MS, entitled, "The Indo-European Unity: sketch of 
the reaulta of Bopp's science of comparative grammar." 

NoteSf entitled ^'^Japetia:" bo Siegfried called what Pictet 
terms " Originea Indo-Europ^ennes." 

Lastly, hia Celtic papers, which conaiat of a great number 
of letters written to mo during the years J 858-1861, and of 
the following: — (1) Kotea on Celtic gods. (2) Alphabetical 
list of Gaulish gods. (3) " On eome names of deities among 
the Celtd/' an essay. (4) List of Welsh mythological namea. 
(5) Gaulish iuscriptiona. (6J Notes on the Bontaurios in- 
scription. (7) Alphabetical li&t of Old Celtic names of persons 
and places. (8) Notes on the formulae of Marcellus. (9) 
Notes on my " Irish Glosses," Dublin, I860. (10) Notes on 
the Old Irish verb. (11) Notea on the preface to the 
edition of Cormac's glossary in Thf^e Imh Qhimridy Lon- 
.00, 1862. (12) Extracts from the Book of Armagh, tlie 
on Laws, and otla-r Irish MSS. (13) Proposals for the 
compilation of an Irish Thesaurua by Curry and O'Donovan, 




(14) Notes on Zeusa, Gluck, Ebel ; drawn up for O'Donovftl 

(15) Notes ou the Juvencus gbaaea. (16) Remarks ou ray 
UOtea to the Oomish popni of the Pasaion. 

Besidea the<se, the deceased scholar left behind larn- — (1) 
An intcrleaveJ copy of O'Reilly's Irish Dictiunary, crowded 
with additions and corre<:tlon8. This ja tiow in the pn^ession 
of his successor, Dr. Lottner. (2) An iuterirfivetl copy of 
Puglie's Wdeh Dictionary ; this, I believe, is in the posses- 
sion of Siegfried's father, a Judge at Dessau. (3) An inte^ 
leaved copy of Zeuss' Grammalivd Ce/dcOy with niauv anno- 
tatjoufl. Dr. Lottner has thia. Outside the eircJR of the Indo- 
European languages, Siegfried posisesaed aome Hebrew. He 
had also earnestly studied Finnish, and 1 remember that he 
showed me once some papers containing ejctracta and trans- 
lations, m hU handwriting, of a poem in that language, which 
I presume was the Kaluvala. I cannot say what has become 
of these papers. 

So tar fts I know, Siegfried himself published nothing in bis 
own name. Daring enough in private speeulation, and frank in 
his intercourse with friends^ he was atningely averse to commu- 
Tiicate to the worlj the results of his ingenuity and untiring 
industry. He fdta fear, not aU^>gether groundless, that the self- 
conSdence of some of tho m&mbera of the new school of philology 
would bring back their science into tho contempt from which it 
waa rescued by Bopp and his immediate followers. "Take cares'" 
he wrote to me once, "that we are not acting like the oldur 
men, but witliout their excuse of iiinorance- — hutcherinfl' words 
and torms, only with sharper knives." He was, however, the 
author of two excellent papers in the SafHr{/a^ Jiwew, ona 
a review of Uliick's KcUiachc JVu/iien,^ the other an article on 
Pictet'^B Oriffinca Itido-Etirop^enneit. He allowed rae, more- 
over, to publish as hcB, the etymology of dnhir * homo' in tho 
IrUh Glo^i^ef,, Ko, 89; of f^iVt, ib. No. 99; of Atte ' nepos/ ih. 
p. 68, n. ; of tlie names In -gH9, ib. No. 352 ; of the W. iatm, 
ib. No. 682 ; of Ir. 4n ' Avis/ ih. No. 746 ; of flff ' lew,' ib. No. 
758 ; of iml ' butter^ (Skr. nuifi) ih. No, 7S4 (cf. the Wallachian 
lembafrom iingtia); of the Gaulish Mogounos (= Skr. niag- 
' Printed at 4 Supplement to tliis Paper. 



K ih. No. 952 ; oCg^ifcfie ' wife^' ib. "No. 1073 : his explaaia- 
tion of ihe Welsh comparatire-e, ib, No. 1133; and of the 
Irish verbal relative forms, ib. No. 1071 ; his translation of the 
Oaaliah inscriptions to the Nismes Mothers, ib. p. 100 n., and 
Ift Belcsama, Beitrage zur vergl, spTschf i 451 ; his ingenious 
hi'pntheaia aa to the Tanvs trigtiranti^^ ib. 473 ; hia diacovery 
of the origioal s in anlaut of the Irish relativ^e ftbd of the 
prononn, ib- 470* 336 ; hia eTcplaimtion of the dat. sg. of the 
Deuler n-stems, ib. 452; his comparison of Math *aea, ' g'en, 
tr^than, with Tphoiv, Thraitadna, Traitana, etc. (with which 
Mr. A!atthew Arnold lias erroneouflly credited the ■writer), 
ih. 473 and in Thr<'r Ifink Glossaries, pref, six ; his beautiful 
identification of the Old Ir. t-dnaa ' I came,' with the Skr 
6nt7ricfi, Beilr. ii. 396; his recognition, in Irish, of the old 
ftilare in -si/dmi, Beitr. m. 51 ; hia observation of the loss of 
the suffix of the positive in the Celtic com parat ires, Beitr. 
iv. 403, and Three Irinfi Gh^mnra pref. p. xxx. ; his ex- 
planation of the Old WuL^h ncmheunaur^ Beitr. iv» 417 ; hia 
etymology of the Lat. Imtrm, originally an u-stem, fot 
*dauru^ ^ Spih, d&m, tnu, see the Phy of the Sacmmenf, 
Glossarial Index, b.v. taurcUe ; his connexion of O, Ir. art 
' god,* etc. with Skr. rta^ and of Brigit^ • the goddess 
whom poets worshipped/ BHrjanfia^, Bngmttis with brah- 
man 'prayer; ' ace 7'brEc In'th Ghssan'ffi, xxxiii. ;* hia 
reference of the O.Ir. cfa/n, W, e/df\ Corn, c/aff", to the Skr. 
root kbtm (Note to my edition of the Cornish Passion, 25, 2) j 
hia connection of O.Ir. c^iJe * socius,* ' servua,' witli Skr. tar 
■ffeXw, }x^-fiifirti\ ib. 179, 3t ^^^ '^^ ^^''^ Lat. nfdu^ for *gnisdns 
with Slav, f^rilzdo, 7^09, Skr. nida for *gni^hda, ib. 206, 1. 
Hia connection of Skr, rd^/.ij)a 'tear"* with Goth. ro/yV/n, A.s. 
tfpan, Eir«l. \ceei\ was al&o published by Lottaer, (^Kuhn^s 
Zwta.xi. 186). 

Beddes this list, wbirh might be lengthenei^, there is 
ecarrely an article in my Irkk Glosses which is not indebted 
to Siegfried for some addition or correction. In particular, 
almost all the comparisons of Welsh words in that book — 

• Cf. also BrhaipnU 'Vrd of prnypr." ■ Vedio gnd. There seems tu 
b*ea iD O.It. A r^m. U-etein Brij/tt, Tfaicb u nearer BrigeKtia. 




about 540 in numbpf — rtre due to him,' The acknowledcjoment 
of his help at p. 132 ia no mere complinifliitary expression. 

Since Siegfried's death Lottiier has published Siegfried^B 
reading and translation of the Gaulish insi-ription on the gilver 
amulet found at Poitiora, and of which a fac simile is given 
opposite p. 170 of the Bcitmege^ tdL 3. This publication has 
been reviewed favourably by Ebel (Beitr. iv. 252) and by 
'J.' (Ferdinand Justi ?) iu Benfey''B Occident M. OnV/(^ ii. 
570. Nevertheless, I can here only follow Siegfried par* 
tially, and take this opportunity of giving wliat, as at present 
advised, I believe lo be the true reading and translation of 
the inscription, printin;^ the Latin vocables in iLilics, separat- 
ing the words, and punctuating: — 

Bis : Dontaurion auala. htit : Dontaurion deanala. Ai>, 
Im : dontaurion datatagea. vim danima. vim spakmam asta. ^, 
nmffi {jfs e^mta fe Jmdna, quam p^p&ni Sarr-a. ^M 

''^Breathe at Dontaurioa ['germ-destroyer'] : breathe away ^* 
Dontaurios:- accuse the Doataurii [thus far 1 follow Sieg- 
fried] ; strengthen strength : &id thou (0 Justina !) thflj 
paternal (I'.rt. thy husband's) strength ; the magician's art has! 
followed thee, Justina, whom Sarra brought forth."" 

The verb datahges X take to be the 2d sg. imperat. middle 
(here used actively) of an iS-stem identical iu foot and meaning 
with the Old- Welsh datolaham (gl. logo) Z. 1078. Danima 
seems the 2d sg. imperat. act. of a denominative formed from 
the root of Ir. dana 'fortia'as dv-^-fiow from the root AN", 
pafernam is the lualiu patoniam with the strengthened anlaati 
BO common in the Homance languages. Soe Diez, Gram.! 
i. 327, 442; and compare O. Ir. scipar from "s-piper 'pepper,' 
M. Bret^ scfacc * ice^ from glacies. Corn, ^qnenip (gl. iiieestus) 
from French ijtienipe. Asta seems the 3d sg, imperat. act. of! 
the Latin verb asto^ which ocea-^ionaUy takes an accusativa. , 
The charm is a spell against female barrenness, not ma]«| 

' As 4 ncD.kcUic acholftr^ Skgfrifid iros strongest fn ^Velsli. Irish phonctica 
and inHection be knew tlioroiighty. Of CoriiLsIi ani Breton Ue knew liulf mord 
th»n Zeiuu tind given. j 

* Compare Br. i. 35, fl, trnoiilated Tiy Muir : " Tlnon, Inilra, wilb tbe bielisTen, ' 
diil&t blow ^airifit ibe' uabelierecs. With the prieiti, thou didst biav away ihe 


I vas bitterly disappointed to find that, with the exception 
cf the literal translation of ^akantalft, and some of the ver- 
nons of Yedic hymns, not one of the papers above catalogued 
was ready, or nearly ready, for publication. It remained, then, 
only to go through them, carefttlly extracting all that was new 
and tme, or possibly true, and printing those extracts with 
the utmost feitbftilnesa. The first result of my editorial 
labours is now published. Much of mere conjecture will be 
found therein ; somewhat, too, from Siegfried's older papers, 
which newer lights would hare led him to cancel ; but, in the 
present state of oar knowledge of the Celtic languages, and 
especially of Gaulish, all scholars will agree with £bel (Beitr. 
It. 253), that every attempt, by so competent investigator as 
Siegfried, to clear np the darkness, should be received with 
gratitude. As J. von Mtiller said, " die wahrheit ruht in 
Gott, nns bleibt das forschen." 

W. S. 

CxicvrtA, 6th Rbmary, 18fi7. 


Contents : I. Notes on Old Celtic mythology. II. Notes 
on Old Irish mythology. III. Notes on "Welsh mythology, 
rV". Old Celtic words and names. V. Old Irish etymologies. 
VI. Welsh etymologies. VII. Phonetics. VIII. Declension. 
IX. Gradation. X. Numerals. XI. Pronouns. XII. Verbal 
Particles. XIII. The Verb. XIV. Prefixes and Suflixes. 
XV. Miscellaneous. 

I. Notes on Old Celtic Mythology. 

AheUio [De Wal, pp. 1, 2, 3, 4.] : Ir. Eibhlinm (mac Breo- 
gain,) Keating 287; Ir. aibhell 'spark,' and Skr. dghrni 
* radiant.' 

Adraate : Dio 0. [Ixii. 6, 7], ^AvBpdtmj^ [a British goddess 



of victory^] Skr. d + dhritk. [to dare, dhrahta * subdued.' 
Giiick, neuo jahrbueher, 89"- u. 90^'' bd. s. 60, also refers 
^Avhpd<rTr}io dhrih^ and saya 'Avhpdart) [invicta] hdsit daher 
*die uniiberwindliclie,' ' inexfluperabilia^ ' unbezwingliche.'] ' 

^rfsff/^if/rt (Henzen, Xob, 5864.5911) yi.Ea^^m. From the 
stem mllu (Japetic SARYU) may be derived Saliuntum^ a 
place in Dulmatia. 

AgdiJttia, the Oybele of the Tolistoboii in Galatia, wrong for 
Adgmtis ? 

Manmm>i: lOYI ALANNINO, Miirat. i. viii. 7; Skr. 
ftrnnya [' a forest-' Arany&ui is the goddess of forest-aoH- 
tude. See a liymii to her, R.V. x. 146, trauslated by Muir, 
Joui-nal R. A. Soc, neweeriea, ii. 27]. 

Aihio-rix [Mara, Be Wal, p. 316] ; W, Eiif-n: Skr. 
rbhamSf a\(fiQi, aibi, Elfen. Kuhn, Zeita. iv. 110. 

Akmum ('Bedaio aug, et Alomnia,' De Wal, p. 231) ; W. 
Afun. [die Alounae " scheinen Weaen zii seii], die der erde 
uahrung (ir. d) zufiihrten, sie befruchteten,'' Gliick. I do 
not know Alun, As to A!on see Williams Emeogion, p. 13-] 

Andarte (Orelli 1958) : Skr. adhi + rta P 

Andrmtehia: MatHONIS Andrust^hiabus [DeWal, Moe- 
derg. p. 90:] cf. the Drosien [on a PJctiah cross in rorfarHhire]^ 
Dntet nomen regis Britannoruol,. Dnisficc filia ejua^ Lib. 
Hymn. ed. Todd, p. 95. 

Ardainna v. Ardomna : ' Arduinna cognorainatur Diana'' ap. 
Grater^ p. 314, No. 3. Ardoinne, Gruter, 40, 9; Webh Ard- 
dun is one of tlie three dixceir-wraig 'chaste women"'; 'OpSicL, a 
name for Artemia [io Laconia and Arcadia : cf, also ^OpBuitrla 
and ^O/aSoKT-to?.] 

ArionwHii^ [Gruter 670, 3. Gliick, K.N. 59] : Skr. 
Aryaman [the name of an Aditya], Ir. Eiremkon^ [son of 
Miled], Eochaid Aiream. [In Fiacc's hymn, 1. 37, the gen, 
Bg. Eremon occars. This, if not a mistake for the usual 
Eiremoin^ points to an n-stem Ercitit Airrm, in the nom. sj;,] 

ArtaitiH [O. Ir. Ariae] : 'feil Coluim cen elcca, in nidfr mics 
hui Artai^ FtJlire, June 7* [' the feast of Columb without 

< Additioiu hj Ibe Editor (W. B.) to the text^ xn 'OSolosad ili nqtiare bmckeU 



puile, of the great aon of Artae's deacendant.* Elsewhere Sieg- 
fried connected Artaius, *Mfrcurio Artaio/ Orell. 226^ '■Deae 
Arfhni^' DeVVal, xxiii., And-arfn^ Oretli, 1958, and the OJr, 
art *god/ with the Skr. rta, 'just.'] 

*Atranti Aug.' (Heuzen 5876) Skr. Aihnr [' fire.' Sieg- 
fried sterna lo have asaumed the existence of this Skr. form, 
which has not, 1 beUeve, been found, from Zend dtar *fire/ 
whenM J[^rfl;v7ji 'fire-priest,' Skr, Athartan, with which Kuho 
connecte aOpar^ivr), Bernbk. s, 37, 41.] 

Acentia {(Jrelli, 370) Skr* acantt, '■ she who protects/ Ir. 
Aine {fUiic Aine)^ W, Au:en raerch Tidain. [Gliickj K.N. 
132, compares O.W. cunt (j:;!. aequus), eo tliat the goddeaa 
Aventia vfould express the Roman Justitia.] 

Sa*jacvm [the name of a town of the Nervii, now Bavajf\ : 
cf. Skr. bhaga ' deus ? ' [Slav. bogu. Elsewhere Siegfried 
compares -bot^Uifs with bhaga. The tribe-name Bagienni aeema 
radli^lly connected with BffytJcunt.l 

Bedaim (Orelli, 1964J [De Wal, Moederg. p. 81], aeetna 
Mercury. Betie cruthnec, ' B. the Pict/ Book of Deir, 
2a. Cf. W. bedd, Br. b^z, [Corn. Ufh'\ 'a grave.' [He 
was] 'EpfiTJf; hia/cTopcK. [I think Siegfried must have meant 
^vxtty^^yyo'i, or ijrv^oTrofnro'i.'^ 

Briatucadrits [in Dto Marti Bplotiicadro, Orelli^ 5879] : 
helatu (root GVAU, in Skr. mm-gara *war' ' battle seema 
AD infinitive in -tu [W. and Corn, bth, ' to war,' — otP peh^ 
Cr. 1443— Prov. helar 'bella facere ' Diez, E.W. i. 234. 
AVJlh cddrtiiy Gliick, K.N. tf, compares 0,W. cadf (gl. decorns), 
Bret, kfirr. Siegfried queries if it be not in Qu/Kira-btirgum, 
Orelli 2090, Qaalburg, Ver. in Bhl. xiiii. 40.] 

Bi'knut^ the [Gaulish] Apollo, is a Weigh king BeH, 
^wptovevt, hharanyn. Kuhu, Herabk. des Feuors, 26, 235, 
238 [Znckend, unruhond die fiamme. Rv, i. 68, 1. Else- 
where Siegfried proposes grufana 'shining,' 'fire,' as the 
Sanskrit corjuate of Btknm. This seemii preferable, as bhut- 
ant/u would, I think, have given *Burannus, or *BuianiiUSt in 
Celtic. The form Bnfmna also occurs,] 

Bopiennm : Moncautt Voyago dana la comte de Comminges, 
p. 14. M^m. de la Soc. Arch, du Midi, iv. p. 137. Skr. 



ffopina, hhop>fA»tja, [Siegfried equateJ Bo, Ir. ici, Lat. fo*, 
iSoOs-, witli Skr. j/d, and referred the pirtwus to the root pi/ni 
' to ini?reaaej' whence the participle jj(;jrt.] 

Borm ['Apollmi BorvonV I>e Wal, No. 305]: Skr. 
ywrp 'to burn,' 'tn hurt.' 

Cambos. AniooE the five or six names of Mercury I would 
point out MERCVRIO CAMBO [De Wal, p. 52], which 
seems an equivalent of MERC. NtJNDlNATORI [rf. cmn~ 
biare, * rem pro re dare,' Gaulish Glossary cited by Endliclier, 
Cat. CodiL Phih Lai. Tiudohonae, 18;J6, p. 199. M. Lat. cam- 
biarfl, Apuldua camhirc. Die?., E. W". i. 103], KapnT-Tta, Ka^TnJ, 
and in Celtic t'«m^'0-dununi, Mori-cambe. W. Corn. Br, ctw, 
Ir, Cftnim ' crooked.^ There is also an inscription Mercurio 
Negotiatori, Verein im Rhfinlaii J, xvii, 193. Of. Caeaar, B. G. 
vi, 17: ['■' (deum Mercuriuoi) ad quaoslum pecuniae 
mercaturasqufl habere vim Diaximum arbitrantur."] 

Cniui'lfia (Marti Caimilo, Gruter, 5fi, 12), .Skr. ^nmi, kampf, 
camu ['army\ Elsewhere Siegfried puts Cfimufus, Camulo^ 
genuH, with bamar, and Ir. eahna ' brave.* 1 do not know 
frtwii with the meaniufj 'kanipf:"' ^ninnt/fi Ho kill,' ^diuft'ja 
* to concjuer/ would suit the probable meaning of Cannilua; 
ef. also fcdfi'VO), and the German tribe-naroo Chfimi^i. EUe- 
where Siegfried puts the Irish hero's name Finn mac Ciimail 
along with C(im"f'is-~\ 

Cassea. DIS CASSIBVS [De Wal, pp. 66, 57. 68]. 
Skr. nara-ffimm, Narcmm, A.S. hise 'man' [Ettmiiller, 
L.A. 459]. [Elsewhere Sie2;fried writes] ' Ceiisere, Skr. 
fflrtM, the German Ap/v, KASVA and DIS CASSIBVS, 
Yidu-MiSfts^ Bodio-cflASffl, etc, [aee Becker, BeitP. iv. 425, 
note 71], I think belongs to this. Vedie nara-^am9a (Agni) 
and Zend nairyofsr^Art (whence the cotiinion Paisee name 
NffrtosfiHffh) mean niannerlierrsphei' (Benfey). I^arcmti4 haa 
been identified with this. [la Irish] Cais is a common 

Calurh : Of Mars we hare about a dozen Celtic epithets. 
MARTI CATURIGI [De Wal, p. 58] is quite clear. It ia 
['To Mara] lord of battle." Ir. cathrlgh, W. cadri. 

Cerark (Gruter, 1010, 2) ; W. Crehit^ merch Llyr [leg. 



Skr. kttfo/a ['happy/ 'skilful,' for 
Grut. 1015, 9. Ffituy'Umr 

Cmianm (Z. 727) 
*hi*ala .'] 

Dei-vo : ' Fatts Dervoiiibns/ 
(Urronibus, ad W. darw ['oak/j 

Dcjcim [De Wal, Monicrg, p. 82, has DEXSITA] : ef. dak- 
s^ttifj, gottin der aItno8eii(?) odcr reicli6(J) [Elsewhere Sieg- 
fried puts tfefi/MJi' *herba,' Dioacor. Z. 58, with Dextiva, W. 

IkunatU: MARTI DVNATI. [Mars Segomo Dunatis, 
Orelli-HoBziMi, 7416 7.] O.Ir. HunaUl .ir sluagh no daingen 110 
pnpiil, ['exercitus vel Hrniiis vel populiiH^] Glosa. to [tlie calen- 
dar of] Oengua- {^Ditttaut ia the name of aa Old Welsh 
kiag, An, Camh. a.d. 596.] 

Dmii [Diefenbar;h, Origg. Eur. p. 328] : Sfcr. r. ffmh [' to 
sin,'] fliivm. ['rerohning' Uenfoy, Samaveda, UR, doubtfully, 
hiiiaustrebend, nnruhi^], donim^ ['vice'], * giite tind bbse 
Di*cn^ [Orelli, 2105, citing Munter* p. 41.] Slav, dacha, 
nora. pi. dim, ' apiritiia [Schleicher, 24fi], dtfchaii *^ flare,' dma 
(for tluchjd) aotma, ib. 249, [dimittia diabolus, Z, 1097.] 

Earn : As to the oricjin of JSshs, it is either ^ O.N- is, A.S. 
d* ' dfrua,"* from ANS : cf Ejiuiy At-cKui, Z- 725; Gluck, 
K.N. 95, 97; or=Skr. a«u Mife,' Zend anhu 'life,' Mord f 
kv a£sham a^ti ahhmr/t ratu-^ca 'quia eornm est dominua et 
rwlori' Vend. l;i6. >)y? — ei;? has ijo digamma in Homer. 
[If Lucau be right in tho quantity which he gives the penult 
in the line * Toutatpa, horrensque feri& altaribus Mfntm^' only 
the first of these etymologies can, I think, be correct. The 
iDodcrp Welsh Hn is from S'/, in Su-a/f ' dcus belli,"" and 
has nothing to do with Esus. Siegfried had an idea that 
Skr. oiura might be connr-rted with AN, and if bo, the Skr. 
word would be cognate with ds, ds,] 

Ffiyaaa^: O.Slav, boguni. 

Oesacm^ Omcm, ['Ocsaco Aug.' 'Deo Gtsaco,' Becker, 
JieitrtWfjf, in, 417] cf. GacMti, O. Ir. gmde [gl. pilatits) Z. fi4. 

Grartnm \_ApolHni Graniir), De >Val, Moederg., p, 50] : I am 
afraid I blundered when T put* grannoa mi\ipri= ghrnmsa tban 

•■ I Tiarc nol beflri able to fine! this.— W.S. 
» 8m my /mA Gh»**; Ho, fla2. W, 3. 



ihine '] ; ghramsa should have lost tlie 



ghrni [' heat/ * sunal 
not the 6. MANS 

O.Ir. -w] ; cf. lANS, O.Ir, -/«(«). Now Owen Pu;;he givea 
^res 'warm ;' and O'Reilly .i7J-i3 'fire/ [" embers"']; griosaim 
' I kindle/ grioaach ' emterg.* If tliese vocables are ^en«in( 
I would put G-HRANSA = Skr. ghratusa. It. gns, Wj 
gres., [and] GHRANI ^ Skr. gfirni-, whence Grantios Bi 
GHRANYA. This mi«ht be worth settling. [As to thi 
loss of n before s,] there ia the Skr. amm ' shoulder,' cf. 
W. eaii^ [Corn, e^el gl. niembrum]^ Ir. amL [The 0,lr, 
maii^fi name^ Assaf, perbapa 13 z= Skr. ammfa '' strong]. The 
great rqct, ^auis 'csmap;-*? * = W. m^ '■blaraeable/ Ir. casaim. 
The dt>i9iderative of MAN ["to think,' is] in Ir. mess ['judi- 
cium' mcmhn 'I think' (Mart, Don, 6)]; W, ysig, 'to 
bi-uise,' is X^^i. pimere [with the usual loss of ^ in aulaut], 
Skr. pish, pi'nojthmi : Skr, dhvanta ['to fall to piecf^,' *t^H 
jjerish '], Ir. hm [* death '], W. bm ' shallow.' [Ir. g4i» 
'swan/ seema Skr. (yjArtHf^a 'goose/ ■)(r}v. Elsew^here Sieg-. 
fried connects with Grannos the W, Granmtyn., whose path 
said to be in the isky.] 

lacehus: Gerhard's Archaeol. Zeitung, Acz. 1849, p. 9( 
W. iach [' sanus'] Ir. ice [*salua*]. 

lodnte : a kind of Mars. Skr. >/ttdh [pugnare]. 

Ladko : Grut. 1065. 15 (Jupiter Ladicus) ; W, Uairdd 
•voliiptaa/ OJr, lund 'gaudium ' Z. 31, ^ 

ifl^oi/os (Grut. 87.7 ; 87,8): Zend rfl^M 'master,' ['herr/ 
*besitzer/ Juati]. 

I^ra (Rev. arch. vi. 237): W> Ikia/d 'moon/ //oer, H 
[Siegfried also conjectures O.Ir. lee 'aea.'] 

Xfjro (Rev, arch. vlii. 724); [' Lixoni Deo' De Wal, p. 
237:] '■ Lixomo deo/ Soc. du niidi, i. £55. \Y . Llechau a\i 
Arthur. ^| 

Lujfovios (OrelU, 2024) : 0,Tr. /mi'*, nomen do suil [* a 
uamo for an eye.']. Etj^rton, 1782, p. 26. \Jtm is glossed . 
by Idm 'hand* in O'Davorena and O'Clery'a Glossaries,] ^H 

Mapomm (Henzen, 5900) : W. Mabon^ which occurs in a 
triad, My v. Arch. ii. p. 7S; ib. ii- p. 14, tri. 53. Etnercbre 
guraig Fahon ap Dewen hen. 




Mnqumnm: Hercules, 'sohnegebend'i Skr. root tan 
gire/ and maqoa [Ir. mapy W. map, wai.'] 

p. 86], Gi-annos ia troro [the same root ae Ir.] grian ' the 
ran,' but mogoniios becomes hnportaut when compared with 
Skr. maghavan [a name for Iiidra]. Ma-)(atav, Kuhn iv- 9. 
[MagontHH^ W. Maun^ J^^eoniua qd, San Marte, p. GJi], 

Mori-lftKgm (Orolli 2028): Is this the Celtic Neptune! 
[mon ' 8oa/] 

Ki-nutona [' Marti et Nemetonae,' De Wal, p. 237 : Ir. 
Nemhon [wifo of the Gaelic baitle-god], W. Nffetl. 

Ogmios : Rei*. archcol, vi. 383, sehr gut* Skr. ogas ? 
[' light/ * eplendour.'] 

Oihudios : MARTI OLLOVDIO (SpoiL 263.) [De 
Wal, p. Ido] Skr. arm *flood/ 'battle,' aniava^ 'ocean.' 

Poemnut [Jupiter]: See Forb. iii. 115. 'Sonneugott.' 
flcuavy Skr. Pathan : PAVISAN. [The Greek epic form is 

Rosmerta [whose uatne occurs along with Mercury's on four 
BtoneB, De Wal, pp. 171-173] is^Nundina, SeeZeuaa, 829 n. 

S'irnnicos: I.O.M. Saraiii«u(Gruter22, 13), a name Seranius 
CatuHus^ Col. Agr. ap. Orelli, 1401. Dyaua jf'TOMs ? [Else- 
where Siegfried writes] "der altrom. Saraiius (Apollo) zu 
Saranieus oder Sirona, Skr, star. There is a Seranieo magus." 
[Thero is a 8abino god Sornnn^, with whose name Kuhn^ 
Jlerahk. 35, couneot& Xu\t}v6<i^ and an Aquitanian tribe-uatue 

Sarmmidos: DEO SARMANDO, Orelli, 2043. Skr. 
Saramcijas ['Ep/ii^.] 

Saxiinmi: HEttOVLl SAXANO (Orelli, 3008, 2009) I 
Gomparo with a Vedic adjective suh^ftm RV. v. 41, 3) 
which, acRordiog to Siiyana'a glosa, means *who withstands 
the foes.' The root is SAtI, whence SAKS, [Rather, 
perhaps, cf. Lat. saxtttn, and consider the inscription HercuU 
Ltipitinris^ OrelU 2012. Anotlicr epithet for Hercnlee, Ilnttnoi^ 

' The rending in OrelH 20Ofi and Honcon fi724 ia MAtSVSANO with a /, 
Cr. Ir. tfitig • wrvus.* nn u-stem, Golh. wnjrw- ' Slave-g^ivcr' miglit be the ne&a- 
in^. The fgrm • Macumno' ako ocoun iQ Da WaI, but nut SltqiaoHo. — W^ 9. 




Bev. arch. t. 165, is, perhaps, to be connected with Skr. i 
' gewaltig' ; or is it cognate with arrant .=*] 

8irma : The inscriptions GKANNO ET SIRONAE. 
which are so jiumeroua [See De Wal, pp. 91, 93, 'ApoHioi 
et Siroaae,' (ft. pp. 183, 1B4], have now got a considerable^! 
light by a Celtic DEO SOLI ET LVNAE. I have, then, D«fl 
lonj^er a doubt that Sirotar = SeKi^mi. [Elsewhere, however, ^ 
Siegfried writes :] *Bather with Gliick, Miint^h. Gel. Anzeigen/ 
[14 Aug-, 1854, 'die gcittin dor gesundheit dizrcli lebensver- 
VatignTmig^'' ci. ^ Anna PerenTia'l "^goddeaa of loug life.' Ir, 
stir, W. kir, 'loug.' 

TalUfjte^ : " Marte et Oenio Tallifttium/' (Grut. 55, 8), 
Ir. talfa A. ffaid, ut est talla inaca maoatiiiaiD, Currj, [Tran- 
script of Brchon Laws, 1494]. 

TARAJVUCOS (Orelli, 2056) : lOVI O.M. TABANVC< 
^probably irapliGB *the thunderer,' Wejsh taran bein| 
'thunder.' [Cf. also Tamnis Lucan, i. 446, and Ir. tamachii 
Elsewhere Siegfried has] ^ Tsi-ffrnteno' [Orelli, 9055, 20371' 
-t»cno = ^^' vaeatia ['Bpeakin^,' ao that Taranucno* might 
be rendered by ^povro^doyyoi;, -i^wrof. Of. Jupiter (onetn* 
aod Bonar,'] 

TAKVOS TRIGARANUS [raOpo? rpt^epoiw, Notre 
Dame] : In the bull with three cranes, I eiispect a remi- 
niscence of tho saniio idea which we have in the Vedic Vishnu, 
of the three strides — namely, the rising, the noon-day hejgh( 
and the setting of the sun. The metaphorical use of 'bull' 
for ''sun' is not surprising. The three strides next, perhaps, 
bec-ame three legs ; and the bull on the Parisian monument 
really seeniB Ibree-legged. A further trausformation by the 
Celts of the lega into cranes, were easily explained, for in ^ 
Welch garan means ' crane' as well as * leg* (cf fft-HS and erun), ^| 
[To this note, I can only add referpnees to Rv. i- 22, 17, Hang 
AHarcya Bmhm, M. 4, Muir, On fhe. Inlerpreffition of the 
Veda, 20 ; and a hint that a trace of this old ludo-European 
idea may possibly be found in the three legs on the Manx 
half-pence and on a Greek dodekadrachm drawn in the Numia-, 
matic Chronich, N.S. i. plate 6.] 

Toli& : Hercules Tolis, Rev. arch. viii. 352. ToUato-hoii, 


om-rai8H M¥thol(xjy. 

ianos (Gruter x.i- 3) : Skr. irai ' to preaerve.' 

tr^mon: ffeUiougmoum leg. IIELIO-VGMO^I DEO, 
R«r. arcbeol. I860, p. 393,; 6g ' vigere,' [root uff(VXG?) 
whence Ugra, Qaul. Ogn-genua ?] ; Ir. O^a toac Ealatliaiu 
[called grian-^igos ' sun-sage' in Keating,] 

Veseiianos: Herculi Saxano Vexeliano; Orell, 2010; cf. W. 
ttcAti/. [I would rather compare the W. gfii/ch ' brave,'] 

FM«niM(OrelL;2067}: VISVCIO MERCVUIO LHenzen, 
5923); Skr. Vasu, 'Eottui, Vesta, Benfey, Sdmare</a ; vaau- 
dna. [Ir, /iu ' dignua^' is exactly wliat fisu ivould become in 
IrifiU, if tlie s is an original sibilant. Gluck would conaect 
d9uciu« with Ir. _^* ex VID-^rt.] 

ViacvH (Gruter^ 65^ 5) ; Ir. IHach [leg, JFiacha^ gen. -wrA, or 
.HiMtf, gen. JV/rc! >(CA, gl. corrus Z. 1030]. 

Vognffus (Grat. 94> 10). [De Wal, p. 213. The pretix 
ve- =] Skr. am, the root U Skr. sah ? 

II, — Notes on 0/d Irish Mijlliohgy. 

Since Grimnt baa written bis great inj-thology of the Crer- 
manic race, and gince tho Yoila and Zend-avesta bave been 
explained, we know tliat the common development of mytho- 
logy is a fusion into history. Out of the gods, heroes and 
kings are made; out of myths, actual occurreBceB on earth. 
Now there are no nations in Europe which have vaster storea 
nf sach prehistoric history than tho Irish and Welsh. There 
IB the Celtic mjtliology to be looked for. Let us tbeu e,ee if 
some of onr Old Ooltic gods can be found among those me- 
din^val traditions. [See M. Arnold, On the Study of Celtic 
Li/erafun', p. 61.] 

Aimhergin : [A. gfunghel * white knee,' eon of Miled] ; Skr. 

Ana: * mater deonim hihemensium/ Corraar's Glossary, 
'abundantia" has the same root aa Skr. nnm ['a cart/ ^a 
mother,*] Lat. onus. [I would connect anfl with the 0. Ir. dne 
' diviliarum, Z. 1053 ; dnib * divitiis,' Z. 1041. As to the con- 
nection between the conceptions of 'god' and 'wealth,' cf. 

In Skf. MKra, b«tter Amtra, ii & msD^ tree. 





SchleiehWj Bettr. iv. 359, where Slav, bogfi * god,"' and 
'rich,"' LjLt. dtntSf deits and divt's are compared.] 

Bainnc: [iyflmf, daughter of the king of Alba, Four MasterK^ 
A.D. 10,] W. BuH [one of the thtee Uiicliaate wives.] 

Buanann : ['nurse of tlie lieroes'] — Bonon'ta. So [the 
name ojT the goddess] Brigantm is [preserved in the came of 
the town] Brefjetu. ] 

Cmfhar : hushand of Eire [and son of Grian *aun'] ; Skr. 
katara [?I know of no other meaning for kattwoy tut 'which 
of two I ' see Eihar, infra.] 

Conmuel : Cnuonmglus. 

Cfeith»e : W, Cridioviis. San Marte 255. 

Bagda .- The Dagda [Soe Three Irish GiotsarieSi 
xxxiv.] I think has no ylaitn to Indo-European antiquity. 
The namo appears to be simply the Latin doctuH^ with the 
eame congonantal change aa in miffdar for anctor. [In Old Irish^^ 
we havD amjiorfas^ ' auetoritas,' Z. 460^ 897, in iFid. Ir. augtar. 
Gild. 3. Siegfried's explanation of dagdn is confirmed aa to^^ 
the meaning by the following passage from the Book of Lein-^| 
ster, 149, b. 1 : Bngii bnn-Jlli ingcn Rhaid Mofessa .i. atnm don 
Bagdn. liHajl-rqfHm mac nn n-uk n-dana J. mac (tcamU t'n, 
ddn uik, "'Brigit a poptcse, daughter of Ruad-rofessa, i'.s» 
name for the D.igda. Kuad-rofessa, son of all tha sciences 
i.e.., a son with whom was all science," But the word is pro- 
hahly genuine Celtic^ cognate of course with Si-Saj^;, etc.] 

Ethar : Eathar mac Cuill, husband of Banba ; Skr. tiara, 
[T do not understand this comparison, for HafQ means ' other/ 
Perhaps Siegfried referred to the expression iinru-tjnna^ *oth< 
people,' euphemistic for demonic bikings, B.R. i. 785.] 

Goilmhi, Qoihiimn [faber of tho Tuatfm d^^ Zeuss, 926,| 
Thret^ IrUh Ghi^mrim, Pref. xxxiv]. The Welsh have likewiae 
a mythic smith, called Gofannon, the son of" Don. In the Welsh 
mythology Don is tho father and leader of a whole tribe 
personages, who bear some relation to the tribes of the D^ 
Danann of the Irish. This and other coincidences cause xn\ 
to see in both remnants of the antique Celtic pantheon, which 
may have undergone a similar metamorphosis aa the Aryan 
pantheon, eo admirably identified in its different Vedic, 



Mid New Persian stages, bj Bumouf nnd Rudolpli Roth. 
[Elsewhere Siegfried puts Goibvenn with Old Norse Gf/fon, 
Old Sax. Gcban, A.S. Grqfm, Griuini, D.M.219,287, 288.] 
Imli'ch : Art Imleach [king of Ireland, a.m, 4187], 

Lu/e A. baiiclae ['goddess '] : Laufey, mother of Loki [Lufe 
]«, so far aa I know, only found in a Middle Iriah gloesary, 
and was probably borrowed from the Old Norse]. 

Manannan mac Lir [see Three Irish G/ossaries, prcf. xxxiv. 
where Cormac's account of thia personage ia translated] : W. 
ManawyJan ab Llyr. 

JTiVi 8egfi<imhnm : Nitius Segomoni. [The Four Masters, 
A.M. 4881, 4887, write Nia^ gon, Niadh^ Sedhamain ; but here 
as often, the dh may be erroneously written for gh. An 
inscription * Marti Se^omoiii' is in De Wal, p. 179,] 

Oficor: Skr. pushkara [' water, ^ 'the sun;' also, a proper 

m.-^Hoifs Qtt Welsh Mythohgy* 

I}»ytan ^= Skr. divti^manu^ Atv -KaXltav. \^Din/ran was one 
of tlie two people wlio escaped from the flood caused by the 
outbreaking of the Lake of Streams, and from whom the isle 
of Dritain waa repeopled. See Pughe's Dictionary b.v. Lh'on. 
Aa to Manu, son of Vivasvat, and his deluge, seePictd, Ongg, 
Jndoeur, IL 612. Siegfried did not, I think, believe in the 
ordinary identification of 6e6<i with rfepff, of which the AeoUo 
Jetk seems the nearest Greek representation.] 

Malen^ alao called Aridraa [vide supra, ^ApBpaarij'} y falt^ 
rti/jtn y rfrtfj7= mal'tffna'i [In Cornish Malan^ D 2235, 2341, 

Memo hen. Skr. Mamt [In Old Irish the gen. sg. of a name 
corresponding with jyf^;jy/,MiV6J9, appears in the inscription on 
a. Btone in Inchaguile, Lough Corrib, LIE LUGUAEDON 
MACCI MENUEH 'The stone of Lug-aed [e^Xa^v?, aWuv] 
BOn of Men', which has been wrongly read by Dr. Petrie 
{Hound Towers, p. 1G4), and Dr. O'Donovan {Irish Grammar, 
lii,), I compare this uon-gunated genitive with Greek forms 
like vUvQ^t'^ewo'i, and Old Latin, like mfiffhtrafu-os, senafu-osy 



domtt-oii]. Memo ab Teirgwaedd [son of Thrce-sliouts]^ onfti 
of the three primar}' instructors.' {Tri-garmim.) 

Modron, daughter of Aralhch, [Mabiuoglon, II. 345.], 
{Mab-onat AheUio ?). 

Taromcy : Tarancius. 

Ttydontc^ : Ir. trethfin. Myr. i. 111. 

IV. — Oid~Cehic Wordi and Namti. 

Alaifitts: Gliick, K. N. 164; W. alaw 'music' [Perhaps 
Skr. dram *flotmd/ root RU. Ib the ^jective launos-, Gluck^ 
K. N. 45 - Skr, ravfrna ?]. 

ande (Skr. adki) is from ANDHI; Lat. t^i'-genus, ind- 
igeo, ind-ole$, 

Bfhonna ; fontes [Zeuas G.O. p 737]. W. hfer [bibet] or 
Bfttnnen ? 

bita [' mundiis'] from GVITtT. Yedic giti [BR. 'gewinn.'] 

Bodincm \_^\. fundo carens, Dicfonbacb, Origg. Enr. 393] : 
Skr. gdk [from GTADH] a-ffAdfin 'profundus,' W. boddl 
[See Heitn iv. 586, note] . 

Borhoni^ Borbctomaguf : Skr. bharva, ^p^rj, herba. 

Bormio [near the source of tho Adua] : Skr. hlirmi 'whirl- 

hr&tude ; ^parovhe [Inscription of Nimea] render ratlifr 
by *ex iaiperio/ for I find an insciiption Mn front $ JInmatehis 
C. Jntim Primus ex imperlo ipaarum [De Wal Moedffg, 
p. 117]. Else I find only one to the god Iiitarabus, 'ex 
imperio,"' and to Luxovius, 'jussu ' (not 'ei jussu'X Other 
formula] are ^exviiju'' aud ^edecreto:' tho most common o 
alt 'ex Toto.'* 


' Men^'i name occnn in the rollowing legend: — "EiuigTiii Ga-wr i»w threa' 
nyt of light on vbich were inecrilied qU Itiibwliidg'e and ai^i^idi^e. And ha took ' 
ttroc roda of mountain nab. nnd inscribfd all the lictcnccj upon tliem, uh it should 
ec^tiL ifi imiution of tbe throe rays af lig'ht. And thusc viha huw th^m deilied 
the rods, irliii:)] lo grieved Eiuigaa t^^t be broki; the rods and diett. And uftar 
the spato uf ^ year [lud sday MeoiF »!> Toir^iMtJd growing out of the mouth of; 
Eini^R, LLCid upon tbetn wiu ererykiod of t^cn^nuc nnd knawledKe writtro. Theft] 
K]?uw took tbi! tbreG rod^ anJ learned a\\ tb«; tK^i^ncps, nud tatt^bt them all vsceilt , 
the uame of God, which bu originated the Bardic secret, sud bLcuod is he whs > 
poRGefloea it."^~Ma(iinagtot» IL p. 33S. 

* There is a« ioKription XufoiiiA AJUtshu* . , . . «r imperio fptdrum cited 
by Tiutrt, Rfr. Arch. JuiIL«t 1367, p. 6. where h« aLsn points Aut that the -di 
[ bnd cumpared witli Greek -St. •&*», ta ^so fouTid vith 

of /truiu-dit, wbicb 
Z«Qd abLstiv^ '.y. 

q»Jhs-dha 'soianio.' 



Citmnhdimum [Gliick, K.N. 50] = HfimiUon, 

rarnidu (Todi inscription) ; Suppose it to bo a compound 
Terbj ' tuumlifacere/ In Greek (tfiXeyeda}, tliia formation, 
or i;oai posit ton, ia frequent, and most fully ia it developed in 
Zend. It is, in fact^ the same dAd agglutinated : 'karniddmiy 
' I make a tumutus^^ *karnidi\m ' I made u tumulue,' kamidti{t) 
'he made a tLmnlus.^ I won't call in Welsh earniddu 'to 
DiEkke a heap of stonesj' which ig from ca-rtiedd, and probably 
is not old ; but the thin^ is certainly possible. 

earrus : Skr. ir»A [• to draw '], h&nc, hearse. 

Cassia uatione (clvia \) Segusiava? 

catu ['battled see Gluok K.N. 47]: KAMTV, mtivi^ 
[eC haia ^t(S; from han, tf>€v, and perhaps Latin indi'ffet from 

Cim-ma^ni : Gliick, K,K. 61, Skr. ^ayana ['sleeping,^ 'a 
coach ']. 

<Antu [' first '] in Cintu-gnattis^ Z. 827, 306 [wptaroyoiKK]^ 
It. 64{, cf. hQ-Aind, hind-m-oat. The Welsh ienta/^ kjfntaf, 
niuat be a very modem formation^ else it would be hinnhaf. 
The form kantaf occnra iu Z. 420, 651. The oldest Welsh 
[must have been] cent, later ctfnt, ctfn : in Owen Pughe'a c^tt- 
ddail 'first leaves,' ctfn-fah 'first son,' c^n-/am, ct/uneltc 
•first pattern' (d^l^). In Zeues, 226, 401, 574, hjnnew 
[*■ mox '. Elsevrhere Siegfried puts the Gothic kindhit 
^ governor,^ with kyntaf. If ao, the Gothic word must be & 
loan from the Celtic, like Mlikn]. 

Civig-mdroi (Liv. xxiv. 42): Skr. ^avaa 'atrengtli?' [or 
Gothic A/ti, A.S. Ah ' forma ?*] 

Coffidumntia [Tacit. Agr. 14] : W. coed [a wood] is a plural, 
and on couaidering I would identity it with \coffi in] Cogi-dum- 
nafi. In W. Ct«(-wallawn tho plural seems already petriJied, 
Cog^ditviiiug is then [in meaning;] eomethintr like Vidu-caues. 
[Eleiewhere Siegfried connects Cogi with the O.Ir. ar-chogacht 
' Tenatio.' But perhaps coed, O.W. coit, ia = Lat. eottus 

Coisis [Todi inscription] : from an Indo-European KAISA 
' hair,' Skr, kf^a (where the wrong f palatal ia only by influence 



oftho guttural k), Lat. cof^ftr {C(t«(tries). The derivation i 
is dark to mo. [Elsewhere Siegfried puts 0. Tr. emib, gl. tortis 
crioibus^ Z. 1046, with kegd and /uiir. Here &s in ku^ala, 
eupr^ 8.V. Cushnug, he obviously assumed that the f for a 
was due to tho initial «uttural.] 

Comboiomaros : Gliiclt, QG, Skr. ^adgayam/ikra ? 

Drahonos [flnv. Auson. Mos. 3flo] : Skr. drarrrna. [*zun] 
laufen Iringend/ BE. Ausoniua makea the penult long. I 
suppose thiit Sipfrfried assumod a metathesis in a pristine 
Oauliah Dro{^)<tnos^ The name of the rapid river Dravws 
(Dran) is the Skr. drara ' laufend^^the Druenfia, now Durance, 
is tho Skr. drmanli f, 'river.* 

duffioniio: DVGIIONTIIO [inscription of Sainte Rcine 
d'Alise] can bn no masenliiio stem m -im, because that suffix 
does not derive sficondary formations either in Greek, Latin, 
Sanskrit^ or Celtic, unless it be a comparative. [Ebel, Beitr. v, 
80, conjectures that it may be a derivative cither from a par- 
ticiple dtigiant, or an adjective dugimtta, and that it is a fern. 
ia-atem, identical with Ohg. tugundi, I had previously re- 
ferred tho word to a root DUG, Gotli. dttgan, Nhg. taugi'H^ 
and rendered it (I think rightly) by munimetUum^ Beitr. 
iii, 75,] 

Mffiiromagm : Gliick, K.N. 115, 116 ; Skr. ndhvara [' a sacri- 
fice,'] 'E(fivpa, [the oM name of Oorinth. Gliick's compartBon 
of tlie Modern Irish eahftr ' mud'' is wrongs for the J is hard, 
and thug points lo an Old Celtic * ejtparo =^ AFY AKA ^t 
AKVARA as Tinro^ ^ AKYA. Elsewhere Siei^fried put ^^ 
with Efiitro the W. efr *a tare,' eficr ' cow-partinip'' (if the i 
latter word is ^ Eburo, the W. Din-effcr is exactly = Ehuro' 
diuium^ Tab. Pent.) Br. ^^6r 'hellebore.'']. 

eascdum [Dief. OHg'j. 338]: ASYADA, Skr. stjandima 
[' war-ehariot,* tt/fida 'speed.'] 

etic: [Inscription of Aliae, translated by mo as a conjunc- 
tion ^ Lat. af-qi/^] : Skr. attca. 

Gdmmmt Auson. [Moaell. v. 483] root GAR [Skr. gri\-\- 
[mffufl], -^M?[Orct'] gronimtc Moca pahistria," Z. 735 n. 
[Siegfried also refers to a Garumnius (1) Rev. arch, v. 164.] 

-pffnwff, in Nitio-grnmi [GItick 127], Skr. gatri [gant-z, wife, 




■otlier, birth]; O.Prns. -gnnna. [Elaewhere Sie^ried puts 
•fffnna wiili Skr. ffeny^ ' edel,' HH. Hi. 131, ryewcuo^.] 

-ff/idiot: With the Gaulish namea m -gndtuH^ Gliiclt, K.N. 
170, 172, cf, the O.Ir. name Fml-gnad^ gen. sg. Fail-gnaiik, 
Lib. Arm. 16, h. 2. 

gobcdbi. If you say that the hi may be = the Lat. -riV, you 
should alsQ mention the future. I think it is impotisible to 
eee the proposition ron in (rOBEDBI [Inscription of -Sainte 
R«iQe d'Aliae, Beitr. ii., 106, lit., ItiH] ; tha n would not 
bare been lost. [It seems that there 19 no doubt wliatever 
that the stoue has G, not aa I conjectured, Beitr. ii., 100, C. 
I would therefore now propose to regard the (fO- as = the 
(^otliic ga (76, ^haX). A close parallel to the etic gobedhi of 
the inscription is Tntinu^s inti gchar "^ ei ppperit.' As to 
Ebel'a comparisons. Beitr. v. 79, O.Ir. bedn is merely mis- 
written for betka 'of life,' and has nuthiiijj to do with the 
root of gobedhL For the termination -bi, cf perhaps aj-t(i,rb\f-, 
Beitr. iii., 165, where the final di-ntal sefnia still retained, and 
the 'he in Old Irish tuit- * • fuit,' — Itdre ndr-htihv " i\\x\d. uon 
fuit.' Z. 602.] 

-tenon : The patronytnieB in -j'fjjps' I would now thus ex- 
plain. I believe with Pictet [pmos] to be GANA, -gt'/ins; but 
I think there is a purely orthographic reason at the bottom of 
this irregular e for 17, viz., the pronunciation of the g before n 
was the aame as in Latin ; at least in G^^nnan pronunciation 
mA^us sounds (MffHy7!w«, privignus Rounda prm»(iFnuj;. [So Jn 
a Middle-Ii-ish MS., E^rcrton 88, Alua. Brit. fo. 70 b. 1, we 
find rt'cefifffiido, irignis.] Now I believe that the Gaulish 
pronunciation was the some, and, not knowing how better to 
oxpresa it, they wrote icno6 [for kffnott] (pj-ononnee -ingnon). 
The strong point about this view h that go you identify tliese 
patronymics with the g;r.and Teutonic patronymic in -inff, Tur- 
ing, Meron'ngt, etc. Tacitus writes still Iteudigni. Grtinm. iii. 
^9, regards tbem all as originally patronymics. 

I I <>xplftined this, Beitr. II., ^86, ta nrpduplioited furm, hut I wu trtong. for 
(lie rcHuplicatine avMable would hnve been i«- or ba-. 13y ihe way, does iiit llie 
rtduplicatitig: lyllaSlB (be-) of the &kr, root IftiA aliew thai tlie Indo-European 
foriD of ihis «a« BIIaT ? - W.S. 

* Ariikno*, DanatsSiC»os, Jh-utirnoM, OobttnnUtet, Oppiamfnm, TouHukmM, 
Okvmut, cited ham Lib. Armach, Boitr, It. Ill, U t aoMikks foi Oicdnm. 



ieurri ; [The verb] lEVBV [which occurs m most of 
tbe Gaulish inscriptioDs] must be the same tense a& JE^E 
[inscription of Nimes]. .1 tbink nothing is left hut to make 
them both imperfects. JEJE = ADADHAT 'he put,' 
lEVRV = YAVARATAT * ho conawrated; As JEJE 
lias no augment, lEYlCY must be exphiincd without one. 
This brings us to a verb yaur ' to do,' or *to give,' or 
consecrate,' or, possibly, yttcr as a causal or derivative, Now 
if Upot, Dor. lapo';, could be proved [to come] from *fjtiTara 
s: tafpoiii all would be clear^ for then lEYRY would be :sfll 
Upov (from Upoat) ' consecrabat.' This would be a strong 
coincidence with Greek ; but not stronger than tarvoi tri^arania, 
[ravpo^ *Tpvy€pavoi;'\. But, first, there is Kuhn's iep6t 
[vedic] t'shird * vigorous/ which is exquisite; and secondly," 
I find no other case of Gr. ( from y initial than iaofiat, Celt, 
race-, ^laav ^ YAVAN^ twra =^ Phoen. Hebr. y. The suffix 
-epo occurs in Trrepoi', PATARX, ^Oov^po^, daXep6<; (e\£v0^p6s). 
So YAVARA would be from the root yw *conjuugere,' to 
whicli Bopp puts Jarare, Jit^, jusfm, [Ir.] uiasc, ' lepm might 
be heat wrmittdt by an *i'v(ird^ and would thereby difl'er 
little from lEV'RV. 

Of the utmost Importance would it be to find the e( 
responding words for lepoii in German, Norae, Latin, Lithuanian 
and Slavonic^ for after all the equation uh'ird =; tepo^i though 
splendid, 13 but an hypothesis. 

This Celtic vorh [ieuru] coald only be derived front a nou^^f 
miro- or iouro-, the meaning of which should be something like 
UpQ'i, The [Gaaliah] nsxaB And-iouniB would thereby become 
doubly analogous to Ande-camuhtt^ and Pictet'e idea of its 
being like avTl6iQ<i would gain Btrongtli,^ This brink's nie to 
the other hypothcaJH, which differs toto caslo, viz,, if we arrive 
at a noun isuro '■ holy ' it would not be impossible to explain 
lEVRT as its dative, and to translate it by 'numini/ as in 
Ureek you can say ^ABrfirrj ffea^ why not in Gaulish ieurii 
Bi^leeami [Inscription of Vaison], * nuraini Belea&ma;?^ The 
pretty point about this is that SO^IN [in the same inscrl] 

* floM u>w(£>f. ^»yA. Mii. 1867, p. 316) tnnslatu Andwurtu bj *Ad 



lion] could then Be very easily explained a,G the verb = Skr, 
lOMlna, '^dedit,^ from son, and then of course ^E^E would 
jikflvri«e berths reduplieated perfect (and indeed better, for as 
imperfect it should be ^EJET). [The two inscriptions re- 
fe-rfed to in this cJttract from a lettt^r tu me are as follows : — 
Nimes : Tapra B\_Lh'\iWavovuncofi hfhe ptarpe^o vafj-dvauea^o 
^parovSe^ and Vaison : Seyofiapof oviKXoveo^ Toomiov^ vafiav- 
traTK ettapov BriXTja-afii a-o(riv vefxryiov^ leg, veftfrov. To my 
mind, the inecription of Volnaj— ICCAVOS OPPIANlC- 
ieurn must bs a verb, for how else would the accusative 
cantaloHy vihicU la offered to Briffindo, be f^overnedp More- 
oTer, if iearu were 'numini,' would it ever occur by itself, as 

■ it doea in the inaei-iptiou of Nevera : ANDECAMVLOS 

■ TOArrissioNos ievrvp]' 

H IVBMON : [The inscription of Beaumont, near Vaison] 

W Gaulish. I formerly suspected \x\ IVBRON the plural in n of 
B tUapov^ lEVRV* [Rather regard iuhron as the accusative sjt, of 
H Eome word like the Latin /H&or (Jubcritm lucifernm, Docange},* 

governed by F(™tV), wbii.'h may have been read (VrirH, just as 
& ' et" is read *and.'' For the syntax compare the inscription 
of Vieux-Poitiera : RATIIf BRIVATIOM— read BRI- 
cnsative ; dative (Brirafioni) ; nominative (Frontit Tfifhet- 
9omo9) and verb, I should gness that iuhron meant a lamp, 
and that the inscription records tbe dedication of a lamp to 
Sumelis voretoa, jufll as the inscription of Mont-Africfuo records 
th« dedication of a bronze patera to Aiisanos, and tbe inscrip 
tion of Voluay commemorates the maklnj^ of a. canthams 

t(Pictet) for Brigindo.] 
\ovyo<i ' raven^* [Xot^yow .... tov /copOfca, Plutarch], Ir. log- 
Hantuatea : Skr. ft^mtu. [I do not know this Skr. form ; 

' All tbis was written b«rnro Siegfried Lad Aiacowrei thv QGO-nltto correli' 
tivs of HkrH Ln th« Old Irisli fritamm-iVnif, etc. 

• M. Pictel {Btfue Arehvohgiquif, Juiti, ISSV, p, 41)0) propoa^ft ihe Dlud^ni 
twMrwA *« wooden thiwI/ iniul» {{ mppoM) of yew (i'«M«r]. 





but B\f^nrA obviously woold connect Ifaniuattt with tl 
Skr. root nam ' to bow/ ' to subdue/ and with Goth, and A.S. 
ninuin- ^^'. nant 'a ralley,' may possibly b« coDnected with 
the «aine root,} '^Nantox ralle. Trinantoi tres va>lles/| 
{iCcnT» in the Gaulifih Glossary above cited from Eodlicher^j 
where in~nanto serins a uom. pi. neuter, like sraih poma, ifi- 

ncmo: Skr. navya [''new,' ^frefih," ^yonn^']. 

Samamhrira [i.e. * Samarae pons,' Gliick, K.N. 73] : rji/ffpov, 
tumar. [trtcfl— cf, ' irw; ponte," tiaulisli Glossary just cited 
— ia coniiticted by Pirtet with the Welsh bn'w 'breakioj; 
cf. Nhg. hruckf, brulife.'\ 

Sfgo-ifUnon [Ptol. II. 6] corresponds with Nico-polit^ 

[The fitBt pjirt of theword may be ^ Vedic »akae^ * victory,' 
* BtrKngth," which Bonfcy compares with Goth, sigvt^ A.S- »ig«, 
f if/or 'victory.'] 

Softfomngm [betwoon Touloiise and Carcassone] • Skr. 
iuathn ['hc-altliy,' 'happy*]. 

Tamunm [now the Tamm-] : Skr. famnm, n. * water' ['ell 
mm ftinmi-ma geschloBaoiiea wort,* say B.R. Tanm aniiiis(noMr| 
T(\f') ocpurs in the Lfrcs of the C/tinbm- British Saints, p. 61]. 

t'oiiml near Cologne, 1854, Verein im lllieinland^ xx^ 138. 
Cf. the Fomorian Ttthrny gen, Tetkraeh [aee Tkrte Irifh 
GlofitiHtUt xxxi], 

Taxi-mngutHn : G]iu<^k, 4fl; Zend ^/j^rftsAn ' heaven/ [' der 
unendhche Kaum des HtmineU/ says Justi, who proposes to 
bring tho woinl friMii thwukt^h, Skr, tKik*h. SipSffried obvioasly 
rhoi]^ht that thi> Ganlisli nanio meant 'servant of heaven,' 
cotVtt-cta^ in the sense of ' worsliipper of the heavens.' cf. also I 
Tasi-nonK'tum for •Trtxi-dc-mr/oH.] 

7''Yi'o-Hfrifos • W. laith •journey,'' Is.ttcUt^ [or] Skr. toAr.^j 
tokiiti,, >chiusscn/ ^sltsrten.' ^H 

Vcfti^ : Skr. Mt-fl/_v'' ['r^isf^^orthy.' the name ofan anffiras, ' 
Rullwr of Rv. is. 30-68; B.R. i. 870. I think Siegfried tnusl 
h*v# meant UcuHU^ the dat. and the ace. sg. of which occiU' in 
thi> Gaulish inscription of Sainte Heine d'Alise]. 

IVj/rtW/flMtttM [» chief of the Arvemi] .- O.In ferggai^ 
\jMrgga* (gV Th»lis, i>. mare) Z. l^Jairggtt, Z. 1125J. 




Veru-manduo [Gliick, K.N. 185, 186] : Skr. uru [evpv^ 
for *varUf whence the compar. varii/dms, Jr. /err, W. gwell], 

[* the tombstone of V. son of S.'] . Archseologia Cambr. 1858, 
p. 406. This inscription comes from Winifred^s nunnery, 
Llanrwst, Tenby, Can Winifred be a translation of Yinne- 
tnagli : ^yxd&\ Vindo-maglij ds [^Sene-magli ior] Seno-magli? 

