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Full text of "Proceedings and reports"


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OF THE 



B E L F .A^ S T 

NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



FOR THE 



SESSION 188e-87 




BELFAST: 

PRINTED BY ALEXR. MaYXE & BOYD, 2 CORPORATION STREET. 

(printers to THR OrP.EN'S COLLEGE.) 



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OF THE 



B E L F -A. S T 



NATURAL HISTOR! & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



FOR THE 



SESSION 1886-87. 



BELFAST-: 

PRINTED BY ALEXR. MAYNE & BOYD, 2 CORPORATION STREET. 

(printers to the queen's college.) 

1887. 



CONTENTS. 



Annual Report ... ... ... ... ... ... o 

Balance Sheet ... ... ... ... ■•• ••. 13 

Donations to Museum ... ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Books Received ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Some Later Views respecting the Irish Round Towers, by William H. 

Patterson, Esq., M.R.I.A. ... .. ... ... 20 

Eastern Reminiscences, China and Manilla, by Thos. Workman, Esq., J. P. 28 

Power and its Transmission, by Alex. B. Wilson, Esq. ... ... 34 

A Question Concerning tlie Antrim Gravels, by Rev. Canon Grainger, 

D.D., M.R.I.A. . . ... ... ... ... 39 

Recent Archaeological Explorations in Co. Sligo, by Seaton Forrest 

Milligan, Esq. .. ... ... ... ... ... 40 

Technical Education and our Methods of Promoting it, by Wm. Gray, 

Esq., M R.I.A. ... ... ... ... ... ... 55 

Sewage Disposal and River Pollution, its Present and Future Aspects 
from a Sanitary and Economic Point of View, by W. H. Hart- 
land, Esq., C.E. ... ... ... ... ... C9 

Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena, by Professor E. A. Letts, Ph.D., 

F.C.S. 74 

Some Account of the Whale and Seal Fisheries Past and Present, by 

R. L. Patterson, Esq., J.P., F.L.S. ... ... ... 112 

Epidemic Diseases : Can They be Stamped Out ? by Conway Scott, 

Esq., B.E. ... ... ... ... ... ... 115 

List of Office-Bearers ... ... ... .. ... ... 118 

List of Shareholders and Subscribers ... ... ... ... 119 



ISelfast !f atural Ifistory and philosophical Society. 



EST ABIjISHE! JD 18S1. 



SHAREHOLDERS. 

1 Share in the Society costs £7. 

2 Shares ,, ,, cost £14. 

3 Shares ,, ,, cost £21. 



The Proprietor of 1 Share pays 10s. per annum ; the proprietor of 2 Shares 
pays 5s. per annum ; the proprietor of three or more Shares stands exempt from 
further payment. 

Shareholders only are eligible for election on the Council of Management. 

MEMBERS. 

There are two classes, Ordinary Members, who are expected to read Papers, 
and Visiting Members, who, by joining imder the latter title, are understood 
to intimate that they do not wish to read Papers. The Session for Lectures 
extends from November in one year tiU May in the succeeding one. Members, 
Ordinary or Visiting, pay £1 Is. per annum, due first November in each year. 

Each Shareholder and Member has the right of personal attendance at all 
meetings of the Society, and of admitting a friend thereto ; also of access to the 
Museum for himself and family, with the privilege of granting admission orders 
for inspecting the collections to any friend not residing in Belfast. 

Any further information can be obtained by application to the Secretary. 
It is requested that all accounts due by the Society be sent to the Treasurer. 



The Museimi, College Square North, is open daily from 12 till 4 o'clock. 
Admission for Strangers, 6d. each. The Curator is in constant attendance, and 
will take charge of any Donation kindly left for the Museum or Library. 



BELFAST 

Natural 1bi6tor^ anb pbilosopbical Society, 



ANNUAL REPORT, 1886 



The Annual Meeting of the Shareholders in this Society was 
held on June 17th, 1887, in the Museum, College Square 
North. Mr. W. H. Patterson, President, occupied the chair. 
There were also present :— Messrs. R. M. Young, R. L. Patter- 
son, J.P. ; James Henderson, J. J. Murphy, R. Young, John 
Greenhill, E. F. Patterson, Joseph Wright, William Gray, 
William Swanston, James Meharg, Thomas Workman, James 
Thompson, J.P. ; and James Wilson. 

Mr. R. M. Young, Hon. Secretary, read the notice convening 
the meeting. He also read the Annual Report of the Council, 
which stated : — 

" The Council of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical 
Society appointed by the Shareholders at their Annual Meet- 
ing on June 3rd, 1886, desire to submit their Report of the 
working of the Society during the past year. 

" The Winter Session was opened on November 2nd, 1886, with 
an address from your President, Mr. W. H. Patterson, M.R.I A., 
the subject selected being " Some Later Views respecting the 
Irish Round Towers." The second meeting was held on 
December 7th, 1886, when Mr. Thomas Workman, J. P., read 
a paper on " Eastern Reminiscences: China and Manilla." The 
lecture was illustrated by a fine series of photographic and 
lantern views. The third meeting was held on January 4lh, 
1887, when Mr. A. B. Wilson gave a paper on " Power." The 
Rev. Canon Grainger, D.D., M.R.I.A., read a short paper 
entitled " A Question on the Antrim Gravels," illustrated by a 



6 Annual Report. 

collection of Irish and other antiquities. The fourth meeting 
was held on February ist, 1887, when Mr, Seaton F. Milligan 
read a valuable paper on " Recent Archaeological Explorations 
in the County Sligo," illustrated by a series of lime-light views, 
maps, and antiquities. The fifth meeting was held on March 
1st, 1887, when Mr. William Gray read a paper on "Technical 
Education, and our Methods of Promoting it." The sixth 
meeting was held on March 9th, 1887, when Mr. W. H. 
Hartland, R.E.C.E,, gave a paper on " Sewage Disposal and 
River Pollutions ; its present and future aspect from a sanitary 
and economical point of view," illustrated by practical experi- 
ments upon the treatment of sewage. The seventh meeting 
was held on April 5th, 1887, when Mr, R. Lloyd Patterson, 
J.P., F.L.S., read a paper entitled " Some Account of the 
Whale and Seal Fisheries, past and present ;" and Mr. Conway 
Scott, B.E., another on " Epidemic Diseases : Can they be 
stamped out ? " 

" In addition to these ordinary meetings, your Council made 
arrangements to continue the special series of Popular Scientific 
Lectures, similar to those given in former years. These have 
been very well attended, both by the Members of the Society 
(who were admitted free) and by the general public. They 
have also proved successful pecuniarily. This satisfactory result 
must be attributed to the kindness of the lecturers, who so 
generously placed their services at the disposal of your Council. 
The first of these special meetings was held on December loth, 
1886, in the Young Men's Christian Association Hall, Welling- 
ton Place, when Mr. Henry Seebohm, F,L.S., London, gave a 
lecture on his "Adventures in Siberia." At the special request 
of the Council, Mr. Seebohm kindly consented to give a second 
lecture, subject " The Migration of Birds," in the same hall on 
December 13th, 1886. The third meeting was held on Feb- 
ruary 2nd, 1887, in the Ulster Minor Hall, when Mr. W. J. 
Finlayson, of Johnstone, Renfrewshire, gave a lecture on '* Pho- 
tography," illustrated by a large number of fine photographic 
views taken by himself. The fourth meeting was held on Feb- 
ruary 23rd, 1887, in the Ulster Minor Hall, when the Rev. W. S. 



Afinua/ Report. 7 

Green, M.A., delivered a lecture on " A Dredging Cruise in the 
Atlantic," illustrated by a large number of original lantern slides. 
The concluding meeting of the series was held on March 17th, 
1887, in the Ulster Minor Hall, when Professor E. A. Letts, 
Ph.D., gave a lecture on " Fermentation and Kindred Pheno- 
mena," fully illustrated. Mr. James Meneely, Belfast, kindly 
lent his powerful lantern and his services for both Mr. Finlay- 
son's and the Rev. Mr, Green's lectures. 

"The financial condition of the Society, as may be seen from 
the Treasurer's report, continues to show steady improvement. 
Your Council have let the room known as the Library to the 
Ulster Medical Society for one year, from ist November, 1886, 
reserving due access to the books for the Society's members at 
all times. The number of smaller societies holding their 
meetings in the Museum show no signs of decrease. The con- 
siderable balance now carried forward will, no doubt, enable the 
Council of next year to carry out the various much-needed 
improvements so often deferred for want of funds. 

"A list of donations to the Museum, and of publications from 
the various leading Philosophical and Scientific Societies 
throughout the world, is printed with the present Report. 
The Council desire to thank the various donors for their valuable 
gifts, and particularly Captain Robert Campbell, of the ship 
*' Slieve Donard," who has again supplemented his previous 
generous donations by presenting a number of rare East Indian 
fishes and butterflies. 

"Your Council arranged this year to have the .Museum opened 
on Easter Saturday and Tuesday, in addition to Easter Mon- 
day, at a nominal charge. Some friends, including the Ulster 
Amateur Photographic Society, Messrs. J. Browne, J. M. M'Gee, 
and T. F. Shillington, lent valuable exhibits, which had the 
effect of increasing very considerably the number of visitors 
and the receipts. 

"The ceilings of some of the rooms have been thoroughly 
repaired. A new book-case has been added to the library. The 
Librarian has had the books carefully catalogued for some time, 
and your Council would suggest the advisability of having the 



8 Annual Report. 

catalogue printed, so as to bring the books more under the 
notice of the scientific public. A more pressing requirement, 
however, is the question of printing the catalogue of Irish 
antiquities, which would add very much to the interest of the 
fine collection in the possession of your Society." 

The Chairman, in the absence of Mr. Brown, Hon. Trea- 
surer, read the financial statement, which showed a balance in 
favour of the Society of jf 6 2 9s. 2d. 

Mr. Henderson said he had great pleasure in moving the 
adoption of the Report read by their Secretary, and also of the 
Treasurer's statement of accounts. He was very much gratified 
at the Report, and he thought they had reason to congratulate 
themselves individually, and Mr. Young, their Secretary, in 
particular, on the very large number of lectures that were 
delivered during the past year, on their varied character, and 
their general excellence. He must ask the members to receive 
his apology for not coming far oftener to those lectures ; but 
really when one has two or three meetings to attend in a week, 
to come to a fourth is a little too much, and he found it 
utterly impossible to attend more than once a month. He had 
been present at two of the lectures during the year, and there 
were some present who could support him when he said that 
they were well delivered and most interesting ; while the 
subjects discussed were calculated to benefit all who were 
of an inquiring turn of mind. Mr. Young, their Secretary, 
was kind enough to invite him (Mr. Henderson) to deliver 
a lecture on his trip to America ; but he asked Mr. Young 
to excuse him from doing so, as he hoped to go back and visit 
that wonderful part of the country towards San Francisco. 
He thought the two together would make a better lecture 
than merely half the journey. The Treasurer's statement 
was exceedingly satisfactory. It quite surprised him to find 
an institution of that kind having a balance of £62 odd. 
He trusted that those much-needed improvements, which it 
was not necessary to enumerate, would be successfully carried 
out, and that at next year's meeting thev would be able to con- 
gratulate the members on the improved appearance of the 



Annual Meeting. 9 

building. He had much pleasure in moving the adoption of 
the Reports. 

Mr. William Gray, in seconding the motion, said he could 
heartily endorse what had been said with reference to the value 
of the papers brought before the Society itself, as well as the 
special lectures. Indeed, the Society deserved the thanks of 
the public for having enabled them to hear special lecturers of 
great ability. The ordinary papers were interesting to the 
members of the Association, but the special lectures were of 
great value to the general public. Those delivered during the 
year were exceedingly interesting. It was rather unfortunate 
that they were obliged to change the place in which those 
lectures were delivered, but he hoped it would not be long until 
they would have an appropriate room provided by the town. 
They had been very successful in providing a place for kindred 
societies, such as the Naturalists' Field Club, who had been long 
entertained in that establishment, as well as the Photographic 
Society and the Medical Society. He believed they were carry- 
ing out the views of the original promoters in giving every 
facility to kindred societies to carry on their operations. 

Mr. Robert Lloyd Patterson stated that he very cordially 
and warmly agreed with what had fallen from Mr. Gray with 
regard to the advantage derived by the Society, and the instruc- 
tion given to the public by means of the series of scientific 
lectures which had been delivered during the year. The fact 
of the lectures being public gave persons not connected with 
that Society an opportunity of hearing some of the best- 
known men on different departments of science. He returned 
his sincere thanks to Mr. Seebohm, of London, who had 
delivered two lectures in Belfast ; and he wished to take that 
opportunity of saying that he saw Mr. Seebohm in London last 
week, and told him that they looked with great pleasure on 
his recent visit to this town. Mr. Seebohm said it was his 
intention to pay a visit to Africa, and get more information 
about his favourite subject — the migration of birds. " He (Mr. 
Patterson) requested Mr. Seebohm to pay Belfast another visit, 
and although he did not say definitely that he would accede to 



10 Annual Meeting. 

the request, he did not say that he would not come. Mr. 

Seebohm told him that he looked back with feelings of pleasure 
on his late visit to Belfast, and said he was sure he would 
experience the same pleasure if he came amongst them again. 
The Report and statement of accounts were adopted. 

PRESENTATION OF A PORTRAIT. 

At the conclusion of the Annual Meeting the members met 
in the lower room for the purpose of receiving from Mr. Richard 
Hooke a portrait which he had painted of the late Mr. James 
Macadam, a former President of the Society. 

Mr. JosEi'H John Murphy, who presided, explained the 
purpose for which they were met. The late Mr. James Mac- 
adam was one of the founders of that Society, and he was a 
gentleman to whom that Museum owed much. At the fiftieth 
anniversary of the Society Mr. R. L. Patterson gave an 
interesting account of its history, and among the names of the 
seven original members was that of Mr. James Macadam, whose 
portrait had been painted by Mr. Hooke, who was now about 
to present it. The late Mr. Macadam continued a member up to 
his death, in 1861. He was one of the best of our geologists, 
and had a great knowledge of local geology. He contributed 
many valuable specimens to that Museum. The Chairman then 
called upon the artist to present the portrait. 

Mr. Richard Hooke, who was well received, said when he 
first thought of presenting that small gift to the Society he had 
not the slightest expectation that he should be prominent in 
the matter. He was anxious to secure for the portrait a favour- 
able position in the light, which was very willingly granted. 
However, when their courteous and energetic Secretary inti- 
mated that there was a desire that he should personally present 
the portrait, he felt very happy at being able to come and meet 
some of the distinguished members of that Society. It was 
not necessary that he should say more than that he felt very 
happy at having it in his power to make the presentation of a 
portrait of one of their most eminent men. He had been 
employed a quarter of a century ago by the present Mr. Robert 



Amtual Meeting. 1 1 

Macadam to paint some portraits of his family, and a small 
photograph of the subject of the painting was given to him to 
enlarge. He made that a specimen portrait, which was a 
necessary thing for all artists to have. It was hung at the 
Manchester Exhibitions, and he dare say had he sent it to 
London it would have been given a place in the Academy. 
The style was rather out of fashion, and that made it suitable 
for a museum. The date of the painting was 1863, and it was 
now as fresh and bright as it was when painted. 

Mr. W. H. Patterson stated that, as the late President, he 
had the pleasure of accepting the portrait on behalf of the 
Society, and of thanking Mr. Hooke most warmly for having 
presented it. Not only had the picture expression, but it gave 
an idea of the late Mr. Macadam's size, which portraits very 
often did not do. He moved that the best thanks of the 
Society be awarded to Mr. Hooke for his kindness in presenting 
the Society with that fine portrait of their former President, 
Mr. James Macadam. 

Mr. Robert Young seconded the resolution, and said he had 
great pleasure in doing so. He had been very intimate with 
the late Mr. James Macadam from the time when he was at 
the Belfast Academy. He was a very distinguished geologist, 
and one who had taken great interest in that Society. The 
portrait was a most admirable one, and he thought Mr. Hooke 
was entitled to their warmest thanks He hoped that was only 
the beginning of a series of portraits that they should have. 
They ought to have portraits of their past Presidents. 

Dr. S. Browne said he had much pleasure in accepting the 
invitation to be present. He was a very intimate friend of the 
late Mr. James Macadam, and he could say that the portrait 
was a very true one. He had just had the pleasure of seeing 
a portrait of Sir David Taylor, painted by Mr. Hooke, and it 
was a most admirable likeness. He (Dr. Browne) was glad to 
be present, and to have the opportunity of seeing that portrait 
of one who had been an intimate and valued friend. 

Mr. R. L. Patterson remarked that he had known Mr. 
Macadam from his (Mr. Patterson's) earliest boyhood, and 



1 2 Annual Meeting. 

although twenty-six years had elapsed since he was removed 
from amongst them, he had a distinct recollection of his former 
face, of which that portrait was a most admirable representa- 
tion. He thought Mr. Hooke had made a good beginning by 
presenting to the Society that picture, and it was their sincere 
wish that they should shortly see the portraits of former Presi- 
dents of the Society adorning the walls of that Museum. 

The resolution was unanimously passed, and 

The meeting concluded. 







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14 
DONATIONS TO THE MUSEUM, 1886-87. 



From Mr. Charles Bulla. 
A number of fossil fish remains from the Carboniferous rocks 

of Armagh. 
From Capt. Robert Campbell, Master of the Ship " Slieve 

DONARD." 

One case of Indian insects {Lepidoptera and Coleoptera), one 
cuttle-fish {Loltgo), one head of sword-fish {Istiophorus in- 
dictis), two globe fish {Tetravdon), one porcupine fish 
{Diodon), three sea-horses {Hippocampus), one cow-fish 
(Osiracion), one hornet fish. 

From Mr. William Darragh. 
One stuffed specimen of the velvet scoter ( Oidemia ficsca), shot 
in Belfast Bay. 

From Mr. J. T. Erskine, Jordanstown. 
One skin of python, from Brazil. 

From Rev. Canon Grainger, D.D., M.R.I. A. 
A collection of fossils, chiefly from the Carboniferous rocks of 
Kildare. 

From Professor Haddon, F.L.S., Dublin. 
Several rare sea-urchins, and star-fish dredged off the south west 
coast of Ireland. 

From Dr. H. W. Luther. 
One large flying fish. 

From. J. G. Robertson, Esq., Kilkenny. 
Cast of a bronze hatchet, and cast of a portion of the mouldings 
of St. Canice, Kilkenny. 

From Mr. S. A. Stewart. 
Two stone implements found on the sandhills at Ballykinler, 
Co. Down. 

From Thomas Workman, Esq., J.P. 
Eight bottles of land and marine animals, preserved in spirits. 

From Messrs. Fitzpatrick. 
Plated disc with engraved crest. 



15 

LIST OF BOOKS RECEIVED DURING THE YEAR. 



Adelaide. — Transactions, Proceedings, and Report of the Royal 
Society of South Australia. Vol 8, 1886. The Society. 

Belfast. — Proceedings of Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. 

Series 2, vol. 2, no. 6, 1886 The Club. 

Belfast Society for Promoting Knowledge. Early 

Belfast Printed Books, List no. i The Society. 

Berlin. — Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde. Vol. 

13, nos. 5 — 10, 1886 ; and vol. 14, no. i, 1887. 

The Society. 
Boston. — Proceedings of Boston Society of Natural History. 

Vol. 23, part 2, 1886. J he Society. 

Bremen. — Abhandlungen vom Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereine. 

Vol. 9, part 4, 1887. The Society. 

Breslau. — Zeitschrift fur Entomologie. New series, part 11, 

1886. 7 he Society. 

Brighton. — Annual Report of the Brighton and Sussex Natural 

History Society, 1885-6. The Society. 

Brookvii.le. — Bulletin of the Brookville (Indiana) Society of 

Natural History, no. 2, 1886. The Society. 

Brussells — Annales de la Societe Royale Malacologique de 

Belgique. Vol. 20, 1885. 
Bulletin de la Societe Royale de Botanique de Belgique. 

Vol. 25, parts I and 2, 1886. The Society. 

^ Comptes Rendu de la Societe Entomologique de Bel- 

gique. Series 3, nos. 72-81. The Society 

Buenos Ayres. — Boletin de la Acadeniia Nacional de Ciencias. 

Vol 8, part 4, 1885. The Academy. 

Calcutta. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India (Pa- 

laeontologia Indica). Series 10, vol 4, parts i and 2, 

series 12, vol. 4, part 2 ; series 13, nos. i and 6 ; series 

14, vol. I, fasc. 6, 1886. 

Records, vol. 19, part 4, 1886; vol. 20, part i, 1887. 
Catalogue, 3 parts, 18S5 and 1886. The Survey, 



1 6 Books Received. 

Cambridge, U.S.A. — Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. Vol. 12, nos. 5 and 6 ; vol, 13, nos. i and 3. 
Annual Report of the Curator, 1885-6. The Museum. 

Cardiff. — Report and Transactions of the Cardiff Naturalists' 
Society. Vol. 17, 1885. 
Flora of Cardiff, 1886. The Society. 

Cassell. — Bericht des Vereines fur Naturkunde zu Cassell, parts 
31—33, 1884-6. 
Festschrift des Vereines fur Naturkunde. The Society. 

Christiana. — Forhandlinger i Videnskabs Selskabet, 1886. 

The Society. 

Dantzic. — Schriften der Naturforshendon Gesellschaft, new 
series. Vol. 6, part 4, 1887. The Society. 

Davenport, U.S.A. — Proceedings of the Davenport (Iowa) 
Academy of Natural Sciences. Vol. 4, 1882-4. 

The Academy. 
Edinburgh. — Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical 
Society of Edinburgh. Vol. 16, part 3, 1886. 

The Society. 
Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society, Session 1885- 
1886. The Society. 

Astronomical Observations of the Royal Observatory, 
being Vol. 15, for 1878 to 1886 (Star Catalogue, Dis- 
cussion, an Ephemeris). The Observatory. 

Essex. — Transactions of the Essex Field Club. Vol. 4, part 2, 
1886, and Essex Naturalist, Nos. i — 4, 1887. 

The Club. 

Florence. — Bulletino della Societa Entomologica Italiana. 

Trimestri 1 — 4, 1886, and i — 2, 1887. The Society. 

Frankfort. — Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines des Reg. Bez. 
Vol. 4, No. 12, 1886-7. The Society. 

Genoa. — Giornale della Societa di Letture e Conversazioni 

Scientifiche di Genoa, anno 9, i semestre, fasc. 3 — 5, 

. 2 semestre, fasc. 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 1886-7. "^^^ Society. 



Books Received. 17 

GiESSEN. — Oberhessischen Gesellschaft fur Natur-and Heil- 
kunde, 1886. The Society. 

Glasgow. — Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of 
Glasgow, Vol.17, 1885-6. The Society. 

Hamburg. — Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissen- 
schaftlichen herausgegeben vom Naturwissenschaft- 
lichen Verein, Vol. 9, parts i and 2, 1886. The Society. 

KiEW. — Memoirs of the Naturalists' Society. Vol. 8, part 2. 

The Society. 

Lausanne. — Bulletin de la Societe Vaudoise des Sciences 

Naturelle?. cier. 3, vol. 22, No. 24, 1886. The Society. 

Leipsic— Mitheilungen des Vereins fur Erkkunde zu Leipzig, 
1884 and 1885. The Society. 

Sitzungsberichte der Naturforschendon Gesellschaft, 12th 
year, 1886. The Society. 

Liverpool. — Proceedings of the Literary and Philosophical 
Society. Vol. 39, 1885, and vol. 40, 1886. 

The Society. 
London. — Cooke's Illustrations of British Fungi. Nos. 42-48. 

Lord Clermont. 
Theory of Voltaic Action. J. Brown (Proc. Roy. Soc). 

The Author. 

Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. Series 2, 

vol. 6, parts 3 — 6, and 6a, 1886. Parts i and 2, 1887. 

The Society. 
Walford's Antiquarian. Vol. 2, no. 63, 1887. 

The Publishers. 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society. Parts 1-4, 
1886. The Society. 

Journal of Hydrotherapeutics. Vol. i, no. i, 1887. 

The Publishers. 

Manchester. — Transactions of the Manchester Geological 

Society. Vol. 18, part 20, and vol. 19, parts 1-7, 

1886-7. The Society. 



1 8 Books Received. 

Moscow. — Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes. 

No. 4, 1886 ; and no. i, 1887, also 

Meteorologische Beobachtungen, 1886. The Society. 

New York. — Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 

Vol. 3, nos. 9 — 12, 1885, and 

Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences. 

Vol. 5, nos. 2—8, 1885-6. The Academy. 

Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. No. 

6, 1882 ; no. 7, 1883 ; no. 5, 1884 ; nos. 3 — 5, 1885 ; 
nos. I — 3, 1886. The Society. 

Odessa. — Memoirs of the New Russian Society of Naturalists. 
Vol. 10, parts I and 2, 1885-6. Vol. 2, parts i and 2, 
1886-7, also 
Appendix to vol. 10 of Memoirs. The Society. 

Padua. — Atti della Societa Veneto-Trentino di Scienze Naturali. 
Vol. 10, fasc. 1, 1887 ; and 
Bulletino. Vol. 3, no. 4. The Society. 

Philadelphia. — Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences. Part 3, 1885 ; and parts i — 3, 1886. 

The Academy. 

Pisa. — Atti della Societa di Scienze Naturali, Processa Verbali. 

Vol. 5, pp. 80 — 170, and 203 — 226. The Society. 

Rome. — Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. Series 4, vol. 

2, fasc. I and 2, and 5 — 14, 1886 ; and vol. 3, fasc. i — 

7, 1887. The Academy. 
Journal of the British and American Archaeological 

Society of Rome. Vol. i, no. i, 1886 The Society. 
San Francisco — Bulletin of the California Academy of Sciences, 

Vol. I, No. 4, and Vol. 2, No. 5, 1886. The Academy. 
SoNDERHAUSEN. — Irmischia. Nos. 1 — 8, 1886. The Society. 

Toronto. — Proceedings of the Canadian Institute. Ser. 3, 
Vol. 3, fasc. 4 ; Vol. 4, fasc. i, 1886, and fasc. 2, 1887. 

The Institute. 

Trenton, N.J. — Journal of the Natural History Society. Vol. i , 
no. I, 1886. The Society. 



Books Received. 19 

Trieste. — Bolletino della Societa Adriactica di Scienze Natural!. 

Vol. 9, nos. I and 2, 1X85 and 1886. The Society. 

Venice. — Notarisia Commentarium Phycologium, no. 5, 1887. 

The Society. 

Vienna. — Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich Koniglichen Geolo- 

gischen Reichsanstalt. Nos. 7 — 18, 1886, and i — 4, 

1887. The Society. 

Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich Koniglichen Zoologisch- 

botanischen Gessellschaft. Vol. 36, parts i — 6, 1886-7. 

The Society. 

