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All Bights Reserved 



Telegraphic Address : " Bbcital, Lokdon " 
Telephone No. 5537 " Gkbrabd '* 

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The Institute as a body is not responsible either for the statements 
made or for the opinions expressed by the Authors of Papers, &c. 

Fellows are particularly requested to notify to the Secretary all 
^changes in their addresses, so that the Proceedings and other com- 
munications may be forwarded without delay. 


BoYAL Colonial Institute, 

Northumberland Avenue, 
July 19, 1898 

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CouncU of 1898-99 vii 

Objects of the Royal Colonial Institute ix 

Form of Candidate's Certificate xi 

Form of Bequest xii 

The Railway System of South Africa. Sir David Tennant, K.C.M.G. ... 3 

The Gold Coast Colony. T. H. Hatton Richards 31 

Australian Natural History Gleanings. W. SaviUe-Kent, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 36 

British Borneo. E. P. Gueritz ... ^ 61 

The Goldfields of Ontario and British Columbia. Edgar P. Rathbone ... 68 

A Gold Standard for the Empire. Lesley C. Probyn 94 

Light Railways for the Colonies. Everard R. Calthrop 98 

Some Aspects of our Imperial Trade. Henry Birchenough, M.A. ... 104 

Thirtieth Annual General Meeting 139 

Annual Report of the Council 140 

Statement of Assets and Liabilities ... *** 147 

Statement of Receipts and Payments 148 

List of Donors to the Library, 1897 150 

Additions to the Library during 1897 160 

Our West Indian Colonies. George Carrington 171 

Annual Dinner. Report of Proceedings »«• 204 

A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. Colonel E. T. H. 

Hutton, C.B., A.D.C 222 

Marotseland and the Tribes of the Upper Zambezi. Major A. St. H. 

Gibbons 260 

(RECAP):? r. 608714 °^^^ -^ ^v Google 

Ti Boyal Colonial Institute. 


The Trade Routes of South China and their Relation to the Development 

of Hong Kong. W. F. Wenyon 277 

Recent Social and Political Progress in Victoria. Rt. Hon. Lord 

Brassey, K.C3 282 

Ck)nyersazione ... 301 

Appendix : — 

1. Double Income Tax—Correspondence with the Chancellor of the 

Exchequer 302 

2. Royal Charter 305 

3. List of Fellows 313 

4. List of Institutions to which the Proceedings of the Royal 

Colonial Institute are presented 415 

5. Index to Vols. I to XXIX of the Proceedings of the Institute ... 421 

6. General Index, Vol. XXIX 431 

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COUNCIL OF 1898-99. 
























AuiAN Campbell, Eqq. 
F. H. Danoab, Esq. 
Frbdebiok Dutton, Esq. 
Lt.-Qxnbbal Sm J. Sevan Edwabds, 

K.C.M.G., C3., M.P. 
C. WASHiNaTON Eves, Esq., C.M.G. 
W. Maynabd Fabmeb, Esq. 
Sib James F. Gabbice, E.G.M.G. 


K.C.S.I., C.B. 
Sib Abtbttb Hodgson, E.C.M.G. 
At>mtbal Sib Anthony H. Hoskins, 



WiLUAM Keswick, Esq. 

LoBD Loch, G.C.B., G.C.M.G. 

Lieut.-Genebal B. W. Lowby, C.B^ 

Nevilb Lubbock, Esq. 

Geoboe S. Mackenzie, Esq., CB. 

S. Vauohan Mobgan, Esq. 

Sib E. Montague Nelson, E.C.M.G. 

Gbnebal Snt Henby W. Nobman, 

G.C.B., G.C.M.G., CLE. 
Sib Westby B. Pebceval, E.C.M.G. 
Sib Saul Samuel, Babt.i E.C.M.G., CB. 
Sib Cecil Clementi Smith, G.C.M.G* 
Snt Chables E. F. Stiblino, Babt. 
LoBD Stbathcona and Mount Boyal, 


Sib Montaou F. Ommanney, K.C.M.G. 

J. S. O'Halloran, C.M.G. 

James B. Boose. 

(t^f Clerh. 
William Chambeblain. 

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London and Westminsteb Bane, 1 St. James's Squabe, S.W. 

Basbadob : W. P. Tbimingham, Esq. 
BoBNEO : E. P. GuEBiTz, Esq., Sanda- 


Bbitish Guiana: G. H. Hawtatne, 

Esq., C.M.G., Geobgetown. 
Bbitish Hondubas: Hon. J. H. 

Phillips, C.M.G., M.E.C., Belize. 
Canada : Sib Sandfobd Fleming, 
K.C.M.G., Ottawa. 
Veby Bev. Pbincipal G. M. 
Gbant, M.A., D.D., King- 
Geobge Hague, Esq., Mont- 


Ebnest B. C. Hanington, 
Esq., M.D., Victobia, 
Bbitish Columbu. 
Hon. Matthew H. Bichet, 
Q.C., D.C.L., Halifax, 
Nova Scotu. 
Thomas Bobinson, Esq., 

John T. Small, Esq.,Tobonto. 
Cape Colony : W. F. Cbanswick, Esq., 
J.P., Kimbeblet. 
„ Herby B. Chbistian, 

Esq., Pobt Eliza- 
„ Habby GiBsoNt Esq., 

„ Hebbebt T. Tamplin, 

Esq., Q.C, M.L.A., 
Ceylon : J. Febguson, Esq., Colombo. 
Cypbus : T. E. Mavbogobdato, Esq. 
Egypt: Balph C. Cbafton, Esq., 

Bamleh, Alexandbia. 
Fiji : Hamilton Hunteb, Esq., Suva. 
Gold Coast Colony : Hon. William 

Clabe, Accba. 
Hong Kong : Hon. T. H. Whitehead, 

Jamaica: C. S. Fabquhabson, Esq., 

Lagos : Hon. C. H. Habley Moseley. 
Leewabd Islands: Hon. W. H. 

Whyham, M.L.C, Antigua. 
Malta : Hon. Sib Gebald Stbiceland, 

Maubitius : A. de Bouchebville, Esq., 

Pobt Louis. 
Natal: John Goodlipfe, Esq., Dubban. 
New South Wales: W. L. Dockeb, 

Esq., Sydney. 
New Zealand : James Allen, Esq., 


„ Geobge Beetham, Esq., 

„ Hon. C. C. Bowbn, 


„ B. D. Douglas McLean, 

Esq., M.H.B., Napieb. 
„ H. G. Seth Smith,Esq., 

Queensland : Hon. W. Hobatio 
. Wilson, M.L.C., Bbisbane. 
Bhobesia : Thomas Stewabt, Esq., 
M.B., CM., Salisbuby. 
„ Dudley G. Gisbobne, Esq., 
SiEBBA Leone : T. J. Alldbidge,Esq., 

South Austbalia: William Milne, 

Esq., Adelaide. 
Stbaits Settlements : E. M. Mebe- 

wetheb, Esq., Singapobe. 
Tasmania: N. E. Lewis, Esq., M.H.A., 


Tbansvaal: W. T. Gbaham, Esq., 

Victobia : Benjamin Cowdbboy, Esq., 

Westebn Austbalia: James Mobbison» 

Esq., J.P., Guildpobd. 

Telegraphic Address^ " Becital, London." 
Telephone No» 5637 " Gebbabd.*' 

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70UND1DD 1868. 

as^ooTTO-" "cri:sria?ED eljidpirei." 

To provide a place of meeting for all gentlemen connected 
with the Colonies and British India, and others taking an interest 
in Colonial and Indian affairs ; to establish a Beading Boom and 
Library, in which recent and authentic intelligence upon Colonial 
and Indian subjects may be constantly available, and a Museum 
for the collection and exhibition of Colonial and Indian productions; 
to facilitate interchange of experiences amongst persons' representing 
all the Dependencies of Great Britain ; to afford opportimities for 
the reading of Papers, and for holding Discussions T;ipon Colonial 
and Indian subjects generally ; and to undertake scientific, literary, 
and statistical investigations in connection with the British Empire. 
But no Paper shall be read, or any Discussion be permitted to take 
place, tending to give to the Institute a party character. — (Bule I.) 


~ There are two classes of Fellows (who must be British Subjects), 
Besident and Non-Besident, both elected by the Council on the 
nomination of Two Fellows, one of whom at least must sign on 
personal knowledge. The former pay an entrance fee of £d, and 
an annual subscription of £2 ; the latter an entrance fee of £1. 1^. 
(which is increased to £d when taking up permanent residence in the 
United Kingdom) and an annual subscription of £1. Is. (which is 
increased to £2 when in the United Kingdom for more than three 
months). Besident Fellows can compound for the annual subscrip- 
tion by the payment of £20, or after five years' annual subscriptions 
of £2 on payment of £15 ; and Non-Besident Fellows can compound 
for the Non-Besident annual subscription on payment of £10. 

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X Boyal Colonial Institute. 

Srifrikgts of <#tIIofo8 fo^ose Sobscripttong are not k ^mar. 

The priyileges of Fellows, whose subscriptions are not in arreari 
include the use of the Institute building, which comprises Beading, 
Writing, and Smoking Booms ; a Library containing over 88,000 
volumes and pamphlets relating to the history, government, trade, 
resources and development of the British Colonies and India ; and 
a Newspaper Boom in which the principal Journals, Magazines, 
and Beviews — ^both Home, Colonial, and Indian — are regularly re- 
ceived and filed. 

The Journal and the Annual Volume of Proceedings are forwarded 
to all Fellows whose addresses are known. 

Every Fellow is entitled to be present at the Ordinary Meetings, 
and to introduce one visitor ; to be present at the Annual Conver- 
sazione, and to introduce a lady. The Institute is open on week- 
days from 10 A.M. to 8 p.m., except during August and September, 
when it is closed at 6 p.m. 

The support of all British Subjects, whether residing in the 
United Kingdom or the Colonies— for the Institute is intended for 
both — is earnestly desired in promoting the great objects of extend- 
ing knowledge respecting the various portions of the Empire, and in 
promoting the cause of its permanent unity. 
Contributions to the Library will be thankfully received* 



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3[ ]bCC|U0atf| the sum of £ to the Boyal Coloniai. 

Institute, Incorporated by Boyal Charter 1882, and I declare 
that the receipt of the Treasurer for the time being of the said 
Corporation shall be an effectual discharge for the said Bequest, 
which I direct to be paid within calendar months after my 

decease, without any reduction whatsoever, whether on account of 
Legacy Duty thereon or otherwise, out of such part of my estate 
as may be lawfully applied for that purpose. 

Those persons who feel disposed to benefit the Boyal 
Colonial Institute by Legacies are recommended to adopt 
the above Form of Bequest. 

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Title or 1 
Profession j 


a British subject, being desirous of admission into the Royal 
Colonial Institute, we, the undersigned, recommend him as 
eligible for Membership. 

Dated this day of 18 


>from personal knowledge. 
F.R.C.L ■ 

Proposed 18 

Elected 18 

The Description and Residence of Candidates must be clearly 

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SESSION 1897-98. 


The First Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at 
the Whitehall Rooms, H6tel M^tropole, on Tuesday, November 2, 
1897, when a Paper on ** The Railway System of South Africa " 
was read by the Hon. Sir David Tennant, K.C.M.G., Agent-General 
for the Cape of Good Hope. 

Sii? Henry Bulwer, G.C.M.G., a Member of the Council of the 
Institute, presided. 

The Minutes of the last Ordinary General Meeting were read and 
confirmed, and it was announced that since that Meeting 114 Fellows 
had been elected, viz. 24 Resident and 90 Non-Resident. 

Resident Fellows : — 

Hugh Oumey Barclay, Henry Birchenough, Alfred E. Booth, Seymour 
Brovm, Harry Browne, Rev» WilUam A, Campbell, M»A,, Sir Albert J,Leppoc 
Cappel, K,C,LE,, 5f. Trouncer Bownes, The Rt Hon, the Earl of Harewood, 
George T, Henderson, Richmond Henty, WilUam Bickinbotham, Alfred P. 
HiUter, B,A,, MJ)., Samuel Kennedy, L.B.C.S., L.B.C,P., A. M. Laredo, 
Mwdo S. Mackenzie, David 8. Pace, John Warrington Rogers, Q.C., Robert 
F. W, Schmidt, Ph.D,, A. W. Stoddart, Heinrich F» Von Haast, Captain 
Matthew P. Webster, W. Basil Warsfold, M.A., A. Ellis Wynter, M.D., 

Non-Resident Fellow* : — 

Cotton Acutt (Natal), William H, Adams, B.A, (Gold Coast Colony), B. W. 
B<Uea (Matdbeleland), Alexander Bell (New ZedUmd), Hon. Andrew O. Blair, 
MP. (Canada), WthUam C. Botmrum (Matabeleland), John M, Campbell 
(€hld Coast Colony), Tom Efennell Carlisle (Siam), Baboo Kali Churn 
Ohattefjee (Indiaij, Hon, T. North Christie, M,L,C. (Ceylon), Nicholas Cole 
(Victoria), William W, Collins (British Columbia), Jam>es M, Cran, M,B,, 
CM, (British Honduras), A, W, Gumming (Cape Colony), J, F, Cunningham 
{British Central Africa), Hon, Sir Louis H, Davies, K.C,M,0, (Canada), 
Philip V. Davies (Western^ Australia), W, Karri Davies (Western Aiistralia), 

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2 First Ordinary General Meeting. 

Rudolph De Oroot (Sierra Leone)^ Brigade- Surgeon Harry A» De Lautouft 
M,B.C,S.(New Zeaiand), Mudaliyar J. W. Charles De Soysa, M^., /J>. 
{Ceylon), E, /. DiUon (Victoria), H, F. Duncombe (Bahamas), Albert Duke 
Essien (Chid Coast Colony), John B, Esuman-Qwira (Gold Coast Colony), 
J, Oau (Transvaal), J. H. Qeddes (New South Wales), John Oibbs (BriUsh 
Central Africa), Charles QVuyas (Transvaal), Somerset H. Graves (New 
Zealand), Salvatore Grech, M.D. (Malta), J. Nathaniel Hamer (New Zealand), 
George M, Harding (Cape Colony), Charles Hayne (Cape Colony), L. 
Clements Henry (Gold Coast Colony), Henry T. Htll (Transvaal), John F. 
Hitchins (NatcU), Henry J, Hofmeyr, BA, (Transvaal), hobert Lancelot levers 
(Victoria), John H, Jamieson (Transvaal), E, O, Johnson (Sierra Leone), His 
Grace WilUam West Jones, D.D. (Lord Archbishop of Cape Toum), Colonel 
H, B. Lassetter (New South Wales), Bt Hon, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, G.C,M,G., 
M,P. (Canada), WilUam Lech (Transvaal), William Low (Commissioner of 
Tobago), Kenneth Mackemie, A.B,S,M, (Sherbro), Ernest Mansfield (New 
Zealand), John S, Martin (Grenada), LcUa Kashmiri Mull (India), Robert 
D'Oyley Noble (Canada), Sisson C. Norris, J,P. (Matabeleland), Bedmond 
Orpen (Cape Colony), Hon. WilUam H, Demand, M,L.C. (Victoria), Thomas D, 
0' Toole (New Zealand), Edward Paget (Matabeleland), Hubert S. Perkins 
(Cape Colony), Bobert H, Perks, M.D. (South Australia), WilUam F. Piper 
(New South Wales), Hon, Lt-CoL Edward G, Prior, M,P. (British 
Columbia), Henry C. Quin (Matabeleland), Fred W, Balph (South Australia), 
Bobert FitzBandolph (New Brunswick), Alderman Malcolm Beid, JJP. 
(South Australia), George Richards (Transvaal), James Bichmond (Jamaica), 
Capt, William J. Robertson (Cape Colony), W, J, Rogers, M.D. (Transvaal), 
John Shelly (Gold Coast Colony), Robert F. Sholl (Western Australia), Rt. 
Rev, John Taylor Smith, D.D, (Lord Bishop of Sierra Leone), Charles 
Sonnenberg, M.L,A. (Cape Colony), Thomas Sturgess (Cyprus), Thomas 8. 
Sword (Queensland), Herbert J. Taylor (Matabelelana), George M. Theal, 
LL.D. (Cape Colony) (Honorary), David Theophilus (Cape Colony), Hon, 
Nathan Thomley, M.L.C. (Victoria), Frederick C, Tricks (Victoria), Lt-CoL 
J, J. Tucker, M,P. (New Brunswick), Hon. John S, Vdal (Fiji), Spencer W. 
Vcn StUrmer (New Zealand), Henry Vroom, junr. (Gold Coast Colony), Henry 
Wainscot (Western Australia), H, L. Webster (Transvaal), Brigars jB. 
Williams (Gold Coast Colony), Ernest Williams, A,M,Inst, CE, (Tranevaal), 
Ernest G. H, Williams, M.B.C.S., L,B,CJ*. (Jamaica), John Winkfield 
(Lagos), WilUam Woodbum (Transvaal), 

It was also announced that donations to the Library of Books, 
Maps, &c., had been received from the various Governments of the 
Colonies and India, Societies, and public bodies both in the United 
Kingdom and the Colonies, and from Fellows of the Institute and 

The Chaibman : From the statement which has just been read 
by the Secretary, you wiU have gathered that a substantial addition 
has been made to the number of our Fellows since our last meeting 
on June 15, and I may take this opportunity to mention, for youi^ 
information, that the Institute numbers, at the present time, 
nearly 4,200 members. The year which is about to close has been 
marked with a particular distinction as being the sixtieth year of 
the reign of our most gracious Sovereign, an event which was 
celebrated in the summer, both in this country and throughout the 

Digitized by 


First Ordinary Oenerdl Meeting. ft 

Empire, by an enthusiasm and an outburst of loyal feeling wbich 
will be still fresh in your recollection. In the universal rejoicings 
this Institute did not fail to take its part, and it had the privilege 
of offering its welcome and hospitality to many visitors from across 
the seas — some of them the honoured guests of the nation — the 
Premiers of the self-governing Colonies, distinguished represen- 
tatives from India, and many others from various parts of the 
Empire. At this moment our most respectful and regretful 
sympathy is with the Queen and the Royal Family, in the loss with 
which the closing year has been clouded, by the death of H.B.H. the 
Duchess of Teck, a princess whose amiability of disposition, 
kindness of heart, and the active part she took in all good works 
had long endeared her to the nation. The Institute has also to 
deplore the death, within the last few days, of Lord Eosmead, who 
was for some years one of our Fellows, and of Mr. W. J. 
Anderson, a Member of our Council, both of whom were closely 
connected with the country which is the subject of the Paper to be 
read this evening. Sir David Tennant, Agent-General for the Cape 
Colony, has been good enough to undertake to read the first Paper 
of our new session. He has chosen for his subject the railway 
systems of South Africa ; and as South Africa has of recent years 
been much before the public, and the development of its wealth has 
enlisted a large support in this country, attracting many people 
and the investment of a considerable capital, some account of the 
railways which have been constructed there, and of the system or 
systems of communication which connect the seaports with the 
interior and one part of the country with another, will, I am sure, 
have a practical interest for all those who are interested in South 
Africa ; while in the reader of the Paper we have one who, from a 
long residence in that country, and from having held for over 
twenty years the honourable position of Speaker of the Legislative 
Assembly at Cape Town, is eminently well qualified to inform us on 
the subject. 
Sir David Tennant then read his Paper on : — 


A VERT brief introductory account of the Colony of the Cape of 
Good Hope will suffice for the purpose of this Paper. The Cape 
was finally acquired by cession from the Dutch in 1806, and it then 
had a population of 78,663 (26,720 of whom were Europeans), with 
« b2 

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i TU iimtway System of l^outh Africa. 

an &f 6a of about one-fourth its present size. It now po§ded§es all 
area of 276,902 square miles, being over five times as large as 
England, or nearly as large as France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, 
and Portugal together. The population now numbers about 
1,900,000, bi whom 400,000 are Europeans, whilst many of the 
Coloured people, or aborigines, are entitled, under conditions pre- 
scribed by law, to exercise the right of franchise, and in many 
instances are the recognised owners of land, and hold title by 
private purchase or gift from the Crown. 

The Cape Peninsula, which includes Cape Town and Simon's 
Town, had been, during the Dutch occupation, and continued for 
many years after its cession to the British Government, cut off 
from free communication with the interior of the Colony by a belt 
or line of drifting white sand, extending across the isthmus 
between False Bay and Table Bay ; from the Atlantic on the one 
side to the Indian Ocean on the other. This sand was continually 
set in motion by the prevailing trade winds, which still blow in 
summer from the south-east, and in winter from the north-west, 
oftentimes with great violence. These opposing forces caused the 
sand to shift from one end to the other, and to continue in a state 
of active mobility for a couple of miles and more in breadth, and 
with a depth of several feet, across the only road track to the 
country beyond Cape Town. 

A barrier like this necessitated constant manual labour to keep 
open the road to the interior for the purposes of the traffic, which 
was gradually increasing, and to lighten the transport on the 
springless vehicles then in use between the capital and the country 

The waggons conveying produce to, and returning with goods 
from. Cape Town, were generally drawn by oxen ; and though a 
span or team of twelve oxen sufficed for the country roads, twice 
that number of animals were often needed to draw these waggons 
through this belt of sand, whilst men and cattle were further 
subjected to the uncomfortable infliction of harassing showers of 
drifting sand, not unlike in appearance to a blizzard. 

It was not until 1844 that this difficulty of imtrammelled access 
to and egress from the capital was finally overcome. 

The subsidence of the sand, as well as its fixture and maintenance 
within a defined area was successfully secured by the deposit and ad- 
mixture, through a series of years, of town refuse ; and this fertilising 
composition caused the barren soil to yield the prolific vegetation 
of grasses, specially selected trees, and other fibrous-rooted plants 

Digitized by 


The Baihoay System of South Africa. § 

now visible on all sides, and thus the whole area was brought into 
a condition of rest and usefulness. 

At the present day the Government has still to combat the drift 
Bands at Port Elizabeth, about 2,000 acres of which have been 
reclaimed in three and a half years, such reclamation being effected 
by a process not dissimilar to that which accomplished the change 
before referred to. The trees and vegetation on this reclaimed 
land have made rapid growth, and are already forming a dense 
plantation, whilst several sand dunes, running in a southerly 
direction from the terminus of the railway line, have been covered 
with bush. An Act of the Legislature was, however, needed in 
1872 to preserve the port and harbour of Port Elizabeth from 
the effects of drifting sands, and this Act is still of force. 

A similar disturbance of loose and drifting sand, caused by the 
south-east trade winds, is experienced in other portions of Gape 
Colony, and also in Western South A&ica, particularly on the 
Damaraland coiast, near Walvisch Bay. 

About this time, that is, in 1844, the system of public road- 
making was inaugurated by the Government, and the construction 
of main lines of communication throughout the Colony was under- 
taken by the employment of Colonial convict labour upon them, 
under the administration and control of a Central Boad Board. 
Mountain passes and bridges were constructed at great cost, these 
works displaying in their execution considerable engineering skill, 
whilst the importance of opening up a country having no navigable 
rivers, and possessing but few permanent streams — ^which was then 
already developing considerable material progress in its agricultural 
and pastoral industries — ^necessitated the levying for many years of 
special taxes for the maintenance, as well as construction, of its 
public hard roads and bridges. 

Having thus shortly described the early attempts at road-making, 
by the conversion of loose sand into a hard road, and the extension 
of gravelled and macadamised main highways through the Colony, 
I now treat of the Iron Boad or Bailways, the subject of this 

It was in 1869 — or about five years after the grant of represent 
tative institutions to the Colony — that the first sod was turned of the 
Cape Town and Wellington line of railway, the construction of 
which line had been sanctioned by an Act of Parliament in 1857. 
This line to Wellington, of fifty-eight miles in length, was con- 
structed by an English company, under a guarantee of a rate of 
Inter^t o| 3i$ V^T oe^t* V^^ ^>W^m QO 9> iP^in pf j£5Q0^000, Sq 

Digitized by 


6 The Bailway System of South Afriea. 

desirous was the Colony for railway constraotion that then, and 
for some years afterwards, the districts specially interested in the 
projected lines were subjected to a tax known as the Bailway 
Sub-guarantee, and this burden was wiUingly borne until further 
railway development assured the country that such a tax was no 
longer needed. The Act of 1857 provided that, in consideraticm of 
the advantages which would accrue directly and indirectly to the 
owners of property through which the line of railway was to run, 
such properties should be rated to make up one-half of any amount 
which the Colonial Government might be called upon to pay in 
virtue of its guarantee. 

This tax continued in operation till its abolition in 1874 — or for a 
period of seventeen years — although the Government had two years 
previously, namely, in 1872, acquired such railway by purchase ; but 
the continuance of the rate during this last-named period went in 
aid of the general revenue. All subsequent railway construction, 
however, created no extra burden on property in the shape of a 
special contribution towards any guarantee fund. 

By an Act passed in 1861 the Wynberg Bailway Company was 
incorporated, with power to construct a short line of eight miles 
from Cape Town, without any guarantee or Government subsidy, 
with the right of forming a junction with the Cape Town and 
Wellington Bailway at Salt Biver, and this short suburban line was 
acquired by the Government by purchase in 1876. 

After the introduction of responsible government in 1878, and 
consequent on the general prosperity then prevailing, resulting 
mainly from the discovery and development of the diamond mines 
in Griqualand West — ^which territory was formally annexed to the 
Colonyin 1877 — a further impetus was given to railway extension, and 
special legislation secured the construction, equipment, and working 
of lines to Queenstown, Worcester, and Beaufort West; also to 
Cradock, Grahamstown, Malmesbury, and Graaf-Beinet from the 
termini of existing lines in connection with the then t)rincipaJ sea- 
ports of the Colony, namely. Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, and East 
London, these lines forming three main systems converging towards 
Kimberley and the Orange Free State, with junction lines connecting 
them with one another. 

In 1881 the further extension of the then existing lines was 
undertaken to Colesberg, Kalk Bay, and Aliwal North ; and also to 
Hope Town, on the Orange Biver, with a view to an ultimate 
extension to Eimberley, and to this last-named town the line was 
carried by special legislation in 1885. The Imperial Government 

Digitized by 


The Bailway System of South Africa. 7 

agreed at that time to advance a sum of £400,000 out of the Con- 
solidated Fund at the rate of 8^ per cent, for a term of five years, as 
a temporary loan towards the expenditure in the construction of 
this line to Eimberley. 

In 1890 the line proceeded from Eimberley northwards to 
Yryburg, under an agreement concluded with the Chartered British 
South Africa Company in regard to its working ; and about the 
same time the line to and across the Free State Bepublio was laid, 
under the convention concluded with the Cape Government* 

In addition to the Colonial Government lines there was added, in 
1881, the Grahamstown and Port Alfred line, for which a Govern- 
ment grant of £50,000 was given to the company who undertook its 
construction, with a further grant in 1894 of £20,000 towards the 
working of the line ; in addition to which considerable sums were 
also voted for the improvement of the harbour known as the Eowie 
at the terminus of this line. The Port NoUoth line, on the south- 
west coast of the Colony, to the Cape Copper Company mines at 
Ookiep, in the district of Namaqualand, was built by a private 
company. The Cape Central Railways is the name of the branch 
line from Worcester to Montagu, constructed by a private company, 
and from the last-named town the Government has been empowered 
to contract with a company for the extension of the line to Swel- 
lendam, at the rate of £1,500 a mile. This will open up the south- 
western districts of the Colony, and add materially to the progress 
of that part of the country. The Metropolitan and Suburban 
Company, also a private undertaking, annexed the populous sea- 
resorts of Sea Point and Green Point to Cape Town by a line 
which has proved of much benefit to the metropolis and the suburbs. 
These several private lines make in all a total of upwards of 800 

An extension of the Cape Town suburban line was in 1889 con- 
tinued from Kalk Bay to Simon's Town, of about six miles in length, 
through and along a difficult and expensive rocky and sandy beach, 
at a cost of upwards of £102,600, or £17,000 a mile. 

This line which was opened in 1890 was admittedly constructed 
by the Government, with the approval of the Legislature, for strategic 
purposes, and chiefly for Imperial and Colonial defence, and as such, 
and in consequence of its excessive cost, will never, from a com- 
mercial point of view, yield a return sufficient to meet the full 
interest on the amount, expended in construction. The Govern- 
ment also constructed in 1890 a branch line from the main or trunk 
line at the Eerste Biver station between Cape Town and Stellen- 

Digitized by 


B The Bailway System of South Africa. 

bosch, through the pretty town of Somerset West — so famed as a 
seaside resort on the sandy shores of False Bay — to the foot of the 
range of mountains known as Sir Lowry Pass. The branch line to 
Malmesbury, the principal com district of the Colony, which was 
opened to traffic some years ago, will, it is hoped, ere long need 
an extension northwards, and such expansion will have to prooeed 
through Piquetberg to Clanwilliam, thereby completing the railway 
and conmiercial junction of those western districts which are reoog- 
nised as the granary of the Colony. 

The boundless prospect to commercial enterprise consequent on 
the development of the goldfields in the Transvaal had, in 1890, 
secured the construction of the Orange Free State railway ; whilst 
at the same time the northern expansion of the Colony, together 
with the actual and prospective increase of traffic, had produced an 
extension of the railway system from Eimberley to Yryburg and 

From Mafeking the line has proceeded with such rapid strides 
through Rhodesia to Bulawayo that it can now be opened to traffic 
within a few days, and the inaugural ceremony of such opening on 
the 4th inst. will be recorded amongst the noteworthy events of 
this year of special historic interest. 

We will hope that Bulawayo is destined to be but a temporary 
terminus, and that at no distant period the interests of trade and 
the advancement of a country which is th6 latest addition to the 
Empire will warrant an extension of its railway further northward 
towards the Zambesi. 

A further extension of railways in the Colony from the existing 
lines has been lately sanctioned by the Legislature. These 
additional lines of nearly 400 miles will be immediately under- 
taken, and portions are already in progress, whilst the section on 
the Graaf-Beinet line will, it is hoped, be opened to traffic in the 
course of next month. Some of these lines will be constructed 
with a Government subsidy, and thus a network of railways will be 
formed which must secure not only considerable traffic from the 
rich stock and agricultural districts through which the lines are to 
pass, but which will also provide a shorter route between Cape 
Town and the eastern province ; a saving of time of about twenty- 
four hours between Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, and of some 
thirty-six hours to East London, being thereby effected in the 
interests of passengers and traders. 

There are now in the Colony three established Unes of railways. 
First the Western and Interior system, from C^pe Town to apd 

Digitized by 


The Bailway System of South Africa. 9 

beyond Vrybnrg to Mafeking, which includes amongst others the 
Stellenbosch, Mahnesbury, Simon's Town, and East Biver lines, 
giving a total of upwards of 860 miles. Secondly, the Midland 
system, from Port Elizabeth to the Orange River Bridge, which 
includes Colesberg, Graaf-Beinet, De Aar, and Grahamstown, of 
612 miles ; and thirdly, the Eastern system, from East London 
to Aliwal North, including among other points Bethulie on the 
Orange Biver, Middelburg Boad, and King Williamstown, of upwards 
of 415 miles. To the above may be added what is known as the 
Northern system, being the line built by the Cape Government and 
lately acquired by the Orange Free State, from the Orange Biver 
Bridge to Bloemfontein and Yiljoen's Drift on the Yaal river, 
of upwards of 860 miles. An inspection of the map which is 
issued with the Cape Government railways monthly time tables 
will afford a very clear explanation of the routes and names before 
mentioned, with some information as to the general contour of the 
country. These railways have been carried out on the three feet 
six inches gauge, and with the exception of the Cape Town and 
Wynberg line, and a portion of the Port Elizabeth line to Uitenhage, 
are all single lines ; it is hoped, however, soon to lay a double line 
from Salt Biver to Durban on the Western and Interior railway 
system. A large amount of water-way had to be provided for in 
the construction of several of these lines, and the bridges, culverts, 
and openings number no less than 8,590. The bridges on the 
Orange Biver are substantial specimens of engineering work. That 
on the Eimberley line has a length of 1,230 feet, in nine spans of 180 
feet each, plus the extra width of the piers. The Bethulie bridge 
has a length of 1,486 feet, that at Norval's Point has thirteen spans 
of 180 feet, and cost :OT6,598. Over the Yaal river at Fourteen 
Streams there is also a bridge of ten spans, of 188 feet each. 

In laying the line from Wellington to Beaufort, a barrier range 
of mountains had to be encountered on the edge of the Karroo 
plateau, upwards of 100 miles from Cape Town, but engineering 
skill overcame the difficulty, and secured an entrance by the Hex 
Biver Yalley, near to Worcester, by means of cuttings through the 
perpendicufau* rock ; the line thus gradually ascends the mountains 
by sweeping curves and zigzags, piercing portions of the mountains 
by tunnels and light viaducts, until within a distance of thirty-six 
miles from Worcester it attains an altitude of 8,198 feet. From this 
summit can be seen the beautiful valley beneath, dotted with farms 
and plantations of com, and vineyards, whilst some of the 
gorrQundiiig mou^t^in pe^ks, 6^000 feet high, present a ^r^d 

Digitized by 


10 The Bailway System of South Africa. 

appearance when capped with snow in the winter season. For 
upwards of twenty miles of this ascent the gradients are 1 in 40 
and 1 in 45, with curves of five chains radius. The highest 
point is attained about seventy-seven miles from Worcester, at an 
altitude of 8,588 feet. From the Karroo Plains to Eimberley, and 
beyond Yryburg to Mafeking, the line runs on comparatively level 
ground. The highest point on the Midland system, of 5,185 feet, 
is reached at a distance of 164 miles from Port Elizabeth. The 
Eastern system attains its summit of 5,586 feet at a distance of 207 
miles from the coast at East London. The highest altitude is that 
attained at Johannesburg, of 5,600 feet. The lines from Port 
Elizabeth and East London likewise possess distinctive beauties 
and characteristics peculiar to the nature of the country and its 
gradually ascending altitude. Uitenhage, with its pretty gardens 
and valuable fetrms, is within easy reach of Port Elizabeth. Bo also 
is Graaf-Eeinet, with its extensive sheep-walks, and likewise the 
district of Albany, having Grahamstown for its capital. It was in 
the Albany district, and especially in and around its capital of 
Grahamstown, that the English settlers of 1820 founded theb 
home ; here they, in concert with their fellow Colonists in adjoining 
districts, and from other parts of the Colony as well, struggled man- 
fully against the early Kafir wars and inroads which desolated so 
many border homes, and here their descendants are now improving 
the soil and advancing the material and educational interests of the 
eastern province of the Colony. The line from East London 
proceeds for a considerable distance along the Buffalo river, through 
a beautiful country, which was rescued some fifty years ago from 
savage occupation and control, and which is now peopled and 
cultivated by Europeans and Colonists who, by their energy and 
knowledge of agriculture, have made the soil to yield its fruits in 
great abundance ; for over one hundred miles the railway winds 
round hills and mountains, through kloofs and poorts with ever- 
varying scenes. The railway workshops at Salt River, near Cape 
Town, at Uitenhage, near Port Elizabeth, and at East London, are 
large and excellent establishments, where repairs and transforma- 
tions of locomotives, rolling-stock and coaching are executed to 
meet the needs of the different railway systems. 

South African coal is largely used as fuel on the Eastern and 
Northern systems of railway, but a considerable quantity, or about 
two-fifths of the whole, is still annually imported from Wales to 
satisfy the wants of the Cape railways, which consimie on an average 
about 900 tons daily— the sources from whence Colonial coal can 

Digitized by 


The Baihoay Syitem of South Africa. II 

1>6 obtained being Sterkstroom (which is connected by the Indwe 
CJompany's railway to the coal mines at Indwe) and those of 
Molteno and Gyphergat, all situated in the districts of Queenstown 
and Albert. The two Bepublics have their own coal mines, which 
largely, if not entirely, meet then: wants, whilst some of these mines 
also contribute largely to the needs of the Cape railways. 

The manufacture in England of locomotives and every description 
of rolling stock for the Cape railways has, during this and the past 
year, greatly exceeded all previous orders. 

It is impossible to omit a passing reference to the telegraph 
system, as this service is necessarily connected with the raUway 
system. I therefore mention the fact that communication in the 
Colony by means of the electric telegraph has increased wonder* 
fully in the last few years, as the figures I now give will prove. 
The number of miles of wire worked in 1896 was 16,826, and the 
number of miles of line 6,464 ; the revenue last year amounted 
to £252,910, and the total number of messages forwarded was 

These telegraph lines cost a little over half a million, which sum 
was raised on loan, and the surplus interest on this investment is 

Sleepers for railway purposes to the extent of 180,000 have been 
requisitioned by the Government from their own and private forests 
in the Colony during the past year, and though these numbers are 
insufficient for railway construction, as well as for renewals, yet it is 
hoped that with the proper conservation and extension of these 
forests a more abundant supply will be procured in the future, 
whilst for the additional supply of this article, and also of steel rails, 
recourse must be had to this country. It may be further mentioned 
that a permanent factory is about to be erected in the Colony, on the 
outskirts of Eing Williamstown, with the necessary creosoting plant, 
whilst in the George and Enysna districts appliances of this character 
already exist. 

The benefits direct and indirect which have arisen from railway 
construction in the Colony cannot be over-estimated. In its 
commercial, social, and educational aspects the happiest results 
have been achieved ; places separated from the metropolis by weeks 
of ordinary journey can now be reached within a couple of days, and 
the facility and celerity of transport, coupled with the various improve- 
ments that modem science and skill can secure for comfort, conduce 
to more social intercourse ; whilst the security afforded in the con- 
veyance of goods from place to place, with reduction — as compared 

Digitized by 


12 The Bailway System of South Africa, 

with previous rates — in cost of oarriage, has seoored a substantial 
and lucrative traffic. 

The inducements offered to those in this country and in other 
parts of the world to visit the Cape and South AMca for purposes of 
health, pleasure or business are considerably increased by the ex- 
tensive railway system of the Colony. In proof of this I refer to the 
increase in 1896--as compared with 1896 — of over one million and a 
quarter in the number of passengers by sea carriage to the Cape, 
nearly all of whom availed themselves of the advantages offered of 
travelling on the Cape railways. But beyond all this, the educational 
benefits arising from more frequent communication by means of 
the penny postage system, brought about by the extension of the 
raUways, and by the telegraph wire, are very marked, and a thirst 
for knowledge, as also a desire for information, are quickened 
and satisfied by being kept in touch with the world outside the 
lonely veld and the isolated fia.rm. Even the native population 
exhibit a growing partiality for railway travelling. Members of the 
Legislature, as well as the farming population in general, continue to 
clamour for further railway extension, and portions of the country 
unconnected with railway communication present, by petition, their 
several claims for consideration during each session of Parliament. 
Though great caution has to be exercised by Parliament in the 
avoidance of any cost for the survey of expensive and possibly un- 
productive lines, yet every facility is given to considerate claims by 
the authorisation of surveys wherever such can be profitably under- 
taken. An important survey has been sanctioned, in the last 
session of Parliament, for a projected line through the native 
territory of Pondoland towards the Natal border, so as eventually 
to connect the Cape Colony with Natal. The importance of such a 
line of railway cannot be over-estimated, and its accomplishment 
would be an inestimable boon to the two British Colonies in South 

Having thus endeavoured to give a short historical account of 
railway undertaking, let me essay a brief sketch of its cost and yield. 
The railways of the Cape Colony cost on an average jg9,407 per mile 
in construction and completion. The length of the Government 
railways alone according to the official return amounts to 2,258 
miles, and the cost of construction to j£21,198,417i of which 
{£20,790,288 is capital entitled to interest. This money was obtained 
by means of loans raised on the credit of the Colony at an average 
of about four per cent., and from the last official returns for 1896 
the i^^rcenti^e pf Cape share of ne^ j3am|ngi^ has reache4 the high^ 

Digitized by 


the Itaihvay System of South Africd. IS 

figil!feontecord,namely,£8195.75. per cent., and if the share due 
to the Orange Free State were not eliminated the percentage earned 
would be £10 7^. 6d, upon the capital invested. A financial return 
of so satisfactory a character necessarily places Cape Stock on a 
secure basis, and as an additional security for this investment, we 
hold that the railways, valued as a commercial asset, are worth con« 
siderably more than the total indebtedness of the Colony. 

The Orange Free State has, under the authority of a convention 
agreed on with the Cape Colony — when the latter undertook to 
construct the line in that Eepublic — acquired by purchase the said 
line, and the railway administration of the Cape Colony ceases at 
the Orange River, and thus from Norval's Point northwards the two 
Eepublics have the complete control of the traflSc. . A new railway 
convention has lately been entered into for a term of twelve months, 
and thereafter terminable on a notice of six months, between the 
Cape Colony and the Orange Free State, regarding the interworking 
of the railway administrations of the Colony and the Orange Free 
State. This agreement provides for modifications, subject to mutual 
consent, of the working of the Free State line, and each Government 
is bound to fix the rates applicable to its own lines, and in the case 
of traffic passing from one State either into or through the other, the 
rates shall be the sum of the rates of the two administrations, un* 
less otherwise mutually agreed upon. The railway bridges remain 
the joint property of the two Governments, but are to be maintained 
by the Cape, the Free State contributing one-half the cost of such 
maintenance. The great object the Colony has now in view is the 
endeavour to prevent opposing tariffs working injuriously to the 
interests of the whole ; and while the Colony, on its part, is pursuing 
a policy in the direction of reducing rather than increasing rates upon 
through traffic, it hopes that the two Republics may view the question 
in the same light, by agreeing to a reduced tariff which must tend to 
the benefit of all interested. The purchase by the Free State of its 
line will cause a proportionate reduction of earnings by the Cape 
Government ; but against this disadvantage must be set the fact of 
the bright prospect opening towards the north, and the completion 
of the line to Bulawayo (the official opening of which is fixed for 
November 4 of this year) ushers in a new era of railway extension 
and traffic suggestive of considerable advantage to the Colony and 
Rhodesia. The Free State will, it is believed, soon start branch 
lines in the Republic for the development of traffic, and the expansion 
of the trade which has prospered with the advent of railways. 

The Chartered Company has built the Vryburg-Bulawayo Une 

Digitized by 


14 The BaUway BysUm of South Africa. 

of 579 miles of railway at its own expense through a comparatively 
flat coimtry, and in the agreement entered into with the Cape 
Oovermnent, as ratified by the Cape Legislatorey &e working of 
the line is to be undertaken by the Cape Government on terms 
similar to those on which the line from Yryborg to Mafeking is 
now worked. The Cape Government is to work the line at cost 
price, charging everything that could possibly be set down for the 
working of the line, and so guaranteeing itself against the possi- 
bility of loss, whilst a rate of a halfpenny per ton per mile id 
chargeable on all Cape produce conveyed over it. This agreement 
is to continue for a term of ten years, though subject to earlier 
termination on a notice of six months being given by either party. 
The line from Beira, on the Portuguese coast, to Salisbury is also 
nearing completion, and the service of two lines, with outlets to 
the oceans on the south-east and south-west of the continent, will 
prove of great benefit to the trade and development of Bhodesia. 
I will not overburden this Paper with details and statistics 
which may prove wearisome, but a few feicts in support of my 
statement of the value and progress of railways at the Cape may 
not be uninteresting. The passenger traffic for 1896 yielded 
£1,013,816, being an increase of 28 per cent, on the previous year, 
and about 8,000,000 passengers were conveyed on the lines. The 
tonnage of goods in the same year amounted to 1,378,346, being 
an increase of 19 per cent, on the previous year. In the year 1873 
only 63^ miles of line had been opened ; within twenty years from 
that period, or in 1893, the present total of 2,253 miles of Govern- 
ment railways had been reached, this being exclusive of some 300 
miles laid by private enterprise. The earnings last year realised 
£4,078,561, and the working expenses chargeable against this sim^ 
were £1,921,809. The total exports and imports for 1896 from 
and through the ports of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, and East 
London amounted to nearly twenty millions sterling, the goods 
so exported and imported being nearly all carried on the different 
Government railway systems of the Colony. 

In connection with railway construction it may not be out of 
place to mention the fact that marine works of very large propor- 
tions are being undertaken at the three principal harbours of the 
Colony. Cape Town has already spent upwards of two and a half 
millions sterling on the construction in Table Bay of a breakwater 
and docks. When the Table Bay Docks were constructed it was 
supposed that sufficient accommodation had been secured for trade 
purposes for all time, but as sailing vessels and steamers arQ now 

Digitized by 


The Bailway System of South Africa* 16 

built of double and treble the tonnage and length of those in use 
twenty years ago, the necessity has arisen for the enlargement of , as 
well as an addition to, the existing works in Table Bay. At Port 
Elizabeth, the works in course of construction will afford greater 
facilities for the shipping and landing of goods and passengers ; 
and with regard to East London, which is protected by a breakwater 
of considerable magnitude, and has also an excellent patent slip in 
full working order, even here the need for further harbour im- 
provements is fully recognised. 

Mossel Bay, between Table Bay and Port Elizabeth, will soon be 
an additional harbour having direct railway communication with 
the rest of the Colony. It is being provided with a sea-wall, and 
yriH require further conveniences for the shipping and landing of 
the goods to be borne on the jrailway line in course of construction 
from Mossel Bay to George. 

I have confined my remarks to, and conveyed such information 
as I possessed, on the Cape Colony railways only, with a slight 
reference to the Orange Free State line and its railway con- 
vention, because that agreement is closely connected with the 
Cape Colony system ; and I have also introduced to your 
notice the Mafeking-Bulawayo railway and the agreement with 
the Cape Government for the working of that line. I have thus 
tax avoided all reference to the Natal lines, fearing I might, through 
want of sufficient knowledge of the subject, fedl to convey usefiil and 
correct information in regard thereto ; yet I may be permitted to 
supply a few facts in order to give expression to the feeling of regard 
entertained by the Cape towards the neighbouring British Colony. 

Natal, which comprises an area of 20,851 square miles (being 
over one-third that of England and Wales), was from 1848 to 1866 
a portion of the Cape Colony, but in the last-named, year was con- 
stituted a separate Colony. The progress and continued advance 
of Natal in her public works and in her trade relations, within and 
beyond her own limits, justified (about four years ago) the intro- 
duction of responsible government into that Colony, and now, as 
one of the group of self-governing Colonies, was, on the celebration 
of the sixtieth year of Her Majesty's reign, privileged to witness her 
then Premier, Mr. Escombe, taking part with the Premiers of the 
other self-governing Colonies in offering homage and swearing fealty 
to our Sovereign Lady the Queen. The railways in Natal, of 
upwards of 400 miles, have, specially in regard to the one con- 
skucted to Charlestown and thence to Johannesburg in the 
Transvaal, increased her trade and progress to an extraordinary 

Digitized by 


16 The BaUway SytUm of South Afrkai 

extent. The line northwards to Johannesburg is a Wondertol 
achievement, and, taking into account the size and small European 
population of Natal, we feel bound to admit that very few Colonies 
would, under similar conditions in regard to extent and population! 
have attempted a work of so costly a character. The work haS| 
however, proved a great success, and has added very largely to the 
revenues of that Colony ; and so also have the one or two 
smaller lines within Natal, chiefly on the sea-board, helped to 
augment the volume of her trade. The line from Durban to 
Maritzburg, which was the first railway undertaking, connects the 
capital with the seaport, and is indispensable to the commercial 
progress of the Colony. A distinct branch line also connects Natal 
with the Orange Free State. Natal is further possessed of 
extensive coal mines, which have been {>rofitably worked, and which 
are about to be more fully developed, and these will continue mo&% 
valuable acquisitions to railway maintenance and progress. 

I have before referred to the intention of the Cape Government 
to authorise the expenditure of a survey for a line of railway 
through Pondoland, which may eventually connect Natal with the 
Cape. Such a junction would be most desirable, but whether this 
link be effected or not, whether practicable or impracticable by 
reason of the cost or other circumstances, no reason exists, and 
none can reasonably be urged, against an immediate closer federal 
union of the two Colonies. A Commercial and Customs Union 
would be the prelude to a future South African Dominion. 