Volffus in Catu-volcits : Skr. Vf:ha. [If so, Catu-volctM 
would be = an Old Teutonic *Mathitmi/s, Gliick compares 
Skr. valg * to bound,' Jr. folg ' alacer ;'' but a Gaulish c can- 
not be =Skr. g, and the root VALG is rather to be recog- 
nised in the name of the Vulgientes, a tribe of Gallia Narbon- 
neasia. Elsewhere Siegfried puts Vriconium^ generally written 
Uriconium, to rrka, \vko9, vlupus]. 

T. — Old-Irish Etymologies. 

Aed [n. prop. of. Aedui, aWo<;'], Lat. Aiding, Corssen 178, 
Skr. ^ha ['wood for fuel,' better compare aidha 'flame.*] 

aibell .{. nisce ['water'], C. 1466. [Siegfried gives no 
etymology of this interesting word, but he probably would 
have connected it with the root AB, to which Gliick has 
referred the river- name Ahona (Tacitus and Geogr. of 
Savanna), now the Aton, W. afon. Other comparisons by 
the last-named scholar, such as Skr. amhu, 6fi^po<;, imher, etc., 
may be foxind in the Neue Jnkrhucher f. philohgie u. paeda- 
gogik, 89«'- u. GO*^- bd. Q" heft, s. 600. Cf. also 'Amhe\ 
rivo.' Interambes ; * inter rivos* in the Gaulish Glossary 
above cited. 

aictnae ['genus'], Z. 733, I suppose is = to aitk + 
GANMAN [Skr. ganman, Lat. germen] . 

am [' time,* vedic] a^tna, Syfto^, ' lauf,' ' bahn,' * zug,' BR. 

anacol, imba nacol, etc., Z. 710, read imb anacol domfa nacc, 
* whether there be protection to me, or not.' Anacol occurs 
in. Lib. Hymn. p. 20, line 3. 

arbhar ['com'], root BHAR; cf. Nhg. er-trag. 

asm [Z. 284 = ] W. haics ['easier,' compar. of hawdd.^ 

atb^la, epil ['intent, 'pent'], Z. 840, cf. gu&la 'nex,' Nhg. 
qualf Skr. §ri ' conteri,' yfjpa^, quern. 




aidoffihidnasfar (gl. deducar illuc) Z. 63, Skr, root tIoAaA' 
'ire,' 'obtinere/ Lat, nano'scor, [Tbe form cited is an s- 
future from a verb who&e firet pers. sg. pres. ind. is probably 
mthindnncnr ; cf. tindnactil.^ 

baiie = villa, aryopd, Skr. dgarn, grama. The root for 
these may be in dy^ipat — AGVABYAill. [A trace of tl 
ludo-Europoan V may perhaps bo rscognised in the v of 
7rav-ijyvpi^, dyvpTTj';, firfTparfvprt)<!;j and in the Hesychian 

bairgen ['bread*], "W. hara, Lat. far, O.N. {barr^ stem] 
Jflr; Kuhn^ Hcrabk. 99. 

6m* ['blow'], cf. Skr* AjTHflWHd 'mit einera schlag.' 

Ard^e 'neck,' dat. brdgait, "W. breuani, 0p6yx°^ [} 
GYAR, whence also ^opd, mratv, Skr, graean^ Goth. yraiVnjrt. 

An'cAif ' variuB,' W. brtth. [cf. Eng. hrujhf, flagro, <^Xeyw.] 

Am ['break'], Nhg. bersUn. [Ohg. ir^^ff^on, A.S, 6p«to»j 
perhaps Fr. brtju'r is Celtic] 

i/-u, gen. i/ronn ['venter,' bronnait * ventriculo,' Z. 593] 
Nhg.] g^bdrtttt Lat. hordm [and fordus 'prfigmmt/ Tooi 

i'tfln, iSkr. ^ard ['speed.' Conuac, a.T. Buananjit explains! 
fif/as by maifh 'good:' so doea O'Davoren^ If Siegfried's j 
comparison be right, the adj. gamna *treibend/ * schnell,* 
'raach,' BR., would be the exact counterpart of buan. In 
Welsh and Breton buan means 'swift,' and as an adverb 
' soon.' For the change of meaning from 'hasty' to 'good/ 
cf. cnrouSaw?.] 

hiiUle [' a blow'] cf. ^aXXw, {^o\v. ^6\o^\ 

cttilfin ['girl'], Kovprj, KOpi} [fem, jcoDpo? ex xopFa^ = Skr,] 
AAflrj'fl 'small,* Biihlcr. Caillhi (Anglicized colleen) ia per- 
haps rather referable to tcoKo'i, Skr. k(dyd,na'\, 

mind A. cruadh ['hard'], W, cahd [Com, cfl/cs, Br. 
kaktl, Eng, hard [Goth, ftardtis. Pott, I think, comparea 
mk'U with Lat. t-aUum.'] , 

Mra * friend.' H ge/dhriv 'fellow' is from /ffAre»^Skr.^| 
car *to go' Gaulish Caranliusj O.Ir. cara [gon. csrif, an tfM(U 
stem] may be from the aame root, and be, therefore, etymo* 
logically connected with it. 





eaaiKhi * a cougli' = W. pestcch [Bret. pds"]. 

etn 'cis' [Z. 823 : cen rian gl. cia Rlieaum] could only be 
from EASIIAT, ' from this side'P 

cerd ['fabcr'J, Lat. cerdo, Belatu- cardns? [Orelli, No. 
1966. Better assume with Gliick a metatheais of the dr of 
eadrug, O.W. carfr]. 

ciaii, W. ptti/// ' reqaon/ Lat. mlkre^ 

coh'f, W, pair, A.S. hrer ['lebes/ ' cacabus,' E, ewer, O.N. 
heerr. The diphthong in pair would induce me to separata 
it from eoire, and to bring it fand Bret. 2}er) i'rom Prov. pairoi, 
Diez, E.W. II. IGO, with tht* same losa of the final liquid aa 
in Cornish /« ' fetter' from */'(^l, M. Bret, hual, Jibala. Aa 
to a 8lmilar'lo§B of r^ see giraeic, infra, p. 31.] 

colinn ' cxiro,' Z, 740 = W. cidon ' cor' [Corn, colon]. 

cricAaran, W". cregyr [' a heron'], crcf/r ? 

Cntilhne [' the progeiiittjr of the CruUhnig or Picts*], W. 
Prydain. [In the Lairs {{., 1124, Ancurin Owen makea 
Prt/diiin ' Britain/ and Prydyn * Caledonia.'] 

eurchas [gl. arnndo^ Z, 84], cf, cdrex. 

dali ['coecus'], Gofh. dvnl-s [Nhg. foil, E. ditlt]. 

<ielb [WeUh didw, Mann jaf/oo] ^^/or-ma, Skr. dhamta. 

detcert, de^-aert ['regio meTidionalie'] =W. drheu-barfh 
[cert = W. pnrth ' para,' dts = Skr. dakshimi], 

dil [' cams,' ' gratus'] — A.S, til * aptua.' 

dire [* a fine/ Brehon laws, passim] , W. diripy [which 
aooording to Aiicuriu Owen, Ltites, ii. 1114, generally 
amoimted to twelve kine or three pounds. Another common 
eipressioa in the Brehon laws^/o<? eitu'g ' price of honour,' 
(eitiec/i) ia the enep-irerth ' honour-price,' of the Welsh laws.] 

doadbadar ['demonstratiir,' See Imh Glosses, No. 846, 
p, 101]. I so© now that the b in doadhadar is no A at all, 
but a p. It ifl like [the hh in] adhbhcoid^ ' advooatus,* 
akUtbfwrK&ir 'advera5rius,' aidhbhean 'advena,' and fedhbh 
['vidua']. The word ia compounded o^ ad- (not Qti-^ but ad 
ending in the consonant) and aome root VAB, which ia the 
common Welsh gurdd, f, ' shape/ Z. 860, [Can the /« in the 
Lat. modus he an instance of the change of c to nt of which 
Bickell epeakfl, Kuhu'a Zeitachrift, ^v. 427 ?] 



^1. luo, gl. lavo. 7a. 440, 


doforuff, doforu 
Skr. ragaka [' wasHenn 
drutkitiac [* bastard*' 
^hecht 'death,' W. andn^yaw 'to ruin/ from anta [la Skr 
* end,' ' death'] P 

Fiaun, gen. f^inne ['the Feniana'] O.Sas. tetnni [ 
'amicus* A.S. tine* [I "t^oiild rather compare A.S. ti 
' pugTifij' simian 'pugriare,' on account of the doable n, am 
also because of tho meaning : ftinnid ' champion* ia o 
Tiously derived fromy5nnn]. 

/Hire ['calendar'], fH ' featum,' Z. xiv. W. gwyl ['ho 
d«y'], Skr. vm [' timo']. 

y^fl [^plauBtrum'], Ohg. teaJaw, Nhg. ifa^riTi. [W. cy-waiti 
' to carry,'] 

/c/7i [i^ Lat.] o/flitff [for *ra!nm? Siegfried thought that 
in anitiuf was Hometimi?& lost in Latiu before a vowel,' and 
accordingly put arditm with Skr. urdhnt for "VARDHVA, 
ahits with Skr. uhd, vulca, and ttrs with Skr. rr/.] 

fu.W.ffiaf^ ['apt," 'fit'], Skr. i-wA« ['equally']. 

/o ['3ub'], Old Celtic vo- in Vo-sf^ii/i, Vo-bergeimSy e 
/o- Bchon im Skr, t'Sffd/m fiir afogdha ' das sich eintauchen. 
Bopp. Kl Skr. Gr., 3'^ aufl. 75 [citing Vnpadr-va HI. 171 
I had suspected that Ir. /»-, W, gun, was Skr. aca, and h 
compared doubtfully Ir. fftincd in fuhicd gr^ne ' aunset> 
Z. 432, with Skr. ai'ttnafi. The O.Ir. /yrin,, wliich ia glossed 
by crich * finis ' in Cormac^a Glossary (arco fuin dom din) 
may in like manner be Skr. acani ' the earth,' here used for 
' the grave/ 'death,' or the Vedic (Tmnf ' bahn' 'lanfj'B.R* 
here used for the passage to the other world.] 

fraujh .i. ens ['girdle'] C. 1407 [bettor /r/JiVA, O.CeIti 
•cTflfi'-s], ^V. ffn'f'g-y^ [Lat. hqneics for i{(npu'jts?'\ 

gae [' spear,' O.Celtic paivofi'], Zend gn^^u ' waffe' 
Spiegel [* lanzpntrager,' Ju9ti]. The Skr. fitd 'aagitta,* 
' flamma/ ruot hi ' mittere/ explains both *yizisa and O.Ir. 
gdith ' wind.' 

grimrcd ' winter,' Skr. hima-rta. [Tlie pi' in gmnred 
no diphthong, cf. gem-fnachl ' winter cold* Senchas Mir.] 

> Sea Ciirliui Gritch. Etj/m. fil8, when vtUt (•wrwAi), (i'}<Wi, {v)0Tnea't ow tatid. 



gerr ' ahort,' Skr. hrasva, x^PVi' 

gU .i. l&m [' hand*] C. 1446 = x^^> 0. Lat. kir [Skr. root 
Ar, whence harana ' hand.' Another O.Ir. word for 'hand' 
is corf a fem. &-Btem, the Skr. kara.'] 

gUla [* servus'], A.S. cQd. 

giugrann (gl. anser), Z. 26, "W. gwyraxn ' barnacles.' 

•guSj gen. -gusso, Goth. Aus^m ' examen/ [O.Ir. Oingus = 
O.W. Un-gust, cf. also CW. Guor-gmt, Lives of the 
Oambro-Britiah Saints, p. 82. O.Bret. JJurgoat, Q^urgoat=. 
It, /fer^tM.] 

tarn [prep, 'after'] ia AVARNA, formed like Avemua, 
tupemiUt intemug, by putting N to the Japetic comparative 
in ATtA. I see now in Breton warn, Z. 625, an important 
form^IYARN, and believe that this form is sunk in 
"Welsh in the great preposition ar = ARE. Ivemia is by 
this a shade clearer to me : it is as if the Romans had called 
some country Supemia or Extemia. 

ice : W. iach [' sanus' cf.] axiofiac [for yox^o/Mtt] as a^ofuu 
[for yA^ftat], Skr. yag. 

ind-eolid (gl. gratis), Z. 42 [deolid 'clemens,' deoladacht 
'dementia' ib.] = Bret, a ioul : cf. W. eicyll 'to will* [and 
Com. aicell * desire/ all from AV * avere,'] 

lau .i. bo [' cow/ is the] W. lo [gl. vitulus. There is a 
potter's name iom, Rev. Arch. xvi. 6] ? 

hman =■ Lat. ulmua, elm [Gluck, K.N. 118, compares Limo- 

for, gen. Ur ['sea'] Nr)pev<t, NT)p7}t<;. [Siegfried was pro- 
bably thinking of Manannan mac Lir, as to whom see 
Three Irish Glossaries^ xxxiv, xxxv.] 

Ueig ['medicus'], Ohg. i-stem lachi [J&hhi, Goth, likeis, 
AJ3. lece, Eng. leeck.~\ 

lit: W. llys ['a court,' *a hall,'] iista. [X presume that 
Siegfried meant Ohg. Iista ' saum,' ' borte,' with which Diez, 
E-W. i., 253, connects It. Iista, Fr. liste.'] 

luh ['olus'], Ohg. loup [A.S. ledfl, E. leaf? 

lungu 'edo' [Beitr. iii. 48], OJW. ro~htncaa [gl. g^uturi- 
cavit], Z. 420: Ihjncu 'to swallow,' (hence Eng. lunch). 
Lhuyd compares Ir. slugaim, [cf. also] O.Ir. ro-slogeth [gl. 




sbsorpta est], Z. 82, 468, Ir. fi^ifj/flrf, Klig. schlucke^t, [Ohg. 
aluccein, 'dcglutire'], Xv^w, Xt>yf. 

iMffwn [* an ounce'] : MANVA fi6vo<i {_mann ia connected 
Witt /iow? {fLOvvoKi) from MANVA, as un-cw with K7)((if. 
The Old Celts seem to have had an unit of weight as uf 

mefi [' mead '] '. Skr. madkrt, Ohg. me^H ' mulsum.' 

wjcj* 'judieium.' Skr. imdhd ' wiadom,' from MASDHA. 
[Elsewhere Siegpfried conjectures that uiess may be relerred 
to the root MAN.] 

iifimaf * enemy' = na + amana [thia was a conjecture of 
mine, Beitr. J. 4«)7], too pretty to be tnie : " xxi klnge kinder 
werden nieht alt." [Perhaps ci". Ohjj. nama 'praeda']. 

jltfrf ['nest'] : V^ . nijlh, nUhin, nciit, Skr. wf^ri, GANAS-DA. 

nditliti, gen. nuhlen, 'iiifans/ na + VID [*to know/] o 
na + TAD [' to speak/] analogous to ptttw?* [I gather from 
this that .Siegfried rcgtirded vt'y7no>i ns =^ i^ + Ffrrto*:. (jobel, 
Kuhn's Zt'ite. x, ^99^ proposes v-ij + ■tprto'f ' ineptus/] 

6a 'minor' ^=ju-7t-ior. A point in favour of thia equa- 
tion is the O.Tr. diminutive in -Of, which I coiieider to be 
= oc ' young/ What woidd you any to luuJdiig nn ' grand- 
Bon/ [O.Ir. haue] — dn ^ minor'? Aa you call sncesto 
wq/oiTS, why not descendants Mhiorfs ? 

or ' gold." [Ab the cbimge of h to r is unknown to O.Celtic] 
Ir. 6i\ y^.aur, ean certainly not have been come from AUS. 
whence Latin aiinim. But ihej may be formed [like Vedio 
usrd ' morgcnhL'ht/ Lith. amzrd] by il derivative syllable in- 
volviug an r, and stand for AUSllAM. In favour of thi 
would then be quoted the O.Prusaian [enms], and Li 
Ittidsis] word for gold. [See also Pictet, Or'fpijtce, i. 157. 
Elsewheie Sicgfiled regards or as a loan-word, and saya, I 
think rightly, ' aa Pafflns gave P6I, ao aurum tJr/] 

ore [in orca*, 'qui oecJdit/ Z. 71, fris-orcat * inficiunt//ri'j 
orcar gl. offenditur, Z. 845, oyr*/?j, 'occisio/Z. 71] Skr. fln 
* verletKuQg.' [If thia comparison be right, Zeuss^ conn 
tion (Q. C 71) of C/v?etorii with ore falls to the ground, 
and in O.W. orffiat (gl. Caesar) the g for cU has ariaen from e 
hy the influence of r. An Old- Welsh gloss twroi// (for 



n e 


orekoiU) gL cesaar i.e. Caesar^ omitted by Zeuss, occurs in 
the Oxford gloss on Ovid's Art of Love/] 

orpe [for orbe, *liaereditaa']. Fine is the Ohg. neuter in 
iff, arbi = O.Ir. orpe (a nice word for Holtzmann's identi- 
fication of Celts and Germans !) [The connection of the 
O.Ir. word and the GK>thic arbj'a 'heir' with Skr. arbha 
'proles/ tends to show that, under the law of succession 
which prevailed among the primeval Celts and Teutons, 
lineal descendants were preferred to collateral heirs.] 

o$erad [absurdly explained by os 'mouth (Lat. o$) + 
cuiriudh, 'expelling/ MS. H. 3, 18, Trin. Coll. Bublin. p. 
73, col. 2] seems to contain the prep, itd = Eng. out, Qr. 
^a-repof [from vB-reptK, Skr. uttara.] 

ntiffe [in Orb~raige, Oa-raige, Ciarraige, Muscraige, etc.], 
Skr. rdgya, Goth, reiki [Nhg. retch']. 

rann ['pars'], Ohg. roTid 'margo,' both originally 'a 
break.' [Cf. Skr. rod 'to split,' 'to divide'?] 

sadAbh [' an abode'], W. fiaddef. 

Badb [a name] Lib. Armach. 17a. 1. Skr, addhtt [* good'], 
Lat. saltm for *sadvus, W^ ? [The Skr. sarva, with which 
tahus is sometimes equated, is elsewhere put by Siegfried 
with Oso. solius, Lat. sollers, sollennis.] 

adr ['great,' sdr-maith *yerj good,' iar-tol (gl. libido)' 
Z. 834, sartolach * Ubidiuosus,' 2. 1059, sdr-cknimrech 'over- 
fettering/ Senchaa Mar, p. 168], Skr. kshatra ['might,' 
'dominion.' If Siegfried be right in this comparison, we 
most assume an intermediate Irish form *8athr.] 

sUm ['macer,' 'tenuis'], Skr. kshdma. 

aeintreb [' an old house,' as opposed to the temporary moun- 
tain-habitation used in summer] = W. hmdref. 

tin ['bless thou!'], Ohg. sckan , Nhg. scgm, 

slabrad [gl. catena, Z. 769], Xa^S in eXa^ov, eXkijipa. [I 
venture to think that etKtjffta belongs to quite a different 
root. The assumption of a Graeco-Celtio root SAAB would 
explain the doubling of the X in the epic iXKa^ov for 
€-a\a^ov. So Aeol. iXXoov for l<r-'\ao<i, Christ, Or. Lautlehre, 

snecht [' snow,* snechti (gl. nives), Z. 78, Lith. mig-ti, ' to 




snow*], Zend f«(S, ^-fiij, piUfzdt, ' ningat/ [The cjorrea- 
ponding root in] Sanskrit^ 5n/A^ lost [the meaning of nir^erCf 
aa there is] no anow in [tho plains of] India. 

tafaifi [' tellus/ "W. ^ai7], Skr. tafa [* surface']. . 

friat/i [gon. iritban, 'aea'], Skr. fW/u [^'fffVtrwfl] TpZ-niW^ 
TptTo-yiveut [Zend ThraMaona son of Athwya, the hero whoi 
letters tho Hcrpent DiJiiikft], Pers. Fen'ifun, Lat /trfum, 
[The comparison of /return shows that Siegfried conaiderf 
it to stand for 'ffin-fiiiHf as Jina for *ihhw, Kuhn, Zeitachri 
tiv. 223. lu another place Siegfried ccmnects W. Jffoe^t 
'nostril' witK Ir. sron 'nose/ srennim, Lat. sferto; cf. also 
attTfiuo, affrnuto. 

torad 'fruit,' Ebers derivation from HAD *to give/ 
Beitr. i. 427, is spoiled hy the tk in the nom. pi. ioirtJmj 
[O'Don. Gr. 88 r c£ also tmrihirh ' fruitful,' Z. 250, toirthii 
g€<iai\ 'ci-escit' Z. 446. Elsewhere Siegfried |coimects ^rarf 
for *fQrath, with Zend ui'tiiha ' growth ']. .^m 

timff ['arcus'], to^ov. [tftag represents an Indo-European^B 
TAUGIIA, root TUGH, which is found in Gr. ^nr^oi', 
Tvx.^tv. See CuTtiua, Gr. E. No. 235]. 

msce ' water/ [from TJD-kia] Skr. udaka. [Elscwhei 
Siegfried propoaea to put uisce with Ski*, accka 'pellucid.^ 
Aa to Ir. sc from dh, see infra. Part vii. Ah sc niaj be by 
metathesis for cs, the Skr. uks/idmi 'iBpriiiHo' should not 
be overlooked. The etymology of thia word, whence Eag, 
wlilskeff is borrowed, is very obscure]. 

ur MW:«h' [W. (>], vypo^ 'nioiat.' [Hence, I think, urda 
iii-daiit, Z. 66 =W. irdawd.] 

YI. Wi'lsh Etymahgies, 

ach * pedigree/ \achm ' stock'] — Corn, echen 'stock,' Skr 
pakska * aide^ ? 

ambyH [' to blunt nil round/ Piighc] afi^vvto. 

(incrck [*to salute,' andc + AUK. It is certainly ve: 
mueli like Skr. fc, aredmi, * I praise,' ' salute.' 

anguil {gl. pudendas) Juvencus, p. 78 [See Beitr. iv. 392. 
where Ir. f4lc ' verecuadia,' and Lat. rereor are conipared,J 
now anteyi. 



asseu : tbe -sett in W* a^eu * left,' Z. 785, is Skr. smija. 
[This, I believe, is what was in Siegfried's mind. AVTiat he 
wrote was thia : '* asseu apanasya means right." The form 
imiiy cK!t!ur9 in the La\m i. V2, % v. See AaeoL, Kuhn's 
Jjeitachrifit xvi. 449 as to savi/a scaecus, etc.] 

aul, JuTencus, p. 1 (gl moenia) the Lat. aula, mny be the 
anl * dunghill ' in Owen Pughy, (pi. oulon), a polite metaphor. 
[In on Irish Glossary in 11. 2, 10 (MS. in Trin. Coll. Dub.) 
I find eio .i. o aul (' from aul') Tutir fivromat yrnliu (^'a wall 
wbicb gentiles made '^]. 

&(Wiw*sow/ Ir. hanbh [Corn, baneu; here the O. Cc>Uic 
form was •fitfnpd. See Beitr. ii. 101, 102, aa to the combi- 
iuitiob& RV, DV ; and add W. henvi, Ir. Icrbhad ^ Lat. 
Jert-eOy and W, chwerw = Ir. scrbh.^ 

ba»gan'dt [' basket/ O. Celtic bascauda Juv., Mart.] Lat. 
fascia. Bascauda and Jascis may both bo deduced from an 
ludo-European root EHADIIj Skr. badh, the auffix in each 
cnfie ct>mmeneitLg with c. The W. bd-Sf/^awd is probably a 
loan, otherwise it should end in diL^ 

bhe.,%g ['lisping:/] Skr, mteccha ['a barbarian,' mle6h, 'to 
spedk barbai*oualy or eonfuaedly.'] 

breenkin [Z. 162 = Com. hrentynt bryntyn 'noble,' for 
*bn-^cntino], A.S. brcgo 'rex/ gkr. bhrpi. 

bychodawff {Qotn.bochodoc^ Ir. bocki^, Skr, bhikska, E. bey- 
ffor. Here BLS = German G, as in pakikin = Goth, fugl, 
Eng. fowl ; aA^Aj = [Goth, auyo, Nhg.] aifye : rnakskiM = 
Nhg. TrtitV^t^ [Otg- mwtfca, A.y. mjcy*, ^ng]* tuid^o: rahhns 
[root rtf^-s/i 'to preserve/ ' guard'] = Nbg. recha: lakskmi 
['prosperity'] =E. luck. 

Cfljff^ = Ir. g^ug ['branch-'], witb the same confusion of 
tenuis and media as in cenetl, and, indeed^ possibly from the 
same root [aa cmetl, viz. GAK, Cainc then =] GANAKA,, 
'oflfepring.' [GANAKA, like Skr. ganaka, would probably 
mean ' parent.' I would rather compare with, cainc, the Skr. 
branch/ with g^iiff the Goth, gaggan. The Old- 
Celtic tribe-name Tarf^avQit is perhaps cognate witb the Skr. 
^angama ^ moveable.^] 

cawr ['giant'], Skr. ^avtta [^vara, 'a b&rbarian tribe/ 

384 msCBIXAHHA ceutca. 

Gliick, in his jRinon, Jtbitros u. Mc^onHdcotij haa compared 
with <;atrr the GrauUsh names Kauapm^ and CcoHMrillus. There 
wan a tribe Cnv/tri or Cararm in Gailia ^N^urfaoimegifflB.]. 

(J^^rf ' hemlock/ [Com.] (ayas, Lat aieuta, Eng. iear. 

(»cA/ [' mantle'], ewewU [' cowl*], ew^ [* a hood or cowl'] 
A.R dfr/Cf, 0firM0, ««^«£^ ea^jft *cucalla', Ir. eoci«ff, gen. 
f^ch<tm, r.ib. Hymn. [ed. Todd], 33. irewXtf?. [Wtat 
Siegfried meant was that £oeiU was = nr\of» that emcwU 
and eoeh^l were borrowed £rom Lat, eNcHJ^u^ and tkat cw^ 
was borrowed from A.S. c?/^.] 

6^(mo^«r (Bret.) = Ir. a>m;Ao&;(ar, Z. 109, as Com. monk 
= W. marchavo ['horseman.'] 

eufldiaw ['to hide'], KUDH, icvO [«we»», Goth. ihi2:rf, 
Kuhn'n Zeifa. viii., 101.] 

ey/ci^ 'circle/ KVA£RA, kOkT^, AA Ap«S/ [* wheal'], 
8k r. cahra. 

cyrchu, oircare, 8kr. eared ['repeating a word'], redupli- 
cated from car. 

(fati.f [' 8on-in-law/ = Corn, duf, de/, M. Bret dei^^, 
Skr. ^limtUr, yafi-0-p6s, t/emr. [Rather refer daw/ to the 
i-imt DAM. The liri't rf/'rcr socras = yafi-^-pot.^ 

ei'hel I ' nxifl/ ' axlt'lroo*], Lat. etxis, d^v [Ohg.] ahsa. 

lUihoi^ar (Hrpt.), ^twi-m-cai^us. 

Jon I'Btnff'J, Ir. scvn, 

ffttfn\ V^A\^. to call [A.S. ccalliaH, hildo-<ra//«, Ir. esgal^ 
^fvnWfTw, *tt<ip(thiaf}t, etc.]. 

ffarrr ( ' roiigh'], Ir. ^arhk , yavpo^, a-yoiyw [* proud.' As 
f^artr in alw cognate vrith Skr. </arva ' pride,' Siegtned 
obviously thought that the diphthong? in yavpo^ arose in tte 
Mme vay as that in rmiptK; = Gaulish tarvos, "VT, tanc^ Ir. 
tarhh. If so, n-iyai^)^ is identical with ^r. aa-fforvm 
' pmnd.' So elsewhere Sioj^friod identifies ftaSiptK, u-ftaupK 
with W. martf', Ir. marh/i 'dead/ s.a. MAKTA.] 

(7/ff« !"' nerves'] ^mk, Skr. j/yrt ' bowsiring.' [Gliick oom- 
parc!« wilh f// the Oanlish nnme Oifr^ruti * ncn-osus.'] 

rh/ff [' jpliio'] 7Xm<k, ghiWi. j Rather Irfd. ^^^is, stem ^i'i, 
'hiininv tcita^.' ' 

q-notof - 1 accustom.' (^x ^■ffnAtaiam. 


gohog 'sight/ Skr. rub 'look.' 

ffuardam, Juvencua, p. 49, chwardam ' I laugh,' N. Pere. 
ekvdrdetit Zend qhar. [AbcoK also has made this compariBon.] 

gu/aew ' lancea/ Z. 119, pi. gweytoyr is Ir. faobhar * edge.' 
[So W. irawrf ' brother* pi. hrodyr = Ir. brdthair.'] 

fftoas ' a youth,' Gaulish vasso-, Skr. vatsa * vitulus.' [So 
in Irish ainder * heifer,' W. anner, is used for a marriageable 

gvKugatod ' shelter,' Ir. foicad. 

gwefiu * lip,* gw9 + bus, Ir. bus ' mouth.' So W. 
gwely 'bed' = Ir./o + lige. 

gvfiehiadt Com. gmhan 'a periwinkle/ Lat vinca? 

gtolan ' wool/ Skr. {irnd [Ir. olann for *Jblann]. 

gtoraidd = Lat. r&die. [Ir. frimh from *fredh-mh f] 

gtoraigj 0."W. gurehic Z. 139, 205, 321, 816, old feminine 
in I li^ ytfveuK. 

Aal tnelen ' lucus flavus,' Z. 289, Lat. saltus, O.Ir. so//. 
[So atf for aU occurs in Lib. Land.] 

[hebrtong ' conducting,'] Com. hombronkgas * duxit,* 
P. 16, 1, Bret, di-ambrouga [' devancer, hambrouc, M. SS*- 

* conduire,'] Eng. bring. 

heddi [' to-day,'] Skr. sa-dgas. 

heddu *to make peace,' root SAD [whence the Gaulish 
SedatoSf Sedati-dcoTi]. Sedn/lus. 

ia 'ice* [Ir. atg, gl. cristallus], ON. jokull 'mons glaciei.' 
[This comparison ia also made by Aufrccht, Trans, Philolog. 
See 1865, p. 4, who adds A.S. gicel, ON. jaki ' a lump of 
ice,* Com. iey 'glacies,' W. tain 'icy/ Com. yeyn, Br. tin 

* oold.' The root is YAG, whence I would also bring Zend 
gdma ' glass/ for *gaghma, yag + ma.] 

iaiih 'speech,* YAKTI, is a great German etymon : jehan, 

* fateri/ * affirmari,' Grimm, Gramm. iv. 668. Skr. ydc * to 
ask.' [Gliick puts with iaith Br. tez, the Gaulish river-name 
lactus, and Lat. j'acire.'j 

iawn [* right,' 'just/ Ir. tan iafiridn] = Janus = arfvot P 
as 07*09 = Skr. yAyya. [Kuhn puts Jdnus with Z-qv-o^, Zcits. 
viii. 80, and Siegfried elsewhere doubtfully compares with 
iaion the Zend ydna 'happiness.'] 



lifcIgunUaun, Gliick, K.N. 183, Skr. yodha ['warrior,' 
from ytidh ' to iiglit*]. 

Uafn m. ['a blade"], Ir. lartn, f. [Ilafn and Lat. lamina 
are ob^ualy cognate, although tbcir gt-ndera differ.] 

llanc ['a youth,' cf. Nhg.] schlank, Lat. laxus^, Skr, 

Uonff ['a ship'], Tr. /onj, {Maffh lunffa Z. 5, 106.) navia 
lonffa. DRAKGTIA, hoKiy^a^, Skr. dirgha. 

llitdw * aahea,' Ir. luaith. [See Irish Glosses, No, 574.] 

llyaw [' to lick*], Skr. lift [Xe/p^w, lingere]. 

Ilyr-en ['water-plantain'] X^lptov. 

maw ^ Ir. m^m \* a handful.' So "W". Uaw — Ir. lam ' a 
hand,' and W. rhaw ' ahovel,' M. Bret- roett/?"= Ir, rdm, 
Fr. ramc*, Lat. rflmuj]. 

raocA [' ready/ 'quick,' 'early,' Corn. mew^yA], Lat. mox; 
Tediq makshu [' promptua/ and ndvrrbinlly, * promptc,' 
'mox.'BU. The Old Irish mii 'early,'' is probably— AV, 
moch, as Ir. si 'eix' — W". chwech. But there is an Irish 
moch (gl. mane), Z. 564.] 

mytfr ['mtijostio'], fi^Kp6<i. 

myn ['will,' 'de-sire'], fji€vo<i, Skr. manas, and see Z. 

wy/ ' snow,' [O.W. ♦«»'&,] Lat. nix [mipm for *nt'fftsisy vi^a, 

ocAr [' a side,' ' an edge 'J. Skr. a^ri ' an edge.' 

par ' a pair.' Ir. CQraid^ 

powtfs 'eettledness/ Cf. Lnt. cubo, Kelfiat, Lith. poe. 
[The -bo of c^ibo Siegfried thought was from the root dAa, 
which with clr from KVl, would become *cufo, and then, 
regularly, cuho. This seenas preferable to Curtius' tbeorj* (G. 
E. No. 45) that the b has been developed out of a p.] 

pryder 'ansiety.* A,8. hre%er ['pectus,' ' especially aa the 
seat of life and thought.'] 

' It oecuim in the queer jirglc quoted in Cormac's Glosiaij, a. v. A :— 
'' luik ^Mar dam i3o Wi" 
" T6, main) ni& mo k. 

^ra mire mn & n]6.'" 
*' Miiini tiifi, dn d, rfi." 
' I^t t* we?" "' ll ttlial] come, unteu brolcPD (in) mf oar. 

... •• 11 ^'uif.^ broki^n (i*) tby c-ar, it sbalL o«ii»e." II* 
.^0, Agere, and (ri ie llie Welsh rfffw.— W.S 



reatir (gl. torrentum), Juv. [p. 28, O.Ir. rtathor'}. Perhaps 
a p lias beea lost. Gf. pimj [where the i is long. The 
modem Welsh is rhaiadr^ pi. rheiedr]. 

sawdl 'a heel/ [pi. sodleu, Z. 786]. Ohg. stodal, postis. 

$^ \_*a shatter,' ' a bniiso'], A.S. aceacan. 

s^ [*a tendency to move'], Skr. kthubh [*to become 

tyrih [* a fall/ * a lot'], Lat. sors, tortis [or rather of. 
Nhg. siurzf]. 

iadcu ['grandfather/ tad 'father,' cu 'dear'], cf. beau- 
_fii$, schoon-zoon [' beau-pire would be a closer parallel]. 

to^ ['a strangle'], Skr. tanc * contrahere.* [Pers. tang 
'angustus/ 'arctus.'] 

Teffcedd [a female saint of the sixth century], dJ^ufo^, 
*faeio-tnedia. [^Teemed Lib. Land. pp. 190, 261 : Lirea of the 
Cambro-Britiah Saints, p. 50.] 

tenau, Lat. tenuu [tano in the Oghamic gen. sg. Duf-fano 
* black-thin ' may perhaps be the gen. sg. of a primeval Irish 

iirion 'pleasant,' like daiavan ['good/ is compounded] 
with iaum : so gtotr-ion [' truly right' = Ir. firidti], 

iwU{m. 'a hole'], Skr. tardman 'loch' ['oflfeung,' BR. 
from iardf trd ' spalten,' ' ofinen/ Siegfried seems to have 
considered "W. iwU (= Ir. toll), as coming by assimilation 
from *toldo, *tordo'\. 

Urien [the name of a warrior who lived in the fifth cen- 
tury] from Uroffenus. 

ytgien [f. 'a slicer/ ' a knife'] =: Ir. scian, is simply and 
direct irom tiie verb ysgiaw [* to cut away,' * to pare']. 

ytgvtydd [*a shoulder'], <nrd$r}, Skr, skandha, A.S. sculdor. 
[Com. tcuid (gl. scapula), Bret, skoaz. The Old-Celtic form 
mnst have been *scida, which points to a root SEID. This 
being so, I should prefer to compare the Skr. bhid, <rKlB-vt}fu, 
a-KoiStK * a divider,' 'distributor,' Lat. sci-n-do, tcidi. Our 
English term, ' shoulder-blade,' shows that there can be no 
difScul^ in referring a word meaning ' shoulder* to a root 
meaning ' to cut.'] 



I from A. ri ' king.' O.W. dou rig ' duo regoe/ Z. 157, 







ir; mi 'month/ 
gen. mis, Skr. mda. 

Trmttmnt of th combination KST, [In khtar ' pare 
inferior,' from is * lufm' = *ij:o], Z. 147; echtar *estTa,'4| 
W. eithyvt uachtar ^ para Superior/ W. uthr, and [•/>ec/i(ar, 
' dextern/ gf>n. sg. f. dechtirc, in] wjrtc Vechttref the ;ff must 
have bocome e already in the Old-Celtic period- So perhaps 
in bocht ' pauper/ ex BOXTO, Skr, bkik^h ' to beg/ 

Loss of P in anlaut. P lost on account of accent : Tr, 
lethan, ^V. Uydan, Skr. prthu, TrXarw? ; Ir. athcir^ Skr. 
pitiir [: So Ir. il, Skr. ^itHi, ttoXiJa, Golb. Jihts : Ir. ith 
' tnmjentum/ gen. c^Ao^ an u-stcm, — Zend pitu ' food/ Skr. 
pitu ' drink ']. ' 

Lass of P in inlaiit. 6, ua ■= apa, avo : 6a ^= ^Trap : 
itian = [mapna,'] VTrpo^ -. [Jaaid ' dormiebat/ spdpaifdmi 
sopio, and the loanword caiU ^caput'}^. 

SV in anlaut. Ir. F far SV = W. cAw : Ir. fairthe [.i. 
Jleadh, O'Clery's Glossary] 'a feast' = AY. chware 'play.' 
Ir. fairedg ' glandula,' W, chtoarel ' kcruel,' lump under 
tho skin:' cf. Nhg. schwar *a eore.' Jr. fed aim {a fedme, 
•quod circumferimus/ Z. 441)^ W. chwodl 'a story.' Jr. 
JiUim '\ turn,' W. chwel, chwijiawt \t. faolchu 'a wolf/ 
W. chwilgi : [Ir. _/far * sister,' W. chwiawr, Skr. sraar] : Ir. 
/hrn * veator/ Goth, ismra [see Beit. iv. 396^ where c^tfii! {%• 
compared with i*et*, ro*] Yyqjix yoMT do-phethar-au ['eororia 
tuae/ Beitr. i. 473] I woidd abstract only that sp may 
become f, which the O.Ir. orthogiaphy expressed by ph in 
the middles between two vowels to distiiiguish it froiu f i 
emortiia in such places. But as yet I sea nothing in it to^^| 
make me believo that sc ever became p dura on the Erauic ™ 
analogy. [Another esample of Ir. J' from sv in anlaut is 
*f4s * sis,' itt m6r-f4ser *■ a hoptad of persons/ literally, ' a 
great hexad of persona/ Beitr. i. 47-'J, where I erred in say- 
ing that this/ was not aspiitible. ^ofoaid ' dormiebat/ root 
svop. The Graelic piuthar^ gen. pelhar = Skr. seasr ia quite 




certain. This p from *t sometimes becomes a (or has c como 
directly from ss^ cl Zond q from av ?) as in cadessin, ' ipse,' 
liib. Arm. 18, b. 1. =fade$in, Z, 373 ; canmn {duttn chanisinf 
•nobis ipsie/ Z- 66, 1000 =/«Kisin, Z. 1004: cHach 'Mt- 
handt-d/ fiiriji 'left baud,' W. chwith 'left.' And us Jo in 
aiilaut ofleu. becomes s in Irish (cf. suan ' eleep,' Skr. 
tcapna\ siar ^ avster* ^ svatr ', te 'aia,' W. cAtoecA, SVAK8, 
Zend A/<«/ira<, €^, /^cf; serJA * bitter,' W.chwcrte) Vf^may, 
I tbiiik, notw'ithatnndiug' Siogfried'a doubt, put doTvn at letist 
four i-cpreseiitatives in Old Irish of W in onlaut, tiz. S, F, P, 
C. The iJoHtary example of ^rtrn * veater,* wliit:h iBalso written 
iarn, in Middle Irish sometimes nartt, and uuVf l/harn, and 
was certainly pronounced t(irr^> would make the possible re- 
presentatives of so in aniaut no leas than fiye in number.] 

SC in inlafit from DC, Ir. uisce ' watei-,' Skr. ndaka : 
Jr. mexe * ebrius,' meace ' ebrietaa' Skr. madaka [I do not 
know this word : mada means ' (Irunkenncas,' madakara ' in- 
loiicating/ The Ir. adjective brisc ' brittio,' Breton bregk or 
ttrusk 'fragile/ if from i/rid-€o, brud-co; cf. Lat. frud in 
fruttum from *frndtumt is nnothei* esampk of this change], 

Weinh J/' iti anlaui. The Welsh initial _^ lioa given mo 
more trouble than any other letter. Two or three words 
come nicely out of SBH : j^'er ' ankle,* trt^vf^P : ffaelu * to 
full,' tr^Ww : fftmefi. ' Wtta,' otpa'SoiTt [la not J/unen a loan 
from I-rftt, /anis ?] £i8t, 'ep^edff' \_(nrov^ta<>, trTr^v&o}] \ 
Jfroen [* nostril,* ' nose*] oa^paLvofiai : ffei ' cunniag,* tryer- 
Xttfi. Least said about them, beet. [Elsewhere Siegfried puts 
W.Jfraeih ' fluent of speech ' from "frcc-i with sprechen and Br. 
feic'h * la rate/ with Iiido-Eup. SPLIGILAN [splaghan P] 
whence Skr. plihan^ Gr. <T7rX»jV, Lat. lien. To me it soemu 
that most genuine Welsh words beginning with j^ point 
either to an ludo-Eur. SP, or (aa in jfworfj STR. Whether 
any ./T has como from SV remains to bo proved.] 

Welsh Jt in iniaut. In W. cyffred ['cause,' 'course'] 
= [cyvHrrhed=] com + rei, * to run/ Is the hard jf hero 
due to the influence of rA ? [A similar change of aspirated 
b (pronounced v) to / from the influence of a = A occurs in 
the Old Irish honaif- teidmenaid, Turin gl. No, 91 'rai? 



BanicbuB,' for d naibk deidmenaihk [sleidm gl. SEmies, Z. 733). 
So tlie Mod. Ir. foirfe is the O.Ir. foirbthe i.e. /oirvthgt 
wbert th ^^ A.] 

VIII. — Declenaion, 

Gaufish fem. d-ttems. In ' legiouie SK-unde* Italic««,' at 
Vaison (Soc. Aat Fr. 16, 143), quaere influence of a GauHsli 
genitive [in -h, wbeuce iht non- aspirating -e of tlie Ir. fem, 
&-8tema] ? 

O.Ir. H-declenaion. Sucb genitives a8 ddnigihea, gen. ag. 
of ddniffud, Z. 994^ prove a gen. in AVAS = [the -eo? in] 
fJSeos^ a vedic -u, gen. -wffv. 

O.Ir. pronominal declension. For the gen. eg. fem. dena, 
fline [Z. 348], Ihe Latin vniut should be considered. So 
inna [r^], cachet, nacha, nil pronominal, [the termination 
being] = Lflt. -j!«. The oldest foi-m AYAS might be in, 
the common -e of [the gen. sg, of fem. a- st-ema.]. 

Welsh u-ba$es. W. iant ' string,' pL tannau, m. — Skr, 
tantu 'a thread,' pi. tantavas. The W. pluricl in au (for 
-AVAS ?) from this and other words, [e,g. da^r = Bdjepv 
' tear," pi. dagrau, yd ' com ' Tr. ith ^= 2end pitti, pL ifdau'\ 
appeara to rac to belong originally to u-baaes. 

Camuh declension. I think we never mentioned the 
Cornish genitives which I have out of Lhuyd [^rchaeohffia 
Britannica, p, 342]: marA, gen. merhf 'horae;' ruerA, gen. 
myrh, 'girl;'' and dativea : pen, dat. er dhii byn *on thy 
head*; krSs dat. in kreijs 'in the midst,' [This extract is 
from a letter to me dated 3d August, 1858, the year before 
the publication of Mr. Norris' Cornish Drama, in which. 
Vol. ii. p. 2I4j Mr. Norria also refers to pyn, but calls it, by 
what must be sappoaed to be a clerical error, the ' ffcnitive' 
of pen.] 

IX. — Gradation (Comparative, Superlative). 

That idea of Ebol'a [Beitr. ii. 80] that a kind of weak 
comparative was formed in ayans is queer. The irregu- 
larities between -t«, -a, -u, and total lose [of the termination] 

' The geaitiTM ag. of Ltmyd'fr are not supported by tli« MSS. — W.S, 




if 91 

as in /err ['better'], are natural, because the accent, which 
we Jraow better of the comparative thaii of almost any form, 
is alffays on the radical syllable. This is worth noting, for 
it explainH why such a very heavy ending ag lA-NS could be 
lost, whilst the simple derivative ta is never lost [in O.Iriah]. 
From this you muat start^ and the W, -ach is at once proved 
an ag-gTutination. I sent you a note once, pointing this out, 
and drawing your attention to that O.Ir. assa which is so 
frequent Tv-ith tho eomparativej Z, 280. I am rather incHntxl 
To believe in this. I would assume an adverb connected of 
course with a» ' ex,' the prtposition, whieh became the 
Gtandiug appendix to the comparative, as e|ox°' '^ Homer, 
with the superlative apurrtm. 

[This I beHeve to be the noto referred to :] W. h^n = Ir. 
tiniu [^ *eniO)'], and other examplea prove too well that the 
comparstival lANS In reality ia totally lost in Welsh, as it 
ought to be from all we know of Welsh phonetics. The 
■ach, Br. -och, must then be agglcitinations, and the question 
is only, what word can have been agglutinated to the com- 
parative ? After various trials, I fasten on [a form equiva-> 
l#nt to the Irish] a** ['ox eo,' Z. 592], the proposition ez 
with a pronoun euffixed, perhaps. As in Modern Irish 
fearrde has arisen by agglutination out of/err, so W, hardach 
['atnabilior/ Z. 305] I guess to be from hard(ij ach, 'eo 
pulchrior,' This acli has ultimately even been put to forma 
like ffuellf which originally kept the pure old comparative 
alone, [Elsewhere Siegfried quotes the double comparative 
Ueiach^. The function of assa in Irish with the couipanitive 
[■oe 55. 286] makes this plausible- W. tecach, comparative 
of teff, is then for Ifg'ach,^ perhaps the ach m in the sense of 
' far out handsomer.' [There can be no doubt that -ach or 
-eh is an agglutination, like the -ei {Z. 307) of tbe compara- 
tive of equality (— Skr. yathd ?). Ebel's theory (Beitr, ii. 
79), that the old s of the comparative-eliding is kept a« ch, is 

' The proTMticra of j to s ie doe to llic eltsinTi of (h"? fnllnwiiir vowel. TLii ii 
the tniL- t'lpliinntiuEi of thoCortiJali fofni Aacern 'nglitr,' whicn Elrfl (IWir. r. 
132) brin^ furwurd ta an cRBinplo of tteaiinihlioii. Uaeerat better An^ra, tb« 
romparatire flf husn; M riniply from hag'ra. The pFitYi.»titJoii in the Wehli coai- 
l^ontirc of i^QAlity luid LntLe sujierktive i«probabl}'dnetoiifiil« uuiiogjr.— W.3, 



Siegfried : the rfi in cdic ia no diphttong, as is shown 
Modern Irish cuig^ which would have heen *caoig had the 
Old Irish Ibrm been diphthongal. I hold that the o w 
lengthened in compenaation for the ejection of the n befo: 
the c]. 
. VIII. Goldstucker's idea that AKTAM is the dual of 
KAT ['four'] is lovely. That AM is the original dual 
ibrnaation is proved by Vedic Sanskrit, where it is AV, by 
no means Au. I think I gave you once the eimilar caae of 
the Skr. locative of f and u -bases : mati^ matdU) etc. likewise 
from am: hence tn in pronouns: tasmin 'in hoc/ From 
AKTAM is the Irish ordinal ochim-ad. 

X. Ir. dec, W. deng, Skr. rffffan, DANKAM. [I doubt 
this, 0,lr. dec k a contraction of deac, which occurs not 
only in Zeus§, 'il'2, but in Fiacc'a hymn, line 2 [maccdn si 
mUiadan diac) — and in the Ftlire, July 15 and Sept. 22. 
( fn dd apsiai deac, and /or dih milt// deac, — always as a 
diasi/lialfle. In thia deac the hard c pointii to an original ^j 
NK (thus DE-ANK), which is perhaps preserved iu W:^| 
denff. The word seems to have lost in inlaut a consonant, ^ 
which I conjecture to have been p, as in Ir. caut from 
caput. The *d6-pank which we thus attain, I would regard 
as ' two fives/ "jjfljjA = Skr. panca,~\ 


XL — Pronouns. 

Notae augentes [Z. a32, 333]. 

Sg. -sa, -«. 1. PI. ~nu 

-au, -so, -siK. 2. -Jf, 
-«e. 3. 

Sg. 1, -sa (Z. 33'2), Skr. s^aijavt, is use after slender vowels 
[and the s is] never infected. PI. ni [for tni] infected 
proves the vowel-ending of the verb, Sg. 2, -su {svayam) : 
the i [in -aiu] must be by influence of the verbal slender i 
ending. Ir. iussu^ Skr- tm svayam. PL 2, -H [the 0^| 
cannot be infected, being from SVIB [«i?i + svi?]. Sg. 3, ^H 
-ae Is nota augcns (ij'C sc, Skr. aati ay am sa? or again 
svayam ? PI. 3, no nota atigens : absolute i. 



MtaceUaneous Pronouns. It. torn, tern, SYASMA P ini~ 
isiu [f-jiu] :^ is -\- gvtiyam. 

Jadesin always remiada me of Skr. svadhayd, ' sponte' — a 
mere curiosity. [And fodein g^l. ipse, gen. fod^ine, reminds 
me of Zend qtidaind f. 'daa eigne aolbst,' Justi.] 

TJie great relative pronoun YA may be in O.Tr. id-miit, 
gl. qaotiLS, quantua, Z. 840» 1031, «rf = Skr. yathd [htidm4it, 
gL quantus, Z. 1031]. 

XIL^ — Verbal FurtlcUs- 
Vcdlc wid, classical inta, has the power of turning a 
present into a past. This sm& I thought was O.Ir. no 
[Z. 417, I would rather identify with sm& tlie O.Ir. mu, 
mo, Z. 419, and refer no to the deinonBtrative na], 

XIII.— 27.e Ferb, 

Denominatives, As Ir, tech for tegk ' house,' ao ijn 
grazacham [' gratiss ago/ Lib. Arntiach.] for O.Welsh 
*grazagham, which ia reaHly a. beautiful Old-British thing,^ 
and proves the identity of the ~aaf verbs with the [Irish 
verbs in] -aighim. The Old Welsh of the Luxemburg and 
Oxford gloBSM has never anything better than -aham. See 
Z. 49S. [See, too, Z. 796.] " This is the -ay&mi of the 
tenth conjugation," says Bopp, "which you have in hafum, 
Zafid^ta, domo." But the phonetics ivill ecarcely allow the 
identification* You may recollect when I eiplaincd them 
[i.e. the Celtic denominatives] ex -dcdmi by the great Celtio 
derivative -de [the tenuis of] which in that caa© miut 
already in Gaulish times have sunk into the media. [This 
is established if I am right in connecting the Oaullah 
daialage* with the Old Welsh verb daiolaham.'] 

[Elsewhere Siegfried writes:] The Greek -a^M is likewise 
unexplauied, for I cannot beheve, as Bopp has it, that it is 
simply = AY AMI : that gives only -aa>. AKYAMI will 
explaia much, and suit the derivative nature of these verbs, 
many of which have in Irish clearly their adjectives in -aka. 
[e.j. cumachtaigim, cumac/ttach.^ The W. -aw [in the 

^ I dolibt lliis; pra:ae/iam uz ffrai^acham (u it id! t^^te spelt), Mem* onlf ft 
loBB-word, from tLe Lftt. griftuir (^a,wjtti »n OM-WaIbIi p«r8ga-«Ddiag- — W.g. 




infinitires of the denominatives, Z. 0'21] proves [the former 
existence of a] g [in these forms] ; but this g could only be , 
an early defectio [of c]. 

O.Ir, itargitinim [p^l. sapio prudentia, 2. 431] is clearly k\ 
denominalive, from GNA^fA, 'knowledge/ 

The atatuB durua of O.Ir. -imm in the first pera. sg. [pres. 
indie] active, I tbiuk we must take as an exception to the 
general rule of infection. It [i.e. the m of that person] is 
quite regularly infected in Welsh. I admit that it ia not 
desirable to assume such infringements of great laws, yet in 
the most, frequently used forms they occur most frequently. 

[To bring] the s in OJr, film [' sunt' (?) Z. 1007, 1009] 
frora -anti ia rather daring. There arc eimilar « in the 
secondary tensea : no-charmi-s [' amabamua '], no-charti~. 
[*amabant']. Shoidd they not all gw together? [I lotelyj 
Beitr. V. 114, compared _/S/w* with the Gaulish karnidua of t' 
Novatese inscription.. But it ia poesiblo that filui nmy be 
singular, for the nom. cenilae, cenikt with which it is found 
in Zeusa, ia a ntmtei' plural.] 

Tho perfcet in t [Z, 442, 503]. There are some very ode 
[fjinln ulxHit fhi«: first, the direet opposition to Teutoni( 
where the derivfttive bases aseume it [i.e. the root dhd' 
Apiiin, n« rf^fards tho a [in most perfects] the tindeniabl^ 
fact thai- this is properly a double ss. Then also the phoneti< 
properties of that t. It is th in Welah [after r], which tl 
will not come otit of dhd, and also in Irish it acts more lite M 

1 wish it could be explained ex STHA, which would serve] 
both for tho *- and the t- perfects, 

S ia lost between R and T; Ir. ifl:r^:= [Goth, ika^stef 
Eng. thirgt, TAESTI [Skr. ^r^A.' So perhaps the Iristf 
preterite ru-buri ' tnli/ from] *ruhurH, the Welsh kymerth 
[from ^kym-beT-itl. 

S is lost between N and T. Ir. cinteir [*a spur'] Coi 

' EUewlii-n! Siegfried puts Jr. r/n'wi, lirmt, with thin root. An eiample of tt 
loM of I Iwtweeii a And K is 0,lr. a.-M=Skr. archimi (ARSKaMJ), 




tr = Kitrrpov, nlvrpov, Skr. fastram ['sword/ ' knife *J, 
«-ZANSTRAM:. [cf. also OJr. datniech (gl. dentatui) 
with Skr. dtimehtra, and perhaps Ir. sani, M^. chwanl ' desire,' 
from SVANSTA, root SVAS. So in French contraindre 
for con-e-traindre]. Thus A\'elsh a gant ^ceciait' [Z. 503, 
may have flri&en from a cnnj/]. 

S ia lost between K and T : from ex comoa Tr. ech-tar, W. 
eiikyr, [eitAqf], from *<Jj; comca Ir. uachiar (W. Vlkr ? So 
i» Ir, dftecom-nacht [' comraunicavit,' Z. 442], from -NAEST 
and W. rfoe/A 'venif root AK, ANK [from 'docct, *do-ak-st. 
See above, Part VII.] 

The O.Ir. preterites in -ai would appear the most easily 
explained. Why should they not be imperfects ? rind- 
ttrpai [Z. 435, for r'ind-arlai ' exheredavit,' ' ejecit ' ] = 
AJIBHAYAT, as Skr. ayA^ayal, [Other esamplee of tMa 
preterite (?) are an-aa-ro-c/tumhi (gl. profectum), Z. 840, 
do-r-intai * interpretatus est,' Z. 1064, ro - d- $cribai ' id 
scripsit/ Book of Deir, colophon. Might these perfects 
bo explained aa out of -avi{t) ? cf. the fourth line of the 
Liraone inacnption, tome d^eavi (as I read it coTijecturally) 
where tome is perhaps a pronoun ' me,' decavi = Lat. dicavit 
and ObuldvHH Tmu, in the next line, the dat. &g. of the 
name of the ^od to whom^ the dedication was made.^ Or 
are t3ie Old Irish preterites in -k, -i«, to be referred to dtif, 
ieit ?] 

O.Ir. do-r'-acrdid {g\. eiacerbnvit), Z. 434; [the termina- 
tion] seems =r the Wclah -awd, Z. 504. 

Tfie OJr. s- futures. I am really much gratified that yon 
believe in the 5- futures [see Beitr. iii. 51]. Tou ore eer- 
tftinly right [in saying] that they construct verj' much like 
subjunctivea. Yet if we can sustain them on further inspec- 
tion, it will be a pity to have them go by that queer namo of 
jr- conjunctives. Might you not call them * (3) the old 
*- futures used aa conjunctives' ? 

' This iDPcnptiori niiift (us T read it! Teftimtii SexH (fitiu*} dufiat^ Satffdii 
tome dteavi Obu/diinu Thm. Il^re- r^iyiiU'tl (m BlAtC £-BteiD ?J ifl pTobublj the 
□aoio ui a TUfl^titetiiLL oH^ix (prptccUir }) 



Belatu-cadtu* : bclatu Bcems an infinitive in -tu [cf. the 
OJr. inimitiveg in -ad = km, ud = atu, Z. 459, 460]. 

Ebel'a theory [Beitr. i. 163, iii. 269] of the [Olr.] 3d sg. 
pret. passive being: the participle, would not explain the^ 
impersonal constructions, Z. 475. 

The secondary forms no-lUttae [etc. Z. 470] are clearly to] 
be explained like tlie relative, an. -e being agglutinated. 

The [coireapoading:] Welsla fonna arc convincing enough 
against this participle- theory. 

O.Ir. aid [Mb/ at-\-ta'\. Skr. rcxit slha, LitK sfdwmi 
^ Skr. tigftthdmi] h tenth clais, Bopp, V.G. ii. 265, [la 
Tr. f(i — lAth. st6w ? Siegfried elaewhere puts with Ir. 
the Welsh taw, which Pugke calls a conjunction, and trans 
lfttt?s by * that.'] 

O. Tr. bieid * erii.' Skr. bhavtshtf a ti : biam, bkavtsht/dmas :\ 
&ieit, bkavishif(tnti. W. future bwyf ['cro'] =& OauliE 

XIV. — PreJLcea and Sn^xev. 

The Ir. n^iatire prefix am-, W. af-y may b© the Skr. sami- 
[^/u] * half.* Lat. »emi, Ohg. tami, A.S. a&m- m t&mboren 
* abortive,' a&mcwic ' scarcely alive,' ' half-dead.* sdmwU 
['semi-sapiens/ 'porum sapiens'] = Ir. atm/aach 'inscitis,' 
The am-, as it ought, infects, and is rarely in umlaul, becausa 
it comes from dm-. 

[So elsewhere Siegfried compares another Irish negativej 
prefix nemh (in Old Irish written neb Le. mw) with th«i 
VedicnAM, 'half/] 

The suffix frd. I explain the O.Ir. claldtb 'bwokI' [W. 
cJEn&fj£/] by the derii-ative -fed. [Is the root = Skr. kiath 

That the deriratives in -louo [Z. 737] are from «- bases 
can be proved by esaniples ; and considering the connection 
of « with VAXT, we mav eren guess -ujn« to be oc 



XV. — Miscellanea. 

Olosaee from tKo Brelion lawa : — 

^d X. talam [•terra*], Curry, 3016. 

dinn .i. cnoc ['collie'], no ard ['altus'], bo uagal ['nobiliB'] 
no ai^nn ['amoenus,* In this seikso dinn is perhaps con- 
nected with Skr. dhiriv 'to satisfy," to please'], C. 2086. 

eumbach A, brindk [' fractio'], C, 2051. 

focecklaUis 204:i, .i. ro-tochlaidis [' fodiebant'], redupli- 
cated ? [eerfainlj ! the root is cal, PAL, whence Lat. paia. 
Oi, W. paliad * to dig.' Com. palaa, Br. palat.^ 

cob A. bimid ['victoria.' With cob, Gliick, K.N. 45, 
put« the Gaulish names CoUauno, Cobnerla, rer-coiiu*]. 

Qghma A. fulmtg ['sustentaculum'? root UG iu Skr. ug-ras, 
tiffas, L7£^^, etc. ?], C. 2067. 

Graine [leg. Gruinne ?] .1 Eire ['Hibernia']. C. 2068. 

bri A. aliaJi ['mons.' So in O'Davoren'e Gloseary bri A. 
tttfacA{'a hill'), nofogus ('or near'),wC eaf cingit go brigb, 
' they go to a bill' See Gluck, K.N. 136. and cf. perhaps 
Skr. bkrgu, ['a cUff; tliabh seems = W, U^i/f, f. ' a plotfonu; 


httdfiba A. luath no foUus [*a diatrlct' or 'manifest'], 1373. 

coicce -i. /t'rfiV [' flesh/ cf. coquo, Skr. pac, ireir- ?]. 

midh .1. ieth [-half/ W. li^d^. 

mid&ae A. gratnne [''a grain']. 

fuach A-focol [' a word*]^ C. 1402. Skr. vdc or Lat. mx ? 

Conmarch pinxit hoc chirografiini rege suo poscentc Con- 
t«n», Williams, Emeogion Cymnt. s.v. Ct/nvarch. Concenn — 
CjTigen, prince of Powys, a.d. GOO. A second Cyngen of 
Powj.a, A.D. 80-1. 