Warwick. — Proceedings of the Warwickshire Naturalists' and 

Archaeologists' Field Club, 1885. The Club. 

Washington. — Report of the Department of Agriculture, 1885. 

The Department, 

Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, parts i 

and 2, 1884. The Institution. 

Third Annual Report of the Geological Survey of the 

United States, 188 1-2. The Survey. 



BELFAST 

NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 

SESSION 1886—87. 



2nd November, 1886. 



The President, William H. Patterson, Esq., M.R.I.A., 

gave an Address on 

SOME LATER VIEWS RESPECTING THE IRISH 

ROUND TOWERS. 



The President traced briefly the position of the round tower 
controversy up to the period at which Dr. Petrie published his 
essay. Dr. Petrie's arguments were then reviewed, as were the 
subsequent writings on the same subject of Sir William Wilde, 
Mr. Marcus Keane, and Mr. Henry O'Neill. Having referred 
to the magnificent volumes of Lord Dunraven dealing with the 
subject, the President directed attention to the more recent 
writings of Miss Margaret Stokes. He proceeded — In 1878 
Miss Margaret Stokes published her " Early Christian Archi- 
tecture in Ireland." With this work was incorporated some of 
the matter which Miss Stokes had already given to the world 
in the concluding portion of Lord Dunraven's book. Miss 
Stokes holds that the first round towers were erected in Ireland 
soon after the first invasions of the Northmen for the protec- 
tion of the religious communities against these Pagan invaders, 
and that the erection of these church keeps or castles continued 
for about three centuries — that is, from a little before the year 
A.D. 900 to about A.D. 1200. In speaking of the state of archi- 
tecture in Ireland at the close of the ninth century, Miss Stokes 
says that, although the use of cement and the hammer was 
known to Irish builders, the horizontal lintel had not yet been 
superseded by the arch, and at this point we arrive at a class of 



The Round Towers. 2i 

buildings which forms a striking innovation in the hitherto 
humble character of Irish church architecture — that is, the 
lofty pillar tower. In the beginning of the present century the 
existence of ii8 of these circular ecclesiastical towers was 
asserted ; of these seventy-six remain to the present time in a 
more or less perfect condition. Miss Stokes remarks that a 
certain development of knowledge and skill in the art of build- 
ing may be traced in these various examples, and that such 
changes are analogous to those which took place in the church 
architecture of Ireland after the eighth century. She then 
attempts a rough classification of the existing round towers, 
showing the gradation in masonry and the corresponding 
changes in the character of the door and window opes. There 
are four divisions into which the towers are classified. First 
style — Rough field stones, untouched by hammer or chisel, not 
rounded, but fitted by their length to the curve of the wall, 
roughly coursed, wide-jointed, with spalds or small stones fitted 
into the interstices. Mortar of coarse unsifted sand or gravel. 
Second style — Stones roughly hammer-dressed ; rounded to 
the curve of the wall ; decidedly, though somewhat irregularly, 
coursed. Spalds, but often badly bonded together. Mortar 
freely used. Third style — Stones laid in horizontal courses, 
well dressed, and carefully worked to the round and batter ; 
the whole cemented in strong plain mortar of lime and sand. 
Fourth style — Strong, rough, but excellent ashlar masonry, 
rather open-jointed, and therefore closely analogous to the 
English-Norman masonry of the first half of the twelith cen- 
tury ; or, in some instances, finest possible examples of well- 
dressed ashlar. Sandstone in squared courses. Miss Stokes 
then follows with what she calls a broad classification of the 
towers according to the average styles of their masonry and 
apertures. Those which belong to the first style of masonry 
have doorways of the same material as the rest of the building ; 
sometimes the stones are roughly dressed ; the door-opes are 
square-headed, with inclined sides ; about 5ft. 6in. high by 2ft. 
wide, and 8ft. to 13ft. above the level of the ground. In the 
second and third styles of masonry there will be found in the 



zz The Round Towers. 

doorways the first idea of an arch, the curve being scooped out 
of three or five stones ; the stones of the doorways are gene- 
rally of some finer material than .the rest of the wall, and some- 
times an architrave or moulding is introduced. In the fourth 
style we find the doorways formed with a regular radiating 
arch of six or more stones, with architrave, or fine examples of 
the decorated Irish Romanesque of the twelfth century. Miss 
Stokes considers that the following conclusions may be drawn 
from those comparisons: — i. That these towers were built 
after the Irish became acquainted with the use of cement and 
the hammer. 2. That the towers were built at or about the 
period of transition from the entablature style of the early Irish 
period to the round-arched decorated Irish-Romanesque style. 
3. That the largest number of these towers were built before 
this transition had been established, and while the Irish 
builders Were feeling their way to the arch. 4. That as this 
transition took place between the time of Cormac O'Killen and 
Brian Borumha — i.e., between a.d. 900 and 1000 — the first 
groups of towers belong to the first date. The average thick- 
ness of the wall at the base of the towers is from 3ft. 6in. to 4ft. 
The usual diameter at the level of the doorway is from 7ft. to 
9ft. internally. The towers taper, and their walls diminish in 
thickness towards the top. In height the towers vary from 
about 50ft. to over looft. Internally the towers were divided 
into six or seven storeys. The floors, which were of wood, 
were supported in one of three different ways. The beams 
either rested on projecting abutments in the wall, or there were 
holes for the joists ; or, thirdly, corbels or brackets supported 
the floors. The height of the doorway above ground averages 
13ft., but it varies considerably. The doorways always face the 
entrance of the church to which they belong, unless in those 
instances where the church is evidently much later than the 
tower, and it is found that the position of the tower was usually 
about 2oft. distant from the north-west corner of the church. 
The name by which these towers are usually distinguished by 
the writers of the Irish annals is " cloicthech," signifying bell- 
house or belfry. There are numerous references in the annals 



The Round Towers. 23 

of disasters to these belfries by fire, lifrhtning, and other causes. 
We also learn that persons took refuge in these towers, and 
that sometimes the protection of the towers was sought in vain. 
We can picture to ourselves the attacking party breaking in 
the narrow door, even though fourteen or fifteen feet from the 
ground, and introducing fire, which burned up the successive 
wooden lofts, with the unfortunates who had crowded in for 
refuge. We also find that the guardians of the church used 
the tower as the safest place they had for the keeping of their 
sacred utensils, relics of saints, manuscripts, croziers, and bells. 
It is evident that the towers have suffered very much from the 
eflfects of lightning. The old annalists have told us this, and 
even in modern times several of the towers hav-e been greatly 
injured by lightning. This is not surprising. The only won- 
der is, considering the length of time they have stood stretch- 
ing towards the clouds, that they have not suffered very much 
more than they have done. The tall shaft of masonry and 
pointed roof must offer a very dangerous attraction to the 
electric current. Probably our moist climate and consequent 
comparative immunity from severe thunderstorms may have 
helped to preserve so many of our round towers in a very per- 
fect condition. Dr. Petrie cites a passage from Colonel Mont- 
morency's writings showing his idea as to the impregnable 
nature of the tall circular tower. We have seen by the extracts 
from our annals that in some cases the tower was not absolutely 
impregnable. He writes — "The pillar tower as a defensive hold, 
taking into account the period that produced it, may fairly pass 
for one of the completeet inventions that can well be imagined. 
Impregnable every way, and proof against fire, it could never 
be taken by assault. Although the abbey and its dependencies 
blazed around, the tower disregarded the fury of the flames. 
Its extreme height, its isolated position, and diminutive door- 
way, elevated so many feet above the ground, placed it beyond 
the reach of a destroyer. The signal once made announcing 
the approach of a foe by those who kept watch at the top, the 
alarm spread instantaneously, not only among the inmates of 
the cloister, but the inhabitants were roused to arms in the 



^4 The Round Towers. 

country for many miles around." Sir Walter Scott writes : — 
" These towers might possibly have been contrived for the 
temporary retreat of the priests, and the means of protecting 
the holy things from destruction on the occasion of alarm, 
which in those uncertain times suddenly happened and as sud- 
denly passed away." And to this Miss Stokes adds : — " Con- 
sisting of a series of small chambers, one above the other, at a 
height above ground, they were fitted for places of storage for 
the sacred things of the church, places of passive defence for 
the aged and weak, and could afford temporary shelter for from 
forty to eighty persons from the attacks of an enemy only 
armed with bows and arrows, and such weapons as we know 
were in use at the time in the North- West of Europe." After 
a very full and careful survey of all the matters connected with 
this subject, Miss Stokes writes : — *' The conclusion drawn 
from all these data being that such towers, though constructed 
from time to time over a considerable period, and undergoing 
corresponding changes in detail, were first built at the close of 
the ninth century, and that a number seem to have been 
erected simultaneously ;" and again, in speaking of the first 
arrivals of Danish invaders in this country — " In the beginning 
of the ninth century a new state of things was ushered in, and 
a change took place in the hitherto unmolested condition of 
the Church. Ireland became the battlefield of the first struggle 
between Paganism and Christianity in Western Europe, and 
the result of the effort then made in defence of her faith is 
marked in the ecclesiastical architecture of the country by the 
apparently simultaneous erection of a number of lofty towers, 
rising in strength of ' defence and faithfulness ' before the door- 
ways of those churches most likely to be attacked. The first 
descent of the Northmen upon Ireland was in 795, when a 
party of them sailed across from Wales and plundered the 
church on the Island of Lambay, near Dublin. The Welsh 
annals record that the black pagans first came to the Island of 
Britain from Denmark, and made great ravages in England. 
Afterwards they entered Glamorgan, and there killed and 
burnt much ; but at last the Cymry conquered them, driving 



The Round Towers. 25 

them into the sea. From thence they went to Ireland, and 
devastated Recheryn and other places. Three years afterwards, 
according to O'Flaherty's chronology — i.e.., in 798 — they plun- 
dered the Isle of Man and the Hebrides. In 802 they burned 
lona, and again in 806 plundered the same island, but 
not without resistance, for sixty-eight of the monastic society 
of the island were slain. The following year, 807, they entered 
for the first time the mainland of the West and South of Ire- 
land, and, having plundered the Island of Inishmurry, off the 
coast of Sligo, they advanced inland as far as Roscommon. In 
812 and 813 we find them in Connaught and Munster, where 
they suffered more than one defeat from the native chieftains. 
Finally, in 815, or, according to other accounts, in 830, a Nor- 
wegian leader called by the Irish writers Thorgils, which name 
was Latinised Turgesius, established himself as sovereign of the 
foreigners, and made Armagh the capital of his kingdom. For 
the purpose of strengthening his position, he placed detach- 
ments of his forces at Limerick, at Lough Ree, on the Shan- 
non ; at Dundalk Bay, Carlingford, Lough Neagh, and Dublin. 
For four years Thorgils was able to maintain himself at 
Armagh, and during this time, by taking command of his fleet 
on Lough Ree, he plundered all the great ecclesiastical establish- 
ments upon the banks of the Shannon, and, having seized the 
Abbey of Clonmacnoise, and burnt its oratories, he left his wife 
as sovereign there. This lady's name was Ota, and, according 
to the ancient record, she gave her audiences, or answers, from 
the high altar of the principal church of the monastery. Dur- 
ing this time, and afterwards, reinforcements continued to 
reach the Scandinavians in Ireland from their own country." 
About 837 a fleet of sixty-five ships landed at Dublin, and a few 
years later an Irish scribe wrote that there was not a point in 
Ireland without a fleet, and that the sea seemed to vomit forth 
floods of invaders. From this time on for about two centuries 
we hear of continued invasions of the Northmen, and there 
seems to have been no part of the country into which their 
marauding bands did not pass. The monasteries, being the 
receptacles of most of the wealth of the country, were 



^ The Round Towers. 

constantly visited and plundered by them. The two nations of 
Northmen are represented as hostile to each other, and battles 
between them took place frequently in Irish waters or on the 
mainland. But these feuds did not interfere with their main 
object, which was the persistent plundering of the country, and 
the carrying away as slaves of thousands of men, women, and 
children. We find that Armagh was plundered by the Danes 
in seventeen different years from a.d. 833 to 1016, and it was 
attacked three times in one month. The church of Maghera 
was attacked three times in one month. Clonard, the seat of 
one of the great schools in Ireland, was invaded seven times 
from 838 to 1020. Before the year 900 the Norsemen had first 
ravaged the coast and the outlying islands, and then their boats 
were repeatedly seen on the Boyne, the Liffey, and the Shan- 
non. In the valleys of these rivers distinct groups of these 
towers and churches are to be seen that had been for the first 
seventy years of this war attacked and desecrated with such 
fury. After reviewing some historical records as to the build- 
ing of certain towers and peculiarities in their construction, 
Miss Stokes writes : — " Thus we find three distinct periods to 
which these towers may be assigned — first, from a.d. 890 to 
927 ; secondly, from 973 to 1013 ; thirdly, from 1178 to 1238 ; 
and of these three periods the first two were marked by a cessa- 
tion of hostilities with the Northmen, while the Irish made 
energetic efforts to repair the mischief caused by the invasions 
of the heathen. It is clear that these three divisions are dis- 
tinctly marked by three steps in the progressive ascent of 
architecture, from the primitive form of the entablature to that 
of the decorated Romanesque arch. The churches built by 
Cormac O'Killen are characterised by the horizontal lintel ; the 
church of King Brian, at Iniscaltra, with its still partially 
developed Romanesque doorway and chancel arch, while re- 
taining the rude form in its minor apertures, marks a period of 
transition from the horizontal to the round arched style ; and 
the buildings of Queen Dervorgilla and Turlough O'Connor, 
with the doorway of Clonfert, show what the latter style 
became in the lifetime of Donough O'CarroU. If Lusk, Glen- 



The Round Towers. 27 

dalough, Timahoe, and Ardmore are taken as types of this 
gradation in the towers, we see such signs of progress as lead to 
the beHef that a certain interval of time had intervened between 
the first and last mentioned of those erections." Miss Stokes 
concludes one portion of her work in the following words : — 
" There is, perhaps, no question of early Christian archaeology," 
writes Mr. Fergusson, " involved in such obscurity as that of 
the introduction and use of towers." The difficulty of clearing 
away such obscurities has arisen chiefly from the want of 
monuments remaining on the Continent to show what were the 
earliest types in Western Europe. The light that Ireland 
might cast upon the subject has not yet made itself felt, because 
of the uncertainty that has too long lingered about the history 
of her towers. Dr. Petrie, by his investigations, brought their 
date down from a pre-Christian time to a period ranging from 
the sixth to the thirteenth century, and firmly established their 
ecclesiastical character. Lord Dunraven traced the type from 
Ireland, through France to Ravenna, thereby proving it analo- 
gous to that of buildings belonging to an historic period else- 
where. But he felt that the area was far too wide over which 
Dr. Petrie had extended the practice of erecting these struc- 
tures, and was gradually arriving at the conclusion that such 
masonry as they exhibit was not to be found in Ireland before 
the ninth or tenth century, and that her decorated Romanesque 
churches belong to the eleventh and twelfth. Starting from ■ 
the standpoint of these two archaeologists, we may arrive at 
conclusions which give to these towers their true place in his- 
tory. From these noble monuments the historian of Christian 
art and architecture may learn something of the work of a time 
the remains of which have been swept away elsewhere, and it 
may yet be seen, as in the case of her institutions, customs, 
faith, and forms in art, so in architecture, Ireland points to 
origins of noble things. 



28 



'jth December^ 1886. 



W. H. Patterson, Esq., M.R.I.A., in the Chair. 



Thomas Workman, Esq., J.P., read a Paper on 
EASTERN REMINISCENCES, CHINA AND MANILLA. 



Mr. Workman remarked that when last before them his 
reminiscences were of India and Burmah. He would now 
proceed still further to the East. He would try to enable them 
to realise what the world is like almost as far round as the anti- 
podes, and possibly beyond, where Shakspere thought of when 
he said, '* One touch of nature makes the whole world kin," 
though he was somewhat inclined to add, in the words of a more 
recent poet, "Where every prospect pleases and only man is 
vile." In January, 1884, he entered the beautiful Bay of Manilla, 
and he could well sympathise with the expressions of joy and 
pride with which his Spanish fellow-travellers greeted " Les 
Philipines," as they called the Philipine Islands. It is a most 
lovely sight, and the entrance is exceedingly narrow, though 
the bay opens into an enormous sheet of water more than 
fifty miles across. At the entrance of the inner harbour a 
simple monument has been erected to the memory of the great 
Spanish navigator Magellan, who was killed in one of these 
islands in 152 1. He (Mr. Workman) was much amused at the 
masher costume of the young Manillan, who is to be seen gaily 
going about the streets in the airy costume of a pair of trousers 
and a very white shirt, the latter garment being worn quite 
loose, and forming a light overcoat. 

The lecturer next proceeded to give a minute description of 



Eastern Reminiscences. 29 

pile dwellings, observing that all the native buildings are pile 
dwellings, or modifications of them, and no doubt were first 
invented as an expedient for raising houses in the water for pro- 
tection ; but when the race which for generations had dwelt 
surrounded by water took to living on dry land, the ancient pat- 
tern of architecture was followed with slavish exactness. In 
these houses what would seem almost an impossibility is never- 
theless a fact. The ground floor is an addition to the first story; 
the verandah serves an important purpose, inasmuch as it is the 
representative of the platform originally intended for the inhabi- 
tants to land on from their canoes. Mr. Mossley, who is a 
great authority on such matters, points out the remarkable 
resemblance of many of these pile dwellings to Swiss chalets. 
In the Swiss chalet the basement, enclosed with stone walls, is 
usually only a cattle stall. The first story is the dwelling-house, 
and, as in the pile building, it is constructed of wood. It seems 
possible that the chalet is the ancient lake-dwelling gone on 
shore — like the Philipine pile dwelling — and that the sub- 
structure of masonry represents the piles which formerly sup- 
ported the inhabited portion of the house. There are similar 
balconies in the chalets, representing possibly the platforms. 
It seems probable that the idea of pile dwellings has in many 
cases arisen through the escape of natives from enemies by 
getting into a canoe or raft, and putting off from shore out of 
harm's way. If the attacked had to stay in such a raft or 
canoe for some time, they would anchor it in shallow water 
with one or more poles, and hence might have easily been 
derived the idea of a platform supported on poles. 

The lecturer next graphically described his voyage from 
Manilla to Hong Kong, which was intensely disagreeable. His 
first view of Hong Kong greatly surprised him, for somehow or 
other he expected only a low-lying dirty city, entirely devoid of 
interest, but in this he was mistaken. The curiously shaped 
boats in the harbour are of great interest, and mostly manned 
by the families of their owners. Many of these family boats 
(sampans) are not over 20 feet in length, and some even shorter, 
built with a low deck, so as not to have more than three feet head- 



3© Eastern Reminiscences. 

room below. He was not aware whether the occupants slept in 
this low hut, or under a 4-feet long swing immediately in front 
of the stern. The city of Victoria is situated at the base of 
a hill rising steeply to a height of over 1,800 feet. It is some- 
what like, if one could imagine, the waters of the Belfast 
Lough rising to the level of the Antrim Road, and the town 
built between it and the steep rocks of the Cave Hill. When 
he ascended the hill, which he took an early opportunity of 
doing, he was almost afraid of setting a stone in motion in case 
he might bring swift destruction on the houses below. He 
proceeded to describe the town, elaborately commenting, espe- 
cially on the Botanic Gardens. The streets of Hong Kong 
reminded him of the streets of Malta, with its flights of steps 
and narrow ways, along which no carriage can go, so that 
locomotion is restricted to walking and driving in jinrickshas, 
something like an overgrown perambulator, or being carried in 
a chair slung on poles. Chairs made of cane are slung on 
very long lance poles, and are very comfortable. In the 
streets one sees a few Chinese women tottering on their small 
distorted feet, just like goats' hoofs ; but there seem to be 
two distinct races, for there are many women that do not at 
all compress their feet. Chinese men of the upper classes have a 
great dislike to manual labour, and, to show that they are 
quite above such undignified work, it is considered the proper 
thing to allow the finger nails to grow to an extraordinary 
length, so that it is not uncommon to see Chinese gentlemen 
with nails projecting two or three inches beyond their finger 
tips. While in Hong Kong he took the opportunity of hear- 
ing a sermon in Chinese. The sound is very strange, being 
quite unlike any other language he had heard. It is a mono- 
syllabic language, and seems greatly to want in expression. 
It seemed to him to run thus : — " Chuck, lick, sim, sam, sang, 
he, kang, whang." The lecturer gave several other amusing 
illustrations of the Chinese language. 

On the evening of the 14th January he set out for Canton on 
board the s.s. " Powhan." The centre of the steamer was 
occupied by Chinese passengers. From that part the forecastle 



Eastern Remtntscences. 3^ 

and poop were divided off by massive bulkheads, pierced so that 
the European crew and passengers might at any moment pour 
in a destructive fire on their Chinese fellow-travellers. The 
appearance of Canton far exceeded anything in the way of cities 
he had seen ; it was truly astonishing ; a scene of prodigious life 
and activity. At Canton foreigners live on a little island called 
Shameen, which is separated from the town by a canal, over 
which there are two or three bridges, strongly protected by 
gates, which are closed every night. These gates were put up 
recently, he believed, because the mob came over from Canton 
and had destroyed many of the European houses. This attack 
was not, however, altogether unprovoked. He had a letter of 
introduction to a gentleman, who kindly provided a chair with 
the two bearers and a guide to take him to see the various 
sights of the city. Soon they reached the midst of the town, 
with its million and a half of inhabitants on a very little larger 
area than the town of Belfast. If one were to imagine Bridge 
Street reduced to the breadth of a narrow lane, lower the tops of 
the houses to the level of the shop windows, take out all the win- 
dows, leaving the shops open, and in some parts roofed to keep 
off the sun, and then down the sides of the shops and from 
overhead hang countless boards emblazoned with golden and 
red characters telling of the class of goods sold within ; sprinkle 
a good deal of scent over all (not attar of roses), then cram the 
place with people, and behold Canton. The whole passage was 
one of knock, jostle, crush, but, being seated on a good chair, 
he was indifferent. When buying from the Chinese one has to 
keep his wits about him, as the Chinese are smart at all sorts 
of swindles. He saw a dog and a nice clean little puppy hung 
up for sale in a butcher's shop. He saw also a rat hung up for 
sale. Yet Chinese do not eat dirty things, and they set a good 
example in the clean and tidy way in which they put out meat 
and vegetables for sale. A duck hung up for sale in Canton 
appears not unlike a flatfish, owing to the way it has been 
prepared for the market. A common article of food is the 
cuttle-fish. The shops are very numerous. In the furniture 
shops there are beautifully carved chairs and tables made of 



^2 Eastern Reminiscences. 

dark wood, which, he believed, came from Singapore. There 
are shops for the sale of jadestone and other ornaments ; jade 
is very highly valued by the Chinese, and is a very hard 
semi-transparent stone, of a dark green colour. While speak- 
ing of ornaments, it might be interesting to his audience to 
state that on 6th May, 1850, the late Mr. Getty, an old and 
valued member of the Society, read an interesting paper on 
certain seals found in Ireland, and supposed to be of Chinese 
manufacture. Mr. Fortune, in his account of the Chinese, 
says : — '* There cannot be the slightest doubt that these seals 
have lain in bogs and rivers of Ireland for many ages. The 
peculiar white or cream coloured porcelain of which they are 
composed has not been made in China for several hundred 
years. They are very rare in China at the present day." There 
are also in Canton shops for ivory carving and amber work. 
The most beautiful sort of work to be seen in the Canton shops 
is the embroidery. There are numerous coffin shops, for the 
undertaking business is not done in the retired fashion ob- 
taining in this country. A Chinese coffin is a very ponderous 
affair, and apparently more ornamental than useful. It is 
formed of trunks of trees, eighteen inches in diameter, cut in 
two, and chamfered at the edge, and the flat part slightly hol- 
lowed out. Four of these slabs joined at the edges go to form 
the coffin, and two square pieces of wood fill up the ends. 
There are numerous eating-houses, some of which supply only 
the flesh of cats and dogs. One restaurant is known by the 
name of Whoon-Hang-Kau-Maau-Yunk-Poo, which means the 
sign of the dog, cat, flesh eating-house. Nearly all burdens are 
carried on the shoulder suspended at the end of a bamboo pole, 
and, if possible, the article is divided in two, and a part put on 
each end. The temples of Canton are not wonderful either for 
size or beauty. The temple of the 500 genii is well known. A 
geni means a very wise man. Among these 500 worthies is an 
effigy of the old Venetian traveller, Marco Polo. Another 
temple visited was that of the five genii and the five rams. It 
was from these five rams that the city took its name. The paper 
concluded with a brief statement of the legend of the five rams 



Eastern Reminiscences. 33 

and five genii. Mr. Workman added greatly to the value of his 
paper by employing, as he proceeded, lantern and photographic 
illustrations. 

The Rev. Canon Grainger made some valuable remarks on 
the Chinese seals found in Ireland. He said that in 1720 a 
Dublin tea merchant was reported to have sent out a great 
number of these seals. 



3+ 



^th January^ 1887. 



W. H. Patterson, Esq., M.R.I.A., in the Chair. 



Alexander B. Wilson, Esq., read a Paper on 
POWER. 



Mr. Wilson said the subject of his remarks, " Power and 
its Transmission," was too wide to be dealt with in the Hmits 
of such a paper, except in a very brief way. He had intended 
to deal particularly with the subject of compressed air as a 
power, but, fearing that the question would perhaps be too 
strictly technical and uninteresting if treated alone, and 
having regard also to his own connection with the Bir- 
mingham Compressed Air Company, he had concluded to 
deal with the matter in a more general way, rather than with 
especial regard to the most interesting advances in engineering 
which are going on in the Midland metropolis. Mr. Wilson 
then proceeded to explain the different terms used in con- 
nection with power, as *' horse-power," " foot tons," &c. James 
Watt and the engineers of his time adopted the expression 
" horse-power " as the most convenient term by which to 
convey to the mill and mine owners the capabilities of their 
engines. The original value of a " horse-power " was based on 
the work it was estimated a healthy horse could do in a working 
day, and it was therefore based on two quantities — work and 
time. In engineering a horse-power consists in the power to 
raise 33,000 pounds one foot in one minute, or 19,800,000 pounds 
one foot in a working day of ten hours. This is far too high 
an estimate of the work of a horse, for it would mean the 
capability of raising four tons in one day of ten hours to a 
height equal to that of Divis. 

Mr. Wilson then went on to speak of the power developed 



Power and its Transmission. 35 

by gunpowder in cannon, which is measured by artillerists 
in " foot tons." One of the lOO-tons guns manufactured by 
Sir William Armstrong's firm for the Italian Government 
developed and communicated to a target placed lOO yards away 
a power equal to 40,000 foot tons. This power, if able to be 
maintained continuously, would be immense ; for the energy 
developed by one discharge only of this gun would be sufficient 
to lift, say, either of the Liverpool steamships Caloric and 
Optic, weighing, with cargo, coal, crew, and passengers, some 
1,410 tons, to a height of thirty-one feet in ten seconds. Unfor- 
tunately, however, this great source of power is applicable to few 
except warlike purposes. 

