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OF THE 



IB IE L ZET .A. S T 



NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



FOR THE 

JUL 41955 




BELFAST: 

printed by alexr. mayne & boyd, 2 corporation 3tree1 

(printers to the queen's college.) 








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Report and jjrorcrdingjj 



OF THE 



IB IE L F .A. S T 



NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 



FOR Till- 



SESSION 1884-8* 



BELFAST: 

PRINTED BY ALEXR. MAYXK & BOYD, 2 CORPORATION STREET 

(printers to the queen's college.) 



CONTENTS. 



Annual Report 

Balance Sheet 

Donations to Museum ... 

Books Received 

The Construction and Use of Induction Coils, by John Brown, Esq 

Old Japanese Art, by Robert M. Young, Esq. 

A Recent Visit to America, by James Musgrave, Esq. 

Eastern Reminiscences, with Lantern and Photographic Illustrations, by 

Thomas Workman, Esq. (Title only) 
Electric Light, and Transmission of Power by Electricity, by J. A 

Greenhill, Esq. ... 
Formation of a Stalactite by Vapour, by J. Brown, Esq. 
Wutilation and Heating of Churches and Drying Rooms, by William 

Workman, Esq. ... 
Land Tenure and Culture in Ancient Ireland, by the Rev. Robert 

Workman, B.D. 
List of Office-Bearers 
List of Shareholders and Subscribers 



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Jtelfast Natural Ifistory and philosophical Society, 



EST ABLI8HED 18S1. 



SHAREHOLDERS. 

1 Share in the Society costs £7. 

2 Shares ,, ,, cost £14. 

3 Shares ,, ,, cost £21. 



The Proprietor of 1 Share pays 10s. per annum ; the proprietor of 2 Shares 
pays 5s. per annum ; the proprietor of three or more Shares stands exempt from 
further payment. 

Shareholders only are eligible for election on the Council of Management. 

MEMBERS. 

There are two classes, Ordinary Members, who are expected to read Papers, 
and Visiting Members, who, by joining under the latter title, are understood 
to intimate that they do not wish to read Papers. The Session for Lectures 
extends from November in one year till May in the succeeding one. Members. 
Ordinary or Visiting, pay £1 Is. per annum, due first November in each year. 

Each Shareholder and Member has the right of personal attendance at all 
meetings of the Society, and of admitting a friend thereto ; also of access to the 
Museum for himself and family, with the privilege of granting admission orders 
for inspecting the collections to any friend not residing in Belfast. 

Any further information can be obtained by application to the Secretary. 
It is requested that all accounts due by the Society be sent to the Treasurer. 



The Museum, College Square North, is open daily from 12 till 4 o'clock. 
Admission for Strangers, 6d each. The Curator is in constant attendance, and 
will take charge of any Donation kindly left for the Museum or Library. 



BELFAST 

IRatural Ibtston? ant) philosophical Society 



ANNUAL REPORT, i885. 



The Annual Meeting of the Shareholders of the Society was held 
on the 14th May, 1885, at three o'clock, in the Boardroom of the 
Museum, College Square North. The following were present: — 
Professor Cunningham, M.D. ; Messrs. R. L. Patterson, J. P. ; 
F. D. Ward, J.P. ; James Henderson, W. H. Patterson, Hon. 
Secretary ; John Brown, Hon. Treasurer ; Robert Steen, Ph.D. ; 
William Swanston, John Hind, Jun. ; and Joseph Wright. 

On the motion of Mr. Wright, seconded by Mr. Henderson, 
the chair was taken by Mr. R. L. Patterson. 

The Hon. Secretary (Mr. W. H. Patterson) having read the 
advertisement calling the Meeting, submitted the Annual 
Report, which was as follows : — 

The Council of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical 
Society have now to present to the Members their Report of 
the working of the Society during the year now ended. 

The Winter Session was opened on November 4th, 18,84, 
with a paper on "The Construction and Use of Induction 
Coils," by Mr. John Brown. The second paper was read on 
the evening of December 2nd, by Mr. Robert Young, on " Old 
Japanese Art," and was illustrated by a series of very fine 
bronzes and other specimens, lent for the occasion by Mr. 
Henry Matier, and other gentlemen. The next paper was read 
on January 6th, 1885, by Mr. James Musgrave, on <l A recent 
visit to America, including the Yellowstone Park and Colorado." 
The next paper was read on February 3rd, by Mr. Thomas 
Workman, the title was " Eastern Reminiscences." The paper 



2 Annual Report. 

for the next evening was read by Mr. John H. Greenhill, on 
the 3rd March, the subject was "Electric Lighting and Trans- 
mission of Power by Electricity." The attendance on this 
occasion was so large that many persons were unable to gain 
admittance to the lecture-room ; Mr. Greenhill, therefore, kindly 
consented to repeat the lecture. This was done on Thursday, 
the 5th of March, before a very numerous audience. The next 
evening of meeting was March- 24th. This was extra to the 
programme arranged at the commencement of the Session. The 
readers were Mr. John Brown, who made a communication on 
" A Stalactite formed by a Vapour ;" and Mr. Wm. Workman, 
who read a paper on " The Ventilation and Heating of Churches 
and Drying-rooms." The last paper of the session was read 
by the Rev. Robert Workman, on " Land Tenure and Culture 
in Ancient Ireland," on April 14th. 

The work of re-arranging the Museum collections has, during 
the past year, been confined to the extensive series of mineral 
specimens. This valuable collection has been classified accord- 
ing to the system adopted in " Dana's Manual of Mineralogy," 
and, with a few exceptions, each specimen has been furnished 
with a label stating name and locality. Some of the minerals 
recently received from the British Museum have been inserted 
into their proper places, and it is intended that the remainder 
shall in like manner be incorporated with the general collection. 
This will have the undesirable effect of still further increasing 
the present overcrowding ; but in the absence of additional 
cases there is no more satisfactory method of displaying these 
specimens, which include several noteworthy additions to the 
existing stock. 

A list of donations to the Museum, and of reports and other 
publications for the Society's library, is to be printed with the 
present Report. The Council would thank the various donors 
for their valuable gifts, and would call particular notice to the 
series of Eastern weapons and works of ornament, presented by 
Captain Robert Campbell, of the " Slieve Donard." The mem- 
bers will recollect that in the previous years Captain Campbell 
was also a donor of a number of interesting objects, collected by 



Annual Report. 3 

him while on his voyages at foreign ports. It is by taking an 
interest in this way of a practical nature in the Museum of the 
town with which they are connected by birth or residence, that 
persons can cause local collections to be substantially benefited. 
The Council would be gratified if other persons who have 
opportunities would follow Captain Campbell's example. 

On Easter Monday the Museum was opened to the public at 
at charge of twopence for adults and one penny for children, and 
the attendance was, as usual, very large. 

Your Council now retire from office, and this Meeting will be 
asked to select fifteen Members to form a new Council. 



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DONATIONS TO THE MUSEUM, 1884-5. 



From The Natural History Museum, South Kensington. 
380 specimens of minerals. 

From Mr. George Donaldson, Belfast. 
Portion of a plank taken out of the barque Rose on her return 
from the West Indies, and found to be completely perfor- 
ated by the teredo. 
From Charles Murphy, Esq., Rathfriland. 
Four ancient querns formed of granite. 
From John Moore, Esq., Moore Fort, Ballymoney, and 

Hawks Bay, New Zealand. 
Two skins of Huias (wingless birds) ; one specimen of Jade. 

From Joseph Wright, Esq., F.G.S. 
A set of fossil sponge spicules from Ben Bulben. 

From W. H. Patterson, Esq., M.R.I.A. 
Portions of an ancient urn found at Dundrod, County Antrim. 
From Captain Robert Campbell, Master of the Ship 

''Slieve Donard." 
Two Malay shields, three Malay spears, one Malay walking-stick, 
one Japanese walking-stick, one Chinese walking-stick, 
two Japanese bronze candlesticks, one Chinese opium 
pipe, one Chinese tobacco pipe, one Chinese fancy dress 
sword made of cash, one Japanese fancy bowl with lid, 
three foreign bird skins, one Malay hat as used in the 
field. 

From Rev. W. H. Lett, M.A., T.C.D. 
Portions of antlers of deer, found in gravel at Maralin. 

From Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. 
Ancient boat with square stem and stern, formed out of an oak 
tree ; found at Lough Mourne, County Antrim, when 
the lake was drained in 1883. 



LIST OF BOOKS RECEIVED, 1884-85. 



Bath. — Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 3, part 9, January, 1884 > 

and Rules, January, 1884. The Editor. 

Belfast. — Guide to Belfast, &c, by Dr. Esler The Author. 

Naturalists' Field Club, Proceedings for 1879-80, 1881, 

1882. The Club. 

Jardine's Humming Birds T. J. Mulligan. 

Berlin. — Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde. Band 

11, nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1884 ; band 12, nos. 1, 

2, .3, 1885. The Society. 

Boston. — Science Observer. Vol. 4, 43, 44, nos. 7, 8, 1884 ; 

vol. 4, nos. 9, 10. 

Society of Natural History, Proceedings. Vol. 22, parts 

2 and 3, 1883-84 The Society. 

Bremen. — Abhandlungen vom naturwissenschaftlichen Verein. 

Band 8, 2nd heft, and band 9, 1st heft, 1884. 
Breslau. — Zeitschrift fur Entomologie ; Neue Folge Neuntes 

Heft, 1884. 
Brighton. — Brighton and Sussex Natural History Society, 
Annual Report, 1884. The Society. 

Brussels. — Societe Entomologique de Belgique. 

(Comptes Rendus). 1884. The Society. 

Comptes-Rendu des Seances. Series 3, nos. 44, 45, 46, 
1884. ?h e Society. 

Societe Royal de Botanique de Belgique. 
Bulletin, 1884. The Society. 

