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^t^-i t - ^ o - I 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY. 



VOL. VIII. 




DUBLIN : 
PKINTED BY M. H. GILL, 

PRIKTEB TO TUB ACADEMY. 
MDCCCLUT. 




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A^. 



p 



1 ^ 



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^\ t ^ ^ ^ '^■' / 




J^ 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY. 



VOL. VIII. 




DUBLIN: 



PRINTED BY M. H. GILL, 

PRI^TEIl TO THE ACADEMY. 
MDCCCLXIV. 



The Academy desire it to be understood, that they are not 
answerable for any opinion, representation of facts, or train of 
recLSoning, that may appear in the following Papers. The AuUiors 
of the several Essays are alone respondbU for their contents. 



CONTENTS. 

VOLUME VIII. 



1861-1864. 

PAOS 

Oh Eartb-CoTTenU, and their Connexion with Tenestxial Magnetinn. B^ the Rev. 

H. Doyd, D. D 1. 186 

On the HydrocarbonAtee and Silicates of Zinc at Santander. By Professor 

Sulliyan, and J. P. O'Heflly, Esq 6 

On a Graphical Mode of Calcnlating the Tidal Drift in the British Seas. By the 

Rev. 8. Haughton, M. D. 26 

Memoir of Stephen White. By the Rev. W. Reeves, D. D 29 

On Mapped Surveys of Ireland. By W. H. Hardinge, Esq 89 

On ChaDges produced by Heat in Silicate of Zinc By Professor Snlfivan. . . 66 

On a New Hydrated Silicate of Potash. By Professor Sullivan 66 

Description of Antiquarian Drawings. By G. Y. Dn Noyer, Esq 61 

Synopsis of British CiangonidsD and GalatheidsB. By J. R. Kinahan, M. D. . . 67 

On Gold Antiquities found in Ireland prior to 1747. By W. R. Wilde, Esq. . 82 
On the Dynamical Coefficients of Elasticity of certain Substances. By the Rev. 

S. Haughton, M. D 86 

On the Velocities of Rifle Bullets. By the Rev. S. Hanghton, M. D 106 

On Cromlechs in Northern Africa. By R. R. Madden, M. D 117 

On the IsUnd of Sanda. By the Rev. W. Reeves, D. D . 182 

On the Rain-fall and Evaporation at St Helena. By Lieutenant J. Haughton . 139 
On the Rain-fall and Evaporation in Dublin, 1860. By the Rev. S. Haugh- 
ton, M. D 168 

On the Partial Combustion of Iron. By S. Clibbom, Esq. 164 

On the Rain-fall and Wind at Simon's Bay. By F. Churchill, Esq. .... 171 
On a New and General Method of Inverting a Linear and Quaternion Function of 

a Quaternion. By Sir W. R. Hamilton, LL. D 182 

On the Probable Causes of Earth-Currents. By the Rev. H. Lloyd, D. D. . . 184 
On the Existence of a Symbolic and Biquadratic Equation which is satisfied by 
the Symbol of Linear Operation in Quaternions. By Sir W. R. Hamilton, 

LL. D. 192 

On the Strength of Long Pillars. By B. B. Stoney, Esq 191 



PAOK. 

On the Fanaux de Cimitierea and Round Towen. By H. M. Westropp, Eaq. . 194 

On the Exbtence of a Pore Paadve Voice hi Hindustani. By John Morisy, Esq. 197 
On ObseiTatious on the Wind made at Leopold Harbour. Ry the ReT. S. Haugh- 

ton, M. D 208 

On the Flint Implements foond at St Acheol. By J. B. Jukes, Esq 220 

On Memoirs of the Court of Spain, 1679-81. By D. F. Mac Carthy, Esq. . . 224 

On Riog-Money. By Dr. William Bell 253 

On some Notices of St Patrick in the Book of Armagh. By the President. . . 269 

On a Crannoge in the County of Cavan. By W. R. Wilde, Esq. 274 

On a New Optical Saocharometer. By the Rev. J. H. Jellett 279 

Catalogue of 95 Antiquarian Drawings presented to the Academy. By 6. V. 

Du Noyer, Esq 282, 429 

On^SS. Marinus and Anianus. By the Rev. W. Reeves, D. D 295 

OnV Professor Siegfried's Exposition of the Poictiers Inscription. By Professor C. 

F. Lottner 808 

On^the Pre-Chriatian Cross. By H. M. Westropp, Esq 822 

Statement on the Presentation of certain Antiquities. By W. R. Wilde, Esq. . 824 
On the ApplicaUon of Photozincography to the Representation of MSS. By W. 

H. Hardinge, Esq 830 

On Ganche Curves of the Third Degree. By Sir W. R. Hamilton, LL. D. . . 831 

On the Sparks from Dr. Callan's Iron Induction Coil. By £. Clibbom, Esq. . . 334 
On the Application of Corioli^s Equations to the Problem of the Gyroscope. By John 

Purser, Jun., Esq 839 

On certain Literary Frauds and Forgeries in Spain and Italy. By R. R. Mad- 
den, M. D. 854 

On the Migrations from Spain to Ireland. By R. R. Madden, M. D 872 

On a General Centre of Applied Forces. By Sir W. R. Hamilton, LL. D. . . . 394 

On certain Inscribed Stones at Locmariaquer. By S. Ferguson, Esq. . . 898, 451 

On the Storm of October 29, 1863. By F. J. Foot, Esq. 405 

On the Gold Antiquities recently added to the Museum. By W. R. Wilde, Esq. 406 

On the Storm of October 29, 1863. By the Rev. S. Haughton, M. D 409 

On Crannoges in Loughrea. By G. H. Kinahan, Esq 412 

Statement on the Presentation of certain Antiquities. By W. R. WOde, Esq. . 428 

On certain Irish Ecclesiastical Bella. By the Rev. W. Reeves, D. D 414 

On two Inscribed Stones at Fuerty. By D. H. Kelly, Esq 455 

Notes on Animal Mechanics. By the Rev. S. Haughton, M. D 458 

On the Eight Imaginary Umbilical Generatrices of a Central Surface of the Second 

Order. By Sir W. R. Hamilton, LL. D 471 

On a Quern Stone found near Ballinasloe. By F. J. Foot, Esq 472 

On the Animal Inhabitants of Ancient Ireland. By E. BIyth, Esq. 472 

On an Ancient Steel Yard. By J. R. Garstin, Esq 476 

On the MS. of the Memoir on the Surveys of Ireland. By W. H. Hardmge, Esq. 477 

On the Old Countess of Desmond. By W. H. Hardinge, Esq 477 

On an Ancient Irish Wooden Shield. By Sir W. R. Wilde 487 



APPENDICES. 

PAOB. 

L Aficoant of the year ending Slat March, 1862, .... i 

II. AcGoantof the year ending 31 At March, 1868, xi 

III. Ust of Sahacribers towards the purchase of the 0*Conor MS. Poems, . . . xxi 
lY. List of Officers and Members of the Academy, xziii 



ADDBBasas to the Queen a»d I^nee of Walee, — pp. 81, 806. 
AvnQurruES Bought, — iv., v., xv. 

„ FBBSsimED,— 153, 188, 219, 268, 269, 278, 281, 289-294, 801, 324, 

830, 884, 428, 471, 472. 

„ EXHIBITED,— 87, 278, 800, 406, 441, 476, 477, 4«7, 498. 

„ ORAinS FOB PUBCHASB OF, — 67, 189, 168, 884. 

Books abb MSS. Pbb8Kiitbd,~28, 29, 88, 168, 281, 289, 802, 806, 321, 409, 428, 

477. 
Mats and Dbawibgs Pbbsektbd,— 61, 282, 409, 429, 476, 488. 
CoiBB, Mbdau, ahd Sbalb Pbesbntbd, — 188, 219. 
EucnOB of Cotmea and Offieert^^m^ 220, 804, 806, 487. 

„ 0/ Jirem6«r«,— 60, 117, 269, 806, 824, 864, 872, 468, 476, 

487. 
PbBSIDBBTB* ADDBB88BS,— 98, 104, 208. 

Rbfobts of Council, — 88, 801, 488. 

BB80LUTIOB8,— 28, 29, 81, 135, 189, 163, 184, 273, 296, 396, 487. 

CUBHIHOHAK FUITD AND MXDALS,— 93, 184. 

Lbttxbs Rbad, — 81, 253, 306, 307, 831, 363, 397, 398, 409. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY. 



MONDAY, NOVEMBER 11, 1861. 

Veet Eev. Dean O&itss, D.D., President, in the Chair. 

The Kbv. Hxjmphket Lloyd, D.I)., read the following paper : — 

On Eabxh Cubbssttb, aitd thbeb coNifExioir witb: thb PKENOMSirA op 
Tbbbbstslix Ma»vxtibm. 

(Plate I.) 

Iir the year 1848, Mr. Barlow commnnicated to the Boyal Society a 
Paper ** On the Spontaneous Electrical Currents observed in the "Wires 
of the Electric Telegraph," in which he established the important feet 
that a wire, whose extremities are connected with the earth at two 
distant points, is unceasingly traversed by electric currents, the in- 
tensity of which varies with the azimuth of the line joining the points 
of contact with the ground. The direction of these currents was proved 
to be the same at both extremities of ^e same wire, and was shown to 
depend on the relative positions of the earth-connexions, while it was 
wholly independent of the course followed by the wire itself. The cur- 
rents cease altogether when either of the contacts with the earth is in- 
terrupted. From these fectB Mr. Barlow concluded, that " liie currents 
are tetrestrial, of which a portion is conveyed along the wire, and 
rendered visible by the multiplying action of the coil of the galvano- 
meter." 

Mr. Barlow further observed, that apart ^m the sudden and occa- 
sional changes, the general direction of the needle of the galvanometer 
appeared to exhibit some regularity. He was thus led to institute a 
series of observations for fourteen days and nights, on two wires simul- 
taneously, one from Derby to Kugby, and the other from Derby to Bir- 
mingham, the positions of the needles in both circuits being recorded 

X. L A. paoc. — ^voii. vm. b 



every five minutes, day and night. From these observations he con- 
cluded — 

'' 1. That the path described by the needle consisted of a regular 
4iumal motion, subject to disturbances of greater or less magnitude. 

'* 2. That tiiis motion is due to electric currents passing from the 
northern to the southern extremities of the telegraph wires, and return- 
ing in the opposite direction. 

''3. That, exclusive of the irregular disturbances, the currents 
flowed in a southerly direction from about 8 or 9 a. m. until the evening, 
and in a northerly direction during the remainder of the twenty-four 
hours." 

He was thus led to examine whether any relation subsisted between 
these movements and the daily changes of the horizontal magnetic needle ; 
and having made, for this purpose, a series of simultaneous observations 
with a deHcate declinometer, he came to the conclusion that although, 
generally, the currents flow southwards during that part of the day in 
which the variation of the horizontal needle is westerly (i. e. from 8 or 9 a.m. 
until the evening), and northwarda, when the variation is easterly (i. e. 
during the night and early part of the morning), '' yet simultaneous 
observations ^owed no similarity in the path described by the mag- 
netic needle and the galvanometer." 

An examination of Mr. Barlow's galvanometric observations led me, 
flome time since, to an opposite conclusion ; and at the last meeting of 
the British Association, I stated my conviction, founded on these ob- 
servations, that the earth-currents, whose continuous flow Mr. Barlow 
has the merit of establishing, would eventually explain all the changes 
of terrestrial magnetism, both periodic and irregular. I now proceed 
to state the grounds of this conviction, and to show, from Mr. Barlow's 
observations, that the diurnal changes of the earth currents correspond 
with those of the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic force. 

Let us suppose, then, that the forces which act upon the horizontal 
needle, and which cause it to deviate from its mean position, are due to 
electric currents, traversing the upper strata of the earth in a horizontal 
direction ; and let f denote the intensity of the current in the magnetic 
meridian, positive when flowing northwards^ and vice versd ; and i^ the 
intensity of the current perpendicular to the magnetic meridian, posi- 
tive when flowing eastward, and vice versd. Then the force of the 
current in any direction, making the angle • with the magnetic meridian 
(measured to the east of north) is 

f = fco8€ + i;sine. 

Kow { is proportional to the force which deflects the freely suspended 
horizontal needle from its mean position, or to XAyr, X being the 
horizontal component of the earth^s magnetic force, and A^ the change 
of declination expressed in parts of radius. Similarly, if is proportional 
to the force which deflects from its mean position a magnet, which is 
maintained (by torsion or other means) in a position perpendicular to 
the magnetic meridian; and is measured (in terms of X) by the rela- 



tire changes of the horizontal intensity, taken negatively. Hence the 
force of the current in any given direction may be determined in terma 
of the same units. 
Now 

in which a is the azimuth of the line connecting the two stations, mea- 
sured from the true meridian eastward, and y^ &e magnetic declkiation 
measured in the same direction. The observations of Sir James Boss, 
at Derby, give ^ = - 22° 25'; and we have for the line connecting 
Derby with Rugby, 

a =-13°7', a-V^ = + 9°18'; 

and for the line joining Derby and Birmingham, 

a = + 33° 27', a - ^ = + 55** 52'. 

The first column of the following Table contains the mean variation 
of the magnetic declination at the alternate hours, for the month of 
May, as deduced from four years' observation of that element at the 
Dublin Magnetic Observatory. The second contains the corresponding 
values of thB changes of the horizontal intensity, in ten-thousandths of 
the whole intensity ; and the third and fourth the calculated values of 
the deflecting forces, in the line perpendicular to that connecting the 
earth contacts at Derby and Kugby, and at Derby and Birmingham, re- 
spectiTely, and expressed in tenns of the same units. These leitter 
numbers are, by hypothesis, proportional to the intensities of the cur- 
rents directed sdong the connecting wires. 



Table I. — Calculated Values of the Intensity of the Currents, traversing 
the Wires uniting Derby and JRughy, and Derby and Birmingham, 
respectively. 



Hour. 


A^ 


AX 


Dertoyand 


Derby and 


X 


Rugby. 
61 


BiWHifignum 


1a.m. 


l'-8 


4 


2-6 


8 


2-6 


- 1-6 


7-6 


6-6 


5 


3-9 


- 8-7 


11-9 


9-6 


7 


6-2 


- 8-4 


16-2 


16-4 


9 


2-1 


-•16-9 


8*9 


17-6 


11 


- 41 


- 15 9 


- 9-8 


6*4 


IP.M. 


- 71 


- 81 


- 19-8 


- 9-0 


3 


- 6-1 


6-1 


- 16-7 


- 18-4 


6 


- 1-8 


14*2 


- 7-6 


- 14-8 


7 


0-3 


14-6 


- 1-6 


- 11-6 


9 


10 


9*0 


1-8 


- 5-9 


11 


1-8 


6-2 


2-9 


- 2-2 



The galvanometric observations instituted by Mr. Barlow on these 
two lines were continued for fourteen consecutive days, commencing 



May 1 7, 1848. Of these days of obsecratioii, however, six are inooiBiplete, 
vis., May 17, 19, 20, 23, 24, 30 ; and anotiher day (May 27) appears, 
fix)m the Dublin observations, to have been a day of considerable mag- 
netic disturbance. Omitting these, as unsuited to fiimish true mean 
results, the means of the remaining days are as follow. The positive num- 
bers indicate currents proceeding towards Derby, and the negative, 
currents in the contrary direction : — 

Table JI..^Mean observed Values of the Intensity of the Currents, tra- 
versing the Wires uniting Derby and Rugby, and Derby and Bir- 
mingham^ respectively. 







Derby and Rn^l^. 


DertyandBfnninghHiL 


Hoar. 










A.1L 


r.K. 


A.1C 


F.K. 


1 


- 1-4 


0-8 


- 6-0 


- 6-1 


0-2 


1-6 




-8*6 


2 


2-6 




- 6-6 




2-9 




- 7*7 






1-6 


1-7 


- 2-7 


- Z'^ 


0*9 


1-8 


- 7*4 


- 7*4 




11 




- 2-4 




0-7 




— 7*2 






0-6 


1-2 


- 1-8 


- 2-8 


0-6 


1-2 


- 8*6 


- 6-1 




2-7 




- 8-2 




2-8 




- 6 '8 






81 


8 


- 0-6 


- 1-1 


8-9 


4-1 


- 4*6 


- 4*7 




81 




- 0-2 




6-9 




- 8*4 






2-4 


1-8 


0-4 


0-2 


4-2 


8-4 


- 0*8 


- 1*7 


10 


- 0-9 




01 




- 0-6 




- 1*7 




11 


- 4-8 


- 8-6 


0-4 


0*6 


- 7-2 


- 6-8 


0-8 


0-4 


12 


- 6-1 




1-7 




- 81 




2*8 





It will be observed that the changes indicated by these numbers are 
very systematic. In the wire connecting Derby and Birmingham the 
current flows southwards from 10 a. k. to 10 p.m. inclusive, and north- 
wards during the remaining hours. In the wire connecting Derby and 
Eugby, the southward current lasts from 10 a. x. to 8 p.m. inclusive, 
and it is northward (with a single exception) during the remaining hours. 
There are, however, as might be expected in so short a series, some 
irr^pilariiies in the course of the changes. In order to lessen these, 
and at the same time to confine the results to such as are comparable' 
with the preceding, I have given (in the alternate columns of the Table) 
the means corresponding to the alternate hours, commencing at 1 a«m., 
computed by the formula 

i(a + 25 + c). 

The numbers so obtained are projected into curves in the diagram 
(Plate L), having been previously multiplied by constant coefficients, in 
order to equalize the ranges with those of the computed results. The 
dotted lines, in both cases, are the corresponding projections of the cal- 
culated results. The agreement between these two sets of carves is pro- 
bably as great as could be expected in the results of so sh<»rt a series of 



obaenratioiiB ; and we seem, therefore, entitled to oomdude that tlie 
dinnial moyements of the two horuontal magnetometerB are aoeoonted 
for by electric cuirents traversuig the xxj^ger starata of the earth. 

lliere ia one point of difEerence, to which it important to draw at- 
tention. It will be seen that the ealcttkOed ourres are, lor the most 
part, above the observed. The reason of this will be evident upon a litde 
connderation. The zero from which the caloulaied lesnlts are measored 
is the mean of the day ; whereas that of the obeerved results is the irm$ 
zero, corresponding to the absence of all current. Now, the chief defleo- 
tions of the galvanometer needle (as appears from the latter curves) aro 
those in which the sun is above the horizon ; and the zero Um^ ocnae- 
quently, divides the area of the diurnal curve unequally, being ccmaide- 
rably nearer to the night observations than to those of the day. If the 
calculated curves be displaced by a corresponding amount, their agree- 
ment with the observed will be much closer. 

The difference here noted is <me of considerable theoretacal impor- 
tance. Magnetometric observations furnish merely difermitial results, 
the magnitude and the sign of which have reference solely to an arbi- 
trary zero. We are accordingly ignorant even of the relative values of 
the effects, and are unable to compare them with their physical causes, 
whether real or supposed. In these respects the galvanometiic observa- 
tions have the advantage. In them poaitive and negative are physically 
distinguished by the dtreotion of the currents ; and this, as wdl as the 
absence of all curr^its, is indicated by the instrument itself. The re- 
sults, therefore, furnish the measures of the forces by which they are 
produced. 

The next, and most important, step in this inquiry will be to assign 
the physical cause of these phenomena. The existence of electric currents 
traversing the earth's crust has hitherto been maintained as an hypotheeiZf 
on account <^ its supposed adequacy to explain the terrestrial magnetic 
changes. Now, however, their e^stence is proved, not only to be a 
faet, but also a tact sufficient to explain the phenomena. It remains, 
therefore, only to ascertain their source ; and it will be for those who 
deny that the sun operates by its heat in produdng the phenomena of 
tenestrial magnetism, to assign to these currents a m(»e probable 
origin. 

Fbofessob William K. SuLUVAjf read the following paper, written 
by himself and Joseph P. O'Ebillt, CE. : — 

Chr THE Htdbqgabbokatss Am) Shjcates of Ziko ov the Frovhtoe 
OF Bahtavdeb, Bpaik. 

oBOLoeicAL covnuioirs trNnsa which the obss of zihg oocub. 

The district of country comprised by the province of Santander lies be- 
tween the prolongation of the Pyrenees, which, under various names, tra- 
verses the north of Spain, and the Bay of Biscay — the mountains forming 



its sopthem boundary, and the sea its northern. It adjoins the province 
of Biscay on the east, and that of Asturias on the west. The first range of 
the chain forming the southern boundary of the province, which at 
Pnente Yiesgo is only a few miles from the coast (four leagues from San- 
tander, the chief town), is chiefly formed of mountain limestone. Upon 
this rock rest beds of red sandstone, and ochry clay, with accompanying 
gypsum ; these are succeeded by ^elly limestone, sandstone, and clay, 
irregular beds of limestone, and dolomite, some of which yield an ex- 
cellent cement. Upon these rocks rest beds of shelly limestone, and of 
dolomite, the former containing abundance of a large species of ostrea, 
and of terebratulsB and ammonites. Above these, on the sea- coast, 
tertiary limestone and sandstones are found. The rocks which thus 
occur between the mountain limestone and the tertiary beds apparently 
represent the two lower groups of the triassic period — ^the hunter sand- 
stone and the muschelkalk. For the moment this opinion is little more 
than a guess ; but we hope to be able to establish the true relations of all 
those beds, when we have collected the materials for a memoir upon 
the geology of the entire district, with which we propose to occupy 
ourselves. 

In the mountain limestone at Yiesgo are found galena, blende, car- 
bonate of zinc (Smithsonite), copper and iron pyrites, with here and 
there deposits of gypsum. The hot baths of Yiesgo, Las Caldas, and 
Thermida, indicate the probable proximity of igneous rocks, or, at all 
events, the existence of conditions favourable to metamorphic action. 
Indeed, the Hmestone in the immediate vicinity of a lead lode which 
occurs in this rock is hardened into marble. The lodes occur gene- 
rally not far from the line of jimction of the limestone with the red 
sandstone. In the soft steatitic clay which is found in the lodes, abun- 
dance of doubly terminated crystals of clouded quartz are found. Small 
crystals of the same kind, imbedded in a paste of peroxide of manganese, 
likewise occur in the lodes. There is, indeed, everywhere in iSie dis- 
trict, evidence of the presence of large quantities of silica in solution, 
in former times. The vein stone is sulphate of barytes, or calcite ; the 
latter is frequently found in large crystals, of the form of a scalenohe- 
dron (the metastatique of Haiiy, d^ of Levy and Dufr^noy, and S, of 
Zippe). 

Ores of zinc likewise occur in the newer or triassic rocks. Their 
chief seat is the dolomite, which, if our surmise be correct, belongs to 
the muschelkalk, and suggests analogies with the zinc deposits of Wies- 
loch in Baden. The ores which occur are blende, often galeniferous, and 
carbonate (Smithsonite), the latter being most abundant The lodes 
are usually vertical, traversing the dolomite nearly at right angles, and 
presenting generally merely tiie elements of a lode or vein, namely, a 
plane of fracture with some foreign matter interposed, which, as in liie 
mountain limestone, is usually sulphate of barytes and calcite, the 
small rhombohedral crystals of the latter being in some places altered 
into sulphate of barytes. In some cases, as will be noticed presently, 
the calcite is replaced by carbonate of zinc, which forms beautiM pseu- 



domorphites of the calcite in the form of scalenohedrons. At the mines 
which have been worked near Ciguenza, a village about five miles east 
of Santander, the thickness of tiie lode is variable, increasing at the 
points where ore, especially carbonate, occurs, to l^or 2°", but diminish- 
ing to an inch where this mineral disappears, or is replaced by blende. 
Sometimes aU ore disappears, so that the lode is only represented by a 
band of barytes, or calcite. 

In the district just named, several lodes run east and west nearly 
parallel, and can be traced over a length of about 1000" in the dolomite, 
beyond which, though doubtless they extend much further, it is diffi- 
cult to trace them, in consequence of the nature of the ground. Some 
of the lodes consist of a rib of carbonate of zinc, sometimes galeniferous, 
of varying thickness, encased in very light friable ochry clay, looking 
like decomposed dolomite. In others, the ore consists of carbonate and 
blende, the latter forming the centre rib. 

The carbonate of zinc, or Smithsonite, found in these lodes, is generally 
very cavernous, or rather what may be termed clinkery, the walls of the 
empty spaces being frequeniiy lined with small crystals of the same 
mineral. The ore is usually yellowish-brown ; it is also found as a 
yellowish-white compact minend, resembling the dolomite in appearance, 
in very dense calcedony-like semi-translucent masses of a pale yellow 
colour, passing into white, the surfaces of which have a reniform struc- 
ture, in stalactitic forms, and as a friable, and more or less compact earthy 
mineral, associated with blende. The blende from the higher ranges, 
such as the mountains of Europe, is comparatively free from iron, and is 
frequently found of a sulphur-yellow, or pale garnet-red colour, and 
beautifully transparent. This blende decomposes into pure white Smith- 
sonite, which is sometimes compact and dense, and sometimes in friable 
earthy masses ; when broken, some unaltered blende is ofken found in the 
centre of pieces of this kiad of carbonate. An earthy pale buff-coloured 
dolomitic-looking carbonate of zinc, associated with earthy cinnabar, is 
found in the same locality ; this is obviously derived from a less pure 
variety of blende, mixed with cinnabar, which occurs there. We also 
meet with a granular crystalline form of Smithsonite, of a pure white 
colour, or tinged with a pale lemon-yellow or rose. 

The blende occurring in the limestone, and especially that in the 
dolomite, is ferrugiuous, and in some cases appears to decompose with 
great facility into Smithsonite. 

When the blende from which the Smithsonite is derived is associated 
with galena, the latter is very commonly found unaltered in the car- 
bonate of zinc. It appears, however, to have sometimes undergone de- 
composition; for crystals of carbonate are found abundantly in Smith- 
sonite from Puente Yiesgo, from the Yenta mine near Comillas, and 
from the mines of Celis (three leagues south of San Yincente de la Bar- 
quera), and no doubt would be found in all galeniferous Smithsonite 
from the district. Specimens may often be found contaimng galena, 
blende, and carbonates of lead and zinc. The existence of lodes of pure 
white carbonate of lead, known to, and extensively worked by the 



8 

BomanB in this part of Spain, seems to show that at some former epoch 
the decomposition of metallic sulphides, and the formation of carbon- 
ates, must have taken place under very favourable conditions. That 
the change still goes on, is peri^tly shown by specimens of brown fer- 
ruginous blende from ^e mines of St. FeMx and St. Luoita, near Go- 
mHlas; in these speoimenB the decomposition of the blende into finable 
earthy carbonate has proceeded regularly from without inwards, most 
specimens still containing a nucleus of unaltered blende. 

The eal6ed<mou» yellow and whitie Sunthsonite already spoken of, 
and which is so abondiantly found at the Merodio mines, near Comillas, 
in reniform and bolaryoidal masses, must have been deposited from 
solution. This opinion is corroborated by the circumstance that, in the 
same mine, &e oiedcite vein stone enclosing blende, has been m great 
part substituted' by carbonate of zinc. One of the resulting pseudomor- 
phites has the form of the scalenohedron, called by Haiiy the metaata- 
tique; and although not quite half a complete form, the terminal edges, 
which are well defined, are nine centimetres long. It is a shell of from 
3 to 5"^ thick of semi-translucent Smithsonite, which is partially filled 
up with a warty tufaceous mass of the same substance. The inner side 
of the shell, in the part not filled up, is covered wiiSb. a number of small 
warts. Whenever one of tiiese more or less hollow pyramids is unbroken, 
a small hole may be observed in the end, where it is broken off from 
the wall of the druse ; through this the lime was removed, and Hie 
tu&ceous zino introduced. A similar hole may often be seen in large 
crystals of felspar, which have been decomposed in the inside, or in a 
tooth in the first stage of decay. 

This association of compounds of iron with those of zinc is in- 
teresting, especially in connexion with the minerals which form the 
subject of this paper. In the capping of dolomite forming the soutii 
side of the valley of Ciguenza, which has been formed by the re- 
moval of the dolomite, and the laying bare of the underlying lime- 
stone by denudation, occur several lodes, to which allusion has been 
already made. One of these has been worked for galenifrrous carbo- 
nate at a mine called *' Emilia," while at another mine called ** Yi- 
centa," to the westward upon the same lode, the ore found was almost 
pure carbonate. Upon sin^g a mine in one of the parallel lodes about 
30* north of ^e principal lode at Emilia, only iron ore similar in appear^ 
ance to the calamine was found ; at the depth of five or six metres this 
passed into pyrites, but blende was not found. The continuation of the 
same lode to the westward, near the mine Yicenta, gave, on the other 
hand, an earthy ore of iron mixed with blende, and at a greater depth 
pyrites, — ^the ore consisting at this point of a rib, one side of which was 
pyrites and the other blende. StiU deeper the iron disappeared, and 
was replaced by carbonate of zinc, exactly as in the neighbouring part 
of the main lode. 

It would thus appear that the iron ore is the result of the decom- 
position of pyrites. In this case, a large quantity of sulphuric acid must 
have been formed and removed, and must have contributed to the de- 



9 

composition of the aflsociated blende, and perhaps to the formation of 
hydrooarbonate of zinc — a mineral which heretofore was known to occnr 
only in small quantities, but which has been formed in very large quan* 
tities indeed in this disbict. 

The hydrocarbonate of zinc is chiefly found in the limestone underly- 
ing the dolomite. The most remarkable deposit of it is that which occurs 
at a mine calledDolores, in the yalley of Hdias. As this deposit is interest- 
ing from several points of view, a description of the circumstances under 
which it occurs will, while offering several peculiar features, explain 
the general conditions under which all the similar deposits are found. 
The northern escarpment of this valley presents the following ascending 
sucoession of rocks : — 

1. Bed sandstone and clay beds, with accompanying gypsum. 

2. Very shelly limestone. 

3. Sandstone and beds of clay. 

4. Irregular beds of limestone and dolomite, — ^the under bed pro- 
ducing a good hydraulic lime. 

6. Shelly limestone, containing abundance of oyster-shells. 

6. Dolomite. 

7. Tertiary limestone. 

8. Tertiary greenish sandstone. 

There appears to be a fSault in the direction of the axis of the valley 
through wMch a stream runs, which has produced a downthrow on the 
south, equal to the thickness of the upper beds of No. 1, and the whole 
thickness of Nos. 2 and 3 ; so that the bed of limestone producing hy- 
draulic cement has been brought in contact with red sandstone of the 
northern side. 

The dolomite contains yellowish-red Smithsonite, while the subjacent 
shelly limestone contains the hydrocarbonate associated with silicate of 
zinc. The ore is irregularly dispersed in the spaces between the planes 
of stratification, and in the vertical joints. The beds of limestone have 
only a very feeble dip, — not more than from 10^ to 15®. The joints are 
very r^:ular, and nearly vertical to the plane of bedding ; so tiiat each 
bed is not unlike a great pavement, in which a block gives way, if not 
directly sustained by the subjacent bed ; hence, caverns are easily formed 
in such a rock. A shaft was sunk into this rock near its junction with 
the dolomite, and a depth of about lO"" to 12'* had been attained, when 
the workmen came upon an opening into such a cavern ; and on descend- 
ing into it, they discovered some fossil bones upon the floor, among which 
were recognised some teeth of an elephant in an excellent state of pre- 
servation, and some broken antlers. This interesting circumstance led 
one of us (Mr. O'Beilly), in company with If. Javot, the head engineer 
of the mines, to visit the cavern. On descending into it, the visitors 
were struck by the appearance of the roof and floor ; from the former 
descended stalactites of various sizes, and of most &ntastic forms, 
B. I. A. PBOC. — VOL. vni. c 



10 

the moftt common being tkat of an ekmgated inverted cone, like those 
met with in limestone cayems ; many, however, presented the appear- 
ance and colour of white coral trees, and some, being composed of hydro- 
carbonate of zinc, were of the dazzling white colour peculiar to that 
mineraL 

The floor was composed of one immesBebed of white hydiocarbonate 
of zinc, of variable thickness, but in some places it was found to attain 
a thickness of l"" 5, — ^ihe irregularity of the ground producing a cor- 
responding irregularity in the surface of the bed. Traces of a stream 
were recognised, which during the rainy season traverses the cavern, and 
which, no doubt, contributed to the deposition of the hydrocarbonate of 
zinc. The floor was so white, that the visitors hesitated to tread 
upon it with their muddy boots. Here and there the floor was covered 
with the mineral in a granular form, and portions of it upon which 
water was continually falling felt soapy. The phenomena presented 
where the dropping occurs are very interesting, and differ materi- 
ally from what are observed during the ordinary formation of stalag- 
mites. The running water accumulated during a period of rain had 
apparently deposited gradually a thin layer of hydrocarbonate, the soft 
surface of which became exposed to the action of the water dropping 
from above, as soon as the supernatant water had drained away. The 
immediate consequence of the fall of the flrst drops was the formation 
of a cup-shaped cavity. The dropping water contained some silicate in 
solution, which immediately produced a gelatinous compound with the 
zinc of the floor. The splash of the drop upon the sofb gelatinous matter 
threw small globules of it about. Similar little globules of soft hydro- 
carbonate, free from silica, appear to have also been formed in the same 
way. As the cup enlarged, several of these globules became enlarged by 
the gradual deposition of successive layers, and, remaining in the cup, got 
moved about, and had their surfaces polished whenever a rapid succes- 
sion of drops felL A rapid succession of drops, not accurately falling 
upon the same spot, seems to have detached fragments of the more or 
less soft mass, or floods of water may have carried broken fragments of the 
mineral into the cups ; and being too large to be groimd into round frag- 
ments, they wore into flat lenticular or irregular pebbles. The cups thus 
fonned were flUed up by the successive deposits of mineral matter which 
floods brought into l^e cavern. But while on the level floor the hydro* 
carbonate was deposited in suooessive laminsa, the cups became the 
moulds of concretions. In this way, probably : the cup got filled up with 
soft mineral ; as the water drained off, drops began again to fall into the 
centre of the sofb mass, by which a fi'esh cup was produced, and this 
again filled up, and so on ; the final result being tiie production of a 
kind of flattened spheroidal concretion, with a slight indentation in the 
top. Sometimes the points from which the drops fell appear to have 
changed,^so that no new cup was formed. In this case, the last deposited 
matter contracted on drying, and left a slight depression, with irregular 
lips, not unlike an opening bud. The change in the point from which 
the drops fell was often very slight, so that a new cup was formed close 



11 

to, bat not diiecUy over, the Ant one ; or droppings took place at the 
same time from two pointB, so close as to produce twin cups. 

The ronnded particles formed by the drof^nngs acted as the nuclei 
azonnd which deposits took place, so that they often became enlarged 
from the sLee of a peppercorn to that of ballets, or larger. When a num- 
ber of these got imbedded in the soft mineral mud, a pisolithic mass 
was formed. Some of the balls, howerer, contain so lai^e a nucleus of 
the translucent opal-like compoimds of silicate and carbonate of zinc, to 
be described further on, ih&t we must suppose them to have been fonned 
by the falling of large drops of water holding silicates in solution into 
a solution of hydrocarbonate of zinc. 

The foesil bones lay on this floor, i)artia]ly or wholly enveloped in 
the h3^dFOca]:bonate. The greater part of the collection has been 
transllnred to some Spanish museum, so that, for the present, we can- 
not give any partienlar aoeount of them. A few fragments, however, 
having fortunately come into our hands, an opportunity was afforded 
of making a chemical examination of them, with a view of detennining 
how tar a substitution of lime by zinc took place. The results will be 
found further on. 

The under side of a piece of the floor, in which a bone completely enve- 
loped in hydrocarbonate was partially buried, was composed of a kind of 
conglomerate of flattened, and more or less rounded, fragments of hydro- 
carbonate of zinc, evidently the result of the action of running wate 
They were, in fact, the pebbles of a stream upon which the bones rested, 
and which were cemented by hydrocarbonate, and then covered over, and 
the bones more or less buried la the successive layers of hydrocarbonate 
of zinc deposited in comparatively still water. 

The hydrocarbonate of zinc is found in compact eartiiy masses of a 
pure white colour, or slightly coloured brown by organic matter, 
and more or less distinctly laminated, as a friable bergmehl-like sinter, 
as stalactites, concretionary nodules, pisolithic masses, ^. It is usu- 
ally associated witii silicate of zinc, which is found coating it in small 
raystals, or in layers composed of colourless translucent fibrous crys- 
tals. Sometimes these layers alternate with the hydrocarbonate ; 
cTen when the flbrous silicate occurs in concretionary masses of consi- 
derable thickness, each layer appears to be separated by an extremely 
thin opaque parting of hydrocarbonate of zinc. Layers of hydrocar- 
bonate are often found having the fibrous structure of the silicate, 
but containing no silica. They may possibly be the result of pseudo- 
morphic action, and consequently to be regarded as pseudomorphic 
hy^ocarbonate after flbroufl hydrated silicate of zinc. This intimate 
associatiosi of hydrated silicate of zinc and hydrocarbonate of zinc 
extends Inueh fiirther than mere mechanical associations ; for in the 
baUs already mentioned we shall find examples of combinations of the 
two in various proportions, and even the pure fibrous silicate will be 
diown to contain carbonic acid. 

The preceding observations indicate the chronological order in which 
the different kinds of zinc ores in the province of Santander have he&a. 



12 

formed. The primitiye ore was blende, associated generally with more 
or less pyrites ; the decomposition of the blende produced the Smithson- 
ite. Contemporaneously, as it appears, with the transformation of blende, 
water holdmg some salt, or perhaps several salts, of zinc in solution 
percolated through the joints, and between the planes of bedding of the 
limestone underlying the dolomite — chief seat of the Smithsonite — ^and 
deposited there, and in the caves formed in the limestone the masses of 
hydrocarbonates now found tiiere. The proper discussion of the chemical 
changes by which these minerals have been formed, involves the solu- 
tion of several chemical problems, such as the action of solutions of 
bicarbonates upon those of sulphate of zinc, the action of sulphate of pro- 
toxide of iron upon sulphide of zinc, &c. One of us has akeady begun 
the investigation of these problems. We may therefore defer until its 
completion any attempt to trace out the successive transformationB by 
which the Smithsonite and hydrocarbonate were formed. 

The occurrence of the bones partially buried in the hydrocarbo- 
nate of zinc forming the floor of the cavern above described, affords 
a test by which to determine the exact geological age of the deposits 
of hydrc>earbonate, and consequently of the formation of the greater 
part of the Smithsonite. This testis the more valuable, because evidence 
showing the period of geological time to which the deposition of the 
contents of mineral veins belongs is very rare. There can be no doubt 
that the deposition of the greater part of the hydrocarbonate was con- 
temporaneous with the existence of the species of animals to which the 
bones belonged. It is probable, therefore, that the deposition of that 
mineral in l£e cavern began during the pleistocene period, and has con- 
tinued down to the present time. Until an opportunity is afforded of 
making an accurate examination of all the bones, this conclusion must, 
however, be looked upon as provisional. 

JEffect of the Zino SoltUtoru on the FoseH Bones, — Before passing to 
the discussion of the chemical composition of the hydrocarbonate of zinc 
and the associated silicates, it may be interesting to notice, the effect which 
the solution of a salt of zinc has had upon the composition of the 
bones. Only a few of the bones found came into our possession, and they 
were chiefly fragments. Some were wholly enveloped in the white mi- 
neral, others only partially. Among the latter was a tibia, apparently 
belonging to some ruminating animal — probably a large-sized deer. 
This bone had lain on the floor, and was covered troim time to time with 
water holding a salt of zinc in solution, whenever the cave was flooded. 
On one side was a partial stalagmitic coating, apparently produced by 
droppings from the roof. It was beautihilly white ; the dense part of the 
bone adhered strongly to the tongue, like burnt bone ; it was, however, 
much more fragile, and friable. Even when kept for several dltys over 
oil of vitriol, it lost a considerable quantity of water, which appeared to 
be chemically combined with it. The cancellated tissue of this bone 
was beautifully preserved. A portion of this tissue was put for three 
or four days into acetic acid diluted with about twice its weight of 
water, in order to dissolve out the carbonates which it contained ; this 



13 

piooeBS was repeated onoe with fireah add, acnnewhat Btronger, so a^ to 
insore the total remoYal of the carbonates. Sulphide of hydrogen in 
excess, added to the add solution, gave a copions precipitate of sulphide 
of zinc ; this was removed by filtration, and oxalate of ammonia added 
to the filtered solution, which threw down a precipitate of oxalate of 
lime. This shows either that the whole of the carbonate of lime was not 
removed from the bone during the action of the solution of zinc, or that 
new carbonate of Hme had be^ formed from the phosphate by the substi- 
tution of oxide of zinc. The tissue treated with the acetic add was 
washed repeatedly with distilled water, and boiled with it, in order to 
remove all traces of the acetates of zinc and lime, and then dissolved 
m hydrochloric acid. To this solution ammonia was added in excess, 
and it was then digested for some hours, so as to insure the re-solution 
of all the phosphate of zinc thrown down at first. On filtering, the 
phosphate of lime remained on the filter ; the filtered liquid contained 
any zinc existing as phosphate; on adding sulphide of ammonium to 
the solution, a predpitate of sulphide of zinc was thrown down. The 
solution filtered from the predpitate of sulphide of zinc, treated with 
chloride of magnedum, gave a precipitate of ammonio-magnesian phos- 
phate. On determining the amount of zinc in the precipitated sul- 
phide in the usual way, and calculating the amount of phosphoric 
acid in the ammonio-magnesian phosphate, the results showed that 
the phosphoric add and oxide of zinc were in the proportions to form 
the salt dZnOyPOs. In the air-dried bone, the amount of oxide of 
zinc as phosphate was 6090 per cent., equivalent to 10*805 per cent, 
of 3ZnO,POs. The amount of lime thus substituted by zinc appeared 
to vary according as the bone was completely enveloped or not, and 
accor^ng to the part of the bone examined. The solid part of a 
fragment of a small bone, completdy envdoped by a coating of hy- 
drocarbonate about 5™* thick, contained a quantity of oxide of zinc 
equivalent to 16'98 per cent, of phosphate of ziac A part of the car- 
bonate of lime may have been derived from this substitution. Scarcely a 
trace of the organic matter of the bone had been preserved, but in those 
which were covered by layers of hydrocarbonate, the indde of the coat- 
ing or shell of mineral, when removed from the bone, had always a 
yeUowiah-brown superficial colour, and bore an accurate imprint of the 
bone. When the inner layer of such a coating was dissolved dowly in mo- 
deratdy dilute acetic acid, brown membranaceous flocculi floated about, 
which were probably the remains of the periosteum. This would seem 
to show that the bones were not much decayed before they were en- 
veloped in the hydrocarbonate of zinc, and consequently confirms the 
view that the formation of the upper layers, at least, of the hydrocar- 
bonate of zinc in the cavern, was contemporaneous with the species of 
animals to which the bones belong. 

Chemical Composition of the Hydroearhonate of Zinc, — Analyses of 
the Spanish hydrocarbonate of zinc have been already published by MM. 
T. Petersen and E. Veit*, and by M. A. Terreil.f The former believe that 

* Anoal. d. Pharm. n. Cheni. Bd. cviii. 4S. f Compt rend, t zfiz., p. 558. 



14 

itjias not a constant compoeition. Tke mean of seyeral analyses of a 
portion taken from the centre of a large pieoe gare, — 

Calculated. Found. 

ZnO, . . . 73021 .... 73-1 

CO^ . . . 14-838 .... 15-1 

HO, . . . 12140 .... 11-8 



99-999 1000 

The calculated percentage is deriyed from the fonnnia 8ZnO,300,, 
6H0. Exposed to the air tor three months, its composition was found 
to be: — 

Oaleolated. Found. 

ZnO, .... 76-277 .... 7473 
CO., .... 18-597 .... 13-81 
HO, ... . 1M24 . . . . 11-45 



99-998 100-09 

The calculated nTmibers are here deriyed from the formula 3ZnO, 
G0„2H0, which they assign to it 

The following are the results of an analysis of a ball of hydrocarbo- 
nate, made by M. Terreil : — 

ZnO, 68 15 

CO2, 1317 

CaO, 1-60 

AlaO„Fe,Oj, 0-80 

HO, 12-40 

Hygroscopic water, 3-13 

Organic matter containing nitrogen, . . traces 

99-25 

This corresponds, according to him, to the formula 5ZnO, 200,, 3H0; 
but as part of the water is hygroscopic, he prefers the formula 3ZnO, 
C0„2H0. If we deduct the lime, alumina, iron, and hygroscopic 
water, and calculate the composition of the remainder in 100 parts, and 
also calculate the theoretical composition in 100 parts frx)m the formula 
3ZnO,Co„2HO, we get the following numbers : — 

Calculated. Found. 

3ZnO» . . . 75-277 . . . 72-716 

CO., . . . 13-597 . . . 14052 

2H0, . . . 11-124 . . . 13-230 



99-998 99-998 



• Equivalent of Zinc = 3S*6. 



15 

TlMse aumbc»B difier too muoh to warrant 110 in acoepting the f((p- 
mula proposed by li. Terrell as the true one. 

M. Terreil states, that even at 200^ cent hydroearbonate of 21110 loses 
oaly hygroaoopk wid^r ; this statement appears singular, especially when 
we recoUeot the interesting results of M. Damour,* who found that even 
the zeolites, with the exception d analcime, possess the property of 
losing considerable quantities, and sometimes even the whole of their 
hydrated water, either when placed in a perfectly dry atmosphere, or 
when exposed to temperatures comprised between 40** cent., and in- 
cipient redness, and of again taking it up. The loss of water which 
hydrates sustain when heated, depends not only upon the temperature 
to which they are exposed, but likewise upon liie relative facility with 
which tlie air in contact with them is changed, and upon the duration 
of the exposure. In order to test this point, the percentage of water 
and carbonic acid in a piece of perfectly white compact hydroearbonate 
was determined by the loss which it su0tained by ignition, in its air- 
dried state, after an hour's exposure to a temperature of 130^ cent, in 
an oil-bath, and after an exposure of five or six hours to a tempera- 
ture ranging between 150** to 180® cent., and with frequent exposure 
to the air. A similar experiment was tried with a fragment of pure 
white friable bergmehl-like hydroearbonate. The following table con- 
tains the results of these experiments : — 

Compact Friable light 

Minaral. Mineral 

Total HO, and GO, in air-dried mineral, 25-738 . . 28-380 

Loss in one hour at 130% 2-041 . . 3-151 

Loss in six hours at 150" to 180", . . 14-423 . . 18-571 

The following table represents the relative composition at each 
stage : — 

Compact MineraL Friable light Mineral. 



ZnO,. 

co„ \ 

HO, ) 


Air-Dried. 
. 74-262 . 
. 25-788 . 


Dried at 

. 75-809 
. 24-191 


Dried at IftO* 
to ISO**. 

. 88-898 — 
. 11-102 — 


Air- 
Dried. 

71-620 . 
28-380 . 


Dried at 
130«. 

. 76 121 . 
. 23-879 . 


Dried at 150« 
to 180«. 

. 92-802 
. 7-689 



100-000 100-000 100000 100-000 100000 100-000 

These experiments show that not only does hydroearbonate of zinc 
lose hydrated water at temperatures under 200", but even a considerable 
quantity of carbonic acid. It is even probable, that in a current of 
hot air at a temperature of 180° cent., it would be i^y decomposed. 
It may, however, be safely dried at the temperature of boiling water, or 
even as high as 120" cent, provided it be not too long exposed to the 
heat. 

With the view of determining whether the composition of the hy- 
droearbonate is always constant, a large number of specimens, exhibiting 

* Conpt rend, t xliv. p. 975. 



16 

88 great a variety of structure and origin as possible, were examined 
In some cases the sum of the water and carbonic acid was determined 
by ascertaining the loss by ignition ; but in several cases every consti- 
tuent was separately determined, and great care was especially taken in 
estimating the amount of carbonic acid. The following contains the 
description of the specimens, and the results of the analyses : — 

I. — Compact indistinctly laminated mass, with its upper surface co- 
vered with ripple marks ; colour, pure white, opaque ; dull, earthy, but 
with a slightly oonchoidal fracture, and fissile along the planes of deposi- 
tion ; somewhat brittle, streak shining. Hardness = 2. Specific gravity, 
2*232, or 3*758 after it has become fuJly saturated with moisture. The 
piece examined was taken from the centre of the mass, which was twelve 
centimetres long, ten wide, and eight thick. 

IL — ^Fragment taken from the exterior of the last-mentioned mass, 
which had been many months exposed to the air. 

in. — Light, porous, friable mass, of a perfectly white colour, and 
not unKke some kinds of meerschaum, but much more friable, being easily 
reduced to powder between the fingers. 

lY., v., VI. — Specimens of compact white hydrocarbonate, similar 
to I. and II. 

VII. — Compact white hydrocarbonate, very distinctly laminated, and 
slightly discoloured from clay, &c., on the sur&ces of the laminaB; formed 
part of the floor in which the bones were buried. 

VIII. — Another specimen of light, friable sinter, similar to IIL, 
but having a faint rose-red tint. 

IX. — Fragment of the hydrocarbonate encasing a piece of bone. 
Some of the layers, though perfectly opaque, had a fibrous structure, like 
silicate of zinc 

X. — Part of a lump of pure white compact hydrocarbonate, enclosed 
in translucent crystalline Smithsonite. 

XL — Part of a lump of pure white compact hydrocarbonate, inter- 
mixed with white transparent fibrous silicate of zinc. 

XII. — External layer of a stalactite, having a distinctly fibrous 
structure, analogous to that of the silicate. 

XIII. — ^Ball of white hydrocarbonate of zinc, one centimetre in dia- 
meter. 

I. II. UL 

Oxide of Zinc, . 74059 . . . 74-244 . . . 73-581 

Lime, .... 0-011 . . . 0-018 . . . 0010 

Phosphate of iron, 0-008 . . . 0005 . . . 0003 
Alkalies in combi- i r^^f^g^^ 

nation with siHca,r " ' * ~ ' " ' "" 
Carbonic acid, 14*934) 14-893) 14-980) 

Hydrated water, 10070 25-968 10-027 25-656 10-421 26-429 
Hygroscopic water, 0-964) 0-736) 1-028) 

Organic matter, . traces . . . traces . . . traces. 

100-049 99-918 100023 



17 

IV. V. VI. VII. VIU. . 

Oxide of rino, , 74173 . 74-262 . 74247 . 74092 . 73-427 
Carbonic aoid, 

Hydrated water, [25*827 . 26*738 . 26-753 . 26*908 . 26-673 
Hygroscopic water, 



100-000 100-000 100-000 100-000 100000 





IX. 


X. 


XI. 


XII. 


XHL 


Oxide of zinc, 


74-232 . 


74-284 


74-391 


. 74-437 . 


74-480 


Carbonic acid, 












Hydrated water. 


26-778 


. 25-716 


. 26-609 


26-663 


. 26-520 


Hygroscopic water, 


) 











100-000 100000 100-000 100-000 100-000 

Bo fiear as these results go, they prove that the change assumed by 
Messrs. Peterson and Yeit to take place in the composition of the 
mineral hf exposure to the air does not occur. It is probable that the 
mineral may have been when first formed more highly hydrated, and 
that, accor^Sng as it hardened, in consequence of the gradual evaporation 
of the mechanicaUy-adheiing water, it likewise lost part of its hydrated 
water, — thereby giving rise to the formation of a' sufficiently stable com- 
pound to remain imaltered in the air. We generally consider that hy* 
drated gelatinous precipitates have the composition which the analyses 
of the ^>dies formed by throwing them upon filters, pressing and drying 
the filtered masses, give us ; it is, however, very probable, that the moist 
gelatinous mass is a different hydrate from tiiat which we get upon 
the dried filter. It is quite possible that all bodies capable of combining 
with water may do so in a great many proportions, some of which 
only possess the necessary degree of stability to enable us to isolate 
them— of this we have a striking example in the two, if not three, hy- 
drates which common salt forms. We also know that in bodies which 
contain several equivalents of hydrated water, each equivalent may not 
always be held with the same amount of force. All the specimens ex- 
amined by us were thoroughly air-dried, having been in a dry, warm 
room, during more than eight months, and had all consequently arrived 
at the stage of greatest stability, whatever may have been the original 
degree of hydration. It does not appear that any carbonic acid waa 
lost. 

If w6 consider the part of the water which is driven off in the water- 
bath as hygroscopic, the formula 8ZnO,3COa5HO « 3 (ZnO,CO,) + ^ 
(ZnO,HO), represents the composition of the Spanish hydrocarbonate. 
The following table, which contains the results of the analyses I., II.,. 
III., firom wMch the hygroscopic water, lime, &c.y have been deducted, 
shows the agreement between the composition calculated from this for- 
mula and tlutt deduced from experiment : — 

R. I. A. psoc. — VOL. vni. n 



18 



Found. 



Calculated. i. n. iii. 

8ZnO, 74-629 . . . 74-759 . . . 74-869 . . . 74-337 

5HO;iO-325r^^^^ 10-165/25 240 niur^^^^ 10-528} ^^ ^^^ 

When hot or cold solutions of sulphate of zinc and carbonate of soda 
or potash are mingled, a precipitate is thrown down, which was analysed 
by Schindler, and for which he proposed the formula 8ZnO,3C08,6HO. 
lliis is also the formula which Messrs. Peterson and Yeit deduced from 
their analyses of the part taken from the centre of the mass. If we con- 
sidered the water driven off at 120° as part of the hydrated water, the 
composition of No. IIL would to some extent agree with the formula — 
to some extent only, however, for the water, which in an air-dried speci- 
men is more likely to be in excess, is too smaU. But as it is only the 
friable porous variety, which must contain most hygroscopic water, that 
agrees with this formula, while all the compact varieties differ materially 
from it, we could not, even if we had not positive evidence that part of 
the water is hygroscopic, adopt the formula of Schindler. 

How are we to look upon those hydrocarbonates ? Are they com- 
pounds of hydrated oxide of zinc and of carbonate of zinc, or are they 
basic carbonates combined with water? If the former, Schindler's 
formula should be written thus :— [3 (ZnO,CO,) + 5 (ZnO,HO) ] + HO ; 
if the latter, 8ZnO,3CO, + 6H0. In the former case the water performs 
two functions, and one equivalent must be held with much less force 
than the other five. It is probable that the most stable hydrate of 
oxide of zinc, is that represented by the formula ZnO,HO ; accordingly 
we find that, in the majority of hydrocarbonates yet discovered, the sum 
of the equivalents of carbonic acid and water is equal to the number of 
equivalents of zinc. May it not be that the body examined by Schind- 
ler was not perfectly dry ; and that its real composition was 3 (ZnO, 
CO,) + 5'(ZnO,HO). In this case it was identical in composition with 
the Spanish hydrocarbonate. 

With regard to the second formula of Messrs. Peterson and Veit, 
which assumes not merely a loss of hydrated water, but also of carbonic 
acid, we believe that their conclusion is founded upon an erroneous 
estimation of the carbonic acid. On looking to page 14, it will be found 
that the amount of oxide of zinc which they found is considerably below 
that calculated from their fonnula, while it is very little above that 
deduced from our fonnula — ^indeed, their analysis of the part exposed 
to the air for three months, so far from leading to the formula 3ZnO, 
C0a,2H0, fully confirms ours, as the following table, in which our 
analyses are contrasted with theirs, and with the theoretical composition 
deduced from our formula shews : — 

CalcoUtod. I. IL III. p. ftV. 

8ZnO, 74-629 . . . 74-769 . . . 74869 . . . 74-837 . . . 74-78 

6H0, 10-328 r^*®^ 10-166 r^^*" 11-111 r^^^^ 10629 r^ ^^^ 11-46P^^^" 



19 

The original substance to which the name zinc bloom or zinc bliithe 
was given, and which consists of a species of efflorescence which forms 
on the walls of zinc mines, and upon the rubbish taken out of the work- 
ings, appears to be a different compound from that which we haye been 
describing. Smithson first, I believe, analysed a specimen of this 
mineral in small mammiform patches from Bleiberg, in Carinthia. Ano- 
ther analysis of it was made by Dr. Carl Schnabel,* with a specimen 
which had effloresced upon the rubbish at Ramsbeck, in Westphalia, 
under the influence of strong sunshine. Similar efflorescences are found 
upon a curious blende, which occurs in globular and reniform masses, 
formed of concentric layers at the Yenta, near Comillas, specimens of 
which we have analysed; and also upon some Smithsonite from the mines 
of Plorida. These different specimens agree very well in composition, 
and may be represented by the formula 3ZNO,C0^3HO. The white 
compound which forms upon the surface of metallic zinc when inoist- 
ened, and exposed to the air, appears to belong to the same category, as 
the following table, containing the results of all the analyses, shows : — 

SZnO,. 71-811 .... 71-260 . . 71-4 . . . 71-210 .... 71-26 

99-998 100-000 1000 100.000 10000 

In this formula the sum of the equivalents of carbonic acid and water 
exceed the number of equivalents of oxide of zinc, and consequently 
the objections urged against Schindler's formula apply here with equal 
force. We had not, however, enough of the mineral to determine the car- 
bonic acid separately, or whether a portion of the water could be driven 
off at a lower temperature than the rest. It would be useless to 
discuss the matter further until the whole of the compounds of oxide of 
zinc with carbonic acid and water, obtained by precipitating salts of 
zinc by means of carbonates, by the rusting of zinc, &c., sh^ be re- 
examined. It is interesting, however, to ffnd that the natural com- 
pounds obtained by precipitation and by efflorescence, exhibit exactly 
the same difference as the artificial ones, and, frirthermore, that the cor- 
responding natural and artificial bodies are identical in composition. 

Messrs. Peterson and Veit give 3-52 as the specific gravity of the 
Spanish hydrocarbonate of zinc ; while M. Terreil gives 2*042. The fol- 
lowing observations will, we think, explain the discrepancy. A piece 
of No. I., when allowed to absorb water completely, was found to have 
the density 3-758 ; the quantity of water absorbed was 18-189 per cent. 
If we consider that before absorbing this quantity of water it had first 
displaced it, the specific gravity of the mineral, supposing it to have 



* P<^. Annal. ct. 144. 

t We hftve deducted the foreign matte» and hygroscopic water, and reduced the 
'esidne to the standard of 100 parts. 



20 

absorbed nothing, would therefore be 2*232. According to SmithBon, 
the specific gravity of zinc bloom is 3-69. 

CHBKIGAL COlCPOfllllOir OV THE BXLI0ATB8 OF ZTBTO. 

PiBoUthic Amorphoua 8%Uoates. — ^We shall first speak of the piso- 
lithio Bilicates, the formation of which is described at page 10. Some 
of these balls are opaque, and consist of beautiftilly concentric shells ; 
but nearly all that we haye examined contained a semi-translncent 
opal-like nudeus, often not bigger than a pin-head, bnt sometimes as 
large as the largest-sized peas ; sometimes spheroidal balls, as large as 
beans, of this opalescent silicate, are found. These opal£Acent nuclei 
and balls are not, like the opaque ones, composed of concentric layers, 
but appear to be quite homogenous. The concentrical structure, as well 
as the opacity, may, perhaps, in some cases be explained as a process 
of drying, or dehydratation, and not as a successive growth ; in favour 
of this view is the fact, that the opalescent nucleus has generally 
somewhat more water than the opaque external shell. In some cases 
this explanation does not certainly apply ; for the nucleus has a different 
composition from the opaque shells, and the latter have all the appear- 
ance of having been successively formed about the former — ^the ead^eraal 
Burfieu^es of some of the shells having different lustres, for instance. The 
following are the results of the analyses of several of these balls : — 

I. — Slightly spheroidal ball, not found as a nucleus, but may have 
been originally in a large ball ; lustre resinous, inclining to vitreous; 
fracture oonchoidal and shining; colour, milk-white; semi-translucent; 
brittle ; sp. gravity, 8-694 ; not unlike opal, but not iridescent. 

n. — ^A remarkably round baU, 6 to 7™" in diameter, pure enamel- 
white ; surface smooth, exactly like glazed porcelain* or fused white 
enamel ; fracture like biscuit porcelain. 

III. — ^Ball of about the same size as No. II., but having a dull sur- 
fieice ; colour, enamel- white ; fracture like biscuit porcelain. 

lY. — ^A. pea, 5™" in diameter, taken from the centre of a large ball 
IQmm ^ diameter ; external surface smooth, like fased enamel ; fracture 
like bimmit porcelain ; colour, pure enamel-white ; streak, white ; hard- 
ness, 3*6 ; sp. gravity, 2*883. It contained in the centre a semi-trans- 
lucentnucleus, about the size of a mustard-seed, of the density and other 
properties of No. III. 

I. II. IIL IV. 

Oxide of zinc, . . . .64*549 . 61-865 . 62*266 . 66*844 

SOicicacid, 6*493 . 8*292 . 9*214 . 17*471 

Carbonic acid, .... 11*246 . 11*301 . 10*101 . 4*687 

"^th^ph^^^^^Sd.}- o-oo» ■ 0-002 . 0003 . o-ooa 

Lime, 0*006 . traces . 0*001 traces. 

AuE,*'} *^®* • ^'^^ • *™^« • *~^®'- 

Water, 17*672 . 18*624 . 19*362 . 10-834 



99.969 100084 100-947 99*788 



21 

M. Terreil also examined one of these siliceouB balk ; it had the spe- 
cific grayity 2*762, and appears to hare been analogons to No. lY. in 
other respects. As he conld not remoTe the carbonate bj means of yery 
dilute acetic acid without also decomposing the silicate, he concluded 
that the two were in chemical combination. The specimen he examined 
contained 12*92 per cent, of water, of which 5*16 per cent, was diiyen 
off between 100^ and 200^ per cent. ; he accordingly reckons this part as 
hygroscopic water. Considering silica to be ateroxide, he assumes the 
formula [ZnOfiiOt, (ZnO,HO)«]* -!• ZnO,GO,. This is a very complex 
formula, in which we have to assume the combination of silicate of 
zinc with hydrate of zinc, and the combination of this compound with 
anhydrous carbonate of zinc. We also believe that the carbonate is in 
combination with the silicate ; but having had a greater variety of spe- 
cimens to examine, we have, as we believe, airived at a simpler expres- 
sion of their composition. The following are the formulie which we 
propose for the compounds examined by us : — 

I — 2 ZnO,SiO; + 3 (2 ZnO, CO.) + 9 HO. 

II — 2 ZnO,8iO, f 2 (2 ZnO, CO.) + 8 HO. 

in.—2(2 ZnO,8iOi) + 3 (2 ZnO, CO.) + 14 HO. 

IV— 2 (2 ZnO,8iO,) + 2 ZnO, CO, + 4 HO. 

The following table shows the accordance between the theoretical 
composition calculated from the formulae, and the results found : — 



Calcnlatod. Found. 

8 ZnO, . . 64*598 64*549 

SiO» . . 6165 6*493 

sec . . 131261 „g.23 12-2461 g- 

9H0, . . 16*109r^^^^ • • 16-672r®^l* 



99*960 



II. 



Calcalated. Found. 

6 ZnO, . . 62-365 61*865 

SiO, . . 7*936 8*292 



100*082 



III. 



CalcniAted. Found. 

10 ZnO, . . 61*515 62*266 

2SiO„ . . 9*393 9*214 

3 CO., . . 100001 1^-1®U29'463 

14 HO, . . 19090/^^"^" • • 19*362/2^^^^ 

100-943 



IV. 



Calcalftted. Found. 

6ZnO, . . 66-996 66844 

2SiO„ . . 17051 17-471 

4H0, . . 9-900r^^^^ . . 10-834/^^^^^ 



99-786 



Nothing can be fdmpler than the connexion which these fonnule 
establish between the composition of the different balls. According 
to them, they are compounds of two bodies, which are already well 
known, and one of which abounds in the locality, namely, calamine or 
hydrated silicate of zinc, and a dicarbonate of zinc, which may be precipi- 
tated by sesqnicarbonate of soda, from a solution of sulphate, and 
which has been obtained by Boussingault combined with water as 
2(2ZnO,CO,) + 3H0 ; and by Schindler, 2ZnO,CO, + 2H0. The brief 
description which we have given in the first part of this paper of the 
circumstances under which these minerals occur, is sufficient to show 
that all the conditions for the formation of such a dicarbonate in the 
presence of a solution of silicate of zinc coexist. If these formulsB be 
correct, dicarbonate of zinc and disilicate of zinc are isomorphous ;* and 
these compounds are analogous to those formed by bisulphate of potash 
and bichromate of potash, sulphate of potash, and chromate of potash, 
and the nitrates of potash and silver; and, consequently, similar com- 
pounds may be formed in endless proportions. Perhaps some of the 
zinc ores from Wiesloch, analysed by G. Biegel,t may belong to this 
category ; indeed, the affinity of silicate of zinc for carbonate of zinc, 
appears to be considerable. Almost every specimen of the former con- 
tains carbonic acid, even the transparent fibrous kinds. 

FihroiM Semimorphite, or Hydrated Disilicate of Zinc {Calamine), — 
After discovering the simple relationship of the formula of ^e balls con- 
taining different proportions of water, the idea at once suggested itself 
to us that the isomorphism of the disilicate and dicarbonate might explain 
the want of atomic relation of the water, which is almost invariably ob- 
served in all the specimens of calamine that have hitherto been ana- 
lysed. In order to test this hypothesis, we analysed a specimen of per- 
fectly colourless ^and in small pieces transparent), fibrous, hydrated si- 
licate of zinc, which is associated with the hydrocarbonate from Dolores 
mine. This specimen was found to contain carbonic acid, as will be 
seen by the following table : — 



* See the paper ** On the Action of Heat upon Silicates of Zinc,** wfra^ fbr an ac- 
count of some curioos phenomena which appear to corroborate thiA view in a veiy rs- 
markable manner. 

t Archiv. d. Pharm. (2; Bd. Iviti., p. 29, quoted by Bischoff—Lehrbuch der Che- 
miachen Geologic 2^' Bd. p. 1863. 



23 

Oxide of zinc, 67792 

Silicic acid, 23*424 

Carbonic acid, 1*421 

Water, 7*263 



99-900 



If we look upon the carbonic add as existing in a compound 2 ZnO, 
COs,HO, that is in a corresponding degree of hydration to that in which 
silicate of zinc is found, the proportions in which the silicate and car- 
bonate in the mineral will be found to be, in 100 parts : — 

2ZnO,SiO„HO, . . . 92*702 
2ZnO,CO„Ho, . . . 7298 



100-000 

7*298 of this hydrocarbonate would contain : — 

ZnO, 5*296 

CO,, 1*421 

HO, 0*581 

7*298 

If we deduct these numbers from those given above in the table of 
the results of the analysis of the mineral, we shall get the following pro- 
portions, which represent the quantities of oxide of zinc and water which 
belong to the silicate, as distinguished from those which belong to the 
carbonate : — 

ZnO, 62-596 

8iO„ ....;.. 23*424 
HO, 6*682 



92*702 



Or in 100 parts, and compared with the composition of silicate of 
zinc calculated from the formula 2ZnO,SiO„HO : — 





CalcaUted from 


Calcnlated from 




the Formula. 


the Analysis. 


2ZnO, 


. . 67-213 . . 


. . 67-523 


SiO„ 


. . 25*409 . . 


. . 25-268 


HO, 


. . 7*377 . . 


. . 7-207 



99*99 99-998 

The ratio between the number of equivalents of silicate and carbonate 
deducible from the preceding calculations is about 11:1; so that the 
pure white, fibrous silicate may be classed in the same category as the 
siUceous balls, and the formula ll(2ZnO,SiO„HO) + ZnO,CO„HO, 
assigned to it. In this case we have distributed the water between the 



24 

two constitaent compounds ; but we have not done so in the former^ as 
it is probable that the water exists in two conditions — as basic water, 
and as saline water. Until we shall haye farther evidence on this point, 
however, we prefer writing the formulae of the balls as above. 

This power of combining in endless proportions appears to us not only 
to show that hemimoi^hite and dicarbonate of zinc are truly isomorphic, 
but that the isomorphism of carbon and silicon extends to carbonic and 
silicic acids, and thus adds an additional support to the view that silicic 
acid is a deutoxide. 

Olohdar RadiaUd Hydrated Dmlicate ofZine. — ^Among the minerals 
which were procured at the mines of Florida, was a very peculiar variety 
of silicate of zinc. It consisted of an irregular mass, sometimes distinctly 
botryoidal, of globular silicate, — ^the latgest of the globules being about 
a centimetre in diameter. Externally tiie globules were covered with 
asperities, which were the ends of crystals disposed in a radiated adcular 
form. The fracture of a globule ddowed the cleavage planes of these 
crystals, arranged in a stellated form, and inclined to each other. These 
cleavage planes were large, and appeared to be ooPoOy parallel to 
which the cleavage is complete. Colour, yellowish-brown ; the firesh 
surfaces being studded with a number of extremely small black points. 
The cleavage planes had a mother-of-pearl lustre, which soon tarnished, 
and became dull; sp. gr. 3-267. When freshly fractured, and a per- 
fectly undecomposed fragment examined, its hardness was nearly = 5. 
The mineral decomposed into a brownish-yellow, ochry substance with 
remarkable facility. Its composition was found to be : — 

Oxide of zinc, 62-195 

Silicic acid, 24-883 

Sesqui-oxide of iron, . . . 5*182 

Lime, trace. 

Water , 7121 



99-381 



If we deduct the oxide of iron, and calculate the proportions in 100 
parts of the oxide of zinc, silica, and water, alone, and compare the re- 
sults with the theoretical composition deduced from the formula 2 ZnO, 
SiO„HO, we shall find that the silica and water are too high in the 
experimental results, and consequently the oxide of zinc too low. In 
what state is the sesquioxide of iron in this mineral ? Is it in combi- 
nation, or merely mixed mechanically with it ? The property which 
silicate of zinc has of dissolving in a solution of caustic potash, sug- 
gested itself at once as a means of answering this question. On treating 
the mineral in the state of fine powder with a solution of potash in the 
cold during several days, the whole of the silicate of zinc was dissolved, 
and a reddish-brown powder was left ; the composition of which may 
be represented by the formula 2Fe,Os,8iO„HO. This is exactly the 
silicate of iron, which is found in Glauber*s iron-tree, obtained by 



25 

pntting a piece of dried protochloride, Besquichloride, or protoBulpbate 
of iron, in a solution of silicate of potaah : — 

3(2Fe,0,8iO,) + 2(KO,C0,). 

This woaldy in all probability, be tbe Gdlicate formed hj the mutual 
decomposition of an alkaline silicate and sulphate, or bicarbonate of 
iron. 

The great facility with which this mineral decomposes aud behayes 
in adds, and its peculiarities generally, would seem to show that the 
silicates of zinc and iron are in some sort of combination, and not simply 
intermixed. If from the whole we deiduct not merely the oxide of iron, 
but also the amount of silica and water combined with it, the remainder 
will contain oxide of zinc, silica, and water, in the proportions repre- 
sented by the formula 2ZnO,SiO„HO. 

Perhaps many other minerals containing peroxide of iron, ftc., would 
present na with a like phenomenon, if we could dissolye one constituent 
like the sOicat^of zinc. There are, no doubt, many cases where foreign 
substances cannot be considered to be merely med^anically mixed in a 
mineral, and yet cannot be held to replace some constituent isomorphi- 
cally, which may be explained in this way. Indeed, it is probable, that 
many of the so^alled isomorphic replacements are in reality such com- 
pounds, held by a very feeble affinity, but which, unlike the one here 
in question, cannot be dissected. 

TheEsT. Saxuxl Hjlvbbtoix, M.A., F.E.S., Fellow of Trinity College, 
Dublin, read the following paper : — 

Oir A Gbafhical Mods ot Calculatis& thb Tinix Dam of a Ybssxl 
nr THB IsiSH SsA OB EiroLisH CHAjriTBL. (Plate II.) 

The change of level in the surface of tidal water, between two given 
hours, may be graphically calculated by the method given by Mr. Airy 
in his Treatise on Tides and Waves. Let a circle be described whose 
radius is half the Bange of Tide, and painted on a vertical wall ; the 
tide, in its rise and &11, will cover and uncovei" equal arcs of this circle 
in equal times. If this circle be divided like the dial of a clock, XII. 
and YI. corresponding to the top and bottom of the vertical diameter, 
and tidal hours be used, the rise or fall of the water may be easily cal- 
culated. 

In calculating the Drift produced by the Tidal Stream, we are not 
given the total dnft in six tidal hours, which would correspond to the 
Eange of the Tide ; but we have inst^ the maximum velocity *of the 
Tidal Current at half-flood and half-ebb. 

The following construction will enable us easily to calculate the 
Tidal Drift between two given hours : — 

Let a eireU he described whose radius is double the maximum rate of 
stream^ and let this eirele he divided into Tidal Sours ; from the two given 
B. I. A. raoa — ^voL. vm. b 



26 

houTB lei fatt p&rpendundari an the diatneUr joining XII. and YI. : the in- 
terest between the feet of these perpendiculars, measured on the scale of the 
diameter, is the Tidal Ikift required. 

This constructioii, which is rapidly made in practice, will, I believe, 
be found of great value to masters of vessels entering or clearing the 
Irish Sea and English Channel. It may be thus proved : — 

Let 9 denote the velocity of the Tidal Stream* 
„ a „ maximum velocity of the same. 

„ t „ time measured in Tidal Hours, fix>m XIL o'dock, 

on the tidal dial. 

„ r= twelve tidal hours (12^ 24» = 744"). 

Then 

i? = asinn^, • (1) 

tlierefore 

ds- amnntdt, 

« <= — cos n/ + const., 
n 



and, finally. 



= — +con8t.; 

n 



» = -(l-cos»0- (2) 



This is the Tidal Drift, measured from the commencement of the 
Ebb. It is evidently proportional to the versed sine of the Tidal Hour ; 
and therefore the construction is proved, provided we can show that 
the radius of the Tidal Clock is dottle the maximum rate of the stream. 

Calling JSrthe Tidal Hour, we have 

»» - (1 - cos S)f 

= -^j^(l-COS^, 

= l-978a(l-coBJ7); 

and, taking this between any two Tidal Hours, we have 

< - «' = Tidal Drift = l-973a (cos JF - cos R), (3) 

For practical purposes, 1-976 is so nearly equal to 2, that the circle 
whose^ radius is double the maximum velocity a, will answer for the 
graphical' calculation. 



27 

As an example of the use of the oonstraotion I have given, let us 
take the case of the mail-steamer from Kingstown to Holyhi^, at 7 p. x. 
this evening. 

This steamer leaves Kingstown at 7^ 25" Oreenwich time, and ex- 
pects to arrive at Holyhead at 1 1^ 25"'. The High Water at the Head 
of the Tide to-night will take place at 6*" 42™ Greenwich time. There- 
fore the Tidal Honrs of the steamer's departure and ftrrival are- 
Departure from Kingstown, .... XII'4d'" 
Arrival at Holyhead, IY-43 

Taking the maximum rate of stream between Kingstown and Holyhead 
at 3 knota per hour, and making the construction I have pointed out on 
the circle of 6 knots radius, we find that the Ebb Tide will drift the 
steamer 7*8 knots to the southward of Holyhead Harbour, unless a cor- 
rection be applied in steering. (Mr. Haughton here exhibited a Tidal 
Card, by means of which the rise or fall, and the tidal drift, could be cal- 
culated for any case in a few moments.) (Tide Plate 11.) 

This is nearly the greatest amount of Tidal Drift tiiat the Kingstown 
and Holyhead steamers are subject to. Their greatest drift is 8*16 
knots, which will occur to the South, when their times of departure and 
arrival are I. and Y. by the Tidal Clock; and 8' 16 kn ots to the North, 
when their hours of departure and anwal are Vll. and XI. by the 
tide. There is, therefore, in this four hours' run, which is made at 
the rate of 16 miles per hour, a possibility of the steamer finding her- 
self, if she neglect the Tidal Stream, 9 miles to the north or to the south 
of Holyhead or Kingstown. In a fog, when the passage is delayed, it 
hsfi sometimes happened that these steamers have found themselves off 
Bray or Dalkey Soimd, when they supposed they were close to the mouth 
of Kingstown Harbour. The Tidal Stream in the Irish Sea is greatly 
modified by the wind, which, if northerly, will cause the Ebb Tide to 
eany out more water than its pnmer share past the Tuskar entrance ; 
and, vies versd^ the wind, if southerly, will aid the Ebb Tide through the 
North Channel, and seriously embarrass vessels beating to the south- 
ward. 

This complication of the tides caused by the wind has not yet re- 
ceived Hie amount of attention its importance merits ; and it is well 
expressed in the following statement, which I have received frx>m Mr. 
J. Bowling, Master, R. N., in command of H. M tender, *' Badger," 
whose long experience in the Channel entitles his opinion to much 
weight : — 

<*J7. Jf. Ship Bather, Jwm I2th, 1861. 

** It has occurred to me that tiiere was a point of some importance in 
direct connexion with the subject of the tides, namely, the great diffe- 
rence which must exist between the strength of the succeeding flood 
and ebb-tides, with strong prevailing winds up or down chaDueL 

*' Take, for instance, frt)m the Saltee Islands ;to Holyhead, within 
which bounds it is a well-known fact, that the tides rise much higher, 
sad continue to flow much longer with strong winds up channel, than 



28 

under ordinary circumBtances ; the result is, that the agent that forces the 
South-coming tide up checks that from the North, in the same propor- 
tion, hoth as to rise and duration. The equilihrium heing destroyed, the 
stronger current from the South overruns its natural bounds (between 
Morecambe Bay and Carlingford), whereby a large proportion of the 
water which enters by the South escapes by the North Channel, giving 
additional yelocity*to the succeeding ebb thereof, and reducing the force 
of the South in a corresponding ratio. 

" Continuing to speak of the South Channel, which is the great high- 
way to and from liverpool, and the other large commercial ports in the 
St George's Channel, let us imagine a vessel between Holyhead and 
the Irish Banks being caught in &ck weather, with strong winds up- 
channel ; let us suppose her to be for two or three days ^as is often the 
case) without being able to ascertain her position; a fisar wmd springs up; 
the master, after making due allowance for aU things to the best of lus 
judgment, shapes a course to clear the Tuskar ; but I am sorry to say 
that they, in too many cases, find themselves on shore, or escaping by a 
miracle from Arklow, Blackwatlsr, or some of the other numerous banks 
above the Tuskar. 

'' I have been for the last twenty-six or twenty-seven years, from time 
to time, cruising in the Irish and English Channels, and have had ample 
opportunity, in all kinds of waather, of studying the effects of the tidal 
currents, and my experience has led me to beHeve the abovp to be 
correct. 

*' 1 have, particularly for the last nearly six years that I have been on 
this station, made it my business to question masters of vessels (and 
particularly those who had the misfortune to get on shore), upon the 
point above set forth, but have never met one who appeared to bestow a 
thought on the possibility of the water escaping by any other than the 
channel by which it entered; but all have admitted the force and justice 
of my argument, and most were ready to attribute their misfortune to 
some such unforeseen circumstance. 

** 1 may add, that it is a weU-known fact, that all vessels brought up 
by the banks imagined theuDselves to have been much frirther to the 
southward than where they had found themselves. 

** These remarks are equally applicable to the English Channel, as 
well as to winds from the opposite direction. 

"J. BOWUNG, 
** Second MomUt m eommamdJ' 

The Secretary of the Academy having announced the presentation of 
the remainder of the documents belonging to the Antiquarian Depart- 
ment of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, it was 

Resolved, — That the Academy gratefully acknowledge the receipt 
of 85 MS. volumes of the Irish Ordnance Survey collection, supplemental 
to the 103 volumes presented on the 30th November, 1860, by authority 
of the Right Hon. the Secretary of State for War ; and hereby present 
their special thanks to Sir Henry James, R.E., Superintendent of the 



29 

Ordnance Sarrey, and to Captain Wilkmaon, for this ftirther most va- 
luable donation ; again expressing their sense of the importance of the 
services rendered to the History and Antiquities of Ireland by Major- 
General Sir Thomas A. Larcom, under whose superintendence the plan 
of collecting materials for the illustration of our ancient Topography was 
organized, and successfully carried into effect 

The Librarian having announced a donation by the Master of the 
Bolls of £ngland of the Series of Calendars of the State Papers and of 
Historical Publications lately issued imder his direction, it was 

BssoLVEn, — That the thanks of the Academy are due, and are hereby 
returned, to the Bight Hon. the Master of the Bolls of England, for his 
very valuable and acceptable grant to our Library of the Series of Calen- 
dars of the State Paper collection, and the Series of Historical Publica- • 
tions issued under his Honor's superintendence. 

The Academy then adjourned. 

STATED GENEBAL MEETING.— Satubdat, Notbmbbb 80, 1861. 
The Yeby Bev. Chaiu.es Graves, D. D., President, in the Chair. 

The President having inquired whether there was any business to 
be transacted, the Secretary reported that there was no matter for the 
formal consideration of the Academy. 

• 

The Bev. Db. Beeves read the following Memoir of Stephen 
White :— 

Pathek Johk CoLOAir had been for several years labouring in the com- 
pilation of his great work on the ancient wortiiies of Lreland, and had two- 
thirds of his ta^ done, when the letter, with the carriage of which, for the 
hearing of the Academy, I have been honoured, was written to him by his 
venerable and respected countryman, Stephen White. Among the many 
distinguished Irishmen whose spirits were stirred up within them at the 
wholesale attempt made by Dempster and his Scotch contemporaries to 
affix the historical label Scotia, without even a duplicate, to their por- 
tion of Britain, and transfer to its annals all the celebrity of ancient L:e- 
land, almost the earliest,* and certainly the most accomplished, was the 
writer of this letter. He it was who opened that rich mine of Irish 
hterature on the Continent, which has ever since yielded such valuable 
returns, and still continues unexhausted ; and by his disinterested ex- 
ertions, less enterprising labourers at, or nearer, home, not only were made 



' * In Meanngham's Florilegium, published in 1624, we find the name of Stepha 
VUut as a Rferenoe npon the trae application of the name Scotia. Tractat. Prsambu- 
laris (last page bat two). Opposite White's aoooont of the Reichenaa MS. of St. Colam- 
ba*8 life, in the Ussher MS. is written in Ussher's hand the date 1021, 31 MaiL See 
the Irish ArchaoL and Celtic Society's edition of Adamnan*s Colambs, Prebce, p. 
xxzviiL From the following letter we learn that he commenced his pursuits in Irish 
antiqqitief about the year 1611. 



30 

acquainted with the treasures preserved in foreign libraries, but from 
time to time receired at his hands the substantial produce of his dili- 
gence, in the form of accurate copies of Irish manuscripts, accompanied 
by critical emendations and historical inquiries, amply sufficient to 
superadd to his credit as a painstaking scribe, the distinction of a sound 
thinker, and an erudite scholar.* Abroad, as well as at home, his merits 
were acknowledged. Raderus, the historian of '* Bayaiia Sa&icta," in 
testimony of his acquirements, designated him PolyhiHor;^ and so well 
did the name fit him, that it was caught up by his countrymen, and 
a title so honourably borne in former ages, was confirmed to him by the 
united suffirages of fellow-citizens and foreigners.} The learned Gretser^ 
was willing to receive suggestions from, and John Bollandus to be 
under obligations to him. While Professor of Theology at Dilingen, 
Dorbbene's manuscript of Adamnan's Life of St. Golumba was brought to 
him from Beichenau ;^ and there, with his own pen, he made the care- 
ful transcript which J^mished Archbishop Ussher with his Yarious 
Readings,** supplied Colgan with a tezt,f f and provided for the Bolland- 
ists of a succeeding generation one of the most valuable items in their 
great depository. }| 

Literary collectors are often narrow-minded, and the creatures of 
jealousy and suspicion ; but from such weaknesses this good and generous 
man was perfecUy free. Coupled with an insatiable thirst for know- 

5 

* UBsher, in reference to Blarcellmas* Life of St. Suidbert, obeenres: — **Sed viram 
ilium sagaciseimum fugit, subdititium esse Marcellinum istum: cui a Stephano Vito, viro 
antiquitatam, non HibemuB solam sos aed aliarnm etiam gentiiini sdentissimo, ita larva 
est detracta.** Brit. £c. Antiqq., cap. xii.. Works, toL ▼., p. 468. 

Sigebertus Gemblaoeneis, an. oocxdv. S. Patricias Scotas in ^beniia com snis w ir otU wi i 
renditar. " Ubi tamen SooUs legendnm, Stepbaui Yiti conjecturm est haudquaquam 
aspemanda.** Ibid, cap. xvi., yoL vL, p. 877. 

** £t cum Hibemis, ut et Anglis, lepen ferrum denotet, et lepnOTi nomen inde de- 
ductnm quasi Ferreolum ; hunc eundem esse Stepbanus Vitus existimat** Ibid, p. 541. 

t '* Stepfaanns Titus gente Ibemus Soc. K. Theologus etsimul polyhietor." — Baderi 
BaTaria Sancta, torn, iii, p. 76. 

X Ward oorrects some erroneous readings in the Basil edition of Marianne Sootus* 
Chronicle by emendations, ** apud doctissimum polyhistorem Stepbanum Vitom sacra 
Theologia Doctorem, ex suao Sodetatis Jesu Codidbus MSS.** Rumoldus, p. 110. 

** Ad biBC addo Doctoris Stephani Yiti Polyfaistoris testimonium," etc. Ibidy p. 264. 
•See notes ft in this page, and note t» P* 84. 

§ 0bserr7. in Philippom de DiWs fiystetteDsibns, Cap. 9, p. 298. 

f " Stephanos Yitus lectori. Kuper ex ooenobio Benedictinorum in Suevia oeleber- 
rimo Augia Dives dicto, vulgo Bdchenaw, allatus est ad me Dilingam vetnstissimus 
codex membranaceus," etc. See the Irish ArchsoL and Celtic Society's edition of 
Adamnan's Columba, p. xxzviiL, note g, 

** Ussher refers to this copy in his Eoc Brit Antiq. Works, vols, iv., 456, ti., i^. 
245, 523, 526, 527, 530, 541. His manuscript of White's collation is still extant See 
reference in preceding note. 

tt " Banc nobis yitam commnnicavit B. P. Stephanns Yitus Societatis Jesu, vir pa- 
triarnm presertim sitientissimus, et omnium sdentissimus antiquitatum ; et hinc a diver- 
siii jam Polyhistor appellatus ; sua manu descriptam, ex pervetusto codice MS. Monaa- 
terii Augia Divitis in Germania." Colgan, Trias Thaum., p. 872 a. 

XX AcU Sanctorum, Junii, torn, ii., p. 197. This article waa edittd by Fnads 
Baart, 1690. 



31 

ledge regarding the hiBtory of his country — the crayings of which made 
Budb an impression on Colgan's mind that he thrice alludes to it, and on 
two different occasions calls Mmpatriarum antiquitatum sitieniissimua* — 
there was a total freedom from selfishness. He sought the honour of his 
country, not of himself; and was satisfied that the fruits of his lahours, 
if only made to redound to the credit of loved Ireland, should pass into 
other hands, and imder their names he employed in their several pro- 
jects, and at their discretion. Thus, in the Benedictine library of Key* 
sersheym, in Switzerland, he copied the life of St. Golman, the patron 
saint of Austria, for Hugh Ward.f At the monastery of St. Magnus, 
in Badsbon, he found the life of St Erhard, of that city, and sent a 
transcript to Ussher.^ To this prelate, so opposed to him in matters of 
polemical controversy, he made acceptable communications regarding St. 
Brigid,§ and St Columba ;|| and that this literary generosity was duly 
felt, wmle his qualities of head and heart were appreciated, appears not 
only from the Primate's public acknowledgments,^ but from the very 
interesting glimpse at private life which the following letter affordai 

To Co^gan he transmitted a life of St. Patrick, wMch he copied from 
an ancient manuscript at Biburg, in Bafaria;** from St Magnus's, at 
Batisbon, he sent hun Ultan's life of St Brigid;tt and from Dilingen, 
as I have already observed, he sent him the tezt^for the Life of St. Co* 
lumba. To his untiring generosity Fleming, also, was indebted for two 
contributiona for his Collectanea of Golumbanus's writings. J J 



• See note tt» p. 30, aupra, and note ft on tbie page. 8ee alao the extract from 
Co]gan*t Prefiue, at p. 82, ia/ro. 

t *' Vita S. Colmannif qaam sua mann exaratam e Casariensi Benedictinonim in 
Soevia ccsnobii Codice MS. nobis traosmisit R. P. Stephanua Vitus Doctor S. Theologia, 
et hiatonamm eraditisdmus." Vardtei Rnmoldus, p. 286. 

t Ita GoonidnB a Monte PneUariini Ganomcus Ratisbonmsis, in vita S. Erhardi, 
qnam ex oodice MS. mooasterii S. Magni Ratisbonss a ae descriptam oommnnicarit mibi 
Stephanua Vitus." Ussher, £c Brit. Antiqq., cap. 16, vol. vL, p. 269. 

§ " Ex bibliotbeca CassineDsi et Constantini Cajetani abbatis deprompta commnni- 
carit nobis Stepbanns Vitos." Ibid, p. 274, notet. 



^See the nferenoea in note **, p, 80, st^o. 



J <See the three immediately preceding notaa. ** Id anonymitt viu ipsioa acriptor ex 
Adamnano fnsins explicat : quod, quoniam ex edito Adamnani opera desideratur, nt a Ste- 
phano Vito hnmanissime oommnnicatnm aooepimna, lectori hie int^gnim proponendum 
ceosaimna.'* Uaaher, nt supra, p. 466. 

*• "Hanc nobis, ex membranis Tetustis Bibuigensibus in Bavaria descriptam, com- 
mnniuavit vir doctissimus, et patriamm antiquitatum aelosissimns iBTcaiUgator, P. 
Stepbanns Vitus Sodetetis Jesu." Colgan, Trias Tbaum., p. 29 6. 

ft Tertia Vita S. Brigidn, Anthore S. V lUno, deecripU per Bey. Patrem Stepbannm 
'^tum, See. Jean. " P. Stephanua Vitus condvis noeter, vir patriaram antiquitatum 
identisamna et sitientissimua." Jbid, p. 542 a. 

XX " Exemplar quo ntimur, mibi exMbnit, cum Epistola et Sermons S. Columbani me* 
memtis, B. Pater Stephanua Vitus SodeUt. Jesu, Sac. Theologiss Doctor, et Professor 
emeritus, anUquitatum sun gentis Hibemicfls studiosissimus inquisitor (Petri Mattheo 
Radero in sua Bavaria Sancta, ob uberem et accuratam rerum tamdomestioanuDi quam 
extemanun peritiam, merito cUctus Polyhistor).'* Cdlectanea Sacra, p. 8. 



32 

Meanwhile, the literary materiab which Stephen White had accn- 
mulated were not nnemployed by himself; and there is sofficient evi- 
dence to prove that he not only meditated, bat completed some historical 
works on his favourite subjects. Of these, however, only one has de- 
scended to our day, namely, his Apologia pro Htbemia advernu Camhri 
Calumnias; which Mr. Bindon discovered among the Irish manuscripts 
in the Franciscan collection at Brussels, as atated by him in his valu- 
able communication to the Academy in 1847.* This work, even in its 
imperfect condition, is sufficient to justify the opinion which our fore- 
fathers entertained of the learning and ability of the writer. Had he 
been less generous, he might have been more desirous of literary feme ; 
but he seems to have been unconcerned as to the doer, provided tlie work 
was done ; and when, at the close of his life, a combined effort was made 
by the ecclesiastics of his church to put his manuscript to the press,! 
even this project failed, and the literary character of Stephen White had 
stiU to rest on the testimonies of his contemporaries.^ It was reserved 
for a clergyman of our own time?, after the lapse of two centuries, to 
give pubUcity to the work.§ ^ 

Stephen White attained a very advanced age, and, as the letter to be 
read demonstrates, preserved his literary ardour unabated. He was 
living in the June of 1645, when Colgan published the first volume of 
his Acta Sanctorum; and with that author's touching reference to the 
kindness, learning, accuracy, and declining years of his Mend, I shall 
dose these prefatory remarks, and proceed with my friend Count Charles 
MacDonnell's interesting communication: — ''Non prasteribo tamen, 
quod excidere minime debuit, devotissimum in concivium Sanctonim 
honore et cultu promovendo studium K P. Stephani Yiti Societatis Jesu, 
Yiri de Patria bene meriti, et onmis generis antiquitatum scientia lau- 
dati, sed sacrarum, prsBsertim susb gentis et Patriae sitilaudabilioris ; qui 
nobis S. Columbffi Abbatis Authore S. Adamnano, S. Brigide Yirginis 
Authore S. Yltano, et multa alia Sanctorum gesta, alibi, ea fide et inte- 
gritate, baud facile reperienda, communicavit ex suo promptuario, sacrss 
et reoonditae antiquitatis &Dcundo ; quod utinam prselo, quo maturum et 
dignum est, prius donet, quam ipse coelo, quo meritis et aetate maturus 
est, et Sanctorum conturbio, ad quod anhelat, meritis ezigentibus, re- 
donetur.*'|| 



• Printed in the ProoeedingB, vol. iii., pp. 498-496. 

t See Mr. Bindon's extnust from Robert Nugent'e Letter to F. Charles Langri, in the 
Proceedings, vol. iii., p. 496. 

X Dr. John Lynch, the author of Cambrensis Evenns, had the nse of White's manu- 
script, and no donbt derived much information and many suggestions from it. Cambr. 
Evers. vol. L, p. 95, vol, iL, p. 282, (Reprint) ; where, see Editor's notes. 

§ Apologia pro Hibemia adversus Cambri Calumnias, etc., Anctore Stephano Vito, 
none primam edita coim Matthsei Kelly, in GoUegio S. Patricii apud Maynooth, Profea- 
oris. Dablinii, 1849. 

I Acta Sanctonim ffibemiee, Preefatio ad Lectorem [p. 7]. 



33 

Letter of Father Stephen Whi^, S.J., to Father John Colgan, O.S.F.; 
BubUn^ ^Ut January^ 1640 ; new style. Copied from the original in 
the Irish Franciscan Convent of 8. Isidore, Eome, October , 1853 ; by 
Charles, Count MaeDonneU,JSr. S.J.J. 

** I found the original of the following letter on a mouldering and 
nearly decayed half-^eet of paper, in the Archiye Chamber of the Irish 
Francisoaii Cronrent of St. Isidore, in Bome. It appears to me to be a 
document of much interest in many respects; and not least for the ac- 
count that it giyes of the literary labours of its writer, of whom ITssher 
speaks as a man of exquisite learning in the antiquities of his own and 
other countries. It is eminently worthy of being saved £rom oblivion ; 
and I venture to offer it for the printed Proceedings of the Academy, as 
the safest and speediest means of securing it from the fate that menaces 
the perishing^ originaL" 

"I.H.8. 

"Reverende in Christo Pater Johannes Golgane, 

"PazChiifirti'. 

"Temas ad me datas aocepi, ac tardins quam optassem. Quarum 
primas onni 1638, 4 Octob. primum, post longas moras et latibula, vidi 
anno sequente, Augusto mense exeunte. Becundas, anni 1639, 4 Sep- 
temb. aperoi post, sub finem Novemb. Terdas, 9 Octob. datas legi 2 
Becemb. Vides, mi R. Pater, necessitatis foisse, non voluntatis men 
vol msticitatis, quod non oitius responderim ad tuas tot, sane mihi gra^ 
tissunas, quod a gratissimo, et universa Genti nostrse ; cui gratulor earn 
nunc obtigiflse ftelicitatem, ut Te tantis a Deo dotibus instructo, invenerit 
m paucis, gloriss sue publicum Procuratorem diligentissimiim. Promo* 
torem aptissimum, Preconem peritissimum. Macte animo, et feliciter 
eoeptis insiste constanter, et perge alacriter : nam tui magni laboris 
(quem PatrisB dulcis amor levabit multum) manet merces magna nimis 
Beus, ce&tera adjicientur Tibi, memoria Tui in benedictione sBtemituia 
apud bonos omnes Gentis nostrn, quamdiu cum Postexis superstes Ipsa. 
Atque utinam corpore mihi tecum esse prfiDsenti liceret, qui sum animo, 
nt communicatis consiliis et humeris majorem Dei in primis gloriam, 
deinde carissimse nobis Ibemiee, Scotiee majoris, IsBto indefessoque labore 
promoveremuB uterque. Interim dum non datur ut ambo simul simus, 
ambo locis disjunctis laboremus ut valemus, etin scopumNobilem ilium 
collimemus. Quod ego equidem quantacumque laborem hie inopia (que 
nostratium est sacrarum Antiquitatum magna est suppellectilis librarisB, 
meliorisque notae) non deaino SBtate gravis, pro viribus, tametsi non tarn 
pro meo vote laborare. 

" Certe, mihi semper cum die ad banc usque ab annis retro feri 29, 
creverat amor, ardentiorque conatus pro loci, temporis, negociomm op- 
portunitate, ex atris antiquitatum aliquot, dispersisque per terras antns 
postliminio in solem educere Qesta Dei per Ibemos, Scotos veteres, Iber- 

E, I. A. PEOC. — VOL. Vm. F 



34 

nia Sanctorum ImuUb indigenas, yits sanciitudine, literanim optimanim 
fam&, reram prseclare in bellis in Face gestarom, quondam ubique domi 
forisque daros. 

''Quod ejusmodi gesta aliquot, testibuB ezceptione majoribus pro- 
bata, ex officina Typographica non hactenuB palam prodierint in con- 
spectum Gentium, probibuerunt maxim^ penuria pecuniarum (quod 
etiam Tu merito de biis edendis conquireris) quaa merces esset Typogra- 
pborum. Duo parabam voluminajustae molis. Ali^TMSDi Seoto-Caledonica 
Comix deplumanda oib avibus Orhis, inscriptimi. Alterum, equalisaut ma- 
joris molispriore, quod etpluris facio, quodprius prsfertbanc epigrapben: 
Commmtarii etBefensio historiarum VmerahiUBBedafAjDa^o-^K^om&AH' 
tiqui contra novos Anglo-Saxones basreticos aliquot, et alios bona fide er- 
rantes Gatbolicos domesticos ezterosque, cum muLtis nuper Scoto-Albanis 
Dempatero,Camerario, Hectore Boeto, ejusque epitomaste Leslseo, Joanne 
Majore, Bucbanano, sociisque, Historias VenerahiUs indigne tractanti- 
bus, torquentibus, et varia arte mala corrumpentibus. In priore Yolu- 
mine, per quinque libros distribute, non solum ex instituto, et metbodicd 
pseudo-bistorias, Nomenclaturas etc., Scotalbanorum refato claiis ar- 
gumentis, sed insuper bsec sub oculis cujusvis lectoris non csBci propono 
demonstroque in primis, per prima Cbristianorum sascula NoTem exacts, 
et ulterius, nuUam sub sole r^onem nm JSihemiam nostram, nomine, 
(proprio aut communi) Seotia notatam fuisse, ab ullis eorundem ssecu- 
lorum autboribus, domestiois aut extemis, sen Ghristianis sen Etbrnds. 
Deinde, primum non nisi post ilia tempera, aut fortaasis etiam post 
exordia sseculi undecimi,* coepisse nomen Scotia (quod semper ante et 
ubique terrarum erat proprium ac synonymum cum Ibemi& nostra), sen- 
limque fieri commune vocabulum duabus regionibus Ibemisd nostree, et 
AlbaniaB seu Caledonia : quo nomine AlbanisB sen Caledonise vel E.^;ni 
Scotorum Britannia, non notabatur illis sseclis nisi terrarum Tractus 
ille vel Plaga omnis, quse ad Aquilonarem ripam fluminum Alcluit seu 
Cluddae, et Guidiseu Fortbese,! (bodie decurrentiumjuxta urbes Glasco 
et Edinburgum) jacet, porrectaque versilis Septentrionalia ad usque Oce- 
anum Deucaledonicum. Freeterea, nomen Scotia commune duobus Beg- 
nis ilHs, dur&sse in sua communitate apud autbores tam domi quam 
foris, ad usque Cbristianorum sssculum saltem 14 vel 15, et ulterius. 

'' Ad beec, primam omnium ab orbe condito, Coloniam Scotorum 



* Ussher agrees irith White. Brit. £c Antiqq. cap. 16, Workn, vol. ▼!., p. 280 ; 
and 80 the Scotch writer, Pinkerton, Enquiry, vol. ii., p. 228. Marianns Scotas, 
on Iriflhman, towards the cloae of the eleventh ceutniy, calls Malcolm, at 1034, Donnefaad, 
at 1040, and Mac Bethad, at 1050, Rex Scotia. (Pertz, Monumenta Germ. Hist. 
Scriptor., tom. v., pp. 565, 557, 558.) From which we may conclude that thla appli- 
cation of the term had already come into general acceptation ; a process, probaUy, 
requiring the greater part of a century. The poem on the battle of Bnmanbui^ in the 
Saxon Chronicle, at 937, calls the North Britons Sceotta, or Scots. Monameut Hist. 
Brit, p. 384.— See Chalmers* Caledonia, toL i., p. 839. 

t The only other known authority, beside Bede, which mentions Giudi in connexion 
with the Frith of Forth, is the Tract on the Mothers of the Saints of Ireland, ascribed to 
i£ngu8 the Culdee. 



35 

IbemiBBy trajicientem inde ad stabiles in Albania sedes figendas (in Al- 
bania, inquam, ejusve uUis regiunculis ; nam aliter se res habet de ez- 
ordiia Scotomm IbemisB degentium in parvis insnlis Hebridum,)*fm88e 
quam post mortem S. Columbae^Killi nostratis, et aliquot annis post 
ezactom seBctdiun Christianorum seztum^f duzerat Chnstianus religione 
Yir Nobilis Yltoniensis et Begulus Ditionis Dalriada dictsB in e&dem 
Tltoni&, X Yocatosque £dan sive Aidanus, filins Ghibriani sen Gaurani. Et 
quamvistam ipse Aidanus cum bu& colonic quam eorum posteri incolentes 
AlbanisB angulum ilium qui hodie audit Argil, aut Ai^athelia, per 
aliquot annos ipsorom babitationis ibidem, vocarentur Scoti-Britaimie ; 
tamen neque tunc, neque multis saeculis post Begiuncula Argil aut alia 
uUa Albanifld pars induerat Scotia nomen, aut communitatem nominis 
ejusdem cum Ibemii nostr& : sed, ut dizi, nunquamabullis Autboribus 
antiquis et florentibus ante saeculum decimum yel undecimum, ScotiiB 
appcdlatio (sive ut propria, sive ut communis) iadita AlbanisB, audita 
fait. 

** Inter alia in tuis ad me literis, petis a me, 1** ut Sekctorum meorum 
(sic benevole yocas) qusD in Oermania et alibi collegeram, saltem BreTi- 
aiiom ad te mittam. Bespondeo, me, quantum memini, nihil fere ha- 
buisse selectorum iUorum, quod non dederim describendum duobus 
nostratiboB Yestri Ordinis S. Francisci, quorum alter E. F. Pairteiui 
Fleming (post fiactus, ut credo. Martyr a Suecis hssreticis in Bohemia§) 
qui cum socio multis diebus et hebdomadibus d^ebat in eadem Yrbe 
mecum Metis in Lotharingia anno Christi 1627 yel 1628. Ac descrip- 
ta omnia, reduz inde tulit secum Loyanium, ubi R. Y*, ut credo, in- 
yeniet, nisi jampridem fortasse inyenerit. 2*" petb, ut etiam ad te mittam 
Catahgum Vitarum Sanctorum nostratiom, quas yidisse me ais in Bib- 
liotheca D. Jacobi TJssheri, Archiepiscopi Primatis Protestantium Iber- 
nias. Bespondeo, me yocatum et ter coram conyenisse per multas horas 
ilium D. TJssherum (qui et humanissime me ezcepit et siue fiico mecum 
candideque egit, et abs se officiosissime me dimisit, et seepius coram 
et per Uteras preterea me inyitayit in Domum suam non ad conyiyium 
modo (quod renui modeste) sed etiam ad cuncta Domus bu8b, etiam 



* GaU^Gaeidhei^ or Stringer-Irish, is the term generally need in Irish records to 
denote the inh*bitants of these Isles. Galloway also derives its name from this com- 
binatSon. 

t White fidls into a serious error here. The year 606 is that which is assigned by 
the best authorities for the settlement of the Irish cobny in Sooth- western Scotland. — See 
AdAmoan*s Columba (Irish ArchaeoL and Celtic Soc.), p. 488. 

X Here again ia a manifest blunder of White. Aidan was regulus of the British 
Dalriada, and had no jurisdiction over the Irish territoiy of that name. He died in 606. 
See p. 436 of the work last cited. 

§ Fleming was just settled as President of the Irish College at Prague, when Bohe> 
mia was invaded by the Elector of Saxony, and Fleming was obliged to fly. In his 
fl^t, he and his companion, Matthew Hoar, were atUcked by seren peasants near the 
Tillage of Beneschow, and beaten to death.— See thenarratiTe in the CoUectanea, p. zii., 
lod Colgan'a AcU SS., Pm&liio ad Lectorem.-r-See also an abstract in the Ulster 
Journal of Arehseology, vol. i., p. 265, where there is a notice of this writer and of his 
worfc. 



36 

BelectiBsimam Bibliothecam (revera mairiTni pretii etc.) et vidiBse torn 
Catalogum ilium turn vitas ipsas latino in maniiBcriptiB,* Sanctoram nos- 
tratium, foB^ narratamm, et extra Bibliothecam D. Ussheri, vidi plnxee 
alios alibi in Ibemia non Catalogos tantom, sed «tiam plnra prolixitts 
M8** exemplaria Sanctorum nostratiuuLf Sed, quod mirabere forsan 
(et tamen essiB verum, ipse sum expertus) mdlum, ant onmino vix oUius 
momenti vel fidei etc. yidi in his MS***, vitam Sanctorum nostratiumy 
nisi ipsorum eorundem quos nominatim et ordine Alphabetico, Tu, mi 
R. Pater, exprimis in Gatalogo tuo, quem ad me misisti : in quo etiam 
tuo legi nomina Sanctorum et vitas ipsorum aliquas abs me nunquam 
visas. 

« 3'' petis, ut laborem in proourando per me, per amioos etc., describi, 
mittique ad Te Gatalogum omnium et singularum IbenusD Bioceraum, 
Ecdesiarum, Sanctuariorum priscorum, etc Bespondeo, me, quoad 
potui, laborasse, ut Catalogus duarum Dioecesium Watexfordienais et 
Lismorensis (in qu& ist^ Insmorensi natus sum )|, quem ad te mittit 
£""" Patrioius Episcopus Lismorensis et Waterfo^en8is,§ ad te mitte- 
retur correctior et emendatior in quibusdam de quibus me consuluit idem 
B"*"* mihi in paucis cams et familiaris. Ac vix quidem absolveram 
emendare nonnulla menda quss iirepserant in istnm Catalognm, quando 
coram in colloquium incideram cum Carissimo mibi et familiari admodum 
B. P. Joanne Bamevallo, Provinciali Yestri Ordinis Minorumin Ibemi&, 
quem monui de Yestris ad me missis Uteris et de Catalogis Ecdesiarum 
etc. Turn Pater Provincialis mihi dixit, se sedulo et 8»pe commendasae 
cur» et procurationi multorum ex suis Beligiosis ad banc rem idoneis, 
ut ubique per Ibemiam per se, per amicos, aliisve viis bonis, incum- 
berent in banc rem de colligendiB Catalogis et mittendis ad Beverentiam 
Yestram. Quibus ego auditis, ilUco abjeci ulteriorem laborandi in 
eodem opere curam tanquam minime necessariam. 

" Spero me hactenus ad eaomniamajoris momenti respondisse tuarum 
literarum trium, qu» mihi crearunt quantam vix verbis explicare satia 



* In the Ussher CoDectioD in the library of Trinity College, there is a veDnm MS. of 
Latin lirea of Irish Saints; E. 8, 11. The fuller and more valaaUe MS. fai Primate 
Marth'f Library, v. 8, 4, formerly belonged to Abp. Ussher. — See Preface to Adamoaii's 
Golamba (Ir. Archsot and Celtic Soc.) p. jlxyI 

t The principal collection of Latin lives of Irish Saints, from which Colgan drew, 
were the Codez Kilkenniemii, Codex SaimutntiqenriM, (now in Bmssels), and the Liber 
Inaula Omninm Sanctorum. To them may be added the Codex Armachamue^ from 
which Fleming printed his lires of SS. Cornel, Mochaemhoc, and Molna. 

X His birth-place is indicated in the title of his Apologia, where he is called CLmmel- 
Ueniit. Cloomd is in the diocese ofLismore. Thomas White, a Jesuit of Glonmel, 
was the first Rector of the Irish College at Salamanca.— Harris* Ware's Works, vol. ii., 
p. 256. 

§ Patrick Comerford, of the Order of Hermits of St. Aognstin, was consecrated Bishop 
of Waterford and Usmore, in 1629.— C MacD. Colgan acknowledges this Prelate** 
services in the following words: ** Ut constat elencho Ecdesiarum Dioeoesis Idamorensis, 
quem nnper ad nos vir humanlssimus, multiplicis emditionis virtatumque laude olarus, 
D. Patridus Comerford, Episcopus Lismorensis, magna industria collect^m, tran^isit** 
Acta Sanctorum Hib., p. 655 a, note 2. 



87 

poflsbn, Istitiam de taiB conatibuB, diligentiil, piogreasu, etc. de glorift 
non yan& GentiB nostne piisoii et Saaiotoniin efoB; pneeertim verb airidet 
mihi illud tunm p6ilepi6e.* Qaam vellem, at istad et csBtera toa non 
lucem modo aspicerent citd, sed etiam at brevi mamboB onmium Earo- 
psBonim tenezentor, et ocalis aspioerentur ! 

" Qaod priosqaam fiat, moneo Te primihn, et amio^ de qoibosdam. 
XJmim est. Vitas Saaotoniin Gatalogi toi ad me AIM, Leekmi, OeraHi 
deMajo-f scatere (d qaales illoTom babes vitas, sintesedem com leotis 
abe me hie) soatere fsibeUis improbabilibas, etiam adTenanttbas non 
Bolibn paasiin scriptlB, traditia, cieditis, de S. Patricio Apostolo nostro^ 
ejoaque leg^tione Eomam, indeqaein Ib6rniam,sed contrariis insaper et 
Bomanis Martyiol(^[U0 yeteri et leoentiori ; et dare pagnantibaB com 
indabisB fidei dictis SS. Frosperi Aqoitani, et Beda Vcnerabiiis etc. at 
ad ocolom dedi demonstratom aliqaando. 

''Moneo demde, qaod magni rem momenti arbitrer, et yiam expe- 
ditififlimam ad fidem derogandcon omnibus Adyersariis nostris Demstero, 
GamerariOy Boeto, Majori, Bucbanano etc., nempe, at omnibus et sin- 
goHs nostratibus Bcriptoribus tibi notis, tarn domesticis quam extends 
tecum presentibus et absentibus, seBcularibus autreligiosis, Dominioanis, 
Augostinianis, etc., suadeas opportune, ut nullam uUius argumenti (sen 
Grammatici sea FMlosophici, vel Theologici, Historid, etc.) typis man- 
dari sinant, aut exire in lucem publicam, nisi in frontispic. &rat hunc 
vel sinulem Titolom : R. P. N. N. natione Ibemi, sea Scoti Yeteris etc. ; 
nam, assidua commemoratio Scoti Veteris in libris cujusoumque argu- 
menti dispersis per Europam, ejusque Academias, non modo Adversaiiis 
nostris creabit indignationem quamvis injustam; sed etiam creabit in 
exteris passim lectoribus, saltem curiositatem inqnirendi (et qui queerit 
ioveiiiet) de Scotis] Yeteribus, de Becentioribus Scotis Albanis ; et de 
injuria inunani, multiplidque Scotalbanorumnuperorumcum Semstero^ 
Hectore Boeto etc., negantium in sole veritatis, Ibemos nostros, olim 
notatos ubique terrarum, nomine Scotorum, et Ibemiam nostram fuisse 
notam qaondam, passimque per Europam sub nomine (etiam synoi^mQ 
proprioque) Scotia, Scotia Insula, Scotia Major, Scotia Ulterior, etc. 

"Denique moneo, vel potius precor, ut descriptum ad me mittas, 
quod legisee me memini (Metis in Lotharingia) cum mecum esset £. P. 
Patricius Pleming, Martyr, in manibus ejusdem, et quasdam f^^Ktstolaa 
8. Golumbani nostratis Abbatis Luxoyiensis, tum ad Bonifacium Papam 
Bomanam, torn datas per modom Apologi® suffi ad Episcopos OonciHi 

* By peilepibe or peilrpe he denotes Colgan*8 great work of the Acta Sanctorum, 
then in handi. 

t The life of St Gerald of Mayo is the only one of these three which Colgan pub- 
lished. ThatofDecIan was afterwards printed bytheBoUandistsCActa SS. JnUi, torn, v., 
pp. 590-608), while that of St. Ailbhe remains in manuscript only. The life of St 6e- 
raldua, as printed by Colgan, at March 18, is ftdl of anachronisms, which the editor notices ; 
but he does not advert to the censure here passed upon It by bis learned correspondent 
See Acta Sanctorum Hibemin, pp. 699-606. 

t On the Patrician heterodoxy of the Lives of SS. Ailbhe and Declan, see Ussher, 
Brit Eod. Antiq., cap. 16, Works, vol. tL, pp. 882-348. 



38 

Matisconensis in Gallia, ubi ilium reprelieiideraiit et respondere jnsse- 
rant de pnepostera sua obseiratione EitClBFaschalistempoiiBy qui diver* 
SUB erat et adversans ritui canonico KomanflBEcclesie.* Aiebat etiam 
P. Patricius Martyr, se selecta qusdam haboifise de rebns nostratibiis, 
ex singulari quodam et aba se viso descriptoqne cum esset ipse Batis- 
bonsB in Bavaria. utinam selecta lata legissem ! 

" Atque bic scdbendi jam finem coactus fiacio quod revera diebus 
bisce, et multiB prseteritis, etiam mensibus^occuper in expediendis intri- 
catis conscientie casibus (assidue accidentibus), etcomponendis dissidiis 
nunc istorum, nunc iUorum etc. Yale fselix, mi Pat^, et jure tuo ad- 
yersibn me utere, qui prssto semper ero pro viiibus et opportunitate ad 
grati£candum Tibi, quern cum omnibus Yestris amanter saluto, Deoque 
oommendo, quem ut mibi sit Ipse semper propitius, Oro et oretis. 

'* Dublinii, 31 Janu., 1640, stylo Romano. 
"K-- Y-- 
** Servus in Cbristo, 

" Stephakvs Yitus, e Societate Jesu." 
(Endorsed in a more recent band on tbe original letter,) 

" Pretiosa Epistola insignia Antiquani P. Stepbani Wbyte Soc. Jesu, ad 
P. Colganum." 

. Tbe tbanks of the Academy were returned to Count Mac Donnell. 

Rev. Dr. Lloyd read a paper, in continuation, " On Eartb-Currents 
and their Laws." 

The Rev. Samuel Hanghton presented the Original MS. Draft of the 
Observed and Calculated Diurnal Tides of the Coast of Lreland for the 
year 1850-51, contained in 84 Tables. 

The Rev. William Reeves, D. D., presented an Index, in MS., of the 
seven published volumes of ^e Proceedings of the Academy, prepared 
by himiself. 

The marked thanks of the Academy were presented to the several 
donors. 

The Academy then adjourned. 



. * St Colambaoiis' Semumet tnd ^itiolm were copied by Fleming from maniiacripto 
in ColnmbaniiB* monasterj of Bobio. These, together irith the opnecnla of this iUostrioas 
Father of the Irish Church, tnd a Taloable body of iUiistratire matter, were prepared for 
the press by Fleming, and eventaally published by Thomas Sirinos, or O'Sherrin, in sqaU 
folio, LoTanii, 1667. 



39 



MONDAY, DECEMBER 9, 1861. 
The YxBT Eet. Chables Gbayes, D. D., President, in the Chair. 
W. H. Habdinge, Esq., read the following paper : — 
On Manitscbipt Mappxd Towkland Sttbtetb nr Ibelakd or a Public 

ChABACTEB, FEOIC THEIB IirTBODITCTIOir TO 2dBD OCTOBXB, 1641. 

Mb. PBJBSiDBirT AND Oentlxxbn of the Rotal Ibish Academt, — The 
information which my paper of this evening aims at communicating on 
the subject of MS. mapped townland surveys in Ireland of a public 
character, is a simple statement of facts and occurrences, many of which, 
from whatever cause, have escaped historic notice ; and yet they strike 
me as meriting, even at this advanced period of literature and time, 
to be drawn fi^m their long repose in the public archives of the king- 
dom, clothed in unpretending though suitable attire, and presented to 
this Academy, and society at large, for consideration, if not instruction. 
The popularly received notion is, that our earliest MS. mapped surveys, 
of lands admeasured by scale and chain, are those known as the Down 
Survey collection, compiled between 1654 and 1659, — as to a part, under 
the sole able geometrical and strong common sense guidance of Doctor 
William (afterwards Sir William) Petty, the ancestor of the present noble 
house of Lansdowne ; and as to another part, under the joint responsibi- 
Hty of the Doctor and Benjamin Worseley ; and as to the residue, under 
said Doctor and Vincent Gookin, said Worseley and Gookin being the 
then surveyors and escheators-general of the Conmionwealth of England. 

I am not ignorant that Howard, in his '' Irish Exchequer," published 
in 1776, represents Strafford's survey of 1639 as being ^e earliest; but 
other than what the term survey conveys, he gives no intimation of maps 
having" flowed irom it; and every lawyer and well>informed person 
knows that ancient surveys taken by juries before the provincial eschea- 
tors were descriptive only, and without any such accompaniment These 
surreys, also called extents and inquisitions, were returned *' virtuU 
hrevis** into Chancery, and "virtute officii*' into Chancery or the Ex- 
chequer. 

I am also aware that Leland, in the first chapter of his fifth book on 
Irish History, refers to Strafford's inquisitions, finding the title of the 
crown to Connaught, and the Byrne's country in WicUow; but neither 
does this writer appear to have been aware that mapped townland sur- 
veys followed close on the inquisitions. 

Strafford's letters and despatches, published by Enowles, in 1740, 
lead us nearer to the truth, as in more than one of this collection, 
" Baven and his thirty surveyors, and the slowness of the work," are 
spoken of; but they do not farther satisfy as to the nature of the work, 
or that it was brought to a successful issue. But the most mysterious 
circumstance in reference to that important survey is, that when Stone, 
the surveyor and escheator-general of the crown, in whose office and 



40 

custody the record of it was deposited and preserved before the lament- 
able fire of 1711, made his report of the destructive effects of that fire 
upon the muniments in his department to the Lord Lieutenant and 
'Brivj Council of the day, although in general terms he states tliat 
Strafford*B survey was totally consumed, he does not describe in what 
it consisted, — thus imposing the unprofitable and unpleasing task of fill- 
ing in the picture upon the industiy or imagination of inquirers of a&et 
I times. 

I To supply such omissions, to clear up all doubts and discrepancies, 

I and satisfy every reasonable mind that Strafford's survey comprehended 

i maps, and yet was not, as Howard alleges, the earliest survey, or even 

i townland survey, I have entered upon my present task, and trust to 

[ cany it to a close briefly, clearly, and conclusively, and with as littLe of 

I weariness to my indulgent hearers as may be practicable, considering 

I that it is the condmsed evidoice of the record relics of nearly four cen^ 

i tnries. But, finding tiiat such a task cannot be concluded within the 

i limit of time conceded to those having the privilege of addressing tiie 

Academy, I have divided the subject into two papers, tiie first of 'vdiidv 
I now in hand, carries the narrative down to the memorable historic era 

of the Great Bebellion, wMch broke out in this kingdom on the 2dxd<^ 
! October', 1641. 

! It seems not inappropriate to the introduction of the subject to state 

I briefly what my record experience teaches me to have been very ancient, 

I if not the most ancient geographical divisions of Ireland, and the changes 

which time and circumstances effected in these divisions. There is a 
foil, carefully prepared, and apparently authentic account of the ancient 
territorial divisions of Ireland, prefacing two very solemn records of the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth. One of these records contains the indentures 
of composition made between the crown and the lords spiritual and 
temporal, chieftains, freeholders, and others of the province of Con- 
naught, and of some counties in Munster. The other is a book of sur- 
vey of the great and small county of Limerick. Both were compiled to se- 
cure a certain and perpetual land revenue to the crown of England ; and 
for this purpose it was necessary to ascertain with precision the numbers 
of plowlands or quarters in the several divisions of Connaught and some 
parts of Munster, and the number of acres in the several divisions of 
the great and small county Limerick. It was not, therefore, an act of 
chance, choice, or caprice, the preparation of the account of the ancient 
territorial divisions of Ireland which prefaces these records. It was a 
solemn duty upon a solemn occasion, and for a solemn purpose, and I 
therefore think myself justified in proposing tbis account as trustwortiiy 
and reliable. 

These records point to and name five great divisions, namely, tiie 
kingdoms of Leinster, Ulster, Munster, Connaught, and the compara- 
tively small, though rich, central territory of Meath. Irish scholars and 
antiquaries may possibly be enabled to decide whether this territory, 
so conveniendy placed relatively to the four surrounding kingdoms, was 
not originally set apart and appropriated as the appanage of that king 



41 

who might be elected for the time being, and from time to time, mo- 
narch of Ireland. We can appreciate such mipremacy as essential to 
provide for unity of action in afGedrs of state, equally affecting the ge- 
neral interest ; and if this be so, the attaching Meath to the supreme 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction, although lying so distant from Armagh diocese 
proper, is quite intelligibl& I am sustained in this view of Meath ter- 
ritory, by an ancient US. preserved in the British Museumi entitled, 
''an abbreviate of the getting of Ireland and of the decaye of the same," 
compiled by Laurence Nowel, Dean of Lichfield, who died in 1576, 
which states, " that the chief of the kings, called the monarch, kept the 
county of Methe with himself ad mmsam, i. e, for the maintenance of his 
more honorable diet.'* 

Four of these kingdoms continue unchanged in name, though not in 
outline, Meath having merged in Leinster ; and at some unascertained 
periods, after the conquest of 1172| England, imitating Roman imperial 
precedent, named them provinces. 