The supply and sale of power for manufacturing and indus- 
trial purposes is of quite recent development, but has already 
become a recognised system in many large towns where manu- 
factures or works are carried on. It is cheaper for manu- 
facturers using only a small quantity of power to purchase 
than to produce it ; but there is a point where, from the 
amount required, it becomes more economical to produce than 
to purchase. In Belfast, perhaps from the fact that fuel is 
dearer than in towns in England and Scotland adjacent to col- 
lieries, or perhaps from the shrewdness of the mill-owners, more 
care is exercised in the economical production of steam-power 
than in any other town of the three kingdoms. Even in London, 
where fuel is dearer, the cost of the production of power is far 
more than proportionately greater. Mr. Wilson then showed 
by means of a blackboard the proportionate cost of steam-power 
per year power units in London, Birmingham, Glasgow, and 
Belfast. From this it appeared that in London the cost per 
horse-power per annum for engines of six hundred horse- 
power ranges from /4 1 5s. 6d. to £■] 7s., in Birmingham 
from ^3 13s. to ^5 IIS. 2d., in Glasgow from ^2 14s. to/5 8s., 
and in Belfast from £z los. to £^ bs. He pointed out how 
rapidly the cost proportionately increases with the decrease of 
the amount produced. For instance, the year power unit — 
that is to say, the cost of one horse-power for three hundred 
hours — in small engines of 25 horse-power and under frequently 



3^6 Power and its Transmission. 

amounts to £2i^ in London and £2% in Birmingham, being 
proportionately reduced in larger engines. The cost of gas power 
may be taken as ^26 in London, and ^20 is. lod. in Birming- 
ham, ^19 los. in Glasgow, and;^24 in Belfast per year power 
unit. 

Referring at length to the production and development of 
steam-power, Mr. Wilson said that during the last twenty- 
five years, except in some minor points of construction, the 
form and performance of boilers has been unaltered, tubular 
boilers having then taken the place of flue, and steel has since 
superseded iron as the material employed in their manu- 
facture, and enabled much higher pressure to be carried with 
safety. Much, moreover, has been accomplished in marine 
engineering in the development of power, especially by the use 
of compound engines. It may be mentioned that, while the 
quantity of fuel to produce a pound of steam at 160 pounds 
pressure is only 3 per cent, more than that necessary for the 
production of a pound of steam at 30 pounds pressure, the avail- 
able power obtainable from steam at 160 pounds is nearly 100 per 
cent, more than from that at 30 pounds. It is for this reason 
that high-pressure engines have become so generally used, and 
though the advantages of such pressures were known long 
ago, they could not be utilised, owing largely to the want of a 
proper oil. Steam at 30 pounds pressure has a temperature of 
274" Fahrenheit, and at 160 pounds pressure of about 370°. Of 
the animal and vegetable oils applicable for lubricating purposes, 
some of them at the lower temperature answer sufficiently what 
is required, while at the higher they become completely car- 
bonised and turn into gas. It was not, therefore, until some of 
the products of petroleum were brought into use that this 
difficulty was overcome. The only rival, and that an insignifi- 
cant one, able to hold its own at all hitherto with steam as a 
power for manufacturing and propelling agency is gas. In 
gas engines the motive power is developed by an explosion of 
a mixture of gas and air below the piston of a vessel resembling 
a steam cylinder. Some manufacturers claim to be able to 
work with 22 cubic feet of gas per horse-power, but this he had 



Power and its Transmission. 37 

found by experiment was too low, and he thought that about 30 
cubic feet would be about the average. This would bring the 
cost of gas up to ^20 per year power unit. Mr. Wilson went on to 
explain at length the principles, advantages, and disadvantages 
of the gas-engine. Among its advantages might be placed the 
absence of a necessity for a boiler, with its dirt, heat, trouble, 
and danger, and this makes it favoured in many small concerns. 
As at present constructed, however, the gas-engine can never 
enter into competition with steam for heavy work. 

Speaking next of the distribution of power, Mr. Wilson said it 
was not until the experiments of the Compressed Air-Power Com- 
pany were made (with which experiments he had himself been 
connected) that it was discovered that the cost of production in 
small concerns in general was so large as it turns out to be, a 
fact which was greatly due to the full amount produced not being 
constantly required, as well as to unskilful management, and 
other causes. When the figures were published which proved 
this, and the Compressed Air- Power Company offered to supply 
such manufacturers with power at £1^ per year power unit, 
demand was immediately made for 4,000 horse-power on these 
terms. Various means have been used for the supply of power in 
this wa)'. First, steam sent in mains through the streets from 
a central supply ; secondly, compressed air laid on in the same 
way, the compression being effected at a central station ; 
thirdly, water supplied by pipes from a central pumping sta- 
tion, and used to drive hydraulic machinery. The first plan 
has found some favour in the United States, and the divi- 
dends of the companies thus supplying power have been 
from 5 to 24 per cent. However, there are so many cli- 
matic causes to militate against such a system in these coun- 
tries that it can never be thoroughly successful. The second, 
that of compressed air pumped into mains at a pressure of 
45 pounds above the atmosphere, and delivered in the same way 
as gas, has, he believed, the largest future before it of any of the 
three. For all purposes to which steam is applicable, except 
that of heating, compressed air is equally available. Yet while 
unsuitable for heating, it may frequently be utilised for the pro- 



38 Power and its Transmission. 

duction of cold. It does not suffer, as steam does, from radia- 
tion and condensation. The first development to any large 
extent was in connection with the boring of the Mont Cenis 
Tunnel. From this it has extended to a variety of uses where 
power is required, more especially in coal mines, where to 
a distance of three miles or more from the mouth of the pit 
power of any other kind would be impossible to transmit. After 
the investigations to which he had referred had been made, the 
Birmingham Company obtained an Act of Parliament, with the 
sanction of the municipal authorities, for the construction of the 
necessary works to utilise the system for supplying power to 
Birmingham manufacturers. It was calculated that of the 
amount of compressed air transmitted from the central station, 
a maximum percentage of 84 per cent, could be obtained by 
the consumer. The average price they proposed to charge 
is fivepence per thousand cubic feet, and this would entail 
to the consumer a cost of £(i 14s. 6d. on the best per- 
centage, andj^iy on the minimum percentage per horse-power 
per annum. The system would not be economical applied to 
large engines of 100 horse-power and over. There are two very 
strong recommendations in this system most satisfactory to 
the consumer : — these are, that the quantity supplied can be 
measured with the accuracy of a first-class gas meter; — and 
that no heat or fire can arise from it. Speaking of power 
as developed by water under high pressure and available 
for supply, Mr. Wilson said this arrangement was first car- 
ried out at Hull, and has since been worked in other towns, 
but it is very expensive ; — the use of a hydraulic motor 
involves a year power unit cost of from ^40 to £(>o. As for 
electricity, it remains for some future Watt to devise a plan 
whereby it can be produced and applied as a force with suflfi- 
cient economy to compete with the other sources of power. 

In the foregoing remarks the cost of the year power unit is 
in all cases taken as including coal, oil, stores, labour, deprecia- 
tion at 5 per cent., and interest on outlay at 5 per cent In the 
larger class of engines the two latter items in some cases exceed 
the whole of the former, while as they reduce in size the pro- 
portion of coal cost rises rapidly. 



The Antrim Gravels. 39 

With respect to the use of compressed air, and specially as 
comparing it with hydraulic supply, for the use of motors : — 
In the case of air, the ordinary steam engine, with unimportant 
alterations, is used, so that the system may be applied to already 
existing engines, whereas with water special machines have to 
be provided. Again, air is elastic, and for varying loads on the 
same engine can be used more or less expansively ; water, being 
inelastic, each stroke of a hydraulic motor uses the same quan- 
tity whether the load be light or heavy. The pipe friction of 
water as compared with air is roughly in proportion to their 
densities : taking the former as supplied at 700 lbs. of pressure 
per square inch and the latter at 45 lbs., the ratio is as 200 to i. 
The energy contained in a cubic foot of water at that pressure is 
but 15^ times that in a cubic foot of air worked even non-expan- 
sively, or say eight times that of air worked to best advantage, 
while its pipe, port, and valve friction is 200 times as great ; and, 
lastly, in hydraulic high-pressure supply there is no reservoir ; — 
the accumulators used can only hold a few seconds' supply ; — 
whereas in air the whole of the mains laid in the streets form 
a vast receptacle from which supply may be taken for a con- 
siderable time without serious reduction in pressure. 



4/^ January^ 1887. 



W. H. Patterson, Esq., M.R.I. A., in the Chair. 



The Rev. Canon Grainger, D.D., M.R.I. A., read a Paper on 

A QUESTION CONCERNING THE ANTRIM 

GRAVELS. 



Rev. Canon Grainger read a paper on "The Antrim 
Gravels," referring to the absence of the characteristic 
stratification near the surface of gravel hills, and attributing it 
to the action of sub-glacial rivers at a late glacial period. 

Canon Grainger also exhibited a most interesting collection of 
Chinese, Indian, and other antiquarian specimens, including a 
magnificent set of jade axes and other instruments. 



40 



ist February^ 1887. 



W. H. Patterson, Esq., M.R.I.A., in the Chair. 



Seaton Forrest Milligan, Esq., read a Paper on 

RECENT ARCH^OLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS IN 
COUNTY SLIGO. 



Mr. Milligan said : — The opening meeting of the present 
Session of this Society was inaugurated by an address from the 
President on " Some Later Ideas Concerning the Round Towers," 
when the theories propounded by various writers on this subject 
were fully discussed. It has occurred to me since this paper 
was read, that amongst people not conversant with the subject 
the notion largely prevails that the round towers are the most 
ancient stone buildings in Ireland. This idea is not by any 
means accurate, as we have other remains of circular stone 
buildings or forts that were hoary with the lapse of centuries 
before the first round tower had its foundation laid. 

I am considerably within the mark when I state that there are 
structures of this class existing in Ireland for more than 2,000 
years. If the Annals of the Four Masters are accurate, we have 
one in Ulster — the Grimian of Aileach, the building of which 
was completed 1,700 years before the birth of our Lord. These 
structures have not been written about so extensively as the 
round towers, and there is less of mystery as to their erection 
and use. We have not so many perfect examples of them as 
the round towers ; many are dilapidated, and others have only 
their foundations left to show where once they stood ; but the 
remains that are left point to a period and a civilisation long 
departed. I refer to the Cashels, or, as they were commonly 
known to the ancient Irish, the Cathairs, of which I will have 



Recent Archceological Explorations in Co. Sligo. 41 

something further to say, having found five of them, or, more 
strictly speaking, the remains of five Cashels, not previously 
described. I will also refer to certain sepulchral structures, such as 
giants' graves, of wMch I have found a few examples, and another 
class of stone structures, scarcely if ever referred to by Irish 
archaeologists, which will be rather a new feature to bring before 
you. I refer to alignments, or lines of standing stones. All 
these monuments are situated in the county of Sligo, within a 
radius of five miles from the town of Sligo. Alignments have 
been found in great numbers in the Department of the Mor- 
bihan, in Brittany, particularly in the vicinity of the village of 
Carnac, in the same district. They have been a puzzle to 
archaeologists as to their use and the motives which led to their 
erection. I have a hope that the study of Irish alignments will 
tend to throw some light on these rude stone monuments of 
ancient times. I have examined a series of photos of alignments 
in Brittany, from which I have selected three that resemble 
those in Sligo, which I will place before you on the screen for 
comparison. The only structure I will refer to previously 
described is the great megalithic monument in the Deer-park of 
Hazlewood, concerning which I shall have some further addi- 
tional facts to place before you. 

"County Sligo possesses many places of great interest and 
beauty; bold cliffs, romantic dells, as at Glencar and Knock- 
narea ; well-wooded demesnes, as at Hazlewood ; lakes of rare 
beauty, which yet differ widely in feature, from the cultivated 
and picturesque surroundings of Lough Gill to the gloomy, wild 
tarns of Lough Easkey and Lough Talt. Mountain, sea, lake, 
and wood combine to render the scenery attractive. It affords 
a field of study to the botanist, the painter, and the antiquarian. 
In the mountains are rare ferns and Alpine plants. It possesses 
the most picturesque and varied landscapes, and abounds in 
objects of striking interest to the antiquarian. Some of the 
earliest seats of Christian learning are to be found within its 
limits, as also several of the earliest known Pagan monuments, 
contrasting in their hoar antiquity with the remains of castles 
and fortified houses of the settlement which belongs to the 



42 Recent Archceological Explorations in Co. Sligo. 

nearer epochs." Such is a condensed description of the county 
taken from Col. Wood Martin's recent History of Sligo, I have 
known the county Sligo for many years : its lakes, rivers, moun- 
tains, glens, and its warm-hearted and hospitable people, and I 
must say that I do not in Ireland or elsewhere know of any 
other district I would prefer to it for spending an instructive 
and enjoyable holiday. By whatever road the visitor approaches 
the county Sligo lovely scenery meets his view; the old coach-road 
by Manorhamilton is very beautiful, " over the Irish Alps," as a 
driver of Bianconi's used to designate the picturesque pass of 
Marah. 

The route by Dromore West, Screen, and Ballysadare, with 
its ancient church and magnificent cascades, is also fine. But 
the most charming road of all is that of Bundoran, Cliffony, 
Grange, and Drumcliffe. On our left as we proceed this way, 
we have a splendid mountain range nearly all the v/ay. Ben- 
weeskin, Benbulbin, and Turskmore, are the most prominent 
heights, ranging from 1,722 to 2,213 ^^et above the level of the 
sea. Should we ascend Benbulbin, which is comparatively easy, 
what an extensive prospect meets our view ! To the west is the 
broad Atlantic, to the north-west the Bay of Donegal, protected 
on its western side by the magnificent mountain of Slieve 
Leagh, whose perpendicular cliffs on the seaward side are almost 
2,000 feet in height. We can observe in the far distance in 
Mayo the high cone of Nephin, and further still lying off the 
Erris coast the stags of Broadhaven. Nearer us, to the south, 
is the range of the Ox Mountains, also Knocknarea, with its 
huge cairn, Miscaun Meabh, at the base of which lies Carrow- 
more, with its ancient monuments of the battle of North 
Moyturah. 

Right under us, towards the east, is Glencar valley, with its 
waterfalls, lake, and crannoges. Between us and the sea, is the 
ancient plain of Magherow, which contains many forts and 
sepulchral structures, also some very extensive souterrains, which 
I have examined and will refer to at another time. Almost at 
our feet, to the south, is the village of Drumcliffe, with its round 
tower, cross, and pillar stone — one of the earliest seats of 



Recent Archceological Explorations in Co. Sligo. 43 

Christianity in Ireland, founded by no less a personage than St. 
Culumbcille, in a.d. 585. Druincliffe was burned by the Danes 
after they had plundered Innismurray, which was the first spot 
these sea rovers landed on in the western coast in the year 807, 
when they had a sail of 50 vessels. 

Lying off the coast some four and a half miles is the Island of 
Innismurray, celebrated up to a recent period for the very fine 
mountain dew distilled there — which did not much increase the 
Imperial revenue — but more famous as the residence of St. 
Molaise in the 6th century ; not the St. Molaise of Devenish in 
Lough Erne, but another celebrated man bearing a similar 
name, which is to the present day a household word in Innis- 
murray. Here are many monuments of Pagan and early 
Christian times— pillar-stones of undoubted Pagan origin, after- 
wards consecrated by the Christian saints with the emblem of 
their faith — the cross — carved in various styles. 

These early saints were wise in their generation. Instead of 
rudely breaking the people off their stone worship, well worship, 
and Pagan festivals, they consecrated them all to the service of 
the new faith. They carved crosses on the pillar-stones ; they 
baptised the converts at the sacred wells ; they turned the Pagan 
feasts into Christian festivals, and thus the change to the new 
faith was the more easily accomplished. 

It was by the route last described— by Bundoran and the 
coast — that the armies of Ulster used to invade Connaught, 
sometimes led by an O'Neill, at other times by an O'Donnell. 
There were battles fought here in very ancient times, which we 
need not now refer to ; suffice it to say, this is classic Irish soil. 
Its ancient history, if recorded by another Walter Scott, would 
lend a charm and an interest to it equal to any in Europe. 

Though this country has been a favoxirite resort of antiquarians 
for more than a century past, there still remain many interesting 
relics of by-gone ages, the existence of which have never been 
recorded. Beranger, who visited it in 1779, was one of its first ex- 
plorers. Afterwards Dr. Petrie in 1837, and Mr. Walker of Rath- 
carrick, at whose seat the ancient stone chair or seat on which the 
O'Neills were crowned, is still preserved. How it was removed 



44 Recent Archceological Explorations in Co, Sligo. 

from the Linen Hall, Donegall Street, Belfast, to county Sligo 
is related in the Dublin Penny Journal. Mr. Walker, who 
lived at the early part of the present century, opened many of 
the ancient sepulchral monuments in county Sligo, without 
leaving any record of the various finds he made, and afterwards 
disposed of them to an English nobleman, thus doing an irre- 
parable injury to Irish archaeology. 

Amongst the more recent explorers are Mr. James Ferguson, 
author of " Rude Stone Monuments ;" Colonel Cooper, of 
Markree ; Colonel Wood Martin, the present indefatigable 
Editor of the Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeolo- 
gical Association of Ireland ; Mr. W. F. Wakeman, and others 
who have given interesting records of ancient monuments 
of Pagan and Christian origin. Amongst those are the 
cromlechs, stone circles, and forts, in the townland of Car- 
rowmore, within three miles from Sligo, and first described 
by Beranger during his visit in 1779. The visit of Beranger to 
Innismurray in that year is a most interesting narrative, as 
recorded in a late number of the Archaeological Journal, where 
the primitive customs of its inhabitants are described. Mr. 
W. F. Wakeman has copiously illustrated and described the 
plain and inscribed monuments of Innismurray. There is also 
the great megalithic structure, or, as it is called, the Irish 
Stonehenge, situated four and a half miles from Sligo, in the 
townland of Magheraghanrush, to which I shall again refer. 
This ancient and unique monument is described in the Journal 
of the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland, 
in a paper read by Mr. Edward T. Hardman before the meeting 
held in Kilkenny on i6th April, 1879. It is also referred to by 
Mr, James Ferguson in his book on " Rude Stone Monuments," 
published in 1872. In January, 1886, I visited the Deerpark, 
accompanied by two friends from Sligo. We went to it for the 
purpose of examining this monument, and to more thoroughly 
explore the Deerpark. 

The lecturer proceeded to describe this great structure, of 
which he had maps and accurate measurements. It is 104 feet 
in length, and 28 feet in breadth at the widest part. Mr. Fer- 



Recent Archceological Explorations in Co. Sligo. 45 

guson and Mr. Hardman described it as having a likeness to a 
cathedral, with its nave, aisles, etc. — but he formed a different 
opinion, and proceeded to show its likeness to the rude outline 
of a giant figure cut in the ground, and the figure outlined with 
huge standing stones from three to six feet in height. Mr. 
Hardman in his paper says : — " I will not venture on any 
theory as to the use of this structure, except so far as to suggest 
that it was the place of a ceremonial observance of some kind. 
It is clearly not a sepulchral structure, seeing that the solid rock 
occurs within a foot or so of its surface." He then proceeds to 
show, borrowing the idea from James Ferguson, that it resembled 
in its plan a cathedral. What Mr. Hardman supposed to be the 
natural rock is an artificial flagging which covers the entire 
of the structure — of which more hereafter. 

Mr. James Ferguson refers to this structure as follows : — 
'* What, then, is this curious edifice ? It can hardly be a tomb, 
it is so unlike any other tomb which we know of. In plan it 
looks more like a temple — indeed it is not unlike the arrange- 
ment of some Christian churches ; but a church or a temple 
with walls pervious as these are, and so low that the congrega- 
tion outside can see all that passes inside, is so anomalous an 
arrangement that it does not seem admissable. At present it 
is unique, if some similar example could be discovered, perhaps 
we might guess its riddle." 

Mr. Ferguson made no attempt to solve the riddle, neither 
did Mr. Hardman. The only mode of discovering the secret 
was by the spade and pick. Having secured the services of two 
men, we removed the surface soil, and everywhere we examined 
underneath it was found covered with flat flagstones, below 
which were loose stones to a depth of another foot. We there 
found little cists, at a depth of about two feet or better from the 
surface, containing bones. These cists we found in various 
places inside the structure, and in every instance contained bones. 
These bones were forwarded to Dr. Redfern, who kindly ex- 
amined them, and reported that the human bones had come from 
bodies, at least three adults and one young person. The animal 
bones were split to expose the marrow cavities, and were probably 



46 Recent Archceological Explorations in Co. Sligo. 

used at a funeral feast. There were bones of the ox, goat, hare, 
etc. The lecturer read a letter he had received a few days 
previously from a man who lives in the neighbourhood of the 
Giant's Grave, He says : — " About twenty-five years ago the 
landlord of the place made an excavation in the Giant's Grave 
at the western end, near to the large headstone, at a depth of 
about eight feet or more from the surface, he found human 
remains in a vault or crypt of uncemented stones. Several 
people have still a recollection of this circumstance, so that it is 
now placed beyond a doubt this structure was erected as a 
sepulchral monument." * Nothing in the way of weapons, 
ornaments, or cinerary urns were found in it. 

Mr. Elcock, who is an experienced archaeologist, and who 
carefully examined this structure, arrived at the conclusion that 
it resembled a human figure. Mr. Elcock's opinion and mine 
were arrived at quite independently of each other. The struc- 
ture lies almost due east and west — the head at the western end, 
and what resembles the limbs of the figure at the eastern end. 
The entrance to the structure is by a passage about two feet six 
inches wide in the centre of the structure, or looking at it as a 
likeness to a human figure, this passage is in the centre of the 
body, at a point that would correspond to the umbilic. It has 
three trilithons or open doorways, one between the head and 
body of the figure, at what would correspond to the mouth, and 
two at the extremity of the body where the passages that corres- 
pond to the limbs commence. This is the only structure in 
Great Britain where there are trilithons except Stonehenge. 

The lecturer next proceeded to describe the ruins of a great 
cashel situated a little to the south of the Giant's Grave. The 
internal diameter of this cashel is exactly 100 feet, with encir- 
cling wall 13 feet thick, the remains of which still stand to a 
height of from three to four feet. An immense quantity of loose 
stones, the remains of the original structure, lie scattered around, 
and a still larger quantity were removed some years previously, 
for the purpose of building fences. The entrance to this cashel 

* N.B. — Since this paper was read, Colonel Wood Martin has made further exca- 
vations, and found a great quantity of bones. 



Recent Archoeologtcal Explorations in Co. Sligo. 47 

is well defined. It is on the southern side ; is three feet nine 
inches wide on the outer side and is three feet S'x inches on the 
inner side. The entrance passage is thirteen feet through the 
thickness of the wall. On the right side of this passage as 
you enter there is a recess of about six inches deep. I also 
observed a hole about two inches in diameter drilled to a depth 
of twelve inches in a large stone. It occurred to me this hole 
was used for inserting the hinge for the door, and the recess on 
same side was intended for the door when open to fall back into 
and leave the passage clear. In the Grimian of Aileach* there 
are two recesses, one to right and left as you enter, about midway 
in the passage. I would conclude from this there were two 
doors, one on either side, closing in the middle, the joint breadth 
of the recesses being about equal to the width of the passage. 
If the doors were of stone this would be obviously a good 
arrangement. 

In this cashel the recess is equal to the width of the entrance, 
which goes to show it was closed by a door hung on one side. 
There is an angular shaped souterrain in the middle of this 
cashel, terminating in a bee-hive shaped structure. One of the 
sides measures eighteen feet. In all cashels I have examined, 
where the nature of the ground permitted, these chambers were 
constructed in the ground. At Aileach, which is erected on the 
solid rock, there are two chambers constructed within the thick- 
ness of the wall, one on each side of the doorway. In no instance 
have I observed chambers in the wall where the ground could 
be easily excavated. These souterrains and chambers were no 
doubt intended as storehouses and receptacles for valuable pro- 
perty, as the entrance to them could be so easily concealed or 
defended. 

The lecturer next described another sepulchral structure 
situated to the south-east of the cashel in the Deer-park. It is 
like three ruined cromlechs, with the covering stones fallen off 

*Note. — Since this lecture was ^iven, the lecturer had the pleasure of inspecting the 
Grimian of Aileach with a friend, accompanied by Dr Bernard of Derry, to whom 
Irish archaeologists are under a deep debt of gratitude not yet acknowledged, for hii 
great labour in restoring this ancient and historic structure. 



48 Recent Archceological Explorations in Co. Sligo. 

and lying against the upright stones. At a further distance of 
about half a mile up the eastern side of the Deer-park, is the 
remains of another cashel, 180 feet in internal diameter, the 
encircling wall of which was eight feet in thickness. Within 
the outer circle are the remains of three interior forts lying from 
north to south, whilst in the western side the remains of a 
souterrain filled with debris is quite visible. This cashel pos- 
sessed this advantage : that if a breach were made in any part 
of the outer encircling wall the interior forts could be defended, 
which added greatly to the strength of this ancient fort. The 
stones from this cashel were removed within the memory of 
people still living, for the purpose of building fences round the 
Deer-park. 

A very peculiar-shaped stone, which the superstition of the 
people has protected from being removed, is still lying on the 
eastern side of this cashel. It is known as a BuUan Stone. It 
is about three feet high and about two feet square ; — on its 
top a basin-shaped cavity is cut to a depth of four and a 
half inches, with a diameter of eleven inches. The water 
which lies in these stones is considered by the people as 
a certain cure for diseases of the eye. Bullan and other cup- 
marked stones were worshipped in Ireland in Pagan times, and 
are still held in peculiar veneration by the people, instances of 
which were given. Earth-fast rocks and stones with cup and 
ring markings have been observed in India quite similar to 
those found in Ireland. In India they are still worshipped, 
and their symbolic meaning understood, in connection with the 
worship of Siva, who, under the name of Mahadeo, is worshipped 
as the generator, the sun, etc., and whose type is the Linga. 
Benares is the head-quarters of this Lingam worship ; in 
temples devoted to it the richer people erect stone pillars over 
the graves of the departed, whilst the poorer are satisfied with a 
section of the ground plan of this in the form of two concentric 

Nott, — The lecturer since reading this paper examined another cashel in county 
Sligo, the walls of which stand ten to twelve feet in height. It is built on a rock, 
there is a chamber in the thickness of the wall, and a recess in the entrance passage, 
together with an outwork not observed in any other cashel. 



