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Full text of "Proceedings and reports"



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B E L IF .A. S T 



Natural flistopy and Philosophical Society 



FOR THR 



SESSIOX 1B35-8G. 




IJ K L F A S T: 

I'RIXTKD I!V Al.KXii. MAYXE & I?OVn, 2, CORTORATIOX STRKET 

(I'UiNKKs TO TiiK qikkn's colij:<;k). 




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OF THE 



B E L J'^A. S T 



Natural History and Philosophical Society, 



FOR THE 



SESSION 1885-86. 



BELFAST: 

TRINTED BY ALEXr. MAYNE & BOYD, 2, CORrORATION STREET, 
(PKINEKS TO THE QUEEn'S COLLEGE). 

188G. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Annual Report ... ... ... ... ... ••• 1 

Balance Sheet ... ... ... ... ... ••• ^ 

Donations to Museum ... ... ... .. ... ..- 5 

Presidential Address, by Mr. W. H. Patterson, M.R.I. A. ... ... 7 

Eastern Reminiscences — Aden, India, and Burmah, by Mr. Thomas 

Workman, J.P. ... ... ... .. ... ... 1'^ 

The New Bridge over the Firth of Forth, by Professor Fitzgerald ... 10 

Important Local Geological Discovery, by Mr. WUliam Swanston, F.G.S. 18 

A Human Skull found at Tillysburn ... ... ... ... 19 

An Experimental Fishing Tiip off the North and East Coasts of Ireland, 

by Mr. John Brown ... ... ... ... ... 20 

The Ancient Civilisation of Peru, including its Textile Industries, by 

Mr. F. MuUigan 21 

The Old Gate at Canickfergus ... ... ... ... ... 23 

The Old Cross at Dromore ... ... ... ... ... 23 

"Wet and Dry Weather, by Mr. Joseph John Murphy ... ... 24 

A Recent Visit to Tory Island, by Mr, R. Lloyd Patterson ... ... 27 

List of Office-Bearers ... ... ... ... ... ... 31 

List of Shareholders and Subscribers, ... ... ... ... 32 

Books Received ,.. ... ... ... ... ... 39 



lelfast !f atural f istory and Ihilosophical Society. 



ESTABLISHED 18S1 



SHAREHOLDERS. 

1 Share in the Society costs £7. 

2 Shares ,, ,, cost £13. 

3 Shares ,, ,, cost £21. 

The proprietor of 1 Share pays 10s. per annum ; the proprietor of 2 Shares 
pays 5s. per annum ; the proprietor of three or more Shares stands exempt from 
fiorther payment. 

MEMBERS. 

There are two classes, Ordinary Members, who are expected to read Papers, 
and Visiting Members, who, by joining under the latter title, aie understood to 
intimate that they do not wish to read Papers. The Session for Lectures extends 
from November in one year till May in the succeeding one. Members, Ordinary 
or Visiting, pay £1 Is. per annum, due 1st November in each year. 

PRIVILEGES. 

Each Shareholder and Member has the right of personal attendance at all 
meetings of the Society, and of admitting a friend thereto ; also of access to the 
Museum for himself and family, with the privilege of granting admission orders 
for inspecting the collections to any friend not residing in Belfast. 

Any further information can be obtained by application to the Secretary. 
It is requested that all accounts due by the Society be sent to the Treasurer, 



The Museum, College Square North, is open daily from 12 till 4 o'clock. 
Admission for Strangers, 6d. each. The Curator is in constant attendance, and 
will take charge of any Donation kindly left for the Museum or Library. 



BELFAST 

IRatural 1bi6tor^ an^ pbilosopbical Societv^ 



ANNUAL REPORT, 1886. 



The Annual Meeting of the Shareholders of the above named 
Society was held on the 3rd June, 1886, at three o'clock, in the 
Museum, College Square North. There were present : — The 
President, Mr. W. H. Patterson, M.R.I.A. ; Mr. R. L. Patter- 
son, J.P., F.L.S. ; Mr. Robert Young, C.E. ; Mr. Robert M. 
Young ; Mr. Thomas Workman, J.P. ; Mr. Wm. Gray, 
M.R.I.A. ; Mr. Wm. Swanston, Rev. John Kinghan, Mr. W. 
Meharg, and Mr. Isaac Ward. 

The Secretary (Mr. R. M. Young) read the report as follows : — 
" The Council of the Natural History and Philosophical Society, 
appointed by the shareholders at their annual meeting on the 
14th May, 1885, desire to submit their report of the working of 
the Society during the past year. The winter session was 
opened on November 3rd, 1885, with an address from your 
President, Mr. Wm. H. Patterson, M.R.I.A., the subject selected 
being ' The History and Legends of some Irish Lakes.' The 
second meeting was held on January 5th, 1886, when Mr. 
Thomas Workman, J. P., read a paper on ' Eastern Reminis- 
cences, Aden, India, and Burmah.' The lecture was illustrated 
by a series of admirable photographs and lantern views. The 
third meeting was held on February 2nd, 18S6, when Professor 
Fitzgerald read a paper on ' The Forth Bridge,' illustrated by 
a model and diagrams. Mr. Wm. Swanston, F.G.S., also gave 
a paper on 'Supposed Saurian Remains from the Antrim Chalk.' 
A short communication by Mr. John Anderson, J. P., F.G.S., 
on * A Human Skull Recently Found at Tillysburn,' was also 



read. The fourth meeting was held on March 2nd, f 886, when 
Mr. John Brown read a paper on ' An Experimental Fishing 
Trip off the North and East Coast of Ireland.' Mr. Seaton F. 
Milligan also gave a valuable paper on ' The Ancient Civilisa- 
tion of Peru, including its Textile Industries,' illustrated by a 
large collection of specimens of woven and dyed fabrics, patterns, 
personal ornaments, &c., excavated from the Huacas. Samples 
of modern artistic linen goods were also exhibited for comparison. 
The fifth meeting was held on April 6th, 1886, when Mr. 
Joseph J. Murphy, F.G.S., read a paper on ' Wet and Dry 
Weather,' and Mr. R. Lloyd Patterson, J. P., F.L.S., another on 
'A recent Visit to Tory Island,' illustrated by photographs. 
A short notice of some moths new to Ireland, by Rev. John 
Bristow, A.M., was also read. Owing to the Parliamentary 
general election falling about the same date, it was considered 
advisable to hold no meeting of the Society in December. In 
addition to these ordinary meetings, your Council arranged for 
a special series of popular scientific lectures similar to those 
given in former years. These were well attended, both by 
members of the Society, who were admitted free, and by the 
general public. The first of these special meetings was held on 
January 7th, t886, in St. George's Hall, when a lecture was deli- 
vered by the Rev. J. G. Wood, M.A., F.L.S., on ' Pond and Stream 
Life.' The second meeting was held on February 4th, 1886, 
when the Rev, W. S. Green, M. A., gave a lecture on ' My Adven- 
tures in the New Zealand Alps.' The concluding meeting of 
the series was held on March 4th, 1886, in the Ulster Minor 
Hall, when Mr John Greenhill, Mus. Bac, most kindly gave a 
lecture on ' Music : Its Science, Theory, and Practice,' with 
numerous experiments and illustrations. 

" It will be seen from the treasurer's report that the financial 
condition of the Society continues to show improvement. In 
addition to sale of new shares, all those available which had 
fallen into arrears within the last six or seven years have been 
transferred to new holders, who have paid all arrears, and will 
continue the subscriptions. The number of smaller societies 



holding their meetings in the Museum had also greatly in- 
creased. The balance now carried forward will, no doubt, 
enable the Council of next year to carry out some of the much 
needed work so often deferred for want of funds. 

" A list of donations to the Museum and of foreign and home 
societies, with other publications for the library, is to be printed 
with the present report The Council would thank the various 
donors for their valuable gifts, and particularly Lord Claremont 
for his thoughtful kindness in presenting six volumes of the 
Ray Society publications and other valuable books. Captain 
Robert Campbell, of the ship Slieve Donard, has also supple- 
mented his previous generous donations by further interesting 
specimens collected at foreign ports. 

" On Easter Monday the Museum was opened as usual at a 
nominal charge, and the attendance was, as is always the case, 
very large. 

" The ceiling in the lecture hall, having shown some defects, 
has been repaired, and some other improvements effected of a 
trifling kind. 

''The library having become overcrowded, arrangements are 
being made to increase the accommodation for books and 
pamphlets, of which a large number have been received during 
the year. 

'' Your Council now retire from office, and this meeting will 
be asked to select fifteen members to form a new Council." 






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DONATIONS TO THE MUSEUM, 1885-6. 



From Pearson Anderson Esq., Denver, Color.ado. 
Specimen of prairie dog or barking squirrel (Conomys Coluni- 

bianus), shot near Denver. 
From Captain Robert Campbell, Master of the Ship 

" Slieve Donard." 

One Malay fighting knife, one pair Afghan boots, one Burmese 

figure (idol), from the caves at Moulmain, one skin of 

wild cat, and the skin of the feet of an albatross. 

From Miss Grattan, Coolgreany, Fortwilliam Park. 

Craniometer used by the late John Grattan Esq., in his cranio- 

logical researches. 