The Idngdoms were divided into cantreds, of which there was a 
gross total of 184 ; and these cantreds, being subjected to some changes, 
were angUcised into baronies or hundreds, and are now represented by 
the increased ordnance survey number of 267, which includes cities, 
counties of cities, and towns. 

The cantreds were composed of towns, also called betaghtowns, after 
a ratio of thirty to each, producing a resulting total of 5,520 betagh- 
towns in the kingdom. This particular territorial division has disap- 
peared, and nothing resembling it remains, and I am unable to state 
when or under what circumstances the extinction took place. 

The towns or betaghtovnxs were divided into plowlands, otherwise 
called ballyboes, carucates, or quarters, at a ratio of eight to each town, 
producing by arithmetical computation a gross total for the entire king- 
dom of 44,1 60 ; and each of these plowlands was estimated to contain 
120 acres of arable land, over and above pasture, hills, riyers, woods, 
wastes, and bogs. It was at this point of the territorial divisional scale 
that the Irish standard of measure, if such it can be called, governing 
the plowland and all superior divisions, was fixed. 

These 44,160 plowlands are now represented by something beyond 
60,000 townlands, as same are delineated upon the Ordnance Survey, 
a most valuable, elegant, and nearly perfect picture of our native land, 
and which does such infinite credit to the corps of Eoyal Engineers, who 
produced and have charge of it. The excess of the number of town- 
lands over plowlands is, as I apprehend, easily accounted for. 8o long 
as proprietorship was regulated by the ancient stringent laws of ances- 
tral descent and entail, the names, number, and bounds of betaghtowns 
remained unaffected ; but necessity frequently found opportunity to 
break through and evade these laws, and by degrees forced into the mar- 
ket, if I may so express myself, a very considerable portion of the sur- 
face of the country. This created new proprietors, who not unfre- 
quently attached new names to their lands ; and as time and changes 

a. I. A. PEoc. — VOL. Tin. ' a 



42 

of this natnre progressed, the betaghtownb multiplied, and their areas 
diminished, nntil at the present time we find them represented on the 
Ordnance Survey as hefore expressed. And it seems to me that, notwith- 
standing that survey, these 60,000 townlands must, from the same 
causes, continue to increase, unless the legislature enforce the adoption of 
its description as a requisite, necessary, and indispensahle measure to 
entitle parties to the benefits of registration of deeds and other instruments 
affecting lands, tenements, and other hereditaments. 

The plowlands, for farming and other practical purposes of life, were 
subdivided into cartrons and a multitude of small and unequal portions, 
in like manner as the townlands are now into farms, fields, and tene- 
ments, which, as their area was and is ever varying to accommodate ever- 
varying circumstances and tastes, are not made the subject of mapped 
expression ; and it appears to me that it would be unwise as well as 
useless so to delineate them, unless their bounds were as fixed and change- 
less as those of the townlands of which they are integral parts ; and to 
such an attending contingency I do not apprehend that proprietors or 
occupiers would silently submit. 

Counties or shires are of purely English introduction. I cannot find 
their parallel in ancient Irish divisions. Kot one of them existed before 
1172; and almost all of them were created by or tmder the authority of 
aot of parliament between 1543, when the territory of Meath was di- 
vided into two shires, and 1715, when the counties of Tipperary and 
Cross Tipperary were united into one county. 

The account which the records in my own power thus enable me to 
supply t)f the territorial divisions of Ireland, corresponds marvellously 
with a yet more ancient representation of them, as conmiunicated by the 
Eev. W. Keeves, D. D., in an interesting and valuable paper read by him, 
before this Academy, on the evening of Monday, the 22nd of April last. 

His 185 tricha-ceds represent my 184 cantreds. 

His 5560 bailebiatachs represent my 5520 towns or betaghtowns. 

His 66,600 seisreachs represent my 44,160 plowlands. 
And his scale of contents is fixed, as is mine, at this latter division, 
which determines the measure of aU others in the ascending line. 

The difference, and it is a material one, between the two statements, is 
thenumber of seisreachs in the ballybetaghwhichDoctor Beeves makes 1 2, 
and the number of plowlands in the town, which my authority makes 8 ; 
the arithmetical differential deduction from this discrepancy is 22,440 
seisreachs or plowlands, equivalent to 2,692,800 arable acres of land over 
and above their appurtenant pasture, hiUs, rivers, woods, wastes, and 
bogs. The Bean of Lichfield's MS. abbreviate before referred to, makes 
a betaghtown to contain 960 arable acres over and above its appurte- 
nances ; and this exactly tallies with my record authorities, which give 8, 
not 12 plowlands, to each such town. But the Dean's manuscript dif- 
fers from the Doctor's authorities and mine as to the gross number of 
these towns in the kingdom, which he makes 5920, being an excess of 
400, equivalent to 384,000 acres of arable land with their appurtenances. 

His summary of the kingdom is as follows, viz. : — 



43 

In Leinster, . .31 cantredfl equiyalent to 930 bailebetaghs. 

In Ulster, . . 35 „ „ 1,050 

In Desmond, . . 35 „ „ 1,050 

In Thomond, . . 35 „ „ 1,050 

InMidth, . . 18 „ „ 540 

In Connanght, . 35 „ „ 900 

IntheBrennies, . 13 „ „ 400 

Total, 202 Total, 5,920 

The Abbreviate states that these diyisions were made before the 
conquest in 1172. 

I consider it only right to point out these discrepancies, in the expec- 
tation that my friend Dr. Beeves, who was first in the field, may inves- 
tigate all the authorities, trace the origin of the error, and on some fu- 
ture occasion explain and correct it before the Academy. 

There is another division of the island, which, although ancient, is 
not so much so as those I have particularized ; and yet, as the ojffspring 
of Christianity, merits special distinction. It is the allotment into pa- 
rishes and dioceses. These formations were intended, and through a 
long period used, for purely ecclesiastical purposes. Their increase 
and spread, which were gradual, denote the slow, though sure, deve- 
lopment of our common religion. Parishes are now used for civil as 
weU as ecclesiastical purposes ; and their area as to surface and popu- 
lation are strikingly different. 

But to return, after this long territorial divisional digression, to town- 
land MS. mapped surveys, it is manifest ^m all the charters and grants 
by the crown of England that have fallen under my observation, from 
an early period to late in the reign of Elizabeth, as well as from tiie in- 
quisitions taken before the escheators of Leinster, Ulster, Munster, and 
Connaught, and returned as before observed into the courts of Chanceiy 
and Exchequer, that no townland survey admeasurement by chain and 
scale, and consequently no plot or mapped expression thereof, was made 
or even thought of. Territories and lands were conquered, seized upon, 
escheated, and passed away by grant in ffMo : they were won with, 
and measured and defended by, tiie sword. 

There exist, no doubt, as the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, 
the State Paper Office, the British Museum, and other like English record 
depositories, testify, many MS. charts and sketches of kingdoms, pro- 
vinces, bays, forts, encampments, battles, and other features representing 
strength, attack, and defence, — ^the rough industrious evidences of mili- 
tary precaution, foresight, and skill; but I do not consider these cu- 
rious and not uninteresting remains of the olden time applicable to, or 
falling within the scope of, a memoir intended only to exhibit the origin 
and progress of townland surveys in Ireland. 

And now arises an important question, which; solved aright, at once 
discloses the cause and reason of the introduction of land surveying into 
this country; and that question is, What was the apparent necessity for 
BQoh Borveys ? 



44 

The fact is, and hlBtoiy declares it, that the crown of England, which 
had all the responsibility and charge of the conquest, as well as the after 
expenses for the support and maintenance of an Irish executiTe govern- 
ment, being in the distance, was induced to pass away to its great and 
successful military leaders and civil supporters the territorial and other 
valuable fruits which from time to tune had been won ; and that too 
without the reservation of anything like suitable crown rents to aid in 
the payment of said Irish government charge and expenses. And so re- 
cently as the year 1546, the Academy will probably be surprised to 
hear, the entire revenue of this kingdom, from all sources, amounted to 
to barely £3000, a sum totally inadequate to defray the annual civil and 
military charges. 

The possessions of the monasteries and other religious foundations, 
surrendered to and vested in the crown by various acts of parliament, 
in the reign of King Henry YIII., were disposed of by that monarch 
with greater regard to state interests, and the consequence was an in- 
crease of the revenue before stated by a sum of £6,800 per annum. 

Under such circumstances, it is not surprising that Edward TI. 
should have considered it necessary to appoint a surveyor and escheator- 
general to take and retain in his office, for the perpetual information and 
protection of the crown, accurate surveys of all estates and interests 
remaining to it, as well as of aU other that might afterwards fSall in by 
escheat, forfeiture, or otherwise ; and it is to this office, and nearly to 
this period, that the origin of manuscript townland plots or surveys are 
really attributable. 

The creation grant of this office was by letters patent under the 
great seal of Ireland, dated 15th November, 2d Edward YI., and was 
passed to Walter Cowley, of the office of surveyor, appraiser, valuer, 
and escheator-general of all and singular crown honours, manors, lord- 
ships, messuages, lands, tenements, woods, possessions, revenues, and 
hereditaments within Ireland, together with an annual salary of one 
hundred pounds, — a very large amount of remuneration in those days. 
I subjoin 4^e names of all persons appointed to said office, and dates of 
the respective grants, down to the 23rd October, 1641, the period at 
which the portion of my narrative communicated in this paper termi- 
nates, viz.: — 

1. Walter Cowley, .... To hold during pletaore, . . 15Not. 1648,2Edw.Vl. 
8. Edmund Satton, . . . . Without tenure, 19Sept 1661,6£dw.yi. 

5. Michael Fitswilliams,. . To hold for life, 1 2 May, 1562, 6 Ed w. VI. 

4. Launcelot Alford, . . . To hold during pleasure, . . . 16Jan. 1672, 14Eliz. 

6. SirGeoffi7Fe&ton,KDt . Toholdforlife, lOAu{(.1691,89£lis. 

6. WiUiAin Parsons, Gent, . To hold during good behaviour, 26 Dec 1602, 44 Ells. 

7. Francis Blundel, .... In reversion for life, 18 Feb. 1609, 6 Jas. I. 

8. William Parsons, ... A reinsUtement, 14 Feb. 1610, 7 Jas. I. 

9. William Parsons and his 

brother Laurence, . . . To hold for life, 26BIar.l611, 9 Jas. I. 

10. Sir William Parsons, Sir 
AdamLoflbns, and Rich- 
ard Parsons, son and 
heir to Sir William, . . Upon surrender for life, .... 24 Dec. 1624, 26 Jas^ I. 



45 

King Edward YI. and his immediate snccefleon, Philip and Mair, 
came upon the stage and departed without an opportimity offering for 
the exercise of the conserrative office of Bturveyor and eecheator-genend. 
It is true, that Qne^i Mary seised upon the countries of the O'Mores, 
O'Connors, and O'DempsieSi in Leinster, called Leiz and Offaly, and 
created them hy act of parliament into the Sling's and Queen's Counties, 
sailing the principal towns after their own names ; hut I haye not seen 
any eridence from which to conclude that mapped surveys were then 
made of these^countries, either in gross or in detail. It was in the follow- 
ing reign of Queen Elizabeth, when Ulster and Munster hurst into a 
flame by the rebellion of the earhi of Tyrone and Desmond and their 
followers, and which resulted in their attainder and the resting of their 
estates in the crown by sundry acts of parliament, that MS. mapped 
townland surreys were called into existence. 

A rariety of inquisitions of the lands forfeited in the counties of Cork, 
Kerry, Limerick, Tipperary, and Waterfbrd, taken before the lord de- 
puty and certain other commissioners, of whom Launcelot Alford, the 
Burreyor and escheator^general was one, in the twenty-sixth, twenty- 
eighth, and twenty-ninth years of the reign of Queen Elizabetii, are in 
existence in the auditor-general's collection of records ; but these inqui- 
sitions only describe the names and situations of the lands, without 
ascertaining quantities in acres or otherwise. 80 soon, howerer, as the 
Queen and her Council decided upon establishing, under certain condi- 
tions and limitations, a plantation of her English subjects upon these 
forfeited territories ; and for that purpose determined to grant them out 
to undertakers, in scopes of twelre, ten, eight thousand, and a lesser 
number of EngHsh acres, it became indispensable to the interests of the 
crown, as well as to equity in the distribution of the lands amongst the 
midertakers, to hare ^e area of each town accurately measured, ascer- 
tained, and laid down upon a plot or map. 

Accordingly, I find a commission to that end, bearing date the 19th 
Jmie, in the twenly-sixth year of the reign of Queen EHzabeth, accom- 
panied by niinute instructions from the ministers and lords of Her Ma- 
jesty's Priry Council in England addressed to Sir Henry Wallop, Knt., 
imder-treasurer of Ireland, and to other commissoiners there, of whom 
the auditor-general, and the surveyor and escheator-general were two ; 
authoriring and requiring them to make special inquiry in relation to 
said forfeitures, to measure the demesnes, and to reduce acres to plow- 
lands, according ;to the custom of the country, and to ralue the acres 
nteably according to perches. 

The surrey was completed in the year 1686, and must hare been 
Ktamed into England, as ** The Plot from England for inhabiting and 
peopling Munster'^ was soon afberwards sent to the lord deputy. And, 
tether, a rery large proportion of the principal plantation gfknts were 
passed under the great seal of England almost simultaneously, based 
upon that surrey, and which could not hare been so passed unless the 
gluiding information enabling the distribution had been on the spot. 
The plantation grants passed under the great seals of England and 



46 

Ireland respectively, before the year 1599, distributed to the imder- 
takers, in the counties before named, 295,379 arable acres, English 
measure, according to the statute of Winchester, as the record states, 
at annual crown rents, amounting in gross to £2,704 14«. 9d. of late 
Irish currency. 

Having been pemitted, by the kindness of the Bev. J. H.Todd, D.D., 
Senior Fellow of Trinity CoUege, Dublin, the opportunity of inspecting, 
in the library of that college, a volume of curious and interesting maps 
and plans, ranging in date between 1557 and 1723, I found at folio 38 
of the collection a manuscript map, entitled, ** The Plot df Munster, by 
Francis Jobson," and dedicated to '' The Honourable Lord Bourlay, Lord 
High Treasui'er of England.'' In a long and expressive marginal note, 
Jobson sets out his services, stating '' that he was three years in her ma- 
jesty's service, surveying and measuring part of the lands escheated 
to the crown in Munster ;" and further, ''that Arthur Eobinson and 
Lawson were employed on same survey." The map in question is ge- 
nuine, and clearly a reduction by Jobson from the townland surveys, 
made in pursuance of the pre-recited commission, as a gift likely to be 
acceptable to Lord Burleigh. 

From such accumulated evidence, I concluded that there must have 
been mapped surveys accompanying the inquisitions and books of survey; 
and that nothing less could satisfy the exigencies of the plantation — 
a work that was to be guided by a measure of land up to that time un- 
known in Ireland, and by a scale of crown rent imposition of three-pence 
per English arable acra 

Under these circumstances, I attended at Her Majest/s State Paper 
Office in London, early in the year 1860, and asked to be shown mapped 
surveys relating to lands in Ireland referable to the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth. This public department profess to have collected with care» 
arranged in order of time, and bound up in three volumes, their MS. 
mapped surveys relating to Ireland. The first of these volumes was 
placed before me. It contained the earliest mapped specimens, and 
embraced the period between 1558 and 1602. I di4not discover among 
them the maps I was in search of ; but I found there a manuscript 
map of the great and small county of Limerick of the year 1586— the 
very year of the survey — ^upon which, in a marginal note of contempo- 
raneous handwriting, it is stated, ** that all the lands in that county 
were accurately mapped on a scale of 16^ feet to the perch, agreeably to 
the statute of Winchester, the particulars whereof were distinguished by 
name and colour, and were all set down on the plot." After such a re- 
velation and complete confirmation of the views I had arrived at from the 
records in my own official custody, I think it may fairly be concluded 
and conceded that MS. mapped surveys were taken at same period of all 
the Munster forfeitures adverted to ; and, farther, that these maps, if not 
destroyed, are somewhere stowed away in London record repositories, 
and that sooner or later they will see the light. Except as historical 
curiosities, and illustrative of the progress towards perfectionsince arrived 



47 

at in the art of smreying, I do not say that they wonld be usef al. 
There aurvive few, if any, of the undertakers' grants which represent 
the title of present proprietors from the crown; but, should there be any 
snch, the maps in question would to them possess a value beyond that 
suggested. These maps of large portions of Cork, Kerry, Limerick, 
Tipperary, and Waterfor^, I consider to have been the first public MS. 
mapped townland survey in Ireland. 

The forfeitures of the Earl of Tyrone and his followers in Ulster were 
allowed to remain in the undisturbed possession and enjoyment of the 
former proprietors and possessors during the remainder of Queen Eliza- 
beth's reign. This may have happened from the want of a sufficient 
military force to deal with two provinces, both decidedly hostile, at the 
same tune ; or it might have arisen from the physical impossibility of 
simultaneously carrying out so comprehensive an undertaking as the pro- 
jected English plantations involved. The fixed and undisguised design 
was to subject both provinces to plantation ; and as Queen Elizabeth 
had the merit of establishing the one, to King James, her successor, she 
bequeathed the responsibility of efiecting that of the other. 

Accordingly, I find that by letters patents, bearing date at Dublin, 
the 26th July, in the seventh year of the reign of King James I., accom- 
panied by articles of instructions of survey, his said Majesty nominated 
and appointed Sir Arthur Chichester, Knt., Lord Deputy of Ireland ; 
the Archbishops of Armagh and Dublin ; two other bishops ; Sir Thomas 
Bidgeway, Knt, Vice-Treasurer and Treasurer at War; the Marshal of the 
Army, William Parsons, surveyor and escheator-general ; and many other 
exalted state and legal functionaries, commissioners to survey all lands 
in Armagh, Coleraine and the Derry, Donegal, Fermanagh, Cavan, and Ty- 
rone ; in the execution whereof the ecclesiastical lands were directed to 
be distinguished by themselves ; and the forfeited lands to be divided 
into proportions of ballyboes, quarters, and tates, with names and bounds ; 
and plots were directed to be made of each county, and the conunission- 
ers were to prick out the several proportions therein by name ; and the 
records, when completed, were directed to be transmitted to England in 
cases before Hallowmas, 1609, that the King might have time to resolve 
therefrom in the winter, and to signify his pleasure against the next 
spring. 

There were two interests to be protected by, and exhibited on, the 
records of these survey proceedings, namely, those of the crown and 
the church. To define and set out the latter, inquisitions were taken 
and returned into Chancery for each respective county, most minutely 
describing the ecclesiastical, but not the escheated lands. I have no 
doubt that books of survey describing as minutely these lands were also 
taken and returned into the ex-offieto custody of the surveyor-general, 
as William Parsons, who was then surveyor-general, frunished the 
auditor-general with a roll of these escheated lands in the year 1611, 
which remains in the proper custody at this day as a record of the fact. 
But the county inquisitions and survey books combined would not 



48 

satisfy the instnietions which directed the oommissionen to have plots 
of each county made, and have impressed thereon certain distinctive 
features, which no language, however dear or strong, could do. Besides, 
the term plot in connexion with the survey signifies a map, and that 
only. And, no doubt, as these maps were not returned into the office of 
the surveyor-general, they were, agreeably to the terms of their instruc- 
tions, transmitted by the commissioners in cases into England, for the 
Sing's consideration and pleasure ; and a further circumstance in con- 
firmation of this conclusion is found ia the fact, that the earliest and 
most extensive of the plantation grants were passed under the great seal 
of England in the year 1610. 

As in the case of the maps of the first plantation, in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, I asked at the State Paper Office to be shown those of 
the counties enumerated of the year 1609, — ^when the second volume of 
maps relating to Ireland, embracing all the MS. specimens of the reign 
of E[ing James I., was placed before me; and one of the first objects that 
attracted and fixed my attention on opening the volume was the survey 
I was in search of; I knew it at sight, and upon inspection found, that 
there were four county books, each vellum-bound, and illuminated with 
coats of arms after the fashion of the day, representing Armagh, Cavan, 
Fermanagh, and Tyrone, and containing separate maps of each barony 
in each respective county, within which were pricked out the several 
proportions of lands therein, and their subdivisions by name, as required 
by the articles of instruction annexed to the commission of survey. 

These several subdivisions were, as appears to me, afterwards suc- 
cessively coloured off, to distinguish the townlands granted from those re- 
maining undisposed of, and in the hands of the crown, until, by repeated 
processes of colouring of different hues to denote different grants or pro- 
perties, all were distributed. 

It is much to be regretted that the maps of Coleraine and Derry, and 
of Donegal, which would complete the six escheated counties, are not 
forthcoming. Yet I cannot but hope that they will be found, as they 
should be, reposing in some unexplored comer of Her Majesty's State 
Paper Office. 

The subjoined copy of a letter accompanying the six (not the four) 
books of maps of the escheated counties when deposited in that office, 
most graphically, satisfactorily, and conclusively proves, that Thomas 
Bidgeway, under-treasurer of Ireland, and one of the commissioners 
named in the commission of survey, proceeded to London in the spring 
of 1610, and personally delivered them over to Lord Salisbury, treasurer 
of England, for the consideration and pleasure of the King, as the com- 
missioners were directed to do. 

The letter also suggests a very unsettled state of the north of Ire- 
land at the time of the taking of ike survey, which was carried out id 
the presence of a military force; and this, no doubt, was the reason that 
the marshal of the army was constituted one of the comnussioners. The 
letter runs as follows, viz. : — 



49 

" May it please your 1! 

" The mapps of the 6 escheated Cpunties, besides t&e Derrye, being 
but now newly bound in 6 several bookes for his Majt*** view and the 
light of the intended plantadon, I hnmbly send them herewithal unto 
yo' Ho' with the humble desire to receive some advice firom yo' L by 
Mr. Newton or otherwise, whether I shall sett downe in y* plaine leafe 
at the fore firont of each booke the contents of the same Shire in this 
very forme of the enclosed Sumary note of Calculation, Or ells leave it 
for a tyme unwritten to be afterward filled up according to such other 
forme as any alteradon upon the now course in hand may happen to 
produce. .Also, I humbly present unto y* Lp for y' Hon" own use 
and perusal at y* best pleasure I have a dozen lyke Bookes of my own 
which (imitation only) I extracted in the camp and at my house. 

" Forbearing to ml up the very compliments and description or the 
other blanke leajfes with my notes, untiU I receave some test from your 
L in generall, what will best sorte with the same mappes and w^ y' H" 
lykinge, whereupon all shall be performed accordingly, In brief and yet 
particularly w***m 8 or 4 days at fardest. 

" The true copy of the L* Dep" remaining advizes concerning the 
plantation I have sythence y* Lops vouchsafed admittance and audience 
yesterday (for which I rest humbly bound) selected and singled out 
from among other his Lops remembrances, both publyck and private 
(the latter importable at your Lops better leisure). The Heads and true 
state of all ells requirable of me by y* Hon' (This of the plantacon being 
the hoc age and first and principal part of my employment from Ireland 
hyther), I will not fail (God willing) even in ipso puncto sincerely and 
loudly to set downe and send about the midst of the next week for y' 
Lopps perusall at y* oune best times. 

" My ever good God in Heaven continue and encrease to y* L" all 
honor, healthe, and happynesse even so forbearing y* Hon' frirder trou- 
ble, I humbly et ever remaine, 

"T*L- wholly 

" to dispose of^ 

*'Th" Bidgewat. 

"Prom my 
" Loging in y* Strand, 

"March I5M609. 

" I humbly present also to y* L the Irish Conceived pedigrees of their 
Great Lordes. 

" Endorsed, 

" Maps, Escheated Counties, Irish Pedigrees,. &c." 

I have compared closely the maps of some of the baronies with our 
modem Ordnance maps ; and although there exists, as I anticipated, frx)m 
the great perfection to which the art of surveying has attained since 
1609, when it was but in its infancy, considerable difference of configura- 
tion, and still more marked discrepancies in the names of denominations, 
yet the maps in such juxtaposition identify with tolerable accuracy the 

B. I. A. PBOC. — VOL. Vm, H 



50 

past with present features and outlines ; and where, as in the greater 
number of instances is the case, the title of present possessors grows out 
of, and is dependent upon, the plantation grants, although the greater 
portion of the names by which the townlands were granted have dis- 
appeared in the stream of time, sufficient identifying incidents remain 
to satisfy equity and common sense that certain names and features on 
the Ordnance maps are represented by certain other names and features 
laid down on the maps of 1 609. 

There is, however, one barony of the four escheated counties, the 
maps of which have turned up, that represents an appearance the very 
reverse of truth. It is the barony of Armagh : the lands on the right 
hand boundary of the map, and so internally to its centre, should be on 
the left; and, contra, the left arrangement should be on the right. In 
considering the cause of such displacement, it occurred to me that the 
outlines of the map, when originally traced, and before writing in the 
names of the townlands, might have been reversed, and that tiien the 
names were written into their reverse boundary outlines. And having 
tested this idea by an exactly similar counter-action, the true originally 
intended map came into view. The error is all the more unaccountable, 
as more than one-half of the barony is ecclesiastical property, in the 
defence and preservation of which the commission of survey included as 
commissioners aU bishops having spiritual jurisdiction and charge within 
the six escheated counties. 

The mistake would have proved of more consequence in any other 
barony than that of Armagh, as the entire property in the barony was 
(except a few ballyboes) vested in the Archbishop of Armagh, in right 
of his see; in the Crown, in right of the fort of Sungannon; and in 
Trinity College, in right of its grant under the great seal of England, 
dated at Westminster, the 29th August, in the eighth year of the reign 
of King James I. (1610). 

The general utility of the maps may be exemplified by this planta- 
tion grant to the College. The grant passes the territory of Towaghy, 
but does not name the ballyboes or townlands of which it consisted ; 
neither does the inquisition of the ecclesiastical lands in the county of 
Armagh before referred to ; — the map of the barony names them all, and 
defines their respective outlines, and relative position to each other. 

Any one present dedrous of inspecting these maps, will have the 
opportunity of doing so at the close of the evening ; and I would call 
the special attention of antiquarians to the frequent delineation on town- 
lands of a rath or habitation tenement ; but whether these represent 
the more ancient features of the counties, or were intended to mark out 
the places where buildings were to be raised by the undertakers, in 
pursuance of the articles of plantation, I am unable as yet to form an 
opinion. 

These maps are very beautiful specimens of the art of phota-zincogra- 
pliy — a name given by Colonel Sir Henry James, B. E. and K. C. B., to a 
process invented, I believe, by himsel£ They were executed by direc- 
tions of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, under the 



51 

coloners Gmperintendence, at the Ordnance Sorrey establishment for 
England, at Southampton, for the nse of the Landed Estates' Eecord 
Office, I>ablin, where their practical utility and value are likely to be 
well and frequently tested. And I would here suggest to the Academy 
the desirableness of securing a copy of the maps for their library, which 
the Treasury might the more readily be disposed to grant, considering 
that it would be the gift of an original and curious national work of art 
to a proper representative national institution. 

I have heard it whispered, Mr. President and Gentlemen, that in 
assuming the discovery of the MS. townland maps of the four escheated 
eoonties of Armagh, Gavan, Fermanagh, and T^nrone, and attributing to 
them the value and importance I have ventured to do, I have usurped 
the earlier claim to the discovery of another individual. My best answer 
to this shadowy rumour, as well as the most candid and fair way of 
enabling the Academy to judge of its truth, is to state the simple facts 
relating to the daim suggested, and in the very terms in which they 
were originsdly couched, which are these : — Under date of 2drd July, 
1855, E. P. Shirley, Esq., published, in the ''Ulster ArchssologicalJour- 
nal," for 1856, a catalogue in exUnso of the contents of the three volumes, 
of State Paper Office maps relating to Ireland, to which I have already 
referred ; and, amongst others, he enumerates the maps of the several ba- 
ronies in each of the forementioned counties; and prefacing that enume- 
ration, is a note in the words following : — 

" The following maps were originally bound in vellum, and are im- 
prest with the aims of Bobert CecU, Earl of Salisbury, being presented 
to his lordship by S' Thomas Ridgeway, Treasurer of Ireland, in 
1609." 

The catalogue does not describe the maps as MS. maps, nor as town- 
land maps, nor as maps of the escheated lands, nor does it in any way 
link them with the Boyal Survey of 1609 ; and I am much mistaken if, 
from such a description, any person was led to suppose that they were 
townland maps of the four escheated counties they represent, much less 
that they were the hondfide MS. emanation of said Boyal Commission of 
Survey. Indeed, such a conclusion firom such premises would have been 
but a fortanate guess. And I do not think that Mr. Shirley himself was 
aware of the origin, nature, or value of the baronial maps he catalogued, 
and so communicated to the public. And in confirmation of this con- 
clusion, I refer to an elaborate paper published some time after in this 
same " ArchsBological Journal" (voLiv., p. 1 18), on the subject of ancient 
Irish surveys, which, with Mr. Shirley's catalogue before the author's 
eyes, passes over the valuable MS. townland survey of 1609, and draws 
into review a comparatively worthless one of a part of the north of Ire- 
land, made by Norden, between 1609 and 1611. This silence of the 
author of that paper appears to me conclusive evidence, that in the north 
of Ireland at least, and where the information would be most valuable, 
they were unacquainted with the origin and nature of Mr. Shirley's 
baronial maps, until my discovery and published letter revealed both. 
And new I beg to pass away from this unpleasant, though not im- 
challenged ezpknation, to the subject of my own paper. 



52 

The fifst and second series of mapped townknd surveys to which 
I have called the attention of the Academy, could not have heexL com- 
piled without considerable cost ; and were I enablfid, which I am 
not, to lay my hands upon the pubUc audited aoeount of that coat, I 
have no doubt that it would abundantly confirm the candudonB whidi 
the evidence within my power led me to form on the subject. The 
amount, whatever it may have been, was not drawn out of the Irish 
exchequer. The revenue of this kingdom was insufficient for the ordi- 
nary demands upon it. The survey expenses, therefore, as well as those 
incidental to quelling the rebellions out of which those surveys sprung, 
were provided by, and accounted for, in England. And my object in 
calling attention to this not unimportant circumstance, is to suggest to 
other inquirers the prudence of searching for the account records in the 
proper London repositories; and with this observation I pass on to a 
third series of MS. mapped townknd surveys. 

When King Charles I., at a time of comparative quiesoence, ascended 
the throne of England, the revenue of Ireland, although greatly in ad- 
vance of what it had been, was barely .suffidLant to dSk&j the very 
limited civil and military expenditure chained against it. In the year 
1632, and just when Lord Wentworth, a personal friend and most zeal- 
ous promoter of the King's interests, was appointed Lord Deputy, the 
aggr^ate amoimt of the revenue in round numbers was £63,300, and 
the expenditure £54,000. Every one who has studied the history of 
the period knows how assiduously, and with what a high hand, that 
nobleman set about and succeeded in raising the resources ^the country, 
until in the year 1639 it reached £102,000; and certainly the increase, 
as I could easily prove, was altogether attributable to his clear and com- 
prehensive mind. 

One of his projects for the improvement of Irish finance was seizing 
into the hands of the Crown, under pretence of defective titles, the 
counties of Galway, Mayo, Sligo, and Roscommon, in Connaught; of 
Clare, Limerick, and part of Tipperary, in Munster ; and of the Byrne's 
Country, Cosha, and Eanelagh, in Widdow, in Leinster; with the intent 
of establishing and reaping therefirom the fruits of another, — a third 
plantation. This scheme, howeyer, was ultimately defeated, as appears 
to me, through the great power and influence with the King of the then 
Earl of Clanrickard and 8t. Albania, who inherited from his anceston 
five baronies in the county of Galway alone. 

A modification of Wentworth's idea was submitted to; and the great 
proprietors (20/«k^, if not dejure, within the scopes of the proposed plan- 
tation, as well as all others there, were permitted to eome in hetxe 
commissionerB appointed by the Crown fiir the remedy of defective tit^, 
and compound by money payments for new giants of their several 
estates, rights, and interests, which swelled the revenue of the kingdom 
very considerably at that time. The extent of these grants may be 
estimated from the &ot of the enrolments of them fiUing twenty-four 
closely written vohunes of foolscap sice and proportionate thickness. 



53 

The oourt of defective titles may have suggested the notion of the 
modem Landed Estates Court : the substantial difference between them 
consists in this, that whereas the letters patents were obtained on pay- 
ment of a money consideration to the Crown, and protected the grantee 
and all deriving under him firom Crown claims, the conveyance from 
the Landed Estates Court is attainable at the mere cost of me law ex- 
penses attendant upon the proceedings before it; and, the authority being 
parliamentary, the title conferred is good against the world. 

The preparations preceding, and necessary to cany out Wentworth's 
design, had the effect of calling into existence commissions of survey, 
which resulted, agreeably to former precedents, in ia^msitions finding 
the title of the Crown to the counties named. These mquiaitions were 
retained into Chancery some time between 1637 and 1639. And as it 
was essential for the purposes of the proposed plantation to ascertain 
accurately the quantities and bounds of the several townlandsi the sur- 
veyor-general was again called into action. 

The books of survey and maps compiled in pursuance of these pro- 
ceedings were returned into the office of the surveyor-general ; and were 
all consumed, as stated by Stone, the then surveyor-general, in the cala- 
mitous fire of 1711. But, antecedently to that even^ copies of the sur- 
vey books, expressing the names of the denominations of lands, their 
quality, and contents, Lish plantation measure^ and situation as to 
parish, baiony, and county, together with the significant number of re- 
ference by which each might be referred to, and identified on the plot 
or map, were made out and returned by the surveyor-general to the com- 
missionersfor executing the act of settlement in the year 1661. The com* 
miflsioners required such assistance to enable them to charge the King's 
quit-rents, imposed for a special purpose by the act, and also ultimately 
to distribute the lands themselves to the adventurers, soldiers, trans- 
planted persons, and other legitimate claimants. 

These books, after serving the purposes for which they were intended, 
as well as the decrees, certificates, and other record proceedings of the 
commissioners, were, by direction of section 1 of the Act of Explana- 
tion, 17 ft 18 Car. II., and of clause 60 of the rules attached to and 
incorporated in the Act of Settlement, 14 & 15 Car. IL, cap. 2, delivered 
up to the auditor-general about the year 1678, to remain as of record in 
his office, for perpetual preservation and public use; and they arenow de- 
posited in the Landed Estates Eecord Office, DubUn; and abundantly cor- 
roborate the statement I have made of Wentworth's, alias StraffortPt, 
mapped townland survey. But thatno doubt should be allowed to remain 
upon so unportant a point, I subjoin a statement in detail of payments 
made out of the Irish exchequer to an extent exceeding £9,000, which 
declares the names of the counties subjected to survey, and the nature of 
the records arising out of it. The inquisitions alone are not named ; 
but, as they are in existence in Chancery, they tell their own tale. My 
oljeot is to show that there were also books desciiptiye of the «urvey, 
and maps of the townlands described in the books : — 



54 

Account fr(m Sub-TVeasurer's Molb 0/1637-8,-9, and 1640. 

COKVAUGHT. 

£ 9. d. 
Paid Thomas Eaven, for surveying and measuring 
MayOy GFalway, and the sevcatil counties of Con- 
naught, 1,952 8 9 

,, Captain Nicholas Pinnar, for surveying and mea- 
suring of Connaught Plantation, 1,226 9 

„ Viscount Rannelagh and Sir F. Willoughhy, for 

ditto, • 800 

„ Joseph Carter, for reducing the several original 

maps of Mayo and Galway, 56 

„ Same persons, for tracing maps, Boscommon, 
,Sligo, Mayo, GFalway, and County Town of Gal- 
way, 33 6 8 

„ Laurence Parsons, for engrossing original books 

of Boscommon, Sligo, and Mayo, 26 10 

„ Thomas Waring and Thomas Bavenscroft, for tran- 
scribing books of Galway and Co. Town of Galway, 60 

„ The Lord Deputy and other the Commissioners of 
Survey and attendants, Laurence Parsons, and 
others, 1,981 1 

Total for Connaught, . . 6,085 15 5 

MmrSTEIL 

Paid William Gilbert and twenty-two other surveyors 
and measurers of Co. Clare, Limerick, and Tip- 

perary, 2,200 

„ The Lord Deputy's journey, 700 

Total for Munster, • . 2,900 

Leikstxb. 

Paid Captain Nicholas Pinnar and William Pinnock, 
for measuring the territories of Byrne's Country, 
Cosha, and Banelagh, in the County Wicklow, 227 15 6 

Gross Total, . . 9,213 10 11 

This evidence clearly shows that there were paid for and compiled 
books of survey and plots or maps for the counties of Galway, and county 
of the town of Galway, Mayo, Boscommon, and Sligo, in Connaught ; 
for the counties of Clue, Limerick, and a portion of Tipperary, in Mun- 
ster ; and for a portion of the county of Wicklow, in Leinster. And 



55 

I, in condnsion, express my convictioii that many officially certified 
tradngs of the maps and copies from the books of this survey, issued 
out of the surveyor-general's office before the lamentable and destructive 
fire of 1711, are yet in existence, and lying concealed amongst the title* 
deeds of ancient Irish landed proprietors. And I would urgently sug- 
gest to such, as well as to their solicitors, a search for and submission 
to my inspection of as many as may be found ; when I will undertake, 
upon unexceptionable and contemporaneous evidence, to prove the genu- 
ineness of such as may be genuine ; and thus give authenticity and 
weight to their documents of title, and at the same time additional tes- 
timony to what I have already advanced of plots or maps being accompa- 
niments or fruits of Strafford's survey. 

Professor William E. Sullivan read the following paper : — 

Ov SOME CITBIOUS liOLSCULAB ChANOBS PBODUCBB DT SiLIGATE 09 ZuXC 
BT THE APPLICATIOir-OF He^T. 

Is a Paper which I read to the Academy on its first meeting this session, 
Bome curious pisolithic combinations of silicate and carbonate of zinc 
from Dolores mine, near Santander, in Spain, were described. Mention 
was also made of the presence of carbonic acid in the fibrous Smithson- 
ite or hemi-morphite from the same locality. It was sought to account 
for this circumstance, as well a» the variation in the amount of water, 
and its want of proportionality to the other constituents which are 
generally observed in the published analyses of silicate of zinc, by sup- 
posing that the carbonic acid existed as dicarbonate of zinc which was' 
in combination with disilicate of zinc This hypothesis involved the 
isomorphism of the silicate and carbonate, which were consequently con- 
sidered to be capable of forming an indefinite number of compounds, 
like the similar salts of isomorphic bases or acids. For all these com- 
pounds the general formula m (2ZnO,8iO,) + n (2ZnO,CO,) + jp HO, may 
be proposed. 

A very curious molecular change, which I have found to be pro- 
duced in all these compounds by the action of heat, appears to me to 
give a very unexpected support to the view regarding the constitution 
of the silicates just stated, and consequently to the isomorphism of silicic 
and carbonic acids, upon which it is primarily founded. "When frag- 
ments of the pisolithic silicates were heated to drive off the hydrated 
water, they became of a bright lemon-colour, passing into orange ; on 
cooling, the colour almost wholly faded. The phenomenon is just like 
what is observed with white oxide of zinc, except that the latter never 
yields so bright a yellow as the silicates do. The change appears to take 
place at a little above the temperature of melting lead ; at a redness 
just visible at daylight, the colour of the fragments changes to green, 
which is sometimes of a deep verdigris-green. On removing the lamp 
for a moment from under the crucible containing the fragments, they 
suddenly became yellow. When the temperature was increased by 
means of a blowpipe, the colour again became yellow. On allowing the 



56 

ottudbld then to cool, the colour of the fragment changed successiTely 
{Jrom light yellow to TetdigriB-green, then to bright orange-jellow, 
which became paler as the cooling proceeded, until the fragmentB became 
nearly white. On being heated, Hie chromatic scale was reversed, so 
that the changes could be observed both during the heating and cool- 
ingi The changes took place very rapidly, with a kind of phosphorescent 
glow, which was very beautiful, and could be repeated apparently any 
number of times wi& the same fragments. The latter circumstance 
shows that the phenomenon can take place after the loss of the carbonic 
acid. 

This remarkable molecular change is, perhaps, connected with the 
hemi-morphism to which the pyroelectric properties of the silicate of sine 
are due; and as it is as well, if not better, seen in the specimens containing a 
very large excess of carbonate of zinc, it would appear that dicarbonate of 
zinc is likewise hemi-morphic. The circumstance that the change takes 
place as well after the decomposition of the carbonate, may be urged 
against this conclusion, it is true. I think, however, that the objection is 
only apparent. When the mineral is in fragments, the phenomenon is 
best seen ; when reduced to very fine powder, it almost wholly disappears. 
Now, when fragments of a mineral containing carbonic acid are heated, 
the latter goes away, but the residue retains the original form ; and aa 
the pyroelectric properties are due to the relative position of the mole- 
cules, as long as the mineral retains itd form these changes occur. This 
view is fiirther corroborated by the circumstance that the silicate, which 
ocmtains scarcely any carbonate, and which it is very dii&cult to reduce 
to a very flue powder, exhibits it better when powdered than the sili- 
cates containing very little silica, although the latter act better in frag^ 
ments. The hydrocarbonate 8(ZnO,COs) + 5(ZnO,HO) which is describ^ 
in the paper above quoted, and which is there considered to hare a dif- 
ferent composition from that in combination with the silicate of zinc, 
does not eidiibit this chromatic phenomenon at all; and in the reniform 
masses consisting of alternate shells of silicate and the hydrocarbonate in 
question, so extremely thin that they can scarcely be distinguished by 
the eye, the separate layers may at once be recognised on heating some 
fragments, by tiie alternate lines of green and whitish-yeUow, the former 
being the silicate, and the latter the hydrocarbonate. 

Professor William K Sullivan also read the following paper : — 

Oir ▲ KEW HlDRATXD SlUCATE OF FoTASH, AND OK SOlfB OF THE CORBr- 
TI0N8 UNDSB WHICH THE ESNIFOIUC StBUGTUBS TS MiKEBALS MAT BE 
DEVELOPED. 

About two years ago I wanted a solution of silicate of potash for some 
experiments with which I was then engaged, and accordingly prepared 
it, by fusing a mixture of finely powdered vein quartz witli about four 
times its weight of purified pearl-ash, in a Cornish crucible. The melted 
glass was poured out on a cold plate of iron, and when cold was broken 
mto lumps, and put into a large glass jar about half frdl of water. On 



57 

being stirred about from time to time during a couple of days, the 
smaller fragments nearly all dissolycd^ while the larger lumps were 
only supeificially acted upon. The solution thus formed, haying been 
fonnd strong enough for the purposes for which the silicate was pre- 
pasedy was poured off, and freeh water poured upon the lumps, which 
were frequently stirred during two or three days, by which a second 
solution, but yery much weaker than the first, was obtained. At this 
period my experiments were interrupted, and the jar containing the 
solution and the undissolyed lumps was put away in a cupboard, where 
it remained undisturbed for nearly a year. I then found that some of 
the lumps still remained, to a great extent, undissolyed ; but a great 
number had softened into a pasty mass, in which were disseminated 
h^re and there the unsoftened lumps. The whole of this pasty gelati- 
nous mass was not immediately deriyed from the softening of the lumps, 
8s a part appeared to haye been precipitated from the supernatant liquor, 
so that the oneyen surface formed by the original pasty mass was filled 
up and partially coyered oyer by a thin layer of gelatinous silica, like 
that formed by precipitating a solution of basic sSicate by soluble car- 
bonates, or by a solution of sal-ammoniac. Upon the top of this pasty 
mass, beautifril white warty concretions had mrmed, the whole being 
ooyered by about six inches of water. The borders of the warts were 
serrated, the serrations being produced by the projecting ends of fine 
prismatic needles. In eyery instance the warts formed oyer a lump of 
undissolyed silicate, being largest where the lump came closest to the 
sor&ee of the pasty mass. 

The jar, t^htly coyered with writing-paper, was again laid aside, 
but in a place where it could be frequently examined. The warts gra- 
dually increased in number, each new one ap][>earing to commence oyer 
a lomp, or where the pasty mass was thickest and most granular, until 
at length they extended into a continuous snow-white crust. The po- 
sitions of the warts in this crust were marked by raised prominences. 
The cmst thus formed continued to increase in thickness, the fresh 
dq)ositions appearing to b^in, as at first, oyer the lumps, so that the 
nuaed prominences became more and more marked, until a distinct 
nmiform structure was deyeloped. While this growth was taking place, 
the water had gradually eyaporated, until not more than an inch coyered 
the cmst, and the pas^ mass had become quite gelatinous. 

The supernatant liquor, which was a solution of carbonate of potash, 
containing only a mere trace of silica, was poured off, and the crust re- 
moyed as carefully as possible. The latter was yery fragile, the slightest 
pressure reducing it to a piilpy mass. The gelatinous mass upon which 
the cmst rested had a yellowish colour ; left in the jar, it gradually 
Med and cracked. Part of it, when dried, consisted of an opaque 
whitish-grey substance, mottled with pure white, which was yery friable 
when dried for some minutes in a water-bath. Another part, howeyer, 
was semi-translucent, hard, and yery like some yarieties of opal, and 
contained water eyen after haying been exposed te dry air for seyeral 

B- 1. A. pBoc. — ^voL. ym. I 



58 

months. A very hard semi-translucent fragment contained, when first 
removed from the jar, 23-27 per cent of water, which would correspond 
to SiOfHO ; but after some months' exposure to dry air, it was reduced 
to 9-59 per cent, or 3Si02,HO. In both cases the fragment still con- 
tained some carbonate of potash, so that no very accurate analysis qf it 
could be made. The gelatinous precipitate formed by passing carbonic 
acid through soluble sUicate of potash, eyen when exposed to the air in 
considerable mass until it became dry, yielded only an amorphous white 
anhydrous powder, or one containing only small and variable quantities 
of water. A hydrate containing 16-5 per cent of water, and which may 
be represented by the formula 3SiOa,2lIO ( = SiO„HO), appears, how- 
ever, to have been obtained by dropping slowly hydrochloric acid into 
a solution of basic silicate of potash of moderate strength, and drying 
the gelatinous precipitate in a vacuum or in dry air. This hydrate con- 
sisted of a white powder ; but M. Doveri obtained a similar hydrate in 
the crystalline state by precipitating a solution of silicate of copper dis* 
solved in hydrochloric acid, by sulphide of hydrogen, and evaporating 
the perfectly limpid solution of silica over quick-lime in a vacuum. When 
the hydrate 3Sia,2KO in the form of a white powder was exposed 
for some time to a temperature of 100*" to 120'' cent, it lost half its 
water, and formed a definite compound, represented by the formula 
3SiO|i,HO (= 2Si03,HO), that is, the same compound as Uiat which was 
formed by the exposure of my hard semi-translucent silica for some 
months to dry air. The latter, to which I have above assigned the 
formula SiO„HO (=2SiOs,3HO), has the same composition as the re* 
markable glassy hydrated silica obtained by Ebelman by exposing 
silicic ether to the slow action of moist air. So far as I am aware, the 
two hydrates which I have described are the only examples of definite 
hydrated silica having been obtained in the form of opal. A strong so- 
lution of silicate of potash put into a Briefs apparatus, charged in the 
ordinary way with bicarbonate of soda and tartaric acid, and left un- 
disturbed for a few months, and then exposed to the air until it dried, 
was homy here and there. The quantity of water in many varieties of 
opal and hyalite is so small, that some mineralogists consider it not to 
be chemically combined in those minerals. In what state, then, is it ? 
Hydrated water may be held with so feeble a force as to appear attached 
by cohesion. Mr. A. Gages, in a paper read before the British Asso- 
ciation at Leeds,|described an opaque siliceous skeleton which he obtained 
by the long continued action of acids upon a mineral, and which became 
transparent like hydrophane when plunged into water. The quantity 
of water necessary to effect this change appeared to be definite ; the 
phenomenon was certainly an excellent example of mechanical cohesion 
passing into chemical. Opal, hyalite, &c., as well as the semi-trans- 
lucent gummy hydrated silica just described, probably belong to the 
same category. The formation of some homy hydrated silica in the 
Briefs apparatus is interesting, as showing that time infiuences the 
combining power of water and silica. A similar infiuence appears to 
be exerted upon carbonic acid dissolvedin water under pressure, because. 



59 

the longer it is subject to the pressure, the more slowly it appears to bo 
evolved when the pressure is removed. 

The gummy suica which adhered to the white crust was removed 
as carefidly as possible while the crust was still moist ; the latter was 
then placed upon dry^filtering paper, which was frequently renewed, so 
as to imbibe idl the moisture. A portion was broken into small fr^- 
ments, and laid upon dry filtering paper under a bell-glass along with 
a sulphuric acid desiccating dish filled with water. The air being always 
saturated with moisture, the carbonate of potash in the substance deli- 
quesced, and was absorbed by the filtering paper. The operation was 
repeated until dry paper was no longer wetted by the crust. So com- 
pletely was Ihe carbonate of potash removed by this process, that even 
after an exposure of several months to the air under a large bell-glass, 
which was frequently lifted in order to allow the substance to be moved 
about on the paper, it only yielded a few minute bubbles of carbonic 
acid when treated with acid. 

Thus dried it formed small porous lumps, which crushed between 
the fingers into a snow-white gritty crystalline powder, formed of ex- 
tremely fine oblique prismatic needles. Heated in a crucible to a red 
heat, it lost water ; heated in the blowpipe fiame, it fused into a milky- 
looking glass, which under a very strong heat became transparent. 
Thus fused, it was scarcely acted upon by boiling oil of vitriol, even 
though boiled with it for some hours. In the hydrated state, it was 
decomposed by boiling concentrated hydrochloric acid, but only very 
slowly ; it was readily attacked by oil of vitriol. For the purposes of 
analysis a small quantity of the powder, produced by crushing the lumps 
between paper, was shaken up with distilled water for some minutes, 
in order to remove as far as possible all traces of carbonate of potash, 
placed upon filtering paper, and repeatedly pressed, and then dried at a 
temperature of about 60* cent, in a current of air. The substance was 
decomposed by concentrated hydrochloric acid, and the sihca and potash 
directly determined, the latter being weighed as chloride. The results 
of the analysis led to the formula £0,dSiO,,14HO, as the following 
table shows : — 

Calcnktad. Found. 

KO, . . . . 14-381 .... 14-410 
SiO„ .... 47-227 .... 47-232 
HO, ... . 38-391 .... 38-433 



100-000 100-075 

A portion of the unbroken crust under which the filtering paper was 
changed only a few times, was left to dry gradually. As it did so, some 
carbonate of potash effloresced on it ; this was derived from the mother- 
liquor, and not from the decomposition of the compound, as a portion of 
the latter left to dry for several months, and then well washed, had the 
same composition as that above given. During the drying the crust 
exfoliated into thin layers, which were often perfect shells wherever 



60 

there was a reniform promiBenoe. In many of those shells a fibrous struc- 
ture, could be distinctly traced, — ^the fibres appearing to con^eige aa in 
globular minerals having a fibrous structure^ such as waTelite» &c. 

The formation of this hydrated silicate of potash 9iay perhapB be 
attributed to two, or even three causes. Firstly, the carbonic acid of the 
air was gradually absorbed and combined with the potash of the basio 
silicate, by whidi gelatinous silicate was precipitated up<wi the lumps 
of undissolved silicate. Secondly, the lumps, in dowly dissolving, foimed 
an almost concentrated solution of basic ulicate in their neighbourhood ; 
this solution prcduoed a diffusive current, which slowly brought a por- 
tion of the solution of carbonate of potash from the sur&oe, where it had 
continued to absorb more carbonic acid after the precipitation of the 
gelatinous silicate { this solution must therefore have contained sooae 
bicarbonate of potash, and on condng in contact with the solution of 
basic nlicate, must have produced carbonate of potash, and a less baaic 
silicate of potash, which, if rapidly formed, would be precipitated as a 
powder, but beiog very slowly formed, crystallized out in obedience to 
any direction impressed upon the mdeculea by the molecular forces in 
action in the solution and underlying mass. This change would of 
course take place more rapidly where the solution would be densest, that 
is, near the undissolved lumps, and hence the warty crystallizationB would 
begin there. But a third cause may also aid in producing the latter re- 
sult. We know that a glass rod, a piece of glass, or other object pro- 
jecting fh>m the bottom of a vessel containing a saline solution, will 
genersJly induce crystals to form upon it : a crystal of the salt in solution 
dropped iato it will still more strikingly act in the same way. It may 
be, tnen, that the lumps acted as so many centres of cohesive foroe^ 
which acted the more rapidly the nearer they were to the suriace of con- 
tact of the pasty mass and supernatant liquor. 

UOKDAT, JANUARY 15, 1862. 

Thb Ysbt Rev. Gsablbs Geavbs, B.B.f President, in the Chair. 

The President called the attention of the Academy to the great loss sus- 
tained by the Academy, in common with the public at large, by the 
lamented deaths of his Boyal Highness the Frmce Consort, Honorary 
Member of the Academy, John O'Donovan, LL. D., and the Eev. Bobert 
Carmichael. 

An Address to her Majesty the Queen on the occasion of the Prince 
Consort's death was read by the President, and unanimously adopted by 
the Academy ; and the President was requested to transmit the same for 
presentation to her Majesty. 

Rev. Robert G. Cather, LL. D., Percy Fitzgerald, Esq., and Henry 
W. WiUue, Esq., were elected members of the Academy. 

The Rev. Dr. Reeves read the first part of a paper " On the Round 
Tower of Lusk." 



61 



Mr. OsoKos Y. Bu Kotxs read i^e following description of various 
objects of antiqiiaiiaQ interest presented by bim to the Academy : — 

Nob. 1, 2.-^YiewB of a Cromlech, called '* Leaoh an Seail " in the 
pariah of Hanistovn, Welsh Mountains, near Eilmaganny, county of 
Kilkenny, from a sketch by Mr. Wyley, formerly of the Geological Sur- 
yey of Irdand. 

Ko. 3. — Bemains of a rude stone-graye, or Eistvaen, on the south 
side of Oanickgollogan Mountain, county of Dublin, erroneously marked 
in the Ordnance map as '' Cromlech." 

No. 4 — Sketch of a boulder of granite, from Begem Island, in the 
hsrbour of Wexford ; on which is rudely punched a simple cross, with 
bifurcated ends, the whole enclosed in a parallelogram. This is said to 
mark the grave of St. Iberius, whose death is recorded as having occuired 
on the 28th of April, A. B. 500. This is also from a sketch by Mr. 
Wyley, 

No. 5. — ^A slab of granite^ about 8 feet 10 inches above the ground, 
and close to the base of the round tower at Bathmidiael old church, 
in the county of Dublin. On one side of the stone there are rudely 
punched two groups of four oonoeatric circles each, ecmnected by three 
lines. There may be a third group of drdes beneath the level of the 
BoiL 

Na 6. — ^Thisrepresents another slab of granite, about 5 feet in length, 
now used as a tombstone in the graveyard of the old church of TuUow, 
county of Dublin. The small angular projection at either side, near the 
top of the stone, gives it a fednt resemblance to a cross. The ornamenta- 
tion on this slab is of the same character as on the fonner ; but at either 
side of tiie atem connecting each of, the groups of circles, there are a 
number of divergent parallel lines. The style of ornament on both these 
stones so closely resembles some of that seen at New Grange, in the county 
of Meath, and on some of our gold lunettes^ that I do not think it unrea- 
sonable to suppose that these carvings were made in Pagan times, and 
the stones subsequently adapted to C£istian uses. 

Nos. 7, 8, 9. — Three views of a very singular bi-effigial tombstone, 
from the graveyard of Guldarragh on the Boe Island, in upper Lough 
Erne. This carving is of the rudest description, the size of tiie head of 
the male and female figure being out of all proportion, and the features 
of both brought out by raised flat narrow bands. The male head is dis- 
tinguished by a forked and pointed beard of the iSa«of» type, and that the 
figure on the opposite side of the stone is that of a female is suggested 
by a waist-belt The arms of both effigies are crossed on the chest, and 
more resemble flat bars than anything else. The top of the stone is cut 
away deeply, so as to form a marked separation between the heads. 
Without doubty this is a work of considenDble antiquity, and it appears 
to have been intended to mark the interment of two bodies in one 
grave. 

No. 10. — View of the doorway of the round tower of St. Canice, 
Kilkenny, The lintel is formed of blocks of old red sandstone, the sides 



62 

of magiiesian limestone, and the sill of the ordinary grey limestone of 
the district. 

No. 11. — View of the round tower of Kilrea, in the county of 
Kilkenny : unlike most of such edifices, the doorway is not surmounted 
by a large window-loop, — ^this aperture, though present, being placed at 
the distance of many feet to the Left-hand side as you enter the door. The 
upper portion of the tower has been remodelled, the conical roof remoTed, 
and a parapet formed over the original openings at the top of the tower. 
This tower stands on a square plinth of dry masonry, and measures 49^ 
feet in circumference at its base. 

No. 12. — Doorway of the round tower of Kilrea. This doorway 
measures only 4 feet 7^ inches in height to the springing of the arch, 
and 2 feet 4 inches in width : it is formed of sandstone, and its sides are 
parallel. The head is semicircular, and cut out of one stone ; around 
the entire doorway there is a fiat raised band, 10^ inches broad. 

No. 13. — Doorway of the old church of Kilbunny, near Pilltown, 
county Waterford. IHiere is a quaintness and originsdity in this work, 
which stamp it as being of exceeding antiquity, — ^possibly of the tenth 
or eleyenth century. The doorway, which has converging sides, mea- 
sures about 6 feet in height to the springing of the arch, its head is semi< 
circular, formed of nine stones, each of which is cut away superficially so 
as to form a deeply depressed zigzag moulding, surrounded by a flat 
band; the arch rests on a broad abacus, ornamented with massive 
beads. Directly over the arch a human head projects, in high relief, the 
forehead of which is cinctured by a fiat band ; the lower portion of the 
* face is destroyed ; on the northern side of the doorway, over the spring- 
ing of the arch, there projects a rudely carved head of a nondescript 
monster, with a large moudi, having teeth and a curled-down snout ; the 
corresponding side of the door is plain. 

The outer angle of the northern jam of the doorway, just beneath 
the abacus, has been cut into to represent a human hc^, with beard 
and moustache ; and on the oppoeite side, a ram's horn is carved in a 
similar manner: although the carvings appear in relief, no portion of them 
project beyond the sur&ce of the stone. 

No. 14. — This represents the head of what was once a very fine 
cross, carved out of granite, and lately discovered in a field to the east 
of the ** Cathedral " of Glendalough. Its type is that of a cross radi- 
ating from a circla 

No. 15. — ^A small slab of mica-slate, carved so as to suggest the 
outline of a cross just appearing from beyond the outer ciroimferenoe 
of a circle ; also fiK>m Olendalough. 

No. 16. — Small and rudely formed cross of the Maltese type^ carved 
out of a slab of mica-^te ; from Olendalough. 

No. 1 7. — ^A small block of mica-slate, from Glendalough, carved into 
the form of a truncated cone, having a small oval hollow on the top, 
which, no doubt, was meant to receive the shaft of a cross. 

No. 18. — ^A small mutilated cross, cut out of a fiat slab of granite, 
and standing on a square plinth of granite, in the grayeyard of the old 



63 

church of Kill-of-the-Grangey county of Dublin. The effect of a cross 
radiating finom a circle is produced by four circular perforations ranged 
round the centre of an imaginary circle. 

No. 19. This represents the b^d of a beautiAiUy carved cross, from 
the graveyard of the old church of Kilkieran, near Pilltown, county of 
Kilkenny ; here we have the effect of a cross radiating from a circle pro- 
duced in tlie most skilful and effective manner. 

No, 20. — ^The pHnth and shaft of a most exquisitely decorated cross, 
from the same locidity as the former; the chief ornamentations are the 
plait and the rope ornament. 

No. 21. — ^This cross, which is of unique form, is also from KiUderan ; 
it is cut out of a single block of sandstone, and is 10 feet 6 inches high ; 
it stands on a circular plinth. The cross arm is unusually short, and 
appears as if inserted into the shaft, which is completely siirrounded by 
a rope-moulding ; a portion of the lower face of tiie shaft is depressed 
in such a manner as to lead one to suppose that the space was intended 
to receive a tablet for an inscription or device. 

Kos. 22, 23, 24, 25. — Four views of the plinth and a portion of 
the base of the shaft of a small cross, formed of red sandstone, from an 
ancient burying-ground, one mile south of Ballinamult, in the county 
ofWaterford; these are drawn to the full size of the original The 
ornament on the different sides of the plinth is either the simple plait 
or fret ' . 

No, 26. — An Anglo-Norman tombstone, or lid of stone-coffin, from 
the graveyard of the Black Abbey at Kilkenny. The slab is ornamented 
with a simple long-shafted cross, which terminates in large trefoils; it 
bears on its surfeu^the following inscription, in the Anglo-Norman cha- 
racter: — 

Master Roberd de Sardelove git id deu de Boahne eit merei Paf^ nj r. 

No. 27. — ^Another and a similar tombstone from the same locality, 
but devoid of any inscription. From the shaft of the cross, just be- 
low the arms, there appears suspended a kite-shaped shield, on which 
three large rings are Mnilj traced. It is probable that these are but 
the sketch of an armorial bearing : if, however, we are to suppose the 
work complete, I know of no coat of arms more nearly resembling it 
than that of the &mily of Ganteville or Cantwell. 

No. 28. — A similar tombstone, also fr^m the Black Abbey at Kil- 
kenny ; it is ornamented with a foliated cross only. 

No. 29 This sketch represents a rude stone-coffin, from the same 

locaUty as the three preceding tombstones ; the ornament along its sides 
is in low relief, and badly executed, representing alternations of trefoil - 
headed arcades and square spaces enclosing rude quatrefoils ; from the 
general style, I am led to think that it was executed on the spot by native 
stone-cutters, while the coffin-lids or tombstones may have been the 
work of accomplished Anglo-Norman sculptors, and were possibly m- 
ported. In a paper on female cross-legged effigies, which I contributed 
to the ''Journal of the ArchoDlogical Institute,'^ voL 2, I had occasion 



64 

to make the same remark with regard to some stone-coffina and ooffin- 
lids found at Cashel, in the county of Tipperary. 

No. 30. — This represents a coffin-shaped tombstone, from ike grave- 
yard of Fethard church, in the county of Wexford; it bears along its 
bevelled edge the following inscription, in the Anglo-Norman cha- 
racter: — 

nomoi de An^aifns ^M deu de 9a alme eU merei. Amm, 

No. 31. — ^Fragment of an Anglo-Norman tombstone, with foliated 
cross, and a portion of an inscription, from St. Canice' Cathedral, Kil- 
kenny. 

No. 82. — ^This sketch represents a tombstone of a very unusual type 
either in Ireland or England. It is decorated with a human head and 
bust, rising &om beneath a richly foliated cross, which rests on the chest 
of the figiure ; the head is apparently that of a female ; the stone is pre- 
served in the cathedral of St. Canice, Kilkenny. 

No. 33. — ^A tombstone similar in type to the former, and preserved 
in the graveyard of the old church of Bannow, county of Wexford. 
Here, however, we have the head and bust of a male and female figure, 
surmounted by an architectural canopy. The male head is armed with 
the cylindrical flat-banded helmet of the 13th century ; the female head 
is bare, showingthe hair tonsured over the forehead, and falling in looped- 
np curls over tiie ears, being bound round with a flat band. Along the 
shaft of the cross there is the following inscription, in black letter : — 

Hiejaeet Johannei Golfer qui ohiit [no date]. OraUpro Anna Siggin 
que ohiit [another blank space on which the date was never inserted], 
quorum animdhus proprietor deus. Amen, 

In the district of Bannow and Carrick, Colfer is the most common 
name ; but Siggin, though recognised as that of one of the oldest families, 
is now extinct; the last of the name in the county was an itinerant horse- 
breaker,, an old man much respected by the people, and who occasionally 
lived amongst them at free quarters. 

No. 34b — ^Yiew of the old house of the Siggin femiily, in the townland 
of Newtown, formerly Brandane, opposite to Bannow Island. 

No. 35. — ^A mediaeval tombstone, from the graveyard of Bannow old 
church. 

No. 36. — ^View of the old church of Bannow, county of Wex£>rd. 

No. 37. — Doorway of Bannow old church, remarkable as being of 
precisely the same type and general form as that from the so-cdled 
*' Cathedral " at Glen^ough, which is supposed to be of the 7th cen- 
tury. As the date of Bannow church cannot be later than the 13tfa 
century, we can only supjpose that its architect copied from the antique, 
unless his judgment led him to adopt the most simple and at the same 
time the strongest form of doorway possible, — ^that with a massive flat 
lintel, having an arch over it to relieve it of the weight of the superim- 
posed masonry. 



65 

No. 38. — Plan of Bannow church, showing the Porches to the north 
and south doorways, which, however, are less ancient than the church 
itself, and may have been added to give greater security to the eccle- 
siastics or others who may have used the church as a place of refiige in 
troublesome times. 

No. 39. — The lid of a stone-coffin, or perhaps a tombstone only, firom 
the abbey of Gowran, in the county of Kilkenny ; this is ornamented 
with the ftQl-length figure of an ecclesiastic, carved in high relief; along 
the bevelled edge of the slab there is an inscription in the Anglo-Norman 
charaoter, which commences with an invocation '' in the name of God 
to pray for the soul of Julianus," somebody whose name commenced 
with me letters DTC; the remainder of the inscription is too faint to be 
deciphered. 

No. 40. — ^The tombstone of Elenor, daughter of Pierce, the 8th Earl 
of Onnondy and wife of the Earl of Thomond, from the Cathedral of 
St Canioe, Kilkenny. I give tiiis sketch as illustrating the practice of 
representing the emblems of the Passion on tombstones, in the 14th and 
15th centuries. 

No. 41. — ^The stone seat called St. Kieran's Chair, ftom the interior 
of the Cathedral of St. Canice, Kilkenny. 

No. 42 — Coat of arms of Edward the 4th, carved on a stone which 
is inserted into the gable-wall of a house, close to the entrance of the 
graveyard of St. Canice, Kilkenny. The supporters to the shield, which 
is chiorged with three lions passant and three fleur de lis quartered, are 
a winged griffin and a greyhound, those of the Tudor family : the date 
of this carving must be between the years 1546 and 1553. 

No. 43. — ^This sketch represents a covered well in the yard of an old 
house, called Wolf s-arch in the town of Kilkenny. In the entablature 
Lb the date 1604, with the following inscription in black letter : — 
Orate pro animahua Johannis Rothe mercatorU et uxor efus Itola Archer 

quiputeum hunc et heredifieia fieri fecit. 
In the wall adjoining the well on its right-hand side, is a stone bearing 
the arms of Bothe and Archer, with the date 1610. It would appear 
that the immortality to be acquired by the construction of a draw-well 
or diinking-fountain was known to and appreciated by the worthies of 
the 16th and 17th centuries. 

The following nine illustrations from No. 44 to 52, inclusive, are of 
windows and loops frt>m buildings of various ages. 

No. 44. — One of the side-wall windows of tibe old church of Donagh- 
more, between Qonmel and Fethard, in the county of Tipperary • Twelfth 
century. 

No. 45. — ^Window frx)m the W. gable of the old church of Ownig, 
county of Kilkenny. 

Na 46. — ^Window from the S. gable of the sacristy of Mullagh 
Abbey, county of Tipperary. Pifteenth century. 

No. 47. — ^Loop firom Ballycloughy Castie, county of Tipperary. 
a. I. A. PBOc. — ^voL. vm. k 



66 

No. 48. — Another loop, from the same building. 

No. 49. — Loop from Ormond's Castle, at Carrick-on-Suir, erected 
A. D. 1566. 

No. 50. — ^Another loop, from the same castle. 

No. 51. — ^A third loop*hole, from the same building. 

No. 52. — Cruciform loop, from the same castle. 

No. 53 Sketch of the stone-roofed and castellated church of Tagh- 

mon, county of Westmeath. 

No. 54 Ground-plan of the same building. 

No. 65. — Small Aumbrey from the east wall of Taghmon church, close 
to the east window. 

No. 66. — ^Exterior view of one of the windows from Taghmon church, 
which fix>m its general style would lead to the supposition that the 
church was erected in the latter part of the 15th, or beginning of the 
16th century. 

No. 57. — Plan of the church forming part of the ruins of Moymet 
Castle, in the county of M eath, tiear Trim, erected by Sir Lucas DHlon, 
who was Chief Baron of the Exchequer in the reign of Elizabeth. The 
only feature of interest in this ruin is the pulpit, which formed part of 
the original structure, and is placed in the south side- wall, ne^ the com- 
mencement of the chanceL 

No. 58. — Coloured drawings of two fibulaB of the bulla type. That 
marked A is formed of a very large lump of amber, pierced with a bronze 
pin. Fig. B. shows the perforation in the amber bushed with wood, to 
guard against the amber being cracked or broken by the action of the 
pin. 

No. 59. — ^The first drawing on this sheet is that of a singularly 
beautiful fibula, the hoop of which is ornamented by a series of five fiattish 
amber beads, alternating with bronze dirks arranged in ^ups of five ; 
the termination of the hoop, where the pin catches, is flattened out in the 
form of the opercula of a mollusk, and is decorated by delicately en- 
graved lines, which follow the curve of the flattened spire, having between 
them rows of zigzag punchings. This ornamentation is precisely simi- 
lar to that on many of our gold torques. Fig. D. is a flbula of the same 
type as the former, but formed entirely of bronze ; the hoop is engraved 
with a zigzag pattern, and the terminal opercula-shaped disk, at the 
catch for the pin, is ornamented with a series of two rows of small circles. 
On the pin of this fibula there are yet preserved four of the original rings 
which were attached to the doak or garment intended to be fastened by 
it 

No. 60. — ^A singularly large bronze fibula of the type of the former, 
but much more rude in workmanship, and devoid of ornament. The 
terminal disk is oval, and remarkably large, measuring 6 by 4| inches 
across: from its massive character, I think this may have been applied 
to horse-trappings, or the hanging of heavy drapery. 

No. 61. — This fibula is of the same type as the foregoing, but wants 
the terminal disk, which gives place to a long deep catch for the end of the 
pin. The hoop is ornamented with a rude herring-bone pattern. 



67 • 

No. 63. — Chessmen of walrhus tooth, representing a King, a Bishop, 
and a P&wn; these were found in the san^ on the shore of one of the 
Orkney Islands, and are supposed to be of the 12th century. I giye them 
to illustrate the form of the itoord and ike pastoral crook of the period. 
These singular relics have been described by Sir "F^ Madden, in the 
" Archffilogia," yoL xxiv., p. 200. The objects represented in the five 
last sheets of illustrations are preserved in the British Museum. 

No. 63. — ^This is an original drawing by my colleague, Mr. Foot, of 
an ornamented font in the old church of Aughtmama, near Oranpiore, 
county of Clare. It represents a combat between two stags, and is in its 
way quite uniqua Vide Portfolio. 

The marked thanks of the Academy were voted to Mr. Bu Noyer for 
this handsome and valuable donation. 

The Secretary of the Academy read the following recommendation 
of the Council : — ''That the sum of £30 be placed at the disposal of the 
Ck)uncil for the purchase of antiquities during the current year;" and 
moved that the same be adopted by the Academy. 

Whereupon it was moved and seconded, as an amendment: — '' That 
the recommendation brought down from the Council be referred back to 
the Council for reconsideration, the amount proposed to be voted for the 
Museum being considerably less than ordinarily voted for many years 
back." 

A division having been called for, the amendment was declared to 
be lost ; and the original motion, being put, was declared to be carried, 
— 13 members having voted for, and 6 against it. 

Donations of books were presented, and thanks voted to the donors. 
The Academy then adjourned. 

MONDAY, JJLNUABT 27, 1862. 
Ths Yebt Bev. Chaelss Obaves, D. D., President, in the Chair. 
Dr. KiNAHAN read the following — • 
Synopsis of thb Species of the Families CEANGONiDJi anb Gala- 

THEinJB WHICH nniABIT THE SEAS ABOUND THE BbITISH IsLES. 

(Plates III.-XV.) 

PaetI. 

The itaUeiud genera and Bpedea are uot British. 
Family— CBANGONID^. 
Carapaz depressus, oculi supeme aperti : Antenn. extormc filamcnto 
terminantes squama lata basi prseditse. Ant. internsB ad basin dilatattc, 
pedunculo brevi, duobus filis terminantes. MaxUlipedes cxtemi subpe- 
diformes. Chelipedes (pedes ambulatorii) paria quinquc ; par primum 
subcheliforme, par secundum didactylum, paria tertia ad quiuta acu- 
minata. Branchiae paria septcm. Genera: Crangon, CLeraphilus, ^gcon, 
J^ectoeranpon. 



68 

Qmsjjs I. 

CBikNGOir, Carapax Iffiyis, dente gastrico mediane siepins, et dente 
branchialo utrinque aimatos, roetratus. Bostrom breve, pedunculo ocu- 
Iprum non saperanB. Somites (segmenta) abdominaleB supeme IseTes. 
Telflon (segmentam ultimum) supeme plfiuium. Chelipedes (pedes am- 
bulatorii) par primum satis grande, snbcheliforme, par secundum minu- 
tum, debile, pare primo longitudinem sequans didactylum. Faria teitia 
ad quinta acuminatcL Species Or. yulgaris, Franciscorum, rubrcpuneia^ 

tU8, - 

1. Crangonfftdgaris {YabriduB Bg.). 

C. Eostro perl»«vi, apioe rotandato supeme excarato, orbibustotibn 
circimiciliatis. Carapace dentibus gastrico biachialibusque vtmaio, 
Abdaminis somitibuB iBsvibus. Telson Ifere. Obelipedum pare seeundo, 
paribus primo tertioque equaate, meros deutato. (Syn. (>. aeptem^- 
nosa (Say.), Cai&oer Craugon (Seba)). In littoris Magnsd Britannic et 
Hibemiffi. 

Subgenus Steibaciunook (mihi). Carapax ut Crangon. Somites 
abdominis ad 5tum supra Iseves sextus supeme canaliculatus ; telson 
supra Bulootum. Species St. propinquua, mgrieaudot ajfinUy AUouaiiu. 

2. Crangim {Steiraerangon), Allmanni (Kin.) 

St. Eostro breyi, apice subrotundato supeme excavato. Orbibus 
totum circumciliatis, carapace ut Cr, vulgaria. Abdominis somite sexto 
bicarinato, sulcato. Telson supra sulcato, somitibus aliis Isevibus. 
Chelipedibus ut Or, vulgaris. In proftmdis ad " Dublin** et '* Belfsist, " 
Hibemiam, et ad " Shetland/' Mag. Brit. 

Genus II. 

Cheilaphiltis (mihi), Pontophilus (Leach, non Risso neo De Haan). 

Carapax carinatus rostratus, Eostram triangulare. Abdominis so- 
mites caiinati, sculptique ; telson suprasulcatom. Chelipedes secundi 
quam primo aut tertio brcTiores. Sp. Ch. bispinosus, trispinoeus, inter- 
medius, hidentatua, angustieauda, Pattersonii, spinosus, horeas, CapenaUy 
nanWf munitus, 

1. Cheraphilus biapitUMU (Westwood sp.). 

Ch. Eostro brevi, apice rotundato «upra sulcato. Orbe margine ex- 
temo ciliato, carapace, regione gastric^ mediana bidentat&, kiteribus 
minute nodosis. Abdominis somitibus quinto sextoque bicarinatiB. 
Telson supeme excavato. Chelipediim pare secundo, dimidio tertii pahs 
aequante. Synonyma Pontophilus hispinosus (West) ; Crangon bispino- 
sus (Bell). In profondis ad " Dublin " et *" Galway," Hibem. ©t. ad 
*' Hastings," Mag. Brit 



69 

2. CheraphiJus trUptnosus (HailBtone ep.). 

Gh. Bostro perbrevi apice rotimdato eupeme exoayato, Orbi pauci- 
bas eiliia fando insitis. Carapace uno dente gastxiob mediano et uno 
dente gastrico laterali solum armato; lateribua IsTibus. Abdominis 
aomite sexto, suboarinato, telson sapeme excarato. Chelipedum pare 
aecundo, tenui ; quam primo tertaoye, multo breviori Syn. FatUophilu$ 
trupintmu (Hailst); Crangan trupinosus (Bell). Ad "Dublin/' Hi- 
bem. et ad "Hastings/' &c., Mag. Brit. 

3. Ch. PaUrsatUt (Hibi). 

Gh. Roatro bievi apice rotundato, supeme excavato. Orbe maigine 
extemo ciliato. Carapace regione gastrica mediant tridentato subcari- 
nata, regione gastric^ laterali lineis dentibus minutb, regione brancbiala 
onidentata. Abdominis somite quinto sculpto ; somite sexto obsolete 
bicarinato. Telson sulcato. Chelipedum pare seoundo dimidlo parum 
primi vel tertii a&quante. Syn. {Crangon Patterwnii mihi olim). Ad 
"Belfast," Hib. et ad "Sheiland," Mag. Brit 

4. Cheraphilus spinosw (Leach sp.). 

Ch. Bostro, satis longo, tenui, apice acuto supeme basin sulcato, orbe 
profdndo. Carapace regione gastrica quinque dentium seriebus longitu- 
dinaliter annal£, regione branchiale serie dentium. Abdominis somiti- 
bus tertio^ quartoque carinato. Somite quinto sculpto. Somite sexto, 
obsolete bicarinato, sulcato. Telson sulcato. Chelipediim pare secundo, 
dimidio primi aut secundi sequante. Syn. Pantophuus sptnoius (Leach) ; 
Or. §pino9us (Bell) ; Crangan eataphraetus (Mihie Edwards, in part :) ; 
^eon larieatus (Guerin). In profimdis marium Hibemise et Magnse 
Britannia. 

Gektjs III. 

iBesoir Bisso (Crangon, Bell, Milne Edwards). Carapax percari- 
aatus, rostrum truncatum aut bifidum. Abdominis somites dentati, 
sculpti, carinatique, telson ssBpius suprasulcatum. Chelipedum par se- 
cundum quam tertio aut primo brevius. Species, j£g. fasciatus, sculp- 
tus; earinieauday eataphractiM. 

1. ^eonfasciaiuB (Bisso sp.). 

JBg. Bofltro satis longo, apice truncate, sulcato. Orbe sparse ciliato 
margine exteml. Carapacis reg^onibus, gastric^ median^ dente armata, 
gastricis lateralibus sculptis, regionibus branchialibus unidentatis, abdo- 
minis Bomitibus Iflevibus. Telson sulcato. Chelipedum pare secundo, 
primo tertiove brevioribus. Syn. Orangun fasci^Uus (Bisso, Bell, 
M. Edwards). lattoris Hibemiae et Magns Britanniea. 



70 

2. ^em seulptus (Bell sp.). 

JRg. EoBtro satis longo, apioe bifido, proAindd snlcato. Orbibns 
dense ciliatis. Carapace, qainqaedentaio carinato. Abdominis somiti- 
bus sculptis, tertio ad quintum etiam carinatis, sexto etiam bicarinato- 
solcato. Telson profdnde sulcato. Chelipedum pare socimdo quam 
tertio, multo breyiori. Syn. Cranff<m»eulptus{Bell). Littoris Eibemiie 
et MagnaB Britannias. 

gevus rv. 

Ifectoerangon (Brandt.). Nondum in maribus Britannicis inventos. 
Syn. Argis (Kroyer) Crangon, (Owen), sp. Ifeet. Lar. 

fioKOLOOtBS OF C&AKOONTD J5. — ^PLATE III. 

Oehekal EEFEBEirGB& — 1, 2, &C., refer to the somites and their 
appendages, the ocular ring being counted the first ; the coxas are re- 
presented as attached to the somites, ex, coxa; b, basis; i, ischium; 
m, meros ; c, carpus ; p, propodos ; d^ dactylos ; ^, gastric region ; ed, car- 
diac do. ; h, hepatic do. ; hr, branchial do. ; /, frontal do. ; A, Abdomen ; 
XO, Ccphalothorax and it appendages; Md 4, lateral view of carapace; 
1, first, or ocular segment; 3, olfactory, antennal do.; 2, auditory an- 
tenna ; 4, mandible; md''\ back view of carapace ; Q, somites of mouth 
organs and their appendages; B, do. of ambulation; 10, 11, 12, first, 
second, and third chelipeds; those of 18-15 resemble 12; I, outiine 
rostrum, G. Tulgaris. — ^11. Ch. spinosus. — III. Ch. bispinoeos. — ^lY. 
-SI. fasciatus. — V. -SI. sculptus. — ^VI. Ch. cataphractus. 

Famlt— CRANGONIDJS. 

Carapace depressed ; rostrum short, not articulated; eyes not con- 
cealed beneath carapace; external antennae unifilamentous, ftimished 
with a broad scale at their base ; internal antennae dilated at base, pe- 
duncle short, bifilamentous ; external maxiUipeds subpediform, flattened. 
Chelipeds, five pairs ; first pair subcheliform, second didactyle ; third to 
fifth pairs simple, acuminate. Branchiae, seven on each side ; antennae 
inserted nearly on same line. Genera : Crangon, Cheraphilus,-£geon. 

GSKUS I. — Cba-Noon. 

Bostrum triangular, shorter than the eyes. Carapace : median gas- 
tric region armed with a single spiny tootii at most ; branchial regions 
with a single tooth, not ridged ; antennae as family ; abdomen smooth 
above ; telson triangular, smootii above ; orbits circular, sparsely pu- 
bescent : first pair chelipeds well developed ; second pair as long as fifth ; 
antennal scale large. British Species : Cr. vulgaris. 

In addition, as minor characters, the following are nearly general : — 
Antennae long — more than twice length of' peduncle of antennae. Se- 
cond pair of chelipeds as long as third, which arc moderately stout. 



• 



71 

SpECisa I. 
Grey Shrimp.— Plate IV. 
Crangon vulgaris. (FabriduB^ not Owen or Dana.) 

Aaiacus Crangon. Herbst. n., p. 57, t. xxiz., fig. 3, 4 ; Penn. Brit.' 

ZooL, rv, t XV., fig. 30; Miiller, ZooL Dan., pi. civ., fig. 4-10. 
Crangon vulgaris. Fabric, sup., 410; Lat. Crust., vi., p. 267, t. Iv., f. 

1,2; Leach, Mal. Brit., t. xxxvii. B.; M. Edw. Crust., ii., 841 ; 

Bell, Brit Crust., p. 256, f. ; White, Pop. Brit. Crust., p. 107, pl. 

viii., fig. 2 ; Guerin, Icon. R. A., t. 20, fig. 4. Kin.; Trans. Boyal 

Irish Academy, vol. xxiv. p. 61. 
Crangon septmnspinosa. Say, Journal, Ac. Sc. Philadelph., i. 246; De 

Kay, Zool. New York, vl, p. 25, i 8, f. 24. 

Cruigon vulgaris of Dana and of Owen is not this species, but Cran- 
gon nigrieauda of Stimpson : it is found on the south and west coasts 
of America. 

Rostrum (r), eery shorty narrow, slightly rounded at apex, concave 
above ; ocular notch, and sides of rostrum ciliated; carapace armed with 
one median gastric and two branchial teeth {one on each side) ; abdomen 
smooth, narrowed; telson triangular, smooth; second pair ofchelipeds as 
long as the first or third; 9, external footjaw. 

Distribution : — Great Britain, all round the coast on sandy bottoms. 
Ireland, generally distributed. Europe, North seas, Mediterranean. 
America, North-east coast, Florida. 

Subgenus Steibacbangon (Mihi), (<rretpa icpayr^op). 

Abdominal somites carinated, telson sulcated. British Species, St. 
Allmanni. 

Spscies I. 

Channelled-tailed Shrimp. — Plate lY. 

Crangon (Steiraorangon) Allmanni (Mihi). 

Cr. AUmanni. Kin., Proc Nat Hist. Soc, Dublin, voL iL Trans. 

R. I. A., voL xxiv. p. 64, &c.; A. White Pop. Hist. Brit. Crust, 334. 

Rostrum (d), short, narrow ; apex slightly rounded, hollowed above ; 
ocular notch cihated all round; carapace as Cb. vuloabis; sixth somite 
of abdomen bicarinated, sulcate ; telson hollowed, triangular; other somites 
of abdomen smooth; second pair of chelipeds slender, equalling in length 
the first and the third pairs. 

a, 20th and 2lBt somites, with posterior pleopods ; b, termination of 
telson ; e, first cheliped. The spine on meros is not represented in the 
figure. * 

Distribution. — Great Britain, Shetland, Eev. A. M. Norman. Ire- 
land, North-eastern coast, Belfast ; East coast, Dublin. 



72 

Genttb II. — ChebaPhiltjs (Mihi), x*^«* 0*Xo». 

(Pontopbilus of Leach, abandoned by that author, and the name sub- 
sequently applied to genera of the FandalidsB, by Bissb and De Haan.) 

Boslrum triangular, moderate; carapace carinate; gastric r^on 
armed with one or more carinsB; branchial region multicaiinated ; 
abdominal somites carinated and sculptured; telson sulcated abore; 
first pair chelipeds robust, moderate in length; second shorter than 
first : antennae as family ; antennal scale short. Biitiah Species : Ch. 
bispinosus, trispinosiis, Pattersonii, spinosus. 

In addition may be noted, accessory scale of antennsB moderate, not 
twice length of peduncle of antennsB ; second pair of chelipeds much 
shorter than third. 

Species L 

Two-spined Shrimp. — Plate V. 

Cheraphilus bispinosus (Westwood Sp.) 

Pontophilm buptnosus. Westwood, Hailst, Mag. Nat. Hist., yiii., p. 11, 

13, f. 30. 
Crangon hiapinosus. Bell, Brit. Crust, p. 268 ; A. White, Pop. Hist. 

Brit. Crust, 111. Kin. Trans. E. I. A. vol. xxiv. p. 66. 

Rostrum (r), 8hori,rounded at apex, somewhat narrowed, hoUowed ahave; 
ocular notch broad, ciliated on outer edge only ; earapaee rounded above ; 
median gastric region hidentate, the teeth connected hy an ohsoletely-notched 
carina ; lateral gastric and branchial regions furnished with rows ofsmaU 
knobs: fifth and sixth abdominal somites biearinated; telson elangate, 
hollowed above; second pair of chelipeds (11) half length of third. 

9, External maxilliped, terminal articulations ; 10, First cheliped, 
with enlarged view of hairs on carpus. Figure four times size of life. 

Distribution. — Great Britain, South coast, Hastings. Ireland, East 
Coast, Dublin ; West Coast, Isles of Arran, Galway. 

Species II. 

Three-spined Shrimp. — Plate VI. 

Cheraphilus trispinosus (Hailstone Sp.) 

Pontophitus trispinosus. Hails., Mag. Nat Hist., viii. p. 261, fig 25. 
Crangon trispinosus. Bell, Brit. Crust, 265 ; A. White, Brit Pop. 

Crust, 110; Kin. Proceed* Nat Hist Soc. Dub., vol. ii. Trans. R. I. A. 

vol. xxiv. p. 69. 
Rostrum (r) very short, moderately broad, rounded at the apex, hollowed 
above ; ocular notch broad^ shallow, sparingly ciliated at its base ; earapaee 
rounded above, armed with one median and two lateral gastric teeth, which 
are continuous with an obsolete raised ridge; branchial regions smooth ; 
sixth abdominal somite obsoletely carinated ; telson hollowed; remaining 



73 

9rikimd. 

Figaro foirtiaieB life size. 

Disbributioii. — Oreat Britain, South coast, Hastings; Weymouth. 
Iielandy East coast, Skenries, DubUn. 

Snonn IIL 

Smooth'tailed Spiaoiu Bfaiimp.-^Flate YII. 

Gheraphilns Pattereonii (Kin.) 

Oramgon PaUertonii. Einahan, Proceedings Dubl. Kat Hist Soc, 
ToL iL, p. 180. Trans. E. I. A. toI zxiy. p. 71. 

Botirum (r) ihori, rounded at apex, narrowed, eoneave above ; ocular 
notch narrowed, ciliated on outer border only ; carapace rounded above ; 
median gaatrie reaion with a row of three principal teeth, connected by an 
obeolete carina ; lateral yastric with rowe of minute teeth terminating in 
one principal tooth ; one tooth on each branchial region : fifth abdominal 
somite sculptured; sixth obsoletely bicarinate; tehon {t\ stdcate, elongate; 
second pair chelipeds half length offirU or of third. 

Figure four tunes size of life* 

Distribution : — ^Ghreat Britain, "SotOx Coast, Shetland^ Be?^. A. H. 
Norman^ q, v. Ireland, North-east coast, Belfiast. 

Spbcixs IY. 

joined Shrimp Plate YIIL 

Cheraphilus spinosus (Leach Sp.). 

Crangon spinosus. Leach, Linn. Trans., zi., p. 846 ; Lam. Hist. Nat. 
Ms. An. 8. VerL ▼., p. 202 ; Bell, Brit Crust., p. 261 ; A- White, 
108; Thompson, Nat. Hist Ireland, y. iv., p. 392; Kin. Trans. 
B. I. A. vol, xadv. p. 73. 

Pontcphilus, Leach, Mai. Brit, t zzzvii. A. 

Crangon cataphractus. M. Edwardes, Hist de Crust., ii., p, 243 (ex- 
duding description of female, which refers to iEgeon cataphractus 
of present list, and Bisso and Olivi, Cur. B. A. (Croch.) t 51, f. 3.) 

JBgeon loricatus. Ghierin, Ezped. Moree, p. 33. 

Rostrum (r) moderately long, narrow, and pointed, toncave at the base; 
ocular notch narrow, deep, ciliated all round; carapace contracted, rounded 
above, armed with five longitudinal rows of teeth on the gastric region, and 
ono on each branchial region; third and fourth abdominal somites cari- 
noted; fifth somite sculptured; sixth obsoletely bicarinate, sulcate; telson 
sukate, elongate; second pair of chelipeds half length of first or of third, 

10, First pair of oheHpeds ; 9, external footjaw. 

S. I. A. PBOC. — ^TOL. TIIL L 



74 

Distribution. — Great Britain, reported from all the coasiSy but this 
and former species are confounded by authors. Ireland, North-east 
coast, Belfost; South coast, Cork (?); West coast, Galway (?). 

Osinrs m. — 2E0BOV (Eisso). 

Bostrum truncate, or bifid. Carapace : branchial and gastric regions 
highly carinate ; abdominal somites toothed, carinated, and sculptured ; 
tebK)n generally suloate; first pair chelipeds moderate, barely surpassing 
second in length ; second pair slender ; orbits rounded, densely hairy ; 
antennae as&mily ; antennal scale short. British Species : .£g. fasciatus, 
sculptus. 

In addition, the following are pretty general : — Antennal scale not 
twice as long as peduncle of antenna ; second pair of chelipeds stout, 
but much shorter them first or third. 

Species I. 

Banded Shrimp. — ^Plate IX. 

JSgeon fasciatus (Bisso Sp.). 

Crangon fasciatui, Eisso Crust, de Nice, t. iii., f. 5 (bad), p. 82 ; Hist. 
Eur. Mer. v., p. 64; M. Ed., Crust, ii., p. 342 ; Bell, Brit. Crust., 
p. 259; A. White, Pop. Hist. Brit. Crust, 187; Lucas, Exped. 
Alg., 38 ; W. Thomps., Nat Hist Ireland, iv., p. 390 ; Kitl Trans. 
R. I. A., vol. xxiv., p. 76. 

Rostrum (r) moderate^ broadly truncate at apex, deeply longitudinally 
sulcate : ocular notch broad, shallow, smooth, or very sparingly eiliate on 
outer edge only ; median gastric region armed with a tooth ; lateral gas- 
tric sculptured ; branchial region with a short tooth; abdominal segments 
smooth; telson triangular, sulcate; second pair of chelipeds shorter than 
first or third, 

10, First pair chelipeds. Figure twice and a half life size. 

Distribution. — Great Britain, South coast Ireland, North-eastern 
coast, BeUast; East coast^ Dublin ; West coast, Galway. Extra-Brittanie, 
Mediterranean. 

Species II. 

Sculptured Shrimp. — Plate IX. 

-^geon Sculptus (Bell Sp.) 

Crangon sculptus. Bell. Brit. Crust., 263 ; A- White, Pop. Brit. Crust, 
109 : Kin. Trans. B. I. A., Vol. xxiv., p. 78. 

Rostrum (r), moderate, bifid at apex, deeply concave above; ocular 
notch moderate^ densely ciliated all round; carapace armed with five prin- 
cipal toothed carina ; abdomen highly sculptured; third to fifth somites 



75 

earinaU; $%xth Ucarinate, mdeate: iehon triangular^ deeply triangularly 
ndeata above; second pair ofeheUpeds (11), much ehorter than third. 

(9, eztemal foot-jaw; 10, dactylos and propodos of first cheliped. 
Figure twice life size). 

Distribution. — Great Britain, Eastern coast, Moray Frith ; Southern 
coast; Western do. Ireland, North-east coast, Belfast; East coast, 
Dublin ; Western coast, Qalway. 

GsKTJS lY. — Nectoerangony not British. 



Pabt II.— GALATHErD-«. 
Fakilt — Galathbidjs. 

Carapax depressus, rostratus. AntennsB exappendiculatsD, AntennaB 
intemae duobus filamentis, infra oculos insiUe. AntennsB extemsB satis 
longum uno filamento. Chelipedum, par primum didactylum, paria, 
secundum ad quartum simplicia, acuminata, par quintum debile, didac- 
tylum. Maxillipedes extemse sulipe^ormes. 

Abdomen depressus, somites, anteriores primus ad sextus in maribus 
appendicolati ; in foeminis secundus ad sextus solum appendiculati. 

Somitis, ultimus submembranaceus, sine appendice. 

Genera, Cfrimothea, Galathea, Munida. 

Gekub I. — 6^Vu>^A^a (nondum in Britannicis maribus inyentus). 
Species — Or, Oregaria, 

Gsinrs II. — Galaihsa. 

Bostrum depressum, satis latum lateribus saapius dentatis, Cheli- 
pedum par primum satis latum, non elongatum ; maxillepedes extemi 
Bubpediformes elongati, angustique. Species : — Gal. squamifera, An- 
drewsii dispersa, nexa, strigosa, cum multia aliie. 

1. Galathea squamifera (Fabricius). 

G. Rostro breyiy tuberculis squamosis ciliatis supeme velato, me- 
diane sulcato ; dente cylindiico terminante, marginibus fortiterdenticu- 
latis; chelipedum pare prime lato, denticulatis tuberculis conferto; 
articulis, secundo, tertio, quartoque, exteme fortiter denticulatis ; max- 
illipedibos extemis, cum ischio (articulo tertio) quam meros (articulo 
quarto) breviori. In littoris Magnae Britannise et Hibemise. 

2. Galathea Andrewaii (Einahan). 

G. Bostro brevi, squamosis tuberculis pilosis parce velato ; chelipe- 
dum pare prime (pedum par primum) elongato, rotundato, angusto, 
parce squamose tuberculato, tuberculis sacpissimc denticulatis; cheli- 



76 

pedte paribiUi 3do, tiortioque eatenie dAtatiB> tntenie sqaaamlatM 
mazilHpedilnM vsteniu, evm isehio (crtiovlo tertto), qnam neros (aiti- 
oalo quarto) Ixrenori. In littoiiB Magntt Btitamift ei Hibemie 

passim. • 

G. Eostro breviy eupeme subplanoy iqiianiato, atterit vt ^» $fumni 
fera; chelipedibi pare piimo elongato^ sob compresso, Bquamato, propo- 
doa parce dentato, caipo, et meros parce fortiter interne dentato ; max- 
illipedibns eztemis crun meros qnam ischio breviori. In littoriB Magniff 
Britanniffi. In littoris Hibemis ad " Bel&st " et '* Dublin." 

4. fiMdCAM fMr« (Embletoni). ^ 

G. Bostro brevi, supeme levi, sul^iloBO, mediane solcato ; d^ite 
cylindrico terminante, dimidio posteriori longitudinis sosb serrato ; al- 
teris, tit Gai. satutmijflfra ; chenpediim pare primo globoso, satis lato, 
elongato, artienlo sexto (propodos) ezteme dentato, snpia parce tnber- 
cnlatoy TillosOy articnfis qumtoy qnartoqnfi fortit^ snpeme dentato; 
maxillipedibus extemis cum meros (articttla quarto) qnam iscbio (arti- 
cnlo tertio), mnlto breviori. In littoris Hagntt Britannie. In littoria 
Hibenria ad "Belfiist," "Dublin," et "Cork." 

5. Galathea ttrigosa (Linns&us Sp.). 

G. Bostro brevi, tuberculis squamosb pilosis superne comspenoj me- 
diane sulcato, deflexo ; dento cylindrico terminante, marginibus fortiter 
dentatis ; chelipedC^ pare primo lato, fbrtitcr omnino dentato ; max- 
illipedibus ext^nls cum iscbio (articulo tertio), meros (articulo quarto), 
longitudinem equante. Passim maribus Britannicis. 

Gszrvi lU. — Mvmuda (Leach). 

Bostrum cylindiicum acuminatum, angustum, tricuspe. Chelipedum 
par primum elongatum, angustum ; maxillipedes extemes et csDtera at 
Galathea. Species— Mun. Bamfie% iubrugosaf Japomica. 

1. Munida Bamfica ^enn sp.). Cbelipediim pare primo, bis longi- 
tudinem corporis : somiobus abdomims secnndo, tortioque, antero den- 
tatis; piimo, quarto, quinto, sextoque inermibuB. Syn. GiUathea rufema, 
Munida Eondeletii, 

HoKOLOoiEs o¥ Gaiatbxidji. — ^Pllte X. 

Geksral BsFEBXircES.— 00?, coxa ; hy basis ; t , ischium ; m, meroe ; 
c, carpus; p^ propodos; d^ dactylos; a;, acceBsory appendage ; s, respira- 
tory plato. 

K^, lower riew of carapace, &c. ; 1, ocular somito; 2, auditory an- 
tennal; d, olfiustory do. ; 4, mandibular do, frontal portion ; 6 ?, probably 
second maxillary. 



77 

I, eye and Male* 

2y aioditory aateninB (intemal). 

8, ciUaietoTf antenaad (eztemal). 

4, mamdibla 

5, ftnt maxTFla, with enlarged view of cutting edge, 

6, second maxilla. 

7, third nuodUa. 

B, internal maadlHped. 

9, external maxiDiped. 
lOy flrsl eheliped. 
11-13, second to fourth do. 

14, fifth pair of eheHpecUi 

15, int pleopod, male. 

16, second do. do. 

17-19, third and fourth do.; theoorrespondiBgBiimendsoBtheni^ 
hand aide of the plate show the same limlMi in the lunale. In IT^l^, c 
haa been inserted form. 

20, posterior pleopod. 

ind4, carapace upper vieir; regMma, /, frontal ; ^« gastric; hh, hepa* 
tie ; ea, cardiac. 

The figure below this shows the fifteenth to twenty-first somites, 
with attached coxa {ex), 

GxNus III. — Galathsa. 

Anteiioar <dieliped8 strong, equal, didaetyk. 

External maxiUipeds elongate, subpediform ; terminal joints narrow ; 
carapace depressed, beaked. 

Abdomen depressed ; no spines on somites ; six anterior abdominal 
somites ajqpendicnlate in male; i^pendages of first somite wanting in 
female. 

Telson unappendiculate, submembranaceous. 

Antennso unappendiculate ; external long ; internal inserted beneath 
eye-stalks ; peduncle elongate. 

Eyes hage, with ahairy scale (?). 

Beatmoi depressed, moderately broad. 

Speoixs I. 

Scaly Spanish Lobster. — Plate XI. 

CMM$a spumnffra (Leach). 

Oalathea tquamifdra. Leach, Mai. Pod. Brit, t xxyiii., A, excluding 

Pig. 2. 
Cancer astaeus sqnamifer, Montagu. 



78 

Oal. iquamifora. Leach, Edinburgh Encyclopedia, viL, p. 393 ; Die- 
tionnare des Sciences Natorelles, xYiiL, p. 51 ; H. Edwardes, His- 
toire Naturelles des Grostac^s, ii., p. 275 ; Couch. Comish Fauna, 
p. 77 ; Thompson, Natural History of Ireland, toL iy., p. 385; Bell, 
British Crustacea, p. 197; White, Popular History Britii^ Crustacea, 
p. 87; Einahan, Proceedings Natural History, Dublin, voL iL, pp. 68, 
&c.; Beport British Association, 1859; Proceedings Dublin Uni- 
versity and Zoological Association, vol, i., p. 270 ; Zoologist, Srd 
Series, 5775 ; Trans. B. I. A., voL xziv., p. 90. 
(?) Gal. glabra. Bisso, Crust, de Nice, 72 ; H. N. de TEur. Mer., 
V. 47. 
BoaUMim (r) shorty covered with squami/orm tuhereles above, tubercles ci- 
liated along margins; deeply depressed in median line, terminating in a 
eglindrical pointed tooth ; four pointed teeth on lateral margins on each 
side, the posterior one much smMer than the others; first pair ehelipedt 
broad, flattened, covered with squamiform dentated tubercles; daetyhs 
moderate^ not twisted: sides ofpropodos curved, outer margin toothed, two 
succeeding joints strongly toothed on outer edge; ischium {third joinf) of 
external maxilUpeds shorter than meros f fourth joint), 

ra, rostrum, Galathea Andrewsii ; 1, eye and scale ; la, do. do., 6a- 
lathea Andrewsii ; 10", sculptured frontal region, Galathea squamifera ; 
9a, external mazillipeds, Galathea Andrewsii; 14, fifth cheHped, Gala- 
thea squami&ra. 

The unnumbered figure represents the external maxilliped of Gkdathea 
squamifera. 

Distribution. — Great Britain, North, Frith of Forth ; Southern coast, 
general. Ireland, all round coasts. Europe, &c., France, Mediterranean, 
Nice. 

Spscies II. 

Blender-armed Spanish Lobster. — ^PlateXII. and Plate XI. figs, la, ra, 

and 9a. 

Oalathea Andrewsii (Kinahan). 

Oalathea Andrewsii. Kin., Proceedings Nat. Hist. Society, Dublin, 
voL ii., p. 58, pL xvi, fig. 8, and fig., p. 71 ; ib., p. 47, asnexa, &c.; 
Zoologist, 3rd series, p. 5775, &c. ; Trans. K. I. A., vol. xxiv., page 
95 ; Stimpson, Prod., p. 76 ; Spence Bate, Proceedings Linn. Soc., 
voLiii., p. 104. 
Oalathea squamifera. Leach (in part Junr.), Mai. Pod. Brit, p. xxvii., 
fig. 2. 

Nostrum moderate, sparingly covered with elongated, squamiform tu- 
bercles above, depressed in the centre, terminating in a flat, pointed tooth, 
armed with four flattened teeth on each side, the last two of which are 
separated from the others. First pair of chelipeds elongate, narrowed, 
covered with a few squamiform tubercles, terminating in a few scattered 



79 

hairs, or eiUaied. Sides ofpropodos nparingly dentate. Two meeeeding 
pairs of ehelipeds strongly dewUUe on outer margin and upper surface. 
Ischium of external maxillipeds shorter than meros. 

Distribution. — Great Britain, North, Moray; South, Flymouthi 
Ireland, general Extra-Britannic, Madeira, Algiers. 

Sfscies m. 

Scaly-anned Spanish Lobster. — ^Flate XTTI. 

Oalathea dispersa (Spence Bate). 

Oalathea dispersa. Spence Bate, Proceedings Linnflean Socieiy, London, 
voL iii., p« 3; Einahan, Proceedings British Association, Eeport on 
Dublin Bay Dredging, 1860 ; Proc. Kai Hist. Soo., Dublin, voL iiL, 
p. 49 ; Trans. Boy, Ksh Ac, voL xarir., p« 99. 
Rostrum (r) moderate, nearly plane above, squamate, terminating as a 
flattened tooth, and hearing four flattened teeth on each side. First pair 
of ehelipeds elongate, somewhat flattened; daetylos narrowed; sides of pro- 
podos nearly parallel, minutely toothed on outer margin, squamate; two 
succeeding articulations sparingly strongly toothed on inner margin; inter- 
nal antenna harely surpassing tip of rostrum; ischium of external foot- 
jaus (9), nearly double length of meros of same limb. 
I, eye; 10", sculpture. 

Distribution. — Great Britain, South coast. Ireland, northern coast, 
Belfast ; Eastern coast, Dublin. 

Species IV. 

Smooth-beaked Spanish Lobster. — Plate XIY. 

Oalathea nexa (Embleton). 

Oalathea nexa. Embleton, Proceedings Berwickshire Club; Thompson, 
Annals of Natural History, p. 255 ; Natural History of Ireland, 
vol. iv., p. 385 ; Bell. Brit. Stalk-eyed Crust., 204 ; White, Pop. 
Hist. Brit Crust, p. 88 ; Kinahan, Proceed. Nat. Hist See, Ihiblin, 
vol. ii„ excluding p. 47, which refers to G. Andrewsii ; Trans. Koy. 
Ir. Ac, vol. xxiv., p. 102 ; Spence Bate, Proceed. Linn. Soc, vol. iii., 
p. 3. 

Rostrum (r), moderate, quite smooth above, covered with scattered 
hairs, depressed in the median line, terminating in a cylindrical tooth, 
which is serrated on its edge for its posterior half ; borders of rostrum armed 
with two principal rounded teeth, and two secondary and smaller ; first 
pair of ehelipeds somewhat globose, moderately broad, elongate, twisted; 
sides ofpropodos parallel, toothed on outer margin, surface sparingly tu- 
berculaUd, hairy; two succeeding joints strongly toothed on upper surf ace ; 
internal antenna surpassing rostrum ; ischium ef external foot-jaw nearly 
double length of meros. 



80 

(9), extecDal foo^aw; (i), eye and Boale ; 10', eculptoFe. 

Bistribtttidn — Qreat Brituiif Noitiiem •coast, Xastem and Soathecn 
coasts. Ireland, Northern coast, Belfut ; Eastem eoaat, Dablia ; Soittli- 
em coast, Coxk. 

Sfeciss V. 

Spiny Spanish Lohster.^-Plate XY. 

Qala&sa Bbrigoia (Fahridas 8p.). 

Caneer itrtgonu. IdnssTis, Systema Katare, 1053 ; Herbst iL, p. 50, 

t. zxvi. 
AHaeuB itn^amu. PeBnant, Britifih Zoology, iy., p. 24, 1 xr. 
Gdhihea sirt^a. Fabr., BappL 414 ; Latreille, Genera Grostac^ et 

Inseetes, p. 49; Leac^, Edin. £kicycl., yii., p. 898 ; Edw. N. H. 

Crust., ii., p. 278 ; Bell, Brit Grost, p. 200 ; White, Pop. HM. Brit 

Gmst ; Kin., ioe* M. ; fipenoe Bate ; OoQoh ; and moat ^itish an- 

thon. 
^fnioAea ^niforiL Leach, MaL Pod. Brit xxriiL 

Easfrum (r), short, dieted, clothed iihwe with a fmio,tcQUertd hairy 
iquamiform tuoereles; dressed in median line, terminating in a cylin- 
drical pointed tooth, iti Sides armed with threepointed teeth, andoneminute 
tooth over inner border of orbit ; first pair ofchelipeds broad, aU the or- 
ticulations very spinous on their borders and superior surfaces ; dactylos 
short; propodos clothed with squamiform tubercles, scattered ameny the 
toothed tubercles: meros of external maxillipeds (9), longer than isehtum, 

(11), eye and scale; (10^0» Bcnlpture. 

Distribution. — Great Britain, North, Moray Frith; South coast. Ire- 
land, goneraL Eztra-Britannic, Hediterranean. 

The President made a eemmnnieation on the arrangement of earthen 
raths,— commonly, though erroneously, known as Banish fort8,-*^Ter 
the surface of Ireland; his observations having a special refereoooe to the 
coun^ of Kerry, andbeinf; illustratedby a map constructed on the one- 
inch Ordnance Survey, with the lines of coUineation laid down aoeord- 
ing to the disposition of the forts. 

The President dgnified his intention of making a farther commn- 
nication on the subject, illustrated by a map of the entire county of 
Kerry; and expressed a hope, that, as he would be unable to deal in 
like manner with the whole of Ireland, ol^er members of the Academy 
would pursue the inquiry, and construct similar maps of other countiea. 

The Academy then adjourned. 



81 



MONDAY, FEBRUARY 10, 1869. 

The Ykby Bet. Chables Q^lyibs, D. D., Fi^dent, in the Chair. 

It was Bbsoltsd, — That the Address of Condolence to her Majesty the 
Queen, adopted by the Academy on the 13th of January last, together 
with the following letter fromLieutenant-General Sir Thomas A. Larcom, 
be printed in the Itoceedings : — 

*'J)uUin Catth, Febnuay 8, 1862. 

" Sib, — I am directed by the Lord Lieutenant to acquaint you, for the 
information of the members of the Boyal Irish Academy, that a com- 
munication has been received fi'om Secretary Sir George Grey, stating 
that their loyal and dutiful Address on the occasion of the death of His 
Royal Highness the Prince Consort has been laid before the Queen« and 
that Her Majesty was pleased to receive the Address very graciously. 
" I am. Sir, your obedient servant, 

"Thomas A. Labcom. 

** Tkt Secretary to the Royal Iriih Academy^ 
" 19, Dawum etreet."* 

" To the Queen'8 Most Excellent Majesty. 

" We, your Majesty's dutifiil and loyal subjects, the President and 
Members of the Eoyal Irish Academy, humbly approach your Majescy 
with the assurance of our devoted attathment to your throne and per- 
son ; and desire to express our heartfelt sympathy in the grievous and 
sudden affliction which has befallen your Majesty, in the untimely death 
of His Eoyal Highness your Majesty's Consort. 

'* In common with all classes of your Majesty's subjects, we lament 
the irreparable loss which the nation has sustained in the decease of a 
Prince whose wisdom and energy have been, for the last twenty-years, 
directed to the promotion of every object conducive to the best interests 
of your people. 

" But, associated as we are for the purpose of cultivating Literature 
and Science in Ireland, we have a special reason to deplore the death of 
one whose rare talent, extensive information, and mature judgment, 
were constantly employed in furthering the pursuits which learned so- 
cieties are designed to foster. 

" The Eoyal Irish Academy cannot forget that His Eoyal Highness 
was once pleased to honour it with a visit, and to express the satisfaction 
with which he regarded the growth of its collections, and the enlarge- 
ment of its means of usefulness. 

" We earnestly pray that your Majesty may be sustained by Divine 
comfort in this season of bitter trial ; and that you may be spared 
through many years, to behold the abundant fruits of your late Consort's 
beneficient labours and to see the instructive example of his virtues 
redounding to the honour and prosperity of your great empire." 

B. I. A. PBOC. — VOL. VIII. M 



82 

W. R. Wilde, Esq., V. P., read the following paper : — 

On Antiqite Gold Ornahents found in Ibeland pbioe to thz 
Yeab1747. 

The learned antiquary and oriental trayeller Bichard Pooocke^ 
Bifihop of OsBoiy in 1756, and afterwards of Meath in 1765, was the 
first, 80 &r as I can learn, to make a collection of Irish antiquities 
After his death in September, 1765, the majority of the articles finmikis 
museum came into the possession of the Eev. Mervyn Archdall, rector 
of Slane, his lordships' chaplain, and author of the ''Monasticon Hi- 
bemicon ; " and many of them were delineated for the Right Hon. W* 
Oonyngham's projected atlas of Irish antiquities, by Gabriel Beranger. 
Sereral of these articles were engraved and published by Qeneral 
Vallanoey, in his " Collectanea." The principal gold antiquities in the 
bishop's collection were sold in London after his death. 

In 1757, his lordship communicated ''an account of some antiqui- 
ties found in Ireland*^ to the tiondon Society of Antiquaries ; and in 
1773 it was published in the second volume of the " Archseologia," to- 
gether with plates of twelve of these articles. In that paper, the bishop 
alludes to a communication made some years previously by " the late 
Mr. Simon of Dublin," which, it would appear, had not been printed, 
the Society of Antiquaries not having then issued any publication. 

James Simon, a merchant of this city, is well known by his essay 
on Irish coins, which issued from the press in 1749, and which was 
not only the first systematic work on that subject in point of time, 
but is acknowledged to be one of the ablest contributions to numis- 
matic science which had then appeared in the English language. In 
1747, he communicated to the London Society of Antiquaries the ac- 
count of Irish golden antiquities, to which Bishop Pococke alludes, 
in his article in the '' Archseologia," and that paper, together with the 
drawings which accompanied it, having been recently discovered in 
their archives, I have obtained permission from that learned body to lay 
it before the Academy. It possesses considerable interest, not only from 
the circumstance of its having been the production of a distinguished 
Irish antiquary, bnt on account of its being, so far as we know, ^e first 
record of gold ornaments found in Ireland, and also because several of 
the articles specified therein belong to varieties of which there are now 
no examples known to exist. 

The following communication has been carefully transcribed for me, 
by Mr. 0. K. Watson, Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries. The 
accompanying woodcuts will assist to explain the author's meaning. The 
articles are reduced from the tracings upon Mr. Simon's paper. 

" Our Vice-Phesident Polkes communicated to the Society a letter 
to him, dated from Dublin, 26. May, 1 747, with the draught of several 
pieces of antiquities : — 

" ' HoN^ Sir, — I had the honour to write to you lately, when I 
sent you impressions of some very curious Irish coins of Sitricus, Ethel- 
red, and Edward the Fourth, which I hope came safe to your hands. 



83 

***1 herewitii send you some rougli drafts of several peices of Irish 
antiquities. I could not keep them long enough to employ a proper per- 
son to draw them, therefore was ohliged to do it myself as best I could; 
yet I hope they will convey an idea of what they are intended to re- 
present. 




F1g.L 



" * No. 1 is the draft of a very thin plate of gold in the possession of 
his Excellency my Lord ChanceUour : his Lordship thinks that it was 
a breastplate, and told me that some of our Lriah historians mention that 
a king of Ireland ordered his nobles to wear a gold breastplate, to dis- 
tinguish them from the common people.* As his Lordship could not 
remember who the author is, I cannot give you the quotation; but my 



* See Keating*s *' HittoTy of Ireland," p. 182. He aays " that Mainbeamhoin, Monanh 
of Ireland, ordained that the gentlemen of Ireland should wear a chain about their necks, 
to dittingnish them from the populace ; he also commanded helmets to be made, with the 
neck and forepieoes of gold. These he designed as a reward for his soldiers, and bestowed 
them upon the most deserving of his army. His son Alderogdh was the first prince 
who lotrodnced the wearing of gold rings in Ireland, which he bestowed upon persons of 
merit, that exerdsed in the knowledge of the arts and sciences, or were any other way 
pBrtienltrly aoeompllahed.—- W. Nobbib, Sec., 1756." 



84 

humble opinion- is that this plate was part of a crown of some of the 
Irish kings, and that two such plates twined together, the one before, 
the other behind, made the whole crown. These plates, I apprehend, 
were folded or plated as women's head-clothes now are, and formed those 
kind of rays seen on the heads of Irish coins, as you may observe on 
those of Sithricus and Ethelred ; and that they were so plated appears 
from the creases of the folds still to be seen, where marked by outward 
strokes i i i on the draft. This plate is broke at the places marked a, 
h, <?, which I have supplied to represent it as I suppose it was when 
intire. It might perhaps have been the ornament worn by Irish queens 
on their head instead of a diadem, and called Asion or Asn, from the 
Irish ass'ain (plates). See * Ware's Antiqu. per Harris,' plate 65. This 
plate weighs one ounce four pennyweight, and was found in the county 
of Clare." 

[This lunula was creased or plaited when it came under the notice of 
Mr. Simon ; but, as subsequent experience has shown, such plaitings did 
not form p£U-t of the original design. Had it been plaited, as Mr. Simon 
imagined, it could not have fittod either on the neck or head, and the 
omamentiEition would have been useless. This article is not now in the 
possession of the Jocelyn family, the descendants of Lord Chancellor 
Newport It is no longer known to exist.] 




Fig. 4. 



** 'Nos. 2, 4, 5, 6, and 10, are instruments of gold of different 
shapes, though probably for the same use, and the more curioiis as it 




iie-d. 



doth not appear that the cups at each end were soldered, but rather that 
the whole was made of a solid piece of gold, and very neatly done for 
such a barbarous age." 



85 

Figure 2, a large wide-spread fibula, with engraved handle, is mani- 
festly that represented by Focoke's Fig. 1, in the '' Arclueologia/' pi. 3, 
and is therefore here omitted; it weighed 15 oz. Fig. 3 is the small 
fibula, No. 2, pi. 3, in the same article. 

" ' Nos. 3 and 5 were found in the county of Galway; 4, 6, and 10, 
on the borders between the counties of Louth and Meath, in digging some 
reclaimed grounds, which were formerly boggs. No. 2, the largest of 
this kind I ever saw, is composed of two oblong cups or calixes, one of 
each side ; the outside of the cup being narrower than the inside, as you 
see at the little draft h. The cups are hollow as far as a, the rest is 
solid gold : at it divides into three branches, which meet and joyn at 
df as you see at No. 3. This instrument. No. 2, weighed 15 ounces. 
No. 5, found with it, weight [«V] but one ounce 4 pennyw' : the ends, 
instead of being hollow like the other, are flat and ovaL The others 
Nos. 4, 6, 10, have their cups hollow to the bottom a, a, a, a, a, a, the 
handles or rings being plain. What uses these instruments were applied 
to nobody can inform me. I believe they were used in the religious 
ceremonies of the Irish Druids or other heathen priests, for I cannot 
think they were used as ornaments. The places where they were found, 
in grounds that were formerly bogs, and which before the rain and 
waters had subsided there, were probably valleys, seem to point out that 
they were used by the Druids or pagan priests ; many of the ancient altars 
or cromlech stones that have been discovered in tins kingdom being in 
valleys, near some rivulet, as well as on high ground. I should be glad 
to have your opinions concerning these peices of antiquity. No. 4 I 
bought last week for my Lord Chancelour, the others were melted 
since. 



Fig. 7. 

" ' No. 7 is an Irish Sgian, or knife, the Seva or Secespita, I think, 
used by the priests to kill the victims. It is of brass, and was found about 
two years agoe at Dungan hill, in the county of Meath ; the blade at the 
broadest part is an inch -^ over, and one foot 7y\j inches long : when 
found it was about | of an inch longer, but was broken for a tryal, on 
Buspition of its being gold. The present handle, a, is not the original 
one, which was destroyed by time. No. 8 was lately sent me from the 
county of Wicklow as a great curiosity — a small patera of 
brass, but I fear it is nothing else but a old* spoon, altho it 
has not quite the shape of it. No 9 was sent me from the 
county of Clare ; is of brass, was formerly gilt, and is very 
curiously enamelled ; where the black figures are is a little 
white ground of enamel, and the little chequered squares 
are of blew and white mosaic work of enamel. It is hollow, 
and I suppose was the handle of an Irish Astas or spear. ^**-*' 
You'l be pleased to observe that aU the drafts except the knife are ex- 




86 

acily of the bigness of the originftls. If any of them are new to yon, and 
BTe worth your notice, it will give me much pleasure. • • yi* &e,, 

(Signed) '' ' Jaices Sixof. 

" ' P. S. — ^No. 1 was found in the lands of Mr. James Commins, about 
4 foot deep, in making a ditch near a place caUed Key's hcie, in the west 
part of the county of Clare. 

" *• I have drawn these, that the Society may have a conoeption of 
them, over leafe.' ** 



The Bey. Sahuel HAuenxoir read the following paper : — 

Qv THE Dynamical Coefficismts of Elasticitt of Steel, Ibok, Bbasb, 
Oax, ajtd Teak. 

All works on mechanics, with which I am acquainted, in solying the 
problem of the collision of bodies, assume that the momentum is pre- 
served during the shock, and the vi9 viva lost, in such manner as to re- 
tain the constancy of the Coefficient of Elasticity, which is defined to be 
the ratio which the velocity of separation of two bodies after the shock 
bears to the velocity of approach before the shock. Some time ago, in 
making some calculations respecting armour-plated frigates, I found it 
necessary to use the Dynamical Coefficients of Elasticity of steel, iron, 
oak, and other substances, and made some experiments for the purpose 
of detiermining them. These experiments were made at the Kingstown 
Bailway works, and consisted in dropping spherical balls (2^ in. diam.) 
of steel, iron, and brass upon levelled surfaces of steel, iron, oak, teak, 
&c., and measuring the height of the rebound. I hope at some future 
time to lay the results of these experiments in detail before the Academy ; 
but at present I shall content myself with publishing the follovnng Table, 
which contains the means of many experiments. 

From this Table the remarkable fact apx>ear8, that the Dynamical 
Coefficient of Elasticiiy is not constant, but diminishes, according to some 
unknown law, as the velocity of the collision increases. 



87 



Tabls of Vahiit of 6*, the 9quar$ of the Jhftumieai €oefieietU<f M»etic%iy, 
or of the ratio of the Velocity of Separation to tlie Velocity of Approach, 
of different Jbodiee in eoUiaion, 



Sabftanoes^ 


VelOQityorAivnaciL 


Square of DTnamical 

Coefflcient 

ofEUiticity = ci 


Steel on Steel, | 


16 ft per sec. 
24 „ 


0-6208 
0-4462 


Steel ou Iton and Iron on Steel,* 


16ft. per sec. 
24 „ 
82 „ 
40 „ 


0-2952 
0-2685 
0-2.i88 
0-2245 


Steel on Oak, fibres horizontal, . 




16 ,. 
24 „ 
82 .. 
38-4 „ 


0-1172 
0-1167 
0-1041 
00938 


Steel on Oak, fibres vertieat, . . ; 


82 ft per sec 
88-4 „ 


00931 
00887 


1 
Steel on Teak, fibres horizontol, . 

1 


16 fit. per see. 
24 „ 
82 „ 
40 „ 


0-1719 
0-1666 
0-1562 
0-1379 


Brass on Steel, | 


16 ft. per see. 
24 „ 


0-1380 
01134 



MONDAY, FEBRUART 24, 1862. 

The Veky Rev. Charles Geayes, D. D., President, in the Chair. 

The Rer. Dr. Reeves exhibited and described drawings of some ancient 
sepulchral inscriptions found in the province of Ulster. 

The episcopal seal of the Right Rev. Dr. William Fitzgerald, late 
Lord Bishop of Cork, Clojne, and Ross, was presented to the Museum 
by his Lordship. 

Thanks were voted to the donors. 