Recent Archceo logical Explorations in Co. Sligo. 49 

circles and a central dot, a symbol that has been carved on the 
rocks all over Europe. Bhavini, the wife of Mahadeo, is sup- 
posed to represent the feminine principle in nature. Some 
light may be thrown on European rock-markings by noting 
the symbolic meanings held in India concerning them. 

A cave dwelling situated a little to the north of the last cashel, 
55 feet in length, was next described. It divides in the centre 
into two chambers, and is from nine to ten feet high and five feet 
wide. At the entrance to this cave the remains of an ancient 
hearth was found, and in the midden adjoining, at a depth of 
two feet, a quantity of bones, and a small bronze buckle, carved 
on one side, were found. 

A description of the townland of Cams was next given, and 
a map, enlarged from the six-inch Ordnance Survey, was shown, 
with the various places of antiquarian interest drawn to scale. 
First, the two huge cairns, situated in a most commanding 
position on the high ground overlooking the town of Sligo. 
Next, the outlines and remains of three cashels were described, 
varying from 60 to 80 feet in internal diameter, with walls from 
eight to ten feet in thickness. The wall of one, which is ten 
feet in thickness, stands to a height of about three to four feet. 
Two of them have the remains of souterrains or cryptic struc- 
tures, and one has the remains of two encircling concentric 
walls, thus showing another type of cashel. The most impor- 
tant feature to archaeologists are the alignments extending 
across the hill and parallel to the cashels. A transverse align- 
ment extends up the hill to the cairn of Ton-na-ihoble, a 
distance of about three-fourths of a mile. In some parts of this 
alignment the stones are deeply embedded in the ground, and 
in some places they disappear, but it can be traced till it reaches 
the cairn on its southern side, at a point where there appears to 
be an entrance into it. There are three almost parallel lines of 
stones stretching across the hill, slightly converging at the 
western side. The length varies from 500 to 600 yards ; they 
run in a line almost due east and west. The distance between 
the most southern line and the next one is about 100 yards, 
and the distance from the central line to the more northern one 



5o Recent Archceological Explorations in Co. Sligo. 

is about 130 yards. The centre alignment is formed of the 
largest stones, and they increase in size towards the western 
end. Where this line terminates to the west, there are two 
enormous menhirs, one of which measures 1 1 feet in height 
and 42 feet in girth, the other measures 10 feet in height and 30 
feet in girth. These two immense stones stand quite closely 
together, and seem from the cleavage to have been originally 
one. There is an almost complete circle of large boulders, of 
which the two whose dimensions I have given form the centre. 
Six stones form the circumference, separated from each other 
by a distance of about 30 yards, while their distance from the 
two central stones varies from 25 to 30 yards ; there is one 
stone wanting to make the circle complete. There is a row of 
stones extending north and south, dividing this circle almost 
equally in a line with the two central boulders. Besides the 
two latter there are- ten very large stones standing upright — 
the distance separating them is from 24 to 35 yards, and the 
entire distance they extend is about 226 yards, about equal to 
the distance separating the lines that run east to west. In the 
latter lines the stones are placed closely together, while in that 
extending north and south they are separated from each other 
as already mentioned, and are of much larger size. 

Reference was next made to similar alignments found in 
Brittany, in the department of the Morbihan, of which a few 
views were shown on the screen and compared with those in 
Sligo. Antiquarians who have spent a great deal of time and 
research in examining the lines of Carnac, Menec, and Ker- 
lescan, have not arrived at a definite conclusion as to the use of 
these monuments in the ceremonies of the ancient inhabitants 
of Brittany. The general opinion is, they were in some way 
connected with sepulchral structures, and had a place in the 
worship of the early Celtic tribes. 

Proceeding from where the alignments end on the eastern 
side down hill towards Lough Gill, we entered a field containing 
the remains of a small circular fort. In the same field are 18 
small cairns, or heaps of loose stones, with other stones placed 
in situ outlining the graves, for they are evidently sepulchral 



Recent Archaeological Explorations in Co. Sligo. 51 

structures. In the next field, still nearer the lake, there is a 
great pit 75 feet long and 30 feet wide at the broadest part. It 
is filled with hundreds of loads of loose stones ; from one part 
of it the stones have been removed to a depth of six feet. On 
a portion of the northern side are upright stones outlining this 
place in a similar way to many sepulchral structures I have 
seen. It occurs to me that our ancient history throws some 
light on these graves and their date. 

The Annals of the Four Masters relate that in the year 535 
a great battle was fought between Eoghan Bel, King of Con- 
naught, and the Clanna Nial from Ulster, at a place called 
Grinder. The Annals state that at this battle, which was fought 
with great fury, the River Sligeach bore to the sea the blood of 
men with their flesh. Another ancient manuscript, translated by 
John O'Donovan, states — "That Eoghan Bel was mortally 
wounded, and his troops beaten by the Ulstermen ; that he 
lived for three days. He told his people to bury him on the 
hill at the base of which the Ulstermen flee when pursued by 
the armies of Connaught ; that he was to be buried in a stand- 
ing posture, with his red javelin in his hand and his face 
towards Ulster, that he might watch over his countrymen when 
engaged in battle." It is further related, so long as his body 
remained in this position the Connaughtmen were victorious ; 
but the Ulstermen coming to know of it, came with a great 
army and removed the body, and carried it northward across 
the Sligeach river, and buried him with his face downwards at 
Aenach Locha Gille — thus destroying the talismanic effect of 
the former interment. The present river running from Lough 
Gill to the sea, a distance not exceeding four miles, was 
anciently called the Sligeach. It is on the southern side of 
this river, and close to it, that the eighteen graves and the 
large pit is situated. 

The large cairn, or what is known as Cams Hill, is on higher 
ground, overlooking the lake and river. The battle must have 
been fought here, as the Annals state the slain were carried to 
the sea by the river. On the hill above the river the cashels 



52 Recent Archoeological Explorations in Co. SHgo. 

already referred to are situated— a very strong place for the 
Connaughtmen to fall back on. The graves and pit can be 
accounted for as the place where those slain in this battle were 
interred. The large cairn answers to the description of the 
place where Eoghan Bel was buried, and the chasm down the 
northern face of the cairn is explained by the body having been 
removed from that side, and thus causing a displacement or 
gap in the structure still quite visible. An explanation is 
required as to the name of the place where the battle was 
fought. The Annals say it was a place called Grinder. No 
name like this is now known in county Sligo. If this place 
was anciently known as Grinder, or Grune Tyr, probably, it 
would be very appropriate, as referring to the rounded or 
globular-shaped country, viz. — crwie, rounded or globular, and 
tyr, a country. Garns Hill is of this shape. 

This townland could only have been known as Garns 
from the time the cairns were erected, and must have had a 
previous name, which I conclude was the now lost name 
referred to — from the fact of the burial of the King and the 
erection of his cairn, and also the erection of the other cairn 
known as Ton-na-f hoble, or the cairn of the people — the town- 
land from that period would be referred to and called Garns, 
and the older name would lapse. The lecturer proceeded to 
prove that the place the body of Eoghan Bel was re-interred in 
would correspond to the structure now known as the Giant's 
Grave in the Deer-park. Ancient stone worship was exhaus- 
tively dealt with, and the decrees of the various Gouncils of the 
Ghurch against stone worship, well worship, and the worship 
of trees, was referred to. 

The use of stones in the inauguration of chiefs and kings in 
Ireland, and Edmund Spenser's account of such a ceremony 
which he witnessed in the South of Ireland, was related. The 
chief was placed on a large stone reserved for that purpose, 
usually on a hill ; he took an oath to preserve all the 
ancient customs of the country inviolate ; he then received 
a wand, after which he descended from the stone. The ancient 



Recent Archceological Explorations in Co. Sligo. 5 3 

Kings of Denmark were crowned in a circle of stones ; the 
Kings of Sweden were crowned on a stone, around which was a 
circle of stones on which the nobles sat ; the Saxon Kings were 
crowned on a stone ; and the British Sovereigns are crowned 
with a stone placed underneath the coronation chair. The 
Kings of Ireland were crowned on a stone at Tara. The O'Neills 
were crowned on a stone seat which is now in the Co. Sligo. 

A very peculiar custom which throws light on Druidical stone 
circles was referred to. The bards from Wales assembled in the 
gardens of the Temple, London, in November last, to hold a 
meeting called a Gorsedd. Twelve stones were placed on the 
ground, forming a circle ; a large stone was placed in the centre. 
When the ceremony commenced, the bard, who on this occa- 
sion represented the Arch Druid — a venerable man of eighty 
years — who stood on the central stone, and turning his face to 
the east commenced the ceremonies of the bards, which custom 
has been handed down from ancient times. Tradition requires 
that these Gorsedden, or meetings of the bards, shall be held in 
the eye of the light and the face of the sun. The large boulder, 
surrounded by a circle of stones as previously described, may 
have been used for some such purpose, or in the inauguration 
of chiefs. 

It is said the Kings of Sweden were crowned on a stone 
within a circle of stones, and for each king thus crowned an 
upright stone was placed in position as a memorial of the event, 
so that by counting these upright monumental stones the 
number of kings crowned there could be known. As already 
stated, Irish chiefs were inaugurated on a stone, as related by 
Spenser ; that being so, might account for the large boulders 
within the circle, while the ten stones in line might have 
been erected as in Sweden, to represent the number there 
inaugurated. 

The lecturer concluded by referring to the burial of Absalom, 
over whom, when interred, a great heap of stones was placed, 
like the cairns of the ancient Irish. He also quoted the burial 
of Hector as an illustration of another mode of sepulture 



54 Recent Archaeological Explorations in Co. Sligo. 

common in ancient Erin, viz., cremation ; and the erection of 
what was probably a cromlech covered with an earthen mound. 
After the body was burned on the funeral pyre — 

" The bones they took and laid them in 
A casket bright with gold, 
Wrapt round with fleeces soft and sleek, 
All purple to behold. 

Soon scooped a grave and in it entombed 
The casket deep, 

And big stones closely o'er it placed. 
And o'er the stones, still hot with haste, 
Flung up the earthen heap." 



55 



isi March, 1887. 



William H. Patterson, Esq., M.R.I.A., in the Chair. 



William Gray, Esq., M.R.I.A., read a Paper on 

TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND OUR METHODS OF 
PROMOTING IT. 



Mr. Gray commenced his lecture by tracing the development 
of animals, and stated that man is the highest form of animal 
organisation ; that henceforth all improvement must be by 
man's powers of adapting the phenomena of nature to serve 
his purposes, and not by adapting himself to his surroundings 
as the mere animal did. His first effort was, doubtless, the 
formation of a weapon or tool, and his few rudely-fashioned 
stone implements were the first step outside of, and beyond the 
capacity of, any previously existing animal, thereby initiating 
those processes which culminated in the higher achievements 
of mechanical skill, demonstrating that necessity is the mother 
of invention, and foreshadowing the advantages of that com- 
petition which is the life of trade. The phenomena of mind, 
the new factor in the struggle for existence, early attracted 
the attention of increasing mankind, and gave rise to schools 
of mental speculation, employed in formulating the laws on 
which the security of society depends : so that in the earliest 
ages, and in the infancy of nations, it was found that no pro- 
gress could be made until an obedience to law and order was first 
established. 

Mr. Gray, having traced the rise and progress of the indus- 
trial arts from the East through the Romans to Britain, 
explained that our insular position was not unfavourable to the 



56 Technical Education. 

progress of mechanical arts in times of peace, and the successes 
of our arms by land and sea brought the British into contact 
with other nationalities, and obtained from them the know- 
ledge of materials and methods unknown to us before. We 
exchanged with other nations in the markets of the world, and 
men of thought and skill sought refuge in England from the 
strife and turmoils that disturbed their native provinces. 
Edward III. encouraged clothworkers from France to settle in 
Norfolk and other places, for at that period, as Fuller in his 
Church History tells us, the people knew "no more what to do 
with their wool than the sheep that wore it." A most impor- 
tant accession of skilled workmen was obtained in consequence 
of the persecutions that followed the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes in 1685, when a large number of workmen in various 
trades took refuge in England, and were instrumental in stimu- 
lating industries in the various towns then rising into importance. 
This important accession of the Flemish and French refugees 
to our slowly-increasing army of skilled mechanics stimulated 
our industries, and contributed to the development of those 
remarkable discoveries that subsequently revolutionised the 
industrial world, and did more for the material welfare of 
mankind than ages of abstract speculation, religious contro- 
versy, and military campaigns. But great discoveries were not 
the outcome of single minds. Robert Stephenson said of the 
locomotive, "It has not been invented by any one man, but by 
a race of mechanical engineers." The same may be said of 
many other important inventions ; for like as the lowly coral 
polyp toils quietly, laboriously, and unostentatiously in the 
deep, generation after generation passing away, in the effort to 
elaborate and combine the scanty materials of which the reef is 
formed, and the winter's storm waves roll far above heedless of 
the toilers, but do not check their progress, until at length 
their combined result rises gracefully to bask in the sun- 
shine and the air, a very refuge in mid-ocean, to become clothed 
with fruitful palms and the beauty of tropical vegetation : — 
so also generation after generation of obscure toilers investigate 
phenomena, and accumulate experiences in the quiet of their 



Technical Education. 57 

retirement, with apparently no practical results, and heedless of 
the contest ol parties and the struggles of native rage around 
them, until at length the combined results of the continued 
achievements of human intellects develop into some great 
discovery recognised in the sunlight of public favour as another 
vantage ground from which to press forward the cause of civilisa- 
tion and progress. 

The brilliant and rapid advance of scientific discovery in 
modern times, and the vast improvement in mechanical 
appliances, justify the anticipation of accelerated progress in the 
future. There seems to be no practical limit to the development 
of industry, or to the application of the products and forces of 
nature for the purposes of mankind, wholly independent of 
nationalities. The common result, as well as the special advan- 
tages of every accession and every fresh discovery, are rendered 
available to all by the increased facilities for intercommuni- 
cation and the removal of those hindrances, social and physical, 
that heretofore separated nation from nation. But while the 
universal distribution of knowledge, and all the advantages that 
follow discovery and the culture of science and art are inevitable, 
and desirable in the interests of advancing civilisation, they in- 
volve from a commercial view, a closer competition and a keener 
struggle for existence, and remind us that the position we or 
any people can take in the struggle, will depend upon the skill, 
experience, and culture we employ to maintain it. In mediaeval 
times the squire, the clergy, the yoemen and well-to-do citizens 
were bound by law to train up their descendants to practical 
industries. The obligations thus imposed were liable to incon- 
venient abuses, and the practice fell into disuse, and was super- 
seded by the apprenticeship system. Under the apprenticeship 
system a youth, bound to serve his master for a term of years, 
had a fair chance of acquiring a knowledge of his trade, for it 
brought him into direct contact with his master, and was 
made familiar with all his business. This was especially the 
case so long as almost every tradesman was himself a master, 
and not a mere journeyman in the employment ot others. 

AH the operations of industry were then protected and regu- 



58 Technical Education. 

lated by trade guilds, and a knowledge of the trade was 
considered a mystery, jealously guarded by the members of the 
guilds, who were masters of the mystery — craftsmen or handi- 
craftsmen. In modern times the printer's "devil" has outwitted 
the craftsmen by exposing all their secrets. In rural districts 
masters were not so much specialists as all-over men. A smith 
was a blacksmith, locksmith, nailer, farrier, and perhaps horse 
doctor. A carpenter was also a joiner, wheelwright, cabinetmaker 
and millwright. Their factories or workshops were their own 
homes, in which the apprentice often resided, or, at all events, 
was brought into daily personal contact with his master, and 
was thereby enabled to acquire a thorough knowledge of his 
trade. But the development of manufacturing machinery, 
with the consequent erection of large manufacturing concerns, 
and the concentration of skilled labour into large towns, 
destroyed the apprenticeship system ; and to-day the youthful 
apprentice is passed into a factory, like a sheep into a paddock, 
to do the best he can for himself. He has no immediate 
responsible master. But as extensive factories and large estab- 
lishments of all kinds have become an absolute necessity to keep 
pace with the progress of our manufacturing industries, and as 
the principle of a division of labour must be acted on to secure 
excellence and economy, it is quite manifest that the system of 
apprenticeship, which cannot be dispensed with, must be 
modified to meet the requirements of modern industrial opera- 
tion. The apprentice should, in fact, be technically educated 
or he cannot acquire in the workshop or factory the skill that 
is required by the refinement of processes, and the straining 
after excellence and perfection in every detail of our modern 
industries. In this sense we must look on technical education 
as a system, and not as a mere branch of education — a system 
that directs every stage of the pupil's educational career, so 
that he may be prepared to efficiently discharge the duties of 
life and maintain the struggle for existence. Adopting this 
view of technical education, it is evident that as a method or 
system of education it can be applied to our most elementary 
schools, as the foundation of our educational edifice ; and as 



Technical Education. 59 

the stability and permanence of the superstructure depends 
upon the efficiency of the foundation, it is manifest that any- 
thing wanting or imperfect in our elementary education will 
be proportionately injurious to the educational superstructure 
raised upon it. 

After referring to the defects of the purely voluntary system, 
Mr. Gray referred to the establishment of our National educa- 
tion system, and said that in consequence of the apathy of the 
public, denominational jealousies, and other causes, the old 
parochial idea was retained in formulating the National educa- 
tion scheme, and the control of the schools drifted into the 
hands of clerical managers, and consequently the system as a 
system, while it had accomplished much good, has failed to 
realise all that its founders anticipated with reference to tech- 
nical education. If we compare our school buildings with the 
schools of England and Scotland, we will find a marked con- 
trast. The great majority of our National schools are built on 
waste, good-for-nothing spots. The buildings are dingy, 
uncared-for, ill-ventilated, and badly lighted. The report of 
the Education Commissioners shows that over 23 per cent, of 
our National schools are without any out-offices, yards, or 
playgrounds. At a meeting of the Teachers' Congress in 
Dublin Dr. Cameron said : — "In the rural districts the schools 
were, with a few exceptions, wretched structures, being some- 
times mere mud cabins, with cold clay floors and thatched 
roofs. Taken as a whole the National schools were mean, ill- 
conditioned buildings, quite unworthy to be used in connection 
with one of the noblest of man's works — the cultivation of the 
human understanding." Such is the testimony of a sanitary 
authority. We speak of the necessity for compulsory education. 
Would it not be a breach of Martin's act against cruelty to 
animals to compel children to attend such schools ? . 

The total absence of suggestive objects, natural and manu- 
factured, is a most radical defect in our national schools, for 
without them our youths are brought up incapable of appreciating 
the phenomena of the natural world, or its requirements, and 
consequently know nothing of the various channels into which 



6o Technical Education. 

their own labour might hereafter be practically directed ; hence 
when it is time for lads to leave school both they and their parents 
are too often utterly at a loss to know what the lad is to be put 
to, or what he is fit for. He has been taught to work hard to get 
result fees for his teacher, and he is glad to be relieved from this 
labour. Beyond this he has rarely no other definite idea as to the 
necessity, value, or object of the education he has received. 
Without this he is heavily handicapped in his future struggle 
for existence. Referring to the use of tools in schools, the lec- 
turer said there are many things desirable that are not always 
practicable. This seems to be the case with reference to teach- 
ing the use of tools in schools, where our youths, as a rule, have 
so short a time to devote to the cultivation of the senses and 
mental faculties as means for acquiring and properly applying 
the laws and principles that underlie the practical industries of 
the country. Other agencies besides tools may be employed 
for the purpose of developing and directing manipulative skill, 
or dexterity of hand, such, for example, as drawing and modelling. 
The lecturer strongly recommended this, as well as the study of 
natural science, and stated that the defective training in the 
elementary school is a great hindrance to the effective working 
of the more practical classes under the Science and Art Depart- 
ment, for a great deal of the students' time is lost in their school 
making up the elementary deficiencies. This is most marked. 
The School of Art and the teachers' time, which should be 
devoted to the more advanced studies, is wasted in endeavouring 
to get the student to grasp the more elementary lessons in 
drawing. No wonder that the parents and friends so often 
complain of the time spent on elementary work, and the slow 
progress made by the students. Mechanics wanting this 
elementary instruction attribute their slow progress at schools of 
art to the teachers' want of practical knowledge rather than to 
their own want of elementary knowledge. Had the student's 
eye and hand been properly trained in the elementary school 
at the time when the eye and hand are most readily trained, 
he would be prepared to profit by the teaching in the School 
of Art, and advance to higher stages more rapidly. The lecturer 



Technical Education. 6i 

having referred to the want of prizes or rewards of some kind in 
connection with our National schools, said the children of Model 
schools obtain certificates and prizes as the result of annual 
examinations, and there seems to be no reason why a similar 
system should not be insisted upon in every ordinary National 
school as a means to stimulate efforts to excel and to deserve, and 
in acknowledgment of superior merit. At present our National 
or elementary schools have no direct connection with the Interme- 
diate or higher schools. There is a missing link in our educative 
chain which should be supplied by a system of scholarships open 
to pupils of our National schools, thus connecting the elementary 
schools with the intermediate and higher schools, and making 
the way clear for worthy pupils to pass from the lower forms of 
our provincial schools into the highest places in our educational 
system. Our Schools of Art and Science established in 1851 
constitute effective agencies for promoting technical education. 
During the ten years that succeeded the Great Exhibition of 1851 
the art schools worked quietly and effectively, and their influence 
on the industrial progress of the country was acknowledged 
by foreign juries in the Exhibition of 1862, who stated that 
England had "made amazing progress." Since then, further 
improvement has been made, and the resources of the central 
schools and museum at South Kensington have been greatly 
extended, with correspondingly increased advantages to the 
provinces. The number of national scholarships taken by any 
school may be accepted as a very fair indication of the 
efficiency of the school. In this respect Belfast has done 
well, and occupies a high position in comparison with many 
others in the kingdom. During the fourteen years following 
the establishment of our local School of Art, Belfast has 
taken the third place among the schools of the kingdom. 
Within that period the number of scholarships taken by South 
Kensington was 16, Birmingham 10, Belfast 8, and no other 
school took more than 6. The science classes at the Working 
Men's Institute, under Mr. Barklie, have been equally success- 
ful, and last year the result fees, independent of prizes, amounted 
to ^600. In common with the manufacturers of the nation 



62 Technical Education. 

generally, our local manufacturers seem to be unconscious of 
the importance and value of such agencies as our schools of art and 
science, and take very little interest in their labours. So re- 
cently as the inquiry of the Technical Commission in Belfast, 
a local manufacturer stated that the School of Art was of little 
use to manufacturers, although at that very time his manager 
was negotiating for the employment of one of our pupils as a 
designer in his works, and has employed school of art pupils 
since with acknowledged advantage. The technical education 
of pupils must become more specialised as it advances, and in 
order to meet the requirements of trade, must be carried much 
further than the education provided by the State. For this 
purpose all available external agencies must be brought into 
operation, among the most ancient and honourable of which stand 
the wealthy livery companies of London, who, recognising the 
necessity for promoting technical education, established in 1877 
the Guilds of London Institute, for the purpose of promoting 
technical education among the industrial classes. Their general 
scheme was formulated on the lines of the Science and Art 
Department, and developed to a practical issue the annual 
examinations and technical subjects, which were previously organ- 
ised by the Society of Arts in 1856. The institute's syllabus con- 
tains thirty-five subjects, including all our productive industries, 
and payments are made to teach and support prizes awarded to 
pupils upon the results of examination in each subject. We 
have, therefore, working side by side these two agencies for the 
promotion of technical education among the working classes — 
the Crown, by means of the science and art schools, and the 
Guilds of London Institute, by means of the technological pro- 
gramme, taking up the student where he is left by the State, 
and teaching him the practical application of his acquired 
knowledge of science and art. 

The lecturer described the very excellent work done by the 
pupils of the Technical School and the Science and Art Classes, 
particularly the classes at the Working Men's Institute, show- 
ing that in the national competitions the Belfast students have 
more than held their own in competition with some of the most 



Technical Education. 63 

impcrtant Schools and Colleges of Science in the kingdom. 
Referring to the difficulty in getting Schools of Science in the 
country, the lecturer said these difficulties and hindrances must 
continue until local authorities awake to see the necessity for 
adopting some more systematic method of applying the educa- 
tional resources of the country for the purpose of promoting 
the interests of our national industries. In this direction trade 
societies could render effective services. Indeed, without their 
sympathy and hearty co-operation no system of industrial 
education can be effectively brought home to the artisan, and 
unless this is done, and effectively done, much of our educa- 
tional efforts of the day will be little better than a dissipation 
of energy. Whatever scheme is founded it should be equally 
available for all industries. "In a general way it may safely 
be predicted that the nation which has the most varied indus- 
tries is likely, all other things being equal, to be the most pros- 
perous, powerful and contented." The success of our technical 
education will depend upon how it is applied in the interest of 
the young pupils or apprentices in the several branches of 
trades, rather than in the interest of older hands, who have 
discovered by experience the disadvantages of neglected educa- 
tion. Assistance in the latter case should not be withheld, but 
no substantial or permanent improvement can be made unless 
the career of the young mechanic is carefully guided at every 
stage, but especially at the apprenticeship stage. 

We have already traced the altered relationship between the 
master mechanic and his pupil in consequence of our factory 
system, close competition, and division of labour, and it becomes 
a question of vital importance to ascertain how, under existing 
circumstances, to remedy the difficulties which our modern 
apprentices have to contend against in acquiring a practical 
knowledge of their trades. The concurrent testimony of all 
practical authorities is that the apprenticeship system cannot 
be superseded by any other form of education in trade, but 
that the difficulties which surround him in the whirl and push 
of our modern factory, render it all the more necessary that his 
wits should be sharpened, his observing powers cultivated, and 



64 Technical Education. 

his mind stored with information appHcable to his calling, before 
he enters the factory or workshop. Unfortunately masters as 
a rule fail to test the pupil's ability and qualifications, unless to 
serve some immediate and inferior purpose, and the pupil is 
left to work his way as best he can. This is a radical defect. 
Considering the number of educational advantages now avail- 
able, masters would secure the most effective service of their 
apprentices, stimulate elementary education, and generally pro- 
mote the improvement of the industrial arts, if they would 
refuse to admit any youth as an apprentice who had not made 
sufficient progress in the recognised Schools of Art, Science, and 
Technology ; — certificates of competency being obtainable from 
all such schools, there could be no difficulty in applying this 
test. Trade societies having to a great measure assumed the 
duties of the old trade guilds, are now called upon in their own 
interest to see that the apprentices to the various trades are 
registered as properly qualified. Unless some technical certifi- 
cate is required by trade societies from candidates for member- 
ship, the educational status of the artisan cannot be improved. 
One of the most honourable of the London companies, the 
Plumbers' Company, had a rule as old as the time of Edward 
III. to the effect that " No one of the trade of plumbers shall 
meddle with works touching said trade except by the assent of 
the best and most skilful men in the said trade testifying that 
he knows how well and lawfully to do his work, so that the 
said trade may not be scandalised or the community damaged 
by folks who do not know their trade." 