From Mr. J. Kernahan, Glenavy. 
Two flint arrow-heads, found near Glenavy. 
From Captain \V. H. Lowry, Singapore. Per W. II. K. 

LowRY, Esq., Kh-lyleagh. 
One Indian snake preserved in spirits. 

From Captain M'Cance, J. P. Knocknagoney, Strandtown. 
Human skull found when excavating near the shore at Tillys- 
burn. 

From William Swanston, Esq., F. G. S. 
Collection of fossil fish remains (66 specimens, representing 36 
species) from the carboniferous limestone of Armagh, and 
a number of molluscan remains from the same beds. 
From James Turner, Esq., Mountain Bush. 
Portion of vertebral column of mososaurus from the hard chalk 
of White well. 
From Thomas Watson, Esq., Londonderry. 
Upper stone of an ancient quern, found at St. Johnston, Count}- 
Donegal. 
From Thomas Workman, Esq., J. P., Craigdarragh. 
Specimen of Gecko preserved in spirits. 



BEL F.A.ST 

NATURAL HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 
SESSION, 1885-86. 



3 rd November^ 1885. 



The President, Mr. W. H. Patterson, M.R.I. A., read a 

Paper on 

THE HISTORY AND LEGENDS OF SOME IRISH 
LAKES. 



The leading idea in olden times about a lake was that it came as 
an intruder to the place in which it rested, and that up to a certain 
period in the history of the country no lake was there. Regard- 
ing the origin of Lough Ovvel, in Westmeath, there is a legend 
which tells how a certain fairy or witch who presided over the 
fertile valley where Lough Owel now rests went on a visit to 
another witch, who lived in the County of Roscommon, near 
Athlone, and a very agreeable visit she had till near the end, 
when her heart became stirred up with envy of a fine lake that the 
Connaught witch had in her territory, for not only did the lake 
supply the owner with fish and wild fowl, but by means of it 
she was enabled to curse her enemies, a practice that witches 
have been fond of in all times. The cursing was managed by 
turning certain flat stones at the edge of the water, and ever as 
the ninth wave lapped over them she pronounced her maledic- 
tions. The Westmeath witch determined upon a bold step. 
She asked for the loan of the lake, saying she wished to see how 
well it would look in her own valley, and she promised that she 



8 

would return it on the very next Monday. The Connaught 
witch was willing to oblige. '' But how, dear, will you take it 
or send it back ? " she asked. " Oh, easy enough ; in my pocket- 
handkerchief," was the answer. And, sure enough, this was 
the way she managed ; and passing safely over Lough Ree and 
several trifling obstacles, such as rivers and mountains, with a 
slip of the corner of her handkerchief she let the lake out quietly 
into the valley of the Owel, where it settled itself as if it had 
been born and bred there, and there it may be seen to this 
day ; for the Westmeath witch snapped her fingers at her 
Connaught sister and flatly refused to bring the lake back. Of 
course there was a terrible row, but the end of it was that the 
lake was lost to Roscommon for ever, and the former owner 
had to content herself with as ugly a hollow as anyone ever 
saw, where once those sweet waters used to flow, all covered 
with limestone flags as waste as a graveyard. But the lough 
itself did not like to stay on the Leinster side of the Shannon, 
and so it sent forth two streams — one from its northern, and 
another from its southern end — both of which, bounding west- 
wards — and they are called by the people the gold and silver 
bands — stretched towards Connaught, forming the head waters 
of the Inney and the Brusna. 

However, the Ordnance Survey and the Geological Survey, 
having passed over the whole of the land, furnished some very 
clear ideas as to how the lakes of Ireland hav^e been formed. 
Professor Hull, Director of the Geological Survey, in his work on 
the physical geology of Ireland, says : — "All the lakes of Ireland 
may with great probability be classified, as regards their mode of 
formation, under the three following heads, viz. : — i, lakes of 
mechanical origin ; 2, lakes of glacial origin ; 3, lakes of chemical 
solution." Under the head of mechanical origin. Dr. Hull 
includes lakes " which, while they may have been modified in 
form by other agencies, are primarily due to the faults or dis- 
locations of the strata," and in that division he places Lough 
Neagh and Lough Allen, two remarkable examples of lakes 
formed in that way. 



Dr. Hull says : — ''The origin of Lough Neagh has been a 
subject of much speculation and of some mystery, because, being 
older than the glacial epoch, it cannot be referred to glacial 
agency, and, being situated on deposits other than limestones, 
it cannot be considered as the result of chemical solution. Its 
proximity to the old volcanic region of Antrim has naturally 
led to the inference that it was in some way connected with 
local sinking of the surface through volcanic agency. It was 
not, however, till the geological structure of the adjoining 
districts of Tyrone on one side, and Antrim on the other, had 
been accurately laid down on the maps of the Geological Survey, 
that a key to the history of its origin was found ; and Mr. W. 
E. T. Hardman, one of the officers of the Survey, has very ably 
applied the results of his examination of the district surrounding 
that lough to the determination of its mode of formation. Its 
northern portion is bounded by the miocene basalts of Antrim ; 
its southern, partly by alluvial tracts, partly by masses of drift 
resting on pliocene clays, which in turn overlie the triassic or 
carboniferous strata. Its length from north to south is fifteen 
miles, and its breadth twelve, giving an area of nearly one 
hundred and fifty square miles. The general depth is only from 
20 to 40 feet, gradually increasing towards the northern shore ; 
and the surface is 48 feet above that of the sea. Mr. Hardman 
shows that along the southern shores the pliocene clays origin- 
ally deposited under the waters of the lake rise to a level of 120 
feet above the sea, or 72 feet above the existing surface of the 
lake, showing how much greater the area of the lake must 
have been in this direction. 

" During the progress of the survey it was found that the strata 
on both sides of the lake are traversed by several large faults 
ranging in E. N. E. directions. One of these ranges through 
the basaltic plateau of Antrim by Templepatrick, where the 
vertical displacement is about 500 feet, the downthrow being 
on the south side. These faults are later than the basaltic 
sheets of the miocene age which they displace, and of older 
date than the pliocene clays, which are not affected by them. 



lO 

the ground having been smoothed down, and the inequalities 
caused by the dislocation of the beds having been worn away, 
by denuding agencies before the clays were deposited. It was 
to the depression of the surface through the agency of these 
faults that, according to Mr. Hardman, the formation of the lake 
is due. This lake, therefore, forms an illustration of a basin 
formed by the mechanical action of faults in the strata, assisted 
by the action of running water." 

Lakes of glacial origin are found in many parts of Ireland, but 
chiefly among mountain glens and in front of valleys. These 
lake-basins are hollow, scooped out of the rock by the action of 
ice passing over its surface, or else, as Dr. Hull has pointed out, 
" where moraine matter or boulder clay has been heaped up across 
a valley or hollow so as to form an embankment for the streams 
which enter the depression from above." The class of lakes which 
are due to chemical solution are chiefly found in the great central 
plain of Ireland, but they are met with in all limestone districts. 
They are, " strictly speaking, irregular hollows dissolved out of 
the limestone floor and filled with water." Dr. Hull says that 
in examining the form of these lakes of chemical solution, 
" from the manner in which they widen out in some places, and 
in others become contracted, it will generally be found that they 
spread themselves out over the ground formed of limestone, 
and contract where non-calcareous rocks form the bed and 
margin of the lake. Lough Derg is an illustration of this." 

Mr. Patterson then directed attention to the mention made 
in the " Four Masters" concerning the eruption of lakes, the 
first eruption being in the year of the world 2532. The passage, 
as translated by O'Donovan, reads — "The age of the world 
2532. The eruption of Loch Con and Loch Techet in this 
year." O'Donovan explains that Loch Con is a large lake in 
the barony of Tirauley, and County of Mayo. In the age of 
the world 3506 the eruption of a large number of the Irish lakes 
took place. Amongst these was Loch Laogh, the ancient name 
of Belfast Lough, and which means in Irish the Lake of the 
Calf. The early monkish writers translated the name into 



II 

Latin, and called it Lacus Vituli. In the concluding portion 
of the lecture Mr. Patterson brought under the attention of 
the meeting a most interesting collection of legends concerning 
many of the Irish lakes. There were two aspects in which the 
Irish loughs must be considered when looked at historically. 
In connection with the many invasions of Danes and North- 
men mention was made of the terrible sea fights that had often 
occurred. Such loughs as Foyle and Swilly, Larne and Belfast, 
Strangford and Carlingford, Waterford, Wexford, and the 
estuary of the Shannon, were so many open gates by which 
these sea rovers entered our country, and from whence they 
ascended by the river valleys to the more central parts of the 
island. The other aspect, which he could only mention, was 
that of the fortified islands, of which such numbers exist in 
the smaller Irish lakes, most frequently artificial ones, or cran- 
nogs. These crannogs were the strongholds of provincial chiefs. 
They were places of great security, and took the same place 
among the Irish as the stone castles of the Anglo Normans 
among the English of the Pale. 



12 



'^th January^ i< 



Mr. Joseph J. Murphy, in the Chair. 