Hiberno-latin.. Reeves' AdainuAn'a Vit* Columbao : cojtir, 
domuculu, quadrinffemimus. Book of Armagh: ch for fl> 
tracho^ vec^o, veckiculum i. sc in middle, soft ? ascella for 
axella. Ad. : oiuissiun of v : Jlu-ius, ptu-ia, aeste-ns, a-uncatus. 
Book of KcUs : beive for bibere. Book of Durrow : quibos for 
ciboMf zabuhta for diaholus, denouo for denuo, introuisset for 



iatrouset : uelud, capud for vetut, caput : ittttt for istud, 
meddum for mefum. 

fetait [iu niberao4atin], tor fecit, is exactly the German 
pi-onunciation. The German pronunciation of Latin mitiol 
1% ie. as /, has been expbmed by tlie influence of Irish, 
teachers. Even now there are laauy people ill Genaany that 
proaounceyerbum./iuum./eritas, for verbum, vinum, veritag. 

[The formula Caput Chrisli, etc. Zeusa, G.C. 926, ia better 
preserved in a MS. of Trin. ColL Dublin,] H. 3. 17, col. 658 : 
Caput Chriati. ocuIuh Isaiae. frona Beliae. nosaus Noe. labia 
lob. lingua Snlomoms. coUum^ Matthei. mens Beujamin, 
pectus Pauli. gratia loannis. fidea Abrache. sanguis Abel. 
See. scs. sea. das. da. aabaotb. amen. 


Die hei C. Julitit Caesar vorhommenden hitisehert Navtm *'» ihrer 
Echtftiii feifffesteitt und erliiutert. Von Cliri&tian Wiliiclm Gltick, 
MiiDchen, 18o7. 

This is the fiiat sipin of life ehotrn by the new school of Celtio 
philology — the schonl of ZeQ&a. I'our yeurs hiive pnaeed away since 
that great philologist achieved, single-handed, Ihe reformation of 
Celtic atudiia by his aaloaishin;? Grammattca CelUca. Tht^ have 
passed. Hway in Bilence. Tberu' has been no one competent to review- 
that musttT-work — no one to impugn it if wrre wrong — no ono to 
raise one inch higher the sirueturu qf which he laid the foundati'ia. 
To think ihat this atate of tliinga could entlure rauch longiT, would 
be to ilfspair of the cbubc of learning. We aic far from taking so' 
desponding a view. If the best men, and tbuse who are most called 
upon, have done nothing yet to develupe further the principUa of 
the Oramm-ati'ca CeKita, we trust — find in more than one inslanca 
we know — it is becauao even the best have not yet done stiidjing it, 

Zeiiss'B cftaG is a rare one. He tinlvca the preiit Celtic prubltra, 
which for centuriea had bnfflod the acbolare of England, France, and 
Germany — he pivee us a suddeo and complete light, where we had 
made up our niinde to sit for ever in diirkncas — ht crL-atea a critical 
method where dreams and iicunae had become a c^l^onic disease 
and whea he has achieved all ihia, there is hardly a voice to 

' I'roa tho Stturdaif Seiiieu for Doc. 2G, 1667, 




"Well done !" Dozens of man have heretofore made names far 
thcmsi'lvea in tb^ same Oeld by move bimgiiiiK and prett^nce; but 
the man of (Miruaioiitit merit ttod gt'iiiua dies wiUnmt sq raucb. as a 
wonl of praise having reached his ear. These lire 3iid thoughts, and 
Ibey aevm to have been present to tlie iBiod of Herr GlUok wheu hfl 
pvBued the pri'face and Bome other p&ssagea of hia hook. There 
18 not a little of the iaei-a indiffnafio in this honest work. Herr 
GU'ick uses Tert' strong language againet one or two of thoee in- 
cara.htes who go on writing on Celtic matters ae if Zetjss had never 
taugtit anjtbiug. But let there be an and to tbiB folly. Let no 
mun henceforward be listened to on "Wekh grammar^ or Iriah grnm* 
mar, or uuy subject of Celtic philology, who doea not firat give 
«7iih>nco that he h;^s understood and mastered thnse fmiilamental 
priociples which Z«uss hue at last taught ua. And if men like 
Hole — who, as a Genunn Bchnlar, ouplit to hnve kuo^fn btittef— 
will Btill indulge in books after the fashion of General Vallaucey 
»iid Dttvies of the Celtic Rsararchfs, let them not complain when 
their perfonnanpea are not very leniently spoken of by ficholara. 

Thiit Herr UliiL'k hiinaelfhua studied Zeuns is apparent in orery 
line, "We mean not to diapurage his merit when wo say that the 
better hfdf of his work was done before him by hia muster. So it 
will Hlwaya bo wher^ i\ leadiug mind alrikos out a new road. At 
any rate, Herr tiliick eonnot be denied the merit of having been 
the first to follow. The title of Ma book is a proof of hia modiiaty. 
The work comprises much more than the names in CiDsar ; it is in 
fact a critical and otymological examination of neaily the whole 
body of STitique Cpltit; names, which fortunately are numerous 
enough. What with our present means can he done on this subject, 
Herr Oliick has done conscientiously, and the result is not unim- 
portunt. It will become still more important when the neceeaary 
mateiiala for etudy— the coIlectionB of inscriptions, aud tha Welsh, 
and Irish dictionanes --shall be in that condition in which they 
ought to be. But, without speedy exertion on tha part of native 
Celtic scholarg to fumieb these, eapecially (ho latter, the progress of 
the new knowleilge muat bo slow, even after such extraordinary 
efforts as those of Zeuss. We hops thoy do not mean to leave idl to 
be dpno by the Germans. If aocietiea and academies in Ireland, 
not to Ppuak of patriotism, think it unneceaeary to erect the mo- 
nument of nt least a tolombte dictionary to the aoeient idiom of the 
country, which is actually dying away unrecorded — if Welsli 
EisU-dJfcMis will for ever go on playing at Bardd and Druids to the 
tnne of Owen Pughe'e uncritical Welsh lexicon — then, indeodi^ it 
will be of no avail that Zeuas created a method of Celtic eompnrulivQ 
philology, for there will he no trustworthy material upon which to 
bring that method to bear. Celtic philology mvH risQ — we require 
it for linguistic acieticp, and for tha history of our European race. 
If this want ia not yet felt here, it is felt in Germany^ as is proved 
by the foci, among otbers, that at Berlin a promising journal has 
been started fgr the critical com{Hiriaon of Celtic and the cogoale 



Since ttg know tliat the Celts came neither from Egypt 
Phoenicia, but are our fra(rea germam — of the eame blood, a& the 
HUronians, G-eTman?, GreekR;, and all the ri?Bt of us of Aryan 
descent—we caD no longer afford to remuin iu ignorance about 
them. Thfir words nro out wordfl, their first experience and 
acquirementfl of life were the aainc as ours, and we must know 
them, in order to know ourselves. TliB chief difficulty here was, 
and is, that the antique language and lore of Gnul nnd Entain are 
60 totoUy loot. Aa we hare no monument of ancient Celtic litera- 
ture — nothing like a Celtic Vodn, or Homer, or even Ulphilaj 
proper names acquire a much higher importancG here than ip the 
sietcr lengTiagtB. In point of fact, the Gaulish ond British names 
are to ua the Oaulish and British languages. Herr Gltick therefore 
judged, quite correctly whea he considered them in the first plac9 
•worthy of a special examination. We do not think that it was his 
chief aim to contribute to the critical restoration of the texts of 
CiEBar and sorao other elassiea, In this re&pect certainly, ail classi- 
cal Bchohirs will feel obliged to hira ; for it will be agreeable tence- 
forth to read our CaiMr, Tacitus, or Pliny, without meetiug; those 
utterly ill-3pelt names whieh were real eyesores,^ and it will be 
interesting to be informed how the scnie natneB there recorded of 
Celtic men and places are to this day found reproduced ftmong the 
Welsh and Irish, illustrating their kindred descent, Bui of far 
greater importance are the lessons in Irish and Welsh and common 
Indo-Kuropenn etymology, which owing to ZeuBs'a discoveries of 
the phonetic annlo;jic6 of Celtic, we are enabled to draw from those 
names. Already Zeuse, and now again Hcit Gliick, by strictEy 
applying the laws of phonetic changes, have succeeded in diacever- 
ing ia them, and interpreting, a large numher of Old Celtic nouns 
and roots. Their lorra being so much fuller and nearer to the com- 
mon prototypCf at length supplies that link between the still older 
forme of the cornmon Jnpetic stock, and the worndown ones of the 
two modem idioms, the want of which hue caused sath unparaUoled 
Confusion in the various attempts to soEve the Celtic elbnologicid 

Ihe number of names of Celtic deities^ g:atheTed. chiefiy from the 
fnscnptioiis, is eurpripiag. They are now sure to attract fresh 
attention. Comparalive mythology, although as yet in ila infancy, 
htt9 already become important as regards Iht* live non-Celtic fumilita, 
in consequence of the brilliant researehea of Grimra, Bumouf, R. 
Soth, Max Miiller, nnd others. To include the Celtic pantheon 
within the cireio could not, before the time of Zeuss, have been 
eafely attempted. Jacob Grimm nlone had occasioually given us an 
important hint as reganls this subject. But it will now be feasible, 
by careful tmulyfiis, to show whetheroj- not, arfiong the two hundred 
or more names of Celtic gods and goddeasoB, there be any actually 
identical with those of the cognate nations. The eimilarity of form 

' It would be alill oiore a^Dcablq \a read *inr LnnrPflte's BoGdicea {BoudifWf) 
vitbont TDcrling euch jfibberish u "Catieachknisn," '* Trinobflnt," for Cnlu- 
vellaumai], i'rinovaat.— -W.S, 



IS often great — as between Segomon (the Mara Victor, German Sieg, 
Baiitik.rit root saJi) and tho Noi&e Sigmtindr ; between Apollo 
Jitlenu* and Balder, Khivonic Djelbogj between Sironut whom in 
four out of tliQ six marbles (leJiL-utt.'d to her, we find associated 
with Apollo, or Apollo Graunus (cf. the Irish grtan, tho Biin)^ aad 
S»A^irij. But all these coincide ncee may turn out to bo purely de- 
ftpptire, and we cannot attfti^h the lease wtight to them till they 
huvc U^en thoroughly analyzed by a Huguiat of Zeuss'a school. 

Similar observations apply to that world of laoJiEcval Iriah aad 
"Welsh traditions, out of which hitherto scarcely anything haa been 
wrought but mischief. If they h&ve oriimbli?d to pieces aa historical 
evjdt'ooe, they rise iiow beforo ub in n diffcrcut and do less ictercst' 
ing light, as uiktional struc-turca of fiction — the most cbiborale, 
perhflps, preserved in the Weat^and as such they ought to bg 
criticiiilly examined. We kaow what Orimm hnn done for the 
mediBeval lore of his nation— here is a correap rending task worthy 
of the highest ability of any Celtic scholar. We want a competent 
linguist to tell ua whether it bo right or wrong to connect theSion, 
or Iluen, ord the Utt rjadarn of tlie Wtlsb^ with Hars Segomon, or 
the Ftjin mac Cumhaij of tho Irish wilh Mars Cumulus, in the same 
way afi ih*i iiiiigs utml heroes of the reraion SUahniirueh havu been 
recognized as gods in the Veda and Zend Areata. 

With respect to pcrsoiml niiTue^, Hetr Gliiek's work reminds one 
again of a very perplejcing fact. It is undeniable that thcr^ are 
aomo among them which are found, not only aimilar, hut, eCymolo- 
gictiUy epeaking, identivid in the Celtic and German nations, 
though unknown to the other families. The Celtic Caturix (Mars, 
lard C'f battle) is the German Hadurlch ; the Old "Welsh Catmor (i,*-, 
Catumaros, warrior) ia Tacitus^ Catum^rus, tho later German 
Hadumar; Sr^o/7iirn« (victoriouB) is Sigum^rus ; ToK/tmx (Apollo, 
lord of people, is Uoth. ThiudnreibSj O, U. tJeraian Diotrich; 
dmh'orix h Oerxn. Emmerich, Alhioriz, Germ. Alberich, Elberich. 

How are we to account for thia V Herr Holtzmann, indeed, has 
his Boawer ready. He says they prove that it ia a vulgar error to 
iiuagitie thut Celts asd Gcrmana were two distinct nations instead 
of only one. But that paradox, wo think, will make but few con- 
verts. C'au these names Ihfn be relics of the Japetic unity ? Did 
tht-y originally belong to Greek, Latin, Sanakrit, aa well, iind. becoma 
obwifte ouly ia those lauguages? XhiBseems hardly more probable. 
Why ehould not, if not these, at least some other Japctio names, 
be ibuud preaervtd in common between those other familieB ? It 
would not be in itself absurd. The term for name has been common 
to UB all from the time of the unity of our Aryan ancestors; and 
actual pereonal names may, therefore, not improbably have existed 
aa common to all the branches of thf Indo-Europenn family. 
However, for the present, we mtiy be contented with the belief thnt 
tiihLT Germotia or CellB borrowed names from tho other at an early 
period. Even in barbarous nations this seems to be a matter of 
faahioQ. "We know from Jomandes that the Germans had, in later 
daya^ a tastB for HunDisb names, and actually adopted them. 





Herr Gliiok, in order Btrictly to teep <m wife ground, may 
confined hirasdf almost too much. Why -B-ill be, in iiuue of the 
mnny words cotH pouncleii with diiMiini^, allow this to be akin to the 
Latin dcmlnuitf Sanskrit dnmattrt V His reoBou wc suspect la that 
Uie word is Dq loeger found in W^leh iitnl lri«.h, Yet Zeuas quctei 
eoimdemnafkt (gl. dommatus) and romdenmig^riar (gl. dorainatur) 
frnni tht; Milnn glosses ; and even without tiienj ve should hure o 
right to expect diiirumri. lord, iu Bome (Vltic shape, for it 1b certainly 
of Jupetic aniiquitj". With Verjugudumnus, therefore, might have 
been compared a Saoekrit fnrra, yuffadamana (lord, or tamer, of yoke* 
of cattle), and perhnpii in like manuer jatftidamana (lord of victory) 
might have hcen placed beside Oeidumnl. The niune of the 
mythical Irish king Erraniftcn we find ngain in the antique 
Aiiomanus nnti in the modern Irwin. Ita nffinity with Teutonio 
fomng, wythologipttl and others (ArmiiiiuB, Ermanarieus, Irmaasul,) 
19 ohrtous — no less its relation to Aryan names of India and Pt* raia, 
fdthuugh wc must It^ave doulitful luiy mytholog^cul connection 
between King Eirpmhon and the god Aryaman of the Veda. 

We are glad to find in Herr Gliick'a work ihc names fToiannifiua, 
Gohanut, the modem Gowan (Wtlshyn/, Irish gohhti, pen. ffohhann^ 
smith), because we see in them, a strong argument iigtiinst the theory 
ihut the RtAine-pt'riod of the antir|uary ever coincided witli any ato^ 
in the separate exiatcneo of tht Celts. The ancestors of our Indo- 
European race had outgrown the stone jieriod before their separa- 
tion. They hnd already earta^ boate, and metjile. If, theo^ the 
ttntiqunrit'3 eatabli&h a. atone-period lor Ireland and Englund, it 
cannot belong to the Aryan Celts, but mtist be referred to earlier 
inhabitants — the real aborigines, of whom history and philology 
know nothing. Zeusa, with his unfiiiling eye,' was the first to 
identify fahn" and gobanut, and analogy proves him to have been 

Herr Gliick has shown himself eo well aequaintsd with tha 
oumeroua and widely diffused sources of the remnants of antique 
Celtic, that we i^-ieh be had gone one step farther, and taken with' 
out exception the whole of what remaine. A critical compilation 
not only of all ths names, hnt of the Celtic glossee of claa&icul oul 
mcdiserol literature, and of uU remains of this nature, is an impor- 
taat dcaidenitum. If Herr Gluck would undertake a contplelo 
collection of the X^l-^ava linguae Ctlticae, the work would be ia 
ufe handi?. 

In taking lenve of the author, we heg Btron^ly to urge Hpon him 
the necessity of supplying bis bock with an index, without which 
it can never be either half ao useful or bo popular aa it deaervea 
to be. 


> Zeun'ft 'unftilinr »Tft'— «-i*Ta la&i- At^i ef^oA^t xal itim* vtntiaa^ — was 
here ■! /uuU : for Kuliu W bLuwh ihaX fiber in the Skr. dhiitr,—W. S. 


Bj Elssell Martin'eau, Esq,, M.A. 

It seema to me only an expression of ihc natural common 
feeliDg which binds us together as a Philological Society, to 
take Bomo notice of the death of one of the greatest Philo- 
logists of our time, without whose life and luboiirs, indeod, 
the Science of Language might not have been, or at leaat 
might not have elevated itself bo high as to deserve that 
title, so soon or so indisputably. I feel that I am here 
but the mouth-piece of the Society, which is held together 
br a common love of language and linguistic Bpeculation, 
limited to no special field ; and Tvhat feeling can guch a 
Bocietj' entertain towards the great Comparative Grammarian 
(its own Honorary Member) Fr&nz Bopp, but renerutioa 
for hifl labours and sorrow for his death P Thia gives me 
Courage to spedk of him, and nssnrca me that few and plain 
words will be received as the trutiat expreeaion of our fcolinga 
for our late teacher. For Bopp must, more or leaa, directly or 
indirccth'. bo the teacher of all who at the present day study, 
not thia language or that language, but Language itself — study 
it either as a universal function, of man, subjected, liko his other 
mental or physical functions, to law and order, or else as an 
hieitorical development, worked out by a never-ceasing course 
of education from one form into another. Personally, I call 
him teacher in a more intimate sense. I had the great plea- 
sure and advantage of commencing the etudy of Sanskrit under 
bis guidance in the years 1848 and 1849 ; when, aa the society 
may be interested to know^, my only fellow-student in his class 
was their late distinguished member, Professor Siegfried, who 
there and then commenced the studies which he afterwards 
prosecuted with so much zeal and to so high a point. 

Franz Bopp was a native of Mentz, where he was bora 
Sfpt. 14, 17^1. His parents subsequently followed the court 
of the Elector of Mentz to Aschaffenburg ; and there the son 
received the higher portions of his education. He appears at 
An early age to have been a very earnest and hard student, 
Aud to havo ahowii, not mcrdy an apUtudo for languages, but 



a determination to study thera with a view to Timderstftnd their 
org-anisra, to disaect them and discover the tisea of their Dml- 
tiform devioQS— a roBolve which, betrays a mEiturity of judg>- 
ment tnily wonderful in that age. With equal correctness of 
judgment, also, he devoted himself specially to the languages 
of the East. If anything was to be discovered respecting the 
relations of languages and raceia, it must be by ioveatigating 
the oldest forma of speech accessible to us. The Gothic, in its 
fuller inflections, gave the key to all the eecrets of German 
grammar ; and the generally acceaaihle languages of antiquity, 
the Greek, Latin, and HebrcWj unlocked many myateries of 
formation in tJie modern languages of Europe and Western 
A^ia, But the East in a larger sense had preserved languages 
only beginning to be known, which might he yet more im- 
portant. The Ganges had on its banks cities of fubulous an- 
tiquity, and a people that inherited a language, venerable no 
less by its traditional age than by its sanctity, which was not 
a thing of yesterday. Sanskrit was the tonguo which woidd 
probably throw more light than any other on. the formative 
process of language generally, and on the unity in variety 
observable in the Western languages. These ideas were no 
doubt fostered, and perhaps partly suggested, by Windiscb- 
mann, an enlightened professor at Aschaffenburg, who has 
the credit of first interesting youDg Bopp in Oriental litera- 
ture. To study Sanskrit, Bapp had to go to Paris — the thing 
at the present day soiuids incredible; but this was in 1812. 
How laborious the study of Sanskrit must then have been it is 
hardly possible for ua now to conceive, when we have its gram- 
mar treated according to European principles and grammatical 
terminology. Colebrooke, who was then the chief authority on 
Sanskrit grammar, framed hia grammar mainlyon Indian prin- 
ciples ; and Bopp had, from empiriital knowledge thus labori- 
ously acquired, gradually to discover the principles of forma- 
tion, which he afterwards presented with beautiful lucidity 
in hia own Sanskrit grammars. It need not surprise ua, then, 
that he spent five years of laborious study in Paris, almost 
living in its libraries, and unmoved by the turmoils which. 
flgit-ated all the world around him, comprising the escape of 



^'apokon, tlie Waterloo c&mpaigti, and the Eestoration. Hia 
cliief iiiBtructor was Aiitoine Leonard de Ch^zj-j a man of vast 
talent and eathuatastic loYe of poetry, but of painfully nervous 
lt*mp(?ramf nt ; who at an early age spoke Persion and Turkisli 
aa easily as French, and had bc^n perauaded hy an Englisb-- 
tnan named Hamilton to learn Sanskrit A chair of Sanaknt 
wm founded at the College de France for Cb^zy in 1815 ; and 
among kis first pupils were IJopp, Wilholm von Humboldt, 
and August "R'ilhclm von Schlegel. Bopp read much in tbo 
great Indian epica, ospccially the Maba-Bbarata, from wbicb 
he afterwards published eeveral episodes^ both in the Sanskrit 
and in tranabitions. He is said to have also kept up his read- 
ing of other Oriental Literatures, especially Persian and Arabic, 
which be studied under Silveatre de Sacy^ In 1816 bis studies 
had advanced so far in tho direction in wbicb he was to gain 
eminence, that ho was able to publish a treatise '^On the 
System of Conjugation in Sanskrit* compared with the Greek, 
Latin, Persian, and German langTingcs," which ua the work of 
a young and unknown scholar, was edited by bia AscbaflFen- 
burg- friend Windischmann. It is very interesting as ehowin^ 
the early adoption of the essential principles fuUy worked out 
much, later in bia great "Comparative Grammar," of whicb 
it is the worthy precursor. In 1817 he resided some time in 
London, for the purpose of using the libraries ; and there he 
ffoa 80 bigbly esteemed in Oriental circles, that when in 1820 
tbe journal called " Annals of Oriental Literature " (which 
only survived through three numbers) was started, he was 
««ked to contribute the first paper. It was essentially an am- 
plitication of bia above-mentioned essay, and was entitled 
" Analytical comparison of the Sanski'it, Greek, Latin, and 
Teutonic languages, showing the original identitj' of tbeir 
grammatical structure." In 1818 be went to Gottingen» and 
resided there in order to use tbo library. 

In 1821 he received hia firat (and last) appointment, aa 
Professor of Oriental Literature and General Philology at 
the University of Berlin^ at first as extraordinary, and ia 
1825 aa ordinary profesfior. This ho held until the day of 
hie death, Oct. ^3, 18G7. He performed its duties tiU about 



six months ago, when the asthma which had for many years 
Dpprcs&ed him, and often rendered hia speech scarcely intel- 
h'gible, obliged him to take rest. Considering that he had 
published hardly anything, and was chiefly known as a zeal- 
ous inveatigaSor from whom sometliing might be expected in 
the future, his selection for the Berlin Professorship is cer- 
tainly somewhat TeraarkablCo^ It is aaid to have bwn partly 
{\\io to the attention which his English treatise had attraotod ; 
but personal influences may also have had fioraething to do 
with it — -notably that of "Wilhelm von Humboldt, the Prussian 
Minister, who was hia faithful and adminng friend. In 1820, 
before his appointment, Bopp had published the now well- 
known episode of the MahSL-llh&rata, Nala (or Nalua) in the 
original Sanskrit, with a Latin tronelation and notes. It was 
the first of a series of epiaodee from that epic which he pub- 
lished in the original or in a translation, between, that data 
and 1838. They were well suited to form text-books for be- 
ginners, and usetl as such in hie classes. In 1834-27 Bopp'a 
first Sanskrit grammar appeared, in German. The zeal with 
which the study of Sanskrit was taken up is sufficiently at- 
tested by the number of times he had to issue his grammar ; 
and the various forms in which he published it attest q. 
constantly advancing mind, always maturing and correcting 
what had been written. In 1829-32 he published a Sanskrit 
grammar in Latin ; and lu 1834 a short one in German, whii:b 
was reissued with very great improTements in 184o, and 
a^in fully recast and enlarged in 1861. His Sanskrit Qlos- 
sary Was fit«t published in 1829-32 ; again in 1840-47 ; and 
finally in a third edition [not completed, I belieTe) only last 

It was necessary to mention in detail Bopp'B Sanskrit 
studies and Sanskrit publications, since they are the solid 
foundations upon which his system of Comparative Grammar 
was erected, and without which that could not have been 
perfect. For that purpose, far more than a mere dictionary 
knowledge of Sanskrit was required. The resemblances 
which he detected between Sanskrit and the Western cognate 
tongues^ oxisted in the syntax, the combination of words ia, 





the sentance, and the various devices which only actual read- 
ing of the literature could fully diaclofio, far more than in 
the mere vorabulary. Aa a comparative grammarian he was 
much more than as a Sanskrit scholar. To estimate him 
in the latter capacity arig-ht, we muat pay due regard to the 
early period when hia studies cominenced, and not think it 
nMessai-y to his reputation to claim too much for him on this 
field. It is surely much that he made the grHmmar^ for- 
merly a maze of Indian subtilty, aa simple and attractive 
na that of Greek or Latin, introduced the study of the eaJ?ier 
works of Sanskrit literature, and trained (personally or by 
his books; pupils who could advance far higherj invade even 
the most intricate parts of the literature, and make the 
Veda* intelligible. It is, indeed, matter for surprise that ho 
himself poid bo little attention to the Vedaa, knowing-, aa he 
did, that their language differed considerably from the or- 
dinary Sanskrit, and exhibited older forma; which he ocoa- 
sionally, but Icea frequently than we should have expected, 
notew in his grammars, and uses with effect in hia Compara- 
tive Grammar. 

His " Comparative Grammar of the Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, 
Laltn^ Lithuanian^ Old Slavonic, Gothic, and German," wag 
published from 1839 to 1852, in six parts. He there carried 
out into all part^ of the Grammar the analysis which in his 
first treatise he had tried on the verb. The great principle 
vrttM the study of inflexions rather than roots. Languages 
bt'trav their origiit and affinities far more in their mode of 
construction than in their verbal roots; and the verbal con- 
jugation of languages so far apart as the Sanskrit, Greek, 
and Lithuanian is found to V« almost identical, In neces- 
sary connection with this principle is the other rule adopted 
by Bopp — to compare the o/f/c^/ accessible forms of the 
varioua languages. It Ib idle to compare modem forms, 
with the inflexions worn off and scarcely distinguishable, 
wh^n older forms of the same language are accessible. 
Therefore Bopp takes the Gothic and Old i>lavonic to repre- 
sent respectively the various German and Slavonic dialects, 
the Zend as the oldest Ibrm of Pursian, and fio on. Tho 



later developments may indeed be often advantageouglj' com-'i 
pered by Bopp^s succoeaors, since the filiation of lauguagea 
IB rarel}', if ever, eo accurate that tUe Inter laogtiagc doea 
not tiODtam wme reranantB of antiquity whioli the older wants. 
But the constant comparison of so many langiiages would ' 
liave beeu far too complicated for a first essay towards estab-^j 
lishiug the common origin and conunon system of coustruc"^H 
tion of the great family whitb we now call the Aryan. Bopp^^ 
sketched tbo main leutures with beautiful lucidityt leaving 
details to be fiUed in by others. The ^eat truth which hia 
Comparative Grammar established^ waa that of the Tnutual 
rGlations of the connected languages. Affinities had before 
him been observed between Latin and German, between. 
German and Slavonic, etc. ; yet all attempts to prove one ^M 
the parent of the other had been found preposterous. Bopp^^ 
bad in the Sanskrit found a language which had retained 
the original inflexions in far greater fulness, and by which 
the original inflexional system of all tliose languages could bej 
recovered, and their existing phenomena almoat always ex^ 
plaiued. The roots also generally appeared in a more primi* 
tive form there than in the other languages. Yet Bopp was 
very fur from regarding the Sanskrit as tho mother-tongue 
to whicb all tbo others stand in t]ie position of daughtera,.^^ 
On this subject be declared hia opinion distinctly in the ^H 
English Essay noted above; "I do not believe the Greek, i 
Latin, and other European languages are to be considered as^^ 
derived from the Sanskrit in the state in which we find it in 
Indian books; I feel ratber inclined to consider tbem^ alto-^^ 
gather \_i.e. all together? Sanskrit &b wgU oa the Europeai^^H 
languages] as subsequent variatione of one original tongue, ^^ 
which however the Saukrit has preserved more perfect than 
its kindred dinlectB." In accordance with thia judgment he 
often in particular instances finds in the Zend, Greek, Latinj 
or other tongues, the original fulness of inflexion which the 
Sanskrit had shortened, Tho Sanskrit is only among many 
languages the nearest in locality, time, and construction 
the iirst parent of the Aryan family. It is necessary to 
upon this, since it is sometimes said that Bopp made 


ion, ti^H 
) in&ist^l 
do to^M 



much of the Sonakrit — a reproach, which after considering 
his cautious and carefii] practice I think singularly untrue. 
This caution is specially manifested in the fact that he first 
compared those Ifingungea only of which he was the surest. 
The Old Slavonic was only added to the list on the publica- 
tion of the second part ; and the Armenian on the publica- 
tion of the second edition of the whole work, in three volumes, 
from 185G to 1861. In this second edition the work was 
greatly enlarged and in part rewritten, aud bears constant 
evidence of the care and the zeal with which the author had 
been following the course of inTestigation on this field, even 
at an age when he was supjjosed to be incapable of further 
original work. 

Shortly after the complfttion of the " Comparative Gram- 
mar," in 18o4j, Bopp published a "Comparative System of 
Accentuation, with a condensed exhibition of the Grammati- 
cal Agreements between the Sanskrit and. the Greek." Tlie 
notation of accentuation in the Vedaa had been explained by 
Bdhtlingk, and aflforded a new point upon which the various 
related languages might be compared. Of this Bopp wae 
not slow to arail himself; hut the only languages which 
could yield much information aa to the original principle of 
word-accent in the Arj^fin family, were Sanskrit and Greek. 
This book ahould of course be regarded as a kind of supple- 
ment (and a ^ery interesting one it is) to the Comparative 

Bopp read pnpers at vfirious times before the Royal 
Academy of Sciences nt Berlin, especially on the aiffinitiea 
of rarioiis families of languages (the Celtic^ the Mulay-Poly- 
nestam, the Caucasian^ the Old-Prussian, the Albanian). 
These are sometimes long and important. These and all hig 
other works of which I have obtained information, T cite in 
the appended list of his writings. I believe the list to be 
complete, with the eiceptioii of unimportant articles fur- 
nished to reviews ; and of these there were not many. 

Bnpp'e life at Berlin was very qiuet and uneventfut He 
attached him&elf with great warmth (o hia friends, and they 
were men of intellect. How deep was hie grief for the death 




of W. Ton tlumboldt niiiy be felt rather ttan read in the 
few simple words in which he epcaka of him in the preface 
to the seoond part of bis ComparatiTre Grammar (first edition). 
He appeared to keep quite aloof from the world of politics, 
and was as wTapped up in the interest of bis linguistic studies 
during the ti-oublous days of 1848 and 49, when I attended 
hia cla^, as he hod been in Paris in 1815. 

I may perhaps here be nllowed to give my personal testi- 
mony to his zeal. At the hour appointed for the lirat meet- 
ing of his claaa, in the winter Bcssion 184:8— 1&, I attended in 
his Anditorium to hear hia introductory lecture. Owing to 
political troubles the University had then a very diminished 
number of students ; and I found rayseli" alone when the 
Professor himself appeared. Aware of the universal rule in 
Germany, that "Trea faciunt collegium" — in other words 
that no profesBiT is hound to hold his class to fewer than 
three etudentis — I was surprisetl indeed wba^n he offered to 
hold it Jor me ahuf, only stipulalitig that I should attend at 
bis house instead of the Unirersity building. He thus de- 
voted to me, for a merely nominal fee, two hours a week for 
five months, without the slightest obligation to do so, and 
without a chance of any public recognition of his generosity. 
Some weeks later, as I mentioned above, Sieg^^'ried joined the 
el ass. 

To hia perfect literary Integrity and candour, and remark- 
able amiability of disposition, more than to hia fortunate 
position aa holder of so distinguished a professorship during 
the greater part of his lifcj must be ascribed hia happy dis- 
tinction^ as one who never either had or mode an enemy ; 
and this although ho was a Philologist in a country where 
the odium phihlofjimoH is often bitterer than elsewhere the 
odium theiihgicum, 
T/iNiiowt 1867. 

List ofihf irridnga of Proftssor Frauz Bopp. 

1. Uebei' das Conjugationssystem der Sanskritsprache in 
Vergleicbung rait jenem der griechischen, lateimsehen^ 
persiscben, und gerraanischen. Sprachc. Nebst Episodon 
dea Ramnjon und Mahahharat in genauen metriecbeu 


Uebersetzimgen. . . . Herausgegeben . . . von Dr. K. J. 
Windiachmann. Frankfurt am Main, 1816. 8vo. 

2. 4jialytical Comparison of the Sanskrit, Greek, Ijatin, 
and Teutonic languages, showing the original identity 
of their grammatical structure : in Annals of Oriental 
Literature, pt. I. London, 1820. 

3. (a) Nalus. Carmen Sanscritum e Mah&bhlirato, edidit, 

Latine rertit et adnotationibus illustravit F. Bopp. 
London, Paris, and Strasburg, 1820. 8vo. 

(b) Idem. Altera emcndata editio. Berlin, 1830-32. 4to. 
(e) Nalas und Damayanti, eine Indischo Bichtung, aus 

dem Sanskrit iibersetzt von F. Bopp. Berlin, 1838. 

4. Indraldk&gamanam. Ardschuna's Beise zu Indra's Him- 
mel, nebst andern Episoden des Mah&-Bh&rata in der 
Ursprache zum ersten Male herausgegeben und metrisch 
ubersetzt von F. Bopp. Berlin, 1824, 4to. 

6. (a) AuBfiihrliches Lehrgebaude der Sanskrita-Sprache. 
Berlin, 1824-27. 4to. 
(6) Grammatica critica linguae Sanskritee. Berlin, 1829- 
32. 4to. 

(c) Kritische Grammatik der Sanskrita-Sprache in kiir- 
zerer Fassung. Berlin, 1834. 8vo. 

id) Idem. Zweite Ausgabe. Berlin, 1845. 8to. 
{e) Idem. Dritte umgearbeitete und vermehrte Ausgabe. 
Berlin, 1861-63. 8vo. 

6. (o) Glossarium Sanscritum. Berlin, 1829-32. 4to. 

(b) Idem. Editio nova. Berlin, 1840-47. 4to. 

(c) Idem. Editio tertia. Pars prior. Berlin, 1866. 4to. 

7. (o) Diluvium : episodium e Mah& - Bh&rato. Sanscrite. 

Fasc. I. Berlin, 1829. 4to. 
(6) Die Siindfluth, nebst drei andem der wichtigsten Epi- 
soden des Mah&-Bb&rata, aus der Ursprache ubersetzt 
von F. Bopp. Berlin, 1829. 8vo. 

8. Ueber den Einfluss der Pronomina auf die Wortbildung 

im Sanskrit. Berlin, 1832. 4to. 

9. (a) Yergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit, Zend, Grie- 

chischen, Lateinischen, Litthauischen, (Altalawischen), 



Gothisclxea und Deutscken* 6 parts, Berlin, 1833, 

35, 37, 42, 49, 52. 4to. 
(6) Idem. Zweit-e gaiizlich. umgcarbeiteto Auflage. 3 voU. 

Berlin, 1856, 58, 61. 8vo. 
(c) Idem. A Comparative Granmiar of the Sanskrit, Zeud, 

etc. Tranalated by Edw. B. Eastwick. Second edition. 

3 vols. Loudon, 1854-50. 8vo. 

10. VocalisTuus, oder spracbvergteicliende Kritiken iiber J. 

Grimm'g Deutaohe Gframmatik und Grafi's Altlioch- 
deutchen SpracLschatz. Berlin, 1836. 8vo. 

11. Vergleichondes Accentuationssystemj nebat einer ge- 

drangten DarsteUung der grammatiscbca Uebereiustim- 
nmngen des SoiLskrlt und Griecliisclieii. Berlin, 1854, 
The foUowlng are all papers read to the Berlin Royal Aca- 
demy of Sciences, and published in its Transactions, in 
quarto j most of thom are to be had sppnrately. 

12. Yergleichondo Zorgliodcrung dea San&kriU und der nut 

ihm Tcrwandten Sprachen. 1824, 25, 26, 29, 31. 

13. Ueber die Zahlworter ira Sanekrif, GriechiBchen, Latei- 

nischen, Litthaai&clien, GotMachen imd AltBlawi&chen. 

14. Ueber die Zahlworter der Zendspraohe. 1833, 

15. Ueber die Celtischeu Sprachen vom Gesichtspunkte der 

Tergleichoaden Sprachforscbung. 1838. 

16. Ueber die Verwandlechaft der Malayiach-Poljneeischen 
Sprachen mit den Iridisch-Earopai^cten, 1840. 

17. Ueber die Uebe reins timraung der Pronomina des Malay- 

iach-FoI}iieaiBchen und Indiach-Europaiechen Spracb- 
stammes. 184U. 
IS. Ueber das Georgiacbe in spruchverwandtethaftliuher Be- 
ziehung. 1846, 

19. Die Kaukasisch^n Gbeder des ludo-EuropBiseben Sprach.^ 

stammes. 1847, 

20. Ueber die Sprncbe der alten Preussen in ihren verwandt- 
scbaftlichen Beziebungen. 1853. 

21. Ueber das Albanesische in aeineu verwandtachai'tlicheti 

Beziehungen. 1854. 


XX.~A REPORT, D¥ EussELL SUrtineau, Esq.. M.A., 
ON " The Common Sense of English Outhographt ; 


Wdrds^ by E. Jmtes." 

When I imdertook to examine and report upon Mr. 
Jones's treatise, presented to this Society with an urgent 
request that they would look into it and express some opinion 
of its meritB, I was entirely unaware that T was occupying 

>und which may be said to belong- to another. I did not 
'inow of Mr, Wheotley's paper on EngliBh orthography, 
read to tH& Society before I became a member of it. I 
should hare pressed him urgently to undertake a task for 
which ho IB BO much better qualified by previous study than 
I. However, a& the duty bos unfortunately been accepted 
by toe, I must console raysell' in my shorteoroinga by the 
thought that there may possibly be some countervailing 
adraatago in engaging the minds of more than one member 
of the Society on a subject of so inucb importance a& this. 

Mr. Jonea'fi aims as to the improTement of English oitho- 
graphy are neither viaionary nor revolutionary. Asa scbool- 
maater he knows the practical dif&culties which beset the 
instruction in spelling, and addresses himself to the removal 
of flsigrant inconsiat-encies. He tells us thut there are froin 
2000 to 3(J00 words in the English language of unsettled 
ortliography. It i» these CflBes which be wishes to bring 
imdor rule ; and where m the rule to be found P He 
Answers, in the general practice and the present tendencies 
of the language. Thus, go far from Lnnovatiiig ufwu the 
general syatem of spelling, he strengthens that systep by 
brtnging under its away the misguided words that have 
hitherto held aloof from it. When he finds, as m the case 
of the termination or or our (honour, etc.), about thirty words 
of doubtful orthography, or generally written with our, and 
a far greater number written with or by all writers, he 
gives hia verdict for the adoption of the form or in the 
former group of doubtful words. But with this principle of 



endorsing tlie deciaion of the majority he ccunbines another, 
that of atteDtiou to the present tendencies of the language. 
Thus he detects a tendency towards tho gradual ejectmeut of 
the less frequently used and lesa necessary letters of the 
alphabet. There is an aversion to the uac of /v y> and x in 
modern English. Many words ■which used to be written 
with these letters are now always w ritten with c, i, and s ; 
and he anticipates the ultimate disuse of the former. Words, 
therefore, which now heaitate between the two, be would 
spell with the latter, as dcmarcaiion, hoUday, civilise. He 
also detects a tendency towards simpler and shorter forma, 
and would decide in favour of a shorter one in any doubtful 
Aaae ; and he predicts the ultimate general adoption of the f 
for ed in the participles which are so pronounced, following' 
the analog;y of the already acknowledged fonns ttieanf, iosi, 
divsff ^melt ; and in this instance he shows a pi-oper faith 
in his own principles, by so printing all auch participles 
throughout his book. 

These principles, which form the basiit of most if not all 
the deciaionB and recommendutions contiiined in the book. 
ftftem sound as well aa modest. The eye of those who hare 
grown up in tho age of unsettled and inconsistent orthogra- 
phy would not be wounded by very frequent or Tcry violent 
changes ; and the reader who camo across nn unusual spel- 
lings such as }3ickt, ri'br/, valor, irarvlmg, would be led to 
consider the case, which would generally bring him to tho 
conviction thpt the new spelling waa supported by flic 
analogy of the language generally. 

Notwithstanding the fewneaa, the simplicity, and the 
general soundness of the principles upon which Mr. Jones's 
decisions are baaed, there are many collateral questions 
raised, aa to which he caunnt expect to meet with general 
assent. He will encounter disacnt from two opposite quarters 
— from those who adhere to the principle that spelling must 
be regulated by more or less regard to etymology, and from 
those who would have it conform to tho present pronuncia- 
tion. As he himself always argues strongly and well for the 
latter principle, I am surprised to find him often claaaing 




words foge-tlier as equally amenable to one rule, which are 
tmquestiouably pi'onouii'ccd tliflerenlly. Thus, because we 
form entmnce, aiigry^ and leprow, fi'om enter, angev, and 
leper, he wislies to write dextrous rather than fffj-ffroas ; and 
approves of tiie contraction lSc(irhm\ MSMkafit'o' , Ediubt'Q\ 
though au •:> is cleurly audible between the b and r. And 
tho distinction between arltst and itrfiste ia commented on 
■olely as a question, of orthography, while the diflbrence 
of pronuaciatiou, which can alone justify the separation of 
the one word into two^ ia altogether ignored. 

Thoae who defend to the utmoat the etymolog'ical principle 
of spelling will have f'ai- more objection Xo mako. I 
cannot myself take up this ground aa a genei*al or eTen in 
any case a very frequently applicable principle ; but one or 
two remarks I must make, which seem to come under this 
head. Our author appears to me to have hardly studied the 
Ibmmtion of laog^iages adequately as to the question what 
Words are Eugliwh and what arc not. He aeein& to n*iumo 
that whatever words are used by an English writer, or 
may be found in an English dietiouaryt are English, Tlius 
ho puts Athnaeum in the same cntegorj' with acsthvfic, 
hotnotvprifhi/, nedilf, although by retaining the Latin termina- 
tion it remains a Latin word, and may well plead exemption 
iVom treatment as an English subject. No treatment of 
English grammar and English spelling can be thoroughly 
Mtisfactory^ which doea not put these foreign words whicli 
retain their foreign inflexions or their foreign accents 
{I'tjuaMr, curator, as opposed to senator) m a distinct class 
firom the English or Anglicised words. Mr. Jones touches 
indeed on th ill subject in tho following words; — ^" The con- 
ditions of the naturalisation of words is a most important 
question as regards English orthography. What length of 
residence and what extent of familiarity is Bufficient to give 
a word the right of citissenship among us?" but it will he 
seeii from this ver)' extract that he regards citizenship on^ 
oonforred by "length of residence" and "extent of fami- 
liarity" alone, not by the very form of (he word itself> 

It ifl also aot a little curious to find a writer who recom- 




m^ndA BpeUipg in accordanco witli sociid, and who aay^, 
"The &impl@ question is, Are we to stoad still now in regard 
t* orthograpliy ? Will any one say to the tide of progress 
in apellingf which haa already set in, ' hitherto shalt thou 
como and uo farther P"'^ — to find such a one confessing tlie 
potency of habit to put a veto on certain combinations, such 
OH tliB double f, which would arise if we were to make triing 
conform to (rinK But Mr. Jones does throaghout admit the 
existence of a fondness for certain letters and certain com- ^j 
binations of letters, and a repugnance to certain others ; «nd ^H 
thesa feelings, even when not justifiable on any clear prin- ^^ 
oiple^ ho respects. As he is thereby reatrained from falling 
into any impracticable extreme of pkoneticiBm, the oouTie 
ho doefl pureue is perhaps to be commended, although tho 
concession to what "looks well" is dangerous, becau&o it 
may logically be used rc^inst all and every change. 

Tltiit a more careful study of etymology is to be desired 
will ftppcur fiom the following extract on *' E and omitted 
before R." 

" It is one of the freaks of language which cannot be satis- 
factorily accounted for, that the worda in the first colimm 
before should be contracted, while thoso in the seoond 
column should undergo no contraction : 

" remembrance, temperance, 

hindrance, deference, 

cumbrance, conference, 

uti central, pastoral, 

neutral, aeirerul, 

monstrous, murderous, 

cumbrous, pondcrotia." 

^\'hich is here the "freak of language," the spelling or 
the pronunciation ? I^'ot the former, for in both classes it 
■ccurately represents the pronunciation. The pronunciation ? 
surely uot^ for that follows the etymology most oloeelj. The 
r of <A;/tfre/tiv and confirfnc^ is nothing less than the root 
Towel, which it would be a barharism to eject except under 
aome Tery strong compulsion. The ? of fitnperance and pon- 
*««*, though not radical, ia enential to the h&tin orLg-imii ; 





as is the o of yastoml. Sercral preaerrea the e of the 
French severer, now contracted into *ecrcr, which waa a in 
the Latin etymon sc/mrare. Oa the other side, neutral and 
men^troua are obseryant of their origin, in omitting the i ; 
and Mr. Jonea must not, because he likes to write center 
rathtj than cttiire, think to introduce cetitcral for central. 
Retncmhrance, cumbrauce, cumbrous, and ancestral are equally 
fQ,{thful to their proximate French origin, whatever may be 
their ultimate pedigree. Hindrance and tnurd-eroui are hybi-id 
wordjs, which follow the analogy of othera. Thus the modem 
pronunciation and spelling of ail these words turns out to be 
sometbiDg of which wo may feel proud : in a matter so 
minute as l^e retention or rejection of a short unaccented e in 
the middle of a word, they have remained coasiutent to their 

Having thua attempted to give the substance of Mr. 
Jones's pi-oposals, and to show how far they appear to 
deserve support^ I proceed to ask, if any reformation of or- 
thography is po^ible, is this the scheme which should be 
recommended ? Does, this reach the weak poinlB and strong- 
then them P lb reformation on other points than those 
reached by this treatise desirable P 

It is obvious that in touching only the words respecting 
,icb doctors differ, a somewhat arbitrary selection of words 
made. A dictionary published tomorrow might increase 
the number of words of "doubtfiJ" spelling by any number 
of thousands according to the caprice of the writer ; and 8i> 
the words at Mr. Jones's disposal might be indeHnitely in- 
creased. In fact, his only advantage in restricting himaelf 
to wordu difl'erently spelt in dictionaries is that it enables 
him to rest on the authority of others aa to the fact of the' 
diSerence^ and himself to come in as arbiter of differeneea, 
not a^i creator of canfusion. Yet when the public mind is 
ripe for such a change, it may (having once found out the 
blissing of analogy and uniformity) demand more. If not 
for the &ake of theoretic correctness, yet for the practical 
needs of education, an approach to principle may come to be 
tLoccasary. How apelling can be taught at oil in elemental^ 




scIiooIb ia a constant wonder to ino. There is not a singlo 
rule which the teacher can lay down, which has not almost aa 
many exceptions as examples. " Final e leng-thena the pre- 
ceding Towel^ aa in imd'c, i/ite." But then, what of hve^ ^^orp^^M 
tongue ? " O before e or i ia sounded lifcoy, ns in gm^tlc^ gtn,'* ^^ 
But gig, ffihl, get protest. " Oh after ait and on ia sounded . 
like/, a& hugh, cough, rough" But haughttj^ phitgh^ bough ^^| 
And, worse of all, what can the teacher mako of the double ^^ 
vowels en {mch, bread, grfat), ai {hail, ayuiust), au i/anlt, 
hmtnchf, h^it4jh), ou {^utiri^ tpoutid, soui]^ oio {bhtP, troivel)t-\ 
ew (yew, nheiv), ei (i-pceive, reign), k (Jjefd, tie) P Or^ approach- 
ing the subject from, the other sidcj the following vowel 
sounds have a plurality of modea uf expresaion, between 
which the lucldeae pupil has to chooae: 

a in (!}f — a, ui, ay, ea. 

e in eel — e, oe, ea, ei, ie. 

e in ell — g, ca, ai. 

i in i<lle — i, le, ei. 

in old — 0, 06) ou, ow, ew, oa , 

u in cue — u, ue^ cw. 

ou in pound — ou, ow. 

au in fault — a. an. aw. 
Thua, whether the pupil has to utter the written wordfi 
or to writ« the littered one&, in cither case he haa so many 
pOBsibilities before him, that it can only be by mere chance 
if he hits on, the con-ect answer ; and it is through such 
guesawork, which cannot be dignified with the name of dis- 
cipline at all, that he makes his entrance into the world 
of letters and science, where everything onghi to be oi-dered 
Recording to syatom and intelligence* I am not speaking 
too strongly in saying that our want of systematic ortho- 
graphy has reduced the advantage of alphabetical writing to 
a minimnni, and made correct spoiling virtually impossible. 
.Noonu can be sure that he always spells rightly. The fact 
that lexicographers, who have devoted their lives to the 
study of tliis very subject, differ among themselves in two or 
three ttioiisand words, proves this. And in many cases one 
who doubts 13 wiser then one who knows of no misgiving. 






Two modes of spelliiig- have very commonly abont equal 
claims, and will therefore he both used, until some aathority 
or else mere chance cause the one to gain and the other to 
lose popularity. How spelling can uuder these circumatanceB 
be made a subject of examination by insppctors of education, I 
am ut a. loss to understand. A child may surely without 
blume write beef as be/e, heuf, hi^f\ bfi{f\ f>mjf^ etc., since all 
these combinations mig;ht be used to convey the sound. 
AVheu our primary education ia becoming one of the great 
questions of the day, thia question of orthography must 
assume a higher importance than it has ever had hitherto. 
When it is important to educate tho mind, it is cruel to force. 
it l^t to leAm the dictionary through, to know how to spell 
each word separately. "When the mind is bein^ introduced 
into a realm of exactitude, order, and principlej the spectacle 
of pure chaoB in language cannot be ediiyingj but rather 

This ia not too strong language, in my opinion. The dis- 
covery that there is disorder where order was intended to be, 
that what claimed to possess power ia really imi>otent, and in 
general that an agency of power of any sort is wanting in 
that very power, and is a sham, — this shakes all the faith 
that ifl in us. and makes us doubt all honeety and reality. 
So in orthographyj each letter ia formed for one special pur- 
pose, to express one sound ; but no sooner have we mastered 
that lact than we find it silent, or representing another 
soimd for which another letter is providt-Hl, and we are told 
by our teacher simply that the woi"d is in'fgular — without 
rule ; ia other words, that the rule given. Is no rule at all. 
^Vhnt can the child tliink but that such rulea are not worth 
learning, that there is no real principle ia spelling 't But 1 
hftve heard it said that childrea do not learn principles, but 
separate instances 5 or that they learn spoiling as they learn 
to apeak, picking up each word as it is wanted \ and that 
therefore irregularity signifies but little to them. But be- 
tween learning to speak and to read is interposed a period, of 
DO long duration if measured by months or years, but vast 
if measured by mental development. The child learns to 




speak when it haa uo use for speech but to express tli^ 
simpleat craving of nature, and before tlie reaaon appears to 
exist even in embryo. The child who learns to read la a 
being rational, capable of eserlion, sensitive to p raise and 
blame, uud wiLh some feeling of right and wrong. And 
these qualities are required for learning to read. If not, 
why not teach it at the earlier age P We see then thi 
reason is required for learning to read ; and therefore thai 
reading is learned differently from speaking. As to tl 
other objection, do not children learn principles ? Ask tli( 
child who knows the e in he, but not the ea of similar eound,' 
to spell tfti\ will he not write te? Does the child not /orw* 
tfords on principles, auch as r/wme'^, eheeps, gooses, on. th« 
analogj' of the plurals in s ; and if so, how can any onal 
maintain that principles are nof hing, examples everything, ii 
earlyi even the earliest, education ? 

If the present Bystem had any hlatoricnl value, as indi- 
cating the source, the original pronunciation, or any other ^^ 
important fact about a word, we might reconcile ouraelve^^f 
to it. But its ponlfive uptakes oro so many that we can,^' 
never place any faith in it. We write mi'fivifftit from the 
ridiculous idea that It has Something to do with the verb to 
reign; poaiftmnovs with an A, from the error long since ex- 
ploded by Latin acbolara that it referred to those jyos^ /mitntnif. 
after death ; syifan, though scholars always now write sih 
in Latin ; islami from an imagined connection with »>wui 
whereas it is Anglo-Saxon, and should be Hand or eylandl 
Why should we write the participles fprrad, ikad, but on thi 
other hand ^-w^ fed ? That sonio htstorical information may 
be conveyed by the present orthography cannot be denied ; 
but wheM one half of such information is demonstrably falsa 
information, the other half is open to suspioion, and is pi 
tieally useleas. And eTen if this half were absolutely relial 
it is an open question atill whether the retention of 
orthography, or the keeping of the orthography in accordance 
with the times, j-ields more information to the historian. 
The orthography Ghttcester^ Ponte/ract, certainly tells him 
more clearly than Gtosier, Pom/rei would, the original fonu 

falsft I 




and the etymology of those names ; but on the other hand it 
«i3iicos all record of the gradual modification of pronunciation, 
precludes our knowing when firiit the pre&ent abbreviation a 
came into use, and thus obliterates the whole history of the 
word excppt the single fact of ils original form. Henoe I 
contend that oven the most plausible argument for the old 
spelling, the argument most likely to find favour with men of 
lettera^ who like the tiitvour of antiquity, works in the very 
opposite direction. 

One argument agninat too eedulous adaptation of the 
orthography to the pronunciation, I must notice before I 
conclude. It is leas pretentious than the last^ but is more 
difficmlt to meet. The pronuncJatioa is not a fixed quantity, 
u to either time or place. If you keep pronunciation and 
orthography gomewhat apart, you make it possible for York- 
shiremen, Scotchmen, Irialimcn, etc, to read eaeh in hia own 
way a London newapaperj and en 7-eraiwhc each of those 
provincinls will publiBh his own works in the same English 
as the London writer ; a national literature becomes possible 
under a common orthography, which recognises the right of 
each province and each person to pronounce the written, word 
as he chooses. If spelling is to conform to prommciatiDn, 
Yorkshire will have one literature, and London another; 
and this would be a serious disadvantage. And as to time, 
it is eaid (hat pronunciation changes too rapidly for ortho- 
graphy to keep pace with it ; no sooner would one spelling 
be establishcil and be taught in our spelling-hooks, than the 
pronunciation would be modified so as to render the esisting 
literature and spelling-books antiquated. I think these 
diiEcidties really iasunnoun table and unanswerable, only — 
they refer to some possible country and time, not to the 
England of the present day. The countrj' is so far madi^ 
one aa to its litt-rary language, that the dreaded provin- 
cialisation could not take place ; for though a d^ercnce 
in the pronunciation of vowels is noticeoble in certain pro- 
vinces, yet Qs that affects alike all words having the same 
vowel it would not aliect the Hpelling at all. And as to 
time, the change-ii are certainly not now — whatever they 



may hare beou — ao rapid as to jufitifj tbo alarm that hi 
been auggesfed. 

One prnctical qiie&tion. romaiiis — ia there any ag^nc 
powerful enough to intnjtiuco any of the suggestions fq 
improvement in orthography ? Probably the g-encraJ iin-' 
pression ie that there is not. And probably that improasion 
la not far wrong, as far at \cnat a% actually existing agencies 
are concerned. Yet in questions of this sort— like political 
onea on eloctoral or educational roforra, etc.. — the cwr intrtiaf. 
lasts to a certain point, and thun suddenly peri^ihea to every 
one's Burpme, and leaves tho tield open to anything new. 
The Nan posauimis is apt to be carried too fbr. A single 
writer, if of great popularity, has much in hia power. 
Dickeiia or Thackeray had chosen to adopt even the inoe 
absurd vngariea of orthography, they would have been atrouf 
enough to stem & tide of ridicule which would drown a 
author ; and if such writers adopted an intelligible systei 
which was a manifest improTement, they might probably 
carry many with them, and the tadt approbatioa of many 
more. If any corporate bwly possessing considerable ia^ 
fluenoo on education— especially the Government Inapectoi 
of Suhoula — were to recommend the adoption of some of th( 
possible improTomentSj much more might be effected, and 
more i-apidly too. And wc are now seeing in a &omcwhat^_ 
analogotie instance how iuTeterate educational prejudice*^! 
may be suddenly swept away — not of course without leaving 
regrets behind on the part of Bome, but at least so fiurely 
that a reiturn to the antiquated sj'stem would be impossible. 
I refer to the aboUtion of the Eton Latin Gramtuor and the 
adoption of the new Public School Grammar. Our Society 
may look with some pride upon this victory of the modern, 
system of language — for was it not Professor Key, one 
our oldest and most active members, whose papers are fouw 
in every volume of our Transactions, who Hrst introduce 
the Crude Form gysteni, which after yoaxs of ridicule ai 
indifference has now attained a kind of imperial sanction P 

Mr. E. Jouea appears to desire that our Society shoi 
take up the question of orfchogrnphy, and to think that 




would have some considerable authority in accelerating the 
adoption of some sensible system. The English do not 
liira dictation, and have perhaps font soii peu of contempt for 
learned bodies; and it has been the fashion to banter the 
French Academy with remarks about languages not being 
made, and therefore not being alterable, by academies. This 
is very true, but very much beside the question ; and I hope 
the prejodioe is wearing off. Still, the fact is, that at the 
present time the spelling has been conformed to the pro- 
nunciation in nearly every literary language of Europe ; 
whilst our own is more behindhand than the French before 
Yoltaire. Our Society might do something in the way of 
maturing the ideas of its members and developing a scheme — 
showing how far it is expedient to go ; and this might very 
possibly be a public service rendered in time to smooth the 
way to the persons in whom the power is vested, and show 
them the possibility and the mode of action. If, as I cannot 
hdp thinking very likely, the inspectors of schools should 
come to the conclusion that the teaching of spelling in schools 
is scarcely possible, and that by the poor and illiterate cor- 
rectness can never be attained (since by the odticatcd classes 
it is really gained through an extent of reading, and an 
acquaintance with Latin and French, impossible to the poor), 
their opinion would have a weight which might raise the 
question from a theoretical dream to a practical problem ; 
and might result in the establishment of an Academy, or the 
appointment of a Royal Commission before which most diffi- 
culties would vanish. In such a case the matured views of 
even a Society like ours would be listened to with respect, 
and our recommendations might obtain an influence which 
under ordinary circumstances we should never have the con- 
ceit to expect for them. Like the miner, we must toil long 
unseen and unthought of, till at last we may emerge to the 
light of day and be foimd possessed of imexpected golden ore. 




J. C, Atktnson. 

The tenth verse of Pa. civ. in the Danish version runa 
thus : — " Du lader kilder oprt^lde i Dniruf : at rff gaae imelhm 
Bjergene :" of which a translation into the Cleveland ver- 
nacular might be, '' Thou laf^ t' kelds upspring i* t' d«!tds, 
at tba ma* gaa. amell t* baurghs;" where, independently of 
the fact that the vowel sounda in tkott, np, gitrn, coincide 
with the corresponding Danish onca, And that the inserted 
fe sound in daha nearly coincides with the inserted i or J 
in Old Danish or S. Jutland stien, Danii^h /y'c/Ji, etc., the 
words kelfh, deeah, at, ffaa, ameM, hniirghn are coincident 
with the worde in the Dunlsh extract. Moreover, Imurffh ia 
pronounced harf, where the ff of the original wortl ia softened 
into / or p, juat as in Danish plot, SkoVj etc., from O.N. 
plogr, Skogt; etc. 

Again, if any one propoaea a certain line of action, or 
makes a enggegtionj to a Clevelander, to which the latter 
sees no objection, bis assent will be almost certainly con- 
veyed in the formula; — "Weel, Ah's nowght agen that.'* 
The modem Dane would say, " Jeg kar ikkc nogft imod det" 
where, although the words may vary, the one is simply a 
literal translation of the other. It is the same idiom, in 
either tongue. 

Further, the CleTelander, looking upon a person whose 
bodily case is noticeably fat and well-liking, is very likely to- 
express his sense of the matter in the phrase — "Weel, he 
deeant luik as gif he'd lived upo' devfif tiuh." The native 
of South Jutland ie wont, in like case, to say, V Han leecr 
inf ved d'orv NitdrJ" The latter provcrbinl expression {ord*- 
prog) is from J. Kok^s "Danake Folkesprog i Sonderjylland." 
The next is from Molbech's " Dansk Dialekt-Lesicon," " De 
cr eett^ meer end m Lapp* i en Ho L&« " {ode Lads ; Cleveland, 
toom lathe, or empty bam) ; said of a family living in a house 


far too large for their requirements. Of such a family, or of 
an individual in the same circumstances, the Cleveland 
" ordy>rog " is, " Lost, like a kpp iv a kirk." 

Yet again : the Whitby Glossary gives the sentence or 
expression, "What he has got, he has hlashed for," as of 
property obtained by a seafaring life ; and this other, " Ay, 
her poor fellow may weel blmh" as a comment upon a sea- 
man's wife's extravagance. But Professor Worsaae, speak- 
ing of the Old Vikings, and their passion for marine ad- 
venture, says that "the generation next in succession to such 
men, to whom a sea-life was a necessity," could not but con- 
tdnue "idelig at pladske paa Som." 