Much, however, has already been done to bring the Colonies and 
States more closely together, by the holding of a South African 
Bailway Officers' Conference. 

The first Conference was held at Pretoria in November, 1895f 
and at the second, held at Pietermaritzburg, in Natal, in March 
last, thirteen representatives or delegates were present on behalf of 
the Cape, Orange Free State, Transvaal, the Portuguese Admini- 
stration of Delagoa Bay, and Natal, all of whom, during the siic 
days' Conference, considered the management of the five railway 
systems of South Africa. Upwards of 160 points or subjects in 
relation to the different systems were discussed, opinions expressed, 
suggestions made, and resolutions adopted bearing on the improve- 
ment of the permanent way ; the rates on all goods and Uve stock ; 
train regulations ; the types of engines and rolling stock best suited for 
the different systems ; the desirability of a general imiform time on 
the hour zone system, recommended by the Prime Meridian 

Digitized by 


The Baihuay System of South Africa. 17 

Conference as the best basis on which to settle the time standard ; 
and on the passenger trafiSc. 

It was not possible to secure unanimity or perfect co-operation 
in details over the management of between four and five thousand 
miles of South African railway, or over the numerous locomotive 
engines of the various administrations running, as these do, 
through the Colonies and States which contain an area of nearly 
half a million of square miles, and which, moreover, present 
differing Governmental conditions, as well as multiform topo- 
graphical features. Yet, as these conferences are held for the 
discussion of matters of common interest, and with the object of 
harmonising the methods of action of the several systems, as well 
as remedying all defects, and promoting the advancement of the 
different portions of South Africa, much good may eventually result 
from such periodical gatherings. 

The next South African Eailway Officers* Conference will be 
held at Gape Town in March 1898, and it may then be possible — 
— and it would be a wise policy — ^to invite the attendance of delegates 
to represent the newly completed Bhodesian lines of railway. 

Of the Transvaal railways which, with those I have before 
enlarged on, complete the South African railway system, I can 
say no more than that the principal lines have junctions with 
the Orange Free State on the one side, and with Delagoa Bay on 
the other, and in addition to these, a direct line to the Natal border. 
The traffic on the Delagoa Bay line is, however, the most important 
in point of commercial success, and it has attained a magnitude 
which demands an increase in rolling stock with corresponding 
fetcilities. There are also one or two smaller lines within the 
Bepublic, namely, one from Johannesburg to Klerksdorp, vid 
Potchefstroom, already opened to traffic, and another, the Pretoria- 
Pietersburg extension, now nearing completion. All the lines in 
the Bepublic are under the control of the Government, and subject 
to the administration of the Netherlands Eailway Company. 

The terrible scourge of rinderpest will, it is feared, deprive the 
farming population throughout South Africa of a large number of 
cattle, chiefly used for purposes of transport and for farming 
operations ; one remedy to meet the first of these untoward events 
would be to increase the railway lines where practicable, and to 
enlist steam power in the service of the Colonies and States of 
South Africa, as a more enduring as well as a more reliable sub- 
stitute for the labour of draught oxen for transport purposes. 

The steady advance in the facilities for inland communication in 

Digitized by 


18 .2%6 Railway System of South Afficd. 

80 extensive a Colony as the Cape of Good Hope — and also in thai 
of Natal — and the gigantic strides which have characterised thd 
development and financial success of their several railway systems, 
amid drawbacks and difficulties inseparable to the condition oiE 
sparsely-populated countries, afford indisputable evidence to the 
energy and perseverance of the people in furthering the cause of 
useful and remunerative public works. 

The year now drawing to a close has borne witness to the exist- 
ence of a firm and loyal union between England and the scattered 
portions of her Empire. The Colony of the Cape of Good Hope is 
drawing the different portions of that vast country closer to each 
other by further railway and telegraphic extension, and is seeking 
to secure closer and more friendly commercial relations with the 
adjoining States and Colonies. All these efforts will, it is hoped, 
secure a federation and union in commerce and friendly intercourse 
of lasting benefit to the people of South Africa, and to the Empire 
at large ; whilst the Cape and its people will always rejoice to con* 
tinue an integral portion of this Empire, and be always prepajred to 
tender to the Sovereign of this country and the Throne the assur* 
ance of its devoted allegiance and loyalty. I may further be 
permitted to add, without any intention of trespassing beyond the 
defined limits of my position as the Cape's representative, that Natal 
is sure to join heartily in the utterance of these patriotic sentiments, 
and to aid in the maintenance and advancement of every interest 
that will secure the progress and growth of a United Empire. 


I now furnish an explanation of the photographic illustrations 
which are submitted to the meeting : — 

Bridges over the Orange Eiver. 

There are three important bridges over the Orange River. 

Bridge No. 1 is on the line to Kimberley, some ten miles from 
Hopetown, and known as the Good Hope ; it is composed of 9 spans 
of 130' 0" each, equal to 1,230 feet, with masonry piers ; the height 
from the water to the rail is 56 feet ; the weight is 95 tons per span, 
giving a total of 855 tons for the whole structure, which cost 

Bridge No. 2 is on the line to Johannesburg, and crosses the 
river at Nerval's Point ; it is composed of 12. spans of 130' 0" each, 
and is erected on iron cylinder piers. 

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The Bailway System of South Africa, 19 

These are the bridges shown on the photographs.! 

The Orange River is subject to very heavy floods, the water occa- 
sionally rising from forty to forty-five feet in the course of twenty- 
four hours ; it was therefore considered undesirable to adopt the use 
of staging for the erection of these bridges, and a system of launch- 
ing was designed by the consulting engineers. Some of the photo- 
graphs show the bridges in course of erection, and the main girders 
being launched from pier to pier. 

The method of launching was as follows. Two pairs of main 
girders were erected on the river's bank, the girders being coupled 
together longitudinally, and braced together transversely at a dis- 
tance apart of 7' 6'' ; they were then placed on specially constructed 
trolleys, roller bed plates were fixed on the abutments and piers, 
and overhead gantries fitted with a traveUing carriage were fixed 
over the bed plates. A strong double-barrelled crab was anchored 
on the opposite bank, connected to the main girders by a wire rope. 
The four main girders were then hauled forward over the openings, 
the connections and bracing taken away, and each main girder was 
lifted into its permanent position by the travelling carriages on the 
top of the gantries. These main girders, when in position, were 
used as a track for a light travelling gantry by means of which 
each cross girder was slung and run into its permanent position, 
and the rail bearers were fixed on to the top of the cross girders 
to a gauge of 7' 6". Two more pairs of main girders were then 
prepared and placed on trolleys ; these were hauled through the two 
bridges already erected, and over the succeeding piers in the 
manner described above ; they were then opened out, the cross and 
rail bearers placed in position, and the next two spans were similarly 
prepared and hauled over, until all the spans were in their posi- 
tions. The rail bearers were then moved in to the gauge of the 
line, viz., 8' 6", the permanent way was laid, and the bridge was 
ready for trains to run over it. 

The third Orange River bridge near Bethulie and a large bridge 
over the Vaal River at Fourteen Streams, of 10 spans of 138 feet 
each, were also erected in a manner similar to that described above. 

Locomotive Engines. 

The photographs show the two latest types of passenger and 
goods engines and tenders sent out to the Government railways ; 
169 passenger engines, and 41 goods engines of these types have 
been ordered since 1895, or at the rate of 100 locomotives a year. 
' The passenger engines, which have six coupled wheels and a 


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20 The Bailway System of Scmth Africa. 

four-wheeled bogie, were designed to work the traffic from Cape 
TowQ to Johannesburg, a distance of oyer 1,014 miles. The 
goods engines have eight coupled wheels and a four-wheeled bogie. 
As a result of trials made on the Midland system, it is stated 
that these engines will take weights of trains (exclusive of their 
own weight and that of the tender) of 449,616 lbs. up a gradient of 
1 in 40 at fifteen miles per hour, and will take 828,905 lbs. up 
gradients of 1 in 80 at thirteen miles per hour. The cost of the 
engines and tenders of both types are very nearly alike, the last prices 
paid being over £3,000 per engine and tender. 


Hon. J. W. Leonaed, Q.C. : I am sure you will hardly expect 
me to add anything to the information Sir David Tennant has 
given us in his interesting and instructive paper, information which, 
I venture to say, will be of the greatest value and importance to all 
those who look to the records of this Institute for information on all 
that concerns the Colonies. The subject on which he has so ably 
addressed us does not lend itself to casual, or after-dinner, discussion. 
He would be a witty man who could jest on the subject of railways. 
Sir David Tennant, who emphasised, and rightly so, the fact that he 
represents the Cape Colony, has not, I think, quite grasped the im- 
portance of a statement over which I think he rather gloated, and 
that is the little circumstance that Cape Bailways are earning some- 
thing like 10 per cent, per annum. Now I hold that that is a 
political crime and injury to all South Africa, but more especially 
to the country which is nearest to my heart at present — the Trans- 
vaal. It is a financial sin. I say that no Government railway 
ought to earn 10 per cent. Government railways are not esta- 
blished for the purpose of relieving people, who ought to pay their 
share of taxation, of that taxation ; and especially in South Africa, 
where industrial conditions have changed like magic within the 
last ten years, it is a sin that something has not been done to right 
the wrong which is embodied in the statement that the railways are 
earning 10 per cent., and practically paying the whole debt of the 
Gape Colony in regard to wars, bridges, roads, pubUc buildings and 
all other purposes for which public money is expended. As one who 
looks at things, not from the Cape Town or Pretoria or Natal point 
of view, but from the South African, and Imperial South AMcan, 
point of view, I protest formally, and I hope my protest will be 
heard, against these railways earning 10 per cent, at the cost of an 
industry like the gold-mining industry pf the Transvf^J, I should 

Digitized by 


The BailwoAf System of South Africa* *fil 

like the Cape Colony, Natal, and the Transvaal to establish such 
rates as will conduce to the industrial prosperity of South Africa, 
the throbbing heart of which is Johannesburg, and without which 
half South Africa would be bankrupt now. If the people who 
control these railways would do something to loosen the bonds 
which are strangling the big industry of South Africa, the springs 
of that industry would respond, and I am convinced that in pursuing a 
wiser and more fiar-seeing policy, a policy also more economically 
sound, they would reap a degree of prosperity they would see no 
cause to regret. Imagine Manchester, Leeds, Glasgow, Sheffield, in 
the hands of people who imposed the heaviest possible taxes on 
everything the workman ate and needed for his daily comfort, and 
imagine the industry of those places in the hands of railway 
companies trying to make the industry which provided the goods 
for them to carry pay for all their bad debts for a century past ! The 
thing is ludicrous for any one who looks at things from the honest 
tradesman's point of view. They ought to be content with 8 or 8^ 
per cent., which is fair interest, with perhaps 1 or 2 per cent, extra 
just for luxuries. This is my little quarrel with Sir David Tennant. 
Nobody who has any thought or political sense can help feeling 
gratified at the prospect of prosperity for South Africa in all that he 
has so lucidly put before us. A word about maligned Bhodesia. 
Anyone who looks at the map and sees the distance between Mafe- 
king and Bulawayo will understand why Bhodesia has not hitherto 
been prosperous. I say nothing of rinderpest or Kaffir wars — they 
are part of our natural heritage, but we shall get rid of them in 
time. It is the lack of communication that has held Bhodesia back. 
I cannot speak myself of its mineral wealth, though Mends express 
themselves hopefully and confidently on that point, but I say that 
Bhodesia is as good a country as the best part of the Transvaal, 
and a great deal better than a very large portion of Cape 
Colony. All you have to do is to give it the common facilities of 
civilisation and you will see a prosperous country there, no matter 
what its mineral resources are. We want roads and telegraphs and 
all the devices of modem civilisation. There are troubles in South 
Africa, but there is a solution to those troubles to be found in the 
sentence of the poet — ** That things are in the saddle and ride man- 
kind." Meantime I will express the hope that the Transvaal, too, 
will do its share towards the completion of this network of railways 
in South Africa, which will do more to unite us than all the 
speeches from all the platforms in the world. 
Mr. E. E. Sawyer : This most interesting paper would have been 

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29 The Bailway System of South Africa. 

fltill more interesting had an account been given of how the lines — 
that is, the trunk lines — came to be laid out as they are. This is our 
only Colony in which politics, in opposition to local requirements, 
have played an important part in railway construction. Bailway 
construction at the Cape is a fair representation of the history of 
the Colony during that period. In 1878 there were only 828 miles 
of line ; two years later, owing to the progress of the diamond 
fields, the length of railway was brought up to 987 miles, or nearly 
trebled, and in 1885 there were 1,600 miles open. Then for four 
years little more was done until the goldfields in 1890 gave the 
work of construction a fresh start. In 1888 an extension from 
Kimberley northward had been sanctioned by the Cape Parliament, 
but political reasons prevented its being commenced. The Ministry 
of the day, under the influence of the Africander Bond, desired to 
enter into closer relations with the Transvaal. Its two leading 
members proceeded to Pretoria to try and arrange for the construc- 
tion of a line from Kimberley to Johannesburg, but failed to come 
to an arrangement, for President Kruger did not want any line 
from the South until the Delagoa Bay line had been completed. 
The Cape Government then turned to the Free State to try and 
approach the goldfields that way. The negotiations resulted in the 
convention of May 1889, in spite of President Kruger's active 
opposition, while President Beitz concluded it on the understanding 
that the northern line would not be proceeded with. To conciliate 
President Kruger the Bond party at the Cape tried to pass a Bill 
prohibiting private persons making a railway on their own lands^ 
the object being to prevent the Bechuanaland Bailway being con- 
structed along the Transvaal frontier, to which President Kruger 
was strongly opposed ; but the attempt failed. Mr. Bhodes was 
then in England forming the Chartered Company, and the 
Bechuanaland Bailway Company was buying up farms along its 
proposed line from Kimberley to the Bechuanaland frontier. A few 
months later Mr. Bhodes returned, having not only the Charter, but 
having secured the entire interest of the Bechuanaland Bailway 
Company, an important factor for carrying out his schemes to the 
north. His influence brought about a complete change of policy. 
The line north from Kimberley was commenced, and the Ministry 
had to apologise to President E^itz on the ground that the Hue was 
being undertaken by a private company, over which they had no 
control. This was the commencement of that line which, extend- 
ing over 600 miles, has reached its goal, and is to be opened on 
Thursday next. The dream of 1890 is now realised. What was 

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The Railway System of South Africa. 2* 

then the kraal of the dark chieftain is now a prosperous town, and 
t am sure we all regret that the originator and prime mover of this 
great work will not, owing to ill-health, be present at its inaugura- 
tion. The Free State had at that time the key of the position from 
the sea to the Transvaal through the railway conventions with the 
Gape and Natal, but unfortunately for them they threw that key 
away. They fixed the point of junction without consulting Natal, 
and would not allow the Harrismith line to proceed direct to 
Viljoens Drift, so confident were they that President Kruger would 
not allow the Natal line to proceed ficom Charlestown. In 1894 — 
to refer to the railways themselves — there was great excitement all 
over Cape Colony because of the approaching opening of the 
Delagoa Bay line, the fear being that trade would be removed from 
the Cape. Three years have passed, and if we compare the three 
systems, we find the- Delagoa Bay Eailway still occupies a back 
seat. It seems at first sight incredible that a line of only 880 miles 
in lengthy the Delagoa Bay line, cannot completely cut out the lines 
from Port Elizabeth to Johannesburg (782 miles) or that from 
Natal (476 miles). We may take Port Elizabeth Harbour to be 
about equal to that of Durban, while Delagoa has undoubtedly 
the finest harbour in South Africa. Yet, owing to its want of 
facilities and general mismanagement, owing to the great delays 
in forwarding, and the damaging of goods, that line is certainly a 
long way behind the other two. Taking the capital expenditure, 
which on the Port Elizabeth line comes to 6| millions, and 
Natal 7^ millions, we find, on the Delagoa Bay line, it is, as nearly 
as can be ascertained, 7 millions. Looking at the nature of the 
different lines we find that each has its peculiar features. The 
Port Elizabeth line has few, if any, gradients of one in forty ; the 
Natal line has many sharp curves and grades steeper than one in 
forty, besides ascending ranges only to come down again ; Delagoa 
Bay has a steady rise from the Portuguese frontier of one in forty 
up to Machado Dorp, where it attains a height of about 6,000 feet. 
It has, besides, a short length of rack railway, where special engines 
are required, but this is introduced in such a way as to minimise 
its disadvantages for traffic purposes. We have, therefore, all three 
lines pretty fairly matched, both as regards capital and working 
expenses, and that is why none can lay absolute claim to the lion's 
share. It will depend on management at the ports and on the lines, 
and the present distribution of the through traffic is about in 
proportion to the management. The development and advance- 
naent of a country in material progress may fairly be gauged by the 

Digitized by 


24 The Saitway System of South Africa* 

extent of its railways in proportion to its area and population* 
Looking at the latter we find South Africa well ahead of any of 
our great Colonies. In Victoria and New South Wales there are 
450 inhabitants to a mile of line, in Canada 480, and in South 
Africa, taking the Cape, Natal, the Orange Free State, and the 
Transvaal, we find only 187 white inhabitants to the mile. It is 
only a very rich country that can aflford such railway expenditure, 
and one would think that these lines could not pay. We know, 
however, that they do pay handsomely. The Port Elizabeth and 
Johannesburg line pays over 18 per cent, on the outlay, while the 
Netherlands Company present their accounts in such a way as not 
to divulge the extent of their gains. The fact is, they one and all 
charge excessive rates, which have to be paid by the " unfortunate 
gold industry, and hence the present outcry at Johannesburg as to 
excessive railway charges, which is more than fully justified. The 
only remedy is that advocated by Mr. Rhodes some years ago — 
namely, the pooling of all railway receipts, to be divided on such a 
basis as to give an equitable return on the whole of the capital 

Sir Fbederick Young, K.C.M.G. : I leave to my eloquent friend 
who opened the discussion the task of finding any little point for 
hostile criticism of the paper we have just had the pleasure of 
hearing. So far as I am concerned, I am anxious to express my 
personal obligation to Sir David Tennant for the admirable way in 
which he has described the progress of railway enterprise in South 
Africa. We all know that the pioneers of civilisation from the 
earliest periods were, like the Eomans, the makers of ** roads." But 
it was reserved for our own century and for the reign of her gracious 
Majesty Queen Victoria to initiate the introduction of railroads, which 
are the real pioneers of modem civilisation. No country in the world 
has derived more benefit from them than South Africa herself. It 
is, indeed, wonderful to think of the energy and ability and pluck 
of our South African fellow-subjects in carrying out such a vast 
amount of railway construction as we have there at the present 
day. It is only some eight years ago that I paid a somewhat long 
and extensive visit to that country. At that time, while I was able to 
travel by rail up to Kimberley (700 miles) from Cape Town, I had to 
be relegated afterwards to the old-fashioned system of waggon 
travel through Bechuanaland to Vryburg, and tiience to Pretoria, 
some 450 miles more. Now you may go from Cape Town to 
Pretoria without a break. I also travelled for some weeks in a 
waggon in the northern part of the Transvaal. On my return to 

Digitized by 


The Itcdlway System of South Africa. 25 

Pretoria, I had an interesting interview with President Kruger, and 
I told him what was much impressed on my mind, that I hoped to 
live to see the day when the Transvaal would be penetrated with 
railways in every direction. I do not suppose this will altogether 
come in my lifetime ; but it is quite clear from what has been 
done already, and what is so rapidly progressing northward in 
South Africa, that before many years are over that dream of mine 
with respect to the Transvaal will be finally aocompHshed. Probably 
the terrible misfortune of the rinderpest, which has decimated the 
herds of cattle, and inflicted such terrible loss on both the English 
and Dutch, will be the means, as Sir David Tennant has said, of 
more quickly developing the railroad system throughout that 
country. The benefits, direct and indirect, which have arisen 
from railway enterprise in the Colonies cannot be over-estimated, 
and anybody who has seen South Africa will fully endorse Sir 
David Tennant*s sound and authoritative sentiment^ on that 

Mr. George Cawston: After the exhaustive statement which 
has been made by Sir David Tennant, I should not have attempted 
to add anything on my own account except to take the opportunity of 
testifying to the ability and energy displayed by the engineers and 
contractors of the Bechuanaland Railway in completing within such 
a short time the railway to Bulawayo. It is only two years since 
the survey of the line was commenced, and during the past year 
more than a mile has been constructed for every working day, and 
in one week as much as twenty miles were made. As regards the ex- 
tension of the Beira line to Salisbury, the money has been found . 
for the construction of a line of the same gauge as the Cape from 
the Portuguese frontier, near Umtali, to Salisbury, and when this is 
complete it is the intention of the Company to relay' the Beira line on 
the same gauge as the extension to Salisbury. The construction of 
the lines to Bulawayo and to Salisbury being completed, the 
Company will consider the extensions to the North ; the Western 
or Bechuanaland Railway to the Victoria Falls on the Zambesi ; and 
the Eastern or Mashonaland Railway to cross the Zambesi near, 
the Krebaska Rapids to bring the high territories lying to the 
north of the river in communication with the territories of the 
British South Africa Company south of the river. The Company 
has already found three and a half millions of money on railway 
construction, in addition to the five millions which it has spent 
in opening up the territories under its control, and it can thus 
claim to have secured this Colony for the Empire, and when the 

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26 The Bailway System of South Africct* 

time comes to hand over the country to the settlers it will be 
a Colony able to support itself on its own resources and be 
available for the emigration of the overburdened population of this 

Mr. B. W. MuBBAY : At this late period of the evening any 
remarks must necessarily be brief. Mr. Sawyer said it would 
be interesting to really know how the construction of these rail- 
ways in South Africa came about. I think I can help him. We 
had in South Africa, when responsible government became au 
fait accompli, as our first Premier Mr. — afterwards Sir John — 
Molteno, and he was faced by a powerful Opposition. Mini- 
sterialists as well as Oppositionists were loyal to the interests of 
this country. It is singular that in South Africa its public 
works have not been conceived or designed by professional men. 
When Mr. Molteno formulated his railway scheme he sent for 
his consulting engineer, who asked him what was the route he 
desired. Mr. Molteno asked for a map of South Africa, which was 
brought to him. Taking a ruler he drew his pen along it in a 
direct line from Cape Town to Beaufort West. "But," said the 
engineer, "that means you go slap bang at the Hex River 
Mountains." " Never mind," said Mr. Molteno, " that is the way 
I want to go." And that is the way it did go. The Opposition 
was not in accord with the route, but seeing that it endangered 
railway construction by not agreeing to it they accepted the 
Molteno line. With this result : after twenty minutes' discussion 
the Q»pe Parliament — that is, the House of Assembly — ^passed 
a vote of £4,000,000 for railway construction. Rather smart 
legislation that I Then when the railway got as far as Kimberley 
the conception of further northern expansion grew into concrete 
form, and the conception was not put into practical shape by 
the Cape Parliament or anyone in the Cape Colony. It was de- 
signed by those deeply interested in the Cape Colony at that time 
on a visit to London, who got London financiers to interest them- 
selves in the matter, and also the Colonial Office, when Lord 
Knutsford was Secretary of State for the Colonies, and when Sir 
Robert Herbert was Permanent Under-Secretary of State. The 
funds for the railway survey were not provided by the Cape Colony 
but by London financiers. The survey under the desire of the 
British Government was fair sailing as far as British Bechuanaland 
was concerned. But just at this time the Ministry of the Cape 
was coquetting with the Government of Pretoria, and there was a 
matter of sixty miles between Eimberley and the Bechuanaland ) 

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The Bailway System of South Africa. 27 

border. Mr. ^awyer is quite wrong in saying Mr. Rhodes in 
London interested the financiers. He had nothing whatever to do 
with it, but at his own urgent desire he was allowed to share in the 
enterprise after the surveyors were at work. This sixty miles 
between Eimberley and the Bechuanaland border might have 
prevented the northern extension which many of those who now 
laud it so much were opposed to. The problem was solved by a 
journalist and a lawyer, who in fourteen days bought the right of 
way for all time for the construction of a railway from Kimberley 
to the Bechuanaland border, and marked out the line of railway, 
of which the surveyors when their time came approved. The 
railway which Mr. Ehodes and those acting with him have now 
carried to Bulawayo is a magnificent achievement both in point of 
speed and the standpoint of economy. As one who understands 
his subject I feel deeply indebted to Sir David Tennant for the 
trouble he has taken in preparing his valuable paper. The history 
of railway enterprise in South Africa proves that we can with 
knowledge and care make lines of railway in almost any direction 
in South Africa, and they will pay. I am not going to quibble 
over the making of such large profits ; it is satisfactory to know 
that they are paying so well, and it has brought home to South 
African legislatures which once doubted their paying that such 
doubts were not justified. I trust they will go on paying, and that 
.Bulways will be made more and more throughout the length and 
breadth of the land, until we get in grip with all the various 
communities and manage to nnke Sonih Africa a happy and pros- 
perous as it is a great country. 

Mr. W. F. Lbeson : I am sure we are deeply grateful to Sir D. 
Tennant for the excellent account he has given us of the South 
African railway system. I have only one word of criticism on that 
^stem, and that is with reference to the line from the Cape to 
Johannesburg, which is of a very zigzag character. I suppose 
some day there will be a more direct route between De Aar and a 
point on the line in the Orange Free State. With reference to 
Natal, I would remind you that its railway system was inaugurated 
by the Chairman of this meeting nearly twenty-two years ago. 
New lines there are being pushed forward, one to Richmond, which 
I hope will soon form a connecting link with Cape Colony ; and the 
south coast line, which may ultimately form a second connecting 
link. There is also the northern extension, being constructed by 
my firm, the first section of which is, I hope, being inspected 
to-day, previous to opening for traffic. This line will sooner or 

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S8 The Sailway System of South Africa. 

later be extended through Zululand and develop the great mineral 
Wealth of that country, and probably at some future time will be 
carried right up to Delagoa Bay. I would emphasise what has 
been said with reference to the designing of railways, and the 
great importance of proceeding on well-considered and far-reaching 
plans. Eailways everywhere have been too much left to local con- 
siderations, without due regard to future development. In railway 
construction, as in government, we need men of broad outlook, who, 
while making due provision for that which is local, and, I need not 
say, for that which will pay, will plan their schemes in no spirit of 
parochialism or narrow exclusiveness. I trust this will be especi- 
ally the case in South Africa, where there is still a great field for 
railways, so that newly projected lines will form so many links in 
the chain, binding in the most effective manner the countries which 
will one day be federated under the British Grown, and under the 
flag of the South African Dominion. 

The Chaibman (Sir Henry Bulwer, G.C.M.G.) : We have taken 
a long journey with Sir David Tennant to-night. Starting from 
Cape Town in the year 1859, when the first sod of the first South 
African railway was turned by that veteran Governor, Sir George 
Grey, Sir David Tennant has conducted us over many hundreds of 
miles, along several different lines of railway and through many 
different provinces and countries, till he has landed us, or almost 
landed us, upon the platform of the Bulawayo Station, with a half- 
promise that we shall have an early train to take us on to the 
Zambesi. It is indeed a long distance that he has taken us, but 
he has made our way pleasant and interesting to us by the extent, 
the character and the variety of country through which we have 
gone. We have looked down with him upon the beautiful valley of 
the Hex Biver, though I confess in the views of the railway 
exhibited to us as passing over that river I did not see the valley, 
but he has described to us the valley with its farmsteads, its 
waving corn and its vineyards. We have had a glimpse of the 
gardens of Uitenhage, and the sheep pastures of Graaf-Beinet. We 
have passed by many a town and settlement, the names of some of 
which are famous in South African story, and familiar to South 
African ears as household words. He has led us across the Great 
Karroo, with its vast expanse of arid waste and yet with a beauty 
that was all its own. He has brought us within sight of snow- 
capped mountains ; he has shown us the Orange Biver in its flood ; 
he has taken us to the diamond fields and the gold fields, to 
Kimberley and to Johannesburg ; to the Orange Free State and the 

Digitized by 


The Bailway System of South Africa* 29 

Transvaal, to Bloemfontein and Pretoria ; across Bechnanaland to 
Matabeleland land Mashonaland. With him we have descended to 
the Indian Ocean and visited the beautiful Natal country, for his 
kindly though brief reference to which I, as an ancient Governor, 
offer him my acknowledgments and thanks, with its hne of railway 
ever climbing upwards, till it crosses the Drakensberg at two 
different points, and so connects the Port of Durban with the 
farming industries of the Free State, and the mining industries of 
the Transvaal. Then he has taken us to the Portuguese possessions 
of Delagoa Bay and Beira, whence we have seen the lines going to 
Pretoria and Salisbury. In short, he has taken us over a distance of 
4,600 miles. That extent of railway is a great work, which has so 
far been accomplished ; a great work, indeed, when you consider 
that it has been accomplished within a comparatively short time ; 
because although the first sod, as I mentioned just now, was 
turned in 1859, it was not till many years afterwards (it was 
not till some years after the discovery and development of 
the diamond fields) that much further railway work was done 
in South Africa. It was not till 1878, I beheve, that the 
Cape Town main line, which we see stretching far north, was 
carried beyond Wellington, a distance of fifty-eight miles. It was 
not till 1878, 1 believe, but I speak subject to correction, that there 
was any railway construction at Port EUzabeth or East London ; 
and it was not till January 1, 1876, that the first sod of the Natal 
system of railways was turned. Therefore it is within these last 
twenty or twenty-five years that all this great work of railway con- 
struction has been carried out ; and whilst it is unquestionably to 
the discovery and development of the diamond fields and the gold 
fields that this construction is mainly due, because without them 
it is impossible this vast work could have been undertaken or 
carried out, yet the work itself is, in its vast extent, a testimony, 
and a remarkable testimony, to the foresight and sagacity, to the 
energy and the enterprise of those who have projected and carried 
it out. Sir David Tennant in his interesting paper has pointed 
out to us the advantages and benefits, commercial, social, and 
educational, to be derived from this large extent of railway, and from 
the enormous facihties now offered of communication and transport, 
in a country to which access a few years ago was exceedingly difficult. 
There can be no doubt of this. There can be no doubt either that 
these lines of iron rail which are stretching across the face of the 
country are altering the whole features of South African life. It 
is becoming a new country. The old South Afirica, as known to 

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80 The Bailway System of South Africa, 

the early colonists and missionaries, to the travellers and mighty 
hunters of former days, is fast passing away. Nay, the South 
Africa, as those amongst us knew it only twenty or twenty-five 
years ago is fast passing away. The long line of waggons with their 
slow and patient trek oxen, the inspanning and the outspanning, 
the journeys which took days and weeks and sometimes months, 
the incidents and the dangers of the road, the lions which prowled 
about the camp;' at night, the elephants and the big game, the 
countless herds of antelopes — all are become, or are rapidly be- 
coming things of the past ; something presently to be read of in 
books but never again to be seen. The iron road is changing the old 
order of things, and with it no doubt will disappear much of the poetry 
and romance of the South Africa of the first half of this century. 
But with it, we would fain trust and believe, will come something 
that is better ; we trust and believe that it will fit the land for a 
larger population, and that it will be the means of covmng the 
country with settlements and villages and towns ; that it will 
contribute to peace, to the rule^of law and equal justice, and to 
the welfare'of all classes and races that inhabit it. For his mos 
interesting and instructive paper I now ask you to join with me 
in giving a cordial vote of thanks to Sir David Tennant. 

Sir David Tennant, K.CM.G. : I beg to thank the Chairman: 
for introducing the subject of a vote of thanks and you for your 
most cordial response. At this hour I will not detain you, but 
will ask you to join with me in a hearty vote of thanks to the 

The Meeting then terminated. 

Digitized by 


The Gold Coast Colony^ $1 

An Afternoon Meeting was held in the Library of the Institute 
on Tuesday, November 23, 1897— Sir Frederick Young, K.C.M.G., 
in the Chair — when Mr. T. H. Hatton Bichards read a Paper on 



Mr. Hatton Bichaeds gave a short history of the Colony — which 
he described as one of the most important on the West Coast of 
Africa — since it was discovered about the fourteenth century, up to 
the present time, and dealt with the reasons which led up to the 
Eumasi expedition which was despatched in January 1896, and 
which subsequently brought King Prempeh to the coast. The lec- 
turer pointed out that Prempeh, who had assumed the title of King 
KwakuDua the Third, never really succeeded to the " Golden Stool " 
of Ashanti. By certain of his supporters he was recognised as the 
rightful successor, but by other and more important tribes, whose 
recognition of him as king was essential before he pould be placed 
on the " Golden Stool," he was not regarded in the same light. 
Still, so far as Eumasi was concerned, with the power he had 
usurped he was the man to reckon with. It was probably due to 
the strength of the expedition sent up in 1896 that Prempeh saw 
the utter futility of making anything like a stand in opposition. 

Up to 1886 Lagos formed a part of the Gold Coast Colony, but 
in that year it was separated therefrom, and is now quite distinct. 
Beferring to Accra, the capital of the Colony, he described it as 
flat and uninteresting, and added that the first thing which would 
probably strike a new arrival there was the absence of anything 
visible to make the place so unhealthy, and perhaps a casual passer- 
by might think the place could not be so bad as it is generally 
reported. There were no mangrove swamps, the houses appeared 
to be fairly comfortable, while there was always a fresh sea breeze 
coming straight from the South Atlantic. But that the climate 
was bad there could be no doubt. Statistics would prove it. The 
very severe time in Accra, towards the end of 1895 and commence- 
ment of 1896, the lecturer thought, might to some extent be 
ascribed to the clearing of what was known as the ^' burnt 
area '' (the result of serious fires in 1894), and the removal of the 

* A copy of the Paper itself is preserved in the Library, and is always 
available for reference! 

Digitized by 


82 The Oold Coast Colony. 

accumulated filth of generations. Certainly, however, Accra had 
never been so bad before, and has not been so bad since. He 
wished in no way to make out the climate worse than it was. At 
the same time, he considered that it should be correctly stated, so 
that those who were going there should not underrate the necessity 
which existed for the greatest care and caution. In the Colony 
there was a large and efficient medical staff, and within the last 
year a small nursing staff had been added, which he felt sure had 
so far been, and would be, a great boon to the place. Everything 
had been and was being done by the Government to minimise the 
risks to life. 

That the Colony was growing in importance there could be no 
doubt, and particularly since the opening of the country about 
Eumasi, and larger fields for enterprise were thereby available. 
The principal exports were rubber, palm kernels, gold, timber, and 
palm oil. Of those products the following quantities were exported 
in 1895 :~ 

Rubber 4,022,385 lbs. value £322,070. 

Palm kernels and other nuts . 15,791 tons „ £95,261. 

Gold 26,416 oz. „ £91,497. 

Timber 3,587,337 ft. „ £28,245. 

Pahn oil 4,338,627 gals. „ £213,415. 

Petroleum had been discovered, and at one time it promised 
extremely well, but subsequent developments proved that it was a 
lubricating and not an illuminating oil, but in its own way none the 
less valuable, and he had reason to believe that the present lull in 
this enterprise, which was quite in its infancy, was to enable experts 
to consider certain points. He was also glad to learn since his 
arrival in England that much practical attention was being paid to 
the Colony by sound business men with capital, and he saw no reason 
why the country, which was in a prosperous condition already, 
should not very rapidly become still more so. One difficulty might 
however arise — ^he did not say it would, but at any rate one 
factor should not be lost sight of — and that was the question of 
labour. The natives of the Colony did not like manual labour, 
and the best obtainable there at present was that imported from 
the Eroo Coast. It couldtnot be forgotten that if at a time when 
the country was practically preparing for the contingency of war, 
and the success or failure of the Ashanti expedition to a great extent 
depended on the supply of carriers, it was so difficult to obtain 
them that the Government had to resort to the extreme measure of 

Digitized by 


The Gold Coast Colony, 88 

passing a law to compel able-bodied men to work ; it did not require 
any great stretch of imagination to see that there might be times 
when settlers wonld in their smaller ways experience a similar 
difficulty. Still, while considering that point, it should also be borne 
in mind that the natives had not been accustomed to discipline, but 
they were now being awakened to the knowledge that as citizens 
they had duties to perform to their country, and that they should 
contribute their quota to its success by paying taxes and supplying 
labour. When they thoroughly realised their duties in this respect, 
any difficulty which might exist now would probably be removed. 

The lecturer paid a tribute to the memory of Sir W. Brandford 
Griffith, who was] Governor of the Gold Coast from 1886 to 1895, 
and whose death was recently announced. In conclusion he said 
that the importance of the question of the Hinterland could not be 
possibly over-estimated, but more than this he would not say at the 
present time, which could be easily understood for obvious reasons. 
But if he religiously steered clear of all matters political, he hoped 
he would not thereby lessen the interest of his audience in the place, 
or fail in impressing them with the importance of the Oolony. 


Mr. F. W. Bond considered that the British authorities might 
learn a lesson from the French, who do everything possible to foster 
private enterprise. The only support afforded to the British 
mercantile community of the Gold Coast Colony is the subsidy given 
for carrying the mails. He pleaded for better fiEbcilities for landing 
goods and passengers at the various ports of call along the coast, and 
that more help might be given with regard to educational matters. 

Mr, G. W. Neville (M.L.C. Lagos) also referred to the 
defective harbour accommodation, and the difficulty of landing 
through the surf in small boats. He contended that there had 
virtually been no improvement in this respect for the last twenty- 
three years. The regulations of the existing railways were based 
on those of the leading English lines, and were, in his opinion, 
quite unsuited to local requirements. 

Mr. C. D. TuBTON (late Treasurer, Gold Coast Colony) called 
attention to the progress made in the Colony with regard to 
financial matters, and quoted a variety of statistics in relation 
thereto. The trade of the Colony had increased considerably, 
the exports of palm oil and gold dust being particularly noticeable. 
The foreign trade, especially with Germany, showed considerable 

Digitized by 


84 The Gold Coast Colony. 

expansion. The sailing vessels of the olden days were, he con* 
tended, the pioneers of West AMcan trade and prosperity. 

Mr. Geobge Magdonald (Director of Education, Gold Coast 
Colony) wished to correct the reference made to the lack of proper 
competitive examination of the natives, and stated that the present 
Governor of the Colony (Sir William Maxwell) had arranged for the 
introduction of a system of testing the' abilities of candidates for admis- 
sion into the Civil Service, and also before promotion. For the last 
ten years the Government had supported education by making grants 
to the schools. In 1898 there were 100 schools, of which sixty 
received grants, and the latter number had now reached 125. 
School-quarters were being built even in Eumasi. T^ie annual 
Government grant, which three years ago was £4,000, had now 
risen to nearly j^8,000. In making journeys for the purpose of 
inspecting the vanous schools he had had exceptional opportunities 
for studying the native population, and seeing the resources of the 
country. He admitted that it was impossible to overrate the 
difficulty of landing at Accra and Cape Coast Castle, and recom- 
mended the construction of a harbour at a point between Dixoove 
and Sekundi. With reg9.rd to the partly developed products, gold 
and timber (especially mahogany), there was room for a large 
increase. The lack of transport and railways had, up to the 
present, prevented the country from being opened up. 

Mr. F. SwANZY also attached the greatest importance to increased 
facilities for landing goods and passengers. The present cost to the 
merchants of canoes and canoemen was very considerable, and the 
impossibility of landing heavy machinery stopped trade. The want 
was felt of a railway up to the mines, where, however, substantial 
results had abeady been achieved by the native miners. In his 
opinion this would in a few years pay its way. The climate would 
be better if greater attention were paid to sanitary matters. 

Captain A. M. BoiSBAaoN — one of the two survivors of the Benin 
massacre — observed that during his military experience out there 
the quarters of the troops were very bad and required attention. He 
was in command of the escort of Captain Lang, the British 
Commissioner appointed to meet the French representative. He 
was glad to see that the English were now taking an earnest interest 
in West African affairs, and it was very necessary that they should 
do so. At the time when he was serving with the Boundary Com- 
mission, whole countries inhabited by people flying the British flag 
were given over to the French. English residents in the Gold Coast 
were very much concerned about the matter. 

Digitized by 


The Oold Coast Colony. 85 

The Ohaibman, in proposing a vote of thanks to the reader of 
the Paper, referred to the tact he had displayed in dealing with his 
knowledge of the subject, and said it had been the means of 
eliciting some most important information with regard to the Colony. 

Mr. T. H. Hatton Eichabds, in reply, briefly alluded to educa- 
tion and other points referred to in the discussion, and predicted a 
great future for the country as soon as the British capitalist saw a 
probable fair return for his investments. He proposed a vote of 
thanks to the Chairman, and the proceedings terminated. 


Digitized by VorOOQlC 



Thb Second Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at 
the Whitehall Rooms, H6tel M6tropole, on Tuesday, December 7, 
1897, when Mr. W. SaviUe-Kent, P.L.S., F.Z.S., read a paper on 
" Australian Natural History Gleanings." 

The Right Hon. Lord Loch, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., a Member of the 
Council of the Institute, presided. 

The Minutes of the last Ordinary General Meeting were read 
and confirmed, and it was announced that since that Meeting 28 
Fellows had been elected, viz. 10 Resident, 18 Non-Resident. 

Resident Fellows : — 

Kenneth 8, Anderson^ Thomas A. BayUsSt J.P., James Gillandersy Count 
Stanislaus, J, Ostrorog, Rev, Edward O. C. Parr, Henry C. Bicha/rds, MJ*,, 
Alexcmder Thomson, William H, Tyser, WilUam J, Wadham^Lee Wright, B A. 

Non-Resident Fellows : — 

John Austen (Matdbeleland), Alfred Brown B.A. {Gold Coast Colony), John 
Grant Browning {Straits Settlements), S. 22. Cochran {Mauritius), Edtoard 
C. Dicey {Transvaal), He^iry S. Button {Queensland), Frank Earp{JSew South 
WaZes), Charles D. Fleming {Matabeleland), Captain Wm, Baffles Flint 
(British North Borneo), C. H. Gardner, J,P, {Queensland), Rev. Alfred Ball 
(Cape Colony), Alfred Hawkins {Sierra Leone), Francis E, Hodges {Niger 
Coast Protectorate), Capt. Gilbert L. Johnstone {Gold Coast Colony), Bt. Hon. 
Sir Hugh M. Nelson, K.C.M.G. {Queensland), Major M. J. O'Farrell (Victoria), 
Joseph J. Walklate (Queensland), Robert Witheford (New Zealand). 

It was also announced that donations to the Library of Books, 
Maps, &c., had been received from the various Governments of the 
Colonies and India, Societies, and public bodies both in the United 
Kingdom and the Colonies, and from Fellows of the Institute and 

The Chairman called upon Mr. W. Saville-Kent, F.L.S., F.Z.S., 
to read his Paper on 


I HAVB been honoured by an invitation to submit to you ' this 
evening a few gleanings from the rich field of Australian Natural 
History, wherein it has been my privilege to work as a humble 
labourer for many happy years. 

Digitized by 


AtutraMan Natwral History Qleanings* 87 

Australia, as all present are aware, is a huge island-continent 
rivalling Europe in size, and that extends from the parallel 48^^ 
South latitude to within ten degrees of the Bquator. Its natural 
history products, or fauna and flora, in consequence of its magnitude 
and geographical position, embrace a multiplicity of forms of both a 
temperate and tropical character. 

By far the greatest interest, however, attachable to the animal 
and vegetable life of Australia is due to the circumstance that its 
terrestrial constituents are, to a very large extent, represented by 
forms that have long since been extinct in other regions of the 
world. This &ct has only within recent years received what appears 
to be a logical and satisfeictory explanation. The interpretation 
advocated is that Australia, as the abode of the higher or mammalian 
animal class, must be regarded as a land area that was isolated from 
all the other larger divisions of the earth's surface at a very remote 
epoch of its existence, and that that isolation has been uninter- 
ruptedly maintained down to recent times. Had a contrary condition 
prevailed, and had Australia, by way of example, been brought into 
closer relationship with her nearest existing continental neighbour — 
that of Asia — ^it may be safely predicted that the present peculiar 
mammalian fauna of Australia would have gone down before the 
inroads of the more powerful and essentially aggressive Asiatic 
camivora, and that under such circumstances the only evidences 
remaining to us of their former existence would have been that of 
their fossilised bones. This condition actually obtains in other lands 
where similar primitive and weaker mammalian types have given 
place to the products of a higher evolution. 

The interpretation here submitted with relation to its specialised 
mammalia by no means, however, exhausts the peculiarities and 
interest attaching to the fauna of Australia when examined from a 
wider standpoint. 

Almost overwhelming evidence has been adduced to show that, 
while the interconnection, if such existed, between Australia and 
the continents of the Northern Hemisphere must have been severed 
at a very early epoch in the world's history, an intimate relationship 
must, on the other hand, have subsisted between Australia and the 
land areas of New Zealand, South Africa, and South America. 
These several land surfaces would appear, in fact, to have been then 
united in such manner as to form one vast southern continent. 

The late eminent biologist Professor Huxley was one of the first 
to establish this theory, and he it was who proposed to confer upon 
this hypothetic South Continental region the distinctive title of 

Digitized by 


88 Auiiraiian NtM/ral Ektory CHeamkgs. 

Notogea. ^Sb^ nnmeM of Ghades Durwin, A. B. Wallace, Vf.R. 
Patrker, H. F. filaodfdrd, H. 0. Forbes, and F. Ameghino, may 
be mentioned among those who have oontribated substantial 
evidence towards tiie vindication of this theory. 

Among HnB most oonvincing testimony that has been produced in 
support of this South Continental or Notogeal interpretation is that 
afiEorded by the class of fishes. The near relationship of marine 
fishes, which would experience little or no difiScuIty in traversing 
the intervening waters, would, of course, be of no account in the 
question under consideration. When, however, we come to find 
delicate fresh-water forms that would be kiUed by immersion in 
salt water, not only generically, but specifically, identical in such 
remote regions as Australia, New Zealand, and Patagonia, the 
inference that these now widely separate stocks originated from 
some common and contiguous centre is scarcely avoidable. 

Among such examples of fresh-water fish that are now Sound 
flourishing in the several remotely separated regions named may 
be mentioned certain species of the so-called Australian native 
trouts, belonging to the genus Galaxias. The little fresh-water fish, 
Haplochitcn Seali, indigenous to Tasmania, and known there as the 
Derwent Smelt, is also remarkable for the circumstance that its only 
known living allies are found in the rivers of Patagonia. 

Closely alHed species of large tropical fresh-water fishes are, 
moreover, found inhabiting the rivers of the Australian mainland, 
and those of the continents of Africa and South America. The 
Queensland Barramundis, Osteoglossum Leichhardti and 0. Jardmiij 
are represented in Brazil by one member of the same genus 
Osteoglossum bidrrhosum, and others belonging to the same 
family, including, notably, Arapaima gigas, that attains to a length 
of fifteen feet, and is the largest known fresh-water or Teleostian 
fish. Heterotis nihtica is a member of the same group that 
inhabits the rivers of tropical AMoa. 

The Queensland Lungfish {Ceratochis Forsteri) may be also quoted 
as a most interesting Australian type, whose only living aUies, 
Lepidosiren and Protopterus, are found respectively in the rivers of 
South America and Central Africa. 

The evidence that bird-life yields in the direction of indicating 
the probable existence of an extensive southern continent of which 
Australia formed an integral portion, or with which it was formerly 
connected, can necessarily be fairly instituted with relaticm oialf to 
those forms which are either flightless or possess but feeble whig- 
power. The Ostrich tribe or Batitie, mcluding the emus and 

Digitized by 


AuBifalicm Natural History Oleanmgs. 89 

cassowaries of Australia, the Bheas of South America, and the living 
Apteryx and but recently extinct Dinomis or Moa of New Zealand, 
represent the links which would appear to yield the most substantial 
testimony in this direction. The bones of fossil forms, Dromomis 
and Metapteryx, obtained from the Queensland tertiary, Darling 
Downs, deposits have indeed been pronounced to possess scarcely 
recognisable characters for separation from the two last-mentioned 
New Zealand types. 