Mr. Thomas Workman, J.P., read a Paper on 

EASTERN REMINISCENCES— ADEN, INDIA, AND 
BURMAH. 



Mr. Thomas Workman staled that his lecture was a con- 
tinuation of a former one, descriptive of his voyage to and residence 
in different parts of India and Burmah. He commenced by a 
description of the shores of the Red Sea, referring to the gorgeous 
colouring of the mountains which crown them. One of these 
mountains is the famous three-peaked Jebel Katharina, better 
known by its ancient name of Mount Sinai. The Red Sea, 
though fog or snow are utterly unknown and storms are very 
rare, is, nevertheless, one of the most dangerous seas known to 
navigators, and in it the seaman is never free from anxiety on 
account of the haze and mirage which prevail. At the island 
of Perim, where the Red Sea narrows to the straits of Bab-el- 
Mandeb, or the Gate of Tears, the hulls of many steamers may 
be seen along the shore as warning beacons to the careless navi- 
gator. Its name of Gate of Tears is said to have been given to 
it because of the disasters sailors met in its vicinity. A short 
distance round the projecting coastline from the straits of Bab- 
el-Mandeb is the port and town of Aden, which in Arabic means 
Paradise, though to the British traveller another name would 
seem more suitable. The town is situated in a valley — ap- 
parently the crater of an extinct volcano — and is surrounded by 



13 

mountains of volcanic trap, without vegetation. The water for 
the supply of the town is collected in the rainy season, in 
enormous tanks, formed by walls of concrete built across the 
lower ends of the valleys. In the Bay of Aden the weather is 
usually lovely. Many beautiful jelly-fish, of every possible hue, 
may here be seen " within the shadow of the ship " — 

" Blue, glossy green and velvet black, 
They coiled and swam, and every track 
"Was a flash of golden fire." 

The town and precincts of Colombo, in the island of Ceylon, 
are exceedingly interesting, both from the richness of the tropical 
scenery and the picturesqueness of the Kanarese, as the natives 
of Ceylon are called. The native boats, which are long and 
narrow, and have a curious outrigger to keep them from cap- 
sizing, have always attracted attention from the passing traveller, 
both from their peculiar construction and their great speed. The 
Mohammedans have a legend that the Garden of Eden was in 
heaven and not on earth, and that when Adam and Eve were 
cast out Adam fell on Adam's Peak, the highest mountain in 
Ceylon, where the mark of his foot can be seen at the present 
day to attest the truth of the legend. Eve, they say, fell some- 
where else, and she and Adam went about the world for 200 
years seeking for one another. Fortunately, by a happy accident, 
they met in the neighbourhood of Mecca, after an amount of 
journeying to which the wanderings of Evangeline were but a 
trifle. The lecturer next gave an account of a visit to the temple 
of Kali, at Calcutta, and a description of the effigies and pictures 
of this hideous goddess and her fabled attributes. Kali or Kali 
Ma — " the black mother," as she is called — is represented as a 
female with four arms. In one she holds a sword, in another 
the head of the giant Ravena, whom she has slain ; with the other 
two she is encouraging her worshippers. For earrings she has 
two dead bodies, and she wears a necklace of skulls. Her only 
clothing is a girdle made of human hands. She stands with one 
foot on the thigh and the other on the breast of her husband 
Siva. It seems impossible to realise that such a hideous figure 
could be an object of reverence or love to any human being. 



H 

The lecturer made some observations on the serious danger 
of a State education that refuses to deal with religion. Though 
the Hindu religion seems so terribly degrading that one might 
at first sight be inclined to say that no religion would be pre- 
ferable to it, yet it is a grave question whether human nature 
is not better with a religion of a very low type than without a 
religion at all, and, of course, when our scientific education 
comes to these people their present faiths must disappear, 
leaving nothing under the present system to take its place but 
blank atheism. 

The lecturer described his journey, after leaving Calcutta, 
to British Burmah, and his visits to the three principal 
towns — Rangoon, Bassein, and Moulmein. He was much im- 
pressed with the enormous size and magnificence of the Showay 
Dragon Pagoda, or great golden temple of Godama, at Rangoon. 
The area on which this pagoda stands is 800 feet square. The 
entrance is approached by an enormous flight of stairs, which 
is guarded by two huge mystical figures about fifty feet high, 
with blue heads and red mouths. The pagoda itself is a 
stupendous mass of solid masonry tapering gradually from an 
octagonal base, 1,355 square feet in extent, to a spire of small 
circumference, surmounted by the sacred '' tie " or umbrella, of 
open ironwork. The umbrella is said to be studded with jewels 
of very great value, and the whole building is one blaze of gold. 
The " Pooh Yees," or Buddish priests, dress in a long yellow 
garment, and live in monasteries called kouyns, made of wood, 
and richly carved. At Maybin, a village on the Irrawaddy, 
the mosquitoes are so fierce and numerous that large fires have 
to be lighted by the natives in the evening to keep them away, 
and even the horses and milch cows are sheltered by mosquito 
nets. The Burmese seem to lead a quiet, contented life, and, 
as far as one can judge, are fairly satisfied with the British rule. 
The women, unlike their sisters in India, are allowed much 
freedom by social custom, and many of them take an active and 
independent interest in business affairs, such as the sale of rice 
and other produce. 



15 

Mr. Robert L. Patterson, J. P., F.L.S., said they were all 
indebted to Mr. Workman for his interesting lecture. Mr. 
Workman did not appear to have ventured very far into the 
interior, but the information he had been able to gather was 
particularly interesting just now, as the attention of everybody 
in this country had lately been attracted to the action of the 
British Government in Burmah, and in annexing upper Bur- 
mah, in order to put an end to the misrule, the bloodshed, 
and the cruelty that had obtained there. A friend of his who 
visited Burmah last year told him a rather curious circum- 
stance, which, in connection with what they had heard 
that evening, it might not be uninteresting to repeat. Mr. 
George Burns, of Glasgow, being in Burmah, wished to pay a 
visit to Mandalay, but was informed that the journey was not 
unattended with some risk. However, he determined to go. 
He discovered that on the Irrawaddy navigation could only be 
carried on by day, as the river was not lighted and was full of 
obstructions. The journey occupied ten or eleven days. One 
night they observed a curious object on the shore at some dis- 
tance from the water edge, and on their going near it they 
were horrified to find that it was a man who had been crucified 
that morning. He (Mr. Patterson) was unaware until he 
learned this that the horrible punishment of death by crucifixion 
obtained in any country, even in an uncivilised country, at 
the present day. The man crucified was a dacoit or robber, 
who, as a rule, scrupled little about committing murder for the 
purpose of accomplishing their ends. After the dacoit was 
crucified he had been speared to death, and the vultures were 
at the time gathering to pick his bones. Mr. Burns, when in 
Mandalay, had an interview with the Prime Minister, but he 
was not given an interview with the King. Mr. Burns de- 
scribed the country as being very fertile, and was of opinion 
that it only required a strong and stable government to bring 
it to a state of civilisation, in order to make it a good customer 
of ours. Such a government, he hoped Burmah would have 

in the future. 



i6 



2)rd February^ i! 



Mr. W. H. Patterson, M.R.I.A., in the Chair. 



Professor Fitzgerald read a Paper on 

THE NEW BRIDGE OVER THE FIRTH OF FORTH, 

Which is now in process of erection. 



Having stated briefly the greater difficulties which presented 
themselves in the task of bridging the Forth than even those 
which had proved so seriously formidable in the Tay, Prof. 
Fitzgerald said that the former work when finished will be the 
largest girder bridge in the world, there being no other bridge of 
that class having so wide a span. The engineer, Mr, Baker, had 
very considerable difficulties in selecting a design that could be 
actually carried out. The great difficulty to be dealt with in 
constructing bridges of long span is the weight of the bridge 
itself. By means of steel, though not steel of the ordinary kind, 
being more like fine wrought iron, that primary difficulty was 
overcome. In large bridges the weight increases faster than 
the strength, and the advantage of steel is that it gives greater 
strength than iron, with the same weight. The entire length 
of the new bridge will be about one mile, and the main span 
1,700 feet. The Admiralty required that the bridge should be 
150 feet above the water. The depth of the water itself is 
150 feet. The foundations rest on solid rock in some parts, 
and in others in a peculiar clay. 

The lecturer then entered into a detailed description of the 



17 

character of the foundations and the process by which they 
were laid. He showed that every test to provide for resistance 
to wind pressure was being applied. The main span is sup- 
ported by two huge piers — one at Inchgarney Island — each 
pier being composed of four towers as large as four ordinary 
martello towers rolled into one. Having described the plan 
followed in the forming of the piers and the supports carrying 
the girders, the Professor, in order to illustrate by a familiar 
example the extraordinary dimensions of the bridge, supposed 
an observer standing at the Methodist College looking at a 
bridge extending to the military barracks in North Queen 
Street, the rail-level being as high again as the Albert Memorial. 
He also applied a map of the Boyne Viaduct to the map of the 
Forth Bridge, and it was seen that the entire of the former 
structure could be easily accommodated within the main span 
of the latter. The cost of the new bridge will be about 
;^ 1, 600, 000, and the work will probably be completed at the 
end of two years from the present time. 