Buenos Ayres. — Accedemia Nacional de Ciencias en Cordoba 
(Republica Argentina). 
Tomo 6, entrega 2, 3, and 4, 1884. 
do. 7, do. 1, 2, and 3, 1884. 
do. 8, do. 1, 1885. 



part 4, fascicule 3. 


Brachiopoda. 


part 4, fasciculus 4. 


do. 


part 5, do. 4. 


The fossil 



Books Received. 7 

Buenos Ayres. — Boletin de la Accedemia Nacional de Ciencias 

en Cordoba (Republica Argentina). Torao 6, entrega 
i", 1S84. The Academy. 

Calcutta. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey. 

Palaeontologica Indica. Series x, vol. 3, parts 2, 3, and 

4, 1884. 
Records. Vol. 17, parts 2, 3, 1884. 
Geological Survey of India, Memoirs. Series 6, vol. 1, 
part 4. The Labyrinthodont, from the Bigoro Group. 
Series 10, vol. 3, part 5. Mastodon Teeth, from Perim 
Island. 
Series 13, vol. 1, 
Do. 13, vol. i. 
Do. 14, vol. 1, 

Echinioida. 
Do. vol. 21, parts 2 and 3. 
Report, vol. 17, parts 4 ; and vol. 18, part 1. The Sin 1 
Cambridge, U.S.A. — Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology. 
Vol. xi., no. 10, part 3. " Acalephs," 1884. 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. No. 2, 3 and 4, 5, 6, 
7, 8, and 11 of Geological Series, vol. 1, 1881 to 1884. 
Annual Report, 1883-84. Tlie Museum. 

Cardiff. — Report and Transactions Naturalists' Society. Vol. 
15,1883. 1884. The Society. 

Davenport, U.S.A. — Proceedings Davenport Academy of 
National Science. Vol. 3, part 3, 1879-81. 1883. 
Elephant Pipes in the Museum. 1885. The Academy. 
Danzig. — Schriften Naturforschenden Gesellschaft. 

Neue Folge Sechsten Bandes Erstes Heft. 1884. 

The Society 
Dublin. — Royal Dublin Society, Scientific Proceedings. 
Vol, 1, series 2, parts 20, 21, 23 and 24, and 2^. 
Vol. 3, series 2, parts 1, 2, and 3. 
Vol. 3, new series, parts 6 and 7. 
Vol. 4, do. parts 1, 2, 3, cmd 4. The Society. 



8 Books Received. 

Edinburgh. — Royal Physical Society, Proceedings 1858-59, 
1859-60, 1860-61, 1861-62, 1874-75, 1875-76, 1876-78, 
1878-79, 1879-80, 1880-81, 1881-82, 1882-83, 1883-84. 

The Society. 
Elberfeld. — Jahres Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlichen 

Vereins, sechstes Heft. 1884. 
Emden. — Achtundsechszigster Jahresbericht Naturforschenden 
Gesellschaft, 1882-83. 1884. The Society. 

Essia. — Essex Field Club, Transactions. Vol. 3, part 8 ; and 
Appendix, no. 1. The Club. 

Florence,— Bulletino della Societa Entomologica Italiana. 
Anno sedicesimo Trimestri, 1 and 2. 1884. 
Trimestri, 3 and 4. 1884., and 
Atti Anno, 1882 to 1883. The Society. 

Genoa. — Giornale della Societa di Letture e Conversazioni 
Scientifiche. Anno 8, fasc. 8 and 9. 1884. 
Societa di Letture, &c. 
Anno 8, fasciculus 12. 

Anno 9, fasciulus 1 and 2, 3, 4 and 5, and 1 Supplement. 

The Society. 

Glasgow. — Proceedings Philosophical Society. Vol. 15, 1883- 
84. 1884. The Society. 

Natural History Society, Proceedings. Vol. 2, parts 
1 and 2 ; vol. 3, parts 1 and 3 ; Vol. 4, part I. 

The Society. 
Gorlitz. — Naturforschenden Gesellschaft. Vol. 18, j 884- 

Hamburg. — Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein. 

Abhandlungen. Vol. 8, parts 1, 2, and 3. The Society. 

Lausanne. — Bulletin de la Societe Vaudoise des Sciences 
Naturelles. 2nd series, vol. xx, no. 90, 1884. 
2nd series, vol. 20, no. 9, 1885. The Society. 

Lkipsig. — Sitzungsberchte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 
Zehnter Jahrgang, 1883. 1884. The Society. 



Books Received. 9 

Liverpool. — Museums of Natural History, by the Rev. H. H. 
Higgins, M.A. The Author. 

London. — Memoirs of the Astronomical Society. Vol. 48, 
parti, 1884. The Society. 

Journal Royal Microscopical Society. Series 2, vol. 4, 
parts 3, 4, 5, and 6, 1884 ; vol 5, parts 1 and 2. 

The Society. 
More Leaves from the Journal of the Life in the High- 
lands, by the Queen. 1884. The Publishers. 
Proceedings Zoological Society. Parts 1, 2, 3, and 4. 
List of Fellows, to June, 1884. 1884. The Society. 
Illustrations of British Fungi, by M. C. Cook, M.A. 
4 vols, and 13 parts, no. 18 to 31. Lord Clermont. 
Diurnal Birds of Prey, by J. H. Gurney. The Author. 
Asclepiad, by B. W. Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 

The Author. 
Stoechiological Medium, by J. F. Churchill, M.D. 

The Author. 
A Guide to the Mineral Gallery, British Museum, South 
Kensington. L. Fletcher. 

Manchester. — Transactions Geological Society, Session 1883-84. 
Vol. 17, parts 16, 17, and 18. 1884. 
Vol 18, nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. The Society. 

Medical Chronicle. Vol. 1, no. 1. 
Milwaukee. — Natural History Society, Proceedings, 1885. 

The Society. 
New York, — Bulletin American Geographical Society. Parts 
1, 2, 5, 6, 1884. The Society. 

Microscopical Society Journal. Vol. 1, no. 2, 1885. 

The Society. 

American Geographical Society, Bulletin. No. 3 and 4. 

. The Society. 

Philadelphia. — Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Parts 1, 2, and 3, January to April, 1884. The Academy. 



io Books Received. 

Pisa. — Atti della Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali. Vol. 4, 
3 parts, 1884-85 The Society. 

Roma. — Atti della R. Accademia die Lincei Anno 281, Serie 
Tereza. Vol. 18, fascicolo 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 1884. 

The Society. 

Reale Accademia dei Lincei Atti, 3 Series. Vol. 8, 

Fas. 16 Atti ; 4 Series, vol. I, Fas. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 

7, 8, 9. The Society. 

Sondershausen. — Irmischia. No. 1 and 2, 5, 6 and 7, 8, 9, 
10, 11, 12. The Editor. 

Stockholm. — Das Gehororgan der Wirbelthiere. Von Gustaf 

Retzius. Part 2. The Society. 

Trieste. — Bolletino della Societa Adriatica di Scienze Naturali, 

Volume Ottavo, 1883-84. 

Vienna. — Mittheilungen des Ornithologischen Vereines, 1 Jahr- 

gang. Nos. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 

18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 1884. 

2 Jahrgang. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8/9, 10, 11, 12, 

13, 14, 1885. The Society. 

Verhandlungen der K. K. Geologischen Reichsanstalt. 

Nos. 4, s, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 1884 5 

No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1885. Ihe Society. 

Verhandlungen der K. K. Zoologish-botanishen Gessell- 

schaft. Band 33, 1884 I an d Band 34, 1885. 
Brasilische Suagethiere, 1883. The Society. 

Verhandlungen der K. K. Zoologishen Reichsanstalt. 
Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 1884. The Society. 

Warwick. — Proceedings Warwickshire Naturalists' and Archae- 
ologists' Field Club, 1883. The Club. 
Washington. — Geological Survey. 

Second Annual Report, 1880-81. 1882. The Survey 
Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for 1883. 



II 



BELFAST 

NATURAL HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 
SESSION 1884-85. 



4/// November, 1884. 



Professor Everett in the Chair. 



John Brown, Esq., read a Paper on 

THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF INDUCTION 

COILS, 
Illustrated by Examples and Experiments. 



The reader exhibited a large coil of his own construction, with 
others of various types made by Mr. John Edgar and Mr. John 
H. Greenhill. The principles and action of coils, and the 
advantages of the disc method of building up the secondary 
were explained, as well as the most efficient disposition of a 
given amount of secondary on a given magnetic cone. 

Some of the uses of the Induction Coil were illustrated by the 
illumination of a beautiful set of Crookes's tubes lent by Dr. 
Everett, the firing of submarine mines by the secondary cur- 
rent, etc. 



12 



2nd December, 1884. 



James Wilson, Esq., in the Chair. 



Robert M. Young, Esq., B.A., read a Paper on 
OLD JAPANESE ART. 



Mr. Young divided his paper into different sections. The first 
was devoted to a short sketch of the history of Japan from the 
time of the Emperor Jimmu, 660 B.C., to the year 186S, when 
the country was opened to foreigners, and that marvellous series 
of changes was inaugurated which has transformed the country 
from being the most backward to the position of the most 
civilised and enterprising State in the whole of Asia. The 
lecturer then proceeded to treat of the feudalism which formed 
so curious a part of the internal economy of Old Japan. He 
showed that it was almost identical with the military feudalism 
prevalent in mediaeval Europe. The daimio, or baron, was then 
described. His territory and castle, with the dwellings of his 
vassals, the samurai, were shown completely to resemble the 
strongholds of the middle ages, as depicted in the pages of 
Froissart and Scott. The outline of the most popular Japanese 
tale of chivalry, the History of the 47 Ronin, was given to show 
what loyalty and devotion were displayed by the retainers to 
their lord in critical times, death being always preferred to 
dishonour. 

