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T* V t'' I ''• 'I* •■■|i •■ 



* . ..> 



PEOCEEDINGS 



OP THE 



ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE 



€bxteb b( t}it Sftcrttarg 



• '• 






VOLUME XXIII. 

1891-93 



All Bights licscrvcd 



^nblisbrb b; 
THE INSTITUTE, NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, LONDON, W.C. 

1892 



./• 



) 



The InstitulViti ^ body is not responsible either for the statements 
made or for thdjopinions expressed by the Authors of Papers, &c. 

Members are particularly requested to notify all changes in their 
addresses to the Secretary, so that the Proceedings and other com- 
mtmications may be forwarded without delay. 

J. S. 0»HALLORAN, 

Secretary, 
BoTAL Colonial Institute, 

Northumberland ^-venue, 
July 11, 1892. 



I 



KOTAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE, 

NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, 

LONDON, W.C. 

COUNCIL OF 1892-8. 



HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE OF WALES, K.G., K.T., K.P., 

0.CJ3., G.C.S.I., G.C.M.G.. G.C.I.E. 

Ske-^rtsibents. 

H.R.H. PRINCB CHBIBTIAN, K.G. 

THE DUKS OP AROTLL, K.O^ K.T. 

THB DUKI OP 8X7THBRLAND, K.O. 

THl MARQUIS OP DUFFERIN AND AVA, K,V^ 0.03^ O.C.y.O. 

THS MARQUIS OF LORNE, K.T^ O.CM.Q. 

THB EARL OP ABERDEEN. 

TUB EARL OP ALBEMARLE, E.C.M.O. 

THB EARL OP DUNRAVBN, K.P. 

THB BARL OF ROSEBERT. 

VISCOUNT CRANBROOK, G.C.S.I. 

TISCOUNT MONCK. G.C.M.Q. 

LORD BRA88BY, K.C.B. 

LORD GARLIKOFORD, K.P. 

THB RIGHT HON. HUGH C. E. CHILDBRS, M.P* 

SIR WILLLAM MACKINNON, Bart., GJ.B. 

SIB 0HABLB8 NICHOLSON, Babt. 

SIB HENRY BARKLT, G.CJLG.. K.O.B. 

SIR ALBXAKDBR T. GALT, G.CJLG. 

SIB JAMBS A. TOUL, K.aM.G. 

BIB FRBDBRICK TOUNG, ILC.M.G. 

ConncH. 



Sib Charlks Clifford, Babt. 

F. H. Danoab, Esq. 

OEincRAL SiB H. C. B. Daudbnet, 

G.C.B. 
Fbedkbick Dutton, Esq. 
C. WASBncoTOK Eves, Esq., CM.G. 

W. MaTBABD FABlfEB, EsQ. 

Majob-Genebal Sib Henbt Gbeen, 

K.CS.I., CD. 
Sib Abthub Hodoson, E.C.M.G. 
K. J. Jeffeat, Esq. 
Lieut.-Genebal Sib W. F. D. Jebyois, 

G.C.M.G., C.B. 
H. J. JouBDAiN, Esq., C.M.G. 



WiLLUM Keswick, Esq. 
F. P. DB Labilliebe, Esq. 
Lieut.-Genebal R. W. Lowbt, C3. 
Nevile Lubbock, Esq. 
Sib Chables Mills, K.C.M.G., C.B. 
J. R. MossE, Esq. 
John Patebson, Esq. 
John Rab, Esq., M.D., F.R.S. 
Peteb Redpath, Esq. 
Sib Saul Samuel, K.C.M.G., C3. 
Sib FBANas Villeneuye Smith. 
Sib Chables E. F. Stibuno, Babt. 
Sir Chables Tuppeb, Bart., G.C.M.G., 
C.B. 



^onorariT Crtasurtr. 
Sib Montaqu F. Ommanket, K.C.M.G. 

Secrttar^. 
J. S. 0*Hallobax. 

librarian. C^bf CUrk. 

James R. Boosk. William Chambebijliv. 



31 6331 



\ 



PouorHTg Comsponbing SfcrctErics. 



British Guiana: G. H. Hawtayne, 

Esq., C.M.G., Georgetown. 
British Honduras : Hon. ' J. H. 

Phillips, C.M.G., M.E.C., Belize. 
Canada : C. J. Campbell, Esq., Toronto. 
Sandford Fleming, Esq., 

C.M.G., Ottawa. 
Very Rev. Principal G. M. 
Grant, M.A., D.D., King- 
ston. 
George Hague, Esq., Mon- 
treal. 
Ernest B. C. Hannington, 
Esq., M.D., Victoria, 
British Columbli. 
Thomas Robinson, Esq., 

Winnipeg. 
George Stewart, Jun., Esq., 
D.C.L., Quebec. 
Cape Colony : C. M. Bult, Esq., J.P., 

Kimberley. 
Henry B^ Christian, 
Esq., Port Eliza- 
beth. 
John Noble Esq., 
Capetown. 
Ceylon : J. Ferguson, Esq., Colobibo. 
Hong Kong : Hon. Mr. Justice E. J. 

ACKROYD. 

Jamaica: Hon. C. S. Farquhabson, 

M.L.C., Savanna-la-Mar. 
Leeward Islands : Hon. W. H. 

Whyham, M.L.C., Antigua. 



ft 



ti 



Malta : Hon. Count Strickland 

della Catena, C.M.G. 
Mauritius : A. de Boucheryille, Esq., 

Po^T Louis. 
Natal: John Goodliffe, Esq., Durban. 
New South Wales: Laidley Mort, 

Esq., Sydney. 
New Zealand : James Allen, Esq., 

m.h.r., dunedin. 
George Beetham, Esq., 

Wellington. 
C. C. Bowen, Esq., 
MiDDLETON, Christ - 

CHURCH. 

Douglas McLean, Esq., 

Napier. 
Reader G. Wood, Esq., 
Auckland. 
Queensland: Hon. Walter H.Wilson, 

M.L.C., Brisbane. 
Sierra Leone : T. J. Alldridge,Esq., 

Freetown. 
South Australu: George W.Hawkes, 

Esq., J.P., Adelaide. 
Straits Settlements : A. P. Talbot, 

Esq., Singapore. 
Tasmania: N. E. Lewis, Esq., M.A., 

B.C.L., M.P., Hobart. 
Trinidad : Hon. H. W. Chantrell. 
VicTORLi : Benjamin Cowderoy, Esq., 

Melbourne. 
Western Australia: Hon. James Mor- 
rison, MX.C, J.P., Guildford. 



ft 



ft 



tf 



ti 



THE EOYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE, 

NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, LONDON, W.C. 



aCOTTO- TJOSTf XEI3 EiffFIieE.' 



©lijctts. 
"To provide a place of meetiDg for all gentlemen connooted 
witb the Colonies and British India, and otbers taking an interest 
in Colonial and Indian affairs ; to eEtablisb a Heading Room and 
LibnuT)', in which recent and auttientic intelligence upon Colonial 
and Indian Bubjccts may be constantly available, and a Huseani 
foe the collection and exhibition of Colonial and Indian productions ; 
to focilitate interchange of experiences amongst perBona representing 
mU Ute Dependencies of Great Britain ; to afford opportunities for 
the reading of Papers, and for holding Discussions upon Colonial 
and Indian sabjects generally ; and to undertake scientific, literary, 
mud statistical investigations in connection witb the British Empire. 
llat no Paper shall be read, or any Discussion be permitted to taka 
place, tending to give to the Institute a party character." — iRuleL) 

^cmbtTsbip. 
There are two classes of Fellows (who must Iw British subjects), 
Bocident and Non-Reaidcnt, both elected by the Council on the 
nonunalion of Two Fellows, one of whom at least must sign on 
paraonal knowledge. The former pay an entrance fee of £S, and 
■n annaal eubecription of £2 ; the latter on entrance fee of £1. Is., 
Kud an annual subscription of £1. Is, (which is increased to £2 
when in the United Kingdom for more than three months). Reai- 
deut Fellows can compoond for the annual subscription by the 
payment of £20, or after five years' annual subscription on payment 
of ZIS; and Non-Resident Fellows can compound for the Non- 
JBMuient annual subscription on payment of £10. 

IJribiltgi* of ^(llobe tobast Subitriplioni ni( not in ^Trtrtc. 

The privileges of Fellows, whose subscriptions are not in arrear, 

iDcludo the nse of the Institute building, vhich com'(in%K& liiAKf^c^, 



I 




yi Boyal Colonial Institute. 

Writing, and Smoking Booms, Library, Newspaper Eoom, &c. All 
Fellows, whether residing in England or the Colonies, have the 
Journal and the Annual volume of Proceedings forwarded to them. 
Fellows are entitled to be present at the Evening Meetings, and 
to introduce one visitor ; to be present at the Annual Conversazione, 
and to introduce a lady. 



The support of all British Subjects, whether residing in the 
United Kingdom or the Colonies — ^for the Institute is intended for 
both — is earnestly desired in promoting the great objects of extend- 
ing knowledge respecting the various portions of the Empire, and in 
promoting the cause of its permanent unity. 

Contributions to the Library will be thankfully received. 

J. S. O'HALLORAN, 

Secretary. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 
1891-93. 



PASS 

lUoitration of Institute Bailding facing Title-page 

CooDcil of 1893-93 iii 

Objects of the Boyal Colonial Institute t 

The Malay Peninsula: Its Resources and Prospects. W. E. Maxwell, 

\/*iU a^^* ••• ••• ••« ••• ••• ••• ••• •■• ••• O 

Australasia : A Vindication. Sir Edward Braddon, K.C.M.G 50 

Death of H.B.H. the Duke of Clarence and Avondale. Address of 

Condolence ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 90 

A BcTiew of University Life in Australasia, with its Conditions and Sur- 
roundings in 1891. Professor T. H. Anderson Stuart, M.D. ... 98 

British Columbia: A Problem of Colonial Development. Bev. Canon 

cff an I an ci ii ... ..• ... ••• .•• •*• ... ... xfo 

Twenty-fourth Annual General Meeting 172 

Annual Beport ... ... ... •.• ... ... ... ... ... 172 

Donations to Building Fund 179 

Statement of Beceipts and Payments 180 

Statement of Assets and Liabilities 182 

Lifit of Donors to Library, 1891 188 

Additions to the Library during 1891 198 

C«'ylon : Its Attractions to Visitors and Settlers. John Ferguson ... 209 

Mashonaland and its Development. E. A. Maund 248 

New Zealand. Westby B. Perceval 271 

The West Indies in 1892. Bt. Hon. Lord Brassef, K.C3. 328 

Banquet to Sir Bobert G. W. Herbert, K.C.B 354 

Conversazione ... .•• ... ... ... ... ... *•* ... 359 

Appendix : — 

1. Boyal Charter ... ... ... ... ... ... ••>. ... 860 

2. List of Fellows ... ... ... ••• ... ... *•• .•• 867 

3. List of Institutions to which the Proceedings of the Boyal Colonial 

Institute are presented 461 

4. Form of Candidate's Certificate 465 

5. Form of Bequest ... ... ••* ... ... *•• ••• 466 

G. Index to Papers and Authors in Vols. I. to XXIII. of the Proceed- 
ings of the Institute ... 464 

7. Index of Speakers during Session 1891-92 477 

8. General Index, Vol. XXIII 4^^ 



A 



ROYAL COLONIAL BSTITUTR 



SESSION lMll-92. 



FIRST ORDINARY GENERAL MEETING. 

The First Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at the 
NVhitehall Rooms, Hotel M^tropole, on Tuesday, November 10, 1891. 
The Right Hon. Lord Brassey, K.C.B., a Vice-President of tlie 
Institute, presided. 

The Minutes of the last Ordinary General Meeting were read 
and confirmed, and it was announced that since that Meeting 104 
Fellows had been elected, viz^, 20 Resident and 84 Non-Resident. 

Resident Fellows : — 

George Binnie, Dr. A. Wijnter Blyth^ Jonathan Clark, William WikeleyClay- 
km, C.K., Htv. Thmiaa Flavdl, Albin Fleminy, Jame$ T, Oxbatm, If ..S., lienjamin 
O'. 6'ruy. Ihnry I:, (itlliruj, Janies IJarktr, Alexander Morten, Tfie liiyht Jitm, 
the Earl of Xorthesk, TiumuiM Park, William K. T, Sharpe, Tfuitnag HUphen- 
ton, Edward F. T)iotnas, David Twetdie, liev, litmard it, WiUon, George V, 
Wiu, Charles Wright, 

Non-Resident Fellows : — 

Hamj Abbott, Q.C. (Candida), Georrje }{. Adamt (Vtcttjria), Alexander (\ 
Allan {Victoria), deorge ii. Andrew {Iranevaai), Jatnet O, Anthonine (Straitt 
Settlements). Sydmy K. A»hbee {Cape Colony), John lioifol {Htmth Auetralia), 
Frank M. Jtankur {JJntihh Guiana). Cltatlee ISarber {Cajw Colony), Hilttm 
Jiarber, J.F. iCape Cob my), l>r. Aubrey lS*twen {Victoria), Cliarlee F. 
Broadhurst \ Western Auitralia), Cajttain Howard Jinnvn, Wiilittm Ji. 
Chtiffey {Vict'trin), John Curtayne {Vyctoriti), Frederick W. J/iamond {Cajte 
Colony \, T. if. V. Dicken tTaenuinia), T. St/well iMfer {Cajte CoUmy), Jitmee 
if. f\ndiay <.Veir South Waleni, Dr. Mf/rtjan I. Finwnne {Gambia), ilaicouri 
Forte {British Guiatui), Frmicu W. GiUm (South Australia), Percy Uower- 
Poole, J/. /. M.E. i Tra m vaal i , Leon i i iuujfj* i { 7 Vt n uiatt) , Williayn J la rgrea vet , 
MJi. (Strait* Settlement*), John A, Jlarroffin (Trinida/i), iMviii V, nenne$$y, 
J.P. {Vutoh4Jt. Wardrop M. J fill {Queensland), Getirge W. Jiinda {Bntuh 
OnianaU Wiiintm Holt ( yuiori4i), fh. Arthur C. JIutthingM (Sew South Wale»), 
Frederick F. PiM* iCaj-e Colony), Jfant W. if. Itvtne tVutorta), Itobert J. 
Irving (Wiztem Australia), Enuini^cl l^aaci {Britith Bechuanalaml\, i4£(f«d 



ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE. 



SESSION 1891-92. 



FIRST ORDINARY GENERAL MEETING. 

The First Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at the 
NVhitehall Rooms, Hotel M^tropole, on Tuesday, November 10, 1891. 
The Right Hon. Lord Brassey, E.C.B., a Vice-President of the 
Institute, presided. 

The Minutes of the last Ordinary General Meeting were read 
and confirmed, and it was announced that since that Meeting 104 
Fellows had been elected, viz.', 20 Resident and 84 Non-Resident. 

Resident Fellows : — 

Cforge Binnie, Dr. A. Wynter Blyth^ Jonathan Clarke William Wikeley Clay- 
Ion, C.A'., Rev, Thomas Flavcll, Albin Fleming, Jame$ T, Oibson, If.S., Benjamin 
O*. Gray, Henry H. Gilling, James Ilarker, Alexander Morten, The Right Hon. 
the Earl of Northesk, Tfiomas Park, William E. T. Sharpe, TJiomas SUphen- 
son, Edward F. Thomas, David Tweidie, Rev. Bernard R. Wilson, Oeorge F, 
Wise, diaries Wright. 

Non>Resident Fellows : — 

Harry Abbott, Q.C. (Canada), George H. Adams (Victoria), Alexander C. 
Allan (Victoria), George R. Andrew (Iransvatil), James O. Anthoniss (Straits 
Settlementa), Sydney E. Ashbee (Cape Colony), John B<igoi (South Australia), 
Frank M. Bankier (British Guiana), Citarles Barber (Cape Colony), Hilton 
Barber, J.P, (Cape CoUmy), Dr. Aubrey Bowen (Victoria), Charles E. 
Broadhurst (Western Australia), Captain Howard Brown, William B. 
Cliaffey (Victoria), John Curtayne (Victoria), Frederick W. Diamond (Cape 
Colony), T. H. V. Dicken (Tasmania), T. Nowell Dyer (Caj)e Colony), James 
M. Findlay (Sew South Wales), Dr, Morgan I. Finucane (Gambia), Harcourt 
Forte (British Guiana), Francis W. Giles (South Australia), Percy Gower- 
Poole, M.I.M.E. (Transvaal), Leon Giuseppi (Trinidad), William Hargreaves, 
M.A. (Straits Settlements), John A. Harragin (Trinidad), David V. Hennessy, 
J.P. (VUtoria), Wardrop M. HUl (Queensland). George W. Hinds (Bntuh 
Otiiana), William Holt (Victoria), Dr. Arthur C. Hutchings (New South Wales), 
Frederick F. POns (Cape Colony), Hans W. H. Irvine (VictoHa), Robert J. 
Irving (Western Australia), Eman^c^ Isaacs (British i^ec/numaland^^ Al^Ttd 



i 



Jamts (Transi'oa!), George H. Jonea, M.L.A. {Queensland), John B. Jones 
{TraTiavaal). John Kincatd (Transvaal), Captain Francis A. Lamb (QoM Coatt 
Colony), Robert E. Lewis {Yicloria), WilHam E. Livermore (Queensland) Dr. 
E^iard A. Lovcll (Lagos), Herbert Slacaulay (Iiogos), Duncan Macdonald 
(British Bechuanalatui), Alexander MacDougall (New Zealand), Day Hart 
Mai^oiixtll, M.P, (Canaila), Charles H. Mattcri (South Australia), Cornelius 
May (Sierra Leatu:}, James S. MHklQohn (QueenaliiTid), M. A. M. Micn{ilaUa), 
Dr. York T. G. Moore (Jamaica), Dr. A. Bickman Morgan, (Sierra Leone), T. 
Hetaitt Myritig (Toimaitia), William Nicoll, M.A.. LL.B. (Bntish Guiana), T. 
C. O'Brien (Victoria), Georgt B. Ogle{Nsu/ Zealand). Herbert B. Papenfut, JJ>. 
(Transvaal), J. C. Emelt Parkes (Sierra Leone), Thomas Quentrall (Oa^ 
Colony). Mudalhjar Tudor D. N. Bajepaksi (Ceylon), George Bichardt {New 
Sotith Wales). Alfred O. Biekwood (MauTitius), Dr. George O.Bigby (Tictiina), 
John Bussell (Victoria), David Ryne {Ncto South Wales), Frederick J.Sander- 
son (South Australia). Charles 0. Serrurier, J.F. (Transtaatj. H. ByU Shaw 
(Natal), Btv. J. W. Simmons (Tasmania), Captain H. C. Syers {Straits SettU- 
menti), J. Wemyss Syvie, J.P. {Tatmama). Pcrcyvale Taylor, C.E. {Straita 
Selllsments), Fred A. H. Thompson (Sherbro), Sydney H. Thorp {Quteni- 
land), Alfred R. Vaming (Straits Settlements), John B. Walker (Sierra Leone), 
B. Leslie Walker (Tasmania), F. W. A. Watson (Natal), Chief Jttstice Somwl 
J. Way {South Australia), Henry A. Wilding (Lagos), Mejor-General Hale* 
WUkU (Malta), George P. WiUon. C.E. (Tasmania], Alfred J. K. Yoking, B.A. 
(British Honduras). 

It was also announced that donations to theLibrary of books, maps, 
&o,, had been received from the various Governments Of the Coloniea 
and India, Societies, and public bodies both in the United Kingdom 
and the Colonies, and from Fellows of the Institute and others. 

The CHAUisfAX : This being the first meeting of a new session, I 
may be allowed to congratulate the Fellows of this Institute on our 
continued progi-eas and success. I may remind you that this. result. 
has been achieved, and is being achieved, without any extraneous 
aid, without any support from Government. Wo are a perfectly frea 
and independent body. Under our Itoyal Charter we enjoy a consti- 
tution sufficiently elastic, and free from a too rigid formality. This 
Institute, as we all know, was founded more than a generation ago. 
It waa started on those principles of independence which atill obtain. 
We may congratulate om-selves on the success which baa besn 
achieved on that hasia, for, aa regards membership alone, I find that 
we have enrolled no fewer than 8,825. We may, I think, claim that 
this Inatitute is more and more becoming a medium of mutual 
enlightenment, and has been largely instrumental in acquainting 
the people of this country with all the circumstances and conditions 
of Colonial life, and we may further claim that the Institute, in 
concert with kindred associations, haa been the means, not only of 
diffuBuig knowledge, but of removing prejudices which tended to 
separate the Colonies from the Mother Country. It is by such efforta 
that a sentiment of unity has grown up— a sentiment which, I 
trust, may ever exist, and prevent our glorious Empire from falling 



Pint Ordivartj General MtetmQ. ft 

to piMoa. Among the practical efforts wliich aro being lUaJe by 
thia Instatnte. I may refer particularly to the work that is being done 
lo promote a more accurate and complete knonletlge of our Colonies, 
especially among tlie younger generation. An important series of 
vurlu treating of the history, the physical geography, and the 
mwumut of the Colonies is being published under tlie auapices of 
thia Institute. I have myself had tbo opportunity of perusing two 
or Uiree of the volumes, and these, which, I think, are tlie work of 
Mr.Orcawell, are admirable specimens ofwhatinay be accomphahed. 
Tiuinr iit a volume on South Africa which is aliortly to bo added to 
the list, and the publication of which is largely due to the assistance 
of tbo University of Oxford in granting ua the use of the Clarendon 
Vrvax. There is a swl event in connection witii the past year to 
which t muMt allude. The late Mr. \V. H. Smith, one of our Vice- 
rrcatdents— a statesman whose namo cannot be mentioned without 
leolings of admiration and respect — was for seventeen years a 
Bkemlwr of this Institute. Shortly before his lamented death he 
ta|in»s«d the wannest sympathy with the work in which we are 
unhinged. 1 may mention that the institute now has the electric 
li^t, and Uiat wc are greatly indebted to one of our Fellows (Mr. 
W. H. I'rwcoe) for advising the House Comuiitteo in connection 
with its ioiitallation. I have now to tntroluco to you the lecturer 
of thv vvctiing, Mr. Maxwell. It is not the least of tlie services 
L<by Ihia Institute that its platform affords opportunities 
time to those who come from the Colonies of giving to 
• advantage of their knowledge and experience. Mr. 
■ been son'ing his country in the region he is about to 
ikKribo for, I believe, a period of over twenty-five years. No man 
laiom better the conditions and resources of the Malay PoninsnU, 
nd I ftin anre jou will follow his paper with the dve{>est interest. 



^ 



MALAY PENINSULA: ITS RESOURCES AND 
PROSPECTS. 

Tr the rarly days of the East India Company it was to the Further 
East, ralbir than to ihn lerritoric.t which now constitute British 
India, that English merchant adventurers tinned their eyes. In 
iho rtigti of Junes I. the East India Company traded with seven 
porta or States in Sumatra, four in Borneo, and four in Java, and 
bctories were established at most of these places. At Patani, on 
Uu) East Coast of the Malay Peninsula, they hM & taftMit^ (^^^^.X-'v^ 



4 The Malay Peninsula : iU Eesourcea and Froipecls. 

to say, a, placB of business wlmre two or three' Englishmen traded 
with the natives and collected produce for shipment to England) 
from 1612 to 1622. At this time our commerce with Hindustan 
was in its infancy, and Enf^lishmen at Surat, Broach, Agra, 
and Ajmere were making timid ventures in tbo country of 
the Great Mogul, Tiiat the men who, aettiing for trading pur- 
poses on the banks of the Hooghly. laid the foundations of the oity 
of Calcutta and the great Bengal Presidency, had served a novitiate 
in Malayan countries is proved by some of the words which 
they and their Malay servants and seamen can-ied westward with 
them.' These still liave a place in the Anglo-Indian jargon 
which the late Sir Henry Yule has so well described. We 
have 90 long been content with a second place in the East 
Indian Archipelago that the story of the long struggle between 
Enghsh and Dutch traders for supremacy there {the object being 
the trade of the " Spice Islands"^) is almost forgotten. The bril- 
liant history of otir achievements on the continent of Didia supplies 
the reason for our gradual abandonment of much that we coveted 
and fought for in remoter regions. Though the places with which 
the English Eaat India Company traded in India proper gradually 
fell into the possession of the servants of that Company, their stations 
in (he islands and ports of the Eastern Arcliipolago were one by one 
abandoned in favour of the Dutch. We were driven by the Dutch 
from the Sptce Islands in 1020, and from Bantam and Jakatia in 
Java in ItiSi). Expelled by their influence from Bantam, we esta- 
blishfd ourselves in Bencoolen {Bangha Ulii) in 1685, " our sole 
and humble object being to secure a share in the pepper trade." ^ 
Little more than a hundred years ago the only English station east 
of Cape Comorin was Bencoolen, on the West Coast of Sumatra. 

The Settlements which we now possess in the Straits of Malacca, 
namely, the islands of Singapore and Penang, and the territory of 
Malacca, are remarkable as having been originally Indian Colonies. 
Calcutta, not London, was responsible for their first acquisition, 
and conducted their government until 18G7. Penang, which occu- 

' I ma; inetanco the fullotving woiiIb. well kuown in British India, which ara 
r^alJy Malaj' : Coinpoiind, the Ad^Id- Indian leiin lar an enolaBure round a 
houae, is tlio Alala; hanijxing, a, plantatioQ or oi'cliacd. Gudmi-n, a jnerchaal's 
warehouse, is a corruption of the Malaj word ijedoiig, a brick houae. Bankahall, 
the port-ofiic^r'B plaoe of business at a ^eapotl. is eaail; recogDisable in the 
^Uslay bangaal, a ahed. 

■ Amboyna and the Moluccns. 

* Crawlord, Deicriptwt Dictionary, p. 78. 



TOc Wahi/ Pcniiiiuta : Us Utioiiyccs ami Prospects. 

I • eommanding position at the nortbem end of the Straits of 
», WHS occupied hy the ordortt of the Supreme Govern- 
meat, thou under the presJileatship of Sir John Macpbereon, 
in 176S. MaUccft vas taken from the Dntch (by an enpeiUlion sent 
from India) in 17y5, Singapore was acquired (by cession from tfaa 
UalaVBI in 1S19, by Sir Stamford RaflleD, acting under the authority 
of tlia Governor 'Gen era] of India, the Mari]uis of Hastings. These 
plaees oontinued to be outlying portions of the great Empire of India 
lllttil twenty. four years ago, and were, at the time of their recog- 
BJlioo M a Crown Colony, being governed from Calcutta. 

Early in this century events happened which might have given 
OS that Bupremacy in llie Eastern seas which, as I have already 
pointed out, we had gradually resigned to the Dutch. During the 
oocnpatioQ of the Netherlands by the French, the Dutch Colonies 
in tbv East Indian Archipelago fell into our hands; an expenli- 
tioD, fitted out in India, under the command of the Govemor- 
OmBTttJ, Lord Uinto, having tolien Java and its dependencies in 
1811. Wo did not keep Java. With tliefall of Napoleon, Holland 
wu again made independent and Java was restored to her. no 
donlit in consequence of a wise and statesmanlike recognition of 
tiis (act that the retention by Holland of the principal of her 
Eastern colonies is essential to her vitality as a European Power. 
The creation of an important commercial emporium at Singapore 
vw, however, the natural outcome of tlie surrender of Batavia, 
and th« position of Great Britain in the Ear East has since been 
further strengthened by the acquisition of Hong.Kong, and by Iho 
wonderful development of our Colonies in Australasia, to which I 
inay add our recently-established protectorate over tiarawak and 
North Borneo. 

Koce 1824, when a treaty was made between Great Britain and 
Holland defining the sphere of action of each in Malayan waters, 
W8 bare of necessity confined ourselves to the peninsula of Malacca, 
tho islands of Penang and Singapore, and the parts of Borneo just 
mentioned. 

Uy object in addressing you this evening, at the inv-itation of the 
Council of the Royal Colonial Institute, is to attempt a brief 
ilescriplion of what is being done towards opening up the Malay 
Peninsula, the field which we reserved to ourselves when we 
voluntarily retired from all further political connection with Java 
and Sumatra. The period of active British interference tn tho 
Ualay 8taU.^x of the Peninsula dates from 1871 only. For fifty 
jr«ars afUr the cession to (he Dutch of Benooolen. in Sumatra, in 



6 The Malay Pminsuta : its Besou^cea and Prospects. 

exchange for Malacca, vrs confined ourselves to the two Indian 
Coloniea {Penang and Singapore) wbicli I liave described as having 
been planted in the Straits of Malacca by the English in 
Bengal, and to the old Portuguese and Dutch Colony of Malacca, 
which had become ours by cession. The Government of India 
called their remote dependencies by the collective title of "the 
Straits Settlement " (in the singular), and supported them for years 
at the expense of the Indian tax-payer. Little was known of them 
in Calcutta, where, however, difficult questions connected with 
their administration caused Infinite trouble from time to time. 
"These details may appear to your Lordship to be petty," wrote an 
Indian ofiicial apologetically to Lord Auckland in 1887, discuBSing 
Bome project relating to Straits finance, " but then everything con- 
nected with these Settlements is petty, except tiieir annual surplus 
cost to the Goveminent of India"! It is amusing to recall an 
official remark of this kind now in 1891. when the Colony o£ the 
Straits Settlements, with a history of twenty-four years of inde- 
pendent existence as a Crown Colony, may, in spite of recent tem- 
porary reverses, fau-ly claim to be the most prosperous and successful 
of all the Crown Colonies, having a revenue of four and a half 
million dollars, surplus assets (at the beginning of 1691) of two and 
a half miUion dollars, and no public debt. 

There has never been, at anytime known to history, a Malay 
nation strictly so called ; that is to say, one people acknowledging 
one supreme chief or riiler, obeying one central government, and 
governed by one body of customary law. The Malays, as they 
have been known to Europeans since the earliest days of our con- 
tact with them, have been scattered tribes andcommunities forming 
numberless httle States along the coasts and on the banks of the 
rivers of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. Sometimes one and 
sometimes another of the larger States, under an exceptionally 
energetic ruler, has risen to eminence and has extended its borders. 
Menangkahau, in Sumatra, was the most celebrated in ancient times, 
Malacca was the pohtical centre of the southern portion of the 
Malay Peninsula before its subjugation by the Portuguese in 1511 ; 
Aohin (the most northern State in Sumatra) had early in the 
seventeenth century so effectually conquered a position on the 
mauiland, that European traders had to negotiate at Achin for per- 
mission to trade in tm in Perak ; ' Johor had a brief period of power, 
' One ot their fuctorgnrote to tlie Eust India Company in 1G31. "The King 
ol Achin took Pemt, with much wealth, last year." {Calendar of State Papers, 
■£la)l Indies. 1617-1621, p. 486.) 



f 



TJu Malay Penhisula : its Resources and Prospects. f 

vfasD the MiiUcca dynasty, diapUced by tlio Portuguese, sought 
slidUr tliuro ODil maintained some kind of rule over the territories 
that are now Jobor, Muar, Pabang, the Negri Bemhilaa aud Sangei 
L'jong. llut the tendency of Malay States has generally been to 
y (fdit up. from inherent weakness in the governing power, each 
frsotional part siittiiig up a quasi independent existence on its ovm 
accmmt, uiidur siinie tliief, who eventually becomes recognised as 
Baja or Hultan. Though not exactly warlike, the Malays are hr 
frooi being a [lencuablu peojile, and family and dynastic qnarreb 
bavv frequently plunged ihetic little Ktates into war one with anotiier, 
awl still do so in places remote from European influence. I have 
been n«sured that the Dutch would have little difficulty in arranging 
a modus vicc7idi with the Achiuese, with whom tliey have been 
otnying on a harassing and desultory warfiare since 1S72, if there 
voro a strong central authority with whom it were poesible to treat. 
B«t Achtn, like other ancient Malay kingdoms, is snbdirided into 
Dnmerous districts, each under a hereditary and Beini- in dependent 
chief ; and where these are separated by oppomng interests, family 
i]tiarrcl!<, and perhaps blood-fe'ids of long standing, it is difficult to 
find them ogrti^ on any one point except that of hatred of the 
inVftder. 

During tlie time that the Government of India governed the 
StiaitB tiettlements their relations with the Malay Itajas of the 
pMunsula were always friendly ; hut the native States were 
tmrely viidtcd by Britisli oHieials, and their internal affairs were 
■eaicely in any way induenced by our advice or counsel. Treatiea 
of alliance aud friendship were made from time to time with all 
the Uajas on the west coast, Kedah, Perak, tielangor, and Jobor. 
WbcD, ill IHQH, the Queen's sovereignty over India was proclaimed, 
meb B^ja found in the proclamation (wliich was translated into 
lltlay and sent to each native court) a Magna Charta of his rights 
in tlui following memorable words: — 

" We hereby announce to the native prmces of India that all 
InaLies aud engagements made with them, by or under the 
•nthority of the Honourable East India Company, are by us 
Boeeptcd, and will he scrupulously maintained ; and we look for the 
like observance on their part. 

"We desire no extension of our presejit territorial poasesxiong ; 
■od while we will permit no aggression upon our dominions or our 
ligtitf to he attempted with impunity, we shall sanction no 
neioachment on tbuse of others. We shall resp»ct the rights, 
difnity, aud honour of native princes as oar own, and we desire 



J 



8 The Malay Peninsula : its Eesourees and Prospeels. 

that they, aa well as our own sobjects, should enjoy that prosperity 
and that social advancement which can only be secured by internal 
peace and good government," 

I do not think that I need enter into any detailed description of 
the circum stances which have led to the appointment of British 
Reaidents in certain States of the Malay Pomnsula. to exercise a 
control which should secure " the rights, dignity, and honour" of 
the native princes whom they are instructed to adrise. It will be 
HufBcient to say generally that the chief, or, at any rate, the proxi- 
mate cause lias been the presence in large numbers of Chinese in 
the Peninsula, and the powerlessness of the Malays to control them. 
Had we, in 1S74, persisted in the policy of non-interference m the 
aGTairs of the Native States, which wo had up to that time 
Bystematically followed, we should have practically permitted inde- 
pendent Chinese colonies to be formed and governed by the irre- 
sponsible leaders of secret societies, living (na do the richest and 
most influential of the Chinese who finance Cliinese enterprise on 
the mainland) in British territory, in Penang or Singapore, these 
leaders being possibly British subjects. 

In 1872 and 1873, civil wars vers going on both in Perak and 
Selangor, and in both States the main thing to be fought for was 
the power to collect the revenue derivn.ble from the tin mines 
worked by the Chinese. In Perak, the quarrel was further compli- 
cated by a war between two Chinese factions, who were fighting 
for the possession of the mines of Larut. Representations as to the 
state of affairs made to the Home Government by Governor Sir 
Harry Ord had no doubt paved the way for a change of policy, and 
for active British intervention ; and on the appointment of a new 
Governor (Sir Andrew Clarke), in the end of 1873, such freedom of 
action was allowed to him by Lord Kimberley as enabled him to 
interfere usefully and heneficially, putting a stop to the existing 
anarchy and confusion, and organising the nucleus of a system upon 
which the peaceful development of these countries might he ensured. 
The Sultans of Perak and Selangor. the two States which are the 
centres of the tin-mining industry, asked in 1874 that British 
Residents might be associated with them in the government of their 
respective States. Sungei Ujong, a, small State to the south of 
Selangor, which also posaeased a somewhat intractable Chinese 
mining population, accepted a Resident in 1876. Later, in 1888. 
Governor Sir Frederick Weld induced the group of small States lying 
between Sungei Ujong, Pahang, Malacca, and Johor (called the Negri 
Sembilon. or the Nine States) to confederate and to conduct their 




Tke ^T<^hy renitttula ; itt JJesources and Prospeels. 



^orarnment iimler the a<lvico anil witli the asBisUnce of a reiiidenl 
Britiflh oflicer. Lastly, in 1888, in parsnance of an agreemrat 
betwwi) Sir Cecil t'l«monli Smith, tho present Oovemor of tlio 
titnits SettleiR«nts, nnd tliu Hnltaiit Pahim^, a larf;e Btate on tlie 
Kasi Const of tlift Peninsula, watt adileil to tbe immbor of tho Pro- 
teeUid States, and its administration on an improved fooling wu 
nadv posBible by tho appointment of a British Resident. 

The oames of the Malay States in uhicb HritiKh oHicErs are 
itkUoRod do not by any means exhaust the list of the States on tlio 
Pminsola. To the north of Province Wellcsley (a dopenrlency of 
Pnuig) there is tho ancient kingdom of Kedah, shorn of three of 
iU provinces, Perlisi, SituI, and Trang, which now form somi-inde- 
ptndenl States. These are, in a aense, subject to the suxerainty of 
Siam. Further north, again, there are numerous small provinces 
or govoniorsliipB under the direct control of Siam. The iitdigenoua 
population here is Siamese and not Malay, and thc^ little States 
ar* chiefly interesting to us. bocaiise the settlers there include many 
(Cbineae) British subjects. Indeed, the (tovemors of two of these 
provfncM are Peniing Chinese, and in miuiy places the authority of 
the Btatnese seems to be overshadowed by that of a powerful Chinese 
•aeret society (the GhiHIn). They ore visited annually by tlie 
Btfid«iit Councillor of Penang. who in Dritialt Consul for this region. 
On the East Coast, the purely Maluy States are I'atani, which had 
[ history aa an independent Slate, and where the factors of 
Eftst India Company had an " honourable reception from the 
1 and country pwplo" in 1012. It was laid wasto by tho 
e in 181S, and ia now subdivided into seven provinces uud^r 
» petty chiefs. To tho south, again, are Kdantan and 
, virtually independent. At the extreme south of the 

a is the Protected Stoto of .lohor, the poveminent of which 

I conducted by its energetic and enlightened ruler with the aid of 
■dTiaera chosen by himself. 

Moat of the important States have some written account of their 
hiatory, going back two or three hundred years, and the Itajaa of 
Kadab and Perak are justly proud of their ancient lineage. Much. 
tieonno, of what thi'V accept as historicnl iit allngethcr fabulous or 
gical, and Crawford (tho author of ■■ Tho History o( the 
1 Archipolagn," a " Malay Oictionary," Ac), with llie vigour 
I which charaeteriscs his expressions of opinion on 
n aabjacls, docx not hesitate to condemn the Kedah chronicles 
n s "dateless tisBuo of rank fable." And I have been amused 
■oaMtimea whca a patriotic Perak Malay baa gravely OBBured m« 



1 



J 



10 



The Malay Perdneula : its Sesourees and Prospects. 



that the events deacribed in a Malay romance called Shejns-% 
bahriti really took place in tiie province of Bruas in hia coonS 
and that Perak was anciently known by a name [Pru ' 
Nagdra) which belongs to one of the fabulous countries of that n 
vellous work. Which ia about as reasonable as to sn,y that En; 
was the scene of the adventures of Jack the (jiaut Killer, and that 
Windsor Castle was once the abode of the Giant Blunderbore ! 

Kedah ia probably the oldest Malay kingdom on the Peninsula. 
From its situation it is naturally the first Malay port on the main- 
land at which ships from the other side of the Bay of Bengal would 
touch, and both Hindu and Buddhist remains have been occasionally 
found there. Perak comes next. The Johor and Pahang Sultanates 
are of very recent creation. The ancient line of Malacca Bajas died 
out at Johor, the last representative having been murdered by the 
Bandahara (one of the cliief officers of State) in the eighteenth 
century. The Bandahara then usurped the throne and estabUshed 
himself as Sultan ; it was one of his descendants who as Sultan of 
Johor ceded Singapore to the British in 1819. But the practical 
government of the State rested with an hereditary officer of State 
called the Timionggong, and the holder of that title was successively 
advanced to the rank of Maharaja (in 18C8) and Sultan (in 1885}. 

The steps taken by the advice and under the control of the 
Residents of the Native States to encourage and foster trade and 
agriculture, to maintain order and administer justice, to develop 
communication by means of roads, raUways, and telegraphs, and to 
educate and improve the condition of the people, are not altogether 
unknown to the Council and to the Fellows of this Institute. In 
1886, Sir Frederick Weld, the late Governor of the Straits Settle- 
ments, whose premature death has caused unaffected grief in the 
Colony which he loved so well and ruled bo sympathetically, gave 
you a moat interesting account of the Straits Settlements and the 
Native States. I desu-e to avoid repeating anything that was said 
on that occasion, and I believe that I can best serve the purpose for 
which I was asked to prepare this paper by bringing up to date the 
statistical information relating to the progress of these Protected 
States, by giving some information as to their resources, and the 
steps which are being taken to develop them, and by offering some 
remarks as to the policy which should, in my opinion, guide our 
future relations with them. 

Those who travel at the present day in the Protected Native 
States on the West Coast of the Malay Penmsula, and remark 
around them the outward signs of an advanced civihsation— 




P fMd) 



Th« Malay Peninsula : its Tiesoiirees and Prospects. IX 

nad*, comfort&ble faoueee, both Eiimpean auil native, railnaj's, lines 
of tel«gnpl)> liospitals, echooU, and a burly industrious and con- 
tanW population — can liardly picture to tbemaelves tbo earns 
Stetes OS tliej- were when under purely native rule. 

Tberp are several Britisli oflicers in i'erak and SelauRor wlio, 
lilcB mj'Belf. can remember what a Malav State waalike in 1875-6. 
BoAda llierii were none to epesk of, and our journeys were per- 
formed on fool or on elephant-back. An escort was necessary, and 
■RI19 were liabitimlly worn. Our firet houses were Malay or Chinese 
bots, almost devoid of furniture and of all the appurtenances of 
ctnlJBed comfort. Tlie Chinese mining population were turbulent 
utH disorderly. When, as aetin;; Besident of Perak in 1S|7, I 
kutd«d over charge to the new Resident, ^ir Hugh Low, and 
■eoompanied him on his first tour of inspection in tlie State, the 
Chinese ttt a village on the coast resisted our authority by force of 
■mu, and had to be brought to reason by strong meaaures. Danger 
now there is Uttle,' and discomfort has been minimised. Years of 
Btesdy and systematic work and firm and just rule hare resulted in 
Uw pacification of the most lawlosa districts, tiecmity for hfe 
Hod property haviD<; been given by the new r&jijiu, capital (chiefly 
Cliinese) has flowed in, now fields of industry have been created for 
th« Malay population, who have ceased to wear arms, and in 
another generation or two will (like the Malays of the Colony) have 
forgotten how to use tbem. and an abundant and increasing revenue 
hM» enabled the principal Htates to undertake the public works 
necwsary (or the development of their territories. 

Tbfi prepress of States like Perak and Selangorcan bo illustrated 
in a striking manner by statistics, showing the extraordinary 
growUi of the revenue since 187I>. But statistics of this kind are, 
in uy opinion, misleading. Given abundant deposits of a valuable 
metal I two-thirds of the tin pro<luccd in the world is exported 
from the Straits Settlements), and given a Government, even a bad 
Government, strong enough to maintain order and to make the trader 

* Tbn Rcnidcnt ol Perak (Mr. Swcttenhun] in bia Beport ot 1890 myt: 
'It mul not be lappounl that becsiue them biu been no raptare there haa 
ba^ BO difltouttf anJ ddipf will be an?. Ths Itegidcnaj at Kuala Kangn a 
wilhtn eall ol the moiit turbulenl villaRert in lliv State, who pride tbemaelna 
M nam havins b<ion mure ub«<li(iut than thoy clio»c lo their ovn Sollui, and 
tka ■rreit of evil-doers amoiigat tbem iit not alwatj an amy IakIi cow, and haa 
■ttan been a dangerous one — at the Qrat attempt to impose a land'Tint tha 
pcopla at another large villag* aWloteij declined (0 pay until overawed by a 
■ "e display o( force." 



10 Tim 1 



>/ Pinimula : iu fl. 




that the events described in n 
bahrin really took plrvue in ll)i 
uid that Per&k was auciontl.t : 
Nagdra) which belongs to one "f 
vellous work. Which is about n 
was tbe scene of the ftdventnri^ < 
Windsor Castle was once the nl"' 

Kedah is probably tbe oldeat ' 
From ita sitnation it is iiatiirull-' i 
land at which ships from the oiIh 
touch, and both Hindu and BuiIlIi. 
found there. Perak comes no\t. 
we of vory recent creation. Thi 
out at Johor. tbe last represeiii.i^ 
Bandahara (one of the chief ciii 
centory. The Bandahara theu 
himself as Siiltan ; it was onv i 
Johor ceded Siugapore to the Ihi 
government of the 8lnta reat<'i1 with mi i 
called the Tuinouggong, and the boldec of tliok M 
advanced to the rank of Mahnrnja fin IWWj utdtf 

The steps taken by the advic- ■ ' ■ 
Residents of tbe Natii'e StatL'^ : 
agricolture, to maintain order ; 
communication by means of roii i 
edacate and improve tbe oondiii' 
nnknown to tbe Council and in ; 
1686, Sir Frederick Weld, the Lit, ■ 
mentB, whose premature death Iiilj caaijd i 
Colony which he loved so vvell and ruled eo t 
yon a most interesting account of tlio Slnuta Qm 
Native States. I desire to avoid repeating lUiyll 
on that occasion, and I believe that I cilti br>l • 
which I was asked to prepare this paper liy tioiu 
statistical information relating to tbe prrv- 
fltates, by giving some information as tr> ili <i 
steps which are being taken to develop thot.i. 
remarks as to the policy which shonld, in •< 
future relations with them. 

Those who travel at ihe present day in 1 1 
8tat«8 on tbe West Coast of the Malay r< 
aroand them tbe outward signs of an odvoi.' 



L. 



feel sure that be can keep what he gaina, tliere is certain i 
ample revenue. There ia no reaaon why a corrupt i 
Government should not have sufBcient financial Bflgacity to discover 
all reaaonable Bources of income, and at the same time avoid im- 
posing on the people a burden of taxation which would deter immi- 
gration and diminish industry. Again, causes which do not arise 
within the State itself may unexpectedly, and not as the result of 
any conscious effort on the part of anyone connected with the 
Government, produce a great acceeaion of revenue. For instance, 
the proximity of Johor to Singapore gives the former State a larger 
Chinese population, and consequently a larger excise revenue, than 
it would otherwise have. I do not therefore wish to say merely, 
"Just look at our balance-sheet, and see what we have done," It is 
by the application of the revenue for, as wc helieve, the best interests 
of the people that we and our work must be judj;ed. The reverme 
of those States which have British Residents has been energetically 
employed, by their advice, in puhhc works of all kinds, a civil list 
being first set apart for the maintenance of the Rajas, chiefs, and 
headmen of the State, and due provision being made for the pay- 
ment of the police force and of the estabhshment of the various 
public officea. 

Let me therefore attempt to give you some faint idea of what 
permanent works have been constructed, premising that for the 
fullest and most recent information regarding these States reference 
must be made to the Reports of the Residenta for 1890, which have 
been published in the Colony and will shortly be laid before Parlia- 
ment, and the very able summary of Su- Frederick Dickson in 
forwarding the Reports for 188!) must be consulted, I will take 
Perak first. 

Pehak. 

TheState(7.949 square milea) is divided into sis districts — Larut, 
Euala Kangsa, Kiuta, Biitang Fadang, Lower Perak, and Knan. 
Taiping, in t!ie Larut district, is the principal town, and it is here 
that the Resident hves. The Sultan (Raja Mria bin lakandar, 
C.M.G.) prefers to dwell, hke his predecessors from time imme- 
morial, on tlie banks of the beautiful river Perak, and a palace is 
being built for him at Kuala Kangsa. A line of railway, eleven and 
a half miles long, connects the mining districts in Larut viith the 
sea, and in Lower Perak work has commenced on the first section 
of the Sinta Valley Railway, a line which is designed to run frgm 




The Malay Peninsula : its Sesourcts and Proipeeli, 

Teloli Anson lo Ipoii, a distance of fifty miles. Tlie open liue in 
Lwnl U worlcMl at a profit to Uovcrnnient of about per cuit. 

Penk possesses no leas than IWH miles of metalled cart-road, 
and vftdi 7<--ar tlie work of road-iimking is continued with tliu object 
of fl:mng complete communication to all parts of tlie State. Ueaides 
ftrrt-dau nnd-t, tbcru aru tmmetallod cart-ruads uiid Liridle-patb!) 
in aumy districts. The bead judicial authority in tbe State is tbe 
Cbu>f Magistrate (im Kngliab barrister). Tbu public buildings in 
Um titat« include Qovemment oflicL-s. houses for ofiiciala, excellent 
bairadig for the Kikh police, police -stations in all districts, a prison 
«uh ceUular wai'ds on the modem syBtcin. lighthouses, a museum 
(elu*fly geological and ethnographical, founded by Sir Hugh Low, 
and w«U arranged and managed by Mr. L. Wray, junr.), schools, &c. 
Th« town of Taiping is provided nith excellent drinking-water 
brought in pipes from the nearest range of hills. There is tele- 
graphic communication throughout the length and breadth of the 
Und, and the completion thia year of the principal line to a point 
where it joins the Selangor boundary enables messages lo be a<qjt 
now from Penaug to Malacca by the Native States lines. 

Thv population, according to a census taken in IHiil, is 21fI,0U(J, 
tnelading tbe unexpected number of 100.000 Malays ; the revenue 
in 1890 was $:!,50i,llU. On Jan. 1, 181)1, the Static had a surplus 
balance of more tlian ,<;'2.000,000. of which about ,(!1,&UU,000 was 
lOTesled in Indian or other securitios. There are thus funds in 
hand to meet the cosi of tbe eonatruclion of projected railways. 

I may say parenthetically that it fell to my lot fourteen years 
■go, just lH>for« handing over charge to Sir Hugh Low on hia first 
arrival, to frame the first budget ever prepared for tbe State of 
P«nJ(. I made out, I think, that all sources of revenue gave tbe 
Qo%'Miiment a sum of5'-!73.000 with which to provide for the 
pablio services of m77. Contrast, th&refore. with our restricted 
raaonrovs of that time the power of the State at the present day to 
out; out useful worka and to maintain efficient establishments. 
Pot «TOiy filOO of revenue at Uie disposal of the Perak tiovem- 
■mdI when Sir Hugh hov took over the charge of the Perak 
s in 1877 there is now ^I.OOO ! 



SEtASOOB. 

In SeUngor progress baa been equally remarkable. The Stale 
(S.OOO square miles) is divided into sin districts— Klang, Kuala 
Xiompur, Kuala Langat, Ulu Langat, Euala Selatigor, and Ulu 




14 iPfce Malat/ Peninsula: its Besources and Prospects. 

Selangor.* Tlie tOTra of Kuala Lumpur is picturesquely situated 
in the upper portion of the valley of the Klang River. From it good 
oart-roada radiate to the Perak fi'ontier on the north-east, fifty-six 
miles distant, and to the Sungei Ujong frontier on the south-east, 
thirty miles distant. A line of railway twenty-four miles long con- 
nects the capital with tbe port of Fanglsatan Batu, on the Klang 
River, the river being crossed by an iron rail way -bridge 473 feet 
long. This short State line is, 1 suppose, one of the most pa>ing 
railway properties in the world. Having an up and down traffic, 
that is to say, carrying all the rice and other foodatuS's tip to the 
mines and bringing all the tin clown, it pays about 19.J per cent., 
though the tariff of charges is not a high one. This line is now 
being extended thirty-eight miles in a north-easterly direction, tap- 
ping a district known to be rich in tin. I hope that by the end of this 
year twenty-three miles of this extension (which was projected by my 
predecessor, Mr. Swettenliam, with the sanction of Sir C. 0. Smith) 
will be open, and that 1892 will see the whole completed. Further rail- 
way extension is in contemplation ; but whether this will tate the 
form of a further advance in the direction of the Pahang border, or 
whether we shall improve our sea communication by carrying our rail- 
way coastward to a point on the Klang Straits, where there is a deep 
sea harbour, I cannot at present say. Like Perak, Selangor now 
possesses excellent public buildings. An English barrister presides as 
Chief Magistrate in a handsome and convenient court-house. A new 
prison with all the improvements dictated by modem science and 
philanthropy is in course of erection. The officers of the State and the 
police in all districts are comfortably housed. There are hghthouaes 
at three points on the coast. Good Government offices exist at head- 
quarters, and similar accommodation is being provided at the five 
out-stations at which district officers are placed. All these out- 
stations are now in telegraphic communication with headquarters ; 
a line having been constructed this year to Kuala Langat, which 
is the place selected by hia Highness the Sultan (Sultan Abd-es- 
Samad, K.C.M.G.) for his residence, and somewliat difficult of 
access by land. Watenvorks are in course of construction, which 
will give the town of Kuala Lumpur the mucli-nceded boon 
of pure fresh water, the rivers being much contaminated by tin- 
waahing. The supply is to be brought from a distance of eight 
mUes. 
The Malay population of Selangor is very small in comparison 
' Kuala signifies the moulli ov lower readies of a vivei'; L7((, the source, or 



rintli 
tioo t 



7%e Malay Peninsula: its Seaources and ProipeoU. 15 

Willi Utat of the much older State of Perak. Even Malay d\HiBa- 
in Selangur is a thing of very modern origin, liiatorically speak- 
ing, tm (lie Bultanat« only dates &om the middle of Uie elgliteenth 
eeaUirjr. One looks in vain in Belangor for the peaceful, old-world 
upset of the lieautiful Malay kampcmgs which fringe the hanks of 
llin P(-r&k Uiver, and which, full of historical and legendary associa- 
tioiu, have, for anyone who rtudies the country sympathetically, an 
indefinable charm. The Mabys of Selangor are for the most part 
Dflw-comers, emigrants from Malacca or Sumatra, whose object is 
gsin, and whose connection with the State is possibly a fleeting one. 
The population, of all nationalities, is estimated to be 140,000, but 
I n>gr»t to say thnt, (Except in the case of Perak, I am unable to 
i|iu>tfl the figureii obtained from the census of the Native States which 
wu curied out this year. The revenue in 1800 wafl ;!1,888,028, and 
OD Janaary I, 1801, the Government hod a surplus balance of 
5720,000. This is being applied in the constrnction of railways ; 
wd hi Uiis conn'KTtion it may be desirable to state that the railways 
in Perak and Selangor are exclusively the property of the State, and 
liars bpcaj ami are being constructed out of luvenuf, no recourse 
having yet been hod to loans. 

ScxoEt I'JOSO. 

Th« progress of Knngei I'jong, though this little State has had 
tho oilvantage of the addco and control of a xnccossion of British 
Bfoidvnts since 1H8>'>, is not m noteworthy proportionately as that of 
Vtnk and Selangor. It may be doubted whether Hungei l^jong is, 
or CTfir wad, strong t<noiigh to stand alone. In size and importunes 
il Is Inferior to Kinta, one of the six districts of Perak, which in 
189U ha<t a revenue of $091,628. Sixteen years of an improved 
sdminifltration directed by the aid of British officers have, however, 
produficd on immense change in the country. A good cart-road 
now tniv«:nics it from the Selangor frontier on the north to the 
Linggi Itiver, the Malacca boundary, on the south ; and a railway 
Mnntocn and a half miles long from Bcrcmban (the principal town) 
la Port Uickson on the seacoast has just been completed ; this ia 
not, however, o State line, biit the niidcrtaking of a private company, 
toliirevt at 4 per cent, on their capital being gnaranteetl by the 
OoTOTDment of the Stnu'ts Settlements. Jek-bn has been a depen- 
d«M7 of Siingei Ijong sincn 1H85. It is known to bo rich in 
minerals, especially tin ; and were it possible to givx> the Chinamui 
free Boope here, this district might contribute largely to the rereniio 



16 



Tlie Malay Pmimula ; Us Resources aiid Frospicts. 



of the State. But two EngUsli companies possess mining 
BioRS hsre, and until the actual extent of these is defined on the 
ground the independent Chinese raining adventurer will stay away, 
fearing that the vague claims of which he has he&rd may at some 
time or other be asserted to his prejudice. lu the meantime the 
export of tin from Jelebu is increasing very slowly, while the out- 
put from the Smigei Ujong iniues is decreasing. 

An excellent cart-road over the Bukit Taugga range (1,000 feet) 
has been made, connecting Jelebu with Sungei Ujong, and tele- 
graphic communication has also been established. Fairly good 
buildings have been erected for all necessary pubUc purposes, though 
on a more modest scale than those in Perak and Selangor. But 
the growth and development of Suugei Ujong has been retarded by 
want of revenue, and many necessary public works have liad to be 
constructed by means of money borrowed from the Colony, This 
loan amounted on January 1, 1891, to Sl!jy,O00. The revenue of 
Sungei Ujong in 1890 was 5277,010. The population is about_ 
23,500 of all nationalities. 



Neqbi Sembilak. 



Negri Semhilan is the name of a small State, or rather a group 
of small districts, lying to the north of Malacca and to the east 
Sungei Ujong. Its history under the administration of a British 
officer dates from 1887. Public works are as yet in their infancy, 
and the work of government has perforce to be carried on under 
disadvantages which have long ceased to exist in the larger States 
already described. But road-muking has been energetically pushed 
forward, and there are in the State fifty-three miles of cart-road and 
ninety miles of bridle-paths, along which travelling is pleasant and 
easy. A little mining is carried on in Negri Sembilan, and it is 
hoped that tin-miners may yet find it profitable to go there in larger 
numbers. In 1890 it was estimated that there were only 300 tin- 
miners in the State. The revenue for 1890 was $107,093. Like 
Sungei Ujong, the State of Negri Sembilan has had to borrow 
largely from the Government of the Straits Settlements. This debt 
Stood on January 1, 1891, at Jgl80,897. The population is 34,000. 
and it is a population of exceptional interest, for being dwellers in 
remote inland disUucta the people have preserved intact many curious 
customs of Bumatran origin, and have had to depend for their sus- 
tenance upon agriculture, and not upon the harvest of the sea. The 



iQ Ut I 

Dup 

tof 

tish 



I pieto 



The Sfalay Puninsula: its Resources atid FroipecU. 17 

fcrtiU TaUe)-8 of Terdohi, Sri Menaiiti, Ac, afford some of (be most 
pietnntqae rural scenerj' in t)ie I'eiiinGnta. 

Pahakq. 

I m^Qtion PftLftDg last because, though it is eaid to be tlic larg(!st 
of Uie Nalivb States, it has been the laet to come under liriliBb guid- 
aoM. It lies to llie cast of aU tlie otiier States that I have named, 
and faaa a coaiit line of aI>out 120 miles on the Cliina Bea. The 
nrenuo has been collected by British ag«ncy since the middle of 
IBW : and as in 1890 it amounted to £02,077 only, while the d\-il 
list of the Sultan and hie chiefs was $<i^,G05, the Government esta- 
blUliinvnts and pohi-o force had to be paid, and public works con- 
airnrtod. out of fundit lent for the purpose by the OoTeniment of the 
Stmts Settlements. The debt to the Colony on this account 
amouiiK^l in tlie beginning of thiR year to ;S372,500. EngUsh 
offieera eening under the orders of the Resident are stationed at 
Knsla Pahang, Kuala Kuantan, Rumpin. and Ulu Pahang. The 
npital is a town called I'ekiin, situated at the mouth of the Pahang 
Bivrr. Thence the.re is communication by water mth the interior 
of the conntr)-, but boat-travelling up-stream is eIow and tedioua 
work, and in time of drought the river is not always navigable for 
stnun- launches. During tlie north-east monsoon the East CoaEt of 
the Peninsula is exposed to the full force of breakers rolling in from 
thfl rbtna Sea. Trade with Singapore by means of native craft is at 
aatandBtill at this season, but the pluck and enterprise of Singapore 
flfaipowners have provided regular communication with Pekdn once 
ft brtnigbt by steamer in all seasons. The moment of crossing the 
Pahang bar in a small coasting- steamer in a heavy surf during the 
north-east monsoon is one which can probably furnish some excite- 
iMot for the most hardened seeker after sensation. 

It ia not surprising that many of those who have to go to Pahang 
•nil themselves of the land-route from the West Const. Landing in 
Bctlasgar, they can go by railway and road up to Kuala Kuhu, in 
Uln Selangor, whence there is an excellent bridle-palli over the 
bills to Raub, in Pahang. The population of Pahang is estimated 
to be So .000. 

General. 

No account of the material improvement which has been effected 
IB tbe Native States would be complete without some description of 
the oocMliiion of tbe people. I might exhaust the Ust of works 



I 



30 The Malay Peninsula : its Sesources and Prospectt. 

any foundation for the idea that there is witUin our control anotlwa**" 
Ceylon rn^osse in the Bouthernmoat peninaula of Asia. We are 
Bometimea charged with liolding the balance too evenly hetween 
Asiatic and European, and with giving insufficient encouragement 
to our own people. I have heard Dutch and German critics laugh 
good-naturedly at our policy, and Bay, -n'ith eome truth after all, that 
we are simply keeping the'peace and opening up the interior by 
roads in order that John Chinaman may make a fortune ; contrast- 
ing with this ridiculous difiinterestedness the policy of the Dutch 
in the flourishing province of Deli, in Sumatra, where the tobacco 
cultivation is exclusively in the hands of Europeans, and no China- 
man can hold land. The answer, of course, is, Tros Tijriusve mihi 
nulla discrimine agetur; the Chinese have been the pioneers of 
the tin industry of the Peninsula, just as Em-opeana have created 
the tobacco trade in Sumatra, Europeans have every facility for 
acquiring in the Native States mining-land not already in the 
hands ot the Chinese ; if Deli were oura we should certainly allow 
Chinese capitalists to embark in tobacco- culture if they chose, 
probably with marked advantage to the revenue of that State. 

What field is there, then, for the successful employment of 
European capital in the Peninsula ? I will deal first with miuiug, 
and then with agriculture, There were exported from the Protected 
Native States in 1889. 443,886 pikuls, or 26.992 tons, of tin. and 
in 1890, 450,777 pikuls, equal to 28,178 tons of tin. The detailed 
figures are as follows : — 



Fenk . 

Seluigor 
Sungei Ujong 
Negri Serabilsn 
Pehang . 



33a.HRl 
183,336 
34,654 



237.158 
174.63§ 
34,536 



450.777 



At 86/. a ton, which is a fair average price, the metal exported in 

1889 was worth 2,260,712/. ; while the estunated value of that of 

1890 was 2,422,878/. With insignificant exceptions, the whole of 
this money, less the royalty or export duty charged by Govern- 
ment, has gone into the pockets of the Chinese. Is it. then, impos- 
sible for Europeans to get a footing in the mining districts and 
work their claims at a profit? Not at all, I think, if mining 
adventurers are content to begin in a modest way; but the events of 



Ued I 




The Malay Peninsula : its Heiowrus aiid Pmpeett. 




the past few yeara jusLify Uie moat extreme scejiticiam as to the 
powibilitr of t)io success of an English company farmed to vork an 
untried concession. It surely is not uiideralood lij the ahareholders 
of conipanit^'K who pay a largo sum to the lessee or concesaionnaire 
of an nnwarkiHl tiu-fielil that as umcli mining-liind as a man can 
muit can bo had for the asking, pro\-ided that he is prepared to set 
to work at once. Not a sixpence iu charged by the Governments of 
Peimk and Selangor for the land on which the ChiocBe work. Bond 
fidt European tniiiurs cnn obtain land on much the same tonna as 
men used to acquire their claims on a goid-ficld in the days of ailu- 
Tul gold-mining in Australia. The Heaident of Perak (Mr. Swet- 
tenham), in his Anniml Report for 1B80, mentioned an Australian 
tiit-miuiiig compuny at Larut that hail already returned in dividends 
m sura in escess of tbo entire paid-up capital. The history of 
Umt nine is suinewhut peculiar. The Company was st&rted when 
Baropcvn CApilal was first being attract«'d to the &I^Iay Peninsula. 
Tlwj' liad to tbauk Uovemment, not a sdentihc expert of their 
own oboo8in)(, for the excellent lin-field allotted to tbem. The 
AniaUnt Resident in Perak selected foe them a piece of 
land dose to the chief town, and just between two Chinese 
BUBM where good reeults hud hoi^ii obtained. Nothing was charged 
to Ibem for the laud, and tlicy started on even terms with the 
CbiaMo. Compare this with the condition of a company which 
•oaunenced work in Betangor last year on three concessions of 150 
acres each, for which, if I understand their prospectus rightly, they 
bad paid 70,000'. in money and sliarea before a pickaxe hod been 
put tolo the ground I If they hod treated direct with the Oovem- 
OMtntof Belangor instead of with the ingenious speculator for whom 
th« Uad was selected, they need have been at no expense in connec- 
tion with it, the actual cost of selection excepted. 

[tat, independently of the subject of the financing of companies, 
which is beyond the control of any Government, however benevolent. 
Uutro are difTiculties in the way of the successful working of mines 
in Jjalaya by Eurupuans, to wbicli it is right to allude, though 1 
io not believe that they are insurmountable by British persever- 
ance. There is, first of all, the difficulty of managing Chinese 
ir. Unless it can bo proved that Europeans, working witli 
laving mftuhinory of alt kinds, can do everything for theiu- 
I they do in Auatralin, it is pretty clear that the Chinese 

_ I indispensable. And where the capital employed ia large, 
'te namber of coolies to be employed must be great in proportion. 
Saj that tt mining company employs a capital of 100,000/. and. to 



22 The Malay Peninsula : its Besowees and Prospecfs. 

be suoceseful, must get from their mining coneesaion in twenty 
years tin to that value, plus dividends and plus working 
expenses : — 

For every ton of metal produced in a year at least fonr coolies 
must be employed. 

One hundred coolies will work out 1^ acre of an ordinary tin-field 
in a year. 

To produce yearly 260 tons (value at 86/., 21,500i.)— and less, I 
suppose, would not be satisfactory to investors — 1,000 coolies mast 
be employed. 

Now the European employer who can control a labour force of 
1,000 Chinese is rare in the Straits Sottlementa. A Com mission which 
inquired into the Labour Question in the Colony last year has reported 
that on agricultural estates the Cbinese cooUes are managed entirely 
through tbeirheadmen; the men are neverpaid direct by themanager, 
nor, in many cases, ai'e their names known to him. The work which 
they do is paid for at contract rates, through the headman, whose 
accounts with his coolies are never examined. The coohea are thua 
entirely in the power of their headman. If these headmen worked 
honestly for the European employer, and exacted their best work 
from their coolies, all might be well. But they do not ; there is a 
marked difference between the work of a gang of Chinese mining 
coolies working for a European and working for a Chinese em- 
ployer. And ignorance of the details of Chinese mining customs 
exposes the European to being cheated by his men in all sorts of 
ways. The work to be done on a mine by a Chinese labour force is 
so multifarious in its nature that it is not always easy to make sure 
that the men whose work is being paid for, and who are personally 
unknown to the employer, are really on the works at all. Who 
ia to say whether the men set down in the daily accounts as 
engaged in clearing jungle, making water -courses, cutting rattan 
and firewood, lifting earth, ostrocting and washing ore, &c., on the 
various parts of a large property are really doing the work for which 
the mine is charged? Incessant European supervision, which ia 
the only way of guarding against imposition, is veiy costly. 

To summarise the general purport of these remarks, the Euro- 
pean mining adventurer, whether an individual or a company, 
should, to be successful— 

(o) Deal direct with the Government for mining land instead of 
buying from a middle-man. 

(6) Start with & small capital, and consequently with a small 
labour force, which can be superintended with moderate ease. Ae 



Thi Malay Peninmla : itt Ueaources and Proapecti. 

es|)«ri«Dce ia gained tlie works, if saocessful, oati be extended, and 
the labour foro« incrcaseil. 

(e) Imitate the C'hineHc, and spend as little aa possible on any* 
thinft tbat i» not directly remnnerativo. 

Tbo resources of tlio Peninsula in respect of gold are so vaguely 
known that I am able to say little about Ihem. The precious 
DWtal may be found in suflicient quantities to pique curiosity, 
wnmao cupidit}-, and incite Epeculation, and yet the moat diligent 
makIi may result in the discovery of iiolbiiig that will pay s 
dividend. The existence of gold in the Batang Padang district 
in Pcrak has long bwn knoirn. The I'erak Administration Beport 
for 1890 mentions the discovery in that district of ■' tin-atufT rich 
in iKMinw gold ; " luid tlm Resident uddsi " This district has always 
produced stream gold, but no attempt has been made to make gold 
Ibe principal object of mining, nor to search for it in the reef." In 
N«gri Ki;mbi]an, similarly, there are streams containing alluvial 
polA, and it is apparently hoped to turn tbem to commercial 
advantage. Hut the Aeting Resident says "little has been done 
neepit prospecting, and very little of that." Reefs Lave been 
registorod and claims taken up, but no real work has been done. 
The export returns for Pahang for 1890 show that only 929 ounces 
of gold wt-re exported from the State during the year. 

I recommend everyone int«rested in the mining resources of the 
Peninsula to n^od the description.^, and study the statistics, given 
in the Terr interesting work of M. J. Erringtonde la Croix, published 
in 1882, and calleil " Les Mints d'fitain de Perak." ' 

Miners do not make the best colonists, and some of us would 
perhaps like to wv in the Malay Btates a peaceful landscape of 
mral hamk'ts. instead of the hastily-built towns of a floating mining 
population. But, dealing exclusively with native agricultural la- 
doatry and leaving out of consideration European enterprise, where 
ve the people to come from, and wbat is to induce tbem to come 
and Mrttle in very large numbers, if it be not the hope of finding at 
the miiies a market for their produce ? Let us see what advan- 
lagM the Peninsula has to offer to agriculturista. 

Bice gtova well, and is cultivated by Malaya for their own food. 
The rioe of the country is preferred by Malays to import^ ri 
eammnndn n slightly bitter price than the latter. But it cannot be 
nltitated on a large scale to compete in price with tlial of Burma 
and Siam, which is the staple article of diet of the Chinese popu- 

' Pmii : Impiimerie Kallonol*. 




24 Tlus Malay Peninsula : its Resources and Prospects. 



I&tion of the Straits SottUments and Native States. The 
Bteps which ivo are taking lo improve communication, and 
make transport easier and cheaper, may id the long niu tend to 
diminish rice cultivation; for when the up-country Malay agricul- 
turist can buy imported rice cheap, he may be tempted to abandon 
hia fieida for other pursuils. 

Cocoanutsand froit-lreeapay the native proprietor well, and at the 
various mining towns there ia a steady demand for produce of thia 
kind. In market gardening, however, the Malaya do not attempt 
to compete with the industi'ioua Chinaman. 

Excellent pineapplea can Ite grown, and in Singapore quite an 
important trade ha^ sprung up in this fruit, large quantities being 
preserved in syrup and exported to Kurope. 

Gambler {Um'nria gamlnr. Roxh.). the iihrub which produces tlie 
gambler of commerce, largely use<l in the tanning industry, grows to 
perfection in the ^laJay Peninsula, and Chinese have introduced it in 
Selangor, on a concession of 11,000 acres granted for the purpose. 
It has long been grown extensively in Singapore and Johor, where 
tlie Chinese population employed in tliis industry is very ~ 

[^erable. 

Coming now to products with which the English planter is 
Ikniiliar. I must mention sugar, coffee (both Liberiati and Arabian)] 
tea, pepper, and tapioca. In respect of all of these we are long past 
t]ie stage of experiment. Sugar-cane cultivation has long been 

■ carried on in Pi-o\-ince Wellesley (Penang), and one important estate 
s been opened in Perak, under European management ; while in 

Ltbe same State there are 21 Cliinese-owned sugar estates, with an 

r area of 21 ,G68 acres, which employ about o.SOO labourers, and lost 
year exported BA.'^i-pikuls of sugar, valued at;{t401,122. Butbere. 
HB in other parts of tlie world, the competition of beet-sugar is felt, 
and, with the Straits sugar- planters appealing to Government for 
special assistance in respect of their labour supply, English capital 
for new estates may not he forthcoming at present. Uur planters 
probably have mucli to learn from those of Java in regard to 
ntachinery and cultivation ; and as long as there arc improvements 
not yet adopted by them for cheapening the cost of producing 
cane-sugar, they seem lo have the alto^'iation of their difficulties in 
their oni-n hands. 

In Pcrak, the prospeotfl of the only estate on which the culti- 
vation of Arabian coffee is carried on are said to be excellent, and 



1 

id to I 



rpose. 
ffher e | 

jian)^^^^ 



there s 



mile!) and miles of mountain r 



can be grown. It may be hoped that t! 



which thia prodagt 
which coffee-pU 




■lay Ptniruula : its Resoureei attd Prospects. 3S 

(ki Ceylon will not for ttvcr liinder tlic exttinsian of thia 
I'Hm iltlay Peninsula. Liberiaii coifce, however, seoms 
mt present to be the favourilt*. btioanse Uiu safiT. article of cultivation. 
Englisli and Scotch plunterx are hard at work in Perak, Belan^or, 
uid SunKt-i Ujuui;, and tho various (laveratiicnts am deuply inter- 
their success. It has been proved in Selangor that a 
Mtuni uf iiiiiu or Icii cwi. [>lt acre iimy 1h! exjk^ctud. 

Now that Ceytoii t^a has achieved such a nianellous sucoesii, it 
may bu hoped that that Colony may send us some experienced tea- 
planters, for there is little doobt that tlio Mulay I'eninsnln is as well 
adapted as Ceyh>Q for this particular cultivation. A sample of tea 
grown on a tiovomnient planta;ion in Perak was sent to London in 
lb89 and ra\'OHral>ly ri-porli-d on, and we do not despair uf seeing 
" llalay tea," as well as ■'Cojlon lea." an article of consumption in 
England. 

Pepp«r is doing well on a small scale in Perak and Selangor, 
This is an old industry which has b«eu resuscitated. It was one of 
the staple products of the island of Penang before 1810, and at one 
time more than 8,000 pikuls were exported annually. But a serious 
fall in price led to the gradual abandonment of the cultivation. 
Tlie Chinese gambler plaiilera generally unite pepper cultivation 
with their main industry, as the refuge from the gamhitsr vats makes 
»c«Ll«nt manure for pepper plants. 

Tapioca is extensively grown in Sungei Ujong and Negri Sembllan, 
and there is one good estate in Selangor. The objection to this 
enltii-ation, on the system pursued by the Chinese, is ibat it involves 
ifaa osliaustion and abandonment of a great area of land. 

An interesting eipenment in rearing silkworms has been made 
in pMrak. The mulberry can be successfully grown in the Malay 
PeniBsula. and already tlie pioneer Chinese cultivator has sent sis 
eases ot cocoons to China, where the silk is wound. It is officially 
stated that the silk produced is excellent and unusually white, and 
SB sxICDsioQ of this industry may be looked for, as Chinese are 
llisiiljr taking up land for mulberry cultivation. 

Fortanea have been made in tobacco cultivation in Sumatra, and 
I wish that I could hold out to my countrymen a reasonablo 
prospect of rivalling on the mainland the plantations of Deli and 
Lsngkat. Tbo tobacco leaf produced there is of an attractive, light 
eoloor, and fine, silky texture, and it is used almost exclusively for 
the oateide leaf, or wrapper, of cigars. There has hitherto been a 
gisat demand for it in America as well as in Europe, but it is said 
timt tbs McKinley tariff is operating un&ivourahly on tlie trade in 




terdam S^^^^| 
that in tbs I 



The Malay Peninsula : its Besources and Prospects. 

this product, wliicli has been established between Amsterdam a 
New York. Apart I'rora this, it has yet to be proved that i 
Malay Peninsula there is any place where tobacco can be cultivated 
under the favourable conditions as to soil and chmate which are 
offered on the East Coast of Sumatra. I have seen splendid 
specimens of tobacco plants grown in Pcrak, but any succeaaful 
experiment must satisly commercial exigencies, both as to quality 
of leaf and weight to the acre. It is in the latter particular 
that a tobacco estate on the West Coast of the Peninsula is Hkely 
to be found wanting. 

Reasoning from the analogy of situation, aspect, &c., I shotild 
feel disposed to expect greater succeas in tobacco cultivation on the 
East Coast, and I should lilie to see a really business -hko experi- 
ment tiied by one of the iiumeroua companies who hold land in 
Pahang. 

As far, therefore, as the agricultiural resources of the Peninsula 
are concerned, I may say that we have a clbnate suited to the pro- 
duction of all kinds of tropical produce, and soil fairly adapted to 
every sort of tropical cultivation. But, as I have alreatly described 
the Peninsula as being sparsely inhabited, It maybe easily surmised 
that there is considerable diEBculty about the supply of labour. 

The time at my disposal does not permit me to enter into a dis- 
quisition on the labour question, and indeed the details of the 
subject are foreign to the object of this paper. It is enough to say 
that as the indigenous population is neither sufficiently numerous nor 
sufficiently industrious to furnish a permanent and cheap supply of 
agricultural labour, recourse is had to the labour-markets of India 
and China. The supply of coolies is a trade, giving employment 
to recruiters, brokers, shipping- agents, depfit- keepers, and a host of 
other people. An artificial system of this kind, dealing as it does 
with men's liberties, and perhaps lives, requires careful watching on 
the part of a Government. The coolie must be protected, but if the 
labour obtained is not cheap, the planter says that it is of no use to 
him. The difficulty is to secure to the coolie all that he is entitled 
to, and at the same time satisfy the employer. 

Intending planters can get any quantity of good Tamil coohea 
from India if they will give the rate of wages which is given to 
men employed on Government works. The term of agreement is 
three years, at the expiration of which the coohe is free to seek 
work where he likes. The planter must not expect, nor can I 
understand why he should wish, to keep on his labourers against 
their will after the expiration of their agreements. Chinese labour 



The italaij Peninsula : its Resources and Prospects. 

can alwajd tw obtaiuixl, though tlie competition of the Sumatra 
tobacco mates makes the bounty-money high, Javanese coolies 
ar* aiao nsed a good deal by planters. 

Land can be obtained on easy terms. The Penik Governmect 
ii advertisiug spmal inducements to Englishmen of capital and 
entejpme, and, as the States do not enter into competition with each 
otbcr, I think that I may eay that tliesu terms may be had in any 
of the Protected States of the Peninsula. 

Tbe first ten approved applicants may select blocks of 1,000 i 
■CTM, or two blocks of 500 acres each, which will be given free. 
After the end of the second year of occupation, a rent of 20 cents 
%n acre will I>u [)a}'nblti ; or, if il(3siri;d, this may be commuted by one 
payment of g^ ^i ^''<'- 1' ^h^ block Bi'lect«d has road frontage, 
depth mnst be tiireo times the frontage. A hond fulc com- 
lent of cultivation must be made within twelve montlis after 
Cost of demarcation, sun'ey, Ac, must bo borne by the 
^^ The Govominent reserve the right to levy an export duty 

aot exceeding HI per cent. 

Applica lions addressed to the Resident of any one of the Protected 
States, or to the Colonial Secretary, Singapore, Straits Settlements, 
v31 receive immediate titb'ntion. 

S late -assiij ted agiiciihural Colonies have been suggested, and the \ 
notion of creating rural districts by planting in tjie Malay Peninsula 
whole villages of industrious Chinese or Indian peasants, each with 
his wife and family, bis cottage and his piece of land, is, I grant, an 
attractive one. But can it be realised except at a cost wholly in- 
ooranirnsurolo with tlie object ? It may bo asked why, seeing that 
emigration to Australia was materially stimulated by giving free 
or unsti^ passages and grants of laud to selected Engliahmen, the 
colouisalion of the Peninsula may not be effected by punning a 
Mmilat policy in respect of Cbinesv, Tamils, and Javanese ? The 
uuwer in lliat the cooUe-system has accustomed these people to 
believe that a free or assisted passage subjects the emigrant to a 
term of forced labour, and that the proCTered boon will be regarded 
with Huspicion. Kven supposing this difficulty to be surmounted, 
the emigrant, after a short experience as a peasant proprietor, will 
perhaps find that he can earn more as a mining-hand or as a cooUo 
in one of the Colonial tonus. And if he abandons his holding, 
what has be«n eflfected by the State expenditure;' If the project 
ii wortli trying at all, the best plan is perhaps to ofifer a reward of 
BO many thousand dollars and a large grant of land to the Chinese 
or Indian capitalist who in three or four years can show — in a district 




1 

tin mieht I 



The Malay Fenimula : its Besotirces and Frotpecti 



of tbeii first start under British guidance. They can thus c 
their roada and railways now out of revenue, acting as if tin might 
Bome day faU tliom. Not that I thijik that there is any reason to 
fear that the tin deposits of Perak and Selangor wilj. be exhausted 
within any period that can practically concern ua. We may, I 
trust, look forward to fresh iliaeoverjeB in these States when tlia 
known tin-fields, only partially opened out as yet, show signs of 
diminished production. And, as in the case of gold-mining in 
Australia, we raay hope that when the alluvial deposits ar* ex- 
hausted, lode-mining may take its place. In the Perak Adminis- 
tration Report for 18!)0, discoveries are mentioned, but lode-miDiug, 
which seems to offer to European enterprise a better field than 
alluvial min ing, has not yet taken a foremost place in the in- 
dastries of the Peninsula. 

Of the prospects of Pahang, the acting Resident (Mr. Clifford) 
in his report for 18!)0 speaks hopefully, but in general terms. He 
points out rightly that, unlike Perak and Selangor, Pafiang pos- 
sessed no large resident Chinese population when first placed under 
British protection, and that the State is at present virtually closed 
to the independent Chinese miner, as nearly the whole of the avail- 
able mining land is included in coucesaions held by companies- 
There is, unfortunately, no strildng success on the part of any 
mining company to chronicle. The Rauh mine has produced 1,500 
ounces of gold, but from the prices quoted in the share-list tliia 
does not seem to bo regarded in the financial world as indicating 
profits to the shareholders. But it is from the export duties levied 
upon metals, and from the excise farms, wliich are only valuable 
if there is a large Chinese population, that Paliaug expects ihe 
revenue which is to eoablo her to make roads and railways. If 
the raining companies, in whose favour the resources of the State 
are now locked up, faU to produce tin and gold in large quantities 
and to give employment to thousands of Chinese miners, the State 
cannot advance until the day when the independent mining adven- 
torer can have free admission. 

I am aware, of course, of the difficulties placed in the way of 
industry of all kinds in Pahang owing to the entire absence of 
land eominunication. So strongly has this been felt that a survey 
for a line of railway has already been carried through, connecting 
Seremban (in Sungei Ujong) with Semautan in Pahang, Into the 
vexed questions of whether this hne should be made, and how ib 
should be made, I do not propose to enter, as they are now engaging 
the attention of the Governments concerned ; but I may point out, 



Tht Malay Peninmla : its Hesotirecs ajid FrotpccU. 



SI 




IBC the comlbrt of those ivtio re^et delay iii t)ie matter, (a) tliat 
ibe of indnstry 1ms yet been created in Pahang, tliougli llie 
of the railways in Perab. 6elangor, and Bungei Ujong has 
dccldi^ by the existence of mining Iohtis ; {b) tbut in the 
States the export trade from the mines to the sea, and the 
import trade firom tbo sea lo tlie uiin>!s, have passed throtigh two 
pnliminary etagea before reaching the third, or tlie railroad «tage. 
Al fiist all goods were carried up and down by means of boats 
on ilia rivers ; then roads were made and carts superseded boats ; 
flBKUy railways were introduced. 

In Paliang the natural evolution of things seems to be the same. 
When a mining centre of Buflicient importance is establislied tlie 
will follow. 
Tliia brings me to tbe sabject of railway conslruction in the 
Pcniiuiala generally. There are advocates for a trunk-line, or 
Stato line, which would run north and south, connecting all 
States between Singapore and Penang, and which coidd at some 
time be extended northwards through Siameao territory to 
an Indian line at Tenasserim. This is a fa\'(mrite idea of 
who indulge in visions of a short route from India to Ans- 
It it) combated by others who concur in the news expressed 
by Sir F. Dickson, when adininistt-riiig the (iovemment of tlie 
Btraits Settlements Inst year, that, " with so fine a highway as the 
BtnutK of Malacca, ready made and costing nothing for mainte- 
BUic«, DO B'Jch hne is required, or can be reijuired, for many years 
to eonii'." ' 

Lasring engineering difficulties out of the qiiestion, we may pro- 
bably assume tliat ueithf^r India nor thi> Straits Bettlements will 
find the money to carry out at one time an undertaking of this mag- 
nitadei and that if ever our Australian fellow- colonists find it 
■bwlatoly necessary to shorten their sea-voyage to England to this 
txtcot, the Hue must be built with Australian capital. But the 
ntswion of interstate railway communication is much to be 
dssireid. and it seems to be not only reasonable but politic to keep 
in viow in all railway extension now projected Uie ]>ossibility of 
tliToagh- com muni cation hcin!!! established at some time or oilier. 
Land- com niunicatitin by rati witli the food- pnidu ring districts 
(Siamese) in the nortli-oa^tern part of Ibo Peninsula would he of 
inealculable benefit in time of war to the Straits Settlements and 
to the tlnipire, of which the coaling-station of Singapore ia an 
outpost. 

' Parliament'ir]/ F.iivri. C. C23. p. 28. 



I 



82 The Malay Pttnmida : its Resources and Prospects. 

Tlie available data for estimating the prospects of the region 
whith I have been describing would be incomplete without a glance 
at the political conetitutiou of the Protected State§, The native 
ruler in each trusts altogether in the British Besident for the 
management of departments which are entirely foreign to Malay 
government. Numerous British officers serve in these States in 
various capacities, and tliese take their orders from the Eesidenta, 
But in all that concerns the customs and religion of the people, the 
views of the rajas aiid chiefs are paramount, and it is only after 
their co-operation has been secured that any measure affecting 
these matters is carried out, I have Itnown vaccination resisted on 
religious grounds by a conservative chief who declared it to be con- 
trary to the law of the Koran to make punctures in the skin of the 
human body. As regards education too, there are always partisans 
of religious intolerance who object to secular teaching and want the 
Koran and little else. Patient explanation, many times repeated, 
overcomes in the end all ill-founded opposition ; but, on the other 
hand, native prejudices and susceptibilities are cai'efuUy studied, and 
the Residents not only allow every consideration to native rights, 
but, what is sometimes more difficult, insist that they shall be re- 
spected by British oflicers serving in the State, some of whom 
know little of, and care little for, the history, customs, and the 
language of the people among whom they serve. 

In eacli State there is an advisory council, composed of Malay 
rajas and chiefs, with one or two of the principal British officials. 
and representatives of the Chinese community. Their function Is 
to advise the Government on all important steps, both executive 
and legislative, and I can say from experience that questions of 
policy are frequently argued with great ability and acumen by some 
of the native members. The importance to the Resident of being 
able to gauge native public opinion by means of a Council of this 
kind cannot be exaggerated. 

From time to time a good deal has been said in the Colony about 
the annexation to the British Empire of these Native States, but, 
in my opinion, miscliief might be done were the notion to gain 
ground that any poUtical change of the kind is contemplated or 
desired by those who k-now much of the Peninsula and of our 
position there. The interference of England in the government of 
these States is the result of the request of the Malaya themselves, 
and it will be time to discuss the administration ol' the Peninsula as 
part of the British Empire when the natives have themselves de- 
manded the position and rights of British subjects. Any nnsohcited 



^^ 



The Ualaif PentJtsula : itt Uesoureet atul Prospects. 




W kction Ukfn in the (Itrection wliich a Binall section of the small 

■ British community jn the Straits Settlements desire, might, as Sir 

Frederick Weld said here some years ago, lay us open to the charge 

I of " a breach of faith." and the extract from the Qucen'9 Prochtma- 

tion of 1868, which I Itave already read. sutGcieutly shows why. 

Confederation may he a feasiblu scheme some day. and it would 
probably be to the distinct advantage of the smaller States, llie 
dereJopmetit of which is retarde<l by an insuQicient rerentie. to seek 
pnliticol incorporation with a larger neighbour. European estab- 
IkkmentM might then lie much reduced and a great saving effected. 
In the meantime the Colonial Government has been growing to 
tfae l«T«'l of its now position and educating itself for larger functions. 
Tha concentration of all commercial and political activity in the 
tofrns seemed to give something of a parochial air to the Adminis- 
tration of Singa|)orQ and Pcuaiig. Not enough was known of the 
OOtmtry districts, itnd insuDicient attention was paid to the wants 
of titt praple inhiUiiting thorn. A great improvement has been 
effe«l«l ill this respect within the Inst few years. District ofGcera 
hare been placed in one district in Penang. in three in Prorince 
WcUealcy, and iu two in Malacca, Thoy live and work among the 
people, instead of being units in the town population, and are re- 
ceiving Uic training which best fits a man for the charge of a Native 
6tate hereafter. A I and -revenue settlement has been carried out 
in Malacca, and not only satisfies the Malays, whose native tenure 
h»» been seonred to them, though the customary tithe has been 
contnutotl for n fixed aB-qcttsment, but adds very much to the revenue. 
Taking the warmest interest in the Straits Settlements, in which 
I bave Ber%'o<l Her Majesty for twenty-seven years, 1 should like to 
■ea the Colony keeping well ahead of the Native States in breadth 
of view and liberality of pohcy on all important questions, while 
showing the way in all details of internal organisation. It is the 
tendency of those of us in the Native States who have no personal 
•xpeneucu of administration, except that acixuired in the Straits 
Settlements, to copy the inHtitutioiis of Penong and Singapore, even 
though they be defective and out of date. Already, in my opinion, 
harm has bt'cn done by introducing into country districts in the 
Native States the unfortunate system of tenure by grants and leases 
m English, with which thu Straits Settlements were saddled early 
in Uioir history. The mistake is not yet, I think, beyond remedy, 
but it will cause endless trouble hereafter if persisted in. 

Betnstration of title is being adopted in Pcrak and Selangot (I 
pannot say that the Titles OfUct's are iu good order let) and the 



84 The Malay FemmvXa : its Sesonrces and Proipects. 

BsBident of Ferak eaye, " I am not avars that land Isgislation in 
the Straits Settlements has yet advanced as far aa this." A good 
syfltem of regiBtration of deeds, founded on the Yorkshire Begia- 
tration Act, h&a been working in Singapore since 188G, but it has 
not yet been extended to Penang and Malacca, where a condemned 
Bystem, dating from 1B39, is still in force. 

Again, I venture to think that, when we improve the Native 
States Courts, it is not to the judicial institutions of the Straits 
Settlements that we shall turn for a model. The expense, both to 
Government and to suitors, of a system nnder which all the original 
civil jnrisdiction, where the matter in dispute exceeds £S, is in the 
hands of the Supreme Court, ia enonnous. The siinpheity of the 
Charters, under which the Becorders, in the days of the Indian 
Government, worked, has been abandoned in favour of adaptations of 
Engliah practice. The Indian Penal Code was introduced in 1871, 
but a Criminal Procedure Code ia still wanting, 

The munificence of the Government of India in encouraging the 
study of native languages and literature, and aiding in the 
production of trnnslationa of standard works on Oriental law and 
religion, might well be imitated by otir Colonial Government, and 
by the Govemmenta of the Native States, A translation of one of 
the many Malay treatises on the ceremonial law of the Shafer 
Sect would be of immense use in out Courts. The l)ost Walay- 
Enghsh dictionary is that of Marsden, who was a civilian at 
Beneoolen, and left that place finally in 1776. It was published in 
1812, and cannot compare in fulness with the Malay-Dutch dic- 
tionary of Van de Wall, or the Malay-French dictionary of Fevre. 
Here again is a matter in which State assistance is required. Let 
me mention also the need of a Statistical Gazetteer of the Colony 
and the Native States. The materials for this are available in 
scores of blue-books and official pnbhcations, but there is no com- 
pendium of official information to which the traveller, planter, or 
miner may turn for all that he wants to know about these remote 
regions. It is a pity that these flourishing provinces ehould lack 
the description wljich has been so admirably supplied in the case of 
India by Sir W. W. Hunter and his co-workers. 

At the same time I must acknowledge the substantial support 
which has been given by the Government to the Straits branch^ 
the Boyal Asiatic Society, an inRtitution which was founded in 
1878, and gives evidence of the existence of a laudable taste for 
scientific research, especially in the departments of ethnology and 
philology. 

I 



I 



3^ Malay Peniniuia : its Seiounet and Prospeett. 86 

I have often reftretted that the Btndiea of learned Dutchmen in 
Ui« fidd of Malayan Uterslurc, ethnology. Ac, are bo little known 
lo tu, owing to the genera! want of aoqiiaintaoee, on the part of 
Eogliflhmcn, with the Dutch lan^niage. Among the subjects which 
eKodiil&t«B for cadetehips in the Blratta SettlemenU may take np 
is Italian. But Dutch has no place, on omission which might well 
bn broaght to the notice of the Civil Service Commissioners. I 
■boold like to see Dutch made an obligatory subject. 

Bvtumin^ now to the political future of the Native Stat«s, we 
hope, I may say, Rpeaking for the Residenta of the other Btatea as 
wall u for myself , to follow the lines mapped out for na by a succee- 
liaa of Governors, striving by personal iuiluence with all claaaes of 
tlw population to fltimiilaU> industry and foster improvement of all 
kinds, while securing juatice for the poorest, and maintaining peace 
and order with a firm hand. It is easy to put such a programme 
into words ; to carrj- it out in practice requires great activity of body 
and mind, nnceasing vigilance and ineiliansCilile patience. Let those 
who would fignre to themselves the life of a Kesident in an advancing 
State imagine a house being built where not only the mason's and 
eajpmter's art has to be taught, but the making of each brick, the 
Mwing of each plank, and the forging of each nail has to be super- 
intcndnl. We are excellently supported by the British oflicors who 
have joined the nrvicu of the State, and of whom, as regards Kidangor, 
I ean uy, what )lr. Swettenham says as regardn Perak, that the Gtato 
is Vtaj zealously and faithfully served by them. A Dutch friend of 
miaa who visited the Native States told me that nothing stnick him 
non than the spirit of energy which seemed to pervade the puhtiu 
nnJM. Eadl man, it seemed to him, took a personal pride in 
^pll^i'^^; on improvements and advancing the interests of the 8tat« 
to tbe best of his ability, often sacrificing to this bis immediat« 
eomfint and convenience. 

I an not, however, one of those who think that sabordinatA 
oBcw a do better when left to themselvea than when they are con- 
trolled by regulations tmd supplied with inetnictions. The young 
men who join our service arrive with everything to learn, and the 
•dncation which is to make them good magistrotea and successful 
edllcctors is to be acquired in the way in which it is ac4]uired in 
other cotintries. Our railways arc conatructed and controlled by 
professional engineers, uur liuapitals aru under the snperint«ndenoe 
of akiUed surgeons. For District ofHcers, similarly, wc require men 
who learn their trade in a proper school. Between the man who, 
though honourable and conscientioas, knows nothing of any ^tera 



The Malay Penimula : its Restmrees and Prospeeti. 

of law, and bas never studied Oriental land-tenures, and ona who 
has adminiatered justice under the Indian Codes, and haa carried 
out a land-rovenua settlement in a district under proper regulations, 
there is all the difference tlaat there is between an amateur and a 
professional. 

The Parliamentary Bine-book containing the reports of the Resi- 
dents of these Protected tStates for 1800 will, as I have said, shortly 
be published, and tn it I must refer you for the details of last year'a 
administration. Though the financial aspect of affairs la not as 
brilliant as could be wished, owing to commercial depression and the 
low price of tin, there is no cause for uneasiness. An ample revenue 
is being realised in Perak and Selangor, even though a temporary 
check is being osperienced in financial progress. Let me say in 
conclusion that a Resident aims at being nothing more than a faith- 
ful agent of the Governor of the Straits Hettlements, and a faithful 
friend aud adviser of the Malay Sultan whom he advises, and whose 
government he carries on. A distinguished (jovemor once quoted 
to me the candid admission of the chief official member of a Colonial 
Council that, " when a Colonial Hecretary begins to think that lie is 
a statesmen, it is time for him to go home on leave." Statesmanship 
the Resident is content to leave to the Governor, occupying him- 
self with the busy post of Administrator, supported and fortified, if 
he deserves it, by the confidence and goodwill of his chief. I should 
deprive myself of a pleasure, and should deem myself ungrateful, if 
I did not take tins opportunity of acknowledging the lessons learnt 
and encouragement received from such men as Sir Andrew Clarke, 
Sir William Jervois, Sir ^Villiam C. F. Robinson, Sir Frederick 
Weld, and Sir Cecil Clementi Smith, who have successively 
governed the Straits Settlements during the last sixteen years — » 
period notable for steady advance in the strength of our adminis- 
tration in the Colony proper, and in the organisation of ciiiHsed 
government in the Malay Peninsula. 

Discussion. 

The Cbaibuan : Before proceeding with the discussion I maj 
announce that Sir 3. F. Dickson, Colonial Secretary of the StraitB 

Settlements, had fully intended to be present and to take part in 
the discuasion, but he has been suddenly called away on public 
business, I may, however, congratulate the meeting on the presencA 
of several other important personages, including Sir Henry Blake, 
who starts to-morrow for Jamaica; Sir W. C. F. Eobinson, who 



TJie ifala'j Peninsula : Us Risourees and Prospeols. 

h&a jtat retumej from Wisttm ADstr&tia ; Sir Wm. Jervoia ; 
Sir Hugh Low. I will first call on Sir Wm. Jen'ois, who formerly 
Iteld tba reins at tiingaporu. 

Sif WiLUAU F. D. Jervoib. G.C.M.G.. C.B. : It is with great 
pIcMOTM I rise to notice the able paper read by Mr. Maxwell. He 
Tr«a (or many jeara an officer under me when I was Governor of 
Um Stnuts Settlements, and I may any — what he himself cannot — 
that b« was one of the ablest oHicers I ever came across, and that 
bo subsequently moat ably aecondod Sir Hugh Low — whom I »m 
l^ad to see present— in bringing abont the prosperity of the Malay 
PraiDsnIa, which he haa su well described. I may mention tliat I 
bad the pleasure, as one of my last acts as Governor, to appoint 
Sir Hugh Low ns the Realdent Ht Peruk, a place ntiich he filled 
moM nobly. My experience in the Slalay Peninsula, however, only 
«xteDd(>d ovfir two years, when I was culled away to advise the 
AuBttalaaian Governments in matters relating to their defence, and 
■obMqui'ntly became a Governor in Australia. Were I to onler 
into my experience even during those two years I should osoupy 
yoor time too long. But I muy eay that great events occurred. U 
wa«, indeed, during that lime that the prosperity commenced which 
has been so ably depicted by Mr, Maxwell. I do not intend to 
detract from the merit that is due to my predecessor, Bir Andrew 
Clarke, who established that system of Itesidents which ban been the 
Imodation of the prosperity of the Peninsula, but he was there 
only a comparatively short time afterwards, and was unable, of 
Mone, fully to develop the system. The thing really started from 
Iba drenmstauce of my finding it necessary to assume the govem- 
■UDt of the country myself, in the name of the chief native 
authority of the Btate. Amongst other matters, there were two 
Bnltans in Perak, one appointed by the people of Perak and the 
other was the nominee of the Enghxh Uovemment. I beUeve 
tb« latter wa<i really the Kultan of Penik by birth, bat' whilst he 
tbonght that be exiiibited hia SuUansbip by sending to England 
(or ft magnificent unifonn, the other stood to Ins guns and held the 
ragalia of Perak, and thereby constituted himself the Sultan of tlie 
Statfl. Therewasreallynoolteniativcbat to assume the government 
of Ifaooe countries oneself, and to issue a proclamation accordingly. 
Vwom that time railways have been constructed, roods have been 
and*, alates have been protected, and the prosperity describod by 
Hr.SCaxwellhasbei'n the desired result. I may mention enpananj 
tba (mt with which 1 used to visit the State of Belangor, when, aa 
OoTamoTi a salute was fired in my honour. They used to luh » 




TJie Malay Pminsula : its Besources and Prospects. 



muzzle — M^^^H 
i8t the wbc^e I 

was Governor I 



gna to a tree — the vent was almost as large as the i 
when firing, I used to keep at a respectful distance lest t 
concern should blow up. I may mention that whilst I was GovemOT 
I visited the whole of the Malay States, and amongst others that of 
Tringanu. Id the course of my stay I said I should be happy if the 
Bultan would pay me a visit, aud on my return to Singapore I 
fonnd tut embassy from the State, asking me to send a ship for the 
Sultan. I sent the ship, but what was my horror to find this ship 
return with the Sultan and one hundred men and fifty women, 
whom I had to put up for ten days — not at my own expense, how- 
ever, for I obtained a special grant In consequence of this extensive 
arrival. As regards the entourage of the States, nobody cait 
imagine the extraordinary step from a Malay to a Siamese State. 
It is like passing to another world. The people are different, the 
mosques are different— everything is different. In regard to the 
future of the Peninsula, Mr. Maxwell has deprecated the idea of 
annexation, and in that I myself heartily join. We obtain every- 
thing we can possibly require with the present position of affairs— 
by protecting them, advising them, and getting them to act in 
unison with ua, and no step in advance whatever would be taken 
by annexation. As Mr. Maxwell has said, we have pmctically 
abohshed slavery in these States. It is one of the great things with 
which I had to deal. 1 utterly despaired of bein^ able to make any 
impression on others in this matter, but by the able administration 
of Sir \V. Robinson, Sir Hugh Low, Sir F. Weld, and others, steps 
have been taken by which slavery has been well-nigh abolished in 
the Peninsula, and the people are free almost as British subjects. 
I repeat, In conclusion, that we owe a great debt of gi-atitude to Mr. 
Maxwell for bringuig this subject before us, 

Sir William 0. P. Robinson, G.C.M.G. : It is due, I presume, 
to the circumstance that I was at one time {but only for a short 
time) Governor of Singapore and the Straits Settlements that the 
compliment has been paid me of asking me to address you this 
evening. I comply with great pleasure; but I should like to 
remind you that it is nearly fourteen years since I resided at Singa* 
pore for a Uttle over a year, and consetjuently, although I have by 
no means forgotten my residence there, I cannot pretend to address 
you with the recent knowledge of the state of tlie Colony or with 
the freshness of information possessed by Mr, MaKWell, and which 
has been so ably placed before us by him, Mr. Maxwell has given 
us most valaable statistics as to the progress of the Malay Peninsula 
«nce we practically took charge of the country by appointing 



The Malay Penintula : its Setoiircea and Prospects. 89 

Bwidetitfi to advise tlie native rulers. Ue has told ua that tli« 
nveDucs of those States are — at all events sODie of tliem — very 
flooxubing, and that they are practically fn^ from public debt ; 
sod •pcoloDg to you as an Australian, or at all events one who has 
nadeil nearly seventeen ye&ra there, the only complaint I have 
lo nuke on this score is that they appear to be so provokingly 
proaperous that they do not require to place loons on the Loudon 
toukftt, and so are prevented from becoming so well known in this 
ooantry as I think 1 may say the Auatrahon Colonies arc. Mr. Max- 
well )uui referred to thti position of the Residents in tlie Native States, 
fend has dotie so with becoming modesty. But I do not think ha 
bos (|aite given the audience to understand the extreme dehcocy of 
ibe poHition io which they are placed, and bow much is due to ihear 
tact and conciliatory demeanour as regards the natives, and at the 
■KOMI lime the firmness with which they are able to advise the rulers 
fend to insist on their advice being taken. \ paper was read a few 
yr-orv ago in Australia on this subject, and with your permission I 
wiU read a few passages bearing somewhat on the social hfe of the 
Malay Peninsula wiiich has not l>et;u touchi^d upon by Mr. Maxwell, 
wbo has very properly given us statistics of greater value and iin* 
portfeiice: — 

The climalA of tlie Peninsula, though hot and moist, ia not tmhealthy 
fiir Earopeana ; and, with the exception of a marsh fever, which Mnielimea 
tttintlr* the imprudent. I believe there is nothing lo be dreaded on th« 
teoTv oS health. Hurricanon and earthquakes ore unknown, and, oa many 
parts of the Peninsula ore admirably adapted (or sugar, coffee, and other 
valnablir crops, it is not Rurpriaiiig that British enterprise and capital have 
already fonnd their nay into the territory. The Malays — according to 
3liM Bird— must undoubtedly be numbered among civilised people. 
' Tbey live in houses whieli are more or leu lastefid and Mchi^ed. They 
are veil clothed in garments of butli native and foreign monnfiuture ; 
they are « settled and agricultural people ; ihoy arc skilful in some of the 
fella, (pecially in the workini; of gold and the damascening of krisos ; the 
nppor class are to some extent educated ; tbey have a literature, even 
tfaimch it be on imported one ; aud they have posaesaed for centuries 
■yslelBs of govnrmiieiit and codes of loud and maritime laws, which, in 
theory at least, shuw a considerable degree of enliglitenuipnl. . , . The 
■yitan) of govrrameut in tlio various Stntns is despotic. The rulers — 
whether nultaus, rnjalin, or what iiiil~li«ve occasionally to li;;bl t.)r their 
aoihority. and a writiT of note bos placed it on ofHciul record tlial nothing 
t tended to thn dcterioralion of the Malay character than the 
ik of a well-defiued and geaerallyackuowiedgedsysti^mof law. Thinga 
any of oourso, better in this respect in those States in which we havfe 
lUndmts, and which are under British protection, and the Malays them* 





The Malay Pemnstda : its ResourOes and Prospacis. 

Belvea are among the first to acknowledge it. Indeed, tlie generfd 
impreBsion amoti|T the people in the Protected States ia that those Btatea 
we abeady Britieh territory. ... It is not unnatural that this impresuon 
ahould prevail when it is rcinenibei-ed whnt their condition wns and what 
it is now. Formerly there wag no attempt at a proper administration of 
juBtioe, simply the strong and wealthy dominated and oppressfd the poor 
and weak, whilst each chief in bis own district raised such taxes as ha 
pleased and could get. Now certain fixed revenues well known to the 
whole popolation are collected at fixed stations by Europeans who take 
what is due and no more. There are courts of jnstice at the chief town 
or village of each district, presided over by European officei's, sometunes 
a native sitting with them, when, though the justice administered by 
them may not be strictly in accordance with English law, still iha 
magistrate is not to be bought, and gives bis honest opinion. Of course 
Government are constantly impressing on the Residents the necessity of 
doing everything in the name of the chief native authority, and on no 
account to exceed their proper fimctiona as Residents. That is the theory 
of the system, and we have over and over again told the Residents that 
they will be held responsible if trouble springs out of their neglect of it. 
Bat practically it is not, and cannot be, strictly observed ; and I mnst 
candidly admit that it would not he for tile bene&t of the States themselves 
that it should be strictly observed. . . . You may naturally ask why the 
British Qovernmeut interfered at all in the affairs of the Protected States; 
and why, if interference were deemed necessary, we did not annex them 
outright, instead of merely protecting them, and placing British ofHcers 
in the delicate and difficult position which I have described ? The reply 
to the first question is that interference became necessary, not only for 
the benefit of the States themselves, but for the protection of British 
trade. The States alluded to are close to British torritorj'. Trade 
relations bad been established between our ports and theirs, British 
capital had been invested in the business, and as any distiu'hances in the 
States (a matter of firequent occurrence) threw our business transactions 
out of gear, there was apparently no alternative but to step in and 
practically take charge of tiie country. Why. as we had to step in, we 
did not go further and annex the States, instead of merely protecting 
them, is a question of policy which appertains to H.M. Government, and 
on which it would not be proper that I should offer any observations.' 

I ask j'ou whether that is not a dlSicult; position for a public 
officer to occupy. Mo one has occupied the position in the Malay 
Peninsula with more distinction than my old. friend Sir Hugh Low, 
whose example Mr. Maswell so worthily follows. I take tliein as 
types of a splendid set of officers who are doing good work in the 
Peninsula, and I am quite sure that so long an England can send 

' On Duly in Mamj Lands. A lecture delivered in Adelaide in September 
18S4. 




Tka Malay Peninsula • itt BeiMtrees and ProtpeeU. 

oat oJocDled, Intelligent gentlemen like these to take part in 
govemins these important countries, so long will our dominion 
and HutlioHly last. Our dominion and authority in the East will 
coinuiente to recede when we are oliliged from economy or any 
ntber cBUiBt', which God forbid, to send inferior men to deal with 
tlu) ntva imder our protection. 80 Iotir bb we can sond ont men 
Hlca tboM to whom 1 have referred, firm yet conciliatory, men of 
ttdneftUoD. temper, and discretion, bo long shiiU we be able to deal 
sooceaafally with the native races, and to open up fresh avenues for 
oar cOinmtirce and benefit the Empire at lar^T. 

Sir HuGU Low, G.O.M.G, : I am afraid I cannot do jnstice to 
th« subject which yon have had the kindness to place in my hands. 
I am quile overwhelmed, for I confess I was totally unprepared to 
find mjsvlf bruu^^ht so prominently forward. Mr. l^faxwell is an 
old friend of mine, and if I was able to do anjiliing for those I 
MrvMil it was VL-ry much owing to tho asBistance of Mr. Maxwell, 
who had been acting for some time before I went there nnder Sir 
WilliuD Jenois. On my first arrival I was perfectly ignomnt of 
•mrythinft in tlie country, though I had a pretty good knowledge 
of the Malay rharactor. Mr. Maxwell went with me on my first 
apedition, and U^foie we hod been, I think, a month on th« 
joonwy we found a Chinese community which repudiated the idea 
of uiy 1-'nrop(.-nn going there to assist the Government of the 
cotintry. The disturbance was not suppressed without resort to 
fiMOO. I'his hnd a good effect, and it was a long time before any- 
lUtig of the kind occurred again. Mr. Maxwell is, as Sir W. 
Jervota baa luvid, onu of the ablest ofKcers who ever served a 
OoTenUDent, either in the Ktroits Settlements or anywhere else. 
I oooaidcr the Government has been exceedingly fortnnate in the 
efficcra wlia have governed these distant and previously unknown 
8Ut«s. They were unknown in Europe, and almost unknown in 
Singspoiv. until Sir Andrew Clurke's and Sir W. ■lorvois'a time. 
It wM mipposcd they were very rich, and the statistics Mr. Maxwell 
has read show how important they are in regard to the production 
of tho v«ry valuable metal used so largely now in the tin-plate 
mda. There are other resources of the country not yet sufficiently 
developed. Mr. Maxwell says he has not much in the way of 
atatiatica in regard to gold. 1 had the opportunity just before I left 
of sending an officer nuiued BozkoIo to explore the River Kelantar. 
I slioald explain that when I first went out to tho East in 1884 the 
UaUys used to get all their gold from the Malay Peninsula. It 
wma of Ttry fine quality. Australian gold was then unknown ; but 




speots, T 

e native gold I 



42 Tli6 Malay Fetunsula : its Bosources and Prospects. 

even afiier the introduction of the Australian gold the native gold 
commanded a higher price. This gold came principally from 
Kelantar, but I have uo doubt a great deal came down the Panang, 
as the two riyera have their sources near each otlier. The officer 
whom I sent to esplore the Kelantar reported to me most exten- 
sive workings of gold, which must have employed many thousands 
of people for many years. The people of Kelantar had more gold 
ornaments than the people of any other country. This officer 
wanted to buy a few things as samples, and the people brought 
them to him in large quantities. That gold was all the pro- 
duction of the Kelantar River, and I have not the least doabt 
that in a short time now we shall see gold coming from the river 
if only the Siamese Government can guarantee efficient protection 
to the Europeans hkely to go there. It is a pity out rights over 
the river have not been more strongly asserted, but that is a thing 
we cannot help now. Mr. Maxwell has so well described the 
present condition of the Protected States that there is nothing to 
add. On tlie subject of labour, I think his views and mine are not 
quite in accord. He thinks the planters complain unjustly that 
the Indian coohes, after they had become seasoned and useful men, 
are taken on at the Government works. These coohes serve an 
apprenticeship of three years. It takes two years after they come 
from India before they are of much use, and a good many of them 
never become efficient labourers. Now the Government on making 
a contract pays a higher price than the States can afford, and this 
has the effect of attracting the coolies who have served their time, 
and who are really useful men, although the Government has borne 
no share whatever of the cost of bringing over these men and 
training them as useful labourers. It would be only fair, I main- 
tain, that the Government should annually import a number of 
coohes equivalent at least to a fab: proportion of those who are 
attracted from the States — that is to say, the Government shoold 
bring over a certain number of men from India, and proportionately 
share the risks attendant on making them useful labourers. On 
the subject of tobacco, I may say that small patches may be grown 
as good as any produced in Sumatra ; but there is, I believe, no 
hope we shall ever be able to cultivate the plant successfully. 
There is no reason to fear that the mining industry is at all likely 
to diminish. The lodes have been found in many places, but the 
country is covered with jungle, and cannot possibly be supposed to 
be explored. I have a great behef in the Peninsula. If my he^th 
permitted, nothing vould give me greater pleasure than to go agun 



The Mala!/ Peniiitula : its Sesourcea and Prospects. 

to Uut boantifal country. I have uever seen auytliing so lovely u 
tturiduaptotliocoLUtgttinPerak now occupied by Mr. Sivettenhuni, 
•nd wliicli is on a. tnoiuitain somo 4,500 foet high. The approach 
is Umogh a iaa.gai&<xal jungle, teoming with palms and forest 
tnea. laden with creepers, aud abouDding in beautUul birds. I 
thuik yoa for listeninK to me so patiently. I should like to add 
tbkt I have served under all the Govt.>mors whom Mr. Maxwell has 
namod, and I foand they were alwayy ready to Uike the respon- 
sibility aud to give me their support, especially in such matters as 
the slave business, which was not an easy thing to bring about. 
I believe that each of them has looked on me as a friend, and I am 
proud of so great on honour. 

Mr. John Febqcsok (Ceylon i : I desire to express my admira- 
tion for the clear, concise, and practical way in which Mr. Maxwell 
has treated his subject. There are one or two matters which some 
of tu would hke to have had discussed^for example, the difficulties 
which Mr. Maxwell and other administrators must have had to deal 
vttli in respect of RainbUng, opium, and the regulation of the drinic 
traffic ; but of course it would be quite impossible to enter into all 
thaw questions in the limited time available. My interest in the 
fulyact of the paper arises from the fact that I have resided many 
yean in Ceylon, and have watched everything connected with 
m^eal agriculture, and 1 have noticed the rise of the Straits Bettle- 
utenta in planting and in tropical agriculture generally. I should 
like first of all to make one remark in reference to the reason which 
the lecturer suggests for tiio giving up of Java to the Dutch at the 
time of the great peace after Waterloo. Mr. Maxwell thinks the 
tmMOa was that there was a feeliug that Java was indispensable to 
Um vitality of Holland as a European Power. Now, in CeylOD 
Ibere has always been a tradition tliab when at the end of the gTMt 
pern tim question arose as to which should be given back, Java 
or Cayion ; if anything, we had a greater claim to Java, because of 
pmioos settlement and occupation, tlian to Ceylon ; the decision 
wu in fa^'our of the retention of Ceylon as being indispensable to 
IhiB holders of India, the harbour of Trincomalee being recognised 
aa the key to the Bay of Bengal, and commanding the eommerce of 
Caleatta, Madras, and Bangoon. In regard to the Straits' general 
nrmna and the planting question, I must congratulate Mr. Maxwell 
tad oUuirs on the wise policy adopted in the Peninsula of laying 
uida the surplus revenues from the wonderful mining enterprise aa 
A land for railway and road extensions. We always regret that in 
oir awlj days of prosperity ws did not put the proceeds of oni laad 



44 The Malay Peninsula : Us Besoiirces and ProspecU. 

Bales and t)ie large surplus railway revenaes into such a fund inst 
of amalgamating tLeiii witli our general revenue. I am entirely in 
favour of Dutch being made a compulsory language for Straits 
Settlementa' cadets, having recently visited Amsterdam and aeen 
how much valuable administrative and agricultural information is 
published in Dutch. You all remember the great calamity which 
befel Ceylon ten years ago, when wo lost a great many of our 
planters in consequence of the failure of coffee. Some 300 to 400 
left us between 18SI and 1885. These men went wandering aronnd 
the tropical and subtropical world, the Straits Settlements, Borneo, 
Natal, Queensland, New South Wales, and Fiji ; soma to the West 
Indies, South and Central America, where the President of Guate- 
mala got a Ceylon planter to open a model coffee and cinchona 
plantation; and in 1B84 I followed some othei-s to California and 
Florida to find them orange planting. But most of all they located 
themselves in North Borneo — which has been called the New Ceylon 
— and the Straits Settlements, and of course we have followed their 
pioneering work as recorded in their own letters to us, and in 
the official reports of Mr. Maxwell and Mr. Swettenham in 
connection with the development of planting in the States. 
The planters in the Straits Settlements have had the great 
advantage of sympathetic officials who have done all they could to 
promote the development of plantations of coffee, pepper, and other 
products. It was rather different with us in Ceylon, where the 
planters often found a certain number of officials who had the old 
idea that the Colony was better off without the planters. But in 
regard to the products Jlr. Maxwell mentions, I have a strong 
behef that coffee can he made a profitable cultivation in the Malay 
Peninsula, and that coffee and pepper are the two products to which 
the planters there ought to devote their chief attention. The 
conditions arc different from those in Ceylon and Southern India, 
and more favourable to coffee. In the Peninsula coffee plantations 
can be isolated, opened in virgin soil, surrounded by forest land so 
Bs to keep off fungus peats, with admirable means of transport in 
Toads and railways, and having cheap freight to the European 
markets. Above all, in the Eastern world coffee is becoming a 
rare article, and the world's supply now depends on Brazil, which 
may shorten its shipments any day through a revolution, bad 
■government, or the breaking out of some pest. So it is partly with 
pepper. It is one of the articles the supply of which is less than 
the demand. It is very different with tea, for already this product 
threatens to be overdone in India and Ceylon, as the falling prices 



t ISalay PcnintuUt : its Resources and ProspecU. 



Loadon market testify. One of our great troubles now 
Ctylon is to find drinkers for all tlio tea that we produce. I li&^-« 
lately come from Vienna, and in Austria and Gertnany have been 
trring to get the )iooplo to drink Ceylon tea. lu Amsterdam I was 
annoyed to find that although the Jrva planters have begun freely 
to cnltirale tea, yt^t they have dune little or nothing to get their 
conntrynien in Holland to consume their produce, but rather send 
their ten to the London market. All this goes to show that tea is 
overdone, and that cofibo and pepper are safer products to cultivate 
in the MalnvAn Peninsula. As to labour supply, experienced planters 
of the right sort, if supported by a liberal (iovcrnment, as eugRested 
by Sir Hugh Low, may be trusted to overcome any difficulty in 
ihia direction. In conclusion, my Lord, I would, with, I am sure, 
the concurrence of Australian colonists present, press the import- 
mace of developing the planting (or farming) industry as well as 
muling in the Straits. No country dependent on the latter alone 
can be said to be in a Btable position. As regards the " stream 
gold " to which Mr. Maxwell alluded, I am reminded of an Indian 
nying in reference to Ihis most widely distributed of metals. It is 
Uiat the natives of Southern India, when they have no vork, go 
and wash for gold in the nearest river, and make 2 annas a day 
{Vd.) ; and it is on record that one made one day 4 aimas (M.). 