18 



2,rci February ^ 1886. 



The President, Mr. W. H. Patterson, M.R.I.A., in the Chair. 



William Swanston, Esq., F.G.S., read a Paper upon an 
IMPORTANT LOCAL GEOLOGICAL DISCOVERY. 



Mr. Swanston stated that the notes he had been requested 
to bring forward referred to a fossil that had been found 
some time since in the white limestone, or chalk, quarry 
at Whitewell, and which had now been presented to the 
Museum by the proprietor (Mr. Turner, of Mountain Bush). 
The fossil was portion of the vertebral column of a huge reptile, 
known to the geologists as Mosasatirus gracilis, of Owen, and 
whose nearest living representative is the crocodile. Mosasaiirus 
gracilis belonged to a family of giants, remains of specimens 
having been found that must have measured fully 25 feet 
in length ; while its better known relative, Mosasaiirus princeps^ 
attained the extraordinary length of 75 feet. The first record 
of our species as British was made by Dr. Mantell, in his 
"Geology of the South-East of England." Detached frag- 
ments have from time to time since been found in English 
and Continental strata, and from these it has been pretty 
clearly made out that the creature's head formed about one- 
sixth of its entire length, in which respect it resembled the 
crocodile, but in the shortness of its tail and other respects it 
was^altogether unlike it. From the examination of its remains 
it can be pretty safely conjectured that it was aquatic and 
possibly marine'jn its habits. Its feet were paddle-like in form 
— more adapted for swimming than for progression on land ; 



19 

its vertebral column, too, from its apparently extreme flexibility, 
would tend to confirm this view. The specimen on the table 
was extremely interesting, as being — so far as can be traced — the 
first fragment from Irish strata, and from the additional reason 
that it tends to confirm the view long since advanced that our 
chalk may be considered as perhaps the highest member of the 
cretaceous system in the British Islands, and most nearly 
correlated with the chalk of Maestricht, in Belgium, in 
which this species attained its maximum of development, and 
which is considered the highest known zone of the cretaceous 
system. 



A HUMAN SKULL FOUND AT TILLYSBURN. 

Mr. Robert M. Young, B.A., read a communication from Mr. J. 
Anderson, J.P., Holywood, regarding a human skull which had 
been found on the 17th January by Captain M'Cance, J.P., 
about eighteen inches below the surface of the slob, some ten 
or twelve yards inside the railway embankment, and immediately 
at the foot of Captain M'Cance's windmill. 

Dr. Malcomson, taking the skull in hand, stated to the 
meeting that the skull was apparently that of a man sixty years 
of age, and had been dead for probably fifty years. Although 
it had been suggested that some violence was used to the person 
who owned the skull, he did not think there was any mark to 
justify that opinion. 



20 



2nd March j886. 



Mr. W. Swanston, F.R.G.S., in the Chair. 



Mr. John Brown read a Paper on 

AN EXPERIMENTAL FISHING TRIP OFF THE 
NORTH AND EAST COASTS OF IRELAND. 



Mr. Brown said that in 1882 he purchased a small steam vessel 
for the purpose of trawling off the Irish coasts. He had tried 
most of the trawling grounds along the coast from St. John's 
Point to Innishowen Head, but without sufficient success on 
the whole to warrant a continuation of the enterprise. Lough 
Foyle and the banks outside it were perhaps the best places he 
had tried. He referred to the decadence of fishing in Belfast 
Lough, and believed it was due to the trawling on the upper 
flats and banks in the lough, by which large quantities of small 
fish were taken, which brought only a nominal price, and such 
fish were prevented from attaining maturity in the lower portion 
of the lough. He suggested that one or other of the scientific 
societies of Belfast should take this matter up, obtain evidence 
from the fishermen, and, if desirable, take steps to have the 
upper part of the lough closed to trawlers. 

The paper was suitably illustrated with nets and other fishing 
tackle suspended in the room. 



21 



2nd March ^ 1886. 



Mr. W. Swanston. F.R.G.S., in the Chair. 



Mr. Seaton F. Mulligan read a Paper on 

THE ANCIENT CIVILISATION OF PERU, INCLUD- 
ING ITS TEXTILE INDUSTRIES. 



Mr. Mulligan illustrated his lecture with a very interesting 
and valuable collection of woven and dyed fabric patterns and 
personal ornaments. This collection of Peruvian antiquities 
was brought to Ireland by a friend of the lecturer, whose 
duties as an engineer in Peru gave him opportunities to gratify 
his archaeological taste, and in so doing to make excavations in 
the ancient Huacas of the people who inhabited that country 
in ante-Columbian times. Having given a sketch of the 
civilisation of the ancient Peruvians, the lecturer said he 
had been requested to compare our modern productions with 
the ancient fabrics of Peru. There are some lessons to be 
learned from those ancient fabrics, and there are lessons to 
be learned from our foreign competitors in the same field. 
The Ulster manufacturers have not yet got the linen trade of 
the world entirely to themselves, and it would be well to know 
what their opponents are doing. The ancient cloths seem to 
have been finished in the most perfect manner. How different 
from the fustian of the present day. A very few years ago 
Manchester goods were almost unsaleable in the India and 



22 



China markets, for the natives found their home-made calicoes 
much better, and the outcry that was raised at the time taught 
the Manchester manufacturers that honesty was the best policy. 
During the American war the linen trade in Belfast was parti- 
cularly good. Cotton could not be procured, and linen had to 
make up the deficiency. To supply the place of domestic calico 
a kind of half bleached linen was introduced. No doubt, so far 
as home consumption was concerned, a splendid opportunity 
was lost of placing the linen trade on a more extended basis. 
When cotton again became plentiful it was bought in preference 
to linen. It seemed to him that we do not sufficiently introduce 
art in connection with our local linen manufacture, the bulk of 
our production being plain goods. This did very well so long 
as a good demand existed for white goods, but unfortunately 
the white linen trade has been a decreasing one. As far as his 
experience goes, in the home trade there is not one piece of 
white linen sold in Ireland for the dozen pieces sold twenty five 
or thirty years ago. People now order their shirts from the 
manufacturers, and the latter have introduced a variety of other 
fabrics which have taken the place of linen. The peasantry of 
Connaught, who are very conservative in the matter of cloth- 
ing, are the only people in the country who to any extent wear 
white shirts. He had brought with him a variety of samples 
of linen goods, and goods made of linen and cotton, in which a 
considerable amount of skill and artistic taste was displayed. 
These goods are made in Germany, and are sold by the 
agents of German houses both in England and Ireland. The 
Germans are now pushing the English manufacturers very 
close in many things. There is in this country a favourable 
opening for dress fabrics in linen, and mixtures of linen and 
cotton. For some time past the Irish people have given the 
preference to home made goods of a suitable kind. There has 
not been much done in Belfast in this direction yet, and he 
thought there would be a considerable outlet if some good 
designs were introduced. 



*3 

THE OLD GATE AT CARRICKFERGUS. 

On the motion of Mr Gray, seconded by Mr. Mulholland, it 
was resolved that this Society co-operate with the Naturalists' 
Field Club in opposing the intended action of the Grand 
Jury to remove the old gate at Carrickfergus. 



THE OLD CROSS AT DROMORE. 

The Chairman intimated that he had received from one of the 
Dromore Town Commissioners a letter stating that the old cross 
of that town would be preserved in the changes that were about 
to be made, and that the wishes of the Naturalists' Field Club 
in the matter were being carried out. 



24 

dih April, 1886. 



The President, Mr. W. H. Patterson, M.R.I.A., in the Chair. 



Mr. Joseph John Murphy, read a Paper on 
WET AND DRY WEATHER. 



The treatment of the subject was chiefly based on some pub- 
lications by Dr. Hann, printed in the journal of the Austrian 
Meteorological Society. 

The motive power of all winds ultimately consists in the heat 
of the sun. When one region becomes warmer than another, 
as, for instance, land heats more rapidly under the sun than 
water, or bare ground than ground covered with vegetation, 
the air flows upward over the heated space, and a wind is formed 
by the inflow of air along the surface of the earth ; just as the 
fire in a room draws the air towards it in a draft along the 
floor. The trade winds consist of such a draft towards the 
warm regions of the equator. 

Storms, as distinguished from mere winds, are due to the 
condensation of watery vapour in ascending currents of air. 
When air flows upward the pressure on it from the air above is 
diminished, because of the less thickness of the aerial strata 
above it ; the diminution of pressure causes expansion, and the 
expansion produces cold, whereby the heat that was latent in the 
vapour is liberated : — and though when vapour is condensed 
into water the volume of the water is destroyed, yet this is com- 
pensated for four or five times over by the liberated heat expand- 
ing the air ; which expansion increases the force of the ascending 
current, and the consequent indraft of wind at its base. The 
motive power of storms is thus steam power. But storms would 
not be produced but for another agency, namely, the earth's 
rotation ; which, though it has no power whatever to set a wind 
in motion, has a most important modifying influence on winds, 
as is to be explained further on. 