The teaching of trades is what is rendered possible under the 
scheme of the Guilds of London Institute, and skilled workmen 
of any trade having qualified under the Institute can earn result 
fees by giving instruction in their respective trades. Practi- 
cally, the adoption of this system is limited to towns where 
suitable accommodation can be provided in the shape of class- 
rooms, workshops, or demonstration rooms and fittings, as in 
the case of the Science Schools at the Belfast Working Men's 
Institute, which received aid from South Kensington towards 
fitting up the chemical laboratory, and the Technical School, 



Technical Education. 65 

Hastings Street, which received aid from the London com- 
panies. The difficulty in forming trade schools in rural dis- 
tricts has been successfully overcome in the case of the Fishery 
Institute, at Baltimore, County Cork, where a school has been 
established for teaching boys "every art connected with fishing, 
from the making of lines and nets to the building of boats, 
curing of fish," &c. This has been established under the 
Industrial Schools Act, which will ensure an annual capitation 
grant from the State and a smaller sum from the county for 
each boy under instruction, and for the same purpose Grand 
Juries, or the Town Councils of Dublin, Limerick, or Cork, 
can obtain loans from the Crown at three and a half per cent, 
for altering, enlarging, building, or rebuilding industrial schools. 
There seems to be no reason why this Industrial Schools Act 
should not be extended to all properly constituted trade schools. 
Probably it would be if the zeal manifested in the case of 
Baltimore Fishery School was more general throughout the 
country. In Belfast, favoured by the existence of the Queen's 
College, which is sufficient to meet all the possible demands 
for high scientific education, what seems most required is a 
connecting link between the Science and Art Schools and the 
workshop and factory, so that the pupil or apprentice having 
entered the latter may be able to obtain that practical instruction 
by skilled workmen which there is no time to impart in the fac- 
tory and no proper means of demonstrating in the lecture- room. 
For this purpose suitable workshops and apparatus will be 
required for all trades, and the teaching staff may be selected 
from the qualified teachers under the Guilds of London 
Institute, as at the school in Hastings Street, or they may be 
nominated by the respective trade societies interested in the 
welfare of their trade apprentices. 

The Technical SchoolsofHuddersfield, Bradford, Nottingham, 
and Leeds, embrace the teaching of science and art as in our 
Government School and Working Men's Institute, and the 
teaching of technology as under the Guilds of London Institute, 
and in many cases aim at a still higher standard by endeavour- 
ing to accomplish in arts and medicine what is eflectively done 



66 Technical Education. 

by our Queen's College. We in Belfast may fairly leave the 
high cultivation of science and original research with the 
College, and content ourselves by the endeavour to utilise the 
provisions of the Science and Art Department and the Guilds 
of London Institute for the benefit of the industrial classes. 
While acknowledging the superior excellence of both organisa- 
tions for the accomplishment of their intended purpose, there 
is a certain amount of incoherence about them that militates 
against their complete success. The Public Libraries Act was 
intended to remedy this defect, by placing in the hands of a 
permanent municipal authority funds for the promotion of 
popular technical education by the establishment of Libraries, 
Museums, and Schools of Music, Science and Art, and more 
effectively to apply such other funds as may be voluntarily placed 
in their hands for similar purposes. Many of the chief towns 
of the kingdom have utilised the powers of the Libraries Act 
with great effect, in exciting public interest in favour of tech- 
nical education and raising noble buildings as appropriate 
homes for Literature, Art, and Science. 

Belfast will probably have, under the powers of the Act, a 
municipal building architecturally equal to any, but to make 
it complete as a means of promoting technical education, it 
should embrace an economic museum and art gallery, and if 
external or voluntary aid will admit, it should provide class- 
room and workshop accommodation for the teaching of science, 
art, and technology, thus forming one central educational 
establishment or Victoria Institute, qualified to teach the 
principles and practice of science and art in their relation to 
our national industries, as successfully as the Queen's College 
prepares the students for the University. And if our wealthy 
merchants of Belfast would only strive to realise such a scheme 
this Jubilee year, it would go a great way towards stimulating 
the Government to provide for the Queen's College the addi- 
tional accommodation for scientific demonstration which it has 
claimed so long and still so badly requires. Whether this can 
be accomplished or not, the central institution, even as an 
auxiliary to the Schools of Science, Art, and Trade cannot be 



Technical Education. 67 

complete without a good economic and art gallery, in which 
our mineral and other national products should be exhibited, 
and their several uses in the arts illustrated, with the processes 
by which they are rendered available. In our industrial 
museum we should have selected examples of our home and 
foreign textile productions^ patterns, processes, inventions, 
improvements, suggestions, and the combinations of industry 
that are being provided to meet the increasing requirements of 
advancing civilisation. Mr. Gray closed his lecture by describ- 
ing the advantages that would arise from such a central 
institute not only to the Schools of Art, Science, and Tech- 
nology, but to the public generally, and hoped that a strong 
effort would be made to have it established as a memorial of 
the Jubilee year. 

At the close of the paper the Chairman invited discussion. 
Mr. Young congratulated Mr. Gray on having treated his 
subject in an able and comprehensive manner, and expressed 
himself in favour of having a proper School of Technology and 
a Museum for Belfast. He did not think, however, that the 
building should be connected with the Library, but considered 
it would be much better in another part of the town. 

Mr. Greenhill said that, at the suggestion of the Mayor, a 
committee had been formed for the purpose of carrying out the 
preliminary arrangements in connection with a Technology 
School, and adverted to the essayist's remarks in connection 
with apprentices, observing that he would much prefer the lad 
who got his training in a small shop, where his duties were of 
a varied character, to the apprentice in a large establishment, 
who was kept constantly at one class of work. 

Mr. Carson complimented Mr. Gray on the excellence of his 
paper, and suggested that it should be published in pamphlet 
form. 

Mr. Gray, in reply, said he would not like the Town 
Council to have the whole management of the school, but he 
would take advantage of the Council's power under the 
Libraries Act so as to render the School or Institute permanent 
by being conducted under the Council as the municipal authority. 



68 Technical Education, 

They had been told that it would be unfortunate for it to be 
connected with the Town Council, inasmuch as they would be 
swamped with rates, but the Act providing a penny rate was 
passed for the purpose of limiting the rate to a penny, though 
of course he knew there had been efforts to make the rate two- 
pence. He thought, however, that it would be unfortunate if 
they were permitted to tax the ratepayers in this way, because 
it would have the effect of checking voluntary efforts and con- 
tributions. With regard to having one building, he certainly 
would not go in for swamping all the others into one institu- 
tion. His idea was to have a central building containing the 
necessary appliances for the other institutions which would 
gather round the museum, and that the municipal committee 
should be the directing authority, having their central building 
equipped with such appliances, apparatus, models, examples and 
diagrams, as may be necessary to aid and stimulate the efforts 
of any or all the schools or classes established throughout the 
town for the promotion of any form of Technical Education. 



69 



<)th March, i88' 



W H. Patterson, Esq., M.R.I.A., President, in the Chair. 



W. H. Hartland, Esq., C.E., read a Paper on 

SEWAGE DISPOSAL AND RIVER POLLUTION : ITS 

PRESENT AND FUTURE ASPECTS, FROM A 

SANITARY AND ECONOMIC POINT 

OF VIEW. 



The Lecturer began by stating that probably no subject con- 
nected with the public welfare demands a closer or more philo- 
sophical inquiry than this. One of the first authorities of the 
day has recently made use of the words, " I am compelled to 
admit that the subject of sewage generally is in a frightful 
mess." The dangers to public health are almost infinite in 
number and character, and the legislative attempts to guard 
against them promise soon to become not alone a serious 
burden upon the pocket, but an irksome interference with the 
freedom of domestic life. Yet the chief dangers from sewage 
disposal are not, like those from bad food or drink or over- 
crowding, patent to all, and thus easily avoided. They are 
underground and out of sight, almost unknown, yet always 
active and ready to spring up and destroy us, whenever a 
favouring condition of circumstances may arise. What consti- 
tutes a satisfactory system of disposal ? His reply would be 
this — Purify the sewage before putrefaction sets in ; all the rest 
will follow as a matter of course. Providence, indeed, will do 
the rest in the shape of " aeration," for pure air no sooner 
meets with either foul odour, liquid, or matter than a struggle 
commences— it proceeds to purify them. In the right applica- 
tion of these principles it may be we shall find a revolution 
in the present methods of procedure, both of treatment and of 



7o Sewage Disposal and River Pollution. 

sewer construction. What is the present aspect of this 
question ? In the last half century there has been literature 
on it wholesale, parliamentary commissions, blue books, reports 
without end, yet the upshot of all is found in Dr. Tidy's 
recent statement that the subject is in " a frightful mess." 

The chief end of the Legislature has been to prevent 
river pollution, in order that rivers and streams may be 
restored to the public as sources of pure air, clean water, 
fish life, &c. But the opponents of legislation ask, " What 
is the use of further legislation, when the present is almost 
a dead letter from the difficulty and increasing expense of 
putting it into practice ? " Let us examine the procedure 
that has led to this result. The first point to be noticed is 
engineering. There was generally some great scheme for 
the purpose of gathering up and concentrating in one stream 
the whole nuisance of a locality, and then passing it on to a 
neighbour. If anything illustrates the adage, " The farther 
you go the deeper the mire," it is sewage disposal on these 
terms. The next method of procedure was sewage farming. 
This was at one time looked upon as the grand solution of the 
problem. Although large sums of money have been expended 
in this way it is gradually being abandoned. Next, there is 
settlement and after filtration. Grave sanitary reasons soon 
showed the fallacy of filtering raw sewage, and the settling tank 
was brought into play. But the after filtration over areas of 
land involves numerous difficulties — a great deal of land is 
required, it soon gets " sick," and has to rest ; yet if the land 
be of a suitable quality a step is made towards the economic 
use of sewage by the affinity of the filtering medium for the 
more volatile and valuable elements in the sewage, and the 
land has become manured ; but the season for manure is 
limited, whilst that for sewage is constant, and we are com- 
pelled to go on *' in season and out of season." The " pail 
system," with its handful of charcoal to arrest and to deodorise 
the volatile elements has a certain economic value, but is 
repulsive and can never be popular, and besides it leaves half 
the drainage of the towns, and that in point of fact the most 



Sewage Disposal and River Pollution. 7 1 

objectionable, untouched. The lecturer proceeded — We now 
come to what is termed the scientific or chemical treatment of 
sewage. It may be stated briefly that natural laws, applicable 
to liquid purification, are— First, subsidence ; second, natural 
oxidation ; third, the general laws of chemical affinity— with 
the latter is combined filtration. No matter how carried out, 
chemical treatment aims at accomplishing one or other of the 
effects natural to these laws. In precipitation or forced subsi- 
dence, the agent used is generally lime. In the oxidation of 
organic matter, permanganic acid, or salts of iron, we often used, 
either with sulphate of alumina, or with lime. The A B C, or 
alum, blood, and clay process, has been keenly fought over, 
and is yet in controversy. The new process at Southampton 
by which three grains of " very porous carbon" are added to 
each gallon of sewage, probably effects little more than a partial 
deodorisation of the liquid. Some other chemicals would seem 
to operate quite as much by bleaching, as by really purifying 
the sewage. But the bulk of these systems all aggravate the 
difficulty of the "sludge" or solid deposit from the sewage by 
adding, in the form of lime, alumina, or other ingredients, 
immensely to its bulk, and none of them are carried out except 
at great cost. The Birmingham Drainage Board, for instance, 
has _jf 400,000 invested in works (not sewers), and the sewage 
treatment of London, in the manner proposed by Mr. Dibden, 
is estimated to cost annually ^118,000; another system 
proposed, but not adopted there, contemplated an outlay of 
3;^ millions and an annual expenditure of ^198,000 ; whilst a 
third proposal went as far as 3I millions, and jf2 19,000 of an 
annual expenditure. In attempting to describe the possible 
future aspect of sewage disposal I may be allowed a little lati- 
tude, but will avoid as far as possible merely theoretical con- 
clusions. The main question depends on obtaining a system of 
purification that shall be of universal application. If in so 
doing we can minimise the cost, and so reduce the ratal burdens, 
we shall have accomplished something ; if we can obtain a cheap 
manure, we shall have benefited the largest industry in the 
country. I am not going to tell you that " Peruvian guano " 



72 Sewage Disposal and River Pollution. 

can be manufactured from sewage, but simply that an honest 
attempt can be made to recover that amount of natural value 
which sewage undoubtedly has. In former systems the more 
volatile and evanescent of these elements have been allowed to 
pass away, or have been simply neutralised. I would go farther 
— retain them. In the apparatus before me there are three, or 
indeed four, sections, for I propose to perform in detail what 
other systems do all together, and so fail to accomplish either. 
In the first section I apply the natural process which is to be seen 
at the mouth of the Blackstaff— ?.^., to allow the solid matter to 
settle by quiescence to the bottom. In the second section the 
liquid, freed from the grossest of this, flows between and through 
filter boxes filled with, let us say, coarse lime or chalk. These 
operate in a twofold manner— they serve both as a mechanical 
filter and as a chemical neutraliser for such acids as exist more 
or less in all sewage. In the third section the liquid, having 
gone through these preliminary stages of purification, falls to a 
lower level, one foot, or two or three feet, as the case may be, 
but falling by means of spray plates in a highly divided form 
through which a current of air passes. This is aeration, and is 
the system nature applies in every river or running stream. 
Then in the fourth section the highly aerated and oxidised 
liquid passes through a second series of filter boxes containing 
charred and earthy matter whose natural affinity for ammonia 
takes up more or less of this valuable constituent of manures. 
The final stage of this is subsidence, in the last tank, of all the 
remaining sediment, chiefly the finer organic particles. The 
fully purified effluent then passes away at any, even if necessary 
at a dead level — it is clear water, no longer sewage. Each part 
of the system is in duplicate, each may be of any convenient 
size, and any number can be placed side by side, so as to be 
anplicable either to one central area, to a series of drainage 
areas scattered over one large town, or to a separate institution, 
workhouse, a hospital, or to a private house, or group of houses. 
The chief difficulty in all sewage questions has been the disposal 
of the " sludge." In the system I propose the sludge is not the 
manurial element in which I rely — for that purpose it may be 



Sewage Disbosal and River FoUuiion. 73 

disregarded — the more valuable elements I have intercepted in 
another form. Nevertheless, the sludge remains to be disposed 
of. We will suppose that a commercial attempt is being made 
to utilise the value of the elements retained as manure ; then 
the same fuel employed to create the aerating draft, to pump 
when necessary the low-level outfall and to work the filtering 
materials by grinding, &c , will also dry and calcine the sludge. 
The oxidised sludge is mixed with the coarse filtering materials 
by precipitating them into a drying floor or underground flue, 
which conveys the waste heat; here the material may lie 
undisturbed till dried. It may also be mixed with the ordinary 
town refuse, and the whole thus dried together, and once dry 
it can be treated as an ordinary raw material for manure, or 
more correctly as a vehicle for the reception of other valuable 
manure constituents, as in ordinary artificial manure industry. 
At the close of the lecture Mr. Hartland explained that owing 
to an accident to his experimental apparatus in transit from 
Glasgow, it had been necessary to effect some repairs, and they 
were only accomplished just before the lecture. He hoped, 
however, that the apparatus would be in full working order 
next morning, and anyone calling at the Museum after twelve 
o'clock would find it at work purifying the Belfast sewage. 
A discussion, which was chiefly of a technical nature, followed, 
in which Rev. Robert Workman, Mr. Wm. Gray, Mr. J. J. 
Murphy, Mr. L. L. Macassey, C.E.; Professor Everett, Mr. E. 
N. Banks, C.E., and Mr. F. W. Lockwood took part. Mr. 
Hartland replied, and the meeting concluded. 



74 



x'^th March, 1887. 



William H. Patterson, Esq., M.R.I.A., in the Chair. 



Professor Letts read a Paper on 
FERMENTATION AND KINDRED PHENOMENA. 



The subject which I have chosen for this lecture is one I may 
say of extraordinary interest and importance, not only in a purely 
scientific sense (though it has opened up several new fields of 
research), but equally if not more so from a practical point of 
view, as it deals with a wide range of subjects of much practical 
importance, and involves questions of the greatest moment to the 
whole human race. Among the latter there is a great deal that 
bears directly upon the causes, nature, and prevention of disease, 
and I feel that I may be charged with presumption for discussing 
this branch of the subject, which belongs more particularly to 
medicine and surgery ; but my excuse must be that it is also 
very intimately connected with chemistry — in fact, its medical 
and chemical aspects are linked by the closest bonds, and I do 
not see how they can be discussed apart. 

Let me first direct your attention to ordinary fermentation — 
the change which occurs in the manufacture of all spirituous 
beverages, such as wine, beer, whisky, &c. 

Fermentation has been known from the earliest times. The 
art of wine making was attributed by the Egyptians to Osiris, 
by the Greeks to Bacchus, whilst as every one knows the 
Israelitish tradition assigns its discovery to Noah. 

I suppose every one is aware how wine is made : that the 
grapes are crushed and the juice exposed to the air, when after 
some time a frothing occurs, and spirit gradually makes its 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 7 5 

appearance in the juice, whilst in proportion its sweetness 
becomes lessened Here we have a case of spontaneous fermen- 
tation, and the reason why wine-making is such an ancient 
process at once becomes apparent: for the first person who 
pressed out grape juice and allowed it to remain undisturbed 
for some time must have been the conscious or unconscious 
discoverer of fermentation. 

But in the manufacture of other alcoholic beverages, such as 
beer, &c., the conditions are not so simple, for something must 
be added to the " sweet wort," or infusion of malt, to cause the 
fermentation, and that something is "yeast" or "barm." 

Here let me at once say that in all cases of ordinary fermen- 
tation two things are necessary (i) a solution of sugar (2) yeast. 
I will explain presently why yeast is not added to grape juice, 
merely remarking that it is found abundantly in the juice after 
it has fermented. 

I have here some sugar (not ordinary sugar, but the same 
sugar which exists in grape juice — hence called " grape" sugar) 
dissolved in water. To the mixture I have added some yeast, 
and the whole has been kept at about blood heat for some six 
hours. 

You observe that the liquid is frothing, or " working" as it 
is called, and it is from that phenomenon that the term fermen- 
tation is deried \^fervere — Lat. to boil']. Now this frothing 
is due to the escape of a gas (as was first noticed by Van 
Helmont) and that gas, as we can readily demonstrate, is car- 
bonic acid. 

I have here another experiment proceeding, namely, the 
distillation of some fermented sugar solution, to show you that 
spirit has actually been formed. 

Now, as we took nothing originally but sugar and yeast, it is 
obvious that the spirit has been produced from them ; and as 
at the end of the experiment we find the yeast in undiminished 
quantity, whereas some or the whole of the sugar has disappeared 
(according to the conditions of the experiment) it is obvious 
that the spirit and carbonic acid have come from the sugar. 
In fact it has been ascertained that the sugar is decomposed in 



76 Ferjnentation and Kindred Phenomena, 

a perfectly definite manner, which we may represent by what 
is called a chemical equation, thus : — 

Ce Hi„ Og = 2 CO2 + 2 Q Hg O * 

Grape Sugar. Carbonic Acid, Spirit or Alcohol. 

What has caused this change in the sugar .? It must be 
apparent to you, I think, that it is the yeast (for nothing was 
present but the two things, and it can easily be proved that 
sugar will not ferment without the yeast). Then comes the 
question, and it is the very essence of the whole matter — What 
is the nature of the influence which the yeast exercises ? 

Loewenhoeck was the first to examine yeast under the 
microscope in 1680, and to find that it consists of very minute 
globules. Cagniard de Latour in the present century took up 
Loewenhoeck's work, which had almost been forgotten. " He 
observed that yeast consists of a mass of organic globules sus- 
ceptible of reproducing themselves by means of buds which 
appeared to belong to the vegetable kingdom, and not to be 
simply organic or chemical matter, as supposed. He concluded 
that it is very probably by some effect of their vegetation that 
the globules of yeast disengage carbonic acid from the saccharine 
liquid and convert it into spirit." 

The great German chemist Liebig took, however, a totally 
different view of the matter — a view which he can scarcely be 
said to have originated, as his ideas were almost identical with 
those of Willis and Stahl, chemists of the 17th century. His 
theory was as follows: — Yeast, and in general all animal and 
vegetable matters in a state of putrefaction, will communicate 
to other bodies the condition of decomposition in which they 
are themselves placed. The motion which is given to their own 

* The chemist employs a kind of shorthand to represent the composition of substances 
and their decompositions and reactions. The " equation" in question indicates, first, 
the composition of the "molecule" or smallest particle of grape sugar capable of exis- 
tence — the small indices showing how many atoms of the different elements it is 
composed of are present : " Cg" representing six atoms of carbon, " H^j" twelve atoms 
of hydrogen, "Og" six atoms of oxygen. It also shows that the molecule of sugar is 
decomposed into two molecules of carbonic acid (each containing one atom of carbon 
and two atoms of oxygen) and two molecules of spirit (each containing two atoms of 
carbon, six of hydrogen, and one of oxygen). The term "equation" is employed 
because the number of atoms on each side of the = sign is the same. 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 77 

elements by the disturbance of equilibrium is also communicated 
to the elements of the bodies which come into contact with 
them. 

Then a third view was advocated by Berzelius and Mitscherlich, 
viz., that the yeast acts, as the chemist phrases it, "catalytically,'* 
that is to say, causes the decomposition of the sugar by its 
presence while it remains unchanged. This explanation is the 
more plausible as many such actions are known. For instance, 
the decomposition of bleaching powder into chloride of cal- 
cium and oxygen by peroxide of cobalt. 

I do not wish to detain you longer with these historical 
particulars, nor can I follow out the chain of arguments which 
eventually led to the correct explanation of fermentation. It 
must be sufficient for me to state that Pasteur proved conclusively 
that the fermentation of sugar is inseparably connected with 
the life of the 3'east cell ; in fact, that the sugar is the soil or 
food upon which the yeast lives, and that the carbonic acid and 
spirit are waste products— just as the carbonic acid which is 
exhaled from our lungs is a waste product, the carbon being 
derived from the food we eat. 

A few words as to the structure and life history of the 
yeast cell. When yeast is examined with the microscope 
under a rather high power it is found to consist of myriads 
of minute globules, which are round or oval. Careful investi- 
gation has shown that these globules or " cells" consist of 
a mass of protoplasm surrounded by cellulose. They are, in 
fact, paper bags full of protoplasm. The protoplasm, like 
the cellulose envelope, is colourless, sometimes homogeneous, 
sometimes composed of small granulations. In the protoplasm 
are usually seen one or two dots or '' vacuoles," as they are 
called, which are cavities containing liquid. If the growing 
yeast cells are carefully watched under the microscope they are 
seen to alter their appearance with considerable rapidity. 
Sometimes at one, sometimes at two ends, small bladder-like 
prominences make their appearance, which gradually enlarge, 
and at last having attained a considerable size lessen in diameter 
at their base, and eventually separate themselves from the parent 
cell and lead an independent existence. 



78 Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

It is by this process of budding that yeast usually multi- 
plies ; but there is another method of reproduction which occurs 
only under special conditions. In this method we find definite 
seeds or spores produced in the cell. Spore formation occurs 
'when yeast is deprived of nourishment and is exposed to a damp 
atmosphere. " Under these conditions the vegetative life of the 
yeast ceases suddenly, and in a few hours we see great changes 
take place in the protoplasm of the cells. The oldest and those 
which are poorest in protoplasm die and break up. While 
others grow larger, their lacunoe disappear and the protoplasm 
is diffused uniformly in the cellular juice. At the expiration 
of from 6 to ID hours we notice the appearance in the midst of 
the protoplasm of from 2 to 4 small islets more brilliant and 
dense than the rest, around which fine granulations collect. 
These dense spots do not present any appearance of a nucleus, 
and they become differentiated more and more until they are 
exactly spherical ; 12 to 24 hours later each becomes invested 
with a membrane, very thin at first, but which thickens by 
degrees. The spore is then ripe." These spores or " ascospores" 
as they are termed, are about \ the size of the mature yeast cell, 
and they have a much higher degree of vitality than the cell 
itself, and an infinitely greater power of resistance to destructive 
agencies. Thus they may be completely dried, and even 
exposed to a pretty high temperature, without losing their 
power of germination. They are, in fact, similar to the seeds 
of ordinary plants, and like many of these are distributed by 
the air. I think we may compare yeast with a bulbous plant, 
say a hyacinth, which at times reproduces itself by subdivision 
of the bulb, at others by the production of true seeds. Now, 
the ascospores of yeast are found in ordinary dust ; and as grapes 
and other fruits are exposed for a long time during their growth 
to the atmosphere, a layer of dust collects on their surface and 
mixes with the juice when the fruit is crushed. Hence we can 
easily understand the spontaneous fermentation of grape juice 
and the juices of other fruits, such as those of apples and pears. 
Indeed, the spores of yeast have been found on the skin of the 
grape. 

Let us return for a few moments to the process of fer- 



Fermentation and Khidred Phenomena. 79 

mentation, as there are several points which deserve attention. 
We have seen that the yeast cell has the power of transforming 
sugar into spirit and carbonic acid. Are these the only changes 
it produces ? Pasteur's elegant researches have shown the con- 
trary. He has proved that other substances are always found 
in fermented liquids. One of these is glycerine, another succinic 
acid. Then we have a mixture of other bodies which are 
separated during the distillation of spirit, and are in chemical 
properties allied to that substance. The mixture is termed 
fusel oil. 

The yeast cell is composed, as I have explained, of two parts 
essentially, viz., a bag or lining membrane of cellulose and an 
interior of protoplasm. During fermentation, yeast is constantly 
multiplying, so that its weight at the close of the operation is 
six or seven times greater than it was at the commencement. 
It is obvious that it must derive its nourishment from the 
fermenting liquid. 

Pasteur showed by the most careful and convincing experi- 
ments that the cellulose envelope was derived directly from the 
sugar. We know, in fact, that a very close relationship exists 
between the two bodies, and that their mutual transformation 
is constantly occurring in the vegetable kingdom. But a 
difficulty arises as regards the protoplasm, for it contains 
nitrogen, and that element is absent from sugar. 

Here again Pasteur has given the correct explanation, and 
has shown that yeast will not thrive for any length of time in a 
pure sugar solution, but requires for its nourishment certain 
salts and nitrogenous substances. These it finds in the juices 
of fruits or in malt infusion, but if fermentation is to be con- 
ducted with a pure sugar solution they must be added, at least 
if the fermentation is to continue. 

Pasteur after various experiments succeeded in producing an 
artificial medium in which yeast grows luxuriantly. It contains 
in addition to water and sugar, tartrate of ammonium and yeast 
ash, or in place of the latter an artificial ash containing the same 
salts. We may compare with perfect propriety the ammonium 
tartrate and yeast ash to artificial manures, which are now used 
so extensively in agriculture. 