Abundant testimony might be brought forward to show that in 
the matter of plant life, as in that of animals, Australia has been 
left either as a sole residual legatee, or as joint legatee with Africa 
and South America, to forms of ancient lineage that in other 
countries have long since been extinct. 

Passing on to the more legitimate subject of this paper. I do 
not propose to dwell at any length upon a description of those 
Australian animals with which a visitor to the Zoological Gardens 
in the Begent's Park may readily make himself fBuniliar. The 
composition of the Australian mammalian fauna to its largest 
extent of marsupials is common knowledge, and may be verified at 
any time by a brief study of the Begent's Park kangaroos, walla* 
bies, wombats, so-called opossums or phalangers, and allied 

Among the more noteworthy members of the marsupial order 
there are, however, two forms occasionally also on view in the 
Zoological Society's Gardens that call for a further notice. These 
are the so-called Tasmanian Devil, and Tasmanian wolf, Sarco- 
phdlus v/rsirms and Thylacirms cynocephalus, remarkable for being 
at the present day limited in their habitat to the small southern 
island of Tasmania. The fossil remains of a species identical with 
or closely allied to the Tasmanian Thylacinus have, however, been 
found on the Australian mainland, a fact that indicates that a 
union of the land areas that are now separated by Bass's Straits 
apparently existed at a comparatively recent geological period. 

The Tasmanian wolf is of itself especially remarkable as being 
the largest living member of that essentially carnivorous section of 
the Australian mammals known as the Das3nirida3, and which 
includes the many smaller predatory forms known to Australian 
colonists as ^^ native cats," and which have won a most unenviable 
reputation for the depredations they commit among the settlers' 
henroosts. The Tasmanian wolf, or Thylacine, is of considerable 
cdze, its dimensions being but little less than that of its European 
namesake. Its carnivorous propensities being manifested in the 

Digitized by 


40 Au^traUm Natural Sistoty OUomingz. 

direction of levying a heavy toll on the herdsman's flocks, it has 
become the object of constant persecution at the hands of the 
settlers, and will doubtless, as has happened with the wolf in 
England, be eventually exterminated. 

It is a significant circumstance in relation with the facts that 
have been previously dwelt upon, that the fossil remains of an 
animal closely resembling the Tasmanian wolf have been recently 
discovered in Patagonia. It has been distinguished by the title of 
Prothylacinus Patagonicus. 

An interesting Australian mammal which, though occasionally 
brought to Europe, has never been preserved alive for any con- 
siderable time is the so-called Koala, or Australian bear, Phaseol- 
arcUis cinereus. . It is by no means the formidable animal that its 
name is calculated to denote. It subsists, under natural conditions, 
exclusively on the leaves of certain species of eucalyptus, and will 
remain for days, or even weeks, among the branches of the tree in 
which it has taken up its quarters. The wild adult animals even 
VTill allow themselves to be handled without making any show of 
resistance, while, if taken when young, they make the most 
charming pets. An interesting circumstance connected with the 
life-history of this species is the one that the young animal or cub 
is not long retained in its parent's pouch or marsupium, but is trans- 
ferred to and carried about on its mother's back. 

Among the most abnormal and, as it happens, the latest 
discovered members of the Australian marsupial mammals must 
be mentioned the Pouched Mole {Notoryctes typhlops), that pos- 
sesses the burrowing habits and much of the correlated structure 
that is distinctive of the European mole. This singular little 
creature was first made known to science in the year 1891 by Dr. 
Edward 0. Stirling, the Director of the South Australian Museum 
at Adelaide. Up to the present date the pouched mole has been 
found in no other locality separate from that of its original dis- 
covery, in the vicinity of the !blnke river watercourse, in South 
Australia, about 1,000 miles north-east of Adelaide. A further 
investigation, of more especially the little known central and north- 
western areas of the Australian continent, will probably reward 
the biologist with the discovery of yet other new and aberrant 
representatives of the marsupial order. 

The mammalian types which deservedly take the front rank, 
from a scientific standpoint, in the AustraUan fauna are those two 
quaint creatures the Omithorhynchus and the Echidna. Of the 
Omithorhynchus there is but a single known species, of the 

Digitized by 


AustraUdfi Natwtal History GUaningL 41 

Ebhidllatwo, and they constitute together the only known snrviying 
members of a primitive order of their class that has had conferred 
upon it the title of the Monotremata. Their most remarkable 
distinctions are connected with the circumstance that, in place of 
producing living young, they lay eggs after the manner of birds and 
reptiles. In many important anatomical points their affinities are 
essentially reptilian, while in their toothless, beak-like mouths, and 
in the case of the Platypus webbed feet, their resemblance to the 
birds is more distinct. 

The Omithorhynchus or Duck-billed Platypus, as it is variously 
known, is a semi-aquatic animal confined in its distribution to the 
fresh-water streams of Tasmania, South and East Australia. It lives 
chiefly on the aquatic insects, mollusks, and crustaceans, with 
which such streams abound. As has been elicited in connection 
with the trout-hatching establishment on the river Plenty in 
Tasmania, the Platypus has developed so appreciative an appetite 
for the ova of the imported English salmonidae, that special 
precautions have to be taken to guard them from its depredations. 
This includes, I regret to say, the systematic destruction of these 
most interesting mammals in the neighbourhood of the Hatchery. 

The Echidna, Porcupine Ant-Eater, or Porcupine, as it is com- 
monly called by the colonists, bears at first sight a by no means 
inconsiderable resemblance to the British hedgehog. Its spines, 
however, are considerably longer and stronger, and the peculiar 
beak-like elongation of the snout proclaims at once its sub- 
stantial distinction from that form. In its manner of egg-production 
and incubation the Echidna presents a marked contrast to its near 
relative the Platypus, for while the latter deposits its eggs in burrows 
at the riverside, the female Echidna carries hers until hatched in a 
rudimentary pouch or marsupium. 

It might be presumed from the title of the Porcupine Ant-Eater 
that has been bestowed upon this animal that it commonly feeds 
upon ants in their ordinary or adult state after the manner of the 
typical ant-eaters belonging to the order of the Edentata. From an 
investigation of the Echidna's habits, conducted by .myself through 
the possession of several examples of the Tasmanian variety, it was 
distinctly demonstrated that the animals had no liking for adult 
ants, but tore open their nests to feed upon their tender, succulent 

As a fitting pendant to the reference to these very primitive and 
in many respects reptile-Uke mammals, Omithorhynchus and 
Echidna, a few notes on some of the more remarkable lizards of Aus- 

Digitized by 


42 AusiraUan Na^wraX History Oleanings. 

tralia would seem to be appropriate. Australia abonnds in lizards. 
Its vast expanses of virgin forest, ragged rocks, arid sand, and 
above all its almost perennial snnshine, render that island-con- 
tinent a veritable paradise for these reptilia. Some of the largest 
of the Australian lizards, the so-called Monitors or Varani, may 
attain to a length of as much as seven or eight feet, and one of 
them with amphibious habits, Varanus sahator, inhabiting the 
tropical northern territory, indistinctly seen when rushing into the 
water, is not unfrequently mistaken for a crocodile. A more 
familiar form, Varantcs va/rms, and which has been distinguished 
on accoimt of the beautiful lace-like pattern of its skin markings 
as the Lace-lizard, is a denizen of the southern Colonies, and to a 
large extent arboreal in its habits. This species is unfortunately in 
bad odour among the colonists on account of the predilection it has 
developed for robbing poultry yards of both eggs and the young 
chickens. A little anecdote may be related of an example I kept in 
Queensland. Being of a wild and intractable nature, it was confined 
in a rough cage in the garden, from which one day it effected its 
escape ; the animal was given up as irretrievably lost. One day, 
however, a fortnight later, the strange spectacle was presented of the 
truant lizard struggling to effect a re-entrance into its cage — the fact, 
however, that it had returned to the scene of its captivity minus its 
handsome tail favoured the anticipation that it had been caught 
raiding some neighbour's henroost and, barely saving its life with the 
sacrifice of its caudal appendage, had flown for shelter to that asylum 
of which it retained the memory of previous liberal board and secure 

It being, I believe, a recognised principle that the utilitarian 
element should be incorporated as far as possible in ttie papers 
presented to the meetings of the BoyaJ Oolonial Institute, it may 
appropriately be mentioned that the skins of these lai^e Monitors, as 
hitherto imported chiefly from India and Egypt, possess a recognised 
commercial value. They are held in high esteem for the manufacture 
of purses, bags, and other &ncy leather or so-called ** lizard sMn** 
articles. And there can be but little doubt that Australia might be 
drawn upon for a substantial and very choice contingent of the 
supplies that are in demand for the purpose named. 

One of the most singular and characteristic Australian lizards, 
which, on accoimt both of the technical and popular names con- 
ferred upon it, is calculated to impress the imagination of new 
arrivals in Australia with the anticipation of a creature of mighty 
stature and fearsome aspect, is die little harmless species scien- 

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tifiefeJ^. aamed Moloch horridtiSy aoad known in Western Austrtiia as 
the " York '* or " Mountain Devil." Did this lizard equal th^ larger 
monitors in dimensions, it would certainly be an incwivenient 
obstacle to stumble over, or to meet in a narrow pathway* It 
literally bristles with spines of needle-like sharpness, and my own 
fingers have bled from handling them, but the animal's total length 
scarcely exceeds six inches. 

In the romantic past there were, nevertheless, huge reptiles that 
trod Australian soil that embodied many of the salient features of 
Moloch, notably its horns, and that attained to a no less formidable 
length than fourteen feet. From the fragmentary fossil remains of 
this type first discovered, that illustrious palsBontologist, the late 
Professor Sir Richard Owen, pronounced it to be a form very closely 
related to Moloch, and ^pon which he conferred tibe title of Mega- 
Icmia prisca. The subsequent unearthing of a more perfect skele- 
ton demonstrated, however, that, though a repi^, the renataivtfi 
were those of a remarkable long-tailed turtle, and it waB aocortfngly 
rensjaed Miolania Oipem. 

The habits of Moloch are highly interesting. The study of a 
number of specimens in my possession in Western Australia elicited 
the fact that they fed exclusively on ants, their chief favourite being 
a small black, evil-odoured species, with which Australian house- 
keepers are only too familiar. These ant-eating lizards do not, like 
most ant-eating mammals, seek their prey by tearing open the nests 
or hillocks in which the insects breed ; but they will settle down in a 
most business-like manner across a teeming ant-track, and pick up 
the ants one by one with a flash-like motion of their slender, adhesive 
tongues. Experimentally tested, the numbers of ants that a single 
Moloch was found capable of disposing of consecutively and without 
cessation at a sitting, was no less than from one thousand to 
fifteen hundred. And such a meal these little lizards were prepared 
to assimilate several times a day. It will, I think, at once suggest 
itself to practical minds that, notwithstanding its formidable name, 
Moloch horridus might be very advantageously pressed into the 
service of Australian household economy. In the '^land of the 
Golden Fleece,'* the ant, though not the poor, is always with 
us; and many and dire are tiie stratagems resorted to by the 
Australian housewife to preserve the contents of her larder and 
store-closet from the depredations and spoliations due to these 
insect pests. As a matter of fact^ ant-infested rooms and verandahs 
were on several occasions cleared of ants by utilising them as 

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44 AmtralUn Naiural BUtory OUcmmgi. 

pastnrd grounds for my Molochs, to the no small satis£Gtotion of thdr 

Exigencies of space will permit of the introduction of but one 
other little group of notable Australian lizards. These, from a purely 
natural-history standpoint, however, possess peculiar features of 
interest. The most singular member of this group is the so-called 
Frilled Lizard {Chlamydosaurus Kingi). It is a native of the northern 
or tropical districts of Australia, and takes its name from the re- 
markable frill-like organ, capable of elevation or depression, that 
is developed around the creature's neck. As seen in repose, the 
presence of this organ would hardly be suspected. Awake, however, 
and prepared to meet a premeditated attack, the animal presents an 
altogether different aspect. At the first alarm, the mouth springs 
open. Simultaneously with this movement, up rises the voluminous 
frill, and stands out at almost a right angle around the lizard's head. 
In adult specimens this outspread frill measures as considerable a 
diameter as eight or ten inches. The effect produced on an aggressor 
unacquainted with the phenomenon is, as can be imagined, highly 
disconcerting, insomuch so, that dogs accustomed to attack and 
kill other larger lizards, such as the Monitors, will hesitate, and even 
turn tail, when brought face to face with the frilled species. The 
animal's frill may, in point of fact, be appropriately described as a 
scare organ given to the creature for the discomfiture of its enemies, 
and from whom, before they have time to recover themselves, it 
usually makes good its escape by taking to its heels. 

The term here employed, of ** taking to its heels,** will probably 
be commented upon as a flippant and unscientific one to apply to a 
reptile's perambulation. In this instance, however, the style of 
gait implied is literally indulged in. When moving along tree- 
branches or over the ground in confined spaces, the frilled lizard 
walks or runs on all fours like an ordinary lizard. If, however, 
surprised on open ground, or when crossing an interspace between 
two widely separated tree-trunks, the animal rises up on its hind 
legs, and will run swiftly in that erect bipedal fashion for a dis- 
tance, it may be, of thirty or forty yards before halting. With the 
aid of instantaneous photography, a faithful record of the singular, 
and in many instances very grotesque, aspects presented by the frilled 
lizard when thus running erect have been secured. 

Out of several examples obtained from the neighbourhood of 
Boebuck Bay, in Western Australia, I was fortunate in bringing one 
alive to England. This specimen was for some time on view at the 
Zoological Gardens, and afforded others an opportunity of witnessing 

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^ ' AuBtrdUan Natural History Oleamnfs. 46 

and corroborating my own testimony concerning its remarkable gait. 
This upright bipedal mode of progression of the frilled lizard is 
of special interest to the naturalist, since it yields to his mind's eye 
a very near approach to the aspect that, under similar conditions, 
was probably presented by a certain very ancient and long extinct 
order of reptiles, known as the Dinosauria, and which group is 
generally regardedby biologists as having been the primsBval ancestors 
of the existing lizards and birds. Many of these, from the peculi- 
arity of their preserved skeletons, and from their footprints leffc on 
the petrified sands of time, were accustomed, it is anticipated, to 
habitually walk or run in a similar manner on their hind limbs 

To the naturalist there is, as might be imagined, a fascinating 
temptation to endeavour to discover a link of connection between 
the erect running lizard, coming from a land so pre-eminently pro- 
ductive of ancient types, and those extinct reptiles with which a 
similar bipedal method of progression was habitual. The anatomi- 
cal structure of the frilled lizard is not found, however, to differ 
materially from that of many other of the ordinary so-called 
Agamoid lizards. It may be at the same time remarked, however, 
that, as first enunciated by the late Charles Darwin, habits are 
often as conspicuous an indication of hereditary relationship as is 
structure, and from this point of view there would appear to be 
some justification for anticipating that the erect method of progres- 
sion exhibited by the frilled lizard is a vestigial habit that has been 
handed down to it from a remote ancestry. 

The opinion has been expressed that the bipedal locomotion of 
the frilled lizard is an altogether abnormal habit that has been in- 
dependently acquired by the species to meet the special circum- 
stances of its environment. That argument, at first sight, appears 
to be a difficult one to gainsay. When, however, we come to find 
that a like habit is possessed by several other Australian lizards 
belonging to distinct genera, and existing under altogether distinct 
life-cpnditions, that argument is rendered nugatory. 

The interest awakened in this subject impelled me during the past 
summer to investigate the Hfe-habits of many other Uzard species. 
Among those which I found endowed, as is the frilled lizard, with 
the capacity and habit of running erect on its hind limbs is the large 
species known as Leseur's Water Lizard, Physignathzcs Leseuri. 
This species inhabits tropical Queensland, and grows to a length of 
between three or four feet. It is semi-aquatic in its habits, frequent- 
ing the banks of rivers, into which it rushes, or plunges from some 

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46 Australian Natural History Gleanings. 

overhanging branch, on the slightest alarm, and is a most expert and 
graceful swimmer. On account of its large size, and the commotion 
it makes on entering the water, it is not unfrequently mistaken 
when seen from a little distance for the young of the crocodile. As 
is the case with the frilled lizard, this semi-aquatic species only 
exercises its bipedal method of progression when traversing an 
extensive stretch of level ground. For short distances it runs like 
ordinary lizards on all fours. 

Another form which I have discovered progresses in a correspond- 
ing bipedal fashion is known to science by the name of Amphiholv/rus 
muricafniSf but has, unfortunately, as yet no scientific name. It is 
a relatively small lizard, scarcely exceeding a foot in length, and is 
for the most part arboreal in its habits. There are over a dozen 
closely allied species of this genus all inhabiting Australia, and 
which so closely resemble AmpMbolurus muricatus in their aspect 
and general structure that it may be almost confidently predicted 
that they possess the like accomplishment of running erect on their 
hind limbs. 

A field of Australian natural history that has hitherto attracted 
but few labourers, but which will be found to yield a most rich and 
abundant harvest, is afforded by the tribe of insects popularly 
known as white ants or termites. The destruction wrought by many 
species of termites in tropical countries is unfortunately only too 
familiar a phenomenon. Little, however, has been recorded respect- 
ing the wonderful edifices that they construct for the lodgment of 
their countless socially-dwelling hordes, for the safe storage of their 
garnered harvests and for nurseries for their rising generations. As 
a matter of fact, the account and illustrations published by Henry 
Smeathman in the Transactions of the Royal Society over a century 
ago, 1781, concerning the nest mounds of certain West Afiican 
species, have constituted down to the present time the standard 
references that, with trivial variations, have been reproduced 
in almost every natural history treatise that deals with these 

Australia, as I propose to show you this evening, rivals Africa and 
probably any known country in the variety and huge dimensions of 
its white ant tenements. To all those who are acquainted with the 
northern territories of the Australian continent, and more especially 
those who have visited Thursday Island, and sailed through the 
Albany Pass, North Queensland, the tall nest mounds of one variety 
of white ant nest will be familiar objects. They are of pyramidal 
shape, are built to a height of as much as twelve or fourteen feeti 

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AmtraUan Natv/ral History Gleanings. 47 

and are in some localities so crowded together as to constitute 
regular village-like settlements. IndividuaUy, the nest mounds of 
this species of white ant vary but little in shape, with the exception 
that the crown of the pyramid, in place of bemg simply acumi* 
nate, may be subdivided into two, it may be three, acuminate 

Should the traveller approach Australia by its north-west coast* 
line, and land, say, at Derby, the first port of call at the head of 
King's Sound, he will have an opportunity of making the acquaint- 
ance of an entirely distinct type of termite industry. In this instance 
the shape of the nest mounds, while very commonly conical or hive- 
shaped, varies in a most remarkable manner. One peculiarity of 
construction is at the same time constant throughout the ranges of 
individual variations. This is the composition of the nest mounds, 
of, as it were, superimposed hodsful of the mortar-like material out 
of which the mounds are built up, and each superadded one of which 
slightly overlaps the previous one. 

The termite mounds belonging to this class are often fashioned into 
the most grotesque shapes. In one example, of which a photograph 
was taken, the apex of the mound bore a most remarkable likeness 
to a dog's head, though this was not observed until after a print had 
been taken from the developed negative. In another yet more irre- 
gularly constructed example, the contour of the nest mound sug- 
gests that of some antiquated type of locomotive engine, apparently 
just exhumed from a bed of adhesive clay. In this and the many 
other irregular forms observed the fundamental structure is identical, 
consisting, as it were, of overlapping layers of half-solidified mortar. 
A section made of one of these north-west or Kimberley types of 
white ant nest mounds served well to illustrate the innumerable 
internal cells or chambers that are appropriated to different uses. 
There is one central cell that is known as the royal chamber, and con- 
tains the queen mother, whose sole duty is to lay eggs — ^it maybe many 
thousands in the course of a single day — and who is thus the parent 
of the great majority of the many millions of individual insects that 
are aggregated together in any of the larger ant-heaps. Next in 
importance to the royal chamber are perhaps those to which the 
eggs are removed, and in which the young larvsB are tended and 
nursed. The greater bulk of the chambers, however, in the type of 
nest mound now under consideration are used for the storage of 
their accustomed food supplies. In this and several other varieties 
of the larger Australian nest mounds, it will be found that the food 
material systematically gathered and stored consists of dried grass 

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48 Australian Natv/ral History Gleanings. 

fibre out up into short and approximately even lengths, as though it 
had been passed through a finely gauged chaff-outting machine. 
It is worthy of note that these grass-eating termites, which appear 
to be the constructors of all of the larger types of nest mounds, are 
entirely innocent of those omnivorous and more particularly wood- 
destroying propensities that are commonly attributed to white ants 
of every description. These most justly dreaded destructive species 
live for the most part in subterranean timnels or in excavations of 
the timber on which they most habitually feed. 

Some of the most remarkable examples of Australian white 
ant mounds are found in the neighbomrhood of Port Darwin, in the 
tropical northern territory of South Australia. Especially note- 
worthy among the mounds belonging to this district is the variety 
upon which the title of magnetic or meridian ants' nests have been 
conferred. A typical mound, as seen in broadside view, has much 
the appearance of a large flat or wedge-shaped slab of roughly hewn 
sandstone, set up perpendicularly on its edge. Viewed end-on, this 
slab-like mass is seen to be very narrow, presenting the aspect of a 
compressed acuminate pillar. The greatest peculiarity attached 
to these mounds, and whence they derive the title of meridian or 
magnetic ants' nests, is the circumstance that the longer axis is in 
a perfect line with that of the parallel of latitude in which they are 
situated, pointing due north and south, so that a traveller in a 
district where these ants* nests abound may utilise their presence 
for the regulation of his route. A true explanation of this peculiar 
orientation of the meridian ants' nest has not yet been definitely 
arrived at ; but there appear to be substantial grounds for sus- 
pecting that they are thus constructed with the object of ex- 
posing the smallest possible area of their surface to the noon-tide 

The concluding variety of white ant architecture that invites atten- 
tion is also from the neighbourhood of Port Darwin. It is of columnar 
form, and remarkable as representing the loftiest type of these insect 
edifices that have as yet been reported from Australia or from any 
other country. An example of this type that was selected for photo- 
graphic illustration measured over eighteen feet high, and a man 
with horses and a carriage standing beside it were completely 
dwarfed by its tower-like proportions. 

The economic uses of white ants and their nests, as applied to 
the human species, are not very extensive. Certain of the varieties 
of the insects are eaten by the natives of India and Africa, and 
have occasionally been appreciated by Europelan palates. In 

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AusiraMem Natural Sistory Gkanmg&k 49 

Western Australia, I have seen the aborigines eat the mould out 
of which the mounds are constructed, but they are not in the habit 
of eating the insects. Capital ovens are frequently improvised by 
the AustraUan prospector out of the white ant mounds. They 
make a solid, almost cement-like flooring for the settlers' huts, and 
have been turned to profitable use in the township of Derby, in 
Western Australia, broken up and rolled in as a top layer on the 
public roads. 

Lizards, snakes, small mammals and many birds use the white 
ant mounds as a harbour of refuge, or make their nests within 
them. Among birds, several species of kingfishers almost in- 
Tariably select white ant mounds for the construction of their nest- 
burrows. Australian kingfishers are noted for the facts that they 
frequently live in perfectly waterless districts, and feed on lizards, 
snakes, insects, and small mammals in place of fish. The so-called 
Australian Laughing Jackass, Dacelo gigas, is a familiar example 
of one of the largest members and that living, it may be, hundreds 
of miles away from water, possesses a practically onmivorous 

From a contemplation of the marvellous edifices that are built 
upon AustraUan soil by individually minute and puny insects, a 
fitting advance may perhaps be made to a brief consideration of 
the yet more colossal architectural products of those organised 
beings whose works are manifest in the waters on the Australian 
coast-line. Reference, as might be anticipated, is here made to the 
coral reefs, which in early days, and not unfrequently even now, are 
ascribed to the work of a so-called coral insect. As the scientifically 
informed will know, corals and coral reefs are built up through the 
agency of soft-bodied polyps or zoophytes, which belong to the 
same animal group as the flower-like sea-anemones on our own 
coast-line. The coral animals are simply skeleton-secreting 
anemones. The coral is their skeleton, and it is such skeletons, 
in their aggregated living and dead conditions, that build up that 
wonderful structure, the coral reef. 

Australia can lay claim to the possession of the largest coral reefs 
in the world. The most remarkable of these, known as the Great 
Barrier Reef, but actually consisting of a congeries of reefs, fringes 
the north-eastern coast of Queensland from a little above Moreton 
Bay to Torres Straits, a distance of no less than 1,250 miles. 
Extensive coral reefs abound also on the northern and north-western 
coastlines. As a rule, reefs and the coral-secreting polyps that form 
them are limited to intertropical waters. A very interesting excep- 

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60 Australian Natural History Oleanings. 

tion, however, to this role occurs off the western coast of Australia* 
This is exemplified by a little archipelago of, for the most part, 
coral reefs and islands, known as Houtman's Abrolhos, situated 
between the latitudes of 28'' and 29"^ south, and laying thirty miles 
due west of the Western Australian port of Geraldton. A remark- 
able feature of these Abrolhos Islands coral reefs is the circum- 
stance that not only are its component corals and many of its asso- 
ciated fish and other animals absent from the adjacent mainland fore- 
shore, but a large number of the marine organisms found there, 
notably several species of Trepang or BSche-de-Mer, are identical 
with types that flourish in Torres Straits and on the North Queens- 
land coast, but are apparently urepresented on the tropical coastal 
reefs of Western Australia, as far north, at any rate, as King's 
Sound. The explanation of this anomalous condition of affairs 
would appear to be that a warm current flowing southwards from 
the Indian Ocean impinges on the Abrolhos archipelago, but does 
not strike the adjacent mainland. As, in fact, was discovered by 
the early Dutch explorers, there is a distinct northerly drift of the 
colder waters from the Southern Ocean up the mainland coast. As 
an indication of the substantial difference in the temperature of the 
sea- water that obtains respectively at the Abrolhos Islands and the 
neighbouring port of Geraldton, experimental tests made by myself 
and a coadjutor, simultaneously one mid-winter morning, gave 
severally those of 69° and 66° Fahrenheit, or a difference of 13°. 
The ascertained fact that reef corals will not grow in water having 
a lower mean winter temperature than 68° amply explains the 
circumstances of their presence at the Abrolhos and of their absence 
from the coast near Geraldton. 

The composition of coral ree& in separate localities, and even in 
contiguous areas, varies to a most marvellous extent. This fact is 
abundantly illustrated by a series of photographs that I was for- 
tunate in securing under abnormally favourable conditions on the 
Queensland coastline. Such photographs were necessarily taken at 
extremely low conditions of the tide. At high water these coral 
growths are covered to a depth of as much as from three to four or 
five fathoms, and it is only during occasional low spring tides, 
locally termed king-tides, that the living coral is fully exposed to view, 
and then only for a brief interval of perhaps an hour or so. Some of 
these reefs observed and photographed were remarkable for the 
variety and luxuriance of the corals that composed them. They con- 
sisted chiefly of several distinct species of the branching Stag's-hom 
corals or Madrepore, while interspersed among them are a few of 

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Australian Natural History QUamngs. 61 

the solid globose masses of so-called " Star " and Brain-Stone 
corals. As seen in life these living coral masses are, according to 
their several species, radiant with their own distinctive colours, 
including various pure or mixed tints of green, purple, lilac, orange, 
and more rarely blue, while others are clad in sombre hues ranging 
from light ochre to russet brown. 

On many reef areas, and more especially among the inshore or 
fringing reefs, the component corals are for the most part of the 
massive hemispherical or boulder-Uke description, including species 
that are popularly known as Brain-Stone and Star corals. The 
name of brain-stone corals {Maandrina) has been conferred upon 
them on account of the brain-like convoluted pattern in which the 
polyps are arranged in the general mass, while the star corals 
(Astraeacese) are so named with reference to the symmetrical star- 
shaped outline of the individual polyp-cells, and their contained 
subdivisions or septa. 

Although, as a rule, the corals entering into the composition of 
a growing reef are of a more or less mixed description, it sometimes 
happens that one particular kind of coral, more commonly a species 
of so-called Madrepora, or stag's-hom coral, is dominant over an 
area of several acres, presenting, under such conditions, the appear- 
ance of furze, heath, or other shrubby vegetation. This resemblance 
to vegetation is, however, very much further enhanced when the 
coral growths are covered by their natural element. A more or 
less translucent flowerlike polyp is then protruded from every 
cell, and each coral stock may be likened to a branch of Uving 

In another variety of Madrepora or stag's-hom coral reef, the 
coral stocks, in place of constituting a tmiform shrubby mass as in 
the examples last referred to, build up flattened, bouquet-like masses 
which among vegetable forms may, perhaps, be most nearly com- 
pared with the growths of certain club-mosses or lycopodiums. A 
tint commonly exhibited by this Madrepora is a rich bronze-green. 
Not unfrequently, however, it is a pale-ochre or straw colour, and 
the apex of each branchlet tipped with lilac, while, in a form very 
nearly resembling it, the entire corallum is of a deep violet hue. The 
type of coral growth now under consideration is notable for the 
extent to which its area is broken up into intercommunicating 
channels and pools. These pools are left perfectly calm, and are of 
glass-like clearness when the tide retreats, and teeming with bright- 
coloured fish and innumerable other marine organisms form natural 
aquaria of the most remarkable beauty. 

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62 Australian Natural Sistory Crteaningi. 

Among the denizens of these coral pools are sea-anemoiies of 
phenomenal size. One genus, Discosomay includes several species 
whose expanded disks may measure as much as eighteen inches or 
two feet in diameter. These giant anemones are especially remark- 
able for the circumstance that they give free lodging or shelter within 
the folds of their voluminous disks to small colonies of fish and also 
to small species of crabs and prawns. Most of the fish distinguished 
for these technically termed ** commensal "habits — ^they living as 
guests, not as parasites, with their adopted hosts — are conspicuous 
for colours which contrast most vividly with both those of their 
zoophyte host or with their general surroundings. The fish belong 
to the Percoid genus, Amphipriofif and are usually brilliant orange, 
vermilion, or deep black, with one or more broad white bands across 
their head or body. The explanation of their conspicuously bright 
colouring would appear to be that these fish either fulfil the rdle of 
a lure for the enticement of other and larger species within reach of 
the anemone's numerous tentacles, or that their brilliantly contrast- 
ing tints act as a safeguard, warning would-be aggressors of the 
trouble that awaits them should they rashly pursue their quarry to 
their harbour of refuge among the anemone's tentacles. This last- 
named '' protective " interpretation appears on most points to be the 
more probable. 

Coral reefs in addition to constituting veritable mines of wealth 
to the natural-history explorer yield also a rich and mixed harvest 
to the commercial world. The mother-of-pearl shell, and pearls 
they yield, for which Australia is so justly famous, were originally 
collected almost exclusively from the surface of the coral reefs 
when exposed at low tide, or from the shallow water around and 
among them. As these supplies have become exhausted it has 
become necessary to explore greater depths in search of it, and it is 
now almost exclusively obtained with the aid of diving apparatus 
from water varying in depths of from five or six to as much as 
twenty fathoms. Even at these greater depths mother-of-pearl 
shell through incessant fishing is becoming comparatively scarce, 
and much attention is now being paid, with some prospects of 
success, to the invention of apparatus that will enable the diver to 
work with safety at still greater depths, where shell is reported to 

The one correct solution to the very important question of the 
resuscitation of the much-depleted mother-of-pearl shell fisheries 
is undoubtedly, however, as has been shown in the case of 
ordinary oysters, the adoptioi^ of systeiAatic methods of cultivation. 

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Amtralian Natural History Gleanings, 53 

Up to within a recent date it has not been deemed possible to thus 
deal with pearl shell, it being exceedingly impatient of disturbance, 
and more especially of isolation from its native element. Experi- 
ments, however, that have been carried out by myself on both the 
Queensland and Western Australian coasts have proved that, pro- 
viding the necessary precautions are taken in the transport of the 
shell, it will grow and propagate under hitherto altogether unex- 
pected conditions. Acting on my initiative, practical pearl-shell 
cultivation has already been commenced in the neighbourhood of 
Thursday Island, North Queensland, and will, I anticipate, ere long 
be also made a subject of commercial enterprise in Western 
Australian waters. 

One of the preliminary experiments in pearl-shell cultivation was 
made at Roebuck Bay on the Western Australian coast under very 
adverse conditions. The site selected, for want of a better one, 
was a tidal pond in a mangrove swamp that was covered by several 
fathoms of water when the tide was high. The pearl shells, which 
had been placed for safety's sake in wire-covered cages, had never- 
theless within the first year commenced to propagate, young shells 
being in many instances attached to the parent shells. The success 
attending this and kindred experiments have proved that it would 
be a comparatively easy task to re-stock and systematically cultivate 
mother-of-pearl shell on and among those shallow reef areas where 
it formerly used to flourish, and that operations undertaken in this 
direction under skilled management and on an adequate scale could 
scarcely fail to realise an abundant return. 

Time and space will not permit me to more than name a few of 
the many collateral fishing industries that exist side by side with 
those of mother-of-pearl shell among the coral reefs of Australia. 
That of the trepang or beche-de-mer, of which vast quantities are 
exported to the Chinese markets, takes a front place among them. 
Oysters of excellent quality and of various descriptions are widely 
distributed. The edible turtle and the tortoiseshell-producing 
species, resort systematically to the islands to deposit their eggs in 
the coral sands, where they are then left to be hatched by the heat 
of the sun. So soon as the little turtles emerge from the eggs, they 
scramble with all possible speed to the sea in order to escape the 
attacks of the many sea-shore birds that evince as* keen an apprecia- 
tion of turtle in its tender infancy as a London alderman is accredited 
to for its maturer growth. Arriving at the sea the young turtles 
find awaiting them an open-mouthed crowd of sharks, dogfish, and 
other redaceous fishes, Cojise^uently it i$ but ^ very small per* 

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H AustrcUicm Natural History Gleanings. 

centage of them that run the gauntlet of their enemies, and, 
growing to the adult state, are available for commercial purposes. 
By the' establishment of turtle-breeding ponds and reserves in 
suitable localities, much could, no doubt, be accomplished by the 
hand of man towards checking and profitably utilising in the 
interests of humanity the existing deplorable waste of this very 
valuable marine commodity. 

Of the scenes in the Australian coral seas that I have had the 
privilege of submitting to you, there has necessarily been absent 
one most essential element to their correct appreciation — namely. 
Nature's colouring. In the two concluding illustrations that will 
be thrown on the screen, an attempt, admittedly very inadequate, 
has been made to provide those who have not visited the tropics 
with some slender idea of the wonderful tints of sea, and sky, 
and coral growth that are combined in an Australian reef 

The first of the illustrations submitted portrays a portion of a 
reef in the Queensland Great Barrier System, and is composed, 
for the most part, as was the case with some previously referred 
to, of massive hemispherical brain-stone, star corals, or other forms. 
Its most notable feature is, however, the composition of its 
basement, which consists of a solid mass of a minute-celled coral, 
technically named Porites ; the diameter of this coral mass is over 
thirty feet, and its depth beneath the water ten or twelve feet. 
The origin of this mass, at least many centuries ago, was neverthe- 
less a single anemone-like polyp of microscopic minuteness. 

The second coloured pictmre shown illustrates the luxuriant 
growth of a shrub-like, violet-tinted Madrepora or stag's-hom coral 
that flourishes on the reefs at Houtman's Abrolhos Islands, 
Western Australia. The intervening lagoons and channels in this 
reef should constitute an ideal location for the systematic cultiva- 
tion of mother-of-ptarl shell and other tropical marine produce 
previously referred to. At all times its comparatively quiet waters 
are abundantly protected from the outer ocean by an encircling 
barrier reef upon which the breakers are continually thundering, 
and the rebounding spray from these breakers, thrown high into the 
air, and further elevated by the well-known phenomenon of mirage, 
is visible for many miles. 

In apologising for the crudeness of the coloured reef scenes 
that have been submitted to you, I may state that such marked 
progress is now being made in the art of photography as applied 
to colour reproduction, that I entertain very sanguine hopes, 

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Australian Natmal History Gleanings. 65 

on the occasion of my next visit to Australia, of securing and 
bringing back with me natiure-coloured replicas of tropic-tinted 
scenes and organisms akin to those that have formed the subject of 
this paper. 

The numerous Xantem-slides introduced by Mr. Saville-Kent for 
the illustrations of his paper were, to a la/rge extent, reproductions of 
photographs taken by him and pvhlished in his two boohs, " The 
Great Barrier Beef of Australia'* and " The Naturalist in Aus- 


Dr. Henry Woodward, P.E.S. (Natural History Museum) : I 
suppose I have been called upon to speak as being an old colleague 
of Mr. Saville-Eent, he having served with me in the Geological 
Department before he won his spurs in Australia. Mr. Saville- 
Eent was already a naturalist, even before he entered the museum. 
He had there the advantage of studying some of the largest 
collections ever brought together, and from that position he 
pursued researches at other places. He has been Lispector of 
Fisheries in Tasmania, and of the Pearl Fisheries on the coast of 
Australia, so that we have had the advantage of hearing and 
knowing some of the personal experiences of a naturalist who knows 
the greater part of the Australian coast. The work of exploring 
the Great Barrier Beef has been very well illustrated by the 
beautiful slides, but Mr. Saville-Eent has done something more, for 
he has brought away such large chunks of reef as have never been 
seen before, which are now placed in the Natural History Museum, 
and I earnestly recommend any Fellows of the Boyal Colonial 
Institute, who have not visited the zoological collections there, 
to pay a visit and see these grand specimens — certainly the most 
xoagnificent of their kind that have ever been exhibited in any 
museum. You could see in the hurried way in which Mr. SaviUe- 
Eent went through his Paper, that there was a great deal more in 
the subject than is sufiBcient for one evening, and, therefore, he has 
not done himself justice. There was, in fact, a great deal of the 
Paper which would have interested us to hear in greater detail and 
with more leisure. It has been suggested that, at some past time 
of geological history, there may have been an intimate connection 
between South America, which looks so far away, and Africa, 
Madagascar, New Zealand, and the Chatham Islands ; in fact, that 
all these lands may, at some past period of the earth's history, have 

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56 Amtralian Natural History Gleamngs. 

had connecting links, so that it is possible to imagine that the 
fauna and flora of these distant lands may have been brought into 
contiguity with one another by old-land-routes now broken and 
submerged. That is one of the most interesting points, quite 
worthy of an evening by itself, and one can only just refer to it ; 
but the curious fact, the lecturer has mentioned, of the discovery in 
Patagonia of fossil remains of marsupials, many of which have 
strong affinities with those existing in Australia at the present day, 
is alone sufficient to arouse one's interest in the researches which 
are now being made by Professor Ameghino in that distant part of 
the world. I hope that the Institute will throw its best efforts into 
one subject of investigation which it has the power to greatly 
further, and that is the exploration of the Antarctic regions. I hope 
we shall see some eiffort put forth within our lives, that will result 
in investigations into the natural history of that great unknown 
region. If any trace could be found on that Antarctic continent of 
a fauna, if not of a flora, which had some connection with the 
neighbouring lands, it would be an enormous step gained towards 
the question, which is most interesting and important to naturalists, 
the geographical distribution of animals on the lands south of the 
equator. I beg to congratulate the Society on having had such 
an interesting Paper. 

Mr. P. L. SoLATER, F.E.S. (Secretary to the Zoological Society 
of London) : I have great pleasure in adding my testimony to that 
of my friend Dr. Woodward as to the interesting character of the 
sketch of the Australian continent that Mr. Saville-Eent has 
brought before us this evening. Of course the subject is a very 
large one, but in a short time allotted to him Mr. Saville-Eent has 
undoubtedly alluded to the most important features. He has told us 
about the very extraordinary mammals of Australia. He has pointed 
out some of the noticeable reptiles, and he has alluded to the fishes. 
He has described the splendid animals of the coral reef, to which 
he has paid so much attention, and he has also exhibited most 
remarkable photographs of the extraordinary houses made by the 
white ants. Although I had often heard of the Termites' nests, I 
never, before I saw those photographs, had a correct idea of their 
character. If I were disposed to be critical, I might say that Mr. 
Saville-Eent has not said quite enough about the birds of Australia. 
These are very numerous and varied, and embrace some groups of 
most extraor^ary character. I need only remind you of the Emu, 
the Lyre bird, the great order of Paradise birds, and many other 
groups peculiar to the land of Australia, th^ is^^ is, the birds of 

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Australian Natural History GleatUngs, 67 

Australia themselves would easily afford matter for another lecture. 
As regards Mr. Saville-Kent's views about the Australian Continent, 
I am quite disposed to agree with him up to a certain point ; at the 
same time I think that the Antarctic land which formerly existed must 
have been of a much more ancient date than I think he would be dis- 
posed to allow. The whole fauna and flora of South America and 
Australia are so utterly different at the present moment that an 
enormous period must have elapsed since any sort of land con- 
nection between them could have existed. This subject, which is 
an attractive one, has lately had a good deal of attention drawn to it, 
but the fact is, as Dr. Woodward knows, we want to know much 
more about the Antarctic regions than we at present do before we 
can come to any positive conclusions on the subject. Therefore, I 
would join in expressing a hearty hope that the time may come 
when a new Antarctic expedition will be sent out in order to explore 
more thoroughly what remains of the continent in the extreme 
south. It has been long known to naturalists that in the extreme 
north of the world (the north polar regions), where there is now no 
trace of animal life, except bears and walruses, the fossils discovered 
there have shown that there was formerly a large series of living 
animals and plants ; and we have just begun to know that some 
little traces of the same kind exist in the Antarctic regions. One 
of the ships which visited those regions in the last few years has 
brought back a certain number of fossils. Of course those fossils 
were not gathered by an expert or a naturalist, but were incident- 
ally taken out of one of the islands lying adjacent to the Antarctic 
continent. They have shown that in those lands, where there is 
now no trace at all of terrestrial animal life, there was formerly life 
which could only have existed when the climate was of a very dif- 
ferent character. One of the objects of the new Antarctic expedition, 
if it is carried out, will, I hope, be to search for traces of animal 
life which formerly existed in those lands. Until we know more 
I think we can hardly come to any just conclusion about the 
former conformation of the ancient Antarctic continent. 

The Bishop of Ballaeat : I presume I am invited to add the 
testimony of a mere member of the general public to that of the 
scientists who have spoken in appreciation of the paper to which 
we have listened. In one respect, however, I have serious fault to 
find with it — it was far too short. Intensely as we have been inter- 
ested in all we have heard of the walking lizards, the open-house- 
keeping anemones, the meridian ants turning the edge of their hills 
io tb^ 0uq ap the gprni tree itp le^f^ and for the same reason, we 

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68 Australian Natural History Gleanings. 

should gladly have sat longer to hear'' something about the walking 
fish, that emerge from th6 sea and climb trees, the caterpillar in 
whose fleshy back vegetable seeds take root and grow, above aU, 
the bunyip — that " fearful wildfowl '* of which I could tell Australian 
stories that would make the bearer's hair stand up like quills on 
the fretful echidna ; greatly should I have liked to hear the learned 
lecturer expound the marsupium, and its value — whether as a 
matter of evolution or (as I hold) design. I have always thought it 
a provision for a waterless land, a kangaroo, for example, being 
able to carry long distances to water, in its natural perambulator, 
the little kangaroos who would otherwise perish on the journey. I 
travel much in the solitary bush, and should feel lonely indeed at 
times without the company of its fauna, the emus, and eagles, and 
kangaroos, and iguanas. Two things have struck me about 
Australian zoology, firsfe, the wonderful absence of indigenous wild 
beasts."^ The torrid plains and jungles yield none, the whole land 
reminds one of the scripture text, " No lion shall be there, neither 
shall ravenous beast go up thereon." There are alligators and ser- 
pents, of course, but no camivora, which alone makes it possible for 
our huge flocks and herds to graze the land. In the ancient car- 
vings and drawings found in the caves of the interior, no wild beast 
is represented, only the creatures now known, with the addition of 
the monkey. If the theory of the Notogeal continent be true, and 
Australia was once contiguous to Africa and South America, why 
no lions, jaguars, or pumas ? Another impression made on one by 
the Australian fauna is that it presents the quaint — the humorous 
side of Nature. No one can have looked at the slides representing 
the moloch, the walking lizard, the young Australian pelicans, and 
the laughing jackass, without feeling convinced that an element of 
fun enters essentially into their structure and deportment. With 
its leering eye and perky crest, and tail working up and down like 
a pump handle, the ^'jackass " is the comic vocalist of Australian 
nature : his roar of " laughter,'' dying away in a torrent of chuckles, 
is that and nothing else ; he frequently vents it at the sight of my 
hat. Some of the fish forms of Australia are most grotesque : I 
met a huge sun-fish on the beach of my Diocese some months ago, 
who cocked his dead eye and stuck out his homy beak at me in the 
most ludicrous manner. The cockatoo is a facetious-looking 
creature ; the capers and strange barking of the companion {Orus 
Au^tralis) are most mirth-provoking ; while the bower bird, which 
abounds in my Diocese, constructs fantastic arbours (not nests), be- 
dizened with bright objects, in and out of which parties of them are 

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Australian Natural History Gleamngs. 59 

seen dancing and gambolling, out of sheer delight in the fun of the 
thing ; it is just an assembly ball-room. The suggestions of the 
lecturer as to the possible domestic value of some Australian crea- 
tures are well worth considering. I kept an echidna at Bishopscourt 
for some time, to help the gardener ; I shall set up a Moloch horri- 
dus in the kitchen when I return in a few weeks. I have often 
thought it a pity that Australia produces no donkeys. A few have 
been imported and bred in two of the Colonies. Of course, I mean 
of the four-footed variety ; we are not insufficiently supplied with 
the two-legged, of which, however, we have no monopoly, as of the 
platypus, and concede the palm in that respect to Europe. The ass 
and the mule as pack animals or for traction would be most valu- 
able in our country. I do not " covet my neighbour's ass '* in 
Victoria, as he seldom or never has one to covet. I am tempted to 
do so in England and Ireland. But I am wandering, and have de- 
tained you too long. In cordially thanking Mr. Saville-Eent for his 
admirable paper and his splendid lantern pictures, I am sure I am 
expressing the views of all present. 

The Chairman (The Eight Hon. Lord Loch, G.C.B., G.C.M.G.) : 
We have listened with much pleasure and interest to the able paper 
which Mr. Saville-Eent has read, and his great experience as a Com- 
missioner of Fisheries in AustraUa gives to the lecture great value, 
while the pictures which have illustrated his observations have been 
most interesting. As regards the ant-hills, I think Mr. Saville- 
Kent said they were eighteen feet high. In South Africa there are 
very similar ant houses, and I have seen them, some distance in 
the interior, upwards of twenty-five feet high. I agree with the 
speakers that the lecture has been altogether too short. I do not 
know whether it would be possible, but I trust that on some future 
occasion, whether here or at some other place, he may favour us 
with a more extended lecture upon many of the points upon which 
he has merely touched. There are some subjects which were 
referred to by the Bishop of Ballarat, such as the walking fish, the 
dancing birds, and many other points upon which he might have 
given us very interesting information. The Bishop said there were 
no wild animals in Australia ; unfortunately on one occasion, I was 
attacked in Australia by a very wild animal, one that belongs to 
the country, that is the dingo, and I think anyone who comes across 
a pack of dingos will have occasion to regard them as a very wild 
kind of creature indeed. Beference has been made to the great 
importance of an expedition to explore the Antarctic regions* I 
believe a movement is on foot at the present moment, and receiving 
string support, to fit out such an expedition, and I trust that those 

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60 Australian Natural History Gleanings. 

gentlemen who can influence public opinion will give the 
movement their support. It is a matter which has already 
occupied the attention of several of the Australian Colonies. When 
I had the honour of being the Governor of Victoria, it was hoped 
the Imperial Government would assist an expedition, if some of the 
Colonies would join in the requisite expenditure. Whether circum- 
stances which have since occurred in Australia would prevent those 
Colonies now joining in any movement which may be brought for- 
ward by the Imperial Government, I do not know, but I believe there 
will be a strong expression of opinion in favour of joining any well- 
organised expedition, whether assisted by the Imperial Government 
or emanating from private enterprise, to carry out an exhaustive 
exploration of those regions. I now beg to propose a hearty vote 
of thanks to Mr. Saville-Eent for his interesting and able paper. I 
am sure that in any further explorations which he may undertake, 
we wish him every success, and perhaps I may express the hope 
that he may come back again and give us the result of his 
observations. Perhaps Sir Frederick Young will second the motion. 