The swords of the various periods were described in detail, 
and some interesting facts given of the etiquette practised with 
regard to that national weapon. A quotation was given from 
the " Romance of Prince Gengi," written by a learned Japanese 



Old Japanese Art. J 3 

kdy in the ioth century, to show what advanced ideas were 
prevalent at that remote period with regard to art. Even the 
modern catchwords of "correct taste and high aesthetic prin- 
ciples" are found in this remarkable novel. A few of the leading 
facts in the history of Japanese art were then noted, particularly 
as regards the life of the Hogarth of the country, the renowned 
Hokusai. By the kindness of Mr. W. H Patterson, his famous 
work, ''The ioo views of the mountain Fusiyama," were 
exhibited, to show his skill. After a full explanation of the 
general principles on which their art is founded, and a descrip- 
tion of the way a Japanese artist works, a quotation was given 
from Mr. W. Anderson, illustrating the distinction between the 
ordinary artisan and the inventor artist, who, gifted with talents 
of a very high order, designed and carried to completion the 
splendid works in bronze, porcelain, and lacquer which have 
reached Europe. Some amusing instances of the marvellous 
skill said to have been attained by the old masters were cited, 
such as that of the artist who drew a dragon, and, as he com- 
pleted the eye of the monster, it rose and flew away. The 
famous horse painted on a temple screen was also mentioned, 
which was nightly accustomed to leave the picture and roam 
the rice fields, but was at last recognized, and its ravages stopped 
by blotting out the eyes of the masterpiece. The different 
substances employed in their art industries were indicated, and 
the concluding portion of the lecture was devoted to describing 
the more important, such as lacquer, ceramics, metalwork, ami 
enamels. A concise history of the methods employed in lacquer 
was given, and examples of this beautiful art shown, more 
particularly on sword mountings. A fine example in the 
possession of the reader was exhibited, with eight distinct 
varieties of lacquer used on it, beside many other processes of 
inlaying and other arts peculiar to Japan. The r iflaarks made 
on the various kinds of pottery and porcelain were illustrated by 
specimens of each manufacture. The stone wares of Bizen, 
Raku, and Soma were discussed, and the porcelain of Kaga and 
Kioto ; whilst the famous Satsuma and its imitations were fully 
explained. The subject of metal work occupied some time, as, 



14 Old Japanese Art. 

by the kindness of Mr. Henry Matier, J. P., a very choice 
collection of the finest old bronze and inlaid work was exhibited 
and described. Much satisfaction was expressed among the 
audience that the late disastrous fire at Dunlambert had not 
materially injured any of these masterpieces. The subject of 
bronze casting was entered into, and a brief account given of the 
Japanese process. of founding, which is' similar to that known 
in Europe as "cire perdu." The different subjects commonly 
chosen for delineation by their craftsmen were mentioned 
at length. The religions and mythology of the country were 
briefly touched on, the seven favourite divinities and the five 
monstrous animals frequently found on their art productions 
being remarked on, and examples of some of them pointed 
out as fashioned in bronze, pottery and enamels. The subject 
of enamels was taken up in the last place. The superiority 
of Japanese work was indicated by the comparison of some 
examples of the middle period, in the form of plaques and vases, 
with old Chinese work. The lecturer then concluded by giving 
a short description of some of the beautiful works in bronze 
and other metals kindly lent for exhibition on the occasion by 
Mr. Henry Matier, J. P. A large flower vase from a Japanese 
temple, cast in bronze, and properly inlaid with silver, having 
panels on each face in raised metals, one representing a god 
seated beside the national vehicle, the jinrishka, was much 
admired. Another was particularly noticeable for the skill 
with which a dragon, encircled by clouds, was depicted. A 
large plaque, with a monstrous cuttle-fish seizing an unfor- 
tunate wretch, who has endeavoured to pilfer a vase lying 
on the sea beach, was much remarked for the masterly skill 
displayed in its manipulation and the precious metals used. 
Specimens of the best work, in wrought iron, inlaid with gold, 
and chased in high relief, were also shown. The incense burners, 
of elaborate bronze work, are unique of their kind. 



is 



6th January, 1885. 



Professor Everett in the Chair. 



James Musgrave, Esq., gave an account of 

A RECENT VISIT TO AMERICA, 

Including the Yellowstone Park and the Colorado, illustrated 
by Photographs. 



Mr. Musgrave said, on the 7th August last he left Liverpool 
with one of his brothers, for New York, in the Germanic, one 
of the finest of that White Star line of steamers of which the 
people of Belfast had reason to feel proud. His object in pro- 
ceeding to America was two-fold ; first, to attend the meeting 
of the British Association at Montreal, which would give him 
an opportunity of gaining some knowledge of the Dominion of 
Canada ; and, second, to visit, amongst other places, the scenery 
which the writings of Washington Irving and Fenimore Cooper 
had invested with the true spirit of romance, and to observe for 
himself, even superficially, the people and the institutions of 
that wonderful country. 

Mr. Musgrave then described a visit to the Yellowstone Park, 
which a few years ago was set apart by Act of Congress as a 
national park for the American people. Mr. Rigg, president of 
the London Association of Engineers, had joined in the trip. 
A circular tour was arranged with the Northern Pacific, the 
Union Pacific, the Chicago and Alton, and the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railways, a tour which, with an extension into the 
Denver and Rio line, he could recommend to any one desirous 
of seeing that country. He wished to thank Mr. Mackenzie, of 
the Baltimore and Ohio in Philadelphia, and Mr. Macdougal, 



1 6 A Recent Visit to America. 

of the Northern Pacific in Montreal, for their attention and fore- 
thought, which enabled the party to accomplish the journey 
without a single hitch. After giving some account of the 
journey through the older parts of the United States, he said that 
at Rock Island they crossed the Mississippi, which, even at that 
distance from New Orleans, is a broad navigable river. There 
they saw the Government arsenal and armoury, which, as well 
as many private factories, are worked by water-power, derived 
from a great dam at Molines. St. Paul, the capital of Minnesota, 
is one of the most thriving towns in America, containing 100,000 
inhabitants. Minneapolis, another town of almost equal impor- 
tance, is only eight miles distant, and, though some jealousy 
exists, they are no doubt fated to become one town. St. 
Anthony's Fall is the overflow from what was said to be 
the greatest waterflow in America. It drives a large number 
of flour mills, one of which they examined carefully. It was said 
to turn out more flour than any other place in the world, 
and that they could well believe. What surprised them most 
was that the country appeared richer than that to the east of 
Chicago. There were rich corn crops on either side of the 
railway, interspersed with small towns devoted to various manu- 
factures. He was shown a factory where one thousand ploughs 
were turned out every day. 

From St. Paul they entered upon the vast tract of prairie 
land now so actively developing by the Northern Pacific Rail- 
way, through their commissioner, Mr. Lamborn, of St. Paul, 
who gave him the maps now on the table. Travelling day and 
night through the territories of Minnesota, Dakota, and Mon- 
tana, they stopped at Amnabar, the nearest station to Yellow- 
stone Park, which lies principally in the territory of Wyoming. 
The prairie was not so flat as he expected ; every here and there 
are hillocks, with occasional groups of small trees. The 
Missouri River is navigable for steamers up to the town of 
Bismarck, and there is a fine suspension bridge across the 
Missouri, connecting Bismarck with Mandan. At Dickenson 
they parted with a fellow-traveller, who was president of several 
large cattle ranches, and the groups of head ranchemen and 



A Recent Visit to America. 1 7 

cow boys who were waiting to receive him gave them a very 
favourable idea of the class of men engaged in developing that 
country. He produced a newspaper called the Bad Lands 
Cow Boy, which gave some idea of the state of society in that 
region. A special Pullman car was provided for members of 
the British Association at St. Paul. Sir Richard Temple and 
some of his friends from the Winnipeg excursion joined them 
at Targo, and the novelty and excitement of conveying so large 
a company in four-horse " stages" from the railway terminus 
over the rough roads and through the wild scenery leading to 
the Mammoth Springs Hotel was a fitting preparation for the 
extraordinary country they were about to see. They had been 
told that that hotel cost ^"40,000. Everything was on a large 
scale, and the electric light was used. It was crowded with the 
most picturesque assembly of men he had ever seen. Members 
of the British Association bargaining for carriages to convey 
them for a week through the park ; stage coach owners and 
drivers, ranchemen, cowboys, trappers ; most of them in dis- 
tinctive and picturesque dress, formed a scene he enjoyed 
greatly. At dinner they noticed a party of six dining together. 
His brother fell into conversation afterwards with one of them, 
who, when he knew that they were Britishers, stepped out in 
front of them and exclaimed, " You are English ; I love the 
English ; I am an Englishman myself ;" and then he described 
how he had been taken prisoner while serving in the army of 
Maximilian in Mexico, and obtained no relief from the American 
Consul, but when he applied to the British Consul he was 
immediately released, and added, " Is it any wonder I am proud 
of being an Englishman ?" In the morning they visited the 
Mammoth Springs, which the lecturer then described, and 
exhibited photographs of them. In the course of their visit to the 
boiling springs, they met a noted photographer, Mr. Watkins, 
of California, who was so particular as to his atmospheric effects 
that he kept his camera ready in front of " Old Faithful" (the 
name of one of the springs) for two days, waiting for a clear 
sky, as clouds would have marred the picture. I laving stopped 
at "Marshall's," where they met travellers of various nationali- 

I! 



1 8 A Recent Visit to America. 

ties, they made an early start for a long day's drive through the 
forest to the Grand Canon of the Yellowstone. The forest 
consisted mainly of young trees. In some parts there were 
miles of space covered with the black stems of trees, the result 
of forest fires, while the surface underneath was covered with 
young trees a foot or two high. Their coachman was invaluable 
in these long drives, of a class one rarely meets with at home. 
He was familiar with English literature, and full of curiosity as 
to England and the mode of life there. He had a capital tenor 
voice, and they asked him to sing the American National 
Anthem. He struck up the air of " God Save the Queen" to 
words which were new to them, and which, he thought, were 
little known in this country. He would give them the first 
verse : — 

" My country, 'tis of thee, 
Sweet land of liberty, 

Of thee I sing. 
Land where my fathers died — 
Land of the pilgrims' pride — 
From every mountain side 
Let freedom ring." 