8o Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

Another very interesting point in the history of yeast 
was, I think, also first brought to hght by Pasteur, viz. : — 
that the yeast cells when introduced into a liquid medium 
containing oxygen absorb that element with great rapidity, 
and develop a corresponding quantity of carbonic acid. 
This is a veritable respiration, exactly resembling the respira- 
tion of animals. Indeed, it has been proved that this respiratory 
act of yeast is as energetic, and even more so, than the respira- 
tion of fishes, which occurs in exactly the same manner, i.e., by 
the absorption of dissolved oxygen from water. As fermentation 
can take place in a proper medium without free oxygen, Pasteur 
appears to have formed the theory that the fermenting character 
of the yeast cell is due to the power it possesses of breathing at 
the expense of the sugar, and that the latter's decomposition 
into carbonic acid and spirit is the consequence of the act by 
which the oxygen is removed from the sugar. In this case the 
latter must suffer a far more complex change than is usually 
supposed. 

From all these considerations we see that yeast is a very 
simple form of plant life, the spores of which, owing to 
their minute size and lightness, are widely distributed. We 
also see that like other plants it requires a definite soil for its 
growth and nourishment, and also that in growing it gives rise 
to perfectly definite chemical products which are formed from 
the nutritive material, viz., sugar. 

Does yeast stand by itself in these respects, or are there other 
ferments similar to it in general functions .? 

To this question science has given a very decided answer in 
the affirmative, and has shown beyond doubt that there are 
almost countless ferments in air, dust, and water, which, while 
resembling yeast in the nature of their functions, differ from it 
in several essential particulars. And this leads me to the second 
division of my subject, viz., the question of spontaneous genera- 
tion. 

I may introduce this part of my lecture by some extracts 
from an address by Professor Huxley given some years ago to 
the British Association. 

'* From the earliest times the doctrine prevailed that under 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 8 1 

favourable conditions, of which putrefaction was one of the most 
important, animals could be produced without parents." 

The ancients were deeply imbued with this idea, and we find 
it again and again discussed or spoken of in their writings ; 
whilst in the Bible itself we find passages which evidently refer 
to it. Lucretius said — " With good reason the earth has gotten 
the name of mother, since all things are produced out of the 
earth, and many living creatures even now spring out of it, 
taking form by the rains and the heat of the sun." The great 
philosopher Aristotle maintained that every dry substance 
which becomes moist, and every moist substance which becomes 
dry, produces living creatures, provided it is fit for their 
nourishment. The famous riddle with which Samson perplexed 
the Philistines : " Out of the eater came forth meat, out of the 
strong came forth sweetness," evidently expressed the idea that 
the bees which Samson found in the carcass of the lion he had 
killed had been produced out of the carcass. Indeed, the idea 
that bees could be produced artificially from the dead bodies 
of animals was believed in implicitly by the ancient?, and we 
find a complete description of the method to be adopted in the 
Georgics of Virgil ! 

It is not hard to understand how in primitive times insects 
appeared to be generated spontaneously from corrupting matter, 
but on the other hand it is very difficult to imagine how the 
notion could have originated that the higher animals could be 
produced artificially. That such a belief prevailed is certain, 
for we find Van Helmont, a chemist of the i6th century, giving 
directions for manufacturing mice, and he even went so far as 
to maintain that fish are produced out of water. 

Even in contemporaneous times the notion of spontaneous 
generation has found plenty of supporters, and it is not many 
years ago since it was gravely announced that a new insect — the 
acariis electricus (for it was even christened !) had been produced 
by means of the electric current, and I have often been told in 
country places that if horse hairs are placed in water each 
separate hair will become an eel ! 

The first to combat the doctrine of spontaneous generatioo 



82 Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena^ 

was the Italian Redi, who, by a very simple experiment, proved 
that flies are not produced spontaneously from putrefying meat. 
He merely enclosed fresh meat in a gauze cage, and observed 
that although the latter putrefied no maggots nor flies were 
developed in it. He watched the flies hovering over the enclosed 
meat, and by a mistaken instinct depositing their eggs in the 
gauze cage, and eventually he saw these eggs turn into maggots. 
He thus proved, by an experiment which we may agree with 
Huxley in calling childishly simple, that insects are produced 
from their parents and not spontaneously as a product of 
corruption. Redi's experiments were sufficiently conclusive 
with regard to the mode of genesis of the higher animals, but 
after the construction of the microscope had been improved, 
when, in fact, the compound microscope came into use, the 
question of spontaneous generation was again brought promin- 
ently forward. For the microscope revealed countless organisms 
in ordinary water, but especially in infusion of animal and 
vegetable substances, such as meat broth and an infusion of hay. 
These organisms, or " infusoria," as they were called, are 
characterised by their extreme minuteness ; hence the question 
of their origin presented considerable difficulties. If we examine 
an organic infusion recently prepared no sign of a living 
organism is visible, but in a few hours the liquid teems with 
myriads of minute beings. Whence have they come ? Are 
they produced spontaneously from the animal or vegetable sub- 
stances present in the infusion ? or are they the descendants of 
pre-existing beings which have gained access to the infusion in 
some way, are they formed from eggs or spores present in the 
water or in the substances from which the infusions have been 
made ? The EngHsh observer Needham was the first to attack 
this problem experimentally. He argued that as heat destroys 
both the seeds of plants and the eggs of animals a boiled infusion 
ought not to develope any living organisms. He tried the 
experiment, i.e.^ he heated the infusions in hermetically closed 
vessels, and found that subsequently organisms did develope ; 
hence he came to the conclusion that they were spontaneously 
produced. After these experiments the Italian physician 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 83 

Spallanzani took up Needham's work, and by heating the her- 
metically sealed infusions for a longer period arrived at the 
opposite result — no infusoria appearing after the prolonged 
heating. Needham, however, was prepared with an argument to 
explain this result, his contention being that under the condi- 
tions of Spallanzani's experiment the germinatiiig power of the 
infusion had been destroyed, and further that the air contained 
in the closed vessel had been destroyed by the heat. The 
latter part of this criticism acquired some force when it was 
discovered that the gases contained in vessels of preserved pro- 
visions contained no oxygen, and oxygen is, as we know, essential 
to life. Swann, however, showed conclusively that if an infusion 
previously boiled is placed in communication with air that has 
been heated red hot, no putrefaction occurs. Ure and Helmholz 
multiplied Swann's experiments with the same result, and 
Schulz found that instead of calcining the air it is sufficient 
before admitting it to the boiled infusions to allow it to pass 
through energetic chemical substances, such as oil of vitriol, &c. 
These experiments were really sufficient to decide the question 
against the doctrine of spontaneous generation, but its supporters 
were hard to defeat, and clung tenaciously to their belief. 
Their objection at this stage of the controversy was ingenious, 
if nothing else. By calcining the air, or by passing it through 
energetic chemical substances, you destroy some principle in it 
which is essential for the production of infusoria, they said. It 
is all very well to say that you merely destroy the seeds or 
germs, but you offer no proof of such a thing. 

This criticism had to be met, and it was met most ingeniously 
by Schroeder and Dusch, the method which they employed 
being simply a refinement of Redi's experiment with the gauze 
cage round the meat. 

Instead of the gauze cage they used cotton wool, merely 
allowing the air to filter through it before coming in contact 
with the well boiled infusion. Under these conditions they 
found that the latter remained perfectly sweet and fresh, showing 
no trace of organisms when examined under the microscope, 
por the slightest symptom of putrefaction, except in the case of 



84 Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

milk and eggs. It is, they argued, difficult to imagine that the 
wool can have removed anything from the air except solid 
particles, and these must be the germs of the infusoria. 

It only remained to demonstrate, first, that these germs are 
actually present in air, and secondly, that they are retained by 
the cotton wool. Independently Tyndall and Pasteur devoted 
themselves to this branch of the subject, and arrived at positive 
results by two totally different methods. 

In Pasteur's beautiful researches, which are remarkable for 
their simplicity, elegance, and aptness, ordinary air was filtered 
through cotton wool, and as thus purified was found to have 
lost its power of inducing putrefaction in organic liquids. 
Pasteur then submitted the minute residue which was left to 
microscopic examination. In it he had no difficulty in recog- 
nising the spores of minute organisms ; and to complete the 
proof that these spores are actually the seeds of putrefactive 
organisms he brought them into a previously boiled infusion, 
and found that in the course of a few hours the liquid was in 
active putrefaction. Tyndall's experiments were based upon 
totally different considerations. Every one knows that when 
a ray of sunlight enters a dark room its path is clearly visible. 
The ray looks like a faint luminous cloud, and if the cloud is 
examined narrowly myriads of particles are seen to be floating 
in it. Now, Tyndall found that by allowing air to remain 
perfectly quiet and undisturbed for a day or two these particles 
by their natural gravity subside, and a ray of light when now 
passed through the air no longer shows any visible track. He 
proved by a simple experiment that air before subsidence 
causes organic infusions to putrefy, whereas after subsidence 
the infusion may be exposed for any length of time to it 
without undergoing the slightest putrefactive change. 

We may, therefore, consider it as definitely proved that 
putrefaction is caused by minute organisms, the spores of which 
are present in air, and that it is not due to any spontaneous 
change occurring in the putrescible matter, nor to any specific 
action of the air as such. The minute organisms are produced 
from spores or eggs, and the doctrine of spontaneous generation 
we may consider as finally refuted. 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 85 

The study of the causes of putrefaction has opened up a very 
wide field of research, and has thrown a flood of Hght on many 
phenomena which were formerly hidden in mystery. For care- 
ful enquiry has shown that the spores and seeds of minute organ- 
isms are almost universally present, — that they occur abundantly 
in air, water, and earth. Only some of them are concerned in 
causing putrefaction ; others have equally well defined but to- 
tally different functions. Thus there is a set of organisms which 
have the power of inducing perfectly definite chemical changes 
in certain substances, and unconsciously they have been 
employed from time immemorial for the purpose. As an 
example we have the organism which causes the production of 
vinegar (acetic acid) from fermented liquids (which contain 
alcohol). Others again cause the production of various 
colouring matters, and some of these have not unfrequently 
excited the awe and wonder of the superstitious. For instance, 
there is the phenomenon of the " Bleeding Host," when bread 
has apparently become covered with blood. But far more 
important than any of these are the organisms which are 
undoubtedly associated in an intimate manner with certain 
diseases, often the very worst and most malignant to which 
men and animals are subject. I shall endeavour presently to 
show there are grounds for believing that in producing dis- 
ease they are playing a chemical role, and it is by no means 
impossible that the chemical changes induced by them in the 
blood and secretions are the actual causes of the diseases in 
question. Before entering upon the discussion of some of these 
different organisms, which for our purpose we may arrange in 
four groups, viz. : — 

(i) Putrefactive. 

(2) Chemical, 

(3) Chromogenic. 

(4) Pathogenic. 

I may be permitted to say a few words about their appearance, 



86 Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

life history, and the methods which have been invented for their 
study. The organisms in question are very numerous, and di- 
verse in size and form. Naturalists have found much difficulty 
in assigning them to their proper kingdom ; and, in fact, from 
time to time have transferred them from one kingdom to 
another ; at one period considering them to be animals, at 
another vegetables. At any rate they are among the lowest 
types of life, and may be considered to be on the borderland 
between plants and animals ; but at last they have been 
definitely claimed by the botanists. 

They have as a class been called by different names. Haeckel 
termed them "Protista," Sedillot "microbes," and they include 
besides the different varieties of yeasts, moulds, and fungi, the 
so called " splitting fungi" {spalt pilze) or " schizomycetes," in 
allusion to their peculiar mode of reproduction. These latter 
are of especial importance, and I shall in the rest of this lecture 
deal with them exclusively. 

The classification of the schizomycetes has not yet been 
definitely settled. It will be sufficient for our purpose to describe 
the appearance of some of the chief varieties. 

Micrococci. — Minute round organisms, sometimes arranged 
in groups of two (dumb-bells, dyspsococci), or of four {tetrad)^ 
or in packets of tetrads (sarcinci). Very frequently they are 
found in chains (streptococci). 

Bacteria and Bacilli. — The first short, the second longer 
rods, often arranged in groups of two, or in chains of many. 
They are frequently motile, darting about with great rapidity. 
The movement is caused by a whip-like appendage (flagellum) 
attached to one end of the organism. 

Leptothrix. — Long filaments, often branching out in different 
directions. 

Spirillum. — Organisms which are twisted, often like a cork- 
screw, and which move with great rapidity. 

Modes of Reproduction. — The schizomycetes, as I have before 
mentioned, are so called on account of their peculiar method 
of reproduction, i.e., by splitting in one or more directions, 
each fragment becoming a mature organism and again sub- 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 87 

dividing. As this mode of reproduction occurs very rapidly, the 
actual rate at which these organisms multiply is something truly 
startling, and fully accounts for the rapidity with which putre- 
faction and similar phenomena progress when they have once 
been set in action. Indeed, it reminds one of the fable of the 
man who offered to sell his horse for a price to be determined 
by the nails in its hoofs— -^d. for the first nail, id. for the second, 
2d. for the third, and so on. You may recollect that if there 
were in all 24 nails, the horse would have fetched i'34t947 
9s. 4d. According to Cohn, under favourable conditions a single 
bacterium by growth and division could produce in 48 hours 
the enormous number of 281,500,000,000 individuals! And 
this rate of development, if carried on for five days, would give 
sufficient bacteria to fill the ocean. Another estimate is that 
the progeny of one bacterium which in the course of 24 hours 
only weighs -^ milligramme, at the end of three days amounts 
to 7,500 tons. In point of fact, perfectly favourable conditions 
for the continuous development of these organisms are never 
actually realised, or at all events for any length of time ; for 
the rapidity of their multiplication is at once checked as soon 
as the soil (if I may use the expression) in which they grow 
begins to be exhausted, and is eventually entirely stopped 
owing to this cause. Moreover, it would appear as if the sub- 
stances excreted by the organisms themselves, if not removed, 
or at all events diluted, act injuriously upon them, and even- 
tually cause their destruction, or at all events the cessation of 
their functions ; just as we find that yeast ceases to grow in a 
sugar solution when the spirit reaches a certain strength, the 
spirit paralysing or destroying the vitality of the yeast cells. 
A curious fact in connection with this statement is that in 
many cases the substances produced by minute organisms are 
amongst the most active agents for their destruction. I fancy 
that nearly all excrementitious products are peculiarly fatal to 
the health of plants and animals producing them. 

Apart altogether from the process of multiplication by fission, 
we find another distinct method of reproduction among the 
schizomycetesy or at all events among some of them. This 



88 Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

method is very analogous to the ascospore formation of yeast, 
and is evidently a provision of Nature's for preventing the 
organisms from becoming extinct under conditions unfavourable 
for their ordinary life and development. In spore formation 
the contents of the cell contract, and eventually a round spore 
is produced within the cell, which finally escapes. The spore 
placed under favourable conditions eventually germinates into 
a mature organism. 

The resisting power of the spores to the action of agencies 
fatal to the existence of the organism from which they were 
developed, or into which they grow, is very striking, and fully 
accounts for the difficulties experienced in disinfection, and also 
for many of the mistakes which were made by the believers in 
the doctrine of spontaneous generation in interpreting the 
results of their experiments. Again and again they declared 
that organisms made their appearance in liquids which had 
been thoroughly freed from them. No doubt the organisms 
themselves were absent, but their spores were present, not 
having been destroyed during the preparation of the infusion. 
Thus the bacillus of hay infusion may be boiled in water for 
ten minutes without losing its vitality, and it may be soaked 
in pure carbolic acid and in other strong disinfectants without 
losing its power of germination. The resistance of these per- 
manent spores to agencies which easily destroy the life of the 
mature organisms with which they correspond is a point of 
great importance with regard to infectious and contagious 
diseases (or at least to some of them), but I hope to touch on 
this matter later on. 

There is only one other consideration I shall mention in con- 
nection with the morphology of the schizomycetes, but it is of 
importance, and may considerably modify many of the present 
views. It has been asserted again and again — and I think the 
eminent surgeon Loeher was among the first to make the state- 
ment — that certain of these organisms under special conditions 
undergo a metamorphosis of such a kind that a micrococcus can 
become a bacterium, the bacterium a bacillus, the bacillus a 
leptothrix thread, or a spirillum, &c. : in short, that in certaip 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 89 

cases an organism can assume various forms. Zopf, in especial, 
has maintained the existence of this pleo-morphism, and his 
system of classification is very much based upon the assumption. 
In his book he gives drawings taken from actual observations 
illustrating transformations of this kind. The possibility of 
these changes occurring adds to the difficulties — already very 
great — which are experienced in investigating these organisms ; 
for what means have we of classifying a particular species if it 
can exist in various forms and be of different sizes ? It is obvious 
that mere microscopic examination and measurement, which 
have up to the present time been relied upon in establishing 
the identity of an organism, completely lose their value. 
Besides, another set of questions are also raised by this new 
doctrine, which I may be able to refer to when I come to the 
consideration of the pathogenic species. 

Having explained, as far as time permits, these few points 
connected with the life-history of schizomycetes, you will per- 
mit me to say a few words next relative to the conditions under 
which they thrive. Their tissues contain much the same pri- 
mary constituents as are found in ordinary plants and animals 
— that is to say, the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and 
O.xygeu, and in addition certain mineral substances among 
which are Lime, Potash, Magnesia, and Phosphoric Acid. 

The juices of meat and of vegetables contain the nutriment 
for these minute organisms in the most readily assimilable form, 
hence we find them especially suitable for their nourishment, 
and not only is this the case, but it has also been shown that 
the various secretions of animals such as blood, saliva, milk, &c., 
are capable of serving as soils, in which (certain species at least 
of) organisms thrive well. Some of them, though possibly their 
number is restricted, can be grown in artificial solutions, such as 
Pasteur's fluid, but I think it may be stated as a rule that the 
schizomycetes require for their nourishment more complicated 
compounds than those which can be prepared in the laboratory. 
I mean they require albuminoid bodies, of which ordinary 
white of egg is an example. In this respect they resemble 
animals and not vegetables, as the latter have the power 



9© Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

of manufacturing for themselves albuminoid bodies out 
of simple compounds. The schizomycetes then thrive in liquids 
containing the necessary materials for their growth, but they 
also frequently live on solids, such as potatoes, white of egg, &c. 
Oxygen (in the free state) is essential to the lives of some, but 
not of all. 

It is necessary for me to say a few words about the methods 
which have been devised for cultivating organisms in the pure 
state, and indeed our present knowledge of most of the really 
important facts connected with them depends very much upon 
the introduction of accurate methods for the purpose. For 
if we consider for one moment that the spores of countless 
species swarm in the air, and are present, unless suitable pre- 
cautions are taken, in water and in animal and vegetable 
matter, we can easily see that the isolation and cultivation of one 
particular species is a difficult task : for how exclude the others ? 
An agriculturist would be puzzled to know how to raise a crop 
of corn without any weeds whatever if he were not permitted to 
remove the weeds as they appeared. The Bacteriologist is 
called upon to do this, but the weeding operation is denied him. 
How has this difficulty been overcome ? It is evidently essential 
in the first place to have a soil suitable for the growth of the 
organism we want to cultivate, and this soil must be free from 
other organisms or their spores ; next, the organism we wish 
to cultivate, or its spore, must be introduced into the soil ; and 
thirdly, the soil and the organism (or its spore) must be placed 
under suitable conditions for the growth of the latter ; the 
experiment being so conducted that no adventitious organisms 
can make their entrance into the vessel in which the cultivation 
is proceeding. 

We require then : — 

(i) A suitable nourishing medium, which must be sterile («>., 
free from organisms). 

(2) The pure organism, free from other species. 

(3) Suitable conditions as to temperature, &c., for the growth 
of the organism. 

Now, in the laboratory various "soils" are made use of. 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 9 1 

Beef tea, blood serum, infusions of turnip, cucumber, and other 
vegetables, Pasteur's solution, &c., and occasionally solids such 
as potatoes. But for the present we need only consider liquid 
media. When freshly prepared they usually swarm with 
organisms. This cannot be avoided ; our only course is to 
destroy them. To do this the liquids are placed in suitable 
vessels (usually glass flasks or test tubes) the mouths of 
which are plugged with cotton wool. They are then heated to 
the temperature of boiling water, either by immersing them in 
steam or by boiling their contents. The heating is usually 
repeated on three consecutive days, so as to ensure the destruction 
not only of the organisms originally present as such, but also 
those which may have subsequently germinated from the more 
resisting spores. The liquids are now sterile, and no organisms 
can gain admission to them so long as the plug of cotton wool 
remains undisturbed. To prove the sterility, the liquids ought 
to be kept for some time, and should show no cloudiness or 
other evidence of change. We have next to introduce an organ- 
ism or spore of the particular species we wish to cultivate, /r ^5 
from any others of a different species. 

To do this was, for some time, an impossibility, for how pick 
out a single individual when to see it requires the highest powers 
of the microscope ? We are indebted mainly to Koch for having 
solved this problem, and for having devised a beautiful and 
ingenious method which has marked quite an epoch in bacterio- 
logical science. 

Koch takes a sterile nourishing medium containing gelatine, 
which when cold solidifies to a jelly.* He then introduces into 
the gently-warmed medium a droplet of liquid containing the 
organisms to be cultivated (but presumably other organisms also) 
and pours the mixture upon a glass plate which has been 
previously heated to a high temperature to destroy any organisms 
present in the dust on its surface. The plate is then put beneath 
a bell-shaped jar on blotting paper previously soaked in corrosive 
sublimate solution. By this means the jelly is kept moist, and 
at the same time protected from dust. 

* Probably everyone know* that ordinary jellies "set" on account of the gelatine 
which they contain. 



92 Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

Consider the effect of this operation. The organisms present 
in the liquid with which the gelatine was inoculated are presum- 
ably equally distributed, and if only a few are present (which 
can be ensured by diluting the liquid used for inoculating) each 
individual is separated from another by a considerable space. 

In course of time (only a few hours under favourable conditions) 
each organism reproduces itself, eventually producing a colony, 
and this colony liquefies the gelatine at a particular spot or 
causes an opacity. Hence we may be certain that liquid 
taken from this spot contains only one species of organism, and 
with this we can inoculate our sterile liquid and so obtain a 
pure culture. This beautiful method of Koch's has been em- 
ployed by him for isolating and investigating many of the 
organisms of disease, and can be used for measuring the number 
of organisms in air, water, and other fluids. 

Now, having inoculated our nourishing medium with the 
organism we wish to study, we have next to place it under 
favourable conditions for their growth, and as a rule that means 
a steady temperature (on an average about as high as that of 
our bodies). The apparatus used is called an " incubator," and 
is simply a box with double walls, the interspace being filled 
with water which is kept at a constant temperature by a gas 
flame, automatically controlled by a "thermostat," so that the 
temperature inside the box (where the culture is kept) never 
varies by more than a few degrees. 



Such in a few words are the chief methods employed in 
"bacteriological" research, and with their introduction more 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 93 

exact information has been obtained of many phenomena which 
previously were utterly obscure. Some of these phenomena I 
propose to examine. 

Putrefaction. — This may be considered to be a beautiful 
device of nature's for disposing of dead organic matter, and for 
converting it into substances which can again serve for the 
nourishment of plants and animals. But for it this earth would 
be a vast charnel-house ; we should be surrounded by the em- 
blems of death, and not only so, but as the supply of substances 
suitable for the nourishment of plants and animals is limited, 
each race would gradually diminish the stock, which would 
eventually become exhausted and the world no longer habitable. 
As it is, however, no sooner does a plant or animal die or give up 
its excretions, than the remains are fastened upon by an army 
of scavengers, who gradually reduce them to simple compounds 
which are either dissipated in the air, washed away by water, 
or go to form earth. Every tyro in chemistry knows that every 
atom of matter is indestructible, " and in its time plays many 
parts." 

Our army of scavengers are mainly organisms of the kind I 
have been describing, and although much has been done to- 
wards their study, much still remains to be done before we shall 
be able to say definitely what their exact functions are. Thus 
we do not know at present how many species there may be 
engaged in the work, nor do we know with any exactness how 
each species acts. It would appear, however, that putrefaction 
is by no means a simple process, and that before a complex sub- 
stance like albumen or white of egg can be resolved into simple 
bodies like ammonia, water, and carbonic acid it has to be at- 
tacked by successive gangs of these minute labourers, each gang 
dying off after completing its share of the work and leaving 
things in order for the operations of the next. 

If any putrefying substance is examined with the microscope, 
it is found to be swarming with organisms of nearly all the 
forms I have described, viz., micrococci, bacteria, bacilli, spir- 
illa, &c. 

Hauser has devoted much time to the study of putrefactive 



94 Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

organisms, and believes that two species are especially active, 
at all events in the earlier stages of the process. These he 
terms, proteus mirahilis and proteus vulgaris respectively. They 
are remarkable for the variety of forms they can assume, and 
furnish an excellent example of pleomorphism. Hauser has 
illustrated his work on the subject with some very beautiful 
micro-photographs (taken from nature) of these organisms in 
their various stages of existence. 

Many interesting and highly important observations have 
been made with regard to the nature of the substances produced 
during putrefaction. Thus it has been shown by Selmi and 
others that putrefying animal matter frequently contains certain 
substances closely resembling in their properties some of the 
most poisonous alkaloids found in the vegetable kingdom. 
These have been called Ptomaines^ and their significance is very 
great when we consider that in certain cases of suspected poison- 
ing, corpses are often exhumed and are examined for alkaloids 
among other poisons. It is by no means impossible that a 
ptomaine might be mistaken for a poisonous alkaloid, and thus 
a false suspicion or even conviction arise as to the cause of 
death. 

Again, many cases of poisoning have occurred from the con- 
sumption of tainted meat, fish, cheese, &c. In such cases it is 
also possible that the poisonous principles are ptomaines. It 
has also been shown that " by the putrefaction of animal sub- 
stances a body can be obtained — the septic poison or sepsine — 
which is isolated by various chemical processes destructive of 
every living organism, and which on injection into the vascular 
system of animals, especally dogs, in sufficient quantities 
occasions a marked febrile rise of temperature, and is capable 
of causing death." * 

Organisms causing definite chemical changes. — It is conceiv- 
able that every species of micro-organisms induces perfectly 
definite chemical changes in the medium in which it thrives. 
There are, however, certain species which induce very simple 
chemical reactions, and many of the latter are every-day 

* Klein. 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 95 

phenomena which have long been noticed and even employed 
practically, although their cause was not understood. A few of 
these changes deserve our attention. 

The Lactic Ferment. — Everyone knows that when milk is 
kept it becomes sour and curdles. 

As early as 1 780 the Swedish chemist Scheele extracted from 
sour milk a peculiar acid, which he named from its occurrence 
lactic acid. It is obvious that the souring of milk is due to the 
development of this acid ; but the question arises — From what 
special substance in the milk is it formed, and what is the cause 
of its development ? 