Sir Fbbdbbiok Young, K.C.M.G. : I willingly take advantage of 
the invitation made to me by Lord Loch to second the vote of 
thanks to Mr. Saville-Eent, because it gives me the opportunity to 
say that this Institute, at the time the question of Antarctic 
exploration was before us some years ago, did all it could to point 
out to the Government at home the expediency and desirability of 
further exploration of the Antarctic regions, and of its assisting the 
Southern Colonies by some pecuniary aid in their efforts to that 
end. I am quite sure that the Institute would be prepared to take 
similar action again, whenever there is an opportunity of doing so. 

Mr. SavHjLe-Kent : I thank you for the kind way in which 
you have received the proposition. I do not know that there are 
many points upon which I can very well reply. The one raised 
by the Bishop respecting the reason why certain wild camivora 
that are now inhabitants of South America are not represented in 
Australia, seems to be answered by the explanation that when the 
southern districts of South America were connected with Australia 
and were peopled by Australian allied marsupials, the fiercer 
camivora of the Norttiem hemisphere had not penetrated so far 
south. On their arrival the separation had apparently been com- 
pleted, and through their agency the marsupials, that were left in 
the Patagonian region, were seemingly exterminated. 

A vote of thanks having been given to tb^ CbairmtOii the pro- 
(jee^gfs tenninoit^, 

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British Borneo. 61 

An Afternoon Meeting was held in the Library of tke Institute on 
Tuesday, December 14, 1897— Sir Cecil Clementi Smith, G.C.M.G., 
in the chair — when a Paper by Mr. E. P. Gueritz (Sessions Judge 
of British North Borneo and Labuan) was read in the unavoidable 
absence of the Author by Capt. W. Baffles Flint (British North 
Borneo Military Police) on 


The author, In referring to the component parts of British Borneo, 
which consist of Sarawak, Labuan, and British North Borneo, stated 
that the dawn of British influence in Borneo commenced in 1842, 
when the late Sir James Brooke took those steps which led to the 
oflfer, and his acceptance, of the Rajahship of Sarawak, which — 
formerly part of the Sultanate of Brunei — extends, with recent 
additions, from a little over one degree north of the Equator to five 
degrees north, and has an estimated area of 50,000 square miles 
with a coast-line of some 400 miles. 

Mr. Gueritz paid a tribute to the admirable system of govern- 
ment inaugurated by Sir James Brooke, and carried out by his suc- 
cessor, the present Rajah, by which native custom was adhered to, 
with modifications where the laws of humanity demanded; and 
explained that the administration was carried on with the assist- 
ance of native headmen in each district, the result being a prosperous 
country and a happy community, affording an object lesson to those 
"who were called upon in later years to administer neighbouring 
countries which, one by one, came under British protection. 

The reason given by the author for the absence of popular 
knowledge of Sarawak amongst the commercial community of 
Londcfli, as compared with that of the native states of the Malay 
Peninsula, Labuan, and North Borneo, was her inability to com- 
pete in mineral wealth with the vast tin deposits of the Peninsula. 
Her coal mines are worked by the Government of the country 
instead of by a commercial company, and her great rivers have not 
been thrown open to those whose object would have been to work 
plantations by means of companies floated through the English 

With a population of 800,000, including many tribes of a war- 
like nature, the propensity of head-hunting amongst the Dyaks had 
been successfully coped with, whilst the Malays had an air of 

> A copy of the Paper itself is preserved in the Library, and is always avail- 
nble for reference. 

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62 British Borneo. 

prosperity which compared favourably with that of other countries 
with which the author was £amiliar. 

Trade, which is generally carried on through Chinese merchants, 
includes exports of sago — flour (of which 16,481 tons were exported 
in 1896), gutta, indiarubber, beeswax, birds'-nests, quicksilver, 
tobacco, rice, rattans, and coal, the last named being worked in two 
localities, viz., at Sadong (whence the export was 16,978 tons last 
year) and Brooketon, in Brunei Bay, with an export of 6,816 tons. 

Last year's returns showed the value of imports and exports as 
;^8,701,894 and ;$)8,667,868 respectively. Missions had long been 
established in various parts, and were doing much good through 
means of their schools. Although without harbours of importance, 
and bars presented obstacles to the entrance of any but light-draught 
vessels to all but the Bejang and Sarawak rivers, her water-wayb 
were navigable by trading boats into the far interior. 

Labuan was but a few miles from the coast of Borneo, and within 
easy reach of the Sultanate of Brunei, which divided the States of 
Sarawak and British North Borneo. Acquired by Sir James 
Brooke in 1846 on behalf of the British Government, as a centre 
from which to suppress the piracy which ravaged the surrounding 
seas, the result had justified that action, and led to the development 
of Labuan from an uninhabited island to one with a population of 
6,000, with coal measures turning out some 60,000 tons annually, 
and a large trade with neighbouring coasts, carried on with perfect 
freedom from the dangers which formerly accompanied it. 

Formerly used as a convict station, the presenceiof the necessary 
troops gave an air of prosperity, which departed on their withdrawal, 
and on the failure of the first companies which were formed to work 
the coal measures, the Colony became a source of expense to 
the Imperial Government, who in 1890 transferred its administra- 
tion to the Chartered Company of British North Borneo, since 
which a great improvement had taken place, owing chiefly to the 
regular working of the mines, and the completion of a railway for 
transporting coal from the pit's mouth to the harbour, where 
vessels drawing 26 feet are coaled direct from the truck. 

British influence was extended first to North Borneo by the for- 
mation of a small company in Labuan in 1872 for carryiiig on a 
trade between that Colony and Sulu, which had a station in 
Sandakan, now the capital of British North Borneo. The action of 
this Company attracted the attention of Baron Overbeck and Mr: 
(now Sir Alfred) Dent, who obtained concessions from the Sultains 
of Brunei and Sulu, eventuating in the granting of a royal charte* 

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British Borneo^ 68 

in 1881. The area of the territory, with subsequent extensions, 
was calculated at 81,000 square miles, with a coastline of 900 miles 
and a population of 120,000, on the basis of a census taken in 1891. 

The author drew particular attention to the peculiar position of 
British Borneo with respect to the two great trade routes of Europe, 
with China and Japan, and of our Australian Colonies with the 
Far East, not only on account of the harbour accommodation 
afiForded, but chiefly through the inexhaustible supply of coal which 
was present in Brunei Bay ; and from the establishment of a cable- 
station at Labuan, which gave an alternative route between England 
and Hong Kong, apart from that which lies through a foreign 
country, we had a link in our communication with that Colony, 
which required defensive measures, without which we were in no 
better position, in the event of war, than we were before. The 
author quoted the utterances of General Sir Andrew Clarke, and 
others, whose knowledge of the subject should bear weight. 

Brunei Bay, with those coal measures, and its position with regard 
to our trade, should, the author continued, become an important 
centre for British shipping, which would receive further inducement 
by the increased trade that would ensue on the completion of the 
railway now being constructed by the Chartered Company, having 
for its terminus the settlement of Sapong, some fifty miles inland, 
and an objective in Cowie Harbour on the East Coast ; the 
section now under construction would result in the opening up of 
large areas of planting-land, from which, owing to difficulties of 
transport, planters had hitherto been excluded. Another benefit 
would be the prevention of traffic in arms and munition of war 
through the native state of Brunei which served to divert consider- 
able trade from North Borneo, and at the same time furnished the 
means of causing disturbance amongst the interior tribes. The 
local trade between Borneo and Singapore would be revolutionised 
by the estabUshment of Brunei Bay as a port of call for ocean-going 

The author compared the state of trade during 1896 with that in 
1885, when a paper dealing with the subject was read before the 
Boyal Colonial Institute by the late Sir Walter Medhurst. The 
value of the combined imports and exports in 1896 was ^4,855,941 
as against ^1,049,958 in 1885, and whereas in the latter year the 
exports were less by some ^247,000 than the imports, they exceeded 
them in 1896 by ;^591,000. The excess was principally due to 
tobacco, which figured at ^1,872,277, and the author remarked that 
during the present year the tobacco sales amounted to about two 

Digitized by 


64 British Borneo^ 

million dollars, ^he articles added to the exports since 188S Werd 
enumerated, and included amongst others copra, sugar, sago, flour, 
and cutch, the last-named representing an industry established 
within the last five years, which already reached an export of the 
valueof ^142,721, whilst 9,000 tons of sago were exported from 
Brunei Bay. The export of sago should be largely increased ; but 
owing to the want of facilities for cleaning, combined with the high 
wages obtainable of late years in works connected with the forma- 
tion of the railway in Labuan, the industry had been neglected, and 
the trees over large areas allowed to go to waste. Birds*-nests had 
risen in value from ;^25,000 to ;g45,000, and gutta and indiarubber 
from ;J48,000 to ;J95,000. The timber trade, which was a steady 
one, would receive an impetus from the establishment of a saw-mill 
on the east coast. 

Attention was drawn to the territory as a field for the planter, and 
reference made to its success as a producer of tobacco, the area of which 
was being extended. Coffee and cocoanuts were receiving considerable 
attention — 1,500 acres of the former having been planted, and 82 
estates opened up for the latter. Manila hemp and rhea had also 
been planted, gambier to a small extent, whilst an experiment in 
tea-planting was being made on a considerable scale. 

The reports of the Government Geologist pointed to an enormous 
area of auriferous gravel in the Darvel Bay district, which had led 
to the formation of a company who were commencing operations 
with a dredger. Samples of coarse gold had recently been obtained 
by Chinese, and difficulties of access having been overcome by the 
formation of a road, the industry would tend to the prosperity of the 
country. Petroleum was being exploited by an influential company 
with large capital. Since they had commenced boring an earthquake 
had occurred and a new island had been thrown up off the coast, 
close to the scene of operation. It was significant that a strong 
smell of petroleum was noticed, whilst from cracks on the surfeice 
an inflammable gas was emitted. 

Chinese labour was found to suit the requirements of the country, 
and no anxiety was felt that the supply would not equal the demand. 

The climate was a pleasant one, and, with reasonable care, healthy. 
The temperature ranged in 1896 from a mean minimum of 75*34 
to a mean maximum of 88*30, with a rainfall of 116*25 inches. 
December, January, and February were the wet months, whilst 
heavy rains fell in July and August. 

Steam communication was good, mails having been delivered in 
thirty days from London, although the average voyage was six weeks. 

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British Bofned. 65 

feesiSeS the route ^)id Singapore, from which port the passenger 
transhipped into local boats, the route vid Canada and Hong Kong 
was a pleasant one. 

A very important work was the completion of the telegraph line 
to Sandakan. Not only was that town now in telegraphic com- 
mmiication with the rest of the world, but the track through the 
heart of the country should be a means of opening it up. 

Administration of justice was based on the Indian system, with 
native Courts for the settlement of cases affected by the Mohammedan 
law on marriage and divorce. Game laws had lately been promul- 
gated. The system of slavery was gradually dying out. 

The author referred to the large field for the naturalist, and to 
the interesting works, dealing with the^ora nud fauna of the country, 
by Wallace, Low, and Burbidge; anthropology had been lately 
dealt with separately by H. Ling Roth, in his book entitled " The 
Natives of Sarawak and North Borneo." 

{The Paper was illtistrated by a number of views which were 
thrown on the screen,) 


Sir Hugh Low, G.C.M»G. referring to Mr* Gueritz's statements 
with regard to the coal supply of Borneo, said it would certainly, 
from its position, be of very great advantage to England if ever we 
should be engaged in a war in the East again, which he sup- 
posed was very Ukely. The coal-mines are easily accessible and 
very valuable, but for some reason the machinery was scarcely able 
to cope with the water until the present company took possession. 
There is likely to be a great industry in petroleum in Labuan. 
There was nothing more profitable in the East than the petro- 
leum which has lately been worked in Sumatra, and it was to be 
hoped that the enterprise of the Bombay Burma Trading Company, 
which has taken petroleum in hand in Borneo, will be as successful 
as in Sumatra. He also hoped that the minerals, of which there 
are >an enormous number in Borneo, would be developed ere 
long. Borneo should have a great future. He thought it was 
time, as Sir Andrew Clarke said at the Borneo dinner, that some 
notice were taken of it by the Government. He remembered the 
whole harbour of Labuan and the whole of the entrance to the 
Brunei river being carefully surveyed by a Russian ship some six- 
teen or seventeen years ago. Russia has accurate surveys of all 
the places at which coal is produced and can be shipped. 

The Chaibman, who spoke of Sir Hugh Low as the Nestor of 


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66 British Borneo. 

Borneo, thought that perhaps it was due to the innate modesty 
characteristic of the British North Borneo Government, as of all 
Governments, that the great advantages of the country had not 
been brought much before the British public. There was an old 
adage, " Early to bed and early to rise. It ain't no good unless 
you advertise." The British North Borneo Company must ad- 
vertise its territory if it wishes to get British capital introduced 
into it, and to interest the people of this country in it. He advocated 
Chinese labour with an admixture of Tamils. Begarding the ques-^ 
tion of defence works, he said, though they need not be very large, 
they were of such supreme importance that no time should be lost 
in providing them in places where they were necessary. 

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The Third Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at 
the Whitehall Rooms, H6tel M^tropole, on Tuesday, January 11, 
1898, when Mr. Edgar P. Rathbone, M. Inst. M.M., A.M. Inst. C.E., 
M.I. Mech. E., read a paper on " Th6 Goldfields of Ontario and 
British Columbia." 

The Right Hon. Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal, G.C.M.G., a 
Member of the Council of the Institute, presided. 

The Minutes of the late Ordinary General Meeting were read and 
confirmed, and it was announced that since that Meeting 18 Fellows 
had been elected, viz., 7 Resident, 11 Non-Resident. 

Resident Fellows : 

John Boltaiit J". Edge-PartrngtoUy Field-Marshal Sir F, Paul Haines, O.C.B,, 
G.C.8.Ly CLE., Gerald Tylston Hodgson, B,A., T, H, Lawrence, Alexander 
PatU, Fred Prynn, 

Non-Resident Fellows : 

William A. Bullen {Cape Colony), Albert F, Ehrhardt (Lagos), Major Alfred 
8t Bill Gibbons (Cape Colorvy), Thomas O'Halloran Giles, B.A., LL.B, 
(South Australia), Hon, James C. Nolan, M,L,C. (Jamaica), Fred Ongley 
{Cyprus), Frederick B, Pemberton (British Columbia), Percy S, Roberts 
(Queensland), Lionel G. Robinson (Victoria), Matthew Swinburne (Queens- 
land), Alexander H. Tumbull (New Zealand), 

It was also announced that donations to the Library of books, 
maps, &c., had been received from the various Governments of the 
Colonies and India, Societies, and public bodies both in the United 
Kingdom and the Colonies, and from Fellows of the Institute and 

The names of Mr. F. H. Dangar, on behalf of the Council, and 
Mr. W. G. Devon Astle, on behalf of the Fellows, were submitted 
and approved as Auditors of the accounts of the Institute for the past 
year in accordance with Rule 48. 

The Chaieman : The paper to be read this evening by our friend 
Mr. Rathbone will, I am sure, be very interesting, and one to 
which we shall all listen with very great pleasure, and after hearing 
it, I doubt not that many of us will feel that we know a great deal 
more about Canada and its great gold resources than we did before* 
It gives me very great pleasure to introduce to you Mr. Rathbone. 
He has had great experiencQ in such matters, and, has been several 


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68 Th4 Gotdfietdi bf Ontario and Mritish Cotimind. 

years in South Africa, and knows the beginning and course of events 
up to the present time with regard to gold-mining there. He is, 
therefore, very Well fitted to speak to you of the other country where 
there is so much gold, and where he has been for several months 
investigating the subject for himself. 

Mr. Edgab p. Rathbone then read his paper on " The Gold- 
fields of Ontario and British Columbia.'' 


Introductory Remarks. 

This Paper will be directed to the discussion of certain subjects 
relating to the gold-mining industry of Ontario and British 
Columbia, which it is believed will materially advance the growth of 
those provinces should proper attention be given to them. 

There can be no doubt that, by taking advantage of the experience 
gained by other gold-mining countries, the Dominion of Canada 
will be able to avoid, in its early stages as a gold producer, many of 
the costly mistakes which have so frequently accompanied the first 
discover}' of payable goldfields elsewhere. 

If the history of other countries in which payable goldfields 
have been discovered is examined, it will be observed that, as a rule, 
such discoveries attracted so much attention as to quickly con- 
duce to their great and marked prosperity, even in cases where 
they were comparatively barren and sparsely populated, or at 
best merely ranked as respectable producers of certain agricultural 

Thus, for instance, the discovery of a placer goldfield in 
California in 1848 acted as the first incentive to the opening up of 
the Western States of the Union, the production i^ the following 
year rising at a bound to 500,000 oz., in the next year to 2,000,000 oz., 
whilst in 1851 and the years next immediately succeeding it rose to 
the enormous total of 4,000,000 oz. It is curious to note that at 
the present day this same State is one of the most successful of 
the agricultural States. 

In Australia we have seen Colonies advanced in the ranks of 
civilisation, in the first place mainly through the instrumentality of 
a payable goldfield. Thus in Victoria the first gold rush com- 
menced in 1851, the production in 1852 from placer gold amounting 
to 2,788,480 oz., and in the following year it exceeded 8,000,000 oz. 
The latest example of quickly obtained prosperity through the 

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The Goldfields of Onta/rio and British Cohmhia. 69 

discovery of gold on this continent is of course that of Western 

Probably the most remarkable illustration of all, however, in 
recent times, is that of the discovery of the wonderful goldfields of 
the Witwatersrand in South Africa. 

Previous to this discovery the Transvaal, or, more properly 
speaking the South AMcan Bepublic, consisted for the most part 
of practically barren territory, and yet within a very few years, 
owing to the industry and intelligence of the Uitlander or foreign 
population which crowded in, it has risen from a state of bankruptcy 
to occupy the most prominent position as a gold producer of any 
country in the world. 

The Dominion of Canada made its first great discovery of gold 
in connection with placer mining in about 1857, the greatest pro* 
duction of gold being made in the years 1868 and 1864, amounting 
to nearly 200,000 oz. 

The discovery, however, of payable goldfields in the Dominion 
—that is, coimected with vein mining — was only made some few 
years ago, viz., about 1898 ; and I contend that a country owes 
its real lasting prosperity to the production of gold from veins 
rather than from placer deposits, which can of necessity only have a 
very temporary existence. 

Geographical and Geological Considerations. 

On looking at a map of the western hemisphere it will be 
seen that throughout the entire western portion of the American 
continent there is practically a continuous chain of mountains 
extending, one might almost say, from the Arctic to the Antarctic 
regions. It has been in this immense range of mountains, or the 
systems of foot hills adjoining them, that vast metalliferous dis- 
coveries of the rare metals have from time to time been made. 
Thus, for instance, all the wonderful historic accumulations of 
wealth derived by the Spaniards in South and Central America 
during the last century, and by the Americans in the present one, 
have been won by mining principally in this range of mountains. 

Now it is this same wonderfully mineralised system of rocks 
which is found extending up through the United States into 
British Columbia and the North- Western Territories, practically to 
within the Arctic Circle, in which the goldfields of the Yukon 
(Klondyke) have so recently been discovered. 

f robaWy tji^ most important wietftlUferous ipipipg work that 

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70 The Ooldfields of Ontario and British Cohmbia. 

has of late years been carried out in the United States of America 
has been in the States of Washington, Idaho, Montana, Dakota, 
and Michigan, all of which are situated on the immediate southern 
side of the international boundary line dividing the States from the 
Provinces of the Dominion. 

Now it is a well-known scientific fact that certain metals are 
generally found associated with certain rocks ; and since the same 
geological conditions are to a great extent found prevailing alike in 
the States and Provinces on both sides of this international boun- 
dary line, it follows that there is every probability that the same 
metalliferous conditions will be found in connection with the rock- 
systems on either side. 

No better proof of this contention can be given than that of the 
recent discoveries of rich gold, silver copper, lead, and coal deposits 
in the southern districts of the Province of British Columbia, that is, 
in East and West Kootenay. It is evident that it was only necessary 
for the mining prospectors to extend their operations northwards from 
the State of Washington into British Columbia to at once make the 
discovery of the rich gold deposits which have in quite recent years 
given rise to the formation of the now renowned mining town of 
Rossland, which in some five years has risen from a totally unin- 
habited spot into a fairly big mining town of some 7,000 inhabitants. 
Again we find similar progressive metal minerahsation accompanying 
the rock systems extending up through the State of Michigan into 
the Province of Ontario. In this instance its peculiar nature is 
quite worthy of note. Thus in Michigan we find, first of all, the 
deposition of huge deposits of wonderfully pure iron ores, whilst 
further north, and almost directly adjoining them, a further deposi- 
tion of absolutely pure copper ores is found such as has been 
responsible for the largest production of copper of any district in 
the world. A little further north deposits of pure native silver ores 
were found on the islands of Lake Superior, and on its northern 
shore on the Canadian side. 

Still further north, extending in a somewhat western direction, 
in quite recent years a large number of gold-bearing veins have been 
discovered in the Province of Ontario in the districts known as the 
Lake of the Woods, Seine River, Manitou, and Wabigoon. 

This curious sequence of remarkably pure mineral deposition 
would almost point to some curious but gigantic terrestrial metal- 
lurgical process having been in operation. 

I have entered rather fully into these geological and mineralogical 
considerations, since it cannot be doubted that in them lies the real 

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The Goldfields of Ontario and British Golvmhia, 71 

proof that the Dominion of Canada is finally destined to occupy an 
important position as a producer of the rarer metals. 

"When once this fact has been estabUshed and capital has been 
attracted into the various gold-mining districts for the construction 
of railways and all that goes to assist in the economic production of 
minerals, then the metallic mining industry — especially that con- 
nected with gold — will slowly but surely become an established in- 
dustry, and the Dominion of Canada will enter into a period of 
marked prosperity. There are some drawbacks, however, to what 
might be termed rapid progress, owing principally to the annual 
heavy snowfall which much hinders the work of the prospector at 
the very season when in other countries most prospecting work is 
usually done, owing to the vegetation having died off and thus left a 
more or less bare surface, so that the outcrops of the veins can be 
easily traced. In the gold-mining districts of the Province of Ontario, 
for instance, the ground for some five months, extending, as a rule, 
from about the end of November to the end of April, is practically 
covered with snow ; whilst in the summer months, when it has disap- 
peared, vegetation is so thick that an enormous amount of clearing 
work has to be carried out before the prospector can do any work. In 
parts of British Columbia, although the ground is also covered with 
snow during the same months, still in the summer season the prospec- 
tor has a better chance than he has in the districts of Ontario, espe- 
cially in the dry belts where there is little vegetation, and the outcrops 
of veins are easily detected by the mining novice. Again, however, 
on the coast region of British Columbia the vegetation is so very 
prolific that the clearing of the ground by the prospectors becomes 
a gigantic task. From all this it follows that of necessity mineral 
discoveries in the Dominion of Canada are likely to take place 

Alluvial and Vein Gold Mining. 

As in this paper I propose to deal almost entirely with the gold- 
mining industry, it will be well at this stage to explain briefly the 
nature of the two sources from which gold is derived, viz. " alluvial *' 
and " vein-gold mining.** 

The gold from alluvial mining is derived from the intense 
weathering action of the rock systems carrying the gold deposits, 
which takes place principally during the winter months, when the 
waters associated with the rocks are first so frozen that they act 
practically as an explosive, the ice bursting the rocks asunder. 

The melting snow and ice at the beginning of the spring then 

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72 The Goldfields of Ontario and British Columbia. 

further erode these rock systems, and huge mountain torrents cut 
their way through the rooks, and wear them down into the form of 
gravel deposits. 

These rock systems, as illustrated by the Cariboo district, prin- 
cipally consist of schistose rocks, disturbed by intrusive granites. 
These schists are associated with segregations of quartz, which, so 
far as I could ascertain, could never be classified as fissure veins, 
but rather as independent lenticular and interbedded masses of 
quartz. In these quartz deposits, however, it not unfrequently 
occurs that very rich gold finds are made. Now when these rocks 
are broken down, as just described, naturally the gold inclosed in 
these quartz masses is in the course of time liberated from them ; 
and these heavy particles and nuggets of gold, owing to their far 
greater weight — which is nine times that of quartz — will be quickly 
lodged in the depressions on the bed rock forming the bottoms of 
these mountain torrents. Thus we find in the course of time 
accumulations of gravel forming in these mountain ravines, at the 
bottom of which the gold is naturally found. When these gravel 
deposits are of no great thickness they can be easily shovelled and 
picked away by the miner without the assistance of any costly 
machinery, and on reaching the gold gravels it only further 
requires a small amount of mining ingenuity to separate the gold 
from the barren gravel. More or less simply constructed mining 
appliances are used for this purpose, being known variously as sluices, 
riffles, cradles, long toms, and the miner's pan, in all of which the 
general principle is the same, namely, to take advantage of the greatly 
superior specific gravity of the gold. When, however, it occurs that 
the deposits of gravel overlying the gold-bearing stratum are of con- 
siderable thickness, and their position above the bed rock is such 
that they can only be worked by means of shafts or tunnels, then 
the miner without capital is no longer able to deal with the 
problem ; and the capitalist, with the aid of the mining engineer, 
must step in and provide the necessary pumping and hoisting 
machinery. This last condition of affairs practically represents the 
position of alluvial gold mining in the Cariboo district at the present 
time, the more easily worked shallow placer deposits having been 
worked out. The process of working which I have described in 
connection with the shallow placers is that which is being employed 
in connection with the recent placer discoveries of Klondyke, only 
that, owing to the intense cold, greater difficulties are experienced. 
Another class of alluvial mining which also belongs to the domain 
of th^ capitalist ^ncl engineer is tb^t which is kaowii ag hjrdra\Uio 

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The Ooldfields of Ontario and British Columbia, 73 

mining. In this case the deposits of gravel are of very considerable 
thickness, sometimes amounting to several hundred feet, and the gold 
is not found in nearly such a concentrated form, the deposits being 
frequently overlaid with heavy boulders of rock, sometimes tightly 
cemented together and requiring to be first removed, even with the aid 
of explosives, before the underlying gravels can be attacked. The 
system of working consists in bringing in an enormous force of 
water, by the construction of what are known as ditch lines and 
flumes through which the water is conducted, being collected from 
the numerous mountain streams and lakes situated at as great an 
elevation as possible. The water thus collected is allowed to flow 
gradually downwards to the point at which it is proposed to use it, 
such lines of ditches and flumes being offcen as much as from ten to 
twenty miles in length and costing from £500 to £1,000 per mile to 
construct. On arrival at the point at which it is to be used the 
water is conducted through a system of iron pipes placed almost 
vertically and frequently several hundred feet in length. At the 
lower end of this pipe line the water passes out into an immense 
iron nozzle, technically known as a giant or monitor, from which it 
escapes under enormous pressure, sometimes amounting to a force 
equal to several thousand horse power. This terrific jet of water 
is directed against the gravel deposits, which are broken down by its 
force, and the gold which is found disseminated throughout it is 
collected by being washed into and caught in various contrivances 
known as sluice-boxes and riffles or traps. In the bottom of these 
riffles (which are wooden troughs with various projecting pieces 
placed across them) a certain amount of mercury is put, which catches 
up the fine particles of gold. Every month or so a clean-up is made, 
the water carrying the gravels being shut off so as to leave the bottom 
of the sluice-boxes and riffles dry ; the barren gravels are then raked 
and shovelled out and the gold nuggets and amalgam are collected. 
It is to hydraulic mining that British Columbia owes its principal 
production of alluvial gold at the present time. The principal factors 
for engineering success which must first be considered in connection 
with hydraulic mining are first of all an efficient water supply for a 
given and constant period of time ; as during the winter months 
everything is frozen up and work is impossible, it can only be 
carried out for from about one hundred to one hundred and fifty days 
during the summer months. The next most important considerations 
are those of sufficient grade and dump room, so as to admit firstly 
of the easy removal of the gravels by gravitation only, and secondly 
Qt sufficient space for the accumulation of the waste ^avelp, so ^hoA 

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74 The Goldfields of Ontario and British Columbia. 

they in no way are allowed to block up the exit channels. In fact it 
is these same conditions which largely influence the various operations 
connected with the mining of gold ores and their after treatment in 
the reduction works. Thus in a mine one of the first considerations 
after the blasting of the rocks is to economise hand labour by allowing 
the mine cUbris and ore to pass down through the working places, 
that is, the stopes and chutes, by the assistance of gravitation only. 
Again in the later processes connected with the reduction of the 
ores it is equally important that such reduction works, whether 
they be in the shape of stamp mills, concentration works, or 
smelters, be so situated that the ores or other materials to be 
treated are permitted as far as possible to travel down through the 
various stages of treatment by gravitation only. The other class 
of mining in operation in Canada consists of vein mining, with the 
well-known operations of sinking shafts and driving levels from 
them, at given distances of some 50 to 100 feet, so that the ore- 
deposit is divided up into blocks of ground which can be easily 
attacked by the miner with the aid of machine drills, hand drillSi 
pick, shovel, and explosives. 

So far as can be ascertained from the Government reports of 
British Columbia and Ontario, the total gross value of gold derived 
from placer gold mining in British Columbia, principally from the 
district of Cariboo, and spread over a period of about forty years, 
amounted to something hke £12,000,000 sterling. The greatest 
period of prosperity in this class of mining was apparently during 
the sixties, when the annual output ranged in value from about 
£500,000 to £1,000,000 sterling. During the past decade, however, 
it appears to have ranged only from £80,000 to £120,000. Doubt- 
less in the next few years the gold production derived from placer 
mining within the Dominion will enormously increase owing to the 
recent discoveries in the North- Western Territories, on the Yukon 
and at Elondyke. 

From all I can learn I do not think that the annual production 
of gold from this district is likely to greatly exceed what was 
obtained from Cariboo in its palmy days, whilst the natural 
difficulties of obtaining it will be vastly greater. In fact it is 
probable that there are just as good deep-level gravel deposits still 
left unworked in Cariboo as will be found in Klondyke, with the 
immense additional advantage of their being some thousand miles 
nearer to civilisation. 

The amount of gold produced from vein mining in British 
Columbia has, until quite recently, been hardly worthy of notice, 

Digitized by V^f OOQ IC 

The Qoldfields of Ontario and British CohimUa. 75 

and indeed even at the present time it is largely due to the produc- 
tion of one mine. Thus in 1893 the value of the total production 
is given at about £5,000, whereas in 1896 it had risen to about 

It is unfortunate that for the purposes of this Paper the mineral 
statistics of the Dominion for 1897 are naturally not yet published, 
as doubtless the increase in the production of gold during the past 
year will be found to be very satisfactory, and probably far greater 
than has ever been recorded in any previous year. 

MiNEEAL Statistics and Mining Laws. 

There is no better method of illustrating the progress made in the 
mineral industry of a country than by the frequent and intelligent 
publication of its mineral statistics. In this connection Canada, and 
I might add some of our other Colonies, would do well to profit by 
the intelligent manner in which the gold industry on the Witwaters- 
rand has been developed by its Chamber of Mines. At the present 
time in Canada there are two separate bureaus for the collection 
of mineral statistics from British Columbia and Ontario. The former 
is a very creditable institution, and is conducted in a thoroughly 
competent manner ; but the latter leaves much to be desired. I con- 
sider that the Dominion Government should in any case have a 
separate office to collect all the mineral statistics from the various 
provinces in one statement, as under the present arrangement it is 
difficult to ascertain what the total annual production of gold and 
other minerals amounts to. 

The importance of the publication of facts and figures in order 
to draw the attention of the public to any newly-discovered goldfield 
cannot well be exaggerated. Much useful work can be accomplished 
in this connection by the establishment of a Chamber of Mines. There 
can be no doubt that the formation of such a Chamber in connection 
with the gold-mining industry on the Witwatersrand was mainly 
instrumental in drawing the attention of the investing public to its 
wonderful mineral resources. I would therefore strongly recommend 
the Canadian mining community to organise some similar move- 
ment, the subscribing members being the representatives of all the 
various mining undertakings throughout the country. It would 
then become the duty of this Chamber of Mines to collect from the 
various mine owners, by means of filled-in circular monthly state- 
ments, statistics as to the production of minerals and all other 
information which might lead to the general economic progression 
of the industry. 

Digitized by 


76 The Ooldfields of Ontario and British Coltmbia. 

This Chamber might also be invited by the Oovemment to 
signify its approval of legislation in any way affecting it, and of th« 
nomination of the various officials entrusted with the carrying out 
of such laws. 

At the present time in Canada, owing to the want of such 
practical assistance and advice, the mining laws are frequently 
framed by legislators who have no practical acquaintance with what 
is required by the mining community, and the mining officials are 
often men who are only at most statistically acquainted with 
the actual mining work. 

As illustrative of such evils it is only necessary to point to the 
mining laws of the Province of Ontario, which are greatly inferior 
to those prevailing in British Columbia, owing to the introducticHi 
of certain measures whereby the genuine mining prospector is placed 
at a distinct disadvantage. 

Exploration Wobk. 

In a country Uke Canada, where tlie prospector is, as already 
explained, frequently working under great physical disadvantages, 
the Government should in legislating do everything in its power to 
encourage him in this respect ; however, careful distinction should 
always be made between the genuine miner who puts some good work 
into the ground and the speculating prospector who does Uttle or no 
mining work on the ground which he takes up, but prefers to sit 
down on his claims and passively await the time when some green- 
horn capitalist comes along and offers him some ridiculous sum in 
cash for what must, from the nature of things, be an entirely 
unproved industrial problem. 

The prospector should understand that, unless he is in a position 
to fairly demonstrate the value of his ground by actual mining work, 
such ground is practically worthless; and, consequently, if he 
requires the assistance of capital in order to afford such proof, he 
should be content to hold his ground on share interest only. I do 
not consider that assay results obtained from a few samples of vein 
stone, frequently ignorantly and unfairly taken, constitute any 
sufficient proof that the deposits from which they have been selected 
can be economically mined on an industrial scsble ; and until this 
proof is forthcoming it is unreasonable for owners of mining ground 
to expect any cash price for it. 

Whilst on this subject I would like to point out the very useful 
work which may be accomplished by well.organised exploration 
CQpipani^s, wboge methpd of procedure shpul^ always be first to 

Digitized by V^OOQiC 

The Goldfields of Ontario and British Columbia. •?? 

select, through the aid of a competent mining engineer, such 
mineral properties as may show some sort of proof that, if opened 
up, they would repay any reasonable amount of capital that might 
be expended upon them. The usual method of working on this 
arrangement is that the prospector or owner of the claims gives 
those who are willing to advance the capital what is known as a 
working bond or option, whereby permission is granted for given 
periods of, say, three or six months or a year, as the case may be, to 
prove the value of the ground. 

• In some instances it is quite fair to pay a certain small sum of 
money for this privilege ; but if the owners could be reasonably sure 
that ttiose providing the capital were going to test the value of their 
ground in a competent manner, that is, with the advice of competent 
engineers, then the owners would be wise not to ask for even this 
amount of money, as all capital outlay which is not being actually 
put into the ground, but goes into owner's pockets, is rightly be- 
grudged, seeing that no real proof of its value has yet been 
obtained, and the burden of proof really lies with those providing 
the capital, the ground being worth practically nothing without 

Where any real proof of mineral value of ground has been given, 
I consider that the Government should always insist that in order 
to hold the title the owners should carry out thereon annually some 
reasonable amount of mining work. This is the case in British 
Columbia, but in Ontario, after making a costly survey, large blocks 
of claims are held by the payment of a small sum and no work is 
necessarily done, so that prospecting work is in a very backward 

In connection with the gold production I would suggest that 
instead of a mint, which I do not consider that Canada at all 
requires, it would be a wise provision of the Legislature to insist on 
all gold bars or ingots being officially stamped, producers paying 
some small duty per ounce of gold. In this way the actual amount 
of gold produced within the country would always be accurately 
ascertained. In order to illustrate the injury which may be done to 
a mining community, and indeed to the State at large, through the 
non-enforcement of statistical information by the Government from 
mine owners, I may here state that at the^ present time the largest 
gold-producing mine in the Province of Ontario, being a private 
venture, does not make public any returns of its gold production, 
nor indeed is it possible to obtain any statistical information as to 
what the undertaking is doing ; so that what might have acted as a 

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7S The Ooldfields of Ontcmo and BriUsh Columbia, 

valuable object lesson in connection with the mining in that district 
is entirely lost to the whole community. 

The rare metals, such as gold and silver, are, I contend, an assei 
which belongs to the whole nation, and every individual who is 
allowed by the Government to work them should be made to account 
for his stewardship. 

Description op Mining UNDERTAKiNas at Work. 

As already pointed out, gold-vein mining in the Dominion 
has only been in operation for about five years, so that of 
necessity there are few ventures which may be fairly described as 
mines, the vast majority of mining undertakings being only in 
their incipient stage of prospecting. It is much to be regretted 
that this prospecting work is frequently of such a crude and un- 
miner-Uke nature that it does not serve any good or useful purpose, 
and consequently when the mining engineer representing the 
capitalist who may desire to take up and work the ground comes 
to examine it he cannot obtain the necessary proofs as to the 
value of the veins ; whereas had such work been competently carried 
out, and the same amount of energy properly directed, it would be 
possible for the engineer to at once give his principals some definite 
idea as to the probable industrial or economic value of the ground. 

This ignorant prospecting work is more frequently found in the 
Ontario mining districts than in those of British Columbia, the 
reason being, 1 believe, that in the Ontario districts the prospectors 
are often men whose whole previous experience has been connected 
with lumbering, hunting or fishing ; whereas in British Columbia 
the real genuine miner has found his way up from the adjoining 
mining States. 

In the province of Ontario there are some dozen or so of mining 
ventures which might be fairly described as gold mines. These 
mines are frequently situated close to the water's edge on some of the 
islands dotted over the immense lake system which is the principal 
feature of these goldfields. Consequently the mines can be easily 
communicated with in the summer season by small steamers which 
ply through the lakes, and in the winter by sledging, there being a 
period of a few weeks only, between the latter end of April and the 
beginning of May, when it is almost impossible to communicate 
with the mines by either steamer or sledge, as the ice is then break- 
ing up, and since the Government has neglected to furnish any 
telegraph system, although there is a perfect one running up to the 
remote regions of Cariboo, the situation is rather a serious one. 

Digitized by 


The Goldfietds of Ontario and British Colvmhia, 79 

Gold mining can be carried on economically in these districts, as 
the price of mining labour (thoagh frequently inefficient) is fairly 
moderate, ranging from about IO5. to 155. per day, food supplies 
being, as a rule, by no means extravagant. Ordinary surface labour 
costs somewhat less. Fuel, either coal or timber, may be said to be 
also fairly moderate in price ; ranging from 205. to 35«. per ton. 
The timber supply, however, is being rapidly exhausted, great and 
unnecessary waste being caused by forest fires, and, being frequently 
rather small and poor in character, will not be able to compete with 
coal when once railway charges admit of its more economic carriage. 
Explosives are also fairly low in price, ranging from about 8O5. to 
505. per box of fifty pounds of dynamite, containing 40 to 60 per 
cent, of nitro-glycerine. In no case has mining been prosecuted to 
any great depth, 400 feet vertical being about the deepest to which 
any mine has yet attained. 

The average value of the gold ores per ton on any industrially 
proved venture may be said to range from about 11. to 3Z. per ton of 
rock crushed. Since, however, all the mines so far discovered in the 
Ontario district are of a free-milling nature, the cost of working them 
naturally varies, according to the scale of operations upon which it 
is possible to conduct them, but may be said to range from about 
IO5. to 3O5. per ton. The reduction plant for a free-milling min« 
consists, roughly speaking, of a stamp mill of from ten to forty head 
of stamps, capable of crushing about two tons per stamp per day, 
amalgamated copper plates, concentrators, and cyanide works for the 
treatment of the tailings. 

The mines in the district are a good deal scattered about, a con^ 
siderable distance in mileage frequently separating them. The 
nature of the veins also is such that a very large amount of 
development work ought to be carried out before the erection of any 
large milling plant. The previous system of mining in Ontario 
appears more often to have consisted first in the erection of a stamp 
inill, and afterwards in trying to find a mine with sufficient minerji 
to keep it at work, all the working capital having been exhausted on 
the first operation. It follows that as the nature of the rock only 
permits of a somewhat limited crushing capacity varying, as a rule, 
from some 500 to 900 tons per month for every ten head of stamps, 
these mining undertakings will not permit of any large capitalisation, 
as, even for a reasonably successful venture, an annual profit ranging 
between, say, £10,000 and £25,000 is all that can be expected. 

I therefore consider that the number of real payable concerns in 
the Ontario goldfields will be comparatively few and far between 

Digitized by 


60 l^he Gotdfields of (hitario anct British CoUmUA^ 

unless their nominal capitals are very low, and their working 
capitals high ; consequently great caution should be exercised ill 
dealing with questions relating to the first selection of properties, 
and more especially the amount which is paid for them. 

In British Columbia, however, the conditions under which mining 
is being carried out are, to my mind, imquestionably superior to those 
prevailing on the Ontario goldfields, and I am strongly impressed 
that as railways open up the country it will be found as productive 
as the gold-mining regions in the adjoining States of America have 
proved to be. 

In the northern part of British Columbia, in the Cariboo and 
Lillooet districts, vein mining, so far as I could ascertain, has not as 
yet proved very successful ; and I am of opinion that unless gold 
veins are discovered occurring in the granites they will not prove 
permanent fissures, but rather partake of the nature of masses of 
quartz interbedded in the schists, such occurrences frequently 
proving to be of a very limited and disappointing nature, although 
very rich bunches or pockets of gold are frequently discovered in 
them, giving to the mining novice an exaggerated idea as to their 
value. In the southern part of the province, however, in the 
Kootenay district, a most encouraging state of affairs is found. 
Thus in what is known as the Bed Mountain, situated near the 
town of Rossland, a series of more or less parallel veins have been 
discovered of a well-defined character. 

The gold associated with the mineral infiUings or matrix of these 
veins is disseminated in a remarkably even manner throughout. The 
ore may be described as massively metallic, consisting for the most 
part of arsenical, magnetic, and ordinary iron pyrites and copper 
pyrites, carrying gold values ranging from IO5. to £12 per ton, 
probably a fair average being about £2 per ton. At the present 
time these ores require to be smelted in order to extract the gold, 
and the cost of this operation has so far been so excessive as to 
preclude the large bulk of the ores found in the district from 
being worked profitably. The present cost of smelting may be 
said to range from about 8O5. to 455. per ton, and as the total 
cost of mining and delivery of the ore to such smelting works 
amounts to another IO5. to 16s. per ton, it is evident that only the 
very richest ores can be treated at a profit. This condition of 
affairs can only be of a temporary nature, especially when it is 
recognised that there is an enormous amount of low-grade ore 
awaiting some economic treatment in order to establish a lasting 
profitable industry. With the construction of more railways and 

Digitized by 


The GoJdfields of Ontario and British Columbia. 81 

cheaper economic conditions generally there can be no doubt that the 
day is not far distant when gold mining in the southern portion of 
British Columbia will become a large and paying industry. In 
this connection I should not forget to mention that throughout 
almost all the goldfields of Canada wonderful water powers are 
available, which can be frequently used to great economic advantage 
in the transmission of electric power and for lighting purposes. 

CoNCLUDiNa Bemabes. 

It is in the nature of things that gold mining should be taken 
advantage of by ignorant and unprincipled persons to so exaggerate 
and confuse the minds of the investing public that it is often 
held in much disrepute. It is unfortunate that, whereas in nearly 
all other industries some practical knowledge is considered as a 
necessary condition of success, whether it be brewing, cotton spinning, 
or anything else, yet in gold mining especially no such knowledge 
is demanded by the investing public, and a legislator, judge, doctor, 
farmer, or mayor of a town if he has only lived in a mining country 
is supposed to have absorbed by contact a sufficient knowledge of 
mining to enable him to distinguish good properties from bad, 
and otherwise direct one of the most complicated of industries. 

It is also a drawback to mining that engineers are not obliged to 
qualify in some way, as doctors or lawyers do in their professions ; 
under present conditions, it is competent for any jack-of- all- trades 
to suddenly pose as a mining engineer, whose opinion is seriously 
accepted by a gullible public so long as it is sufficiently favourable. 

The risks of mismanagement, however, can be greatly minimised 
in the case of the Canadian mining districts, as any one of them, 
except it be Klondyke, can be easily reached in from fourteen to twenty 
days after starting from London. 

It would not be fair to close this Paper without paying a very 
high c6mpliment to the Canadian Pacific Eailway Company, 
which has done more than even the Government itself to build up 
and encourage what I feel assured will prove to be Canada's most 
important source of revenue. 

The Paper was illustrated by a number of specially prepared 
sUdeSf which were thrown on the screen. 