They all joined in a hearty chorus, .recognising in such an 
apostrophe to liberty wedded to our own national air, another 
tie of sympathy between the American people and the mother 
country, which has been the parent of liberty in its best and 
broadest sense. Although very tired when they reached the 
tents near the Grand Canon, they started off to the Falls. The 
Yellowstone was a considerable river, and the height of the 
lower fall is 350 ft., more than double that of Niagara. The 
Grand Canon, of which many people spoke with the greatest 
rapture, surpassed anything he had seen of rugged scenery. A 
canon is a water course of immense depth. In Colorado and 
Wyoming there is so little rain that the river banks are not, 
as in this country, worn to an easy slope, but are so precipitous 
that they cannot be climbed. In Yellowstone Canon they 
could not get even half way down to the river, but, standing on 
a projecting point, they saw the river below, with steep cliffs 
rising to a height of some 1,200 feet on either side. The rocks 



A Recent Visit to America. 1 9 

were worn into pinnacles of the most fantastic forms, the pre- 
vailing tone a rich yellow, but stained in parts with colours so 
brilliant that they saw Mr. Thomas (an accomplished artist 
whose pictures he hoped to see at the Academy), who joined 
their party, use carmine and other vivid colours to produce 
his effects. 

They next journeyed to Helena, Salt Lake City, the Rocky 
Mountains, the Colorado Springs, and back to New] York by 
way of Kansas City, St. Louis, and Baltimore. Such were some 
of the physical characters of the portion of the American con- 
tinent through which they travelled. He would conclude with 
a few words regarding the people. Owing to the unfortunate 
tendency of able writers to make amusing books of travel, the 
American people had been too often presented to them in a 
grotesque attitude. He expected to see them boastful, talking 
through their noses, and speaking a language which was a 
travestie of the English tongue. He found them free from 
" brag ;" the men particularly expressed themselves on all 
subjects with moderation, and had much repose of manner, 
while their provincialisms were not more numerous than in 
England. He was glad to observe everywhere a tone of sym- 
pathy for the " Old Country," and a desire to have the good 
opinion of the " Britisher." The American people are tho- 
roughly imbued with the spirit of the best English literature. 
Their principal class-books are English. Sir Henry Roscoe 
found his " Chemistry," and their companion, Mr. Rigg, found 
his history of the steam engine, in daily use in the Boston 
colleges. In the gallery at Washington devoted to mementos 
of those who worked for the independence of the United States, 
the portrait of Lord Chatham is placed by the side of Lafay- 
ette, and the speeches of the former, and of many other great 
English speakers, give the keynote of the best American ora- 
tory. A St. Louis gentleman told him that Thackeray's portrait 
of Colonel Newcome was his ideal of what a man should be. 
He was not long in America till he almost forgot he had crossed 
the Atlantic, and he came back from Canada and the United 
States impressed with the hope that we may never do any- 



20 A Recent Visit to America. 

thing to forfeit our position as the friends and natural leaders 
of the English-speaking race throughout the world. 

The lecture was illustrated by large photographs of scenery, 
by geological specimens, and by diagrams, which were explained 
by the lecturer. 



21 



■x,rd February, 1885. 



Robert Young, Esq., C.E., in the Chair. 



Thomas Workman, Esq., read a Paper on 

EASTERN REMINISCENCES, WITH LANTERN AND 
PHOTOGRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS. 



22 



yd March, 1885. 



R. Lloyd Patterson, Esq., J.P., in the Chair. 



J. H. Greenhill, Esq., read a Paper on 

ELECTRIC LIGHT AND TRANSMISSION OF POWER 
BY ELECTRICITY. 

And Repeated {by request of the Council) on $th March, when 
Dr. Everett, F.R.S., presided. 



Frictional Electricity is always of high tension, but of small 
quantity. Thermo-Electricity has, up to the present, been of 
comparatively low tension, but of large quantity, whereas Voltaic 
and Magnetic Electricity may combine within certain limits 
both tension and quantity- 
Metals in their relation as conductors of electricity may be 
compared to pipes for the conveyance of water, but with this 
notable difference, that whereas pipes of a given diameter or bore, 
whether made of lead, iron, copper, or fire-clay, will convey an 
equal quantity of water at a given pressure, metallic conductors 
of electricity vary enormously in this respect. For instance, a 
pure copper wire will conduct about seven times as much 
electricity of a given tension or pressure as an iron wire of the 
same size ; hence if iron cables were used instead of copper, they 
would require to be of much larger size where much current 
would be passed along, as in the case of central district lighting. 
No economy in the first cost would therefore arise, and it is this 
difficulty which operates so strongly in preventing stations for 
the supply of electricity being established. 



Electric Li glit. 23 

Any fatal accidents which have occurred have invariably 
arisen with high tension currents, but it is noteworthy that 
currents of a certain tension may be practically harmless if 
continuous or unbroken, whereas the same "pressure" may 
produce most serious results if intermittent or alternating ; in 
other words, if there are periods of cessation in the flow of the 
current, or if it is made to pass in one direction and then in the 
opposite. The Board of Trade stipulated, in the Act of Parlia- 
ment passed for permitting companies to supply electricity from 
central stations for domestic use, that the tension for direct 
currents inside the house should not exceed 300 volts (the volt 
is a term applied to the unit of tension), whereas, with alternating 
currents, the limit should not exceed 100 volts. One advantage 
gained in the use of high pressure is that the sectional area 
of the copper wires for conducting the electricity may be 
much less than what would be necessary for low tension, thus 
reducing the first cost of the installation ; and, up to certain 
limits, there is greater economy in the working ; but on the 
other hand there are certain objections to very high tension 
(besides the danger), as the light produced when arc lights are 
employed is of an unpleasant blue or violet colour. 

Frictional Electricity, because of its high tension, has not been 
used to any great extent, except for experimental purposes, or 
for the explosion of mines ; but latterly a new field has been 
opened for its employmeut by a little apparatus for lighting 
gas. 

It is noteworthy that although the so-called " storage" of 
electricity has created a great deal of interest of late, yet as a 
matter of fact the " bottling up" has been known for centuries 
in respect to Leyden jars, whereas the " storage" of the present 
day is not a material accumulation of the current, but merely 
changing the chemical condition of lead plates and the acid in 
which they are immersed, by the action of a current of electri- 
city when passed through them, and it is the tendency for the 
lead plates and acid to return to their original condition, which 
again gives rise to new electrical currents when a connection is 
made to permit the currents to flow. The action which takes 



24 Electric Light 

place in the lead plates and acid in the act of charging and dis- 
charging, is as follows, according to Dr. Frankland (see the 
report published in " The Electrician" of 31st March, 1883): 
" Occluded gases play no part, practically. The active material 
on lead plates is lead sulphate. The initial action in charging 
the battery is the electrolysis of sulphuric acid into hydrogen, 
sulphuric anhydride, and oxygen. The hydrogen decomposes 
the lead sulphate on the negative plate into spongy lead and 
sulphuric acid, whilst the oxygen decomposes the lead sulphate 
on the positive plate into lead peroxide and sulphuric anhydride. 
All sulphuric anhydride is at once converted into sulphuric acid. 
In discharging, the initial action is again the electrolysis of 
sulphuric acid, which restores the coating of the two plates to 
the original condition of lead sulphate. As the charging of a 
cell is attended with the liberation of sulphuric acid, and its 
discharge with the abstraction of this acid from the liquid con- 
tents of the cell, it is only necessary to ascertain the specific 
gravity and consequent strength of the acid, to determine the 
amount of charge in a cell at any given moment, provided that 
the specific gravity of the acid in the charged and uncharged 
conditions of the cell be previously known. In the case of a 
cell with which Frankland experimented, each increase of 0-005 
in the specific gravity of the dilute acid, meant a 'storage' of 
available energy equal to 20 amperes for one hour." 

" Thermo-electricity," by reason of its low tension, has only 
been used for electro plating, as in this process high tension is 
not admissible. " Voltaic electricity" has been employed to a 
limited extent for electric lighting ; but one serious drawback 
to its general adoption for this purpose is the great expense 
entailed, as electricity produced by the consumption of zinc and 
acid in a battery costs, in round numbers, about ten times more 
than the same amount of electricity obtained by the use of a 
dynamo machine. 

Soft iron, after being magnetised, loses nearly all its magnetism 
as soon as the exciting agent is removed ; but it retains a 
very minute trace, although perhaps not sufficient to indicate 
its presence to a marked degree, and it is this residual trace 
which plays so important a part in dynamo machines. 



and Transmission of Power. 2 5 

All magnets have innumerable " lines of force," as they are 
technically called, in their vicinity; and unmistakable evidence 
of their existence is obtained when iron filings arc brought 
within their influence. The filings cluster more densely near 
the ends of the magnet than at the centre, and they appear to 
arrange themselves in arcs of curves from one extremity to the 
other. In Fig. No. 3 on the screen, a novel arrangement of 
apparatus is shown, consisting of a magnet held between two 
sheets of glass. There is a third sheet of glass fastened at a 
little distance from the others, thus allowing a space in which 
iron filings can be scattered ; thus the process in which they 
arrange themselves in the direction of the lines offeree can be 
observed. 