Tlie CHAinMAN : It is now my agreeable duty to close the pro- 
uedinga of the evening by moving; a hearty vole of tlianka to 
Mr. Maxwell for his vm- able paper. I am sony I am not in a 
poBJtion. from personal experience of my own, to add to the 
information which other speakers have given you. I have been 
twice through the Straits of Malacca in the S'uibc/im ; I have 
twice visiUxl Singapore, and once Penang and Malacca, but I have 
nenr had the advantage of travelling through the Protected States, 
Of Singapore I may say that nowhere on ibe face of the wide earth 
an the results obtained by British energy and enterprise, and tiw 
Mcaiity afforded by our Hag, more splendidly illustrated. It has 
beeome, in a comparatively few yeara. the centre of an enormous 
trade. It has banks doing a splendid business, docks of grvat 
Mfiaeity. a harbour full of shipping ; and now, I am happy to say, 
Ibe shipping is secured from attack by strong and well-armed 
fortifications. What has been acliieved at Singapore under tlie 
iflunediate jurisdiction of the Crown is being carried forwanl in the 
Protected States by our Rcnidentn. The position of a Itesident in a 
Native Btate is one of great isolation and of immense responsibility, 
and one can hardly find words adequately to express ailmiration of 



now m ^^m 
I have ll 



J 



43 The Malay Peninsula : its Eestyurces and Prospects, 

the noble work done by administratorB who perform the important 
duty of guarding the frontiers and the outworks of our great Empire. 
We look upqn the Colonies from a, somewhat practical standpoint. 
We ask oarselves wliat is the field they offer to British enterprise ? 
Mr. Maxwell has spoken of the production of sugar, coffee, and tea, 
and he has mentioned that the getting of tin is the paramount 
industry in the Malay Peninsula. He has also alluded to a project 
in which, as the eon of a great constructor of railways, I feel a 
great interest — viz., the possibility of eonstracting a railway from 
the Straits Settlements to join the great Indian system of railways 
at Tenasserim. I have no doubt that line will some day be made, 
and then Australia will be brought within sixteen days of England. 
I am sure you will all be glad to pass a hearty vote of thanks to 
Mr. Maxwell, and to wish him God-speed on his return to the 
important post which he has filled so well. 

The motion was cordially approved. 

Mr. W. E. MAXwEtL, C.M.G. : I beg to thank you most heartily 
for the very kind reception which you have given to my paper and 
to me personally. I must also express my warmest thanks to those 
who have taken part in the discussion, and for the complimentary 
remarks they have been bo good aa to make about myself. I am 
returning to Selangor in a week, and I know perfectly well that my 
comrades oat there will receive the greatest possible encouragement 
in the performance of tbeii- duties when they hear that their exer- 
tions are sympathetically followed by the Fellows of the Royal 
Colonial Institute. Before sitting down. I wish to ask you to join 
in offering our very grateful thanks to our noble Chairman, who is 
one of our Vice-Presidents, and is always so ready and willing to 
do all in his power to promote the best interests of the Institute and 
of the Colonies at large. 

The motion was passed with acclamation, and the proceedings 
terminated. 



47 



SECOND ORDINARY GENERAL MEETING. 

The Second Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at 
the Whitehall Rooms, Hotel M^tropole, on Tuesday, December 8, 
1891. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., a Vice-President of the Institute, 
presided. 

The Minutes of the last Ordinary General Meeting were read 
and confirmed, and it was announced that since that Meeting 18 
Fellows had been elected — viz., 2 Resident and 11 Non-Resident. 

Resident Fellows : — 

Tlujmas J. Hanley, Fred A. E. Muck. 

Non-Resident Fellows : — 

Bev, Canon Arthur Beanlands (British Columbia), Henry Croft, M.P,P, 
{Britiih Columbia), J, J. Forster {Seychelles), Charles S. Ooldmann (Trans- 
vaal), Cftarles J. Hart (Jamaica), diaries Hassard, C.E, (Natal), John B. 
MeKiUigan (British Columbia), Dr. James O, Middleton, J, C. Morgan (New 
South Wales), Frederick J. C. Ross (Straits Settlements), Hugh Sutherland 
(Canada), 

It was also announced that donations to the Library of books, 
maps, &c.f had been received from the various Governments of the 
Colonies and India, Societies, and public bodies both in the United 
Kingdom and the Colonies, and from Fellows of tlie Institute and 
others. 

The following Donations to the Building Fund were an- 
nounced: — 

£ f. <r. 

Amounts previonily announced « , • 5,250 7 9 
C. E. GuUen, Esq. (3rd Donation) • • • 5 
Alfred Radford, Eb<i. (do.) . • • . 1 10 

5,256 8 ~*J ' 

The Chairman : Before calling on Sir Edward Braddon I feel 
bound to allude to the very painful announcement in this morning's 
papers of the death of a very old and esteemed member of the 
Institute, a man who during the greater portion of his life played a 
very important part in the history of South Australia. As most 
of Uie gentlemen present must have had some personal acquaintance 
with Sir Arthur Blyth, I need not dwell on the loss which the 



Second Ordinary General Mccthtg. 

Colonies have Eustained Ly hia unexpected demiBC He difcliarged 
his important duties to the entire B»tiBfaction of those whom be re- 
presented.aa well as to the authorities here towhom hewas accredited, 
and he was not the least conspicuous among t)je many able men whom 
the Colonies have from time to time sent to this country. I am 
quite sure that much of the harmony and goodwill and loyalty 
which mark the relations of the Colonies to the Mother Country de- 
pend on the tact, moderation, wisdom, and judgment of the Agent- 
General ; and in the intorosta of the Empire generally I only hope 
that in the future the Colonies may be equally as well served in the 
persons of their representatives aa they have been hitherto. In 
adverting to tlie death of Sir Arthur Blyth, I am reminded of the 
loss which the InGtitute sustained some time since by the demise 
of anotlier most valued and distinguished member. Sir George 
JIacLeay, a man whose career was identiSed witli the Colony of 
New South Wales. His name and ihnt of other members of the 
family were well known in Australia, and I need not tell yon how 
closely they have been associated with its welfare and reputa- 
tion. I have also to notice with deep regret the recent death of 
Sir William MacLeay, who was, perhaps, one of the most able 
and useful, aa well as one of the most typical. Colonists who 
ever landed in Australia. He went to Sydney some fifty years aflO, 
at the age of nineteen years, having a moderate fortune. Hp 
devoted himself with great zeal and industry to his vocation m a 
sheep-farmer, achieved a handsome competency, and ultimatel; 
settled in Sydney. Sir William was distingnislied for his great 
knowledge of and skill in natural history, on the pursuit of which 
ho spent large sums ; he founded two or three scientific institutions, 
and he presented to the University of Sydney one of the most valu- 
able collections of natural history in the southern heoiisphere. 
He has,! believe, left a magnificent endowment for the augmentation 
and preservation of thie collection. I see here my friend FrofesBor 
Anderson Stuart, find I have no donbt that ui the paper he is to 
read a month henfle h6 will do'jiistice to the munificence and en- 
lightened spirit which animated this gentleman. I only wisli that 
wealthy Colonists would remember the claims the Colonies have on 
their liberality, and imilate the example of Sif William MacLeay. I 
must apologise for these somewhat diffuse remarks, but I could not 
do justice to my feelings without mentioning these two gentlemen 
— Sir George and Sir William MacLeay, men of the highest culture 
and great energy of character ^who threw themselves into politao^l 
life with the Bole object of promoting, not personal aims, but out of 



Stcond Oriinartj GctwtoI Ueetiiu}. 40 

Idyihjr to tlio Interests of the Colony in which they liad spont 80 
luge « portion of their liven. 1 will now call on 8ir Edwai^ 
Bimddon to ri-ad IiIh [ntpcr. ^Ve all Itnow— many of lis have occa- 
nan deeply to regret— the Herioiin orisJH which has riToiitly over- 
XMkm thp ('olniiicn of AiiHtrnlin, inrluding New liealanil. The 
doUapw ill Die valiio of prnpcily -the many ililliciiH i>olitical com- 
ptiestiDlis which have recently arisen in connection With the financial 
eondilioilH of tlioiw countries — have accuinnhit<'il wilhm a very ehort 
QMoe of time, and, from a condition of unexampled proeperity and 
tmbooii'lcd hnp<s there has been a sudden collnpiio. I may, hov- 
ever, observe that this change in the condition of tliinga in Australia 
is not pconhar to that part of the world. We know that similar 
Tieiaailudos, commercial and political— I siicak more especially 
of Uie commtirciul— have occurred over a great part of the civilised 
worlti. 1 dare say maity persona now present are sufferers by this 
ooUiqme; andOovcrnnientshave, of course, shared in the general em- 
InurMttnt-nl to a certain extent. Well, misfortunes will come. All 
conmunitieH. nil States, are more or loss nnhject to these sudden 
mtitationH in Ihoir fortunes; still, wo liuie manfully to meet 
diffleolttea, and with the muteriak ut command to set about the 
(fitabliKlimcnt of a more healthy state of things. Those who are 
Inly iiit«resled in the Colonies ought not to vxaggcrato the evils 
nor to make things worse by decrying, wholesale, mstitutions and 
drocnnstaticts which really have nothing to do with those changes 
and these disasters. Everyone who is rightly disposed towards the 
ColoniM will, I say, bo willing to put the bc.-it construction on the 
rireomstanceH, and lend a willing hand to bring about thu most 
■ppmpriate remedy. 1 do not wish to say anything as regards 
ewtiin criticisms which have been offered in some of the public 
joonuls liuyond this— that I think somu of the writers hare been 
nrfbrtanate in their dehncation of the condition of the utTairs of 
Anstnlsaia, and 1 wns therefore glad lo find that a very able 
vindintor and apologist for the Colonies had tij>ning up in the 
fienau of our distinguished friend Sir Kdward Uraddou. It is. 1 
Uunk, quite within the province of this Institutt' to vindicate, as far 
H poaaible, the claims of the Colonies to a fair coiistraclion of these 
conditions niid proiiosals. I do not want any palliation or unfair 
daling with existing evils ; by alt means let them be told in the 
open day, but do not let us exog^'erate them, and do not lot us im- 
port into the discussion questions of manners and social incidents 
vUeli liare nothing to do with the subject. I^iit us employ all the 
lasrgiAN wu can, and all the ability ne can bring tu bunr, to net tliw 



Coloniea rigbt in the eyes of tlie British public. The late illuBtriona 
Archbishop Tait said that in going throngh life and in arguing with 
his fellow-men he always found there was something to be said on 
the other side. That is an admirable sentiment, and Sir Edward 
Braddon will. I thini, eliow there ia Bomething to be said on the 
other side on the present occasion. 

Sir Edwakd Bbadoon : I must put the Chairman right in one 
particular: I appear before you to-night, not as the apologis t of 
Australia, but as the vindicator. 



AUSTRALASIA : A VINDICATION. 



«t_^^| 



Fob some time past sporadic attacks have been made by irre- 
sponsible Enghsh writers upon the credit and fair fame of the 
Australasian Colonies. In September last an epidemic of these 
burst out. and the pages of the Nineteenth Century, the Fortnightly, 
and the ConlemxioraTy contained atrabilious aud unwari'antable 
onslaughts upon Australasian manners, morals, and money. 

I do not think tliat the people of Australasia are more disposed 
to regard themselves as immaculate than any other community. I 
believe that they would, as readily as any, appreciate, and possibly 
afit upon, honest criticism directed against their faults and short- 
comings. But, for such diatribes as I have it in mind to answer, 
the bulk of the Australasians feel only a supreme contempt. They 
woimd none but those who are most enthusiastic in maintaining 
the cojniectiou with the Mother Country, and who are stung not bo 
much by the blow struck at their Colonies as by the fact that a 
brother EngUshman has dealt that blow. 

It is irrational to suppose that these attacks will permanently 
have the effect (obviously designed in some instances) of damaging 
the credit of the Colonies assailed. Those who have financial 
deahngs with Australasia have surer guides in tliis regard than the 
Hon. J. W. Fortescue, and will doubtless found their opinions upon 
assured data rather than upon facts and figures distorted out of 
recognition or drawn from the inner consciousness of some acrid 
reviewer. I can hardly believe that the jaundiced testimony of 
these bilious critics will, in the long run. outweigh the evidence of 
able and nnbiasaed wnters such as Sir Charles Dill;e. But, as 
the first effect of all this misrepresentation may have been of a 
damaging character, I venture to contribute my mite of vindication 
by way of emphasizing the fact, already pointed out by Mr. Howard 



Aiutrakuia : a Vindication. 

VtSlooghhy and oUiers, that it ia no true presentment of the 
r^onies pretended to be described. 

It will still nimain open to a diacriminatiiig public to judge 
bvtwMD UH, and I shall, I hope, have shown that, at all events, 
some of the allegations to which I take exception are without 
foandation, and several infereocea drawn from facta preposterous. 

Lord Jersey, the Governor of New South Wales, who may be 
Buppoaod to be free from any peculiarly Colonial bias, and who is 
certainly in a position to form an opinion as to the value of these 
Utter-day criticisms, is reported in the Times' telegraphic sommaiy 
of Beptemher 10 as follows :— 

A great deal 1im been writteu lotely aboDl Australia — in fool, it would 
MID M if Aastraliti had becomu the happy hnnting-grimnil of the 
(cribbling globe-trotter. When I open my luomiug paper I almoat 
•ipMt to reail Itiat «oiue new volunteer baa opened fire. It is said that 
lh«r« !■ in Australia too much borrowing, too much drinking, too moob 
■WMtring, and to itloDg the whole gamut of vices, till one wondert 
wbvtiMr there ii any room left for virtues in wbat is a Britinh raoe. 
UisrepruBuntatiou has become one of the line arts of the presenl Amy in 
aD p«rta of tbo world. People are obliged to accustom theniselvva tu an 
lumpected. uutmc, and perliapti annoying rendering of wbat ihey do 
and aay. I anppose it ia one of the peuailies of civilisation. Still, oe we 
in Aoatralla do not admit that the mosquito is a &ir roprotentation of 
tfaU tunny climate, or that it constltnies one of its chief ohanus, so we 
will not take mosquito critics as tnie representatives of what Uiey lliink 
of «i bi England, or as types of those accomplished writers who, in everj 
age, have helped to leach and to elevate mankind. Most of the charges 
tn to vulgar as not to be worthy of notice, and I feel thai on the more 
paetieal ones I need saj but little. Nothing but sheer fully can nulU^r 
Um fpleodid resources of this Colony ; and why should we iiuaigine that 
■a adncated and tntelligeut race should over be guilty of such folly ? No 
donbt there bos been a deal of borrowing iu the post, and thera will 
pivbably be more iu the future. Our credit will not be impaired as long 
as the money is well spent and tbe investor is not alarmed by wildscbemes 
« iU-COnaidered legislation. The investor has a soul above party pohtics, 
ifcaenly aensitive to schemes which aSect his capital or threaten to 
interest. Neither is it solely a ijueetion of public loans 
, of private capital in land or industries is essential if develop- 
I be continned. Everyone, therefore, in the Colonr is vib^ly 
. in its credit and its honour. It must be remembered, also, that 
Aoalrahaus form part of a mighty empire, and tbey natniaUy sbora the 
aharaoteristics of the race lu whicli they belong. 





I do not know tliat Lord Jersey included Mr. Fortesone in the 
y of " globe-trotters." ToBBibly not, fur Mr. Fortesoos bu 



1 



4 

n 



AtairoM 






lived four years, and enjoyed some official esperienoe, in ] 
Zealand. But it may be tbe case that Mr. Fortescne was a i 
appointed oolonist. Beading between the lines, a critic as daringly 
vague as liimaelf might hazard the gueaa that he waa one of the 
" good men " of ^vhol^ ho speaks as haviriR been " turned away " 
when New Zealand estabHshmenta were reduced during tlie re- 
trenchment period, 1887-90. And if we may assume that he was tUs- 
appointed, whether in the general or particular sense, we at once 
find an explanation, which must bo otherwise wanting, for tlie 
acerbity of his writing — for no one is bo severe and unreasonable in 
-his Btrictures upon the Colonies as the man who Las attempted in 
vain to make a career in them. 

And in his " Guileless Australia " (Ninctceiilk Ccntnrt/, Septem- 
ber, 1891) we find him radiant witli delight because his previous 
paper, " The Seamy Side of Anstraha " (NLiielecnlk Century, April, 
1891), had been taken notice of by the mvestmg class. He had 
been successful 1 If he had not permanently injured the credit of 
Australia, he hail, at all events, caused some measure of anxiety and 
loss to the holders of Australian securities. He had succeeded 
beyond his anticipation, and was surprised and jubilant accord- 
ingly. 

There was, indeed, good reason for this astonishment. How 
could Mr. Fortcscue have expected that the investing class vrould 
have been so moved by his flimsy charges, made up of innuendo, 
vague generalities, false inductions, and a ridiculously small array 
of not very significant facts '? Mr. Fortesoue'a " Seamy Side of 
Australia " was very much a rdcliauffd of Mr. Charles Fairfiehi. 
His "Guileless AustraUa" is a rehash of Mr, Fairfield-cnm- 
Fortescue. It is a case of the World, the Elephant, and the Tor- 
toise — Mr. Fortescue foimded upou Ur, Fairfield ; Mr, Faii-field 
fomided upon anything but undiluted fact. 

With the very acaiitiest supply of soUd material Mr. Fortescue 
has sought to establish some very aatouuding points against Aus- 
tralia. He does not in plain teems allege all these as parts of his 
indictment. A a lo one or two, he "just hints a fault." But hia 
arguments (if they may bo dignified by that term) are directed to 
prove them all, aiid they are, roughly speaking, as follows :— (I) That 
the resources and value of the Crown estate of Austraha have been 
absurdly overrated; (2) that the Colonies are hovering on the 
brink of insolvency ; (3) that the public finances are misrepre- 
sented by deliberately cooked nccounts ; (4| that public works said 
to b.- reproductive do nul ^ivo llio i-etuin nllogwl. or any return 



Auatraliuia : a Viiiflicalhn. 



: (6) ib&t the general administration is ilefeotJvo and 
calcubUid to sliake Llie eontidenco of Boglish iDveBtcn'H; and lit) 
tbal repadiation may in liio titne to came very posailily be Aua- . 
lnUi»'a nictlio'] of ailjiistiiifr hor linancoa. 

Now, as Mr. Fortescuf might eay. honest criliciara coniiotf^s a 

knonledin'O of fitcts dimlt with; Iho ctipacity and inclination to 

dodncQ the right conclusions from tlicso, and, whoro statistics aro 

tttu|do]^ed. iho ability to gnutp all llio <iuuli£cationa and special con- 

ditioDB Ihst affect each group of figures. Horo tltau all, there 

sfaoulil bo nn uhaolnte nbsonco of prejudice. The critic wlio 

KppraachoH his subject with a bias in his mind will give but a 

warpod jadginent. From the obvious rancour ebown by some of 

Austrslia'B rritics (not excepting Mr. Fortescue), I conclude that 

the; ara lacking in the lant qualification, and, judging them by their 

works, they may ccrt^nty be re;:;arded as wanting in the others. 

Unquestionably, some of Mr, Fortescue's slatemenls an? tmo 

^^HBgli : I do not dtny that. My complaint is that he will not leavo 

^^^^■Dtb nogarblod — that, starting with premises that arc correct, 

^^^^K as they go, he erects upon the foundation thoy provide a 

mPntructure that ia utterly false— that, whether from a desiro to 

(boir that nil is uvil, or from inability to deal with the issues biifore 

hun, he tortiirea the truth into a half-truth, or out of all rosemblanoe 

to truth whnti'^'or. 

Lot U.1 examine the numerous counts of Mr. Fortescne's indict- 
nent and sec what sort of case be mnkcs out for them. 

Bin " Seamy Sidi; of Australia " waa commenced with a sneer at the 
"cant phrases, •marvellous progress,' 'indomiloble energy,' 'admir- 
able onlightenment,' ' nnequalW prosperity,' 'boundless rcsourcvs,' 
' mainiiAcent future,' and so forth," In the came paper bo said, "I 
Buintain that Anstraliiu) prosperity is artificial and the outcome of 
tmliiniied credit." And throughout this paper and its scqnal, 
'*GuilclesK Australia," the changes aro rung upon the Ibemos that 
tbo prosperity of Austmlia ia as fictitioua aa the surplosea of the 
ColaniBl Treasurers, and her reaotircc» mythical. Alnch of this ig 
Infmred rathtr than slated— none ia more than vague aHtfirliou ; no 
attempt is made to demonstrate what is alleged by solid argument 
and tm at worthy statistics. 

II ia true that he admits in his tirst paper that tlie resources of 
ABStniin far outweigh her debts. But, having made this admission, 
he Immediately proci-ids to discount it. "I would ask." he says, 
" bow these rcsonrcos are being developed." He then inquires how 
^LUwt one- third of the people biq coticoutratud in the towiUr mi. 



M Australasia : a Vindication. 

not baviug Ht. Fairfield at hand, nnswers himself onl of the moi 
of ftn Englisli emissary of the t^elf-Hclp Emigration Society, and fiOJ 
in the reply " the secret of all tlio waste, folly, and estravagance now 
rampant iii Australia." 

Here we have as good an example as could be desired of Sir. 
Fortescne'B method. We have in thi§ an instance of his painful 
blindness to the proportions of things ; of his habit of mistaking 
aonud and fury for argnment ; of hia prooenoss to believe that the 
gravest charge needs proof of no sort beyond bis bare averment. 

The charge here is that all— not a part, but all — the waste, folly, 
and extravagance now rampant in Austraha arise out of one phaso of 
the working-man question. The one witness (no documents being 
produced) to substantiate this is an emissary of the Self-Help Emi- 
gration Society. The thing which is the seci'et of so much more 
than might have been expected of it is thus described by the soUtary 
witness : — 

Colonial working men have been so largely employed by Government 
apon public works that their habit is to domaad such work directly other 
employment is slack, and to insist upon having it in the great cities, where 
they prefer lo Uve. even when employers up the country are lookmg In 
vain for moo. We tiaw the unemployed in Sydney marching about by 
hundreds, appsj-ently well fed and well cloihed. demanding of the 
Government Gi. a day without piece-work, becnuae to offer leES would be, 
as they termed it, " a. degradation of labour in New South Wales," and 
many of them declining it because, when provided, it was a few miles up 
the country. Thiti tupect of Colonial life deserves careful observation. 

This evidenco (?) satisfied Mr. Forteaoue— evidence given by o, 
man who only hod such experience of Australian life as came of a 
hurried tour through the Colonies — evidence, moreover, which is 
wholly inconclusive as well as one-aided (so, perhaps, specially 
recommending itself to Mr. Fortescne), in that it tells ns what 
the working man demanded and what he would not accept from 
the Oovemment, but not a word as to what the Government 
gave. And it is a fact commonly known in Austraha that on many 
occasions when the unemployed have asked for work the Govem- 
ments have either declined to give it, or have given it only upon 
terms favourable to llio public interests. But Mr. Fortescue is 
ntialied, and proceeds to say " the politicians supply the working 
men with the required work (at abnormal wages) at the expense of 
the British capitalist, and the labour unions utihse the Oovemment 
WBge-r»t« OS the stand&rd for its members." British Capitah'M 
wh»t foUiea are uttered in thy name I 



Atutralatia : a Vindieation. 

Tho Australian working man (who is very commonly a 
bolder, & bank-depogitor, and a man with a stake in the coiinuy) 
•eeoungly the bngbeai of Mr. Fortescaci. He it is who prevents 
the resources of the Colonies from bemg d<;voloped ; who is iit the 
bottom of all the waata, folly, and extravagance that make these 
rMoorcca of no account ; who is an <!ccentric noniad—n vory hut- 
teidy of labonr — according to &Ir. Fortescue, who telU ua that the 
tjrpical working man " flits from loan to loan ; " hy wliic!) I nnder- 
irtand him to mean that this typical creature moves ever towi 
that Colony which has floated the ktest loan — not, us the 
imply, that he flies from one pawnbroker to another to borrow i 
on his own aocounL 

Out it is against Uie working men of tlio towns — the one-tl 
that Mr. Fortescue loosea his shaft. Tho other two-thirds — I 
labourers of the country — he tells us, toil tlkat tlie townspeoph 
play. Is it to be credited that these two-thirds have no voice, 
representation in public affairs, to protect the resources of 
Colonies and conserve the best interests of the community ? Thi 
Mems to me to be an ellipsis in the critic's reasoning : and I thi 
it would bother him to explain how the typical working man. 
wiU not leave the lai^ towns for work, is to flit from loan to 
■eoing lltat works constructed out of loans are. for the most 
nilways, roads, Ac. in the country. 

1 fancy he has been misled hy the indubitable foct that 
milling population of Australia is a migratory one. The tj-pii 
Aujtralian miner is apt to go to the scene of the last "mah " 
gold or silver. So baa ho gone in the past to the diggings of 
kust and Bandhurst, and the Thames River in New Zealand. So 
is be going now to the newly-developed silver mines of Tasmanin. 
A good show of tin or copper will draw him. }3ut, if a married 
BUI, ha is slow to change bis Colony. He has his home in some 
put of Australasia : tliere his family remain while he engages in 
lbs pursuit of mineral wealtli, and to that home he returns, nnleBs 
•nrj mbfltantial uidutienients are offered to him to make his domi- 
cile elsewhere. 

Upon thi.i point I can speak from my experience as Minister of 
Bulways and Mines in Tasmania. In that capacity I hare 
public works delayed because labourers from other Colonies 
not be attnuited by the offer of employment at good wages. 
Itboortrra would not dit to the scene of loan oxpeodilure. But 
have poun-d into the Colony by thousands to work in the 
Sddfl of Mia. Zeeban and Dnndas, albeit there was no loon mrauiy 



ifiter of 

re seen 

ThMd^^l 



Australasia ; a VitidkatioK. 1 

£57,005,47J, against imports £05,260,881. Tlie averagft* 
per head for AuEtralia in 1888wasi£I5 18s, 10<?., against /I 
for the United Kingdom and £3 lis, 5d, for Canada, ^ 

exports and imports increased to £131, 749,206. ' 

But let nie show an example of fdniess to our hostile cr 
point out that, for purposes of comparison, Ute AustraJasie 
colonial trade should be dedtzcted from this total, This 
£40,481 ,G72 as the imports of 1880, /36,902,379 as the 
:£70,364,OS1 as the total ; and favourable comparison 



Bonk deposits in Australasia on Klarch SI, 1890, amoi 
£108.278,943, and savings-bank deposits to £15,482,77C 
total deposits of £123,761,713 {more tlian two-tliii-ds of i 
debt), and the average deposit amount to the credit of each i 
in the savings banks of Austraha is £26 7s, 4f?., against iCli 
English average. ^ 

The public revenue of Australasia increased from £w 
in 1880-81 to £28,626,889 in 1868-89— that is, by jffC 
while the interest payable upon the total debt of 18^ 
£7,084,041. And the revenue continues to increase. Mr. E 
contention that the population does not increase in the 
as the debt, does not concern the investing class if the 
the general wealth be in that ratio and the means be e 
meeting liabilities : and his argument that the debt in« 
tively to the multiple of the revenue never had muc^ 
seems now. in " G uilelesa Australia, ' ' to have been droppe 
that the moat prejudiced critic of Australasian affairs, £ 
be knows anything about them, will admit that otl: 
administration do not increase relatively to the ii 
on loans, and that the revenue which, without undu 
the taxpayer, provides in eight years an increase more < 
to pay the whole amount of interest due on the 1 
sufficient. 

I would add that a stronger ease can be made ont 
the revenue of 1873. £12,200,000, with that of 1888, i 
the increase during that period being £10,304,889, or 
while population increased from 2,103,000 to 3,078J 
per cent. 

It is true in part, as is alleged, that ta?:ation I 
Taxation has increased in every Colony of Australasil 
Zealand and Tasmania, during the period 1880 to 188V 
from £2 6s. 7d. to £3 9s. Id. per head. In NewM 



W An$tralasia : a VmTicatl 

probably bo not fur Kliortof, and, poihaps, in 
mtft for Knp:liin(l X'270. 

Mull I will cndoiivonr to illnstrat<; in a r 
witfili AiiMtmlfiNifiri rcsonrcc'S and cnpacity are. 
of her indiiMtricH hh tin oxinn))](s nnd very fc 
to |»n>Mrni my caHP. The capital invested ii; 
iM roMipiited at .£.'»()(),()()(),()()(), or r)0 percent.! 
debt of nil AuMtnibisiii. Tlio bist wool-clip (t 
tif wbicli Ih KnKland) in valued at .L'20.()()0,0()( 
iitnount of inten^st which Australasia has to pr 

|)o iiot tlu»HO facts justify Australasia in a li 
Should tlu'V not satisfy the l"»ritish creditor 1 
constituto only a portion of his security are 
Should they not n»fute the covert statement ( 
Australia iH on tlio brink of bankruptcy, o 
Murrnv*n orudo n*marks about Australian ins( 

Mr, rhristio Murravhas been dubbed a ***?! 
hurt, bv bis obaractorisation as such. How 
with \\\\\\ *,* Uo ** did ** Australia, that roquin 
tow tnontbs. In an unhappy hour he cam» 
!it,itistios. saw ** oop>" * ^^^ thorn, and has i!o 
fislioi^l pitfall lo another wlionovor ho has a:ic 

\\\ bis *' .Vn:i^Hvloans*' ^;ho c\ \:;-;; :■• . 
conovahsos alvn; Av.s;nU*.a ilr.:s : 

Vh<^iv is v.o vvxir.uy v.i \^h;oh s.'' '.-.;:>. ,* *: -.V.: 






. ..iTi 



4^«.l-, 74 t < • • . ..I 4n V« 4 » . . . .> k -.,4^ * '., « i ..ki ... 4 

t 



.. I 






*,«- 



;.l.>.] «, eniiVMi: »'i; ;!m Jo* it.:;. •■;•:•.--". 



ttem 

A891)h 

Tictorii 

■^Jcapab 

~&tare fro: 

^ TreasuK 

.«00,000 t 

^«asarer dii 

^iditure win 

*"ork8 alreadj 

•■try TrcaAurei 

-y to knov it 

£iid any otliei 

^rge tb&t largi 

'lie sanction ol 

*-«bit Bide of th( 

- This, us Mr. 

Controlled by ■ 

^Ties and Farlia' 

^^iament except in 

•^t of it is " with' 

' to delay in luakinf 

Lbliuraements, eonu 

'ftr wlicrein it wai 

natc<l HurpluB ofoiii 

n siivinjt that, " if tin 

vw fxpendituro of th« 

^Qge idoa that, for tin 
is neither a day o 

kt any moment to poin 
^trativi' i^in calculated t< 
■: (-ei'mH to think tliat tin 
' ItdgiT, iiiid thin iwculia 
:utioii tliut thti Victoria! 
if a prcsi'iit in his loai 
—i.e. if tlti-re be anythinj 
"St for six months of evci; 
(jrcuk Kulenda. 




Atistralasia . a Vi^ication. 

be expended upon tliem and no employment given by tlie GovetB 
ment. 

Mr. Forteecue disoonntB Australia's resources in another way : 

The AuBtraliajia are prepared [Le sdjs], not to eay determined, to leave 
K vast extent of their territory nntoiiohed and tmprolitable eooiier th&n 
admit another race that can turn it to accotmt ; in other u'ordH, to cancel a 
considerable portion of tlie aspets on tho sociirity of which they have 
borrowed, and are borrowing, milliona of money. 

Let me say at once tliat I do not nltogetber dieagree with 
the views he has expressed upon the question of coloured labour. 
Although 1, in common with the majority of Tasmanians, consider 
it essential tliiit tlic evils inseparable from the domestication of large 
numbers of Chinese amidst a British people should be as far as 
possible minimised, I think the extreme measures adopted at the 
Sydney Conference of 1887 were certainly not justified by then 
existing circumstances, and would be difficult to justify by any oir- 
cumstances. And it stands on record that the Premier of TaHraania, 
as a member of that Conference, lodged his protest against these 
more severe measures ; while, if I remember rightly, tho represen- 
tative of Westem Australia declined to vote for them. 

There are, however, other coloured races besides the Chinese by 
whom the northern portion of Australia might be cultivated. I 
cannot see the difficulty that Mr. Fortescuo does in reganl to the 
employment of Indian coolies in the sugar-cane fields of Northern 
Queensland. There are also the Facilio Islanders ; and there are 
the aborigines, who may be sufiBcisntly civilised in the course of 
Ume to take to husbandry. I have little doubt that, when experience 
and local exigencies shall have taught their lesson, if that lesson 
be that field-labonr is impossible to the European, the cry againat 
coloured labour hi those tropical regions will be hushed. 

But Mr. Fortescue overstates his case. He assumes that 
Europeans cannot work in Northern Queensland in any outdoor 
pursuit— and this is assuming loo much.' ^liners find it practicable 
to live and labour in the Cairns and Ilerberton and other northern 
localities ; they are to be found thereaway in considerable numbers : 
and the resources of that poilion of Australia are, as far as minerals 
are concerned, being developed— witness that marvel of gold mines, 
Mt. Blorgan. And Europeans are now working in small numbers 
in the sugar industry, while the planters arc. as an experiment, 
importing Italian labourers, who will, it ia hoped, be able to do field- 
work ill the north with perfect safety. 

Neither is the case aa regards coloured labour on the sugar 



Australasia : a VindUatUm. 67 

fftiriy put. Tlicre ia no allusion to tho fact that the 
pn^bition of Kanaka labour has not yet come into operation, 
ftltboogh the isHue of new licences to import Pacific Islaiiilors c«a9ed 
on Deoember 81, ItiitO. 

Then ia no need to fear tliat Queensland vill neglect Iiet 
naoureoB in- thia direction, or tliat South Australia will leave her 
nivUiem territory undeveloped, and bo the occasion for cancelling 
AutFalian SBHots ceases to present itself. 

Mr. Fortescue cannot tolerate the mention of those resources — 
"tboM blessed words, ' boundlees resources, '"as ho playfully remarks. 
He also to^s in a like frisky manner with the realised private wealth 
of Australia. He says : 

t bavo bcf»rn tne tho Iiudf»t statenient of thftt worthy bat incoherent 
fimndor Mr. M<^^tilUn fur IHIKI, Ii runsiaU of a rliapsody over «ome 
iropoMJblo rtittiatiee as to the Bo-citllnd "realised" private wealth of the 
Colony (omitthig, of coiirBd, some rcO.OOO.OOO worth of registered 
nartft»g»i. 

II«re is another instance of that peculiar method to which I take 
«te<iplion. I can imagine Mr. McMillan chuckling at tho impossible 
apftliesLion of his statistics by his critic, and the assimiption that 
a proparty on becoming mortgaged censes to exist, llr. Fortescuo 
dots not condescend to examine Mr. McMillan's statistics or give 
■ny proof of their imposEibility. Ho does not tell ub to what extent 
thoy wti affected by the omission of his sixty millions. Me does 
not pretend to show that these sixty millions have been twice 
nhiliit«d as assets ; and it is only in the improbable event of their 
baying been credited to both mortgagor and mortgagee, or that they 
tuty not legitimately he crediU>d to cither, tliat there is any sort of 
breo in bia contention. All is vague as it is wild— twoor tbrvo 
■Hi«ra >nd an ohilt^r didum — and yet he tells us that the investing 
pnbUo givtt oar to him t 

Wfa*t Australian resources arc, the evidence of Australian progress 
■boTB cloarly enough. I say nothing of tho many millions of acres 
of analknatod land— agi-icultural, pastoral, and mineral — which yet 
aviit settlenif nt ami exploitation, and which arc indubitably assets 
mora than sufficient to cover the whole sum of Australian indebted- 
■MM. 1 will not refer here to the assets in permanent works, 
dinctly and indirectly reproductive. I will endeavour to show 
nUi«r, but briefly, what has been the economic dovelopment of 
ndl moiirces as have been operated upon by the people. 

Eiportfl and imports, with an aggregate valtie of £!)4,742,70S ia 
Wn, KM (0 £12%,Wi,So5 in 1888 ; exports in the latter year being 



I 



68 AvttraJa*ia : a VindieatiM. 

£57,605,474, against imports £65,256,681. The srenge of a 
per bead for Aofitralia id 1888 was £15 18«. lOd., againet itJ 1^. Id. 
for the United EiDgdom and £3 lit. 5d. for Canada. In 18611 
exports and imports increaEed to £131,749,505. 

Bat let me show an example of fairness to our hostile critics and 
point out that, for purposes of comparisau, the Aastralasian inter- 
colonial trade sboald be deducted from litis totaL Tliis gives q9 
£40,481,672 as the imports of 1889, £85.902,879 as the exports, 
£76,884,051 as the total ; and favourable comparison is Etill 
pouible. 

Bank depoeiU in AQstralasia on March 31, 1890, amoont«d to 
£108,278,943, and Eavingfl-bank deposits to £15,482,770, giving 
total deposits of £123,761,713 (more than two-thirds of the total 
debt), and the average deposit amount to the credit of each depositor 
in the savings banks of Australia is £25 Is. 4d., against £18 7)., the 
English average. 

The public revenue of AuBtralasia increased from £20,607,808 
in 1880-61 to £28,626,889 in 1888-89~that is, by £8,019,581, 
while the interest payable upon the total debt of 1888-89 was 
£7,084,041. And the revenue continues to increase. Mr. Fortescne'e 
contention that the population does not increase in the same ratio 
as the debt, does not concern the investing class if the increase in 
the general wealth be in tliat ratio and the means be available for 
meeting habihtiea : and his argument that the debt increases rela- 
tively to the multiple of the revenue never had much force, and 
seems now,ln"GuileleBS Austraha, "to have been dropped. Isappose 
that the most prejudiced critic of Australasian affairs, assuming that 
he knows anything about lliem, will admit that other charges of 
administration do not increase relatively to the increase in interest 
on loans, and that the revenne which, witliout undue strain upon 
the taxpayer, provides in eight years an increase more than sufficient 
to pay the whole amount of interest due on tlie loan account, is 
sufficient. 

I would add that a stronger case can be made out if we compare 
the revenue of 1873, £12,260,000, with that of 1888, £28,626,888— 
the increase during that period being £16,864,889, or 183 per cent., 
while population increased from 2,103,000 to 8,678,000, or by 75 
per cent. 

It is true in part, as is alleged, that taxation has increased. 
Taxation has increased in every Colony of Australasia, except New 
Zealand and Tasmania, during the period 1830 to 1888. In Victoria, 
. ^d. to £3 Ss. Id. per head. In New South Walea, 




Aiutrahsia: a Vindication. 60 

frocB £i Of. Bii. to £2 lOi, 5d. In Queensland, from £8 Is. 2(1. to 
f 4 fU. 8d. In Soatli Australia, from £1 18s. 7(2. to ^ 6$. Gd., 
mad in Western Auslraiia, where taxation per bead was highest 
»od debt per head lowest, firom £S 13s. Id. to £i Ss, Id, It is 
true also thut in all the Colonies taxation per bead is higher than 
in lite United Kingdom. But it sbould be borne in mind that the 
AnstnUvian loxpayer receives a very considerable equivalent in 
tbft Eonn of low railway iares and freights, and also in improved 
tiBd« facilities, throagh roods, harbours, Ac, for which he is willing 
lo pay thus indirectly, and it ia only a matter of account whether 
bs oontnfautes to the revenue in tbia manner or by heavier pay- 
nuDts for milway accomiuodatiou. 

A* ao illuRtratiou of the people's willingness to pay for value 
Beeetred in this way. I may quote my experience as M.H.A. for 
Wwt DoTon in Tasmania. The maximum road rate imposed by 
Ii* was Is. in the pound. Very many of my constituents were 
vUlitig to have that maximum raised to 2s. Hd. 

The improvement in value of the private estate of Anstralaeia, 
largely due to the expenditure of loan moneys upon public works, is 
ftgood inde^i of the growing wealth of those Colonies —e.r/. the value 
«{nl«Ab1fl property in Victoria increased from jCG9,22I,U89 in 1874 
to f 187,658,611 in 1B80, or by £118,380,872, i.<;. the increase was 
•qiul to about tliree limes the debt of that Colony. And this esti- 
aatfl was made for purposes of taxation be it remembered, and, if 
it errod, would have erred on the aide of moderation. 

The total private wealth of Australasia is estimated by the Go- 
nntmont statist of New South Wales at i.'l,12!),000,000, or £8(H) 
par bead of population. Dr. GifTen, in the Journal of the Royal 
atatittieal Societij for March, 1800, estimates the wealth of the 
Unitad Kingdom for IMDO (including public and private wealth) at 
nOpOOO.OOO.OOO, or i.270 per head. 

Now exception may be taken to the method by wliioh the Go- 
statists of New South Wales and Victoria arrive at their 
I of private wealth. They take for a series of years the deaths 
1, and the values of the estates of those deceased, and obtain 
■a average for the whole population. But this rough-and-ready sys- 
tan takes no accotmt of the fact that the average age of the sur- 
mors may be different from that of those dying in a given period. 
1 only mention this by way of proving that I want to argrue my 
(■H oot birly ; b\it if, accepting this objection, we discard the 
fifore of i300 per head as too high, we ought still, in Mmeas, to 
lAslitate another figure not very much lower, and that would 



4 




Austmhsia: a VinHicaiio 



prohablj be not far sbortof, and, perhaps, in excess of, Dr. Giffi 
rate for England— £270. 

But I will endeaTour to illustrate in a move striking naannet 
Tvliafc Australasiflji resources and capacity arc, I will take one only 
of her industries as an example, anil very few words are required 
to present my case. The capital invested iu sheep-farming alone 
is computed at £300,000,000, or 60 per cent, more than the national 
debt of all Australasia. The last wool-clip (the destination of most 
of which is England! is valued at i'20,000.000. or over 2\ times tlie 
amount of interest which Australasia has to pay on her loan account. 

Do not these facts justify Australasia in a belief in her resources? 
Should tbey not satisfy the British creditor that the aasetj which 
constitute only a portion of his security are increasing in value ? 
Should they not refute the covert statement of Mr. Fortescue that 
Australia is on the brink of bankruptcy, or Mr. David Christie 
Murray's crude remarks about Australian insolvency ? 

Mr. Christie Murray has been dubbed a "globe-trotter," and been 
hurt by hia characterisation as such. How does the case stand 
with him ? He " did " Australia, that requires years of study, in a 
few months. In an luihappy hour ho came across Mr. Haytcr's 
statistics, saw " copy " in them, and has floundered from one sta- 
tistical pitfall to another whenever he has attempted to apply them. 

In his " Antipodeans " (the Contemporary, September, 1891) he 
generaUses about Australia thus: 

There is no country in which so high 8. condition of general comfort, 
so lofty a Htandard of proved intelligence, and such large and varied 
means to intellectual excellence exist aide by side with so much turbtilenee, 
80 la\ a commercial morality, and such overcharged statistics of drunken- 
ness and crimes of violence. 

But, animated by misplaced confidence in those statistics, he will 
not stop at generalities, as does the more cautious Mr. Fortescue. 
Not satisfied with dealing this vague blow at Australian commercial 
morality — as to which his very brief experience can have given him 
little or no information — he tells us of the terrible pronenesa of Aus- 
tralia to insolvency : 

Everybod^v it in a hurry to be rich [he Payfi]. In 1888 there wm 
an insolvency to every 1,CCW of the populatiim of Australia, including 
Tasmania and New Zealand, Evnn in the disastrous 1879 wo could only 
show half that in the United Kingdom, and the normal average is leaa 
than a quarter of the Colutiial record. 

Sere we have a comparison ma&e A^el^ffoeo. \:tici 'viWtW'j \ 



AtutrabmA : a Vindication, 



ei 



nn|i9 of ligareH. In tlio Sintt place, no accounl is takt'ti of 
thftt, wliilo in thv United Kingdom tlipro are thousands 
who AT» indepfodent of trade fliiotualion.'). luid milHon!) who aro 
hrni-atli insoh-ency, iTiantiitich oh they have never known any other 
condition, in Aujitnihiniu nearly i-vcrylxuly is liir>.'elydi'pi-ndi'iil upon 
mnUtionx iti prosperity, and poase-tMed of mifficienl naans to make 
it *ii»rll» llir wliilc of <rri'ditora to procisod agninat liim. In tliu 
d&Bulicatioa of occupation of insolvt-nta in ^'iotoria for 1888 we 
Soil tha Inrguftt pntry against farmers |(S'2), and the next largest 
M(wnst labourers (I>7); artizans and people of tho artizan grmie 
eontiibnto very largely to tbti return, while merchants account for 
fbor imly. 

Bat, npurl from this, comparison is impossible by reason of the 
choDRC wlii(--b took place in the Bankruptcy Act of the United 
Kinfcdom in 188i), and because large companies and eyndicatos in 
fnglsnd have saved the majority of practical insolvencies from the 
■IscUrcd lint. Kince 1H88 the official figures in England have been 
•ompUed on an eutiri-ly different baelH from those of 1H79, the 
official record of insolvencies being miicli !<mallcr than the real 
neord (««; " hiBpoctorOenurars Iteport for 1801 "), 

Tbe only way to show the solvency or otlicm'isc of Australasia is 
to pieco the vrunoinic statistics for all the Colonies together, us Pr. 
(iifliw did for Ireland (in the Nineteenth Century, l^Iarch, 1880), and 
Ui«u judge fairly what burden the group can hear. I have only 
givm itoinu luiuling jHiints that suein to con-oborate the opinion that 
Aiutnlaaia would bear this test creditably. 

Now as to Mr. FortuBcuu's charges against the administration of 
Aastralian finances— the bogus surpluses, the false balance-sheets, 
tad the fictitious returns that he speaks of as proofs that the Aus- 
traltuis have the integrity of the British race. I am sorry that the 
British integrity is not of a higher order. I think I can show that 
tlw) Australian standard ia. 

Mr. Fairfietd (see " A I'lea for Liberty " I is the parent or foster- 
fftnmt of tlicae charges. In the " Seamy Side of Australia " he was 
quoted oM follows : 

It waa sabneiiueiilly iKlmittoil by Minist(<r8 ( Victoria) t)lat tbo »uriiliiii?<i 
•f Ihkt tia»H-H(l) and of provious .vcnra hod been mainly arrived at by 
lb* ■tnu)^ bul time-liaDUiired boukkaepiiJ^ expedient vl crediting the 
mmiw witli all monej-B received during tbe linanciol year, and carrying; 
Nftibi eipeuditure oi- dvbiiu tu futurity. 

Id Ids later paper Mr. l''ort«scne attempta to fortify his indict- 
nallijr t]iL' following secondary evidence. He Kuyx : 



62 Awtraiasia : a ViiidicatiM, 

Again, daring the general election in Hew South Wales, a few weeks 
ago, it was clearly proved that an item, £200,000, being the price of a, sale 
of Government land, had, quite innocently, been allowed to figure on the 
credit side of the ConBolidiited Bevenue Account, althongh the aalo had 
never taken place and the money had aever been received. A judicioiu 
telegram in teffirence to the matter was sent to London from Sydney, 
and the whole affair waa hushed up. How wideis therange of Australiui 
simplicity I 

Tlien, from that repository of misleading Btatementa, I^Ir. Fairfield. 
he gleans: (1) That for years past {in Victoria) large suma had 
been expended without the sanction of Parliament, improperly 
withdrawn from the debit side of the public accounts and carried 
forward for aubaeqnent adjuetment ; and (2) that the Treasurer 
was aiithoilBed by FarUament to raise loans of £5,600,000 in all, in 
order to " aijuare bia accounts." 

And then he favours us with a maBter-atroke of bis own, which 
runs thus : 

The Victorian Treasurer is accustomed to make himself a. present, 
in bis loan account statement, of six montbti' interest ; and Victorian 
Treasurers, eo far as I can gather, have been for eome years trying to 
"jump over their financial sliadow" in this simple vay. 

There is an unusual amount of timidity about the " so far as I 
can gather," and one might well be excoaed for wishing that he 
Iiad added, " and so far as I can understand," for, whether by 
accident or design, there is much of this which is mdis indigeslaqut 
moles, and none of it which fairly presents the case dealt with. 

First, for the New Houtb Wales item, as to which we find Mr. 
Fortescue lending a credulous ear to the Opposition witness, and 
making a misstatement that appears absolutely inexcusable. It 
was cried out from the housetops of Sydney by the Parliamentary 
Opposition that the Treasurer bad improperly estimated as an asset 
i'200,000. the value of certain Crown land, which was, and is, 
available as an asset of that or greater value. This land is part 
of the new Centennial Park, and the Treasurer prudently refrained 
from realising upon it, because, owing to the improvement effected 
by this beautiful park, the value was certain to increase. There 
was no concealment about this — no shadow of attempt to mislead. 
The insinuation that the Treasurer sought, or had occasion, to 
impose upon anybody in regard to it is uncalled for. The assertion 
(unreservedly made) that a. judicious telegram was sent to bush 
this up is a ridiculous figment of the writer's imagination. The 
thing was not of a nature to be hushed up. The only person to 



Auatralaiia: a Vinduation. 



■T 

^^^^^^^^HUegrum cuuM have been sent wasLlieAgeut-Oener&l. 

^^ES^^u^nEe assurance of that gentleman that he never received 
MDj telegram of the sort. 

Mr. Uowaril Willougliby (Nineteenth Century, August, 1801) has 
fthl; snd sofiicietitly explained away the charges against Victoriau 
TroMuren. L'nforlunately Mr. Fortcscue doei) not appear capable 
of diacriminating between loans cxpenctiture and expenditure from 
eamut rovenne, or, if he himself comprehends the diiTerence, he 
doM not wish his readers to do so. Uis case against the Treasurer 
for obteining Parliikmentary sanction for a loan of i.'S, 000,000 to 
Kioare Ms accounts is absurdly and unfairly put. The Treasurer did 
not ask for this authority to square liis ordinary expenditure with 
Ih* rtTcnue, but to raise money for the cost of public works already 
Hnctioned and chargeable to the loan account. Every Treasurer 
in Atulralasis does the same — all the world is at liberty to know it ; 
■nd it would puzzle the ingenuity of Mr. Fortescue to find any other 
■od b«tlii[ eysti'm by which it could be done. The charge that large 
■urns have been expended out of roveuue without the sanction of 
Parliament, and iinpropurly withdrawn from the debit side of the 
public account, is put as unfairly as it could be. This, as Mr. 
VUldOgbby points out, is railway expeodituro, controlled by a 
||MHBttnoit tliat is lurgely independent of Ministries and Paiiia- 
■iiSfc: Ibe expenditure is not unauthorised by ParUament except in 
wfir U it exceeds the amount voted, and no part of it is " with- 
dtmwn " from the debit account, although, owing to delay in making 
out tbe annual statements of receipts and disbursements, some 
■xpMidittuv has not been shown in the year wherein it was 
inearred. This was the explanation of the inflated surplus of one 
year ; but surely Mr. WiUoughby is correct in saying that, " if tlie 
warplas from one year was inflated, so was the expenditure of the 
next, and the two inflations lulled each other." 

Bat Ur. Fortescue is imbued with the strange idea that, for the 
Vietoriaji or Australian Treasurer, tliere is neither a day of 
Kofconuig nor a critical Opposition ready at any moment to point 
oat enicial errors in finance or any administrative sin calculated to 
dsDUigA the credit of the Government. He seems to think that the 
dddt carried forward is expunged from the ledger, and this peculiar 
idea is admirably illustrated by his allegation that the Victorian 
TiMcartr is accustomed to make himself a present in his loan 
HMOont slatument of six months' interest— i.e. if there be nnytbtng 
intbiword "accustomed, " he pays interest for six months of every 
twelve, and carries on the balance to the Greek Kalends. 




64 



AmiraUtaia .' a Vindieatton^ 



Wliat are tlie facts '? The Victorian Treasurer and oilier Trea- 
savers of Australasia hold, or held, that interest is payable when 
it falls due, and should he debited to that year in which the due 
date of the payment occurs. Hn, if interest fell due on January 1. 
haWng accrued during the preceding six months, it would, where 
the financial year ends on December HI, appear as expenditure 
of the year in which it was paid, and not in the year dnring 
which it accrued. But whether that practice be absolutely correct 
or not, the Treasurer can only "jump over his shadow " once for 
each loan, and thereafter he must find himself paying and duly 
charging to each annual account twelve months' interest ; and 
throughout Mr. Fortescuo ignores the fact, if he be cognisant of it, 
thut there is a rigid scrutiny of Australasian public accounts by an 
Audi tor- General (in Victoria, and in South Australia, two Commis- 
sioners of Audit), who, absolutely independent of Ministers, is the 
servant of Parliament, and can only be removed by a joint voie of 
the two Houses. 

Upon such fallacies and casuistries aa these is it sought to base 
charges eminently damaging to Australia. Let the British investor, 
for whom such tender care is expressed, only examine the case for 
hunself, and see how flimsy and unsupported it is. 

Austrahan public works are unremunerative Mr. Fortescae tella 
us. Quoting Mr. Fairfield agaiu, he says : 

He (Mr. Fairfield) infers from lliis that " piiLlic works constructed on 
Slate KociftliBtio principles never do become productive." I should prefer 
to state, more modestly, that Australian public works have fio far shown 
BuiaU sis^HB of being prodactive. So far then as regards the actual 
investment of the Atistralian loans, the outlook for the British cApitalist 
does not seem very bright. 

He states that the Railway Commissioners of Victoria were in- 
structed to efface surplus railway revenue by reducing freights and 
fares— a misleading assertion, in that, if any insti-uctions of the 
kind were issued, they must have applied only to tbe-sarplua after 
deducting all charges, including interest on loans cxiiended in con- 
struction, for we find that for the period referred to Victorian 
railways, like tliose of New South Wales, paid over 3 per cent, upon 
loan moneys expended upon them. 

But, says Mr. Forteacue, your returns from Victorian rtuiwaya are 
fictitious, because you do not reckon in the cost of construction 
£8,000,000 granted free of interest to the railway system of the 
Colony. I can quite appreciate his failure to see the weakness of 
this argument ; for Jias he not held up New Zealand as a model to 



Ml 




I 



Australasia: a Viiulication, 

AnslntlU 1>«caiise £10,000,000 of h«r nationul debt were incurred 
(or WU axpomlituru? He evidently thinks Chat war is a hetter 
iovestiuent for the Britiiih capitalist than lasting public works 
vrhicli benefit mmikind : aud how shall lie understand nhat Viclorin 
baa done by her free gift of £8,000,000 aiu of revenue to her riil- 
w&ja ? \'iutoria, in this instance, has practically refunded to her tax- 
p«yera £3,000,000 which she might have wasted or held to swell 
soocessive surjiiitses ; she has strengthened the security upon which 
her creditors depend, and to all intents and purposes has wade 
Ifaoae miUioiis a sinking fund for the Uquidation jjro tanto of her 
dflbt. 

Bat Mr. Fortescuc is in the densest of fogs upon his railway 
qUMtion. Ue cannot understand Mr. Willout'hby's argument that 
irilile interest is regularly paid on Victorian loans the eieditors are 
not ftfleeted whether Victorian railways are managed for the benefit 
oltiutae that use them or otherwise. I will add to his bewilder- 
nrat by quoting the opinion of one of tlie foremost authorities 
upon trade and railway statistics in the world. He, in reference to 
Mr. Fortescue'B papers, says : 

The charge! are not inlellifjible. The points are too emalL For 
inalanc^, the railways ate said not to pay a rate of iolerest eijual to what 
ih* Aualralian aovemuient lias to pay for its loans. But the difference 
U t or 1 per cent, only at moat, and tiiia means that Auatraha bat 
tIfiOOJMO ot interest to pay, or therenbouls, unil Uie railways only earn 
aboal £0,000.000. What if the statement were true ? The railways might 
aOl be a good inveatment. The Qovemmeut of ludia was ia a hke posi- 
tion for many years, and did not come tut badly. The Russian Govern- 
maot iain a like fix. Tbe thing is iDcldenlal to railways iu a new country, 
■od doM not mean anything bod at all. It miftht be n-orth the while of 
Aiumlians to have a deGcil of ^2,000,000 a year pro tcixon the public 
ttalway aocount for the sake of the incidental advaotaf^e. 

Thifl heavy armament should silence the popguns of Mr. For- 
tMcne'B battery. 

Bat I may add a, word to carry the above argument to its 
logical conclusion. Not only may it pay a country to work a 
nUwajr system which produces directly less than the armual cost, 
U Diay, and does pay in Australia to construct works wluch give 
DO diract reluni at all. Take, for example, a road made by the 
State into new agricultural country, and, after construction, main- 
luood by local authorities out of rates. That road, costing, say, 
£800 per mile, will induce settlement to tlie extent of l,2d0 acres 
at l«ut per mile, or eight &trma of ISO acres each. Those farmn 



I YindwatioTi. 

will be peopled by some forty persons, wlio will contribute to the 
revenue in taxation at least £100 a year, or 12^ per cent, iipon the 
cost of the mile of road, TLere would be other indirect eontri- 
butiouB to the national wealth ; but direct return, in the absence of 
toll-bars, there would be none. This has been proved in regard to 
roads, and may be shown hereafter in regard to irrigation expen- 
diture, which, so far, is only of a tentative character. 

As to the future of irrigation as a reproductive agency, what haa 
been done at the Austrahan Irrigation Colonies, Mildura and 
Benmark, justifies a very much less pessimistic view than Mr. For- 
tescne's. The Bishop of Ballarat, who recently visited these new 
fields of industry, pronounced the progress made amazing. From 
these Colonies raisins of excellent quality have already been sent 
to this country, and consignments of oranges, lemons, apricots, and 
other fruits, together with wine, olive oil, and other products, are, 
in due course, to follow. It seenia somewhat premature, then, to 
speak of Victorian expenditure upon irrigation as waste. 

But Mr. Fortescue does not rest satisfied with his sneer at 
Australian resources ; he is exceedingly dubious as to the soundness 
of the administration of such resources as exist. He tells us : 

TIiosB bleaaed words "bonndleBs reaourcsB" have cost the British 
investor countlees millions. That foolish nnd confiding person listened 
for years to similar pleas and representations &am the Argentine 
borrower. I do not compare Auetralian with Argentine borrowing, but I 
contend that, in the case of all countries that pawn tbeir future with 
the British investor, the question is not one of natnrol resources alone. 
There is also the question of the development of those resouroes ; the 
question of administration and of management, &c. 

Only remarking, by the way, that Mr. Fortescue does compajre 
Australian and Argentine borrowing, notwithstanding his denial, 
and that, by implication, he says that Australia's boundless resourees 
have lost to the British investors countless millions. I proceed to 
quote another passage of hia : 

The Labour Party is supreme throughout tho Australasian Colonies, 
and there can be no hope of sound administration while that supremooy 
taste. The question that remains is : Will that supremacy be overthrown 
before it meets its natural death in bankruptcy ? 

Fortunately for Australasia, her critics very freely contradict 
each other, and not infrequently contradict themselves. Thus, while 
Mr. Christie Murray says that the Antipodean Press is entitled to 
rank amongst the best and ablest in the world, and that tho 



Auitralasia : a Vindiealion. 



07 



joamaU of Melbonmo and Sydney are models of what newspapers 
ougbt to hv, Mr. Francis Adnms informs us that " the Bulletin is 
the one really talented and original outcome of the Australian 
Prens." which la very much as if we snid of the Press of London 
that JiftHiem Snr.'mty is its one valuable product. But we must 
malee allowances for Mr, Adams'a peculiar appreciation of the 
BwUp/in— he wns a writer for it. 

And we find Mr. Adams entertaining widely different views &om 
tliose expressed by Mr. Porleacue about the power of the people. Not 
tltat 3klr. Adams has much, if anything, good to say of the People 
(with B big P) : perhapx lie loves them all the more because, according 
to him, Uiey are so bad. He has certainly libelled them without stint. 
He describes them as having tlte taint of cruelty ; as feeling the 
raanlerous desire to Rhoot or stab, rather than to spar up and strike 
with tile list ; as pure Positivists and Materialists ; as of loose habits 
in eoujugal matters, and much else that is e<iunlly untrue. But yet 
tbete erring creatures of the masses are dear to his heart. It is 
against the well-to-do and leading men of the Colonics that his 
lancoor is more especially directed — " tlio little cliques that gather 
round the Governors " (in which, perhaps, Mr. Adams and the 
Baiirlin weni not much cultivated), and "the old slave-owning 
oAeul fiuniUes, whose brutality is shown by the administration of 
hideons and unrepealed statutes ; " these come in for the scorpions 
whila the people only receive the Ia§h of his whip, 

1 confess I do not know what Mr. Adams means by " the old 
ilavc-owning oflicial families : " but this writer is frequently too pro- 
foond for me. I do not understand the sense in which Hobart can 
W tlMcribed as a peiulant of Melbourne, although Mr. Adams thus 
describes it, and, 1 suppose, has some idea why he does so ; and 
when I read the opening paragraph — the argimient — of "Social 
LilB ID Australia," I fancied another Captain Cuttle was uttering 
ane of his nebulous proverbs, and that a phantom Bansby hod 
thrown light npon the question in hand by the epigram, " The bear- 
ing* of this obsonation lays in the application of it." 

" Th9 administration of hideous and unrepoale<l statutes," I under- 
■Und to reft^r to the application during the critical time of the last 
Australian strike of an ActofGeorgolV. directed against conspiracy; 
•nd, if W), tJioaii who love good order sliould applaud the employ- 
nitnt of this measure. The offence which is charged against the 
mj'thical class of slave-owners is, in fact. none. There might Iiave 
for censure if repealed statutes had been administered, 



Ausimlasia : a Vindication. 



but Mr. Adams takes pains to tell us that the statutes were lin^^^ 
pealed. 

Mr. Fortescue, at all events, should applaud this thing nhich 
Mr. Adams reviled. He should recognise in the strong and success- 
ful action taken by the Governments of Queensland, New South 
Wales, and Victoria against a turbulent minority that endangered 
the trade, the social security, and the general well-being of those 
Colonies, a snflicient guarantee that government " by the people for 
the people " in Australia is not necessarily misrule. 

It is no new thmg that the votes of the men of labour control 
Australasian Farliaiuentary elections. A franchise which is every- 
where hberal, and in some Colonies that of manhood suffrage, haa 
put the people aa much in power its they can very well be. But 
that power has been, and will be. I am sure, exercised with modera- 
tion and for the general interest. It is true that in the recent 
general elections of New Zealand and New South Wales several 
Labour candidates have been returned ; but this circumstance is 
known to be the result of reaction after the great strike, and may 
never occur agam ; and if it should recur, and even larger numbers 
of Labour candidates be elected, I believe that the government of 
the Colonies would be in no way impaired thereby. 

And now for Mr. Fortescue's suggestion of possible repudiation. 
Mr. Willoughby has rejected this as " the babble of the bar and 
cynicism of the club," and urged that the Austrahans have the 
integrity of the British race. Mr. Fortescue's comment upon this 
is that they have proved their integrity by the pubhcation of balance- 
sheets which are false and returns which are fictitious, and he sub- 
stantiates his charge by the following proofs : 

I hrive heard Colonial politic iaiis— not, I grant, of the highest stamp — 
speak, in couveraatioii, of repudiation ae within the range of praatioaJ 
politicB. " Why," they said in effect, " should the coloniatH be the slavea 
of the Britiah capitalist? " 

Let me point out further that the recommendation of the Victorian 
Railway Coniiuittee, that freehold land reqiured for future railways shall 
be virtuaUy conGecated, does not inspire me with confidence as to the 
impossibility of Australian repudiation. 

Then he quotes from a New Zealand paper: 

Perhaps no politician of a high class does favour national repudiation : 
but we hnve not many politicians of that class. The major part of our 
politicians are sick for office, and do not permit many scruples lo stand 
in the way of its attainment. Bepudiation has been, and is, more than 
whispered among a certain class of Australian politicians, and the word 
, has been pubholy spoken in New Zealand. 



Auslralaiia: a Vindication. 

And lie concliides : 

Fartbar, crcMUtoni as a cinas aro not popni&r. Any man or the world, 
howprar i|:norant of AnRtnilian finance, could giions tVom the fliriouB 
tiiaa* bsBpeJ on the Mother Country by » sectii)"— and that v 
portMit Mtrtion— of the AnKirnlion I^ess that Anf^tralia is honvJly in h«r 
debt. In onr foulishneas wa have looke.l to AuslraJio for the love of a 
Mii towarde lier parent : we tlnil tho liatred of the morigiMinr townrde 
Iha inorl^aeve. Wo can rbI no more, mid wo may get Its*. Lo;a)t; 
Mnnot b« bought, hat confidnnce may be betrayed and Bold. 

Is ttiiB con^'incing ? Wliat is the value of this babble of politi- 
taoa not of tbe liighest etamp, and probably of the lowest ? These 
mm will neTcr be the leaders of public opinion or the directors of a 
ptmple's destinj. 

And what is there in that recommcDdation of tbe Victorian Rail- 
ny Commissioners which has inspired Mr. Fortescuo with such 
itoubt as to Victorinn integrity ? He does not say that tho r 
mendation has been adopted ; but let thnt pass. It only nmounts 
to this, tliat gainst any compenaation due to tbe owner for land 
Uken for niilway construction there shiiU be a Ret-ofT of the in- 
crement of value arising to the estate of such owner out of that 
nilway. 

Perhaps Mr. Fortescue will not see the ei^uity of this, his views 
apOQ the land question generally being, to put it mildly, anomaloas : 
br wo find him sayint: that " there is eternal tinkering of tho 
knd laws on tbe part of most of the Governments in tbe direction 
of land nationalisation, or some scheme of an equally disturbing 
kiod," wbereaa there hns never been any leginlation whatever in 
the dir«clion of land nationalisation in any Colony of Australasia. 
Hfl tuu been led away, I suppose, by tbe gTadunted land-tax, which, 
altfaongh it may break np large estates and place peasant proprietors 
or tenants on the land instead of sheep, has no semblance to land 
Bfttioiialisation, and no U'ndency to reduce the value of land. 

Mr. Forti'Bcui! Bays Australians abuse and hate the Mother Country 
Wmdm they owe her money. One miffhl suppose that, if repudiation 
Wtn CMitenip1ol«d, Australians would bear their obligations witli 
ptllnr equanimity, and that tbe presence of this n-eentment indi- 
(•Icd their intention to pay. As a fact, there in not tht; almse or 
IIm hatred, or the idea of repudiation, that is either hinted or 
iftnned. 

Ur. Adama ( Fortnitjhtbj Review, September, 1691 ) has discovered 
from Mine recondite sources another reason for thia alleged 
^JSk» of the Mother Countr}' by the youth of Australia, (jf whom 



I 



70 



Australasia : a Vindication. 



be says : " All be knowa or cares for England lies ia his resentment 
and curiosity conceming London." And Mr. Adams on this point 
is just as much worthy of credence as Mr, Forteseue, neither more 
nor less. 

As to repudiation, has Australasia any such example as might 
tempt her to follow hi this direction ? Apart h-om any sense she 
may have as to the propriety of paying her debts, is she justified in 
the behef that repudiation will profit her? The instances of a 
nution attempting this financial strolie are fewer even than the 
threats or forebodings of it. In the United States, during the 
period of the civil war, and when American resentment was greatest 
against England, there ^ere throats of repudiation openly spoken 
by " politicians not of the highest stamp ; " but these were threats 
only. Spain and Portugal are, I believe, the only nations that have 
seriously sought to reheve themselves of their embarrassments in 
this way, and the consequences to these have been trade ostracism 
and exclusion &om the great financial centres that ai-e the fountain- 
heads of commerce. 

It is undoubtedly the destiny of the Australasian Commonweaitb 
to become a rich and powerful State or congeries of States. It is, 
I am sure, the purpose of her people (with the possible exception of 
Mr. Fortesoue's lower-stamp pohticians) to be, and remain, faithful 
to her national obligations. And it is obvious that it is only by 
honestly meeting her liabilities that she can realise in anything like 
full measure the brilliant promise of her youth. Australasia may 
break away from the Mother Country politically ; she may hoist 
the fiag of a republic ; but sh9 cannot break away from England in 
her trade relations : she must remain dependent upon the markets 
of the world — but principally those of Great Britain — in regard to 
that interchange of commodities whereby, alone, her great resources 
can be turned to account and her extensive requirements supplied. 
Her creditors are her best customers, and will remain her customers 
even when Australasia's debt shall have been paid off. 

Mr. Forteseue, determined to push bis repudiation theory to its 
nttermost length, has recently supplemented his arguments (in the 
Nineteenth Century) by pointing out in a letter to the daily press 
two instances of repudiation that have already occurred in Aus- 
tralasia: (1) The refusal of South Australia to contribute to the 
New Guinea Gaarantoe Fund ; {2} the failure of a harbour trust 
in New Zealand. Both these examples are as forcible-feebla as 
most of those hitherto employed. What are the facts ? South 
Australia declined to contribute to the fund guaranteed by Queens- 




Australasia: a Vitidkathn. 



Jor Uio adminiatration of New Guinea, because bIio bad 
witb, or iiitercitt iu, that uqw region, and, 
there was no obbgalion, legal or moral, upon her to ao 
t& Where does repudiation come in here ? Ab for ibe 
other example, it would be just as Beusible to say tliat Great 
Britain woidd repudiate because some corporatioa or corporate 
bod; of England stopped payment aa to assume tliat New Zealand 
W0(ild do so in the anuiogotis case put. 

But Mr. Murray comes iu at this point (the Contemporary, 
September, 1801) with his evidence as to Australian criminality. 
AdmitUug that "the standard of atlulc education is higher than iu 
my other country in the world eicepting Prussia," and that "in 
this regartl the Colonies take rank with any country in the world ; " 
admitting also that " the ordinary traveller of ordinary cnlture 
meets very miicli the same kind of people he meets at home, and 
will. In tliu main, find liimself in the kind of moral and intellectual 
qoartere to which ho has been accustomed," he assails AnstralianH 
in tlio following terms : 

Th» figures fur insanity, alcoholism, Buicide, and crimes of violence are 
ndly large. In Victoria one person in lOG of the population was in 
priaon some part of the year 1BB6. In the United Kingdom, for thai 
jaar, the average of conviations in proportion to population was S'64 per 
1,000. In New South Wales it was H-59, and in the whole of Australaeia it 
■nmimted to 6'IS, although South Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania 
■bowtd ■ joint average of only 3'Bl. 

It ia a contention very commonly ofieted to the traveller that the young 
Colonial (luea not drink spirituous liiiuora at all. The Sgures would 
iiardly MOU) to support this statement, for, whereas the annual consumption 
of qi^ts in the fnitrd Kingdom is '•'S9 (the gallon) per head of popu- 
Ution, it is 1-15 in Kew South Wales, VS'i in Victoria, 1-40 in West 
Atiatralia. and 1*00 in Qiieensbmil. 

Sparsely ss the country is popttlated, there is as much blaspheiny to 
tbo niuare wile as sen'es for the people of Great Britain. ... A teamjtei 
in a tight place will shoulder a novioe out of duty with a " I«t me get at 
'ma," and will at once hegin to curse so horribly that fur vrry thatM't 
aafa tha dmub creatures iu his charge will move. 

Here we have Mr. Murray exercising the profound credulity of 
the " glolw- trotter," and giving some excellent samples of his system 
of applying for purposes of comparison one set of undigested 
itaiistica with others wholly ungenerical. 

I would first observe that, if there were any warrant for these 
(ihargea, tbo brunt of them would &U upon p«ople bom in tliu I'liited 
Kiogilom rather than upon the Colonial bom. In a carefully pre- 



1 

bad no ^V 



J 



pared statement for Victoria in 1884 we find 16.871 charges against 
people of the United Kingdom, as compared with 7,441 againHl Vic- 
torians and 1,386 against other Colonials. In 1889 tlie Victarians 
(irrested were 17'53 per 1,000, as against 46-04 English, 58'4D Scotch, 
and 84'S)4 Irish born. CccJum nan animum mutant qui trans mart 
currunl. 

Then it should be remembered that crime and drunkenness might 
naturally be expected to be proportionately larger in Australia by 
reason of the greater proportion of adult males to the total popu- 
lation. 

Next I note that, in employing Mr. Hayter's figures, Mr. Murray 
does not employ the necessary quahfications given in Mr. Hayter's 
notes— c.y, : 

A person arretted more than once during the i,-enr. or arretted at one 
time on eeveral charges, is coimted as b, aeparate individual in respect to 
each arrest or charge, and this, eicept when the contrary is stated, mnat 
be borne in mind by those consulting the foUowing paragrftphB and 
tables. 

And having failed in this important particular, he proceeds to 
compare the Australian statistics, which show all the charges for 
all courts, with the statistics of the United Kingdom, which ex- 
hibit only the committals to superior courts and differ in otbet 
respects. 

Now much in this connection depends upon the relative ccautt- 
tution and powers of the lower courts, and the dividing lines between 
serious and less serious offences ; and in these particulars statistioa 
exaggerate the extent and importance of Australian crimes and 
offences. That very many of the offences which load the Colonic 
charge-sheet are of a very trivial character ia confivmed by the faot 

h that, of 11,801 persons imprisoned by Victorian magistrates during 

^^^^ 1889, 1,014 were sentenced to from eight to fifteen days, and 6,608 
^^^^1 (or 55 per cent.) to seven days and under. 

^^^^P How Mr. Murray finds that one out of 105 persons in Victoii* 
^^^^ was in prison during some part of 1888 I cannot di\-ine. An eini- 
r nent statist of this country is equally at a loss to discover how this 

I is made out, and I cannot help thinking that Mr, Murray's statistics 

I upon this point are of his own conception. But, without wasting 

1 time upon this ill-considered statement, I may safely say that Mr. 

I Murray has &iled to prove his allegation that there is more orime 

I in Australia than in the United Kingdom. 

I As to the charge of drunkenness, Mr. Jlurray starts w'th a grave 

I error. He puts the consumption of spirits in the United Kingdom 



Atulrabuia : a VindiMtien, 



78 



at 'Ad of A gallon per liead, nhcreas the actual consamption is one 
gsllon per head (see §tatisticBl abstract for the United Kingdom). 
And thvn he overlooka the fact that spirits are not the only form of 
skoholic drinks, and thai the consumption of beer and wine in the ' 
Uoilod Kingdom far exceeds that of Australia. It is, I believe, 
impoaaible to estimate accurately the quantity of beer consumed in 
the I'nitt'd Kingdom, but an approximate estimate recently made 
•howed the consamption of ulcoliol (beer, wine, and spirits) to be 
4^ in tlia United Kingdom as compared with S^ in Aii»truha. 

But Mr. Murray Fpeciatly contradicts the contention that the 
foong Colonial docs not drink spirituous liqaors at all. This 
eont«ntioD is, however, correct. Speaking generally, the young 
Coloni&l is of exceedingly temperate habits. As Mr. Murray ob- 
aerves, " In all up-country places men drink tea. They drink it all 
&y long, and at every meal, in amazing quantities." Australasians 
eoninme 76 per cent, more tea per head than the people of the 
United Kingdom, They arc the largest tea-drinkers in the world, 
Imt they are not at the same time consumers in quantity of alcoholic 
driuke. The old bands— the men of British or Irish birth— do drink 
intoxicating liquors ; the Colonials, as a rule, do not do so habitually, 
if at all. 

As to the charge of blasphemy, liow is it possible to argue witli 
one who believea that bullocks blush and tly from curses? Mr. 
Mnrray has, I imagine, not endeavoured to " fill his life " by bnllock- 
drlving, or he would have known that a novice, even with the moflt 
OOpioas supply of blasphemy, cannot always get a team to move, 
while the experienced hand can do so by (^ad and voice, thoogh he 
dioat milk-and-water platitudes at the unwilling beeves. As a 
fact {pointed out by " Anstralasian " in tho Daily Chronicle), there is 
infinitely more BiLUngsgate to be heard in London than throughout 
tb* longth and breadth of Australasia, and a much greater proh- 
•biHly of its being uttered in the presence of women. 

Mr. Adams has something to say in the same strain, bnt having 
■pplied the bane he is ready with the autidottj. He is severe upon 
Ihe Melbourne people only to discover that, after all, they are not 
vary different from the people of ihe Mother Country, Ue . 
murks: 

Hm trulh is that, in Melbourne, where much that is t.vpically Amrtraliao 
ii lo b« fotmd, much also U a mere replica Kt eeconi) hand of tha older 
dfiliiBticm. The closcness^lo England is the cauie of thia. 

" A rvplica at second hand " ia a too pleonastic phnue to be 
tNdily intelligible, nor can it be seen at the first glance why of 



Australlaa capitals Melbourne should be prououncod as peculiarl}' 
cloBe to England : bub it is plain from this statement that the 
Melbourne communitj, in Mr. Adams's opinion, very much resembles 
an English one. 

Recent experience baa somewhat craelly contravened one of 
Mr, Adams'H criticisms. He says that 

Those who have to do with tlio introdncLion of "high-art shows" of 
whatever sort to hia (the Australasian 's] notice have in ahiiosl every case 
hvod to keenly regret il. 

What about the reception accorded to Madame Bemliardt, and 
the £'50,000 she has remitted homo out of the proceeds of her 
Australian tour ? 

Would that Mr. Adams had uttered nothing worse than pleon- 
asms ! It is to be deplored that he permitted himself, in the conrss 
of a general libel upon AustraUans, to cast a slur at one of the 
mighty dead, at a statesman and orator who was honoured by his 
Sovereign, respected by all pubhc men who knew him, and beloved 
by the people amidst whom he lived a hfe of honourable labour 
and charitable worlis. The slur aimed at this able, eloquent, and 
philanthropic man merely recoils upon hiin who cast it. 

I do not suppose that Australasia requires any advocacy of mine. 
The most envenomed stings of her gnat-hke critics and calum- 
niators cannot prevent, if they can retard, the fulfilment of her 
splendid destiny. But a just resentment has urged me to make 
this protest, and I can only hope that my rejoinder, which deals 
only with the more salient points of the attacks, will operate in some 
degree as an antidote to the baneful articles that have called it 
forth. 

I will close my paper witli the remarks of Lord Hopetomi, 
Governor of Victoria, upon Australasia's latter-day critics that 
appeared in the Titocs' telegraphic column of November 13 last : 

These travelling scribeH are received here as visitors and are treated 
well, but the kindneBS shown them is not repaid, for the Auatrolians are 
declared to be little better than savagee, their finances are described as 
rotten, and their luyalty as worthless. . . . This is not n proper portraiture 
of a nation. These articles have little weight with educated people, bat 
others might believe ironi them that our feeling is one of resentment 
towards Great Britain, and our only desire is to dip into tlie pockets of 
the Eritiah investor and repudiate him when nothing more is ubtaitiable. 
Such misleading statements are not likely to promote a friendly feeling, 
and might lead to a dissolution of the present happy partnership. 



AttslraUuia : a Vindkatio 



Discus 9 ION. 



Sir Maikjolu Fbaber, E.CM.G. (late Colonial SecroUry of 
Wutem Aostralia) : I have now uo oOicial connecLion with Aus- 
tnUsia. I resided thtre for some tltirty-five years, and I ttdnlc 
I may claim to be acquainted with, at any rate, a considerable 
portioD of it, With regard to this paper— this vindication and the 
MtioQ of Australasia in the post and up to tlie present tims— I 
tbiok Sir Edward ISraddon has come forward in a chivalrous 
niMUUtr to Bphnter lances with the Quixotic detractoi-s of that 
•onntry, seeing that the Colony which he so ably represents cannot 
bt aud (o rest under the tiupntatiou of having sinned in any of the 
■■tliiiii under diftcuaaion. Tasmauia^that most interesting and 
ehaiming island, which I have twice visited — has gone on steadily, 
•nd 1 am quite certain tliat none of the charges vni\ lie as regards 
that portion of our dominions. Sir Edward Braddon refers to 
tba otulaughts on Australasian " maonera, morals, and money." 
Id ngani to " manners," I think those who have been in contact 
•nd in friendly intercourse with returned Australasians must allow 
tbU nuDy Australasians hikve improved their manners individitally 
during their residence at the Antipodes. As to their " morals," I 
will not pretend to trn verse what has been said ; I am content to assert 
that tb«y are, as a whole, a moral people. In no part of Her 
lUjcatj's dominions, I believe, an^ such large sums spent out of 
the pock«t8 of the people for educational purposes, and that may 
tw aaid 10 be done with the view of training up the young in tlie 
way they Ehould go nnd of teaching them to lead good und useful 
lives. Now as to " money." This, we know, is a mercenary age, 
•ad I may be pardoned while I refer bricdy to some causes of 
tba pruent monetary position. Australasia really commenced its 
Mi«*r about the time I went there— soon after the " fifties." For 
Mtae years gold was being unearthed in milUons. Everybody was 
engaged in mining, or in stocking thu country, and in business, pre- 
paring to feed the anticipated influx of a greater population. At 
the close of those early years of what I may call the golden era, 
the atti^niiou of alt Europe had been drawn to this important part 
of Her Majesty's dominions, and the Australasians, seeing that thoy 
could not undertake single-handed and with the resourc4.i8 at llieir 

coDiroaiid all those great works for which money was neeossary, 
called upon ihe financial world in London to assist them. As you 

know, all the great works in Australasia are carried on by the 

different OoTermnents. Companies such as exist in this country 



4 



76 Auitratasia : a Vindieaiion. 



^ 



without Dimiber, and Rpeod ItnDdreds of mOlioiis of tnonej, vera 
comparatively anknovii there, althoagh some aro now springing 
Up. It therefore devolved on the Governments tbemaclves to borrov 
mcmcj for carrying on these great works. I do not deny, and no 
Colonist will deny, that expenditure baa been incmrad that was 
unnecessary. Harbour works and improvements were undertaken, 
eepeciAlly in New Zealand, which might have waited a little ; and 
branch lines of railwaye. with the view to induce settlement aod to 
bring traffic to the trunk bnea, were begun perhaps prematnrely. and 
in anticipation ofa greater population than, as time has shown, would 
quickly come. It must, however, be remembered that the Coloniata 
considered they had a right — and I will not maintain for a moment 
that they had not — to discount the future and to call upon their 
heirs and succesaors to aid them in the settlement of the country 
by the construction of railways, harbours, roads, and other im- 
provements, constructed from loan moneys. It must be allowed, I 
think, that this baa been rather overdone— not. perhaps, in Victoria 
or in the other great Colony of New South Wales. I see that in 
New Zealand the present Ministry have annomiced that they have 
no intention of again going into the money market— at any rate for 
tome time to come; and, speaking generally, although the Colonists 
may bo satisfied with what they iiave done in the past, I think the 
more Beniiible-minded amongst them are disposed to believe that 
caution is necessary as to the future. The causes which have led to 
the present state of monetary affairs are manifold. In the first place, 
there is no doubt that in some of the Colonies money has been 
borrowed for and spent upon unproductive public works, and tin 
people of the Colonies so affected make no scruple of. and here ni 
there express, their anxioly about the future. Again, there is k 
gnat cause of ti^jury to Australasia in what have been called " land 
booms." Nothing perhaps since the " South Sea Bubble" hM 
been bo disastrous as these " land booms " have been to Australadft 
within Ibo last few years. Men have wrecked fortunes— true, soma 
liave made them ; but millions have been squandered ; tnillj onn 
have been invested in lands of which the intrinsic value was but % 
fraction of what was realised in the market. They have invested 
tbonsands in the hope of getting tens of thousands in return. The 
result has been that money lias been borrowed from banks and 
financial companies to pay for these lands — not country lands, not 
good lands for improvonients, but lands in the neighbourhood of 
towns. These "land booms" havepasaedovertbcColotiies, and, like 
earthquakes, left overj-thiiig upset. Lckrge numbers of people no 



Auitrala$ia : a Vindication. 



t. Another ^^^H 
: less soffer ^^^1 



doubt uesutfering—tetnponnl^ weliope — Erom tli« effect. 
thing from wbiob all the AustraUsiaD Colonies s 
ia that lliosn who bave made fortuues in the Colonies— fortunes 
antotmiing to thousands a year— do not spend them there. NVilliin 
ftva milas from where we now stand immense sums of Colonial 
tnoucy are annually spent by absentee proprietors. These are some 
of tlio evtts the Colonies are suffering from, and should be apparent. 
As a private inihvidual, 1 speak without bias. I am not now Bttiu:lied 
to any particular Colony. 1 have great Eaitb in the future of 
Auatnlaiiia, aud I hope and trust the people will generally exercise 
mon thrift in the future, and will insist upon their Governments 
not curying on in the reckless manner of the past in the matter 
o( DDproductive public works. Lastly, let the people of this country be 
usarwi that is the case ; let us see those large absentee proprietors 
ratumiug to Australia ; let us hear no more about " land booms ; " 
let mial not town settlement be encouraged, and the future of 
Aostnlasia must be great. 

itt. W. B. Pebcbval (Agent -General for New Zealand) : Our 
exoaUent chairman has unexpectedly called upon me to say a few 
word* by way of comment on the able paper to which we have just 
lisleaed. I am hke the last speaker in one respect, for I am abto 
■a ftbfl«Dtee, bat I am only an absentee of very short duration, 
bftTing be«i in London on the present occasion for only three days, 
bnt I am unlike the last speaker, because I hope to have my grave 
in th« Colonies. 

Sir Malcolk Fdaseb: 1 did not say I would not have my 
gtSTe there. 

Ur. PsncEVAL : I am very glad that I bave given Sir Malcolm 
Fraaer an opportunity of making such an important correction. I 
quite agree that absenteeism is one of the evils tlie Colonies suffer 
froiD, and in the Colony which 1 bave the honour to represent this 
WM tbougbt to be an evil requiring correction, and during the last 
niwinii of the Parliament of New Zealand a small additional tax 
WH imposed upon the absvuteea by way of warning. Owing to my 
Iianng arrived so recently, 1 regret to say, although in one sense I 
nlher eongratulate myself on the &ut, that I am not bo well up as 
■Banjr of yoQ no doubt are in what Sir Edward Braddon has t«rmed 
the "atrabilious and unwurrantablu onslaughts on Australasian 
morab, maimars, and money." Perhaps one of the most dis- 
agrwafaU tasks that a man representing the Colonies has to 
ia to read all the nasty as well as all the nice things 
; the Cohjnies. To most of tu here it appears I 



have no doulit BOmewhat like trying to demonatrftto tliat a duck 
can swim to prove that Australaeian finance is Bocnd and that 
her men and manners are not as they have been depicted. In fact, 
when Sir Edward Braddon was telling us what was thought of us, 
I felt inclined to hang down my head, for I am a Colonist bom 
and bred, and for the most part educated tliere, and when I 
got up I thought I ought almost to apologise to you for being 
a Colonist, and esplain first and foremost that I am not a drunkard, 
that I do not blaspheme, and that I am not less loya! than any 
other citizen of this great Empire. Attacks of this kind are re- 
ceived in the Colonies with the scorn tlioy deserve, but I don't 
think it does to ignore them here. Unfortunately, people all over 
the world are very easily gulled, and I have no doubt that the 
attacks which have been recently made have bad some effect on 
the British mind. I think, therefore, the Colonies owe a great 
debt of gratitude to Sir Edward Braddon for his vindication. I 
look upon it as an indication of the trend of public opinion that 
the Agent-General of one of the Colonies, perhaps the smallest of 
the Australasian group, should stand up in defence of Australasia 
as a whole. It is, I think, a recognition of the fact that the in- 
terests of one Colony are the interests of all, and that in all parts 
of the Empire we should join band in hand to defend any par- 
ticular portion which is attacked. If you will look at the map of 
the world hanging on the wall before you, you will see that a con- 
siderable proportion is coloured red. A very large part of that is 
made up of the Australasian Colonies, and it would, I think, be one 
of the greatest calamities whicli has ever befallen the British Em- 
pire if that fine group of Colonies was to collapse. But there is no 
more fear of the Australasian Colonies collapsing than there is of 
the British Empire falling to pieces. Do not be led away by 
statistics. There ia nothing more misleading than the comparison 
of the statistics of an old and of a new country. The conditions are 
not similar, and it is very difficult indeed to make comparisons from 
these statistics which have any real value. You would be able to ap- 
parently prove almost anytliing by such a process, but such proof 
■would probably ho worthless. The figures which have been quoted by 
Sir Edward Braddon are convincing to my mind— and I think to the 
mindofanyroasonableman— that the wealth andresources of Austral- 
asia are enormous, and that her capacity for meeting ber engage- 
mentsismuch in advance of her obhgations. Reference has been made 
to my own Colony, New Zealand. We have gone through a troublous 
time, no doubt, and I believe that troublous times now and again 



Australasia: a Vindkalum, 

will Tisit the Colonies just like other places. You can quite under- 
Ktaad that a sndilcn Bloppage of the expenditure of borrowed money 
is K great etr&in on any Colony ; but it liaa given New Zealand 
ui opportunity of demonstrating to the world that ehe can do 
without bomwed money, that f^he has since the cessation of bor- 
rowing increased her area of settled lanil, her exports and her 
nrcane, and that altbougli n certain portion of the floating 
popnlfttion has left her shores she hns been able to root on the soil 
■notluir portion of the population. All this shows that the Colony 
H made of stuff which will enable her to keep in the right track 
and to triumph over all her difficulties. You must remember that 
the C-olonies are composed of Englishmen, that they have all the aspi- 
ntiiiQs of Englishmen, the same ' grit ' as Englishmen, and the same 
qnalities which have built up the British Empire will make the 
Colonial Empire. We are not drunkards and blasphemers ; we 
«K not disloyal, but a steady, liard-working and thrifty people. 
I will venture to say that there has been as much rejoicing over the 
reoent announcement of the royal betrothal on the other side 
of thu worM as there has been on this. On behalf of my own 
Colony 1 beg once more to thank Sir Edward Draddon for his 
ablo vindication of Australasia, and you, ladies and gentlemen, 
for the attention you have paid to my remarks. 

|[r. V). Christie Muhrw : I am in a sense venturing into the 
lioa*fl d«n, for I am one of those assumed defamers of the Colonies 
wbo liave been denounced by Kir Edward Braddon— one of those 
" gnat-like critics "^one of those " mosquitoes of thi' press "—one of 
thoM dreadful slanderers of my own race and blood wbo have been 
making mischief between the Mother Country and the Colonies. But 
I cui trust to the fair play of this assembly whilst I deal with a few 
fiwts. The first alhision the lecturer made to me is to Uie eCTeot 
th»t I have been dubbed a " globe-trotter," and have been hurt by 
that characterisation of myself. Iilay I ask i^ir Edward Braddon 
how he knows that ? I have not been hurt in that way^I have 
umi^dly never told him so— and have never anywhere published 
rocb a statement. IIo saj-s — I cite his word.i — '■ He ' did ' Australia, 
that requires years of study, in a few months," and he further tells 

I that I was engaged in occupations which during the greater 
f mj stay prevented me from finding opportunity for the 
nition ol the problems presented by the Colonies. Now how 
e stand? I spent twenty-one months in the Australias. 
; five of those months I was engaged in lectures and acting, 
and the remaining sixteen months were for the most part given up to 




60 Austmtasia : a Vifi^katmt. 

almost incessant travel and to close observation, I did my work faith- 
fully, and, to my own belief, well. Tbe man who haa tried to do hia 
honest best has a right to defend himself when he is attacked. The 
distinct charge against me is, first, that my visit to the Colonies was 
too rapid and hasty to permit of observation ; and, nest, that I was en- 
gaged in occupations that forbade obEer\-ation. Now when a roan 
has spent the greater part of two years in a country he is not fairly 
to be described as having paid it a hurried visit, aud, as a fact, 
my occupations were never of such a nature as to stand between 
me and the observations I desired to make. In one of my Con- 
temporary avtiolbs I T/rote: "There is no country in which so 
high a condition of general comfort, so lofty a standard of proved 
Intelligence, and such large and varied means to intellectual excel- 
lence eiist." I have been charged with over-praising the Colonies, 
as well as with condemning them beyond all measure; but does 
8ir Edward Braddon dispute the truth of this passive? or doea 
the passage itself sound like the statement of an enemy ? But I go 
on to say : " there ia no country in which these things exist aide 
by side with so much turbulence, so lax a commercial morality, and 
such over-charged statistics of drunkenness, crime, and violence." 
I will put the matter before you in a nutshell. You have been 
warned not to trust to statistics, aud I am told that Mr, Hayter, the 
eminent statist of Victoria, ia wrong in declaring that '59 gallon 
per head of population represents the amount of spirits consumed 
in the United Kingdom, while 1-15 represents the amount con- 
sumed in New South Wales, 1-82 in Victoria, 1'4G in Western 
Australia, and ISO in Queensland. All I can say is that these 
figures are in Hr. Hayter's book, which is issued by Government 
authority aud sold by Government authority in Melbourne. They 
are Ihere to be found by anyone who chooses to look for them. 
The statement, if inaccurate, ought to be removed, and if it be in- 
accurate, I claim to have been of some service in calling attention 
to its existence in a work whose figures ought to be absolutely irre- 
futable. I am here on my defence. Nothing can possibly excuse 
a man who wantonly, or even carelessly, does anything which can 
tend to separate the dependenciea of England from the Mother 
Country. The man who stira a hand with that Iiope, or who, by 
any action, runs a risk of helping in so foolish a cause, ia a traitor 
to his country aud his blood. If I believed that I had spoken one 
untrue word I would withdraw it here, and now, and apologise 
for it. I do not stand here to claim omniscience or to prove my own 
mij)ecca,biiity, I do not evra hold a brief, as Sir Edward firaddoc 



Atatralasia : a VindkalioH. 



81 



bat 1 aak your indulgence for a minute or two wliilst I lay 
yma tho facts on which I reiy for the support of my own 
___^ ions. Mr. Haytc-r sets down the deatlia resulting from esces- 
Imt drinldng as being US in the milUon in Australasia, as agaiuat 
46 ID Englauil and Wales. Tliat is the highest average in the world, 
if ve except Denmark, and about Denmark I have no other statistics 
than tho«o which relate to the great towns alone. ^Ir. Haytei says 
that since 18H0, "since tho Colony became more prosperous," arrests 
for dmnkcnnes.i in Victoria have been constantly on tlie increase. I 
Km told by Sir Edward Braddon that my estimate of Coloni&l crime 
ii rendered abortive by tlie fact that M per cent, of Australasian 
imprisonment.^ are for periods of less than fifteen days; but I think 
it likely that Sir Edward Braddon knows as well as I do that tliis 
tcttnuto wilt bear very close comparison with the records of sen- 
tenoM in France, in Germany, the United States, and the United 
Kingdatn. Again, Sir Edward tries to confuse the charge of turbu- 
Imce by urging that I deal only with tlie figures of arrest. That is 
BOtso; I do not deal with the figures for arrest or even with the figures 
br commitment. I deal only with the figures relatuig to actual sen- 
Icocra passed, and I adhere to my statement that in New Soutli Wales 
Um conncticns and consequent imprisonments for crimes of violence 
an four times as numerous as they are at home. (A voice : " Bosh t ") 
Yon ni»y cry " Bosh " if you will ; but tho figures shall convict yon. 
There is a matter more serious still. Mr. Haytcr will tell you 
tb«( homicide in Victoria is as two to one against homicide in the 
L'nit«<l Kingdom ; in Queensland it is six to one ; in Western Ans- 
trali* it is twelvo to one ; in New South Wales it is three to one ; 
fo N«w Zkalond, Tasmania, and South Australia it is one to one. In 
Ibeyear 1888 one person in Victoria for e\-ery 57 was committed for 
dmnktoneM. These figures areofBcial.and if I distort them I am so 
«ui]y open to conviction that I am either an ass beyond conception 
or s liar below contempt. If Mr. Hayier is thus systematically 
inac«tir»te. kick him out, and be thankful to me for having shown 
yoa what n blunderer he is. But, ladies and gentlemen, I have it 
tn black and white, on the liighest authority that England con offer 
me — I have the letter now in my possession —I am assured by that 
highauthority that in all matters relating to the (.'olonics Mr. Hayter'a 
figures may be relied upon with absolute confidence. Sir Edwanl 
Ilnddon has had a Uttle joke against me. He has quoted those 
of mine, " A teamster in a tight place will shoulder a novice 
etit of Uie way with a ' Let me get at 'em,' and will at once begin 
looUBe BO horribly th^t/or very shame's take the dumb cre&tui* 



Australasia : a Vindication. 



in his charge will movs." Sii Edwai-d Braddon wants to 1 
what is to be doDe witli a man who believes that buUochs blush sni 
imderstaJid bad language. I want to know what is to be done with 
a critic who attributes such a preposterous meaning to a jest. In 
the printud copy of the lecture which I hold I iind the words ' for 
very shame's sake ' itahcised. The itahca are the leetorer'a — not 
mine. I will promise this one thing, solemnly and faithfully — I 
will never, in the whole course of my life, try a joke on Sir Edward 
Braddon any more. In conclusion, I will say that in the articles I 
wrote about Australasia I tried to dlEferentiate accurately the 
criminal and the non-criminul classes. I lamented, and I still 
lament, as one of the causes of Colonial dissatisfaction the fact 
that we are constajitly sending over to the Colonies onr most dan- 
gerous incapables. If any one of ua has a semi-lunatic, a helplexs 
drunkard, or a hopeless blackguard in the shape of a son, we 
send him to the ColonieB. I denounced that as a bitter injustice, 
and I denounce it here. In the course of my own travels I came 
upon a score or more of hopeless good-for-nothings whom I 
had known at home, and if that were one man's experience, one 
may guess what the real facta are. I know perfectly well that a 
great portion of Colonial crime is not due to the native-born 
Colonials, and for that fact there is an excellent reason. The 
imported adult population^I am not prepared with the actual 
figures^ia, in proportion to the adult population born in the 
Colonies, enormous. That imported population is often uncultured, 
rough, and even blackguardly, and it does a gi'eat deal of mischief. 
And now for a final word. It has been the business of my life to 
observe. For a year and nine months I went the round of the 
Colonies, and I have reported honestly what I saw and know. I 
have not traduced AustraUa ; I am not an enemy of Australia. It 
is absurd and maddening to find oneself so styled. Great Heaven ! 
the man who spoke disrespectfully of the Equator is as nothing to 
tlie man who could come home with a pique against a continent. 
That continent, mark you, whether it grow up under the shelter of 
the Enghsh flag or no, is going one day to be the home of a great 
people. In the meantime the population has its faults, and it is an 
extremely wholesome thing that they should leam them. I believe 
with all my heart, with all my soul, in the triumphant future of the 
Colonies ; I beheve that the acorn-fruit of the British oak, dropped 
in those far-off landa, is going to spring up into a tree so lofty and 
broad, so strong and so goodly to look upon, that even the parent 
oak may hardly bear comparison with it. I say with all my heart. 



Atutralasia : a Vindicatum. 



" God blesa AuBtrali* I " I liove left out there scores of dear friends 
whose faces 1 may never see again in this world. If I have apoki 
unpalatable words I maintain that, those words can be justified, 
and. if I may rival ^eop's fly in presumption, I will venture to predict 
that in the course of lialf-a-doi^eu years Australia and I will be 
excellant friends again. 

Ur. Dakoab : I wifib to aslc the spealter to say one word about 
the grosseet charge — the repudiation of the Public Debt. 

Ur. Christie MuiutAv : 1 never made such a charge. I am not 
M> fooli&li. 

Mr. Danoar : Not in your article ? 

Mr. CiiBiaTiE Mt'itiiAY : It never entered my head. 

Mr. Da.voab : Who did ? 

Mr. Ohristib Murray : I don't know ; I am not aare. 

OoDttral Sir George Cheskey, K.C.B. : I have no personal 
knowledge of Australia. A great part of my life baa boon passed 
in a part of the world which is as imlike Australia us possible. 
Aoslralia is one of the younj^est coimtnes ; India is one of the 
oldest, and the ciro urns tan uea of the two are aa dijfertint as possible. 
I But when Sir Edward Uraddon touched upon one point I felt that 
^MM|.iiidia were to a great extent in sympathy with the Austra- 
^^^B Ilo refemnl to a cortiiin class of travellers who make hurried 
^^^^Bto ft country, and who. receiving the greatest possible kindness, 
^|ha it by going away and abusing the people whose hospitality 
Uiey hare received. Unlike as India is to Anstralia, our e^iperienco 
ia that respect is very much the fame. I do iiot speak of the many 
naitora who come to India and whom to meet is a gain on our aide, 
bat of another class, who eat and drink of the best, who make 
every poosible use of the residents of the country, who do not want 
(o learn anything from them, because they profesa to know evcry- 
Ibing before they arrive, and who come merely to crystallise a few 
erode impressions and put them down on paper. I speak of the 
ebM generally known as the " i^lobe- trotter." In India we breed a 
batBB which in some respects has great merits, but has one fault. 
I refer to the "' country-bred " horse. It is said of this horae tliut 
you must look out, for wlien you are feeding it with bread it will 
SOOietimes turn round and kick you in the stomach. That has been 
the treatment, in a moral aeuse, that we have sometimes received 
from English visitors, and you in Australia have apparently re- 
crived llic Slime somewhat rough measure. To turn to the par- 
tieuUr subject under discussion to-night, great stress has been laid 
OB cerbuD facts which are said to be proved by Btatistics. Now, 



AS ^^M 

riends ^^^^ 
poken I 




64 Aiutraiasia : a Vuidicatioa. 

w« all iaiow the old saying that nothing is go decdtfnl as fact 
except fignres. Statistics are absolutely misleading unless you are 
able to draw proper infeTonces and to apply proper qualifications. 
Jnst now we were assured that c«rtain statistics with r^ard to in- 
temperance and crime were supported by official returns. I would 
wish to say upon this that, assaming the Btatisties to be correct, 
they do not prove the case. You bear that the quantity of alcohol 
eonsumed is so many gallons per head, bnt yon have to coont the 
heads— the heads not only of the men who drink the alcohol, but 
the women and children who do not. In Australia, a new country, 
the proportion of grown-up people to yoong people b rery much 
lai^r than in England, and the proportion ol males to females 
is also rery much larger. It is, therefore, the old qaestkm of dispate 
as to whether the shield has a gold or stiver &ce. As to the great 
question whether the rate of indebtedness in the Australian Colonies 
is qoite jofitifiable, I do not think I gathered from the paper that the 
lecturer supplied what to my mind is the proper and decisive tesi. 
The question is not whether the increase of debt due to loans is in- 
creasing in a smaller or greater ratio than the increase of the wealth 
of the country. ItMnkiii these cases the proper and jnst criterion is 
whether the increase of interest payable on public woiks is greater 
or less than the increase of your revenue. If the increase of yov 
levenne is eqoal to the increase of interest accruable on Ifae dobt 
incurred, I think no one can say your finance Is dang«roas or an- 
sound. That is, in my humble opinion, th« teel to be applied. In tlw 
case of poblic works, it may be necessary to go oo borrowing at a 
steady rate, and for some lime the works may not giveanAsooaUa 
interest cm the expenditure. There is the indirect gain and Ota 
direct gain, but so long as the revennea are increasing &Bter than 
the increase on the debt I thmk yoa are in a sound posioon. In 
regard to speculation and the losses. I would observe that thej 
are only losses in qnite a technical and partial sense. The losses 
CO the Stock Exchange are not losses to the communitT. ^Mial 
one man kees the other man has pal in his pocket, and so tho 
losses on the *' land booms " are not lo^es of substantial wealth. 
Then may have been reddess eondiict oo the part of individuals. 
bat the oonntiy has not suffered. And when you come to unpro- 
ductive expenditare. you have lo remember that Aostralia has 
been eo br wholly spared from the largest souice of anproductive 
expenditure— war. Happy has been Aastraha in that respect I 
When Sir Edward Braddon spoke of its boundltts lesoorc^. ba 
hardly said more than the truth. The reaooroes of Anstialia nrr ni 




Australasia: a Vindicatioru 



to bo absolutely immeaeurable, and I think no ono need have 
doabt thftt they will in Uie long run and on the whole be well 
^ipliml. One weak point tliere seems to be hi Australia. 1 notice 
— and all persons who wntch the progress of Australia, mast have 
noticed— one circumBtance which doea not seem to be reasonable^ 
i»m«l}', the targe proportion of the population which is to be found 
in the towna. If Anstralia were a great manufacturing couniry, and 
thOM towns were like Halifax, Leeds, or Manchester, the cause 
of Ibis largo urban population would be at ouce explained ; but, eon- 
ndflhng that Australia is a mainly agricultural and mining country, 
i depends for its wealtli on the produce of the lands and herds, 
I U forced to conclude, when wo find so large a part of the 
mnuity residing in the towns, that there must be some morbid 
tdncemrat to products that state of things. This seems to mo to 
famish a warning to the people of Australia as regards some part 
of their economic arrangements. In other respects, I tlnnk the 
(ature U a wholly happy one. You remember the old naval account 
of a speech made by a gentleman in Barbados In proposing the 
king's health. "Gentlemen," be said— he was a gentleman of colour 
— " the Barbadian has only one fault — be is too brave." So I may 
■ay that Australia hoA suffered from "one fault" — her prosperity has 
be«D BO far almost too uncheqne red—the climate is so eqnable, ao 
bMatiful, tbe country has throughout been so prosperous. At 
tfa« most critical period of its history there came ttiat wonderful 
diaeovery of gold which at once brought what would otherwise hav« 
tome only by slow and painful steps— that prosperity which tbe 
country enjoys at present, and which, 1 believt.', she will enjoy in 
ttill greater boooty in the fatore. 

ill. Matthew Macfie : As one vbo baa spent about Mvco ytua 
in OB* of the leading Colonies of tbe group, I suppose I amy TOitan 
lo njr tJbat we ore indebted to the reader of the paper br, at all «««it*, 
iliiriil*t'*'g our thougbia and impttnins our reflections, allhoagb 
m may not in every reepect agree with him. Uy own atteotioD 
wUla then waa directed chiefly to tbe floance of the ooootiy, and 
Ihcn have been no ADdit-CommintoDen' repxrta iamed in Victoria, 
at any lata, and no pablie aeeovnta in my litae, that I bare not 
■iiTwToiiml with aome earn lo atndy. The raaalt of my coo- 
ridantkmhaa been lo ecttrincs me beyood aU doobt that, ahhoagjh 
Iba naooraee ol that C*doay, in ooomon with all the OdoiUM of 
ftuWhr* ara pnetioally boondleM, yat ibe QanaaamM an not 
atao«e(bsT free bomllKahaige eltiMtmBtm ia tbe me at which 
thqrbocnnr. There ii one point we og^ to caR7-K«i7wia mm 



ave any ^^^ 



86 Australasia : a Tindicaiion. 

showing tbat, with all Me good intentions, Sir Edward Braddoa S 
rather missed the mark. He would seem to give tba impresraOTi 
that the imfaYOurable opinions formed recently in the money market 
in regard to the borrowing of these Colonies arc due to recent writers 
on the general question, and more particularly to tbe articles of 
Mr. Fortescue. As a matter of fact, Mr. Fortescue's articles—I am 
bound to say I do not agree with tbeir general tone, for they are 
decidedly too pessimistic — these articles, so far as they call in question 
tbe prudence of the Colonies in their borrowing, derive the whole of 
their force from tho well-known views on the subject expressed by 
the hankers who are concerned in floating Colonial loans in London. 
Whether Mr. Forteacue and others are right or wrong, the whole 
mischief — if we may so describe it — is to be dated from the month of 
February, 1880, when there was a very serious discussion at tbe 
Bankers' Institute of London, and when a paper was read by my 
friend Mr. BiUingburst, who was most strenuous in bis protests 
against the continuous and excessive borrowing, and ui urging the 
desirableness, for a time, at any rate, of tbe Colonies doing as they 
are now proposing to do in Victoria and in South Australia — that is, 
raising debentures from witliin themselves. At that meeting another 
banker, Mr, Herbert Tritton, made no secret of the objection he en- 
tertained to the escessive borrowing of tbe Colonies and to the oc- 
casional, as he supposed, wasteful expenditure of the sums borrowed. 
He distinctly stated that the proportion of the amounts borrowed in 
given periods would seem to altogether exceed tbe mcrease of the 
population, the settlement of that population on the land, and tbe 
productiveness of the land by the labours of the settlers. I do not 
say whether Mr. Billinghurst and Mr. Tritton were right or wrong ; 
but if there are persons who write against tho imprudence^ si jail I 
say ? — of financial management on the other side of the world, if 
any persons are to be fought as adversaries, those are the men 
against whom Sir Edward Braddon must direct bis shafts. The 
real crucial test of the solvency of the Colonies with regard to 
the bondholders in this country uaiTows itself into this : whether 
the Governments have bad a duo regard, in their appeals to tho 
London money market, to tbe ability of their exchequers to meet 
the increasing mterest as it becomes due, and to deal with the 
loans as they mature. This cannot be too much emphasised. Sir 
Edward Braddon has said a good deal about the growing prosperity 
of Australia which is irrelevant. It is incorrect to say that Spain 
and Portugal are the only countries which have attempted to 
escape their financial obligations by repudiation. A little more 



Australasia: a Vindication, 

knowWgs of repudiating conotries wonld have led to a ctiff^reat 
coDcInsioiL It ia Uie minority of conntriea outside the Empire 
whicli hvte borrowed from England who hare not more or less reptt- 
diatod. When, llie other day, the Argentine Confederation collapsed, 
in the Mnse of being unable to fulfil its engagements to pubho cre- 
ditors, do you mean to tell me there were not liosta of people there 
■who were privately in a state of prosperity ? But did they come for- 
wud aitd make a collection to pay the arrears of interest due to the 
English bondholders in order to prop up a rottra Government ? Bo 
will it be if evei^- which Heaven forbid !— such a catastrophe should 
oecnr to the Australian Coloniea. The bondholders can lay no 
claim lo the property of private citizens aa security. There is no 
diagoinng tlio fact that there are politicians in those Colonies — I 
refer to members of tlie Lower House— greedy adventurers, who 
|tTOV«t to the working- classes in order to get the miserable pittance 
llioy tkim at aa members of Parliament, and when they get into 
power there is simply an advance on the same tines. They try to 
lu«p up llieir majority by making endless promises to Members for 
indastrial constituencies and encouraging wasteful expenditure on 
what arc euphemistically called "reproductive works," hut which 
are anything but reproductive in many cases. The other Jay, when 
Ur. Gillies was Treasurer of Victoria, he declared to the astonished 
Pu-Uament that ttie demands made on the Treasury by Members to 
tnake railways fur the convenience of their constituencies would, 
in oiM single y^ar, have necessitated the borrowing of twenty millioDB 
in Um English market. The result was that a Commission of 
Inqoirf was iutttantly appointed. They have brought up, I believe, 
on* or two " progress reports," and the evidence taken by the Com- 
sauBioa goes to show that there are railways which have been made 
•t a monstrous cost, because of speculators in land finding out where 
the (lovcmment was going to niake them, and charging excrbitant 
prietr* tor the land. There are railways which (to use the words of 
Mr. Uent, the chairman) " will not be productive till Honourable 
Members are in their graves." This extravagance is largely due to 
tbo extremely democratic character of tlie Oovemment, which en - 
eouragos " log-rolling " and class legislation. Thes«^i evils are neces- 
■arily involved in pandering to a single section of the people instead 
of promoting the puhUc interests of the Colony, without partiality 
or distinction. 

Sir Edwaud Dkaddon. K.C.M.G. : 1 think I am justified in 
•aying tlut my pajier has been very indulgently received, and I 
Uuuik 70U for that indulgent reception. I regret that 1 have not 




i 



^ 



68 Australasia : a Vindication, 

convinced everybody. Apparently I have not convinced llr. Macfi^, 
who has uttered some extravagant things abont Australian public 
men. members of the Lower Houses, who, according to him, are an 
exceedingly indifferent class of people, pandering to the working- 
men and so forth, and who, at the bidding of the labouring- men, 
before whom they grovel, invest capital in railways that won't pay 
until long after these people are dead. I venture to think that is 
rather more exaggerated than anything that has been said in any 
of the papers to which I have endeavoured to reply, and I should 
have thought that the words of my friend Sir George Chesney, and 
the fact that the Colonies, taken in the aggregate, ore paying over 
three per cent, towards interest on money invested by you in the 
construction of railways, ought to be accepted as some evidence that 
these are reproductive works, It is not necessary for me to stand 
up for all the Members of the Lower Houses and all the Parlia- 
ments of Australasia. I can only say that in the experience I have 
had as a member of one of these terrible assembUea, I have en- 
coimtere3, as a rule, men whom I have been pleased to know and 
whom, I can honestly say, I honour. And I do not think the 
working-man is such an utter sconndrel aa he is represented to be. 
It must Im3 remembered that the working-man has, after all, like 
the rest of us, a stake in the country ; he risks all that he has, even 
if that all he something less than what the rest of us have got. 
Mr. Christie Murray baa unfortunately gone away. He has "left 
his reputation in my hands." That, 1 think, comes out of the 
" School for Scandal." Bat I will point out to Mr. Murray— 
who, 1 quite admit, writes without any obvious feeling against the 
Colony— that he is misled by statistics, and that he stumbles from 
one pitfall to another. He cannot deny that the amount of alcohol 
consumed in Australia ia only three-and-a-half gallons, as against 
four-and-a-half gallons, and yet he wants us to believe from some- 
thing Mr. Hayter says — with what qualifications I do not know — 
that the deaths from drunkenness are two in Australia to one in 
England. What, do you suppose that the Austrahan is such a 
feeble creature that he ia kOled oEf in a double ratio by three- 
fourths the amount of liquor that kills an Enghshman ? Also he 
tella us — what I do not think you can believe — that the convictions 
in New South Wales for serious crimes are four times what they 
are in Great Britain. Now, the constitution of tlio Courts of New 
South Wales and this country ia so very different, the dividing 
lines that distinguish more and less serious crime are so very 
different, that no possible comparison can be made ; and yon 



Atuiratasia : a Vindication. 80 

most observe that, while he hfts all the offences coilnoted by Mr. 
Hajter in his statistics — the offences of all classes — Mr. Murray, 
for the purpose of comparison, as regards England, has only the 
cases of the superior Courts, which deal with serious crime only. 
Mr. Murray, I believe, only spent nine months in Australia, the 
remainder of his twenty-one months being spent in New Zealand, 
and what he has noticed to the detriment of the people has been 
tinged, I am afraid, by his unfortunately falling amongst those 
** hopeless good-for-notliings whom he had known at home.*' I 
will now ask you to give a vote of thanks by acclamation to the 
chairman. 

The Chaibman : As I said at the outset, there is always some- 
thing to be said on the other side, and that adage has, I think, been 
well exemplified in the discussion to-night. We have had a good 
discussion on Sir Edward Braddon's most able paper, and I beg to 
move a vote of thanks to him. 

Sir Edward Braddox formally acknowledged the compliment, 
and the proceedings terminated. 




Death of H.R.H. the DDKE of CLARENCE and AVONDAIE. 



At a Meeting of the Conncil held on Tuesday, Jauuai-y 19, 1892, under 
UiB presidency of Lieut. -General R. W. Lowky, C.B,, the following 
Address of Condolence was moved by Mr. H. J. Joukdain, C.M.G., 
seconded by ^Bir Charles E. F. Stirling, Bart., and carried un- 
animously :— 

To His Boyal Highness the Fnnce of Wales, K.G„ dc, </tc., dc. 
President of the Eoyal Colonial Institute, 

The CouKCiL of the Eoyaii Colonial Ikbtitute, for themselves, 
and on behalf of the Fellows, nea.rly four thousand in number, having 
their homes in evei^ part of Her Majesty's Dominions, desire to express 
profound sorrow at the deeply lamented death of Hib Royal Hiohkebs 
Prince Albekt Victoh Chkisthk Edwabd, Duke of Ci^rence and 
AvoNDALE, which sad afdiction is intensified by the peculiarly painful 
oncumstances under which this national calamity has occurred. 

Most respectfully and loyally they tender to Her Moat Gracious 
Majesty the Queen, to Their Eoyal Highnesses the Prince and the 
Princess of Wales, in their grievous bereavement, and to the other 
Members of the Eoyal Family, the assurance of their deepest and 
heartfelt sympathy, and to the Princess Victoria Mary of Teck the ex- 
pression of their most sincere condolence. 

The blameless life and amiable qualities of the lamented Prince 
endeared him, not only to those who dwell in these Isles, but to the 
loyal subjects of Her Majesty in those distant parts of the Empire 
which His Royal Highness visited, and the universal expression of 
sorrow at bis loss testifies to the firm hold which the Hoy^ F&mily 
maintains on the affection of the nation. 

Given under the Common Seal of the RoYAL Colonial Institctk 
this nineteenth day of January, 1892. 

In the presence of 

James A. Youl, Vke-Prenideni. 

©11. W. Lo^itY, Lieut. -General) Members 
H. J. Jol'bdain [ of the 

Chakles E. F. Stiblinq ) Council. 

3. S. O'Hallorah, Secretary. 1 



91 



THIRD ORDINARY GENERAL MEETING. 

The Third Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at 
the Whitehall Rooms, Hotel Metropole, on Tuesday, January 12, 
1892. 

Sir Frederick Young, K.C.M.G., a Vice-President of the Institute, 
presided. 

The Minutes of the last Ordinary General Meeting were read 
and confimied, and it was announced that since that Meeting 18 
Fellows had been elected, viz., 9 Resident and 11 Non-Resident. 

Resident Fellows : — 

W, C. Heaton-Armstrong, Edward Crawshaw, CoJoiiel William J. Engle- 
due, R.E., Edwatd Haggard, Ifnirif li. Macnab, Sir Francis Osbonie, Bart., 
J. Uouard Rumncy, Frederic J. Saunders, James if. Taylor. 

Non-Resident Fellows : — 

James L. Anstruther (Ceijlon), Stephen M. Burrows (Ceylon), A. Morgan 
Cosby (Canada), John I. Davidson (Canada), John Ihithie, M.H.R. (Neto 
Zealand), Walter Heath, M.A. (Queenslayid), Henry R. Hogg (Vietoria), Dr. 
tkivid W. Johnston (Cape Colony), James Mackay (New Zealand), Dr. James 
O. Middleton, Professor A. Mica Smith (Victoiia). 

It was also announced that donations to the Librar}' of books, 
maps, &c., had been received from the various Governments of the 
Colonies and India, Societies, and public bodies both in the United 
Kingdom and the Colonies, and from Fellows of the Institute and 
others. 

The Chairhan submitted to the Meeting the names of Mr. Peter 
Redpatb on behalf of the Council, and Mr. W. G. Devon Astle on 
behalf of the Fellows, as Auditors of the Accounts of the Institute 
in conformity with Rule 48. Both gentlemen were unanimously 
elected. 