Et. Hon. Jambs Bbycb, M.P. : You call upon me rather to my 
surprise, because I do not feel that I have any competence to speak 


Digitized by 


82 The Chldfields of Ontario and British Columbia^ 

with regard to the very interesting lecture Mr. Bathbone has given 
us. That would come best from some one who has a practical 
knowledge of mining, and who is able to bear witness — as, no doubt, 
he would — to the correctness of Mr. Eathbone's views. We can all 
join in expressing our sense of the clearness with which these views 
have been stated and of the very interesting manner in which they 
have been illustrated. I have no title at all to speak on any of these 
practical questions of mining with which Mr. Eathbone's paper has 
dealt, because, although I have seen a great many mines at different 
times, I have always seen them as a traveller, possibly an observant 
traveller, but certainly a quite ignorant traveller. Therefore, for 
me to attempt to discuss any of the technical points in mining 
science which Mr. Eathbone has raised would be to step into the 
place which properly belongs to a practised and experienced man — 
and I have no doubt there are many here who possess practical 
knowledge. I gather, however, that Mr. Eathbone's view, besides 
giving you an idea of the mineral resources of these two districts in 
the Dominion of Canada, was very largely to bring before you a 
practical suggestion, which is practical in one sense to the Canadian 
miner, and practical in another sense to the British investor. The 
moral of the concluding part of Mr. Eathbone's paper I take to be 
this, that if the Canadians wish to profit by the result of gold-mining 
experience in other parts of the world, they will do well to set about 
their gold-mining in a systematic, careful, and scientific way. They 
will do well to spend their capital and their effort, not upon the first 
mines that come to hand, not upon whatever promises to be a possibly 
payable vein, but only upon those veins which they have ascertained 
to offer real and satisfactory prospects ; and he thinks that a great 
deal of expense and disappointment will be saved if preliminary 
inquiries are carefully conducted, and if operations are restricted in 
the first instance to those veins which have been best ascertained to 
give substantial promise of good ore. I hope I am correctly con- 
veying what I take to be the moral of Mr. Eathbone's paper. That 
is a moral which is evidently of great practical importance for our 
Canadian friends in developing their mineral wealth. It is of no 
less practical importance to the British investor, because we all 
know that in the mind of the ordinary British investor, gold-mining 
is very much a lottery, and has very much the same kind of charm 
which lotteries have for the people of Spain and Italy, and other 
countries in which that form of gambUng is unfortunately permitted. 
To the mind of the average investor in this country who receives 
prospectuses of companies, one gold mine is pretty much like 

Digitized by 


The Goldfields of Ontario and British Columbia. 88 

another, and if he sees a large dividend — a dividend of 20, or 80, or 
40 per cent. — promised to him, he inclines to suppose that that is 
necessarily the best mine to invest in. Accordingly, the moral of 
Mr. Eathbone's paper for the British investor is that just as the 
Canadian ought to investigate carefully the properties in which he 
is going to put his capital, so in the same way we in this country 
ought to realise that mining is a branch of science, and ought to be 
certain that we have the best evidence of the most trustworthy 
and competent scientific experts before we put our capital into 
the enterprises which solicit it. And, no doubt, if the two 
pieces of good counsel which Mr. Eathbone gives could be 
carried out— if prospectors and capitalists there would only 
develop the best reefs, and if we here were to examine more 
carefully the prospects of the placer mines, or of the reef 
mines in which we were asked to invest — there would be a 
great saving and a great avoidance of disappointment, and the 
prosperity of Canada, which is a common interest to us all, would 
be much more rapidly advanced. Mr. Eathbone has put his case 
on these points in a clear and convincing way, and you must all 
have been struck by the way in which the whole Paper was per- 
meated by what is called in America a conservative spirit. He 
does not speak like the framer of a prospectus ; he speaks like a 
cautious man, who desires others to be also cautious before they 
invest. But, at the same time, I am happy to gather from him 
that he has great faith in the mineral possibilities of the country, 
and that he believes if the industry is properly worked, it may turn 
out of the greatest possible industrial and commercial benefit to 
the Dominion of Canada. I hope I am again rightly interpreting 
his views. I will make only one other remark. Although the 
duration of gold mines, and particularly of those gravel or placer 
mines to which there are references in the Paper, is often com- 
paratively short — short in proportion to the life of the country — 
still they have a very important function to discharge in helping to 
develop the country. They rapidly attract a comparatively large 
population, and they very often attract it to a part of the country 
which is not very promising in other ways. For instance, the 
country around the Lake of the Woods, where, I gather, many of 
these Ontario vein mines are to be found, is not one of the most 
promising parts of the province for agricultural or pastoral pur- 
poses, the land being of very rough and bare rocky character, 
covered with thin wood. Now, when population is attracted to a 
region like tiiat, it becomes worth while to develop communication 


Digftized by 


84 The Goldfields of Ontario and British Columbia. 

by rail. It would not be worth while to make railroads for the 
very slow development which pastoral land would have ; it would 
not at once be worth while to make them even for the develop- 
ment of agricultural land. But when a large population is sud- 
denly brought there, cheap transport becomes essential for the 
carrying of ore, the bringing up of supplies, and the providing of 
fuel ; and, therefore, it becomes worth while to make the railway. 
For the same reason it becomes worth while to develop any agri- 
cultural land in the immediate neighbourhood, because a great 
market is provided by the mining camps. In that way the country 
in five or ten years takes a long step in advance, which its pastoral, 
or timber, or agricultural resources might not have enabled it to 
take in twenty, or thirty, or even forty years. In that respect the 
development of these mines has a very wholesome influence in 
accelerating the development of the country. This has all 
happened, as you are doubtless aware, in other countries — in 
California, and very conspicuously in South Africa — and I per- 
ceive that Mr. Bathbone has well availed himself of the experience 
which he has obtained in the latter country, and is enabled, there- 
fore, to better foresee what the course of development is likely 
to be in Canada. We are all grateful to him for his Paper. 
Those of us who have been in Canada, and are therefore doubly 
interested in its fortunes and in its rapidly and steadily advancing 
development, are glad to be assured on such good authority of this 
very great addition to its already numerous sources of natural 

The Hon. F. W. Borden : Like Mr. Bryce, I feel altogether 
unfitted by experience or by education to offer any scientific 
observations with reference to the subject of the very interesting 
paper to which we have listened to-night. But as a Canadian I 
cannot forbear to express my extreme satisfaction that in the heart 
of the Empire so many ladies and gentlemen should be assembled, 
taking an interest in the country to which I belong. That is 
perhaps, to some extent, one of the results of the Jubilee year out 
of which we have just passed. For many years we Colonists have 
heard a great deal about how the different parts of the Empire 
might be drawn more closely together. Imperial Federation has 
been discussed, and some legislators have suggested elaborate 
systems by which it might be brought about. No one appeared, 
however, to have succeeded to his satisfiebction, or to the satisfaction 
of anybody else. But the Jubilee year seems to have done the • 
work. The Colonies were represented here, mi they seem to hay© 

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The GoldfielAs of Ontario and British Columbid. 85 

made a very favourable impression upon the people of these islands. 
Common sympathy and community of interests are the forces which 
have drawn the different parts of the Empire together. The con- 
solidation of the British Empire, I take it, is a thing that is settled, 
and settled beyond question. Without any violent change of the 
constitution of any part of the Empire, without any system of regu- 
lations, which perhaps nobody could understand, and which our 
judges would be for ever endeavouring to explain, the hearts of the 
people from the distant parts of the Empire have been brought 
together, and we have in the Jubilee year been welded into an 
integral whole. It is very pleasing to me as a Canadian to find the 
interest taken in my country which is evidenced by what I see here 
to-night. But I am not only a Canadian, I have the honour to be 
a Nova Scotian, and I must say to Mr. Eathbone at once that I am 
a little disappointed and very much surprised that he should not 
have included in his very able address some allusion to the gold 
mines of the province of Nova Scotia. 

Mr. Eathbone : I could not, as I have never been there. I only 
speak of what I know. 

Mr. Borden : 1 desire to say, and I am sure Mr. Eathbone will 
not find fault with me if I call his attention to the fact, that pro- 
fitable gold-mining has been going on in the province of Nova 
Scotia for over thirty years, and that there are to-day in operation 
in the province between twenty-five and fifty large crushing mills. 
The output from the province last year was something like a hundred 
ounces of gold per day — a larger output, I believe, than that from 
the whole of British Columbia. I am sure you would not respect 
me, if, as a Nova Scotian, I did not speak out for my own province, 
and I am sure Mr. Eathbone will not find fault with me. I cannot 
speak too strongly in commendation of the idea put forward by Mr. 
Eathbone that investors and capitalists should not be asked — much 
less should they proceed to do it — to put their money into wild-cat 
mining speculation, whether in Ontario, British Columbia, Nova 
Scotia, Klondyke, or anywhere else. To do so will only injure the 
country instead of developing il). The friends of Canada do not 
want people here to invest their money in unprofitable enterprises. 
We believe that we have got in Canada a field for the investment 
of millions of the money which we are all glad to know the 
people of these islands possess in such large quantities. We have 
felt as Canadians and as Colonists in the past rather slighted 
when we found the people of the Mother Country going to all 
the comers of the earth except Canada in order to find places to 

Digitized by 


85 The Goldfields of Ontario and British Columbia. 

invest their money. We are glad now to know that at last Canada 
has found not only a place in the affections of this country — ^because 
I think we have always had that — but a practical place among 
your business and commercial men. We have lots of room in 
Canada, and the people of this country are jostling against each 
other. We give every man — and every woman too above the age 
of eighteen — 160 acres of land, with the right of pre-emption to 160 
acres more. We have got the best soil under the sun. It is not 
only gold that we produce in Canada. We have a climate for 
raising wheat and all the other leading agricultural products. 
Canada, in natural resources, is, I believe, one of the richest 
countries in the world. We want more people and we want more 
money. We are satisfied that if the people come and take up the 
lands which are waiting for settlement, the money wUl come too, 
because the agricultural people of Canada are a prosperous people* 
Three or four years ago we exported more than ;J[50,000,000 worth 
of agricultural produce, and I am happy to be able to tell you that 
last year we increased these exports by ^^20,000,000. And we have 
only just begun. Give us your assistance and your co-operation, 
and we will become the richest country on the face of the earth, 
and still a part, and proud to be a part, of the British Empire. I am 
delighted to have had this opportunity of seeing the evidence that I 
have seen here to-night of the interest that is being taken in my 

Dr. Clement Le Neve Foster, F.R.S. : The paper which has 
been read to us this evening by Mr. Rathbone is one which it is 
most easy to discuss, for the reason that one must agree with every- 
thing he has said. I have been fortunate enough to visit mines in 
various parts of the Dominion, including the gold mines of Nova 
Scotia ; and I think the pith of Mr. Bathbone's paper is this, that 
these mines, if properly examined, do afford a legitimate field for the 
investment of British capital. With reference to some other points 
which he has mentioned, I consider that we in this country ought 
to be a little careful sometimes in offering advice to a Colony. He 
tells us, for instance, that the Colonies would do well to publish 
reliable and intelligent mineral statistics. Do we do this at home ? 
I have a good deal to do with mineral statistics, and I know that 
our mineral statistics are reliable ; but they are not so good as those 
which are given by the Transvaal, and we, like Canada, have got 
something to learn from the South African Republic. For instance, 
in our mining statistics — and we get all the Government can 
force the mine owner to give — we are told the amount of dressed 

Digitized by 


,The Goldfields of Ontario and British Columbia, 87 

tin ore, or dressed lead ore, produced by our mines, but we do not 
know how much crude ore has been used in order to arrive at that 
result. The mineral statistics of the Transvaal are better than our 
own, and I say it with shame. Another point to which Mr. Bath- 
bone alluded was the qualification of mining engineers. Here 
again we have much to learn from other countries, and we ought to 
improve matters. The words which Mr. Bathbone has used with 
regard to the qualifications of the mining engineer in Canada apply 
equally to the mining engineer in this country. There is no 
recognised diploma, no well-defined training for the mining engineer 
recognised by our Government, and I complain, and complain 
bitterly, that such should be the case in this country at the end of 
the nineteenth century. One disadvantage that Mr. Bathbone 
mentioned with regard to Elondyke — namely, the fact that the 
ground is eternally frozen — is not an unmixed evil. It is of service 
to the miner, because it enables him, without the aid of pumping 
machinery, to work deposits which, if not frozen, would very often 
be waterlogged. The eternal freezing of this alluvial gravel has its 
advantages. I fully agree with and endorse every word Mr. Bath- 
bone has said with regard to that magnificent railway across the 
continent. It is more than a railway, for the Company possess 
magnificent hotels, and give one splendid steamers upon the lakes 
which have only recently been opened out to the traveller. The 
comfort with which we travel is surprising. In concluding, let me 
compliment Mr. Bathbone upon the excellent lecture which he has 
delivered this evening. We all know him as an excellent mining 
engineer ; but until to-night I was not aware of his capabiUties as 
an expounder of mining matters. 

Sm Babtlb Fbebb, Bart. : There is really very little that I can 
say which will be of much interest, for I know little of the subject, 
compared to those who have spoken. I went to British Columbia 
last year, and I saw a great deal of what Mr. Bathbone has described. 
I should like to be permitted to underline one or two points to 
which he has alluded. At the opening up of a large region such 
as British Columbia it is of great advantage that it should have 
attracted the attention of a man like Mr. Bathbone, who thoroughly 
knows the conditions of mining in countries where it has been more 
elaborated, and where all the most modem processes have been 
brought to their highest perfection. It is of great advantage to the 
country that he has had a view of it. The only other thing I 
would wish to say is this. When I was over there, I noticed that 
frequently on that continent the man who wishes to speculate in* 

Digitized by 


88 The Gotdfields of Ontario tmd British Columbia. 

vests in railways, while the man who wishes for an investment goes 
in for mines. Over here exactly the opposite conditions prevail. I 
think it wonld be a good thing if mining could be reduced to an in- 
dustry, instead of being a mere vehicle for gambling. 

Mr. A. J. McMillan : It gives me very great pleasure to say a 
few words with reference to Mr. Bathbone's excellent paper. It is 
very gratifying to me, as I am sure it must be to every one con- 
nected with Canada, to hear one standing so high in his profession 
as Mr. Eathbone express views so favourable with regard to the 
mineral production of that country. I have been connected with 
Canada for the last fifteen years, and during the last four years 
have paid a number of visits to British Columbia ; but it was my 
business to look at the commercial rather than the technical side 
of the question. I have been very much surprised on returning to 
Eastern Canada and to the Old Country to find how little is known 
with regard to the actual conditions prevailing in that province. 
It may be news to some of you that the mineral production of the 
West Kootenay district, British Columbia, during the past year 
amounted to something like £2,000,000. In the Eossland district 
alone the output of ore amounts to something like 75,000 tons, with 
an average value of probably $S5 per ton. Perhaps a more striking 
illustration of what is going on is this. In 1892 the lode mines of 
British Columbia did not produce any gold at all. In 1894 they 
produced 6,252 oz., in 1896, 62,259 oz., and last year about 
120,000 oz. That, I think, is progress of which any country might 
well be proud. I quite agree with Mr. Eathbone as to the desira- 
bility of large companies engaging in operations in Ontario and 
British Columbia. Although a considerable number of companies 
have already been formed in this country, I think there is still a 
large field for exploration and development companies, especially in 
British Columbia. As the people in the west will express it very 
tersely, ' it is no poor man's country,' that is to say, it is essentially 
a country for large companies to operate in. Hitherto compara- 
tively little was known in this country about British Columbia. 
That is mainly because mining development has been carried on 
very largely by Americans. Many of the largest mines in British 
Columbia have been opened up by men from the States, and I am 
very glad to say that they are our best friends. I hope they will 
long continue to carry on their work there, but at the same time 
I am extremely anxious that Englishmen should take a much 
greater interest in that country than they have hitherto done. The 
Canadian Pacific Bailway has done much to open up the country. 

Digitized by 


The GoldfieUs of Ontario and British Columbia. 89 

I do not think the importance of that railway as a great national 
highway is sufficiently appreciated in this country. It seems to me 
that there are two or three things required in order to stimulate 
the development of Ontario and British Columbia. We want 
larger companies to operate there, a better steamship service to 
Canada, and a better newspaper cable-service, so that people in this 
country when they take up their morning newspaper may know 
what is going on throughout the Canadian Dominion. When we 
get these things, I am sure Canada will be better known and 
appreciated than it is at present. 

Mr. T. A. E. PuRCHAs (Ontario) : A great deal, this evening, has 
been said about British Columbia. I will confine myself entirely to 
Ontario. I spent the greater part of last year in that province, and 
I found quite enough there to keep me fully occupied. The gold- 
mining district, if one may call it so, for at present it is practically 
in its infancy, covers, so far as we now know, something like fifty or 
sixty thousand square miles. In fact, England and Scotland com- 
bined might almost be dropped into the North- West Ontario gold- 
fields without leaving anything over. This enormous tract of 
country is, of course, necessarily not only unprospected, but is 
practically unexplored. But we have some evidence of its latent 
possibilities in the few mines in which the work has reached an 
advanced stage. I entirely agree with Mr. Rathbone in nearly 
everything he has said with regard to Ontario, but there are one or 
two points to which I do not exactly dissent, but upon which I wish 
to put a fresh interpretation. He speaks of the inferiority of the 
mining laws of Ontario as compared with those of British Columbia. 
I admit that the mining laws of Ontario are not, from a mining 
standpoint, so complete as those of British Columbia, and there is 
certainly room for improvement in them in many respects. But I 
cannot quite see how he makes that inferiority press hardly upon 
the prospector. It appears to me that the prospector is the man 
who gets the benefit of that difference, because if ever there was a 
place where men can hold land and not be *' frozen out,*' it is in 
Ontario. There you hold your land in fee-simple — absolutely in- 
alienable — once you have got it and paid for it, at the rate of two 
dollars or two and a half dollars per acre. The objection to that 
is that there is no incentive to do development work, and that 
really militates more against the progress of the country than against 
the individual. If it were made incumbent on the individual to de- 
velop the ground he takes up, he would be more careful in the selection 
he made, and would take up a smaller quantity. At present he goes for 

Digitized by 


90 The Ooldfields of Ontario and British Columbia. 

quantity rather than quality. He takes up all he can pay for, and even 
tries to get a pre-emptive right to land for which he cannot immedi- 
ately pay. Last year, in Canada, they introduced some amendments of 
the mining laws which went in the right direction, and land cannot 
now be taken up by a man unless he is prepared to do work at the 
rate of a dollar per acre per annum for seven years. That is not 
much, but it is something. Mr. Bathbone gives Ontario credit for 
the low prices at which gold can be produced there — i.e. the cheap 
working cost. But he puts the rates too high when be says that 
labour costs from 10s. to 155. a day. As a matter of fact, 10s. — i.e. 
two and a half dollars — is absolutely the maximum price paid to 
the expert miner, and the wages really range from 6^. to 10^. per 
day. There is very little fear of the wage price going up, and 
therefore labour will never be a drawback to cheap production. In 
the Ontario fields, which adjoin Manitoba, the great wheat and beef 
producing centre of Canada, food is so cheap that the living cost 
will always be low, and that will naturally keep down wages. I 
will give you some prices of a few staple products, and anyone who 
knows what the prices are in Johannesburg or Bhodesia can make 
a comparison for himself — flour, 85. 6d. per 100 lb., meat, Sd. to 
5d. per lb., potatoes, 25. Sd. to 45. 6d. per sack. When we come to 
machinery, in Ontario, you can put up a battery at the rate of a 
thousand dollars a stamp, everything included. Hauling and 
pumping gear are proportionately cheap ; explosives are cheap, and 
house rents are low. With regard to coal, unquestionably we shall 
in the near future see a development of the very large coal resources 
there. For, although the Canadians love their timber, they will 
have to acknowledge that coal is a far better and more economical 
fuel for steam generation. The present carrying rate for coal is a 
^d. per ton per mile. That compares very favourably with the rate 
in Johannesburg, and I am perfectly certain that if there was a 
large demand, the Canadian Pacific Bailway would meet the 
changed conditions by making very much easier rates. There is 
another point on which I have to join issue with Mr. Bathbone. 
He apparently sets a limit to the number of stamps which may be 
erected, and 40 appears to be the limit. My own impression, from 
what I saw of Ontario, is that if there is one thing we have to look 
for in that country, it is large bodies of low-grade ore which will 
give employment not to 10, 20, or 40 stamps, but to hundreds of 
stamps. The crushing capacity of the battery will only be about half 
what it is in Johannesburg, owing to the harder nature of the rock, so 
that where the battery is forty stamps, it will crush about the same 

Digitized by 


The Goldfields of Ontario and British Columbia* 91 

quantity of rock as a twenty-stamp battery in Johannesburg. When 
I say that a certain property in the Lake of the Woods district is at 
the present moment actually covering its expenses with a ten-stamp 
battery, which is crushing rather less than five stamps would at 
Johannesburg, and the ore only averages 10 dwt., I think those 
who have any experience of mining will admit that it is a country 
where cheap working costs do obtain. There is also no reason, so 
far as I can see, why profits should be confined within the narrow 
limits assigned to them by Mr. Eathbone — although I do most 
thoroughly concur with him in the necessity for reasonable nominal 
capitals, and liberal provision being made for working capital. Mr. 
Rathbone will admit without question that if a mine warrants the 
erection of a large stamping power, its profits may considerably 
transcend the figures laid down in the Paper this evening. Certainly 
many of the reefs, so far as at present developed, are not of great 
width, though I consider them over rather than under the average 
of most quartz-reefing fields, and I confidently look forward to some 
of the very large bodies of low-grade rock being proved payable, 
when some money has been spent on their development. I consider 
that the peculiar facilities — facilities of transport, cheap living, and 
the generally favourable conditions of travel — ^which exist in 
Ontario, and its closeness to Manitoba and the food supplies, will 
secure for it a special place in the future Canadian goldfields. 

Db. C. Chbwings : It is too late for me to detain you ; other- 
wise I should have liked to make a few comparisons between the 
Western Australian goldfields and those of British Columbia. I will 
only say that the lecture has been very instructive to me. I think it 
is well that the Royal Colonial Institute should have had this sub- 
ject placed before it in such an explicit way. 

Mr. W. S. Sebright Green : At this late hour I will say but a 
very few words. I shall not follow the line of so many of the previous 
speakers, for I am disposed to find fault with the Paper. The fault, 
however, is perhaps open to amendment, if Mr. Rathbone would only 
give us a supplemental paper at an afternoon meeting. We have not 
heard nearly enough. I for one was disappointed that he did not 
say a little more about the method of reaching Elondyke and 
Cariboo. Nor did he tell us anything about the outfit necessary, or 
perhaps I should say desirable, for Elondyke. I mean this. Mr. 
Rathbone did not say whether bone and sinew, with pluck and 
energy, or a comfortable balance at the Dawson City Branch of the 
bank of British Columbia was the best form of outfit for a miner 
going to Elondyke. I am inclined to think that the last is decidedly 

Digitized by 


02 The Goldfidcb of Ontario and British ColUmhtd. 

the best. Elondyke will never be a poor man's digging, just as 
Cariboo never was a poor man's digging. Lilloett, perhaps, was in 
the early days, at the time Iwas there, for labour was scarce and the 
miners got high wages ; but they had to work very, very hard. It 
is astonishing how many young men, knowing that I have been in 
British Columbia, have come to ask me about Elondyke, and whether 
they should go there. I have found it very easy to give them a 
general answer which w^ " Don't ! " I have sometimes asked appli- 
cants about their capabilities, and invariably found they had none. 
One young man said he could do anything. " Mining ? " " Well, 
no." I recommended him to go down a coal mine, and if he could 
do the work there, he might come and ask me again, and then I 
might be able to form an opinion as to whether he was fit for 

The Chaibman (The Rt. Hon. Lobd Strathcona and Mount 
BoYAL, G.C.M.G.) : I have received the names of some other 
gentlemen who would have been very pleased to address you, but I 
am afiraid it is too late to continue the discussion. It is now my 
pleasing duty to ask you to join with me in a vote of thanks to 
Mr. Bathbone. I am sure you will aU agree that his Paper is a 
most important and most interesting addition to the many valuable 
and adndrable Papers that have been read under the auspices of the 
Boyal Colonial Institute. The Institute has done much for the 
Colonies by bringing a knowledge of them to the people of this 
country, and showing what it is that makes them fit places for 
settlement. I am sure many of those who are going out will wish 
to remain in Canada, and will feel that they are just as much 
Englishmen in the Dominion as though they had stayed in the 
city of London. It is, I am sure, your desire that I convey to 
Mr. Bathbone the sincere thanks of every one here for the admir- 
able address he has given us this evening. 

Mr. E. P. Bathbone : There are several points which I would 
have liked to answer fully had time permitted, but I am afraid at 
this late hour it would be very difficult for me to do so satisf actorily« 
There are, however, one or two that I would like to deal with. 
With regard to Nova Scotia, the only reason I did not refer to it in 
my Paper was that I was only speaking of two provinces, namely, 
Ontario and British Columbia, which I had personally visited. 
From what I have heard of Nova Scotia, however, it is not a place 
to be neglected by any means. The next point is with regard to 
the mining laws of Ontario. Although I think they are in many 
respects vastly superior to the mining laws of some other countries. 

Digitized by 


The Goldfields of Ontario and British Columbia. 93 

and of some other Colonies, when I said they pressed hardly upon 
the prospectors, my point was that at too early a period of the mining 
work the miners are obliged to hand to the Government a 
survey which costs them a good deal of money — I make it out to be 
about one dollar per acre. This, in my opinion, is very often money 
which should have gone into the ground for prospecting. So far as 
the other matters are concerned, Mr. Purchas is perfectly right. My 
contention was that it was a mistake altogether to let off the pro- 
spectors. The consequence of the present law is that prospectors, as 
the Yankees say, " bite off more than they could chew." They take up 
more claims than they can actually work, because they find that they 
have only to pay a small amount to hold these claims. I think they 
should be obliged to do more work upon their property, and that 
Government officials should see that the requisite amount of work is 
actually carried out. With regard to the milling capacity of Ontario 
mines, of course where a vein is wide, it is easy to develop a big mine ; 
but in many cases the veins are rather narrow, and in these cases it 
requires a large amount of work to open up enough ground to keep a 
large mill going, and it must also be remembered that not every- 
thing mined can be sent to the mill, but only the payable ground. 
These are the points which struck me most. I should like, before 
saying good evening, to ask you to pass a very hearty vote of thanks 
to the High Commissioner for coming here to preside. I am sure 
his action in doing so will help on the work that is being done in 
Canada, especially as the subject of mining is one which, a few 
years ago, people were rather glad to be clear of. I am glad to see 
that it is now coming round, and is being regarded as a httle more 
respectable in character. All that is necessary is that people should 
be a little more cautious, and that mining should be regarded as an 
industry, rather than as a gambling speculation. It is their own 
fault if people choose to dive into things they don't understand, and 
then whine when they lose their money. All I can say is that such 
people will have none of my sympathy ; in fact, I am rather glad 
when they lose their money, as it may cause them to act more reason- 
ably in the future. 

Digitized by 


94 A Gold Standard for the Empire. 

An affcemoon meeting was held in the Library of the Institute on 
Tuesday, January 26, 1898, Nevile Lubbock, Esq., in the chair- 
when Mr. Lesley C. Probyn read a paper on — 


The author draws attention to a prediction made by him in a 
paper read before the Royal Colonial Institute in February 1890, 
that sooner or later gold would become the measuring monetary 
standard of the whole British Empire, and suggests the probability 
of its early fulfilment, the transition of various countries to gold 
making the position of the silver-using countries of the British 
Empire more isolated, and the attainment of the gold standard 
being helped by increased gold production. The propriety of con- 
sidering the best way in which the gold standard can be extended 
to the whole British Empire is, therefore, suggested. It is assumed 
that the change ought to be made in such a way as to restrict 
the demand for gold to the smallest amount consistent with the 
effectivity of the gold standard, and the dependence of the amount 
required on the particular system adopted is illustrated by con- 
trasting the currency systems of Canada and Australasia. 

The advantage of the gold sovereign unit for the whole Empire 
is then alluded to, but it is pointed out that this is not necessary 
for unity of standard ; that already there are three separate gold 
imits in the Empire; and that what is needed is that, without 
interfering with the different monetary units, all bargains should 
be in certain defined amounts of gold, and all current money 
representing those defined amounts of gold should be as good as 
the gold represented. 

The possibility of current money, though not made of gold, yet 
being as good as gold, is illustrated by the case of a British token 
coin, and it is urged that, as token coins efficiently represent gold 
in London and the West Indies, and as the paper currency of 
Canada is kept as good as gold by its convertibility, it is possible 
to keep any currency as good as gold by providing for its con- 
vertibility into that metal. 

It is then pointed out that by the use of current money not 
made of, but convertible into, gold, great economy in the use of 
gold can be effected. The loss by wear and tear of gold coins is 
avoided, the use of gold for hoards is discouraged, and the amount 

^ A copy of the Paper itself is preserved in the Library, and is always 
available for reference. 

Digitized by 


A Oold Standard for the Empire. dS 

of gold required to carry out monetary transactions on a gold basis 
is reduced. 

Discussing the stock of gold necessary to secure the redemption 
of a representative non-standard currency, attention is drawn to the 
absence of any special gold redemption fund for British token 
currency, to the limited gold redemption fund for the Bank of Eng- 
land full legal tender notes, and to the proportion between the 
gold redemption fund in Canada and the paper issue. 

The case of India is then discussed, it being assumed that 
sixteenpence is the gold value to be permanently assigned to the 
rupee. It is held that though Sir David Barbour's estimate of 
£16,000,000 as needed to start with to secure the convertibility of 
the rupee currency into sovereigns is too low, it would amply 
suffice to secure convertibility into gold bullion. It is then pointed 
out how the State paper currency system affords the opportunity for 
acquiring and holding gold in the place of its silver reserve, thus 
practically securing the convertibility of the rupee without setting 
aside any other gold bullion for its redemption and without any 
charge on the treasury. 

Ceylon and Mauritius are next dealt with, and it is suggested that 
the same principle should be appUed to those Colonies, the necessary 
amount of gold bullion being held as part of the paper currency 
reserve, special token rupees, the weight and fineness of which 
should be identical with the Indian rupee, being coined for each, 
the coinage profit being given to the respective Colonies. 

The Straits Settlements currency proposals are then alluded to, 
and the wisdom of the Committee of the Chamber of Commerce in 
not suggesting the forcing up of the value of the gold dollar is 
recognised. It is suggested that here too the dollars might best be 
placed on a gold basis by their being exchangeable into bullion 
instead of into sovereigns. 

Eeference is then made to the West India currency system, 
which, though theoretically unsound, has not proved practically in- 
convenient, and it is suggested that arrangements might be made 
with the Colonial Bank, under which the Imperial Government 
should undertake the whole expense of keeping up the supply of 
silver and copper coins on condition of the Bank undertaking to 
issue its notes in exchange for gold bullion under certain conditions, 
and to redeem in the same metal any of its notes presented for the 
purpose in parcels of, say, £1,000 or ;J[5,000. 

Summarising, the author points out that all the monetary 
irystems of the Empire might be arranged on a gold basis under one 

Digitized by 


96 A Gold Standard for the Empire. 

or other of five systems, and that the demand on the gold stock of 
the world caused by the extension of the gold standard to the whole 
Empire would at most be £20,000,000, an amount less than the 
annual increase in the gold production of the world which has taken 
place since 1891. 

In conclusion, he points out that a prevention of a further fall in 
the value of currency units in countries not now gold-using would 
really facilitate the adoption of bimetallism if the bimetallic cause 
hereafter triumphed, and that the closure of the mints of India has 
had a comparatively very small effect on the quantity of silver she 
has absorbed. He asks for a criticism of his proposals on their 
merits, even though this solution of the great monetary question 
is not the one which all his hearers would themselves desire. 


The Ghaibman said the question was of the utmost importance 
to India, because if the Government should make any false step 
with regard to currency matters, the existing difficulties would be 
aggravated. He was sorry to find that the question of bimetallism 
and monometallism was one which gave rise to a great 
deal of acrimony, but happily nothing of that feeling was ever 
experienced at the Royal Colonial Institute. 

Mr. Moreton Fbewen described the direction of Mr. Probyn's 
scheme as wrong and even reactionary. Eef erring to India, he said 
that country had just been in the throes of pestilence and famine. 
Under such circumstances one would expect that the business of 
the country would have suffered, and that the demand for money 
would be small. Instead of that, however, the bank rate went up 
to 12 and 14 per cent., and at times money could not even be 
borrowed at that percentage on Government securities. This he 
behoved was the consequence of tampering with the currency. He 
contended that the recent famine was no food famine, but a currency 
famine. In his opinion a large proportion of the victims of last 
year were really the victims of the Indian Government. 
Mr. P. Barby having spoken, 

The Hon. Herbert C. Gibbs asked Mr. Probyn why he sup- 
posed that £16,000,000 of gold would be sufficient to maintain an 
effective gold standard in India. France had a large amount of 
overvalued silver in circulation, and yet found it necessary to keep 
£86,000,000 of gold in the Bank of France. 

Mr. H. Schmidt contended that if the experiment of a gold 

Digitized by 


A Gold Standard for the Empire. 97 

standard in India were tried there would be such a large amount 
of misery that it would not last long. 

Sir Henby S. Cunningham, K.C.I.E., speaking from a long experi- 
ence of Indian affairs, said he had not been convinced by Mr. 
Probyn's observations that the great scheme which that gentleman 
thought would be feasible could be introduced without the risk of 
very serious results indeed. He wished, however, to refer to one 
statement made by Mr. Moreton Frewen, which was to the effect 
that the closing of the Indian mints had aggravated to such a fearful 
degree the sufferings caused by the recent famine as to constitute 
it almost a crime on the part of the Government. He had no wish 
to be at all discourteous, but he was obliged to say that, in his 
opinion, such a statement was diametrically opposed to the truth. 
Unless Indian officials were living in a fool's paradise, the recent 
famine, which had been the most intense the century had produced, 
was the result of the most widespread failure of crops ever known 
in that peninsula. The mortality, however, had been nothing like 
that which took place in Mysore. He admitted that the present 
monetary experiment was a very serious one, but the Indian Govern- 
ment were far from bankruptcy — indeed, he believed that the close 
of the next financial year would find them with a considerable sur- 

Mr. H. McNeil, of the Bimetallic League, having spoken, the 
Chairman summed up the discussion. Mr. Probyn replied, and the 
usual votes of thanks terminated the proceedings. 

Digitized by 


98 Light Bailways for the Colonies. 

An afternoon meeting was held in the Library of the Institute 
on Tuesday, February 1, 1898, Lieut*-General Sir J. Bevan Edwards, 
K.C.M.G., C.B., M.P., in the Chair, when Mr. Everard R. Gal- 
throp, C.E., read a paper on 


The object of this paper is to describe the type of railway which in 
my opinion is best adapted for opening up territory to trade in the 
shortest time and at the least possible cost, but which shall at the 
same time possess a large carrying capacity. It is most important 
in the interests of any undeveloped Colony that the cost per mile of 
railway communication should be reduced to the lowest figure 
compatible with efficiency and sufficient carrying capacity. I want 
to show you why a pioneer railway should be cheap, and some of 
the results that follow cheapness. 

Let us take the theoretical case of the construction of a railway 
in a new country where all the traffic is brought down to a port 
and is an even quantity per mile, and therefore proportional to the 
length built of the railway. Take a fixed sum of capital, say 
£600,000; what lengths of railway can be built for this? At 
£8,000 per mile you will get 200 miles ; at £6,000, 100 miles ; at 
£9,000, only 66*6 miles. As you increase your length you increase 
your traffic area. Take it that each mile produces the rather high 
figure of 600 tons per annum. The line costing £9,000 per mile 
brings to the port a traffic of 89,960 tons per annum ; that costing 
£6,000 per mile obtains 60,000 tons ; and the line costing £8,000 
per mile obtains 120,000 tons per annum. The ton-mileage carried 
under these theoretical conditions illustrates still more clearly the 
value of increasing the length of a railway and of adding to its 
traffic catchment area. The ton-miles — that is, the number of tons 
carried one mile — are respectively, for each length of railway, 
1,850,000, 8,080,000, and 12,060,000 ton-miles. 

It is necessary to remember that the traffic to be carried in any 
district through which a railway is about to be constructed is the 
same per mile of line, whether you put down an expensive broad 
gauge line or a cheap narrow gauge. You must clearly understand, 
therefore, that if you select an expensive type of railway to open up 
undeveloped country you must be prepared to accept, permanently, 
rail charges very considerably higher, and as a consequence the 
slower development of the country and its resources. 

* A copy of the Paper itself is preserved in the Library, and is always 
available for reference. 

Digitized by 


Light Baikoays for the Colonies. 99 

Let us assume that Her Majesty's principal Secretary of State for 
the Colonies is prepared, with the object of raising capital on the 
cheapest terms, to offer an Imperial guarantee of say 8 per cent, on a 
fixed capital sum of ^£600,000. If the railway is to be self-supporting, 
it is obvious that while the £9,000 per mile line has to pay working 
expenses, be maintained, and pay the guaranteed interest amounting 
to £19,500 yearly out of a traffic of 89,960 tons brought to the 
port, the £8,000 per mile line trebles the security on account of 
its 120,000 tons of traffic. It is not the capital expended on a 
railway which constitutes security, but the amount of its traffic in 
relation to capital cost. The quota contributed per ton to the 
guaranteed interest of £19,500 in the case of the £9,000 per mile 
line is 95. dd,, equal to 8*47^. per ton-mile ; in the second case to 
65. 6d,, equal to 1*54^. per ton-mile ; and in the case of the £8,000 
line to only 85. 8cZ., equal to '89^. per ton-mile. 

Finally, the longer the length of line you get for your money, the 
poorer the character of country you can enter upon and still obtain 
profitable results. If it be possible to halve the estimated cost per 
mile of any projected line, you will get either twice the traffic area 
for the same money, or, if the line be restricted to the same length, 
the profits which it may earn will be, per cent, of capital cost, twice 
that of a line of double the cost, and consequently the prospects of 
a financial success are made much more certain. What is wanted 
for Colonial development is cheap railway communication and 
plenty of it ; and if with a proper traffic capacity you can get two 
lines for the cost of one making a good return on their capital, I 
think you will agree that railway construction and extension will 
be much more rapid in the future than it has been in the past. 

The substantiality of permanent way does not consist in the 
adoption of any particular number of lbs. per yard of rail, but 
solely on the weight per yard of rail having a proper relation to the 
maximum weight per axle of the rolling stock to be placed upon it. 
A rail of 25 lbs. per yard may be as permanent and * substantial ' 
as one of 75 lbs., provided that the maximum axle-load bears a 
proper relation to it. 

The decision to be arrived at is, what weight of axle-load is the 
most desirable, having regard, first, to the character and amount 
of the traffic to be carried, and, secondly, having regard to the cost 
per mile of permanent way which the general circumstances of the 
country, and the capital available together indicate as a necessary 

For the Barsi light railway in India, I have adopted a maximum 

Digitized by VofOOQlC 

100 Light Bailtvaysfor the Colonies. 

uniform axle-load of 5 tons on locomotives, wagons, and carriages 
alike, and the line has been laid with d5-lb. rails to ensure a long 
life under an extremely heavy traffic. Both as regards the bulk 
and weight-carrying capacity of its vehicles, a maximum axle-load 
of 5 tons will meet all the requirements of a light railway for the 

On the selection of gauge even more depends than on that of 
axle-load. The narrower the gauge the smaller the radius of curve 
around which a train can run without undue resistance and friction. 
The small radius of the curves of the narrowest gauges confers upon 
them immense advantages in locating their alignment in rough 
country. Flexibility of alignment permits a railway of narrow 
gauge to wind in and out so as to avoid deep cuttings, tunnels, 
heavy embankments, bridging, and the severance of valuable 
property. In flat, level country, the difference in favour of a narrow 
gauge is at its minimum, but the more difficult the country the 
greater becomes the difference in cost per mile. 

It is possible to build broader gauges with curves of very small 
radius, and that trains will run safely round them, but if this is 
done train loads must be greatly reduced. 

The principle which underlies the question of gauge, and 
should determine its selection, is, that a railway, like any other 
machine, is economical only when working within a reasonable 
measure of its full power. If you adopt a gauge which at the 
outset is much above the traffic and means of the country to be 
opened up, you invite financial disaster, and your railways, instead 
of being a source of profit, may become a burden upon the revenues 
of the Colony. 

The ultimate traffic capacity of a narrow gauge railway, start- 
ing with light rails and a small axle-load, can be largely augmented 
to meet a great increase in traffic by increasing the number of 
crossing stations, and, when renewal of rails becomes necessary, by 
laying a much heavier section to double the axle-load, thereby 
greatly increasing the power of engines. The capacity can be again 
more than doubled by doubling the line. It is axle-load and not 
gauge which is the greatest factor in determining ultimate traffic 

The Barsi steel sleepers weigh 40 lbs. each. In laying these 
sleepers they are spaced at distances so arranged that there is 
equal resilience, both as regards rail joints and throughout the in- 
termediate length of rail. The unusual smoothness of the Barsi 
track, laid on this principle, has been generally remarked by those 

Digitized by 


Light Saihoays for the CoUmes. 101 

who have travelled over the line, and will no doubt have a per- 
ceptible effect in prolonging the life of the rails, and also in reduc* 
ing wear and tear on the springs of rolling stock. 

In opening up new country, timber, however, can often be had 
for the cutting, and wherever good hardwood sleepers are available 
and can be prepared in a reasonable time, they should be employed, 
as they are much cheaper in first cost than steel. 

The principal novelty in the Barsi rolling stock has been the 
adoption of a uniform working axle-load throughout for engines, 
wagons, and carriages, the working axle-load being also the 
maximum adopted, namely, 5 tons per axle. Maximum carrying 
capacity on the minimum weight of rail can be secured only by 
uniformity of axle-load. 

The Barsi engines are capable of hauling a train load of 1,086 
tons at 15 miles an hour on a level, straight line, and 291 tons at 
8 miles an hour on a gradient of 1 in 100 combined with a 600 ft. 
curve. In mountainous districts the engines can haul a train load of 
147 tons on a gradient of 1 in 50 combined with a 250 ft. curve, 
and 69 tons on a gradient of 1 in 25 on the same curve, both at 8 
miles an hour. 

The Barsi wagon stock has been designed to obtain the greatest 
bulk and weight carrying capacity on the lightest possible tare 
weight compatible with a proper reserve of strength. The wagons 
are of three types, low-side, high-side, and covered. They are all of 
one standard length, namely, 25 feet overheadstocks, and are 7 feet 
wide. The low-side wagon, weighing 4 tons 2 cwt., carries a 
maximum load of 15 tons 18 cwt., or nearly four times its own weight. 
The high-side wagon has a capacity of 500 cubic feet, weighs 5 
tons 7 cwt., and carries 14 tons 13 cwt. The covered wagon has a 
capacity of 1,000 cubic feet, weighs 5 tons 18 cwt., and carries 14 
tons 2 cwt. Besides goods, this is capable of carrying 6 cavalry 
horses, their attendants, and a week's supply of compressed forage. 

Light tare weight effects a permanent economy in working 
expenses by making it possible to carry a greater quantity of 
goods in each train at the same cost as regards coal, oil, and 
wages. As the deadweight of the train is thereby reduced in 
proportion to the weight of goods carried, there is of course less 
wear and tear on the permanent way. These gains, please note, 
constitute an actual saving of revenue day by day and year by 
year in respect of every train that is run. In regard to capital cost 
the results are of no less importance, as lighter engines and per- 
manent way can be used. 

Digitized by 


102 Light B(Ulways for tits Colonies. 

The Barsi carriage stock is also of one standard lengtii, 
namely, 40 feet over headstocks. Both carriages and wagons are 
fitted with bogies as shown, and are capable of running round a 
curve of only 100 feet radius. Two classes only are in use, upper 
and lower class. 

Mr. Galthrop showed a series of photographs with the object of 
giving a practical idea of what had been accomplished at Barsi in 
building a railway at a cost of about £8,000 per mile, including 
rolling stock. The work shown was all of a substantial and 
permanent character, the buildings being numerous, spacious, and 
built of solid stone. 

The Barsi Light Railway was only opened for trafiSic in March last ; 
but during its first half-year's working, the working expenses in India 
were just below 60 per cent, of the gross receipts, and the net profits 
earned were in excess of 4 per cent, on the capital of the Company, 
notwithstanding an almost unexampled combination of troubles, 
including plague, cholera, and fiEumne, and their ruinous effects upon 


Lieut. Leggbtt, E.E. (Traffic Manager of Woolwich Arsenal), 
wrote in support of Mr. Calthrop's views as to the importance of 
economy in the prime cost of light railways, and said it was diffi- 
cult to think that the special conditions in each case made a gauge 
of 8 feet 6 inches necessary for the Soudan and Bhodesian lines, 
8 feet for the Uganda line and 2 feet 6 inches for the Sierra 
Leone line. Li the event of two of these lines, say the Soudan and 
Uganda railways, being at some future time joined, the difference in 
gauge and plant would create very serious difficulties. The incon- 
venience resulting from the diversity of gauges in the Australian 
Colonies was also referred to. It was worth while considering 
whether a standard colonial type and gauge should not be adopted 
for pioneer lines. Such a type should be suitable to the needs of mili- 
tary expeditions in respect of lightness and rapidity of construction. 

Sir Walter J. Sendall, K.CM.G. (Governor of British Guiana), 
said he came to learn some useful fisbcts respecting light railways, with a 
viewto formulating a scheme for theirintroduction into Cyprus, where 
the question had been for some time under consideration, and where 
the feeling was in flavour of as narrow a gauge as was consistent with 
a proper carrying capacity. Many of the points raised in the paper 
were quite novel to him, especially the adaptation of such rolling 
stock as had been seen on the screen to a narrow gauge line. 

Digitized by 


Light Bailways for the Colonies* 103 

Sir Also Wilson said that in hig capacity as chairman he had 
opened the Barsi railway on March 20 last, and seen for himself its 
capabilities. No type of railway was more suitable for opening up 
undeveloped country, and connecting branch lines with the great 
trunk lines. 

Mr. R. W. Perks, M.P., expressed the opinion that the soundest 
method of constructing light railways was usually by means of 
private enterprise and not under Government control. He feared 
that the cost of the Uganda railway would very largely exceed the 
Government estimate, and he was persuaded that if the undertaking 
had been entrusted to experienced, able, and responsible contractors 
it would not only have cost very much less money, but would have 
been completed in very much less time. 

Sir Frederick Young, K.C.M.G., said that in all scientific work 
men qualified to invent something superior to what had been done 
before were needed. It was of the utmost importance that we should 
know the very best methods of constructing railways throughout the 
length and breadth of our Colonies. He quoted South Africa in 
illustration of the benefits that new countries derive from such 
necessary adjuncts of civilisation. 

The Chairman said they were indebted to Mr. Calthrop for his 
paper, which would be of service both to the civilised and uncivilised 
world. He had shown it to an expert, who had pronounced the 
arguments employed to be perfectly sound throughout. The two 
cardinal points of the paper were the necessity of a uniform axle- 
load and light tare loads. On the Irish railways the heavy 
locomotives in going over light rails sometimes tore them to pieces. 
With regard to the light railway proposed to be built from Suakin 
to Berber in 1885 which would have answered all practical purposes 
if made of the 2 ft. 6 in. gauge, the War Office decided to make a 
4 ft. 6 in. gauge line, which is unnecessarily heavy and expensive 
for such a line. 

The proceedings closed with the usual votes of thanks. 

Digitized by 




The Fourth Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at 
the Whitehall Rooms, H6tel M6tropole, on Tuesday, February 8, 
1898, when Mr. Henry Birchenough, M.A., read a paper on " Some 
aspects of our Imperial Trade." 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Jersey, G.C.M.G., a Vice-president 
of the Institute, presided. 

The Minutes of the last Ordinary General Meeting were read and 
confirmed, and it was announced that since that Meeting 18 Fellows 
had been elected, viz., 5 Resident, 18 Non-Resident. 

Resident Fellows : — 

Major-Qeneral Edward T, Brooke, late R,E,, Samuel D, Hopkinson, Pitt 
Kennedy y Thomas J. Bussell, Percy H, Savage, 

Non-Resident Fellows : — 

Hon, Frederick W, Borden j M.D., M.P. (Minister for Defence^ Canada), John 
ffarvey (Newfoundland), J, Carling Kelly (New Brunswick), Joseph Liddle 
(Transvaal), Walter J, Napier, M,A,, B.CL., Barrister-at-Law (Straits Settle* 
ments), William S, Paul (Queensland), William E, Pearson (France), Cullis 
Belly (Transvaal), Arthur E, M. Rolland (Natal), Alastair C. Sandeman 
(Queensland), Bruce Smith, Barrister-at-Law (New South Wales), A, Kinross 
Street (Mataheleland), John B, D, Young (Transvaal), 

It was also announced that donations to the Library of books, 
maps, &c., had been received from the various Governments of the 
Colonies and India, Societies, and public bodies both in the United 
Kingdom and the Colonies, and from Fellows of the Institute and 

The Chaibman called upon Mr. Henry Birchenough, M.A., to read 
his Paper on 


I FEEL it to be a great honour to be allowed to address such an 
audience as this, consisting, as it in great part does, of gentlemen 
who have special knowledge and experience of all questions which 
relate to the Empire. Although my own connection with the 
Royal Colonial Institute is somewhat recent, I am well aware 
of the deep interest which the Fellows take in Imperial trade, and 
how much this Institute has done to foster and develop trade rela- 
tions between different parts of the Empire. Such a paper as I 

Digitized by 


Some Aspects of Our tmpefiat Trade. 106 

am about to have the honour of reading to you, and such a discus- 
sion as will, I trust, follow, are common incidents of your sessions. 
It is because I am convinced of the interest you take in, and of 
the indulgence with which you receive, every contribution to the 
discussion of Imperial questions, that I have courage to address you 

I have purposely made the title of my paper somewhat vague, 
in order to afford as large a field as possible over which any sub- 
sequent discussion may, with propriety, range. For myself I shall 
be satisfied if I succeed in laying clearly before you certain aspects 
of the trade relations of the Empire, which appear to me to be of 
special interest and importance at the present time. I shall ven- 
ture to approach these questions to-night from the point of view of 
an Englishman living in the Mother Country — not indeed, from any 
want of sympathy with or appreciation of the Colonial point of view, 
but because I am convinced that it is in the Mother Country, even 
more than in the Colonies, that public opinion needs stimulating 
and enlightening. 