Illustrations of this kind, and from the standard Swedish as 
veil as from Danish, in a far greater degree from the dialects 
of both, and even to a very considerable extent from the Old 
Norse, are literally of perpetual occurrence ; and this quite 
independently of a large percentage of words in the dialect 
which appear to be purely Scandinavian, without any exist- 
ing Gtermanic homologues. In short, there is such an in- 
fusion of Danish idiom and Danish words throughout the 
dialect, that it would be easy for a superficial observer 
to come to the conclusion, that it is mainly or essentially 
Danish, rather than simply a dialect properly so called. 

But undoubtedly important, and even preponderating, as 
the Scandinavian element may be, it is a matter of some 
moment, and, possibly of some interest also, not to over- 
estimate it so as to neglect or overlook other elements which, 
to say the least, may be equally important in any attempt to 
analyse, or assign the constituents of, the dialect as a whole. 
Thus, one of the most characteristic idioms of Cleveland is 
the phrase, " to sit upon one's knees." During the twenty 
yeara I have spent in the district, it has never once occurred 
to me to hear, from the lips of a true dalesman, the ex- 
pression " to kneel down." " Noo, honey, sit o' tha knees ; 
t' priest's gannan' t' pray," or the like, I have heard almost 
hundreds of times. Now, in the Northumbrian Gospels, 
Luke xxii. 41, where the Authorized Version has, " And he 
was withdrawn from them about a stone's cast, and kneeled 




down, and prayed," wo meet with, " "j lie was gefearrad fro 
him, sua micle stmiea woerp is, -j mid gesetnu cmoU gebaed/'^ 
Also, in Layamon'a Brut., Vol. ii. p. 606 : — ^ 
" JJcos bere-jrlgofi jireo : 
comen to ("an kige. 
& »eiien an heorc ciicoicvu : 
biforen |an kffiiaere." 
Again, in Seinte MaigaretCi line 2G8, we read : — 

*' >is holi luaide saf diviro ; 1 hire ejen to lieueue caate." 
In Meidau Mnregrote, 1. 67 : — 

'* Midiibua htirde \m wordea. he aette him acni." 
In King Horn, 1. 779-782 :— 

" Cutbeid hco luddc in to haUc 
And be a kne gan fallo : 
He 4iefie h'un a kueirthjimj 
Aud grette wel J'e gode kyng." 
WTiile Lajamon furnishes & Tarying form at iii, 185 : — 
" JPor lie itii on cneotcc ibedo ; 
& eleopede anere touward gode ;" 
And the Old Norse, Flatenarbok, i, 161, admits the phrase 
Meudr tt htinnum. 

Now, wliile the attitude intended by the formula, " he Ijil 
on cnenwt-," would appear to be one rather of beseeching 
jjrostmtion — (jradde ie tho verb used in tlie second text — - 
than of mere devotional kneeling, the action and attitude 
described where the words " sinidr a fcitmnum " are employed, 
is simply une of kneeling before, iind a little over, a ilre 
lighted on the gi'nund, partly that the person kneeling may 
fosftr a clieerful blaze, and partly to revel in the warmtii of] 
it upon hitj breast and alioulderfl. The O.N, phrase, " to stand 
on one'a kneea," therefore, seemB to be equivalent to th^j 
Saion and semi-Saxon to "ait on one'a knees," and this 
makes it apparent that the basis of the coincident Cleveland 
phrase le a Saxon — I would mueh rather eay an English — iaj 
contradistinction to a Danish one.^ 

' Tbe pliDise Wiciirfii nni not oncp onty, in Chaucur. Tbu.% to giFe ono in- , 
aUooGi from tho Coke's Ts)Iu of Gnmelyn.!, 1396 :^ 

Wlirtn that tliey tiaddc hwi futittdin, 

Oh kiie^* thiE'y Lliam wHHt 

And nOoun vitli tLcir hod*, and 

Cinmijija tbelr Lord gntte. 



AgaiHf to take an instance from the " Gliissaiy of Words 
and Phrases used in Wliitby aud the Neighbourhood," a 
book which, notwithstandiDg' some faults, containa Tery 
much indeed that is mteresting and rftluable» we find the 
expresBiou " To rap and ree, or reeve ;" together with the 
infltancG^ *' They rapped and reed for him all that they could 
\&j hands on," and the comment thereon, " Thia remark is 
oft heard as applied to a fond parent who tries to enrich in 
particular a tavourito child above the rest of the family." 
Mr. Wedg-wood givea the form rap and rrtin, with, the expla- 
nation, "to get by hook or orook," and odds, "I rap or 
rertiifi, je rapine. — Palsgr. To rape ami ranne. — Chaucer. To 
get all one can rap and run. — Coles in Hal." In the Craven 
Glosaary it is " To ramp and reeve ; to get by any means, 
&ir or foul.'* The Gloasariat adds, " This curious expresaion 
occurs in the works of lexicogruphers in a variety of forms, 
which I shall here attempt to give in a connected view. In 
Skinntr it is ' rap aud remi.' .... Colij/'are, Art, Arrnhhr^ 
says to rape and rend, to ravine^ rob, spoil ; to get by hooke 
or by crooke. Baiky has it to repe and renne, to rap and 
rend ; and Ainstcorth, to get aJl one can rnp ami run for. 
In Mmjc it is rap and ran. . . . Dr. Johnson, to rap and 
rcftd, or more properly rap and rati,** The first word of tho 
formula then, runs through the forma rap, rape, ramp ; the 
second through ntn, rcnne, rendc, run, ran for (!) redFC, rc$, 
rtite. I believe that our Cleveland phrase preaerves the 
original foi'm, and that that form ia a veritable Old EngUah 
one. For, in Layamon, Vol. ii. p. 16, wo have — 

" Heo ntptca heo ripfdrn, 

noht heo ne bi-la^fden : 

Castles heo (nomen). 

Bruttos heo slojen ;" 

'the second text also giving a coincident form, TJa : — 

"Hii rapfen hii rc/dcn ;" 
Pwhile at p. 128 of Ancren Riwlo^ we meet with the sentence 
following : — " ]?c uoxea, J^et beo^ }e valac ancren, aao voi is 
best falsest, jieos habbcS, he sei^ uro Louord, here holea in- 
ward tcr eor?io, -j drawtjS al iata bore holes, Jiet heo muwen 



oftfpM i arechfn" with, for the phrase under comment, the 
^irying ridings, reptn "] rineti, ropm I tlmeti. Sir Froderick 
Madden, in the passage from the Brut, Himply readers ruptmt, 
" thcv robbed,'* without refercuce to the present tense of the 
verb, which must surely be rfip, and which, as well as the 
Ancren Riwie forms, repeitt arepen, may be referred to A^S. 
rypau^ ftr;/pnti (to tear quickly, to take or sweep bastily 
together. Bosw.) with itfi N.S. cognates rapen, rappvn, rather 
than to O.N. Arajxit or even the Pr. Pm, verb " r/ipi/n or 
hasten. Fesiino^ accfJrro." Between the forms rxfen & rarAcH, 
or arechetif there la no more eaeential difference than between 
Cleveland grujf and Old English gtuth ; matt/ (a brother-in- 
law) and O.N. tnuyr, A.S. itmg ; arf (cowardly) and O.M". 
argr : etc. So that the phmae rap and reitf, in our Cleve- 
land dialect, ib preserved in the form, unaltered in all essential 
purticulare, in which it occurs in the so-ealled semi-Saxun 
books just quoted from ; and its English origin is seen even 
more distinctly by a comparison with the O.N. " leida rikin- 
gum ran ok hrifkan, to thoroughly plunder tho vikings,'* 
given by Mr. Wedgwood, or this, n-iftti og ruplade nf />eim 
alUpat erfemcBtt rar," froiu Flateyiorbok, i. 'iS'i.i 

There is another Cleveland saying which might perhapa 
he alleged as n further inafnnce in point ; namely, " Ill- 
gotten gear carriea no drith in it," as it stands in the Wliitbv 
Gloasary ; or, as I have heard it, " lU-gotten gear has nae 
dritfi (sounded dreet'j wi' 't ;" — but I think it would be leas 
appropriate. Certainly, aa far as I am at present able to 
ascertain^ this word dnth (or dreet*) is peculiar to Cleveland, 
and there can be no doubt of it-s close relationship to the 
verb drfi in the following passage from Towneley Myaterioa, 
p. 156- 
" Symeon. l^otyd be my Lord in wylle & thoght, 

That bis servant forgettes noght. 
When that he seys tyme ; 

TTeile is me that 1 shdle dre 

' Chaucer'i form rupfi and rmne, cr as it standi in wmo t'ditioris, rtpt and 
p/nw*, especially as tei side by side with itio varying Tending in jLucren Rivlo, 
rrprn and riiifH, 13 lipt Without interest, -where the sucoui Wl-rd luiut, of OOUfSft, 
bt nfered to A.3. Arinan, to touch, etrike, catcb bold oC 



Tylle I LavB Bene h}Tn with myn ee 





The fundamental idea in either word is that of cotitinuance, 
abiding (in a neuter aenae), or lasting, just as the Terb drefi 
is given by Hajj with^the meaning " perdumre/' and dre or 
firet/f by Jamiesonj as implying '* to enduro, to continue in 
life." Dree, as an active verb, ia no doubt corret^tl^' referred 
to A,S, dreofjan, to do, work, suffer, bear, live. JLtlrcoffun also 
is active, and our neuter dre, dr'ifhy as derivativea at all, must 
coDflequently be derivatives with a secondary or arbitrary 
sense. But the Swedish dioja, with a close affinity in sound 
to the Scottish form dtrij, has exactly the eame meaning 
with it and with Northern dre or dree : viz, to stay, to delay ; 
while the Provincial Sw- adj. drj/rjt, and the Provincial Norse 
»b, dri/gd approach very closely in form, as in senae also, to 
onr drect' ; indeed drygd is simply coincident. Neither can 
gmr be appropriated as exclusively and unquestionably 
Anglo-Saxon. Possibly the Scandinavian tongues claim as 
much property in it ag either of the Germanic, and with 
entire justice ; while gottfn is certainly English, and a 
variatiou from the more characteristic Cleveland word geiten. 

Neither shoidd I adduce eueh expressions as gmt nor sfand, 
gan or ride (equivalent to walk or stand, walk or ride), 
although to be met with in Luyamon, or even in Piers 
Floughman,^ and of constant and characteristiii nse in our 
rernaoular, becauso the idiom is common to the 0, Norse 
and allied tongues, with semi-Raxon and Old English. 
Thus I have two references to Gan or ride in but a few pages 
of Flateyiarbok alone.* 

■ Tills autlior employs the form ; dn w nV<; Wt hia eqaitklent for ;t)fi JKr 
. ttand is tiippt nt ttaitd. 

• The pbrBBO " to bear at hand " might be noHeed. Tho Wb. GEos^ary gives 
tb« myiliK, " I'll btar thee at hand for it," m = '■ I will remember you after 
I'bi* fgt aoiag h." As 1 bare heurd it used, it vas rcitbec u eauiraleaC U> 
jfiviiig the person ipoken of the credit of doin>r something diaagtM*!)!*, but uu- 
joitUy. CompaTO the follnmup. Pilala (spcniing of ihi.' SaviourJ i — 
" Nnttii=r in dedsi iie in aaw can I tiiiilu witho no wranjj, 
Wherfor je shuld tym draw, or btrt fulsely m* hand 

Witha illo." — Towodey Hyitp^ 20JS. 

The pbtue 19 of comtant oMuriflnM in Chaocer, and in mii» »iaetimw accord* 
oloael; Titb tb« tuaze io thfl paua^ just qucted, e.^. ; — 

"Thia falsa knight ttiat Wh the trwonn yrrought 
Serifi her in A&»ff nhe hatb drme thia ttijiig." 

-(Mm of lAwe'f TbJo^ I 63U,} 



But simple or compound words of umnixed Anglo-Saxon 
(or Old EngUali) original are common enoxigb, iu tho Cleve- 
land vocabulary. Thus, drmm-hohs, defined, by the "Whitby 
GloBsarist oa '* the allta or loop-holes in chuirh ateeplee, 
BtmrcAses, iand bftms, for the odiniaeion of light and air," and 
by Halliwell aa " openings left in the walls of buildings to 
admit light" (given as a Gloucestershire word), ia simply 
soninf-holes. Bosworth interprets A.S. dream, by " 1. Jotf, 
ghditess, mirths rejoicing- 2. What causes mirt/f^ ittsirumenU 
f^ music, mueiCf harnwity, rtttfodr/, song." And in Hali Mei- 
deuhod, p. 21, "Ah al is meidenes song unlich )eose wi^ 
engles Imeane. drmm ouer ol Jje dtTtini^s in heuene/' the 
word occurs with the full senso given in the Becond defini- 
tion; ae also at p, 19 of the &amc book. I3ut in the passagCt 
" And ^e don al so ase je wulle^ ]>ni ower beoden bemen "J 
^teamen wel ine Drihtenes earen." Ancren Riwlc, p. 430, 
the sense of song or music has given place to that of 
&onorou2nc8a, — melodioua it may be, but not tuneful. At pt 
210 of the same book» " )>e prude beo¥ his bemares, drawelS 
wind inward] of worldlieh hereword, 'j eft., mid idel ^Ipe, 
puffe hit ntwanl, ase J>e bemare di>¥, vorto niukien noise — 
lud firettm to acheauwen hore horel," the idea of meloiiy or 
pleasantness even ia lost, and simply that of loud, ostentatious 
sound is retaiucd. 

And agnin. Wife of Bath,'* Prolof^e, o"S :— 

" I iare hjid ou hond be liad cbnnCid me." 
The intoning in nil {ht»e extracts ia obvious; in tlie Fnllbwiti^ it varies, and 
inpiin aimply reflotutd pemfitence in nndi^guLSGd fnlaehood '.^- 
" Ye wise wiri« thsl can undintondo, 

Thiu shat ye opeke, And (itriu ihvm on haatU, 

For half so boldily there can no 01011 

Bnerin and lyiq jw n vomao cam, 

I "iiy ticit thi* by wins tli;it bra wiacj 

Uut if it be whuiL tlie; thor them mixnriHi.\ ■• 

A wise wjfo sliJiK, if that sw cau her gude, 

3«rin thera iu fttmd (hdt the uow Ib wodt'. 

And takith wtlauas of Iilt {intie> Muidv 

Of licr iws«jwt." — lb. 22a. 

With Ibe pliroae u it sUmdg expUiitAl in the Wh. OIdss,. and erim witti tb? 
•ense it bnra in the iK-ntwiice Kjunttd hj myBelf, wmpari! Fn *fffr her J^ur til 
hmh^al >«« ^iJfiit 9/ fwckittum tJioiM* ^ur/alida. wliere we have the same v«b, 
■nd the same gb, in connMtion with an iutermediale prispositira, and na ■tulo^mn 
kind of fligniflcFiHop. 



So ftlao in 

" ifuchel dom muchel dune 
Muchcl Iblkea dream" — Laj. i. 43, 

Or, "FeoUen Eerm kempes; 
lemteden Bodeles, 
drem was on volke : 

pa eorBo gon to dunien." — lb. iii. 230. 
"trBcre the word impliea simply noise or sound, clamoQr or din. 

Again, chizzd (or rather, chisel^ if one haa regard to ortho- 
gnipliy) for bran, is another instanco in point. There con 
be no doubt this word ia due to A.S. cease! Cglarca, Babwlum). 
father than just simply and exclusively to Tout, k'tewk, 
gluma, to which Forby reforB the Norfolk word chizzhj, sig- 
nifSnng '*dry and harah. under the teeth." Pr. Pm. gives 
" chysel or grauel," and in the notes other authorities art* 
quoted with explanations or applicationa of the word in hand. 
That which is dry, harah, husky, georag to be the idea in- 
volvod, and thence the application to the object, bran. 

It would be very easy to append a considerable list of auch 
illustrationB, but enough hoa been idready advanced to answer 
my purpose, which was simply to show the danger of too 
hastily concluding^ from the great prevalence in the Cleve- 
land Dialect of Danish words and idioms, that the dialect 
it&clf is mainly or almost exclusively Danish also. On the 
coutrarj', there is in il a very coneiderablp proportion of ater- 
ling Old English, as contradistingnisbed from Danish. It 
in like the fabric called shot silk : viewed one way. it has one 
fair tint as the prcdoniiuant one, from another point it takes 
another and a different hue. Subjected to the test of cloae in- 
spection it is B mixture of botfa, and it ia uot until after som^ 
investigfttion that one ia able to ascertain which really pre- 
vaila. Perhaps it ia even morelikea luixcd silk and cotton, or 
cotton and wool, fabric, in which the matoriaU are not evenly 
blended; but in different parts, sometimes one, aometimea 
the other, prepondemtea. So that here it &eeni8 to be woollen 
dotbt but there, almost certainly, cotton ; alUiougb, still, with 
the result, on comparison and analysis, that one or the other, 
oa the whole, diatinotly out'ioeasures its fellow -constituent 



in quantity. So, in some parts of tlie Cleveland Dialect ilie 
threads of both warp and woof aro almost purely Old English, 
in others, mixed old English and Danish, and in yet others 
again almosfc unmixed Old Danish; and, whpro like crosses like, 
so to epeak, patches of uunungled material are evidently* 
perhaps obtrusively, apparent. And this is, I conceive, dis- 
tinctly and in large proportion most true of the Old Danish 

Aa further illustrative of the matter in hand, I may 
perhaps be allowed to append an extract or two from the 
introductory remarks to a Glosaary of the Cleveland Dialect 
upon which I have now been, occupied for aeveral years. 
" Should an analysis of the verbal constituents of tlte dialect 
be attempted, one thing, I think, will make itgelf sufficiently 
apparent to any oao tolerably familiar with our EugUsli 
tongae in its more archaic foniis, so soon as be begins to 
examine and dissect our vocabulary. He will find a variety 
of Old EngUsh words and expreasious, end aeveral which 
scarcely appear, or possibly do not appear at all, in Early or 
Middle English, but which are still to be found in Anglo- 
Saxon. But ibi- a Ccw of this deseriptian he will find a very 
conaiderable number that are not to be found either in Anglo- 
Saxon or in any stage of English ; while a very considerable 
proportion of the whole will be found to consist of vocables or 
phrases, which are met with individually, or by some repre- 
aentative of their stock, in both tlie Scandinavian and 
Germanic languages and dialects, and noticeably the most 
abundantly in the former. It must bo ray effort to give, in 
a few of the following pages, some kind of analysis euch as 
may servo at once to justii'y and illustrate these slatonaenta. 

" In the fii-st place, out of 21S woi-ds taken in sequence 
from the commencement of my partly-completed Glossary, 
omitting none but those which, in point of derivation, might 
be jujitly looked upon as duplicates of one already admiltod;^ 

' Thua I tjike bairii, but omit iairnijih, iairnuSmM, &o. Sltouid, liowerer, 
a crmpt)un4 ndrJ occur whirh npppnra as a crtrnpoimd iu ATiglo-Saicni,, or in 
•tj IScnjiOinavmn tQngy^i or dialfct-BUch a vwi, (or imiunve, hr f'flim-ffam, 
A.S. t^'atn-fcrttrt, OT, ilaggarlh, 0-N. itarkj/tirlir—it hiu Wn uicluilf^ altliou^li 
« reprtMtilatiTe df ifs claws iiiiglit DlrefltJy have rciutid pLace. I nhimtd olweiTe 
thftttbg iTcrlt Q^rcIaealQctitton Tu b)' no juvauc euy, Btid th«' dilGiCuU]: trm not 




2S appear to be Auglo-SaxoHj 18 Old English, 10 corrupt 
or famUiar English, 07 Scandinavian (that is to soy. Old 
Norse, Swedish, Danish^ or belonging to sonic dialect of 
either), 42 common to Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxon op 
other Germajiic tongues, 11 Mediieval Latin or Norman 
French^ 5 Celtic (TVel&h, Gaelic, Breton, etc.), and 7 the 
origin of whieli seemed doubtful. Again^ out of 359, miaU 
larly taken from the latter part of the Gloesar^* {under letter 
S in fact), 21 appear to be Anglo-Saxon, 17 Archaic 
Engtish, 60 corrupt or familiar English, 129 common or 
mixed, 4 Celtic, 8 Meiiseval Latin, or French, and 17 
doubtfiil. Estimating these figurea on another principle, the 
tabulated results will be as follows. In each 100 words in 
the tirat and second aelectiona from the Gloeeary, respectively, 
there will be, excluding fractions : — 


2 'as 

6 5 16 36 29 







5 =100 

This result 19 remarkable in more respects than one. In 
the first place we remark upon the decided preponderance of 
words of Scandinavian original over those of pure Anglo- 
Sason. Secondly, wo have the noteworthy particular, that 
the sum of the "Anglo-Saxon," " Scandinavian,'* and "Com- 
mon " columns is in the first line 7G, and 71 in the wcond, 
and that, after allowing for this coincidence, the main 

lewencd by forcg-ooe coriplusioas eiistin^ in roy mind. Stiil I fitruvc tu be impar- 
tul, ani evtn lo allow Pit any insoneible biea. It mny be edded, first, iTint ibu 
ftfiiljsia of thjMU S50 words wub IIip wcirk of nearly two ^Mjt, and wub th* 
adrnDta^Q of ihc MS., mainly cuni]]lete. Iwfore mv • and sccnndlj-, that in seliret- 
iBr lelUir S, u letter tras taken vrliioh occupies a conEpicaoiu place ftmtmf^ tbo 
otber letters in uLl toiiKue* of Ootliic origiu. Jn Fliildorwn'd It^^lAndtc Lexioon, 
wordft brfriamtiR tvitlk b tuke uu nlnio^t 14} per ci-nt, nf thp enlite upace; iia 
Datin'f s^wpiIIbIi Dictiannrri aWit 18; in Moltnech'a Danisli Dictionarj- nearly 
16; in Boaworth's Anglo-So^nii Dictionary, about HJ ; in Bilptrt's Gcrmin 
DictioDtry, neirly UJ i and in RiohardBon'B Engliah Dictionary t'^nly) nboKt ll . 




difference will be found under tte Head of Corrupt or 
Familiar English. 

Of course the figures on wbicli these deductions rest muat 
be regarded as merely an approximation ; but still I feel euro 
that, for all practical purpoacB, it is a safe and eafficient ap- 
proximation : and it is certainly one whicli ia entirely con- 
eiatont with the suggestions which are perpetually made in 
the courae of systeumtic and attentive study of the elements 
of the dialect. 

It is, further, a remarkable circumstance, that with all the 
fttriking illustrations of Cleveland words, phraac*, and sounds 
which ar« met with in the Daniak dialocts, and specially in 
that (or those) of South Jutland, yet there are almost more' 
and moi* striking ones dispersed throughout the entire 
volume — ^a most admirable one — in which Dean Rietz has 
ooUected the peculiarities of the Swedish popular speech 
through the various provinces of the entire kingdom. At 
tiret sight it seems scarcely reasonable to anticipate any such 
result. We hear of the Danes and the Nortlimen as the 
invaders and ultimate coiifjuerors of England. We identify 
the Jutlandcra as forming no email comparative proportion 
of the invadiEg and colonizing host^. We recognise the 
successful chieftains who, with their men, settle on the lands 
granted or conceded to tltem in Northumbria, and Yorkshire 
^'Specially, as, generally speaking, Danes, But we heor of 
very few Swedes, either u& among the troops or the leaders. 
Not that we doubt there were Swedes among them ; it could 
scarcely haTe been otherwise. But what I mejin is that the 
proportion of Swedes among the Scandinavian cruisers and 
mar-auding or invading parties, must necessarily have been 
flo ^iii&W as to be indgnihcant ^ and that, as forming or 
taking any part in the various expeditions directed against 
the English cortsia, the Swedes engaged must have been pre- 
sent simply as recruits in a Dani&h force, and in no sense as 
a separate or independent auxiliar)- force^ 

And slill, the Northumbriau Dialect and the Cleveland 
form of it in particular, unquestionably indebt^»d to Scandi- 
navian «iJ6eeh for considerably above one-half of the pecu- 




iiaritics vliicfa constitute it a dialect, is illustrated as much 
by exiatiiig Swedish dialects m by Old Norse, or existing^ 
Daoisli or Norwegian forms, even if not perceptibly more. 

Anomalous as ihia seetns, yet in reality it adxoits of eoay 
explanation. There can bo no doubt that at tbo time when 
the Danish conquests in tho north of England were becoming 
consolidated, and acquiring more and more of Danish form 
and consistency as well as population, the original SeandJ- 
navian tongue, supposed common to the Danes, Northmen, 
and Swedes, was already undergoing considerable modifica- 
tion.s, wliicli in one direction eventually results in Old 
Danish lending down into Modem Danish, in another into 
Old and Modem Swedish. But it must be obserred tbai in 
llie case of Danish the modificntion adverted to is mucb more 
thorough and operative, and has residted in a much greater 
divergence from the original, than in the case of Swedish. 
The latter is the child in whom almost all tho lineaments of 
the parent are reproduced, and not a few of bis peculiuritiea 
of personal habit and gesture as well : in the former, tho 
likeness exists, and strongly, but is not so obtrusive, and 
oftcTD presents itself rather, as it were, to the thoughtful and 
comparing beholder than thrusts itself on every passing eye, 
I vould say that Swedish, and especially the Swedish dialects^ 
may be> in a eenee (and that not a misleading one), regarded 
as a kind of instantaneous photograph of a transitional state 
of the Old Norse tongue ; the period of transition being not 
very far removed from the dale at which the Northitmbrian 
Dialect began to assume a distinct c-onsLatflncy and form ; a 
date we cannot fix, even very approximately, from internal 
or locally historical data, except in so far as we assume, on 
seemingly very sufficient grounds, that it must have been 
d[;>cidedly Hnbaetjuent to the end of the lOtb centurj'. And 
heatce the simpler explanation of the fact that the Swedish 
diulecU and tho Northumbrian still retain a very consider- 
able proportion of words common to both ; not a few oJ' 
which, mori.'OTcr, occur in uo other dialect or vocabularj' 
besides the two in question. 

Another iUustration of tlia extent to which Northern 



elements still prevail in our vocabulary has been obtftmccl 
the careful coUation of thu Seini-Saxon Ancrcti Riwle (aa- 
Bumcd to belong to the latter part of the twelfth century, op I 
the opening part of the thirteenth), ^Layamon'a Brut» of 
about the Bnme lime, and of tlio Early English Poems of 
Piers Ploughman, " probably given to the world between the^ 
years 1360 and 1370," with the Cleveland Glossary. In 
the work first named, there are 215 small 4to. pages rather i 
closely printed, in the second, 32,200 short ■verses, and in the : 
last, 14,700, together with 1,700 in the Creed— in all 16,400 ; 
while the Gloeaarj'- contains about 3,920 words. The result 
of the coUotion is that in Ancren Riwle there are about 230 
words which are either found in the Gloasaiy ot are nearly 
rolat-ed to some that are there met with. In Layamon the 
number of such words scarcely amounts to more than 200,^ 
while in Piere Ploughman, the number hardly exceeds 105. 

This result is^ it must be admitted, a somewhat remark- 
able one. The average percentage of pure Anglo-Saxon' 
words in the Glossary can scarcely be set down at less thani 
10 (my ow^n impresaion is that it is certainly greater) : and 
yet in Ancren Riwle scarcely 5^ per cent of our woi'ds or 
their connections occur ; in the Brut, only a little over 4| ; 
while in the Early English book the per centage dwindles 
down to one-half of that.^ 

Not tbat the results thus obtained are at all to be looked 
upon as aurpriBing or inconsistent with reaaonahle anticipa- 
tion. On the contrary, co-ordinate enquiries, where possible, ^^ 
into the older history of the district, and examination of ita^^ 
local terminology, together with a glanoe at the waning 
aspect of some of the originally more marked fe-atures of the 
dialect itself, prepare the observer for the occurrence of pre- 
cisely these phenomena. Thus, there are 119 names oi 
place;!* given in Domesday : of these 38 end in hr/, 6 in torp, 
12 in li/Ht 3 in ellf, 2 in horg, 2 in c/ak, 1 in rfrif, 3 in a/. 
All these are certainly of Danish origin. There are, beside^) 

' In the TownelriT Mysterip*, a booV due to Weit Yorkebire, t^nough o^f cmj- 
ridMsMy iiit«r dnte thim Piers PlonghmBii. the number of -wordfl coincident with 
OT rtlflted to words ill our GlessAry rif-ei W {I bcliere) about 430 or 440. 




11 whicli do not udinit of clasaiftcation, of wliicli tte mnjority 
are Banish. And ihere are 39 ia /on or dm ; and Jl is only 
necessary to say that, while it is a great mistake to assume 
that ton is an exclusively Anglo-Saxon termination^ and 
papecaally in a district exteneively colonised by Northmen, 
in not a few caees among these Cleveland names in ton or 
tun we hnd the aaino prehs.cs as are met with in other names 
of undoubted Danish origin and etymology. And thns, on 
the whole, the conclusion arrived at is that at least 75 per 
cent, of the Domesday names of Cleveland localities is, 
beyond question, Old Danish, and that the propottion may 
even touch upon -^ of tha whole. 

But further, thc^re arc many names of townships not spe- 
cifically mentioned in Domesday — as, for instance, Swainby? 
Huthwaitc, Potto (Pot-howe) Scugdale, Trenholm, Scarth, 
all of Danish origin, in the one parish "Whorlton ' ( Wirueltun 
of Domesday) ; and many local designations in ancient doeu- 
raenta which specified eub-diviaiona of the principal manor 
named in Domesday — ^as for eiaraple, Overbi, Nethrebi,Thing- 
wala, Hclrcdale, Guip, Btirtwait, Setwoit, tlvDurebi:, Thordisa, all 
of which appeal' in doedg connected with Wliitby Abbey as 
the names of Whitby localities ; of which the vastly pre- 
ponderating majority — a raajonty, in fact, so large that the 
minority sinks into comparative insignificance — are as ex- 
clusively Old Danish in form and origin as the names of 
places in Scandinavia itself. In a few words, if we could 
mark down upon a blant map of Cleveland only the names 
of plueea, hu£ all of {hem, as they were known in the tenth, 
eleventh, and twcll'th centuries, I believo the numerical 
residt would be that certainly more than 90 out of the 100 
would prove to be presumably, if not demonstrably, Danish. 

Add to Ihia, that, out of 27 names of owners of property 

^ In the tvrit«r*fl pdrieh, Danhv, &i& the township of Gloisdatc, the diri^ionB, 
Prrop Dale, Danby f>r Dulo HghA, Dauby Botlan, Danby or DrIp End [Of. O.N. 
4^timtfft»i) uucl AiDthoTpo ; beeidea the local iiBmE«, Clitherbeolc, I^ucivr^ick, 
UutilHykf, ]!ilillt1hwi)LU>, f^tc.fttle. The lutine AinthoTpe (alvays otiHii Auu'rup 
hf the people: qoniparQ the DudIsIi drup of contiaunr occurrenfe^ baa u cunitua 
butorv. Two centurii'S ngo tha hamlet m> named wa$ called Araiitelkwaitt. cHen 
^AitnBntbwHile or Armtbnaite, In i:;dmparalt'rdT rec&st timf« U hm dropped 
tho None te'rmuiLitiO'& thivaiU to assume die Daui^a Iharpt. 



in Cleveland at a poriod shortly antedating Ibe Domest 
record, the selection of tlieae, — Magbanec, Lieucuot, Kdmund, ^^ 
Aldred, Uctred, leaves th.e maBs unadulterated Danish or^H 
Norse ; while, so far as such testimony is scantily attainable, 
it is alao evident that the serfs or villanes, some two or three 
generations later than Doniesdny, were distinguished by 
names as ScandinnYian in their sound and form as those of ] 
the OrniB, Ulfe, ftuucns, Archele, Aschelg, lJlchela> and th^j 
like, of the Conqueror's day. 

The mereat glance at this array of facts, even stated as 
baldly and plainly as I have stated thcra here, must suggest 
the query :■ — If the district, in the cose of 90 (or more) out of j 
100 places of the lltt and 12th centuries, was re-named, or 
Hrat-namcd, by Scandinavians ; if the owners of the soil ia] 
1080 were 22 out of '27 (and not allowing for duplicataJ 
names) of apparent Danish origin, and their dependants,] 
many or most, in the same category ; what, is it reasonable 
to suppose, must the character of their language have beeu?^j 
Are we to suppose a strong, a preponderatingj nay, an oTer>«^| 
whelming Danish colonization, and a mere " infusion'' of the ^' 
Danish tongue ? or, ai9 more probable, that there must have 
been also, at least originally, a preponderating currency of] 
Danish words, idioms, and even structure and grammar? 

I say, "at least originally," because, and quite indepen- 
dently of Buch evidonco as is afforded by the Norse dative 
hanum in the Aldbnrgh Church inscription adverted to by 
Mr. Gamett, one must allow for the operation of such in-i 
flucnces as the greater diliusion of the standard tongue of thai 
realm by means of books, enlarged intercourse with peopli 
who used it, attendance on the public ministrations of thai 
Church, and the gradual innovations of increasing conneo* ' 
tion with the outer districts. These influences might require 
time to work in, but most of them have been strongly la 
operation since the Reformation, and some of them would 
begin to operate from the time the provinces began to 
really and eflpctually constituent parts of one consolidated! 
kingdom. And thus not only would Norse or Old Danidh 
hamim give place to Old English hinfj htm, but it may be 






taktin as affording a type of a large and not easily reckonetl 
clasH of like clianjg'es. 

Besides, if the notices of tke Conqueror's sweeping devasta- 
tion and depopulation of so much of Yorkshire is to bo ac- 
cepted as strictly historical, the wonder really b«;oinea, 
not that 80 little evidence to prove the original prevalence of 
a Danish form of speech (in Cleveland as elsewhere in. 
Northumbria) remains^, as that so very much of what is un- 
qualiHed Danish in origin and idiom should haTC been able 
to abide, and to abide, raoreoycr, to Uiis day, notwithstanding 
the wearing and wasting influence of the canses just now 

I ogk some measure of attention to the conaidemtioiiB or 
snggestions thua briefly put forward, while I go on fco speak 
of a matter which bears closely upon the question of the 
original form of our dialect in common with its co-members 
m the groat Northumbrian Dialect; I ineau the qiieation of 
the definite article. And here again I may take leave to 
avail myself of the papers already once quoted from. 

*'Mr. Gamett decides, that because ' in the fiJcaudin avian 
dialectii the detinite article is uniformly postjxisitive, and 
coalesces with, its substantive, and in the Northumbrian 
dialects the same article is a distinct prepositive term, there- 
fore the said article 13 not the Scandinavian article ' {Gar- 
nett's Collected Essays, p. 43), Mr. Peacock, on tbo other 
hand, contends not only that the grammar of the dialects in 
L^juestion is in many particulars Scandinavian, but that "the 
''first and moat remarkable characteristic of Northumbi-ian is 
the definite article, or, more properly, the demonstrative 
prouotm V, which is an abbreviation of the Old Norae neuter 
demonstrative pronoun hit, Swedish and Danish ct " (Some 
leading characteristics of the dialects spoken in Aneient 
Northumbria, p. 5). " There LaTe been retained," he con- 
tinues, " amongst the Northumbrian dialects, certain cx- 
pressiona which are identical with Scandinavian ones at the 
present day, and those leave it beyond doubt that the word 
60 abridiied is no other than tho Kcandinavian neuter art. 
hit or et In Tauchnitz's Swedish and £ngligh 




Dictionary (Pocket Ed. Leipzig, 18G1), under the woi 
itriid — Eng. breast, among other phrasea connected with 
that word we find "at( fjifta bnrnft brimfet — to give the child 
BUck " (lit, to give the child the breast). In N. Lonsdale 
and in Westmoreland tlio same phrase would be— 

" At give *t barn 't brest." 
where we find the two expresaioua identical, word for word, 
except for the poatpositive Bituatiou of the Swedish article 
ct, which twice occurs aa a suffix to the nouns ham and 
brl^L Now suppose, by way of illustration, we make the 
Sw. art. /j/^e- positive instead of j)os?-positive, the sentence 
would then stand thus r — Sw. ntt >fijni et barn i-f bro^t ; Nor- 
thuinb. '• at give 't bam 't bri^st ;'* and tho identity of every 
word ia at once apparent, the only difference being that the 
initial letter f in the article snfiei*s aphaoresis in the pro- 
vincial of Korthiumbria." 

Mr. Peacock further considers the apparent " outrage on 
the Scandmavian idiom " herein involved, to be the result of ^j 
an " amalgamation of their lang^iages " among the two ^| 
races — "the establiahed Saxon aettlera " and the invading ' 
Northmen— coneequent on their eventual intermixfure. lie 
asaumes " a fusion of language, the grammar as well as tho 
vocabulary, continuing to gravitate until it came to 6ome- 
thing common to both. The definite article would have, of 
course, to be dealt with among other things, and would pre- 
sent one of the greatest difficulties/' but the difficulty 
would "end in a compromise in which the Saxon adopted the 
Scandinavian articlej and the Northman, became reconciled 
to the Saxon mode of placing it " (lb. p. 8). 

But it seeraa to me possible that, to say no more, some un- 
neceeaary ingeimity ia displayed in this manner of account- 
ing for the form of the Northumbrian definite article, while 
the writer, equally with Mr. Garnett, overlooks the fact that 
the prepositive definite article ia not unknown in the Scan- 
dinavian dialects; or, la other words, ia not "uniformly 
poalpOiSitive,'* does not " anifomily coalesce with itfl sub- 

" The most striking peculiarity about the South Jutland : 



;t," says Mr. Kok (Det Danske Folkoeprog, in Sdnder- 
' jjUaad, ved Johannes Kok, Sogneprsest i Burkol ved 
Tonder)^ "is that it does not apply tlie coalescing {redhmiiftr) 
or poatpoflitive article {endeartikef ). Either no article at all 
IB employed, aaowt Dagi om Nat, oin Sommer, etc. ; or it ia re- 
placed by fieti, det, (/«, aa den Mosfrnper {ike Hostrup men), 
de Tikuiringer (the Tonder folks) ; or, what ia most conimou 
of all, by fiimple e or (P, which is used prepositivolv, and is 
le same for all genders and numbere, as <? Btj, c Barn, e 
Byndcr (the farmers}, e hcie Mus.'^ 

Further, the same writer, in reply to the remark that the 
article in question, the prepositive e or te, ia a proof of 
Germaiij Frisian, Anglo-Saxon, or EngUah influeuce, pro- 
.ceoda as foUowB :— " In our oldest Dauiah — that of the thir- 
ith century, — the poatpoaitivo article, -t'K, -rt, -ene is of 
very rare occurrence; a circumstance which, as Moll>ech 
obaerrcs, may very well corroborate Grimm's remark (hat 
the usage in question ' may well appear to be one of later 
introduction and originally unknown in the Northern speeofa, 
but which becomes of more frequent occurrence the lower we 
come down in the stretim of time/ " ^ In Henrik Ilarpes- 
treng'a (died 1244) " Laegebog " it is met with only two 
or three timca. Much the same is true of the ITaderBlev 
and Flenshorg "Stadsretter," the latter bearing date 1*284, 
the former 1292, and bath written in the speech of the 
burgbera of that time. The postpositive ortiole occurs from 
time to time, but frequently it is either omilttnl altogether, 
or eUe replaced by the pronoun Mte/t, fhfpf, fhc {deu^ del, dc), 
aa (hr Bijmen (the townsmen], then J5y (the town or village), 
iite Born (the bairns) ; '* jT/w tuHyfuB t/m frcBiider et inkm the 
Bon/ meth Iherw gooz i t/wrte yorntB, titan (he frcemlcr gortf 
full vmte. . . " (in that case the relatives must not take the 
children into their guardianship except the relativea give full 

' CompnrE-l^t fotlo*ing, from "Aoacm^'oralt Oriiinmfttik,"' p. 157: "Tt w also 
ctmrliniptl tlin,t the finnl tttticlo was not in use in the muin uncicnt periiid? (of the 
itp^cch), 1111(1 tbat k Wfis at n cftrapafiiUrely later piriitd thnt it onme inl" ttat 
rxnoral nsr which we are ncPHsUtniM to. Even flA it is, ill certain cnit* it m 
dn^pi<d in fikmiliar language ; IW instftDCo, in neiiler nouai in gf where the luffli 
f i* hot ioiindeti, ft* in Bflii-{t) ; aiiri Also in fi-mininw in a, where tlie sd^ed n ia 
■11 casa drapa aqt, oa in XU>kka for Kickkan," 




security, etc.). "Froia tlie pronoiin fhfcn, thfdt, the," caQtinues 
Mr. Kok, " the article e or c lias been doi-iivetl on this wise ; — 
hurried articulation has first dropped the final m or /, and 
next the aspirated or lisping initial consonant ih (Y). so that 
nothing but c or <t was left roinaining. Corresponding re- 
jections of the final n or t are of continual occurrence in the 
ooinmon speech of Norway, iu tho dialect of Funen, and in 
North Juthind, and even, finally, in tbo ordinary or every- 
day conversational speech of the Danes ; as de mond, de IIu«. 
But, peihaps, the most convincing- proof that the article e is 
thus derivid., h found in the South Jutkiid dialect, vhich 
still employs den, drf, de, whore the standard language uses 
the postpositive article, thus, ' d^jf er de Pikers Lam ' (that 
is the girl's lamb), fur doi er Pigt^rnes Lam ; de Taudnnger, 
de AboUiogeTj de ^l-otfpi', etc>, and in the Bibk, d^ Roni(!n\ de 
Konntier, etc. This uae of the pronoun rfsn, rfi? can only be 
reg:arded as a trace still roniaiiiiup; of a ouce general Danish 
mode of speech, wliich the Jutlandera have omitt'ed to change 
OS time rolled on." 

This may serve, perhaps, to throw some light upon the 
true nature or origin and history of the Northumbrian 
definite article, and consequently on its true form. On the 
one Bide, Mr. Garnett's statement is seen to he by far ioo 
sweeping : on the other, there seems to be no necessity what- 
ever for subscribing to Mr. Peacock's theory of amalgamalion 
and compromise. It is stnted as a fact that up to the end of 
the tenth century the influx of the Danes had not raiiterially 
changed the written dialect of North umbria.' In the four- 
teenth century, however, the innovations, alterations, and 
additions duo to them had been fully effected ; although, &t 

1 '" It nppenrfl tlut Ihe fldmiitiiro of tbo Northratr in th* popiikticn of the 
lioTthDTDbiian proviucrH linil not prtxluced iti fuU effect upon tfic luigiMge in 
ihu tmtli century \ iw, rith the cxt:i.-[jiLiiti of va& at Uto isolated words, there ia 
nalliiiij; llimt nin hf. Eat i(<rn>i? tori ly reftrred to ihnt Aam of din]ect«, cither in the 
Durliam Ttjis or the Bushworth Oospcle. In ihc ftmrteeath ccuturj' the troc« 
of tht« influence! I)e4^^>me nin<'h ittrong<'r. The 'Curt*t Mundi'ftiid tho Noith- 
mniirinn mt'triral yersian of the pRvlms abuund with irortla tolallj wokntiTTii lii 
th« Suinn (lifilects, hul of regnlnr fK-currpnce in IrelsDdic, Danish, and Swetlial», 
One ofthe iDDBt reinarkah]o uif th(«f> is th& ScBnilinaTiaii profit to infinitives, cf 
think^ at do^ iltsl«jul of lo Ihink, to <!n, whicfi is an uoequivwa] criterion of a 
porelf northern diulDct, and an eqanlly rerl«in one of the ISctBdin&vian influnice 
irhcieby th^t dialect hm ^eo rnDdificO." — (Giinictt'» fiiilolid. £na;a, p. 1&8.) 





what particular epoch in the interval we have no evidence to 
eliew. The inevitable inference^ of coureo, is that tho chang-e 
which is foiatly boconiiDg sensible in the i-enih century goea 
steadily ou, and is accompliahed within the next two or three 
Reneratiiflna ; in other words, becomes un /tut accompU at 
a period aoraewhal antecodent, probably, to that of wliat Mr. 
Kok coIIh "our oldest Danish" (a^ldsfc Danskr), when the post- 
positive article was of very rare occurrence and open to bo 
charactorized as " an innovation unknown to the original 
Northern speech " (en iildigere for de Nonitske Sprog oprin- 
deiig ithffcji'tuit Itidretning) ; and when^ in the Danish writings 
still extant, the prepoaitive definite article perpetually took 
the form of the, more rarely, ihet. If we further bear in 
mind that our English sound of th was unknown — almost 
impossible — to the speakers of the ^Scandinavian tcpng-ues j 
that afl Thor was and is sounded almost as we sound Tor (the 
nctuul form, by the way, which the name takes in the 
Domesday list above adverted to), so thv must have been 
sounded nearly as our te, wo naturally arrive at the con- 
clusion that tho Northumhrian definite article not only may 
he, but rather actually is, the Old Danish definite article, 
and that consequently its proper form is f, and not V, as Mr. 
Peacock proposes to write it. And with this, I may add, 
fhe articulation of the Clevelander is in the strictest agree- 
ment : the small noup^on of the suppressed vowel is after, 
and not before, the consonBat. 

Time would utterly fail me were I to attempt the difi- 
cujBtiion of the vowel and other sounds of tho dialect aa 
spoken, or notice the influence of the Old Danish accents 
on the present forms of our dialect words, and other nearly 
cognate matters- They involve queetions and considerations 
of great interest, but I must be content at present with 
simply appending a few words, selected, almost at random^ 
from a very great number nearly or quite equally interest- 
ing ; tho only principle allowed to operate in the selection 
having been that of taking a few words more or less illustra- 
tive of some of the matters under notice in the preceding 



Anqebed^ ndj. — Of a sore or wound. 1. Looking red and 

iii£imied. 2. Very imtubk* and painfuL 

O.N. angra (ango, molesto) ; O.Sw. hngrn. Compare *'JVii 

hefif miff aitgrat s'ldan frott." — Flatey. i. S30, and angren in 

K Plouglini. p. 311. 

"Thelif of holyeemtfls, 
What peoBunce and poverte, 
And passion thei suffirede, 
In hunger, in hele, 
In aUo tnacere an^rrs." — lOlo^-lOldS. 

In pronimciation the g Bound is much suppressed, aa at the 
ead of the words tfimrf, hang, etc. The corresponding pro- 
nunciation in Danish and Swedish is quite noteworthy, as in 
Mangel, betin^ehe^ etc. 

Arf, adj. — 1. Afraid, timid, cowardly. 9. Reluctant, back- 

0,N. m'gr (I. piger^ deaea : 2. pavidus, formidans) ; 0.8. 
arg (a coward) ; A,S, >'(trg, earh (timid; also alow, slothful). 
This word occurs iu the printed t-i'xt of Aueren Riwlo in tJio 
form amh, p. 274, in the iscnse, cowardly, and twice in the 
Cleopatra C. MS. in the form arch. In Layamon it appeura 
in the form cirr^fi, the corresponding- word to which in the 
second text ia hfiri (1, 185} : and it is ohservable that in A. 
Eiwle, p. 203, in place of arcJi in Cleop. C. the printed text 
has hfnfr. I compare these forme hart, h^nh; with Brockett's 
form airik, oi' arf or fuyh ; his esample being "an nhihfal 
night; i.e. a fearful night." Jamieson writes our word 
"Arch, argh. airgh, crgh ; guttural," uud it is another in- 
stance where with us tlio/ sound replaces that of ^ or gh^ aa 
in lui'tjh, brough, nmti/, etc. 

£r. 1.—" He ia deepert (J)f in the dark." 

2. — '^Ab'a (fr/" about giiiinau. All's nue niiiid til't.*' 

ARGH ^j — j^ ^^ . yg^mUy on^ forming a low ridge by it- 
Dauroh j ^^^- Compare "Langbaurgh," in Cleveland. 

0.^. Berff, fii(i3-ffh ; O.S. l/crg; Dan. hjtst-g ; M.O. bairg ; 
O.H.G. hi^rg ; A.S. bvury, beorh. The Line. Gl. gives b(if/^ 
with tho definition, "A hill running parallel wilh a low 
ground." Barf is simply the phonetic spelling of baurgk or 


barghy and depends upon the softening of the g or gh sound 
into / or v, so common in our dialect and those it depends 
upon. Comp. arf, bruff, gruff, mauf, pluf, thof, thruff, etc. 
It is observed that the Cleveland name Langbaurgh or Lang- 
barugh (for it is officially spelt both, ways) ia in Domesday 
Langeberg, simply. 

Barken, sb. The external parts of the sexual organs of a 
cow ; the " shape " and appurtenances. 
Sw. Dial, bdrane, harne ; Dan. dial, bwrend, bterild; O. 
Dan. b<Brisiid<^, b^rcmde. Comp. Germ, bdrmutfer, Dut. baar- 
moeder,- — O.T^. bera, O.Sw. itera, Sw. bdra, etc., all mean to 
give birth to, as with Eng. bear ; but while Haldorsen says 
of bera, that it ia in Icelandic specially applied to the par- 
turition of a cow, and N. b(era implies simply to calve, Ihre 
remarks that the modern use of bdra is restricted to cows 
simply, /o/tt being applied to mares, lamma to sheep, hwalpa 
to the dog family, kissla to cats, and yngla to other animals. 
No doubt the spirit of this restriction is connected with the 
application of the words barren, harane, bxrxnde in the 
peculiar sense they claim. 

Beough, sb. Cpr. bruff). A faint luminous ring or disk 
about the moon ; technically called a corona. 

A halo is defined as an "extensive luminous ring, in- 
cluding an area in the centre of which the sun or moon 
appears, and is only seen in winter. It is formed by the in- 
tervention of a cloud — usually the denser kind of cirro- 
stratus — between the spectator and the sun or moon. A 
corona, or brough, occurs when the sun or moon is seen 
through a thin cirro-sfratiis cloud, the portion of the cloud 
more immediately around the sun or moon appearing much 
lighter than the rest. Coronce are double, triple, and even 
quadruple. They are caused by a similar refractive power 
in vapour as the halo, and are generally fainter coloured at 
their edges." — Stephens, Book of the Farm, § 604, 605. 

Jamieson supposes the name brough, thus applied, to have 
originated in ** the circular form " of the appearance, and its 
resemblance to the encampments so designated, from 0.17. 



find S.G. httrff, A.S. hutg^ bttrh, etc. Independently, how- 
ever, of the fiit:t that such encampmenta ai-e not called 
frrocf/A-s in Yorkshire Jind many other parts of N. England 
where that name la yet applied to the corona, the circum- 
stance that such rings about the moon p.rc Btill in Iceland 
called rosd-bmtgr, or atonn-rings (Scenes and iSagas, Iceland, 
p. xixi.), Haldoraen also giving rom-haugr (halones sy- 
derum), distinctly indicates O.N, hatifjr (a ring) as the origin 
of our word, There ia in it, therefore, another instance of 
the oharacteriatic metatheaia of tho dialect (or traugpoaitioa 
of r and its eucceeding vowel), as well aa of the ti^naition 
from the g or gh sound to that of/ or r. Por the former, 
compare dozs. or duzz for drozst through the intenuediato 
form dorze. The Lincolnsb. fonn ia hitrr. 

Oassdns J si. The droppings or dung of animals of the ox 
Caz?:ons ) kind dried for fucL 

O.N. Km (a little heap), kam (to pile in a heap) ; O.Sw. 
kttstx (congeries, accrvua; imprimis^ lignorum Wrgultorum- 
qufl) \ Sw. dial, km, kam (a Bmall heap of dried cBttle- 
droppings, used hy poor people, in diatricta where wood is 
scarce, for burning). Hence also JSw. dial, and Dan. dial, ko- 
kase^ for oow-droppinga. llolb., however, definee ko-kme an 
the round or disk-like heaps in which cow-dung falls, with- 
out reference to the etymology of ka$e. Brockett gives the 
form casififfs, but ctrssonjt is that of the Lincolnshii-e Gloaaary. 
with the following note appended: — "Thia ^^-ord cftssen or 
cas3on waa exclusively applied to the dried dung of cows and 
oxen. It waa much used for ftiel in the monastic times, to 
the great impoverishment of the land where it bad been de- 
posited. There is a curious circumstance narrated of a hind 
suffering imprisonment for having placed one of these cassons 
on tho shorn head of a monk, whose convent had the right of 
collecting them for fuel, but the hind wished some to be left." 

Chip, Cuip-uPj t\ a. and n. To trip, be tripped up, strike 

with one's foot against some obstacle or stumbling block. 

O.N, kippa (raptare); 0, Sw. and Sw. dial, kipjia (to 



jert, pluck, snatch ; to movo with a haaty motion) ; N. kippa^ 

Dan. A'/)*/"'. The Sw. dial, word also takea the Tneauing*, 

to go slipehod, to shuffle with the feot. Comp. Mrrdr" fcipti 

fotum undan Bardt ma at hann fell (Platey. i. 381), with 

the following, epoken of a paralytic woman, just able to 

EhuJHe about, by her son ; 

" 8ho oft chip» wi' her fee4t an's like t^ fall, pn she diz'nt.'^ 
Or,, "He chippad agen a dot and lull his langlength.'^ 

Clep, aIk Kanip, description, kind, or species. 

From the vb. ckp, to call, naine, dmgaate. A,8. Citfpinn, 
cleopian, Dut Jdappen, A transition in sense analogous to that 
cxeinpHfied in our work /wot', and the standard words, 
ilrscripfhn, species, etc, 

Eit. "It (an animalj eay) was of a qneeri»h clep" 

CouLFRESs, \sb. A lever of wood, or staff capable of beiup 
Cowrj', } employed as a lever. 

" Take up theae cloathos hoere, quickly. Wher'e the 
Cowle-staffe V'—M, Wives of Winfk, iii. 3. " CoHtge, a atang, 
pale^staflejOr cole-statfe, carried on the shoulder, and notched 
for the hanging of a pale, at both eudsi," — Cof^r. "Mr. 
Malone aays, that, in Essex, cow/ la used for ttih ; and hence 
that coicl-stq^ IB a staiTto carry tuba or baskets by the handles, 
Holland, in his Pliny, renders ftuifcs by htmfom, chtU, and 
coul'fttfite'^." Richards, in v. cofpl^ Mr. Ford's " cowle-atafib" 
could scarcely have been "notched at both enda" for the 
hanging of the buck-baakot and its contents, and for ray owai 
part 1 doubt the connection of the corcfe or eoul in coicl-atajf 
with Ibe Essex coirl (Pr. Vm. cowk, vessell, A.S, cau?l, 
a basket) ; a doubt which ie not leaseued by the estmct from 
HoUand'a Pliny, and a comparison of his (ouhtrwen with our 
corclpr^^ (which in Craven takes the form coicpress or cwrprwf ), 
Compare ITalUwell'a Wanv. word "Colptce, a leaver j" a 
word which in the Surteos' Society's Priory of Finchale, p. Hi. 
appears in the form colpikki'. The first meraber of the word 
I associate with O.N. and O.Sw. hjlfva, 8w. dial, kylkti kdli>a 
(a club, a strong thick stick), Dnn. kol/e, M.H.G. iaile, K.8. 
kuk, Germ, keule: and the hitter is probably allied to O.K. 



pressOy O.Sw, persa, Dan. jifr*^, N.S. panen^ and our own 
prke, pftse. It may be observed that until a comparatively 
recent period tliu pi'csa depended upon leverage for the power 
of compression exerted, and the majority of cheese- preBsea in. 
this district are made on that principle still, to say nothing; 
of many copying and other preaaca, and even the printing 
preBS. If we suppose the relative poBitiona of the fulcrum, 
and the substance preeaed, inverted, the pressing power be- 
comes a pt'isinff power : whence probably the forms cotrprise, 
coupraise. Comp. Prov. Swed. ko/fve^qutimf a cowl-quem, or 
quern, worked by aid of a lever. — (War. och Wirdame, p. 186.) 

Cowl, t\a. To clip, or cut close. 

The Whitby Glossariat gives an example of the use of this 
word under Topping, viz.: "VMcoiH bis topping for him,'' 
which ho exphiius as '^a good-humoured threat of chastisement 
by pulling the hair," The "word, however, is identical with 
Jamieaon's colly and is due to O.Sw., and Sw. dial, hjlla (to 
clip the hEiir). Prov. Swedish also haa the form kuul, with 
the two senses, to clip the hair, and, to clip the wool from 

CouL, t\ a. To scrape or rake together ; to pull towards one 

by the aid of a rake (coul-rake), curved stick, or other 

like instrument. 

It is nearly always with misgiving that a French origin is 

suggested for one of our Yorkshire words. Certainly, in this 

case, Fr. cmilh'r, in the absence of a more satisfactory 

etymon, might seem to propose itaelf for notice. But I 

should still he more disposed to suppose the word connected 

with Pr- Pm. mott'k for coop (for fowls), or cotcle, vessell. 

The rim of any vesael, or basket, such as would be indicated 

by the word caiek would effectuallj' answer the purpose of a 

couhf or LQfiUrakp, and in espeiicnce one has goen such a 

vessel, or a part of it, applied in the preci&e way described, 

a hundred times. 

££.— "Beach t' cBultr an' pull thae moul'a intil V grave;" said 
hy a. aexton in my heariag. 

BY THE TLVf. J, C. ATKIIiSOir. 351 

CotH-EU, J nfi. A kind of toothlesa rake, or scraper, with 

CoDL-BAKii. ) curved ends^ for the purpose of collecting 

and drawiug- towards ono aahea, manure, dirt, or the like. 

£r. — "He's gGlton a stick ■wit ft gib till't, to emU t' flowers 
oot in I' beck," 

CooMS, sh. — Ilollow-Ij'iiig places, recessed among the hillb, 
or " bunks," ruauing up to the moor. 
Welsh rum (a valley) ; whence comes the term comb (a low 
place enclosed with hilla, a valley), quoted by Bosworth in 
bifi A.S, Dictionary. Thers are two loealitioa in Danby 
parish distlnguiglLcd by this deaig^ation, and as many in 
Bosedale, to the south of Danby. 

CowpT, (u^\ Frisky, frolicsome, pert. 

O.N. ktifr, O.Sw. m (fuU of life and spirits) ; Sw. dial. 
f:At, Ji&kr, k?id, Pan. kaad (lively, frolicsome, wild with over- 
flowing health and epirits). Itet mm ntmi ater tfen fcMitfe 
Dreng, den nys er duppCH ltd fra Ti-ang og Skole (Just as one 
may sec a eowdy lad, ju9t eacaped ^m constraint and school). 

Crafty, adj. Ingenious^ skilful^ inventive. 

A.S. rrtvffi^ (ingeuiouSj skilful) : Bobw. "The A.8. rrtp/l" 
says Molhecb, "dgnilies knowledge, cuaning, or skill," aiid 
our present word is an interesting instance of the preserva- 
tion of the original signification of a word which, otherwise, 
would have retained only an invidious sensa 

Ex.—^'JLc wur a f^i/'j/ chap at foet fun oot thae aun-pictur'^8.^'' 

CftiCKET. A small, low stool ; which may serve as a milk- 
LDg-stool, a foot-stool, or a child^s seat, indlJtfereutly. 
Compare Norae kr<ikk (a Httle stool, without cushion or 
back-rail) ; Sw. dial, krakk (a forni or stool, originally formed 
of the end of a cleft iir-tree, and then furnisbed with three 
legs supplied by the boughs of the same) : Hietz. Compare 
also Sw. dial, krdnka (u little stool; a bench to set tubs or 
casks on), hearing in mind the relationship between Engl. 
hank and Sw. ^tackc, and the like. 



Flan, r.n. To spread, or expand, more widely towards tie 
top, as a vessel or utensil with sidoa eloping outwar^^H 
from a small bottom towards a wider mouth. ^M 

Halliwell gives "Jlatif broad and large," as a Northern 
word, but I do not meet with it io either Brockett, Orarm, 
or Loeda Glossary. The "Whitby Gl. giycs " To Jinn, to 
spread wide at the top, to expand upwards, aa the sides of i 
bowl or scuttle/* This is another inataace of the preserva-' 
tiou among- us of an Old Dan. worrl, nnaltcred in form and^_ 
senee.— Molb. (Dansk D. Lex.) g^ivea ^anp, I. to gape, Ui^M 
stare ; and 2. in. a sense analogous to our own, " It is eaid^^' 
of a waggon whose wbceLs do not stand upright or parallel 
with each other on the axlstree, so that tbo epace between 
them above la greater than where they touch the ground. 
Thus, Dnt roffn ffmrv for megci og er vieltenem ;" which, iuj 
the Cleveland dial., is *' T'wain ,^nwj( ower mich an,* *6 likfl 
t' owerwelt." Flnn-hnruet is also aaid of a cow whose homs] 
point up and down, or both down, so that the space between] 
tho tops is increased* 

Flocs-docken, &b. The plant Fox-glove {Digifali-s put-pure^] 
also called Fox-doeken, 
This seems to be a curious word, and possibly an interest- 
ing one. I have epelt it as near to the sound aa possible, 
failing all written guidance. From analogy — compaie war- t 
fiocken =. sorrel — the prefix ^u« might seem to be descriptive ^| 
of, or, in other words, to qualify the (locAen, so that one^^ 
might imagine the moat striking peculiarity of the plant 
would furnish the qualifying epithet. And thus one would' 
naturally seek to connect JIohs with the beautiful spire of ^ 
flowers characteristic of the Digiinds. But I bolieye we must 
try to account for Jft/fts-dooken on another principle. Fhm I 
take to be identical with the first half of the Irish-Celtic 
name for tbo plant, " Lum-morc {fxus-mfior, great plant or 
herb).". The Welsh equivftlent to Ih«» is //*/*, and as Lloyd in 
an English mouth becomes Floyd (compare Shakespere^a 
i^i^uellen, also) so ffjf^ would become something like our ,^i« 
(or Jlo9i, as, in some CL mouths, the syllable almost sounds). 