The Chairman : In introducing the distinguished Professor who 
is to address us this evening, I may remind you that on the last 
occasion we met in this room we had the pleasure of listening to 
a very trenchant and powerful paper by Sir Edward Braddon, the 



93 Third Ordinary General Meeting. 

Agent- Geuui-al for Taamjinia, in 'reply to certain strictures wKicli 
had been unveasonably made by certain caustic writers on the sexual, 
financial, and commercial aspecta of Australasia. Sir Edward's 
\-igoroiis " vindicatioji " was evidently highly appreciated by the 
very numerous and eympathetie audience assembled on that occa- 
sion. To-night we are to have another paper by ProfesBor Anderson 
Stuart, on another and different aspect of Australasian life, which 
will describe to us the intellectual advancement of that great portion 
of the British Empire — a progress which has been no less remark- 
able than her progress on lines of a more prosaic material character. 
Lord Rosebery has eloquently observed that " Great Britain owns 
the title-deeds of the Empire ; " and, if this be true in the poase'iidoa 
of the priceleaa records of our history, in the realms of art, science, 
and literature, in regard to our old monuments and magnificent cathe- 
drals, and our ancient seats of learnhig, our venerable Universities, 
we must acknowledge that during the past half-century institutions 
have been founded which are copies, and very worthy copies, of 
them in the various Colonies of the British Empire, and notably 
those established in the southern hemisphere, which give promise in 
the coiirse of time to vie with them in distuiction, reputation, and 
renown. Before calling upon Professor Stuart I should like to 
emphasise the fact that the important subject 9f education, espe- 
cially that branch which relates to the dissemination among the 
youth of this country of a better knowledge of the British Colonies, 
their circumstances and resoui-ces, has engaged the close attention 
of the Council of this Institute for neai-ly a quarter of a century. On 
various occasions we have addressed the authorities of the Uni- 
versities, public schools, and elementary schools, and urged that 
more time should be devoted to the teaching of Colonial subjeots. 
We have also voted money prizes for the best essays, but unfor- 
tunately the competition was too restricted to warrant their con- 
tinuance, and the project was reluctantly abandoned, A series of 
educational works is, however, now being issued under the auspices 
of the Institute. Some have already appeared, and we have good 
reason to beheve they are exercising a beneficial influence. It bas 
long been the desire of the Council to found scholarships at the 
great Universities, for which Colonial students might be invited to 
compete ; but we possess no endowments or subsidies of any kind, 
and our ordinary sources ofineome are insufficient for such purposes. 
We are, however, hopeful tliat affluent and pubhc-spii-ited Colonists 
may yet come forward and enable the Royal Colonial Institute to give 
practical effect to this most desirable object, I may add also that 



University Life in Australasia. 98 

are honoured to-ni«^ht by tho prosonco of Dr. E. C. Stirling, a 
member of the Governing Body of tho Adolaido University, wlio 
accompanied Lord Kintoro on bin rocont journey across tlie Aus- 
tralian Continent, and is ^vell known for bis scientific investigations 
— the latest and most not(?wortby of wbidi is a full description of a 
marsupial mole wbicli is quite new to science. Another distin- 
sruished guest of tho Institute is Captain Yotnighusband, who re- 
cently arrived from India and has thrown much light on the 
gtrategical importance and the geographical features of the 
Pamirs. We give bim a conlial w<«lconie for the valuahL' services 
he has perfonneil in connection with the frontiers of our Indian 
Empire. 

Proffssor T. II. Axdkusox STr.viiT, M.D., Profissorof Pbvsiolojrv 
and Dean of the Faculty of Medicine in the Cnivi-rsitv of Svdnev, 
then read his Papt^r on 

A REVIEW OF UNIVERSITY 7.1 FE IN ACSTI^VLASIA, 
WITU ITS CONDITIONS AND SlIUtOrNDINdS IN IHDl. 

Dl'RiNO my two visits to this country I have frequently been asked 
qaestions about the Universities of Australasia, and since there is, 
so far as I know, no publication giving any account of tlieir con- 
dition, beyond such information as may be obtained from calendars 
and other such oflicial sources, I not unwillingly fell in with the 
suggestion of the Council of the Royal (*oIoniaI Institute that I 
should here endeavour to t'ive some general idea of Cniversity 
matters in Australasia as thev inesent themselves to mv view at 
the present time. The CaU^idars of the various Universities in 
which information is to be found are, I fear, not everywhere easily 
obtained in Europe ; and, moreover, there is much that cannot, 
from the nature of it, be inserted in a calendar, and that, after 
ill, is jast the sort of information that the inquirer perhaps 
most frequently wants. 

In regard to primary and secondary education it would be im- 
possible here to go into any detailed statistics for the different 
Colonies, but it may form a suitable introduction to tlie main 
qnestion dealt with in this paper if I give, in a few words, some 
notion of what is being done in oxw Colony, New South Wales, with 
which I am best acquainted. Yet what I say with regard to New 
Booth Wales may be taken as fairly rejiresentative of what is being 
done in the Colonics generally, for they try to excel each other in 
Mh matters. 



03 



Third Ordiixanj General Meeting. 



Agent- Geiieral for Taamsjiia, in 'reply to certain i 
lud been unreasoiiabl; made by certain caustic -writera i 
fijiancial, and commercial aspects of Auatralaaia. 
vigorous "vindication" was e\i<lc-ntly highly appre 
very numerous and sympathetic audience assembled d 
Bion. To-uigUt we are to bave another paper by Profaf 
Btiiarti on another and different aspect of AustraU 
vfill describe to us the intellectual advancement of th^^ 
of the British Empire— a progresH which has been n^^ 
&hle than her progress on lines of a more prosaic mal C 
Lord Rosebery has eloquently obser\-ed that " GrM'W^ 
the title-deeds of the Empire ; " and, if tliia be true i ^|| 



of the pricele 



" and, iftliia betruei^|| 
B records of our history, in the realty 






and literature, in regard to our old monuments and nj"*")!*, 
drala, and our ancient seats of leamiJig, our vener "^rji^l 
we must aclinowledge tliat during the past half-oc 
have been fomided which are copiea, and very 
them in the various Colonies of the British EC*^; 
those established in the southern hemisphere, wtV. 
the course of time to vie with them in distinct 'tl 
renown. Before calling upon Professor Sttia^-, . ' 
emphasise the fact that the impoiiaut subject * ,.^ ^ 
dally that branch which relates to the disse' '■ 
youth of thia country of a better knowledge of ' 
their circumstances and resources, has eugap - 
of the Council of thLs Institute for nearly a qti 
various occasious we have addressed the a 
veraities, public scliools, and elementary v 
luore time should be devoted to the teachti 
We have also voted money prizes for the 
tunately the competition was too restrictc' 
tuiuance, and the project wa^ reluctantly 
educational works is, however, now being < 
of the Instittite. Some hrtv<? nlready artf 
reason 1m '■':■■' ■ 
long b.i : 
gri'ftt I ! 
oonipeli . 
and our in-iH" 
Wu are, li.i'* ■ 



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ru 



UniversitT/ Life in Australasia. 



In 1890, the total espenditure in New South Wales und( 
Public Instruction Act was £704,000, and of this only £71,000 
was recouped by school fees. This large sum was mainly spent in 
carrying on the work of education, although a portion of it was 
expended on school buUdings, which, since the Public Education 
Act came into force in 1880, have cost altogether about £2,000,000. 
The Hchools in the towns are well built of brick and stone, and are 
in every way suited for their purpose. In the outlying districts 
the buildings are usually of wood, and in the far back country, 
where the population is sparse, a teacher goes from house to house, 
BO that practically every child in the country is schooled in some 
way or other. Tlie cost to the State per cliild per annum on the 
year's enrolment is £3 12s. 

It is of interest to note that the Inspectors are almost unanimous 
in reporting that school work is carried on in a quiet orderly 
manner, that the pupils are respectful and attentive in domGaaour, 
and that they enter into the work of examination in a chearful 
self-reliant sphit. 

The schools are in the main Public or State Schools, but there 
are also denominational Private Schools, maintained by the Roman 
Catholic, Church of England, Presbyterian, Wesleyan, and Lutheran 
communities. The total attendance at the pubho schools in 1890 
was a little over 160,000 ; at private schools a Uttle over 41,000. 
The highest grade of the Public School system is the High School, 
from which a system of State Bursaries, to be obtained by competi- 
tion, carries the pupil to the University, and maintains him there 
for three years. In addition to the primary and secondary schools, 
there are. in some of the Colonies, Government Technolo^cal 
Departments with well- organised laboratories, lecture rooms, 
museums, libraries, &c., and in some of the Colonies there are also 
Agricultural Departments, with laboratories, farms, &c. ; also Train- 
ing Colleges for school teachers, and so forth. 

I have every reason to believe that the quality of the instmction 
imparted in the schools is excellent. There is only one remark I 
should Uke to make, and that is now rather late in the day, namely, 
that I think the teaching of history and elementary political 
economy has been somewhat neglected ; but I observe from the 
Beport of the Minister of Public Instruction for 1890, that a school 
test-book of history is being compiled, which, I trust, will do some- 
thing to remedy what to my mind is a serious evil. 

With regard to other agencies for education and culture under 
the Public Instruction Department, one must include the splendidly 



UniversHif Life in AiutraUtsia. 

equipped {re« public libraries, with tbdr reading rooina and lending 
btmnebetf, the museumi;, nrt gallcrica, industrial schools, training 
abipB. Ae. There its al)<o a woll-endowed inatitution for the deaf 
tad dumb and blind, but this is not under the Department. 

To oome now to the Universities. There is a University, either 
in oxlsteuoe or proposed, in each Colony, with the single exception 
of Weelem Australia, which waa only tlie otiier day constituted a 
•iJf-goTeming Colony. In Sydney and Melbourne there are also 
Hrtain Colleges atlilittted to the University ; some of these colleges 
an of » denominational character, and are connected with the 
Cfanrcbes of England, Scotland, and Rome, and with the Wesleyan 
body. These colleges are mainly boarding- houses for students, and 
only in Melbourne is the unhealtliy feature being developed of a 
■jMoiD of tutorial ItiCtaTes in the various University subjects being 
nperimposed upon the simple boarding-house Bystoni. Slany 
s(«dente, no doubt, may receive much good from able teachers in 
tiiia way, but there is a risk, a decided risk, of their getting too 
nrnch of a good thing. The college students who are compelled to 
Attend college lectures, and wish also to attend University lectures, 
•8 indeed tht^y should do, though the University (of Mellioume) does 
not mnke attendance compulsory, arc left with very little time for 
Uiinlciugand reading, and for digfsting theirwork. Yet the colleges 
tnpply a real want, and do mucli good by giving the men that kind 
of social training which is so strong a feature of the Enghsh Univcr- 
mtits. Others are Training Colleges for school teachers, male and 
femalA^a college for each. Further, there is a College or Colleges 
iar Women. In Sydney the Prince Alfred Uospital, a general 
liospittU connected with the University Medical Faculty, occupies 
ntnewhat of the position of an af&hated institution. 

The charters of llie Universities, bearing llie sign mannal of Her 
Uqosty the Queen, confer " rank, precedence, and consideration in 
oar United Kingdom, and in our Colonies and possessions through- 
out tbe world, as fully as if the said Degrees had been granted by 
any University of our said United Kingdom." Borne time must 
olapeo before the public will fully recognise that the Degrees given 
by tbe newer Universities are as valuable i^vidi'iice of learning as 
those given by the ancient Universities, with all their Iradilionit and 
But this recognition will come in due time if our teachers 

d examiners only persevere diligently in their present course of 
t teaching and high standard of ciamination. Ad ctindem 
Degrees ore granted to graduates of recognised Uulvertutien, but 
Umo vo DO lianorari/ Degrees. 





or, who ia i^^^l 



OG XJniversity Life in'Australasui. 

The highest oiBcer in the Universities is the Visitor, w 
cases the Governor of the Colony. Then come the Chancellor aaS 
Vice- Chancellor. The Chancellor ia not the high dignitary or 
figure-head who cornea upon the scene only on great occasions, as 
is perhaps too much the case in the Universities of the United 
Kingdom, where the Vice- Chancellor, often a Professor, is the real 
working official. It is just the reverse in Australasia. There the 
Chancellor presides at all meetings of the Governing Body and of 
Convocation : he is a member of all committees appointed by the 
Governing Body, and of every Faculty and Board ; and vhen 
present is in the chair. The amount of work done for the University 
by our present Chancellor, Sir William Montague Manning, LL.D., 
for instance, is simply marvellous. A Registrar acts as secretary, 
and acts as the general esecuUve officer of the Governing Body. The 
Governor is Visitor, ex officio, by enactment ; the Chancellor and 
Vice- Chancellor are elected by the memhers of the Governing Body 
from amongst themselves. 

The oldest University of the group is that of Bjdnej, incor- 
porated by an Act of the Colonial Legislature, which receivedithe 
Boyal assent on October 1, 1850. Then follow the Universities of 
Melbourne in 1853. New Zealand 1870, Adelaide 1874, Tasmaiiia 
1889. 

The principal movers in the establisliment of the first University 
in Australasia were Charles Wilham Wentworth, a graduate of Cam- 
bridge University, who has long since passed away, and Sir Charles 
Nicholson, Bart., a graduate of Edinburgh University, still with ns, 
and one of the Vice-Presidents of this Institute. Sir Charles was 
Speaker of the House which passed tlio Bill estabHshing the 
University, and it was he who presided also at the opening of the 
University in 1852, when he delivered an Inaugural Address in every 
way worthy of a great occasion. As Chancellor or Vice- Chancellor 
he was the zealous promoter of the University, and since he held 
office he has continued to be its friend, as shown by his munifioent 
donations, including a large and valuahle Collection of Antiquities, 
and oft-repeated gifts to the Library ; and since his return to Londoiit 
his constant aid in all kinds of affairs, where the help of a wise 
and learned friend in Europe was needed, has been freely given to 
the University. 

When the Act was passed the Colony bad a population of only 
235,000, and the gold discoveries had not been made ; and yob 
£S,O00 a year was secured in perpetuity for the uses of the Univer- 
BJij'. Since that time the annual grants for teaching purposes have 



UutuL 



University Life in Australasia. 

ben niaed to about £15,000 a year iit all, but in addition the State 
liw ancWd the various University buildinga, and bas maintained and 
k«p( Umid in repair. 

AmoDgBt the objects set forth in the preamble of the Sydney 
t^aiternty Act are " The advancement of religion and morality and 
Um fsumotioQ of asefol knowledge " ; yet one of the fundamental 
priaciplee of action of the UniverBity is the association of students, 
lithont reapect of religious creeds, in the cultivation of secular 
bowlrdge. Further, within the University itself, while the Act 
^■mtita teaching and examination in "Etliics, Metaphysics, and 
Uodum History," no student can be compelled to attend lectures or 
[US examinations in these subjects. In regard to Theology and 
Birinity, the Act gives no power either to teach or to examine ; 
that i* left to the denominational affiliated Colleges, the authorities 
ich have the moat perfect independence as to what is taught 

tbeir own walla. 
1S54 on Act was passed eatablishing these affiliated Colleges 
which systematic religious instruction and domestic super. 
with efficient assistance in preparing for the University lec- 
tares and examinations," sbould be prondcd. Each was endowed 
Vj the State with an amount equal to the private subscriptions, 
vp k> a maximum from the State of £20,000 each. The sums so 
obtsined were spent in building. The State also pays j£500 a 
JMT in perpetuity to the Principal of each College. Each College 
'Ukewise received considerable private endowments. The sum 
contributed by the public chest towards the building and 
nanoe of tlie Colleges is fully i.'30,000, and the capital sum 
.ling the various prizes annually awarded at these Colleges 
iribed by private individuals ia about i'l fi.OOO. 
ler object of the University is declared to be to supply the 
of a liberal education to "all orderaaad denominations, wilh- 
•ny distinctions whatever." Accordbgly, all claases of society 
and all rehgions meet on an eqaal footing in the Ualls of the 
Ulriveraity. The Australasian Universities are mainly attended by 
jtadents bdonging to the moderately well-to-do classes. The ricli 
in many instances still send their children to Europe to the older 
UiUT6nitt««, tliinking thereby to secure for them at once learning, 
ibo experience of travel, and the prestige of a Degree from an old 
University. As to how far I think their ends are usually attained I 
will not now stop to express an opinion. The children of Ihe com- 

Ifely poor are not excluded, for the aids to such are extremely 
nnu. There are the State bursaries from the public Bchools, 



1 



iicersilij Life in Australasia. 



^^^ 98 

I bursaries in the patronage of the University itself, and a large 

W number of scbolarBlups, exhibitions, and prizes designed to help this 

H class of students. Finally, exemption from their share of the fees ia 

I always willuigly granted by such of the Professors as participate in 

I fees in apparently deserving and suitable cases, anH then the Uni- 

I versity invariably foregoes the half which accmea to the University 

I ch 

B yn 

■ pi' 

r bu 



The buildings of the University of Sydney were commenced 
with the sam of £50,000 voted by the Colonial Legislature. The 
site is elevated, and on the outskirts of the city, in an ornamental 
piece of land of about 134 acres. In this area stand also separate 
buildings for tlie medical and engineering schools, the chemical, 
physiciJ, biological, and geological laboratories, the Macleay 
he affiliated Colleges, and the Prince Alfred Hospital. 
Adjoining the University grounds is the large public Victoria Park, 
and there being no appreciable difference in the aspect of the two 
pieces of land, and no manifest dividing line, the University stands 
in the midst of a noble park overlooking the city and commanding 
a view of all the countryside. 

The permanent building H of the University are built of the beauti- 
ful brown stone of the district and in the Tudor-Gothic style of 
architecture. In tlie more recent erections the orthodox diamond 
panes in the windows have given place to ordinary plate glass, 
and with this change the Gothic architecture lends itself admir- 
ably to the requirements of a modem school of science even. The 
Great Hall, capable of seating over 1,200 people, is a very special 
feature in the builduig, because it is in every way at least as thie as 
any such ball in any part of the United Kingdom, and certainly 
is finer than most of tliem. 

A Library, which with annexes will cost about jf 60,000, is about 
to be erected. The funds for this work consist of £25,000 &om a 
sum of jC30,000 bequeathed by the late Thomas Fisher for that 
specific purpose, supplemented by a pound for pound contribution 
by the State. It has been considered that if the Htato were not to 
contribute, prospoctive donors might be deterred from making con- 
templated benefactions, for they might hesitate simply to relieve tl»© 
public exchequer of the burthen of providing University buildings — 
since, if private persons did not help, it would clearly fall to be 
done, if done at all, entirely by the State. 

The amounts of the private benefactions in the case of some 
of the University institutions are very considerable. Thus, to the 
University itself, the donations for the use of students, i.e. for the 




University Life in Atntialasia. 



(ooodBttoD of buritaries, scholorsbipa, exhibitions, prizes, &c., 
■mount to over i. 47,000. Donations for epecinl objects amount to 
i^.OOO. Poitalions otherwise than in woae^ aro valued at over 
i]62.000. Doiiationa for direct educationD,! purpoaca : one of 
jC>I,000 for a Lecliircship, while the ^eat Oiallis bequest of about 
£iS»,<U(Xy, beqaeatbed by John Henry Cballis, a merchant of 
Sjtln«;, haa b«on dedicated exclusively and in perpetuity to tbew 
purpoeeE. We tbuH reach a total of no less tban i.'4(}f),000 given 
bgr OTGT 100 donors, and of this i.'dJ^O,000 has been given within 
the lut twelve years. 

Tbo expenditure on the general ucoount is about £'20,000 per 
*«« n«n. Tlic cost of administration and incidental charges are 
miv eOTored by tiie foes received on account of lectures, cxamina- 
tloiu and degrers, " leaving all the public cndon-menta and private 
boM&etions to the purposes of teaching, of accommodation in tlie 
fimn of lands and bnililings, and of help, encouragement, and 
rewards to students." Tbo cost of administration cannot increase 
lo anjr considerable extent, and the incidental charges cannot in- 
erease in anythuig like the »<ame ratio as tlio fees. It is therefore 
anticipated that from the fees alone many of the Departments will 
b« entirely self-supporting. 

Th« valuable Mu3i>umof Egyptian and other A nti qui ties collected 
by Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., and preA'ntcd by him to the Uni- 
versity, will probably bo housed in some part of the Fisher Library 
Baildonifs ; and since it is, so for as I know, the only collection of 
ita Idnd south of the line, its proper display is n matter of the 
utmont importance. 

The MuBouni of Natural History contains the great collection 
tnado by the distioguished naturalists, Alexander Madcay, William 
Shaip Maclcny, and his cousin, the late Sir William Macleay, and 
preMDted by Hir William to the University, together with the sum 
of .£6,000 for the endowment of a caratorsfaip. It is, as might be 
•xpectvd, peculiarly rich in local types, and in process of time will 
be made of great value in the teaching of Natural History. 

A Collection of Normal and Morbid Anatomy in oonnection with 
tbo School of Medicine was commenced in ltW3 only, but already, 
in tlie abort time that has since elapsed, it has made astoniahuig 
^H Og t ta a , and is invaluable for the illiistmtion of the teachings in 
lb« medical Rchool. 

The following is a statoiuciit of lliu students attending the courses 
of instruction in the fnivetaity of Sjdney, exclusive of the Exten- 
sion Lectures: — 



L 



Vnivefsiiy Life in Australasia. 



:sinatncalated Sdl, Df whom GG a: 
Foat Qradaate Students 10 „ 4 , 

GTening Students — 

matriculated 80) 

non-matrieulatedSSf^'^ ■■ " ' 



80 Facallj of Medicine, including 5 women 
25 Faculty of Science {including Engineering Students 1.' 
11 Unmatiicutated 
683 Total Students attending lectures, n>itde up of 481 
anmatriculated students, and including 83 women 



.(ricutated and 44 



TliG number of gi'ftduates is 052. 

In the University of Sydney there are at present fourteen Pro- 
fessors with four Demonstrators, sixteen Lecturers, sis Assistant 
Lecturers, and three Tutors^in all forty-three teachers. 

Nearly all the Professors and many of the Lecturers are natives 
of the United Kingdom, and graduates of some University of the 
United Kingdom. This was of course inevitable at first, but now 
several of the Profeasors and Lecturei's are born Australasians, 
partly or wholly educated in Australasia. 

The mode of appointment has varied at different times. The 
earliest mode was for the Governing Body in Australasia to appoint 
a Committee in England to call for applications, and to select one 
from amongst the candidates. The Committee had thus the power 
of appointment practically delegated to it. Then came a time 
when all candidates, whencesoever they came, applied to the Com- 
mittee in England, and the Committee was aslied merely to select, 
say, three, and to submit these three names, arranged in the order 
of merit, to the governing body in Australia, A modification of this 
took place when it was seen that there might be candidates hailing 
from Australasia as well as from Europe, and because itwas thought 
that a candidate in Australasia would not have much chance of 
auccesa if he applied to a Committee in England. To meet the 
difficulty a compromise of the Committee's powers was effected. 
All the Australasian candidates applied to the Governing Body in 
Anstralaaia ; all the European candidates to the Committee in 
England, and then the short leet of the Committee was put by the 
Australasian authorities with the Australasian candidates and the 
final election made by the Australasian authority. 

In one case, and bo far as I know, one only, the most prominent 
Universities and Colleges in the United Kingdom were asked (o 



Unicersity Life in Australasia. lOl 

:b one m&ii Tor ao important Cbair. I trust tliat tha 
bCol man was elected. 

When Qugotiatioiis Lave to be carried on at sueb a distance, and 
when no many conflicting oirt;iimstances aurround the business, it 
is not to be wondered at if considerable diniciilties bave arisen in 
regard to tbese committee nominations, Much of tbis tronble 
irontd hare been avoided if llie members of the Committee bad 
falljr understood the situation. Some, I know, believed that the 
Conunittee had actually or practically the power of appointment, 
when they were merely asked to select the fittiiat person from 
amongst the candidates from Europe, so tbat the Governing Body 
in Australasia, in appoiotintf someone in Australasia in spite of 
the Committee having recommended another person, was doing no 
more than it had retained a clear right to do. titill, as I say, il is 
difficult to make everybody understand things when the distances 
of time and place are bo great ; it ia impossible to carry on any- 
thing like a correspond en co. In any case I clearly see tbat in 
foture it wiU be difiicult to induce distinguished men to act on 
Committees unless they are informed that, except for grave reasons 
that could be only very exceptional, the AustrsJasian authority 
moans to accept their recommendation. Uf that I am sure from 
eoaveraation with gentlemen wiio bave acted on Committees in 
noeai years. Not only so, but unless tliis be done good men in 
Europe will not apply for the posts, accompanied as such an appti- 
cslion is by suspense of mind, interference with work, and distnrb- 
asoe of the business of life generally. 

An to the personnel of the teachers at tbe Universities, there baa 
bMn ft very marked tendency in recent years to elect only young 
men. It is found that when a man in the United liingdom, let us 
say, gets up in years, either be has been a success and bae made 
a home for himself, in which case be is indisposed to move ; or he 
has not been a success, and is disposed to move. A man of years 
who wonts to come to us is, for some reason or other, and si>eaking 
qnita generally — for there are exceptions to the rule— not desirable- 
Bot ev«a if be goes to Australasia, be is too old to settle down and 
learn the ways of a new country. Ikloreover, tbe best of his work- 
ing-time is over, although of course be may still be robust and 
of mature mind. For these reasons the Governing Bodies of nearly 
all the Universities in Australasia bave come to tbe conclusion 
that it is best to get young men, and accordingly tlie Professors 
tbat have been appointed in tbe last ten years bave all be«n 
appoinlod between tbe ages of twenty-six and tbirty-six. So &r t 



4 
I 



.ppointmeo^^^H 



102 University Life in Australasia. 

I am aware, there has been no reason to regret the appointmei 
Buoh young men. 

As to the tenure of ofiBce of the Professors, that is ugually for life, 
quajndi.u se bene gansBrint, or {u2 vitam ant culpam. In some cases, 
it is true, tliey have heen appointed at first for a limited term of 
years, but this hue been found very unsatiBfactory to all concerned. 
As a matter of fact, the man who is good enough to be chosen in 
the first instance as Professor is not Ukely to give up any position 
■where he had some sort of security of tenure to take another posi- 
tion from which he is liable to be ejected at the end of a term of 
years. A hmited tenure is therefore a direct bar to securing a good 
man — especially if he has to go all the way from Europe to 
Australasia. 

It ought to be better known than it is on this side of the line that 
hitherto Professors, who have been called to Australasia, have for 
the most part been obliged to do a great deal of pioneering work. 
Oftentimes, instead of teaching one they have had to teach two or 
more subjects, and, instead of finding lecture rooms, laboratories, &c. 
ready for them upon their arrival, they have bad first to struggle 
for the funds and then, these obtained, have liad to design and 
superintend the erection of the buildings. The supply of apparatus 
is in moat cases fairly adequate, but it is di£6cult to realise, except 
by experience, what a difference it makes to be 12,SB8 miles away 
from one's base of suppUes, for, after all, most things that are 
used in teaching require to be imported from Europe. Then 
again, it is impossible to do original work without an adequate 
library of periodical literature. At first there were no libraries at 
all, and it has only been gradually tliat working libraries have 
been got together. I mention these things because it is sometimes 
held up as a reproach that as yet we have not produced very much 
original work in Australasia. I admit that the statement is in a 
measure true, but I say that, considering the circumstances in 
which the Universities have been placed, they have done as mnch as 
could reasonably be expected. Lastly, it is not every one in the 
Governing Bodies that approves of original work being done at all. 
There are many, curiously enough, who think that the Professor's 
time ought to be given entirely to teaching. In answer to that 
I will quote the words of Principal Caird, of Glasgow University, 
when speaking the other day of Sir William Thomson, who, as a 
representative of science, was only a few days ago raised to the 
dignity of the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The learned Prin- 
cipal said, " I think wo have in Sir William an illustration of the 



University Life in Australasia. lOfl 

gener&l principle that tlie best teacher of a Bcienci^, even of tlie 
< elomrntfl of a ecience, is not the man of plodding and paiiistakiug 
mediocrity, but the original thinker and inveRtigntor ; for, apart 
from tbo mere meclianioal art of teaching, each a man bas the 
cnoriDoaa element of suc-cess in a teacher that is duo to tbe fact 
thftt bo has in bis mind eiithuHi&am for the subject, which can 
only be attained in the full measure by one who has contributed to 
\i\» advance men t, and w)io, by unconscious process, awakens in young 
niitds an interest ami an enthusiasm in it equal to his own." 
la regard to this question of original work, it is much to be 
that so many men wlio Iiave earned fortunes in Austral- 
Bot stay and spend tbeir means there, for they might do 
foetvr rcBearoh, each in bis own University centre. Then 
it is a pity that young men of means so often go away to 
Inropo to reside^ond. in a great many instances, waste their time. 
K they would only stay in their own University towns, or would 
bock to tbeni. free from the necessity of earning a livQliboood, 
tbey might do much to advance the intellectual life of their country, 
for absenteeism is lu pernicious in intellectual as it is in material 
lliing*. and you will remember bow very forcibly we were told at 
last meeting that Australasia is positively suffering from 
ibM&teeism. All around us in Australasia lie vast fields for ex- 
^oration, botli in Letters and in Natural History. For instance, the 
hngnagoB of the South Seas ore still in great measure to be worked 
ap, and !ii (icology. Mineralogy, Botany. Zoology. Physiology, kc. 
then M abundant original work to be done in Australasia. The 
who have an inclination for tliese things are too busy teaching, 
anil the men who have the leisure have not tbe inchnation. But 
ia it not viry much the same in the United Kingdom ? I might 
indeed quote the legend of the Sydney University^ Jfcio mdtm, 
Udtre muUito. 

Om great feature of tlie life of a University teacher in the 
Colonies is the prominent part he plays in the public life of tbe 
tommcuuty ai a comparatively early age. If he remains in 
Eotope be probably is already fairly well on in life before ha 
[aires any public position or influence. During bis younger 
when activity of mind and body i4 sweetest, he is struggling 
livetibood, perhaps all unknown, and if he survive tbe period 

he may be promoted or he may noL If ho 
even if he is. the promotion comes so late that oftentimes 
of its sweetness is gone. Now in the Colonies one 
of public activity early in life, and there are characters 




< 



^V I 

>riod ^^H 

cters ^^1 



104 University Life in Australasia,. 

to whom this is a distinct consideration. It ia to such that I 



A great drawback to the poBition of a teacher in Australasia is 
the isolation — the absence of any body of men, as learned or more 
learned than himself in his ovm Une of work, with whom he can 
come into contact more or less frequently. Even were there more 
complete libraries, museums, and things of that sort than there 
teally are. still these would not make up for this isolation of the 
individual — for the want of kindred society. One simply is not 
able to keep up with the march of discovery by reading only, and 
this is particularly true in scientific matters. Much time is wasted 
by not knowing that what one is busily engaged in investigating 
has all been done before. This has happened to myseK again and 
again, and had I been where I could freely speak with those who 
were engaged in the same sort of work, I should have been spared 
much loss of time. But all this is of course improving. Even in 
nine years of residence in Sydney I have seen a wonderful change 
come over the place. May it go on ! 

Leave of absence from professorial daty for the purpose of visiting 
other countries has hitherto been granted in most cases without 
much trouble. In each case the duties of his office have to be pro- 
vided for by the absent teacher. What has been said with regard 
to the isolation of teachers in Australasia will show the necessity 
for periodical visits to the older centres of learning if the teacher is 
to keep in touch with the progress of the day. As a rule one year 
in sis or seven has not been deemed too much. There is no law. 
It is merely a custom which, however, should be upheld. I have 
even heard it argued that teachers should be forced to go periodi- 
cally to Europe and on full pay. Perhaps they would then object 
—it is human nature to resist coercion 1 

The incomes of Professors differ somewhat in the different Uni- 
versities, hut they range from £700 a year upwards. The highest 
salaries are those attached to old appointments, made at a time 
when the number of students was compsjatively small, and when 
the conditions of life were not so favourable as they are now. Thus 
we must not begrudge the present fortune of the fortunate. In more 
recent times in Sydney about £900 a year has been found requisite to 
attract the kind of man that is wanted, since recently i.'H0O was 
offered and no eligible — as it was considered — candidate appeared. 
The salary was raised to £000, and then an eIe(?tion was made. 
This salary carries with it a rise of £100, at the end of each five- 
yearly period, till amasimum of £1,200 a year is reached. Thereis 



University ZAfe in Australasia. 105 

aeeording to that scheme (Sydney) no participation in lecture fees, 
wbereu the older appointments get half fees, the other half going 
to Uu Unirerslt}' chest for general purposes. There are many who 
believe that the non-participation of the teacher in the fees he eami 
is ft nUtAke, for an University Professor is human, and may " taka 
it euy," bat that, if his income depends upon his o^'n exertion, 
to Mme extent such will be a stimulus to him. It provides a 
fand for old ago, or accident of any sort : for the newer appoint- 
ments have no pension provided, while the oldest appointments 
bftd » pension of jiiQQ a year in the event of physical incapacity 
after a certain number of years' service. My own opinion is that 
it woald have been better policy to have retained the pension and 
kept the salaries loner, fur unthrifty Professors are not unknown, 
and when such come to he old men they may cling to their poeta 
long after they are past work, and it is very difficult — it is practically 
imposaible— for a fioveruing Body to dislodge them without some 
■ort of pecuniary arrangement after all. 

In some cases, as in Alelbourno and Dunedin, a bouse in or near 
the University is allowed to the Professors, or some of them. Thla 
is either a sort of addition to the income or a rent is paid for it. 
Bnt in the latter case it is a low i-ent comparatively, so that it is a 
(liatinct gain. The question of building houses for the Professors 
in Hydney Ijob lately been before the Governing Body, and it was 
found Uial BO much might be said on either gido that the project 
Upon that ground, as well as upon that of the difhculty of providing 
suitable sites, has been set aside for the present. 

The coat of living in Australasia is certainly higher than it is in 
tho United Kingdom. I think it nut un unfair eetimate that in 
Sydney one spends about one-tliird more thau in London, so that 
on income of £000 in tiydncy would be equal to about £075 in 
Loudon. But one ought not to forget, in this connection, that, owing 
lo the higher rate of interest in tho Colonies, one can get more for 
what one saves. 

Of BcientiBc societies there is a Royal Bociety. a Linntcan 
Bociety. a Geographical Society, and so forth in most of the Colonies, 
ftnd Bome of these societies are in a very nourishing condition. 
Th« Boyal Hociety in Sydney makes its library a specialty, so does 
the Linnsan, which has just lost its Mieconas, the late Sir William 
Mfteleay, who I believe has bequeathed so large a sum of money to 
the society that it must be a permanent inatitulinn. He also gats 
it it* hoQse and its library, besides making its council the patron 
of fBllowabips in natural science, tenable only by Bachelors of 




University Li/e in Aiutrahsia. 

Science of the University of Sydney. This last foundation ia 

e of the climate upon Btudy— that varies vith 
tte place. In Dunedin and Cbriatohui'cb tlie climate is an im- 
proved English climate^ — plenty of rain, plenty of eunehine, and cool 
withal — and it is esceedingly favourable to study. In Auckland, 
Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Adelaide, it is hotter, and. in pro- 
portion as it ia hot, one finds that, however much one may do in 
the daytime, one cannot do very much in the evening after the 
ordinary daywork. Individual temperament plays a part here, but 
I think this is the general experience. Tasmania offers a perfect 
climate — sometimes, indeed, it Ls very hot in summer, but one must 
not forget that " there must always bo a something." 

Upon health and race, if the Australasian climate— excepting, of 
course, in the far north, where few if any settlements have been 
made — is not positively favourable, I know of no evidence to show 
that it is unfavourable. I know famihes in the fourth generation in 
New South Wales, and they are as fine specimens of the human 
race as I ever saw. We are told that Australian girls have not red 
cheeks ; how cau they, when they have not to encounter any of the 
vile cold winds that but widen and fill the blood vessels of the 
face? That is what "red cheeks" mean, and are they so very 
desirable after all ? The Australian girl — 
has a beauty of bBr own, 
A beauty of a paler tone. 

Thau English belles. 
Yet Sontbem eun and Southern air 
Have kissed her cheeks, until they wear 
The dainty tints that oft appear 
On rosy shells. 

(Ethel Caataia, Melbourne.^' 

Wives remain strong; Jiealthy children are reared with great ease, 
so that there is none of that miserable sepamtion of husband from 
wife and children that ia the curse of life to the European in 
India. You find people who say they cannot stand Australia in 
the summer — and others who really cannot stand it — but you find 
Buch people everywhere. How many cannot stand the Kiviera in 
summer ? IIow many cannot stand England in the winter 9 The 
proportion of the population which would he benefited by trans- 
lation from England to Australia is vastly greater than the pro- 
portion which would be benefited by translation from Australia 
to Eogiaji^. I hope, on my return to Sydney, to see something 



Univcrsiltf Life in Amtralatia. 107 

Banc towRrda the settlement of tlie question how tar the Aostrali&n 
olimUe affects the Anglo-Saxon race by the vork of an Anthropo- 
tnvbric Laboratory in connection with the Medical School. 

AmoMments are practically the ordinary £ngU»)i forma of 
■mnsement : golf, tennis, football, cricket, and for these there are 
nnuUy coarta and grounds in the University Parks ; bowls, yacht- 
ing, eatnping, riding, fishing, and shooting ; the last to a limited 
oitent. If one con find the time there is plenty to do. I presume 
oar teacher is not a racing man — of this there is perhaps too much 
■T«fywhere in Australasia, although one need not wonder at tbia 
wbon oae thinks bow much one has to do with horses out there. 
Thfl climat« is favourable to outdoor exercise ; it does not seem to 
bt cw too hot to pliiy ! The rain does not trouble much ; it 
totaea cJiicflf in the " rainy season " and one knows about that. 

Of I'niveraity societies theio is the usual complement : union, 
mwdicol society, sports' union, boat, cricket, tennis, ladies' tennis, 
Athletic, football clubs, musical, dramatic and women's philaa- 
tbiopic societies, and ao forth. 

Tbo " society " which one finds in Colonial Capitals varies very 
mncb, but in all, so far as I know, it is wholesome and good. Of 
OOOTM one does not find the many special circles that one can find, 
tor instance, in London, bat we should be fools if we expected it. 
Anil tliirt must be said plainly, for we hear too many criticisms of 
■ocitfty in the Colonial Capitals, that seem to me to be made by 
jmrsonn who take society as found in Earopeun Capitals for their 
ataodard of comparison and judge accordingly. This, however, is 
not a comparison, but a contrast, for it is the bringing together of 
iiuliko things, not of things which are like. If a comparison is 
wanted, we must take the provincial Capitals of the United King- 
dom to find sometliing hke the society of Sydney and Melbourne, 
ftud then the comparison will, in my opinion, and to put it mildly, 
not go so far against my adopted country. If we lack some of the 
polish (mind, I do not say we do), we also lack much of the hypo- 
tniijr of European Capitals, and if we lack some of their artistic and 
litevsry accomplishments (unind, I do not say we do), we at least are 
in nwru intimate touch with nature than they are. If there is some 
beedotu in our life there is no license I We do as well as can be 
•Zpectod of us. We are a community of business people, and will 
compare very fi^vourably with other such communities. We have 
no noble families who have been patrons of the Arts and Letters for 
gaaentions ; we do not even get our own rich men to do their duty 
in thi« respect, for, with some noble exceptions, ti\c;j u« \ao ^otA 



108 



University Life in Australasia. 



to spend the wealth gotten in Australasia anywhere but there. 
Even with these diaadvantagea, however, the 141 teachera witli 
2,040 students in the four Australasian Universities already at 
work, the splendid University and College buildings and well- 
equipped laboratories ; the PubUc School Bystem, Grammar Schools, 
Museums, Botanical and Zoological Gardens, Art GallerieB, 
Libraries, &c., and the muniiicent endowments of some of these 
institutions, are no mean evidence of what is done by Australasians 
for the higher life. The exhibitions of paintings by local artists 
grow better every year. Good music is fully appreciated by all 
classes of the community. Large audiences attend theatres night 
after niglit to enjoy a play of Shakespeare. Men of learning enjoy 
a consideration and respect which only their own conduct can 
destroy. Everybody reads, and not everybody reads trash. The 
press is, taking it as a whole, pur^ and healthy in tone. Already 
we have authors of repute of Au^trahan birth. The capacity for 
self-government and the purity of our governments are also to be 
cited here ; for, when all is said and done, I know no evidence of 
impure administration in any one of the Australasian Colonies. In 
spite of statistics quoted, our observation shows that the population 
is sober, law-abiding, law- enforcing, and as industrious as need be. 
In the same breath in which we are told we live in a workijig- man's 
paradise, we are also told that we work too little ; but why should a 
working-mau, unless he likes it, work more than eight hours a day 
in paradise, and why should he not take as many holidays as he 
can get, in a climate, too, where it is generally worth one's while 
taking a hohday ? Does anyone imagine that the average man any- 
where would do otherwise if he could? Not while lie ia still 
human. 

Taking it all in all then, so far as one's immediate surroundings 
are concerned, one ntay he very happy in a Colonial University 
Chair. People will certainly be very Idndly disposed to one ; the 
autlioritiea will do their best for one according to their lights, and, 
in a word, here, as so often elsewhere, the place is very much what 
one makes it. Es Itallt aus <lem WaUle wieilei; wte man hineinruft. 

The academic year is in Sydney and in moat other places divided 
into three terms of about fifty working days each : Lent (March to 
May), Trinity (June to Aug.), and Michaelmas (Sept. to Dec). The 
long vacation is Dec. to March, i.e. during the Australasian summer. 
Then many people leave Sydney, Melbourne, and Adelaide, and 
go to the mountains, in no case more than a couple of hours' journey 
b^ train, or odb goes farther away to Tasmania, the garden of 



i. at Vfem to New ZeaUoA, the real liolid&y place in that 
qauW. Bat it really is not neccss&ry to leave the city, and per- 
noall; I do not. It is not often so ven- hot. and besides, if it is 
bit I fnfer to be in my own house, where one haa ever}- oonvemeiic«, 
mumi td unao coantrv house where one has not. 

lirtiim ara deliTeroI only on the fir?t five week days, and are 
■hD; onr by 1 or 2 i-.m., bo that the altemoons are generally 
ka. Tbii, at ooarse, does not apply to tho science teachers, for 
ib^ have pncti»l work going on all day long. 

Cap and gown are woni at lectare, and upon all academic ooca- 
Moa. 

Ending lectures were commenced in Sydney in 1884, but only in 
dw Pacal^ of Arte. They were designed for persons who are nnder 
At Mcesaity of earning their livelihood daring the daytime, but 
vba lot aoDie reason are anxious to have a University education 
■aiitarap. At first they were not very successful, but recently 
Ihcy have greatly improved. The curriculum consists of the same 
wA jM n as tliat for day student?, and the final examination is 
Untical, but the period uf study is usually longer than in the case 
rfdaf students. The teaching is done generally by a separate set of 
LMtoren, but is more or less under the direction of the Prof^asora, 
«Kin some cases, take part in the actual teaching. Extension 
iMlDtM were commenced in 1SS6. and are conducted on much the 
mat bnefl as in the L'nited Kingdom. Post-graduate courses are 
wm in operation in some of the Arts subjects. 

The benefits of the Universilies extend in all respects to women 
■od mon e(]ually, both as to teaching and the granting of 
depMS. No system of separation of the sexes has anywhere (in 
6j4Bty) been adopted, and, so far as I know, no difficulty has made 
itiilf felt. The number of women attending the classes in Arts and 
flajmc* is oonsiderable ; but in l^Iedicine tliey have not been Bu- 
Xrau, as one can readily understand. The first two woman 
GndiMtM in Uedicine were capped in Melbourne just two months 

Anyone may attend the lectures and work of the Universities 
^tlioot matriculating or passing any entrance examination ; but if 
viUi the intention of proceeding to a Degree, matriculation afU<r 
ptMing an entrance cxaminiition is neceasar}-. F^xempUon from 
•U«od«nc« upon lectures in Sydney is the exception, and must ba 
^edftUy allowed for good reasons by the Oo\-oming Body. No great 
diffieulty is made if anyone comes and says he cannot pay the fiws ; a 
boiBary. great or small, is found for him, if it appears to th« Chan- 



■ 

I 



no Unirersity Life in AusiraJasia. 

cellor, in whose patronage the hursariea are, that the applicant is 
worthy, and tho Professors, as has abeady been said, have always 
been willing to waive their claim to the feea in such cases. This 
exemption from feea apphes more to the Arts and Science courses 
than to the professional schools, which, supplying a man with hie 
Btock in trade, so to speak, and the immediate means of entering & 
more or less lucrative profession, would soon be filled with students, 
many of them with but little aptitude for a professional career, if 
education were BuppUed free. A large number of youths would then 
miss their destiny. 

The examinations of tlio Australasian Universities are conductetl 
on much the same lines as examinations in Great Britain. In some 
cases the examiners are not teachers ; in other cases the teacher 
examines with an outside examiner who may or may not be a 
teacher ; but the same difficulty is felt in Australasia as is felt in 
Great Britain— namely, that examiners who are not actual teachers 
are, with some exceptions, not satisfactory. The reason is not 
far to seek. It ia only the teacher, who, being bound to traverse 
the whole range of the subject every year, can know the relative 
value of every part of it, and it is only he who can be fairly well up 
in the whole range of the subject at one time. It is too frequeDtly 
the caae that the non-teacher examiner never talsea down his book 
from the shelf, except to look up a few things for the examination; 
these are the only things with which he ia sufficiently au fait to 
examine on, and these he is ven/ apt to ride to death. I finfl 
that in London there is a great deal of discussion going on at thu 
very time on this pohit, and the experience of people in London it 
identical with our experienco in Australasia. The examination 
questions set hy men who are not daily occupied with actual teaching 
are often— &t all events in the more purely ecientifio subjects — most 
unsatisfactory to all concerned. I have done what I could to ke^ 
matters right in this respect, and all that I have leamt since I came 
to Europe confinns me in the opinion that the examination ia 
best conducted by two examiners acting conjointly, the actual 
teacher of the student and a teacher in the same subject from an- 
other University at a distance. If an outside non-teacher examiner 
is wanted, I would suggest that he be present at the examinations, 
and at the deliberations of the examiners, and tliat he should thus 
act as a sort of umpire — a very useful function. 

The standard of examination is uniformly a high one. There is 
no such thing as a " cheap " degree in the Australasian Universities. 
Moreover, these are mostly, as in Sydney, teaching Universitiee in 



Untvcrxity Life in An. 

tlw Btrietost sense. Attendimce upon lecturea and practical work, 
irhsre nocessftrjr, is compulsory, aud the curriculum is B full one. 
Ai to Iklediciiie, tlie curriculuiii has never been of less duration than 
five ^flare, so that for many yenrH wo have had what in the United 
XiaK^om ia only being vosolved upon now. In every department 
Ih* moat tliorough practical instructiou is insigted upon. Subjects 
ETO made compulsory for tlie Bachelor's degree that in most placeii 
have hitherto been, or are still, optional in the United Kingdom, 
nch as Opbtlialmic Medicine and tjurgyry. Psychological Medicine, 
Lofric, and Psychology (in Sydney). 

The reason for the high sLunilnnl ndopted was that we were a 
o«w [nalitutioD which had a reputation to make, and which, had 
•ach a standitrd not hi'cn adopted and adhered to, would have been 
ocnutantly liable to be taken base advantage of. This I can well 
naliso from tlio very larje numbers of applications for "cheap" 
which have reached us from all parts of the world. The 
doubtU^ss thought that, being a young Institution, we 
would not be too particular. Indeed they said so in some caMs. 
In no single instance have wo yielded to the temptation to lower 
oar standard, and I have every reason to believe that we are 
am reaping the fruits of our consistency. The Colonial Degree ia 
DOW ngardwl as a thing worth having, and while I am glad that 
ovr Degrees in Medicine now admit to the riglit of pnictising the 

H"~'-Tion of Medicine in the whole Empire, and on British ships 
rjti I regret that the last Medical Act (18Hfi) established a 
1^ list for Colonial QualiHcations. It is quite another thing 
WgD Qnnl ill cat inns ; it is so ihfficull to n:^certuin their exact 
and loiue of tliem arc, to say the least, of very doubttid value. 
As to the influenci' of the Universities on the outside public in 
Asstralasia — that depends very much on local circumstances. 
There are, I dare say, places in which tlie University has less bold 
upon the public than in otliers, but the interest of the public in tlie 
VAlbre of the University is, as a rule, iiiU.mEe ; and tlie estimation 
io which University people arc held by the public is all that could 
b« dcoircd. Of course, the latter depends very largely upon the 
penonal inalities of the Univtrsity man hunstelf. That, howevrr, 
ii in no wist- different from what would he found in any other part 
of tb» world. 

As to tlie direct influence wiiioh the University lias had, not so 
tnaeh upon social as upon purely educational matters in the lUflt'-ri-nt 
Oahmies, tliat also varies. In Home cases the University has had 
bat btw schools in operation. There the hold Dpon the cominaajty 



112 



Universitt/ Life in Amtrdlasia. 



k 



hfta been comparatively narrow. In otlior cases, where the nnmber 
of Faculties in active operation haa been greater, where the com- 
niunity h&a thus been touched in many places, the hold of the 
University upon the public is more marked, so that the ratio of the 
increase in the number of Students is very much greater than that 
of the population. Nearly all, if not all, the Australasian Universi- 
tiea began with the Faculty of Arts ouly, then Law or Medicine or 
both were added, and then the Faculty of Science. Again, at first 
only day lectures were given, but for some time evening lectures 
have been carried on, and courses of extension lectures are now in 
operation, so that not only are different classes of the community 
reached, but even differont parts of the comitry have University 
teaching brought to tlieir midst. TIio Senior and Junior Public 
examinations annually bring large numbers, about 2,000 in 1891, of 
young people to the University for the purpose of being examined, 
and many of these, once becoming connected, even by a slender tie, 
to the Institution, are eventually drawn well within its influence 
and become undergraduates. 

Until recently the public schoolmasters in New South 'Wales 
were trained entirely in a epecial school maintained for that purpose, 
but u wise resolution of the Minister for Public Education has led 
to Uie establishment of special Colleges within the University — one 
for each sex — where the teacher ^ill reside for a certain period, 
during which he will attend tlie ordinary University lectures as an 
ordinary undergraduate. It is not now contemplated to make the 
altainment of a Degree compulsory as a qualification for the pro- 
fession of schoolmaster, but I have no doubt that this will come 
about in due time. 

In the vast majority of cases as yet, students in Australasia 
ftrquenl the Uni^'crsities in order to acquire some professional quah- 
fication. Young men of means vho have no profession in view 
for the most part go to Europe to study— that is, with the intention 
of studying. The possession of the Arts degree is useful for clergy- 
man, teadiers, and lawj-ers. The m«dic»l Degree is a passport to 
the B«^islvr of Qualified Medical Practitiooers. The Science Degrees, 
•xeopl in the department of F.n^eering — a Degree in which is a 
pwsport to certain departments of the Public Service — have been 
ftulurca pnctinUy. PwjJo do not ouderstand them sufficiently; 
lh«T appsnatly lead to nothing ; and from a worldly point of view 
ftn, thortlbni. wwtli nothing. AfWr all. ihis is what one would 
in ft new coontiy, and does not differ so much, as is often 
xm what w« find ia tbe Uuled Eiogdom. \Vff must compare 




Vnioersity Life in Australasia. 



118 



ibe Scottish and provincial English acbools to the Australasian 
•ebools, for there only are tbo circuui stance u com|)arable. The 
UoiTenitiea of Oxford and Cambridge have, uiniuly ffom social 
tAoata, quite an exceptional position; but in the bcottiab and 
provincial Esglieh scIiooIb the atudente arc, as in the Australasian 
UnivcrsiUea, studying in order lo gain a livelihood by tbe rosulta of 
tbeir study. The Degrees they eeek muHt have money value^tbey 
nn not to be mere e^dence of more or less of culture. It bus been 
uid that tbe Scottish I'mvemitiea teach a man how to earn a 
tbonaand a year, tbe (old) EngUsh Uuiversilies bow to spend it. 
The Auatralasiau Universities are to be compared to tlio Scottish. 

The Anstralasian student, us I know him (and eapecially her I), is 
a banl-working fellow, and as a student he works successfully. The 
ttkodard of tlio examination be has to pass is high, and be works 
ucorttingly. Tliese remarks are possible, doubtless, to a large 
extent, because, as already said, there are few of these students 
who are in quest of a Ikgreo simply as a mark of culture. They 
han) a definite aim, and take a serious view of life. They have no 
lime to be idle ; and thus, too, Satan lias not much cbance of 
making mischief for tlieni, and upon tbe whole, so far as my own 
i!xp«nt!Dce goes, they are very well-behaved— considering 1 Of course, 
there arc, as there are elsewhere, sprightly youths who re<]tiire 
lliod«aling, but I am always bappy to see tbem in my room, and 
1 think wo both usually find the interview quite satisfactory, and 
«heth«r or no, I should be quite sorry if they disappeared from 
■zaongst ns. Life would be too tame if we were all good I 

As was, I think, natural, I have spoken somewhat fully of my 
awa University, hut ui many respects tbe conditions of tbe other 
Aiutralasian Uuiversities are similar, and it would have been 
wetuisome to speak in detail of each of them. But now I mast 
ny a few words about individual Universities other than that of 
Sydney. 

At to tlia University of Mclbounio, its buildings are erected on a 
Ttrj suitable site of about sixty-four acres (not including tlie College 
grounds) in extent in one of the suburbs of the city. There are 
•e{anUe buildings for many of thci departments, and eight profes- 
sorial residences. The Ureal Hall is an imposing structure ervctvd 
from funds amounting to about i.80,000. given by Sir Samuel 
Wilson. The National Museum of Natural History stands in tbe 
grounds. The aflibated Colleges already erected are Trinily (a oollego 
and a hostel) for the Church of England; Ormond (college and 
litll^ La 0ml of Bcotland; and (Jueen'a foi t.h« Wu^^tu \x^\ 



I 



114 University Li/e in Aitstralasta. 

and a portion of land has been reserved for a Roman Catliolic 
College, whicli will probably soon be ei'ected. Besides tliese the 
School of Mines at Ballarat is affiliated to the University. The 
number of matriculated students in actual attendance is 591 (includ- 
ing 47 women) distdbuted as follows, viz. ; Arts and Science, 190 ; 
Law, 100; Medicine, 212; Engineering, 89. The graduates 
number about 1,100, The teaching staff of the University has a 
total of 35, consisting of 14 Professors, 15 Lecturers, and (} Assistant- 
Lecturers and Demonstrators. A University Extension scheme is 
just being started. The University spends over £32,000 per annum, 
derived as follows: from fees, i'l 6,000 : from fised Government 
graat, £9,000 ; and customary additional Government grant about 
£8,000. 

ISenefactions have not been bo large to the Mtlbourae as to the 
Sydney University ; but tliey have not been wanting. One donor 
alone, Francis Ormoud, gave or bequeathed £80,000 to the Onuond 
College, and £20,000 to found the Chair of Music in the University. 

In one respect the University of Melbourne is a great sinner, for, 
except in Medicine, it permits a man, simply as a matter of course, 
to acquire the status and title of a University Graduate by exami- 
nation only, as if an examination were a wholly Batisfactory test of 
culture, and as if it were the function of a University to administer 
this test. Most men maintain the contrary, and even in Melboome 
there are not so many who avail themselves of the exemption from 
attendance on lectures. Still, it is not a satisfactory state of 
matters. 

The University of Adelaide has no affihated Colleges. The Uni- 
versity buildings are on a good site in a principal street of the city, 
and are in stone, and of a good style of architecture. The number 
of students in attendance is 289. Tliis includes 167 that are not 
proceeding to a Degree, and 122 who are : in Law 29, Medicine 24, 
Arts 12, Science 23, Music 84. These include 43 women : in Law 
0, Medicine 1, Arts 2, Science 12, Music 28. The number of gradu- 
ates is 227. Tliere are evening classes, and likewise a system of 
senior and junior Public Examinations. The teaching staff has 2S 
in all — including seven Professors and sixteen Lecturers. It spends 
on the general account about £12,000 per annum. Its great bene- 
factors are the late Sir W. W. Hughes, Sir Thomas Elder, and the 
Hon. J. H. Angas. 

The Tasmanian University was only estabUshed in 1889, so that 
we have not much to say of it as yet. The property and powers of 
the Council of Education were transferred to the Governing Body, 



UniiTTsiiy Lift m Auitralftiia. US 

nlled Coonoil, of the deiw University, and ctn endowment from the 
pnhlie funds, providcil lij enactment, of £3,000 for each of the two 
first fears, and of JJ4.(KI0 for every Hiibseiiuent year. The Govern- 
ing Body ifi a Council of eighteen, nine elected by the Senate 
(cotuiRtiRfi of graduatea. uiembcrs of Council, and Associates in 
Arts), eight elected by the members of both Houses of Parliament, 
»nA, a officio, the Minister of Education. 

Neither Queenaland nor Western Australia has any University, 
■nd the latt«r prol'ably will not have one for many years. Queens- 
land, however, has already taken active steps in appointing aBoyal 
CotnmissioD to inquiro and report as to the best means to be adopted 
io ectablishing and maintaining a University in the Colony, The 
purpose of tlto Uni%'ersity, as set forth in the instrument appointing 
thtt CommiBsioD. is worth quotuig, viz. : " To cnablu youug men and 
ffomeu of all rlasttes within our said Colony to obtain within the 
txifden* thereof such an education as will best fit thciii to aid in tlie 
de^'elopnient of the free institutions as well as the material resources 
of our said Colony, and to perform the higher duties of citi/enahip, 
and in order to render more eflieient the system of State Kdncation 
BOW established in our said Colony." The Commission reported 
in Juno 1S9I, recommending the immediate establishment of a 
Univrrsity vitt much on tlie same lines as those of Sydney and 
Melbourne, with tlie Minister of Education as an fx officio member 
of the fidvcriiing Dody. The endowment proposed is 100,000 acres 
of land, X'10,000 fur building, and an annual vote of £ti,aW. 
The ease of Nuw Zealand i^ somewhat peculiar, owing to that 
fcOlgttey having been di\ided uito separate pro\itict'S. In Now 
^HHAltid there isa University of New Zealand, which is the oxamin- 
HHj^d degree- gran tingbo<ly, and connected witli this there are teocb- 
BS^CoOrgefl in Auckland, Cliristchurch. and Dunedin. Wellington 
' ibo, thcT seat of government, is now claiming to have a University 
College. The University of New Zrnland itself lias no special head- 
ijasrlorii, but as a matter of fact its OtBce is in the city where the 
Chancellor for the time being resides (at present Wellington). Thfl 
meetings of the Governing Dody, called the Senate, take place in 
Mdi of the four principal towns of New Zealand m turn. The 
Governing Body consists of twenty-four menilwrs, all of whom from 
IhTO ia 1881 wore chosen by the GoTcnior, that is, the government 
of tlie day. In lHB-1 the court of (loiivocation was instituted, there 
UtiPg then thirty graduates. Con^-ocauon consists of ail graduates 
above the degrcn of Bachelor and of all Bachelors of two years' 
ituidiDg, and there are now 287 graduates qualified for membership. 



Universily Li/c in Australasia. 



116 

Since 1881, vaeanoiea on the Governing Body are filled by i 
Governing Body itself and by Convocation alternately. Convoca- 
tion, in addition to this power of election, has the function of advis- 
ing tliB Governing Body on matters concerning the University. On 
the present Governing Body there are seven Professors, so that the 
teaching staff is fciirly adequately represented. All apiKjiutmenta 
are for life. 

The examinations are partly conducted in the Colony (that is, the 
examiners are resident in New Zealand), and partly— as in the case 
of the examinations for Degrees in Arts and Science— out of the 
Colony; that is, by examiners resident in Great Britain. Some of 
the law papers are set in New Zealand, others in England. 

"While the three Colleges already named do the whole teaching 
work of the University, candidates for Degrees are not required to 
take classes at any of them. They may study when and how they 
like, although, as a matter of fact, nearly all candidates for Degrees 
attend one or other of the Colleges. The Colleges themselves 
conduct no Degree examinations. 

Each College is govenied by its own Council, locally elected, and 
consisting partly of ex o^cio members, and partly of members of 
the New Zealand University on tlie books of the College. No Pro- 
fessor is eligible for a seat upon the College Council. This last 
provision has been found in practice to be most unsatisfactory, and 
an agitation is now in progress to have a representation of the 
teaching body on the Governing Body of each College. It is pro- 
posed, for instance, that the Government of the Colony shall appoint 
six, the teaching staff elect three, and the graduates three. As a 
matter of fact, the exclusion of teachers from this College Council 
has the less prejudicial effect from the fact that the regulations for 
Degrees are framed entirely by the authorities of the New Zealand 
University, not by the College Councils, and of course on the Senate 
of the University the teaching staff is, as has been already men- 
tioned, adequately represented. The appointment and dismissal of 
all teachers rest with this local Council. 

As to the strength of the teaching staff, it consists of eighteen 
Professors and twenty-two Lecturers, or forty in all. In Auckland 
there are four Professors and one Lecturer ; in Christehurch there 
are five Professors and four Lecturers, and in Dunedin there are 
nine Professors and seventeen Lecturers. Li Auckland only Arts 
and Science are taught ; in Christehurch Arts, Science, Engineering, 
and Law ; and in Dunedin Arts, Science, Medicine, Law, and Mining. 
The funds required for Auckland College are mostly from a statu- 




UniversiUj Life in Aitatralaaia. 

fany KDnml grant, vliile in Cbristclmrcb aod DunoiIIn the; c 
from gnwls of land given for the purpose la early dnya. To the 
rnppon of two of the chairs in Dtinotlin, the Presbytfrian Church 
ii faodoil to cnatributo. 

The income of the New Zealand University in 1890 was i'fi.lfl?, 
&Dtl in 1H1M the number of Rtudents actually in attendance (ISG. 

Of all Uie questiona agitating University life iu Australasia, the 
qomtion of government is the moat prominent. What follows ia 
in Mme measoie a rfiumi, sometimes in the original worils, some- 
(hnMabbreviated'-whero the origiaal would be too long to quote 
ttrhatim — of the arguments whicli have been advanced from timo 
lo titne by speakers and writers and correspondents on this impor- 
tant subject. In the main 1 agree with wliat I have thought fit to 
reproduce, althougli in certain details I may differ. Uut one is 
here r/MiceriK'd with a great principle, and with that priiidplt of 
tlu adequate rcpregcntation of all the intcresli concerned I entirely 
■gT«e, ks much perhaps on the ground of expediency as on the 
graond of joatica. 

Before proceeding 1 desire to point out that, as I understand 
(twin, the following expressions of opinion are not intended to in 
any w«y reflect upon the members of the present Governing Bodies. 
I, at least, in any intercalated remarks, have no such intention in 
my mind. Further, the present Governing Bodies have their oonsli- 
lotiaD by enactment, tliey are as they are by law, and they cannot 
bo altered until the law is altered. The whole gist of what follows 
ia u lo what should he enacted when the law t^ altered, which in 
the ordinary course of events it must he sooner or later. To speak 
of the Ouveming Body I know, too much praise cannot be spoken of 
Ibt members of the Governing Body of itie University of Sydney, 
wbicb for some time has met almost weekly, and always for at least 
tvo hours each sitting. Not only so, but many, many committee 
have had to bo attended. That busy professional men 
be found willing to give up so much time at the end of a 
r'a work at their profession ia no small thing — it is, indeed. 



I ptMent the government of the Univemity of Sydney t* in the bands 

a Oovoniinf; ttody composed chieUy of mcTnbers elected by Conri>ratic>n, 

partly (if members who were appointed before Convocation began to votv, 

and partly of ex agicio merabera {i.e. rrofesaors), 

TliB main p<>wers are thus already with Convocation, and they will be 

every now vacancy occur*. All members, except tbn e* 

>i)] ultimately on the present system receive their mandate 




Umversity Life in Australasia. 

fromthe graduates, and there 19 afeelingithovghnat,! think, so widespread 
M it WHS, that ex officio membership should he abolished. In that case 
Convocation would be the sole and ultimate master in University afiairs. 
Under any oircwustanees it will practically control the Institution ; and 
to this there are some objectiona : — 

1. At present, and probably for long, it will chiefly be made np of 
Oraduatea in Arts. Now most who take the Arts ooursa eventnally join 
the legal profession, and become residents of Sydney. Thus very great 
powers are thrown into the hands of those who represent a section of the 
Bludiea of the University, a section of the professiona, and a section of 
the constitaency. 

3. Even were Convocation much completer and more equally divided 
than it is, the system must be condemned that delivers over the University 
exclusively to its graduates. For it exists, not for the graduates, but for 
the country, and Uie ordinary graduate does not necessarily possess either 
the specialknowledgeof University circumstances which maybe expected 
from the teachers, or feeling for the wants of the community as a whole, 
which might be expected from pereons definitely representing it. To meet 
the iirst objection, representation of the teaching staff sbould in soma 
form be retained > to meet the second, the best plan is to have a certain 
number of Government nominees. 

The hrst point, as it is part of existing arrangements, and is on the 
whole likely to continue, may be token for granted. It is the second that 
most needs discussion, 

1. In a country where the State does so ranch for primary and secondary 
education, it is rather anomalous that it should he quite powerless in the 
matter of the highest education. And esperienoe, in the cases of Prance 
and Germany, shows that State interference may produce excellent 
results. But — 

2. It is still more anomalous when we remember the targe sub^dies 
that Sydney University has received &om the State. In no other depart- 
ment does the State grant away public money without having something 
to say about its expenditure. Indeed, it is hardly possible that public 
attention will not be awakened one day to this extraordinary condition of 
things. Then we may expect either State support to cease, or perhaps a 
larger measure of State control will be demanded tljan woiild be good for 
the University, or than at present would be accepted as adeiiuate. 

S. There are always points cropping up of possible collision between 
State and Senate, and a good deal of needless friction necessarily ensues. 
Were there a few Government Fellows on the highest Board of the 
University, they could slate their arguments, hear the counter argu- 
ments, and the decision, except in extreme euses, would be much more 
likely than at present to be accepted by oil parties. As things are, there 
is a constant temptation to the State to take over the University entirely, 
and this danger is the more pressing, aa the functions of the State in this 
country are so extended that it woiild not strike the public as a new 




Vniversilt/ Life in Auttralatta. 



119 



EialnBiTe Btate control b the present Bociol c^nditioD wonlil 
be u bad as exclusive Convocation control. RJid the peril may be 
the State a ebare in lime. 
thttt this might give the Minister of Education too much 
But, 6rEt. it ia quite right that he should have souie power; and 
■econdly, the Government Fellows woald not necessarily be members of tha 
naiiUJitry, but only Oov^mnient nominees. 

It is laid that such n representation would have n party character, but 
(1) ib« Qoverniiuinl would BUiulylook about for the best men in Assembly 
IV Connoil, or oven among outEidcrs ; nnd (2) is there any need of the 
faSowsbip ceaeinjK witli chonii^ of Guvommenl ? If he nero appointed 
tar a term of years. iniuixtricB might change, and he might continue to 
me% ■■ slill in the long run, having his niandato from the pubhc It is 
■bo miA Uist they would not attend. This is generally immediBtely 
praeeded by the remark that they wonldbe too interfering. The assertions 
may be left to kill c>ach other. In point of fact, it is my experience that 
tlie avvro^ attcndonne of Government nominees elsewhere is good, and 
ihM there is no lack of iuitividuol independence or of respect to the tradi- 
tioiu (if the place. 

It seems to me that a QoveminK Bodj-, made up chiefly of Fellows 
Blwtod by Convocation, bnt also of representatives of the teaching staff 
and of Qavermiient nominees, is the ideal constitution. 
The profoMorio] members represent the specialised knowledge of teaching 

The Oovemraent nominees represent the interests of the great public. 
Tba dalegatcs from Convocation represent the general body of educated 
and the third naturally should have most, but not exclusive 



J fltrong argument in favour of Government nomineeB may 
1 In the fiict that, as it ia now, practically only busy pro- 
1 men are elected. Business men, even tbe most reBpccled 
P^OOmmunity, have no chance of being elected, although it lias 
It ttniversaJly proved that, even in tbe Governing Body of a Unj- 
•ngviy, it is not merely men of learning that are reqaire<l, since 
t of bnsinesB capacity, of financial experience, and of sound 
} are probably more useful than men of learning. 
D who baa shown that bo can miinngi^ successfully a largo 
~ enterprise will have senue enoufth to leave purely 
lal matters in tlie bands of tho^ who may bo presumed 
to ODilGmtand education. I um surer of tbe likelihood of this than 
I am of tbe learned members leading the purely busiueHS matters 
nljr to the purely business members, and this although I betievo 
tliat not one of these learned members would &til to admit the ralnt 



Jie abstrut^H 



ISO Universiltf Lift in Atatnlana, 

of the diTision of l&bonr so long as it \s merely in Uie t 
toDg as il is merely an &(^emical discoasion. 

Oat^d«rs, I fear, tliink that the business of a Vniversity Governing 
Body is mostly to deal with matters of learning; nothing conld be wider 
of the mark. For the most part the fansiness is concerned with matters 
in dealing viUiThioh only common sense and experience of the world 
and its ways come in, so that in mosl of the qnesUons that arise the 
bosiness man is actnallj in a better positioQ to deal with them than 
tbe pTofessJonal man. Think, for instance, of the foor bondred and 
odd tbonsaods of pounds vhich the Sydney Unirersity Governing 
Body has to invest and admimster. Po we not need the ntmoet bost- 
mess tact and knowledge to do that to tbe best advantage, so as to avoid 
loss, and yet the want of buaiaws eapaeitf in ptofessional men— ia 
il not proverbial ? And this is Dot saying uiything disrespectfdl 
of profisssional men— am loot one of Aem? Tbe example of the 
Fnaeipal and Piofessois of Universi^ College. Dundee, is one to be 
ec^wd irtiere possiUe, for they have elected as tbeir representative 
am tbe Covndl a mercbant of Dosdeei, wbo is alao a Master of Aits. 
Afl tcAcbera (bey an otliawiae npieaented. 

To ram np then — seeii^ QuU CoovoMtiati will sot elect men with 
tike Deeessary bnsiiMcs qoalificatiaDS, mai^ people, anxiotts that the 
alhira of tbe Universities sbootd be wvll managed, torn to Govern- 
MHDt nominatkm aiS a fettsihie nkeaos of secnriog the presence in 
Uie Govaming Body of meo of tried basiness capacity. Bnt I per- 
■onaDy am id do wise wedded to this proposal of Govenuneot 
aoniaeea ; cm any otba and better way of attaining the desired end 
kmg potnted ont, I wxwld immediately bvoar it ; only I do see the 
D Bce wity Cor sometbiog being done, and afker ail we can do no more 
tlMB wba« aeens best at the time of doine it. 

Iq tbe ease of ewdi of tbe foor Scottish Univezsities tbe Town 
Oovneilsaf the CiuTeraty towns eoneenwdDoauBate two oat of the 
thirteen vr fanrteeo memb»s of tbe Goveniiitg Body, and. in the 
caaeof tbeCnivcmtyof Edinbai^bdbntbeyear lSa8,the Town 
Coandl bad a lai^ sfaan in the patronage of the University ; and 
«nn DOW tbe apfraintnients to sacb duiis as the Town Conncil were 
latrans d prior to 18SS are ia tbe bends of seven Ctnators. fbor 
dec te i by tbe Town Oonadil and thrw by the University Conrt. Id 
Oe Draft Oniter of Oe proyoaed Albeit Cnhersity of London, tbe 
Lad Uayor far tbe time befi^ is Hi^ Steward of the Uniwaity 
•ad aa as nftno mmAftt of tbe CooDdL 
^^_ Brt cw ia Awi lul aaia *«o ate eiwftioM to l^ nJM^JfcJ 



University Li/e i?i Atistralaiia. 

CMwtibitioa of the GoTerning Bod; of tbe College at Auckland is 
worth noting, viz. :— 

6 of eleven members, two of whom are fx officio, viz., the 
ICftjor of Aneklaiid and the Chairman of the Anckland Bo&rd of Eduoa- 
tion- Th* other nine farm tliree groups, consisting of throA menibera 
wrh. tix., three elected by the members of the Oenerai Assembly resident 
IB tb* Prftvinciel Bistrtct of Aiicklanil. three nppninted by the Governor 
in Couaoil, uid three elected by the gmiliiates of the New Zealand Uni- 
vennty on tlie liookn of Uio College, and the Minister of Edneation it the - 
Visilor iif the College. 

Here, thGti, is a ropresontaUon of rariod interests, and here are 
oUicT than men of learning siinply. 

When the University of Sydney was institnted a certain effort was 
inad« to more or less copy some of the forms of the English Universities, 
■lul on* now see* pUinly enough that it is a pity that this waa done. The 
eimtrostaucee in which the ancient Engliah Universities were fonnded 
tola ealo from those in which the Anstmlasinn Universities have 
iMmdMl. The fonner were founded either by the Church in the 
Ages, or by private benefaction. The latter have been fonnded by 
le for tlie peO|ile, and, in the main, are ulill carried on by funds 
public chest. The Australasian Universities thns constitute 
public trosts, and whatever private benehctione have flowed 
inta tlieir coffers have been {(iven to an institution in its natnre and origin 
MBORtially public and democratic, and hence they are to bo regarded as 
eontributione to the estate of the trust, subject only to the reasonable con- 
ditions imposed by the donors. This is the answer to what is so often 
nrged, viz., that such private benefactions put the Univernities so far, as 
it were, bevond Uie pale of pnbtio and national inetitutions, and confer 
npon them a sort of seini-private or close character. 

It does not follow that, because one does not admit this semi-private or 

fteba^actc^ of tlie Anstralasian University, one should therefore con- 
{t U merely a wheel, as it were, in the machinery of ordinary 
nwnt departmental adminiitration. On the contrary. University 
■Hon ia of loo delicate and special a character to be entrusted to the 
Vhat coarse, if comparatively simple, agencies of an ordinary State 
D^wrlmenl, and the incorporation of tbe University as a distinct and 
••If-goveminK body is a recognition of this truth. The government of 
the University must always remain largely in the handl of University 
man. and this may be admitted without in any way diminishing the 
BWetUty for a real and adequate representation of the general public 
intoreata, which, when all is said and done, constitute the ultimate interest 
lo be fhrtbered in the maintenance of any public inatitntion. In a word, 
tlw Uulrersily exists for the good of the people of the coimtry generally, 
and not for the teachers or Univeraity graduates only, though it may ver; 



122 University Life in Atatraia^ 

well be thai its niluilniatration ought to be mainly direclod b; Umveisitj' . 
men. 

The best form of Governing Body for these Colonial Universities 
is one in which the principle of repress ntntion is thoroughly ireU 
recognised. The only question that can arias is, What are the 
interests to be represented '? 

"When the Univeraity of Sydney was inatituted {and it has been more or 
leBB the mode! for the other AuBtrnlasian Universities) the work wos 
doubtless recognised as in liome sort n. national nndertaJting, but there 
was hardly more than the bare recognition, for in practice the prime 
principle was not carried out. In the Act of Incorporation the clause 
relating to the constitution of the supreme Governing Body provides 
that " as soon as there shall be not fewer than one hundred graduates who 
have taken any or either of the Degrees of &c., 4c,, all vacancies thereofler 
ooonrring in the said Senate ehall be trom time to time Glled np by the 
majority of such graduates present and duly convened for that purpose." 
I am bound to say that I think the founders meant welL I think tliey 
attempted to extend the democratic principle, as they conceived iti but 
the attempt has proved a iailnre, for they only succeeded in securing by 
enactment the existence of an oligarchical electoral college, the objects 
of whose choice, appointed for life, form one of the " closest " of perma- 
nent executive bodies, amenable neither to the public opinion of the 
country nor even to that of its own constitueticy. • 

In addition to these arguments one might add that the great 
body of Convocation is practically disfrajichised by practically com- 
pulsory absence &om a duly convened meeting. Its members are 
necessarily gaining a livelihood, are spread all over the country, 
and are thus, as at present arranged, prevented from expressing an 
opinion on the questions at issue. Moreover — as indeed is tJie- cass 
elsewhere — so small is the number of the members of Convocation, 
residing in or near Sydney, who take a real interest in University 
matters, that meetings have not infrequently fallen through for 
want of a quorum, and at ordinary meetings there are seldom many 
more members than the minimum required to constitute the meet- 
ing. Of course these conditions are ascribed to this and that cause 
- — if things were so-and-so, then the Convocation meetings would 
be more interesting, more members would come, and bd forth. But 
is not this an admission of what so many contend, that if any 
changes are made in the constitution of the Senate it is not enough 
to make these changes alone and leave everything else as it is ? 
One change involves other changes, if the new position is not to be 
■worse than the old one. If Convocation be aubject to the faults 



Vniveniiy Life in Aititralasta, 12^ 

wcribed to it, is tbia not the strongest possible argument against 
throwing tbe whole gOYemment of llie University nltimatuly into its 

It u-uulJ Iiave Wn moro furtunale had tlie fuuntlers rollowcil whab 
pCvoodcnU wero available iii llie L'nilcd Kingclutu, for thure wokavo » rc«l, 
If ■ ItUiiil, reco^ition of Ilio ilivuri^ity of iho interests to bo ropreutntod. 
We «lianld have hod at luast hotcrugttncitj ofrepreHeDtation. 

As * uiattor of fact, liowever, anil iliie solely to the force of circom- 
fbuiMis this hcterogoneity in the goverumeot of tbe UnivorBitj' of Sydney 
SA cotoo, for ill 1801 tlic abaoliito necessity for direct repreaentation of 
HtafiT was ruco^nieod in tlie Act providing for ^e presence of 
officio incmbi^rii. IaIcIj'. the cry for homogeneity in Iho suprcma 
Boily ha4 ft;;ain been hpnrd In the attempt to aboUxh tho «« 
B, bat probably liaterot;i>nvity will bo maintained, and, I Inist, 



Tlte affiliated Colleges ronstituto an important interest vliicb 
tnigbt possibly put forward a claim for representation on tbe 
mpreme Govi^roing Ilody, as has been arranged for such institutions, 
io r«ry similar circumstances, in Scotland by tbe lost University 
Act, 1689. If such a claim were put fonvord and acceded to, tlio 
iiflSli>ti>d C'oUeges in Sydney and Melbourne would need to elect one 
or more common representatives ; for, now that tbe Colleges exist- 
ing or proposed are. as in Sydney, seven in number, and in 
lloUxrame three, eacli could not have a representative on a 
supreme Governing Ilody of workable siite. Then, if College repre- 
sentation were granted, it would be diHicult to refuse partteipalion 
in it to tbe Prince Alfred Huxpital, wlu::h, though not a College by 
name, is yet a teaching institution more closely connected to tlie 
Unireraity of Sydney than any of tbe Colleges. Thus, recognising tliat 
Uiow institutions have interests, and even great interests, to be repre- 
■eDted if the claim be put forward, when fresh legislation comes I 
have no doubt that soiuo solution of the problem could be found. 

Another interest, indeed the ivtmttiiate interest of the University, 
b the body of students. The students of the Scottish Universities 
hmxo for many years directly elected one and indirectly another 
out of the fourteen [in St. Andrews fifteen) members of the Uovem- 
iag Pody (University (^jnrt), for they directly elect tbeltector, who 
sppointa on Assessor, and both have seats on the Governing ilody. 
Farther, the students as a bo<Iy, tlirough their Representative 
CoBBcil, have now by enactment a recognised position in the govem- 
meot of the Scottish University, and it is admitted on all hands that 
lluB Council of Students has done excellent work. 



As to profesaorial mcmberB of the Governing Body. In Sydney 
and New Zealand a certain number of Professors are an integral 
part of the Governing Body. In Adelaide they are excluded by 
University legialation. In Melbourne they are permitted to acquire 
seats, but iiot as representatives of tlic teaching staff. This per- 
mission, however, is of no avail, for other causea intervene to actu- 
ally exclude them — the Senate for five years past having refused to 
elect a Professor, although the Act permitB it to elect three. When 
the last University Act for Melbourne was passed (1981), the 
Government of the day wished, I believe, to give the teaching staff 
direct representation on the Governing Body. This wish, however, 
was defeated in spite of the most abundant evidence in favour of 
the ministerial view. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., in his Provost's (Chancellor's! 
Address at Commemoration in Sydney, 1861, said, speaking of 
the proposed amendments of the Act of Incorporation, by the 
enlargement of the Senate, making three of the Professors ex officio 
members of that body, with a discretionary power of Bubseqnently 
augmenting by by-law that number to si\, — 

It may be sufficient ta sny that Bucb a. constitution of the Governing 
Body is in entire harmony with nearly all the ancient academic institii- 
tions of Europe, modified and Eoaterially chanRed in their organisation 
as many of them have recently become under the fm-ourable influences 
of experience and inquiries specially directed towards their improvement. 
The seeming difBculty of blending functions diverse, it may be in some 
degree antagoniatic to each other, in the same individual — in placing bim 
in a capacity at once legislative and executive, is one to which we believe 
no serious weight need be attached. Such on anomaly is adequately dis- 
posed of by the fact that no practical inconvenience is found to flow from 
its existence elsewhere, whilst very inflnentisl reasons may be alleged for 
giving the professorial staff a legal and eflective voice in the conduct of 
the government of the Institution to which they belong. It must at once 
be conceded that whilst none are personalis more interested in the suc- 
cessful working of the University than are these gentlemen, so there are 
none Ukely to bring to the discharge of the duties cormected with the ad- 
ministration of its affairs, the results of a larger, more accurate, and pro- 
longed practical experience, in all those matters with which the Senate are 
most likely to be conversant. 

I am permitted by Sir Charles Nicholson to say that after the lapse 
of forty-one years he adheres to the same opinions. 

If it is urged that the Professors, being paid officials, shonld cot 
have any part in the government of the Institution, this argument 
must be applied to almost every other institution in the country. 




Vnivcrsity Life in Auitialas'ia. 125 

for institutions, the m&nagement of wLicli requires time and care 
ud skill, KTO almost invariably managed by persona who are paid. 
And if we go to other Universities we find that many of them are 
cnliral; managed by paid officials, Professors and others, of the 
I'niveraity. while otlierii are managed partly by these and partly by 
ptracnu otherwise appointed. And yei in some [larts of Australasia 
tbera is & tendency, and with some an express detomiination, to 
azclad« them altogetltor — limt is to aay, to deliberately put aside 
the men who by their education, experience, and daily work are 
nuMl conversant with University mattora in Australasia and elee- 
wben, aBd whose interest it is to give the necessary time and lake 
tlia necesaary trouble in performing the duties of the ofhce. 

In the Scottish Universities — in St. Andrews, of the fifteen mcm- 
Wni o( the Governing Body at least six must be persons of professorial 
tluidiag, viz.. three Principals of Colleges (all teachers) and three 
Frafrasors, and in the other Scottish Universities, of the fourteen 
members of the Governing IJody there must be at least five sacb 
pereoiu, vix., one Principal and four Pi-ofessors. 

In Dublin the Provost and seven Senior Fellows constitute the 
real Governing Body or Board— and Fellows become Fellows by 
examination. In the Council at least four out of sixteen are ap- 
pointed by the Professors, and usually there are more than four 
Professors on the Council— elected by the Senate (Doctors and 
Masters). 

In Oxford the efTective governing body, the Hebdomadal Council. 
with the single exception of the Chancellor, is composed exclusively 
of peraons occupying professorial standing, viz.. Vice 'Chancellor, late 
Vice-Chancellor, two Proctors, six Heads of Houses, six Professors, 
who may also be Heads of Houses, six other members of Convocation, 
who may be Heads uf Houses or Professors. 

In Cambridge the " Council of the Senate " consists of eighteen 
members, of whom nine are of professorial standing, viz., Vice- 
ir, four Heads of Houses, four Professors, and nine other 
I, viz., the Chancellor and eight others, members of the Senate, 
eboaen from amongst themselves by the persons whose names are 
npoo the electoral roll for the year, and they are almost all persons 
M^igad in the work of the University and Colleges. 

The London University, not being a teaching University, docs 
not concern ns bore. 

[ Imow a University institution in London in which, for a time, 

Um teaching staff was excluded from a share in the management, 

I Iwk when the teaching EtafiT was reinstated in its representation in 



r 12G University Life in Australasia, 

1 the Governing Body by the action of the Governing Eofly itself, 
which found that it could not carry on the work without the presence 
and advice of the teaching representatives. 

In the newly- published charter of the proposed Albert Univeraitj 
in London, there is a Governing Body or Council of forty-two, and 
of these no fewer than sixteen are University teachers. 

By the scheme for the Qneen's and Mason College, Birmingham, 
five of the twenty-five councillors may be teachers. 

Upon the whole I think a little reflection will con\-ince any 
sensible man that it is desirable that the Governing Body should 
include men who are cognisant of the details of the daily work of the 
different fac\ilties, whose vocation it is more or leas to become 
acquainted with the working of "Universities personally, and who 
are thus able to advise on tho spot when advice is needed. 

As at present arranged, in certain of the Universities of Aastrftl- 
asia there is no adequate separation of the legislation and adminis- 
tration with regard to purely educational matters, and legislfttion 
and administration with regard to financial matters, appointments, 
and such like. I mean that the Governing Bodies do not sufficiently 
recognise the presence of the teachers by giving sufficient weight 
to their recommendations on teaching matters, and by entmsting, 
say to the Professorial Board, the chief work of an administrative 
and executive kind in regard to educational affairs and discipline. 
But all Governing Bodies are not alike. Here is what a correspondent 
writes to me from one of the Australasian Universities :— 

I As it happens, tbe meiiibers of the tcacLiu); stalT have no reason to com- 

plain of the Governing Body— tliej have always boeii consulted when any 
change in curriculum wan made, a:id iu fact such changes have, I beUeve, 
generally originated amoug the msnibets of the staff. Wiienever such 
changes or additions are contcmplaled, either the whole of the teaching 
stuff, or their representatives, ihe Deans of the Faculties, have been in- 

I vitcd to meet the education comiuittoe of the Governing Body, and the 
matter has been thrashed out in the joint committee before going to the 
Council. Of course we recognise that things might be very different, and 
we should prefer some official and recognised representative on the 
Governing Body. But I am sure that I am representing the views of the 
majority of the ataff in saying that we have no cause for complaint at 
present. 

This is 1ike^vise the system followed in Edinburgh. 

The example of the College at Dunedin (Univeraity of Otago) 
should be followed, for here that separation exists, so that ^^H 

The Coimcil appoints the professors and lectnrers, managi^^^H 




Univertity Life in Attstralasiot 

{ the iDstitnllon, and altendi to all ite external relatione. The 
A of tiie edncAtioned arrangement is comimtted to the profeiBorial 
iboard. 

Pretty much the same etato of things exists at the Auckland 
College anil (it Canterbury (!ollege. 

And DOW, when all this has beon said, I would like to conclnde in 
K few words. I wish you to carry away with you the general 
^ impression, for, of course, one cannot carry away paiticul&r details, 

< thkt in regard to their University life and its surroundings, the 
• various Anntr&laaian Colonies are not only not bad, but that, on the 
' contrary, they are very admirable places indeed. There one finds 
, a people in all their ways rery much like what one findH ii«the 

< United Kingdom, ^^'e, from time to time, hear a good deal about 
' llu) points in which wo differ from our relatives in Europe ; what 

Kinains to be done now is that someone should come and see the 

points in wliich we resemble our relatives ; for, after all, there is 
J oflentimea a greater difference, and more differences, between the 
. inlubitants of adjacent counties in England tlian there 19 between 

the typical Enfi^lithnian and the typical Australasian^ I mean the 
' Atutndasian of the third or fourth generation. If people oome 
' lo us prepare*!, and perhaps anxious to find Bomethiiig different, 
. they are stu-e to find it : a hook pointing oat resemblances would be 
<a cold affair, hut one pointing out difforenccti, real and supposed, 
imay be made what the writer likes, or rather, what he thinks will 
ikttmet readers. Bnt so it could for any nation under the sun, so 
'far as my experience goes. MutatU mutatuVia, we are animated 
'\rf tlio same sentiraenls, moved by the same thoughts, do very much 

the same things as are done by our relatives who hare stayed at 
iliame. We are, and we remain, the same people, and they do an 

» service to our race who do anything tending to sunder the 
H thftt make it great. 
^ paper toaa Uluttrated by luncltght vietoB of the prindpat 
Vtuceraity bvtldings, public schooU, dc„ which iwliided the fol- 
lowing : — 

La.STERK SLtDEB. 

Bojs' Rifch School, Napier, Nrv Zealand. 
BoTs' UiRh St^hool, ChrielchoTch. N'ew Zealand. 
Bchoul o( Atp-iculiure, Cuilerbucj. Now Zooluiil. 
Univenitj College, Duoedin, Ken Zoabud. 
Uowani, duietchoroh, Mew Zealuid. 




128 UnivcrsHy Life m Aitstratasia. 

MuBeum (interior), Cbriatchurcb. Neiv Zealand. 
Adelaide U Diversity. 
St. Peter's Collegiate Sebool, Adelaide. 
Prince Alfred Collegiate School, Adelaide. 
Free Public Lihrarj, Uetbourue, 
Medical School, Melbourne. 
Ormond College, Melboiune. 
WiUon Hull, Melbourne. 

Botanica] Gardens, Sjdney (School of Botany). 
Free Public Library, Sjdney. 
Art Gallery, Sydney. 
A Public School, Sydney. 
St. Paul's CoUage, Sydney. 
' Sydney University. 

Sjdney University. 
Sydney UniverMty Library. 
Sydney University Great Hall. 
Sidney University Medical School. 

Discussion. 

Dr. E. C, Stibliso (Adelaide University) : Being a very receot 
arrival on theae shores for the purpose of recreation chiefly, I did 
not expect I should be called upon so soon to the serioaa task of 
discussing the elaborate and admirable paper that has just been 
read to us by my friend Professor Anderson Stuart. Still, as I 
occupy in the University of Adelaide a position corresponding to 
that which he holds in the University of Sydney, it may be saUa- 
factory to liini and to tliis audience to hear from a brother teafihet 
in a kindred University the fullest confirmation of the numeiotis 
and important facts he has laid before you this evening. Compared 
with the University of Sydney, that of Adelaide is in a small way. 
It is younger and it certainly has not had the rich endowments 
which have fallen to the University of which my friend is so distin- 
guished a member. Still, for all that, I think we have endeavoured to 
follow in the creditable path which has been indicated to us as the 
path in which the Australasian Universities have always endeavoured 
to walk. In every respect, the curriculum of the University of 
Adelaide is as stringent as that in the University of Sydney. No 
such thingp exist there as " cheap " degrees, and in regard especially 
to medical curriculum— with wliich I am naturally best acquainted 
— we have endeavoured to bring the standard of our Degrees to aa 
high a point as the well-wishers of Australasia would wish to see it. 
The five-years curriculum to which Professor Stuart lias alluded aa 
having only recently been adopted generally in Great Britain luw. 



ic-crsily Life in Aiutrahis 



itwftys — ever since the establishment of tbe School of Medicine 
faewi ftdopted in Adelaide, und my own University is now making 
aflbrt to bnvc its De^ees recognised in Great Britain, as has been 
■Inady done by the University of Sydney, and I doubt not tbe 
•ppUctlion will be made with sQcceas. In tio respect can I agree 
with my friend more thoroughly than in tUo statement of the diftl- 
eoltiefl nnder which the Australasian Professor labours in respect to 
the utoliition in which he finds himself; and if this is true in the 
case of Sydney, with its magnilicent endowments and splendid 
libmiy and appliances, how much more is it true in niir smaller 
ity, where tax less has been done, and where consequently 
it difficulties have been experienced by Uiohc of us who 
i'flndeaToni'ed to be something more than teachers of the elc- 
of science — to be. in fact, obserrers of the many new and 
interestiog facts which IJe all around the eyes of the scientific man 
In AuntrKlasia ? In no comitry in tho world are tliure problems of 
gn&ler interest or perhaps of the same magnitude— zoologically 
npnnlrinK — as in Australasia at this moment. Hut few there are, as 
ProCanor Stuart has said, who have tbe opportunity of devoting a 
mffioiency of time to tlic work of original research, which probably 
does mora to proOiote the reputation of a University than mere 
effioienoy in teaching. So much, indeed, of our time is taken up with 
tlw work of organising and with the routine of teaching that but 
ItlUft time and strength remain for thu labour necessary for the 
investigation of new problems. I do not say this in any spirit of 
complaint. It is perhaps inevitable that this should bo so in a new 
conntry, whore also, indeed, as Professor Stuart has remarked, 
tMchera have sometimes to teach moie than one subject and to 
■pend the bulk of their time in teaching the very elements of tlicir 
subjects. Thna tliere is left hut little time for now work. There 
ij one special matter to which, I think, the efforts of thu Austral- 
tOBO Universities must he directed, and that is the system of con- 
joint examinations. At ihe present time the Universities practically 
conduct their own examinations. It is <]uite true that between 
eartftin of them, as indeed between the Universities of Sydney and 
Adtilaide, there is a degree of reciprocity. The Sydney Professor 
very often examines for the Adelaide University and the Adelaide 
ProCasBor for that of the Sydney, but that is an arrangement which 
hM been practically arrived at between individual teachers. There 
is no general scheme existing which would give us some kind of 
DOnjoint examination— some scheme wliich would at least ha™ the 
mull o( making the character of the work done by each individual 



12!> ^^H 
ngan ^ 



1 

i 



ersity Life in Ausfralaiin. 

University kid open to eJl tlio othera. I confess that for my own 
part, as a teacher, I haye always derived the greatest possible satis- 
faction in feeling that tho work in which it ia my dnty to engage at 
Adolaide falls benoath tho criticism of an acute observer and skilled 
teacher like ray friend Professor Stuart, ■who is in no other way 
connected with our own Institution. I see no reason whatever why 
there should not be some such conjoint scheme for the several Uni- 
versities of Auatralasia now tliat by railway and by common interests 
the Colonies are so closely boimd togethei'. As a membei' of one of 
tho older Universitiea of England to which 1 iiave the honour to 
belong, it appears to me tlmt the one great want whicti is felt in the 
Australasian U Diversities i is tlic absence of that colle<<« residential 
life which is so d^ur to all who have enjoyed it. In Adelaide espe- 
cially we have nothing of the sort. In Welbonme imd Sydney 
certain residential college* do afford some sort of itpprouch to the 
college life of Oxford and Cambridge, but very far indeed from that 
which those of us who have served our time at Oxford or 
Cambridge know and love so well. In this respect it is quite 
possible we may hope in tlie future to sec changes. In being 
called upon to suddenly address myself to the criticism of thia 
paper, I must ask for youi' indulgence, and I take it that my criti- 
cism is only valuable on account of the fact that from the know^ 
ledga I ixissess of another Cnivei-sity which endeavours to be a 
friendly rival to that of Sydney, I am able so cordially to agree 
with almost everything that has been said by Professor Stoart. 

bir JAMES Ckichton Bkowne, M.D., LL,D. : I do not feel com- 
petent on the spur of the moment to discuss the very interesting, 
thoughtful, and comprehenaive address to which we have listened this 
evening, and which I have not had the opportunity of studying befbn- 
hand. It is a paper tonching on various points that are really of buni- 
ing interest in connection with University development in this oountrj' 
at the present time. But I gladly avail myself of the opportunity of 
congratulating Professor Anderson Stuart, not merely on his paper 
of this evening, but upon the excellent work which he has done Uid 
is doing in that University the rise and progress of which he has 
described to us. It is very gratifying to me, notmerelyasaconntiy- 
man, but as a townsman of Professor Anderson Stuart, for we were 
both reared in that classic comer of Scotland, close to the dust oT 
Buraa, and within sight of Ecclofechan — unfortunately for me, not 
quite contemporaneously, for I was a httlo earlier than Profesaor 
Anderson Stuart— it is very gratifying to me, 1 eay, not only as a 
countryman, but a townsman of Professor Stuart, to find that he tuts 



University Life in Australasia. 



■ouapl; fulGllMl tbo briJliant promi»i! of his boyhood ami of 
dent days, and has attained distinction already aa a teacher, a» an 
origuial LQVostigator, and as an administrator in that Colony to which 
b« WW originally carried, I believe, in search of health, avay from 
very tempting prospects in this country. He is a man of sDch inde- 
fatigable iodustr}' and eneri^y that even his holiday trips are ftiiitlul 
of good works. A short visit to Kurope last year was productive of 
an adutnihk' and jndiciiiiiM n^jxirt on tuberculine, pi-esculed to the 
Government of New South Wales and South Austraha ; and a short 
hotiitay trip this winter Itns been productive, amongst other good 
Ihiags. of tlic excellent paper to which we have listened to-night. 
I have followed Professor Stimrt with interest and sympathy 
in hl« skeldi of University education in Australasia, but 1 confess 
1 have heard hi^ account of tho ovolutiou of his own University 
— hiN hinttt and predictions a^ to the extension and the futura 
HreatDese that awails that Irniversity — with Bjmpathy, noi nn- 
nunglcd with regret, for I have reflected that the development — 
tht! inevitable development —of tin; University of Sydney and of 
other Universities in the Colonies must entail some loss and cuitail- 
ment to our Universities in this coantry. I well recollect in 
my student days at Edhibitrgh — and I dare say Professor Anderson 
Stuart will say it was the same in his day — there was a lar^e 
KMitinf^nt of Colonial students — young men from Canada, Sonth 
Africa, and Australasia— who in the absence of I'niversities near 
thflir own homes had flocked to Scotland to seek there the beneflta 
of hlifher education, and especially of professional ednoation. and 
I am quite satisfied lliat the presence of the Colonial cnntingent 
WM of very threat advantage. It helped to broaden the views of tlta 
nftUve students, to <'niancipate Lliem &0111 narrow local prejudices, 
while it conferred great binefits on the Colonial studenta, and, at 
the same time, it tended to knit closer those bonds that unite the 
Uothn: Comilry with her offspring beyond the sea. Thf Colonial 
•iodents living in I^dinburgh at tliat formative period of life — when 
Qm most lasting friendships are formed, when the most enduring 
colour is imparted to the deepest sentiments— and drawing from her 
Unfveraity their intellectual culture, carried back to their distant 
ItOOWfl not only new attainments and nn increascnl |x>wer of think- 
ing, but a feeling of affection for the old country and for bt-r sons — 
a feeling of respect for her institutions which it would take a great 
3ml of commercial Bclfi&lincss and of separatist vanity to break 
down. But all that must he changed when our ColonJce haw their 
own Uni^'ersities. The current of students of England tukd i^coUvoi 



131 ^^1 

liisstu- ^^^1 



4 



1 



1S2 University Life In Australtutd. 

must be arrested. It has been arrested to some extent already*-J 
cau no longer expect this contingent in our Scotch and EogliA 
Universities, and while it must be hoped that b; other means ve 
shall be more closely cemented than ever with our Colonies — 
indeed, incorporated with them in one great compact Empire — still, 
there must be some sacrifice of Fraternal cohesion when English, 
Scotch, and Colonial students sit no longer side bj side in the samA 
classrooms, when they drink no longer from the same fountains of 
knowledge, contend no longer in the same debating societies and in the 
same games, and when they no longer mingle in all sorts of familiarand 
friendly intercourse. I admit at once that the advantages that will 
be conferred by the Colonial Universities vastly counterbalance these 
drawbacks. Of course, the expense of studying at onr Scotch and 
English Universities was so great that only a small nnmber belong- 
ing to the affluent classes could take advantage of Ibem, whereas, 
with Universities at their doors, great numbers of youthful Colonists 
will be able to avail themselves of the culture which University 
education affords. That will be a vast, agrcat ad\-tLntage,and Imerely 
refer to these little drawbacks attending the creation of Colonial 
Universities, not to grumble at them, but to express the hope that in 
course of time means may be found in some degree to mitigate or 
remove them. Knowledge, is of course, one and indivisible. Asca- 
tained knowledge is and must he tbe same here and in Australia, but 
ascertained knowledge bears a small proportion to knowledge un- 
ascertained. There are still vast unexplored regions of research 
and knowledge open to us ; there is still vast room for improva 
ment in our means of communicating knowledge ; and I venture to 
hope that our Colonial Universities, in the plasticity and enthusiasm 
of youth, untranunelledasthey are by rigid traditions, will so increase 
the pursuit of original inquiry, will so earnestly and eagerly open 
up new lines of inquiry, will so happily devise new modes of leaching, 
that they will ultimately attract some students from this connttjr 
to study in Iheir halls. Precise scholarship must always have its 
home in Europe, with its ancient civilisation, and Colonial students 
I in search of that will still come here. Our Universities, with thar 
old and perfect organisations, will long be able better to carry oat 
certain lines of research, and therefore some Colonial students must 
come to us. At the same time it seems to me our Colonial Uni- 
versities may develop some new lines of inquiry — in the direction, 
for instance, of astronomy, biology, zoology, and botany — that they 
may msJce a fresh start and do some fresh work, and so, by attract- 
ing to themselves some students from home, keep ap that fi 



University Life in Aiuitralasia. 



1881 



ami happy iuiercourse [betireen Colonial and English and Scotoh j 
■rtndonts to which I ha.ve adverted. There ia another v;ay in which ' 
I think ODr Colonial Universities may be kept in touch with the 
Universities of this country. There 13 in Scotland an ecclesiastical 
fljat«n called the interchange of piiliiits by which two clergymen 
agTM to eermoniso each other's oongregationa, and I am told that 
Ihat •ystein is nttrndeil with very edifying and satisfiwtory reenlts, 
Why should wo not. in our Uni^eisities, occasionally hav« 
an Enterobimgo of chairs? Why should not Profcsaor 8tnart 
eoms home from Sydney and take a physiology class for a session 
in on« of our English or Scotch Universities, while the Kiigliah 
or Scotch Professor goes out to Sydney and occupies his chair 
Lhore? Something of that kind might help to keep our Uni- 
versities in touch. I hope it will always be kept in view in Aus- 
tmlia ttiat with any number of teachuig ccritri-s there shouM be no 
multiplication of degree-giving bodies, so that Australian Degreua 
msynnver descend to tlie contemptible level of certain American 
Degrees. I think there should bo one degree-conferring body in 
AustTslia, anil, further, that if the Colonial Universities are to 
■uccecd they must take care to retain on the Governing Bodies the 
teaching element, for, though no doubt the financial management 
which may Ih^ carrii.i] on by business men is of gretit importance, yet, 
after all. the ware these Universities have to deal hi is teaching, and 
tberw nboiild nlwayM be representatives of tho»ie wlio tench and who 
know what teaciiing means on the Board of Management. To exclude 
toscbera from that board would be very much ob if we were to confine 
mombership of the Council of the Royal Colonial Institute to men wlio 
had never been to the Colonies. But Professor Anderson Stuart bas 
finiMhed off by Baying that tlicre is really no practioal difference be- 
tween us and our Australasian kinsfolk, and as I Untcned to the many 
pointi of resemblance which he enumerated I recalled Sbylock's 00m- 
tHuimn of the .lew and ChriBtian: "Hath not a Jew eyes? bath not 
a Jew hands, organs, dimensions. senses, affections, passions ? fvd with 
tbo lame food, hurt u-ith the same weapons, subject to the same dis- 
eases, healed by the same nteans, warmed and cooled liy tbo same 
wiotOT and summer, as a Christian is ? If you prick us, do wo not 
bleed ? if yon tickle us, do we not laugh ? if you poison ns, do we not 
die? and if you wrong us, shall we not revenge ? " All that is very true, 
and all is perfectly true that has been said about the resemblance of 
Anrtralians to oorselves. but after all there is a difference. It may 
b« TCTy difficult to define in what that difference oonaista, but it 
ffdate, and it seema almost inevitablQ that the great difference of 



Uwiversity Life im Australasia. 

P environment, climate, of food, of habits of Ufa, must in tbo course of 
generations produce some difference in cliaracter and type iii the 
branch of the Anglo-Saxon race planted in Australasia. Professor 
Btuart has himself recognised one difference, for he has told na that 
the pallor of the Australian girls will compare with the rich and 
roseate hues he sees in this country, and which he ascribes to 
the east winds. It is very charitable of him to ascribe all ruddy 

I '£nglish complexion to the action of the winds, for there is a 
mspiciou that their redness has sometimes a more questionable 

■ origin. However, the recognition of this atmospheric influence 
I shows that some (hfference is being estabhshed. We shall be glad 

to see a httle TEiTiety in our Australian cousins, and when that 
variety comes we shall see a new literature and a new an springing 
up in AustraUa — something racy of the soil. 

Professor T. Hudson Beakb (University College, Loudon) : As 
au Australian bom and one who was maiuly educated there, 1 may 
claim your indulgeuce while I make a few remarks on this paper, 
and I am more emboldened to do so because Professor Anderson 
Stuart has referred to a matter which has lately occupied my 
attention a good deal. In regard to the class of students which 
freiiuent the Australian Universities, he says that, generally speak- 
ing, they are the sons of moderately well-to-do persons, while the 
sons of rich men are sent to England or to Europe to study. He 
then, in a further paragraph, refers to the difficulties with which a 
Colonial Professor has to contend, especially in the matter of 
original work on account of his isolation and the consequent neces- 
sity for comparatively frequent visits to Europe. All tliis. I think, 
points to oue very definite and mEtrked conclusion, viz,, that, how- 
ever much the Universities of Australasia may increase and flourish, 
and no matter how good work tbcy may do, a large number of 
' students — tho cleverer and more enterprising — will desire to oomo 

■ •to Europe to complete their education. At present this privilege is 
I Emited to the wealthier classes and very often to young men who 

do not benefit by it. Now, in connection with a scheme which has 
lately been propounded by Mr. Astley Cooper, under the name of the 
Pan-Britannio Festival, it has been suggested that a system of 
national scholarships should be estabhshed to enable Colonial 
students who have distinguished themselves in their own Colony 
to come to the Home Country for the purposes of higher study. 
This would be not in heu of going to the Colonial Univeraitiea, bul 
to enable them under regulations which after their adoption would 
be controlled bv, sav, the Home Educational De artment. to come 



Univenity Life in Au$tralaiia. 

lo liiiii couittr)' fur u oertain period and raaaH off by il coarse of 
the iDOsl advanced study a briUiant career begun in the Colonial 
Utiiver«itio«. I think that a scheme of this character would do a 
Krent db&l to bind toicetber the scattered parts of the Empire. The 
national distinction which such scholarships would confer would be 
ft Srcat inducement to ynung men to ntrive after them. Such a 
K^me would not, I think, involve a, very groat outlay. The cost 
itf Mtabliithing, aiy, 100 of these sohabirships, oouii Lonable for 
ianr years, would be about £20,000, and that sum, spread over the 
wbolo Empire, is iiiconsidtirablo. They would be apportioned so 
nanjr to Mcb division of tbo Empire, would be open to all subjects 
ol the Empire, and lie given in each gi'oal division of higlior ednca- 
tiou. A scheme of this nature eould only he established, of course. 
hy the loB<lors of education in the Colonies as well as Ikto taking 
Up the idt-a and pualiing it. The papers which have commented on 
ihia Pan-llriWinnio project have referred ahtiost entirely to the 
alhlrtio side of the fi-Htival, but that is by no means the main idi'n 
of thn scheme nor yet the moat valuable. Each victor, at the end 
of his course, would return to his Colony, trained to the highest 
.poilit in his own particular branch of work, and would form a oentru 
^^Mrf^ development of that work in his home ; fay the Associations, 
^^^BhltDdHhips and the tics formed while in the Home ('oontry, he 
^^^^ptiorm another invisible but powerful link in those wliich go 
^Mnrfs keeping us im one raoo under onti crown. A similar system 
rtf Mhohu'shipa to send the pick of the Home students to study the 
nnarces of the Colonies, and to report on them for lite piihlio 
iMoeitt. is iNirt of the same id«u. The future of this Empire is in 
tbo bandH of the young men of the Empire— tho young men now 
ibconging our U>otHro balls and laboratories, but soon tobe tlieIoad«rM 
in mob provini'n of thii Empire. In conclusion I would Inost 
esniMtly press this scheme on the attention of those at home and 
obttMbd whn are interi'.-tted in itlucation, scientific and t<>chnical ', 
who »re also intfj'eHt*d in keeping together as one Empire thii» vast 
ooQection of KtAtes, and in maintaining iind extruding our trade 




4 



Mr. J. H. Balfour Browne, Q.C. : I came here with the inl«n- 
tion of criticising the pnper, but having listened carefully to all that 
Profaseur Stuart has said I am bound to say there is hardly any. 
Ihiog on which I do not agree with him. At first I felt inclined to 
tska up the cudgels for EngUsb red cheeks, and I must say I thought 
bw physiological analysis of the cansesof a blush was almost bnital; 
but when I found that I should at the tamo time have to take up 



tli6 defence of the east, wind I returcGd my brief. Tlio question 
which Professor Stuart has raised in his pai>er— viz. what is the 
proper constitution of the governing body of a Univeraity—is a verv 
iniportant one. In Australia, as I understand, these bodies are at 
present mainly constituted by the graduates themselves, and I am 
bound to say I agree with Professor Stuart that that is a misfortune. 
The graduates have, to a large extent, ceased to have that active 
interest in the University that others have. You hear from Professor 
Stuart that in Anatraha men go to the University as a road to the 
market fax more than in this country, where they rema-in attached 
to the University long after having taiien a degree, so that in Aus- 
tralia, after a man has taken his degree, he becomes dissociated from 
the University, and we find that the governing bodies fall into the 
lianda of chques of lawyers in towns like Sydney and Melbourne. 
This seeniH to me a great misfoitnne. There is one matter which, 
1 think, is certain to call for the attention of the Australian Govern- 
laents. I see that the Sydney University has £15,000 a year from 
the pubhc parse, and yet tlie public seem to have no voice as to how 
this money is to be expended. That seems to me a monstrous state 
of things at this time of day. We understand that taxation goes 
with representiition, and I should say that when a Government 
gives £1G,000 a year, that Government ought to have some say to 
the administration. Fui-thcr than that, I liave a great respest tat 
professors as professors, but some of them, as we have been n- 
minded, ai'e not very clever in their own business affaire, and it 
seems to mc they are not necessarily the best custodians of the fasde 
of a University. I am, therefore, clearly of opinion that the public 
ought to have some representatives, chosen by the Ciuvemmeat> cm 
the governing body. I think the principle that has been laid down 
is the right one, viz. that every interest ought to be represented. 
Now the interests in these cases are, first, the public, who have a 
direct and permanent interest ; second, the graduates ; third, the 
teachers; and fourth, the students. I think the students should 
have some say in the matter. It won't do to leave things altogether 
to the others. There is only one fault I have to find with the paper, 
and that is that when Professor Stuart speaks of the constitution of 
the governing body he does not tell us what its functions are to be. 
I believe that the Government representatives would be exceedingly 
useful as regards the administration of the funds and the investment 
of the money, but I am not sure they woidd be the best to choose 
the professors, nor am I at all convinced that the professors them- 
!-elvcB should be allowed lo choose their colleagues. All these. 



Univpniltj Life in Aitttral<uia. 



187 



however, arc ver? Dice questions, wbtoh o&ii only be properly 
uiswerod when we know the exact fimctiosB of the governing body, 
and the proposal as to the amonnt of representutivea which is to be 
given to euh of the interests I have mentioned. 

Dr. Ernest Black : I just wish to refer to what I believe is the 
only mistake in the Professor's paper. He sayt; : " The Colonial 
degree is now regarded as a thing worth having," which is true ; and 
continaes: "Our degrees in medicine now admit to the right of 
pnictising the profession of medicine in the whole Empire aiid on 
Bridah ships at sea." That ia not quite correct. I have just 
retained from a tour of the principal medical schools of Europe, 
Canada, and the United States, and I find that neither the degreen 
of tita University of Sydney in medicine, nor of any other British 
'olonial llDiversity. entitle the holder to practise medicine intbe 
e of Ontario. Canada. In the province of Quebec the Sydney 
■ may be accepted conditionally. It has been suggested by 
jitbe speakers that a nystem of nationul scholarships nhould 
tded. Possibly ho was not aware that, at any rale in the 
f of Queensland, somethin? very much nJiiii to that has been • 
^^^ I myself WHS the first of those who have come to thin 

MOliiy witlt ascholarsbip given by tlie Government of Queensland, 
the University of Sydney being the examiners. The examinations 
tn, I beliuve, still being held for these scholarships, the object of 
wbiob ia to enable yoimg men to study in one of the Universities of 
Earope. and fur this puqMne tlireu scholarships of 100^ a year for 
tlire« years are awarded annually. I desire to add my testimony to 
Ibftt of ProfuHSor Stuart oa to the oxooUcuco of the Rtutidards of the 
UniTorsities. and especially of the medical schools in Austraha. 
H&ving Aisit«il tlio principal medical schools of Europe and of 
Aneriea, I am quite con\inc«d tliat the standard of the Australian 
it of modicine is higher than the majority of the schools on the 
it of Europe, and higher practically than any of the schools 
i United Stales. That is putting the case strongly, but 1 have 
jk<aoniG months in careful investigation, both of the teaching 
e examination standards in medicine, and that is my positive 
uite opinion on the subject. I have grral plojieure in adding 
tony to what Sir James Crichton Browne has said aa to 
ibe admirable qualities of the reader of the paper. Having been 
with him aa an undergroiluate in the University of Edinburgh, and 
hftving afterwards assisted him in teaching pbyi^iology, I have lis. 
Unad to that paper n-ith peculiar interest ; and ro long as tbo Uni- 
Wnitic* of Australasia have a teocbuig staff of meo like ProfesBor 



iS8 University Life in Australasia. 

Anderson Stuai't, I have every confidence tliat tlia iiigli Gtaiidi 
present obtaining will he maintained and improved upon. .. 

Professor J. E. Crawford Mtjnho (Owens College): I rise for 
the pui-poso of thanking the reader of the paper for the very valuable 
contribution he has made to our knowledge of University life in Aus- 
tralasia. 1 have been singularly struck during the reading of the 
paper with the gi-owth of the University of Sydney, and in that 
connection I could not help recalling the history of some of the jna.- 
vincial colleges in England. The latter have had the same diffi- 
culties to face and the same problems to solve. Fortunately for 
them, they were not bound down by the rigid lines of any Act of 
Parliament, and it was left to the leading business men and eduoa- 
tionalists of the large provincial centres to formulate and develop a 
scheme of Uiuversity education that would be suitable to local waute 
and requirements. The question, of coui-se, very early ai'oso as to 
what should bo the government or constitution of the particular 
college, and I may perhaps make a little addition to the discueaioii 
by describuig, very briefly, the constitution of the largest provincial 
college in England. I refer to the Owens College, in Manchester, 
with which I have had the honour to be connected for many years. 
That college was founded about the same time as the University of 
Sydney. It received no grant from the Government until two years 
ago. It possesses now a capital not far short of three quarters of a. 
million — the gift maiidy of the- manufacturers and merchants of die 
county of Lancaster. It is governed by the busmcaa men of Lan- 
cashire working in close connection with the teaching staff. The 
constitution is now embodied in an Act of Parhament, but tlmt Act 
merely ei'j'atallised the experience of a quarter of a century, and 
I'epresents the aystem found to be best for that important part of 
England. First of all, there i.i a representative body called the 
Court. The State is represented, because the Loi-d President of tile 
Council nominates acertaui number of representatives. The House 
of Commons is represented, for a certain number of members must 
be chosen from the Members of Parliament for the city and county. 
The Graduates are represented, and ao are the Professors. Other im- 
portant bodies are also represented. The result is that M'e have a 
large body representing every interest material to the county, 
But this body only meetE twice a year, and the acti\-e work 
of administration is entrusted to what I may call a committee 
of its own body, with an independent position, called the Council. 
On this Council you will find probably half a dozen of the 
ablest business men in Manchester. You will find, perhaps, 



Vniversily Li/i^ in Aiutrakma. 1!)0 

tUw Hisli School, the Editor of cue of lln' loa(li]i<,' 
Mpen, and at least three representatives of the teaching 
After this body cornea the Senate or body of ProfeBsors. The 
eil is the Aniiiiciiil body eittraated with all the business 
IDhUs. The Senate is the body in whose hands is placed 
ional work. Liaemuch as " he who pays the piperalwaya 
I tone," the Council, aa holder of the purse-strings, has 
9 control over the Senate as regards educational work. It in 
imponnblo to draw a hard-and-&at lino between finance nnd 
•due&tion ; if the Professors thuik, for instance, that a new chair or 
a new locturesbip should be instituted, they would report to the 
Cocmcil. and tlten the liiiancinl part of the question wonld arise. It 
La toanti thnt tliis urranj^ement, which c-ntruHta the financial matters 
Council and the educational work to the body of teachers, in 
ftKuocessful in developing the institution and producing a 
ril lie corps among all the nii-'inbers of ihu institution. lu 
I to the appointment of Professors, the problem is solvod in 
ttili way. The Council alone has power to appomt, but it cannot 
do ao until it receives a report on all the applications from the 
Iwrhinn staff, and I think the recommendations of the teaching 
lllf bftve been nearly always followed. There are other towns 
lAafe thia system has not been adopted, where the management 
ud oducation rest in the hands of nominated or appointed 
mmlMrs, representing mainly the bnsiness element of the towns. 
Tfais ^tem has not been a success, and therefore we think tliat in 
D we have solved the pmblcni uf unitint; eiliicatinn and 
B with business capacity. 
Mt. M. MiCFiE : It has lieon nuule finite evident by Pnif. 
Andorwiii Stuart's hiatoi? of Vniveraity development in Australia 
i there is a lamlablo ambition on the port of our fellow subject* 
1 j n*h* Oolonies to bring their culture in all its departments up to th«i 
It standard. At the same time the question naturally arises 
', after all, there may not lie n good deal uf wisdom in Hit 
ion made by Sir Jatni'.i Crichton Ilrowne in refan-'nce, 
urly, to the adaptations of the machinery of University 
g to tha extent and description of the population, and tlie 
a of Colonial resources that should be expended on pro- 
I education in Australasia. There are, roundly speaking. 
D people in these Coloniee. and there are I iO or 1 SO salaried 
rs of varions sorts in the Universities of the Colonies which have 
I, five possessing these institutimiaand two being without them. 
The are not onW esaminimi but teaching bodien, with the sole exc«p- 



UoQ of the one in New Zealand. If I understood Sir James 
Crichton Browne aright, New Zealand would come nearer to hio 
idea of what would bo suited to a limited population, and in keeping 
with the claims of education upon the general body of the people. 
I am a mejnber myself of two Universities in the United Kingdom, 
and having lived in Australia I have frequently been strack 
particularly aa regards Victoria, with the disproportionate oxpendi* 
ture of money upon University pni'poscs, compared with, the 
requirements of middle-class and secondary education throughont 
the countrj'. The gi-aduates of the Melbourne University, as the 
reader of the paper has told us, number about 1,100, and the 
Government grant amounts to £1C,000 a year, and occasionally to 
about £20,000. The Bishop of Dallarat, not long ago, showed that 
during the thirty-five years' exist«ncu of the University in Victoria, 
about ^1,000,000 had been expended upon it. The number of 
graduates being 1,000, more or less, the net result is that about 
£1,000 has so far been expended to produce each graduate. I hope 
myself that the time is near when the example of the London 
University will be more generally followed, and when in Australia 
a large proportion of the resources that are now expended upon the 
ornamental purpose, so to speak, of enabling men to take degrees 
will be expended on much-needed secondary and middle-class 
education all over the Colonies, that shall qualify men to take their 
degrees from an examining body. Considering the enormous 
number of professors and their assistants, with the very large espen 
ditiu-c they entail on the one hand and the hmited number, and 
more than doubtful proficiency of most, of the students, on the other, 
the results are not by any men.ns, I think, of the most cheering 
character. I do not throw out these remarks as desiring to 
discourage University education in Australia, but I do think that in 
many respects Australia has a great deal to learn from the Mother 
Country, and that she might fairly take a lesson from the University 
of London, which hitherto has eminently prospered solely as an 
examining institution. I regret to see there is a movement for 
converting the London University into a teaching as well as an 
examining body. In my opinion that is like adding a fifth wheel 
to the coach, especially in view of the large number of efficient 
secondary schools and colleges scattered over the country in which 
students can prepare to take degrees in London. I hope the time 
will come when, with the federation of the Colonies, we shall see 
not only one central system of judicature and one Supreme Court for 
3II Australia, but one Central I'Tliversitj-— an Examining Bod^- — and 



University Life ih Australasia. l4l 

that our Colonial friends will be satisfied with the establishment, to 
a large extent, in all populous centres of superior schools and 
eollegeSy directed and visited by able teachers, qualifying men to 
. ake their degrees at that University. The imitation of Oxford and 
Cambridge, as regards University residence, would hardly be suited 
to Colonial wants until a very considerable period has elapsed. 