* There was an absolute agreement in the rssnits obtained by dropping steel on soft 
iroo, and, vio$ versd^ soft iron on steel. 



d8 

STATED MEETIKG.— Satubdat, Mabch 15, 1862. 
. The Veby Rev. Chables Gsayes, D. D., President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following — 

Ebpobt of the Council. 

SnrcE the date of the last Report, the following papers have been 
printed in the transactions : — 

1. Dr. J. B. Kinahan, " On the Britannic Species of Crangon and 
Galathea, with some remarks on the Homologies of these groups." 

2. Dr. Lloyd, " On Earth Cnrrents, and their Connexion with the 
Diurnal Changes of the Horizontal Magnetic Needle." 

These two papers form the second part of VoL xxiv. 

Mr. Denis Crofbon's paper, '' On a Collation of a MS. of the Bha- 
gavad Gita," is nearly ready to be issued. 

Many interesting papers have been read before the Academy, abstracts 
of which have already appeared, or will hereafter appear, in its Proceed- 
ings. We have received communications in Mathematics from Sir Wil- 
liam Hamilton and Professor Haughton ; in the sciences of observation 
and experiment, from Dr. Lloyd, Professor Haughton, Professor Hen- 
nessy, Professor Sullivan, and Dr. Kinahan ; in Polite Literature and 
Antiquities, from the President, Dr. Todd, Dr. Beeves, Mr. Hardinge, 
Mr. Du Noyer, and (through Dr. Aquilla Smith) from Mr. Bichsj^ 
SainthilL 

During the past year, all the printed books and manuscripts in the 
Library have been carefully examined by the Librarian, various im- 
provements made in their arrangement, and a catalogue completed, in- 
cluding every printed book in the library on the 31st of December, 
1861 ; distinguishing the donations of Mrs. Moore, and those of the late 
W. E. Hudson, Esq. A catalogue has also been completed of the Aca- 
demy's collection of pamphlets, with an index, which will much facilitate 
reference. 

The library has received many valuable donations during the past 
year ; among which should specially be mentioned thirty-five volumes of 
the Ordnance Antiquarian CoDections, presented by the Government 
The Master of the Bolls of England has also presented to the Academy 
a complete series of the Chronicles and Calendars' published under his 
direction. The Council have been fortunate enough to acquire by pur- 
chase an excellent copy on vellum of the portions of the Book of Lis- 
morc, which were requisite to complete the transcript of the other 
portions of that voliune made some years since for the Academy by Mr. 
Curry. 

An index to Mr. Curry's Catalogue of the manuscripts has been com- 
piled by Mr. D. H. Kelly, and presented by him to the library, where 
it will be found of very great use. 

In order to make tiie manuscript collection really useful, not only 
to members of the Academy, but to Celtic scholars generally, it is most 



89 

desirable that Mr. Ciury's Catalogue should be completed, and printed. 
No funds are at present available for the purpose ; but the Council will 
keep the object in view, and hope to be able ere long to carry it into 
effect 

The Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury have been pleased to 
sanction the expenditure of £100 a year in the recovery of relics of 
antiquity through the instrumentality of the constabulary of the several 
counties ; the articles thus acquired being deposited in the Museum of 
the Academy, and the value to be paid for them to the finders being fixed 
by the Committee of Antiquities. Por this most important boon the 
Academy is much indebted to the exertions of Lord Talbot de Malahide, 
who brought the matter before the Council in 1859, and subsequently 
co-operated with the Committee of Antiquities in the preparation of the 
plan which the Government adopted. 

The Committee of Antiquities have used all possible care and dili- 
gence in endeavouring to discharge the trust reposed in them, in a man- 
ner satisfactory both to the Government and to the depositors of articles 
of treasure-trove. Various objects of interest have already been obtained 
under this regulation, and a care^l system of registration of all the 
articles thus acquired has been adopted by the Committee. A list of all 
the additions to the Museum during the past year, prepared from a de- 
tailed statement, fomished by Mr. Hardinge, forms the appendix to the 
present Beport. 

It was announced in the last Beport, that the Government had pro- 
vided six suitable cases for the custody of the gold articles. These 
articles have since been arranged by Mr. Wilde. We are also indebted to 
that gentleman for the continuation of his valuable labours in the pre- 
paration of the Catalogue of the Museum. The third part, comprising 
all the gold articles in the Museum, now lies on the table. Tlus part 
consists of 100 pages, illustrated with 90 woodcuts, and contains descrip- 
tions of 809 objects. The Council have decided on presenting a copy of 
it gratuitously to each of the members. 

The Catalogue of the silver and iron articles, the coins, and the 
ecclesiastical antiquities, still remains to be made ; but the Council has 
not at present at its disposal any funds available for that purpose. The 
registration of the articles of sUver and iron has been made, and three- 
fourths of the engravings necessary for illustrating the Catalogue of 
those articles have been executed. 

During the past year there has been received from the sale of copies 
of Part L of the Catalogue, a sum of £8 10«.; from the sale of Part XL, 
£15 I9s. 7d,, making a total of £24 9a. Id, 

We are indebted to the zeal and industry of the Eev. Dr. Beeves, 
Secretary of the Academy, for an accurate index to the first seven volumes 
of the Proceedings of the Academy, which will greatly fjEicilitate refe- 
rence to the communications contained in them. A copy of the charter, 
statutes, by-laws, and regulations of the Academy, carefully revised, 
and printed in a convenient form, is also ready, and will be supplied to 
the members. 

B. I. A. PBOC. — VOL. Vill. N 



90 

The Treasurer reports that no change of importance has taken place 
in the financial condition of the Academy. The amonnt received fix>m 
entrance fees, during the past year, was slightly in excess of the sum 
received during 1860-61. After defraying all charges and liabilities, 
a small balance remains to be carried over to the credit of the Academy 
for the next year. 

The Academy laments, in common with the entire nation, the pre- 
mature death of the most illustrious of its Honorary Members, the late 
Prince Consort, who was ever as zealous in promoting the interests of 
science and art, as he was qualified by nature and cultivation to appre- 
ciate the efforts of their votaries. The feelings of the Academy respecting 
this national loss have been expressed in the Address of Condolence, 
which it has been our melancholy duty to present to Her Most Gracious 
Majesty. 

The Academy has lost by death during the past year tiiirteen 
Ordinary Members, viz. : — 

William Amcstbowq, Esq., C. E. ; elected lOlh April, 1848. 
Sib Matthew BAHBiKaToir, Bart. ; elected 9th January, 1837. 
Henbt C. Beauchamp, M. D. ; elected 11th January, 1841. 
David Bbbreton, M. D.; elected I4th February, 1853. 
Rev. Bobbbt Cabmigrael, M. A.; elected 12th February, 1856. 
Sib William Cubitt, F. R. S., &c. ; elected 30th November, 1833, 
James W. Cusacb, M.D. ; elected 16th March, 1829. 
AXFBED FtTBLOva, Esq. ; elected 24th August, 1857. 
Philip Jones, Esq. ; elected 12th April, 1847. 
Jambs T. Mackat, LL. B. ; elected 25th June, 1821. 
Alexakdeb Mac Ilveen, Esq. ; elected 14th January, 1861. 
JoHW O'DoNovAN, LL. D. ; elected 8th February, 1847. 
Ybn. Abchdeacon RowAir ; elected 28th May, 1832. 

Four of these names occur in the history of the scientific, literary, or 
antiquarian labours of this Academy : — 

1. The Rev. Robert Carmichael was elected a Fellow of Trinity 
College in 1852. He was the author of a treatise on the Calculus of 
Operations, published in 1855, which was favourably received in this 
coimtry, and has been translated into German (Lubrock, Brunswick, 
1857). He also edited the Rolls Sermons of Bishop Butler, witii notes 
and observations. He contributed to our Proceedings two papers, viz. 
one "On Certain Methods in the Calculus of Finite Differences,** the 
other '* On the General Theory of the Integration of Non-Linear Partial 
Differential Equations." 

2. Dr. James Townsend M*Kay, having first held the office of As- 
sistant Botanist in Trinity College, was afterwards employed to form the 
present University Botanic Garden, of which he was appointed Curator. 
In 1806, he published, in the fifth volume of the Dublin Society's 
Transactions, a Catalogue of the Rare Plants of Ireland ; and, in 1824, 
communicated to this Academy a full Catalogue, with habitats, of all the 



91 

Phanen^gamoua Plants and Ferns then asoertained to be natiyes of Ire- 
land. This catalogue contained the results of twenty years^ observations 
during numerous exqursions to almost every part of {he island. It was 
followed, in 1836, by the "Flora Hibemica," the work on which Dr. 
McKay's £ame as a botanist will principally rest. In recognition of this 
work, and of the services rendered by him to Irish botany and horticul- 
ture, the University conferred on hun the honorary degree of LL. B. 
His name is associated with those of two Irish plants, the Eriea Machayi 
(Hook), and the Fw>ub Maehayi (Turn.), and a genus of AcanthacesB 
(Mackaya) has been dedicated to him. 

3. Dr. John O'Donovan had acquired a European reputation by his 
profound knowledge of the Celtic language and historical monuments of 
Ireland. He was the author of the only scientific and really valuable 
work on Irish grammar, which had been produced before the " Gram- 
matica Celtica" of Zeuss. He edited for the Irish ArchsBological and 
Celtic Societies several ancient documents, preserved among tiie MSS. 
of this Academy, of Trinity College, Dublm, and of the Burgundian 
Library at Brussels. His greatest work was the edition, with a trans- 
lation, and an immense body of illustrative annotations, of the " Annals 
of the Four Masters." This has been pronounced by competent autho- 
rities to be the most important contribution which has yet been made to 
the early history of Ireland. During the last years of his life Dr. O'Do- 
novan was occupied, in conjunction with Mr. Eugene Curry, in prepar- 
ing for the press, under the superintendence of a Boyal Commission, the 
ancient legal institutes of Ireland, known as the Hrehon Laws. The 
loss sustained by Celtic literature in the death of this distinguished 
scholar may justly be described as irreparable. The University of Dublin 
had recognised his eminent merit by conferring on him an honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws, and the Bx>yal Academy of Berlin elected 
him one of its Honorary Members ; the Eoyal Irish Academy, in 1848, 
awarded him a Cunningham Gold Medal. 

4. The Venerable Arthur B. Bowan, Archdeacon of Ardfert, was 
author of a volume entitled ^* Lake Lore ; or, an Antiquarian Guide to 
some of the Euins and EecoUections of Eillarney*' (1853) ; '' Yita Beati 
Franconis," being an edition, with an English version, of a curious me- 
trical biography in medisdval Latin (1858) ; '* Brief Memorials of the 
Case and Conduct of Trinity College, 1686^1688" (1858); a collection 
of poems, published imder the title of '< Spare Minutes of a Minister ;" 
a tract on the Old Countess of Desmond, and other writings. He con- 
tributed to our Proceedings a paper ''On an Ogham Monument found 
on the site of the first Battle recorded as having been fought by the 
Milesians in Ireland." 

Sixteen Members have been elected during the past year, viz. : — 

1. G. W. Abraham, Esq. 5. P. Fitzgerald, Esq. 

2. Hon. Judge Berwick. 6. Alfred Hudson, M.D. 

3. Eev. W. S. Bumside, D. D. 7 Richard Hartley, Esq. 

4. Bev. R. G. Cather. 8. John Hatchell, Esq. 



92 

9. H. T. T. MaimseU, M. D. 13. J. 8. Sloane, Esq., C. E. 

10. George Nixon, M.D. 14. Eev. Henry Joy Tombe. 

11. Bev. Thaddeus O'Mahony. 15. Joeeph Wilson, Esq. 

12. W. T. Sargeant, Esq. 16. Henry Wilkie, Esq. 

Ko Honorary Members have been elected. 

It was Rssolyei), — That the Eeport of the Council now read be re- 
ceived and adopted* 



APPElfDIX TO BBPOBT. 

A return of the additions to the Museum, made during the year end- 
ing the March 15, 1862 :— 

Fbesbntationb. — ^By W. R. Wilde, Esq., a bronze jug, pin, and 
dagger; by H. Christy, Esq., three flakes of flint ; by J. Nicholson, Esq., 
a £int crucible ; by Dr. H. Hudson, a statuette ; by Lord G. A. Hill, a 
lump of bog butter. 

PuitcHASBS. — ^From A. Sproule, Esq., a belt-plate, a monogram, a 
saddle-pommel, a shield-boss, two Walloon boxes, all of brass; a spear of 
bronze; an ecclesiastical bell, a cruciflxion, two pipe packers, and a laige 
knife, all of iron ; an ornament of flint, and two fragments of tombstones, 
and portions of jars. FromH. Lewis, a bell-head of copper, three axes, a 
celt, a dagger, three hatchets and a palstave of bronze. From James 
O'Donnel, two bronze bosses, a double ring of bronze, four flint arrow- 
heads, a stone whorl, and portion of jar, a smoking pipe, a cinerary um, 
and a ring of coaL From Peter O'Coimell, a bronze da^er-blade. From 
Mr. Campbell, a bronze dish. From Charles Haliday, the Soiscel Mo- 
laise. From T. Cullen, plaster casts of a gold boss, a celt and handle, 
a* gold fibula, a bronze rapier. 

PurehMM made under treasure-trove regulatione : — ^Li gold, three 
armillae, a ball, a circle, three coins, three flat discs, a bar, a fragment 
of ribbed plate, and two tongues ; in silver, forty-eight silver coins ; a 
brass coin ; a copper coin; in bronze, an armlet, fragment of arrow-head, 
three celts, a pin, a ring, and a spear; in iron, a bit; in stone, an 
amulet, and an ornament; in amber, ninety-three beads; in bone, a comb, 
eleven fibulffi, and a pin. Giving a total of additions to the museum 
of 235 articles within the year ending March 15, 1862. 

His Excellency the Lord Lieutenant having arrived, the President 
proceeded to deliver the following Address, before presenting the Cun- 
ningham Medals, recently awarded by the Council : — 



93 

THE PBSSIDEKT^S ADSBBSS. 

GsxTTLEirEir, — ^One of the most important prerogatiyes and duties be- 
longing to the Council of this Academy is the award of medals to the 
snccesdPdl cnltirators of those scientific and literary pursuits for the pro- 
motion of which the Academy was founded We are now assembled for 
the purpose of carrying into effect resolutions adopted by the Council 
with reference to tlus matter towards the dose of the past year ; and to 
give greater solemnity to our proceedings, the representative of the 
Queen has been pleased to honour our meeting with his presence. 
He thus adds a fresh proof to the many which he has given of his own 
earnest sympathy with men of letters. He thus, I belieye, exactly reflects 
the feeling and co-operates with the action of our gracious Sovereign. If 
Her Majesty is no longer supported by the counsel and aided by the ser- 
vices of her lamented Consort, we know that she is animated by that 
strenuous desire to promote the interests of learning which he never 
lost an opportunity of manifesting. Under our present Sovereign, and 
under our present Viceroy, the maxim *^n<moa dlit wrUi^ will not be 
lost sight o£ 

I will now proceed. Gentlemen, with your permission, to notice the 
several works for which the Council has resolved to confer Cunningham 
Medals. 

A Cunningham Medal has been awarded to the Eev. Humphrey 
Uoyd D. D., for his original and important researches in Physiccd Op- 
tics, Magnetism, and Meteorology. Every member of the Eoyal Irish 
Academy will readily admit the high claims of Dr. Lloyd to any 
honour which we can confer. We all feel, too, that these claims 
are founded, not only on the scientiflc eminence which he has so 
justly attained, but also on the fact that so large a portion of his 
discoveries have been given to the world through the medium of our 
TransactionB and Proceedings. The flrst gave him a claim which the 
whole scientiflc world would be ready to endorse; the second gives 
to this daim a new and peculiar force as regards ourselves. And, 
although the medal which I am about to present to Br. Lloyd has 
been conferred on him professedly for memoirs recently published in 
our Transactions, I am sure that I do not misinterpret the feeling of 
the Council in saying that, when they resolved to confer it, their 
thoughts took a wider range, and that they desired thereby to testify 
their sense of the claims, accumulated during a long period, which 
Br. Lloyd possesses on the scientific world generally, and more espe- 
cially on tlie Boyal Irish Academy. And you will not think that I 
misemploy your time, if I venture to transgress the period to which, 
in the adjudication of these medals, we are in strictness limited, and 
briefly to notice some of his earlier contributions to physical science. 
Let me select, as perhaps the most important of these, the experimen- 
tal proof of the phenomenon of conical refraction. The history of 
this discovery must be ever memorable in the annals of science. It 



94 

is one of the rare instanoes of a successful theoretic prediction. You 
know that the ordinary course of scientific discovery is, that a phe- 
nomenon is first observed, and then accounted for. The experimen- 
talist establishes its reahty, and then the theorist endeavours to reduce 
it under a general law. Thus Kepler discovered that the planetary 
orbits are in fact elliptical, before Newton established the mechanic^ 
principles on which the form depends. The laws of reflexion and re- 
fraction were known as facts before Newton and Huygens endeavoured 
to reduce them under the more general laws of meohanicsi But in the 
case of conical refinction, this order was reversed. The mathematical 
genius of Sir William Hamilton enabled him to predict this phenome- 
non as a consequence of Fresnel's theory, before ^e experimental skill 
of Br. Lloyd established its reality. Sir William Hamilton saw that 
the rule by which Fresnel determined the course of the two rays into 
which a single incident ray is divided by crystalline refraction, appeared 
to fail under certain circumstances. With a certain disposition of the 
incident light, he found that not two, but an infinite number of direc- 
tions might be found satisfying the laws of Fresnel, and from this in- 
definiteness he rightly inferred that light would actually pass along 
each of these directions ; and that therefore, instead of emerging in two 
rays, the light would emerge in a hollow cone. With another dispo- 
sition of the incident ray, he inferred, by similar reasoning, that the 
light would emerge in a cylinder. The establishment of the reality of 
these phenomena by Dr. Lloyd must be regarded as a great triumph 
of experimental skill. The difficulties attending such an investigation 
can, of course, be frdly appreciated only by those who have been en- 
gaged in similar labours; but there is in these experiments one pe- 
cuHar source of difficulty, which will be intelligible to every one— 
it is this, that they do not admit of approximation. Generally speak- 
ing, in conducting an experiment, if the adjustment of the apparatus be 
nearly, though not mathematically exact, the phenomenon produced 
will be nearly, though not exactly, that which we are seekmg ; and 
the more nearly we approximate to perfect accuracy of adjustment, the 
more nearly will the phenomenon actually produced approximate to that 
which is required. And therefore, in ordinary experiments, an indif- 
ferent observer, though he will not perfectly succeed, will not wholly 
fail. He will make an approximation to the truth — an approximation 
which, with increasing skill and greater attention, he wiQ gradually 
render more and more close. With conical refr^u^tion it is not so. That 
phenomenon admits of no degrees. If the adjustment be not mathe- 
matically accurate, the phenomenon is not produced, nor any thing Ukt 
it. The smallest deviation from the proper disposition of the incident 
light will cause the cone or cylinder to disappear, and to be replaoed by 
the two rays which are seen under ordinary circumstances. Svery one 
can understand the difficulty of even conducting such an experiment 
as this when the means of doing so have been already devised and put 
into the hands of the observer — a difficulty, indeed, so great, that 
observers have been found to deny the reality of the phenomenon. 



95 

But to deyise the means by which the phenomenon might be produced, 
and, unassisted, to bring the experiment to a successful conclusion, — of 
all this, it ifl not too much to say, that it required in the observer the 
possession of experimental skill and genius of the highest order. Nor 
was Dr. lioyd content with the mere exhibition of ti^e phenomenon of 
conical refraction ; he also examined carefully the elementary rays of 
which the emei^nt cone is composed, and succeeded in establishing 
experimentally the simple and elegant law by which the position of 
the planes of polarisation of these rays is regulated. Passing now 
from optics to magnetism, we find that Dr. Lloyd's labours have been 
perseveringly and suocessftdly directed to the improvement of the 
methods by which the intensity of the earth's magnetic force is mea- 
sured. In a communication read before the Academy as far back as 
1843, and printed in the twenty-first volume of our Transactions, he 
has pointed out a mode of reducing the error attending the determina- 
tion of this quantity, by the ordinary method^ to less than one-fifth of 
its amount. Adopting Biot's law of magnetic distribution, he has deter- 
mined a relation between the lengths of the magnets employed, which 
not only simplifies the calculation, but also effects the above-mentioned 
important reduction in the error resulting from that observation. He 
has also, by a series of direct experiments, verified the accuracy of the 
method adopted, and thus incidentally given an important confirmation 
of the truth of the law of magnetic distribution which had been assumed. 
The same subject is resumed in a paper read before the Academy in the 
j-ear 1858, in which Dr. Lloyd points out a fatal imperfection attend- 
mg the ordinary mode of calculating the intenaty of the earth's mag- 
netic force, rendering that method quite inapplicable in high magnetic 
latitudes. The method proposed by Dr. Lloyd is wholly free from this 
imperfection; and, beeddes, requires for its application only the use of the 
dip circle — ^a vast advantage to the travelling observe, inasmuch as it 
reduces to the smallest possible number the instruments which he is 
compelled to carry with him. 

DocTOB Lloyd, — The medal which I have now the honour of pre- 
senting to you is a very inadequate token of the respect with which 
the Council of this Academy regards your labours in the various de- 
partments of physical science. Combining an exact knowledge of 
theoretical principles with a refined tact and ingenuity in experimental 
processes, you have devised methods of observation, the use of which 
has gready facilitated the accumulation of the means of future discovery. 
Tou have employed these methods with diligence and success, in the 
accurate determination of quantities which it was most important to 
measure. You have also pointed out sources of error in received me- 
thods of observation. Your colleagues here look forward with a lively 
interest to the prosecution of those researches in terrestrial magnetism, 
of which you have recently communicated accounts to the Academy. 
Though these discoveries belong to a period later than that within 



96 

wliich you produeed the memoirB for which this medal has been specially 
awarded, I feel that 1 am justified in referring to them as the resalt^ 
of the same well-trained sagacity which has characterized the whole 
series of your scientific achievements. 

A Cunningham Medal has been awarded to Mr. Bobert Mallet, for 
his researches in the theory of earthquakes. Prior to the year 1846, no 
true science of earthquakes existed ; seismology, as a branch of ter- 
restrial physics, has been since created. Mitchel, Dolomieu, Bylandt, 
Humboldt, and Darwin, the very latest writers on the subject, prior 
to 1846, all show that they had no clear conception either of the inti- 
mate mechanism, or of the connexion and order of events in. earth- 
quakes. The only true hints that had been given respecting them 
were those famished, in little more than a sentence, by Dr. Young 
and Gay Lussac, ** that they were of the nature of vibrations in solids.*' 
No adequate ideas had been formed of the character and limits of 
those vibrations, which were vaguely talked of as vorticose. In Fe- 
bruary, 1846, 'Kr. R. Mallet's paper on " the Dynamics of Earthquakes*' 
was read to the Eoyal Irish Academy, and published in voL xxi, p. 1, 
of its Transactions. In this paper he fixed upon an immutable basis 
the real nature of earthquake phenomena, and for the first time showed 
that the three great classes of phenomena, — 1. Shocks; 2. Sounds; 
3. Great sea-waves, — were aU reducible to a common origin, formed 
parts of a connected train, and were explicable on admitted laws. 
This paper also for the first time explained the true nature of the 
movements that had been called vorticose, and viewed as the proo& of 
circular movements. Mr. R Mallet proved that they were due to recti- 
linear motions. He also pointed out in this paper the important uses 
that might be made of earthquakes, as an instrument of discovering the 
depth beneath the earth's surface of the origin of the shocks, — ^hence of 
the volcanic foci, — and even of ascertaining ultimately the nature, as 
well as the temperature, of the formations within our earth, to a depth 
more profound than can be reached by any other mode of examination, 
or reached directly at all. He also showed that by seismologic means we 
may acquire some knowledge of the rock and other formations consti- 
tuting the beds of the great oceans. This paper brought the subject 
of earthquakes in a prominent manner before the notice of geologists and 
physicists; and in 1849-50, Mr. E. Mallet drew up, at the desire of 
the British Association, a first report on the facts of earthquake pheno- 
mena, which, like his subsequent reports, four in all, was published in 
its Transactions. In this fint report, he collected, classified, and drew 
inductive conclusions from all the important facts then known and pub- 
lished as to earthquakes, and pointed out how they co-ordinate with his 
first views of 1846. In the same year, he also designed the first com- 
pletely self-registering Seismometer proposed, and published a descrip- 
tion of it in our Transactions. In the three papers to which I have 
referred he pointed out, amongst other things, tie importance of experi- 
mentally determining the velocity of movement of earthquake- waves, and 



97 

proposed to experiment npon the actaal transit velooity of artificial 
Bhocks, obtained by the explosion of gunpowder ; and aided by the 
ftinds of the British Association, he in 1849--50 completed a train of 
experim^its by which he determined the transit wave-time of shock 
for wet sand as the lowest limit, and for solid granite as the highest 
amongst known cosmical media. The results, receired at first with 
much surprise, in consequence of the low velocities of transit fi)Und, 
folly coincided with the author's theoretic views of 1846, and have 
since been amply confirmed, and shown to be accordant with the 
low velocities of natural shocks, as measured by Schmidt, Koggerath, 
Mr. B. Mallet, and others. These experiments form the subject of his 
second British Association report of 1851. In his first report, Mr. R. 
Mallet had pointed out the importance of collecting into one great 
catalogue, and fhlly discussing in relation to space and time, ftc, all 
recorded earthquakes, with a view to evolve any secular laws^ if such 
existed. This laborious work he undertook with the dBcient help of his 
eldest son. Dr. John William Mallet, now Professor of Chemistry at the 
University of Alabama; and between the years 1S52 and 1868, they 
completed together the British AssOcialion earthquake-catalogue, em« 
bracing more than 6000 earthquakes, which form the subject of Mr. R« 
Mallet's third and fourth British Association Beports. In the fourth 
Report, he has discussed Mly, and year by year, this mass of the statist 
tical facts of earthquakes, extendiug from the earliest times of history to 
that date. The discussion of the fkcts evolved these amongst the most 
striking results : — 1. That earthquakes are not truly secular phenomena 
in time ; 2. That in modem times, when observations are best and most 
numerous, although the whole train of phenomena over time is irregular 
or non-secular, still there has been a decided preponderance of earth- 
quakes occurring at intervals of from forty to fifty years, and that 
these periods of maxima occur about the mddU and the laet decade of 
each emtwry, Mr. R. Mallet ventured to predict the recurrence of such a 
group of earthquakes for the then coming years, 1850, 1860, or there- 
abouts, and his prediction has been Mly borne out In the time-dis- 
cussion, also, he showed that at present some part or other of the earth 
is subject to at least one great earthquake every nine months. 3. In the 
discussion as to distribution over the earth's surface, he pointed out for 
the first time that earthquakes follow the great lines of mountain chains 
and elevations, forming what he has denominated Seismic Bands, the 
whole of which he has bdd down upon the Mercator Seismographic map 
of the world published by the British Association. The important and 
pregnant relations that this great fact possesses with respect to our 
fature knowledge of volcanic action, were in some measure pointed out 
in this Report: their important bearing cannot be in this respect over- 
estimated. Between the period of publication of his first and second 
British Association Reports, Mr. Mallet had, at the request of Sir John 
Herschell, drawn up for the Admiralty Manual the article on earthquakes 
and the methods of observing them, which he further improved in the 
second edition of that wor£ This article has been translated into 

a. I. A. PBOC. VOL. VIIT. 



98 

French bj Mons. Perrey, by desire of the Government of France; and 
into German by M. Jeittels, of the Imperial Gymnasium of Kaschau in 
Hungary, and of the Imp. Acad, of Sciences, Vienna ; and prior to the 
breaJong out of the war was about being republished, with large addi- 
tions by the author, by the Smithsonian Institution of America, which 
offered to circulate at its expense a vast number of copies over the world of 
science. Prior to the completion of the discussion of the British Association 
Catalogue, Mr. R. Mallet proposed to the Boyal Society and to the British 
Association, conjointly to undertake further experiments on the pzx>- 
pagation of artificial earthquake shocks in-stratified rock, by taking ad- 
yantage of the great blasting operations going on at Holyhead. Aided 
by the funds of both bodies, he has completed these experiments, ex- 
tending over a period of about four years, and last year reported to the 
Royal Society and to the Association. His results will appear in the forth- 
coming volume of the Philosophical Transactions, and also in the next Bri- 
tish Assocation Report. They confirm his previous observationss in sand 
and granite, &c., and comprise also some new and important results ; 
amongst the rest this, which is new to science — ^that the rate of propaga- 
tion of an earthquake shock is faster in the same medium as the originat- 
ing impulse is more powerful — a fact full of import as respects natural 
earthquakes, and curiously confirming some of the theoretic views of Mr. 
Eam^w. In December, 1 85 7, occuired the great earthquake of Naples. 
Mr. R. MaUet represented to the Royal Society the importance of observ- 
ing its effects ; and with the partial aid, and by the desire of that body, he 
proceeded to the scene of the disaster, and imder circumstances of some 
difficulty and inconvenience, applied new methods devised by him for 
the investigation of the direction and velocity of the shock. In the ma- 
thematical part of these inquiries he acknowledges the important aid he 
has derived from the skill of our fellow-academician. Professor Haugh- 
ton, Professor of Geology, Trinity College, Dublin. Mr. Mallet^s report 
on this expedition and investigation is now in the press, and will be pub- 
lished in about six weeks. It was road to the Royal Society in 1860, and 
an abstract of its contents has been published in the Proceedings of 
that body. The author fully succeeded in accomplishing what he set 
out with attempting, namely, to find within the shaken country, by ma- 
thematical or mechanical appeal to the objects shaken down or disturbed, 
both the spot on the surface vertically above the point whence the shock 
itself originated, and also the depth of this point or focus beneath the 
surfEU^. And he has shown that, in this instance, the focus was about 
nine and a half geographical miles deep. He has been able to estimate 
both the shape and the size of the subterranean cavity forming the focus, 
and to deduce many interesting and valuable conclusions as to the 
temperature, pressure, work consumed in the shock, &c. The velocity 
of the wave-particle in shock he has proved to be very small, not more 
than twelve to eighteen feet per second, thus co-ordinating with the low 
velocity of transit before ascertained. Amongst other deductions of ge- 
neral interest, based upon strict mechanical laws, is the probability that 
the depth of focus of no earthquake exceeds about thirty geographical 



miles ; and as the earthquake fooua is, in fact, also the Tolcanic one, that 
Tolcanio action within our planet is at present limited to about that 
depth. Mr. Mallet has shown that Seismology is capable of being used 
as an instrument of oosmical discovery ; and he has also shown that its 
importance is far greater in this respect than in any of the relations of 
earthquakes to superficial geological changes produced or induced by 
shock. 

Mb. Mallbt, — I have much pleasure in presenting to you the 
medal awarded to you by tl\e Council of the Boyal Irish Academy for 
your researches on ^e Theory of Earthquakes. To you, I believe, is due 
the credit of having been the first to disentangle and explain the com- 
plicated phenomena of these terrible visitations. Tou have measured 
the velocity of the waves of vibration propagated through the various 
solid materials of the earth-crust ; you have marked the sound-wave of 
air, carrying with it the announcement of the catastrophe ; you have 
followed the course of those tremendous breakers which have rolled in 
upon the trembling shores even at vast distances from the points where 
the ocean-bed has been agitated by subterraneous commotion. Profit- 
ing by the indications fundshed by riven walls and overthrown pillars, 
you have succeeded in pointing out the locus of the centres of earth- 
quake disturbance. These researches of yours place within our reach a 
new organon of cosmical inquiry — a method supplying information re- 
specting the temperature and structure of the earth-crust at distances 
unapproachable by any other known mode of observation. We can 
hardly desire for you enlarged opportunities of applying your theory, 
and testing the self-registering instruments which you have devised ; 
but we earnestly hope that the development of these and other investi- 
gations in which you are engaged may still further redound to your own 
credit and that of this Academy. 

A Cunningham Medal has been awarded to Mr. Whitley Stokes, 
for his work on Irish Glosses, edited for the Irish Archseological So- 
ciety. The work for which this medal is conferred on Mr. Stokes is an 
edition of a Mediaeval tract on Latin declension, with examples explained 
in Irish. The value of the tract itself lies in the large number of Irish 
words (about; 1100) which are annexed as glosses to the Latin voca- 
bles, exemplifying the different declensions ; many of these words are 
um^gister^ in our dictionaries ; of others the meaning has hitherto been 
guemd at rather than known. The publication of the tract, even without 
any commentary upon it, would have been a useful contribution towards 
the production of that Irish dictionary, the want of which is so much 
complained of. Mr. Stokes, however, has added copious annotations on 
the Irish words, pointing out the relationship in which they stand to 
cognate words in other Indo-European languages. In executing this 
part of his task, he has instituted comparisons which throw much light 
upon the etymology of words and names in other languages, as well as 
the Irish. I might cite many examples to show how interesting these 



100 

eomparisona aze ; but it is enough to say here, and I think it can be truly 
said, that thia Yolume containa the largest store of tnutwortliy oompari- 
sons of Welsh, Irish, Gtelic, Gomishy and Breton words with one anod&er, 
and of the different Celtic forms, with Sanskrit, Zend, Qieek, Latin, Go^ 
thic, Anglo-Saxon, English, and Old High German, that has hitherto beoi 
publish^. But the p^ologist is no longer satisfied with finding a simi- 
larity between roots in different languages ; he compares the structoze of 
inflected words, andfinds that common principles of formation run through 
the d^rent members of a great fiunily of languages. In this depart- 
ment of eomparatiTe philology Mr. Stokes has made disooTeriee, the 
merit of which has been recognised. In his commentary on the Irish 
Olossee, he has introduced considerable improyements in tiie declenmonsl 
paradigms, and made a great advance in the analysis of declension. To 
the theory of the verb he has contributed important obBervation& He 
has, for instance, shown Schleicher's explanation of the relatiTO fonn of 
the Irish verb to be inaccurate. He has also established the existence 
of a class of reduplicating roots. Such steps as these entitle him to the 
eredit of being not only a successftil scholar, but a worthy suooessor of 
Zeuss. I belieye it was the '' Grammatica Oeltica" of Ca^ar Zeuss whidi 
inspired him with an interest in this branch of learning. The analy- 
tical power manifbsted in that work conyinced him that it was possiUe 
to carry on Celtic researches in a philosophio spirit, and to eetablieh 
principles of Irish philology and ethnology on a sure historical basis. 
Having completely mastered Zeuss* comprehensiTe work — a task by no 
means an easy one— he commenced a methodical search for the oldest 
grammatical fi>rms, so precious to the philologist. In this labour he 
had the good fortune to receive help and encouragement firom the late 
Dr. O'Donovan and Professor 0* Curry, who opened to him many of the 
deepest and richest sources of information. But their aid would hare 
availed him but little, if he had not been gifted with a remarkable lin- 
guistic faculty, and a most persevering industry. Conceiving that, in 
order to trace the development of the Irish language, the student should 
begin by examining the most ancient documents, he applied himself 
systematically to the work of copying the most remarKable of them 
with extreme accuracy. He thus amassed so rich a collection of spe- 
cimens of the Irish language anterior to the eleventh century, that 
he has qualified himself to undertake the printing of Cormac s cele- 
brated Glossary, long reputed the very touchstone of Iri^ philological 
learning. Whilst the Insh has ever been the primary and final object of 
all his philological researches, he has not confined lus views to it He has 
made himself fiuniliar with the principles of Bopp's science of conipara- 
tive philology, and has applied them to the other members of the Celtic 
family of languages. He has mastered the Cornish, a dialect obscured by 
corrupt spelling and ill-defined grammatical forms. Of this dialect he has 
printed a specimen, the miracle-play of our Lord's Passion, with a trans- 
lation and grammatical notes. Neitiiier did he omit, like most Irish and 
Welsh philologists, that essential guarantee of success, the acquisition of 
the sister-dialect. He has to a considerable degree mastered the Welsh. 



101 

Of this he has givea pioof in his critical edition of the earliest specimena 
of Welsh, taken from Cambridge and Oxford M88. His collection of the 
old Welsh Glossee is more complete than that made by Zeuss, as it con- 
tains newly-discoyered glossee from the US. of Juvencus at Cambridge. 
I have entered into these details for the purpose of showing that Mr. 
Stokes' Wming is of a solid kind. He has not amused hunself, nor 
will he raialead his readers, by fandfol conjectures. The work which 
he has executed, and for which the medal of the Academy has been 
awarded to him, is a substantial contribution to Celtic philology. It 
will also secure to its author an honourable place in the estimation of 
those who understand, as he does, that every contribution to a more 
accurate knowledge of the Irish language is ultimately a contribution 
to Irish history. <^ For this," ''as he says himself, ''can never be written 
until trustworthy versions are produced of all the surviving chronicles, 
laws, lomances, and poetry of ancient Celtic Ireland. Moreover, immediate 
results ofhigh historical importance may be obtained by comparison of the 
words and forms of the Irish with those of the other Indo-European Ian* 
gusges. Chronicles may, and often do, lie; laws may have been the work 
of a despot^ and fail to correspond witii the ethical ideas of the people for 
whom they were made; romances may misrepresent the manners and 
morals of their readers and hearers; and poetiy may not be the genuine 
outcome of the popular imaginative faculty. But the evidence given by 
words and forms is conclusive*— evidence of the habitat, and intellectual 
attainments, the social condition of tiie Aryan family before the Celtic 
sisters journeyed to the West--evidence of the period at which this 
pilgrimage took place as compared with the dates of the respective mi- 
grations of their kindred-*-evidence of the connexions existing between 
the Celts and other Indo-£uropeans after the separation of languages. ** 

Dm. Sions,— I am sure that every member of the Academy shares 
in the regret which'I felt, when I was informed that his engagements 
rendered it impossible for your son to attend here to-night to receive the 
medal awarded to him by the Council. I place it in your hands — yotl 
will convey it to him, along with the assurance of our respect and good 
wishes. In the midst of professional pursuits carried on with diligence 
and sncoesB, he has found time to signalize himself by rendering im- 
portant services to Irish philology. Having prepared himself for his 
task by a course of well-ordered study, he haiB produced a work remark- 
able aUke for the diligence with which he has collected his materials, 
sad the skill with which he has arranged them. He has brought 
togeUier the largest coUectiozi that has yet been published of Celtic 
words, illustrated by the light of comparative philology. And, improv- 
ing upon the teaching of Zeuss, he has been able to carry our insight 
into the system of Celtic declension to the farthest point which it has 
yet reached. 

A Cunningham Medal has been awarded to Mr. John T. Gilbert for his 
''History of t£e City of Dublin.^' In undertaking this history, Mr. Gilbert 



102 

engaged in a task, the interest of which was equalled by its difficulty. 
In general, the historian derives help, in the execution of his work, from 
the labours of writers who have preceded him. Though the j may hare 
left omissions to be supplied, and mistakes to be corrected, they have, at 
least, furnished a mass of authentic matter, the possession of wMch places 
him in a position more advantageous than that of writers who have to con- 
struct their narratives out of the crude materials gathered from primary 
sources, annals, laws, charters, and the incidental notices preserved in 
ancient documents and monuments of various kinds. But Mr. Gilbert 
owes nothing to earlier histories of Dublin. The first work on the sub- 
ject was the imperfect attempt of Harris, published, in a small volume, 
most inaccurately, after his death, in 1 766. On this it would be unfair 
to pronounce a severe criticism. The design of the author had been 
left very incomplete, and the office of attempting to fill the outline which 
he had traced was committed to an incompetent compiler So limited 
in extent was this small history of the city of Dublin, that but foiar 
pages of it were devoted to the description of St Patrick' a Cathedral and 
eighteen churches. The entire of Harris's imperfect and inaccurate little 
work was appropriated and reprinted verbatim, without any acknow- 
ledgment, in 1818, at London, by Whitelaw and Walsh, whose compi- 
lation is full of the most absurd errors. Some of the materials of their 
work were avowedly gathered from unsubstantiated oral communica- 
tions, others were taken from printed guide-books of no authority. For 
instance, the Annals of Dublin, from 1704, the period at which Hanii 
ended, were reprinted without alteration from the concluding pages d 
a Dublin Almanac. Without exposing ourselves to the reproach of an 
undue civic vanity, we may assert that Dublin deserved to be made the 
subject of a history more elaborate and more authentic than the worics of 
either Harris or Whitelaw and Walsh. The metropolis of Ireland pos- 
sesses trustworthy annals which reach back for more than a thousand 
years, and has been the scene on which most famous men, Irish, Danes, 
Anglo-Normans, and English, have played their parts. A writer con- 
Icious of the dignity of his subject, and anxious to do it justice, would 
feel that very extensive researches should be made pievioua to com- 
mencing a history of Dublin. He would see the necessity of ftrainining 
every printed book, pamphlet, or tract referring to events connected with 
the history of the city. He would understand the importance of inves- 
tigating ti^e charters and deeds of its churches, guilds, and corporations, 
together with the manuscripts in the libraries of Trinity Collie and the 
British Museum, the archives of the State Paper Office, and the un- 
published records of the Law Courts of Dublin ; he would also make 
himself familiar with its streets, its public buildings, and its monumenta 
It is because Mr. Gilbert has given proo& of having used diligence 
and judgment in the collection of his materials from a vast variety of 
recondite sources, that his work has secured the approval of those who 
think that scientific accuracy is an essential element of literary excel- 
lence. Excluding uncertain or unverified statements, and abstaining 
from conjectures, he has founded his history solely on documentary eri- 



103 

denee, the elaborately minute references to which, at the end of each 
volume, attest his industry and good fedth. The writer of a work con- 
structed on the plan of Mr. Gilbert's History of Dublin, has occasion to 
display the most diyersified information and research. He touches upon 
the general political history of the country in past centuries ; he intro- 
duces biographical notices of distrnguished men ; he records and loca- 
lizes interesting events in the history of religion, letters, science, and 
art. In each of these departments the reader will find in Mr. Gilbert's 
history new and precise information, not to be met with elsewhere in 
print. As illustrating the wide range of subjects treated of under their 
respective localities, I may cite the account of the Tribe of Mac Gillamo- 
cholmog (voL i., p. 230), traced through unpublished Gaelic and Anglo- 
Irish records from the remote origin of the family to its extinction in the 
fifteentli century ; while, as a specimen of the work in a totally diffe- 
rent department, I may refer to the history of Crow-street Theatre, as 
giving the only accurate details hitherto published of that once-noted 
establishment, verified by original documents never before printed, from 
the autograph of Richard Brinsley Sheridan, and other dramatic celebri- 
ties. Mr. Gilbert has interwoven in his work numerous original biogra- 
phies of eminent natives of Dublin. He has supplied notices of painters, 
engravers, and medallists, with catalogues of their works, never before 
collected , and not to be found even in books specially treating of these sub- 
jects. He has given us a history of the Parliament of Ireland and the 
ParHament House; he has recorded the origin and progress of the Boyal 
Dublin Society, the Collie of Physicians, and the Boyed Irish Academy ; 
he has also introduced notices of remarkable literary works published 
in Dublin, with information respecting their authors. A complete ana- 
lysis of Mr. Gilbert's volumes would bring into view other interesting 
classes of subjects which I have left unmentioned ; but my enumeration 
of the topics treated of in the work is sufficiently ample to show that it 
embraces a most extensive field. To combine such multi&rious details 
into a narrative attractive to a general reader, and at the same time sa- 
tiafiictory to the historical inquirer, seeking precise and authentic infor- 
mation, was not an easy task. Mr. Gilbert is acknowledged to have 
succeeded eminently in attaining this twofold object. He has produced 
a work which has been, and will continue to be, read with Interest, and 
referred to as an authority, not only by partial Mends and brother Aca- 
demicians, but by all who may, in our own time or in future genera- 
tions, study the history and antiquities of the city of Dublin. 

Me. Gilbert, — I present to you the medal which the Council of 
the Boyal Irish Academy has awarded to you as the author of a scholar- 
like work on the History of Dublin. You have removed from Ireland 
the national reproach of having no history of its metropolis. The vo- 
lumes which you have produced furnish accurate and copious informa- 
tion on the history of every part of the city of which they treat. Let 
me express the hope that the sympathy in your labours shown by this 
Academy will encourage you to continue them. To the exertions made 



104 

by you and our late President, Dr. Todd, as secretaries of the Jiish 
ArehaBological and Celtic Society, it is mainly owing that the latter 
body has been, for many years past, enabled to continue its laboon in 
publishing various works of the utmost importance on the hislnry of 
Ireland. You have proved your seal in the cause of Irish history ; you 
are acquainted with its sources and its materials. We have^ thensibre, 
good reason to indulge the hope that you will supply some of its many 
and acknowledged wants. 

His Exoellenoy the Losn LixursNijrT then made the following n- 
marks: — 

Kb. PBEsmEiTT AKD GsNTLSi£Eir, — I feel sure that I shall command the 
unanimous assent of the assembly which I have the honour to address, in 
submitting to them a proposal for requesting the Yery Bev. the Dean of 
the Chapel Eoyal to permit the able, interesting, and instructive Ad- 
dresses which he has just delivered to be printed. It would be at once 
beside the purpose, and beyond my power, to travel again over the ground 
which has been so folly and luminously explored by him. Most of all 
should I shrink from entering upon the domain of Dr. Lloyd's researches 
and discoveries. Of a truth, indeed — 

N« hM poMim natnxaB aoeedere putet, 
Frigidos obstiterit drotim prmxn^a Mingniii. 

It is not possible, I will only say, to hear or think of Dr. Lloyd without 
being reminded ^at even the severest studies and loftiest flights of sd- 
ence seem in his case to be almost effaced by the modest grace and un- 
assuming virtues of his demeanour, character, and life. With respect 
to Mr. Mallet, whom I think the Eev. President next touched upon, he 
teems to be to the earthquake something of what Dr. Franklin was to the 
lightning. ' But though he has been himself able to detect and track its 
footsteps, I fear he mJl not be equally enabled to arrest or to intero^ 
its force. The President has eloquently remarked that Mr. Mallet has 
followed the course of those tremendous breakers which have rolled in 
upon the trembling shores, even at vast distances from the points where 
the ocean-bed had been agitated by subterranean commotions. Our lan- 
guage seems hardly big enough for such magnificent ideas; and if Homer 
had been alive, he would have called Mr. Mallet Fan^oxot •vvo^i^ato^. 
The President, I think, next touched upon Mr. Stokes; and I am 
sure our worthy President was quite in his element when he dilated 
on Irish philology ; and most pleasant, indeed, it is to find the son of a 
father who has himself done so much to lighten suffering and prolong 
life, showing such a bright promise in the cultivation of those pursuits 
and humanities which so powerfully contribute to dignify and adorn it 
I am sure we shaU hail with pleasure the promising career of such a son 
of such a sire. "With respect to Mr. Gilbert, I feel it most gratifying 
to have our attention directed to so frill and accurate a history of the 
city in which most of the assembly whom I see before me are now liv- 
ing, in which I myself have spent many eventftd, and, I will add, 



105 

happyyean. I atLtici|Mte gnat additional intel^Brt to the walks, or rides, 
or dnves which I may happefi to take, by having it in my power to 
leam more of those objects of antique associatioBy or of historic leeord, 
by which the capital and its delightful environs are so copiously studded. 
I only feel warranted in saying, further, that the pleasure with which I 
find myself amongst the members of this dignified Society is greatly 
enhanced on this occasion by our being met under the presidency of the 
Very Bev. Dean, in whom, besides his special adaptation for the imme- 
diate studies and pursuits which belong to this Institution, I have found, 
by com]petent experience, as complete a proficiency in aU the branches 
of policed learning, in all the amenities of social intercourse, in true 
kindness and liberality of judgment, and in the benevolence and con- 
sistency of the whole Christian character. I beg to conclude by moving 
that the Addresses to which we have listened to-night maybe printed. 

The Bev. Saxttxl HAtm&TOF^ M. A., F. R. S., Fellow of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, read the following paper : — 

AcCOtWt OP ExPtelMETTTS TO 1)ETEBX1ȣ THB TlLOClTrBS OP RePLB 

Bullets coioconly xtsed. 

Th£ following experiments were made for the purpose of ascertaining 
the reason of the alleged inferiority of the belted spherical bullet, used 
with the two-grooved rifle, as compared With elongated ballets of dif- 
ferent kinds. The guns compared are the following : — 

1. A two-grooved rifle,-^length, 81*50 inches ; diameter, 0*66 inch; 
one turn in 4 feet. 

2. The regulation Mini6 rifle, — length, 89 inches ; diameter, 0*69 
inch. 

3. Police carbine, — ^length, 28*75 inches; diameter, 0*66 inch. 

With these guns were used the following ballets : — 

Two- grooved Rifle, — 1. A Mini^ bullet, provided with two projec- 
tions corresponding to ike grooves of the rifle, vrithout ' culots,' weight 
697 grs. ; 2. A sugarloaf bidlet, fired point foremost, weight 669*75 grs. ; 
3. A belted spherical bullet, weight 482 grs. 

Minii Rifle. — The B^:ulation Minie bullet, with ' culot,' weight 744 
gre. 

Carbine. — SphericaU bullet, weight 891 grs. • 

The method employed to determine the velocity of the bullets was 
Eobins' ballistic pendulum ; and the same quantity of the best gun- 
powder (40 grs.) was employed with each gun and bullet. 

For the erection of the pendulum, and most efficient assistance af- 
forded in the conduct of the experiments, I am indebted to Mr. Joseph 
Harris, of the firm of Trulock and Son, Dawson-street, Dublin, with- 
out whose aid I should have been unable to bring these experiments to 
a 6uccessfiil issue. 

a. L A. PEOC. — VOL. vn. p 



106 

I shall first give the details of the experiments, and then mention the 
principal deductions which may be obtained fi:om them. 

The formula used in calculating the velocity is the following :* — 



wfe 



(1) 



where v - velocity of bullet in feet per second. 
T^ time of oscillation of pendulum. 
a = distance of centre of gravity from axis of suspension. 
ir = ratio of circumference of a circle to its diameter. 
/= distance from axis of gun attached to pendulum to axis of 

suspension. 
c = distance from axis of sospension to point of attachment of 

tape, by which the recoil is measured, 
n = ratio of weight of pendulum to weight of bullet. 
h = chord of arc of recoil, measured by tape. 

The two-grooved rifle barrel being firmly strapped with iron plates to 
the pendulum, the constants of the pendulum were caiefdlly determined, 
and were as follows : — 

y = 32-195 ft. IT « 3-14169 Weight of pend. = 36-76 lbs. 
r= 1-29 sec. /= 76-26 in. 
a « 67-39 in. c = 78-26 in. 



From these data we obtain (I) 

V « 0-12894 X nb. 



(2) 



The following Tables contain the results of the experiments made on 
the recoil of the two-grooved rifle with the three bullets already de- 
scribed : — 

Table 1,—Minii Bullet. 



Na j ft. 


b. 


«. 






lo. 


Fk 




869 


17-60 


888 






18-25 


869 






17-26 


821 






18-60 


881 






18-00 


867 






17-26 


821 



Mean velocity » 847 feet per second. 

Mean quanti^ of motion, measured in avoirdupois pounds, moving 
through 1 foot per second « 84*33 lbs. 

Mean quantity of Work « 1 109 lbs. lifted one foot. 



* PoiMOD, "Tnit6 de M^chaoiqae,** vol iL, p. 119. 



107. 



Tasls Tl.—8ugarloaf B¥M. 


NOL 


n. 


». 


%, 






In. 


Ft 




884 


17-60 


866-2 




, , 


17-00 


841-6 




, , 


17-87 


869-8 




, , 


17-76 


878-6 




• • 


17-62 


872-6 



Mean velocity » 863*7 feet. 

Mean quantity of motion = 82-63 lbs. 

Mean quantity of Work a 1 108 lbs. lifted one foot. 

Table JJl.— Bated BuUet. 



No. 


n. 


b. 


9. 






In. 


Ft 




686 


14-76 


1018-8 




• • 


16-87 


1066-9 




, , 


14-76 


1018-8 




, , 


16-12 


1088-7 




• • 


14-87 


987-2 



Mean velocity « 1021-68. 

Mean quantity of motion = 70-39 Ibe. 

Mean quantity of Work =1116 lbs. lifted one foot. 

The Mini^ reg^tion-rifle barrel having been attached to the pen- 
dolmn, formula (1) was calculated with the following conBtants, and the 
results are given in Table lY. 

The carbine barrel was then attached to the pendulum, and the re- 
coil observed. The results are contained in Table Y. 

^ = 32*195 feet. Weight of pend. and Mini^ barrel <» 56-50 lbs. 

r s 1-29 sec. Weight of pend. and carbine barrel == 55 -25 lbs. 

a= 61-75 in. 

3r = 314159. 

/=74in. 

c « 77 in. 

From these constants we find 



V = 0-14326 X nb. 
Tablx IY.— ifiVtt^ Regulation Rifle. 



(3) 



No. 


M. 


h. 


9. 






In. 


Fk 


1. 


681 


12-26 


981 90 


2. 


, 


11-60 


874-86 


8. 


. . 


12 12 


922-89 


4. 


, , 


1212 


922-89 


6. 


• • 


11-76 


898-86 



108 

Mean velocity = 909*08 feet. 

Mean quantity of motion « 96*63 lbs. 

Mean quantity of Work = 1 364 lbs. lifted one foot. 

Table V.— CflrWw. 



No. 


H. 


h. 


t. 






In. 


Ft 


1. 


989 


9-00 


1276 -21 


2. 


^ , 


9-12 


1292*92 


8. 


• • 


8*75 


1239*78 


4. 


• • 


8*62 


1222*07 



Mean velocity » 1257*49 feet. 

Mean quantity of motion s 70*24 lbs. 

Mean quantity of Work « 1371 lbs. lifted one foot. 

If we assume that the force developed by the explosion of the powder, 
diminished by the Motion of the barrel, is constant, it is easy to deduce 
the following ezpresvoa for die velocity : — 



^=exji.. 



(4- 



in which Q denotes a constant depending on the quantity of powder and 
diameter of the lifle, $ tbe leftgth of the barrel, and m the weight of the 
boaet. 

Taking the velocity of the belted bullet, 1021*7 feet, as our dactuia, 
and calcuktiag the velooitiee of the others from (4), we find 

Tabue Yl.^^Tkearetioal and observed VeheittM. 





Calculated. 


Obwrred. 


DUfeKnoe. 


Bfini^ buUet in 2-gTOoyed rifle, 
Sngtrlosf; 


Ft 

849-0 

866-8 

915-0 

1088-7 


Ft 

847-0 

863-7 

909-08 

12(7*49 


Ft 
+ 2-9 
+ Sl 
+ 6-92 
-17»*T9 


RegnlAtioD Mini^ 

Carbine bullet, 



The agreement ot tiiese results is very striking in the case of the 
rifles, and proves the truth of equation (4) ; and the disagreement in the 
case of the carbine proves, as might be expected, that tiie force of the 
powder is greater in the smooth bore than in the rifle. From the pre- 
ceding results, we may assert, with confldence, that the velocity with 
which a bullet is propdled hor^ a rifle by a given charge of powder de- 
pends mainly on the weight of the hullet and the len<fth of the barrel 



109 



Taryixig invenely as the square root of the former, and dirtily as the 
square root of the latter.* 

The following experiments were made to ascertain the resistance of 
the air to bullets of different figures and weights. The bullets were fired 
at 80 feet distance, from the two-groo7e rifie into the pendulum, and the 
Telocitiea calculated from formula (1). 



The constants of the pendulum were — 

w » 3*14159. 
= 77 in. 
Weight of pend. after Exprs. > 



g ^ 82-195 feet 
T= 1-29 sec. 
a = 60 in. 



51-20 lbs. 



Table VII.— ifiW^ BuUet at 80 Feet 



Na 


Mb 


b. 


/. 


•. 






In. 


In. 


Pt. 




601 


11-76 


72-60 


886-42 




602 


11-87 


71-00 


864-64 




608 


11-12 


72-00 


800*26 




604 


11-00 


69 00 


827*68 




606 


11-25 


71-00 


824-28 




607 


11-87 


69-00 


860-61 



Mean velocity = 885*62 feet. 

Mean quantity of motion = 83*22 lbs. 

Mean quantity of Work « 1080 lbs. lifted one foot. 

Table YIU.—Suffarlaa/ Bullet at 80 Feet. 



No. 


«. 


A. 


/. 


«. 






In. 


In. 


Ft 




616 


11-60 


7J00 


860-96 




617 


11-87 


71-00 


852 87 




618 


11*26 


71 00 


846-60 




619 


10-62 


67-76 


888-06 




620 


11-12 


69 00 


868 *27 



Mean velocity ^ 852*18 feet. 

Mean quantity of motion = 81-53 lbs. 

Mean quantity of Work «= 1079 lbs. lifted one foot. 



* The former of theae laws waa proved hj Mr. Button to hold for amooth-bore gnna 
of large aize, but the latter did not hold true for his experiments. I suppose the reason 
it is nearer the truth in rifles ia on account of the increased friction in the latter. 



B. I. A. PBOC. — ^YOL. Tin. 



no 



Tablb IX.— Belted BM«t at 80 F««t. 



No. 


M. 


ft. 


/. 


fk 






In. 


In. 


Ft 


1. 


781 


d-62 


71 00 


912-18 


2. 


782 


8-26 


69-00 


901-58 


8. 


784 


8-62 


69*00 


944-69 


4. 


786 


7-62 


66-00 


874-16 


6. 


786 


7-76 


67-00 


876-99 



Mean velocity = 901-88 feet. 

Mean quantity of motion = 62*23 lbs. 

Mean quantity of Work = 869-7nb8- lifted one foot. 

Collecting the preceding results into one Table, we obtain- 
TableX. 



VelocitT at 
fnuie. 



v^2.«t '^SS^^'^SS^'^J^^''^l!S?PJ' 



80 Feet 



Mn2Ele. 



80 Feet 



Moxile. 80 Feet 



Mini6 bullet '(two- 1 
grooved), .... J 

Minid bullet (regula- | 
tion), j 

Sugarloaf bnUet,. . 

Belted ballet, . . . 

Carbine ballet, . . 



ft. 
847 

909 08 

868-7 
1021-68 
1267-49 



ft. 
886-62 



852-18 
901*88 



Ite. 
84-38 

96-63 

82-63 
70-89 
70-24 



Ita. 
88-22 



81*63 
62 -28 



ft.llM. 

1109 

1364 

1108 
1116 
1371 



ft.na. 
1080 



1079 
869-7 



From this Table it appears — 

1st. That the quantity of motion communicated by a given quantity 
of powder to the Mini^ bullet, discharged from the regulation rifle, is 
greater than the quantity of motion possessed by any of the other bullets; 
this result being due partly to the greater weight of the bullet, and 
partly to the greater length of the rifle. 

2nd. That the quantity of motion communicated to the belted bullet, 
discharged from the two-grooved or Brunswick rifle, is less than that pos- 
sessed by the other rifle bullets, this result being due to the leaser we^t 
of the belted bullet. 

3rd. That the quantity of motion communicated to the carbine bullet 
is equal to that possessed by the belted rifle bullet, although the carbine 
is shorter and its bullet lighter ; this result being due to the greats Mo- 
tion of the bullet in the rifled barrel. 

4th. That in traversing 80 feet of still air, the quantity of motion of 
the Mini^ bullet is diminished by ^^th ; of the sugarloaf bullet by -y^th ; 
and of the belted bullet by ^th, — ^the remarkable inferiority of the 
belted bullet being principally due to its shape, which appears to have 
been contrived so as to cause the maximum amount of resistance to i\» 
passage through the air. 



Ill 

5ih. That the large stock of Bronawick two-grooyed rifles constructed 
for the use of the British rifle service, might he made as useful as the 
regulation Mini^ rifles, hy adapting to them a hullet of the proper 
weight, shaped like the Mini^ hxdlet, provided with two projections at 
the side to flt the grooves of the rifle, and used with or without the iron 
' culot ' of the French hullets. 

The length of harrel of the Brunswick rifle is 30 inches, and the size 
of hore is 0*704 inch. Calculating from these data the weight of the 
ball which should be used with this rifle in order to produce the same 
quantity of motion as in the Mini^ regulation rifle, I find it to be 967 
grs., or 7| balls to the pound. If Mini^ balls of this weight were con- 
structed to suit the bore of the Brunswick rifle, and provided with pro- 
jections or wings to fit the grooves, they would be as efficient as the re- 
gulation lifles of 39 inches in length. 

6th. That the quantity of Work depends only on the gun and pow- 
der ; being the same for the Mini^ bullet, the sugarlpaf bullet, and the 
belted bullet, when fired from the same rifle, with the same charge of 
powder ; and of the guns examined, being greatest for the carbine and 
Minie regulation rifle. 

7th. That in traversing the same distance in air, tHe two elongated 
bullets sojSered equally in quantity of Work ; and much less than the 
belted bullet, which lost most Work. As the penetrating power of a 
bullet depends on the quantity of Work it contains, and on its shape, 
we can see in the last residt a reason for the extraordinary and persis- 
tent power of penetration, at long ranges, which has been observed to 
reside ih the Minie and conical r^e bullets. 

In penetrating 80 ft. of still air : — 

The Mini^ ball lost ... 29 ft. lbs. of work, or ~ th of uiitial Work. 

The conical ball lost . . . 29 fL lbs. of work, or g^^th „ 

The belted ball lost ... 246 ft. lbs. of work, or ^rd „ 

although the amount of Work residing in the three balls was practically 
the same at the muzzle of the rifle, and equal to 1111 ft. lbs. 

8th. I have found from careftdly conducted experiments, that a half- 
inch cylindrical, flat-headed, steel Wt, will penetrate the best Stafford- 
shire crown plate, -f^ inch in thickness, if it be given 720 foot-pounds of 
Work. 

The amount of Work in the rifle bullets just described is much 
greater than this, which may be taken as a unit of penetrating Work ; 
and there is no reason why these balls should not penetrate iron plates 
of this thickness, if they were made of steel, instead of lead. 

By the courtesy of the Ordnance Select Committee, I am enabled to 
compare with the preceding results obtained frt)m small arms the more 
important results obtained, during the last year, from experiments made 
CD heavy ordnance with Navez's electro-ballistic apparatus. I select 
the following from the velocities obtained with smooth-bore and rifled 
ordnance. 



112 



Table XI. — Smooth-bore and Rifled Ordnanee. 





Nature of Ordnuiee. 


Charge. 


Prtdeetile. 


Initial 
Velocity. 


VclodtTct 








Naton. 


Weight 








ItaiOM. 




lbs. on. 


ft. per see. 


fLperre. 
1665-8 


I. 


68-pr. 96cwt, . . . 


16 


B.8hot, 


66 4 


1679-0 


II. 


II II . . • 




Nav. shot, 


51 8 


1809-9 


1769-4 1 


in. 


n n . . • 


II It 


Com. shot, 


49 14 


1790-7 


1760-8 


IV. 


12-pr. 18cwt., . . . 


4 


Sol. shot, 


12 10^ 


1769 8 


1718-6 


V. 


12-pr. Arrostioog, . . 


1 8 


8. shell, 


11-76 lb. 


1242-8 


1286-3 


VI. 


20-pr. ArmstroDg, \ 


2 8 


Shot, 


21-20 „ 


1114-8 


1107-2 1 


VII. 


20-pr. Armstrong, 

Sea aenrioe, j ' 


2 8 


Shot, 


21-20 „ 


997-6 


991*4 1 


VIII. 


40-pr. Armstroogf ) 


6 


Shot, 


41-60 „ 


1184-1 


1128-2 ; 


IX. 


lOO-pr. Armstrongi . . 


12 


Shot, 


111-6 „ 


1124-7 


1120 


X. 


100-pr. Armstrong, . , 


12 n 


C. shell. 


108-8 „ 


1166-1 


1161-4 1 



From the preceding Table I have calculated the following results :— 

Table XIL — Work of Prof eetiles from Smooth-bore and Rified 
Ordnance. 





Ordnanoe. 


Work at Mania 


Work at 90 Feet 


DUftnnce. 


I. 


68-pr. R. shot, . . . 


1146 tons lifted 1ft. 


1108 ft. tons. 


87ft.toos,or|i2 


II. 


„ NtT.shot, . . 


1170 


II 


1118 „ 


6« .. iS 


III. 


„ Com. shot, . . 


1109 „ 


>i 


1060 „ 


49 II ^ 


IV. 


12-pr. SoL shot, . . 


274-8 „ 


II 


269-8 „ 


1 

16 ,1 111! 


V. 


„ Armstrong, ) 
S. shell, /• 


126-8 .. 


II 


128-9 „ 


1-9 „ -S 


VI. 


20-pr. Armstrong, \ 
Land-service 2 . 
shot, \ 








1 




182-6 „ 


It 


180-2 „ 


2-8 ,1 liT 












VII. 


II Armstrong, . 










1 




Sea-service ^ 


146-2 „ 


II 


144-4 „ 


1-8 ,1 «T 




shot. 












VIIL 


40-pr. Armstrong, \ 










» 1 




Land-senrice 


. 


370 „ 


II 


866-2 „ 


8 8 „ , f;*4 




shot, ] 












IX. 


100-pr. Armstrong 
shot, 


978-6 „ 


II 


970-4 „ 


1 
8*2 ,1 iiji 


X. 


„ Armstrong \ 
C. shell, ] • 


978-4 „ 


II 


970-6 „ 


7*8 11 i»l 



113 



6^ 






i 



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ll 

•11 

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117 

The ballots for the annual election of President, Council, and Officers, 
haying been scrutinized in the face of the Academy, the President re- 
ported that the following gentlemen were duly elected :— » 

Prsstdsnt. — ^The Very Rev. Dean Graves, D. D. 

CoiTNcn.. — ^Rev. George Salmon, D. D. ; Rev. Samuel Haughton, M. A. ; 
Rev. J. H. Jellett, M. A. ; Robt. W. Smith, M. D. ; Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D. ; 
William K. Sullivan, M. D.; and Robert M'DonneU, M. D. : on the 
Committee of Science. 

Rev. Samuel Butcher, D.D.; Rev. Joseph Carson, D. D.; John F. 
Waller, LL.D. ; John Kells Ingram, LL. D. ; Digby P. Starkey, Esq. ; 
John Anster, LL. D. ; and the Right Hon. Joseph Napier, LL. D. : on 
the Committee of Polite Literature. 

John T. Gilbert, Esq. ; Rev. William Reeves, D. D. ; Eugene Curry, 
Esq. ; WilKam R. Wilde, Esq.; George Petrie, LL.D. ; W. H. Hardinge, 
Esq. ; and the Right Hon. Lord Talbot de Malahide : on the Committee 
of Antiquities. 

TbsIsubes. — ^Rev. Joseph Carson, D.D. 

Seckstabt of the Academy. — Rev. William Reeves, D. D. 

SscBSTAST or THE CoTTKCiL. — John Kells Ingram, LL. D. 

SscsETAST OF PoBEieK CosBESPONDSircE. — Rcv. Samuel Butcher, 
B.D. 

Ltbrasiah.— John T. Gilbert, Esq. 

Clsbk, AssiSTAirr Libbariak, akd Cubator of the Museitx. — Ed- 
ward Clibbom, Esq. 



MONDAY, APRIL 14, 1862. 
The Yeby Rev. Chasles Gbaves, D. D., President, in the Chair, 

Andrew Armstrong, Esq. ; John GampbeU, Esq., M. B. ; John Strat- 
ford Kirwan, Esq. ; and Gteorge Porte, Esq., C. E. ; were elected members 
of the Academy. 

Mr. J. T. GiLBEBT, on the part of R. R. Madden, Esq., read the fol- 
lowing paper : — 

Ok CEBTAur Cbomleghs in Nobthebn Afbica. 

(Plate XVI.) 

Ik the month of December, 1861, while sojourning in Algiers, the exist- 
ence in that colony of some ancient Pagan monuments of supposed Druidi- 
cal origin was brought to my knowledge by a brief notice of them in the 
"Revue Africaine," for Nov., 1861 (No. 30, p. 38)— an archaeological 
journal of considerable merit, published in Algiers, under the direction of 
the President of the " Societe Historique Algerienne," Monsieur Ber- 
bru^er, an eminent antiquarian and oriental scholar. Referring to the 
». I. A. PBoc. — Y0%, vni. » 



118 

locality named El-Kalaa, M. Berbnigger says, — " Leaving the Tillage of 
Oheragas, we come to a road which leads to Guyotville, by the commanal 
district called Bainen, where the Druidical monuments are to be fovind of 
El-Kalaa, of which I have given a description in a memoir addressed to 
the Governor- general, the 22ndFebruary, 1 856 (numbered 1 4), and which 
will be soon published in the ' Eevue Africaine '*' (but which I have to 
add never has been published). The writer ftuther adds, that in the 
vicinity of Guyotville is the district of Haouche Khodja-Biri, and on 
the left of it is the Eoubba de Sidi-Ehelef. Shaw, the English traveller, 
he continues, states that he saw from this place certain tombs surmounted 
by a large stone, in each of which tombs three human bodies mig-ht be 
placed. Shaw's account, M. Belbrugger remarks, applies very probably 
to the Do/m^ru of El-£alaa. 

The precise words of Shaw, in his " Travels in Barbary and the Le- 
vant," foL, 1738, p. 67, in reference to these monuments, are the follow- 
ing : — '* We meet with several pieces of Boman workmanship between 
Seedy Feijo and Algiers ; and near the tomb of Seedy Hallef^ another 
Marabout, we fall in with a number of graves covered with large fiat 
stones, each of them big enough to receive two or three bodies." 

I regret to say, Shaw's reference to " the graves " he saw in this lo- 
cality, which I have no doubt are '* the Druidical monuments " or 
" Dolmens" noticed by M. Belbrugger, is quite as unsatisfactory as the 
notice of these monuments by the latter gentleman. Kor did a per- 
sonal interview with him make any addition to my information respect- 
ing the Druidical monuments noticed by him, beyond the facts that 
they were in every respect identical with the rude Pagan monuments, 
designated Druids' altars, or sepulchral stones of Druidical origin, exist- 
ing in Brittany, and that the number of them existing at Bainen long 
a^r the French occupation of Algeria could not be under one hundred 
and fifty ; but that a colonist, a French farmer, who had obtained fix>m 
the government a grant of the land on which these monuments stood, 
had destroyed all of them with the exception of thirteen, which were 
then in a perfect state of preservation. 

I set out to visit these remains, accompanied by my son. Dr. T. M. 
Madden, the day following this interview. Although the distance ftom 
Algiers to Bainen is only about thirteen miles (in a westerly direction), 
after leaving Cheragas the road is so bad, and so many detours have to be 
made after much rain, that the journey in a caleche with three horses, 
takes nearly three hours and a half, and the distance of it may be set 
down at sixteen or seventeen miles. To give a more distinct idea of the 
situation of those monuments, 1 may state they exist rather more than 
halfway between Algiers and Sidi Ferruch, where the French army dis- 
embarked in 1830, and about one mQe and a half inland to the south 
from the village of Guyotville, formerly named Ain-Benian on the 
coast. 

On our arrival at the place where the monuments designated Dol- 
menu, of supposed Druidical origin, exist, we proceeded to the house of 
the colonist, Monsieur Mareschal, who is the proprietor of the lands, the 



119 

locality of which is named Bainen. He conducted us to an eminence 
not far distant from the house, situated on a table-land about 650 feet 
above the level of the sea (the neighbouring town of Gheragas is 198 
metres, or about 616 feet, above the sea). There, to my great astcmish- 
ment, I found thirteen cromlechs, in all important respects identical with 
our Irish monuments of that name, within an area certainly not ex- 
tending above a quarter of a mile in any direction ; and within a range 
of about double that distance, I discovered the remains of twenty of those 
monuments recently demolished or partially destroyed ; and in a wider 
range of view that the proprietor pointed out to me, clearly defined, and 
within the limits of his own lands, he showed me the several localities 
where upwards of one hundred and eightf^ more of these Dolmens, as he 
alleged, were in existence when he took possession of the land, but 
where they exist no more ; for with the sanction of the government, and 
as it was stipulated in the terms of the concession obtained by him, he 
was aUowed hy the authorities to demolish all tliese monuments^ and to ap- 
propriate the materials to building purposes, and the making and repairing 
of paths and roads, with the exception of thirteen. The latter number, he 
said, the authorities obliged him to leave on the ground and to preserve. 
So much for the march of civilization in a Prench colony, and the mili- 
tary administration of a country recently rescued from a regime of bar- 
barism. 

The existing monuments (Dolmens as they are termed) are generally 
in a direction (though not exactly so) north and south, the apex or up- 
lifted end that tapers towards a point, in most of them, being to the 
south or south-east. The covering slab of unhewn rock rests in a slant- 
ing direction on supporters likewise of un wrought stone of various num- 
bers, set up on their edge. The inclination of the covering slab varies 
considerably, but it is quite obvious in all. There were no appearances 
of grooved channels on the face of any of them ; round one, the remains 
were still distinguishable of a circle of upright stones. The proprietor 
of the ground informed me there were several of those circles of stone ; 
but they had been broken down and removed by him, along with the Dol- 
mens they surrounded, when he cleared the land. 

On the surface of the ground, within the space covered by the great 
slanting mass of superincumbent stone, in several of these monuments 
there are frtigments of human bones, and evidences in the soil of exca- 
vations having been recently made there. The present proprietor in^ 
formed me he had excavated several, and found urns of various sizes of 
baked clay, some containing fragments of bone, others ashes and small 
pieces of bones mixed with clay. He had found in them also beads and 
bracelets, several implements of bronze, but of the nature of these it was 
impossible to get any intelligible or reliable account. He had sent these 
objects, he said, and the urns found with them, to a friend in Algiers, 
to deposit in the Museum, but they had never reached their destination 
there. He possessed, at the time of my visit, only one small urn, which he 
had recently found in one of the demolished Dolmens; and this, with 



120 

some fragments of bones, evidently of great antiquity, both of hnman 
beings and of animals, I purchased from him.* 

Surrounding the Dolmen still existing, where many fragmoitB of 
very ancient bones are lying within the space covered by the great slop- 
ing cover, the proprietor says there existed a circle of stones mucfa 
smaller than those which are the side supporters of this monument 
The remains of some of the stones of this cinsle are still to be seen, not 
above two feet from the soil in which they are imbedded. The cover- 
ing slab of one of the largest of the existing Dolmens is nine feet and 
a half in length, and the same in breadth at the base It has three 
supporters on each side. The height of the space at the entrance be- 
tween the great sloping covering stone is four feet and a half high. The 
thiclmess of the great slab at the base is eighteen inches; 

I regret that my state of health did not allow me to make more ex- 
tensive researches, and to give more ample and exact details of measunv 
ments and positions. Enough, I trust, has been done in this statement 
of my observations on the spot where these monuments exist, to ehaw 
the identity of the monuments designated Dolmens, with our crom- 
lechs.f 

I may observe, that after visiting those African monuments I ad- 
dressed a letter to M. Belbrugger, the principal editor of the ** Bevae Afii- 
caine," and president of the Society Historique Algerienne, expressing 
my astonishment as a foreigner — not considering myself privil^ed to 



* With respect to the nms above referred to, I nuty observe that the following notioe 
of objects of antiquity found in those monuments, at Ain Benain, is given in the Cata- 
logue of the Mna^ of Antiquities of Algiers, entitled '' Livret ExplicatifL** Par A. Ber- 
brugger. At page 86 : — 

« Ain-Benian (Guyotville). 

*' 22 1. Hsfih^tte celtique, en pierre noire polie 

" T^nv6e dans les sepultures celtiques d*£l Kalaa, dans le Bainen. 
'* 222. (Bis) Hacb^tta, semblable k la pr6cedente et de m^me orig'jieL 
*'221. Cinq daras de flgche en silex. 

** M§me provenance que devant. 
^^220. Conteau en silez. 

** M6me provenance que devant 
"219. Hach^tte celtique en jade, trouv^ dans les dolmen d'El Kalaa. 

" Vendu par M. Godard ainsi que les obj^ts pr^c^ents de m^me prorenanoe. 
" 281. Fragments de cr&nes humains, trouv6s en Mai, 1867, dans les dohnen d*^ Kalaa^ 

et donnas par M. Matelat, juge au tribunal civil d*Alger. 
** 160. Objets trouv& par le colon Ifarchal dans les dolmen du Bainen, ^ £1 Kalaa: — 

** l^ Quatre petits vases gaulois en terre, 

** 2°. Deux bracelets en bronze. 

** 8". Divers fragments en cuivre et en plomb. 

" 4^ Deux petites flbnles en bronze. 

"6^ Un cnbe hummaine et un&choir.'' 

t The etymology of Uie term Dohnen is thus given by the learned author of ^*L*Ar« 
cbeologie Chretienne,'* is the '* Vocabnlaire des Mots Techniques" of that work (S^'^ed. 
.Sto, Tours, 1854, p. 868) :— ** Dolmen monument Druidiqne qu'on penae geneimlsDMBt 
avoir servi d*Autel ; Dot, table, Matn, Men, pierre." 



121 

use the word indignation — at the destruction of those monuments 
with the express sanction of the ruling powers of the colony — monuments 
which had survived 'the rayages of time and war prohably for more 
than two thousand years, and all the barbarism of the various tribes and 
races of Mauritania and Numidia, that have sojourned in, or swept over 
those regions of northern AMca for many hundreds of years past. M. 
Belbrugger made me no reply, being, perhaps, fortunately ignorant of 
the reprisals that might be made on any complaints like mine against 
the barbarisms of civiHzation in a Prench possession in respect to modes 
of dealing with monuments of antiquity of great value and historical 
interest. 

The preceding notice, I believe, is the first given in our country to 
British archaeologists of cromlechs existing in AMca. Of their exis- 
tence in Palestine they have a knowledge from the following descrip- 
tion of such monuments in the travels of Captains Irby and Mangles : — 
** On the banks of the Jordan, at the foot of the mountain, we ob- 
served some very singular, interesting, and certainly very ancient tombs, 
composed of great rough stones, resembling what is called Kit's Coty 
House (a well-known cromlech in Kent). They are built of two long 
side stones, with one at each end, and a small door in front, mostiy 
facing the north : this door was of stone. All were of rough stones, 
apparently not hewn, but found in flat fragments, many of which are 
found about the spot in huge flakes. Over the whole was laid an im- 
mense flat piece, projecting both at the sides and ends. What rendered 
these tombs the more remarkable was, that the interior was not long 
enough for a body, being only five feet. This is occasioned by both the 
front and back stones being considerably within the ends of the side 
ones. There are about twenty-seven of these tombs, very irregularly 
situated.'' 

The authors designate these monuments, '' oriental tombs." 
But who were the Africans of that region, in the vicinity of the ancient 
Icosium (the supposed site of which is Algiers), by whom such nimierous 
monmnents of the highest antiquity, and so entirely identical with our 
cromlechs, were erected ? What notices are to be found in our ancient 
annals of any relations of the early inhabitants of this country with 
those of Africa? 

In Keating's " Complete History of Ireland," translated from the 
Irish by Haliday, 8vo. Dub. 1811, we find (voL i. chapters 6, 7, 8, and 
^)f several references to ''African pirates," sometimes denominated 
Fomorians, who, within a period of three hundred years after the flood, 
had arrived in Ireland, eventually became masters of all the colonized 
portion of the island, and were, after a short time of domination, ex- 
pelled by new invaders. 

In the second section of chapter 2, we are told that ''Ireland was an 
inhabited desert for the space of three hundred years (after the flood), 
until Faralon (the Partholanus of other writers), son of Shara, son of 
Bm, son of Esru, son of Frament, son of Fahaght, son of Magog, son of 
Japhet, came to take possession of it." ..." This induces me to 



122 

think," adds Keating, "that it was two-and-twenty years befiire 
Abraham was bom that Faralon came into Ireland, and in the year of 
the world 1978." .... 

Then we are told that Faralon, who was accompanied by his £uiiilT 
and a thousand soldiers, *' began his journey firom Migdonia in the 
middle of Greece," and established his colony at Inish Samer, near £nie. 

'' Some authors," says Keating, *' mention another colonisation of 
Ireland (previous to that of Faralon), namely, by Keecol, son of Nil, son 
of Gkrv, son of Uamor, whose mother was Lot-Luavna, and they HTed 
two hundred years by fishing and fowling. Upon the arrival of Piaralon 
in Ireland, a great battle was fought between them at Moy Lhha, when 
Keecol fell, and the pirates were destroyed by Faralon. The place 
where Keecol landed with his followers wbs Inver Downan; his fleet 
consisted of six ships, in each of which were fifty VLen and fifty 
women." .... 

" The reason," we are told, " why Faralon came to Ireland was be- 
cause he slew his father and mother in hopes of obtaining the govern- 
ment from his brother, after which base murder he fled to Ireland ; bat 
the Lord sent a plague, which, in the short space of one week, carried 
off nine thousand of his posterity at the hill of Howth." 

Faralon, we are informed, *' died in the old plains of Moynalta of 
Howth, and was buried there." . . . " The death of Faralon hap- 
pened about thirty years after his arrival in Ireland. This event took 
place, as some antiquaries affirm, in the year of the world 2628, 
although I am induced to believe, from what has been said before, that 
there were only 1986 years from the creation of the world to the decease 
of Faralon." — Keating, vol. i. page 171. 

In chapter vii. vol. i. p. 179, we are informed Ireland was with* 
out inhabitants for thirty years after the extinction of the colony, till 
Newy, the Nemedius of other writers, came to Ireland with his people 
from Scythia, by the Euxine Sea, with a fleet of thirty-four transports 
with thirty men in each. Some years after his arrival, we are told, 
" Nevvy built two royal mansions in Ireland — the fort of Kinneh, in Hy- 
Nellan, and the fort of Kimbseh, in Sheyny. The four sons of M adan 
Thickneck (Munreamhair), of the Eomorians, reared fort Kinneh in one 
day. Their Aames were Bog, Rovog, Ruvney, and Bodan ; and Newy 
(Nemedius), slew them the next morning in Derrylee, lest they should 
resolve on destroying the fort again, and there he buried them." — Ih, 
vol. i. p. 179. 

The battles fought by Newy with the Fomorians, we are told, 
ended in their subjugation. Keating then gives the following account 
of the latter : — 

'' These were navigators of the race of Cham, who, sailing from 
Africa, fled to the Islands of the West of Europe toward the descendants 
of Shem, and to make a settlement f6r themselves ; fearing these would 
enslave them, in vengeance for the curse pronounced by Noah against 
Cham their ancestor, for they thought by making a settlement remote 
icom them to be secure from their oppression. On this account they 



123 

came to Izdandy and were vanqaished by Newy in three battles, \iz. , 
the battle of SUeYbloQpiy the battle of Eosefrnhan, in Conacht, wherein 
fell Goim and Gannan the two leaders of the Fomorians ; and the battle 
of Murrdg, in Dalriada» or Enta, where 8tam, eon of 'Neyrj, fell by 
Coniof , 8on of FsBvar, in Lehidlactmoy ; he also fought the battle of 
CnaTTOfls, in Leinster, where there was slaughter of the Irish, led on 
bj Xervy's own son Arthur, bom to him in Ireland, and by Ivoon, son 
of Stani, son of Nervy. 

"After this Newy died of a plague in the island of Newy's grave, 
io Leeban's county, in Munster, now called the Island of Barrymore, 
and with him two thousand of his people, men and women. 

" After Newy's death, great tyranny and oppression was exercised 
over his followers in Ireland by the Fomorians, in vengeance of those 
defeats by Newy,. which we have just related." — 2b, vol. i. p. 179. 

The Fomorians of More and Coning, of Tory Island (or, as some call 
it, Tor Conning), in the north of Irelaud, enturely subdued the old in- 
habitants, and made them tributaries. The Fomorian conquerors, hav- 
ing fitted out several ships, and collected large bodies of soldiers, began 
to oppress the unfortunate Nemedians, obliging them at a fixed period 
every year to pay a heavy tribute, and to deliver up not only contribu- 
tions of cattle and produce, but even of their children. 

The mode of levying and collecting contributions, described by 
Keating, might serve for an account of the same system of imposing and 
enforcing tribute in many parts of Northern AMca in much biter times. 
The Nemedians, at lenglli, unable to bear the rapacity of their tyrants, 
made a vigorous and nearly successful effort to drive them out of the 
coontry. 

" These people," says Keating, ** were denominated Fomorians, L e, 
«a robbers or pirates ; for the term signifies powerM at sea, or sea- 
feringmen." — Ih. vol. i. p. 181. 

The Nemedians at length made a formidable resistance, were suc- 
cessful for some time, and in their turn oppressed the Fomorians. 

On the news of tiie disasters sustained by the latter reaching their 
conntiymen in Africa, as it would appear, the latter fitted out a fleet. 
Bet sail from an African port, and landed on the Irish coast. How strongly 
is the reader of the wars of Grenada reminded of the several expeditions 
attempted or undertaken in Northern Africa for the relief of the Moors 
in the various settlements on the shores of Andalusia ! 

The fleet from Africa, of sixty sail, with a numerous force, arrived 
on the northern coast of Ireland. Another fierce battle was fought, in 
vhich the Nemedians were entirely defeated. Most of the survivors of 
this colony contrived to escape from the country ; and the remnant of 
them, who were left in servitude, continued to exist in this miserable 
state till the arrival of the Firbolg invaders in Ireland, 216 years after 
Nemedios first arrived upon the coast.* 

* Keating, vol I p. 187. 



124 

So far my notice of the African pirates has been &om Keatangf ? 
History. I must now refer to the Aniials of the '* The Four Masters,*' 
edited by our lamented and illustrious associate, O'Donovan, for some 
details additional to those of Keating, and in some respects at razianee 
with them. 

Thus we are informed, in the Annals : — 

" From the deluge untQ Parthalon took possession of Ireland, 27S 
years, and the age of the world when he arrived in it, 2520." . . . 

*' The age of the world, 2530. In this year the first battle was 
fought in Ireland, i. e. Gical Grigenchosach, son of Coll, son of Garbh, 
of tiie Eomorians, and his mother, came into Ireland eight hundred 
in number, so that a battle was fought between them (and Parthalon's 
people) at Sleamhnai-Maighe-Ithe, where the Fomorians were defeated 
by Parthalon, so that they were all slain. This is called the battle of 
Magh-Ithe." 

Then, in the age of the world, 2550, we are told Parthalon died. 

Under date. Anno Mundi, 2820, the destruction of the remnant of 
the colony of Parthalon is mentioned, and the fact of their having 
passed three hundred years in Ireland. Then, we are told '' Ireland was 
thirty years waste till Neimhidh's arrival." 

" Age of the world, 2860, Neimhidh came to Ireland." .... 

Subsequently to 2859, A. M., but the precise year not specified, three 
battles of Neimhidh with the Fomorians, and his victories over the latter, 
are recorded. Then the death of Neimhidh, of a plague, with three 
thousand of his followers, is recounted; and next, in the year of the 
world, 3066, we are told : — 

'' The demolition took place of the tower of Gonainn (on Tory Island, 
off the county of Donegal), by the race of Neimhidh against Gonainn, 
son of FsBbhar, and the Fomorians in general, in revenge for all the 
oppression they had inflicted upon them (the race of Nemhidh), as is 
evident from the chronicle which is called Leabhar-Gabhala ; and they 
nearly all mutually fell by each other ; thirty persons alone of the race 
of Neimhidh escaped to different quarters of the world, and they came 
back to Ireland some time afterwards as Firbolgs. Two hundz^ and 
sixteen years Neimhidh and his race remained in Ireland. After this 
Ireland was a wilderness for a period of two hundred years." 

'* The age of the world, 3260. The Firbolgs took possession of 
Ireland at the end of this year." 

Thus far for the references in the Annals of '* The Four Masters" to 
the Fomorians. 

The Abbe H'Geoghegan, in his "Histoire d'lrelande," names the 
victors and oppressors of the Nemedians, ** the Fomorians, or Fom- 
horaigs." But of their former marauding pursuits and African descent 
he makes no mention, neither do the authors of the ** Ani\»\^ of 
Ireland." 

O'HaUoran, in his "History of Ireland" (4to, 1778, voL i. p. 3), 
referring to the arrival in Ireland of Parthalon and his colony from 



125 
I 

Greece, in the ijear of tke world 1966, osthe '' BookV)fInya8ioii8" states, 
278 years afte^ the flood (OTlaherty makes the period 35 years later), 
says: — 

" The Book of Conquests mentions, but as an affair not authenticated, 
that before the arriyal of Parthalon, Ireland was possessed by a colony 
from A&ica, under the command of Ciocall, between whom and the new- 
comers a bloody battle was fought, in which the Africans were cut 
off." 

Again, at page 4, the same author, referring to the arrival of the 
^Neimhedians, or the second colony iu Ireland, says — "An African 
colony had been settled m the north, long before the arriyal of the 
^N^eimhedians, who were far from being so barbarous as represented." 
And then Ihe author makes mention of their skill in constructing large 
edifices, and of the different battles of the Fomharaigh with the Keim- 
hedians, and of the flnal discomflture of the latter — though, as we are 
told, '' they fought against the Africans with a resolution equal to the 
desperateness of their affairs. In this battle Conning, the son of Faobhar, 
the African chief, with most of his troops, were slain, and their principal 
garrison. Tor Conuing, levelled to the ground ; soon after which. More, 
the son of Dela, who had been absent with his fleet, endeavouring to 
land in this northern quarter (an island in the present Tir Conndl), 
was opposed by the Neunhedians, but after a bloody conflict these last 
were defeated with great slaughter — such as escaped the sword perish- 
ing in the water." 

The remainder of O'Halloran's account of the African pirates cor- 
respondfl mainly with that of Keating. Of the destiny of the Fomo- 
rians, after the landing in Ireland of the BelgSB or Firbolgs, the third 
colony of adventurers, nothing is said, and evidently nothing was known 
by either O'Halloran or Keating ; nor do we derive any information on 
this subject from the compilers of ** The Annals of the Four Masters." 

It is in vain to look for the name of any tribe in Africa resembling 
even that of the Fomorians in the works of the ancient geographers and 
historians — ^in those of Strabo, Pomponius Mela, Ptolomaeus, Scylax, 
Herodotus, Biodorus, Pliny, Solinus, and Orosius. But no argument 
against their existence can be relied on by those who bear in mind the 
extraordinary transmutations which names of ancient nations, tribes, 
and countries have undergone in the course of ages, and who bear in 
mind how the names of the same peoples and regions are differently 
rendered in the works of the most celebrated geographers and historians 
of antiquity. 

It is not for me to enter into any disquisition in this paper on the 
origin, structure, or uses of those ancient monuments we designate crom- 
lechs, and the French, Dolmens, which Ibelieve to be identical with those 
I have lately seen in Northern Africa. But the purpose of this notice 
makes it necessary to call attention, very briefly, to the leading points 
in the accounts that have been given of those monuments, and the views 
entertained of their origin and purpose by eminent archeeologists in those 
countries. 

K. I. A. PKOC. — VOL. Vni« S 



126 

In Grose's " Antiq. of Ireland" (vol. i. p. 17, Introd.), a description i? 
given of two cromlechs of gigantic proportions, one at Tobinstown, Ca 
of Carlow. '* The west end (is said to be) sustained on two upright 
piUars, somewhat round but irregular, each eight feet high, terminated 
behind by a broad flat stone set on the edge, eight feet high, and nine 
broad, making a portico (an open space more properly) of six feet wide, 
and four deep. This is covered by the cromlech or large sloping stone, 
twenty-three feet long, eighteen broad at the upper end over the open 
space between the two front supporters, and six at the lower or Wk 
part, where it rests on small stones about a foot high. Its thickness at 
the upper end is four feet, and at the' lower two. The under surface i« 
plain and even, but the upper convex. The upper part has a lai^ 
channel, from which branches off a number of smaller ones; to some they 
appear natural; to others artificial for sacrificial purposes. The sides arc 
enclosed and supported by several upright anomalous stones from three 
to six feet high, making a room eighteen feet long ; eight at the upper 
or west end, and five broad at the opposite one, and from two to »ght 
feet high, perfectly secure against every inconvenience of weather-*' 

The otJier cromlech at Brownstown, Co. Carlow, referred to bj 
Orose, ''consiste of an immense rock stone raised on an edge from its na- 
tive bed, and supported on the east by three pillars. At a distance is 
another pillar by itself, nearly round, and five feet high. The dimen- 
sions of the supporters and covering stones, are as follows : — 

Feet. locfaes. 

Height of the three supporters, 5 8 

Thickness of the upper end of the covering-stone, . 4 6 

Breadth of the same, 18 9 

Length of the same, 19 O 

Length of the outside, 23 4 

Solid contents in feet 1280, weighing nearly eighty-nine tons, five 
hundreds, making an angle with the horizon of 34 . Such are the 
accounts which I have received of these curious monuments, frx>m mj 
learned and ingenious friend, Mi, William Beauford, of Athy." Among 
the existing African monuments identical with our cromlechs, there aie 
none at all approaching to the dimensions of those referred to by Giose. 

A cromlech in Louth, in the parish of Ballymascanlan, is described 
in Wright's Louthiana, the covering stone of which has three sup- 
porters, and measures twelve feet in length, by six feet in width- By 
the inhabitants it is called the Giant's load. The African monuments 
seen by me approach more in their dimensions to those of the one above 
described by Wright, than those referred to by Grose. 

Cromlechs in Ireland, Cornwall, Anglesey, the Isle of Man, several 
parts of England, in Brittany, Kormandy, in Denmark specially, some 
near Holstein, have common characteristics. They are rude monuments 
of unwrought massive blocks of stone, the supporters of the lai^ su- 
perincumbent horizontal covering unhewn stone almost invariably laid 



127 

in a wlantiTig direction, being indeteiminate in number* Human re- 
nudns, and urns with ashes and fragments of bonea, have been so fre- 
qoentlj found beneath the area of those monuments, that the opinion in 
ail Gountries where they exist seems to be well established that they were 
rued for sepulchral purposes, though not exclusively for them. The 
author of the ''Ifona Antiqua Eestaurata'' observes, that cromlechs, 
althoagh perhaps often connoted with the commemoration of the dis- 
tingmhed dead, were not themselves solely intended as sepulchres, but 
rather, in such instances, for altars of oblation and sacrifice, in conjunc- 
tion with the former purpose. 

In support of his opinion, he might have referred to observations on 
Dniidical lites of ancient writers of great note. Tacitus, describing an 
attack of the Bomans upon Mona, says that the British Druids ** held it 
i%ht to smear their altars with the blood of their captives, and to con- 
£Qlt ^e will of the gods by the quivering of human flesh." 

Diodonis, speaking of the Druids of Gaul, says : — ** Pouring out a 
libation upon a man as a victim, they smite him with a sword upon the 
\ataat, in the part near the diaphragm ; and on his falling who has been 
thus smitten, both from the manner of his falling, and from the convul- 
dons of his Hmbe, and still more from the manner of the flowing of his 
blood, they presage what wiU come to pass." 

King, the British archaeologist, in his observations on the uses of 
cromlechs, and in particular of those of the cromlech called Kit's 
Coty House, maintains that these montunents were erected for the pur* 
po6e of human sacrifloe; that the great stone scaffold was raised just 
bigh enough for such a purpose^ and no higher ; and that these altars 
were so constructed and situated as to enable a multitude of people to 
see any saciiflcial rite performed on thenu 

In regard, moreover, to cromlechs of very large dimensions, of which 
i&any specimens are to be seen in Ireland, as well as in Cornwall, Mr. 
Kng offers a remark, which is ingenious, if not entirely satisfactory. 
From the conspicuous site in which such fabrics are usually placed, and 
from the readiness with which the flow of blood might be traced on a 
slab of stone, large and sloping as is the covering stone of these crom- 
lechs, he supposes that they were the altars on which human victims 
▼ere sacrificed in attempts at divination. If Mr. King referred to 
some rare instances of cromlechs in which some traces are to be seen 
(apparently) of grooved channels in their horizontal covering stone in its 
longest diiection, his observation would be less likely to be disputed. 

No such grooved channel, I may observe, exists in any of those crom- 
lechs visited by me in Northern AMosl. 

In oonflnnation of some of the views expressed in preceding obser- 
vations, reference is made by Rowlands, Wright, and King, to the passage 
^ the 24th chap., 26th verse, of the Book of Joshua in relation to the 
covenant made with the people of Shechem : — '' And Joshua wrote these 
▼ords in the book of the law of GKkI, and took a great stone and set it up 
there nnder an oak that was by the sanctuary of the Lord." 

In the Book of Ezekiel, vL 13, we find still more striking allusions 



1:^8 

to practices similar to those which hare been ascribed to the idolatrcms 
Dmids : — " Then shall ye know that I am the Lord, when their slaiB 
men shall be among their idols ronnd about their altars, npon every 
high hill in all .the tops of the mountains, and under every green tree, 
and under every thick oak, the place where they did offer sweet savour 
to all their idols." 

Again, in Hosea, iv. 13, we read of the idolatrous practices of the 
people of Israel: — *' They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and 
bum incense upon the hills, under oaks, and poplars, and elms, becau^ 
the shadow thereof is good." 

The custom of setting up on end over graves masses of imwitmght 
stone, as memorials of the dead, may be presumed to be referred to in Ge- 
nesis, XXXV. 20, in relation to RacheFs burial on the way to Ephrath :— 
" And Jacob set a pillar upon her grave : that is the pillar of Hachd's 
grave unto this day." 

The practice of frequenting places set apart chiefly for religions usees 
for public convocations and assemblages for dispensing justice, is sup- 
posed to be referred to in the following passage in 1 Samuel, vii. 1 6, 1 7 : 
— " And he (Samuel) Went from year to year in circuit to Bethel, and 
Gilgal, and Mizpeh, and judged Israel in all those places. And his re- 
turn was to Bamah : for there was his house : and there he judged 
Israel, and there he built an altar unto the Lord." 

Wright, in his " Louthiana," 4to, 1748, lib. iii. p. 7, observes that 
the Irish I>ruidfi(, whose works we trace over some parts of Ulster, and 
also in Leinster, undoubtedly had analogous rites and doctrines with 
some of the patriarchal tribes of the east. It was customary 'with the 
Druids of idolatrous usc^es, not only to live, but likewise toi)e buried, 
in the recesses of groves, and on the shady tops of hiHs ; and they were 
not only the chief places of resort on public festivals and for certain cere- 
monies, but were used for places of public worship and sepulchral pur- 
poses, for the remains of eminently privileged and distmguished person- 
ages. 

Wright elsewhere, refuting the opinion of some archaeologists that 
the cromlechs were solely or mainly used as altars for reKgious rites, 
says : — " I apprehend it wiU manifestly appear from what foUovrs that 
they (cromlechs) were all erected over graves, and are no other than 
tombstones or sepulchral monuments raised to the memory of the nio«t 
eminent men of those times. I could never bring myself to believe, from 
their vast heights and unevenness at top, that they could be designed 
purposely for altars, and especially as they seemed to be placed on so 
precarious a foundation. Having but three supports, if any one of ^em 
should be disturbed, the incumbent load must inevitably fall, and crush 
every thing in its way, which a fourth would have prevented from any 
such accident, and have rendered the whole together much more perma- 
nent and lasting." — " Louthiana," Book iii. p. 11. 

The reason given in support of Wright's opinion in favour of the 
exclusive use of cromlechs for sepulchKil purposes is of little vahie, 
independently of the notable error into which he has fallen in his 



129 

statement of the covermg stone of these monuments haying only three 
supports. 

In Brittttny they are indefinite in nnmber, extending fix>m three to 
seren, ninoy or ev^i more. Bowlands describe those o£ Anglesey as in- 
determinate in number, and, I may add, the slune observation applies to 
those of Northern Africa. 

The Bey. Henry Eowlands, in his "Mona Antiqua Resturata," 4to, 
1723, p. 47, derives the name cromlech from the Hebrew Ccerceum-leeh 
or Carem-hiochy a consecrated stone, which signifies an altar, and which 
significa^on is adduced in support of a theory of Mr. Rowlands', namely, 
that the first use and purpose of those monuments, erected in the East 
by the early descendants of Noah, and raised in every country they came 
to as they proceeded in peopling the earth, were connected with the ser* 
vice of true religion ; but idN^rwards that such altars whereon had been 
offered the fiiBt-fruits of the earth to the true God were turned away to 
Pagan uses, and made to serve for oblations and sacrifices to false gods. 
But the author subsequently qualifies his opinion, and says : — '' I deny 
not but there may be scnne probability of truth in them (the traditions 
existing of those monuments being sepulchres of renowned warriors or 
persons of great eminence interred in those places), and yet consLstent 
enough with what I have said of them; for they might be both sepulchres 
and ^tars — I mean those of latter erection,-r-because, when the great 
ones of the first ages fell, those who were eminent among the people for 
some extraordinary qualities and virtues, their enamoured posterity con- 
tinued their veneration to them to their very graves, over which they 
erected some of those altars or cromlechs, on which, when their true 
religion faltered, and became depraved and corrupted, they might make 
oblations and offer sacrifices to their departed ghosts. From this prac- 
tice, it is likely, grew the apotheosis of the first heroes, and from thence 
the gross idolatries of the Gentiles.'^ 

The author, at page 214, proceeds to show that cromlechs are types 
and reproductions of the most ancient monuments in the world ; for in 
the Sacred Scripture it is said that as soon as Noah and his family came 
out of the ark, they built an altar tmto the Lord. And to build (the 
Hebrew word equivalent to adifieare in the original), imports the erec- 
tion of raising stones, one upon another; and this signification of the 
word is somewhat exegetically amplified in another place, viz., Haggai, 
ch. ii., v. 15, where such a construction is expressed by the Hebrew 
words employed, literally rendered, " Stone laid on a stone." And, ftir- 
ther, the author argues, that altars of stones so erected of masses of rude 
unhewn rock, such as those early altars must have been necessarily at 
that pmod, were such as our cromlechs are at this day. Moreover, he 
observes, '< It is presumptive also that they then had a strict precept 
for such structures, if that precept, * Thou shalt not build an altar of 
hewn stones,' be (as a great part of the chapter is) a repetition of the 
old original law which the patriarchs before them in all probability 
strictly observed, and other nations, probably after their example, as 
strictly followed ; by which it will appear that our cromlechs are but 



130 

the remaining effects of that ancient law and custom of not strikxng a 
tool upon the stones of their altars, but to build them up of the rudest 
lumps and slivers of stones they could meet with, which law we maj 
well conclude to have preyailed likewise in these countries, and that 
these mentioned monuments of ours are some of the remains of that 
ancient institution and custom."* 

I may observe that Mr. Bowlands, at page 214 of his first essay, 
modifies the derivation of the term cromlech, which he gave at page 47, 
as from the Hebrew words Caram-luath, a devoted stone or altar. In 
the second essay, he observes — '* The name cromlech may seem to be 
no other than a corrupt pronouncing of an original Hebrew niune, 
ohemar-liMeh, a burning or sacrificing stone or table; or, perhaps 
more likely, as I before ii^timat^d from (the Hebrew words) ehantm- 
luehy or luaehy i. e. a consecrated stone, or devoted stone or altar." Bat 
the orthography even of the latter words is different from that of the 
Hebrew wonis first referred to by the author. 

Brewer, in his ''Beauties of Ireland" (8vo. 1825,. vol. i., p. 87, 
Introd.), derives the term cromlech '' frt>m the words crof», bent, and 
kac, a nag or stone." 

I am indebted to a better authority than either of the above-named 
writers, the most eminent of living Irish scholars, Eugene Curry, for 
the following observations on the derivation of the term cromlech : — 

'' The compound term, cromlech, is not an Irish formation, though 
the component parts are Irish slightly corrupted in the second part 
The words are crom — stooped, sloped, or inclined ; and Uac (not lech) 
pronounced lack, a flag or rock with a flat level surface. 

'< There is no such compound word, nor with such a signification as 
it now has, to be foimd in the proper Irish language. 

** I believe the term was first formed by Bishop Owen, of Wales, 
about A. D. 1600, in translating the English Bible into Welsh, and was 
applied by him to rocks or cliffs which shelved forward, so as to leave 
clefts, or rather sheltered recesses, for foxes and other wild w^nimftla to 
seek shelter in. I speak from memory in relation to. the latter part of 
the subject, but as an authority in relation to the first." 

This slight notice of an interesting subject, I venture to hope, may 
call the attention of some eminent archaeologists to the numerous mo- 
numents identical with our cromlechs existing in Northern Africa, 
capable of examining them with all due scientific knowledge and fieuni* 
liarity with investigations of this kind. 

And in conclusion I would venture to suggest, that in comparing 
the monuments of a primeval antiquity — ^the supposed cromlechs of 
other countries — with Uiose existing in our own land, it should be borne 
in mind that the genuine and unfailing characteristics of those last-men- 
tioned monuments are the following : — The supporters and the covering 
slab of them are invariably of unhewn stone; the covering unwrought 

* Mona Antiqoa, p. 214. 



131 

Blab has, or originally had, some indination (lengthways) in it ; the sup- 
porters are mde blocks of stone, set on end, apart, seldom found forming 
a continuous closed surface, either at the sides or end.* 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVI. 

Fig. 1. — Small African sepulchral urn — one-third of size of object, found 
beneath a cromlech at Bainen, near Algiers, — of the rudest form, 
&bric, and material, and without any ornamentation ; referred to in 
preceding notice of cromlechs in Northern Africa. 

Pig. 2. — Small Celtic sepulchral urn, one-third of size of object, found in 
a cemetery Gauloin, at Molineaux, nearEouen (described by the Abb^ 
Cochet, at page 11 of the "Sepultures Gauloises et Normandes,'' 
8yo., Par. 1857), of same size and quality as the one found under 
the cromlech at Algiers, and likewise without ornamentation* 

Pig. 3. — ^Large Irish sepulchral urn, one-fourth the size of object, with a 
quantity of bones, dl broken into small fragments, partially calcined, 
foimd on the Altmore property of Edward Litton, Esq., Master in 
Chancery, on the summit of the Cappagh mountain, parish of Pome- 
roy, county of Tyrone, beneath a cairn, at an elevation above the sea 
of 946 feet, in a square, stone-built chamber, closed externally by a 
huge block of stone ; within which chamber the above-mentioned urn, 
some ashes, burnt bones, and charcoal, were discovered ; but no wea- 
pons or ornaments of any kind. This urn — ^unquestionably of the 
most remote antiquity — was presented by Master Litton to E. B. 
Madden. 



* Since the preceding notice of certain cromlechs in the vicinity of Algien iraa 
read before the Royal Irish Academy, on the 14th of April, 1862, my attention was 
called to an elaborate article on " British Remains at Dartmoor/* by Sir J. Gardiner 
Wilkinson, published in the "Journal of the British ArchsBological Association** of 
March 81, 1862. In that article Sir J. 6. Wilkinson refers cnrsorily to the cromlechs in 
the vicini^ of Algiers, recently visited by me, and described in my paper on those mo- 
numents, read before the Royid Irish Academy. Sir J. 6. Wilkinson*s reference to them 
is contained in the following passage : — 

"And abont twelve miles from Algiers, on the plateau of Bainam, is a great assem- 
blage of cromlechs.** 

In several other parts of Africa, monuments of an analogous character are referred to 
by Sir J. O. Wilkipson as having been " described by Mr. Rhind, in his interesting Memoir 
onOrtholitic Remains in Africa** (" Archsologia,** voL xxxix.) — a work, I may observe, 
at the date of this note (June 10, 1862), not yet received in Ireland. " Mr. Rhind," 
observes Sir J. 6. Wilkinson, " has enumerated the following: — A stone circle near Tan- 
giers, and other rude megaliths in Morocco ; and in Algeria, near Zebdon, to the south 
of Tlemecen, a cromlech at Tiaret, 100 miles from the sea, the capstone of which mea- 
snres 65 feet by 26 feet, and 9^ feet in thickness, raised 40 feet from the ground, with 
steps cut to ascend it, and three basins or square troughs cut upon its upper surface, the 
largest 8 feet on each side, and communicating with each other by channels 4 inches 
broad, and of less depth than the basins. Some long stones are in the neighbourhood 
still standing; and about twelve miles from Algiers, on the plateau of Bainam, is a great 
assemblage of cromlechs ; and near Djelfa several tombs, composed of four slabs, covered 
by one or two others, each surrounded by a single or double circle of rude stone, about 
nine inches long, in which district a stone celt has been found ; at Signs, near to Con- 



132 

The Rev. Dr. Ei»txb read the following paper : — 

Ok the Islakd of Bavba. 

The little island of Banda, lying some three miles off the southeni coast 
of Cantyre, is about four miles in circimiference. The Hull of Gantyre, 
which is situate on its west, is the point where Scotland is nearest to 
Ireland, being only eleyen miles and a half distant £:om Tor Head, in the 
county of Antrim.* It formerly belonged to the parish of Kilblane ; but, 
together with it, and Kilcolmkill, is now comprehended in the paro- 
chial union of Southend. This being the route by which the early Scotic 
immigration from Ireland passed over to Alba, the whole district is 
strongly impressed with social and ecclesiastical features of an Insh 
character. The language always bore the name of the colonists, and the 
term Erse of the modem day is only a modification of it-f The tradi- 
tional associations of the people all looked westward, and the titles of 
nearly all the adjacent parishes are commemorative of illustrioos wor- 
thies of the Irish churck^t Kilcolmkill, Kilblane, Kilkivan, Kilohenzie, 
Kilkerran, Kilmarow, and Eilcalmonel, bear the impress of BtColumba'a, 
Bt Blaan's, St. Kevin's, St. Cainnech's, St. Kieran's, St. Maolrubha\s 
and St. Gohnan-elo's veneration. We may expect, therefore, to find in 
the historical scrap which has been handed down to us regarding the 
island of Sanda sufficient matter to interest an Irishman, and render its 
notice a suitable subject for the consideration of the Academy. 

The reoeived name of the island is of Norse origin ; but the Iri^ 
name is Ahhuinnf of which Aven, as it is known among the Highlanders, 
is merely a variety. Pordun, in the fifteenth century, calls it In«ik 
Awyn;% Dean Monro, at the close of the sixteenth, Avoyn:\( while 
Greorgc Buchanan latinizes it Avona, which he interprets " portuosa,'' 
as if a defiexion of "haven.*'^ 



Btantine, are other tomb«, and in the same province Bome meicaliths (dolmens) ; in Ka- 
bylia, one or more cromlechs, and others in the regency of Tunis; and in the Zengv 
district, Dr. Barth speaks of a trilitlion 10 feet high, with a lintel 6 feet 6 inchea in kaigth." 
—See "Journal of Archaeological Society," March 81, 1862, p. 43. 

* New Statistical Account of Scotland," vol. viL, pt. 2, p. 414. 

t See Adamnan's '* Ck)lumba*' (Irish Arcbsol. and Celtic Soc.), p. ttxIx. 

X The cotttrast between the parochial nomenclatnre on the east and west sid« of 
Scotland ia very striking. On the east, the names are for the most part secular, anddt- 
rived from the Pictish age ; on tlie west, they are generally ecclesiaatiGal in their ori^, 
combining with the prefix Kiil the name of some commemorated Irish saint. 

§ ** Insula Awyn, ubi cella sancti Adamnani, ibique pro transgresaoriboa refi^gimD." 
Scotichron., lib. ii. cap. 10 (vol. i. p. 45, ed. Goodall). 

II *^ Before the south poynt of the promontory of Kyntyre, lyes be ane myU of seL 
ane iyle neire ane myle lange, callit the iyle Avoyn, quhilk iyle is obtained that naoe 
ira the armies of Denmark, quhilkis armies callit it in their leid HaTln. It ia inhst^ 
and manifrit, and guid for shipps to lay one ankers." — Description of Weatem Isles 
1594. 

^ Hist Scot., lib. i. cap. 35. See Extracta e Var. Chron. Scot, p. 9 ; Orig. Pareck. 
Scotiie, vol ii. pt. 1, p. 9, and pt 2, p. 820 ; Old Statist Acct of Scotland, voK iii. p. 366 



133 

An Irish Franeiscan, called Father Edmund Mac Cana, one of the 
Clanbrassil Mac Canns, visited the spot in the early part of the seTen- 
teenth centaiy; and the interesting tract which records his experience is 
preserved in mannscript, together with a topographical memoir of parts 
of the counties of Antrim and Down, in the Inah collection of the Bur- 
gundian library at Brussels. It was kindly copied for me, in 1851, by 
our late associate, Mr. Charles Mac Donnell, and I am thus enabled to 
submit it to your consideration on the present occasion : ~ 

"IntukB Sanda, 9eu AvtmuBf Hthemiee Qbhuinn, hrwu dewripiioy 
R P. fratris Udmundi Mae Cana, 

" Insula Sanda est in oceano Scotico ad oocasum, uno milliari a 
Kentixiae continenti sejuncta ; complectitur in circuitu unum magnum 
miUiare. Bolum jucundum, fructuum ao frugum, si colerotur, ferax. In 
ea est ndicula S. l^inniano sacra, ad cujus coanobium in Galvidia tota 
insula spectat.* Gonjunctum huic sedicul» est ossarium sive sepul- 
cbietum quatuordecim filiomm sanctissimi viii Senchaniif Hibemi, 
sanctitate iUustrium, saxeo murulo septum, in quo sunt septemj gran- 
dia et poUta saza, quibus sanctissima corpora teguntur; in quorum 
medio erat obeliscus, altior hominis statura (ut mihi jam suggerit memo- 
ria). Nemo mortaUum impune ingreditur iUum murulum. Lepidum est 
quod TniVii retulerunt insiilani : gallinam, id loci ingressam, ova peperisse 
et exclusisse ; pullos, cum jam pr® eetate egredi poterant, omnes intortis 
coUis insigni spectaculo pi'ocessisse. Betulit mihi etiam grandior natu 
insulanorum, et ferme omnium pater, hoc prodigium quod subscribe. 
iBngusaius Mac I)onellu8,§ KentiriaB ac insulse Use dinasta (quem 
ipse jam olim vidi) ingressus est aliquando insulam, multa comitante 
caterva, inter quos etiam ftdt pnecipua Eentiris jurentus. Cum forte 
dinasta ac caetori nobiles de rebus seriis tractarent, juventus, ut solet, 
se piliB ac clavarum ludo exercebat ; pila vi clay» impnlsa, priusquam 
ab adversa manu juvenum excipi posset, altius in sacrum sepulchretum 
Tolavit. Juvenis, memor loci religionis, injeeit tantum alterum pedum 
et manuum, ad extrahendam pihun. Ab incolis reprehenditur quod 
•acri loci majestatem violaverit, idque criminis eum impune minime la- 
toium denunciant. Ille lusum mhilominus cum sociis persequitur. 
£xBcto lusa, ao appetente nocte, in hospitium se recipit, ad locma sedet; 

* St ITinUn's chareh, Candid* Gasa, now Whithorn, in Galloway. 

t Senchan is a well-known Irish name. We find it in Adamnan, in the fotm Sm- 
tkamu. The Irish cfJeadars oommemorate, at the 28rd of June, CUinn Shencam, 
*Tbe Sons of Senchan/ who are probably the fourteen here alluded to. 

t The combinations of §nen are very frequent in Irish hagioiogy . There is a long 
list of groups of seven bishops in the Leabluir Breae. An andent cemetery in Tory 
Island, oS the coast of Donegal, is called 7%e Murether, i. e. mop reipeap, < great six/ 
s well-known term denoting seven. A discussion of this frequent application of the term 
•even to churches, saints, and periods in Irish tradition, would form the subject rif a very 
interesting paper. 

§ Conooming the Mac DonneUs of Saoda, see New Sutist. Aoct of ScoUsnd, vol. vii., 
pt 2, p. 625. 

B. L A. PBOC. — TOL. Tni. * 



134 

cooriuntur stadin ingentes doloies in toto pede quem in oepiilchreto 
intulit. Insulani significant diyinam esse nltionem Iseste religioiiis. 
Intumuit minim in modum pes, adeo infiatos divina ultione ut equi 
magnitudinem exaaqnaret. Submediamnoctemjuyenis ezpirat. Omnes 
Deum laudant, sancta corpora deinceps religiosius yenerantor. Hinc dis- 
cendum quantam habeat rationem et curam sanctorum suonun Deus opti- 
mus maximuSy quorum sacrilegam irrisionem et contemptum impios 
Galyinus, noyus eyangelista, orbi intulit, aut potius intrusit. Magnixm 
hoc miraculum ezcitayit in animis spectatomm, et ex ipsis audientium, 
etiam a nostra religione ayersorum, sanctonim hominum reyerentiaoL 

** In ilia insula fuit repertum brachium sancti Ultani^* quod, thecs 
argenteffi inclusum, ante hoc bellumf religiose seryabator a yiro generoso 
e± inclyta Mac Donellomm fiunilia. 

** Fons est ibi non procul a sacello perennis aquae, miraculis, ut insn- 
lani et multi ex eontinenti mihi dixere, nobilis. Frequentabatur quidem 
meo tempore ab accolis circumquaque, maxime ab iis in quorum animi? 
aliquae reUquiae priscae religionis residebant. Sunt multa alia mira et 
jucunda quae homines mihi fide digniBaimi de hoc loco retulenmt, quo- 
rum mihi et memoria non suppetit, et tempore excluder. 

** niis sacris cineribus hoc quod sequitur rude epitaphium cam ibi 
essem posui ; atque ad iUud sacrum sepulchretum tertio sacris misteriii 
cum magna animi mei recreatione sum opcratus. 

** Corpora bis septem, tota yeneranda per orbem, 

Senchanii natiim Sanda beata tenet.} 
Doctorum diyumque parens, Hibemia quondam 

Quos genuit Sanctos, Scotica terra tegit 
Scotia dicta minor, multis celebrata troph8Bis,§ 

Matris in amplexu, pignora cara tenet. 
Sanda tibi cedit, yeterum celebrata camoDnis 

Bettiginum gazaa, ripa beata Tagi. 
Kos igitur sacros cineres deyotus adora, 

Quisquis in Hebrigenum littora tuta yenis." 

In this interesting narratiye we perceiye how yiyidly local tradition 
were preseryed two centuries ago, and we obserye a lamentable falling 
off when we compare with it the whole amount of legendary or other 
information which could be collected concerning this spot by the moat 
intelligent and pains-taldng yisiters of modem times. 

A writer in the ** New Statistical Account of Scotland," the minister 
of the parish, thus sums up his knowledge of the place : — <'In the 

* ThU ii probably the BUyer-enshrioed arm, commonly called St Patrick's, whidi ti 
DOW io the poBsewioD of the Right Bev. BUhop Denvir. See Reeyes'a Adamnaa'a Co- 
lumba, p. Izvii. 

t The war alloded to was probably the rebellion of 1641, and the Keeper mentiosed 
seems to have been resident in Ireland. 

t Instead of the first two lines are added the following : — 

** Corpora bis septem, septem condantor in amis, 
Ut natn gemini sic yideantur hnmo." 
§ An interlineation reads, "gennit qvm Sooiia major/' 



135 

island of Sanda are situated the rains of a chapel, dedicated to St. Ni- 
nian, together with two crosses of very rude design. In this burying* 
gronnd, there is a snperstitioaB stoiy, uniyersally beUeyed, respecting an 
alder tree growing oyer the reputed graye of the saint, oyer \7hich 
should any one walk, eyen by chance, he is doomed to die before a year 
expire. Like the former repositaries of the dead, this buiying-ground 
also shows eyery mark of neglect, being nnenclosed ; the graye-stones 
are broken and de&ced, and betoken that want of affection and respect 
for the dead which is cherished by the rudest nations."* 

Mr. Howson, an English trayeller, in reference to the spot, states 
that the chapel is called Kilmashenaghan, from a St. Shenaghan, who is 
said to haye been appointed by St. Columba to the charge of Kilcolm- 
kill.t 

The latest yisiter, the accurate and indefatigable Mr. Thomas Muir, 
ioms up the result of his obseryations in these words: — ** The island 
itself is yery picturesque, but besides a greatly ruinated chapel, thirty- 
three feet in length, and two crosses, nearly seyen feet in height, con- 
tains nothing that is yery interesting."^ 

How pauiMly does the imagination of the Celt contrast with his 
practice ! The fate of the little cemetery of Sanda is but a type of the 
preyailing condition of our most yenerated sanctuaries. The mind paints 
horrors, and the tongue relates the calamities, of the desecrator, and yet 
no effort is made to stay the desolating hand of time, or take common 
precaution against the injuries of trespass and dilapidation. The patron 
saint is inyested with imaginary dignity, yet his cemetery is exposed to 
dishonour; sanctity is supposed to reside in the spot, yet utter neglect 
is the only practical testimony which is borne to the persuasion ; and 
while the foot or hand of him who would disturb a sod, or remoye a 
stone, is considered an accursed limb, the beast of the field is allowed to 
range at pleasure within the hallowed precincts, and make a rubbing- 
post of a monumental pillar, — the yelyet sward its bed by day, and the 
enclosure of the chapel its shelter by night, the trodden, miry receptacle 
of its nocturnal filth. 

The Secretary of the Council read the Resolution passed by the 
Council on the 7th of Aprils 1862, recommending that certain articles 
in the Museum, and such others as it may be thought desirable to lend, 
be forwarded for exhibition in the South Kensington Museum, and 
moYed that it be adopted by the Academy. 

Whereupon it was moyed, as an amendment, by the Rey. William 
Reeyes, D. D., and seconded by Dr. H. R. Madden, — That the considera- 
tion of the reconunendation of the Council be deferred until the Stated 
Meeting in Noyember. 

A diyision haying taken place, it appeared that there were 16 yotes 
for, and 25 against '^he amendment. 

♦ Written Nov. 1848. "New Sut. Acct.," vol. vii., pt 2, p. 429. 

t '^Traoaact of the Cambridge Gamdeu Soc,"* p. 80. 

t "Old Church Architecture of Scotland" (Edinb. 1861), p. 126. 



136 

F. J. Sidney, LL. D., then moved, and J. F. Waller, LL.D., se- 
conded, the following amendment :— That such articlaa as it may be 
thought by the Coimcil desirable to lend be forwarded for exhibition in 
the Museum, South Kensington, London, belonging to the Science and 
Art Department of the Committee of Council on Education, during the 
forthcoming International Exhibition of 1862. 

A division having taken place, it i^ppeared that there were 24 votes 
for, and but 7 against^ the amendment, which was accordingly declared 
by the President to be carried. 