It is impossible not to be struck by the great and increasing 
interest which is shown by the public in trade questions. Within 
these walls, where we are all more or less specialists, such interest 
is natural, and excites no surprise, but it is surely a striking sign of 
the times when no important magazine or review, even of those 
most intimately associated with hterature and speculative politics, 
is content to appear without at least one article devoted to the past, 
present, or future of British Trade. But, indeed, the subject is in 
the air. The pressure of foreign competition and the Colonial 
activity of foreign Powers combine to stimulate public curiosity, 
and, it must be admitted, to excite public alarm. To-day foreign 
competition is the most interesting and certainly the most generally 
discussed factor in every branch of our foreign trade. From holding 
a practical monopoly of many markets, Great Britain has gradually 
passed into the position of holding merely a predominant place in 
them, and it is becoming a pressing and absorbing question whether 
she can hope to retain much longer her great predominance as a 
manufacturing people. 

Interesting and in some respects alarming as is the growth of 
competition in foreign markets, it possesses exceptional interest in 
the markets of our great Colonies and Possessions. 

Our export trade to our Colonies and Possessions is, of course, 
an immense and most valuable trade. It represents on the average 
one-third of our total annual exports of the produce and manufac- 

Digitized by 


106 Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 

tures of the United Kingdom. From 1856 to 1891 it grew steadily 
in volume and value in spite of occasional fluctuations. Even its 
fluctuations have been less violent than those of our export trade 
to foreign countries, so that it has served to consoUdate and to 
steady the business of the Mother Country just when it most 
needed such assistance. For instance, during the seven years 
which followed the conclusion of the war between France and Ger- 
many — years so disastrous to our export trade — while the volume 
of our exports to foreign countries declined by " leaps and bounds," 
our exports to our Colonies and Possessions, taking one year with 
another, remained practically stationary. It is obvious that this 
comparatively steady growth of business year after year with mar- 
kets within the Empire must have added enormously to the pro- 
sperity of the manufacturing population of Great Britain during the 
last half -century. Nor must it be forgotten that some of them have 
in the past been markets singularly easy to serve, since — as, for in- 
stance, in the case of the Australias — they have represented tastes 
and demands similar to, if not precisely the same as, those of the 
home market. They have frequently taken surplus stocks, which 
might otherwise have glutted the home markets, and have, indeed, 
benefited trade in a thousand ways which it would be wearisome to 
indicate here. 

Until comparatively lately a variety of circumstances combined 
to preserve to Great Britain the practical monopoly of the Colonial 
markets. Even when they bought goods of foreign origin, they bought 
them in London, so that the trade passed through British hands. 

During the last few years, however, as we all know, a change 
has come about. Foreign competition, already only too active in 
neutral markets, has made a resolute attack upon the markets of 
the Empire. The success of that attack has been such as to 
excite great public attention, and perhaps I may be allowed to say 
almost exaggerated alarm, among many public men and writers 
interested in trade questions. An impression has been created 
that foreign goods are largely displacing British goods in Colonial 
markets, and that the outlook for the future is becoming decidedly 

As you are all aware, in order to obtain authoritative informa- 
tion upon this most important question, Mr. Chamberlain wrote a 
despatch in November 1895 to the Governor of each of the 
Colonies, requesting them to make careful inquiries as to *' the 
extent to which in each Colony foreign imports of any kind have 
displaced or are displacing similar British goods," and further to 

Digitized by 


Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 107 

** investigate the causes of such displacement." I feel sure we 
shall all agree that this was a very proper inquiry, and a very 
valuable inquiry, for the Colonial Minister to institute, and among 
the many claims upon the gratitude of the whole commercial 
community both at home and in the Colonies, this act of Mr. 
Chamberlain's will always hold a high place. 

In course of time replies were received from all the Colonies, 
giving in a more or less complete form the information asked for ; 
and these replies, collected into blue-book form and prefaced by an 
introductory memorandum, were published to the world in the 
autumn of last year under the title of " Trade of the British Empire 
and Foreign Competition.** The blue-book itself is of rather alarm- 
ing size. It contains exactly 600 pages, but as might be expected, 
it is full of most interesting and often curious information as to the 
progress and vicissitudes of foreign competition in our Colonial 
markets. Few official documents of recent time seem to me to 
deserve to attract so much attention as this particular blue-book. 
So far as I am aware, its contents have not been considered and 
discussed on an occasion of this kind by the Fellows of the Eoyal 
Colonial Institute, and I propose therefore, with your permission, to 
devote a portion of my paper to that subject to-night. 

. I wiU not trouble you with the exact principles upon which the 
inquiry was directed to be conducted by Mr. Chamberlain. I will 
only say that the basis of inquiry was sufficiently wide to be fairly 
representative, and to bring out with approximate accuracy the facts 
of tl^e case. The period to which the inquiry applied covered the 
years lying between 1884 and 1894. I think a longer period would 
have yielded more satisfactory results, for reasons which I will refer 
to later on, but no doubt the decade in question was chosen because it 
is only since about 1884 that foreign competition has really become 
a serious factor in Colonial markets. 

I may say at once that the general result of the inquiry goes to 
prove that foreign imports have encroached upon and to some 
extent displaced British imports in the markets of the great 
majority of our Colonies. This will be made more precise when I 
say that of goods in which foreigners compete with us, whereas 
their share in 1884 was about one-fourth of the whole imports of 
such goods into our Colonies, in 1894 it had become nearly one- 
third. (The exact figures are 1884 25-71 per cent., 1894 31-88 per 
cent.) This increase from one-fourth to nearly one-third represents 
an increase of 20 per cent, in foreign imports during the decade. 
Daring the same ten years the value of the total imports of the 

Digitized by 


108 Some Aspects of Owr Imperial Trade. 

Colonies only increased by 1 per cent., so that it is obvious that foreign 
trade increased at the expense of Imperial trade. 

The countries which are most frequently mentioned in the 
Betums as seriously competing with British goods are the United 
States, Germany, and in some articles Belgium and Japan. The 
competition of the United States is of course most serious in those 
of our Colonies which lie nearest to their shores. There they 
possess a geographical advantage which nothing can deprive them 
of, and they make full use of it. But in other Colonies which are 
as far distant from America or which are even further distant than 
they are from Great Britain, these Eetums show that the United 
States are competing with us only too successfully in such articles 
as tools, machinery, agricultural implements, plated ware, and even 
in some textiles. 

The competition of Belgium is only serious in certain articles 
and in certain Colonies. That of Japan is at present most apparent 
and most striking in our Eastern possessions. I say at present, 
because it is obvious that the next century will see Japan a very 
serious rival to all Western nations in all the markets of the East. 

But the name which appears most frequently in the reply of 
almost every Colonial Governor is Germany. She is our most 
active and ubiquitous rival in every quarter of the globe, neglecting 
no method, contrivance, or expedient whereby she may force her 
way into the market of every one of our Colonies. I shall have 
something to say about German competition later. For the 
moment I am only concerned to point out who our chief rivals are. 
Next to the knowledge of who our rivals are, the most im- 
portant thing is to know what are the methods by which they 
succeed to some extent in ousting us ; or looking at the same thing 
from another side, what are the causes of our failure to hold our 
own against them. Upon these points the Colonial replies are full 
of information and instruction. Indeed, it is impossible to speak too 
highly of the care and pains with which each document has 
been drawn up by the Colonial authorities. Many of them are 
models of what such reports should be — notably those from 
Victoria and South Australia — and they all show the most 
conscientious desire to state facts fully, fairly, and without 
prejudice. I need hardly say this adds very greatly to their value. 

Before proceeding to state the causes which are assigned for the 
displacement of British goods, I must make one preliminary 
observation. Almost all the Colonies agree that a considerable 
portion of the increase in foreign imports during recent years is 

Digitized by 


Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 109 

more apparent than real, and is due to the effects of the Merchan- 
dise Marks Act. Under that Act, or corresponding laws in the 
Colonies, all goods entering the Colony must be marked with the 
country of their origin, so that goods which were formerly 
imported from England and were thought to be British, are now 
known to be of foreign manufacture, and are credited to foreign 
countries in Colonial trade returns. 

The Merchandise Marks Act was passed with the idea that it 
would prevent the sale of inferior foreign goods as British. In 
some cases it may have succeeded in its object. In far more cases 
it has had no adverse effect whatever upon the sale of foreign goods, 
but by revealing their place of manufacture to Colonial buyers it 
has indirectly had the effect of depriving British middlemen of a 
portion of their trade, and it has given foreign manufacturers a 
direct introduction to Colonial markets, which has proved of 
immense value to them, and of which they have taken full 

I now proceed to the causes of the displacement of British 

1. Geogbaphical Position. 

The geographical proximity of certain countries to parts of the 
Empire gives them a great natural advantage, and enables them in 
some instances to serve a Colony better than the Mother Country, 
which lies at a much greater distance. It is for this reason that 
America has been able to make inroads upon British trade with the 
West Indies, and that Japan has been able to compete so successfully 
with us in some of our Eastern Colonies. 

2. Gbeateb Cheapness op Fobeign Goods. 

All the reports agree that the chief cause of the influx of foreign 
goods throughout the Empire is their greater cheapness. It is 
generally admitted that, with certain notable but not numerous 
exceptions, British goods are superior in quality and in durability 
to the foreign goods that compete with them ; but foreign manu- 
facturers have the knack of making cheap, showy articles .which 
suit the popular taste for effect and for frequent change, which is 
characteristic not only of the Colonies, but of all modem com- 
munities. It is pointed out with justice that settlers in new 
countries are not likely to be people of large means, and they are 
naturally tempted to supply their wants with inferior articles, if 
there is a considerable difference of price. 

Digitized by 


110 Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 

Foreign manufacturers have been more alert than British manu- 
facturers in recognising this fact, and have laid themselves out to 
supply cheap goods. They often get English patterns and supply 
them at a lower price. The Germans have been particularly 
successful in this policy. The Beport from Victoria says : " The 
Germans are constantly bringing forward close imitations of the 
saleable goods in the market a little lower in quality and in price 
than the articles copied." 

Of course it is not asserted that cheaper articles are always and 
necessarily inferior articles. Speaking generally, the contention 
is that foreign manufacturers have been quicker to recognise the 
need for low-priced goods in comparatively poor markets, and have 
supplied such goods, while British manufacturers have been too 
conservative in maintaining high standards of quality with conse- 
quent high prices, and have for that reason lost a good deal of 
trade which they might otherwise have retained. I may take this 
opportunity of reminding my hearers that one of the most valuable 
suggestions in Mr. Chamberlain's despatch was contained in his 
request to the Colonial authorities to do their best to send home 
samples of the various foreign goods which appeared to be success- 
fully competing with British goods. In a very large number of 
cases this request was complied with, and a great variety of samples 
were forwarded to London and were subsequently exhibited in the 
rooms of the London Chamber of Commerce. British manufac- 
turers have therefore been able to see the kinds of goods which are 
running their own so hard in Colonial markets. The blue-book I 
am discussing is, as I have stated, a most instructive work, but its 
best friends would not call it amusing. There is, however, a most 
entertaining page or two in which British manufacturers express 
their pained horror of many of the cheap and nasty objects 

8. Want op Adaptability op Bbitish Manupactubbbs 
AND Tbadebs. 

In addition to the question of price there is a general complaint 
that the home manufacturers do not study the peculiar tastes and 
wants of Colonial markets as carefully as some foreigners do- 
particularly the Germans and Americans. The English manu&c- 
turer is said to be very conservative. He is accustomed to a large 
business with large quantities, which do not involve minute 
attention to details. He relies upon a great reputation, and too 

Digitized by 


Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. Ill 

often assumes the attitude of ''you may take it or leave it." The 
Germans, on the other hand, study carefully the tastes of their 
customers ; they will make any alterations to suit the demand of a 
market, they will accept small orders, and in a word they offer 
facilities for business where British manufoicturers would perhaps 
make difficulties. 

Many of the Reports mention specific cases where British manu- 
facturers were warned over and over again, that unless they made 
certain changes they would lose the trade. They did not attend to 
the warning, and they lost the trade. For instance, it is pointed out 
how a market may be lost through inattention to such a small detail 
as packing. British manufacturers insist upon making up screws, 
tacks, files and small tools in brown paper parcels. American 
makers of the same goods put them into neat card-board boxes. 
Through this simple device the Americans are gradually securing 
the trade in these articles, because the salesman finds that the goods 
can be kept in stock so much more easily and tidily in the American 

In the same manner the trade in hammers and other small tools 
in the Colony of Victoria has passed into American hands, because 
the American manufacturer gives his customers a shape they like, 
whereas the EngUshman insists upon sending out the shape which 
finds favour in England. 


Just as the foreign manufacturer is said to pay more attention to 
the wants and tastes of his customers, so the foreign merchant or 
trader is said to study more closely than his EngUsh rival the best 
means of exploiting his markets. The Germans send out more 
travellers — send their travellers further up country — advertise their 
wares more freely and fully. Their catalogues are far better drawn 
up and better illustrated. They give more details, and in many 
cases quote prices laid-down free of all charges in the Colony, in 
the currency, weights and measures prevailing in the Colony. Then 
they are said to give their customers longer credit, and to accept 
smaller orders — and, to put it shortly, they resort to all the active 
devices which are necessary in order to capture a market. The 
British often trust to Colonial houses having a representative in 
London, and so do not employ travellerSc They rely upon their re- 
putations instead of advertising. They give short credit, and refuse 
doubtful accounts, and, generally, they act after the manner of people 
who are in possession of a market. 

Digitized by 


112 Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 

5. Lower Fbeights of Fobbign Shipping Companies. 

In the important question of freights foreigners have many ad- 
vantages, owing to the heavy subsidies which foreign Governments, 
and particularly the German Government, give to their lines of 
steamers. For instance the Nord Deutscher Imperial German line 
from Bremen to Melbourne receives a subsidy of £200,000 a year. 
Without a heavy subsidy such a line could not be run at a profit, but 
thanks to the subsidy its vessels are enabled to carry goods at low 
freights. It is only fair to say it is open to British firms in some 
oases to participate in these low freights by shipping their goods by 
foreign steamers. 

I will quote the following interesting comparison of freights for 
drapery goods from the Report of the Colony of Victoria. 

(1) From London to Melbourne by the P. and 0. Steam Navigation 
Company (subsidised) 458. per ton for heavy goods, 658. per ton for light 

(2) From London to Melbourne by the " Orient '' Line (subsidised) 40s 
per ton for heavy goods, 608. per ton for light goods. 

(3) From London to Melbourne, vi& Marseilles, by the Messageries 
Maritimes (French subsidised company), 858. per ton for all goods. 

(4) From Bremen to Melbourne by the Nord Deutscher Lloyd Imperial 
Service (subsidised) 858. per ton for all goods. 

In all these cases English freights are higher than foreign 
freights. And in this connection it may also be noted that the 
German Imperial railways are authorised to make special low rates 
for all goods sent from inland towns for export over-sea. This is a 
policy English railways do not cordially adopt. The Returns prove 
that in many instances high freights act most injuriously upon 
English imports into the Colonies. In the case of very heavy goods 
of comparatively low value the freight may become a determining 
factor in the competition for the trade. It is positively asserted, for 
instance, that Germany has secured the trade in cement solely 
through the lowness of her freights. 

I will quote now from the " Memorandum " of the officials of the 
Colonial Office the general conclusions which, in their opinion, are to 
be drawn from the Returns. They are as follow : — 

(1) In the best classes of goods and in the capacity to put the best pos- 
sible article upon the market which requires it, the British manufacturer 
is still supreme. 

(2) There are certain exceptions to the above rule, chiefly in the case of 
machinery and tools of certain patterns, and in favour of the United 

Digitized by 


Some Aspects of Our Imperial TracU. 118 

States. Yet in these particular lines the Canadian mannfaoturer is offcen 
a snccessfdl competitor with those of the United States. 

(8) A great portion of the Colonial markets are not markets for the best 
cla4S8 of goods, and in proportion as cheap and well-finished imitations of 
such goods can be put upon the market, the trade will drift away to the 
producer of such articles. This is precisely where the foreign manufac- 
turer is coming in. 

(4) There is some danger that when the trade goes to foreign competi- 
tors in cheap goods, a certain portion of the better class of trade may also 
be diverted to them eventually. 

I have now sketched — I hope at not too wearisome length — the 
kind of evidence afforded by the Colonial Reports as to the extent 
of foreign competition in the markets of the Empire, and some of 
the chief and most striking causes of its success. 

The general impression left upon one's mind is, that Great 
Britain is face to face with two particularly formidable com^ 
petitors, the United States of America and Germany. 

The United States are strong in their geographical position, in 
the immensity of their almost boundless natural resources, in the 
industry and extraordinary ingenuity of their population recruited 
from the working classes of every country in the old world. They 
are bringing to bear upon foreign trade, and more especially upon 
the export trade, all the energy, the push, the versatility, and the 
accommodativeness which distinguish them as a people. We have 
in them rivals whose energies have up to now been absorbed in 
opening up their own enormous territory. In future we must 
look for a considerable portion of tliose energies overflowing 
into the competition of the world's trade. I think most thoughtful 
people regard the United States of America as our most serious 
industrial rival of the future. 

Germany is our most active competitor for the present. Her 
name appears most frequently in every Colonial return. We meet 
her everywhere. However keenly we feel the pressure of her rivalry, 
it is impossible to withhold from her our admiration for the 
thoroughness with which she has prepared herself for her industrial 
career, and the boldness and persistence with which she is assault- 
ing every market in the world. She neglects nothing to ensure 

At home she carefully educates and trains her working popula- 
tion. She provides for them an education which excites the 
admiration and almost the dismay of foreign observers. She pro- 
tects her manufacturers in their own market so that they may be 


Digitized by 


114 Some Adpects of Ov/r Im^periat Trade, 

able to submit to sacrifices in foreign markets. She subsidises lines 
of steamers to carry German exports cheaply, and authorises her 
State railways to make special rates for the over-sea trade. Her 
whole commercial poUcy is directed towards the encouragement 
and extension of foreign trade. 

Abroad, German traders lay themselves out to study the wants 
and fancies and even the weaknesses of their customers. They are, 
undoubtedly, more energetic, more pushing, more current than the 
majority of English traders. They attend more carefully to all the 
thousand minutisB which distinguish modem commerce. In attacking 
new markets they have of course to offer inducements in order to 
gain a footing; they have to run risks and to cultivate doubtful 
and difficult accounts. They have, in fact, to submit to all the 
sacrifices, and to resort to all the devices of those who have to push 
their way into a market. Their success has certainly attracted 
great attention in England. Books such as Mr. Williams's " Made 
in Germany " have been widely read, and have caused a considerable 
amount of uneasiness and alarm. Lately Mr. Gastrell, our com- 
mercial attach^ in Berlin, in his work entitled " Our Trade in the 
World in Relation to Foreign Competition,*' has lent the support of 
his official experience, and of a vast array of most carefully com- 
piled figures, to what I may perhaps be permitted to caU tiie 
pessimistic side of the question. He says, for instance, in his chapter 
upon the ** Trade of Great Britain with her Colonies from 1886 to 
1895 " : "Of the results of all my investigations into our foreign 
commerce, I record none with greater regret than these bearing 
upon our exports to English Colonies," and in another place he 
says, " In the above-mentioned statistics and analyses of our 
Colonial trade lie what I think may be considered to be one of the 
saddest pages of our commercial history in this century." 

Now, I have no desire whatever to minimise or to make light of 
the very serious character of the competition British manufacturers 
and traders have to face in Colonial markets. Our best chance of suc- 
cessfully meeting such competition lies in the full recognition of the 
strength of our opponents, and of all the weak points in our own 
armour. I believe that all the public attention which has of late been 
directed to foreign competition, and even all the genuine alarm which 
has been excited, are entirely salutary, and must have the effect of 
arousing us from the apathy into which we may have fallen, and 
exciting us to fresh vigour and enterprise. It is generally admitted 
that we have been caught napping. Well ! there is nothing which 
60 effectually awakens a man from slumber as a good fright. It 

Digitized by 


Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 116 

would, therefore, be most unwise on the part of any of us to 
depreciate the importance of all the evidence which is contained in 
the Colonial reports, and which crowds in from other — though, 
perhaps, less authoritative — sources. The more alarming the 
evidence is, the more likely it is to rouse us. The lesson British 
manufacturers and traders have to learn, and the lesson which I 
am convinced they are learning, is that the methods of monopoly 
are not the methods of competition. 

But, whilst fully admitting the force of these views, I feel that, 
in a Society such as the Eoyal Colonial Institute, it is our duty to 
get at the whole truth, and not to confine ourselves merely to 
what may be called the didactic aspects of the case. I should like, 
therefore, with your permission, to put now a few brighter touches 
into the picture, and to point out some circumstances which may, 
I think, induce us to take a less gloomy view of the future than 
is taken by many writers and by many public men. 

In the first place, the Eeports from the Colonies contain abundant 
evidence that where British .manufacturers have resolutely en- 
deavoured to meet the wants and tastes of their Colonial customers ; 
wherever, in fact, they have encountered the Germans and 
Americans with their own weapons, they have been able, not only 
successfully to meet competition, but — what is far more difficult — 
to regain branches of trade they had practically lost. It is by these 
means — to mention only one or two cases out of many — that they 
have regained the trade in plated goods in Victoria and South 
Africa, and in certain descriptions of apparel in the Straits 
Settlements. This, of course, is full of promise for the future. 

Our confidence in that future is further strengthened by the 
knowledge that our traders and manufacturers are carefully 
studying the methods of their most successful opponents. The 
spread of technical education in the United Kingdom, though it 
still faUs lamentably short of what it might and must be, is one of 
the most striking educational facts of our time. Then, too, all the 
methods for cheapening production, for cheapening transport, for 
economising useless expenditure, for improving distribution, are 
receiving close attention. Even the last year or two have seen a 
great change in the facilities which British traders offer to their 

It must not be forgotten that a considerable part of the success 
of the Germans, both in Colonial markets and in every other 
market in the world, is due to the long start they secured along one 
particular line. They were the first people to grasp fully the truth 


Digitized by 


lid Some Aspects of Out Imperial TracUi^ 

that the modern world, with its multitudinous wants and tastes, 
cares more for variety and frequent change than for durability. I 
do not know whether it was the metaphysical caste of the German 
mind which enabled them to be the first to realise a fact that 
belongs rather to psychology than to economics. At all events 
they have turned it to excellent practical use, for once convinced 
that it is appearance and finish, accompanied by a price which 
seems cheap, that attract buyers, they became the apostles of cheap 
make-believe, and laid themselves out to produce articles which 
please the eye and serve their purpose for a limited time. This 
undoubtedly has given them a great advantage, but the whole 
world has now learnt this particular secret, and there is no reason 
why British manufacturers should not, in the future, successfully 
produce cheap articles of inferior quality, and so regain in all 
markets of the world much of the ground they have lost. 

Another most interesting and hopeful fact which is brought to 
light by the Colonial Reports is this : that the Colonies themselves 
are beginning to enter into the competition for the world's trade* 
Instead of the Mother Country supplying the whole of the Empire 
with manufactured goods, one part of the Empire is beginning to 
supply another ; so that where in some cases there may be a loss of 
trade to Great Britain, there is no loss of trade to the Empire* 
One can go even further, and say that parts of the Empire are 
succeeding in driving foreign countries out of the field in some 
articles. Thus the Dominion of Canada is depriving the United 
States of certain portions of the trade of Newfoundland, and is 
successfully competing with them in South Africa for the supply of 
machinery and agricultural implements. Australia every year sends 
more food-stu£fs and agricultural produce to India and Ceylon, and 
at no distant date we may look forward to her supplying the Eastern 
possessions of the Empire with commodities which they now buy 
from the foreigner. The natural resources of the Colonies are 
beginning to contribute to the defence of the trade of the Empire 
exactly in the same manner as we all desire that their financial 
resources should contribute to its naval and military defence. 

These are a few general considerations. Turning now to the 
period to which Mr. Chamberlain's despatch applied, namely, the 
ten years between 1884 and 1894, 1 wish to point out that the 
latter part of the decade was peculiarly unfavourable to British 
trade for various special reasons. The years 1891 to 1894 were 
years of financial and commercial collapse in Australia, of great 
and increasing depression in the West Indies, and of violent 

Digitized by VjOOQIC »* 

Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 117 

puctuations of exchange in India. The total imports of each of 
these three groups of markets, as well as their imports from the 
Mother Country, fell oflf enormously. They were years of com- 
parative poverty and straitened means, in which people restricted 
their purchases, and in which, as many of the Colonial Eeturns 
point out, buyers would naturally tend to purchase in an unusually 
lajrge proportion the cheaper qualities, which are largely of foreign 
make. The demand for expensive articles is obviously relatively 
smaller in bad times than in good times, so that the evil days in 
Australia and in other Colonies between 1891 and 1894 were really 
peculiarly unfavourable to the sale of many classes of British goods, 
and peculiarly favourable to the sale of foreign goods. 

Then I must call attention to a most important fact, which I have 
not seen referred to in connection with this discussion, and which I 
shall therefore Uke to bring most prominently before you to-night, 
and that is that the years 1891 to 1894 were years in which the 
great Colonies contracted very few loans in London for purposes of 
public works. 

The relation of loans to our export trade is a most interesting 
question, and one which it would amply repay anyone to in- 
vestigate. Great Britain conducts two huge businesses in the 
world. She is a gigantic money-lender and a gigantic trader. 
Like many smaller money-lenders, she generally induces her 
customers to take their loans partly in cash and partly in goods. For 
instance, it is obvious that if a Colony borrows in England for public 
works, a large portion of the proceeds of the loan goes from England 
to the Colony in the form of, say railway material, rolling-stock, 
telegraph appliances, etc., so that the loan will of itself have 
stimulated the trades engaged in the production of such material. 
Whenever the foreign and Colonial loan business is brisk, I think 
it will be found that our exports begin to increase in volume. 
Lideed, I am prepared to hazard the guess that our years of large 
exports always follow or accompany years of large loans. 

During the years 1891 to 1894 Australia was too much embar- 
rassed financially to undertake public works. My point, therefore, 
is, that if during those years she and others of our Colonies had 
borrowed as largely as usual from the Mother Country for what 
are called reproductive purposes, we should have seen an immense 
increase in our exports, and the gains of foreigners in Colonial 
markets, which stand out so clearly in the Colonial returns, would 
have appeared, and would, indeed, have been relatively, far less 
Berious and important tha» they now geem to be. 

Digitized by 


118 Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 

I think there are signs of an approaching change. When the 
revival of confidence in Australia, in South Africa, and in other 
Colonies is complete, they will, no doubt, resume upon a large scale 
those measures for the continuous opening up and development of 
their territories, which have been temporarily interrupted, and we 
shall, I trust, see a return of the more prosperous days of our 
trade with those great and important members of the Imperial 

I have now endeavoured to place before you a few of the 
reasons which in my opinion justify us in taking a hopeful view 
of the future of the trade of Great Britain with the rest of the 

At this point I am prepared to admit that when everything has 
been done which can be done by the trading classes to repair the 
errors of the past, when we have copied and if possible improved 
upon the methods of our rivals, when we have developed educa- 
tion, extended our system of technical instruction, when we have 
more effectively equipped in every way both ourselves and our 
workmen, we shall still remain face to face with a rivalry and 
competition which will become more powerful and more dangerous 
every year. The circumstances of the world are so altered that the 
commercial classes will require, if they are to maintain our 
Imperial predominance in the trade of the world, all the assistance 
which can be given to them by public bodies such as this great 
Institute, and by the organised forces of the Government. 

There are gentlemen here to-night who know far better than I in 
how many ways the Royal Colonial Institute has helped and can help 
the cause of Imperial trade. If I might venture to point out one 
subject in which it appears to me we might influence public opinion, 
it is upon the important question of railway and shipping freights, 
which crops up so often in the Colonial Reports. The policy of 
railway companies and shipping companies is not a matter of 
private interest only, it is a matter of public concern. We have 
seen that in Germany traders are immensely assisted for all over- 
sea trade by the influence Government is able to bring to bear upon 
the shipping companies they subsidise and upon the administration 
of the State railways. I am aware that Sir Thomas Sutherland, in 
his annual address to the shareholders of the P. & 0. Company, 
addressed himself seriously to the task of rebutting the accusation 
that English companies do not deal fairly with British trade. My 
own knowledge of the subject is too limited to permit me to offer 
an opinion upon the success of his defence, but it appears to me, as 

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Some Aspects of Ov/r Imperial Trade. 119 

it probably will have appeared to most people, that the question of 
freights and rates figures far too prominently in the Colonial 
Reports for there not to be miderlying it a serious disability to 
Imperial trade. 

I pass now to the consideration of what is to be expected from 
the Government. Mr. Chamberlain in his admirable speech at 
Liverpool in January, said half-humorously that Her Majesty's 
Government, to whatever party it belongs, exists for the furtherance 
of trade. Such a remark, even when made only half in earnest, 
would have been quite impossible a dozen years ago. It is the 
extraordinary development in the trade policy, and in the efforts 
after Colonial expansion of foreign Powers, which has brought about 
so complete a change in the amount of time and attention which 
British Ministers are compelled to devote to questions of trade. 
The Colonial expansion of France and the Colonial ambitions of 
Germany are two of the most striMng phenomena of our time. 
The trade rivalry which the British Empire has to face in the 
markets of the world is no fiercer than the political rivalry she 
must look forward to facing in the future. One may say that in 
many cases the struggle before us is not only for the trade of 
certain markets, but for the possession of the markets themselves. 
I can best illustrate the attitude of the French Government by 
quoting a passage from the very striking speech delivered by the 
President of the Republic in October last, at the banquet given to 
him in Paris, upon his return from Russia, by the Committee of 
Trade and Industry. In the course of that speech he said : — 

The era now opening, which wiU last much beyond the present 
century, seems fated definitively to determine the destinies of the 
nations of old Europe and their respective places in the world. The 
resoiirces of countries still closed to European contact are being revealed 
to us by explorers and missions sent forth by Governments or by 
commercial and financial bodies. Every day sees projects in those 
regions of arsenals, ports, canals, railways — State, municipal, and 
individual enterprises. It is for you to obtain for our country as large a 
share as possible in the execution of these projects, which demand the 
co-operation of European industry. Do not lose an instant in undertaking 
the conquest of new markets, and establishing abroad numerous factories 
which will radiate prosperity for our country. Promote the emigration 
of capital, which, vivifying wherever it goes, will come back to the . 
Mother Country augmenting its wealth and doubling its powers of con- 
sumption for the prosperity of all. Hasten to those scarcely known and 
still nnexploited regions, or you wiU be outstripped by foreign competitors, 
and see your country excluded from the share to wl^ch its unquestioned 

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120 Some Aspsots of Our Imperial Trade. 

commeroial probity entitles it. It is rendering good service to the 
ooontry to make known in distant lands the civilisation and genius of our 
laborious race. 

The State is conscious of its obligations and duties, but it is Utopian 
to fancy that its action can supersede private initiative. The solicitude of 
the Republic extends to all its children, especially to those who go &ur 
afield. Wherever there is a Frenchman there is France. 

The same determination to secure a share in all markets, and to 
support and extend the interests of her traders in all parts of the 
world animates the German Government. The Emperor's recent 
speeches are too fresh in the memory of everyone to need quoting. 
There is, however, a short passage in a speech delivered by 
Herr von Biilow, the Imperial Foreign Secretary, which is worth 
reading here. He said : — 

We are of opinion that it is not advisable to exclude Germany at the 
outset, in countries vrith a future before them, from engaging in competi- 
tion vrith other nations. The days when the German abandoned to one of 
his neighbours the earth, to another the sea, and when he reserved for 
himself the heavens above — ^the throne of pure doctrinaire theory — ^those 
days are for ever past. 

I quote these passages to show that Colonial expansion and trade 
extension are the absorbing preoccupation of our neighbours and 
rivals. Mr. Chamberlain, in the speech to which I have already 
referred, called attention to the very striking fact that in the last 
twelve years the German Empire has, by annexation, increased 
six-fold, and the empire of France with her Colonial possessions 
has increased four-fold. We no longer possess the monopoly of 
Empire building any more than we possess the monopoly of 
foreign trade. Our political position in the world is exactly 
similar to our commercial position. The two situations are, to my 
mind, most closely parallel. In each case we have lost a monopoly, 
but retain a predominant position. In each case the retention of 
that predominant position is absolutely vital to the future of the 
British Empire. 

So far as the maintenance of our predominance in trade is 
concerned, we traders are told that we must shake off our apathy, 
that we must abandon old prejudices in favour of antiquated 
methods, that we must adopt a new and more enterprising policy 
all along the line, that markets which were, perhaps, won in the past 
without much cost, can only be retained by great sacrifices — that, 
in fact, we must realise once for all that times have changed, and 
the methods of mopopoly are ngt tbe methods of competition, I 

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Some Aspects of Ow Imperial Trade. 121 

think we are fairly entitled to retort upon the politicians, to whatever 
party they belong, that if they are to retain for ns our Imperial pre- 
dominance, they also must throw off all apathy, must abandon old 
prejudices in favour of antiquated policies, must realise that an 
Empire, which came into existence at no great cost, can only 
be retained by great sacrifices — must learn, in fact, that times have 
changed for them, too, and that in Empire-making as in trade the 
methods of monopoly are not the methods of competition. 

I am sanguine enough to believe that both these lessons are being 
learnt, and that we are at this moment witnessing all through bur 
wide Empire a great revival of industrial enterprise and a great 
awakening of Imperial spirit. 

There is nothing like a sense of rivalry, of competition, of 
common danger to make a people close its ranks. It is just the 
sense of increasing struggle in the world, of a future in which we 
shall have to put forth all our energies in order to hold our own, 
which is making and will make all the ;nembers of our scattered 
world-state rally together. 

There have lately been two conspicuous signs of the times with 
regard to our Imperial relations. One, of course, was the Jubilee 
demonstration of last year. I will not comment upon that 
unique event. It is still so present to the minds of each one of us 
that no word of mine is needed to revive its memories or to em- 
phasise its significance. It awoke the world to the fact of the Imperial 
unity and the Imperial strength of the British people. The other 
was the epoch-making offer of Canada to give to the produce and 
manufacture of the Mother Country special preferential treatment. 
We all, no doubt, remember the terms of that offer — that it was made 
unconditionally — ^without the demand for any quid pro quo and 
without any desire on the part of Canada to disturb the present 
fiscal system of Great Britain. It came as a free gift, because, in 
the words of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, " Canada owes a debt of gratitude 
to Great Britain." We have none of us forgotten why that offer of 
Canada could not be immediately accepted ; that there stood in the 
way two treaties with foreign Powers — one with Germany and one 
with Belgium — ^by which we had pledged ourselves in other and 
different days that our Colonies should never treat the produce of 
foreign countries in a more unfavourable manner than they treated 
the produce of their own Mother Country. It was just at this 
point that matters stood in June last year, when the Prime 
Ministers of all the self -governing Colonies met Mr. Chamberlain 
in conference. The first subject co^^idered during those most 

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122 Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 

important disoossions between the accredited representatives of the 
Empire was the question of *^ commercial relations " ; and as a 
result the following resolution was unanimously carried : — 

That the Premiers of the self-governing Colonies unanimously and 
earnestly recommend the denunciation, at the earUest convenient time» 
of any treaties which now hamper the commercial relations between 
Great Britain and her Colonies. 

No doubt most powerfully influenced by this resolution, and 
anxious to give to the Colonies some striking and conspicuous proof 
of their willingness to take up and carry to a successful conclusion 
the solution of the first real problem which has arisen from the 
clashing of old treaty engagements with new Imperial aspirations, 
the Government at the end of July notified to Germany and to 
Belgium their wish to terminate the commercial treaties which 
bind Great Britain to those two states. Prom and after July 80th 
1898 these two treaties, which alone are a bar to the establishment 
of preferential tariff relations between the Mother Country and the 
Colonies will have ceased to exist, and so fax as treaty obligations 
are concerned the way will be clear for any new policy which the 
future may have in store. Foreshadowing some such policy the 
Premiers unanimously passed a second resolution : — 

That in the hope of improving the trade-relations between the Mother 
Country and the Colonies the Premiers present undertake to confer with 
their colleagues with a view to seeing whether such a result can be 
properly secured by a preference given by the Colonies to the products of 
the United Kingdom. 

The whole question of the preferential treatment of the produce 
and manufactures of the Mother Country by all her Colonies has 
therefore been definitely raised, and is at this moment being 
seriously discussed throughout the Empire. What the issue of the 
consideration of this great question in the various Colonies will be 
it is impossible to say, nor do I propose to discuss it in this paper 
in any of its aspects. All that I wish to emphasise to*night is 
that a new state of affairs in the world about us has created for the 
British Empire an entirely new situation with the need of a new 
Imperial policy. In recognition of these facts the way has been 
cleared by the Imperial Government of old treaty obligations, which 
presented obstacles to any new commercial policy. The task which 
now awaits our statesmen both at home and in the Colonies is so 
to readjust our commercial relations as will conduce best to the 
material ;^interests of each, and at the same time will bind all 

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Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 188 

together in a closer bond of Imperial union. Such a task I am 
sure may be left with confidence to time and the political gifts of 
our race. We have both at home and in the Colonies men who are 
amply endowed to contribute their share to this great and bene- 
ficent work. 

One word of warning I must utter to those of us who live at 
home. In the settlement which we all desire to bring about, all 
the giving cannot be on the side of the Colonies. If sacrifices are 
asked of them, sacrifices will be expected of Great Britain too. 
There are those who think that Great Britain can offer no special 
commercial privileges to her Colonies, because, by the adoption of 
the poUcy of Free Trade, she has already given to the whole world 
everything she has to give. I will not at the very end of this paper 
enter upon a discussion of the various forms in which special 
advantages might be conceded to the Colonies without the abandon- 
ment of our general policy of open ports. I feel convinced that 
before the question is finally settled the people of the United 
Kingdom will have to sacrifice the academic integrity of many 
principles, and to throw overboard many prejudices which have 
hitherto guided, perhaps too strictly, our national career. 

Meanwhile, let me point out, in conclusion, that without any 
change of policy or departure from adopted principle there is one 
most precious contribution we can make to the common Imperial 
stock, without danger to the Mother Country, and with the greatest 
possible advantage to the rest of the Empire. Great Britain possesses 
a gigantic asset in her unrivalled credit. Can she not in return 
for concessions from the Colonies give to them far more fully and 
freely than she has hitherto done some share in the extraordinary 
advantage which this credit gives her in the modem world ? I am 
not now referring to gifts such as Mr. Chamberlain has announced 
the Government are about to make to the West Indies. Few of 
us in this room will quarrel with that gift, showing as it does so 
strikingly the changed policy of the Mother Country towards her 
Colonies. My point is quite a different one. At the very last 
meeting of the Colonial Premiers, they passed a resolution ex- 
pressing the conviction " that the time had arrived when all re- 
strictions which prevent the investment of trust funds in Colonial 
stock should be removed** — in other words, that the time had 
arrived when the quality of their credit, so to speak, should be made 
Imperial instead of local. It is, I believe, in the power of the 
Mother Country, with suitable precautions, to confer upon the 
credit of the great self-governing Colonies this Imperial quality. 

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124 Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 

It wonld be an inestimable advantage to the Colonies themsdves, 
because it wonld provoke and stimulate that free and untrammelled 
emigration of capital, which they need as much as the emigration 
of men, for the development of their great territories. It would 
encourage them to undertake the interrupted course of their great 
public works. I have pointed out in an earlier part of this 
paper the stimulating effect of loans for productive purposes upon 
our export trade. It is in this direction that we must look for the 
revival of that great trade with our Colonies, which pursued 
almost unbrokenly its upward movement from 1857 to 1890, and 
which only declined when parts of the Empire fell financially upon 
evil days. 

In the words of the President of the French Bepublic, our best 
policy lies in '' promoting the emigration of capital, which vivifying 
wherever it goes, will come back to the Mother Country, augment- 
ing its wealth, and doubling its power of consumption for the 
prosperity of all." 


Sir Walteb Sendall, K.CM.G. (Governor of British Guiana) : It 
is only upon rare occasions that those, who, like myseU, are serving 
in distant parts of the Empire, are privileged to attend these meet- 
ings, which form now so useful and important a feature in the work 
of the Royal Colonial Institute, but I think that even those who 
have the opportunity of attending regularly at these meetings and 
discussions can seldom have listened to a Paper more replete with 
fietcts or better calculated to lead to a study of and throw a light 
upon the important subject with which it treats, than the Paper 
which has just been read. In seeking permission to offer a few 
remarks on this occasion, my desire is to express my general con- 
currence in the line of argument adopted by the Lecturer and in 
the conclusions which he has adduced with respect to the causes 
or some of the causes which at the present time are injuriously 
affecting the stability and to some extent preventing the extension 
of the foreign trade of Great Britain. The island of Cyprus, from 
the Government of which I have just retired, labours under many 
disadvantages, and although I hope it has before it a long and 
prosperous future under British rule, it is at present a country 
which is of but little account in the commercial world, but even 
from Cyprus lessons may, I think, be learnt which it would behove 
English manufacturers and their supporters to take heed of with 
r^fer^npe to the e^tepsioji Qf fea^^ with fpreign CQuptriee. Ir tb« 

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SoM A^pecls of Out tmpelrial Ti^dd4. 126 

C6tu*6e of the inquiries which were undertaken in Cyprus for the 
purpose of replying to Mr. Chamberlain's despatch, there was, I 
think, no fact that was made clearer than this — that in a com- 
munity in which the purchasing power of the masses is compara- 
tively small, which is the case with the great majority of the 
Colonies and dependencies of the Empire, the people will give their 
custom to and supply their wants from those countries in which 
cheapness, rather than quality, is the prevailing characteristic of 
the goods produced and exported. In many of the articles imported 
into Cyprus, for example, earthenware and chinaware, cutlery and 
hardware, and unwrought leather, all of which are imported in 
(comparatively speaking) considerable quantities, it was found that 
while the superiority of the English articles was freely admitted, 
the preference was given by the purchaser and consumer to inferior 
goods imported from countries where they were produced more 
cheaply. It was also stated that facilities for credit are more readily 
obtained from foreign merchants than from English merchants, and 
regret is expressed that English houses do not make attempts tc 
induce orders by disseminating information, and offering encourage- 
ment whether in the shape of advertisements in the local press, 
or by sending commercial travellers over to represent them. From 
these and similar causes the foreign trade of Cyprus, the import 
trade, is being diverted from England into other hands. These, I 
think, are foots which are deserving of the attention of British 
manufacturers and exporters, and they serve to illustrate the truth 
which has been expressed with much epigrammatic force by the 
Lecturer — that the methods of monopoly cannot be pressed into 
the service of competition. With these few observations I beg to 
express my personal thanks to the Lecturer for the very useful and 
comprehensive paper which he has read, 

Mr. A. F. Bateman, C.M.G. : As a permanent official of the 
Board of Trade, in the Commercial, Labour, and Statistical Depart- 
ment, it would be quite improper for me to follow the reader of the 
paper into the somewhat controversial, though very interesting 
questions which he has raised. I can, however, without being 
indiscreet, thank him heartily for the way in which he has brought 
before us the most interesting contents of a very voluminous blue- 
book of over 600 pages. As regards the facts, statements, and 
figures in his paper, I am in substantial agreement. I will only 
make one or two criticisms. The first is as regards the Merchan- 
dise Marks Act. It is not for me to defend or to criticise that Act, 
but it is hardly right to say of it, that by this Act the country of 

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126 Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 

origin has to be stated on the goods imported into this country. 
That is not quite so. Goods may be imported with no mark upon 
them — without any mark of origin whatever. It is only when they 
have upon them English words, or the name of an English town — 
purporting to represent that they have been manufactured in the 
United Kingdom — that the law steps in and says that these goods 
shall be marked " Made in Germany,'* or Belgium, or anywhere 
else. You will perceive the distinction, because it is going much 
further to say you must in every case, whether the goods are marked 
or not, say where they are made. It has been maintained that it 
would be better to have simply said ** Made abroad," but that is a 
controversial point. The second point is as regards the statement 
that Colonial trade has, as a rule, been steadier than foreign trade ; 
that is, that the exports to our Colonies have shown less fluctuations 
from year to year. This is not quite accurate. I have here a return 
which goes over sixty-one years of our exports of ** British goods to 
foreign countries, and British possessions." I And that from 1886 
to 1845, 80 per cent, of the exports went to our Colonies, and in the 
latest year the proportion had grown to 83 per cent. If you will 
look at each year, you will find that there is occasionally a decrease 
or an increase of more than 10 per cent., and that the total exports 
to foreign countries show very similar fluctuations. The Colonies, 
as we know, are in every portion of the globe, and would not be 
affected — all of them— by climatic influences the same year, nor 
would they all be affected by the great European war which in the 
seventies entirely disturbed the statistical comparison of our exports. 
Neither are they affected by such things as theMcKinley Act, which, 
as regards the United States of America, had some influence on the 
comparison for one or two years. For these reasons we should ex- 
pect the Colonies to show a rather more even trade, and they would, 
no doubt, but for India, which has a large proportion of our exports, 
and which may very often show considerable increases and decreases. 
Of course, if you take groups of Colonies you would find great 
fluctuations. For instance, in Australia, there were great fluctua- 
tions some years ago, but adding up the whole you will find that 
the figures are very fairly even, though there are fluctuations from 
time to time. It is curious as regards the imports from the Colonies 
how very Uttle they have varied in comparison with foreign imports 
in the last forty-five years. They represented in 1864, 22 per cent, 
of our total imports, and in 1897 they represented 21 per cent. I 
quite agree in some of Mr. Birchenough's criticisms about keeping 
the trade of this country. We must remember that our old and 

Digitized by 


Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 127 

largest manufiEu^tiirers and merchants have got great bnsinesses, and 
they go on with those bnsmesses ; they do not care to turn to more un- 
certam markets where they will not be sore of getting their money, but 
as regards the newer countries of the world, we have a great many 
small and enterprising merchants and manufActurers who are glad 
to try for new business. It is for them that what Mr. Chamberlain 
has done, and what is being done in other directions, will be useful. 
For, besides the Colonial Office Circular, the Foreign Office has 
now for some years obtained from our consuls specimens of com- 
peting goods, which are sent home and circulated among Chambers 
of Commerce, so that our manufacturers and workmen may see what 
is being done in competition with them. A Committee has lately 
been appointed by Mr. Eitchie, and is now sitting at the Board of 
Trade taking evidence as to the best way of obtaining information 
in this respect, as to the competition of foreign countries in neutral 
markets, especially including our Colonies. Without entering into 
other commercial questions, I will conclude by thanking Mr. Birch- 
enough for his excellent paper. 