Careful experiments have completely answered these ques- 
tions. One of the chief constituents of milk is sugar, not 
exactly the same as occurs in the sugar cane, but one which is 
very analogous. This " milk sugar," as it is called, is extracted 
from the whey of milk (chiefly in Switzerland), and is a com- 
mercial product. Now it has been found that in proportion as 
milk becomes sour the quantity of this sugar diminishes, and 
under suitable conditions it disappears altogether. Further, if 
a solution of sugar is mixed with a few drops of sour milk, the 
sugar solution becomes sour and the acidity increases rapidly. It 
is, therefore, pretty clear that the development of lactic acid in 
milk is due to some transformation which the sugar suffers, and 
we have only to compare the formulae of the two to see that a 
simple chemical relationship exists between them. In fact, 
every particle of sugar contains the necessary atoms to form 
two particles of lactic acid, and we may represent the conversion 
of the former into the latter by the following chemical equation : 

QHioA = 2 C3H6O3 

Sugar. Lactic Acid. 

But what is the cause of this transformation ? Pasteur, guided 
by his previous researches in alcoholic fermentation, sought for 
and found the lactic ferment which consists of minute rods or 
bacilli^ which are often jointed or beaded. They can readily be 
seen in a droplet of sour milk with a \ inch power. By removing 
some of them from sour milk, and sowing them in a suitable 



96 Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

saccharine medium, he saw them multiply and produce all the 
effects of the lactic fermentation. As milk does not sour if 
taken from the cow in such a manner that no dust or solid 
particles can fall into it, there can be no question that its souring 
is due to the introduction of the spores of the ferment from 
dust or air. 

The Butyric Ferment. — In a sugar solution which is under- 
going lactic fermentation there is commonly developed, especially 
towards the close of the operation, another acid, which from its 
occurrence in rancid butter is called butyric acid. Pasteur 
investigated the causes of its production, and found that here 
again a minute organized ferment was at work, causing sugar 
to undergo a perfectly definite decomposition into butyric and 
carbonic acids and hydrogen gas. The change may be repre- 
sented by the following equation : — 

CeHi^Oe = C4H8O3 + 2CO2 -f H2 

Sugar. Butyric Acid. Carbonic Acid. Hydrogen. 

This change is remarkable on account of the hydrogen which is 
produced, for I do not think there is any other instance known 
in which it is formed under the influence of a living vegetable 
organism. Advantage is taken of the circumstance in dyeing 
wool and cloth with indigo, the dyer employing a vat containing 
indigo diffused in water and a coarse kind of wheaten flour or 
bran. The starch which the latter contains is first transformed 
into sugar, which is eventually decomposed by the butyric 
ferment, and the hydrogen which is liberated converts the indigo 
into a colourless soluble substance which is readily absorbed by 
the wool, but which is again converted into the indigo and 
precipitated within the fibre when the wool is exposed to air. 
I may mention that sugar is not the only substance upon 
which the ferment acts, for it will also decompose tartaric, mucic, 
and malic acids, and convert them into butyric acid. 

The butyric ferment resembles the lactic ferment in appear- 
ance, consisting of rods or bacilli. 

The fact that sugar is capable of fermenting in three different 
ways, and that these fermentations occur spontaneously, leads 



Fermentation and Kindrid "Phenomena. 97 

us to enquire why in grape juice alcoholic fermentation always 
occurs, whilst in milk we seldom if ever find the yeast organism, 
but always that of the lactic or butyric fermentation. Both 
liquids contain sugar, yet each undergoes a different fermentative 
change. 

A little reflection will, however, enable us to understand the 
reason. We must remember that other things besides sugar are 
necessary for the proper growth of yeast, the lactic and butyric 
ferments. Thus we have seen that yeast requires certain mineral 
matters, and also certain nitrogenous substances, for its develop- 
ment, and it is the same with the lactic and butyric ferments. 

We know that certain plants thrive best in particular soils 
and often become self-sown : thus the common sea pink flourishes 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the sea, but is not found 
inland. There is probably some peculiarity of the soil of seaside 
localities which fit it especially for the nourishment of that plant. 
In a precisely similar manner grape juice appears to be the liquid 
most suitable for the yeast organism, whilst milk probably 
contains those mineral and nitrogenous substances which are 
essential for the nourishment of the lactic and butyric ferments. 

The Acetic Ferment. — I suppose that everyone knows that 
beer and wine when exposed to the air become sour, in fact 
produce vinegar, which is manufactured commercially by this 
very process. In proportion as the spirituous liquid grows acid 
it is found to lose spirit ; hence it is obvious that the acid is 
produced from the spirit. The chemical name for the acid which 
is formed is acetic acid (from the Latin acetum^ vinegar), and 
it is an elementary fact in chemistry that it can be produced by 
the oxidation of spirit. Thus 



C,H,0 


+ 


Oo 


H2O 


+ 


CoH.O, 


Spirit. 




Oxygen. 


Water. 




Acetic Acid. 



It was originally believed that vinegar was produced by the 
simple chemical action of the oxygen of the air upon the spirit, 
and it was considered that the action was especially induced by 
porous bodies, which acted first as spongy platinum does, by 
condensing the oxygen and thus bringing it into closer contact 



98 Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

with the spirit. Pasteur has proved, however, that the deter- 
mining cause of the oxidation is a definite ferment which has 
received the name of mycoderma aceti. It consists of minute 
rods or chains of rods, which often become felted together, 
forming a membrane somewhat Hke moist paper pulp to the 
naked eye, and this membrane is frequently found on the surface 
of the acidifying liquor, and is called the " mother of vinegar," 
or simply the " vinegar plant." Pasteur proved that the change 
of spirit into vinegar is really caused by the action of this fer- 
ment — and not by the simple action of the air — by a very 
elegant experiment. He allowed weak spirit to trickle down 
string (which is of course highly porous), and showed that in 
spite of its porosity no oxidation occurred, even after a month. 
He then steeped the cord in a liquid containing a pellicle of the 
mycoderma, some of which adhered to it, and then as before 
allowed the spirit to trickle down it, when it was rapidly 
acetified. 

The manufacture of vinegar is carried out at Orleans in accord- 
ance with Pasteur's discoveries, the ferment being sown on the 
surface of the wine or beer. When the surface is covered with 
the membrane, the alcohol begins to acetify. From time to 
time fresh wine or beer is added, and when the acetification has 
terminated the membrane is collected, washed, and employed 
for a new operation. 

I have not sufficient time to describe all the organisms which 
are capable of producing definite and well ascertained chemical 
reactions, and can merely mention one or two others. The 
ammonia ferment, which has the power of producing am- 
monia or hartshorn from urea, a substance abundantly excreted 
from carnivorous animals. 

The nitre ferment, present in soil which oxidises ammonia to 
nitric acid. 

The glycerine-ethyl ferment, which converts glycerine into 
spirit, &c. 

Organisms causing the production of colouring matters. — 
Certain organisms belonging to the group of schizomycetes 
have the property of producing definite colouring matters, 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 99 

either in their own tissues or in the medium upon which they 
grow. At times the sudden and spontaneous appearance of 
these organisms has created much wonder and awe. Thus, in 
1 81 9, "a peasant at Liguara, near Padua, was terrified by the 
sight of blood stains scattered over some polenta which had 
been made and shut up in a cupboard on the previous evening. 
Next day similar patches appeared on the bread, meat, and 
other articles of food in the same cupboard. It was naturally 
regarded as a miracle and a warning from heaven until the case 
had been submitted to a Paduan naturalist." * 

The cause was found to be due to a minute organism to which 
the name micrococcus prodigiosiis was given. It has been found 
in milk, paste, and even sacramental bread, where its appear- 
ance was of course considered miraculous. The colouring 
matter is not contained in the organism itself, but is produced 
by it in the medium in which it thrives. It somewhat resem- 
bles aniline red (magenta or rosaniline) in its properties. 

Red Snow and Blood Rain are probably due to the same or 
to a similar organism. At times milk is found to be quite blue — 
a phenomenon of frequent occurrence on the German coast of 
the Baltic. Formerly it was attributed either to a diseased 
condition of the cow or to its consumption of vegetables con- 
taining indigo. Fuchs, however, showed that it was caused by 
an organism to which the name of bacillus cyanogenus was 
given. 

Many other colour-producing organisms have been discovered, 
of which the following may be mentioned : — 

Bacterium synxanthum^ in yellow milk. 

Micrococcus aurantiacus^ occasioning orange patches at times 
on cooked vegetables. 

Micrococcus chlorintis, producing green patches occasionally 
on cooked vegetables. 

Micrococcus viola ceus, &c. 

Any one can obtain these organisms (or at least some of them) 
by exposing slices of potato (cut from potatoes well boiled in 
their skins) for an hour or two to the air, and then preserving 
• Troussart. Microbes, moulds, &C, 



100 Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

them under glass bell jars (ordinary propagating glasses do admir- 
ably) on blotting paper moistened with weak corrosive sublimate 
solution. The spores of the organisms are deposited from the 
air on the potato slices, and after a few days develop into 
coloured particles or colonies which rapidly increase in size. 

Organisms of Disease. — I come now to perhaps the most 
interesting and important part of my subject, viz : — to the con- 
nection which exists between certain organisms and some of the 
most serious diseases to which men and animals are prone. 

That such a connection does exist has, I think, been very 
clearly and definitely established, and the question which now 
presents itself to medical men is not so much, are any diseases 
caused by organisms ? but rather what diseases are not caused 
by them ? I shall endeavour as briefly as possible to explain 
the facts and arguments which have led scientific men to the 
conclusion that certain diseases are caused by the introduction 
into the system, and subsequent development, and rapid 
multiplication of particular species of the schizomycetes. 

I believe that the first observation tending in this direction 
was made by two French doctors, Messrs. Rayer and Davaine, 
to the effect that the blood of animals dead of splenic fever teems 
with minute rod-like bodies resembling the bacilli found in hay 
infusion. 

This disease is one of the most deadly of those which are 
incidental to live stock, either sheep or oxen, and is remarkable 
for the suddenness of its appearance, and the rapidity of its 
action. A day or two, or in many cases only a few hours elapse 
from the time of its first symptoms to the fatal termination. 
Man at times is subject to it — especially those who are engaged 
in handling raw wool — whence the name ''wool sorter's disease," 
or " malignant pustule " as it is also called. 

Rayer and Davaine made their observation in 1851, but at 
the time they do not appear to have laid any great stress on it. 
It was subsequently confirmed in Germany in 1857, by Pollender 
and Brauell. At that time, however, the entire subject of 
micro-organisms was in its infancy, their nature and effects 
were not understood, and no doubt it would have appeared 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. i o i 

ludicrous to assume for a moment that a minute organism, 
quite invisible to the naked eye, could attack and slay in a few 
hours a huge animal like an ox. But after Pasteur's memorable 
researches in i86j, on the ferment of sour milk, it was clearly 
shown that in spite of their minuteness, micro-organisms can 
produce very marked and extensive effects, even in a large 
quantity of matter, and Pasteur's work impressed Davaine so 
strongly with the potency of micro-organisms, that he once 
more returned to his observations of 1851, and became impressed 
with the belief that the bacilli observed in the blood of animals 
dead of splenic fever were no mere accidental accompaniments 
of the disease, but its actual cause. 

The hypothesis having been introduced that this particular 
disease was really the work of micro-organisms, it was only 
natural that they should be sought for in other ailments of a 
similar kind, and the result has been a very distinct and impor- 
tant gain to medical science. It is possible that the new theory 
has fascinated medical men too much, and that they have too 
readily convinced themselves that diseases of all kinds are caused 
by organisms. It must, however, be borne in mind that inves- 
tigations into the cause of disease are extremely difficult, and 
that the results are at times extremely uncertain and misleading. 
I think you will very naturally feel inclined to make this 
remark — of course I mean if you are not acquainted with the 
subject. 

It is all very well to say that splenic fever is caused by 
organisms because they are found in the blood of the animals 
dead of the disease, but are not organisms almost universally 
present, and may not their occurrence in the blood of the animals 
be rather the effect than the cause 1 Do not they appear simply 
because putrefaction (or some modification of it) has already 
commenced ? 

The question is perfectly fair and logical, and has probably 
occurred to every one who has thought about the subject. 
Something more must indeed be shown besides the mere fact 
of the presence of organisms in the blood or tissues of an animal 
dead of the disease. In fact beiore we can credit so startling a 



I02 Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

statement that the disease is caused by the organisms, we must 
be shown a most convincing and complete chain of proofs. 

Such a chain of complete proof seems to have been established. 
As regards splenic fever, it is somewhat as follows : — 

I St. We always observe in the blood and tissues of animals 
suffering from the disease, rod-like organisms or bacilli. 

2nd. It is possible to inoculate (with every precaution) an 
artificial nourishing medium — say nutrient gelatine — with this 
blood, and we find characteristic colonies from which we can 
obtain a pure culture of the bacillus, with which we can inoculate 
a sterile nourishing fluid like broth. 

3rd. On injecting this broth into a healthy animal — a mouse, 
a guinea pig, a sheep, or an ox, we find after a short interval all 
the characteristics of splenic fever. The animal usually dies, 
and in its blood are found countless bacilli of the kind from 
which we originally started. 

The argument appears complete, and I believe that Koch was 
the first to maintain that no organism could be considered as 
the cause of a disease, unless all the above conditions are fulfilled. 

Koch has formulated the above conditions, thus — 

(i) It is absolutely necessary that the micro-organisms in 
question be present in the blood or diseased tissues of man or 
animal suffering or dead from the disease. [In this respect 
great differences exist, for in some infectious diseases the micro- 
organisms, although absent in the blood are present in the 
diseased tissues, whilst in others they are present in large 
numbers in the blood only, or in the lymphatics only — Klein.] 

(2) It is necessary to take these organisms from their nidus — 
from the blood or tissues as the case may be — to cultivate them 
artificially, i.e. outside the animal body, but by such methods 
as exclude the accidental introduction into these media of other 
micro-organisms ; to go on cultivating them from one cultivation 
to another, for several successive generations, in order to obtain 
them free from every kind of matter derived from the animal 
body from which they have been taken in the first instance. 

(3) After having thus cultivated the micro-organisms, it is 
necessary to re-introduce them into the body of a healthy 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 1 03 

animal susceptible to the disease, and in this way to show that 
the animal becomes affected with the same disease as the one 
from which the organisms were originally derived. 

(4) It is necessary that in this so affected new animal the 
same micro-organisms should again be found. " A particular 
organism may be the cause of a particular disease, but, that 
really and unmistakably it is so can only be inferred with 
certainty when every one of the above conditions are fulfilled." 
(Klein.) 

You will allow me to glance for a few moments at some of the 
most important diseases which have been thus shown to be 
intimately associated with micro-organisms. 

Tuberculosis. — This terrible disease, of which so many sufferers 
die a lingering death, was proved by Koch to be due to a par- 
ticular species of rod-like organism, which is called in consequence 
bacillus tuberculosis. They are a great deal shorter and thinner 
than the bacilli of spleen fever. Koch showed that they occur 
in all tubercular growths of men, monkeys, cattle, birds, and 
other animals, and in man they are found in the blood and 
sputum. It is possible to cultivate them in an artificial nutrient 
medium, best in solid blood serum ; and the disease can be 
communicated to a healthy animal by injecting such a culture 
into its system. In guinea-pigs and rabbits the disease requires 
a period of " incubation" of three weeks and more; that is to 
say, this period intervenes between the time of inoculation and 
the first symptoms of the disease. It has been shown by inhala- 
tion and feeding experiments that animals can be inoculated ; 
and as the bacilli themselves require a high temperature for 
their development it is probable that the disease is spread either 
by the inhalation of the spores or by their being swallowed 
with the food. 

Cholera is one of the most dreaded of all diseases. Fearful 
for the wholesale slaughter it causes when a locality is once, 
so to speak, in its grasp, and fearful also for the terrible rapidity 
of its action. It is said to originate in the valley of the Ganges, 
where it is permanent or endemic, and yearly it spreads over 
India. In Europe it first appeared at the commencement of 



104 fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

the present century, since when there have been six visitations. 
The first indications that cholera is caused by an organism 
were the result of the researches of the French and German 
commission sent to Alexandria in 1883 to investigate the disease. 
Koch, a member of the German commission, discovered it, and 
called it the " comma" bacillus, from its peculiar curved shape. 
The bacillus is found in the intestine, but not in the blood ; it 
can be cultivated on nutrient gelatine, and Koch has observed 
that it readily multiplies in most articles of food, and even in 
damp linen. It requires a fairly high temperature for favourable 
development, but cold does not kill it. Koch also found the 
organism in the stagnant waters of certain cholera-stricken 
districts, and also in a tank, the water from which had apparently 
produced the disease in several people who had used it for 
drinking purposes. As soon as the bacilli disappeared from 
the water, cholera cases ceased. 

I believe that there is still some doubt as to this organism 
being the cause of the disease, as inoculation experiments have 
only been of very doubtful success. It has been asserted that 
cholera has been communicated experimentally to guinea-pigs ; 
but others have maintained that these animals did not show the 
typical symptoms. Bochefontaine, of Paris, swallowed pills 
containing choleraic matter ; but although he felt unwell for 
some days no serious symptoms arose. 

Many other diseases are believed to be due to organisms, and 
of these I may enumerate the following : — 

Name oj Disease. Nature of the Organism. 

Diptheria Micrococcus 

Erysipelas „ 

Pneumonia Bacteria 

Leprosy Bacillus 

Glanders 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 105 

Organisms present in the system in health. — As the air we 
inhale, the food we eat, and the water we drink, usually teem 
with organisms, we are constantly introducing myriads of these 
minute beings into our systems. Indeed, Miquel estimates the 
number of spores introduced into the mouth at 300,000 a day ! 
The fact would lose some, at least, of its repugnance if we were 
assured that when once introduced they would perish, but such 
is not the case, as any one can see for himself by examining a 
droplet of saliva under the microscope, when it will be found to 
swarm with all kinds of organisms, micrococci, bacilli, spirilla, 
leptothrix, &c. In fact the entire track of the alimentary canal 
appears to be a kind of garden in which organisms find a suitable 
soil for their growth and development. It has even been 
asserted that certain species aid in the processes occurring 
within our bodies, and assist digestion, &c. Thus we are sur- 
rounded by an invisible host of organisms, some deadly, some 
pobsibly of service to us. We offer admittance to all, but we 
expect the deadly not to enter, and broadly speaking we are 
immune from them. The doctor can enter a fever ward with- 
out infection. A family may breathe the same air and only one 
of its members is stricken with consumption. A Sister Dora 
(and for that matter many a physician whose name we never 
hear of) can suck a tracheotomy tube, and yet without catching 
diphtheria. We are almost confident now that in each of these 
cases a disease organism enters the systems of all concerned. 
" Two women shall be grinding at the mill, one shall be taken, 
and the other shall be left." At present I believe no satisfactory 
explanation can be given of immunity. 

Let me return for a moment to the organisms present in the 
mouth. Adhering to the teeth are always to be found thread- 
like organisms called IcptotJirix buccalis. They are supposed to 
cause the decay of teeth, and there can be no doubt that micro- 
scopic examination shows that the decayed parts are full of organ- 
isms. Another very singular fact connected with the organisms 
found in the mouth, is that very often virulent species are present, 
that is to say human saliva when injected into healthy animals, 
such as rabbits, produces grave affections often terminating in 



1 06 Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

death. The blood of the animals thus infected is full of 
micrococci, and these can be cultivated by the ordinary methods. 
The virulence of saliva differs considerably in different indi- 
viduals. 

Action of disease organisms. — Many questions arise from the 
discovery of the connection between organisms and disease, 
especially regarding the nature of their action upon the system. 
It has been definitely proved, as I have explained, that many 
species produce in the nourishing medium definite chemical 
substances, some of which are excessively poisonous. Are the 
diseases which are believed to be caused by organisms due to 
the production of such poisons within the body ; or are the 
blood and other secretions so altered in the nature as to be 
unfit for the proper performance of their functions ; or are the 
diseases caused by a merely mechanical action of the organisms 
in plugging the minute blood vessels, and thus interfering with 
circulation ? In fact, do the organisms act chemically or 
mechanically ? 

I do not see how these questions can be definitely answered 
until the chemist submits them to a very searching experimental 
enquiry. He ought, in the first place, to investigate the chemical 
action of each disease organism ; to grow them in various 
nutrient media, and to investigate the nature of the substances 
they give rise to in each case. If such substances, when freed 
from the organisms which produce them, are found, when 
injected into healthy animals, to cause similar effects to those 
produced by the diseases themselves, the question will be 
decided. 

There is an indication at least, if nothing more, that in certain 
diseases it is the virus produced by the organism which acts, 
and not the organism itself. Thus in spleen fever it often 
happens that death is so rapid that only few bacilli occur in the 
blood — quite too few either to cause the plugging of the small 
vessels or to remove the oxygen from the blood, and thus to 
deprive the system of that element. 

Recovery from disease. — Another question which presents 
itself to our minds is this — How is it that if an infectious disease 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 107 

is caused by organisms, and such organisms we know can be 
cultivated for any length of time in a suitable nourishing medium 
outside the body (provided it is renewed from time to time) ; 
how is it, I say, that we ever get rid of the disease ? For our 
blood and tissues are constantly being renewed ; a suitable 
pabulum is thus maintained for the continued growth of the 
disease organisms, and therefore it would seem that when once 
introduced they should continue to exist and never be got rid 
of. But we know that the contrary is the case, at least as a 
rule. Either the patient dies or recovers (quickly very often) 
and loses all trace of the malady. How can his recovery be 
accounted for ? 

The explanation may be as follows : — We know that organisms 
multiply very quickly in a suitable medium, and that the sub- 
stances they produce are in many cases singularly antagonistic 
to their existence. The yeast cell is killed when immersed in 
a solution of spirit of a certain strength, and indol, skatol, and 
phenol, bodies which are produced by certain putrefactive 
organisms, are among the most powerful agents in arresting 
putrefaction. Therefore it is not impossible that the disappear- 
ance of an infectious disease and the recovery of the patient 
may be due to some such action : the organisms causing the 
disease multiplying rapidly up to a certain point, until, in fact, 
they have produced so much of their peculiar virus that it 
reacts upon themselves, and poisons off the whole crop. 

But there is another explanation which is perhaps more 
satisfactory. We know that organisms require certain definite 
substances for their nourishment, and that therefore they thrive 
in a culture fluid only so long as these substances are present. 
Let us suppose that in the tissues of a healthy individual, a 
small quantity only of one of these principles is present : he 
catches an infectious disease, organisms are produced in abun- 
dance in his system, and rapidly use up this small quantity, then 
it is exhausted, the organisms no longer thrive, and eventually 
perish. It may be that a very long time will elapse before the 
convalescent can again accumulate the particular principle which 



io8 Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

the organisms have used up, and during that period he will 
suffer immunity from the same disease. This, as every one 
knows, is very often the case. 

Protection from disease. — Another question presents itself to 
us, and perhaps it is the most important, from a practical point 
of view, of any M^e have discussed. It is as follows : — 

Granted that infectious diseases are caused by organisms, then, 
surely as we know what is required for their nourishment, and 
what is antagonistic to their existence, we ought to be able to 
devise some means for preventing their ravages among men and 
animals. An answer in the affirmative to part of this question 
was (to a certain extent) anticipated long ago, though un- 
consciously, by the introduction of vaccination as a preventive 
of smallpox. Perhaps few people know how ancient this 
operation is, for it appears to have been known to the Arabs and 
Chinese as early as the loth century, and was also practised in 
India by the Brahmins, a public crier announcing that he had 
smallpox virus to sell. It was introduced into England I may 
say accidentally in George the First's reign. 

The principle of vaccination is to give (by inoculation) a 
mild type of small-pox, which has the effect either of rendering 
the individual vaccinated entirely secure from an accidental 
attack of the malady, or in case he does take the disease to very 
materially moderate its violence. To Pasteur belongs the 
triumph of having proved that the vaccination method can be 
extended to other diseases incidental not only to man but to 
animals also. Thus with spleen fever or anthrax he prepares 
vaccine matter by cultivating the bacillus in an artificial medium 
for a considerable time at a high temperature. By this means 
it becomes " attenuated." 

" At the end of a week the culture which at first killed the 
whole of ten sheep which had been inoculated with it, now 
only killed four or five, and in ten to twelve days it ceased to 
kill any — merely giving them a mild form of the disease and 
protecting them from further attack" — proved by inoculating 
them with the virulent virus, " The vaccine thus obtained in 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 109 

Pasteur's laboratory is now distributed throughout the world, 
and has already saved numerous flocks from almost certain 
extinction."* Pasteur proceeded in a precisely similar manner 
in preparing a vaccine for fowl cholera — a very fatal disease 
incidental to poultry. Another method for preparing a vaccine 
fluid for various diseases, consists, so to speak, in passing the 
disease in question from one species of animal to another ; the 
second species (in certain cases) taking only a slight illness, and 
then becoming protected against the virulent form. " Thus 
while the bacillus (from the blood) of sheep or cattle dead of 
anthrax invariably produces death when inoculated into sheep 
or cattle, after passing through white mice loses its virulence 
for those animals. The blood of white mice dead of anthrax 
does not kill sheep, but only produces a transitory illness, and 
the animals are for a time at least protected against the virulent 
disease." (Klein.) 

Pasteur, in his now famous experiments on hydrophobia, at 
first made use of a similar method. He proved first of all that 
the disease is to a large extent localised in the nervous system. 
Thus a healthy dog is very rapidly inoculated by exposing its 
brain, and then inoculating the surface of that organ with a 
particle of the brain of a rabid animal. To attenuate the virus 
he inoculated a rabbit's brain with a morsel of the brain of a 
mad dog, then passed the disease from the rabbit to a monkey, 
whence it became attenuated, and a protective vaccine for dogs. 
His present method is quite different, and consists in inoculating 
with the crushed spinal cord of a rabbit dead of hydrophobia, 
the cord being previously exposed to pure air for a certain 
number of days. 

Antiseptics and Disinfectants. — It has long been known that 
various chemical substances prevent and arrest putrefaction, and 
hinder the spread of infectious diseases. In fact, that such was 
the case was known long before the "germ" theory had been 
introduced. As soon as it was discovered that putrefaction and 
infectious diseases are closely allied, and are both caused by 

• Troussart, 



no Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena. 

living organisms, the reason for the action of antiseptics and 
disinfectants became intelligible. It then became apparent that 
they act as poisons on the organisms 

I do not desire to detain you long on this subject, but there 
are certain points connected with it of considerable importance 
which I ought to touch upon. If we take a putrefying liquid 
and add to it a very small quantity of carbolic acid, corrosive 
sublimate, chloride of zinc, &c., the putrefaction stops. The 
organisms are poisoned, and consequently they perish. Simi- 
larly, after a case of an infectious disease, sulphur is burnt in the 
room occupied by the patient, or chlorine is evolved from 
bleaching powder, everything is well washed with carbolic acid, 
and the bedding is burnt. 