The Chaibman : It is now my duty to bring this discussion to a 
close by proposing a hearty vote of thanks to the learned Professor 
for his paper. It is quite clear to me that you are as favourably 
impressed with it as I have been myself. Two points have struck 
me very forcibly in the course of our meeting. The first is the great 
tnd excellent addition the limelight illustrations which have been 
exhibited to us have made to the Icctiuro. I believe myself that the 
eye is a great educator, and accordingly that a few pictures will 
often bring home with impressive force what a lecturer desires 
Terbally to convey to us. The other point is that this important 
paper has elicited a most valuable and interesting discussion, in 
which many distinguished persons have taken part. I am sure you 
wHl all join with me in tendering our hearty thanks to Professor 
Anderson Stuart for his instructive and valuable paper. 

Professor Anderson Stuart : In returning to you my hearty 
thanks, I will merely say that the emissions to which reference has 
been made by several speakers are all contained in the printed paixT, 
the whole of which I was unable to read to you. I beg to propos^e u 
hearty vote of thanks to Sir Frederick Young for taking the chair 
on this occasion. 
The vote of thanks having been passed the prcceedings tdmiuatcd. 



FOURTH ORDINARY GENERAL MEETING. 



The Fourth Ordinary General Meeting of the Seasion was helcl ai 
tho Whitehall Rooms, Hotel Mttropole, on Tuesday, Februniy U, 
1892. 

Peter Bedpath, Esq., a Member of the Council of the Institute, 
presided. 

The Chaikuan in opening the proceedings said : I I'ogret very 
much, and you will all regret with me, the absence of Geueml 
Lowry, who was to have presided. lie has been prostrated by the 
general malady, but I beheve he is recovering, and I am sure wq all 
hope that we shall soon see liis genial face again. The Marquis 
of Lome has had to apologise for absence, and Lord Albemarle is 
not in town. Lord Aberdeen, who is in Scotland, has expressed 
imiiih interest in the meeting, and has not only written, but to-day 
telegraphs : " Hope that there will be a good meeting to-night to 
hear Canon Beanlands' paper, which is sure to be very interesting. 
Wish I could be present." 

The Minutes of the last Ordinary General Meeting were read and 
confirmed, and it was announced that since that Meeting 14 FeUowa 
had been elected — \-iz., 3 Resident and 11 Non-Resident. 

Resident Fellows : — ■ 

William Eglintc 
Wittiaim Shcl/ord. 

Non-Eesident Fellows ; — 

John A. BuTtncater {CiTilon), Natlianiel Chalmers (F^ji), Qeorge Condon 
{itaa>i,onaland), Andrew J. Cunnhigham (Nae South Wales). John B. Donkin 
IMtw Smith Wales), Dr. J. S. A. Ireland ilndian EmigraluM SerxHce). Montagu 
E. Jones (Tasmania), John M. Pierce {Natal), Frederick Foolman {Victoria), 
CJuirles E. F. Sanderson {StraiU SctClemenla), Charles SlHnga- iStraiU 
Selllemenls). 

Honorary Fellow : — 
Mr. H. H. Hayte^: C.M.G. 

It was also announced that donations to the Library of books, 
maps, &e., had been received from the various Governments of the 
Colonies and India, Societies, and pubUc bodies both in the United 



,, Wcslbi) B, Perceval lArjrut-Oeneral for AVic Zraland), 



Fourth Ordinary Oenfval Meetivi^. 14H 

Kingdom uvl the Colonies, aiid from FcUowa of the Institute and 
04htBi. 

The CSAIBHAN, in introducing the rBader of the paper, said : 
Befim calling apon Canon Beanlands, it is right to inform the 
meeting that on the melancholy occasion of the death of the Duke 
rf OUretiee and Avondale, the eldest son of our President, the 
Council, as nas their duty, sent to tlie Piitice uud Priiii^e»it of WiUca 
a niitSKage of cordiul sj-nipatby, un<l that han eliciteif the answer 
which I will read: "Sir Francis KnoIIj-s is ilfsired tji convey to 
tbe Oonncil of the Roj'al Colonial Institute the rincere thanks of 
Urn Prince and PrincesH of Walei for the sympathy they liavo ex- 
pf oan ed on the occanion of their Royal Highnesses' bpreavement." 
Zlus is, like the other letLer;; which on this distressing occasion 
Bome from the Prince ami Princess of Wales, very inleresthig 
touching. I hnvo now great pleasnre in calling upon 
B«anlands, and I may say that it is about five years since 
Columbia, its institutions and progress, baa been brought 
VBdM' diacussion at a meeting of the Royal Colonial Institute, ami wo 
are Tery glad on the present occasion to have it brought forward 
by Canon Beanlands, who I shall now ask to read his paper. 



Hus IS. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA: A PROBLEM OF COLONIAL 
DEVELOPMENT. 



I nrXL that I owe an apology at the outset for taking up your time 
witb the remarks I am about to make. If the audience before me 
bad been composed for the most part of those who had never had 
esperience of life outside the Mother Country there would have 
hiiipn an ixcusi' for presenting to them opinions upon Colonial 
niatti>rs which must bo necessarily immature, but which might at 
any rate bo suggestive and convey information. But I see before 
me to-nig)it men of wide Colonial experience, accustomed for many 
yean past to dealing with tliotw questions which have only recently 
presentetl themselves to my luttid ; and I have to ask tbcir kind 
ntdulgence in promoting a discussion which may to them appear 
wholly vain and unnece«sar}'. 

The portion of the British Empire with wliicb I have hctn 
{ntimately associated for the past seven years is Britisli Columbia. 
1 htTt^ livt-d in ila oapilal, ^'icto^ia, since before railway days ; and I 
bare slept in tbe backwoods oT Itorrard Inlet where now is the 
luait g( Uiv uow cit}', Vancouver. That, was ui \<iM. V»Sxifi% 'Cow;^ 



[144 Britiah Cohimhia : a Problem of Colonial Develop7neni^^^M 

' I have seen the population double and quadmple. I have mI^' 
the value of land round the towns rise by what would appear 
exccBstve bounda, but I have not seen that development of the 
resourcea of the country which I consider its merita justify one in 
eTcpecting. Nor does it seem probable that such development will he 
brought about until the country comes to be regarded at home from 
quite a different point of view to that from which it lias been 
regtti-ded in the paat. 

But I mu3t not be miaunderatood : this is not an appeal ad 
Kiisericordiam on behalf of my fellow- residents. They are by no 
means to be pitied, for a more relatively comfortable or prosperous 
life than that which ia'enjoyed by Briti ah Columbiana I Ihinh would 
be bard to find ivithln Her Majesty's Dominiona. There is no 
poverty — that is to say, no class-poverty ; on the contrary, eveiy 
working man either is, or has the chance of speedily becoming, a 
capitalist. In fact, nowhere does the wealth of the country seem 
on the whole to be ho evenly distributed — nowhere are the relations 
between labour and capital loss violently sti'oined. Even the great 
Chinese question, pregnant source of strife between employer and 
employed in the Colonies, hardly can arouse discussion, escept 
vhen some political emergency bruiga it to the fore as the useful gag 
of a discontented party. Nor is there any cause to deplore the 
financial condition of the Province. The Treasury is not unreason- 
ably burdened with debt ; taxation ia not heavy ; the expenses of 
administration are very moderate. Free education, the heaviest 
charge upon the revenues, is provided with a hberality of which 
any Government might justly be proud; schools being established 
throughout the length and breadth of the land where it would have 
been absolutely impossible for the settlers themselves to have 
secured the poorest kind of instruction for their children. And yet, 
notwithstanding this general and satisfactory progress, the country, 
as I say, is not being developed as it should be ; its resources are 
still potential ; it has failed to commend itsulf to the English bn^- 
nesa man as a place where his energies and means may be profitably 
employed. 

0£ a certain class of emigrant we could easily get more tlian 
enough, the difGculty is rather to dam the flood than to provide a 
channel for ita flow ; for, though it is very possible a miscellaneoos 
population would, after experiencing the usual miseries and hard- 
ships, settle down into various occupations and prove useful wage- 
earners, the experiment is too dangerous to be tried by any country 
which has a reputation worth losing, least of all by one whose 



Uriiah Columbia : a Probhm of Colonial Det-eiopment. 14B 

iramt positioii ks regards the labouring clasees is parlicalorly free 

from uixtDtf and strain. 
Bat jon may reasonably aak, " Wbat la the matter ? " Wby not 

tu eosUnt with the beultUy progress of the past ? Wliy tiy to fui-eo 

t montr; beyond its natural rate of development ? 
!l it tnie lliat were ItrJtisb Columbia of no more fi^pedal moment 

to the Britiab nation as a wbole tban the so-called dependencies of 

mr (,'ron'ii are to the average British householder, ve might be 

Mntent to relegate it in our minds to the position of a dumping- 
gmund for ini:apacity aud disuontent. But it is far otherwise. 
TtiiProrince is the only foothold which Great Britain posseeses 
no Ifao North Pacific coast. It is. tortuuately. a very large foothold. 
\o*, tlie trade of the Pacific has increased enormously within a 
oodante lifetime. The old steamer, the Beaver, the 6rat to visit 
tbt weatci^ shores of America. lies on the rocks at the mouth ol 
Bumrd Inlet : a few years ago she was riding in Victoria barbuiir. 
Wt jrwLT the freight carried from the ports of western North Ameiica 
■meded 18.000.000 tons, and tliut is but a small earnest of the 

You may hear every degree of opinion ventilated as regards 
(Jnental tr»de. Tho niOBt sagacious men will vary in their estimate 
of iu ytSn« from zero to infinity.' But it is diflioult to believe, in 
Um fbee o( the manifest determination on the part of so enterprising 
K pwplo as our neitfhboura of the United States to ntilise their 
-^mtern aeaboard. in the f(U'« of such commercial energy na is dist- 
yl^od by AustraliauH, and in tbo face of tbegriidua] but still evident 
cbftnp) which is stealing over the Oriental mind as n'^rds admission 
ofEarapBaii and .^mi^rican funnsof civilisation— it is difficult, 1 guy, 
ia tho fan! of tlic»t:', to doubt the gigantic part which the Pacific is 
destined to play in the future history of the world's commerce. 
Odo tiling to uiy minil is certain. Whatever tlic extent of tradt^ 
amy be, ibere will Im a bitter stnig^fle sotnn day between Britain wid 
Iba L'oited Stalvs as to who abalt control it. The latlvr lias bet^n 
while fostering her internal resource, to aee Atlantic trade 
of Europi' : she will not re^-ard Pacific developmenta 
with the same eqiiunimity. Europe may keep ber armed 

> The CuiadikQ Paclllc Bu!«aj Conipuijr bave bad Ih* eounite to teil n 

, in tlla ooly nv id which it can be tested, and tbcit effort in Uii* dii«clion 

ilwiiiM the tlianli« not oalj of Canada but ot tlit •atirc Britiah nation. That 

samai on tba Paoifio thould uil from and lo BritUb port*. 

and iha* pnnid* a pure!? Biitlsti rout* to onr Eaatan f 

w Ua coBgialuUtio:v 




146 BrUish Coftim&ia .■ a Problem of Colonial Demlf^tnenl. 




demonstrations to herself; the war in which America will rather 
fight mast be one of rate-cutting, Hne- controlling, and in general a 
war of commercial competition reduced to the rao3t pei-fect science, 
the moat ingenious art. The struggle will bo a eevere one, for it 
will practically, though without actual bloodshed, decide the mastery 
of the Pacific. Had we retained the Puget Sound district to the 
mouth of the Columbia there could, I thinlf, ha\-e beeu little doubt 
who would ultimately have conquered. But, worsted by the Ash- 
burton Treaty, as we have been in all negotiations with our wide- 
awalte neighbours, the advantages of our shorter route are minimised 
by the presence of a host of lively, striving people with harbours as 
good as our own, independent communication east and west, timber, 
minerals and farming-land, and everything to stimulate commercial 
actirity, close to our own doors. 

And that is why 1 regret to see the comparatively little interest 
taken in the development of British Columbia, and why I seek to 
ai'ouse in Britons a spirit of indignation at the thought that they 
may he dropping behind in the race of national competition, 

British Columbia used to be stigmatised by the opponents of a 
trans- continental railway as " a sea of mountains." That designa- 
tion, though apparently justified by reference to any ordinary nu^ 
which generally represents the Rockies as coming down to within a 
few miles of the Pacific coast, is a most unfair and inaoourate Otie> 
Hemmed in, as indeed it is, by great ranges, for which theiv is 
every reason to be thankful, it contains e.\tensi\'e areas of valuable 
farming and grazing land, sufficient to supt>ort a large population 
in comfort. 

But, as all the world knows by this time, it is not to its a^rionl- 
tural resources that the country looks for its future importanofl. 
And here arises the first difficulty in the way of providing it with an 
industrial population. For the average emigrant, whatever his 
foi-mer life may have been, seems to invariably expect to become a 
fanner. So much has been said about the great wheat-growing 
cotmtries of the West, that tliero seems to be only one idea in the 
mind of tlie vast proportion of would-bo settlers, How soon oao I 
get a free grant of land and grow a crop ? 

If the emigrant is not this sort of a man. he is generally soma- 
thing worse : the fellow who is ready to do anything and can do 
nothing. 

Now, the chief resources of the coimtry are of such a kind that 
special skilled labour is required to develop them. Lmnbenng, 
mining, and fishing are not occupations, such as I recently heard 



Brituk Colnmhta : a Problem of Colonial Development. UT ' 

A ingenious Flonda agent describe orange -growing, " requiring no 
previons knowledge of the subject." If an employer of labour haa 
to engage men who are raw hands is any of these occupations be 
■oon finds that he is paying for tbeir education at about the same 
rkt« as if he was sending them to an English University. And that 
is discoaraging. Yet, on the other hand, none of these industries 
ani at present conducted on a sufficiently extensive scale to make it 
desirable to impart sldlled labour in anything like conddersble 
numbers. For instance, although the lumber trade is acknowledged 
to be a most important staple, the exportation of lumber in 1890 
amoonted to only S44!),000, and even if this be doubled, as it pro- 
bably ought to be by the amoant sent east over the Canadian Pacifio 
Rftilway, and a handsome perceuiage allowed for that which is con- 
sumed at home, an annual turnover of only between 200,000/. and 
S00,0O0/. would be reached, which, it will rejidily be seen, does not 
represent a large sum in wages when other expenses are deducted. 
There can, I think, be little room for doubt but that the lumber 
industry of this Province js capable of great extension. The quaUty 
of the timber is bo excellent, the quantity so prodigious, the facilities 
for cheap transport so great, and the Government charges so mode- 
nto, that nothing but energy and skill ai-e wanted to ensure success. 
I balime that the Fuget Sound trade, though in no way has it the 
advuitage, unless it be in these latter qualities, is much greater than 
our own. But then Pnget Bound has 60,000,000 Americans at its 
back, and we have no reitl pressure from the East at all. Indeed, it 
is a significant fact that the largest lumber mills on the island of 
Vancouver are American enterprises, as if Americans, and Americans 
only, appn^ciated rightly the value of those forests of which we talk 
BO mnch. 

There is, however, one external influence to which wo may, I 
think, look with no small degree of conlidence in its ultimate bearing 
upon our lumber tradf ; iind that is the Nicaragua CanaL 

The Buccesaful oomplei on of thai work will without doubt do more 
to Btimnlate Pacific trade, and especially the lumber trade, than any- 
thing else. It is devoutly to be hoped that, now the Panama Canal 
t^esTB to have got its ttual quietus, nothing will stand in the way 
of carrymg out this great and perfectly feaeihle scheme. Of course 
il will be executed by American engineers with American money, or 
English money borrowed by Americans : for, as in the case of the 
Buez Canal, our countrymen will never euffictently appreciate its 
inportance until after it has been completed. 

Bat th.'re !« an induBtry from which far more has been expected 




HB British Coluwhia : a Problem of Colonial Durchpment. 

than that of lumbering. I refer to mining in the precious and base 
metals. British Columbia first came into notice as a gold- producing 
country. It had a short but brilliant career aa one of the richeet 
placer-fieldsin the world. Now every other home of alluvial gold has 
become subsequently distiuguiBhed as a quartz producer. It was no 
matter of surprise, then, when geologists told us that this Province 
was destined to achieve a reputation aa a great quartz-mining 
country. Even in the daya before railway communication it was 
common enough to speak of the vast mineral wealth which was 
supposed to lie bid in the mountains of British Columbia, and the 
advocates of the Canadian Pacific line used to rely upon this 
argument when opponents spoke slightingly of these grand works 
of Nature, 

It would mdced have shown a singular partiality on the part of 
Providence for American institutions if the series of locks which were 
productive south of the boundary line had suddenly ceased to be ho 
noi'th of it, had tmversed British territory exhibiting only illusive 
indications of mineral, and on entering Alaska had once more 
rewarded the prospector with profitable deposits of ore. 

As a matter of fact, the discovery of rich prospects, which has 
been made since the railway gave more access to the Kootenay 
region, has been quite phenomenal. From the Toad Mountam 
south of the Kootenay Lake, northwards into the Big Bend of the 
Columbia, the number of these discoveries is almost legion, and 
there can be little doubt that eventually the mineral wealth derived 
from these sources will be very great. 

Nor are they the only ones; throughout the interior plateau 
discoveries of apparently permanent leads are being continually 
reported, while the neglected gold qtiartz of Cariboo bids fan- soon 
to redeem that famous placer-ground from the long wiutei- of dis- 
content which has fallen upon it since the bright days of the 
" aistiea." 

It is somewhat humiliating to confess, after so rosy a description 
of our prospects, that the actual production of the precious and 
economic minerals is, with the exception of cod, practically nil. 

A hundred thousand pounds worth or so of gold is annuaUy 
washed out of the creeks and " benches ; " there is no hydraulicking 
on a large scale ; there are one or two smelters, lying idle for want 
of ore : not a single concentrating plant, that I am aware of, Dorany 
ore shipments, except for experimental pui'poses. And the reason 
of this is not that there is any deficiency, any pincliing out or 
" petreing" out Of the metal, but because British Columbia has net yet 




BritUk Columbia : a ProhUm of Colonial Develnjmtent. 

" ovigfat on " to the mining market ; the reel mining capitalist has 
Dot yet tnnied bis attention to it ; the work being done is the amateur 
effort of local people, praspectoTH and the like. I think it is very 
powiit)lo there may be another reason why more inaccosaiblo regions 
should have the preference in the eye of tlie professional mining 
mui. There, much more extensive grants, huge areas of mineral- 
ised territory can be obtained, and the relatively enormous capital 
rpquirod in the working of these is really easier to get from ehare- 
holdera than the more modeet sums which might be requisite for 
Betting on its legs some project In British Columbia. Whatever the 
rwHOD. the fact remains that quarts mining in this Province is 
Bterviog in the midst of plenty, and that, though the Government 
sra most liberal, e([uitable, and ansioua to assist the bonit-fido 
Operator to the beat, of their power, there is very little interest 
flhown outside the few who have courage and perseveranue enough 
to oootiDae steady exploratory work in the boe of every diacoura^e- 
meot. 

Where there is far the most activity is nearest the boundary line, 
the Americans manifesting more interest and more faith in the 
country than either Englishmen or Canadians. 

What can he done by energy and perseverance to duvulop the 
mineral wealth of a new country woe shown by the late Ur. 
ir, who, under great temporary disadvantages, succeeded in 
king at Wellington, on \'anconver Island, the collieries which 
t rendered that island famous as a coal -producing country. 
I it not been for his extraordinary pluck and pertinacity there 
It' fittle doubt but that the Province would for many years have 
bMn deprived of one of its largest sources of wealth, and of the 
population which has been engaged in its production, ^^'hcn the 
high wages of the Vancouver coal miner, some 12^. or ISs. per day, 
ue considered, together with the number of men employed, one 
cuinot fi«l too grateful to the memory of the man who has enabled 
■o many of his fellows to hve in comfort and prosperity. 

Then let us turn to the fisheries. What have we not heard as 
to the abundance of fish ofT this favoured coast ? And it is perfectly 
true. There is both a prodigious supply of fish and unrivalled 
facilities for pursuing the life of a fishoniiau. l)ut we t^imiinl be 
fturprised at the small advantage that has hitherto been taken of 
Uieu favourable circumstances. I have elsewhere pointt^d out tbnt 
a fishing population is perhaps the most <litlicult of any to trans- 
plant. A hardy and simple folk, they rely entirely upon local 
knowledge of their own waters, and will naturally be reluctant to ' 



150 British Columbia : a Problem of Colonial Developnent. 

sacrifice that for prospects Iioivever tempting in a strojige coiintf 
But the e^eriment is about to be tried on a, somewhat extsndve 
soale with the Scotch Crofters, and should it be successful, which 
there is no great reason to doubt, it will liave gone far to solve one 
difficulty in providing the country with a popuIatioD. There are 
two industries connected n-itli fishing that deson*e upecia! notice, 
not on account of their backwardness, but hecausc inorp enorgj- aiiil 
enterprise have been shown in connection with them than [wrhaps 
in any other industry. I refer to the salmon -canning and seal- 
fishing. Of the former, which has become of so great importance to 
the Province of recent years as to occupy the second place in her 
exports, there is nothing for mo to aay which is not sufficiently 
familiar to you already. There has been some talk of tho market 
being overatocketl recently, which may or may not be true, and 
there is, I am glad to aee, an attempt being made to introduce a 
aystem of presening the flab in glass jara, which will no doubt 
do much to overcome tho natural prejudice of those who object 
to tinned goods. 

But I cannot leave the subject of our fisheries without reference 
to the sealing question, for it is one tbe merits of which, I feel 
convinced, are not sufficiently appreciated outside the Province. 

Perhaps in no way has real enterprise shown itself more con- 
spicuously in British Columbia than in tho development of tho 
sealing industry : in no way has it been more calculated to foster 
the nautical genius of the people, upon which hereafter bo much will 
depend : in no way has it met with more cruel reverses. 

Tho circumstances of the past are to some extent familiar to 
everyone. How, no sooner did our American cousins suspect us of 
developing too much energy in this direction than, availing them- 
selves of the figment of a iiuti-e clausum, they proceeded by acts of 
legalised piracy to drive British ships from the Behring Sea, Onr 
vessels were boarded, their cargoes of skins confiscated, in some 
cases the ship itself taken into an American port and sold — in bet, 
every indignity practised upon the unfortunate sealers. 

The inevitable diplomatic negotiations ensued, and, meanwhile, 
our position, as established even hy the law courts of our opponents, 
was deemed so strong that, notwithstanding reverse, fresh capital 
I readily supplied and the seal fieet recruited by many new 
schooners. But the authorities at Washington had cunningly 
changed front. It was not from motives of national aggrandisement, 
but to preserve the poor seal from destruction that these disinterested 
V being made. The British Government was invited to 




British Colwtnhia : a Problem of Colonial Developtiient. IRI 

join in ■ bol; cnuade against the estinotion of God's creatures. 
ETer]rUiiiig wiia to be iibove board, "tlie fullest inquiry courted," 
•o ubitiation would satisfactorily settle all disputes. 

It ia needless to nay thai our AIini3teT3 fell into the trap. 

The sohnoncrH had om^oniore reached tlu< forbidden grouud, wheii 
Utajr were boajd<<d. Ibis time by a Britiah man-of-war, and a procla- 
toaUon n^ tb&l ships flying the British flag were not to enter the 

■pendiiig negotifllione between the GoTerninents. Indemnity 
M actual loss wan, however, ^p in rati teed. The poor sonlcrs hitd 
Inat ctestiallen to the Koutb. The siiittoii was a splendid one, 
ttls few who NUc«oeded in making up a cargo outside the Sea 
(brmed a very poor lotul against the csceltent harvest of Nkina 
whieh would have bci'n rea|>e<1 if this arbitrary measure bad not 
be*n resorteil to : and It will be- interesting to see how the British 
rmtspayer will L-njoy paying for iLe sealskins he has not had, when 
the question of conipenHation arisen. 

But the triumpli of American diplomacy was again achieved, 
far while in consequence of these restrictions the price of skins 
w«it up by leaps and bounds, the fiir-trading company who lease 
the Alaska rights from the United Rtstcs Government, and on 
whom, strangely enough, no such embargo bad been laid, had an 
eteclltint time. It wa.s a fai^t wuU recognised when the old Alaska 
i'^ir-tiading Company's lease expired, that the new lessees were 
pBTiDg so enormous an increase for the privilege that it would be 
difficult for them to make any profit at the cnrrent price of skins, 
and it is quite characteristic of Mr. Blaine tliat he shonld help out 
bis t«9iaQts by this stroke of diplomatic sagacity. The practical 
rHiiIt.BO fur as we are oonc«medt is this : that the British public is 
pAying. or promising to pay, the British sealer to keep out of an 
open fishing- ground, in order that the price of seolskinB ma; be 
inflated and the profit put into the pocket of the United States, 
wUla an industry of vital importance to tlie prepress of a British 
poBBwaion is strangled and those who have devoted time and money 
to its development are discouraged mid disgusted. 

Unfortunately for the complete success of Mr. Blaine's Bchcme, 
the British (iovemment actually appointed a competent scientifio 
man, l>r. G. W. Dawson, to iuiimre, with Sir George Baden-Powell, 
into the facts of the alle;;ed extinction from overfishing. As there 
Is Gonseqtiently some danger, after ikll, of America getting the worst 
oi the argument, it need not surprise us to read in the papers that 
iha terms of arbitration have not yet been satisfactorily amngpJ. 
The; certainly will not, in my opinion, be until the season ia 



4 




^ 



152 Brilisk Cohimhla : a Problem of Colonial Devrlfptnenl. 

Bnffidently advanced to form sn excuse for again jockeying the 
British Columbian eealer out of his cargo. 

Knowing the facts of the case, there is something snpremelj 
ridicTilons in the last appeal to the great, soft, foolisli heart of John 
Bull, Ko sooiitr had the British CommisHionera got well away 
but we are apprised of the cruel fact that thousands of baby seals 
have been discovered, starved to death for want of a mother's care ! 
The uatural inference, so far as any inference can be drawn, is that 
the mothers have been done to death by the brutal British poacher. 
And that is the inference which has been adopted by more than one 
£iiij;1i::h paper. If the thing be not a fiction, or a gross exaggera- 
tion, it is Btill to be proved who slaughtered the unhappy parents, 
and it would be well to reaerre one's ind^ation until that is 
established. But of course the purpose of the canard is achieved; 
John Bull sheds a manly tear, his wife's sealskin jacket vibrates 
with a sympathetic sob, and Brother Jonathan conceals a Emile as 
lie piously attends to the last obsequies of tlie slaughtered innocents 
and raises the price of seal-skins. A great deal of nonsonse is 
talked about and a great deal of sentiment is wasted upon the 
supposed extinction of the seal. A migi'atory sea-animal cannot be 
rendered extinct like the buffalo of the plains. It can, no doubt, be 
reduced in numbers below a commercial profit, and, when that il 
the case, titU require time to recover. But there is nothing to ahow 
that that point has been reached in the Behnng Sea, nor that h 
cannot be warded off by reasonable game-preserN-ation laws, vhidl 
will foster rather than destroy the industry. Nor is it fair to speak 
of the barbarity of slaughtering seals as if they ranked with the 
innocent dickey-birds who contribute their little hves to the decora- 
tion of a lady'fl bonnet. Either the seal is a valuable fur-bearing 
ftninial whose skin is rif^htiy deemed the most charming and 
comforting of winter garments, and who deserves preservation tot 
commercial purposes, or he is an arrant hsh-poachcr, with nothing 
but his amusing pranks to commend him to the special proteotira 
of man. We do not hear the same sentimental gush about Uiat 
mueh rarer and exceedingly beautiful creatine the sea-otter, who, I 
should imagine, runs an infinitely greater chance of extinction, 

I have pointed out in one or two ways the difficulties which lie 
in the way of proRTesB in British Columbia, difficulties mainly Ana 
to the absence of skilled professional effort and judiciously applied 
capital. These can only be obtained fi-om honie or the States, and 
it is pretty certain that, in the end, if they do not come from the one 
source tbev will from the other. 



SritUh Cotiitnhia : a Problem of Cohnial Developm, 

Bat it jnvf be said, " You liave a considerable population already 
in the Province, and a great deal of capital ia at your command, as 
ynor excellent financial status, the thriving condition of your banks, 
the ffovemmentAl valuation of real an<l pL'rBonal properly all tend lo 
■how. Von are not a l>oor p>oplo ; Ilow is it, tbeii. that theeu 
reaoarcea, of whose potenliul ^>aluc we have heard so much lately, 
are not b«ing more actively developed by yourselvea ? " One answer 
to this if, I bcheve. an answer the truth of which will be recognised 
by all men of experience in the life of new countries. Our sotplun 
eapitkl is being expended rather on epeculation than in enterprise. 
Not tluit the land boom has reached alarming heights as yet on the 
Britisli Pacific, but that there are a series of concurrent circum- 
utanetta which lend to inJuce men to invest their capital in llio 
purchase of land, with a view to its sale at a higher price, rather 
than in any form of enterprise. 

It would seem to be a difficult, an impossible matter to persuade 
nutn to recognise the difference between speculation and enterprise 
in their ultimate results to the country. So long as ever there ia 
a |iro9p<*t of further rise in valiies. so long as there is the remotest 
chance of some obsciu'e townsite blossoming into commeroial im- 
portance, so long will the majority of capitalists be found to buy, 
evan at the risk of hampering their own legitimate business, and the 
minority of cautious men will be found to lend at a high rale of 
itittf oat rather ihiui hazanl their capital on enterprises the issue 
of which roust always be more or Itsu doubtful. It outs, thercfori', 
both ways : for the sanguine six^cnlator will keep up the rate oi 
intorvst toapoint which makes it always profitable for the mortgagee 
lo lend. It is vaui to point out that a collapse must somo day come 
tinless the actual resources of the country are made remuneraUve. 
People will go on " trading jack-knives " until they will have to pawn 
lh«r coats to get them a meal. Nor, on the other hand, must this 
be ngordod ax an nnmiti^ted evil. New countries no doubt owe a 
gTMl deal to the spirit of land- speculation. As Sir George Cheaney 
reT7 pertinently pointed out at the Hecembor meeting of the Royoi 
Colonial Institute, the money is locked up, but not lost. Capital 
flows into the comitry which would not otherviise have been at- 
tneted, and it certainly, for the most part, comes to Stay. When 
the croze is over, when the flatness due to a replete market ensues, 
Ihon who have got the money must employ it in profitable wayB : 
•od thoBO who liavo got the experience must set about, " wi»i,<r and 
sadder men," to recoup themselves for their losses by the display of 
•dditioDol energy. If they have only invested in Uie placo where 



I 



154 Britisk Columbia : a Problem of Colonial Developvienl. 

they reside, neither will their busineaa be bo crippled, nor will th« 
hopes of a recovery be dissociated from personal efforts to achieve 
it. This is, perhaps, the very best guarantee for making good 
colonists. But if, as is not unfrequently the case, I am aony to say, 
on our coast the investor has taken his money out of the business 
in which it is employed to plunge it in the hazard of a townsite 
south of the boundary, though he may fortunately double or treble 
hia capital, the almost inevitable result will ensue that the United 
States will profit at his expense, and his personal allegiance will be 
weakened, while his interest is dirided between the place where hia 
treasure is and the place where his heart ought to be. 

As a matter of fact land- speculation at best is a poor thing. Like 
the inevitable charity bazaar which no one hkes, hut every organi- 
sation avails itself of, its oidy juttificatioii is that '-you cim't do 
without it." 

But, apart from this tendency, it must be remembered that we aru 
not a. community so wealthy as to find capital for any great enter- 
prises. When one hears of the millions which have been plunged 
in the United States and Argentina, one cannot help wondering 
whether the same money would not have made a better return if it 
had been expended in fostering the industries of Canada. Are we 
too near home, too Enghsb, to tempt Englishmen ? or are our hopes 
delusive, and ths.t great Dominion nothing but a great sham, a 
hollow, bottomless concern, through which a nation is dropping 
into the arms of the United States ? 

I have tried, though I confess very imperfectly, to indicate wherein 
the future strength of British Columbia, as an integral part of the 
Empire, must lie; and to show that, unless England takes more 
interest in the work of bur development, she ^vill stand a sorry chance 
by the side of her energetic neighbour. 

Say what you please about the inflation of the Puget Sound 
district, make all due allowance for straining of credit and financial 
unsoundness, land-booming and over- speculation, the real progress 
of that country has been simply man'ellous. Much as we may 
deplore its loss, we must, I think, confess that, under British rtUe, 
such progress would have been impossible. The reason is not 
difficult to see. In America well-to-do people are continually 
migrating to the West, while an idea mifortimately prevails amongst 
a large section of the Enghah pubhc that none but paupers or 
adventurers need go to the Colonies. In America men catch the 
Western fever as they would the measles ; they remove bag and 
baggage to a new country, set up their businesa there whatever it 




British Columbia : a Pmblftn 0/ Coloiml Developmenl. IRB 

Ki«y be, plunge con amore into the iuterests of their new homo, 
■nd loarp not a. stone unturned to make it in every sense a thriving 
place. They ure inspireil with confidence of ultimate success, and 
thut Ten- confidence makes success HBSUred. Unless the Mother 
Co«Dtr>- li-anm to identify herself in the same f&sliion with her 
Colonies, Greater IJritain will never be the homogeneous nation 
thai, in Spito of iti stnitigely diverge elements, the United Ktiitua has 
bMOine. Tlio Colonies will be left to themselves, save for the 
dribblings of English life, and, notwitlistauding talk about Federa- 
tion, the breach vih continually widen. I am no pessimist, but I 
ImI keenly that pubUc opinion in this matter at home needs educating 
uwl lran«fonning, and I rejoice in the solid and substantial work in 
thia direction which the Royal Colonial Institute is acliievinfr. 

DiSCUS&lOM. 

Sir CnABLES TcpFER, Bart., O.C.M.G,, C.lt,: I need not say 
with what pleasure we have listened to the very interesting and 
ittrtnKtive paper with which wo Jiave been favoured to-night. It 
in to me a source of special j^ratification that eight years' residence 
ID British Columbia has transformed an English gentleman into 
«aeh a thoronglily enthuaiastic Canadian ; and if that is the 
cue with rufcrenot! to tlio reverend and learned lecturer, I tliink 
Canadi may confidently look forward to the saute iuflncnce taking 
powwion of the bnndreds and thousands of people from this and 
ottier ooimtriee who. I am satisfied, will be steadily dra\vn into the 
Inrilory of which we have heard something to-night. The lecturer 
ba« not overdrawn the picture- It would, indeed, be difficult to 
do-pj, and 1 appeal to those who have had the opportunity of 
rintiog British Columbia— many of whom I see present to-night — 
Urtmy how one could draw an cxoggeruted picture or a conntrr 
many advantages. I am only aorprisi'd that the 
lecturer, who has so thoroughly entertained na to-night, 
ha» •omeliow formed the inipreseion that jnstico is not being done 
to that country ; that. In fact, enough has not been done to securt- 
tint process to which British Columbia is entitled. I ask yon 
10 mncmlier that only six years have passed since Britinh Columbia 
WW coonecied with the rest of Canada ; that ten years ago British 
Citlombia had practically no connection either with Canada or 
with England; that the country was then very spareely Bettl»l, 
and, with all her natural advantages, was entirely dependent 
on the adjoining portion of the United States. As Minister of 



loC British Coliwihla .' a Problem of Colonial Development. 

fiailways and Canals, I was en^ged a few jema ago ia the oon- 
sbruction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which waa to connect 
British Columbia with the reBt of the Dominion, and also with this 
country, and when I tell you that the last cargo of rails was seven 
months on the passage from England to British Cotmnbia, you will 
understand what commimication that country posgeEBed. There 
waa no connection with the other portions of Canada, the territory 
being, in fact, completely cut off by the Rocky Mountains and other 
mountain ranges, and rendered more remote from the other parts of 
the country than India is to-day. Senator Macdonald, who sita on 
the platfonn to-night, tells me that yesterday he received fironi 
Victoria, British Cohimbia, a letter only sixteen days old. That is 
one illustration of what has been accompliBhed in this very brief 
period, and looking at the other evidences of progress I think we 
need not be discouraged regarding the future of this truly mag- 
nificent territory. The reverend lecturer has told you that in 1884 
he camped in the forest that is now the site of the city of Vancouver. 
Tbat place, which I visited in 1885 and where I found a few shanties 
and an old mill, is now a city of 15,000 inhabitants, properly 
drained, and Ugbted with electricity, and representing a progress 
that will compare with anything south of the border. Looking at 
these facts, and considering also that London is now brought within 
a fortnight of British Columbia, that she is brought in connection 
with the rest of the Dominion by a magnificent Uiie of railway 
running from end to end through British territory, and, further, 
that in connection with that railway there is a splendid line of 
steamers from British Columbia to our possessions in the East^ 
a line of steamers infinitely superior to anything our neighbours 
have yet been able to estabUsh — I say, considering these things, 
I have no misgivings as to the future of British Columbia. The 
reverend lecturer is somewhat concerned as to the struggle for 
communication to the East that will talie place between ourselves 
and the United States of America, in whose progress and prosperity, 
I may say, we all take the utmost pride ; but here again Providence 
has favoured us. We have not only an infinitely superior line of com- 
mimication with China and .Japan to-day, but geogi-aphy is in our 
favour : Yokohama is 1,000 miles nearer to London vid British 
Cohunbia and the Canadian Pacific Railway than vid New York and 
any line of railway to San Francisco, and the man in New York who 
wishes to go to Yokohama with all speed must leave the American 
hne and go through British Columbia by the Canadian Pacific. ^Ir. 
O'Shaughnessy, Vice-President of the Canadian Pacific Railway, has 




British Calumhia : a Vnihh.m of Cnhmial Development. 157 

jmt Rinnied from a \'isit to China and Japan, and after giving the 
filoant uul moBt carefol attention to the subject he declares that the 
tisdo proepeels between thia country and Canada aud those Eastern 
eonatrieB are practically unlimited. These are all factors that are 
foitig to contribute to the development of British Coltimbia. If 
ujbodv wantB to fonn an adequate idea of the value of British 
Cdmnbia, I would refer him not only to tlie paper, which is replete 
irilh intorest, bat to a perfectly disinterested authority, viz. the 
i»port of a Committee of the Senate of the United States of 
^tll friff*. The Senate a few years ago appointed a Committee — o, 
nrt of roving commission— comprising some of its ablest and most 
imdlii^nl members, to go from the Atkntic to the Pacific and take 
the testimony of the beat authorities ns to the relative positions of 
Um two countries. The question was the desirableness of free 
teaprocal intercourse between the United States and Canada. If 
loybody wishes to get an adequate idea of the position of British 
Cotnmbia I refer him to the two octavo volumes of testimony 
pabUsii«d by the Senate Committee. He will find that the repre- 
■enlstivesof the great commercial interests of San Francittco and 
tD tl» important towns to the south of British Columbia met 
d|if Oommittee with the statement that nothing could be more dis- 
■Stew to t]ie Pacific States of America tlian free intercourse with 
BppSk The immense superiority of the lumber and timber of 
tWiitiliiiil I of British Columbia is, they said, such that in case you 
aDmr this freedom of trade yon would close our mills and drive all 
oar people to the sonth of Briti.sh Columbia out of existence. As 
lo ooal, they knew that the only valuable coal on the whole Pacific 
eOMt was to be found on the island of Vancouver, and that while 
lbqrb*Vi) a certain amount of lignite coal of an inferior description, 
thcijr are dependent for high cluss coal on the mines of British 
Off^piki* Tbcy then called on men engaged in tlic &i\i trade and 
got the nme answer. They said, "We cannot compete with 
British Oolnmbia, and if you have free trade you will wipe all our 
flsberies out of existence." I give you this as the best and most 
disinterested testimony, because among the virtues for which our 
American friends aro distinguished there is none that, in my 
opinion, reflects upon them more credit than the determination lo 
uphold their interests, and to magnify tito claims and advantagoB of 
tbeir own country over the rest of the world In the paper to 
which we have listened, and with which, in the main, I so heartily 
agree, a little jealousy appeared to show itself in regard to American 
va{>italists, and American capital coming into the country. Kow 




BritUk OAittisbia : a Problem of Colomai 1 

ut is » ctrcamcUnce at which I reJMce. Ab & CanriiMi, I receive 

EvUb open ftrma all tbe eoergj and enteipriEe tfaak the Unila] 

I'BbMM »■> <M^^ ■»> ^n^ ^ "loi^ capital thej biing the matt 

I'Wclcome tbex will be. We all know that the; possess this exita^ 

nil rmt«T^mu, and the fact that some of them have been indoeed to 

3 their own oovairj and turn their attention to mitling and 

nluir occnpationH in British Columbia, and other parts of Caoada. 

Blit tbe beMt proof of the overwhelming attractions thai ooonti; 

lr,prflitents. Moreover, I have h^ tbe pleasare of sitting sesaon 

l:«ftcT attwian in the ilouse of Commons of Canada with gentlemen 

B.^-capitali«lii — who came from the L'nited States of America, and 

■'Who, when in a position fairly to contrast the British inetitationa of 

ftCftnadn with thoNc of llieLr own comitry, became naturalised Bri;tish 

3ltibjectN, and were as loyal upholders of British institutionfi as any 

KMrnon who ever went from this conntry. One word on a pcunt not 

[.jnentioned by the lecturer — the climate. If British Columbia has one 

K attruction greater than another it is its charming climate. You ma/ 

I tntvol from one ttidn of the globe to the other without finiling a more 

Llovi^ly climiitit than that of Victoria. The most delicious peaches 

r-tnd the linent gru.piiB are gro^'n In the open air. Robos bloom everr 

C|Qonth ill the year. Three years ago I was in Victoria In the middle 

Kof April, and found the apple trees in full bloom, and tbe grass a 

^oot high. A year afterwards I was in Italy and found that British 

Columbia was, in point nf climate, at least three weeks in advance 

of any p<irt of Italy 1 could discover. With a climate not to be sor- 

piiMMod in any part of tlio world, with mineral wealth untold and now 

miulu acui^HHibb by railway, and with a soil of the most fertile nature, 

with flHliorios and forests unsurpassed, what doubt can we have as 

to ihti futuru (if thin npleudid country ? I may remind you that tbe 

Earl of Aluu'doen the other day paid i50,000 for an estate for &uit- 

gi'nwiiig, so lulniirablii did he cousider the soil and climate, and I 

havti ii<j diiubt that this was anise and judicious investment and 

onn that will uttnict other capitalists. I must take a slight objec- 

lion to tlio toiii> adopU^d by the reverend lecturer in regard to the 

Boaling i]uesliou. altliough nobody can doubt that aU my s^Tupathies 

uTtt with Uic British Columbia sealer. It must not be forgotten 

that when tliose outrages wore Inflicted on British Americans, a 

protofit sent Ui Washin^on by the present Prime Minister of 

Kuglaud prnvented a finger touching tbe British flag, and althoogb 

HtT Miywrty s Govcmownt ha\-e accepted a policy of inqniiy into 

ft'sl life and its protection, we must remember what were the re- 

«p*clive contention* of ihel'nited States and Canadian Goverameni* : 



British Columbia : a Problem of Colonial Development. ISi) 

Kod wh«a (lie results of that investigation come to be Ixid bofbro the 
vorii], I shall be greatly mistaken il they <lo not aSinu to thi) lutlrr 
tba vietta of the Government of Can&da, that tho overwhelming 
portion of the il&ngiT va^ in conseqneoce of the mode in which thtj 
M«l fiahery was prosecuted by the American lessees nf the inlandH. 
U mati not be forgotten also that the United States of Ami'Tica 
hsv* been brought to agree to arbitration, and I am glad to be able 
lo svf, with antliority, that the terms have been Hetll'-il, and xottlod 
MtisEutorilj to Canada and to Her Majesty's Govemmont. At no 
dututt dAt«. I believe, there can be but one result, and that will bo 
unpbt Uid complete eatisfaction for aU the injuries inflictod by tho 
Cnhed States of America upon the eealera of British Columbia. 

Mr. A. StAVELEY Hill, Q.C. M.P. : I obey yonr cull, Mr. 
Chumuui. but I may aay I came here for the purpoM, not of 
iddrMong you, but of hstcning to the lecture of my friend Canon 
fffnlind" who kindly showed me over some interesting parta of 
VicMrift some three years ago. I went out lo [Iritigb Coliunbia in 
ttu year 1H90, having read and heard of the wrongs done to the 
mdan, and as a member of the House of Commons, and ons 
tftldog an interest in Canada and colonial matters, I desired lo wa 
whai wu the real stale of things. I made s joanwjr ovtr Iku 
idukd, or a great part of the island, to bm what was its climata 
■ad ita potentiahtiea in regard to immigration. As regard* cUmaU, 
Xnostsay there is nothing left to be desired. It haa,l btlieT«,tlw 
most loTGly etimate in tba world. Sir Charles Tupjicr has 
at tbs rowa be saw in April 1889 : I was there in Octobec and 
Ifovunbrr IB80, and the roMS wen utill flovrring as tboii|h 
wen in existence all tbayvar ronnd, 

Ai tfaoogb Ibej nerer bd«l llwre 
Bui bloomed in buDartality 

and of peaefaaB, gnpe«, fish, and game, then ii h l lrf 
dun. Tba (finale is so etqaiaite. the coantfj m» t swa HM , 
A* island a beeooiing, and will to a adU (rsalcr aifant ' 
A tMdential place, iwt ool; far British ColanUau. but also far 
paopl* in tba Cniied Slates, wfao will find then a Ear man hatl&f 
■■I I'sati ti lii l bone Ifaao aay wbf to the soolb. I 
maSng m tba tanM* td iha booaa at my bitmi 
lU Bt 
soad tba I 
_ _ I tob«faaBd»a 

ten tb^t ortadt TkMcm. WHb nsBcd to tb* tm\tn. I waot 
Mt to m^pb*, im, M lo ^ aninalB kiOad ta wbM i* 



a apoMU 
obec and 
ajfa lh<r 




■fish Coliimhia : a Problem of Colojtial Development. 

called pelagic sealing ; secondly, how far there was a, deetmotiva 
diminution of tlie seals themselves ; and, thirdly, whether there 
was wastefulness in the mode of kUliug. My conclusions were em- 
hodied in some letters which appeared in The Times, in which 
I showed, having made the most careful examination, that the 
number of seals is not diminishing, but that they are to be found 
in Beliring Sea in even greater numbers than before, I further 
showed that the mode of killing is not a wasteful mode, but I came 
also to the conclusion that if there is to be a greater pre3er\*ation of 
seal life it is to be brought about, not by any alteration in a waste- 
ful kilhng of the seals, the system or season of sea-sealing, or the 
Jdlling in the open, but by regulating more carefully the mode in 
which the seals are killed on the Pribylov Islands. Talk of the 
Victoria sealer being a poacher ! Who is the poacher — the man 
who kills on the nest, or the man who kills in the open field f I am 
glad to hear that the arbitration clauses are arranged, and I feel 
quite sure that when the report comes home, the view that I have 
taken will be completely borne out, viz. that the quantity of seals in 
the Behring Sea is greater than ever before, and that the killing by 
the Victoria sealer is not a wasteful but a proper mode of obtaining 
and bringing to market a useful article of commerce. In couoluaion, 
I will only add that, while I believe there is no more charming 
climate, and no better place for immigrants, this is not a country 
for great wheat farms or large cattle ranches. It is admirably 
adapted to the labour and capital of the smaller cultivators, and 
nowhere will such persons find themselves better placed than in 
British Columbia and Vancouver's Island. 

Mr. A. W. Harvey, M.L.C, Newfoundland : Your secretary was 
kind enough to ask mo to make a few remaa-kson Canon Beanlands' 
paper, but I feel that anything I had to say has been anticipated by 
previous speakers. It has been alleged that the death of these 
young seals on the Pribylov Islands is caused by Cana^ans killing 
the mother seals in the sea. Now I do not tliink tbatin the present 
year Canadians have been allowed at any time to seal within 120 
or 150 miles of those islands. It is- .utterly impossible, therefore, 
that the deaths of any seals on the Pribjfov Islands can be laid at 
the door of the Canadian sealers.' &n the Atlantic side, the 
Reals do not go to the islands for thepuypose of bringing forth their 
young, but. on the contrary, with an extraordinary amount of intelli- 
geuce — almost inspiration, for it'.is iBore than instinct — the old 
mothei' seals pick out the most luaooessibla parts of the ice foes, 
and there the young are all born witbm afew days-bf oaehotber-^ 



Brituh ColunAia : a Problem of Col-nlal Dci-clopincnl. IHl 

ktways about the end of February. After suckling tbeir young, tbey 
take to the water and go away fishing, while the ice on which tlto 
yoong lie is drifted about by wind and wave, sometimes as much as 
IS or 20 or even 50 miles id the 24 hours. In the meantime, as I 
have said, the motber seal is away fishing ; but every night she 
ntonis, and it is certain that in the 12 or 14 hours she is away she 
cannot go farther than GO miles, and to do this she must swim 
eontiouoaaly io one direction at the vate of at least 10 Icnota an 
bonr, and by the most singular instinct — far transcending anything 
in nun — she retams, and, unguided by compass or chronomet«r, 
■ho di8CO%'BrB and suckles her offspring. The most extraordinary 
tfaii^ ia that every ono of these 300,000 seals — formerly there was 
iloable that namber on our side— is able to pick out her own hahv, 
oawr. lu far as U knou'u, making a mistake. Suppose [hat iu 
London 800,000 babies were bom in one week, and that for a certain 
litua thutr niothcrn were tukcn away from them. Un their ii'turn, 
bow many of the luothei-s. do you think, would be abb to pick out 
their own babies, especially if the babies wore no particular dres& or 
mark ? Yet that is what ibe seals do. One point with reference to 
this seahng question, and that is that the complaint that has come 
snoo the Commissioners left the seating grounds, viz, that the 
daaibs of these thousands of young seals is the work of Canadian 
poachttre, is entirely untrue ; on the contrary, they lie at the door 
of the great United States. That will be discovered, whatever may 
bo tfafl rrsnlt of the present arbitration, which, I feel sure, must go 
•ntiiely iu favour of Canada, for, as the mother seal returns at 
intervals not exceeding 1 J hours to the islands to suckle her young, 
riw euinot have gone more than 60 miles from the islands, and aa 
Oundian sealers have not been allowed to fish within at least 100 
tnflfin of the islands, a perfect alibi is proved, and the accused mast 
be Kquitted. 

Sanator W. J. Maciwnaij) : After what you have heard thin 
•rening about British Columbia, I mnst ask you all to keep cool. 
Don't rush far that wonderful paradise at once — all of yon. Yon 
hare heard nothing but the truth. If you were to go there to- 
morrow, you would find a thoroughly British Colony, with institu- 
tiona OQ the British model, and no doubt you would receive a British 
vslcoma. I agree almost entirely with what has been said bj the 
nrticnd lecturer, and I consider myself a judge of anythtng per- 
taimng to Briusli Columbia, for I am almost a patriarch in the land. 
It H DtMuIy forty years dnce I went there, and I am now one of the 
qU«at apttiers, i^opKtim«E } come lo the old co\mti>', Wt. m.'j vb- 



I 



102 



British Columbia : a PnHcm of Colonial Det^elopment. 



tention always is to return, and I close the present visit in t. few 
days. Talking about the means of communication, when I first 
went out I was about 190 days iu going, by Cape Horn, in an old- 
fashioned sailing ship. Now you go in fourteen or fifteen days, for 
which, in great measure, we have to thank tlie able and vigorous 
administration of Sir Charles Tupper, as Minister of Railways. 
That luie of railway, running across territory entirely British, is 
surely something to be proud of. Some of you may wish to know 
about going to British Columbia, People often interview me. I ask 
always, What are you doing at home "? Are you making a fair living? 
If so, stay where you are ; but if you are doing nothing and wish to 
try your fortune, I say go there. There is room for thousands. It 
abounds in fish and game, and fuel costs nothing. At present Britisli 
Columbia is the sportsman's paradise. There is game of all kinds, 
the mountain sheep, the bear, the elk, deer, quail, and now we are in- 
traducing the Enghsh pheasant. It Is also the paradise of the work- 
ing man, who gelx 10s. a day. A carpenter gets 12s. to 14s. a day. 
and a bricklayer 18s. to 25s. I beUevo no wages paid in any part of 
the world are equal to these. The reason is that poor people and 
mechanics cannot get to us. It is a long way off, even by rail, and 
the journey is very expensive, and that is the reason this place is 
a paradise for the working man. As these things become known, 
and as people from the older provinces come in, the wages may 
come down, but at present they are what I have told you. Aa to 
li\-ing, a labourer can live well on less than 2s. a day, so that you 
may reckon what a man may save. I have known mechanics go 
out. and after a year or two they have each a comfortable house 
with a garden, and perhaps a house or two mon;. These things 
show this ia a country people ought to emigrate to. The lecturer is 
not quite satisfied with the progress made. If he had been in the 
country when I was first there, when there were not more than 
sixty or seventy white people, and not a house to live in, he would 
think a great deal of the progress which has been made. That 
Btate of things continued until the discovery of gold in 18S8. when 
20,000 or 30,000 people, chiefly Americans, came ruslung in. Now. 
with regard to the Americana coming into our eoimtry and develop- 
ing our resources. I think they are just the kind of people we want. 
They are enterprising and energetic, and know how to spend their 
money properly. I believe the reverend lecturer did not object to 
them, bnt thought that the ground which is being taken np by 
Americans ought to be occupied by English capitalists. Well, 
though we should Uke our ovm people, we arc glad to have the 




VrttUh Cotvmbia : a Problem of Colonial Devehpvunt. 168 



There arc no men better qualified to develop the 
and the timber industries. An EngltBhraaii gamg out to 
Outada does not know, 119 a rule, liow to baiidlo tbe a^e, and is not 
worth otMt-lbird of the wages of a Canadian, wbo wiolda tbu weapon 
in a way beautiful to biOiold, and will bring you down a tree twenty 
or thirty fi*t in circumference in tlie very diroctioti you dcsiro it. 
Of oounie tbe luen wlia are wanted veiy often do not MKt papers 
Btieli Bs that under discusaion, and do not know wliat \s gaing on 
in tbuD now countries. The reverend lecturer did not fully agree 
vitb tbu spuculiitiona in laud, and tliougbt the luoncy ought to be 
placed in induatrial enterprise:]. That would not do at present, 
bMaUM the population ia amull. We cannot aend anything to 
Canada that Canada has not got already ; and tbe same nitli regard 
to the United States, vhiuh has a high tariff against ua, Tbent^ 
tan we ahall have to produce quietly and gradually aa the popula- 
tion incrcaeeK. In roforenco to sealing, 1 may f^ay. as a British 
Columbian, that I am perfectly satisfied vfitb the way in whicli 
tbe ijoestion now Blands. I have taken a great deal of inhiTvat 
in the qH<-Htiou. ^nd I think, owing largely to tbe ubiu advocacy 
of Sir CharleH Tup^K'r with Her Uajusty'a Oovomment, that tbn 
matter is in a bir way to be settled. It is in tbe bands of onr 
Me iind astute Foreign Secretnrj-. Lord KaUsbury. and will. I 
have no doubt, be brought to a satisfactory conclusion. 

Mr. John Lowleb: If anyone wiahea to meet with truly 
royal Britisb hospitality, ho slioidd go to Canada. I have Iwcn 
Utr«fl moittha in the stales and finished up in (Canada. I 
we must all coniincnd tbe unturpriso and patriotiam of the 
Ooverameut and people. They have bridged tliat mighty 
it with a great railway and made it occcuible jrou tind to 
when the new line of last steamships ia iwt in motion, I 
large stream of tourists will bti tamed In that dinrdion. I 
feel that now is »ii opportune time to preits th«i claims of Canada im 
our capitiiUsla. A reaction lina set in with regard Id .\frica and 
South America, while capital ia accumulating and only want* an 
outlet. I f' I'l sure that papers like that we have listened to lid^ 
artning. and the testimony of a man of tho vast experience of bir 
Charles Tupper, and tbe pobbcations of the Canadian tiot-ecniiicnt. 
wQI have an effect on British capitalists, and will mduc«> capital to 
flofW in that direction. I have been largely intereited in Canadian 
loueiatioa, being a member of tbe Council of tbe East London 
Cborch fund, and having an intimate knowledge of tbe Eail vml 
poor, and here, I hold, is a fine field for emigrants. It is for u< 10 





104 British Columbia : a Problem of Colonial Devcloptnent'. 

become missionaries, as it were, to m&ko known the wonde 
resources of the Dominion, and, in our own individual spheres, to do 
our best to direct emigrants and to interest British capital. 

Colonel W. J. Engledue, R.E. : As a recently-elected Fellow 
of the Koyal Colonial Institute, I feel considerable diffidence in 
venturing to address an audience, all of whom have a much larger 
experience of Colonial life and requirements than I have. My 
knowledge of British Columbia is comparatively small, and my 
attention, duiing a brief four months' visit last summer and auttmm, 
was principally turned to the subject of the Deep Sea Fisheries of 
the Pacific Coast in British waters, a theme only lightly touched on 
by the reverend gentleman whose very interesting opening address 
we have hstened to. The development of the Deep Sea Fislieries 
of British Columbia is of so vast an importance to that province 
that I must ask your indulgence and pardon if I detain you for 
a short time with a hrief account of the industry I allude to and its 
capabihties of deii'elopmcut. Up to the present time, beyond some 
small spasmodic attempts, no efforts have been made to utilise the 
rich hai'vest of the sea which may be reaped from the Pacific 
waters on the west coast of Vancouver Island, and off the Queen 
Charlotte Islands. Fishing banks exist of large area, many within 
the three-mile hmit, which hteraUy swai'm with fish of the choicest 
and most delicate quality. Secure harbours abound where fishing 
villages could he located, and in the sheltered waters of which fishing 
could be carried on if too stormy weather prevailed outside. Forests, 
producing a practically inexhaustible supply of useful timber, cover 
a large proportion of the coast lands, and are capable of providing 
materials for boat-building, for the construction of houses and stores, 
for barrel- and bos-making, and for many other requirements the 
outcome of a fishing industry. The land, which can bo easily and 
cheaply cleureJ, is of the most fertile description, and, aided byu 
cUmate and temperature equal to thosoof parts of Soutliern Europe, 
but sHghtly more humid, ia capable of gi-owing any crop, and on 
which fruit- cultivation can be profitably engaged in. To reap the 
full advantages of the natural resources, population and capital are 
required. Steps are being taken by the Government, aided hy tho 
Imperial exchequer, to promote the emigration of Scotch Crofters. 
who are also fishermen, and negotiations ai'c being carried on to 
enable the necessary capital to be raised to stai't a large commercial 
enterprise to utihse the catches of fish, which it may be reasonably 
expected will be the reward of the Crofter labour. When it is con- 
sidered that the supplies of tisli on the Pacific Coast equal, if they 




Britfth Colmnbia : a Problem of Colonial Development. 

do not excel, those of the Eaet Atlantic seaboard, both in quantities 
And qn&litjr ; that markets exist, within a reasonable diatanco as 
ng&rds C&rrtage, for every description of fresh and cured fish, it can 
ht fluily understood that a vast iudiistr; is capable of being built 
op, which cannot fail to benefit both the Province, the Croft«Ta, and 
th« investor. Contingent enterjirists. such as the extraction of oil 
from the whale, dog-fish, cod, herring, iind oolachen, and the mana- 
fiutnre of lish glue and of valuable fortilisers from tbe tieh refuse, 
will swell the profits and make tbe fishin;; industry of tbe West 
Coast equal in magnitude to that of tbe Eastern Provinces, where 
70,000 flshermen now find protitiiblu occupation. As an instance 
nf (be abundance of (isb, I may mc<ution, that on laying-to in forty 
lidhoiBS of water, within two miles of shore, and with only six books 
onployed, tlie crew of the Crovernment steamer in wliich I was 
travfdling caught TiOO lbs. of lish in twenty minutes, compose*! nf 
balibnt from (iO to 100 lbs. in weight, and rock cod— three large 
Itolibnl also broke away. Gentlemen, this is not a " fish story " in 
tbe ordinary American acceptance of the term, but is a true yarn, 
wbidl I can vouch for as an cye-witnesa. Very similar results 
were obtained when fishing in only six fathoms off the north coast 
of tlie Queen Charlotte Islands and within one mile of shore. 
Honing abound in shoals so large that in confined watecs it is 
almost impossible to row a l)Oat through them. These are followed 
bjr " schools " of whales and dog-fish — in fact, the waters are alive. 
Chi the west coast of British Columbia, therefore, is a vast harvest 
of tliv sen, only awaiting the reaper, and which should afford occupa- 
tion for many hundreds of Scotch fishermen, who are now earning 
only a precarious existence in their own country and who are carry- 
ing on their vocation in the stormy waters of the Norllt Bea under 
kdveriw climatic influences in comimrison with which tbe calm 
Wfttera and genial climate of the Pacific coast will be a veritable 
pModise. I will not trespass longer on your patience, and trust 
llut I have shown you that, in addition to tbe tunny Britiali 
Columbian industries mentioned by the Kev, Canon Beanlands, 
ibAt of llie deep-sea fishing ranks s<<ci)nd to none in importance. 

Captain Ouhtto^i: Sir Charles Tnpper complimented Canon 
BsanlMids on having become a good Conndinn during his seven 
years' residence in Hritiah Columbia; but I think it would have 
been Tery extraordinary if the Canon had not become a good 
Canadian in seven years. The seven wieks which 1 spent in the 
Dominion last autumn were enough to make me n good Canadian 
tor life I I was unfortunately Dot able to reach British Columbia 



KJG Biitisli Columlnn : n pyoUem of Colonial Developmrnf. 

last year, and therefore I feel rather a, humbug in talking about 
at all ; but I have been through the eastern townships of the 
province of Quebec, a great part of Ontario and Manitoba, and 
some districts in Aasiniboia, and I wish to state that, although I 
am an Australian bj birth and have spent many years in Australia 
and am naturally predispoaoil in its favour. I am convinced that 
Canada is tlie working man'a paradise. No country in the world 
at present offers better inducements to emigrants of the right class 
than Canada presents. In my travels through the Dominion I 
found himdreds of working men whom I knew in this country two 
or three years ago, and who lioro in KnglanU had been constantly 
out ot work during the winter, and who not only themselves had 
been half atan-ed, but had seen theii' wives and children suffering 
from cold and hunger. I found these men Uving in comfort and 
prosperity, many of them liviug in fi-eehold houses, half the purchase 
money of which they had already paid. Souje of them had already 
saved money enough to buy land of their own ; ail had excellent 
prospects for their children, and could look fonvard to their old 
age without tlje fear of the workhouse before tht'Ir eyes. And it 
was not in British Columbia, where wages are so fabulously high. 
that these succeasfol emigrants wtro to be found ; they were in 
Montreal and the towns and villages of the eastern townships of 
Quebec and of Ontario ; in Winnipeg, in Brandon ; on the prairies, 
and in the settlements along the Canadian Pacific Railway. But 
these emigrants were of the right sort : industrious, sober, and 
respectable people, crushed out of tlie race of life by over-competi- 
tion in England, who went out to seek their fortunes in the New 
World, to take any work that came to hand and to do it with awilli 
It is very late in the evening, and I see that several gentlemen are 
anxious to speak ; so that I will conclude these few remarks by 
saying that if anyone present desires to have more specific infor- 
mation on the subject of emigration to Canada for the benefit of 
their working men friends, I sliall be very happy to give it, I am 
the Honorary Secretary of the East End Emigration Fund ; our 
office is at li Newark Street, Stepney, just behind the London 
Hospital, where a report of my journey last year, and of the Society' 
work, may be had on application. I shall also be happy to 
any letters of inquiij. 

Captain Andrew Hamilton: As Hon. Secretary of the T( 
Hamlets Emigration and Colonisation Fund, Great Assembly H( 
Mile End Eoad, I desire to con'oborate all that Captain Gretton 
has Btated, tor sis I have personally superintended the setting out of 



ndon 
■ ety'H I 



HritUk Columbia : n Vniblem oj Colonial J)gvtli>pnient. lllT 

greal utuubera of cmigraute during the past ten vcari, and liavt: 
trawrfed {and cent visitors to these emigrants in) all the provioces 
inentioDEd, I Imve gT6a.l satisfaction in adding my testimony as to 
tlie opport unities offered to Die right sort of people in Canada, and I 
hope tfaat I ehaU vinit Canon Beanlands in hia beaatiful hom^ in 
Kritiflli Colambta iu M&j next. 

fle»)T%l Douci IMH Orant i I went out to Ciinftda, from fjeptcmbor 
to November, to visit n son of mine who went out n boy o( seventeen, 
not knowing n soul in tlia country, and I found liim with two funnx 
iif \us own. He wont out there because ho did not want to jjo into 
iIh> army. Ho ivrnt up to Sandhunit twice I'ur luB " prulim.." and 
•hd not pait!( liecautte his lasteH were not in that (hreotion. I have 
two Kins ill the army, one of tliem Charles Grant of ThobaJ, and 1 am 
proad of my boyn. But every boy cniniot go into the army. The 
b«»y8 go ap to ainetoen through Sandhurst and twenty-three through 
tho Mititin, and tlicn where are many of them if thoy fail? 
Nowbere. If any of you have bnyi who are not bookworni*. do not 
^^^Httem into Uie army or an.r profession where there in a severe 
^^^^nthive examination, which 1 call civilised torture, but send 
^^^HRmt to Canada wbou they are young. &Iy <on had to clean 
n^^tm boots, but what is there derogatory in that ? And ho had 
to cloui his own plnteH and do many things which people would not 
Uiink of doinj; iu itiin i,-ountry. I know people who would rather 
MM their eons dead at their feet than sec them cleaning their own 
booU atu! plates in this country. They cannot hear the idia of tlieir 
•DOS going to tiie)>ottom of tlie ladder, but they do not mind thimtjoiog 
to thr bottom ot the ladder in the army. 1 went riKhl away from 
Montreal to \'ictoria, and the kindness I met with from everyone 
«^B8 marvetlotis. I believe there must be something in the Canadian 
air. You cannot ait still in Canada ; you must be domg something. 
I vent into my boy's stable, where hi> has seven boraea o( hiK own, 
aail I eleanc-d the stabh^ out niVKclf ; and tbey said they had never 
Been it so well cleaned out before. If yoii have any hoys, take 
my advice, and before you are bothered with them— tor thpy aro a 
tn>nbl<> — send thi>m to Canada. 

Mr. C. D. HjttiD : I feel some difiidence in coming before you at 
kithotigh I have ])n-pnred something on the subject, 
|«f my speech was anlici|»tted by Sir Charles Tuppor, 
' ir by Senator Mncdoiiald, but 1 will give you a frw 
nay 1m interesting. I went out to British Colombia 
tinlre yvars ago, and I have never he«n sonj (or it sincv. At that 
tiiae Tietoria consisttt) of 5,000 people ; now the popuUtion is 



J 



168 British Oohimhut : a ProblerU of Colomal Dtvelopment, 

22,000, or more than quadruple. Westminater bad 2,000 ; it 
now haa 10,000. Vancouyer had neither " a local habitation 
nor a name," and now it lias 15,000. That, I think, tells very well 
so far aa rievelopment in that reapett is concerned. The farms in 
the country at Ihe time I wont wore very few in number. Accord- 
iiig to report current ui the cities, the country was nothing but a 
wildemesa — nothing but mosquito boga. Now there are 10,000 
prouporaua and happy tirmora. I remember the time when there 
were not more than 1,500 fai-mera in the country. Then, as 
Kir Charles Tupper had aptly remarked, wo hii<l to go through 
American territory to get anywhere ; now, in British Columbia, we 
RO over our own line, and last year I had the pleasure of going 
from London to Vancouver in fourteen days, stopping twenty-five 
hours on the way, otherwise I should have performed the journey in 
tliirtoeii days. When the steamera which are engaged in the 
C'hina and Japan trade were first put on, they further increased our 
prosperity, and as the Canadian Pacific Railway have put on 
three now steamers in connection with their line, we hope we 
shall have the biilk of that trade. In lumber, up to the present the 
Amencana have done the greatest trade. For instance, in 1890 the 
trade with Australia was 300.000,000 feet, of which British 
Columbia sent 15,000,000 feet, while the Americans sent 285,000,000. 
When the British Government gives us a line of steamers, those 
figures will be reversed, because the Australian merchanta declare 
that the lumber of British Coliunbia is ten per cent, better tliau 
that of Puget Sound. With regard to mining, that question has 
been touched upon slightly, but mining is really the hope of 
British Columbia. The mineral wealth of British Columbia is 
greater than that of any other comitry of its size. I got the other 
day the returns from a few sample ores which were sent away from 
Britisli Columbia. I said to the gentleman who gave them to me, 
'■ Why don't you tell this to your friends ? " and his reply was, " II 
would be no use ; they would not beheve it." The Silver King, a 
mine which was o\\'ned pi-incipally by Americans, was the first 
mentioned, and here 112 tons produced 38,000 dollars, or a httle 
over £60 a ton. In another mine 2o0 tons yielded 6,300 dollars to 
the ton, and another gave A'25 to the ton. Within the last ninety 
days there has been a great strike made in the Kaalo country in 
Kootenay, and the reports by the prospectors are something enor- 
mous, but I have authentic information that many samples are over 
2,000 dollars a ton. This promises to surpass anything ever struck 
in the celebrated Comstock or Leadville, and indicates great things 



Britith Columbia : a Problem of Colonial Development. Ifi9 

far Brili&b Columbia in tbt? future. With respect to land. Lord 
Aberdeen made several investments, bat the largest and roost 
tmportuil was £'^0,000. Lord Aberdeen doua not intend to hold 
thi? in fHie immense block of land and to subliH it, bat to out 
it up wiii sell it BO that each man can have liis nvm fi-eehuld, and 
tbst is what we believe in in our country. We have a first- 
dus RgTiculliiral country, and I think I ought to lake Canon 
Ileanlsnds to task for what I may call the " black eye " bf has given 
to tbo Und fpcculators. I believe in land speculation, nnd I ihink 
tlutt ifl what makcH or aids the process of a now country. If you 
had weit the country gi'ow as I have from a mere iiotliing to what 
it is, if you bod seen Vancouver as I did and ns it is now, ynu 
would say there is something in land speculation after all. If it 
lui4 not been for the immense profits which tbcsc land speculators 
nutde, there vould not have been this progress. 

At this point tb« Chairman (Mr. Redpatb) was compelled to 
leave and bis place was taken by Dr. Bae. 

&Ir. AijExandeh Cowan : At this late hour I will not attempt 
to go into the general matters contained in the paper which was 
read this evening. That has now become unnecessary, as the 
prarioiiH speakers have thoroughly tbrexbed out tlie nholu suhject. 
I Affree to a Rreat extent with what Canon Beanlands baa said, hut 
I think he is a little too pesaiTniatic, perhaps, in his views, I think 
wbU he ia afraid of is that Canadians may not wuke up, and that 
the authorities may allow the best interests of Canada to sUp ont 
of their hands. But after what Sir Oiarlea Tupper lias said, I 
Uiink we may rest pretty safe on the thouRbts that everytliing will 
bo looked after, not only by tiie Canadiiin, but also by the Home 
Goremment. Cauou Beanlands deserves very well of Canada, and 
Mpedilly of British Columbin. He has spent a great deal of time 
in etlvocatin;; the interests oE British Columbia, and has issn«l a 
work which is published by tiie Government of that province. Ue 
hM also written a geogmphy, in which is laid down every small 
U well as large postoflice ui the country : and that work is now, 
I undcrslnnd, in use in the sehools of Britijih Columbia. 1 think, 
perhaps, he was a little wron^ in placing sKrieuIture second in 
importanci' in British Columbia. That province u more than AO 
percent, lar^r than Ontario. There ia as much good farmland 
in British Columbia as in the whole of Ontario. This I satJEfied 
myx'Jf of when resident there, and 1 think future investigation 
will bear oot what 1 state. British Coluiubia is what one may 
ntt lb* complement of the Kortli-Weit. It was necessary that we 



M 



170 Sritisk Columbia: a Prtihlem of Colonial Dfvelopmfnt. 

should have siioh a province in order that we might ^et to the 
Pacific Ocean. We have got there through the energy and «nter- 
prise of the Canadian Goveinment, o£ which Sir Charles Topper 
was a leoiling member. I have been very much pleased at 
the informal nature of this meeting. Gentlemen have sprung 
up and given opinions on subjects wliich were not quite on the 
programme, hut were akin to it, and were deeply interesting. I 
hope that everything that has been said in the interest of British 
Columbia may he thoroughly taken to heart, and that the British 
piihljc may see the benefit and importance of spending their money 
lliore rather than in foreign coimtries. 

Mr. W, Sebright Grekn : I, as an old Dritish Columbian, nhonld 
find one £ault with thispaper, andthut is that it is far too short; but 
probablyCanonBeanlandshas taken aliint from our American friends, 
who say : " You Britishers talk and write a thing so thoroughly out 
thatyou don't leaveuaanythingto think about." Canon Beanlands 
did leave something for the eloquent speakers who followed him to 
say. I think I maybe permitted to say that British Columbia is one of 
the fairest provinces of the Dominion, if not the fairest ; and we old 
British Columbians are glad to have it brought into notice so ably 
as it has been this evening. There are one or two things in which 
I do not quite agi-ce with tJie lecturer. I do not think progress hu 
been so slow as he would lead us to believe, although there have 
been many ups and downs in the life of this province. It was in 
the " glorious sixties " that I was in British Columbia. The com- 
mencement of the sixties was very glorious certainly, and everything 
was of the colour of gold. After that the gold panned out & little, 
and perhaps there were too many of us there ; the colour was not 
HO rich ; but now the position of British Columbia is safe. At that 
time it was a long wiiy off, now— thanks to the Canadian Faciflo 
Eailway — it is no longer far from us. Then the lecturer spoke of 
the Nicaragua Canal as likely to benefit the lumber trade: I hope 
the lumber trade will not wait for the Nicaragua Canal. That 
enterprise has been talked of to my knowledge for forty years, and I 
think the lumber trade is far more likely to be benefited by the 
Canadian Pacific Railway than by the Nicaragua Canal. Canon 
Heanlanda has paid a well-deserved tribute to the late Mr. Dunsmnir, 
one of the pioneers in the important industry of coal mining. But 
it should not he foi'gotten that the Vancouver Coal Company wen* 
the pioneers in the cool trade of the Pacific coast. I think that 
mention should also be made of the services of Captain the Hon. 
Horace Douglas Lascelles, of the Royal Navy, in respect of this 



British Columbia : a Problem of Colonial Development. 171 

particular coal iudusiry, for it was owing to tho timely assistance 
of Captain Lascelles that Mr. Dunsmuir was able to make the 
WeUington coal mines so great a success without going to the 
States for capital to develop his discovery. 

Dr. John Rae, F.B.S. : Your Chairman has been compelled to 
leave, and ho has called upon a very \x>ot substitute to take his 
place. I have attended very many meetings of the Institute, but 
have never been more pleased than with Canon Beanlands' paper 
althoogb I cannot say that I approve of all of it— because it has 
given rise to a most interesting discussion, and has brought a 
nnmber of gentlemen here who have expressed ideas and given 
most valuable infonuation with regard to Bntish Columbia. I beg, 
therefore, to ask your most sincere and earnest thanks to Canon 
Beanlands for his excellent paper. 

The Rev. Canon Beanl^vnds : I thank you very heartily for the 
land manner in which you have received my little paper. I always 
like to have an excuse for everything that I do, and my excuse for 
my deficiencies on the present occasion is that I was suffering from 
your prevailing epidemic when 1 wrote my paper in a London hotel. 
Pcrliaps, therefore, the pessimistic views which are said to be found 
in the paper are the reflex of tho influenza. I congratulate you 
that my paper brought to your meeting tho greatest living Canadian 
statesman to speak to you. I said living statesman, and I am sure 
Sir Charles Tupper will not mind tho quahfication that I make in 
\ievf of the memory of Sir John A. Macdonald, whom we all deplore, 
who had himself in such a prominent degree, and was so capable of 
inspiring in others, that spirit of widespread patriotism which runs 
from bi?ginning to end of our great British Empire. With respect to 
the climate, I heartily endorse everything that Sir Charles Tupj^r has 
said. I have brought up a family myself in British Columbia, and 
I know how admirably the climate is suited for bringing up healthy 
and vigorous families. I thank you for the kind way in which you 
have received my immature efforts, and ask you to signify your 
gratitude to the Chairman and his Deputy who have so ably filled 
their positions. 






Ttfcn ill -fourth Animal Oe^ieral Meeting. 



TWENTY-FOUETH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 

I'rtF. Twenty-fourth Annual Gonoral Meeting waa helrl in the Library 
of the Institute, Northumberhmd Avenue, on Tuesday, February 
23, 1892, 

Sic James A. Youii, K.C.M.G,, presided. 

Amongst those present were the following :^ 

J. F. Aldikhoves, Bm Hshkt Babklv, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., H. H. BEACcd 
Majob-Gbnebm. K. Brookb, B.E., Db. A. M. Bbown, R. W. Cuiuset, John 
CusR, Htde ClabkEi Arthur Ciavden, OsaBaE Cowie. E. Cratcshaw, F. H. 
llABOAK, Theo. H. Davies, Johs Febocbon, Ret. Thomas Fwveli., Johb Foltoh, 
A. E. OAWTBitop, John Gwdwood, Francis G. GooDUFfE, Henhv Gbakt, Uajoii- 
(iKNERAL Sir Henby Gbben, K.G.S.I., C.B., W. 8. SEitBuiHT Qreks, Sm Sauhei, 

GbBSIBB, T. BlBELT GulinTB, C.M.G., E. HiClOAED, E. J. HARTt^T, E. L. 

HrrcHWB, Liedt.-Gbnebai. Sir W. F. D. Jebtoib, Q.C.M.G., C£., Stdhbt 
Johnston, E. J. Jourdain, C.M.O., Williau Kate, H. A. Khohn, J. Larcbu^bs, 
G. CoLLWH Lbtbt, C.M.G., Nevii,b Litebock, Jakes Macaustee, Henby Martin, 
J. R. MoBBE, J. L. Oqiaon, Hebdeht Palueb. Majob J. BoFEB Pabunoton, Joh> 
Patbbbon, H. a. PESRnm, Peieh Redpath, Captain W. P. Roobk, Edwabd O. 
Salkon, Ai^kandeh Sclandbrs, Patbiok Sim, H. O. Slahe, Sin F. Villenecve 
Hmth, J. S. Spre\t, J. W. Strasack, Jhhn Stuabt, L. W. Tbrcpp. Benjakis 
Thavkrh, Db. G. A. Tcciu-:b, P. B. Vanperbyi^ J. S. O'Halloban (Secretaiiy). 

The Secretary read the notice convening the Meeting, and also 
the Minutes of the last Annual General Meeting, which were 
confirmed. 

The Chairman nominated Mr. Henry J. Jourdain, C.M.G., on 
behalf of the Council, and Mr. Leonard W. Thrupp on behalf of the 
Fellows, scrutineers of the ballot for the election of the Council. 

The Annual Report, which had previoualy been circulated amongst 
the Fellows, was taken as read, 

Eepokt. 

The Council have much pleasure in presenting to the Fellows their 
Twenty-fourth Annual Report, and the Honorary Treasurer's State- 
ment of Accounts. 

During the past year 93 Resident and 203 Non-Resident Fellows 
ha^G been elected, making a total of 290 ; as compared with lOG 
Resident and 195 Non-Resident Fellows, or a total of 800, dnring 
tho preceding year. On December 81, 1891, the list included 1,866 
Resident and 2,417 Non-Resident Fellows, in all 8,782, of whom 777 
have qualified as Life Fellows by componndmg for their Annual 
Subscriptions. 



Twtnlij-fourlh Anjiital General Meelimj. 178 

The toUowiiig figures illoBtrate the gradual growth of the Insti- 
Inte Bitiee it was founded in 1868, and sufSoe to show that its oims 
■nd olijects have commended themselves to the public both at Homo 
ULd in the Colonies :— 


1 


DW 


/^.t 


(««liulT.of Building uul 
lMltllli>lil.iTBnI *■ 


1 


roJuMll. 19*9 
lOTO 
1871 
1873 
1873 
1874 
187S 
I87fi 
1877 
1878 
18711 
l«HO 
1881 

isa-j 

IB8S 
1884 
1886 
1386 
Dm. 31, 1888 
1887 
1888 
1880 
1860 
1801 






1 174 
375 
310 
371 
840 
43(1 

era 

fl37 

717 

7B6 

981 

1.181 

I.H7fi 

1.613 

1,9G0 

2,S0fi 

2.587 

3.880 

1 8,005 

3.136 

, 3.321 

1 3,563 

8.667 

I 3.783 


1,134 14 5 
549 10 8 
503 16 4 
478 10 

1.033 !» 1 
906 13 11 

1.03S 1.1 K 
1.133 8 ;j 
I,3i3 18 8 
1.380 la 11 
1.753 18 -J 
3,141 a 10 
a,4S9 13 (1 
8.336 6 :i 
3.547 11) 
4.639 10 
5,920 11> 
6.268 11 
6,681 3 6 

6.034 3 
6,400 11 Q 
7.788 7 11 
8.919 7 a 
7.363 3 10 


The obituary of the ^ear 1801 includes tho following names o 
Fellows of the Institute :— 

FUtncr-er Atherton, M.R.C.S. {Xew South Walesl ; Hon. J. (i 
Bcaney, M.D., M.L.C. iVictoriii) ; Lt. ■ Colonel R. C. Birkett(Natttil 
(Sir Arthur Blyth, K.C.M.G., C.B. (Agent- General for Souil 
Australia); Thomas Braddell. C.M.O. {Straits Bettlementa) 

(Vicioria) : the Right Hon. Viscount Combermero ; Sir J 
Frederick Dickson. K.C.M.G. (Colonial Secretary. Straits Seltk 
ments): T. U. Du Toit (Cape Colony); Edward Fane; Jame 
Ferguson (Cape Colony); Hon. T. A. FinUyson, MX.C 
(Trinidad) ; Jacob Ftatau ; Hon. Captain T. Fniser. M.L.C. (New 

ndeat of the Institute from its foundation in 1868> ; W. H. Hal 
(St. Kitte) ; Montagu Hawkins ; Sir J. Pope Hennessy, K.C.M.G. 


^^1 



174 



Twentif-fonrth Annual General Meeting. 



.T. Roland Hett (British Columbia) ; Colonel Sir Stephen J. HiU. 
K.G.M.G., C.E. ; E, G. Homabrook (Transvaal); Cunningham 
Hudson (India) ; Edmund Johnson ; Thomas Lailey (Canada) ; 
E. P. Lempriere (South Austraha) ; the Sight Hon. Sir John A. 
Macdonald, G.C.B. (Prime Minister of Canada) ; Sir George 
Macleay, K.C.M.G. ; Bev. A. MaoNab, D.D. (Canada,) ; James 
Matthews ; H. E. Montgomerie ; G. P. Moodie (Cape Colony) ; 
J, Vaughan Morgan (Victoria) ; Hon. Thomas MaUigan, M.C.P. 
(British Guiana) ; Crumpton J. Nunn ; R. W. Nutt ; Bight Rev. 
Bishop Perry, D.D. ; Hon. WOliam Perry, M.L.C. (Queensland) ; 
Charles Pike, C.M.G. (Gold Coast Colony) ; James Bae ; T. Vidian 
Raueh (South Austraha); J. Lambe Higden (Natal); ErasniuB 
C. Roberta ; Isaac Robinson (British Columbia) ; H. B. Bussell (New 
Zealand); James Searight (a Trustee); H. B. Shaw (-Jamaica): 
A. K. Shepherd (Victoria); Bight Hon. W. H. Smith, M-P. |a 
Vice-Pi-esident) ; Montagu Soilleux (Queensland) ; George Stuart 
(India) ; Bev. William Tebbs (New Zealand) ; Walter Ward 
(Cape Colony); J. H. B. Warner; Robert Watson (Victoria); 
Hon. Mr. Justice G. H. F. Webb (Victoria) ; Sir Frederick A. 
Weld. G.C.M.G. ; Major-General Hales AVilkie (Malta) ; Frederick 
Wilkinson (Victoria); Hon. William WOsou (Victoria); Major 
J. E. H. WiUon (West India Regiment) ; Da^-id A. Young (British 
Honduras). 

The Council have expressed to Hie Royal Highness the Prince of 
Wales, President of the Institute, the profomid sorrow of themselves 
and the Fellows at the iiationa! calamity which has occurred in the 
lamented death, under peculiarly painful uircumstauces, of His 
Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence and Avondale ; and their 
deep and heartfelt sympathy with the members of the Boyal Family 
in their grievous bereavement. 

Since the date of the laet Annual Meeting vacancies on the 
Council have arisen through the deaths of the Bight Hon. tho Earl 
Granville, K.G., and the Bight Hon. W. H. Smith, M.P,, Vice- 
Presidents, and the retirement of Mr. Jacob Montefiore, Councillor. 
Tho Right Hon. the Earl of Aberdeen and Sir James A. Youl, 
K.C.M.G., have been appointed Vice-Presidents, and Messrs. R.J. 
JefEray and William Keswick Councillors, ad interim, subject to 
confirmation by the Fellows, The following retire in conformity 
with Rule 7, and are eligible for re-election :— President : H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales, E.G., etc. Vice-Presidents : His Grace the'Duke of 
Argyll, K.G., K.T., the Bight Hon. Lord Erassey, K.C.B., Sir Charles 
Nicholson, Bart., Sir Alexander T. Gait, G.C.M.G.. and Sir Frederiek 



LiMiiliiiiuU 




Twcnly-foiirth Annual General MeeUng. 

TonDg, K.C.M.G. Connoillors : Bir Gliarles Clifford, Ba.rt., General 
Sir H. C. B. Daubetiey, G.O.D.. Messra. C. Washington Evoh, C.M.G.. 
W, M»ynard Fanner, F. P. de Labilliere, aiid Sir Charles Mills, 
K.C.M.G.. C.B. 

It will bo remembered that> in June 1886 a loan of £35,020 was 
TBiaed — i:4,5O0 for paying off debentures, and ;£80,520, repayalile 
in forty yaaxs. Tor purchasing the freeliold of the Institute ute. 
, amounting in all to £'6.'244. fts. Id., have, however, 
^pliuil, out nf the excess of income over expenditure, in 
aoD of tlie loun : and it is proposed to devote £1,508. is. 5d, 
I MUUr purpose during 1802, completing no less than twenty 
jrsu*' statutory payments within a period of six years. The 
npaymeut of the entire lo»n v,-ill thus be effected by July 1, 1012, at 
UlMt — or fourteen years earlier than was originally contemplated — 
two if no further instalment in excess of the stipnlated periodical 
pkjmients should be made. Tlie balance of loan ontstanding oti 
December 81, 1801. was £26,504. As. id. The Building Fund i.^ 
Mill open, and the Council will be glad to receive further contribu- 
tions thereto. 

The Annual Conversazione waa again held at the Natural Hiatoiy 
Uusotim, Cromwell Road, by pennisBion of the Tnutces of the 
British Museum, and was attended by over 2,S00 gnests, including 
Colonisbi from all parts of the Empire. 

Tho following papers have been read at the ordinary meetings 
idnee tbo date of the last Annual Report ; — 

'■ Canada." By the Right Uon. the Earl of Aberdeen. 
■■ Australasian Defence." By Major-Gcoeral Hir J. Bcvaii 
Edwards, K.C.M.G.. C.B. 

■■The Colony of the Leewanl Islanils. ' By Mr. I>. 
Morris, M.A., F.L..S., Assistant Director, Iloyut Oanlen*, 
Kew. 

"Inter-British Trade, and its Inflw^nc<< on the Unity of 
the Empire." By Sir. C. Howard Vincent. C.B., M.P. 

" Matabeleland and Mashonaland." By the ] lev. Frank 
II. Surridgt'. 

"The Malay IVninsulo ; its Resources and PnwpectK." 
Br Mr. W. E. Maxwell, C.M.G., Resident of Belangor. 

" Australasia : a Vindication." By Sir Edward Braddoo, 
K.C.M.G. 

"A Review of Univarsity Life in Aii'itrnlAiiin, witJi ht 
rondilions and burroundinge in 1801." By I'role&ior T. 1*. 
Andenon Btuart, M.D. 



176 Twenty-fourth Annual General Meeting. 

The accompanying tabulated Etatcment shows that the Library 
has been increaaed daring the year by 1,094 volumes — of which 670 
were acquired by donation and 424 by purchase — 822 pamphlets, 
26,800 newspapei's, 7 maps, and 29 miacellaneona gifts. The 
following ai-e eomo of the moat important : — Sir Joseph Hooker's 
Botany of the Antarclio Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships " Erebus " 
and " Terror," m the years 1839-1843, under the command of 
Captain Sir J. C. Roaa : " Flora Antarctica," 2 vols. ; " Flora Novai 
ZealandiiB," 2 vols. ; "Flora Tasmaniffl," 2 vols.; Ulustrations to 
" Adventure in New Zealand," by E. J. Wakefield (Mr. H. Wynn- 
Williams) ; " Records of Geological Survey of New South Wales " 
(The Director) ; " Visit of the Duke and Duchess of Connaught to 
Hong Kong" (Sir J'raiicis Fleming, E.C.U.G.); "Publications of 
the Geological Sitn'ey of Canada" (The Director); "Records of 
Ihe Austi-alian Museum, Sydney" (The Trustees); "Travels in 
Africa," by Wilhelm Junker {Messrs. Chapman i Hall); "The 
Sugar Cane," complete series (Mr. B. J. Kelly) ; " Theal's History 
of South Africa" (Messrs. Swan Sonnenschein & Co.); ■'Across 
East African Glaciers," by Dr. Hans Meyer (Messrs. G, Philip & 
Sons) ; " Catalogues of Mammalia, Lepidopterous Insects, and 
Birds in the Museum of the Hon. East India Company" (The 
Secretary of State for India) ; " Her Majesty's Indian and Colonial 
Forces " (Mr, Walter Richards) ; " An Essay on the Government of 
Dependencies," edited, with an introduction, by C. P. Lucas (The 
Clarendon Press) ; "History of the Buccaneers in America," by 
Captain Bumey (Messrs. Swan Sonnenschein & Co.) ; " The Govern- 
ment of Victoria," by Edward Jenks (Messrs. Macmillan & Co.); 
"Narrative of a Voyage to New Zealand in 1S14-1815," by J. L. 
Nicholas (Mr. F. R, Bradford) ; " Lyons's Narrative of an Unsuc- 
cessful Attempt to Reach Repulse Bay " (Mr. F. B. Bradford) ; 
"The West Indies," 2nd edition (Mr. C. Waahmgtoii Eves.C.M.G.); 
"My Personal Experiences in Equatorial Africa," by Surgeon T. 
H. Parke (Messrs. Sampson Low & Co.) ; " My Canadian Journal, 
1872-78," by the Marchioness of Dufferin (John Murray) ; " The 
Tribes and Castes of Bengal," by H. H. Risley (The Secretary of 
State for India); "Bush Friends in Tasmania" (Mrs. L. A. 
Meredith); "Five Years in Canada," by E. A. Talbot, 1824; 
"Excursions in Newfoundlaaid," by J. B. Jukes, 1842; "Agricul- 
ture ajid Grazing in New South Wales," by J. Atkinson, 1844; 
" State of the Cape of Good Hope," by Peter Kolben, 1738 ; Samuel 
Darnell's "Alrieaji Scenery and Animals, 1804-6," and "Native 
Tribes, Animals, ic, of Soutliern A^ica, ISgO ; " Ljchteiisteiii'e 




Siotnti/ -fourth Annual General Meeting. 



flin fionlhem Africa, 1808^0;" "Eleven Ye&rsiii Ceylon," 
^or Forbes, 18-10 ; Narborougb'e " CoUectioD of Voyages and 
1604: Nansen'a "First CroBsing of Greenlftud;" 
Hunting and Adventure," by W, C. Baldwin, 1868; 
f of St. Helena," by T. H. Brooke, 1808; " Matabeleland 
and tbe Victoria Falls," by Frank Dates ; " The History of Austra- 
lian Discovery and Colonisation," by Samuel Benjieti, 1805 {Mr, 
P. D. Pnuikerd); "Rural Economy and Agriculture of Augtralia 
and New Zealand," by Professor R, Wallace (Messrs. iiampeon 
Low & Co.); "TheMelanesians," by Dr. R. H. Codrington (The 
Clareiidon Press); " George Fife Angas," by Eduin Hodder 
(Hon. J. H. Ajigas, M.L.C.) ; " trozet's Voyage to Tasmania. New 
Zoalanil, the Ladrones, and tho Fhitipijines iu 1771-72" (Mr. H. 
Ling Roth); Burke's "History of the Colonial Gentry" (Messrs. 
Uanuon A ^ons) ; " Report on tlie Old Records of the India Office," 
by Sir Oeorgo Birdwood (Messrs. \V. H. Allen & Co.) ; " With Aie 
Uld Rope in the New Zealand Alps," by G. E. Mannering (Messrs. 
Losgmana, Green, i Co.) The Council have again to acknowledgo 
the liberality of the various Colonial Govemratmts in completing, as 
fcj- OS possible, the series of Parliamentary publications alreiwly 
contained ia the Library; and of authors, publishers, Fellows of 
ihe Institut«, and others in co-operating in niakinf; It the chief 
ecutm tor purposes of reference upon all Colonial questions. 
Jiiunerous applications for permission to consult the Library have 
baan reeeived from all soorces, and its completeness and useful- 
ncM have been acknowledged by several authors who have been 
tmabls to obtain the required information <^lsewhere. The works 
o( reference, Colonial directories, and handbooks, which are gene- 
raoely preeent«i] by the publishers, continue to fonu a special 
tnaturo of Uic Library, which contained on the Slat December 
last n,472 volumes, H.Zoli pamphlets, and 248 fil«s of news- 
papers. 

The electric light was introduced into the Institui« building 
during tbu siunuier n-ceus tn tiubstitution for gas ; and the com- 
plete success of the installation is largely due to Mr. W. H. 
Preeco, F.R.S- who, tm a Fellow of the Institute', gave the Council 
the benefit of his valuable assistance and advice. 

Tha publication of a monthly Journal in advance of and in 
■ddilion to tlio annual volume of Proceedings has more than 
natiMd the expectations of the Council, botli fnianciaily anil other- 
wiaa. A substantial redaction iu the cost of the annual voluino nt 
Frooeodinga has also Wn offoctod. Que important result of tho 




178 Twentij-fourtk Anmtai 0$nerai l£estmg. 

publication of the Joumal has beeo hirgely to augment the dona- 
tions of books to the Library. 

In coutiuuation of a series which is designed for educational pur- 
poses, and also for the general reader, a new volume, entitled " The 
Geography of Africa South of the Zambesi," has been compiled 
by the Rev, W. P. Greswell, M.A., revised by a special committee 
of the Council, and is about to be publiBhed by the Clarendon Press 
under the auspices of the Royal Colonial Institute. In tlie opinion 
of the Council it is most desirable that the rising generation should 
be well instructed in the history, geography, and resources of the 
British Colonies ; and the co-operation of the aathorities of the 
public and elementary schools of the Mother Country m this impor- 
tant object is earnestly advocated. 

The Council observe with much satisfaction the measures ivhieh 
have been taken by Her Majesty's Government, in conjunction with 
the Colonial Governments, for cheapening postal and telegraphic 
communication between various parts of Her Majesty's Dominions, 
and feel assured that such action will tend to promote the nnifica- 
tion of the Empire and greatly benefit its social and commercial 
interests. 

The arrival in Australian waters of the AuxiUary Squadron 
marlis a new epoch in the defences of the Empire, giving as it does 
practical shape to an agreement between the Mother Country and 
the members of one of the most important groups of Colonies that 
they should conjointly meet the coat of protecting their commercial 
and national interests. 

The recent utiUsution by Her Majesty's Government of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway for the transport of reliefs and reinforce- 
ments to distant parts of the Empire presents a forcible illustra- 
tion of the national advantages that may be derived from sucli 
great pubUc works. 

The Council are glad to see that Her Majesty the Queen has 
been pleased to approve new regulations, mider which commissions 
iu the Imperial Forces may be obtained by officers of the Colonial 
Military Forces and students of Colonial Universities who are bond 
fide Colonists. 

The Government of Newfoundland has undertaken that the 
Legislature of that Colony will pass an Act authorising the reference 
to arbitration of certain matters relating to the Newfoundland 
Fisheries and making valid whatever decisions may be arrived at by 
the Arbitrators, The Council trust that a satisfactory settlement of 
this difiicolt c|,uesbion may be the result. 




Twenti/'jourth Annual General MceiUuj. 171* 

A solution of the Bcbriiig Sea question is also in prosi)oct, an 
investigation into the condition of the Heal Fisheries having been 
made on the spot by tlie British and United States Commissioners, 
as a pi*eliminary to the reference of the whole subject to a Coui-t of 
Arbitration. 

The Council are hoiK*ful that the ini^iortant railway extensions, 
which are in course of construction or projected in South and 
Central Africa, will largely stimulate the development and progress 
of those vast ten'itories, and the advance of ci^ilisation throughout 
the Continent. 

During the past year an unusual number of inquiries liavc be(>n 
received from all classes of applicants, and information has been 
afforded on such varied subjects as the following : — The early 
settlement, geography, and geology of the Colonics ; ocean and 
railway communication ; climate, including health resorts ; irriga- 
tion ; land laws ; pastoral pursuits ; agriculture, including th(! 
cultivation of tea, coflfee, cocoa, tobacco, fruit, iVc. ; viticulture ; 
timber, wattle bark, &c. ; customs tarifTs ; banks and banking ; 
minerals and mining regulations ; patent laws ; registration of 
trade-marks ; education ; cost of living ; prospects for professional 
men, mechanics, agricultural and other labourers ; inquiries for 
missing friends, i^c. 

The Royal Colonial Institute has, since its establishment, Wn 
engaged in a national and patriotic work in making the people of 
this country better acquainted with the true conditions of Colonial 
life, thus removing many prejudices and misconceptions, and 
strengthening that sentiment of unity which the Council sin- 
cerely hoixi will always be maintained throughout Her Majesty's 
J>ominions. 

W\ order of the Council, 

J. S. OIIALLORAN. 
January ID, 1802. Secretary. 



DONATIONS TO HUILDINCJ FUND. 

(To December 31, 1891.) 

£ t. i/. 

Amount annoanccil in previous Reports b^*i'A) 7 i* 

C. E. Cunen (Donation) » o 

Alfred Bodford 1 1 " 

£'5,250 8 !» 
X 2 



180 Tweyiiy-fourth Annual General Meeting, 



STATEMENT OP RECEIPTS 
Fob thb Tear Ein>iNO 



£ i, d. 



Beceiptb. 

Bank Bcklance as per last Account £1,707 10 I 

Cash in hands of Secretary 1 19 9 

1,709 9 10 

Amount of cheque outstanding, December 31, 1890..... 15 17 

8 Life Subscriptions of £20 160 

26 „ „ £10 260 

10 „ „ to complete 213 7 

91 Entrance Fees of £3 273 

195 „ „ £1. \8 204 15 

23 „ „ to complete 44 17 

1,353 Subscriptions of £2 2,706 

1,512 „ £1. l5 1,687 12 

169 „ £1 and under to complete... 155 5 

6,604 16 

Amount received in connection with the Conversazione 293 5 

Rent for one year to December 26, 1891, less Property Tax 1,170 

Insurance repaid 7 7 

Interest on Deposit , 22 10 4 

Building Fund (Donations in aid of) fe 1 

Proceeds of Sale of Papers, &c 28 15 3 

Journal 628 14 3 



£9,386 15 8 
January 1, 1892. p— ^— — 



Ttcenty-fourth Anniial Oeneral Meeting, 181 



AND PATMENT8. 
Dbokmbsb 81, 1891. 



Paymekts. 

£ «. d. 

Salaries ftod Wages 1,511 17 4 

Prooeedingt, Printiog &c 371 17 

Journal — 

Printing £244 6 9 

Postage 243 16 10 

488 2 7 

Printing, ordinary 74 4 6 

Postages, ordinary 179 6 9 

Bdacational Series 50 

Advertising Meetings 38 1 6 

Meetings, Eipenses of 160 6 6 

Beporting Meetings 3110 

Stationery 123 11 1 

Newspapers 110 16 5 

Library — 

Books and Maps £143 1 3 

Binding 27 7 

170 8 3 

Housekeeper, Fuel, Light. Ac 104 2 2 

Building Repairs and Furniture 117 8 4 

Installing Electric Light, on account 150 

OoesU* Dinner Fund 28 2 11 

Bates and Taxes 296 

Fire Insurance 21 19 

Law Charges 2 2 

Conversazione — 

Refreshments £178 11 

Electric Lighting, &c 174 10 10 

Floral Decorations 10 

Music 74 

Printing 17 15 6 

Fittinffs, Furniture, &c 42 10 

Attendance,^ 33 4 9 

630 12 1 

Gratuity 80 o 

Miscellaneous 64 5 

Subscriptions paid in error, refunded 10 19 

Payments on Account of Mortgage — 

Interest £1,193 9 3 

Principal 2,663 17 9 

3,767 7 

8,475 8 9 

Balance in hand as per Bank Book 899 15 3 

Cash in bands of Secretary 9 9 8 

Amount of cheque in course of collection 2 2 

911 6 11 

£9,386 15 8 

M. F. OMMANNET, 

Honora^ Tretuurer. 






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Tfffmkf-foufth Annual Oenerdl Meeting. 



188 



LIST OF DONORS TO LIBRARY— 1891. 



Donon 




Aborigines Protection Society 

Abrah&ms, P. S., M.A., M.D. 

African Times, Proprietors of 

Agricultural Gazette and Planters' Journal 
(Barbados), Proprietors of 

Albury Border Post, Proprietors of 

Alger, John 

Alldridge, T. J. (Sierra Ijcone) 

Allen Si, Co., Messrs. W. H 

American Geographical Society (New 
York) 

Angas, Hon. J. H. (South Australia) 

Anglo-Saxon (Ottawa), Proprietors of 

Anonymous 

Anthropological Institute 

Antigua Observer, l^roprictors of 

Antigua Standard, Proprietors of 

Argosy (British Guiana), Proprietors of ... 

Argns Printing and Publishing Co., Cape 
Town 

Arrowsmith, J. W 

Aiiatic Quarterly Review, Editor of 

Aflsam, Chief Commissioner of 

Association for the Reform and Codification 
of the Laws of Nations 

Australasian (Melbourne), Proprietors of... 

Australasian Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science 

Austnilasi<in Critic, Proprietors of 

Au>tra]asian Ironmonger, l^roprietors of ... 

Australasian Journal of Pharmacy, I*ro- 
prictors of 

Australasian Manufacturer, l^prietors of 

Australasian Medical Gazette, I^roprietorsof 

Australian Irrigation Colonies, Proprie- 
tors of 

Australian Museum (Sydney), Trustees of 

Australian Trading World, Proprietors of... 

Bahamas, Government of the 

Ballarat Star, Proprietors of 

Balme, Messrs. C. k Co 

Bank of Australasia 

Barbados Globe, Proprietors of 

Barbados Herald, Proprietors of 

Barker'b Trade and Finance 

Barrow-in-Furness Public Library 

Beadon, R. J 

Beaufort Courier (Cape Oolony), Pro* 
prieton of 



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186 



Twenty-fomth Annual General Meeting. 



Donors 



De Sonza, M. C. (Jamaica) 

Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft 

Doberck, W. (Hong Kong) 

Dominion Illustrated (Canada), Proprie- 
tors of 

Donald Currie & Co., Messrs 

Durban Chamber of Commerce 

Durban, Mayor of 

Early Dawn (Sherbro'), l^oprietors of 

East India Association 

Emigrants* Information Office 

Empire (Toronto, Canada), Proprietors of... 

Engineering Association of N. S. Wales ... 

European Mail, Proprietors of 

European Trade Mail, Proprietors of 

Evening Herald (Newfoundland), Proprie- 
tors of 

Eves, C. Washington, C.M.G 

Farmers' Chronicle (Cathcart, Cape Colony), 
Proprietors of 

Fiji, Government of 

Fiji Times, Proprietors of 

Fort Beaufort Advocate, Proprietors of 

Friend of the Free State, Proprietors of ... 

Garland, N. S. (Canada) 

Garrett, G. H. (West Africa) 

Geological and Natural History Survey of 
Canada 

Gibraltar, Government of 

Gold Coast Colony, Government of 

Gordon & Gotch, Messrs 

Gough, E. H 

Goulph Gold News (Capo Colony), Proprie- 
tors of 

Green, Morton 

Grenada, Government of 

Grenada People, Proprietors of 

Greville, E. (New South Wales) 

Gympie Miner (Queensland), Proprietors 
of 

Halse, Edward 

Hamilton Association (Canada) 

Harbox Grace Standard (Newfoundland), 
Proprietors of 

Hardwicke, Dr. E. A 

Harrison & Sons, Messrs 

Haynes, T. H 

Hayter, H. H., C.M.G. (Melbourne) 

Hazell, Walter 

Hector, SirJamea, K.C.M.G. (New Zealand) 

HeiDemann, W, , 

Hobart Mercury, Proprietors of 




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1 
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70 
9 

280 



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104 
52 
104 



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47 



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Twenty-fourth Annxial Gemral Meethifj. 



187 






Donon 



Hodder & StonghtoD, Messrs 

Hoffon, J. F 

Holgate, C. W 

Home and Colonial Mail, Proprietors of ... 

HoDfr Kong Daily Press, Proprietors of 

HoDg Kong, (iovernment of 

Howard Association 

Hurpt J: Blackett, Messrs 

Hatchin)«on & Co., Messrs 

Hyderabad, Resident at 

luoBtrated Australian News, Proprietors of 
Illustrated Sydney News, Proprietors of . . . 

Imperial Federation League 

India, Government of 

India, Secretary of State for 

Ingemerog- Ferret ero, Proprietors of 

Inquirer and Commercial News (Western 

Australia), Proprietors of 

Institute of Bankers 

Institution of Civil Engineers 

Insurance and Banking Record (Melbourne), 

Proprietors of 

Italian African Society 

Jamaica, Government of 

Jamaica Gleaner, Proprietors of 

Jamaica Institute 

Jaidine, C. K. (British Guiana) 

Johannesburg Standard, Proprietors of 

Johnston, Robert 

Johnstone, Robert (Jamaica) 

Johnstone, R. M. (Tasmania) 

Jones, W. H 

Jonrdain, H. J.« C.M.G 

Jokes-Brown, A. J 

Kapnnda Herald, Proprietors of 

KeUy, H. J 

Kew Royal Gardens, Director of 

Kimberley Public Library 

Knox, Alfred (Transvaal) 

Koninklijk Instituut, s'Gravenhage 

Kyshe, J. W. N. (Straits Settlements) 

Lagos Weekly Record . Propriet ors of 

Lind Roll, Proprietors of 

Laanceston Examiner. Proprietors of 

Laonoeston Mechanics* Institute 

Leadenhall Press 

Leeds Public Library 

Leeward Islands, Government of 

Levey, O. Collins, C.M.G 

Lhrerpool Publio Library 

London ChMmher of Commerce 

loagttuuiB, Green & Co., Meaen 



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188 



Twenty-fourth Annual General Meeting. 



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Longstaff, G. B 1 

Lyttelton Times (New Zealand), Proprie- 
tors of 

Macfarlane, Thomas 

Machinerv, Proprietors of 

Mackay Standard (Queensland), Proprie- 
tors of 

Macmillan & Co., Messrs 2 

Madagascar News, Proprietors of 

Madras, Government of 1 

Maitland Mercury (New South Wales), 

Proprietors of 

Malta Standard, Proprietors of 

Malta Times, Proprietors of 

Manchester Geogmphioal Society 

Manitoba, Department of Agriculture 

Manitoba Free Press, Proprietors of 

Manitoba, Government of 2 

Mark Lane Express, Proprietors of 

Maryborough Colonist . Ptoprietors of 

Mathers, E. P. 10 

Mauritius, Government of 21 

McArthur, W. A., M J* 1 

McDonald, D 1 

McNair, Major F., R.A 1 

Melbourne Age, Proprietors of 

Melbourne Ajqgus, Proprietors of 

Melbourne Centennial Exhibition, Execu- 
tive Commissioners of 2 

Melbourne Daily Telegraph, Pn^prietors 

of 

Helbounie Leader, Proprietors of 

Melville, Mullen & Slade, Messrs 

Mercantile Guardian, Proprietors of 

Meredith, Mr*. L. A I 

Middleton. AY. H 1 

Midland News (^Cajv Colonv) Proprietors 

of " 

Mills* Anhur 

Milne, William vjun.") (^ South Australia"^ ... 

Mining Journal. Proprietors of 

Montzval Harbour Commissioners 

MoDtn?al Star, Proprietors of 

Montreal Witness, Proprietors of 

Morgan, H. J. (^Oanada) 3 

MairmT. John 1 

Mysore, Resident at I 

Nassau Guardian (^ Babamas>« Ptoprietors of 

Naud, Govenmrem of 6 

Nasal Harbour Board 1 

Natal MercsxT, Ptofineccss of 

Natal Witn«B» Propciefcisof 



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39 



1 
1 



21 



312 
24 
15G 
33 



156 
52 



52 
52 
52 
52 



119 



312 
312 



312 
52 
12 
11 



24 



10 

76 
312 



1(H 



53 
312 



Ticenty-fourih Annual General Meeting. 



189 



Dooon 



4 

•> 

12 



1 



1 

I 



Nax, Hon. Sir Vlrgile, K.C.M.G.. M.L.C. 

(Maaritiu*) 

Neave, D. C. (Straitu Settlements) 1 

New Brunswick, Government of 91 

Newfoundland, Government of i 1 

New Era (Trinidad), Proprietors of 

New South Wales, Afront-General for ! 

New South Wales, Department of Mines... ■ 

New South Wales, flovernment of ' 

New South Wales, Royal Society of 

New South Wales, Tei*hnolo}?ical Musieum... ' 

New Zealand, Government of 

New Zealand Institute 

New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency 

New Zealand. Registrar-General of 

New Zealand University 

Nicholson, Sir Charles, Bart 

North Borneo Herald, Proprietors of 

Northern Miner (Queensland), I^prietors 

of 

Northern Mining Register (Queensland), 

Proprietors of 

Northern Territory Times (S. Australia), 

Proprietors of 

North-Wcst Provinces and Oudh (India), 

Government of 

Nova Scotia, Government of 

Nova Scctia Historical Society 

Nora Scotian Institute of Natural Science 
Oamam Mail (New Zealand), Proprietors 

of 

Oliphant, Anderson Sc Ferrit:i, .Mi ''<<r« 

Ontario, Government of 

Ontario, Minister of Education 

Otago Daily Times (New Zealand), Pro- 
IMrietors of 

Pitrker, F. H. (Cyprus) 

Fastoralists* Federal Council of Australia... 

Paterson, John 

Peace, Walter 

Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation 
Companv 

Perak, BritUh Resident 

Perrin, George 

Petherick, E. A 

Philip k Sons, 3Iessrs. G 

Phillippo, Hon. J. C, M.D. (JnniaicA) 

Philosophical Society of North Queens- 
land 

Ptctorial Australian (South Australia), 
Profirleton of «.«... * 




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13 



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130 

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312 



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11)0 



Twenty-fourth Annual General Meeting. 



Donors 



\ ' 

Planters' Gazette, Proprietors of 

Plymouth Free Public Library 

Port Elizabeth Chamber of Commerce 

Port of Spain Gazette, Proprietors of 

Potchefstroom Budget, Proprietors of 

Powell & Sons, Messrs. J. M 

Prankerd, P. D 

Prince Edward Island, Government of 

Punjab, Government of 

Qu*Appelle Progress (Canada), Proprietors 
of 

Quebec, Government of 

Quebec Literary and Historical Society ... 

Queen's College, Elingston, Canada 

Queensland, Agent-General for 

Queensland, Government of 

Queensland, Government Meteorologist of 

Queensland Mercantile Gazette, Proprietors 
of 

Queensland Punch, Proprietors of 

Queensland, Registrar-General of 

Queensland Registrar of Friendly Societies 

Queenslander, Proprietors of 

Queenstown Free Press (Cape Colony), Pro- 
prietors of 

Radford, Alfred 

Rae, Mrs. James 

rCae, JJr. jonn, r.lv.o ••••• 

Read, D. B.,Q.C. (Canada) 

Regina Leader (Canada), Proprietors of ... 

Religious Tract Society 

Richards, Walter 

Robins, Snell, Sc Gore» Messrs 

Roth. H.Ling 

Routledge & Sons, Messrs. G 

Royal Asiatic Society 

Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch) 

Royal Asiatic Society (Straits Branch) 

Royal College of Physicians 

Royal Engineer Institute, Chatham 

Royal Engineering Association of New 
South Wales 

Royal Geographical Society 

Royal Geographical Society of Australasia 
(S. Australian Branch) 

Royal Geographical Society of Australasia 

(Victorian Branch) 

Royal Humane Society of Australasia 

Royal Institution 

Royal Scottish Geographical S ociety i 

lioyal Statistical Society 

Royal United benrice Institution ; 





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100 
52 



52 



312 



12 
i 12 



52 
104 



52 



40 



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TwMly-fourlh Annual General Muting, 

the expediency, in the interests of the Institute, of again revising 
Bnlo 20. BO as to provide that Non-Besident Fellowa visiting the 
Uait4>d Kio^om should not be called upon to pay the increased 
snbacription of i.'2 (instead of £1 Is.) until six months bad elapsed 
instead of three mouths as at presejit. The Council have gone into 
the whole matter very thoroughly, and unanimously come to the 
conclnsion that it is nndesirable to alter the ride in question. It 
seems that prior to January 1. 1885, Kon-Reaident Fellows visiting 
the United Kingdom paid t'l Is. only na when in the Colonies. At 
lh« Annual Meeting of Fellows on June SO, 1S84, it was resolved 
that, in consideration of the advantages which would accrue from 
tb« erection of the new building, and the increostid expenditure its 
occupation would involve, on and after January 1, 1685, every Non- 
Bvsident Fellow iuTi\-ing in the Unitetl Kingdom should pay the 
Besident Fellow's aubscription of £'2 for that year. The proposition 
was supported by sexeral Non-Rosidcnt FuUows who were present 
at the meeting, and the increased income derived from this source has 
bw-n over i'lOO per annum. At the Annual Meeting of February 24, 
IB91, the rule was amended so that three months should e^pse 
Wore any Non-Resident Fellow arriving in the 1'uited Kingdom 
Rhould become liable for any additional subscription. In every 
London club, members, on coming home from the Colonies, are 
nnluired to pay the Resident subscription for that year, and to waive 
it for three months can hardly be considered an illiberal arrange- 
ment, especially Id \-iew of the circumstance that in kindred 
societies one uniform rate of £2 per annum is levied, wherever 
members may reside. The Institute is chieHy made use of by Non- 
Beflident Fellows, and only a very small proportion have objected 
to pay the extra 10s. when in Kngland for llin« moiitlis. It is true 
Uiey do not all avail themselves of all the advantages oflVred, but 
tfaa same may be said in a far greater degree of the Resident 
Fellows. It should also be borne in mind that a largw proiwrtion 
of the Non-Resident subscrijilion is absorlwl by printing and 
poetages, both the Journal and Proceediugs being diatributud free 
of cost to every part of thy world. I ha\e (jone thus fully int*) tbis 
matter because I lliink you will aj;ree \ntli the Council Ihat, ia 
view of these facts, it is not desimblo that the existing arrangement 
sboali] bo disturbed. I will now move that the Anuuid Beport and 
statement of accounts be adopted. 

6ir Sa»uf.i. Oremek : I have nnich pleasure in seconding tfae 
motion, and in doing so I venture Id express a doubt wbcther a 
more generally acceptable and satisfactory Report has been presented 



TiBetiii!-Jowrth Amnai Qiniral Meeting. 






Symons, G. J., FJi.S 

Tatanoki Heraiti, Proprietors of 

Taamania, Attorney- Genera! of 

TcmiiaDia, QaveromeDt of 

Thackei, Spink k Co., Messrs 

Thomas, H. T. (Jamaica) 

Tbamas, Messrs. W. K. & Co. (South Aus- 
tralia) 

Timaru Herald, Proprietors of 

Times of Cyprus, Proprietors of 

Toronto Globe. Proprietors of 

Townsrille Herald (Queensland), Proprie- 
toraof 

Transvaal, The, Proprietora of 

Transvaal Advertiaer, Proprietors of 

Trinidad, Government of 

Trinidad, Registrsr- General of 

Trischler II Co., Messrs 

Tropical Agriculturist, Proprietora of 

Unioti Bank of Australia 

United Service Giweite, Proprietors of 

United Service Institution of N. S. Wales... 

Unwin, T. Fisher 

Venezuelan Consul 

Victoria, Department of Agrioaltnra 

Victoria, Department of Mines and Water 
Supply 

Vickn'ia, Government of 

Victoria, Public Health Dept. 

Victoria Institnte 

Victoria, Pharmacy Board at 

Victoria Public Library, Museum, &o 

Violori*, Boyal Society of 

Victoria Weekly Colonist (Uritlab Co- 
lumbia), Proprietors of 

Victorian Express (Western Australia), 
Proprietors of 

Voice (St. Lucia), Proprietors of 

Walery i Co., Messrs 

Want.G P 

Ward Jt Downey, Messrs 

Ward, Lock, k Co., Messrs 

Womuunbool Standard. Proprietors of 

Weekly Columbian (Britisti Columbia), 
Proprietors of 

Weekly Examiner (Prince Bdwatd Island), 
Proprietors of 

Weekly Official Intelligence, Proprietors 
of 

Wellington Harbonr Board, New Zealand.,, 

Wells, Septhma (OreaadB.) 

Wesiera AaaOvlm, Qovemmtat al „ 




3}wenty-/ourth Annual General Meeting. 



108 



Dooon 



Wflttern Australia, Minister of Crown 
Laods and Sorrejr 

W6M«raAiiatndia,Registrar-Q6neralof 

Western Mail (Western Aostralia), Proprie- 
tors of 

Western World (Manitoba), Proprietors of 

West Indian, Proprietors of 

White, Colonel W. (Canada) 

Wbybam, W. H. (Antigua) 

WIcksteed, O. W. (Canada) 

Williams, H. Wynn (New Zealand) 

Wilson, Effingham 

Worsnop, Thos. (S. Australia) 

Wjnbei^ Times, Proprietors of 

Zoutpansberg Review (Transvaal), Proprie- 
ton of 





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ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY DURING THE YEAR 1891. 



Mods o( Acqnititlon 



Donations 
Purchase 



ToUl. 




The Council are indebted to the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Nuvigntion 
Company, the Castle Mail Packet Company, the Royal Mail Steam Packet 
Company, the British and African and the African Steamship Companies, 
for their assistance in the distribution of the ** Proceedings *' of tbe Institute 
in various parts of the world « 

Discussion. 