The Lord Chief Baron then moved, and the Rev Professor Jellett 
seconded, as an addition to the amendment : — That, in executing the 
amendment which has been now passed, the Council have due reg^ to 
the safety of the articles selected for transmission to London, and the 
means to be adopted for their transmission, and for their secure custody 
there. This motion, having be^ put by the President, was adopted- 



MONDAT, APRIL 28, 1869. 

The Vekt Rbv. Chables Geaves, B. D., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. F. J. Foot read a paper " On the Botanical Peculiaritiea of the 
Burren District, county of Clare." 

The Rev. H. Lloto, I>. D., D. C. L., read the following paper :— 

On Eaeth-cuebxsts nr conivsxion with Magsxiic Distuebaucbs. 

IiT a paper recently communicated to the Academy, the author showed tiiat 
the regular diurnal changes of the horizontal component of the earth's 
magnetic force are due to electric currents traversing the earth's enist, 
these currents operating as disturbing forces, which cause the magnets 
to deviate from their mean positions according to known laws. This 
relation being once established, the diurnal laws of the Earth-currents 
may be inferred from their effects. It was thus ascertained that the 
azimuth and the intensity of the currents varied throughout the day, 
according to certain laws depending upon the hour-angle of the sun. 
At different parts of the globe these laws were found to exhibit certain 
well-markod features in common; while their differences were accounti^ 
for, in many instances, by the geographical and physical characters of the 
region in which they occur. The author now proceeds to extend the 
same inquiry to the currents which produce the magnetic duturbancf4. 

It has been shown, by the labours of Kreil, Sabine, and others, that 
the disturbances of the magnetic elements are subject to periodical laws, 
depending upon the hour, which are constant for a given place, and for a 
given season of the year. The sums of the changes produced by these 
disturbances, at each hour of observation, have been calculated by Ge 
neral Sabine for three of the British Colonial Observatories. The cor- 
responding quantities have been deduced by Dr. Lament, for Munich ; by 
Mr. Broun, for Makerstoun, in Scotland; and by the author, for Dublin. 



137 

We poflaesB, in addition to the foregoiBg, similar results at Lake Atha- 
basca, in BiitiBh North America, deduced by Colonel Lefiroy firom obaer- 
Tations made by himselfi and which, althon^ derived £rom a shorter 
senes of obserrations, are of the highest scientific yalue. For these 
places, therefore, it only remains to combine the results of the decli- 
nation and horizontal intensity, by the method which has been already 
applied to the regular changes of the same elements. 

The result of this calcmlatioQ, applied to the Dublin observations, 
shows that the direction of the disturbanee-eurrent at that place observes 
a mean law, not very dissimilar to that which govems the regular diurnal 
current. Its azimuth rotates, during the day, in the same direction as 
the sun, its direction pointing almost exactly to the limiinary. The 
direction is east about 5 ▲. x. ; south, about noon ; and tpest, at 6 p. h. 
The current is easterly from 9 p.m. to 9 a.m., inclusive, and westerly 
during the remainder of the 24 hours. The mean azimuth of the easterly 
current, measured from the north eastward, is 4{f ly; that of the 
westerly is 230^ \W, If the mean directions of the easterly and west- 
erly currents be assumed to be in the same right Hne, the mean azimuths 
will be N. 45® B., and 8. 46® W. This result agrees, in a veiy remark- 
able manner, with those obtained by Mr. Barlow and Mr. Walker from the 
direct measures of the intensity of the Earth-currents, as observed on 
days of disturbance in several of the telegraphic lines of England ; and 
the agreement must be regarded as an additional proof of the dependence 
of the magnetic changes upon Earth-currents. 

The phenomena at Makerstoun are very similar to those at BuMin ; 
and the epochs of the passage of the eurrent through the cardinal points 
are nearly the same. 

At Toronto, in Canada, the current is tohoHy easterly ^ the mean azi- 
muth being 81® 25'. On the other hand, at Athabasea, the current is 
easterly ttom 12 p. v. to 6 a.m., inclusive, and westerly during the re- 
mainder of the 24 hours ,* the sums of the easterly and westerly changes 
for the entire day balance one another, the easterly currents being as 
much greater in mt^^tnde as they are less in duration. The mean 
azimuths are 110® 18' and 290® 66'. 

At St Helena the direction of the current is easterly throughout the 
day, the mean azimuth being 70® 63'. The direction is singularly con^ 
Btimt, the greatest deviation from the mean being only 10®. The phe- 
nomena at the Cape of €k)od Hope closely resemble those at St Helena, 
The direction of the current is easterly at every hour, excepting 5 a. m.. 
when there is a slight westerly movement The mean azimuth is 
77® 64^. 

It thus appears that at some places — as in the British Islands — the 
mean direction of the disturbance curr^t roMes through the entire 
compass in the course of the day ; while at others — as Munich, Toronto, 
St Helena, and the Cape of Good Hope-— it is easterly throuyhaut the day. 
While, therefore, there is a periodicity in the easterly and westerly cur- 
rents depending on the hour, we are obliged to infer that there is, at the 
same time, some cause constantly operating which tends to produce an 
easterly eurrent. 



138 

The mean azimuth of this cuirent appears to be coimeoted with the 
magnetic meridian of the place, to which it is nearly perpendicular. 
This will appear from the following Table of the mean azimuths of the 
disturbance-currents at the northern stations, measured from the astro- 
nomical and from the magnetical meridians, respectively : — 



Placea. 


Ax.(Astron.) 


Aa.(Mi«n.) 


Dublin, 

Makentoon, . . . 
Munich, ..... 

Toronto, 

Athabasca, .... 


46'* 
61 

62-6 
81-5 
110 


72' 

76 
69 
83 
81 



The mean azimuth (magnetic) for the five stations is E. 14? N.* The 
mean azimuth of the two stations in the Southern hemisphere is E. 1 1° S., 
deviating nearly as much to the south, as that of the northern stations 
deviates in the opposite direction. It thus appears that while the prin- 
cipal current is eastward in both hemispheresi there is also a meridional 
current tending northward in the Northern hemisphere^ and southward 
in the Southern. Its intensity is between one-fourth and one-fifth of 
that of the other component. 

These results are wholly at variance with the hypothesis imagined by 
M. de la Bive in explanation of the phenomena of magnetic disturbances, 
according to which the disturbance-current flows frx)m north to south 
only.* 

The diurnal changes of the intensity of the disturbance-currents pre- 
sent features equally marked. In order to perceive them clearly, it may 
be convenient to examine separately the meridional currents, and those at 
right augles to the magnetic meridian. 

The meridional currents are developed chiefly at the European sta- 
tions, and at Toronto, in Canada : at Athabasca, and at the southern 
stations, they are comparatively small. The northerly maximum occur 
at Toronto at 9 p. v., at Munich at 10 p. m., and at Dublin at 11 p.x. 
Its epoch at Makerstoun is between 9 p. m. and 11 p. m. The southerlff 
maximum occurs at 8 a. h., very nearly, at the four stations. Thus the 
epochs are nearly at the same hours of local time, notwithstanding the 
differences of longitude. 

A similar residt appears from an examination of the currents at right 
angles to the magnetic meridian. Thus, in the northern hemisphere, the 
easterly maximum occurs between 2 a. m. and 4 a. h., and the westerly/ 
maximum (or easterly minimum) between 3 p. ic. and 5 p. m. The two 
epochs are precisely the same at Makerstoun and at Toronto, places which 
differ more than five hours in longitude. 



• The discrepancy of M. de la Rive's hypothesis with the phenomena of the Earth- 
currents, as obaenred in the British Islands, has been already pointed oat by Mr.Walktr. 
It is even more marked at other parts of the globe. 



139 

The corresponding epochs for the two stations in the southern he- 
misphere in like manner agree with one another. The easterly maxi- 
mim occurs between 6 p. m. and 7 p. m. at St. Helena and the Cape of 
Good Hope, and the easterly minimum between f a. m. and 6 a. v. It 
is deserving of remark that these epochs do not differ considerably from 
those of the opposite movements in the northern hemisphere, the easterly 
extreme in the one corresponding nearly with the westerly extreme in the 
other. A similar opposition in the phenomena of the regular diurnal 
change in the two hemispheres was pointed out by the author on a former 
occasion, and there seems good reason to suppose that the two facts are 
phTsically related. 

It appears, then, that the principal epochs of the disturbance-cur- 
rents depend, in their mean values, upon the sun's hour-angle, and are 
independent of the longitude of the place at which they occur. 

The foregoing relations, in the phenomena of the disturbance-cur- 
rents, or in those of their effects, appear to be of a very general nature, 
and such as to afford a distinct basis for physical theory. The author 
hoped to resume the subject upon a future occasion. 



MONDAT, MAT 12, 1862. 

The YxBT Bev. Chables Gkaves, D. D., President, in the Chair. 

KisoLTEDy on the recommendation of the Council, — ^That the sum of £50 
be placed at the disposal of the Council for the purchase of antiquities, 
and for the arrangement of the Museum. 

Captaia Meadows Taylor, by permission of the Academy, read a 
paper ''On the Cromlechs and other Antiquarian Eemains in the 
Deocan." 

The Sscbetabt of the Academy read the following paper by Lieu- 
tenant J. Hauohtov, E. a. : — 

(hr THX DlFTBBXirCE BETWEEN EAlir-FALL AND EvAPOBATION AT 

St.Helbhain 1860. 

The following observations were made, at the request of the Rev. 
Professor Haughton, in the island of St. Helena, under the following 
conditions : — 

The wapcratum gauge consisted of a cylindrical glass vessel, 9 inches 
high, and 4' 85 inches wide. The level of the water was read off, and 
hrooght to the zero (at the middle of the vessel) every Sunday morning, 
at 10.45 A.M. The gauge was placed on the exposed roof of a house, 
15 feet high, and was open on all sides to rain, wind, and sun. It was 
at the leeward side of the island, the wind blowing almost always S.E. 
The gauge was exactly 700 feet above the sea-level. 

In the year (of fifty-two weeks) commencing 12th February, 1860, 
and ending 10th February, 1861, the total excess of evaporation over 
rain-fall was 81-42 inches; and in no single week did the rain-fall 
exceed the evaporation. 



140 



ST. HELENA — Fbuoaxt. 1860. 


i 

1 


Height of 

Witer 

InlnchML 


Wind. 


FNTAiUnc 
aonda. 


RRMARKA 










2 










8 










4 










5 








* 


6 










7 










8 










9 










10 










11 










12 


. 


S.£. 


K 


Bri^traofhine; tky half oletr. 


13 










K.N. 


Intermittent gunshine, with heavy showers. 


14 










N. 


Ditto, and light rain. 


15 










K. 


Bright SQDihine aU day. 


16 










C. 


Ditto. 


17 










K. 


Ditto. 


18 










K. 


Ditto, bnt heayy shower at sniwrt. 


19 


-1 


•75 






K.a 


Bri|^t ranshlne nearly all day ; rain insftentoou 


20 










K. 


Ditto, ditto. 


21 
22 
28 










K.N. 

K-a 


Ditto, ditt«. 
( Intermittent aonshine, shower in afternoon, td 
\ heavy showers at night 
Bright sunshine ; heavy showers at nigfat 


24 










, , 


Ditto, ditto. 


25 










^ 


Ditto. 


26 


-2 


'50 


N. N. W. 


, , 


Ditto; very littte wind. 


27 






as. 


K. 


Ditto. 


28 






i» 


K. 


Intermittent suBshlne ; eontinned rain in waoH 


29 






11 


E. 


Ditto. 


-4 


•25 









141 



BT. HELENA.— Maboh, 1860. 


1 


Height of 

Witcr 
in Inches. 


Wind. 


PreyaiUng 
Gionda. 


REMARir<3. 


1 
2 
3 

4 


-4 


■26 


n 
»» 


None. 

N. 
None. 

N. 


Bright sanshine all day. 

( Continued rain before 9 a.m. ; bright sanshine 

( afterwards, ^ 

Bright sunshine. 

1 Kain for an hoar at noon ; bright sanshine rest 

\ of day. 

Intermittent sunshine. 


-1 


•96 


5 






' »i 


K. 


6 






»» 


K.N. 


Ditto. 


7 






»» 


K. 


Sky obscured nearly all day. 


8 






It 


K.N. 


Bright sunshine. 


9 






»i 


K. 


Sky obscured nearly all day. 


10 






>f 


K. 


Intermittent sunshine. 


U 


-2 


•15 


»» 


K.N. 


Light showers. 


12 






If 


K.N. 


Intermittent sanshine. 


13 






»» 


K.N. 


Ditto. 


14 






tf 


K.N. 


Ditto. 


15 






1* 


K. 


Bright sanshine all day. 


16 






•1 


K. 


Intermittent sanshine. 


17 


' 




II 


K. 


Sky obscured. 


18 1 -2 


•06 


H 


K. 


Intermittent sunshine. 


19 






If 


K. 


Ditto. 


'20 






If 


K.N. 


Ditto ; showers at night. 


;2i 






If 


K.N. 


Ditto, and Hght rain. 


.22 






II 


K.N. 


Ditto, ditto. 


23 






N. 


K. S. 


Very calm ; intermittent sunshine. 


24 






S. R 


K.N. 


Intermittent sanshine, and light rain. 


26 


-1 


•60 


W. 


K. 


Calm ; intermittent sunshine. 


26 






S.K 


K. 


Intermittent sunshine. 


27 






II 


K. 


Ditto. 


28 






»» 


K. 


Bright sunshine. 


29 






»> 


K. 


Ditto. 


30 






II 


K. C. 


Ditto. 


31 






11 


K.N. 


Ditto, and lieavy showers ; strong wind. 




1 -12-00 



B. I. A. PKOC. TOL. VIIL 



142 



ST. HELENA — April. 1860. 


i 


Height of 

Water 
In InchesL 


Wind. 


PrerftUlng 
Cloudik 


REMARKS. 




-12 


00 








1 


-1 


•96 


S.E. 


. . 


Intermittent sunshine, and rain. 


2 


. 




If 


K.N. 




3 


. 




« 


N. 


Ditto; sky obscured. 


4 


. 




11 


. . 


Light rain nearly all day. 


5 






n 


K.N. 


Intermittent sonshine, and Ugbt ndn. ' 


6 


. 




»» 


II 


Intermittent sonahine. ' 


7 


• 




»t 


K. 


Ditto. 


8 


-1 


•46 


E. 


II 


Ditto. 


9 


. 




S. E. 


Nona 


Bright sonahine. 


10 


. 




fi 


II 


Ditto. 


11 


. 




i» 


S. 


Bright Bonshine ; hardly any cloud. 


12 


. . 




»» 


None. 


Bright sunshine. 


18 


. . 




f» 


11 


Ditto. ' 


14 


. . 




1* 


C. 


Ditto ; hardly any dond. | 


15 


-2 


•16 


»» 


K. 


Ditto. 


16 


. 


. 


»i 


II 


DiUo. 


17 


. . 




ti 


C. K. 


Ditto. 


18 


. . 




»» 


K. C. S. 


Intermittent sunshine. 


19 


. 




i» 


K. 


Bright sunshine. 


20 


. . 




»» 


C. K. 


Ditto. , 


21 


. . 




\V. N. W. 


aK. 


Intermittent sunshine; very little wind. 


22 


-2 


00 


8. R 


None. 


Strong wind. ' 


28 


. , 




M 


N. 


Bright sunshine. 


24 
25 


• 




II 
II 


K.S. 
N. K. 


Ditto, and strong wind. 
/ Intermittent sunshine, and light rain ; gtIe<Q^ 
\ small whirlwinds. | 


26 


, , 




»l 


N. K.8. 




27 


, 




II 


N. K. 


Intermittent sunshine. 


28 


, 




II 


N. 


Light rain all day ; very heavy rain in conntry. , 


29 


-1 


•60 


II 


N. S. 


Rain nearly all day. 


80 


. 




II 


K. 


Bright sunshine. 




- 21*15 









143 



ST. HELENA— Mat, 1860. 


1 


Heisrbt of 
inlnchea. 


Wind. 


Preralllng 
Gooda. 


REMABXa 




-21 


•15 


S.E. 


K. 


Intennittent BanshiDO. 


1 






2 






tf 


? 


Covered sky ; light shoven. 


3 






>» 


K. 


Intennittent sunshine, and a few showers. 


4 






>i 


? 


Bain nearly all day. 


5 






» 


S. K.N. 


Intermittent sunshine ; rain at night 


6 


-0 


•80 


)f 


K.N. 


Ditto, and rain. 


7 






i» 


n 


Ditto. 


8 






99 


t» 


Ditto, and strong wind. 


9 






t» 


K. 


Ditto. 


10 






}> 


K. S. 


Bright sunshine. 


11 






It 


E. 


Intermittent snnshine. 


12 






>» 


» 


Ditto, and rain at night 


13 


- 1 


■76 


»» 


»» 


Ditto. 


U 






>» 


BLN.S. 


Ditto. 


15 






>» 


K.N. 


Ditto. 


16 






»» 


i> 


Ditto. 


17 






W 


»> 


Ditto, and a UtUe rain. 


18 






» 


»» 


Ditto, ditto. 


19 






>t 


aK. 


Ditto. 


20 


-1 


•70 


»» 


K.N. & 


Ditto, and rain. 


21 






t» 


K.N. 


Heavy rain in the morning and night 


22 






»» 


N. 


Light rain nearly all day. 


23 






w 


EL 


Intermittent snnshine. 


24 






»» 


K.N. 


Ditto, and rain in afternoon. 


^5 






»♦ 


K.S. 


Ditto. 


26 






>» 


? 


Covered sky. 


27 


- 1 


•06 


» 


K.S. 


Intennittent snnshine. 


28 
29 
30 






»> 
»t 


? 
K.N. 


Ditto. 
1 Light rain nearly all day ; strong wind ; sky 
\ covered by day, clear at night 
Light rain nearly all day. 


31 






>} 


» 


Ditto. 




-86-45 



144 



ST. HELENA.— June, 1860. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

lO 

11 

12 

13 

14 

16 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 



Height of 

Water 
In Incbea. 



- 26-45 



-1-12 



-1-40 



-1-85 



-1-66 



-32-47 



a£. 



K.N. 
K. 

II 

? 

? 

? 
C.N. 

? 
None. 



Prevailing 

Cloada. 


REMARKS. 


N. 


Light rain nearly all day. 


K. 


Bright sunshine. 


II 


Ditto. 


K. S. 


Ditto. 


»i 


Bright sunshine ; calm. 


K.C. 


Ditto, ditto. 


K. 


Ditto, ditto. 


C.K. 


Bright sunshine. 


K- 


Ditto. 


K.S. 


Ditto. 


If 


Ditto. 


K. 


Intermittent sunshine, and light rain. 


K.S. 


Ditto, ditta 


K. 


Ditto, ditto. 


II 


Ditto. 


II 


Ditto, and strong Kind. 


? 


Covered sky ; strong wind ; rain aU afternocc. 


? 


Ditto, ditto. 


K. 


Intermittent sunshine. 



Bright suni^hine. 

( Light rain in the morning, and bright s 
( afternoon; calm. 
Bright sunshine. 

Ditto. 
Covered sky ; calm. 

Ditto ; a shower in evening. 
Intermittent sunshine, and light rain. 
Bright sunshine and a few showers. 
Covered sky. 
Bright sunshine. 

Ditto. 



145 



ST. HELENA.--JULT, 1860. 


£ 


Heii^ht of 

Water 
In Inches. 


Wind. 


Prevailing 
Clond& 


REMABK& 




- 32 -47 


S.K 


? 


Sky covered by day ; BtroDg wind. 


!■ 


-1-46 


2 

1 
3' 

4i 


11 
ft 


K. 

K-N. 

K.C. N. 


Bright sunshine. 

(Intermittent sunshine in morning ; heavy rain 

( in afternoon and evening. 
Intermittent sunshine, and heavy showen. 


5 


1* 




Rain nearly all day. 


6 


i» 




Ditto. 


7 




ft 




Intermittent sunshine, and rain. 


8 


-0-66 


If 




light rain nearly all day. 


9 




i» 




Sky covered ; some showers of light rain. 


10 




9T 




Ditto, ditto. 


11 




11 




Sky covered. 


12 




M 




Sky covered, and light rain nearly all day. 


13 




tl 




Sky covered, and a little rain. 


14 




f1 


K.S. 


Intermittent sunshine. 


15 


-1-16 


»» 


? 


Sky covered. 


16 




)» 


K. 


Intermittent sunshine. 


17 




tt 


fi 


Ditto. 


18 




»» 


K.C. 


Ditto. 


19 




»1 


K. S. 


Bright sunshine. 


20. . . 


>l 


K.N. 


Intermittent sunshine. 


21| .. 


»f 


ff 


Ditto; calm. 


22 - 1 40 


If 


None. 


Bright sunshine ; calm. 


23 


»f 


K. 


Ditto. 


24 


If 


K.S. 


Bright sunshine; calm. 


25 


N.E. 


S. 


Ditto, do. 


26 1 .. 


N. N. E. 


? 


Light rain nearly all day. 


27 ■ 

1 


S.E. 


EL 


Intermittent sunshine ; fresh breeze. 


28' .. 


If 


ft 


Ditto, and light rain. 


|29 

;3o 

31 


-116 


»» 
fi 


? 

? 

K.N. 


Strong wind ; covered sky ; light showers. 
(Intermittent sunshine, and light rain ; very 
\ strong wind. 
Intermittent sunshine, and light rain. 


-38-27 





146 



ST. HELENA.—AUO08T, 1860. 


1 


Helfrht of 

Water 
in Inches. 


Wind. 


Prevailing 
Cloada. 


REMARKa 


1 


-38-27 


N. 


None. 






Bright sunshine. 


2 


. . 


N. 


t» 


Ditto ; light wind. 


8 


. . 


S.E. 


K.C. 


Ditto. 


4 




»> 


K. 


Intermittent sunshine ; strong wind. 


5 


-1-40 


»> 


10 


Covered sky ; light showers ; very strong wind 


6 




>» 


TI 


Light rain nearly all day ; very strong wind. 


7 




>f 


n 


Ditto, ditta 


8 




>» 


K.N. 


Intermittent sunshine, and light rain. 


9 




99 


>» 


Ditto, ditto. 


10 




»> 


10 




11 




»> 


? 


Intermittent sunshine, and a little rain. 


12 


-116 


»» 


10 


Calm. 


13 




N. 


K. 


Bright sunshine ; very calm. 


H 


. . 


S.E. 


ft 


Intermittent sunshine ; calm. 


16 


. . 


tf 


tf 


Ditto. 


16 




It 


f> 


Ditto. 


17 


. . 


i» 


10 


1 


18 


. . 


ti 


»» 


A Uttle rain. | 


10 


-1-20 


N. 


K.N. 


Intermittent sunshine, and Ught rain ; light Ti^i- 


20 




S.K 


K.N. 


Bright sunshine. 


21 


. . 


N.N.W. 


K. 


Ditto. 1 


22 




S.K 


II 


Ditto. 


23 




t» 


K.C.N 


Intermittent sunshine, and light rain. 


24 




»» 


K.N. 


Ditto, ditto. 


25 




i» 


10 


Light rain. 1 


26 


- 1-15 


i» 


K.N. 




27 


. , 


>» 


»» 


Intermittent sunshme; rain at night 


28 


, , 


t» 


K.C.N. S. 


Ditto, ditto. 


29 




»i 


K.N. 


Intermittent sunshine, and light rsin. ' 


80 


, . 


ff 


10 


Some light rain. | 


31 




fi 


K.N. 


Intermittent sunshine, and a little rsm. 


- 43«17 





147 





ST 


. HELENik Septbmbkr, 1860. 


1 


Hdfftat of 
in Inches. 


Wind. 


PreTftUing 
Clouda. 


REMARKS. 


""l 


-43 17 


S.E. 


K.N. 


iDtennittent sandiiiie, and some light rain. 


1 




2 


-1-20 


11 


10 


Showers of light rain. 


3 




11 


K.N. 


Intermittent sunahine, and mnch rain at night 


4 




»i 


K,S. 


Bright sunshine. 


5 




If 


K. 


Intermittent sunshine, and a little rain. 


6 


t* 


tt 


Ditto, ditto. 


7 . « 


11 


K. N. 


Intermittent sunshine, and rain ; strong wind. 


8 

9 -1-06 

lOl .. 

1 


11 
ti 


? 

N. 
K.N. 


Light showers all day ; strong wind. 
( Intermittent sunshine, and rain ; showers all 
\ day, at intervals of ten minutes. 
Intermittent sunshine, and little rain. 


111 .. 


tt 


K. 


Intermittent sunshine. 


12 


»i 


tt 


Ditto. 


13 


• • 


N. N. W. 


None. 


Calm. 


U 

( 

15 1 . . 

16 -1-60 


N. W. 

N.N.W. k 

E.N.B. 

S.E. 


K. 

1 •• 

tt 


Bright sunshine ; very light wind. 

( Bright sunshine hy day ; rain and overcast sky 

\ at night 

Bright sunshine ; rain at night 


17 


tt 


10 


Very strong wind ; rain. 


18 




tt 


K.N. 


Ditto, ditto. 


19 




It 


10 


Strong wind. 


20 




ti 


? 


Intermittent sunshine. 


21 




tt 


10 




22 
23 

24 


-1-40 


tt 
tt 
tt 


tt 

? 
10 


Very strong wind. 

( Ditto ; intermittent sunshine ; rain in after- 

\ noon, and at night 

Light rain for greater part of day and night 


25 




tt 


tt 


Much light rain ; strong wind. 


26 
27 
28 


•• 


tt 
tt 
It 


tt 
K. C. 
K. 10 


Ditto, ditto. 
( Intermittent sunshine, and a little rain ; sky 
( clear at night 
Intermittent sunshine ; strong wind. 


29 




tt 


K.N. 


Bright sunshine ; a little rain. 


30 


-i-eo 


tt 


? 


Intermittent sunshine, and light rain. 


- 49-92 



148 







LADDER HILL, ST 


. HELENA.— OcTOBBR, 1860. 


i 

1 


Height of 

Water 
InlncheflL 


Wind.. 

4 


Prevailing 
Clouda. 


REMARKS 


-49-92 


N.E. 









Calm. 


2 




tf 


?i 


Do. 


3 




S.E. 


»» 


Light rain nearly alMaj. 


4 




»» 


K. 


Bright sunshine. 







»» 





Light rain daring g^reater part of day. 


6 




»» 


»» 


A little rain. 


7 


-1-60 


t» 


? 


Intermittent sunshine. 


8 
9 
10 




N.N 
S. 


.W. 
E. 


None. 
K. 


Bright sunshine ; light wind. 
( Ditto ; thin mist on peaks ; wind ligbt « 
( Ladder Hill, but very strong on hilk 
Intermittent sunshine ; little rain. 


11 











Light rain all day. 


12 








n 


Ditto. 


13 








»i 


Light rain nearly all day. 


14 


-1-36 






? 


Intermittent sunshine, and light rain. 


16 








tt 


Ditto, ditto. 


16 











Light intermittent showers. 


17 








? 


Intermittent sunshine, and light rain. 


18 








K. 


Intermittent sunshine. 


19 








»i 


Ditto. 


20 








t> 


Ditto, and a little rain. 


21 


-1-35 


N. W. 


? 


Intermittent sunshine in mg. ; light raio inaftt^ 


22 




S.E. 







23 








t» 


A little rain. 


•24 








? 


Intermittent sunshine, and a little rain. 


25 








»» 


Ditto, ditto. 


26 








»> 


Ditto, ditto. 


27 








' »» 


Ditto, ditto. 


28 


-1-45 









Intermittent showers. 


29 
30 
31 








? 


Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Intermittent sunshine, and light ram. 


-55-67 









149 



LADDER-HILL, ST. HELENA-— November, 1860. 


|\ 




Wiod. 


PrerafUng 
Cloada 


RElfARK& 


1 


- 55-67 


S.E. 


Overcast. 




. 1 


-. 1 


Light showers. 


I 
2 


n 


n 


Ditto. 


13 


n 


11 


Ditto. 


! 4 - 1-15 


)* 


? 


Light showers, and faiot saoshine. 


5 


»» 


Overcast. 


Intermittent showers. 


,6 


t» 


11 




1 


91 


K. S. 


Intermittent sunshine. 


8 ! 


s. 


K. 


Ditto. 


19, 


S. E. 


K.a 


Ditto. 


: :o ! 


»» 


C. K. N. 


Ditto ; very strong whirlwind, 10ft. diam. 


U -1-45 


»» 


K. N. 


Ditto ; dense fog on hills. 


1 12 ' 


»i 


K. 


Ditto, and overcast sky. 


! J 
_3 


ti 


9 


Ditto, and light rain. 


14 




\ 


K-S. 


Ditto, and dense fog on hills. 


: 15 




1 


KN. 


Bright sonshine. 


!l6 
17 




M 


K., and 
overcast. 
Overcast 


Intermittent smishine. 
Light rain, and fog on hflls ; fisOnt sunshme. 


18 -1-70 


11 


K.S. 


Intermittent sunshine. 


1 
= 19 


n 


? 


Ditto. 


j20 


»» 


? 


Ditto, and fog on hills. 


!21 .. 


>« 


? 


Ditto, ditto. 


\f2\ .. 


11 


? 


Ditto, ditto. 


23 


11 


Overcast. 


Fog. 


24 


.. 


11 


? 


Intermittent showers of light rain. 


88 


-1-65 


If 


? 


Intermittent sunshine, and light rain. 


26 


.. 


»i 


K.U. 


Ditto, ditto. 




27 


.. 


11 


i> 


Ditto, ditto. 




w 


II 


11 


Ditto, ditto. 


> 29 1 


II 


K. S. N. 


Ditto. 


jso 


' 


»» 


? 


Ditto, ditto. 






-«l-«2 




"— 


SL L A. TBO 


C. TOI.. ^ 


WII. 


X 



150 





LADDER-HILL, ST. 


HELENA.— Dbcbmbbb, 1860. 


1 


Height of 

Water 
in Inches. 


wind. 


Clouds. 


REMARKS. 


-61-62 


S.E. 


C.K. 






Bright sanshine. 


2 


-1-65 


11 


K.S. 


Ditto. 


8 


. . 


« 


K. 


Ditto. 


4 




M 


K.U. 


Ditto. 


5 




»» 


? 


Intermittent sunsbine, and light rain. 


6 


, , 


M 


Overcast. 


Ditto. 


7 




« 


K.N. S 


Faint sunshine; much light rain in coontjy; i 
\ little at Ladder HilL 


8 




11 


? 


Bright sunshine. 


9 


- 1-66 


»l 


? 


Intermittent sunshine, and ahowen d rain. 


10 




l» 


K.S. 


Bright sunshine. 


11 




tf 


* II 


Ditto. 


12 
18 
14 


■': 


11 


? 
Overcast 


Bright sunshme till three, then a sultry mitt. 
( Small round clouds, crowded togetlier ; saltry 
\ mist in country, supposed to be destmctiTe d 
Light rain. [the life of pUsts 


16 




n 


? 


Light rain, and faint sunshine. 


16 


- 1-86 


)i 


Overcast. 


Light showers. 


17 




ti 


II 


Light showers; large rollers at sea. 


18 




M 


K. S. 


Ditto, and intermit sun. ; large rollenatn. 


19 




»» 


Overcast. 


Light rain. 


20 




l» 


11 


Ditto. 


21 




»> 


II 


Ditto. 


22 




n 


II 


Ditto. 


23 


-1-00 


11 


? 


Intermittent sunshine, and a little rain. 


24 


. , 


II 


K.S. 


Ditto, ditto. 


25 




II 


K.N. 


Ditto, ditto. 


26 




II 


II 


Ditto, ditto. 


27 




II 


II 


Ditto. 


28 
29 


:: 


»l 


K S. 

K.a 


Ditto ; large rollers. 
( Bright sunshine ; cirri radiating from a poict 
\ N.N.E. on horizon. 


30 


-1-76 


S.E. 


None. 


Bright sunshine. 


81 


•• 




C. 


Ditta 


-e9-02 





151 







LADDER-HILL, ST 


. HELENA.--JAMUART, 1861. 


i 


Helsfatof 


Wind. 


PreTBillng 
aooda. 


REMARKS. 


i 


-69-02 


&£. 


c. 




1 




Bright sunahine. 


2, 

1 




»> 


C.K. 


Ditto. 


3' 

1 




>» 


Overcaat 


Faint snoiibiiie. 


4 
1 




)f 


K. 


lotennittent sunahine. 


5 




ff 


»♦ 




e 


- 1-95 


i> 


K-U. 


Ditto ; saltiy mist on hiUa. 


7 




» 


N. 




8 




»» 


K. 


Bright Bimshine. 


9 




» 


ff 


Ditto. 


10 




w 


f> 


Intermittent sunshine. 


11 


• 


>» 


K.U. 


Ditto ; shower in morning. 


1± 




i> 


Overcast 


Faint snnsliine. 


13 


- 1-70 


i» 


? 


Intermittent sunshine, and overcast sky. 


14 




»> 


K.C. 


Bright sunshine. 


IS 




If 


ft 


Ditto. 


16 




>i 


K.a 


Ditto. 


17 




f> 


K. 


Ditto. 


J8 




*9 


If 


Ditto ; rain at night 


IS 




N.W. 


Overcast. 


Very light rain in morning ; wind light 


»o 


- 1-86 


W. 


K.U. 


Intermittent sunshme; wind light 


21 




8. E. 


K.S. 


Ditto ; sliy clear at night 


'22 


• • 


ft 


K. 


Bright sunahine ; a little ram at night 


23 




n 


ff 


Ditto. 


24 


-• 


n 


ff 


Ditto. 


25 


1 


»t 


K.a 


Ditto ; large rollers at sea. 


26 


i 
1 


»> 


K. 


Ditto. ditta 


«7 


-2-25 


» 


ff 


Ditto, ditto. 


28 




»» 


ff 


Ditto. 


29 


1 


»> 


»l 


Ditto. 


30 


' 


>» 


ff 


Ditto. 


31 1 




>f 


? 


Intermittent sunshine; large rollers. 




— 2©"7T 





152 



LADDER-HILL, ST. HELENA.— Fbbruabt, 1861. 



1 


Height of 

Water 
in Inches. 


Wind. 


Preralling 
Clouds. 


REMARKS. 


1 


-76-77 


S.E. 


Overcast. 






Faint sunshine ; large rollerjj. 


2 




>» 


K. 


Bright sunshine ; ditto. 


3 


-2-40 


11 


K.U. 


Intermittent sunshine, and a little rain. 


4 




i» 


K.S. 


Ditto ; large rollers. 


6 




N 


K.U. 


Ditto ; a little rain. 


6 




tl 


If 


Bright sunshine. 


7 




»» 


»i 


Ditto. 


8 


•• 


n 


»i 


Ditto. 


9 




f» 


Overcast. 


Intermittent sunshine. 


lO 

11 


-2-25 


n 


n 


Faint sunshine. 


-81-42 








12 










18 










14 










16 










16 










17 










18 










19 










20 










21 










22 










23 










24 










26 










27 










28 











153 

W. R. Wilde, Esq., on the part of the Rev. E. W. Barnwell, of 
BatUin, presented tliree plaster casts of celts, and an original bronze 
socketed celt, from, the neighbourhood of Cape Finisterre ; he also ex- 
hibited some stone celts, found by that gentleman at Camac, in Britanny. 
Ifr. Wilde also presented an iron sword, found in the Boyne, on the part 
01 Dr. Drew, of DrogHeda; and a small copper ring, plated with gold, 
similar to No. 287 in Catalogue, Part III., p. 88. 

The Rev. Dr. Reeves, on the part of the Rev. William Handcock, of 
Coleliill House, presented to the Academy an original letter of Oliver 
Goldsmith, written to the donor's maternal grandfather, Robert Bryan- 
ton, E^q., of Ballymahon, dated London, August 14, 1758. He also, on 
bt'half of the same gentleman, exhibited another letter from Oliver Gold- 
smith to Mr. Bryanton, written at an earlier date. 

The thnnVa of the meeting were voted to the donors. 

On the recommendation of Council, it was — 

Resolved, — That the sum of £50 be placed at the disposal of the 
Cooncil for the purchase of Antiquities, and for the arrangement of the 
Museum. 



MOKDAT, MAY 26, 1862. 

The Vebt Rbv. Chakles Graves, D. D., President, in the Chair. 

Robert M'Donnell, M. D., read a paper ** On the Lateral Line in 
Fishes." 

The Rev. Professor Haughton read the following paper : — 

03r TKE Rjltk-Fall and Evapobatiox in Dublin in the Year 

1860. 

The observations, of which the following Tables contain the results, 
were made in Dublin, on the roof of the Magnetical Observatory, with 
a cylindrical glass vessel, eight inches in diameter, freely exposed to 
both rain-fall and evaporation. 

1 have added the daily rain-fall, the direction of the wind, and the 
dew point, observed at 10 a. m. From these observations it appears 
that the evaporation exceeded the rain-fall during the first fifty weeks 
of the year by 1*62 inches ; the rain-fall during that time having been 
34-643 inches (to which was added during the last sixteen days of the 
year 1-239 inches — making a total rain-faU of 35*882 inches) ; and the 
evaporation during the fifty weeks amounted to 36*263 inches, leaving 
a balance in favour of evaporation of 1 *62 inches. 

During twenty-three weeks of the entire fifty weeks the rain-fall 
exceeded the evaporation by 1 1 '40 inches ; and during twenty-six weeks 
the evaporation exceeded the rain-fall by 1302 inches, and in one week 
they were equal to each other. 



154 



DUBLIN MAGNETICAL OBSERVATORY, 1860. 


JANUARY. 




* 
FEBRUARY. 


K.-L 


i 


Rain, 

minus 

Evaporation, 


Rain. 


Direction 

of 

Wind. 


Dew 
point. 


1 


Rain, 

minus 
Eraporation. 


Rain. 


Direction 
of , 
Wind. 1 


I 


Inche . 


Inches. 
•000 


s. w. 


;. 


Inches. 


Inches. 
•001 


N.W. 1 S'^-l- 


2 




•014 


s. w. 


37 •9" 


2 


. . 


•002 


W. ' 32 -i 


a 




•440 


S. S.E. 


49-0 


3 






•001 


S.W. 1 32i 


4 




•066 


S. W. 


41 7 


4 


+ 


•05 


•001 


S.W. \iy- 


5 




•052 


N. W 


38-5 


5 






•020 


aw. 1 . . 


6 




•200 


N. W. 


34-8 


6 






•082 


N.W. 3-2 •:. 


7 


+ 0-50 


•002 


W. 


35 6 


7 






•000 


W. ^^'^ 


8 




•164 


S. W. 


. . 


8 






•160 


N.W. •44'J 


9 




•345 


S. W. 


42 2 


9 






•004 


N.W. !-i^-: 


10 




•001 


N. W. 


31-5 


10 






•001 


N.W. 127: 


11 




•000 


S. E. 


31-4 


11 


+ 


•03 


•108 


W. 


33-^ 


12 




•198 


S. E. 


448 


12 






•002 


E. 




18 




•048 


S. E. 


45-5 


13 






•044 


N. W. i '^''' 


14 


+ 0-54 


•005 


S. E. 


47-3 


14 






•005 


N. 1 '-^-'^ 


15 




•015 


S. E. 


. . 


15 






•013 


w. 1 '^'^-^ 


16 




•009 


S. W. 


34^9 


16 






•001 


N.N.W. |^2--1 


17 




•014 


S. S. E. 


361 


17 






•000 


N.N.W. |41'« 


18 




•013 


S. E. 


38-8 


18 


- 


23 


•000 


N.W. ,37'.5 


19 




•366 


S. W. 


37^5 


19 






•008 


W. 




20 




•072 


W. 


38^0 


20 






•Oil 


W.N.W. !2?-'^ 


21 


+ 0-40 


•293 


S. W. 


37-0 


21 






•001 


W. N.W. '33-1 


22 




•313 


W. S. W. 


. , 


|22 






•000 


S.E. 32 2 


23 




•007 


S. W. 


35^3 


'23 






•000 


s.aw. 43-: 


24 




•052 


w. s. W. 


37-9 


24 






•000 


S. 42-1 


25 




•120 


W. 


84-8 


125 


- 


•34 


•000 


S.S.W. 42-5 


26 




•060 


S. E. 


35^0 


26 






•018 


S. S. w. ' . . 


27 




•988 


N. W. 


35-6 


27 






•284 


W.S.W. 32-^ 


28 


+ 1-00 


•002 


N. W. 


31 •O 


28 






•047 


w. 35-: 


29 




•036 


S. W. 


, . 


29 






•029 


s.w. 3:1 


30 




•044 


S. W. 


44-5 










31 




•026 


W. 


30-8 










3-964 


0-838 





155 



DUBUN MA6N£TICAL OBSERVATORY, 1860. 


> 

^■1 


MARCH. 








APRIL. 


minus 
Eivapontton. 


Pmin 


Dlxectton 

of 

Wind. 


Dew 

point 


1 


Rai 

mln 
Evapors 


ufl Rain. 
kUon. 


Direction 

of 

Wind- 


Dew 
Point 


r. 


IttcbOL 


Indies 

•001 


S.S.W. 


•88-6' 


Inch 


ea. Inches. 
•100 


aw. 


, , 


2' . . 




•015 


aw. 


83 6 


2 


" . 


•178 


N.W. 


85-9- 


«! - 0- 


« 


•001 


8.W. 


88 4 


8 




•021 


8. W. 


89*8 


4! . . 




•109 


N.W. 


. . 


4 




■020 


a£. 


44-3 


5 . . 




•003 


W.N.W. 


36-8 


5 




-027 


N.E. 


40 


6 . . 




•000 


w.aw. 


45 1 


6 




•002 


N.N.E. 


" 1^ 






•078 
•001 


N.E. , 
E.N.K 


86-8 
33 1 


7 

8 


- 


•59 -000 
•064 


aw. 
aw. 


•jS 


1 9 




•000 


N.N.E. 


37-5 


9 




•226 


N.W. 


J 


110 


- 0- 


18 


•101 


N.W. 


35-6 


10 




•001 


N.W. 


11 






•000 


as.w. 


• • 


11 




•000 


aaE. 


40-8 


.12 . . 




•262 


N.W. 


87^1 


12 




•568 


aK 


45-4 


.13| . . 




•008 


N.W. 


84-2 


18 




•275 


N. N. W. 


87-9 


;ui .. 




•850 


8.E. 


86^0 


14 


+ 


•84 -001 


E. 


89 3 


15 . . 




•126 


aw. 


41-7 


15 




•000 


E.aK 


^ 


i€ . . 




•086 


aw. 


42-8 


16 




•000 


E. 


46 7 


17 + 


•48 


•090 


aw. 


47 8 


17 




•018 


E. 


40^7 


!l8 ., 




•010 


aw. 


• . 


18 




•000 


N.E. 


89^1 


19 1 . . 




•122 


aw. 


43 7 


19 




•000 


N. 


33-7 


20 . . 




•052 


aw. 


43-5 


20 




•000 


N. N. E. 


32*4 


'21 




•405 


w.aw. 


880 


21 


- 1 


•05 "000 


N.N.W. 


32 4 


1 1 
221 




•038 


w. 


86-0 


22 




•000 


N.W. 


. . 


i" 


, , 




•070 


a 


44-2 


23 




•182 


N.W. 


83*9 


Im 





•00 


•174 


w. 


87-2 


24 




•056 


N. 


88-2 


25 






•140 


N.W. 


. . 


25 




•001 


N.K 


35-9 


26 






•080 


N. 


84*6 


26 




•000 


E. 


41 


27 






•000 


W. 


42 6 


27 




•000 


E.S.E. 


44 2 


.28 






•025 


aw. 


49^6 


88 


- 


•74 •OOO 


as.R 


47 3 


■29 






•142 


aw. 


47 2 


29 




•682 


aaE. 


. . 


,30 






•080 


N. 


46-4 


30 




•204 


aaw. 


54^3 


81 


- 


•14 


•Oil 


aaE. 


49 4 












■ 






2-570 


2-625 



156 



DUBLIN MAGNETICAL OBSERVATORY, 1860. 




MAY. 






JUNE. 




1 

1 


lUin, 

minus 

Evaporation, 


Rain. 


Direction 

of 

Wind. 


Dew 
Point 


1 

1 


Rain, 

minus 
Evaporation. 

.Inches. 


Rain. 


Directkm 

of 

Wind. 


llfT 


Inches. 


Inches. 
•001 


S.E. 


61 •S' 


Inches. 
•834 S.W. 


56 ■" 


2 






•000 


N.E. 


4^-0 


2 


+ 0-03 


•Oil N.E. 


m 


8 


• • 




•000 


S. E. 


48*0 


3 




•671 N.W. 




4 






•OOj 


8. K 


61-7 


4 




•081 , W.S.W. 


oOJ 


6 


- 


•32 


•000 


S. K 


46^8 


5 




•076 I 8. W. 


hi'i 


6 






•000 


S. E. 


. . 


6 




•107 1 8.8.W. 


bi-^ 


7 






•000 


S. E. 


469 


7 


% , 


•470 1 S.W. 


m 


8 






•108 


S. W. 


52*6 


8 




•005 


8. W. 


55-i 


9 






•169 


W. 


38-9 


9 


+ 100 


•291 


8. W. 


53-:. 


10 






•291 


S. E. 


44-2 


10 




•265 


W. 




11 






•094 


S. S.E. 


56-9 


11 




•400 


8. 8. W. 


00 •: 


12 


- 


•36 


•000 


S. W. 


66 9 


12 




•590 


8. 


wi 


13 






•148 


W. S. W. 


. . 


13 




•128 


8.W. 


49: 


14 






•000 


E. 8. E. 


50 8 


14 




•147 8. 


49-" 


15 






•007 


S. S. W. 


53 ^8 


15 




•102 8. E. 


01 P 


IG 






•328 


w. 


54-6 


16 


+ 0-63 


•085 8. E. 


5M 


17 






•325 


8. W. 


5P9 


17 




•001 


E. 




18 






•058 


S. E. 


52 ^6 


18 




•000 


W. 


hil 


19 


- 


•28 


•016 


8. 8. W. 


54 •e 


19 




•003 


E. 


54 i 


20 






•000 


S. 8. W. 


. . 


20 




•061 


N.E. 


51 S 


21 






•000 


8. E. 


57^6 


21 




•002 


W.N.W. 


53 1' 


22 






•075 


8. E. 


58-9 


22 




•102 


8. E. 


b'y'j 


23 






•392 


S.8.W. 


56 4 


23 


- 0-70 


•173 


W. N. W. 


50 i 


24 






•223 


W. 


51 ^6 


24 




•000 


S.W. 




25 






•028 


8. 


55^0 


25 




•266 


N.W. 


53'^; 


26 


- 


•48 


•033 


W. 


50^5 


26 




•008 


8. W. 


51-? 


27 






•024 


8. W. 


. . 


27 




•059 


8.W. 


53-5 


28 






•601 


W. N. W. 


39-9 


28 




•002 


8.W. 


5r5 


29 






•026 


W. S. W. 


44 2 


29 




•145 


N. W. 


50 •< 


30 






•003 


W. 


43^5 


30 


- 1^03 


•014 


N.W. 


ii^ 


31 






•169 


E. S.E. 


48^3 


1 

1 














3-124 


4 593 





157 



DUBUN MAGNETICAL OBSERVATORY, 1860. 



JULY. 



I Rain, 
minoii 
Eraporatioii. 

Inebeft. 



1 
2 
3 

4 

1 

5| 

7 

I 
8! 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15; 

16 

17| 
18 
19 
,20 
'21 
'.2 
■23 

24 

I 

25 
:26 



|2«, - 



18 



66 



62 



0-68 



Bain. 



iDcbea. 
•000 

•000 

•000 

•000 

•000 

•000 

•000 

•001 

•000 

•000 

•420 

•016 

•000 

•078 

•874 

•008 

•000 

•018 

•017 

•082 

I •OSS 

•135 

•007 

148 

•001 

•000 

•005 

•036 

•000 

•001 

•007 



2-431 



Direction 

of 

Wind. 



N. W. 
N. W. 
N. W. 

N. W. 

N. W. 
N. N. W. 

N. W. 

E. 

E. S. E. 

E.S.E. 

W. 

S. W. 

S.S.E 

w. s. w. 
s. w. 

N. W. 

E. N. E. 

S.S.E. 

N. W. 

N. W. . 

N. E. 
N.N W. 

N. W. 
N.N.W. 
N. N. W. 

N.W. 

S. W. 

N.W. 
N. N. W. 

W. 
N. N. W. 



Dew 
Point 



63 •2" 
67-7 

65 6 
68^2 
68 8 
676 

661 
68-8 

61 5 
69-6 
66-2 
67^7 

66 
66 8 
66-8 
65 4 
51^0 
64-8 

64 7 I 
60-8 
50-7 
49^6 
58 •S 

62 4 



AUGUST. 



62^8 
66 ^2 



E. I. A. FBOC. TOL. VIII. 



i 


Rain, 

minus 

EvaporaUon- 


Rain. 


Direction 

of 

Wind. 


Dew 
Point 


1 


Inches. 


Indies. 
•000 


N.W. 


64T 


2 






•048 


N.W. 


64-7 


8 






•333 


N.W. 


68 7 


4 


- 


•68 


•069 


N.W. 


54^5 


6 






•000 


S. 


. . 


6 






•216 


N. E. 


48 -a 


7 






•211 


N.W. 


49-9 


8 






•117 


N.W. 


63 •S 


9 






•061 


N.W. 


60 •» 


10 






•000 


S. 8. W. 


64 •S 


11 


- 


•68 


•068 


N.W. 


58 •I 


12 






•104 


S. 


. . 


18 






•067 


S. E. 


61 •! 


14 






•000 


N. E. 


68-7 


15 






•003 


N. E. 


60-0 


16 






1302 


S. E. 


68 •» 


17 






•136 


N.W. 


62- 


18 


+ 1 


•40 


•635 


N.W. 


64 •& 


19 






•008 


S. W. 


. . 


20 






•129 


N.W. 


64^7 


21 






•001 


N.W. 


63^9 


22 






•690 


N.W. 


65^l 


23 






•085 


S. w. 


52 •G 


24 






•182 


s. w. 


54-7 


26 


+ 


•40 


•010 


s. w. 


61-8 


26 






•001 


s. w. 


. . 


27 






•000 


N.W. 


51-8 


28 






•136 


8. E. 


66 •« 


29 






•116 


s. 


6P0 


30 






•112 


W. 


61 •S 


31 






•021 


N. W. 


61'1 








4«745 



158 



DUBLIN MAGNETICAL OBSERVATORY, 1860. 


SEPTEMBER. 


OCTOBER. 


1 


Rail 

mini 

Evap6n 


At 

IB Rain. 

ition. 


Direction 

of 

Wind. 


Dew 
Point 


1 

1 


Rain, 

minas 

Evaporation. 


Rain. 


Direction I j,. 


1 


Inch 
-0 


OS. InchM. 
•98 '001 


N.W. 


63 -r 


Incbei. 


Inches. 
•002 


N. W. 1 47 -y 


2 


, 


•273 


N. W. 


. 4 


2 






•003 


N.W. : 4v? 


3 


. . 


•001 


N.W. 


60^5 


3 






•007 


N. W. 45-6 


4 


, , 


•000 


N.W. 


bS'b 


4 






•008 


N.W. ' m 


5 


. . 


•064 


N.W. 


66^9 


6 






•024 


N. W. 56-1 


6 




•001 


S.K 


61-4 


® 


-0 


•66 


•001 


N. W. ' 56'I 


7 


, 


•006 


S.E. 


61-6 


7 






•050 


N.E. 


8 


-0 


•25 -008 


N.W. 


67-6 


8 






•000 


W. 43 -i 


9 


, 


•003 


N.E. 


. . 


9 






•008 


W. N.W. 36-4 


10 


, 


•831 


N.E. 


46-4 


10 






•276 


S.W. 1 53-3 


11 




•001 


N.N. K 


46^4 


11 






•169 


w. s.w.J4r4 


12 


, 


•Oil 


S. S. w. 


49^6 


12 






•000 


aw. 39M 


18 


, 


•000 


S.S.K 


49^4 


18 


- 


•18 


•008 


S. W. 46 J 


14 




•164 


S.W. 


46-2 


14 






•076 


W.N.W. . . 


15 


+ 


•14 -669 


N.W. 


49-7 


15 






•020 


S. W. 5S-0 


16 


, 


•008 


S. 


. • 


16 






•042 


S. W. Mi 


17 


, 


•258 


N.W. 


48-8 


17 






•026 


S.W. !45-0 


18 


, 


•001 


S.W. 


48-8 


18 






•610 


S.W. Nil -3 


19 


, 


•219 


s. 


67^2 


19 






•002 


S. W. j bl^ 


20 


, 


•091 


s. s. w. 


62^7 


30 


+ 


•11 


•136 


s. w. 1 u-^ 


21 


. 


•006 


s. s. w. 


48-4 


21 






•000 


S. . . 


S2 


+ 


•20 '892 


s.w. 


48-4 


22 






•019 


S. S.W. hyi 


28 


, 


•007 


s.w. 


. . 


|23 






•142 


S. S.W. 55 1 


24 


, , 


•020 


w. 


46-7 


24 






•001 


S. j bV\ 


26 


, , 


•002 


w. 


48-9 


26 






•000 


S.W. 52 


26 


, , 


•000 


S.E. 


49^6 


|26 






•000 


S. ' 52-: 


27 


, , 


•128 


E.N. E. 


49^6 


27 


-0 


•22 


•148 


N.W. ' 45'<i 


28 


, , 


•002 


N. 


44^1 


28 






•166 


N. N. W. j . . 


89 


-0 


•47 -001 


N. 


47 3 


29 






•220 


N.E 514 


80 


. , 


•006 


W. 




30 






•198 


S.E. 55 '5 


31 


' • 








31 






•020 


S. S. E 50 5 


2-647 






2-271 


I 



159 









DUBLIN MAGNETICAL OBSERVATORY, 1860. 




NOVEMBER. 


1 DECEMBER. 


i 


Rain, 

minus 

Erapuration. 


Rain. 


Direction 

of 

Wind. 


Dew 
Point 


i 


Rain, 

minoa 

Eyaporation. 


Rain. 


Direction 

of 

Wind. 


d™ I 
Point, 


1 


Inchea. 


Inchea. 
•004 


S.E. 


48^9' 


1 


Inch 

+ 1 


ea. 
•27 


Inches. 
•365 


S. 


46-0* 


2 






•001 


S.E. 


45^9 


2 






•126 


S.W. 


• # 


3 


+ 


•36 


•008 


S.E. 


44 4 


3 






•350 


S.E. 


48-2 


4 






•001 


aE. 


. . 


4 






•393 


N.N. E. 


46-7 


6 






•000 


a£. 


38*8 


5 






•001 


a a w. 


41-1 


6 






•000 


S.E. 


88-2 


6 






•290 


a a w. 


48 


7 






•000 


S.E. 


40^2 


7 






•006 


aaE. 


45-1 


8 






•000 


S.E. 


39-6 


8 


+ 1 


•20 


•282 


a s. w. 


44-8 


9 






•128 


E. S. E. 


37^9 


9 






•068 


aw. 


. , 


10 


-0 


•22 


•162 


S.E. 


41 8 


10 






•001 


N. w. 


41-0 


11 






•492 


E. N. E. 


. . 


11 






•Oil 


N. w. 


89-6 


12 






•001 


E.N. E. 


40-9 


12 






•008 


N. W. 


35*7 


13 






•001 


N.E. 


40-0 


13 






•017 


N.W. 


41-2 


14 






•010 


S. 


42-6 


14 






•001 


a a E. 


37-2 


15 






•010 


S.W. 


39^0 


16 


+ 


•02 


•014 


N. 


42 7 


16 






•002 


S.W.' 


87-2 


16 






•000 


N.W. 


, , 


17 


+ 


•20» 


•005 


w.aw. 


28-8 


17 






•017 


N..W. 


81*6 


18 






•000 


s.w. 


. . 


18 






•001 


N.W. 


28-0 


19 






•001 


s. s. w. 


39^2 


19 






•015 


N.W. 


25-4 


20 






'072 


S. S. E. 


45-8 


20 






•004 


N.W. 


24*7 


21 






•349 


S. S. W. 


48^1 


21 






•070 


N.W. 


26 -S 


22 






•002 


aw. 


41^9 


22 


+ 


50t 


•130 


N.W. 


24-5 


23 






•176 


N.N.R 


42-3 


23 






•000 


N.W. 


, , 


24 


+ 


•49 


•070 


N.E. 


38*9 


24 






•000 


N.W. 


22-7 


2o 






•005 


E.S.E. 


. . 


25 






•000 


N.E. 


-j 


26 






•127 


N.E. 


35^4 


26 






•000 


aR 




27 






•324 


E. N. E. 


87-8 


27 






•087 


aaE. 


;j 


28 






•200 


S.E. 


40 


28 






•009 


aE. 


29 






•554 


S. S. E. 


46^7 


29 


t 




•700 


aE. 


30 






•198 


S.E. 


43-6 


30 






•200 


aE. 














31 






•006 


aE. 


> 








2^903 






3^171 



* Three^tentha of an inch of ice. t Water all frozen. 

t GliiM reoelTer of rain-gauge burst, owing to a sudden thaw. 



160 

From this Table the following has been prepared, showing tlie 
fOnount of Evaporation and Rain-fall for each week during the yeur. 

Evaporation and Rain-fall in Dublin, for each week of the year 1860. 



Week. 




Evapo- 
ration. 


Rain-falL 


Week. 




Evapjw 
ntion. 


Rain-fil 


I. January 


7 


Inches. 
0-273 


Inches 
0-773 


XXVI. June 


80 


Inches. 
1-619 


Inche*. 
0-4V;r 


II. „ 


14 


0-221 


0-761 


XXVII. July 


7. 


l-130i0-0iK' 


III. „ 


21 


0-882 


0-782 


XXVIII. „ 


14 


1-175 


0-515 


IV. „ 


28 


0-642 


1-542 


XXIX. „ 


21 


0-962 


Vh^t 


V. Februmiy 4 


0-OCl 


0-111 


XXX. „ 


28 


0-906 0-3^: 


VI. ., 


11 


0-840 


0-370 


XXXI. August 


4 


0-988 0-4:^ 


VII. „ 


18 


0-295 


0-065 


XXXII. „ 


11 


l-202!o-6:i 


VIII. „ 


25 


0-360 


0-020 


XXXIIL ,. 


18 


0-737 2-lS: 


IX. March 


3 


0-615 


0-895 


XXXIV. „ 


26 


0-700 


1-10" 


X. „ 


10 


0-467 


0-287 


XXXV. September 1 


1-367 


0-Sn 


XI. „ 


17 


0-437 


0-917 


XXXVI. „ 


8 


0-693 


o-;u.; 


XII. ., 


24 


0-871 


0-871 


XXXVII. 


16 


1-029 


l-lCi' 


XIII. „ 


81 


618 


0-478 


XXXVIII. 


22 


0-769 0'9Gi' 


XIV. April 


7 


0-938 


348 


XXXIX. 


29 


0-630 I 01<^' 


XV. „ 


14 


0-795 1-135 


XL. OctolH-T 


6 


0-710 loC' 


XVI. „ 


21 


1-068 ; 0-018 


XLI. „ 


13 


0-631 tOoOI 


XVII. ,, 


28 


0*978 


0-238 


XUI. „ 


20 


0-701 OSll 


XVIII. May 


6 


1-207 


0-887 


XLIII. „ 


27 


0-630 0-31i 


XIX. „ 


12 


1-022 


0-662 


XLIV. November 8 


0-267 0-6i: 


XX. „ 


19 


1-162 


0-882 


XLV. „ 


10 


0-611 O-21'I 


XXI. „ 


26 


1-231 


0-751 


XLVI. „ 


17 


0-321 0-521 


XXII. June 


2 


1-143 1-173 


XLVII. 


24 


0-180 1 o-6:o 


XXIII. „ 


9 


0-700 1-700 


XLVIII December 1 


0-603' ITTo 


XXIV. „ 


16 


1-087] 1-717 


XLIX. „ 


8 


0-247 1-44: 


XXV. „ 


23 


1-042 0-342 

1 


L. „ 


16 


0-100 01:^') 

1 



In the diagram (Plate XVII.), I have laid down the curve of eva- 
poration from this Tahle ; the abscissae being measured in weeks, ami 
the ordinates in tenths of inches. It is clearly seen from the curve that 
the evaporation, unlike the rain-fall, depends directly on the sun's de- 
clination, reaching its maximum of 1-2 inches per week at the summtr 



161 

solstice, and its miaimam of 0*2 incbes per week at the winter solstice. 
I hare not been able to obtain returns of evaporation from other stations 
suitable for comparison with this ; but I have no doubt that, if similar 
observations were made in other meteorological observatories, many 
rc:tiilts of the highest interest would be obtained. Among these re- 
sults, the most important is the coefficient of evaporation of water de- 
pending on the latitude. 

I was anxious, before publishing the foregoing results, to ascertain 
whether the vessel, being made of glass, influenced the result in any 
important respect, and therefore placed a cylindrical earthenware vessel, 
17^ inches in diameter, in the same place, on the 7th of March, 1861, 
pjoring into it water to the depth of 10 inches. The following Table 
gives the depth of water in this vessel at various times during the year. 

The final result for the entire year shows that the rain-fall exceeded 
the evaporation by 0*543 inches. 



Lar^e Cylindrical Rain and Evaporation Gauge {\1\ in. diam,), ad- 
jwM icitk 10 in. of Water for Zero Point, and placed on Roof of 
Magnetical Observatory March 7, 1861. 



Obflcrred. 


Inches. 


April 6, 1861, 

May, 4, 1861, 

June, 8, 1861, 

October 9, 1861, 

November 23, 1861, 

January 18, 1862, 

March 8, 1862, 

7 

Evaporation nearly equal to Fall, 


11-80 
810 
7-10 
11-20 
11-90 
11-90 
11-80 


73-80 


10-643 



I also placed, March 1, 1861, a tapering earthenware vessel, whose 
section at rain (rain area) was 16| in., and at water level (5-^ inches 
from bottom) was 13^ inches. 

The rain-fall-area in this case was therefore greater than the evapo- 
ration-area, in the proportion of (l&J)* to (13^)* ; but there was dso 
evaporation firom the wetted conical surface. The result of fifty -three 
weeks* observation is given below- 



162 



ContealJiain and Eoaparation Gauge, adJMixted mth 5| inches of Wat^f^ 
Zero Point, and placed on Roof of Magnetical Obeervatorff, Masreh 1, 
1861. 



ObMrred. 


Inches. 


April 5, 1861, 

May 4, 1861, . 

June 8, 1861, 

October 9, 1861, 

November 23, 1861, 

January 18, 1862, 

March *8, 1862, 

7 


8-65 
8-60 
8 00 
8-40 
8 05 
8 04 
7-90 


47-64 


6*806 



This result gives for the fifty-three weeks an excess of rain-fall over 
evaporation of 1 -306 inches. But during the first week of exposure. 
March 1 to March 8, 1861, and which is not included id the record of 
the cylindrical gauge, 1-717 inches of rain fell ; showing that, probably. 
an inch should be taken off the excess just given. 

If this reasoning be correct, it woidd serve to show that the eTap«> 
ration from the sloping side of the gauge compensated the diminislied 
area of the water surface. 

Observatory Main Gauge, 



Obserrcd. 


Rain. 


March 1, 1861, 

.,2. 

., 8, , 

,. 4. 

-, 6. ■. 

II «l »l 


0-086 
0-214 
1-020 
0-125 
0-002 
0-040 
0-230 


1-717 in. 



Appendix on the difference between Evaporation and Rain-Fiu 

AT EnNISKILLEN. 

The following observations were made by the Rev. William Steele, 
in the garden of the Royal School of Portora, near Enniskillen, by mean? 
of a cylindrical tinned vessel, 10 in. diameter, placed 10 ft, above the 
level of the ground, on the stump of a tree cut down for the purpoee. 



163 

From the 15th of March, 1860, to the 17th of March, 1861, the rain- 
fall exce^ed the evaporation during nine months, the exceptions heing 
April, July, and September, during which months the evaporation ex- 
ceeded the rain-fall by 2*67 inches; and during the remaining nine 
months of the year, the rain-fall exceeded the evaporation by 11*38 in., 
thus leaving a balance in favour of rain-fall of 8*71 inches in the en- 
tire year. 

Examination of the Vessel of Water every Five DaySy commencing 
Tuesday y March 15, 1860. 



March 



A^RIL 



VUt 



JUHB 



JULT 



15, 000 

20, + 0-20 

26, +0-60 

30, +0-16 



+ 0-95 



4, + 0-16 

9, +0 16 

14, (Under repair.) 

19, -0-45 

29, - 0-176 



-0-32 



14, +0-40 

19, +<0-926 

24, -0-10 

29, +0-50 



+ 1-72 



8, +0-458 

8, 4 0-110 

13, + 0-145 

23, +0-35 

28, +0-40 



+ 1-46 



3, -0-30 

8, -0-60 

13, -0-20 

18, -0-25 

23, - 010 

28, -0-30 

- 1-75 



August 2, +0*15 

6, -0-10 



Carried forward^ 



+ 0-05 



Brought forward, . . . . +0-05 

11, + 0-20 

16, +0-40 

21, +0-60 

26, +0-70 

81, -0-10 



+ 1-85 

- 0-30 
-0-25 

- 0-05 
+ 0-85 
-0-10 

- -26 

-0-60 



Septembeb 


5, 


If 


10, 


»» 


16, 


»l 


20, 


»l 


25, 


l» 


80, 


October 


6, 



.... -0-15 

10, +0-25 

15, +0-65 

20 +0-30 

25, +0 15 

30, +0-16 



+ 1-35 



November 4, -0-26 

9, -0-20 

14, +0-10 

19 +015 

24, +0-50 

29, +0-35 



+ 0-65 



Deckmber 4, +0-45 

„ 9, +0-75 

„ 14, -0 05 

(Frozen for a long time.) 



+ li: 



164 



Januabt 16, .-010 

21 -010 

26, +0-15 

„ 81, + 0-25 

+ 0-20 

February 6, +0*15 

„ 10, - 0-25 

„ 15, +0-15 

20, +0-65 

„ 26, -0 05 

+ 0-56 



March 2 + 0*S5 

7, +0-40 

12. +0-55 

17, + 0-20 

22, + -40 

27, .... . -015 

+ 1 '^0 

April 1, +0-50 

„ 6, - -J5 



Mb. Edwabd Clibbobn read a paper — 

On the partial Combustion of Fluid Iron, described by Mandhlslo i5 
1639; AND OF Solid Iron, now publicly practised in Dublin bt 

MEANS OF A CoLD BlAST OF CoMMON AlR. 

The first process referred to in the title of this communication is de- 
scribed at p. 160 of the English version of Mandelslo's travels, publishw 
in London, in 1669. We there find that " They {th^ Japanese) have, 
among others, a particular invention for the melting of iron, Tvithout 
the using of fire, casting it into a tun done about on the inside vitli 
about hfidf a foot of earth, where they keep it {melting*) with continml 
blowing, and take it out by ladles full, to give it what form they plens* , 
much better and more artificially than the inhabitants of Liege are abl 
to do." When these remarks were written in 1 639, this city productti 
the best fabrics in iron then manufactured in Europe. 

To a cursory reader this extract conveys the notion, that the Ja]>a- 
nese, amongst other processes for working the metals, then unknown m 
Germany, were acquainted with one which enabled them to melt irr-n 
without the use of fire in any form. But a judicious person, acquaintr^i 
with the iron manufacture, will perceive that the words, **castifi^ it the 
iron) into a tun^* qualify the previous statement, " without tht uaing <.( 
fire;^* for they imply that the iron, having been previously melted by liix , 
was afterwards cast, in the liquid state, not into wooden flasks or boxei 
of various shapes and sizes, containing sand moulds, in which the melted 
iron would, under ordinary treatment, have been allowc»d to remain at 
rest, and cool, and harden into all sorts of shapes, with or without the 
impact of air, in the Japanese plan, on the contrary, was, " cast" into, 
or allowed to flow fi:x)m a melting furnace into an open wooden ** tun,' 
or large tub, such as might have been used in a German brew-house at^^n! 
230 years ago. This tun was lined internally, as he tells us, ** with 
about half a foot of earth," or fire-clay, and not moulding sand. This claj, 
from its tenacity, was necessary to fit it for the purpose. It was not 
superficial or common earth, but a sort of fire-lute, not only capable uJ 



* The context shows that this word is andentooil. 



165 



resisting the heat of the molten metal, but of insulating or hindering the 
progress of the heat towards the staves of the tun, so long as the blow- 
ing of the heated iron with cold air was continued. 

Our author took it for granted, that his reader was able to fill up and 
complete his narrative, from his own knowledge of the iron manufac- 
ture, as practised in Europe at the time he wrote, and ilot leave it in its 
present imperfect state, which, to the ignorant and uninformed reader, 
appears to be inconsistent with itself, and utterly impracticable. 

We are not told how hot the iron was before the blowing process 
commenced; or how much hotter it might have become under that 
process ; or how long, or how many minutes it was continued ; what 
test the Japanese iron-master adopted to enable him to know when the 
blowing process was completed, or when he might set the men to work 
with the ladles to pour the liquid iron into the moulds, or cast it into 
pigs or bars, or put it through some other process. 

Enough is, however, explained to enable us to compare roughly the 
Japanese process with ihtit proposed in 1856^ by Mr. Bessemer, who then 
astonished many persons, who had hitherto been considered conversant 
with the management of liquid iron, by bringing forward a plan, as new, 
for blowing molten iron with atmospheric air, which plan, in all essen- 
tials, was so like the Japanese, that we may illustrate or explain the 
one by the other ; and, perhaps, be led to infer that somehow the mo- 
dem plan of blowing melted iron was really no more than a revival in 
Europe, in 1 856, of the old plan which Mandelslo saw in Japan in 
1639. 

It is, however, possible, that Mr. Bessemer might have arrived at his 
process by other means; and this is the more likely, as the other process 
of blowing heated iron we have hereafter to call attention to, had been 
previously in use in J!ngland. In it we discover the application of the 
same principle to practice, but in a minor degree, both as to the quantity 
of iron operated on by the blast of cold air, and also in the inferiority of 
the temperature which is obtained by the blowing process. 

It is very much to be regretted that Mandelslo' s account of the Japa- 
nese method of blowing melted iron with cold air,, and thereby heating it 
by partially burning it and its alloys, is so very imperfect; but with the 
aid of Mr. Bessemer' s published plans, we can perfectly understand it. 
Mandelslo clearly gives the Japanese the ownership of the process he no- 
tices ; and we can hardly think he would have done so, had he seen or 
heard of it in the East Indies, Tartary, or Persia, or of any similar process. 

He, however, takes no notice of the comparative scarceness of iron in 
Japan, remarked by all modem visitors to that country, and of the extreme 
abundance of iron, and the great craft of smiths of all kinds in China, 
facts which our traveller was ignorant of, or leaves us to gather from 
o^er witnesses. He, however, tells us that the Japanese claim to have 
had from the earliest times a great intercourse with China. It hence 
foUows that they might have obtained from China this curious process 
of blowing hot iron with cold air, and partially burning it and its alloys, 
and thereby improving its quality for general or special purposes; 

B. I. A. PBOC. — ^VOL. Vni. z 



166 

though no traveller, that I know of, to China, or any other part of 
Asia, has distinctly noticed the process nsed in Japan, or any othorlike 
it, as involving the chemical principles which give it peculiarity and 
excellence. 

I believe there is nothing recorded by any old or. modem tra- 
veller to Japan, which will justify us in considering the Japanese, any 
more than the Chinese, the Hindoos, or other Asiatics, an inventive 
people. Latterly the Japanese have exhibited wonderfbl tact in pick- 
ing up information in the arts and manufactures from the Europeans 
they have come in contact with; so it is quite within the limits of pro- 
bability, that they got their " particular invention," as our traveller 
calls it, from the Chinese, or the parties they got their iron from <mgi- 
nally, as very little is said to be found native in Japan. 

If our argument be correct, the process may not be Japanese, bat 
Chinese ; and they may still use it in those districts where they reduce 
the iron from the ore, or purify it for ulterior operations. Their very toogh 
iron clamps and wire may be made of blown iron. That the Chinew 
possess many metallurgic processes altogether unknown in Europe is 
beyond a doubt; and this one of blowing hot iron, and making it hotter 
with a cold blast of common air, may be one of them. But then it is 
not likely that the Chinese themselves invented the process, which ap- 
pears to point to a method for reducing iron on a very small scale frxnn 
the ore in an earthen crucible; which, we can imagine, was removed from 
the fire, and its contents, less the molten button at the bottom of it, 
blown aside or away, by the agency of a powerful circular bellows, used 
previously for urging the fire in which the earthen crucible was heated, 
and the iron reduced or melted. 

Now this process, on a small scale, might lead at once to the blow- 
ing of hot iron on a large one, if it were found that the quality of the 
iron was much improved by it ; or that the contents of one crucible 
might be kept hot, or made hotter by it, while the iron contents of other 
crucibles might be emptied into it, and all thoroughly blended into one 
mass, without the aid of another fire, or the labour and danger of lifting 
a full or heavy crucible from one place to another. 

In practice the lining of the wooden tun with six inches of eartk 
was like a great modem pot of clay, used for melting black bottle-gla^ 
being neither more nor less than a gigantic crucible,* so constructed and 
dried that it would bear the heat without cracking, and for a sufficient 
timet confine it, till the blowing process was completed. 



* Though Mandelslo states nothing of the means adopted for preparing the eartbeo 
lining of the " tun," it is probable that it was not only air-dried, but that fire was used 
to dry it, and possibly to heat it, before the iron was cast into it. 

t As we are not informed how the blast of cold air was applied, we cannot form i 
comparison of Mr. Besseroer's process, or give a reasonable guess as to the time tlie hqjad 
iron was operated on. It seems as if the blast in the Japanese proceae was cUreetHi 
strongly downwards, and slightly divergent from the centre, so as to prodooe modoa io 
the mass, and blow the scales or scoris produced to the side of the vessel. 



167 

Ab Mandelalo tells us nothing about the nse of steam, or any oontri- 
ranoe for heating the air used in the blowing, the Japanese process may 
be considered as having been a simple exaggeration of the process we 
hare ventured to indicate, as having been used by a central Asiatic 
people who, at4i very early period, reduced iron in crucibles — a plan which 
is Btill used by those who in central Asia produce that kind of iron 
which is BO much prized in Damascus for gun-barrels, and other pur- 
poses in which great toughness is desirable, and which iron is found 
almost always mixed more or less with striae of steeL 

If it were found that the quality of this iron, and that produced by 
the Japanese process described by Jiandelslo, were the same, and that 
the central Amatics at present blow the iron in the crucibles after it is 
reduced from the ore, our supposition as to the origin of the curious 
process described by Mandelalo might be considered established. 

Though found in use in Japan on the large scale, in 1639 (possibly 
bj Chinese traders or their agents there), it ia extremely probable th^ 
it is Tery much older in other parts of Asia ; and on the small scale, as 
above suggested, perhaps it is as old as any other metallurgic process 
now in use in Asia ; for iron tools and weapons have been found in the 
very lowest strata of those numerous courses of clay, brickwork, and 
pottery, which have been cut through in all the recent explorations 
in the old sites of the cities, fortifications, temples, and palaces near 
the Tigris and Euphrates. In every instance, as in the excavations 
made by Captain Taylor,* iron things are at the bottom, — indicating in 
these regions, not a later but an earlier age, in certain parts of Asia, for 
iron than for copper, silver, gold, and tin, and their compounds ; all of 
irhich appear to have been later productions, and originally derived by 
means of trade or war with other countries, where these metals were 
themselves native. 

I have now to call attention to the second process noticed in the 
title to this paper. It is pubhcly practised in Dublin, by Mr. Buckley, 
in James's-street, who claims to be manufacturer of the best horse-shoe 
nails to Her Majesty. He informs me that he learned it fit)m a man of 
the name of Inman, who belonged to the York Militia, and who left 
that regiment in Dublin above forty years ago,f when he secretly intro* 
dnced this method for making horse-shoe nails into this city. In principle 

* See bis paper on Cromlechs found in the Deccan, read to the Academy, on the 12th 
€#Mai7,lS62. 

t Before this time horse-shoe nails were made of the best Swedish iron generally ; bat 
whether the nailers blew them with the common bellows before, or annealed them after 
&bncation, to soften them, I am not able to say. There were secrets known to certain 
bUcksmiths who made these nails; but whether the cold blast was used in Ireland before 
Inman introdooed it, I have not learned. A method for making horse-shoe nails, very 
barbarous, as it is exactly the same with the Caffre method of forging iron weapons, had 
been, before Innian*s time, introduced into the county of Clare, from the county of Cork, 
by a peraoQ of the name of John Hoare, as has been explained to me by Mr. K Curry, 
who deicribes Mr. Hoare to have been a great scholar and original genius. This process 
oooiisted in using two stones, instead of the steeU&oed hammer and anvil, for making horse- 
flhoe nails, it having been toaad that the stones abstnusted less heat from the nail- fo^ 



168 

his process is exactly the same as the Japanese ; hut it is necessarily 
practised on a very small scale, the amount of iron operated on by the 
blowing process, at any time, being limited to so much as will form 
the point and shank of a horse-shoe nail. 

My inquiries have failed to trace the history of this process or its 
antiquity in England ; but I find it is now practised extensively at Wol- 
verhampton, and in some other places ; and I would be disposed to con- 
clude that it had been very generally practised in England, probably by 
the gipsies,* long before Inman introduced it into Dublin, on account 
of the old belief or impression, which is certainly older than fifty years, 
that the barrels n\ade for fowling-pieces and pistols from old horse-shoe 
nail iron were less likely to burst than those made out of any other de- 
nomination of European iron, and were as safe as the best barrels made 
of Damascus iron, or its Spanish imitations. Thus comparing or placing 
the horse-shoe nail iron on a par with the Damascus, which, in the 
East, where great attention was given to fire-arms, was considered the 
best. The real or supposed similitude in the quality of the best Euro- 
pean and Asiatic irons, used for gun-barrels, would lead one to suspect 
that the irons they are made of had somehow gone through the same 
or an analogous process of being blown with cold air when hot, and been 
partially burned; and that this operation had given to all of them 
their peculiar toughness, due to a striated* or filamentous structure, 
which obliterated the original crystalline arrangement of their particles, 
a change in the quality of the iron which is said to be effected by the 
Bessemer process of blowing the liquid metal with cold air. 

It is this similitude in the organic structure of the iron of the bar- 
rels of guns made of horse-shoe nail iron, and of Damascus twisted iron, 
that leads me to infer that the Asiatic iron there used, though not pn>- 
cured in Japan, must have been cold blown, and partially burned when 
hot, like that tough iron we obtain from the welding together of bun- 
dles of horse-shoe nails made of cold-blown nail-rod iron. 

In reducing the iron used in Damascus, the button found in the 
bottom of the crucible is said to be hammered into a small bar, which 
bar we may consider equivalent to a horse-shoe nail ; but whether it is 
also blown in the process of hammering it out, or not, I am not able to 
say, though I would suspect it was, because the blowing would enable 



than the iron or 8t«el tools, within the time necessary to fashion the nail. This procr?? 
with the stones points to Africa for its origin ; but the several processes of burning a por- 
tion of the iron we have to consider in this paper all point to central AsU, noticed br 
the prophet Jeremiah for the peculiarity or superiority of it« northern iron or steeL 

* If the process of blowing the heated nail-rod be Asiatic, its introdix^tion into Em:- 
land may be due to the gipsies, who are iron-smiths by profession, and possibly, as their 
language indicates, from northern Asia, and probably inheritors of many secrets of the ires 
craft, and this one amongst others. It looks also as if the secret of the poUrity of noj:- 
netic iron ore, or the loadstone and magnet, had been known also to tlie gipsies \*Utt 
its adoption for scientific purposes, — as some navigators objected to its use at all, <^>n the 
score that it had been previously used by fortune-tellers and cheats for purposes of decep- 
tion ; and, as the gipsies led the way in tliis delusion, they may be the parties alluded tu. 



169 

the opontor to make it hold the heat for some time after it was remoyed 
from the cmcible. In this case the oontLnued blowing with the cold air 
would save the use of a foi^ fire, aud a second heating of the scraps of 
iron, and thus economise trouble and expense in their manipulation. 

I may now descrihe the process for burning iron partially, used by 
tbe makers of horse-shoe nails in Dublin and elsewhere. The nail-rod 
b beated in the common forge fire, like any other nail-rod iron; but, in- 
stead of being at once submitted to the action of the hammer, it is placed 
on tbe anvil so that the heated part of the iron rod overhangs its face 
on one side. In this position it is exposed for some seconds to a power- 
fol and steady blast of cold air, obtained from a circular bellows, very 
Asiatic in its character and form. This bellows gives a much greater 
blast than that used for blowing the fire, due to the greater load placed 
upon it, which gives a pressure, at the least, of twenty-five pounds to 
the raperficial foot. This may be increased by pressure from the hand 
of tbe nailer, who watches the burning of the iron till he thinks it has 
gone far enough, and then he places the burning iron on the face of the 
anvil, keeping it more or less in the blast wlule he hammers it hot. 
Thus it appears that the usual aphorisms, which apply to the making of 
nails in a hurry, do not refer to this process at all. 

The heated nail-rod, instead of getting cold by the action of the blast, 
gi^ts hotter and hotter, and bums particdly, throwing off innumerable 
onall sparks, which pass off in all directions, their courses not being in- 
fluenced by the direction of the blast. Scales or small slags form on the 
bot iron, which are believed to consist chiefly of impurities in the nail- 
rod. At last the iron begins to melt, and would drop down like melted 
sealing-wax, if not removed from the direct influence of the blast, as de- 
Kribed. By moving the iron more or less into the blast, the nailer is 
able to moderate and regulate the heat of the portion he is operating on; 
and tbis enables him to complete the point and shank of the horse-shoe 
nail bot, and before any crystallization of the iron begins or is com- 
pleted, which it is by the hammering and hardening of the common 
nail when nearly cold. In theory, the nailer's process of blowing the 
iron of a horse-shoe nail is perfect, for it enables him to make the point 
and ahank of the nail as soft and tough as he likes, while it allows him 
to make the head of it very hard, and thus withstand the friction to 
which it is exposed by its contact with the road. 

The operation of making a horse-shoe nail by the cold blast process, 
beyond a doubt, gives the iron it is composed of some characters, both 
chemical and organic, very different to those possessed by the nail-rod 
previously. It clearly brings horse- shoe nail iron up to the Damascus 
standard, in many respects, and may place it above both the Japanese 
and Bessemer iron, prepared by the cold blast, as it is manipulated on 
a much smaller scale, and consequently is more completely exposed to 
tbe purifying action of the blast. 

In the arts many applications of the nailer's cold blast process might 
be found, in cases where it would be expedient to keep iron hot without 
the immediate application of fueL In rivet work it might be found most 



170 

yaluable; and, with some oontriyanoe fbr heating the blast, its uses 
may possibly be greatly extended in the manufacture of thin^ made of 
iron, or of things made of other metals in contact with iron. 

But these industrial considerations are out of place here, my object 
being to deduce scientific considerations from material facts, connectai 
with mechanical art, which I have ventured to speculate on, 'with the 
view, if possible, of tracing the original development of a scientific prin- 
ciple, which, though hitherto appHed in the arts only, may possibly be 
turned to account as a means by which we may obtain any amount of 
iron light, or light produced by the combustion of iron, per se, that w« 
may want for scientific purposes. 

Iron burned by the horse-shoe nail-maker's process, carried one step 
further, may be considered to be an aerolith at rest, — ^the air from the 
cylindrical bellows moving past it with the same velocity with whidi 
an aerolith in motion would, under ordinary circumstances, travel through 
the lower region of the atmosphere, and there, by Motion, first become 
hot, and next, by impact with oxygen,* begin to bum its iron and nickel, 
like the heated nail-rod when exposed to the cold blast. 

The partial combustion of the iron in the nailer^s process, though it 
in theory, in some respects, resembles that produced by the burning of 
iron in oxygen gas, differs from it materially, and also from Bessemer'* 
process, in the prodaction of no large explosive sparks, which divert oar 
attention from the iron actually burning. In our process the sparb 
are very minute, and the burning iron gives a very strong light, its in- 
tensity appearing to depend on the violence of the blast. We are thus 
supplied with a means of producing a large quantity of steady light 
by the combustion of iron for optical experiments. And as iron- wire 
may be mixed with other wire, and simple or compound wicks pro- 
duced, made out of twisted hanks of wire of one or more kinds of metal, 
we have at our command a ready method for producing lights, which 
may be compared with light produced by the sun or meteoric bodies, in 
which there is reason to suspect the combustion of iron and other me- 
tallic substances. 

So far as the material facts noticed in this paper are concerned, there 
is nothing actually new in it; yet I cannot find that any one has drawn 
the attention of opticians and physicists to the nailer's process of par- 
tially burning iron, or its analogies with the other processes noticed, 
and the means it puts at our command of burning iron by itself as a 
source of light. 

Not having tried any experiments on the light produced hy the 
nailer's process of burning iron, I am not prepared to say whether it 
ofiers any promise to the photographer ; but, as highly heated iron is 



* The spark produced by a flint and steel ia an example of the combnation of iroo, fizst 
heated by pressare, and aftenrarda bomt by motion through the air. Its colour ia dif- 
ferent to that of iron burnt by the nailer's process, though the colour of that maj change 
with the increase of the blast, and the proportional intensity of the h'ght 



171 

foond to hare great power in the derelopment of markiiig ink, it is pos- 
dble that it may poflseenfor him some adrantages over most other kmds 
of natural and artificial light. 

As the progress of machinery is rapidly putting an end to the ma- 
nafactore of hand-made nails, it is likely that horse-shoe nails will ere 
long be produced by other methods, and the two plans for making 
them here noticed be forgotten in the arts, and no memorial of them 
left beyond this passing scientific notice, ^ould it find a place in the 
Fh)ceedingB of the Academy. 

The Bet. S. HAiroHTOir, F. T. C. 1)., read the following paper, by 
Dr. Fleetwood Chuschill, L. K. Q. C. P. I. ajstd L. R. C. S. I., Late As- 
sistant Surgeon in her Majesty's Navy : — 

Oh the Bain-Faix autd Wind at Sikon's Bat, Cape of Good 

Hope. 

Thk following observations on the rain-fall and wind are offered as a 
contribution to our knowledge of the climate of the neighbourhood of 
the Cape of Good Hope. I have not given with them the observations 
1 made on the barometer, and wet and dry bulb thermometers, as I be- 
lieve that observations made with these instruments have already 
attracted the notice of meteorologists interested in the climate of the 
Cape. 

My rain-gauge at Simon's-town is twenty-one feet £ix)m the ground. 
I was obliged to put it on the roof of my house, to get it clear of the 
bashes in Uie garden. The groimd the house stands on is, at the outside, 
fifttf feet above the sea. 

The following Table gives the rain-fall in each month from June, 
1859. 

Table I MainrfaU at Simon' 9 Bay. 





1869. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


Jtaautry, , 
Febroaiy. , 
March, . 
April,. . 
May, . , 
Jane, . . 

July, . . 

Aognrt,. 

September, 

October,. 

November,. 

December, 








inchea, 

6-19 
8 22 
4-98 
2-19 
2 '86 
2-68 
0-72 


InchCML 

0*62 
1-68 
1-06 
1-28 
416 
4-65 
5-06 
1-06 
6-61 
112 
1-00 
0-60 


inches. 
0-69 
0-10 
0-49 
1-82 
401 
4*81 
8-68 
2-46 
2-89 
0-22 
1-27 
0-06 


inchea. 
0-68 


Totals, 




• 






27-66 


22-29 





172 

The observations on the wind were made three times a day :— 9 a.i., 
1 p. M., 5 p. M., — and represent the magnetic direction of the wind in the 
Bay, as taken from the direction of the ships and their flags with a ship's 
compass. 

I have received^ through the Rev. Professor Haughton, the fbllo¥. 
ing information from the Eev. Dr. Lloyd, as to the variation of the com- 
pass at Simon's Bay : — 

** Simon's Bay is about thirty miles from Cape-Town, and nearly 
due south. The isogonal lines make a curious bend all along the west 
coast of AMca, thus — 




" Prom Sabine's map for 1 840, there appears to be an increase of 1' of 
Declination for 4' increase of S. Latitude. Hence it would follow thit 
the West Declination at Simon's Bay is 6^ minutes greater than at Cape- 
Town. 

" The magnetic declination at Cape-Toum, corresponding to the 
epoch September Ist, 1848, was 29^ 14'. 6 west. The mean change from 
year to year is, at present, + 0'.5 ; but it appears to be increasing." 

From this statement it follows that, as the magnetic declination b 
diminishing, in 1860, the declination was at Simon's Bay 29^ 15' W. 

I have given in Table II. both the direction and force of the wind; 
the latter estimated as miles per hour, according to Beaufort's scale, as 
well as I was able to apply it ; and in Table III. I have given the 
direction and force of the wind referred to the 32 points of the magnetic 
compass, fix)m which Table may be calculated the resultant frequency 
of wind, and the resultant wind of each month. 



173 



Ta.bia II. — Direction and Force of Wind at Simonttown, 1861. 



JCLT. 


Direction. 


Force. 
Miles per hour. 


July. 


Direction. 


Force. 
Mile* per liour. 


I * 


r N. 

N. 
N. 


6 
6 
2 


'■'{ 


8. W. 
8. S. E. 
8. by E. 


4 

12 

9 


2 < 


r N. 

N. W. 
N. W. 


6 
4 
4 


■•{ 


W. N. W. 
E.byN. 

N. 


2 
6 
6 


3 . 


r S. E. 
8. E. 
S. K 


2 
2 
2 


"{ 


8. 8. E. 
E. 
W. 


4 
4 

4 1 


4 < 


"■ N. bv W. 
N W. 
N.W. 


2 

4 
9 


20 i 


N. N. W. 

N. 
N. by W. 


6 

10 

4 


6 < 


' E. 
R 

N. by W. 


6 
6 
4 


•■{ 


N. 

N. by W. 

N. W. by N. 


14 
9 
4 


6 < 


N. E. 
L E. 


6 
i 


22 


N. 
N. W. bv N. 
N. W. by W. 


6 
6 
6 


7 . 


r S.W. 

S. E. 
S. E. 


6 
6 
6 


23 ' 


N. 
N.byE. 
N. N. E. 


6 

10 

6 


8 < 


■ S. E. 

s. 

N. E. 


9 

4 
4 


24 1 


E.N. E. 
8. E. by E. 


4 

4 


9 . 


r 

E. 
N.W. 


2 
4 


.{ 


8. 
W. 8. W. 
W. N. W. 


6 
6 
4 


10 - 


S. W. 
W. by S. 
S. by W. 


6 
9 
6 


'•{ 


N. 

N. 

N. by W. 


9 
9 
6 


11 < 


r »• 

L s. 


6 

15 

9 


■"{ 


E.N. E. 

E.by8. 

8. 


4 
2 
2 


12 . 


r E. 

S. S. E. 
S. E. 


2 
2 
2 


28 


8. 8. £. 
E.by8. 


9 
6 


13 « 


E. 
W. 


4 
2 



29 I 


E. N. E. 
N. E. by E. 

N. N. E. 


2 
2 

4 


14 . 


■ 8. W. 

S. E. 
L S.E. 


9 
20 
16 


30 i 


N. E. by N. 
N. N. W. 
N. by W. 


10 
6 
6 


15 . 


r E. bya 
E.by8. 

[ N. 

r ! 


2 
2 
2 


•■{ 


N. W. bv W. 

N. N.W. 
N. W. by W. 


10 
9 
6 


16 . 


i! ^ 


9 









R. I. A. PBGC. VOL. Till. 



2 A 



174 



Table II. — Continued. 



Adoust. 


Direction. 


Force. 
Miles per hoar. 


AUODST. 


Direction. 


Fore? 


■{ 


N.byW. 


2 


17 


r N. N. E. 
N.N. E. 

L N. 


10 
12 
9 


'{ 


N. by W. 

N. N. E. 
N. N. E. 


9 
16 
12 


18 < 


N.E. 

N. E. bv E. 

S, by E. 


10 
9 
9 


•{ 


~~ 


— 


19 


' E. 

S.S. K 
N. by W. 


2 
9 

4 


•{ 


N. E. by E. 
W. by N. 
N. by W. 


6 
9 
6 


20 ' 


8.E. 


2 


'[ 


N. N. R 

N. N. E. 
N. N. W. 


16 

18 

6 


21 « 


N. N. E. 

N. 
N. 


15 
22 

19 


6 ' 


N. 
N. N. W. 
N. N. W. 


9 
9 
6 


22 


' N. E. by N. 
N. 
N. by E. 


11 
11 
9 


7 ' 


E. S. E. 

N. bvE. 

S.W. 


2 
6 
6 


23 - 


" N. W. by N. 
W. by N. 


9 
9 


8 


S.byE. 
S. E. by S. 
S. E. by S. 


18 

17 

6 


24 . 


N. W. 

S. W. bv 8. 
W. N. W. 


9 
9 
6 


•{ 


E.byN. 
E. S. E. 


4 

4 


25 ' 


N. N. R 
E. byN. 

s. s. w. 


4 
4 
6 


'«{ 


N. byE. 
E. by N. 

N. 


10 
4 
2 


26 « 


s. s. w. 

S. S. E. 
9- 


10 
15 
9 


■■{ 


N. N. W. 
N. N. W. 
N.byW. 


10 
6 
6 


"• 


" S. E. by 8. 
S. byE. 
S. by E. 


15 
18 
15 


r 

12 • 


N. N. W. 

N. W. bv N. 

N. N. W. 


6 
9 
6 


28 . 


8. E. by S. 
S. E. by S. 
S. E. by 8. 


10 
12 
6 


13 ' 


S.byE. 

S. E. by S. 

S. 


10 
9 
2 


29 < 


• S. K by 8. 
8. 

N. 


4 
4 
2 


r 

"I 


S. 

aE. 

S. W. 


4 
6 
4 


30 . 


N. by W. 

N.N. E. 
N. 


9 
16 
12 


15 


N. 
N. 
W. 


9 
9 
6 


«. 


' N. W. bv N. 
i W. 8. W. 
8. by E. 


9 
9 
9 


16 


w. s. w. 

N. 
N. N. W. 


6 
9 
6 









175 



Table II. — Continued. 



Sept. 


Directton. 


Force. 
Miles per hour. 


S«PT. 


Diraction. 


Force. 
MUe« per Hour. 


L 


S. S. E. 
S. by E. 
S. by E. 


16 
14 
21 


■•{ 


a 8. E. 
a E. by 6. 

a ail 


15 
12 

^ 1 


4 


E.S. E. 
8. E. by S. 


6 
9 


"{ 


a atvr. 

a ^. 

8. a w. 


4 1 

6 

6 


•{ 


N. E. by E. 
E. by S. 
W. bya 


6 
4 
9 


"{ 


N. ir. w. 

N. W. by N. 
W. N. VV . 


6 
12 
16 


4 I 


N. 

N. W. 

N. by W. 


13 

18 

9 


■•{ 


N. t. by N. 

N. 
N. 


9 
9 
9 


'{ 


E. 

s. aE. 


2 
6 


"{ 


N. N. W. 

N. \V, by N. 

K. W. 


9 
9 
9 


'{ 


8. W. by S. 

8. E. by S. 

S. by E. 


9 
10 

4 


•■{ 


N. W. by N. 

8. W. by W. 

N. N. W. 


9 

11 

9 


r 


8. by E. 
S. E. 
8. E. 


9 
6 
4 


"{ 


W. 

8. W. bv 8. 
W. N. W. 


6 

6 

. 6 


'{ 


N. by E. 
N. bv W. 
N. N. W. 


9 

10 

9 


23 J 


N. by E. 

K. 
N. by W. 


12 

13 \ 
11 


9 


8. 8. K 
abyE. 
a byE. 


20 
23 
29 


24 . 


£. a£. 

a 
aw. 


4 

I 


10 ^ 


a 

8.8. E. 
8. a E. 


35 
36 
35 


H 


w. 
w. bva 

8.W. 


6 
9 
6 


11 - 


S. 8 E. 

8. E. by S. 

a 8. E. 


32 
14 
12 


26 - 


N. E. by N. 

N. 

N. by E. 


10 
21 
19 


"{ 


N. N. E. 
N. N.E. 
N. N.E. 


21 

30 

9 


"{ 


N. N. W. 
N. W. by W. 


32 
30 


"i 


8. a E. 

S. by K. 
a by E. 


9 
12 
13 


"{ 


N. by W. 
N. W. 


1 

10 
9 


.J 

L 


N. W. by W. 

N. W. by W. 

aw. 


9 
9 
9 


"{ 


N. N. R 
N. by E. 

N. 


10 

15 1 

13 


r 

15 <! 


s. a E. 

a byE. 
abyE. 


6 
12 
10 


30 I 


a 8. w. 

abyE. 

aaK 


15 
20 
11 



176 



Table II. — Continued. 



October. 


Direction. 


Force. 
Miles per hour 


OCTOBEB 

1 


Direction. 


Korce 


■( 


S. E. bv S. 

S. E. bV S. 

S. S. K. 


14 

11 

9 


17 ' 


r S. E. by S. 
N. E. bv N. 
N. E. by N. 


20 
11 
6 


2 ' 


S. E. bv E. 

S. S. *E. 
S. 


6 
17 
17 


«. 


■ E. S. E. 
E. 
N. by E. 


4 
6 
4 


8 < 


S. bvE. 
S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 


20 
23 
14 


19 • 


' S. E. by S. 
S. by E. 
S. by E. 


17 
19 
11 


.; 


E.S. E. 

W. 

S. W. by W. 


2 

9 

11 


20 ' 


" S. E. by S. 
S. E. by S. 
S. S. E. 


19 
29 
31 


5 


N. by W. 
S. W. bv W. 
S. W. by W. 


9 
9 
6 


21 . 


S. S. E. 
S. byE. 
S. by E. 


26 

29 


•( 


S. S. E. 
S. bv E. 
S. S. E. 


14 
29 
25 


22 < 


- S. by E. 
S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 


33 
30 
29 


'{ 


S. S. E. 
S. by E. 
S. by E. 


30 
33 
34 


23 < 


S. E. by S. 

S. E. by S. 

S. S. E. 


25 
21 
26 


•{ 


S. E. by S. 


12 


24 


" N. E. bv N. 

N. W. bv N. 
N. W. 


9 
11 
10 


9 I 


N. bv W. 
N. N. W. 
N. N. W. 


9 


25 < 

1 


S. W. 

S. by E. 
S. by E. 


9 

10 
10 


■»{ 


S. bv E. 
S. by E. 
S. by E. 


12 
17 
17 


1 "• 


- S. by E. 
S. by E, 
S. by E. 


16 
31 
33 


r 

"I 


S. by E. 
S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 


11 
16 
15 


1 27 - 

i 


' N. E. 
N. E, 
N. N. E. 


10 
9 
6 


12 . 


S. S. E. 

S. E. 
S. by K 


t 

14 


28 « 


S. K bv S. 

S. K. by S. 

S. S. E. 


10 
14 
12 


13 


S. S. E. 

S. E. bv S. 

S. by E. 


IG 
20 
16 


! 29 - 

1 


■ S. E. bv S. 
E, by N. 
S. W. 


10 
9 
9 


r 

"1 


S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 

S. 


';o 

19 
16 


30 < 


■ N. N. W. 

N. 
N. N. W. 


10 
19 
10 


"{ 


S. 

S. bvE. 

S. 


16 
15 
15 


31 . 


■ S. S. E. 
S. by E. 


20 
32 


..{ 


S E. bv S. 
S. S. E. 


30 
34 




t 




■~~ 


""■ 










I 



177 







Table II.- 


- Continued. 




XOTEMBEH 


Direction. 


Force. 1 
MUes per hour. 


NOVKMBK 


R DlrecUon. 


Force. 
Miles per hoar. 


1 - 


as. E. 

S.byE. 

S.S. E, 


88 
36 
84 


16 - 


r N.byE. 
W. by S. 

L w. 


14 

13 

9 


2 


S. 

S. S. £. 

S. 


15 
27 
84 


17 « 


S. by E. 

S. E. by S. 

S. E. 


26 
29 
10 


r 


S. E. bv S. 
S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 


21 

20 

9 


18 ^ 


S. E. bv S. 
S. S. E. 

s. s. w. 


19 
16 
18 


r 

L 


S. E. by S. 
E. by N. 
W. by S. 


14 
9 
9 


19 < 


s. w. bv a 

S. by k 
S. by W. 


9 
17 
11 


4 

V 


S. W. 

W. 

S. W. by W. 


12 

12 
10 


20 < 


S. S. W. 

W. by N. 

N. W. by N. 


6 

9 

11 


f 

'{ 


N.N. W. 

N. W. by N. 

W. S. \V. 


10 
12 
11 


21 « 


W. S. W. 

W. by S. 

S. W. by W. 


10 
10 
10 


r 


S. by E. 
S. bv E. 
S. byE. 


16 
29 
32 


1 


N N. E. 

E. bv S. 

S. E. 


2 
4 
6 


f 


E. S. E. 
S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 


15 
25 
21 


23 < 


N. N. W. 

N. bv W. 

N. N. W. 


11 
15 
13 


•{ 


N. by E. 

N. W. bv N. 

W. N. \V. 


16 

25 1 

14 


24 < 


8. W. bv S. 

s. s. w. 

S. W. by S. 


9 

10 
12 


f 
10 ^ 


E.N. K 

S. bv E. 
S. S. E. 


10 
20 
12 


25 ' 


■1 S S. E. 
1 S. by W. 
i S. W. byS. 


20 
26 
22 


11 i 


S. 
W. N. W. 

W. by N. 


9 

14 
9 


26 < 


S. W. by W. 

W. bv N. 
S. W. by \V. 


9 

6 

11 


■■'{ 


N. N. E. 

N. by VV. 

N. W. by N. 


4 
11 

12 


27 - 


■ S. S R 
S. by E. 

■1 "" 


26 
32 


13 ^ 


W. N. W. 

N. W. by W. 
S. W. 


14 

11 

9 


28 . 


f' S. S. E. 
' S. S. E. 
; S. by E. 


83 
32 
31 


14 J 


K 

S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 


13 
14 
11 


29 . 


r S. E. by S. 
1 S. S. E. 
_j S. S. E. 


30 
32 
34 


4 


S. byE. 
S. W. by W. 


9 
14 


30 ' 


'I S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 


86 
35 
35 



I 



178 



Table II. — Continued. 



PSCKHBEB. 


Direction. 


Force. 
Miles per hour. 


1 

DZCBXBEB 


Direction. 


Fow. 


1 


S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 


33 
35 
35 


f 

"1 


S. bv E 

S.W.byS. 

S. W. 


20 
11 
\1 


2 . 


S. S. E. 
S. by E. 
S. by E. 


34 
35 
38 


r 


N. N. W. 


10 


3 


S. E. by S. 

S. S. E. 
S E. by S. 


20 
23 
21 


"{ 


N. W. by N. 

N. W. by N. 

N. N. W. 


11 

10 

U 


4 « 


S. S. K 
S. by E. 
S. by E. 


31 
33 
32 


r 

20 ^ 


W. N. W. 

W. 
W. by S. 


u 

10 


.; 


S. E. by S. 
S. S. E. 
S.byE. 


30 
33 
32 


21 J 


E. bvN. 
S. SiE. 
8. byE. 


4 
15 

20 


4 


S. E. by S. 
S. bv E. 
S. S. E. 


30 
29 
35 


22 J 


S. E. by S. 
S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 


9 
19 

21 


L 


S. E. by S. 

N. N. W. 
N. by W. 


14 
6 
4 


23 < 


N.E.byN. 
S. W. by W. 


6 
11 


'[ 


S. E. bv E. 

S. E. 
S. W. by W. 


2 

4 
10 


24 } 


S. E. by S. 
S. S. E. 


26 
27 


•{ 


S. S. E. 
S. by VV. 
S S. E. 


20 
26 
25 


25 { 


E. bv S. 

w. a w. 

W. by N. 


4 
9 
10 


■"{ 


S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 
S. by E. 


29 
31 
33 


26 ^ 


N. N. W. 

N. N. W. 

S. W. by W. 


12 

17 
10 


r 

a • 


S. E. bv S. 
S. by E. 
S. by E. 


20 
18 
16 


"{ 


S. bv E. 
S. by E. 
S. by E. 


16 
21 
20 


■^{ 


S. S. E. 
S. by E. 
S. by E. 


20 
22 
31 


1 V. 


S. byE. 
S. S. w. 
S. by W. 


16 
12 
10 


.{ 


S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 


24 
33 
30 


f 
! 29 i 

1 ^ 


S. E. 
S. by W. 
S. S. E. 


6 
9 
12 


"{ 


S. E. by S. 
S. S. E. 
S. by K 


20' 

28 

35 


r 

( 30 ■ 


S. W. bv W. 
W. by'S. 
W. N. W. 


6 
6 
6 


r 

16 < 

L 


S. bv E. 
S. by E. 
S. by E. 


30 
28 
26 


i 31 

i L 

1 


S. S. E. 

S. E. by S. 

S. by E. 


9 
14 
10 


f 

"1 


S. S. E. 
S. 
S. 


28 
26 
20 


1 

1 
1 







L 



179 



Fable IIL — Direction and Force of the Wind at Simonstown, referred 
to the Points of the Magnetic Compass, 



JULY, 1861. 


1 AUGUST, 1861. 


Fore©. 


Direction. 


Number. 


Force. 


j Direction. 


Number. 


North, 


12 


82 


1 

! North, 


11 


113 


N. by E., 


1 


10 


N. by E., 


8 


25 


N.N.R, 


2 


10 


N. N. E., 


9 


113 


N.E. by N., 


1 


10 


N.RbyN., 


1 


11 


N. K, 


2 


10 


N. E, 


1 


10 


N.E.byE., 


1 


2 


N.E.byE., 


2 


16 


E. N. E., 


3 


10 


E. N. E., 








E.byN., 


1 


6 


E.byN., 


3 


12 


East, 


7 


28 


East, 


1 


2 


E.bya, 


4 


12 


E. by S., 








E.S.E., 








E. S. E., 


2 


6 


S.E.byE., 


1 


4 


8.E.byE., 








S.E., 


9 


65 


S. E., 


1 


8 


S. E. by S., 








S. E. by S., 


8 


79 


S. S. E., 


4 


27 


S. S. E., 


2 


24 


S. by E., 


1 


9 


S. by E., 


6 


79 


SoQth, 


7 


51 


South, 


4 


19 


S. by W., 


1 


6 


1 S. byW., 








s. S. W., 








S. S. W., 


2 


16 


S.W.byS., 








S. W. by S., 


1 


9 


S.W., 


4 


25 


S.W., 


2 


10 


S. W. by W., 








S. W. by W., 








w. s. W., 


1 


6 


W. S. W., 


2 


15 


W.byS., 


1 


9 


W. by a. 








West, 


2 


6 


West, 


1 


6 


W.byN., 








W. by N., 


2 


18 


W. N. W , 


2 


6 


; w. N. w.. 


1 


6 


N. W. by W., 


8 


22 


I N. w^bvw., 

* 1 





N. W., 


5 


25 


N.W., 1 1 


9 


N. W. by N., 


2 


10 


N. W. by N., 3 


27 


N N W., 


3 


21 


N. N. W., 8 


65 


N. by W., 6 


31 


N. by W^, 6 


86 


i 86 




1 «* 





180 
Table III. — Contimud. 



SEPTEMBER, 1861. 


• 

QCTOBER, 1861. 


Direction. 


Number. 


Force. 


Directloiu 


Number. 


Fom. 


North, 


6 


78 


- North, 


1 


1? 


N.byE., 


4 


65 


N. by E., 


1 


4 


N. N. E., 


4 


70 


N. N. E., 


1 


6 


N.E.byN., 


2 


19 


N.KbyN., 


3 


26 


N.E, 








N.E., 


2 


19 


N.KbyE., 


1 


6 


N.E.byE., 








E. N. E., 








E. N. E., 








E. by N., 








E. by N., 


1 


9 


East, 


1 


2 


East, 


1 


6 


E. by S., 


1 


4 


E. by S., 








K S. E., 


2 


10 


E. S. E., 


2 


6 


S. E. by E., 








S.E.byE., 


1 


6 


S. E., 


2 


10 


S. E., 


1 


6 


S. E. by a, 


4 


45 


S. E. by S., 


14 


2o2 


S. S. R, 


12 


206 


S. S. K, 


21 


43rt 


S.byE., 


11 


167 


S. by E., 


22 


468 


South, 


2 


44 


South, 


6 


% 


S. by W., 








S.byW., 








S. S. W., 


3 


25 


S. S. W., 








S.W.byS., 


2 


16 


S. W.byS., 








S. W., 


4 


27 


S. W., 


2 


18 


S. W. by W., 


1 


11 


S. W. by W., 


8 


26 


W. S. W., 








W. S. W., 








W.byS., 


2 


18 


W.byS, 





y 


West, 


2 


12 


West, 


1 


9 


W. by N., 








W. by N.. 








W. N. W, 


2 


22 


W. N. W., 





' 


N. W. by W., 


4 


60 


N. W. by W., 








N. W., 


3 


36 


N. W., 


1 


10 


N W. by N., 


2 


18 


N. W. by N., 


1 


11 


N. N. W., 


5 


66 


N. N. W., 


4 


z% 


N. by W., 


' 


40 


N. by W., 


2 


19 


86 






90 





181 
Tabib III Continued. 



NOVEMBER, 1861 


• 


DECEMBER, 1861. 


DIrectian. 


Number. 


Forod. 


DIrectioo. 


Number. 


FoKe. 


North, 








North, 








N.byR, 


2 


80 


N. by E.. 








N. N. E., 


2 


6 


N. N. E., 








N.E.byN., 







N.E.byN., 


1 


6 


N.E., 







N. E., 








N.E.byE., 







N.E.byE.. 








E.N. E, 




10 


E. N. E., 








£. by N., 




9 


RbyN., 


1 


4 


Ewt, 




13 


East, 








E.bya, 




4 


E.bya, 




4 


E. S. E., 




15 


RaE., 







S. E. by E., 







a K by E., 




2 


S.E., 




16 


aE., 




10 


aE-bya, 




113 


8 E. by a, 


10 


204 


as.E., 


20 


604 


aaE., 


24 


680 


a by E., 


10 


247 


a by E., 


22 


561 


South, 




58 


South, 




46 


abyW., 




87 


abyW., 




45 


a a w., 




29 


a a w.. 




12 


aw. by a, 




52 


a w.bya. 




11 


aw., 




21 


aw., 




12 


S. W. by w., 




54 


a W. by w., 




87 


w. a w., 




21 


W. 8. w.. 




9 


W.bya, 




82 


w.bya. 




16 


West, 




21 


West, 




12 


W.byN, 




24 


W.byN., 




10 


W. N. W., 




42 


W. N. W., 




15 


N. W. by W., 




11 


N. W. by W., 







N. W., 








N.W., 







N. W. by N., 


4 


60 


N. W. by N., 




21 


N. N. W., 


3 


84 


N. N. W., 




59 


N. by W, 


2 


26 


N. by W., 




4 




88 


89 



B. I. A. PBGC. VOL. VIII. 



2b 



182 

The Secretary, on the part of the Rev. CharlesVignoles, Vicar of 
Clonmacnoise, presented rubbings of three ornamented stones lately dis- 
covered at Clonmacnoise, one of which bears the inscription Op com 

The thanks of the Academy were voted to the donor. 



MONDAY, JUNE 9, 1862. 

The Vebt Rev. Chables Gbaves, D. D., President, in the Chair. 

The Rev. Dr. Reeves read a paper concerning the " Identification of 
St. Molagga's Church of Lann Beachaire, in Fingall, with the Ecclesi- 
astical Remains at Bremore, in the parish of Balrothery, a little north 
of Balbriggan, which bear the name of Lambeecher in the laber Niger 
of the See of Dublin." 



Sir William R. Hamilton, LL. D., read the following paper:— 

On a New and Geneeal Method op Invebtino a Lineab and Qua- 
tebnion Function of a Quatebnion. 

Let a, by c, d, e represent any five quaternions, and let the foUovini; 
notations be admitted, at least as temporary ones : — 

ab -ha = [ah'] ; Slab^o = {dbc) ; 

{ahc) + [ch'lSa -f [ac]Sb -\- [ha]Sc = [ahe] ; 

Salhcd^^lahcd)', 

then it is easily seen that 

[ai] = - [ha] ; (ahc) = - (hoc) = [hca) = &c. ; 

[ahc] = - [hac] = [hca] - &c. ; 

{ahcd) = - {hacd) = {head) = &c. ; 

= [aa] = (aac) = [aac] = (aacd), &c. 

"We have then these two Lemmas respecting Quaternions, which 
answer to two of the most continually occurring transformatioDB of 
vector expressions : — 

I. . . = a{hcde) + h{edea) + c{jieah) -f d{edhc) + e{ahcd)j 
or I'. . . e{ahcd) = a{ehcd) + h{aecd) ■\- c{ahed) -*- d{ahce) ; 
and II. . . e{ahcd) = [hcd]Sae - [cda]Sbe->t [dah]Sce - [ahc]Sde\ 
as may be proved in various ways. 

Assuming therefore any four quaternions a, h, e, d, which are not con- 
nected by the relation, 

{ahcd) = 0, 



183 
we can deduee from them four others, a'^ I/, e', d', by the expressione^ 
aXahed) =-/[hcdl h'lahed'} = "fleda], &c., 

where /is used as the oharacteristic of a linear or distributive quaternion 
function of a quaternion, of which the form is supposed to be given ; and 
thus the general farm of such a Unction comes to be represented by the 
expression, 

V. . . r =fq = a'Saq + b'Shq + c'Scq + d'Sdq ; 

involving sixteen scalar constants, namely those contained in a'V&d*. 

The Problem is to invert this function f; and the solution of that 
problem is easily found, with the help of the new Lemmas I. and 11.^ 
to be the following : — 

VL . . q{abcd) {a'b'cdT^ = {abed) {afV&d')f'W = \bcd'\ (/b'c'd') 

+ Icda'] [rdd'd) + {dah'\ (rdV*') + \ahe'\ {ra'b'd) ; 

of which solution the correctness can be verified, d posteriori, with the 
help of the same Lemmas, 

Although the foregoing problem of Inversion had been virtually re- 
solved by Sir W. R. H. many years ago, through a reduction of it to the 
corresponding problem respecting vectors, yet he hopes that, as reganla 
the Calculus of Quaternions^ the new solution will be considered to bo 
an important step. He is, however, in possession of a general method 
for treating questions of this class, on which he may perhaps offer some 
remarks at the next meeting of the Academy. 

The Secretary announced the following donations to the Museum : — 

1. A medal struck in honour of Frederic Thiersch: presented by 
the Eoyal Academy of Sciences of Bavaria. 

2. A commemorative medal: presented by the Eoyal Society cf 
Christiania, Norway. 

8. A stone ball and collar, found in a limestone gravel pit : pre- 
sented by Hugh Blackney, Esq., Ballyelleii, Goresbridge. The stone ball 
weighs about six ounces, and measures six inches in circumference, ia 
shghly oval, and fits the collar exactly. 

4. A small cannon-ball, weighing 2 lb. 14 oz., found on the battle- 
field of Aughrim : presented by Dr. Bigger. 

5. A portion of a very flat stone ** celt " found in a turf bog at Con- 
cemara : presented by Dr. Mac Swiney, Stephen' s-green. The celt is of 
peculiar interest, as it retains on the weathered surfaces of its cutting 
edge the scratches or marks of the fine sand with which it appears to 
have been sharpened shortly before it was lost. 

6. A specimen of yellow tile, or brick, from the foundation of a 
building at the comer of Grafton -street and Nassau-street, described in 
Mr. Mallet's note accompanying the donation. 



184 

7. A peculiarly shaped stone oelt, and a leaden cross, fbond at Newry : 
presented by P. Brophy Esq., Dawson-street. 

8. A number of copper coins : presented by Mr. James Murphy, 
Lombard-street. 

9. Three tradesman's tokens, viz : — MacAvragh, of Belfast; Wilson, 
of Dublin ; and Nicholls, of Maryborough ; all found at the latter place : 
presented by the Rev John O'Haulon, C. C, of Dublin. 

10. A piece of a modem sword-blade ; a very beauti^ Y-shaped 
flint arrow-head ; and the under and two upper stones of one of those pri- 
mitive hand-mills called grain-rubbers in Dr. Wilde's Catalogue, Part I., 
p. 104. The under stone has its loop on its side, and not on its back, 
which is usual in perfect specimens of this kind : presented by Colond 
Edwards, of Fintona. 

James O'Reilly, Esq., exhibited the following from the coUection of 
J. Summers, Esq.: — 1. A copper blade, of the scythe shape; leDgti 
about 12| inches — Mr. O'Reilly cannot say where it was found origi- 
nally ; 2. A small brass or bronze spur, said to have been found at Dm- 
shaughlin ; 3. A steel or iron arrow-head; 4. One of several cinerary urns 
found on Tallaght Hill. 

The thanks of the Academy were voted to the donors and exhibitor. 



MONDAY. JUNE 23, 1862. 



The Yebt Rev. Chasles Gsaves, D. D., President, in the Chair. 
On the recommendation of the Council, it was 

Resolved, — To authorize the Treasurer to sell out so much of the 
Cunningham Fund Stock as wiU produce £61 4«. 4d., to pay the dif- 
ference between the cost of the four Cunningham Medals lat*?ly awarded, 
and the half-year's interest on the Stock, now due : the amount to be 
sold out being part of the amount of Int^st added to the Capital Stock 
since the former award of Medals in 1858. 

The Rev. Dr. Llotd read a paper — 

;0n the pbobable Causes of thr Eabth-cxtrbekts. 

In a former communication to the Academy, I endeavoured to proto 
that the diurnal changes of the horizontal needle were the result of 
electric currents traversing the earth's crust. The existence and con- 
tinuous flow of such currents had been established, as I believe, by lif 
observations of Mr. Barlow, made on two of the telegraphic liDf? ut 
England ; and it only remained to show that their laws correspoDdt<i 
with those of the magnetic changes. This part of the solution ofthf 
problem has, I venture to think, been given in the paper above refi-rrtii 
to. 



185 

In that eomimimcation I refrained from offering any conjeotore as to 
the origin of the currents themselves. Every speculation of this kind 
most remain a pure hypothesis, until it can be confronted and compared 
with hds; and the magnetic phenomena presented at different points 
of the earth's surface are so diversified, that a wide collection of the facts 
is necessary in order to form the basis of any sound physical theory. For 
these reasons, I have deemed it the more proper course to ascertain the 
kwa of the diurnal changes of the Earth-currents at many places, so far 
as they may be inferred from the magnetic phenomena which they pro- 
dace, before proceeding to the consideration of their causes. This pro- 
cedure is in accordance with the acknowledged rules of the inductive 
philosophy ; and the departure frx)m it has given rise to speculations on 
this subject^ which, however well they might accord with tiie phenomena 
with which they were compared, could not have been admitted for an 
instant in the preeenoe of a wider generalization. 

It has been shown, in the paper referred to, that the Earth-currents, 
88 inferred from the changes in the two horizontal components of the 
magnetic force, observe certain general laws, which are common to all 
the stations at which these changes have been observed ; while, on the 
other hand, their departures from a common type are various and consi- 
derahle. We thus learn that the phenomena are produced by a common 
eause, the effects of which are greatly modified by the physical peculia- 
rities of the parts of the earth where they are observed. The following 
are the principal features of the phenomena common to aU, or to most of 
the phu^ of observation. 

L The point to which the resultant Earth-current is directed follows 
the sun, although not at a uniform rate, throughout the day.. In the 
northern hemisphere its direction is eastward, on the average, at 10^ 30°" 
LM. ; southward, at 2** 30" P. m. ; and westward, at 7 p. m. 

IL The intensity of the current is greatest between noon and 2 p.k., 
the mean time of the maximum in the northern hemisphere being about 
\^ 30" p. jf . The intensity of the current is least at an interval of about 
twehe hours from the epoch of the maximum ; and the direction of the 
current of least intensity is, in nearly all cases, opposite to that of the 
greatest 

ILL There are two subordinate maxima, separated from the principal 
maTJnmin by intervening minima. The morning maximum occurs, on 
the average, at 8^ 30°* a. m. It may be traced in the diurnal curves of 
the American and Siberian stations, and in those of the Capo of Good 
Hope and Hobarton. The current is then northerly in the northern 
hemisphere, and southerly in the southern. The evening maximum 
occurs at about 10 p. x., and is observed at almost all the stations. 

The foregoing facts leave no doubt that the sun is the primary cause 
of the cnrrents ; and the only question is as to the mode of its agency, 
^pon this point I concur with Dr. Lament in believing the electrical 
currents (or waves) on the earth's surface to be due to disturbances of 



186 



equilibrium of statical electricity ; but I regard these derangements of 
equilibrium to be simply the effects of solar heat, and not (as Dr. LanKm: 
believes) the results of an electrical force emanating directly from ^ 
sun. 

It is weU known that the earth and the atmosphere are, in ordintrr 
circumstances, in opposite electrical states — the electricity of the card 
being negative, and that of the atmosphere positive. It is also knowi 
that the electricity of the air increases rapidly with the height, i 
few feet — and in some cases even a few inches — being sufficient to ma- 
nifest a difference of electrical tension. The rate of this increase is very 
different at different periods of the day, the difference appearing to k 
due to the greater or less conductibility of the lower strata of the atm<^^ 
sphere, giving rise to a greater or less interchange of the opposite elec- 
tricities. 

Now, we have in this machinery, as it appears to me, means faliy 
adequate to the production of the observed effects. If it be assumed 
that the sun produces these changes by its calorific action, the effects it 
any given place will depend upon the relative temperatures of the neigh- 
bouring portions of the earth's surface. The earth being, in its normal 
state, negatively electrical, this negative electricity will be greatest (c: 
the positive electricity least) at the parts most heated ; and there wii 
consequently, be a flow of electricity to these parts from the place of ob- 
servation. Thus the varying azimuth of the current, which is directed 
towards the most heated parts of the earth's surface, is explained. Tk 
maximum intensity of current, at P 30° p. ic, is also accounted for, thii 
being the period of the day when the solar calorific action is most intense. 
It should be noted, however, that the magnitude of the effect will depead, 
not on the absolute temperature, but on its relative increase. It is, a^ 
cordingly, greatest at those parts of the earth at which the increment oi 
temperature corresponding to a given distance is greatest. 