*5 

The pressure of the atmosphere on the earth is equal to that 
of an ocean of quicksilver thirty inches deep, and it is a fact 
which from its familiarity does not excite the wonder due to it, 
that this atmospheric ocean is liable to be disturbed by waves, 
which, as the barometer shows, sometimes attain to a height of 
at least one fifteenth of its depth. Regions of high barometer 
are generally those of fine weather, and regions of low barometer 
those of wet weather, because in the latter ascending currents 
of air are formed, which are due to the pressure of the air in 
the neighbouring regions of high barometer. These as they 
ascend become cooled, and condense the watery vapour which 
they contain into clouds and rain. At the equator, where the 
rain-fall is very great, the fluctuations of the barometer are very 
slight, and it would be the same in all parts of the world were 
it not for the deflecting effect of the earth's rotation. The 
simplest instance of this effect is that, as theory and observation 
alike show, in the northern hemisphere a cannon ball fired at a 
sufficiently distant mark strikes a point a little to the right of 
the mark. In the southern hemisphere the corresponding de- 
flection is to the left ; and at the equator, where the earth has 
no rotation in relation to an axis vertical to the horizon, there 
is no deflection. The deflection is caused by the earth moving 
in its rotation under the cannon ball ; the cannon is in fact fired 
at a moving mark ; — and in the same way, the earth rotating under 
a current of wind deflects the wind in the northern hemisphere 
to the right ; so that every north wind tends to become an east 
wind, and every south wind tends to become a west wind. 
In the southern hemisphere, this effect is of course reversed. 
This effect of the earth's rotation on the winds was first pointed 
out by Professor Dove, of Berlin, forty or fifty years ago, and 
is called Dove's Law ; but Mr. Murphy said he believed Dr. 
Hann had been the first to see the full importance of this law. 
Theory and observation alike show that the fluctuations of the 
barometer increase as the distance from the equator increases. 
They are almost nothing at the equator. At a latitude of 65 
the average monthly fluctuation is nearly an inch and a half. 



26 

When the most powerful ascending current, and consequent 
indraft, are set up at the equator, no storm is produced ; but 
when the same occurs far enough from the equator to enable 
the earth's rotation to have effect, every current of air as it flows 
in towards the centre is deflected to the right (or, in the southern 
hemisphere, to the left), and thus a vortex, or cyclone, is formed, 
with a rotatory velocity which may be very much greater than 
the original velocity of indraft. This may be illustrated by 
filling a wash-hand basin with water, removing the plug at the 
bottom, and then giving the water a slight rotatory impulse 
with the hand, when the water will begin to rotate with an 
impulse very much greater than the force with which it was set 
in motion. The mechanics of such a water vortex, or whirlpool, 
closely resemble those of a cyclone or revolving storm ; — the 
ascending current at the centre of the storm corresponds to the 
current out through the hole in the bottom of the water basin. 
Although the earth's rotation in relation to an axis vertical to the 
horizon is less in tropical than in European latitudes, yet the 
storms of the tropics are more violent, in consequence of the 
greater steam power of the atmosphere, due to the hotter 
climate. On the equator, however, cyclones are not found, 
because there the earth's rotation does not deflect the wind, 
either to right or to left. 

Dr. Hann has made a mathematical examination of the 
observed data of some European storms, which shows that the 
barometric gradient — that is to say the ratio of the difference 
between the height of the barometer at different places to the 
distances between those places — is greater than is due to the 
centrifugal force generated by the rotation of the storm, and he 
infers that the excess is due to the deflecting force of the earth's 
rotation. 

Mr. Murphy concluded by expressing the opinion that the 
origin of those fluctuations of the barometer, or barometric 
waves, which accompany and bring storms, is to be found in 
the inter-action of currents of air flowing side by side in opposite 
directions, modified by the earth's rotation. 



27 



6th April, 1886. 



The President, Mr. W. H. Patterson, M.R.I.A., in the Chair. 



Mr. Lloyd Patterson, J. P., F.L.S., read a Paper on 
A RECENT VISIT TO TORY ISLAND. 



Some merchants and shipowners of Derry, prominent among 
whom was Mr. James M'Neil, of that city, conceived the idea 
that it would be a very important matter, not only for the 
shipping interest, but also for the country at large, that a 
telegraph and signal station, connected by sub-marine cable 
with the telegraph system of the United Kingdom, should be 
established at Tory Island to report passing vessels, being able 
to communicate with the mainland in case of any shipping 
disaster or peril, and for such and kindred purposes generally. 
A meteorological station was also spoken of. Now, as to the 
value of the signal station there can hardly be two opinions. 
Situated, as the island is, off the north-west coast of Donegal, 
it lies in the track of all vessels going north about from any 
port in the United Kingdom to any port in America. It is the 
last land they see on their outward voyages, and often the first 
land they make on their homeward runs. A number of wrecks 
formerly took place on the island, but these have greatly 
diminished since the erection there, in 1832, of what was then 
considered a very fine lighthouse. This lighthouse, one of the 
usual tower shape, and of enormous strength, is pretty lofty ; 
its lantern, a powerful one, stands 122 feet above the high-water 
level of the sea, and is visible at a distance of seventeen or 



28 

eighteen miles in fair weather. The Commissioners of Irish 
Lights have been improving and re-erecting lighthouses at 
various important points round the coasts, and Tory is now 
having their attention. But I am unable to say whether or not 
this had been decided on prior to the loss of the gunboat Wasp 
on the island on the 22nd September, 1884. This melancholy 
event, by which no fewer than 52 persons lost their lives, 
directed much attention to this lonely island, and invested it 
with a melancholy interest at the time of our visit. Had a 
powerful siren, such as has lately been erected on Ailsa Craig, 
been then in existence at Tory to warn off vessels in thick 
weather when the light cannot be discerned, the loss of that 
vessel and so many of her gallant crew might have been averted. 
Well, it was to awaken more general interest in the establish- 
ment of such a signal station, the utility of which, both from 
a practical and humane point of view, I think, had been 
demonstrated, that Mr. M'Neil organised the trip to the island, 
in which it was my good fortune (as representing, at the request 
of its President, my friend ]\Ir. Megaw, the Belfast Chamber of 
Commerce) to take part. After glancing briefly at the early 
history of the island, Mr. Patterson went on to give an account 
of his personal experiences of the place, as related by him 
shortly after the visit in the columns of the Northern Whig. 
Referring to the vicissitudes which the inhabitants of the 
island have suffered from time to time, he said in unfavourable 
seasons it is next to impossible for the small amount of arable 
land to produce food enough for even a small population. In 
recent years more than once the people were reduced to the 
verge of starvation. On one occasion a severe gale swept 
immense waves over the island, and carried the greater portion 
of the crop of corn, which had been partially cut, but not housed, 
into the sea, washed the potatoes out of the ground, and 
rendered the fresh water undrinkable ; and on other occasions 
a more or less partial failure of the crops left the poor people 
partially dependent on the outside world for the supplies which 
nature denied them at home. 



29 

Kelp burning was formerly carried on on the island to a 
considerable extent. This product of the sea, fresh out of the 
strong, deep waters of the North Atlantic, was rich in iodine, 
and found a ready market at remunerative prices in the great 
chemical works at Glasgow, to which port it was conveyed by 
the Sligo steamer calling off the island. But the demand for 
kelp has fallen off, and prices have become so low that it is no 
longer produced, and the island can export little now except 
lobsters, as it is difficult to get a quick market for perishable 
fresh fish, such as mackerel. 

There are about fifty houses or families and about 350 or 360 
inhabitants on the island. In 1841 the population was returned 
at 391 males and 200 females, and at that time there were 
eighty inhabited houses. Speaking of the social condition of 
the people, he said — There is not a policeman in the place, and 
there seems to be little or no social distinction as among the 
people themselves. Till lately there was a " King " of Tory, 
so called because the other islanders acknowledged his authority 
and bowed to his decisions in the settlement of disputes ; but 
since the decease, now some years ago, of the last monarch, the 
authority in such matters seems to have passed into the hands 
of the resident Catholic curate, the island being in the parish of 
Cloughnahuly, on the mainland of Donegal. The parish priest 
here. Rev. Mr. M'Fadden, has two curates, each of whom, it is 
said, takes about a six months' turn on the island and then on 
the mainland. 

The people pay no taxes. A few years ago the grand jury of 
Donegal proposed to levy county cess on the island — a gross 
injustice, as the people make, practically, no use whatever of 
the roads and bridges of the mainland, and they have none of 
their own to keep in repair. This unreasonable demand was 
not persisted in. The rent question is different. The rental 
of the island, including one penny per annum for the gracing 
of each sheep, used to be about ^240 a year. When good 
prices were no longer obtainable for kelp the people were 
unable to pay their former rents, and made, through their 



30 

clergyman, an offer of ^loo a year to the present proprietor of 
the island, the Rev. B. St. John Joule. This offer the agent 
declined ; and since then, five or six years ago, the people have 
paid no rent at all, and do not apparently expect to have to pay 
any more. T have a copy of some very acrimonious cor- 
respondence that passed between the landlord and others on 
this subject. The matter seems to have ended — at least for the 
present — in the landlord's rights being entirely set aside. 