The Chauim AN : I was about to call on our esteemed Honorary 
Treasurer to make his usual Financial Statement, but Sir Montagu 
Omnmnney has written to express his regret that his engagements 
make it most improbable that he will be able to attend this meeting. 
He adds, however, that there is really little for him to say as 
regards accounts, which arc but records of steady and continuous 

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:an of the 

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^ . 1 „_ z--...- -. .: • - ' --T-::-!^ " was then 

7. - i r .- . . " -— ----ii. -li ji :lif ncT Journal, 

J „ - . . - .:. — ". "-.^--..^ fizi :i iG2sl45.3J., 

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;"^ ::.."... . "_ : — -• - -^ - "=■".-:=-"= ^JirT ir, increase on 

.... - .." .- . :..-..^i. i^.I'tJzI-z ai linon to the 

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. — J..- - : i _:..'—"- — - - - ■"-'-- - " --"- ^ jzn'ir-f-l societies, 
t . • .. ^, II.- ■-:: t '. .: --i":^.: :lf r7:i:'ftr..liEe5, an 
..._ . --^ .. : ■ ' 1.. ■ .:_■ J. -:;:L.-: i: i .iiminished 

:.- - — -• : ■: :.-" ; ._•- ■?:—>.> co:h for 

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;♦. : ',<;ir" f'/^ .*.'.?, 'J ' " " .::■'.."•..;.■ =:.'.-^< m;;: :.::? l::?:::-,::o :? in a 
th'/fiuyhly oir.'l -'-'.'J !•'"'-•'• •"'''> cor.i:::.::. ihire i-. :::v%>.\>:r, one 
iitii*'*r »'; v/hi'fi i'. '-: ?••:•• '•'■-:•■ to alluit. a? i: i\rlfc> cu: of the 
ttth*t**Uni'''' ''•*' **'" A/iii'i^sl M'f.iii::.' of ia.s: year. I: wa? iben sug- 
ut.iU'1 \ty Iv.o of lii«; r<*lov..s that the Council shoiild consider 



Ttetnly-fmiTth Anwaal General Meeting. 

the expediency, in the ioterests of the Institute, of again reming 
Bule 20, so as to piovido that Non-Rcaident Fellowa visiting the 
United Kin^am should not bo called upon to pay the incroasod 
Bubscription of i.'2 (insttiad of £1 Is.) until six montha Lad elapsed 
instead of tltreo mouths as at present. The Council have gone into 
the wholo matter very thoroughly, and unanimously come to the 
conclusion that it is uudosirablo to nllur the nile in <]uestion. It 
iweniB that prior to Janunry 1. 1885, Non-IiesideDt Fellows visiting 
the United Kingdom paid ^'1 Is. only lis when in the Colonies. At 
the Annual Meeting of FelloivB on Jmie HO, 1864, it was resolved 
that, in consideration of the advantages which would accrue from 
the erection of the new building, and the increased expenditure its 
occupation would involve, on and after January 1, 1683, every Non- 
Beaident Fellow arriving in the United Kingdom should pay the 
B(si<lent Fellow's subscription of £'2 for that year. The proposition 
v&a supported by several Non-Resident Fellows who were present 
»( the meeting, and the increased income detived from this source has 
been over i.'400 per annum. At the Annual Meetingof February 24, 
1891, the inlu wiis amended so that three months should ehipse 
before any Kon-Iiesident Fellow arriving in the United Kingdom 
shonld become liable for any additional Bubscription. lu every 
London club, members, on coming home &om the Colonies, are 
required to pay the Ilcsident Eubscriplion for that year, and to waive 
it for three months can luinlly be considered an illiberal armnge- 
ment, especially in view of (he circumstance that in kindred 
societies one uniform rate of jL'Z per annum is levied, wherever 
members may reside. The Institute is chiefly made use of by Non- 
Itesident Fellows, and only a very small proportion have objected 
to pay the extra lOs. when in England for three months. It is truu 
they do not all avail themselves of all the odvanlagcs ofl'ered, but 
the aajue may be said in a far greater degree of the Resident 
Fellows. It should ntso be borne In mind that a large proportion 
of the Non-Resident subscription is absorbed by printing and 
postages, both the Jourual and Proceedings being <listributed free 
ol cost to every part of the world. I have gone thus fully iaU> this 
matter because I think you will agree with the Council that, in 
riow of these facts, it is not desirable that the existing arrangement 
shoold be disturbed. I will now move that the Annual Report utd 
statement of accounts be adopted. 

Sir Samcei. Gukmeh: I have mnch pleasure in seconding tbs 
notioa, and in doing so I venture K express a donbt whether a 
more generally acceptable and satisfactory Report has been presented 



196 Twenty-fourth Annual G&>ieral Meeting. 

to tlie Fellowa at any previous meeting, even including the excep- 
tional year to which our Chairman has referred. The Eeport, as 
the Chainnati haa remarked, speaks for itaelf. Our numbers have 
increased ; our debt is diminishing ; our library has expanded ; and 
a large number of papers, on a variety of interesting and important 
Bubjecta, have been read and discussed at our meetings. It is 
hardly necessary to dweU on the particular featui'es of the Beport, 
but to me as a Colonist, and to all of us who are Colonists, special 
interest attaches to the last paragi-aph but one of the document, in 
which reference is made to the scope and character of the informa- 
tion which has been imparted by this Institute with the view of 
making the Colonies better acquainted with each other and with the 
Mother Country. I think. Sir, that that is in a paramount sense a 
patriotic and national work which the members o£ the Council have 
Bet before them ; and if the Fellows of this Institute will but read 
the particulars regarding the results of the labours in that direction 
during the past year, they cannot fail, I think, to be inspired with 
hope and thankfulness. 

Mr. Arthur Clayden: I rise with some little trepidation, 
because I could wish that some older member of the Institute had 
undertaken the task on which I am about to enter. I have been a 
Fellow about ten years, I think, but I scarcely feoi justified in 
entering on anything like criticism of an Institute which it is the 
fashion at these Annual Aleetings to laud to the uttermost. I some- 
times wonder whether we ought not to resolve om'selves into a sort 
of mutnal admiration society. Everything is cut and dried, and 
we find ourselves in the best of all possiMe worlds, with scarcely 
any possibility of improvement in any dii-ection. We have the 
most efficient officers, the very best that are to be found anywhere, 
and an institution the most flourishing of any that is to be found 
in the metropolis. It is rather awkward, therefore, for a modest 
yoong gentleman like myself to stand up and offer anything by 
way of eritieiem, and in order to clear the ground I will at once say 
that I am not hero to utter anj-thing censorious of the labours of 
the executive. Without any humbug, I believe that no institution 
in London ia better served, either by its paid or its honorary 
officers. The records of our institution at once attest that fact. We 
are in a magnificent position, and I heartily endorse the remarks of 
those who have preceded me on that point. Further, I will antici- 
pate all the nice and pleasant things that will be said of our 
Becretary and other officers, and take them all as written. Would 
that they could be taken as written, for I feel we have a little bit 



Twenty -fouTlk Annual General Meetimj. 107 

loo nucli of the congi-atuUtory and eulogistic in our proceedings. 
We might aasume that our officers do our work well. We have an 
•xodlent Secretory- ; we have been Eer^'cil weJl ; acd our officers 
deserve all the thanks, and a good deal more than all tho money, we 
give them. Now, tbcn f^u^ stion I wish to ask is — Are we getting the 
TeT7 beat we could get out of the institution ? Is this institution 
uuwering the purpose—the full purpose — the institution ma; be 
made to answer ? I think that to ask is to answer the question. 
I hold that the Ro)-al Colonial Institute ought to be in touch with 
the Colonies and not with a part only of the Colonies. You know 
that I am a Radical, but there will be no bitterness in my 
nmarliB. I have, I any, a profound respect for our Council and 
onr officers, hut I do say this Institute is not in full toudi with 
lh« Colonies as I know them. I lived in New Zealand for 
•ome jears, and I did not hve altogether with what you may 
term the "upper ten." Most of my friends were hard-working 
fknners. Among these men I lived, and I find that their ideas 
and the ideas common in this Institute do not agree. They 
seem to have an idea— and I certainly feel somewhat in sympathy 
with Ibem — that this Institute is a great deal too aristocratic in its 
tastes and feehngs— that you are in sj-nipathy and touch with 
what I may call the " upper ten " in the Colonies, hut not in touch 
with the rest. I think you should understand the great movement 
of the Labour Party in our Colonies— a party which, 1 think, is 
devtinwl to make a very great change indeed in our Colonial 
Qovemments before many years are over. ^Ve hare, within the 
laet year or two, seen some significant changes in this direction. 
I myself have seen some startling changes in New Zealand, and I 
hare often smiled as I have read the remarks of soino of our 
candid friends, who are always cocksure about what is going on 
ia the Colonies, and who predict the failure of these democratic 
movements. I venture to soy they will be disappointed. I am a 
pure democrat myself ; I bcUeve in government by the masses ; and 
although you will not find all the sense in the masses, I say yon 
will find more common sense there than anywhere else. I should 
like this Institute, somehow, to be more popularised and brought 
more into harmony with the democratic instincts of our Colonies ; 
and with that view, as a measure that will, I think, carry all the 
rest, I should hke to see an organ started at once — an organ of the 
lutitate in which the voice of the 4,000 members may be heard. 
At present we have no means of communicating with one another. 
I Bbonld bare been ezoeediogly glad to have commonicated wiUi 



I 
I 



Twenty-fourth Annval General Meetinrj. 



the read^^^^^ 
noKraco whpn ~ 



HORio mem\}fT» on Ihia matter, because, altboagb in t 
room tlinre is a good deal of talk, I find they lose eourago when 
thtty conic here, fiomcono must " bell the cat ; " why should wo 
liii iifmli! of ono another? I am an old pressman myself; I have 
boufidloM faith In the newspaper ; and if we had an organ of this 
Iliitltato, I believe wo should have taken a, great step in the 
direction in which we wish to go. If it is in harmony with the 
rillen of thin Inntitiite, I would like to move & resolutiDn for the 
formation of a sub-committee. 

Tbii Chairman : Do you wish to move an amendment to the 
motion for the adoption of the Annual Report ? 

Mr. Olaydiin : It will not bo an amendment, I think. It is as 
followM : " That n sub -committee of thirteen Fellows be nomi- 
nntoil to consider wliethor any, and what, reforms should be 
Intrndueod into tli« management of the Institute, such committee 
to report to A special meeting of the Fellows to be convened this 
dny month." If wo could ^t n conunittee of this kind, we should, 
I think, asocrlaln the feeling among the Fellows generally, and 
bo enabled to make a few prnctical suggestions, among which, I 
think, would he it reconimendiition that we should have a sort of 
Open meeting at the Institntt-. so that we could come nearer to 
oneh other. Hy idotv is, tlmt wo should bavo more and closer 
oonncction with cnoh other than at present there seems to be faeil- 
llies for. 

The CtiAiitMAN : I do not think we can accept your resolnticai. 
Something of the samo kind was moved last year, and it was niled 
Ihkt proper notice must be given of it. It should be posted in one 
of the rooms, so that ull the Fellows may see it. No notice has 
been fjivcn of this. 

Mr. U, J. JovBOAiN. C.M.G.: I think we are very mmch indebted 
to any Fellow who (uvoiirs tis with Euggestifms for the better 
BUUMK^meiit of the luKtittite ; but when Mr. Claydeii, in perh>|is 
nthvr k bc«tiou3 manner, refers to what he calls the nsoal eonrae 
ot prme«<Ung at these mi<etiitgs. and sngsv'Sts oar ronv«rsiiHt into 
* matnaJ aihniratiiui euctetY. with regard to the mosotauT of our 
|voe*edui{^ I vrmtiuv to apply to him th« same kind of cfhietsn, 
and to say of hia remftite tlwt they seem to me to be a reek^^i 
ot Uw speech h« detiv«»tl at the hsi Ananal Heelmg. He then 
toM us Outt the OjumQ was a £T««t deal loo ahafaxntie— that it 
wwld appear nobody vw ettgiUe for the Oo«nea vfae had aet m 
hattdk or a tail to hia aam*» and that that haij-mwB i 




Tvanty-foarth Annual General MceHwj. 

Mr. Clayden : I lieg pardoa I did not say badly, but not 
Euflicieatlj- rppresentative, 

Mr. JouRDAtK : Too iLiistocratic — that was it ; but on his being 
asked to point out those to whom ho objected, or those who, OD 
their merits, onght not to be there, be was unable to reply ; and 
be was still further unable to reply when his attention was called to 
the (act that the last three elected members of the Council had none 

ornaments to which he objects. Now I do not think we can 
> be out of touch with the Colonies when we have our 

mdiu); Beeretariea in every Colony of the Empire, and when 

1 is scarcely a meeting of the Council but letters or reports are 
R«d from them making various suggestions ; which suggestions are 
immediately and carefully considered by the Council, cknd, if possible, 
acted upon. But that this Council should be in touch with every 
Badical democrat in New Zealand or elsewhere, is, I think, out of 
the question. That section of colonial society is ably represented, 
Bt all events at our Annual Meeting, by the gentleman who has 
(arottred us with bis remarks, and if he will only submit his views 
to the Council they will be most happy to consider them. As to the 
motion for the appointment of a. sub-conimitt«<c, I hardly think that 
imcfa a proposal— which, by the way, has not been seconded — oould 
be taken into consideration at this meeting. The rules clearly 
define what is the work to be done at these meetings. It is — eays 
Bule GO- 
TO elect the Council anil oflieerB for tlie ensuini; ;esr, to receive the 

Annual Itejiorl or tlio Coiiitril, to linnr the Frraident's address, and to 
concidcr micli bunincsa oa shall be brought forwaril by the Council, or with 
Iha unction of ihe Council, and which shall have been xtnted in the 
notlcfl eottvenins the meeting. 

• Council have received no Dotiee whatever that this shot was 
t fired ; neither have the Fellows ; and therefore I hold it 
it be entertained to-day. But, not wishing to show the shghtest 
f to free discussion, or to represent that the Council is an 
timnacnlate body, I would point out to him that there is another 
rule — No. 54 — providing that it shall Iw imperative on the Council 
to Bummou a special general meeting whenever required in writing to 
doaobyat least twenty five Fellows of the Institute. If, tbereforc, ho 
tut find amongst the Fellows twenty- four holding theaameviewaas 
himself, it is quite competent for him to call a special meeting under 
tfaa role I have indicated ; but it is clear that such a propositjoo as 
he has made cannot be entertained at this meeting. 




I 



4 




^^^f Mr. Hyde Clabi 



■ty-fourth Annual General Meeting. 



Mr. Hyde Clabee : I think we must all agree that it is impos- 
sihle at the present moment to bring fomard a motion such as that 
proposed. I sympathise with the mover to a considerable extent, 
but at the same time I cannot see the bearing of his observations 
on the present condition of our affairs. It may be that some of us 
find we aro not in touch with the proletariat elements in the 
Colonies ; hut is that a ground for taking measures to put ouraelvea 
in touch with them ? It we look at the present constitution of this 
Institute, we shall find, I think, that we are not indebted in any 
great degree either to proletarieing to the class of working men 
whose claims have been urged by Mr, Clayden, or to the farmers 
for the support by which this Institute has been built up. I take it 
that we ought to be in touch rather with the Fellows of this 
Institute— men who have come forward for the benefit of the 
Colonies, and not for their individual benefit, in order to sustain 
what we all allow is a most successful and prosperous institution. 
I cannot agree with him that he is taking a Radical course in the 
proposal he is submitting. Such a course, according to the ancient 
principles of Radical philosophy, must be properly adjusted to the 
institutions or commimity to which the proposal is to be applied, 
and to cultivate the proletariat or the working man in the Colonies 
is not the way to carry out the objects of this Institute or to confer 
benefits on the coimtry and the Colonies at large. I do trust our 
time unli not be taken up with questions of this kind — questions of 
what I may call raw polities, which are better discussed elsewhere. 
We have one object, and that la the promotion of the benefit of the 
Colonists at large. It has been well said. Sir, in your speech, that 
even with regard to this Institute the Resident Fellows are not they 
who obtain the most benefit from it. We are contributors, but It la 
our friends out in the Colonies, and our friends the Colonists when 
they come over here, who obtain the benefit of the general contri- 
butions. These are the principles on which we must proceed, and 
not on abstract grounds as to whether we ought to cultivate some 
particular class of the Colonists that happens at the moment to be 
in power and is endeavouring to carry out great changes, which 
changes may or may not be in the end for the benefit of their 
community or of the Empire at large. Aa an old member of tbiH 
Institute, which at one time wo had a difficulty in keeping olive, 
I do feel that in this stage of advancement we must persevere 
in the course of success, and not he led away by making outside 
experiments. 

The Chaiuman pronounced the ballot closed. 



Twenty-fourth Annual General Meeting. 201 

I'he motion for the adoption of the Report and Financial State- 
Itent was carried unaniraously. 

Mr. T, RisELY Griffith, C.M.G. (Administrator of Seychelles) : 

t beg to move—" That the thanks of the Fellows be given to the 

Bonor&ry Treasurer (Sir Montagu F. Ommanney, K.O.M.G.), the 

Bonorary Corresponding Secretaries in the various Colonies, and 

^ Honorary Auditors (Messrs. Peter Beilpatb and W. O. Devon 

jkBtle) for their services since the last Annual Meeting. " 1 know 

|bll well that you thoroughly appreciate the work of these genllo- 

en, who give their services gratuitously, and to whom I personally 

af we owe a great deal. The duties of a Corresponding Secretary 

• not altogether unknown to me, and I feel sure that to them a« 

all aa to the other honorary oHicers of the Institute we owe n 

\ry great deal (or its ad\-ancement and present condition. 

Mr. W. Sebbioht Gheen : I have much pleasure in seconding the 

notion. As an old Colonist, I do not think this Institute can be in 

ooch with the Colonies in any better manner than through tho 

[onor»ry Corresponding Secretaries, to whom we are so much 

idebted. Those gentlemen arc in touch with every one in their 

Bspective Colonies. As an old member of the press, I speak with 

B knowledge of the subject, and I may say that the doings of 

Institute are ventilated pretty well in every Colony where any 

raat la felt in them, which includes, I think, every Colony o( the 

Snipir«. With regard to our Honorary Treasurer, wo are glad to 

that the accounts are in so satisfactory a condition ; and as to 

be Auditors, I am sure we are gieatly indebted to them for the 

ark they have done. 

Mr. G. Collins Levey, C.M.G. : I do not tor a einglu moment wish 

to be thought that I object to this vote of thanks, but there was a 

BmU'k made by tho last siienker to which I must take exception, 

Hid tb&t was, that in his opinion the Institute could not he better 

touch with the Colonies than through the lluuorary Correspond- 

bg 8eoretaricfl. I understand they look after subscriptions, and act 

the mediom through which the proceedings of this Council and 

bstittite are known to the people of the Colonies. It is no portion 

their duty, however, to keep us aa an Institute in touch with 

ifalio opinion in the Colonies. Thai is the last thing they think 

doing. I was for many years a resident in Victoria, of wtudi 

Dolony Mr. Hayter was Corresponding Secretary, and a most efficient 

lecretarjr ho was, but it was no part of bia businosa to express 

ioioDS on political matters, nor, as a Government official, would ha 

allowed to do so. Whether it is possible for ua to t«ke any part 




Twenty-fotvrih Anmial GeiieroX Meeting. 

in the politics of the Colonies, I am not prepared to eay. I doubt 
it very much. I think the great succees of this Institute is due to 
the fact that 'we have kept entirely BJoof from politics, and that, what- 
ever our poUties may be, whether Liberal or Conservative, wo meet 
here on common ground^on the ground that we are all Colonists, or 
interested in our Colonial Empire ; and I, for one, thint we should 
do in the future aa wo have done in the past in this respect. I may 
aild that the only previous occasion when I spoke at an Annual 
Meeting was when the Council was, as I thought, expressing approval 
of a certain political movement in the Colonies, and although I 
approved of that movement I thought we were going beyond our 
produce and abdicating our position of neutrality. I do not think 
we can be said to be in touch with the Colonies through the Corre- 
sponding Secretaries, nor do we wish to be. Our duty ia to do all 
we can for the benefit of the Colonies and the Empire, and to keep 
this Institute as a common meeting-ground. From that position I 
hope we shall never budge. 

The Chairman: There is just this remark to be made, that 
although our Honorary Corresponding Secretaries may not, as has 
been said, keep us "in touch" with the Colonies, they do afford us a 
great deal of information, and, what ia more, afford a great deal of 
information to our Fellows when visiting the Coloniea, and when 
Non-Besident Fellows come home for the first time they almost 
invariably bring with them letters of introdiiction to our Secretary ; 
the result being that when they come here they find a home and 
receive every possible attention. 

Mr. Clatden : Will you kindly inform us what they really do? 

The Chairman : I said I did not go the whole length with the 
statement about placing us in touch with the Colonies, 

Mr. Clayden : Where is the information that comes from these 
valuable agents ? Where is it to be found ? 

The Sbcrbtaby : I should be glad to be allowed to say a few 
words, because the Honorary Corresponding Secretaries are really 
deserving of your thanks. They do a great deal to keep this Insti- 
tute together and to make known its objects— that it is non-political 
for one thing — that we have no party polities here, and are neither 
Tories, Eadicals, nor Democrats ; thus gentlemen wishing to know 
something about the Institute, or to join as Follows, or to read 
papers at our meetings, may receive information from them and 
be made acquainted with our raison d'itrc. Sometimes questions 
have arisen on matters relating to tho work of this Institute, and 
ir<? have asked them to sound the local members as to certain 



Twenty -/ourth Annual Oemral Meeting. 208 

ehuig«s uiil proposals. Again, as the representatives of the Insti- 
IqUi in the v&rious ColoniiiS, they a.re tbu means of itM^ruiting new 
FullowB, and many of them give a great deal of timo and trouble to 
]hwp us acquainted with the addresaea of Fellows, some of whom 
mte oanstantly ^)0^'ing about the n-orld. This Institute has nearly 
4,000 FeUowa, and there are us many ledger accounts. When 
mtimbow change their addresses, the Corresponding Secretaries are a 
gKtA holp in collecting the (unila. I may add that there is always 
» greal deal of correspondence going on. Mails are continually 
vriving, and I sometimes reci^ive as many as one hmidred letters a 
J»y. The importani part of this correspondence is always laid before 
tbe Cooncil. I lake it, therefore, that by eenices like these the 
Honorary Corresponding Secretaries have done a great deal towardB 
Um building up of this Institute. 

Mr. Clatden : You say ihoy give you import»uit informatioD. 
Wliere is tbiD to be seen ? 

The fJBcaETABY : Their communications are not on subjects of 
public policy, but relate to the business of the Institute. They are 
nol political letters. Sometimes they write concerning contribtt* 
tioDB in the way of papers, or introduce gentlenicu who are wilting 
or who would be desirous to read them. These papers are nol 
•Iwftya accepted. Sometimes there is a dearth of papers, and at 
other times the reverse. It is sometimes difficult to secure the 
right men and lo keep up the standard of the papers ; and that we 
bavo BO (at succeeded is due in no small degree to the Honorary 
Corresponding Si^eretaries, who introduce eminent men as being 
specially qualified to address us on different subjects of importance, 
not only to the Colonies, but to the Empire at lar^c. 

The CriAiBUAN : Although our Secretary has told you Bometbing 
of what the Honorary Corresponding Secretaries do, be has not 
told you, what I have by accident found out, that when Fellows of 
iha Institute go out to the Colonies and do not know anyone there, 
they often receive ^-aluable information from those gentlemen. 

The resolution was cordially adopted. 

Mr. Peter Redpatr : It is perhaps proper, even at the risk of 
being accused of taking too much of the admiration to roysdf, to 
aay that I am sure my co-auditor will appreciate, as I do, the thanks 
of the Fellows as cxpresseil in this resolution. I may say that our 
labours are not very arduous. The Honorary Treasurer sends hia 
accounts to us in such a concise and admirable sliapt; that we have 
the kttst possible trouble in revising them ; but at the some time 
tiw work we do is not done in a perfunctor; muurn. 



206 



Twenty-fourth Annual General Meeting. 



Councillors, 



Snt Charles CLnrFORD, Babt. 

Sib John Goocc, E.C.M.G. 

F. H. Danoab, Esq. 

General Sib H. C. B. Daubenet, 

g.c:b. 

FbEDEBICK DlJTTON, EsQ. 

C. Washington Eves, Esq., C.M.G. 
W. Matnabd Fabmeb, Esq. 
Majob-Genebal Sib Henby Green, 

K.C.S.I., C.B. 
Snt Abthub Hodgson, E.C.M.G. 
B. J. Jefebat, Esq. 
Lieut.-Genebal Sib W. F. D. Jeryois, 

G.C.M.G., C.B. 



H. J. JouRDAiN, Esq., C.M.G. 

William Keswick, Esq. 

F. P. DE Labilliebe, Esq. 

Lieut.-Genebal R. W. Lowbt, C3. 

Nevile Lubbock, Esq. 

Sib Chables Mills, K.C.M.G., C3. 

J. B. Mosse, Esq. 

John Patebson, Esq. 

John Bae, Esq., M.D., F.B.S. 

Peteb Bedpath, Esq. 

Sib Saul Samuel, E.C.M.G., C.B. 

Sib Fbancis VHiLENEuvE Smith. 

Sib Chables E. F. Stibling, Babt. 



Honorary Treasurer. 
Sir Montagu F. Ommanney, E.C.M.G. 

The Chairman : I am very much obliged to you for the vote of 
thanks and for your kmd indulgence while I have occupied the chair 
to-day. I really dreaded, at my age, coming to preside at such a 
meeting ; but it was put to me that I am a Vice-President, and 
therefore ought to do something. I said — " Well, I never did shirk 
my duty yet, and if I am able to come I will/* I am very much 
indebted to you for your kind vote of thanks. 

The proceedings then terminated. 



207 



FIFTH ORDINARY GENERAL MEETING. 

The Fifth Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at 
the Whitehall Rooms, H6tel M^tropole, on Tuesday, March 8, 1892. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Aberdeen, a Vice-President of the 
Institute, presided. 

The Minutes of the last Ordinary General Meeting were read 
and confirmed, and it was announced that since that Meeting 16 
Fellows had been elected, \i2., 6 Resident and 11 Non-Resident. 

Resident Fellows : — 

Arthur S, Browne ^ Conrad Bruning, Holroyd Cliaplin, Thomas F. Roberts, 
AUxander Strachey, 

Non-Resident Fellows: — 

WiUiam W, Bonnyn (Newfoundland), E. F. B. Bourne (British Quiana), 
Charles H. Greswell (India), William Kiddle (New South Wales), Colonel 
Richard E, R, Martin, C.M.O, (H.B.M. Commissioner, Swasiland), Ethelbert 
Noyce (Transvaal), John E. Plummer (British Honduras), William S. Rook- 
ledge (Transvaal), Dr, Sidney Sherman (New Zealand), Frederick O. Somer- 
ville (Straits Settlements), Frank Stainer (Victoria). 

It was also announced that donations to the Library of books, 
maps, &c., had been received from the various Governments of tlie 
Colonics and India, Societies, and public bodies both in the United 
Kingdom and the Colonies, and from Fellows of the Institute and 
others. 

The Chaibman : In commencing the proceedings on what 
promises to be a very interesting evening, we cannot but feel that 
a shadow is to some extent cast over the gathering by the recent 
death of a very distinguished and much-value<l member of this 
Institute ; I mean the late Sir John Coode, who was for eleven years 
one of the Council. As we all know, he earned great fame in 
the noble profession to which ho belonged ; but of course we think 
of him to-night more especially in relation to the development 
and welfeu*e of the Colonies. In his professional capacity he 
visited the Australian Colonies, New Zealand, South Africa, India, 
the Straits Settlements, and Ceylon, where the Colombo break- 
water, that great work, remains as a monument of his skill. 
The use to which, as regards this Institute, he put his great 
experience and distinguished position — as, for instance, in mate- 
rially helping forward the arrangements for obtaining a charter for 
this Institute and securing its magnificent site and commodious 



L 



204 Twenty-fourth Annual General Meeting. 

Mr. John Ferguson : I rise with some diffidence, as one of i 
Honorary Corresponding Seeretariea ; but I may say at once that I 
■ever thought I held any such special position beyond my fellow- 
membera as was calculated to bring this Institute into close touch 
with the Colony. I regret I have been able to do so little in this 
capacity, but I yield to none in my interest in and attachment to 
the Institute, and in the desire and readiness to promote its welfare 
in every way in my power. If Mr, Clayden will refer to your 
Library he will find works of reference and information regarding 
the Colonies which would not be there but for the Honorary Corre- 
sponding Secretaries. He might also learn that, in addition to 
answering letters of inrjuiry, papers on various subjecta are fre- 
quently suggested by us. I can corroborate what has been said as 
to the strong hold this Institute has on the regard and affection 
of the Colonists both in the Crown and self-governing Colonies. I 
think the feeling arises largely from the non-political character of 
the Institute, and I quite agree with the gentleman who said that to 
seek the suffrages of any particular party (whether Conservatives or 
Badicals) would he to depart from the very foundation principles 
of the Institute. I may add that during my successive visits from 
Ceylon to London, extending over a period of twenty-five yeai-s, I 
have nowhere felt more at home or received a heartier welcome or 
been more readily assisted with information than in these rooms 
and at the hands of our able Secretary and his efficient staff. 
Sometimes we Colouists are asked what evidence we have that there 
is a feeling of attachment to or belief in the principle of federation 
(so much in the aJr, and in our months and pens of recent years), 
and in reply I have always been inclined to point, as some evidence 
of the prevalent feeling, to the existence and continued great 
success of this Institute, with its President and Vice-Presidents, 
its Council, its long roll of Fellows, and its thirty-fonr Hononuy 
Corresponding Secretaries, representing a union of the Mother 
Country with Colonies all round the world, and illustrating our 
motto of "United Empire." To adopt the proud badge of one 
of the great Steam Companies that has done mo much to connect 
Britain and her Dependencies, I may ask, " Quis separabit ?" I 
beg to tender my thanks for the cordial way this vote of thanks has 
been passed. 

Mr. ALEXiNDER ScEANDERB : I beg to move — " That the thanks 
of the Fellows be accorded to the Council for their sendees to the 
Institute during the past year, and to the Chairman of this meeting 
/or presiding." This requires no wotdaolnan^ to M>"mm.«iili,l. H 



Twtnh/-fourth Anmtal General Meeting. 



is Dot a qiieBtion of mutual admiration. The facts are before 
Tbej >bow that the Institate ia in a most excellent position, and 
this ia dae, I hold, to the wise administration of your Council for 
Twn put. The Couucil for last year have Dot fallen behind their 
I am quite Bure that one great thing ^hich has 
. to this condition of the Iiistitute is its non-political 
tar. When we come hero wo know no difference between 
LJbenl or Consort-ativo ; vihy, then, make any difference as regards 
poStics on the other Hido of the woild ? We are in touch with the 
whole of our ColonioB, as far as a n on -political body can be, and we 
■htll be BDCcessful eo long aa we hold to the principles which have 
nMde us what we are. We are glad to see our Chairman looking so 
«^, and we thank him for his able and courteous condnct in the 

Mr. J. Gibdwood: I have great ploasiire in seconding the motion. 
In refor«nce to Mr. Clayden's speech, I may say that I think a 
ip«ecli such as that is very beneficial to a society of this sort. It 
kSordfl opportunity for an intercliange of ideas, which otherwise we 
iboolil not enjoy, and from my abort experience of the Institute 
I think we may benefit one another by meeting occasionally in this 
ny &nd exchanging ideas, 

The motion was carried tmanimously. 

The (^iiAiRUAN : I have to announce that the result of the ballot 
tbowa that the Vice-Presidents and Councillors recommended by 
tbe Council have been unanimously {.>lGctcd. 

The names are aa follows :— 

Frrsirlent. 
HJ1,H. TiiK Pwxct or W*u;h, K.Q., tJ.C.M.O.. rtc. 



m 

re you. ^^H 



Vkc-rrtiidents. 



Ha DoTU. Iliuliirus Trlscc Ciihis- 

mic, K.O. 
nn UiucK Tm Ddki or Atuatu., 

ILO.. K.T. 
Ru Gkmk The Ddm or Sutbm- 

uxD, K.O. 
Tnt UinnT Itns. Tun MtimciB op 

DcrrtMK un, Av», K.l'.. G.C.M.O., 

a.C3. 
Tm Rinirr Him. Tuk Mibquis 

Lok», K.T., (i.C.M.a. 
Tmi BioitT Hon. Tb* Eabl or 

AmUHEBN. 

Tm RioHT HoH. Tna Kxu. or 

AiMtHinji. E.C.H.O. 
Tkk Bmht Hon. Tn Eiai. or Dim- 

MTXH. K.l>. 



TiTK EtoBT Hon. Tdb E»«i. or Ram- 

Tux RioiiT H(iM. ViscocifT CnuiaMMN, 

a.C.BJ. 
Tkk Riort Box, Vikouxt Uoxck, 

G.C.M.Q. 
TiiB RiuiiT Hus. I««D Brahict. K.C.B. 
Tbk lUairr Hon. Low. C*iiu!iiiroiii>, 

K-P. 
Tita Itiuirr Han. Kiran C. E. Chu^ 

vttm. M.I'. 
Sib Wiu.iiu llkciirtKiiK. BjUit., C.I.K. 
Seb Chuu-m NicnowoM, Bait. 
Su Henbt Buult, a.O.U.O„ K.C3. 
S» Alciuiiiib T. UtLT. a.C.U.U. 
Bin Juaa A. Wul, K.C.U.G. 
Sw Fbkuuuck YoDxa, K.C.U.O. 



206 



Twenty-fott/rth Annual General Meeting, 



Councillors. 



Sir Chables Clutord, Babt. 

Sib John Coo£«, E.C.M.G. 

F. H. Danoab, Esq. 

Genebal Sib H. C. B. Daubenet, 

g.c:b. 

FbEDBBICK Dl3TT0N, ESQ. 

C. Washinoton Eves, Esq., C.M.G. 
W. Maynabd Fabmeb, Esq. 
Majob-Genebal Sib Henby Gbeen, 

K.G.S.I., C.B. 
Sib Abthub Hodgson, E.C.M.G. 
B. J. Jeffbay, Esq. 
Lieut.-Genebal Sib W. F. D. Jervois, 

G.C.M.G., C.B. 



H. J. Joxtbdain, Esq., C.M.G. 

WiLLUM Keswick, Esq. 

F. P. de Labilliebe, Esq. 

Lieut.-Genebal B. W. Lowby, C3. 

Nevilb Lubbock, Esq. 

Sib Chables Mills, E.C.M.G., C3. 

J. B. MossE, Esq. 

John Patebson, Esq. 

John Bae, Esq., M.D., F.B.S. 

Peteb Bedpath, Esq. 

Sib Saul Samuel, E.C.M.G., C.B. 

Sib Fbancis Villeneuye Sutth. 

Sib Chables E. F. STiBLiNa, Babt. 



Honorary Treasurer, 
Sir Montagu F. Ommanney, E.C.M.G. 

The Chairman : I am very much obliged to you for the vote of 
thanks and for your kmd indulgence while I have occupied the chair 
to-day. I really dreaded, at my age, coming to preside at such a 
meeting ; but it was put to me that I am a Vice-President, and 
therefore ought to do something. I said — " Well, I never did shirk 
my duty yet, and if I am able to come I will." I am very much 
indebted to you for your kind vote of thanks. 

The proceedings then terminated. 



207 



FIFTH ORDINARY GENERAL MEETING. 

The Fifth Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at 
the Whitehall Rooms, H6tel M^tropole, on Tuesday, March 8, 1892. 

The Bight Hon. the Earl of Aberdeen, a Vice-President of the 
Institate, presided. 

The Minutes of the last Ordinary General Meeting were read 
and confirmed, and it was announced that since that Meeting IG 
Fellows had been elected, viz., 5 Resident and 11 Non- Resident. 

Resident Fellows : — 

Arthur S. Browne, Conrad Bruning, Uolroyd CJiaplin, Thomas F, RobertSt 
Alexander Strachey, 

Non-Resident Fellows: — 

TFtl/iom W. Bonnyn {Newfoundland), E. F, B, Bourne {British Ouiana), 
Charles H. Greswell {India), William Kiddle {New South Wales), Colonel 
Richard E, R, Martin, C,M,0, {H.B,M, Commissioner, SwaHland), Ethelbert 
Noyce {Transvaal), John E. Plummer {British Honduras), William S. Rook- 
ledge {Transvaal), Dr, Sidney Sherman {New Zealand), Frederick O. Somer- 
vilU {Straits Settlements), Frank Stainer {Victoria), 

It was also announced that donations to the Library of books, 
maps, &c., had been received from the various Governments of the 
Colonies and India, Societies, and public bodies both in the United 
Kingdom and the Colonies, and from Fellows of the Institute and 
others. 

The Chairman : In commencing the proceedings on what 
promises to be a very interesting evening, wo cannot but feel that 
a shadow is to some extent cast over the gathering by the recent 
death of a very distinguished and much -valued member of this 
Institute ; I mean the late Sir John Coode, who was for eleven years 
one of the Council. As we all know, he earned great fame in 
the noble profession to which he belonged ; but of course we think 
of him to-night more especially in relation to the development 
and welfare of the Colonics. In his professional capacity he 
visited the Australian Colonies, New Zealand, South Africa, India, 
the Straits Settlements, and Ceylon, where the Colombo break- 
water, that great work, remains as a monument of his skill. 
The use to which, as regards this Institute, he put his great 
experience and distinguished position — as, for instance, in mate- 
rially helping forward the arrangements for obtaining a charter for 
this Institute and securing its magnificent site and commodious 



building— constitutea him one of the benefactors of the Insti- 
tute. I have to remind yon also of the recent demise of another 
distinguished man, Sir William Gregory, who — now a good 
many years ago^ — was a very successful and distinguished Governor 
of the Colony about which we aro to hear to-night. He was 
a man of personal charm and large abilities, and we cannot 
but think of his death aa a great loss in connection with Colonial 
na well as general interests. Turnuig to the present occasion, it is 
very gratifying to obseiTO that we have with us several distinguished 
men, and in the first instance I will mention the new Governor of 
New Zealand, the Earl of Glasgow. It will be pleasing to him to 
know that among those who gladly take this opportunity of offering 
him hearty congratulations and earnest good wishes there are past 
Governors of New Zealand, who, I am sure, will be among the very 
first to render him their felicitations. Among other friends with ua, 
and one of these past Governors, ia Sir Arthur Gordon. I ought, 
perhaps, to have some Httle deUcacy in alluding to a relative ; bat I 
venture to remark that he has been not only the Governor of New 
Zealand hut of many other Colonies, and it is interesting to note 
that a large proportion of those who sei-ved with him aa lien- 
tenants, or in some way had been upon his staff, are now occupying 
very important positions aa Governors of Colonies and othertme, 
which says something for the excellent training which they enjoyed 
while under him. We have also the pleasure of the company of Sir 
John Bray, Agent-General for South Austraha, and I may remark 
that I am one of those who have had recent experience of his kind- 
ness and hospitaUty in South Austraha. I must not linger longer 
on this topic, but I cannot help remarking that one of the attractions 
of the gatherings connected with this Institute ia that they give ua 
opportunities of meeting men like those I have mentioned, who are 
doing and have done eo much to maintain the dignity and pro- 
sperity of this vast Empire in various parts of the world. But there 
ia one other gentleman to whom I must allude — I mean the veteran 
Sir George Eowen, senior member of the great profession and great 
calling of Colonial Governor and Administrator. And now I must 
proceed with few words, but with all heartiness, to introduce the 
lecturer. I may say that Mr. Ferguson has for long occupied a 
moat prominent and useful and influential position in Ceylon. 
I suppose you could scarcely find a man more thoroughly versed in 
all the varied aspects of the life of the Colony, its interests and trade. 
Without furtherjpreface I beg to call upon Mr. Ferguson to read 
Jiis Paper. 



CEILOX: ITS ATTRACTIONS TO VISITORS AND 
SETTLERS, 



bns ii BO port of thiu worlcV^ Burfoce, perhaps, about which mora 
hihMD writteD ihaii about the Island of Ceylon. Writers of fat 
Htul ^tcfl md of manj different countries have made it their 
Ahmu "Lanka the Resplendent," the island of jewelB, the land 
rf Vjafairjr and romance', was well known and greatly admired in the 
Mii;af«s by the people of India, Bunuah, Siam, Cambodia, and 
CkinL Aa "a pearl-drop on the brow of India," and the land of 
■thi hyadDth and niby," it became familiar before the Christian 
into the Grwkd and Bouaans, who gave it the name embalmed by 
cwovti poet Milton in the lincR — 

l''rniii Indift iind the grildcii CberBoneBC, 

And ulinoBt Indirm isle, Taprobane. 

Qijloa waa the " Serendib " of Arab and Persian geographers and 
^ftga*, »nd is the scene of many of the adventures recounted in 
■W Cuniliar Btoiy of Sinbad the Sailor. The middle ages, again, pro- 
duced many manoscripts almut it, and when, four hundred years ago, 
tw Portngtieae had effected the conquest of its maritime proWnces, 
Omx historians began to write freely about " the island of spices," and 
%a« followed a century- and a half later by those of the Dutch. Nor 
turn British voyar;ers and travellers failed to contribute to the 
(snsnl stock of hterature on the subject ; for, apart from the 
oniqnft and Bpecially interesting narrative by Robert Knos of his ton 
jmr*' captivity, published in London in King Charles II. "s time, 
■nt century has witnessed the issue of a long and varied 
I English booltB on Ceylon. These deal with its liislnry, people, 
w. tangnages, industries, resources, government, 4o. And 
I vithin the past few months, I may add, no It^ss than four 
1 publishers have brought out works treating of the same 
bod, while one of the best novels of romantic adventure of t)io 
■eawMt {according to the AtlientBum) is by a Ceylon writer, \\a 
Kene being laid in the vicinity of the island. 

With all these multitudinous writings in view, and the great array 

of available works of reference, guide-hooks, <lirectories, and otBcial 

publications, it is no easy matter to say anything about Ceylon that 

may not appear hackneyed or familiar. 

KaverthelesB, some useful purpose may be served in putting before 




aiO Ceylon : its Attractions to Visitors an5 SettUrs. 

the travelling portion of the British public and the constantly in- 
creasing numbecs who yearly pass between Australasia, the Far 
East, and the Mother Country a certain number of the attnictiona 
offered by Ceylon to visitors or settlers. 



Situation and Means of Access. 



First, as to situation. The island is a central place of call for 
eastern hemisphere ; and the genius and professional skill of a great 
engineer well known in the Royal Colonial Institute {the late Sir 
John Coode) hanng derised a magnificent breakwater protecting a 
commodious harbour, Colombo has of recent years developed into a 
port of first-clasa importance. Its annual record of tonnage follows 
close on the figures for the British metropoha, Hong Kong, and one 
or two more of the busiest shipping resorts. Steamers from London, 
Liverpool, Marseilles, Genoa, Naples, Brindisi, Odessa, Alexandria, 
and Bombay call regularly at Colombo, passing on, it may be. to 
Madras, Calcutta, The Straits, China, or some of the Australian 
ports. The great steam -navigation companies trading with the 
East or South^the P. and 0., the Orient, the Messageriea Mari- 
times, the Norddeutscher Lloyds, A uatro- Hungarian Lloyds, the 
British India Company, the Eubattino, the Star, City, Clan, Gien, 
Ocean, Holt's, and several other lines, make Colombo a regular port 
of call ; and it ia the meeting- place for mail steamers from Europe, 
Australasia, China, and India, where mails, passengers, and light 
cargo are generally exchanged or transferred. A ready means of 
access, whether by swift first-class or by slower and more economical 
steamers from Europe or Austraha ia, therefore, one of the attrac- 
tions Ceylon offers to visitors. From London to Colombo the 
voyage can now be accomplished in about three weeks, and at a 
cost of little more than that of living ashore in a first-class hotel. 
For the greater part of the year, too, the seas traversed are smooth 
enough to suit any fair-weather sailor ; white what is seen and leamt 
on the way at places of call along the Mediterranean, Suez Canal, 
Red Bea, and Indian Ocean may well be regai^ded as no inconsider- 
able part of a liberal education. Moreover, those who wish still 
further to limit the sea voyage can embark either at Genoa. Naples, 
or Brindisi (and by-aud-by probably at SaloaJca) on one of the 
magnificent mail steamers which make the run thence to 
Ceylon in from fifteen to thirteen days, if the commander and 
hia engineer so desire. In this direction there is no doubt room 
for farther improvement if full steam-power is utilised ; and, jost 



reat 



Ceylon : Us A ttractwnt to VUitort and Settlers. 



Sll 



i ttauad 



U tho voyo^ ucroas the Attnntic hoe bE>en reduced to between five and 
nx tlays, MO that between London and Colombo (under 7,000 miles) 
tnsf j-et be regularly accomplished in abont seventeen or eighteen 
dajii, inclndin;; stoppages. Itiit in the meantime we may well 
" many persons who annually lui^Tnte to Alj^ers or Egypt to 
Ui EnRlish winter thiit a few days more o( a pleasant voyage, 
little additional trouble and ttxiieuse, will ctvrry them to one 
oCHm fairest, most genial, and most interestuig islands in the 
^ An Edon of the EaAera wave. 

Among other attractions of Ceylon connected with the situation 
if lU comparative fre«<lotu from cyclones, hurricanes, enrthquakea 
or other volcanic disturbances. The preat stoniis which [wriodically 
Kgitalo the Bay of Bengal, and sgmetitiies, in terrific cyclones, carry 
deatructiun to shipping and property on the HooghJy and along the 
oout as far south as Madnis. seldom rvach the island, unleits it be 
ai its extreme northern cojist. A^ain, if Java and tho Eastern 
Archipelago boast of a richer soil than is generally to be found in 
Oeylon, it is owing to the volcanic conditions which moke them the 
Mvnc of frci]ii<-nt earthijiialccs and eruptions, the utmost verge of 
wfatoh just touchea our eastern shoro al Batticaloa and Trincom&lee 
in scarcely perceptible undulations. On tho west, again, Ceylon is 
•qually outside the region of thi- hurricanes which, oxl^^'nding from 
thA MoEambiqne Channel, visit sometimes so disastrously the coasts 
of Madagiumr, Mauritius, and Zanzibar. The wind nnd rain storms 
which periodically usher in the monsoon occasionally inflict damage 
on crops, but there is no comparison in this ronixict lietween tho 
rialca attaching to cultivation in our isUnd and those expericJiced in 
Java and Manritiiu. 

NATt-RAL BkAUTT. 

Bnt now as to the place itself. It has been well and truly aaid 
Out " Ceylon, from whatever direction it is appronched, unfolds a 
■Moe of loveUnesH and grandeur unsurpassed, if it be rivalled, by 
any land in the universe." No one, unless his liait bn coincident 
with the height o( the rainy season, is diitappointiil wltb the beauty 
^ (be outlook and the vegetation of the island. It iK one great 
D ganlen, ami the paradise therefore of the botanist ; but it Is 
' hsts interesting to the naturuliAl gimerally, to the anti- 
BV|iillitli. the orientalixt, and the sociologist — in a word, to the int«l- 
ligent tniTellcr, It has always struck nte as wonderfol that to 
Lord Tennyson, who has never sctin the tropics with bin own eyes, 



212 Ceylon : its AttTOclions to Visitors and Settlers. 




vre are indebted for the most adequate descriptions of tropiol 
vegetation and Bcenery. " Enoch Aiden," for instance, contains 
passage after passage exactly realised in Ceylon. Visitors from 
America and Northern India have vied with those from Europe and 
Australasia in going bo far as to pronounce Ceylon, for natnial 
beauty, historical and social interest, to be " the ahowplace of the 
universe," and I have now, to some extent at least, to jnstify such 
exuberant language. The island is well-nigh surrounded by a coral 
reef, across which, during the monsoons, 

The league-long rollars thunder on tlie shore; 

a shore cohered for the greater portion of its circuit with one of 
most useful and graceful of palms, of which it has been song 



Thoae cocoa-palms not fair in woods. 
But singly seen and eeeu afar,^ 

When Bunlight pours its yellow floods, 
A column and its crown a star ! 



These palms grow far out, even on the sandy beach, so that 
often the spreading leaves seem to kiss the advancing waves ; and 
from the coast-line to the top of our highest mountain, at 8,296 feet 
above sea-level, there is no spot of ground without its vegetation, 
more or less attractive, interesting, or curious. Is it any wonder. 
the-n, that the belief should have sprung up, and the tradition have 
spread, especially among Mahomedans, that this sunny, luxuriant, 
highly -&ivoured island became the home of Adam and Eve after 
their expulsion from the Garden of Eden ? To this story we owe 
the fact that the reef running between the island and India got the 
name of Adam's Bridge, while the most conspicuous and majestic 
(tbongb not the higbestl mountain in the island became Adam's 
Peak. This same tradition was recalled with thankfulness by Arabi 
and his co-Egyptian exiles when deported to Ceylon, though a 
residence of some years in Colombo with its comparatively moist 
climate, and with nothing to do, no object in life, has made Arabi, 
at least, long to get back to a point nearer home. At the same 
time, I may say, in passing, that liis longing is no reflection upon 
the salubrity of the island, for, even in respect of a dry climate, 
the exiles, if they chose to move to the north or east, could enjoy 
conditions very much more allied to those of Egypt or Syria. 



I 





Ctyhn : in Allriutioni to TUiton and StttUri. 

Is CotOUBO. 

To nturo to the visilor NuppoitMl to be arrimg ftl Colombo, 
oa the piclore of liTtOK >^reen nlwayn pmmted along 
In flnda in iLu hitrlxiur itaolf, with its curious %-anety of 
bottts and boatmen, tonch to arrest attention. But 
will hxi fec'l, if fresh from Europe or Auvtralaaia, that 
ratered into « new world as lio st«pa aahore, and fmda 
long iu bun; streets teeming with n'prvtwntatives of 
ererjT Eaetem race and costume. Red and yellow are tho pre- 
colours, and both harmoniso well with the l>rown nkiii* in the 
brilliant Honahiue. The efferaiiiate-loolunf; but upright BinhaloM, 
of ooune, predominate, the men as well as women Wi'arinf; their 
luur coiled behind in heaY7 knots (the former using tortoiso8h«li 
the latter silver or other pina) ; tho darker and more manly 
TuhUb, with Hindua of every caste, come next. " Moormen," or 
dcMMidantfl, among them true sans of Father Abrvham in 
I, " bearded like the Pard." are numerous : with Malay poIic«- 
er messengers ; Afghan traders, tall, moscnl&r men in white 
often in big hoots ; a few Parsees, Chioeoe, and Kaffirs ; 
Portaguese, Uutch, and other Koropeaa descendants, with 
ikltng of the palvr bux» of Enropeami, making up the crowd. 
ibo haa two or three firat-class, besides some minor, botelfl, and 
atnnger is speedily surrounded by native pedlars, especially 
jemUers, with their supply of gems, from rare rubies, sapphires, 
eMa*-«yes, moonstobes, and pearls to first-claaa "Bmmmagvm" 
Among the gem-dealers, and in the crowded street* or 
of the native town, viaions of the "Arabian Nighle" are 
eomjitred up, and one recalls Miss Jowsbury's lines on witoeastog 

And when engirdled flxura* enira 

H««<d to thy bowmi'a KUttering slorei 
I •« Aladdin In bis cavs; 

I follow tjinbad on the tborc. 

The scenu to the new arrival is, therefore, hcwilderingly interest- 
ing, not only in the novel life, hut also in the striking vegetation, 
|Ral flowering tree* like the £'ryt Anno indUa. the Poinciana Ttgia, 
Iht Xitt^trttramia regita, or tlie delightfiU tulip and cabbage trees 
bU tondiiig so much, with palms and crotons, ferns, and ereopus, to 
■«t off Colombo bungalows. 

■ 1 «1*«^ IcU k Dt-wMim*! thkl. Didm h* i« an eipart. ha oan tnliatilj bny 
CajloD gmu lo grcalai •dvanl«e« in London than in Coloiobo. 





i 



214 



Ceylon : Us Attractions to Visitors and Settlers. 



Colombo with its 130,000 people, occupying someel even square 
miles, is one of tbc- healthiest as well as most beautiful of tropical 
cities. Very deUghtful are the many driveH available over the 
smoothest of roads through the " Cinnamon Gardens " ; very inter- 
esting its fine Public Museum, due to the taste and enhghtenment 
of Governor Sir William G regory ; ' then there are its old buildings, 
such as the great Dutch Church of WoHendahl, its Buddhist and 
Hindu temples. Oriental, Ro}^, and other colleges ; the Eelani 
Hiver, and the Bridge of Boats — soon to be a thing of the past — and 
its beautiful, extensive, and winding lake, wiiich, whether gleaming 
in the sunshine or darkening in the storms of the monsoon, never 
loses its charm. From Colombo the visitor has a great variety of 
trips up and down, across and around the island, now made easily 
available, if he has the time to spare. There are local guide-boo^ 
to meet nearly every contingency ; but one of the most adequate, 
correct, and convenient series of routes for the traveller yet compiled 
is that supplied in the new edition of "Murray's Handbook to India 
and Ceylon," by our last Governor, Sir Arthur Gordon. It is 
impossible that I can notice more than a few of the features of two 
01 three of the main routes. The southern route from Colombo to 
Oalle — ere long to be served all the way by railway, through the 
enterprise of Governors Gregory, Gordon, and Havelock — runs close 
to the sea, forming a continuous avenue, the peculiarity being that 
for seventy-two miles one ia never out of sight of native house ot 
hut, or cocoanut palm. At Ealutara (the Richmond of Ceylon) 
and at other points, large or smaller rivers or arms of the sea are 
crossed ; here and there glimpses of the interior are obtained ; the 
purple zone of hills becomes visible, above which, sometimes clearly 
outlined against a glowing sky or dressed in soft white clouds, 
may be noted the strikingly prominent and far-famed Adam's Peak. 
Grassy expanses break the uniformity of the forest of palms and 
other fruit trees, and we frequently realise that 
So fair a scene, so green a sod, 
Our English fairies never trod. 



The Trip to Kands. 



But after an inspection of Colombo and its neighlKiurhood, and 
the gaining of some familiarity with the cocoanut and cinnamon 

' Hera the lecturer paused to eipreaa his deep regret that he mnst now aay 
" the late Sir William Gregory," in consequence of the death, on March G. o( 
one who was b, wise Oovemor and true triend of Ceylon and her people. 



4 



Cej/Um : iU AltracHont U VUitort and Sttllert. S15 

coknre of the western cooHt, tbe great deairo o( tbe visitor miint bo 
to pus, b; ibv splvmlid linoa of milwity which the Colony owes to 
tbe energy of such rulera an Sir Henry Ward, Kir Hercules Robinaon, 
Bir WUIiua Oragory, and Bir Arthur Gordon, from the warm and 
•ometimea uncomfortably hot low country to thu grand monntain 
plateaux and rangi^s of tho interior. Huro lies the territory com* 
prisod withiii the Kandian Kinpjom, which maintuin<s1 its inde- 
pendonce all through the Dutch and Portuguese eras, until finaJly 
tonquered by tho liriliiiti iu tbe yvn-r in which Wntorloo teas fought. 
The railway journey from C-oloiubo to Kandy, rising souo 1,600 
(wt attovtt sca-K'Vtl, is in itsolf a gri'ut treat. PaiMing away from 
the maritime belt o{ palms and tho suburbs of Colombo, tho 
tnveller obsvncs divtirtiiGod culture in fruit and vegetable 
gudetiB, in cinnamon and sugar-cane, before coming an a wido 
expanse of riccfieldi;, interspersed with topes of fruit trees and belts 
of jangl«. Th«n,aftt;r some thirty mik's, then,' an- more plantations 
of cocoanuta in rich river valleys,' and as the hills are approached, 
Soldn of dark gn««n Lilwrian coflw' are inti^rniNirscd with the lighter- 
coloured cacao shrub (tbe chocolate plant), whose large ripe criiuiton 
pods am simpcndcd from tbi^ stL-iiia ; and then the brighter green of 
the Im htidh in Bucce.isive plantationa is noted. Anon, a« tho train 
slowly cliniba into the mountains, rice fields carefully terraced marit 
thtj sidea of volloy and gorge, the »i\id green of ibo young poddy 
often C4>ntmHting in a wonderful way with the darker colouring of 
plantations or jungle. I)ut at KadiignnaMk, 1,700 foot aliove tbe se«, 
WD am merely touching the fringe of tho great planting enterprise 
of tho Central and I'va provinces. A run thence of ten miloB, 
or seventy-four from Colombo, bring* an to Kandy, tho last capital 
of a long line of kings ; a perfectly unique and charming highland 
town, set gem-tike in an amphitheatre, with lake, palace, pa\-ilion, 
and temples, the largi'st river in tho island close by, and the Royal 
Botanic GanleiiK, almost tho moat beautiful in the world, only 
thre« mih's away at feradeniya. Kandy is, among other things, 
tho most sacred of ntuldhlst towns, on aceouut of its KfaligawA 
temple, with the no-c&lled relic of Buddha's tooth, venerat^'d tlirough- 
OUt Bumiah, Siaui, and evin China— so that bt^re we have tbe 
" Mecca " or " .limtuJem " to which millions of Buddhliti iu the 
EVr Eastern lands turn. 

• OtUa titcnt is vialblo in tall llemr a saUtary Talipot palm— dw 
' t vt Um faruilj, anil lh« iumI vqiuImIoI of dotal duplaji on a baa 
•Hjr laat and npwarJt. and which Bowcn ooif oaem In iu UIo. attct lUtj or 
iiMi y*an, and then din duvn. 




216 Ceylon : its Attractions to Visilort and Settlers. 

The Higher Planting Dibtkicts. 

The visitor bent on seeing the higher regions of the interior and 
the great scenes of plantation industry will continue his journey 
irom Kanily by railway to Gampola, NawaJapitya, Hatton, and 
Naimoya. He can also see interesting country anil splendid cacao 
plantations in the Dumbera valley, near to Kandy town, or close 
to a, northern branch of the railway running to Matale. TraveUing 
southward, and climbing another 2,000 feet, be will get to the 
entrance of the more extensive planting districts, now almost 
entirely devoted to tea (though with some coffee and cinchona), of 
Dikoya, MaskeUya, and Dimbula. Those comprise nearly 100,000 
acres of cultivated land, of which no less than S5,000 are now under 
tea, the staple planting product of the island. All this has been 
formed out of what was only twenty-hve years ago, in the time of Sir 
Hercules Robinson, an almost unbroken expanse of upland forest, 
and which some years earlier had been the favourite bunting region 
of Bir Samuel Baker and other mighty sportsmen. But now we 
have in this ancient " Wilderness of the Peak "the homes of hundreds 
of settlers on tea, coffee, and cinchona plantations. These planters, 
many of them with their wives and children, hve in comfortabb as 
well as picturesque bungalows, and dkect the labour of thousands 
of contented, well-paid native lahom'ers ; Tamils from Soutbem 
India, who are free to come and go at a month's notice ; or Sinhalese 
from the low country, who chiefly supply the domestic service, and 
are also artificers, cartmen, io. Indeed, villages of the latter and 
of petty traders with their shops, &c., have sprung up as if by magic 
where a generation ago for a hundred square miles there was no human 
life. This region is made readily accessible to the visitor by a grand 
mountain railway, which is open for 132 miles from Colombo to an 
altitude above the sea-level of 5,290 feet, successive sections of which 
beyond Gampola we owe to the energy of such Governors as Sir 
Hercules Robinson, Sir William Gregory, Sir Arthur Birch and Sir 
James Longden. It remained, however, for Sir Arthur Gordon, after 
many years of controversy, to secure sanction for the crowning and 
most important section, by which, in the course of next year, this 
first-class main Une will be carried from Dimbula across the moun- 
tain plateau, attaining an altitude of over (!,000 feet, and passing 
into the important and fertile province — and ancient principality— of 
Uva. I shall deal with this great work in its probable economio 
results for settlers later on ; but meantime, from the point of view 
of the visitor and traveller, there can be no doubt of the entire sue- 



Cvyton : its Attraetiont to Vititori and SttUtrt. 



eoMOf the CoIombO'K&ndy-DiuibuU&nd-Uva line aa one of 
gTMt " scenic railwajra " of the world, if I ui&y use ui AoioricKn 
•xprcMiion. ^Vbun Sir Charles Dilkc, as a young man, travelled 
foand the Anglo-Saxon world of Dependencies and independent 
SlklM eonsUtuting " Qni&Uir Britain," ti« wroto that onljr in 
Zakluid had he seen anything to equ&l the beaut; of the mountain 
Ions, Mtmcry, and M'K«!t«ilion of the Central Province of Ceylou. 
Sig men, mountain torrents, cascades, and waterfalls of no mean 
Mnincnou divenify the lundwaix*; and tliiiiigh thi.Tu luity bo no 
Ipectal beauty about wide areas of carefully -tended tea or coffee 
■brubi, even though dotted lioro and there with picturexquu cin- 
ebom topea, or occasionally diversifiod by the vivid colooring of 
fptjmy patenas, yet never is the background of forest and mountain 
iMige ab*«nt. But neither 8ir Charlts DUke nor any past visitor 
to Ceylon has enjoyed so great a treat in tropical upland scenery 
aa will be afTonled by th« now roili^'ay route, by which the traviiUvr 
will bo enabled to pa.is from the western alope.i of the central moun- 
tain range, through sylvan scenes on the plateau, until a bur«t is 
madu by ml^an!i of a iterititi of tunncU and viaducts into the ma^- 
nifioeot Uva amphitheatre. Here rolling grassy nphinds and well- 
enltiTat«d iihelt4-rc<l valleys, mtb irrigation stnianiH glancing tn lh« 
•onligbt, are set as a lovely picture in a. border of the darker green 
<rf pUntations am) forest, while the framework iM found in the lofty 
pMk> and ridges of the everlasting hills. 

The mountain sanatorium of Newera Elliya— with its Laks 
Qnigary, th<i drive to Uabgalla Experimental Gardi-n«, and the mom* 
ing or afternoon climb to the top uf redrotallagalla, the highest 
point in the island— io o( importancu to the health <if residents toil- 
ing on Uiu jilainx, and is nut without interest to vi.titoni. Itut the 
aaccnt of Adam's Peak will be more to the taste of the enterprising 
traTellor. Fnini the Mankciiya side, on which tea pbintations run 
■p to fi,000 feet, leaving only a little over 2.800 feet to climb 
thiongb jungle until the rocky cone is roacbed, the ordeal is not 
% trying one. But very much more djflloult, awl, of course (in 
Bndfthist eyes cspoctalty), far morv roorilorions, is it to start from 
Bktnapoora, " tbe City of Gems," lying on the Kaluganga, soma 
e south of the Peak, and only sixty feet abo\-e sea-lerei. A 
I tiaveller (t)r. Alan Walters), with some experience of moon* 
ibing, declares the ascent of Adam's Poak (from this side) 
re arduons than that of any mountain of the same altitnda 
^ (T,86S (evt) with which he is acquainted, thu stifling beat In the 
Law OMUilry of course adding to the difficulties ; while the hut part, 



>f the ^^1 
.veiled ^H 
a New ^^n 



I 

i 



218 Ceylon : its Attractions to Visitors and Settlers. 

where the climber is described as hanging by a chain on the \ 
rough face of a hot white mouDtain coDe, is an experience best 
Bulted to Alpine Ciub men. Nevertheleas, the same cone caji be 
easUy Burmounted from the north-eastern side, even by ladies, and 
the reward is great ; for the panorama available from the summit ia 
among the grandest in the world, few other mountains presenting 
the same unobatruoted \-iew over land and sea. One thinks of Etna 
or Vesu\ius, or still better of the Japanese Fusiyama, but in each 
case without the volcano, there being no evidence of seismio dis- 
turbance in Ceylon. It is no wonder that Adam's Peak should he 
classed among the list of sacred mountains. Rising in an isolated, 
well-defined pyramid, it stands as a sentinel to guard the enchanted 
land within the zone of lofty hills that encircle the chief Eandian 
province, while on the west and south the uninterrupted view from 
the summit extends far over undulating plains whose rivers in 
silver threads wind their wiLy to the palm-fnnged shore of the 
Indian Ocean. 

On the Peak both sunrise and sunset aSbrd experiences not 
readily forgotten ; but most striking of all is the peculiar appear- 
ance known as the " Shadow of the Peak," which ia seen, in certain 
favourable conditions of the atmosphere, at sunrise. An enormous 
elongated shadow of the mountain is projected to the westward, not 
only over the land, but over the sea, to a distance of seventy or eighty 
miles. As the sun mounts higher, the shadow rapidly approaches 
the mountain, and appears at the same time to rise before the 
spectator in the form of a. gigantic pyramid. Distant objects, a 
hill or river, or even Colombo itself, forty-five miles away, may be 
distinctly seen through it, so that the shadow has been compared 
to a veil hung between the observer and the low country. It seems 
to rise rapidly, approach, and even fall back on the spectator, until 
in a moment it is gone. 

In the pilgrimage season the so-called footprint and shrine on 
Adam's Peak are the resort of thousands of the people, who may be 
seen winding up its steep sides, often carrying with them very aged 
relatives, to gain the merit which Buddhists especially connect with 
the pilgrimage ; and the scene on the top, with an assembled crowd 
responding to their priests and bursting forth into loud c 
" Sadhu ! " as the morning sun appears, is very striking. 



Ctijion : ill Attractions to yititors and SrHlen, 210 

Geu-DioocNO. 

Prom RfttniLpura, again, iiitvn-tttiDK nsits can be paid to tho 
Getn-digginK region in the neighboarhood ; for, thongh some dis- 
awlit hao bit^n aist upon tbi> (.-nti-rpriiw ttiroii)[h certain recent 
Mperieoccs of Kngliah capitalists— not wisely directed, as some of 
IM thitilt — yi't it ix Miidriiiablit that from tinio immemorial this part 
of C«jlon. and olher districts, too, have yielded valuable gems in 
gr«Ht variety, and sapphires, rubies, and cats' -cji;« am snmotiines 
(oond worth a prince's ransom, besides many others leas rated. Only 
last yoar, singlo uncut ^tomx, raluod at fmm £l,000 to i.'l,l>00 
■terlinK, wltu tlup,' out, and ibe calculation seems a safe one that, 
including wivcw and children, nol.lim!* than twi-nly thouonnd of 
tlic Sinlialeiie are dt.-pi'iid6nt oo this gem-diggijig industry, so tbol 
the total finds of marlcetabie stonea cnnnot well be lees than 
£30,000 a year. Of coiirae the gruiti'r portion of tb« gttms found 
ue never reported publicly, or at the Customs, but are taken away 
on tbcir persons by nntivo deali^rs to onu nr cither of tho miuiy 
Rajofat' Courts in India, where ready porcbaaers are tbinid. jaet bs 
newly all the pearls obtained at each of our C-eylon poorl fiiherief— 
to be olludt^ to Khurlly— go in the same direction. None of thu 
English syndicates that havo hitherto engaged in gem-digging in 
Ceylon bas, so far as I know, taken the full precautions — through 
mMfainory. Ac.— that an' adopti.'d in working the diamond fields in 
Sooth Africa : and significant slories are afloat of how native em- 
ploy^ found it e\pedient to dinappear in the middle of their engage- 
ments, and never retume<l to claim balances due of wages, not 
Ofilnarily fonrnken by a Sinhab-Me or Tamil labonrcr. The infer- 
MiM in cWr, that ibn excusi' of sickness or tbe di-atb of a " grond- 
folhor " covered the determination to secrvt^ and bolt with a gem 
dexterously picked up and of more or 1ms nluo. 



pLUUnAOO UtKINO. 

Bnt, wbfttf^'M- may be nvld of tho Ceylon gem-digging industry— 
and about thi> iiiteJvat attaching tn it for tbe visitor, thi^ro can bo no 
CKTil-^it is indisputable lltat both intervst and importance attoeh 
to th« gr«At native mining of plundmgu or graphite, the one 
ninsrol of commercial importance (apart from precious stones) that 
figures largely in our Customs rvtnms. Tba exports of plntnbogo I 
a»y at onoe refer to as rising in quaoUly for deocnaiol periods as 



t 



Ceylon : its Attractions to Visitors and SettUri. 



1840- 081 c 
ISfiO -23,021 

1860-76,660 ., 
1870-36,246 . 




1891 = 400,268 



Most of the pita or mines— for liome of them are several huodredi 
of feet in depth — are worked in a very primitive fashion; bnt 
European methods are now beginning to be applied through pnmpiiig 
and other machinery. The preparation of the plumbago for packing 
and shipment in stores and factories in Colombo chiefly by Sinhalese 
women ia very interesting to visitors ; and they should also try to 
see the peeling, drying, and packing of cinnamon bark, the manu- 
facture of cocoanut oil — for which there are some of the largest 
hydraalic presses of the kind in the world — and the final processes 
connected with other products before shipment. 



FUKTHEK EXCUBBIONS AND SpORT. 



niiea^^ 



Returning to Batuapura, a boat trip thence for thirty nulfia' if 
the Kaluganga to the coast at Ealutara can he recommended to the 
visitor desirous of seeing something of river and low-country forest 
scenery in all their wild beauty and luxuriance. Equally enjoyable 
are boat trips through the back^t'aters, canals, and lagoons, along 
the western and some parts of the eastern coasts of the island, 
so admirably described by Miss Gordon Gumming in her " Two 
Happy Years in Ceylon." 

Time would fail me to touch on many other excursions open to 
visitors, and especially to those desirous of sport, whether it be the 
hunting of elephant, wild buffalo, bear, or crocodile in the low 
country, or of elk in the hill regions, and of cheetah contmoQ to 
both. The Hambantota district of the Southern Province ia (he 
favoiu-ite resort of the visitor- sportsman seeking for big game, to 
which experienced Malay trackers are ready enough to guide them. 
Here also may be seen, by the seaside, pans from which salt of the 
pureat description is gathered, generally by prison labour, for island 
consumption and sometimes for export. But of kite years, at intervals, 
there have come to the island parties of ^iaitors (including ladies) 
determined to see the island more thoroughly, and to take advan- 
tage of such sport as offered along several comparatively lonely 
routes. These ^sitors travel with the aid, chiefly, of light buUock 
carts along the roads leading through the far south, east, or north of 
the island. To such the journey trom the Southern Province into 
Uva vid the Ella Pass — a scene combining sublimity and beauty (o 



Cejibm : its A ttraetiont ta Vititon and StttUn. S91 

Itt iinoqn&lled (lc^re«— and thenc« by & good c&rmge roftd 
on the eastern coiUit, will nlwaja Iw »ttnictivi>. 
But »bo-n kJl other Iripa available in the island, that to th« 
BuiUSD Citikk" — the niins of (he ancieiit capitals of Aminulha- 
im and PoUon&nia — will pmbKbly tw Lbn luoitt intvroiitiiiK tn tho 
■talUgtnt vinitor, Bir Willinni nnd Ladjr Oregory are no mean 
on mch' a subjwt, aiid they hnvo told me that nowhere 
brongfaont India hnvo they seen dnj-tbin^ more interesting or at- 
iTelhan the n^uinins ii( Anunidhapunt. Thitt wns tht'cnpitalof 
bjkm 2,400 years ago, and becAine a place of great magnificence and 
ktion, covering a larifo arta about thi! coiniiK'nccinL-nt of tho 
Ruutuui «nt, and continued to prosjx^rfor some centuries (bUowinff. 
.TtntuaUy tho irru])tionH of Tamil invadcrx tnim Boiithcm India 
its ruin, and afker 1,200 years of pre-eminence, this capital 
lo bfi abandoned, the place falling <)iuckly into decay, population 
fepartiag or dying out, while the jungle buried tho town out of view, 
ftill stood up through the (oreat, however, four great dogobav, 
rtifiei&l bcIMike structures built over relics of Duddha, rising from 
fiO to two fort, and Rovenng in onu ciuw as much lui eight acntR 
lib a mass of bricks sufficient lo build a solid wall ten fe«t high 
am London to Kdinburgh. The plac«i altogether lH«anie one of 
iMcdation, and Itoberl Knox, the Englbbiuan t-ftcapinR from th« 
territory over 200 years ago, in IraToUing down a river* 
id, ditscribod thu neighbourhood am " a world of hewn vtonos, which, 
•oppose, formerly wore buildings." "Buried" the ancient dty 
vactjcaliy mmained, and the district ^ncrolly neglected, untU abonl 
oty years ago, when 8ir William Gregory, as Governor, turned 
attention to the old capital and province. Hi* good work wm 
ratly extended by Sir Arthur Gordon, and it would be a long 
hoogb intcrotting story to Irll you of what has iHwn etttcUA 
hiough the restoration of irrigation tanks and channels— some of 
of encrmowjt pxtcnt — the condniction of rood k, bridge, and 
public works by engintt-rs, amongst whom are vcU-knoim 
Pellows of thix Institute.' Apart from the construction of reproduc- 
iv« works for the benefit of thu nativcH, enough bos been clvaicd 
1 the city to show temples, palaces, monasteries, baths 
. . . tnonimiMitB and pilss atupendotu. 
Of which ths very ruins an ln>nimidena I 

SnfiM it b«re to tay that now the trip lo Annradhapura t 

■ Pnatdiitgi, tioyal CoUmidl ImtituU vol. xt. p. SIS. ^^»r tm "Irri- 
lin in Osylon, AnoJcnt and Hod«ni." By Jsm« B. UoM*. U.lniLCX. 



CeyUm : its Attractions to Visitors and Settlers. 

that well repays the ordinary -v-isitor, while to the archmologist, the 
naturalist, and other specialists it affords the greatest interest 
There is room for improvement in the meana of transit ; but it is 
expected that henceforward, during the dry lisiting season — 
Jajiuary to May — a two-horse coach will be run all the way (com 
the railway terminus at Watale for sixty-eight miles to Ana- 
radhapura, where good accommodation at the roomy Government 
Eest-houae can be had. Eighty miles south-east o£ Anuradbapura 
lie the ruins of the second ancient capital, PoUonarua, which 
continued a place of royal residence for some 600 years after the 
former was abandoned. The Government Architect, Mr. J. G. 
Smither, since retired, did much under Governor Gregory to clear, 
measure, sketch, and photograph the ruins of both towns ;- whilB 
now, a civil officer, Mr. H, C, P. Bell, with a force of labonrera, is 
engaged in exploring and digging out Annradhapura. But at the 
present rate of progress many long years must elapse before even 
all the more interesting portions of these buried cities can be 
uncovered ; and it has been suggested that extraneous aid, after the 
precedent of the " Cyprus Exploration Fund," might be sought. 
Indeed, an enterprising American journalist has already been 
making inquiries as to whether a syndicate of his countrymen would 
be allowed to take part. To such a proposal Sir William Gregory, 
and, I believe, Sir Arthur Gordon are not favom-able, although to 
a partial experiment on the site of PoUonarua alone less objectti 
might be offered. 



Round the IstiiKD. 



"^ 



Before leaving the subject of the routes and sights open to the 
visitor and traveller, I would refer to t!jc voyage round the island 
by either of two well-found, comfortable steamers of the Ceylon 
Navigation Company, now regularly running. The circuit is made 
in less than a week, with time to land and see a little of several 
ports. Thus, leaving Colombo south-about, dalle, the old port 
of call for the mail steamers, with its beautiful but rather 
dangerous harhour, is first touched at ; then Hambantota, with its 
Bait pans and dry climate ; BattieaSoa, near to one of the greatest 
scenes of rice and cocoanut cultivation in the island, and its lagoon 
fa,mous for " singing fish " ; and nest Trincomalee, the head-quarters 
of the naval commander-in-chief in the East Indies, and one of the 
great harbours of the worliL In some respects it ia more aooesaible, 
capacious, and even more beautifnl than the far-fiimed Sydney har- 
bour, than the Derwent basin at Hobart, or the Golden Horn leading 



Ctijlon : iu Altroftiotu to VUtlort and SellUn. 



323 



to Bui Fmnci«<?o— nil of which 1 have liail tbo privilono of oom- 
pwiiig by personal iiiBpoction with Trinoomivldc — or, I bciievci, tfann 
ibe Bpleniliil harbour of Itio Av J&netro. LaiKl-htokiyl, tuid still u 
Ml ioluid Uke, the broail expanse of waters, numeroas beantiful 
Uluuia, rocky hewlliuiiln, togothi^r with woody accUviiivM mitl lovtfii' 
inn mouDtaiiui ia tlie backgronnJ, conibino to form at TrinoomslM 
KO Oriontd Windcrinirru. But, i\laa I thoru is m^itbor population 
nor Indc to make use of this harbour, wliich is on tlio wrong Bid« 
of the island to hn of Mcn*ioe to Itiu Oolony ; so that Trincomaltrc 
ia of \-iUue maiuly for the navy guanhng the trade of the IJay of 
Bengal and for Imperial int<^reata. 

Tlio nest [wrtM touchwl at an small ones on the northern penin- 
•uU of Ja&ia, the scene of as dense a population, as interesting and 
T»ried cultit'ation in grain, vegetables, and fruit, and of an valuable 
odocatioual and inission work, as is to bo found in Ceylon. Later 
on the i'nutubcn, or " snake " channid, is jusHtil tlirough, and tho 
opportunity in afforded torvisitinj; thegreat Hindoo temple at Itamis- 
ama [SGU feel long by 072 tviii wide), which, thouf^ii actually situated 
on Indian t«rrritory, in closely connected with Oylon. 

PeAIIL FiBIIKItlKB. 

R«tamlng through the (iolf of Manaar. the sloamer pM«M close 
lo the pearl oyster banks ofTArtpo and Dutch Bay, where the piiarl 
llaheries for which Ccylnn lins so long hi^en famous have been held. 
Ona of the most anccessful was that of 1801, when a tSahpry 
of 44,100,000 oysters, onc-tbird of which went as the share of 
Um boatmen -divers, yielded to the Government for thi' r<>maindcr 
I a sum than D8fl,770 mptvs. Tbis fishery last4>d 48 days, 
I oontrollHl by tlie nov<Tnm(Tnt Agent of the provinc4:> and a 
» inspector, while a bare spot on th« ahore was for the 
KaonTerled into a hnsy, popnloun town with many thousands of 
These comprised dealers in pearU and tboir servanU), who 
pitlmctml from all parts of India, divers and their relatives from 
iroff as the Prrxian Gulf, iMiutiijue kei-pent, Ac., all of whom 
) as if hy nrngic so soon oa the fif-bery was closei). Thu 
ajnUm caught each day are ttronght aj<bon-, c<ninl4'd out into threo 
lMft|M \ty thtt boatmen, two of which the Government Affi-nt tAkrs 
onr Mid offers for sale by pnbtic auction at m) much per 1,000. 
Tbo bayrTN th<-u HHiMriuUnd fur Uu^maelvM the washing of the 
OfBttm (or pearls. The diving is done aftt>r a primitivp fashion, and 
tiM longosl timo a diver has remained tinder water, ao far aa Ibo 
rcoorda of the fisheries c«n be tnisled, is 1 minate 40 wcondit. 



L 




221 Ceylon: its Attractions to Visitors aiid Settlers. 

Ceylon pearls were sent in eight varieties (according to shape and 
ptiritj) by the King of Ceylon 300 years b.o. to the Emperor Aaoka in 
Northern India, along with precious sapphires, rubies, and other gems. 
Apart from the rich harvests of pearls in the years of the native 
kings, and during the Portuguese and Dutch occupation of the 
shores of Ceylon, within the British era the official receipts from 
pearl fisheries may be summarised as follows : — From 1796, when 
British rule commenced, to 1837, the total receipts were i'946,803, 
against an expenditure of ^£51,762. From 1 888 to 1854 there was no 
regular fishery ; nor again in 18G1-2 ; nor from 1864 to 1873 ; nor 
in 1876-6, 1878, 1882-3-5-6 ; and yet, in the remaining seventeen 
years, Including 1891, no lees than 845 million pear) oysters were 
fished, the Government share of which sold for i'614,597. The 
highest net revenue in any one year since 1814 was the £86,000 
realised Ia>st year. The average price then paid for the oysters waa 
£&. Ss. Sd. per thousand ; while in 1880 it was as low as 15s, id., 
and in 1860 as high as £12. 17s. lOd. per 1,000, according to the 
abundance of the fishery and the size of the pearls found each day. 
Unfortunately, I have to add that there is no prospect of anothw 
Ceylon pearl fishery for aomo years to come. 



Ceylon ab a Field for "Colonibts" oh Bbttlbbs. 



as. ^HH 



Having now dwelt at some length on Ceylon's chief attra 
to visitors, and incidentally alluded to a few of the exceptionaUj 
interesting native industries, I must next very briefly indicate what 
can fairly be said of the Colony as a field for "settlers," chiefly 
from the Mother Country, with, it may be, some from the European 
Continent, America, or Australasia. And first, I must at once aver 
that Ceylon, like the tropics generally, and India, is no place (or 
the " working man " in the ordinary acceptance of the term. And 
yet no one need go there expecting to prosper — be he gently or 
lowly bom — unless he is prepared for hard work. Indeed, the 
anxieties and difficulties attending trade and enterprise connected 
with the East have of late years heen so great, and so aggravated 
by the uncertainty of exchange, that business men in the chief 
towns of India and Ceylon have been heard to en\7 the typical 
British, Australian, or American working man, with his possibility 
of realising 

Eight hours' work. 

Eight hours' play, 

Eight hours' sleep. 

And 8«. a day I 




Cej/hn: its AttraetUms to Vistlort a?td SettUrt. 

But bn th&t KB it mny, the safa counsel in r(>(;ar(l to liidiit, the 
Itnfiiea, and espMii&lly Ceylon, is that no one, imlesti a capitalist, 
IriMMilil so out without a tlelinite engagement, ofiice, or at least ihii 
at employment in view. In othfir wordx, no one should go 
Id the island " Becking." And yot in the eaj-ly, rough pionevring 
i4aya nf planting, Koine fifty to fifty-five years Ago. muiy yoiini; men 
to the island on chance and got on well. But that wiw when 
won ]iIonty of work to \m donn in opmini; coffee plfuitatioas, 
iDiloslry that continued fairly prosperoUR for soinn forty rears, 
B&ittin with n fungun pent, which oan only be compared, in ita 
ive effects, to the phylloxera on the vine. Still, tlio tKlond 
be the Ixtst schDol n\'iulahle on the world's aurhffl 
agriculturists. Planters Iraimil in Oylon in the 
lent of coloured labour — and nowhere arc nativo l&bourerR 
with more consideration— are now to he found cultivating 
pepper, tobaooo, &c., in the Malayan PeninsnU, Sumatra, 
Borneo, sugar in North Queensland, pioneering with coflee 
in th« highhinda of Hast Africa, impro^ing the cacao and coffco 
Iculturo of the West Indies, growing oranges in Florida, grapes and 
iruit in California, or cupcrin tending plantations in BrasU ; 
vfaUe two es-Ceylon planters of experii-nc* have just returned from 
a timns* Andean eipedition in Fern, where th«y explored and Hclectfld 
laf]fe areas of line landn for tropical products, along the tribu- 
of the Amazon, for the I'erui ian Corporation of London. To 
have earned the rcputiition of U'ing a retiahk experienced Ceylon 
|ilaat«r is, thorc(ori>, pretty well a passport to respect, if not profit- 
iIb employment, all round the tropical and snbtropicsJ world. 
In Um island itself, however, Txa bas now taken the placa of 
BComta, the area planted rising from 10 acros in 1967, or 1,000 
nem in 1875, to over *2I>0,000 acres at the present time, tb« aannal 
nvtparUof this staple simnltaneoosly expanding from 1.000 Ih. to 
t68!oOO,OOOIb. last year. This is an unprecedMited development in 
[Um Uaiory of any planting iudustr}- in the short period of fift««o yean, 
'while there is the probability of the Colony attaining to an export of 
|lOO,OOn,000 lb. in the counu) of the next few yean. Tbia should 
raUeve the moUiLT country of the neoeesity for going beyond Iior 
p«n dependnicies— Itxlia and Ceylon— 'for tbls Important artiohi of 
nniTeniil contdunption in 

ill* cii]Mi llial chrsr, but not inebriate. 

' Tbero is also the guarantee to oonsonura of Ceylon and Indian 
teu that the ntmost ole«iiiin«M ud ear* an observed in thsir pre- 



Ion : its Attracti0ts to Visitors atid Settlers. 

pftration, macliinory being freely utilised ; while teas of the finest 
aroma and most delicate character, with a mitiimuiQ of tannin, can 
be suppHed from the higher altitudes. 

llaUke coffee, which could only be profitably grown on land 
between such hmits as 1,500 and 4,500 to 6,000 feet of altitude, 
tea in Ceylon flomishea under suitable confUtions of soil and rain- 
fall, almost from the coast-line up to the plateaux and slopes of 
our highest hill ranges at 6,000 to 6,500 feet above sea-level. There 
is, therefore, far more scope for tea than there was for coffee culture, 
and the moist, hot climate is admirably adapted for the plant, while 
a leaf crop is not nearly so exhausting to the soil as one of fruit. But, 
on the other band, the falling prices of recent years for tea generally, 
and the fear of over-production — of supply outrunning a demand 
profitable to the planter — ^forbida me to say that there is scope in 
Ceylon for more tea planters unless they be yoimg men with capital, 
who, after learning their business, are prepared to take up existing 
properties, develop their economic cultivation and improve the 
factory " preparation," and so advance the enterprise. For let me 
say that there is still a fair margin of profit to be obtained from ten 
culture in the island under favourable conditions.' 

Apart from tea, however, there is scope for the investment of 
capital, and room for settlers in Ceylon. In the low country the 
cultivation of the Cocoanut Palm is often profitable, though not 
generally a favourite with Europeans on account of the long period 
required to bring the tree into profitable bearing — some twelve to 
fifteen years. But there are favourable situations, notably on the 
north-west coast, where there are suitable Crown lands available for 
purchase, and where in from ten to twelve years paying crops of 
nuts can be gathered from palms carefully planted and attended to. 
And this is an industry that is hkely to have a prosperous future 
before it, in view not only of the value of the oil for many pur- 
poses — soap and candle making among the rest — but of the coir 
fibre from the bosk, the latest use for the latter being to fill in 
the sides of our men-of-war behind the iron-plating, A new 
demand of late years has sprung up in confectionery for " desic- 
cated cocoanut," of which not less than 1,600,000 lb. was exported 
from Ceylon last year. Of cocoanut oil the export has trebled in 
ten years, and of other products of the palm (coir, copra, nuts, Ac.) 
the shipments have correspondingly advanced. The whole of the 
products of this palm exported fi'om Ceylon aggregated about 18^ 

' Sen paper on "The Tea Industry of Ceylon," by Mr. J, 
Pivciedingi o/ tht Jioyal Colonial htstitutt for 1887-8, page 85. 




C^j/hu: ill AttTtietiont to Vititors and SeUlert. SST 

Bfaipping loDi, worth i! 400,000 twelve yoara a(^, in 1880, a^niit 
about <I0,000 shipping tons, worth (ibout & million HttTliog lost year. 
Tht-rv &ru other directions in which, as practical anlhoritiei in 
Ceylon maintain, Inrgo areas of fine liuid in tliP low country wlU yet 
be utilised (or agricnlliural purposoa by capitahsts and planters when 
fftilmy extenaioQ is carried oal inore freely towards the south, 
north-west, and north. Rice, Caoao, and Tobacco way bo cuJti- 
vatwl, for instance, under some of the great tanks of late years uad« 
availohlo for imKalion, and evun plantations of valuable Initt and 
limber trco» may yet bo started by British colonists. But so long 
ilion is conc(.-utratod on soiuu ono atapln, like coffee or lea, 
of profitable Rrowtb, within easy reach of the shipping port, 
the healthier, UfAiist' mom op^ii, Mittlrd, and higher dia- 
ct ihti island, no one can blame planters lor decUning to go 
tetber afiehl. 

PWSTISO ASD RkTTLEMENT WITHIS TUB MOUNTAIN Zo.S'S. 

As regards the higher regions of the Central Mountain Zone, 
which for over fifty ya^n havo \u3va chiefly identified with the 
planting enterprise, it may be suporfiuous lo say that no more 
AttraotivD and, in largo divisions, healthier country for Mttlsmmt 
exiats anj-wluTi' on Lhi> glotni. Fnim 11,000 feet upwards, and 
wpMiaily in the uplands of Dimbuhi, Dikoya, and Miukeliya, the 
elimate is on niMiHy " |)<>rC(tct " as is posxible, with an average tt^mpc- 
ratnn; of fnim M to GM degrees all the year runnd. Wcrred by first- 
cEaaa railwayA and roadx, and with resident nie<lical officers, clrrgy- 
nlnn,andev(T^O'<rUlinl^ducationala'lvantAg<■H,it iNno wonder, though, 
thiaquarliir liaii liti'n cotuparativeJy iHrrmatii-'nlly HrttlM by planters, 
many of whom, with their families, occupy comlortabli< bungalnwn, 
aail only nxii Kngland when the children rtM^uire to Iw brought home 
to complete ibeit education. Ordinarily, of course, the planter in 
India and Ceylon in ruganliil on a biril of paaxage. Each young 
nun Doming oat has thought of fire, or at most t«n years as the 
fetioi of his"exilu": but in C«^ylon, an in the West Indioa, in 
tli» beallhiur parts, prolonged if not permanent remdfncf is likely to 
become the rule, and evm now there nro colonists who have been 
out twenty, thirty, aye, forty and fifty years, who declare they havo 
najoyeil better health, and encounlercd fewer risks to life, than if 
they bad niiiiiinml to face the trying winleni and treacherous 
springs of the mother country, t winh the Kngluih Lifi: Auuimnoe 
Offices would note this fact, and rcmoA-e tha tuuieoaesafjr eilra 
ebaig« for ruudvooai in tha iiland of Ceylon. 

• 1 






228 Ceylon; its Attractions to Visitors and Settlers. 



Forests and other Reserves of Ceown Land, 

I may he remindetl. however, that nil the land availahle in the 
hill regions 1 apoak of has been taken up for planting, and indeed that 
too much of the hill foreate has already Iveen ckared. To remove 
the latter impression, it is only necessary to climb one of our higher 
mountains, like Adam's Peak or Pedrotallagalla, and look down on 
the vast extent of forest in alt directions still remaining. Indeed, 
an order issued some years ago by the Secretary of State to sell 
no more Crown land abo^'e 5,000 feet will have to be relaxed unless 
progress is to be stopped, nioro especially now that a raDway is 
shortly to be opened across the very highest district, where consi- 
derable reserves of such land may well lie ntilised, if not tot 
planting, at any rate for gardening and pastoral purposes. In place 
of selling, however, the Crown may well lease out portions of such 
lands for grazing purposes to carry stock in cattle, sheep, and even 
horses ; and I am aware that capitalists have already been offering 
to take up certain parts between Dimbula and Vva. on lease, with 
the condition of leading all large trees untouched, while dearing 
the undergrowth and introducing new and better fodder grass and 
good farm stock for breeding and market purposes from the 
Australian Colonies.' 

Tre Phovixce of Uva, 

But in speaking of the attraction to settlers in the upland heaHb- 
ful divisions of Ceylon, I would more especially refer to the ProviiiM 
of Uva, ere long to be connected by Governor Sir Arthur Goidoii's 
railway with the capital and shipping port. Within the area ol 
uncultivated land in this province there is room for verv considerable 
development ; we may even see Coffee planted again with snooesB 

' Altogether, in Cej-lon. only 2= million acres are cultivated oat of 1^ 
miUions of total citeat ; And, allowing (or tanks. lakM, i * 



ateless areaa, there must still be 3 million acres of good (or^l luid, with a 
Btill larger area ot low temh and open psslnTage land. The greater pottion 
of tha available Crown reserve land is. however, sitaated within the dtj stow 
o( the island; but, with the extension o[ irrigation hcilitiee. this diSonllj 
would be obviated or mitigated. The Egores for the areas within the nuurt 
and drj lones in Cejlon mST be given as follows: — 

Within moist lone acres 5.600,000 1.750.000 3.350.000 

dryKone „ 10. 800.000 1.000.000 fl.aoo.OOO 

.. 13.800,000 r S-7S0.00O IS.OMflOO 



Ce}/Um : t(« AUractiont to Vititcn and Settlert. 



r 

I In w«U-oboMD gardoii!, and thero is still an appreciable area under 
ihiD product in Uva. Cacao (or the oliocolatii plant), which is also 
a tropical product with a good demand heyond the i-:iiHlin({ snpply, 
cua he grown, far more frovly than it is oit yot, in Blx-ltcrcd raUoya 
ben. Ceylon cacao plantations turn out the finent product of any 
"ooooa" rccfivivl in Uio London market, and tliv export from the 
udand baa incrcaHcd from 10 cwt. in 187B to uvur 20,CUO cwt. iu 
ItWl ; whilo fonr- or livo-fold Itiit quantity would r«uulily ho taken 
oB at profitablo prices by the European conauuu-rs. Even CtN- 
OHORA bark can be grown profitably in the good »oil and fine climate 
of Ura, although uvor the hill country gcnt-rally this culture liaH 
had to be given up, since the prico of quinine ftill (mainly through 
larga crops of bark from CcylonI from 12*. an otinto in I877-If to 
1j., and even 9d. i»t ounce last year in Mincing Lano I But tbi-rv 
»n still many otiier tropical pro<lucta in good request— among 
UuUD. pepper, conlainoms, nutmcgx, coca, rubber, iic, which, with 
the admntage of railway cantniuoic&tion, con well be tried by 
nttlvrs oommanding a certain autounl of capital. Tliu fi-eding 
o( Cattle for market, already carried on in the district, should 
b* greatly extended, while that of shivp is just almut to Iw Intro- 
dueud ; anil tlirni is ample cncoura^^nient tn iucreoiie the culture 
of vegetables (jmtatoes especially) and fruits lor the (Vilombo 
market. For. be it nott-d, that at pruwnt Ibt- vaxt pnijiortion of 
thu meat, tfrain, vegetables (potatoes esptcially) CDuaumed In 
Colombo and other chief towns of the island is imported from 
India or Auxtralin. The centre of the uplands of Uva may l»e 
M Baodarawclla (4, GOO feet above sea k'velMihortly to be the 
of the railway now under conotruction. and bore, by uni- 
of Governor, medical man and visitor, in the finest 
is Ui9 island. An cxiwricncMl Coloniat, with no personal 
failcnnl in the province, and who, along «-itli tlie writer, in tH7S 
first propounded the scheme of railway exlcnaion acroM the billN 
into U>-a— which xvas actually conunenci-d by Sir Arthur Cordon in 
1888— has written to me in view of this pap«r in tho following 
terms of " Uandarawella," as a health nwort, with it« fine climate 
Mid other advaotages :— 

■ ar« few inoTD patbotio slKbti to be seen on board our eaatwanl- 
than tli« Roniumpttvp patient m rvit* tor distant 
] tho earlier daitea, uvlJ and f/ooJ; but it is feand the 
3lj, or fanuly decUir, too trei]uent]j only pari with their patient whan 
il bMMDM a ls«t resonrrc. Ths rwsnlt being, m all Iravaller* ean truly 
tan, that too often the little remaining •tmiirlb givM way under ths 



Ceylon : its Attractions' to TisitoTS and Settlers. 

proloagcd discomfortB which oil invalids must endure even on board the 
P, & 0. — the closmg scene — that saddest of oil sigbte~a burial at sea. 

Par be it from me, therefore, to recommend even the pure air of this 
cheerfal, sunny spot in the highlandx of Cejlon to those idready in the 
finaJ throes of pulmonarr coniplaint ; but, what I feel sure all medical men 
who know this particular locality will support me in sajnng is, that yoxroK 
sufferers threatened with consumption might here find an effectual 
antidote, and a conf;enial temporary or permanent home at half the 
distance of Australia; a resort that may be reached in little more tlun 
a fortnight. 

A temperature which all the year round is moderate and eqnable, air 
which it is a positive luxury to breathe. No malaria lurking in sn'amps, no 
fever-laden breezes, no superabundant moisture, no chillini; along-shore 
winds ; such a chmate, in short, as in which one soon leams to forget thai 
he owns a fi-ail body susceptible to climatic changes. 

And such a climate has Bondarawella, the terminus next year of the 
highland railway in Ceylon. 

It may be asked why this salubrious spot has been so little heard of 
hitherto ; the answer being it was not sufficiently " getatable." Till now, 
when the important railway extension is about to be opened, the accom- 
modation for visitors is limited to one small Hest House or wayside Inn, 
but doubtless ample hotels will soon bo ready to receive the casual 
visitors or temporary residents. 

The one drawback may be the extreme quietness of the place, and u 
neither idleness of mind nor body is conducive to health, it may hare be 
proper to remark that for either lady or gentleman, interesting and 
profitable employment need not be wanting. Yoimg ladies will soon 
discover that educational establishments must soon be inaugurated for 
the many European famihea whose parents would so much rather have 
them near than away in distant England, with all its climatic risks, while 
a pleasant out-door life will always be open to the agricultnrally disposed. 
Nearly all English vegetables, many of our best fruits, and many more 
we cannot lay claim to in England, thrive to perfection in such a climate 
as this— to say nothing of dairy products, all of which would find a ready 
market in Colombo, now ono of the chief caUing ports in the world. 

Tea also grows well on those beautifiil patenas, and, although tlie 
Ceylon planter is apt to glut the market even with the best of products, 
there is no reason why Bandarawella shoiUd not share in the chances of 
this enterprise. In the valleys, cacao will prosper. There are, moreover, 
many other economic plants which might be grown here with equal 
facility and profit, such as the aloes and agaves for fibre, hemp, &c. A 
short residence would soon help one to decide upon their special hobby. 

Around this patena, or beautifully undulating grassy sward, extending 
to some 400 square miles, are the once femous coffee-growing districts of 
Udapusila^'a, Haputella, and Badulla, the last named long known aa the 
" Qoeen of Coffee districts " ; and there, with its blue head rising to a 



C^IOH : its Attraetiom to Visitors and SsttUrt. 



htight of S.080 fwu ttill Btan<la N&manuool.vhaiidc, on the atunildcra of 
irhieh niio« rwtcd nome of tlie finol coBeo mtntcs in llici worlil. "God 
rnkdo eoffH lor Uv>, uiil Uva fur oofTwo," luid ijood Dr. Tbwkilei, of 
Pankdtnij'a i uid tho cuiiua tkotcbmui who cultivsUs horo mod lo 
Nnuvk Ihat w> long a* heather grew uoond Ben Nevia, Uie fraitnat 
barrr would ihrite in hu fidda ; bat, alat I («> hu, over m wid« uUnt, 
npUud it. 

Ai»bl and thoBo af Itis co-esilca who gnimblo at present at tbo 
motat cUmat« on the coast, will roiHlily find a delightful bradng 
ebango, and eHcapc Ihti wot Boaaon of Colombo, whitn Uio Uva rail- 
wm; is finished neit year to ItandaraweUa. What the railway 
will mean in tho di'VEJopmunt of tlio prunnc«, con only be nnder- 
flDod by thooe who are acquainted with the difficultiea encountered 
when an nnnsnally hoa\7 moneoon cuts up tho cart ronda, breaiis 
down bridfcuA, or agf^ravates cattle murraiu. Not thirty years aRO a 
Glasgow merchant who voyaged out lo Ceylon to inNpi-ct his fine 
oofloo plantation in L'va got aa far as Kewera KUiya, forty mile« 
bom hifl property, and rt-fuM-d to go brtliur, ho trj'ing was the 
joamey by nyoA ; and be actually returned home without neeiuji the 
place, contenting himself with an iad«pondi?nt report I This was, 
ot eoonie, an extremt> coro, but in rcupeot of acc«u and development 
tho milway will undoubtedly work a great change in tblt i>&rt of 
tb« island. 

Tub Natives : BtNH.ii.E&B, Tamilh, &c. 
It may b« thought that fn xaying ko much of British planters, 
•ettltr* and cnpitalisls in the further den-lopmcnt of Ci^ylon, I am 
kxdng light of tho nativds of the island — of tho Hinhaleso, Tamils, 
and other races to Ix^ found there. Bui this is not nmlly tho caM< ; for 
U haa been demonstrated that every acre of land planted with tna, 
toBee, cacao, &p., means the tmpport of Ave adilitiomU natives (men 
women, and children), and to the planting enterprise of Ceylon at 
thii moment considcmlily over n million of natives of the island 
(V of Southi'm India owe directly or Indirectly tbau* means of sab- 
Be it remembered llml litlli' more than forty yoare agu^ 
me when BJr Rnmucl BakiT lixt-il wllh "the rifle and 
on the hills of Ceylon — these upland ri'dicinn Wi-re all 
waste, or covered with heai-j- jungle. Not only Im cultira- 
} taken tho place of jungle over iuuneiuHi Irarts, which have 
t opened up by roads and railways, but prosperous villai^et and 
towns filled with well-to-do natives— traders, cartmen, artificers, is., 
Id a tevi hundreds or tkonwuida, bare fiprung up is cvvry disUict. 



281 1 

I 

4 



I ■ A..0 

■ employ nil 

Lz 



232 Ceylon: its Attractions to Visitors and Settlers, 

Siteli places can be counted hy the score, and even the sides of 
roads which were all bare within my recollection, are now lined 
with native liuta and cultivation. Notwithstanding that the total 
export and import ti-ada of Ceylon has risen from a valne of 
leas than one million sterling in 1837^the year when the plant- 
ing industry fairly began — to that of about £9.000,000 last year, 
and the general revenue from £372,030 to about i'l,4OO,000 in 
thia same period, it is true that many Colonists and British 
capitalists who invested in the interval found in their plantations 
the graves of many a British sovereign. But what they lost, the 
Sinhalese, Tamils, Moormen, and Malays never failed to reap. 
Sir Charles Bernard, the other evening in Toynbee Halt, told the 
working men of East London that the mass of Indian labourers 
were well off when they could earn two shillings a week, which was i 
sufficient to keep a man, his wife, and two or three children com- ■ 
fortably ; and that eight to ten millions of natives in India had a I 
hard time ot it, because they could not uflually make above one i 
Bhilling to one shilling and sixpence per week. The rural natives | 
of Ceylon, like those of India, spend little or nothing to provide i 
against cold, in clothing, boots or shoes, fire, house rent or furniture, 
while their food is cheap ; and in our island the labouring man, . 
woman, or child can any day get rea<ly and easy employment on tea 
plantations,' the men earning from half-a-crown to three shillings | 
and sixpence a week. Most of the work of tea plucking, culture, and j 
preparation has to be done by two hundred thousand immigrants 
from Southern India, because the Sinhalese are on the whole too well 
off, too independent, or too lazy to go on the plantations. However, ' 
the simple answer to any critic whom you may hear in England or 
elsewhere speak of the people of Ceylon — the Ceylonese oE all races 
— as unprosperous, depressed, or ill-off is found in the one sufficient, 
undeniable fact that the |)opu!ation of the island has increased fiom \ 
less than 1,600,000 in 1837 to 8,008,239 in the census of last year, 
and out of this total not more than 6,000 are Europeans. 

The Sinhalese and Tamils of Ceylon are a docile, intelligent, and 
advancing people. Their history, religion, and social customs may 
well afford an interesting study to the visitor, traveller, and settler. 
It must be remembered that the Sinhalese (now numbering 
2,000,000) are an Aryan people hke ourselves, and originally came 
from Northern India. Separated from their own race, and confined 

ideralils number oF Sinhalese liuve, however, of recent years tsJcen 
employment on tea plantations near their villages, the work of pluaking tb* I 
leaf being very easy, and (he wages paid regularly. 




Cijilott: in Altractiotu to Vmton and StUUrt. 



2SS 



to this littlo islani! in boutheru Aaia, it is witbonl parallel Uut so 
smftll ft unliun na tlio tJinliAluso (tiu^ni woro not nioro than 750,0(X) 
Than the BritiNii t»cik poBaaBsioQ of Ceylon) should have retained for 
more thftu 2,0()U juars tliGir country, their language, and tiidir 
ivligion, though constantly aaaoilcd by inv&dtrs bom the oppOHilo 
ooDLinunt, nai) iliviniitu ut wliutn nlone had a popuUtion to draw 
oo of 10.000,000 to 12.000,000. Itu it noted, bonuver, that ut one 
tinwtlio King or Emperor of Ceylon vras a very important potentate. 
Even BO Utc aa a.U. IIAO, or 710 jt^irs ago, Prakraiiia liahu, thu 
Moomplishod, mighty and " sole King of Lanka," besides securing 
{Mftcw and prosperity throughout the island, oouimun'bul a large 
umy and powerful Qeet, with itliich he succesBfulIy attacked 
enemius Ui RiiLm and Cambodia, m wdl as Southi'm India. 

What the popidation was in bis time, or in earlier eras of pro- 
sperity, we cannot now learn. I do not think the total population cv«r 
reubud thu I2,0(K).(NX) of eomo Tixaggeratod i-Htimntea i 4,000,000 
or fi.OOO.OOO would seem to me the very outside of probability ; for 
tho Soulheni and tiuuth-wnxlcm divisiona of thu inland, where, 
for loany centuries now, the {wpulation has chiefly been found, were 
in early tiuK-Jt but t>par«ely occupied. Nevertlwlvsn, an u'gardM the 
other [lortiou:!, I am frt^u to ailuiit that tho remains of tanks and 
wstercourseH, to promote irrigation over a Urge area in tho Nortlicni 
and Eastt-m divisions, nhow the population to buve bt«n very cou- 
sidanble, whore now there are only units to the square mile. Whole 
districts in tlii^ part must have iHiin depopnlutcd dlher by disuuMi 
or war; and the n-mnants, though forced to leave the pbkins by 
bmine, pentilinco or Hword, or all combined, still had thuir hill 
fiutneaaes to guard against the foe. It has been well said that no 
DUO ahonlJ look on the Kaiidians— the liighlanderH of tbu Sinhalosu, 
and generally uu.-)cular, tioanled mun— without veneration, when 
bo ranembers the warfare they so long waged tliat tbfir hind might 
b» free from the yoke of the foreign oppresHor. Itut certainly never 
has ibu " Roman [wacc " been so long or K> thoroughly mafntainvd 
in Ceylon as during tho preount century by the British Uorem- 
toent, which has given, or is gradually giving to the people all the 
•odal and many of thu political privileges enjoyed by Englishmen 
at home.' 

' He one ba* wriltv n more Bympalhetioallj ot the SinbalcH than tha *Mie> 
nted and MOompliithoil W««l«>jui talmiot^rj aad Ori«ntali*t, Robert Spaaea 
Bat4y, «lu> worked (or twrit)' Ov* jeait in Orion. In M* "JobilM 
Manoriali." poblUlud In JHCI.htiMid: "Krarljalt tha aoeial mnd political 
prinkga thai EDgIl«lini«ii potwu at horn* ll» Cfjlonata anlo; in dtla Ulatid. 



Ceylon : its Attracticns to Visitors and Settlers. 



2S4 

In contrast with the Kandiana, the Sinhalese of the low conntry 
are generally effeminjite, and they have Iwen described as the" women 
of the hnman race." When leing trained as soldiers in the early 
days, they could, not be taught not to fire away their ramrods as the 
true missiles of destruction 1 Long subjected to semi-slavejy by 
Kandiana, Portuguese, and Dutch alite, it was no wonder they became 
deceitfuland prevaricators— that the truth was not in them in the 
early part of this century. But a change for the better has talieii 
place. Many of tliem are still complaisant to a degree ; willing to 
accept a new religion, so long as they are not asked to give np their 
own ; to oblige " master," even to the length of swearing that black 
is white in the witness-box if told to do so ; and " to please the 
womens" is often the excuaegivenbySinbalese men-servants to their 
European employers for foohsli or absurd observances. They ftll 
marry very young, but do not, as a rule, have large iamilies, though 
a woman may here, as in India, be a grandmother at thirty, and, if 
she lives, a great-grandmotlier at forty-five. A Sinhalese woman 
who has never married is indeed a rare unit in the population. 
Though, for that matter, the saying is true as regards European 
ladies, that " women's rights " are seldom if ever heard of eastward 
of Suez. In India, however, there are great reforms to be worked 
out in respect of women which scarcely affect their better-off sisters 
in Ceylon, 

May I, in passing, add that there is no greater scope lor the 
beneficial influence of educated, sympathetic English ladies in the 
present day than in India and Ceylon ? The great need and the 
ample room there is for them as teachers, Zenana missionaries, 
In Britain, lives ivilhoul nuinber have been sacrificed on the scaftolil anJ elM- 
where b; its patriots ; tortures of the moat appalling cliaracter have been 
endured, and battles many have been fought to Eecuro to its people the freedom 
they now enjoy ; and yet nearly every advantage oonneatod with the birthright 
of the Briton, thus dearl; pnrohaeed, is now possessed by natives of this and 
other colonies, though neither they nor their foieCathers ever paid for them a 
fraction of their property, or endured for them a single privation, or lost one 
life. The natives who can live on the produce o£ the cocoanut tree, and need 
no more clothing than a rag to wrap round their loins, far decency rather than 
dress, would remain slaves as long as the race lasts, all classes exposed to ths 
tyranny of every gra<le above them, without an effort to batter their state, if 
men who have breathed the rime and hraved the snowstorm did not break 
their fetters and teach tliem to be free. In all that regards character and 
comfort, in all things that raise man in the scale of being, in all that takes 
the rubble from within him and puts soul-ore in its place, the people of Oeylon 
are favoured with greater helps than have previonaly been known to any rloe- 
eating nation in the world." 



Ctylon : iu Attraetuma to Vititora and Settlen. 



noriM, and eapocially am pliysiciiLiiit, and tho vray in which 
itttiea aja boin^ slowly hut earoly Uk^ up, haa lUmost made one 
beUcvo then) ix a pruvidimtial nrrangcrapnt — in Britain lianng ao 
(pie ladiea fre« from incunibranceii, and t«ad,v lo mct^l th« 
I thai somixw from India and Ceylon, aa from China 

I the Colonies, I have for Ihu hist twenty years bees 
3 for brotbur and siMtcr going out togt^thtT, whother to 
AiutnUia, America, Indiii, or Ceylon, that is, where there ia the 
promise of employment for the broUit^r, or a littlo mpital amilnblo. 
What will ki'i'p one will nearly keep two undur auch circuniatancea ; 
ami paruntH who delibi-nittily \i\uu a Colonial caru«r fi.>r one or more 
of their sons, could not do better than aeek to train, if they have 
daughtera, one or more t«) iLecoiajMUiy thuir brothi^rs. On the hilla 
of India and Ceylon I know well that many lonely bunKalowa would 
havo Ix^n brighteiail, and many valuable liv«> sav(.<d from prema- 
ture illneaa and death, if thia had been the rule in paat years. 
Asd then, as planters or coloniats laid the foundation of pocnniary 
independence, aiatera would be exchanged (with their consent, of 
eonrae 1 ), ajid happy hornet cstabliiihod without tho riak too often 
attending tliv bringing out of bridce to what may prove to thorn on 
unsuitable climate. B'or I need scarcely add that if the aistcra did 
Dot care to settle down, or lind the climate suitable, it is much easier 
for a tiller than a wife tu return and re-Mtltle in England. 



I tb(«e ^^^ 
le one ' 



I think enough haa been aaid, Ihoogb very imperfectly, to show 
the deep interest which visituni, tm vnM aM m-ltk-n, may ft-el in the 
pooplo uf our inland. Very much owing to the goo<l work done by 
mintonariea in past years, education, in proportion to jiopulaliun, la 
(«B tbnM farther advanced in Ceylon than in India ; and thongfa 
modi mnaina to bo done, ateady, if not rapid, progreu is b«ng 
made. Bo mnch is this the case that CeyloneM young mm are now 
finding acope for their energies aa domestio aervants, cterka, scbool- 
mastera, road ofticem, and tma doctors beyond their own abores— 
in India, Diirmah (where there are two pitrp Siitbalesa aa asaistant 
miasionarii'M), in the Stroitd St-ttletncnta, and again in some porta 
of Anstralaata. 

Lei mo here refer to the great and good work done by the public 
•erraats in Ceykin. In the Ci^il Bervioe wo have a body of cnl- 
tarad, honourable English gentlemen, standing aa il were between 
tbo Cohmista and the nativea, whose one mission it is to promotfl 



Ceylon : its Attractions to Visiton and Settlers. 

the good govenunent and welfars of the people, and it is greatly 
owiiig to them that the Sinhalese and Tamils are now in ao con- 
tented and advanced a position. 

The Futuke op the Island. 
As regards the future prosperity of the island, to sum up in a 
sentence or two, I may well adopt, with but few changes, the 
words of one of our latest and most disinterested visitors. Dr. Alan 
Walters. "The guarantee of prosperity is found in the central—even 
magnificent— geographical poaition of Ceylon, her ready command of 
cheap labour, her superb climate, and the amazing fecundity vrith 
which Nature, out of a lean rather than a fat soil, pours forth her 
fruits in answer to human toil. As an emporium of commerce, a 
coaling station, and a half-way house for the far East and South — 
China and Austraha— the place of Ceylon on the map is unrivalled. 
To the traveller, apart from the Cyclopean antiquities, which will 
no doubt before long be made accessible to the madding crowd by 
a railway — conductors, coupons, and all the rest of it— there are 
abounding attractions in this beautiful island, be he artist or ennuyf^ 
sportsman, naturalist, or scribe. The way there is, in these days, 
aa easy as rolling off a log ; it is only the way back that is hard — 
hard because as the low, palm-fringed shores sink beneath the 
horizon, and the Peak of Adam cloaks itself afar in a mantle of 
majestic mystery, you feel and know that yonder flashing point of 
light in your wake keeps watch by the gateway of an Eden where 
you fain would have lingered, and marks the portal of a summer 
isle where the brain-fogged workman may stand apart from the 
strain and stress of life, and the lotus eater (among the visitors 
with leisure) may take his fill." 



Ceylon : its Attractiona to Vintors and Settlers. 287 






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238 Ccyhn : its Attractions to Visitors and Settlers. 



PBINCIPAL RECENT ■WORKS ON CEYLON OF INTEREST 
TO THE VISITOR OK INTENDING SETTLER. 
" Mnrray'a Handbook for India and Ceylon," 1891. 
" Fifty Xeora in Ceylon." An autobiography by the late Major ThomM 

SfcimiBr, C.M.G. [W, H. Alien A Co., 18t)l.] 
" Two Happy Years in Ceylon." (Illnatratod.) By Miss Gordon Camming. 

[Blackwood, 1891.] 
"PalniBandPearlB, or Scenes in Ceylon." (Illustrated.) By Alan WalterB. 

[K. Bentley & Sona, 1892.] ' 
"About Ceylon and Borneo." (Illnstrated.) By Walter J. Cluttcrbuck. 

[Longman a, 1801.] 
"Ceylon la 1892." (IllnBtrated.) By John FerKHBon. Being a foiirtli 

edition of a Popular History and Guide t^i the Island. {In the press.) 

[John Haddon & Co., London.] 
"The Ceylon Handbook and Directory for 1891 and 1892." By A. M. A 

J. FergUBon. [John Haddon & Co., London.] 
" Guide to Colombo." By Geo, Skean, [Jolm Haddon & Co., London.] 
"Guide to Eandy and Newera Elliya." By 8. M. Burrows, [John 

Haddon & Co., London.] 
" The Buried Cities of Ceylon." By S. M. BurrowB, [John Haddon & 

Co., London,] 
" Manuals on Tea, Cocoanuts, Cacao, Rubber, their Cultivation, 4c." 

Compiled by A. M. & J. Fevgnaon. [John Haddon & Co., London. 
"The Tropical AgriculturiBt," tor planters, published monthly, [Ji 

Haddon & Co., London.] 



[Thu abov 



Works can be »cen in the Library of the Soffal 
Colonial Institute.] 



DiSODBBION. 



.n.j J 



The Hon. Sir Abthub Gokdon, G.C.M.G. : Aa the last returned 
Governor of Cejlon, I have been asted to undortaUe tlio agreeable 
duty of opening the diBciission. I am glad to bear my testimony, 
humble aa it ia, to the skill with which Mr, Ferfruson, in the course 
of a brief paper, has contrived, without making it a mere collection 
of statistics, to deal with a viiricty of topics of groat and permanent 
interest. But when I am told to open a discussion, I confess I find 
myself somewhat at a loss, because to discuss a question one must 
take up Bome position that has not been taken up before ; one must 
more or less demur to what has been advanced, or ask for an 



CeffUm : Ut Attractions to VMiori and SUtien. 

axpUnatiCPti of the niptknint; of wlmt bas lioeti said. Nov, I cannot 
my tb&t I ani diaposod to diapato any of the propotiilionii that haT« 
beon bruiigbt fom-Ard, or that I Aa oot undtM^tatid the terma in 
which the; have twi>u Ntatcd. As Ihoao aiuon;; iiii who aru funiliar 
with Ceylon do not require to ho told, Mr. l-Vrgusoii and J have had 
ourdifTvrvHCt-^inliim-ic [Huit, aiidldaroaayitl wuronowin Coyiunwo 
sboold have thorn again, but th<>y won* cUfTvrvnccs which have never 
preVtatfvI our iniitiutl n^itiN-ct (or each other, or, 1 beliuvn, our inutotU 
(MlinK that each was deeply conccmtul in the welfare of the Colony. 
Kow, I linteiidd to tlie iwih-t— knowing I was to be aaVtrd to dinciiitM 
it — in a Bomewiiat critical spirit, to set* where ], could find a peg on 
which to liang a diNwtnt, and I Kaid to luyxtiU' aa it W(^nt on : " Now, 
Otn I nUM discuaaiou upon that point ? No, Will that do f No." 
But I did find onu propoiiiliiin in what he n'lul a^nst which, I 
oonlW, I do (ei'l inclined to enter a protest — to demur to thu KU(t- 
gestion put forwartl, and tliat ix with re^ivrd to the manner in which 
Htn Ktill vxiatinK forettta of Ceylon should he dealt with. I ain bohl 
lo Bfty I do not uoncnr wiUi Mr. FerguKon in tbo impression which 
ha uyii in produced hy a view from the top of the PedrotalUfiKlla 
nountUDB to the pbuiting distriot of Ceylon. He says that from 
the top of one of tlu'KO nionntaina you will r(w what a great extent 
of fnrt^t Uii-ni is still left and to spare. I can only ftay that wbui 1 
last ascended to the mimmtt thu tniprossiun k^ft on my mind was — 

Kliltli! wa.t the bit of wood now left there, and i-xti-nxivo ruad 
itug the denudation of tlio country. It shows how the r&rio 
nay differently impreus different people, hut I must say, 
Bit in mind the \iews of my eminent predecessors — Bir UctcuIm 
Bson and Bir Williiun Grrtfor^'— I hold it to ho of the utmost 

importance tu Uie wtKart) of the island that that reoervfi of forwtt 
above a height of G.OOO feet tihoiUd not ranhly he tampered with. I 
■aj that with emphadiii, because I have had opportunitiea in other 
partd of the world of seeing what the efTivt of sach denudation is. 
On a small ttcale 1 have M>en it in Mauritius ; on a larf^ Kcalu I have 
Mtn it in 8outb America, and when onc« that reserve of wood on 
the Kunuoit of the islnml ha» lieen (^ot rid of vuu will find it un- 
eommonly diflicult, if not impossible, to replace, and you will find 
the results exceedingly iinpleaMtnt. I therefore hope the Govern* 
mont of C«ylon will bi- very careful heforo relaxing iUi ndrs willi 
regard to the fulling of timber above S.OOO feet I have no other 
cntieism to uiiUtu on liui paper, and Icon ordy repeat my oxprtouion 
ol admintion of the manner in which Mr. FergusoD has performed 
tut twit. But if at all times I am diaindinod to diwuagion, U st alt 



240 Ceylon : its Attractions to Visitors and Settlers. 




times I feci reluctance to speak, I am free to confesa that thia 
evening I feel that rehictance in an unusual degree, for I cannot 
think of Ceylon to-night without a feeling of [profound sadness. 
Those of you — and I suppose there are many such in thia room — 
who come from Ceylon, or who are nearly connected with Ceylon, 
will know what I moan, for I am sure the dominant thought in their 
minds is that which prevails in my on-n^a feeling of regret and 
sadness for the loss wliich the Colony has just sustained in the death 
of one of ita beat Governors, one of its warmest and most constant 
friends, Sir William Gregory. This is not the time nor am I the 
man to discuss Sir Wiiliam Gregory's conduct as Governor of Ceylon. 
Onr views with regard to that Colony were almost identical, and 
were I to praise the policy he adopted or the modes of govenunent 
he pursued, I should seem, more or less indirectly, to praise my own. 
But of the man I might for a few moments speak. Sir William 
Gregory, like many of the best men of the country to which he 
belonged, possessed that ready faculty of saying the right word, and 
doing the right thing, at the right time, in a way which gained, 
without his seeking it, a universal popularity, and a popularity, let 
me say, of the best sort, for it was a popularity not founded on 
elaborate efforts to please, but on a real kmdliness of nature which 
came spontaneously from the heart. I have plenty of e^^de^ce of 
it, and 1 know what it was that endeared him to those who worked 
under him. On one of his last visits to Ceylon— for he came to 
CeyloQ three times while I was there and revisited the scenes of his 
labours — he visited the pubUc works that were going on in a lonely 
and pestilential forest, and there he found an engineer officer ot the 
Govenunent suffering from fever brought on by exposure in those 
works. He was told the only way of resisting the fever in such 
localities was to live well and drink good wine, not ea.sUy attainable 
by an engineer officer in such a place. When Sir William went 
back to England he sent out to him several cases of the best cham- 
pagne, though he did not know the man before. These were the 
sort of acts which endeared Sir William, and justly so, to those he 
worked with. In a letter which I had from Sir William after he 
was taken ill, he said that if lie did not recover he begged me to look 
afttT some little acts of kindness, of a comparatively tri\Tal nature, 
which he meditated on behalf of a young Singalese now in England, 
in whom he took an interest. Those who are connected with Ceylon 
do not require to be told that there are many homes in Ceylon,_ _ 
native and Enghsh, which are saddened to-day by the telegi 
which has just gone out there. 