The secondary maxima are probably due to the recombination oftk 
atmospheric and terrestrial electricities, through the medium of vapour 
in the lower regions of the atmosphere. The effects of this recombina- 
tion in producing horizontal currents in the earth's crust will, of cojirae, 
be differential only, and will depend on the excess of the positive elec- 
tricity thus transported at the places on the same meridian which are 
nearer to the equator. In confirmation of this view, it may be observed, 
that the epochs correspond with those of the maxima of atmospheric 
electricity, as deduced by Quetelet from the observations made under 
his directions at Brussels, the morning maximum of atmospheric eltx- 
tricity, in simmier, occurring at 8 a. m., and the evening maximum al 
9 p. M. 

The phenomena hitherto described are such as would take place if 
all the parts of the earth's crust were similarly constituted, and there- 
fore similarly acted on by the solar rays. In order to be able to explain 
the diversity which exists in the magnetic phenomena at difi'ervnt 
places, we must know something more of the nature of the solar action, 
and of the mode in which electncity is developed by it. 



187 

The speculatioiiB respectmg the origin of atmospheric and terrestrial 
electricity are yarioua. Thns, De Saussure believed that this electricity 
was developed by evaporation, the vapour taking the positive electricity, 
and the water the negative ; and this hypothesis, with some limitations, 
has been very generally admitted by physicists. On the other hand, 
M. de la Eive is of opinion that the origin of this electricity is to be 
sought in the chemical actions which he supposes to be going on in the * 
intmor of the soHdified crust of the earth ; and he thinks that evapo- 
ration acts merely by transporting one of the separated electricities, and 
canying it into the higher regions of the atmosphere. Bat what- 
erer be the correct view as to the force which develops the electricity, 
it seems to be granted that the separation of the two electricities, 
in the earth and the atmosphere, is the consequence of evaporation, the 
vapour carrying with it the positive electricity, and the vaporizing 
body retaining the negative. Now, it follows from this, that the effect 
produced will vary greatly with the distribution of land and water, and 
will be greatest, cateru parihis, where they come into juxtaposition at 
the coasts of the great continents, especially where the coast-lines are in, 
or near, the meridian. The evaporation from the surface of the sea being 
much greater than frx)m the land, the electricity will be most deficient 
at the former. Hence there will be a flow of electricity ^(w» land to sea, 
which will combiQe with, and often mask, that due to the sun's posi- 
tion alone. 

Now this is precisely what happens. The most marked instance of 
the phenomenon which we possess is that afforded by the diurnal changes 
of the currents at St. Helena. There the currents (as I have already 
shown) fLowJram the coast of Africa during the hottest portion of the 
day, and tcwards it during the night. The influence of the form of the 
coast seems to be shown in the diurnal curve of the Cape of Good Hepe, 
by the existence of three maxima, of which the principal is directed 
from the land, and the two subordinate along the lines of coast. At 
Hobarton, in Van Diemen's Land, the same influence is shown in the 
extension of the southern lobe of the curve, which is there nearly equal to 
the northern. 

I have since calculated the direction and intensity of the currents at 
the Indian stations, and I find that the curves follow nearly the type of 
the St. Helena curve. Thus, at Singapore, for which place we possess 
the results of observation during the three years 1843-1845, the maxi- 
mum of current intensity takes place between 10 a. h. and 1 1 a. li., and 
its direction is S. 80** W. At Madras, so far as may be inferred from 
the observations of a single month, the maximum takes plaee at noon ; 
and the direction of the current is then nearly the same as at Singapore, 
viz. S. 78^ W. At Simla, in the Himalaya, the maximum occurs also 
at noon ; but the direction of the current of greatest intensity is more 
Boutherly, its mean yearly direction being S. 47** W. This is pre- 
cisely what should happen according to tiie hypothesis, this being 



188 

nearly the direction of the line drawn to the nearest point of the 
coast.* 

The variation in the epoch of the Tnaximnm intensity of the cuiienty 
at different places, is also in accordance with the same principles ; that 
epoch being earliest in ialandsy or places nearly encompassed by sea, and 
latest in the interior of the great continents. Thus it occurs at noon 
at St. Helena, and in the southern parts of the peninsulas of Sondostan 
and the Malaya ; while it takes place at 2 p. m. at Catherinburg and Bar- 
naoul, in the interior of Siberia. This accords with the laws of the sun's 
calorific action. 

It will be seen, upon an inspection of the diurnal curres of the 
Earth-currents (Trans. Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxiv.), that at most of 
the northern stations, as well as at Hobarton in the southern, the 
easterly currents being greater than the westerly. I believe this effect 
to be due to the disturhance-cwrrenUj which (as I have already shown) 
have an easterly tendency. This preponderance of the easterly currents, 
however, is found to be greater at places — such as Greenwich, Dublin, 
Makerstoun, and Toronto— which are near an eastern coast, than at 
those places-^— such as Petersburg, Catherinburg, and Bamaoul — whidi 
are in the interior of the continent. The results, therefore, so for con- 
firm the supposition above made. 

There are, imfortunately, very few places situated near the wMiem 
shore of a great continent, at which continued observations of the 
two mimetic elements have been made. I know of none, excepting 
Sitka, on the western coast of North America. The results at thii 
station, however, confirm the view above stated, — ^the westerly currents 
being there greater than the easterly. 

There are probably many other circumstances in the configuration 
and structure of the earth's surface which infiuence the direction and 
magnitude of the currents; but I incline to think that the principal one 
is that above stated, viz. the distribution of land and wate^ in the vici- 
nity of the place of observation. It may be, also, that this cause is suffi- 
cient to account for some of the peculiarities in the][form of the diurnal 
curve noticed in my former communication, and there referred to other 
causes. Thus, it is not improbable that the persistent direction of the 
current at Munich, there referred to the influence of a"mountain range, 
may be, in fact, the result of the proximity of the Adriatic Gulf, which 
lies nearly in the direction of the pcrsbtent current. 



* These additioiud results oblige me to abandon the conclasiaii fonneriy derived 
from a more limited induction, that the direction of the current of greatest intoisity 
is connected with the magnetic meridian of the place. From the facta which vt 
now possess, it. would appear that the currents affect a meridional diiection in the 
higher latitudes, while they are nearly parallel to the equator within the tropics. This 
wUl be seen in a striking manner by comparing the directions of the maximum corrciits 
in India, above given, with those of the Uussian stations in the northern part of the Attatic 
Continent. 



189 

In the preceding remarks I have referred only to the r^^M^^r diurnal 
changes. I believe that the irregular are produced by the same forces, but 
operating in a somewhat different manner. The regular currents arc pro- 
duced, as I conceive, chiefly by the separation of the two electricities by 
evaporation, under the action of the sun ; while the disturbance-currents 
are caused by their rapid recombination, through the medium of mois- 
ture, in the lower strata of the atmosphere.* In connexion with this 
view, I will, for the present, merely refer to the fact which has been es- 
tablished by an examination of the mean effects of the magnetic distur- 
bances (Proceedings, ^pril 28, 1862) — namely, that the epochs of the 
maxima of the disturbance-currents depend, in their mean values, upon 
the sun's hour-angle, and are independent of the longitude of the place. 
This result is in accordance with the hypothesis which ascribes these 
currents to changes in the sun's calorific agency, and to the meteorolo- 
gical effects which these engender. 

In the limits within which it is necessary to confine this abstract, 
I have been able only to refer to some of the leading facts in confirma- 
tion of the hypothesis which I have ventured to propose ; and I am 
obhged to omit altogether all reference to the objections which will pro- 
bably be raised against it. There is, however, one fact which appears at 
first sight to offer a formidable difficulty to its reception, and which it may 
be necessary to notice here. The regular magnetic changes are greater 
in summer than in winter; while with the electrical tension, and its 
changes, it is the reverse. This objection, however, disappears when it 
is viewed more closely. The physical quantity measured by our elec- 
trometers is not the absolute electric tension, but its variation toith the 
hight; while the electric changes which engender terrestrial currents 
are the variations as depending on horizontal distance. It is easily con- 
ceivable that these should not correspond. In fact, it is natural to sup- 
pose that in summer the zero-plane, which separates the two electricities, 
should rise considerably ; and thus that the variations for a given increase 
of altitude (which probably diminish with the distance from that plane) 
should lessen, although the absolute tensions, as well as the changes in 
horizontal distance, may be greater. 

It would be of importance, in reference to this inquiry, to institute 
electrical observations of a totally different kind from any which we 
now possess, and to measure the differences of tension as depending on 
horizontal distance. There seems to be no difficulty in the way of such 
observations, — at least none greater than those which present themselves 
in the ordinary observations of atmospheric electricity ; and the results 
would probably do more to clear up the physical aspect of these complex 
and interwoven phenomena than any other observational means. 



* This hvpotlieVis as to the caase of magnetic dUturbances is due to M. de la Rive ; 
bat fabs views resijecling the laws of the resulting currents are, as I have elsewhere shown, 
inconsistent with the phenomena. The regular diurnal chanf^es of terrestrial magnetism 
arc ascribed hy M. de la Kive to a direct electrical action emanating from the sun. 

K. I. k, PKOC. — VOL. VIII. 2 C 



190 

Sir W. R. Hamilton, LL. D., read the following paper: — 
On THE ExisTBvcs OF A Sthbolio asstd Biquadbatio Equatioh, which 

IB SATISFIED BT THE StHBOL OF LlNEAB OpBBATION IS QirATER]aOir& 

1. In a recent oommunication (of June 9, 1862), I showed how the 
general Linear and Quaternion Function of a Quaternion could be ex> 
pressed, under a standard quadrinoial form ; and how that function, 
when BO expressed, could be inverted. 

2. I have since perceived, that whatever /orm be adopted, to repre- 
sent the Linear Symbol of Quaternion Operation thus referred to, that 
symbol always satisfies a certain Biquadratic Equation^ with Scalar Oh 
efficients, of which the vo/um depend upon the particukr constants of the 
I\inction above referred to. 

3. This result, with the properties of the Auxiliary Linear and Qua- 
ternion Functions with which it is connected, appears to me to consti- 
tute the most remarkable accession to the Theory of QuaUmions proper^ 
as distinguished from their separation into scalar and vector parts, and 
from their application to Geometry and Physics, which has been made 
since I had first the honour of addressing the Boyal Irish Academy on 
the subject, in the year 1843. 

4. The following is an outline of one of the proofs of the exiatenoe 
of the biquadratic equation, above referred to. Let 

A = r (1) 

be a given linear equation in quaternions ; r being a given quaternion, 
q a sought one, and /the symbol of a linear or distributive operation : 
so that 

A^ + ^=A+//, (2) 

whatever two quaternions may be denoted by q and q\ 

5. I have found that the formula of solution of this equation (1), or 
the formula of inversion of the function, f, may be thus stated : 

nqr^nf-'r^IV; (3) 

where n is a scalar constant depending for its value, and ^ is an auxili- 
ary and linear symbol of operation depending for its form (or rather far 
the constants which it involves), on the particular form off; or on the 
special values of the constants, which enter into the composition of the 
particular function, fq, 

6. We have thus, independently of the particular quatemiona, q and 
r, the equations, 

Ffq = nq,fDr = nr: (4) 

or, briefly and symbolically, 

Ff-fF^n. (5) 

7i Changing next ftofc =/+ e, that is to say, proposing next to 
resolve the new linear equation. 



191 

M^fy^cq^r, (6) 

where « is an arhiiraiy scalar, I find that the new formnla of solution, 
or of inversion, may be thus written : 

fcF.^n.; (7) 

where F, = FfcG + ti^JI^ <^, (8) 

and »« = » + n'e + n''o» + «"' c» + «•; (9) 

and J? being the symbols (or characteristics) of two new linear opera- 
tions, and n', n", n"* denoting three new scalar constants, 

8. Expanding then the symbolical prodnct ffF„ and comparing 
powers of e, we arrive at three new symholictU equations, namely, the fol- 
lowing: 

fO + F= n' ; fJI+ G = n"; /+ Jr= n'^; (10) 

by elimination of the symbols, F, Q, H, between which and the equa- 
tion (5), the symbolical hiquadratic, 

= » - n'/ + »"/• - »"'/" +/•, (a) 

Ib obtained. 

B. B. Stoitst, B. a., read the following paper : — 

Of the Strength o7 Long Pillabs. 

Among the numerous difficulties encountered in designing large iron 
structures, such as railway girders or roofs of large span, none perhaps 
is of more importance, or requires greater skill to overcome, than the 
tendency of parts under compression to deflect beneath the pressure, 
and yield sideways, like a thin walking-cane, when the load is greater 
than it can support without bending. 

To understand the matter clearly, we must recollect that the mode 
in which a pillar fails varies greatly, according as it is long or short 
in proportion to the diameter. A very short pUlar — a cube, for in- 
stance—will bear a weight sufficient to splinter or crush it into powder; 
while a still shorter pillar — such as a penny, or other thin plate of 
metal — ^will bear an enormous weight, far exceeding that which the cube 
will sustain, the interior of the thin plate being prevented from escaping 
from beneath the pressure by the surrounding particles. We can thus 
conceive how stone or other materials in the centre of the globe withstand 
pressures that would crush them into powder at the surface, merely be- 
cause there is no room for the particles to escape from the surrounding 
pressure. 

It has been foimd by experiment that the strength of short pillars 
of any given material, all having the same diameter, does not vary much, 
provided the length of the pillar is not less than one, and does not ex- 
ceed four or five diameters ; and the weight which will just crush a 
short pillar, one square indi in section, and whose lengtii is not less 
than one or greater than five inches, is called the crushing strength of 



192 



the material experimented upon. If the length of pillars never ei- 
ceeded four or five diameters, all we need do to arrive at the strength of 
any given pillar would be to multiply its transverse area in s^jiiaK 
inches by the tabulated crushing strength of that particular mateml. 
It rarely happens, however, that pillars Eire so short in proportion to 
their length; and hence we must seek some other rule for calcularij]^ 
their strength, when they fail, not by actual crushing, but by flexure. 

If we could insure the line of thrust always coinciding with the axii 
of the pillar, then the amount of material required to resist cru^hiii^ 
merely would suffice, whatever might be the ratio of length to diamittr. 
But practically it is impossible to command this, and a slight deviation 
in the direction of the thrust produces a corresponding tendency in tin 
pilftir to bend. "With tension-rods, on the contrary, the greater the 
strain, the more closely will the rod assume a straight line, and, in dt- 
signing their cross section, it is only necessary to allow so much materiid 
as will resist the tensile strain. This tendency to bend renders it neces- 
sary to construct long pillars, not merely with sufficient 
material to resist crushing, supposing them to fail from 
that alone, but also with such additional material or 
bracing as may effectually preserve them from yield- 
ing by flexure. It is evidently, therefore, of consider- 
able importance that we should ascertain the laws 
determining the flexure of long pillars, which may be 
done as follows : — 

Let the figure represent a pillar, very long in 
proportion to its breadth, and just on the point of 
breaking from flexure. 
Let 7F= the deflecting weight ; 
h = the breadth of pillar ; 
d = its depth ; 
/ = its length ; 
A = the central deflection ; 

H = the radius of curvature ; 

C = the resultant of all the longitudinal forces of 
compression on the concave side at the centre 
of the pillar ; 

T =a the resultant of all the longitudinal forces of 

tension on the convex side ; 

^ = the distance between the centres of tension 
and compression. 

The longitudinal forces acting at the centre of the pillar are thm, 
viz. the weight ?F acting in the chord line of the curve, the resuliau'^ 
C acting at the centre of compression in the concave half, and the rts^\;l- 
tant T acting at the centre of tension in the convex half. Taking m - 
ments round either centre of strain, we have approximately 

h h 

h being assumed equal to the distance between the chord-line and c iihc: 



193 

centre of stram, which is a close approximation when the pillar is very 
long in proportion to its width,* 

The values of T or C in different pillars are proportional to the 
number of fibres subject to strain, that is to hd, ^d ^ is obviously pro- 
portional to d; BO that we have the numerator on the right side of the 
equation proportional to hd*. Again, assuming that the deflection curve 
is a parabola, from which it can differ but slightly, f we have 

but so long as the strain per sectional unit in the extreme fibres, to 
which their change of length is proportional, is constant, Ji will vary 
in the same ratio as d ; and we have, therefore, h proportional to 

Whence, by substitution, 

hd^ 
fl^=i^y, II. 

in which ^is a constant depending on the elasticity of the material, 
which may be determined by experiment. 

If the pillar be round, and if d represent the diameter, 

^=^y III. 

which proves that the strength of long round pillars varies as the 4th 
power of their diameter, divided by the square of the length ; and the 
longer the pillar is in proportion to its diameter, the nearer will this 
formula represent the truth. 

As all the longiti;dinal forces at the middle of the pillar balance, we 
have the following equation : — 

which enables us to predict how a long pillar will fail, whether by the 
convex side tearing asunder, or by the concave side crushing. A wrought 
iron pillar, for instance, may be expected to fail on the concave side, as 
its power to resist crushing is less than that to resist extension. A long 
pillar of bast iron, on the contrary, will probably fail by the convex 
side tearing asunder, as the compressive strength of cast iron greatly 
exceeds its tenacity. Further, the effective strength of wrought iron 
to resist crushing is about 12 tons per square inch, while the tensile 
strength of cast iron is nearly 7 tons per square inch ; and hence we 



* Mr. HodgkiD8on*8 ezperimenU show that this investigation is not applicable to 
cast iron pillars whose length is less than about 80 times their width : even with such 
short pillars it requires certain modifications, which he has deduced from experiment 

t The curve will probably be intermediate between a parabola aud a circle, approach, 
ing the latter if the pillar taper towards the ends. 



194 

may conclude that the strength of long similar piUars of wrought and 
cast iron will be nearly as 12 to 7. 

It is also worthy of note that, if the same pillar be bent in different 
degrees, Twill vary as hy while h remains constant ; whence it follows 
from equation (L) that W, the weight which keeps the pillar bent, is 
nearly tiie same whether the flexure be greater or less. This statement 
would be accurately true, were it not that equation (L), on which it is 
founded, is only approximate. It will, however, agree very closely with 
experiment so long as A is considerable, that is, whenever the flexure is 
not slight. From this it follows, that any weight which will produce 
considerable flexure will be very near the breaking weight, as a trifling 
addition to it will bend the pillar very much more, and strain the fibres 
beyond what they can bear. 



The Segbetabt of Council, for Hoddeb M. Wbstkopp, Esq., read a 
paper — 

On this Eahattx db Oimitiebbs akb thb EoTnn) Towzbs. 

Ik reading De Caumont's '' Rudiments d'Archeologie," I have been 
struck witib a remarkable analogy between the Irish Bound Towers and 
what are named in De Caumont's work ''Fanaux de Cimitieres," and 
also ''Lanterns of the Dead." The following is his description of 
them: — 

'' Fanaux de Cimitieres are hollow towers, round or square, having at 
their summit several openings, in which were placed, in the middle agea 
(twelfth and thirteenth centuries), lighted lamps, in the centre of large 
cemeteries. The purpose of the lamp was to light, during the night, 
funeral processions which came from afar, and which could not always 
reach the burial-ground before the close of day. The beacon, lighted, 
if not always, at least on certain occasions, at the summit of the towen, 
was a sort of homage offered to the memory of the dead — a signal re- 
calling to the passers-by the presence of the departed, and calling upon 
them for their prayers. Mr. Yillegille has found in Pierre de Clnni, 
who died in 1 1 56, a passage which conflrms my opinion. These are the 
words in which he expresses himself with regard to the small tower of 
the beacon of the monastery of Cherlieu : — ' Obtinet medium cemiterii 
locum structura qusedam lapidea, habens in summitate sui quantitatem 
imius lampadis capacem, quas ob reverentiam fidelium ibi quieecentium, 
totis noctibus fulgore sue locum ilium sacratum illustrat.' 

<< Mr. Lecointre Dupont remarks, that these towers or beacons are 
found particularly in cemeteries which were by the side of high-roads, 
or which were in greatly frequented places. * The motive for erecting 
these beacons was,' he says, ' to save the living from the fear of ghosts 
and spirits of darkness, with which the imagination of our ancestors 
peopled the cemeteries during the night-time ; to protect them friom 
that timare noctumo, from that negotio peramhulanU in tenebru of whom 
the Psalmist speaks ; lastly, to incite the living to pray for the dead.' 



195 

"As to the origin of these sepulchral towers, and chapels stirmoxinted 
by toweiB (these I shall mention further on), nothing certain is known. 
Le Gointre thinks that they are of very ancient origin, and can be 
traced, perhaps, to the early periods of Christianity. Without disputing 
this opinion, which would require to be confirmed by authorities which 
I am not in a position to produce, I think that it was about the twelfth 
century, consequently about the time of the Crusades, that the greater 
number of these erections were built; for, among those which remain, 
I know of none to which an earlier date can be assigned than that of 
the end of the eleventh century, and many are of the thirteenth. If 
we are to judge by those which remain, few sepulchral chapels with 
towers were bult after the thirteenth century ; some of these which 
were rebuilt in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries took the form of 
a high tower. Such is, at Bordeaux, the tower of Peyberland, not far 
from the cathedral. This very high tower was commenced in 1481, 
and finished in 1492, but it has succeeded or was built on a sepulchral 
chapel; for it is weU known that, in 1897, the base on which it was 
built was used as a sepulchral vault, and that over the sepulchral vault 
was a chapel, in which the canons celebrated mass. The belfry of 
St. Michael, of the same town, which has a sepulchral vault at its base, 
and which is of the fifteenth century (1480), has been, perhaps, also 
built over some sepulchral vault ; it is detached from the church, and 
is in the midst of a plot of ground which formed the ancient cemetery." 

De Caumont then describes one of the towers at Antigny, near 
St. Savin, department of Yienne : — " It is in the middle of a square, 
before the parish church, which evidently formed part of the ancient 
cemetery, for it is almost completely paved with tombstones. Four 
square windows turned towards the east, west, north, and south, open, 
under its roof, at the sunmiit of the tower; it was there the light was 
placed. The door was at some distance firom the ground." 

fie then mentions others: — "The Fanal of Fenioux is in the 
cemetery of the village, at a hundred paces from the church, opposite 
the south door. 

** The Fanal of Estrees occupies nearly the centre of a large plot of 
ground, to the south of which is the ancient road frx)m Buzancais to 
Palluan, and to the north of which are the remains of the parish church 
of Estrees, a building of the eleventh century, the choir of which is still 
remaining. This plot of ground was formerly the burial-ground of the 
parish. This tower has an octagonal basement; its height is eight 
metres thirty centimetres. 

** The Fanal of Ciron is one hundred and fifty metres fix)m the 
church of the village, and, like that of Estrees, is in the centre of a vast 
cemetery. 

'* The Fanal of Terigny I'Eveque was also in a cemetery, about three 
hundred paces from the church, near which passed the ancient road, 
which, according to Mr. Dumazy, was the ancient way which led frx)m 
Mans to the Koman camp at Songd. It is terminated by a conical roof; 



196 



its four windows face the four cardinal points. Its height is eleTen 
metres seventy centimetres." 

He adds : — "I could also mention several towers, pointed out by dif- 
ferent authors, which ought to be assigned to this class of structure 
which I have pointed out.'' 

This description, it must be allowed, bears a very striking resem- 
blance to everything that is characteristic of the Bound Towers. They 
are almost all placed unsymmetricaUy at some little distance ^m tiie 
churches, in the centre of a burial-ground. In much frequented places, 
such as Clonmacnoise and Glendalough, they have been even used for 
sepulchral purposes, as skeletons have been found beneath the floors of 
several Round Towers, as at Ardmore, Cloyne, Drumbo, and other places; 
their windows face the east, west, north, and south ; and, further, there 
is a* tradition that they were used for beacons. Their doors are at some 
distance from the ground, which was evidently for the purpose of raising 
a ladder through the door, into the tower. They are also of nearly the 
same period, none being later than the thirteenth century. 

De Caumont adds fiirther : — " Sometimes the Fanaux have been re- 
placed by sepulchral chapels, surmounted by a hollow tower and a 
beacon. Sepulchral chapels were evidently for the same purpose as the 
towers ; for they, too, had beacons at their summit. They could be also 
used for the purpose of exposing the bodies of the 
deceased before burial, of celebrating mass, and 
for other purposes, the memory of which has 
passed away. I know but one in a state of pre- 
servation, that of the ancient cemetery of the nans 
of Fontevrault. It is square ; from the summit 
of the stone roof of the building arises a hoUow 
tower, of four or five metres high, bearing a lan- 
tern at its summit ; each face is pierced with an 
opening ; a conical roof covers the whole. In the 
interior, the chapel is vaulted. The date is 1223." 

St. Kevin's Kitchen would seem to answer 
this description ; and thus, if the analogy which 
I have suggested between the two be correct, St 
Kevin's Kitchen would be a stone-roofed sepul- 
chral chapel, surmounted by a tower, which was 
used as a beacon, for the same purpose as the 
Fanaux de Cimiticre, or Lanterns of the Dead. 
I give here an engraving from De Gaimiont of a 
round Fanal. 

Crosses of Csketeeies. — In De Caumont' s work I remark a farther 
analogy to Irish antiquities, in his description of Crosses of Cemeteries, 
which would lead one to think that there was some connecting link 
between France and Ireland with regard to these towers and crosses. 
There was certainly an intercommunication between France and Ireland 
in the early periods, particularly with regard to religious dogmas and 




197 

pfactioes. St Patrick, we know, was a Frenohmaii, and was eduoated 
in Eraaoe ; St. Columbanus, aJso, trayelled in France. St. Dedan, who 
it is said built the town at Ardmore, traTelled to Itsly. Yergilios, in 
the eighth century, was an Irishman, and, like most of his countrymen at 
that period who were distinguished for learning, left his own country, 
and passed into France. De Caumont'a words ate {** Couis d'Anti- 
quites," vol. vi., p. 349): — 

" Croisei of (Umet&rus. — Crosses raised in the c^tre of church-yards 
are also objects desoring of study, when they are andent; fcnr I am per- 
suaded that, in the middle ages, they have in many burial-grounds 
taken the place of the towers of which I have spoken; at the present 
day, they have taken their place in many sites. The most ancient I 
know of are of the twelfth, or about the end of the eleventh cen- 
toiy. They are most frequenUy simple crosses, enclosed in a circle, and 
raised on a square, or sometimes on an octagonal, pedestal. In Brit* 
tany, crosses have been erected on which are sculptured rather compK- 
cated groups of figures, and of a workmanship the more remarkable, as 
they are in granite." 

Crosses like the first mentioned are found at Glendalough; and 
crosses Hke those in Brittany are to be met with at Monasterboioe, don- 
macaoise, and other shorohyards. 

Dr. Bobert H^Bonnea read a paper "On the Organs of Touch in 

Fishes." 

Mr. JoBir MosisT read the following — 

Ikqvibt nrro thb Ezisixkce ot a pubs Passive Void nr 
HnrDUSTAVi. 

Is his '' Hindustani Grammar," published at Calcutta, 1798, Dr. Gil- 
christ gave an exposition of the Preterite tenses, which has been repeated 
by subsequent grammarians, and by none more distinctly than by Dr. 
Forbes, who, nevertheless, leans heavily on his distinguished predeces- 
sor. Gilchrist did not pleajse himself; but Forbes, although he has done 
as httle SB the former, seems self-satisfied ; and, like him, frames his 
role respecting the " Agent with iV<9," on the supposition that the Pre- 
terite tenses are Active — a theory which I shall show to be untenable. 
That Dr. Forbes accepts them as Active, we have abundant evi- 
dence in his "Hindustani Grammar." 

1. He leaves them in the paradigm of the conjugation of a transi- 
tive verb. Had he thought them Passive, he would have separated 
them. 

2. He introduces them, p. 54, with this observation: ''All the 
nominatives assume the case of the agent, characterized by the post- 
poaitioniM;" but it must be allowed that this expression is not decisive^ 
for the agent case and the nominative are conlbunded. 

n. I. A. PBoc. — ^voi. vm. 2 n 



198 

8. Had Forbes taken the Passive view, he would not hare been 
nnder the necessity of writing (p. 105) : " The only real difficulty likely 
to arrest the progress of the learner consists, not in the use of m to 
express the agent, but in that of ^ to define the object of a transitiTe 
yerb {scil. in a preterite tense.)" Nothing could be more condusiTe; he 
calls the verb, when ne is used, transitive. 

4. Dr. Forbes says, again, that it does not ML within his province 
to account philosoplucally for the mode in which this particle {ne) is 
applied. If he had held the Passive doctrine, he would have been in 
no want of philosophy. 

5. "It is a form of construction," he adds, ''very common in San- 
skrit." So it is, but he derived no light fix>m the Sanskrit. In this 
language the past participl0 is often verbalized by putting a pronoun 
or noun before it, and then both constitute a preterite passive, which is 
Miowed, when needftil, by the instrumental case. In Sanskrit^ the 
most common termination of this case is na, which is the origin of the 
Hindustani postposition ne. 1 refer to Professor Williams' Sanakrit 
Grammar, p. 320, where, however, he graciously leaves me the honour 
of establishing the legitimacy of the Preterite tenses to a purely Passive 
character. The Sanskrit construction here noticed is, without doubt, 
the origin of the like form in the Hindustani ; and is in itself a conclu- 
sive demonstration of the correctness of the judgment which pronounces 
the Urdit Preterites to be pure Passives — a judgment which I propose 
to establish by a rigid investigation. 

The Passive character will be easily ascertained from the ezamina- 
■ tion of a few simple sentences, presenting all the varieties connected 
with the Preterite tenses. To understand the argument, all that is 
necessary is a knowledge of any inflected language, of the true nature 
of a Passive phrase, ^^ch our Hindustani scholars appear to have 
ignored, and of these few particulars : A postposition requires the pre- 
ceding noun or pronoun to be inflected, visibly or virtually. Feminine 
nouns are not inflected in the singular ; nor masculine (including par- 
ticiples), unless they end in alif (a). The plural inflection always ends 
in on. The termination (a) is mas. sing. ; e is the corresponding plural ; 
i' is fem. sing. ; in its plural. The present participle ends in ta, and is 
verbalized by simply giving it a subject ; the passive drops the t, is ver* 
balized in the same way, and thus affords the Preterite tenses. Theee 
I take to be pure Passives. The received opinion is, that the Passive 
voice can be formed only by means of the auxiliary /dnd, "to go, or 
to be ;" but a Passive, even of this kind, is rejected by the ablest of the 
native grammarians, of whom the most distinguished is Muhammad 
Ibrahim, of Bombay. — ( Vide Tufhde MphinsUne.) 

The character of the verb is assertion. When the verb is Active, its 
subject is the agent of the action ; its object, the thing acted upoai. 
When the verb is Passive, the object of the Active form becomes the 
subject of the aspertion, and therefore is in the nominative case ; and 
the agent is in an inflected case, with or without a governing prepo- 
sition : that this should not be superfluous seems strange. 



199 

The statement of the construction of the preterite phrases, as laid 
down by Gilchrist, Shakespear, Eastwick, and Forbes, is, in Forbes'a 
words ("Gram.," p. 103, ed.l860) : " The verb agrees with the object in 
gender and number ; unless it be deemed requisite to render the object 
definite by the addition of ko, in which case the verb remains in the 
simple form of the third person singular masculine." 

This rule is exactly adapted to the appearances, but gives a false 
account of the process by which they are produced. If you follow it in 
writing, the principles, though erroneous, will eventuate in correct 
results. 

That the object indicated here is the object of the preterite as an 
Active tense, has been shown at 3, mpra ; but that the question may 
be more clearly comprehended, it is better to examine a few sentences, 
on this supposition, and this will be doing no more than following the 
exact words of Dr. Eorbes's rule. 

In the sentence— 

(A) ^U J) J J.\ uanelarJAmdri, " He beat the girl," 

we are told that ^M is the object; if so, tM is the subject of mdri. 
Here we have an inflected nominative, and the verb, instead of agreeing 
with it in the masculine, agreeing with the object in the feminine. 
^ is the singrular inflection oftouh, "he," and governed by the post- 
position ne; which is the most firequent termination of the instrumental 
case in the Sanskrit Our nnmerciM authorities, then, force on us the 
easw Miquu8 as the eatw rectus^ and confer on the object the governing 
powers of the subject or nominative. 

This ablative-nominative is fatal to the theory of the rule ; it is 
opposed to aU our cognizances, and subversive of aU grammatical prin- 
ciples. It so bewildered Gilchrist, that, at one time, he calls ne an 
expletive, and at another he incorporates it with the agent, as part of 
the nominative. This leaves no doubt whatsoever as to his views. 

In Hindustani there are two forms of the Accusative : one is the 
same as the Nominative ; the other is associated with the postposition 
ho, and therefore in an inflected state, whether it show itself so or not. 
Now, taking larJA as a nominative, and mdri as passive, we can, in 
accordance with every known principle of general grammar, translate 
the above sentence thus : — 

" The girl was beaten by him." 
If ib be introduced into the construction, the phrase becomes — 

(B) ui ne larki ko mdrd, '< He beat the girl ;" 
and, making larM plural, 

(C) ui ne larkkyon ko mdrd, " He b6at the girls j" 



200 

in both of wbicli I haye no nominatiTey bat two inflected caeeB. The 
Tsrb is in its simplest state, owing to the presence of ko, whose inflnenoe 
bound Gtilchrist and the rest more closely to their errors, whilst it had 
quite a contrary effect on me. I took it as it came, gave it its zeal 
value, and, still adhering to my Passive speculation, escaped from all 
danger by translating thus : 

** As to the giri (or girls) it was beaten by him." 

The impersonal form presented no impediment, for many verbs are so 
used in Hindustani ; and as in Arabic, which has no grammatical neuter, 
the names of natural neuters are mostly feminine. As there is no neuter 
in Hindustani, the masculine is here used instead ; and, consequently, 
I looked upon the masculine singular, mdrd, as that " petrified neater*^ 
which Bopp describes as unconscious of gender. Having taken this 
view^ I found myself at liberty to give a smoother tranalatian: — 

'' As to the girly she was beaten by him." 
"As to the girls, they were beaten by him." 

The absence of concord suggested no difficulty: (1.) because the sub* 
ject of the verb is indirectly mentioned ; and (2.) becaase the Hindu- 
stani shows a willingness to dispense with inflection, whenever its 
absence does not give rise to ambiguity ; thus, achehi kttahen is used for 
achcht, yan kitaben^ "good books." Koreover, I saw no objection to the 
neutral and singular state of tndrd^ upon any general prindplea what- 
soever. We find a Greek neuter plural, and an Arabic broken plural, 
take a verb singular; and also an Arabic numeral under three, and ano- 
ther between three and ten, require a different construction. We do 
not complain ; we discover a peculiar usage, and register it beside the 
leading rule. But in this case there is really nothing peculiar; for the 
verb, being impersonal, must be in the singular number, and must be 
deemed to be in the neuter, though the gender cannot be fonnally exhi- 
bited as it can in ventum erat ad Vesta, 

Let me now submit all the varieties of the preterite phrases, the 
consideration of which will conduct to a clear understanding and deter- 
minate judgment. Eight may be written without ko, and eight with 
ko : but of these latter two will be sufficient. There may be sizteea 
others by making the agent masculine, but the change would not alter 
the argument. 

1 . *Aurat ne hrki mdri. " The woman beat the girl.'' 

2. 'Aurat ne larkd mdrd. " The woman beat the boy.'* 

3. *Aurat ne larkiydn tnarin. " The woman beat the girk." 

4. *Aurat ne larke tndre. " The woman beat the boys.'* 

5. *Auraton ne larki mari, . " The women beat the girl." 



201 

6. 'AwiOon n$ larii mdrd. « The women beat the boy.'' 

7. *Aurat<m ne hrhiymn mdrbk *^ The women beat the girls." 

8. ^AuraUf^ m larh$ sMr#. " The women beat the boys." 

In this seiies* if we follow the Active hypothttda, concord between the 
sahject (as assomed by Qilehrist and Forbes) and the yerb, is visible 
(mly in the first and seventh ; thns (1.) ^amrit and mdri are fem. sing. ; 
(7.) ^auraton and marin, fern. plnr. ; but (2) *thirai is fem., and mdrd 
mas.; (3) 'mtrat is sing., and mdrin plnr.; and so of the rest. On 
the Passive theory, there is concord thronghout ; taking the sentences 
consecutively, iarki and mdri agree; kHrti and mdrd; UrkipdM and 

mdrin; and so to the last {^auratj woman ; larM, girl). 

In four of the remaining varieties we have snch forms as — 

3. *Jur0i<m ne kirkiym ho mdrd, ** The women beat the girls." 
8. *Auraton ne larkon io mdrd, '* The women beat the boys." 

In these, concord acts no part, and we must seek for the principlea 
of the Gonstmction in some other direction. We shall find them in the 
Passive theny, and only there. — See (B) and (C). Those principles 
are embodied in the fc^owing statement against which, as no ai^^ument 
can be prodnoed, so no authority can avail ; and least of all that of the 
Mumhia, who have no dear perception of what the Passive voice is» 
Taking the Preterite phrases by &eir weight, instead of their con- 
stmctiony they totally misconceive them. Even among ourselves we 
have MwnekUf who judge by form, instead of function. Drs. Bosworth 
and Crombie deny the existence of an English passive verb, because it 
is not built on inflection. On this point Dr. Stoddart writes (" Enoyc 
l£etzop.," Art. Grammar, p. 48):^-'' In the distinction of verbs, as in 
most other pari» of grammar, we find grammarians continually con* 
founding signification with form." 

Professor Kay's views of the Latin Passive Voice are very extraor- 
dinary, and serve to throw it greatly into the shade. In his ^' Latin 
Orammar," p. 52, he sketches a Passive Verb thus : — '' When the source 
of an action, i. e. the nominative, is not known, or it is thought not de- 
sirable to mention it, it is common to say that the action proceeds from 
the object itself. A reflexive so used is colled a passive." Supposing 
this luiguage to have some meaning, it is evident that the object must 
be known to us. As the action proceeds from that object, we arrive at 
the source of action, i. e. the nominative, which therefore becomes 
known; and so the reflexive or passive is miserably lost. 

Mr. Kay says — " Vertiturf literally he tume himself, is often used 
for he %9 turned** This use is good news for a Latin scholar; who, how- 
ever, will insist that ee vertit is the Latin for he turns himself. It is true 
that vertitur » se vertit ; but this is no proof that the literal version 
above given is in the least defensible. Besides, the grammatical equa- 



202 

tion is trae only by chance ; for any number of similar oonstmctions 
may be prodaced which will not oonstttate equations ; thus disoipuimi 
doeetur is not = iiseipviui »e docet^ &c. It is evident, therefore, that the 
Professor endeavours to confound the Latin Passive Voice with reflexive 
phrases. 

Again, applying those novel principles to vertitur itUerea eahm^ we 
find that vertttur is not reflexive ; for the source of the action is dis- 
closed by oodum; and as it is not reflexive, it is not passive. The Pro- 
fessor leaves it '< no character at all." 

In support of his views, he appeals to French reflected verbs, and is 
very unlucky : — " ICany European laugnages afford examples of thia 
(the panive) use of the reflexive." In those languages a passive signi- 
fication is finBquently expressed by a reflexive form, though this is rarely 
the case except in the tlurd person. This does not prove the reflexive is 
passive, or the passive reflexive. If we receive Mr. Kay's doctrine, the 
French for I am flattered VAJe meflatte, instead of an meflatte; and the 
Latin for thou iweet thyeelf is amarie. To such absurditiea does Mr. 
Kay's theory of the Passive Voice lead. 

If, then, some of our foremost grammarians entertain such obscure 
or absurd notions of the Passive Voice, can we wonder that the leas 
expert and less learned grammarians, of India have been puzsled with 
it ? Some of the best Ei^lish scholars reject the English Passive ; shall 
we be surprised that the Munehis have not been able to detect the Urdu 
Passive f Certainly not. My assertion, therefore, of independent JSm- 
dustani Passive tenses can no more be invalidated by pleading against 
me the authority of the Munshis than the authority of Gilchriat or 
Forbes. "No mere authority can impair the investigation, argument, and 
inferences which have been exhibited. My analysis and reaaoning are 
unconnected with any peculiar theory or &vourite speculation; they are 
rigidly applied to the features of the construction; conducted acoording 
to the essential nature of the Passive Voice, and the clearest analogies 
of language; and their consequences confirmed by the consistency and 
harmony to which they lead. 

Being satisfied of the Passivity of the preterite tenses, I drew up the 
following simple and consistent statement : — 

1. The preterite tenses of transitive verbs are pure Passive forms. 

2. The subject, when directly spoken of, is in its simple state as the 
nominative case, and requires the verb containing the Passive assertion 
to agree with it in gender and number. 

8. If the subject of the verb be placed under the government ofio, 
the verb remains in its elementary form, singular and masculine. 

4. In the latter case it must be translated as impersonal Passive ; 
but the appropriate pronoun may be supplied from the indirect nomina- 
tive, or subject of the discourse, which has been put under (he govern- 
ment of ko. Thus : — 

^ . - 
^Auraton ne larkiyon ko mdrd. (I^U ^\*;^J HfiJ^jy^) 



203 

** As to the girls, it was beaten by the women, 
Or, ** As to the girls, they were beaten by the women." 

5. The agent of the verb in these preterite terms is governed by ne. 

This exposition, I conceive, makes everything connected with this 
subject clear and harmonious. It proves the Hindustani to have a pure 
though defective preterite Passive voice, independent of the anziliary 
jdnd, and shows m« to be as intelligible with the Preterite tenses as d 
with the Latin passive, or by with ti^e English. The tenses which are 
not derived from the Past particle must be supplied by the help of 
Jdnd; and thus we shall have a complete paradigm of the Passive voice 
in the Urdii of Hindustan. 

Mr. B. B. Stoney read a paper '' On the Relative Deflection of Lat- 
tice and Plate Girders." 

The President, before leaving the chair, congratulated the Academy 
on the number and variety of communications of great interest and 
value which had been brought before the Academy during the Session 
now dosed. 



MONDAY, NOVEMBER 10, 1863. 
WiuJAM B. Wilde, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair.. 

W. H. Hardinge, Esq., read (in continuation)* his paper on Mapped 
Townland Surveys of Lreland. 

The Bev. Professor Haughtok read the following Paper : — 

Observatioks our the Wnrn, made nr the Yeabs 1848-49, ik Leopold 
Hakboxte, Noeth Somebset, oir Boaed Hee Majesty's Ship ** Iir- 

VESTieATOE." 

The following observations were made during the winter of 1848-9, 
on board Her Majesty's ship "Investigator," which, with the "Enter- 
prise," formed the first Franklin searching expedition, under the com- 
mand of Sir James C. Boss. 

I owe the opportunity of discussing and publishing them to the 
kindness of Captain "Washington, R. N., Hydrographer, who placed 
them at my disposal, for scientific use, together with the Tidal Observa- 
tions that accompanied them. The observations themselves were made 
by Lieutenant Eobinson, B. N., and appear to have been very accurately 
recorded. 

The latitude of Port Leopold is 73^ 50' N., and the longitude 
is 90« 20' W. 

E. I. A. PEOC. — VOL. Vm. 2 E 



204 



No observations of temperature were made by lieutenant Robinson, 
whose meteorological observations were intended to assist the corre- 
sponding Tidal Obaerrations ; and for this reason the wind and barome- 
ter were observed, not at fixed hours of the day, but at the times of 
high and low water. 

The following mean temperatures of Port Leopold, observed during 
the same winter, are recorded by Professor Dove in his " EL'matolo- 
gische Beitrage," 1857: — 

Mean Manthfy Temperature of Port Leopold in 1848-9, in d^reet 
Fahrenheit 



1848. 




1849. 




October, . . . 
Kovember, . . 
December, . . 


-f 9°-7 
^14-6 
-22-8 


January, . . . 
Februaiy, . . 
March, . . . 
April, ... , 


- 86^-7 
-86-2 
-22-8 
-10 



I have arranged the observations in two Tables : — 

Table I. contains the observations in the order of their occuirence. 

Table II. contains the direction and force of the wind for each 
month| arranged with reference to the points of the compass ; and 

The diagrams at the end exhibit Ihe curves of frequency and fori. 
of wind, constructed r&om Table U. 



205 



Tabu L — Observatioru an the Wind and Barometer at Leopold Harbour, 
Latitude, 74^ If. Longitude, 90«* JF. 



i 



Directton. 



: 1 

2 
3 

4 
5 

! 6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
18 
14 
15 
16 



I 



II 






17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
26 
26 
27 
28 
29 
80 
31 



DIrQCttOD. 



as. 

S.E. 

East 

East. 

S. E. 
S. £. 

N. E. 

N. £. 

&E. 

S. E. 

Var. 

N. 

N. 
N.W. 



6 
6 

7-8 

7-8 

8 

8 

2 
2 

8-4 
8-4 

1 
1 

8 
8 



1^ 

t 



29-84 
29*68 

29-58 
29*61 

29*65 
29*66 

29*78 
29*46 

29*44 
29*46 

29*70 
29-90 

30*07 
80 11 



29*98 
29*70 

29*60 
29*60 

29-66 
29*70 

29*70 
29*47 

29*41 
29*60 

29-80 
30*08 

80*07 
80*16 



203 



LEOPOLD HARBOUR.— 1848. 



DlnbcUoiL 






1 

2 
8 

4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 



"{ 

13 
14 
16 



N. W. 
N. W. 

N. W. 

North. 

North. 
North. 

North. 
N. W. 

North. 
N. W. 

N. W. 

North. 

N. W. 
N. W. 

N. W. 
N. W. 

N. W. 

N. W. 

N. W. 
N. W. 

8. E. 
S. E. 

S. E. 



11 



1 
1 

1 
6-6 

6-6 
6-6 

6-7 
3 

8 
2 

2 

6-6 

6-6 
4-6 

6-7 
6 

2*8 
2-8 

0-2 
1-2 

4-6 
6-7 



80-169 
80*182 

30-025 
29-640 

29-388 
29-442 

29-462 
29-888 

80-070 
80-810 

80 100 
30-808 

80-780 
80-090 

29-779 
29-730 

29-780 
29-800 

29-780 
29-860 

29-966 
29-940 

29*966 
29-988 

80-182 
80-134 

80-136 
80-100 

80-116 
30-300 



'I 



30-146 
80-096 

29-890 
29-466 

29-426 
29-480 

29-676 
30-004 

30-226 
80-320 

30-320 
30-302 

30-266 
29-908 

29-796 
29-704 

29-790 
29-784 

29-800 
29-926 

29-980 
29-970 

30-266 
30-824 

30-186 
80-160 

30-060 
80-090 

80-263 
80*218 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
26 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



DireetloiL 









30-144 
29-950 

29-830 
[.29-750 

[129-760 
[29-905 

[129-840 

i I 29*776 

['29-701 
29-789 

29-854 
29-948 

29-960 
29-950 

29-982 
29-960 

29 916 
29-940 

29-872 
29-980 

29-980 
29-968 

29-890 
29-854 

29 -866 
29*814 

29-750 
29-775 

29 -890 
29-954 



30-032 
29-88^ 

29*764 

j 29 -760; 

■29 -820! 
I 29 -820 ■ 

!29-90«^ 

: 29 -805 

! 29 -724 
29-780 

'29-841 
29-916 

29 -975 
30-000 

SO -000 

29-970 

29 -942 ; 
29 -942 

29-903 

29-940 

29-9861 

29 -966 1 

29 -860! 
29*880! 

29 -844 < 

29 -778 I 

1 

29 -780 • 
29 -846 I 

29-900! 
29-998 



207 



LEOPOLD HARBOUR.— 1848. 



1 
2 
3 

: 4 

• 5 

: 6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 



Direction. 



S.E. 
N. W. 

N. W. 

N. B. 

N. E. 
North. 

North. 
North. 

North. 
N. W. 

N. W. 
N. W. 

N. W. 

N. W. 

N. W. 

N. W. 

North. 
North. 

N. N. E. 
N.N. £. 

Soath. 
South. 

S. S. W. 

as. W. 

Cahn. 
Calm. 

Calm. 
North. 

North. 
North. 

N. N. W. 
8.W. 



4 
4-6 

4-5 
2-3 

2-8 
2-3 

2-8 
3-4 

8-4 

4-5 

4-5 
4-5 

4-5 
8-4 

3-4 
2-8 

2-3 
2-8 

8-4 
3-4 

2 
2 

1-2 
1-2 



II 



80-004 
29-990 

29-950 
30*108 

30-000 
29-980 

29*902 
29*860 

29 -812 
29*816 

29 950 
80*116 

80*140 
80*125 

29-980 
80*115 

29-770 
29 -838 

29*950 
29-968 

29-968 
29-892 

29-905 
29-930 

29*936 
29*916 

29-842 
29-800 

29*760 
29*742 



2-3 29*808 
1 29-884 



3^ 



80-005 
29-950 

80-008 
80*050 

29 *994 
29*926 

29*900 
29*900 

29*845 
29-806 

29*894 
30-060 

30-140 
30-150 

30-080 
29-880 

29-772 
29-792 

29 -900 
29-968 

29*920 
29-900 

29 -900 
29*947 

29-910 
29 -886 

29*808 
29-794 

29*720 
29-700 

29-838 
29-934 



Direction. 



aw. 

aK 

a E. 

South. 

South. 
South. 

North. 
North. 

North. 
North. 

North. 
North. 

N. W. 
N. W. 

N. W. 
N. W. 

N. W. 
N.W. 

South. 
South. 

Calm. 
Calm. 

aaE. 
as.£. 

South. 
South. 

aaE. 
aK 

North. 
North. 



1 
1 

1 
1-2 

1-2 
1-2 

1 
1 

1-2 
1-2 

2-8 
2-8 

4-5 
4.5 

4-5 
4-5 

4-5 
4-5 

1-2 
1-2 



4 
4 

4-5 
4-5 

8 
4 

4 

1 



i^ 

I 



29-980 
30-152 

30*124 
30-050 

29-820 
29*624 

29*450 
29-344 

29-816 
29*346 

29-218 
29*165 

29-258 
29-234 

29-200 
29 *330 

29*330 
29*280 

29*274 
29-378 

29*415 
29*408 

29*414 
29*366 

29-464 
29*710 

29*831 
29*984 

80*264 






30*068 
30*068 

30*160 
30-100 

29*946 
29*723 

29-552 
29*374 

29*350 
29 -342 

29*305 
29-198 

29*190 
29*815 

29*168 
29*800 

29-847 
29-265 

29-305 
29*402 

29-410 
29*414 

29-882 
29-412 

29*542 
29-790 

29-853 
30-142 



208 



LEOPOLD HABBOUB.~1849. 



Direefloa. 



1 
2 
3 
4 

6 I 

7\ 
B 

9' 
10 < 
11 

12 j 

13 I 

14 I 

15 j 

16 i 



S. S. B. 
S. S.E. 

aK 

S. S.E. 

S. E. 

S. S. E. 

S.aE. 

s.aE. 

N.W. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 

Var. 

N. N. W. 

V*r. 

a£. 

S.E. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 

Var. 
West. 

N.W. 

North. 

North. 
N.W. 

N.W. 

N.W. 

North. 
North. 

N.W. 

N. byE. 






7 1 80*415 80 



6-7 

5-6 
5-6 

5-6 
5-6 

4-5 
8-4 

3-4 
2-0 

8-4 
6-7 

6-7 
2-8 

2-3 
3-4 

8-4 
2-3 

2-3 

1-2 

1 
1 

2 

3-4 

4 
4-5 

4 
4 

4-5 
4-5 

6-7 
7 



30*485 80* 

I 
80*862 SO- 
SO '355 I 30* 

30-260 SO- 
SO '288 SO 

I 
30-314 30' 

30-860 I 30 ' 

30-424 80- 
30-440 80- 

30-416 SO- 
SO -815 I 30 

30-660 '29* 
30*810 29- 



30*860 
30-760 



30-450 29' 
30-450 29- 



30-491 
30 '491 

30-695 
30 '648 

30-690 
30 '684 

80*618 
30-566 

30-592 
30*672 

30-732 
30*726 

30-670 
30-665 



29- 
29- 

29* 
29* 

29* 
29* 

29- 
29* 

29- 
29* 

29- 
29* 

29- 
29- 



1 




t 
478 
•420 


17 


826 
•826 


18 


810 
295 


19 


807 
290 


20 


448 
436 


21 


•450 
874 


22 [ 


950 
650 


23 


860 
884 


24 1 


600 
440 


25 ; 


694 

733 


26 1 


652 
700 


27 ; 


682 
670 


28 ; 


583 
689 


29 1 


640 
714 


30 1 


732 
746 


31 


614 1 




685 





IMrectlon. 


, 




£ 


N. N. W. 
N. N. W. . 


4-6 

4 


N.N. E. 
N.W. 


4-5 
5-6 


N. N. W. 
North. 


5-6 
5-6 


North. 
N. W. 8 E. 


1-2 
1-2 


S. E. 
8. £. 


4-2 
8 


8. E. 

a£. 


8 

4-5 


North. 
Calm. 


4 



N. N. W. 
N. N. W. 


1-2 
1-2 


N. N. W. 
N. N. W.- 


2 
1-2 


Soath. 
South. 


4-5 
8 


Soath. 
North. 


8-4 
2-3 


N. N. W. 
N. N. W. 


5 
6 


N.W. 
N.W. 


8-9 

7-8 


N.W. 

N. N. W. 


8 
2 


N. N. W. 
N.W. 


1 
8 



It 



-680 
•740 

-738 
-880 

-948 
-922 

•814 
•771 

-492 
.400 

-508 
-656 

•670 
*838 

-888 
-946 

-016 



1^^ 

5-3 



29-714. 
29-714 

29-738 

29-810 

29 -922 
29 -963 

29 -862 
29 -824 

29 -655 
29-432 

29-4€4 
29-55:> 

29-672 

29 -780 

29-8921 
29-990 

30*016 30-030 
30 048. 30-063 



050 j 30 -000 
012180-060 



30*078 30-094 
30* 



•228 

'274 
-100 

-884 
'740 

•667 
•702 

•700 
•654 



30-276 

30 -200 
30-010 

29-765 
29-700 

29 -672 
29-730 

29-666 
29-600 



209 



LEOPOLD HARBOUB— 1849. 



Directton. 



1 

2{ 
3| 
4J 
5| 
6 j 
7J 
8] 

d] 

!10 I 

!"^ 

12] 
13] 



"{ 



N. N. W. 
N. W. 

N. W. 

N. W. 

S.& E. 
N. W. 

North. 
North. 

N. N. W., 
N. N. W. 

N. N. W. 

N. N. W. 

N. N. W. 

N. N. W. 

N. N. W. 
N. W. 

N. W. 

N. N. W. 

N.N.W. 
N.W. 

N.W. 

N.W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 

N.W. 

N.W. 

S. S. E 
S.S.E. 



6 
6 

8 
7 

7 
7 

8 

7 

7 
8 

6 

7 

9 
6 

4 
2 

1-6 
7 



It 



29*894 
29-145 

29-068 
29-562 

29-890 
80*065 

80-018 
30*003 

29-862 
29-710 

29-622 
29 -674 

29*674 
29*674 

29*796 
29-904 

29-870 
29-782 

29-765 
29-662 

29-610 
29-612 

29 -450 
29 *470 

29-768 
80-134 

80-080 
29*930 



I 



29-270 
29 034 

29-084 
29-800 

29-768 
30-000 

30-069 
30 -022 

29-940 
29*802 

29-625 
29*590 

29*565 
29-759 

29-810 
29-914 

29-810 
29-782 

29-692 
29-676 

29-628 
29*568 

29-480 
29-604 

29-980 
80-216 

30-000 
29-875 



DlreetioiL 



South. 
S.b7E. 

S. S. E. 
S. S. £. 

S. aE. 

S. S. E. 

S. S. E. 
8. S. K 

8. 8. E. 
8. E. 

Sonth. 
Calm. 

S. W, 
Calm. 

Soath. 
North. 

N. N. W. 
Calm. 

North. 
Calm. 

Calm. 

N. N. W. 

N E. 
East 

N.W. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
N. W.-S. E. 



7 
5 

5 

7 

7 

7 

7 
9 

9 
6 

8-1 


1 


1 
1 

2 


1 



3 

6 

7 

6 
6 

6 

4-2 



u 

29-926 
80-814 

30-240 
29-875 

29-610 
29 -430 

29-480 
29*552 

29-660 
30-036 

30*200 
30*285 

30-262 
30-347 

80-882 
30-408 

30-408 
80-440 

30-544 
30-690 

30-630 
30-570 

80-290 
29-906 

29 -690 
29-640 

29*604 
29-816 



1^ 
32 



30-150 
30*350 

80-012 
30-012 

29-440 
29-472 

29-610 
29-692 

29-810 
30 130 

30-230 
30*295 

30-270 
30*270 

30*386 
80-408 

30 410 
80 -620 

80*665 
30*632 

30*600 
30*500 

80*078 
29*850 

29-694 
29 678 

29-690 
29-900 



210 



LEOPOLD HARBOUR.— 1849. 



1 

2 j 

s{ 

4| 

6 \ 

7 I 
B\ 
9 

10 

11 J 
12 

13 j 

15 i 
16< 



Dlrectioo 



Calm-N.W. 
N. W 

S. S. E. 
South. - 

Calm. 
Var. 

S. E. 
8. E. 

S. E. 
S. K 

S. E. 
S. K 

E. S. £. 

East 

S.E. 
S. S. E. 

N. N. W. 
N. N. E. 

N. W. 

N. W. 

N.W. 
N. W. 

N.W. 
W.N.W. 

W. N. W. 
W. N. W. 

W. N. W. 
W.N.W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 

/N.N.W.\ 

\ 8.S.E. ) 
S.E.-S.W. 



4 
2 

2 
2 


2-8 

4 
4-7 

5 
7-8 

3-2 



6-7 
8-9 

7-4 
2 

1 
2 

2 
2 



1-1 
1-3 



il 



29-958 
30-060 






30-034 
30-070 



29-976 29-944 
29-824 29-715 



29-616 
29-706 



29-716 
29*636 



29-650 29-726 
29-514 29-600 

29-585 29-605 
29-868 29-775 



29-892 
29-684 



29-910 
29-762 



29-490 29-520 
29-472 29-472 

29-640 29-474 
29-540129-070 



29-772 
29-940 

80-030 
30-062 



29-832 
30*008 

80*034 
30-140 



80-223' 30-300 
30-334 30*312 

30*325 30*280 
30*285 30*200 



30-068 
30-039 

30-040 
30-080 

29-862 
29 -826 

29-792 
29-790 



30-060 
30-076 

30-033 
30-010 

29-835 
29-836 

29-790 
29-786 



■•( 

20 I 

«j 

22 I 

23 I 

«{ 

26 I 

26 I 

27 I 

28 { 

29 I 

30 I 



Dlr6CtioiL 



Calm. 
East. 

East. 

N. E. 

N.E. 
N. E. 

N.E. 
N.E. 

North. 
North. 

North. 
North. 

North. 
Calm. 

Calm. 
Soath. 

S.S.K 

s.aE 

S.S. E. 
S. S. £. 

S. S. K 
South. 

East 
North. 

East 
East 

N.E. 
N.W. 

North. 
South. 



2^ 



29-732 
29-752 

29-880 
29 -955 



29-730 
29-713 

29-912 
29-9UI 



29-974 29-976 
29*992*30*000 



29-882 
29-858 

29-804 
29-812 

29-73r> 
29-700 



29*930 
29-8«2, 

29-81^ 

29-80(1 

29-760 
29-700 



29-912 29-766 
30-188 30-OdJ 



30-138 
30-246 

30-310 
30-864 

30*394 
30-382 

80 -455 
30-462 

30-351 
30-316 

30*208 
29 •985 

29*868 
29-972 

30-066 
30 082 



30-174 
30-296 

30-318 
30-366 

30-3?'^ 
80-432 

30-44rt 
30-454 

30-346 
30-298 

30-10*3 
29-9v^ 

29 925 
30-034 

30-081 
30-OSO 



211 



LEOPOLD HARBOUR.— 1849. 



< 



j 1 

I 

I 2 
3 

' 4 
5 
6 
7 

\ 8 

I 

' 9 
10 
11 
V2 



13 



14 



15 



IMrectlon. 



E. S. E. 
E. S. E, 

E. S. E. 
N. E. 

N. K 
N. E. 

N.W. 
N. W. 

N.W. 
Calm. 

Calm. 
North. 

Calm. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
N. N. W. 

N.N.W. 

N.N.E. 

N. E. 
N. E 

North. 
South. 

North. 
N. N. W. 

Var. 
a S.E. 

as. E. 
aaE 

a a E. 
aaE 



ii 



II 



6 129-862 

8 29-710 

8 29-714 

4 29*685 

4 29-626 

4 ,29-474 



II 



13 



29-397 
; 29 -611 



4 29-880 

j 30 041 

30-063 

1 ,30 068 



29-929 
29-929 

' 29-891 
I 30 -042 



2 30-208 
4 30-253 



30-211 
30-080 

30-086 
30-145 

30-080 
30-091 

80-317 
80-495 

30 '632 
30*510 

30-508 
30*409 



30*030 
29*748 

'29*668 
,29*679 

'29*677 
I 29 -573 

■29*442 
,29*449 

'29*777 
130-036 

30*077 
30-110 

30-038 
29-895 

29-946 
30-137 

30*234 
30-241 
I 
30-150 

30-057 

I 

30-187' 
30-154: 

30-048: 
30-217, 

I 

30*422 
30-511 

30-497 1 
30-501 I 



30 -458, 1 
30-352' ^" 



Direction. 



aaE 

S. S. E. 
S. S.E 

as. E 

South. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 

N. W. 
N.W. 

s. a E. 
a a E 

N.N.W. 
N.N.W. 

North. 
North. 

North. 
North. 

N. N. E. 

N.N.E 

N. E. 
N. N. W. 

N. byE 

N. N E 

N. N. E. 
N. W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 

a s. E. 
s. a E. 



■u 



30-316 
30-260 

30 097 
29-947 

I 

29-740 
29-660 

,29-605 
29-663 

29*644 
29*607 

29*573 
29*727 

29-702 
29*783 

29-776 
29-776 



13 



30*352 
30-282 
30*200 

30-038 
39-038 

29-860 
29*674 

29-644 
29 674 

29-706 
29-648 

29 '586 
29-669 

29*736 
29-740 

29-792 
30*816 



29*878 30-956 
30-003 30*034 



30-061 
30-033 



30-058 
30-032 



30*065 80*088 
30-127130*180 

30 -225 '30 -234 
80-278 30-288 



30-323 
30-320 

30-090 
29-962 

29-955 
25*961 



80-364 
30-252 

30-000 
29-945 

29-945 
29-962 



B. X. A. PROC. — VOL. Viri. 



2r 



212 



LEOPOLD HARBOUR.— 1849. 



Direction. 



10 ' 



11 



12 



13 



14 



15 



IC ' 



N.N.W. 

N. W. 

N. N. E. 
N. N. E. 

North. 
North. 

North. 

N.N.E. 

N. N. E. 

N.N.E. 

North. 
N. N. W. 

S. E. 
South. 

Var. 
East. 

East. 
South. 

Var. 
Var. 

s.aR 

South. 

Var. 
S.S.E, 

S.S. E. 
S. S. E. 

S.S.E. 
East 

S.E. 
S. £. 

S. E. 

S. E. 



1-3 
7 

7 
2 

2-4 



It 



993 
019 

072 
116 

114 
115 

061 
917 

781 
796 

920 
095 

200 
297 

297 
297 

986 

747 

960 
250 

808 
247 

125 
111 

273 

348 

842 
248 

128 
023 

929 
883 



II 



998 
026 

073 
095 

137 

114 

110 
018 

846 
844 

869 
025 

177 
249 

320 
170 

827 
819 

144 

287 

267 
213 

086 
191 

324 



287 
167 

064 
972 

972 
897 



30 



31 



Direction. 



East. 

S. E. 

N.E. 
North. 

N.W. 
N. W. 

N. N. W. 
N.W. 

N.N.W. 

as.E. 

North. 
S. S. E. 

S.S.E. 
N. N. W. 

N.Ji. W. 
N.W. 

Calm. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
N. W. 

N.W. 
Var. 

East 
East. 

North. 
North. 






Sis 
I* 



29-889 29-8:)^ 
29-874 i29-8.yi 

i 

29-954 29 -S?. 
30-137 30 -067 1 

I I 

30-208 30-18? 
30-251 30 -261 j 

30 -268; 30 -266! 
30 -260 i 30 -293 

80-178 80-26<' 

30-040 30 -261:' 

I 

29-962'29-9?r> 

29-888 29-93? 

29-811 29-82<» 
29-811 29-801 

I 
29-789 29-777 
29-723 29 -"Su 

29-784 29 -76?^ 
29-792 29-816 

29-824 29-820 
29-832 29-871 

29-912 29-897 
29-946 29-991 

30-028 30 031 
30-060 30*054 

I 
29-974 29 -gs:* 
29-880 2B'7'M* 

29-762 29-7?«* 
29-762 29-762 

I 
29-743 29-756 
20-763 29-76,^ 



213 



LEOPOLD HARBOUR,— 1849. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 

I 

I 

I 8 

I 

1 

9 

10 

I 
U 

12 

I 

1 13 

,14 
16 



Diroction 



North. 
N. N. W. 

N. N. W. 

N. N. W. 

N. N. W. 
N. N. W. 

N. N. W. 
N. N. W. 

N. N. W. 
N. N. W. 

N W. 

N. W. 

N. W. 

N.W. 

Nortli. 
North. 

N.E. 

E. N. E. 

East 
N. N. E. 

E. N. E. 
E. N. E. 

Var. 

N.W. 

N. N. E. 
N. N. E. 

Var. 

East. 

Ea«t 
East. 



H 






29-769 
29-798 

29-787 
29-767 

29-778 
29-781 

-29-799 
29 -840 

29-842 
69-909 

29-909 
30-025 

80-092 
30-134 

30-159 
30-143 

30-168 
29-962 

29-945 
29-964 

29-968 
30-025 

30-015 
29-831 

29-669 
29-650 

29-656 
29-633 

29-620 
29-727 



29-774 
29-786i 

29-799 
29-777 

29-796 
29-747 

28-771 
22-819 

29-864 
29-846 

29-977 
30-058 

30-140 
30-131 

30-152 
30-160 

30-080 
29-9G6 ! 

29-943 
29-966 

29-968 
30-007 

29-976 
29-731 

22-656 
29-603 

29-524 
29-558 

29-658 
29-679 



Direction. 



S. E. 
Var. 

S.E. 
S.E. 

E. S. E. 
E. S. E. 

East. 
North. 

East. 
East. 

East. 
Var. 

N. N. E. 

N. K 

N.E. 

N.E. 

North. 
South. 

Var. 
S. S. E. 

S. S. E. 
S.W. 

S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 

S. 8. E. 
S. S. E. 

S. S. E. 
S. S. E. 

S.S. E. 
S. S. E. 



I 



29-849 
29-891 

29-852 
29-807 

29-760 
29-717 

29-770 
29-805 

29-859 
29-895 

29-895 
29-918 

29-856 
29-817 

29-807 
29-734 

29-739 
29-797 

29-884 
29-930 

29-996 
30 Oil 

30-092 
30*080 

80-011 
29 906 

29-877 
29-937 

29-866 
29-763 






29-778 
29-876 

29-896 
29-833 

29-782 
29-728 

29 -754 
29-797 

29*846 
27-900 

29-900 
29-903 

29-848 
29-819 

29-741 
29-726 

29-768 
29-846 

29-937 
29-970 

29 -975 

30 040 

30*088 
30 -064 

30-064 
29-938 

29-887 
29-874 

29-924 
29-837 



214 



LEOPOLD HARBOUB.— .1849. 



Direction. 



8 

4 j 
5 

6 \ 

7 j 

8 j 

9 I 
10 
11 
12 
18^ 

u| 

16 i 
16 



S. S. £. 

as.£. 

Var. 
North. 

N.W. 
N.W 

N.W. 
N.W. 

N.W. 

N.W. 

N.W. 

N. W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 

N.W. 

N. W. 

Var. 

S.S.E. 

S.E. 

North. 

North. 
North. 

Var. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
Var. 

N.W. 

N.W. 

N. W. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 



6-6 
6 

2 
8 

4 
2 






29*671 
29-643 

29*658 
29-662 

29-730 
92-830 

29-730 
29-730 

29-718 
29-678 

29-678 
29-656 

29-609 
29-601 

29-647 
29-736 

29-750 
29-718 

29 635 
29-635 

29-553 
29 -407 

29-257 
29-290 

29-371 
29-409 

29-400 
29-466 

29-627 
29-607 

29-674 
29-788 



29-736 
29-654 

29*666 
29-660 

29-725 
29-775 

29-760 
29-731 

29 -736 
29-714 

29*665 
29-643 

29-605 
29*636 

29-723 
29-738 

29-755 
29 696 

29*621 
29^681 

29*457 
29*344 

29-257 
29*839 

29-404 
29*392 

29 -441 
29*441 

29*607 
29*647 

29*640 
29-726 



17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
26 
26 

28 

'29 
30 
31 



Direction. 



S.S.E. 
S.S.E. 

S. S. E. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 

North. ■ 
North. 

North. 
North. 

North. 

N.N.E, 

N.N. R 
N.N.E. 

North. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 

N.W. 

N. K 

N. E. 
E.N. E. 

E. N. E. 
East 



H 

x5 



746 
732 



•^ I 

ll ! 



29-766 
29 -734 1 



•776 29 -749 i 
•812.29-813: 

809 29-808' 
845 29-815 

I 
■801 29-854 
'801 29-775 

•761 29-779 
•791 22-782 



807 

878 

963 
016 

030 
016 



29-855 
29-984 

30-002 
30-029 

30 -008 
30 039 



054 30-0841 
091130-054: 

•036 '80-000 
941,29-906 

■868 29-847 
•832,29-820. 

•792'29-82'> 
'697 29 -739 1 

■677 29-663 
■643,29-665, 

■670 '29 -6*0 1 
■620 '29*611' 



649 

604 



29-581 
29-518 



215 



LEOPOLD HARBOUR. 1849. 


IS 

a 
o 


Direction. 


1 


P 
li 


11 

11 


1 


Direction. 


£ 


It 


li 

1^ 


•{ 


E.S.E. 


7 


29-446 


29-486 


17 










N.E. 


6 


29 -820 


29-407 










M 


& S.E. 


6-6 


29-262 


29-261 


18 










£ S. £. 


6 


29-414 


29-880 










•{ 


East 


4 


29-668 


29-478 


19 










S.E. 


6 


21-663 


29 -667 










'{ 


S.E. 


6 


29-469 


29-667 


20 










Var. 


»-7 


29-469 


29-488 










M 


S.E. 


7 


29-481 


29-416 


21 










S.E. 


6 


29-489 


29-660 










M 


Soath. 


4 


29-661 


29-781 


22 










Soath. 


4 


29-787 


29-731 










7 










28 










8 










24 










9 










26 










' 10 










26 










11 










27 










12 










28 










13 










29 










14 










80 










16 










81 










16 












1 









216 



Table II. — Frequency and Force of Wind at Leopold Earhour. 



LEOPOLD HARBOUR.— 1848, 1849. 


OoTOBBRi 1848. 

I 


NoYKiiBBn, 1848. 


Direction. 


Nomber. 


Force. 


IMrectioxL 


Number. 


Force. 

1 


North. 


2 


4 


North. 


6 


aij 


N. N. E. 








N.N.E. 







N. E. 


2 


4 


N. E. 







E. N. E. 





I 


E.N. E. 







But. 


2 


15 


East. 







E.S. E. 








E.S. E. 







S. E. 


6 


25 


S. £. 


S 




S. S. E. 








S. S. E. 







South. 








South. 







S. S. W. 








S. S. W. 







S.W. 





i 


S.W. 







W. S. W. 





1 


W. S. w. 







West 








West 







W. N. W. 








W. N. W. 







N. W. 


1 


3 


N. W. 


14 


41 ' 


N. N. W. 








N. N. W. 







Var. 


1 


1 








14 




23 


1 


Dkckxber, 1848. ' 


January, 1849. 


North. 


17 


35 


North. 


^ 


83i 


N.N.E. 


2 


7 


N. N. K 


n 


7i 


N. E. 


2 


5 


N.E. 








E. N. E. 








E.N. K 








East. 








East 








E.S. E. 








E. S.E. 








S. E. 


3 


6 


S.E. 


9 


33 


S. S. E. 


8 


16 


s.aE. 


6 


SSI 


South. 


9 


20J 


South. 


a 


11 


S.S. W. 


2 


8 


S. s. W. 








S. W. 


2 


2 


S. W. 








w. s. w. 








w. s. w. 








West. 





' 


West 


1 


1 


W. N. W. 








W. N. W. 








N. W. 


15 


63J 


N. W. 


18 


72 1 


N. N. W. 


1 


N. N. W. 


12 


37 


Var. 





' 


Var. 


3 


10 


56 


1 
1 


62 





217 



Table II. — Continued. 



LEOPOLD HARBOUR.— 1849. 



Februabt, 1849. 


March, 1849. 


Dbecttoa 


Number. 


Forod 


Direction. 


Number. 


Force. 


North. 


4 


6 


North. 


7 


16 


' N. N. E. 








N. N. E. 


1 


2 


1 N.E. 


1 


6 


N.E. 


6 


29 


1 E. N. E. 








E. N. E. 








Eart. 


1 


7 


EHRt. 


6 


86| 


j £.&£. 








E. S. E. 


1 


H 


aE. 


2 


9 


S. E. 


8 


84^ 


S.&E. 


n 


66^ 


S. S. E. 


8 


26 


South. 


H 


12 


South. 


4 


11 


8.S.W. 








S. S. W. 








S.W 


1 


1 


s. w. 


1 


2 


^. s. w. 








W.S.W. 








West 








West 








W. N. W. 








W. N. W. 


6 


34 


N.W. 


17 


98 


N. W. 


10 


36 


N. N. W. 


12 


71 


N. N. W. 


2 


2 


Vtr. 



51 




1 


Var. 


1 


n 






60 




Apbil, 1849. 


Hat, 1849. 


North. 


H 


21 


North. 


8 


21 


N. N. E. 


5i 


24 


N. N. E. 


6 


17 


N.E. 


6 


26 


N.E. 


1 


5 


EN.E. 








E. N. K 








East 








Eaat. 


6 


26 


E.S.E. 


3 


22 


E. S E. 








SE. 








S. E. 


6 


22 


S. S. E. 


12 


40 


S. S. E. 


8 


21 


Soath. 


2 


4 


South. 


8 


9 


S.S. W. 








a aw. 








8.W. 








aw. 








W.S.W. 








w. a w. 








Wert. 


9 





West 








W.N.W. 


. 





W. N. W. 








N.W. 


18 


61 


N.W. 


18 


67 


N. N. W. 


6 


16 ! 


N N.W. 


6 


18 


V«r. 


1 


2 ' 


Var. 


5 
61 


11 




65 







218 



Table II. — Cmlinued. 



. — , 

LEOPOLD HARBOUR.— 1849. 


June, 1849. 


July, 1849. 


Direction. 


Number. 


Force. 


Direction. 


Number. 


Foro& 


North. 


5 


7 


North. 


10 


25 


N. N. E. 


8 


6 


N. N. E. 


3 


9 


N. E. 


4 


10 


N.E. 


1 


8 


E. N. E. 


8 


18 


E.N. E. 


2 


10 


East. 


8 


31 


East. 


1 


6 


E. S. E. 


2 


8 


E. S. E. 








S. E. 


8 


8 


S. E. 


1 


4 


S. S. E. 


10 


83 


S.S. E. 


6 


19 


South. 


1 


2 


South. 








S. S. W, 








S. S. W. 








s. w. 


1 


5 


s. w. 








W. 8. W. 








w. s. w. 








West. 








WesL 








W. N. W. 








W. N. W. 








N. W. 


5 


27 


N.W. 


31 


125i 


N. N. W. 


9 


42 


N. N. W. 








Var. 


5 


7 


Var. 


4 


7 


69 




69 




August, 1849. 


Sbpteicbbb, 1849. 


North. 








North. 






N. N. E. 








N.N.E. 






N. E. 


1 


6 


N. E. 






E. N. E. 








E. N.E. 






East. 


1 


4 


East. 






E. S. E. 


8 


18J 


£. S. K 






S. K 


4 


24 


' S.E. 






S. S. K 








' S. S. E. 






South. 


1 


4 


1 South. 






S. S. W. 








1 S. S. W. 






8. W. 








1 s. w. 






w. s. w. 








w. s. w. 






West 








West 






W. N. W. 








W. N. W. 






N. W. 








N.W. 






N. N. W. 








N. N. W. 






Var. 


1 


5 


i 






1 


11 







219 

The following valuable oollectioxi of coins and other antiquities, from 
the cabinet of the late Very Eev. Richard Butler, was presented, through 
l>r. Aquilla Smith, by Mrs. Butler : — 

CoiKB. — 6 Hibemo-Danish ; 35 John; 8 Henrr III.; 15 Ed- 
ward I. ; 65 Edward IV. ; 4 Richard III. ; 35 Henry VII. ; 24 
Henry Vm.; 8 Philip and Mary; 11 Elizabeth; 7 James L; 2 
Charles T. Total, 209 silver coins. 

13 Elizabeth ; 16 James I., and Charles I. (farthings). 4 Charles I. 
(Confederate money). 4 Charles II. ; 85 James I, (gun-money). 4 
James II. (hali^pence). 2 George I.; 14 GteorgelL; 8 tokens, ."Vox 
Populi,'' ftc. ; 49 traders' tokens, seventeenth century, issued in Dublin ; 
52 tokens issued in Drogheda, &c. ; 4 William and Mary halfyence ; 
and 19 coins of great rarity, published by Dr. A. Smith in the " Trans- 
actions of the Royal Irish Academy," vol. xix., and in SainthilFs " Oik 
Podrida," vol ii., p. 125. 

Total coins presented, 433. 

Seals. — l^o. 1, a large circular copper seal — legend, " S. Conversus 
de Benedictione Dei," from Athlone ; No. 2, brass circular seal — ^legend, 
''Scutum Stephani Episcopi Bossensis;" No. 3, a copper signet ring, 
with initials " J.M.D." ; No. 4, a circular leaden seal — legend, " S. Ri- 
cardi Alligani ;" No. 5, Bulla of Pope Martin V. ; No. 6, BuUa of Pope 
Pius n. ; No. 7, Bulla of Benedict XIV. 

EiECTKOTn^Es. — No. 1, facsimile of an ov^ seal — legend, " Sigill. de 
Abbatis. S. Marie de Truin," and reverse of the same matrix — legend, 
" Si. M. Abb. S. Marie de Durmag ;" No. 2, facsimile of a circular Irish 
seal; No. 3, facsimile of an episcopal seal — ^legend, '' SigilL Epale Joisf 
Epi Fermeb ; No. 4, facsimile of a circular seal — legend, " SigUlum 
officii recepte Scaecarii regis iii Anglia," apparently of the reign of 
Edward IH. ; and a large number of impressions of seals in wax. 

AirnainTixs. — 2 small circular brooches ; 3 buttons ; 1 large copper 
pin ; 30 weights; 18 bronze and stone celts, &o. 

Absolved, — That the marked thanks of the Academy are due, and 
are hereby presented, to Mrs. Butler for her very valuable donation. 

12 fragments of encaustic tiles, from the Palace of Swords, were pre- 
sented, through the Bev. Dr. Todd, by B. P. Colles, Esq. 

The thanks of the Academy were given to the dooor. 



a. I. A. PBOC. — ^voL. vni. 2 o 



220 



STATED MEETING.— Satcrdat, November 19, 1862. 
The Yeby Rey. Chables Gbayes, D. D., President, in the Chair. 

R B; Madden, M. D.^ was elected a member of the Council in the 
department of Polite Literature; and the Rev. J. H. Todd, D. D., was 
elected a member of the Council in the department of AntiquitiesL 

J. Beete Jukes, M. A., F. B. S., read a paper — 

On the Flint Implements found in the Obavel op St. Acheul, feu 
Amiens, and theie Mode of Occurrence. 

On my return from a Continental trip in August last, I halted for a day 
in Amiens, in order to visit the locality where the well-known flint im- 
plements have been found in some of the deposits that are generally asso- 
ciated under the name of ** the drift." These have been so thoroughly 
explored and described by Mr. Prestwich, Mr. Evans, and others, since 
the publication of M. Boucher de Perthes' work, that I could not hope 
to make any new observations; but I wished, if possible, to procure 
some of the implements, and also to acquire that kind of knowledge of 
the features of the* neighbourhood and the '' lie and position'* of the beds, 
which can only be acquired by personal inspection. 

In what I have to say, then, I appear rather as an expositor of Mr. 
Prestwich' s papers, and as bearing witness to their accuracy and fidelity 
to nature, than as an original investigator. The ''drift" of the north- 
west of France is very different from the great northern drift of our 
islands, which consists of materials derived from great distances, mingled 
in confusion with those of the neighbourhood, and all driven peU-mell 
over the country. In France, as was long ago shown by D'Arhtriac, 
the gravels and sands of each river basin contain only those materiah 
that can be found in situ in the upper part of the basin itself; and even 
where two adjacent basins, like those of the Seine and the Somme, are 
separated by a water-shed that is often very low and inconspicuous, ihen 
is still no mingling of the ''drift" of the two basins. This fact, toge- 
ther with the additional one that the fossQs found in these " drifts" are 
all fresh water, or terrestrial forms, prove that this '^ drift" is the result 
of the river action, even where the deposits are far above the present bed 
of the river.* The fact that these rivers have excavated an additioiud 
hollow in their valleys, 100 or 150 feet deep, and often one or two miles 
in width, since the deposition of the gravels, seems to me perfectly 
natural, since I have arrived at the conclusion that a far greater atmo- 
spheric erosion has operated in the river valleys and over the whole sar- 

* Marine fossils oecnrring occuionally in the " drift" of the lower pait of the rirer 
baAin merely show that the land stood at one time at a lower level, and that the sea aeeoid- 
ingly flowed farther up the valley than it does now. 



221 

&ce of Ireland (see a paper " On the River Valleys of the South of 
Ireland" in the " Q. J. Geol. Soc," vol. xviii, 1 862). Among the fossils 
fonnd in these fresh-water gravels there are many land and fresh-water 
shells, all of existing species, and nearly all still living in France, some 
ranging as tar soath as the south of France ; but others, and those the 
majority, spreading jnore to the north, and as far north as Finland. 
There are also found fragments of the woolly elephant, or mammoth {Ule- 
ph(u prim%gen%us)f the woolly rhinoceros {Rhin, ticharhinus), the ancient 
ox {Bo» priscus), the reindeer, an extinct species of hippopotamus, and 
others* 

There are also in certain spots numerous flint implements and wea- 
pons to be found, evidently fashioned by the hands of an early race of 
men, who were contemporaneous with these animals. Those now on the 
table, which I was lucky enough to secure by purchase from the work- 
men and their children, must not be taken as examples of the best spe- 
cimens that have been got, except one^ which is of a different form to 
any that I have seen elsewhere. This is like an adze, and very similar 
to those implements used by the Polynesians at the present day, which 
can be made to act the part either of a hatchet or an adze, according as 
they are fastened verticedly or horizontally in the handle.f A part of the 
original surface of the flint, which formed an indentation, has obviously 
been taken advantage of in this specimen, to make the grasp of the hand 
or the fitting of the handle more secure. A similar adaptation of part 
of the original surface of concretion in the flint, that which it had when 
it lay in the chalk, can be seen in others of the specimens, which seem 
to have been used as either knives, daggers, or chisels, the rest of the 
flint having been chipped to a point for the purpose. 

I have placed alongside of these flint implements a spear-head made 
of quartz-rock, which I brought many years ago from Port Essingtcm, in 
North Australia, where flat splinters of quartz-rock are greatly used for 
this purpose by the natives. This, which at first sight has a more arti- 
ficial appearance than the flint implements, is in reality much less arti- 
ficially formed. The original form of all chalk flints is that of a rounded 
lump, however irregular and sometimes grotesque may be the shape of 
that lump. If broken accidentally, the fracture is like that which a 
lump of glass would have — generally very uneven and irregular, with 
sharp, projecting comers. The qufutz-rock, however, has evidently 
been naturally split, either by cleavage or jointing, into long, regular 
flakes, with smooth, even surfaces, only requiring a little chipping so as 
to produce a point to be fit for use as spear-heads. The Australians will 

* I am not aware that any spedmena of the care bear, or the cave hyana, or of the 
Irish elk {Megaetrot Hibemieug), have yet been found in the gravels of the Somme valley, 
though they have been foand elsewhere associated with the remains of the animals above- 
mentioned. 

t The Polynesians cut and fSsshioned large and magnificent canoes with these stone 
implements, and the Papuans of New Guinea not only make canoes, able to carry thirty 
or forty men, but build immense wooden houses, raised on large platforms of trees, aU 
cut down to one leveli without the aid of any metal implement. 



«22 

traoflfiz a man or an animal at a distance of thirty or forty yards with 
one of th^ae 3tone-headed spears when launched firom a wammt, or 
throwingHstick. 

Some of the smalli flat, 079!, flint implements from Bt. Acfaeul seem 
to me well adapted for fitting on to long stLcks, so as to be used as spean^ 
not to be thrown perhaps, but to be thrust, either into animals or ene- 
mies. 

The other larger implements with a squarish form at one end, and 
chipped to a sharp point at tbe other, were evidently di^^^ng instru- 
ments, used either for grubbing up roots, or for making holes in ice, or 
other similar purposes. Bome that I have seen in Sir C. Lyell's collec- 
tion had convenient parts of the original surface of the flint left about 
the broad end, in order to afford a better grasp for the hand« 

The flrst thing that occurred to me after examining the gravel piti 
was to find some means of determining between the true flint impb- 
ments, which were originally buried in the gravel, and any spurioiu 
ones manufactured by 2ie workmen. As it happened to be a Sunday 
afternoon, the men were not at work, and I had therefore an opportu- 
nity of quietly examining the undisturbed gravel in the vertical faces of 
the gravel pits before I went into the cottages to make purchaaea. 

The gravel consists chiefiy of flints, some whole and some liroken; 
and on examining the broken surfEices of laige undisturbed flints, I per- 
peived that, in addition to the stains and discolourations wliich some 
of them showed, they all, even the blackest, had a peculiar *' sheen" or 
polish, not unlike the glaze on a piece of porcelain. On breaking a fev 
of these flints, I found that even the smoothest of the new surfaces of 
fracture had a very different lustre from that of the old fractured sur- 
faces which had been formed before the flints were deponted in the 
gravel. 

J put into my pocket, accordingly, one of these lumps of flint as a test 
instrument This shows in some parts the original surface of concretion 
which the flint had when it lay in the chalk, as may be known by 
the thin white coating surrounding the dark flint, the surface of whidi 
coat is, in the gravel, often stained brown or yellow by ferrugineous 00- 
louriug matter. In other places this piece of flint shows some old, irre- 
gular surfaces of fracture, exhibiting the porcelain-like lustre side by 
side with a new fracture made by my own hammer. The latter surface 
has an obviously inferior kind of lustre to that on the former, being just 
like the sur&ce of an ordinary gun-flint. This lump of flint is among 
those on the table, and a little comparison of its surfaces will ennhle any 
one, as it enabled me, to recognise the genuine flints fashioned by the 
old Pleistocene men, and buried in the gravel at the time of its deposi- 
tion, and distinguish them from any newly fashioned imitation of them. 
There is a spurious example among those on the table, which one of the 
young boys from whom I bought them palmed off on me as a genoine 
one, but which differs from the genuine ones in its form aa much as in 
the lustre of its surface. A little bit of an old fraotuFe of surisce re- 
maining on this spurious example makes the contrast between the old 



223 

and the recent sarfaces more marked. The polish is apparently one that 
is only to be acquired by long weathering, poesibly by the alow perco- 
lation of water or other similar action ; and though it might no doubt 
be artificially imitated, yet it could hardly be done except by labour and 
expense which would raise the cost much beyond the few saw which the 
chndren ask for the most common kind of worked flints. 

I only gave two francs even for the peculiar adze-like flint. One of 
the workmen produced this for me from a shelf in his cabin, and he 
would doubtlesa have taken less had I chosen to beat him down. This 
possesses the peculiar sheen or polish which attests it genuinenessL 

I hare deposited this collection of flint implements in the Faheon- 
tological Ghdlery of the Museum of Irish Industry, among the fossils 
collected by the officers of the Geological Survey of the United King- 
dom, near the skeleton of the Irish Big Horn (commonly called the Iri^ 
Elk), and some other bones of that animal, presented to us by Lady Eliza- 
beth BuUer, and also near the few specimens of bones and teeth of the 
mammoth and other Pleistocene animals which we possess. 

I would beg leave to take this opportunity of indorsing Mr. Frest- 
wioh's explanation of the mode of occurrence of these fluiviatile deposits. 
He concludes that they were formed by the currents and floods of the 
riyers when they ran at different levels during the latter part of the 
process of the excavation of the valleys. The land, he says, may have 
stood at a lower level at one time, and he gives some independent evidence 
for that, and the rivers may accordingly have had different rates of ve- 
locity during its elevation. All this must have required a great length 
of time, during part of which geologists know, from other evidence, £at 
the climate of France and En^and was more like that of l^orth Siberia 
and North Labrador than it is now ; and there was also perhaps a greater 
fall of rain and snow, and, consequently, greater occasional floods than 
at present. 

The old savage tribes of men at this period probably lived very much 
as do the people of the countries aUuded to above at the present day, 
and during the winter they would in like manner make holes in the 
ice of the river, and watch them, in order to spear the fitii and other 
aquatic animalfl that would come to them. TMs would account for the 
numl)er of implements found at particular spots, near the vUlage of a 
tribe perhaps, or where the aquatic animals were most abundant ; while 
the men being fewer, and more wary than the herds of land animals 
(manmioths and others) which they pursued, would be a sufficient reason 
why the bone or tooth of a man should be of even still rarer occurrence 
than the bones of the other animals. 

W. H. Hardinge, Esq., concluded the reading of his paper on the 
Mapped Townland Surveys of Ireland. 



224 



MONDAY, DECElfBER 8, 1862. 
The Ybbt Bet. Chables Gkayss, D. D., President^ in the Chair. 
D. P. Mac Cabtht, Esq., read the following paper : — 
Mehoibs of the Coitet op Spain, from 1679 to 1681.* (Asc&ibed to 

THE MaBQIHS SE YiLLABS.) 

The publication of M. Delepierre's " Analyse des Traveaux de la Soci^ 
des Philobiblon de Londres^f has revived in me the interest which I took 
at the beginning of the year ( 1 862) in a bibliographical inquiry connected 
with the above subject, but which, with other matters of more import- 
ance, I have had to put aside under the pressure of a severe domestic 
affliction. Along with the circumstances personal to myself which hare 
suspended my labours in this direction, and would stlU suspend them 
but for the appearance of M. Belepierre*s ''Analyse,'* I felt a disinclisa- 
tion to make public a chain of circumstances connected with ^e in- 
quiries that preceded the publication of Mr. Stirling's volume, which, 
however delicately handled, might have the appearance of conveying a 
reflection upon the bibliographical knowledge and literary industry of 
the many distinguished personages who, in one way or the other, hare 
been parties to a mistake which has scarcely ever been paralleled in 
the annals of bibliography. I need not say that I totally disclaim anj 
such intention ; and ihat towards Mr. Stirling himself, the princip^ 
victim, I may say, to the short memory of his friends, and indeed to 
his own, I feel that respect which his eminent services to literature and 
art so justly entitle him. Indeed, the frank and friendly spirit in which 
Mr. Stirling received from me the first, perhaps unwelcome, intelligence 
of the previous publication of his book, and the valuable assistance which 
he has since given me in the prosecution of the inquiry, leave no doabt 
in my mind that he will accept the following narrative in the spirit in 
which it has been drawn up — a narrative which, if possessing httle 
historical vafiie, will be found to present bibliographical features of no 
common interest from which, perhaps, a future " Curiosities of litera- 
ture" may obtain materials for one of the not least amusing of its 
chapters. 

The account which Mr. Stirling gives of the time and mode of his 
procuring the MS., and of its subsequent publication by him, is given in 



• <*M£moire6 de la Ck>ar d'Espagne, depuis rannSe 1679 juaqn' eo 1681." Pariii 
1788. 

" M^moires de la Cour d'Espagne, depuia raon^ 1678 Joaqu'en raoote 1682."*— 
MS. in the possesaion of William Stirling, Esq., M. P. 

"M^motrea de la Conr d'Espagne, aoas le Regne de Charles II., 1678-1683.'* F» 
Lb Uabquis d» Yillabs. (Edited by Mr. Stirling). Londres: Triibner etC*«, 1861. 

t H Analyse des Traveaux de la 8oci6t6 des Philobiblon de Londrea." Pi Octatv 
Dklepiskre. Londres : Triibner et C'*, 1862. 



225 

the preface to the printed volume, and more fully in a letter to myself 
(April 20, 1862), from which I make the following extract : — 

'< When I bought the Mimoires de Villars, in MS. for a few shil- 
Hngs, at a sale at Sotheby's, some eight or ten years ago, I concluded 
it to be a transcript — ^for such it obviously was— of a Dook afterwards 
printed. I did not, it is true, know the book, but I had Uttle doubt of 
meeting with it — my collection of books relating to Spain not being so 
large as it is now. This conclusion unfortunately prevented me from 
attaching any importance to the MS., and even f^m making any note 
of the date, or the sale, when it came into my possession. It was not 
until some years had passed that my attention was again directed to it, 
on being asked to contribute something to one of the miscellanies of 
the Philobiblon Society. On looking into the matter, I was surprised at 
the absence of all mention of the book in either of the editions of the 
Lettres de Mme. de Villars in Brunet, Querard, the Biog. Univereelle^ or 
any of the obvious sources of information. I showed tiie volume at se- 
veral meetings of the society, and I especially consulted on the subject 
M. Van de Weyer, M. Delepierre,* and the Due d'Aumale, the latter 
of whom was sufficiently interested in the matter to take it home with 
him, and examine it in ^e midst of all the resources of his very remark- 
able library. The Duke returned it to me, with the assurance that he 
could discover no account of it, or any reason to believe that it had been 
printed, f Sir F. Madden afterwards examined it, and gave it as his 
opinion that it had not been printed. Many other persons saw it, and 
from none of them did there fcdl any expression t)f belief or suspicion that 
they had seen it in print. Under these circumstances, considering it 
was hardly lively enough to afford specimen extracts for a paper, and 
much too bulky to form part of the Philobiblon annual volume, I de- 
termined to present it to the society as a separate work, and to print 
also a few copies (seventy-five, I think), for sale." 

Now, it will be noticed that, among the list of obvious sources of 
information which Mr. Stirling mentions in this statement, M. Barbier's 
'' Dictionnaire des Ouvrages Anonymes et Pseudonymes'' is not in- 
cluded. This, I think, supplies the key to all the subsequent mistakes 
which took place, and accounts for the extraordinary blindness which 
seems to have fallen upon so many intelligent and well-informed persons 
on a matter susceptible of the simplest and most obvious explanation. The 

* M. Delepierre has, it appears, since discovered his error, it is prestuned through ori- 
ginal research, as he does not qaote any authority. The rather meagre account which he 
gives of the volume of 1788, at pp. 108, 109, of his " Analyse," is curiously confined to 
the dcecription of that volume which I gave to Mr. Stirling, in my reply to the letter 
above quoted. 

t The MS. which Mr. Stirling has heen kind enough to lend me has inserted the fol- 
bwing interesting autograph letter of the Due d*Aumi3e upon the subject : — 

*' Le Due d'Aumale pr^sente ses oomplements & Mr. Stirling et lui renvoye les deux 
volumes qu*il avait eu robligeanoe de lui preter. II regrette de n'avoir pn tronver aucun 
reoseignment nouveau sur les cnrieux memoires dn Marquis de Yillan. 

''Orieans House, 11 Avril, 1866." 



226 

Btatement by the anonymouB copyist of Mr. Stirling*8 MS., that these Me- 
moirs were written by tiie Marquisde Villars, was too readily receired, mt- 
withstanding the glaring improbability, if not impoasibiliiy, of what is 
added, namely, that they were written, not only by the Marquia de Til- 
lars, but for the instruction of the Marquis de Blecotui — a atatement 
ahnost totally irreconcilable with positive dates and facts. The dm 
of authorship being thus too readily admitted, all inquiries were tonied 
in the one, and I fear the wrong direction, namely, the Marquis de YO- 
lars. Whereas, if the work had been understood to be what it reaDj v^ 
an anonymous one, a moment's search wonld have cleared up the mystery. 
and the Philobiblon Society would have been poorer by one superfliH»i 
but still curious and interesting book. Barbier's ** DicticMinaire des Aso- 
nymes," &c., (tom. 2, p. 372, seconde edition, Paris, 1823), iji refeningto 
ICadame d'Aulnoy's well-known ^* M^moires de la CWr d'Sspogne," 
has the following remark : — 

" Le volume intitule Mimaires de U Cour d*E9pa^mef Bepnis 1679 
jusqu'en 1681, Paris, 1733, in-ia, ressemble beaueoup a PouTiage <k 
Madame d'Aulnoy/' 

I9^ow, it will be remarked that we have here a work mentioned which 
is ahnost identical in title with the MS. of Mr. Stirling, '' M^moins 
de la Cour d'Espagne, depuis I'ann^e 1678 jimqu' en Tannde 1682;'' 
and the ezaminatioa of which, and collation with the MS., one would 
have thought, would be the first step in the inquiry. Why thia ww nol 
d<Hie arose, of course, firom the preoccupation of all tiie parties cenocRied 
with tiie name of YiDars. If this had been done, ttksre would of oomm 
have been an end of l^e matter, as the MS. of Mr. Stirling and tlie suobt- 
mous volume of 1733 are identical, excepting those tnS&ag diffnenees 
which I shall subsequently point out. It will also be noticed thai the re- 
semblance betweeuMadame d' Aulnoy's ^'M^moires de la Cour d'Espagne'' 
and the anonymous volume of 1733, which struck Mr. Stirling sad 
others with so much surprise when pointed out by the weU-iafonned 
writer in "The Spectator" newspaper (March 8 and March 15, 1862), is 
referred to so early as the year 1823. What is, however, still more sor- 
prising is the fact that this very resemblance is pointed out by Mr. Sitr- 
^ft^AffTMtf^/' in his valuable "Annals of the Artists of Spain," pubbshedia 
1848, not many years before the time that he fell in with the supposed 
YiUars' MS. at Sotheby's. Mr. Stirling, writing of ihe river Mananaret 
at Madrid, which, he pleasantly says, " though the dry est in Europe, has 
been the great source of smart sayings,"* adds in a note the following 
remark: — 



* Some of these smart sayings are collected in the '* Relation de Mftdrid," p. a, s^ 
pended to Aarasna da Sommerdyck'a *' Voyage d^Bspagoe," ELievir, I66a.>-CokvM. 
1667. When speaking of the largeness of the bridge, and the inaignificaiicB ofth* 
stream, it ia said that the bridge was waiting for the river, like the Jews for th* Ummak. 
'* EaU Puente especa il Rio comelos Judiosel Mesataa." These jokes aeem to havabaen tfat 
common property of all the early travellera in Spain. Thoa Madame d'Aolnoy, ia kff 
** Voyage d'Eapagne," tom. iii., p. 9, says, speaking of this bridge — " II estanparte* «t 



227 

" The author of ^Memoires de la Cour d'Espagne/ l2mo., Paiis, 1783, 
likewise has his fling at this unfortunate river — ^p. 3. These memoira 
seem to be a compilation from Madame d'Aulnoy and others."* 

Barbier, however, having been passed over, it appears that Brunet 
was looked into. The old editions of Brunet make no mention of the ano- 
nymous volume of 1733, neither does the new (1860, torn, i., p. 570); 
but what he there says by way of explanation to the mention of Madame 
d'Aulnoy*8 " M^moircs de la Cour d'Espagne," if not inaccurate, has pro- 
bably added to the mystification which already existed on the subject. 
Under the head of Aulnoy, or Aunoy, he has the following entry : — 
''Memoires de la Cour d^Espagne (depuis 1679 jusqu' en 1681, ano- 
nyme) Paris CI, Barhin, 1690" — ^thus giving, or seeming to give, as the 
title of Madame d' Aulnoy's book that which really belongs to the ano- 
nymous volume of 1733, which he does not mention at dl, but which 
he doubtless has confounded, like so many othoi:s, with the former. The 
copy of Madame d'Aulnoy*s " Memoires de la Cour d'Espagne," which 
I possess, is the third edition, published at the Hague in 1692. Its 
title is simply ** Memoires de la Cour d'Espagne^" without any addition, 
and is identical with the original edition of CI. £arhin, Paris, 1690, a 
copy of which I have examined in the Library of Saint Genevieve at 
Paris. The words " depnis 1679 jusqu' en 1681," which he gives in a 
parenthesis, and I suppose by way of explanation, do not appear upon 
the title-page of any edition of Madame d'Aulnoy's *' Memoires;" but 
they form a prominent part of the title of the volume of 1733, which is 
a different book altogether, but which any one reading this article by 
Brunet would conceive to be the same. 

The next step to be noticed in this very curious story is the letter 
which Mr. Stirling published in ** Notes and Queries" (2nd series, vol. 
X., p. 187, Sept. 8, 1860), appealing to the readers of that widely dif- 
fused and uaeM journal for any information relative to Yillars, or the 
*' Memoires" attributed to him, or of any printed copy or other ma- 
nuscript of them. Mr. Stirling went very clearly and very ftdly into 
the subject in this letter, and stated the various researches that he had 
made even among the MSS. in the British Museum, *' where his friends 
could not give him any information on the subject." Unfortunately 

ponr le moiiu atiari bean qae 1e Pont-neof, qai traverae 1a Seine a Paris. " ... ** II y 
en eat an qui dit plaisammant l^-dessos, qaUl conseilleroit de Tendre le Poot poar acheCer 
de Feao.** This curioasly corresponds, almost verbatim, with the following passage in the 
then anpablisbed '* Lettres de Madame de Yillars," p. 96 :— '* II est bien pins large et bien 
plus long que le Pont-nenf de Paris: et Ton ne peot s'empecher de s^yoir bon gr6 aoelni 
qae conseiUa a oe Prince de vendre ce Pont on d*acheter une riviere.** The substance ia 
in the " Relation de Madrid,** above quoted. "II est vray qne TEmpereur CharUt V, y 
a fait bitir un Pont fort grand et fort beau, que Ton appelle La Puente Seponama, 
£t Vayant an jour fait voir a nn Ambassadeur pour s^avoir ce qu*il Iny ensembloit? II 
luy reapondit, Mmot FuenU o mat agua." 

* " Annak of the Artists of Spain/* p. 592, vol. iii., note. The ** M6moiros de la 
Cour d*£apagne/* Paris, 1738, are quoted at pp. 957, 958, 960, 961, and 968, where 
there is a misprint in the reference, which should be to pp. 229, 280 of the **• Memoires," 
instead of pp. 129, 130, as quoted. 

R. I. A. PBOC. VOL. VUI. 2 H 



228 

this appeal met with no response. Had the printed books in the 
Museum been examined instead of the MSS., the search would pro- 
bably have been rewarded with better success, as it is scarcely possible 
that the volume of 1733 can be so rare as not to be found in that vast 
collection. In Paris I met with it without the slightest difficulty, in 
the public libraries there ; two copies being in the Bibliothiqm it 
VArsenalj and one in the BihliotJUque Imperiale, which are identical 
with my own. 

With regard to the history of this copy, at least for the last twenty- 
two years, it is easily given. In 1840 it seems to have come into the 
possession of the late Mr. Ford, the well-known author of the " Hand- 
book of Spain,'' as the title-page bears his autograph with that date. It 
appears to have been a favourite of his, being bound in the beautiful 
style of his pet books. It seems also to have been read by him with care, 
several pencil marks occurring throughout, and the fly-leaf in fix>nt con- 
taining also in pencil the reference to Barbier, already mentioned, is 
well as the following suggestion : — *' It is possible that the author may 
have had access to the MS. letters of the Marquise de YiUars, ambassa- 
dress in Spain at the time of the marriage of Charles U., which were 
printed at Amsterdam, in 12mo., 1760."* 

The mention of the name of Yillars in this MS. note, coupled with the 
fact of the volume having been in the possession of Mr. Ford for more 
than twenty years, must be considered not the least curious incident in thi* 
bibliographical Comedy of Errors, when it comes to be stated that the 
very person who advised Mr. Stirling to resort to " Notes and Queries" 
for information was Mr. Ford himself/ 

Wiurn I apprised Mr. Stirling, in April last, of my having identified 
his Yillars' " Memoires" with the anonymous Memoii-s of 1 733, his surprise 
was great indeed. But far greater was his astonishment when he leamni 
from me a few days later that it was at Mr. Ford's sale, in May, 1861, 
that I bought my copy of these Memoirs. f In a letter to me from 
Keir, dated April 23, 1862, Mr. Stirling says on this subject : — 

" It' you had told me that you had found Yillars in print on my own 
shelves, you could hardly have surprised me more than by saying vuo 
bought the book at Mr. Ford's sale. He was my intimate friend and 
near neighbour in London, and each of us had the entire use of each 
other's books. He saw the MS. of Yillars mauy times, and, although. 
I cannot say positively that he ever took it home with him, I think it 
very likely he may have done so. We have several times discussed the 
matter and looked at the MS. together, and nothing in it ever suggesred 
to him the volume which he seems to have had at home. What is still 
more strange is, that I, knowing as I thought his books well, bid for 
everp one at the sale that I knew not to be in my own collectioiiy and 



* A copy of the ** Lettres de Madame La Marqaise de VUlars," pabtiabed at 
dam (obligingly lent me by Mr. Stirling) is dated 1769. 

t It 18 numbered 410 in Mr. Ford's Catalogue, and coat me lU. 



229 

certainly paid them more than one visit at Sotheby's. Indeed, as I read 
over again your description of your * Memoires,* I have a vague recol- 
lection of having the book in my hand, and supposing it to be identical 
with a little book printed at Cologne some time at the end of the 17th 
century — * Eolation de ce qu'est pass^e a la Cour d'Espagne entrc D. Juan 
d'Autriche et le Pere Nithard,' or some such title.* However this may 
be, I do not think I ever chanced to meet it at Mr. Ford's, and I am 
sure he had either forgotten the fact of its existence, or did not connect 

it in any way with the name of Villars, or the subject of my MS 

Whether my letter to * Notes and Queries' was written before or after 
Ford's death, I cannot say, having no copy of it here ; but I think it 
was after. I remember that he suggested my trying that source of in- 
fbrmation." 

Having thus cleared away this preliminary matter, it remains for 
me to give a brief account of the anonymous volume of 1 7^3 ; to esta- 
blish its perfect identity (the authorship and a short introduction alone 
excepted) vrith the MS. and printed volume of Mr. Stirling ; to point 
oat certain difficulties in the way of receiving $ome at least of the state- 
ments of the unknown transcriber of Mr. Stirling's MS. ; to show, not 
vaguely, but by direct reference to the pages of each book, and to what 
extent, the " M^moires de la Cour d'Espagne," by Mme. d'Aulnoy, and 
the ''M^moires de la Cour d'Espagne" published in 1733, are taken 
one from the other, or both from a common source ; and, finally, to in- 
dicate the track which led me with little difficulty up to what I beHeve 
to be thai source, namely, the MS. '' Memoires de la Cour d'Espagne," 
in the Library of the Arsenal at Paris, of which, as far as this inquiry < 
is concerned, I may claim to be the discoverer ; which I believe to be 
the source of all the others ; and of which I shall give a full description 
at the end. 

oir THE EDinoir op 1788. 

"Memoibes de la Covb d'Espaone, depuis I'ann^e 1679 jusqu' en 
1681. Ou Ton verra les Ministeres de Doh Juan et du Due de Medina 
Cell Et diverses choses conccmant la Monarchic Espagnole. A Paris 
chez Jean-Fr. Josse. rue Saint Jacques, a la Fleur de Lys d'Or. 
M.DCC.XXXIII. Avec Approbation, et Privilege du Roy." 

This book, which I have been the first to identify with the MS. and 
printed '* Memoires de la Cour d'Espagne par lo Maequis de Villars," 
of Mr. Stirling, is an octavo volume, containing 371 pages, exfclusive of 
three leaves of introductory matter which are unnumbered. These con- 
sist of an Avertissementy two pages ; Approbation and Privilege du Roy, 
three pages, and Fautes a Corriger, one page. The Avertissetnent is as 
follows : — 



• I have an early translation of this book, with the following title :— .** The Spanish 
History, or a Relation of the Differences that happened in tlie Court of Spain between 
Don John, of Auatria, and Cardinal Nitard, with other Transactions of that Kingdom." 
Loudon, 1678. 



230 



•• AVEETISSIMENT. 

" Quoique je pnisse dire en fayeur de ces M^moires, on ne doit rien 
CToire qu'apres les aroir lus ; 11 m'est impossible de m'antoriser dn nom 
de leur Auteur pnisque je I'ignore, et il importe pen de quelle main 
vienne un ouTrage ponrvu qu'il soit bon ; celui que je pr^sente au public 
a paru tel k plusieurs personnes de gout qui m'en ont conseill^ Timpres- 
fiion apr^s I'avoir examine tres-scrupuleusement ; je souhaite que oeax 
qui le lironty pensent de meme ; on a toujours aim^ les M^moires, cette 
fa9on d'ecrire rHistoire a paru toiijours plus propre qu'aucune aatre 
aux details, sourent plus int^^ressants que le fonds meme de rHistoire; 
BUT ce principe le Public doit me s^avoir gr^ de I'intention que j'af ene 
et me pardonner d* avoir hazard^ un ouvrage inconnu en fisiveur de 
Pesperance que je devois avoir de lui plaire." 

The "Approbation,*^ signed " Gbos i>b Bozb," and the " PriwtUg^ iit 
Roy,^^ signed " Sanson," with the docket of registration signed "G. 
Mabtiv, Syndic," do not call for any particular description. 

From the whole of this introductory matter, it will be seen that the 
same consultations, the same inquiries, and the same forgetfulness of 
collateral circumstances which preceded the publication of Mr. Stirling's 
volume in 1861 attended the appearance of the same work '129 yean 
before. 

The differences existing between the Paris edition of the ''Me- 
moires de la Cour d'Espagne,*' 1733, and the manuscript and printed 
''M^moires^' of Mr. Stirling, consist principally in frequent transpoa- 
tions of words and sentences ; in the punctuation, which varies consi- 
derably throughout; in numerous substitutions of small but nearly 
corresponding words, easily mistakeable by the copyist or compositor, 
and in occasional omissions or additions, seldom extending beyond & 
few words, except at p. 198 of the Paris edition, where 14 lines in the 
Stirling " Memoirs," p. 190, reflecting on the zeal of the monks who as- 
sisted at the *' Auto da Fe" of 1680, are omitted.* 

These minute differences are so numerous and so unimportant that 
it would be wearisome and useless to point them out. They oocur in 
almost every sentence. " Sa" for " la," **ce" for "le," " six" for " dix," 
are perpetually replacing each other. A few that involve substantial 
differences may be noted. In Mr. Stirling's edition, p. 52, speaking of 
the king's journey towards the frontier to meet his bride, we read, " Le 
Roy ^tant parti de Madrid le 21 Octobre, arriva le 3 1 il Burgos.*' A jour- 
ney of less than forty-three miles in ten days seems rather slow even forthe 
most careless of lovers, which Charles IL of Spain, though very different 



* These fourteen lines, as given in the Stirling MS., p. 210, and in the pridted ** M^ 
moires de Vilkra," p. 190, commences thus : — ** On voyoit des moins d^ane extrtine igo*- 
ranee harangnant impunemBnt oes juifi," &c. The Arsenal MS. gives the passage entirv 
(folios 68 and 69 ; but reads *' impetveuiemeni^ for ** impunementt^ which is deartj vuan 
correct. 



231 

from his namesuke of England, certainly was very far from being.* The 
reading of the Paris edition of 1733, p. 53, restores the character of the 
king for ardour and rapidity. " Le Roy etant parti de Madrid le 2 
Octobre, arriva le lendemain a Burgos." In the London edition, p. 101, 
line 14, we have ** Le confer ance et la Camerara Mayor." The Paris 
edition, p. 105, 1. 5, reads more correctly *' le eonfesseur et la Camera 
Mayor." In the Paris edition, p. 107, 1. 2, "il fils] ne foumirent 
point les cessions dans le terns" is omitted from the London edition, p. 
103, 1. 9. The Paris edition, p. 270, 1. 10, has '* il se retira ensuite 
chez lui et tint son Equipage pret pour partir, le lendemain il requt 
Pordre sign^ du Roy," which is not given in the London edition, p. 259, 
L 17. At p. 260, L 10, speaking of the banishment of the Count de 
Monterey, the London edition says — "Tout le monde luy croit con- 
traire." The Paris edition, p. 271, L 5, reads "tout le monde itoit 
contraire," and adds the important reason, " parce que toutle monde le 
craignoit.'* At p. 287, 1. 20, the date [1630], which is wanting in the 
London edition, is supplied in the Pans edition, p. 300, 1. 2. These 
specimens will, it is presumed, be sufficient to show the extent of the 
differences which exist between the Paris edition of 1733 and the so- 
called Villars MS. and printed " Memoires" of 1861. 

THE HABQU18 DF. BLUCOUBT. 

" Bans une note en tete de ces M^moires, Ton dit qu'ils ont ^t^ Merits 
pour I'instruction da Marquis de Bl^court." — Preface, xviii. 

" Ses Memoires ont 6t6 donnas pour instruction au Marquis de Bl^- 
court, Lieutenant-General des Armies du Roy lorsque sa Majesty Pa 
envoy^ en Espagne apr^s la Traite de Partage au sujet du Testament du 
Roy Charles Second, et y a rest^ pendant- plusieurs ann^es en quality 
d'Envoy^ aupres de PhilHppe V." — Preface des Memoires, p. xxv. 

The statement in the above extracts that the ** Memoires de la Cour 
d'Espagne" were written by the Marquis de YiUar^/or the information 
of the Marquis de BUcowt, is, as I have said, almost totally irreconcila- 
ble with positive dates and facts. 

The Marquis de Yillars died on the 20th March, 1698, at an advanced 
age, whether 80 years or 75 is not of much consequence.f The Mar- 

* Bfadame de Villara, in her first letter, 2Dd November, 1679, writes expressly ou this 
point as follows : — " Je n'ai pss en le courage d*aller k Bargos. M. de Villart^ qui m'at- 
tendoit ici, est parti pour rejdndre le Roi, qui va chercher la Reine dwM teiU impHuo- 
tite q^on ne lepeut «vtere." — Lettres de Madame de Yillars, p. 6. 

t Saint-Simon says — ** Le vieux Yillars monrut en mcme temps [1698] k Paris'en 
deux jours a plus de quatre-yingt ans" ("Memoires de Saint-Simon," t ii., p. 104)— a 
sutement which is adopted by the " Biographie Universellc,** t. xlviii., p. 528, which says 
that the Marquis de Yillars died in 1698, aged 80. But Mr. Stirling points out that 
Anselme, in bia *^Histoire de U Maison Royale de France," Paris, 1730, fol., t. v., 
p- 106, only gives him 75 years. This seems to be corroborated substantially in m> note 
to *^ Lettres de Madame la Marquise de Yillars" (Amsterdam, 1759, p. 170), which, under 
date 26th September, 1680, says, '*M. et Madame de Viilars avoient tous deux 55 ans. 
II mourut en 1698, elle en 1706." 



232 

quis d'Harcourt, in whose train the Marquis de Bl^court first went to 
Spain, was sent ambassador to Madrid in tlie month of December, 1697.* 
It is barely possible that, in the eight or nine weeks that interrened 
between the appointment of the Marquis d'Harcourt and the death of 
YiUars, the '' Memoires de la Cour d'Espagne'* in which there ia inter- 
nal evidence to prove that they were written by a cotemporary of the 
events which they describe,! might have been given to Bl^court, an 
attach^ to the embassy of the Marquis d'Harcourt. The improbabilitr, 
however, of his having done so, is so striking that it scarcely requires to be 
pointed out. No connexion whatever between the Marquis de Yillard aod 
the Marquis de Bl^court has been asserted, even by the most credulous 
believer in the alleged authorship, by the former, of the '' Memoires de b 
Cour d'Espagne.*' No reason can be suggested, either of private friend- 
ship or public duty, for the Marquis de Yillars, in the last day^ of hi§ 
protracted life, putting into the hands of a strajiger a manuscript ocm- 
taining, as I shall prove, the most cruel reflections on the memory of th« 
niece of his sovereign. This princess, Louisa of Orleans, the young 
Queen of Spain, the object of so much censure in the " Memoires,** hid 
been eight years dead, and her place filled almost for the same peri.'d 
by a stranger to those '' Memoires," the less popular and less attractive 
Maria Anne of Newburg. The Queen Dowager, another of the promi- 
nent characters in the " Memoires," had just died. The Duke of Me- 
dina-Celi had been dead since 1691. Everything was changed. Far 
practical purposes, Yillars might as well have given to Bl^court a copy 
of the romance of Cyrus, from which he derived his surname of Oron- 
dates, as a history of the Spanish Court as it existed eighteen years be- 
fore. If it were intended for his amusement, the rifacimento of Ms- 
dame d'AuInoy, already in print for seven years, would have answered 
the purpose much better. Why burden a soldier's baggage with a large 
manuscript in folio, when he could have carried the whole matter in 
print in the Hague edition of 1692, in the compass of a pack of cards i^ 
That the author of the " Memoires de la Cour d'Espagne" was aware of 
the use which had been made of them by Madame d'Aulnoj, in 1690/ 
may be considered certain. That they were not then in any public de- 
pository, and could not have been consulted without the express sanclioB 
of the writer, admits of little doubt. As much of them as could be pub- 
lished without giving offence having appeared under the name of a lively 
and popular authoress, who seems to have had a privilege for such reve- 
lations, the original writer's interest in them seemed to cease. Hov 
the editor of the volume of 1733 could have been ignorant of MadanK^ 
\ , 

* " Uistoire Generale de U Diplomatie Fran^aiM," par M. de Flaasan, Paris. 1811 
seconde edition, t iv., p. 190; also '* Memoirs of the Marquis de Torcy,** Loodcn, I7J. 
vol. L, p. 13 ; and **Biographie Universelle," t. xix., p. 404. 

t This will be made made manifest when I come to speak of the MS. ** Memoiiv ^ 
la Cour d'Espagne," In the library of the Arsenal at Paris. 

X My copy of Madame d'Aulnoy's " M^ntoires de la Cour d'Espagne** (the Hig r 
1692) is about 6^ iuches long, by 2;} inches wide. 



233 

d'Aulnoy's volumes of 1690, bearing a similar name and treating of a 
similar time, is very strange ; but it is not more strange than the forget- 
fulness of Mr. Ford. 

To return to our narrative, it was not until April, 1700, two years 
after the death of Villars, that Bl^court was left at Madrid by the Mar- 
quis d'Harcourt, as his representative.* In this somewhat subordinate 
position he remained at the court of Spain until May, 1705,t during 
the several embassies of M. de Marsin;^ the Cardinal d'Estr^es, M. 
PAbb^ d'Estr^e8,§ and the Due de Grammont.|| To these succeeded 
Amelot, whose capacity, activity, and fascinating manners, are spoken 
of in the highest terms by Saint-Simon.** Towards the end of April, 
1705, Amelot took his departure for Madrid, where he remained as am- 
bassador until the autumn of HOO.ff On the 6th of May, 1709, in a 
letter to Louis XIV., he asks for his eongi^ partly on public grounds, 
and partly that the state of his health required \i\\ In a subsequent 
letter, dated 17th May, 1709, he urges the matter of his congi more 
earnestly, and suggests M. de Blecourt as his succe8Sor.§§ His wishes 
were acceded to in both respects ; and we find him, in July, 1 709, wait- 
ing for the arrival of M. de Blecourt. I||| It was on the 23rd of August, 
1709,*** exactly eleven years and a half after the death of Villars, that 
the Marquis de Blecourt entered Madrid as ambassador in his own right, 
and for the first time justified the description of the anonymous editor 
of the MS. " M^moires" in the possession of Mr. Stirling, of having been 
^ent by his Majesty into Spain in this or any other capacity. As am- 
bassador he remained but two years at Madrid, having asked and ob- 
tained his recall in 1 71 1 .ftt To conclude this sketch of the life of Ble- 
court, it may be added that he died in 1719.JJt 

• "Lnndi 12 [Avril, 1700] a Versailles.'' 

" Le marquis d*Haroourt, notre ambassadear a Madrid, a pria son audience de coDge 
du roi d'Espagne ; maid il demeurera U encore qnelqaee jours. II y laiasera Bldcourt, 
qa'il y avoit anient avec lui, & qui le roi donne le titre d'envoye avec 18,000 francs 
* d'appointroenU." — Jooi-nal de Dangeau, t vli., p. 291. 

t " Dimanche 27. Jour de la Pentec6te k Vcwailles" [Mai, 1705]. 

** Avant que le roi allat ^ la Messe, M. de Torcy lui presenta M. de Blecourt, qui r»- 
Tient d*£apagnfl on il avoit ete ayec M. le due d*Harcourt, qui 1' y avoit laias^ ponr y 
faire les affaires dn roi."— .Journal de Dangeau, t ix., p. 200. 

I M. de Manin asked to be recalled in September, 1702. — Salnt-Simon, t. iii. 
p. 434. 

§The Cardinal d*E8tr4es left H. TAbb^ d'Estr^es after him, ''avec le caractere 
d'arabaseadenr." — Saint-Simon, L iv., p. 178. 

I The Due de Grammont was appointed successor to H. I'Abbe d'Estrees in 1704. 
—Ibid. p. 270. 

♦* Saint-Simon, t vii., p. 823. 

tf Saint^Simon, t. iv., p. 432 ; t. vii., pp. 458, 454. 

XX Saint^imon, t vii., p. 452. §§ Saint-Simon, t vii., p. 452. 

nil Jonrnal de Dangeau, t. zii., p. 461. 