The Hon. T. K. Mubray, C.M.G., M.L.A. (Late Colonial Secre- 
tary, Natal) : I thank the Council of the Institute most heartily for 
the opportunity of meeting my fellow countrymen in the Home 
Land. The gentleman who wrote the paper spoke as one who 
resided in England. If you look at the map upon the wall you will 
see upon the same colours in very small letters, just above Cape 
Colony, the word ** Natal." I have often wondered why people in 
this country should imagine Natal was a town in the Cape Colony, 
but now I begin to understand it. We are a separate Colony of our 
own ; we have our own Government, and have our own work to 
perform, and we mean to perform it. I fully endorse what Sir 
Walter Sendall has said with regard to the paper. It is a most 
excellent paper. There may be slight inaccuracies which have been 
noticed, but on the whole the paper from my point of view is a 
remarkably good one, and correctly reflects the position. In our 
little Colony, which owns one of the harbours that is a highway 
into the interior of Africa, we are trying to do our best towards 
forming the Empire. I myself was bom in the Colony, and have 
lived there all my life, and I trust that what little good I have 
been able to do has been towards widening and benefiting the 
vast Empire to which we all belong. There is one subject that 
has not been spoken on. It is one to which I, and I am 
sure many others in the Colony, attach much importance, and 
that is the question of these unfortunate strikes in England. X 

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lid Some Aspects of 6ur Imperial jtradi. 

6an assure you that these strikes are doing much to injure th^ 
trade of England. We, in the Colonies, have sometimes to act 
quickly, and there are times when we cannot afford to wait for 
materials, but must get them immediately. I will give you an 
instance. We required two large and powerful dredgers to perform 
work that was necessary and urgent. We received tenders from 
various firms — some from this country and some from the Conti- 
nent ; the prices were very much the same. We, as Colonists and 
EngUshmen, naturally wished to give these contracts to EngHsh 
manufacturers, but no English manufacturer will enter into a 
contract with us without a Strike Clause being inserted, whereas 
the Continental traders enter into contracts to deliver at a definite 
time and without the Strike Clause. It was all-important that we 
should get these dredgers quickly, and we gave serious consideration 
to the risk of a strike in England, and having these goods delayed for 
goodness knows how long. Therefore, these strikes, whoever is re- 
sponsible for them, are a very serious thing and injure the trade of 
England. We can only hope that matters will be so settled that, in 
future, there will be no difficulty whatever with us in ordering our goods 
from this country and from the market to which we would natur- 
ally look. The question of labour is probably at the bottom of the 
question of manufacture, and I fear that England will have very 
serious competitors in the near future. There are the vast 
Chinese Empire, the Indian Empire, and Japan, with their millions 
of people, all becoming educated, and learning day by day to work 
and to compete with us for our trade, and I say they are very 
serious factors in the question of the supply of the world's goods. 
I only hope the British people will be able to hold their own in the 
future as in the past. It is no use, as has been clearly stated, for 
us to rely upon what we have done in the past. We have to see 
that we keep what we Ve got, and if we are not careful, and if we 
do not do our best to maintain our trade and the superiority of our 
trade, I fear that a good deal of it will leave us. Although I speak as 
one from afar, my interests are as much England's interests as yours, 
and I want to see this country continue to hold the proud position 
it has long held. I may mention one particular class of goods 
which we, in the Colonies, always used to get from Great Britain — 
I mean jute goods. An immense number of bags, &c., are used in 
South Africa, and we used to get them cheaper from Dundee. Now 
the whole of that trade has gone to India, which supplies the 
articles ever so much cheaper. I may say, in conclusion, that my 

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Some Aspects of Om Imperial Trade. 129 

Tisit IS only a short one, but I shall return to my nativ© land, glad 
to have had this opportunity of meeting you this evening. 

Mr. S. Vaughan Mobgan : I agree with the reader of the paper 
that the Merchandise Marks Act has had the effect of lessening 
the returns of the English middleman. It has also lessened the 
returns of the English shipowner. It has, however, at the same 
time given the honest EngUsh manufacturer the credit of his name 
instead of its being taken by other people. Mr. Chamberlain's 
samples — which I took occasion myself to examine — were, as the 
lecturer has explained, for the most part a very low class of goods, 
such as are seldom sold in this country. We, I beUeve, could 
produce these goods if we gave our attention to it. Some Uttle 
time ago I was in the Canadian Dominion, and I found there was 
a great difficulty in English manufacturers selling the better quality 
of goods, the reason being that the duties were ad valorem, and 
became so heavy on first-class articles that the Canadian could not 
afford to buy them. As to machinery, particularly agricultural 
machinery, I would observe that the American possesses certain 
natural advantages over us. The American makes this machinery 
to suit his own country, and the bulk of our Colonies have a 
character much more approaching that of the United States than that 
of this highly civilised and cultivated country ; consequently, their 
goods fit our Colonies exactly. Here we have to produce those 
goods specially. We could produce them, and we could sell them 
in fair competition with America. Without going into the rights 
or wrongs of the strike, I would observe that heretofore in this 
country the manufacturers have not used machinery to the same 
extent that they have in the United States. In the course of the 
recent controversy, a very interesting letter appeared in the Times 
from an expert authority stating that in the United States, while 
wages were one-third greater than in this country, the men produced 
more work, and in fact produced more cheaply than here in con- 
sequence of their mechanical inventions and appliances, and putting 
them to the utmost use. This writer stated as an absolute fact, 
speaking of locomotives, that the quantity of manual labour required 
was in the ratio of fourteen in the United States to thirty-five in 
the best factories in England, showing that though our labour costs 
less it is in reahty dearer than in the United States. I know the 
factory in the United States to which he alluded ; they have every 
mechanical appliance, and old appliances are discarded. I am 
afraid we do not do these things quite so courageously here. This 
leads me to make a suggestion with regard to the publication called 

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180 Some Aspects of Ou/r Imperial Trade. 

the Labotir Oazette. It gives oertain dry facts as to strikes having 
occurred, and mentions that the question in dispute was whether the 
men should have sevenpence, say, instead of sixpence an hour, but no 
information is given as to what is going on in the world outside us. 
They do not pick out any facts from foreign journals. If they would 
show us what foreign manufacturers are doing, quoting, for example, 
though in a summAjrised form, such a letter as that I have just 
mentioned, I believe they would make some of our people " sit up." 
I may mention an instance where we unwisely parted with a large 
business. During the prosperous times of 1878 the demand for 
iron joists and girders increased very much indeed. A great deal 
of building was going on. Our makers said, ^' That is my article, 
you may take it or leave it." The Belgians began to give attri- 
tion to the matter ; they adapted their mills to producing more 
variedsizes, andthe result was thatin a little time they practically had 
a monopoly of the trade. If you were to go to the great iron im- 
porters, you would find thousands of tons which ought to be 
produced in this country ; in fact so bad is the case that one of our 
largest iron producers, wishing to extend his shedding, had to give 
the contract to Belgians for putting in this part of the ironwork. 
Much of this iron for the Belgian girders was bought in 
pig here and taken over and rolled there. This state of things 
is <)hanging somewhat now, inasmuch as steel is being used 
instead of iron, and as we are giving more attention to the matter, we 
are recovering somewhat. But we ought never to have lost that 
trade. Then, again, as regards agricultural machinery, such as 
ploughs, I would observe that people here are accustomed to see 
fine cart-horses at the ploughs, but you don't see them elsewhere, 
and a little time ago I noticed that the Indian Government offered 
prizes for designs for ploughs, which were to be of such a weight 
that they could be drawn by " starved " oxen, the explanaticm being 
that during the dry seasons they had to live on very little, and they 
are starved ; whereas, the Englishman thinks that because he has 
cart-horses, every other people must. Again, we ought to adopt an 
idea common in Belgium and Germany, and establish at once, on a 
perfect scale, commercial sample rooms, whence should be sent, by 
our consuls abroad and a Government agent in the Colonies, speci- 
mens of any article coming from a foreign country, and which is in 
general demand. In Philadelphia, too, they have such an establish- 
ment on a large scale. The English manufacturer is too much 
given to stop at home. He speaks his own language only, and he 
goes to a merchant or middleman and says, '* You are going <m a 

Digitized by 


Some Aspects of Our Impmal Trade. 181 

tour. I am producing these candles very cheaply : you can have 
them at so and so." The middleman takes the samples, but he has 
samples also of foreign candles, and personally he has no preference, 
BO that he sells those most easily quitted. Now if the English 
maker would learn a language or two and the decimal system, he 
would go and sell his candles or starve, and he certainly would not 
Btarve. Once you get him out of his own country he loses that 
want of adaptability. Then we have difficulties with our ship- 
owners, who will actually send over vessels to Antwerp, Hamburg, 
&c- and take freight from those countries by way of England to our 
Colonies, at a less price than from Home producers. If the 
Chambers of Commerce were to go into that matter they might, 
I think, by publicity and pressure, effect some naodification. The 
Bame observation applies to the railways. Large factories which 
formerly existed in the Midlands have been driven to the coast in 
consequence of the freights. I say the railway companies, in their 
own interest, ought to go carefully into calculations with the manu- 
facturer, and try to hold him. The observation made in the paper, 
that the Continental manufacturer very often gets a footing in our 
markets by producing a cheap and showy article, is quite true, and 
directly he gets a look in, he tries to sell something better, and suc- 
ceeds. We have the great advantage if our travellers only went to 
these markets — ^viz., that the people have sympathy with and faith in 
the British articles. On the subject of loans, I should agree with the 
lecturer, with the qualification that they should be employed with 
moderation. I do not regard France as in the question at all. She 
is not able to compete because of her high protective duties and 
enormous taxation, and practically she does not compete. The pre- 
ferential tariff that Canada has given us should be very valuable as 
^e thin end of the wedge in other Colonies. It means, as regards 
many staple articles, the difference between a profit and a loss. I 
notice that Canada has a 15 cents per pound duty on trade catalogues. 
If, for example, an enterprising manufacturer produces a handsome 
trade catalogue, the Post Office of Canada says to the receiver: 
" This weighs 3^ pounds, and at 15 cents a pound, costs you 45 
cents duty." This, I think, is in restraint of trade by keeping the 
Canadians in ignorance of what the Britisher can do. Generally, I 
would say on this paper that what we want is more education as to 
modem languages, science, and technique ; that the masters should 
be more in touch with their men ; that the manufacturers should 
do their own selling, and not act so much through middlemen, and 
that they should use machinery to its utmost capacity. 


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182 Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 

Mr. J. H. Geddes (New South Wales) : I am glad to have the 
opportunity of adding my tribute to what has been said in praise of 
Mr. Birchenough's thoughtful paper. I also sympathise with the 
gentleman from Natal, who found it necessary to point out there 
was such a place. We also have a claim to sympathy, more especi- 
ally in New South Wales, which is sometimes called <' Botany Bay," 
and is also frequently confused with energetic Victoria, and really 
many might think we had no separate existence at all. It has even 
happened that letters have been addressed to '' New South Wales, 
Australia, adjacent to the Island of Tasmania." It is impossible, 
I am afraid, that the important questions before us can be discussed 
or seriously considered within the limited ten minutes at our dis- 
posal ; indeed, in order to consider what influence the future com- 
petition of the world will have upon British trade, we should have 
to traverse the reasons why Great Britain has gained the enormous 
trade she possesses at the present time. In 1882 and 188d, 
Australia had no trade to speak of directly with the Continent, but 
at the present time nearly one-third of her wool goes directly to the 
Continent, not necessarily in their heavily subsidised Continental 
steamers. And it is satisfactory to learn that, although the export 
trade of Australia to Germany has greatly increased, the trade from 
Germany to Australia has increased comparatively little, the foreign 
trade generally bearing the same ratio — there is a great deal of senti- 
ment associated with the saying that trade follows the flag. With- 
out doubting our loyalty, it is unnecessary to say that we simply 
buy in the cheapest market, without, I regret to say, any sentiment 
being associated with the operation. I think some trade dis- 
crimination should be shown towards British Colonies. Canada 
will be good enough to allow British goods into Canada on reciprocal 
terms; great stress has been laid on the fiEtct, but practically 
Canada calls out to the whole of the world, " We will welcome your 
goods, providing you will make reciprocal terms with us." The 
only hope I see of concentrating trade and keeping a monoply of 
these great Colonial markets is to establish Imperial Tariff Federa- 
tion, from which might emanate an imperial food supply scheme. It 
must exercise the minds of the military authorities as to what is to 
become of Great Britain from a food supply point of view in the 
event of a general war. That is a question which is worthy of 
serious consideration, as I think we shall And. If such a scheme is 
adopted, then India, Australasia, and the other great Colonies, with 
a little encouragement, might supply the whole of the requirements 
of Great Britain, and we might be led to assume our natural posi- 

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Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade, IBft 

tion of forwarding our raw materials to this country, and receiving 
manufactured goods in exchange. Mr. Birchenough's paper has 
glanced at many important questions, notably '^ Investment of Trust 
Funds in Colonial Securities,'* and many others having sufficient 
importance to constitute a separate paper, but limited time prevents 
my dwelling upon such important themes. 

Mr, N. Daknell Davis, C.M.G. (British Guiana) : I come firom 
British Guiana, which is sometimes confused with Guinea. It is 
the only Colony which has the distinction of being mentioned by 
Shakespeare, Baleigh, and other spiritsforegathered with Shakespeare 
at the " Mermaid," andin consequence of that, no doubt, Shakespeare 
got to know of our Colony, which he describes as " a region full of 
gold and bounty." We have the gold, the Germans have the 
bounty, Mr. Birchenough says that the British manufacturers 
often trust to Colonial houses having representatives in London, 
and so don't employ travellers as the American and other countries 
do. As Controller of Customs in British Guiana, I can state from 
my own knowledge that this is absolutely true. I think British 
merchants, in fact Britons generally, have not realised the conditions 
of trade which have been brought about by the employment of 
steamers in the carrying trade, instead of sailing vessels. In the 
old days, when sailing vessels did the trade, there were a few large 
houses in our Colony, who alone were importers ; but nowadays, 
the dealers have become importers themselves, and when travellers 
come there they are able to get in touch with those who used to get 
their goods from the big houses. In that way a considerable 
amount of trade has been diverted from the old houses. It is no 
use for manufacturers here to go merely to those agencies in 
England of the big Colonial houses ; if they wish to increase their 
trade they must send out travellers. Mr. Birchenough says that 
the British merchant gives short credit and refuses doubtful 
accounts. Now, the merchants in our Colony, as in other Colonies, 
are just as keen business men as those in England. They are just 
as ready to do sound business as people in England are, and what 
they won't touch is not worth having. If you sent out travellers to 
dobusiness with our Colony, and they did business with a person 
who was avoided by our local people, the result would probably be 
that you would not get paid. If the doubtful man paid anybody, 
probably he would take the money for your goods to pay somebody 
else that he owed. Mr. Birchenough says that the British mer- 
chants rely upon their reputation instead of advertising. I don't 
think that is quite correct, for in these days of cheap postal rates 

Digitized by 


184 Scms A^p^U of Our Impmdl Trade. 

everybody is flooded with advertisiiig matter. As to ihii question 
of cheap goods, it is not that the goods are cheap and nasty. I 
take it that the Germans have not so much taken away the trade 
from English merchants, as that they have created a iraAe. They 
have recognised that, nowadays, it is from the millions and not 
from the thousands you are to make large profits. It is not that 
the Germans and Americans make only cheap goods, for they can 
make very good goods indeed. Do not let us deceive ourselves ; 
English manufacturers do not always make only good articles. As 
to the question of recovering predominance, I think we do not 
recognise the changing conditions. I am of the seventh generation 
of Colonists, my people have been for more than 200 years in the 
Colonies. I can remember as a boy hearing my elders speak as 
though nothing good could come out of America. Nowadays it is 
not merely the Americans that send goods to the West Indies and 
the Colonies generally, but British Colonies like Canada send them 
there. The Colonies themselves are, in fact, competing with the 
Mother Country. The whole world is competing with England, not 
merely in China and Africa, but, thanks for your *' settled policy," 
they come and compete in England. I rather wonder Mr. Chamber- 
lain's inquiry has not been taken up by the Board of Trade, and 
inquiry made as to how foreigners are eating into the Home trade. 
As to this question of the transit trade, which is so important, yon 
will find that as soon as the foreign countries see it is to their 
interest to start lines of steamers, they will do so ; they will send 
their goods direct, and save some of the charges. You have to fiekce 
the competition, not merely of the foreigners and of the Colonies^ 
but of your own capitalists, who are investing in foreign countries, 
and developing industries which compete with you here. 

Mr. A. R. CoLQUHOUN : I value this opportunity very greatly 
indeed of thanking the reader of the paper for what I thhik we 
must all feel to be a most valuable contribution to a subject of 
which we all have heard so much. There are several points* in the 
paper which deserve to attract a large share of attention from the 
country. Mr. Birchenough demonstrated most completely, I 
beheve, that the methods of what he calls monopoly are not the 
methods of competition. He has shown in vivid language how we 
have entered upon an era of fierce competition, and he has told us 
what I, with many others, have felt to be the case for many years, 
that we shall have to radically alter our ways if we are going to 
hold our own in the world. Mr. Birchenough has alluded to the 
speech made by Mr. Chamberlain last month, when he told this 

Digitized by 


Some Aspects of Ow Imperial Trade. 185 

C6tintry that Governments exist in the interests of trade. I oannot 
quote any utterance of a Cabinet Minister to this effect in former 
years, but from an experience of my own many years ago — when I 
executed a campaign all through the country, interviewing some 
of our Chambers of Commerce, and others^I believe the country 
was then much more in earnest about the whole of this question 
of foreign trade and as to the duties of Government, than it is 
now. He says we have recently been caught napping industrially 
and commercially, and I think the sense of the country is that 
poHtically also we have recently been caught napping. Some twelve 
years ago the country took a distinct and lively interest in all these 
questions of foreign trade and the pushing of our interests abroad, 
and they recognised to a certain extent that we have to safeguard 
that trade by an increase of our sea-power. That came after a long 
period of apathy, as I can well recollect, but after a couple of years' 
agitation the country relapsed into a worse state of apathy than 
before, from which we are only just recovering. I hope with the 
author of the paper that the country is really awakening to a sense 
of the importance of the whole of this question, how vital it is to our 
existence, how it affects every man, woman and child. But I 
think it right to say that we must not be too sanguine about this 
interest being sustained. We must not be too sanguine especially 
as to these interests being safeguarded, unless the country really 
rouses itself and exerts strenuous and continued effort to see that a 
policy of that sort is carried out firmly and consistently. To show 
you I have reason on my side, I would remind you that a dozen years 
ago, an effort was made to have our naval wants attended to. 
Something was done in that direction, then the country relapsed, 
and nothing more was accomplished until quite recently, when a 
number of patriotic men banded themselves together, and by per- 
sistent pegging away induced the country and the Government to do 
something for naval defence. What has been accomplished for the 
navy, I hope may now be done for the army. What we want all 
round is a complete change, a re-start, to acknowledge we have 
been ignorant and apathetic, and in the future we must throw 
ourselves into the struggle in a very different spirit from the era of 
monopoly. We are entering on a period of intense struggle and 
competition, and we shall have to put our shoulders to the wheel, 
industrially, commercially, poUtically. 

Mr. E. S. AsBTON : As in some animals their sting is in the tail, 
so I think towards the end of Mr. Birchenough's paper there 
is something hurtful. With regard to changing our << methods of 

Digitized by 


186 Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 

operation," by which I believe he hints at some system of prefer- 
ential duties, I beg leave to say that I am most determinedly 
opposed to any such policy ; moreover, I think we are altogether 
shut out from entertaining any such proposal on account of the 
position we have taken up, for example, with regard to China. We 
have declared that we will insist upon free and open ports, and the 
moral sanction for that position is that we have been and intend to 
be true to the system of Free Trade. Mr. Birchenough has rather 
frightened some of us with regard to this bogie of foreign competi* 
tion. I wish he had given some figures in support of his contention. 
The figures for 1895 of German imports into Australasia, Canada, 
and the Cape do not bear out his contention. We are not being 
ousted by Germany. West Australia, Tasmania, and Natal show 
no imports at all from Germany. I believe one of the last utter- 
ances officially on the subject of trade was by Mr. Ritchie, who 
gave the country to understand we have no need for fear. To 
illustrate how these alarmist reports are spread I might call your 
attention to a report recently issued by our Commercial Attach^ at 
Berlin, on the development of German trade. The Economist 
lately took this document to pieces and showed that Hamburg and 
Bremen, and other ports, have been added to the Customs Union 
since 1888 : a fact the writer of the report did not appear to be 
aware of, and that the increase of trade, instead of being some 60 
per cent, as stated, is really only about 9 per cent. In conclusion, 
I would remind you what the Premier of New South Wales said 
concerning the tariff proposals by Mr. Chamberlain. Mr. Beid 
said, '* I believe the policy would be in some respects disastrous to 
the British Empire. I believe that the fact that Great Britain and 
her Colonies make no distinction between the products of foreign 
countries is one of the greatest guarantees of the safety and peace 
of the Empire." I believe that if you begin with this preferential 
nonsense, you will excite the feelings of foreign nations, who already 
view with jealousy and dismay the fact that we have got the best 
part of the world, and the only reason they submit to this monopoly 
is that we open our ports to the trade of all countries. 

The Chairman (Right Hon. the Eabl op Jersey, G.C.M.G.) : 
We have had an interesting and somewhat diversified discussion, 
which has afforded an opportunity to gentlemen from various parts 
of the Empire to state their views on these important questions. It 
is rather surprising to be told that one of the best means of restoring 
our trade would be to produce inferior articles, but I think that has 
been a little bit explained away as meaning that we should try to 

Digitized by 


Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 137 

compete with every class of articles produced by other countries. 
Mr. Cplquhoun is under the impression that we are naturally a very 
apathetic race as regards the interests of the Empire, but no one will 
deny that at the present moment politicians are tumbling over each 
other in their anxiety to show they are all for commerce. In fact, 
there is no one nowadays who addresses his fellow countrymen who 
is not ready to profess the most valiant things for the sake of keeping 
our commerce flourishing. I hope with Mr. Colquhoun that this is 
not a transient phase of pubUc feeling, and that we do really feel 
that unless our Government is very keen in protecting the interests 
of trade, and seeing that as few countries as possible are shut out 
from our trade, it will be bad for the country. I feel rather con- 
fident, at any rate for the immediate present and for some years to 
come, that our trading interests and commercial feeUngs are so 
powerful that they will compel any Government which might be in 
power to look closely after their interests. It is satisfactory to 
learn that the Russian Government have informed Lord Salisbury 
by letter that any port which they might feel it necessary to acquire 
an interest in in China for the purposes of their trade would be 
thrown open equally to British trade. And we know also that our 
rivals — the Germans — are so much impressed with the success of 
open ports that they have decided that theirs also shall be an open 
port, after the example of British ports. So that we may feel 
fairly sure, though it is not always quite safe to believe that promises 
given by another country are intended to last for all time, that at 
present the trend is to protect British trade as much as it is possible 
to do. I do not think we can expect politicians to say much more 
than what one or two public men have said lately. It is not 
merely members of the Government who are determined to protect 
British trade in every possible way, but those who are responsible 
for the Opposition are taking the same view. So that I do not 
think we need be unduly dismal as to the future. After all the 
Government cannot be the pioneer of trade ; it may lend its support 
to traders, but the pioneers of trade and the men who make trade 
successful are the traders themselves. That has been the history 
of the success of British trade — the individual energy, and skill and 
courage of the trader, and I see no reason to suppose that there will 
be any lack of those qualities in the trader of the future. I beg in 
your name to tender our hearty thanks to Mr. Birchenough for his 
able paper. 

Mr. Birchenough : I thank you for the kind and flattering 
manner in which my paper has been received. It has been a great 

Digitized by 


188 Some Aspects of Our Imperial Trade. 

privilege to be present and hear the voices of so many gentlemen 
who are serving their country and the Empire with distinction. At 
this late hour I will not attempt to offer anything in the nature of a 
reply, but in regard to the observations of Mr. Geddes, I may just 
say that I have frequently noticed a certain soreness on the part of 
gentlemen coming from New South Wales with regard to the great 
attention that the offer of Canada has attracted in this country. I 
feel the greatest sympathy with them, because New South Wales 
has always been the good son of the Empire. It is a Uttle irritating, 
perhaps, that the prodigal son should be received with so much 
fervour, but I would remind Mr. Geddes that even in Heaven there 
is more joy over one sinner that repenteth than over the ninety and 
nine that need no repentance. New South Wales is in line with the 
Mother Country, and we are deeply grateful that she should be so, 
but Canada is the first to break the ranks of the recalcitrant members 
of our Imperial family, and that is the real reason her action has 
attracted so much more attention than it would perhaps otherwise 
have attracted. I beg to move a hearty vote of thanks to the Earl 
of Jersey for presiding. 

The motion was carried with acclamation, and the proceedings 

Digitized by 




Thb Thirtieth Annual General Meeting was held in the Library of 
the Institute, Northumberland Avenue, on Tuesday, February 15, 

Sir Frederick Young, K.O.M.G., a Vice-President, presided. 

Amongst those present were the following : — 

Sir John W. Akbrman, K.C.M.G., Mr. R. S. Ashton, Sir Senrt Barkly, 
G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Messrs. H. H. Beauchamp, F. B. Bradford, A. M. Brown, 
MJ)., Allan Campbell, E. J. Challinor, a1 Clayden, F. H. Danoar, Fred 
Button, Stanley Edwards, C. J. Egan, M.D., W. Grain, Maj.-Gen. Sir Henry 
Green, K.O.S.I., C3., Messrs. W. S. Sebright Green, T. J. K^tlby, J. P. 
HooAN, M.P., Colonel E. T. H. Hutton, C.B., A.D.C., Messrs. H. J. Jourdain, 
C.M.G., S. Kennedy, M. Lichtenstein, Claude H. Long, Nevile Lubbock, 
T. Mackenzie, Lt.-Col. B. L. Matthews, Mr. James Morton, General Sir 
Henry W. Norman, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., CLE., Sir Montagu F. Ommanney, 
K.C.M.G., Messes. H. M. Paul, W. S. Paul, Sir Westby B.Perceval, K.C.M.G., 
Messrs. E. A. Petherick, G. B. Rennib, Capt. W. P. Roche, Capt. W. R. 
Russell, Sir Saul Samuel, Bart., K.O.M.G., C.B., Mr. George Slade, Sir 
Cecil Clementi Smith, G.C.M.G., Messrs. W. Stanford, P. W. Stone, J. P. G. 
Williamson, Sir James A. Youl, K.C.M.G., Mr. J. S. O'Halloran, C.M.G., 

The Secretary read the notice convening the meeting. 

The Chairman nominated Mr. F. H. Dangar (on behalf of the 
Council) and Mr. George Slade (on behalf of the Fellows) as 
Scrutineers to take the ballot for the Council under Bule 62, and 
announced that the ballot would remain open for half an hour. 

The Chairman : I ought to mention that since the papers for the 
ballot were distributed we have unfortunately lost by death Lord 
CarUngford, Who, as the Right Hon. Chichester Fortescue, was one 
of the original Vice-Presidents of the Institute, and who never 
ceased to take an active interest in its welfare. Lord CarUngford 
was not one of the Vice-Presidents whose term of office would 
expire this year, and as the lamentable event occurred very 
recently, the Council would suggest that, in accordance with 
precedent, the office should remain vacant for the present, any 
nomination they may make being, of course, subject to confirma- 

The Minutes of the last Annual General Meeting were read and 

Digitized by 



Thirtieth Annual General Meeting. 

The Annual Beport of the Council, which had been previously 
circulated amongst the Fellows, was taken as read. 


The Council have much pleasure in presenting to the Fellows 
their Thirtieth Annual Report. 

During the past year 102 Resident, and 337 Non-Besident 
Fellows have been elected, or a total of 489, as compared with 100 
Resident and 255 Non-Resident, or a total of 855, during the pre- 
ceding year. On December 81, 1897, the list included 1,400 Resident, 
2,721 Non-Resident, and 12 Honorary Fellows, or 4,188 in all, the 
highest number on record, of whom 974 have compounded for the 
Annual Subscription, and qualified as Life Fellows. 

The following table shows the number of Fellows and the 
annual income in each year since the foundation of the Institute in 

Annual income (ezcluslTe of 


No. of 

BnildiDg and Oonrenasione Funds, 


but inclnsiye of Life Compositions 

and Entrance Fees) 

£ 8, d. 

To Jane 11 

,1869 . 


1,224 14 6 




549 10 8 




503 16 4 



478 10 4 
1,022 9 1 




906 12 11 




1,038 15 8 




1,132 3 3 




1,222 18 3 




1,330 13 11 




1,752 18 2 




2,141 8 10 




2,459 15 6 




3,236 8 3 




3,647 10 




4,539 10 




6,220 19 




6,258 11 

To Dec. 31 



6,581 2 5 




6,034 3 




6,406 11 6 


1889 . 


7,738 7 11 




6,919 7 6 


1891 . 


7,362 2 10 


1892 . 


6,966 12 4 


1893 . 


6,468 18 6 


1894 , 


6,691 19 


1895 . 


6,854 2 11 

• > 

1896 , 


7,315 5 9 


1897 . 


7,688 15 7 

Digitized by V^rOOQ IC 

Thirtieth Annual Oeneral Meeting. 141 

The Honorary Treasurer's Statement of Accounts shows that 
the receipts during 1897 exceeded those of any previous year. The 
loan of £86,020, which was raised in 1886 for the acquirement of 
the freehold of the Institute, stood at £19,868 Us. 3d. on Decem- 
ber 81, and notice has been given that a sum of £1,686 28. ^d. in 
excess of the stipulated amount will be paid off during the current 
year. The rate of interest payable on the balance of the loan has 
been still further reduced to 8J per cent, from January 1, 1898. 

The obituary of the past year comprises the names of 78 Fel- 
lows, including two Councillors, viz. Sir William C. F. Bobinson, 
G.C.M.G., and Mr. W. J. Anderson :-- 

John W, Alexander, A,BJ,B.A. {Cape Colony), W. J, Anderson (OotmciZtor), 
CapU B. L, Appleyard, Sidney E, Ashbee (Transvaal), Bichard M. 
Baillie, Bamett L Bamato, M,L.A, {Cape Colony), Bobert Batten (Jamaica), 
William H, Bawden (Cape Colony), George Beveridge (Cape Colony), Pur- 
nanand M, Bhatt (India), George Btickley (Netv Zealand), Bobert G. Butchart, 
Hector Cameron, Q.C., M,P, (Canada), John Clark (New South Wales), Sir 
William J. Clarke, Bart. (Victoria), William H. Craven (Cape Colony), Major 
Edward Daubeney, Bobert D, Davies (Niger Coast Protectorate), William Dean 
(Victoria), J, A, D. Des Vages, M.L,A. (Cape Colony), E. J. DilUm (Victoria), 
Frederick A, Du Croz, John E. Dyer, M,D, (Cape Colony), Edward M, G, 
Eddy (New South Wales), Dr, Arthur E, Ed!wards,jr. (Antigua), Gowen E, 
Evans (Victoria), John Evans (Lagos), George J. Findlay, Anthony Forster 
(late of South Australia), Lawrence Foskey (Gold Coast Colony), David 8. 
Galbraith (late of Victoria), Sir Wm. Brandf<yrd Griffith, K.CM.G. (laU 
Governor of the Gold Coast Colony), Thomas Hamilton (late of Queensland), 
Lt,-General Sir Henry M, Havelock-AUan, Bart., V.C, G,C.B,, M.P,, John 
Hunt, WUUam J, Hurst (Western Australia), Arthur C, Hutchings, M,D, 
(New South Wales), Lt-General Sir William F. D. Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B,, 
Alfred Jones (British North Borneo), Timothy Lark (late of New South Wales), 
Edward Latchford, Andrew Lydl (Victoria), Sir William E, Maxwell, 
K.CM,G, (Governor of Gold Coast Colony), Samuel MelvUl (Cape Colony), 
Rev. J. Grant Mills, M.A., C. F. Monder-Williams (Trinidad), Capt. Abdy L, 
Morant (Sierra Leone), Bt. Hon. Sir G. Osborne Morgan, Bart, Q.C., M.P., 
George G. Nicol, John L. Nicoll (British Central Africa), Harry North (late of 
Cape Colony), Henry A. O^Brien (Straits Settlements), Capt, James H, Part 
(Gold Coast Colony), Morris Pollok,jr. (Natal), Hamilton Belly (Transvaal), Sir 
William C. F, Bobinson, G.C.M.G. (Councillor), D. J, Bousseau (Cape Colony), 
James W. H. Bussell (Lieut. Army Staff Corps), John BusseU (Victoria), 
Charles E. Schaumann (Mashonaland), William Scott (Mauritiu>s), Edmund 
Sharp (late of Hong Kong), Frederick Stow (Orange Free State), George Sturridge 
(Jamaica), Capt. H. C. Syers (Straits Settlements), Professor Henry Tanner, 
Norman M. TayUyr (India), Sir John B. Thurston, K.C.M.G. (Governor of Fiji), 
James T. Tumbull (South Australia), Walter Tumbull (New Zealand), 
WiUiam J. Vav^se (Natal), John Walker (New South Wales), Bev. Wm. B. 
Wallace (Cape Colon/y), John B. Watt (late of New South Wales), Percy White- 
head (Natal), James Williams, Sir William C. Windeyer (New South Wales), 
Ednvmd Mackenzie Young. 

Vacancies on the Council, occasioned by the deaths of Sir 
William C. F. Eobmson, G.C.M.G., and Mr. W. J. Anderson, and 
the resignation of Mr. B. J. Jeffray, have been filled up under the 

Digitized by 


142 Thirtieth Annual Oeneral Meeting. 

provisions of Bole 6, by the appointment ad interim^ subject to con- 
firmation by the Fellows, of General Sir Henry W. Norman, G.O.B., 
G.C.M.G., C.I.E.. Sir E. Montague Nelson, K.C,M.G., and Mr. Allan 
Campbell. The following retire in conformity with Eule 7, and are 
eligible for re-election : — President : H.B.H. the Prince of Wales, 
K.G., G.O.M.G., &o. Vice-Presidents : H.B.H. Prince Christian, 
K.G., The Duke of ArgyU, K.G., K.T., The Earl of Cranbrook, 
G.C.S.I., The Earl of Dunraven, K.P., The Earl of Bosebery, K,G., 
K.T. Councillors : Sir Charles E. F. Stirling, Bart., Sir Westby B. 
Perceval, K.CM.G., Lieut,-General B. W. Lowry, C.B., Messrs, C. 
Washington Eves, C.M.G., W» Maynard Farmer, and William 

The Annual Dinner took place at the Whitehall Booms on 
March 81, when the large hall was filled to its utmost capacity ; 
and the Bight Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, M.P., Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, who presided, proposed the toast of " Prosperity to 
the Boyal Colonial Institute " in an important speech, in which he 
reviewed the Colonial policy of this country, and concluded with the 
following eloquent words : " Let it be our endeavour, let it be our 
task, to keep alive the torch of Imperial patriotism, to keep warm 
the affection and confidence of our kinsmen across the seas, that so 
in every vicissitude of fortune the British Empire may present an 
unbroken front to all her foes, and may carry on even to distant 
ages the glorious traditions of the British fiag.'' 

The Annual Conversazione was held at the Natural History 
Museum, Cromwell Boad, on June 18, by permission of the Trustees 
of the British Museum, and upwards of 3,000 persons were present 
on the occasion. 

The following Papers have been read and discussed since the 
date of the last Annual Beport : — 
Ordinary Meetings : 

" Studies in Australia in 1896." The Hon.. T. A. 

'* The Dairy Industry in the Colonies." Samuel Lowe. 
"Western Canada — Before and Since Confederation." 
The Hon. Sir Donald A. Smith, G.C.M.G. (now Lord Strath- 
cona and Mount Boyal), High Commissioner for Canada. 

"The Colony of Lagos." Sir Gilbert T. Carter, 

" The Financial Belations of the Empire. Can they be 
Improved ? " Sir George Baden-Powell, K.C.M.G., M.P, 
" The Bailway System of South Africa." The Hon. Sir 

Digitized by 


Thirtieth Anmial General Meeting. J48 

David Tennant, K.O.M.G., Agent-General for the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

"Australian Natural History Gleanings.*' William 
Saville-Kent, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

" Gold Mining in Ontario and British Columbia." Edgar 
P. Eathbone, M. Inst. M.M., A.M. Inst. C.E., M.I. Mech, E. 
Afternoon Meetings : 

" Cyprus and its Possibilities.'* Charles Christian. 

*' The Gold Coast Colony." T. H. Hatton Kichards. 

" British Borneo." E. P. Gueritz. 

" A Gold Standard for the Empire." Lesley C. Probyn. 
The growing interest in the Library and the appreciation of 
its usefulness aire evinced by the long list of donors which is appended. 
The additions during the year numbered 1,161 volumes, 2,050 pam- 
phlets and parts, 86,776 newspapers, 32 maps, and 19 miscellaneous 
gifts. These include the most important Colonial publications 
issued during the year, as well as a large number of works dealing 
with the early history of the British Colonies, many of which 
are out of print and difficult to acquire. The Council have 
again to acknowledge the Uberality of the various Colonial Govern- 
ments, in not only regularly supplying their current Parliamentary 
publications, but also in completing as far as possible the collection 
already in the Library, and also of the leading Societies and Publishers 
both at Home and in the Colonies, Authors, Fellows of the Institute 
and others, who have assisted by donations in making the Library 
one of special utility to those in search of information regarding the 
history, government, trade and resources of the British Empire. 
The Library has been consulted not only by Fellows but by the 
public generally, whilst its value imd completeness have been 
repeatedly acknowledged by leading writers upon Colonial subjects. 
The collection of Home and Colonial newspapers and periodicals has 
been considerably increased in order that the leading publications 
from each Colony may be available for reference purposes. On 
December 81, 1897, the Library contained 82,989 volumes and 
pamphlets, and 880 files of newspapers. 

It is now widely recognised that the organisation of the 
Boyal Colonial Institute affords unusual facilities for obtaining and 
imparting to inquirers trustworthy and disinterested information on 
all subjects relating to the Colonies and India, and this important 
branch of work continues to show a highly satisfactory expansion. 

The Council are deeply impressed with the fact that it is 
incumbent on the greatest and most successful colonising nation in 

Digitized by 


144 Thirtieth Animal General Meeting. 

the world to impart to the rising generation a full and accurate 
knowledge of geography, more especially as regards the British 
possessions, and have made frequent and urgent representations to 
that effect to the educational authorities of this country. As a 
further result of the memorial on the subject of reforms in examin- 
ations, which was issued by the Geographical Association with the 
sanction and approval of the Council of this Institute, the Victoria 
University, Manchester, has taken the important step of making 
geography a University subject by giving it a place in the prelimi- 
nary examination, and it is understood that an effort will ere 
long be made to introduce geography into some of the higher 

The enthusiasm with which' the Diamond Jubilee of Her 
Majesty the Queen was celebrated throughout her Dominions has 
given a fresh impetus to the great cause of Imperial unity, and pro- 
claimed to the world at large that the kindred millions who own 
allegiance to our Sovereign are firmly knit together by sentiments 
of personal loyalty and patriotic feeling for mutual succour and 
support. A loyal address of congratulation under the Common 
Seal of the Institute was presented to the Queen on the completion 
of the sixtieth year of her illustrious reign, in addition to which an 
address was signed by Fellows resident in the Transvaal, and 
both received gracious acknowledgment. The Colonial Premiers, 
the Officers commanding detachments of Colonial troops, distin- 
guished representatives of our Indian Empire, and other guests of 
the nation who, by a happy inspiration, were specially invited to 
visit the Mother Country in honour of the occasion, were enter- 
tained at a banquet at the Hotel Cecil, which was attended by 520 
persons, His Royal Highness the Duke of Connaught, K.G., pre- 
siding over one of the most briUiant and representative gatherings 
that has ever been held under the auspices of the Institute. 

A Conference between the Secretary of State for the Colonies 
and the Premiers of the self-governing Colonies was held in London 
during the visit of the Premiers in June and July last, when ques- 
tions of the highest national importance came under discussion, 
such as the future political and commercial relations between the 
Mother Country and the Colonies, organisation for mutual defence, 
improved postal and telegraphic communications within the Empire, 
the safety of ships at sea, the investment of trust funds in Colonial 
stocks, &G. ; and it is satisfactory to note that the desirability of 
holding similar conferences from time to time has been officially 
affirmed. The action of the Dominion of Cjuiada in lowering her 

Digitized by 


Thirtieth Annual General Meeting. 145 

duties in the interests of other parts of the Empire will, it is hoped, 
pave the way for a general revision of our fiscal relations. It is 
important to record that formal notice has been given that certain 
treaties with foreign powers which debar the establishment of pre- 
ferential tariff relations between Great Britain and her Colonies will 
be terminated from and after July 80, 1898. 

The Council strongly share and heartily sympathise with the 
desire that is so widely felt for increased postal fociUties. Although 
it was made to appear at the recent Conference that Imperial penny 
postage was at that time impracticable on financial grounds, the 
representatives of the Cape of Good Hope and Natal declared 
themselves in favour of such a step, and expressed their belief that 
the Legislatures of those Colonies would be prepared to give effect 

The mass of information received from Colonial Govern- 
ments in response to Mr. Chamberlain's circular despatch of 
November 28, 1895 (which was published in the Journaii of the 
Royal Colonial Institute, and referred to in the two last Annual 
Reports of the Council), is of extrenie value in throwing Ught on 
the extent to which foreign imports are displacing British goods in 
Colonial markets, and the causes of such displacement. Although 
British manufacturers are still supreme as regards the best classes 
of goods, there is obviously room for improvement in several par- 
ticulars, in order to meet local requirements, and in view of the 
active foreign competition that everywhere prevails. 

The proposal recently made by the Government of the Cape 
of Good Hope to follow the example of the Australasian Colonies, 
by contributing towards the maintenance of the Naval Defence 
Forces of the Empire, affords a fresh proof of the spirit of Imperial 
patriotism that happily prevails. 

The proceedings at the Federal Conventions held at Adelaide 
and Sydney, when the AustraUan Commonwealth Bill came under 
discussion, have been noted with much interest by the Council, who 
trust that a Constitution acceptable to the whole of the Colonies 
will at no distant date be adopted. 

The West India Royal Commissioners have, after a full and 
searching investigation, reported that a very serious state of 
afiBoirs is rapidly approaching in the West Indian Colonies, whose 
resources mainly depend upon the maintenance of the sugar 
industry, which, under present conditions, is in danger of extinction. 
The Council earnestly hope that Her Majesty's Government will 
act promptly in taking steps to avert the grave crisis with which not 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

146 Thirtieth AtmuU O&n^ai M^tingn 

only this lmporta^t group of Gobnies, but Maorititts and otfaei* 
sugar-producing dependencies of the Empire are threatened by the 
operation of the foreign bounty system, the abolition of which the 
Commissioners unanimously agreed was an object at which Her 
Majesty's Government should aim. 

The opening of railway conununication with Bulawayo during 
the past year must be recorded as an event of the first importance, 
which will exercise a powerful influence, not only in the development 
of Rhodesia, but in the maintenance and advancement ci every 
interest that tends to promote the peaceful progress of South Africa. 

The Council deplore the loss of life that has recently occurred in 
India from famine, notwithstanding the energetic action of the 
Government in establishing relief works on an extensive scale, and 
the generous contributions received from the United Kingdom and 
the British Colonies in aid of the sufferers. The Council are glad 
to know that the famine is now practically at an end, but deeply 
regret that the plague which has carried off so many victims has 
not yet disappeared. 

In conclusion the Council have no hesitation in saying that 
the Institute has attained a position of greater prosperity than 
at any previous time in its history, and they feel assured that 
its career of usefulness is capable of still further extension in 
the discharge of the great national duties prescribed by its 

By Order of the Council, 


January 25, 1898. 

Digitized by 


Thirtieth Anmal General Meeting. 



ii o 

cr5 3q 
CO »o 

C<1 CO 












cq o 

05 O 
Ci CO 
1-H CO 


o 1 1 i 8 

S P 9 ^ 















Digitized by V^iOOQ IC 

146 Thirtieth Am/ual Oenerai Meeting. 

Fob thk Tbab khdiho 


Bank Balance as per last Aoooont £1,289 4 11 

Cash in hands of Secretary •• 10 14 3 

1,299 19 2 

13 Life Subscriptions of £20 260 

43 „ „ £10 * 430 

8 „ „ to complete 84 3 

94 Entrance Fees of £3 282 

312 ,. „ £1. li 327 12 

11 „ „ to complete 21 9 

1,337 Subscriptions of £2 2,674 

1,667 „ £1. li 1,750 7 

181 „ £1 and under to complete... 168 11 

5,998 2 

Annual Dinner, received in connection with 347 10 

Diamond Jubilee Banquet, ditto 968 2 

Ck)nversazione, ditto ••• 380 

Bent for one year to December 25, 1897, less Property Tax 1,160 

Insurance repaid 7 7 

Proceeds of Sale of Papers, &c 43 9 10 

Library Oatalogue (sale of ) 1 11 6 

Journal ..t, «, , , ,.,.... 378 6 8 

£10,584 6 9 

Examined and found correct. 

F. H. DANGAB. \ „^ a^u^ 

W. G. DEVON ASTLE, / ^^' ^^*^^' 

January IS, ISdS. . ,^,^..,^ . 

Digitized by VjrOOQlC 

Thirtieth Animal General Meeting, 149 

Dbobmbeb 31, 1897. 


£ i. d. 

Salaries and Wages 1,860 10 8 

Proceedings— Printing, &o 265 8 7 

Journal — 

Printing £S66 10 7 

Postage 137 10 

494 7 

Printing, ordinary 70 2 4 

Postages, ordinary 211 1 11 

Geographical Association (for teaching geography in schools) ... 3 3 

Advertising Meetings 25 19 1 

Meetings, Expenses of , 180 6 6 

Beporting Meetings • 28 17 6 

Stationery ^.., 136 7 

Kewspapers 110 2 8 

Library — 

Books ;£81 11 9 

Binding 47 19 9 

Maps (monnting and revising) 3 18 

— 133 4 6 

Fnel, light, &o 134 15 3 

Building— Bepairs and Furniture 348 1 

Guests* Pinner Fund 40 9 

Bates and Taxes 330 16 

Fire Insurance ^ 24 19 

LawChaiges 2 2 

Annual Dinner 335 17 

Diamond Jubilee Banquet 855 13 3 

Conversazione — 

Befreshments £264 11 

Electric Lighting, dec. 110 8 

Floral Decorations 25 

Music : 54 14 

Printing 19 14 9 

Fittings, Furniture, &o 25 14 2 

Attendance, &c 27 2 1 

526 19 

Gratuity 80 

Miscellaneous 79 6 

Subscriptions paid in error refunded 14 5 

Cheque outstanding 2 2 

Payments on Account of Mortgage — 

Interest /772 10 8 

Principal 971 3 9 

1,743 14 5 

8,037 8 6 

Balance in hand as per Bank Book...,. £2,535 9 

Cash in hands of Secretary 11 17 6 

2,646 18 3 

£10,684 6 9 


Honortury Trsoiurer, 

January 1, 1898 ^ t 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 




Aborigines Protection Society 
Aburrow, CJharles (Johannesburg) 
Adams, Rev, Principal Thomas 

Admiralty and Horse Guards Crazette, 

Proprietors of 
Affleck & Co., Messrs. T. (Albury, 

New South M''ales) 
African Critic, Proprietors of 
African Review, Proprietors of 
African Times, Proprietors of 
Agricultural Reporter (Barbados), 

Proprietors of 
Ahmed Dervish Pacha (Cyprus) 
Alberta Tribune (Canada), Proprietors 

Albury Border Post, Proprietors of 
Alexandria Horticultural Society 

Allen, George 

Allison, Leonard (New Brunswick) 
American^Colonization Society (Wash- 
American Geographical Society (New 

American Museum of Natural History 

(New York) 
Anderson, Rev. Duncan (Quebec) 
Anglo-Saxon (Ottawa), Proprietors of 
Anthropological Institute 
Anthropological Society of Australasia 
Antigua Observer, Proprietors of 
Antigua Standard, Proprietors of 
Arch^, Thomas, C.M.G. 
Argosy (British Guiana), Proprietors 

Argns Printing and Publishing Co. 