FoRwoDES, adj. In a waeted or desolate and ruinous con- 
dition, wbetlier from the preaence and ravagee of vermin, 
or by the consequencea of SLmple neglect. 
Old Dan. foyode (to waste, ravage, bring- to min^ or lay 
desolate). "Man iV/ tOft Land /ofdtff" (he will our land lay 
waste)- O.N. foreyda. The simple word ia O.N. eida, ei/dff, 
O.Sw. and Sw. odd, Dan. ade (to waste, consume, spend). 
A.8. /onri/r^ (destruction), whtoli might seem by ita form to 
be related to our word, is more probably due to /orweor^an 
(to become nothing, to periali, to die). 

Hamp, «A. An article of clothing which may have been worn 
next the ekin, or, at times, over the under- clothing, 
Don. diaL htmpr (a farmer's jacket or emock : fogu f^ustica) ; 
O.Sw. humbii; lutmpiu-r^ hampu (vestis, indumentum) : Ihre. 
Thence kimkr^ hamh&r, or hamjtner (monastic habit), Jiader 
hampn (a suit of feathers) ; O.N. hamr, N. and Dan. hiim, 
A.S. hm/iUi homfJt hoi/i, N. Fria. Aam^ M.G. A«y«(/> ham 
(generally an envelope, involucre, covering ; more apeci- 
ficaliy, the seaindiwr, or after-birth, that in which the fostua 
ia enveloped). Comp. also Germ, hcifid (shirt), sk'fiketmi, 
gluehihemd, etc. ; Beowulf, /ridhemede, all mentioned by 
Grimm, D. M. pp* 1052, 105<3* I believe the word which 
occurs in Sir Gawayn and the Grene Knight, lino 157 — 

" JZ*Bw wel haled, hoee of fat same grene," 
is a close connection of A.S. Aa/mt, Germ, /wmd, etc. I have 
met with the word /uimp in two vcrBiona, current here, of the 
well-known Brownie rhyme. The fir&t h asaoolatcd with a 
place in Glaisdale, the second with a locality in the county 
of Durham. 

^'Gb Hob mna ha' nowght but a hardia' hamj> 
He'll coom nao mair Dowther to bt-iry nur sUtnp." 

" A Aatnf and a hood I 
Then Hobbie ogoiu 'U dee aac mair good." 

Oet, *A. Scurf on an animal's akin ; a», e.ff., on a horse after 

tlie application of a blister; acurfj generally. 

This is, almost without doubt, a parallel form to om, which 

we meet with in Ancren Riwle, pp. 294, 188, "blod om 

adun on euericb halue," and in Layamon, i. 113^ and else- 



Tvhere. MTiat A,S. yriimi, uriian are to renrwn, and Scmi- 
Sason orn to rati — ■" the same word, only diflering hy the 
tranaposition of tlie r " (Bosw.), that ia 01/ to A,S. Areqf (a 
scab, scurfincsa), O.N. //ric/a (scab, scaliaess). Compare the 
Scottish reif, eruption, the itcb, Smaa rufe, Hefe, Genu. n(, 
ruff, N.8. /-oo/; s/f. 

Peen, adj. Thin, fine, attenuated. 

Dan. pee^i, p(sn (slender, slight, nipped in) ; 8w. pen ( 
BmalJ end of a small or hand hammer, opposed to the 
hammer-face), A curious word : Molbech's remark upon 
Dan. peen being that it does not occur cither in O.N". OK 
0. Dan., though met with in E. Gothland. Its occurrence, 
therefore^ in Yorkahire becomes very noteworthy. It ie ono 
instance, and by no means a singular one in the Clev 
land dialect, in which a word, from not ha'^'ing been, writte. 
has been practically dropped, or been lost, out of th 
parent language, but has been preserved in the descend 
tongues or dialects. It is, moreover, a somewhat striking il- 
lustration of the influence which the laugxiagc of the Danish 
colonists exercised over the previously existing language of 
Northumbria. | 

Ex. — " Tflk* t* peen end o' t' hammer (Sw. dial, hammar-pm) til 
% lad: thou '11 mash 't, theE, fast cnew;" to a boy who was vainly 
trying to break a atone by etriking it with the face, or blant ead, oi' 
the hammer. 

Scran, *6. Food, victuals. 

" Skrunne ia a word used in the western extremity of S,' 
Jutland for a butcheHa shop. ' Germ. Hchrnugen, fleUch 
schffingen, maJipUum, shran nostris dictum,"' that is, abou' 
Ribe. Skran and skrange in Moth's Dictionary is ' a counter 
or a huxtcr'a shop for the aale of eatables, a provision shop.'** 
— Dan. Dial. Lexicon. This is another curious instance of 
the transplantation and careful preserving of a word, 
have also the compound^ skran-time, meal-time. — VTh. G\ 

Setiti, eb. A bull castrated after it has grown to maturity 
often buU-segg., dial. $eeg or scBg (a hog castrated after having arrived 


at full maturity as a boar). Qaltf on the other hand, means 
a hog castrated while yet but a pig. Molbech collates 
Brockett's segg. Under the same head he also includes Beeg 
or teg (a dawdler, a lazy, sleepy-headed, slow-raoving lout), 
whence the vb. sege : — at gaae og sege i Arbeiiet (to go and 
lazy or dawdle over work). This may giro the leading idea 
in the application of the word to a creature castrated after 
full growth, from the consequent change in its ways, and 
almost its nature. 

Shine, ih. The iris, or pupil, of the eye. 

" ' "Whats wrong wiv Willy's eon ?' ' Despert inflam-ation o' yan 
iv *em. He'd getten a shiv in, which stack fast, reight i* t' akine 

Ihre gives the word ognasten (pupilla oculi ; quasi diceres, 
lapillimi oculi), with the following comment : — "I shall just 
remark that by Isidore Hispalensis the pupil of the eye is 
rendered by augtnsckun, whence I suspect that the original 
form of ognasten was Ognasken, that is, eye-shine, since the 
pupU. is the brightest (lucidissimum) part of the eye." He 
then goes on to remark as follows: — "I believe, however, 
that in the passage in question, we ought to read sehun, 
instead of schun, for I see that in Lipsius' Glosses the pupil 
of the eye is called sien ogun ; besides which, Simaner quotes 
A.S. seon-eagan." Perhaps, however, our word may serve to 
give some confirmation to the accuracy of the learned 
Swede's conjecture as to the original form of ognasten. 

SiPPER-SAUCE, sb. A sauce or other provocative to the ap- 
petite ; that which is used to give zest or relish to one's 
I look upon this as a very interesting word. One can 
hardly disconnect it with sup, sip, and when one finds such a 
remark as this of Ihre's, " variat vero mirifice hujus vocabuli 
(fiupa) sensus in dialectis Gothicis. Apud M. Gothos supan 
est condire ; Marc. ix. 50. que sapuda quo condietur ? Apud 
A. Saxones, supan et sypan denotant gmiare.*' One is 
strongly inclined to think that the origin of the first element 
of sipper-sauce may be here indicated. Again, sijf^, says 



Ihre, " implies the taking in a dainty way, or as if affecting 
indifference or disinclination for whet ie taken, of food or 
drink/' Qerm. sa^fen^ moreover, is to take greedily, revel- 
iingly, dnmkenly, of liquida ; a word which Ihre connects 
with O.Sw. aiipan, used in the same sense. Yet again, A.S, 
im/ei, ittfiiUj stiji, mfulj Jf. mif, O.Sw. sofifcl (something to 
be eafen with bread, whether potagp, or aught else) ; Don. 
mut, Dut. sitfftci, O.E. autcdle (Mapes), tmtel (Ancren Riwle), 
etc., all in the same sense of " something to "be eaten with 
bread, a relish, " are thej not all connected with, or rather 
simply other forms of M.G. «u/>£rn, O.Sw. ^if;5i7, Germ, saufcuy 
etc.j the continually recurriug change of yj into its equivalent 
/ or r being all that ia required to generate one word from 
the others ? Lot. Obaonium or opsonittm, also, with its origin, 
oyfrQv, ^fpj I more than &uapcct belong to the same familv- 
A alight metathetical change and the poseible root of the 
Gotliic words ia revealed : obs or ops •= nop == so/, muf, sute. 
It is curious if our Cleveland nipper be the meone of indi- 
cating; such claims to relationship. 

Skare on, f.a. To apply and attach one piece of wood to 

another (as In piecing or mending the broken bar of a 
gate) by the process of splicing ; that is^ removing ob- 
liquely portions of each of tho two ends which are to be 
laid in apposition, so that when applied to each other 
there shall be no incrca&o of thickness at the junction. 
Dan. diaL (S. Jutl.) 'SSA-nrre (to apply to one another | to 
join or unite two pieces by moans of a groove, tenon, or other- 
wise ) : ai skarrc ved, clkr aammen ; ,/iw., vaar nmn fuier to 
part sh'tm qfufcnarni} bieU'c-endef aamriien (to scare on or to- 
gether ; e.g. when one adjusts and unitos the ends of two 
pieces of wood, previously cut obliquely), O.N. skara, Sw. 
ftkar/wa." — Ban. Dial. Lex. 

Swip, ah. The personal image or representation : a likeness. 

O.N", sripr (look, eountenance, fashion of features). Note 
especially Bvipm/r, /nip/ikr (vultu similis). Comp. nleo 
sapffiirr or Hfip-kdrr (of a fierce countenance), ^Ut. 

£x. "He'a the very mip of his father."— Wh. Gloss. ' 


WiTHBBS, sb. The barbs of an arrow-bead; any jags or 

sharp points which stand on an object so as to impede or 

prevent its backward motion. 

A.S. ieP6er, Grerm. icider, Pl.D. teedder, M.G. imthra, O.N, 

tnVr (against, opposite to). In Layamon the word m^er is 

meft with both as an adj. (= hostile, adverse), and as a sb. 

( = hostility), while in Ancren Kiwle, the Titus MS. gives 

the verb tei^Sere^ (=: fighteth against, resisteth). Our word 

is an interesting one, and as for as I am aware not before 

recorded as an existing word.^ 

Wttker, v.a. To notch or cut the shank of any object 
which has to be fixed in a quasi socket, in such a way 
that jagged points shall stand out so as to oppose or pre- 
vent the drawing back of the object : e.g. of gate-crooks 
or other iron which is destined to be inserted in a post 
or stone-work. 

"Tell t'emith t' wither Oiaa gate-cruiks by dinnertahm (12 

PHONOLOGY. By Dr. F. H. Stratmann. 

A, corresponding with Anglo-Saxon, Old Saxon, Old Ice- 
landic, Gothic, Old High German a, occurs — 

1. before m and n in the end of a word, or followed by 
another consonant : /ram, man, campy lamb, hand, Pane, 

2. before a consonant followed by e (= A.S. a, o, or «) : 
tak, galen, name, gamen, bane, care,faren, ape, nave, late, 
{h)laden, sta'Sel, sake, haken, la)e, nose. 

A. often changes with o : from, mon, comp, lomh, /tend. 
Pone, long, nome, gomen, bone, nose. 

^ = A.S. tB, Old Frisian e, O.S. O.I. G. O.H.G. a, is found 

' A IjuHMuihiie and Cumberland form, witttTf exUts. 



1. before a single conaonaiit (except m and n), gt ,ff, 
«/, srh ; msr (cautus), sUsf, lef, ba-ci ("bade), fim (for d(B})^ 
grcES, crcej^ffmst. 

2. before a single consonnTit, or //, t^, af, sck, followed 
hy e { =^ A.S. €): water, /(pder^ fmir (for ./ip^cr), (efier. 
Instead of <b we often find e and o: smcl (smaU), aep, 
Htef, et, bed (bade), ic^, dtn (for rfrj), greB, etrft, /cxt, 
revcji, jci'Ur, fetier, feir (for/fjer), c/tcrj espe, esc/te ; miml, 
mp, Ataf^ at, bad, hftjf, fcftc, da}, grm, craft, font, raven, 
water^ fader, aker,/a}er, offer, a-spe, amhe (fraxmue). 

E oorreaponda — 

1. witb A.S. 0.8. O.I. O.E.G. i; G. a, before consonants 
followed by c ii) : tiikn^ temten, ketrn^, iettd^tt, pettcheii, 
here [&rmj), ferien, sieppen, hcfe ()x?ii<s), hpHpu^ {h)yt€cke, 
f i*> %£/<'« ; olao if I? ifl lost : hcH, den, neb, ^, bed, bet, 
bek (rivulua). 

2. witb A,S. O.S. O.H.G. c, O.L e, ia, G. i. before / and 
different mutes ; nielt^n, fieipen, self, »weltent skfne, den, 
fpp^er, broken, we}en, iesen. 

3. witli AS. O.S. O.I. O.H.G. e, G. ai, before /■: Hvrs 
(man), betrn, teren. 

E cbaugcs witb a in hate, a\ff, with, eo, ue, u, and j ia 
^coif, suif^ silfi bforeus bueren. 

I = A.S. O.S. O.I. G. O.H.G. i: bil, tdfe, stitU, mildt, grim, 

in, hinden, sckip, bid^ett, tcike, Hggen, lisfe, Jisch. 
Instead of n't u and o appear after w : wuk, wuke, iPoie, 

corresponds witb A.S. O.S. o, O.I. O.H.G. o, tt, G. av, u : 

hoi, boUc, gold, eto/'/n, horn, Porp, fcord, ior)C, top, open, 

lof, orer, off, god. 

U anawera — 

1. to A.S. ./, O.S. O.I. O.H.G, u, 0, G. v, an ■ ful, miff, 
mchtldvr, sum, gitmc, dumb, sttue, grund, under, lunge, 
dure,pwr8f, tip, uter, {h)nuie^ fu}eL 

2. to A.S. O.I. y, O.S. G. O.H.G. », before liquids and 
mutes, particularly when followed by e ; hul(en, eamSt 
cun, ditm, rrunne, wtirm, uvd, nut, buggen, luef. 



Instead of u we often, find o, on, t, e : fol, wolf, scholder, 
som, come, gome, domb, sone, grand, onder, ionge, dare, 
worm, Jforst, over, {h)note, fo)el; ground; hUlen, kin, 
dine, winne, wirm, ivel, biggen, list; dene, icerm. 

EA = A.S. ea, O.S. O.I. a. O.H.G. a, appears— 

1. before I and r, together with another consonant : eald, 
healden, earm, bearnf, scearp, heard. 

2. before ht and x : eahte, {h)leahter, eax. 

Instead of ea, e, ee, or a is often found : cwelm, keif, eld, 
erm, hern, scherp, herd, sterc, merj, ers, ehte, (Ji)lehter, 
ex ; hmltlen, cerm, htern, hmrd, cehte, tsx ; cwalm, calf, aid, 
halden, arm, barn, scharp, hard, stare, mar}, ars, ahte, 
{h)lahter, ax. 

EO. 1. = A.S. eo, O.I. ia, G. ai, O.S. O.H.Gf. e, particularly 
before r followed by another consonant: eorl, }eorne, 
ateorre, weorpen, steorven, heorte, eor'%c,feoh. 

2. = A.S. eo, O.S. G. O.H.G. i, before a consonant fol- 
lowed by e: neotce, feole, seoven. 

EO changes with e, ie, i, uc, u, ea, a : erl, ierne, sterre, 
tcerpen, sterven, herfe, erpe, feh, neire, fele, seven ; hterte, 
nietce; niwe; huerte ; \urne,urpe; ear^e, fcale ; fate. 

A = A.S. d, O.I. (J, (B, ei, G. ai, O.H.G. ei, i, O.S. S, before 
single consonants : bd, sndic, hdl, ham. An, gdr. Are, rdp, 
i^^Af, gAt, brad, dp, dk, d)en,fdh, mdse, gdst, Aschen. 

A changes with 6, ee, i, ea, ai (ei) : bd, sndw, hdl, hdm, 
6n, 6re, rdp, {h)l6f, gdl, brdd, 6p, 6k, d^en, fdh, mdae, gdst; 
g<et, teS ; ischen ; geat; hail (heil), gait {geit),aischen. 

-Ja corresponds — 

1. with A.S. ^, O.I. i^, d, ei, O.S. O.F. i, O.H.G. i, «, 
G. ai ; m, dtel, manen, Imren, hate, brtsde, Ahte, Iwaten, 

2. with A.S. (p, G. S, O.I. te, d, O.F. i,A, O.S. O.H.G. 
d: mdl, hdr, aldp, I4fen, rwd, Idche, mm (for mtrj). 

^ changes with i, ea, d, 6 : %& (mc), d^l, mil, minen, 
Mr, Uren, 8l4p, hHe, Uten, rSd {reed), bride, Uche, mii 




(for mi}), 4/ife, IM-en, Jf^sch; sea, msansn, heaU, rvad. 
breade; hdr, slap^ iafen, dhie ; hdr^ sl^P- 

E <ee) answers — 

1. to A.S. O.F. &, O.I. a, O.S. G. d, O.H.G. m: ch&le, 
dim€\f, griue, icipeu, gr^feti^/Sden, smi^e, bicht\ H^chen, 

2. to A.S. O.F. i, O.L ey, G. au, O.H.G. ou, 6, O.S. <J : 
schSne, Mrcn, d^pen, rek. 

3. lo A.S. O.F. G. ^, O.I. w. d, O.S. O.H.G. 4 : cw^me, 

liii) = A.S. O.S. O.I. O.H.G. i, G. ei: fnHle, Urn, Hn, 
schtr, grijmi, lif, hilen, vr}d, bH^p, Uch (corpus), sti^en, risen, 
Ufa (levis), pfhte. 

6 {00) = A.S. 0.3. O.I. G. 6,0. II.G. no: id, gr&tefn, c6i, 
ddm, ddn,Jl6r, w6p, AiJ/* (hoof ), /d^ gdd, ii6k, t^j, bdsem^ 

IF correeponds — 

1. with A.S. OS. O.I. G. O.H.G. it : cA, f&U r^^* t^»> 
bur, nc/iiii-eii, uff (h)IAd, b/uken, ruh, hu-i. 

3. with A.S. O.I. ij, O.S, G. O.H.G. u: f&kn, rkmen, 
tuncn, hitfe^ hmh^ jj^e^ 

lastead of tlie Hrst u, oit appears in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, particularly iu the Western dialoct^ : cow, foul, 
etc. J instead of the second uij { (in the Northern 
dialects, since the thu'teonth century), and t are found : 
hiiirc, huide; hire, hide, ij>e ; here. 

EA = A.S. ea, O.I. G. au, O.H.G. ok (oh), d, O.S. 6 : dream, 
lean, heap, deaf^ neat, bread, dea^. 
EA changes with co, i, ee, ta, ie, i, ou : nealy drhn, Un, 
hipi def, vit, brid, di^, /leA; iceti, hwp, ditf; duif, briad ; 
lien, niet ; M) ; noui. 

MO = A.S. m, O.S. O.H.a. io, ie, O.L w, in, G. iu: ieon, 
deor, diop, leof, ]cotcn, bcoden, ko^, aeoc, leojen, cheoicn. 
Instead of eo we find ^, ^^ m, ie, vc, f, (i : tin, dir, dip, 
Uf, iHen, diden, s4c, U^n, ckhen; stec ; dmp, aeac; dicp, 
i^f, iieieu, chii'sen ; tuen, daer, iiuf; sic, U)en ; dup. 


Old English w (p), /, m, n, r agree with the A.8. O.S. 
O.r. G. O.H.G. t> (p, w), /, m, n,r. W'm the end of a 
word sometimes becomes u : d6u. 

P = A.S. O.S. 0.1. a.p, (/). 

£ = A.S. O.S. 0.1. G. b, OM.G.p (b). 

F = A.S. O.S. O.I. G. /, O.H.G. *, in the end, or in the 
middle of a word : atqf, lif, half, sefen. 
Instead of / in the middle of a word we generally find 
f ; staves, seven. Initial / becomes v in the Western 
dialects : veder (father). 

T = A.S. O.S. O.I. G. t, O.H.G. a. 

D « A.S. O.S. 0.1. G. d, O.H.G. t. 

p (D) = A.S. O.I. G./ (%), O.H.G. d. 

C{K) = A.S. c, O.S. c, k, 0.1. G. k, O.H.G. c, ch. 
becomes eh before e and t ; cheosen, chin, riche. 

G = A.S. O.S. O.I. G. O.H.G. g. 

becomes j, %\, i (y), h, or w, before c, i, before another 
consonant, and in the end of a word: ^even, dra^ettf 
/oijen, wejen, sorje^ >ej», madden, daj, bSi^, yecetit weien, 
\ {weyen), rein, maiden, dai, drahen, folken, sorhe, bih, 

Idrawen, folwen, sorwe, 
S = A.8. O.S. O.I. G. O.H.G. h. 

H often becomes uh, w, ih, j, i}> « in the end of a word, 
or before t : pauh, fduh, drauht, />oui, f&vo, drawt, hUh, 
Wj, dra}t, h^h hii. 

8 agrees throughout with A.8. O.S. O.I. G. O.H.G. «. 

The reader will see that the object of this paper is not 
to determine the pronunciation of the Old English sounds, 
bat only to show under what circumstances they are used. 
The author proposes to compare tbe Old English sounds with 
the Modem English, in a future paper, and then to examine 
the pronunciation. 



FuHNivALL, Eao. 

So far as I know, nothing of the kind here firat folloTi'ing' 
esista in print ; no detaila of the rates of work and pay of 
our early printers have reached us ; and as these I have been 
Incky enough to hit on, relate to one of our earlicFt Latin 
Phraaebookfi,' and our earliest English- French Dictionary and 
Grammar, they may be fairly held aa coming within the range 
of our Society. I do not tlierefore heaitate to lay these docu- 
ments before our members, especially as we have already 
printf«i a paper by Mr. D. P. Fry (p. 41 nbove) on the date 
of Palsgrave's Leschirrisscment} The man and the work to 

^ VulgariB uiri iTiwiiMimi Ouvl- Horraapi Ca>aap9tiiir^''^''- Apud inHytum 
LoNDiNi urbflni. M.D XIX. CVM PuTTiLEoro serenlaeirai regis IIkniiici eium 
nnminis octitiii. On the nime, EI^>rman Buyt, " Viilgnria uoiut (cUln niliil minus 
emi qui'in iiul^o co^ita. sed a praK^ejttorc tiocttjdimo inw in rem cuMnitinefn 
di)ivi|iuloriini uiJitn) ct <|ur^ras h Hoh usi fiierinl / iiletitUT eXltldp ni desiiJeru 
libuerit uul|rBr>tpr. His cm;|. crpleris cnntmuD'e H'lniqw iwdiiilt (jiioiiJo rts a 
uulj^o acrHpli>rffifl CJ>t nlieniiL niasimi?. Su>it enim electa /pura / cjuU / Ti^reqw^ 
iHliria / ct c latirinrH'rji liotiinilii« npciTnlB uc cete-hi^rrimii^ liixgn ccttoqitc iudlcio 
d'Cprn'ripla," Among tho niet' and nndoct sawsi Tor the in^tmcLion of th^ Miatx 
j-oinli. IB, on leiif 3— " Kyniti] Upury dotlni mnny ilyucira myrticlee. i'l'iitu 
Htm icii9 nea vaa vi'irteuliinitn ajtevit iKf/urcifi'f." The srvtian oil mE-«lB cantaiiui 
mnny pafiaugcs nhi^-fa illuatrale words nml imtjimt ii| J'he {l.tbeet So«J^, fr ; 
Iktid nlt'i^tlK'r Iho voluniD i« full of qusiut and iatcrefiling biu. wetl -croilh iha 
reprinting that llifr Hatl^ Eng^Hsh Teat SiM'ii'Ij' prumisra if. I add hero ■ feir 
(>%trn.ets fiir p<irtpiii/nf, /treairfn^t, piperatui, Scv., from tlip section De TiirUnariiii, 
"Put tUvloui^aiiLQ purtpayna. Cmdt p-mtt i>i pnnario/i'ti caHiitfo/vet eatiiatrlla. . 
Te Rihni aaue iio iJytinr : but a. hrskfiial or a pytanue. Ufan apprmelar liii tnrri- 
^ianmm- wrf prnmimM (leaf 164]. Tbia » very fynt iind cnatly cakebrcdc. 
Spongiatui et piptratut pani* ttt {Icnf 164 hncW). Uf nil spiris J lose a nat- 
^ySI^ bfest^. Onuriitm erti-rrwlum nuerm mj/rt/lrttm {iiu» fuuscatam) habto : vt 
preecipHam (lenf IfiG b.l" InllioTicst eipetion Ih t'a&ieu/ofififu / & adnfxif. BomiDlt 
Ki^ms to Eife n bit of nis own oipcriencp, " It iia conucnycnt / that a. man hare 
fillA utiDi^l placp in hia houst) to hym sclfe fro raj/ibmni;}!^ of women , , U» th£t 
■AWA Bom women out of tlicyr arar : wolda )iitvi< 1€&gc corngo to be ennmored 
npnn Ihtim. . They whylt' cheyr fact) / tioekt! /And ^.i^piE with cenisBe; ami ibfj'r 
IrppiB find mildis [chuekB] witli piirpumsc , . Thpy Fylle Tp tlicyr frckyllys; and 
tUeuAv nbrotkd tt)«yr »kyn tritti Ivtunutlier : and pJuckc out tbcyr huariv witt 
pynchjxpe yrona/and styllctLre , . They ch.Tun^iii tlic tiiiturrtll i-olonr of theyr 
h«aro with crafty roluur nnd Munyngc. . Hcno^t woiikm IhuC ree none of tUeaa 
be rn»re frnodlT: wa>\ wPHmcndcd in thcjr natural bcaute vith aobre delyngauid 
gotid mant'm (leaf 16B.)" 

• The date of Palsgrave'fl conlinct belnw. a.d> 1623, conRtms the Tiriority of 
of PaUgraw OTur Geol&Bj Tory de Bourg«'s CStamp I'iniry, coatwided lor by Mr. 



wliom and to whicli we are immediately indebted for these in- 
teresting records^ ore Professor J. S, Brewer and his admira- 
ble Calendar of State Papers of Heiiry VllPa reigQ. It is a 
work that oontaiuR a wonderfully detailed account of all that 
went on in and about the Court and country in the time it 
treats of^ Everythiag is there, from the cost of sharing a 
boy's head. Id., or buying bim a ehirt, 20d., (vol. iii. pt. 1, 
p. 503), to the cost of the army of England C^. iii. pt. 2, p. 
1153-4, etc.); from the King and his courtiers pelting one 
another with suowballis (v. iii. pt. 1, p. 50), to his grand 
display oa the Field of the Cloth of Gold (v. iii. pt- 1^ p. 
Ixviii-lxxi, and refereneee) ; from an order for n ladyV allow- 
ance for breakfast (v. iiiv pt. 2, p, 10] 1), or a present to ' a 
young maid, a tumbler^ (ik'pL 1, p. 500), to Sir Thomas More's 
be,^iiiniiig of the hig-her education of women in England (v. 
iii. pt. a, p. 6*29) ; from the cost of translating a reveUer*s 
coat from a woiuaa's garruent (v, iii. pt. 2, p. 1555), and the 
price of a bondman's freedomj £40, (v- iii. pt. 1, p. 498, No. 
1519), to the beginning of the Reformation, the fates of 
Emperors and Popes, the policy of England and the Con- 
tinent (Introduction pt. 1.) It is a work invaluable not 
only to the student of history, in its general meanings hut 
also to the atudent of literature," antiquities, manuerS;, cua- 
toms^ and social life. 

Turning over the leaves of the third volume of the Calett- 
which Mr. Brewer had kindly given me, I was surprised 
at tbe manifold interest of the contents of what I hud at Erat 
BUppoded was only a list of dull States papers ; and on coming 
to the notice of Palsgrave's contracts with Fynson, at p. 
1522, No. 3680 of part 2, I Just walked over to the Rolla, 
book in hand, and asked Mr. Brewer to let rae copy the 
originals. He then pointed out to me tho notice of HorniaJl'a 

' t.i. a dancer. 

* S«e Tadei, for Letters of Onwnin Doug^las, ErosTnuH, More, Pi€e, etc., uid 
nntiea of old romaacfri on tiipe«try— Sic^e' of DamnH, H^nryke snd Canrakn, 
Amys and Aciiyloiui, ALc^ELHidrr (Pi. 2, ti. 1410) ^ ftluUieStwy of Mom. and 
king MoJjw at. 2, i>. 1378, So. 26). Da»id (Pt. 2. p. 1639), Hermilra (Pi. 2, 
p. u«y) — and uld boolts, BartilmeKe 4t fri>prieiatlbm Strttm-vai Th* ChrmieU* 
(p. 1254), a, liitlu Ltgtud Amt^, SSaphtrd^t CaiMdatf jEsep't Fabii4, etc. (Ft. 1, 
p. 20*), ekj., etov 


FYNSON's contracts WITK HORHAir AlTD 

contract at p. 118, No. 337, of pt. 1, and promised mo not 
only copiea of tke three contracts, but also of the letter of 
denization granted to Pynsou by Henry VIII. All these, 
having heen read in proof by myself with the originals, are 
here printpd ; and I am sure that all our members will join 
with me in thanking Profetiaor Brewer heartily for them. 

Ikdbnturk between Pynsos and Hormau, 28 June, 1519, 

[Mr. Srnnfr't Crttntdar, Vol. III. No. 337. 

Steord OJit^t, lepers, 1619, Tol. lii, ITo, 89.) 

Tsra indenture made / tba cyght aod twenty dny of June / 
the aleventhe yere of tlie reigne of Kyng Henry ihe eight/ be twene 
Vi' illi'ani Herman, clerke, and felowe of tlie Kyngye college of owr 
bleftyde Lndye of Eton/ in the countye of JJukiH^Ajwi / on the 
on pnrtye : and y[iiHer Bichar'do Pyu&oti, tookpryutur, dwellyng in 
Flete Strete in London /on the other partyo. Wyttreayth that the 
seyde T&anter Hicharde Fyasou/hatbe barguyriide, and by thes pre- 
Benlys barganyth / wythe the a&yde Wyllf'fim lionnun / to. by hym 
wlfe/hia esecutoure/or eBBi^cB; imprynte for the seyde WiJIi'-iuu, 
Horman/eight hundrede hcwle and periyttbookya/of putheYul;.;ar8 
flis bo cOrtteyniJe in the copye delyvenie to llie seydc ^astot 
Hicharde Pynaon/ induflycifinl and suyng' stuff of papyr/ftftertbre 
dyverae letters/oa for the englyeb/aa other for the laten/iind the 
thyrde of groat romayne letter/for the tytyllya of the booke/and 
fyve and tbyrty ehoptrea of the same/to represent goodlyy and 
trulye the matfr/and nil the etuffe and other thyngys, ultUyaowne 
charge and cost/iii sucbe forme and maner/as afore wytne$so worr 
asaygcyde and apointyde betwene tbe eeyda partyea/Bo tbat tbe 
on halfe of the hole BiimniG be eengle quayr, and the other dowble ; 
And that the aeyde 1ia»ter llichiirde Pynson/byndyihe and pro- 
myeythe hym &elfe by fin other/ to tbe scyde Wilirora Horrafln/that 
he fihall not pryutCf nether do, or geTC, or cause to be pryntyde any 
moo/lhon the seyde nombre/wythein the epace of fyve yt'rea nexte 
folowyng/wytbe-owt the consent and graunt/of the soyde Wyliram 
Horman. Ynder the priuUege aiid payn that he bathe gtnuittyde 
Lym by the grace of owri? HOTerayne lorde the kyng, And that the 
Beyde pryrilege ehalbe pryntyde in every of the eeyde bokys. And 
tlie eeyde Waiter Richarde Pynaon doing imlye the pfcmiesyB, shall 
receyve and he tmlye payde of the eeyde "WiUiam Hormac, or hys 
assygncs, for every hole reme of papyr so iniprynte, fyre fihiiingya of 
lawlull monfty of Inglonde, by Ihea parcellys folowyog- ffyrst ott 
the begynnyng he shall receyve a-fore honde, in portye of puyment 
of the hole, foityo shyUngys/ and att the day of delyrerannce of tbe 
hole numbre of eight hundrede bookya/iho full payment for fyre 
hnndredc boeky»/so the forseyde forlye shylingys be rekcnnyde as 
' Pitting, Eiiitable. 





BT F. J. FtHmvALL, BSQ. 


part of the full payment for fyre hundrede. And that doT twelue- 
monythe m'xte cuflimyagr, full paymeot for the thretj rt-sydue hua- 
drede before delyverde. In TPytneaae whereof the parties wylhia 
namyde to thy» presuntys have intfirchaiigcable set to ther geatya; 
yevyn the day and yere nboTesayde, 

/*£)» parchmeHl, Tht MroAr Kata Shti cut of.J 

The Tulgaria contains 82 fiheeta, so that Pynson must 
"bave got £^5 15s. for hia irork, plus corrections and eifras, 
which were no doubt charged in those days as well as 
the present. There are 27 double sbeeta, signed +, A, 
C, E, G, I, L, N, P, R, T, X, Z, (these i to iiij), a, c, e, 
g. It 1> n, p, r, t, X, z, aa, cti, (these 1 to -^) — and 28 sheets, 
-I- +. B. D. F, H, K, M, O, Q, S, V. Y, Sc. b, d, f, h, k, 
m, o, q, 8, V, y, &, bb, dd, eo, of which all are signed i, ij, or 
1, 9, and all, except B, D, and h, are signed iij or 3, on the 
third leaf, while ee is not signed on the 2nd or Brd leaf. 
R ]j is signed Q ij by mistake. The first two signatures signed 
with Maltese croews contain the Title, Letters Dedicatory 
and Contents. The Colophon is: Imphessa Lo^mNl PER 
R[i]cbardam Pynson/ regium impressorem cum priuilegio 
a Rkge indulto. Ne quis haec imprimat : nee aliubi impresaa/ 
iiflportataqcte / intra regnum Ang^lise vendat. 

Mr. William Blades, the author of the admirable mono- 
graph on Caxton, has been good enough to look at the 
Vulgnriu for nie, and says : — " There are 82 sheets of paper 
in the Brit. Mua, copy, tbe signatures alternating with great 
regularity, — first 2 sheets, and then 1 sheet, throughout the 
volume. The position of the water-mark proves the book 
to be a true quarto, and it follows that eiglit leaves must 
represent two sheets, one sheet being put in the middle of 
the other. This peculiarity of alternating signatures is 
noticed in the contract, where it says, " one half of the 
whole sum to be single quires, and the othrr double." The 
word quire I suppose to have been applied to any email 
publication with one back only, and thence to the aections of 
& book irrespective of number of leaves- My calculation, 
then, runs thus :^800 copies of 82 eheeta = 65,ft00 aheetti, 
which, divided by oOO, gives 131 reams ;— which, at 5«, per 



ream, = £32 15*. Money was reetoned twenty years ago 
as being only one-tejith tlie piurhasiiig value of what it WM 
in 1500, so I reckon it aow as one-twelfth- Thia would 
make Pynaon'e £33 15«., equal to £393 of our money, or 
£4 I7s. a sheet." The modern price would be about £188 
12s., Mr. Austm saye, or £2 tis. a ehcet, for composition, 
printing, and paper, for the 800 copies.' Even allowing 
that Mr. Bladea's multiplier of 13 is too great for the dimin- 
ished value of money now, the difference of these payments 
for printing enable one to understand the lament to me of 
the manager of a largo house over the good old printing 
days, when you charged what you liked, no questiouB were 
asked, and masters mode a comfortable little fortune in ten 
or twelve yeara. 

Of PalsgraTe'a contract with Pynson there are two drafta, 
no doubt because the first did not aecuro to the author the 
entire control of his book which he wanted for the reason 
stated further on. 

Indenture between Palsgrave aud Ptkson, a.d. 1523. 

{Mr. BrruTr'a CahndaT, VoL III. No. 3880, S^rd OJi»-) 

This eadeuture made the day of the motieth of 

the y«re of owr loide god M'v'^xiiij nnd in the it 
yere of the Rey^e of owr Bourroyne Lords Kyng Hilary the riij* 
bytwene Md«At^r John PalBgrane / Prebendary of the Catliedrati 
Churche of Saynt Paule af the Cytte of London oa the ooa partie^ 
and Richard Pynsofi, CytieKcyn and staoiaiier qC the forsaid CHte on 
the other pflrtie/ Wytnessyth, thut the saido Richard Pynaon, his 
executowrB or asaigceB, ehali prent^ or doo to be prented, for the 
foresaid Mojffr Joha Palsgraue hia executours or aasignea the Sum 
of Thre ekoreReolxnes of paper, the saideTlire acore Kculmea' to be 

^ The size of the Ful^aria i» |K»t ito., a sTnaller giee than ftmkcap, Tho typo 
U in two fiLzes : ire call tbem Eii|rl}ah and Pica ; nod I calculate half for each': — 

CompontioD, oa« eh&et (9 pages) Mr. 

Pre«WOTk, SOD = 2 reams „„..,. „...,„... 16*, 

Papef (comoioa) ..-,.»,,.,,,„.,.,.., 16f. 

Pressing , , 2«. 

4€f. per bIikC. 
£Ofl c^ipJM, 82 Blieeta, £188 12j.— S, ACitTlll. 

' Tbre Kort) HMlmfi* terittm ovtr lix quuyen ilnuA out. 



prented, nnd fully furnyashfed and correctyd, witAin tlire dayos next 
to-fore o«r Laily Day ntxt ensuyng tiie lUle herof, The sa'uie Mastrr 
Joto Palsgrauve paiyng unto the fi>rsaiii Eychiird PyDSoH, hia 
eaecutoMra or assignes, iW the pup«;r, aeruaatitteg Lubours, and 
prrntyng. for euw-y llealme pryntyd, w[hji(jha cooteynyth in ntt 
T C SfeptW of puper, vj s viij d, to be piiyJ in luunne/- and foi^rme 
foUowyng, that ya to say/Whuil the aayde bookc* be prented, 
whyche by estimation "ffyil amouot to Thre skan^ Rfames of paper/ 
Of thi) wbyche be llt^atmes the eairle Richard Pjason couvn aunty th, 
proroyttytb and grauntylh, nnd h\va and his [i?ie]cutoKr8 by thiso 
prH?3«Dt endentures byndyth, that he, hiauspciitowra or ussigrieB shuU 
frii'ly geue vnto the (Wsaid "Ha^tfer John Pakgruue/his eiccutotira 
or aasignes, vj hook« of th« forsaid \x Rvalrnics, pwrle of them to bo 
for the u*e of thf kyog owr Soticrayne L«rdo, aod the resydue to ba 
dyBlrybutvd ut the pleftsure of the said M«/sj" John Pale^raue, hia 
exe<:utottr9 or assigaes, amongjst his fjcndM, where hym shuB lyko 
or plenso to consyne them at his pletifiurej Th« reaidiitt of the (bf- 
aaid book« whiche shaW hap to be lufl of the abouesaid 
quflycTs of papor, ehuH rt-at and rerojiyiie in the custody and pOB- 
sewion vndor Lok and key, at tlie wyi! aud pltriisure of the aboiiu- 
SBid Masifr John Piilsgmue / Prouyricd aihiwray that the forsaid 
Uuhord Pynsofi may at a\i tynipa Iwiuu Boffiriyrit bookc* to b*jH, to 
suth« a nombre as th« foninid Mas/crJotiu Pat-sgraiie and ihe ahoue 
rararj Bichard PynstJi* shalbe uggreud vppa«, vnd^T aud uppfin thia 
condiMoh herejifter followyng, tliat ys to say, for eu«-y Rcjlme 
prynlyng oner and abouc the forsuid bookej Rewrufd 

to thuso and pleasure of tbe nbotie iSaster John PuUgnme, 

viij s viij d, and uH the /rcnyduo to he the said John, as hia proper 
goodf*, in recotapenne / of the charg#« he haihe bene at fur tha 
mttkyng of his copye and ia TQCompence of hie labours and 

FurthemiDre hit ys aggroed, coucnawntid, and condiBcended 
bytwene the parties aforaayd, that tho forsaid iHaeter John Pals- 
graue, Dt hia Laboilt ftnd auto^ optayilQ a pryileU'jfo that there ahafi 
none of the Kyngw Hubiect^a, by the spjice of iij or liij yere% im,- 
prynt the saide boke, nor none sell theym^ tho they be itnpryntyd 
ell ye where/ 

ASso the saide Richard Pynson couenairatythj prorayttyth, and 
grauntyth, that he on his huhalfe sbitll make ail his diligence in 
hydi pntssible to furnysshe and made an end of the forsaid worke/ 
wftAniit any further delay, the Eyngif^ book« first excepte and 
rewrut'd / whicho vj bok« so bt^yng reuwued and kepte/owte of 
[the] swm forfaid, shatl rpmayne rnto the vae, cowimaundement, and 
pUitHUPQ of the forsidd Hmter Polsgraue// Also prtniyded that yf 
yt fortune or ehnunce the foraayd faster John Pallgrape to be 
absent by oecasion or attendanOce by hym to be gevyii by the 
KingM grace, my Lorde Cajriitnall™ cowtmaondement, or by com- 
maiuulemeiit of the Kyages CoUti$ayll, by the apace of iiij [or] v ' 

■ ur ma following V, btt« beea fttnuik out. 



(lusly proved, that than 

dajea, mo or lease, by reasoJt of his wn 

that mutter ehalbe no cause of letcho of tliia bargayn, 

[IfnU at tKtfoot cflhtpagt in « htav^ tpmtcfinff hund: — ] 

The sayd PjusoS after [vJ3' viij* of ev*ry Iteame. 

[The preiiom drtj/f te in the hand of TJiomm Ctvmtceli's clerk. 
The foiiotciixg is in Cromwefl'9 Offn hand, and is wnticn <m 
the backs of both leaves of the prevedinfj document.^ 


fS4C9nif Brofl.} 

This EjrDETmiKK & cetera betwecne Maistcr Johu Piil[8]graue 
Gierke, nil the on pwrtye, and Richard Pytison, Cytyzen and stiksyonci' 
of londofi, OQ the other partye, wytneaayth that the aayJ Ificburde 
hulhe f&Ufiiiiuotyd, gmuntyd, atid hym Bulf by tbta pff4eatt«8 bynd- 
etho, that he, tbat suyd llychurde, hia executors and assii^ca, shall 
Inprynt, or causo tu he Inpryulyd, oB boke calljd "lezIesClar- 
oiBamfDtt dc la hinge Frauneojs," ' conlay[D]iDg iij socdrye bokes^ 
■wberoin ys sohewyd howe the saide toiig sehould bo pronowuEyd 
ia reding & spakyng, and all-90 sychc grumraaticaU, rules aa coa- 
ceruQ tht) perfuedon of tEiu auide tongj -vitA ij ^ocatmlistca^ ooue 
begyauyngr wi'tA Engliahe nownes & Ycrbee oxpowndyd in frensbe, 
and a general vociiliulii^^t coutaynvag all the wordfs off the fretishe 
tong expowod in Engliahe,' wht^rof the Copye Jlemaynyth in the 
baadw of the aayd Maister John Talisgraut; of and ifor lupresayon ; 
of the which boke the sayd Maiatt;r John Palflgrauo proiiiysyth, 
g^jjuntythe, and hym self by tbis preseutte^ byiiduth, lo paye oc 
Cause to pay to aayd Ricliarde, for eterye Keame of papyr con- 
(aynyug ix" quayres" of papure, and after staactiYa.'Siffnpd 
and Subscrybyd aeswell wi'tA the hand of the siiyd Mr. John 
PalB^t^uflj, as viiih the hande of tho suyd Kychard Pynson, that ia 
to sayc, aaweii fibr the Stuff's aa for the Inpryotyng of eaw[yl 
Keame of Suchc paper> TJ a viij d of gud and lawffuil moaey of 
Inglonde, In maniifr &. forme ffuloniDg, that ya to eny: that all the 
eaydo hokya, at such tyme aa tjjaye shalbe ffullye and entyeilye 
Becoraplysshyd aud tfynyshjci, which by the consent and agrt;PQ,ent 
of bothe par Lyea Bhufl anio'iV'Qtt voto the hoUe nombre of vij'' and 
fiyftyo boke[s], ahsll than be Indefcrentlye nombtryd, as well by 
the eaid Maistor Juhfi Polsgraue aa by the eaid Kiehard, and thcS. 
tha holle nombre off vij*^ & li* bookes so beyng nomberyd, shall 
Bemayn in the haudf* of the snyd Richard Pynaon, to be soldo at 
siiche pryce or prytys aa the sayd Maiafcer PalsgiraiiQ and the saide 
Richard schall iodlfforentlj eett apoS. the bokea, — after the iost 

^* This pnssRgc is wntt^n between Ihe original iiaei. 

» OhgiMllv— ••t*^ levya;" which was fiat corrected to "1* Bhettdt," uid 
then to "ix'fqaayrfs." 

* Or " BCODte!™ " ? * So ia MS. 




uornbPTs nff quayres that every off theyra wrhjoll eontnyflf, Sett 
Tppou I'vetoy boke' — the satdt bnkes to leniujn iu a chAmbtir witAin 
Ihi! snide IticlmrdM Imwse, whKrfdff the liHy schaU be in the 
custodyo off the suid lliistcr Julin. PnEpgrime or hw us-'ignpn, whyche 
from lyme to ivToe schuii n-ckjn howe many off the hoole ejiide 
Boiu off vij^ & I boltea they take owt & the Biirac nomber exprt'sse 
in wi-j'ghiyny, to wtiycihe oyther off ihcyra or lh«yr assignes ^chnil 
ugiie, i\>v the HToydiDg of uLI luutier dowtd* tltiit my^lit rvs(> apou 
for*vtt(ullQcs«e; and nt suehe tyrao or tymye us the aayd Itichsirde 
P)ii;^D hath btkyn nnd Ki.^HU3'uyd of nod tt'or So many bok/'-t oa ha 
bIiiiII M;ll, U3 moche raonay as Bchall cootf nt hjm for euery' Itenlme, 
u Well the stuff as othar kbours, atU-r the iliiate off vj sol and 
viijd the realme/oner and qtwiie itxa whyche the asid Master 
John PulagrauG hath ull-i^edy geuyu to the B,ndo Ru^Eiard, oa in 
emest uff Lhy& bftrgyfi & couenantc, ihun all the resiiWwa off the 
tuokM aS the aaide vij^ & 1 bookf^.^ to be the Baide Master Jolm 
Pal^jraufB, wi hys owup propyr gooddea, to sutfer to reniiayne in iho 
litind^^ off the saule Kichard^ to stll tlicytu lor hys vs«, and to ha 
acQuunt«at vnto hyrn for ayche monjiy as he st^hnil rcct-yur, or ellcB 
he or hys asFigneg to take Ihiym away and cowvaye thcym to any 
plooe that OD-to hyih echidj setae cortUedient, In rocompeTije for tho 
chrirg^d that he haue bene att, aod iiLbo Idbowrs that lie huth 

r urder more hyt yi agreed betwene the saidc master Johii Pnlj- 
graue acd Kichard Penaon, that the snyde llichiird acbalJ imprint 
ctiery hoole workyng dny, for the more fipeding off the Kuide work, 
a Eciiete off paper on bothc the sides, aod not to cease for none 
occnsioD (except the Kyn^si grace heue any thyngM to be pryatyd) 
tyU the Baida hola worke be full fjny&hyd. the said Rychard to 
begyn to print the saide worke as to-morowe,^ whyche eohalbe the 
day off Januarje ia the jrere off our Lord as ; and 

the aaide master John Palfigrime hyndilh hym,* that other he ot hya 
asfiignes schull so from Cyme to tyme deliuer hys copyo correclid to 
the sdide lUchard, or hya compoaitourB, that the saiile worke achoU 
not be stopped on hy3 behallff. 

Farder more hyt yt ajitreyd thut the aaide Tttchard achall Tse good 
fayth in the printing off the aaide worke, and suffer the saide Joho 
Palsgruue, or hys asAi^i-a, to correct the proff or euer that he for 
any hast print the boole nomber off any off iho saida leuys^ and 
that he Bchall prinyt* no mo hoakes, nor parcell off bolte, — sauff 
OODQ off the fyrst [tw^o leuea conteynin}; \* the aaide worke to ^vue 
to my Lord Cnfdiuuil,— ^biit ihe said vij" & \ • and, tliat he HchuUj 
whuD the bokca be cowipk-tly fynyahyd, geue vj off fhevin to the 
said John ralagmiie fr[L'L-Jy to]' gene where BchtUJ pleso byii. 

' llie draft is Tery conruwd bore, oiring to the oumeroiu conwtinti. 

' ** fur Guery"' it n^peatcd in tko AIS, 

■ On ifti d.i^ Btrack «Lt, • Ani kit ww^^km stnick out. 

• 8r in MS. 

* } mo. ! whether these wordt ATQ not ooint to be stnifik wii. They hare a 
li^tU Um) Ihiouf h tk(;m, ^ XMand. 


tynson's conthacts ■wtth horman and 


Of tliB Esalairci%mmfini actually printed and pul 
PjTison seems to have printed only tUe first two p; 
two alieets aud a half (signed A in faur, B in two, C in four,) 
and 59 leaves, then mistakeulj called folios. Ailer these 
comes the third part, with a fresh numbering of leaves froi 
1 to 473, and the eolopliou ia- — 

"Thus endeth this booke called Lesclarciasement de 
lang^ue franeoyse, whiche is very uecesaarye for all sucho oa 
intcndo to lerne to speke trewe freiAche : The imprintyng 
iynyashed by lohan UunkjrHfj the ,xviii, daye of luly. The 
yere of our lordo god M.CCCCC. and .xxx."^ 

Ames says that tliis ia the only brrok known that waa 
printed by Haukym*. and obserTes— " The book itself, which 
is very scarce, i& divided into three parts, or hooka. Tha 
first beginning on ' Fo. primo' dud aigmiture A, treats en- 
tirely of the pronunciation, which concludes on * Fo. xsiii. ^i 
IT Thua ende 1 of my .iil, bokes, the fyrst/ etc. The second, ^H 
treating of the nine parts of speech, begins on Fo- xxxi. and ^i 
ends on Fo. lix* and has another leai', with only Pynson'a ^i 
large device. Theao two parts aeeni to be the same as [those] ^H 
mentioned in the author's epistle dedicatory to the King, to ^* 
have been presented to the princeaa Mary, &c., and probably 
printed by Pynson." 

The reader will have noticed into how much greater detail 
of stipulation Palsgrave's cautious and auspicioua nature led 
him than ilorman. The Probondary of St, Paul's evidently 
did not trust ' the said lUcharde' further thau he could help, 
and would keep the ' kny ' of the said Hicharde's room in hia 
own pocket. The rcufton of aJI thia precaution is given in a 
letter to Secretary Cromwell^ tlie drawer of the contract, by 
a 'most humble servant' of his, S. Vaughan, who writes thua 
to him from Antweqi, on the 13th of Apiil, 15 . 


Right worshipfull Sir, I hurablye commends me unto youe, and 
praye youe, that whereas I am muche deairoua t'atteyne the knowldge 
of the Frenchf toQgo, which La to me so mucho the more difticulte ns 
aeyther by any safficient instructer, ne any Irenilee heretofore made, 
I mayc be easily kde to the knowlagc uf the sutDC, uod at my 
beyng ut London mtiJo not a letle labour to Mr. Falsg^rave in have 



one of hia books whiche he made concernyng the Game, wbicbe in 
no wise he woldo praunt for no price, thtit ye wilbe &o good 
Master to me aa to bi?iilpe ma to have one of theoij not doubtyng 
but though he uukyntlly dtaycd me oac, he will uot dcnye jolc one, 

I perceyve that Palsgrave hathe willed PytLsoa to sell nono of 
them to auy other person then to Bucho as he shall Komauude to 
haro them, lest hiB proffit by teching the Frenche tonge myght be 
mynishod by the sale of the same to euchs persons as,, bEBids hym, 
■wern disposed to studjii! the eayd tongue. 

If I had one, t wolde no lesae oitomo it then n Jewell, whcrfore 
I hartely pmje youe to liealp mo to oae, and for the snme I ehnll 
eeodo youo aome other thing to youe of muche more tuIup. If it 
please youe to cuuae WillyatHBoti lo bring the game to my brother, 
"William Pratt, he will convey it to me Eit all tymea. 

Syr, I humbly coiTiende nnlo your goodness the memory of my 
loTyng twendv^, "Willyiim Claye, who intenctith on thiazide WUitson- 
tyde to depfulL^ towarda Inglandj and wyll resorte unto youe, for to 
desire youe to be good Mnister vnto hym in h:3 right, and none 
otherwise. I departed from Londou upon the Tewywluye, and came 
to Andwcrpo the Sattirdflyo then nest following, upbEro I reraaya 
your mort humble and obedyent servant. And Ibus I hartely praye 
for the uontynuancc of your hoolth and proeperotti. At Aiidwerpe, 
the xiij daye of Aprell. 

Syr, I remember Mr. Palsgrave gave youe one of hie books, 
irhiube if it please you to jeevc me, I wcr muche bouude to youe. 
Tour moat humble Servant 


To liu right wOTsliypfiill Mflistpr, 
Mr. CrumweU m London. 

{OrighmJ Lct{prf(, ed. Ellie 3rd Ser. Vol il. p. 2U-2l5.i> 

So much then I'or PalsgraTe'a keeping bis bcwk to himself, 
liis friends, and his pupils. Let uh hope that the desiroua 

^ >rr. WbFnl]«y pointed tliii letter out to me. Bir B. KUb girei «n intervit- 
injj t>i<ijtraphy uf Klsgi-jive, at p, 213-14. Mr. Bti^wer** Crthtuiar }\tis aUo 
(v'll. iii. [I. Ia23, Kij. S68,) a notice of Pahg^ro'a Bill in CtintiC'Cry to make JqLd 
Wilpocta. eiKutiryf Horry Wylcucks, pay -i-lT 13*, id. Tfr itil.Tpiriatioi]* to thfl 

VylciH'feysucoowor. lu vol. ii, pt. 1 of tlie Calfnrfvr, p. 1450. is *n intry rrcra 
tbo Kiag's Bnolc orpcyments^'' Jnbn PolrgrHphe (PiLln,(i:nit-('), elk., pchoolninster 
to mj Lady Frincuns, year's waj^cs, 6£ 1^, -Id." On p- MUD is antittier rtitr}', 
'John PolrgmTG, Kaoobnistor to tho IVtncera of CaatLls. 66#. Srf.' On 3rd 
April, 1£U, tfary, QneaD of France, writes to 'Woltey from Paris, and 'bcga that 
bar MrTMit. John Pnlymve, M.A., may have EgyUfL'ld in the dicet'^ of Uurham, 
or the archiieik'Oiiry of Derl^v, now to bo vacated* (Urc^-cr's Ciikndar. vtd. li. 

fit. 1. p. 93), On tlic 13lh of' Nov., IfiU, MatJ' hAit wtiai^n to WuWy, ■ \,v^ his 
avour in behalTof John Palsgrave (? iho Wittoniiry-niulioT'ii Ron), that he niny 
coptiq^e «t PchooL H^d vlllcd him to rqinqin ut I*Krp« nflrr he was dix.'hiirt{vd 
from her Bn^cc. Wishes to do somefrhiu fii'i- him. Would havo hcua ghid lo 
help him, but her »tUilc m not jet made' (Or/, vol. a. p. ^SiS.) 



Vauglaali gat a copy o^ Lesclaireissemnttt, and that sonio luclcy 
grubber among MSvS. will fiud for uq that "general voi-abu- 
list conJaynyng all the wordes off the Fren&h tong expownd 
in Englishe, whorof the copye rem0'\Tiy[d]| in the handes 
of the sayd Maiater John Palwgiauti." We should exi 
it a Jewoll indeed. . 

With rrgard to the rate of work, a sheet a day, at tliat' 
eorly time, 10^3, — or at least a year before 1530 (when ihe^j 
book was published,) — must be taken as a very good pacO^H 
indeed, I aasunie that the second contract, though only in ^* 
draft, must have been rigrht in its details, aa these evidently 
imply previous consultation with Pynson. 

Aa to the cost of binding: i" 1521, wo may judig-e froni 
one of tho King's payments in April : " To John Taverner, 
stationer of London, by the sergeant of the vestry, for bind- 
ingt clasping, &nd oovoring 41 books for the King's chapel, 
4/." (Brewer's Calemiar, vol. iii. pt, 2, p. 1545). 

Lastly, hero is the Letter of Denization granted by Henry 
TIIL to Pynson, a.d. 15ia. 

Benization of Richard Pynnon, 

(PriT)- Senl. 30lh July 1513. 
Mr. Ercwer'i Cild/fiKfor, No. I. 4373, Record Offict.. 

ULtmorandnm quad. xxx. i^ie Julij anno Bubeonp^, istud brew 

libpnitt^m tuit ^omiuo CaacelLurio AngliVs apud Wcetmo- 
natifrrium exequendwin, 

HENIlICtJfl, Dei gntcia Rex Anfdie et Frflncie, et dowin 
Hiliernie/Reu«rendis9imo in ChrtHo Pairi WiHj>/mo, Cantuar/'; 
Arthtt'piSTo^o, tociua Anglie primtkti, rt ap'Cuf slice Si-die Li'^ato^ 
Ciiuci-UiirLo noetro, ^alut^im./ Yubia manduaitie qwd, 6ub mjngu ' 
ei^illo norfro, li7fra^ uoHt^s patentee fieri faciiiti> lu forma Bf^quiti/if;' 
Hrnriciis, Dfi gra^/a, et M^-cra/ Onawibit* ad quos, ct fretrra, aiilMt^ra, 
Sciiitia qMftd Hoe, de gralm notfra spwijiH, ac ex cejta FcientiH, et 
mero motu DPj^ria, dcdimu^ et coni^c^eimus, Qc ppr prcpenlcs dflmua^H 
et cDnccditnus, pro nobis, ct bercdi^Mff nmhis (quatitiira in sohi^^H 
est) dilpc^o nobis Riwrr^o pynson, in pnrtibM* Normandie oriunda, 
qudd ipje ad totam Ti[!im euaf/t sit indigi^na^ et liig^UH nomtri et 
h(.-red«m OMiroram / ct qworl ip^s in <imMibi« tractctur^ reputetur, 
hdfreatur, tencatur, tt gubiwiiettor, eicut fidi-Hs ligeiis noa/n", infra 
Regaum o-ottrum Acglic oriundua, ct non alitrr, Dec alio rnodg^ qued 



quihui ifse TLictrrrfus PjDi!on om7i\mo&aa occi'oTics rcalea p^rBonales 
et mi3fla?, ill oniNibi/A PinuB posft-ls, tt JurisdiccioniLwa no^/ris, 
hrtiere, et eiercere, eia qaiiijii ^udtre, ac in eisdem p?rlif/ture, 
reBpoQileiT, et defemlere, uc pTlirf'tori, responderi, ct dtfcndi 
posait, in omnihua ut prT omuia, siciit fidi'lis Hgeua Doifri, in 
d<c/o Regno uoafvo Anglie oriundus, / Et qwod ijisf Ru^arrfus de 
celero in futiirMi/i {"uLore eeu vigure ulicuius statuti, ordinucfoNis, 
sou Cumessiobis fucti sun fiiciend/, nou Rrtttur, tencntui', 6vu ccun- 
pclliitHr, ad BoSvendi/wi, d[aTi]dwffi, fiiL-icrdMttj; vel sujiportandHPi, iiob« 
aut alioui hervdum aostrarum, sen cuicuwiqw :dtffn, aliquas aliaa 
taxuSftullagin, &eu alia ooera quL'cunqud, pro boois, lerm, tt^cwwrnt**, 
vel pcrwua sua^ prt-t^r laliu et taota, qualia et quanta, aJii tideleB 
lig^i nontti ifitra Kegnu/n vodntra Anglic oriuadi, jiro botiia, ttrtiBj 
ixneTTUuiis vvl pn'sonis &uia proprija, sulKust, duiit, i'uciunt v^l aup- 
porT«nt, aut 8oluffj'«H dare, vel aiipfioi-tare, i'.ot»miiti\t.&T consuGuerin^, et 
teaeaiitHr; et qMud ipM Kictrrrfus huiere et posaidere valeat omnf» et 
omniwodrt* libermteB, fruaehesiaB, et prmilcgia, nc cas uti et gaudere 
posttit intra dtciam liegDur/i Tiottntm. AngUe^ iuri»dk'CEone» et 
doMioia niM^ra qui'cunqwc, adoo libc/'Cp quii-to, integre et pacifice, 
sicut ceUri fidek-s li^ei uostvi lufra JCegnuf/ii Dosfrum prtdtcltijn 
oriiindi hrtftere, poseidera, uti, et gaadere, debeant aut vaJpant, 
ab«qu« pt-rturbactQae, impi'dim^nto, moleelacioDe, aeu calumpnia 
nestri, tcL hfT^du/H no^trorum, Juauciarior^m, E^aetonf^n, Vico- 
comitum, But oliorfim ofticiuriorxM et miiiiilTorum nostronfpi vel 
hereduM noBtrorum, quonunciinqu^ / Aliquibuj Atututia, orditiuoioni- 
b«*, actubiM, prouisionibjM, sime proclamacmjiibKS, in contrarium 
(iDte hec temjiufiL ruiilis eiue concL'B5(«, aut impostcruw fictidrj seu 
conccdendr'j^ aut aliqtia aEiu re, causn, vul tna^lirrla quucuNqu^^, non 
obslanf'iiM/ Prouiao semper qi/wt! predi'c^qs Ricarrfus FytisoQ homa- 
giuw ligeuff* nubr* facbt, ac lottMw* et ficottwfli tciiitribuatf sicut 
ctteri ligei tiuafn contributint / Et hoc absfjw aliquo fine seu T^ddo 
pn-tATqudtn IVadif;/) ma^iii cigilli noafri DubiA consuetum in hiiniipmo 
QrX^To, sCu alJter iid Opus aantnini Vel hPl^^luM hoitroruft reddendiwrt 
vel eciluendwrn / In cujus Rci, ct cetera / Tiatum sub co^^ro pnuato 
ti^illo lipud UfiDeriuni notitutn de Uicbemount, X^vj die Julij, 
anno Kegni netin quinto. / 

{Thit Jimtmefti i» mttred 9H iA« I^ttnt JlolJt/Offetiiy VIII, parti, 

m«mbren9 IS)* 

In ir>20 Pynson signs & receipt for an annuity of £4 
(Brewor's C'lf/'riffar, v. H, pt. 1, p. 365, 1. 10), bas an order to 
print ' 4000 letters, and aa many briefa,' for Jobn Kobinaon, 
onMny 10, 152^ (i'6. pt. a, p. 1269, N"o. 3015^, and gets 
£16 6«. 4d. * for printing proclamation, bokea concemyng 
Saintuariea/ in Febr, 1521 (»A. Pi. 2, p. 1544). There" are 

374 PTNSON's contracts with HOAMAN and PALSOaA^-B. 

other entries relating to Pynsoa in the prior volumea of Mr. 
Brewer's Caknd<tr, as — 

1$J0, S Mny, di^ed Sills. 
1030. To the Ahp. of CnntcrTiwry, Cliancellor. 