*** Saint' Simon, t. vii., pp. 453, 454. 

ttt M. de Bonnac, neveu de Bonrepaux, was named as his snccessor in 1711. Jonr- 
nal de Dangean, t. xiii., p. 410. 

XXX Deoembre, 1719, Mercr6di, 18. 

'* Blecoart gouvcmeur de Navarreins est mort" — Journal de Dangeau, t. xviii., p. 181. 



234 

But, although the Marquis de Blecourt did not, and could not,haTe re- 
ceived from the Marquis de Villars the * * Memoires de la Cour d'£spagne,'' 
which are alleged to have been written for his information, it is very 
singular that he did receive from his predecessor, Amelot, a remark- 
able letter of instructions relative to tiie position of the French Em- 
bassy at Madrid, and the conduct to be pursued there by the ambas?a- 
dor« the subject of which has a striking resemblance to one or the 
other of the missing works attributed to the Marquis de Villars, by the 
anonymous editor of the MS. '*M^moires." These works are : — 

*' Des M^ moires des affaires concemant le Commerce que les Ambas- 
sadeurs du Koy Tres Chretien out poursuivi a la cour d'Espagne depuis 
le Traite de Nimegue,*' &c. 

** Du c^r^monial des Ambassadeurs de la Cour de France k celle 
d'Espagne." 

This important document, written by Amelot, is headed " Memoire 
pour le Marquis de Blecourt, Envoy^ Extraordinaire du Koi en Espagoe'' 
(Bibl. imp. du Louvre. F. 325, t. xxvi. piece 74). 

It is too long for insertion here, but is worth referring to in the " Me- 
moires de Saint Simon," tom. vii. from p. 454 to 458, where it is giTen 
in full. It is very interesting, and makes us acquainted with some cu- 
rious circumstances. Among others, the following, which shows that 
the author of ** The Bible in Spain" had some active predecessors in thf 
reign of Queen Anne. Speaking of the efforts of the English and Dutil: 
to introduce the Protestant religion into Spain, Amelot, writing to Ble- 
court, says : — 

'' On sait ce qu' ils ont fait en Aragon et en Valence, pendant qn^ ilB 
en ont ^t^ les maitres ; que la doctrine catholique y a ^t^ corrompue 
en bien des endroits, et que Pon a trouv^ sur un vaisseau anglois qui & 
^t^ pris, quatorze mille excmplaires du catechisme de la liturgie an- 
glicane, que la reine Anne envoyoit pour fair distribuer dans cea deox 
royaumes."* 

This state paper, given by Amelot to Blecourt, upon a subject and 
under circumstances so closely resembling the alleged previous transac- 
tion of YLllars, is taken fr*om the vast collection of manuscripts, amount- 
ing to about 200 volumes in folio, which was formed towards the dose 
of his life by the celebrated Marechal Due de NoaUles. It was to the 
second daughter of NoaiUes, Amable-GabrieUe, that Marshal ViUars (the 
son of the Marquis de Villars),|married in 1721 his only son.f Prom 
this connexion between the families of the Due de Noailles and the Mar- 
quis de Villars, it is not at all improbable that a Memoir connected with 
the French embassy at the Court of Spain, which was found among the 



* For this passage see Saint-Simon, t vii., p. 457. The Memoir begins at p. 4^3. 

t ** Le marechal de Villars raaria son fils unique k nne fiUe de dac de Noailles ex- 
trdmement jolie, et depais dame dn palais, et apr^s dame d'atonrs de la raoe, femmc de 
beaacoup d^e^^pritet d*agrement, devenue devdte ^ ravir, et dans tona les temps iatrigaiitt 
et cheminant h. merveille." — Saint-Simon, t. xviii,, p. 172. 



235 

papers of the fonner, should have been attributed to the latter by the 
anonymous editor of the MS. '* M^moires," whose inaccurate recollec- 
tion of other circumstances connected with these '* M^moires*' I think I 
haye established. 

MADAKE d'aTTLKOT. 

Sifr ** Voyage d>Espagney'' and ** Cour d'JEipagne." 

Ixiow come to a brief examination of Madame d'Aulnoy's celebrated 
'' Travels in Spain," and her less known, but to us more interesting 
'* Memoirs of the Court of Spain.'' This inquiry has an historical im- 
portance, which, in a bibliographical point of view, perhaps, it cannot 
lay claim to. The very curious statements contained in both works, 
particularly in the latter, would, if taken merely on her own authority, 
possess litde if any value. It is therefore important to discover, if pos- 
sible, the source from which she derived those minute details of courtly 
intrigue which form so large a portion of her amusing narratives. 

Her '< Relation du Voyage d'Espagne" was first published at Paris 
in 1691. It has frequently been reprinted, my own copy being that 
published at the Hague in 1715. It has always been very popdar in 
England, under the name of ** The Lady's Travels," of which the eleventh 
edition was published in 1808, in two volumes. Her ** M^moires de la 
Cour d'Espagne" were first published, as I have already said, at Paris 
in 1690. This book seems at first to have met with the same favourable 
reception in England as her travels, which it does not appear to have 
retained. It was translated into English by the facetious Tom Brown, 
in 1692, but I am not aware of its having been ever reprinted.* 

These works appear to have met with less favour in France than in 
foreign countries, at least as far as any belief in their marvellous state- 

* " Memoirs of the Court of Spain. In Two Parts. Written by an logenioos 
French Lady. Done into English by T. Brown. Utile Dnld." London, 1692. 

Since this paper was written, I have met with a later edition of this translation, having 
the following fuller title, bat difiering in no other respect, except being printed on better 
and larger paper, from the edition of 1692, which it does not mention : — ** Memoirs of the 
Present State of the Court and Councils of Spain. In Two Parts. With the trne Reasons why 
tljis vast Monarchy, which in the last Century made so considerable a Figure in the World, 
is in this so Feeble and Paralvticlc." London, 1701. Tliey both contain an amusing 
** Epistle Dedicatory" «* To Hi's Honest Friend Mr. William Pate of London, Woollen- 
Draper,*' in which the facetious Tom Brown translates the line, ** Fenitus toto diviso$ 
Orbe Britannos*' ^ The Britons are the most divided people in the whole world." I have 
another old translation, but of a different book altogether, called ** The Present Court of 
Spain, Or the Modem Gallantry oX the SpanUh Nobility unfolded, Ac By the Inge- 

nioos Lady , Author of * The Memoirs and Travels into Spain.* Done into English 

by J. P. London, 1693.*" 

This last seems to be a mere fabrication. It is a collection of love-letters, more senti- 
mental and more unreal, however, than the ** M^moires de la Cour d*AngIeterre," also 
attributed to Madame d'Anlnoy, of which the Duke of Monmouth may be considered 
the hero, and of which I have an edition, in two small volumes, printed at the Hague in 
1795. 

E. I. A. PKoc. VOL. vm. 2 I 



236 

merits was concerned. So early as the year 1718, we find the Abbe de 
Vayrac, in his " Etat Present de I'Espagne," disposing of the lady's pre- 
tensions to veracity in a very summary manner, and even chargiag her 
with a deliherate attempt to hring the Spanish nation into contempt. 
In the ** Discours Preliminaire," (p. 7), prefixed to that work, the Abbe 
has the following remarks upon the lively authoress of " L'oiseau hleu'' 
and '' La Biche au hois," which in our nursery days we would have 
thought rather severe. 

M. de Vayrac, after referring with some degree of approval to a co- 
temporary traveller, thus continues : — ** Mais si j'ai'cette complaisance 
pour lui, je ne s^aurois me resoudre a Tavoir pour Madame L. G. D., . . . 
puisque de propos d^lib^re, et centre ses propres lumieres, elle a com- 
post deux ouvrages, dont Pun a pour titre Memoirw, et Pautre V^oyaf* 
de la Cour d^Espagne'* dans lesquels on ne voit depuis le commence- 
ment jusqu'a la fin qu' un enchainement de contes fabuleux, on de 
railleries picquantes pour toumer les Espagnols en ridicules. Mais 
parce que je me suis propos6 de ne rien dire qui ne soit ahsolument ne- 
cessaire pour donner au Lecteur une idee juste des moeurs, des coutume? 
et du gouvemment de ces peuples, je me contenterai d*en citer quelque? 
endroits qui luy feront voir jusques ou elle a port^ les traits de sa Satrre, 
et qui le d^termineront ^ n'ajouter pas plus de foy a ce qu'elle adit, 
qu' aux ingenieux Contes dee Fiesy dont elle a regain le public, ponr 
faire perdre agreeablement le tems a ceux qui n'avoient rien de miens 
a fair qu' ^ les lire.'* — Discours Preliminaire, pp. 7, 8. 

The example which the Abbe de Vayrac quotes of Madame d' Aulnoy > 
want of truth is the account which she gives of the entry of Anne of 
Austria into a town of Catalonia, when she was going to be married t'l 
Philip IV. This town was famous for its manufacture of silk Btockini:^ 
and &e good people thought they could not present their ftituie Queen 
with anything more acceptable than some of the useM articles in which 
they excelled. But her Mayor domo mayor the Duke of Medina Sido- 
nia rejected the oficrings with indignation, telling them that it shouli 
be understood that the Queens of Spain had no legs. *' AveU de eaher:' 
said he, " que las Reynas de Espana no tienen piemasy^ This aneodow 
is taken from the " Cour d'Espagne," that from the " Voyage'* is about 
Madame d'Aulnoy's own reception by the ladies of Bayonne. J 



* The Abb£ is evidently too •si^jy to give the titles of these d«>te.«table books cormily 
The same may be said of the initials of (be aathor*8 name, which should be *'M. c!" 
(Marie Catherine), and not ** L. C./' as he gives them. 

-*' See " M^moires de la Coar d'Espagne," premiere partie, p. 3. The sequel may be 
given in the translation of Tom Brown : — '* However it was, the young Queen, who ra 
not as yet acquainted with the niceties of the Spanish langusge. took it in the literal «fi5«. 
and bfgan to weep, ssying * that she was fully determined to go back to Vienna ; an«l 'f 
she bad known before her departure from thence thut they had designed to col off b^ 
legs, she would rather have died than stirred a foot.* " — Page 4. 

X ** Some who came to see me brought little sucking-pigs under their arma, as w« co 
little dogs ; it is true they were very spruce, and several of them had collars of ribbons C'f 



237 

As to her '' Travels/' keen observation, lively imagination, a fund 
of humour, and a bold appropriation of the labours of her predecessors, 
have been the sources whence they were derived. In writing her * ' Voyage 
d*£spagne'' she evidently had before her the same mysterious authority 
of which she made so much larger use, when compiling her *' M^moires 
de la Cour d'Espagne.'* A few instances wiU suffice. From p. 6 to 
p. 9, in Mr. Stirling's book, beginning at ''Les grands officiers," and end- 
ing at '' del despacho universal," the whole matter is given almost ver- 
batim in the ''Belation du Voyage d'Espagne," t 3, from p. 98 to p. 
100. A few shorter passages I shall put under their respective heads, 
quoting Mr. Stirling's book for shortness' sake as Villabs : — 

YiLLARs. D*AuuroT. 

" Depau ploa de cent ads Lea Roys " II y a plus d'un Steele que les Rois 

d*£spagne tiennent ordinairement leur d'Espagne la choisirent pour j tenir leur 

cour k Madrid." — p. 5. cour." — Voyage, t ii., p. 112. 

" C'est une Ville ass^a grande, sans mu- *' I ^ ville n*est pas entour6e de ina- 

railles, situee au milieu del'Espagne, dans rallies: * * * La ville est situ4e an millieu 

un pais sec et decouvert." — p. 6. d^Kspagne :* ♦ ♦ tous les Pais est sec, et fort 

decouvert." — ^Voyage, t. ii., pp. 112, 118. 

" Le Palais du Roy est k Textremit^ ** Le Palais est a I'extretnite de la ▼ille 

de la ville vers le Midy: Sa fat^ade en vers le Midi. II est bati de pierr«s fort 

d'ordre Doriqne, d'une pierre comme de blanches. Deux Pavilions de briqae ter- 

Grez : deux Pavilions de Briqiies la ter- mitient la facade : le rests n'est point regu- 

minent a droits et a gauche: Les trois lier."— Voyage, t. iii., p. 4. 
autre cotes de ce Palais n*out ny forme ui 
raport cntre cux." — p. 6. 

** Au dessous du Palais Le Terrain qui " Le terraio, comme je I'ai marq&e, 

va en penchant jusqu'au Manzanares, est s'etendjus(iu'au bord du Man^anares. Tout 

ferm^ de Mnrailles,^' &c. — p. 6. est enclos de m wailles," &c. — Voyage, t. iii. 

p. 6. 

With regard to the other work, her ** M^moires de laCourd'Espagne,'* 
which more nearly concerns us, it may be said in one word, that there 
ia scarcely a sentence in it, from beginning to end, bearing upon politi- 
cal matters (a few sentimental messages and letters excepted), which 
cannot be found almost verhatim in the original MS., from which she, as 
well as the unknown editor of the volume of 1733, took their materials. 
There is this important difference, however, between the two, that while 
Madame d'Aulnoy, either to make her book more interesting, or the bet- 
ter to disguise her theft, or perhaps the task assigned her, has so broken 
up and rearranged the matter of the original, dividing and reuniting it 
in such a capricious way, that it requires the utmost patience and perse- 
verance to follow her tiirough all her windings, the anonymous editor 
of the volume of 1 733 gives his story as he £nds it, merely omitting such 
portions as would be likely to give offence to the French court. This, I 

various colours ; however, this custom looks very odd, and I cannot but think that several 
among themselves are disgusted at it : when they danced, they mnst set them down, and 
let these grunting animals run about the chamber, where they made a very pleasant har- 
mony. 'Aese ladies danced at my entreaty, the Baron of Castltnau having sent fur piiies 
and tabors.*' — The Lady's Travels, vol. i., p. 8. 



238 



think, will be clearly manifest when I come to speak of the MS. in the 
library of the Arsenal at Paris, to which I have already alluded. To 
prove these resemblances by direct quotation would be simply to reprint 
the two books. A reference to the corresponding pages of each woik 
must suffice. In the following columns wiU be found the entire result 
of my collation of the two ** M^moires de la Cour d'Espagne," using for 
that purpose Mr. Stirling's volume of 1861, as being the most accessible, 
and quoting it for convenience by the name of Yuxabs, and of Madame 
d'Aulnoy's work, the edition published at the Hague, in 1692, in two 
parts.* 

MEHOISES n£ LA COUB d'eSPAGITE. 



(ViLLASB)— 1861. 


(D'AuLiroT)— 1099. 


(ViLLAaa)-186L 


(D*AcuiOT.>-UC8L 


Po^ 


Partly Page. 


Pi»g^ 




PflTl /..PifiL 


18, 14, 15, 16, 16. 


78, 78, 80, 81, 81. 


44,45. 




124, 125. 


17, 18. 


96. 


46, 47. 




126, 127. 


19. 


99. 


49, 50, 51. 




120, 121. 


20. 


66, 67. 


51, 52. 




129. 


21 [Valenzuela]. 


67. 


52, 68. 




180. 


21, 22. 


67, 68. 


53, 54. 




180. 


22 [Verses on Don 


69. 


54, 55, 56. 




181, 182. 


John]-t 




56, 57, 68, 59, 


60. 


182, 188, 184, 1S6. 


23, 23, 24. 


74, 74, 75. 


60, 61, 62. 




185, 136, 137, 138. 


25. 26. 


75, 76, 77. 


62, 63, 64, 65. 




139, 140, 141, 142. 


26, 27, 28. 


89, 90, 91. 


66, 67, 68, 69, 


70. 


148, 144, 146, 146, 


29. 


87, 91, 92. 






147. 


80. 


92, 93. 


70, 71, 72, 78, 74, 


147, 148, 149, 150, 


81, 82. 


88, 94. 


76, 76. 




161, 162, 16S. 


82. 


101, 102, 108. 


77. 78, 79, 80, 


81. 


156, 166, 157, 168, 


88, 84. 


Part I., p 9; Part II., 






159. 




p.103; and "Voy- 


82, 82, 88, 88, 


84. 


161. 168, 164, 167. 




age," t. i, p. 97, 


89, 90, 91, 92, 


98, 


177, 178, 179, 180, 




t. iii., p. 186. 


94. 95. 




181, 182. 


85, 86. 


88, 89, 102. 


95, 96, 97. 




182, ISSw 


86, 87. 


104, 105. 


100, 101, 102. 




184,186. 


88, 39, 40. 


117, 118, 119. 


105. 




186, 187. 


41, 42. 


84, 85. 


109. 




189. 


42, 43. 


82, 88. 


110, 111, 112, 


118. 


190. 191, 192. 


48, 44. 


105, 119. 


114, 116, 116.t 


198, 194, 195. 


44. 


121. 


116» 117, 119, 


120 


195, 197. 



• It will be recollected that the opening pages of Villars and Uadaine d*A«lBOj% 
** Voyage" have been already identified. I begin at p. 13 of the " M^moirea de U Cow 
d'Espagne.** London, 1861. 

t Those lively verses on Maria Calderon, the celebrated actress and mother of Doo 
John, which are only alluded to in Villars, are given in ftdl, with a IVench translation by 
Madame d* Aulnoy, part 1, p. 69. They are '* done*' into English verse somswhat fkcdy, 
in every sense of the word, by Tom Brown, at p. 68 of his translation. 

% One of the passsagesat p. 116 of Villars, p. 120 of tlie volume of 1733, and p. 194-^ 
of d* Aulnoy, is the following. It is a portion of the account which is given of the tumul- 
tuous assembling of the people at Madrid, in 1679, during the illness of Marooa Dias: — 
^* II arriva mime que dans ce temps \h. le Roy ^tant alld it qudqnes ^Uses, ik le anivv- 
rent en grande nombre criant, viva el Rey^ Muera el Mai Goviermo/* This bmou to 
have been a favourite cry with the Madrilenea. It is again repeated at p. 164 of Vil- 
lars, snd p. 46, ieconde, partie of Madame d^Aulnoy. In ** A Relation of a Voya^ 



239 



Pagt. 

IJl. 

122 to 127. 

128 to 134. 

135, 1S6. 

1S8. 

US. 

Hi. 

145. 

148.149,150, 151. 

1 ja, 164, 155. 

187 to 191. 

193. 

198. 

201 

208. 

207, 209^ 

211. 

213,214,215. 

216, 217. 

218, 220, ttS, 224. 

226, 228. 

230, 231. 

232, 233. 

234, 235. 

The descriptioB of the yarious councils with which the Yillars' '' M^- 
moin" conclude, appears at the end of the first part of Madam d' Aulnoj's 
" Memoires," from p. 202 to p. 216. Perhaps the fullest account of these 
coimdlfl is given in the Ahhl de Vayrac's " £tat Present de TEspagne," 
Paris, 1718, torn. 3, pp. 300-462. I have an earlier tract, " The Pre- 
sent State of Spain, &c., translated from the Spanish copy lately printed 
at Madrid," London, 1706, which also gives an account of them. 



vD*AnivoT.)- 


1881 


(VlLLAM.)-186L 


(D'AULSOT.)— 1862. 


Part /., Page. 


PoQt, 


Part L, Pagt, 


200, 201. 




237. 




137, 140. 


Part II., p. IS.to 17. 


240, 241. 




146, 147. 


18 to 21. 




242, 243. 




148, 149. 


e, 7, «. 




243, 244, 


245. 


150, 150, 151. 


25, 26. 




248, 249. 




164, 165. 


29. 




250, 252. 




164, 167. 


36. 




258. 




174. 


87. 




260. 




178. 


89, 89, 40, 41, 


42. 


263, 264. 




180, 181. 


44, 45, 46. 




267. 




186. 


52 to 56. 




268, 269. 




189. 


69. 




270, 271. 




190, 191. 


69. 




274. 




193. 


92. . 




276, 278. 




194, 195. 


95. 




283, 284. 




195, 210. 


97, 98. 




287, 288. 




206, 207. 


106, 107 




291. 




209. 


108, 109,110. 




298. 




213. 


Ill, 111, 112. 




299, 300. 




214, 215. 


101, 108, 122, 


123. 


300, 301, 


302. 


215, 216. 


127, 128. 




303, 804, 


305. 


216, 217. 


131, 132, 183. 




308, 309. 




218, 219. 


134. 




809, 310, 


311. 


118, 119, 120. 


141, 143. 




312. 




Part I., p. 202. 



THE MS. ' 



* KBMOIBBS DE LA COTTE D'ESPAGNE,' 
ARSENAL AT PARIS. 



IK THE UBEABT OF THE 



Considaring the easy steps that led me to a knowledge of this MS. 
it is singular that among Mr. Stirling's friends at the British Musenm, 
and the still wider circle of the contrihutors to ^' Notes and Queries,'' 
there was no one found discursive &ough in his reading to point out to 
him its existence, which, the clew once being given, was as easy to 
discover as the Barriire du IVone, or the Place de la Concorde. Find- 
ing, like Mr. Stirling and his referees, that the usual sources of in- 



made throagh a great part of Spain," by Francis Willoughby, Esq., London, 1678, we 
We the foUowing account of it thirty-five years earlier : — 

" Bread is very scarce and very dear in many places of Spain, because of the barren- 
Doi of the soil and want of rain, &c. . . . 

"This sammer [1664] there was a tumnlt at Madrid : the poor people gathering 
aboBt the King's palace cried out, " Let the King live, but let the ill goyemraent die/' 
*c, p. 497. 



240 

formation would reveal nothing more of the Harquis de Villars and his 
supposed authorship, I determined to hreak new ground. Luckily, in 
the Lihrary of the King's Inns, Duhlin, there is one department parti- 
cularly rich in French historical memoirs. Among these is the '' Hi^ 
toire Generale etBaisonn^e de la Diplomatic Fran9aise (seconde edition)'* 
Paris, 1811, 7 tomes in 8vo., by M. de Flassan. On turning over the 
leaves of this book, and consulting the index, the name of the Marquis 
de Yillars at once rewarded me for departing a little out of the beaten 
track. I found to my astonishment in vol. 4, from p. 25 to p. 30, an 
elaborate account of a certain difference which the Marquis de Villars bad 
with the government at Madrid in reference to the rights and privileges 
of the Spanish embassy, of which I had a perfect recollection from my 
reading of the volume of 1733, and Mr. Stirling's volume of 1861. On 
collating the passages, I found them identical, M. de Flassan's accomit 
corresponding almost verbatim with that at pp. 8 and 9, and from 
p. 127 to p. 136 of the volume of 1733; p. 10, and from p. 122 to p. 131 
of Mr. Stirling's book; and in Madame d'Aulnoy's ^'M^moires de la 
Cour d'Espagne," part 2, from p. 13 to p. 17. What appeared to me 
to be very singular, however, was, that the account was taken, not from 
the volume of 1 733, in which it had been published to the world seventy- 
five years previously, nor even from the better known and older published 
work of Madame d' Aulnoy, whose name, however, would scarcely hare 
been of much weight in the grave investigations of diplomacy, but from 
a MS., the title of which is thus given — "Etat de PEspagne, manuscr. 
in fol. bibl. de PArsenal" [Paris]. On this discovery, I felt at once 
that I was on the right track ; and circumstances having led me to the 
continent in June last, I had the pleasure of examining the MS. daring 
the few hours of the two or three days I was permitted to stay at Paris. 
that the Library of the Arsenal was open. On inquiry at the Librair 
for the MS. under the name by which it is quoted by M. de Flassan, I 
learned with dismay that the Library contained no such MS. On ex- 
amining the catalogue or printed list of MSS., however, I found it nnda 
its more appropriate name, ** Memoires de la Cour d*£spagne," which 
appears at the top of the front page, as in Mr. Stirling's MS. Why If. 
de Flassan preferred to call it by a name which does not belong to that 
portion of the volume from which he quoted, and which only appears in 
the MS. (a blank page intervening)%t folio 106— -if indeed in strictness 
it appears even there — I cannot say, except that he did so, perhapa from 
a salutary fear of having his trustworthy authority confounded with the 
suspicious narrative of Madame d'Aulnoy. 

The MS. is a folio volume, containing 1 30 leaves, somewhat closely 
written on both sides. The older forms of spelling, which had beeomt 
modernized before the time Mr. Stirling's transcript was made, are pre- 
served throughout. There arc no erasures or interlineations by the ori- 
ginal writer from beginning to end. The MS. does not appear to haie 
been prepared for the press, but seems to be a fair copy of the original 
draught made by the author himself, whoever he was, for his own a< - 



241 

commodation or the information of some other party. There is no 
introduction or preface of any kind, the writer commencing his narra- 
tive ahruptly with the sentence-^' ' Le guerre qui commenqa en 1672 
entre la Prance et la HoUande," &c., as at p. 9 of the Villars " Me- 
moires." The differences which exist hetween the Arsenal MS. and all 
the other known copies of these ** M^moires" hegin at the very begin- 
ning. They are sometimes trifling and verbal, like those between the 
Stirling MS. and the volume of 1783, but generally they are far more 
important. The Arsenal MS. seems to be the first outpouring of the au- 
thor's mind ; the whole truth, as he believed it, is spoken frankly and 
fully — ^too frankly, it would appear, for the unknovm editor of the vo- 
lume of 1733 or his censor, either of whom, doubtless from the fear of 
giving offence to the royal family of France, has omitted some of the 
most interesting of its passages. The most curious of these refer to the 
conduct of the young Queen of Spain, the first wife of Charles II., who, 
it will be recollected, was the niece of Louis XIV. These suppressed 
passages betray an amount of hostility, and almost hatred, to this prin- 
cess, who, if she exhibited little strength of character, appears to us so 
amiable and interesting in the charming letters of the Marchioness de 
Villars, as to create a strong disbelief that these ** Memoirs" could have 
been written by the ambassador of France and the husband of the 
writer of these letters. I shall take the passages as they occur, by no 
means offering them as a complete list of the differences which charac- 
terize the Arsenal MS., but of such only as I was able to note during 
the short time I had the opportunity of examining it. None, however, 
that are really important have, I believe, been overlooked. 

The MS. commences, as I have said, at the words, *'La guerre qui 
commenqa," &c., Stirling MS., p. 8, "Villars* M^moires," p. 9, "Me- 
moires" of 1733, p. 8. The passage atp, 12 of the Villars' ** Memoires," 
" Le Eoy tr^s Chretien ne jugeant pas qu'un B&tard du Roy d'Espagne 
put avoir droit de prendre de tela avantages sur son Ambassadeur, luy 
commenda,*' &c., reads thus in the Arsenal MS., folio 1 — " Le Roy tres 
Chrestien ne jugeant pas qu'un bastard du Roy d'Espagne deut avoir sur 
son Ambassadeur des avantages que Ub princes du sang de la Maison de 
France ne prennoient point sur celui d'Espagne, luy commanda," &c. 
On the same page the following passage is omitted both in the Paris and 
London editions — ** Pour trouver un milieu a deux interests si contraires 
Le Marquis de Villars proposa a D. Geronimo d'Egiiya Secretario d'Estat 
qu'il verroit D. Juan sur le meme pied que les autres Ambassadeurs, 
pourveu qu'on luy donnast un ordre par escript du Roy d'Espagne a son 
Ambassadeur en France, de voir les princes du sang et les Enfans na- 
turels deo Roys* de la meme maniere," fol. 1. In the line "avoient 
signd chez Le Duo d^Alhe," Arsenal MS. fol. 1, 2, the words underlined 
are omitted in the Villars' ** Memoires," p. 20, 1. 24, though given in 



* Tbifl allusion to 'Mes Enfans naturels des Roys*' as a settled institution in Fiance, 
is rather amusing. 



242 

the " M^moires" of 1 733. After " par rindignite de sa conduite," Paris 
**Memoire8/' p. 24, Villare' *' Memoires," p. 25, is added ** et de iaitm- 
sanee,^^ fol. 6. In the passage, ** Villars' Mem.," p. 25, beginning " cea 
demiera pas," we have (foL 6) '* premiers pas," which is also the fad- 
ing of the Paris edition ; for " la situation de la Beine," we hare **h 
hauteur naturelle de la Eeyne mere ;" for ** infamies pass^es,** ^' in£delit«8 
passees;" for ''la Jeunesse du Boj,** ''la foible$se da B07 plus enfuat 
par son genie que par son 0^0," and several other differences of a simikr 
character. At p. 26 of YiUars, after the words "on grand nombre 
d'espions" is added **jusques dans Ukmaison de la Beyney^ fol. 6. Tbe 
general summing up of l^e character of Don John of Austria, at p. 33 
of Yillars, is given more fblly at fol. 8 of the MS. At fol. 24 (YiUars, 
81) the following reference to the Queen is strongly underlined in 
darker ink than the text — " On creut meme, quelque temps que la 
reyne estoit grosse, mais cette esperance finit au eommeneement deJamm 
de Pannee 1680,"* 

Nearly the entire of pp. 82 and 83 (of the Yillars* " M^moires"), firom 
"Quelques jours" to "remplis d'un nombre infini de spectateuis,'' is 
omitted, at least in this place, from the Arsenal MS., fol. 24. After 
" qui la gouvemoit comme un enfant" (Yillars, p. 84) is added (fol. 24} 
" et sans eesse avee le Roy aeeompagne de deux nains qui seuls faieoind 
sa conversation et soti plaisir^ f This, omitted by aU the others, is 
given somewhere by Madame d'Aulnoy. J Arsenal MS., fol 32, '* Les 
imianees du nonce;" Yillars' "Memoirs," p. 110, "Les interets i^i 
nonce." The extracts given by Flassan in his " Histoire de Diploma- 
tie" are from fol. 35, commencing " Les Ministres Etrangers," to foL 
39, " s 'il les avoit fait demander :" it is the only part of the MS. whi,b 
has marks in the margin, as if they were directions either to the tran- 
scriber or compositor. "Ztf fin de Janvier y^^ Arsenal MS^ foL 36. 
Yillars' " Memoires," p. 123, is heavily underlined by the same handss 
before. 

Folio 44 contains the following passages omitted in the Yillais' 
" Memoires," p. 150, after the words '• ny de la saluer** : — 

" £lle [la Duchesse de Terra Nova, el Camerera Mayor j ne laissoit 



* <* La Reine n'est plus gro9se.**^Letfcres de Madame de Yillan, 12th JasaaiT. 

1680, p. 49. 

t *< Le Roi a an petit nain Flamand qui entend et qui parle trea-biea Francais. n 
n*aidoit pas peu k la converBation."* — Lettres de Madame de Yillan, pw 25. AjkI 
again, p. 6ro, *' II y a deux nains qui aoutiennent toujoura la converaation." 

X This mania for dwarfs does not seem to have been peculiar to the courL Madwi« 
d'Aulnoy, in her *' Travels," has the following passage : — " They keep also both Mjileasd 
Female Dwarfs, and very ugly ones : the Females, particularlv, have very fHgfatfiil looks, 
their heads are bigger than their Bodies ; they always wear their hair looee about their 
Ears, and hanging down to the ground. At first Ktght, one would wonder what tfaew 
little Figures were when they present themselves before one's Eyes. They wear rici 
cloaths, they are their Mistresses Confidents, and for this Keason, thev are denied 
nothing they have a mind to."— The Ladies Tiavels into Spain, 1708, p. 137; Voya^* 
d'Espagne, t. ii., p, 123. 



243 

pas de faire quelques fois fkire des complimena et des honnetez a Tani. 
bassadeur de France, temoignant a Pambassadrice le deplaisir qu'elle 
aroit qii*il He Tint point chez la Beyne, et l*on s^avoit que personne ne 
travailloit pins qu'elle a Ten empecher et a le faire ha'£r ^lar le Boy a un 
tel point qu'il ne pouvoit le voir ni Pentendre parler sans dire en parti- 
CTilier qaelque extra fagance on quelque injure." 

" On le voit quelquefois longtemps assis parlant senl tout haut, don- 
nant miUe maledictions aux Fran9ais, il reprochoit souvent a la Beyne 
qu'elle estoit fille de Franrois, et lorsqu'il scent que le Boy demandoit 
satisfection del'offende qu'on avoit faite a son ambassadeur en Iny ostant 
sea privileges, il entra dans un emportement qui alia jusqu'a faire a la 
Beyne des menaces qui pouvoient luy donner tout a craindre." 

This is a strange exhibition of royalty, it must be confessed; but ano- 
ther nippres<^ passage, at fol. 45, preceding " La Beine cependant" (of 
Villars, p. 150), is stranger still: — 

" On n*avoit pas moins inspirit d'aversion an Boy pour I'ambassa- 
drice, que pour son mary, souvent il se cachoit derri^re quelque rideau 
de porte pour Tobserver, quand Elle parloit a la reyne, et I'on asseure 
qu'un jour qu'il la vit entrer, il commenca a dire en son particulier des 
injures contre Elle basses et grossieres. La Camerera Mayor qui L'avoit 
entendu, le reprit en suite devant La reyne, et Luy fit une severe 
leqon de parler d'une maiiiere si mal honnette d'une personne de merite 
comme L'ambassadrice, c'est a dire qu'elle le reprit ainsi de dire devant 
le monde des ehoses que Ton devoit estre bien persuade que'elle Luy 
inspiroit eft particulier, ainsi la Beyne croyoit qu'elle Luy servoit a 
gouvemerl'esprit bizarre du Boy — de luy manager I'amiti^ de la Beyne, 
et tout le monde qui 89aToit combi6n elle estoit a craindre, Luy tenoit 
compte da mal qu'elle ne faisoit point et des fausses honnestetez qu'elle 
faisoit"* 

The following account of the Queen's mode of life at tliis period is 
omitted at p- 151, of the Villars' "M^moires" : — 

** 8a vie estoit toujours ennuyeuse et renfermee, elle ne sortoit que 
pour aller en devotion a quelque convent on en visite ohez la Beyne 
mere, ou toutes dcux^ efttbient dans la' conversation du monde la plus 
froide, elle ne pouvoit souffiir celle des Dames Espagnole qui la venoient' 
voir, et n'en essuyoit Tennuy que parce que rambassadnce de France 
Luy preschoit sans cesse qu'elle devoit garder des mesures honnestes 
avec Ellee. D'ailleurs elle n'avoit point d'autie divertissement que des 
Commedies Espagnolles, qui ne la divertissoient point du tout. Ellejou- 
oit tout le jour pour rien aux Eschets avec le Boy, I'homme du monde 



* Th« Ambassadress herself believed that she was an exception to this general hatred 
of the French by the king. ** A Tegard du jeune Roi, et de sa haine pour les Fran9ois, 
qui est grande, je puis dire qa'elle est moins violente poor moi, que pour les femmes 
Francoises de la Reine, par le raison qu^elles sont plus souvent aupr^s d*elle, que je n*ai 
eeC honneur."— ^Lettres de Bladame de Villars, p. 227. 

JL I. A. FBOC. — ^VOL. Vni. 2 K 



244 

de la plus mechante compagnie et ne Toyoit aapres de luy que ses deux 
nains." 

''Dans cet Estat elle scent se faire pour qudque temps une appa- 
rence de tranquility. Elle acquit de la complaisance pour le Roy, des 
manieres et des exactitudes teUes qu'il pouvoit les souhaiter pour croire 
qu'il estoit aim^, on La voyoit gaye avec de la sant^, et de 1' embonpoint 
La compagnie de ses chiens et de ses perroquets I'amusoit souTent, et 
son esprit sans suitte, sans ambition et sans attachement pour rien de et 
que son rang luy donnoit, la consoloit par certaines id^es de France oa 
Elle se faisoit de seules esperances de retoumer un jour et de gouster 
hors du throne les douceurs d'une vie sans crainte, qui luy laisseroit U 
liberty de suivre des penchans particuliers qui Pattachoient beaacoap 
plus que la grandeur." — ^Folios 46 and 46. 

At folios 51 and 52 there are thirty-six lines in the MS. which are 
omitted in the Yillars' ''Memoirs.'' From these it would appear that the 
queen opened her mind first to the ambassadress as to her intentioiL of 
asking the king for the dismissal of her camera-mayor. The ambassa- 
dress discouraged the idea for a while, through fear of the queen's want of 
persistence in her object ; but finding some days after that she peneTered 
in her intention, she advised her to speak to the king, but to use the 
utmost secresy and caution in her proceedings.* 

Folios 80 and 89 contain eighty lines which are omitted in the printed 
books. They commence near the top of p. 274 of Villars. They are 
curious, referring both to Madame de Yillars and to the Queen, whoK 
imprudence, in appearing at the windows of the palace, ** qui donarLt 
sur la place," with her French ladies or attendants, and addressing sacb 
French people as passed by " contre toutes les regies du Palais et 1» 
bienseance de son rang et de son sexe" is severely condemned. I regret 
that I had not time to copy this passage in full.f 

* There is nothing of this in Madame de Yillars' Letters. At p. 154 slie nm\^ 
•Ajs — '*0n loi a change de Camarera Major." In the next letter, at p. 156, she up 
again : — '* Je Tons ai mand6 par ma demiere Lettre la destitation de la Duchcaie <U 
Terra Nova ; qu'on ayoit mis a sa place la Duchesse d'Albnquerqae ; et que je oe poorct* 
etre ni aise ni flch^e de oe changement, que selon que la Rein^ s*en troureroit bien oa nsL' 

t It is carious that Madame de Villars mentions as one of the chief advantages cftr« 
change of Camtxrera Mayor the privilege of looking out of a wnndow which b here de- 
nounced as such a crime : — 

** On se trouve toujours bten da changement de la Camarera Major. L*air da Pi^« > 
en est tout different. Nous regardons prlsentement la Reine et moi, tant que sons ^-^^ 
Ions, par nne fendtre qui n*a de vile que sur un grand janlin d*un couvent de Be&* 
giueses qu'on appelle Vlncamaiion et qai est attach^ au Palais. Vona aores peisi i 
imaginer qu'une jeune Prinoesse n6e en France, et ^lev^an Palais Boral, poisM cosp- 
ter cela pour un plaisir." — Lettres, pp. 168, 164. 

The following passages from Madame d'Aulnoy (in the translation of Tom Brovr. 
perhaps refer to the subject in the text : — '* For, as I signified before, the Queen do^ 
not play with the little Dogs she bad brought along with her, before the King; sad ^ 
two Parrots were killed for no other reason but because they talked Freuek. The Ei:^ 
was out of humour as oft as any Frenchman passed through the court of tii« Palace, e* 
pedally if the Queen looked upon him, although it was through the windows and Ut- 
tioea of her chamber."— Memoirs of the C<mrt of Spain, London, 1692, Fart iL, p. S5. 



245 

After the word " compassion" in Villars, p. 308, speaking of the 
wife of the Connetable de Colonna, is added m the MS., '* Sil n'avoitpas 
et^ le fruit de sa mechante conduitte qa'elle avoit fait paroistre a tout 
le monde depuis plusieurs annees." In continuation of this conies the 
following long and important passage, which has been suppressed in all 
the other copies : — 

** Le Marquis de Villars avoit quelque temps auparavant re^u per- 
mission du Boy de finir son ambassade et d'en avertir les ministres de 
Madrid avec ordre neantmoins d'y attendre le successeur qu'on luy 
nommeroit, il y avoit pres d'un an qu'il solHcitoit son cong^ ; Les ex- 
cessive depenses ausquelles la cherts de Madrid Pengageoit, luy en avoit 
foumy une raison evidente, c'estoit celle dont s'estoit servy pour presser 
le Roy de luy permettre de se retirer, et des Tannic precedente il luy 
avoit demand^ permission d'envoyer en France La Marquise sa femme 
pour vivre a quelqu' une de ses terres et diminuer ainsi sa depense. II 
cachoit une autre raison qui pent estre n'estoit pas moins pressante que 
ceile la. C'estoit Pesprit et la conduite de la Beyne que luy ni Tam- 
bassadrice ne ppuvoient redresser, et dont les suittes auroient pu ne- 
amnoiuB retomber sur Eux comme sur les seules personnes dont elle 
devoit suivre les conseils, mais elle ne les escoutoit point et par un genie 
assez extraordinaire elle ne laissoit pas pour se disculper de leur attri- 
buer le retour de ses fautes, soit a Madrid ou meme a la cour de France, 
ils ne ponvoient en eviter les suittes dangereuses qu'en se retirant ; le 
Hoy n'y avoit point consenty d'abord, Mais depuis Le Marquis de la 
Fuente, ambassadeur d'Espagne ayant insinue que celuy de France a 
Madrid et L'Ambassadrice sa femme estoient entrez dans des intrigues 
qui avoient trouble la maison Boyalle, et ajoutant fait connoitre que le 
Roy d'Espagne souhaittoit leur rappel, le Roy instruit du veritable su- 
jet de cette plainte qui ne venoit que des interrets particuliers de quelques 
ministres entierement opposez a ceux de la maison Royalle ne laissa pas 
de rappeller Le Marquis de Villars en luy marquant qu'il estoit satisfait 
de sa conduitte, il demeura encore plusieurs mois a Madrid attendant 
qu*on luy donnait uu successeur et cependant Pambassadrice revinst en 
France."— Arsenal MS., fol. 101. 

I have called this passage an important one, because it supplies al- 
most for the first time the opportunity of testing the statements and 
opinions contained therein by an authority that cannot be impeached. 
Among the various records of those two years, snatched, so strangely out 
of the surrounding darkness, we fortunately possess one, the truth of 
which, especially on matters connected with the private aflfairs of the 
writer, cannot be questioned. These are the Letters of the Marchioness 
de Villars,* the wife of the supposed writer of the foregoing statement : 



* *^ Lettres de Madame La Marquifle de Villars, Amhassadrioe en Espagne, dans le 
temps da Manage de Charlrs II., Roi d'Espagne, avec la Princeu Marie-Louiae d'Or- 
leana, fille de Moasiear, frere oniqae de Louin XIV. et de Henriette Anne d'Angleterre, 
sa premien femme.— a Amsterdam, 1759." 



246 

f* Les lettroB charmantes,** says Mr. Stirling^ ** Rentes par sa i 
k Madame de Coulanges, durant son s^jour k la cour d'Espagne, aoni 
bien connues. Ce sont les esquisses les plus agi^ables qui aient ^U 6enk» 
sur la Tie et les mceurs Castillaiies, au duc-huitieme si^cle, en meme teoipt 
qu' elles pr^sentent le r^cit le plus fiddle et le plus digue de foi que noot 
poss^dious BUT la tiiste vie interieure de la royaute autrichienne ezpiraiite 
en Espagne."* 

If her statements concerning the interior life of th^ palace are so 
trustworthy, surely, on matters connected with her own household and 
her husband's affairs, they must be considered worthy even of more im- 
plicit belief. What account does she give of the recall of the Ambasaa- 
dor, and in what way does it corroborate the above statement^ allegied to 
have been written by the Ambassador himself? So far from Yillan 
having been soliciting his recall for more than twelve months, it is en- 
dent that the intelligence of it came upon himself and the Marchioness 
by surprise. So sudden indeed was it, that so late as the 3rd April, 
1681, she thought it necessary to explain to her correspondent in France 
why she had not previously mentioned so important a matter, the sim- 
ple reason being that she had known nothing whatever about it-f Is 
met the whole court was surprised, and the king himself so astoniflhed, 
that, on the news reaching Madrid, he asked those about him if it boded 
a new war with Prance.^ The account also which the author of tl» 
Arsenal MS. gives of the expenses of the embassy, and the eitespt taken 
in connexion therewith, is too loose and inaccurate to have been writ- 
ten by one who was so much interested in the subject. Mn^junp de 
Yillars has a good deal to say upon the matter, as might be ejq[ieckd. 
On the 29th August, 1680, she writes, ** De douze mille ^cus que le fidi 
donne i^ M. de Yillars, ce n'est a Madrid qu'environ 5-500 ^cua. 'Ssotn 
nudson nouscoute neuf mille francs de loyer, voyez ce qui reete poor toatei 
fortes d'autres d^penses." § She says that at this time M. de Tillu* 
had some idea of sending her back to France, in order to diminish his ex- 
penses; but this step was abandoned, and the financial difficulty removed, 
by the lung's coming to the relief of his ambassador, and by the removal 
of the embassy to a smaller house. *' Le petit secours,*' says Madam* 
de Yillars, nearly four months afterwards (12th Pecember, 1680), ^que 
le Boi a eu la bont^ de donner a )£. de Yillars, nous fait un peu reeplier. 
Kous avons paye et quitt^ notre grande maison de huit cent pistolo de 
loyer, et nous sommes pr^sentement dans une autre la moiti^ moia? 
ch^re, et mille fois plus commode." || As to the different estimate d 



* PzefBoe to " M6moires de U Coot d'Espagna vu le R«giie de Cbacl« U.«* p. ix 

f '* Lettres de Madame de Villan," p. 225. 

{ ** Si le premier Ministra a fiait n^gocier noire retonr en France par VAmhmmmAm 
d'Eepagne qui est k Paris, le Roi leur Maitie n*en a rien a^n ; car le jour qa*on en eat id 
la noavelkf il parut fat etonni qoand on la lui apprit, et demanda Miaai-^ ■ ee nVlaii 
point one marque qu'on aU&t renirer en guerre avec la Fraaoa.** — Lettraa de Maiiim 
de ViUan, p. 237. 

{ '* Lettres de Madame de VUlars,'* p. 168. | Ibid, p. !»«. 



247 

the Queen's cliaracter and conduct f^Mmed by tbe writer of the KS. 
"M^moiree de la Cour d'Espague/' and Madame de YillarB, they are 
80 striking^ as to render it scarcely poaaible that they could have 
been written by a husband and wife so united, so intelligent, and so ob« 
servant. This subject will be best treated when I give the last crown* 
ing passages of the MS., where the writer acciunalates such a torrent of 
invective against the poor queen as to suggest some motive more excit- 
ing than the sesthetic pleasure of painting an historical character. 

Among the most curious episodes which are given in the printed 
** M^moires de la Cour d'Espagne," there is one which in all the copies 
is called by its Spanish name ** Los Galant^os de Palacio." Along with 
what is given in the other books, the Arsenal KS. contains the follow- 
ing story, which, under the circumstances, has perhaps no rival for ef- 
fr^teiy and audncity. It occurs at folio 102, and is in continuation of 
p. 311 of the " Yilliurs* U^moireSy" after the Hue " a r^galer leurs mal- 
tresses et les servir." 

** Peu de jours avantle depart pour Aranjuas il arriva sur oe sujet 
one afiaire qui fist bian voir jusques ou pouvoit aller Tinsolenoe dee 
courtisans et la foiblesse du Boy. Le jour de jeudy Saint que la Beyne 
sert les pauvres, on avait, suivant la coutume, laiss^ entrer quelques fem- 
mes plus curieuses de voir la Beyne que la ceremonie. Comme le 
nombre B*en augmentoit, le grand maistre d*hotel fit defiense d*en lais- 
eer entz«r davantage. Le Comte de Bancs vinst peu apres a la porte 
voulut faire entrer des femmea qu' il y rencontra. L' huissier Pen 
roolut empescher suivant I'ordre qu'il en avoit, mais le Comte I'ayant 
repousa^ fist passer lea femmes de force, il trouva aupr^s de la Beyne 
une de see filles d'honneur dont il estoit Pamant, et sans respect ny du 
lien ny de sa Migest^ qui estoit presente il oommen^a avec cette fille une 
conversation Hbre jusqu* a PefGronterie. Le guarda Bamars voulut le 
faire retirer, mais U en recut des injures, et sur ce qu'il insista encore a 
le pressor de se retirer, le Comte mist la main sur son poignard le 
mena^ant de luy en donner dans le corps. Le guarda Damars ne pou- 
vant se faire obeir, alia se plaindre au grand maistre qui en fit une con- 
mite an Boy pleLne de considerations capables de se porter a faire justice 
de cette insolence, mais le Comte de Bados estoit proche parent du pre- 
mier ministre, et n'en'eust pas seul^nent une reprimande." 

The most important, and the longest of the suppressed or omitted 
passages in the printed books and in Mr. Stirling's MB., follows im- 
mediately after the above. It is a general summing up of the entire 
evidence, but done more in the angry spirit of an accuser than with the 
calm dif^wssion of a judge. The character of the weak young king 
may be left without much compunction in the hands of this merciless 
manipulator. Probing knife and forceps in the hands of historical prac- 
titioners have left so little sensibility in this poor victim, as to render the 
most humane sceptic of the received diagnosis in his case indifferent to 
the effect which this new, though old, operator may produce upon him. 
Indeed, some of the pictures in this new sketch it would be a pity to 



248 

haye lost. We hare already seen the poor king hiding behind the cur- 
tains of the door to overhear the conversation of the queen with the 
Ambassadress of France ; or sitting alone, talking to himself, and utter- 
ing aloud a thousand maledictions on the French. We have him here 
retiring to rest at seven o'clock, taking his solitary supper in bed, with 
the doors of his chamber locked, and allowing the queen to knock seve- 
ral times before he would admit her. But the character of the queen 
is very different The shadows are laid on certainly with a Bcmbrandt 
vigour and depth, unillumined, however, even by that one gleam of 
atoning light by which we penetrate the mysterious darkness of that 
great master's grouping. The small virtues she possesed are left in im- 
penetrable shade, while her smaller defects are exaggerated by having 
the historian's lantern turned exclusively on them. We have fortonatelj 
the sunlight of Madame de Yillars to flood the entire picture, and as it 
will be found totally to change its effect. The old offence of lookiog 
out of the windows is again brought against the poor quee^i by the Mend 
of Scarron and a courtier of Versailles ; and the crime of a poor Frenck 
princess keeping her mother-tongue alive (for she knew no other lan- 
guage), by addressing a few words of French to French people, ia prch 
nounced unpardonable by the ambassador of France. One is surpnsbd 
he does not mention that the queen occasionally laughed — a breach of 
etiquette noticed by his lively marchioness. " Elle a le teint admirmble," 
says Madame de YUlars, '' de beaux yeux ; la bouche tres-agr^able quand 
elle rit. Que c'est une belle chose de rire en Espagne!"* AIm<^ 
every statement in this bill of indictment is contradicted by the unim- 
peachable evidence of Madame de Yillars. A few extracts are given from 
her letters in the notes. I leave the task of reconciling these extracts witii 
the statements in the text to those who can still believe that the '' M^- 
moires de la Cour d'Espagne, depuis Tannee 1679, jusqu' en 1681," at 
least in their integrity, were written by the Marquis de Yillars, 

'' Cette estoit la disposition de la Cour d'Espagne au mois de May 
de I'ann^e 1681. Le Roy depuis six mois estoit entr^ dans sa vingtiaoe 
ann^e aussi pen avanc^ d'Esprit et de connoisance, que s'il eust encore 
est^ enfant ; il n'avoit pas meme la force d'avoir des passions. Lee pbd- 
sirs et les exercises luy estoient indifferents ; s'il alloit a la chasse, c'estoit' 
seul et presque toujours en cairosse ; son aversion pour les dames alloit 
jusqu' a dire que si quelqu'un luy parloit jamais d'une Maitresae il le 
poignarderoit." 

'' Presque toute sa vie passoit dans le palais sans occupation, sans 
plaisirs, sans conversation, mel^e seulement de certaines devotions d'babi- 
tude moins semblables a la piet^ qu' a la superstition, et pen differentes 
du reste de son oisivete, il n'avoit d' ordinaire pres de luy que le gentil- 
homme de sa chambre qui estoit de jour quelque valet de chambre^ et 
deux nains avec lesquels il jouoit, et souvent pour rien, il ne lea quit- 
toit que pour passer de temps en temps dans Tappartement de la Beyne, 

♦ " LettrcB de Madame de Villars," p, 28. 



249 

d*oa il fiortoit incontinent. Vers le commencement de I'ann^e 1681 , il 
piifit la coutume de se coucher a sept heures du soir, et de souper seul dans 
son list, faisant fenner son appartement de maniere que la Beyne meme 
n*y entreit qu' apr^s avoir long temps frapp^ a la porte, il V aymoit 
cependant et auroit este dans une entiere dependance d' £lle, si £lle avoit 
eu quelque application a luy plaire et a le gouvemer.*'* 

'' Mais eUe paroissoit ponr luy sans amiti^ comme sans estimef et 
le plus souvent avec peu de complaisance et de menagement, bors dans 
les momens qu' elle en vouloit obtenir quelque grace. Son indifference 
estoit generalle pour tout le reste de la Cour, ri'ayant ni bont^ effective, 
ni meme d'bonneste apparente pour les personnes qui V approcboient, 
esloign^e de faire du bien autant par faute de volenti que de credit, peu 
libeiaUe, insensible au service comme a I'injurie, capable de brouiller 
tout le monde par son indiscretion, entest^e de deux ou trois femmes 
de cbambre confidentes de ses soubaits et de ses vues, comme EUe 
Testoit a leur amours, sacrifiant tout le reste pour elles, on en vit une 
marque lorsque dans un jour de oeremonie elle voulut, centre toutes les 
regies du palais et de la bienseance, que ses femmes de cbambres portas- 
sent certains voiles comme les £lles d'honneur, ce caprice luy attira le 
chagrin et les plaintes des plus grandes Maisons de la Cour offens^es du 
mepris qu* eUe faisoit de leurs filles/'J 

** On Luy voyoit d'aiUeurs peu de piet^, peu de modestie et de re- 
tennne, et tout le jour attacb^e aux fenestres du Palais si estroittement 
deffendiies aux Beynes et aux princesses d'£spagne, elle estoit a parler 
des doigts et quelques fois mesme tout haut avec des miserables Pran9oiB 
qui paroissent autant ses amants que ceux de ses femmes de cbambre :§ 

* " Cette jetme Reine se condait jusiqnes id avec beaacoap de doacear et de soiimis- 
sion poor le Roi,**— Lettres de Madame de Villara, &c p. 63 (12 Janvier, 1680). 

" Cette Princease condnae a se bien porter, . . . Le Roi Taime aatant qu' il peat; 
elle le gouvemeroit aaaez ; mala d'autre machines, sans beaocoap de force ni de rapiditi 
donoent d*antres monvemens, et toument et changent les volont^s du Roy" Lettres, p. 
208— <26 Janvier. 1681). 

'* Le Roi et la Reine sont dans one grande union, et meillenr depuis denz on trois moia, 
qn* elle n*a jamais et^.^^Lettres, p. 228, (8 Avril, 1681). 

t ** Le Roi Taime passionn^ment a* sa mode ; et die aime le Roi h la sienne. Elle 
est belle comme le jour, grasse, fratche; elle dort, elle mange, elle rit; il faut finir 1& ; 
et avec tout I'esprit que vous avez, je yous d^fie de devenir tout ce que j* aurai k vous 
dire ensuite de tout cela." — Lettrea de Madame de Yillars, p. 164 (12 Septembre, 
1680). 

X This complaint bas a surprisingly feminine look about it, and savours more of the 
vindictiveness of a dismissed camerera mayor, or a disappointed lady-in-waiting, than 
the diaposaionate recollection of an ambassador. 

§ Madame d' Aulnoy's account of one affair of the window, at least, is far from being 
discreditable to the young Queen — "M^moires de le Cour d'Espagne, Seconde partie,*'p. 25. 
I give it in the translation of Tom Brown : — ** The next morning the King went out very 
early a hnnting all alone, without saying a word to the Queen. This disquieted her aU 
day long, and she past the greatest part of it leaning upon the windows of her chamber, 
although the Dutchess de Terra Noca frequently disturbed her, and told her, that a 
Queen of Spain ought not to look out at a utmdow. All that day she impatiently ex- 
pected the King's return, and as soon as ever he lighted from his horse, met him about 



250 • 

ii est certain que selon le genie et lea manieres d'Bspagne sa cxmdmtt 
auroit d^ luy ftiire craindre des snittes facheuBes, m le E07, et hs gon- 
▼emement n'enssent est^ egallement foibles. EUe ne menageoit point 
le premier Ministre, mais comme eUe estoit sans ponvoir, il se contentoit 
de la mepriser sans tirer avantaf^e de son pen de oonduite nj Lny tun 
plus de mal qu'elle s'en faisoit EUe meme."* 

" La B^yne mere la connoisoit bien et apr^s aroir fiiit tontes les de- 
marehes pour entrer a^ec Elle en une veritable confiance, dont les liaisons 
auroient pu lenr donner tout ponvoir sur I'esprit dn Roy et sor les 
ministresy elle n'y trouva que de Tindifferenee et de la legeret^^ de sorte 
que voyant ses soins jnutileB elle ftit obligee d'abandonner tontes les 
vues qu'elle avoit form^es pour le bien de La Maison Boyalle et de Fes- 
tat, et ne songea plus qu' a donner le reste de sa vie an repos et a U 
piet^. Prineesse vertueuse, honneste, juste, liberaUe, pent estre trop 
bonne et trop facile, moins sensible, et moins severe qn'il ne eouTient 
aux personnes de son rang."t 

**Le genie du premier ministre n'estoit guerre plus eler^, queednj 
du premier Roy, il avoit quelque fbcilit6 pour les complimena et pour 
le ddiors des affaires, hors cette apparenee on le trouvoit ju8q[aes dans 
les moindres afliaires incapable d*agir de luy meme, et sans discemement 

half the sUir-case and threw herself about hU neck with that agreeable Frescli fibcrty 
which she had not yet forgotten.**— Part ii. p. 21. 

* Sarelj thu cannot be the same queen of whom Dunlop writes as foHows :*- 

^ Yet Louisa d'Orleans passed the dangerous period of life with nntainted rapotatioa, 
and with many claima to pnpnlarity and esteem among her subjects. Leaviof^ in th» tii( 
dawn of youth the mo^it brilliant court in Europe, and entering the roosit gloomy, sb» 
bore the change with cheerfulness, and, except in the few first days of probatioa, withmil 
repiniag. United to a husband of the most despicable understanding and deplorahfe 
ignorance, and who possessed no qualifications which could win attachment or esteoik 
she paid him, in all his fits of caprice or despondency, unremitting attention, and aevtr 
was snspeeted of aUowing her affections to stray to a nnore worthy object. From tbe b^ 
guining of her reign, she showed the greatest sympathy for the dbtren^ of the people; 
and, during her last illness, being informed that the dtizens who had anaeuiHed at tbt 
gates of the palace, were oflTering up prayers for her recovery, she said, * that aha was wdl 
entitled to this return of affection, as she would at any time hare laid down her IHe to 
relieve tham of the burdens they endured.' *' — Memoirs of Spain' dniing tbe reigns ef 
Philip IV. and Charles II., by John Dunlop, v. 3, p. 247. 

t In Madame de VilUrs* letter there is no mention ot thia disgnat of the qiMn- 
thother, and of her abandonment of all efforts to be useftd to her daaghtcr-iB.|nw aaA 
her son. There is, however, evidence of the strong regard which the qncen-mother 
entertained towards the French Ambassador and his wife. Tbe last aentenoe we liav« <^ 
Ifadame de VIlLirs' letter proves this; but it proves also that at thia time, towarda tbe xtrf 
close of M. de Vi liars* embassy. May, 1681, the nnion which had been bnmgbtabovi by 
the good ofllces of M. de Villars and his wife between the qucen-meiher and her daa^h- 
ter-in-law »till continued. ** J'ai vCL la Reine Mere ces jours pasafa," aaya MndsMe ds 
Villars in her last letter : ** dont j*ai tous les snjets du monde de me loner, pnr toots 
lea choses obligeantes qu* elle dit de la conduite de M. de Villaie et de la Miebae, qn- 
ant k r union de sa belle-fille avec elle ; et je suis bieu pennad6e qn* elle en'teit eonfir- 
moment k la Reine en France.'* — Lettres, p. 244. 

With regard totlie general character of the queen^mother in the text, it ia 1 
the reverse of that insinuated by Dtuilop, and broadly stated by Mr. Fold. (See* 
Book of Spain,'* sect xi., p. 840. 



251 

pour profiler des lumieres d'autray, il n'en tiroit que de D. Oeronimo 
d'Egaya qui le gouyemoit aussi absolument que s'U en eust est^ capa- 
ble, Tun et r autre gouyemoient le Boy par le confesseur et parYibanco 
qui dans son poste de yalet de chambre estoit un petit fiiyory." 

" La Camerera Mayor toujours unie ayec le premier l^nistre, luy 
rendoit compte de la Reyne aupres de laquelle elle bo maintenoit par 
une grande complaiBance a luy laifiser faire tout ce qu'elle youloit, cette 
liberty excessiye fat un malhear pour la Eeyne qui s'abandonna sans 
contrainte a une conduite dangereuse et Ton eu lieu de douter pour les 
suittee si la seyerit^ dure de la Duchesae de Terra Nova ne luy eust point 
este plus utile que la foible tolerance de la Ducbesse d' Albuquerque/' 

*' Le Due de Medina Celi se conservoit dans le ministere par une 
conduitte toute smguliere, il sembloit que la foiblesse et I'incapacit^ qui 
precipitent d'ordinure les favoris, servoient a le soutcnir ; il laissoit aux 
conseils la disposition des affaires, aux tribuneaux le cours Ubre de leurs 
injustices, il ne recberchoit point les malversations pass^es et ne 8*y 
opposoit point pour Tavenir, les grands et les personnes de qualit<^ 
vivoient dans leur insolence ordinaire et dans le mepris des loix et de 
leur Maistre. La Licence et Timpunit^ estoient generalles, et bors le 
peuple qui se trouvoist accable presque tout le monde s'accomodoit d'un 
gouvemement ou tout le monde estoit le Maistre." — ^Folio 105. 

The "Memoires de la Cour d'Espagne," properly so called, end at 
the above passage, on the 105tb folio of the Arsenal MS. A blank leaf 
then follows, and the next page (folio 106) is headed, *' Estat de la Cour 
d'Espagne en L'ann^e 1680." This second division of the MS. extends 
to folio 132, where the volume ends. There is no difference in the 
handwriting or the colour of the ink. The first entry is about the 
King, whid^ certainly was written by a contemporary — " Le Roy est 
entre dans sa 19* ann^e le 7* Novembre de Tann^e pass^e 1679." To 
this succeeds a description of the personal appearance of the king, which 
resembles very much that which Madame d* Aulnoy gives of him in her 
" Travels." * The same may be said of the entry about the queen 
commencing '' La Heine ag^e de 18 ans." f Characters of the queen- 

♦ «» Relation da Voyage d^Eapagne," A la Haye, 1716, t li., p. 17. It ia thus trana- 
latcd In "The Lady'a Travela," v. ii., p. 16 :— 

" I must tell yon, then, that hia complexion ia delicate and fair ; he haa a hroad 
forehead, hia eyes are fine, and have a great deal of sweetness in them ; his face is very 
long and nmrrow ; his lips, like those of the house of Austria, are very thick, and his 
month is wide ; his nose is very much hawked ; his chin is sharp, and turns up ; he has 
a great head of hair, and fair, lank, and put behind his ears ; his stature is pretty high, 
straight and slender ; his legs are small, and almost of a thickness ; he is naturally very 
kind and good ; he is inclined to clemency, and of the great variety of council he has 
given him, he takes that which is most for the advantage of his people, for he loves them 
extremely. He is not of a vindictive spirit ; he is sober, liberal, and pious ; his inclina- 
tions are virtuous ; he is of an even temper, and of easy access ; he hath not had all that 
education which is requisite to form the mind, but yet he seems not deficient ** 

t Madame de Villars also sketches her at this interesting age:^** En v6rit6 sa douceur, 
oa complaiaanoa et toute sa conduite, sont des choses extraordinaires k dixhnit ans " — 
Lettres, p. 83. 

E. I. A. PBOC. — VOL, Vin. 2 L 



252 

inotker, the Buke of Medina Cell, and the other offlcere of state, follow ; 
then the household of the king and queen ; the various councils, &c., 
as in the other books. At folio 123 there is a list of '' viceroys, capi- 
taines, generaux, gouvemeurs an dedans de PEspagne," followed by 
those " Hors d'Espagne." Then comes a list of ** Tropes" (corrected 
*' Troupes*' by a later hand), " au dedans de TEspagne." At foL 125 
there is an elaborate list of '' Ambassadeurs et Envoyez en la €our 
d'Espagne en Tannee 1679 et 1680." They are all described miuutelT, 
even to their physical appearance, except tiie Marquis de Yillars, who 
is given the third place. He is simply mentioned thus : — *' Le Marquis 
de Yillars, ambassadeur de France pour la seconde fois." This re- 
ticence in his favour may not be without significance. After this comes 
a description of Madrid, and the palace, resembling, if not identaca] 
with, that given by Madame d'Aulnoy ; this is at Mio 126 ; reference 
are tiien given to the ports of Spain ; and the MS. ends with a recspi> 
tulation'of the state of the revenue, and the irregularities connected 
with the administration of the law, justice, &c. 

In concluding this inquiry, I should perhaps apologize for the length 
to which my report of it has run, and which to most persons, I am afraid, 
will appear quite out of proportion to its importance. Truth, however, 
is such a very precious material, that the preservation even of its most 
minute particle is worth the sacrifice of some time and trouble. I fed, 
nevertheless, that in this investigation I have not so much added to the 
stock of truth as diminished a little the amount of error. The author 
of ^'M^moires de la Cour d'Espagne" still remains to be discovered. 
That the papers of the Marquis de Yillars may have largely assisted in 
their compilation is very probable ; but that he himself could have beeu 
their compiler, or that some of their most curious and interesting state- 
ments could have had him for their author, I think I have di^roved 
upon good evidence. It is impossible now to fall back upon Madame 
d'Aulnoy. The personal and private history of the court was as mudi 
out of her reach, as the political refiections throughout the volume were 
beyond her power. In seriousness, solidity, and reality, the ^* M^moiics 
de la Cour d'Espagne" differ as widely fix)m the " Memoires de la Cour 
d'Angleterre," or even the " Memoires de la Cour de France,'' * a£ 
would one of her avowed fairy talcs. The arguments which I have 

* I have before me three different Memoirs of the Coort of France, two of whicfa, at 
least, are ascribed to Madame d'Aulnoy. One, which appears the oldest, iawUhoatdate 
— '* Memoires secrets de Mr. L. D. D. 0. ou les Avantnres comiques de plusieari gnads 
Princes de la Cour de France. Par Mad. D^Aunoy. Autew de Mem. et Vofoge 
dEepoffne, A Paris, chez Jaques Bredoo." 

** Memoirs of the Court of France, &c., written in French by Madame Dausos, tlw 
Famous Author of the LfCtters of Travels into Spain ; and Done into English bv llr, 
A. BT London, 1697. 

** Memoirs of the Conrt of France, and City of Paris, &c., in two parta. Traariated 
from the French." London, for Jacob Tonson at Groyne- Inn- Gattf 1702% 

This last can scarcely be a translation of l^adame d'Aulnoy's ** Memoires de U Cour 
de France,** or, as it is more generally called, " Memoires Historiquas de ce qui s'est pa«e 



25S 

drawn agaiiut tiie authorship of the Marquis de Yillars, from the refleo- 
tions on the queen, would l^ perhaps still stronger in her case than in 
lusy as the last words of K&r Memoirs are devoted to a grateful recoUeo- 
tion of the kindness which the queen had shown her, and to a hope that 
in the Memoirs of another oourt, which she was about to write, she 
would hare an opportunity of giving a faithful portraiture "de cette 
aimable Beine'' — a promise which, in the two works I have just quoted, 
and in the others mentioned in the notes, she does not fiilfiL* 

The Bev. Db. Ebbves (for Db. Williak Bbll) read the following 
paper: — 

On thb so-called Bino-icobet, ib befebebcb to mabt Spbcixbns IB 

THE P086E8SIOB OB THB BtGHT HOB. THB EaBL OF LOBDBSBOBOUOH, 
ABD ICOBB BSPEdALLT AB IbISH OBB, WITH A MOVBABLB Swi^BL 
BiBO. 

" Fldzttis obtofti ad digitos et eirculas aQri.** 

It will at the present day be superfluous to prove, from the simi- 
larity of our British antiquities with those of the continent in religious 
rites and temples, or from an identical Anglo-Saxon language, and the 
close resemblance of names for persons and places, as well as from uni- 
formity in customs and usages, that much, nay, possibly all, that the 
ancient historians of Germany have left us on these topics may be used 
to illustrate the earliest religion and language, the nomenclature, and 
the customs of our ancestors. Adam of Bremen, Wittichind of Corvey, 
Holmald of Bosan, Ditmar of Merseburg, and numerous others, give us 
glimpses of manners and usages that may be usefully brought to bear 
upon the imperfect relations of our own annalists ; nor is the benefit 
unreciprocated. Continental writers caU largely into requisition the 
writings of Bede, of Asser, of Nennius, and our Monkish historians, to 
supply the deficiencies or elucidate obscurities in their own early re- 
cords. For Englishmen, however, the best use that can be made of 
foreign historical inquiries is only in so far as they tend in a more or 
less remote degree to clear up what is forgotten or obscure in our own 
history ; for manners and practices of distant countries tdat are with- 
out relation to British objects, may be feasibly neglected or feebly re- 
garded by us. 

It is with this view that we take up the subject of those curious 
articles frequently found in the British empire, and commonly, and 
possibly in part rightly, known under the name of Bino Mobet, to 

en Europe. depniB 1672 jtuqu* en 1679,** alladed to by Mr. PUwcb^ in the introduction 
to his traDBlation of Madame d^Aulnoy's Faiiy Tales (London, 1868). It contains no 
prebce ; but Madame d'Aulnoy (or lyAnoy, as she is oiUed), is incidentaDy mentioned 
at p. 118, part 2. 

• •*Memolres dela Coor d^Espagne (by Madame d*Aulnoy). Ala Haye, 1692. 
Seconde parHe, p. 212.** 

B. I. A. PBOC. — VOL. vni. 2 U 



254 

proTe by foreign usages and historical evidence the real and principal 
nature of these enigmatical objects ; and which one more curious, and 
possibly unique, in the valuable collection of the Earl of Londesborough, 
will incontestibly prove. 

The subject is not, however, without danger, as we must not only 
run counter to preconceived opinions, but it is difficult to bring minds 
fully occupied with a prior tiieory to pay attention to citations and 
proo& from distant, and possibly to them, unknown authorities, whidi 
bring only fragmentary and widely dispersed evidence. It has been 
well observed by a writer on Gerxnan mythology, in Fart zxL of the 
Journal of the '' VereinfUr AlterthufMhunde im Reirdande (Association 
for the Knowledge of the Archaeology of the Bhine Countries) that iU 
specialities have to be collected, and an entirety to be constructed anew 
from very disjointed and distant fragments ; and he adds the exemplifica- 
tion of another writer on the same topic : one place will give us Thor s 
hammer, and another, possibly, its curious feature of hitting every ob- 
ject at which it is aimed ; wholst a third locality, perhaps a hundred 
miles distant, will adduce its property of always returning (like the 
Australian boomerang) to the powerfril hand frx>m which it was hurled 
This may excuse and apologize for referring in our proposed inquiry to 
old continental practices and writers ; and it is only from, as I trust, the 
successful results, that something of prolixity may be justified. 

Before, however, proceeding farther, it may be necessary to anim- 
advert to the prevalent belief that these objects were used as fibuls to 
fasten the garments of their owners — a purpose, certainly, for which, 
from their fornix they are very iU adapted : we must suppose, for such 
intent, that the two projecting lips were inserted in two holes of a 
heavy toga or outer covering of skms ; but in that case the prominent 
semicircular head must have pressed so forcibly against the breast, 9xA 
dug itself so deeply in the flesh of the wearer, that the pain* must have 
be^ insupportable ; if inverted, and the b^d brought outwards, it 
would have been often an inconvenient obstacle to the use of the arm or 
the bend of the neck. We have inMontfaucon some examples ofDmidical 
costume, and in various authors references to their habits and dreas, but 
in none is there the slightest allusion to such a use ; and as the articles 
were, from their matenal, evidentiy only in use by the higher daases, 
such neglect does not appear probable, had this use obtain^. * 

If we consider the radical meaning of the nnre as a symbol, we 
shall find, without having recourse to the idea of Adelung («. r.), that the 
final g is merely a supeiSuous suffixus, and that consequently the word 
contains the idea of purity, from rtit (to run as a brook), and rein (dean} ; 
or that our old Saxon rin««, and ^stiU better wring ^ or Anglo-Saxon 

* We believe the entirety of the exhumations of tamoll in this and erciy olJhsr 
countiy, though rich in fibnlie and personal omainents, may be challenged for the pcodvc- 
tion of a single object of this description. My own extended observations have aerra 
yet met with an instance ; but, at all events, never on skeletons in the necessary positMS 
of this ornament. 



255 

Bring t with only a yariation of the initial guttural, will give the same 
idea of purity, l^ transfer of the subjectiYe to its objective consequence ; 
for, though tiie idea of purity, and consequently of sanctity and truth, 
be not inherent in our present use of the word ringy yet its earliest use 
88 the symbol in acts where purity is especially implied, in the mar- 
riage ceremony, proves its ancient acceptance amongst us in this 
meaning. 

Bings were originally, no doubt, an entire circle. The easy fabri- 
cation of a circle, and their Greek and Latin denominations, eircului or 
kvkXo9, proYe this evidently ; but the Latin synonyms for orlns terramm, 
as mundui, which also signifies clean, give us again the primitive mean- 
ing of the Saxon ring for purity. It is therefore in accordance, that, 
thou^ we find no classical use of the ring in the marriage ceremonies 
of either Greeks or Bomans, we find it in their usages where faith and 
truth are implied ; in their compacts and agreements of amity and peace. 
This usage derives from the earliest periods of history ; but the Greeks 
and Bomans may have derived the practice more immediately from the 
East and Persia, where existing monuments sufficiently evince its fre- 
quent and solemn use. In the numerous engravings with which Sir 
K. Ker Porter has illustrated his Persian travels, the examples are fre- 
quent. 

In vol. i., at page 571, plate 27, we have two examples at Nakshi- 
rajab, in which the sacred girdle or guebre belt adds force to the adjuration 
of the ring, the girdle being, no doubt, the antitype of the CathoUc stole, 
the imposition of which on the joined hands is a portion of the sacra- 
mental rite of marriage in that religion. 

At page 548 is the representation of a large rock sculpture at Nakshi 
Koustam : two sovereigns on horsebackhold a ring conjointly in each right 
hand, over a battle-field, as evinced by the corpses beneatli their horses' 
feet : an early example of a belle allianee or more modem enteinte car- 
diale. 

At page 520 are two standing figures, with rings and concomitants, 
which would require a long dissipation, and repay the labour, at a more 
fitting opportunity. A priest of Mithras is emphatically blessing the 
act with joined hands. 

In plate 40 we have a procession following the sacred bull, and in 
the tier next below we have a person bearing perhaps the monarch's 
sword, and after him follows another, bearing two rings in his hand, the 
exact prototypes of a very heavy golden one, dug up in Bornholm, and 
now in the Boyal Museum at Copenhagen ; but this latter is too narrow 
to encircle any portion of the human body, is without the lips, and only 
a thick solid bar of the valuable metal turned over at both ends so as to 
be capable of being grasped only by the closed fist in the act of adjura- 
tion or abjuration. 

As we are at present not writing a history of these rings, but only 
of their uses, it may be unnecessary to prove that they are found both 
annular and penannullar in inm sU'ongly oxidized, in bronze finely pa- 
tinated, in 9%lver more rarely, but frequently in goldy and of great 
weight. 



256 

Their sanctity will detain us longer. We find them almost oniTer- 
sally as an ornament and sacred utensil of the Northern Germanic and 
Scandinavian temples, for the purpose of administering oaths or reom- 
ing the prayers of the votaries. For this reason Hauptmann von Led- 
ebur, in his account of the Boyal Museum of Fatherland antiquities at 
Berlin, describing the valuable ring found at StaMmU in Silesia, 
adopts justly the opinion of Professor Biisching, in calling them Sekeur- 
rin^e, rings of adjuration. This example is possibly the heaviest and 
most valuable of its kind yet discovered, weighing 227 ducats of the 
purest 24 carats gold : it is oval in form, and its interior diameter S^" 
to 2^", wide enough to introduce the hand and get it over the wiist, bat 
with no signs of ever having been so worn, which, by the softnesB of 
the metal, must have been evident, had it ever been so used : it is, 
however, certain, that it could never have been used as a fibuht, tat, 
though the ends are beautifully chased into lion and dragon heads, 
whose manes form an elegant ornament some way down the back, they 
are not sufficiently prominent to bear the weight of a garment as a 
button, nor is the interval or opening betwixt the two fig^ure-heads 
sufficient to admit conveniently any kind of web or doth to have served 
as a covering. Yon Ledebur farther remarks (p. 51), similar gold rings, 
although not equal to this in weight, have been often found inDenma^ 
and Sweden, and are now preserved in the royal collections at Gopoi- 
hagen and Stockholm. 

For the frequency of these sacred emblems, in Iceland and the north, 
wequotefrom ''Mallet's Northern Antiquities'' (p.291): — ''TheThmg- 
stead was always near the temple, in which one of the aaoerdotel 
magistrates performed a sacrifice, and sprinkled the walls of the edifice, 
as well as the bystanders, with the blood of the victims : holdinff in ku 
hand, on this aa on every other solemn oceaeion, a massive sUper rin^, woM 
which the altar of every temple was furnished.** The ring in the hand 
of a priest was the symbol of sacrifice, as in those of the laity a sign id 
truth, just as at the present day oaths are taken on the Testament, which 
serves in the pulpit for public supplication and prayer. 

Wheaton, in his '' History of the Northmen" (p. 32), is more specif 
on the subject of their attesting sanctity in Iceland : — 

** Thorolf landed where the columns of the temple of the god Their, 
when thrown into the sea, came to land, and took formal possession cf 
that part of the coast in the ancient accustomed manner, by walkxDg 
with a burning firebrand in his hand round the lands he intended to 
occupy, and marking the boimdaiies by setting fire to the grass. He 
then built a large dwelling-house on the shores of what was afterwards 
called the Hofs-vag, or Temple Bay, and erected a spadous temple to 
Thor, having an entrance door on each side, and towards the inner end 
were erected the sacred columns of the former temple (in Norway), in 
which the reginalar, or the nails of the divinity, were fixed. Wifhim 
these columns teas a sanctuary, in which he placed a silver ring^ two mmees 
in weight, which was used in the ministration of every solemn oeitk, mod 
adorned the person of the pontiff chieftain in every public assembly. 



257 

the oath wa»^So help me Freyr, Njord, and the Ahnighty As : a for- 
mula found both in the * Eyrbyggia Saga/ cap. ii, and in the ' LaodnaiAa- 
Bok,' p. 300." 

It 18 a somewhat earlier period of our own history which gives ns 
confirmation of this method of swearing, and its solemnity as weU as 
inyiolability. Most nations have esteemed one mode of adjuration 
more binding and more sacredly restrictive than the rest The Boman 
Styx is too well known to neeid much illustration, as the imprecation 
which the gods themselves could not break with impunity : as, 

'* Adjuro Stjgii caput implftcabUe fontee;" 

ViBOiL, ^n. ziL, 186 ; 
and also, 

" Di cajus jnran timent et fallere i 



But water in general, or chalybeate springs, seem sometimes to 
hare the same inviolable vutue, as in Eumenius, " Panegyr., Constant.," 
c. zxi : — '' Jam omnia te vocare ad se templa videntur praecipueque 
Apollo, cnjus ferventibus aquis, peijuria puniuntur qusB te maxime 
oportet odisse." 

The oath of Odin in the Orkney, when broken in the case of a se- 
duced female, was punished with mcreased severity by the elders of a 
Scotch presbytery, even in the last century ; but the most characteristic 
and most sacred oath of the hot-headed and ever-armed Highlander was 
by Am dirk, for the elucidation of which we must refer to Sir "W. Scott's 
own note on the subject, in the 8vo. edition of " Waverley" (note 2 N, 
p. 153). 

The passage referred to fi^mi our own history on this topic is an in- 
teresting event in the life of our great Alfred, as related by Asser, 
Giles' translation (p. 58)—" Also they (the Danes) swore an oath over 
the Christian relics which, with King Alfred, were next in veneration 
after the Deity himselt" But Asser is rightly corrected by the Sucon 
Chronicle of the year 876 ; though these piratical invaders seem to have 
despised even the most solemn obligation of their own temples : — 

" And in this same year the army of the Danes in England swore 
oaths to King Alfred up<m the holy ring, which before they would not 
do to any nation ; and they delivered to the king hostages frt>m among 
the most distinguished men of the army, that they would speedily de- 
part from, his kingdom. And notwithstanding this, that part of the 
army which was horsed stole away by night from the fortress to Exeter." 

For the frequency of these rings in temples we may instance, 
amongst many other discoveries of them about Druidical circles or 
cromlechs, the large number of twenty-five exhumed from beneath one 
of the monolithic pillars of the great Temple of Camac, in Brittany, 
which were engraven and offered for sale throughout Europe about five 
years since. 

But that the practice of ring swearing was not altogether foreign to 
our own island, die oath to 0dm, already adduced, seems to prove ; and 
the following passage frvm the " Gloucester Book of the Brit. Ardueo- 
log. Association," p. 62, will render it indisputable: — 



258 

' ' St. Bega was the patroness of St. Bee's, in Gamberlaiidy where Mke Uff 
a holy bracelet, which was long an object of profound Teneradon : a 
small collection of her miracles, written in the 12th oentuiy, is extant, 
and has been published." In the prefatory statement of the compiler, 
we learn, among other things, that-—'' Whosoever forswore himself ^tpom 
her bracelet swiftly incurred the heaviest punishment of peryury, or a 
speedy death,'* 

Upon this passage we may observe, that as the Anglo-Saxon Be^4s, 
the Trench Bague, is the usual denomination of our I^Eixon ancest4»B ka 
rings, we may venture to predict that holy St. Bega was but a persani- 
fication of one of the holy rings, which, having gained great hold on the 
minds of the heathen Cumbrians, it was not poUtic in their first Chris- 
tian missionaries wholly to subvert ; the Papal policy sought to divert 
the popular veneration to its own benefit by the improvisation of a new 
saint, and the onomatopoeia of the ancient venerated emblem, as in the 
other instances, by which St. Yeronica and St. Longinus were trans- 
ferred as veritable personages to the Papal calendar £rom the sndarimn* 
and the spear by which the body of the Saviour was pierced on the 
cross. 

With inscriptions we have only, as oath rings, a single on^, bat 
graven with an important word ; it was found in Bavaria, and deacribed 
with an engraving in vol. i. of ^e " Philosophical Transactions of the 
Eoyal Bavarian Academy;" the letters, in old German characters 
form the obsolete German word 

<Sil0rolt, 
which has the same meaning almost as the obsolete English wrole and 
wroken, from the verb to wreak, -viz., to imprecate revenge or vengeance ; 
so in the Bremen low Saxon dictionary — ** Wraken tDrekeny rachen ; Cod. 
Argent, wriken, ad. toroxan, Koll. wraecken, Altfrauk. wr^echo.*' It is 
further remarked : — '' This word is allied to the preceding wraken ; to 
throw out (Baltic merchants know well the meaning of wracked or 
bracked deals and timber), because the avenger throws out firom him and 
persecutes the perjurer." 

There is, however, still remaining another possibly unique spedmen 
of these rings in the possession of the Earl of Londesborough, found in 
Ireland, which deserves special attention, as elucidating the magisterial 
uses of these rings, and a curious passage in Scotch judicial practice, 
whidh seems hitherto to have escaped inquiry, and of which I can find 
no trace but in the curious pages of our Northern Wizard, comes to 
our aid, and we trust also by it to explain to Teutonic inquirers a pas^ 
sage in their own mythology which they appear to have hitherto bus- 
understood. 

This ring, as far as a cursory view amongst an assemblage of objects 
of the highest archsDological interest, and through a glass case, enahl€d 
me to note, is of silver, almost annular, and with the usual lips ; but the 
peculiarity consists of a moveable swivel ring, which can be elided round 
the circle, but not taken off the ring, from the obstruction of these pro- 
truding lip& 



259 

The chronicler Ditmar, Bishop of Merseburg, about the year 1010, 
has the following passage (Fertz, vol. iiL., lib. iii., p. 858) : — 

" Non est admirandnm quod in hiis partibus tale ostentatur prodi- 
gium (a portentous noise) nam traditores illi rare ad ecclesiam venientes 
de Buomm visitatione custodum nil curant. Domesticos colunt Deos, 
multumque sibi prodesse eosdem sperantes, hiis immolant. Audivi d$ 
quodam haeulo in cujm tummitaU manus erat unum in ae ferreum ferena 
drctdum quod cum pastore iUius yillse in quo is fuerat per omnes 
domoB has singulariter ductus, in prime introitu a portitore sue sic sa- 
lutaretur * Vigtla, Sinnil, Vigila,* sic enim rustica Tocabatur lingua, 
et epiilantes ibi delicate de ejusdem se tueri custodia stulti autumabant, 
ignorantes illud Daviticum : simulacra gentium opera hominum, &c." 

The Latinity of the good Bishop is universally given up, and we 
know not whether it be owing to the obscurity of his language, or to 
the imperfection of the verbal report he had received, that his commen- 
tators are completely at fault on the passage. Ursinus and Wedekind 
(p. 242, note), seem to think that Henil in the passage has been gene- 
rally but erroneously taken for a household deity — " Nomine Hennil 
non Penates intellexerunt ;" whilst Jacob Grimm (in " Deutsche Mytho- 
logie," 2ter Ausgabe, p. 710), contrary to his usual wont, hesitates in hia 
d(3uction from a Bohemian word and practice to bring it in conformity 
with the morning dawn, and construes the three words—'' aurora est 
(crumpet) Vigila, Yigila." Yet he had before him, in the following 
note quoted from Wedekind, probably the true explanation — " Ego vero 
longe aliam rem, sub hoc baculi ritu, arbitror latere, ut scilicet genius 
nisticomm illius setatis tulit. Baculw iste, ut ego quidem rear, signum 
erat quod pro eonvocanda condone pagana ostiatim mittehant. Nomine 
Hentl non Penates sed quidHbet proximum sibi vicinum allocutus est 
familiariter ut excubiaram vigiliarumque vices* in page servaret ; hinc 
acclamatio * Yigila ! Hennil Vigila V (auf die wache ! nachbar ! auf die 
wache !) conservant passim consuetudinem banc incolee pagorum nos- 
trorum ad hunc usque diem, ut quando prator paganus eonvoeare relit, 
hastam vel haculum vel malleum ostiatim mittat^ quo incola vicini eufusque 
fores puleat donee ex ultimi manu ad pratorem redeat In quibusdam 
pagia ad concionem convocandum ex ordine in unum annum eligitur 
paganus quem vocant Heiniburgen, Ditmari setate illud oonvocationis 
aymbolum pastori pecoiis tuendum tradebant." 

Had Ursinus, tiie writer of this note, extended the sign and scene of 
convocation from a town or village to a hundred or county, he would 
have described exactly the practice so well established for Scotland in 
sending round the fiery erose (to which we shall again revert), after find- 
ing there conformities in judicial practices explained by Lord Londes- 
borough's Irish ring, a combination of dispersed localities, which the 
authority mentioned at the commencement of the paper explains and 
justifies. 

In the Cyrmogea of the learned Icelander, Amgrim Jonas, (p. 71), we 
have the same intimation for his native island, and an indigenous name 
for the staff that has much verbal conformity, and a satisfactory expla- 



260 

nation in our native tongue ; ho says : — " Conventos vero habendi, ena 
lignsa signum erat, post annum certe millemimim, quum jam in fidoa 
Christianam juraasent antea fortaase centra vel malUut J(>vi$ (Thor's 
hammer) pro ejus temporis religione ;" and in the periodical fit>m whid) 
I borrow this quotation (" Bait. Stud/' vol. x., part ii, p. 23), it is 
added — '^ Die Islander brauchen als JBuditikke ein Stiick Holz, das, wie 
ein Axt geformt ist, nach alter Sitte." (The Icelanders use as their ^li- 
dingstiek a piece of wood in the form of an axe (hammer) aooording to 
ancient custom, 

That I have translated Budstikke in this passage into Bidding stick, 
wiU not appear forced to thosQ who have heard of the bidding weddings 
of Wales or the North ; or who in Hamburg have witnessed the calls <^ 
a guild of operatives, joiners, masons, &c., to attend the foneral of a 
deceased fellow-labourer by a Ver-UtUr with a short black staff entwined 
with a white fillet and surmounted by a lemon, as the emblem of his 
melancholy office. 

There are variations in this name, as Budhafte^ Budlafa ; — ^bnt the 
latter alters the idea merely by the introduction of dispatch — ^by the 
Yorkshire loup to run, and the CiFerman laufon ; as also in the narth, when 
a traveller wished to avoid the delays usual at the post staticnB, a Ut^ 
zettel was forwarded before him from place to place, to hare reJays in 
readiness. BudkafU may be a modification of the symbol sent round; 
which, from the analogy of other magisterial or potential comnumds, 
may frequently have been a ring or staff. These were often the sym- 
bols of the most important acts — ''Et illuc venit Dux Thaseolo et 
reddit ei (Garolo magno) ipsam patriam cum hacuh in cujos similitudo 
hominis (Pertz, i., 43, /. e,) ; and, '' Gonradus rex^-curtem per investi- 
turam haetdi imperialis tradit ipsumque baculum in testimonio teliquit" 
(Lang. Reg. 1, 76, anno 1076). 

But in a collection on Lithuanian history, compiled by a body of 
learned Jesuits, we have a very full and complete explication of this 
emblem in connexion with the high dignity of the royal pontifiSs of 
heathen Prussia, the Krive Krivesto (Pontifex Pontificonim), and the 
subordinate degrees of this regulated priesthood, on which latter I refc-r 
to my " Shakspeare's Puck and his Folkalore" (pp. 267, 817, 326) :— 

** Postea (Krive) floruit in ducatu tantum Samogitise usque ad ex- 
tremum tempus conversionis, scilicet ad annum 1414 Men& JuL 29, 
qua mortuus est in Villa Onkain ultimus Xrive Krivesto nomine Gu- 
towtus numero Ixxiv. flamen. Gum eo verum extincta est dignitas, 
magni olim ponderis, in rebus sacris juditiarisque per totam temsi 
Letiiovicam, Semigalliam, Livoniam, Lithuaniam, Samogithiom, Cnr- 
roniam, Sanigalliam, Livoniam, Lethigaliam necnon Kreviciensiuii: 
Bussorum : qua in declinio xi. saeculi incipit sensim de^terire : deniquf 
tenebrse evitemae paganismi f\igientes se de terra in terram dissipate 
sunt ante faciem ChristianaB fidei et crucis sanct®.'' 

We have here also the forms of the Bajnlus Symbolum Jurisdic- 
tionis of this Krive and his subordinates, which the writer says, *' vnl^.. 
scrmone Bathiuckds nuncupatus." 



261 

These BymYxAs are merely intensitive, from the simpleBt for the third 
degree of fiie priesthood, to the Waidelot, which, for the Ewarte and 
EriTe, was duplicated and triplicated, and therefore it will be sufficient 
to giro the description of the lowest. 

" Symbdom jurisdictionis communi sacerdotis jnsjudicandi habentis, 
Waidelote Tel alu id generis, vulgari sermone Buthtu nuncupatis, talem 
habuit foimam. 

'^Baculus longiuscolus ligno simplici querci supra quem est una virga 
curyata in modum nodi paululo inclmatae rursumque junctione una bursa 
pendet ; sed et sigilla eorum portabunt talia symbola ut ait chronista 
Buthenus." 

We have before remarked that the next stage in the priesthood had 
this symbol doubled, and the third or highest had it trebled ; and from 
it the pontifb of Bome may have taken their hint of a symbol for their 
three£^ daim of power over heU, on earth, and in heayen, in the papal 
tiara. 

In the imperfect drawing, however, of this heathen symbol we may 
readily find in the top bend the penannular Irish ring ; and not impro- 
bably in the lines and bends surmounting it, the imperfect rudiments of 
a moTeable swivel, to bring it into perfect conformity with the principal 
object of our inquiry. 

Had Yon Ledebur, in his above-quoted work, given a drawing of 
the following enigmatical (rathselhaft) object, described at p. 32, we 
might possibly have found the swivel in an evidently heathen magiste- 
rial symbol, dug up from beneath a tumulus ^ear Schwerin in Mecklen- 
burg, and fii an urn/ 

" It exhibits the upper portion of a buckle (biigel), an inch broad, 
and 3^ inches wide at the head, which on the under surfece is flat, but 
on its upper is ornamented with lines and rings. In its centre is a 
four-sided pyramid, with one step, and in itf upper portion a hand ring 
or eaUh (gn^ ) «t^M freely Its bronze material, incrusted with a 
beautiful aerugo nobihs, is finely worked, and glitters on some places, 
where worn by friction, like gold." 

It is to this moveable portion of the emblem that we particularly 
direct attention, as, fix>m whatever cause or concatenation of ideas, judi- 
cial importance attaches to a moveable ring in Scottish jurisprudence. 
It is solely to the antiquarian knowledge of the great Scotch novelist, 
in ''The Antiquary" (8vo edit., 1846, Part L, p. 476, cap. xi.), that 
I owe my knowledge of this fact ; for my search elsewhere in books has 
been fruitless, and I have no personal l^;al friends in the north from 
whom to make inquiries. 

The transaction refers to an execution put into Wardour Castle, and 
the resistance offered to the officer by the hot-headed zeal of the High- 
land soldier, M'Intyre : — 

" The 1^^ officer confrt)nted him of the military; gras^ with one 
doubtful hand the greasy bludgeon which was to enforce his authority, 
and with the other produced lus short official baton, tipped with silver, 
B. I. A. PBoa^voL. vm. 2 v 



262 

and having a moveable ring upon it. ^Captain M'lntyre — Sir, — I 
have no quarrel with you ; but if you interrupt me in my duty, I will 
break the wand of peace, and declare myself deforced.' 

" ' And who the devil cares,' said Hector, totally ignorant of the words 
of judicial action, * whether you declare yourself divorced or manied ; 
and as to breaking your wand, or breakii^^ the peace, or whatever you 
call it, all I know is, that I will break your bones if yon prevent tiie 

lad from harnessing the horses, to obey his mistress's orders/ 'I 

will take aU who stand here to witness,' said the messenger, ' that I 
8how:ed him my blazon, and explained my character. He that will to 
Cupar maun to Cupar' — and he slid the enigmatical ring from one end ^ 
the baton to the other, being the appropriate symbol of lus having been 
forcibly interrupted in the discharge of his duty." 

" Honest Hector, better accustomed to the armoury of the field thjm 
that of the law, saw this mystical ceremony with great indifference, 
and with the like unconcern beheld the messenger sit down to write out 
an execution of deforcement. But at the moment, to prevent the well- 
meaning honest Highlander from running the risk of a severe penalty, 
the antiquary arrived, puffing and blowing, with his handkerchief 
crammed under his hat, and his wig upon the end of a stick. 

« ' What the deuce is the matter here ?' he exclaimed, hastily ad- 
justing his head- gear — ' I have been following you in fear of finding 
your idle loggerhead knocked against one rock or other.' — * I thhik 
you would not have me stand quietly by and see a scoundrel like thb, 
because he calls himself ft king's messenger, forsooth (I hope the king 
has many better for his meanest errands), insult a young lady of femily 
and fashion, like Miss Wardour ?' * Bightly argued, Hector/ said the 
antiquary ; ' but the king, like other people, has now and then shabby 
errands, and, in your ear, must have shabby fellows to do them. But 
even supposing you unacquainted with the statutes of William the 
Lion, in which, capite quarto verm quinto, this crime of deforcement is 
termed deepectue Domini Regis j a contempt, to wit, of the king himself, 
in whose name all legal diligence issues — could you not have inferred, 
from the information I took so much pains to give yon to-day, that 
those who interrupt officers, who come to execute letters of caption, are 
tanquam participes criminis rebellionis ? seeing that he who aids a lebd 
is himself quodammodo an accessory to rebellion." 

The extract is long, but the words are those of Sir Walter Scott, and 
the entire citation was necessary to elucidate the practice, since, contrary 
to the author's usual wont, when Scotch customs require elucidation for 
the English reader, this, one of the most curious, is left without expla- 
nation, though it is termed enigmatical and mystical ; it would have 
been a great boon to southern readers to have Imown how Scott ibond 
" the symbol appropriated* 

The result of our inquiries hitherto may, we think, be fsurly stated — 
that rings were heathen symbols of great veneration and general juridical 
use in the possession of the priests of our own and foreign heathen 



263 

temples; thai from the close verbal conformity of the Anglo-Saxon 
beaga (ring), and the Latin baculum (a staff), tlie two objects might 
easSy be confounded; and that convenience and centuries may have im- 
perceptibly wrought the change ; both the heathen ring and the Scotch 
baton may have had moveable swivel rings by which to attach criminals. 
The Irish ring of Lord Londesborough would then be explainable, 
partly from the Icelandic rings, and partly from the Scotch " enigma- 
tical symbol," and the combination of both would be mutually corrobo- 
rative. ^ ^ 
Their use as ministering sanctity to oaths would be'only'one^of the 
purposes to which they might be applied ; but the penannular form and 
lipped ends £t those of such shape more especially for administering an 
oath by the priest or Krive. Held in his hand, the party taking the oath 
would lav a finger frt)m each hand, or his palms, upon the flattened 
ends, whilst caUlag the Deity to witness the truth of his affirmation. 
Exposing the palms of the hand was in all ages appropriate in addresses 
to tiie Deity : the classics abound in such proofs : — 

*' Tendit duplices ad aidera palmas — 
Geminaa tollit ad aatra maniu, — 
Digitia inteodit mollitnis arcam." 

And from this touching seems to have originated the custom of a corpo- 
ral oath; as before the Keformation oaths were taken on the reliques of 
saints — 9uper corpora sanctorum, as is witnessed in the relation of Ha- 
rold's oath to WUliam of Normandy. Even subsequently, in the raths- 
strike of the old town of Luneburg, oaths are still administered by the 
venerable fathers of its senate upon a popish reliquary, the bones having 
been removed from it. 

It may also be noticed that one of these Irish rings, late in the pos- 
session of Mr. C. Croker, and figured by him in Smith's ** Collectanea 
Antiqua," seems to have flanges broad enough for the full palm to rest 
on; so in Wilde's " Catalogue," Pigs. 591, 692, 593. 

Di£Eerent and distant countries may have varied the manner of 
administering oaths. What we have hitherto seen supposes them 
given in a set formula by the priest holding the sacred symbol in his 
own hand for the imposition on it of the palms or fingers of him by 
whom the oath was taken. This view may be justified by the method 
of swearing fealty to a suzerain lord, which was by the vassal placing 
the fist of his lord in his two hands, and so vowing fidelity and homage. 
The fist of the lord here replaced the heathen ring, as, no doubt, the 
ancient ceremony is more adapted to Christian practice. £ut in some 
places the practice may have been to give the symbol into the hands of 
him who swore, and this method is reduced in our modern courts to de- 
livering the Testament to be held by the witness. Kings without lips or 
flanges, and which are only capable of being held by the fingers doubled 
on ti^e palm, may have been used for such variation of the ceremony, as 
one exists at Copenhagen, dug up in the island of Bomholm, formed 
merely by doubling both ends of a massive circular bar of the purest 



264 

gold, and in weight five pounds, which could hare Berved no other 
purpose. It is also curious in another respect, having a thin gold wire 
of equal purity twisted round it, evidently wi^ the intention of bring- 
ing the object to a certain weight and value; ad eertum pondma^ is 
Csasar's expression when speaking of the monetary use of iron rings in 
Britain; and that these rings of valuable metal and ready dis t ri buti on, 
might not have served like any other costly chattel, immediate at 
hand, as a reward or payment, may easily be admitted ; but only occa- 
sionally and by no means as what their usual designation of rimg moMy 
might imply, the current coin of a country ; we seem to have taken this 
name and idea from the quantities of bronze objects in this form which 
are now so largely impoited into Africa frx>m I^verpool, as a species of 
currency, of which the late Sir John Tobin was the principal exporter, 
and is now succeeded by Mr. Charles Stuart, who informed me, in an 
accidental meeting at a table d'hote at Miinster, that his posseaeion of 
the receipt for the peculiar combination of the metals was a valnaUe 
legacy firam Sir John, which gave him nearly the monopoly of the 
African trade, and of the importation of palm oil into this ooontiy, to 
the extent of ten thousand tons annually. The swarthy negroee of the 
Gkunbia and Senegal reject all such rings as do not conform to his re- 
ceipt, by some peculiar analysis, which it might be curious and benefi- 
cial to any one to investigate. 

To the antiquary it might be more curious and interesting to Imow 
why these savages stiU ine^ upon the peculiar form of the Azii^o-Sazm 
beaga, which, to European ideas, seems very inconsistent with commei^ 
cial utility or convenience. In my * Shakspeare's Puck and his Folks- 
lore" (London, 1852, 8vo., p. 238), I have traced the only religioiis idea 
or emblem which those Africans, that do not profess Mahommedan 
tenets, hold sacred, viz., their Fetisch, to a western word, and a eon- 
nexion with our legends of Bobin Gkx>dfellow, Fuck, &c. ; and it may, 
therefore, have been by some equally circuitous route that Uie form and 
shape of this ring money may have penetrated where but few Earopeaas 
have forced their way. Sir William Beetham tells us ring money in 
this form has been found in Italy ; and he exhibited at the Aiehieolog;iGal 
Institute, July 17, 1848, two specimens found respectively at China 
and Perugia ; these may have been the first stepping-stonea of tkeir 
route into Africa. 

In a country where the mind is stagnant, and progress precluded by 
ignorance and barbarism, the prestige of sanctity once establifiked 
would remain unaltered for ages ; and our country receives at p re e cn t 
possibly greater material benefit from this sanctity in the xnanufiBictoie 
of the article, than our ancestors from its use. 

As an example that these rings, when of the precious metals, might 
have frequently, like modem BnT:&-boxes, pins, &c., been dispensed by 
princes as rewards, we will give an example of other valuable movoablce 
being thus disposed of from Giesebrechts, "Geschichte der Wenden,*' 
'* Hist, of the Wends," vol. I, p. 218: —''Einar took opportunity to tell 



265 

Haiold he would not remain longer with Jarl Hakon, who yalued gold 
more than Skalds aM their praises ; he would rather go oyer to Bignaldi, 
if he would receive him. But Einar suffered himself to be persuaded, 
when he got a present of a golden pair of scales with two wei^ts, one 
of goldf the other of silver (which were also magical dies) which revealed 
the future. From this circumstance, Skald Smar got the surname of 
Skalagtam (Scale King)." 

Wehave before said that Christianity introduced the ero99 in lieu of 
the ling, for summoning the clans; and fitness and its greater readiness 
of being seen at a distance rendered this cross JUry> In the following 
beautiM lines from Scotf s '' Lady of the Lake," the knowledge of thif 
custom is rendered immortal for his country ; but before I give theuL 
permit me to make a remark on the emphatical introduction of the go« 
into the custom and sacrifice, as it may show the poet's great knowledge 
of the practice even abroad, and give German m^thologbts a better in- 
terpretation of Ditmar of Merseburg's enigmatical Eimil than has yet 
appeared. I must again refer to my " ShfJcespeare's Fuck," where a| 
p. 239 is the mythicid figure of afawn, and the following pages expla* 
natory of it and kid beanng in general ; it is there remarked that kid in 
our language means both tiie young of the goat and a faggot or bundle 
of sticks ; now, the Latin hintiulm for kid is merely a prosopopceia of the 
natural bleating of the young animal, and may therefore have been as 
easily received by one nation as another, for its designation ; it would 
be merely requisite to supply the other sense of baculus in the northern 
tongue ; at all events, the oldest Teutonic word for a sheep is hammel, 
and many instances may be adduced from all languages of the indiscri- 
minate use of the letters m and ti» Adelung, on the letter it, gives 
various examples of the change ; and hammer, Thor's Hamar, which 
Adelung (s. v.) deduces from the same root as differing (objective and 
subjective) views of mutilation, has both a verbal and national con- 
neiion, and would give the Icelandic axe, which was sent round for 
their gatherings, as my extract from Amgrim Jonas proves ; so that FV- 
gila! Mmtl, Figila / interpreted by modem practice, would mean. Awake, 
there m the fiery eroee to hear I awake/ But I will no longer detain my 
readers frx>m the beautiful lines of Scott, as a compensation for the poa- 
sibly dry details of the preceding pages : — 



' Twfti all prepared, and from the rock 
A goai^ the parent of the flock, 
Before the kindling pUe was laid, 
And pierced by Roderick's ready blade. 
Patient the aickening victim eyed 
The life-blood ebb in crimeon tide 
Down clotted beard and shaggy limb, 
Till darfcneaa gUsM his eye-balls dim. 
The grisly prtott, with marm*ring prayer, 
A deader ero»$Ui form'd with care, 



A cubit's length in measure due, 
The shaft and limbs were rods of yew, 
Whose parents in Inch-Caillach wave 
Their shadows o'er Clan Alpin's grave, 
And answering Lomond's breezy deep, 
Soothe many a chieftain's endless sleep. 
The croes thus form'd he held on high 
With wasted hand and haggard eye, 
And strange and mingled Mings 

woke 
WhUe his anathema be spoke. 



266 



** ' Woe to the dansmaa who shall view 
Thia symbol of sepulchral yew, 
Forgetfnl that its branches grew 
Where weep the heavens their holiest dew 

On Alpine dwelling low. 
Deserter of his chieftain's trust. 
He ne'er shall mingle with their dost, 
But from his sires and kinsmen thrast, 
Each clansman's execration jast 

Shall doom him wrath and woe.* 
He pans'd : the word the raasak took 
With forward step and fiery look ; 
On high their naked brands they shook, 
' Their clattering targets wildly strook, 
And first in mnrmurs low, 
Then, like the billow on his course, 
. That far to seaward finds its source, 
And flings to shore its muster'd force, 
Burst with loud roar their murmurs 
hoarse 
* Woe to the traitor, woe !* 
. Benan's grey scalp the accents knew : 
The joyous wolf from cover drew, 
Th* exulting eagle scream'd afar — 
They knew the voice of Alpine's war. 



** Then deeper paus'd the priert anew, 
And hard his lab'ring breath he drew, 
While, with set teeth and clenched hand, 
And eyes that glow like fiery brand, 
He meditated curse more dread, 
And deadlier on the clansman's head. 
Who, summon'd to his chieftain's aid, 
The signal saw, and disobey'd. 
The crosslet*s points of sparkling wood 
He qnench'd among the bubbling blood; 



And as again the sign he reat'd 
Hollow his cuTse and voice was betii 
' When flits this cross finom man to man, 
Vich Alpine's summons to his eUa, 
Burst be the ear that fails to hesd, 
Palsied the foot that ahuna to speed. 
Kay ravens tear the careless eyes, 
Wolves make the coward heart thdr 

prize. 
As sinks that blood stream in the cirtK 
So may his heart's blood drench hia 

hearth; 
As dies in hissing gore this spaik. 
Quench so his light, destruction dirl^ i 
And be the grace to him denied 
Brought by this sign to all beside.' 
He oeas'd ; no echo gave again 
The murmur of that deep amen. 
Fast as the fatal symbol flies, 
In arms the huts and hamlets rise; 
From winding glen, from upland brovo. 
They poured each hardy tenant down ; 
Nor slack'd the messenger hia paos— 
He show'd the sign, he nam'd the plsee. 
And, pressing forward like the wind, 
Left damour and surprise behind. 
The fisherman forsook the stnuid. 
The swarthy smith took dirk and bnad; 
With changed cheer the mower Uithe 
Left in the half-cut swathe his scytfcs-. 
The herds without a keeper staid, 
The plough was in mid furrow Isid; 
The falc'ner toas'd hia hawk away. 
The hunter left the stag at bay; 
Prompt at the signal of alarms^ 
Each son of Alpine mah'd to i 
So swept the tumult and affray 
Along the maiigin of Achray." 



These beautifol lines give tib a view, in vivid language, how^there 
ringt were transmitted as the emblem of the supreme Priest and 
Ills warrant ; this was not restricted to a staff or any particular badge. 
We leam, in a curious passage of Peter of Dusburg, an early contempo- 
rary chronicler of the conflict of the Teutonic knights with the ancie&t 
Wends of heathen Prussia, that this symbol might be a staff or any ether 
known sign sent round by the Krive to his subjects ; and what so knomi 
as the ring always kept in the temple ? 

'^Fuit in media nationis hujus perversse, scilicet in Nadiovia, locii? 
quidem dictus Eomove in quo habitabat quidem dictus Crive quern co- 
lebant pro papa, quia sicut dominus papa regit universalem ecclesba 
fidelium ita istius nutum seu mandatum non solum gentis prsedicts s«d 
Lithowini et alias nationes Livonisd terrsa regebantur. Taatse fuit aoe- 
toritatis quod non solum ipse vel aliquis de sanguine sue venim §t ma* 



267 

ciiti ettm haculo tuo vel dlio iigno note transiens terminos iiifideliam prsB- 
dictomm a regibos et nobilibiis et communi populo in magna' reverentia 
habebatar." 

Yoigt, in his history of ancient Frossia, gives a somewhat varied ver- 
sion of the passage and practice : — '' Quod etiam nimcius qui ejus haeti- 
Ittm aui npnum aliqutd portabat ab eo missum principes etiam et 
communis populus multo honore colebant et omnia praecepta ejus firmi- 
ter serrabant." 

In his note E to the above lines, at the end of the volume, the great 
poet brings his legendary lore in aid of his poetic painting. The cross was 
called in Gaelic Creato-Fareigh, or the cross of shame, because disobedience 
to what the symbol implied inferred infamy : this idea is not farther 
removed from that implied in the Bavarian inscription above, G^wroktj 
than cause from effect. He also appends a relation from Olaus Magnus, 
to the same purpose, and corroborative of those older ones I have 
adduced from Dusburg. More extended reading would have given Sir 
Walter stronger and better coincidences with his Greaw-Fareigh in the 
Danish Btidlafa already noticed, and still stronger in the Swedish £ud' 
itikke, on the authority of John Stiemhook, ''De Jure Suev." (lib.i.b) : — 
" In priscis SueoniaB legibus citatio per baculum. Hunc emittebant terito- 
rii qoadrantibuB et per manus vicinorum extraditus etfieicti notitiam simul 
et comparandi mandatum circumferet ; quomodo non judicia tantum sed 
et promiscue omnes conventus publici indicati fuerunt ubi de casu 
aliqao extra ordinem deliberandum erat aut indicandum. £rat autem 
hie baculus nuntiatorius effectus ad modum rei de qua in conventu 
tractatio instituenda fuit, ut si res sacra, erux Ugnea ; si homicidium, 
ligneum Ulum aut aeeuris." 

More examples might be adduced ; but if the above are insufficient, 
any addition could scarcely insure conviction, and must be wearisome to 
foUow. 

Sir Walter, in the same note, adduces instances of a comparativel 
recent and successful use of the fiery cross during the Scotch rebellion 
in 1745-6:— 

" Dnrilig the civil war of 1745-6, the fiery cross often made its cir- 
cuit ; and upon one occasion it passed through the whole district of 
Breadalbane, a tract of 32 miles, in three hours. 

" The late Alexander Stuart, Esq., of Inverhagle, described to me 
his having sent round the fiery cross through the district of Appine 
during the same conmiotion. The coast was threatened by a descent 
from two English frigates, and the flower of the young men were with 
the army of Prince Charles, then in England; the summons was so 
effectual, that even old age and children obeyed it ; and a force was col- 
lected in a few da3rB so numerous and enthusiastic, that aU attempts of 
the intended diversion upon the coasts of the absent warriors was, -in 
prudence, abandoned as desperate." 

In continuance of these notices, the following passage, fr^m a pro- 
Tincial newspaper of October, 1853, may be adduced, showing that the 



memory of the fiery cross is not yet entirely extingmflhed in the minds 
of the warm-hearted Highlanders : — 

'* The other day, John M' Arthur, employed as a serriceman on the 
roads, while attired in fiill Highland costume, and carrying a large fier^ 
erosi — ^the emblem bv which Uie olans in the days of other years were 
assembled — ^ran on the public road west from the east end of old Eil- 
patrick, a distance of three miles in eighteen minutes, in order to shov 
the juvenile how telegraphing in the Highlands was perfonned long 
before the existence of steamboats, or rails, or common roads." 

It may also be allowed to remark that Leach, the popular illnstiator 
of " Punch," must haye presumed upon a yery general knowledge of tiie 
practice and custom when, during the commotion excited by the elen- 
tion of Archbishop Wiseman to the title of Eminence and the dignity of 
Cardinal, he is lepresented in povUifiealibui hurrying with the fiiay 
cross through the country. 

Our further and final deductions regarding the ring more paiti- 
cularly under notice may be summed up as follows : — That it has bees 
one of the solemn symbols of our Irish pontiff, and has been most pro- 
bably sent round to summon his fiock for conyocations in peeoe; ibr 
arming and assembling against the enemy or inyader in time of war: 
that the ring could be slided from one point to the other, and was used 
to indicate the anathema and imprecations which Scott has eo forcihiy 
set forth upon any recusant or clansman, 

" Who, fnmmon'd to his chlefUhi*s aid, 
The ngnal law, and diaobejed.** 

The term hacktUder would be a curious yerbal modem term andSa- 
terpretation. We are justified in such interpretation of the swiyid lisg 
from the use still thus made of it in the long quotation above, firom ^' The 
Antiquary ;" and the conclusion we aniye at may be fairlj stated^ that 
this ring bears impress of the vitality of British (Irish and Scot^) ju- 
dicial customs, from their earliest Paganism, unaffected by the influences 
of Christianity, or a new and entirely opposite code of laws. Jiurispni- 
denoe may change its precepts, a fresh yiew of duties and mormls ob- 
tain, but customs and observances founded in nature are mudiangiiig 
and {permanent in the minds of a nation. 

Mr. William Lawless, of Kilkenny, presented the following dons- 
tion: — 

A silver pectoral cross, of elaborate workmanship, compoeed of fit« 
crosses, connected together, and ornamented in the front wi& settings d 
uncut garnets and light-blue glass beads, surroimded with twisted wii«. 
and twenty triangular pyramids, composed of small silver shot. Hk 
back, though much worn, retains traces of the crucifixion and evange- 
lical emblems, wrought on a ground of niello. Portions of hoth fn^ 
and back were originally gilt ; and frvm the remains of two pina, which 
extend from the rays of the central cross, it may be oondaded that focr 
beads were necessary to complete this part of the ornament When p^- 



269 

fisct, this cross was an unasoally rich specimen of the jeweller's art of 
the time. It was found at Callan, county of EJlkenny, and is noticed 
in the " Transactions of the TCilkenny ArchsBological Society/' vol. iii., 
p. 412. 

Mr. Lawless also presented a crudfix and reliquary of silyer; a 
slender crucifix of silver ; a collection of 32 amber, 32 jet, 13 variegated 
glass, 26 opaque, and 203 amber-coloured glass beads. 

The thanks of the Academy were returned to the donor. 

Catterson Smith, Esq., on the part of Mrs. Tottenham, of Eochfort, 
county of Westmeath, presented a choice collection of Irish antiquities, 
consiBting of articles in bronze, bone, and wood — 42 in number. 

The marked thanks of the Academy were returned to Mrs. Tottenham ; 
as also to Mr. Smith, at whose suggestion the gift was made. 



MONDAY, JANUARY 12, 1868. 

Thb Ybbt Eey. Ghasles Gra^tis, D.D., President, in the Chair. 

Christopber Coppinger, Esq., Q. 0. ; Patrick W. Joyce, Esq. ; Tho- 
mas Bicha^son, M. D., and Captain Meadows Taylor, were duly elected 
members of the Academy. 

The YzBT Key. the Pbesidekt read a paper on — 

SoHs Noncxs of the Acts of St. "Patrick, coktaiked in the Book of 

Abmaoh. 

The conclusions which Dr. (Graves endeavours to establish in this paper 
are tiie following : — 

L That Muirchu Maccumachteni, the author of the Life of St. Pa- 
trick, with which the ''Book of ^Armagh" commences, was the son of Co- 
gitosuB. 

Thia conclusion is founded (1) on a necessary and certain emenda- 
tioo of the text in the prologue of Muirchu's Life of St. Patrick. The 
prologue stands thus in the manuscript : — 

<< Quoniam quidem, mi domine Aido, multi conati sunt ordinare nar- 
rationem utique istam, secundum quod patres eorum et qui ministri ab 
initio fderunt sermonis tradiderunt illis, sed propter difficillimum narra- 
tionis opus, diversasque opiniones, et plurimorum plmimas suspiciones, 
nunqiuun ad unum certumque historise tramitem pervenerunt ; ideo, ni 
£ftllor, joxta hoc nostrorum proverbium, ut deducuntur pueri in amphi- 
theatrom, in hoc perieukium et profundum narrationia saneta pelagm, 
turgentibus proterve gurgitum aggeribus, inter acutissimos Charybdes, 
per ignota aequora iusitos, a nullis adhuc lintribus excepto tantum uno 
patris mei cognito si expertum atque occupatum, ingmioU met puerilem 

E. 1. A. FBOC. — VOL. VTH. 2 O 



270 

remi-cymbam deduxi. Sed ne magnum de parro videar fisgere,|MWM 
hse de mtdtis Sancti Patridi gestis, parva peritia, inoertiB aactoribm, 
memoria lahdi, attrito sensa, vili sermons, sed affeota piisBimo caritatii 
et sanctitatis tuse et auctoritatis imperio obediensy earptim grayatimqQe 
ezplieare aggrediary • 

[Here follow the headings of the chapters into which the fintBook 
of Mtdrchu's Life of St. Patrick is divideid ; and at the close of them is 
the following colophon], 

'' Hsec pauca de Sancti Patricii peritia et virtatibus Moirchn Mm- 
cumachteni, dictante Aiduo Slebtinensis dvitatis episcopo, conscripsit" 

The change of the words eognito si into Cogitosi restores meaning to 
the foregoing passage, which, in its present state, is unintelligible. 

The author's conjecture is confirmed (2) by the observation that 
Machtcni is, in its signification, exactly equivalent to Cogitosi. TTlachc- 
naim is the word which would be chosen to represent ^e Latin cogiU. 

11. Dr. Graves proceeds to show that the Cogitosus who was fiither 
of Muirchu Maccumaohteni was the author of the Life of St. Bridget, 
edited by Colgan, in his '' Trias Thaumaturga," p. 518. This conclu5i<Hi 
rests mainly upon a comparison of phrases in Muirchu's prologue, given 
above, with phrases oociirring in the introduction and concluding pan- 
graph of the life of Bridget, by Cogitosus. 

The passages referred to are as follows : — 

'^ Cogitis me fratres ut Sanctae et BeatsB memories BrigidsD Tiiginis 
virtutes, et opera, more doctorum memorise litterisque tradere aggredmr. 
Quod opus impositum, et delicate materise arduum, parvitatis et igno- 
rantiffi mece, et linguae minime. Sed potens est Deus de minimiH magxu 
facere ; ut de exiguo oleo et farinae pugillo domum implevit pauperculs 
viduae. Itaqnejussiombua vestris coactus, satis haheo meam non de/uim 
ohedientiamy et ideo, paitea de plwihus a majoribus et peiitiwdmis tnr 
dita, sine ulla ambiguitatis caligine, ne inobedientise crimen incmram, 
patefacere censeo. Ex quibus quanta qualisque virgo virtutum bonamm 
fiorida cunctorum oculis innotescat. Non quod memoria^ et meddocritst, 
et rustieus sermo ingenioli meiy tanti muneris officium explieare valeret; 
sed fidei vestrae beatitude et orationum vestrarum diutumitas meietar 
accipere, quod non valet ingenium dictantis. Haec ergo egregiis creseens 
virtutibus, ubi per famam bonarum rerum adeam de omnibua provinciis 
Hibemiae innumerabiles populi de utroque sexu confluebant Tota sibi 
Toventes voluntarie, suum monasterium caput pene onmium Hiberaicn- 
slum Ecclesiarum, et culmen praecellens omnia monasteria Scotoron 
(cujus Parrochia pertotam Hibemiensium terram diffusa, a man usque 
ad mare extensa est) in campestribus campi Liffei supra fundamentum 
fidei firmum construxit ; et prudenti dispensatione de animabus eoraiB 
regulariter in omnibus procurans, et de Ecclcsiis multarum provindanmi 
sibi adhaerentibuB sollicitans et secum revolvens, quod sine snmmo saoer- 
dote, qui eoclesias consecraret, et ecclesiasticos in eis gradus sabrogaret 
esse non posset, illustrem virum et solitarium, omnibus moribus onia- 



•271 

tnm, per quern Deus virtates operatua est plurimas convooans earn de 
eremo, et de sua vita solitaria, et sibi obviam pergens, ut ecclesiam in 
epificopali dignitate cum ea gubemaret, atque ut nihil de ordine aaoer- 
dotali in snis deesset ecclesiis, aceendvit. £t postea sic unctum caput 
et principale omnium episcoporum, et-beatissima puellarum principalis 
&elici comitatn inter se et gubemaculis omnium virtutum suam erexit 
principalem ecclesiam; et amborum meritis sua cathedra episcopalis et 
pnellaris, ac siyitiB fructifera diffusa undique rands crescentibus, intota 
Hibemiensi insula inolevit Quam semper Aichiepiscopus Hibemien- 
sinrn Episcoporum, et Abbatissa quam omnes Abbatusae Scotorumyene- 
rantur felici successione, et ritu perpetuo dominantur. Exinde ergOy 
nt supra dixi, a fratiibus coactus beatad hujus yirginisBrigidaB virtutes, 
tarn eas quas ante principatom, quam alias in inoipatu gessit, multo 
studio breyitatisy Ucet preepostero ordine yirtutum, eampendiose expUear$ 

** Yeniam peto a fratribus et lectoribus hsBO legentibus, qui causa 
obediential coactus, nulla praerogatiya scientiaB suffiiltus, pelaguB immen- 
mm virtutum S. Brigida et yiris fortissimis formidandum, hU paueii 
rustico Mrmane dictu virtutihus de maximU et innumerabHihue cucurre- 
rim. Orate pro me Gogitoso nepote culpabili, et ut oratione yestra pio 
Domino me commenditis exoro, et Deus vos pacem eyangelicam sectantes 
exaadiaf 

III. We are thus enabled to determine the time at which Cogitosus 
lived. For the death of Aed, Bishop of Sletty, at whose request Muirchu 
wrote, is set down in the '' Annals of the Four Masters'' at the year 798. 
There is also a passage in the '' Book of Armagh" from which it is plain 
that Aed survived Segene, Abbot of Armagh, who died A. D. 786 ; but 
died before Flann Feblai, whose obit is recorded uoder the date 704. 
Again, Colman« the son of Muirchu, and Abbot of Moville, died A. D. 
731. It may, tiiierefore, be inferred that Cogitosus died about the year 
670. 

rV. Br. Graves points out the great importance of thus establishing 
the time of Cogitosus, as that writer has recorded the condition of archi- 
tecture, and art in general, in Ireland in his own time (" Vita S. Bri- 
gidae," cap. xxxv.) The objection urged by Dr.Petrie, who was of opinion 
that Cogitosus must have written after A, D. 799, is obviated by showing 
that the translation, in that year, of the relics of Bishop Conlaid into a 
shrine was an occurrence different from his burial under a monument 
described by Cogitosus. 

y. The author shows that the prefix maeeu, in the name Maccu- 
machteni, is equivalent to the Latin //tbrMM, occurring in the '' Book 
of Armagh" and other very ancient documents. He establishes this by 
a carefril review of the numerous names into which this element enters 
inUe <' Book of Armagh," in "Adamnan's Life of St. Columkille," and 
in inscriptions on monuments. 