Oej/hn: it$ Attraetiont to ViitUrs and StttUn. 

Ur. B. Q. Wkbsteb, M.F. : Aa a representative in the British 
Hoaae of OommoQB, I have tbo bonour of addrufteing a, largo numbn 
oflftdiMand gentlemen who belong to Greater Britain, and I ilo 
w irilh the more modesty on this occasion from the fiMt that I 
ban never been a Colonial in Ceylon. It has, hawevor, Ixwn mj 
lotontwooccamons to visit that interesting and important Colony— 
oDoe it> 1870, when I wus, coinparalively speaking, a young man, 
tni »gain in 1880. Ud the latter occasion llie Colony was to some 
Mtant in a statu of lU^prcsaion. Tho cotTee plantations were in a 
\aj bad way and other products had not come to Ibc front, but I 
am glad to h-am from the valuable and interesting address we have 
beard this evening that those times have passed, and that you luvo 
fonnd an iniportnnt commodity in tea, in wliich yon compete with 
th« plantations of China, and certainly with those of AHitam and 
Nortbem India. I have lietencxl with great att«ntian to this inter- 
wting lecture. I only hope that all the ('oloniea are in your Imppy 
from the fact that yoit have no grievances, that yoii have no 
la come before the Imperial Parliament on the occasions 
when we discuss estimates, and from the fact that you have be«n so 
fbrtunate In your Governors and MiniRtem. Vou have oii admirable 
climate. You have also a great history. I must congratulate all 
present on having heard so admirable a lectare on Iho resources of 
the Colony. 

Ur. J. U. MossK (formerly Director of t>ublic Works. Ct-ylon): 
X hlTC beard Mr. l-'irrgtuon':* vnhmlilc paper with groat int«n>st, and 
tban was very little he said with which I do not agred. As 
Mr. Feigason has rrfttrnMl to [inblic works and rnilwa>*M, and as for 
lunM eh>iren years I happened to bo mixed np with botli those 
Departments, perhaps I may bo allowed to xay a fiTW words on the 
inl^eot, for, although I have now retiroil, cnginwring is still as dear 
to me OS ever. It was owing to the enlighli-iii.-d policy of Sir Henry 
Ward, about IHSfi, that llu< nyitU^u of de^'oting to public works 
almost evfry farthing of surjilns revenue was commenced. These 
works comprise new roiuiN, new Iiridgujt, now buildingx, and Irriga- 
tion workit, and on them has silice Iwen spent between £400,000 
aad XSOO^OOO per annom, Independent of iho railways and luLrbour 
Of course, the new roods 
tacilitiee for transport, and 
luous benefit. In a paper I 
'nB^MMfrihb luiUtnte in 1884, 1 pointed oat 
that tbe Government of C«yton coulil afford to spend fifty nipSM 
ten on irrigation works, and that tbey reaped not only a direct 




far ten on Irrigatioi 



E 




213 Ce^Um : its Attractions to Visitors and Settlers. 

profit of 5 per cent, on the expeuditure, but also a far moie vale- 
abla indirect profit ; for crops that were formerly uncertain were 
made certain, famines were prevented, the health of the district 
greatly improyed, and there was a vast amelioration in the 
general condition of tho country. The railways were made at dif- 
ferent times : the first, constructed by Sir Guildford Molesworth, 
was from Colombo to Kandy, on which the Kaduganuava Incline is 
as fine a piece of engineering as can well be seen. That line has 
for many years paid 8, 10, and 12 per cent,, but that is only the 
direct commercial benefit, and I hold that the indirect benefits to 
the community are what really ought to be considered, especially 
on a FDJlway owned by a Govenunent. That line was, in 1885, 
extended to Nanu-Oya. It rises at this point to some 6,800 feet, 
and was really a very diflicult piece of work. Other lines have since 
been made, but the surprising fact is this — that while nearly 
£4,000,000 (taking the rupee at 2s.) have been spent on railways, 
no less than £2,000,000 have been paid off, bo that these milwaya, 
which cost originally 39,500,000 rupees, now stand in the books of 
Government at only 17i million rupees— in other words the Colony 
has paid off 55 per ct'iit. of the original cost, and I doubt il any 
other instance of this sort can be found. The result is the Govern- 
ment are now reaping fully 12 per cent, on the outetanduig capital, 
or 5 j per cent, on the original capital. As you have heard to-night, 
the railway is to bo extended over a summit of 6,200 feet above the 
sea to Uva, which possesses one of the finest climates in tbe world, 
In conclusion, I would only say, iiith reference to the late Sir John 
Coode, that in him we have lost a very valuable friend of the Boyal 
Colonial Institute, and a man of most sterling character. Hia 
works at Colombo are second to none of the kind in the world, and 
that breakwater will be a monument to bim far generations to come. 
Sir Samuel Grenieb (Attorney-General, Ceylon) : Mr, Ferguson 
has, I think, read to you just such a paper as one could desire in 
the uiterests of Ceylon, and has stated the case so clearly and 
concisely that no words from me can add to its effect. I desire to 
endorse the sentiments which Sir Arthur Gordon has expressed in 
reference to one of the greatest and best Governors Ceylon ever 
had — Sir William Gregorj'. That reference to him was only a just 
tribute of praise. Sir William Gregory governed Ceylon not merely 
for the Imperial Government, but for the good of the people of the 
Colony, and that is saying a great deal for one who, without any 
previous Colonial experience, but chiefiy after a Farliamentai^ 
sent to take up the administration of that distant land. 




ICej/lon : ilt AttractioHi to yititori and SettUrt. 248 ^^^| 

WU Dijr privilcj^ to see bim only & few wooks befora be duid, uid ^^^ 
almost htx liiMt words to mo were, " Oh, if I oould only have a week ni 
Monnt Lavinia "—one of our w&terin(t-pbuH<a — " 1 should mod be 
vail Kffniii." lie hiut paKsod nwny, but his memory will Uvp, and if 
I might tako upon mysulf the rcapoitaibility of spviUfiiiK fur the people 
of the Colony, I would say that he will be remembered nntb gratitude 
by all claH>ti--i of the community — Europeaus and natives alike — and 
bll name will bo cherished aa that of one of the most popular and 
akit and boiitmreil rubers that Oylon ever bad. 

Sir Alfbed Devt, K.C.M.U. : There is one matter that baa not 
been very much doiUt with this evening, either in the paper or in 
the diBcuasion — I refer to the plauting industry. We all in this 
room know wliat Ceylon ten is, but few understand wliat untiring 
cnerigy it liai) required to convert the decaying coffee plantations 
Into the successful tcA-gnrdens which now eveiywbere nK<et the view 
oC the visitor travelling up country. There are several plantt:ra 
S evening, and I regret that none of them seem willing to 
tiia benefit of their experience in so intercRting a life. I can, 
', testify to the kindly welcome and hospitality which the 
vfaitor receiT«8 at every buni^ow where be Ls Curtunate enough to 
gtin an introiltiction. Thi^ working of the etUiU: is shown in every 
detail, and one can but admire the perfect organisation of a well* 
eonducted eetablifbntt'nl, luid, alK>vu all, tlio skilful maimer in wbich 
Um planter baitdlea bia coolies. lie lives in the hills with hundreds 
of these coolies in his employ — very often four miles or wont from 
U* M4rMt neighbour — and the good understanding which prevails 
it the Britisher eKcvls here as elsewhere in the art of 
1 with liiM native labour. I can quite confirm what has 
aa to the loveliness of Ceylon and its harbours — Point de 
Colombo— and think one of the grandeflt sights in the 
) see the monaoot] breaking over the Cobmbo brwkwater. 
iterprising Colonist would send borne some photographs 
ticee mountuns of spray dying over the maethvade of the 
■teamers and vessels snngly anchored within a few hundred 
bet of Uiese gnat roller*, I am sure he would find a ready sale tat 
thma. 

The Cbaibmak : I qail« isrw with Sir Alfred Dent that ws 
afaoold be much obliged to any planter or Colonist who would give 
OS the benefit of a few observations. Huanwbile, I call on Bir John 
Biay as a recent visitor to Ceylon. 

Bir Joan Bius, K.O.H.O. (Agent-Ovneral for South Austraba) : 
I ua.not like eome previous speakers, who have had great experience 



4 



244 Ceylon : its Attractions to Visitors and Settlers, 

of Ceylon, for my own knowledge o! the island was gained oo ft 
visit I paid last month on my way from Australia, when, owing to 
the rapid passage of the vessel, I bad the pleasure of spending a 
couple of daya there, and six or seven years ago I paid a somewhat 
similar visit. We Lad a trip over the Government railway to Eandy, 
and every one of ua was struck with the exceeding beauty of the hills 
and of the scenery generally, and also with the apparent productiveness 
of the place. It strikes one coming from Australia or from England 
as something like a new world, and tor anyone who wishes for a 
complete change from ordinary sights, nothing could be more attrac- 
tive. I am very glad to hear of the successful administration of the 
island, which I trust may continue to have the good Governors such 
a place deserves. I represent one of the Australian Colonies, in 
which I was boni, and I can only say I am exceedingly glad to be 
present to-night, and to have heard this interesting paper, and also 
to renew the acquaintance I had the honour of making some yeaia 
ago in Australia with oar Gbainuan. 

The CuAiBUAN : I have now great pleasure in moving a cordiqj 
vote of thanks to the lecturer. On all occasions we are very much 
indebted to any gentleman who takes the trouble to prepare a paper, 
and especially when that paper is one of such ability and so com- 
prehensive as that to which we have listened to-night. It is, I 
think, a matter of public benefit and patriotism that anyone who is so 
able to address a public audience in Britain on snch a, subject should 
give us the advantage of his experience, because such information 
and the discussions which follow arc calculated to quicken and inten* 
sify that interest which is happily growing day by day in all that 
relates to Greater Britain. For these reasons I propose a heartrf 
vote of thanks to Mr. John Ferguson for his paper. 

The motion was adopted with acclamation. 

Mr. John Fekqdbon : It is very grati^ing to me to be the re- 
cipient of such a cordial vote of thanks. I feel I must undeceive 
you and our friend, Mr. Webster, M.P., as to our having no littJe 
grievances in the island. I understood that this platform was not 
the place on which to introduce controverted questions from our 
little world of pohtics, but I am afraid that before very long we may 
have to trouble the House of Commons with one or more little 
Ceylon grievances, and let us hope we may get a good deliverance 
from them without disturbing the Imperial mind too much. In 
reference to what our late Governor, Sir Arthur Gordon, lias said, 
I am glad to find there was only one point that he was inclined to 
controvert or oppose, and on that I may remark that I did a little 



Ceylon : its A Itractietu ta Visitors and Settltrt. 



iojnsUeo hy omitting certain passages which jan will find 
pnutfid paper. In ro(:;anl to forest land over 6,000 tvot, yoa 
find I ijuiti'' ngnu) mth him in thinking that the Crown should not 
permit the reckloaa cutting Aovm and pltuiting of such forests with 
r other products, l)iit you will find from the paper that I point 
; therv am canxidcrable reserves of euch land which may well 
d. if not for planting, at any rate for gardeuinfi; and pastoral 
iM. In fact, application)! have hecn rt«uiv«d to effect settlo- 
■SCDtfl by cutting away the undergrowth while leaving the largo 
Ireea, knd what I maintain is, that nnless eomethinf; of the sort is 
done, this part of the country will bring no trafGe to the new railway. 
Afl regards the futuro, I may mention that when Hir Uercules 
Bobinaon waH leanng Ceylon for New South Wales some twenLy-fi\-e 
]K«n ago, 1 hod a fiuvwell interview with him. We hod just begun 
to aetata for an ext^nunn of th» railway to Uva from Now^a- 
pilya, and I asked him to say, as a private individual, whether we 
bad not a caM> for that txteiniitm. His reply was tlial he saw no 
prmpect of a justification for such a work. If Sir Hercules Bohin- 
•oii wore to return now, he would sue bow mistaken he was in thai 
cry of " Ntiwalnpttya and fiimlity," and so it may bti in rt^gard to 
tho development of Ceylno in other directions. In concluttion, I wiU 
only add tltat those present, both tallies and gentlemen, can boat 
ahow their pnwliciil interc-st in Ci-ylon, and ocknowU^Igment of thia 
iMtnni, by not only drinking Ceylon tea tliemsolves, but by advocating 
** I by otbem. 

I EasL or GLAsaow, O.C.M.G, (Governor of New Zealand) : I 
By°" ^'11 agree with me tliat one of tlio most important points 
■t ft meeting such as this is to have a competent Chairman, and I 
Uiink you will also admit that we have had auch a Chairman in tba 
Eari <^ Aberdeen. I need not now descant on his aocial qoalitiea 
or en the numberless wnys in which he makea himmlf useful to hia 
foDow-fioantrymen, but I simply ask you to accord him a cordial 
vote of thanks for his services in the chair this evoning. 

Mr. 3, Kprouhon : 1 should like in one word to seoood this vote, 
and to add that there is a peculiar fitoeaa in Lord Aberdeen filling 
the chair on the occasion of a paper being read on " Ceylon." Not 
n far back, two-thirds of our planters wore Bcotchmeu, and, again, 
two-thirds of Ihoxo hailed from the north-eastern eotmUM of which 
Aberdeen is the capita] ; and I am sure a hotter Chainnan in every 
respect we could not have here. 

The Chairman : I am very grateful to yon (or this kindnns. Mr, 
Ftrguson has suggested what is perhaps the re«eoD for »y being 



in the ^H 

ou will ^^n 



Ceyhn : its Attractiom to Visitors and Settle. 

asked to preside this evening ; namely, that I come from a c 
which has furnished so many energetic BJid enccesBful settlers in 
Ceylon. If there are any Aherdoniana in this room, they will agree 
with mo that that north-east comer of Scotland is a very remarkable 
place. You won't, perhaps, go the length of the Aberdee.nshire boy 
who, when asked at school what was the capital of England, replied 
" Sootl&ud," and when asked what was the capital of Scotland said 
" Aberdeen." Now you all know there is one quality which Scotch- 
men possess in an eminent degi-ee, and that is modesty. Therefore 
I am not prepared to say much in reply to this toast — I beg pardon 
— ^vote of thanks. You see modest people are apt to get confused. 
You may have read the story told in that attractive book. " Twenty- 
five Years of St. Andrews." A worthy squire was present at an 
ordination dinner. Being called upon to speak, he saJd that, on 
such an occasion, when so many distinguished members of the 
Church and so many learned professors^were present, his doing so 
was like casting pearls before swine. Ladies and gentlemen, I am 
very much obliged to yon. 

The proceedings then terminated. 






SIXTH ORDINABY GENERAL MEETISO. 

Tkk Sixth Onliiinry QuncraJ Meeting of tlio B««fiian vas held at 
Whitehall Booms, HOtel M^tropole, on Tuesday, April 12. 

Majmanl Farmer, Esq., a Mcnibor of the Cotmcil of the 
I, presided. 



The Minutes of tho last OrdiDary (ienorol Mc<etiog wore read 
and oouflrmLiI, nnd it wax aimouiiCL'd thai iiincv that Moating 24 
Fellows had been elected, viz., Q Ueeident and 18 Non>Bceid(sil. 

Beaident Fellows ; — 

Rebeii William Bottrnd, C.K., Jjtwi* Etiituinb. f-Se-. LLJl,. Ll.-Ctioiul 
O. A. Prtnch, R.A., CJt.G., WMiam Qow, WiUiatn H. tleaUm, Sto. J. Gromt 

uau, ii^. 

Non-ReHideDt Fellows :— 

Aleiandrr Amttrong {Cape Colonji). Frank R. Aytn {Smlh Auslralia), 
Caalain O^orQt C. Haglty {Britith Hottdttrat). C- U. Urothm iCape Cokxiul, 
JlaatiKfar- Busbg {Nod SaiOk H'oiM), Frtdtrick C. FouJW. uJ. {WttUm 



C^Mnbrin a^oTQt C. Hagift/ {Brilitk Hifndttra$]. C- U. Urothm iCape Cokxiul, 
JlaatiKfar- Busbg {Nod SaiOk H'oiM), Frtdtrick C. Faulkmr. uJ. {WttUm 
AMbr^Uia), Janut A. Finlay {VicioHa.). A. W. Frattr fVieUiria), Hi* £ze«I- 
Imcy Utt Bighl Bon. Ih* Earl of aUunvw. O.O.U.O. {Oonfmar ef Niw Zta- 
tmiy.TkomatS.UomlSoiUhAiafralia). Dr. Julian A. Lta(Capt Cobrng), 
Hrmtam iiackaui* (Crylon). WiUiam JJaeilurtrii {VicUma). Rotttrt A. 
UcU»K»rth {Victoria). Ji^n Prwi* {Tatmanux), Jant* S. Heid {Sotith Aiuln- 
Ua), irWum BiTt/M (TraiuratU). llmry A. Ward {Caye Cofexy). 

It waa also auooonoed that dooatUHia to the Library of books, 
maps, kn.. have booo reocived bom the varioiu Oovonunenta of the 
Coloiiiee and India, Boeieties, and pabUo bodiee both in lh« UnJtsd 
Kmgdtoa and (he Colonies, and from Fellows of the loetituto and 
oUwrs. 

The CHA.nu(AN : This being the first Bouth Atrican Meeting of 
tba session. I lake (he opportunity of announcing that the South 
African %'olunie of the oducatiooal Hcriex under Uie auspices of the 
Institute, i<ntilled "ticography of Africa South uf the ZambMU, 
with Motes on the Industries, Wealtli, and Social Progress of tho 
States and FeoplM." by the Rev. W. P. Oreawell, M.A., Itas just 
basn pabUshed by the Clarendon Press. It will, tho Coundt trusts, 
pntw a BBetiil work of nforenco. It is my privilege Ibis evening 
to peirido at a mooing st which yoa will haw the opportunity of 
{ a great deal about a conotry in which I dare ssy yoa are 



Mashtmaland and its DevelopTnent. 

all interested, either by having relntions or friends who joined the 
pioneer party of tlie Chartered Company, or in some other way. I 
will not detain you further except to say that you will have the 
opportunity of hearing a gentleman who has travelled through the 
country several times, and who, I have no doubt, will engage yoor 
attention with a most interesting Paper. I liave only now to in- 
troduce Mr. E, A. Maund. 



MASHONALAND AND ITS DEVELOPMENT. 



A GENUINE account of a country, and a true estimate of its capi 
ties, require to be based on scientific theories. Any traveller may 
give hia views concerning the country he risits, but to properly ap- 
preciate their \'alue the public should ascertain the knowledge on 
which those views were founded. I am quite aware that if we es- 
pected some standard geographical, botanical, and geological know- 
ledge from explorers when telling the public of new seen lands, there 
would be a great falling off in the number of books of travel 
published. " An honest tale speeds best, being plainly told." Now 
you have heard a great deal lutely about this Mashonaland. and it 
appears to me that you have been plunged into two extremes — 
either violently excited by an, at present, unjustifiable "boom," 
which, "A-ithout calculating the difliculties, or allowing time for 
development, was, to say the least of it, premature ; or, on the other 
hand, you have been depressed by the reports of pessimists, who 
have loudly denounced on insufBcient data ; while others, honest 
in their own convictions, but vrithout sufficient knowledge, have 
hastened to counteract the optimists before any legitimate experi- 
ments bad been tried. Both appear to me equally unfair and 
misleading. There is, however, a via tnedia which appears likely 
to lead to a sound and splendid future. Along this route I would 
lead you to-night, and I hope to show that I have not hazarded such 
a statement on va^e generalities, but on the results of actual ex- 
periments trietl in the remarkable development now going on, based, 
too, on a personal knowledge of the country, not gained in a hap- 
hazard way, but during a sufiicient period to teach me the conditions 
necessary for successful colonising in South Africa. Here I would 
remark that I have no wish even to traverse conflicting or incon- 
sistent opinions, because criticism, as long as it be fair, is a salutary 
thing in all great undertakings. But I warn those who mock at or 
denounce so useful an enterprise, that they should understand 
the position before they attack it. 



M 




MaiJionalafid and iU Development. 

Tho importance attached to MiLshonnJund vna & good dMl 
baood upon a very mythical history, the romance aboDt which wu 
dMpeiwd by tnvellera' atorica of rich nxh, viuti ohl worldngn, &nd 
rnioB of hbalons citi»9 which flourisbMl in the long dead past. 
Tho IdgonJory knowled^ we have of thin oiicii'nt Einptro of Mono* 
mot&pa, biwkod by the disc^iverioB both archiEologicol and ntilitarian 
mado during ihe paat aightocu monthn, will help iii a hirgo d^gTM 
to BOlTe tbo problem, not only aa to tho builders of Zimbabye, hot 
•■ to the poisible fnluro of a country that has ho evidently had an 
atwient dviliaation and greatness. Any country that con boaat a 
history, bowovor maoh mpiMl out by ageii and grown to diicay, may, in 
proper hands, claim again a place in the pages dedicated to the 
fatoro. 

Oar maaterly activity as a great colonising Empire has never 
been more keenly exempUAed than by tho rapidity with which wo 
have occnpie<l. and arc now developing, thi.> rosources of Mashonaland. 
Quietly, without any fuss, except perhaps on the part of a few 
Pariiamentary opponvnts to the expansion of oar Emplro, without 
oaUing on the taxpayer to give 6clat to the event by the employ- 
menl of red-coated battalions, this vast territory hoe bees opened 
op to English commerce and colonisation by private enterprise. 

Fortified with a Koyal Charter, the HritiHli tSoutli Africa Company 
has " gone in and poBHcssod this good land " without striidiig a blow 
or losing a life in hostilities. Never in the annals of pionoering has 
an expedition on eo large a scale been earned to so sooeeflaful an 
iwne in so short a time. It was marching, it mast be mnomberod, 
into a country unknown ; threatened by the warlike Matabele on 
their West ftank, the inert Portugueao rons«<l by sheer envy into 
a semblance of energy on the East, and the Boera organising a 
moch-talked-of trek from the Booth. In one year all these di£B- 
eolties have been dtplomatioallj arranged, and to-day the Matabele 
are working for us, the Boers are farming tcith na, while the 
Portsgneso lia\e Joined hands over the Pungwa Bailway. Thna 
peaee has been so well assured, that the Company has been enabled 
to disband its paid forci\ anil a Burgher volnntmir one now re* 
pUcttsit. 

k'JM in this vast territory sonth of the Zambesi that oor groat 

I powers are just now being most vJnbly shown : by an 

mpetition to open up the ancient gold-flolds known to have 

i nrged forward by the success of the gold industry in 

1, which during the past few years has been annetliing 

Seven years age the valne of the gold won kod ex< 






iftishoTialand and its Development, 

ported waa barely £100,000. To-clfty it ia npwarda of £3,000,000. 

or ^ of the output of the vbole world, and is rapidly increasing. 

In 1885, when, on my return with Sir Charles Warren, I had the 
honour of addressing this Institute on the importance of Becbnana- 
land and Matabeleiand, the atridea made since then scarcely entered 
the wildest bopea of the most sanguine. South Africa was looked 
upon as a bad egg in the Empire's colonial basket, a land of 
native troubles, a field for sporting adventures, and producing 
only the prosaic wool and ornamental diamonds and feathers, and 
an occasional expensive little war, for which the British taxpayer 
had to put his hand in bis pocket without the appearance of ever 
getting any adequate return. But all this is now changed. South 
Africa is taking a leading position, not only in our Empire, but in 
the world. It has become a vast field for commercial enterpriee, 
and millions of this country's earnings are being invested in ita 
development. 

The pushing forward of the line of civilisation northwards has 
been slow, considering the rumoured richness of the country daring 
the past twenty-five years. The gold discoveriea in the Transvaal 
following BO closely the wonderful development of the diamond 
mines, and their subsequent amalgamation under one great cor- 
poration, gave the required impetna for a move North in quest of 
that long- fabled golden land. 

The great check to this northern progress has been the lack of 
railways in South Africa, and the eastern seaboard, the natural and 
easiest entrance to the country, being in the hands of the listless 
Portuguese. Our nearest base of operations was Kimberley, from 
which a thousand-mile trek northwards is a costly business. Now 
in America they do things differently. A railway is almost the first 
thing thought of. It is quickly poshed forward, and civilisati(ni 
fast follows along its track ; towns spring up, and the country 
is soon populated. In Western America, I am told, there are any 
number of deserted townships which did not pay. The history of 
one is the history of all. A reef was discovered — a rush followed. 
The inevitable saloon sprang up, ajid bouses round it, and land 
changed hands at good figures. If the lode proved unpayable, the 
mining community left it for better finds, and the township was 
quickly deserted ; but the country was not condemned because a reef 
or two pinched out. Had Western settlers occupied Mashona- 
land, and found the long southern route strangling the enterprise, 
while there was a short easy route to the sea eastward, though it ran 
through Portuguese territory, to that valuable but unappreciated 




Mathcmaland and Ua Dmeioptiunt. 



an 



port, Beira, I believe they would have bouglit or fongbt, but tny- 
how, tbera would liavu been a railway in course of ooniitmction 
long ere tbis. And had it been left to our South African ColonistB. 
antnunmoUcd byhonio tixigcnces, Beira would have bocii Britiab, 
ftod a line would have been carrying mimng machinery through the 
fly country by now. 

I am aware that in America they have not the deadly horae- 
•teknesfl. or Tsetse fly to deal with, which in South Africa ar« groat 
factors in the way of <iiiic1< devvlopinont : but they liaro long and 
emvi winters which equally checli prof^ress. 

I would now give what we know of tbo past history of tlus 
eonatiy, becanso I believe it will help us to realiso its futuro^oapa- 
biUties. We Lave nothing but Rhosts iu the sliape of frequent and 
extensive ruinii, which, tlianlcs to Air. Theodore Uenl, are beginning 
to tell us tlieir tale, aud the vast old working's of the ancient miners, 
whioh by the work done ehow that there must liavo been a dense 
labouring population. Then we havo the speculative history, baaed 
upon old chronicles, voyages, and cosmogruphics. dating back some 
lOOyoars. 

The ancient or mythical gold-producing empire bad left mora 
^^^1^ BvideDce than the hearsay writings of clironiclers in the now 
^^^^HH nuna of Zimbabye, relics from whioh point inoonlostably 
^^^^Hanciest gold industry and a certain degree of oiviliaation. By 
pmt rnins we can trace a ruder middle age of Monomotapa, Id 
irttieh the inhabitants were evidently i>oor copyists of tbe bygone 
dnUaalioD. This was followed by a dark age of savogodom and 
sUvery, wbon tbo country wna ovemin by some brutal race, and all 
traee of civilisation seems to have been lost. Tbe gold industry 
ITM naglaetod, and Portuguese activity, eonfin»d to the coast, bad 
dtgUMntted into a conniTanoo at the aUre trade. The discovery 
■ad colonisation of the Urazila was probably coeval with this, when 
Portuguese Africa fell into decay, and tlio sole of slaves for the New 
World was found more lucrative than employing tbem in the mines. 
Next came the inroad of tbe Zulus from tbe tiootfa. Umzilik&zi with 
UtlbUbclM occupied tbe plateau, and wiped out or subjugated the 
Malalakaaand MoBbonas, while Gaza occupied the Eastern terri- 
tbe coast. I bavo hoanl olil Matabelo warriors say that 
ttioy eame into tbe country a tribe wbom tbey called the 
' worked tbe gold, which they carried down to Zamo in 
,iad traded with the Portuguese half-caats for women. But, 
Sktf H^ we wiped out all these workers of tbe white atone—* 
fiwt whiob may account (or tbe nnmeroos skulls fbtmd down old 



* 
J 



Mashonaland and its Development. 

shafts on the Mftzoe and othec workings. These facts I had veri- 
fied by the Mashonaa in my recent trip, as they told me the 
Umhalosi worked the gold and traded it ou the Zambesi. 

The Victorian age of enterprise is now fast shedding the light of 
civilisation on this benighted region, and bids fair to reinstate it in 
its former greatness. Portugal even seems to have awakened to the 
fact that this territory, which she was nnable to conquer and has 
so long neglected, has an inherent value worth looking after. If 
her money, wasted on a fruitless expedition and subsequent litigation, 
had been spent on a line to Massi KcBsi, she would not only have 
made a good coup, but have shown her intention of reforming the 
whole condition of affah's about the Zambesi with which she is so 
disgracefully connected, revolting accounts of which we have so 
recently seen depicted in the Graphic from the pen and pencil of 
Sir John Willoughby, 

The reports of this once great empire of Benomotapa or Monomo- 
tapa are very similar in the years 1514, 1597, 1600, 1G5G and 1782. 
I will not weary you with extracts from them all. That from Bar- 
bosa, cousin of Magellan, composed by himself in 1S14, is perhaps 
the most interesting, in which he says :^ 

" On entermg this country of Sofaln there is the coTintr;^ of Beoamataps, 
which is very large and pnopled by Gpntiles whom the Moors cill Cafers, 
These are brown rnon. . . , They carry swords in Bcahbnrda of wood, 
bound with gold or other metals. They are men of war, and some of 
them are merchants. Leaving Sofala for the interior of the country, 
fourteen days' journey froni it, there is a larRa town of the Gentiles 
which is called Zimbaoch, in which the King of Benamatapa frequently 
dwells, and from there to the city of Benamatapa thpre are six days' 
journey, and the road ^es from Sofala inland townrda the Cape of Good 
Hope. And in the said Benamatapa, whioh is a very hirge town, the 
King is used to make hia longest residenoe ; and it is thence the mer- 
chants biing to Sofala the gold which they sell to the Moors, without 
weighing it, for coloured stuffs and beads of Cambay, which are much 
used and valued amongst them, and the people of the city of Benamatapa 
Bay this gold cornea from farther oS towards the Gape of Good Hope." 

The account in "Purchas' Pilgrimage," published in London, 
A.D. 1C13, is worth quoting, as it gives a description of what were 
ruins even at that date, and distinctly resemble Zimbabje. Though 
we have not yet bad the luck to find the inscription mentioned, and 
Zimbabye is only about half the distance from Sofala, Tati would 
be about the " five hundred and tenne miles from that now silted 



I 



^ashonaland and its Detehpment. 

^ ftud mbmerged port." rurchoa assumes tLia vos tbo 
txag Sokrmon : — 



Opliir <A ^H 



t of the aimcient boildingB of stone worke : Which ftlso bftna 
Mnnga Letters, that tlio Moores (though learned) oould not reade," he 
atyi. "Other Mines are in Toroa, wherein are llioso buildinjtB which 
fioiTMM attribntetJi to some forran Prince, and 1, for the rea*ODB before 
ftlMffd, to Salomon. It is a square Fortresse, of stone; the atonee of 
nwraeikiua greatnessc, without an; eigne of morter or other matter to 
nyiw them. The wail Goo and twentio epsnnes thicko, the height not 
hoMing proportion. Oucr the gate are letters, which learned Moores 
eenU neylher reado nor know what letters they were. There are other 
bntUttiga besidee. of like bahion. The people call them the Coart, for an 
OBnr keepes it for the Benomotapa, and hath charge of lome of hia 
VOOIWI, that are there kept. They esteome theiu beyond huniono power 
to Inubl and therefore account them the workes of Deuils ; and the Mooros 
wUeh i*w them, said the Portugala Caelles were do way to bee eoui- 
fuad to them. Thoy are Sue hondred and Icmie mitcg from Sofala, 
Weatwafd. in one and twentie degrees of Boutlierly Latitude : in which 
ipac« is not found one building Ancient or later; the people are rude, 
afiil dwell ia Cottages of Timber." 

For those curiouH about tliis ancient gold realm, I would refer ' 
thom to Sir Uiuhard Burton's uhitrming tnuisklionof "Tlio Lusiud," 
bjr Cunoens, publislied at Lisbon in 1507 ; to I'ory's transktion of I 
" Leo Africimus," publishud at Cambridge in lOOO ; and to Kduaxt | 
Lopoz' " Regnam Congo," published with some exceedingly uurioua 
iUustTfttiona, in 15!>7. Ueylin's "Cosmography," publiiUiediii lUCO, 
hu also a particularly interesting account of Monomotupa; »o, loo, 

I Jlillftr's " System of Oeograpby," publiaLed in 1762, from 
a extracts. 

lU'jliii'i '• Votinoyraphy." 

—The air hereof is said to be very tiimperat*. and the 
f good and pteoiunt ; woU-waturoJ, beaiJc* the two ([rent 

"Cnaiua (Zaiubesi), Holy Ghiist (Limpopo 7)— with the . 
I, Pananii ; % Laangn; 0, Arruga; 4, Mongcano; and certain 
Others, which carry gold with Ihein in their sands. By mooiii whereof 
it holh not only abiindance of Com, but great stor« of Tastarage ; on 
which thny hrrod infinite Herds of Cattd and Dtber Itoosls very large 
and great ; sneh store of Elephanla, that they kill AOOO yearly for no 
ether reason, but to nukko merchandiau of their Teeth ; their Ould-mtncs 
gnat and suiall. reckoned to itOOS, aomo In the hills of Mairnice, others 
in the provinco of Matoca and Boro. . . . 

"The peopla are of ineau Btalnre, and black cotDpleiions ; bnl itntag 
aai active, connfioue and of such footmanabip, that they outran horiM. 




Mashcnaland and its Devehpvtent. 



Their apparel Cotton-Cloth, which thoy make, i 
place. Their Diet, Fleah, Fish, Bieo, Qiai. and a 



r huy (rom so 
oil called Susiman." 



After speaking of the inexhaustible mines of gold, he mentionB 
rainB ancient even in those days, thus : — 

" Most memorable for a large, and in those times an impregnable For- 
tresH, built formerly by some foreign Prince to eecm'e the mines; built of 
Hqn&re etones, and every stone of marvellonB greatness, withont any Bign 
of cement or other mortar ; the walls hereof 25 span thick, but the height 
not answerable ; over the gate certain characters written, which the most 
learned of the Moors could never read. Perhaps the work of some of the 
Mthiopian or Abaantie Emperours, when their power and Empire was 
at the highest. By the Inhabitants, who conceive it to be a work beyond 
hnm an power, it is thought to have been built by Devils; but by those 
who take Bofola for the Land of Ophir ascribed to Solomon. 

" The King hereof, accounted one of the greatest of Africk, hath under 
his command, besides the Provinces described (1. Matuca, 2. Torra or 
Bataa, 8, Boro, 4. Quitieni, 5. Inhamban). Some parts of Cafraria, of 
great riches in regard of mines of gold, which so abundantly supply 
alt the royal occasions, that he exacteth no kind of tribute from his 
BubjectH. 

" Among cities mentioned is Simbus, supposed to he HO called from 
Agisymba of Ptolomie, the chief town of Torre or Batne, distant from 
Sofala, one and twenty days' journey, and neighboured by the remains 
or ruinea of the Old Fortress before described " [probably the moJ ero 
Zvmbo]. 

Speaking of Sofula, where the Portuguese had a fort, 

" The people bringing hither great quantity of Gold (of which (i,e, 

Monoraotapa), they have most plentiful mines) which they exchange with 

them for their Cloth, and other eommoditiea. It is supposed that the 

Gold brought into this town amounteth to two milliont yeerly." 



Miltar't " Byitem of Geography." 

" Monomotapa. — Monomotapa is one of the largest empires t 
Africa." Speaking of the capital city, " It is a. large and populous city, 
and the etreeta very long and spacious. The greatest ornament of the 
city is the imperial palace, which is a large apacious fabric well flanked 
with towera, and has four avenues or stately gates. . . . 

" The climate of Monomotapa is much more wholesome than many 
other parts of Africa ; and the soil is so fertile, that it prodnces a great 
plenty of the principal necessaries of life. It abounds with pasture 
grounds, on which are bred prodigious quantities of cattle, especially oxen 
and cows. The chief grains are rice and millet, and they have plenty of 
:s kinds ol tropical fruits. In the forests are great nomberi of wild 



Matkonatand and iu Developmmt. 



sss 



htadM, pMtiealarly ulephuntu, llio lBtt«r of whirl] tlie natlvM kill, not 
only for tlwEr flmh, bnt oIm for thoir tnetli, which thr; nuiko cotuidcrAbla 
ftdvMinge of by iwUiiig to thtt Portii^eM. 

"Tbcn ftrti rauiy rivorx in thi> cpuntry, «nd on the buikt of most of 
tham grow uuuiy fine tree* uid sugur-oAncs wilhout nti.v culture. In 
MinMOf tiwni it fmind gold that ia awept awk.V frnm the niinr-i. With 
mpaet to the nstivofi, thoy kre iii suneru] Iftll, w«Il-*hB|>«d, nad healthy: 
lh«7 ara qnilo bUrk uid hove woolly hair, which they decomle with a 
T«ri«ty of trinket!. 

"Tha Empnror or KJnR of MnnomotnpA hail a proAipon* niimbrw of 
wiTM. , , , Ue alwayK wuKn Iha Mine kind of dreM, which t 
A roW mailn of lilk BtafT moiiufac tared in the kingdom, 
•nuy it tuniiitnhied by tlie kitiij! ; fur he htL* no cavalry, there being f*w 
honMi Mid IhoM not lit for tiie purpooe. tkrougbout bin dotninionii. 

"With rcapect to the gold-ininen in thii ampira bam wbioh tba 
Porta^eae havo roaptd oonsidnrahlo ndvantagea, tba rJiicf of tham Uf* 
in Uanica, near lliu capital of the Mnio uaiiiu. They eitund ihemaalvea 
tlirout(b a Inri^, upacioiis conipaiKnu, wild, undy, and barren coontrj, 
about ninety mUoa in clrcuniferoiioi, tind ■nn'oniid«il with high nioiin- 
taina. 

■■Th«y are Hitnatail »bant nnn hnndmd and fifty mtlm w«it of tba 
mariiai, or place wboro the conuuoree for It Ca cnrrlad un. Tha nativaa 
that woric al them Und great difflcolty in gathering tlia metal, wtueb Ea 
hcra in dnat, for want of wat«r to aeparnta U &om tba aarth, ao that Uiay 
ara oUigad to take th« whola aa tliay dig tt to olbar dlataot pLaeea, whar* 
ibay k«ep largo eistomi and reiervoin for that pnipoao. Thay ham oim 
eonraoiance, howaver, which ia that thoy naad not dig lower than ail or 
aovan ftat, all iha rust being a hard aolid rook banealh that drpth. Thoro 
ara alao other intnoa In diffdrmit parte of tha empire that produce oxcellent 
malai, partleuUrly tlioau near Batua. 

** Hieae inlnea are rockoned the inont aocii'nt in tlie whola pnipim on 
aaeotmt of aame caallea, tn their ncighlioiirhocid, which bear the greataal 
BaaAt<if antiquity, and am luppowKl to have been built aa a labguard to 
"l .SIm moat dlatinguialied of tliew bnildinga ia *ifnat«d in the mlAdlia 
p apaciona plain, and iiurouniliid by the minea abora maniioQad. 
lot liigb, but of tho thicknaaa of Iweiity-fiva feel ; the atooea 
Hngularly ona apon another,but without any kind ufeemant to GmWi 
Aain toother. On Uiu front jiut over tha great gat« la a alone larsar 
iffii the real, and upon it an tDscriptiun in oharaclon or rather hiarof^y- 
phi«a, which ara ao uulntelligible, that no pcraon hath yat been able to 
daeypbar thctn. And at totne distance IWhh Ihla buDdlng ara aavaral 
oUiafa, an utnatcd on ioma aminanea orriaing gnaai, and amoogM tham 
ia a tcntar aaventy feat hi^. Tha native* Ima^na iham lo be tba woika 
tOMOBaa, being uiaUa to coneatv* how ancb atntctoraa oonld be ndaed. 

" Tbara ara aavaral eonaidarable plaaaa between the niinaa and tha aea. 
CMtl, wban falra and toarkota are hdd tor lb* aala of gold, p«rtiealarly 





Mcuhonaland <md its DeceU^tJiant. 

thoss towns on the Zezebe and Cnamn, and where the Fortugitese tiAVS 
built fortresses to keep the natives in awe, who come to those markets to 
exchange their gold for European and other commoditiea. 

" The Portnguese were first permitted bj the Emperor of Moaomotapa 
to buUd forts here, in gratitude for the servicea they had done in con- 
tribatiag to reduce some revolted vassals to retnm to their obedience 
This was about the year 1640. 

" The natives, beeideB gold, bring great qnantities of ivory, fura of 
sundry wild and tame beasts, and other valuable articles, in exchange for 
cloths of various sorts, glass beada of JifTerent aii^es and colours, and other 
trifling trinkota, which renders it a very advantageoue commerce to the 
Portuguese." 

I have merely quoted these ancient reports, because, after having 
heea over the country and seen the ruina, and the vast mining opera- 
tions carried out by the ancients ^vith their primitive means, and 
their inability to crush any but the softest parts of the reefs or their 
casings, convinces me that the beat has been left for us, with our 
modern appliances for gold extraction. There is no doubt that 
large alluvial deposits were worked by the natives, especially in the 
Umtali district. Tiie apparent working out of these and tribal wars 
caused a falling oil in this quill gold trade with the Portugoese- 
trading stations on the coast and tbe Zambesi. So that on the 
development of America and India, Portugal directed her attention 
to other gold markets. Thus the gold industry in Southern Africa 
became entirely neglected by Europeans until reef-mining waa 
instituted in the Transvaal. Abortive attempts, it ia true, were 
made to work the mines in Matabeleland in 1868, A shaft was 
sunk near Hartley Hill, and the Tati fields were worked in a de- 
sultory way, but the difGcultiea of transit for machinery, and the 
want of energy and commercial enterprise compared with America, 
have left the famed gold deposits of this well-chronicled district 
practically unworked for ages past. 

It was imperative that Tklatabelo and Hashon aland should 
come under English influence, rounding off as it does, by a 
natural boundary, the river Zambesi, our South African possessions- 
Few, perhaps, here are aware how nearly this rich territory passed 
into German hands. The aspirations or intentions of Cape 
Colonists were not consulted in 1885, as we all must trust they 
would be now, as to a possible extension northwards. Cape poli- 
ticians and English financiers, bent on securing this new field for 
our expansion, soon saw that it could only be effected through 
private commercial enterprise. Consequently, ex{>editiona ' 



field for 
through 
na were J 



itatkonaland aitd its Dfvelop?ntnt. 



UDi Qp wlilch rcBulteil in the present charter being (tnnled 
to ta usftlgamation of interests. This wise move, as was the case 
with India, has saveil Uie OoTemment incurring anything but a 
Moond-hand responsibility, with the advantage of later reaping the 
btncfitt by stepping Into the government of a ready-made Colony. 
BeaideB, wbat borne Government would have incurred the reepOD- 
■ibtlity of such an nnderteldng without risking its very existence ? 
The cost would have been enonnoos. We should have offended 
Boon or come to blows with the Ifatabele, and probably not have 
Moomplisbed the business yet. No, we arrange these matters 
better by commercial companies and by contract. Why, in the 
Crimea, some of oar engineer officers, in despair, when they 
■kW the advantages in Todleben's camp, suggeatiil hanthitg over to 
MBtrtoton the feat of taking Sebastopol. I have heard, too, the 
French Government in the last war, when tbeir commissariat broko 
down, wanted Spiers and I'ond to cater for the French army, 
forgetting, I suppose, we were neutral. 

Mashonaland n little more than a year ago was a terra incngnita, 
ft name scnrco known. To-dny it in fiuniliar in our mouUis as a 
colonial word. It is now a well-established Ilritiah Colony with 
growing townships. Its capital, Salisbury, is to-night in direct 
Itlegrapbio oomniunication with Charing Cross, and the accounts 
doming from there are extromoly satisfactory. Last June the Bev. 
P. Surridgc read you a paper on this country, which would mako 
it perhaps wearisome if I were again to describe it.* I would draw 
yonr attention to the differant gold-fluids, and leave my photo- 
graphic alidt.i to speak of the aspects of the country. On arriving 
at Trovidential Gorge, below Victoria, one of the few waggon routes 
on the plnleAu, you strike the first or eastern gold measure. It ainiia 
probal)lo that this is the same formaUon which extends from Tati. 
in the South-Wesl, through Victoria, on to Umtalt and Massi Kessl 
in tlie Norlb-East, as the formation is very simQar, and runs in tho 
■amo direction, having been traced to a oonaidemble distance 
towards the North-East,' for valnable gold discovcriis have been matio 
at each of the above fields. Thus from Victoria a tetogram daW 
UiTcfa 4, from the Gold Commiasionrtr, states that four tons of Hie 
"Dickcn'B Reef" from tho 20ft. Ipvel averaged S oi. Udwt., while 
nmpln hnm nin an high ns ID oz. to the ton, and that cvcryono 
vaa mthusiastio about the gold. Fresh diaooveries are coutantljr 

* Pnettdii^. Royal Colonial tiuHluU. VoL XXIL, p. BOI. 

* llac*, prabahlj, ii ih« nuLrii «t lli« fol4 loood lu His iaiiJ ot msjIj til 
Ihe ihws numiDS oB this vatenlicd. 



■anted ^^^^ 



MashonalaTid and its Development. 



vMc^H 



I 



being made, among them being the "Charlie's Hope, 

reported as very good, and most of the reefs here are said to imprim 
as they go down. 

Witiiin fifteen miles to the East of this modem Victorian gold- 
field lie the ancient ruins of Zimbabye, and from the easy gradient 
up the gorge I conjecture this was the high road to the city. I -will 
not attempt to describe these ruins, which many of you have pro- 
bably heard so exhaustively treated by Mr. Theodore Bent. 1 will 
content me with showing you a few of my photographs of them. 
The lower or circular building containing the tower appears to have 
been a temple devoted to Phallic worship, while the citadel above, 
built upon a sort of Tarpeian rock, very difiicolt of access, seems at 
one time to have been surrounded by a very large town. There 
can be no doubt, as Mr. Bent told you, that this ancient capital was 
intimately connected with a great gold industry. There are tons of 
roasted quartz left in -what appears to have been a natural furnace, 
while there are the remains of smelting furnaces, and the crucibles 
and bumishet's, which have distinct traces of the precious metal left 
on them. From archie ologica! data, Mr. Bent has decided that the 
workers were Arabs, though I hear that the crucibles are almost 
identical with those used by the Phcenieians in Cornwall for smelt- 
ing tin. The Arab theory agi-ees with De Camoens' description of 
Vasco da Gama's first visit to Mozambique. 

*' Afoasting cheery all the guests enquired 

In Arab language whence had come their hosts ? 

Tlie valiant Lusious answered. . . . 

' Wb are the Occidental Portuguese. . , . 

"Who arc ye ? What this load wherein yo wone? • . 

■ We live,' an island man thus answering said, 

' Aliens in land and law and eke in blood ; 

"Where native races are by nature bred, 

A Inwlcas, loutish, and uiu'easoning brood. . . , 

In fine, to fund you with the facta you seek, 

Man calls our island Mozambique : ' ' 

His speech thus spoke the Moor, and took his leave." 

This shows that at that date, at least, the Moors or Arabs trsjecl 
the gold on the coast which came from the interior. 

All the gold of Arabia spoken of in the Bible might have been 
thus obtained, but surely not from Arabia. 

The road from Victoria now crosses the open uplands of the 

' B. Burton's tttmBliLtion ol Camoena' Lusiad, 



MashonaUmd and its Development. 980 

pUUftO, where in tho winU^r montlis iho cold in k^-on taA iimgoi- 
sttDg. This plateau cxtcmla riglit away Sontli-West into MaUbolo- 
land, wlieru Ui&t w&rliko tribe socin, and not unnatur&U}', to have 
dioaen th* pick of the land Tor their military kroalB, It i» &l tho 
betd of tho diflurent rivers Rowing North ftnd Soiith-EAEt, and is 
Mrtaialjr very healthy. 1 have spent all seasons of the year thciv, 
■nd could not have oi^oyed better health. I'ho Cbortered 
Company's pioneer column was obliged to choose tiiu caMUm route 
up to Salisbnry, owing to tho jealousy of the Matabelo of its pa«!tiug 
Ibiongb their kraals. Thus, it liotl to take a. diflicitit route over 
innumerablo river cotiraos, and through a low country which, witb- 
oat groat care duniig tho nuns, is distinctly imhiuUthy ; but, ere 
king, the western route through Uatabelelond will, 1 trust, be 
D|iMied, tapping, as It will, a rich and hvaltby country. 

Fort Baliubury, the modem capital of Masbonaland, is nitualed b 
tew uul«8 south of Mount llamiHlen, and occupies a healthy and 
ecntral position between the gold-fields in the Eaatem and Westcm 
Gold Measures. It is faat oiuiiining a very liusincsaliko appearance. 
Hat« ore givluft way to brick buildings. The streets are wcti laid 
oat. It has its hotels, clubs, billiard rooms, store*, hospital, church, 
juid pri«0D. \s I Hoid, London and Salisbury arc now joined up by 
wire, and our now:* appiars not iiiotiy Lours afti-r in thv " Mashona- 
land Herald " and " Zambesian Times." Standsfor houses are cbong- 
iDg hands at gooti prices. I inyi<flf buill a hoiiiie there by contract 
beli>r« I left, and we estabtiahed assay oOices, wbent thi-y have 
slfMdy more work than they con do. All tlii« speaks for tho 
vitality of the Colony, for it is but the work of u yuor. I doubt not 
ve dtoU see trams and an uscluuiga there almost as quickly as at 
iofaanneaburg. 

Biity miles Boutb-West of Bolisbury lie Hartley Uilts, the haid- 
qoarten of the mining dintricts in the WeaUirD Gold Ueacon, 
which appears to run up through Uubnlawayo across the Behalcw* 
and Craswezwi, and down tliv Mazoe. Great things were expected 
turn, beeansti Sir John Swinbonie's engineer reported the pressnoe 
of payable gold there twenty years ago. Thcr* arti amneroua old 
workinga, and conHidiirablo activity has bwn display**! bora by the 
pHWpectors. Various syndicates have sunk shafts on the different 
neb, and a five-stomp luttcry, vith its cngiiii', was erected and at 
vorki n* well aa steam saw-mills for cutting up the excvUenl uali^v 
wood iato mine timber. I must own I waa dl«appoint4.'d with the 
qoartx bero; sbowiitg Curly well on the surface, it waa loo low- 
gnde b«Iow at thirty feel. I may remark I had tho ftdvulag* of 



Mashfmaland and its Development. 

Mr. Robert Williams' opinion, a mining engineer of considerable 
Bandt experience who waa travelling with me. There was sufBcient 
to lura Lord Randolph Churchill into purchasing a half-interest tn 
the " Matchless Reef," but my cautious expert pronounced it too 
patchy for safe investment. Bince my return, I have information 
that things are much better on this field. 120 tons from the 
"Bonanza " put through the mill averaged 12 dwt. 12 tons from 
the " Salamanda " gave 12 ounces of gold, and a crushing from " 
Troop " reef gave 1 oz. 3 dwt, per ton. 

This is most encouraging, as, there being plenty of wood and 
water, the cost of extraction will not be high when once the 
machinery is got in. 

We now puahed on South-West for the Umswezwi, from which 
good reports woi'e coming in, and soon got into the country infested 
by the Tsetse fly, a most diabolical insect. This fly, though not 
much bigger than an ordinary house-fly, is a veritable plague, for 
its bite ia fatal to every kind of domestic animal, though to man 
and the game of the country it is innocuous. I believo It will be 
found tliat inoculation from its cultivated virus will cure its bite, 
for the Mashonas to-day dry and pound the fly and mis it with the 
food of their domestic pots living near belts of this fly. I found the 
prick of its probe, which will pierce the thickest hide, particularly 
irritating. I have brought a few specimens to show you, caught in 
the act. We had to travel on foot in this thickly-wooded country, 
our food carried on donkeys, which, poor beasts, were condemned 
by the fly to an early death. There were many lions who only 
grumbled round tho donkeys at night, but feared to spring, aa I 
kept an oil lamp burning over their long ears ; I have, therefore, 
no thrilling a^lventures to relate, as, luckily, I waa never seriously 
up a tree during the whole course of my trip. This was a grand 
mining coimtrj-, and we laughed at the fly as we felt how short a 
time it, and the game it feeds on, will occupy a country which 
evidently once afforded occupation for a large population. On all 
aides there was testimony of tlio enormous amount of work that had 
been done by tho ancients for tho production of gold. Here, as on 
the Mazoe and at UmtaH, tens of thousands of slaves must have 
been at work taking out the softer parts of tho easing of tho reefs, 
and millions of tons have been overturned in their search for gold, 
A fact which points to the employment of forced labour is the 
crushing stones, their equivalents to our stamp-batteries, of which 
I show you a sample to-night which I brought fi'om the Mazoe 
valley. These stones are sometimes found in rows close to the 




iftukottatand and its I>evetop*iunl. 



t, u if Uio poor croftturpR had boon cluiinod Lo their work. 
I myself employed the natives to crush aaraplcH with sit 

t, titi now yon can soo by tliis cruKiiing stono with its stamp 
r HlUfl men could mill company] witli a modi-ra stc-atu-drivitn 
fltunp- battery. If, therefore, iinilor thuKO ciroumstnnccA, itio, work 
I worth dointt. how macb more so with our niodorn aiipliancM 
ftod evor-increKsing nt.fd for f^olii. On the Mnmho liivor we care- 
fully exauiined tbo IneK reef, on the hanging wall of which the 
ancieots had dono a vust amount of work, hut had o\-iilcnt1y found 
tfa« ijuartK of the reef itself too hard for them. The prospectora 
bad Bonk throe shafts of 80 feet each. The lode, wbidi was 
n woU-defined one, between hMiKin;; oiid foot walls of slato, 
witli a sandstone country to tlie North and granite on the South, 
goes down at a uniform width of fi fuct G iDuhex, oud is identical in 
the various shafts from samples taken across the reef at this depth. 
It gave an average fire oasay of 1 ox. 15 dwt., and milling 1 02. 
4 dwt. while IH inches of it assayed as higli as A ozs. I regrt>t that 
Lord llandolph Churchill and bin experts did notgofaronough tosee 
this particular lode, which no expert could pronounce likely to pinch 
ont. Pronpi^ctinK in thin district baa been rendered difBoult by the 
number of via^joii (as the natives call the old worldngs} covering 
np the run of the reefs and often enough your amateur prospector, 
i(|-aorant himm'lf, has hi-en content to bribe the natives to ahow tlioae 
old workings, and then pegged off claims on them brespective of 
whether a roef, much less gold, was thiTi« or not. These men, finding 
they oould not sell tlicir claims at their own imaginativo value, have 
oome down country, saying Mn«honnlimd is no good. It in nimply 
Isochable. After vinitiug many finds on the L'mswei'.wi, which from 
BOi&oe indications were very favourable, and almut which old miiiera 
war* very sanguine, we retraced our stops, being fool«ore, and our 
•lock of provisions having well nigh come to an end. 

We next visited the Maioe, which wo bad been told on oar arrival 
«M ft granitic country where reeb pinched out. But as I profsr 
my cyH to my ears, wo went and were ricldy rewarded, for a mors 
leraly country it would be difficult to find : beautiful tree-dad hilla 
1 graaa-oovered vales, through which meandered uparkling 
■ eoolly shaded with old lemon trees and pahiis. So rich ii 
1 that 1 believe atiytliing would grow, and reliable accoanta 
tt it is healthy. It is, too, a splendid mining country. Tbua 
J in the Talagora valley w« found a sandstone Strict to 
ttu Wut, with iroDstono rangea to tha East through a rocky gorge 
ht whicli Uuoe flowed. Wo found b«re semal splendid ftopsrties, 



261 ^^M 
similar 1 

I 

i 



I 

i 



262 Mashottalcmd and its Devetopment. 

about which the old practical miners were very Eanguino, tbot 
the esperta did not agree with them ; but luckily eiperts, IJIce 
doctors, don't always agree about the same case. Look how lament- 
ably wrong they were about the Eandt. Why these same eiperta 
said they would not bave got oS their horses to look at the Bandt. 
And now they pronounce it the finest gold-field in the world. 
Experts are pretty safe in reporting against a property, because in 
nine oases out of ten they will ultimately be found to be right. I 
heard old and esperienced miners in this district say: "They 
don't want none of them experts' opinions on a reef that goes 
down 60 feet in good country and carries gold all through." The 
Alice reef here at 68 feet panned 1 oz. 13 dwt., and the Susie, 
1 oz. 2 dwt., and last month we heard that two tons of the Alice 
passed through the stamp-battery yielded 8 ounces per ton of 
retorted gold. Were I to go on with figures I should weary you. 
Suffice it to say that the gold-mining community is now enthusiastic. 
I had myself last week an account from my aasayer at Sahsbury of 
quartzfrom Umtali which assayed 4 ounces to the ton, where hitherto 
we had looked upon most ore as low grade, while the Day Dawn 
reef there, we heard last week, pons over an ounce at 40 feet. 

The pesshnista are those bored with the idea of hai,-ing to wait 
for a return, or who cannot afford it. They went up elated with 
expectations, never dreaming there was work to be done, and have 
come down full of bitterness because they did not find a royal road 
to fortune. Those of us who " can hide our time " know that a 
legitimate boom will come bo soon as the railway brings in 
machinery. I have seen enough after very careful examination-^ 
backed by the experience of a good mining engineer, and an 
assayer from the German School of Mines — to convmce me of the 
certainty of there being payable gold in large quantities. I, of 
course, met many disappointed ones — inesperionced prospectors 
and pioneers, and for the matter of that financiers and politicians, 
who had come up expecting I know not what from the new 
Eldorado before it had even been legitimately prospected. 

We now returned to Salisbury, where I met Mr. Cecil Rhodes, who 
had come up with Mr. De Waal from Deira. The latter's enthusiastic 
descriptions of the farming capabilities of the country to the East 
made me determine to go out that way to the coast, visiting the 
Umbati field en tquIc. I look back upon that journey as one of the 
pleasimtest of trips in a varied exjieriunco. Do Waal bad in no wit 
overrated it. In many parts the scenery was of unrivalled beauty. 
Boiling grass plains.j well-wateied and admirably adapted for 



Mcuhonaland and itt Dtmelopmenl. 

mUle, nor tho habitat of Tseasebe and other back, leading down 
gndoAll]' into & more broken country, wliure picturosquo wood-cUd 
hiUa serrate well-watered v&lleyB, admirably adapted for irrigation 
and cultivation. The graes here is swetl ami Iniuriant, and onr 
csttle revelled in it. Many fanoa have been beaconed off here, and 
agricalturu in making' rniiid progroes. Mr. Van dor Ityl's settlement 
of " lAortncodale " is in this district, where already in D«e«tnbdr 
100 acres had been broken np, and wor« iindur culti%'ation. Wheat, 
rjre, and barley were doing well, and vines, planted but a mnnih, had 
ihoots a foot long, wbieli is an nnpr^codontinl growth even in the 
Old Colony, while farm stock was ihriviD^;, and lli« hoaltli nf the 
Httlement wn« guod. 

I have traversed upwards of 1,000 milea of thix roiich-critidaed 
eonntry, and have an experience extending over several seaaons in 
Uatabclelaod, on tbu eaine plateau, where the same conditions hold 
good, and where I have reaped and thiaahod English wheat and 
bKley, and («tun all our EngUsb fruits, as well as tmpicat once, 
grown by the blissionaricB. I am gratitied that what I have 
■aid before at many public meetings ia now so fully ondorsod by 
pnctica] farmcm. And I state again, there are vast tracts, well- 
watored, well-wooded, with rich soil and magnificent grass, only 
waiting easier communication to become the home* of many of my 
Mlow-countryuicn. I myself visited fanna nhern good land waa 
bat being brought under tho plough, and good buildings were going 
op. I alKO met Ilocr farmers going down to fi'teh up tltuir fami- 
lies and stock, thorongbly satisfied with the cotmtry and the Cum- 
{Moy'a regulationu. This information in of i(ii|Mirianci\ b«cati!ii 
tlwre arc those who have aitMirtml that the country was unfitted for 
{arming or culouiaation. This I emphatically deny— a country ia 
not unfitted for colonisation because it cannot support paupers know. 
Ing no trade, urno'iT do-wcllK who i-nn't tnni tht-ir hands to any - 
tiling but the liquor bottle. There is an opening for farmeni and 
fegiiculturists with a small amount of capital at their command, 
who woulil soon make Houth Africa self-supporting iiuitead of 
dependent on AnstraUa for Hour, and America for com and tinned 
vegetables and iTroviaions. Land in SoiiUi Africa is not ailapted to 
borne idoas of Cuining. It must be done on a large scale, eseept 
la the vidnity of towns, whore irrigated gardens pay well. Those 
who oondemn tho Itocr bnn«r Itevo probably not studied the (juca- 
Ikc Tfavru arc, of course, bad fanners among them— eo, too, I think, 
they are to be found over here — but the lioer is a gnod stock bruer, 
wbiob be thoroughly undcrstatuU, wid lives for little else, excoptbg 



r ' — % 

« 364 Maihonaland and Us Development. ^^H 

perhaps, the ohtsa. I doubt if some vrlio run down Masbonaland 
OS a fuming eoimb7 know sweet veldt from sour, or ondeistuid 
why their tr«k-oien would not eat lliis gnus, but would havs quickly 
filled thomwlves on that they passed a mile behind. While aa to 
texture of soil, or whether a river can be led out for irrigation, it tM 
beyond thorn. I know when I say, " A small amount of capital," 
ths question crops up : How much ? and the czpensiTe long ronte 
lootna hig. Of course, 6e%-crKl would have to comhtoe to pay this— 
OS I kiww a party of Manxmen did — but all this pointa to the neca*- 
aty for a State-^ded etnigmtion department, not to thrust off oa 
our Cokoiaa our oadeH saiploa population, to be a gtrilring somea 
of trouble to them, but to aid in the derek^meot of land ■"^•tftfiM 
by he^iiae oat lUwrring andoaeliilmei) vbo would htip to choapM 
lbekia(oattliem.i 

I win now ntani to Umtali, wben Ibare la • **— "»"^ townali^ 

fuieUtf gtvwiag op on aa admiiaUy ehoaen nte — with ha otBoM, 

ataeu, uA a honpilal tended by tboae brave sisleis bom Kimheriajr 

Boi^taL All Um land ia tahao 19— in antic^wtMn of the mat 

affmcb at the i^fany. Then haa been aa imm— w "— ™rrt d 

n^ieg wwk daw ben by th« andeata. The graond ia anpll 

nddlod with old wivkinga, which point to altwnal fig^aga; audi 

kanao doahk that, if b paid them ia tha aUwDth emtnj, it 

waaM fagr <■< to day to wash the gnxind by hydnahs b atwma tliM 

Wa Ttnlad and eiamiied a gcaid naiy 

tha on gan good bet hnr-gnda nmhL 

• «Dod neb ban ben wmniMiad, and At 

In is aptninf 1^ wal, asd fMiing onr n 

•MMtolkataB. Qtomm IfeTChmdorgori SaAiiBollK 

Kail i lia wf aTfMrtiflftm eofywaBd tin, bat I only widita^aafc 

^ wfak I haw MB, Mi «aarid«« d» Kwted aaosat of gnan 

,1 itMta mill 111 that oB «A giiH SM 

'. Idaartjwtoadtefcwimaii^ 




MaaJwnaland and its Development. 

boftrd, tbero 10 plenty of water luid abuD^ance of timber for 
muling work, wbilu LiIkiiif will bo (^asily Bupplivil. Tlie iuuuodialo 
proapects of the country arc, however, enltr«ly dept^ndcnt on 
quicker commanicalion. By the loRfi: soalhom routes with froighta 
at £7fi a ton, plua our Colonial dutiuB, no vnterpriso can pay, unluss 
it be a well-organised IruDsport one. At present, it is either a flood 
or a fomine, acuorOing to the state of the roade and rivers. When 
we arrived in Salisbury, mcul was fetching £11 to £13 a bag, while 
oaltlo aold at £12 a hvad, aud a month later they had rospeolivoly 
faUeo to £G. 

The whole pORJlien will be altere<l when we have railway com- 
tnunicatioD with the East coiitit, whtoh is less than 400 miles from 
Saliabury. When this is done I believe wo shall see a de^'Dlopmont 
little dreamt of at home in those times of depression. There is a 
b«l(of that detestable llyestending 70 miles westward from M'ponda ; 
this Dtlwly piedudca wn^gon traflic, but is easily bridged by a light 
railway, wbtdi would lie a very paying concern. There an no 
engipenring difficulties of any importance, the lino would follow the 
fpur fonning the water-parting between the Bosi and Pungwe Rivers. 
When we came down in November, the road was in splendid order, 
■sd we eatimated that if this section were begun in the spring it 
woald be in working order before the rains fell. We should thus 
have aoeess to a splendid port, Beir&, where there would be only 
8 per cent, ad valorem tarifF against us. From M'panda steamers 
of light draft can go down the Pungwe to Betra, which by river is 
70 mQes. This light railway should be puahed on at once, or 
•oothar season will be lost. 

■ segards the health of the country, weekly reports show that 

~ ion there Is very little sickness. Last was an abnormally 

I, and the first pioneers were ill supplied with medicines, 

, and even food ; consequently there were many cases of 

t not of a bad type, except that contracted in the low 

Many exaggerated stories must be received with great 

The plateau, which is between four and five thousand 

ftel above sea-level, is absolutely healthy, and for eight months 

then ia no finer climate in the world. During the nilny season, 

' irflh proper houses, supplies, and comforts, and the ordinary pre- 

n tropical climes — it will ere long be looked upon 

tbly healthy colony. Assuming that the same number 

B who went into Masbonaland the first season, had been sent 

» moors of Yorkshire, with the same scanty clothing and food 



264 Maskonaland and its Devclopmsnt. 

perhaps, tlie cliasG. I doubt if some who run down Maslionaland 
as a farming country know sweet veldt from sour, or understand 
why their trek-oxen would not eat this grass, but would have quickly 
filled themselves on that they passed a mile behind. While as to 
texture of soil, or whether a river can be led out for irrigation, it is 
beyond them, I know when I say, " A small amount of capital," 
tiie question crops up : How much ? and the expensive long routa 
looms big. Of course, BeveroJ would have to combine to pay this — 
as I knew a party of Manxmen did^but all this points to the neces- 
sity for a State-aided emigration depai^tment, not to thrust off on 
our Colonies our useless surplus population, to bo a striking source 
of trouble to them, but to aid in the development of land industries 
by helping out deserving and useful men who would help to cheapen 
the laaf out there.' 

I will now return to Umtali, where there is a charming township 
quickly growing up ou an admirably chosen site— with its ofBcee, 
stores, and a hospital tended by those brave sisters from Kimberley 
Hospital, All the land ia taken up — in anticipation of the near 
approach of the railway. There has been an immense amount of 
raining work done here by the ancients, The ground ia simply 
riddled with old workings, which point to alluwal diggmga ; and I 
have no doubt that, if it paid them in the sixteenth century, it 
would pay uB to day to wash the ground by hydrauhcs between these 
innumerable shafts. We visited and examined a good many 
properties here, and the ore gave good but low-grade results. 
Since my return some good reefs have been announced, and the 
"Grand" on the Odzi ia opening up well, and panning over an 
ounce to the ton. Of course I have heard of good finds in other 
districts of argentiferous copper and tin, but I only wish to speak 
of what I have seen, and considering the Umited amount of genuine 
prospecting done, I think it remarkable that on each gold-field 
something good has been found. I do not pretend to Havo seen every- 
thing, nor, though understanding geology, will I set myself up as 
the infallible guide of investors, 1 simply give jou my opiniona 
formed as an eyewitness. 

The conditions of working will compare very favourably with the 
Bandt. When once we get better communication with the sea- 

' The Imperial Qovemment has made a grant la aid of the Croftore to settle 
in British Columbia, and the Colonial Gavernmeat haa givon large tracta ol 
land for this purpoGo ; the Sritish Qovcroment baa devoted a Terj large sum in 
aid ot the settlement of these CroFter fishermeQ, Wh; not have State-aided 
minors and agriculturiata in Maeboiialaiid 7 



Maaltonaland and its Devchpmtnt. 

board, tbero is plenty of water ani] abnndanco of timber for 
minuig work, wbilo labour will bo cuUy suppliod. Tlic iuiiitcliiitfl 
jVMpeeta of tbe country are, however, entirely depeudeut on 
qnickor ooromunication. By the long soutbcrn rotitvs with froigbti 
ftt jE7S a ton, ploa our Colonial dulit-a, no entflrpriie can pay, uulou 
it b« A wull-or^iuuMed tranKixirl axw. At jirestuit, it in uitliura Hixid 
or a bminc, according to tbe state of the roods and rivers. When 
we arrived in SuliNbury. nK»i] was fetching ^11 to ^'IX a bag, wbilo 
eattle itolil at £12 a IiL'ad, and a mouth lator they had rospeottToIy 
UIlcD to £6. 

Thd wbolo position will ho altennl when wo have railway a 
mnnication with tbe ICast coast, which is loss than 100 miles from 
Baliahnry. When tbi^ is done I bcliovn we Mhall k«o u dcvulopmont 
liiUe dreamt of at home in these times of depression. There is a 
boll of that deleatahlu llyoxtunding 70 miles westward from M'panda; 
this utterly precludes waggon traftio, but is oasily bridged by a light 
railway, which would be a very paying concern. Tlu'.ru atd do 
engineering difficulties of any importance, the Uoe would follow lbs 
Wpai fanning tbe water-parting botivean the Boei and Pangwo Rivera. 
When we oame down in Novomhur, the road wsa in splendid order, 
uid we estimated that if this soctlou were begun in the spring it 
wonid be in working order before tlio rains fell. We should tbua 
bave aooesa to a splendid port, Beira, where there would he only 
8 p«r cent, ad valorem tariff against us. from M'panda Hteamen 
of light draft con go down the I'lingwu to lieira, which by river is 
70 nilea. This light railway should bo pushed on at once, or 
laoo will bo lost. 

I tbe health of the country, weekly reports show that 
t there is very little sickness. Last was an abnormally 
I, and the first pionctira were ill suppUed with medicines, 
oonfarts, and even food ; consequently there were many eaHi of 
fever, but not of a bad type, eioopt that contracted in tbe low 
country. Many exaggerated stories must be receired wiUi great 
idon. Tbd platvau, which is between four and five thoonnd 
i above sea-level, is absolutely healthy, and for eight raontha 
, tbcn is no liner climate in the world. During the rainy season, 
kffc^ier bouses, supphes, and comforts, and the ordinary pre- 
■ necessary in tropical climes — it will ere long be lotdced npoo 
ukably bealtliy colony. Assnming that Uio same nnmber 
' went into Mashonaiand the first season, bad been scot 
tnoon of Yorlubire, with tbe same scanty elotbing and Ioo4 



2G9 Mashonaland and its Development. 

&m not an expert, that there is any amount of gold there. I walked 
from Fort Bahsbury down to the coast, some iOO miles, and I can 
assure you it ia a most beautiful country. The pictures do not give 
you a perfectly fair idea of it, because you muat remember the trees 
are green all the year round. It ia no good for a lot of young 
fellows to go out there and think they will luako a ]ot of money in 
ft short time, because they won't do it. They must work hard and 
go in a largo party, aiul not be led away by the idea that as soon as 
they get into the country they are going to make a lot of money 
and come back again. I thought, as being one of the few men who 
really wont up into the country first of all, that Mr. Maimd might 
like mo to back up what lie has said, which I do in every way. 

Major G. E. Giles: I don't know that I can add anything of 
interest to what Mr. Mauud has told you of Mashonaland this even- 
ing. I have been, practically, all over the route he has described ; 
and I can only reiterate my opinion, which perhaps soma of you 
may have seen in print, that Mashonaland has a magnificent future 
before it. This opinion ia based, aa far as the agricultural prospects 
of the country go, on a long experience of South Africa, wherein I 
have had many opportunities of personal observation of territories 
best suited for agricultural enterprise, together with tlie methods 
adopted. Thia opinion is backed, with far greater authority than 
mine of course, by every Colonial farmer of experience (and there 
were many of them) with whom I converaed on the subject, in 
Mashonaland, From a long espenence, in the Straits Settlements 
where coffee and tobacco plantations flourish and are a very large 
Bource of revenue, I am of opinion that the same profitable results 
will be obtained, in due course of time, in Mashonaland, when such 
enterprises shall have been started. Tea also, in certain parts of 
the country, so I am informed by a competent authority — is likely 
to prove successful. With a country possessed of such natural ad- 
vantages as good soil, on which may be grown every variety of cereal 
and vegetable ; wide grazing grounds, plentiful supplies of water, 
and a good climate, where the white man can work, and his family 
hve ; who can doubt but that, as far as agriculture goes, the future 
success of Mashonaland is assured ? But the more immediate suc- 
cess of the country in the future depends of course on the finding 
of gold, in payable quantities ; and on the means of arriving at 
these gold fields being facihtated. Mr. Maund has given you ex- 
tracts from reports showing bow, the deeper the ahafta on various 
reefa are being driven, the better are the finds of gold. And Mr. 
Williams has shown you specimens of the quartz, Mr. Bent giveg 



liashonaland and ilt Dtveit^ment. 



his Tftlaabl? testimony to the fact that \iag« gold workingfl 
existed ; and that Uio etupendous niins, which he has bo ably iD' 
Tostigfttod, are the visible remains of a largo and powerful people, 
who built them for purposes of defence and religion ; and who left 
the country having only scratched its surface here and there l^stDCd 
their primitive weapons and knowledge did not admit of bloating or 
deep boring), taking with them the precious metal, which it is evi- 
dent they obtained in largo <|uantitieB. Communication with 
UufaoDalond is being daily improved ; and, with a railway, which 
fa in course of construction, it is to bo hopod that the advantagos, 
vhich it possesses, may, ere long, bo partially developed. Of coume, 
at the present moment, the country is a diflicnit one to get to ; and 
I would therefore ad\ise people with suoll capital not to attempt 
it, except in combination with othera ; and tlion, only nnder the 
piidanco of a practical and reliable leader, and when they have 
•ome definite object in view. But there is no ijucstion in my mind 
that, when the country i$ opened np. and in full Hwlng, there will 
be many that will regret having neglected the opportunities they now 
have of acquiring proi>ertii-s, ^., fora fiiw hundriKlit, which will then 
be worth as many thousands. Gentlemen, my views of the future 
of Maebonaiand may be visionar)-, but they bear at least the stamp 
of honesty. 

Kr. ItoKKBT Wti,i,uua : Kir. Ikf aund has not given mo the oppor- 
tunity of adding very much to the interostiiig description of 
Uaahonaland which we have U^tcned to this evening. I should 
lika to state, Iiowever, with regard to the samples of ore which havo 
beon exhibited, that we took them ns fairly as anyone poHHihly t-ould 
— aome being taken at a depth of 70 feet— and 1 do not think there 
ve any but fair samples on the table. I tliink Mnxhonatand hax 
Mrtainly given a far better sign of reefs going down than the 
Bftodt. Mr. Mntind was in every way moet mcrgotic, and greatly 
un«t«d me in my duties in obtaining those samples. 

The CiLAiHUAN : I am sure you will all join with me in thanking 
Mr. Maund for bin very intorei«tlng paper, and tbu illustrations, 
which r/ern very good indeed. Wo hope that in a few yearn the 
remarks which have Iwon modo this cvi-iiing will have been futly 
veriS*^. Indeed, I believe that in a very short time you will 
begin to see that the prognostications alnut the future of 
Uaahonaland wore not vain or inflatol. Witli regard to the 
nflway from Beira to the interior, which bo saya is a ti'iu gvd 
Uem <^ sacoess, I have every reoma to boUevo that, bcfiin the tnd 
of Uw ywr, you will see the railway wdl iu bond, and Uie 70 



B have ^^H 
bly in- 1 




Mashonaland and its Development, 

inileg between the coiiat and higli plateau, through which it is 
now so difficult to pass, will be bridged over by a, light railway, and 
you will be enabled to get machinery and material into Mashona- 
land that way, although, no doubt, as passengers you vnil prefer 
going up via Cape Town by maJl train, \-ia Pretoria. I beg to move 
a hearty vote of thanks to our lecturer for his very entertaining and 
e paper. I must comphment him, too, on his skill aa a photo- 
grapher, for the slides shown this evening are from negatives taken 
by himself during his journeys out there. I take your applause 
as confirmation of the vote of thanks, which I have now great 
pleasure in conveying to hhn. 

Mr. Maund : I beg to thank you for the vote of thanks so kindly 
proposed by our Chairman, and so cordially endorsed by you. I had 
thought my lecture would fall stale and flat, and that if profitable 
it would be at least dull, but I thank you for the patient way in 
which you have hstened to it. I have now great pleasure in pro- 
posing a very cordial vote of thanks to our Chainuan for presiding. 

The DcKE OF Abebcobn: I have much pleasure in seconding 
the resolution. In proposing the health of our Chairman, Mr. 
Maund, no doubt, was thinking of those happy days wben ho used 
to drink the health of his friends in Mashonaland, and cham- 
pagne was five pounds a bottle t The Chairman has performed a 
patriotic duty in presiding over these proceedings, and the audience 
has been enabled to hsten to an interesting and, I may almost say, a 
scientific lecture. Mr. Maund was practical above all things, and 
did not state what he did not know. He related facts as he had 
found thorn, and believed that, in course of tune, Mashonaland 
would become one of the great adjuncts of this great Empire. 

The Ohaihman returned thanks and the meeting terminated. 



SEVENTH ORMNABY GENERAL MEETING. 

Ths Seventh Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was hsll at 
tfao 'Whitrhn.ll Rooins, Hfltcl M<''lroiH>lc', on Tursdny, May 10, 1892. 

Lient-General Sir W. F. Drnnimoiid Jcrvoia, R.E.. O.C.M.G., 
C.B.. a Member of the Council of thu Institute, presided. 

Tfae Minaten of the last Ordinar}- General Meeting were read and 
Wnfinn^ am! it was announced tlint since tlmt ^footing 17 Follows 
had been docted, viz., 3 liesident and IC Non-Rcgident. 

Resident Fellows : — 

Tlumuu F. Itutlc'iijc, Janus .1. Stllar. 

MoD-Beaident Fellows :~- 

Jam** AUvmid (Janaiea), tt. R. Barff (AVm Soulh WnUt). Dr. Firdim 
C. baUJiehr (Wfut Zealand). Hon. HeitrvCttthbtrt. U.L.C. (Vielcria). 
Tfuodon I>irrm {Trantvaal). Itabert E. Ilall iTramraal). Fttm J. KoUt 



. ISaUJulor (Wfut ZeaJandl. Son. Henry Culhbtrl. M.L.C. (Vir/orijj, 31. 
htodon lyirrm {Trantvaal). Itabert E. Ilall iTramraal). Fttm J. KoUt 
{TraturaaH, Kda'ard A. Uaund {Uathimaianj^, Allan tC. Matrr [BritUk 



Ouiana). Thmnat d* Montmantiei Iturroy-l^rier {QueentlanJi. liobrrt B. 
OiiotT [Qwtiuland), F. Oibomt (fjomi). Hon. A. J. Ptll, il.L.C. (/•■V<"). 
WiUiam atranath [tttital), Alfred F. WMVrr {South Auitntiia). 

It was also announoed that donations to the Library of booka, 
mapi, Ac., bad been recfliv«l from tb« \-ariouii Govomments of the 
CoIonitiH and India, Societies, and public bodies both in tbu United 
Kingdom and the Colonies, and &am Fellows of the Institute and 
otlwrs. 

The CRAtRUAN then called upon Mr. Westby U. Perceval to read 
kitf Paper on — 



NEW ZEALAND. 

iNTUODL'imOX. 

Tin Royal Colonial [nstitntc. under whose anspiees we mo»t thff 
evening, claims, and justly claims, 

to promote thn incrcnao nnj tlitTtuion of knowledge mpdlnii ibaCoIonlei^ 
and UiB prenervation o( n pcminTivnt union botwron tins Uulhcr Ciiuntrj 
and the varioaa porta of llin Itriluh Empiru ; 

m short, it ia a society for the propagation of knowledge of ibe Enipin. » 

No one who attends the monthly gatberingn of tbb Instilnlai, 
and listens to the various papers which ars read, oan bO to be 



I 



impressed with the vastnesa, the wealth, and the mighty force of 
our great Empire, and to acknowledge the importance of makmg 
the inhabitants of each portion of that Empire better acquainted 
with the hiatory, the people, and the reaourcea of its constituent 
parts. 

Distributed aa that Empire is over the four quarters of the earth's 
surface, we find within her limits every climate, every variety of soil, 
every product ; bo much so that the British Dominions can supply 
almost all the wants of every member of the Empire, without 
going outside her own possessions. What a glorious heritage, 
what a field for the energy, brains, muscle, and money of our 
people ! Wliat an estate to develop ! And yet we see England 
allowing her people and her capital to go to foreign lands. Money 
almost fabulous in amount has been sunk in the Argentine, in 
Egypt, in Turkey, and in a hundred other places, and money has 
been lent whenever asked tor to European nations to build machines 
of war, possibly to fight against and weaken each other, but also pos- 
sibly to be used in warring against England herself. While this goea 
on, Canada, South Africa and Australasia have vast areas of fertile 
land crying out to be tilled and peopled. There our own kith and 
kin are waiting, ae an advance guard, to welcome us ; there our own 
language, rehgious instincts and traditions coexist ; and there that 
hberty which ia the characteristic of our glorious constitution has 
been transplanted. Yet we allow this vast estate to remain only 
very partially developed, letting most of it he waste while a large 
portion of England's population is half-fed and half-clad. States- 
men spend their time in talking about model dwellings, compulsory 
insurance against poverty, in devising engines of war, and squab- 
bling over the extent to which an island may be allowed to manage 
her own affairs, to the exclusion of the larger questions of Imperial 
moment, which, once settled, would settle at the same time what 
appear now aa problems defying solution. 

From the discreditable indifference shown In the early part of 
this century to the miserable condition of our poor, we now bid fair 
to rush to the opposite extreme by supporting so-called philan- 
thropic schemes, many of which, it carried out, would be a premium 
to improvidence and educate the people to a holpteas leaning on the 
State as the universal provider. Given the land, labour, capital, 
intelhgence and energy possessed by the British Empire, it is not 
to the credit of the statesmen and political economists of this 
enhghteued century that such a large proportion of the people of 
the Empire should be in misery and want ; not the want which 



Hew Zealand, 



mnit &lway* exist as tbo legacy of crinio, waelo luiil improvidf 
but tbo vaot wbicli aoeiUta witli the detdro to bo tbrifty and 
indastrioas, and tho inability to get oiit of the ruck of povorty 
mi misery. It is preauuiption for any ono ui&u to Hiijiposo thttt he 
can Bolra such a mighty prolilom ; bnt, in my poor opinion, a ooodi- 
tion pTMoilftnt to iho eolulion is a state of mind which rogords the 
Empire aa » whole, and which rooofoiieds tho undeveloped rcsnurccs 
and latent power of that P.mpiro. Fiirgivo mo for expressing the 
opinion that EngUsli public men and Knglishmen generally ajo too 
prone to conBidor quostioiia from an Engli.ih ratbor than from an 
Imperial point of view, hugging the orroneouB idea that the British 
Iiles are the liritisb Empire, tho chief work of this Institute is to 
ediiote thd British public to a more intimate imo\flodgo(uid higher 
appreciation of what has been aptly tenut<d " Greater Britain," for it 
reqoircs little penetration to see that tlie time is not for distant 
wtum tho offspring will be more powerful than tho parent, wiu^n 

^Colonies will 1ni more populous, richer, and moru important than 
ler Country. 
jrtask to-nigbt is to say aomotbing abont a smnll, but never- 

I important, part of our Empire, a land which to know is to 

lofe — New Jilealand. 

It woulil bo easy to write a paper more attmctivo than the one I 
am going to read to-night ; but I shall not try to be oithor scien- 
tific, philosophical, or poetical. I fool I shall be proaaJcoJly practical, 
to aneh an extent, I fear, that I shall somewhat try your patience. 
I hardly thmk, however, that any apology is needed for the effort I 
jaalu to render my paper useful to those who desire to make Now 
Zealand tbeir home. For conrcnionce I shall divido what I have to 
ny into ibrop beads, viz. : — 

1. Now Zealand as a Place for tho Safe Inrostment of British 
Capital. 

3. NdW Zealand as a Home. 

8. New Zealand as a Land of Wonder and Beauty. 

WiUi regard to the fimt point (New Zealand a« a place for the 
mlo iDVcstmcnt of Brititih capital), it is pleasing to noto tlial tliu 
tiiBO baa pasKod when New Zealand was pointed at as tho spend- 
thrift Colony. Site is now in the [iroud position of being regarded 
as a comniendnblo uxomple, illustrating what marrelloos renilta 
economical administration and a policy of self-reliance can acbiere. 
The Colony of New Zealand is on especially inl«rc8ting study at 
the present juncture. History repeats itself, and New Zealand has 
baea through a ]>has<< of economy and abstincnco from borrowing 





New Zealand. 



I 



L vhich the other Colonies seem just abont to enter. May tlie same 
bappy results attend their efforts as have crowned hers ! In New 
Zealand, in proportion as the Government of the Colony diminished 
public expenditure, so her people, being thrown on their own re- 
Boorces, turned their attention to the natural industries of theconntry. 

I The result has been a marvellous impetus to land settlement— not 
fte acquisition of large areas for Hpeculativa purposes which wa3 
seen during the expenditure of borrowed money, but the boiid fide 
rooting of the people to the soil, and the consequent increase of the 
small farmer class. As a result of this increased settlement, and 
the steady attention paid in previous years to the development of 
our agricultural and pastoral industries, our exports during this 
period of trial Lave increased to a most grati^riug extent, and tiie 
economy practised by individuals as well as by the Government 
has caused oar imports to fall off, so that the value of our exports 
during this period has exceeded that of our imports by a large 
amount. The accompanying table shows the imports and exports 
during the last five years, and also the expenditiu^ of borrowed 
money, and the amount of land settlement which took place during 
e period. 





ot impmbi 


olBiport. 


£ii:?nrtitun 
of horroWEd 


LMilondor 


ctla»d>«M 
DtttaoUtlony 


1B86 
1S87 
18SS 
1S89 


0.760,013 ! e.672,701 
6.345.616 1 6.8e6.169 
6,941.900 1 7,767.335 
G,308.Hfl3 9,341.HG4 
6,380.595 9,811.720 


1.5R3.7S3 

1.57a,79B 
824,880 
615,038 
398,817 


6,846,177 
7.384,753 
7,670,167 
8,016,436 
6,463,495 


Aoru 

IS,914a 

i9,auMH 

19,37S[(nH 
19.666,9iil 



^ ie nc 



This table tells the whole story : the tapering offof the expenditure 
of borrowed money, the spread of settlement, the increase of pro- 
duction and the balance in hand after paying for the goods 
imported. The Colony has been weighed in the balance and vot 
found wanting, and she has proved that her progress does not 
depend on having borrowed money to spend. Her public debt may 
belarge, but her people are well able to bear the burden which the 
annual interest imposes, and every year, as population and pro- 
duction increase, tliat burden grows Hghter. Tbe test which 
frequently applied, viz. of indebtedness per head of the populati* 

not as true a test as abihty to pay. 



1 



New Zealand. 279 

TuAgAS, liAwever, by either test, New Zealand need not fear 
the result. In making a comparison between the respecUii'e 
indebtedness per head of the people of England and New Zealand, 
we must, if the comparison is to bo fair, remember tliatthe English 
National Debt does not include the indebtedness represented hj the 
expenditure incurred in the construction of the nulwaj^ and other 
publio works of the United Kingdom, for in the case of New Zealand 
ft very large portion of her debt has been contracted for those pnr- 
pOM«. Tlie net pubho debt of New Zealand amounts to £3?,860,1C7 
whtoh has been expended as follows :— 

e 

OnnilwKja in.ai)HJT4 

„ roadi uid bridgM S.SUs.IAa 

M Intmigntion 9.U5.150 

„ public building* (inolnding «ohiMU) 1.7H0.7Sfi 

„ 1»D<1 purchMM 1,1US.4T9 

„ IlghlhouM*. bartnan mil defence wotks 881.^18 

„ Mkgrspha . <U».U7 

„ valarworki on p>ldfteld« , 561,101 

„ Msl minea uid tbemal aprlng* 1U.171 

„ native wart (previnuii tn IA70), defanw, pntineUI genrmiinm 

espendilure (ptpvIouii lo atioUtSan) Ac. fappraximtte) . . lO.OOOJHO 

WMtlUMmu ROO/KW 

Unapmdad 1.0.>3,aw 

It win be soon from thu ab^vii tahlij ih4> with the exception of 
tbfl iaoti*]r spent over notivo wars, rnuvrl; the whole of thu monej 
Nvsr Zealand has borrowed ha.H Wiu nj>«inl in reproductive works. 
This is n taei that cannot be repiiated too often, that wbureas 
England and all ICiiropean countries have expended a largo portion 
of their public diibt in wars, the Australasian Colonies haw (with 
V Cioeption of the money Nvw Zealand luu Hpcnt) expended 
" g on war, but all in the construction of works either inuoe- 
f or prospectively productive. 8o tme is this, that I (iwl 
B New Zealand ociuld to-morrow sell her 1,842 utiles of railway 
snd S,Oni miles of telegraphs for a siun ool far short of the whole 
of her pabUc indebtednont. 

U is neeilleKs to say sncb a eonrse would be foolish in a new 
oonntry whore the railway system has to be used as an aid toi«ttl«- 
DMtt and means of devcloproent. New Zealand has shown that, 
vitfaont borrowed money, she can pay her way without putting (oo 
un on her pcoplr, and thi> wealth of the Colony, both 
hmd print)!, is tncrvaiting to last that no reaaonablc man can 
kdottbt u to her ftttnre. 



The accumulated public and private ■wealth, an3 public and 
private iudebtedness, may bo oxpresBed in a balance-elieet in some- 
thing like the following form :— 

Assets and Liabilities of New B/^alatid on, March 81, 1889. _^M 



Crown knda 12,205.703 

Kative landa 5,780.306 

Eilucution, ohnreb, mnnicipal and other reserves . S,933,41a 

Real estate of parsons and compnaiu . . . 84,208,380 



Personal property t 

Palilio works:— 

Raiiways (coat price) 14375,187 

TelcgraptB 577.601 

Lighthouses 153.255 

BuUdings 3,250,000 

Harbours 3,000,000 

Water supply, goldficIJa ...... GOO.UftB 



Nat pnblio debt of tho Colony , 
Deb^ oE local ijodiea ■ ■ 
MortKagos . . . . , 
Indebtedness exelasive of mortgnges 



■e taken from the propertji 



Recent LEOieLiTios. 

This will be a fitting place to offer a lew remarks on the recent 
legislation of the Colony. There should be no more interesting 
study for any politiciau or social reformer on this side the world 
than Colonial politics. Vested interests and old associations are so 
strong in this country, that it takes many years before a, reform 
which may be almost universally approved can bo carried oot, 
whereas in the Colonies there are few impeciimeuts preventing the 
conversion of theories into practice. I am not sure that tha 
rapidity and ease with which changes are effected in the Colonies ia 
good ; but the political student should not quaiTel with this ; for 
whether be regard theni as reforms or fads, as a study they are 



Kew Zealand. 



277 



duMes as 



non« Uio less interesting. Then tbo Culonics, being far in nilvance 
of the Mother Country in the m&tter of the education of the people, 
and the intelligent interest taken in political and social qumtions, 
it may be snnniBed that tlio [wlitical opinions prevailing to-day in 
tho Colonies proWde an index of public opinion hvre twcmty-five 
yean benoe. Most of the English papers have recently been loQil 
ia tbeir dennnciation of the policy pursued in the Colonics by vhat 
Ihey term the " Labour Party." I use tho term " Labour Party," 
baouiM that is the term generally applied to men -who have been 
as representatives in Parliament from the ranks of the 
J men ; but, as for as New Zealand is concerned, it cannot bo 
ithat these men have ever tried to form themselves into a 
party, and Lhey hu^o always dupn^tcated tho notion that 
•xclusively represented itny particular class. It has liucn 
that tbo working men of the Colonies, under a franchisa 
which is pmclicalty equivalent to universal suffrage, have conitntnced 
ft political warfare against capital, and a reckless demand for the 
•xponditun) of large sums of borrowed money on public works. Tb« 
moat extravagant and wild statements have been mode, and some 
pftpers have gone so far ai to lead tho public to bolieve tbat tfa« 
New Zealand Oovemment, driven no^ms voUnt by tha Laboui 
Party, is ruDhing on at galloping speed towards conSseiUion of pri> 
Vate property and rcputliation of the public debt. Buch wonls as 
eonJUcation and Trjntdiation do not exist in our Colonial pr^UcoI 
Tocabolory, and [ hope they will become obsolete here as ap[)lied 
to the Colonies. There is not a tittlii of evidence to prove that tho 
risbts of tri^iitn and tuJim are less religiously rucogniw^ in tbo 
Antipodes than hero, and the standard of commercial morality is 
qnito aa high in thu Colonies as in this country. Put if Colonists 
not credited with honesty, at least credit them with common 
Tbt Btandanl of intclligenco is not lownr in the Colonies 
f ind tho Colonials know full well that foreign capital is 
^ £n- tho ilevLdopmant of tho resooru^i o( thu Colonics 
tha profitable occupation of labour, and tbat to drive away 
capital or tax it undnly would ho thu most Insano act that coiild 
possibly till eoiTiniittod. 

It ia a matter of general interest to not« the demands of the so- 
called Labour Party in New Zealand. So far from tlio roprc^i-nta- 
tivM, who are said to xpecially represent the workers, chunonring for 
tiu> expenditure of borrowed money on public works, they have is 
Nhv Zealand ndnptcd <iiiitu a different policy. It is only fair to Ihsm 
to point- oBt that they have hitherto been in the rangoard of tbow 



New Zealand, 

who have advoeateJ retrenchment m Government expenditure, and 
thej are generally strong opponents of further borrowing. This, as I 
said before, is contrary to the prevailing opinions formed here of the 
policy of the Labour Party, who are erroneously supposed to exert 
their influence in extravagant demands for public expenditure. Tha 
cardinal plank in the programme of these men in New Zealand is a 
demand that greater facilities shall be offered for enabling men to take 
up and settle on land. They hold that the public expenditure of the 
past has resulted in enriching individuals, but has not permanently 
improved the condition of the working man, and they demand, not 
public works expenditure, but economical administration with its 
corollai'y, reduced taxation and greater facilities for settling the 
waste lands of the Crown. 

Taxation. 
The most important Act of the last session of the New Zealand 
Parhament is the Land and Income Assessment Act. This Act 
repeals the old Property Tax Act which has been in force in the 
Colony for many years, and imposes in its stead an Act which alters 
the incidence of taxation. The Property Tax was an Act which 
imposed a tax on the capital value of all property, whether produc- 
tive or not, and irrespective of the return yielded by the property. 
The new Act imposes in place of the property-tax a land-tax and 
an income-tax to be levied on professional and other incomes not 
derived from landed property. The amount of the land-tax and 
income-tax will have to he fixed annually hy an Act of Parliament. 
In addition to the ordinary land-tax there is a graded tax on the 
unimproved value of land, the grade commencing on properties over 
£6,000 in value. The scale of gradation is as follows :— 
Scale of Taxalum. 



S.ODO, aod is leas than 10.000 . 
10.000, „ 20,000 . 

20,000, „ 30,000 . 



N«U9 Zealand. 



Under the Aot, and in the debates in Parliament on the Bill will 
be foimd an ondosvour k> diecrimiiiato betwt-en ca|iital invvsti»l in 
Und, and capital in the form of money which is n><]nired to develop 
tb« rasoarceK of the Colony. Aa attempt is made to diMouruf;« 
the aoqaiBition of land in large aivaa and its retention in an nnim- 
ptored state iu tlio honda of speculators for a rise in valui.', and 
to encourage the flow of capital into the Colony for developing the 
tetouroM of the Colony. Thus the tax on mortgage- motii.7 and 
mofW]' inveated otlicrwise than in land ia in no case incrc<aaed, and 
ia mott ouei docreaoed, while large areas of unimproved land are 
taxed more than formerly, and an effort is made to regulate the 
tax on tnveBtini,!nts other tlian land acoording to the rutunis th«y 
yield to the investor : a more oqnitnblo hasis than the h&rd-aud- 
fiwt principle of the property-tax, which taxed all properly un its 
eapilol value lirespective of the return it gave. By the exemption 
of improvements np to a certain volne, and by the levying of the 
graded tax on the unimproved value only, the improved value 
of the land ia less taxed than under the property-tax. Thus 
the fanner who has cleared, fenced and cultivated his land paya, 
in proportion to value, leas taxation than the speculator who 
ocqnirca a block of land and allows that laud to lie idle, waiting 
until tliti improvements cffijctMl by bt.t n<-ighbours haro increased 
the value of hia property. The object in new, to relit^ve from taxa- 
tion the fanner who by his thrift and industry has increased the 
nine of his land, and to demand more from the specalator who 
does not improve, is justified on the gionnd that tbeone man may 
teeompored to a working bee, labouring to add to the store of honey 

H Btate hive, and the other man to the drone doing no work, hut 

Ring as much honey u the worker. In rvery case a property 

I Talue than j^SOO pays no tax, and a further exemption up 

t Toloe of i:!8,000 is allowed on the value of all permanent 

It will be seen, therefore, that the small former is 

1 very lightly indeed ; in fact, he practically escapes altogether. 
Wlten land is owned by permanent absentees, the Btate insists on 
their paying 20 per cent, more taxation than if tliey resided in the 
oonntiy. This may be an impolitic tax in this sense, that it pro- 

M very little revenue indeed, and Is vexations to a powerful and 
■itial class, but the people of New Zealand, and I believe of tha 
8 generally, regnfd with somo apprehension the inoreonng 
c of landowners who leave their property in the hands of an 
■gort, and spend their money on this side of the world instead of bi 
Ibo eooDtry whore it is made lor them. The tvndcncy, in the ease 



I 



of all absentees, ts to spend as little as possible on the propertjr a.nd 
get aa much as possible out of it, a condition of things irhich is 
generally regarded as unsatisfactory, to saj the least of it. It is 
important to bear in mind, however, that this absentee tax affects 
land only, and that the graded tax also a£fects land only, and both 
these taxes are based on the theory that the land of a country ahoold 
be worked in the most productive manner, and that, if owners choose 
to retain land in their handa in an unimproved state, they should 
not object to make some compensation to the Btate. In this 
country the great bulk of taxation is raised by direct taxation on 
property, whereas in the Colony the bulk of the taxation is raised 
from Customs duties, and property contributes only a small propor- 
tion. New Zealand raises £1,625,000 from the Customs, but only 
jeSSO.OOO from the land- and the income-tax, and yet, remember- 
ing that no class of settlers in the Colony has been benefited by the 
expenditure of loan money more than has the landowner, a plau- 
sible argument might be made out that the bulk of the taxation 
should be contributed by that class of property. No attempt, how- 
ever, has been made by the new Bill to increase the gi-oss amount 
of taxation raised from property, but merely to alter the incidence. 
I readily admit tliat, in the case of indi\iduals and companies who 
have become the unwilling owners of large estates by properties 
falling into their hands, the remedy is somewhat drastic : but the 
policy pursued by these individuals and companies in holding their 
land instead of realising has gone far to bring about the change they 
complain of. In 1890 there was in the hands of 255 companies and 
individuals 10,895,909 acres of land, and when it is considered that 
the area of land in the Colony is limited, it is hardly to be wondered 
at that the people of the Colony became alarmed and insisted upon 
these companies and persons contributing a lai^er proportion of 
revenue. Even, however, in the case of large properties the exemp- 
tion of improvements from the operation of the graded tax, and also 
the entire exemption of live stock and certain personal property, 
has so " tempered the wind to the shorn lamb," that, except in a 
few cases, the increased taxation is a mere bagatelle. 

The other measures passed last session are a number of legislative 
enactments which go to prove that the influence of the Labour 
Party has not led to legislation exclusively in the interest of any 
particular class. Bo far from ha\Tng any apprehension regarding 
the awakening of the masses of the people to their pohtioal 
power and responsibilities, I am pleased to bear testimony to 
the intelligence, earnest Interest, and patriotic spbit evinced by 



NetP Zealand. 981 

tha working men of the Colony in the public qnoitions of tbe 

A well-informed, stndious working man is & mncli better repre- 
Kntalive than the cIilrr of polilieinn too frenenl in all countries — 
the leftther-Inoged, planaibl« demagogue who uses the working mui 
in order to place himmelf on a podcsttU ; nnd tin/ representation which 
brings the landowner, the commercial man, and the worker into 
oloseroontaot one with tlio other c&nnot foil to effect the elimination 
of imtginory griov&nceg and th« fair eon&idcmtion of real grievancM. 

The tesoU of bringing the masses of the people, through working- 
nwn roprossntativeB, into rontoct with men selected from other cIiumos 
of tiiB eommanity ia already producing good fruit in New Zf^olond. 
During the hut Mutiion of Parliament a Bill to »«ttlo disputM 
between employers and employed, by the constitution of boards of 
oondliation, was introdticed, but time for its consideration was not 
Rvoilable, and a general desire is now evinced that some arrange- 
ment should Iw como to, to prevent iIip serious losses censed to 
ell classes hy "strikes" and "looks-oat," whilst the passing of 
Bucli liills as the Factories Act goes to show that reasonable 
demands for the regulation of factories and impro\'!ng the con- 
dition of the workers will always receive fair consideration. I 
believe that an amicnblo moiJ»j vivendi betwecD the employers and 
employed will bo arrived at in the Now World boforo it is here, for 
the reaeons that there is very little class hatred in the Colony, and 
both employers and employed arc now prepared to approach the 
ooosiderBtion of the subject with & recognition that capital and 
labour owe duties one to the olhir, and tliat the ri^its of each most 
be settled by justice rather than might. In this way the preMOoe 
in our Parliaments of the bond fide working-man hae beeo prodae- 
tiveof great Kood. The hotter moral atmosphere and honnA toil 
of Colonial life with a Parliament composed of the repreecntativea 
of emry class \», in my mind, llii< surest guarantee for vrise and well- 
eonsidered legislation, tmd the best security for a true reoognitlon 
of the rights of property. In these days of political nnrcst the 
Dritisli ca.pituli;it xhuuld n<joice in having plikcos like the Colonies 
to tnm to, where he can re«t assured his property will be resjiected. 
There are extreme men, no doubt, tn the Colonies, just as there are 
•stremo men here, but thc»e men do not rx'presriit the opinions 
of the Colonies any more than extreme men here repif«ent the 
Ol^nions of thir people of KtiKland. 

The great future for New Zealand conBUits in the varied reeoaroee 
«f the Colony. As an agricultural and pastoral coootry ebe BlaadB 






982 New Zealand. 

BecoQd to none, aa her yields of wool, sheep, grain, fruit, and dairy 
produce per acre abundantly testify. When you turn to her mines it 
is impossible to predict their wealth. We have already exported 
nearly £60,000,000 of gold, and at the present time more capita 
and labour are being expended in gold-mining in New Zealand tbas 
at any previous period of our history. Oar coal-beds are magnifi- 
cent, and practically inexhaustible. A great trade in timber is in 
store for us, and our splendid fisheries await development. Our 
manufactures have grown to an extent which seems to justify the 
behef that New Zealand will become the manufacturing centre of 
the Southern Seas. 

The table on next page shows the number of the principal indus- 
tries at the end of 1800, the number of hands employed, the amount 
of wages paid to them, the estimated value of capital invested in 
land, buildings, machinery, and plant, and the value of the products 
or manufactures in that year. 

It will be seen, therefore, that the Colony does not keep all her 
eggs in one basket, but that every branch of industry ia receiving 
its fair share of attention. This variety in the industries and re- 
sources of the Colony is one of the strongest evidences of her future 
greatness. I fear I have dwelt rather too long on this branch of 
my subject, but I hope I have said enough to show that the colony 
presents a favourable field for the investment of British capital, and 
I now turn to consider New Zealand as a place of residence. 



New Zeai-and as a Home. 

An old-established country must necessarily afford more attrae- 
tions to the moneyed and leisure classes than any new coimtry can. 
Men of luxurious tastes and those engaged in scientific, literary, or 
artistic pursuits naturally Sock to centres where luxury can be en- 
joyed, and where science, literature, and art abound. To such as these 
a Colony offers fewer attractions as a place of permanent residence. 
The number of those, however, who can give free scope to the pursuit 
of pleasure, science, hterature or art is necessarily a very small 
proportion of the total population. Commercial men, again, have 
their locale fixed by circumstances. But there is a large class who 
have a fixed though moderate income with a growing family, many 
of whom, finding their income insufficiently elastic in England, go 
to the Continent, where they can live in a style they would not care 
to live in in England, and where education for their children is 
cheap. Such as these might well turn theur attention to New 



F JfmZtalaa. ^n^H 


)Ul»alladBMrT 


Kmhw 
Und' 


•tiiiBbrr 


ta-»r« 


bMMlKd, 




NMlni. Ae., MUbUih- 
1 m«U 

tog 

Tinalns. hllmmuteiing, 

Md wool HMrilUI . . 

SUn- and bomt-bnilding ■ 
SatfuKl on*kin ttrtorie* . 
Pgnittm tMloriM . . . 

VfooIUnmilU '.'.'.'. 
noUiI&ff fHtori» . . . 
lUl uu) eb|i (aaUirica . , 
Boot Md ihoB t«cbirk( . 

Ftn-raOl 

Mid boiliUK-down *prlu 
BMon-ourlog uublUb- 

mnto 

OwwBMid butur iMtoriw 

1 OnOn-miUa 

; Bbcnll (Ktori«t . . . . 

1 mkUiig wotIu . . . . 

MaltboiuM*' '.'.'.'.'. 
Alntod-watM UotorU* . 
OoflflV Mill tptiw-wotks . 
8c«p- «nd ouidle-work* . 

»»w-mUl. 

Ch^-euUiDK MtaUUh- 

OM-mrki.' .■.'!!; 

Bdok-. tile-, aiid polUiT- 

Iran ud b^H toliairi« ! 
BpotttiDit- Mul rid«ia«- 

Gold- Mid qnuUinlains- 

wob 

Bjdtulu) sold - mitUDg 


113 

48 

108 

lU 
87 
Sd 
94 

8 
lU 
10 
4T 

177 

4S 

M 

74 
1» 
31 

IB 
IM 

S7 
113 

17 

19 
84S 

63 
ST 

lOS 
IW 

13 

IM 

74 
9S 
S96 


»6 

67« 

1.I9G 

145 

IM 

ess 

G6 

:.i7G 

1.290 
113 

1.048 
333 

8.304 

1.568 

S4 
963 
4» 
881 

117 
47<! 

87 
381 

Bl 

SOS 

S.S86 

SOS 
340 

494 
1,737 

I.VTI 

495 
1.665 
1381 


X 

S14.1W 

46,887 

63,601 

93.449 
10.881 

0.38fl 
43,748 

6.764 
79,040 
5S.7S4 

n,S76 
134.990 
18.668 
116.168 

1S6.459 

6.606 
14.938 
69.8M4 
17.199 

4.748 
54.S26 

7.875 
17,091 

fi,603 
S1.S04 
371,814 

7.380 
81.700 

35.IM 
159.687 

7*81 

188,583 

89,904 
m.53H 
117.416 


t 

841,688 
76,788 
9G,335 

168,593 
iai73 
19,799 
H.64H 
3R.760 

Sfi9,955 
6B.7S6 
96,005 
S9.187 
86.08« 

146.7(rJ 

476,151 

14.190 
100,468 
891,838 

4>),!W0 

10,043 
3Sfl.835 
43,443 
78,147 
80.HA0 
74.443 
500.373 

S6300 
780,490 

119,780 
909/M3 

»,070 

341,715 

154.970 
155,671 
671.173 


1493M ^^1 
189,660 

IW6J48 

85,847 

81.088 
181.814 

41,608 
979.175 
160JS79 

91,638 
408,786 

70,711 
384.306 

1,464,059 

88,485 
160,957 
991,819 
197,147 

97,955 

60,704 

80,841 

91,091 

04.034 
1S5.T14 
883.369 

41,465 
178,947 

663N 
890MS 

88,140 

nB,09a 

78.718 
979.TT7 
8MUUI 1 


ToUU . . . 


'2^0 »,8ao 


i309«» 


5,836^6 


9.499J4e ^^J 


1 ^ 1 



J184 J7ew Zealand. 

Zealand hb a place of residence prefemble to Europe, there they 
would find a society congenial to their Eughah ideas, there they 
would find excellent and cheap schools, and there their eons and 
daughters would have a much hetter chance of finding an outlet for 
their energy. When people lilie these think of the Colony — if, indeed, 
they ever thint of it at all— they picture it probably as it was forty 
years ago, when gentlemen wore blue shirts and wideawakes, drove 
bulloclis, and lived on damper and mutton, and when ladies did 
their own housework and wore antediluvian garments. All is now 
changed. Fifty years of work and progress have converted the 
plains into smihng homesteads, and built np towns which have all 
the modern conveniences and social life of EngUsh provincial towns. 
Let us go in imagination to Christeburch, which I know best, and 
take a bird's-eye view from the top of the beautiful spire of its 
cathedral. It is now half-past eight to-morrow morning — a clear, 
bright, sunny autumnal morning, the most enjoyable season of the 
year, when slight frosts at night are succeeded by still, warm, 
sunny days, making the already bronzed leaves of the EngUsh oak, 
sycamore, lime and birch linger on the trees, protesting against 
nature's mandate for a season of rest. The thoroughfares are full 
of healthy, well -dressed children on their way to the various schools, 
where they get at the Roard schools a free education of at least as 
good a standard of excellence as the English Board schools provide. " 
Older boys and girls are going to the various High Schools and 
Colleges. Omnibuses, trams, and trams, loaded with men going to 
business, pass at our feet. The well-made streets show shop windows 
which would not do discredit to any provincial town in England. 
Warehouses, business premises, halls, theatres, churches, clubhouses 
and public buildings pass under review. 

Here and there a long chimney tolls of a factory. In and out 
winds the beautiful Biver Avon, the fine willows on the banks, raised 
from a branch brought from St. Helena, still clad in their summer 
shroud of green. There is Hagley Park, with its noted museum, 
and Christ's College close by. Beyond stretch the suburbs with 
their comfortable houses and lovely gardens. Pause a moment 
before some of these gardens aiid note how esqnisite are the autumn 
roses, all heavy with the morning dew ; how gorgeous the chrysan- 
themums and dahlias ; how lovely the geraniums and the masses 
of many-tinted blooms, scattered so profusely in all directions. 
Look at the smooth well-kept tennis lawns, the neatly gravelled 
walks, the shining river with its moored boat waifing quietly for its 
daily occupants. Then turn and look away over there through the 




New Zealand. 



treoi — look right oorosi Uid vast Cuntorbtiry plains, where, in 
of old. tbe Uaort oonrxcd tb« niou, but which ts now one of the 
richeit agriotiltiiml districts in the worlil. Thia ia whcro lh« e«le- 
bml«d Cwitwbury froxi'n i»utl»n cnmos from, and tiie rivers which 
tmvene this large plain ar« teeming with tlio fineat tront. Let 
jronr ero travel fiirllxtr utill, till it fnlbi on ono of the grandest 
kights in nature^— the majeHtic tioiithem Alptt, which even now are 
wnpt in a white and ghatcniuK immtUi of wnow. Tell ue, is not 
tliia a foir scene ? Is il not as sweet and frenh as any in the dear 
old land jroti all Inve so w<'ll ? Could you not well imagine yon 
wore looking at an Englieh Inndscapc undiir an Italian vky I Yes 1 
England')! lidiiart^producfMl uniU'r a bluer sky andinafinerclimalo, 
and you would ha quiu> at homo at oneo. Thia ia what tha 
Cant«rbary pilgriiiiB have done ! 

liohold thoir work, mvern thoir naniM, 

OnwD pictuios svl In golden frames. 

Around tho city of tbo stmom 

I-'iilGl tho pil),-rlinii' briijhteal dr«aui : 

With theiu a fairer r.ngknd irrow 

'NcaUi ipvckluu kkiBi of lunnj blae. 

T. IlSACKR!!. hlunngi 
But we will descend from our lo^y point of vantage and walk 
Into tho public Ubrary close by and look through the ^-ariona daily 
papers and periodicals kept in the free reading-room. You will s«o 
onder the head of " Cablegrams," in the momiuj; paper, yesterday's 
European news, and qoite possibly yon will read a tew unhvourable 
soouDenta on the very paper I am reading to yon now. Yon will 
find an intelligent criticism offered upon tho poUtical and social 
topics of the Old and New World. Tnm over the files ; yon will 
find records of uriekct, Utnnia, boating, goU^ cycling, horM-nuing, 
polo, coursing, bowla, football, hunting, diooting and fishing enough 
to oonvinco yon that tho piwtimea of tho Old World are n^rodncod. 
And so, as you tnm over the pagea of Die papers, yon will meet 
with evidence after evidence proving that the people of tho Colony 
are, in every sense, soni and daughters of Itritain. 

I oflrn hear people in England, Ijomlonera especially, wh«D talk- 
ing of I^Dghsh life, say : " Oh I horo we are in tho very midst of the 
very best the world can produce. Whether it bo Itteratunt, or art, 
or tdeittific pursoitv. or mUMC, or rorin<<d Hoci^ity, or whalever form 
of enjoyment we seek, wo can get it." This la, of course, very tnio, 
and nay apply to the men of means and to the comparatively few 
Itrttst4 and scientific men ; bpt what share is (bis Mlaot Mcivty 



^ 



in days ^^ 
what the 



I 




New Zealand. 



has the man with a limited tncomG and a family to enppoii' 
Very, very little. The fact ia, that the great majority of such people 
lead the most hmndnim and isolatatl lives imaginable, and get very 
much less enjoyment, even scientific enjoyment, than they would get 
m a British Colony. A friend of mine poasessing a small income, 
large family, and bronchial tubea which make it necessary for him 
to spend most of the winter within the four walla of his house in 
London, said to me the other day, in reply to a query of mine as to 
why he did not transfer his bronchial tubea and hia family to New 
Zealand : " Why, London ia the centre of all that makes Ufe 
worth hving." " Very true," I replied, "but not for you." When 
I pressed my friend, who always poses as a great lover of art and 
muaic, to tell me how much art and music he had enjoyed during 
the last sis montha, he replied ; " Let me see ! Ah well ! I have 
been to the Boyal Academy Exhibition, ajid I have been to a 
music-hall to hear ' Ta-ra-ra-boom-de-ay.' " That is, I believe, a 
fair sample of the way very many with artistic tastes, real or 
imaginary, are prevented by the want of means, by the accident of 
chmate, or by their sun'oundings from taking advantage of the 
many good things this country provides. 



Fixed Incomes. 



I have no hesitation in stating that an income of from £300 
j£l,000 a year in New Zealand goes further and prodi 
enjoyment for its possessor than the same income does here. The 
necessaries of life are nearly all much cheaper, house rent no dearer, 
and although servants' wages are higher, it ia not necessary to keep 
BO many, the habits of the people being more simple and less con- 
ventional. 

HospitaUty is met with at every turn, and there is no lack of 
entertainments and social gatherings. The young people especially, 
of both sexes, seem to enjoy life. Business and working hours 
being shorter, there is time left after the duties of the day for recre- 
ation. Thus Enghah sport and pastimes are everywhere met with, 
enjoyed by all classes, and not so frequently spoilt by bad weather 
aB in this country. 

New Zealand now offers some of the best trout-fishing in the world, 
I saw a report the other day of the last season which contained the 
following record of one fisherman for a season : — 

" One hundred and eighty fish, weiglmig653i Iba. ; average, 3 lbs. 
10 oz. ; largest fish, 10^ lbs. ; 6 weighed from 9^ to 10^ lbs. each. 



4 



New Zeatand. 



BMt takes : U fiali, 41^ Iba. ; 11, 60^ lbs. ; 10, 46 lbs. ; 16, 8^ Ibt. ; 
E, 26 Iba. ; 8, 20^ Iba. : 6, 25( lbs." 
Another record given is 229 fish, 212 Ibn., 17 trips. 
Deer kre inoieaaini; bo fast in some of the open monntaiaoua 
0oanti7 that we shull soon add f^ood di<er-Btnll(iiig. Wild piga 
abound, bnt they frc^juent auch rough ground that tb^ Diiist be 
hunted on foot, nbich aeemB to damp tho nnlour of moat English 
Bportcmon. Qaail shooting is good and plentifol, aud duck and 
pbeaaant shooting ia good in certain parts. There are many dis- 
trieli vitb their packs of harriers, and in some of the better eotlled 
I, banting is indulged in with mnoh zest. Horseflesh and 
I being cheap, whatever sport there is can be enjoyed 
lob lees cost than similar recreations in this country. The 
I of leisure can also, if he is willing, find plenty of Ds«ful 
iions. There is magisterial work, and, if he be so tncUned, 
^Ib political work. 