Soft iron or steel may not only be magnetised by proximity 
to another magnet, but it may also be acted upon to a far greater 
extent by wrapping insulated wire upon it, and sending a current 
along the wire. If the current is again passed along the wire- 
in the opposite direction, the end which was formerly a North 
Pole is now a South. Faraday made the discovery that if a coil 
of wire with its ends connected together was moved in a certain 
manner near to a magnet, a powerful current was generated in 
the wire. Of course if the ends of the wire were not joined, no 
current was developed, as in all cases where a current passes 
along a wire, the circuit must be completed, either by direct 
connection of the ends, or by the interposition of some con- 
ducting medium, such as the earth or liquids, more especially 
if the latter are acidulated. Even in the case of 'arc" electric 
lighting, although it may at first sight appear as if the circuit 
was broken between the carbons, as indicated by Fig. 4 on 
the screen, yet the continuity of the conducting medium is 
maintained by the intensely heated air at the point of sepa- 
ration, and by the particles of carbon which jump across the 
space. As the polarity of the magnet can be changed by 
reversing the direction in which the exciting current flows, so 
can the direction of the current in the coil be altered by changing 
the position of the poles of the magnet. In Fig. 5, the coil is 
supposed to move from left to right, or from the North pole 



26 Electric Light 

of the magnet to the South. The current flows in the ring 
downward in the side nearest to us. When the ring approaches 
the centre of the magnet, the current gradually gets weaker, by 
reason of the fewer number of " lines of force" being embraced 
within it. The current begins to circulate in the ring in the 
opposite direction, after the centre of the magnet has been 
passed. The intensity at which the current flows in the ring is 
due to two things, namely the speed at which the movement is 
made along the magnet, and the " strength" of the magnet 
itself. A similar result occurs if the ring is made to move in 
the arc of a circle between the poles of a horse-shoe magnet, as 
shown in Fig. 6. In the next diagram (Fig. 7), the horizontal 
lines between the poles of a horse-shoe magnet are supposed to 
represent the " lines of force" ; it will be observed that when 
the ring is perpendicular to these lines, it encircles the largest 
number ; but when angled, the number decreases, thus pro- 
ducing a fall in the potential of the current. 

It is possible to obtain all the effects of a magnet, although 
no iron or steel may be present. If, for instance, a wire is coiled 
into a ring or helix, and a current is caused to traverse it, the 
air space in the centre becomes filled with magnetic lines of 
force. Some electrical machines are constructed in this manner, 
so that lightness of the moving parts and ventilation may be 
obtained, besides avoiding what are termed Foucault or wasteful 
currents, which sometimes arise if iron is employed without due 
precaution having been taken in the construction. In the 
earlier machines, these wasteful currents in the iron itself proved 
highly objectionable, causing much power to be absorbed use- 
lessly ; but in good machines of the present day, iron is em- 
ployed with great advantage, and without any wasteful currents 
being generated to signifv. 
Machines may be divided into two classes— direct current and 
alternating-*^ these may be subdivided into magneto and 
dynamo generators. In direct current machines, the electricity 
always flows along the conductor in one direction, but with 
alternating dynamos^the current flows in one direction, and 
then in the reverse, but the changes in direction amount to an 
immense number per minute, up to ten or twenty thousand. 



and Transmission of Power. zj 

In magneto machines, the magnets are permanent steel 01 
but in dynamos the magnets are of iron, with coils of wire 
wrapped upon them, and the magnetism is produced by currents 
of electricity passing along the wire : such currents may either 
be produced by the machine itself, or by a separate "exciting" 
machine or battery. Again, in direct current dynamo machines 
in which the magnets are excited by their own currents, the 
magnets may be coiled with comparatively thick wire, and made 
to receive all the current generated, which, after passing along 
the coils surrounding the magnets, proceeds to the lamps or 
external circuit, thence back to the machine. These are termed 
"series" machines. Instead of the magnets having a com- 
paratively short length of thick wire, thus producing but few 
turns, they may have an immense length of fine wire coiled 
upon them, and returning direct to the revolving armature 
(which is the name applied to the rotating coils of wire in which 
the currents are generated), with a separate set of conductors 
leading to the lamps ; thus only a very small proportion of the 
current generated in the armature passes round the magnet.-, in 
consequence of the fineness of the wire and its extreme length. 
These are termed "shunt wound'' machines. It is noteworthy 
that the small amount of current which passes round the 
magnets in a " shunt." machine is quite as effective as the large 
or total amount of current which flows round the magnets of 
a "series" machine, in consequence of the greater numb, 
turns in the case of a "shunt" arrangement, as one ampere 
(the unit applied to quantity) passing along one hundred turns 
of wire on a magnet is as effective, practically, as one hundred 
amperes passing once round the iron. Frequently machines 
have their magnets coiled both with a fine "shunt ' wire and 
a thick "series" one, and the current passes along both, but in 
inverse ratios to the relative resistances. They are thence 
termed "compound," and are generally employed for incandes- 
cent lighting, as they are more nearly self-regulating, provided 
a regular speed is maintained, whereas with "shunt" machines 
it may happen that if a great number of lamps are -witched off, 
too much current passes through the remainder, thus injuring 



28 Electric Light 

or utterly destroying them. The action of a dynamo machine is 
as follows: — When the armature is caused to rotate, the residual 
magnetism in the iron induces a feeble current in the revolving 
coils ; this current passes along the wire encircling the magnets, 
and strengthens the magnetism, which in turn induces a stronger 
current. Thus an action and reaction take| place, but with such 
amazing rapidity that practically the machine is enabled to 
generate its maximum strength of current instantaneously. 

I have referred to both the " arc" and " incandescent" forms 
of electric light. The former is that produced by the separation 
of two carbons after the current has been established ; it meets 
with great resistance at the point of separation, and thereby 
heats up the ends of the carbon to an enormous temperature, 
thus producing a light of intense brilliancy. Both carbons 
consume away, but not at the same rate. The one at which the 
current enters from the machine, and called the " positive" 
carbon, is consumed twice as fast as its neighbour or "negative" 
carbon. The "positive" has a concave or hollow-shaped end, 
whereas the negative is pointed. A portion of the positive is 
carried to the negative by the action of the current. This is 
only the case when direct currents are used, but with alternating 
currents both carbons consume alike. 

With " incandescent" lighting, the lamp consists of a small 
glass globe, from which all the oxygen has been exhausted. 
Inside the globe there is a fine filament of a carbonised material, 
made by different inventors from various products, but in the 
final condition reduced to carbon. The current traverses this 
filament, which being of considerable resistance, becomes heated 
to whiteness, and thus gives off a beautifully clear and soft light 
With reference to the power required to drive an electric 
machine employed for generating currents of electricity for 
" arc" or for " incandescent" lighting, the same power will 
produce about ten times the aggregate light with an " arc" 
compared to " incandescent," hence it is more economical where 
large spaces have to be illuminated ; but for confined spaces, 
especially where there is not much head room, the arc light is 
far too brilliant. Under these conditions, the loss of power can 



and Transmission of Power. 29 

be submitted to in the employment of the "incandescent" light. 
As a rule, one actual horse-power will give from 1,500 to i,Noo 
candle power by arc lighting, or from 160 to 180 candles by 
incandescent lamps. Another system of lamp, somewhat be- 
tween the arc and the incandes'cent, is what has been termed 
" semi-incandescent." It consists of a thin rod of carbon which 
is caused to press against a heavy block of the same or other 
material, and the light is emitted where the two unite ; but 
this method has not been much employed. 

The method in which an installation of arc lighting is carried 
out is quite different from that which has to be adopted for 
incandescent. In the former, the lamps are arranged in " series," 
that is, the current is driven through the first lamp, then 
through the second, and so on, finally returning to the machine. 
The quantity of electricity required is always the same whether 
one or forty lamps are used, but the potential 'or pressure of the 
current has to be increased for every lamp. With incandescent 
lighting, a portion of the current is sent through each lamp 
independently of its neighbour. The cables are arranged in 
parallels, very similar to the sides of a step-ladder, and the 
incandescent lamps are attached between them, thus being 
analogous to the steps of the ladder. It is obvious by this 
arrangement that the pre s stir e or potential of the current should 
remain constant, but the quantity should be in proportion to the 
number of lamps, ten lamps requiring ten times as much current 
as one lamp. 

Now, as regards the danger of fire in connection with electric 
lighting, there is no artificial mode of illumination so safe if 
properly installed, and none so dangerous if erected in ignorance 
of what is necessary. The danger arises from what I may term 
the insidious nature of the current. If there is a leak in a gas 
pipe, it can generally be detected without the reprehensible 
method of trying for it with a light, but there may be a condition 
of affairs with an improperly erected installation of the electric 
light which will give no warning before damage is done. For 
instance, cables may be dangerously near to iron without being 
properly protected; in course of time they may come into metallic 



3<d Electric Light 

contact with the iron, and serious results may happen. Now 
it is possible so to arrange matters that even if all the cables or 
wires in the building were adjacent to metallic materials, no 
serious harm could happen ; and the method is to insert in 
various parts of the building safety fusible connections, so that 
if any accidental " short-circuiting" should occur, the safety fuse 
would instantly melt, and thus stop all further progress of the 
current. Another ingenious method is by using patent safety 
cut outs, which consist of a magnet and counter weight or 
spring. The latter overpowers the magnet's influence under 
ordinary circumstances, but if the current, from any cause, 
increases beyond its normal strength, the power of the magnet 
is increased, and overcomes the weight or spring, and thus stops 
the current altogether. Again, the cables and wires may all be 
well protected from any external metallic fittings, and yet there 
may be danger of the wires getting very hot by reason of them 
being far too small in sectional area for the current they have 
to carry. The fusible connections are equally effective in this 
event. 