272 



^ 



DfiSCBIPTIOK OF AN OaK PiLS FOITKD IK THE LaKE OF GjBFKTI. 

Mb. Stabket presented to the Academy a wooden pile, which he had 
himself brought from Switzerland in the month of October, 1862, it 
having been given to him in the kindest manner by M. Frederic Troyon, 
the eminent Swiss antiquary, to whom he had been introduced by Mr. 
Wilde. Mr. Starkey conceived that it might be considered valuable and 
interesting, not only as an object of antiquity, but as illustrative of die 
crannoge remains of this country. Along with the pile he presented 
an explanatory paper, drawn up for him by M. Troyon at the time, <tf 
which the following is a translation : — 

** This pile I raised on the 15th of September, 1862, from among 
the lacustrine remains at Thonon, on the Lake of Geneva. The site bad 
been occupied during the stone period, and continued to be so until the 
end of the bronze period. We find here instruments of stone and of 
bronze, but none of iron. 

*' The length of the pile is 4 ft. 4 in. ; the thickest end was boned 

3 ft. 4 in. in the bottom of the lake; 
so that the upper end projected only 
one foot above it. It must be borne 
in mind, that when the water is at 
its extreme height, the place from 
which I drew this stake is sunk 12 
feet beneath the surface. The plat- 
form supported by these pillars was 
at least 4 feet above the highest level 
of Uie water, so as to allow of the 
waves passing beneath the planks 
which supported the huts. 

'* It follows from hence that this 
pile must originally have been 20 
feet long, — that is, 4 feet in the silt 
of the IcSke, 12 feet in the water, and 

4 feet above it. 

** In many of these sites there may still be seen thousands of the 
piles which supported the platforms, burnt down, as most of them were, 
to the surface of the lake at the 
time when these lacustrine vil- 
lages were destroyed. It is by 
degrees, and by the extremely 
slow action of ages, that the 
water has worn the piles, which 
on the sites referable to the 
bronze period still stand from 1 
to 3 feet above the bottom ; 
while on the sites destroyed be- 
fore that period they are gene- 
rally worn down to the bed of 
the lake. 





WlMt 



273 

'' On the sites occupied during both these periods it is not unusual 
to see, in dose proximity with a pile worn down to the bottom, others 
which stand up firom 2 to 4 feet, haying been doubtless renewed during 
the bronze period.'' 

Mr. Starkey stated that the difficulty of extracting these piles from 
the bed of the lake, whole and uninjuredi is great. A boat is steadied 
immediately over the place where they appear ; a kind of forceps is used, 
from 12 to 15 feet long, by which the stake selected is seized at the point 
where it emerges from the silt, rocked gently to-and-fro for some time, 
and then carefriUy drawn upwards, from a depth ranging from 10 to 14 
feet The principal cause of the difficulty is the sponginess of that por- 
tion of the stake which has been sunk in the silt. It is ahnost as fragile 
as a fungus or mushroom, whereas the portion that has been in the water 
is comparatively sound. 

Mr. Starkey stated that he had himself, instructed by M. Troyon, 
risited one of these sites at Merges, on the north shore of the Lake of 
Geneva^ and distinctly seen, at a depth of about 12 feet, the ranges of 
piles, extending at unequal intervals, over an area of from 12 to 14 acres. 
Objects of antiquity, in stone, bronze, horn, &c., are taken up in vast 
numbers, by means of instruments constructed for the purpose, on or 
near these sites, of which, as M. Troyon informed Mr. Starkey, there 
are more than twenty in the Lake of Geneva alone. 

The attention of the Academy having been called to the recent death 
of Professor Siegfried, 

It was proposed by the Rev. William Beeves, D. D., and seconded 
by the Rev. J. H. Todd, D. D., and— 

Resolvkd, — ^That the Academy has received with the deepest regret 
the intelligence of the lamented death of Professor Siegfried; and, 
although he was not a member of its body, avails itself of the present 
opportunity to testify its respect for a scholar of such distinction, who 
had so cordially made Ireland his home, and her language the favoured 
subject of his valuable studies. 

It was proposed by W. B. Wilde, V. P., and seconded by H. H. 
Stewart, ML D., and — 

Besolvxb, — ^That the Academy, as a body, attend the funeral of 
Br. Si^fried. 

The corporation seal of the borough of Belturbet was presented to 
the Museum of the Academy by the 'Earl of Belmore. 

The thanks of the Academy were returned to Lord Belmore. 



274 



MONDAY, JANUARY 26, 1863. 

The Ybbt Ret. Chablss Gkateb, D. D., President, in the Cbiir. 

W. B. "Wilds, Yioe-President, read the following — 

DssG&iFTiosr OP A Gkaitkooe nr the County of Catab-. 

Ov the 23rd of January, 1860, 1 communicated to the Academy m 
account of a newly diflcovered crannoge, on the property of LordFaraham, 
in the townland of Cloneygonnell, pariah of Kilmore, barony ^ Lower 
Loughtee, and county of Cavan. 

The aspect of this crannoge at that time was th^t of a green ob- 
long mound, partially cut away by the line of railway from GroaBdosej 
to Gayan, firom which town it is extant about two mUes, one mile fron 
the old cathedral church of the diocese, and about 500 yards fom ^k 
ruined castle of Tonymore. 

In the Ordnance Sheet, No. 25, for Cavan, may be seen a snuill 
lake, about a quarter of a mile in diameter, with a remarkable shaipij- 
defined island, near the northern bank, and opposite Tonymore Cakk 
In common with many other small tracts of water in that part of Ire- 
land, this Tonymore Lough was run off by the arterial dramage a lev 
years ago, leaving the mound or island near its centre perfectly diy; 
and where the rulway passed through it, the site of the lake was onlj 
a swamp or marsh. . 

The sorrounding country rises in a succession of low hills from the 
margin of the lake; and on the north and south sides are the anden; 



"■^■^ 



j^ 



' BOa f' PUVIAI Jk« M A W 8 H \ 

^ :C^ \ 

R A I L. W A Y 





raths of Shancloon and Cloneygonnell, as shown in the above illc*- 
tration. There are also several raths of minor importance in the ncig^ 



275 

boui^ood. So iar, this lake fortress accords in situation with most others 
of its class, and was probably used as a place of safe retreat; first for 
the dwellers in the raths; and in later times, when stone buildings 
had taken the plaoe of rude earthworks and stockades, by the inhabi- 
tants of the adjoining castle. 

The lake was celebrated for its pike fishing, and the crannoge (or 
''Island inTonymore Lake,'' as it was termed), which rose slightly above 
the water, was much resorted to by sportsmen. The real nature of the is- 
land, however, was not suspected until after the railway was run through 
a portion of it ; although, when the land had been sufficiently dried, the 
tops of the outer row of piles, or stockades, could be seen projecting 
ahove the surfiu>e. Some of these piles were in so decayed a condition 
as to crumble beneath the touch ; but others were as firesh and strong 
" as if they had been driv^en in but yesterday" — a fact which shows that 
this crannoge had been repaired from time to time. 

Notwithstanding the fact of a portion of the railway being absolutely 
supported on this crannoge, and a number of household articles having 
been discovered in it when the line was making, no notice, strange to 
relate, appears to have been taken of it imtil about three years ago. 
" The Proceedings" of the Academy, many of which contained notices of 
crannoges, having appeared from time to time in the public papers, the 
attention of several persons throughout the country was turned to such 
matters; and I have, in consequence, received much useful information, 
and the Academy some valuable donations. 

For the first description of the Tonymore crannoge, we are indebted 
to Mr. O'Brien, the intelligent station-master at Cavan, who enhanced 
his information by the donation of some of the articles found there. 
The mound, he states, was *' fifty yards in diameter, measured frt>m the 
old stakes, on each side. Only one-half of the work now [ 1 859 ] remains, 
the other having been cut away in making the line. The outer paling ap- 
pears above ground at regular intervals, and is partly composed of roots 
and limbs of oak. The crannoge rests on a layer of oak, crossed by 
beams in every direction. Within about eighteen inches of the top there 
is a layer of bones, and bones appear scattered all about the surrounding 
marsh, and are continually turned up in repairing the railway, and occa- 
sionally in such quantities as to become a profitable article of sale. One 
or two querns were found within the enclosure, and are now preserved 
in the neighbourhood ; several sharpening stones, and also a portion of a 
yew bow, were discovered ; outside in the marsh, two elks' heads were 
dug out, one of which is now in the possession of Lord Eamham." 

In 1860, 1 presented, on the part of Mr. O'Brien, the following articles, 
which have been found in the crannoge : — The upper stone of a grain- 
rubber, Uke those described in the Museum Catalogue, p. 104 ; a stone, 
half perforated, as if done with another stone ; a circular flat stone disc, 
or quoit, like those on Tray N. N. — see p. 99 of Catalogue, — and si- 
milar to some found in connexion with cinerary urns. Four small 
earthen crucibles, of the usual shape which has come down to modem 
times; three of these would only contain a couple of drachms of fluid 



276 

each, and were very probably used in gold smelting. This obsorition 
is confirmed by the fact of finding amongst them a small pipe-cky 
oupel, manifestly intended for refining. It is qnite similar to aitida 
used in the present day for the assay of gold and silver. SeTeral small 
oval stones, like those still used by weavers for polishing the snrfiioe of 
the web, and usually called " rubbing stones/' were found in the mm- 
noge, and three of them were presented. A flat polished piece of 
bone, which was possibly used in weaving or netting ; and two small 
bone spoons, ingeniously formed out of the epiphyses or joint surfaces 
of the vertebrffi of young animals, and one of which I have figured in 
the Museum Catalogue. See fig. 174, page 267. The only metal ar- 
ticle Mr. O'Brien was able to present was an imperfect bronxe ling, 
which in all probability formed a portion of a fibula. 




During the past year, Lord Famham has caused a further examina- 
tion of the mound to be made, under the judicious directions of Dr. Mal- 
comson, of Gavan, to whom we are indebted for the following additioBil 
particulars, as well as the original of the foregoing illustration, consi^' 
ing of a landscape view of the crannoge and the surrounding country, 
where crossed by the railway, and also of the adjoining ruin. 

The annexed engraving represents a section of the crannoge, wbei^ 
cut across by the railway. 




Dr. Malcomson states — " The piles or stakes were arranged in two 
circles, one within the other ; the diameter of the greater one being 1*^ 
feet, that of the other about 90 feet The piles in the outer circle wm 
very numerous ; and, in some instances, driven in close proximity t^^ 
each other. A few, having withstood the ravages of time, appwff^ 



277 

about three feet above the surface, and, upon being withdrawn and ex- 
amined, were found to have been carefully pointed. The stakes in the 
inner row were not so numerous, nor were they altogether composed of 
oak, some of them being of sallow or other soft wood. 

** Within the stockades were observed two small mounds (upon which 
the grass was much more verdant than upon any other part of the island), 
one at the north, the other at the south. Corresponding with the de* 
pression between these, and three feet under the soil, we found, during 
the excavation, a flat stone, about four feet square, and three inches 
thick, resting on a number of upright blocks of decayed oak. This, no 
doubt, was a hearthstone. • 

" The most elevated point of the mound, towards the south of the 
island, had a depressed or crater-Hke appearance. Besides the wooden 
stakes entering into the formation of the circles, others appear to have 
been laid horizontally, their beam-like ends showing at that part of the 
enclosure which was disturbed by the passage of the railway. 

'* On exploring the crannoge, which was done by removing the soil 
from the circumference of the lesser circle towards the centre, a few ob- 
jects of antiquity were discovered. The soil, which was carefully ex- 
amined, was carried a short distance, and spread over the adjoining 
marsh. It was composed of black and grey ashes ; small flat stones, 
which had evidently been exposed to the action of Are ; fragments of 
charcoal ; blue and yellow clay, charred bones, and the teeth and tusks 
of animals, &c. 

When the excavation had been carried to the centre, the cut surface 
presented, frrom above downwards, the appearance shown in the fore- 
going illustration, viz. : 1st, day; 2nd, black and grey ashes, with small 
stones end sand ; 3rd, bones and ashes, with lumps of blue and yellow 
clay ; 4th, a quantity of grey ashes ; and, 5th, the horizontal sleepers 
or stretchers, and hazel branches, resting on the peat bottom. 

" On the same marsh, and about one hundred yards' distance horn 
the island, but nearer to Ton3rmore Castle, are two other stockaded forts, 
on a raised plateau. They do not appear to have been islands, as an 
elevated causeway leads frt>m them to the mainland ; but otherwise they 
resemble the crannoge in their stockaded and mound- like appearance. 
They are marked No. 2 on the plan of the lake, forts, and railway given 
on page 274. 

** The further examination of this crannoge (which was deferred in 
consequence of the inclemency of the weather, and the quantity of rain 
which had fallen on the surrounding marsh), was resumed on the 2nd 
of January, and continued for three days. The soil, which still lay su- 
perficial to the horizontal stretchers, was gradually removed, in order to 
folly expose the original flooring, and examine its peculiar arrangement. 
During the removal of this stratum (which was composed of dark ashes, 
half -burnt bones, pieces of charcoal, and occasional lumps of blue and 
yellow clay), a few antique specimens, similar to those already found, 
were turned up by the workmen, and have been forwarded by Lord 
Famham to the Eoyal Irish Academy. Amongst them may be men- 

s. I. A. PBOC. — ^voL. vm. 2 P 



278 

tioned a portion of a glazed crucible, and a large masa of brownish me- 
tallic dross, regidarly convex on one surface, as if it had been turned 
out of a large concave vessel. 

'* The principal stretchers (about forty in number) which compoeed 
the flooring, were made of black oak, and were in a tolerable state of 
preservation. Each plank was from six to twelve feet in leng^, and 
from six to twelve inches square. They were laid down so that tiiey 
extended lengthways from the circumference towards the centre, form- 
ing a number of radii, somewhat like the spokes of a wheel, as shown in 
this illustration. Their outer ends were kept in positionby slender croobd 




trunks of oak trees, forming a kind of circle ; and these again were fixed 
into their places by the outer row of stockades — before described — ^which, 
no doubt, prevented the earthy portion of the island frt)m being under- 
mined during occasional winter inundations. The planks were not in 
dose apposition, and the spaces so left were filled by a quantity of blocks 
and thick branches of sallow, deal, and hazle, some of them unstnpt of 
bark ; many of their branches extended underneath the sleepers, and 
separated them from the peat bottom. The branches were for the most 
■part rotten, and were easily broken down. We found here hazel nuts, 
hard and brown, as if they had but just fallen from the tree. 

'* When the peat was removed to the extent of two feet in depth, near 
the outer part of the enclosure, the space so left was immediately filled 
up with bog water ; a similar examination near the centre exposed t 
hard foundation of blue clay. The timber composing the crannoge ap- 
peared to have been roughly hewn, and in no instance were the pieces 
of which it was constructed joined together by nails or mortiaee ; two 
of the stretchers, however, had mortises skilfully cut in them." 

On the part of Lord Famham, Mr. Wilde exhibited to the Academy 
various articles which were found in the examination of the crannoge, 
and which are enumerated in his letter of tlie 9th February, communi- 
cated to the Academy at the meeting held on the 16th of that month (see 
p. 289). 



279 

The Rev. John H. Jellett read a paper — 

Oir A 9KW Optical Baochabomstxb. (Plate XXII.) 
The author said that his attention had been directed to the possibility 
of applying the new analyzing prism, the construction of which he had 
described to the Academy some time since, to the construction of a sac- 
charometer, capable of giving more accurate results than those obtainable 
by means of the instrument of Soleil. Having described this latter in- 
strument, he said that, as far as he could judge, both from his own ex- 
periments and the report of others who had used it, the error to which 
even an accurate observer would be liable in attempting to estimate the 
strength of a saccharine solution, could not be reckoned as less than half 
a grain per cubic inch for a single observation. Having stated what he 
believed to be the cause of this want of accuracy, the author exhibited 
and described the instrument which he had himself devised for the 
same purpose. Of this instrument, the accompanying diagram (Fig. 1 ) 
is a representation. 

iki itf a short tube, containing two large lenses, serving to condense 
the light of a lamp, which is placed as nearly as possible in the principal 
focus of the lower lens, hh, ee, is a short tube, carrying at one extre- 
mity a lens, ee, and at the other extremity a diaphragm, hb, pierced at 
its centre by a very small hole, O, which is situated in the principal 
focus of the lens ee, and also, when the instrument is adjusted, in the 
principal focus of the upper lens a. By this arrangement a beam of light 
is obtained emerging from ec, sensibly parallel to the axis of the tubes. 
This beam is polarized by being transmitted through a Nicol's prism, 
contained in the tube dd. tf« is a vessel, pierced at the lower end by a 
circular hole, which is closed with plate glass. This vessel contains a 
fluid, possessing a rotative power opposite to that of the fluid under ex- 
amination. TMs latter fluid is contained in the tubejf, which rests on 
the two upright pieces yy. These pieces are attached to the transverse 
piece rr, which carries a vernier, whose divisions correspond to those of 
the scale, m, which is attached to the bar ss, which carries all the parts 
of the instrument. The transverse piece, w, is capable of sliding along 
ss, this motion being produced by a chain, attached at both ends to ss, 
passing round a spindle with a matted head, attached to tw. By these 
means a motion can be given to the tube jf/* parallel to its own axis ; and, 
by a very simple arrangement, the zero of the vernier is made to coincide 
with the zero of the scale, when the extremity, /, of the tube is in con- 
tact with the piece of glass covering the lower aperture in the vessel ee. 
It is plain, then, that the numbers read on the scale, which is graduated 
BO as to be read to inch -001, will denote the length of the column of 
fluid JS ^(Fig, 2) interposed between the bottom of the vessel and the 
bottom of tiie tube, yy is an analyzing prism, constructed as before de- 
scribed.* M is a lens, and / a diaphr^^, with a small hole, at which 
the eye of the observer is placed. The polarizing and analyzing 
prisma are fixed in their places by small screws, r, «^, each passing 

* "ProoeedingB of the Royal Irish Academy," vol. yil, p. 34S. 



280 

through a transyerse Blit in the outer tuhe, so that when partly un- 
screwed they allow the prisms to turn through a small angle round 
the axes. of the tube. In using the instrument, (he polarizing piism 
may be set in any position, the analyzing prism being tSien carefolly ad- 
justed, so that the tints in the two hidves of the circular spectrom* 
may, when there in no fluid interposed, be exactly equaL 

Suppose now that the object is to ascertain the strength of a gircsi 
solution of cane sugar. In this case, the fluid to be used in the Tesatl, 
HE, may be French oil of turpentine. A certain quantity, the amount 
of which depends on the strength of the solution to be observed, having 
been poured into the vessel, the tube, ff, is then filled with a solution of 
sugar, whose strength is accurately known. The tube is now replaced 
in the upright pieces, and the zero of the vernier made to coincide ac- 
curately with the zero of the scale. The milled head is now turned so 
as to draw back the tube until the tints on the two parts of the circular 
image, seen through Z, become equal. The number on the scale cor- 
responding to the zero of the vernier is then noted. Let this reading be 
Ry and let 8 be the strength of the known solution. 

Now, let this solution be removed from the tube, which is then to 
be filled with the solution whose strength is required. The same pro- 
cess having been gone through, let the new reading be R' ; then the 
strength required is given by the equation — 

R 

If the experiment be carefully conducted, and if there be no error in 
the strength of the standard solution, the error in the measurement 
made, as above described, ought not to exceed grs. "02 per cubic inch 
for a single experiment If the mean of a number of experiments he 
taken, the error would, of course, be still less. 

The author has given to this instrument the name saccharometer, 
derived from one important use to which it may be applied. This, hov- 
ever, is but one of its applications ; and there are many others, at least 
as important. It may generally be defined to be an instrument hy 
which the ratio of the rotatory power of any transparent fluid to that of 
a standard fluid may be accurately determined. 

It is not desirable to use a very strong solution of the substance to be 
examined. The reason of this is the imperfect compensation which exists 
between fluids possessed of opposite rotatory powers. It is generally as- 
sumed that the ratio of the rotation produced in the planes of polariza- 
tion of any two of the simple rays of which a white ray is composed is 
the same, whatever be the substance causing the rotation. It follovs 
indeed, from the law of Biot, that this is not accurately true, but it ha« 
been generally supposed that the error is too small to be perceived. If 
this were true, it would always be possible to assign to the lengths of 
two columns of oppositely rotating fluids such a ratio, that the eflTect of 
the one should be accurately compensated by the effect of the other. 

* Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, yd. yiL, p. 349. 



281 

But tiie author has found that in certain cases the error is very percep- 
tible indeed. This is shown by the impossibility of giving to the tube 
,(/" any position in which the shades jof colour are exactly tbe same in the 
two parts of the circular image. Suppose, for example, that the position 
of the tube is such that the plane of polarization of the mean ray has the 
Bame position as at first. This plane is then equally inclined to the 
planes of analyzation of the two parts of the analyzing prism. But this 
is not true of the planes of polarization of any of &e other rays ; of 
these, the less refrangible will have their planes of polarization nearer 
to one of the planes of analyzation, while those of the more refrangible 
are nearer to the other. 

There will therefore be in the one half of the image a preponderance 
of red light, and in the other a preponderance of blue light, when the 
intensities of the two parts are equid. The difference of colour, which 
makes it difficult to equalize these intensities with perfect accuracy, 
will cTidently be greater, the greater the amount of the rotations which 
the compensating fluids would severally produce, and therefore the 
greater the strength of the solution. 

On the other hand, it must be remembered that the error in the re- 
solt, arising ftom an incorrect position of the tube, is inversely propor- 
tional to the length of the column of the compensating fluid. Thus, if 
the reading of the scale be '1, an error of one division, or '001 will have 
the same effect on the result, as an error ten times as great would have, 
if the reading were 1 000. 

No general rule can be given for determining the strength of the so- 
lution which it is desirable to use. If the law of Biot, sc., — that the 
amounts of rotation produced by the same substahce in the planes of 
polarization of the different simple rays are proportional to the squares 
of the corresponding refractive indices — be strictly true, then, the more 
nearly these indices are in the same proportion for the fluid under exa- 
mination and the compensating fluid, the stronger may be the solution 
used. If tiie fluid under examination be a saccharine solution, and the 
compensating fluid French oil of turpentine, a solution containing, in 
each cubic inch, thirty grains of sugar, may be used without inconve- 
nience.* 

James Dombrain, Esq., of Monkstown, through Gilbert Sanders, 
Esq., presented a very perfect long tapering sword-blade, made of bronze, 
found in a bog, near Timoleague, county of Cork. 

Henry Kingsmill, Esq., on the part of his son, Henry Kingsmill, Jun., 
Esq., presented a collection of rubbings from moniimental brasses. 

The Haster of the Bolls in England, through the Librarian, pre- 
sented a large collection of Becord publications, completing the series 
already in the Library of the Academy, and consisting of 63 volumes. 

The thanks of the Academy were presented to the donors. 

• The instrument here described was constnicted by Messrs. Spencer and Son, of 
Anngier-streei, to whose ability, both in carrying ont the instmctions given to them, and 
in suggesting methods for oyercoming practical difficulUes, the author is much indebted. 



282 



MONDAY, FEBRUARY 9, 1868. 

The Ybet Bbv. Ghabces Okates, D. D., President^ in the duir. 

John Bibton Garstin, Esq., and John H. Tyiiell, Esq., were elected 
members of the Academy. 

Mb* Gxobge Y. Bv Notbb presented the following drawings :— 

GaTAL0GT7B BELATING to NtZTBTY-FTTE DbAWHTOS TBOM OBieiFAI 

Sketches of yabiotts objects of Aktiquity. 

No. 1. View looking north of the Eistvaen on the south flank of Bree 
Hill, townland of Bally brittas, county of Wexford, near Ennisoorthj.- 
Ordnance Surrey Map, No. 31, 2nd quarter. 

No. 2. View of the same, looking west. 

No. S. Plan of the same, showing the side and covering stone. 

No. 4. Plan and section of a square earthen rath, in the townland 
of Craane, parish of Clonmore, on the northern flank of Bree "ffnij aod 
close to the Enniscorthy road. This structure is one of the moat pedect 
of its class which I have observed in the county of Wexford. It eoo- 
sists of a deep fosse, about 22 feet wide, having a narrow platfbim aiid 
high parapet wall around its outer face, which is sloped like the glads 
of a modem fort The inner enclosure is bounded by a thick eutha 
wall, and measures about 80 feet square. 

Works such as this are rather common over the eastern or lowland 
portion of the county of Wexford, extending from near Arklow on the 
north, to the Wateiford estuary on the south. 

In the townland of Myler's Park, a few miles to the soutii-eut of 
New Ross, there is one of these earthen works which measures abooi 
170 feet square internally, and the walls are protected by a msGaTe 
semicircular bastion at each angle, being in fact an earthen mo^ 
of an Anglo-Norman castle. I have an idea that raths of this cha- 
racter are not as old as those which are circular in form; and as the 
county of Wexford was the territory which the Anglo-Normaos fiid 
gained possession of in Ireland, they may have constructed those squsR 
earthen works as camps, or forts of occupation, for such was oertaiiily 
the rath in Myler's Park. If they are native structures, the Irish may 
have copied this form of defensive work from their invaders. Be this ai 
it may, it is well to direct attention to the occurrence of square earthes 
raths over the coonty of Wexford. The rath which I have illustrated 
is not engraved on the Ordnance Survey Map. 

No. 5. View of the group of stones at the ancient grave at Tkohs, 
half a mile east of the village of Dunquin, to the west of Dingle. Titv- 
ria means the house or resting place of Mary ; and this spot is popukHr 
recognised over the Irish-speaking districts of the whole sout^-west d 
Ireland, as being the farthest or most remote grave or " house of rest/* 
If by this is implied the most westerly place of interment, the cdd id^ 



283 

is qnite correct, as Dnnmore Head, which is close to it, Btretohing into 
the Blaaket Sound, is the most westerly point in Ireland. One of the 
stones exhibits the Greek cross enclosed in a circle ; and the upright mo- 
noHUi has a single straight-armed cross, with diyergent ends deeply cut 
on it. 

No. 6. Sketch of the tall and rude cross standing in the graTe-yard 
of Adamstown, county of Wexford ; it is cut out of a single slab of 
tnppean ash, and is ten feet high. 

No. 7. View looking west of the rude and small granite cross «nd 
la^ square plinth on the road side, close to the old church of £ill-o'- 
tbe-Grange, county of Dublin. The cross is of the simplest form, and 
the only ornamentation on it is a small circle deeply cut at the centre of 
tiie mtersecting arms. This may be the embryotic form of the circle as 
connected with the cross, and, if so, it is of some interest 

Nos. 8, 9. Sketches of St Gobbonet's Stone, preserved in a field 
dofie to the Eoman Catholic chapel of Ballyvoumey, county of Cork. 
The rude incised carving on this monolith is exceedingly curious. 
It represents a cross of the Greek form, enclosed in a narrow double 
circle, the whole being surmounted by a diminutive figure in mere 
ontline of the saintly female, St. Gobbonet. The hair is divided on 
the forehead, and falls over the back of the neck, to the waist ; the 
dress is long, and reaches to the ankles ; and one hand carries the cam- 
hutta or short pastoral staff, of the same type as those in our Museum. 
The opposite face of the stone exhibits merely the same form of cross as 
the otiier. St. Gobbonet lived in the 6th century, and this carving is 
undoubtedly of contemporaneous age. 

No. 10. On the rise of gix)und to the west of, and close to the old 
church of Ballyvoumey, I discovered the remains of a large circular 
doghaun or stone hut, measuring 26 feet in diameter, internally, the 
wall at the doorway being 8 feet thick, but increasing to 5 feet at the 
opposite part of the circle. This is erroneously marked on the Ordnance 
Survey Map as the base of a round tower. Local tradition calls this St. 
Gobbcmefs house, and we have every reason to believe that it is so. I 
give a plan of this building in the sketch No. 10. 

No. 11. View of what remains of St. Gobbonet's cloghaun, showing 
the two upright flags which formed the sides of its doorway. 

No. 12. This represents a small rude carving on the top stone of the 
window, in the south wall of the nave of Ballyvoumey old church ; it is 
popularly known as the effigy of St. Gobbonet, and its date may be 
about the fourteenth century. 

No. 13. View of the doorway of the old church of Mungret, county 
of Limerick. ' The massive cyclopean character of this work stamps it of 
considerable antiquity, though its proportions are not slender enough to 
induce me to class it with the earliest doorways of this type. 

No. 14. View, looking east, of the crofb of St. Columbkill*s house, 
at Eells, county of Meath, showing the two partition walls which divide 
it into three chambers, and the square opening in the floor affording 
access to, or from, the body of the building beneath ; St. Columb died 



284 

A. D. 596, and we have every reason to believe that he caused this 
structure to be erected for his use. See Dr. Petrie's work on the Bound 
Towers, p. 430. 

No. 15. Plan of the croft of St. Golumbkill's house. 

No. 16. Section of the building from north to south, showing the 
rude method of constructing its roof by causing the stones to overlap till 
the apex of the croft was closed in by one stone, after the manner of the 
very earliest of our stone oratories. See Dr. Petrie's account of tha 
stone oratory at Gallarus, county of Kerry, p. 133. 

No. 17. Plan of St. Plannan's Oratory at Eillaloe. The date of 
this building is the seventh century. See Dr. Petrie's work, p. 281. 

Nos. 18 and 19. Sketches of the capitals of pilasters at either side 
of the doorway to St. Flannan's church at Killaloe. That on the north 
side is strikingly Corinthian in its style ; and that on the south aide is 
ornamented with two animals, having one head at the external angle of 
the capital, common to both. 

No. 20. Incised cross with enclosing circle, carved on a limestaiK 
slab, placed at the foot of the ancient doorway built up into the south 
wall of the cathedral of Killaloe, and dose to the west gable. 

No. 21. View of the doorway of the Round Tower of Kells^ Govmtj 
of Heath, showing the mixture of sandstone and limestone used in iia 
construction. 

No. 22. Yiew of the round tower of Kinneigh, county of Coriu 
The base of this singular structure is hexagonal within and without, to 
the height of about 18 feet,' when it abruptly becomes circular* The 
doorway is flat-headed, and constructed in the side of the hexagon 
facing the north-east. The doorway is revealed within, to receive a 
wooden door ; the first floor is level with the doorway, and is ooa- 
structed of four large flag-stones crossing each other, but so far apart as 
to allow of a large square opening in the centre, affording access to tha 
dark chamber beneath. The walls at the basement are five feet thick. 
Above the hexagonal base there are four ofisets in the wall, and about 
ten feet apart, thus dividing the tower into a corresponding numb^ of 
rooms, each of which was lighted by a small porthole-shaped windov. 
I believe that the tower wants one story to complete it height, as there 
are none of the ordinary large openings at the summit. The present 
height of the tower is fully 60 feet, to which, if we add 10 feet for the 
terminal chamber, and 10 feet for the conical roof, we would have dO 
feet as the original height of the tower. Its external diameter at the 
springing of the circular portion is 16 feet 6 inches, and only 8 feet 6 in- 
ches internally. 

No. 23. View of the doorway of this tower. 

No. 24. Plan of the hexagonal base at the doorway of this tower. 
showing the manner in which the stone floor was constructed. 

No. 25. Section of the Round Tower at Kinneigh. 

No. 26. Ground plan of St. Edan's Monastery at Ferns, county cf 
Wexford, showing the connexion of the round tower with the nave ci 
the building at its north-west angle. 



285 

No. 27. Yiew of the round tower attached to the Monasteiy of St. 
Edan, at Ferna. This tower, which is 58 feet in height, forma a por« 
tion of the west gable of the nave of the church, and is square from its 
base to the height of 40 feet, when it becomes circular; the base is 
square within, and incloses a winding stairs which terminates where 
the tower becomes round ; the upper circular portion is divided into two 
apartments, the upper one being lighted by four square-headed aper- 
tures, feeing N. N. W., 8. S. E., E. N. E., and W. 8. W. The conical 
roof is wanting. 

No. 28. Sketch of one of ihe windows lighting the upper floor of 
this round tower. 

No. 29. One of the narrow loops lighting the winding stairs at the 
square base of the same round tower. 

Nos. 80, 81, 32, and 88. Views of the four sides of the granite shaft 
of a cross, highly ornamented with the Greco-Irish fret pattern ; and 
standing in the graye-yard of the cathedral of Ferns (now the parish 
ehurch). 

No. 84. Plan and section of the plinth of the above cross. 

No. 85. Head of granite cross built up in the wall of the grave-yard 
attached to Fems cathedral (now the pansh church). 

Na 86. Head of large granite cross £rom the gateway to Ferns 
church, where its fragments are used to prevent the gate from swinging. 

No. 87. Top of mediaeval window, now used as a tombstone in the 
grave-yard of Fems church : at either side of the ogee are sculpturings 
tjpifyuig the good and evil spirit by an angel in the attitude of prayer, 
md a non-descript grinning monster. 

No. 88. Small standard cross of granite from the grave-yard of old 
Leigblin cathedral, county of Garlow. 

No. 89. Small standard granite cross and plinth from Numey, 
county of Carlow. 

No. 40. Doorway of the ancient church of Agha, county of Carlow, 
possibly of the seventh or eighth century. It was closed frx)m the inside 
by a wooden door. 

No. 41. Ground plan of Agha old church, showing the ancient or 
western portion, which is constructed in courses of dressed blocks of 
granite, as is illustrated by the doorway and surrounding masonry ; and 
the less ancient, or eastern part, built of rubble masonry. 

No. 42. View of the interior of the east window of Agha old 
church. From the style of this window it is doubtless a work of the 
twelfth ceiitury. 

No. 43. Exterior view of the same window, showing the change 
in the style of masonry, as compared to the western portion of the 
church. 

No. 44. Interior of window in the south wall, and close to the east 
gable of Agha church. This ope is triangular-headed within, but flat 
without 

No. 45. Exterior view of the window just alluded to, in the south 
wall of Agha church. 

». I. A. PROC. VOL. VIII. 2 Q 



286 

Na 46. Square ope near the Bummit of the souih wall in the west- 
em or more ancient portion of the old church of Agha. Its sill is fonned 
by a series of three small steps ; the regularity of the masoniy is hen 
yery apparent. 

Ko. 47. Plan of the old church called Whitechapel, near Bagenak- 
town, county of Carlow, The most perfect portion is the east gaUa 
with the window ; the remainder of the waUs are merely fonndatioii& 

No. 48. Interior view of the window in the east gable of this church, 
the date of which is, doubtless, the twelfth century. 

No. 49. Plan of the old church of Enniscorthy, county of Wez£«d, 
showing the ancient nare and modem choir. All the featorea of the 
fomier are gone, except a window placed eight feet from the gnnind is 
the south wall, and near what was originally the east gable. 

No. 50. Interior and exterior view of the small windoir in the 
south wall of the old church of Enmsoorthy. This is also twelfth cen- 
tury work 

No. 51. Exterior view of the large fourteenth century east window 
of Jerpoint Abbey, county of Kilkenny, showing the remains of & 
small twelfth century three-ope window, which was destroyed in its 
constmctioni It is not necessary to enter on any detailed description of 
this interesting fact in the re-edification of the abbey, as the sketdi 
sufficiently explains it. 

No. 52. Exterior view of an early thirteenth century window in the 
west gable of Jerpoint Abbey, lighting the rood loft of the nave. 

No. 53. Extmor view of a window from the north wall of north 
side aisle, Jerpoint Abbey. The drip moulding of this and the fonoa 
window is of qnaint design, partaking much of twelfth century art 

No. 54. Exterior view of two-ope window, with terminal four- 
ensped openiog. This is clearly thirteenth century work, and ia moet 
characteristic. 

Nos. 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, and 65. Drawinga nuuk 
one-half the full size, eJiowing the ornamentation of the capitals of the 
square cluster columns supporting the side aisle arches of JezpdLt 
Abbey, coimty of Kilkenny. 

No. 66. Tombstone with Anglo-Norman inscription and foliated 
cross from the interior of St. Canice's Cathedral, l^lkenny. The in- 
scription is 

Hie Jaoet Yaltenis dahy, 

with a contraction oyer the first two letters of the surname. 

No. 67. Plan of the remains of Ferns Castle, ooimty of Wexford 
The large suite of apartments which originally occupied the intaaal 
quadrangle of this bmlding were evidently all constructed of wood. 

No. 68. Enlarged plan of the chapel on the second floor of the gt- 
cular Tower, at the south-east angle of Ferns Castle, showing also tk 
design of the groioing in the arched roof. 

No. 69. Exterior view of one of the long and cross-bow loopa frc« 
the winding stairs in the tower just alluded to. 



287 

Xo. 70. Exterior view of a window in the north wall of the old 
church of Newcastle, county of Tipperary. The design of this window 
is BO quaint and unlike any of the known styles of architecture, that it 
is difficult to assign a date to it. It may be early in the thirteenth cen- 
tury. 

No. 71. East gable of the old church of Crook, near Passage, county 
of Waterford. The three windows piercing this gable are of the lancet 
fonn; and the rude arches surmounting them so closely resemble that 
OTer the window from Jerpoint Abbey, No. 54 of this series, that we 
may suppose this church to be of the thirteenth century. 

No. 72. Exterior view of the doorway of Ballyhack Castle, county 
of Wexford. 

No. 73. Exterior views of two window loops from the north wall of 
Ballyhack Castle. 

No. 74. Exterior view of two larger windows from Ballyhack Cas- 
tle. Fig. 1 is near the summit of the west wall, and Fig. 2 near that 
of the north wall. 

No. 75. Plan of the Castle of Enniscorthy. 

No. 76. Main doorway of Enniscorthy Castle. From the style of 
this doorway and that of the loops throughout the castle, I think the 
date of the building cannot be earlier than the beginning of the six- 
teenth century. 

No. 77. Small cruciform loops from the circular flanking towers of 
Enniscorthy Castle. 

No. 78. Single loops splayed externally from the same building. 
No. 79. View of the choir, arch, and east window of Faithlegg old 
church, near Passage, county of Waterford. Both these features in this 
building are of remarkably small proportions ; the former is more like a 
laige semicircular headed doorway, and the latter is of the narrow lan- 
cet form. 

No. 80. Plan of the same old church, which I suppose to be of the 
15th century. 

No. 81. Sketch of the font of the old church of Faithlegg. 
No. 82. Sketch of the font of the old church of Ballybacon, near 
Ardfinnan, county of Tipperary, 15th century. 

No. 83. Carving of quaint design, representing a crucifixion, spring- 
ing from a shield which b^ars the date 1594, from the old abbey of Kil- 
mallock, county of Limerick. 

No. 84. Bude representation in incised lines of an "Agnus Dei," 
bearing the shaft of what may have been a cross before the stone on 
which it was cut was defaced, from the grave-yard of the old church of 
Ballybrennan, near Enniscorthy. 

No6. 85, 86, and 87. Three small head stone crosses, possibly of 
modem date, frt)m the same grave-yard. 

No. 88. Sketch of a coffin-shaped tombstone, from the abbey of Jer- 
point, bearing in incised lines the outline of a male figure, clothed in the 
costume of the 14th century ; a long staff is held in the right hand, and 



over the bead the etone baa been cut into, to form a foaall aqoare boi- 
low, poBsiblj to receive a brass ; a very illegible inBcription in the An- 
glo-Norman letter maj be traced aromid part of the Blab, but the date, 
anno MGCC, 1800, is very plainly seen. 

No. 89. Effigy, in high relief, of a knight on a tombstone in Ihe 
grave-yard of the old 'church of Ratoath, county of Meath. The head 
of the figure, which rests on a large cushion, is bare, without a beard, 
and the general expression of the face is that of age. The body is clothed 
in the surcoat, but is without armour. The knight's good swords widi 
heavy pommel, is, however, girt about his waist by a broad belt, and 
hangs before hun. The right arm and hand are in the attitude of sheath- 
ing it, while the left holds the scabbard. There is great boldness and 
cluaracter in the execution of this figure. 

No. 90. Sketch of a small effigy from the old abbey of Gowran, 
county of Kilkenny. The length of this figure is only two feet nine 
inches, and it represents a juvemle person, possibly a chorister. The 
head, which rests on a cushion, is ei^er tonsured, or the thick flowing 
hair is confined by a band across the forehead. The figure is dothd 
in a long surplice, fitting close to the neck, with tight sleeves. The arms 
rest on &e chest, and the hands hold a large book, possibly a psalter, u 
indicative of the ecclesiastical rank of the deceased. Diminutive effigies 
such as this are of the rarest occurrence in Ireland. 

No. 91. Effigy of a female of rank, with highly ornamented horited 
head dress, characteristic of the 1 5 th century, from the old abbey of Gow- 
ran. 

No. 92. Fragment of a tombstone from the same abbey, which re- 
presented a knight in the armour of the Idth century. The sword is 
suspended from around the neck, and rests on the chest, as if laid on the 
body after death. 

No. 93. Another and similar effigy from the same abbey. Strange to 
say, the head and face of this effigy have been cut away, probably to allov 
of ihe insertion of a brass plate, on which to engrave the feataros and 
head armour. A lai^e cushion supports the head, at either side of which, 
and on the cushion, is engraved a hawk with wings partly extended. 

No. 94. Sketch of a flat tombstone from the abbey of Gowran, oo 
which a Ml-length male figure is carved in deeply incised lines. The 
hair is cut close to the head, but fedls over the ears. The moustache u 
indicated, but no beard. The figure is clothed in a long loose robe, with 
short tight sleeves. The feet are cased in shoes with ankle straps, and 
rest on a rude representation of a writhing serpent. The evident wast 
of skUl in this work stamps it of the 16th century, when the sonlpt^ns' 
and builders' art in our realms was at its lowest ebb. 

No. 95. Tombstone from Bathmore Abbey, county of Meath, on whi< h 
the effigy of a knight, in the armour of the Idth century, is carved in 
high relief. I give it as affording us an illustration of the holme or mas- 
sive tilting helmet of the period, the large vizor of which is raised po a* 
to show the features of the wearer. 



289 

I b^ to pieeent ibis collection of Drawings of objects of antiqua- 
rian int^est (many of which are falling into decay) to the Library of the 
Academy, with a view to its forming the fourth volume of donations 
of a similar kind made to the Academy on three former occasions. — 
G.V.D. 

A collection of miscellaneous Donations was presented, accompanied 
by the following explanatory letter from W. K. Wilde, Esq. (V. P.), 
addressed to the Secretary of the Academy, which was read in his absence 
by J. T. Gilbert, Esq. :— 

Deab Sxk, — In the names of the undennentioned noblemen and gen- 
tlemen, I beg to present the following donations to the Library and Mu- 
seum of the Academy : — 

Erom the Marquis of Kildare, " The Earls of Eildare and their An- 
cestors, with the Addenda, fix>m 1659 to 1 773 (new edition) ;'' the former 
edition of which I had the honour of presenting in 1861. 

Erom Lord Eamham, a handsomely bound copy of the '' Eamham 
Descents, from King Henry III.," a genealogical work descriptive of the 
Maxwell family, printed at Cavan, in 1 862, for private circulation. The 
donation is enhanced by the autograph revisions of the author. 

On the part of Qeorge Porter, M.D., a bound collection of twenty- 
four government broad-sheets, descriptive of the Irish Bebellion, between 
the 24tli of May, and the 28th September, 1798; and consisting of public 
notices and letters from Generals Lake, Asgill, Dundas, Duff, Johnston, 
Gosford, Needham, and many other persons, to Lord Castlcreagh ; and 
containing accounts of the various engagements with the rebel forces in 
the counties of Antrim, Mayo, Longford, Carlow, Eildare, Wicklow, 
Wexford, and Dublin. 

I also beg to present a very ancient Icelandic medical manuscript, 
written on thick vellum, and consisting of seventy-three small quarto 
folios, which I was given by the late lamented Professor Siegfried; as I 
consider our Library the most suitable place for it, and I am anxious to 
associate, even in this small matter, the name of so distinguished a scho- 
lar with that of the Boyal Irish Academy. It contains some MS. philo-. 
logical notes by the late Professor. 

Erom W. Wakeman, Esq., a specimen of Erench and Ca's Tuam 
bank-note, issued in 1812. 

A photograph of Cahill's medallion of the late John Mitchell Kem- 
ble, which has been recently placed on the tomb of that distinguished 
antiquary, historian, and philologer, in Mount Jerome Cemetery. 

From Lord Eamham, a highly finished conical bone piercer, five 
inches long, found fifteen feet deep in a sand pit in the townland of Clon- 
nygonnell, parish of Kilmore, coimty of Cavan. The circumstance of 
any remains of man's handiwork being found either in drift or gravel, 
having of late years formed the subject of scientific investigation, invests 
this article with peculiar interest. 



290 

I have also been entruBted by bis lordsbip with the following va- 
luable collection of antiquities, found in Toneymore Crannogey wbaxk 
have been referred to in my paper laid before the Academy, on the last 
night of meeting, and also several found during the past week, as the 
excavation is stiU going on : — 

Five pieces of oak and other timber, which formed the stakes aod 
framework of the crannoge. One of these, a round stake, seven and a 
half feet long, and eight inches thick, is worthy of comparison with that 
from a Swiss Ffaulbauten, recently brought from Lausanne, and pre- 
sented to the Academy by Mr. Starkey, which is only four and a half 
feet long, with ah average thickness of three and a quarter inches. The 
portion which was above ground in each is one foot. The outer saz&ee 
of both the Irish and Swiss specimens have cracked in precisely the 
same manner. One of the timbers from Toneymore — ^thirty-five inches 
long, ten broad, and six thick — has a mortise cut in its centre 8 indiee 
by 5 ; it probably formed a portion of one of the crannoge houses, which 
appear to have been constructed like the square wooden house found in 
the bog of Drumkein, county of Donegal, in 1833, and the base of whidi 
was twenty-six feet below the surface. See the model of it in the Mu- 
seum, presented by Sir Thomas Larcom, and described in the Catalogae, 
part I., p. 235. Another portion, with a smaller ^mortise at one end, 
appears to have been part of the roof. These are the only remains of 
crannoge structures as yet possessed by the Academy. 

A very perfect quern, seventeen inches in diameter, with the upper 
surface of the top stone highly decorated; — ^found at the bottom and near 
the centre of the crannoge. 

Several pieces of slag, — ^tending to prove that iron smelting was 
carried on in this crannoge. 

A barrel-shaped piece of wood, three and a quarter inches lon^» 
hoUow throughout, and perforated with six holes ; either used in weav- 
ing or as a net-float. 

Three flat circular stone discs or quoits, averaging three and a quar- 
ter inches in diameter, and half an inch thick, similar to those on Traj 
KN in the Museum, and described at pp. 96 and 99 intJie printed Cata- 
logue. 

A fragment of what would appear to be the stone coulter of a 
plough, now thirteen inches long, and having an artificial hole near the 
broad end for attaching it to the beam. 

A most perfect and highly decorated mortar, eight inches higji by 
seventeen and a half wide, decorated at the coiners with four grotesque 
figures. 

A stone mould, ten inches long, with the casting groove in the long 
axis. 

A four-sided whetstone, twenty inches by three, the largest ever 
presented to the Museum ; much worn. Eleven fragments of sharpen- 
ing stones, of which two are perforated and one oval, — averaging from 
two and a half to six inches long. 



291 

A laige oval stone, artificially smoothed on all its surfiioes, ten and 
a half inches by three and a half; probably used as a web-polisher 
before the art of calendering by machinery was known to the Irish. 
Five globular stones, probably used as weights or sink stones for nets or 
lines. 

A flat red touchstone, three and a quarter inches long, of jasper, used 
for testing the purity of gold, and similar to those described at pp. 11 
vnd 81 of the Museum Catalogue. 

A stone shot, three inches in diameter. 

Two weapon-sharpeners, like those figured at p. 75 of Catalogue, 
of remarkably hard stone, resembUng quartz ; one circular, and appa- 
rently unfinished ; the other, two and three quarter inches long, and 
much used, with a flattened edge, and deeply grooTed diagonaUy on the 
flat surfaces by the points of the swords, daggers, or spears, it was used 
for whetting. The use of this description of implement (which is of not 
uncommon occurrence in Scandinavia) has recently been determined by 
finding one with a metal collar encircling the edge, and having a hook 
and strap at one extremity for attaching it to the person, like the modem 
''steel" oftheflesher. 

A smooth curyed waterwom dark stone, highly polished, and pro- 
bably used as a burnisher. 

Two imperfect red deer's horns. Ten large boars' tusks, and some 
teeth of ruminants. 

Two large bone beads ; a variegated enamel bead ; a large irregularly 
shaped amber bead ; a sinaUer one of enamel paste, showing a mixture 
of z^, yellow, and blue colours ; and also a small blue glass bead. 

Two imperfect bone combs, like those already figured in the Ca- 
talogue at p. 272. 

A bone ferule, two and a half inches long ; solid at one end. 

A hazel nut, found near the bottom of the crannoge. 

Fourteen portions of pottery, some rudely glazed, others burned, and 
some only baked ; and consisting of fragments of various vessels used 
either in the arts or for domestic and culinary purposes, such as crucibles, 
pitchers, and bowls. Among these is a fra^ent of a bowl or urn, of 
unglazed pottery, highly decorated with deeply grooved lines on the out- 
side, and dight indentations on the everted lip. It is of great antiquity; 
composed of very black clay, darkened still more by the long-continued • 
action of the bog, and mixed with a quantity of particles of white quartz 
or feldspar, which were probably added to give it stability. A similar 
description of art may be remarked in some of our oldest mortuary 
urns. When we consider that, except the urns which must be referred 
to the Pagan period, we have scarcely any examples of ancient Irish pot- 
tery, these specimens possess a peculiar interest for the investigators of 
fictile ware. 

Fragments of Kimmerage coal rings; probably part of a bracelet, 
which seems to have been jointed at one end. 

The bowls of two small pipes, similar to those in the Museum, and 
usually but erroneously denominated '' Danish tobacco pipes." 



292 

An enclosed ring, of bronze, fhree and a quarter inches in du- 
meter ; a large decorated bronze pin, seven and a half inches long ; and 
a smaller one, three inches in length. 

An iron knife blade, with perforated haft, eight and a half inches 
long. This article looks as if it had been attached to a long handle 
A smaller blade, with tang for haft, two and three-quarter inches in 
length. A globular piece of iron, two and three quarter inches in dia- 
meter, like a crotal, with an aperture on one side. The head of a small 
iron hammer. Three portions of rings, and eleven other iron fiagmentB, 
the uses of which have not been determined. 

Three oval artificially-worked stones. 

A small perforated stone, like a whorl or distaff weight. 

A very perfect bone piercer; and a small very highly poliflhed bone 
pin. 

Two portions of bone combs. A bone spoon, ingeniously formed out 
out of the epiphysis of a young ruminant animal. 

With aU these articles furnished by Lord Farnham from the Tonej- 
more crannoge, may be associated the sixteen q>eGimens from the ssone 
locality which I presented in 1860, on the part of Mr. O'Bzien, and 
which are enumerated in voL viii, pp. 275, 276. 

When we consider that this is the only Irieh crannoge that has ef«r 
been thoroughly examined from summit to base, all these articles^ whes 
collected together, and serving to illustrate the manners, habits, eusAoaa, 
arts, and mode of hfe, of that portion of the Celtic population which re- 
sided therein, perhaps for centuries, as well as illusteting beyond any 
account which has yet been given, the construction of these ancient habi- 
tations, they will, I am sure, be regarded with much interest, not mextelj 
by the archseological section of the Academy, but by the various other 
European investigators into like structures, who have called poblic at- 
tention to such matters during the last six years. And it is worthy ^ 
remark that, while these memorabilia of our ancestors have been past by 
.with but little notice for the last twenty years, the Scientific Academv 
of Zurich and other literary bodies on the continent have published m- 
counts and given illustrations of almost every fragment that has been 
found in the crannoges of Switzerland and Savoy. 

The circumstance of several valuable gold articles having been Ibusd 
near the avenue leading up to the great sepulchral pyramid of New- 
grange is already well ^own to the learned, from the description giv^a 
of them in the '^ Aix}h»ologia," vol. xxx., p. 137, and from their being 
figured in Lord Londesborough's beautiful "Catalogue of articles <^ An- 
cient Art." Since then no other remnant of the past haa been found eitho 
in or adjacent to l^ewgrange, except the grave containing the vitrified 
stones which I have described in the 3rd volume of "The Proceedings,^' 
p. 262, until the past year, when Mr. Maguire, the liberal landowner of 
Newgrange, to whom the public are much indebted for the prvserratioB 



293 

of that great monument, and who has recently cleared away a large por- 
tion of rubbish from the opening, found in the adjoining field the small 




fragment of gold which I now present to the Academy. It is a double 
fillet, soldered along one edge, plain behind, but highly decorated in front 
in two compartments, one of which presents a shell -like ornament, as yet 
unknown in Irish gold work, and much resembling Indian manufacture. 
It is If inches long by |ths wide, and weighs 3 dwts. 3 grs. The chas- 
ing and punched work is remarkably perfect. 

I also beg to present on the part of Mr. Faulkner, of Lower Bridge- 
street, Dublin, the most perfect single-piece oaken boat which has yet 
been discovered in Ireland. It is eighteen feet nine inches long, and 
averages two feet ten inches wide, and twenty inches high in the side. 
It was found upwards of twenty years ago in the bed of the River Boyne, 
near the soutJLem bank, in the deep water between Oldbridge and 
Drogheda, and was exhibited as a curiosity in Liverpool many years ago. 
It lus three artificial apertures in the bottom, as ^own in the accom- 
panying illustration. 



v m pt SatflW^ 



From the venerable William Thomson, Director of the Antiquarian 
Museum at Copenhagen, moulds and casts of the gold handle of a 
bronze leaf-bladed sword, recently found in Denmark, and which fit the 
handles of several of the bronze swords in the Academy. 

From Alex. If. Holmberg, a distinguished Swedish antiquary, a 
triangular flint arrowhead, two and three quarter inches long. 

From the late Professor Andrew Ketzius, the distinguished anato- 
mist and physiologist of Stockholm, a collection of bronze antiquities, 
found in Scandinavia, and consisting of — A large and small dog-headed 
brooch ; a double breast-fastener, the larger pin cruciform, the smaller 
plain, and connected by a chain a foot long, a peculiarity conunon 
to decorative articles in the north, especially along the shores of the 
Baltic 

Both the tortoise-shaped, the dog-headed, and many other brooches 
were worn double,— one over each breast, and connected by ornamental 

B. I. A. PROC. VOL. VIII. 2 R 



294 




chains ; and even in the present day the inhabitants of Sweden and 
Norway wear double-chain brooches. Also two bronze bracelets, — tM 
and a cylindrical one, the latter tapering to the ends like some of tiuse 
of the same class found in Ireland. 

FromM. Troyon, of Lausanne — who, along with Professor Keller, has 
been the most successful investigator of Swiss crannoges — a collection 

of articles firom tlioae 

...----._.., ,..__ PfaMauten^ where no 

•c^ trace of metal has yet 
^C been discovered. Among 
, .V these, the deerhom han- 
dle of a stone axe, with 
its small sharp greenstone celt attached, shown bj 
the accompanying illustration, may be r^;aided as 
of importance ; for to the discovery of such articles 
as this, as well as those from the same locality, of 
which we have models in our Illusixative and Cfm- 
parative Collection, we are indebted for a know- 
ledge of the manner in which our own stone celts were hafted. 

Eight articles of deer's horn shaped into piercers, chisels, and nde 
needles. 

Two fragments of pottery from Hoosedor^ near Berne. 
The half of an apple, hardened and preserved in a remarkable man- 
ner, from the deposits of Bohenhouser, in the Lake of Pfiffikon, in the 
canton of Zurich. 

Specimens of com preserved by carbonization ; and also speeiiiKitf 
of strawberry grains found in the same deposits, covered by a thkk 
layer of turf, along with the half-burned remains of the lake viBages. 
The Swiss archaeologists entertain no doubt of the antiquity of tb» 
fruit and grains. 

All these foreign antiquities, when arranged in our comparative ooi- 
collection, will serve to iUustrate the antiquities preserved in our ¥a- 
seum; and although they have been forwarded to myself I wish to 
present them to the Academy in the names of the donors, not only as 
a mark of respect, but also in the hope that other persons similariy sita- 
ated may be led to assist, by presentations of foreign or local antiquitiea, 
a knowledge of the ancient history of Ireland. 



Feb. 9, 1863. 



I am, &c«, 

W. R. WlLDB, V.P. 



To the Secretary, Royal Irish Academy. 



The marked thanks of the meeting were given to Mr. Du Noyer fiff 
his very valuable donation, and also to the several donors of the articles 



295 

presented by Dr. Wilde, and especially to Dr. Wilde for the interest ex- 
hibited by him in promoting the objects of the Academy. 

The President informed the Academy that the articles of antiquity 
lent to the Academy for exhibition at the South Kensington Museum 
had been returned safely, and replaced in the Museum. 



HONDAT, FEBRUARY 28, 1863. 

The Yebt Bbt. Chables Qvjlyeb, D. D., President, in the Chair. 

On the recommendation of the Council, it was — 

Bbsolyed, — That in acknowledgment of the very valuable donations 
of Drawings of Antiquities and Architecture presented to the Academy 
by Mr. G. Y . Du Noyer, he be recognised as a life Member, without the 
payment of the usuid life composition. 

The Bev. William Beeves, D.D., read tbe following paper : — 

On 88. MAnnrus Aim Akianxts, two Isish Missioitabies op the 
Seventh Centubt. 

The Academy owes to the vigilance of its excellent Librarian the recent 
acquisition of a volume which, independently of the value arising from 
its great rarity, possesses the merit of introducing to notice in this coun- 
try two Irish Missionaries, whose names have escaped our ecclesiastical 
writers, and who, notwithstanding the deficiency of detail in their his- 
tory, have yet a sufficient reality to render them a welcome accession to 
our recorded list of Irish worthies. 

The volume comprises three tracts. The first bears the^title — '*Dai l&- 
hen derSeiligenS, S. Marini BisehouM Mariffrera, und Aniani Archidia- 
wnn8fBeimner9 die atulrrland in Bayrn kommen^ des Gotshauaes Eodt Pa- 
tronm wardenaeind. Bttrch Johan d Via^ der S. Schrifft Doctom heachrie- 
hen" * The lower half of the title-page is occupied by an engraved plate, 
having in the middle a shield, which bears quarterly the arms of the 
monastery of Bot, and of Christopher the abbot, supported by two eccle- 



* There te a copy of this tract in the Library ofTiin. ColL DabL (GalL NN. 10. 19) ; 
hat the frontispiece is somewhat different, end is identical with that of the second tract in 
this volume. A copy of the German life was adyertised some yean ago in a eatalogne of 
Thomas Thorpe, of London, marked, " extremely rare, XS 2«." 



296 

siastics, the dexter one vested in an episcopal, the sinister one in a 
sacerdotal habit. Between them is the inscription, ** Chvistophoktil 
S. Abbas. 8. Mabikvs. S. Awiaitvs. Patbo. is Rot. 1579." This Ger- 
man life, with the dedication, occupies nineteen leaves. 

The second tract is a Latin version of the same life, and bean ^e 
title — " Vita S. S. Marini Episcopi Hyhemohavarif Martyris, et Aniani 
Archidiaeoni Confessoris, Patronorum Celebris Afonasterii in JloU. Per 
Johan. d Via Ihct. Theol. conscripta, Monachii exeudehat Adamus Berf. 
Anno M. D. LXXIX." It has the same frontispiece as the fomer, 
except that it omits the date. To this tract is appended (foL 12 6) a 
" Sermo hrevis cujusdam piipatris in Monasterio Rott ad Fratres ilidem 
pronunciatus,** The verso of the concluding folio (15) contwis the en- 
actment of the Council of Trent, Session 25, "De Invocatione, etc, 
Sanctorum." 

The third tract is intituled, " Officium de Sanctis Marino Epiuopo d 
liar tyro f et Aniano Arckidiacono Confessare Celebris Monasterii in Bstt 
Patronis, Jussu Reverendi in Christo Patris ac Domini, D. ChriiU- 
phori ejusdem Monasterii Abhatis vigilantissimi in ordinem redactumj d 
jam primum in lueem editum. Monachii excudebat Adamus Berg. Anm 
I). M. LXXXVIII.*^ On the title-page is an engraving of a circokr 
seal, having on the field two shields, charged respectively with the 
arms of Rott and the abbot Christopher, with the legend + cheisioit. 
ABBT. zv. EOTT. A*'. 1588. This tract contains twentysix folios. 

The author, in his dedication to the abbot Christopher,* expresHs 
his regret that the notices of the patrons of this monastery which were 
scattered through the ancient annals belonging to the institution had 
not been put together in any regular order, and that they who had beea 
set upon a candlestick to give light to all that were in the house, should, 
through the neglect of past generations, have been kept hidden under a 
bushel. He states that the acts of SS. Marinus and Anianus were pie- 
served in three very ancient manuscripts, together with a sermon on ihn 
same subject by a learned and pious member of the fraternity, which be 
has annexed as a separate chapter to the Latin life. Munich, 6th of 
April, 1579. 

The following abstract of the Life contains the principal particulsR 
of their history. Having alluded to the banishment and death of Pope 
Martin in 653, the narrative proceeds to say : — " Florebant tunc in Hy- 
hernia Scholsd ac nunquam satis laudata literarum studia, adeo ut ex 
Scotiaf atque Britannia multi se pii viri eo conferrent, ad capessendaa 
pietatis disciplinam. In iis quoque in omni doctrinarum genereexcel> 
lenter eruditi ^erunt duo hi sanctissimi viri, genere nobiles, ac profits- 



* Christopher SchrottI was abbot of Rott from 1576 to 1689, and died in 1595. See 
Hundius, '* Metropolis SaliRburgensis," p. 274 (ed. Chr. Gewoldus, Munich, 1620). 

t The use of this term as limited to Scotland proves that the writer of the tmetlift^ 
subsequently to the eleventh century. 



297 

none Ecclesiastici, BanctuB MarinnB cum 8. Aniano, nepote auo ez 
soTore : ille Bacerdos et EpieoopxiB, bic ArchidiaconuB : qui ambo ad mo- 
dum Abrahee patriam cognatosque post se Telinquentes, Yoluntario exilio, 
et mundum sibi, et se mundo cnicifixemnt. Transfretantes enim mare 
quod Hibemiam secemit a Germania, venermit per^nnantes in nrbem 
Romanam, Tel nt propiiae ealnti consulentes, deyotionis busb, limina 
beatorom Apostolorum, Petri ac Pauli frequentando, satisfiEicerent desi- 
derio : vel at Apostolicse Sedis, si quern forte Dens pastorem in earn re- 
poneret, autboritate confirmati, praedicando errorum zizania autborita- 
tive evellerenty et bonum verbi Bei semen in cordibus audientium inser- 

erent Nam ubi Eomam yenenmt, non alta regum palatia, 

non porphyreticas statuas, non arces triumpbales mirabantur, sed salu- 
tato eo qui tunc a Domino in earn sedem constitutus erat Pontifice, 
88. Apostolorum limina frequentare, specus ac templa reliquorum Sanc- 
torum yimtare, Yotaque sua Deo offerenda ipsis commendare, unica illis 
voluptas erat. Et D. Laurentii memoria adeo delectabatur Marinus, ut 
ab eo tempore, quo ejus reliquias veneratus erat, simile sibi mortis genus 
pro Christi nominis gloria semper optaverit, atque a Deo ardentibus 
Totis, si ejus voluntas esset, expetierit. Accepta autem ab Eugenio* 
Summo Pontifice benedictione, cum autboritate ubilibet prsedicandi ver- 
bum Dei, via qua venerant, revertebantur. An vero in societate D. lo- 
doci ipsi quoque fiierint, incertum est : qui cum esset filius regis Bri- 
tanniae opulentissimus, amore Cbristi, regnum et omnem gloriam ejus 
circa idem tempus reliquit, et eremum intravit, ubi soli Deo serviens, 
miraciilia claruit. Superatis igitur Alpium montibus, mox in vasta qua- 
dam eremo BoioarisB, Noricae provinciee subsidentes, pedem figunt ad 
ipsas radices Alpium. Erat locus ille in quo consederant, ad quietem et 
contemplationem aptus, sed bominibus non prorsus imperrius, omnis 
generis lignorum copia ac pascuis uberrimis pecudom gregibus valde 
accommoduB. Quse res occasionem dedit, ut diu latere non possent, 
sicut nee ipsi optabant." Finding their labours among the pastoral in* 
habitants of the neighbourhood successM, they resolved upon settling 
in this r^on for the rest of their days, and erected huts for themselves 
over two caves about two Italian miles asunder. Here they led a life of 
solitude and self-mortification, meeting only on Lord's days and festi- 
vals, when they joined in the services of the altar. And thus they con- 
tinued, teaching both by precept and example, and crowned with suc- 
cess in their endeavours to convert the surrounding people, until at 
length a horde of barbarians,! driven from the Eoman provinces on the 
south, entered this territory, and proceeded to lay it waste. In their 
wanderings they arrived at the cell of 8. MarinuB, and the life thus re- 



* EugenioB I. succeeded Martin as Pope in the rear 664. 

t The Life calls them Vandali, but Raderus suggests Sclav! or Venedi as the proper 
designation, ** Bavaria Sancta/* torn, i., p. 91. Aventinus states tliat Anianus et divus 
Mariuus were slain by the Boii, under Tbeodor, " Annales Boiorum," lib. iii., cap. 2, 
$10. 



298 

latefl the crael treatment which he experienced at. their handa : — " Fn- 
mum enim sancti viri supellectilem Hcet ezigoam diripnemnt^ postet 
corpus verberibus afflizerunt, et jam tertio animam, meliorem hominis 
partem, toUere cupientes, ut Christum negare yelit, solicitant Sedcom 
in omnibus laqueos ante oculos pennati frustra tenderent, ne quicqium 
ad Bummam truculentiam immanitatemque reliqui faeerent^ equnko 
snspensnm corpus flagris et aduncis unguHs diu sseyissinieque lac^asdo 
usque ad denudationem costarum excarnificant. . . . DesperanUf 
igitur victoriam, sententiam mortis super eam pronuneiant, igni adju- 
cScant. Continuo ergo, celeri manu lig^a congerunt, struem compoiunit 
maximam, igni succendont, et S. Martyrem, aridis ruderibus dorsoiDi- 
gatis (quo facilius totus in cineres solveretur) supra truculenter inji- 
ciunt." It happened that at the same time S. Anianus, who had escaped 
the notice of the barbarians, was released by a natural death from the 
trials of this life ; and thus both master and £sciple on the same day— 
namely, the 17th of the Calends of December, that is, the 15th of Xo- 
vember, which afterwards became the day of their commemcffatioii— 
passed to a happy immortality, while their remains were consgned to a 
common tomb, where they rested for above a hundred years. At tk 
end of this period, the circumstances of their death and interment woe 
made known to an eminent and devout priest named Priam, who resided 
in a neighbouring village. He, it is stated, communicated the matter 
to a bishop called Tollusius, who repaired to the spot, and having or- 
dered a solemn fast, on the third day exhumed the remains with doe 
solemnity, and conveyed them to the village of Aurisium, now known as 
Bos,* where they were deposited in a sarcophagus of white poli^^ 
marble, within the church of that place. This invention is loosely stated 
to have occurred in the time of Pepin and Caroloman, kings of the 
Franks, when £gilolph was in Italy; and it is added — " Priamus pie- 
byter, jussus a domino Episcopo ToUusio, vidi omnia et scripsi : et tes- 
timonium his gestis perhibeo, et testimonium meum vemm est, quod 
ipse scit, qui benedictus est in ssBCula, Amen." - 

From this place the reliques of the two saints were subseqnentk 
transferred to a spot near the river Aenus (now the Inn), whitii ob- 
tained the name of Bota f from a little stream that flowed past it into 
the Inn, and here they were to be seen beneath the hi^ altar of the 
choir. 

A Benedictine Monastery was founded at Bot,{ in 1073, by GhmKs 



* A village on the Inn, between Vaaserborg and Rosenheim. 

t In a charter it is styled *' Bota qaie adjaoet Glanne flomini" — Hnndina, "* Mctrop^ 
Salisborg,** torn, iii., p. 266. 

X Rot is marked in Blaeu^s Map of the Saltzbnrg Arehiepisoopatoa, in the noftb-veiS 
comer, situate on the west bank of the Inn, to the N. W. of the Chiamsee ; abo, in tk» 
map of Bayaria Ducatua, near the middle. — Geographia Germania, between ppw 81, SI 
and pp. 87, 88. See also Spraner*s Atlas, Deatchland, Noe. 9, 13. It and the nrigb- 
boarhood are very minutely delineated in Captain Chauchard's '* General Map of tike £■• 
pire of Germany," &c.. No. IX., below the middle (Lond. 1800). 



299 

or Conon, Count of Wanserburgy* and his charter, of that date, makes 
mention of the '* altare SS. Marini et Aniani."f 

In a bull of confirmation granted by Pope Innocent II., in 1142, 
Bot is styled " prsefatum BS. Marini et Ayiiani monasterium."| Ma- 
billon, who states that he yisited this monastery in one of his jonmeys, 
describes it as the Benedictine Monastery of SS. Marinns and Anianus,§ 
but he takes no notice of the patron saints themselves in the earlier part 
of his ''Annals.'* Baderos, however, gives a short memoir of them, which 
he illustrates by two engravings, ' representing respectively the mar- 
tyrdom of S. Marinns, and the angelic vision of S. Anianns,|| to which 
he assigns the date 697. 

Under the year 784, this author makes mention of another Maria- 
nus, who also was an Irishman.^ He came to Bavaria in company with 
St. Virgil of Saltzbuig, and was one of the two companions who were 
sent by him with Declan to Frisingen.** The festival of this Marinns 
was the 1st of December, and his ashes were believed to be efficacious 
in curing certain di8ease8.ff 

As regards the names, it is not clear what is the Irish equivalent for 
Anianus; but Marinns is beyond all question a Latin translation of 
niuipet)hach, which is derived from muip {mare), and signifies "be- 
longing to the sea." The name is of very early occurrence : thus, 
TnuTpe6ach, the first bishop and patron of Killala, who is commemo- 
rated at August 12, is mentioned under the form of Muireihacus in the 
early part of the eighth century.} | In like manner, the name of the 
celebrated Briton, Pelagius, is understood to be a Greek form of the 
British Morgan, which is equivalent to Marigma. We have in the Irish 
calendar a name closely allied to Morgan, in the form inuip5ein, which 
means '' sea-bom,'* and is of conmion gender, for it is applied in one 
instance to an abbot of GleannhUissen, now Killeshin ; and in another 
to the celebrated Mermaid, in whose case it is interpreted liban, that 
is, " 8ea-woman."§§ 

The name Mannus is to be distinguished firom Marianus, as the lat- 



* Ibid ; Mabfllon, " Aniuiles Old. S. Bened.," torn, v., p. 72. 

t Hunditis, ni rapnu 

t Hundiiu, vt raprt, p. 267. 

§"Anna1es,'*tom. ▼., p.72. 

{ '*BaTBria Sancta," torn, i., pp. 87, 89, 91. 

1 Ibid., torn, ii., p. 114. 

** The fragment of the Irish Chronicle, preserved by Caninos, seems, however, to 
identify this Harinns with the patron of Rot : — ** B. Declanus cam aliis dnobas ad Fri> 
siogiam, iiqne alii apod Bott beata ossa soa terrs oommendaverant.** — ^Antiq. Lect, torn, 
iv., p. 474. 

ft See the picture of their application in Radems, torn, ii., p. 114. 

it "Book of Armagh," fol. 9 M, col. 2, 16 aa. 
% See "Martyrology of Donegal," Jan. 27 (p 28). Ussher notices a bishop Murpewt 
(Wks., vol. tL, pp. 479, 60S), bat errs in identifying him with Mwrgtn-^i'Lihtm, the 
Mermaid (ib., p. 586). 



300 

ier is derived from the name Maria, and representa, in aLatin lium, the 
Irish TTlael-TTluipe, " servant of Mary.''* 

In connexion with the above paper. Dr. Beeves exhibited a sUvef 
crown piece of Salztburg, which had been kindly sent to him by Coimt 
Charles MacDonnell. It was from the mint of Maximilian Chuiddolph, 
Count Yon Khuenburg, Sovereign Archbishop of that see in 1668. On 
the obverse are represented two archbishops, ecclesiasticsJly habited, 
with the legend — •!* ^* BvnBEarvs. vr. viboilivs. pat&oni. saujsbvs&- 
BKSES. ; and on the reverse a shield, having in a chief the diocesan coat, 
and the family arms beneath, with the legend — »!* x^xncii. : gat- 
dolph' d : o : abchieps : salisb : ssd : ap : leg. This coin is of great 
interest to Irishmen, as one of two patron saints of Saltzboi^, who are 
represented on it, was a native of this country ; and the other, if not a 
native, was connected with it. S. Rudbert, or Eupert, whose name 
Colganf supposes to be a German form of Robapcach, went to Gtr- 
many from the west, and died on the 27th March, 718. Yirgilius, the 
celebrated philosopher, known by the epithet Solivagus, went out from 
Ireland to Germany about the year 770, and became Bishop of Salts- 
burg. His death is noted in the ''Annals of Ulster," at 788 ; and the 
'* Four Masters," more fully, at 784, thus record the event : — ** Fergil, 
that is the Geometer, Abbot of Achadhbo, and Bishop of Saltzbnjng, <^d 
in Germany, in the thirteenth year of his episcopate." He was canon- 
ized in 1233 by Pope Gregory DL, and his festival is the 27th of No- 
vember.} 

Dr. Eeeves also exhibited an engraving of the Common Seal of the 
Canton of Glarus in Switzerland, which he had received from Dr. Fer- 
dinand Keller, of Zurich. It represents on the field the friU-length 
figure of a pilgrim, habited in a black cowl, bearing in the ri^ht huid 
a closed book, and leaning with the left on a pilgrim's staff, having t 
belt slung over the left shoulder, from which is suspended a wallet ; witk 
the letters •{" 3- Fain. Bound the margin is the inscription •{• sic 
KAivs popvLi ciABONiENsmi HELVsnoEVH. This seal, and three oihcn 
of the same design, but on a smaller scale, are figured in the ** JUttkn- 
lungen der antiquarisehen Gesellsehaft in ZUrteh^^' Bd.ix. (Ziirich, 1856), 
where they illustrate an interesting paper by £. Schulthesa, entitkti 
"Die 8tadte-und LandM-Btegel der xiii. Men arte der Sehweiweriaeken eO- 
genoMenschaft*^ pp. 82-85, and Taf. xii. Prefixed is an aceoimt of the 

banners of the several Cantons, where that of Glarus is thus noted : 

" Ibi sanctum Fridoliniun confessorem summo celebrant honore, ipsom- 



* See " Proceedings, voL viL, p. 292. liftrianns, the Cbronider^a name w^ Jfcef- 
bripde, Brigid being the Mary of the IrUh. The other Marianua, however, was MmnA- 
aehj whose name was Latinized by a familiar appellation, without r^ard to the nk» rf 
etymology. 

t "Acta Sanctorum HibemiaB," p. 761, note 2. 

X Raynaldos, *' Annates Eccles./' torn, ii., p. 93 (ed. Mansi, Lues, 1747). 



801 

que sanctum in eomm annis ferunt indatum cucnlla nigra in mbro dipeo 
stantem " (p. 10). The shield is also represented in the plate (Taf. i.), 
GfuUt, a hennit, holding in his left hand a staff, and wearing a wallet, 
all proper, the head surrounded hy a nimbus or. 

8. Fridolin, the patron saint of Glarus, was a native of Ireland ; and 
the German form of his name i» to be accounted for by the common 
practice of translating Celtic names, or accommodating tiiem by trans- 
formations, more or less violent, to the genius of the langaages spoken 
in the regions where the Irish missionaries settled. He flourished in the 
early part of the seventh centuiy, and several memoirs of him are re- 
printed by Colgan from Continental writers, at his festival, the 6th of 
March.* All authorities, both written lives and local tradition, refer 
his birth and mission to Ireland, whence he set out as a pilgrim, and 
finally settled at Seckingen. He is often styled Viator, which title is 
folly borne out by his appearance on the seals and banner ; and the staff 
on which he is represented as leaning illustrates the passage of his "Life" 
which alludes to his position — " interea fixo in terram sustentationis 
baculo, ipsique desuper innixu&"f 

Mr. Wilde presented, from Lord Famham, the head of a Galloglass 
axe, a portion of slate with three circular cavities, and aflat highly co- 
loured amber bead, found in Tonymore Lake, county of Cavan, in the 
year 1852. 

The thanks of the Academy were returned to the donor. 



STATED MEETING.— Maboh 16, 1868. 
The Veet Rbv. Chablbs OnAtxs, D. D., President, in the Chair. 
The SsGSEiAET read the following 

BEPOBT OF THE COXTVCIL. 

SiMCB our last Beport was submitted to the Academy, the following 
papers have been printed in the ** Transactions" : — 

In the department of Science : 

1. Mr. F. J. Foot, '<0n the Distribution of Plants in Buiren, 

County of Clare." 

2. Dr. Eobert MacDonnell, " On the System of the Lateral Line 

in Fishes." 

And, in Polite Literature : 

Mr. Denis Crofton's '< Collation of a MS. of the Bhagavad-Gita." 
These papers form part of Vol. xziv. 

*•** Acta Sanctorum Hibemis," pp. 479-493. 

t *'yita, aactore Balthero," cap. 6, ibid., p. 988 a. 

n. I. A. PBoc. — ^voL. vni. 2 s 



302 

In Antiquities: 

Captain Meadows Taylor's paper '* On the Cromlechs and other 
Antiquarian Remains in the Dekhan/' has been in part printed, 
. and t^e illustrations are in preparation. 

Many interesting communications have been read before the Act- 
demy, abstracts of which have appeared, or wiU soon appear, in the 
'' Proceedings." We have received papers in Mathematics from Sir 
William B. Hamilton ; in the sciences of observation and expenment 
from Eev. Dr. Uoyd, Mr. Bindon B Stoney, Bev. Professor JeUett, 
Mr. Jukes, Mr. F. J. Foot, Bev. Professor Haughton, Dr. Bobert 
MacDonnell, Mr. Clibbom, Lieutenant J. Haughton, B. N., and Dr. 
Fleetwood Churchill, jun. : in Polite Literature and Antiquities, from 
the Very Bev. the il^sident, Bev. Dr. Todd, Bev. Dr. Beeves, Mr. 
Hardinge, Mr. Wilde, Dr. Madden, Mr. McCarthy, Captain Meadow 
Taylor, Dr. William Bell, and Mr. Hodder M. Westropp. 

To the Academy's Library several valuable presentations have heai 
made during the past year, amongst which may be specially mentioned 
those from the Kight Hon. Sir John BomiUy, Master ot the Bolls 
in England ; and fi^cnn his Eminence, Cardinal Antonelli — ^the latta 
through our late President, the Bev. J. H. Todd. 

Some small but very valuable additions have been made to the Acs- 
demy's collection of Irish history in manuscript and print. We bsre 
expended as much as the means at our disposal permitted in the execu- 
tion of binding, which had fallen into arrear ; and various improvemaits 
connected with the arrangements of the Library have been effected hj 
the Librarian. 

The Academy's collection of antiquities has been increased during 
the past year by the addition of 910 articles; of which 20 were ob- 
tained by purchase, 683 by presentation, and 207 under the Treasure 
Trove regiQations. The Academy is indebted to Lord Famham for a 
large collection of antiquities found in the Tonymore Crannoge, is 
the county of Cavan, which his lordship recently explored. We are 
also under obligations to the Commissioners of Public Works for sevod 
interesting articles, contributed to om* Museum. We have been fortu- 
nate enough to procure, through Mr. Wilde, the very ancient short eio- 
zier of St. Barry, of Termonbarry, in the county of BoscomrnQn, ooid* 
monly known as the Gearr-Barry. 

In compliance with a request received from the Science and Ait 
Department of the Committee of Council on Education, the Acadcmr 
lent for exhibition in the South Kensington Museum, a number of se- 
lect specimens of early Irish art. All of these have since been aal^ 
returned. 

A considerable number of copies of the Catalogue of the Musena 
have been sold within the year. Twenty woodcuts have been exe- 
cuted during the past year, making up a total number of eighty^tYo 
woodcuts, illustrative of the articles of silver and iron iii the MaseuiD. 
which have been paid for out of the Catalogue fund. 

There remains in favour of that fund a balance of £11 12». 3if. 



303 

The Antiquities in the possession of the Academy already fill nearly 
the eotire space available for their reception ; and the Council are of 
opinion that arrangements for extending the Museum will soon become 
Decessary. 

The Treasurer reports that it appeared fit>m an investigation of 
the accounts of the Academy, made on 7th March, that the net cash ba- 
lance amounted to £232 U, lOd., and the outstanding liabilities to 
£329 7#. 5d., leaving a deficit of £91 5«. 7d,y to be provided for either 
by the sale of stock, or out of the income of the next &iancial year. The 
payments made since that date for entrance fees and subBcriptions 
have reduced this deficit to about £12. 

The Academy has lost by death, during the past year, ten ordinary 
members, viz. : — 

Elected. 

*1. Thomas P. Bergin, Esq., November 30, 1836 

2. Very Eev. Eichard Butler, April 11,1842 

*3. Bight Hon. Philip C. Crampton, .... January 23,1828 

4. Eugene Curry, Esq., January 30, 1853 

5. Yificoiint Dungannon, January 8, 1849 

*6. Eaton HodgkinsoD, Esq., F. R S., ... November 30, 1847 

7. John B. Kinahan, M. D., F. L. S., ... January 12, 1857 

*S. Bev. Thomas M'Neece, D. D., .... May 8,1831 

*9. Bev. Charles W. Wall, D.D., .... April 10,1837 

10. Geoige Yeates, Esq., February 24, 1845 

Five of these names meet us in the history of the labours of the 
Academy: — 

1. Mr. Thomas F. Bergin was the author of the following papers, 
which have appeared in our " Proceedings" : — ** On an Aurora,*' " On 
Talbotixed Photogenic Pi^er," "On Preservation of Busted Anti- 
quities," and " On Illumination of Objects in the Microscope." Mr. 
Bergin presented to the Academy some interesting antiquities. See 
" Proceedings," vol. iv., p. 273. 

2. In Mr. Eugene Curry's death, this Academy and the cause 
of Irish learning have lost a scholar who possessed a familiar and accu- 
rate'acquaintance with the whole body of accessible Oaelic manuscript 
Literature. Mr. Curry, in conjunction with the late Dr. O'Donovan, 
transcribed and translated a great number of ancient texts for the Irish 
ArchsBological and Celtic Societies. He compiled for this Academy a 
descriptive catalogue of a portion of the Irish manuscripts in its posses- 
sion, and also prepared a catalogue of Irish manuscripts in the Library 
of the British Museum. He published, in 1861, a volume entitled, 
** Lectures on the MS. Materials of Irish History ;" and it is understood 
that he had nearly completed a second volume, " On the Manners, Cus- 
toms, and Social Life of the People of Ancient Erin." These courses of 
lectures he had delivered as Professor of the Irish Language and Irish 
Archffiology, in the Catholic University in this city. 

For several years before his deaUi he had been employed, along 



304 

with Dr. O'Donoyan, in deciphering» tntnfleribingy and traiualatiBg tiie 
MSS. of the Brehon Laws, ander the saperintendence of the CommiaA 
for the publication of the ancient laws and institutee of Ireland. 

3. Dr. John K Kinahan was Professor of Natural History in the De- 
partment of Science and Art He was the author of a great number of 
memoirs on zoological subjects, communicated to the 19^ataral Histoy, 
and other kindred Societies, of Dublin. He published in the Tranne- 
tions of the Academy papers ''On the Genus Oldhamia (Forbes): its 
character, probable affinities, modes of occurrence, ftc.," printed ia 
YoL zxiii ; and '' On the British Species of Grangon and Ghdalhea," ii 
vol. xxxiy. To our Proceedings he contributed papero " On a Fro- 
posed Scheme for a Uniform mode of Naming Tyx>e-diyiBionB ;'' and *^ A 
Synopsis of the Families Grangonidee and Gsdatheidse which inhabit tk 
seas around the British Isles." 

4. The Eev. Charles William Wall, D. D., was Yioe-FroYoet erf 
Trinity College, Dublin, and had formerly held the Proiessorafaip of 
Oriental Languages in the University. He was author of ** An Ex- 
amination of the Ancient Orthography of the Jews, and the Original 
State of the Text of the Hebrew Bible," the first volume of which sp- 
peared in 1835. Four other volumes have since appeared, the last of 
which, published in 1857, is entitled '' Proofs of the Xuterpolatioa of tk 
Vowel Letters in the Text of the Hebrew Bible." For this work one 
of the Cunningham medals of the Academy was awarded him in U» 
year 1858. He contributed to our Transactions "An Essay on tbe 
Nature, Age, and Origin of the Sanscrit Writing and Language," printed 
in vol. zxviii, and a paper "On the Different Kinds of Cunei£am 
Writing in the Triple Inscriptions of the Persians, and on the Language 
transmitted through the First Kind," printed in vol. xxi. 

5. Mr. George Yeates was well known as an optician and manu^Mtors 
of scientific instruments. He contributed to our " Proceedings'* recodb 
of meteorological observations made by him during the years 184^ 
1849. 

Ten members have been elected during the past year, vie. : — 
*1. Andrew Armstrong, Esq. 6. J. Stratford Kirwan, Esq. 

2. John Campbell, Esq., M. B. 7. George Porte, Esq. 

3. Christ. Coppinger, Esq., Q. C. 8. Thomas Bichardson, M. D. 
♦4. J. Ribton Qarstiu, Esq., M.A. 9. Captain Meadows Taylor. 

5. P. Weston Joyce, Esq., B. A. 10. John Henry Tyrrell, M. D. 

Mr. G. y. Du Noyer was declared a life member by the Academy. 

The ballots for the annual election of President, Council, and OAeen, 
having been scrutinized in the face of the Academy, the Presideat re- 
ported that the following gentlemen were duly elected : — 

PnEsiBEKT. — ^The Very Bev. Dean Graves, D. D. 
Council. — Kev. George Salmon, D. D. ; Bev. Samuel Haoghton^M. I^ 
&c; Bev.J.H. Jellett,A.M.; Robert W. Smith, M.D.; BobertM'Deo- 



305 

nell, M.D. ; William K. Snlliyan, Esq.; and Joeeph B. Jukes, A. M. : on 
the Committee of Science. 

Rev. Samuel Butcher, D.D. ; Bev. Joseph Carson, D. D.; John F. 
Waller, LL.D. ; John KellsTngram, LL-D. ; John Anster, LL.D. ; R. R. 
Madden, M. D. ; and D. F. McCarthy, Esq. : on the Committee of Polite 
Literature. 

John T. Gilbert, Esq. ; Rev. William Reeves, D. D. ; W. R. Wilde^ 
Esq.; George Petrie, LL.D. ; W. H. Hardinge, Esq.; the Lord Talbot 
de Malahide ; and Rev. J. H. Todd, D. D. : on the Committee of An- 
tiquities. 

Trbasxtbeb. — ^Rev. Joseph Carson, D. D. 
Sbcbiiaxt op thx Acadkkt. — Rev. William Reeves, D. D. 
SxcBSTAST OF THB CoTTvciL. — John Eells Ingram, LL. D. 
SscBSTAST OF FoBEiGN ConRESPONDEircB. — Rev. Samuol Butcher, 
B.D. 

LiBKAEiAK. — John T. Gilbert, Esq. 

CLmtK, AssisTAUT LiBiuBiAn, AKD CuiiATon OF THB MusEUK. — ^Ed- 
ward Clibbom, Esq. 

The ballot for the election of Honorary Members having closed, the 
President and Officers made a scrutiny, and it was declared that all the 
persons recommended in the three departments were elected, viz. — 

Ik Science. — Baron Giovanni Plana; Christopher Hansteen; F.G.W. 
Strove; Louis Agasaiz; and H. W. Dove. 

In Poijtb Litebatube. — Dr. Max Miiller; (George (hote, Esq.; 
Hermann Ebel ; and Alphonse De Lamartine. 

Ik AvnauiTiES. — Dr. Ferdinand Keller; and L'Abb^ Cochet. 

Dr. Lyons handed in the two volumes of the late Professor Curry's 
transoripts of the O'Conor Don's Manuscripts. 

Thanks were returned to the subscribers (see List of Subscribers, 
Appendix ^o. III., p.*zzi.) who contributed towards the purchase of the 
above MSS. ; and to Dr. Lyons and John E. Pigot, Esq., by whom they 
have been now delivered tq the Academy. 

MONDAY, APRIL 18, 1868. 

The Yebt Rev. Chables Qbavbs, D. D,, President, in the Chair. 

The President under his hand and seal nominated the following 

YiCE-PBEsmENTs. — Rov. Ooorge Salmon, D. D. ; Rev. S. Butcher, 
D. D, ; W. R. Wilde, Esq. ; and George Petrie, LL. D. 

The Earl of Granard ; Rev. Josiah Crampton, A. M. ; Thomas Wil- 
liam Kinahan, Esq. ; David R. Pigot, Esq. ; and Edmund Waterton, 
Esq., were elected Members of the Academy. 



306 

The following Addrees tx> her Majesty, adopted by the Academy on 
the 16th March last, was read : — 

*' To the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty. 

" Mat it flbase Youb Majxstt, — We, your dutifol and loyal «ib- 
jects, the President and Members of the Royal Irish Academy, hambly 
approach your Majesty with our heartfelt congratulations on the attain- 
ment of his majority by his Royal Highness the Prince of Walee^ 

** We desire at the same time to express the joy with which weM 
the prospect of his entering into an alliance sanctioned by your Ma- 
jesty's approval, and holding out the fairest promise of domestic happi- 
ness. 

'^ In thus undertaking the duties and responsibilities of manhood, 
his Royal Highness gathers Tound him the lively sympathies of all 
classes of your Majes^s subjects. 

** Incorporated for the promotion of Science, Polite literature, and 
Antiquities, our Academy devotes itself to studies, many of which hsn 
only an indirect bearing upon the interests of social and political life. 
But its Members cannot fad to recognise the close connexion which sab- 
sists between the prosperity of the whole nation and the wel&reof oar 
most gracious Sovereign and her royal house. 

''We earnestly pray that your Majesty may be spared throng^ 
many years to see his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales pursoiBg 
the wise and virtuous course which the instructions and example ci 
your Majesty and his illtistrious father have taught him to tread ; and 
that your Majesty may thus find in him a solace and support under the 
cares incident to your exalted position as ruler of this great Empire. 
« J?oya/ Iriih Academy, March 2nd, ISSS.** 

Read, the following letter : — 

'* Whitehatt, AprU 9, 1863. 

" Sib, — I have had the honour to lay before the Queen the lojal 
and dutiM Address of the President and Members of the Royal Insk 
Academy on the occasion of the Marriage of His Royal Highness the 
Prince of Wales; and I have to inform you that her Majesty was 
pleased to receive the Address very graciously. 

" I am. Sir, your obedient servant, 

''(Signed)* G. Okit. 

** The IVctidcnt of the JRoyal Irish Academy/* 

The following Address to' the Prince of Wales, adopted by the Aca> 
demy on the 16th March last, was also read : — 

" To his Royal Highness Albert Edward, Prince of Wales and Earl tf 
Chester, Earl of Dublin, SfC,, Sfe., ^. 

"Mat it plbasb toub Rotal Hiohitess, — ^We, the President and 
Members of the Royal Irish Academy, respectfully entreat your Royil 
Highness to accept our hearty congratulations on the occasion of your 
attaining your majority. 



307 

" We also desire to expreps the lively satiB&otion with which we 
see your Boyal Highness about to contract a marriage with a Prinoees 
possessing aU the qualities which inspire affection and command respect. 
We can offer no better wishes for the happiness of your wedded state 
than that it may be attended by every blessing which hallowed the 
union of your Royal Parents. 

" The honest search after scientific truth, and the thoughtftd study 
of the records of the past, have always proved conducive to the interests 
of religion, and favourable to the maintenance of those principles of li- 
berty and subordination on which the constitution of these kingdoms is 
secorely founded. We therefore feel assured that a Prince trained 
from his earliest years to respect and cultivate the pursuits of Art and 
Letters, will look with favour upon bodies associated as our Academy is 
for the advancement of the various departments of human learning. 

'' Ab a Councillor of our Queen, and the subject nearest to her 
throne, your Royal Highness has before you a field affording exercise 
for the noblest ambition. We trust you will enter upon it undiscour- 
aged by the natural fear of falling short of what might almost seem the 
unapproachable excellence of the example set by your lamented Pather. 
The affectionate loyalty of your countrymen will sustain you in all your 
labours for the common good ; and we doubt not but that Almighty Ood 
will hear our prayers, invoking in your favour that divine aid without 
which the wisest counsels and the most strenuous efforts cannot ensure 
BQccess. 

*• jBoyo/ Iri$h Academy, Mmnh 2, 1868." 

Read, the following answer : — 

" SandriMgham, 4M April, 1868. 

" laeutenant-Qeneral KnoUys has received the commands of the 
Prince of Wales to thank the President and Members of the Royal 
Irish Academy for their address of congratulation on his marriage and 
obtaining his majority. His Royal Highness appreciates to the fullest 
extent their kind sentiments towards himself, and their affectionate loy- 
alty towards her Majesty the Queen. He cannot also but feel highly 
gratified by the terms in which they allude to his lamented father. 

** To ih4 Pretidgmi oft^t Boyal JrUh Aeademff."* 

Read, the following letter from G. Y. Du Noteb, Esq. : — 

" Sidney Avenue, Blaekroek, 26tfA February, 1868. 

Snt, — I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 23rd 
instant, informing me that the Royal Irish Academy has placed me 
amongst its life Members, without the payment of the usual life com- 
positioD, in acknowledgment for the collection of drawings of Antiqui- 
ties and Architecture which I have from time to time presented to the 
Library of the Academy. 

" For this unexpected and most gratifying honotlr I beg to thank the 
Academy. 

'* The drawings to which you allude form only a portion of those 
which I contempkte placing in our Library, the value of which, I may 



308 

be permitted to hope, will be thereby ineieaaed to the stadeat or die 
writer on Iiish Archeology. 

'' I have the honour to remain, Sir, 

« Your obedient servant, 

" Gbobob V. Du NoTo. 
" 7b the Mn. WtUiam Beeves^ D. 2>., Setntary^ 
" BoytU Irish Academic," 

Bead the following Paper, from the notes of the late Dr. Sibstkeo, 
Professor of Sanscrit in the University of Dublin. 

Ov THK Gattlibh Ivscbittiov of PoiTiBBS, oovTAiHiirG A Ckauc AOAnm 

THB DSHOir DOVTAVBIOS. FhOM THE PAFBB8 OF THB ULTK Db. fiv- 

nocPH Thohab Sibofbied, abbanobd bt Gael Fbibdbich Lorsbb. 

(Plate XXTTI.) 

In the year 1858 there was found at Poitiers, on oocasum of ioik 
digging for buildiog purposes, a small silver plate, with an inactiptiQD, 
which was imme£ately laid before the Soci^t^ dea Antiqnaires de 
rOuest. Gne of the members of this Society, IC. de Longaemar, pob- 
lished a short treatise on this inscription, together with an engrmTiiic 
of it, reproduced before the present essay. From thia writing, which 
appeared with the title, '*JRappart but une imenptum trmeis tmr «v 
lame d*argmt et dietmoerU d P&ittert en 1858," we leam that the silfir 
plate was originally enclosed in a kind of case, which unfortuaaftelT 
was destroyed by the workman who found it, in hia eagerness to get 
hold of its contents. This circumstance is not without some important 
for the inteipretation of the iascription on the plate. For the natnnl 
inference would seem to be that the inscription was intended to be car- 
ried about on the body of some person, which again renders it voy 
probable that it contained a charm, and that the plate was a kind of 
amulet or talisman. The inscription itself is in Latin characters, sad 
as, according to M. de Longuemar, were employed in public doenmenti 
of the Merovingian or GaUo-Roman times. The nearest approadi to 
them, according to the same scholar, is found in the alphabet of two 
documents of the 6th century — one a chart of the year 565, the other a 
sermon of St. Hilarius, written at about 570. This would not, however, 
necessitate the assumption that the inscription on the plate muat be d 
the same century, but it might belong to a date somewhat more roiMite. 
Gwing to the very careless way in which the letters are traced, it 
was not easy to read them correcUy. The only part which was clear tt 
once were the concluding words, Juetina quern pep&rit Sarra^ whidi ait 
evidentiy Latin. By a comparison with two of the incantations ^ Ma^ 
cellus Burdigalensis, M. de Longuemar showed that the tbrmula, '' ilhoi 
quem peperit ilia," is peculiar to charms, the intuition being thoc^ 
to make sure of the person for whom the spell was written, and to pre- 
vent its taking effect on anybody else. So much, then, waa dear. 
that the inscription contained a charm. But, except the last tentenoe. 
scarcely anything could be made of it. Thrice the Latin word hii i^ 
curred, which alao went to prove that one had to do with some 



309 

tation, as it is evidently the direction to repeat certain parts of the for* 
mula. The remaining words, however, did not appear to be Latin at 
all, and naturally the hypothesis presented itself that they might be 
Gaulish. The word Gontauiion or Gontaurios, as it was then read, 
which recurred also thrice, would equally naturally be taken as the 
name of the spirit or spirits invoked or ezorciBed. On this basb, H. 
Pictet tried to raise an interpretation, but his conjectures were too bold 
to meet with much applause from other scholars. So great, in fiu^t, was 
the obscurity of the whole subject, and so puzzling the circumstance of 
Latin words being mixed with, and as it were scattered through, the 
text of another language, that Mr. Whitley Stokes, in speaking of 
the inscription in Kuhn's *' Beitrage'* (HI., 74), left it an open ques* 
tion whether, after all, the would-be Gaulish paits might not be a sim- 
ple abracadabra, on which all learning and ingenuity would be wasted 
entirely. 

Dr. Siegfried, who already had interpreted with success other Gaul- 
ish inscriptions, had his attention soon directed to this puzzle. He 
began by trying correctly to define the alphabetical value of the charac- 
ters. He soon found out that the letter at the beginning of the name of 
the spirit or demon is not G, but D, and he also read some additional 
Latin words by more correctly defiiung the value of the letters. This 
stage of his knowledge of the formula is represented in the transcription 
given by W. Stokes {Le.% who simply reproduces there SiegMed's reading. 

In December, 1862, Dr. SiegMed made the further discovery that 
the ninth character from the end in the second line is a J, not &c; that 
the end of the third line contains the Latin words, pat&r nam $9to ; and 
that, consequently, the whole last part of the inscription being Latin, 
the third character in the word hi&erto read setuta must be either a b 
or e, thus making the Latin word »eeuta. The whole, according to his 
last reading, will therefore be, separating the words : 

his dantaurian ancda his his dontauricn 
deanala bis bis dontaurios datala gss [sa\ 
uim danimauim [«] pater nam esto 
magi ars seeuta U tustina quern 
peperit sarra. 
Or, written according to the sense : 
bis 

Dontaurion anala 
bis bis 

Dontaurion deanala 
bis bis 
Dontaurios datala 
ges [sa] vim danima vim [s ?] 
pater nam esto 
magi ars seeuta te 
Justina quem peperit Saira. 

After the second line there is room on the plate ; and for reasons 
which will appear hereafter, it is likely that two characters have disap- 
a. I. A. paoc. — VOL. vni. . 2 t 



310 

pearedy which Siegfried thought might have been sa. The diaracter 
before pater resembles an 8, but it is more probable, as we shall see, 
that it is an accidental scratch which has no value at all. 

On the interpretation of the whole of the inscription there will 
probably remain some differences of opinion, but it cannot be doubtM 
that the deceased scholar has succeeded in correctly determining the 
value of the letters. This is proved by that irrefragable intrinsic evi- 
dence which is, after all, the true touchstone of right interpretation and 
decipherment, namely, that his reading makes sense of what before 
seemed only Latin words interspersed with unmeaning 'syllables. For 
we have now one continuous strmg of Latin sentences : *' Pater nam esto, 
magi ars secuta te, Justina quem peperit Sarra." That is, " A father 
thou shiedt be, the art of the Druid has followed thee, whom Jostina 
Sarra has bom." For the first part of the formula we ^aih* thereby a 
clue what its meaning in ^neral must be. For it is clear that the son 
of Justina Sarra is here provided with' a spell which is to' make him a 
father, that is, to give him offspring. Consequently, the Gaulish part 
— ^assuming it to be that language, which of course has to be proved by 
proffering an intelligible interpretation drawn from Celtic sotirbes, aod 
not violating the laws of comparative philology— ^tHeOaulish*part most 
contain a spell either against male impotency or female barrenness. 

Before I proceed further to state the reasons which led Siegfried to 
prefer the second alternative, I must say a few words aboiit the Latin 
his, recurring amongst the Gaulish words. The first sentence is to be 
repeated twice ; the two following ones are to be spoken his, hu, L e., 
four times. It is highly probable that this is to be done in such a man- 
ner as to form a kind of canon, so that the words should appear in the 
diverse arrangements which they are capable of, in the last repetition 
those words coming at the end which in the 'first were at the be- 
ginning. Dr. Siegfried has drawn up two schemes of the manner in 
which this canon would run ; but they do not well agree with each 
other, and one of them seems even to be slightly at variance witii the 
direction of the inscription. I have not been able to reconcile these dis- 
crepancies, and I therefore insert only one of the two :-^ 



Dontaurion anala 
Dontaurion deanala 
Dontaurios datala 
Ges [sa] vim danimavim 

Dontaurion deanala 
Dontaurios datala 
Ges [sa] vim danimavim 
Dontaurion anala 



Dontaurios datala 
Ges [sa]} vim danimavim 
Dontounon anala 
Dontaurion deanala 

Ges [sa] vim danimavim 
Dontaurion anala 
Dontaurion deanala 
Dontaurios datala 



The main question of the sense of the formula is no way affected by 
this uncertainty of the arrangement of the canon. 

In trying to interpret a Gaulish inscription, it should be st^^dilv 
borne in mind that we have to apply the laws of comparative philolo^. 
All Welsh or Irish words, which we make use of, should be first re- 



311 

moulded into their old Celtic shape, by removing the middle aspirations 
and Towel. infections, and otherwise applying &e laws developed by 
Zenss. And not only the body of the words and roots has to be recon- 
structed, before it can be useful in any way, but the much harder task 
has to be attempted of restoring the terminations. As the Celtic languages 
are members of the Indo-Germanic family of languages, which origi- 
nally possessed a very rich system of inflections, it follows of necessity 
that the worn out terminations of the Irish and Welsh must have been 
preceded by fuller forms analogous to those of the Sanskrit, Greek, and 
Latin. This is further borne out by the testimony of the Gaulish in- 
scriptions already deciphered. The 5-bases of the old Irish decline : 
hali, haill, hatdl, hall [»]. Corresponding forms of the Gaulish inscrip- 
tions are : -^, -t, -«, -o». The dative plural in Irish ends in a n^ere h : 
the inscription of Nismes has matre-ho Nemmmca-ho^ with a termination 
ho, only one step removed from the Latin bus. Even where as yet we 
have not actual forms of Gbulish inscriptions to guide us, we must, by 
the laws of comparative philology, try to gain some idea what they may 
have been in the Gaulish stage. To do otherwise — to interpret Gaulish 
inscriptions through the assumption of Irish or "Welsh inflections — 
would just be as ridiculous as to expect Swedish grammatical forms on 
a runic stone, or Italian want of inflection in an inscription of Caesar's 
time. 

Likewise, where the vocabulary of the modem Celtic fails us, we 
must have recurrence to the other and chiefly the older branches of the 
Indo-Germanic languages, as the Celtic may have lost, and has actually 
lost, old roots in use in Gaulish times. Thus dede, " he gave," from the 
well-known Indo-Germanic root dd, is on the inscription of l^ismes, but 
such a root is entirely unheard of in the later Celtic. 

The first question which presents itself is the purport of the name 
DotUaurion. It is clear that this is either a nominative neuter, or ac- 
cusative neuter, or accusative masculine. Considering the great proba- 
bility of its being tlie name of a genius, good or evil, we ^all choose 
the third supposition. The base of it is clearly Bantaurio. Since dont 
would be as odd a form for a root as aurio for a suffix, we are driven 
to the conclusion that the word is a compound of don + taurio, Ajb first 
sight there is a slight dif&culty in this assumption, since the Gaulish 
compounds generally show a vowel at the end of the first word ; how- 
ever, in Lugdunum, another form of Lttgudunum, we have an example not 
only of the first part ending in a consonant, but of that ending being 
brought about through the loss of the original vowel u. We are there- 
fore at liberty to treat the don either as the true form of the base of the 
first word, or else as a shortening of a base dono, donu, doni, according 
as the case may require. Assuming dono as the original form, the word 
bears a strong resemblance to Ir. duine, a man, which points back to 
domo, the vowel being altered as in Gaulish mori -sea = Ir. muir. Simi- 
lar alterations of the o by the influence of a following i, we have in Ir. 
slond, significatio, aluindid, significat; londas, indignatio, collutndi, cum 
amaritudine, etc. {vid, Zeuss, 16, 18). 



312 

The Irish duine, then, or its predecessor ifonto, would be a deriTstiTe 
from the Gaulish dono, which therefore must hare some cognate agni- 
fication. As the root naturally presents itself, the 8kr. d£i to put, to 
create, to procreate, whence dhd-tr, the creator. Especially with the 
prefix d it refers to the procreation of children, or, to speak more cor- 
rectly to conception, being used both of the fiither and the mother : thos 
Bigveda, 8, 27, 9 : yathiyam prthivi bhiUdndm yarbham ddadkS, as tbis 
earth conceited the germ of beings, Bhagavata Pur^a, 9, 24, 51 (el 
Bopp). Voiudivah sutdn aMdv Sudki SahadSvayd Y. engendered eight 
sons with 8. Savitri upakhy&nam, 1.18 mahdshydm yarhham iidadki, 
in his wife he placed (engendered) the embryo. Hence the word ddidrnt, 
embryo. 

But also the simple root dhd is used in a similar sense, ** to put 
the embryo into the womb, to cause to conceive." In this respect the 
hymn Y. 25, of the Atharvaveda la classical, of which a few T««e8 
may be given in a translation : — 

2. ''As this broad earth conceived {ddadki) germ of beings, so I 
create to thee (dadhdmi tS) an embryo, I will call thee to this help [L e., 
this powerful charm]. 

3. " Put (dhShi) an embryo, Sintvili ; put an embryo, Sarasvatt, an 
embryo both of the two A9vins may create {dkattdtn) to thee, that wear 
garlands of lotus. 

4. '' An embryo may create for thee Mitra and Yaruna ; an embijo 
the god Yrhaspati ; an embryo Indra and Agni ; an embryo the Creator 
may create to thee {yarhlum dhdtd dadh&tu ti). 

5. " Yiihnu may make ready the womb ; Tvashtr may whxpe the 
forms; Praj&pati may sprinkle fluid; the Creator may create ^ee an 
embryo {yarbham dhdtd dadhdtu tf). 

6. '' That which King Yaruna knows, or which the goddess Sansnti 
knows, that which Indra, the slayer of Yrtra, knows, that thoa dult 
drink, causing an embryo. [Here, evidently, a magical diink is admi- 
nistered.] 

7. *' Thou art the womb (or the genu ?) of all herbs, the germ of 
trees, the germ of all things, o Agni, create an embryo hereCym^ktm d 
ihadhdh). 

8. ** Bise above, be frill of manly power, create an embryo in the 
womb {yarbham d dhShd ydnydm) ; a bull thou art ; we bring thee hen 
for the sake of procreation. 

10. '* Creator (dhdtah), in the loins of this woman create (ddhiM) 
a male child, with most excellent form, to be bom in the tenth m<Mith.'* 

It results from the examples quoted that both dhd and d-dkd, hxve 
the sense of creating, literally putting the embiyo. We have, indeed, 
even a word dhdnd, grain, literally that which is put or sown, whidi. 
as feu: as etymology is concerned, might mean embryo, as well as ddkam, 
although custom has given it a different signification. 

To this latter word, without the prefix d, our done correcpond* 
closely enough ; and wo may therefore assume that it has the meaning 
''germ, embryo." The Irish duine, i.e., d(mio, therefore means **t^ 



313 

lated to the embryo/' i. e., prooreatedy offspring, man, cfr. the Latin 
gezHB from gigno, and Skr. praja -s, people from the same root^Vin, to 
pnxareate, engender. 

Probably the o of done was short, as the long 6 wonld be in Irish 
rather ua; bat this shortening of the root dhd is not more astonishing 
than the similar occnrrence in Greek in ^€<ri9, ^ero'v, t6ai9. 

If don means the embryo, the meaning of the tmno is in a manner 
fixed. For, as the spell runs against either female or male want of 
Bexnal power, the spirit exorcised mnst be inimical to conception, the 
destroyer in fiict of the embryo. Taurio is clearly a derivation from a root 
iaur; and as our family of languages has no roots with diphthongs, this 
is a gnnated form of tur. It does not appear that any Celtic language 
has such a root, but Sanskrit and Zend have preserved it. The S^. 
root tmr {Mr, turv) means generally to be strong, to be swift : turana, 
Bwift; iwramyati, he hastens; turanyu, hastening; turffd, supenor 
strength ; turtya, tnrepfjui ; Hr (f.), haste ; Hrni, hastening ; turati, he 
hastens = ^^rya^t, ap-twa, busy, hastening the work; {ap = apa8^Lt. 
opns) ; apMrya, zeal ; tura^ prompt. In some cases the word takes the 
meaning of, "to be stronger than, to overpower, conquer." Thus, 
rt^-tur, conquering the world ; vigvatur, conquering all ; vrtratWy con- 
quering the demon Vrtra. Compare Eg. VIII, 88, 6— Vrtram yad Indra 
t^rva»%, that thou, o Indra, overcomest V. More rarely, lastly the word 
seems to acquire also the meaning of " to wound, to hurt." This significa- 
tion is assigned to the verb tHryate, in the Dhatupatha. Sayana also ex- 
plains twra in Rigveda, V.28, by g<Ur^nam himsakan, i. e., the destroyer of 
enemies. In the sense of hurt, wounded, the word occurs in Big. VIII., 
68, 2, abhf&rn6ti yannagnam hhi»hahti vi^vam yatturaih, ** covers that 
which is naked, heals all which is sore." Hence the common word dtura, 
hurt, sore, sick, is probably from the same root The signification to 
hart, to destroy, which is rare in Sanskrit, is the common one of this 
root in Zend, where we have tikr^ tur, blesser, tuer, as thaisho tadurvdo, 
celui qui an^antit la haine {vid. Bumouf, ya^na, p. 83), nominative 
from a base tadurvcd, which seems a participle [present or perfect ?] 
from root tur or turv, 1 ps. sing, imperat. taourvaySni, " I will destroy" 
(Journal Asiatique, 1845, Juin, pp. 428, 429). With preposition atun 
we have mwithira, potens, invictus, a name of the god Miihra, and also 
of the Fervers, literally, ** conquering, destroying." 

Of the Zend forms of this root the second, tadurv, is easily explained : 
the od is the regular representation of an ancient diphthongal 6, the gu- 
nation of u, and u immediately preceding r is the u-infection caused by 
the following r. Both forms, therefore, x)oint back to a root tur, or 
gunated, t&r, which latter form in ancient Celtic would appear as taur. 
We may therefore safely assume that taurioa is a derivative from this 
root, meaning, destructive, destroyer, Dontaurio, accordingly, wiU be 
the destroyer of the embryo. That there should be a special demon 
threatening the child in the womb of its mother, is consistent with the 
general notions of the Indo-Germans, as may be seen on comparing a 
hymn from the " Atharvaveda" (VIIL, 6), in which, in spite of the great 



314 

obscurity of many passages, 80 much in general is clear, that it is diieeted 
against various demons desirous of destroying the unbom child, or of 
otherwise injuring women during their pregnancy. The tmnalaticm of 
this hymn will be given in an appendix, together with another hymn of 
the same Veda (III., 23), that contains an incantation for making a wo- 
man conceive a male chUd. 

The first sentence of the charm is, DofUaurion anala. As DonAwrtn 
is clearly an accusative, anala can only be a verb ; and the apparent ab- 
sence of any personal termination leads us to suppose that it is a aecond 
person imperative of a verbal base ending in long d, correspondiDg in 
form to a Latin verb of the first conjugation. Such verbs must Jsare 
existed in old Irish, and they are still recognisable by their infinitiTe 
in adhf ath. Compare her-th, ferre, with mol-a-thj laudare ; and ontht 
whole subject of these bases, an article, by myself, in Kuhn's ''Beitraige," 
I., 324. As the root of the word in question, the syllable an is easily re- 
cognised, which corresponds to Skr. an, to breathe = Gothic anan^ whence 
Latin animus, anima, Gr. ilvefio9. Also the Celtic has preserved this root 
in both its branches. Irish : andl (fem.) breath ; andlaim^ to breathe 
(O'Beilly); andl, gen. andla, breath (Coneys); Gaelic (Axmstimg^ 
anail (f.) breath. Welsh : anal (id.) fem. pi. analau, analu, to breatlK; 
anadlf fem. pi. analau (id.) (Pughe). Cornish, anal. 

Breton (Legonidec), anal{t), pL analou, analiou, respiration ; intiie 
dialect of Yannes, anal, hanal, inal ; alana, halana, respirer. The last 
forms are, perhaps, transposition from anala ; and it is not quite impos- 
sible that ihe French haleine. It. alena, might be from this source rather 
than from Latin anhslo, with which Dietz connects them. The verb 
analaim, as given by O'Beilly, would at first sight seem to oorr»pood 
most closely to the anala of our inscription. However, this conncxi(a 
is not without difficulty. The d preceding the / is long in Irish, and as 
the corresponding Welch forms show in part a d (anadl), it would setia 
that this d has been lost in Irish, and the loss compensated for by the 
lengthening of the a ; just as to the Irish cendl, family, corresponds to 
Welsh cenedl, where the originality of the d is raised beyond all doubt 
by the Greek f^eviOkri, If that be so in this case also, we should expict 
in Gaulish anadla, rather than anala, since the Gaulish was not aTcne 
to joining dl, as proved by the word eanacoaedlon, in the inscriptioB 
of Autun. Neveiiheless, it is, perhaps, possible that the Welsh foraii 
without d are independent of the dr-forms, so that in Gaulish theit 
might have existed two forms, both derivatives of the same root, 
AlfADLI, and ANALI or A2f ALO, both meaning breath. Froa 
the latter would descend the imperative anala of our inscripticm. That 
there is nothing singular or irregular in the assumption of a none 
ANALO, is best proved by the existence in Sanskrit of a word do^j 
corresponding in form, namely, anala, fire (so called because of its m- 
steady, and.as it were, windy motion). The same language has a nocfi 
with a slightly different suffix, but with the meaning reqiiired by us— 
anila, wind. We may therefore safely assume a Gaulish ANAIA^ 
wind, breath s Skr. anila (out of ANALA), from this a derivative rcr^^ 



315 

AXALA~TI, to breathe, of which our anala is the imperatiye. Hence, 
the first short sentence of the spell is : Dontaurion anala, breathe on the 
Bontanrios. Breathing is a common means of driving away diseases, 
accompanying the employment of charms. 

The second sentence, to be repeated twice, Lowtawrion deanala, differs 
from the first only by having the syllable de prefixed to the verb, which 
is the well-known Irish preposition di or de{Z. 844), being identical in 
form and meaning with the Latin de^ Ohg. zi — . The sense, therefore, 
is: '' Breathe away the Dontanrios.'' 

In the third formula we have the name of the demon in a different 
form of inflection, Dontaurio-s, This might be, as in other Gaulish in- 
Bcriptions, a nominative singular; but as the word datala from its form 
is evidently, like, aftala, an imperative, there is no place for a nominative 
in the sentence. Hence, we are driven to the conclusion that it is accu- 
sative plural, the termination of this case having been S in Gaulish, as 
proved by the artua-M of the inscription of Todi (Stokes, in Kuhn's ''Bei- 
trage" (II., p. 72). To have the same name as a whole order of genii, 
and as one of them who is the spirit of this kind par exeeUence,'iB no- 
thing uncommon. Thus Kudra, ** Terrible," is with the Hindus a name 
of Civa, but at the same time there is a whole host of Eudras. 

' The imperative datala points to a verb of similar formation as atutla, 
a derivative from some noun DATALO. This seems to be preserved in 
the Welsh dadl, f. pL dadUu, debate, dispute, controversy, strife, con- 
tention, case in law, argument ; dadleu, to argue, dispute, reason, tattle ; 
dadleuad, disputation ; dadUuatff, to dispute, argue ; dadleuawr, advocate; 
dadJeufa, forum. In old Welsh there must have been a t instead of the 
second d, as results from the glosses in Zeuss; dadlt [sic] gl. curia. 
1077; dadl, concio; datl, gl. forum, Z. 169 ; datloeou, gl. fora, Z. 291 ; 
dadaUu, dadeleu, daetleu, causae, judicia, Z. 292, 785, 786. Breton ; 
dael (f.), dispute, querelle, debat The old Irish has lost the t; dal — 
(Z. 20) which occurs in composition ; ddlauide, gl. forum ; ddldde, gl. 
fbrensis Z. 81 ; ddUa, gl. cunalis, Z. 84. 

Combining all these forms, we come to an original form, DAT(A)L, 
meaning dispute, chiefly in a juridical sense, or else the place where 
cases are argued, just as the corresponding Teutonic word (Old Norse, 
Agls. tktn^, Ohg. dinff) has the double meaning of a cause, and a court 
of justice. Now, as fiom the Latin eaussa descends eaussart, from Agls. 
thing, the verb thingian, to contend in a court, German dingen, to make 
a contract, so the verb DATALATI would be, to contend with, to ac- 
cuse. Hence, Bontaurios datala. is, '' Accuse thou, bring thou to jus- 
tice, the Bontaurii." Perhaps the sense still more strictly is, '< Make 
them confess, convict them." Thus we find in the Atharvaveda (I., 7)> 
a spell against certain demons, the Yathudhanas, in which the god Agni 
is invok^ to bring them chained, to make them lament, and to cause 
them to confess : (vs. 2). Agni, eat of the sesam oil, make the Yatu- 
dhanas to lament. (3). They may lament, the Yatudh&nas, the voracious 
Kimidinas. Now, O Agni and Indra, accept this our sacrifice. (4). Agni 
in the front (?) may exert himself, Indra may drive them forward with 



316 

mighty arms. Every Ydiumat shall My: Iti9 I, cu he goee. (5). We 
may see thy power, Jatav^das, speak thou against the Tatudhuui; 
thou who hast the eyes of man. All of them, by thee tormented, mij 
go before thee to this place, speaking out {prahruvanay* SimDarij, 
Atharv. VIII., 6, 10 :— " Those [demons], herb,' destroy by thy 
spell, the convicted ones (vwA^ttKin*), vs. 15. Brahmanaspati, u* 
mhilate those demons to her by conviction (jfratiMdhinay Seetb 
Appendix for the whole hymn. 

The Celtic datl has passed as a loanword into the Teutonic language^ 
English, tattle; Oerm., Swedish, tadel, reproach, blame. Biegfiiud, 
as appears from a note in his papers, seems to hove been inclined to 
connect it with the root DhA, to put, £rom which we have in Greek 
0€-ff/A69 ; and in Gothic, dd-ms, judgment^ English, doo-mf in whidi can 
the original meaning would rather have been judicial aentenoc, and 
cause, court of justice, might be secondary sigmficationB. The bdIBx 
U would naturtdly be identified with the Greek rpov^ Lt. irmm, SkL 
tra, though differing in gender as £Bur at least as the Welsh is oonceniei 
DA-TL (0) would be " the means of deciding, judgment, action, court" 

There remain now the words yee., uim danitnauim [«.]. It is ekir 
at once that both have the same termination «tin. Hence the character 
after the second word resembling an $ must be considered ^tber as i 
mere accidental scratch, or else as a mistake of the engraver. If we reid 
the termination of the two words with Y, vim, we see at once the reiesL* 
blance with the Greek 0«y. The Greek 0tv is one of a numerous set of 
terminations, beginning in Sanscrit with bh; in the Teutonic^ Slavonic, 
and Lithuanian, with tn; in Latin, and other Italic dialects^ .with A,/, 
rarely i^; in Greek, witii 0. These terminations are remarkable far 
their fickleness both of form and of meaning. I shall briefly poiat <mt 
their various usee, merely observing with regard to their initml letter, 
that SiegMed's opinion is highly probable, according to which tbej 
would have originally begun with MBh, of which the Teutonic, Slavo- 
nic, Lithuanian, have kept the M alone. We find terminations of ibis 
kind employed in the following cases : — 

2)ual Instr. M. dot. Skr. hhydm = Zend bya ; Slavonic ma (imL 
dat.) ; . lith. m (inst^ dat) ; Greek -ip (gen. dat). 

Plural.— h Instrumental, Skr. hhu, =Zend hie, Old Pern hM, litk 
mis, Slav. mL 

2. Dt. abl. Skr. MyM^Zend. hyd; Lat hus, his (nobis, vobb); 
Gaulish, BO; Ir. h, bh ; Lith. mus, ms ; Slav, mu ; Old Norse, mt, h; 
Gothic, Anglosaxon, Ohg. m ; Germ. n. 