Before concluding, let me take a brief glance at the island. 
Its surface, including three small lakes, two of them brackish, 
comprises about 1,200 acres, of which perhaps less than one-sixth 
may be under cultivation. Of wild quadrupeds there are only 
two — the rabbit and the common mouse — found. There are 
no reptiles — not even a frog ; and except the sea fowl in the 
breeding season, when they are numerous, not many birds, and 
those almost exclusively ground or cliff breeding birds, as there 
is not a tree and hardly a bush on the island for the arboreal 
species. I saw some wheatears, buntings, sparrows, and pipits, 
grey crows, and starlings — the two latter probably visitors from 
the mainland. The storm petrel still breeds there ; but, from 
what I could gather, not in the same numbers as they were 
found by Mr. Hyndman and his companions in 1845. The 
person I was speaking to about them knew the birds quite well, 
and called them " Mother Carey's Chickens." There are a 
good many poultry and domestic animals on the island; among 
these some small sized horses, which are used sometimes with 
panniers, one suspended on each side, or sometimes in carts 
without wheels, " slipe" carts as they are called. The shafts of 
these carts are lengthened backwards, and drag along the 
ground. Mr. Patterson concluded a highly interesting paper 
by relating a humorous story by the Rev. John Brown con- 
cerning the introduction of the horse into Tory. 

A number of photographs, taken by Mr. Stelfox during the 
visit, were exhibited. 






Officers and Cowicil of Management for 1 88^-6. 

W. n. PATTERSON, Esq., M.R.I.A. 
'^icc-'g'rcstbenfs : 

EGBERT Macadam, Esq. I Prof. E. A. LETTS, Ph.D. 

THOMAS WORKMAN, Esq , J.P. i JOSEPH WRIGHT, Esq., F.G.S. 

"treasurer : 

JOHN BROWN, Esq., 

^librarian : 
THOMAS WORKMAN, Esq., J.P. 

§ccref aru : 
ROBERT M. YOUNG, Esq., B.A., 

gouncif : 
PROFESSOR E. A. LETTS, Pn. D. 
PROFESSOR R. 0. CUNNINGHAM, M.D. 
W. H. PATTERSON, Esq., M.R.I.A. 
ROBERT Macadam, Esq. 
PROFESSOR J. 0. EVERETT, F.R.S. 
R. L. PATTERSON, Esq., J.P., F.L.S. 
THOMAS WORKMAN, Esq., J.P. 
ROBERT YOUNG, Esq., C.E. 
JOSEPH WRIGHT, Esq., F.G.S. 
JOHN BROWN, Esq. 
J. H. GREENIIILL, Esq., Mcs. Bac. 
JOSEPH JOHN MURPHY, Esq. 
WILLIAM SWANSTON, Esq., F.G.S. 
JAMES WILSON, Esq., M.E. 
R. M. YOUNG, Esq., B.A. 



32 



si3:.A.i?,Eia:oLiDE:E?,s. 

[* Denotes holders of three or moi-e Shares'] . 

*Alexander, James, J.P. (Representatives of), Holywood. 
Allen, R. H., Mus. Bac, College Green, Belfast. 

Anderson, John, J. P., F.G.S., Hillbrook, Holywood. 
Andrews, Elizabeth, College Gardens, Belfast. 

Andrews, George, Ardoyne, do. 

Andrews, Samuel, J.P., Seaview, do. 

Archer, Henry, Orlands, Carrickfergus. 

Barbour, James, Ardville, Marino. 

*Batt, Thomas G. (Representatives of), Stranmillis, Belfast. 

Bland, Robert H., Woodbank, Whiteabbey. 

Bottomley, Henry H., Hughenden, Fortwilliam Park, Belfast. 

*Bottomley, William, J.P., do. 

Boyd, William, Great Victoria Street, do. 

Boyd, William Sinclair, Ravenscroft, Bloomfield, do. 

Brett, Charles H., Gretton Villa South, Malone Road, do. 

Bristow, James R., The Park, Dunmurry. 

Brown, John Shaw, J.P., Edenderry House, Belfast. 

Brown, John, Jun., Bedford Street, do. 

Brown, William K., Rushmere, do. 

Burden, Henry, M.D., Alfred Street, do. 

Burnett, John R., Martello House, Holywood. 

Calwell, Alex. M'D., College Square North, Belfast. 

*Campbell, Miss Anna, Howard Street, do. 

Campbell, John, Lennoxvale, do. 

Carson, John, Church Lane, do. 

*Charley, John (Representatives of), Finaghey, do. 

*Charters, John (Representatives of), do. 

Clarke, Edward^H., Elmwood^House, do. 
*Claremont, Lord, Ravensdale Park, Newry. 
Coates, Victor, J.P., Rathmore, Dunmurry. 



33 

Connor, Charles C, Nottinghill House, Belfast. 

Crawford, William, Calender Street, do. 

Cuming, James, M.A., M.D., Wellington Place, do. 

Cunningham, Robt. O., M.D., F.L.S., College Gardens, do. 

•Deramore, Lord, D.L., Belvoir Park, do. 

*Donegall, Marquis of. 

*Downshire, Marquis of, Hillsborough Castle. 

Drennan, John S., M.D., Prospect Terrace, Belfast. 

*Drummond, Dr. James L. (Representatives of), do. 

Duffin, Charles, J.P., Strandtown Lodge, do. 

Emmerson, William, Donegall Quay, do. 

Everett, Joseph D., M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., Lennoxvale. do. 

Ewart, Lavens M., J.P., Glenbank House, do. 
Ewart, William, J.P., M.P., Glenmachan House, Strandtown. 
Ewart, William Ouartus, Schomberg, Strandtown. 

Pagan, John, M.D., F.R.C.S.I., Glengall Place, Belfast. 

*Fenton, Samuel G., J.P., Windsor, do. 

Ferguson, Henry, M.D., Fisherwick Place, do. 

Finlay, William Laird, Arlington, Windsor, do. 

Finlay, William Laird, Jun. (Representatives of), do. 

Fitzgerald, Professor Maurice, Botanic Avenue, do. 
Forsythe, Robert H., Holywood. 

*Getty, Edmund (Representatives of), Belfast. 
Girdwood, H. Mercer, Broughton Maxwell, Manchester. 

Gordon, Alexander, M.D., Fitzroy Avenue, Belfast. 
Gordon, Robert W., J.P. Summerfield, Dundonald. 
*Grainger, Rev. Canon, D.D., M.R.LA., Broughshanc, Bally- 

mena. 

Gray, William, M.R.LA., Mountcharles, Belfast. 

Greenhill, John H., Mus. Bac, Richmond Terrace, do. 
Greer, Thomas, J. P., Seapark, Carrickfergus. 

♦Hamilton, Hill. J.P. (Representatives of), Mountvernon, Belfast. 

Hamilton, Sir James, J.P. (Representatives of), do. 



34 

Harland, Sir E. J., Bart., J.P., Ormiston, Strandtown, Belfast. 

Heburn, William, Clonard Mill, do. 

Henderson, Miss Anna S., Windsor Terrace, do. 
Henderson, James, A.M., Norwood Tower, Strandtown, do. 

Henderson, Robert, High Street, do. 
*Henry, Alexander, Manchester. 
Herdman, John, J.P., Carricklee House, Strabane. 

*Herdman, John (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Heyn, James, A.M., Ulster Chambers, do. 

Hind, James (Representatives of), do. 

Hind, John, J.P., do. 

Hind, John, Jun., College Street South, do. 
Hodges, John F., M.D., F.C.S., J.P., Derryvolgie Avenue, do. 

Hogg, John, Academy Street, do. 
Holford, Thomas & Arthur, Cern Abbas, Dorsetshire. 

♦Houston, John Blakiston, J.P., D.L., Orangefield, Belfast. 

Hyndman, Hugh, LL.D., Livingstone Terrace, do. 

Inglis, James, Abbeyville, Whiteabbey. 

Jackson, Thomas, C.E., Altona, Strandtown, Belfast. 

JaflFe, John, J.P., Edenvale, Strandtown, do. 

JaflFe, Otto, Canadian Villas, Strandtown, do. 
*Johnson, Sir William G., J. P., D.L., College Square North, do. 
Johnston, Samuel A., Dalriada, Whiteabbey. 



Keegan, John J., Brooklyn, Holywood. 
Kennedy, James, Richmond Lodge, 
Kennedy, William, College Park East, 
*Kinghan, Rev. John, Altona, Windsor, 



Belfast. 
do. 
do. 



Lanyon, Sir Charles, J.P., The Abbey, Whiteabbey. 
Lemon, Archibald Dunlop, J.P., Edgecumbe, Belfast. 

Lepper, F.R., Ulster Bank, do. 

Letts, Professor E. A., Ph.D., F.C.S.,Viewmount, Windsor, do. 
Lytle, David B., University Square, do, 



35 

*Macrory, A.J. (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Malcolm, Bowman, Richmond Crescent, do. 

Meharg, James, Ardlussa, do. 

*Mitchell, George T. (Representatives of), do. 

Mitchell, W. C, J.P., Ardilea, do. 

Montgomery, Thomas, J.P., Ballydrain House, do. 

Moore, James, J. P. (Representatives of), Craigavad. 

Moore, James, College Gardens, Belfast. 