Warrant to deliver to Richard Pynaon, the King's printer, 
a true Goj)y of tlift elatute^ lutul;^ puased in purliamE-Eit,, 
that he may print them. Greeuwich, 3 May 2 Hcd. YIlll 
Stahd. (Col. i. p. 154). 

IJJ13, 20 JniiB, S n, 
3250. For Kichard Pynson, the King's printer, annuity of 4'0». from 
Michiiolmtis hi»t. DrL Westm, 20 June 4 Hen. Vlll. Pat. 
4 nen. VIII.^. 2, ». 24. 

1*1 S, n Sepl., Signed Billa, 
954. For Bic. PyDson, the Kiiig*s Printer. Annuity of 4£. Del. 
Cmjdon, 27 Sept. 7 Ben. VIII, Pat. 7 Hen. YIII. p. 2, 
m. 15. 

1516, Record Office. 

3736, Fetjii and Aanutice paid bv the King. Ric. Ptdsoh, printer, 
for life 4£. (Brewpr'n Cal. v ii. pt. !^ p. ST'S, 

In tW Eing^s Book of PHymcnts iirB — 

1511. March : To PynRon, fur printine of ioformatioQ? to the Com- 
mission c-rs taking mLBtiTs^ 1D£. 

, July : PyjJBon, printing statutes and proclamation fl, 6£ 13*. 4rf. 

1512, July: Eio PyjiMia, printing hooka of atatutca for the army 

tiver seaj lUOtr. 

1513, February- Rtc Pynson, King's printer, 10£, 

, June. Pynson, printing and binding 1600 books of *'etatutei 

of war," 16/. 13*. U. 

, 25th Dec. Pynson, printing of the entordityng of Scotland, 

1514, June. Pynaon, printing 100 parchment rolls of the last 

subftidy act, each contaioiiig four ^kins, 10£. 

1515, Murrh, Pynsion, printing 430 akins of parchment, contaimni 

" the Acta of retenJorB of the Btatutea of Wine heater," 
6£. ly*. AiL 

■, Dec. Pynson, for printing 1 00 parchment skinn and 125 

lenves of paper of the last subsidy, and for printing tlie 
etalutes, 18£. 

1 5 1?! Hpy. Py naoD , printing books concerning the subridy, 
sue \Za. Ad. 


Prof. T. Hewitt Key,' 

When Professor Mai Miiller applied to the llimetia 
Theory of the origin of language the name of the Bow- 
Wow Theory, it was naturally thought that his object waa 
to throw ridicule on the doctrine ; but he has ainco asBured 
ths world that this waa far frotn his inteutiou. Th^ cor- 
reetion however may Tery possibly fail to rew3h all the 
quarters where the first impression waa made. Be this as 
it nitty, I for one only adhere more firmly to my previous 
convigtion, when I find that he makes no attempt to bring 
forward an argument in opposition to the theory, and haa 
no counter- theory to put forward on hia own side, except 
what I can only call the meaningless doctrine of ' instinct,' 
or ' phonetic tj-pes/ 

I return again then with increased confidence to the 
doctrine that the sole origin of language lies in the Imita- 
tion of the special sounds which accompany action, ray only 
objection to the old theory being a dislike of the ugly and 
nnmcaning word onomatopoeia ; but this is a difficulty 
which it is easy to correct by substituting for 'onomato- 
poetic ' the term ' mimetic.' 

Perhaps those who have their doubts about the Talidity 
of the mimetic hypothesis may have been influenced by the 
fear that although it la well calculated to explain the forma- 
tion of some words^ eapocially those of a physical character, 
yet there is an almost boundless class of ideas for which such 
an origin seems to them an impossibility. For example, it 
may well be asked how any imitation of natural sounds can 
lumish terms for what conceniB the other eonsea, or is alto- 

^ Bend drrt beforo tbe rhi]olo)^cal Society tta Friiky, Nur. 13th, and aubse- 

Jvently on Nor. 23rd, u nu IntrotluC'tory Lectunn to my course of Comparatire 
InLTumar, at Unifeniity ColEeffe. But it -will bo seen that tnniiy aJterationB ]iai'e 
b»Go made since it was rend Defore the Society, chjel^y in the way of iulilitioas ; 
aad ttiifl, to BDoie eitent, omn^ ta suggeitiom nude bymoitib«n io the converu- 
tion wtuch roUoired th« lendiiig. 



gether of a metaplij'^fiical character. Locte indeed speaks 
of a blind man. who fancied in his own mind that there was 
some inherent connection between the sound of a tniTupet 
and the bright colour of scarlet ; but this will not be accepted 
aa going far towards a aolution of the problem. Such queries ^j 
howeyer are entitled to a fuU answer ; and the simplest i^'^l 
all answers is to produce examples where in fact words ^^ 
formed in imitation of sounds hare, in their more or leas 
remote results, produced what is significant of ideaa directly 
connected with other senses than that of hearing or eren 
with metaphj'sical abstractions. 

In a lecture which was deliyered elsewhere a few years ago, 
I selected the sound tchir or kir aa the parent of a vast family . 
of words to which the idea of rotation first attached iteelf, 
while the ultimate progeny included ideaa which seemed to 
bear no resemblance to their first ancestor. For example, 
among these occurred several terms which belonged not to 
the organ of hearing, but to that of the sight, aa ^yr-tmiton, 
cr-imaan, and car-mine. As my object then was to exliibit 
the fertility of the system, and thus add to its credibility, so 
I propose on the present occasion to put forward a similsF 
plea in behalf of . the doctrine, taking for my theme tha] 
aoimd irtjr. or something like it, as a naturtd symbol of tkc 
idea of scratching. 

At the outset however I may be stopped by the plau^U 
obj^tion that in the very word carmine, which haa just been 
quoted, the same sound kar was as&umed to have originally 
represented the notion of whirling ; but an answer to thi 
objection presents itself at once in the assumption, that, for 
yet savage man in the first use of oral language, the imita- 
tion of a nattiral sound as addressed to the car would 
accompanied by a language of gealute addressed to the eye. 
In the one case, a circular moremeut of the hand would con- 
tribute its quota towards the production of the right idea ; 
in the other, the nails might easily be employed to ropre*ent 
the act of scratching. Nor is this assumption of a two-fold 
language in any way arbitrary, for most of us must have felt 
a tendency to back the language of words by suitable 

ble action, J 

BY T. HEWnr KEY, M.A., F.R.S. , 377 

I proceed then without preface to exhibit words in which the 
sound kar, yap^ or something like it, enters into the forma- 
tion of words as significant of scratching, after which I shall 
adduce other words in which by a natural association the 
same sound is extended to cognate ideas often of a very ab- 
stract character. 

The sound ear in its simplest form is heard in the Latin 
Terb car-ire * to card wool,' which is but a process of scratch- 
ing, whether with a teazle or with a toothed instrument of 
metal ; and our own card difiers from this only by the out- 
growth of a (f from the final r, just as in the Latin cor cordis. 
Precisely in the same way card-um * a thistle,' that is the 
very instrument which nature supplies for the process of 
carding, has also thrown out an excrescent d. But a leading 
object in carding wool is to clear it of impurities ; and thus 
we see how eastuSt which by its form claims to be a perf. 
part, of cnr^r^,* obtained the meaning of ' pure,* and how the 
secondary verb carSre came to be * clear of whatever the ac- 
companying ablative may denote : caret culpa ' he is clear of, 
guilt,' caret argento ' he has been cleared out of his money.' 
Thus already we have arrived at two ideas very remote from 
that of scratehing, * purity * and * non-entity.* The Germ. 
Krdmpei ' a tool for carding ' has added a suffix or rather 
suffixes to the root-syllable. In our noun -ecar, the result of 
a scratch, we have a consonant attaching itself to the com- 
mencement of the syllable, about which I need not now stop 
to speak, as the « so prefixed is of familiar occurrence, and, 
though explained in diffijrent ways by etymologists, is by 
none claimed as original in the word. The verb score too, 
with this same b, has for its first sense that of scratching, 
whether we talk of * scoring a person's face with one's nails ' 
or * scoring a leg of pork before roasting.' The German 
scharr-en 'to scrape' has softened the guttural, just as we 
ourselves have in ship compared with skipper. Scratch again 
must be considered as compressed from a disyllabic scar-atch 
and scrape as shortened from scar-ape. The Norse too gives 
us scratt-a, and so the Scoteh have or had the form serai with 
the same meaning ; and the German kratz-en corresponds to 


ttie scraf as regnrde the dental, a Qetman b tabitually going 
with an English t. With hrafz-en we must include tlie Fj. 
gratfsr, whence our ffrak^ and egratigner. To these let mo 
add the term scriftp, as used by carpenters and workers in 
metal, both as a verb 'to scratch a line,' and as a sb. ' the line 
ao scratched.' So also they havo scribe as an insfrument for 
the aame purpose ; and further aen'bhfe i& used in the manu- 
facture of wool of a special kind of scratching, different froTD 
that of carding. Theae words unite in assuring ua that to 
scribble m the sense of bad writing is native to our Saxon 
vocabulary, and not a loan from the Latin scribillarc. This 
view is confirmed by the form ecrabbk as used in this sense 
ID 1 Sam. sxi. 13, and by the Dutch krahhelen. 

But it is safer to rely on forms which belong to what are 
thought to be older languages. In tho Greek "^ap-axnTa, 
j(ap alone is the root, the syllable tura; or rather ay^ or ok, 
being a sufHx which adds to it the secondory idea of dimi- 
nution and iteration, so that the disyllabic yap-aair means 
* scratch by little and little,' or * keep scratching.' Such, 
formations abound in language, serving to distinguish what 
is repeated or continuous from action of a momentary cha- 
racter. And in claiming this power for the suilix avtr, I 
claim it also for verbs in eo-ff-w, «ro--<o, and iJffff-w, which 
suffixes, 09 I hav^ elsewhere explained, I hold to be sub- 
stantially identical, the vao-iety of vowel in origin depending 
solely on tho principle of adaptation to the root-vowel, so 
that we havo^Bp-Bffff'Q), where the root contained an original 
a ; and by the side of this, ep-ecff-flj, etX-Hrtr-Qj, op-w<r'to : 
in the last of which wo have kindred though not identical 
vowels. The Latin exhibits the same su£x, and tho same 
tendency to a law of vowel -assimilation in incip-iss-o as com- 
pared with exjid-cu-o and in tk-iss-ihido as compared with 
nec-esH-iiuth ; and in other words in e»so, as /ace&so, lacesso^ 
rajM'Sgo, tlio vowels a and f, though again not identical, are 
close neighbours to each other in the natural gamut of 
vowels (', e, ti. Of u. 

As to meaning, this verb ^^ffp-atrd-m has for its first trans- 
lation in our dictionariea, 'to make sharp or whet/ while the 

BY T, HEWITT KEY, M.A., F.R.S. 379 

idea of ' scratcKing ' is relegated to an inferior position ; but 
the very book where I find this order, gives the best proof of 
its incorrectness in its closing paragraph : "Prob. onomatop. ; 
akin to ypa<f)a and our scratch, hence xapj^apo^" This word 
Kafrj(apo<i * jagged ' by its very form confirms the view that 
it is of mimetic origin, for it is especially in such admitted 
formations that repetition shows itself, as in the Latin 
susurrus, murmur, tintinnahulum, and our own botc-woic, ring- 
a'ting-ting, ctickoo, and the South American rodent tteco-tuco. 

The sound of X'^P' ^^' "^^^^ ^ near it, xap, is also beard in 
the Greek ff/capufxt^ ' a stile/ and in the rb. a-tutpi^a-ofiat, 
used alike of ' scratching an outline ' and of a fowl ' scraping 
a dunghill ;* and the verb still survives in our surgical term 
scarijy. Even the Latin scabo may very possibly have lost an 
r, just as our own speak is shown to have done by comparison 
with the G^erman sprech-en} Again, the Greek Kap-a^-o<: 
(Lat. scar-ab-aeus), by its various meanings of * stag-beetle, 
prickly kind of crab, etc.,' seems to connect itself in meaning 
as weU as form with the family of scratching words ; and on 
the same principle we must include both the Greek Kopxtvo^ 
and our own crab. 

The noun ;^a/3-aKT-7;/3, in itself but *a scratch,' was used as 
a distinguishing mark on a vessel to show the nature of its 
contents ; and although paint, ink, etc., are now preferred 
for this purpose, probably as less destructive of the material 
80 marked, yet a mere scratch is still not tmcommonly 
employed for economy of time. But already in Greek 
writers the word had got into use in the vague sense of 
character or style, so that we have again arrived at a meta- 
physical notion. 

But one of the most valuable applications of scratching for 
man, was that which was directed upon the earth's surface for 
the purpose of sowing seeds ; and which, as tools were in- 
vented, ended in the cognate idea of 'digging.' Now, a 
Greek x> "*■ accordance with Bask's law (commonly called 
Grimm's), should be represented in our northern tongues by 

' Soch lo83 of an r ia scon in gaffir and ijammer for grandfalhrr nnil tfraiid- 
mother, in gooteberry for groi-berry (c/. the Wcloli ffricyt and the Fr. groseilU). 


a ffy 80 that wo are bound to connect with, yfap-offt^'-ti o 
terms grate ond grob^ ae well as grope; also tKe Gcmuin 
ffraOen, and the French tjraccr, whence our engracc, which U 
etill digging and ecratchiiig, though of a more refined nature; 
and indeed the Greek j^apatcrrjp waa used alike of the ' M- 
graver, the graving-tool * which ho employed, and * the figure' 
which resulted from his art. 

The rarh ypaipa} ' write/ deals with an idea that first coa- 
aiated ia scratching, whether it be in aQnd> in stone, or wax ; 
for such action preceded the ubq of any pigment. As t<i fonn, 
it seems ki riolate Ha&k'a law, for to a German graben there 
should correspond a Greek ypa^^v \ but, in truth, exceptions 
to this law are of frequent occurrence whenever tho loss of 
the root-Towel bringH an imtial conBonont into imm^ate 
contact with on r. Thus the Latin tmh-o and English drag, 
though beyond a doubt analogueB the one of the other,, do 
not stfind in the required relation as to form, imtil we aub- 
Btitute tli for the dental in one of the two worda. A Latin 
ihrah would duly correspond to our drag, an English thrag to 
the Latin h'dh. But looking to Greek alone, the two Terbe 
•yp-a^a and yap-aa-a--(a are in both elomentB, root and suffix, 
hut varietiea of each other ; the true theme of ;tapiuo--» ie 
^ap-ax, a ff taking the place of tho final asperate in the de- 
rivative yapr-tucT-Tip, solely because of the objection which the 
Greek language feels to the repetition of an asperate in a single 
word; and then tho substitution of one aaperated consonant 
for another is of frequent occurrence in most languages. 
Thus GOT own laugh (with a guttural written, but a labial 
pronounced) baa for it£ German equivalent lach, aa seen in 
the verbs lach-cn and lacb-eln. The example is the tnord 
pertinent, as these verbs Me probably truncated forms from 
a disyllabic kd-ach, etc,, corresponding to the Greek 7€Xa-v, 
which is proved to have lost a final guttural bv ita Dorio 
foture 7eXa|o) ■ and if this -view be correct, the ach of tha 
German Uack-en is the very same su^x which appeoni iu 
y^ap-add-bi. But ypeuffb}, and, in my view, iuttgh aha, if 
defluced from a fulk-r kcltufyhy were the more entitled to the 
auhetitution of a labial for a guttural, oa having ali«ady a 
guttural in the first part of the word. 





Of eouree, the Latin acriho and German, schreihen, as ttey 
are one in meaQiDg Tvitli the Greek ypcufyai, so also must be 
one in origin. A Greek ^ was, aa we know hiatorically, im- 
pronounccable for b RoMftn> whose / had a different eound, 
and waa thus to a great extent supplanted by a Latin b. Thus 
^pvypi WQ3 for Eiiniua Bruges ; the datival suffix <pi of Homer 
appears in Latin as bi, for example, in ibi, alibi, nobis. So, 
fdso,* ^aXaivOr ofi^Xo':, opi^vo^, ve<f»e\i), oviftap,^ awtftptov, 
po<t>sa/r T/m^f, exchange the ^p for a ii in bnkiena, umbi!hu9, 
orbua, ncbulu, uber, aobriiis, sorhm^ trahec-ula. On the other 
hand, the aubstitutioD of a i in the GermBU schreibcn for the 
^ of ypa<f>eiv la prociaely what the law of interchange de- 
mands. Our own iprik seems to have grown out of a German 
variety iekreibden^ with an escreBcent d, which would even- 
tually lead to the disappearance of the l ; and the d of my 
assumed acthreide'ti would of cour&o slip in a low German 
dialect, such as our own^, into the t of icnfe. Lastly an initial 
w, OS a substitute for a guttural, is of common occurrence 
with ua. At any rate, the ib of scribo is no more radical 
than the ijS of rpt^ta^ which we know to bo a compression of 
np-t^-<o, from a root rep, still preserved in the ordinary form 
of the Itatia iero, alUiough this language exhibits the suffix 
also both in ter-^h-m and ft'-tb-uirnti, and, as far a& the vowel 
go<06, in triri and (ritum. Thus I look upon scribo as standing 
for scer-ib-o. 

The connection of the two ideas of scratching and writing, 
oa Boon in ypa^tit and scribo, receives, though it needs not^ 
confirmation in the fact that the vb, iikh of Sanskrit to its 
original meaning of ' to scratch,' superadds that of ' writing.' 
Eetuming to the notion of ' digging ' the ground, I next 
point to a variety of our root-syllable, which substitutes the 
liquid I for the liquid r—n change &o familiar to every oae 
as to need no illustration here. Thus, we find o^koX of the 
Greek <7KaXX» ' dig or hoe,' — a word whose immediate pro- 
geny is very numerous, including a-tcdX-o-^ ' the little digg^ 
or molet* with the variety oTraX-af of the same meaning. 
Here again we find an example of the tendency to soften 
) Ttie AmUc TArietf of tbe better known tn/9afi. 


one of two adjacent gutturals by thQ subatitution of a labiaU 
Nay, it was on this accoimt perhaps that ypatfuo took the 
place of a more regular 'Yp^X'^' ^° '^^ ^ Latin we Kare 
apex ' a point,' not akeXf from a root ak ' sharp ;' and tho three 
V6.Tiet\e9f/orJice'iy/orcejjes,/orpices, havo naturally a preference 
over forcicea, though, a nom. /otcex ehould have come from 
furcfi ' a prong.' i 

In the Latin scafpei-e 'to scratch,' which is of courae a^J 
secondary form from a lost Latin Tb. 9ail, the p denot««^H 
* little by little,' as it does in serpere * to go little by little/ ^^ 
' to creep / and in cafpete ' to eat little by little,' ' to nibble,' 
In sculptor and scufptura, we are brought again Into the 
region of hiy;h art, although the rougher notion of digging 
often appears in thia verb ; as, for example, in exscuipcre ter- 
ram of Varro, and exscufpere uerufri of Terence. In the 
Greek yXtr^Mt for 7oXu^&>j and in yXaipai for yaXa^tOf we 
find again a labial, and again the two meanings of rough 
digging and of artistic digging. The Engliah carve, which ia of 
course one with these, bringg us to the form of the root from 
which we started ; and I may here introduce yet another ex- 
ample with Cfjr^ in which the original notion of scratching was ^j 
for a time preserved. Jamieson's supplement to hia dictionary^! 
giTes : cai'kw, 'scratching;' and, indeed, we might before^ ^^ 
hand have expected that the sound c/i of a South-England ^j 
word would be accompanied by an equivalent with a hard ^^M 
in the Northern parts of the island (cf. church and kirk). ^^ 
His authority for the form cark is a quotation from David- ^j 
wn's Beasoua, which speaks of " a dog . . . listening to tha^^ 
chirp o' wand'ring mouae or moudy'a carkin hoke " — that is, " 
a mole's scratching dig. The same author in the same passage 
would refer the old sb. car/:, familiar to the readers of Spenser, 
and BO of course lU primitive care, on the mimetic principle, 
to tlio grating effect of grief upon the spirits; and this view 
is the more acceptable, as the usual derivation of care &om ._, 
the Jjatin cura seems historically to be indefensible. ^M 

Tliis notice of carrr, cark, and c^re has been a Uttlu out of^fl 
place, as I was discussing tlie furmy which have eubstitutod 
an I for the r. Returning therefore to words which h 

BY T. HEWITT K£Y, M.A., 7.B.8, 383 

the soft liquid, I take next the Latin co/o, which in its 
meanings has luxuriated beyond most words. In colere 
agrum, and agricitltura we have the simple sense of digging ; 
and incola, as denoting a fixed resident, tells us that such 
fixity has for its essential condition the tillage of the soil. 
Without this life must be that of a nomad. But as land 
under cultivation has a beauty and neatness and utility un- 
known for the most part to that which lies waste, the notion 
of the verb was soon extended to all care&l tending, so that 
we find attached to it such accusatives as eapillos, corp&ra^ 
amico€, religiottem, deos ; and the substantive cultus is applied 
to all that adorns the life of man, whether externally or 
morally. So we ourselves too use the terms culture and 
cultivate in a transcendental sense, far removed from the pri- 
mitive idea of ' scratching.' 

But to return to the physical uses of colo, we have in the 
derivative culf^r a word which, in Pliny (18, 17), denotes 
' a plough-share or coulter,' and so preserves its first sense ; 
but in other writers obtained the allied meaning of * a 
knife;' and, through its diminutive ci^ftellm, gave to the 
French language its ordinary term couieau, whence we our- 
selves have the words cutler and cutlery. 

But the Latin col-o has its regular analogue in the Scotch 
verb holl, * dig ;' and in immediate connection with this stand 
the words hole^ hull, hulk, and hollow, some of which will have 
further consideration. The Scotch language had also at one 
time a derived verb hoik in the same sense of * digging,' in 
A^ich, the / becoming silent as in so many words before a k, 
there resulted the form hoke as in the passage just quoted 
from Davidson. This form hoik is the more interesting, as it 
must be a compression from hol-ock, and so the exact represen- 
tative of the Greek xap-axt for ock is the form of the dimi- 
nutival suffix commonly preferred in English, whereas the 
Greek favours the form a/e or a;^. The Latin alum and alueus, 
so far as the first three letters are concerned, may be assumed, 
I think, to be identical with our hollow and hulk. 

I go back to the Greek axaXKea; to notice the derived form 
tTKuKevttv of kindred meaning ; and so am brought to the 


Latin verb scmtart, tbe comiectioii of which, so far tts the 
first four lett<>ra go, aeems to me not open to a doubt ; for 
iTKaXeuew av9paxa<i is a phrase uaed by more than one Greek 
writer in the familiar sense of ' poking the fire ;' trxoKevOpoVf 
again, is 'a poker ;* an^, on the other side, we have Ilorace'a 
scrutari xgncm. Although out terms scnifiin/ and scrutinize 
haTO passed far nway from the primitive meaning, the Latin 
verb ncfatari had exclusively the notion of digging, with 
something of a metaphorical sense when used of an officer 
poking the drees of one suing for an interview with a great 
personage to see whether he has any concealed weapon ; but 
etill more definitely, whon applied, as by Lucan, to gold-dig- 
ging. The identity as to the form of scru in scrutari with 
tTKoXev- BcemB placed beyond the region of doubt, when ure 
look at the parallel cases of letter-change in tr/caXinfr and crur, 
tTKcXoi and crtts, and, within the limits of the Latin lan- 
guage, ceieber and crehcr. 

But the Latin language haa yet another variety of the root 
ew or eol in the sense of diggings the connocticm however 
requiring a few words of preface. That a A-sound and a p* 
sound are at times interchangeable, haa been already Been in 
the two varieties, ukoKo-^ and ffTraXaf, as names of the m.ole. 
It is a familiar fact too, that a Greek tt often corresponde to a 
Latin k (c, j), as in hrofiai and ssqitor, itttto? and eguits. But 
it is not necessary to bring into comparison points bo distant 
from each other. While within Rome a A-sound was in favour^ 
the rustic or Ofican dialect outside of Rome often preflcntod 
a p ; and, conversely, a tt in Athens had k as an Ionic sulA 
stitnte. This consideration will explain several anomalies. 
While a tame pigeon in Rome was called columba, the wild 
pigeon had a name which differed in little more than the 
initial consonEint, viz, palumbcs. Again, when we compare 
the terms \vKO<i and hipn& ' a wolf,' we find the usual law of 
interchange reversed, for here it is the Greek which eshibita 
the guttural, the I>atin which exhibits the labial. But aU 
difficuKy vanishes as soon as wo coll to mind that the wolf is 
a resident of I ho counlry. 

Applying this argument to the form eoh as standing for 




eoro, we cannot bo surpriaGd at finding a kindred word which 
preaenta & p, such m porca^ the true meaning^ of whi;:h ap- 
pears to have been, not the ridg«j but the furrow or hollow 
m&de by the plough ; imd ind&cd this Yery word /urroio is 
the analogue o£ porca, that ia, por-oc-a, with the exception of 
the final tt of the liatin word. Kay, even our plovffh, as 
stAnding; for pol-ough, seems also, in the firat part, to re- 
present a Latin col- or, father a theoretic pol- of rustic uae, 
the suffix oiigh ix\aQ corresponding to the ax of x^P-'^X' 

I proceed to another change of form. The initial gutturalj 
eepeciollj an asperatod guttural, is apt to disappear. Thus we 
find in the Latin vocabulary, cacumcn ' a, point,' and acumen 
'npouit.' And the asaumption juat mode in reference to alnm 
uid atueus InTolves the asaumption that these have originated 
in fuller forma, Caiuas and calueiis. The am of aniare appears 
in Sonekrit ba kam ; and the deduction of nhi, vnde^ uter, ut, 
vtqae, sMiquam, from lost forms etibi, atijide, etc., ia now an 
accepted truth^^ But the Bomans were especially given, like 
some of our frienda at home, to dropping on initial h, ao that 
not a few words appear in Latin authoJ'a sometimes with, 
BOtDctunea without this asperate h, Uence tho Sanskrit han^a 
'a gooee,' the Greek ^^v, our owa 170081,' (Qerman gana), and 
our gntukrf unite in aaauring us that the Latin m\itr must 
have supplanted a more genuine kanser. 

When to this I add, what has already been seen, that the 
suffix ay^ of iteration, which forms the second element in 
Xapa^f^^* gave way to o^ in ypcu^m, and that the ^ had a b 
for its Ijatin equivalent, I am led to look out ibr a form 
har-ab or ar-ab in Latin with the sense of ploughing, and 
at once the latter shows itself in the adjective arab-Uia and 
the tenaed arab-ain, arab-o; for the ab in these two fonns of 
the verb contributes nothing to tbe notion of absolute time. 
A suffix of iteration ia well suited for admiasion into a form 
calling itself imperfect, and the idea of past time is sym- 
bolized by the a which precedes m in arab-am, as it ia in 
»-ram €Tt0e-a treru^-o, while fti^b-o is in it»elf an imperfect 
present, forced into use aa a future, precisely aa er-o and ^<r-ofuii 
are, which in ihemaelves poaaeaa uo symbol of futurity. What 


I am thus saying oi arabam iixA.avabo, T am preparetl to eavoi 
the suffii eh or ib in tenebam, teuebo, regebam, and the old 
forma ^n-ib-am, Jin-ih-o. But these are matters which I 
have discussed elsewhere. I will hero only say thot T regard 
ara-re itaelf aa a corruption of ar-ax-(rc ; and, indeed, bJI 
the Towel verbs I treat in the aame way. Thua, tvrec-utuius 
in its c has preserved what vere-ri has Wt ; Jini-re has grown 
out of whot waa once Jin-iss-ere Sit Jin-isc-ere, which will 
aooount for the Frencli form fin-iss-ant, and the Ilaliau fin- 
iiC-o. So too in Greek, hafia-a has. auporBcdcd a present Bafi^ 
affa-at, apo-a, a preaont ap-otrcr-io, EcXeu, a present tiXMTffa. 
But this ap'tHTiT-ai takes jet another shape^ viz. op~v<riT-w 
* I dig,' with the by-form op-vj(-ca and uouna op-tr^-^, op-vy-ij, 
and op-v^ ; and it may be well to note that by the aide of tho 
guttural ending opv^, there exists a variety opvt without the 
^ittural. The Latin or'ca * a narwhal * has dropped the 
intermodiato vowel u. This prepares us for the similarly 
compressed o/jvo?, tho leading uao of which appears to be ' a 
trench * for the planting of vines. This meaning it sharoa 
with the Latin ordo, as used by Varro in his work on agri- 
culture, and by Horace in his JSnt Jtt uh'o uir lathit &rdinet 
Arbii^ia mJeia. Tho two elements of which ordo ia consti- 
tuted are the root or ' dig,' and the familiar suffii on aa in 
, furbo, turbinis, the d being an outgrowth from the r, as in cor 
cordis, already quoted aa an example, and the Greek icapB-ia. 
Of course for mere economy of soil atraight lines are pre- 
ferred in all agricultural processes ; and thus we get a geneml 
term for ' a row/ a word itaejf probably decapitated from 
or-ow, with tho same suffix ow, which, added to sAot/f, givea 
ua the diminutive shadow, and, indeed, ia the analogue of the 
trjf in op-vx-n, etc. But observe what a large family of ideas 
this term order ia used to denote, aa order in the sense of good 
order, an order or preKribed line of conduct, an order of 
knighthood, a peer atanding up for hie order, a gentleman in 
ordera, etc. 

But the Greek op-vx' ^^ a precise analogue in the first 
three letters of the Latin t4rg-€o. I have olrcady dwelt upon 
the fact that to a Greek ^ a Latin b often corres'pgnda. Pre- 




BY T. HEWITT KEY, M.A., F.R.8. 887 

cisely bo to a Greek x ^ I^tin g. Further, Latin words 
wluch havo a u immediately followed by a liquid and mute, 
will often be found to have been compressed from a ^ller 
disyllabic form wbich had an o in the first syllable, a u in the 
second. Thus ung of unguis represents the Ghreek ov-vxrt 
umbra stands for on-ub-era, and so is akin at once to the 
Latin nubo and nubes, and to the G-reek v€tf>€\ij, Latin nebuhf 
and Germ, nebel; umbilicus again is shortened from on-ub- 
il-icu8, and so of the same stock with the Germ, nabel, English 
nave/, as well as the Greek 0fi^>aKo<i. In thorough analogy, 
then, to these we have urg equivalent to the Greek op-v^. 
Then, as to meaning, it is enough to quote Horace's Vrges 
iampridem non tacta ligonibus arua ; while the same poet's 
Vrgeris turba implies a digging from the elbows of a mob. 

In the Anglo-Sax. ic erige * I plough,' not only does the 
er correspond to the ap of the decapitated a^-cu^ from ;^ap- 
oo-ow ; but the g also is the fitting representative of the x 
under Kask's law ; and not, as Bask himself suggests in his 
Anglo-Saxon grammar, an intrusive letter. This writer him- 
self points out that the conjugation to which the verb erian 
belongs corresponds to the first or a conjugation of the Latin 
grammar ; and few will doubt the correctness of this doctrine, 
when they have before them the A.-Sax. forms erast * thou 
ploughest,* er-ffS ' he ploughs.' The Shaksperian verb rar, 
in the sense of plough, is now obsolete, but has bequeathed to 
us the derivative ear-ih — a term which at the outset must 
have been limited to land under tillage ; and such land, as 
having a special value and a special owner, was the more 
entitled to a special name. And we have yet another word 
of the same origin, viz. our verb earn, which stands to ear 
precisely as our learn to the Chaucerian verb lear (or lere), 
and as own to owe in the sense of ' own,* which simple form— 
I mean ' owe ' — ought to be reinstated in the English Bible. 
That the verb earn was in all probability first used of work 
upon land, I am led to assume on the ground that this con- • 
stitutes the earliest form of labour ; and I am strengthened 
in this belief by the fact that the three words, lab-or of Latin, 
arb-eit of German, and rab-atd of Lithuanian, to say no- 


thmg of the Slavic formsj are all of the same meiinliig- and 
point to a theme arah aa their eommoQ flource, that is to tha 
very^orm which in Latin denotes * ploughing.* A further 
confirmation is found in the French, where the words lahoureTf 
labonrenr, hhoura^e ore exclnsively applied to work done upon 
land. The assumed change of r to / in hhor has boen already 
eoen in. the verb coh ; and in the present case it haa its exact 
eoimterpart in the title Alah-archrs, in place of Arab-zircAfS, 
given to the Amb Sheik employed as immediate governor 
over the Semitic racea in the Greet city of Alexandria, ajid 
thence adopted aa a nictnarae for Pompey in Cicero'a letters. 
We may safely then reject the theory which, deriving it 
from afaba * a kind of ink,' would convert the officer into a 
sort of tax-gatherer with his inkstand, I suppose, attacb 
to his button-hole. 

Yet another class of words suggest themselves in eome 
nouns which desigiiate the ordinary inatrnmenta of scratch- 
ing, as the Fr, grljfe {g^r-iffc) and our chtw (cti{-aw). But 
this brings us to the idea of climbing, for which good claws 
are the best aid ; and so to the two Fr. verbs gHmppr and 
grm-ir ' to climb.* This last verb, the Gnennans cholar, Diegj 
would derive fc^m the Latin gtatUer ; but Eabelaia (I taki 
the example from Littri's lexicon) has the phrase r " il gravoit 
(not gnivissoit) as arbres comme ung chat." Again, cramp- 
irons, or, as the French write, crampes and crfimpons, are 
artificial aids of the same nature, employed both by Alpine 
climbers and by soldiers when engaged in scaling walls. Hence 
we may safely include in our family the verb climb itself and 
the secondary verb chmher. Nay, the verb scando I must 
also contend for, treating it as standing for sdando or cfando. 
Such loss of / I find in ffKa-n-rfl) and scoop of our own family, 
in our English vb. shni as conipareil with theG-ennan 8ch}ie»s-^n 
and sch!oHs, and the Latin cfamfo or clmh. So also the Latin 
fng- Qif /ugh, seems to have grown out of a fuller J^nt;, i.e. 
'/ol-Hff (cf. uoI-uC'Vi^), connected^ or perhaps identical, with 
uol-a~re (i.e. uol-ciy^ere). In this way it becomes one with 
the German ^I'e/i-eji, JJuchf, and owv Ji^p, fly. We may note, 
too, as not without bearing on this q^ueation, the 

ne ] 

1- I 

It I 

d I 


BY T. HBWITT KEY, M.A., F.RJ. 389 

suppression of an / in Italian after the consonants p, /, and 
c,as in. pUnOy fiore^ chiuso. Then, as to the interchange be- 
tween ttd and tt^ — let me add ng — I point to the Latin am- 
hula-re and the Italian anda-re; lumbi, and the German 
lende, our loins ; the Fr. gendre (Lat. gener), and the Greek 
yafi^po^; lingua and lamb-o; sanguis (inis), and the Sard. 
tamben ; our participial suf&x ing^ and its Scotch equivalent 
arui. The Greek xXt/t-of * a ladder ' it is perhaps sufficient to 
name, in order to ensure a verdict in its favour, although our 
Lexicons still refer it to the Gk. vb. kKlv^w * to slant/ 

But as a naU. or metallic hook serves to secure a temporary 
hold in the process of climbing, so the latter may also be em- 
ployed for a more permanent office; and accordingly we 
have the terms cramp and elamp so used for the union of 
stone-work. It is nn this sense that Horace, in his picture 
of the Goddess of Necessity, introduces the clauoa frabales, 
and adds : nee aeuerwt uncus abest Uquidumqtte plumbum. Is 
it an accident then that the Latin cUiuus * a nail ' should be 
so identical in form with our claw^ or that our own language 
gives two meanings to its term naily that of the Latin claws 
and the Latin unguis ? Leaving this question for future con- 
sideration, I may safely look upon the spasmodic action called 
a cramp as one in origin with the cramp or clamp of the stone- 

But we have verbs also, as well as nouns, denoting first 
sudden seizure, and then a permanent hold, which belong 
to our &mily. To clato itself is a verb often used in the 
first of these senses ; so, also, our clutch, grasp, clasp, and the 
German greifen, Fr. gripper, whence our gripe ; and still more 
certainly we must include the secondary verb grapple, when 
we think of the phrase grappling-irons. Grab as a verb, and 
gripes as a noun, savour of vulgarity ; but are not to be re- 
jected on this account. In fact, grab leads us to classical 
ground, for it cannot be separated from the noun harpago, 
in use by Latin writers for ' a hook or grapple ; ' and this of 
course is deduced from the Greek apTra^ {afrtrarpf), with 
which again all scholars connect the Latin rapere (for g'r^ 
ap-ere, or something like it) ; and so we have no choice but to 

390 wonDs pon>reD dj oiitatios' of the sotjicd ' ear.' 

connect with our family the English verba 6c-rcar*s reftf and 
rob; as also the Latin orbm^ i.e. or-tib-ua and op^ftavo^, i.e. 
op-v^avoff. And before 1 leave worda in which, the use of 
nails is visible, let me &et down the word scramble aa one of 
the clasa. 

I proceed next to a new class of ideas, wtich, howerer, 
stand in close connection with that of scratching. Writers 
on phy&icB, whea they wish to mark witli some precision the 
relative degrees of hardness, refer to the power which one 
substance has of scmtching another ; and among the ordinary 
objects of nature, the most farailiar one as possessing the 
special character of bardne^s, ia a stone ; and indeed ia 
comman life a atone or rock is the most frequent inatrument 
of scratching. How, the very term car^ in the sense of ' a 
rock,' still survives in tbe northern parts of this island, 
especially Yorkshire, aa, for example, in tbe coast town Red- 
car. The Gaelic too has the simple car or carr in the same 
sense. To these we may probably add Scar -borough, for the 
older name Scardc-horough seems in its rf to have merely an 
excrescent, and so not an original, letter. THe form scar, 
as used of bare rocks, is equally familiar in Scotland, as in 
»5c(jrs and Stfaraoe/*. Derived forma are still more abundant. In 
addition to our own cairn ' a heap of stones/ shared with the 
Gaelic, we have the Welsh careg * a stone/ the Irish carrkk 
' a rock,' which has given the name to Carn'ck-on-Suir and 
Carrick-forgus ' the rock of Fergus.' Nayj our faioiliar crfl^ 
is but a compression of ear-ag. 

But calling to mind tbe forms which have been already 
seen as dropping tlie initiid guttural, such as ar-a~re, ap-o-ttVt 
op-vffff'Hif, airnt$, I look around for a form ar-ae ft-ith the 
sense of 'rock ;* and have at once before my mind the noun 
arx {i.e. ar'Ox) * a citadel ;' and for this purpose a rocky hill 
or mountain was most to be desired ; and then again the 
term arces is in frequent use for rocky mountains in general, 
without tbe slighteBt reference to their employment as poal- 
tions of military strength. Thus we may safely put aside 
Varro's idea that arx is a derivative from the vb. arcerr ; and 
the view of those who would deduce it by metathesis trovci. 


BY T. HEWITT KEY, M.A., F.B.S. 391 

aKpo<i. Naj, ihe Latin urbs itself seems to me to KaTe been 
shortened from or-ub-s, in accordance with, the theory I was 
just now putting forward, and so a good Latin equivalent for 
what a Greek might have written as op-vx-f ; and hence at 
bottom a variety of arx itself, the urbs being properly ^ avta 
ttoXk, or citadel, as opposed to ^ xartu iroXti;, or oppidiim, that 
is the eTrtTreSov, or town on the flat outside of the fortress. 
For letter changes we may compare the three equivalent 
words Top-a^-Ti^ 6op-v^-iyt, and turba for ioruba. 

I bad but now occasion to speak of labor as a corruption 
from arab~or ; in other words, I assumed the loss of the 
initial a as well as of what was once an initial guttural ; and 
only this moment I spoke of rapere as standing for gar-ap- 
ere. ' On the same principle I claim our rocky as cut down 
from an older car-ock, or from an intermediate crock; and 
in the same way (to go back for a moment to the original 
idea of scratching) I claim the Eng. rasp as decapitated from 
ear-asp, and rake as decapitated from car-ake, and the Latin 
radere as decapitated from car-ad-ere. But whence came 
the d of radere P It is probably to be accounted for in this 
way. A J in Latin, it must be admitted, was to have been 
expected rather than a d ; seeing that a form raiere would 
be in more exact accordance both with the Greek ypa^tv and 
our own scrape ; but a fi is apt to be followed by an excres- 
cent d. (See the remarks upon write above.) Ihu^ plumbum 
(i.e. pol-umb-um) of Latin takes the forms fioXv^o^ and 
fioXv^Bo^ in Greek ; and then the b "disappearing altogether, 
we have the decapitated fonn lead in English. So again to 
a Greek f>a^Bo<i correspond a Latin radius and an Eng- 
lish fW. 

But if rock belong to our family of words, so also must the 
French roQ^e and the Ijatin rupes, as standing for or-up-es. 

Before proceeding further, it may be useful to note a 
cltLster of Welsh words, which belong to some of the pre- 
ceding or following heads, crach-en, ' a scab, or crust,' crt^f, 
'plaws, or cloves,' (so called by ourselves from their likeness 
to nails, ciavi), erafangio, ' to claw or gripe,' craf-u, ' to scrape 



orBcratch, crapinio, * to scarify,' crag, 'a bard crust,' cram, *in- 
cruBtatioD,' crane, ' a crab/ crap, *a grapnel/ 

I next look out for words which, preserving the same eeaiae 
of ' atone,' exhibit an / in preference to an r, and Uy my 
finger on the Breton ka/J^ ' a at^^ne/ now Limited to. that spe- 
cial sense which belongs to the Greek opy_ii, which by t 
waVi standing for op-y^-/.?, tolls us pretty phiinly what 
origin was. The Greek x^'^^ with its duaunutival siiffix 
may well aiguify, as it does, * a Bmall atone ;' and identical 
with this 19 the Latin caij't itself atrictly speaking a dimimu- 
tive, but not aTerse to the addition of a second suffix, of lik« 
meaning in cetlc-ulm* The French csiU-ou, like ym-ou, hu 
again the same suffix, for the I^atin gen-u is shortened from 
ffen-uc (or rather in olden timeq, gon-uc), aa seen in the dfr 
rived gen-uc-ul-um, our knucUe. The English gr~aT'el {gar- 
(HVf/) has preserved the original r, but again the Latin glarta 
{gal-ar-ea) prefers an /. Kor must the terms gril and ffrttty 
be forgotten, especially as this form appears in the Latin 
margnrita, pearl, but, aa Grimm remarks, literally 'sea-atone.' 

But, aa in Ittbor both root-guttuxal and root-vowel vaniaheii, 

so also I cannot doubt that the Greek "Keut^ XiBw; and iho 

. Idtin lapUt have been cut down from such forms as KoK-aa^ 

Some will think that I am here overbold, as no singU 
element of the original sound is left in these words, the / alone 
representing any part of the root-word, and that a substitute 
for the original rough- liquid* Yet 1 am satisfied that 
when this theory of decapitation has been thoroughly iavesti- 
gated» it will command the assent of most enquirers. Her« 
1 can give but a few examples, aa beN (like a bull)^ thenoo 
btll-ott^ and by decapitatian to low ; iar is a SiUDuaiCTit v«rh, 
ftignifying ' to go,' from wbeuce that language dedocee a 
secondary $arp, 'ia creep,' identical with the £atin Aerpo, 
whence our serptnt; but the Greek has tprr-^, and the Latin 
hftfi cut H€-r{r)j}0 down to rrpo, whence our reptile. Again, tjen 
IB the root syllable of yiyvofiat, gigno, ffcnus, etc-» whence tha 
Greek has a secondary verb yfwa-iii, and the Latin, with the 
Towel suppressed, ynafcor, which in the later language be- 

BT T. HKwrrr kkt, m.a., f.r.s. 398 

came naeeor, retaining of tte original root-syllable nothing 
beyond its final liquid n. Thus the decapitated forms gene- 
rally begin with a liquid, especially one of the three, /, n, r. 
There are those however who hold the short forms to be the 
original ; and in' the fuller form find a preposition prefixed ; 
bat the accent of bellow should in that viev^ fall on the second 
syllable, as in belong, besmear, below. Again I would ask what 
proposition would be suited for the formation of such pairs, or 
sets, of words as <rafafin and i^sttv, ' mustard,* '^oKcucr- and lac, 
or hcU, ' milk/ uulpes, wolf, Dan. ulf, aXann}^, Xuko^! and ItejfUs. 

I next take another variety of ideas. Pebbles forming the 
cheapest material for practical instruction in the elementary 
parts of arithmetic, we see at once why the Romans had 
the phrase uomre ad cahttlos ' to call a person to account ' (in 
the literal sense of these words), whence our verb calculate. 
I would suggest then that the Ghreek apiBfiofj, from which 
comes of course the word arithmetic, stands for an older 
Kap'iB'iio^, or rather Kop-ix-fto^' Precisely on the same 
principle our own reek, reckless, and the secondary verb 
reck-on — the last of which has best preserved the original 
meaning — ^I would deduce from a fuller car^eck ; and again, 
with these I unite the Latin verb reor with its derived noun 
ratio, the first meaning of which is beyond doubt ' reckon- 
ing ;' and the loss of the guttural in reor for recor corres- 
ponds with all accuracy to what I have already noticed, the 
growth of tereoroMi of an older ver-ec-or, whence ver-ec-undus. 
The two passages of ideas from pebbles to numbers, and^then 
from nuiiiberfl to thinking in general, are doctrines which none 
hesitate to admit. Yet can there be ideas of a*more tran^ 
scendental nature than that which is expressed in the phrase, 
the Calculus, as applied to the Bifierential and Integral Oal- 
coluB, or the faculty of the mind called reason, on the strength 
of which man justly claims the highest place in the living 
world P But these are notions very remote from what was our 
starting point, the material idea of scratching. 

But I descend to the material world again. The word 
eah 'a, stone' I claimed for our family, because by its hard- 
ness it is the most ordinary means of scratching ; but cah 

394 woBDS foumed in imitation of the sottkd ' kar.* 

IB used not merely of ' & atone,' but also of ' the heel,' that is, 
the very part of the body where the human skin attains to 
the maximum of hardneBB. Hence it aecms to be a eafe 
conclusion that our lexicogjaphera are DOt justified in. the 
practice of treating the words as wholly independent of each 
other. I have juat fipoken of the final c in cah 'stone,* as 
the remnant of a 'diminutival sulEs. Our term hee/, if it 
ever poasessed a similar suffix, is now without it, but correS' 
ponds well to the root syllable caL Again, as in my viov 
\a«f and /ff/jw are decapitated forma from KoX-aa^ and cal- 
ap-k ; so in Greek we find & so-cftUed abverb \a| * with the 
heel,' OB also a verb XawTtfa, which are both thoroughly in 
tellig^ible, if considered oa having grown oat of tc&Ka^ am 

In con&rmation of this view, I would next point to thei 
noun colfuoi * hard ekin in general ;' and this word I holi 
to be one with calc- ' heel,' not merely in the root-syllable, 
but abo in its eufiis ; for I have long satisfied myself that ^ 
the faintljP pronounced um &f Latin neuter nouns boa growi|^| 
out of a guttural Buffis, much as our own oxc, in urimhic for^^ 
example, haa supplanted an earlier ock, aa in the Scotch 
Tariety uHnn-ock. We ako have hot-torn by the side of butt- 
ock. But if Cfiltiijfi had once the sound of call-ock or cnU-och, 
we have its all but exact counterpart in the Greek /coW-ott- ^a 
(koXXq^J, ' the thick akin on the upper part of the neck 0^^| 
oxen,' where, again, the tt ie a auhatitute for a «, as in a-xa-^^ 
Xo^, Ao<i>o<i again 'back of the neck/ is shortened from 
•Ko\-o<f3-o<t But the Latin caHeo, from the first idea of being 
thick-skinnad or callous from much use., passes into the re- 
gion of the mind, ao as to signify knowledg-e won by long 
experience, and hence the adjective caiii'dus ' shrewd.' Still 
on the physical side we have Cfilu/a ' thicknesa of the air,' 
and cart-iia</o ' gr-istle,' which word, alao, in its first element 
^r, contains our root. 

The Greek form «oXXo>/r, both by its o in the firet syllabli 
and by ita meftuing, compels mo to take into consideratioa 
the Latin colhtm ' the neck ; ' for tlie back of the neck alike 
in man and ox abounds in hard cartiiaginoua matter. But 


BY T, HEWm KEY, M.A., F.K.8. 395 

here I find 'one of our foremost scholars, in His edition of 
" Juvenal," putting forward the doctrine that colhim was 
strictly ' the fore-part of the neck.' I am myself inclined 
to the belief that this part is more truly designated by 
iugulum, as, for instance, where in the scene at Galba's death, 
as described by Tacitus, a m&n praehet iugulum to his foe; 
and iugulum^ strictly ' the collar bone,' serving as a iugum 
between the sternum and the humerus, is by its position 
with reason limited to the fore-part of the neck. Again, in 
modem anatomy. The hollow of the neck immediately above 
the sternum is at times called the jugulum, thus again shew' 
ing the tendency to connect the word with the front of the 
neck. On the other hand, it is the back or, in oxen, upper 
part of the neck, which is brought into immediate contact 
with the yoke, as is seen in Horace's ertpe colla iugo, and, 
again, in udmerem Colld trahentes languido. 

But we have a word of the same power, and refining more 
completely the original form of root and suffix, in our Eng- 
lish acrag (i.e. scar-ag), as used not merely of ' a neck of 
mutton,' but also of ' man's neck;' so that we have the word 
still employed in reference to hanging and strangling gene- 
rally. This, though for us a slang use of the word, is sanc- 
tioned by "Walter Scott in his " Quentin Durward ;" but it 
was once a term of good repute, employed even by Spenser, 
and of frequent occurrence in the Scotch variety of our lan- 
guage ; see Jamieson, who adds to the simple noun the crag- 
bane for the 'collar-bone,* crage-claith, for *neck-c]pth,' and 
the adjective narrow-craiged. In German too the word 
krag'cn for the neck is still in ordinary use ; and our own 
scruff, — * take Wm by the scruff of the neck,' — is a softened 
variety of scrag. This change of a final g to the sound of /, 
is famiL'ar in our enough compared with the German genug. 
But the initial guttural of craig, etc., is lost in a form used 
by Stow : " Then was there two rackes of mutton throwne 
nnto them " (certain lions), a passage I owe to Jesse's History 
of the British Dog (Vol. ii. p. 212). This loss of the guttural 
explains also the form of ruff, as, for example, in the familiar 
dress of Queen Elizabeth ; and also the two words ruff and 


re^ve, the namea of the male and hen bird of a certain ^Kcioi 
diBtiuguishod by a cellar, so to say, of projecting feiitliers. 
It ifi QD ordinary habit of language to speak of a ooTerizLg of 
part of the human body by the name of that port, a« Awrfjj 
of that which is or may be thrown over the head. So fhimhi 
in itself meana a little thumb ; and in the same w&y we speak < 
of the JingevB of a glove. 

Other words in which the notion of a hard exterior preva^ 
are Latin cormm, c(o)rmta, and cfojruiium; while our own 
core, perhaps also the Latin oor and its kisdred, deal with an 
interior hardneae. 

But T have not yet done with the category of h&rdneu- 
The Latin robur is justly regarded as akin to the Greek 
pannnjfii, poifiT}, etc., but this verb, by the double liquid JD^J 
epptafiai epp<6(r9y\v, tells us that something once preceded tliid^| 
p. Again a comparison of robur with the several pairs — ^^ 
iitsrba beard-t uerbum word^ citcur&ita gourti, cnh-er.crowd'ed, 
ffkba clod — invites us to look out for some English word 
which exhibits a Bim.Llar substitution of a (^ for a A after s 
liquid r ov t; and accordingly we come upon the adjective 
hard, the A of which under Rask'e law, suggests an initial e 
for the Latin^ so that robur should bo a corruption of a form 
cor-ob-ur ; and here I would observe that the syllables nb, cb, 
ib, ob, ub, in Latin words^ very generally represent suGixee 
wholly unconnected with the root, except so far aa that the 
Towel preferred is, aa I have akeady said, adapted to that of 
the root. For the Greek tcaproii, Kparo^, KpaTuifUj 1 am also in- 
clined to accept Kop aa the ultimate root, and ' harden,, hard* 
DOSS,' astho first meaning. Again cornii iC4pa<i and our Aww, 
as also ceruim ' the homed ono,' have their origin in the same 
root. So too eom in the sense of grain, as well as ffT'anum 
itself^ and the diminutival kern-et-, * a little com.' ^H 

I next pass to a new class of ideas to which however therc^l 
has been already some allusion, "With the Latin coh * dig,' I 
of course identiGt^d the Scotch koU ' dig ;' and to this root 
koll there belong, as the result of digging, hoie^ hull, hulk, Ao/- 
hw ; but besides these we have many forms which have under- 
gone decapitation ; as the adj. hw but down from the fuller 

BT T. HEWirr KEY, M.A., F.H.8. 397 

holl-ow ; the German loch * a hole/ iucke * a gap, chasm, hole/ 
and our own leak. In this last word the notion of water in- 
troduces itself ; so also in the Latin lactts, a^ commonly used, 
and in our own lake, loch of Scotland, lou^h of Ireland, and 
lag-oon. Of course water is apt to collect in hollows ; and 
where a hole exists, to escape through it. But the Greek Xcuc- 
X09 ' a hole/ the X^atm lacm and lacuna^ do not in themselves 
convey the idea of water, but are applicable to any hole ; 
' and of course lacuTtar and laquear, as used of the apertures 
between the rafters of a roof, are incapable of such con- 
nection. I have assumed the loss of an initial gu'ttural in 
all these words ; but such guttural the Gaelic has preserved 
in fflac ' a hole or valley,' and its diminutive gktc-ag ' a little 
Tftlley.' So also it is retained in our gUn and ffill. The 
Latin uall-it is no doubt of the same origin ; a u-consonana in 
that language often corresponding to an initial guttural in 
the sister-languages. Again with the words ^ill, glen, etc., 
I cannot but unite our words gulli/ and yu^ including of 
course the Greek leoX-iro? and the Latin gurgea. 

The word litera^ in the sense of writing (for the use of it 
iQ not limited to a single letter), if it belong to our family, 
should have had a notice when I was speaking of scratching 
in this intellectual sense, but for the fact that I was not then 
prepared to deal with what I believe to be a decapitated word. 
It stands without any satisfactory etymology in our books ; 
but when the Sanskrit language possesses, as I have already 
said, a vb. likk vrith the two meanings — first of scratching, 
in which sense I deduce from it Hma (i.e. ligma) *a file / and, 
secondly, of writing — it can hardly be doubted, I think, that 
Utera has taken the place of a more genuine lid-era, in which 
the t is excrescent. For the loss of c compare inritare ' to 
keep snarling at,* standing for in-rictare^ and so connected 
with ringere *to snarl,' and rictus; riU, which is but another 
form of recte ; nitor, which stands for an older tuctor or rather 
gnicior, whence the guttural heard in nixna ; and I take this 
opportunity to record yet another instance. Simltu is a 
favourite adverb, so to call it with Plautus and other of ihe 
old dramatic writers in the metaphorical sense of killing two 


first liaTe 

birds with oue etone. I liotd then that it must 
been aa abl. shti-icfu 'at one blow,' where sim is what we see 
in simplex, stmul, semel. Wq have thus what exactly agrees 
with the German phrase, mit cumn Sc/d^^^; with the French 
ttun seid coup; and again the Latin una as an adverb grew 
out of the fiUTer phrase ttntt opera, just^ as cadem came into 
use in place of eadem opera. By the Bide of ^I'tern and 
lima ' I also place li^-o ' a mattock,' oa derived from a lost 
Latin vb. li^-, corresponding to the Sanskrit likh ; and theee 
two verbs I regard as decapitated from such & form as cai-iff 
or cal-Uih~ 

But enough. This paper would have assumed far larger 
proportions had I included all the derivativea from the foima 
I have adduced ; bnt I did not mean it to be exhaustive ; and 
in fact I have refrained from following^lnany etreamB of de- 
rivation : some because, though obtaining my own belief, 
they wore less likely to conciliate the belief of others ; and 
for some I saw the possibility of a diflfereut explanation. 
There have been probably several instances quoted in this 
paper where 1 have not carried with me the assent of my 
hearers, but such failure i^ perfectly consistent with the hope 
that the general theory is correct. Suppose that a doubt ia 
entertained whether I am right in the assumption that the 
Greek apLBfia^ has lost an initial k^ or again that I have 
been overbold in treating reor as a form corrupted from car- 
eo-(»' ; atill it will be admitted that a stone may well be called 
cnr, cnr-epy crag, etc., from the sound Imr with the notion of 
scratching ; secondly, that the idea of counting or calculation 
has a natural affinity in meaning with the idea of pebbles ; 
and lastly that the leap from calculation to thinking and 
reasoning is of the easieat character. But, if this be ad- 
mitted, it is admitted that the several links together unite 
the two ideas of scratching and reasoning ; so that the 
general principle, that terms for the most abstract ideas ma}' 
be supplied on the mimetic principle, ia still established, no 
matter whether I have been rash or otherwise in the special 
examples adduced by me. 

* ThtB doc9 not prflvent \im» &om b«ng one vith the Oioek jlinf (iV. Kiif»-mf], % flla." 




On one point however I must guard myself against misin- 
terpretation. In a large number of the instances which I have 
brought forward, I have of course been using materials long* 
ago supplied by others ; but the nature of such a summary ' 
precluded for the most part the possibility of special reference 
to sources. Not that the most precise reference will always 
secure a writer from a charge of plagiarism. For example, 
in a review by a critic in the United States^ of my recently 
published Philological Essays, the sole definite notice of the 
first eleven of the twelve papers is this : " Mr. Key, in the 
present volume, p. 151, gravely announces, as the fruit of his 
own reasoning and reading, that aiqite properly means ' and 
what is more * — a definition which he might have found, in 
nearly the same words, in the very first lesson of so common 
a school text-book as ' Arnold's Iiatin Prose Composition.' " 
Now in this identical page 151 my immediately preceding 
words about atqite were : " the word may well be looked upon 
as made up of the ordinary preposition ad and que. Such at 
any rate was the view of Scaliger." Thus, I did not claim 
the explanation as my own ; and the writer must excuse me 
if I do not think it necessary to back a reference to such a 
scholar as Scaliger by an appeal to tlfb writings* of my old 
and esteemed friend Kerchever Arnold. 

OPUSCULA. By Wilhelm "VVaoner, Ph.D. 

[Read March 6th, 1869]. 

Nothing is more annoying to a scholar, both in Germany 
and much more in England, than the disagreeable cer- 
tainty that, about almost every subject connected with 
classical philology, there exist one or more small German 
publications, be they in the shape of a program of a gym- 
nasium or a university, or in that of a dissertation written 
for the purpose of obtaining a degree. The number of these 

1 Tht Nation, Sept. 24tb, 1868, New Tork. 



publications is daily increasing ; and thmigli it may be readily 
granted tliat one half of them la worthless, aiid may tliereforfl 
^je disregarded by otbere attempting the aame subject ; yet it 
.is not less certain that the other half is really valuable, and 
deserves to be taken into account by subsequent inqtiirera. 
But the difficulty is how to obtain these publicationa, — a 
difficulty on which I need not dwell, as no doubt there ore 
few scholars who have not experienced it. Of late this 
difficulty has been felt in Germany too, and various ways 
have beeii devised iu order to facilitate an acquaintance witlp 
8uch programs and dissertations aa are likely to influence 
scholarship even beyond tbe narrow circle for whicb they 
were originally intended. The moot effectual, and, as it 
aeeius to me, the most successful of these devices, is the 
collection entitled Sfudien ^ur gHeefimftt'H uu4 hUiuiichen 
Grammatik, edited by Q. Curtine, two stout numbers of 
wHch have already made their appearance, containing some 
valuable disquisitions on various points of Latin and Greek 

The difficulty of obtaining the programs of German Uni- 
versities was, perhaps, most keenly felt by the student of 
tbe Latin language aijd literature as to all those subjects on 
wbich Profosaor Ritacbl had written, ho being undoubtedly a 
great authority on anj*thing he undertakes to investigate, 
and, moreover, the authority on all points of the Latin 
language, and especially on Flautus and Inscriptions. 