As to the advantages of using the electric light for mills, 
factories, business premises, and private houses, there are 
numerous cases where electricity is infinitely superior and very 
much cheaper than gas ; and on the other hand, there are many 
places where gas is cheaper, and good enough as an illuminant. 
Wherever power is available, either by water or steam, then 
the electric light is by far the best, especially if the hours of 
lio-hting are sufficient to permit only a small per-centage of 
interest on first cost to fall upon each hour's lighting. Flour 
mills, which generally work all night, are well adapted for the 
electric light, whereas large factories, whose ceilings are so low 
that arc lights are not suitable, and where light is required for 
only a few hours daily, even in the winter months, do not offer 
such a good opportunity to make the incandescent electric light 
pay. Again, in shops, the cost of gas may possibly be somewhat 
less than the electric light, especially if power has to be specially 
provided, but the gain annually in the preservation of the fragile 
goods by the use of the electric light compared to the destruction 



and Transmission of Power. 



3i 



caused by gas, (not to speak of the unhealthiness by the latter 
to the employes), is so enormous, that many firms who have 
adopted electricity, in London and elsewhere, have increased 
the original installations four-fold. With respect to the employ- 
ment of incandescent lamps in houses. I have had personal 
experience of the benefit arising by the use of electricity over 
other artificial modes of lighting, as I have had the electric light 
in my house for several months, with most satisfactory results. 
A careful perusal of the following table will no doubt prove 
instructive. It was read by Mr. Crompton at the Health 
Exhibition in London ; the results were the work of Dr. 
Meymott Tidy and others : — 













Heat 








Cubic 




produced 


Burned to give light of 12 


Cubic feet 


Cubic feet 


feet of 


Cubic feet 


in lbs. 


candles, equal to 120 


of Oxygen 


of air 


Carbonic 


of air 


of water 


grains per hour. 


consumed. 


consumed. 


Acid 
produced 


vita ted. 


raised I o° 
Farht. 


Cannel Gas 


3"3° 


16-50 


2-OI 


217-50 


I95-00 


Common Gas 


5'45 


I7-25 


3-2 1 


348-25 


278 60 


Sperm Oil 


475 


2375 


3-33 


35675 


233-50 


Benzole 


4-46 


22*30 


3 '54 


376-30 


232-60 


Paraffin 


6-8i 


34^5 


4'5° 


+84*05 


361*90 


Camphine 


6-65 


33-25 


477 


510-25 


325 IO 


Sperm Candles ... 


7*57 


37-85 


577 


614-85 


35I70 


Wax Candles 


8-41 


42-05 


5 "9° 


632-25 


383*10 


Stearic Candles ... 


8-82 


44-IO 


6-25 


669-10 


37470 


Tallow Candles ... 


12*00 


6o-oo 


873 


933-Qo 


505'40 


Incandescent ) 










I3-80 


Electric Light ) 


none 


none 


none 


none 



It will be seen by the above that bad as gas may be, it is not 
nearly so injurious as oil and candles, but the electric light is 
far superior to them all. 

With reference to the use of electricity as a transmitter of 
power, the machinery employed is a double set of dynamos, 
practically the same as used in electric lighting. By driving 
one machine, the current is generated, and by allowing this 
current to pass through another machine, its armature revolves, 



32 Electric Light 

and either propels a car, or turns other machinery. When 
electricity is employed for the propulsion of tramcars, the 
current may be conveyed along an insulated rail or cable, and 
collected by the running vehicle by means of a brush of copper 
wires made to press on the conducting rail. As a rule, only 
from 50 to 60 per cent of the original power can be utilized when 
transmitted by electricity, but even this small percentage may 
be most valuable in certain cases, especially if the original power 
is obtained from a waterfall which would otherwise go to waste, 
such, for instance, as the electric tramway at Portrush. 

Another method tor making use of electricity for motive 
power is by using accumulators or storage batteries. The 
objection to these at present is their weight and size, but I 
believe there is a great future for the employment of storage 
batteries, and it would not surprise me to find the tramcars of 
Belfast and other towns propelled by electricity before many 
years pass by. Storage batteries are of immense service where 
temporary stoppages of the machinery occur, or for the regu- 
lation of the light when the power is of a fluctuating nature ; 
also, where a few lights are required to be kept in operation all 
night. 

The lecture was illustrated by numerous photographs thrown 
on a screen by dissolving lanterns, operated by Mr. R. W. Welch. 
Not only were there diagrams for shewing the special parts of 
the machines, but the various types of the leading dynamos of 
different construction were illustrated. The experiments, named 
by Mr. Greenhill in the early part of the paper, were most 
successfully carried out. 

At the conclusion, on the second evening, Prof. Everett, F.R.S., 
in proposing a vote of thanks, said, that he felt great pleasure 
in presiding that night, and he was very much pleased that the 
lecture had been repeated, as it gave him and others who were 
not present on the first evening, an opportunity of hearing it on 
the second occasion. He had to congratulate Mr. Greenhill for 
the lucid explanations of what some might think rather complex 
matters, and for the successful way in which the experiments 



and Transmission of Power. -, i 

had been carried out. He was sure that it must have been a 
matter of surprise to many to witness the very steep gradient 
which the small electric car had been able to ascend, and he 
also wished to direct the attention of the audience to the 
extremely small dimensions of the dynamo which Mr. Greenhill 
had constructed for his experiments, but which proved so 
remarkably powerful. 



34 



2$th March, 1885. 



Joseph J. Murphy, Esq., in the Chair. 



J. Brown, Esq., read a Paper on 
FORMATION OF A STALACTITE BY VAPOUR. 



The reader described a curious phenomenon which he had 
observed during the electrolysis of the double chloride of 
aluminium and sodium fused in a small porcelain crucible 
provided with a porous partition. The anode was of carbon, 
and the cathode platinum-foil. 

A considerable quantity of vapour was given off, especially 
from about the anode, forming a white smoke and depositing a 
white substance, doubtless mainly hydrated aluminium chloride, 
on the carbon rod, and about the mouth of the crucible, 
ultimately closing up the latter all but a small hole, through 
which the vapour poured rapidly. From this hole there grew 
out a beautifully delicate little tube about 1^ inch long, and 
tapering from about I inch at the base to T V inch in the middle 
of its length, after which it increased in diameter, and also 
flattened out owing to the vapour-jet coming close over the 
bend of the platinum-foil cathode, which seemed to cause, by 
some kiud of eddy current, a flattening of the stream of vapour. 

Soon afterwards the supply of vapour slackened, and there 
was a corresponding diminution in the size of the tube in the 
last quarter-inch of its length till the end became almost closed. 
The formation of this tube seems quite analogous to that of the 
ordinary tubular lime-carbonate stalactite deposited from drop- 
ping water by contact with the atmosphere ; only we have here 
a tubular deposit of hydrated aluminium chloride by the 
combination, at the edge of the growing tube, of the water- 
vapour in the air with the anhydrous chloride contained in the 
vapour-stream, 



35 



i^th March, 1885. 



Joseph J. Murphy, Esq., in the Chair 



William Workman, Esq., read a Paper on 

VENTILATION AND HEATING OF CHURCHES AND 
DRYING ROOMS. 



Heating and ventilation are mostly in inverse ratio to one 
another. If ventilation be good, heat is little, and draughts 
great, coughs, both loud and deep, vie with the speaker for the 
attention he should have, and never fail to get more than an 
intelligent audience should give to inarticulate sound. If heat 
be good, carbon acid rapidly accumulates, and heads nod more 
familiarly than reverently towards him who desires their lively 
attention. The problem to be solved may be thus stated : — How 
to obtain air without coughs, and heat without headaches ; — or, 
ventilation without draughts, and warmth without running it 
to waste through ventilators. 

I suppose a church or assembly-room to be air-tight as buildings 
go, that there be no ventilating openings except where indicated, 
and that the seams of the ceiling, if sheeted with wood, be fairly 
close and tight. At one end the heating apparatus is placed. 
There is no reason why it should not be inside the building 
instead of attached, should circumstances make that arrange- 
ment desirable. To the heating chamber a flue leads to supply 
fresh air. Opening below the level of the apparatus from it 
ascends another close to the level of the ceiling, where it dis- 



36 Ventilation and Heating 

charges freely the hot air into the building. The outlets for 
the cold air are through the floor, numerous and moderate in 
size, opening into a flue below the floor, and carried to an up- 
right flue, ending at or above the top of the building like a 
chimney. The expected result from this arrangement, tracing 
the air from its inlet, is — the air being admitted below the level 
of the heating apparatus — none of the heated air is likely to 
escape from a blow-down ; — also, haying a flue full of heated air 
of considerable height, force is added to the current in pro- 
portion to the height. When discharging into the church 
according to the law of lighter fluids, it will float on the colder 
air, forming a sheet of warm air close under the ceiling. This 
will constantly be supplied and displaced downwards by the 
continuous flow of hot air from the flue, until ultimately all the 
original cold air is displaced by the warm air. While this is 
going on above, the coldest air is continuously being driven 
down through the openings in the floor, carried through the 
horizontal flue to the upright one, where, still having some 
ascending power from the remains of its heat derived from the 
apparatus and that added to it by the assembly, it will assist in 
keeping up the circulation. The draught towards an outlet for 
air is of a very different nature to that from an inlet, being more 
diffused and tending to flow in radii towards the centre, namely, 
the outlet. Those from an inlet may pass for a considerable 
distance in an unbroken stream, and, if passing in with much 
velocity, may stir up a wide area of draught by its friction. 
This may be observed on a stormy night by opening a window 
half-an-inch wide when the wind is blowing against it : this 
will stir the whole air of a moderate sized room so that a draught 
may be felt in almost any part of it. The two flues, when no 
heat is being used, would still act to some extent as ventilators. 
In the case of a room full of people, if there were only a very 
slight current at first, it would soon increase by the heated air 
from the assembly passing up the outlet flue, the pure cool air 
being, as it were, pulled in up the inlet flue. The air in the 
building should be as much as possible under the same condi- 
tions as in that a diving-bell, where the only escape is at the 