*Mulholland, Andrew, J. P. (Representatives of), do. 

Mulholland, John, J.P., D.L., Ballywalter Park. 

Mullan, William, Lindisfarne, Marlborough Park, Belfast. 

Murney, Henry, M.D., J.P., Donegall Square South, do. 

*Murphy, Isaac James, Armagh. 

*Murphy, Joseph John, Osborne Park, Belfast. 

Murray, Robert Wallace, J. P., Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Musgrave, Edgar, Drumglass, Malone, do. 

*Musgrave, Henry, Drumglass, Malone, do. 

Musgrave, James, J.P., Drumglass, Malone, do. 

MacAdam, Robert, College Square East, do. 

*M'Calmont, Robert, London. 

*M'Cammon, Thomas, Dublin. 

M'Cance, Finlay, J. P., Suffolk, Dunmurry, 

*M'Cance, J. W. S. (Representatives of), Suffolk, Dunmurry. 

M'Clure, Sir Thomas, Bart., J.P., V.L., Belmont, Belfast. 

*M'Cracken, Francis (Representatives of), Donegall Square, do. 

M'Gee, James, High Street, do. 

M'Gee, Samuel Mackey, Clifton Park Avenue, do. 

*MacIlwaine, Mrs, Jane (Representatives of), Ulsterville, do. 

*MacIlwaine, John H., Brandon Villa, Strandtown, do. 

MacLaine, Alexander, J. P., Queen's Elms, do. 

M'Neill, George Martin, Beechleigh, Windsor, do. 

Neill, John R., Roseville, Windsor, do. 

Patterson, David C, Craigavad. 
Patterson, Edward Forbes, Holywood. 



36 

Patterson, Mrs. M. E., Ardmore Terrace, Holywood. 
Patterson, Richard, J.P., Kilmore, Holywood. 
*Patterson, Robert Lloyd, J.P., F.L.S., Croft House, Holywood. 
Patterson, William H., M.R.I.A., Garranard, Strandtown, 

Belfast. 

Patterson, William R., College Park East, Belfast. 

Pim, Edward W., Elmwood Trrace, do. 

*Pirrie, John M., M.D. (Representatives of), do. 

Porter, Drummond, Botanic Avenue, do. 

Purdon, Thomas Henry, M.D., Wellington Place, do. 
Purser, Professor John, M.A., M.R.I.A., Queen's College, do. 

Rea, John Henry, M.D., Great Victoria Street, do. 

Riddel, William, J.P., Beechmount, do. 

Ritchie, William B., M.D., J.P., The Grove, do. 

Robertson, William, J.P., Netherleigh, Strandtown, do. 

Robinson, John, St. James' Crescent, do. 

Rowan, John, York Street, do. 

Shillington, Thomas Foulkes, Castleton Park, do. 

Simms, Felix Booth, Prospect Terrace, do. 

Sinclair, Thomas, M.A., J.P., Hopefield, do. 

Smith, John, Castleton Terrace, do. 

Smith, Travers, Sandymount, do. 
Smyth, John, Jun., M.A., C.E., Milltown, Banbridge. 

Steen, Robert, Ph.D., Academical Institution, Belfast. 

SuflFern, John, Windsor, do. 

Suffern, William (Representatives of), do* 

Swanston, William, F.G.S., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

*Tennent, Robert (Representatives oO, Rushpark, do. 
*Tennent, Robert James, J. P., D.L. (Representatives of), 

Rushpark, Belfast. 

Thomson, Charles, College Gardens, Belfast. 
*Thompson, James, J P., Macedon, Whiteabbey. 
*Thompson, Nathaniel (Representatives of). 



57 

Thompson, Robert, J.P. (Representatives of, Fortwilliam Park, 

Belfast. 
*Thompson, William (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Torrens, Mrs. Sarah H., Edenmore, Whiteabbey. 
*Turnley, John (Representatives of;, Belfast. 



Valentine, G. F., The Moat, Strandtown, 
Valentine, James W., Cromwell Terrace, 



do. 
do. 



Walkington, D. B., Thornhill, Malone. 

Walkington, Thomas R., Laurel Lodge, Strandtown, 

Wallace, James, Ulster Bank, 

Ward, Francis D,, J.P., Clonaver, Strandtown, 

Ward, Isaac W., Colin View Terrace, 

Wilson, James, Old Forge, Dunmurry. 

Wilson, John K., Marlborough Park, 

*Wilson, Robert M., Dublin. 

Workman, Charles, M.D., Newton Terrace, Glasgow. 

Workman, Francis, College Gardens, 

Workman, John, J.P., Windsor, 

Workman, Rev. Robert, Glastry, Kirkcubbin. 

Workman, Rev. Robert, Newtownbreda, 

*Workman, Thomas, J.P., Craigdarragh, 

Workman, William. Nottinghill, 

Wright, Joseph, F.G.S., York Street, 



Belfast, 
do. 
do. 
do. 

Belfast. 



Belfast. 
do. 

Belfast, 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Young, Robert, C.E., Rathvarna, 
*Young, Robert Magill, B.A., Ardgreenan, 



Belfast. 
do. 



HONORARY ASSOCIATES. 



Robinson, Hugh, Clive Villas, 
Tate. Professor Ralph, F.G.S. 
Australia. 



F.L.S. 



Belfast. 
Adelaide, South 



3B 

ANNUAL GUINEA SUBSCRIBERS. 

Bruce, James, J. P., D.L., Thorndale House, Belfast. 

Carr, James, Rathowen, Windsor, do. 

Corry, Sir James Porter, Bart., J.P., M.P., Dunraven, Windsor, 

Belfast. 
Craig, James, J.P., Craigavon, Strandtown. 
Dunville, Robert G., J. P., D.L., Redburne, Holywood. 
Glass, James, Carradarragh, Windsor, Belfast. 

Graham, O. B., J.P., Larchfield, Lisburn. 

Lowentha], J., Ashley Avenue, Belfast. 

Lynn, William H., C.E., R.H.A., Crumlin Terrace, do. 

Marsh, John, Glenlyon, Holywood. 

Matier, Henry, J.P., Dunlambert, Fortwilliam, Belfast. 

Milligan, Seaton Forrest, Royal Terrace, do. 

Mulholland, J. R. T., J.P., Northumberland Street, do. 

Murray, Robert, Corporation Street, do. 

M'Auliffe, George, J.P., Southbush, Greenisland. 
Oakman, Nicholas, Prospect Terrace, Belfast. 

Pim, Joshua, Slieve-na-Failthe, Whiteabbey. 
Pring, Richard W., Firmount, Fortwilliam Park, Belfast. 

Reade, Robert H., Wilmont, Dunmurry. 
Redfern, Professor Peter, M.D., F.R.C.S.L., Lower Crescent, 

Belfast. 
Rogers, John, Windsor Avenue, Belfast. 

Ross, William A., The Ivies, Craigavad. 
Stannus, A. C, Greenisland. 

Taylor, Sir David, J.P., Bertha, Windsor, Belfast. 

Taylor, John Arnott, M.A., Drum House, Dunmurry. 
Tate, Alexander, C.E., Longwood, Whitehouse. 
Watt, R., C.E., Victoria Street, Belfast. 

Webb, Richard T., Greenisland. 

Wolflf, G. W., The Den, Strandtown, Belfast. 

Young, Samuel, Huntly Villas, Derryvolgie Avenue, do. 



39 



LIST OF BOOKS RECEIVED DURING THE YEAR. 



Adelaide. — Transactions, Proceedings and Report of the Royal 
Society of South AustraHa, 1885. The Society. 

Berlin. — Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde. Vol. 
12, nos. 4, 5,6, 7, 8, 9, ID, 1885. Vol. 13, nos. i, 2, 
3, 4, 1886. The Society. 

Bologna. — Rendiconto delle session! delle, R. Accademia della 
Scienze, 1884-85. The Society. 

Boston, U. S. A. — Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural 
History. Vols. 22 and 23, 1884-85. The Society. 

Science Observer. Vol, 4, 47, no. 11. The Editor. 

Bremen. — Abhandlungen vom Naturwissenchaftlichen Vereine. 

Vol. 9, part 2, 1885 ; part 3, 1886. The Society. 

Breslau. — Zeitschrift fiir Entomologie, (new series), part 10, 
1885. The Society. 

Brighton. — Inaugural Addresses, Brighton and Sussex Natural 
History Society, 18S4-85. The Society. 

Annual Report of the Brighton and Sussex Natural 
History Society, 1885. The Society. 

Brussels. — Bulletin de la Societe Royale de Botanique de 
Belgique. Vol. 24, part i, 1885. The Society. 

Comptes-Rendu de la Societe Entomologique, 3rd series, 
nos. 57 to 72, 1885. The Society. 

Comptes-Rendu de la Societe Royale de Botanique de 
Belgique. Vol. 24, part i, 1885. The Society, 



40 

Brussels — Continued. 

Annales de la Societe Malacologique de Belgique. Vol. 
13,1878; 14, 1879; 15. 1880; 18, 1883; 19, 1884. 
Proces Verbaux des Seances. Vol. 14, 1885. 

The Society. 