It cannot, therefore^ be otherwise than positively delightful 
to scholars to hear that a complete collection of Professor 
Hitachi's Opmcuh Phthiofjka is now in course of publication 
by the enterprising firm of Teubner, at Leipzig. Two 
voluiuea of these Opuscula have already been published in 
two successive years, so that there seems to be no want of 
energy either on the part of author or publisher. 

The first volume (1867, Sol pp.) is exclusively devoted to 
Greek literature ; and, though it is full of the most im- 
portant investigations, many of which have already t^kon 
their place among the recognized masterpieces of pbiloiogical 
criticistQ, and are deservedly recommended as iuatructive spcci- 




mens of sound pKilological inquiry and method^ yet I &haU 
not vobture to oikr any rcmarka concenung' the eubjecta 
treated in it, an I intend to oonfine myself to the second 
Tolume, which contains Opttscula ad PlatUum d grammaticmn 
latinam sjKcfmitia. 

• Accordiog to the preface to the Brst rolume, it waa Eitschl'e 
intention to reprint hh various philological papers without 
Bidding: much new material, appending only here and there a 
note to eay what hia present opinion was with regard to the 
subject in question, in all caflea where other scholars have put 
forth different views, or the author himself had found it 
advisable to modiiy his own opinions. But in the preface to 
the second volume, Ritschl apprisea his readers of a change in 
this respect. "Tba motive for this," ho says, "ahoidd be found 
in bis (the writer's) personal near relation to all queations 
concerning Plautus : " in other words, Ritachl has bo com- 
pletely identified himself with Plautus^ and fecle so well that 
posterity will consider hia edition of Plautus as the work of 
his Life, and judge him by it, that he cannot bat entor again 
upon fill these quoations which concern him so n^ly, and on 
the unravelling of which he has spent so much heavy labour 
and thought ; and this all the more^ as his edition and the 
very pnnciples of his criticism^ have been recently attacked by 
Scholars of all shades, — some oven his own pupils, — and with- 
out any difference of nationality, in Germany, France, and 
England.' Then, when many spoke about subjects which 
Ilitschl, BO to say, considers to be his own domain, he felt 
tmable to keep silence any longer : aitrxfiov aiayTrdv, 'la-oxpd- 
TTiv &' idv >i7*w. It will, therefore, be s&en that KitacKPa 
secund volume contains, to all infanta and purposes, hia au- 
thentic 'last words' about all questions of dispute in Plantino 
criticism which are mentioned in it — and there are not many 
that are not mentioned. 

It is a weIl-knD^vn fact, that Ritscbl'a edition of Plautua 
is as yet only a torso. "Why it must be ao, J believe I have 
stated in tbo Introduction to my edition of Terence, p. 12 **y.j 
and I here repeat the statement there given: 

"Ritechl himself had not arrivt-d at sound viewB on 



archaic proaodj ^hen writing hia prolegomena to Plautiis ; 
and it was only during the progress of hia edition tbat the 
necessity of a strictly historical investiga-tion into tho whole 
subject forced itaelf upon him. The consequence was, that 
hia edition came oJl of a eudden to a standstill, And all his 
energies were for the next sis. or seven years devoted td a 
complete collection of tbo moat ancient Latia inBcriptioas, 
arranged in chronological succession so as to form & perfectly 
truBtwortliy hiatory of the language from the oldest times 
down to the death of Ccesar." 

In the preface t-o the second volume of hia ' Opu&cula/ 
Bitechl himaell" grants that hia Prolegomona are far trom 
exhausting the subject of Plajitine prosody and metres, aad 
that^ portly through himself, partly through the iDVCStiga- 
iions of others, raauy views propounded in the 'ProU.' have 
been " modified and rectified, esteaded to a larger field or 
restrained to smaller limita, refined or restricted, placed under 
new points of view or brought into a different connexion, but 
without losing the foundation '' laid iij the 'ProU/ But thia 
continual progress and advance in sound views concerning 
these subjects, though intelligible enough to 'esoteric' circles, 
necessarily produced an impression of fluctuation and change- 
fiUness in the miuds of others : and thus it was that an 
opinion gained ground that Ritschl's views concerning Plau- 
tine prosody had \uidergOne a complete change ; and thia 
statement, or something very much like it, was alfl6 given by 
mysolf in various places of my Introduction to the ' Aulularia,* 
e,ff. p. XV and xxiii. note 1. If I have overstated the case 
in these two passages (which I do not believe I have), there 
can at loaat be no doubt that I was perfectly justified in 
speaking (p. buii) of ' the gradual development' of Kitecbl's 

"Well, Hitachi claims to have only modified and rectified 
the views propounded in the Prolegomena, without giving up 
any of hia fundamental theories and views as developed there. 
Unfortunately, even tto simple procoae of modification and 
rectification involved such a great cliange in llitschl's criti- 
cism of the text, that the different plays began to ebow veiy 


evident traces of this change of opinion. To give two in ■ 
stances : Ritschl was originally of opinion that the datives 
mihi, tibi, aibi were admissible only as pyrrhicks throughout 
Plautus except in t'hG canfwa; but this doctrine necessitated 
numerous changes of passages' otherwise free from suspicion ; 
and it was only in the * Persa,' t.^. after seven plays had been 
edited, that Bitschl acknowledged th% long quantity of the 
final « in the dialogue. (See A. Spengel, * T. Maccius Plautus/ 
p. 56-62, where a very full list of instances of mihi, ttiu, sibl 
is given.) In the second place I will mention the ending it 
in the third person singular of the perfect, which Plautus 
still uses in its original long quantity — a fact not acknow- 
ledged by Kitschl imtil^he edited the ' Pseudulus.* (See Pro- 
fessor Key, Transactions Phil. Soc.> 1864, p. 184.) 

But there is, after all, an important feature in Bitschl's 
present views as compared with the doctrine of the * Proll. ;* 
and this is admitted by himself to be a real and unmistake- 
able change, i.e. a giving up of a former principle, not merely 
a modification. This is the doctrine of ' ecthlipsis * or the 
suppression of radical vowels in disyllabic iambic words, such as 
paler, dotnm, manua, senex, and others more; and also in. such 
trisyllabic words as vofupfas, ro/untaa, and seneciua, which it 
^ras proposed to pronounce pfer, dmm, mtiits, anex, vluptaa, 
rluntoi, and anediis. 

I hate treated of this doctrine at great length in my In- 
troduction to the' Aulularia ' (see esp. p. xxxix.5.), and would 
here add a few words in order to clear the subject from some 
doubts which still seem to beset it. I am the more inclined 
to do so, as A. Spengel, in his book ' T. Maccius Plautus,* 
studioiisly neglects the doctrine now adopted by Ritschl ; and 
as another Bavarian scholar, W. Christ, does me the honour 
to consider me as the principal representative of the * antl- 
ecthlipsis' theory. ('W. Wagner, in seiner Introduction 
zur Aulularia, steUt die £urzung des as und is in bonas und 
malis als feste Thatsache hin, ohne auch nur die Moglichkeit 
raner Ausstossung des ersten Vocales jener Worter gelten zu 
lassen.' Mhein. Museum, xxiii.,560.) 
_ Ritschl (Opusc. ii. p. x.) justly says that the giving up of 



the doetrine of eethlipsis was due to the pefception of 
important facta hitherto disregarded by Plautiae oritica : tie. 
the frequent dropping of final conBonaatB, and the shoHfimig 
of long final vowels. These two facta have since then be- 
come the two pillars on which the whole fabric of Plautmo 
prosody rests. 

To discuss the dropping of final conaonanta first. There 
seems to be a satisfactory agreement among scholars of all 
ahadea, thot a final s ia frequently dropped : it ia, therefore, 
unnecessary to say anything more on this point. W. Christy 
who ia, I think, more sceptical on tkia subject than other 
inquirerSt next proceeds to a final n} : and there ia certainly 
nothing more Irequent in inacriptions than the omidftioil of ft 
final Tn in words where we should expeot to find it. (Corssen, 
aasspr. 1, 110 *«. ; Gcppert, ausspr. p. 40 ; EitAchl, -P. L. M, 
p. 121; Wagner^ Introd, to Aul, p. jcxicX But here Christ 
raises the objection that the epic poeta never neglect an m 
before a following consonant^ as they do with regard to a 
filial 8 : but, first of all, thia objection ia not valid,, aa the 
prosody of Ennius and Plautus is by no means identical ; imd 
what 18 a pecidiarity of Plautus, need not necessarily occur 
in EnuiuB. But, in the second pbce, it may at least be «ud 
that the frequent dropping of a final m, which ia an estab- 
lished fact in the common pronunciation of archaic Latin, 
—and, let me add, vulgar Latin during all periods,— has left 
a footprint in the pr^apdy of both Ennius and all subsequent 
poeU, in so far as a final m ia habitually disregarded belbre 
a foUowing vowel. Christ adds that, in Plantus and Terence 
also, the instances in which a final m seems to be dropt in 
«aunmg, are capable of «iother explanation, which is no 
tI ^l^ f^^' ' ^'^^V^^'' Of this I shall speak below, 
of wol ^^'^\:'^-^ ^^ often find disregarded at the end 

Ch^t tho It P^'""'^' ^ '' "^"^ '^'^ " "Admitted by 
aouTt;hat:t Tf -^,^'\-t-tions. There can bo no 
-^^ in aU it^'^Y ^^.^"^^ '^ '^- ^^^ or the ablative sing.,^ 
.b^tive^A": t " P--I--tiona which wo« origini^^ 

P^positicn JJtL ^^ f^ '^'"'^'^ ^'^'^ of h..ui, and in the 
^"</ th. «>m«, poete frequently drop the rf. (Al 


form ape or apu occurs in an ancient gloasary : Introd. to 
Terence, p. 17.) 

But if a final d was liable to be dropt, we cannot enter- 
tain doubts as to the dropping of a final t, both dentals being 
in arehaic Latin of almost equal authority in the ' aualaut : * 
e.g. haut and hand, set and sed, apui and apud^ etc. Christ is 
therefore quite willing to allow the dropping of ^ in caput in 
such lines as Merc. 153, Cure. 360, Persa 801. 

ckpat Ubi .... 
cfipa< deponit .... 
c&pat ne irdescat .... 

but he doubts the same process with regard to the bu£Sx of 
the third person singular of the various tenses. It is almost 
amusing to see how a man in his senses now tries this, now 
that, merely in order to avoid admitting d fact which seems 
to follow almost spontaneously from a well-ascertained ten- 
dency of the language at a given period. First of all, 
Bentley's uitiquated doctrine of the greater liberty of the 
first fcAt of an iambic or trochaic line is appealed to ; then 
in erit and erat we are reminded of the ambiguous nature of 
the liquid r in order to make us believe in a contracted pro- 
nunciation : this, I suppose, leads to something like e'at and 
e*it, but gives me, after all, no distinct idea of a monosyllabic 
pronunciation. When Milton uses spirit as a pyrrhick, I do 
not pronounce api'tt, and even if I did, I should still pro- 
nounce two distinct syllables. Moreover, notwithstanding 
all these artificial explanations, Christ is obliged to confess 
that cases remain in which we have to recognise the dropping 
of a final t, e.g. 

d^< mi ... . Trin. 607. Most. 649. 

lUbef licstqde . . . Moat. 20 : a line which the last editor, Profenor Banuay, 

conndwed to be anable of scaorion. 
iab«f TCM. Poen. Prol. 4. 
pl&oafnon. Hec. 866. 
iicet Mrvom. Bad. I. 2, 24. 

To assume such pronunciations as ddit, Ibety Jhet^ pieeff and 
dcet, is, of course, a fancy that can only proceed from a dis- 
eased brain : and yet these things have been .put forth by 
more than one scholar I 



These (s, m, li. t) are the letters which Christ admits W 
liavo been dropt in the pronunciation of tho time of Plautus, 
a pronunciation of which the poet's metres and prosody are 
only a faithful repreeentative. But as to others, Christ enter- 
taina grave doubta, i.e, he does not admit that r, !, ^iid « are 
dropt before following consonanta. r ia, howsTer, more tbaii 
once dropt in paier, soror, color, amor: Christ speaks tyi pater 
aa having a monosyllabic pronmieiatioQ paU\ which he sup- 
ports by quoting an iuacriptiou (C, I. L- n. 130} ia aaoh 

lines as 

pater T£mt . . ^ . Ter. Pbonn. It. 2, 11, 

ae libi acgrit^dinent^ patef, pfcrersm Trin. 316. 

and otiiera like thorn. For soror he again aBBumes a mono*] 
syllabic pronounciation, I should think somewhat like thaj 
French ssetiry cf. consobrinus instead of rowsorormu.? ; but then 
T^hat about cohr and anioy P The French couk'Hr and amour 
will not help ub in. the least ; for the first, we might suppose 
a pronunciation eoor ; but is the second to lose its radioal vowel ! 
by making it ^mor, or ia the second syllable to be cut short by ^j 
introducing an unpronounceable amW, or are we dnallj to^H 
consider the ambiguous nature of the liquid m, and assume a ^* 
form aor ? I purposely enumerate tlie various possibilities 
which might suggest themselves to fanciful minds ; but if oue 
cornea to ask for any real foundation in given facta, there aro 
none to support any of these extravagant suppositions. Now 
what on earth is the use of assuming posBibilitics which, at 
the very beat, are capable of support only by some far-fetched 
analogies of modem languages, or doubtful etymologies of 
other words ? 

All will look different as soon as we simply fix our thoughto 
upon the simple /act that r can actually be provtid to have 
been dropt in undoubted instances. First of all, it should be 
observed (see also Introd. to the Aul. xiiil) that r in nume- 
rous cases only represents an older * ; and if the « could be 
dropt m honos, why should not honor be liable to the same 
loss of .ts 6nal r? But, again, we find maio and mino in the 
mscript,an« mstances which go far to prove the possibility of 
a pronuncatmn .o... coh, amo. And having goUo far, and 
takmg the evidence of the Inscriptions, toge^^r with ^ 



peculiar prosody of these words in Plautus — facts mutually 
supporting and elucidating each otherr— we may well he al- 
lowed to avail ourselTes here of a kind of evidence which 
bears only a secondary character, and should, therefore, be 
used only when supported by some other evidence of higher 
character, I mean the so-called ' vulgar Latin,' on which we 
have now Schuchardt's very valuable work, the rich materials 
of which have become accessible to practical use since the ap- 
pearance of the third volume, which contains the Indices. 
Vulgar Latin can be proved to coincide with archaic, i.e., 
Plautine Latin, in many instances ; and this is only natural, 
as archaic Latin is nothing but the vulgar Latin of the period 
when Plautus and Terence and their contemporaries wrote ; 
and the same tendencies and principles of development as are 
seen at work 200 and 150 years b.c, continued their work 
until the final downfall of the Koman Empire and language, 
when they formed most important factors in the growth of 
the eo-called Romance languages. But as we have heiip at the 
very least a period of 700 years, it would be preposterous to 
assume at once that any form which we. find in vulgar Latin 
of (say) 300 or 400 a.d., may forthwith be (Jonsidered as that 
very form which Plautus and his contemporaries were familiar 
with. Seen from this point of view, I must say that the 
longer I speculate on the assumption that in Plautus 8oron=^ 
8(Bur, the more do I wonder that anyone should ever have 
accepted it, except as an expedient to facilitate the scanning 
of Plautine lines to those who did not care to study the matter 
in a historical spirit. But if the defenders of the theory 
really ever meant to tgach us that Plautus actually pro- 
nounced sceiir, and no otherwise, I confess that I am fairly 
puzzled to understand how they could ever find others to 
accept and support and repeat their theory. But I do not 
mean to avail myself of the Romance languages for my pre- 
sent purpose — though I might quote the Italian suora to 
prove an archaic pronunciation soro ; — but, as I said before, 
I turn now to vulgar Latin. Schuchardt states (vol. i. p. 35) • 
" The final r of nouns of the third declension was frequently 
dropt :" in illustration of which he quotes the confusion be- 



tween ilolus and tlohr at the tirae of St, Austin, wbich beco 
intelligiblD aa soon as we recollect that these two words wotg 
then pronouDoed dolu and doh. Again, (vol ii., p. 390), 
Schuchardt gives us from inscriptions the very forma we want 
for our purpose : pate and *(JJ"o, the latter cvea in five iu- 
st&uces. If, afl-et- such proofs, there can still be any douht as 
to the admissibility of tlie pronuneiation paie, soro, mh, amo, 
rime, ia Pldutus and Terence, I can only say that I am ftt the 
end of my arg'imientB. 

I will now proceed to the letter /, which I hold to have 
bcou dropt by Plautua and Terence in the worda simnJ {itemof} 
and profiif (see my Introd* to the Aul*. p. xxiv.)' Chiisl 
aaeuuQes here & weakening of the vowel in the secorui syllable, 
so as to snpposc a promincJation mm I aad prac'/, harsh enoagh 
for any one, and incredible, as it aeema to me, on accouat of 
ite uncouthnesa, if of nothing' else. For the same reason^ I 
object to the iin pronounceable form pivuf, and to sitiof, ia 
which we have a form beginning with a combination of letters 
generally avoided by the Romans in the * anlaut.' 

The letter w is dropt in the word (amen by both Plautu* 
and Terence ; and indeed Featus, p. 360, aaya dialinctly, 
^antiqui tarn etiam pro tanien xm. sunt,' but unfortunately 
the instances adduced by him do not bear this out: (aoe 
Coreaeii, kril. JBeiir., p. 273-279). But the Ambrosiftu 
FalimpKQst givee tam in a baechiac tetrameter, (Siicfi, 44,) 
where all the other MSS. read faificti, and we may safely rely 
OQ the evidence atforded by' iamen elsi as compared with 
tamdsi, in order to prove that, after all, Featufi'a asaertion ia 
right, though not supported by hi,maelf oe it ought to be.. 
It may further be observed that there are several paaaages in 
Plaiitufl where tatimi occurs, and where the lines appear to be 
encumbeved with more Byllables thaa are required by the 
metre ; but the difficulty disappears as soon as we substitute 
the shorter form iam. An instance of this is given by 
EitsLhl himself. (OpuKr. ii., p. 244). 

In thL- prc<H^1ing uooouDt of tliedropiniig^of finidconaoiianla, 

* r^wat \h fooEut lint Qnlj in Capt, hi\, u Chrifit nfreim tu iK'liere. but aim in 
Gtm; 3-57, wliiTB we fthoald read— " agi;, neJDctDin Jniisle la dnl» ; ^o k 
procul rKitkm." 




no mention is made of the .various monosyllabic words, most 
of them prepositions, which are all occasionally shortened 
in comic prosody, though followed by words beginning with 
consonants. Such words are ab, ad, an, (Persa, v. 3, 14), ex, 
et, est, in, id, ob (?), hoc, hie, even haec and has ; and I think 
we shall not be far wrong if in these words also we assume 
the dropping of their final consonants in all cases where it 
&ciKtates the scanning. 

But to return to the doctrine of * ecthlipsis,' I have iirst 
to observe, that all the words which have hitherto come under 
our notice, are disyllabic (excepting, of course, those men- 
tioned in the last paragraph, in which the assumption of 
ecthlipsis is an impossibility) ; and most of these dlsyllables, 
^ain, are of iambic measure. In all these words we are 
called upon to disregard the radical vowel. In my Intro-, 
duction to the ' Aulularia,' p. xxxix, I had absolutely denied 
the possibility of extruding a .radical vowel in disyllables. 
I was at 'the time aware that Professor Key more than once 
assumes omnpressions of original disyllabic forms into mono 
syllables, in order to support his etymologies of Latin words ; 
but this did not seem to me to have suf&cient authority to 
introduce into Plautine prosody a new element, otherwise 
not supported by a single fact. " But Christ {L c. p. 576) al- 
leges several instances which go, in truth, far to prove that in 
Latin also an ecthlipsis of a radical vowel has taken place in 
more than one word. Thus he quotes ghs as compared with 
the Greek yd\io<! ; flos he proves to be a compression of an 
original /o/os, comp. j^//»/?t ; and clam stands for cafam, comp. 
icaK-vjrT€tv in Greek, and occuHm in Latin, (in r,r/ff/Y the short 
vowel of the base is lengthened, just as we have diiere and 
dUcere, firom the bases die and dac). 

But if I can no longer insist upon the utter impossibility 
of admitting the ecthlipsis of a radical vowel — though I do 
not think it prudent to assume the existence and (so to say) 
working power of a process proved only for that period when 
the language was still forming, in the pronunciation of the 
Plautine period — I feel bound to attribute all the more weight 
to the objections which most people will naturally feel against 



this doctrine when teflted bj' Ihe results it produces. « 
forms as mini, snrx, nuius are pronounceablD by our orgam, 
not by Hontan lips ; but not even we can pronounce jtreuf, 
{bet {^hibet, Men. 368), amr, colr^ mcmr {= memor, Pers&^H 
707], and others besidee. ^^ 

A. Spengelj p. 91, ia In favour of e:&trudiug the radical 
vowel in coluuf, rfo^M, do/i, dofis — he ought to have added inode 
and moi/i^ in order to have this bouquet of pleasing worda, 
clant, dies, dli, diia, mdo, and mdh. Leaving aside what Spengel 
says coQcenung the two moaosyllablea I'et and po^l — which be 
thinks ahould be pronounced rl and pi In several instances, 
all of which fall under different heads — I will here merely 
add a few words about the disyllabic forma of voh in which 
Spengyl assumee ectldipaia of the radical vowel. It ia of 
courso natural to think at once of the monosyllabic form rw, ^^ 
and our £rst thought will be that this is a compression of a ^| 
fuller form roHs. (So Corsaen, Krit. Beitr.y p. 389, and 
Christ, Lc. p. 576.) But therein we should no 3oubt be 
wrong. The second person singular of this verb would not,, 
however, be vofia, but rather nVw, the radical vowel becoming 
assimilated to that of th^ fiufiix : cf rcffe. This explanation 
eeeins to me to be quite admissible, notwithstanding the third 
porson t'oit, instead of which we should rather expect tiiii or" 
viU, tifter the analogy of the second person. But in rolt the 
simple suffix t is added, not it: ^tferL Vilis was than con- 
tracted to ri7«, and hence we get ris itself. JT. appears, there- 
fore, tliat here also we have no instance of ecthlipsis. (See 
E. Giitze in the ' Studien/ edited by G. Curtius, zn-eites Heft, 
p. ]Sf5.) It haa also been justly observed that a ootii pressed | 
form tlis wouH rather have rcsnltcd in lis than ris, 

I need hardly odd that all the instances alleged by Spengel! 
for tho exlruttion of the radical vowel in voh and its vorious-j 
toniiB, ore also capable of another exphinatioa by admitting a 
•hort quuntity of the second syllable. 

lu treating of tho subject of ecthlipsis, I cannot but briefly 
not.ce tho views of Prolessor W. Ramsay as put forth in his 
posthun,ous edition of iho • Most*Uaria.' But before doing 
"o, T w,.b to say that I am vexy aorry indeed to dud that I 





distingnislied a scbolar as Professor Bamsay undoubtedly was, 
should have been unable to form a just idea of the immense 
merits of Ritschl'a criticism on Plautus. According to Prof. 
Eamsay, Ritsohl only adopts the same principles as Pylades 
of Brescia, " who considered the simple explanation * metri 
causa ' a justification for any change he thought fit to intro- 
duce into the text, and many of his interpolations were 
adopted by his successors, and long maintained their ground : 
others followed in the same direction, until the work of de- 
struction and reconstruction seems to have been pushed to its 
extreme limit by Bothe and Hitschl." This remark shows 
that Professor Kamsay knew hardly more of Eitschl's works 
than' his edition of Plautus — a fact which I consider to be 
also abundsmtly proved by numerous passages in the whole 
work. Had Professor Ramsay taken the trouble to acquaint 
himself with BitschVs papers, which are now reprinted in the 
* Opuscula,' vol. ii., and were easily accessible to the English 
editor in the Rheinhche Mifseum, he would have found that 
many of tho views which he now puts aside as fanciful or 
arbitrary, were in reality entitled to his respect, as they are 
the result of careful thought and laborious study. Besides, 
one can scarcely think that a scholar is entitled to speak in 
this strain of a man who is confessedly held to be one of the 
greatest living philologers, a scholar (I say) wlio is not even 
acquainted with the fact that nnnciam, a word of the most 
frequent occurrence in Plautus, is al*ay8 disyllabic, like 
quoniam and etiatn (see 'Proll. ' Ixxi. whore Moa^. I. 1, 71, is 
scanned — . 

mol£stua nc sit : ntrne iam i rds, tc | 6moTe 

as an instance of a hiatus after a long monosyllable), or who 
thinks it to be ' clearly * unnecessary to. make a change in a 
line like this {Most. 1. 1, 1)— 

quid ttbi maMm, hie kaie sed^s clamatio est ? 

or who proposes to scan tho line {Most. I, 1, 29) — 

qao n^mo adaeqae idventute ex omni Attica 

so that there shall be an anapaest in the third place— an 
assumption involving the short quantity of the adverbial 



auffiis c in afhiequt ? or who recommends a eimple trant- 
position in older to get the splendid rhythm in tKe foUoiritig 

line — 

initead of Uie genuijiie order, here also given by ttfi MS& — 

Uoe &tqU6 purtie mCliebti nplfUeotili 
and other instances more whict I "w-ill not mention heie. 
And, finally, I may also ho allowed to say, that it is sheer 
raahncas to write about Plautine prosody and queationa con- 
neoted with it without knowing'CorsBen's work on Latin 
pronimciation. Writing in this way on a subject, without 
paying proper regard to the labours of others, is, at the very 
beet, loblieb, as others may have said the same thiuga before 
you, 80 that you merely waste your time in going over ground 
trodden by others ; but it generally hflppeus that thia pro- 
ceeding is very miBchievoiiSj aa it springs from tbe conscious- 
ness of a great and original mind, which can a6Ford to stand 
entirely on its own feet and draw upon its own rcsourt;e3 ; — 
but unfortunately these great minda are often great in theai 
own eBtimation only, and the world considers their origin- 
ality iu thia or that subject, aa little better than absurdity. 
In a very large portion of Professor Ramsay's ' Prolt^gomena' 
{p. xvi.-xUs.), he positively wastes time and paper. Had 
he consulted Corssen, and several of Rit-schrs papers on epi- 
graphic eubjecta, he would have found mnterinlg far more 
.viiluahle than those collected by himself; and besides, whAt|fl| 
is of far more importance, more than one view to throw ligbt^* 
on diffieulticB which now are only mysteries to hia compre- 
liensiou. Professor P&nisay is, -then, of opinion (p, b£xxi.)^| 
that ' all the words ' in which the chief difficulty of Plautiae^^ 
prosody lies * were occasionally, in familiar conversation, pro- 
nounced " correptim ;'' that is, the tirat syllable waa almost^| 
entirely suppressed in enunciating the word, and thus tbe dia- 
ayllables were trauaforuicd into moiios.yllableB.' Aa eoncenis 
the words enumerated by Mr, Ramsay in his first class, I can 
easily iindcrHtand his theory, whit-b ia then again only the 
common theory of ecthlipsis, necessitating the pronunciations: 
*pwl, 'mor, b'nm, ffput^ emm, c'kfr, eTmua, ^nim, /'res, fro^t 


*ru8t m*nm, mUm, m^tias, m'ser, m'dM, n'mis, p'ier, p'iesf^ 
qu'dem, s'nex, s'mul, s'ror, fmen, v'litnt ; but in his second 
class we find, besides others, the fonns : nde. (for inde and 
vnde), ntus, nf^, nmpe, and num. In all these instances Mr. 
Ramsay prefers decapitating the words in question to the 
procese of shortening their first vowel, Oorssen assumes, in 
all these words, that the first vowel was * irrational,' i.e. was 
only a kind of semi-vowel, such as we have in abundance in 
English. I believe that this theory is, at the bottom, not 
very dififerent from my view, that the vowel is actually 
shortened, hy which I can only mean that it is pronounced 
hurriedly and without its full sound. But there is no doubt 
to my mind that anyone who believes in the decapitated 
&rm8 is, eo ipso, obliged to allow a previous shortening of 
the vowels 8i)bsequently dropt. Geppert has contemptuously 
called these 'irrational' vowels ''consumptive:' and, just as 
real consumption ends in death, these vowels must finally, 
Boooer (Mf later, disappear ; only, as we are surprised to find 
a man struck dead in the full vigour of life with no apparent 
disease in him, so we should be the same with regard to the 
dying gut of vowels. 

But there is, after all, a great defect in Hr. Ramsay's 
views, and also in the views of other scholars, about Plautine 
prosody, inasmuch as they entirely neglect to indicate the 
general principle which underlies all these discrepancies of 
the prosody of the comic writers from the ordinary prosody 
of later writers. Perhaps I am scarcely justified in using 
this erpression, as it is well known that what we are accus- 
tomed to call the ordinary or legitimate quantity of a Latin 
word, is observed in numerous passages both by Flautus and 
Terdtaee ; and that only occasionally are we startled by meet- 
ing with exceptions. Numerous as these exceptions are, it is 
still possible to make changes in almost every place, and so 
to re-write the Plautine plays in accordance with the common 
rules of prosody. To do this would be quite perverse ; but it 
would be equally perverse to accept almost anything the 
M8S. give, and to account for their readings by resorting to 
impossible contractions or shortenings, such as we find often 


assumed br that most perrerse editor C. H. TTdae. It be- 
comes, therefore, an imperatire dntr to find out a roling 
principle to guide us in oar estimate of these prosodiacal ab- 
normities, and in our criticism of the text. It is my aim in 
the Introduction to the Aulularia to shew that all these 
changes are wrought br the force of accent, by which a word 
of originally iambic measure became a pyrrhick, and a word 
or metrical complex of syllables of originally bocchiac mea- 
sure was made equal to an anapaest. 

That which seems to be the most difficult to many 
scholars in this theory is the necessity of admitting that such 
long endings as as, ds^ is, is, should have been used short in 
comic writers ; — rather than admit this, they will even 
pronounce the Latin of Plautus, 200 B.C., as if it were French 
of 1400 or 1500 years later. With regard to opinions of 
this kind, I hare little to say; but feel bound to observe that 
those • who deny the possibility of these shortenings, are 
cither ignorant of the whole development of the Latin lan- 
guage in respect to the quantity of its suffixes, or else they 
mistakenly attribute to a facile expedient for drilling the 
scansion of Plautine linos into the heads of school-boys, the 
value of a scientific and historical explanation of difficult facts. 

[I may here say that I cannot find any new views in 
Christ's paper on comic prosody, the iirst part of which has 
been quoted more than once in the earlier portion of the 
present pajwr. I am surprised to sco that Christ ascribes so 
inuelx weight to IJentley's observation as to the first foot of 
iambic or trochaic Hues, an observation justly neglected 
I'y Ihtschl, but unfortunately again taken up bv Spengel. As 
n-ir^uh this point, Itully concur with Ram^y's judgment, 
" .0 ohsorvos ^p. Ixxv.-t that Bentley's * explanation seems 

Itut I 


, . . — c — ^-» u peculiar 

^"u. l.-»n^A.;.j.^. iu a very disiiuct direc- 


tion. J- confess that I entertain very decided notions on the 
Buhject, and cannot even admit that any other opinions have 
the slightest probability. 

From what has been said before, it' will be understood what 
variety must necessarily be found in the prosodiacal observances 
of Flautus. One observation should be added : not content 
with using many syllables as short, which were long in later 
times, this poet occasionally uses many syllables in their 
original long quantity. • As such may be mentioned a in the 
nom. sing, of the first declension and in the neuter plural ; 
e in the ablative sing, of the third declension; bus in the 
dat. and abl. plural. ; or in such words as soror ; er in pater, 
which occurs long in three passages (Aul. 772 ; Trin. 645 ; 
Poen. V. 6, 15) ; and especially the endings of the third 
persons 'sing, of all tenses and conjugations. From the be- 
ginning of his labours on Plautus> Eitschl has always been 
xemarkably shy of acknowledging these long quantities, and 
even now he does not admit all those which I have mentioned; 
in the present volume ho does not give his opinion with re- 
gard to the length of the nom. a, which has been established 
by Fleckeisen for the nom. sing, of tho first declension, and 
by myself for the neuter plural, — though I am afraid that 
Ritschl would' find it difficult to correct aU the passages 
which we have quoted in support of our views. He also 
questions the length of the ablative suffix e, of which I had 
given numerous instances {Rh. Mus. xxii. 113, ss.)^ though 
with this reservation, that he would only, in all fhe places 
where it occurs, substitute the speUing el : a possibility already 
pointed out by me in the Rhein. Mus. I.e. Hitschl appeals 
here to the authority of the inscriptions : but after all, the 
spelling €1 would be only a graphic expedient to express a 
long sound fluctuating between ^ and t. This is, however, 
rare in tho ablative singular of crude forms of the consonant 
declension, even in inscriptions (see Biichcler, Grundrm der 
lat. Decl. p. 50), and even in the year 116 b.c. we find in ono 
and the same inscription both abfontei and abfonte, where we 
may safely assume that e was long in the second instance. 
I do not, therefore, see the absolute necessity of always sub- 

etitutiiig; ei for e m those pasangea wti^ro PlffutUB lues the 
eDding long-. 

There is also another ending which I intended was UBed lofl^ 
both by riaatus and Terence, namely, the mfinitive-endiBg 
i'ri. The subject cannot be new to the Philological Society, 
hecauae ProfesBor Key had brought the aame view befbreibs 
members as (&v buck as 18G7, in a pap^r which is now also 
reprinted in his Philological Essaye (see p. 164 itq.) All thia 
is rejected by Ritschl, but after mature consideration, I feel 
bound to persist in tny former opinion. Ritschl objocla to the 
instances in which the ending ure appears at the cod of the 
first dimeter ; and £ did not, indeed, attribute any weight 
to thenij quoting them, as 1 did, merely in order to observe 
that the ending in question appenre here also to hav« been 
long, supposing that we can establish this on ihe authority of 
other pasaagea, in which Plautus still ufl« the word in it^ 
original quantity. Bat I will hero confeaa that I have since 
then gained the conviction that Plautus never lengthens 
an originally ehort syllable in the cicsura. Ritaohl, p. 447, 
reduces my 15 instances of f/*e to no more than 3, — 2 from 
Plautus, Pseufl. Sy-j, and Poen, lii, 3, 15: 

4gu »crIe«t^Jfl nAnc aigentum prdoa^^ poufin domo 

forgetting, however, a third already pointed nut by nae la an 
iippeiidix to my paper, viz., True, ii, 4, 74: — 

nim alid«« iiliq|UC*il mibi duiS iuunilH.-ulum. 

To which 1 would now add a fourth, Cws. v. 3, 15 : — 

itdj^ istic diccTe lioct i b^rcle invitiu vfiputo. 

(The MSS. havQ rapnh hirek ego ina'tus, but the first part of 
the line is given by them without the slightest variation), 

Ritschl disposes of these instances in hia usual manner, by 
inserting Jitnv in the first, and eo in the second line: in the 
third, h^ would doubtless approve of the transposition 
adopted by the generality of editors : dtiro ntihi, though for- 
merly the iambic measure of mihi would have prevented 
him from doing so. 

As concorau Terence, I can give such instances aa would 
Batrafy Bitschl from the poet's first play only ; and I consider 



this to be very cliaiactariBtic, because it seems to show that 
in Terence's time this quantity had already become obsolete, 
and thai it was not used by the poet in his more policed 
productions. We have there (Atidr. 23) : 

male dicerS, maleflELcU ne noac&nt saa.} 

bat to this we should add (t. 534 s.) : 

aliqndt me adiemnt, 6i te anditam qai kihuni bodio (Qiam 
meam ii6bere tuo gn&to : id vi>o tAa aa illi iiiB&nuiit 

This is.the reading of the MSS., though Fleckeisen changes 
it in order to avoid the quantity nubere by writing : 

qui aibant liodio nubde 
meam flUom tuo gnato : 

but this change is merely arbitrary. 

We have, therefore, six satisfactory instances of this 
quantity from twenty-one comedies; and a seventh shall 
be added presently from Flautus. I do not think it is quite 
fair upon me that KitschI should in his Opuscula hold me up 
as a specimen of perverse conservatism with regard to the 
ending ere, while one of his favourite pupils, Prof. Bucheler, 
o£ G^reifswald, shares my offence all the same. But after 
lecturing me, Ritschl merely adds: "Bucheler has a dif- 
ferent opinion from mine" {Griindr. der lat. decl. p. 62 «.). 
I will now copy the passage referred to : "die alte lange der 
iafioitivendung gcnere spiirt man ;ioch bci den dramatikem 
dee 6. jahrhunderts, Glor. 848 nunqitam edepol ridi prdmerS, 
rentm h6c erat (one of the instances given by me and Pro- 
fessor £ey), wo die winzige reiepause an sich eine unzulang- 
liche entsQhuldigung der gedchnten cndsilbe ware (but 
Bitschl considers the pause to be so strong as to be fully 
equal to those cases in which a syllable is lengthened on ac- 
count of the change of speakers) ; Stich. 513 qudm me ad 
ilium promittere, nisi ndUein ei advorsdrier \ auch in der teren- 
■zischen betonung Andr. 23 male dicere, mnlefdda ne noscdnt 
sua ; aber gcrade diese beispiclc zeigen zugleich, dass bereits 
die kiirze generi allgemein herrschte." 

On the one hand 1 am glad to have Bucheler for an ac- 
complice, but on the other, I think that my own statement of 
the subject in the Rh. Mm. was fuller and more accurate. 



At bU erentii^ t am indebted to Bucheler for the instance he 
quote* from the Stichus, 

We have now 7 (or even 8) instances in 21 comedies — iwt 
a very small number, considering that there are not many 
more inataiiccs of the long^ quantity of the nom, a, or other 
peculiarities of Flautine prowdy. Bhoold Ritechl persist in 
oarrocting them, I would vetiture to remind him of some of 
bis own invcs ligations : f .y., he traces the old suffix is in the' 
Qominativo pluml of the second declension in a very few pa»- 
aagee in Plautus, without being induced by their paucity to 
change the rt^inga of the >ISS. ; and again he traces five 
instances in Plautus in which the form poste appears, but the 
preposition post occurs in numerous other passages. AH this 
tends to show that in these things wc should certainly not be 
governed by mere niunbers. 

I have not yet said anything as to passages of doubtful 
authority, especially Glof. 27 : 

I'Y, fjuid, ijrtMliiomf AU* iHud dicw? toIuI, femur. 
on which Ritscht hoa a most elaborate excursus (p. 437 a,), 
showing, as I think, moat satisfactorily that Plautus himself 
wrote — 

quid br&cchiaia i illud * Kminor ' Tolm dJcen. 
Tn ordor to prove the truth of this change, I copy here from 
Ritsehl the parallel cases most to the point {Most. iii. 2, 145; 
Eud. ii. 4, 9 ; Glor. 819) : 

dfirmmnt? — itldd qmdtun ' ot cfHnfTcnt ' toIuI dicerc. 
' iiqui 

iiuid, &6rbet? — illud ' starlit ' vclui diccnj. 

aCihvdUuriiini : illiiil quidcm ' aubliquilutn ' voIul dtcere, 

Professor Key says that these cases are not parailel (Phil, 
Kasaya, p. 165), and ventures to assert that when iiiud is 
used, as in the passage in the Ghr.y to draw attention to a 
coming word or words, in opposition to what precedes, it is a 
law of the lauguage that the woi-d or words so referred to 
should lie at a distance from the pronoun : for which he 
quoteii his Grammar, § 1106. But I think, on the contrary^ 
that the panigrnph in his Grammar does not apply to the 
paasuge in Plautus, and am convinced that the above three 
inRtanccs are quite parallel to that in the Qhr, and certainly 
do represent the habit of Phmttia. 


. I will also pass over the passage in the Asin. ii. 1, 2, where 
I do not consider that Kitschl fairly characterizes my criti- 
cism, as anyone who will -read my remarks in the Mh. Mus. 
may be easily convinced ; but I must say a few words as to 
the fallacy pervading Ritschl's entire argument on this point. 

Ritschl argues that though there are so many infinitives in 
Flautus and Terence, I can find only a few in&tances of the 
long quantity of the suffix, and this very fact ought to have 
made me more cautious in accepting the readings of the 
passages in question. But before attempting an argument of 
this kind, Hitschl should first have observed that in more than 
three-fourths of the lines where we have infinitives, the e is 
either in thesis — so that we cannot decide whether it be long 
or short — or it is elided before a vowel, so that again its 
quantity is loft undecided. It is therefore only possible to 
say anything about the quantity of this ending when the e is 
in arsi, a case comparatively very rare. But whenever this 
happens, I venture to assert that the e is almost invariably 
long. I feel certain that this case is precisely like the ending 
it of the third person perfect, where even Kitschl was at last 
obliged to admit the long quantity. 

In addition to the preceding observations, I would say that 
it seems to me that the recent investigations, not only of 
Kitschl himself, but of Flockeisen, Corssen, and Biicheler, 
tend to show that it is very dangerous indeed to restrict 
Plautine prosody to a fixed standard of regularity by giving 
undue preponderance to those prosodiacal rules which have in 
their favour the greatest number of passages, and correcting 
the smaller number of refractory instances. Yet this is 
Kitschl's method ; and in spite of his own labours, and in 
spite of the many recantations of former theories which h? 
has been obliged to resort to, such is the force of habit, that 
even now in many cases he pursues the same tract. Plautine 
prosody is something irregular, a curious phenomenon in the 
history of .the Latin language. While it contains the germs 
of the prosody of later times, it shows on one side the vestiges 
of the original long quantity of many suffixes ; and on the 
other, destruction rapidly attacking these* very same suffijces 



by shortening ajid curtailing them even beyond tlie luibit of 
later tiiaes. In conaisttint pursuance of theae i"iow5, wo feci 
bound to respQct the auLliority of the MSS. mach more than 
Ritschl does. It is true, as Bitsch! Dbaerres^ we have not the 
poet'a works, aa it vere, cngi-aycd in iron or brass by hia 
own hjind, — nor h.&& anybody erer gone eo far oa Co maintain, 
Ihat^ either in theory or practice ; — but atiU we posdORS, for 
Plautus, M8S. not altogether to be deapiBed or thrust aside 
as useless guides. And after all, it 9ee!m& to mc that our 
MSS. are better guides in the labyrinth of Plautine criticism 
than the arbitrary changes of a Professor of tho nincti^enth. 
century. I willipgly submit to Ritschl, as 3oon as he brings 
logical reaaooing to bear on single passages; but I see no 
force at all in the mere aggregation of numberg. 

There ia another chapter of Plautine prosody on which I 
would fain say a few words, namely, the influence of accent, 
i.e. how for we are justified in assuming a coincidence of 
metrical recitation with the accent of Latin words in every- 
day life. Thia chapter baa now increased in importancCj in toy 
eyee at least, aa Ilitschl has now made it the criterion by 
which to distinguish tho Plautine critic with a call to bis 
taak, from the one without a Tocation. In speaking- of tliis 
subject, Hitachi becomes positively eloquent, Accent is to 
him '* the Spirit that moves upon the faoo of the waters,*' 
He ia inclined to deal charitably witli those Plautine critics 
who differ from bis views; "for they are," says he, "only 
half responsible, as tlieir failure arises from a defect of 
nature," and be compares them to fliose iadivicluuls who are 
naturally destitute of the sense of c^>Iour. Hut to be serious, 
Hitachi does here little more than declaim in high words. 
Will thia convince any of his adversaries? If nothing else, 
will not the fundamental *' defect of their nature" — which I 
suppose means their stupidity — prevent them from recanting 
their error ? 

But to state the fact, such as it actually is, I must say tKut 
among PhiutiiK' critics only Ritschl nnti Fleckeiscn hold those 
views oil accent wliicli arc here stateil to l»e tho criterion for 
sheep and goats. All the rest are more or leas heretics. 


BY ttlLIiELM WAONEft, i'U.D. 


I feel, Kowerer, that I am unable to do justice to this point 

in the short spa^e of time before me, and must, tlicreforc, 

leave it at present witbout aay further comments : biit as 

1*6 work on Latin pronimciation is just coming out in a 

^«econd editicai, I venture to promise an exhauEtive account of 

this Bubjcct in my next reading to the Philological Society. 

I feel tiiat I have touched upon only a very few points of 
Plautine phUology, though the volume before me — RitseJirs 
Op'tsctiia iL — would easily furnish aie with materialH lor 
a mncb longer paper. But the best thing I can do ie to 
recommend scholars to study the volume itself. It ia not, 
however, always easy to follow the peculiar development of 
Kitschj's arguments^ as he prefers phicing hia various papers 
before the rtyidor in very nearly the some order and form as 
tlioso Lu which they were originally written. In many eases 
it happens that Eitacbl oonceivee an idea which bo then puts 
forth in a paper ; lifter on, other arguments, either found by. 
himself or suggested by friends, modify bis fomier views. In 
of this kind Hitachi dues not change his [Kpers, but 
leaves it to the reader to £nd out by himself what ia the final 
truth on the sul^ect. This ia nowhere more conspicuous than 
in the disquisition on the genitives in t'tut, where we begin 
with the year 1829 and end in 18C7, coming to erroneous 
results at first, and arriving at sound vievs in the end. 

Throughout the whole volume there ia a haughty, discon- 
tented, and domineering tone. Excepting a few of his pupils, 
and his friend Fleckeisen, Ritschl affeeta to despise hia suc- 
ocssora in I'lautiiie criticiani. It is but very rarely that 
[Bitachl can hear deviation from hie viewa, as he had already 
proved in 1846 by bis famous epistle to Scbneidewin about 
Geppert/s edition of the Rudcifs. Even in 1868 the cratur 

not burnt out, but still belches forth volumes of angry fire. 
'This time it is more especially Andreas Spengel, of Munich — 
fl most ingenious critic, but unfortunately in opposition to 
Hitachi's views — upon whom tho cup of Eitaclil's wrath \9- 
pQoredi lie is token to task likt- a seboolboy, charged wifh 
mere thoughtlessness {p. 703), culled superficial and iiicapahh^ 
of judgment (p. 705), and finally told, that whenevor he 



he J 

makes a good emetidation, or liolds the right view, he criniw 
even he praised for that, as he ia aoraewhat like the blmd hca 
that finds a pearl on a daaghill ! According to Eitschl there 
ia no mmt in Spengel's cmendationa and theories, because 
they are not got at in the right way, and therefore not 
mothodically. This is to my fancy very much like the 
quarrel between an allopath and homceopath, when the first 
also may allow that the latter saved the patient's life, but it 
waa by mere chance, and not according to the nilea of the 

But aurelj- a little more toleranco would not disgnu 
even a KitschL In several places we find that Hitscl 
appeals to the judgment of alUpowerfiJ time to maintain his 
own views aa the right ones ; but is it wiao to do thia if his 
opponents are the young and valiant ? It ia always better to 
fight with argumenla than with fine phrases, or^ even woracr 
with abuse ; and I am sorry to say tbut^ Ilitschl chooees the 
hitter In too many instances. Nobody can regret thia more 
than myself, aa I aball never ceaae to .admire Ilitschl as a 
scholar and a teacher. Before my eyes ho stands aa the 
lecturer at Bonn, clear, powerful, eloquent, and imparting 
iIltc^^Mt even to the driest aubjecta, by the conaummate art 
with which he knew how to handle thorn. I remember how 
his eyes nsed to sparkle with delight when he thought that^ 
Bome good work had been done by his pupils, and how de^H 
lightful it was to hear oneself praised in his sonorous Latin :^^ 
but woe to him whom he considered deserving of blame ! 
Then, again, there waa the kindly interest shown to bis pupils 
in their private studies, and the advice and help willingly 
given at any time. Aa such Eitt>chl lives in my recollection ; 
and I venture to aay that his writings present a faithful 
picture of the man, of hia good aides and his faults. The firet 
every one will feel obliged to admire and respect; but the 
W«md Mn be pardoned and overlooked only by those who 
Have cause to love the man and cherish his memory. 



Aoeented Ifltten, objectiotu tgainst lue 

o^ in print, 1 Ap. 3. 
Aoeenti, omianon of in Atonies no 

golds to the pronunoiation, SS. 
■mora'inio in PUutos, 406, 
•w of Modern Greek Xeuters t.g. 

Srofia', discuued, 66. 
ipad=&pa in Flautua, 40i. 
Archaic fbmu foisted on Virgil hj 

Atkinson, Ber. J. C. : 

On tbo Dialect of Cleveland, 326 : 

GloMary of the Lonedale Dialect, 
Edited by. 
^f; German prefix, examination of 

TC^ componaded with, 95. 
Anfrecbt, Prof. T., Greek Etpnologies 

by (Ein»^*> ^*T«. "Tl"^. I'irrot, {&*), 

•4C^ verbs in, their origin explained, 


Bdl*s VinV* Spteth, Vt. Ellis on, 

1 Ap. 8. 
Bentley's doctrine of greater licence 

in tne flnt foot of an Iambic or 

Trochaic line, iOB, 4U. 
•bilis, -bolum in Latin compared with 

•ilis,-alam, 11. 
Bonapartean specimens of FrOTincial 

English, strictures on, 2 Ap. 2 Pt. 

p. 6. 
Bmp, Franz, Obituary of, 305 : 

Lut of his writings, 3 1 2. 
" Bow-Wow " theoTT of the origin of 

Language, Prof. Key on, 376. 
Breton grammatical forms of numerals 

and Terbs, omitted in the Gram- 

muttiea Oltiea, examples of, 33. 
Breton (Middle-) Irregular Verbs, 

list of, 114. 
Breton Mystery (4th century) : French 

ud other loan-words contained 

Bnton words hitherto umoticed, list 

of flOVH^ 2Vi 


caput Eicapti in Plautos, 406. 

Car*, of Saxon, not of Latin origin 

Ccuira, C(Utnim,ea9tro, discussed, 106. 
Cayley, C. B., Esq.— The Pedigree of 

Bnglieh Heroic Verse, 43. 
Celtic Mythology, Prof. Siegfried's 

notes on. 257. 
Celtica, Miscellanea, by Prof. Siw- 

fried. 252. 
Celtic Names in Ciesar, GlUck'i book 

on, reviewed by Prof. Siegfried, 300. 
Celtic (Old) analogues of eo and sum, 

Christ's (W.) views on PlaoUne Pro- 

Eody, commeuted on, 414. 
Cleveland Dialect : its constituent ele- 
ments anaiysed (mainly Scaodina* 

vian), 336. 
Oodotua, st^gcsted emendation of 

C^nia (Virg. Eel. x 59), 204. . 
Collum, "back of the neck," as op- 
posed to jugulum, 395. 
color = cnlo in Pkutus, 406. 
Crude Form SyBtcm, sanctioned in the 

new Public School Latin grammar, 



D final dropt in archaic Latin pro- 
sody, 404. 

Decapitated words, instances of, 392. 

Definite Article in Northumbrian Dia- 
lect t' not '(, 346 ; 2 Ap. 2 Pt. p. 6. 

Desj-nonymizatiou by change of pro- 
nunciation, why commoner in Eng- 
lish than in French, 72. 

dolus and dolor confounded in volgtr 
Iktin, 408. 

Dontaurios Inscription, Mr. Wbitler 
Stukcs's reading and translation off 

Doric dialect, prevalence of gattoral 
forms in, 17. 


Eethlipeis in Flantiu, p. 403, 409 ef. 



On PalBo^pe, 1 Ap. 1. 

On tbe Diphthong OT, 1 Ap. S3, 
er? in the m^nitirf, 418. 
-tf- [TtKtiF-, aitw-), deaomina&yal 

origin of terbs in, H. 
ElonLan pronimriatian of IjiCiii and 

Greek, Btrictur^ on, 245, 1 Ap. 40. 


JJai}rafa=fra^rai'e, Bgennina fann in 

Viiyi], 22B. 
J^TMiVjn, genuine Latin trord, 226. 
Pry. D. P., Eaci: 

Un a Chronological mutake in the 

Pc^faee of la. Gcnin, the Editor 

of PalsyrcvA, 41. 

Technical Termi KlAdng* to the 

MaitufiicturAof FUnnfi Cards, 55. 

On the ftriiind of iDitial TS in 

On the phnwe " Scot and Lot," 1 fi7. 
FurniTiill^ F. J., Eeq., Pynson'a Con^ 
tract* wifh HormaQ and FalagnTS, 
conunnnicated bj, 362. 


OMtrraMM.geTtiuDe form inTir^, 232. 

^«-^ = Tel-lo, It. 

OlOck'fl " Celtic niunca in Cnsu " re- 
viewed, 300. 

Crnmmurc of Modern Languages, wtj 
Ecld'jRi good, 105. 

Oreck FutUrcft and AorislB, formatio]] 
of, 1. 

OtHk (Medieval], general conAuion 
of caiee in, 87- 

Onnation pnabible before bear; erd- 
ings, US. 

Hohircw 'fiitnrc' Or 'imperfect,* eX' 

plained m a ' prMcnt,' 10. 
Heroic: Vc-rae [English), tie pedii^rec 

of, frnni tli& Orouk JainbiD Triaittflr, 

Salut, genuiui! ipeiiiiipcif olui. 331, 
Horace Od. I. 13, 0<5. UL 6. v. 16, 

2i, aatbenticitjr of, qu&Btionad, 219^ 


I flnftl, nnnntitr of in mihi. Obi, tibi, 

in Plftuius, 403, 
i, NorlhiirabriaD prepoAition, not an 

nbbrfevialion at in, i Ap. 2 Ft. p. 7. 
Imperfect Tease, nte of m fegul 

Latin, >S. 
ImperfiTcti in Greek not imfrequently 

effiploywl Q» Aciri»[i, 6 
Inlientaacr, law of amongst pnmeril 

Celu aAd Teotona, 281, 

Initial OattnraJ, tendespf of to A>- 

appcu, 3do. 
'io, -eo, etc, in L&tin, dtgrraded fonot 

cf -ewo, eaoo. ■etc.. i", 
it (Srd ni^. perf.) in Flantna. p. (OS. 


Jaaaft "English Orthojfcaphy " r»- 

vitfwcd, 315. 
Jordan'* Sallcut rpri^w^d, 241- 


E-ftonnd intCTchangeable mth p-eonnd, 

itofHiaiptii' of identic^ root irith tre- 
tnerc craiudrc, querq,iiETiL, cora«- 
otis, 16. 
Kct, prof, T. Hewitt : 
On the formation of Greek Fatoni I 

and FiM Aorifits, I ; 
eamrnar^- of m^mfcnt, 1 7, 
On the German TreSx PVr Bnd 

allied forms, 93. 
On I'Lural Forms in Lalln, with a 
Sin,pTiinr Meaning, and e?pedallj 
VirgiTs U&e of JUrtifa, 105.. 
Words formed in iniitation of the 
Round otSAJi u b eord m ScraU^' 
ihff, 376. 


L final droptumrcthuo Latin proaodjr, 

L, inatanca of los of. 3S8. 

Latin MSS., p^e of exiBting;. 201. 
Latin (OlclJ, origin of futunv of tbbd 

«oTi j uf^fttion in, S6, 12'^. 
I^bn' (K,) opinion nn Hor. Od. iiiJ 

6, 16-24, quoted, 221. 
Lepsius* Slattdard AlpkalH, remaria 

on. 1. Ap. 4, 6. 
Larudale Oiafeol, Glckuuy of, 2 Ap. 


M final dropt iD arebAto Latin prooodj, 

Manic half-p^c«, posnbb origin of the 

device on, 264. 
Mortineau, Kussell, £h[. : 

Obituary of Fram: Bopp, 30A. i 

Report on Ui- £. Jones's "Con- 
uon Sense of Eogliah Ortho- 
graphy/' 31&. 
Mfntum, \ Lrgil'a use of in plural, dia- 

cufwd, 106. 
Mft)/um, etTmoIogy of. Ill, 
Metres, pedigree of the tdrweioU uid 

tttdtieaoHlabo, 61. 
Mttri (fratM, oppn to t^spjcitm u in 

c^lanation of difficmltiear 12. 



Xinutio Origin of Langaage illui- 

lMiitii», omandation in Sallnat (Jug. 

63, 3), for namditiit of the editioiu, 



N final dropt in Plantiu, 408. 

Nention, implied ia compariaon, ex- 
plaini French idiom, 167. 

Norris's Ancient Coniiih Drama, im- 
portance of for Celtic lingoistics, 24. 

Northnmbrian Dialects, Essay on, 
2 Ap. 2 Ft. 

Notation (Aritbmetical), Boman sys- 
tem of, I Ap. 38. 

Ntmtii, not nunH, correct form of the 
genitire, 244. 


8 in Latin, one of the repreeentativea 

of I, 232; of V, 204. 
09, Latin prefix, meaning ' down,' io- 

ctances of, 101. ^ 
ObordHwand oAmSwm, connection of, 

Oe, probable pronnnciatton of in Latin, 

Ap. 66. 
Otaopum soTirvtrot, tho US. reading for 

OMvewm, given in the editions, 204. 
Of; Norse Prefix, discussed, 104. 
gA(O.Rl=ab, ob, sub, 94. 
Old English Phonology, outline of, 357. 
inftarr-, theoretic older form of 

imiioT-, 86. 
Orem {Horem, Uragua), etymology of, 

Oacan vordi illustrated &om Celtic, 

Oy diphthong, Ur. Ellis on, 1 Ap. 63. 


*Fair* of Cards used in sense of 
*paek: 65. 

Pilffiotype, or tho representation of 
■poken sounds, for philological pur- 
poses, by means of the ancient 
types, I Ap. 1. 

Fal^rare's *' Lesclaircissement," date 
of publication of, 41. 

pater = pate in Plautus and Inscrip- 
tions, 406. 

Peacock, B. B., Esq. : 

Glossary of Lonsdale Dialect, 2 Ap. 
On some Leading Characteristics of 
the Northumbrian Dialects, 2 Ap. 

iVr-, I*tin Prefix, meaning " oTcr," 
inwtancwf of: theory of its origin, 100. 

Fhaednu ; enundation of panages, 247. 

Philological Magazinea of Germany, 
brief notice of, 241. 

Plautus : 
CapL 551, MS. reading defended, 

Glor. 27, BiUcU'a emendation de- 
fended, 408. 

Plaring-canla, Glossary of Technical 
Terms relating to the manufacture of: 
English, 56, 63 ; French, 59. 

Plural Forms in Latin vith Singular 
Meanings discussed: e.g. Castra, 
Forcae, Bigae, Casses, FoUea, 
Limina, Cnirus, Menta, 105. 

Poetical forms, philological Talua 
of, 12. 

Po», genuine form for pott in Sallnat, 

Prefixes, reason for the disuse of, fox 
the formation of compound rerba in 
English, 93. 

Present Timet °o element denoting 
time contained in, 9. 

procul= procn in Plautus, 408. 

Provincial Words common to more 
than one dialectic district are not 
corruptions, but legitimate inherit- 
ances, 2 Ap. 2 PL p. 10. 

Pynson'a Contracts with Horraan for 
his Vulgaria and Pal^iaTe forhia 
ZeietaireiMtment, together vith 
Pynson't Letter of Deniaation, 362. 

Quantities, long, preserred in Flantua 
and the older writers, 415. 


B final dropt in archaic Latin proaody, 

B-transpositions, theory of, 73. 
Bamsay's edition of Plautus'a Moa- 

ieUaria commented on, 410. 
RibbecVs Virgil reviewwl, 198. 
Eitschl's Oputeula Philologiea, Dr. W. 

Wogncr on, 399. 
Boman Numerals, V, X, origin at, 

1 Ap. 38. 
Bomance languages in their relation 

to Plautine prosody, 407. 


8 dropt in French spelling at what 

date? 77. 
S final dropt in archaic Latin proaody, 

Salluat, Cat. 20, 7; Jug. 63, S, 

emended, 242. 
Schnchardt's "VulgarLatin," utility of, 




" Scot and Lot," on thd ptrafic, 167 : 

Bumniary of argHTneat, 194. 
Stri^hk, flf Stutoik, not Lfllin origin, 

Short Sylldbles originally long renp- 

pear witii tbcir uriginal cjuantitj' 

imder the inflnencea of 'iotiu' tmly, 

Bbortcning of long syllEtblcB in Flsatuii 

fiie^fried. Prof. R, T. (iha late) : 

Miscellanea CelticB^ ediwd by W, 

Stokes, Esq., Ib'l. 
fmfiVH^nm-ictiL, mit einem ScbLage, 

. ^^''^ 
tinul=Hlniu ia Plfiulus^ 40^. 

BpelUng, £ag:lisli, plea for reform in, 


B;^lli[|g, futility of instituting com- 

pwlioaEEolE>ly flcoordm^to, lAp.2. 
Boror=soro lu rianliu, 40^. 
Spen^l, A., his luenls in FLaiitiae 

cri tins nit 431. 
Stoked, Whitley, Esq. : 

Kemnrks ■-'H a lately pubiiulied Mid- 
dU-Breton Mystery, 22. 

The Middle- Brot Ob Irf{>gukrTeilH, 

Fraf. Sii^rfried'sMiueLlaticaCcUiaa, 
edited by, 262. 
Etone-pr^iod in Britain, not ooinddent 

witli any fetnzc in the existence of tliil 

Celtic inliEihitaats, 304. 
SiratrnRnn, Dr. F. II. : An Outline of 

Old English Pbonolopy, 357. 
' Strong ■ Preterites in Latin and Qer- 

raiin, funnatiua of, 5. 
Swedifh, relation of, to Danish, 337. * 
Byllablefi reputed! in be Ungtbened by 

arsi^ and caesura on/i^. were in eor- 

tain imtaacca origiaoilly loog, 

■quil^ ^ariu, rirgiaTs, nuUiQ^,, 

fBCig:BniOi, Qbralmtlr, 2D8; but not 

intftriably, 209. 