3. Locative. Tiva\mBnfem,fe ; Greek, ffnv, vapa yoQ^y., 

4. Aeeusaiive. f in ITmbrian msc. fem. 

5. In the form bhyam at the personal pronouns for the Bat. plur. ia 
Skr. = Greek -IV, ^fuy, etc 



* Siegfried pats *^ die uberfiihiten,'* taking the word apparently in a paHiv« Mis- 
The root t£/ means ** to declare openly.*' Hence, rather, ** Those who confeaa" 



317 

Singular — 1. ImtrummUaL Annenian, U; Lithuanian, mi; Slay. 
mi; Greek, 0i (i'), Kpanjp^ifk fii^, 

2. Dative, Skr. pronouns, hhyam, tu-bhyam, "tibi;" Greek, iv, ifuv, 
Te«V ; Lt. W, tibi = XJmbr. te -fi. 

3. Locative — a. Greek 0« (v), frequently. 

h. Latin, hi; TJmbrian, fe; Oscan,/, ji, as Lat. ibi^ iM, alibi; 
Umbr. pu -fe, i-fe^ Osc. pu -/, t -^. 

tf. Umbr. me (m) ; Lat. m, in oli -m, ieti^m^ iUi -n -«, etc. Osc. if 
harti -n, •* in the enclosure." 

It will have been observed that one principal form of these suffixes 
is hhyam, hhydm; that this is mutilated in Greek both to-^i' and 0((i')« 
and that in signification the latter has both the force of a locative and 
of an instrumental. It is moreover employed both in a singular and 
plural signification ; whilst the Slavonic and Lithuanian have a cognate 
suffix, ending originally in » (Lith. mie\ for the instrumental plural, but 
being without any terminating consonant (Lith. mt), in the singular. 
The vim of the two Gaulish words must be evidently connected with 
either ihe singular or plural instrumental suffix ; and it is a question 
not easy to be decided which view is to be preferred. Siegfried had 
not arrived at any fixed opinion on this point, when I spoke to him last 
about it. He even thought it possible that the scratch at the end of 
danimauim might be s, and vime the Mler form of the instrumental 
suffix plural hhi$. However, he seems to have given up that view ulti- 
mately, and returned to the notion that it is singular, and the scratch 
meaningless. Gee., vim danimavim is then a pair of instrumentals sin- 
gular like Kpar€fHf<f)t fitffq}i (y) ; and in the suffix vim, the original hh has 
been softened down to v, so that it corresponds most closely to Greek 

The word GES is in existence in Irish ; yeaea, a religious vow, 
an oath, a charm, enchantment, a guess, conjecture, divination ; yeasa- 
doir^ wizard, charmer; geeadoireaehd, divination, sorcery; geaeaim, I 
divine, foretell ; geae&n, oath, vow ; geis, fem. Isibute, prayer, swan, 
vow, promise, protest, custom, order, prohibition, or injunction. These 
words are on the authority of O'BeOly ; Coneys has for the fem. geie, 
gen. geiMy the meaning: incantation, injunction, adjuration, restric- 
tion, vow, charm, guess, religious engagement, sorcery. So also has 
Armstrong, for the identical Ghaelic geas. In the sense of '' conjecture'' 
the Irish ge {a) $ coincides with E. guess: ON., giska; Swed., giasa; 
Dan. giese ; and with Lettish geedu, pr. act. giddu [root gid^ to conjecture. 
But tihe Prussian een-gid-aut to receive, has evidently the more original 
meaning. This Letto-Prussian root GID is most probably identical 
with the Teutonic GAT, to receive, to get, whence Agls. getan; EngL 
get, beget, forget ; comp. Greek XA A (xav^aa^o'), Lat pre-hm-do. If this 
etymology be true, the double s of the Teutonic words could only be 
explained as an assimilation from ^, TT, cfr. Gothic visea, I ''know," 

B. I. A. FEOC. — VOL. VIII. 2 U 



318 

Angk. vistef from root YIT, standing for vUda, vitta. Hence we miut 
consider the German word as formed by a suffix with a iy th, or d at the 
beginning, most likely the suffix ti (thi, di) = Greek <ri-9, ti-?, which 
makes nouns of action. The verb to ffue»s would be a denominatiTe of 
the substantive guess, for gues-t from the root GAT. The original mean- 
ing, accordingly, would be, action of taking, catching. 

To return to the Irish word, all its significations could be very well 
explained from the notion of catching, holding, binding — oath, custom, 
incantation, all agree in this primary idea of holding fasL This being 
so, we may consider it as descended from a root, otherwise lost in Gel-g 
tic, ged, with a suffix beginning with t, which letter suffers in Irish 
simiLBir changes as in the Teutonic languages when joined to a root end- 
ing in a dental— cfr. 0. 1, fiss, scientia, from root EIT, FID. The s of 
geas being kept between two vowels in old Irish points to an original 
double s, as a single s is always lost in Irish in that position. The de- 
clension of the word would make it an a or t base. Hence we may fairly 
assume the existence of a Gaulish GESSA or GESSI, derived from a 
root GED by suffix TA or TI. Dr. Siegfried has preferred the fint 
form, on account of its agreeing better with the [somewhat hypotheti- 
cal] metre of the inscription. I should prefer the latter form, as it is 
very doubtful whether a suffix td — he would make it long and fenii- 
nine — is ever primarily added to roots. On the stone there is, after the 
letters GES, room for two more which seem to have been obliterated. 
Pilling this gap up, we get either GESSAVIM or GESSIVIM, L e. 
through an incantation. Some such gap must be assumed, since the 
form GESYDC, as it stands, cannot be correct, because a simple s of the 
Gaulish, as already stated, would have been lost in Irish. 

There remains the word danimavim, which of course must be an adjec- 
tive qualifying gessavim, and standing, like it, in the instrumental 
The meaning is determined by the Irish dan, strenuous ; dana, bold ; 
ddnaigim, 1 dare, defy [oH these from O'R] ; ddnatu (Z. 20) andada; 
ee9U danatu dom, quamvis audacissime (Z. 994). From this root Zeuss 
^94) and Gliick (Gallische Namen, p. 91, 92), have derived DammW, 
Ihnuhius, on account of its strong current. The Sanscrit has a word 
ddnu, to which the Hindu grammarians attribute the meaning of cou- 
rageous (vihrdnta), and which is a name of the demons or Titans, the 
enemies of the gods, more commonly occurring in the derivative form Dd* 
nava, with which Dr. Siegfried thought it possible to connect the Greek 
Aavao9, Aai'ai;, ^avaihai, in spite of their first a being short, (in Aa- 
vaitai it is only lengthened through the necessities of the epic vene). 
Be that as it may, we have an Irish adjective ddn, strenuous. Of this 
DANIMA is a superlative, The superlative is in old Irish commonly 
formed in am ; but we have also forms in em (Z. 287), which point back 
to an original %ma, imo; cfr. Oscan nssitnom, nearesl^ and the old Irish 
double termination tmem. "Kence ,danima means ** boldest ;" gess Fm] 
im, danimauimy with boldest charm (or channs) [vid. supra). The 
whole inscription translated runs, therefore : — 



319 

Breathe at the Dontaurios ; 

The Dontaurios hreathe down upon ; 

Accuse the Dontaurii ; 

With boldest charms. 

Pater nam esto ; 

Magi ars secuta te, 

Justina quern 

Peperit Sana. 

Dr. Siegfried seems to have been of opinion that the inscription 
runs in verses ; for there is a note, alluded to above, to the effect, that 
the form GESSAYIM would agree better with the metre. But beyond 
this hint I find nothing further to clear up this subject. 

In conclusion, I have to add that, as far as my ability goes, I have 
striven to reproduce what, to the best of my judgment, was Br. Sieg- 
fried's opinion. I believe that for the most part I have succeeded ; for 
I had as a guide through the labyrinth of hu stray notes and jottings, 
the recollection of a conversation of four hours' length on the 26th of 
December, 1862, when the deceased scholar explained to me his entire 
views on this inscription. To have said what he would have said, had 
he been spared, though in a manner very inferior to himself, is my sole 
obJQct. I cannot undertake to vouch for all his opinions. Both the 
responsibility and the merit of them must remain with him. 

C. LOTTKEB. 

APPENDIX. 

The following are Dr. Siegfried's translations of the hymns Athar- 
vaveda III., 23 ; and Atharvaveda YIII., 6. I give them as I find them, 
leaving untrandated what the deceased did not venture to translate, lest 
by introducing conjectures of my own I should do injustice to him. 

Athabvayeda III.^ 23. 
^caktahoir pob pbocuring kale 07f8fbin0. 

1 . " Since thou hast become a cow (that has taken the bull), we will 
destroy it from thee [?]. This same thing we put &r away from thee 
elsewhere. 

2. " An embryo may come to thy womb, a male one, as an arrow into 
the quiver. Thero he e^all be reborn as a warrior, a son of ten months 
of thee. 

3. ** Bear thou a male son. After him a male be bom. Be thou a 
mother of sons, of the bom ones, whom thou bearest.* 

4. << As many good seeds as the bulls generate, with these obtain a 
son. Thou here become a fruitful little cow. 

* Jmta^ds ; Idt, imperf. therefore rather : *' majeet bear/' L. 



320 

5. '* I make to thee the work of a lord of procreation. The embryo 
may go into thy womb. Obtain thou a 8on, woman, that may be hap- 
piness to thee« and happiness be thou to him. 

6. "The herbs, the father of which was heaven, the mother the 
earth, and ocean the root, those divine plants may help thee to the ob- 
taining of a son." 



Athabvaveda Vin., 6. 

AOAINST FEMALE BABBSNNESS. 

(This hymn is very obscure, and even seems to have gaps, as espe- 
cially may be seen from str. 2. where we have a whole string of acca- 
satives without a verb). 

1. ** Those two whom to thee the mother has wiped, the two that 
know the husband. 

" There the Durnaman must not be greedy, nor the Alin^a who 
protects the children. 

2. " There the fleshy one (?) and the one that goes after flesh. The 
S^ku, the £6ka (i. e. wolf), the dirty setting (? Sun), the Palljaka, the 
embracer, the Vavrivasa. 

3. " By no means connect thyself with her, do not crawl to the two 
loins, do not crawl down inside. I made to her a remedy, the Baja 
who chases the Durnaman away. 

4. " Durnaman and Sunaman [i. e. ^vaiawfio^ and E^wmffto^, L], 
both desire connexion. We drive away the Ar&yas. Sunaman nay 
go to the womankind. 

5. ''He that is black, hairy, Asura, bom in a shrub, or endowed 
with a snout "We strike away the Arayas. 

6. ** Him who tries about by smelling, the flesh-eater, the licker, 
the Ar&yas and dogcutters, them Baja, Pinga did destroy. 

7. ** Him who comes in a dream to thee as if he were thy brother 
or father, Baja may keep them oif firom here, the eunuch shaped ones 
with diadems. 

8. " Who skulks up to thee when asleep, who would hurt thee when 
awake, those the Sun may annihilate like a shadow. 

9. ' ' Him who makes this woman with a dead child and with an abor- 
tion, him, herb, destroy thou, her slippery lover (?). 

10. '' Those who dance about the houses at night, braying^like asaes, 
the Kusiidas, Kukshilas, Kakubhas, Karumas, and Srimas, tiiose, 
herb, destroy thou by thy smell, the convicted ones. 

11. '' Those Kukundhas and Kukurabhas who wear skins as woven 
clothes, who make a noise in the forest, dancing like eunuchs, those we 
annihilate from hence. 

12. ''Who bear not the sun, the shining one of heaven, the Arayas 
that dwell with goats (?), the ill-smelling, the red-mouthed, the Ma- 
kakas we destroy. 



321 

13. " Who by putting themselTes too much [i. e. heavily, L.] on the 
Bhoulder cany themselves, pushing the loins of the women, Indra, those 
Bakshas destroy thon. 

14. '* Who go before a wife, carrying horns in their hand, that are in 
the oven, that mock, that make a light in the shrub, those from hence 
let ns annihilate. 

15. '* Whose toes are back, whose heel before, — that are bom on the 
threshing floor, that are bom in qaka (?) and in smoke, the Urundas, 
the Matmatas, the Kumbhandas (i. e. having testicles like jugs), inca- 
pable of procreation, those, Lord of prayer, annihilate in her by pra- 
tib6dha'[i. e. conviction]. 

16. "Those with turned eyes, those without vision, may they be 
without womankind, eunuchs (?). remedy, put him down, the un- 
married one who wishes to be together with the woman who has a 
husband. 

17. ''The Upeshant, the copper-coloured, the Tundela, and the 
Cadula, piercing the two feet, the two heels as a cow. 

18. " He who would touch thy embryo and who lolls thy child, 
Pinga may pierce him through the heart, he of awM bow. 

19. " Who in an unknown manner kill the bom ones, who lie on the 
pregnant women, may Pinga (i. e. tawny), drive them away, the wo- 
men-enjoying Qandharvas as the wind a cloud. 

20. " may it not have been thrown down the loinband, 

and the bhar3ru (?). The two remedies may protect thy fruit. 

21. " Against the Pavlnasa, against the Tangalva, against the Sha- 
dowlike, also against the Naked, may Pinga protect thee, in order that 
thou mayest bring children to thy husband, against the Kimidin. 

22. '' Against Double-mouth, Four-eye, Five-foot, Ko-finger, against 
Yf nta that comes forth, and against Yarlvrta protect thou. 

23. " Those who eat raw flesh, and human flesh, the Ke9avaB eat the 
embryos. We destroy them from hence. 

24. ** Who from the sun skulk away, as a daughter-in-law from her 
father-in-law, their Baja and their Pinga be killed in their heart 

25. " Pinga, protect thou the child &at is being bom. Let them not 
make a male into a female. The egg-eaters must not destroy the em- 
bryos. Beat away the Eimldins. 

26. " Thy childlessness, thy (quality of) bearing dead children, the 
adroda (?), the agha (evil), the non-conception, let it go away towards 
thy enemy, Hke taking a flower bunch from a tree." 

The President, on behalf of the Bev. William Perceval, presented 
a npte-book, containing the original minutes of the Neosophical Society, 
which preceded and gave rise to the Eoyal Irish Academy. These 
minutes were kept by the father of the donor. Dr. Eobert Perceval, the 
first Secretary of the Academy, who was also Secretary of the parent 
Society. The Neosophical Society used to meet at the houses of its 
members in a flxed rotation ; and the President observed that the flrst 
essay read was on the subject of Astronomical Observations. 



322 

H. M. Wbstbofp, Esq.y read the following paper : — 
Oir THS Psb-Chsistiav Cboss. 

The wide dissemination of the cross through many countries, and at a 
period anterior to the Christian era, haa heen a subject of wonder, and 
has elicited yarious theories from many. Mysterious meanings have been 
given to these crosses ; but, like all mysterious solutions, have had fruit- 
less results. If there is any mystery anywhere, it is not in the thing or 
object itself, but in the nature of man, which is endowed with an uniyer- 
sal instinctive principle, peculiar to man's common nature, by which 
almost similar objects in the various stages of man's developmenti in 
countries the most widely apart, are worked out and suggested to his 
mind, according as the necessities of his nature require, and according as 
the suggestive principle is awakened and developed in man to supply his 
wants. In the early stages of man's development, when written Lm- 
guage was unknown, and there was no "reading public," emblems or 
symbols were used as the outward and visible sign of the tiling signified : 
thus in India a cross was the symbol of resignation, in Egypt, the eym- 
bol of life, the meaning being derived from the root or germ fit>m which 
the symbol took its origin. After a careful examination of the several 
crosses I have collected frvm countries the most widely apart, and uncon- 
nected with each other, I have come to this conclusion — ^that the variood 
forms of crosses have a separate and independent origin in the different 
countries in which they are used, the germ or root of the cross being 
frequently found in the country where it took its origin : for example, 
in Egypt the crux ansata, which is the hieroglyphic sign of divine life 
and r^eneration, is derived from the phallus, which is the symbol of 
life and prolific energy. In Indi a, the cross or Swastika of the Budd- 
hists is composed of two letters — ^Tl, su. and xfT ti, or suti — ^which is 
the Pali form of the Sanscrit swasti, which means, " it is well;" or, as 
Wilson expresses it " so be it ;" it is a symbol of resignation. In Greece 
the form of the cross frequently found on Athenian vases was suggested 
by the impression of the punch mark on the reverse of the early Greek 
coins. 

In ornamentation the cross is one of the simplest forms, and is one 
naturally suggested to the barbarous Indian, and to the intellectaal 
Greek ; for it is merely the intersection of two lines. Numberless ex- 
amples of the cross used in ornamentation are to be found on the Greek 
painted vases. The crosses, si^uares, and other patterns, on the tomb of 
Midas in Phrygia, were, according to Mr. Stewart, intended as imitations 
of carpet work, for which Lydia and Phryia were anciently celebrated. 
There is a cross on the lintel of a subterraneous gate in the Pelasgic walls 
of Alatrium, in Latium ; it is a combination of three phalli ; the phallos 
ebing held in reverence by the early Greek colonists, as a symbol of the 
prol^c powers of nature.* According to MiiUer ("Ancient Art," p. 627), 

• r«fo DodweU's " PeU^ RenuuDB in Greeoe and Italy.** 



323 

thiB sign on the gate at Alatrium was a kind of amulet to ward off the 
'^ dreaded invidia " (the phallus being used for that purpose at a later 
period), and is perhaps the oldest specimen of the kind. His editor adds 
that a similar one is to be found on a wall of the Homeric city Antheia. 
In Persia and Assyria the cross is the abridged form of thef&roher, or 
emblem of the Deity, the outline of which gives the form of a cross. 
In Scandinavia the cross is the cruciform hammer or battle axe of Thor. 
The cross is also a distinctive sign on several Mexican hieroglyphs ; and 
it forms the central ornament of a tablet at the back of an altar at Palen- 
qne. In Dr. Wilson's " Pre-historic Men" mention is made of an ex- 
ample of Peruvian black pottery brought from Otusco, measuring seven 
and a half inches high^ which is decorated with a row of well-defined 
Maltese crosses ; these are evidently for pure ornamentation. The se- 
pulchral galleries in the mound at New Grange take the form of a 
cross ; but this is merely on the same principle upon which the windows 
in the palace at Palenque are built in the shape of a cross. 

The crosses found in Latium and Etruria are undoubtedly of 
Greek origin, as for the most part the arts and civilization of Etruria 
and Latium were derived from early Oreek colonists. On Grecian and 
Etruscan figures, the cross is as conmion an ornamental pattern as the 
zigzag. The painted vases found in Etruria, on the ornamental borders 
of wMcb many crosses are drawn, are almost all Greek — Greek in their 
subjects, Greek in their mythology. 

Some fiirther illustrations of crosses are to be found in BoseUini's ; 
great work on Egypt. One cross is on the breast of a hostile chief, van- 
quished by one of the kings of Egypt ; the others are on the breast of 
enemies of the Egyptians. These crosses I should consider to be no- 
thing more than ornamental patterns on the opening of the vest ; for the 
dress seems, like the modem shirt, open in front, that it might go over 
the head. In crosses 1, 2, the line down the centre would seem to 
show the opening of the vest. In Sir Gardiner Wilkinson's work, the 
Shari, an Asiatic people, a tribe of Northern Arabia, are represented 
with crosses on their robes. Sir Gardiner Wilkinson remarks that the 
adoption of the cross was not peculiar to them ; it was also appended 
to, and figured upon the robes of the Bot-ri-n, and traces of it may be 
seen in the fancy ornaments of the Rebo, showing that this very simple 
device was already in use as early as the loth century before the Ghns- 
tian era. The representative of the nation called by Sir G. Wilkinson the 
Bcbo, whose country was in the vicinity of Mesopotamia, wears a long 
robe covered with crosses, and other fancy devices; crosses are also 
tattooed on his legs and arms. A blaek is also represented in the same 
work with a band of crosses alternating with circles round his neck ; 
these are evidently all fancy ornaments. The cross is also found in the 
hieroglyphic sign for land. It is supposed, according to Gliddon, to re- 
present bread, betokening civilization. It was a sign used particularly 
to designate the land of Egypt. It is said that a similar sign is used by 
the AMcans ; and that African women put the sign of the cross on their 
large earthenware urns, in which they store their com, the cross 



324 

nuddng the Uiing Taboo, private property of tlie party making it Tins 
is only what any person ignorant of writing would do at the present 
day : when called on to sign a paper, and to show that it is his act and 

hia 

deed, he gives his mark thus : — Joim + smith, 

° mark, 

Human nature is the same all over the world ; and man under similar 
circumstances must, of necessity, have recourse to similar expedients. 

The Academy then adjourned. 

MONDAY, AFKIL 27, 1863. 
The YsBT Rsv. Charles Gsavss, D. D., President, in the Chair. 

The Bight Hon. the Earl of Belmore was elected a member of the 
Academy. 

W. R. WiLDB, y . P., made the following communication : — 

I HAVE asked formal permission from the Council to make the following 
presentations with which I have been intrusted, as I am anxious to 
have this particular branch of the antiquarian section of the Academy 
brought prominently before the members ; because I think it due to the 
donors ; and in the hope that by so doing it may induce other public 
bodies, noblemen, and gentlemen to assist in increasing our national 
Museum. 

From the Commissioners of Public Works — The sculptured and in- 
scribed stones which formed part of the monument that existed on tl» 
southern battlement of the old bridge of Athlone, and of which the fol- 
lowing notice is not without interest : — 

There was a natural ford on the Shannon at Ath-luain — " ThePord 
of Luan" — ^which was passable at low water, and was successfully 
crossed by the Williamite army in 1691. In later days it was occupied 
by an eel- weir. The Annals of Boyle state that, in 984, " the Conns- 
cians were defeated, and driven out of Athlone by the Westmethians;" 
in all probability over this ford. The earliest distinct reference to this 
crossing-place between the kingdoms of Meath and Connaught is given 
under the date A.D. 1000, when the kings of those two portions of 
the island agreed to build a Tohert or '' causeway," as O'Donovan has 
very properly translated it, over the Shannon. " The causeway of 
Ath-luain was made by Maelseachlainn, the son of Bomhnall, and by 
Cathal, the son of Conchobhar." — See Annals of the Four Kasters, and 
also Annals of Boyle. 

This Toher I believe to have been nothing more than a rude road 
or crossing, over large stepping stones ; several of which structures I re- 
member over the Suck, and oti^ier rivers in Connaught, before the recent 
drainage operations; and it was, in all probability, an erection of this 
nature which supported the hurdles at the ford from which the city of 
Dublin derived its ancient name. Tohera were also made across bogs and 



325 

swamps in many places, and the remains of several continue to this 
day — ^leading into cluans, wells, old churches, and castles, &c. ; and the 
great road which ran from Tara, and that which divided Ireland, was 
in several places of this character. Our annals contain many notices 
of tohers, some of which give names to townlands, parishes, and other 
localities. 

In 1120, Tnrloch 0' Conor built the bridges {Drochad) of Ath-Luan, 
Lanesborough, and Ballinasloe. — See Annals of Boyle, and the Four 
Masters. Again, under the date A. D. 1129, it is stated — ''The 
Castle and Bridge {^DroeAad^ of Athlone were built by Turloch O'Conor 
in the summer, L e. the summer of drought." This apparent ana- 
chronism may be explained by supposing that the works were completed 
in the latter year. This bridge was not of long duration, for in 1130 
'' the bridge and castle of Athlone were demolished by Murogh O'Me- 
laghlin, and by Tieman O'Eorke." 

In 1 140, Turlogh 0' Conor erected a Cliahh drochad, or wooden bridge, 
at Athlone; but in 1163 it was torn down by Meloughlin, and its 
castle burned. It appears that the bridge and castie were connected ; 
and, in our own day, several miUs and houses stood on the bridge at 
either end. 

The Connaughtmen, however, wishing to have access to the fat land 
and rich castles of Leinster, made anotiier attempt to have a passage 
over the Shannon ; and we read that, in 1 1 53, a fleet of boats was brought 
by Turloch O'Conor, "and the wicker bridge of Ath-Luan was made 
by him for the purpose of making incursions into Meath." — See Annals 
of the Four Masters. But, in the same year, Donal O'Meloughlin de- 
stroyed and burned it and its fortress. 

In 1159, Boderick 0' Conor erected a Cltabh drochady or wicker 
bridge at Ath-Luan, "for the purpose of making incursions into 
Keath." 

The next reference is of rather a tragical nature : in 1 170, 0' Conor 
executed at Athlone (and tradition says, upon the bridge), the hostages 
of Bermod Mac Morragh, viz., Conor, his son, and Donnal Cavanagh, 
his grandson, and O'Kelly, his foster-brother. For many years it was 
supposed that the fresco painting on Knockmoy Abbey, in the county 
of Qalway, and of which we possess a iac simile in the Academy, illus- 
trated that event ; but I have recentiy shown that it refers to the mar- 
tyrdom of St. Sebastian. — See Museum Catalogue, page 315. 

These notices lead us to believe that a stone bridge and a castle were 
erected at Athlone prior to the date of the English invasion, although 
the contrary has been stated by writers upon the architecture and civi- 
lization of Ireland. Many other stone and mortar structures were also, 
in aU probability, erected about that time by the Irish. Yet the last 
historian of Athlone, Mr. Isaac Weld, writing in 1832, states in his 
Statistical Survey of the county of Boscommon : — ** As to the state of 
the passage across the river, prior to the erection of this bridge in the 
days of Elizabeth, no very distinct information appears to exist'* 

B. I. A. pnoc. — VOL. vni. 2 x 



326 

In 1213, the English went to Athlone, and King John the following 
year built a castle there ; and in 1279, Edward I. granted to St. Peter^B 
Abbey the weirs and fisheries of Athlone, and also the tolls of the 
bridge. 

What description of bridge esdsted at Athlone from that period to 
the building of the one recently taken down by the Shannon Commis- 
sioners, I have not been able to determine. That structure was erected 
by government, and completed on the 2nd of July, 1567 ; and on the 
centre of the southern parapet stood a richly-ornamented limestone en- 
tablature containing a long inscription, in relief, descriptiye of the erec- 
tion of the bridge in the ninth year of the reign of Elizabeth ; — ^by the 
advice and order of Sir Henry Sidney, then thirty-eight years of age, 
and Lord Deputy of Ireland : — ''In which yeare was begone and fineshed 
the faire newe wourke, in the Casthel of Dublin, besidis many other 
notable worlds done in sondri other placis in the Eealm ; also the arch 
rebel Shane O'Neyl overthrown, his head set on the gate of the said 
Gastel ; Coyn and Livry aboleshed and the whole Realm brought into 
such obedience to her Majistie as the like tranquilitie peace and .... 
wh ... in the memory of mane hath not bene sene." 

Above and around this inscription were several well-executed bas- 
reliefs of figures and coats of arms, all of which are now in the Academj. 
Prior to the bridge being taken down by the Shannon CommissionerB, 
in 1843-44, dra^^ings of the monument and the bridge were made, and 
sent to Dublin Castle ; but they cannot now be discovered. All the 
sculptured or inscribed stones were, however, forwarded to Dublin, and 
were by the Treasury placed at the disposal of the Lord Lieutenant (at 
that time Earl de Grey), who presented the stones containing the inscrip- 
tions to the Academy in April, 1844 (see ** Proceedings," voLii., p. 576); 
but the effigies and coats of arms, &c., the most interesting portion of 
the monument, remained in the Custom-house until now, when I have 
been commissioned by the Board of Public Works to present them also 
to the Academy. They consist of: — ^A half-length figure of Sir Heniy 
Sidney in bas-relief, but wanting the head (which had evidently been 
repaired at some time), in a stone, 25 inches high by 34 wide, in plate 
armour, with the right extended hand holding a drawn sword. In the 
top left-hand comer of this tablet are his arms — two lions rampant and 
two broad arrows, or pheons, within the garter. 

A full-length bearded figure, in a stone 29 inches long by 24 broad, 
of the Rev. Sir Peter Lewys, chanter of Christ Church, in gown, cas- 
sock, and bands — " hi the good industri and delegence" of whom the 
bridge " was fineshed in les then one year." On the right extended 
hand, which holds a rope, there is the figure of a rat biting the thumb, 
to which a tradition (related by Dr. Strean, in his " History of the Pa- 
rish of St. Peter's, Athlone," published in Mr. Shaw Mason's "Parochial 
Survey of Ireland," in 1819, vol. iii., p. 55), says used to follow the 
superintendent everywhere, until finaJly it bit his thumb, when he died 
of tetanus. 



327 

On a stone, 22 inches long by 21 high, is the fiiU-length figure, in 
plate armour, kilt and peaked helmet — ^holding a halbert in the left hand, 
and supporting a broad arrow-head (still the anns of the Ordnance) in 
the right — of " Eobarts Damport overseer of theys Vorkes." At his 
feet is a dog. 

The royal arms, three lions and ihieefl&ura deUSfOnsL shield within 
the garter, surmounted by the crown, ornamented with shamrocks; and 
at the bottom of the tablet, which is 28 inches by 21, the letters £ B. 

A small, headless, and somewhat defaced, bust of Queen Elizabeth, 
bearing on the breast the crown, with ^fieur de lis ornaments instead of 
the shamrock, and having below the letters £ E. The stone now squares 
1 1 inches. 

A tablet, 27 inches by 19, contains a shield, encircled by the garter, 
and having below the letibers H S. On this shield, in high relief, is the 
fignre of a porcupine, with erect quills, and having a coil of rope hanging 
fi^m a collar round its neck. To this stone, which was inserted in the 
wall of one of the mills that stood on the Leinster side of the bridge, 
was attached another legend, to the effect that it marked '' the place 
where a wild'boar was killed after a long chase and desperate conflict ;"* 
and the rope was, in the opinion of Mr. Weld, a serpent ! There can 
now, however, be no doubt as to this stone being the crest of the Lord 
Deputy. 

The seventh sculptured stone, 26 by 18 inches, bears a shield, crossed 
diagonally by a '' ragged staff," and encircled with the garter ; the arms 
of Thomas Batcliffe, Earl of Essex, Sidney's brother-in-law, and for some 
time Lord Lieutenant of Ireland ; but from what part of the bridge re- 
moved I have not been able to ascertain. There are also several other 
stones, containing inscriptions, most of which have been published by 
Strean and Weld. The total number of stones from Athlone bridge pre- 
sented by the Board of Works and Shannon Commissioners is 43. 

Anxious as I am to enrich our Museum, I cannot help regretting that 
this monument was not erected at Athlone, where it would possess a 
local as well as an historic interest. As, however, these stones have come 
into the possession of the Academy, I hope to see them erected in the 
crypt beneath our Library. 

I have also to present, from the Board of Public Works, the follow- 
ing articles : — 

A very ancient boat, 15 feet long, formed out of a single piece of 
oak, and differing from the six others already in our collection by the 




fiat, projecting beaks at prow and stem, and by means of which it 
could be easily carried, as shown in the above illustration. It is fiat- 



328 

bottomed, 14 inches high in the side, 20 wide, and is in very tolerable 
preservation. It was found in 1856 in the drainage excavationfs 
** from 6 to 8 feet below the snrface, in a bed of 
sand and Lough Keagh clay," at Toome bar, on the 
Lower Bann, a locality almost as famous as the Ford 
of MeeHck on the Shannon, for the quantity of antiqui- 
ties found in it, and to which we have numerous re- 
ferences in the Museum Catalogue. With this boat were 
found three light, thin, black oak paddles, from 2 feet 

3 inches to 5 feet long. Also an antique anchor, or 
grappling iron, 21 inches long, here figured; it is the 
only article of the kind yet discovered in Ireland. Mr. 
Homsby, the Secretary to the Board of Works, has in- 
formed me that three boats were found at Toome bar, 
** one of which was sent to Lady Maasereene, and the 
other was so rotten that it fell to pieces on being ex- 
posed to the air." 

From the same locality, an antique oaken spade, 

4 feet 6 inches long, and 7^ inches broad in the blade, 
which is shod wii£ iron for about 2 inches. Similar 
wooden shovels were in use in the West of Ireland within a very recent 
period. 

During the excavations for the new Eecord Building to the west of 
the Four Courts in Dublin, there were found, at a depth of about 15 feet, 
traces of ancient foundations ; and Mr. James Owen, the architect of 
the Board of Public Works, states there were also there '' portions of a 
very carefully constructed foundation of oak logs about 6 inches square, 
placed as near each other as their twisted shape would permit, with a 
similar floor laid over them in a contrary direction, and a sort of hard 
concrete over that. The logs had been roughly squared by the adze, 
and were saplings or branches.'' In removing these foundations several 
specimens of ancient crockery, glass, horses' bones, and some few coins 
and tokens, were found, which I also present on the part of the Board of 
Works. 

There have also remained over in the offices of the Board of Worb 
from the time of the operations on the Shannon and the days of the drain- 
age works a few antiquities, with the presentation of which I hate 
likewise been intrusted. The most remarkable of these is an imperfect 
processional cross, about 16 inches high, of a single piece of yew, coated 
with plates of brass, which were evidently in many parts jewelled, or had 
inserted into their apertures enamelled studs. The figure on this cross 
is one of great beauty and antiquity, and the article is a most valuable 
addition to our ecclesiastical collection. It was foimd in June, 1858, 
in an old river course, opposite Woodford Castle, parish of Ballinakill, 
barony of Leitrim, and county of Gal way. 

A small, very perfect, copper battle-axe, 6| inches long, and 3 inches 
wide, with four rivets. The article is similar to those described in 
Fig. 356, Museum Catalogue, page 489, and belongs to a class of weapons 



329 

peculiarly Irish. It was found in Berrycaasel Lake, barony of Tallyhaw, 
county of Cayan. 

From the same locality an iron weapon-tool, adze-shaped on one 
fdde, and hatchet on the other, 9 inches long. 

From Sruagh ford, on the Shannon, a stone hammer, 4| inches long; 
and from the excavations at Eilleshandra bridge, county of Cavan, an 
OYal punch of hard stone, 3^ inches long. 

Also, from Sruagh ford, the ferule and spike of a lance, 7 inches long, 
and the bronze end of the scabbard of an antique sword. 

I beg to present to the Academy, on the part of Lord Eamham, a 
very perfect and elegantly formed antique bronze sword-blade, of the 
leaf-shape pattern, 23f inches long, and If broad in the widest portion 
of the blade, with four thorough and three imperfect rivet holes in the 
handle, which is 4 inches in length. It was found in the townland and 
parish of Kildallan, barony of Tullyhunco, county of Cavan, and is one 
of the finest specimens of this description of weapon now in the Aca- 
demy's collection. 

Also, from the same locality, two antique iron spurs, with angular 
rowel stems. 

A bronze ring-brooch, with decorations of an early character, similar 
to those on mortuary urns of the pagan period, and having a stud for a 
jewel or enamel on each side of the pivot on which the pin plays. The 
ring, which is complete, measures 2^ inches in diameter, and the acus 
is 6^ inches long. It also was found in Kildallan. 

An iron basket-hilted sword, found during the drainage operations 
m the townland of Derrigid, in the demesne of Famham, the blade 
of which is very thin, and measures 30^ inches long, by an average of 
an inch broad ; the pummel is a knob of iron, and the tang or handle 
portion between it and the guard is not quite 3 inches long — ^thus show- 
ing, so far at least as the evidence derived from the size of the sword 
handle is concerned, that the modem hand is frilly as small as the 
ancient. A smaller blade, with tang for the haft, two and three quarter 
inches in length. A globular piece of iron, two and three quarter 
inches in diameter, like a crotal, with an aperture on one side. The 
head of a small iron hammer. Three portions of rings, and eleven other 
iron fragments, the uses of which have not been determined. 

An additional collection of articles found in the Tonymore cran- 
noge, already described at page 274, and consisting of: — A piece of 
orpiment, probably used in dying. 

From Andrew Armstrong, Esq., two antique, thin, hand-made, un- 
glazed earthen pots, from Gallemish, in the island of Lewis, Hebrides* 
and there called ** crackens.*' These cooking utensils, which, says the 
dopor, " are made by the women, then baked in a turf fire, and when red 
hot are saturated with milk, stand fire, and were used for boiling ; but 
their use has now been quite superseded by the ordinary metal pot." 
Each is about 8 inches high, and 25 in circumference. 

From lions. B. S. Le Men, keeper of the records of the department 
of Finisterre, two bronze celts of a peculiar character, like some of those 



330 

figured in Part II. of the Museum Catalogue (see p. 385, fig. 283), and 
four casts of other celts, of flint, stone, and bronze, all of which were 
found ID Brittany, and have been described in the " Archseologia Cam- 
brensis" for June, 1860. 

Casts of these were presented to the Museum in April, 1862, by tiie 
Eev. Mr. BamwelL See " Proceedings," vol. viii., p. 153. 

From Henry Cusack, Esq., an ancient bronze pot. 

From Mr. F. Eobinson, a specimen of a three-guinea note (£3 8<. dd,\ 
issued at Boss, county of Wexford, in 1811. 

I also beg to exhibit to the meeting the Gahr Barry, or short crosier 
of St. Breagh, which I have lately procured for the Academy througk 
the Govemment, under the treasure trove regulation. Although not 
much ornamented, it is in a state of great perfection, never having been 
lost, but handed down through the O'Hanlys, of Sliabh Bawn, in the 
county of Eoscommon, the hereditary herenachs of St. Barry, the ruins of 
whose church at Termon Barry, on the Shannon, near Lanesborough, 
still exists. — See Annals of the Four Masters, under A- D. 1238. 

The St. Berach or Barry to whom this ecclesiastical staff or crozier 
is said to have belonged, lived in 580 A. D. It is complete at both ends; 
is only 29 inches long. The staff is, as in all such cases, of yew, 
coated over with brass ; but it wants the crest which surmounted the 
convexity of the crook. Much interest attached to this relic in former 
days, from its being used to swear upon; and it was sent for from great 
distances for this purpose in cases of stolen goods, or defamation, &c. 1 
beg to present to the Academy the box in which it has lain for many 
years. 

I also exhibit the most perfect square Irish beU of which we haTe 
got any notice, and which has just been procured, under the treasure 
trove regulations, firom the neighbourhood of Dungannon, county of 
Tyrone. 

The thanks of the Academy were unanimously voted to the respec- 
tive donors — ^namely, the Conmiissioners of Public Works; Lord Fam- 
ham ; Andrew Armstrong, Esq. ; Mon& B. S. Le Men ; F. Robinson, 
Esq. ; and Henry Cusack, Esq. 

W. H. Habdikos, Esq., read a paper on the 

Application op Photozincogbapht to the Pbobuctiox op Illdbtba- 
tioNs OP Makvsceipts. 

The author advei-ted, as suggestive of the idea, to his narrative of the 
Civil, Gross, and Down Surveys recently read before the Academy, and 
ordered by Council to be published in the " Transactions." 

He exhibited photographs, executed at the Irish Branch of the Ord- 
nance Survey Establishment in the PhoBuix Park, of a Down Sun-ey 
Barony Map of Leyney, in the county Sligo ; and of a Soldier's Map of 



331 

Linds in the county Tipperary, allotted in 1656 to Colonel Henry Prettie, 
ancestor of the Dunally family, for military eervices rendered by him in 
this country. 

He observed that the original maps, although on varying scales of 
320 and 160 perches to the surface square inch, were by the photogra- 
phic process, at will and without the necessity of any calculating medium, 
reduced to a size suitable for illustrating his paper in the * * Transactions;" 
that the scales of the reductions cannot be represented in the usual way 
by numbers ; that the paramount advantage of the photographic over 
all other methods of reduction is the ready facility it possesses of repre- 
senting the original picture on any prescribed area, and that the accu- 
racy with which that operation is performed far exceeds all other known 
methods, and amounts to perfection. 

He farther observed, that these photographs may be zincographed 
to any number; and that he hoped that, as the subject in reference to 
the publication of his MS. mapped townland survey narrative is, by an 
understanding between the Council of the Academy and himself, soon to 
be submitted to the Treasury for publication as a public document of 
much interest and value, the propriety and utility of illustrating the 
narrative with these photozincographed maps will be admitted; and 
that the Lords of the Treasury will authorize Colonel Sir Henry James, 
who so kindly supplied the photographic specimens exhibited to the Aca- 
demy, to complete the requisite number for that purpose — a result that 
would be alike beneficial to science, literature, and the public service. 

' The following letter, addressed to the President, by Sir W. R. Ha- 
xiLToir, wa« read : — 

Obtervatorff, April 27, 1863. 
Mt dear Mb. President, — I have been wishing for your permission 
to report, through you, to the Boyal Irish Academy, some of the results 
to which I have lately arrived, while extending the applications of 
Quaternions, in connexion with my forthcoming Elements. 

I. One set of such results relates to those gauche curves of the third 
degree, which appear to have been first discovered, described, and to 
Bome extent applied, by Professor Mobius, in the Bary centric Calculus 
(1827), and atlterwards independently by M. Chasles, in a Note to his 
Aper^ Hiatorique (1 837) ; and for which our countryman. Dr. Salmon, 
who has done so much for the Classification of Curves in Space, has pro- 
posed the short but expressive name of Twisted Cuhics. 

II. A particular curve of that class presented itself to me in an in- 
vestigation more than ten years ago, and some account of it was 
given in my Lectures, and (I think) to the Academy also, in connexion 
with the problem of Inscrdption of Polygons in surfaces of the second 
order. I gave its vector equation, which was short, but was not suffi- 
ciently general, to represent all curves in space of the third degree : nor 
had I, at the time, any aim at such representation. But I have lately 



332 

perceived, and printed (in the Elements), the strikingly simple, and 
yet complete equation, 

Yap + yp(pp = 0, 

which represents all twUted eubicSf if only a point of the cnrve betaken, 
for convenience, as the origin : <f)p denoting that linear and vectorfime- 
Hon of a vector, which has formed the subject of many former studies 
of mine, and a being a constant vector, while /> is a variable one. 

III. It is known that a twisted cubic can in general be so chosen, 
as to pass through any six points of space. It is therefore natoral to 
inquire, what is the Osculating Htnsted Cubic to a given curve of doable 
curvature, or the one which has, at any given place, a six-paint centad 
with the curve. Yet I have not hitherto been able to learn, from any 
book or friend, that even the conception of the problem of the determi- 
nation of such an oscnlatrix, had occurred to any one before me. Bat 
it presented itself naturally to me lately, in the course of writing oat a 
section on the application of quaternions to cmres ; and I conceive that 
I have completely resolved it, in three distinct ways, of which two seem 
to admit of being geometrically described, so as to be understood wi&- 
out diagrams or ccdculation. 

lY. It is known that the cone of chords of a twisted cubic, having 
its vertex at any one point of that curve, is a cone of the second order, or 
what Dr. Salmon calls briefly a quadrie cone. If, then, a point p of a 
given curve in space be made the vertex of a cone of chords of that 
curve, the quadrie cone which has its vertex at p, and has five-side con- 
tact with that cone, must contain the osculating cubic sought. I hare 
accordingly determined, by my own methods, tiie ^ofM which isthu8<»w 
locus for die cubic : and may mention that I find fifth differentials to 
enter into its equation, only through the second differential of the see(md 
curvature, of the given curve in space. This may perhaps have not 
been previously perceived, although I am aware that Mr. Cayley and 
Dr. Salmon, and probably others, have investigated the problem o'f/w- 
point contact of a plane conic with a plane curve. 

Y. It is known also that three quadrie cylinders can be described, 
having their generating lines parallel to the three (real or imaginary) 
asymptotes of a twisted cubic, and wholly containing that gauche curre. 
Mj first method, then, consisted in seeking the (necessarily real) direc- 
tion of one such asymptote, for the purpose of determining a cylinder 
which, as a second locus, should contain the oscillating cubic sought. 
And I found a cubic cone, as a locus for the generating line (or edge) of 
such a cylinder, through the given point p of osculation : and proved 
that of the six right lines, common to the quadrie and the cubic cones, 
three were absorbed in the tangent to the given curve at p. 

YI. In fact, I found that this tangent, say pt, was a nodal side (or 
ray) of the cubic cone ; and that one of the two tangent planes to that 
cone, along that side, was the osculating plane to the curve, which plane 
also touched the quadrie cone along that common side: while the same 



833 

side was to be caunUd a third timef as being a line of inUrteetim, namely, 
of the quadric cone with the teeond hrameh of the cubic cone, the tangent 
plane to which branch was found to cut the first branch, or the quadric 
cone, or the osculating plane to the curve, at an angle of which the tri- 
gonometric eotangmt was equal to half the differmtial of the radius of 
second curvature, divided hy the differmUial of the are of the same given 
curve. 

YIL It might then have been thus expected that a euhie equation 
could be assigned, of an algebraical /orm, but involving fifth dififerentials 
in its eoeffieiewtSf which should determine the three planet^ tangential to 
the curve, which are parallel to the three asymptotes of the sought 
twisted cubic : and then, with the help of what had been previously 
done, should assign the three quadric cylinders which wholly contain that 
cub ic. 

Yill. Accordingly, I succeeded, by quaternions, in forming such a 
cubic equation, for curves in space generally : and its correctness was 
tested, by an application to the case of the helixy the fact of the six-poini 
contact of my osculating cubic with which weU-known curve admitted of 
a very easy and elementary verification. I had the honour of commu- 
nicating an outline of my results, so far, to Dr. Hart, a few weeks ago, 
with a permission, or rather a request, which was acted on, that he 
should submit them to the inspection of Dr. Salmon. 

IX. Such, then, may be said briefly to have been my first general 
method of resolving this new problem, of the determination of the twisted 
cubic wbich osculates, at a given point, to a given curve of double cur- 
vature. Of my second method it may be sufficient here to say, that it 
was suggested by a recollection of the expressions given by Professor 
Hobius, and led again to a cubic equation, but this time for the determi- 
nation of a coefficient, in a development of a comparatively algebraical 
kind. For the moment I only add, that the second method of solution, 
above indicated, bore also the test of verification by the helix; and gave 
me generally y^a^uMui/ expressions for the co-ordinates of the osculating 
twisted cubic, which admitted, in the case of the helix, of elementary 
verifications. 

X. Of my third general method, it may be sufficient at this stage of 
my letter to you to say, that it consists in assigning the locus of the ver- 
tices of all the quadric canes, which have six-point contact with a given 
carve in space, at a given point thereof. I fbid this locus to be a ruled 
cubic surface, on wMch the tangent pt to the curve is a singular line^ 
counting as a double line in the intersection of the surface with any 
plane drawn through it ; and such that if the same surface be cut by a 
plane drawn across it, ihe plane cubic which is the section has generally a 
node, at the point where the plane crosses that line : although this node 
degenerates into a cusp, when the cutting plane passes through the point 
p itself. 

XI. And I find, what perhaps is a new sort of result in these ques- 
tions, that the intersection of this new cubic surface with the former 

A. I. A. PEOC. — VOL. Vlir. 2 T 



334 

guadrie cone^ consists only of the riffht line ft itself, and of the oscukstmg 
tmsted cubic to the proposed curve in space. 

Xn. These are only specimens of one set (as above hinted) of recent 
results obtained through quaternions ; but at least they may serve to 
mark, in some small degree, the respect and affection, to the Academy, 
and to yourself, vdth which I remain, 

My dear Mr. President, 

Faithftilly yours, 

WiLLIAK BoWAir HAmLTOK. 

The Very Rev, Charlet Gravet, D, D., P, R, L A,, 
Dean of the Chapei Royol^ ffe. 

The following donations were presented to the Museum : — 

1. A cinerary urn, of a peculiar form, ornamented with ribs and 
undulating lines, forming patterns, charged with sloping straight lines, 
made apparently with the teeth of a comb ; height 4 inches, diameter 5 j 
inches. Presented by R. H. Frith, Esq., C. E. 

2. Three small cleft rings, fix>m Thebes, in Egypt, composed of 
alabaster, cornelian, and bronze, or copper plated with gold, like certain 
cleft rings found in Ireland. Presented on the part of Arthur R. Nugent, 
Esq. 

3. Pour flint arrow-heads, said to be recently manufactured at Cam* 
bridge. Presented by F. J. Foot, Esq. 

The thanks of the Academy were returned to the several donors. 



MONDAY, MAY 11, 1863. " 
"William R. "Wilde, Esq., Yice-President, in the Chair. 

On the recommendation of the Council, it was — 

Resolved, — That the sum of £50 be placed at the disposal of ^ 
Council for the purchase of antiquities, and for the arrangement of the 
Museum, for the year 1863-64. 

The Rev. William Reeves, D. D., read a paper *' On Irish Eoded- 
astical Shrines." 

Mr. E. Clibbokn, with the permission of the meeting, read the Mr 
lowing paper : — 

Ok the Sfabits pboduced by the Ibon Ikduction Coil used bt ihk 
Rev. Dr. Callan, of Maykooth. 

Having had an opportunity given me on Tuesday, the 21st ult, by 
the Rev. Dr. Callan, professor of natural philosophy in St Patrick^s 
College, Maynooth, of seeing his gigantic induction electro-magnetic 
helix in fiiU action at his lecture on that day, and having then noticed 



335 

certain phenomena which are not, I belieye, generally known, I venture 
to call attention to them. 

Those I propose to notice here relate altogether to the action of the 
secondary or indaction helix, composed, as Dr. Callan ezpluned to his 
class, of Ihirty miles of iron wire, of about the hundredth of an inch in 
thickness. The wire was wound up into three flat rolls ogr block wheels, 
which were placed at equal distances on the central facies of iron 
rods composing the core. These rods, about three feet long, were bound 
round by a helix of thick copper wire, laid on in three strata, extending 
from about three inches of the^r ends. 

The secondary helix was in connexion with a multiplying apparatus, 
composed of several hundreds of sheets of a large quarto paper with tin 
foil between. them, which was, like the coating on the iron wire, all in- 
sulated by means of varnish invented by the professor. 

The primary or thick copper wire helix, at the time the experi- 
ments I here refer to were peiformed, was in connexion with from one 
to six four-inch plates of Dr. CaUan's galvanic battery ;* and the action, 
though extraordinary in producing sparks or miniature flashes of 
lightning, in some cases sixteen and a half inches long, between the ends 
of the secondary helix, on breaking the contact of Ihe ends of the pri- 
mary helix, was inferior, it was stated, to that of a larger apparatus, 
lately exhibited in London, the cost of which, compared with that con- 
structed by Dr. GaUan, was said to be exorbitant. 

In Dr. Callan's apparatus, every care has been taken to produce the 
greatest philosophical results at a minimum cost. Wood, iron, zinc, 
tinfoil, and paper, are the chief materials. Brass is used only in the 
br^ak of the primary helix, and the nice works connected with it, but 
otherwise everything indicated the greatest economy, combined with 
complete operativeness, equal to any elaborate instrument that could be 
produced in the workshop of the most fastidious electrician. 

The sparks produced by the secondary helix passed, either between 
its two terminal points, or frrom one point to a large slightly concave 
circular disk, to which ike other end of the helix was attached. Under 
certain circumstances, these sparks differed from each other, and also 
from any other electric sparks I had seen before ; their apparent difference 
becoming less and less with the decrease of the distance of the point 
between which the sparks passed. 

When the sparks were over six or seven inches in length, the shape 
of no two of them appeared to be the same. They were all contorted 
more or less ; and when the distance was the greatest, and when the 
spark would hardly pass, its zigzag or broken character gave it the 
appearance of a miniature flash of lightning. In every case the spark 



* Dr. Callan has oommanicated the following details :— One cell gave sparks 7^ 
inches long; two cells gave sparks 12^ inches long; and six cells gave sparks 16| 
inches long. 



336 

was accompanied with a peculiarly aharp disagreeable oiack noise, as if 
two extremely bard tbings bad been struck together ; but no two of tlie 
reports, when the spark was very long, appeared to my ear to be exactly 
the same, some being a little louder or sharper than otiiers. In ordinary 
electric machine sparks, taken from the prime conductor with a ball 
placed at a cartain distance, the sounds are, I believe, unifonnly the 
same, and to my ear more distinct ; but such is not the case with the 
sparks prodaoed by this great induction coil, when they are long. It 
appears as if they must be different also when they are short ; but my 
ear fiedled to notice it, while the eyes of some other observers appeared 
not to notice a difference of another kind in the sparks. 

This is the occasional difference of colour between the right and left 
balves of the sparks produced by the induction heHx, when they are abont 
from three to five inches in length. Supposing an observer to stand in 
ftx)nt of the apparatus, the half of the spark to his left hand, coming 
frx>m the inside terminal, always exhibited more or less a bluish-white 
light, similar to that of sparks produced by approaching some oondnct- 
ing substance towards the prime conductor of a common electric ma- 
chme when in good working order ; but the half of the spark towards 
his right hand, or outside terminal of the helix, had always a different 
oolour. It was a sort of orange-red or salmon-colour, and frdnter than 
the other, and less luminous, — suggesting to a beUever in the doctrine 
of two electric fluids an essential difference in the oolour of each, the 
bluish-white beLog the proper colour of one electricity, the orange-red 
or salmon-colour, the peculiar colour of the other electricity. 

I here merely indicate the difference of oolour observed between the 
different ends of tho sparks produced by the secondary helix, withoat 
proposing any theory to account for it I state the fact as one I ob- 
served, which indicated a characteristic difference between the electric 
sparks produced by this helix and electric sparks produced by anotho' 
agency. 

If one carefully watched the sparks composed of a left half of 
whitish-blue, and a right half of salmon-coloured light, they would see 
very often tlie salmon-ooloured light form a fringe, or rather a case^ 
to tiie other, extending itself towards the lefty beyond the medial p<Hnt, 
up to, if not to the starting-place of the white spark ; which would in 
cases of this kind pass, as it were, through the centre of the 8alm<m-co- , 
loured spark to the place it issued from : yet the eye could not detect 
a difference in the moments of departure of the sparks. The spark 
thus appeared to be one composed of two ooloturs ; and to me it ap- 
peared to always start frx>m the right point. To other observers it ap- 
peared to pass from the left. Hence this apparent difference may be due 
to peculiarity of vision, peoples' eyes having different sensibilities, like 
their ears — a fact well luiown to astronomical observers. In every case 
the duration of the spark may have been so short that it was nearly in- 
stantaneous, though the imi»«88ion of it on the eye might have endured 
as long as any other flash of light of the same intensity. Thus, no 



337 

doubt, it i^peared to exist or giye light muoh longer than it did, we 
judging by our sensations only. 

The character of the short spark sometimes differed from that just 
noticed, the colours extending only half way ; still the two colours con- 
tinued the same, and each held its peculiar character, the blue-white 
light appearing to be compact and uniform, like the centrp of a sheet of 
perfect flame, while the salmon-colour appeared like the edge of the 
flame of a lamp of impure hydrogen, having a character like hair or lu- 
minous filaments, striking away in aU directions into space, but of its 
own peculiar colour. 

In some cases where the difference of colour of the halves of the 
spark were most distinctly observable, as if they did not mix or overlap 
each other, a knob or « ball excrescence appeared in the centre of the 
spark. Its core was always composed of tiie bluish and white light, 
s surrounded with the salmon-coloured. Here in the centre of the space 
between the two points, the advocate of the doctrine of the two electric 
fluids might tell us, they met and fought ; and that while the salmon- 
coloured fluid devoured the blue and whitish fluid, the latter exploded, 
totally destroying all appearance and trace of its enemy. 

When the sparks were long, we could notice a difference in their co- 
lour, and in intensity or quantity, no two sparks appearing to be exactly 
alike, but I did not notice any knobs on those sparks ; yet I suspect that 
there may have been such lumps at every joint, angle, or break, in the 
continuity of the line which these long sparks made in their passage 
through the air, though we did not notice them. 

In machine electricity it is generally said that sparks pass between 
the nearest points, or shortest distances, but this statement is to be re- 
ceived under correction; for sparks taken from prime conductors of 
different shapes are themselves different to each other. And if a prime 
conductor of an electrifying machine be very long, the sparks taken 
from different parts of it are found to strike at different distances; 
BO that, though we may, in general terms, adopt the rule that machine 
electric sparks prefer tiie shortest distances, yet the long sparks pro- 
duced by the induction coil of Dr. CaUan, in not one instance, that 
I observed, adopted that law. On the contrary, they appeared to most 
carefully avoid it, when taken between a point on the right hand and 
the slightly hollowed tin disk on the other. 

According to the eye, the sparks started from the point, and struck 
indiscriminately on every part of the disk; and some of them, more 
wild or eccentric than the others, and as it were to set old-fashioned 
theories at defiance, actually jumped over its edge, and turned about, 
and struck the back of the disk, — ^thus imitating some well authenti- 
cated freaks of real flashes of lightning, which have been seen to go be- 
yond, and, as it were, turn a^ut and strike objects which they had 
apparently attempted to hit, but fiiiling, turned round, and thus accom- 
plished their original purpose in this most extraordinary or unscientific 
manner, as an old electrician might say. 



338 

Heasared from the rightrhand point to the striking spot on ^e left- 
hand disk, or another point used in place of it, the theoretic lengths of 
these sparks might be from fifteen to seventeen inches ; but if we 
considered the twists and differences of direction of their several zig- 
zags, their real length in every case was much more ; and in some 
instances it must have been, at least, twice as great as the distance from 
the point to the spot struck on the disk. 

In several instances the long sparks appeared to the eye to form 
loops, but this was evidently due to their adopting a somewhat spiral 
form. This peculiarity of fonn has been also noticed in lightning. As 
equivalents of flashes of real lightning, these long sparks should possess 
great interest to electricians. 

Though their motion in space appeared ta us to be due to blind 
chance, yet that notion cannot be adopted by physicists, who must 
work out reasons for the whip-lash appearance of these sparks, instead 
of the taut cord or right line direction of other electric sparks. The 
long forked sparks produced by frictional electricity differ materially in 
their form and colour from those produced by the induced helix. The 
two kinds of sparks should be compared together at the same time, and 
as much as possible under similar circumstances. 

No doubt the application of photography to real lightning on the 
great scale, and to these long induced electric sparks on the small scale, 
may lead us to the exact knowledge of their likeness or unlikeness in 
form, which the human eye cannot perceive. This application may hare 
been made already ; but, if it has, I am not aware of the fact. The sug- 
gestion will occur to any one who takes the same view of this subject 
with the author. 

Hitherto the freaks of flashes of lightning in apparently avoiding 
conducting rods, and iron chimneys of steamers, and in striking objects 
near them, whether composed of good or bad conducting mat^ial, are 
faata which throw a great doubt on the advisability of using metallic 
conducting rods to buildings and ships. Theory in these cases is at 
fault : something remains to be worked out, to account for apparent 
exceptions to the law of '* least distance ;" and as these sparks appear 
to be flashes of lightning on a small scale, and perfectly manag^le 
by the experimental philosopher, I notice them here in the hope that 
the law of their forms and directions may be studied by parties who 
have the means at their command for thoroughly sifting and tracing the 
causes of the phenomena noticed in this communication. 

It was observed by Mr. Yeates, who was present at the lecture, that 
though there is a wonderful likeness in the forms of the long sparb 
produced by the induction coil and zigzag flashes of lightning, thej 
were not accompanied with the smell of ozone, which is common to 
lightning and machine electric sparks ; and that, consequently, there 
may be a real difference between the induced electric discharges and 
those which accompany ordinary electric phenomena. Indeed, theoiy 
would lead to the conclusion that these induced sparks are double, an 



339 

inseDsible or almost iofinitely small interval of time separating them ; for 
otherwise they would neutralize each other at the moments of hreaJc of 
contact of the original helix connecting the electrodes of the battery. 

To Dr. Callan we must all feel deeply indebted for the amount of 
labour, care, and intelligence he has devoted to chemical electricity, and 
its extension to the induced electric helix. We must congratulate him, 
also, on the great success which has attended his improvements and mo- 
difications of galvano-electric instruments; which have, by economizing 
their production, brought them within the means of many experimenta- 
lists who, otherwise, could not expect to use or get access to such instru- 
ments ; and, finally, we may hope that he will continue his exertions, 
and his liberality in allowing scientific and curious people to see his 
great iostmments m action — a favour which has led me to make this 
communication, in the hope that it may call more attention to the sub- 
ject of induced electric action, on the great scale realized by Dr. Callan's 
iron helixes and galvanic batteries. 

Mr. JoHir PuBSBB, Jun., M. A., read the following paper: — 
Ov THB Application of Cobioli's Equations of Eelativs Movekent 

TO THE PeOBLEM OF THE GtEOSCOPE. 

Ik treating the problem of determining the apparent* motion of Fou- 
cault's gyroscope, different methods have been adopted.t Probably the 
most satisfactory is that of deducing the equations from the consideration 
of Corioli's "forces fictives" in relative motion. Corioli has shown that if 
the co-ordinate axes to which the movement of a system is referred are 
not fixed, but have a motion of their own in space, we may treat the 
question in all respects precisely as if these axes were fixed, provided we 
suppose superadded to the force (P) which acts upon any molecule 
two others, the first a force (P') equal and opposite to that which would 
impress on the molecule accelerations equal to those of a pomt coincid- 
ing at the instant with the molecule, but invariably connected with the 
moving axes — ^the second force (P"^ perpendicular to the relative path of 
the molecule. Into the value or direction of this last it is unnecessary 
for the present purpose to enter more particularly. J 

* By apparent motloo, hen and afterwarda, is meant the motion that would be ap- 
parent to a spectator on the earth's snrface— that ia, the motion with respect to co-ordi- 
nate axes invariably connected ¥rith the earth ; by absolate motion, lihe motion with 
respect to axes whose direction is fixed in space. 

t This is the course taken by M. Qoet, in a memoir that appeared on the subject of 
relative motion, in tiouville's JoumaL My apology for reopening the question is, that 
in that paper the author seems to me to have needlessly complicated the problem by an 
aasomption which, at first sight, appears calculated to simplify it This will be explained 
io the sequel 

X For the deduction of the expressions for these forces in magnitude and direction. 
Me " Duhamel, Cours de Mecanique,** or C!orioli's original papers in the " Journal de 
I'Ecole Polytechnique." 



340 

If the connexioiiB of the moving Bjretem expressed in lekliTe co- 
ordinates do not involve the time, we dednoe the equation of relative 
vis viva precisely in the same way as that of absolute vis viva is obtained 
when the co-ordinate axes are fixed, — ^i. e., 

2(»ir«)-2(mro")«2f 2(«iiV^) + 2 [:Z(mF'dp^, 

the J 2 {mP^dp'^, the work done by the second set of '' forces fietives" 
vanishes, inasmuch as these forces are perpendicular to the displacements 
of the particles to which they are applied. 

When the motion of the moving axes is one of uniform rotation 
round a fixed line, (P') is evidently a force (wV) along the shortest dis- 
tance from the molecule to the fixed line, and directed outwards from 
this line, F'dj/ = a^rdr, 

2 [ S {mP'dp') = «w»2i» (f* - ro«), 

and the equation of relative vis viva assumes the very simple form 

2 (mv*) - 2 (mi^o*) = 2 j* 2 {mPdp) + «» ( 7-/o), 

where /and /q are the moments of inertia of the moving system mnsd 
the fixed line at the time {t) and at the origin of time (^o)- 

The problem to be solved may be stated as follows : — 

A soHd of revolution turns round its axes of figure with an angoltf 
velocity (n). Its centre of figure being fixed relatively to the earth, and 
the resultant of the earth's attraction being supposed to pass throng 
this fixed centre, it is required to determine the motion of the axis, 

1^. When the axis is restricted to a plane ; 

2^. When the axis is restricted to a right circular cone; 

3^. When the axis is unrestricted. 

If we choose for co-ordinate axes three lines at right angles throngh 
the centre of the gyroscope moving with the earth, tiie motion of theee 
axes may evidently be resolved into two-— a motion of translation oftiie 
origin in a complicated curve in space, and a uniform angular rotatio& 
{w) round an axis* drawn through the origin parallel to the earth's axis. 
The former evidently does not affect the relative motion of the gyroscope, 
and may be (as far as the present purpose is concerned) considered as 
non-existent. 

For the complete determination of the motion of a soHd body roimd 
a fixed point, three equations must be deduced from the djmamical con- 
ditions of the problem. In the present instance, the simplest thai pre- 
sent themselves are the following : — 

* This axU we ahaU call, fat shortness, the polar line. 



341 

I. The component round the axis of fignre of the [ahsolutel angular 
velocity s Constant « n. This follows directly from Euler's well-known 
equation for the motion round a principal axis, — 







4- 


{A- 


-B)pq^ 


N. 


the 


present ease, 












A = B 


jr= 


.0 


dr 
'''It" 






Since component of the absolute Angular Telocity round any line = com- 
ponent of apparent angular velocity + component of angular velocity of 
the earthy the apparent angular velocity round the axis of figure 

a»-iu cos ^y (1) 

where {0') = angle between axis of figure and polar Une. 

II. The equation of relative vis viva^ which in this case assumes the 
simple form. 

2 {mi^) - 2 {my^^) = ««. (/- I,)* (2) 



* It is at this point that myeouneand my results diffiar from those of )L Quet He 
writes this equation, 2 (mv^) - 2 (mro*) s 0. To explain the origin of the di8crepan<7 — 
instead of choosing our co-ordinate axes passhig through the centre of the gyroscope, let ns 
choose them passing through the centre of the earth. The eqoation of rJative via vioa 
would than be 

2i»ir» - SmV =2 J2« P<{p+ 2 / ^mF'dp'. 

Where jp as force of earth's attraction, I' = centriftigal force dne to earth's dnxmal rotation. 
These two forces might be combined for each element into their resultant (J2), the force ge- 
nerally understood when we speak of ** gravity," and the last member of the equation might 
be writtten 2jSmJ2({r. Now, in strict accuracy, neither of these forces P andP'is uniform in 
magnitude and direction throughout the body of the gyroscope, and, therefore, neither of 
theseintegrals vanish. But in seeking to simplify the problem by an assumption sufficiently 
near the truth, two courses are open to us : — One, that taken by M. Quet to assume the 
compound force ( J2) as uniform in magnitude and direction, and that its resultant, accord- 
ingly, passes through the centre of figure. He thus gets rid of the second member altogether. 
The other course, which I have followed here, is to treat the earth's attraction only mb uni- 
form, and make no such assumption about the centrifugal force, but to replace 2^mBdr by 
its accurate value, ul^{I- To). This hypothesis, the uniformity of the earth's attraction, re- 
qnues only to give it vslidity that the dimensions of the gyroscope be small compared with 
the earth ; while M. Qnet's assumption requires, in addition, that the earth's angular velo- 
city be smaU compared with that of the gyroscope. Now, it seems more logical, in discussing 
phenomena arising from the earth's rotation, to include all terms springing from that 
source. The differential equations so found possess this advantage, that they would not 
cesse to hold good were the earth's angular velocity supposed of co-ordinate msgnitude 
with the gyroeoope'a Moreover, applying the equations to the case where the axis of the 
g)nrosoope js unconstrained, we obtain on this hypothesis an exact solution ; while M. Quet, 
after an daborate analysis, has to remain satisfied with an approximation, the simplifying 
assumption which he made at the beginning precluding him from obtaining a solution in 
finite terms. 

a. I. A. pRoc, — VOL. vrii. 2 z 



342 

m. The equation of rdatiTe moments lonnd the polar line, 

Where r = projection of radius yector firom the origin to any element on 
a plane perpendicnlar to the polar line, 

-jj- B angular velocity of this projection. 

at . 

This equation can he very easily proved firom the consideration of Corioli's 
forces ; hut it is unnecessary to resort to them, for it is evidently but 
another form of the equation of the conservation of absolute momentB 
round the same line, 



smce 



2(«^f)-s(«H^)^=0, 



d^ dit 

absolute -^ = relative -^ + w. 
at at 



Now, let C = moment of inertia round axis of figure, 

A = same round any axis perpendicular to this, 
C 

then, since the relative motion of the gyroscope may always be Teaolred 

into two, its [apparent] rotation round its own axis, n - w cos 9, and an 

dt 
angular velocity -^ round an axis at right angles to its own axis, 
at 

therelative w wp«=ui(^j + <7(n- wcosOy. 

Also /= C cos «^ + -4 sin «d = (C-A) cos '^ + -4; 
.-. equation (2) assumes the form 

^(^y+ 0{n - w cos ^y = «» (C^A) coB^e + Const 
Or, 

(^ J = 2 WW cos - <u»co8"^ + Const (4) 

If the axis is restricted bo as to be compelled to trace out a particnlar 
curve on the unit sphere, the equation of this curve gives another rela- 
tion between (s) and (0), which combined with tlus determines the 
motion. 



343 



FntsT Casb.— 2Xd Ax%9 U rutrieted to move inagiom Plane. 

Let (P) be the trace of the polar line on the nnit sphere, {NX) that 
of the fixed plane ; (X) that of the axis 
of the gyroscope ; or, to define it exactly, F^ 
of that end of the axis on looking down 
which the rotation of the gyroscope 
would appear contrary to the moyement fi I 
of the hands o^a watch — ^that is, would 
appear in the same direction as the 
earth's rotation. 27 i 

Draw the arc PiV perpendicular to 
20; let iKP= A iO:=fl>; 

de d(h 
then cos = cos /3 cos <f>, and tt = ■^; 

(U at 

.-. by equation (4) 

[■yi) " ("^ ) =2m« cos/3(cos0-co8 0o) -*^ cos '/S (cos "0 

-cos*0,)« (5) 

Such is the rigorous difierential equation for determining the motion. 
In its complete form it is unintegrable. 

If we confine ourselyes to terms of the first order, and suppose the 
axis of the gyroscope started at relative rest, it becomes 




fd</>y 



The motion is therefore identical with that of a simple pendulum whose 
length, I = — ^—3 oscillating about the line (IT). When the vibra- 

tions are small, the period of a double vibration T 



y/mw cos /3 
_ jAeeep ^ p ^j^gj^^ I* is a mean proportional between the earth's 

y o 



o 

period of rotation and the gyroscope's. 



344 



Sbcohd Cask — The Ax%% is restricted to a right CiretUar dm. 



Let {€) be the trace on the unit-sphere of 
the axis of the cone (P) and (X) as before. 

Let (CX) the angular radius of cone 
= a, (PC) = 7 angle FCX=S; 

,, <fo . off 

then -Ti = sin o -^ 

at aJb 

Cos ^ = cos a cos 7 + sin a sin 7 cos {. 

Equation (4) becomes, on substituting these ^. 
values, and dividing by sin '7, 



K-tA - -^ = 2w - — (m - <tf cos a cos 7) (cos f - cos fo) 

- w> sin »« (cos »f - cos «fo) • • • (6)* 

Confining ourselves to terms of the first order, and supposing, as before, 
the axis started at relative rest, we have 




(§)■= 



^ sin o , w ^ V 

2 -: m« (cos f - cos fo)- 

sin 7 ^ » • ^ 



Hence it follows that the axis (X) does not go all round the cone, but 
vibrates about that edge of the cone which makes the least angle with 
the polar line, that edge for which f = 0. The length of the equivalent 
simple pendulum and the period of a double oscillation, when the Tito- 
tions are small, may be found, as in the last case [which is, indeed, in- 
cluded in this as a particular case] to be 



/ = 



sin 7 
sin a 



mo} ^ fjtw em a ^C 



sin 7 jif 



sin a 



* Not long dDce, Professor Gartb, of Qaeen*s College, Galway, pnblished an mterest- 
ing paper on ibis subject. In his investigation of the question he has followed an entirely 
different method from that here adopted. The origin of the present paper was an codes- 
voor to trace out the cause of the difference between Professor Curtis' results and those 
arriyed at hj Professor Price, of Oxford, in the chapter on the gyroscope, in the latelj 
published fourth volume of the Infinitesimal Calculus. 

The differential equations (5) and (6) for the motion of the axis, in the last two easei, 
precisely agree with those given in Professor Curtis' pamphlet, and diflfer firom the coi^ 
responding equations in Professor Price's work, — the reason being that the latter fottovs 
M. Quet in his assumption, and writes the relative vit viva » Const. 



345 



Thibd Case. — The Axia i$ unrettrteted, 

Denotmg as before the polar line and the axis of the gyroscope by 
P and X, let the angle which the arc {PX) makes with a fixed arc 
through (P) = yfr ; the relative angular motion of the gyroscope may be 
resolved into three rotations : — 

^ n - « cos ^ round X; 

exa -— round an axis in plane PX at right angles to (X) ; 

do ' 

-jr round an axis perpendicular to plane (OP). 

Now, by the equation (3) of relative moments round ( 0), 

dytr 
wnO.AemO'^'^coaO. C{n - w cob 0) ■¥ (C-- A) to coa^O^ Const; 
dt 

or, if the axis be started at relative rest, 

Sin*^-~ « - m(cos ^ - cos ^o) + « (cos *0 - cos *0o, (7) 

and by the equation (4) of relative vis viva, 

BiBL^ef ^ J + f — J = 2m« (cos ^ - cos ^o) 

- i«» (cos «^ - cos »^o) (8) 

multiplying (7) by (2iw), adding it to (8), and writing yr'for Y^ + wt, we 
obtain 

On malring the Same substitution in (7), it becomes 

dyl/ 
Sin«0 -^ « wi (cos ^0 - cos ^) + III sin '^o. (10) 

(^) evidently represents the angle the arc (PX) makes with an arc 
through P retreating with an angular velocity (w) ; and the equations 
(9) and (10) between (0) (V^) and (i), are those of the curve described 
by the axis of the gjrroscope with respect to this retreating co-ordinate 



346 

arc A very ready way of inte^tmg these equationB is to throw ihem 
into i^e following somewhat d&erent form : — 

Let (jp) = perpendicular arc let fedl from (P) on the great cirde tan- 
gent to the spheri<»l cnrye whose running co-ordinates are (0) and {i/)\ 
thesHf hy an easy application of ITapier's roles for the solution of right- 
angled spherical trumgles, 

•-. equations (10 and (11) may he written 

rr = const B CO sin ^Of (H) 

at 

Sin « = — ?-T- (cos Oo- cose) -¥011 ^o- (12) 

■^ « Bin ^0 

Equation (12) answers to that of a curre in piano in terms of the radius 
vector and the perpendicular on the tangent The expression for the 
radius of spherical curvature coirespondmg to the well-known foixmila 

dp 

acoBV 
[See Orayes' translation of Chasles on '* Cones and Spherical Conies."] 

Applying this expression to the equation of the present curye, we 



get 



«iT* «» T> ,. .,«Bmft 

Cot Jc = — ; — T-, or -S= const = tan"' : 

10 sm ^0 m 



.*. the axis of the gyroscope describes a circukr cone of a semi-angk 
tan-* ^L^JlLi!^ with an angular velocity -r— ^ f -JT ) 

•"v^m^+w^sin'^o' 

while the axis of the cone revolves round the polar line in a direction op- 
posite to the eartii's rotation with an angular velocity {u) ; in other 
words, constantiy points to the same fixed star. 

For completeness, I have thus solved the case where the axis is un« 
constrained by the same methods as the other two. 



347 

* 

A more rapid solution may, however, be obtained by the ordinary 
equations of [absolute] via viva and absolute moments thus : — 

Tracing the absolute motion of the axis in space on the unit-sphere, 
let {8) be the starting position of the 
axis, aQ the direction in which from 
its connexion with the earth, or any 
other cause, this axis begins to move, 
(Z) any other position of the axis; 
M, a fixed line in a plane perpen- 
dicular to SQ; let MX^^, XMS 
« f , 7 s starting angular Telocity of 
(Z) ; then, by equation of absolute 
visvivaj 5^ 

and by equation of moments round 3f, 

Sin'f f ^ j = m (cos f o - cob f ) + 7 sin fo- 

Eliminating [^|, 
i'f(§y = ^8in'{:-{m(cosfo-oosf) + 7BinCo)«; 




an' 



or, if if be chosen, so that tan ilf /S a tan ff^ » 



m 



sm 
which necessitates 



""'^(U"^ (»»• + 7") (cos fo - cos f)« = 0, 



^|) = 0;and:r=fo=tan-«£,andf = const = 5^^-v^^ 

If the starting velocity of the axis is solely due to its connexion 
with the earth before it was set free. 



7 = ii;sm^o; 

^ . wsin^o 
{: = tan-» ; 



-Z = v^ffia+4w»sin^o 
at 



348 
or fhe axis describes a small cucular cone, whose semi-angle = tan~^ 
l*^ '\ with a unifonn angular velocity in a period 



2n- 



Still more briefly, the same results may be arrived at by the eonsi- 
deration of Foinsot's resultant couple ; for it is evident on inspection 
that the axis if thus chosen is the axis of the resultant couple of all Uie 
motion with which the gyroscope is started, l^ow, the axis and magni- 
tude of the resultant couple remain fixed; therefore if is always tiiis 
axis, and G its moment, 

= \/C*«? + il«io«Bin»^o, 

= -^a/«»* + «* sin*^o; 

and since (Cn), the component of the resultant couple round the axis of 
figure - G cos^, it follows that 

J, Cn m .. to an Oft 
cos {:= const e-7r= •— r — — -. — — - , or tan f = . 

Again, the component of the resultant couple round an axis in the plane 
(XM) perpendicular to (X) « 6'sinf = -4sinf — , 

,\-^ = — = ^/tn^ + n* sin'^o> as before. 
at A 

The result in the unrestricted case may be thus recapitulated : — 
If the axis of the gyroscope could be started in a position of absolute 
rest, no angular motion being communicated to the axis either by the 
earth or the experimenter, it must always continue so, pointing to the 
same fixed star. When it is not so started, but the axis at the moment <^ 
detachment has a velocity (7) in a given plane, it describes a circular 
cone round a fixed line in space, the semi-angle of the cone being 

tan-*-^, 
m 

and the period of description 

2ir 



When this startiug velocity (7) is solely due to its connexion with ihe 
earth before detachment, 7 « n; sin ^o* & quantity generally so small com- 
pared to (m), that the minute arch described by the extremity of the 
axis would appear an absolute point under the most powerful mioo- 
scope. 



349 

It might be supposed that if this infinitesimal natation were pre- 
vented by restricting the axis to a dnmlar cone round the polar line, the 
axis would still, as before, follow a fixed star. But this is not so: the 
relative curve described by its extremity is a spherical cycloid, and the 
initial tendency of the axis, when set free, being to move towards the 
polar line, it follows that when this motion is prevented, it remains at 
relative rest. 

There are one or two points connected with this problem which it 
may be interesting to examine into. 

1°. Supposing the axis of the gyroscope fixed so as to be compelled 
to move vdth the earth, what force would it exert to break its bonds ? 

Let F be the polar ime ; 

XX' two consecutive positions of 
the axis of the gyroscope ; 

QQf the axes of the resultant 
couple of all the motion the gyro- 
scope has at X and X^ then G 

= v/CV+ii'«»sin«^o, the axis of the 
couple added by the connexions in the 
time (<^, which changes the position 
of G from Qi/o Qfy must lie in the plane 
QQ! at right angles to Q, the plane of 
the couple being the plane OQ, let its 
moment = Ndt^ 

then -^- = . = QQf^XX' quam proximo, 

8 ft? sin ^0 ^9 
.*. iV= (? . w sin ^0 = Cnui sin ^o quam proximo, 

that is, the moment of the couple of constraint (iV) = that of couple, 
which, if acting round the axis to stop the spin, would bring the gyro- 

1 
scope to rest in the time — r— r- , or that of a sidereal day divided by 

^ 117 Bin ^0 

27 sin ^0- 

This will serve as a measure of the friction to be overcome before 
the apparent motion of the axis could take effect. 

2 . In the preceding investigation the resultant of the earth's attrac- 
tion has been supposed to pass through the centre of the gyroscope, and 
therefore to exercise no influence on its motion. 

In strict accuracy, of course, this is not so, inasmuch as the earth's 
attraction upon the different parts is neither imiform in magnitude nor 
direction. The question arises, what is the error induced by supposing 
it BO ? Assuming the earth a sphere, it is evident that its attraction has 
no moment either round the axis of figure, or round the vertical through 
the centre of the gyroscope. 

R. I. A. PBOC. — VOL. Vni. 3 A 




350 

Choosing thia yertdcal for axis of (s) and the axis of (x) in vertical 
plane through the axis of the gyroscope, the components of the earth's 
attraction on any element dm are easily seen to be 

where i2 » the radius of the earth, 



-S'^' B»' ^^B*' 



( Neglecting terms with coefficients-^ . ] 

moment round the axis of (y) = 2 { (^ X - xZ) dm\ 

= - -~ 2 txdm, 
Jt 



{: 



To determine this, let s V be the oo-ordinates with respect to the axis of 
the gyroscope, and a line at right angles to it in the same Terdcal 
plane, the axis of (y) being left unaltered ; then 

' 8 = «' cos V - 0?' sin I*, 
^ « = s' sin v + «' cos f, 

when V = inclination of the gyroscope to the vertical ; 

3^ 
.'. if = - -^ sin I' cos v 2<?»i {t^ - a/*), 

since 2(^ (sV) = 0, 

or -~ sin v cos v (C - A\ 

this moment {Af)^ acting downwards in the vertical plane passing 
through the axis of the gyroscope, will be the sole effect of the earth's 
attraction. It will produce terms in the equations with a coefficient 



(4)- 



These terms will be, of course, inappreciable when compared with the 
terms whose coefficient is (m«) ; but they will be far greater than the 
terms which have (a^) as a factor. We cannot, therefore, in these 
equations make (m) equal cypher, and assume that the result will re- 
present what happens when ^e gyroscope is started without any motion 
round its axis. 

All such conclusions would be based on the imaginary hypothesis of 
the equality of the earth's attraction at different points of the gyro- 
scope. 

That the inequality of attraction would materially affect the result 
when the velocity of the spin is of the same order as («) may be shown 
as follows : — Supposing the gyroscope placed in its frame without spin, 



351 

and leaying out of consideration the rotation of the earth, its motion 
would be that of an oBcillation in a vertical plane, determined by the 
equation 

When the starting position of the axis is but slightly inclined to the 
verticaly and the oscillations are small, 

the period of vibration = /j? . /_^ 



A 



'i 



j^ 6^ minutes, nearly, 



a motion far more rapid than in this case (i. a, when the gyroscope is 
placed in its frame without spin) could arise from the earth's rotation. 
3^. In the preceding analysis the problem discussed has had a purely 
theoretical significance, the rings which realize the conditions proposed 
being left out of consideration. How will their inertia modify the 
results ? In the first two cases treated there is no difficulty in includ- 
ing them in the moving system. Suppose in Case I. the axis confined 
to a plane by rendering immoveable tiie outer ring ; let Ci Ai be the 
moments of inertia of the inner ring round an axis perpendicular to its 
plane, and an axis in its plane ; applying the equation of relative vts 
viva to the whole moving system, the equation which replaces (5) will 
be 

A — ^"J ^ «>*C0S*/3 (cos *0 - COS *(f)Q) . 

A 4* Ai 

If we compare this with equation (5), it is evident that, omitting terms in 
(n^), the only change to be made in the solution of that case is to suppose 
(m) to represent 

f-j — T"**)* instead of f-jn I as before. 

Again, the axis may be restricted to a right circular cone (as in Case IL), 
by connecting together the two rings, their planes being set making 
with each other an angle («) equal to the angular radius of the required 
cone, and leaving the exterior ring free to revolve round one of its own 
diameters. Neglecting terms in (o^), the results already obtained hold, 
supposing (m) now to stand for 

Cn sin 'a 
-4 sin •« + ilf + Ai cos 'a + Ci sin 'a ' 



352 

Lastly, in ''the unreetricted case," where both rings must be left 
free to move, let the line round which the outer revolves be placed 
parallel to the earth's axis. Including the rings in moving system in 
this case, and appljHbg aa before the equations of relative 9w vku and 
telative moments, I have reduced the determination of the motion of the 
axis to the following pair of equations : — 

d^t Cn (cos gp - cos g) 4- wEp . 

where ^= -4 sin '^ + ^i cos "^ + Ci sin 'd + A^. 

It win be at once seen that an exact solution to correspond with a win- 

tion of this case, when the rings are not included, is not to be hoped 

for. It may, however, be readily shown that, to a very high degree of 

approximation, the motion of the axis is still that of a retrograde rotation 

(tti) round the polar line, combined with an infinitesimal conical nuta- 

do 
tion; for, equating -=7 to cypher, and neglecting terms in (^w^), the limit- 

ing values of will be found to be 0^ and (^o - 2p), where 



P^ 



Cn sin Oq 



Assuming ^ = its mean value [^0 -p] + y> aiid omitting terms of a 
higher order than (y), we get on substituting in (15) 



(^*''.)(i)'' 



or writing 



Cn sin 0^ 



|. = -^V^^n7 ff^p COB (qt), (17) 

the arbitrary constant vanishing, since ff=p when ^ « 0. 

Again, -j^ + -^ = Sr^ y = « cos {qt), sin ^0 (^-^ + «* j 

= (^} say = '^ sin 9^ cos {qi); 



353 
.: z =^ an (gt), (18) 

where,,' =!^^^^(^iB. 
Cn 

These equations (17) and (18) eyidently answer to a notation of the 
extremity of the axis, not in a circle, as when the rings are left out of 
consideration, but in an ellipse whose semi-axes are (jp) and {p'), and 
the period of nutation 

2 ' 



MONDAY, MAT 26, 1863. 

The YsBT Bet. Chables Oka.tbs, D. D., President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following extract of a letter fix)m F. J. Foot, 
Esq., to the Rev. Professor Haughton : — 

''Athlone, Mas 18, 1868. 

''Ok the evening that I read my botanical paper at the Academy, 
in reply to a question put to me by Dr. Osborne, I stated positively that 
digitalis grows on the limestone of Burren. Since then I mentioned, 
at the Katural History Society, of its occurring plentiftilly in the neigh- 
bourhood of Mullingar, and also near this. Now, most of the Floras 
say of digitalis, that it d^€% not occwr in limestone districts, 

*' I find that candour demands of me to modify my statement a little. 
Quite true that digitalis grows in Burren and in the midland counties ; 
but it always grows on cherty limestone, or its debris. I must allow that 
I never saw either digitalis or heather growing on pure unsiliceous lime- 
stone. In Burren there are many very siliceous beds of limestone, and 
on them, in shady places, digitalis is by no means uncommon. Where 
it occurs at Mullmgar and in this neighbourhood, the beds are what has 
been called ealp, i. e. black earthy limestone, with bands of chert and 
shale. 

" In &ct, if one meets digitalis in a limestone district, they may feel 
pretty certahi that they are on, or very near to, the black calpy lime- 
stone." 

The Bev. Samuel Haughton, M. D., read a paper " On the Chemical 
and Mineral Composition of the Granites of Donegal.'' 



354 

MONDAY, JUNE 8, 1863. 
The Ybht Bey. Ghablbs Os/ltes, D. J):, Presideot, in the Chair. 
CSharles Neville Bagot^ Esq., was elected a memher of the Academy. 
B. R. Maddek, M.R.L a., read the foUowing paper : — 
On Ancient Lubkaby Tjlajtdb and Foegsbies in Spain and Italy, ajto 

THEIE BEABINGS ON EVENTS BECOBDED IN IbISH AND OTHSB ClUIC 

Annals. 

1. Joaimes Aimius de Yiterho, a Dominican friar: — ^His pretoided 
discovery of long lost works of Berosos and Manetho, and of variouB 
fragments of celebrated writers of antiquity ; his &brication of inscrip- 
tions purporting to be ancient, on marble dabs, in the latter part of the 
fifteenth century. 

2. Curzio Inghiramio : — His pretended discovery of Etroscan in- 
scriptions in the seventeenth century. 

3. Forged predictions and remarkable literary frauds connected with 
the discovery of the remains of St. Cathaldus, in Naples, in the fifteenth 
century. 

4. Father Higuera:—His fictitious Ecclesiastical AnnalB of tiie 
Church of Spain, ascribed to Flavins Lucius Dexter, a cotemporary aiid 
friend of St Jerome, of the fifth century. 

5. Ft^ndoBM Histonae, not solely products of foreign lands and of 
former ages. 

The migration from Spain into Ireland, and the establishment, in the 
latter country, of a Spanish colony some centuries prior to Chiistianitj, 
and the alleged descent from that colony of a long line of rulers of Scy- 
tho-Iberian origin, referred to in Irish annals, and largely treated of by 
Keating, O'Flaherty, M'Geoghegan, and O'Connor, find strong confir- 
mation in Spanish chronicles, and the writings of several historians of 
Spain* We find in these Spanish references (which I insert m exUnto 
in another paper), many important notices of this migration, and the 
protracted and widely-spread calamity of a great drought and dearth in 
Spain which preceded it, of which, strange to say, little is known, or 
at least noticed, in our historical literature. 

Of the great drought and dearth which prevailed over Spain for a 
period of twenty-suL years, and the consequent migrations from the 
north-western shores of Spain (according to several of the Spanish his- 
torians), we find accounts, more or less detailed, in the works of Florian 
D'Ocampo, Garibay, Escolan, De la Huerta y Vega, Gandara, Pray 
Francesco Diago, Fray Francesco Sota, Doctor Francesco de Pisa, Mari- 
ana, Mohedanno, &c. 

But in several of these chronicles we find the frtbulous histories of 
Joannes Annius de Yiterbo have corrupted the Spanish annals frt>m the 
fifteenth century to an astonishing extent. Suppositious lines of kings 
from Tubal down to the time of the Komans, and chronological data 



355 

connected with them, hare been adopted from the pages of the author 
of the BpnriouB Berosus ; so that the ascertaiiunent of the data of any 
important eyent, such as the great drought and dearth in Spain, and 
sabsequent migrations into Irdand^ has been rendered extremely diffi- 
cult. 

This difficulty, in reference to affSedrs connected with Ireland, has 
indnoed me to devote some attention to the subject of the fabrications of 
&biilous history of Annius de Yiterboi and some other wnters of a later 
period. 

Annius must have spent a large portion of his life in the con- 
coction of his gigantic literary forgeries. He was not impelled by 
poverty to perpetrate them; nor was he induced by the obscurity of a 
bw condition to seek literary notoriety by means that were imworthy 
of a man of letters. The perversion of mind which leads to a total ob- 
livion or unconsciousness of the difference between truth and falsehood 
is a form of monomania, with which persons who have to do with the 
care and supervision of lunatics are conversant. 

It is true, we do not find the ruling passion of a perverted mind en- 
tirely devoted to one exclusive object, — ^the delight and labour, perhaps, 
of a whole lifetime, — ^the concoction of forged documents, and the reduc- 
tion of the fabulous materials into the order, method, form, and appear- 
ance of genuine history, described in medical books as one of the many 
existing kinds of partial insanity that physicians have to deal with. 

But this form of monomania, nevertiieless, does exist. On what other 
grounds but those which partial insanity i^irnish, would it be possible 
to account for men of great erudition, — ecclesiastics of a high position 
and of good repute ; persons well considered in society, in easy circum- 
stances; men like the author of the fabulous historical fragments of 
Berosus, and of the equally fabulous Annals of Flavins Lucius Dexter, 
devoting a large portion of their lives to the perpetration of great lite- 
rary frauds, requiring long-continued intellectual labours, by means of 
which no pecuniary advantage was to be gained, nor personal interest to 
be promoted. 

There is one thing very evident in the insanity of literary forgers 
and fiEd)ricator8 of *' fabulous histories :" that the predominant idea in 
the minds of all these impostors is the assertion of the antiquity of the 
origin of their nation, or the glorification of the character and achieve* 
ments of the inhabitants of the city or town to which they belonged, or 
of the Church most immediately connected with it. 

IJTSRABT FSATTDS OF JOAKITES AJXVIUB DE VITEBBO. 

No fabricator of documents purporting to be ancient historical re- 
cords ever attained the same unenviable notoriety as this member of the 
Dominican order. He was bom, some say, in 1432, others, in 1437, in 
Viterbo — ^became a person of considerable eminence and erudition — was 
held in high estimation in his order — was made a doctor of theology->^b- 
tained a high official position in the court of Pope Alexander YI. He 



356 

possessed a very eztesBiye knowledge of ancient history, and especially 
that of Eastern countries. Bos native place of Yiterbo was an ancient 
town of Etruscan origin and celebrity, and in very early life he deroted 
himself to the study of Etruscan antiquities with great zeal and enthu- 
siasm. It is admitted, even by those who consider him an impostor, 
that he was a man of vast oriental and antiquarian erudition. He died 
in Home, in 1502. 

Two editions of his historical fabrications, entitled '' Antiquitatiim 
Yariarum volumina octodecim,'' are in my possession, both in 4to, one 
published by Joannes Petit, in Jodoco Badio, 1512 ; the other, by the 
same Petit, in 1515. The work is divided into seventeen books. The 
fifteenth book, headed '^ Super Berosum,'' contains the historical frag- 
ments ascribed to Berosus, entitled '' De Antiquitatibus Berosi,"* of 
which the commentaries of Annius form the principal part 

In the introductory chapter to Berosus, Aiinius says : — ^' In laadem 
Berosi" — ^he knew the Greek tongue, and '* taught the Athenians the 
Chaldean sciences, especially astronomy, in which they excelled." He 
quotes Pliny in confirmation of the account given by some ancient writers 
of the great honour in which Berosus was held by the Athenians. " The 
cause," says Annius, " of Berosus writing and transmitting these Chal- 
daic traditions was because the Greeks traced back their hutory only to 
the time of the Xing of Greece, Phoroneus Prisons, and that their history 
was mixed with many errors concerning ancient matters. 

" Beirosus (according to Annius) divided this work of his into five 
books: — 

'' In the Ist, he relates what the Chaldeans wrote of the times 
before the first deluge. ^ 

'' In the 2nd, he treats of what they wrote of the genealogies of the 
prinueval gods — Fritnorum Deorum — idter the deluge. 

'' In the 3rd, what they wrote concerning the ancient father JMut, 
whom they call iNToah. 

" In the 4th, what was written of the antiquities of the kingdoms of 
the whole world in general. 

" In the 5th, explanations of each kingdom referred to." 

The sixteenth book of the '' Antiquitates" of Annius contains the 
fragment of Assyrian history ascribed to Manetho the Egyptian, and is 
headed, ** Super Supplementum Manethonis ad Beromm.^* The text and 
commentary occupy fourteen pages. The text hardly extends to a tenth 
part of the matter of this book. 

Not one word is said by Annius in the introduction to either of 
" these long lost works" of Berosus and Manetho, of the mode in which 
they were discovered by him. There are very conflicting accounts as to 
the way in which Annius pretended to have come by these alleged an- 
cient historical treasures. Some writers assert that he declared these 



« Annius says the ancient title of the Chaldaic fragmenta waa " Defloratio Babjloooe 
Berosi Chaldaict." 



357 

fragments were inscribed on metallic plates, which he discovered in the 
vicinity of Viterbo ; others say the inscriptions were on marble ; but 
Tooron, the Dominican historian of the notabilities of his order, flatly 
contradicts both, and says the documents which contained this historical 
matter came into the hands of Annius from an Armenian priest. The 
esprit de carps of members of all societies prevails not unfrequently in 
their literature over scrupulosity and the exercise of critical acumen. 

If Tooron had read the commentary of Annius on the so-called frag- 
ment of Manetho, or supplement of his to Berosus, he must have found 
in the concluding lines of the flfteenth book, at the termination of the 
commentary on Berosus, page 145, and in the concluding lines of the 
sixteenth book, likewise at the termination of the commentary on Mane- 
tho, page 152, positive evidence that Annius relied on the idleged dis- 
covery of inscribed stones for the interpretation he has given of certain 
names which occur in the text of his alleged Chaldaic and Egyptian- 
authors. 

By means of an Etruscan inscription, Lucumonus is proved to be a 
place whose population, as well as ^at of Yetujonia, was comprised in 
the ancient Viterbum or Voltuma. The ancestors of Annius are made 
out of Etruscan origin — ^in Veia, Verissa, V^tulonia, Voltuma, or Viter- 
bum — and are given an origin as early as the Theban Hercules. By this 
illustrions founder a celebrated tower, it is shown, was built at Viter- 
bum. 

And at the end of the work of Annius (lib. xvii. Questiones, p. 171), 
the veracious author says that his '' veracissimus Berosus" expressly 
states that Isis came into Libyssum, ^'Latii Gampum,'' from Libya, 
and was present at the nuptials of Cybele and Jasius. And the 
first bread, says Berosus, that was made in Etruria was at the nuptials 
of Jasius, in Vetulonia. And then ** Vetulonia est Viterbum," says 
Annius. But what is to be done with Lybissus ? The Lybissus of noto- 
riety,'^ ubi primum constitit Ceres," was in the Eoman territory. Annius 
at once solves the difficulty, as he does in numerous other places, with a 
discovery of an ancient inscribed stone. ** What if it should prove Ly- 
bissa is a Vetulonian region ?" And then another difficulty is similarly 
surmounted. Vetulonia was a regal city, and Vetulonia is now proved to 
be Viterbum. Then Veiura is found by an inscription to be a town of 
the Viterbans, " Porro subscriptio ita dicit," &c. Then, again, a place 
has to be sought for, named by Berosus from the father of Cybele, 
one Sypo ; this has to be identified with SypaHs, a place in the region 
of Vetulonia. And all that is desired is effected by another inscrip- 
tion: — 

'* Cybelariom exciBom mannor: ubi haec ad aententiam scribimtiir.*** 

In the 2nd book, page 15, of the '' Institutiones" of Annius, there 
is an account of six ancient marble slabs, with inscriptions which 
treat of the antiquities of Etruria. These, the author states, were dug 

* Ub. xvii., Qoestio 40. 
B. I. A. PROG. VOL. Vni. o B 



358 

up out of the ground, and have reference to Viterbo, and its dependent 
towns and their divinities. 

At page 17, same book, he states a most ancient inscribed stone was 
found in Vetulonia, with certain words setting forth the foundation of 
some Etruscan colonies by the Egyptian Hercules. 

He states that, although the Etruscans held the Greeks in great ab- 
horrence, they used their letters recording their antiquities. But dates 
of discovery and names of discoverers of those inscribed stones are not 
given ; and all particulars as to the mode by which the long-lost writings 
of Berosus and Manetho came into his hands are eschewed. 

But the concocter of fabulous histories has found an advocate in oar 
own times. A French writer, well versed in ancient literature, con- 
nected with Celtic history and antiquities, Mons. D'Urbain, of the Celtic 
Academy of Paris, and other societies, in his " Histoire des Premiers 
Temps de la Gaule," &c.,* gives the entire text of the " Defloratio 
Berosi Chaldaica," and also a French translation of it. Mons. DTr- 
bain introduces the "Defloratio" with these observations: — "That 
which we have of the highest antiquity relating to the Celtes is 
found in the extracts from Berosus, published by Annius of Yiterbo, 
which he had received from an Armenian priest, a native of a conn- 
try where the work of this author, Berosus, might easily have been 
preserved. It appears that the extracts (from Berosus, as alleged] 
were composed by a Christian monk, tcho, p&rhaps, had corruptd 
the text. But it is at least certain, that this work is ancient, and 
I think I have proved this in the volume which I have published, 
under the title of Berosus and Annius of Viterbo, which forms the 
seventh of my collection on the history of the globe. As these ex- 
tracts from Berosus contain, in some respects, ^e rudiments of onr 
origin, it deserves a more profound examination than it has received. 
But before examining the authenticity of this work, now almost gene- 
rally regarded as spurious, it is right it should be made known. It has 
never been translated in French. It is very short, and many chrono- 
legists have adopted the data which are given in it." 

M. D'XJrbain is evidently carried away by the erudition of Annius, and 
his profound acquaintance with the ancient history of the oriental na- 
tions and their European offshoots. But I think it is in the comments 
of Annius, and his several antiquarian writings bearing on the eariy 
history of Etruria, and not in the farrago of suppositious records, pur- 
porting to be Chaldaic, manufactured by Annius, entitled, " Defloratio 
3erosi Chaldaica," that the valuable matter which M. D'Urbain speaks 
of is to be found. 

Throughout the " Institutiones" of Annius, whenever he wants to 
apply names of places or individuals which occur in the fragnients 
ascribed to Berosus, to places or persons connected with Yiterbo or 



* Paris, 1844, 12mo, pp. 72. 



359 

other Etmiian localities or hiBtorical persons, he has reoourse to an 
inscribed stone dug out of the ground, and then he says the application 
is proved ** inexpugnabile argumento."* 

In a work of Antonio Augustinus, Archbishop of Tarragona, it is 
stated by the author that a certain learned person of Yiterbo, worthy 
of credit, nsed, when speaking of Annius, to tell him (Antonio Au- 
gustinus) good hmnouredly ('' solebat narrare jucunde") that he was 
charged with sculpturing the letters of an inscription which, by the 
orders of Annius, was buried in a vineyard not &r from Yiterbo, and 
dug up before witnesses, when the sarcophagus in which it was en- 
closed wae taken to the senators of the city, and received with pubHo 
honours ; for Annius had taken care to make the dty far more ancient 
than Borne, and dated its foundation from Isis and Osiiis.f 

On the other hand, in Tooron's '' Histoire des Hommes Illustres de 
rOrdre de Saint Dominique" (tom. iii., p. 655, et ieq.), there is an eulo- 
gistic memoir of Annius. Touron states that this learned member of 
his order died, it is said, by poison, in 1502, in Eome, in the office of 
Master of the Sacred Palace, Csesar Borgia being suspected of having 
been his murderer. Touron makes mention of the several fragments of 
the lost writings of the ancients that he claimed the discovery of, be- 
sides those of Berosus and Manetho, namely, of Myrsylus of Lesbos, 
Cato, Sempronius, Archilochus, Zenophon, Metasthenes, Fictor, Philon, 
Frontinas, and a fragment of the " Itinerary" of Antoninus. 

On many of these works, Touron adds, he wrote learned commen- 
taries, especially concerning the first twenty-four kings of Spain, and 
declared that he had obtained several of the old MSS. from which he 
had taken the matter of his publications from Fere Mathias, a Provin- 
cial of his order in Armenia, when the latter was passing through 
Genoa, and especially the manuscript of Berosus. * Touron admits the 
manuscripts in question were spurious ; but that Annius was guilty only 
of credulity, not of fraud, with respect to them. He relies chiefly on 
the defence of the Bishop of Guevara — ^a writer who, however, was one of 
the most celebrated literary impostors of his age — ^witness his " Life and 
Conversations of the Emperor Aurelian." 

Touron insists that iomius's original of Berosus was a MS., not in- 
scribed plates or stones, as others assert ; and that the account of the 
Spanish writer, Antonio Augustinus, is on the authority of one Lati- 
nius of Yiterbo, who said that he had engraved the marbles secretly with 
the inscriptions, and had concealed them after, by the directions of An- 
nius, in a vineyard. This statement Touron caUs a puerile story, for 
Latinius was bom several years after Annius's death. 

Whether the story of Latinius is puerile or not, the intrinsic evi- 
dence cannot be got over of imposture in the commentaries of Annius 

* FM20'*IiiBUtaUooesAnniV*p 25. 

t Antoaio AogastiDO — ** Dialogus Antiquitatum Romanonim et Hispaiiioram apud 
Vol. De ma. Lat," p. 610. 



360 

on the alleged fragments of Berosus and Manetha The gieat mischief 
done by Anm'us to Spanish history, especially, was in destroying the 
authentic character of that portion of the early Spanish annals which 
might be worthy of some credit and aathenticity, as brief though imper- 
fect notices of early historical events and personages. 

Those brief notices and data were woven by him into a regular 
system of chronology, making out of the mention of a few of the pri- 
mitive sovereigns a complete series of kings in chronolc^cal order, from 
Tubal downwards to the fusion of the Iberian races in the nation of 
their Boman victors. 

The Cavalier Don Joseph Pellicer was the first Spanish writer to 
expose effectually the imposture of Annius ; and this task he effected 
very successfully in his work entitled " Beroso de Babilonia inChaldea, 
distinguido del Beroso de Annio de Yiterbo en Italia." 

Pellicer observes that the true Berosus is thus made mention of by 
Eusebius in his '' Evangelical Preparation :" — ^Berosus, the BabyloniaD, 
a priest of Belus, who flourished in the time of Alexander the Great, 
and dedicated to Antiochus the Third, the successor of Seleucus, the 
History of the Chaldeans, in three books ; and who recorded the ex- 
ploits of their kings, amongst whom he makes mention of one named 
I9^abuchadonosor. 

The works of Berosus exist no longer, except in fragments preserved 
in some ancient authors. His histories of the Babylonians of Chaldes, 
of the Medcs and Persians, and of the Assyrians, as they are called, m 
referred to by Josephus, Athenaeus, Tacianus, Clemens Alexandrinos, 
Polyhistor, and some early monkish writers. 

There are numerous evidences of fraud, according to Pellicer, in the 
references of the Berosus of Annius to the Celts. 

In the reign of the fourteenth Assyrian monarch, he says, the Celts 
of the country subsequently called Gaul were ruled over by Lugao ; and 
at that time Celtica began to be called Lugdunense, and its inhabitants 
Ludovicos. The former name is feigned, and the latter is not Celtic, 
but German. Lugduno, or Lyons, was hardly known till the time of 
Augustus. The third European nation of the spurious Berosus is Ke- 
thim, as he calls Italy, the Ketim of Moses, which in the Scriptures is 
plainly described as being in Greece ; and in the First Book of the Mac- 
cabees is said to be in Macedon, from which '* land of Ketim Alex- 
ander marched to encounter Darius." 

His fourth nation of the Tuyscones, or Germans, Annius evidently 
borrowed the name of from Tacitus, as, in his account of the manners of 
Germans, he makes mention of a people called Tuystanes. But in the 
time of Berosus, neither this name nor that of Gtermania was known. 
He describes a fifth European nation^ but without giving its series of 
kings, that of Ionia in Greece. The true Ionia, says Pdlicer, was in 
Asia Minor, in Caria of ^olia; it was not a kingdom, but a region di- 
vided into twelve remarkable cities. It was the colonies of this Ionia 
which were established in Peloponnesus, Attica, and Thebes^ which pro- 



361 

dnced great warriors and princes — ^the Battidas, amongst others, kings of 
Thera, whose monarch, Batto the First, Herodotus says, came to Tar- 
tessus in Spain, and founded also the kingdom and city of Gyrene, in 
Africa, which was governed 200 years by kings of his Ime. 

The fabulous Berosus, continues Pellicer, in the third book of An- 
nius, gives an account of the peopling of the world after the flood, the 
women of the sons of Noah being blessed continually with twins, and 
at each birth a male and female child being bom. Koah was employed 
in writing books on sacred subjects, astrology, and other sciences. He 
abandoned his book to take on him the government of Italy, Ketim, 
where he 'died, and received divine honours after death. He was the 
first who planted the vine, and got dnmk from the juice of it. Not a 
word of these details is to be found in the third book of the true Be- 
rosus. 

AnniuB makes the Scythians the parent stock of the Armenians ; he 
refers to the books of the Scythians, which were never heard of in any 
other book. 

The real Berosus wrote in three books his Chaldaic AjBS3rrian His- 
tory. Aimius of Yiterbo made his Berosus the author of five books. 
In the first book of the fieibulous Berosus the author gives an account of 
the deluge, and of Noah's preservation, and that of his three children, 
8hem, Ham, and Japhet, quite conformable to the Mosaic account. 
The true Berosus makes no mention of Noah and his children; he 
speaks of Xisuthro being preserved in a great inundation. Sanchoni- 
athon makes no mention of a deluge, but Bishop Cumberland supposes 
Ouranus must be Noah. 

Annius makes Berosus give a detailed series of the kings of four Eu- 
ropean nations — the Celtiheriy the Celts, the Italians, and the Tuyscones. 
By the nation of the Celtiberi is meant Spain, by which name it was 
unknown in any ancient work. 

The fabulous Berosus describes the state of Scythism as one of bar- 
barity, existing from the time of the deluge to the building of the Tower 
of Babel, and thence to the time of Seruch ; from the latter period to 
that of Abraham, the state of society was that of Grecism, which was a 
state of erudite idolatry. Judaism then commenced, and merged in 
Christianity, in which was the state of regeneration St. Paul has referred 
to. His account of the origin of the Scythians is curious. After de- 
scribing the first state of the human race to the period of the deluge : — 
"Previously (he says) there was no diversity of opinion, no discord 
among tribes, no man dreamt of heresy nor idolatry, each person lived 
after his own opinion ; there was no established law ; each was a law 
to himself, and lived in conformity with his reason ; and this condition 
was called barbarism during the generation from Adam to Noah." 

He then proceeds with the narrative of Noah's descent on Mount 
Lubar, or Ararat, in Armenia. ** The people (he says) of the four first 
generations lived in barbarism, without impiety, however ; but those of 
the next generation, under seventy-two princes and captains, betook 



362 

themselves to the plains of Senaar, which in former times was a region 
of Assyria, where they undertook the building of tJte Tower of Babel, where 
the diepersion took pUee, and thoee wJm quitted that region for Europe end 
Asia began to be called ScgthianeJ* . . . 

God divided them into people of different languages, making of one 
tongue seventy-two dialects, conformably to the number of captains or 
leaders of the nations, from which circumstance they were ccdled Me- 
ropes, on account of the division of languages. 

"From, the Ionian stock, says Annius, sprung Alcides, the Grecian 
Hercules, and the kings of Arcadia, a branch of which was the kings of 
JBtolia. But Ionia was never called a kingdom, as Annius makes his 
Berosus describe it, ''as the £fth kingdom in Europe." But Annins 
never informs his readers what took the old Chaldean priest into these 
European countries, or what had their history to do with that of As- 
syria. 

In the second book of the Berosus of Annius, the genealogies of 
Noah {dlias Father Janus, alias Ogyges) and his descendants are treated 
of, and in this portion of his work the Sacred Scriptures are profaned, 
and very largely added to. 

It would bo needless to make further reference to the abundant 
proofe of the literary frauds of Annius of Yiterbo, brought forward in 
the admirable work of Don Joseph Pellicer.* 

There can now be no doubt of the imposture ; but unfortunately tlie 
fraud was entirely successful for a long time, not only in Italy, but in 
Spain, and in the latter country especially, and the evidences of that sac- 
cess we have in nearly all die Spanish chronicles and histories of Uie 
sixteenth and part of the seventeenth centuries. 

What is most worthy of observation in this performance of Annins 
of Yiterbo is the extraordinary success of a Hteraiy imposture, ihe 
most singular on record— one that required more erudition and indnstzj 
to accomplish than would have sufficed to make a man fieunous in any 
honest literary pursuit. 

SXTSNSIVE UTSRABT FEAUDS AND FOBOSRISS OF DOCUlOBirrS FUSPOBTDTG 10 
BE BTBUSCAir. BY CUBZIO INOHIBAHIO. 

Ourzia Inghiramio, an antiquary of some erudition and great enthu- 
siasm in all matters connected with Etruscan remains and historical no- 
tices of that ancient country, was bom at Yolterra, in 1614, and died in 
1655. His unenviable fame rests on a work of extraordinary labour and 
extensive reading, entitled '* JEthruscarum Antiquarum I^agmerde, 
quibus urbis Roma aliorumque gentium primordia mores et res gesta indi- 
eantur:*' Francofiirti, 1637, in folio. 

This work must have cost the author enormous labour, and an enor- 
mous outlay. 

* ** Beroso de Babilonio in Chaldea distingaido del Beroso de Axmio de Yiterbo in 
Italia. Par Don Josefo de Pellicer." 



363 

The inscriptions alleged to be Etruscan are very numerous, and a 
vast number of considerable length, foe similes of the pretended Etrus- 
can writings. In a typographical point of view, the work is of much 
interest, for a very large portion of it may be said to consist of block- 
engraved printing. The falsity of those records has been clearly de- 
monstrated, and Inghiramio figures in the category of literary impostors. 
Had they been authentic, all received ideas as to the origin and early 
history of Rome would have been entirely changed. 

POBOED PKEMCTTONS AND REMAKKABLE LITEBART PEATTDS CONNECTED WITH 
THE DISCOVEET OP THE REMAINS OF ST. CATHALDUS. 

St Cataldus, or Cathaldus, of whom mention is made by Irish as well 
as Italian historians, was celebrated for his learning and piety on the 
continent; he was bom in Munster, was Bishop of Eatheny, and 
afterwards of Tarento, in Italy. Archbishop XJssher had the trouble of 
rescuing him from Dempster's Catalogue of Scotch Saints. He flou-' 
lished, his biographer states, late in the second or early in the third 
ceatury ; but, MacGeoghegan says, more probably in the seventh cen- 
tury. 

There is a very singular account given by Alexander ab Alexandre,* 
of an alleged ap|)arition of St. Cataldus, nearly 1000 years after his 
death, and of a prediction of his, foretelling the devastations of Naples, 
which was literally accomplished. 

This alleged prediction is the subject of much curious literary con- 
troversy, and of an elaborate article in Bayle's Historical Dictionary. 
A passage is cited in it from a work of the celebrated Jovian Pontanus, 
intended to show that the alleged apparition, and prediction written on 
leaden plates, were pious frauds. If it were so, it was as egregious an 
imposture as the similar scientific one of the friar, Annius of Viterbo, in 
the fifteenth century, who published a work wliich he ascribed to Bero- 
^^us the Chaldean, that was likewise stated to have been found written on 
inscribed plates. Alexander's account is to the following effect: — 
"About 1000 years after the death of St. Cataldus, he appeared to a 
priest in Naples, and told him to go dig up a book he had composed and 
hid in a certain place, which, when found, was to be carried imme- 
diately to the King of Naples, for it was a work which contained the 
secrets of heaven." 

The priest averred the apparition was repeated several times, and, 
having paid little attention to it, the order was not obeyed. At length 
St. Cataldus appeared to him in church, dressed in his episcopal garb, 
and commanded obedience to his orders, on pain of grievous punishment. 
The priest went next day, in procession with the people, to the place 
indicated, the ruins of an old church, where, on digging under one of 
the walls, a box was found, and certain plates of lead with writing 

* '* Genialium Dieram," ed. 1696, lib. iii., p. 137. 



364 

on them containing predictions of fearfdl impending evils on the kiag- 
dom of Naples. Bayle says there was a clause, according to some, to 
this effect — ** Unless the king obeyed the injunctions of St CatalduB,'' 
&c., which clause he, Bayle, considers a proof of fraud. 

Philip de Comines, referring to this subject, says : — '' A writing was 
found, as those about the king assured me, on throwing down a chapel, 
with the words, * Truth, with its secret counsel,' professing to tell him 
of all the evils which were to beMl him. Three persons only had seea 
it, and he (the king) threw it into the fire." 

Pontanus Jovianus* states that the priest who figured in this busmess 
was a Spanish Mar — ^ill-instructed, but bold in the pulpit, and a pre- 
tender to celestial communications. He had endeavoured, ineffectoallj, 
to induce Perdinand to banish the Jews out of Naples, and then adopted 
the plan in question to work on his fears. He engraved some words on 
a leaden plate, which he made St. Cataldus author of, and buried it; 
and after three years, having suborned a priest to pretend to a conuna- 
nication with the saint, caused it to be dug up. The words were enig- 
matical, and pointed to the extirpation of Judaism ; but the king was 
enjoined not to read the writing except with the assistance of a verj 
virtuous servant. The king, suspecting the cheat, did not employ tfae 
monk to decipher it ; the latter was incensed, and raised a clamour which 
spread all over the states of Italy. * 

Goulart, in his edition of the works of Camerarius,! gives forty-two 
French verses, purporting to be a translation of the prophecy of Catal- 
dus, wherein the Prench poet makes the saint, who menaced Ferdinand 
with such awfiil evils, promise some ^ture king of France all kinds of 
blessings. 

Anthony Caraccioli published a chronology, in which he says the 
plates were dug out of ihe ground in 1494, in which the sudden death 
of the king was spoken of, and that the king soon after died. Ferdinand 
certainly died that year; but other writers state the digging up of the 
leaden box took place in 1492 ; at aU events, the evils foretold in the 
writings did occur, and the death also within a period of two years. 
(See Vossius, " De Historicis Latinis," lib. ii., p. 609.) 

The question of the truth or falsehood of this prediction is not put 
by Bayle fairly before his readers — the first question is of the two con- 
temporary writers who treat of this affair, Alexander and Pontaniu^ 
which of these writers is entitled to the most credit ? Alexander was a 
celebrated Neapolitan jurisconsult, who died in 1523. Pontanus was a 
celebrated scholar, an astronomer, astrologer, a poet, and historian. 
Erasmus describes him as equal to Cicero in the elegance and dignity 
of his style ; he died in 1503. 



« '( JovianuB Pont De Sermone,** tib. ii., cap. ult, p. 628, ap. Bayle, art. Catal- 
dus. 

t " Hist Camerarii," p. 48, ap. Bayle, art. Cataldus. 



365 



THE IITE&ABX TRAVD AKB FOBOSBY OF BOCVMBNTS PUBPOBTIKO TO BE 
THE SCGLESIASnCAL ANNALS OF THE SPANISH CHUBCH OF THE FOUBTH 
CENTUBT, ASCBIBED BT FATHEB HIOUEBA TO FLATIU8 LTTdUS BEXTEB, 
A COTEMPOBABT AND FBIENB OF ST. JEBOKE. 

The grand literary forgery of Spanish erudite impostors, of an eccle* 
siastical kind, is coupled with the name of Father Higuera of Toledo, a 
friend of the celebrated and eminent historian Mariana. A collection of 
fragments of ecclesiastical Spanish history, said to have been written by 
Elavius Lucius Dexter, a Christian friend of St. Jerome, of the fourth 
century, was first published by Father Higuera, in 1610, and these do- 
cuments were said to have come from the monastery of Fulda, near 
Worms, in 1594. 

The first formally defended promulgation of the '' fabulous histories" 
ascribed to Flavins Lucius Dexter, in a work (small 4to, printed in 
Madrid, in 1624), was entitled ''Flavio Lucio Dextro, CabaUero Espa- 
nol de Barcelona, Frefecto, Fretorio De Oriente Govemador de Toledo 
Par los Anos del Senor de 400, Defendido por Don Thomas Tamaio de 
Vargas." In this volume not only F. L. Dexter is made to introduce 
bto Spain St. James, but also Sts. Peter and Paul. 

In the course of forty-five years these " fabulosas historias" had 
gained not only an immense popularity, but a vast extension of detaiLi 
and commentaries on them. 

Perhaps the greatest body of literary falsifications and fabrications 
of documents purporting to be historical that was ever put together, 
though not so erudite an imposture as that of Joannes Aimius de Yi- 
terbo, is that which is to be found in the four 4to volumes of the work 
entitled ^' Poplacion Dcclesiastica de Espana y Noticia de sus Prime- 
Rt8 honras Hallado en los Escritos de Hauberto, Monge de san Benito 
(torn, i., ii.), elChronicon de Flavio Lucio Dextro (tom. iii.), Los Escri- 
tos de Marco Maximo Obispo de Zaragoqa y el Chronicon de liberato 
Abad." (tom. iv.). 

This ponderous compound of literary forgeries and ecclesiastical 
frauds was edited, and some portion, in all probability, if not manu- 
factured as well as commented and eulogized by a learned Benedictine 
monk, chronicler of his order. El Maestro Fray Gregorio de Argaiz, was 
published in Madrid, in 1669. These pretended ancient chronicles have 
been, however, denounced as ** fabulous histories/' not only by the 
' most learned critical men, such as Antonio Augustinus, but also by 
most competent authorities of the Church of Bome. And yet these 
forgeries have had an astonishing success up to the end of the seven- 
teenth century. The catalogues of Spanish martyrs, and Spanish 
bishops of the di£Eerent sees, found in them, have been received and dealt 
with as genuine documents, in most of the several chronicles and histo- 
ries of the latter part of the sixteenth century. 

And, what is still more surprising, the extensive work of Argaiz (in 
my possession), in which all these fictions, frauds, and forgeries, are 

B. X. A. PBOC. — VOL. VIIL 8 C 



366 

embodied, is dedicated ' ' To The Sovereign Majesty of God : To The Un- 
created Eternal Wisdom : To The Ineffable and Divine Love and Grace : 
To The Origin of all Felicity: To The Substance and Existence of all 
Visible and Invisible Beauty : To The centre and Recreation of Souls in 
the Glorious Throne of His own Being : To whom all Benediction and 
Enlightenment be attributed, the Wisdom, Honour, and Virtue, and 
eternal fount of Grace." 

Other frauds connected with those forgeries are noticed by Ticknorin 
his "History of Spanish Literature." "The Granada forgeries of ecclesias- 
tical records," he tells us, " were connected with certain metallic platfis, 
sometimes called * The Leaden Books,' which, having been prepared 
and buried for the purpose several years before, were disinterred near 
Granada between 1588 and 1595, and, when deciphered, seemed to offer 
materials for establishing the great comer stone of Spanish ecclesiastical 
history, the coming to Spain of the Apostle St. James* the patron saint 
of the country. This gross forgery was received for authentic history 
by Philip IL, Philip III., and PMlip IV., each of whom, in a council 
of state, consisting of the principal personages of the kingdom, solemnly 
adjudged it to be true. The question, however, was in due time settled 
at Rome ; and the forged inscriptions were believed by the highest tri- 
bunal of the Church to be false and forged, in whicdi decision Spain 
soon acqiiiesced." 

** Another fraud (he adds) was connected with this one of the 
' LeadenBooks,' whose authority it was alleged to confirm, but was mndi 
broader and bolder in its claims and character. It consisted of a series 
of fragments of chronicles circulated earlier in manuscript, but fiist 
printed in 1610, and then represented to have come, in 1594, from the 
monastery of Fulda, near Worms, to Father Higuera, of Toledo, a Jesuit, 
and a personal acquaintance of Mariana. They purported on their 
face to have been written by Flavins Lucius Dexter, Marcus Maxunns, 
Heleca, and other primitive Christians, and contained important and 
wholly new statements touching the early civil and ecclesiastical his- 
tory of Spain. They were, no doubt, an imitation of the foi^geries of 
John of Viterbo, given to the world about a century before, as the works 
of BeroBus, and Manetho ; but the Spanish forgeries were prepared with 
more learning, and a nicer ingenuity. Flattering fictions were fitted to 
recognised fsicts, as they both rested on the same authority ; new saints 
were given to churches that were not well provided in tfaifi department 
of their hagiology ; a dignified origin was given to noble fiunilies that 
had before been unable to boast of their founders ; and a multitude of 
Christian conquests and achievements were hinted at, or recorded, that 
gratified the pride of the whole nation, the more because they had never 
till then been heard of. Few doubted what it was so agreeable to all 
to believe. Sandoval, Tamayo de Vargas, Lorenzo Eanurez de Prado, 
and for a time Nicholas Antonio — all learned men — were persuaded that 
these summaries of chronicles, or chronicones, as they were called, were 
authentic ; and if Arias Montano, the edit