Buenos Ayres. — Academia Nacional de Ciencias, Actas. Vol. 
5, part 2, 1884 ; Boletin, Vol. 8, parts 2 and 3, 1885. 

The Society. 

Calcutta. — Geological Survey of India, (Palaeontologica 
Indica), series 4, vol. i ; series 10, vol. 4 ; series 10, 
vol. 3, parts 7 and 8 ; series 13, part 4, fas. 5 ; series 
13, vols. I and 5 ; series 14, vols, i and 3, 1885. 
Records vol. 18, parts 2, 3 and 4 ; records vol. 19, parts 
I and 2 ; Memoirs, vol. 21, parts 3 and 4. The Survey. 

Cambridge, U. S. A. — Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. Vol. II, no. ii, 1885 ; vol. 12, no. I, 2, 3, 
4, 1886; Annual Report, 1884-85. The Society > 

Cardiff. — Report and Transactions of the Naturalists' Society. 
Vol. 16, 1884-85. The Society. 

Cordoba. — Boletin de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias. Actas 
vol. 5, part 1, 1884 ; vol. 7, part 4, 1885. The Society. 

Christiania. — Forehandlinger i Videnakabs Selskabet, for 1884. 
Do. Do. 1885. 

The Society. 

Danzig. — Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft. New 
Series, 6th book, parts 2, 3, 1885-86. The Society. 

Dublin. — Royal Dublin Society's Transactions. Vol. 3, series 2, 
parts 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1884-85 ; Proceedings, vol. 4, 
parts 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1884-85 ; Proceedings, vol. 5, parts 
I, 2, 1886. The Society. 

Edinburgh. — Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical 
Society. Vol. 15, part 2, 1885 ; vol. 16, part i, and 2, 
1886. The Society. 



41 

Emden. — Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 69th year, 1883-84; 
70th year, 1884-85. The Society. 

Essex. — Transactions Essex Field Club. Vol. 4, part i, 1885. 
Journal of Proceedings, 1885 ; Appendix. The Society. 

Florence. — Bulletino della Societa Entomologica Italiana, 
Trimestri, i, 2, 3, 4, 1884 ; Statuto, 1885. The Society. 

Genoa. — Giornale della Societa di Letture e Conversazioni 
Scientifiche. Anno 9, {Fasc), i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1885 ; 
anno 9, 2° Semestre, {Fasc.\ 6, 1885 ; supplement to 
{Fasc.)s anno 9, 1° Semestre, {Fasc), i, 2, 1886. 

GiKSSEN. — Oberhessischen Gesslleschaft for Natur-und Heil- 
kunde, 23 vol, 1884. The Society. 

Glasgow. — Proceedings and Transactions of the Natural 
History Society. Vol. 5, part 3, 1882-83 ; vol., i, 
(N.S.; part 2, 1883-4-5. Index, vols, i to 5, 1 1884 
and 2 1886. The Society. 

Proceedings Philosophical Society. Vol. 16. The Society. 

KoLOZSVART. — Magyar Novenytani Lapok. (8 evfolyam), 1884, 
and (9 evfolyam), 1885. The Society. 

Lausanne. — Bulletin de la Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Natur- 
elles. 2nd series, vol. 21, no. 92, 1885 and no. 93, 
1886. The Society. 

Leipzig. — Sitzungsberichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 
nth year, 1885. The Society. 

Liverpool. — Proceedings of the Literary and Philosophical 
Society. Vol. 38, for 1883 and 1884. The Society. 

London. — Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. Series 
2, vol. 5, parts I, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, 1885 ; series 2 vol. 
6, parts I and 2, 1886 ; 49a index. The Society. 



42 

London — Continued. 

Zoological Society's Proceedings. Parts i, 2, 3, and 4, 
1885. The Society. 

Illustrations of British Fungi, by M. C. Cooke. Nos. 31 
to 41, 1885. Lord Clermont. 

On some recently discovered Insecta from Carboniferous 
and Silurian Rocks, by Herbert Goss, F.L.S. 

The Author. 

Ray Society, Allman's Freshwater Polyzoa, 1856; Cetacea 

1866; Allman's Hydroids, part i, 1871 ; Allman's 

Hydroids, part 2, 1872 ; M'Intosh's Monograph of the 

British Annelids, part i, The Nemerteans, 1873; P^^t 

2, The Nemerteans, continued, 1874. 

Lord Clermont. 

Manchester. — Transactions of the Manchester Geological 
Society. Sessions 1885-86; parts 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 13, 
14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 1885-86. The Society. 

Melbourne. — Proceedings of the Victorian Branch of Geo- 
graphical Society, 1886. The Society. 

Moscow. — Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale Des Naturalistes. 
No. 4, 1884. The Society. 

New York. — Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. 
Nos. I and 2, 1885. The Society. 

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 3, 
parts 7, 8, 1885. 

Transactions of same. Vol. 3, 1885-86 ; vol. 5, no. i, 
1885-86. The Society. 

Odessa. — Memoirs of the New Russian Society of Naturalists. 
Vol. 9, parts I, 2, 3, 1884. The Society. 

OsNABRUCK. — Sechster Jahresbericht des Naturwissenschaft- 
lichen Vereins, 1883-84, 1885. The Society. 



43 

Padua. — Bulletin, Societa Veiieto Trentina di Scienze Naturali. 
Vol. 3, no. 3, 1885 ; Atti, vol. 9, ( Fasc.) 2, 1885. 

The Society. 

Philadelphia (U.S.xA..) — Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences. Nos. i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1862 ; nos. i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
1865 ; nos. I, 2, 1881 ; no. 3, 1882 ; part i, 2, 1885. 

The Society. 

Pisa. — Atti Delia Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali Processa 
Verbali. Vols. 4 and 5, 1885-87. The Society. 

Richmond (Indiana, U.S.A.)— Bulletin of the Brookville Society 
of Natural History, 1885. The Society. 

Rio de Janeiro. — Conference Faite au Museum National, 1885. 

The Society. 

Rome. — Atti dcUa Realle Accadeniia dei Lincei. Series 4, vol. 
I, parts 10 to 18, and 20 to 26 ; 27, 28, 1885. 
Do. Vol. 2, {Fasc), i, 3> 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1886. 
Osservazioni Meteorologiche, 1885. The Society. 

Sondershausen — IrmischiaKorrespondenzblattdesBotanischen 

Vereins fur Thuringer. Parts 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 
12, 1885. The Society. 

Stockholm. — Das Gehororgan der Wirbelthiere, von Gustaf 

Retzius. Vol. 2, 1884. The Author. 

Academia Royale des Sciences Handlunger, (Memoirs). 

Vols. 18, 19, 1S80, parts i, 2, 1881. 
Bihang, (Supplement to the Memoirs). Vol. 6, parts i, 

2 ; vol. 7, parts i, 2, 1885 ; vol. 8, parts i, 2, 18S0-S4. 
Ofversigt, (Bulletin), 1881, 1882, 1883. 
Lefnadsteekningar, (Biographies) of Members. Vol. 2, 

part 2, 1883. The Society. 

Stuggtart. — Europaische Fauna oder Verzeichnung der Wir- 
belthiere Europa's. Vol. i and 2 ; by Dr. Ilcinrich 
Schinz, 1840. Lord Clermont. 



44 

Toronto. — Proceedings of the Canadian Institute. Vol. 2, 
part 2, 1884 ; and vol.3, part 3, 1886. The Society. 

Venice. — Notarisia Commentarium Phycologium, Vol. i,nos. 
I and 2, 1886. The Society. 

Vienna. — Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich Koniglichen Zoolo- 
gischbotanischen Gesellschaft. Vol. 35, ist half year ; 
vol. 35, 2nd half year, 1885. The Society. 

Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich Koniglichen Geolo- 
gischen Reichsanstalt. No. i to 18, 1885 ; no. i to 16, 
1886. The Society. 

Annalen des Kaiserlich Koniglichen Naturhistorischen 
Hofmuseums. Band i, nos. i, 2, 1886. The Society. 

Mittheilungen des Ornithologischen Vereins, Nos. 1 
to 18, and 20 to 32, 1885 ; i no. 1886 ; Section fiir 
Geflugelzucht, 2nd year, nos. i to 26. The Society. 

Warwick. — Annual Report of the Warwickshire Natural His- 
tory and Archaeological Society, 1884-85. 

The Society. 

Proceedings of the Warwickshire Naturalists' and Arch- 
aeologists' Field Club, 1884. The Club. 

Washington. — Report of the Department of Agriculture, 1884. 

The Department. 

Geological Survey. 4th Annual Report, 1882-83. 

The Survey. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. Vols. 24 and 

25, 1885 ; Annual Report, 1883. The Society. 

Bureau of Ethnology. 2nd Annual Report, 1880, 1881, 

1883 ; 3rd Annual Report, 1881, 1882, 1884. 

The Society. 

Zurich. — Vierteljahrschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft. 
26th year, 4 parts, t88i ; 27th year, ], 2, 3 and 4 parts, 
1882 ; 28th year, i, 2, 3 and 4 parts, 1883 ; 29th year, 
I, 2, 3 and 4 parts, 1884. The Society.