~ h the increase of population, and the growth of a loiHured cIoM, 
mdcal and artixtio talent is being developed, and all the chief 
towns have now their musical and acientifio societies, clubn, and art 
gallerips. New Zealand spenda probably inoro in education in pro- 
portion to hor popiilalinn than any country in the world. The 
Govemnieut Priniary Schools ore oil fi'oe, and every Uttlii country 
district has its gw»\ school. A step above the primary sohools are 
Oirls' High Schools and Boys' Hi^h Bchoolx. where excellent 
toaehlng is given, at a v«ry small annual cost, and after the High 
SohooU oomo tlie various Univeruty CoIli>gcs, oatnlilislied in the 
larger towns. Lost of all comes the New Zealand Uiuvemity, 
wbieb is an examining board with an aOlIiation of the various Uni- 
veorsity colleges. The New Zealand University confers degrees on 
BMKt and women alike. There ia also an excellent Agrioultural 
OoQaget and tboro ore Bcbools of Mines and Arts. There are many 
it priTate Bchoola for both boys and girts. No one, in fact, 
r his condition in life, need complain of the means afforded 
r Zealand for the education of bis ehfldron. Is it too mnch, 
, to claim for New Zealand that it is a country which 
I the consi<lerati<in of that yearly Inereasing class of men 
), with small fixed incomes or a small capital, find this conntry 
too damp or too ospenKive to live in, and wont to marry tbeJr 
daughters and settle their sons, and enjoy tlie nNnatndor of their 
lives io a good climate and under enjoyable surroundings ? 





SMALt FakMEKB. 

Tlie class of people, however, to whom New Zealand oSera the 
most indue erne at.3 is the small farmer class. The Colony eeems 
ui every way cut out by nature for a community of smalt farmers. 
There are, and always will be, in certain parts large holdings, for 
the simple reason that the character and situation of some of the 
land are such that small areas will not support a family in comfort ; 
but the greater portion of tho land is eminently fitted for close 
forming. The fertile soil, abundant water supply, and the fact that 
no part of New Zealand is beyond easy reacli of a harbour on tho 
coast, are all conilitions ensuring the success of the small farmer. 
Before considering the special advantages offered by New Zealand 
to this class, it ynil be well to say a little about — 



1 the 
rmer. 
iland J 



The Land Laws op the Colony. 

The chief characteristia of the New Zeolaud land laws is 
they give the selector an option of acquiring land under a Tarietf 
of tenures. There is the cash payment, giving the purcbaaez the 
out-and-out freehold ; there is the deferred payment system, whioli 
enables a man to pay for the land and acquire the freehold by half- 
yearly payments of principal and interest extending over a period of 
years; and there is the perpetual lease, or a lease for a. term of 
years with a perpetual right of renewal. 

Until the last few years the greater portion of the lands of the 
Colony which have been disposed of by the Crown have been sold 
under the freehold system. Of late years, however, the tenure 
known as the " perpetual lease " has been in trod viced, and that ta 
the tenure which now finds moat favour with the persona who 
take up land. liy securing to lessees the value of their improre- 
ments imder an indefeasible title, with perpetual rights of reDewal^ 
they have all the security and pei-manence of a freehold tenura 
without being obliged to sink their capital in the purchase of thfl 
land. Tltis enables a man with a small capital to take up land and 
keep his capital intact for improving and stocking his farm. The 
rental he pays is fixed at 5 per cent, on a. low capital value of the 
land, so that a tenant under this system Las all the advantagesof en- 
joying the land at a low rental, and knowing that the improvomenlfl 
he makes will not bo for the benefit of any person other than himsel£. 
If at the end of the term the tenant does not care to renew, the 
incoming tenant has to pay to the outgoing tenant the value of aQ 



New Zealand. 



ImprOTenients of & permanent character, as Gxod b^ arbitrfttion. 
If, oo Um other han<l. the original leefwo elects to oooopt a fresh 
IwM be ptjra a rental of 6 per c«nt. on the then v»1im of the Und 
after doduoting tho value of the permanent improTemcntt he hu 
made ditring his term. The lessee, therefore, and not tho Crown 
or Landlord, (tets the benefit of all permanent improveroenta vhicb 
have been placed on the land daring his tenn. There are eertain 
■tipalatioQS andcr this Ivnunt providing for the iniprowment of 
the land, but there ia no restriction on the tenant Mtlting hia interest 
80 long as the required conditions are complied witli. For thoso 
intending to take np Crown land this form of tenore seems to 
present many advantages, especially to the settler with small means. 
A very tmportrint fftnture in tlie New j^enUnd land laws is tho 
regulations providing for the form homcatead asaooiations and 
Tillage faomosteods. Now that the question of assisting the work- 
ing classes to obtain small holdings of land is recoivisg ao mncb 
attention in England, it may Ui of interest to state shortly tho 
nliant featoros of th«8o homestead sotllements. Every cfTort faaa 
hoim made in New Zealand to induco the lahoitring classes to obtaia 
poneauon of small blocks of land. In every country there is a 
i of the year when the labonr market is slack, and wlian men, 
i they have a piece of hind attached to their homes, are idle ; 
I desirability of providing labourers with a plot of land the 
n of which enables spare time to be ntiUsed, and at tb« 
e provides so mtich food for the family, is rMeiring almost 
J reoognition. 
I Colony of New Zealand has from time to time set apart 
1 blocks of land which have been cnt Dp into tbes« village 
mts and offered to tlio working olawos. The terms are of a 
iliberal character. Tho rojit is very small indood, th^ro are no 
jmtiminary expemiea to the occupant, and the settler need not pay 
any rent for the first two yearn. Married men have a proforsnoa 
over single men, and an advance of £10 is mode towards assisting 
In the erection of a dwelling. Thero are, of course, very stringent 
n^ulationa insisting on the land being improved, and no money is 
•dvanoed towards building a cottage until ralae for more than the 
A of the advance ha.1 been phioed on the land. These village 
gits are, as ^ as possible, placed in coootry distriota where 
kia a demand for labour, so that the settler can take advantaga 
k when it offers. The area of those allotments varioa from 
Sm to fifty acres, according to the nature of the soiL 
' Thaao village 8ettlct;atmts have been a great euooesB, and the 



I 



200 Nevj Zealand. 

means of providing frugal but comfortable homes for a large 
number who would otherwise have left the Colony. Three con- 
ditions are necessary if Buccesa is to be assured : First, in the 
selection of applicants who have some aptitude for rural life ; 
secondly, the selection of land of good quality for the settlement ; 
and, thirdly, the selection of a locality for the settlement in a neigh- 
bourhood where Bome labour can be obtained. An extension of this 
system has lately been inaugurated under which farm homesteads 
can be acquired. The principle is the same, but the area of landiia 
increased, and during the last eighteen months a number of home- 
stead associations on the co-operative principle have been started. 



Co-OPERATrvE Settlement, 



9l 



The advantage of forming co-operative associations ia, that a whole 
block of land — not more than 11,000 or less than 1,000 acres — can be 
at once taken up, whereas in the case of individual applications, if 
there is more than one application for any particular lot, the allot- 
ment is made by baUot. The number of persons forming an asso- 
ciation must not be less than twenty-five. I would hero offer the 
suggestion that these regulations for associated settlement provide 
a means under which people from this coimtry can take up land 
most advantageously. Individuals often hesitate to face unaided 
the uncertainties attaching to a new life, and more often their 
experience is insufficient to justify the new departure ; whereas an 
aggregation of twenty-five men form a detachment which, if cata 
IB taken in their selection, will ensure the presence of experience, 
judgment, and some capital. Many a father, who would hesitate 
to trust his son alone, would give two or three hundred pounds to 
form one of twenty-five, amongst whom would be found men of 
sound judgment and experience. A band of twenty-five men 
would form also quite a colony, and however remote their block 
of land might be from centres of civilisation, they would be a 
little commmiity in themselves. If the association were formed of 
married men with families they would be at once entitled to demand 
a Government school, at which the children get free education. It 
is often an adv'antnge that such settlements should bo in remote 
districts, for there is generally work to be done in the neighhourhood 
in the form of making roads, which provides the settlers with the 
means of earning a little money during the first two years wtula 
the land is being brought into profit. There is always plenty of 
land in the hands of private owners who are willing to sell aud 



Neto Ztatand. 



lewe. eo thiit if a BCtUer oliooses to ucqniro land from p^i^-stfi 
vidualB nthei tli&n bom tlie Crown be will have no difficulty in 
doing so. In m&ny casea it is better for a mau witli b little capital 
tad axpttriecoe to tako land from private owners ratber tbiui from 
the Crown, &s be bos a, larger field to cbooae bom, anil by ocqairini;; 
an improved d^nn be gets on immediate retam, instead of having 
to wait until tbe rougb Crown land is rendered productive. 

There is a. good demand in tbe Colony for land suitable forvaried 
himing, but there is also an indication that thotwt-who hold large 
properties are anxious to place them in tbe market. 

Tbe prioe of land offered for sale by prii,-ate owners varios ao- 
ooidiag to locality and quobty. In country districts fair ogriouN 
tnni land can be bought at from &l. to HI. pur acre, land of prime 
quality reaching higher figures. In the neighbourhood of Uie largo 
town! the price of land is much higher. 

£noagh has been said, I think, to show that New Zealand is no 
plaoe for darks, and soft-handed men nuflt for hard manual labour, 
or (or men without capital and training tn any walk of life, who aie 
often sent out to the colonies because they have foiled at boma. 
8uoh aa tlieso invariably go from bad here to worse in the 
Ooioniea. There is a demand for good female domestic sorvants, 
and high wages are obtainable, but the Ciovemment bavinfi conaod 
to oontribute towards the cost of passage money, ibcy most pay 
tbeir evm passage. 




Pbodocts akd Marketh. 

Now a httle about tbo products and markets of New Zcalanil. 
Nothing requires to bo said about wool, grain, flax, or frosea meat. 
TbMo are well-established indastries. Uere is a table of tbo chief 
of export during the Ust ten years : — 

ExporU of A'tto Ztaland rroduet. 



XM 


Wo-I 


UiOd 


r»m 


"TJ^ 


Attkni- 


Van*- 
tteuam 


^Saif 


IMitl 








I 


t 








. 






•M,Mr 




IVM 


i/mf» 


«jn 






































































































































1^ 

















292 



New Zealand, 



The Bteftdy growth of these products liaa placed New Zealand in 
the proud position of being a country every member of whose 
population exports £15 Ss, Bd. worth of produce. As I am 
speaking of New Zealand as a homo for small farmers, I shall refer 
but briefly to some of the products of Btuall farming, viz, dairy 
produce, fruit growing, bee culture and poultry rearing, as time 
will not permit me to do more, but a perusal of the table I have 
supplied of food products imported into the English markets will 
suggest many other directions in which the farmer's energy might 
be profitably devoted. The bare mention of such occupations 
suggests health, happiness and plenty, and this country provides 
what for all practical purposes is an inexhaustible market. Look 
at the amount this country paid for importations of these products 
in the year 1931, and yon will then, I tiiink, be satisfied that there 
is plenty of room for all New Zealand can produce, and if at the 
same time you realise how favourable are the conditions for the 
production of most of these articles, you will want nothing more to 
Batisfy yon of the glorious future in store for the Colony. 
Yatua of Iht foUoiaing Arlklcs of Food imporlal into Englatfl during 1801. 



LivDBtOCk. . . . 


9,346.398 


Eggs. . 




. 3,620,918 


Bacon .... 


6.6.10,324 


Lard. . 




. 1.730.061 


Beef(freali) ■ ■ - 


4,038,487 


Corn : Wheat 




. 20,448.304 


Hun.^ .... 


2.791,437 


Flonr 




. 10,184,887 


Meat (prBserred) 


1,888,087 


Barley 




. iS,941338 


Motion (frsGh) . 


3,282,001 


Oats 




. S.47fi,734 


Pork (Baited and freah) . 


.509.6B7 


Peas 




. 863,437 


Fish (cured or Baited) 


1,9U3,347 


Beans 




. 1,206,916 


Butter .... 


11,691,181 


Indian corn 


. 8,411,763 


Margarine .... 


3.S.18,203 


Potatoes . 


. 1,196,824 


Cheese .... 


4,81,1,3119 








re taken from the rcli 


ms of 1890. 


Fruit: liaio:— 




Honey. 


41,321 


Nuts 


(1M.93G 


Hops . . . 


. 877.704 


Almonds . 


8.'i2,l.T4 




. 847.62S 


Apples . . 


78fi,072 


NotB and kernels for 


il . U03,n69 


Oranges and lemons 


I,75H,M2 




fruit) 23.000 




i.eoa,9ii 


Onions 


. 724,030 


„ Dried or pTe$crvtd: 




Picliies and vegetab 




Currants . 


1,34(1,810 


salt or vinegar 


- 133.996 


Kaisius . - 


1,006,8'J8 


Tcgolttblps, raw, u 




Plums and Prunes 




me rated . 


. . 773,590 


Ac. 


112,1,1(3 


Poultry and gams 


. 497,867 


Figs and Fig cake 


231,069 


Babbits 


. 898,110 


Unenuxuetated 


3iJ7,280 






„ Preaervad ViitliOQ 
Eugir (probably 
canned and bottled 








2ri9,164 


Total 




. £132,010,950 



Daiby Pboduok. 

Tho remote distance of New Zealand from these markets ig a 
matter of less moment than appears at first sight. Bofrigorators 
and cool chambers have put her on an equal footing with places 
no farther off than Franco and Denmark. The extra freight, also, 
ia not Dtrarly as much of a handicap as one vould at firet bo led to 
•appose. Tho conditions for prodncing are so much more favourable 
in New Zealand than in Europe that thej more than counterbalance 
Ibtse disadvantages. The bet of the seasons in New Zealand being 
rerensd, and the opposite of the seasons in the Northern Uemi- 
npbere, enables iis to land our produce hfro at the very time when 
the conditions for production on this side of the world ivro most 
nofaTourablo, and, in the case of fruit and honey, prohibitive, and 
when as a consequence prices are high. The old British ideofii 
bowm'er, of dairying and fruit lowing are bving imjiroved on in 
Kew Zealand, and more must be done in the way of improved 
production before Nuw Zt^oud con take a large shore of tho money 
this country pays for these articles. The Danes have taught us how 
lo make huttor, tho Americans to grow and preserve fruit, and tho 
Fntnoli lo raine i^ultry and produce hon«y. The old practice of tho 
former's wife and daughters making up tho butter has now to give 
place to tho cream stipamtor, thi< stenm-cnginc, and the factory. If 
toyone doubts the wisdom of this, let him compare the prices 
obtained for the New Zi^alnnd huttor which has been made by the old 
system and the price obluiiii.Hl for faclorj-modu butter. 

The following extracts from the last annoal report of the Chief 
Qovonimtmt Dairy Inspector of New Zfialaud show what is being 
done and con be done in the dairy industry in the Colony ; — 

While tba ilairyto? inilustry has not yel developed Into anything Uko 
llw Importanc* it ii diutinml tg aanmiv, I think we cannot >fanl our eyes 
lo lbs fJMt that iliirlnit the past two years a considerable forward move- 
miDt ha« l»«n mode, mata eipocially during the paaC year. I have 
myself bu«n ropnalodly complitnoniiHl from varioo* sources for what was 
pediaps niiilosorved, Lcnolit* received from my inalmction, not only from 
dairy-fiutcry oiioralivoi but fnuu inurchanta dealing in tho cojuaiodity. 
NolwithstondinK tho (act Uutt soma of nur dairy-factory companies 
have had lo Bucoiuiib lliroogh financial difflenlties. and soma, throni^ 
nUamana|c«iiitint, RVcn fbrcad into Uqnidation, atill tho fatare of oar 
outlook is very huperul. A more practieal acquaintance with tba natnr* 
and tht handling of milk and its prodocte on tlw part of futory- 
nsoagViB, and a lM)tt«r knowledge of oommereisJ priDciplcs on the part of 
lbs managing commitlocs of the laetoriM, will in«\-itabty seoora ooi 



£94 New ZenlanS. 

deBired ends. This can only be bronght about bj continued c 
inatructioQ, combined with experience attained in the actual working of 
dairy &otoriea. The eomplete revolution necessary in the tnduEti^ can- 
nob be effected in a dfty, but changes niuHt be made by degrees. But that 
the iadnstry is being founded on a more certain basis there can no longer 
ha any room for further doubt. 

From communicationB received from some of the principal London 
brokers, I learn that they'recognise a marked and suatained improvemeDt 
in the qnality of both cheese and butter shipments of recent manufitcture ; 
at the same time, they espresa the opinion that finality in the matter of 
improvement has not yet been reached. The chief complaint among the 
London brokers is the absence of uniformity, and this cannot easily be 
remedied while there is throughout the Colony such an extensive system 
of private dairying at work. Uniformity cannot easily be engendered 
without the eatabliahuient of the lactory system. It is worthy of note 
that several of our dairy factories have now earned a desirable distinction 
in the London market for the quality of their producta— both butter and 
cheese. Brands of butter which were last year quoted at from £1 lOi. to 
£2 under the Danish brands have, during the past Reason been quoted at 
about the higLest figures realised on the London market. Cheese from 
our best factories has sacoessfolly competed with the best Canadian 
brands, which Eeem to dominate the market. But, unfortunately, this 
distinction is only earned by a few of our beat factories. Towards 
showing the benefits derived from the factory system as compared with 
individual dairying, it is satisfactory to note that, out of an even line of 
three ahipmenta of butter aent home, the factory brands realised from 
£5 15*. to £0 8»., while that from private dairies brought fi^m £i 15a. to 
£5 15s. The higher quotations must be considered satisfactory. 

It is also pleasing- to note the rapid development which the dairy 
industry has imdergone during the last ten years. In 1880 the value of 
our exports of dairy products was £1,038, while for 1890 the value rose to 
£207|fi8T, and I am sanguine that the past season's export will ebow, 
from the same amount of produce, a considerable increase in pecuniary 
value. I hope, by future efforts, to see a still brisker trade eatabhahed, so 
that the settlers may derive a benefit, and find some solace for past 

It is generally conceded that no country poasessea greater natural 
advantages for dairy pursuits than New Zealand ; this, at any rate, is true 
of Taranaki, Any one acquainted with the large areas of splendid 
pastnre-land in Taranaki must have had the conviction forced upon him 
that this locality is pre-eminently fitted to become a great centre for 
manufacturing dairy products. In soil, climate, seasons, and settlement 
Taranaki has every natural advantage. 'Winter pasturoge is generally 
abundant, and so the farmer is, to a great extent, relieved of the laboar 
and expense of storing up much winter food. Little or no honsing is 
required for the cattle throughout the winter, and so the £trmei con catr; 



tuitler tbo most (avonrabl« clrctimatjuicei, u Vtty little of 
of Uie aoiuoii Am cuntumed in in&intaining tho cow* ^m ono 



> I have ende>avuuT«4 to inipreu 
1 (lohirnbilitj of growing a litUr winter 
butler tiieiuiB of tiheller during the 



s for tho oit«nfilon of diury fanning 



MMon to Another. At tiio n 
Upon til* fonuftn ufthis ilixlrii-i tlm 
ImA, likowiw tho bcnelitB 
Mid MMon. 

Liku many olhur it<-i\lt>u« 
in Kaw Ztmlmtxil, nnil rotorm in lUiry pnwticei, I piMW eiclui 
npOB th« eitablishniant of the botory ayatoni as bein^ the onl; u 
ithutbj tha ultimata anoceaa of the indoatrj can ba aiaured. What the 
ralHganttor tua dono for tba grasier, cheeee faotoriea and croameriea will do 
far Iha dairy fanner if properljr carried ont. \Vliat wonld the &ozen-weat 
Inda ba to-day if evsr;; fanner could rafri^rata hia own prodaco and trifla 
with it accordinft to his own peoidiar noUom, aa lie iIo«a at tlto praaant 
lima with hU dairj prodiioo ? Were there not mch a diviaion of labour 
ia the frozen-ineat Iroile it wouM, in uiy opinion, ver)' RwilUy como to 
min. Tho dairjing indiutry, liko the fruisn-muat trade, hua many 
faaturca peculiar to it which wcin to characteriao it In a Ki^nrnd way 
flrtm alnioat HJ17 other known uidiialrf. The advantai;e« of a well- 
~ ayatiun of co-»pcriitiva diurjinti to all the dairy dutrtcla of New 
I would ba difHcnIt to «>llmate. 8uob a ayttvm, if properly 
I, wonld, in my opinion, nolvc nuiny of the dilBcuUioa which now 
t tho amall E&rmor. Co-operativo dairj-lng ia a inUter frangbl wllb 
feanaftt to all. 

Towardii Hhowing tho prevent extent of the factory iy>l«m, it la gnUi- 
fyinj^ to bo ablo to show that thero are now aiity-two largo obawM and 
batter EactorifH in up«nkLiou. the buildtng* and plant allowing an aggrcgftt* 
value of npwords of ^0,000. 

Some of (he rhee«u factories are now tnniing out from 100 lo 100 l«na 
of cbaaaa annually, and the bntl«r factorial and creameriea 50 to 140 lona 
i>f btUter annnally. 

Hm indnatry ia now ftaroming dimaninnni which jnatiiy the bnlief thai 
m hftve at laat auooeeiled in astablltlilng it as one of oar moat imporlaal 
indnatriei. 1 nui of opinion thni in a few yunn hance, if a lyateniatia 
eonraa of Inatruotion in ptmuL-d, New Zoalaml. taking all thin|[s into con- 
ndtiration, wHU bo oa aminrnt in the DiannfDCtyra of dairy prodooe aa any 
of the American or Kuropran nation!). I bclievo it will yet become a 
•oeemafUl rival to tho froKen-maat and wool trade, anil, aa a maana of 
employing labour and maintaining a lat^ population, it will ba anparior 



flmn alnioi 
■jl^itaad.: 

^HP«iwd.w 
"Hntthoar 



It is not to be suppOMd Ibat tho cbtngo now bcring mtA» in 
bvonr of tlio factory wjttom ia opposed to the interest of Ibe anuU 
tmnaet. He, on the contru7, reapi ft gn»t«r benvfit by BftUing hi* 
onun to the creamery ernctod in hii neij^bbourtiooil tbui by him- 
•eU converting the cream into hotter. The Cumera tfaenaelTea ire 



iTew ^ealanA. 



encouraged to co-operate for the purpose of havinganintereatin; 
butter ftictory. There is ahreadj a factory in the Colony for maldit; 
condenaed milk, and the article produced is equaj to the heat Swiss 
milk. We have not yet succeeded in making tinned butter, in wbiofa 
the Italians ao excel, and do such a large trade, but that will 
in time. 



Fruit. 



The varied climate of the Colony enables fruit to he grown 
great advantage. In the Auckland province we have a semi-tropical 
cUmate which enables oranges, lemons, figs, olives, grapes, &o,, to 
be easily grown, while the cooler cUmate of the south ia more soiC- 
able to the fruit-trees gi-own in England. All the beat sorts of 
fruit-trees, both for the production of hard and soft fruit, are well 
establisbod in the Colony, and nothing ia being left undone to push 
this industry forward. Our feuit can be landed here and in 
America at a time when fruit ia not in season in the Northern 
Hemisphere. The prices obtained for recent shipments of apples 
from New Zealand prove that it will pay well to grow apples for 
shipment to this market. 

In order to grow fruit to the greatest advantage, the fruit-growers 
should have means at hand to irrigate during dry seasons, and this 
question of ii-rigation is receiving considerable attention at the 
present time throughout the Australasian Colonies. 

If we want to obtain an example of what one country has done by 
irrigation, let ua take California. 

The followuig figures, taken from the report of the Board of 
Trade, will convey some idea of the progress made in the develop- 
ment of her horticultural exports from lands mostly reclaimed from 
desert by means of irrigation dmlng the seven years ending 



wbi oa I 

wn to 1 



Green (roita . . 


. aO,BT5.T80 lbs. TO,8G4,G10 Ifaa. 


Dried fruits 


. 3,S2!),4tiO „ 33,312,050 „ 


Canned fruita 


. 29.im.170 .. 39,313,740 „ 


Eaiflina . . . 


a4i,0.'iO ,. 17,670,485 „ 



The Cahfomian orchards pay the growers from jfiSO to £80 
acre, and there is no reason why, in a tew years' time. New Zei 
orchards should not do the same. Together with the rapid esten^ 
aion of the area of 27,000 acres now devoted to fruit-culture and 
market- gardens, the people of the Colony are now erecting inaiiu- 
feictories for canning, preserving, and pielde making. It is claimed 
that the procesa of extracting the water out of the fruit and vegetables 



mdia g | 
lalano^^^ 



^ew ZealanS. S97 

b; meuis of a maohine Imowu u tbo " Evaporator " ia dealmed to 
worii ■ rerolation in the preaorvation of frait and vegetables. This 
prooMf takcB out the water contaiiifd in tlm fruit and vegvtables, 
and it ia aaaorted that aa aoon aa they are soaked in cold water the; 
&re, after eookins, almost equal in flavour to fr<!ah. Tim bulk and 
wmgbt are conaidvrnbly rodacud In the procead of evaporisation, so 
that tlio freigbt of thu preserved article ia macb leaa. Thia pro- 
oets and oilier ])roce33es for preaerring fruit and vegetable an> being 
t«at«d in thu C'olony. I am not able to give jrou the reanlts arrived 
at in the ('olony. but I have niadu somo uxtraota from an artiol* bjr 
Hi, Dan. Tidfccun in Volume xxiv. of tlio Journal of tht Royal 
Agricultural Society of England, showing th« growth of th« fruit- 
drying Industry in the United Stutva. 

Throughout ttrelvo or ibe tao^l fertUa conniles of Tfottom Xew York, 
Um enltii^Uian of Irult, npvFUUy of applet, hit, wtUiUi flfWsn yearn, 
•npMMiled tlmt of avar; other crop. TIta iirchard product* of Nnw York 
Btate were valued at nearly /S.OOO.OOO in 1»H0, tb« U>t ecnnMyMr, and wOl 
probably bo wnrth t&r morn in ISDO. The i;n«t»r i»rt of IboM applM are 
grown aruuud lUtcbotfldr, where, within a radiuH offurty miles, nnrly 3,000 
Irmt-dryuiK citablUhiocnts nm ngw in operation. 

Only by tlio aid of ttieite " ovaporatoni " could mch a condilioa of onlti- 
ration as that now provgiilinfi in the dlmrict nndor r«v!«v bo maintained. 

Tbotaandi of torn of applu* atc propond annually (rom erades of frnll 
tormarly wasted or allowed to rot on the RroiinJ. ThH fruit-drier and the 
axlmiion ef fruit -hnuins Iiavo (p.no Iiond-in-h&nd, and fnllowinfi nataraHy 
upon their union, the dried frnit nierchnut hat appevsd and llourialias, 
Ba does not hiuisclf efaporalu fruit, but bnya both from cTaporatinft 
•atabUshinuuta and the fanner, packs for exjiort, and ciploits the whole 
world for markeU. 

OUncing first at general facts indicating the character and extent of 
tliia new industry, I.&OO umporatun were at work in tlui ncif[hbonrhood 
of Boebesler ilurinit tbn year 1887, and Ronie l&O mora were started 
during 1888. 1'bevt tiuigu in capacity from S5 to 1,000 bniliala of 
apfjoe per day. The l,r>00 evaporktor* In question gave wnpbyment, 
dorinft the antmnn snd wintur of ItiidT, to 90,000 hands, who earned from 
fS l« J>13 each pur wuck. occnrdinn to skill and aspnienee. The 
total quantity of dric^d applei pruducL-d was about 80,000,000 Ibc 
tad their velae ^,000,000. I'ivo mtUion bnsheta, or 200,000000 lbs.. 
of fimn apples were nxiuirod for this purpose, from whidi mora 
than 900,000 tons of water were driven ofl by the consumption of 1S,000 
tpnaefeoal. 

The product finds a market all over tho world, but the chief concnminit 
eonntries am Qonnany, England, Bel^um, Holland and Franee. Eva- 
porated apples are packed In case* each eoutahdng SO lbs., and the 



coKt of carnage ■per casa to Liverpool is thirty cents, or le. 3d. Tho a 

quantity of gre«n fimit aeot iu barrels would cost ^.60, or 1Q«,, and CBniMd 
&uit 1^2.10, or 8«. 9d. In the case of evaporated fruit no damiige is done, 
even by the longest trunBit, wliile ircEh finiit saflerB enormously, and 
canned fruit is always liable to ferniont, 

Tho refuse of the apples, consisting of cores mid parings, is not lost, for 
these also are dried, and form the basis of all the cheap jellies now so 
largely manufactured. Twelve millions of pounds of dried cores and 
parings were esported from America diuing the year in question. Sliced 
apples, dried without coring or paring, are exported in large quantities to 
France, where they are used in the production of the cheaper wines, and 
Bomettmea by the distiller. Eighteen thousanii barrels, containing 
4.000,000 lbs. of sliced apples, were sent to France during 1867, and of 
this quantity more than half was fornisbed by the Rochester evaporators. 
The dried apples of WeBtern New York can now be bought in almost 
every town on the Continent of Europe, while an increasing demand tor 
them is springing up even in such remote parts of the world as Australia 
and TVestom Africa. 

Passing from the general to the particular, it may, in the firEt place, be 
remarked that tbe practice at Rochester is to dry not only apples, bnt 
peaches, plums, and raspberries. 

Green apples are bought, in average years, at from 15 to 20 cents (7ii 
to lOil.) per bushel of 50 lbs. The actual cost of drying averages fetaa 
12 to 15 cents (ad. to T^d.) per bushel. The total cost of the dried pro- 
duce is from to 10 cents {Bd, to 6d.) per lb., and the average selling 
price 7 to 12 cents (3JiJ. to Gd.) per lb. One bushel of green apples pro- 
duces about 6 lbs. of dried apples. The best apples are barrelled and 
eiported as fresh fruit, only the eecond.grade fruit is evaporated, while a 
third grade goes to the cider-mills at an average price of 7j cents (3{il.] 
per bushel. Nothing ia wasted. The cores and parings are dried and 
sold for jelly -making at an average price of jS20 (£4) per ton. A busbct 
of opples yields 80 lbs. of " meat " and 20 lbs. of refuse. The 80 Iba. of 
" meat " is reduced to 6 lbs. by evaporation, and the 20 lbs. of refiise to 
4 lbs. One pound of coal is consumed in evaporating one pound of 

Peaches Eire dried both in tho " pared " and " unpared " state. The 
cost of a bushel of good peaches, in average years, is 60 cents (2b. Id.). 
Each bushel yields 4 J lbs. of dried "pared," and 8 lbs. of " unpared " fruh. 
The actual cost of drjdng, in bat}i cases, is 16 cents (Tjd.) per bushel, the 
cost of the dried " pared " product 15 cents (TJd.) per lb., and its selling 
value 30 to 22 cents {lOd. to lid.) per lb. The cost of " unpared " dried 
peaches is 8 cents (id.) per lb., and the selling value from 10 to 12 cents 
(5i. to Gd.) per lb. 

Raipberries (black) cost, in average years, 6 cents {Bd.) per quart. A 
quart of fruit yields one-third of a pound of dried product. The actual 
cost of drying Is 2 oeuts {Id.) per lb., and the total cost of the dried 



New ZeaianS. 



IM 80 cent* fl(W.) pnr Ih. Tlio Foiling prico riiric* from 
as to SO mdU (If. Q^d. to 1*. 3./.) t«r lb. 

/>lMm« An otily cvapcnlod wlicn m nbuniliuit iw to bocoina wiHiteftbla. 
On* buahvl of i^cn plnni* prmliico* 8 lb"- of dried frikit, whow uvora^ 
•eUine fiHce ia 7 ccuts (UJi/.) pur lb. 

Pmit pvBjKirfttion in iiiniiily nn inilopeiitlpnt biMiinciis. Tlip l,uO0 
vrapornlbiK tiitabliiibtii<.-utii nlrerulj' iiiButioiitil ns ■inraniiilini; ICuc1ibit«I 
u* kU of Ihi* cluiraet4ir. Tho fsrinor, indond, owns & ilryor nf hji iiwn 
wbcnerer hii utcIiu-Jb ore Inxge, but ho wtUs for Iho moat put to tha 
DMuart " ovaporntor." Apple orchnrdB in Woiitcm Nnw Vark btw 
oomnionly from 100 to 800 acres in cit«nt ; p«Hch orclinrtla from GO to 
ISO wen*. The evAporatore thoiuMlvoa ttiy in capacity Iroiu 10 bniibcla 
10 1,000 bnth^I* • day. 

ThA nniUlor drying appamtiu i» of tha nmplest descripUoii. It con> 
■bto of ui Iron «tovo, sumioiint«<l by an upright wooden enainc, tho skivo 
bainjT fixed in tbo bftseuiont, Uid tbc nDnl cadnK on lliu Door nbovu. 
TTi» produetB of eombastion an> cftirioil nway by a fliir , wliiir tho lint air 
riatfl)! ttora thn sIotc pnEMn tipnariii thrniii^h ttio lioi-likc dr.viT, wbloh 
iMniiaatai In a cowl and vane. TIid Arytr il«elf 1b fitted with n nnmbsr 
of lUdiiig traya, mad* of wire nettins. upon which tho fruit ta ptiu-ed, and 
thaw am r«pleni*b«d by band aa lh» ilrying prM«c-ds. Ernpnratim of 
UiB itrMlwrt capacity do nut diffDr from the umallesl in principle, but tha 
(brmor nanally employ atoam Inatead of fin hvat. Tlio coit of Iha 
■mallnr (farmer'n) apparatus la very iridinf;, and tbu cont of coal haa 
ftliMtdy been stated aa 1 lb. per ponnd of evaporated fruit. 

Ifaohanical appliance* for caring and paring applea ore eitreiuely 
lii|(eBioiu and very nniiicrona. They am worked by bond, and arc con* 
tiiuunia in Mtioii, i.e. nno applB ia boinj; " chnckei] " while a aocond I> 
bafng pared, and a third cored, Peach-parini* niachinca atv aim in rngne. 
and chcrrioa. when thew ar« dried, arc atoned by a very pr^lly «|>eoi>l 
tnaehbie. Kane of thcte m«>chanir'al adjnncta tu this nyaleui of ttvSt- 
evaporation aru expuniive, although it mual be aaid tliey an all ai^Mwialtj 
Anwrioan prodnctiona. 

Unqucitionably the friiit-;m>wiDg indaatry in Ni:w KeaUni] Hm 
a great future before it, anil we m&y look fonrftnl at no Jtxy duttant 
data to a very largfi incroa$ti in our export of fresh and pmerred 
frolta. 

Time forbids iny doiuK inoro tbaii refer to those necosaaiy 
i^>paiui^8 to a small farm— pigs, fowbi. and boos. Now Zealand 
already export« a lar);e quantity of liocon, and thn Antlpodtan ben 
and bonay bee are none the leas pioUflc than their I^lisli pn>- 
geoiton. Tho experience of New Zealand in poultry rearinft aeenu 
much the ume as that of tnont other countricB, in that any attempt 
to hrMd pooltry on a large scale fails, whereas poultry-kwping oo a 



income. TheM 
sliipped to thifl 



-800 New Zealand. 

moderate scale is a valuable adjunct to the farmei's 
IB certainly no reason why poultry should not be shipped t 
market, as they freeze very well, and although science has not yet 
educated New Zealand fowls to lay egga which will open after two 
months' keeping as fresh as after two days' keeping, there are many 
ways of preserving eggs without even having recourse to &eezing 
them. I saw the other day the following record of the product of a 
small apiary in the Colony ; — 

I have got 84 hivsB (bar- framed), the retom from which last season 
averaged 1 cwt. each box, thu-ty of which averaged 200 Ibe., and a few 
of the very best 250 lbs. The total product of the B4 boses was 4 tom 
4 cwt., which reoUsed i^d. per lb., equal to £ITG 8s. 

It is said hy experts that New Zealand offers every facility for silk 
prodaction, and groves of mulheiTy trees have been planted for the 
purpose of encouraging the industry. It ia somewhat diCBcuIt to 
get English people to undertake indugtries of this kind, but the 
chmatio conditions and soil point to New Zealand being fitted to 
produce as much silk, olives, and wine as Italy does. Time is re- 
quired, however, for the development of industries of this kind. 
Sugar beet grows well in New Zealand, and yields a high percent- 
!ige of sugar, and it is a matter of surprise that no English or 
German company has yet started a factory in the Colony. The 
same remark applies to paper making, as the native flax and grasses 
are eminently fitted for its manufacture, and the amount of paper 
imported is more than sufficient to support a factory. There are 
now two or three ostrich farms in the Colony. 

I am well aware that most of what I have said with regard 
to small farming appUes to almost every country, bet I claim 
that New Zealand offers exceptional conditions for production, 
and that tho accident of reverse seasons and the favourable 
markets of this country, together with tho scientific investi- 
gation which is devoted in the Colony to all discoveries which 
tend to agricultural and industrial progress, place New Zealand 
in the foremost rank of countries offering a happy home and 
prosperous career to all the English -speaking race who have an 
aptitude for small farming. Hitherto we may have erred some- 
what in moulding our system of farming too much on the English 
model. We could undoubtedly learn much from Continental 
nations and from our American cousins, whose methods, thrift, and 
entei-prise may well he found worthy of imitation. We have in New 
Zealand a Minister and Department of Agricidture, with experts 



Nea Zealand, 



801 



in Twionfl branohee of ini]asti7, whoso prorinot? U is to edaoat« th« 
Coloiu>U to an appreciation of tbe resourcoa of the Colony and the 
best meane of taking adv'atttoge of thom ; wo havo an Af^cuUural 
CoUoge cqaal to any EnRUab inatitutlon of tlio kind, and I hope 
bdoralong wc shall have in the Agont-Generars Departmont in 
Ixmdoii an laduntrial L-xpert, whooe chief wurk will bo to odnoato 
the people of the Colony lo tbo roi]iuraniontB of the Ent,'liah niarkots 
■nd ibe best methods of bringing our products into prominuiit 



A TounisT Land. 

New Zealand is already recognuioil as a land for tonriats, and 
annually an iRcreasing number n( pcoplu visit the SwitKcrland of 
the Soulli. Many of iheiio come from the continent of Australia 
tu avoiil tbe extreme heat of the sununer months, but the majority 
Mn from this country. The ('obtny Iiax, no doubt, a most valuable 
property In bor f;larious climate and scenery, and when it ia home 
in mind what a source of wcaltli to parts of Kurope is the tourist 
traffic, we can justly rci^rd New Zealand's scenic grandeur as one 
of bar best assets. In order to see the chief places of interest in 
N«w Zealand, the tourist from this country should allow for six 
montha' absti'iico. Of this, tliree months are gptnt at iwa, and three 
months are devoted to travrlliii<' tliroughout thi' Colony. The trip 
is not an expunitivo one. as a return ticket by any of tbe many 
flrtt-elasn hnes of steamers in only £1()0, which includes living for 
three months ; and hotel charges and travelling expenses in New 
Zealand are certainly no more, and probably rather lesn, than in 
other countries. The best time to select is to leave here in Bep- 
tvmlMT or October, rttuming in March or April, thus avoiding tbo 
English winter. Tliu fear of tbe sea journey probably deters a bw, 
but proves lo most not the least o^joyable part of tbo holiday, while 
fin- the man or woman with ovcr-wroaght brain or debeate health, 
the enforced niat and fresh sea brecxcs give a new lease of life. 

A man would indeed be composed of luocr material if iun did not 
find plenty to interest him in New Zealand for throe months. 
There ia a grandeur and variety of soonory posseBsed by no other 
country ; there is tbo progress and development of one of the 
Empire's mcxt important Colonies to study ; then is a native race 
remarkable fur its physiiiue and intelligence ; there is tbe social Ufa 
of a new generation of Englishmen, and then ia a clear, bright, 
and bracing climate in which to see it all. 

Qooifl people imagine that now the maireUooa fnnli and white 



New Zealand, 



terr&ces Iiavo been destroyed hy the terrible eruption of 1866 
there is nothing left to see in New Zealand ; but although the 
Colony has suffered an irreparable Iobs in the destruction of this 
gorgeous creation of nature, the wonderland of the North laland 
still remains. There is still left more than enough to make this 
part of New Zealand one of the most interesting, if not the most 
beautiful, to visit, and the traces of the dreadful upheaval that 
annihilated the terraces alone form one of the most interesting 
sights of its kind to be seen anywhere. 

There are still to he seen in this district the many coloured lakes, 
blue, green, and yellow, active volcanoes, geysers of steam, mud, 
and water, boiling springs, seething mud caldrons, cliffs and 
tarraces of every tint, and other sights which can only be equalled 
in Iceland or Yellowstone Park in America. The thermal springs 
are attaining a well-earned celebrity for their curative properties, 
and bid fair to rival the German Spas, and baths of the Pyrenees. 
I here give some extracts descriptive of the therapeutic properties 
of these baths from a paper on the subject written by Dr. Gindets, 
M.D., the Medical Superintendent at Rotorua. If further informa- 
tion is sought on the subject, there is a more detailed accouut given 
in a. chapter of a recent book on Now Zealand, written by John 
Murray Moore, M.D., M.E.C.S., pubhshed by Messrs. Sampson 
Low, of London. 

The tbarmal- springs district of New Zealand comprises an area of up- 
wanls of G00,000 acres, or close on 1,000 Eijuare miles, The length of the 
district is sotue fifty miles, with on average breadth of twenty miles. Its 
altitude averages from 1,000 B. to 2,000 ft. above sea-level. The 
general phyBiciil feuluros of this region embrace extensive pumice -pltuns, 
interseoted in various directions by high ranges of igneous formation, 
which are relieved here and there by euorniotts traobjtio cones. Exten- 
sive forests of ostraordinary luiuriancB and beauty olothe the mountainB 
and border the extensive plateaux, wliile hot lakes, boihng geyaers, and 
thermal sprinijs are dotted far and wide over the country. The thermal- 
spiings district, however, as defined on the maps, by no means embrnoes 
the whole volcanic and hydrothennal activity of the island. Although 
the volcanic slopes of Ruapehu and Toiigariro bound this region on tiia 
south, hot springs are found here aud there for fidly 2ii0 miles beyond its 
western boundary— in fact, as far north as the Bay of Islands. Within 
the district it is no eia^eration to say that hundreds of hot springs 
exist, to say nothing of mud- volcanoes, solfataras, and fiimeroles. These 
springs are of the most varied chendcal character, and every degree of 
temperature tirom 60^ to '212^. Nat a twentieth part of them have as yet 
been aubmitted to analysis. Those which have been examined is ibq 




Ntio Zealand. 

at the OeoIoRic&l Sim-#v Deportment in WaJlinftton tn 
dhnd«d by Sir Juiivi Hector into fivo dowm: (1) Salint, oontkiniiig 
chiefly chloride of lodiuiu; (2) alkalinf, cant&inms carboiMM Mid 
bie*rbonmt9i of eoda and potAnh ; (S) alkaliiU'iiliivou*, oonUlniog mnoh 
nlioio acid, but ohftQitiiii^ rapidly on expoHure to the atmuephan, and be- 
wwnbiii ftlkAUnD ; (4) hepatic nr tulphurout, chnrkotenwd by tba prci- 
•OM of ml |ih II retted hydroxen and sulphurons acid ; ajid (S) aeidie v>ater$, 
taataiiuxm ui eioeu of lulphurio or hydrochloric acid, or both. In ftddj- 
taon to thua we htvn inliiie watws, containing iodine, gold Mtdulone 
dulybaktee, uid loline kciduloua chalyhefttes. TIjem, liewever, are in 
dtartioM *t prcMnt inoeccisiblo to the invalid, or, if not out of reMb, 4l 
loMt deatilnte of the eonveniencee &nd oomforte esaentiej to thtt dele, bat 
no donbt doatinod in the nnor ftitnro to Attain ft high medical repalatton. 
The Govemninnt of New Zealand has very wieely choeen the aoatluim 
■hoM of Lake llulonia ai the basin u( operatiouii for opening np this 
wondarftil diairict. Hero am gronped together □uiiic>ran» eiamplee of the 
Ave oUmsb of MpriiiKH I have entuueratod, and heio the Qovenitnent have 
flaad their fint unnatoriam and bathing eetaUinhinent, la which il U ' 
daured ipeeially to lUrect atlentioD. The lanatorjiim reserve at Uotoma 
MRqviMB on area of aanie SO acre*, buundod on the north and ean by 
tbm lake, and on the wnal anil iioulh by the Townahip of Rolonia, Ten 
jears «4to tbi« wiu a huwUug wltdprneiui, covered witli tea-troo •emb, and 
diroraifled only by clonds of ateam rising from the varloni hot apringa. 
Now tfaia area of donoUtion ia complutDly trauafunuiid. Walki and drivea 
plantad with oven^cen Ireea traverse it from end to end, founluina and 
tfowar-garilciu dotiKbt the i-yo, and coimnodiuui biiildings lor the ocoom- 
modatioM and convenience of invnliil* am uprineing up on every aide. 
The principal of theae ore tbe Banalurium liospitid. the medical roidnncc, 
tlw Priaal'B pavilion, llio Itachorl pavilion, the Ilhia RwlniniiiiK-bath <ta 
vfaieh ia attached the aulphiiT' vapour bath and tbu electrical dojiarl- 
tnant), and Brent'e boarding 'honw. Tho boipitiU i» diwiirnod to aooom- 
nodata twrnty^ono paticntJ -twclvu uioli-e and nine famalee. The 
OoVMDRienl tariff hoe not yet bi»'n dncidnd on, but it )■ not likely to 
axceed £1 or £1 .'». piT hinul per week. A patient will be allowed to 
ramain thrue iiiontbii, but if at the ctpiration of that time tlie luedical 
oSoer la of Dpiiuou tliot a lon^tur pvriuit is deaimblo a Miecind three month* 
wEU be gratittxl ; but in rUl cawr kU inonthii will lie thn aUroine liuiit. 

We have no apring in tijo diitriot tliM Ilea obtaiii«d a litgher r^ula- 
dan, or proved itaetf ninro (tunerally ttwiful, than tliat known ae the 
hieat'a Bath. The oharncter of tlie water ia ralphuroiu, altuuinoua, and 
Mranilily aciil. Ita teniiwratnre varie* from W to 100". Tliia variation 
la dna to the riso and fall of tbe lake and the direction uf the wind. When 
tba lake ia hijuh and the wind btawinj; in the diredion ol tlui hatha the 
(nvoiiraUfl to a hiuh U>uip4irBtiire, and vice v*rtd, the cold 
r of the lake aflordinii a inore alUciiTnl borriar tu the eacap* uf heat 
Um open pumicc-^avcl of which the chore it compoMd. Tbg ti 




804 Waio Zealand. 

oonatiluents of the water amount to 06 gr&ins per gallon, consisting of 
siilphates and Bilicri. Of these the sulphates of alnmiDo, and soda are the 
most abundant : but the most important constituents are — &ee sulphnrio 
acid, 2a gT„ and free hydroehlorio acid, 8 gr, per gallon. A patient 
emerging from this bath looks lilie a boiled lobster, and I regard this 
determination of blood to the skin as a most important therapeutic factor : 
the vascular and nervona apparatus of the skin are powerfully stimulated 
by it, and intprnal congeationa reheved. Our alkaline waters, on the 
other hand, which contain tlie chloridea and ailicataa of the alkalies, havo 
a Boothing and emollient effect on the skin, and are of great value in 
eczema and other ontaneona ailments. The water of the Priest's Spring 
ia brilliantly clear when undisturbed, and pale-green in colour. A bint 
odour of Eulphuretted -hydrogen pervades the vicinity, which gaa, together 
with sulphnrouB acid, ia copiously evolved. Since the cruplion of Tara- 
wora this offensive odour has been much modified, owing, I believe, to an 
increased e\olution of aulphuroua-acid f;as at that time. Fortunately for 
the nasa] organs and general comfort of bathers, theae gases efiect a 
mutual decomposition. Wherever eteam charged with theae gases is able 
to penetrate, sulphur is deposited. This is the origin of all the sulphur 
in the district. It permeates readily the siliceous-sinter rock, forming 
beautiful needle-like crystals of sulphur in its interspaces. Sulphur 
being thus constantly transformed from the gaseous t{) the solid state in 
the water of this spring, it is very possible that, coming into contact with 
the akin in this nascent and impalpable form, its therapeutic power may 
be considerably enhanced : there can be no doubt about its absorption, for 
OUT patients tell us that their underclothing is redolent of sulphur for 
weeks after reluming home. The Prieat'a bathing-pavilion is a building 
74 ft. long by 44 ft. wide, having a superficial area of 3,256 square feet. It 
is divided into male and female departments. Each department com- 
prises two public pitdnir, 16 ft, by 12 ft., with two private baths for 
special cases, loimging-rooma, and comfortable dreaaing-rooms. Each 
bath is provided with a cold freah-water shower, and douches either hot 
or tepid, thus materially enhancing the hydropathic efficieooy of this 
remarkable water. 

Ai^oining this atruettu'e ia the Rachel Bathing.pavilion. Here wa 
have a water diametrically opposite in character to the last described — na 
alkaline siliceous water, having a temperature at its sourco of 180°. 
This source is a caldron of enormous depth, eituated some 200 yards 
from the bathing.pavilion, and yielding 50,000 gallons daily. We have a 
simple system of cooling by which the water may be used at any desired 
temperature. Here also is a sepaxate department for each sex, each con- 
tmning a public piacina IG ft. aijuare, four private baths, a lounging or 
waiting-room kept at a constant temperature of 70° by hot-water pipes, 
and dressing-rooms. The solid constituents of this water amount to 
IIG gr. per gallon, and consist of the chloridea of sodium and potassium, 
sulphate and carbonate of soda, silicates of soda, lime, and magnesis, 



tfew Zealand. SOfi 

Asidea of iron uid aJaminiunt, tmi •iliob. Its niaction ia &I]ealiiie, and it 
eonUuns « tmikU onioimt of Balphimluiil b.vdroKcn. Tha doliciotu hdm 
of hUnMM produced by biklhln); in thin nnier, with tho soil uttioy fooling 
It eommtmictttci to thn mkin, must \id felt to be opjirveiutad. It !• nMfol 
bi ill fbniu of skin-diwAao — indoed, In «ci«ii]a it lavf ba oonatdeMd 
■pMifia if oootinavd lonig; nnonnh in eonjunetiiin with » suitAhl* r«iiimm. 

I fraqoantlj reoonuncnd the intorna] nae of tliis water. Ita latto ia not 
itnpl— amt. Mid ita Mtion ia wildly ftntilitliio. Walim containing ailicAtM 
u« aAJd to bo naefU In tha aric-ftoid diAtbesia, and I oertaiuly lutve (bond 
it rait Rniity potinnia kdniinbly. 

Tlie Dluu ItHth ia & warm Hwimniinff-bath (l'2ft. long by 87 11, wide. 

II ia built of atone nnd conirri>to, with a nmcHilh anrfafi: of Portluid 
Winent. Um dfptb ia frmii 4 ft. H in. to H ft. Il contatna tboat 80,000 
gaUotia of wntt^r. inniiitaiiif d nl a ti'mfw rat lire of iXf*. Tliis in tlie popnlar 
pleunro-lmlh nt thn Snnatorinm, in whid) nnr rhoamntlo fnviUlda an ablft 
to (ftke exarFise vritboat undnu fatigue. It wm completed In I88S, and 
Opmad by htr. Unnrgc Anguatua Soiu. During tlie Mentation lieoaaavy 
for iu furuatioii the workmen atniok 0]>on a rcmarkabla aulphoT-CBvam, 
ita roof and aidoii thickly eoatod with brilluuit aeicularcryatAlaofaulphnr, 
and at ila buu a hot oiiring yielding n«an) ao itrongly tmpregnatad with 
•ulpbilr-gaica na to ba ijuit« irmpirable. Tliia wa havo eondoctad to tha 
anrfiue, and tiiiploy aa a entphur'Tnponr both, diluting it, aa ocoaaioii 
raquiroa, with atcnm of a mildnr chamctor. In aciatica ojid all forma of 
rtiMimatiuu thiit ia one of our iiinat popular nnil efllciwiuTia r^mcdica. In 

. thin building WD iinvu our (^Ipctricol ruoiii. lupplit^d with fiimdic and con- 
Mant-cnfTcnt batt«riea, and a gnlvanio bath. No huijiltal at Iho pr«aent 
day ia without ita olectriooJ uppamtua, yi>t fow boapital moo, and atill 
ftwn busy general praotitionurm have timo to dovote to the alndy it 
aoeeaaitatca. It appeara deatlnsd to become a apveialily : and rnrtainly 
Ihoro eonld be no widiir Held tot ita uxerciic than a tiiuiatariuiu like that 
of Botonia, whpre neurotic, rhcnmatie, and paralj-tic patienta congrogati!, 
and whore conatant bathing niodlfiea ao favonrably the normal i«aiatanc« 
of th» akin to tha elactrical current. 

Caaea of paraplegia in which ilia muaclna are eiteniively atrophied, and 
tlMT* ia abaolutoly no ruapanau tu cithur go] fanitia or Au^iam, are ninally 
bopaleaa. In beinipleniii. on tho other hand, preaiimahly from cerebral 
•tnboliMn or from amall ha'morrhage*, ox, for oiiuuplr, from ruptom of 
Ifaa miliary aiieuriama of Charcot, we haio hul aomo eiotdlent reanlta.' 

Bhtnuoatiam and Bkiii.dia««a»a form fully TG par cant, of the caaea wa 
•TV called n|ion to treat, and thaaa uaually in a very chronic form. In 
riutmutiuu and rheirniatie i,>Dnl we have iniicli anceeaa, cipcclaljy wbera 
■nhritlo degeneration ia not too pronounced. Hot acidic aolphur-balhs 
at a tPtnporalnrD not cxoeeding 104", or aulpfaur- vapour up tu IIS*, takm 
tvic* dally for a oarefiilly-rognlat«>d lime, according to individual loJnrane* 
— wbiob wo find to vary },Tently— &>mia our rootine Ireatmant ThoM 
■ Dolaila ol auoectaful mmi oI paralyaii an then givan. 



306 



New Zealwnd, 



waters redden the akin, and cause some tingling seneation for an faoitt 
two. Occasionally some irritation of the skin occurs, which is readily 
allayod by a few wann alkaline showers or douches. In those nuEaeioua 
and well-known cases of chronic hip -rheumatism, initiated frequently by 
injury, we find nothing so efficacious os t!ie hot douche. The beneficial 
result is due partly to the quality of the water, and largely to its mechan- 
ical action : tbrtiinatoly, our arrangomonta are so complete that we are 
able to vary the temperature and percussive power of the douche at will. 
"We are able to quote several cases of cure even where a considerable 
amount of fibrous anchylosis has existed. If the rheumatic patient 
progresses favourably under the bath -treatment alone, neither medicines 
nor electricity are employed, but if after a few weeks his progress is not 
Batiefaotory, we find galvano-faradism a valuable adjunct. Usually thirty 
eells are put into circuit with a faradic machine, and the double cnrrenl 
applied in the labile manner to the parts aEFected for fiiteen minutes daily. 
We find this answer better than either current alone. In cases of 
muscular atrophy feradism is had recourse to from the commencement.' 

Perhaps there is no claas of diseases in which we meet with more 
Dniform success than those affecting the akin. The aoUd and gaseouscon- 
Btituents of the waters are no doubt important, bnt I have more confidence 
in the influence of change and all that it implies in its eSect on both mind 
and body, combined with the prolonged maceration of the cuticle, and the 
constant exposure of the skin to air and tight which frequent bathing 
entails. General eczema, which may have resisted every form of treatment 
for years, is generEdly cured in a period varj'ing fi-om six to thirteen 
weeks if the patient is willing to submit himself to rigoroos medical 
discipline. The same may be said of psoriasis — at least, as far 
appearance for a longer or shorter period is concerned. It is r: 
to see psoriasis completely eradicated. For ringwona and the impeti 
eczema of children the water of the Priest's Bpring is specific. In sycoaia 
epilation is necessary, after which our alkaline waters complete the oiire. 
Keural^B, as artile, do remarkably well. Patients sufiering irom aciatic» 
are a numerous claas with us, most of them presenting a very ohronie 
history. When the disease ie not distinctly associated with the gouty oT 
rheumatic diathesis, is not of long standing, and has been caused by 
eipoaore to cold, it is very quickly cured. A few baths relieve the pain, 
and there is rarely any stiffness or weakness remaining. Chronic cases 
are not so easily dealt with — they require groat patience and perseverance 
on the part of both physician and pationt. Our routine treatment oonaiata 
of hot baths, sulphur -vapour, the douche and galvanism. After six or 
eight weeks it frequently happens that nothing remains to remind the 
patient of his old enemy beyond some slight weakness or soreness of the 
limb, and X usuaUy advise him to try a week's sea-bathing on his way 
home. In order to accomplish this he should arrive in Botorua not 
earlier than September or later than February. We have had some good 

' Instances ol cures in severe rhemaatitm are then given. 



^ 



ndeed, 
iginoUB 



Ntw Ztalcmd. 807 

nmlU In Dw tMHtmeiit of oervico-tirMliiAl nenralgift. Borne time fft k 
Udy who hkd long BiifTervd from DmiralKitt of tho circnmflox norv* euna 
to Ilotonut for treatment. Site ourieil her ftrin in a iling, and dreaded 
the tl^chtvit movenicnt. la npitu of htT aafleriiit' »ho hnd attained the 
l«rflfle weight of 17,it. After two weeks' bnthinK> nnil ibo application of 
• ret7 mild enlvtuiie battory, aho wai able to lue har arm, and in a month 
waa eomplotel^r rnrod. 

To ennmerato every aJIment in whii-li our thenual Bpriiign have proved 
nwAll would prolong this paper indeHnitoly. Safliro it to aay that In 
DUBj MaM their healing power haa been diicovered accidentally. Many 
ladiaa bathing for rhenmatiEm hare fonnd themMlvoa cored of chronio 
metritia and leucorrhtea, and a« a remit of sncb ourea have proved fruitAU 
after yoan of sterility. Congestion of tlia lirir, biliary eatarrh with 
jaundice and iMPmorrhoidB, have been cared by the acid aulphor water*, 
which aliu) prove mefnl aa ■ topical appUcation in ozKn* and nleeratod 
throat. This clam of water also tend* to rodnce plethora and oorpnlenoy 
without prostration, ensarea healthy action of the akin, and reliovoa torpor 
of the bowels. 

The popularity of Bolorua aa a health reaort ia ateadily incruatCng, and 
all that is wanting to sncnro ila pcnnatinnt aiiceciui is ihrongh railway- 
communication with Aiicliland. ^Vith regard to the hotel and boarding, 
honso nccotumodation pnividvd fur invalids and tonristi, wa bava, at a 
distance of one mile (Wim the [ianatorium. three hotala, each posaoaaing 
valnahle themial springs, with comfortable bath-hoiiaea, tha nee of which 
b tn« to tisitora. The tariff variea from Hi. to lOt, per day, but for 
vbitor* who may wish to remain aovvral weoka a lower charge may b« 
■rTaDgcd for. At proacnt wo have only one boarding-house, in doae pros- 
imity to the Oovommont baths ; it is capnblo of accommodatiRg aboat 
tWTOlj riaitora. The medical aiiparinteiident receivea four reaidcnt 
patianW in hia bouae, Where privacy and home comfort, combined with 
eonataot medical auperviaion, are to bo deaired, Ihia proviaion will bo 
approciatad. 

I htm been led to make these rather lengtby extract* beeaou I 
ttel that the thennul flprings of tlic Colony are ao littlo known. 
Wbon I turn to New Zeol&ud as a laud of beauty I oonfees mj 
utter inability to describe tho magntficeDt moantain, hUce, rivtr, and 
forMt Kenery of the Colouy, and 1 have tberitfore made a selection 
of views whicli will presently be afaown to yon. Tho alidcs ant 
ralber old, and not of the best, but I am suro they will give yon a 
better idea of tho beauties of New Zealand than any fcvble word- 
pictures of my own. There is, I b«lfev«, no coontry which oonlaiiu 
facb a variety of scenery as does New Zealand. If yon hare riaited 
Norway, Bwitzcrland, Iceland, tho Tyrol, and Italy, and aeon the 
bat featnrca of those beautiful couutriitti — fiords, snow-pMki^. 



808 l^eti> Zealand. 

glaciefa, lakes, *at6rfa!ls, gorges, harboura, rivera, forests, !(^! 
have seen some of Nature's grandest and fairest scenes ; but if jou 
go to New Zealand you will be bound to admit that she can show 
you wonders and beauties quite as grand and fair. A visitor should 
not fail to see the sounda or fiords of the South Island, the southern 
lakes, Mount Cook and its glaciers, the Otira gorge, the BuUer and 
Waoganui riverB, and the northern lakes. In visiting these places 
La will be compelled to see many of the harbours, of which Auckland 
is the most beautiful, so beautiful that it takes a high place in the 
beautiful harbours of the world. I have seen Eio Janeiro, Naples, 
and Sydney, and I think, in ita way, Auckland Is more beautiful 
than either. " See Naples and die ! " is a well-known saying ; but 
if any of you are thinking of going to Naples for that purpoBC, 
I would suggest that you go and see Auckland first. Every 
year the accommodation for tourists improves, and one may 
now travel along the beaten tracks very comfortably. The en- 
terprising firm of Messrs. Cook & Son have estabhshed agencies 
throughout the whole Colony, and spare no trouble to brin^ 
New Zealand under the favourable notice of the travellinjf 
public, and to attend to their comfort there. The people of the 
Colony no doubt under- estimate the scenic grandeur of their 
oountry. The Government, I am happy to say, are now paying 
more attention to the convenience of travellers by improving the 
communication hy rail and road, and liotels worthy of the name 
are beginning to take the place of the old accommodation houses. 
The splendid hotels and good roads met with in Switzerland are no 
small attraction to many of her visitors, and the lovo of creature 
comfort is to naany a matter of more consideration than the love of 
nature. These are facta which the New Zealander must not forj 



Fedeeation. 



3ve of I 

M 



No paper on a British Colony scema complete without a refei 
to the great question of Imperial I'ederation. 

A certain amount of practical work has been done during tha 
past few years in sotting on foot a system of Imperial Defence, and 
in determining other matters of common interest, but statesmen 
having got so far appear timid about going any further, and seem 
now rather to fight shy of the whole question, and to adopt a laiasez 
faire policy. Short of proposing any scheme, it aeema to me there is 
still much to be done in the way of " clearing the decks for action," 
and embracing every opportunity of effecting mrangementa whioIf« 



A'cw Zealand. 800 

nllliongli poaaibly small in tbcmsolvea, nre io tlia mulaal ad\-ai]tago 
of this country nml tlio Coloiiios. A not uiiimpurltint iiiKUiTice ig 
a Bill which Lord Knateford has passed llirough the lIou§e of Lords 
daring the prcBtnt scBsioR dL-aliiig; witii llin rrobalo of Wills. 

It is now almost an axiom of the subject that Federation miutt 
be baBo<l on a foitiidution of praclii^iU and rociprocal bcnofiti, and 
itiftt tlio sentimentnl aspect of the question, however attractiva 
it tDay be, will not provii u bond of union suflicivntly strong to 
Ugti unless there aro material advantages as welL 1 cannot go 
into this quoslion furthur hvn than cnuiiicratu a few matters which 
Mem to mo to call for early consideration, and which are non- 
eommiUal. Wu need not hcwtatc " to clear tint docks," ns I call 
it, so u to be ready (or action when time is ripe. Uow long it 
may be prudent to wait before we fbce the whole (juestion is one of 
(iui DUDy difBcuIties surroonding tlio matter. It must ho l<omfl 
in mind that political thonght llowa faster in the Colonies than 
fatro, and it is by no means certain that the Colonies will, as time 
goes on, manifest tlio soniQ dispoBitions they now entertain. It is 
inoHt dilTii^ult fur tlii> various Coloniea, separated as they are, to pro- 
jMund a scheme which in the very oaturo of things should emanate 
from the ilotbur Country. The chief reason this country should 
naka the advance, is because the question of Imperial Federation 
is, it eeems to mc, of much more importanoo to this country than it 
is to the Colonics. It may bo that thu Gommeroial aspect of the 
whole question is becoming more prominent than the pohtical aspect, 
and tliat the great levi<r of coninicrcial puhlio opinion mast be used 
to lift poUticians &om their lethargy. Signs are not wanting to 
ahowtbatthu Britiah coiniuiTciol world is dinHatisficd with the future 
prospects of British trade. Do not understand me to imply that 
this great quo«tion of Imperial Fedoration must Iw »citlcd hastily. 
I agree with those who think that it will not do to " force the run- 
ning"; but so br from any precipitate action being Iik«ly, it seems as 
if we are running a risk of going to the opposite extreme and allowing 
the matter to skiep. Tliu subject is too vast to discuss at the end 
of a paper already too long. New i^ealand ean eorti^nly claim 
(o be thoroughly loyal to the British flag, bnt in the matter of 
Imperial Federation, although I believe the people of the Colony 
would hail with pride and pleasure any proposal for more firmly 
binding together the bonds bctwe«n the Mother Country and the 
Colony, those bonds must Bccur« to the people of New Zealand 
praelieal boDefits. As you know, New Zealand was very shy abont 
committing herself to the scbeme of Anstnlaaian Federation. Bbt 



SIO 



New Zeaioad. 



had many reasons for this. I will quote one which was weighty 
with me, and it is that I was not at all stiro (hat Australasian 
Federation was a stepping -stone to Imperial Federation. The 
questions which appear to me to demand Imperial attention at the 
present moment, leaving on one side the ever important question of 
defence, are : — 

1. The abrogation of the provisions of any treaties with foreign 
powers imposing limitations upon the full development of trade 
between the United Kingdom and other parts of the Brilish 
Empire. 

2. The determining of conditions under which the Colonial 
Government seeuritiea may be recognised in this country, as a 
proper field for the investment of trust moneys. 

3. The holding of an Imperial Postal Conference for the purpose 
of determining the basis of a penny Imperial post and cheaper 
cable rates. 

i. The adoption throughout the Empire of identical laws on such 
questions as patents, copyright, marriage, divorce, Ac. 

5. The fixing of some universal standard under which university 
degrees and professional qualifications might be mutually recog- 
nised. 

6. The reduction of the stamp fees charged by the Imperial 
Government on all Colonial loans and conversions.' 

These are, I venture to think, all practical proposals which have 
been made at various times, and are illustrations of what I referred 
to in speaking of clearing the decks for action. 

I will conclude with a sentiment of Mr. J. A. Fi-oude : — 

The Colonies have ehown more clearly than before that they are as 
much English as we are, and deny our right to part with them. At^ome 
the advoEates of separation have boon forced into ailonce, and the interest 
in the subject haa grown into practical aniciety. The union which so 
many of ub now hope for may prove an illusion after all. The feeling 
which exists on both sides may be a warm one, but not warm enough to 
heat us, as I said, to the welding point. 

The event, whatever it is to be, 'hes already deteruiined, the philo. 
sophers tell us, in the chain of causation. What is to be, will be, Bnt it 
IB not more determined than all else which is to happen to us, and the 
determination does not moke us sit still and wait till it comes. Among the 

' On tbe loans of (be BntiEh Coloiiios considerably more tbaii £1,000,000 
has been paid to the English Treasury in stamp dut; ; and as man; of the loans 
will shortly have to be paid off, involving reborrovring for the purpose, tbs M 
on the Coloaies daring the next few years will be very heavy. " 




oftOM* &rs inotodoil ota own pTortlons, and eooli of db miul do what ho 
MO, bo it uBoU or Kreat, as tbU connw or tbftl Moras good ftud rigbl 
to him. If wo work on the rieht eido, coral iiuecta as we are, we uu-y 
eontribnto noiiiGthmg not wholly usoIom to the gonenU welfare, 

Araidat the uueurtaiiitieii which aro (talheHujf round tu at home— k 
ftituTo M) obKure that tha wueat tnui will loan vontore a ooi^eotiiro . 
what thai fiituro will be— it ia toniothin^ to have uwd with aur own ayea | 
that there am other Knglaads bcsidca thn old one, whore tha raco ia 
tbrinnj with all iti ancient oharaot^ristio*. Those who talco " ItNajM in . 
ibo duk," to wo are duinj;, may Hud themsdvca in unoxpociod pliMeo 
bolbro thoy rocovor Iho bcattin tracks oxiun. But let fato do its wont, , 
(he fiunily of Oceana ia still growing, and will have a Ravoretfin voico ia 
tha eouiing fortunoi of uuuu 

(A numhfr of UmeUghl ttietui (•/ Nnv Zealand icencry uwre ihown at 
Uu etiKeturivH o/ the paper.) 



} 



D1SCUB81ON. 

Mr. E. BROom UoAtti:. M.P. : I do not know whothor Ibroo 
travel in N«w Ze&laud cntitloH » man to spe&k on this 
bat, baving boon for many years inlvroMted in the ctmuneroe 
t|f "BnT Swiand, and having spent some of the inoKt doli^tAil 
WWlllff 1b my Life ^n that wonderful Colony, I may be allowud to 
bear ny tvetiinony to the accuracy with wUIoh the A|{«nt'GenE>ral 
bat aet before you its claims on yoar eympatliy ; anil, further, I 
tbink wo may congratulate ourselves on havinf; an Agent-tieneral 
wbo can speak on such subjects with so much force anO purapicuity. 
At the same time the mere reading of a paper doos not convey to 
ooo'e mind anything like the cnthasiasm which one fi-cls wbo has 
pot his foot on the shoroa of New Zealand. It is a country which 
tor elimate, the beauty of its scenery, and the attraotivanesa of its 
^ptofit — who are Englislimen to the backbone — oflen attntctions 
Ibat cannot be resisted by those who hara bran brongbt wilhhi ibw 
nage of these inflnenoes. Though X have no critioiam to m&ko on 
tbtpaper.perbapsyouwillfdnnvttino- and, ahoold it como lo their 
mn, 1 hope the GoVBmnicnt of New /ealanil will forgive me — if I 
nature to qnestion the wisdom of some of the proc«M]inR« of tl»< 
Qonrament. There can be no don bl that Iho one thing required 
br tba resources uf N'vw itealaml aa yet nmkvelopvd is tlu> inlro- 
doctioa of Enghsli capital. I ventnie, with all humility, to say 
tbat tbe etepB that ore being taken an directly calculated to Ittterleie 



812 



New Zealand. 



with the introduction of Englisli capital, and I will tell you in n 
way this ia being done. There can be no doubt that the credif; c 
the New Zealand Government in the English money market has, 
during the last four or five years, very materially and justly im- 
proved. The Four per cent. Stock stands at a good premium, whereas 
when I was there this stock stood at something like ninety-aix. It 
is not, however, in my opinion, to tlio capital borrowed by the New 
Zealand Government that the Colony has to look for its real progresa 
and the sound development of its resources. It must look rather to 
the introduction of private capital through private enterprise. I will 
quote words used by the Agent-General to illustrate to you in what 
way I consider the recent action of the Government has tended to 
interfere with the introduction of private capital. He eaya ; " 1 
readily admit that, in the case of individuals and companies who 
have become the unwilling owners of large estates by properties 
falling into their hands, the remedy is somewhat drastic ; but the 
policy pursued by these individuals end companies in holding their 
land instead of realising has gone far to bring about the change they 
complain of.' I ask you to consider what this means ; and may I 
preface my remarks by saying that I am not personally interested 
in any company which holds any large tract of land in New Zea- 
land ? It means that certain companies have in the past lent money 
unwisely on the mortgage of properties in New Zealand ; that they 
have been obhged to foreclose on those mortgages ; that tliey now 
hold the properties so foreclosed, and tliat they are unwilling to sell 
them at a heavy loss. That ia the plain EngUsh of it. Now I would 
ask the Agent- General— and I wish I could aak the Legislature of 
New Zealand also — to consider this : that their object is to promote 
the interest and the well-being of their coimtry. That I firmly 
believe to be their one and genuine aim. They think it is belter to 
do so by the introduction of small settlers and by increasing the 
number of small holdings ; and I agree with them. I think that ia 
a right and proper line of development for a country liko New 
Zealand. ]}ut if you want to bring capital into New Zealand, is it 
wise — I do not say is it right or just — to so tax English capitalista 
who have embarked their money in the Colony that they shall be 
compelled, whether they would or not, to sell their property at a 
loss in order to escape that which is practically a fine for holding it 
in the attempt not to make a profit but to escape a loss ? That 
is the real position into which the New Zealand Government are 
placing many of the large companies connected with the Colony, 
a(td I g^y in their own interest it is a piece of very foolish legisloi 



^Dttr Zealand. SIS 

1. Onfl otlter tliiiiR I know, and lUAny of tlioao wlio Iiave 
B la New Zealand know— Omt tho conlial co-oporation of the 
r^Onnunent ill grenl imlustriaJ enterprises in ftltnost lUi estWQtiiU in 
tWBltry like New Zealand if those euterprisca are to prosper. I 
do not mean that tho Govemmeiit should take up tbo»< eutcrprisei 
mtid nnrae them— far from it ; but when l^nglish capitalists are 
striving to accomplish KTuai works or Binall works for which Ui<t 
help of the Government in reqnired- 1 menn help in the way of (aci- 
Utattng arraiigcmtiuts mid enublJiiK thuiu to go on with unoothnesB 
and ease — I say that that help ought to be gruiit«d in no grudging 
ouuiner. At thu present tiiuu that help im not grantod with a frao 
band at all, and 1 have rcnsoii to believe, from what I saw whoa I 
ma thoT«, that a good deal of that diflieulty arises from something 
which the Colony ought to bo now old enough to get over — that is, 
a faeling of local jealousy. It is an undoabtod fact, or was a few 
jears ago, that that which was considered good in Auckland waa 
oonndarod liad In Dunedin, and that what was thought good in 
CUristchurch was thought bad in Wellington, I do not say that 
everybody hod that fi>t'hug, but tlio fotding was m> pnivalciil as to 
lead to great friction and great impediments being placed in the way 
of industrial enterprises that required the co-operation of the whole 
Colony. It will bu understood, I hopo, that 1 mako tliesc minarka 
in no unkindly or uufrioiidly spirit, because, as I have aald, I have 
the greatest enthusiasm for the Colony, and I hare invested my own 
money thero. unil that of my friends. 1 boUcvo that for New Zea. 
land there is a greater future than there is for any other of our 
Colonien ana for area ; that there ia no country on tho face of the 
{[lobe BO fitted for tlie habitation of Englishmen ; and that thorn of 
OH who live for another twenty yetv^ will sue New Zealand making 
r»pid strides— such rapid strides that she will be outpacing the 
dder and hirger Colouicsof thu Australasian ContimtnL Hut If this 
ic to bo, the Colony must be guided by wisdom, and not run on wliat 
tha Agent-Ocncral — by a slip or purpoeely— doacrihod as " tads." 
There is no doubt that a great many people in New Zealand take 
their political opinions from those whom wo hero caU fiuldists. I 
marvel at thu prcigrcriH New ZeAlund hoc mode. The great city ol 
Christchurch, witli its cathedrals, banks, railways, and tramways, 
was a bare dosert when 1 was a l>oy at school, and 1 am disgusted 
when anybody calls mo old. 1 think you will agree tliat few 
Montriea have mado such progress, and I My with all my heart — 
May she continue to flouriah. 
Sir JuiiitiB VooBL, K.CM.G. : Aft«r the very exbausti\-o paper 



4 



814 New Zealand. 

which Mr. Perceval haa reatl, there is not very much left to Bay ahonli 
the present condition of New Zealand, I rather think Mr. Perceval 
did himaelf an injustice when he told us we were going to listen to 
a prosaic paper, for I am sure you will agree with me that when he 
took us to the top of Chrlstchurch GathedrEiJ and laid before us the 
fair and varied scene he disclosed a vein of true poetry. I will aak 
you to allow me to go back to the past. It is not generally known 
that the real origin of the immigration and pubho works policy of New 
Zealand was not, as has beeu supposed, a desire to obtain, by the 
expenditure of borrowed money, a fictitious excitement or a too rapid 
progress. The trae origin of that pohcy was the native difficulties 
that then prevailed, and had prevailed since the earliest history of the 
Colony. Up to 1870 a species of dual control existed by which the 
Colonial Government and the Home Govenmient jointly managed 
native affairs. In that year the Home Government finally withdrew. 
They took away every soldier, and sold everything on which they could 
lay hands, even to tlagposts, and I am not sure they did not sell the 
flags. They threw on the Colony the whole responsibihty for the 
future. It wag then recognised that to go on spending miUiona as 
they had been spent on native affairs was a wasteful policy, and that 
a far better plan was to colonise and settle the northern island and 
carry out railways and other pubhc works. The other island had 
long complained of the expenditure on accoimt of the native diffi- 
culties, and this policy could not be carried out without extending 
to the south island the same policy of immigration and pubhc works 
proposed to be carried out in the north. That pohcy was pursued 
on a more extensive scale than was originally proposed, and more rail- 
ways were made than were at first contemplated. The time came 
when the increase of population was not so rapid — when it became 
desirable to " taper off," and there was not a small amount of heroism 
displayed when the process began. I may mention that the Colony 
has much more land under cultivation than the whole of the Aus- 
tralasian Colonies put together. The policy of colonisation from its 
earhest date was based on a twofold supply from the Mother Country 
to her Colonies of population and of capital. It would be simple 
folly, as regards the capital, to suppose that there would be any 
doubt whatever of tlui sufety of the loans to the varioiis Coloni^ 
Govemmeuts. As regards private loans, they are mostly of the 
nature of private investments. I beheve, as it rule, they are good 
investments. From a study I have lately made of the subject, 
I have come to the conclusion that the approximate amount of 
money invested by the lesideiitB of Great Britain in eeourities of all 




Neto Zealand. SIS 

Imia — foreign, colonl&l, Indi&n, and home — is, in round Sgnrea, 
£5,000,000,000, Now, a great financial KCiiius— I ani not itpeoking 
irooicaUjr — Mr. Wilson, haa latel; publiahcd in the Investor's 
Rmtw a HcathinR article on tha subject of Auslmlasian borrowiBg. 
He eonples, or I think be has no rif^bt to do, private loana and 
QoTemtn«nt loans and makes np a total of i,'280 ,000,000. of which 
£40,000,000 Ix-ionKR to bank deposits. Now. if I am riftht as to the 
total amount of Uritish inveetments, thia balance of £240,000,000 
npTMontc somewhat Ions than Gve pvr cent, of the whole. It may 
b* a la^e amoont, but it docs not seem a very largo proportion to 
invest in the Continent of Australia, to say nothing of New Z^uitand 
uidfTasmonia ; and I am decidedly of opinion that there are thou- 
aaodn and tens of thousands whoso invoslnicnts aro roprcMtnKH] by 
the remaining Ofi per cent, who would be glad to transfer their in- 
vestments to Australasia's five per cent. Mr. ^Vilson'B article ia a 
■trong and able article. It is a curious thing, however, that that 
article wm publi«hi.^ on the 1st May and baa been greatly spoken 
of, and yet that ever since then Austrahuiaik stocks have gone 
up from day to day. It reminds one of the jackdaw in " The 
Ingoldaby Legends." Tbo Ardibisbop oursod by "bell and bjr 
book," and in a variety of otber ways— 

" Sure never waa beard sneh a terrible etine, 
liul what gave rise lo do little inrprise. 
Nobody seemed one penny the wotm." 

I do not go BO far as to say that there are not questions relating to 
Agstratia that are well worth oonsideriiig. 1 think you will bo 
amazed to find bow the supply of population ia blling off, and on 
this subject I will give you a few figures which I think are rather 
Mnaatiouah I find that in the five years ll#t2 80, iDclasivc, tliu 
total emigration of persons of British origin bom Great Britain and 
InsUnd to the Australasian Colonics amounted to 2Sfi,000 pemns, 
while in the fi^'c years 1HU7 ill tliu number was l}tO,000, giving an 
amntgn in the first five years of 47,000, and in the last of only 
96,000, But wo ought also to constdtT tlie nnmbcr of persons who 
have returned from these Colonies to tbo United Kingdmn : and I 
find this remarkable bet, that during tlio five years 1882 80 the 
batanee in £tvour of Australasia was only 11)4,000, while in liWT 01 
Uia halanoo of thaw who remained was only 82,000, being an averaito 
(or Ilia first flnyearsof 88,000, and of 16,000 for ihenoit five. The 
last two yaan an even more remarkable. In 1890 the total number 
cf immigianta was only 21,000, and in 161)1, ID.OOO ; wliilo if jm . 



SIC 



New Zealavd. 



deduct the returns, the numbers were 10,000 and 9, GOO respectively. 
Thus jou will see that we must go back almost to prehistoric timea 
for a parallel for the small amount of emigration during the past 
two years to Australasia. I do not say anyone is to blame. I 
tbint there are periods in the liyea of young communities when 
quiet must for a time prevTiil. In the case of Australasia I do not 
think that period can be a lengthened one ; on the contrary, I am 
persuaded that before a long time has elapsed we shall again see a 
large steady flow of emigration from the United Kingdom to Aus- 
tralasia ; and I may add that I beUeve there never has been a time 
when persons possessed of a fair amount of agricultural knowledge 
and with a moderate amount of means would be likely to do ao well 
in the Australasian Colonics, including Ifew Zealand and Tasmania. 
Mr. Waltee Busby: I have listened to the address with great 
pleasure and instruction. It is most gratifying to hear such a 
favourable account of the immediate past, so much satisfactioti at 
the present, and so well-founded a hope for the future. In all this 
many of us have a certain amount of personal interest. As in- 
vestors and by influencing the investments of our friends we have 
from time to time assisted the Colony by subscribing for the loans 
it has issued, and it is beyond measure pleasing to learn that tha 
money borrowed has been productive of such good residts. I have 
always entertained a very high opinion of the Colony of New Zealand 
as a field for investment, and when I hear such a glowing report I 
am constrained to ask, '■ Is there no httle rift within the lute of 80 
much prosperity ? " It may seem ungracious to look at any other 
than the bright side at a meeting like this ; yet, sir, I must claim 
your indulgence to publicly record the deep feeling of disappoint- 
ment and regret experienced by holders of the New Plymouth Harbour 
Board bonds, which are in default, that your Government will afi'ord 
them no measure of relief. These bondholders advanced their money 
on the security of a certain large subsidy of Crown lands in the pro- 
vincial district of New Plymouth, which was given by the Govern- 
ment in consequence of their expressed opinion that this harbour 
was of national rather than local importance. These lands were 
estimated to be worth about £1, ■100,000. Now, sir, within a abort 
time after the loan was raised here, the Government, without any 
reference whatever to the bondholders, take away from them 
200,000 acres of these subsidised lands, valued by the Property 
Tax Commissioner and the Surveyor- General at about £380,000, and 
the land laws of the Colony are so altered, as shown by the Agent- 
General in bis address, that the income from the remaining land is 



Stw Zealand. 



817 



b'roti|?Iit doir'n to vanishing-point. I might a4daco many further 
factfl thkt prove and advancti the claim of the Iwinl holders. I do 
think it wi>uld be n dignified and graceful ncl on tho part of the 
Oovomrncnt of New Zealand if iu tlmir prosperity they would deal 
gvnerauBly and justly with those they have injured. 

Ur. H. MoNCRRiFP Paul. : Mr. Percuval statH at the outset of hii 
|>ftpcr that foreign capital must be invested in the Colonics in order 
to develop their rcNOurcos. In that wu all agr»>. Hand in hand 
with eapital must go a proper amount of emigration; and if the 
Government of Nuw /o&land or any other Colony should so badly 
mrrwifto matters, fisnal or otherwise, ait to prucludo this being done, 
no Colony can, in my opinion, be proHperons. At this late hour I 
vill not Kp«Bb wiUi any detail on thu merits of the paper, but tliero 
ttn one or two points I desire to emphasise. In reganl to taxation, 
I find that taxation in Xuw Zealand mprvsents Bl>out CO per cent. 
of bar reventie. - That is qnite onoogh in the nay of taxation, and 
ir uxy attempt be made to increase it, j)to lanlo, the nuccosa of tho 
Colony for the time will be endangered. Then in reganl to ab»entuo 
ownen. Uf coiirsu w a matter of jKilicy no man should be for any 
longth of time an absentee owner. The chances are that his 
property will suffer daring his absence. It must be homo in 
mind, bowcvur, that many of thi^in were the pioneers of the Colony 
man who bore tho burden and beat of the day, and it may be a 
natter of necessity for thtm in some cnses to absent tbemsclTW 
from the Colony tlicy love, and in which iho early and best years of 
UieEr lives wero spent. Therefore I do not think the Government 
would be wetl-advised in pni^siniir too hardly on so-called absentee 
ownon. We had in AnatraUa a very remarkable instance of the ntsult 
of driving good men from a C<dony. There were many valoabte 
Colonists who hy the policy pursued in Victoria were driven aoroM the 
Hurray into New South Wales. Good, as is often tho case, came out 
of evil, with thu nisult that the dtrelopment of Rivrrina was aamred, 
mod thi« pastoral district will in the futore become the honour and 
gkuy of New South Wales. It docs not do, however, to count on a 
like repetition of success attending a mistaken initial policy. Mr. 
Fvreeval alludt^d to th>? great hucccss attending the industrial under- 
takinga of New Zealand, and sought to abow tliat tho Colony i» 
destined to Iw tlie great manufacturing c«ntre of th« .\ustralanan 
gronp. I am afraid, however, that the initial stages of those 
Bodortaking^ aro largely fostered by the sysitcnt of Protection, which 
!■ ft dangerous system to follow, and opposed to the Free Trade 
mdcr which the Mother Country has prospered. Mr. Perceval baa 




Wew Zealand. 

spoken of the products of New Zealand, and on that point too much 
cannot be said. If his statistica had been carried down to a later 
date than 1890 they would have been even more atriking. Qiid the 
exports of these products. We find New Zealand sending to us and 
the United States various products without which ws cannot do ; 
they are, in point of fact, necessities which fill up blanks which 
occur both here and in America. It is not perhaps generally known 
in regard to dairy produce — butter and cheese, for example — that we 
import 60 per cent, of all we consume. Is it not better that we 
should if pOHsible receive these products from our own Colonies tbui 
&om foreign nations ? Mr. Perceval has pointed out how that 
by obtaining experts from Europe the mannfactnre of butter and 
cheese may be improved and the factory system in making the 
former be developed. The shipment of fruit from New Zealand to 
this country is now being fostered, and, although initial mistakes 
incident to the opening up of a new industry may be made, these 
will gradually yet surely be overcome. Even now there is good 
promise that the success which has hitherto attended the impor- 
tation of frozen meat may follow in the case of fruit, more especially 
apples, from the orchards of New Zealand, The formation of Boards 
of Conciliation there for the purpose of settUng differences between 
employers and employed will be fraught with good results. A like 
course has been successfully followed in this country. The system 
of federation to which Mr. Perceval has also alluded is one of para- 
mount importance, and will receive consideration at the approaching 
Congress, to be held here next month, of the Chambers of Commerce 
of the British Empire, when the commercial relations of the Mother 
Country with her Colonies will bo discussed. As has frequently 
been pointed out, it seems unfortunate that the Australasian Colonies 
at least should not find themselves in a position to establish 
a xollverein inter se whereby free exchange of their variona 
products might be secured. Such fiscal union hes at the base of 
all negotiations for federation. Mr. Perceval's remarks as to the 
beauty of New Zealand, and the comparison which he institutes 
between Auckland, Rio de Janeiro, Naples and Sydney, appear to be 
somewhat highflown. I can only assume that he has taken a leaf 
out of the South-comitiy Scotchman's book, who after having 
visited London and Paris said on Lis return to Peebles, " I have 
been to London and been to Paris, but for real pleasure give me 
Peebles." 

Mr. T. A. DiBBB ; I wish, sir, to reply to some observations made 
by Sir Julius Vogel, which, if I vmderatond them correctly, point to 




New Ztalond. 

Uie fiut tliAt the ntc of progrcea ia the increase of population iii 
N«w Zoalftod w&s not &■* great u fonnerly. I am not a Mew 
Zetluider but a native of New UouUi Wales, and I hnvu bad 
oooacion lately to look into ihu queetion of po]iulalion, and I find 
that in that Colony alone it haa increased BtiO.OOO in & puiiod 
of nine years, or over 40 pi-r ct-ai. If tliix nito of progress c 
tinuGS you oau imagine what somo of the Australian (.kilonies 
will become in a sboit time. I wiu very pleased to listen to the 
»ddr«8B of the evening, and I certainly concur in tho very sensiblo 
temarka made by Mr. Brodia Uoare on the taxation of capital by 
tho New ZeaJand Government. 

Dr. H. W. Macnsell : I tliink yon will all aitri'ti wu have hwl a 
highly instructive lecture, which will go far to dissipate many fklao 
impreBtiioDS concerning the Colony, and, as a Nl-w Z«.'alnnd Colonist 
of twenty years' standing, 1 make bold to endorse what Mr. rerceval 
baa said. Mr. Drodie Uoare says we are jealous of one another. 
Well, we are cliips of tho old block, and if wo grumble a little 
•omctimo^ we are like other Uritishers in that respect. 

The CtiAiiiMA.t : It is with great pleasure that I now movoa voto 
of thanks to Mr. Perceval for his very able and Interesting lecture. 
I may venture to say tiiat the importance of the paper be haa 
read can scarcely be ovorestimat^^d. It cannot be too oftvn re- 
peated thai whilst we here regard the Itritixh Ixhuids as the British 
Empire, tho real liritish Empire is Oreater Britain, including New 
Zealand and Australia. The tiine will cumi< — and may perhaps not 
be to long in coming— when, Bubji^t to the cost of trannport, tho 
priceof meat, and of productt generally, will bo ei]uahsed throughout 
the world. At present we have Now i^ealand meat at A\d per lb., 
but many a honncholder trying to introduce it into bis establish- 
ment wiU find hiii cook against him. Tho prejudice, however, will 
soon pan away, and we shall then have Antipodean meat and other 
produce in the same way that we have English meat and produce 
now. At this late hour I will not detain you with further remarks, 
except to say that I emphatically agrvo witli Mr. Itrodie Hoare as 
lo the policy at present being pursued by the (tovemment of New 
Zealand being unwiso in no far as it tendit to prevent the inlet of 
Briltsb capital. I say this in no hostiUty to tlie Labour I'arly, 
U il is oelled— on the contrary, I believe that tlie laUmr iii4>mbers 
ua jtaj oapablo mt'O. but, owing u> circumstances, they have not 
been »ble to consider at firet the cnormoos buaiue^H in which they 
mr« engaged. When, however, they do realise this, they will, if I 
miiteV" not, change their opinion. The great aim they ban in 




820 ^tw Zealand. 

view is imdoDbt«dl]r the prosperity of New Zealanil ; bat I un snrd 
tlie prosperity of the Colony will be hindered by an absence of 
the inlet of British capital. I make tliis obsen-alion without having 
any personal interest excepting that of long residence and intim&te 
acquaintance with the people of the Colony. I now beg to propose 
B hearty vote of thanks to Mr, Perceval for his paper. 

The motion was carried by acclamation. 

Mr. Perceval : I thank yon very sincerely for the kind attention 
yon paid to the paper. It was so long that I had to leave a gooJ 
deal out, and the paper sufifercd in consequence. It is too late now 
to reply to the various criticism?, levelled not eo niaob at tbo paper 
aa at the policy which has lately been adopted in the Colony -, bat a 
careful perusal of my paper will show what is really proposed by the 
newsystemof taxation, I would very much like to see themanwbo 
could propound a systom of taxation that would please everybody, 
for he would be one of the greatest benefactors of mankind possible. 
While I listened to the fulmiaations of ^Ir. firoihe Hoare and 
his friends against the present system, I wondered what they would 
have said had I described the old Property Tax as the system of 
taxation in force in the Colony. They have been vehement enough 
in regard to the present tax, but tliey would hare been ton times 
more vehement in denouncing the iniquities of the old one. Ocntle- 
inen like these seem to find it their duty to oppose all systems of 
taxation, for the reason. I suppose, that they have to contribnto 
largely, and very properly so, out of their abundance towards the 
revenue of the conntry. They do not seem to know whether they 
prefer being in the frjingpan of the Property Tax or in the fire of 
the new tax. There I will leave them. Tliis is hardly the place, I 
think, nor is there time, to go into political discussions opening np 
such wide fields as the incidence of taxation and Free Trade venut 
Protection. One word in reply to the gentleman who complained 
about some money he had lost in the New Plymouth Harbour Board. 
I am very eori^ for him. He baa my entire sympathy. But I am 
afraid thut many of us havo lost money, if not in horliour boardj 
in various other undertakings. He complained that the Govern- 
ment had been asked for some relief and no relief hud been afforded. 
I would like to know what the Imperial Government would do if 
one of yon were to complain that you had invested in the bomls ol 
lomn Corporation in Kngland— say Blackacre— ant! could get no 
interpst. (A voice: "It is not analogons.") Would tbo Britiib 
Govern men t come to your rehef? No; and why should the New 
Zmltuid Oovemment come to the relief of the bondboldera in the Ner 



New Zealand. 821 

Plymoath Harbour Board becanse that board has not been able to 
meet the interest ? If the Government has varied the security, as 
has been asserted, it has committed an illegal act, and there are the 
ooorts of law to fall back upon. I thank you for the kind attention 
joa have accorded me. In conclusion, I ask you to join with me in 
thanking our Chairman for presiding this evening. Sir William 
Jervois is one of the past Governors of the Colony — a Governor who 
was much respected, and who rendered valuable service to the 
Colony in the advice he was able to tender on defence matters, and 
he was much missed when he left us. We owe him a hearty vote 
of thanks for his services to-night, which I am sure you will readily 
extend to him. 

The motion was cordiaUy adopted, and the Chairman having 
briefly acknowledged the compliment, the company separated. 



EIGHTH ORDINARY GENERAL MEETING. 

The Eighth Ordinary General Meeting of the Scsaion was held at 
the Whitehall Rooms, HStelMfitropole, on Tuesday, June 14, 1B92, 

Bir Henry Barkly, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., a Vice-President of the 
Institute, presided. 

The Minutes of the last Ordinary General Meeting were read and 
confirmed, and it was announced that since that Meeting &0 FeL 
had been elected — viz., IS Resident and 85 Non-Besident. 

Eesident Fellowa ; — 

Alfred J. Barber, E. B. Boulioa, D. A. Traill ChrislU, William ' 
Ciarlhopt, George A. Craig, C. W. Langley Flux, Deputy Surgeon-Oeneral 
James II. Jiffcoat {late A.M.S.), James J. Macfadyen, Wenluwth C. Jtfnin- 
waritiy, Woolfred B. Marks, Lieut-Cohnel John Paton, H. VUliera Stuart, 
Bt. Hon, Lord Hennj F. Thynne, Montagu. White, Alfred C. Wylde. 



Non-] 



Fellowa :- 



J. Alexander (Ceylon), Beginald C. Allen (New South Walti), David Q. 1 
AUop [Victoria). WiUiam A. B. Anderson, J.P. {I-ranavaal), WUliam Blow 
[British auiana). Dr. Albert O. Bobardf (Victoria), Mr. Justice James P. 
Boiicaut {South Australia), Mdmwid F. B/nirke (TransvaiU), George B. Box 
(Fictorio), Edward P. Burbury {New Zealami), Alfred M. Capprr {StraiU 
StttleraenU), Edtnard Chisholn {Neui South Wales). WUliam Craitun 
{British Ouiana), Henry C. Daoenporl (Tasmania). ThoTnas A. Dibba {Sew 
South Wales), William H. O. Dunaan (Ceylon), W. P. DutOop {New SmOh 
Wales), John B. Eleum (Straits Settlements!, Captain Andrew Eu>ing (East 
Africa), AlbcH B. Fleinchack {Transtiaal). Samuel OilloU (Vieloria), O. W. 
Leake, Q.C. (Western Australia). John E. Middlebrook (Cape cdUmy). Bobtrt 
Nordtn (Victoria). Theodore C. E. Owen (Ceylon), Bt&crt C. Patlenon 

i Tasmania), John W. Eeeler {Cap* Colony), WiUiam Boss (Transvaat), Jama 
',. Simpson (South Australia), T. Boiislead Simpson (New South Wala), 
Hans Henry Tkiele {Fyi), WUUam Thornton (New Zealand), Johannes Q. 
Van Bocicholen {Transvaal], A, BonuilU Were {Victoria), John Whiting 
(Victoria). 

It was also announced thai donations to the Library of books, 
maps, &c., had been received from the various Governments of the 
Colonies and India, Societies and public bodice both in the Unit«d 
Kingdom and the Colonies, and from Fellows of the Listitute &nd 
jthers. 

The Chaibman : It would be superfluous to go through the form 
of introducing to you one of the principal Vice-Presidents of the 
Royal Colonial Institute, one who baa, moreover, been kind enough 
on a previoua occasion to give ua the benefit of his experience in 




Eighth Ordinary Gewral Meeting. 

BOmo of our Goloniee. I will tliorvforo Himply invito Lord Bnuwejr 
to ba good fiDougli to road the paper bo baa prepared on bia recent 
Tint to the West ludtea. 



THE WEST LN'DIES IN 1892. 

Thi vojwgo I am about to describe was made in seas which offer 
an ideftl emiung gronnd to a jachtsman. Every year we soe fleets 
more ntuneroua ivnd of increaaing tonnage nssoinblod under the 
protoeting breakwater of the Isle of Wight. The modem pleoetm 
fleet is moBlly propelled by Btoam. By lavish expenditure, powerv 
of looomotion have been created oo a Twt scale ; and broader waters 
thao tboae of tha tiolunt am nooded to turn tho now capabiUtiw of 
baral lo lli« U«t advantage. A eruise to the West Indfoi cannot 
tail to iinpieea on the momory in unfoding colours tha ioTeliett 
piettuM of natural beauty which it is poeaible to conceive. 

On ibe sett experience! of my recent trip t must be very brief. 
Tho Sar^team sailed from Kpezzia at 10 p.m. on January 2. Araid. 
ing dtitftila. I may simply mention thai we toucbeil nl Villefranche. 
Barcelona. Valencia, Gibraltar, Tangior, T<incriffe, and St. Vincent 
in the Capo I>e Vfirdea. In Iwavy weather in tlio Gulf of Lyons we 
lost a boaL, and in a hard south-west gale some sixty miles south of 
Cape Spartel our jibbooni and fore topmant were carried away. 
Having weathered all tlie storms which had impedod progress, and 
porofited with alacrity liy cvtiry fuvouring breeze, at 7.80 p.h. on 
i'vliruary I'i wo made the revolving bght on Sagged Point, the 
oMtaro extremity of barbadoo, and the following momuig anchored 
in Carlisle Bay. 

Tb« view from the anchorage is not unpleaaing. A denio mass of 
^ji^graen tropical vegetation oxteuds from Needham Point to the 
^^^^BBoe of the Carenage, or harbour. Uridgtitown, the capital of 
^^^IPIUiid, is built on the low groiinci near the shore. Behind the 
^^^^Ktbfl ground rises in a gradual slope. The square patches of 
floltiTation on the sugar estates in the distanos produee the effect of 
a country divided by hL-d)><M, and in the suMoed light and the 
cool of the evening ilie M«no siit'geats an English landscape 
rather than an inland in the tropica. Tho charm of Bridgetown to 
Ddw-ooiners from England consists in tho gardens, full of gay colour- 
ing. Hibiscus, crotons in many ^-arioties, and oleanders in full 
bloom are the flowers seen in the greatest abundance. 

W« were all buyers of garments suitable for hot eltmatfls. Tha 
retail bauDess in raanu^tur«d goods is concentrated in a feir 



824 Ths West Indies in 1892. 

establislimenta momited on a vast Ecale. At Whit&eld's Stora^'V 
addition to the sale of clothicg, an active trade is done in frozen 
meat and game. A new and most efficient machine deliverB into 
the ice room twenty tons of block ice daily. With a, cost of pro- 
duction estimated at 8s. per ton, and a selling price of £2 lOs., a 
handsome profit is realised, and dividends of 10 per cent are antici- 
pated. Such a return should be yielded ungrudgingly by consumers. 
No form of enterprise and no application of science to practical 
purposes could be more truly beneficent than the manufacture of 
ice for the reUef of the sufferings endured by white men in a tropical 
climate. 

The happy faces of our coloured fellow -subjects are a most 
pleasant sight in Barbados. The Barbadian negro is not an idler. 
The population of 16.000 whites and 156,000 coloured people ia 
crowded in the proportion of more than 1,000 to a square mile. 
The main occupation being agriculture, it is evident that the 
whole surface of the island must be industriously and skilfully cul- 
tivated to enable so large a number to obtain a subsistence. 

Sugar is practically the sole product of Barbados. Although 
attempts have been made to amalgamate a few properties, the sugar 
estates are usually of moderate extent, averaging some 300 acres. 
Owing to the comparatively small size of the estates, the island is 
thickly studded with buildings, which present a curious combina- 
tion of the factory, the farmstead, and the residence of a country 
gentleman. The planters livo in large houses surrounded by 
gardens and dense groups of trees. Close at hand will be seen tall 
chimneys, boiler houses, and other buildings necessary for treating 
the sugar after the cane has been cut. 

In common with the other islands of the West Indies, Barbados 
suffered very seriously from the depression of a few years ago, when 
the price of sugar fell to below £10 per ton ; the markets are now 
greatly improved, while the pressure of bad times has produced 
BOme abiding good results. It has compelled the strictest attention 
to economy in every department. The cultivation is more carefully 
carried out than before, and valuable improvements have been 
introduced in the methods of extracting the juice from the cane. 
It is said that the cost of producing sugar has now been reduced to 
something under £10 per ton. 

The depreciation in prices caused by a general over-supply had 
led to a marked reduction in the quantity produced ; but under the 
more favourable conditions which now prevail, the production of 
BOgar has revived, and now exceeds in volume the output of any 



The West Indies in 1892. 



C, By a trMty recently negotiated, tlie United States 
BBCovttdo su^-ar of Barliados duly fri>o, the ialuid 
receive the bread -stuiTs it reqairee from the 
ffL-t) of duty. Thi) treaty Ims prwliiccd n marked 
offoet on the course of traJe, While the exports to the Unilod 
KinKdomhaii liUli-n from ilW.OOOiii value in 188K to £180,000 in 
IStX). the exports to Canada and the United States ha4 doubled, 
and at tlie date of the latest returns they exceeded a million in valno. 
Barbados depends almost L-iitiri.-ly on importt^d food, llm principal 
articles beinf; obtained from the United States ; while Groat liritain 
has the monopoly in tho trade in manubctured goods. 

Daring oar short stay in Barbados wo made an interesting 
exooTSioii to Codrington College, an iiistitatton fonndvd to the 
rmgo of William Ul. by the governor whose name it bears. The 
boildiogs are of stone and are most picturewjuv. They stand in a 
lonrely position, facing the sea, and at the foot of an elevated range 
of hills. The college is afUllated to Durham, and tho course of 
instruction includes theology and the claeaics. The number of 
■tudents is from twenty to tliirty. Tho majority take orders; a 
limited number follow the medical profeaaioit. 

Sailing from Barbados at 10 I'.u. on February Ifi, at daybreak on 

tbe Itlth the high coaat range on the north shore of Tiinidad was in 

Bight. I will not attempt a detailed description of Trinidad or occupy 

time with a history of tbe past ; I roust con£ne myself (o-night to 

tbe Impn'ssions which I have brought away as to present conditions. 

Trinidaid is fortunate In not depending solely on sugar. Cocoa is 

firown most successfully, and now forms an article of export which 

Already rivals, aiid promises soon greatly to exceed in value, the 

•xport of tlie older staple of West Indian trade. In addition to 

and cocoa, other products, such as coffee, tobacco, and frnit, In 

an active trade with tbe United States is being developed, 

'•xoellent promise for the future. Tbe island posaesset a unique 

of wealth in the famous Pitcli Lake. The value of the ax- 

ind imports may be taken at £'S,000,000. the two sides of tbe 

approximately balancing each other. The total population 

about one-thirdof tbe inhabitants beingCooLies. At the 

it time East Indian emigrants are being introduced in lai:go 

Dtunbers. many of whom prosper and become permanent settlers. 

Tbm» Imported laboorers are not to be compared in pbymcal power 

vttbtbe negroes, but tlio latter are not disposed to regular industry, 

and arc under no pressure to work fromnecessity. In tho course of its 

cbeqnered history, Trinidad bfts paaaed in succeasioa under the nUo of 



TJie West Indies in 1892. 



Spain, Fi'auce, and England. All the rctoeB who have hod dom 
over the island are represented in its heterogeneous population. The 
lower class of shopkeepers are Chinamen. English is eveiywhere 
spoken, and the French and Spanish languages are heard on all sides. 

Trinidad has a pubhc revenue of nearly half a million. With 
this handsome sum, nnder able administration, much haa been done 
to introduce civilisation and to develop resources. Much jet remains 
to be accomplished, and there is no need to fear that opportunities 
irill^he neglected hy the present able and vigorous Governor. I had 
many interestiiig conversations with Sir Napier Broome. I shall 
endeavour to give the leading points discussed in a few words. 

Under present conditions the West Indian Islands find their best 
market for sugar in the United States, and for cocoa in London. 
It would be a help if the Mother Country could give to the pro- 
ducts of Tiinidad a preferential position in her markets. This idea 
can now. however, be no longer entertained ; we have called into 
existence too many industries depending for their success on the 
cheapness of raw materials. 

Every Colonial Government would be glad to obtain Imperial 
guarantees for loans for local objects ; hut if we stood prepared to pnt 
all our Colonies on an equal footing in this respect, we should be 
Baddled with intolerable charges. To maintain strong garrisons in 
every part of the Empire would be popular with local society ; but 
Buch a policy would impose an undue burden upon the Mother 
Country. 

An excursion to the Maiacas Waterfall was a. charming incident 
in our stay at Trinidad. After driving for some miles over & flat 
country, through numerous lai^e sugar plantations, we commenced 
a rapid ascent, following a running stream which rushes down a 
thickly wooded valley fi'om its source in the central mountain 
range. Nothing can exceed the lovehneas of the scenery. The 
vegetation presents all the richest beauties of the tropics, ferns 
forming the undergrowth. On every side are majestic trees covered 
with creepers. Parasites hang down from each branch hke the 
strings of a harp. Here and there the space has been cleared for 
cocoa trees, whose pods at this season wear their most brilliant 
colours of yellow, pink, and orange. The fall of Maracas in dry 
r is diminished to a thin veil of water. It descends from a 
precipice 800 foet in height, recalhng the graceful lines of Tennyson ; 
Blow-droppiag veils of thitmeBt lawn did go. 
And some like wavering ehadows rose and fell, 
Boiling a Blumbrous sheet of foam below. 





The WMt Indies in 18M. 



I from Trinidail on Kobniary 20, and at 8 p.m. on Um 
taSowiBg day were safely ouchorod in Uio Caronngv of Kt. (loorge, 
tfaa pictnroBque chief towu of Gresada. GainK on deck ibortly 
after sunrise on tliu folluwing morning, tbo land-locked barboar 
preaented an enchanted scene. It ia surroundL-d by an amphitheatre 
of hillt of the moat varied forms, clothed with the richest vegetation 
from their sonunits down to the water's edge. 

We landed at 7 a.m. and drove np to Government House. Aftttr 
brcak&Bt wo started ou licirsebuck for tho Grand P.tang. The 
bridle path ascends rapidly, in a distance of leaa tliou seven milr^, to 
a hcifrht of some 2,000 feel. Haring sralcd tho topmost ridge, the 
view extends to the eastward over the broad wab^ra of tli« Atlantic 
and to tho wcHtward over tho ('ariiihean Sea. In the foreground 
Ilaa the Grand Ktang. a lako some thirteen acrua in ustvnt, filling an 
ancient rralor. Throtigliont tho asciiit tho scenery is exquiaitivelj 
beautiful. Tho mountains are broken into lofty peaks and deep 
valleys, affording at overy turn lunnc now yot always charming view. 
The vpgutation includes all the trots and Bowura of tho ti^pica. 

Grenada is (ortonate in being lesa dependent on a single product 
than most of the iaUnds of the West Indius. The surface of the 
island is too mouutivinous for the successful plantation of sugar, and 
the chief product is cocoa, the exports of which are nearly a quarter 
of a million a year in value, tho quantity shipped having doubled in 
Um last ten years. Many valuable spices are extensively cultivated. 
A trad* in fruit is being opened up with tho United States. Tha 
■ggrvgato exports have advanced from /.'181.000 in iHUd to £2041,000 
in 1890. 

Cocoa grows most luxuriantly in the West Indii-a up (o an eleva- 
tion o(S,000 feet. It needs a deep soil. A planter who oontem. 
platea growing cocoa must begin by clearing thu forest, an operation 
wfaidi ahonld be undertaken a year before plantmg ia attempted. 
Ab Boon as tho forest is oltiared, bananas should be planted 12 to 
15 Ctet apart and a nursery formed in which the cocoa ean bo raised 
from seed. At tho end of tho second yvar, during the rainy aeason, 
Dw oocoa should be planted out, in the proportion of about 800 
troM lo tho acre. In three years, in favoorablo localities, the phuita 
b^ia to bear. In five years the trees are in full bearing, when the 
produce will average 000 lbs. to the acre. A good tree ^onJd yJald 
•ome tbice pounds of cocoa. Tho price, according to the latest New 
York quotations, was IS cents per pound, which would give 106 
doUarfl to the aero. 

Nvtmeg is becoming a source of mad) profit to nunj iahnds ia 



1 
on the 



The West Indies in 1892. 

the West Indies. Thia is specially the case in Grenada, For man; 
years the nutmeg tree has been grown ; it ia only recently that 
its cultivation has received serious attention. To start a nutmeg 
plantation the ground must be cleared, at a coat of £G per acre. 
Snuian trees should then be planted, 45 feet apart. Meanwhile 
tlie nutmeg seeds should be carefully reared in the nursery. In 
about two years the seedlings ehould be planted out. Unless 
the locality is very favourable, ten years must elapae before the 
trees begin to be productive. A large number will be of the male 
Bex ; and as the proportion of male to female trees gbaold not 
eseeed one in thirty, the pleinter wOl have to cut down the 
trees freely as soon as their sex is declared. Mr. Whitfield 
Smith, the able superintendent of the Botanical Gardens at 
Grenada, has strong hopes that thia difficulty may be overcome 
by budding. It is reckoned that a nutmeg tree should yield an 
annual profit to the planter of abont ten shillings per tree. 

On the heights above St. George, extensive stone forts, from 
which tb6 last soldier has long since been withdrawn, form an 
important feature. These forts were mostly erected during the period 
of the French occupation. As we strolled along the grass-grown 
battlements it was difficult to realise that it should ever have been 
thought worth while to expend blood and treasure on a barren 
contest for remote islands, which could bring so little profit or glory 
to a great European power. Our trade with the West Indies depends 
to a small extent only, and now less than ever, on their nominal 
subjection to the British Crown. 

At Grenada we found the Govornor, Sir Walter Hely Hutchinson, 
busily engaged in an effort to settle the labourers on the Crown 
lands of the Windward Islands, the object in view being to give to 
those Colonies the advantage of numbering among their population 
alarge proportion of small proprietors having a stake in the prosperity 
of the islands. In pursuance of this pohcy, allotments of Crown 
lands are in course of being aold to labourers at moderate prices. 
In time the number of small proprietors will become considerable. 
It will be obvious that this generous policy must he carried out with 
care and discretion. Living under a tropical sky and settled upon 
a productive soil, the natural disposition of the labourers, if left to 
themeelveB, will be to grow only provisions, such as cassava, yams, 
plantains, and bananas, and to neglect the cultivation of cocoa and 
other economical plants. Dwelling in remote valleys, away from the 
influences of civilisation, the risk is great that they may, instead of 
improving, deteriorate both morally and materially. To meet this 



Tht West Indies in 1892. 829 

diffiealtf it was at onci time in contemplation that the GoTemment 
•bcKiltl form model plantations, directing the cultivation and 
pKIMntioa of oconoinical products for the market. The labourers 
wtn to be paid at fixed price for the production, and to receive tha 
profits ia addition, after deducting cost of supervision and manufao- 
Utrvuidalow rent for the land. Ithasnoi aa j^et been found practic- 
MetockTTy out this scheme. Sir Walter Hely Hutchinson has now 
■mda a proposal for an eiperimental clearing in the Richmond 
ValWy. in the I^aud of St. Vincent. It ia estimati4 to involra an 
Axpetiditure of A'fl.OOO, on which u return of five per cent, may be 
kwkcd for. I hope that this proposal, when placed beforothe pubUci 
nmj ptoTG sufficiently attractive, both from a philanthropic and ft 
pradential point of view, lo attract subscriptions to tho limitad 
unodot riNiuirei]. 

Leaving Grenada at 8 r.u. on February 28, at daybreak on the 
fl4tb 8l. Vincent was near at hand on the starlioard bow, presenting 
a noble mass of mountains risint; to a height of 4,000 feet. The 
Admiaistretor, Citptain Maling, paid an early call on board. 

We discussed the recent troubles amon;; the black popula- 
tism. Discontent ha<l Iwen caused hy the proi>osal to ceaw 
to maintain in each island a separate Chief Justice, of necea- 
titj eomparatively poorly paid and only partially employed. The 
Gorcnuncnt wcrt< desirous of apimintiug law officers at higher 
wlarifla. who should uudertjiko lo act for a group of islands. 
Tlie plan was unpopular in those islands which would have beea 
deprived of a resident official while called upon to contribute to the 
Ml&ry of an officer resident elsewhere. The attempts at disturb* 
M)oe were effectively ignelled by the prompt action taken by Sir 
W^ter Hely Hutchinson. The authority of the Government having 
been sufficiently assorted, it has not lieen thought necessary to presi 
Iho adoption of a useful refonn. It ia a great mistake to snppoie 
Ibttt Uie multiplicity of oflicials in the islands is due to a de^ at 
home to liavo the command of a krgo patronage. The obstaoles lo 
twluction are r&ised, not at the fountain-head in London, but 
by the people of the several latanils, all of wliom am unwilling to bs 
deprived of the advantugou derived from the residence of offioJalfl 
and their families. If sugar is the moat important product of 
BL Vincent, arrowroot is ttio most characteristic article grown in 
tfao island. The tjnality ia unsurpassed, wliile the pric« has reached 
a leret which yields a hi^ily uncooraging return. The cultivation 
of cocoa and nutmeg has been commeooed, with satis&otorj renlU. 
gisal hemp can be grown here in peHeelion. It is proposed to opm 



i 



The West Indies in 1892. 



up a trade in fruit with the United States and Canada, by giving 
Babsidies to a line of steamers. 

The black population have been complaining, and not without 
reason, of the low scale to which their wages have been reduced. 
The men now barely earn a shilling per day, and the women some- 
what less. In the depresBion which had lately fallen on the sugar 
industry, reductions of wages were accepted as inevitable. In the 
more cheering position which has now been reached, the negroes 
oonsider that their pay should be more liberal. 

We passed through large gatherings of people in Kingstown &nd 
the outakirts. They bore no marks of squalor or of discontent. 
Whenever we addressed them they were most friendly. 

Weighing anchor shortly after midnight, at dawn on February 
25 we were off the famous Fitons of St. Lucia. These noble peaks 
rise to a height of more than 2,000 feet above the sea. 

At 8 A.M. we entered the port of Caatries. Two steamers, bearing 
the well-known blue stripe of Messrs. Lamport and Holt, were at 
anchor at the entrance of the harbour. The yellow flag was flying 
on the fore, the vessels having recently come from Santos, where 
yellow fever is raging. Fatal cases having occurred on both vessels, 
pratique would not be given until fourteen days had elapsed from 
the date of the last death. 

St. Lucia is chiefly interesting to a British audience as being the 
second naval station in these waters. The island has been visited 
by severe epidemics, and in some situations is admitted to be un- 
healthy, but it is not unprosperous. Its soil is fertile and the scenery 



Our visit to St. Lucia was imUertaken mainly with the view of 
forming an opinion on the spot as to its merits and capabilities aa a 
coaling station. The new coaling station at Castries Bay has been 
selected solely on strategical grounds. It is easily defended and the 
harbour is secure. In a sanitary point of view it bears an evil 
name. 

It baa been proposed to remove to St. Lucia the British 
troops hitherto stationed at Barbados. On many grounds the latter 
seems the more desirable station in peace. The barracks are admir- 
ably adapted to a hot climate. They stand on the shore, cooled 
by the constant breezes from the sea, and look out on a spacious 
savannah or park, equally convenient for drills and exercise, for 
cricket, tennis, and polo. It should not be put out of view that Bar- 
bados has a population of 172,000 as against the 44,CN3U of St. Lucia. 
The presence of British troops is a link with the Mother Country, 




T)k Wat Indie* in 1893. 

In Uiia zogud it is doairnhlc that tbo few troops wo maintaia in tha 
Vm( IndiM should be stationed in the largest c^jitres uf population. 
Ska SBBBSnfttionB which have been urged point to the conclunion 
tllftt io pMM thu (liBtributioti o{ troops eboald remain ob at presont. 
If var threatened, in a few hours the force in Barbados could bo 
inovod lo Bt. Lucia. 

Pasnng from the military arrangements at Darbailoii to the work* 
in progteu at St. Lucia, as ati old Admiralty offidol I feel it a duty 
to prass Btrongly one or two Bugf;estions. The phyKical conditions 
which render Caetries Bay a secure harbour toiul to make its 
■tognuit watorB luihcallhy uudiit a tntpjcol mm. In St. Lncia 
T«»Uri»l fevers are prevalent, and especially in marnh}' ^t^und, of 
iriilofa there is a large oxteut around the sborcs of iho harbour. 
The drainage of the marabes is not the principal difficulty at Castries. 
The town is built on a small epoco of flat ground at the head of the 
harbour, and is completely hemmed in by on amphilht-iitrd of high 
and precipitous hills. There is no flow of mnning water, and the 
insanitary condition can ho only too easily appreciated. If a large 
population i» allowed to settle on such a site it is impossible by any 
dvrioes or pr«?antinns to prescr^-o tlie public health. The Govern- 
ment should have on absolute control over the civil population of 
Coatriea ; it should acquire possession of the entirt> foreshore ; it 
ahoold have the power to fix the number of people who should be 
permitted to settle in the vicinity of the harbour. 

As I am here repeating statements almady mule public through 
Uu prMS. I cannot pasM over without brief notice tliu li-tUu- from 
Mr. B. O. M'Hugh. which appeared in the Tiiw4 of Saturday last 
(Jam 11). Mr. M'Hugh objects to the statement that Hi. Luda ia 
Mpoled to be an unhealthy island. He insists on the low death* 
nt« among the civil population and in the gamaon in pott yew*. 
The figures qnotefl have no bearing on the sanitary conditions 
which would be creatiid by tlio accumulation of popnlatioo lo b« 
antieipatvd in the future at Castries, unless the Govenmumt ihoold 
■Bome an effective control over the town. 

Mr. M'Hugh takes exception to tho st«t«inont that CMtriet is 
lummed in by steep hills. I am at a loss to ondentand how a 
difference of opinion can arise on a question so purely a matter of 
ikot. I can only repeat that the deseriptiun which I havo given 
Menrately conveys the impnusion left on my mind after remaining 
ia the harbour of Castries from dawn until thi< afternoon. 

Objection Is further miscd by Mr. ^f'Hugh to the statement 
that the circulation of water is insufficient to carry to Btm waj 



The West Indies in 1892. 



sewage which might bs discharged into the harbour from the I 
of Castries. His own statement, that the sjBtem at present adopteS 
is that of carrj-ing all sewage out to sea by specially constmcted 
barges, proves that exceptional apphances and arrangements are 
considered necessary. As population increases it will become more 
and more difficult to continue the use of the system referred to. 
Hence the 'necessity for preventing the settlement of large numbers 
on a site unfavourable to health. New-comers s)iould establish 
themselves on the high ground, 1,000 feet above the harbour, where 
the barracks have been erected, and where the troops, whose health, 
it is alleged, has been satisfactory, have always been quartered. 

Allusion ia made by Mr, M'llugh to the congestion of population 
in Barbados. The population is certainly not congested in the 
vicinity of the Savannah, on which the barracks at Barbados are 
bnUt. 