Have all the disease organisms or their spores been destroyed ? 
I am decidedly of opinion that they have not, and chiefly for 
this reason : that the spores of an organism have an extra- 
ordinary power of resistance to destructive agencies. Thus the 
spores of the hay bacillus can be completely dried, and can 
actually be boiled with water for a considerable time without 
losing their vitality. It might be argued that the hay bacillus 
is not a disease organism, and that the latter are more easily 
destroyed. Possibly this is the case with some, but certainly 
not with others. Thus it has been proved that a solution of 
corrosive sublimate — the most powerful antiseptic we are ac- 
quainted with — stops the growth of the spores of bacillus 
anthracis, even when the solution contains only one part of cor- 
rosive sublimate to 300,000 of water. But, on the other hand, 
the spores have not lost their vitality, for Klein has shown that 
they may be soaked in a one per cent, solution of corrosive sub- 
limate for twenty-four hours, and yet when removed and 
injected into animals the latter soon die of tpyical spleen fever. 

Several years ago Professor Fuller and I tried a number of 
experiments on the action of gaseous antiseptics, such as 
chlorine, bromine, the fumes of burning sulphur, ozone, &c., on 
putrefactive organisms, or rather on their spores, and we were 
simply astonished at their power of resistance. Bromine ap- 



Fermentation and Kindred Phenomena, 1 1 1 

peared to be the most active disinfectant ; and I think it mi<;ht 
be used with advantage as a substitute for the fumes of burning 
sulphur, which in our experiments appeared to have no appre- 
ciable effect. 

It appears to me that a series of complete experiments should 
be tried with different antiseptics on the spores of each of the 
disease organisms, for in the absence of the information which 
would thus be gleaned it is impossible to say how far disinfec- 
tion is of service. It is perfectly within the bounds of possi- 
bility that great differences in the resisting power of the spores 
of various organisms exists, and that in some cases disinfection 
is of real service, whilst in others it is mere waste of time. 



112 



%th April, 1887. 



W. H. Patterson, Esq., M.R.I. A., in the Chair. 



R. Lloyd Patterson, Esq., J.P., F.L.S., read a Paper 

entitled, 

SOME ACCOUNT OF THE WHALE AND SEAL 

FISHERIES, PAST AND PRESENT. 



The reader commenced by giving a brief historical sketch of 
the whale-fishing industry, which he said had been discovered 
or invented by the inhabitants of the Basque Provinces of Spain, 
in the Bay of Biscay, as early as the 12th century. A whale 
still figures in the coats of arms of some of the Basque towns ; 
and, long after that portion of the whale fishery which had 
been prosecuted with much success by the Basques had ceased 
to exist, the English and Dutch whale-fishers continued to 
employ Basques as harpooners or *' whale-strikers," as they are 
called in the still extant accounts of Baflfin's celebrated voyage, 
when twenty-four of these men accompanied the expedition in 
that capacity. After describing at some length the pursuit and 
capture of the pilot whale ( Glohicephalus melas) at the Faroe 
Islands, where several hundred of these comparatively small 
cetaceans are sometimes taken at a single drive, the lecturer 
alluded to the flourishing state of the Newfoundland whale 
fisheries up to and about the years 1785 and 1786, when Govern- 
ment paid a bounty of 40s. per ton to each vessel of two 
hundred tons or upwards engaged in it, and when the number 
of vessels amounted to between two and three hundred. The 
trade continued highly prosperous for many years, but from 
1840 or thereabouts it declined, owing to the diminishing 
numbers of the whales and the lower value of the oil, and lost 
or worn-out vessels were not replaced. The trade languished 



The Whale and Seal Fislieries. 1 1 3 

up to aboul i860, when the application of steam-power to the 
ships gave it a fresh start, as the vessels were thus enabled to 
penetrate to higher latitudes and to follow the " fish," as they 
are called, into previously almost inaccessible haunts. Vessels 
now go out on combined sealing and whaling voyages. Pro- 
ceeding first to St. John's, Newfoundland, they ship from two 
to three hundred extra hands for the sealing voyage. The 
young seals are born on the ice from about the 15th to the 25th 
of February, and the aim of the sealers is to find these young 
seals when they are three to four weeks old, as the oil they 
then yield is superior to that at any other period of their 
growth. At this stage of their growth they are called " white- 
coats," and in the vernacular of the island their pursuit is 
called " swile huntin'," the hunters being known as " soilers," 
a corruption of sealers. Mr. Patterson gave a graphic descrip- 
tion of the manners, food, and clothing of these men, of their 
perilous occupation and the chances of success or failure. One 
vessel, if she be fortunate, may return to port in two or three 
weeks with thirty to forty thousand young seals on board ; 
while another vessel, equally well found, if unlucky, may be 
twice the time out and return to port " clean," as it is called, 
that is empty, having been entirely unsuccessful. Many 
instances of this were given, and the vessels and their captains 
mentioned by name, special mention being made of Captain 
Guy, of the s.s. "Arctic," a native of Larne. After returning 
from the sealing voyage the vessels refit and proceed to their 
summer whale-fishing, which is carried on in the usual manner. 
On this whaling voyage in 1884 several of the Dundee fleet 
took part, for some time, in the search for the missing United 
States expedition under the command of Lieutenant Greely. 
Frequent and most appreciative mention is made ol these bold 
and dashing whaling captains in Commander Schley's published 
account of the expedition which discovered and rescued Greely 
and the small remnant of his crew, only seven remaining alive 
out of the party of twenty-four. The lecturer then gave statis- 
tical particulars of the vessels engaged in the trade, and the 
results of their operations were given for the last six years, 



114 ^^* Whale and Seal Fisheries, 

Mr. Patterson mentioning the catches of this present season by 
the s.s. " Terra Nova" and another vessel. Five of the Dundee 
and Peterhead fleet were lost last year. For these particulars 
Mr. Patterson said he was indebted to his friend Mr. George 
Halley, of Dundee. After some mention of the seal, whale, 
and walrus fisheries, carried on principally by the Norwegians 
in European Arctic waters, the lecturer gave an interesting 
account, derived from his friend Mr. Henry Seebohm, of an 
important whale fishery that is carried on by steamers, with 
their headquarters on land on the Varanger Fiord, between 
Norway and Russia, and also mentioned an important shark 
fishery that is prosecuted with much success and profit near 
Iceland. Mr. Patterson next gave a brief account of the 
abundance of seal life on the Alaskan coasts and Aleutian 
Islands, in the North Pacific and Behring's Sea, and concluded 
his paper by a description of the pursuit and capture of the fur 
seals on the Pribylov Islands, St. Paul's, and St. George, where 
these creatures are to be found in myriads during the season ; 
but a wise restriction as to the numbers that may be taken is 
preserving the race from that annihilation that seems to be 
threatening the seals in other places. 

At the conclusion of his paper Mr. Patterson exhibited the 
skull of a very rare cetacean, the White-beaked Dolphin, 
Delphinus albirostris, the only example of the species the 
capture of which has been recorded in Ireland. This occurred 
at Donaghadee, and the record of the capture was made by 
Mr. M'Gowan of that place. 



I'S 



t^th April, 1887. 



W. H. Patterson, Esq., M.R.I.A., in the Chair. 



Conway Scott, Esq., B.E., read a Paper on 

EPIDEMIC DISEASES: CAN THEY BE STAMPED 

OUT? 



In the course of his remarks Mr. Scott said that the great 
characteristic property of infection is its innate power of 
reproducing itself or multiplying itself without limit, and, 
under certain circumstances, without the slightest loss of its 
deadly qualities. Milk is a medium by which disease is 
very frequently communicated to persons, and the infinitesimal 
amount of infection falling into milk has multiplied itself so 
as to fill the whole milk supply, every glass of which can 
carry the disease as readily as the original matter. On the 
whole, there can be little doubt but that the human race has 
suffered infinitely more from epidemic diseases than from all 
the wars that have ever been engaged in and all the battles 
that have ever been fought. The lecturer went on to speak of 
the organic nature of all epidemic diseases, and said that the 
late Dr. Ritchie, who was one of the largest-minded scientific 
men that Ulster had ever produced, was a most thorough 
believer in the organic nature of all epidemic diseases, and that 
he more than forty years ago, when these subjects were hardly 
ever thought of, applied his practical knowledge to the 
stamping out of such diseases with great success. Mr. Scott 
then went on to deal with the different modes of disinfection, 
which means any process by means of which c^ganisms of all 
kinds are killed, as every process which can kill ordinary 
organisms will to a much greater extent kill these disease- 
producing organisms, which cannot be seen, and are only 



ii6 Epidemic Diseases. 

known by their fatal consequences. If you want to kill 
any organism, from the highest to the lowest, put it into 
a fire or furnace. The organism is completely taken up and 
reduced to gases and vapour, and every spark of life is extin- 
guished. The liquid mode of disinfection consists in sur- 
rounding the infected matter with some liquid containing any 
substance in solution which has the property of killing an 
organic body. He illustrated this by stating that all the fisher- 
men in a district, with their rods, nets, and lines, cannot 
destroy all the fish in any particular lake ; but if the contents 
of some flax dam be emptied into the lake, all the fish, young 
and old, large and small, will soon be dead, killed or poisoned 
by the action of the flax- water. The aerial mode of disinfection 
consists in surrounding and filling the pores of the infected 
matter with a sufficient volume of gases or vapours which have 
the property of killing all the disease organisms contained in 
the infected body or mass of matter. It is impossible to 
over-estimate the extraordinary effect that even slight changes 
in the aerial surroundings or environments have upon every 
organism, from a man down to the disease-producer. The 
lecturer then proceeded to explain the properties of the different 
liquids and gases commonly used for disinfecting purposes, 
referring especially to carbolic acid, whose characteristic pro- 
perty is its extraordinary power of destroying the lowest 
forms of life. Carbolic acid vapour can be generated by 
pouring the liquid acid into a hollow tin heater which has 
been raised to a very high temperature in any ordinary fire, 
and large quantities of that vapour can be thus thrown off" in 
a very short time. In fact, there is no practical difficulty in 
generating any quantity of that vapour in any place where 
there is sufficient fire to heat up the little machine to which 
he referred. That vapour does not attack the metals, and 
does not destroy articles exposed to it ; and when moderate 
quantities of it are used it has no injurious action on the 
human or animal system, being thus unlike all the other dis- 
infectants of that class. After many years' experience in small- 
pox, typhus fever, scarlatina, and diphtheria, he can with 



Epidemic Diseases. 1 1 7 

confidence recommend this vapour as the most certain means 
of killing all the organisms which produced epidemic disease. 
As a matter of fact those organisms cannot exist for any 
length of time in an atmosphere of carbolic acid vapour. The 
lecturer then dealt with the disinfection of solid bodies, and 
gave a number of practical examples of the great utility of 
carbolic acid vapour as a disinfectant. In a man of drunken 
or dissipated habits the disease will probably attack him, 
because his diseased system offers the readiest hiding-place to 
those organisms. If a man be in a state of fear or nervous 
apprehension he is nearly sure to take the disease. The fear 
will reduce his system, and enable the disease to take hold 
on him. The lecturer concluded by saying that he would on 
a future date continue the subject, which is an all important 
one, and deal with other branches of the subject of epidemic 
disease. 



B E L :P .A- S T 

i^atural listorg ^ J|Ijil0S0pl)ital Smttu^ 



Officers and Council of Management for i886-Sy. 

PROFESSOR E. A. LETTS, Ph. D. 

■^tce-^rcsi&citfs : 

THOMAS WORKMAN, Esq., J.P. I WM. SWAXSTON, Esq., F.G.S. 
JOHN BROWN, Esq. ] JOSEPH WRIGHT, Esq., F.G.S. 

^treasurer : 
JOHN BROWN, Esq. 

jilibratrian : 

THOMAS WORKMAN, Esq., J.P. 

ROBERT M. YOUNG, Esq., B.A. 

Council : 

PROFESSOR E. A.. LETTS, Ph. D. 
PROFESSOR R. 0. CUNNINGHAM, M.D. 
W. H. PATTERSON, Esa., M.R.I.A. 
ROBERT Macadam, Esq. 
PROFESSOR J. D. EVERETT, F.R.S. 
R. L. PATTERSON, Esq., J.P., F.L.S. 
THOMAS WORKMAN, Esq., J.P. 
ROBERT YOUNG, Esq., C.E. 
JOSEPH WRIGHT, Esq., F.G.S. 
JOHN BROWN, Esq. 
J. H. GREENHILL, Esq., Mus. Bac. 
JOSEPH JOHN MURPHY, Esq. 
WILLIAM SWANSTON, Esq., F.G.S. 
JAMES WILSON, Esq., M.E. 
E. M. YOUNG, Esq., B.A. 



119 



[* Denotes hoMem of three or more Shares.] 

•Alexander, James, J.P. (Representatives of), Holywood. 
Allen, R. H., Mus. Bac, College Green, Belfast. 

Anderson, John, J. P., F.G.S., Hillbrook, Holywood. 
Andrews, Elizabeth, College Gardens, Belfast. 

Andrews, George, Ardoyne, do. 

Andrews, Samuel, J. P., Seaview, do. 

Archer, Henry, Orlands, Carrickfergus. 

Barbour, James, Ardville, Marino. 

*Batt. Thomas G. (Representatives nf), Stranmillis, Belfast. 

Bland, Robert H., J.P., Woodbank, Whiteabbey. 

Bottomley, Henry H., Hughenden, Fortwilliam Park, Belfast. 

*Bottomley, William, J.P. (Representatives of) do. 

Boyd, William, Great Victoria Street, do. 

Boyd, William Sinclair, Ravenscroft, Bloomfield, do. 

Brett, Charles H., Gretton Villa South, Malone Road, do. 

Bristow, James R., The Park, Dunmurry. 

Brown, John Shaw, J.P. (Reps, of), Edenderry House, Belfast. 

Brown, John, Bedford Street, do. 

Brown, William K., Rushmere, do. 

Burden, Henry, M.D., M.R.I.A., Alfred Street, do. 

Burnett, John R., Martello House, Holywood. 



Calwcll, Alex. M'D.. College Square North, Belfast. 

*Campbell, Miss Anna, Howard Street, do. 

Campbell, John, Lennoxvale, do. 

Carson, John, Church Lane, do. 

*Charley, John (Representatives of), Finaghey, do. 

'Charters, John (Representatives of), do. 

Clarke, Edward H., Elm wood House, do. 
Clermont, Lord, M.R.LA. (Representatives of), Ravensdale 
Park, Newry. 



120 Shareholders. 

Coates, Victor, J.P., Rathmore, Dunmurry. 
Connor, Charles C, J.P., Nottinghill House, Belfast. 

Crawford, William, Calender Street, do. 

Cuming, James, M.A., M.D., Wellington Place, do. 

Cunningham, Robt., O., M.D., F.L.S., College Gardens, do. 

*Deramore, Lord, D.L., Belvoir Park, do. 

*Donegall, Marquis of. 

*Downshire, Marquis of, Hillsborough Castle. 

Drennan, John S., M.D., Prospect Terrace, Belfast. 

♦Drummond, Dr. James L. (Representatives of), do. 

Duffin, Adam, 29 University Terrace, do. 

Emerson, William, Donegall Quay, do. 

Everett, Joseph D., M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., Lennoxvale, do. 
Ewart, Lavens M., J. P., Glenbank House, do. 

Ewart, Sir William, Bart., J. P., M.P., Glenmachan House, 

Strandtown. 
Ewart, William Quartus, Schomberg, Strandtown. 

Pagan, John, F.R.C.S.L, Glengall Place, Belfast. 

Farrell, Wm.. James, Annadale Cottage, Newtownbreda. 
Fenton, Samuel G., J.P., Windsor, Belfast. 

Ferguson, Henry, M.D., Fisherwick Place, do. 

Finlay, William Laird, J.P., Arlington, Windsor, do. 

Fitzgerald, Professor Maurice, B.A., Assoc. M.LC.E., 

Botanic Avenue, do. 

Forsythe, Robert H., Holy wood. 

*Getty, Edmund (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Girdwood, H. Mercer, Broughton Pendleton, Manchester. 
Gordon, Alexander, M.D. (Representatives of), Ringneal, 

Comber. 
Gordon, Robert W., J. P., Summerfield, Dundonald. 
*Grainger, Rev. Canon, D.D., M.R.I.A., Broughshane, Bally- 

mena. 
Gray, William, M.R.LA., Mountcharles, Belfast. 

Greenhill, John H., Mus. Bac, Richmond Terrace, do. 

Greer, Thomas, J. P., M.R.LA., Seapark, Carrickfergus. 



Shareholders. 1 2 1 

♦Hamilton, Hill, J.P. (Representatives of), Mountvernon, Belfast. 

Hamilton, Sir James, J.P., (Representatives of), do. 
Harland, Sir E. J., Bart., J.P., Glenarm Castle. 

Heburn, William, Clonard Mill, Belfast. 

Henderson, Miss Anna S., Windsor Terrace, do. 
Henderson, James, A.M., Norwood Tower, Strandtown, do. 

Henderson, Robert, High Street, do. 
*Henry, Alexander, Manchester. 
Herdman, John, J. P., Carricklee House, Strabane. 

*Herdman, John (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Heyn, James, A.M., Ulster Chambers, do. 

Hind, James (Representatives of), do. 

Hind, John, J.P., do. 

Hind, John, Jun., College Street South, do. 
Hodges, John F., M.D., F.C.S., J.P., Derryvolgie Avenue, do. 

Hogg, John, Academy Street, do. 
Holford, Thomas and Arthur, Cern Abbas, Dorsetshire. 

♦Houston, John Blakiston, J.P., D.L,, Orangefield, Belfast. 

*Hughes, Edwin, i Lombard Street, do. 

Hyndman, Hugh, LL.D., Livingstone Terrace, do. 

Inglis, James, Abbey\nlle, Whiteabbey. 

Jackson, Thomas, C.E., Altona, Strandtown, Belfast. 

Jaffe, John, J.P., Edenvale, Strandtown, do. 

Jaffe, Otto, Canadian Villas, Strandtown, do. 
Johnston, Samuel A., J. P., Dalriada, Whiteabbey. 

Keegan, John J., J. P., Brooklyn, Holywood. 

Kennedy, James, Richmond Lodge, Belfast, 

Kennedy, William, Kenbella House, do. 

Kidd, George, Lisnatorc, Dunmurry. 

*Kinghan, Rev. John, Altona, Windsor, Belfast 

Kyle, Robert Alexander, Richmond Terrace, do. 

Lanyon, Sir Charles, J.P., D.L., The Abbey, Whiteabbey. 

Lemon, Archibald Dunlop, J.P., Edgecumbe, Belfast, 



122 



Shareholders. 



Lepper, F. R., Ulster Bank, Belfast. 

Letts, Professor E. A., Ph.D.,F.C.S.,Viewmount,Windsor, do. 
L^tle, David B., J. P., University Square, do. 



*Macrory, A. J. (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Malcolm, Bowman, Richmond Crescent, do. 

Meharg, James, Ardlussa, do. 

Milligan, Seaton Forrest, Royal Terrace, do. 

♦Mitchell, George T. (Representatives of), do. 

Mitchell, W. C, J.P., Ardilea, do. 

Montgomery, Thomas, J. P., Ballydrain House, do. 

Moore, James, J.P. (Representatives oO, Craigavad. 
Moore, James, College Gardens, 
*Mulholland, Andrew, J.P. (Representatives of), 
Mulholland, John, J.P., D.L., Ballywalter Park. 
Mullan, William, Lindisfarne, Marlborough Park, 
Murney, Henry, M.D., J. P., Tudor House, Holywood 
*Murphy, Isaac James, Armagh. 
*Murphy, Joseph John, Osborne Park, 
Murray, Robert Wallace, J.P., Fortwilliam Park, 
Musgrave, Edgar, Drumglass, Malone, 
*Musgrave, Henry, Drumglass, Malone, 
Musgrave, James, J.P., Drumglass, Malone, 
MacAdam, Robert, College Square East, 
M'Bride, Samuel, Bedford Street, 
*M'Calmont, Robert, London. 
*M'Cammon, Thomas, Dublin. 
M'Cance, Finlay, J. P., Suffolk, Dunmurry. 
*M*Cance, J. W. S. (Representatives of), Suffolk, Dunmurry. 
•M'Clure, Sir Thomas, Bart., J.P., V.L., Belmont, Belfast 

*M'Cracken, Francis (Representatives of), Donegall Square, do. 
M'Gee, James, High Street, do. 

M'Gee, Samuel Mackey, Clifton Park Avenue, do. 

*MacIlwaine, Mrs. Jane (Representatives of), Ulsterville, do. 
*MacIlwaine, John H., Brandon Villa, Strandtown, do. 

MacLaine, Alexander, J.P., Queen's Elms, do. 

• M'Neill, George, Malone Road, do. 



Belfast, 
do. 

Belfast. 



Belfast, 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



S/ia reh o Idcrs. 123 

Neill, John R., Roseville, Windsor, Belfast. 

Patterson, David C, Craigavad. 

Patterson, Edward Forbes, Holy wood. 

Patterson, Mrs. M. E., Ardmore Terrace, Holy wood. 

Patterson, Richard, J. P., Kilmore, Holywood. 

♦Patterson, Robert Lloyd, J.P., F.L.S., Croft House. Holywood, 

Patterson, William H., M.R.I. A., Garranard, Strandtown, 

Belfast. 

Patterson, William R., College Park East, Belfast. 

Pirn, Edward W., Elmwood Terrace, do. 

♦Pirrie, John M., M.D. (Representatives of), do. 

Porter, Drummond, Botanic Avenue, do. 
Purser, Professor John, M.A., M.R.I. A., Queen's College, do. 

Rea, John Henry, M.D., University Road, do. 

Riddel, William, J. P., Beechmount, do. 

Ritchie, William B., M.D., J.P. (Reps, of), The Grove, do. 

Robertson, William, J.P., Netherleigh, Strandtown, do. 

Robinson, John, St. James' Crescent, do. 

Rowan, John, York Street, do. 

Shillington, Thomas Foulkes, Castleton Park, do. 

Simms, Felix Booth, Prospect Terrace, do. 

Sinclair, Thomas, M.A., J. P., Hopefield, do. 

Smith, John, Castleton Terrace, do. 

Smyth, Travers, Sandymount, do. 
Smyth, John, Jun., M.A., C.E., Milltown, Banbridge, 

Steen, Robert, Ph.D., Academical Institution. Belfast. 

Steen, W., Fitzroy Avenue, do. 

Suffern, John, Windsor, do. 

Suffern, William (Representatives of), do. 

Swanston, William, F.G.S., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

*Tennent, Robert (Representatives of), Rushpark, do. 

•Tennent, Robert James, J. P., D.L., (Representatives of), 

Rushpark, Belfast 



124 



Shareholders. 



♦Thompson, James, J. P., Macedon, Whiteabbey. 

♦Thompson, Nathaniel (Representatives of). 

Thompson, Robert, J.P., (Representatives of), Fortwilliam Park, 

Belfast. 
♦Thompson, William, (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Torrens, Mrs. Sarah H., Edenmore, Whiteabbey. 
♦Turnley, John (Representatives of), Belfast. 



Valentine, G. F., The Moat, Strandtown, 
Valentine, James W., Cromwell Terrace, 



do. 
do. 



Walkington, D. B., Thornhill, Malone. 

Walkington, Thomas R., Laurel Lodge, Strandtown, Belfast. 
Wallace, James, Ulster Bank, do. 

Ward, Francis D., J.P., M.R.I.A., Clonaver, Strandtown, do. 



Ward, Isaac W., Colin View Terrace, 
Whitla, Wm., M.D., College Square, 
Wilson, James, Old Forge, Dunmurry. 
Wilson, John K., Marlborough Park, 
♦Wilson, Robert M., Dublin. 
Workman, Francis, College Gardens, 
Workman, John, J. P., Windsor, 
Workman, Rev. Robert, Glastry, Kirkcubbin. 
Workman, Rev. Robert, Newtownbreda. 
*Workman, Thomas, J.P., Craigdarragh, 
Workman, William, Nottinghill, 
Wright, Joseph, F.G.S., York Street, 

Young, Robert, C.E., Rathvarna, 
*Young Robert Magill, B.A., Ardgreenan, 



do. 
do. 

Belfast. 

Belfast. 
do. 

Belfast. 
do. 
do. 
do. 

Belfast. 
do. 



HONORARY ASSOCIATES. 

Robinson, Hugh, Clive Villas, Belfast. 

Stewart, Samuel A., F.L.S., North Street, do. 

Tate, Professor Ralph, F.G.S., F.L.S., Adelaide, South 
Australia. 



Shareholders. 125 

ANNUAL GUINEA SUBSCRIBERS. 

Barklie, Robert, F.C.S., Working Men's Institute, Belfast. 

Bruce, James, J. P., D.L., Thorndale House, do. 

Carr, James, Rathowen. Windsor, do. 

Corry, Sir James Porter, Bart., J. P., M.P., Dunraven, 

Windsor. Belfast. 

Craig, James, J. P.. Craigavon, Slrandtown. 
Dunville, Robert G., J. P.. D.L.. Redburnc, Ilulywood. 
Glass, James, J. P., Carradarragh, Windsor, Belfast. 

Graham, O. B., J. P., Larchlield, Lisburn. 

Loewenthal, J., Ashley Avenue, Belfast. 

Luther, William, M.D., Chlorine House, do. 

Lynn, William H., C.E., R.H.A., Crumlin Terrace, do. 

Marsh, John, Glenlyon, Holywood. 

Matier, Henry, J.P., Dunlambert, Foitwilliam, Belfast. 

Mulholland, J. R. T., J. P., Northumberland Street. do. 

Murray, Robert, Corporation Street, do. 

M'AuliflFe, George, J. P., Scoutbush, Greenisland. 
Oakman, Nicholas, Prospect Terrace, Belfast. 

Pirn, Joshua, Slieve-na-Failthe, Whiteabbey- 
Pring, Richard W., Firmouut, Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Reade, Robert H., J. P., Wilmont, Dunmurry. 
Redfern, Professor Peter, M.D., F.R.C.S.L., Lower 

Crescent, Belfast. 

Reeves, Right Rev. Dr., Lord Bishop of Down and Connor 

and Dromore, Conway House, Dunmurry. 
Rogers, John, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Ross, William A., The Ivies, Craigavad. 
Stannus, A. C, Greenisland. 

Taylor, Sir David, J. P., Bertha Windsor, Belfast. 

Taylor, John Arnott, M.A., J.P., Drum House, Dunmurry. 
Tate, Alexander, C.E., Longwood, Whitehouse. 
Watt, R., C.E., Victoria Street, Belfast. 

Webb, Richard T., Greenisland. 
Wolff, G. W., The Den. Strandlown, Belfast.