of Churches and Diyitig Rooms. 37 

bottom. The same plan, it would seem to me, would be the 
most economical method of applying heat in drying rooms for 
yarn, &c, as none but the coolest air could escape, and the 
amount of hot air admitted could be regulated, so that no air 
would leave the apartment until completely saturated with 
vapour. By the ordinary method in use, for heating both drying 
rooms and churches, the hottest air immediately makes its 
way to the highest part of the building, and escapes by the 
nearest outlet before it has done much of its intended work. 
A method which has been successfully tried in our iron war 
ships, but not yet in our churches — that is, to coat the interior 
with a non-conducting paint — would be worth the experiment ; 
it would likely prove a means of saving fuel and adding con- 
siderably to comfort. Every one knows how much more 
comfortable a new house seems, and no doubt is, after it has 
been papered and painted, and how one will almost be inclined 
to shiver on going into a new house with its bare plastered 
walls. It is not a mere imagination that drawing the curtain 
close adds to the comfort of a sitting-room on a cold winter 
night. The curtains are really like blankets, only more distant 
from the body than would be comfortable in bed. Let anyone 
try sleeping in a room with the blind up in the cold weather 
instead of drawn down. The difference in temperature will be 
quite perceptible without the help of a thermometer, a difference 
hardly to be expected from a thin piece of cotton hangin. 
front of the window, or the loosely-fitting slips of a Venetian 
blind. We have all noticed the dew forming on the carafe 
of cold water on a dining-table. Often it will trickle down in 
streams. Did anyone ever notice the table-cloth or napkin in 
that state, or even damp, from the same cause ? In former days 
tapestry must have added materially to the comfort of rooms, 
acting as a non-conductor between the cold walls of the building 
and the bodies of its inmates. 



38 



April \\th, 1885. 



W. H. Patterson, Esq., in the Chair. 



The Rev. Robert Workman, B.D., read a Paper on 

LAND TENURE AND CULTURE IN ANCIENT 
IRELAND. 



The Rev. Mr. Workman in the first half of his paper endeavoured 
to show that all the peoples of Christendom originally held the 
land in common, and that the institution now known as " the 
village community" prevailed amongst them. This, he said, 
was originally the condition of Ireland. In Ireland every 
"community" became a clan, and the chief soon gained a position 
of great power. In the primitive period, the members of the 
clan were comparatively independent of the chief, who was 
merely their headman or leader ; but by the sixteenth century 
the chief had become chief lord and absolute owner of the land, 
which he rack-rented. Having referred to the circumstances 
which brought about this change, Mr. Workman made a 
lengthened and interesting reference to some curious customs 
pertaining to agriculture that existed among the ancient Irish. 
It was perfectly evident, he said, that only a small part of Ireland 
was cultivated during the 16th century. If they were to credit 
the high authority of Sir W. Petty, the population at that period 
could not have been very much above a million. Such a 
population did not require a large area of tilled land, and no 
works of supererogation were performed by them. From an 
early period, moreover, Ireland was a country of forests. In 



Land Tenure in Ancient Ireland. 3 » 

1542, "the English troops, penetrating to the centre of Ulster, 
found it a jungle. Tyrone County is described as not containing 
one single castle, nor yet one town walled, but full of wood, 
great bogs, and waters, here called loughs." The English, whose 
appetites were proverbially good, could hardly understand how 
the Irish got a living in so desolate a land. In 1560, Lord 
Fitzwilliam, Governor of Dublin, in great fear about rebellion, 
wrote — " The country is for the most part a wilderness, but the 
desolation is no security ; the Irish would keep the field when 
the English would starve. No men of war ever lived the like, 
or others of God's making, touching feeding and living." In 
ancient times the good cheer of Tara consisted in devouring 
great quantities of meat, for neither bread nor drink were 
mentioned. Nor did bread appear to have been the staff of 
life to the Irish people of the 1 6th century. Export of hides 
was the mark of a pastoral flesh-eating people ; and about the 
middle of the 16th century " the Irish sent great quantities of 
raw and tanned hides and sheepskins and some furs to Antwerp, 
also some coarse linen and woollen cloths." Fish were exchanged 
with France and Spain for wares by chieftains on the coast. 
They must suppose that after the Plantation, Ulster rapidly 
prospered in agriculture, and became largely a grain-producing 
country ; but the records of the exportation from Belfast in 1663 
showed by their preponderance of flesh, tallow, and skins that 
the greater part of the land was untilled. Having further 
referred to the character of the exports at later periods, with a 
view of indicating the condition of the land as regards cultivation 
and the pursuits of the people, Mr. Workman, in conclusion, 
said the subject affords fresh illustration of the persistent 
tenacity of the characteristics that distinguish the different races 
of mankind. We are assured that the negro race is as old 
as the Egyptian monuments, and we know that the Jews have 
continued to be the world's greatest merchants for more than 
2,000 years. So here in Ireland we may regard the eagerness 
with which our peasantry cling to the soil as a survival of the 
spirit of the ancient village community, the absolute owner ol 
its own land. Moreover, the pastoral instinct has prevailed over 



40 Land Tenure in Ancient Ireland. 

the agricultural amidst all the changes of Irish history. At the 
present day, Ireland is specially a grazing country, and the 
Irishman has a proverbial liking for cattle, and pigs, and horses, 
and must be regarded as one of the least successful agriculturists 
of the Old World, whilst we are told that it is the Scotch- 
man or the Englishman, rather than the Irishman, who becomes 
the great cultivator of the boundless grain-growing prairies of 
the New World. 



BELFAST 

Natural 1bistor\> anfc philosophical Society 
$ 

Officers and Coimcil of Management for 1885-6. 

!gv ezibent : 
WILLIAM H. PATTERSON, M.R.I.A. 

'gHce-'g'resi&enfc : 

JOHN ANDERSON, Esq., F.G.S. I Prof. J. D.EVERETT, M. A., F.R.S. 
ROBERT MacADAM, Esq. THOMAS WORKMAN, Esq. 

treasurer : 

JOHN BROWN, Esq. 

<£tbvcmcm : 

THOMAS WORKMAN, Esq. 

§ccrcfarn : 

ROBERT M. YOUNG, B.A. 

Qouncil : 

PROFESSOR CUNNINGHAM, M.D. 

JOHN ANDERSON, Esq., F.G.S. 

ROBERT MacADAM, Esq. 

PROFESSOR J. D. EVERETT, M.A.. FJEL.S. 

THOMAS WORKMAN, Esq. 

JOHN BROWN, I 

JAMES WILSON, Esq. 

PROFESSOR E. A. LETTS, Ph.D., F.R.S.E. 

JOSEril JOHN MUIU'IIY, Esq., F.G.S. 

ROBERT LLOYD PATTERSON. 1 

WILLIAM II. PATTERSON, Esq., M .K.I. A. 

WILLIAM SWANSTON, Esq., F.G.S. 

JOSEPH WRIGHT, Esq., F.G.S. 

ROBERT YOUNG, Esq., C.E. 

ROBERT M. YOUNG, B.A. 



4 2 



SHAEEHOLDEBS. 

[* Denotes holders of three or more Shares.] 

Allen, W. J. C, J.P., (Representatives of), Faunoran, Green- 
island. 

Andrews, Michael (Representatives of), Ardoyne, Belfast. 

Andrews, Thomas M.D., F.R.S., &c, Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Andrews, Samuel, J. P., Victoria Street, do. 

Archer, H., Wellington Place, do. 
Anderson, John, J.P., F.G.S., Hillbrook, Holywood. 
*Alexander, James, J.P. (Representatives of), Holywood. 

*Bateson, Sir Thomas, Bart., M.P., J.P., D.L., Belvoir Park, 

Belfast. 

*Batt, Thomas G. (Representatives of), Belfast. 
Bland, Robert Henry, Lisburn. 

Bottomley, Henry H., Garfield Street, Belfast. 

*Bottomley, William, J.P. do. 

Brett, C. H., Chichester Street, do. 

Bristow, James R., Northern Bank, do. 

Barbour, James, Falls Foundry, do. 

Boyd, William, Blackstaff Mill, do. 

Boyd, W. S., Donegall Quay, do. 

Brown, John Shaw, J.P., Bedford Street, do. 

Brown, John, Bedford Street, do. 

Brown, William K., Rushmere, do. 

Burden, Henry, M.D., Alfred Street, do. 

Burnett, John R., Gamble Street, do. 

*Campbell, James (Representatives of). 

Campbell, John, Lennoxvale, Belfast. 

Connor, Charles C, White Linen Hall, do. 

Carson, John, Church Lane, do. 



Shareholders. 



43 



*Charley, John (Representatives of), Finaghy, Belfast. 
*Clermont, Lord, Ravensdale Park, Newry. 
Coates, Victor, Rathmore, Dunmurry. 
*Charters, John (Representatives of). 

Crawford, William, Calender Street, Belfast. 

Cuming, James, M.D., Wellington Place, do. 

Cahvell, Alexander McD., College Square North, do. 
Cunningham, Robert O., M.D., F.L.S., Queen's College, do. 

Clarke, Edward H., Elmwood, do. 

Darbishire, James M., Lombard Street, do. 

♦Donegall, Marquis of, K.P., &c. (Representatives of), London. 
Drennan, Dr., Chichester Street, Belfast. 

*Drummond, Dr. James L. (Representatives of), do. 

Duffin, Charles, J. P., Waring Street, do. 

Dunville, William, J. P. (Representatives of), Calender St., do. 
*Downshire, Marquis of, Hillsborough Castle, Hillsborough. 
Dixon, Thomas S., York Street, Belfast. 



Emerson, William, Donegall Quay, 

Everett, J. D., M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., Queen's College, 

Ewart William, J.P., M.P., Bedford Strcxt, 

Ewart, W. Quartus, Bedford Street, 

*Fenton, Samuel G., J. P. (Representatives of), 

Ferguson, Henry. M.D., Fisherwick Place, 

Forsythe, R. H., Holywood. 