Time fails in which to deal with the general question of the 
necessity of creating a new coaling station, either at St. Lucia or at 
Barbados. I have strong doubts on this point, believing that (he 
presence of numerous colliers in attendance on the Seet will be 
much more useful in facilitating the conduct of operations, the scene 
of which may probably lie at a remote distance. 

Leaving St. Lucia on February 20, at dawn on March 1 the 
Blue Mountains of Jamaica were In view. We ran through the 
Cays of Port Royal and through the ship channel leading up to 
Kingston, without a pilot, at full speed, and dropped anchor at 4 p.m. 
A few minutes later Sir Henry Blake and his staff were on board 
and gave us a cordial welcome. The large and important island of 
Jamaica is beginning to rally from a long period of depression. 
The eTtports from Jamaica have increased from £1,280,000 in 1886 
to £1,003.000 in 1890-91. While the export trade to the United 
Kingdom has remained nearly stationary, the development has been 
rapid in the trade with the United States, especially in fruit. Li 
1890-91 the exports of oranges and bananas exceeded half a million 
sterhng in value. Jamaica is fortunate in the variety of its products, 
which include sugar, coffee, ginger, rum, and dye-wood. The 
prosperity of the island is abundantly proved by the increase in the 
imports from £1,920,000 m 1886 to £2,189,000 in the latest returns. 
Of the import trade of Jamaica, 60 per cent is with the United 
Kingdom, 

It is interesting to trace the causes which led to the depression 
of the sugar interest in the West Indies. Sir Henry Blake was my 
teacher on this subject. Half a century ago the supply of sugar was 



The West Indies in 1692. 

oompalvtively limited, &nd the price w&a ^£60 a ton. With erer-in- 

■HMJiig sources of supply, a great fall in price ensued, and no im- 

piomment haviag been made in the methods of cultiration and 

Munfiwtaro, the position of tbo xugar planters was far from pro- 

" Their miafortunen were not causod b; the roanumiaaiDn of 

'dkTee. The decay of the sugar industry in tbo Woat Indies 

H), and was mainly, if not Holcly, duo to the increaung 

ition and the consoquant gradual fall in pricus. At Ibo pr«- 

dfty labour iii not more coatly than at the Ume when alatea 

employed. The slave cost Is. (b/. per day, and the price of 

labour is appro uuiat«ly the same. 

TTnder the presHure of difficult times the methods of growing and 

manufacturing sugar have l)een greatly iinprnved, and the cost of 

production, including interest on capital, has been brought down to 

from if 10 to £l'itk Um. Sugar 19 now selling atS^ conta per pound, 

which is equal to £16 G;. Hd. per ton, thus giving tbo planter a not 

nnaatis^tory return. 

In considering the oomplainta wliicb are urged at home by thosa 
who claim to speak in the interest of the planters, it must be borne 
is mind that the West India Committee la mainly an organisation of 
proprietors, the management of whose affturs has bean committed to 
loeal agents. The absentee must employ in the first place an at- 
torney, who holds the legal authority and eiercisea only a general 
eODtroI OTcr operations. The estate is. as a rule, worked witli capital 
boROwed from a merchant, who probably charges 8 per cent, for 
•dnneeB made on the drafts of the attorney. The morebant, taking 
m lien upon the crop aa the security for his advances, claims to have 
the arrangement of the freightage, and charges a commtaaion on the 
firslfiht. He has the management of the tale of tbo produce in 
Bnglan^, and upon this operation another commission must be paid. 
h^HAt working of a sugar plantation the immediate supervision is 
^^Hbtted to an overseer, assisted by » book-keeper. To these men 
^^^^nmsted the management of the eultivation of the oane, the dis- 
^^miiSMi of the rum, and the manufiicturo of the sugar. To do tlie 
work well, technical knawledgu and the invigorating tnHueoco of 
personal interest are roquiied. 

Il would be a moderate estimate to put the charges for manage. 

ment and aap<>^^-tsio^ at 20 per cent. A resident owner, having the 

eommand of sufHcient capital, escapes tbeae heavy burdens. It is 

mfartonately the case that three-fourths of tlio owners of sngar 

in the West Indies a 

n bu been proposed to substitute fiwtories for tbo present syitein 




tt ma 
liMt abem U» »«. W« 

fxfkmoi llmliMiiiii liriiriltQr 

io (h» 
bid ■— nhlad. They bad itunB m Inmt. tiw n 
JMfcdi— Aindmhi wfaieb n •tan^v nuKhft hi 
■B^thnr " HaoMgr bait." bm m'mA wkw iba owt 
09; Tba iiMU — ii»M ihe imjMt piala Hmk 
tim looBM of 

I aod bunoniDii*. Mara ■^^gf-rfrit auH it 
of li» ceowdvbat angnK '-Uod 




Tht West India in 1S93. 



886 



Queen," or listening breftUilesa to the Governor's address. Not » 
soowl 01 R sigii of discontent wu to be seen. It is impoasiblo not 
to likti these nmiable and simple people. It should be the prido of 
England to retaiu the affGClion of the race she has emancipated 
from thraldom. If little of moti'rinl nvlvantage con be gained from 
the eoniieotion, there is a moral greatneas in keeping people who 
need it under our protecting care. To the blacic race, leaders are 
essential. If you wisli to see bow low they may fall without the 
helping hand, go to the neighbouring island of Hayti. 

The experiences of the con.ttructors of tlio line to Balaklava 
•somplify the uniformity in the coAt of labour all over the world. 
The pay of the nnv\y iu Jamaica ranyes from ouo to two shillings 
a day. To the labourer of the same class in the United States six 
shillings a day would be paid. And yet the cost of construction ia 
approximately the same in the two conntries. 

In connection with wages and the cost of labour, it was observed, 
with e<iual generosity and wisdom, by the Presideut of the railway, 
that it was highly desirable that by gradual steps wages in 
Jamaica should rise from the low standard of one shilling a day, 
which, though sufficient to provide the bare necessities of life in a 
genial climate, will certainty not secure to the labourers decent 
dwellings or any of the benefits of the higher civilisation of the age 
in which we Uve. 

8ir Henry and Lady Bbiku hare much at heart the establishment 
of a marine biological station at Jamaica. Nothing of the sort is at 
present in existence in tropical latitudes, and the constant current 
of the Qulf Stream will, it is believed, bring to the station at 
Jamaica a rich treasure of specimens of the marine life of the 
Atlantic in low latitudes. The project will, it is hoped, be liberally 
aided by the Imperial Government and by personal contributions. 
It baa been warmly commended by Professor Uuxley, Professor 
lUy Lanhefter, Professor Flower, and Lord Bosse. It has been 
warmly taken up in the United States. 

Our cruise in the \\'est Indies was brought to a conclusion with 
lisdts |4> the beautiful harbours of Port Antonio and Ocho Bios. 
Wb may now appropriately ask ourselves, how Ciir has England been 
■ncceufnl in performing the duties which a wealthy and powerful 
I to dependencies in the^state of utlvaucement which 
piTe found iu the Wtst Indies ? Our first duty is that of 
protection from external foes. For this purpose the 
fleet is the most effective instrument. There have 
I intemla in the past when the public was imperfectly in- 



i 



884 The West Indies in 1892. 

of separate mill a for each plantation. To ensure the succesa of sucli 
a change operations muat be conducted on a large scale. To run a 
factory, equipped with the most improved machinery, it would be 
necessary to command the entire quantity of cane grown upon an 
area of not less than four or five thousand acres. A number of 
growers must combine in order to estabhsh an efficient factory. 

Having dealt with sugar, allusion may be made to new sources 
of wealth which are opening out. Coffee ia an article of growing 
importance in the productions of Jamaica. In value it is in 
advance of sugar; and the quality produced is of high standard. 
The fruit trade with the United States has advanced by leaps and 
hounds. 

Sir Henry Blake has sanguine hopes that a large vegetable trade 
in early potatoes and tomatoes can be developed. There is no reOBOn 
why the cacao should not be successfully cultivated. 

Turning to the relations between this Colony and the Mother 
Country, it is gratifying to know that among the coloured population 
the feeling ie decidedly against secession to the United States. They 
do not hke the inferior social position which the black people occupy 
in the great republic. 

In religious matters in Jamaica it is mteresting to notice tba 
success of the Moravians. Every minister in this sect works with 
his own hands, therehy setting an example of industry, and imparting 
a dignity to labour. The ministers, who are sent out from Germany, 
must all be married men, the wives being selected, not by their future 
husbands, but by the governing body of the sect. Thrift among the 
Moravians is universal. Their schools are admirable. 

On March 5 we made an expedition by railway to Balaklava, a 
distance of 7S miles. The difficulties which the engineers of tha 
line have surmounted may be appreciated from the fact that Bala- 
klava, distant 75 miles from Kingston, stands at an elevation of 
1,800 feet above the sea. We reached our destination in three 
hours and a half. On alighting from the train we were received by 
the leading people of the district, headed by the episcopal clergyman. 
The party then proceeded to the market-place, where several tbon- 
sand people had assembled. They had come in from the sturoond- 
ing districts, dressed in clothes which a stranger might have sup- 
posed were their " Sunday best," but which were the costumes of 
every day. The negresa loves the gayest prints that can be 
snpphed irora the looms of Lancashire, and the mixture of 
colours was rich and harmonious. More delightful still it waa to 
see the upturned faces of the crowd when singing " God save the 



TJie West India in 180S. 886 

Qntwn," or listening breAtiilesa to the Qovemor's adilrew. Not ■ 
Mowl or a sign of discoutent was to be seen. It is impoaaible not 
to Uktf thoss amiable uid simplo people. It shonld be the pride of 
England to retain the affection of tbe race she baa emancipated 
from thraldom. If little of material advantage can be gained from 
til* oottneotton, there ia a moral greatneiis in keeping pooplo who 
naod it onder our protecting care. To the black race, leaden are 
eoential. If you wish to ftce bow low thoy may fiiU wilbout tba 
helping hand, go to the neighbouring island of Hayti. 

The experiences of the constructors of the line to Balaklava 
sxomplify thtu untfonuity in the cost of labour all over the world. 
The pay of the navvy in Jamaica ranges from one to two shillinga 
a day. To the labourer of the same class in the United States aix 
■hillings a day would be paid. And yet the cost of constmction is 
approximately the same in the two countries. 

In connection with wages and the coat of labour, it was obaerred, 
with equal generosity and wixdom, by the President of tbe railway. 
thai it was highly desirable that by gradual steps wages in 
Jamaica shoulrl rise from the lo^v etondard of one shilliug a day, 
which, tliuugh suilldent to provide the bare necessities of life in a 
genial climate, will certainly not secure to the laboarcrs decent 
dwellings or any of the benefits of the higher civilisation of tbe %qfi 
in which wo live 

Sir Uenry and Lady Itlake have nmch at heart the estiUdishment 
of a marine biological station at Jamaica. Nothing of tbe sort is at 
prMcnt in existence in tropical latitudes, an<l the constant current 
of th« Gulf Stream will, it is believed, bring to the station at 
Jamaica a rich Inaiture of specimens of tbe marine UCb o( the 
Atlantic in low latitudes, The project will, it is hoped, be hborally 
aided by the Impt-rial (loveminent and by personal contributiono. 
It has been warmly commended by I'rofwwor Ilaxloy, ProfMior 
Bay Lankcstur, Professor l''lowor, and Lord Bosse. It has baea 
warmly taken up in the United States. 

Our crainu in the Went Indies was brought to a conclnirion with 
Tints to the bi-auliful harbours of Port Antonio and Ucho Uioa. 
Wo may now appropriately ask onrsolvos, how far luu Eiitilund been 
aaoceaBful in [lerfurmiag the duties which a wealthy and powerful 
country owi'K Io dependoncicn in tbe^Mtato of ndvaucvmeut which 
we have found in the West Indies ? Our first duty is that of 
giving protection from external foea. For this purpose the 
Imporial fleet is tbe most effective instrument. There hava 
been internals in the past when the poblie was impeiliMtly in< 



Tke-West Indies in 1892. 



fbcmed and too little concerned as to the state of the Nary. 
Those were days when the Government and Parliament were 
tempted to seek an ephemeral popularity by cutting down expendi- 
ture. Economy was carried far beyond the prevention of waste. 
The main elements of naval power were serionaly curtailed. In 
recent years a firm resolve has been taken to preserve our naval 
supremacy, and to keep our dependencies secure under the guardian- 
ship of powerful fleets. 



Coma the three corners of the world in arma, 
And we Bhall ebock thomi Nought shall make n 
If England to itself do rest but true. 



Turning to social advancement and material prosperity, 
will be evident that those who have lately cruised in the Sunbeam 
have returnedfrom the West Indies with brighter impressions than 
those formed by some previous travellers. In this connection I 
shall venture to make a special reference to Mr. Froude. That 
eminent man of letters visited the West Indies in 1887. It was a 
period of extreme depression ; and the gloom which had settled upon 
those islands is reflected in every page of the narrative of Mr. 
Froude's voyage. In the interval which has smce elapsed a happy 
change has passed upon that portion of our Colonial Empire with 
which we have been dealing to-night. All the elements of trade, 
and all the statistics which indicate the improving or declining 
condition of a country, show a satisfactory tendency. 

In the work of future development the main service which we 
can render to our West Indian possessions is to appoint good men 
to fill the ofBce of Governor. In a Crown Colony the Governor is 
not a cipher. The legislatrn'O and the executive staff are equally 
dependent on his initiative and control. 

At the present time the Governors of the West India Islands ara 
engageil in a task full of promise for the future, which could 
only be undertaken under the impulse of disinterested motives and 
with the support of commanding influence. The work to which I 
allude is the elevation of tho negro population into the condition of 
peasant proprietors. It is to men in the position of a Governor that 
we look to deal with such a question with a single eye to the 
greatest happiness of the greatest number. 

The vast extent of land available for cultivation, but atUl unoccu- 
pied, ia one of the moat striking features in the present condition of 
the West Indies. Barbados is the only island at which we touched 
in our recent cruise of which it may be said that its resources have 



lan- 
han 

,„ T 



Tk« Wett India in 1602. 887 

beoo folly developed. In TriniOml, with a tot&l of 1,120,000 aoree, 
194,000 ftr« cultivated. Grenada has an acrcnge at 76,659, and 
22,000 acres under cultivation. St. Vincent has a total acreage of 
85,000, and 18,000 under cultivation. In St. Lacia only ono-third 
of llio ialand liaa uvcr been cultivaW. In Jamaica tlio total area 
available for cultivation in 2.812,000 acres, tlio total under cnlttn^ 
tion being fll2,G70 acres. 

In the local Ix^gislaturos of the Hveral islands the plantors natu- 
rally wield a dominant influeuoe. The intercBts of the piantera 
and those of the people Uiey employ are not in all respects identical. 
Thv oondJlion of the labourers would be greatly improved if they 
could become more generally peasant proprietors. I^'ftislation 
for such an objoct ts opposed by the phmtcm, who rightly think 
that if the negroes beoome owners of the soil, they would be less 
raady than at present to work for vniges. The wages on a iiugar 
Mbate are a sliilling a day for mon, and tenponoe for women. 
Sttooees in sngar-pUnting, with the low prices now reigning, can 
only bo seouriHl by cheapening the coat of production. If the esta- 
blishment of a peasant proprietary should create a difficulty in 
obtaining native labour for plantations carrii-d on upon a large 
* I, the importation of Coolie Uboor will bo tbo effective remedy. 
i West Indies are scarcely yet ripe for a hn^cr measnro of 
>vemmont than they at presenl poewM. In the smaller 
g where representative institutions were establiabed they have 
I sboUslied at the n:i]uest of the people. In the larger islands 
s are constituted on a hybrid system, oombiuing nomi- 

3 and elected members. To this rule Trinidad is the principal 

MtMption, all the members of Council being appointed by the 
Crown. The Constitution of Jamaica conaiitta of a Oovemor, a 
Pnvy Council, and a Legislative Council of nominated and elected 
members. The electoral qualiflcatioo is the annual payment of 
twenty shillings in rates or taxes. 
In Barbados the Government eonricls of a Oovemor, a Legisht- 
kConncii, and a House of Assembly. Under the Franchise Act 
I the electorate has been cxpandin) from 1,641 to 4,200 
Subjt^ct to ihi! Govcmor'a veto, all power ov»r legislation 
I finance rents with the Assembly. The very able Chief Justice 
of Barbados, Sir George Reeves, himself a man of colour, considers 
that in tlicir present state of advancement sufficient self- for fmnient 
baa been given to the pvople. He is equally convinced that the 
autocratic system of a Crown Colony, unchecked by aotne form of 
popular representation, is detestable. 




8S& ' The West Indies in 1892 

Tor the employment of British capital the West Indjos offi _^ 

iSeld productive indeed, but limited in extent. Success mtt 
neeesaarily and in aU cases depend on the local management. 
Uncoimted millions of capital have been raised in the central 
money market of London, only to be fooled away in ill-con- 
ceived and misdirected enterprises abroad, la localities too remote 
to be visited by shareholders or even by Boards of Directors, 
often composed of unpractised and unpractical men. Allusion 
has already been made to the erils of absentee ownership in 
Jamaica, It is useless to pour capital into tlie West Indies nulesa 
competent and vigorous local management has been previously 
secured. The West Indies afford excellent opportunities for young 
and enterprising men with a small capital at their command, 
who would be prepared, after sufficient local experience had been 
gained, to undertake the business of the planter. 

As a field for colonisation by Europeans, and more particularly 
by British settlers, the West Indies cannot be recommended. On the 
loftiest slopes of the Blue Mountains of Jamaica a limited area may 
perhaps bo found wliero a northern race may enjoy a suitable 
climate. Taking a broad view, for the purpose of permanent 
settlement of families, these lovely islands are only suited to 
a tropical race sucb as the negroes, and for these they maybe mode 
an earthly paradise. Left to themselves the people might rapidly de- 
generate, but under Britishrule we may, in a not-distant future, oon- 
fidenlly hope to see the black population of our West India Islands 
living in prosperous circumstances, with all the markets of the world 
open to their useful products, good customers to the British msna- 
faeturer, bound to the British Empire by the strongest ties of grati- 
tude, and raised to a condition of enlightenment and civilisation 
only as yet attained by a few men wlio have been greatly favoured. 



Disc UBS ION, 

Mr. C. Washington Eves, C.M.G. : I am sure I am expres^ng 
your general feeling when I say that we have listejied with great 
pleaeuro and interest to the paper road by Lord Brassey this 
evening, and that he deserves our warmest thanks. It is not very 
often that we obtain a recognition of the West India Colonies, and 
their importance, from one possessing such autliorJty, knowledge, 
and independence as Lord Brassey. The advantage to the Colonies 
of sucb usits and thoughtful observation must be obvious, and 
oannot fail to be largely appreciated. In tlie few remarks I now 



1^^ 



77m Wett IndUt in 18!)2. 9S9 

vfsli to mak« I cftii, of conrw, only sp^ak for J<itniiicti. In the dis- 
fiHrion of tkfl lafil Wfiflt Indi&D paper reiu] tit tUix Instituto, I i«- 
j|nk3 to the Jnmaicii Exhibition ami ilsrxpcvtoil rcMiilU. There is 
iSa Aonht thnl the islrvnd ia bocoruioK bettt-r known, anil its riftnato 
ftppnciatod by tho incrctMsini; nnmltrr of iti> ^Hsitors in search of 
htwlth itnil pluiLBurft. Jamaica has. iudt^'il, all the qualificAtionit of 
ft hMlthfi]] winter rosort, nml yonr by ycnr morp poopla from 
Enropt^ and America will i>iijoy the hem fit of ita climatic and the 
beauty of its accncry. Reforring to America, I might montion Uist 
the •Tamaicn Ijf'gialative Coanoil. with great pubHo epirit, voted 
^,000 for a creditable didplny of ita products nl Iho Chicago 
Exfaibitian. There are other aigns of progrMS, eBp(>cially in thn 
opeoing np of the country by Uitt*r moans of traiiaport. Railway 
vorkii are bcin^c pushed on, and cnltivation ia being extended to 
new districts. The large extension of tlii> main-road ayatem is 
MRiitting in this d<>vi'lopnicnl. and jL'100.000 ia to be spent In tho 
bnttiling of new bridges. I will not, however, detain you with any 
ftutbrr proofH of this progreas, Lord Itraasey having dealt with 
tbem in his valnable pnpcr. SulTicn it to say that Jamaicans have 
confldmce, and jniitly bo. in the future of ihetr conntry. There Is 
ono other jtoint I should like to touch Upon before t sit down. The 
qgestioD of Imperial defence is extremely important, no less BO 
to the Mother Country than to the Colony, and it is only right 
that it aliould he treated perhaps more as a matter of Imperial 
than loral concern. ■1amat<!a, howcvor, has always contributed 
largely to Imperial military expenses, and is doing all she can in 
loeal efforts. The volunteer militia of Jamaica is emulating the 
spirit of the regular army, it ia full of hard work and shows a real 
desire for efticieney and inrrea^ud usefulness. These volnnteers 
now frequently share tho camp life and military duties of the 
regolars, and in so doing they show the stulT of which they are 
nude, and justify the a>nfidence which is felt in them as one of the 
•trong and trustworthy defences of Jamaica. A volunteer oosst 
iMiraeo corps has been or^nised to assist in the submarine defenoo 
of Port Royal, which is highly satisfactory. The Colonists ar« 
foirly alive to the necessities of their position, but Jamaica Is a 
plaee tliat mnst be very important in any scheme of Im)H>rial defence. 
It baa a central position, both witli regard to the Ignited States and 
to 8oalb America, while an enemy in possession of Jamaica would 
eommand the whole of the West Indies hi the present undefended 
Malo of those Colonics. With regard to the suitabilityof St. Lucb 
•aeoiDiiftred with liarbtulos for Imperial troops. Lord Braasey baa 



L 



840 T}ie West Indies in 1893. 

expressed hiniaelf freely, and I will not venture an opinion. Wa 
may bope and expect that the practical observationa of hie lordship 
upon the whole question will bear fruit. All of ua who are con- 
nected with the West Indies appreciate the interest Lord Braaaey 
takes in their welfare, and not the leaat of the eervices he has 
rendered to the Colonies is the paper he has read to as, and 
for which on behalf of my friends I beg to thank him most 
heartily. 

The Chaieman : I now bog to introduce Sit Lintorn Simmons, 
who, in his former capacity of Inspector- General of Fortifications 
and a member of the Koyal Commission on the Coaling Stations, 
has studied the question of Colonial defence raoro closely perhaps 
than any other man. 

Field-Marshal Sir J, Lintorn Simmons, G.C.B., G.C.M.G. : I had 
not seen Lord Braasey's paper until I came Into the room to-nighl, 
but I had heard, of course, that his view was that perhaps the 
Government may be in the wrong in deciding to move the troops 
from Barbados to St. Lucia. As a member of the Commission of 
which Lord Carnarvon was Chairman, and of which my friend Sir 
Heniy Earkly and also Lord Braasey were members, I may state 
that the whole question of the coaling stations throughout the 
Empire formed the very essence of our inquiry. Unfortonatelf 
Lord Brassey left the Commission in consequence of a change ttf 
Government before we reported, and therefore had not perhaps the 
opportunity of hearing all the e\-idenco and of considering all the 
arguments with reference to the different coahng stations Wiat were 
recommended for defence ; but this I may say, that the Commiadon 
was entirely of the opinion stated by Lord Brassey, that it is essential 
to keep down the number of defended coaling stations to what is 
shown to be strictly necessary for the requirements of the awnl 
defence of the Empire. During the discussions which took plaee 
numerous positions were brought before the Commission and pressed 
upon us for adoption, but we had to consider the extent of the armj 
maintained in Great Britain and also the assistance we could get 
at each station from local sources ; and here I may say I wu 
delighted to hear from the last speaker that in Jamaica such progresa 
has been made in regard to the local forces as will no doubt be of 
unmense value to the Imperial forces in maintaining the integrity 
of Jamaica. I only hope that other Colonies will take the sune 
■view of their duties in this respect. In regard to St. Lucia, I think 
that had Lord Brassey remained a member of the Commission he 
would have ajtreed, after hearing everythmg that in to be said op 



the subject, that tlio ConimtEsion w&s right id ihc ananimoaB 
reoommendation thai St. Lucia shnulil be adopted as k co&liog 
■tftlion. The Wtsl Indies are of enorrooua extent. The principal 
Power which can bnng a fleet Ut Dprrato against those islands is, no 
donbt, the United States. France and Spain and minor Powara 
have important pDasesaiona in ttie West Indies. It therefore became 
necessary to coiisidor what position was best suited to meet an 
attack from an; of those Powers baaed on their fortresses or ibeir 
possessions in the neighbourhood of the West Indies. The point is 
one of great difficulty. It requires a knowledge of those seas clearly 
to understand our position. The islands called the Windward and the 
Leeward Islands and islands along the front of the groat Caribboan Sea 
■nof great extent, and are at adiatanceof 1,000 miles from Jamaica, 
wfaieh has always been our coutre of defuncu in thu West Indies. 
It was decided by the Commission to recommend that Jamaica 
•bonld so remain, but ships going down to coal in Jamaica would 
have to work their way OGO miles to windward before they came to 
the point near thoite islands, and by the time they got thuns a largo 
portion of their coal would bo expended. It therefore became nrtcos- 
sary to find a position among those islands well adaptttt for the pur- 
pose. A close examination was made of all the ports in those islands, 
and the result was that Castriea Day was tfaonght — a decision in which 
Iba Admiralty agreed— to he best adapted at a coaling station and 
depAt for Her Majesty's fleet. Castries Hay runs for several thoua&nd 
yards inland. There is n ^'wl di'plh of ivulcr, ami the entrnncc is J 
nanow and easily defended, ro that a large force wciuld ni>l bu 1 
retained there for its defence. Tlioro are surroonding positions on 
heights on the land side which can be held by small bodies of troops, 
aod which will render it oxcoedingly difficult for an vnomy to get 
posseosion of the harbour except by an operation which we could 
hardly conceive would be made by nations so far distant from the 
{aland. For instance, take an expedition starting from Europe. 
It would require several thousand men to take that position from 
the limited garrison wtnch is propostid to b« maintained at St. 
Lnda. It is a very difficult operation to conduct a large expedition 
of that sort across the ocean when that oovan is txtcupied more or 
Um by a deet such as, I am thankful to say, now belongs to this 
fnat Empire. That fleet is our first line. It defends Great Britain 
tnd our great Colonics, but it cannot accomplish that defence with- 
out coal, which must be deposited in safe harbours that an enemy 
oaanot easily deprive us of. Such is Castries Bay. It ia said th« 
Ble ia unhe^thy. As I waa coming to this meeting I happened to 



342 



The West Indies in 1892. 



meet an officer who was in St. Lucia some 40 yeara ago, when two 
regiments were stationed there. He said that, before lie went, there 
had been a good deal of sickness, hut measures were taken to pre- 
vent it. For example, the soldiers used to leave their quarters of 
an evening and go down a steep bill ; they drank freely, and 
walking up hill again and getting very hot, they would throw open 
their coats, and so take cold and fever. The simple remedy vas to 
issue flannels to them. Other measures of a similar sort have 
made it much more easy to keep troops in a climate of that nature. 
I notice that Mr. M'Hugh, in the letter to which Lord Brassey 
has referred, states that tit. Lucia now is very fairly healthy. 
Lord Brassey speaks of the population of the place becoming 
exoessive in consequence of the garrison being laken there, but 
the garrison will not affect the population in that island 
very seriously. We are told that only about one-third of 
the island is cultivated, so that if two-thirds are uncultivated 
an addition of 1,500 or 2,000 men could not seriously congest 
the population. If it were a small town in a low Eitnation, and 
you were suddenly to increase the population by 1,000 or 2,000 
men, I admit you might: do a great deal of harm ; but they will not 
be stationed in the town, but in the forts on the hills, and there it 
may be expected the troops will not suffer in health. As to the 
question of keeping the garrison in peace time at Barbados, there 
is no doubt that Barbados would very much like to keep the garri- 
son there. They spend money, and add to the amusements and 
interest of the place. But there is a very serious consideration in 
connection with this matter. It was the habit formerly — this came 
out before the Carnarvon Commission — to distribute the troops in 
amall bodies in numerous islands of the West Indies. They were 
absolately useless for defence, because they were but few in 
number, and there were no positions prepared for defence. These 
troops were there for absolutely nothing else than as a support to 
the police ui the different islands — as a force behind the police to 
maintain peace and order. Now, the first operation hi war would 
have been to concentrate these troops, and to bring them into those 
positions which it was necessary to defend. If these troops were 
necessary for the support of the police, and were so regarded, what 
would be the condition of the islands h-om which they were sud- 
denly withdrawn in war time ? It would simply lead to confusion 
and turmoil. I admit that Barbados may possibly be a shade 
healthier than St. Lucia, though not healthier than St. Lucia may 
become ; but what, I ask, would be the result of keeping the troops 



The West India m 1892. SiS 

in ilftrbodos id peace time ? Directly war was declared you would 
haro (a mova tbcm. The barracks and everything conducive to 
the oomlbrt of the troops which had been attended to at Darbadoa 
would be loft buhind, while nl Ht. I^ucia these things would have 
been neglected. It is not to be auppo§ed you would build comfort- 
abl« barrackx at both places, .to that you would have to erccl hute 
and other temporary buildings ; and the men, at the very moment 
you wantvd thorn to Ihi mo>t heallliy and i-llicient, would run the 
risk of injury to thi^r health. lu view of the whole circujuKtanoWi 
I think that had Lord itraosoy romuiuod a mtimber of the Com- 
tniMion, which I am HOrry to tiay ht.- did not, he would have fully 
agreed with the recommendation at which the mcmliera unant. 
mously urrivBil when thi'V reported thitl Pi>rt CaslricK was well 
placed for tlie protection of the South Atlantic trade against foreign 
cruiserB. The CommixHion added : " Objections have been taken on 
the acore of its uidiealtliiutsM, but recent accounts in this respect 
are more Batiafactory, and we havo cotne to the concloajon tluit 
Port Castries is the bcKt station in the Windward Ishuids for the 
coding and refitting of Uer Majesty's ships." I fed I could not 
myself depart from that view, wliicb was Hup[>orted by my friend 
Sir Henry Darkly. I will nt>t enter into the strategical leaaona 
far tbia decision, which ore not a proper subject for di^uttition in 
pablie, but 1 tliink we who wexe chargisl wjlti the duty of advising 
Her Majesty's Ooveniment im to the proper positions which should 
be held (or defence, may be trusted to have given due wti^ht to 
UuMW leasona. The question is ono of cunsidornblo interest and 
Importanco, and at the rc(]uest of Sir Ilcnry Darkly I came hur» 
to attempt to defend the recommendation of tltu Lonl Carnarvon 
Commission, and the acliou of Her Majesty's Government in adopt- 
ing ita recommmdationM. 

Sir Charles Dbuce, K.C.M.G. (UouU- Governor of Uiitiah 
Guiana) ; It is with eitruma diffidence that I rise to speak on thta 
oooaaion, (or the colony of BritiBh Quiana with which I am odd- 
neeted has not been referred to in I^ord Braaaey's hrcture. Vet I 
may remind you ih&t whi-n the West Indies have been d^tt with 
io papers read in this room, the term has inolnded British Guiana ; 
uid as I have been asked to take part in the discussion thiseveniqg 
I will veuturu to offer a few remarks with paulicular reforeaov to 
tUat Colony, although Lord Brassey'a voyage did not extend to iU 

, and he has tlierefore very n&tnraBy not included any 
it in the amiable narrative he has given us. Locd 

f has invited attention to (ho Woat Indies ae a field for tM 




S44 



Th6 West Indies in 1892, 



employment of British capital, "productive indeed, but limited in 

extent," and I will endeavour in a few words, without any elaborate 
figures, to make it clear that, as a field for the employment of 
British capital under intelligent and energetic local management, 
the importance of the West Indies is materially increased by 
bringing British Guiana within the area of consideration. Not 
more than seven or eight years ago, the resourcea of British Guiana 
were almost exclusively derived from the colonisation of an area of 
about 180 square miles ; hut since then we have extended the 
machinery of civil government over a part of the Colony denomi- 
nated the North-western District. The area of this district, covering 
about 9,400 siiuare miles, ia equal to the collective area of the 
Colonies of Jamaica, Trinidad, Barbados, and all the British 
posseasiona in the Windward and Leeward Islands put together. 
And do not think that we have now reached the limits of the 
productive, but undeveloped area of the Colony. The area of the 
North-western District embraces less than one-tenth of the Colony, 
or, in other words, the area of British Guiana covera about ten times 
the area of the British West Indian Islanda. And as regards the 
resources of the Colony as a field for remunerative investment, I 
heheve that British Guiana may fairly be classed among the moat 
fortunate of British tropical countries. Its foresta yield timber in 
demand for usea requiring extraordinary toughness and durability, 
KB, for instance, in the construction of the Manchester Canal, while 
at the same time they produce woods suitable for the purposes of 
every trade, including a variety perhaps the best adapted of all yet 
known for the manufacture of matches and match-hoxea. For 
agricultural purposes, there still remains among our undeveloped re- 
sources a va^^t area of land not less rich than the alluvial belt at present 
devoted to the sugar industry — a mere fringe of land of smaller 
extent than the Isle of Wight, but which has founded many princely 
fortunes and yielded an annual public revenue of about half a 
miUion sterUng. Nor is the Colony less rich in mineral resources. 
Within the last few years the annual export of gold has risen from 
a few ounces to a value of between £300,000 and £400.000 ; while 
the recent discovery of diamonds has given new hopes to those who 
have confidence that British Guiana is really a field of promise for 
the employment of British capital. At least, let me express a hope 
that when British capitalists are considering the West Indies aa a 
field of enterprise, the Colony of British Guiajia may not be left out 
of the area of inquiry. And now, turning from British Guiana lo 
the subjects directly dealt with by Lord Brassey, I am inclined to 





The West ItidUs in 1892. 

think tliAt Le most hare been mkinfomiwl as to treaty ftnangemeaita 
made between Barbados and the United States ; he says : — 

By ■ treaty recently negotiated, the United States adiuit the Mosoovkdo 
■agar of Barbados duty free, the island agreeing te receive the btead- 
wtattt il requires from the Uniled States free of duly. The treaty baa 
produced a inarlted elTect on the conrse of trado. While the exports lo 
th* United Kingdom had &llen from £1W,000 in value in 1886 to 
tUOJXO in 1000, the eiports to Canada and tha United States bad 
at the data of the latest returns they exceeded a utillios in 



It is tme that to meet the exigencies of tho M'KJDloy Tariff Act, 
•nd to secure the tree adioissiou of sugar iiito thu Uiiil<>d States, 
oertain West ladioji Colonies, including Barbados, have recently 
mado treaty arrangements with the Uniti-d States. By these 
unngeroenta some fifty or sixty articles imported cbiedy from the 
United States are exempted from Customs duties, but bread-stuffs 
ue not included on the free list. They are subject, however, to a 
linutation of duty imposed by the terms of the treaty. I must point 
oat, bo^'evcr, that the recent treaty arrangements only came into 
operation on January I last, so that thvy can have had notliing to 
do with the figures given by Lord Brossoy. I am happy to express 
my coDoorrence with what Lord Brassey has said on the sobjoct of 
the Botanical Gardens in British Colonies, and of the important and 
oMfiil labours of the officers in charge of them. Ntiarly twenty-flv« . 
yean of my life have boon spent in tho Colouiea of Mauritius, Ceylon, 
•nd British Guiana, and 1 beUeve that in all of them the survicut 
rendered by the Hu]>eriiitcnd( nts of tho Botanical experimental 
Qardens have been of at k-ast equal value with the strrices of the 
mo«l highly placed and salaried oflicers of the AdministralioD. I 
recall with pleasure, as within my own knowledge, tho serrices of 
Ur. Home iu Mauritius ; Mr. Thwaites, Mr. Morris, and Mr. Trimen 
in CeyloD ; and Mr. Jenman in British Guiana. At the same time j 
1 gladly add my testimony to the value of the Berricea n^dcriMl to i 
tfae C<^nies by the Kew authorities, formerly by Sir Joseph llookeri 
and now by Mr. Tluselton- Dyer and Mr. Morris. On the subject 
of military defences I shall not venture to say much, bat 1 am 
happy to bo able to assure Sir Lintom Simmons tliat in British 
Guiana the Colonists have shown a thoroughly loyal and patriotic 
fbeUng, and a perfect readinem to support the recommendationa of 
the Colonial Defence Committee, both by voting tho nooaniary fiinds 
and by ptrsonal service. Alt that Mr. Washiogtoo Evea tuu aaidin 
praise of the spirit of the Militia Voltmtevrs lo Jamaica may be nid 



4 



846 The West Indies in 1892. 

with equal truth of the Militia Volimteers in the Colony I represent. 
My limit of time allows me only to refer briefly to one other subject 
dealt with by Lord Brassey, the position of the black and coloured 
population. The question of raising this part of the population to 
an equal standard of education, intelligence, and social privileges 
with the population of European extraction, never ceases to engage 
the attention of the Govonimeut in our tropical Colonies. In my 
opinion the position of the negro in British lands as compared with 
the position of African descendants in the United States is altogether 
favourable, and is gratefully recognised by the people themselves as 
altogether favourable, to British rule. In the concluding paragraph 
of his lecture Lord Brassey espreaaes a confident hope that " we may, 
in a not-distant future, see the black population of our West India 
Islands living in praspeious circumstances, with all the markets of 
the world open to their useful products, good customers to the 
British manufacturer, bound to the British Empire by the Btrongest 
ties of gratitude, and raised to a condition of enlightenment and 
civilisation only as yet attained hy a few men who have been gre&tly 
favoured." With this sentiment I heartily associate myself. 

Dr. 0. Galoey (St. Lucia) : I have listened with much attention 
and interest to the learned and insti^uctive paper juet read on the 
West India Colonies, their resources and means of defence. 
There is one point to which I wish to draw particular notice— a 
point on which Lord Brassey has evidently arrived at too hasty a 
conclusioD from a hurried visit of a few hours to the island, and on 
which it is also Ukely that some jealous neighbours misinformed 
him. I refer to the sanitary condition of Castries, St. Lucia, which 
Lord Brassey states bears an evil name. This island has unjustly 
borne the reputation of being one of the most unhealthy in the 
West Indies : St, Lucia and malarial fevers are inseparably con- 
nected in the minds of its detractors. Now, I have lived in the 
"low-lying," "insalubrious," much-abused town of Castries for 
fourteen years, and in spite of the alleged prevalence of malignant 
forms of fever, I am alive to tell the tale. As a medical man I can 
state without fear of contradiction that bilious remittent fever is a 
rare disease in St. Lucia, and that yellow fever is almost unknown. 
The fever which is prevalent in the island is the mildest form of 
all malarial fevera, viz., the intermittent. Dysentery and typhoid 
fever, which are of frequent occurrence in some of the neighbouring 
islands, are rarely met with in Castries. May I ask on whose 
authority his lordship states that the island has been visited ^y 
severe epidemics ? I am curious to know in what years thase 



The Wett Indies in 1893. M7 

tpidemicH occarred, for, during toy (burtoen years' residcnoe tb«ro, 
iio epidemic of yitllow fevcT, cholera, or typhoid occurred. It u 
truu that in 1S90 tboro was &u epidemic of dy sen terf, attended with 
n ft'W fatal casv.i, thu disciuv raging tlirougliout tho Vi*e«t Indies, 
aud at the beginntng of tliiii year therv waa a mild form of influenza. 
As tuovvere i.'pid(>itiicH,howoT<<r,nQDe have occurrud in luyexperieuoe. 
I ahaU quote some stattatica to show thut ihti death-rate in St. 
I.aeta will U'ar favourable compariHon witli that of any other West 
Iiidia island, and I tluuk it is admitted that the death-rate of a 
Colony \» lliii most rclinble test of its Banitnr)- condition. During 
Um-* twenty years from ls71 -SM) the avi-ru^'e rate of mortality waa 
Sfi per I.OOO. In Diihli»-u lar^u gturison town--thu dealh-ratA 
in 18«8-B!) was over 2S ju.r 1,000. and in IBIX) was 26-7. Ac 
cording to tlie latcist rt^tiirnH i«sued hy the ItegistrarCicneral, the 
death-ratu in Dve out of thirty -one large towns in the Unit*^ Kingdom 
utcimltHl 2t( per 1,000, and in fourteen out of twonty-six foreign 
ni\i-^ thi) mortality waa ovit '25 per 1,000. I trust that the remarks 
I bavo mode, and the figures I have quote<l, will prove that 
81. Lucia, inntead of being the most iji salubrious island, can bear 
bi'uorable comparison with any other West India Colony, and with 
maay Knglish and foreign cities. 

Mr. W. IUncuoit h^MiKur iM.Ij.C. Jamaica) : I beg to uxpreaa 
my thaoki and thu thauka of Jumoicans generally to Lord Orasavy 
for his pKi>cr, but 1 am boniid to say there are many things in that 
paper which my local knowledfte of Uie Wfial Indies satisfies me 
an not cotroct. I ortght to know Homethiog of Jamaica at leant, 
u I waJ boni thitri.',aud have rcxided there for more than 40 yoara. 
The Weiflt Indies represent a portion of the Kmpiro wlucb it 
ntquirvt perhaps a lifn-long study to undemtand. It is a grievanc« 
to us that we are misunderstood in the Mother Country, for wo ar« 
lUy mistindenitood, and one cannot bo surpriMHl ai that mis- 
toding when we Hoe Lord Braaoey, with his great knowledgv 
f gfMt experience as a traveller, making tititt«munta which are 
' 'coBtntry to till! fact. Lord Brassey aaya tliat " every Colonial 
Ooienuiieut would be glad to obtain Imperial guarantees for loans 
for local objects, but if wt> stood pn^pared to put all our Colonies on 
an equal footing in that respect, we should be saddle<l with in- 
toIcnUe burdens." Now, it is a curious bcl that tho British 
GovsmiDWil has never had to pay a single sixpence in respect of 
loatu guaranteed for any Colony in the West linlies. Millions of 
poomls have been guaranl«>ed to the West Indian Colonial, and OYery 
•bpetieo of sinkiug fund and interest his been defrayed by tlima 




The Vilest Indies in 1892. 

Colonies, bat under circumstancos wbicb liave laid a 'n-ell-nigb in- 
tolerable burden on tbose Colonies. We bave bad to pay enonnoos 
ratea of interest bGCauae we have been giosaly miaimderstood by b 
Motber Country absolutely ignorant of the wealth and importance 
of ber Colonies. The English people do not grudge the guarantee 
of millions of pounda for tbe improvement of the sister country of 
Ireland, and yet we are told it will saddle tbe Imperial Exchequer 
with an intolerable burden if you grant us tbe support — it ia merely 
the support — of your guarantee for funds required for tbe develop- 
ment of our resources. I think before anyone in this room can an- 
ticipate a successful issue to tbe difficult question of Imperial 
federation, he must make up bis mind to this — that money wanted for 
bond fide remunerative public works must bo raised under the Im- 
perial guarantee. I am very much pleased indeed that Lord Brassey 
should have called attention to that most valuable department of the 
West Indian Civil Seri-ice connected with tbe botanical gardens, and 
I am tbe more pleased because, aa I think a colleague of mine in this 
room will bear me out, my humble efforts were, to some extent, in- 
strumental in saving that department in Jamaica, from abolition. 
It has been tbe training ground for botanists who have been suc- 
oessful in other portions of the West Indies and of the world. It is 
curiouH to observe that his lordship is apparently not aware that 
at the present time Grenada is solely dependent on cocoa planting, 
B, condition infinitely more dangerous than when the Colony was 
entirely dependent on sugar, for aa a cocoa-planter myself I know 
that this is an extremely dehcate plant, very sensitive to drought, 
and tbe crop of which ia hable to utter deatruction by high winds 
or hurricanes. All tbe eggs are in one basket, and I do hope the 
Colonial Office and authorities at Grenada will endeavour to remedy 
a condition of tbinga which I regard aa very serious for the Colony. 
The condition of Jamaica is very different. There we have become 
wise from exi>erience ^experience dearly purchased. Our eggs are 
divided among many baskets; we have many industries, all of 
wliich are fairly prosperous, Eind some of which are destined, I 
think, to be enormously prosperous. I do not think there is anyone 
in the West Indies who will agree with Lord Brassey that any other 
Colony on the windward portion of the West Indies ia as suitable 
as St. Lucia for a coaling station. I have discussed tbe question 
with a great number of naval and military men, all of whom agree 
that no better selection than St. Lucia could possibly have been 
made in that portion of tbe Caribbean Sea. I think myself that in 
regard to coaling stations in the West Indies we are living in a 



The Wett Indies in 1892. M9 

fool'a paradise— that we an infinitely worse off in the m&tter o( 
fortifications and the like than we are believed to be by H.U.'a 
OoTemment. It would not bo right to go into det&ils, but this I 
may point out— that at Mnrtiiiiqtir. only a very fnw miles from 
St. Lucia, the French possess a splendid graving dock, wherein the 
largest ship of war can bo refitted in cane of accident or damt^, 
had that neither Kt. Lucia nor Jamaica is famished with may 
proper appliances for rclitting even a torpedo bont. In reference to 
thft alleged unhealthiness of St. Lucia, I agree with what has been 
sajd by the last sponkor, and, looking at the character of the negro 
popolation and the high rate of infant niorLiltty among tliom. I do 
not tiiiok the death-rate can be considered excessiTc. I would 
ranind yoa that in eomu of the towns of England thv dcnth-rate 
r—ebcn 80 per 1,000, while at Cairo, where British troops hare to 
■crvQi, the rate is 47'8 per 1,000. I protest against the ridiculous 
idM tbkt the West Indies are unhiuUtby. I vimturo to say that a 
muh larger percentage of people have died in England during th« 
pafl twelve months from inlluenxa than have dit^d in Jamaica in 
tba same period of time from yellow fever or any other epidemic. 
If, instead of going to Fninw. Italy, or Egypt for relaxation and 
ehwigo from your abominable climate, you would follow Lord 
Braney'a example and visit the West Indies, I think yon would 
do a very wise thin^ ; and us you don't all possess beautiful )*aoht8 
like the Sunbeam, I may remind you that the Boyal Mail Steam 
Packet Company will take you out and bring you back with the 
laaat possible inconvenience. It wonid be impossible to visit any 
■pot on earth more beautiful than Jamaica, and few which are so 
hMlthy. 

Vi, K. F. im Tri.'bn, C.M.G. : I presume I have been asked to 
•peak to-night as having been in charge from the first of th« new 
Nortb-westeni District of Itrilish Ouiana, to which my friend Sir 
Charles Uruce has referred. It is a new district, hut is ntpidly 
derveioping, both from tlie agricultural and — especially lately — from 
the gold mining point of view. It no doubt ofi'crs a con«idorablo 
field for the investment of capital, and also for a certain kind of 
labour which to some extent it to spare In England. 1 refer to tliat 
of young men who, with some little technical knowledge, either of 
agricultnre or mining, are prepared to go out and work hard— not 
manually, but by way of superviaion — and for Ibem there is a good 
field open. The chmate is not unhealthy provided sufficient viercaae 
is t»k«o. Lord Brasscy has referred to the proposed tnarine 
Uologieal institute in Jamaica— a project in which Sir Henrj uid 



^ 



J 



The West Indies in 1892. 



Lady Blake take considerable interest, and I may Bay that I. in rav 
humble way, liave done my best to promote it. I have been 
making inquiries amon<; scientific friends here, and one and all of 
them seem to tliiak the idea is an excellent one ; but before tbe 
idea can be carried out, some definite sehomo must be put forward. 
When that has been done, there is little doubt a certain aniocnt of 
money will bo found for the purpose, and, from a Boientific point of 
view, I think the project will yield most excellent vesnlts. 

Sir Chahles C. Leeb, K.C.M.G. : In reference to the coaling 
station at St. Lucia, I may state that I had the honour of bein^ 
Het Majesty's representative in Barbados when the Govenunent, 
acting on the report of the Commission, oarae to the decision to 
remove the troops from Barbados to St. Lucia. The barracks were 
in course of erection when I left in 1889. As to the healthiness of 
Barbados, I may set the matter at rest by asserting, as a fact, that 
of all the places on the globe where the British troops are quartered 
— I include the United Kingdom — Barbados stands at the top of 
the list for healthiness. Sir Charles Pearson was in command of 
the troops when I was there, and he told ms that all the regiments 
had improved in physique and in chest measurement as the result 
of their residence in the island. They can enjoy football, cricket, 
and other games, and every arrangement is made for their comfort, 
I believe that at St. Lucia there is very little flat country where 
these exercises can be indulged in, and, as a previous speaker has 
pointed out, troops will go down to the town, and hurrj-ing up the 
plateau of an evening, at the last moment, they are liable to take 
colds and fevers. But, as Sir Lintom Simmons remarked, stra- 
tegical reasons overrule all other considerations, and it was foimd 
necessary that the troops should go to St. Lucia. One reason for 
the change is that Barbados has an open roadstea<i, which it would 
be most difficult to protect efficiently as a coaling station, while 
Castries Bay has a narrow entrance — you might almost throw a 
biscuit across — and it can be effectually protected. It would of 
course be undesirable and unsafe to have a coaling station of the 
security of which there was any doubt. If a vessel of war were 
to arrive there and find no coal the result might be disastrous. One 
other point in justice to Barbados. It thinks very much of itself, 
and I rather like the people for it. Now, Wr. Froude has been 
quoted. He visited the island in the sad times which followed on 
the distress in the sugar industry, and Lord Brassey has suggested 
that Mr. Froude's view of the West Indies was partly coloured 
by the dull and disappointing state of things then existing. It IB 



The Wfiit Tndiu in lftn2. 



I 



tne that B&rbados is cut np into a groKt many small estateB, but 
tbffy had poifl well enough to «-nftl>l(i the owncn to ^'ivo their sons 
«»d dan|tht«rB a good education. Some of the vonng men wf-nt to 
Oxfon) uid Cnmliridgn nnd totik honouni. Tiu-y n-tiimtx] to llar- 
iNidoA and inanaf^ed tht^ir cmti cst&tos. and when the criHin arrived 
tbcre vere intfilligent and cnltuml men who holdly facnl the dtffl- 
enlty. Thoy set to work to improve the methods of a^'^'^i'Ilo'^i 
and to apply the beet dcirntific prccnnn in tho manufartoru of 
mgar, the ri'^nlt being that tlie coiit of production wa.i very mnrh 
rvdoced, and there is a margin of profit. I do not think the prioci 
r bo lower than Ihey were, and I thinii Dorboiloit may now 
3 b) be f&irly floated, and that no such iJii>BsErous timet) will 

i omiake her. 

IrPiusDEKicK Yovso, K.C.M.G, : I think weare greatly indobtod 
to Lord Umssey for bis bright and interesting neoount of his recent 
emiw in the SmtliMm. It was ino%itable, of eourae. that thero Hhottld 
be difference of opinion on some poiniM of policy discupsed tn the 
pspar. There is one pas»Bgi; especially I feel I cannot allow to 
go withont notice. On page C he says : — 

On tlie belghu above t>t. OcnrRtf Bit«niivo ■tone farla, tnaa which 
tha l>at Mldior ka« Inng unce been wilhJniwii, form an important 
lltMQM. These forts were moAly erected dnring thn period of the French 
oevnpatian. As we BtroU«l along the gnus-grown battleDieni< it wm 
dlfieoll to realise that it ehoold ever have been thoni^t worth while to 
•■iwnd blood and LreaJure on a barren eonieet fur remote iJanila, which 
Doold bring so tittle profit or glory to a great Knropcan power. Ow trade 
wilh the West Indie* depends to a small extent only, and now leas than 
•VtTt on their nominal ■ubjection to the ItHliih Cruwn. 

KcWt I lukva always felt that tlie West Indiea form one of the 
briglitnt gema in the Imperial Crown, and I mast protest (at tlits 
late hour I can do no more) a^inxt thii view of one of our moat 
Tihied dependencies, which, in my opinion, makes tho pasMuwion 
of the West Indies worth all the blood and trcasuro vxpc<nded on 
ihvm. 

Tha Ctumiuii : I am snre you will all join in a oordial TOto of 
thanks to Lord Brasaey for his Tivid sketch of hit last Toyage 
in the Sunbfiim. !t did not retinirc any assurance that this 
waa not a mere pleasure trip, and that Lonl Brassey avoileid 
himself of the opportunity of making obaprrationx on naTal and 
olfaer matters connected with our Colonial l^mpirc, in which be hai 
fthraya afaown so great an int«-rest. 

Tb» motion was cordially adopted. 



862 TJk Weit Indks in 1BB2. 

Lord Bhasset : In acknowledging the vote of tLanka which yon 
have been kind Qnougli to pass, and which is a more than sufficient 
reward for any trouble in the preparation of the paper, perhaps 
I ought to say a few words in reply to some oriticisma on certain 
observations I have made. I shall be very brief. In regard to the 
question of St. Lucia, it is a groat compliment and a great advanta^ 
that BO eminent an authority as Sir Lintorn Simmons should have 
given us his views on this subject. I had the honour of serving in 
the House of Commons for eighteen years. It has been said of that 
House that its collective wisdom is greater than that of any single 
man in it, and of this I am quite sure, that the collective wisdom of 
the public opinion of this country with reference to the selectioi] 
of a coaling station must be greater than that of any single traveller ; 
and yet, having visited St. Lucia, I felt it my duty to endeavour to 
form an individual appreciation of the case as it presented itself to 
my mind. If I am wrong, I bow, of course, to the judgment of those 
who have a greater claim to influence public opinion than that I 
possess. I wish particularly to say that in the paper I did not 
venture to express any decided opinion, favourable or unfavourable, 
as to the selection of Castries Bay as an additional coaling station. 
That I rather left to the judgment of eminent public servants like 
Sir Lintorn Simmons, The point which I insisted upon was, that 
if it is decided to establish a coaling station at St. Lucia, the 
Government ought to take care that all reasonable requirements as 
to sanitation are fully regarded, that there shall be no parsimony in 
dealing with the question, and that if it be undesirable— as I venture 
to think it is — that a large civil population should collect in 
unsuitable positions adjacent to the coaling pier, the Government 
ought not to scruple to take whatever means are necessary to reserve 
a sufficient control in order to prevent such an undesirable state of 
things being brought about. I am sure Sir Lintorn Simmons will 
agree that it is to bo regretted that in times past the autboritieB 
have not reserved a sufficient control over the chU population in 
several stations wlilch are of the last importance in connection with 
Imperial defence. Action must be taken in time in these matters. 
One gentleman seemed to think I was vei7 imperfectly informed 
in regard to Jamaica, It is certain I am not omniscient in these 
matters, and that no passing traveller visiting so important a part of 
Her Majesty's dominions can make himself fully acquainted in a 
brief space of time with everything connected with the place. When, 
however, I alluded to the question of Imperial guarantees for loans, 
arguing, as I do, that if you grant this support to one Colony, yon 



The West India m 1892. 8fi8 

most be prepared to eitend the Mme aid to others, and tliat the 
biiTd«D would become intolerable, I tliink the audJeoM will agree 
that I merely gare utterance to a tntism. Not a word is uid in the 
paper as to hay Mlure on the [)art of the Wvst India I&laodB to meet, 
and to meet fully, any obligationB incurred by them. You can hardly 
imagino a Colony which would not derive groat advantage from an 
Imperial guarantee for a loan for some good looil object; but if 
Imperial guarantees were to bespread broiwicast over an Empire on 
which tlio sun never sets, a burden too heavy for the people of this 
coantry would soon be accumnJat«d. In reference to Grenada, what I 
mid was, not that I wae glad the island was solely dependent on cocoa, 
bat that Grenada was happy in being an island which oould produce 
^ Dwny valuable commodities, one of which was cocoa. In fact, one 
^^a^maaph of my paper refers to the growth of the nutmeg as a new 
^^^^Elkiahlo product; and J further alluded to the fact that the 
^^^HVprodnced many valuable spices, and that great hopes were 
^^^^Hlised of increased tmdd with ihu UuIIih] States. It is true I 
' mM nothing with regard to Jamaica as a defensive position, and 
perhaps the only reason was that time must t>e eonsidertid. It ia a 
weakncas, I agree, that we have no means of repairing Uer Majesty's 
Mhips in any of the Weal India Islands, and I may mention Uiat in 
two letters oildressed to the " Times " I have strongly urged that 
aasiiitanoc should be granted for the purpose of forming a graving 
dook nt Jamaica. Whether that dock should be built by Imperial 
eipcoiditure as part of the very iuaderjunto and unsatisfactory 
dockyard at Port Royal, or whctlier tlie dock should not rather be 
brought into existence by an Imperial subsidy to some private 
company, which should undertake to keep up the nuoleua of a staff 
tor the repair of vessels of the fleet, which would also undertake the 
repair of merchant ships, is a question I will not now discuss ; 
I lean, however, rather to the latter policy, which has been adopted 
elsewhere with great advantage. I thank you, ladies and gentlemen, 
for your pati«noe, and in conclusion bvg to propose that we giie a 
most cordial vote of thanks to Bit Uenry Barkly for presiding. 
The motion was passed with ooolamation. 
Sir Hf.nrt Barxl; : I tliank you very much for the comphmcnt, 
and I may say that as an old West Indian (lovcmor, and as a 
formor collungue of Lord Brassey on the Defence Commission, I 
had great pleasure in acceding to the request that I would preside 
this evening. 
This terminated the proceedings. 



BANQUET TO SIB EOBEET G. W. HERBERT, E.aB. 

A Banquet waa given on May 26 at tlie FreGmasona* Taveni, 
nniler the auspices of the Royal Colonial Institute, in honour of Sir 
Robert G, W. Herbert, K.C.B., Permanent Under-Secretary for the 
Colonies, on his retirement, after a prolonged period of service, ftom 
liis official duties. The chair was taken b; the Earl of Eimberlejt 
K.G., and there were present : — 

Duke of AbeiaotQ.C^., Sir A. J. Addeilcf . K.C.M.G., Lord SUntey of Aldedc?, 
Mr. J. Q. S. Anderson, Sir W. Anson, Bart., Sir George Baden- Powell, E.C.U.O., 
M.P.,' Sir Henry Batkly, O.C.M.G., K.C.B.,' Mr. Guy Bethell, Mr, Lionel Bethell, 
Mr. H. F. Billioghurflt, Sir Arthur Birob, K.C.M.Q., Mr. Arthur Biyth, Mr. Hei- 
bert Blyth, Mr. H. W, Bljth, Mr. Jamas R. Booafi, Right Hon. Sir G. F. Boweo, 
G.C.M.G.,' Mr. G. W. H. Bowen, Sir Edward Braddon. K.C.M.a.,' Mr. John 
BramatoD. O.B.,' Lord Braesey. K.C.B., Capt. R. Breeks, B.A., Mr. Charlei E. 
Bright, C.M.G..' Dr. Gage Brown, C.M.G., Sir Charles Brace. K.C.M.G.. Mr Pal- 
frey Burrell, Sir Roderick Cameron, Mr. Allan Campbell,' ' Sir O. W. Campbell 
E.C.M.O., Mr. W. Young Campbell, Mr. William Campbell,' Mr. George Cawttoa. 
Mr. William Chamberlain, Sir William Clarke. Bart., Sir Charles Clifford. Bart.,' 
Sir Daniel Cooper, Bart., G.C.M.G.,' ' Mr. William Cooper, Mr, W. K, D'Aicj, 
Mr. F. G. Dalgety, Mr. F. H. Dangar,' Capt. Denton, C.M.G., Mr. C, S. Diokea, 
O.M.G.. Eight Hon. Sir M. E. Grant Duff, G. C.S.I. , Mr. C. Washington Brw. 
C.M.G.,' Mr. W. M. Farmer,' Lieut. -Col A. Feei, Lieut, -Gen. Hon. W. Feilding, 
Mr. J. I. FeUow«, Hon. Sir C. Fiemantle, K.C.B., Major de Freville, Sir Jamea 
Oarrick, K.C.M.G.,' Mr. E. A. Gawthrop, Mr. Dariii George, Mr. Fred. Oraham. 
Mr. Henry Grant, Mr. Bobert Gray, Mr. Fred. Green. Mr. H. M. Brandtod 
Griffith, Mr. John Hales, Sir E. Harland, Bart., M.P., Capt. Heath, B.N.. Mr. J. 
Hanniker Beaton, M.P., Mr. Edward Hodgaon, Sir -Arthur Hodgson, K.C.M.O.' ' 
Liant.-Qen. Sir W. P. D. Jervois, G.C.M.G., O.B.,' Mr. H. J. Joaidain, O.tLO.,' 
Mr. W. EeBwick,' Mi. Edward Knox, Col. B. B. Lane, Mr. A. J. LeaimonUi, Sir 
Charle* Cameron Leea. K.C.M.O., Lord Lingen, Hon. H. S. Littleton, Mr. C P. 
Lucas, Mr. Godfrey Lushington, C.B.,Mr. H. M. Maenamara, Mr. W. R. Maleolm, 
Mr. E. F. Mathera, Hon. B. Meade. C.B.. Mr. A. Measervy, Mr. W. R. Mewbom, 
Sir Charloa MilU, K.C.M.O., C.B.," Bight Hon. G. OBbome Morgan, M.P„ Mr. 
Jamea Munro. Mr. R. W. Murray, Sir Charles Nialiolson, Bart.,' Right Hon. Lord 
Norton. K.C.M.G., Mr. 3. S. O'HaUoran, Mr. J. Pateraon,' Mr. H. M. Paul. Mr. 
Walter Peace, Sir John Pander, K.C.M.G.. Mr. Pantler, Mr. J. B. Poole, Eari of 
PortamoQlh, Mr. Bobert Power, Mr. Weetby B. Perceval, Mr. Bob«rt Ramei^,' 
Lord Beay, Q.C.B.I., Mr. C. H. Bobarts, Bight Hon. Sir Hercules Bobinun. 
Bart, O.C.M.G.. Mr. J. W. Rowland, Mr. E. M. Royda, Sir Jamea BuaBeU, C.M.G, 
Sir Saul Samuel. K.C.M.O., C.B.,' Mr. Osoar de Salgi,' Mr. J. M. BaoDdetB, Hi. 
Arthur J. Soott,' Mr. 0. S. Soott, G.B., Mr, P. Selby. Sir F. Villeneuva Smith,' 
Sir Edward Stafford, G.C.M.G., Mr. Alan Stanley, Sir Charles Stirling, Bart„ 
Mr. H. L. Taylor, Mr. J. Hankey Thwaitea, Mr. Spenoor Todd, C.M.G., Mr. 
Fred. Tooth, Mr. B. Travers, Sir Charles Tuppor, Bart., G.C.M.G., C3.,' Ool. C 
B. Howard Vincent, C.B., M.P„ Sir Jaliua Vogel, K.C.M.G., Sir E. Noel Walksr. 
K.G.M.G., Rev. Main 8. Walrond, Sir Reginald Welby. K.CB., Sir Rivera Wilira. 
K.C.M.O., Mr. Edward Wingfield. C.B., Mr. E. B. Wodehonae, M.P., Lieat.-G«B. 
Sir Evelyn Wood. G.C.B., G.C.M.G.. V.C., Sir Jamaa A. Youl, E.C.M.G., SiiFrada- 
rick Yoong. K.C.M.G.' 

' Member! of CoDunittee. ' Honorary Bearetarifi. i 



Banquet to Sir Robert G. W. Herbert, K.C.B. 

L«U«n had been received expressing regret at iiubllityto be pre- 
■ent from Lord Derby, Lord Cadogan, Lord Knutsford, Sir M. 
HlekS'Beaoh, M.P., the Dean of Westminster, tbo Right Hon. 
Edwmrd Stanhope, M.P., Lord Bosebery, Sir Bcdvers Bailer, the 
Bigbt Uon. 8ir Jnmea Fci^usson, Bart.. M.P., and otliors. 

The CnAiRMAN having proposed the loaats of " The Queen " and 
" The Prince and Princess of Wales and the other members of the 
Boyal Family." 

The DuKB of Abebcorn propoeed " The Army and Navy," which 
WM responded to by Gbkkiul iho Hon. W. PEtLDUia and Lo&D 
BxAwtar. 

The Eaul of Kimberley, K.G., then rose and faid tliat ho had 
now to propose the toast of the evening, which was " Tlio he&Itb of 
fflr Bobert Herbert." Before doing so hu would read a letter 
which be had received from Lord Knutaford. in whicJi hia tioblu 
tlimiA asked him to express his great regret tliat a previous engage- 
ment had prevented him from being present. Few men had bad a 
b«tt«r opportanity of Appreciating iJie groat public lervicea which 
Sir Bobert Herbert hod rendered, and he should have boon glad, 

KM a personal bnend and as Secretary of State for the time 
to have associated himself witli a banquet given to Sir 
Hvrbert. He regretted exceedingly that Lord Knutaford 
k fthle to be present, as no man had had a longer experienoe 
Bobert Herbert's great quahtie«. No man from his know- 
Udgt of Colonial aSairs could have better testified to the way in 
whieb bu friend on the right bad discharged his iluties. It wa« to 
him ft movt agreeable duty to preside over that dinner, both on ac- 
eomt of his own high appreciation of the merits of Sir Bobert 
B*^ort aa a public servant, and still more from the sympathy and 
wtan feeling which be vntortaincd towards him as a friend. They 
van all probably aware of the leading beta of Sir Bobert Herbett'i 
ewMT. At Oxford their guest was a most distiiigiiisbed student, 
■ad guned some of the highest prixea which could fall to the lot of 
an nndorgradoatfl. At Oxford he laid the IbondatioD of the know- 
ledge and acquirement* which, whatever mi^t be said of the old 
■yttMD of education, showed inhiscaaa that theandent I'nivoraities 
eoold train men capable of doing admirabla service to the State. 
After leaving Oxford Sir Bobert Herbert became private eecratary 
to Mr. Oiadatone, and must have found his apprenticeship of gnat 
vilae to his future work. After occupying that pomlion be left tbie 
eoontry for one of our Coloniea. If fortune had willed that he 
liboiUd take a prominent part to pohtica Sir B(^>«rt Herbert mi^ 



B56 Banquet to Sir Bobert G. W. Herbert. K.C.B. 

have made a great figure. But fortune willed it otherwise, I 
their guest went out to the Colonies and became the First Minister 
of Che Grown in Queenalaad until the establishment of responsible 
government. After a service of five years in the Colony he returned 
to this country, and it was a singular fact that though he believed 
his friend was a Conservative, he was indebted to the Liberal partjr 
for the office which be subsequently held, and from which he was 
now retiring. He mentioned this circumstance because he tbou^t 
it was a valuable characteristic of all parties in the State, and in the 
selection of those who were to fill the important permanent offices 
under the Crown, they had regard not to their own political 
friends, but to the simple consideration of who was the best nun 
for the post. (Cheers.) It was Mr, Bright who appointed Sir 
Bobert Herbert to he an assistant secretary to the Board of Trade. 
Lord Granville, who was Secretary for the Colonies at the time, 
transferred him to the Colonial Office. He was himself, he believed, 
on his succession to Lord Granville as Colonial Secretary, the 
means of Sir Robert Herbert's promotion being delayed. Sir 
Frederic Rogers, afterwards Lord Blachford, was at that time 
Under-Secretary, and kindly offered, in order to faeihtate the work 
of the office, to remain another year at the post which he then 
filled. But from 1871, when Sir Robert Herbert became Permanent 
Under-Secretary, it would be admitted by all that he had discharged 
his duties in a manner which had not been surpassed by any of his 
predecessors. {Cheers.) He had known some of the predeiseasors of 
their guest, among whom was Mr. Herman Merivale, who was a 
man of high attainments, and with whom, though he had known 
him at the India Office, he bad never been associated at the Colonial 
Office. Sir Frederic Rogers was a man of untiring industry, hat 
he was sure that Sir Robert Herbert had not proved himself inferior 
in this respect either to Mr, Merivale or to Sir Frederic Rogers, 
And there was one quality which Sir Robert Herbert possessed to 
which his predecessor, Sir Frederic Rogers, could not lay claim, and 
that was tact and the art of dealing with men with whom he came 
in contact. Their guest had had unusual opportunities &om faia 
experience in the Colonies which enabled him to acquire a fuller 
sympathy with the feelings of our fellow -subject a in the Colonies 
than was generally possessed by officials at home. It was a matter 
of congratulation that we bad a man like Sir Robert Herbert in the 
public service at a time when the Colonies were still dependent 
upon Downing Street. He was sure that their guest on bis retire- 
ment from the pubhc service would take away with him not merely 



Banquet to Sir Bobert O. W. Herbert, K.CB. WI 

tha esteem of the public towards bim ae a public man, but the warm 
affeotion of his friends and of every man wbo was present st that 
bMiqoet given in his honour. (Chtiers.) 

Sir RoBBBT Qerbebt, K.C.B., who on riaing to respond to the 
tout was received with loud cheers, expressed the great obligatioo 
which he felt to the Boyal Colonial Institute fbr having originated, 
ftad their exoellent Committee for having so splendidly organised, that 
(Umomtntion, and to Lord Kimberley for hia presence ther« that 
vraning, and fbr the generous terms in which he bad spoken of him. 
Loid Kimberley hod given them some outline of the circumstances 
utd oonditioDB under which he entered the Colonial service ; but 
be bad not stated one of those circumstanceB of which it was bis 
duty and his pleasure to remind them, tinil that was that it was to 
his old friend Sir George Dowen that be owed his introdnotion Into 
Colonial life. (Cheers. I During the past H ycjua important 
Colonies bad been founded and rich territories brought under 
the inflnenoo of the Imperial Govomment. Whore it was not 
poesible to estabhsh either a constitutional Colony or an cfTeotive 
protectorate, they fell back on the patriotism of those commeroial 
gentlemen who formed great companies. (Cheers.) In North 
Borneo, and British South Africa, which be believed to be a most 
prosperons and most advancing posKossion, and one which at a very 
e*rly date would justify the efforts of those who had been so 
'; as to undertake its development (cheers), the Colonial 
9 bed been assisted by the interests of commercial gentlemen. 
• ooontriea were not quite ripe for any sort of administration, 
1 proclaimed a sphere of British inSnence, and announced 

I If any dviliBed power was to take charge of thoH oonntries it 
was to be the power of Great Britain. (Cheers.) Therefore, in 
those 81 years we had in one way or another utilised almost every 
desirable portion of tlie planet. (Cheers.) It was not only in the 
extension of the Empire, and in sowing the aoedaot future powerful 
communities, that the term of his office had bevn full of int«rost, 
but it bad also been in the constant growth and development of 
Ibe older possessions of the Crown. In his time the great Dominion 
of Canada bad been founded. It had been wonderfully developed 
and extended from the Atlantic to tliu Pacific, and from the gre*t 
l*ke to the neighbourhood of the North Pole, so that the words of 
the Psalm had been most curiously vcHfiod : " His domhiions shall 
be also from one sea to the other, and from the flood unto the world's 
end,*' (Cheers.) In the commonwealth of Australia the founda- 
tions of a great constitutional edifice bad been truly laid, and be 



early date 

^^bbad 
^^MAoov 

I a*tlf an] 



868 Banquet to Sir Bobert G. W:nerberl, K.C.B. 

had no doubt that we should before long see tbat edifice completed 
and crowned in South A&ica. There was a great movement to- 
wardB anion, which muBt be on a sound fiscal basis. He had no 
doubt that they would see a uniformity of action in South Airica. 
Finally, there was that great question of Imperial Federation. A 
good many significant thinga had occurred in comtection with that 
question during the last few weeks. The Parliament of Canada bad 
passed a resolution which invited us to consider the question. Ha 
did not himself feel any doubt that it would be within our power 
to devise some means by which on a sound fiscal basis the great 
provinces of this Empire should be brought under the constitutional 
Government. (Cheers.) When he joined the Colonial Office there 
was no Royal Colonial Institute to inform the people of this country 
of the coudition of affairs in the Colonies, and to bring the Colonies 
into connection with the people at home. Since then all the re- 
sources of civilisation had been so largely developed as to more than 
keep pace with the requirements of the Empire, and of all those 
resources the submarine telegraph bad been of the greatest assist* 
ance to Her Majesty's Government. Sir John Pender had taken 
care that the communications sliould be in English hands, and in 
that way he had done a vast deal for the Colonial Empire. (Cheers.) 
In conclusion, he said that he could not accept that great honour 
as having been gained by any merits or acts of his own ; but as 
an assurance that they had forgiven the many shortcomings of 
which he was conscious, and that they believed that in him they 
bad a man who was willing to use such abilities as he might possess 
to assist and to maintain and to consolidate in a closer nnion onr 
great Empire. (Loud cheers.) 

Sir Akthur Hodgson, K.C.M.G,, proposed the health of " The 
Chairman," who briefly acknowledged the compliment. 



NINETEENTH ANNUAL CONVERSAZIONE. 
The Nineteenth Aiinnal Convereazione of the Ro^ CoIonuU 
Inftitute (founded in 18C8, and incorporated by Royd Charter in 
1882) wu held at the Natural History Muaeum, Cromwell Road, by 
ponsiaiion of the Tmstees of the Dritiah Maseum, on Wddneaday, 
June 22. 1882, and was attended by over 3,300 gnests, inclnding 
eolAoiala from all parts of the Empire. The band of the Coldstream 
Guards, under the direction of Mr. C. Thomas, performed in the 
Central Hall, that of the l9t Life Guards, conducted by Mr. J. 
Englefield, in the Foagil Mammalia Gallery, and the Ladies' 
Orehe«tn, oonducted by Miss Frances Orarea, in the Bird Gallery, 
into whioh galleries the electric Ught vaa specially introduced for 
the ooeasion. Refreshments were served throughout the evening in 
tfa« Refreshment Room, the Bird Gallery, and the 8ontb Corridor. 
The Central Hall was decorated vrith palms and other tropical 
plaotB, and here the guests were received by the following Vice- 
~ " I ind Councillors :— 

Vicd-Pretidtntt. 

The Earl of Aberdoen. 

Lord Brasaay, K.C.B. 

Sir Henry Barldy, G.O.M.G.. K.O.B. 

Sir James A. Yool. K.C.U.O. 

Sir Frederick Young, K.C.M.O. 

CotiftcilioTS. 
Sir Charies Clifford, Bart. 
Mr. F. 11. Dangar. 

Ooncnd Sir H. 0. B. Daubcney, G.C.B. 
Mr. Fred Dutton. 
Mr. W. Maynard Farmer. 
Ur. H. J. Jourdain, C.U.G. 
Sir Charles Milla, K.C.U.O.. C.B. 
Mr. J. R. Mosse. 

Bir Montagu F. Onunanncy, K.C.M.G. 
Mr. John Paterson. 
Dr. John Rae, F.R.S. 
Mr. Peter Rcdpatb. 
Sir fiaul Samuel, K.C.U.G.. C.B. 
Sir Francis Vill^neuve Smith. 
Sir Cturios E. F. Stirling, Bart. 
Sir Charles Topper, Bart., O.C.U.O., C.B. 



APPENDIX. 



tpt 



C3- K; -A- IsT T 



UNTO THB 



ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE 



OF 



er Pajtstj's |l0jral Charter 0f |iit0rporatiim, 



DATED 26th SEPTEMBER, 1882. 



dltCtorUI) by the Grace of God, of the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Ireland, Queen Defender of the 
Faith, Empress of India, ^Co all tO tDl)Om these Presents 
shall come Greeting. 

W^nta^ His Royal Highness Albert Edward, 
Prince of Wales, K.G., and His Grace the Duke of 
Manchester, K.P., have by their Petition humbly 
represented to Us that they are respectively the Presi- 
dent and Chairman of the Council of a Society esta- 
blished in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-eight, and called by Our Royal Authority the 



Royal Colonial Institute, tlie objects of which Society 
are in various wityg, and in particular by uicona of a 
place of Meeting, Library and Museum, and by reading 
papera, holding diitcuSNlons, and undertaking scientific 
and other inquiries, as in the said Petition mentioned, 
to promote the increase and diffusion of knowledge 
respecting as well Our Colonics, Dependencies and 
Possessions, as Our Indian Empire, and the preservation 
of a permanent union between the Mother Country and 
the various parts of the British Empire, and that it 
would enable the sai*! objects to be more effectually 
attained, and would he for tlic public advantage if We 
granted to His Hoyal Highness Albert Edward, 
Prikcr of Walks, K.G., Wilt.iam Dkooo Montagu, 
DuKR OF Manchester, K.P., and tlie other Fellows of 
the said Society, Our Hoyal Charter of Incorporation. 

%tlb lufjrrCtljC it has Ixxrn represented to Us that the 
said Society has, since its establishment, sedulously 
pursued the objects for which it was founded by collect- 
ing and diffusing information ; hy publishing a Journal 
of Transactions ; by collecting a Library of Works 
"relating to the British Colonics, Dejxindencies and 
Possessions, and to India ; by forming a Museum of 
Colonial and Indian productions and manufactures, 
and by undertaking from time lo time scienlilic, literary, 
statistical, and other inquiries relating lo Colonial and 
Indian MntttTH, and publishing the rciiults tliereof. 

JlJob) kttotu ^C tliat We, being desiroua of encoanig* 
ing a design so laudable and salutary, of Our especial 



S62 Eoyal Colmvil Institute. 

grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, have wi!H 
granted and declared, and bo by these presents for Us, 
Our heirs and successors, will, grant and declare in 
manner following, that is to say : — 



f^^^ 



1. His Royal Highness Albert Edward, Peis'( 
OF Wales, and His Grace the Duke of Manchestek, 
and such other of Our Loving Subjects as now are 
Fellows of the said Society, or shall from time to time 
be duly admitted Fellows thereof, and their successors, 
are hereby constituted, and shall for ever hereafter be by 
virtue of these presents one body politic and corporate 
by the name of the Royal Colonial Institute, and for 
the purposes aforesaid, and by the name aforesaid, shall 
have perpetual succession and a Common Seal, with 
full power and authority to alter, vary, break, and renew 
the same at their discretion, and by the same name to 
sue and be sued in every Court of Us, Our heirs and 
successors, and be for ever able and capable in the law 
to purchase, receive, possess, hold and enjoy to them 
and their successors, any goods and chattels whatsoever, 
and to act in all the concerns of the said body poUtic 
and corporate as effectually for all purposes as any 
other of Our liege subjects, or any other body politic or 
corporate in the United Kingdom, not being under any 
disability, might do in their respective concerns. 

2. €!)c flopal Colonial ^nsitituK (m this Charter 

hereinafter called the Institute) may, notwithstanding 
the statutes of mortmain, take, purchase, hold and enjoy 
to them and their succesBota a Rail, or House, and any 



such mcsinagcs or hereditaments of nny tenure as may 
be necessary for carrying out the purposes of the 
Institute, but bo that the yearly value thereof to be 
computed at the rack rent whicli might be gotten for the 
same at the time of the purcha^ or other acquisition, 
and including the site of the said Hall, or House, do 
not exceed in the whole the sum of Tkn Thousand 
Pounds. %vb Wt bo hereby grant Our especial 
Licence and authority unto ull and every person and 
persons, bodies politic and corporate (otherwise com- 
petent), to grant, sell, alien and convey in mortmain 
unto and to the use of the Institute and their successors 
any messuages or hereditaments not exceeding the 
annual value aforesaid. 

3. <C9dre shall be n Council of the Institute, and the 
said Council and General Meetings of the Fellows to be 
held in accordance with this Our Charter shall, subject 
to the provisions of this Our Charter, have the entire 
management and direction uf the concerns of the 
Institute. 

4. ^iKTe shall be a President, Vice-Preaidents, a 
Treasurer, and a Secretary of the Institute. The 
Council sliall consist of the President, Vice-Presidents, 
and not less than twenty Councillors ; and the Secretary, 
if honorary. 

5. His Roval Hiohsess Albeht Edward, PaiNXE 
o» Wales, shall be the first President of the Institute, 
and the other persons now being Vice-Presidents and 



Boyal Colomai InatitHte. 

Members of the Council of the Institute shall be the 
first Members of the Council, and shall continue such 
until an election of Officers is made under these 
presents. 

6. 311 General Meeting of the Fellows of the Institute 
shall be held once in every year, or oftener, and may 
be adjourned from time to time, if necessary, for the 
following purposes, or any of them : — 

{a) The election of the President, Vice-Presidents, 
Treasurer, and other Members of the Council. 

(b) The making, repeal, or amendment of rules 
and bye-laws for the G-overnment of the Institute, 
for the regulation of its proceedings, for the 
admission or expulsion of Fellows, for the fixing 
of the number and functions of the Officers of the 
Institute, and for the management of its pro| 
and business generally. 

((■) The passing of any other necessary or pi 
resolution or regulation concerning the affairs of 
the Institute. 

7. Clje General Meetings and adjourned General 
Meetings of the Institute shall take place (subject to 
the rules of the Institute and to any power of convening 
or demanding a Special General Meeting thereby givml 
at such times as may be fixed by the Council. 

8. C^ existing rules of the Institute, so far aa 1 
inconsistent with these presents, shall continue in force 



)t tne j 

M 




until and except eo far as they are altered by any 
General Meeting. 

9. CIK Council Bhall have the sole mnnagcoiGnt of 
tlie income, funde, and property of the Institute, and 
may manage and suiK-rintcnd all other affairB of the 
Institute, and appoint and disuiiB^t at tliclr pleasure all 
salaried and other officers, attendants and servants as 
they may think fit, and may, subject to these presents 
and the rides of the Institute, do all such things as 
shall appear to them necessary and expedient for 
giving effect to the objects of the Institute. 

10. C^ Council shall once in every year present to 
a General Meeting a report of tlic proceedings of the 
lostitatc, together with a statement of the receipts and 
expenditure, and of the financial position of the Institute, 
and every Fellow of the Institute may, at reasonable 
times to be fixed by the Council, examine the accounts 
of the Institute. 

11. CIjC Council may, with the approval of a General 
Meeting, from time to time appoint fit pcrKons to be 
Trustees of any part of the real or jwrsonal property of 
the Institute, ancl may make or direct any transfer of 
such property necessary for the purposes of the trust, 
or may at their discretion take in the corporate name of 
the Institute Conveyances or Transfers of any property 
capable of being held in that name. Provided that no 
sale, mortgage, incumbruncc or other disposition of any 
bereditamentit belonging to the Institute shall be made 
unless with the approval of a General Meeting. 



L 



866 Boyal Colonial Institute. 

12. 1^0 ^vAe, ^pMatD> iSeieroIutton or other 

proceeding shall be made or had by the Institute, or 
any Meeting thereof, or by the Council, contrary to the 
General Scope or true intent and meaning of this Our 
Charter, or the laws or statutes of Our Realm, and 
anything done contrary to this present clause shall be 
void. 

^n WiXnt0^ whereof We have caused these Our 
Letters to be made Patent. 

WiSOt00 Ourself at Our Palace at Westminster, the 
Twenty- sixth of September in the Forty- sixth year of 
Our Reign. 

33p ^tt fl^^ej^tpV Commanti. 




CARDEW. 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 



(Those marked * are Honorarj Fellows.) 
(Those marked f have compounded for life.) 



of 
Bleeiion. 

1891 i 

1873 
1886 

1886 



5 1889 
1874 
1887 
1879 
1891 
to 1879 
1868 

1886 
1886 

1878 
15 1883 
1869 
1880 
1879 
1876 

lO 1884 

1888 
1886 

1890 



RESIDENT FELLOWS. 

Aberdksx, Thv RiouT UoN. THK Kabl of, DoUis Hill, WUlfden, S.W,; 

and Haddo House, Aberdeen. 
Abeaham, AuovsTi's B., Heform Club, Pall Mall, 8.W, 
f AcLAKD, Caftaix Wiixiam A.D., R.Nm Broad Street, Oj^ord; and Junior 

United Service Club, Charles Street, S, W. 
fADAM, Sift Chablbs E., BAftT., 3 Veu) Square, Lincoln*i Inn, W.C,;and 

Blair'Adam, KinroeS'skire, K.B. 
Adams, Jajcbs, 9 Gracechurck Street, E.C, 

Addbblbt, Sib Augustus J., E.C.M.O., 20 Qu$in*$ Gale Gardens, S.W. 
Aoivs, Edward T., 101 Ls^denkall Street, E,C. ; and MaUa, 
AjTCXisoy, Datid, 6 Pembridge Square, Bayewaier, W, 
ArrcHisoir, Wiluajc, Gore Lodge, Bumkam, Maidenhead. 
ArrKBH, Albzaxdeb 5L, 1 Plowden Buildings, TempU, KC. 
Albbmablb, Thb Right Hob. tub Eabl or, K.C.M.O., 65 Princes Gate, 

8,rv. 

AicocK, Johb, hi Cambridge Gardens, Karth Kensington, H', 
fAxDBimoTBK, JosBPH Fbajtk, St, J>unstan*s Buildings, Si, Ihtnstan'e 

HiU, E,C. 
Albxawdbb, Jaxbs, 14 Astwood Road, South Kensington, 8,W, 
Algbe, Johx, 6 Glendorter Place, S. W, 
AiXBH. Chablbs H., 17 Well Walk, Hampstead, N,W. 
Allfobt, W. M., 63 St. James's Street, S,W, 
AjrDBBSoif, A. W., Oriental Club, Hanoter Square, W, 
fAwOBBSox, Edwabd R., care of Messrs, Murray, Roberts f Co,, Dunadim, 

Kew Zealand. 
Akdbbsoh, Sib Jamu, Eastern Telegraph Companj, Limited, Winchester 

House, 60 Old Broad Street, E.C. 
Akdbbsok, Jambs, AyUrford House, Wtmbledon, 
Awdbbsok. Jambs U., 37 Queen Victoria Street, E.C; and Russettimgs, 

Streatham, S.W. 
Akdbbsok. Johk Kikgdoh, 6 Cleveland Square, Hyde Park, FT.; and 16 

St, Helen's Place, E.C. 



Royal Colonial Tnslituto. 



1891 


IS 1876 


lagg 


1873 


1B90 


1S81 


30 186B 


lass 


ISDl 


1S8S 


188S 


3S 1889 
1886 


1B91 


1874 


1891 


40 187B 


1889 


1883 


1B7* 


1888 


4S 1879 


18E6 


1887 


ises 


1880 


50 1879 


1S83 


I BBS 


1838 


1882 


55 1885 


1884 


1878 


1885 


1881 


60 1891 



Ahdrbhih, W. Hesbbrt, Rupert Lodge, Bumham, Xaidmkead, 
BBSON, W. J., 34 Walbourne Taranc, W. 
iBLL, CiHEOL W., Farm Field, Horleg, Sarreg. 
OTHSOT, CoLOSBL G., B.A., 6 Belgravf Place. B.W.; and Otrtm 

L-THNQT, Jaubs W,, coro of Siini of Soulh Aiulralia, 31 Lomhard 

Slrecl. E.C. 
Abchbb, THoiua, C.M.G,, 8 CoUegs Gardem, Didmeh, S.F.. 
AsQiLt, HiH Gbacb tiiH DuiB OF, KG., K.T., Argt/ll Lodge, Campdm 

HiU. Keniington, IK. 
+ARMiTiQB, Jabks Robsbtsom, 79 St. Georgis Road. S.W. 
Aa«aTHOKo, W. C. HKATaw-, 4 Foriland Plate, If. ; and 34 Old Broad 

Street, E.G. 
Abmitjuie, G. F., 17 Obsermtory Avenur, Ktittiiiglon, W. 

OscAB Febdinand, M.A., &9 Qnetit't Gate. B.W. ; and 
, Clnb. FKCodilly, S.W. 
AaiioTT, David T., Junior Carlton Club, Pall Hall. S.W. 
Abkbubt, Jamhs, Carlton Club. Pall MaU. S.W. 

AsHBT, CiFTADt WiiiiiM, 20 EUwoTtkg Bood, Primrou Hill Bond, y.W. 
AsHLET, The IliaHT Hon. Etblth, 81 Cadogan Place, S. W. ; and 2 flim 

Court, Temple. F..C. 
tAsHUAs, Ebt. J. Williams, M.A., M.D,, Nalionat CM, WTtiMiJl 

Oardm. S.W.; and Bella Vista. Moiiat Park, Barroia-oii-th- 

Hill. 
AflBwoiii), John, eare 0/ Meetrs. Cox ^ Co., 16 Charing Crott, 8.WJt 
Abtlb, W. G. Detoh, 8 Finch Lane. KC. 

tAsTLRFOHD, JosBFB. National Liberal Club, tVhileiall Place, S.W.. 
JAtkihson, Chableb E., Algoa Lodge. BeehiHAtim, Kent. 
ATKiuaon, Fbe»eh:c "W., C Satoson Place, Bagtvatcr, W. 
Attlsb, Eehbt, 10 Billitiir Squari:, KG. 
AVBMB.T1S. John Jauks. 33 Duke Street, St. Jnmee't, S.W. 
AtiBira, HnoH W., 60 Crystal Palace Park Boad, Sydmkam, 
AnBTiN, The Vis. Arcbdiucom F. W., M.A., Piumetatd Parva Jiteltry, 
near Xoru-kh. 



I 




Badcock, Paiup, 4 Aldridge Road, Baymiialer. W. 

Bahsn-Poweli., Sib Gboeoe S., K.C.M.Q., M,P., M.A., F.K.A.S., F.S.S. 

8 St. Georgt't Place, Uj/de Park Comer, S. W. 
Bailey, Frank, 69 Mark Lane. B.C. 
Baillib, Jamkb R., Oriental Club, Hanover Square, W. 
tBAUO-iK, BicHAED H., Royal Thama Yathi Club, Albemarlt Street, Ifl, 

fBiiLWAHD, A. W., 61 ricla-ia Street. S.W. 

tBALDWis, Alfbbd, M.P., Wilden Hatat, near Slonrport, 
Balfoub. B, R., Towaleg Hall. Drcgitda, Ireland, 
Balfour, John, 13 Qaeeii't Gate Place, S.W. 
Balub, Cuables, ei Baii'igkall Street, E.C. 
tBANKB, EnwiN Hqdoe, High Moor, Wigton, Cmnberland. 
Bawxkruan, Geobok L,, 1 Stirling Maniioiu. Can/leld Gco'daUfi 
. attvipHead, A'. If'.; and Z Puoip Cmrf, T>mplr. B.C. 




Rendmi Fettows. 

BiHCUT. Sib Coltilui A. D., Bun.. CJI.O., 11 Rin Fraiitmt 1", 

Ckampi Bi/titi, Fans. 
tBiRwn-Gociji, F., Halmratk, TmihTidgi WtlU. 
BuxtT, SiK nwi8T, O.C.M.O., K.C.B., 1 Siita GarJmt, SntfJl Ktmdnf i 

(<m, AH'. 
BuMABD, II, WmnBiit, a Tnract Hoiutt, likkmotid Oiil, SLB'. 
BakK, E. 0., 76 HelUnd Part. Ktiuiuylim, IF'. 
EuuuTT, WiLntu, A'rtlty .^Ah^, tf'u/>. 
^^i.*m1.iutn}i..rKpoT.We^a>ra>k,lVQTt^a1lg;and\\^CaHnlmSlTtt^,K.CA 
Buna. Alkxakdhi S., ^utroJuH Juial Siori Hani. 2 King WitiUm | 

mrml. K.C. 
Buna, CuKLM E., 21 Byiitr Strtti. S.W. 
tllui.mT, Ojuuxma SmuTUit, HatKerap CattU, Fair/iirJt Gloueulti- 

BsuHiN, Bonnr J., Qmen Aiiiu Cotiagt. Kttvki IttMi. pMtttj, B.W. 

BuL>T, Samukl, 30 Pitniridgi Cardnit, IK 

Bux, Edwih. H.A. Oxou., ran q/" Bial of Xn> Seulk ffata. 04 Old 

Broad Sirtil, E.C. 
Busa, SiHDU. PuTU. Tit Oat; Tfutrpi, XorvnrA. 
fiuu, PaoTBUOu T. llciuox, B.Sc., Pari Mmw, Xiiy'i BmJ, Bte^mend. 

S.IV. 
BaiTTim, Wm. CortMtn, 3 ButiiiaiB Ttrratt, Ahtri*tw, X.S. 
BucoiAxr, UaxnT tliiBao!'. UI Jidittn Read, W. 
Bunmitip, RoBATto. tart i)/ McMn. F. A. RitUiat J Oh, Xw Bnod 

Slrttl, E.C. 
Binwxi.1, CotnuHimn E. P.. R.N., Cunlf^ ffi><u(, Citam, Svrry. 
Bnrotr. Hkmht C. (AgetH-Ocnun] for Britinh ColuDibla), D Man^fittd 

Gardtiu. Hampttrad, A'.IC. ; iin4 33 jliMiaiy Ortit, E.C. 
Bmo. F. Ftmirt'LL, Bartkolomia Hauf, S.C. 
Bmeatji. Kit. Bhtiiui. livdiam Vitaragt, HwKilmrit. 
BkltibUi. IIutiiiiT, I'atac* Lodge, VrtdlloH. OncH, 
BauiUTB, Dalbtki-lb J.. 6 Hare Court, TrmpU, S.C. 
tBiLL. 1). W., H A/i/f*« S*".!, tC. 

Bbu.. 8ib Fnjutci* Diixon. K.C.M.O., C.B.. 39 Part Road, WmMiiom. 
Sbu.. Jouh, is fni<i*rfil JcmBf, £C 

Bbu, MACioniK, F.lt&U t3m»tnJ. Carlton Bamd, Pmlnty, a.W. 
tBBij.. Thosjis, U ttiltoa SfrMi. £.C. 
Bbu. TnoHu. 11 tr;>|»- i^ir4 A<«W. fflmntent ffi/J^ yr. 
Bbu.. Maiub Wili.uk MomauDX. 10 FU) .Vo/^, S.W. 
Bemxbtt. Jihbd. I Sortkualifrland Avrmu, Pul^, 8. V. 
tBuiui', AuTKt* U., el iW9«if# i/iV/, £C. 
Bbmsoh, Mudb F. W., EgjptiBD Caralr;, War 0^, Oairo. 
tBriKBU., CUBUB, 1 10 Ftneimrct StroO, B.C. 
Bmnoj, CoMKAxoKB (>. It.. R.V., KJ*., 43 OvAnt SlrMt, Mat/air, V. ; 

and Rit, lloidtnutt, YorkAirt. 
BsTUt. Fbavou Aroorrv*. A9 frimcn Goto, 3. H'. 
Bm.tx. Willie Amoxb, Cilf^lmdoH Clmt. OU BrooJ Slrttl, S.C. 
Bbvicb. Tbumu J.. Sitfi>lk amt, lamtmit rtmatmty lOtt, K.C. 
BiDDiKuMn. J. B., 70 BwM Mk Bttt, Lm, &£,- ami Ul fntrffhfl 

Arwf, £C 



Bill, Csintts. 3.2., Farlty Hall, near ChtaMe, SUfordtkire. 

BiLLiNOHnB^T, H. F., Loniion if SFulmituler Bank, LotUmrjf, E.C. 

tBiKsu, Oboroi, 4D Statittn, Quirindi, Ntw SotUk Watet. 

BiBCH, Sib Abthvb N., K,C.M.G., Sank of England, Surlingtim Gar- 
dens, W. 

BiKKiNEuw, Abthub H., A.M.lQiit.C.E., cart of Matn. H. S. King ^ Co.. 
A& Pail Mall. S.W. 

BiacuotT, CttiELKS, 23 Wcitboarne Square, W. 

Blaci, SuaQHON-MAJoa Wic. Gilt, 2 Gforge Square, Edinhurgh. 

Blackwood. Qeohoh It, hthmtan Club, Itecaditlt/. S.W. 

Blackwood, John H,, 16 Upper Groivenor Street, W. 

Blai-ve. T). p., 18 Si. Swi/hin'a Lane, B.C. 

BLBCKLr, CoAKLEa Arnold, G 1 King William Slrfil, E. C. 

iss, Henbt, 13 San Strrel, Fintbtiry, E.C.; and Oak Lamn, OaHeigt 

Park, S. 
ii3, Liwis E., Sa Philheaeh Gardens, S, W. ,- and 8 Laurence PinaUn^ 
Laim, E.C. 

Blyth, a. Wtsthb, M.R.C.S., The Court Eouk, Sfarj/l-elnmt Lant, 

Blith, William, 8 Grrai Wi«che»ter Street, E.G. 

BoHM, William, 23 Old Jenny, E.G. 

Bois, HafBT, 5 Atlwooi Road, South Kensington, S.W. 

BOLUXB, Fbamcib, 2 Laurence Poimttteif Hill, E.C. 

BoupAs, Henbt Masom, Q.C, U.A., LL.B., Abingdon Ho«se, Grernkill 



iX-Mgi ' 



I; Haml 



v.ir. 



Bond, Fbank W., 117 Leadenhall Street, E.C. 

Bonnkt, Fbedehic. Callun House, near Engelei/ ; and Orimtldl CT«i, 



Hano 



BoNwicK, Jambs, I'arra Yarra, South Vale, Upprr Ifoneood, S.E 
BooiBK, Obobok W., Eatkacott, Weit ChiildtuTst Park, EUham; 

MereantUe Bank of Australia, 39 Lombard Street, E.C. 
Booth, Edwim, 24 JeaAn Cremtnl, E.C. 
BoETHWicK. Sib Alokknoh, Baet., MJ"., 13B Piccadilly, IT. 
fUoHTOM, Rhv. N. a. B., M.A., Biirwetl Vieanige, Camiridge, 
■fllosTocK. Hhwitt, The Hermitege, Walton Heath, Epiom. 

STOCK, Samdel, Bruntffidd, Bteienham, Kent. 
Boswbll, W. a., 34 iValpole Street, CheUea. S. IT. 
BoDLT. Wm. Holkkb, 23 Great St, Htlm'e, B.C. 
BoDLTon, E. B., 16 Apiley Boad, Clifton, BritSol. 
tBoCLTON, Hadold E., M.A., Copped HaU, Thttmdge, Hertt. 
fBooLTON, S. B., Copped Hall, Totteridge, Herti. 
BocBHE, Hbnbv. Holirook, Loudon Boad, BedhUl, Surrey. 

HNB, H. E. Fox, 41 Priory Road, Bedford Pttrk. Chimiei. 
BonaNK, ROHEET William, C.E.. 18 Hereford Sgaare, S.W. 

lUNK, Stepben, F.S.S., Ahberley, WaUingion, Surrey. 

TEN, BwBT Hon. Sib Gkobqe F., Q.C.M.G., 75 Cadogan Sqiear, 
BoWBiMo, Alobbmoit 0.. 30 Eaton Place, S. W. 
BoTD, Jakes K., Jkeonshire Club, St. James's Street, S.iV. 
BoYi^ Lionel B.C., 80 Lombard Street, E.C,; and Army a 

CliJi. 
Bbadbbbbt, Tuotus B., 8 Finch Lane, E.C, 




Reiidmi Felltmt. 



BuDMM, Sib Rdwud N. C, K.CJV.0. <AcMt-Gananl forTumulk), » 

Fietoria Strtit, S.tr. 
B»Aiiwotai. ¥iuiicuRtenAiit>,earr of County Iff GhiumttrS»iJt,S»bKh», 

Will$. 
Snxmox. Ukiut, KaMiigi, Carkoit Road. Putrnty, S.W. 
BuMBT, Tni BiuuT Huh, Lonh, K.C.E. 3t PwkLam; W. ; mhJ AWmm* 

AurM Omrl. Bailie. 
Buaur.Tui HoM. Thumb AtlKnrr, U iWJl £m«, IC..' *ni TV* 

Gttei. Batik. 
But, Sin JoHM Cox, K.C.H.O. (Ag«Dt>Oeii«nI br Sootli AaitnlM), 

IS fietoria SIftrl, S.ff. 
Bux, John Onuuia, 69 GrttAam /ami. KC. 
BwoHT, Cbauu C, Cai.Q., I a ^«M«'* Calf Garittu, Soulk Kentinglou, 

S.IK ; aitd W^Kawt Club. S.W, 
Bmort, SAHcn. A UiuiUton Strtel, Litirpool i tmd B»Ir(gk CUA. Btgatt 

Slnct, s. »: 
BuKtis, WiLLUM AnrnuB. 81. Jamtit PttUtei CkambtrM, Sgdrr SirttI, S. tT. 
Bunofr, O. J., Tim Maa»l, Cpton. BtxUg. thnt. 
Bboid, CiUliLKa lUxRI. Cutk Vitte, iVtyiriifye, Surrry. 
BKociu.iai.'a.'rr, Knwiun. J,1'„ Kinnrrtlty Manor, BfiyaU. 
B&oniuRn, Kuauc C.eara^ Bant of Aiutr«t«iia, 1 Tkmdnttdlr SI..E.C. 
BmonuiK. A., 2T Randolph Crttemi. MaUa VaU. If. , amd t KW 

KicltaBge. E.C. 
Smaatma, Si3ua.Stahank Hoiat,Portlirttwl.niar BtHgtitd,Gta*orfa»iliiTt. 
Bbociei, MAJOH-Oiuniku. EowiBO, R~K., SI Wymutat Gardnt, W.; 

aad Caitrd Servk* Out, PaU SlaU. & W. 
tBttooKn. T. W. (lale HX.C., Bengml), TU Graagt. Sigkliitj/aU t^it, 

Cl^lkaM. S.W. 
Broms, Uui>t, Momit Ontt. Gnrtikill Road, BampoMid. 3*. V. 
tBiuK)!!, Ilmumr. D Hydt Pari Sy<iart, »'. , aad 81. PtItt't CkawAtrt, 

ConiUI. K.C. 
8wHlI^ U. Tuuu, St. Prltri Ciambrrt, OfukUl, B.C. 
BuouKB, Sia Wii.i.UH Cuxum, Bixr., 6 Gntrmor Sjmrt, H'. .- nJ 

yareil aj Glen- TSnw, A/ioynt. X.B. 
BuoTN.AutXAKDU X..H.X}.,7SB'uit>rtmgi SlTttt.St.Otergti Sgaart,S, »'. 
Bhuwx. Ai.raxn II.. SI. Bmo. CalarUg Fork Gardrtu, Tanhndgt ITtlU. 
Bhowx, ARTutR. S!. Bmo. CaliHTlMf i^h Oardtit. Ti-Arid^ WtlU. 
Brown. Coablw. \ti KW Ottkangr, Coltman SItmI. RC. 
Baowa, Gaosua, liomdon and Somlk Aftitmm iS^braMo* Co„ LimUtd^ 

19 J^R^ify Clirnu, JCC; omt Bntitmod. 
Bbowk, J. DHnDAUL. 19T T»mfU OLamitt, TimpU Amtm, CC. 
Browk. OnrALO, HlMt-CR. S3 >'<ct«a SCraf. £ir. 
BmwvR, Thuhm, ST Ooekratu Sirvl. (i l —g ow . 
BnowN, Thukm, «7 T^ncailrr Gait, W. 
BitoiiniR, AaniTH .tcorr. fiKcUwd Atii^A. Higkkamftim, tbnkOntmt 

and Cavalry CM. 127 JHocadillf. W. 
BROmB, ItiR Bi;!(i4HU( Ciunux, tr(«t««T>M, A'ni>M«lKMi»-7ynf. 
Browxi, Uctokhwim 11., J J*., Moor Oom, BmJiM, AtIk, 
Brov**, Jna« Buuui. JJrJa^ CM, S»ink AnUraii*. 
Bbovxe, W. a., to Old Brva4 3trml. JCC. 



Royal Oohnicl TrisHtitie. 



tBj 



I. tV. J., SucMand FUkigh, Highamplon. WortA Devon. 

rnns Gihacd, AssocIdsUCS., 18 VietoHa Street, 8.tt 
i., 101 GloucF-tlirr Trrrrnee. Hyde Pari, W. 

BnitCE. W«. DuKF, M.In8l.G-E„ 17 Vietoria Stretl. S.JF. 

Bbdmnu, Comhad. 36 Prior ff Buad, Wnt Hamptffad, ^.B 

BcoHiNis, Besjajok, Mtasra. Goldabrougk, Mort. ^ Co., 149 Leadfniell 
air^i, E.C. 

BncHufAN, JiuHs, 20 BiuklerBbury, KC. 

Bull. Hesby, flretr, Chkhester. 

Bunch, Robbbt STAUHTOii, The C'olfagt. ClaygcU, nr, Eiher. 

BoBQo^NE, Pbtkb B., 8 DawgBU Hill, E.C. 

BtiHKE, H. Fi.a!iuAii, Callrge of Anas, Queen rietoria Street, S.O. 

BUBN, Mjitthew J1HB9. H oU Broad Street, E.C. 

Bdbsib, Alfred, 12 Bollg VUlage, Highgate, N. 

Bust, Fbkderick N., Wavendan Manor, BUtekttg. 

BussELL, Thomas, 73 Qiiem Victoria Street, E.C. 

BuTCKABT, RoBEiiT G., 26 FaiiKcIt Street, Sedcliffc Oard*iu, 8,W, 

Butt, Johk K. Federal Bank of Australia, limited, 18 Sing WiBiam 
Street, E.C. 

BcsToH, SibT. Fowkll, Baht., 14 Gresvenor Crfsee>il,J3.W. 

Cadhy, PiscoK, Hottg Lodge, Elmer's End, Kent. 

tCiLDKcorr, Rkv. ALniED, M.A., St. Jokn't Cotlegr. Cambridge. 

CiLTERT, jA«tEs, Broomleigh, Wimbhdoa. 

,, Allah, 21 Upper Brook Street, W. 
Camphsli, FiMLiT, Brantridgt Park, Balcaniie, SuMex. 

~ Jeobqe, W. R„ K.C.M.G.. 60 Cnr^mU Gardent. 8. W. 
Campbbll, Ekt. Hejtby J., Priory Maneiam, Priori/ Park Bead, Kltbum, 

CAMFDsr.L, MonTos, Seracaliro Hviiie, Brechin, Forfanhire, 
f Cavpbbli,, WiixiAM, 19 Porlman Square, W. 

!LL, W, MiDBLETON, 23 B'«id Lave, E.C. 
L, W. W., lU Porcheattr Ttrrace, Hyde Park, W. 
tCAfti.i)<aroBO, Tub Kioht Hon, Lohd, K.P., Budbnok, Eatx ; and 

Athenavm CM, 3.1V, 
C*BniNaToK. The R:obt Hon. Lobd, G.CM.G., Wpcomie Abhty, High 

Wgcomhe. 

Cabbutbkhs, John, M.lBBt.C.E,, 19 Kensington Park Gardau, B*. 
Cabsos, Edwabb J., Dilton Hill Lodge, Upper Long Ditton, Surrej/, 
jCittTEE. William H., B.A., 8 Suffolk Lane, Cantum Street, E.C, 
CiBTBR, W. J„ 3 Oxford Sjiiare, Hyde Park, W. 
CnuTLEV, LiEDT.-CoLOHKt Hknht, R.E., Juntor United Serma CTo6, 

Charles Street, S.K'. 
Cattohd, Ebehezeh, 146 Leadcnhall Streef, B.C. 

Cbadwlck, Osbbbt, C.E., C,M.O„ II Airlie Gardens, Campden HiU, W. 
Challisoh, E. J., ~if Comviall Bfiidenees. Clarence Gate, S.W. 

% Arthok, Briar Lea, Mortimer, Berks. 
Chahbees, Colonel Abthcb W., 10 Addieon Gardens, Kenmngttm, } 
I Chaitbeus, Eqwakd, liodimll, H'esfjriJgo, 
/ CiuuBEBs, FbbdbuickB. 




Retident Fellova. 



CBAMHtu, Sin Qxoina H., 4 ilinclng Lam, E.C. 

CHuutir, RoHRMT Wx^ \ CoarlJUld Gardtn; Stulk Kintia^tOH, I 

OiitrLTH, Kcii.auTn, B.A., SO PaUier Ciardnu Ttrran, Kinimylai. If. 

CHAPnu.1., J.inrt, 34 Ilfuingkall St.. E.C. 

CniKiiDtoTtiit, AxTHKn v., BHrffttiiart , /itigi, Rrigatt. 

tCnARRiHOTUN, Honti Sphnckr, Oom Clif. tturlen-en-TrtMt. 

Cwunut, W*LT«i BiiTiJiR, M.H., 19 Portnutn Slr*rt, thrtm*^ Sftiart, W. 

CUKVAUKS. N.. S Forrkalrr Ttrraei, IP. 

Childh.., Tnm IUobt Boh. Hvan C. K.. fft/orm ClMh. Ml Uaa. S.W. 

CiitmniDAix, n. J., CrB/lland*. l^nriuttr. 

dtDHH. T. C, OUnmort, SUvtrhUl. St. Imnanlt-im-Stt ; as>f TlalcAci 

ibiw Clui. Bl. Jama't Strtel. S. »'. 
CsmitniB. H,B.H. Pmim-k. K 0„ CwJiUfioxJ Lod/^. W'aiiKrr Gnot J'ark. 
Cmuitiii, U. a. Tuaiij^ 7 HrllaiJ VtHa* Sr^id. Ktniiitgtiut. W, ; and 

Oritntnl Cluh, Hnoi-n- Sj«af. H'. 
CiUimiOl), Rohkrt, iMmmtranor, llnghemloit, QunntunJ. 
CniHWTUU, IIiNMT WiLiiAM. 42a B'ootiulmrf S-zHort, W,C. 
Cnvum.Jatn.SlaHdarJltaitiB/ SbuH 4/'Kd, 10 VUmnit Uat, E.C. 
Cnvttmiu, Ciuu.w, Wiyhridgf Fark. Sirrry. 
Ckdkniu^ JoHH Flucnd. C. K.. RwJUai,J, fttUf Hoad, Stnatitam. S.1P. ; 

CukK, Ai.raK(> A., laJjie Plaer. HinUt. GrrAl MarliMi. 

Cum, Crabim, 20 Bilnont l\rrk. Li, Km. 

CuBK, JiXATllAX, 1 Dntmtkirt Trmet. FoHlamJ Ptaer, W. 

Ci^BKi. Li«tT -OtvKui. BtH Akhbkw. BJi. O.C H.a.. C.K,. C.I.K, « 

Pbrlland Ptart. H'. ; aiK{ rnFCMiSiirPMw ai<A. Alt JVatf. &1K 
Claikr. Major OmhobH. H.E.. C.M.O., 34 CknUtom Gardnt. Knutmf 

Ion. r.; anJ //«rw GnnrJ,. mitiiaO. 8.W. 
tCtADXi, tlBxat. CdMKc^H //dtf, Hamji*ltad, V.W.: and IT GniMrAiir«4 

»!««/, Ef. 

»Ctji»x«, nroiL 13 ». (T™y/j Sfimrf. S.B*. 

Cl-ABKE, P«HCT. LI..B,, CoUffftHill f-jUmArr*. K.C. 

tCLAus, SnuouN C. Crt>!/don /^gi, CroydoH. 

CuKuon, CArTAiH J. BooTK. L.K-C.P.. &«. (BurgTon Sa|iiTinlad«nl, 

Indinii KmigMIion Sarticc). Ti'oyaJ TAqbh I'wiK CI)it, jfUraorb 

Ar«l, H'. 
tCuREHiM, J. Stbwavt. Mrr 1^ J. B. LeridaK, Eiq.. (VrfFttaa, QmnuJf^ 
CutDKN, AimiCR. 03 OtmJm IK! Boad. Vpfrr Xorvaod. SK 
CLATmK, RniiHALD B. B.. lot /jfif* Ittad. tftil Kttuingl^n. W. 
tCurroH, Wm. Writurr, C E.. Gi>/oi. LoJgt. LhJ: 
CuDm, pKtDKiici. M.).M.F„.JVn>n. Knbiy ^ Co.. tAneoln. 
CurroMit, SiHCnAUB. BaKT.. AI CromnU Ifouie*, Soidk Ktrntiiifftmi. 8. W. 
Cton*. W, C. KmoHT, /)■*» «r«/, Stamfvrd Strttl, 8.E. 
Con*. AuuD B. 31 Gtat St. Ht^n't. B.C. 
Cocnut, Jamim, «ir« of London Ciarttnd Bant af Aatr*h»: t 014 

Broad Strrrl, F, C 
Cncmi, RnikildT.. 3V Blamkft OtrJm*. <^rnt'« Gmle. a.W. 
tCoun. KATRAViitL L.. 8 DotimMr* FUtet. W. i ami BMmd Otk. O^fc- 
^M Grm, Smrrtf. 

Com, M*tnucw. 31 Umnnter Botl, MitM P«i-k,N.W. 



Royal Colonial iTtsfUute. 





1882 
1S85 




1882 


'6S 


1887 




ias2 




1BS7 




18S2 




1872 


170 


1890 




1880 




1874 




1888 




1886 


J7S 


1883 




1874 




1B82 




188* 




1B91 


j8o 


1882 




1887 




1802 




1889 




1889 


.85 


1885 




ISBS 




1889 




1888 




1888 


290 


1887 




1887 




18S3 




I87a 




1886 


195 


1889 




1861 




1873 



Cow, Chablm, S Rtd Lion Courl. Waiting Strret, E.C. 

William R. E., 1 Adtlaidt SaUdingt. London Bridge, E.C. 
CoLUBR, Henht, 42 A'f ID Btoad SInet, E.C, 
CoLLisoH, Henrt Clkbeb, tVtybridge, Sumy: and Halional Clmli 

Whitehall Gardeni. S.W. 
tCoLLDM, E«v. HnoH KoBVRT, M.R.I.A., F.S.a., The Vkaragt, I 

Tonbridgf, Kent. 
Cofcirsa, WiLLiAK Batumi, Juk., 22 St. Mary Jic. E.C. 
CuLURB, Joseph 0.,C.H.G. (Secretac^ to High Commtiisiaiier for Can 

17 Victnria Street, 8.W. 
CoLOHB, Sib John C. R., K.C!&.(i.,l}roinqainna, Ktnmart, Co. A 

Ireland; la Btlgravi Boad, S.W.; and Carlton Oub, PaU 1 

S.W. 

CoHVBEAfte, CnAHtiBa A. T., H.P., Xatioiiat Liberal Clitb, WhiM 

Place, S.W. ; and St. Leonard's Grange, Ingateitona, Euex. 
CoouB, J. CuAKLBS, C.E., 19 Fretland Road, Ealing, W. 
tCooDM, M. P., eare of Sicuri. A. Seott ^ Co., Rangoon, Swm». 
Cook, IliHHT A., 67 Barhinan, E.C. 
fCooKE, Hekhy M., 12 Fridat/ Street, E.C. 
CooPEH, Rkv. Chables J., 7 GaO/ord Plane, W.C. 
CooFKE, Sib Daniel, Babt., ti.C.M.O., 6 V* Vere Garden; Kmiin^ 

Palace, W. 

CoOFBB, JoHJT Ahilet, St.KiUa, Tif Hennilagt, Siehiuoad, S,W. 
CaoFER, RoHKBT Elliott, C.E., 61 Lanpailer Gate, W.; and Sil 

Sancluars, WeslmimlBr, S.W. 
COOPBH, WiIilAM C, 21 Upper Groai'enor Street, W. 
Cum, Nathanihl, Commercial Bank of SgdiKy, IS Birch\nLant,h 
Cotton, Stdney H., 27 Si. Mary Axe, E.C.; emd Detonehire 

Ja-meie Stnel. S.W. 
CiitiBTBOPB, WiLLiAH F., Satitmol CM. 1 Whitehall Gardent. i 
Cow AH, Albxakcer, 1 2 Medora Road, i^nt Pari, Brixton, S. W. 
CowEM, FbedbbioH., 73 Hamilton Terraet.N.W, 
CowiB, GioanK, Colonial Bank of New Zealand, 92 Cannon Birtlt, f 

and 81 PhUbeaeh Gardent, S.W. 
Cox, Alfiied W., 38 Conduit Street, W. 
Cox, FhANK L,, so Curron Street, Magfair, W. 
Cox, Nicholas, 69 Talgarth Road, Wett Kenanglon, W. 
CoxKBiu, JSaiobJ. A.,KA.,Saiial and Miliiar!/ Club, Piooa^lfy, H 
Cbacknkll, J. E., F.H.Q.S., 13 Victoria Street, S.W. 
tCnAFTOK, KiLFH CAUrwBLL, cave of R. F. Crajlon, 

BramXey Mill, Croydon. 
fCiiAio, Qeobge a., Liverpool Geographical Society, 6a Tka S 

Dale SirctI, Liverpool. 
Ceakbhooi, Thb Hiqkt Hon. Viscocnt, CC.S.I., 17 Groivenor C 

S.W. 
CuANSTOK, WiLUAiiM., 31 Holland Part, W. 
CBAvrFOBD, JakhA.,42 Clarendon Road, Netting Hill, W.i a»d 

Club, Hanover Square, W. 
Cbawshaw, Edward, F.B.G.S., 26 ToUii^ton Park, I 
fCBAWSHAT, Geosoe, 12 North Street, Watminafir, S. 



B»tid9nt li^hwa. 



lUO 

lua 

l!S3 

310 twa 
m* 

IMS 

mo 

1ST9 

MS >"« 

ISM 



18B3 
lUl 
18S7 
IBTS 

INI 

1M9 



187S 
1880 
1884 

tsai 

_ IMI 

lis 1883 

"■ 1880 



Cbicntow, ItaaraT, JMImtf*, iteOeilil fioaJ, £i/wi»r^). 
CuTCHKLr^ J.Tboubuduk, 9 Cardigan Road, Bkkmond Bill, S.W, 
CauctiiB, FuEDSKicE JoBL. 147 CatincH Strrtt, K.C. 

n, Juxs A.. A>IU»!/. Kcmiclt Hood. Putnty, 8. W. 
Cauw. Dmid Run. 71 » luirlan Road, WtH KtHiingUm, W. 
Crow. Jaiu> S. Uabvit, M.B., C.BL. 71 )ri4rroi< Ho»d, Wut Knumg- 

tcit. If*. 
Diowi, Wttxiut LtKOHUf, Si ru>-Nu<a/I tli>ad. If. ,- aW 4 Bukoptgatt 

Stfrrt WilhiH. KC. 
Crdddx*, Jaux, SaoUtpeod ITouM, Arkliy, /%A Sarmtt. 
CarHr. G. CBWn•Kt.^ 5/. BItpknit Club, Wttlmintttr, S. IT. 
Cifrr, WitxtAM Stiuk WiUo»Hu**t, l& BeUiJf Koad, OawrptUmt, S.W. 
CnBHunjuui. Fkakoi 0. 

ICdknibbham, Pmu, ChinUinnA Ctuh, A'tvZtaland. 
fCtiBusio, RoBHBT Snores. 69 Cmrata Slrrtl. Majifaif, W. 
CuBBii. $H DuNALD. K.C.M.O., M.P., 13 Hyd* Park Hatr, W. 
tCcBTis, Spcxceb H., 171 CrouKiU Buul, S.W. 
Ctn-JLiit, Oswald B., F.C.A., t BiihopagaU Strert, E.C. 

Di Cawtk, D. 0., 47 li'mritifflon CmanI, Maida Bin, W, 
DAUwrT, F. aoNHMBHAH, IS JV^ Park Trrract, Rydr Pari, K. 
Dalthh, Bkt. Canow Johk Niau, H.A., C.H.G., Tk* CleiMtfrt, inadiar. 
Dalt, Jakks £. O., 8 Biteftdah Road, Ttrit/Unkiim Park, & tT. ; mad 3 

/4ȣ< Um Lao', Wood Strtft, KC. 
Dakuah, F. I).. Lyii