T Snftl droptin Arcbiio Latin proKKly, 

tunen = tam» ui] fAtn lq tnli 

Latin, 4U8. 
Th Lnitisl, hQW sounded in E]igUili,eS. 
7b- (U.E.) = Bta, Germ, ser, 93. 
Trndo from trttn nitber than /roiH, LOl, 
Tp-^-(«) =curr-ic-(uluni)T 16. 

TMWT-, Ttl*'-, for TWIT-, TW-, ifloril I 

oatmal symbol of dntatioD of time, 6. 


Tir, German Prefix, and ill allied 

forms eiaraiiaed, B3. 
Villemarqiie 'b '■ Le Grand MjstSrt d* 

JeaoB, Draniie Breton/ rsTiewad, tS. 

£cl. X. £9,einendodn 204- 

Aea. i. £96, diaciused, 218. 

Ann. ii. 436f discufised. 201. 
Tirgil : BodUian. M8. mcntioii»d ia 

fiLbheck's Frole^^om^na, p. ^1^ — 

Letter from Prof Coniogfton on, 238. 
Tirjiil'i Minoi Bwnu; ntlatioa of 

MS. (Cud. H«ei. 2£34}, 236. 

Emendalions in, 224. 
-riaforvolisorrilli');, cot from r'lis, 410. 
Tcnela in Old Eii^lisb : Ibcir equiiA- 

Hcnts in the uld Teutonic IjangnagM. 

Vulgar Ladu; iti linguUtic tua iAd 

importanco, 407. 

Woi^rner, Dr. W. r 

Ou fiome tnailpm Grvek trorda, 96. 

On Hibheek's Virgil, 19S, 

Gd Jordun's ^iilluat, 241. 

On Pbii<?dm§^ 24o, 

On ibe> use of tbo vord An* in 

riaulua. 2o0. 
FotiT ME^tricoI rtiscnpCionfit rrprintod 

from Uie "Hermea." 250. 
On some dijpiited poiota at Flautina 

ptosedy, ^^GB. 
With=<Maj wiVA--ooD-lra, 94. 


ietutom, 102., 386. 
ahi, iI4. 
AJAbarchea, SaS. 

ulnus, !I78. 
alvuH, 37S. 
anser, 366. 
Bpcrio, 100. 


aidnas. 278. 

bnacauda, 283. 
bigaft, 103. 

caaariei, 270. 
CAmbio, 2^0, 
cutra, lOo. 
Cutrd, 100. 



flMtram, 108. 
eutoM, 106, S77. 
eodM. 204. 
oornKUt, 16. 

decern, 294. 
delubnim, 106. 

t-mineo, 165. 
Mwdnm, 270. 

ftibflr, S04. 
lorctipfl, 107. 
fotpei, 107. 
fretuni, 282. 
frmtniB, 289. 
ftigio, 88S. 
ftuti, 107,250. 

genuDiu, 111.. 
gflrmen, 276. 
giagita, 111. 

holas, olos, 231. 
Honnu,0rctu,2 14. 
faordoB, fordoL 

indices, 269. 
irrito, 397. 

jinua, 160. 

Jodhs, 150, 285. 

Isqneiu, 278. 
laanu, 255. 
lictor, 109. 
timen, 109. 

marearits, 392. 
muulta, 113. 

mentnm, 111. 
modiu, 277. « 
mox, 286. 

Xarctnoa, 260. 
nidus, 255, 280l 
nox, 97. 
nudoa, 33. 

oh; 101. 
obsolesco, IL3. 
olxoiiiom, 356. 
obsordesco, 113. 
operio, 100. 
oppidum, 391. 
Orcm, Uragui, 

pala, 299. 
per-, 100. 
perendie, 101. 
perrideo, 100. 
pctorritum, 293. 

proina, 8S. 

■alrna, 281. 
Bcio, 17. 
seco, 17. 
Bepelio, 100. 
simitu, 397. 

BOlloB, 281. 
Bora, 132. 
snperae, 101. 

trans, 101. 
tremo, 16. 
truo, 31. 

Tolum, 114. 
Veronica, 333. 
Tertragos, 292. 
Tern, 13. 
Tolo, -Ire, 888. 
Toro, 276. 


Anm, 162. 
Avara, 145. 
ATernna, 279. 


Brigantea, 256. 


Chaman, 260. 

DraTus, 270. 
Dnientia, 270. 

I EbnromaguA, 270. 

Gaesati, 261. 
Oarumna, 270. 

-ingi, 271. 
Ivemia, 279. 

Nautuates, 272. 

SamarobriTa, 274. 

Ayatn^t, 284. 

*rrAA«, 31. ; 

^Iptt, 276. I 

Cvioi, terrht 286. 
t((«uu, 279. j 

-aim, 295. 
iutiofuu, 279. 
iA^(, itMwov 

(Mod.), 85. 
^uvp^f , 284. 
'A»ipiorii, 258. 

01^, 284. 
fiofi, 216, 276. 


7«fift»^», 284. 
T^ft^Xf, 111. 
7ft**. 276. 
W^> 31 


AfiJt (Aeol.), 267. 
SoXix^f* 286. 

tXafiow, {XXafiow, 

*t\Ti^ 281. 
'Epnijs, 263. 
'E<p6pa, 270. 

eiitfutw, 261. 

Uttw, 89. 
Up6j, 272. 
mt, 281. 

KipTpof, 297. 
! Kiarpor, 297. 
I Kovfos, 276. 

\irf«, 20. 
Ai}C«, At^i, 280. 

AtiwoXicw, 267. ' fwAiff'o-a*, 112. 

fuurdofuu, 113. 
fiiirav, 113. 
Waxd^y, 263, 
lUyat,iity^ot, 87. 
fiAirral, 111. 

yawv, 393. 
wiyvos, 21. 
tnfivs, 21. 
y^m, 280. 
Niipfi/t, 279. 
w^, «Jx«, 97. 


Athamn. 259. 
haan. 111. 

t'tmba, 111, 
Bhlia, SO. 
kihvii, 32. 

SXfiot, 113. 

Hft^t, 275. 
'Opeia, 258. 
ix = rf{(Mod.),86, 
8<fof, 366. 


kahnmi, 23. 



SegoduQQm, 274. 

Tamarui, 274. 
Turing!, 271. 

Uriooninin, 275. 

VidocBMei, 260. 

ntuJm, 263. 

irapa-, 102, 
irapi'wayos, 104, 
wapirtuai, 104. 

^(fo, 81. 
^(wTM, 88. 


inranfi 2d/> 

T^or, 282. 
Tftfrwv, 1 256. 
TpvreyinM, J 283. 

M>. 209. 
(!a>, 22. 
SvTtpot, 281. 

X'ip. 279. 
Xrfjmt, 279, 

■ant 33* 



aft, after, 94. 
■rch (Bdj.X 318< 

bottom; 394. 
bright, 276. 

clove, 391. 
ooU, 1 Ap. 60. 
colleen, 276. 

doit, I Ap. 60. 

ewer, 277. 
eye, 283. 

Fenian, 278. 
fowl, 288 

annredfadj.), 346. 
arf (adj.), 346. 

bargh (sb.}, 346. 
barreo (sb.), 347. 
broogh (ab.), 347. 

caaaoBfl (sb.). 848. 
cbip (v.), 348. 


grogAn, 28. maijoram, 28. 

gums, 111. 

Havlton, 269. 
hearse, 269. 
hoist, 1 Ap. 60. 
bone, 269. 
ho;, 1 Ap. 60. 

joist, 1 Ap. 60. 

kez, 284. 

lead (metal), 391. 
leaf, 279. 
low (v.). 392- 
lock, 283. 
lonch, 279. 

megrim, 28. 
men, 27. 
midge, 283. 
moidore, 1 Ap. 62. 
Moricambe, 260. 
mould (sb.), 112. 
mouth, 112. 
mushroom, 28. 

of, 94. 
ogre, 216. 
over, 97. 

pattern, 72. 
plum, 28. 

quero, 276. 

Olbtxlavd Dialxct. 

cowl (t.), 360. 
cool (t.), 360. 
couler fab.}, 3fi0. 
coums [8b.),361. 
cowdjr (adj.), 361. 
craft; (adj.), 361. 
cricket (sb.), 351. 

dream-holea, 832. 

dree (t.), 331. 

chizzel fsb.), 333. , dritb (sb.), 330. 
clep (sb.). 349. i 
coulpre8a(8b.),349. ' flan (t.), 352. 

floufl-docken (sb.), 

forwoden (adj.), 


hamp(sb.}, 363. 
orf (sb.), S5S. 
peen (adj.), 364 
rap andree, 329. 

qtiilt, 1 Ap. 6S. 

roister, 1 Ap. 60. 

Bcot,shot, 188. 
aepoy, 1 Ap. 61. 
shut, 388. 
aoil(sb.), lAp.60. 

thimble, 396. 
to, 93. 


wainscot, 19S. 
weep, 255. 
wheel. 284. 

Winifred, 7*. 
with, 94. 

•cran (sb.), 354. 
ugg (sb.). 364. 
shme (sb.), 366. 
sipper-aaoM (sb.), 
' 366. 

akare on (t.), SM. 
swip (lb.), 856. 

withCTB (sb.), 867. 
wither (t.), 367. 

For Glossary of the Lonsdale Dialect, ride 2 Ap. 

For Glossary of English technical terms relating to the Manufacture of Flaying- 
Cards, vid4 p. 66 ; and for observationfl on their Etymology, p. 63. 


migraine, 28. 

pot, 28. 

Border, 27. 
tr»s, 102. 

briser, 276. fetamer, 28. 

conaeiD, 1 Ap. 63. ganache, 111. 

For Glossary of French technical terms relating to the Maua&ctnre of Playing- 
Curds, nd4 p. 69. 


Eemd, 363. 
malmen, 112. 

Quol, 276. 
Quitte, 206. 

Band, 281. 
Terachten, 102. 

For Lists of Celtic words, alphabetically arranged, vidt p. 267 igq. 




alvus, 383. 
uo, 386. 
•ri, 190. 

calculus, 392. 
wJigo, 394. 
mUm, 894, 

callum, 393. 
calx, 392. 
oardnus, S77. 

carSre, 377- 
car€re, 877. 
eartilago, 894. 



ennu, 308. 
ooUom, 894. 
eolo, 383. 
Qor, 306. 
eoriiim, 896. 
conn, 396. 
enuU, 896. 
erastam, 396. 
adter, 883. 
cnltaia, 383. 
coltiu, 383. 

gUiM, 392. 

if$tiSs, 393. 
ipi», 386. 
VvftC**. 889. 

YAi^w, 382. 
yK6fmt 382. 
7P<*f-. 380. 

mipaflot, 379. 
JtovM^f, 379. 

■rithmetio, 893. 

iMKtTe, 390. 

Mirn. 390. 
calculate, 893. 
Calculus, 393. 
ear (rock). 390. 
card (vool), 377. 
care, 382. 
curk, 382. 
Carrick (It.), 390. 
Carre, 382. 
eUmber, 388. 
clamp, 389. 
daip, 389. 
cUir, 388, 389. 
climb, 388. 
dnteh, 389. 
core, 396. 
com, 396. 
crab, 379. 
cog, 390. 
cramp, 389. 

eaOlon, 392. 
Mttteau, 883. 
erampona, 388. 

graben, 880. 
gtuftn, 889. 

gnnnm, 396. 
gorgea, 397. 

bjurpago, 389. 

incola, 383. 
UboT, 387. 
lacuna, 397. 
lacunar, 397. 
lacos, 397. 
lapia, 392. 
laquear, 397. 
ligo, 398. 

Kctpxopo*. 379. 
K4pat, 396. 
KXtfta^, 389. 
k6?Jm^, 391. 
K6kwos, 397. 
Kp<tTot, 396. 

Kaas, 392. 
AiUkoi, 397. 
\Ai, 394. 

cultiTate, 383. 
cutler, 883. 

ear (plough), 
earn, 387. 
eartb, 387. 
eograTe, 380. 

furrow, 383. 

giU, 397. 
glen, 897. 
grab, 389. 
grapple, 389. 
grasp, 389, 
grate, 878. 
grare, 380. 
grardt 392. 
gripe, 389. 
gripes, 389. 
gristle, 394. 
grit, 392. 
grope, 380. 
grub, 380. 
golf, 397. 

lima, 897. 
litera, 397. 

orbuB, 390. 
orca, 3R6. 
ordo, 386. 

porca, 38C. 

radiuA, 391. 
rado, 391. 
rapio, 389. 
reor, 393. 


Kt»os, 392. 
Aii^s, 394. 

Jfpvt, 386. 
ipiffam, 386. 
6p^afit, 390. 

fi^ot, 391. 
AW, 398. 
A^/ni, 396. 



£gratigner, 378. 

guUy, 397. 

bard, 396. 
beel, 394. 
hole, 383. 
hoik (So.), 883. 
boll (Sc), 388. 
boUow, 383. 
horn, 396. 
hulk. 383, 
hull, 383. 

kernel, 396. 

lagoon, 397. 
lake, 397. 
leak, 397. 
lov (adj.), 396. 

plough, 885. 

racke, 395. 

rake, 391. 
rasp, 391. 
reason, 393. 
recklesB, 393. 


griffe, 388. 
grimper, 388. 
gripper, 369. 

gratter, 378. 
grarer, 380. 

Erimpel, 877- I Loch, 397. 
kntnn, S77. | LUcka, 397. 

robur, 396. 
Tupes, 391. 

scabo, 379. 
scalpo, 381. 
•cando, 388. 
scarabaeoB, 379. 
Bcribo, 381. 
■crutor, 384. 
sculptor, 382. 

urbs, 391. 
urgeo, 386. 
raliia, 397. 

P4ryuiu, 396. 

o-KoXc^, 883. 
ffKcUxo, 381. 
miUo^, 881. 
ffiuLH^Mt, 379. 
ffTd\a{, 381. 

XctXit, 392. 
X«piffir»*, 878. 

reckon, 393. 
reeve (bird), 396. 
reft, 390. 
rob, 390. 
rock, 391. 
rod, 391. 
row (ieriea), 386. 
raff, 395. 

Bcar fcicatrice)377. 
scar (rock), 390. 
scarify, 379. 
•ewe, 377. 
scrabble, 878. 
Bcreg, 395. 
scrape, 377. 
scrat (8c.), 377. 
scratch, 377. 
scribe (initxnment) 

scrieve, 378. 
scruff, 395. 
scrutiny, 884. 

write, 381. 

laboom, 388. 
roche, 391. 

aeharren, 877. 
■ohimbra, 881. 


Page 7, line 27, " plor-baundo " /or " plor-»b-undo." 
„ 14, „ 26, ««-••/«»■"•«■" 
„ 16,,, 8,"ov«»fi»'">-"«M«»C«" 

„ 17, „ 11 from bottom, " dutf-« (for He-iB,)" far " *•**- (for di»-^)." 
„ 17, „ 10 from bottom, "doct-o'*>r "doc-to." 
„ 27, 28, '*p616rm" /or "pftlerin." 
„ 27, „ 25, " i^Terie " far " rfiyerie." 
„ 38, „ 17, "UT»">r"Un'ya." 
„ 74, „ 16, "De«">r"de8.*' 
„ 80, „ 6, " FurniTal " /«* "FomiTtlL" 
„ 86,,. 6,"6woiiarT-"far*'ipofiarT-." 
„ 04, lin« 13, iefart " of-ferian," "«/»" imitUd. 
„ 99, „ 8, "Terchieben"/tfr "venchieben. 
„ 242, „ l9,"a.iqm"far"tUine." 
,,266, „ 27, "pateniam"/iM'""Pttteniam." 
„ 284, „ 3, "I?arboDnenna"yor "Narboaensis." 
„ 367, "An OuUine of Old English Phonolojry" it inaccurately numbered 

xxi. The reader will be good enough to mark in an [*] after the 

nambering at the head of the article. 
„ 841, ,, 20, "ScaudinaTian"/9r " ScandinaTian." 
„ 888, „ 2L, *'Oemianscholar"/»'"Ofi'™AOKholar." 
„ 411, „ 26, " disyllabic "/<»■" t™yllabio-" 
„ 414, etc., 7, " pyrrhick " /«• " pyrrhich." 
„ 416, line 12,*'dllineter"/<»'"dimeter." 











EDWIN GUEST, ESQ., Master of Ouna College, OBmbridge. 

T. HEWITT KEY, ESQ., ;M.A., UniTerrity College, LondoB. 

onomART arsMMBBS or coukuil. 













FRED. J. FURNTVALL, ESQ^ 8, Old Square, Lincoln*! Inn, W.O. 

SLAT, 1869. 


Profe89or Immanuel Beekbr, Dmversity, Berlin. 

Editor of " AneedoCa Gr(rc&" etc. 
SigDOf Bernardino Biondelli, Milan. 

Author of " Saffffio sui Diaklti" etc. 
Montanua de Haan HETTBiiA, Leeuwardea^ Friealand. 

Editor of "Be Yrije Fries," etc. 
Profeeaor Cbrietian Lassbu. University, Bonn. 

Autlior of " Indisckc AltertAumskunde," etc, 
Professor Jobau N. Madvig. University, CopeohageD. 

Author of the " Laiinsk Sprofflierc/' etc. 



1847* Ernest Adams, Esq. Anson Road, Victoria Park, 

1853. Dr, Altbchttl. 9, Old Bond Street, W» 
1867. The Rev. J. C. Atkinson. Danhj, Yarm, Yorkshire. 
1864. Profeaaor Adfuecht. 12, Cumin Place, Orange, 


1863. The Rev. J, Baron. Upton Scudamore, Wilts. 

1866. John Bhames. Eaq. Bengal Civil Service (care of 

Messrs. Qrindlay and Co., Calcutta). 
1S09. George Bell, Esq. York Street, Covent Garden. 

1867. John Bellows, Esq. Gloucester. 

1856. J. P, BiDLAKE, Esq. 318. Esaei Road, Islington, N. 

1843. TheRev.CanonBLAKESLEV, B.D. The Vicarage, Ware. 

1863. H. J. Born, Esq. York Street, Covent Garden. 

1864. J. W. Bradley, Esq. Grammar School, Hicbmond, 


1863, n, Bradbhaw, Esq. King*B College, Cambridge. 

1864. Dr. Brette. Chriet^B Hospital, EC. 


1856. The Kev. J. W. BnoDaiBB. Rectory, Wootton Rivers. 

1865. W. Bruob, Eaq. 

1868. S. Noble Brucb, Esq. 43, Kensington Gardens' 

Square. W, 
1854. Edward Bulleb, Esq. DiUtorn Hall, Cheadle, Staf- 


1S42. Bir Stafford Carev. Condie HouBe, Guernsey. 
1861. Balph Caru, Esq. Hedgeley, near Alnwick. 

1863. Captain W. M. Carr. Sladraa Army. 

1842. The Rev. W. CAHTBa. Eton College, Eton. 
1851. W, H. Casb, Esq. School, Eampstead, N.W. 
1860. Prof. Cabbac Univei^ity College, Gowqt St., W.C. 

1851. Campbell Clares, Eaq. British Museam, W.C. 
1858. The Rev. H. J. Clarke. 

1858. The Rev. S, CtAKKB. Bredwardine, Herel'ordabire, 
1860. Albert Coun, Esq. 13, Bedford Street, Covenl 

Garden, W,C. 
1844. Sir Edward Colbbrookb, Bart., M.P. 37, South 

Street, Park Lane, W. 
1867, Miaa Louisa B. Coubthnay. 21, Sloane Street, S.W. 
1867. B. B. CoWELL. Eeq., Professor of Sanskrit, Cambridge. 
1858. The Rev, F. Crawford. Cook's Town, Co. Tyrone, 

1858. The Rev. Albert Ckeak. 118, Lansdowne Place, 


1860. The Rev. Charles Crowdbn. Merchant Taylora' 

School, E.G. 

1861. The Rev. W. B. Cuhningeam. Preaton Pans. 

1864. Bhan Daji, Esq. Bombay (care of Heasrs. Triibner 

and Co.). 

1864. W.S. DALOLEisir.Esq. Dreghom College, Edinbai^h 

1865. R. D. Darbibhirk, Esq. 26, George Street^ Man- 


1861. Charles DAUBENY.Eaq. TheBrow, Combe Down, Bath. 

1852. The Rev. John Davies. Walsoken Rectory, near 

185S* The Rev. Benj. Davies. Regent's Park College, N.W, 

1843. Sir John F. Davis, Bart. Atheneeum Club; and 

HoUywood, Henbury, Bristol. 

1862. •&. T. Davy, Esq. 18, Suaeex Square, W. 

1867. Benj. Dawson, Esq. 36, Ilunter Street, Brunsiviek 
Square. W.C. 

1844. F. H. Dickinson, Esq. 119, St. George's Square. S. 

1S67. TheReT. W, DofieoN. Lflnsdowiie Lodge, Cheltenham. 
1849. "W. F. DoNKJN, Eaq, Umveraity CoUege, Oslbrd. 
1860. •The Rev. A. J. D'OitsET. 13, Princea Square, Een- 
eington Gardens, W. 

1863. E. DowDBN, Esq. Trinity College, Dublin. 

1867. Kev. Edwin DysoN. Christ's Church, Ashton-under- 

1854. *E. B.E.\BTwic]t,Eeq.,M.P, 38, Thurloe Squftre, S.W. 
1866. Ales. J. Elws, Esq. 25, Argyll Road, Kensington, W. 

1864. Alfred Elweb, Esq. 2, Ea&t India Avenue, Lcaden- 

hall Street. 

1865. *Tali'onrd Ei-t, Esq. Univeraity Colle^, London. 
1864. Eieter and Devon Institntion. Eieter. 

1842. The Rer. W. Farher. 8, Victoria Road, Finchley 

New Road. 
184S. Danby P. Fry, Esq. Poor Law Office. Whitehall, S.W. 
1847* *F. J. FuRNivALL, Esq. 3, Old Bquare, Lincoln's 

Iim, W.C. 

1859. William Gee, Jan., Esq. Boaion, Lincolnshire. 

1861. The Rev. G. C. Gelbaut. 34, EUdrop Road, Tuf- 

nell Park, N. 
1865. •Captain Gibbb. 2nd Queen's Royalfi, Chatham. 

1859. •n. Uucka Gihb3, Eeq. St. DuuBtan's, Regent's Park. 

1860. *Wimam Giurts. Ekj. 16, Hyde Park Gardens. W. 
184a. The Right Rev. Turner Gilbeut, D.D., Lord Biflhop 

of Chicheater, Chicheeter. 
1859. Webster Glynes, Eeq. 8, Crescent, America Square, 
Sir Francis GoLDSMtD, Bart. St. John's Lodge, 
Regent's Park. 

1864. ProtHsor Goldbtijcker. 14, St. George'a Square, 

Primroae Hill, N.W. 
1842. John T. Graves. Ebq. Poor Law Offifie, Whitehall, 

1862. C. J. Gkbecb, Esq. Red Hill. Surrey. 

1842. J. G. Greenwood. Esq. Owens College, Manchester. 
1859. 8. Gripfith, Esq. Redland, near Bristol. 

1865. Ralph T. H. Grippith, Esq. Government College, 


1842. George Gbote, Esq., 12. Savile Row, W. 

1843. *Edwin Gdjist, Esq., LL.D., Master of Caiua aad 

Gonville College, Cambridge. 

1868. John W. IIalbs, Esq. Turret Lodge, Park Vill&ge 

East, N.W. 
il80O. Fitz- Edward Hall, Eaq. 18, ProvoBt Koad, Haver- 

Btock Hill, N.W. 
1865. J. E. Hallktt, Esq. Bengal Civil Service, 
186S. *R. Hanbon, Eeq. 37, Boundary Hoad, N.W. 

1865. W. A. IlAri'KLL, Eaq. Madras Civil Civil Service. 
1864, H, IIasttngs, Esq. Birdburst. South Croydon. 
1849. The Rev. Lord A. Ehrtey. Icltworth, Suffolk. 

il863. J. N. HEtfiBKiNGTON, Esq. Clifton Parsonage, 

1854. *John Power Hicks, Esq. 79, Kensington Gardena 

Square, W. 

1864. *Shadwortli H. Hodgson, Esq. 45, Conduit Street 

Regent Street, W. 
1849, The Rev. H. A. Holder, Head Maat-et Queen EJiza- 
beth'B School. Ipswich. 

1866. The Rev. CUriatophcr Holhb, Greywell, Winchfield. 

1860. E. R. Houton, Esq. 7, Gordon Streat, Gordon 
Square, W,C. 

185-. Martin H. Ihvino, Esq. Australia. (Books to 8. 
R. Gardiner, Esq., 22^ Gordon Street, Gordon B<|.) 

1856. E. 3. Jackson, Esq. Tettenhall Wood, Compton, 

1842. The Rev. Henry Jeneynb. Univerail^, Durham. 
186-. J. Pryce Joses, Esq. Grove School, Wreiham. 

1842. The Rev. Dr. Ksbnbdt. 8, Scroop Terrace, Cam- 


1865. The Rev. C. W. Rett. 16, Gloucester Road. Reeent^s 

Park, N.W. 
184S. Profesaor Kby. University College, London. 21, 
Westboume Square, W. 

1843. The Rev. Dr. E.ynaston. St. Paul's School, E.O. 
,1866* Dr. G. KtNEEL. University, Zurich. 

L8d6. Dr. Gotthold Rbbybnbebg. Daut^ic. 

1869- The Rev. Hbhiiy Latham. Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 

1869. The Hon. and Rev. Stbphen Lawley. Trevayler, 

V. 8. Lban, Eaq. Windham Club, St, James Square 
H. C, Lktani>er, Esq, UniverBity College School, 

Gower Street, W.C. 

1848. The Eev. W. Linwood. Biichfield, BinningliAin. 
1862. *D. Logan, Eaq. Penang. (Booka to Bicliardsaii 

and Co., 23, Gornhill.) 
1856, The Rev, A, Lowy. Chichester House, Upper Weat- 

bourne Terrace, W. 

1842. •Prof. LusHiNGTON. The College, Glasgow. 

1843. *The Right Hon. Lord Ltttblton. Hagley Park, 


1865. The Rev. A. Maclkvnan. 29, SimpBon Street, Loraine 

Place, H"ewcastle-on-Tyne. 
1842, ProfesBor Maldbn, University College, London. 

1867. Russell Mahtiseau, Esq., 37, llegenfa Park Road, 

1842. C. P. Mabon, Esq. Denmark Hill Grammar School. 

1855. Cotton Matees, Esq. 32, High St., Kensington, W. 
1842. The Rev. F. D. Ma^rtcb, Professor of Casuifitry. 

Cambridge. (Books to MacmiUtui's.) 

1856. G. W. Mhtivier, Esq, Guernsey. 

1854. *Lord Robert Montagu. 73, Invernesa Terrace, Bays- 

1862. R. MoRRiB, Esq, King's College School, Strand, 

1860. John Mtiib, Esn. 16, Regent's Terrace, Edinburgh. 

1868. Jame^ A. H. Mdrray, E^q. 6, Beaufort Terrace, 

Peckham Rye. 

1858. J. M. Normah, Eaq. Bencorabe, Crawley, Susaex* 

1842. The Eight R^v. Alfred Oupbant, D.D., Lord Bishop 

of Llandaff. Uandaf Court. 
1864. R.D.D.09B0HN,E3q. 38, Ordnance Road, St. John's 

Wood, N.W. 
1860. E. Oswald, Esq, 39. Gloucester Crescent, N.W, 
1856. John Oxskfobi), Ea<i. 16, John Street, Bedford Row. 

1858. Cornelius Paine, Esq. Oak Hill, Surhiton, 

1864. Rev. G. A. Panton. 2, Crown Circna, DowanhSB, 

1862. H. T. Parker, Esq. 2, Ladbroke Gardens, Ken* 

sington Park, W. 
1862. TheEev.G. E-Pattendkn. Grammar School, Boston. 

1866. Joseph Paymb, Eaq. 4, Kildare Gardens, Bays- 

water, W. 

1860. J. Peilb, Esq. Chiiflt'B College, Cambridge. 
1865. J. A. PicroN, Esq. Sandy Knowe, LiverpooL 
1869, Newton Vmcs, Esq. Grammar Scliool, Dundalk. 

1855. H. Raikkb, Esq. CbeaEer. 

1842. 'W. Ramsay, Esq. The College, Glasgow. 

1S60. William H. Rbecb, Esq. Oak Mount, Edgbaston. 

1859. •?. Reilly, Esq. 9, Stone Building9> Lincoln's Itm, 


1869. Prof, CflARLES RiBU. Britiali MuBeum. 

1862. *D, Roes, Esq, 14, Parkside Street, Edinburgh. 
1865. •J. D. RuBBJiLL, Esq. Biggin Hall, Oundle. 

1867. J. ScHoNBMANN, Esq, 11, Fountain Street, Bradford. 

1842. "The Rev. Robert Scorr, D.D., M&ster of Balliol Col- 

lege, Oxford. 

1863. Professor Seelby. University College, London. 
1863. S. SflAHPB, Eaq. PriDcipaJ of the College, Huddera- 

1863, Rev. W. W. Skeat, 1, Cintra Terrace, Cambridge. 

1868. Alfred Smith, Esq. Hyde Street, Winchester. 
1859. Bassett Smith, Esq. Temple, E.C. 

1843. The Very Rev. Arthur Penrhyn Stanlet, Dean of 

Westminatar. Deanery, Weatminster, S.W, 
1865. *Jiis. Stbwailt, Esq. Kemsiug, near Sevenoaks. 

1858. Whitley SroKES, Esq, Legjelative Council Build- 

inga, Calcutta. (Care of WlUiama and Norgate, 
Henrietta Street, W, C.) 

1869. J, W, aTBATTON, Esq. 3, Terrace, Kensington 

1869. Henrt Sweet, Esq. 140, Maida Vale, W. 

1857. The Right Rev. A. C. Tait, D.D., Lord Archbishop 

of Canterbury, Lambeth Palace^ 8.W. 
1843. H» Foi Taleot, Esq. Laycock Abbey, WUta. 

1859. The Rev. C. J. R TAriBB. Cemetery, Ilford, E 
1847. Tom Taylor, Esq. Board of IIealth,Whitehall, 8.W. 
1843. *Tbe Right Rey, Connop Teirlwall, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of St. David's, Abergwili Palace, Car- 

1842, 'The Rev. Professor W. H. Thqmpbon, D.D-, Master 
of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

184S. 'The Venerable Archdeacon Thohp. Klnnerton, 

1868. Samuel Tim mi.N's, Eaq. Elvetham Lodge, Birmingham. 


1857. The Very Rev. R. C. Trbncd, D.D., Archbishop o( 

Dublin. Palace, Dublin. 
1859. Nicholoa Tudbnku, Eaq. 50, Patenioefcer Row. E.C, 
1843. The Hon. E. Twibtleton, 3, Rutland Gate, S.W. 

1848. A. A. Vanstttaut, Esq, 5, Maid's Causeway, Cam- 

bridge. {Books to Trinity College Library.) 
1864. •£. Vii.BS, Esq. Moatbrook House, Codsall, Wolvet^ 

1866. Dr. Wagneh. 8, Chriatchurcb Boad, Hampstead. 

1856. The Rev- J. D* Watherbton. Grammar School, 

1861. The Rev. J. S. Watson. Remenham Lodge. St. 

MarUn'a Road, Stockwell. 
1847. Tbomaa Watts, Eaq. British Museum, W.C. 

1842, Eenekigh Wedowood, Esq. 1, Cumberhmd Place, 

1S65. W. P.Welsh, Esq. 3, Camden Place, Winckley 

Square, Preaton. ^j 

1851. 'Dr, R. F. WEYMOtTn. Portland Villaa, Plymouth, fl 
1863. H. B. WflEATLEY, Esq. 5d, Bornera Street. W. ^ 

1849. The Rev. R. Weiston, Gramiuar Sehool, Roeheeter* 
1859. Tha Rev. Profesaar Wuittaud. Cheltenliam College. 
1859. The Rev. T. C, WiLKS. Woking Parsonage, Woking; 

1856. J. W. WiLLOOCK, Eaq. 6, Stone Buildinm, Lincok*B 
Inn. W.C. 

1858. B. B, Woodward. Esq. Royal Mews, Pimlico ; an4; 

Library, Windeor Casde. 

1843. James Yates, Esq. Lauderdale House, Highgate. 

Coifeoior: Mr. Cornelius B. Buck, 23, Patemoeter Row, E.CJ 

Bofikera . Mesera. Ranbom, Bouvkbib A Co, 1, Pall M&ll 

Piil/lishcrs of Ihr Trmsariiom : Messrs. AsHER & Co., 
Bedford Street, Govent Garden, London ; and 
Unter den Linden, Berlin. 



Fiiox JistVASS IS, 1867, to DkcaiiBBic 20, 1867. 

Friday, Jan. 18, 1867. 

Thomas Watts, E&q,^ in the Cbait. 

The Paper read waa — 

Oa the Pronunciation of the English Loagimge during 
the Sixteenth Century, compared with the Pronun- 
ciatiOD prevalent in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth 
Centuries, and applied to elicit the Pronunciation 
of Chaucer in tho Fourteenth Century, with special 
reference to "WillLam Salesbury'a Welsh account of 
English Pronunciation in 1547. By Alexander J. 
Ellis, Egq. 

The reader was requested to continue his paper on a sub- 
sequent evening. 

Friday, Feb. 1, 1867. 
H. T. Parker, Esq., in tbe Chair. 

John W. Stratton, Esq., and Mr. John £«11owb were duly 
elected memberB of the Society. 
The Paper read were — 

L On a Chronological Miatoke in the Preface of Jf, 
Genin, the editor of FiUsgrave. By Danby P. 
Frv, EBq. 
2. On the Pronunciation of tho English Language daring 
the Sixteenth Century, compared with the Pronun- 
ciation prevalent in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth 
Centuriea, and applied to elicit the Pronunciation of 
Chaucer in the Fourteenth Century, with especial 
reference to William Salesbuiy^a account of English 
Pronunciation in 1547 (continued). By Alexander 
J. Ellis, Esq. 


Friday, Feb. 15, 1867, 


the Chair. 


Watts, Esq 
)11 Martine&u, Eikj.^ waa duly elected a member of the 

Tha Piipcr read v&a — 

" On tho I'rovincmliBniB of the North Kldiiig of Tork- 
■Uiro." By the llev- J. Q. Atkinfloa. 

Friday, March 1, 1867. 
Bir John F. Davis, Bart.i in the Chair. 

Tlio PfijHM'K rcmd wfiro — 

1. On IVmouns of the HoUonic. By the Rev. Oswald 

!^. IlriiiiitkA oil ri lately published Breton MyBtery. By 
Wliitluy Stokta, Esq. 

Friday, March 15, 1867. 

Thomas Wattb, Esq., in the Cbair, 
B. 0. I^vandor, Esq., was d\dj elected a member of tLe 

The Papeni read wore — 

I. Oa the Study of English at the TJnivemtiea. By 

th<t Uov. A. J. D'Or«ey, B.D. 
a, Oa tho Soiind of Imtial th in Enirliah. Br Daabv 

V. Fry, Ksq. d . , 

Fnd^, April 5, 1867. 

Th« R«T. Dr. B. Daviss, in Ihe Gkaik. 
Tbe H«T. J, 0. Atkinaoa tu duly elec««d % w»kr ofOB 

Th« P»p«r infeBOdeil br the ereung sot having urtT^d. a 
Aueuaautt Ott PhSolapcal sabfecta n kdd hj xh£ memhttcs 


t. rh# <.>nffUL oi* the LaCiii 

jmiAu and tfav sqlK 


2. Post and ajter^ the aame word. By Profesaor Ker. 

3. On Middle- Breton Verba. By Whitley Stokea, Eaq. 

/Vi^y, May 3, 1867, 

Thomas Wattb, Esq,, in the Chwr. 
The Papers read were — 

1. On the German Prefix ver. By Prof. T. Hewitt Key* 
2* On Bome Diminutival Formations in Ancient and 
Modem Greek. By Dr. Wilhelm Wagner. 
3. MiscDllanea Celtica. By the late Prof. Siegfried. Com- 
municatod by Whitley Stokes, Esq. 


Friday, May 17, 1667»— AnniverBary Meeting* 
Sir John F. Davib, Bart., in the Chair. 

The following- membere of the Society were elected 
Officers for the ensuing year ; — 

President : 
The Right Eev. the Lord Bishop of St. David's. 

Vicc-Prmdent9 : 
Hia Grace the Lord Archbishop of Dublin, 
The Right Rev. Lord Bishop of London. 
The Right Hon. Lord Lvttleton. 

E. Guest, Esq., LL.D., Maafcerof Caiua College, Cambridge, 
T. Hewitt Key, Eeq., M.A, University College, London. 

Orduiitry Memhen of Council : 

0. Gassal, Esq. 
P. J, Cbabot, Esq. 
The Rev. Dr. B. Davlea. 
Sir John F. Davis, liart. 
E. B. Eaetwick, Esq. 
Alexander J, Ellis, Esq. 
Danby P. Fry, Esq. 
Theodor Goldstiicker, Eaq. 
J. Power Hicks, Esq. 
E. R. Horton, Eaq. 
Henry Maiden, Eeq. 

Ruasell Martiaeau, Eaq. 

R. MorriB, Esq. 

Joseph Payne, Esq* 

J. R. Seeley, Esq. 

The Master of Trinity Col^ 

lege, Cambridge. 
William Wagner, Esq. 
Thomas Watts, Esq. 
H. B. Wheatley, Esq. 
H. Wedgwoodj Esq. 

Treaturer: Henry Hucks Gibbs, Esq. 
Honorary Secretary : Fredk. J. Fumivall, Esq. 


The thanks of the Meeting were Toted to nensleigh Wedg- 
irood, Esq., tde late Treasurer, for hia many years scrvioes to 
the Society. 

The thanks of the Meeting wero also Toted to the Royal 
Astronomical Society for the gratuitous nee of their rooms for 
tho Society^s meetings. 

The Ctish Account of the Treasurer 03 audited by Mr. 
Chabot and Mr. Fr)', the auditors, was ttad by Mr. Fry, and 
adopted by the Meeting, The thanks of the meeting were 
Toted to the Auditors for their services. 

The Honorary Secretary stated the causes which had de- 
layed the appearance of Part IT. of the Society's Transactiona 
for 1866, nnd also raid that Part I. of the Tranaactiona for 
1867 was aU in type. 

The Paper read was — 

" On Excrescent Consonanta." Part L By Prof. Key. 

fhday, Jmg 7, 1867. 
.Thomas Watts^ Eeq., in the Chair. 

The Itev. Edwin By^o. was duly elected a member of the 

The thanks of the Meeting were voted to Herr Elze for 
his treatifle on English Hexameters. 

The Papers road were — 

1. On Excrescent Consonanta, Part IT. By Prof. Key. 

2. On hmm Bisylkbic P^ecta^ with a ahort PeauH. 
By Profeasor Key. 

Frichi/, June Si, 1S67. 
Professor Maldbn, in the Chair. 

The Ei"ht ITon. Viscount Strangford was duly elected a 
member of the Society. 
The Paper read was — 

On Old English Homilies. By Bichard Morris, Esq. 

Pridaiy, Noo. 1, 1867.— (First resumed Meeting at the 
UniTersity College, London.)' 

Professor T. Hewitt Kht, V.-P., in the Chair. 
The Paper read was — 
An Anal^ of Early Roman History. Part L By 
Projeasor Seeley. 
1 1W Soeict; wu h^miai, ukI £fcl in«t, tt Um Oilhv«. 

J cr>^ 


IHday, Nm. 15, 1867. 
Professor Maldbn, in the Chair. 

The BeT. 'William Dobson, J. Sohdnemann, Eaq.i and 
Benjamin Dawson, Esq., were duly elected members of the 

An obitoaiT notice of the late Fro&ssor Franz Bopp, 
formerlj an Honorary Member of the Society, was read hj 
Bnseell Martiueau, Esq. On the proposal of Profeesor G-old- 
itncker, it was imanunoualy resolved — "That the Pre- 
adent and Honorary Secretary be requested to convey to 
Mrs. Bopp the feelings of profound regret with which the 
Philological Society has leanied the deaui of its late Honorary 
Member, Professor Bopp." 

The Paper read was — 

An Analysis of Early £oman Histozy. Part 11. By 
Professor Seeley. 

Friday, Dec, 6th, 1867. 
Professor Maldbn, in the Chair. 

Miss Louisa B. Courtenay, of 21, Sloane-street, S,W"*, was 
duly elected a member of the Society. 
The Papers read were — 

1. An Analysis of Early Koman History. Part IH. 

By Professor Seeley. 

2. Prevalent Errors in the Treatment of Latin Suffixes. 

Part I. By Professor Key. 

Friday, Dec. 20, 1867. 

Thomas Watts, Esq., in the Chair. 
Professor Cowell was duly elected a member of the Society, 
The Paper read was — 

On Hibbeck's TirgiL By Dr. Wagner. 









A WORD is not known till its sound is known. We are 
obliged in many cases to be content with some approxima- 
tive knowledge of the sound, but our knowledge of its re- 
lations with, the words supposed to have flowed from it, is 
the more incomplete, the less we know of the sounds really 
constituting the words under consideration. In the present 
state of philology, where words have to be compared in most 
varied systems of writing, Oriental and European, historical 
and arbitrary, it would apparently help the comparative 
study of languages, to have every word throughout a paper 
or treatise written according to some definite scheme which 
should really show the sound which it represents, or is sup- 
posed by the writer to represent, and to add the original 
orthography in an appendix. The phonetic spelling is 
essential for a comparison of the words, the historical spelling 
is essential for finding the account of the word in dictionaries 
and other treatises. Professor Moriz Rapp in his Verglei- 
chende Grammatik (Stuttgart, 1852) has carried out the first 
part of this programme. All the words that he cites are written 
according to his own phonetic alphabet, dead languages 
being represented according to his own conception of their 
pronunciation, and there can be no doubt of the convenience 



to the reader. But the second part of roy proposal is not 
carried out, — no hint us to the historical orthography of any 
word being given, — ^aud there can be as Utile doubt of the 
resulting inoonvenionee. It may oflan be necessary to cite 
a word, generally known in one form of spelling, in mnny 
distinct pronunciations, differing either chronologically or 
geographically. One apparent word thus becomea seveMil 
words to the philologist. It is, for instance, quite impossible 
to eee the connection between a nioderu English word, as 
annoi/, and a modern French word, as ertnui, imless wo have 
some means of indicating the pronunciation of thcao words 
in former times, and thus sliewing their ancient identity.' 

If philology studies especially the alterations of words as 
they have passed through the mouths of men in time and place, 
and endoavoiira to claaaifvj. and systematise these alterations 
by Bueb moans as Grinom's Law, or the comparisons in the 
works of Bopp, Diez, etc.. it certainly requires un instrument 
by which they can be espressed. If the comparisons are 
limited to the historical orthography of any period they are 
always incomplete, often misleading, and certainly afford no 
guide as to the real relationships. A study of Grimm'a 
remarks on the English vowel system in the 3rd edition of 
the first part of his grammar, will illustrate this position. 
But the comparison of the Anglo Saxon an, English one, and 
Scotch atie, is enough to shew the futility of institnting com- 
parisons by spelling only.' 

" In p*lftflffll>'pe the modi^fii worfo nre [unor, BMnyi], tliocooimionftouBd wbenw 
they flowed wiw probnWy [anui-J. 

* The Anglofiaxon (aan), hcuame (oon) Hjc counnon furm of the word in •^bkk- 
apero'c timo, and thcniw {'Km), preserved in [aliMn\ al^mv wnli], abme, oiemr, 
cHlff, and this degenet^t^, hy Hhartetiing Lbo voKel wben uaA<MiE-nled, into {ca], 
tmd [uu]. the proper modern rt^pToaetitatiTe of which u C!>n], ejo ohia heArd in 
famillu- ip^ttli, B.6 tiiih'uni [lifl enza]. The |>ruillKed [w] in [wanj, U a rery 
TDddem form, and leemB tn be a cro'Q between [oon] and fun]. Thus I have often 
beard penane wbo could not proaounce [wud] wood, wij [irad], ProL Halde>iiuii, 
^tiatylic OrtioffrapAyi, p. l-tO^ tintn, («:>n) oa the pronuitciucifin of Mr. CharlM 
Ktan, Hi the Princes(i'« TliL-iilro, ia 1839, und I hnve Jretjueutly beirnl thit TorietlM 
(wan, van). AiiotbeT drgcnerotion of ((wn) in the oppasite Towel diiectioa wia 
into (on] and thenc« (inn), the form of Qur iDdefi&it« article, which, in the 
rapidiij- of fipeech, becameB {'n) and (a), Again in ^-otluid it vould appear as 
if (.lan) bad piLiaed inw (iCBn) and tbence to (cen^ en), in which il«t« the 




Iropresaed witli these convictions, I haro for many yearB 
*nd:eavoui*ed to sacertain what were the eounda of humaa 
speech, and reduce them to a set of symbols- Tlie oollection 
of flounda whioh I find necessary to symbolize foi* an approxi- 
matively accurate repreaentation of dialectic and other forrofl 
is -very e:5t*n8ive> more so than any other published pho- 
netic alphabet with which I am acquainted, though it is far 
less complete than that contained in Mr. Melville Bell's 
VUibk Speech, whichj however, has not yet been made 
accessible in any form. But tLat alphabet, aa well as almost 
erery one which I have eoen, requires tictc typpH, which is 
always an iucDnvenienee, though I believe that an entirely 
new system^ of letters, svich aa those of Mr. Bell, is indis- 
pensable for a complete solution of tho problem. For philo- 
logicol purposes we can, however, be aatiefied for the present 
with something very far from a complete solution, partly 
because we have to deal with many languages of which the 
sounds are but imperfectly known, and partly because philo- 
logists are unfortunately in many cases but indifferently 
acquainted with relations of sound, and therefore ill-quali&ed, 
without epcciul training, to use a very refined instrument. 

It appeared to me deaimble to have an alphabet consisting 
entirely of those typea which we may expect to find in every 
printing office, and hence conBisting only of Roman and 
Itaiic letters, without any superadded accent marks what- 
eyer,^ and employing them in euch d way, that all the moat 

pdatll (/} was prellxedj precisely as the Inbinl (w) became prefixed in E&^laaii 
wben tbe vowel chau^^'a took va opposite diraotion. Hcnc^ the Bc«tcb fomu 
(ien, Jni, ii'u). (Jan) U tiaed in Ynrluhire. Thae ud the Engliili fomu [««, 
on, ait, wan, ^n, 'n) «■« th^rafore nil dcacendftlita of h siD|le iouud (dim). The 
mere onhmgrnphy an, tmt, am tesches nothing of thi». 

1 If accented letter? I otjwl stronjfly aa uiwuil*d for printerB, readers, writsre, 
and olphabctdTtiuis. Accemted lett^Tf arc not cut for bII fuunta of type, «nd am k 
B«]diMn eiul (or any oousonant ngiis or f<tr capitals, At pr&cti'Callj not tc ftiut. 
Wben cftBi, they are lupplitd in limited mirnlHrre, uad there aie no bciEQ» 
for them in the ordinary i!ompo»tar»' " cabm," to tbat Cbeii intfCMluction even for 
TDWela u pmctically oquiTakot to the employment of new typco. For accented 
eonianiL&te, Hnd for new diucrittcal aciccate. fresh lypea hsre tO' be cut. Acoenta, 
■gain, urc alwuyB UuWe to breakage, ^spetiially iti "kented" letteni. The 
rompuitor readily confuses tticm, wid hi* errors ara difHcidt to detect by tiia 
corrwtor of the prow. These objectioiu apply with le« force to the acwntai 


iiBual characters slioTild be Roman> while the IfaUcs she ,.^ 
be used for modifications of oceaBJonal occurrenee.' Such an 
alphabet would be in a certain senae a inrtkmhift, and hraice 
convenience, rather than any strictly consistent use of Roman 
letters according to any one European cuatora, has to be con- 
sulted. Nevertheless the old Latin jji-oiiunciation should 
give the tone to the whole scheme, which^ in contradis- 
tinction to the many neottjpw alphabets in exist-ence, I term 

The old Latin Alphabet was extremely deficient, consisting 
only of the letters a, », c, n. E, F, H, I, J., M, N, 0, P, R, s, t, 
V, X, to which in ancient times (?, k, q, were addedj, and, in 

iDtters which form part of the repo^ized arthography of \ iBngiingfl, ns in 
Franch, GerroaD, Swedish, DanjBJi, Hungnrian, ttDhomina, Polish, but even for 
tboe Isn^uegos \)ic"j apply to all Acc>euC«d letters not coQtuined in tlieir 
ilph&beits. Accent lUBrke ar« ftlwsii,'fi liablo to lilur and ^M up, iti wHiicli 
nue b i1 a A a arv diflicrulL tu dlBtinguiRh, tis a\ea S from u" (with t)i4? flfc>enl 
flUp^Tposed). To the reudt:r, a muLtipliicity uf Email accpat nia.rli( (and tjjK- 
EbuoderB B^em la take pride \t\ making th^tn As incoDfi^t'CDDUBi b^ po§eible} ia ve'rv 
(imLreaaing. When tb*y form pntt of his own language he does not feel the effect 
HO much, beoauftp he does not require to ohservQ them with BttenlioD^ Kot when 
th^y ore numerous, new, and important to distin^ish, the ghh is a]ti>red. J 
fouiid close atteotion and freqaemt u&e cf d lem necesBBryv in my late *tud]^ tit 
LepfliUA'fl Standard Alphabet, The writer who Anda ovea dotting i'^ and cmHlO^ 
t*B B great inconvenieDce, frequcatly oraita D(.-ceiita (see any Frenchmiii'a monu- 
icriptfl), Riis-vriteB them, or writ«a them en roughly &ad hastily that they arc 
extremely difficidt to diBtinguish by any other rciiiler, t,^. the printer, ud1«& 
b€ k&owB beforehnnd what thfy ouglit to be. I know also from uperierce that 
when an alpbube<tariiui allowa hiToaelf to luo diaeritical accents^ he multipliefl 
Ibcm eicess^iTciy, and inevitably asc-s them un^ystemntiunUy, Lcpsiiu's Khcme 
exhibitc both reBalts. There are Cechnical ot>jectioD», aUo, to the uac of Greek 
letters amoc^ Eoman, or Itnlie funna, if they Eire not Epecially out for tht 
purpDM. They oie alwoys >ca4l oa a dLfleraDt *' body," and ther«fbie do oo^t 
*" werk" tnilj' with the othcra, and buiug ooutaiaed iti dlfferuTit chMs ue incon- 
venient for the compositor to reach- Greek types work best with Italioi, when 
out to match th&m, aa in LepEiiia's Alphaltet, but the eyea of Europe lou^ ag« 
dtcided that Boman type* were fiu- plei^aBtcr to read, Qotwithitandini; the beau- 
tifitl ipedmcDi of Italian Italic printing wiiich were tsraed. A&d the printor is 
weli awaroof the greater couvenience of Roman letters. For Ibew reatoaa 1 
have made it my principal aim in pulacolype, to confine myself entirely to tbe 
types Contained in th*.' Roman anil Italic cases usUalLy placed before tlie eam- 
po!>itOT, using' the tatter Hparingly, and avoidiin^ all diaoritLcal BOOantSi, ID pldM 
of which 1 have introduced diacritical If^tten u h. j, mi. 

' In thia respect it renemble^ Pmf. Max MuUd's Minionmy AfpkiihH. frooi 
which it olherwi« diffor-. mfll>'riRll!v, 



order to express Greek sounds, the Greek letters y, z, and 
the digraphs ctJ, rh, th, th, the fruitfuJ source of tiuineroLis 
similar contrivances. The letters j, u. w, m, (Ej are post- 
claAstcal. Thtt An^lo-SaxnnB, in ndopting Roman letters, 
retained ]> ^ jp 5 for {th, dh, bh, gh), and used M for (^b, 
ffi). The various modern languages of Europe, as the B. 
Bohemian, Da. Damsh, Du. Dutch, E. English, F. French, 
G. German, H. Hungarian^ I» Italian, Pr. Portuguese, PI. 
Polishj, Sp, Spanish, Sw. Swedish, W. Welsh in adopting the 
same alphabet did not scruple to use at least 17 letters in 
new senses, to introduce at least 44 new digraphs, and at 
least 42 new letters formed by adding diacritical marks to 
the old forma. As these have not been hitherto collected, I 
annex them with the meanings in palaeotype as hereafter 
explained, indicating the languages as above, and using L. 
for Latin. 

Ni-tc uses of old lefii^-n. — A I>- a&, n ; E. fs, le; — C L. k ; E. 
F. 6; I. teh; G. ts; Sp. c ; PL ts; — ^E L. ee, e ; E. ii, e; I.ep, <?, 
ke,e;F. 3i— P L.f; "W.t;— GL. g; E. I. dzh; F. zh; 8p. 
x; G. Du. gh; B. j ; — J L. j; E. dzh; F. zh; Sp, i; I. ii; — 
L L. 1 ; B. '1 ; — L. 00, o. ; I. un, u ;— ft L- k ; European k \ 
— H L. r; B. 'r;— S L. a; E. F. G. I. z ; H. sh ;— L. 
uu, u; F. j-y, y ; Du. yy, ce; E. iu, a; Sw. u; W. y;— V L. w, 
hh(P); R F. I, T ; G. f ;^W (no true Latin sound) ; G. bh; 

E. w ;— X L. ks ; Sp. x, Pr. ah ;~Y L. yy, y ; F. E. Sp. 
ii, i ; PI. B. t;— Z L. zd P E. F. H. z ; L ts, dz; G. ta; 
Sp. c, PL zhj in jx = (rzh). 

DiffrapAa to expreM new /fOtiin^M. — ^AA Da, 00, o ; — AE G, 
e«, e ;— AI E. ce ; F. ee;— CH B. Du. H. W. kh ; G. kh, 
*h ; E. Sp. tsh ; E. F. sh ; I. k.— CI E. eh ; L tab ;— CS 
H. tsh :— CZ PI. teh ; H. ts ;— DD W, dh ;— EI G. ai ;— 
BUG. flv, oij F. CB, &;— ETT* F. (ke;— FEW. f;— GH 
old Du. gh, L g ;^G1 L dzh ;^GL L Ij. ;— GN F. I, nj ; 
— GT IT. dj ;-GTX F. ej, E. Sp. g ;— LH Pr. Ij ;— IX Sp. 

F. Ij; W. Ih;— LY II. Ij ;— NG E. G. q;— NH Pr. nj ; 
NY H. nj ;— OE G. recB, m ; Du uu, u ;— OEU F. cece— 
OUF.u;— OU* F. uu;— PH European fi—ftUF.*; Sp. E. 
k^RH W. rh;^SC I. shi^SCH Q. sh;-SCI Lah^— 


SH E. eh;— SJ Bii. ah;— SK Sw. sh ;— SKJ Sw. sK; 
SZ PL sh; H. s ;— TH K. th, dh;— TT H. tj ;— UE G. 

yy, y;— WH e. wh;^zs H, zh. 

Netr letters inhoduced into (fw Roman Alphabet. — The dia- 
ontical m&j>ke writtjen ff/ytv and above or below ore m prac- 
tice printed above or below the lett<>r. The acute accent 
written before a letter indicates a atroke in the same direction 
through the middle of the letter. A' B. oa- H. aa^-A.'' F. 
aa — A" Q. Sw. ee, e — A'' Pr. am — A, PL am — A** Sw. oo, 
o^iE Do. ee, e ; Ajiglo-Saion kJj — ^' Anglo-Saxon ese— 
C PI taj— C B. teh— D' B. rlj— E' B. H. ee ; PI. F. e— 
IP F. e— E* F. ec— E' B. je— E, PL e«.— G* B. g—V B. 
H. ii— I* F, ii— X PL /— N^ PL nj— N' B. nj— N" Sp. nj 
—0' B. H. oo; PL u— 0* F. 00— 0' G. Sw. era. «, H. cp 
—0'' H, OKE— 0" Pr. om—'O Da. ?,^ ?— R* B. rzh— S' PL 
Bj—gv B Bh— T' B. tj— U' B. H. Tiu- U* F. jj—V" G- 
)T. y; H. y— "D" H. yy— U** B. uu—l' B. yv— 2' PL sg— 
Z' PL zh— Z'^ B. zh. 

It IB needlesa to indicate the variety of new letters used 
and proposed by modem Alphabetari&ns, but the difficulties 
reffolting from detenniniug to use no digraph and no Latin 
letter in a new senile may be seen by a reference to Prof. S. 
8. Halderoan's admirablo Trevelyan prize essay on AtmJytie 
Orthogfap/fff (Triibner, 18G0,) and the extent to which the 
system of diacritic pointe and accents can be carried, may be 
inferred from Lepsiua'^a Siandard A/pfiaitet in which aeven- 
teen diacritical marks aro ueed above, and fourteen below„ 
Roman and Greek letterst besides the mark of streas, and aa 
many as two or three diacritics are applied to a single body, 
so as to form an alphabet of at least 286 characters, of which, 
at Icsast 200 would have to be cut for every fount used.^ 

The peculiarities of paliEotype are aa follows : A, b» d, e^ 
f, gj It, i, J, k, 1, III, n, o, p, r, a» t, u, y, have their old Latin. 

^ LcpBiiu has nowhere given a complete list of his chBinCtcni, tto list on 
p, 18, and edition, only contsdns ISfi, And that on p. 76 only "8. The nlnv* 
number resulted from a cdrefu) eiBTDinntioA or his whole Vfork mnde t'> furnish 
a palaeotrpiic cfjuiTalent fat svery one o( hia bigne whici:! expresses a lUetinet 
phoqetiu raJae. Hu ha* often tsreral iignt) for the «»n)e sound, for the purpo««M 
of »-uLcd etymologic And hititoricftl tnuuliterHtJon wliieh whb with hm m 
primvf object, but » not compatible with ttrictly phonel^t stmbolisation. 



usG as nearly as may be, and v, w, z, their consecrated 
English use. The omitted letters c, q, x,' h, j, have a peculiar 
employment. TKe Toweb a, e, i, o, u, are quite injau£.cieut» 
and hence I employ aa vowel signs, not only ie, 03, but also the 
turned letters 3, a, of which the first, 0, is & convenient variety 
of o, used by other writers, and the second e, haa already been 
employed in the sense here assigned by Schraeller and Rapp. 
In sound and shape it is related to a, corapare a o a. 

The letters, h, j, have, in paUeotype, no value of their own, 
but merely aerve to modify the moaning of the preceding 
letter, or group of letters, as in bh, dh ; Ij, uj, etc., and are never 
printed as capitals. The aspirate is expressed by H, H, the 
latter being generally written aa h, witii the stem crossed 
like a t. The German J is expressed bv J, J, the latter 
being written as J with a stroke over it instead of a dot, 
&6 i for /. The italic letter m, is also merely a diacritic 

' BtupIif, in ha Orutideuffn dtr Phytioloyit vnd SyiitMnaltk dtr Spraehlatt/f, 
Vienna, 1856,, ast« Greek signa ia an cntirulj- Hrbitrarr manner, for which 
th&re iWaa hn prroeilE-nt, bo that (in pnlnoot^ljc) his f U i, it brb^ X' /h, A' Lh, 
A' lh, X* ih, £ rh, u' y, t' q, t* a, p r, f prb, 1^ rh. But we we far from 
being without pr«fiedeitt for lunn^ c, q, x, in seaaee dilf«reiit from the LaCiit. 
For C wu (s) iu uucial GT{>ek, ttsd 9» still so in Ru^ian, U va& (V, g) in uiu-ia] 
Latin; it is {"k, tsh) in Italian, (k, c] in ^SpauLsb, (k, d) in Fortugueso 
■Jid FrttiL-ti, (k, &, t, sh.) in English, as itl Mn, trii, toivijleinff, tptcidl, (k, ts) io 
Qerman, ((«) always in Pyliah ; and it has been uaed for (tahj, by Sir T. SHiith, 
li968. for [§) in Applejurd'» KaAr, for {k) in Frofeuor Newman's Mtidtm Arabie, 
1866, and for f). *^^ "dumb towuI," \a Vt^ti-mtt T. Clarke's Vocai EngiUh^ 
1B44. Varied by aocenta, C i* (Uj) in Puliah, C is (lah) in Ikibqmian, end 
Lepniia'i ^tmitdani Atphabttt:, \.&G&. Varied by the addition of other iettcra Oh 
ii (kh, ku} In old Ijicin, (kh, ith) in GennML and GohDuiiin, (kh) in futch, i^h) 
In 8wiafl, (k) in Ita.liaa, (tehj in Spaniiili, (k, sh) in French, (k, ah, tih) in 
EngUfth i Ci is (uh) in nungarian, and Cx ia {W) in Hun^rtun, and (tati) in 
Folish. Again Q wtiit [>robahly (a, k) in tdd Lntin, and i« (k) with Lepaiua, 
Newman, and moat tianscribcm of Semitic lAngiiOigeA, it \s (k) when final 
in French, us coq, Vidofg ; it is luud for (kw) or [ku: )) by Gabckalz nad Looh^ 
in their WlpMUt, for [q) by Profeawr T. Clatkc, for {qg-J in Hazelwood'a Fiji, 
and for (9) in Appleyard'a Eotir. Varied by the addition of U, Qu b (li], 
in French, Qt, ku) in Spauish, (k, kw) in Eug^li^ii, C^^^l^i ^) ■" Ovrmui. 
Finally, X waa [kh, Ah) in uncLal Greek, perhaps (kb, k, ks) in uncial Latin, and 
it (k«, ») in Spanish, (sh) in I'ortugqesei aud in Profiawi' T. CUrk