Finlay, William Laird, Windsor, 

Finlay, William Laird, jun., Royal Avenue, 

Fitzgerald, Professor Maurice, Queen's College, 

Fagan, John, F.R.C.S.I., Glengall Place, 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 

do. 
do. 

Belfast, 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Garrett, Thomas (Representatives of), Gamble Street, do. 
*Gctty, Edmund (Representatives of), do. 

Girdwood, H Mercer, Broughton Maxwell, Manchester. 
Gordon, Alexander, M D., Howard, Street, Belfast. 

♦Grainger, Rev. John, D.D., Broughshane, Ballymena. 



44 Shareholders. 

Gray, Robt. (Representatives of), College Square North, Belfast. 

Gordon, Robert W., J.P., Falls Road, do. 
Greer, Thomas, J.P., M.P., Seapark, Carrickfergus. 

Gray, William, C.E., M.R.I.A., Mount Charles, Belfast. 

Greenhill, John H., New King Street, do. 

Hogg, John, Academy Street, do. 
*Hamilton, Hill, J.P. (Representatives of), Mount Vernon, do. 
*Hancock, John, J. P., Lurgan. 

Henderson, Robert (Representatives of), High Street, Belfast. 
*Henry, Alexander, Manchester. 

*Herdman, John (Representatives of), College Sq. North, Belfast. 

Hind, James, Durham Street, do. 

Hind, John, J:P., Durham Street, do. 

Hind, John, jun., College Street South, do. 

Heyn, James, A.M., Ulster Chambers, Waring Street, do. 

*Houston, John B., J.P., D.L., Orangefield, do. 
Herdman, John, J.P., Carricklee House, Strabane. 

Hamilton, Sir James, J.P. (Reps, of), Waring Street, Belfast. 

Harland, Sir Edward J., Bart., J.P., Ormiston do. 

Hodges, John R, J. P., M.D., F.C.S., Queen's College, do. 

Hyndman, Hugh, LL.D., Waring Street, do. 

Henderson, James, Donegall Street, . do. 
Holford, T & A., Cern Abbas, Dorsetshire. 

Jackson, Thomas, C.E., Corn Market, Belfast. 

Jaffe, John, J. P., Donegall Square South, do. 

Jaffe, Otto, Donegall Square South, do. 
•Johnston, Sir William G., J.P., D.L., College Sq. North, do. 

Johnston, Samuel A., Jennymount Mill, do. 

Kennedy, James, Falls Road, do. 

Keegan, John J., High Street, do. 

*Kinghan, Rev. John, Altona, Windsor, do. 

Lanyon, Sir Charles, J.P., The Abbey, Whiteabbey. 

Lepper, F. R., Ulster Bank, Belfast. 

Lakin, Mr. John, Tamworth. 



Shareholders. 45 

Letts, Professor E. A., Queen's College, Belfast. 

Lytle, David B., Victoria Street, do. 

Lemon, Archibald D., J.P., Edgecumbe, Strandtown. 

•Macrory, A. J. (Representatives of), Ulster Chambers, Belfast. 
Mitchell, W. C, J. P., Tomb Street, do. 

•Mitchell, George T. (Representatives of), do. 

Montgomery, Thomas, J. P., Ballydrain do. 

Moore, James, J. P. (Representatives of), Dalchoolin, Craigavad. 
•Mulholland, Andrew, J.P., D.L. (Representatives of), Belfast. 
*Mulholland. J., J.P.,D.L., M.P., Bally waiter Park, Ballywalter. 
Mullan, William, J. P., Victoria Street, Belfast. 

Murney, Henry, J.P., M.D., Donegall Square East, do. 

Musgrave, James, J.P., Ann Street, do. 

Murray, Robert (Representatives of), Arthur Street, do. 

*Murphy, Joseph John, 2, Osborne Park, do. 

'Murphy, Isaac James, Armagh. 

Musgrave, Henry, Ann Street, Belfast. 

Musgrave, Edgar, Ann Street, do. 

Moore, James, Donegall Place, do. 

*M'Calmont, Robert, London. 
*M'Cammon, Thomas, Dublin. 

MClure, Sir Thomas, Bart., M.P., V.L., J.P., Belmont, Belfast. 
M'Cance, Finlay, J. P., Suffolk, Dunmurry. 
*M'Cance, J. W. S. (Representatives of), Suffolk, Dunmurry. 
*M'Cracken, Francis (Representatives of), Donegall St.. Belfast. 
MacAdam, Robert, College Square East, do. 

Macllwaine, Mrs. Jane (Representatives of), do. 

Macllwaine, Rev. Canon, D.D., M.R.I. A. (Representatives of), 
Mount Charles, Belf.m. 

•MacLaine, Alex., J. P., Queen's Elms, do. 

M'Gee, James, High Street, 
M'Neill, George Martin, Beechleigh, Windsor, do. 

Neill, John R., Holy wood. 

Patterson, E. Forbes, High Street, Belfast 

Patterson, Mrs. M. E., Ardmore Terrace, Holywood. 



46 Shareholders. 

Pirn, Edward W., High Street, Belfast. 
Pim, George C. (Representatives of), Corporation Street, do. 

*Pirrie, John M., M.D. (Representatives of), do. 

Purdon, Thomas Henry, M.D. (Representatives of), do. 

Patterson, William R., Lower Crescent, do. 

*Patterson, R. Lloyd, J.P., Corporation Street, do. 

Patterson, William H, M.R.I.A., High Street, do. 

Purser, Professor John, M.A., Queen's College, do. 

Porter, Drummond, Waring Street, do. 

Patterson, Richard, High Street, do. 

Patterson, David C, Corporation Street, do. 

Riddel, William, Ann Street, do. 

Rowan, John, York Street, do. 

Ritchie, W. B., M.D., J.P., The Grove, do. 
Ross, William A., J.P. (Representatives of), Clonard, Falls 

Road, Belfast. 

Rea, John Henry, M.D., Great Victoria Street, Belfast. 

Robertson, William, J.P., Bank Buildings, do. 

Simms, F. B., 39, Prospect Terrace, do. 

Sinclair, Thomas, M.A., J.P., Tomb Street do. 

Suffern, John, Windsor, do. 

Suffern, William, Windsor, do. 

Steen, Dr. Robert, Ph.D., Academical Institution, do. 
Smyth, John, jun., M.A., C.E., Milltown, Banbridge. 
Smith, Travers, Sandymount. 

Swanston, William, F.G.S., King Street, Belfast 

♦Tennent, R. J., J.P., D.L. (Representatives of), Rushpark, do. 

*Tennent, Robert (Representatives of), Rushpark, do. 

Thompson, Robert, J.P., Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Thomson, Charles, College Gardens, do. 
*Thompson, James, J.P., Macedon, Whiteabbey. 
*Thompson, Nathaniel (Representatives of). 

*Thompson, William (Representatives of), Belfast. 

*Turnley, John (Representatives of), do. 

Torrens, James, J.P., Wellington Place, do. 



Shareholders. 



47 



Valentine, James W., Custom House Square, Belfast. 

Valentine, G. F., The Moat, Strandtown, do. 

Workman, John, J. P., Windsor. 

Wilson, James, Old Forge, Dunmurry. 

Walkington, Thomas R , Waring Street, Belfast. 

Workman, William, Corporation Street, do. 

Workman, Rev. R., Newtownbreda. 

Wilson, John K., Donegall Street, Belfast. 

*Wilson, Robert M. 

*Workman, Thomas, Bedford Street, Belfast. 

Wallace, James, Ulster Bank, do. 

Ward, Fras. D., J.P., Bankmore, do. 

Wright, Joseph, F.G.S., Donegall Street, do. 

Workman, Charles, M.D., do. 

Workman, Rev. R., Glastry, Kirkcubbin. 

Walkington, D. B., Windsor, Belfast. 

Workman, Francis, College Gardens, do. 

Young, Robert, C.E., Donegall Square East, do. 

Young, Robert M., B.A., Donegall Square East, do. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 
Robinson, Hugh, Donegall Street, Belfast. 

Stewart, Samuel A., F.L.S., North Street, do. 

Tate, Professor Ralph, F.G.S., Adelaide, South Australia. 



ANNUAL GUINEA SUBSCRIBERS. 

Bruce, James, J.P., Calender Street, Belfast. 
Corry, Sir Jas. P., Bart., M.P., J. P., Dunraven, Windsor, do. 
Craig, James, J.P., Calender Street, do. 

Carr, James, Ulster Bank, do. 

Dinnen, John, Chichester Street, do. 

Dunville, Robert G., D.L., J.P., Calender Street, do. 

Glass, James, Bedford Street, do. 

Graham, O. B., J. P., York Street, do. 



48 Annual Subscribers. 

Loewenthal, J., Linenhall Street, Belfast. 

Lynn, William H., C.E., Calender Street, do. 

Lindsay, John, Donegall Place, do. 

Matier, Henry, J.P., Clarence Place, do. 

Milligan, S. F., I, Royal Terrace, do. 

Mulholland, J. R. T., J.P., do. 

Murray, Robert, Corporation Street, do. 

M'Auliffe, George, J. P., Calender Street, do. 

M'Causland, John K., Lennoxvale, do. 

Oakman, Nicholas, Prospect Terrace, do. 

Pring, Richard W., Corn Market, do. 

Redfern, Peter, M.D., Professor Queen's College, do. 

Reade, Robert H., York Street, do. 

Rogers, John, Victoria Street, do. 

Seeds, William, Corn Market, do. 

Stannus, A. C, Chichester Street, do. 

Taylor, Sir David, J.P., Windsor, do. 

Tate, Alexander, C.E., Queen's Elms, do. 

Taylor, John Arnott, M.A., Bridge Street, do. 

Watt, R., Victoria Street, do. 

Wolff, G. W., Queen's Island, do. 

Ward, John, F.G.S., Lennoxvale, do. 

Ward, Marcus J., Bankmore, do. 

Young, Samuel, Talbot Street, do. 



fi