(Cape Town) 
Axmidale Express (N.S. Wales), Pro- 
prietors of 
Assam, Chief Commissioner of 
Association of Mines of the South 

African Republic (Johannesburg) 

Atkinson, J. M. (Hong Kong) 

Auckland Star, Proprietors oi 

Auckland University College 

Audet, F. J. (Ottawa) 

Australasian Associated Chambers of 

Australasian Insurance and Banking 
Record, Proprietors of 

Australasian Lronmonger, Propirietors 

Australasian Journal of Pharmaoy, 
Proprietors of 

Australasian Medical Gazette, Pro- 
prietors of 

Australasian (Melbourne), Proprietors 

Australian Mail, Proprietors of 

Australian Mining Standard (Sydney), 
Proprietors of 

Australian Museum (Sydney), Trus- 
tees of 

Australian Stock Exchange Intelli* 
gence. Proprietors of 

Australian Trading World, Proprietor 

Bacon & Co., Messrs. G. W. 

Bahamas, Government of the 

Bailey, F. M. (^Queensland) 

Ballarat, Rt. Rev. the Bishop of 

BaUarat Star, Proprietors of 

Balmain Observer (N.S.W.), Proprie- 
tors of 

Balme, Messrs. C, & Co. 

Bank o{ Australasia 

Bankers* Institute of Australasia 

Barbados, Government of 

Barbados Greneral Agricultural Society 

Barbados Globe, Proprietors of 

Barberton Mining and Commercial 
Chamber (Transvaal) 

Barrow-in-Furness Public Library 

Barter, Charles (Natal) 

Bastian, C. Don (Ceylon) 

Digitized by 


Thirtieth Annual General Meeting. 


Bataviaash Genootschap van EmiBten 
en weteMchappen, Batavia 

Bayley k Co., MesBis. A. W. (Barber- 

Baylis, 8. M. (Montreal) 

Beaufort Conritt (Gape Colony), Pro- 
prieton of 

Bechnanaland Kews, Proprietors of 

Bedford Entezprise (Cape Colony), 
Proprietors of 

Bedford, Rev. W. K. R. 

Beeman, KeTUle 

Bell, B. T, A. (Ottawa) 

Bell, Mrs. B. Y. (Bermuda) 

Bell, Mackenzie 

Bendigo Advertiser (Victoria), Pro- 
prietors of 

Bengal Chamber of Commerce 

Bengal, Government of 

B«rbice Gkueette, Proprietors of 

Bermuda Colonist, ^oprietors of 

Bermuda, Government of 

Bimetallic League 

Birch, E. W. (Straits Settlements) 

Blackie k Son, Messrs. 

Blackwood k Sons, Messrs. Wm. 

Board of Trade 

Boggie, A. (Bulawayo) 

Bombay, Government of 

Bouie, Gabriel (Mauritius) 

Boston PubUo Library 

Bourinot, Dr. J. G., C.M.G. (Canada) 

Bourne, Stephen 

Bowden, James 

Boyle, Sir Cavendish, K.C.M.G, 
(British Guiana) 

Bradford Public Free Libraries 

Bradley Garretson Co. (Toronto) 

Braga, J. P. (Hong Eong) 

Brassey, Bt. Hon. Lord, K.C.B. 

Breckenridge, Dr. R. M. (Pennsyl- 
vania, tJ.S.A.) 

Briggs, William (Toronto) 

Bright k Son, Messrs. F. J. 

Brigstocke, Rev. Canon (New Bruns- 

Brisbane Chamber of Commerce 

Brisbane Courier (Queensland), Pro- 
prietors of 

Bristol Public Libraries 

Britannia, Proprietors of 

Britbh and Foreign Anti-Slavery 

British and South African Export 
Gazette, Proprietors of 

British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science 

British Australasian, Proprietors of 

British Central Africa Gazette, Pro- 
prietors of 

British Columbia, Department of 

British Columbia Government Agency 

British Columbia, Government of 

British Columbia Reviewi Proprietors 

British Export Journal, Proprietors 

British Guiana Chamber of Commerce 

British Guiana, Government of 

British Guiana, Lnmigration Depart- 

British Guiana, Listitute of Mines 
and Forests 

British Guiana Mining Gazette, Pro- 
prietors of 

British Guiana, Royal Agricultural 
and Commercial Society of 

British Guiana, Surgeon-General 

British Honduras, Government of 

British Museum, Trustees of 

British New Guinea, Governor of 

British North Borneo Co. 

British North Borneo, Governor of 

British Realm, Proprietors of 

British South Africa Co. 

British Trade Journal, Proprietors of 

Brown, Dr. A. M. 

Brown, John H. (Ottawa) 

Brown, Ld., Messrs. T. B. 

Bryce, William (Toronto) 

Buchanan, W. F. (New South Wales) 

Budget (New Plymouth, New Zea- 
land), Proprietors of 

Buies, Arthur (Quebec) 

Buller, Sir Walter L., K.C.M.G. (Wei- 

Buluwayo Chronicle, Proprietors of 

Burbidge, Hon. Mr. Justice G. W. 

Borrows, S. M. (Ceylon) 

Cadieux& Derome, Messrs. (Montreal) 

Cadieux, Joseph (Montreal) 

Cairns Argus (Queensland), Proprie- 
tors of 

Canada, Department of Agriculture 
and Statistics 

Canada, Government of 

Canada, The High Commissioner for 

Canada, Royal Society of 

Canadian Bankers* Association (To- 

Canadian Institute (Toronto) 

Canadian Magazine (Toronto), Pro- 
prietors of 

Canadian Miner, Proprietors of 

Digitized by 



Thirtieth Ammal General Meeting. 

Canadian Mining Review, Proprietors 

Canadian Pacific Bailway Co. 

Canterbury Agricnltural and Pastoral 
Association (New Zealand) 

Canterbniy College (New Zealand) 

Canterbniy Times (New Zealand), 
Proprietors of 

Cape Argus, Proprietors of 

Cape Church Monthly, Proprietors of 

C^pe Illustrated Magazine, Proprie- 
tors of 

Cape Mercury, Proprietors of 

Cape of Good Hope, Agent-General for 

Cape of Good Hope, Department of 

Cape of Good Hope, Government of 

Cape Times, Proprietors of 

Cape Town Chamber of Commerce 

Capitalist, Proprietors of 

Capricomian (Queensland^ Proprie* 
tors of 

Cardiff Free Libraries 

Carnarvon, Dowager Countess of 

Carr, M. W. (Natal) 

Carswell Co. (Toronto) 

Cassell Sc Co., Messrs. 

Castaldi, E. (Malta) 

Ceylon, Government of 

Ceylon Government Becord Keeper 

Ceylon Examiner, Proprietors of 

Ceylon Monthly Literary Begister, 
Proprietors of 

Ceylon Observer, Proprietors of 

Ceylon School of Agriculture 

Ceylon, Surveyor-General of 

Chadwick, E. M. (Toronto) 

Chambers, E. T. D. (Quebec) 

Chapais, J. C. (Quebec) 

Chapman, C. W. (Melbourne) 

Charlottetown Heiald (P.E.I.), Pro- 
prietors of 

Charters Towers Chamber of Com- 
merce and Mines, Queensland 

Chatto & Windus, Messrs. 

Chemist and Druggist of Australasia, 
Proprietors of 

Ghrisp, Capt. Thomas (New Zealand) 

Christchurch Press (New Zealand), 
Proprietors of 

Christian, Charles (Cyprus) 

Christison, B. (Queensland) 

Church Missionary Society 

Citizen, Proprietors of 

City Leader, Proprietors of 

City Liberal Club 

Claxence and Bichmond Examiner 
(New Soutl^ Walep), Proprietors of 

Clarendon Press 

Clark, Mrs. Cresswell (Cape Colony 

Clement, W. H. P. (Toronto) 

Cleveland, E. A. (British Columbia 

Clougher, Joseph P. (Toronto) 

Clowes k, Sons, Messrs. Wm. 

Coffin, Dr. Victor (Wisconsin, U.S.A. 

Colby, Hon. C. C. (Quebec) 

Colliery Guardian, Proprietors of 

Colonial Bank 

Colonial College 

Colonial Gold Holds Gazette, Proprie- 
tors of 

Colonial Guardian (British Honduras 
Proprietors of 

Colonial Military (Gazette (New South 
Wales), Proprietors of 

Colonial Museum, Haarlem 

Colonial Office 

Colonies and Lidia, Proprietors of 

Colonist (Manitoba), Proprietors of 

Colonist, Proprietors of 

Commerce, Proprietors of 

Conmierdal Gazette (Mauritius), Pro- 
prietors of 

Commercial (Manitoba), Proprietors 

Comparative Synoptical Chart Co. 

Constable & Co., Messrs. A. 

Coolgardie Chamber of Mines 

Coorg, Chief Commissioner of 

Copp, Clark Co. (Toronto) 

Cot6 k, Co., Messrs. A. (Quebec) 

Coulon, Emile (Toronto) 

Coupal, M. (Quebec) 

Cox, Harold 

Critic (Transvaal), Proprietors of 

Crofton, F. Blake (Nova Scotia) 

Crow, C. (Victoria) 

Cundall, Frank (Jamaica) 

Currie, Mrs. Margaret G. (New 

Cyprus, Government of 

Daily British Whig (Canada), Pro- 
prietors of 

Daily Chronicle (British Guiana), 
Proprietors of 

Daily Commeroial News and Shipping 
List, Proprietors of (Sydney) 

Daily Telegraph (Napier, N.Z.), Pro- 
prietors of 

Daily Telegraph (New Brunswick), 
Proprietors of 

Daily Telegraph (Quebec) Proprie- 
tors of 

Davey, Flack, & Co., Messrs. 

Davin, N. F., M.P» Canada) 

Digitized by 


Thirtieth Armial General Meeting. 


DaTis/ Hon. N. Darnell, CM.a. 
(British Guiana) 

Davis & Sons, Messrs. P. (Natal) 

Dawson, Sir J. William, O.M.Q. 

Derby Free Public Library 

De Eolonist, Proprietors of 

Denny, G. A. 

Des Brisay, M. B. (Nova Scotia) 

Des Souza, M. C. (Jamaica) 

Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft 

De Zuid Af rikaan, Proprietors of 

Di Afrikaanse Patriot, Proprietors of 

Digby, Long, & Co., Messrs. 

Doberck, W. (Hong Kong) 

Dominica Guardian, Proprietors of ^ 

Dominican, Proprietors of 

Doughty, Arthur G., M.A. (Montreal) 

Duncan, Eric (British Columbia) 

Dundee Free Library 

Durban Chamber of Commerce 

Eaxle, E. M. (Jamaica) 

East Asia, Proprietor of 

Bast End Emigration Fund 

Bast Lidia Association 

Bastem Province Herald (Port Eliza- 
beth), Proprietors of 

Edwards & Co., Messrs. Dennis (Cape 

Edwards, Stanley 

Edwards, W. P. S. 

El Ingeniero Espanal, Proprietors of 

Emigrant and Greater Britain, Pro- 
prietors of 

Emigrants* Lif ormation Office 

Empire, Proprietors of 

European Mail, Proprietors of 

Evans, Capt. Samuel (Victoria) 

Eves, C. Washington, C.M.G, 

Express (Orange Free State), Pro- 
prietors of 

Eyre k Spottiswoode, Messrs. 

Fairchild, G. M., jun. (Quebec) 

Farlow, Miss Minnie 

Federalist (Grenada), Proprietors of 

Federated Malay States, Besident- 

Fenety, G. E. (New Brunswick) 

Ferguson, A. M 

Ferguson, Messrs. A. M. & J. (Ceylon) 

Fiji Colonist, Proprietors of 

Fiji, Gtovemment of 

Fiji Times, Proprietors of 

Financial Bulletin, Proprietors of 

Flag, The (Canada), Proprietors of 

Ford, Joseph C. (Jamaica) 

Fort Beaufort Advocate, Proprietors of 

Fraser, John (Quebec) 

Frearson & Brother, Messrs. (South 

Friend of tie Free State, Proprietors 

Friers Register, Proprietors of 

Frowde, Henry 

Galbraith, John (Toronto) 

Gall's News Letter (Jamaica), Pro- 
prietors of 

Gambia, Government of 

Garden and Field (South Australia), 
Proprietors of 

Gay & Bird, Messrs. 

(Gazette Printing Co. (Montreal) 

Geelong Advertiser, I^prietors of 

Gemmill, J. A. (Ottawa) 

Geological Survey of Canada 

Gteraldton Express (W. Australia), 
Proprietors of 

Geraldton-Murcbison Telegraph (W. 
Australia), Proprietors of 

Gibraltar, Government of 

Gisbome, Hon. William 

Godsal, Captain A. W. 

Crold Coast Chronicle, Proprietors of 

Crold Coast Colony, cfovemment of 

Crold Coast Independent, Proprietors 

Goldfields Courier (Coolgardie), Pro- 
prietors of 

Gold Fields News (Transvaal), Pro- 
prietors of 

Goldsbrough, Mort, & Co. (Mel- 

Gooneratne, B. R. (Ceylon) 

Crordon Sc Gotch, Messrs. 

Crorman, M. J. (Ontario) 

Gosling, Capt. A. Y. (Matabeleland) 

6k)S8elin, L'Abb^ A. (Quebec) 

Gough, E. H. 

€K>w, Wilson, 6c Stanton, Messrs. 

Graham, Mrs. E. Jeffers (Canada) 

Graham, W. T. (Johannesburg) 

Green, Morton (Natal) 

Green, Mrs. 

Greenwood, A. E. (Toronto) 

Grenada, Government of 

Griffith, Sir Samuel W., G.C.M.G. 

Griffith, Farran, Browne, & Co. 

Gripsack, Proprietors of 

Grossi, Prof. D. V. (Rome) 

Guardian (New Zealand), Proprietors 

Guillaumin et Cie. (Paris) 

Haddon & Co., Messrs. John 

Haggard, F. T. 

Bague^ George (Canada) 

Digitized by 



Thirtieth Ammal OmmU Meetings 

HaUfaz Herald (Noys Sootia), Fro- 

Han, Maxwell (Jamaica) 
Hamilton, A. (New Zealand) 
Hamilton Association (Ouiada) 
Hamilton, J. J. (Toronto) 
HanitBch, B. (Singapore) 
Harbor Grace Standard (Newfound- 
land), Pn^rietors of 
Hardy, H. R. (Toronto) 
Harkness, Adam (IroqnoiB, Canada) 
Harper Brothers, Messrs. 
Harris, Colonel J. 
Harrison, Frank (Seychelles) 
Harrison, J. B. (British Guiana) 
Harrison, Major Edward (Ottawa) 
Hart, Francis 
Hart, J. H. (Trinidad) 
Haszard & Moore, Messrs. (Prince 

Edward Island) 
Hazell, Watson, k Yiney, Messrs. 
Heaton, William H. 
Henderson, G. B. (Toronto) 
Henderson, J. B. (Queensland) 
Heneage, Charles 
Het Dagblad, Proprietors of 
HiU, Bobert B. (Manitoba) 
Hilts, Bey. Joseph H. (Ontario) 
Hobart Mercury, Proprietors of 
Hodder & Stonghton, Messrs. 
Hogan, James F., M.P. 
Home and Colonial Mail, Proprietors 

Home and Farm (N.S.W.), Proprietors 

Home News, Proprietors of 
Hong Kong Chamber of Commerce 
Hong Kong Daily Press, Proprietors of 
Hong Kong, Government of 
Hong Kong, Medical Department 
Hong Kong Telegraph, Proprietors of 
Ho^vf^urd Association 
Hunter, Sir William W.,K.O.S.I., CLE 
Hurley, B. C. (Hong Kong) 
Hurst & Blackett, Messrs. 
Hutton, Colonel E. T. H., C.B., A.D.C. 
Hyderabad, Besident at 
Ideal Publishing Union 
Imperial Institute 
Imperial Press 
Imrie, John (Toronto) 
India, Secretory of State for 
Indian and Eastern Engineer, Pro* 

prietors of 
Innes & Co., Messrs. A. D. 
Inquirer and Commercial News 

(Western Australia), Proprietors 


Institnt Ooloniale Intenuitt(mal« Bnnt- 

Institute of Bankers 
Instituteof COiemistryof Grea^Britaib 
Institution of Civil Bngineen 
Intercolonial Medical Joiimsd of 

Australasia, Proinietors of 
Invention, Proprietors of 
Investor, Proprietors of 
Iredell, Dr. Charles (Melbourne) 
Irish Times, Proprietors of 
Isbister Sc Co., Messrs. 
Jack, Bobert L., F.G.S. (Qneeisland) 
Jakeway, C. E. (Canada) 
Jamaica Agricultural Society 
Jamaica Board of Supervision 
Jamaica Botanical Departm»!it 
Jamaica Gleaner, Proprietors of 
Jamaica, Government of 
Jamaica Institute 
Jamaica Post, Proprietors of 
Jamaica, Begistrar-General 
James, W. T. (Toronto) 
Japan Society 

Japan Weekly Times, Proprieton of 
Jemingham, Sir Hubert B. H., 

K.C.M.G. (Trinidad) 
Johns, Percy (Kimberley) 
Johnson, A. 

Johnson, George (Ottawa) 
Johnson, J. C. F. (South Australia) 
Johnston, Messrs. W. & A. S[. 
Johnstone, Bobert (Jamaica) 
Juta k Co., Messrs. J. C. (Gape 

Kalgoorlie Western Argus (Western 

Australia), Proprietors of 
Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, k Co., 

Kelly and Walsh, Messrs. (Hcmg 

Kew Boyal Gkurdens, Director of 
Kilbum Public Library 
Kingsley, Miss Mary H. 
Kirby, James (Victoria) 
Klondyke Beview, Proprietors of 
Knowles, J. S. (New Brunswick) 
Koninklijk Instituut ('s Gravenhage ) 
Krugersdorp Times (Transvaal), Pro- 
prietors of 
La Belgique Coloniale (Bmxelles) 

Proprietors of 
Labuan, Governor of 
Lagos, Government of 
Lagos Standard, Proprietors of 
Lagos Weekly Becord, Proprieton of 
Lanoefield, B. T. (Ontario) 
Land BoU, Proprietors of 

Digitized by 


Thirtieth Anrmal Oeneral Meeting. 


Lace, John 

La Eevue Canadienne, Proprietors of 
Launceston Examiner, Proprietors of 
Lawrence Sc Bullen, Messrs. 
Lee, Edmnnd 
Leeds Public Free Library 
Leeward Islands, Qovemment of 
Leibbrandt, H. C. V. (Cape Town) 
Le Moine, Sir James M. (Quebec) 
Library Syndicate (Cambridge) 
Lightbourne, J. N. (St. Thomas, W. I.) 
Lighthall, W. D. (Montreal) 
Liverpool Geographical Society 
Liverpool Public Libraries 
Lloyd, Charles W. (New South Wales) 
liockwood Sc Son, Messrs. Crosby 
London Chamber of Commerce 
Longland, Henry (Johannesburg) 
Longmans, Green & Co., Messrs. 
Lorin, Henri (Tunis) 
Lovell 8c Son, Messrs. John (Montreal) 
Low, Marston, Sc Co., Messrs. Sampson 
Lubbock, Nevile 
Lunn, Dr. Henry S. 
Lyttelton Times (New Zealand), Pro- 
prietors of 
Macartney, Bev. H. B. (Melbourne) 
Macbeth, Eev. R. G. (Manitoba) 
McConnilE, John (Montreal) 
McCurdy, Prof. J. F. (Toronto) 
McDonald, D. 

MaoFarlane, R. (Winnipeg) 
McGill College and University 

Machinery, Proprietors of 
Mackay Standard (Queensland), Pro- 
prietors of 
Mackenzie, J. B. (Canada) 
Mackenzie, M. A. (Canada) 
Mackie, David 
McNaughton, Mrs. Margaret (British 

MacQueen, John 
Madras Chamber of Commerce 
l^adras. Government of 
Madras Mail, Proprietors of 
Maitland Mercury (New South Wales), 

Proprietors of 
Malcomson, S. (Canada) 
Malta Chamber of Commerce 
Malta Chronicle, Proprietors of 
Malta, Government of 
Manchester Free Public Libraries 
Manchester Geographical Society 
Manitoba, Department of Agricul* 

Manitoba Free Press, Proprietors of 
Manitoba, Government of 

Manitoba Historical and Scientific 

Mark Lsuie Express, Proprietors of 
Marks, Percy J. (New South Wales) 
Marshall Sc Sons, Messrs. Horace 
Marshall Brothers, Messrs. 
Marshall, Bussell, Sc Co., Messrs. 
Marston, B. B. 

Martin, J. Phillip (British Columbia) 
Maryborough Chamber of Commerce 

Maryborough Colonist, ProprietoAi 

Massina Sc Co., Messrs. A. H. (Mel- 
Matabele Times, Proprietors of 
Mathers, E. P. 

Mathieson Sc Co., Messrs. F. C. 
Mauritius Chamber of Commerce 
Mauritius, Government of 
Mavrogordato, T. B. (Cyprus) 
Maxwell, C. F. (Melbourne) 
Maxwell, Sir William B., K.C.M.G, 
Melbourne Age, Proprietors of 
Melbourne Argus, I^prietors of 
Melbourne Chamber of Commerce 
Melbourne Club (Bulawayo) 
Melbourne Diocesan Registry 
Melbourne Exhibition !]&ustees 
Melbourne Leader, Proprietors of 
Melbourne Sun, Proprietors of 
Melbourne UniverBi^ 
Menzies, Miss Mary J. (Canada) 
Mercantile Advertiser (Transvaal), 

Proprietors of 
Mercantile Guardian, Proprietors of 
Methuen Sc Co., Messrs. 
Midland News (Cape Colony), Pro- 
prietors of 
Might Directory Co. (Toronto) 
Miles Sc Co., Messrs. E. D. (Charters 

Towers, Queensland) 
Miller, C. A, DufE 

Miner, The (British Columbia), Pro- 
prietors of 
Mining Journal (Western Australia), 

Proprietors of 
Mining Record (British Oolnmbia), 

Proprietors of 
Minto, Charles (Montreal) 
Mizzi, M. A. M. 
Moffat, A. G. 
Monetary Times (Canada), Proprietors 

Money, Proprietors of 
Montminy, L*Abb6 T. (Quebec) 
Montreal Board of Trade 
Montreal Daily Star, Proprietors of 

Digitized by 



Thirtieth AnrnuA General Meeting. 

Montreal Hlurbout Comnussioners 

Montreal Historical and Scientific So- 

Montreal Weekly Herald, Proprietors 

Montreal Witness, Proprietors of 

Montserrat Go. 

Moore, W. H. (Antigua) 

Morang, George N. (Toronto) 

Morgan, H. J. (Canada) 

Morgan, 8. Yaughan 

Morris, Dr. D., C.M.G. 

Morton, James (Canada) 

Mount Alexander Mail (Victoria), 
Proprietors of 

MuUins, Dr. G. L. (Sydney) 

Murray, John 

Musson, 0. J. (Toronto) 

Myers-Funnell, Dr. R. V. (Ottawa) 

Mysore, Resident in 

Nadaillac, Marquis de (Paris) 

Nash, F. W. (Mauritius) 

Nassau Guardian (Bi^amas), Pro- 
prietors of 

Natal, Agent-General for 

Natal, General Manager of Railways of 

Natal, Gtovemment of 

Natal, Port Captain 

Natal Mercury, Proprietors of 

Natal Witness, Proprietors of 

National Club 

Nation^ Geographic Society, Wash- 
ington, U.S.A. 

Navy League 

Nederlandsche Maatschappij ter 
bevordering van Nijverheid 

Negri Sembilan, British Resident at 

Nelson Evening Mail (New Zealand), 
Proprietors of 

Neumann, J. O. 

New Brunswick, Government of 

New Brunswick, Natural History 
Society of 

Newcastle Chamber of Commerce 
(New South Wales) 

Newcastle Morning Herald (New 
South Wales'^, Proprietors of 

New Century Review, Proprietors of 

Newfoundland, Crovemment of 

New South Wales, Agent-General for 

New South Wales, Department of 
Mines and Agriculture 

New South Wales, Engineering So- 
ciety of 

New South Wales, Government of 

New South Wales Institute of Bankers 

New South Wales, National Associa- 
tion o| 

New South Wales Railway Commis-^ 

New South Wales, Royal Society of 
New Zealand, Agent-General for 
New Zealand, Bimetallic League of 
New Zealand, Dei^artment of Labour 
New Zealand General Assembly 

New Zealand, Government of 
New Zealand Graphic, Proprietors 

New Zealand Herald, Proprietors of 
New Zealand Institute 
New Zealand Mining Journal, Pro- 
prietors of 
New Zealand, National Association of 
New Zealand, Registrar-General of 
New Zealand Trade Review, Proprico 

tors of 
New Zealand University 
New Zealand Wheelman, Proprietors 

News Printing Co. (Toronto) 
Nicholson, Sir Charles, Bart. 
Nickerson, M. H. (Nova Scotia) 
Nimrod Club 

Nisbet & Co., Messrs. James 
Noronha &; Co., Messrs. (Hong Kong) 
North Borneo Herald, Proprietors of 
Northern Argus (Queendand), I^- 

prietors of 
Northern Territory Times (S. Aus- 

tralia). Proprietors of 
North Queensland Herald, Proprietors 

North Queensland Register, Propria 

tors of 
North- West Provinces and Oudh 

(India), Government of 
North-West Territories of Canada, 

Government of 
Norton-Kyshe, James W. (Hong 

Norwich Free Library 
Nova Scotia, Government of 
Nova Scotian Institute of Science 
Oamaru Mail (New Zealand), Pro* 

prietors of 
0*Brien, A. H. (Ottawa) 
Ollendorff, Paul (Paris) 
Ontario, Bureau of Mines 
Ontario, Department of Agriculture 
Ontario, Government of 
Ontario, Minister of Education 
Otago Daily Times (New Zealand), 

I^prietors of 
Otago University (New Zealand) 
Otago Witne3s, Proprietors of 

Digitized by 


Thirtieth Atmudl General Meeting. 


Ofctawa Daily Citizen, Proprietors of 

Pahang, British Besident 

Panneton, L*Abb6 J. E. (Quebec) 

Partridge & Co., Messrs. S. W. 

Pascoe, C. E. 

Passee, T. E. (Grenada) 

Paulusz, E. (Ceylon) 

Payne, J. A. Otonba (Lagos) 

Perak, British Resident 

Perera, M. Anthony (Ceylon) 

Perkins, H. A 

Petherick, E. A. 

Pinang Gazette, Proprietors of 

Pinnock, James 

Planters & Commercial Gazette (Mau- 
ritius), Proprietors of 

Planters' Association of Ceylon 

Planter's Gazette, Proprietors of 

Fohath-Kahelpannala, T. B. (Ceylon) 

Polynesian Gaizette (Fiji), Proprietors 

Polynesian Society (New Zealand) 

Poole, Mrs. H. B. (New York) 

Pope, Joseph (Ottawa) 

Port Elizabeth Chamber of Com- 

Port of Spain Gazette, Proprietors of 

Potchefstroom Budget, Proprietors of 

Pouliot, J. Camille (Quebec) 

Powell, Dr. R. W. (Ottawa) 

Preston, T. 

Pretoria Press (Transvaal), Proprietors 

Previte, J. W. 

Priestley, H. (Sydney) 

Prince Edward Island, Government of 

Procter, J. J. (Quebec) 

Produce World, Proprietors of 

Province Publishing Co. (British 

Province, The (British Columbia), Pro- 
prietors of 

Pablic Opinion (Malta), Proprietors 

Punch, Cyril (Lagos) 

Punjab, Government of 

Putney Free Public Library 

Quebec, Geographical Society of 

Quebec, Government of 

Queen's College and University, Kings- 
ton, Canada 

Queensland, Agent-General for 

Queensland, Department of Agricul- 

Queensland Geological Survey Depart- 

Queensland, Government of 

Queensland Mercantile Gazette, Pro- 
prietors of 

Queensland, Registrar-General of 

Queensland, Royal Society of 

Queenslander, Proprietors of 

Queenstown Free Press (Cape Colony), 
Proprietors of 

Railway World, Proprietors of 

Rand, Theodore H. (Toronto) 

Ratcliffe, W. A. (Toronto) 

Rayner, Chief Justice T. C. (Lagos) 

Read, D. B., Q.C. (Toronto) 

Reid, Dr. Lrvine K. (British Guiana) 

Religious Tract Society 

Review of Reviews, Proprietor of 

Rhodesia Herald, Proprietors of 

Rhodesia, Proprietors of 

Richards Sc Son, Messrs. W. A. (Cape 

Richards, Grant 

Rider & Son, Messrs. W. 

Robertson & Co., Messrs. G. (Mel- 

Robertson, J. Ross (Toronto) 

Robertson, Messrs. J. & Co. (Edin- 

Robertson, W. J. (Canada) 

Sosa, Narcisse (Quebec) 

Rose & Co., Messrs. G. M. (Toronto) 

Rossland Miner (British Columbia)) 
Proprietors of 

Routledge & Sons, Messrs. George 

Roxburghe Press, The 

Roy, J. Edmond (Canada) 

Royal Asiatic Society 

Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch) 

Royal Asiatic Society (Straits 

Royal Electric Co. (Montreal) 

Royal Engineers' Institute, Chatham 

Royal Geographical Society 

Royal Geographical Society of Aus- 
tralasia (Queensland Branch) 

Royal Geographical So6iety of Aus- 
. tralasia (South Australian Branch) 

Royal Geographical Society of Aus« 
tralasia (Sydney Branch) 

Royal Geographical Society of Aus- 
tralasia (Victoria Branch) 

Royal Humane Society of Australasia 

Royal Institution 

Royal Niger Co. 

Royal Scottish Geographical Society 

Royal Society of Literature 

Royal Statistical Society 

Royal Dnited Service Institution 

Ruddy, E. L» (Montreal) 

Russell, H. C, C.M.G. (N,S. Wales) 

Digitized by 



ThtrtUih Annual Oen&ral Meeting. 

BnsBell, John (Sdaagor> 

Sache, A. O. (Melbourne) 

8t. Bartholomew's Hospital Journal, 
Editor of 

St. Christopher Advertiser, Proinie- 

St. George, Hanover Square, Pnblio 

St. George's Chronicle (Grenada), 
Proprietora of 

St. Helena Guardian, Proprietcnrs of 

St. Lucia, Administrator of 

St. Yinoent, Administrator of 

Sarawak, Government of 

Saturday Kight (Toronto), ProfHietors 

Saunders, Alfred (Kew Zealand) 

Savage Club 

Savary, A. W. (Nova Scotia) 

Savignj, Mrs. Annie G. (Toronto) 

Saville-Kent, W., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

Scottish Farmer, Proprietors of 

Selangor, British Resident at 

Sentry (St. Vincent), Proprietors of 

Seychelles, Gov^nmi^t of 

Shaw, Miss Flora L. 

Shaw & Co. Messrs. John F. 

Shepherd, Percy G. (Johannesburg) 

Sierra Leone, Cfovemment of 

Sierra Leone Times, Proprietors of 

Sierra Leone Weekly News, Proprie- 
tors of 

Silver, S. W. 

Sim, Major-General E. C. 

Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilt(m, Kent & 
Co., Messrs. 

SingiqK>re and Straits Directory, 
^oprietors of 

Singapore Chamber of Commerce 

Singapore Free Press, Proprietors of 

Skeffington & Sim^ Messrs. 

Skinner, Lt.^oL M. W. 

Skinner, W. B. 

Slater, Josiah<Cape Colony) 

Smily, Frederick (Toronto) 

Smith, Charles (New Zealand) 

Smith, Elder & Co., Messrs. 

Smith, Lyman C. (Oshawa, Canada) 

Smithsonian Institution (Washing- 
ton, a.S.A.) 

Smythe, A. E. S. (Toronto) 

Snow, F. Longueville (Monti^al) 

Society d'BralorasioBe Commerciale 
in Africa (Milan) 

Soci6t6 d-Etudes Coloniales (Bmz- 

Society for Pi<»ioting Christian 

Society of Arts 

Society of Cmnparative Legislation 

Somerset Budget (Cape Colony), Pro- 
prietors <rf 

Somerville, A. F. 

Sonnenschein & Co., Messrs. Swan 

South Africa, Proprietors of 

South African Agriculturist, Proprie- 
tors of 

South African Catholic Magazine, 
Proprietors of 

South African Educational News, 
Proprietors of 

South African Medical Jonmal, Pro- 
prietors of 

South African Mining Journal, Pro- 
prietors of 

South African News, Proprietors of 

South African Review, Proprietors of 

South African Star, Proprietors of 

South Australia, Government Astro- 

South Australia, Govenmient of 

South Australia, Railways Commis- 
sioner of 

South Australia, Royal Society of 

South Australian Advertiser, Pro* 
prietors of 

South Australian Register, Proprietors 

South Australian School of Mines 

South Australian Zoological and Ac- 
climatisation Society 

Southern Cross (Cape Colony), Pro- 
prietors of 

Southland Times (New Zealand), Pro- 
prietors of 

Southwood, Smith & Co., Messrs. 

Spottiswoode 6c Co., Messrs. 

Standard and Diggers' News (Trans* 
vaal), Proprietors of 

Stanford, Edward 

Star (Transvaal), Proprietors of 

Stark, James (Ontario) 

Steeves, C. A. (New Brunswick) 

Stevens, W. Barclay (Montreal) 

Stevenson, F. J. (Allahabad) 

Stewart, Charles 

Stewart, Dr. James (Lovedale, South 

Stirling and Glasgow Public library 

Stock and Station Journal (N^. 
Wales), Pro^etors of 

Straits Settlements, Government of 

Straits Times, Proprietors of 

Stuart, J. (Rangoon) 

Sugar Journal and Tropical Culti- 
vator (Queensland), Proprietors of 

Digitized by 


!&MiMk Amual QaunH MeeUa^. 


ttirfiejror, Fropxietors oi 

Suttoll, 0. W. 

Sydney Chamber of Commerce 

Sydney Daily Telegraph, Proprietors 

Sydney Mail, Proprietors of 
Sydney Morning Herald, Proprietors 

Sydney Stock and Station Joomal, 

Proprietors of 
Sydney Trade Review, Proprietors of 
Sydney University 
Symon, J. H. (South Australia) 
Symons, G. J., F Jl^. 
Table Talk (Melbourne), Proprietors 

Tasmania, Attorney-Genera 
Tasmania, General Manager of Bail- 
Tasmania, Government of 
Tasmania, Registrar-General 
Tasmania, Snrveyor-Gteneral 
Tasmanian Mail, Proprietors of 
Tate Public Library, Streatham 
Tennant, Robert 
TStn, Mgr. Henri (Quebec) 
Thacker & Co., Messrs. W. 
Thacker, Spink & Co., Messrs. '(Cal- 
Theoret, C. (Montreal) 
Thornton, Surgeon-General James H. 
Thwaite, B. H. 
Tichbome, H. 

Timaru Herald, Proprietors of 
Timber Trades Journal, Proprietors of 
Times (Barbados) Proprietors of 
Times of Africa, Proprietors of 
Times of Natal, Proprietors of 
Tinling & Co., Messrs. 
Toronto Globe, Proprietors of 
Toronto Public Library, Canada 
Toronto School of Practical Science 
Toronto University (Canada) 
Torres Strait Pilot, Proprietors of 
Toynbee, Captain Henry 
Traaqiort, Proprtetors of 
Transvaal Advertiser, Proprietors of 
Transvaal, The, Proprietors of 
Trimmer, F. Mortimer 
Trinidad Agricultural Society 
Trinidad Centenary Celebration Com« 

Trinidad Chamber of Coounerca 
Trinidad, Qovermnent of 
Trinidad Receiver-General 
Trinity University (Toronto) 
ImpMk Afiieiiitiirist (Oeyioc), Pro- 

Tucker, Mrs. BUzabeth S. (Canada) 
Tyneside G^graphical Society 
Union Coloniale Fran^aise (Fktris) 
United Service Grazette, I^oprietors 

United Service Institution of N.S. 

United Service Institution of Victoria 
United States, Department of State 
Universities Mission to Central Africa 
Unwin, T. Fisher 
Yacher & Sons, Messrs. 
Vaughan, J. D. W. (Fiji) 
Victoria, Actuary for Friendly So* 

Victoria, Agent-General tor 
Victoria Colonist (British Columbia), 

Proprietors of 
Victoria, Department of Agriculture 
Victoria, Government of 
Victoria, Government Statist 
Victoria Institute 
Victoria Medical Board 
Victoria, Pharmacy Board of 
Victoria Public Library, Museum, ice. 
Victoria, Royal Society of 
Victoria Times (British Columbia), 

Proprietors of 
Voice (St. Lucia), Proprietors of 
Wagga Wagga Express (New South 

Wales), Proprietors of 
Waghom, J. R. (Winnipeg) 
Walcott, R. A. (Jamaica) 
Walker, Edmund (Ceylon) 
Walker, Rev. W. W. (Canada) 
War Office 

Ward, Lock & Co., Messrs. 
Wame & Co., Messrs. F. 
Weatherill &; Co., Messrs. (Brisbane) 
Weddel & Co., Messrs. W. 
Weedon T. (Queensland) 
Weekly Columbian (British Colum* 

l»a). Proprietors of 
Weekly Official Intelligence, Pro- 
prietors of 
Weekly Recorder (Barbados), Pro* 

prietors of 
Weekly Sun (New Brunswick) Pro- 
prietors of 
Weir, B. S. (Montreal) 
Wellington Harbour Boards (New 

West Australian, Proprietors of 
West Australian Review^ Promietors 

Western Australia, Agent-General iot^ 
W^rtem Austnlia, Conservator of 


Digitized by 



Thirtieth Annual GMierdl Meeting^ 

Western Australia, D^>artment of 

Western Australia, Government of 

Western Australia, Postmaster- 

Western Australia, Begistrar-Gteneral 

Western Mail (Western Australia), 
Proprietors of 

Western World (Manitoba), Pro- 
prietors of 

West Indian Home Builder (Barba- 
dos), Proprietors of 

Westralia, Proprietors of 

White & Co., Messrs. F. V. 

White, Colonel W. (Canada) 

AVhite, W. H. (Montreal) 

White, W. J. (Montreal) 

Whitington, Miss L. S. (S. Australia) 

Williams k Norgate, Messrs, 
Willmott, Arthur B. (Toronto) 
Wilson, Effingham 
Windsor Public Library (Ontario) 
Windward Islands, Government of 
Wintle, Ernest D. (Montreal) 
Witherby & Co., Messrs. 
Witwatersrand Chamber of Mines 
Woodruff, John (Canada) 
Wynberg Times, Proprietors of 
Year Book of Australia Publishing Co. 
Young, Brigadier-General G. F., C.B. 
Young, Rev. Egerton R. (Canada) 
Young, Rev. George (Canada) 
Young, Sir Frederick, K.C.M.G. 
Zanzibar Gazette, Proprietors of 
Zululand, Resident Commissioner of 


Mode of Acquisition 






Donations.* . . * 






Purchase ••«..*.•...«..•.*. 







The Council are indebted to The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation 
Company, The Castle Mail Packet Company, and The Royal Mail Steam Packet 
Company for their assistance in the distribution of the *' Proceedings " of the 
Institute in various parts of the world. 


^he Hon. Treasurer (Sir Montagu F. Ommannby, K.C.M.G.) : I 
had begun to hope that, with advantage to yourselves, you had 
decided to Extend the operation of your very sensible rule, under 
which you take the Report of the Council as read, and to treat the 
observations of your Hon. Treasurer as having been already made. 
For, in truth, I can add very little to what has already been said 
very much better, because more briefly aUd concisely, in the Report 
of the Council. I can tell you very little that is new, but, although 
I have to deal with figures, yet I claim for what I have to say that 
it is, at all events, true. It is now more than ten years since I 
first had the honour of congratulating you in this room on the 
satisfactory coi^tion of the Royal Colonial Institute. Each year 

Digitized by 


Thirtieth Annual General Meeting. 161 

I have had to repeat these congratulations, and year by year I 
have realised more strongly the difficulty of painting the lily and 
gilding refined gold. To-day I suppose I must strike once again 
the familiar key-note, and I think I am perhaps justified in placing 
it on this occasion somewhat higher in the scale than usual, for 
1897, as indeed befits the year of the Diamond Jubilee of her Most 
Gracious Majesty, has been in every sense a record year for the 
Institute. Never, during the thirty years of its existence, has the 
muster roll of Membership of the Institute stood so high. It 
numbers to-day 4,138 Fellows, one-fourth of whom — ^nearly 1,000 
— have given practical proof of their faith in the soundness not 
only of their own constitutions but also in that of the Institute by 
becoming Life Members. You have started this year with a 
balance in hand of about £1,200. You leave off with a balance in 
hand of about £2,500. Your receipts for the year have exceeded 
those of any previous year, and have reached a total of more than 
£9,000. Your Council has adhered to the wise policy adopted for 
years past of applying its surplus revenues to the reduction of debt, 
and will be enabled this year to pay off about £1,635 more of the 
debt than the stipulated amount. That debt, which only eleven 
years ago stood at over £35,000, is now under £20,000. We have 
been fortunate also this year in reducing the rate of interest to 3jr 
per cent. I have very little to observe as regards the expenditure 
side of the account. The items are most of them much as in 
previous years. A considerable expenditure was, of course, incurred 
over the functions and festivities by which the Institute marked 
and celebrated the Jubilee, but these were so well organised as to 
have been almost entirely self-supporting, and the total demand made 
upon our revenue on that account has been a trifle over £60 only. 
Your statement of assets and liabilities is, perhaps, after all, the 
clearest guide to your financial position. I think I may safely say 
that the liabilities have been very fully estimated, and the assets 
have certainly not been over valued; nevertheless there is a 
balance in favour of these assets of over £41,000, against a similar 
balance last year of about £88,000. These, gentlemen, are the 
salient features of your accounts. It seems to me that they are 
signs of healthful activity and growing development. They speak 
for themselves, and I need not enlarge upon them further. But I 
think I have said enough to satisfy you that the Eoyal Golonia 
Institute was never in a more sound financial condition than that 
in which it finds itself to-day. 

The Chaibman, in rising to move the adoption of the Report of 


Digitized by 


19A Thirtieth Armual General Meeting, 

the Council and Statement of Acconnts, said : I am prompted to 
remark that the period referred to has been particularly notable, as 
having presented to the world at large a striking object-lesson of 
the power and soHdarity of the British Empire. The Diamond 
Jubilee celebrations will long be remembered as emblematic of the 
loyalty and patriotism of a united people whose colonising instincts 
have broken down oppression and diffused the blessings of liberty 
and civilisation in every quarter of the globe. As was natural on 
such an occasion, the Eoyal Colonial Institute took a prominent part 
in the general rejoicings, and organised several highly important de- 
monstrations in honour of the completion of the sixtieth year of Her 
Majesty's auspicious and beneficent reign. As regards the present 
position of the Institute, after a healthy life of thirty years' duration, 
it is fully set forth in the Beport before you, which sufficiently 
proves that it has justified its existence as a self-supporting Society 
established in the interests of the nation. It cannot be forgotten that 
in the days of its infancy there was no little scepticism as to its 
future. Indeed, I remember the late Duke of Manchester expressing 
to me a fear lest we should become a body of mere dilettantists. 
Events, however, have proved that the Institute was founded on a 
sound and durable basis, and has taken deep root as an indispen- 
sable institution. We may fairly lay claim to having exercised no 
inconsiderable influence in moulding public opinion to an adequate 
realisation of the duties that this country owes to the great British 
communities beyond the seas, and in cultivating sentiments of 
mutual sympathy and kinship. You will see that our Membership 
has reached over 4,100, and that there has been a corresponding 
growth of income, which exceeded ^7,500 last year. Unfortunately 
we have to deplore the removal by death of a large number of 
Fellows, many of whom have rendered conspicuous services to their 
Queen and Country, and helped to build up a world-wide Empire 
on which the sun never sets. The meetings of the Institute have 
been unusually well attended ; the subjects under discussion have 
been varied and instructive, and the high standard of the papers has 
been well maintained. The Library has received additions of great 
value, and is second to none in its wealth of Colonial literature. 
The Information Office receives and answers a continually increasing 
number of inquiries on subjects relating to the Colonies and India, 
which cover a very wide range. The teaching of geography in 
schools — especially in relation to the British Empire, which must 
be of essential service to all young people in after life — receives the 
encouragement of the Council in every possible way. The Report 

Digitized by 


iJhiftieth Annual General Meeting. l68 

aUudes i6 the Conference recently held in London, when the Secre- 
tary of State for the Colonies and the Colonial Premiers discussed 
a variety of matters of mutual concern. It is gratifying to know 
that a similar exchange of views will take place from time to time 
as opportunity arises. The efforts that are being made to frame a 
Federal constitution for the Australian Colonies are regarded with 
sympathetic interest, and it is hoped the Conference now assembled 
in Melbourne will consolidate the work of those that preceded it. 
The desirability of fostering inter-British trade is emphasised in the 
Report, and the question has come under discussion at several 
meetings of Fellows. The grave crisis that threatens the sugar- 
producing Colonies forms the subject of a separate paragraph, and 
strong hopes are expressed that Her Majesty's Government will take 
prompt action to avert the serious disabilities under which they labour 
through the operation of the foreign bounty system. Since the 
date of the Report, the completion of direct telegraphic communica- 
tion with the West Indies has been announced, and it is no longer 
necessary that messages should be sent byway of the United States. 
The completion of railway communication with Bulawayo cannot 
fail to be attended with highly beneficial results. It is interesting 
to remark that simultaneously with the rejoicings that took place 
in Rhodesia, when the line was officially opened by the High Com- 
missioner, a paper on South African Railways was read before this 
Institute by the Agent-General for the Cape of Good Hope. The 
loss of life that has been occasioned in India by one of the most 
widespread famines on record, and the serious outbreak of plague 
which unfortunately still prevails, are deplored by us, in common 
with the whole nation. At last year's annual meeting reference was 
made to the serious objections which exist to the payment of double 
income tax, that is, the payment of income tax in the United King- 
dom on income earned and already taxed, as such, in other parts 
of the British Empire. The' subject continues to crop up from 
time to time, and the Council carefully note the communications 
they receive, as well as those addressed to the press. It appears to 
the Council, however, that having set the ball rolling by memorial- 
ising the Chancellor of the Exchequer and advocating the alteratioil 
of the existing law, their hands require strengthening by a strong 
body of public opinion, and by the question being taken up in Par- 
liament. They will always be ready at the proper time to lend 
their support to any movement in the same direction, whenever it 
can be shown that it is endorsed by public opinion to such an ex-» 
tlSirt as would jttstify their again approaching Her Majesty's Govern* 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 

164 Thirtieth Annual General Meeting. 

ment, for they still believe that the claims put forward in the Me- 
morial are fomided on just grounds. I now move the adoption of 
the Annual Beport of the Council, and also of the Statement of 

Mr. J. F. HoGAN, M.P*, seconded the motion. 

Mr. Fbedebice Dutton : As a Member of the Council more par- 
ticularly entrusted with the question referred to by the Chairman, 
namely, the question of Income Tax, I should like to take this 
opportunity of making one or two short observations in regard to 
the present position of the matter. The question is one which has 
attracted a considerable degree of interest, and which, in my judg- 
ment, will in the near future attract still more interest. It is only 
by degrees that people are beginning to find out that the question 
is being raised in public form. It will be within the recollection of 
the Fellows that the Institute recently took action in this matter by 
the presentation of a memorial to the Chancellor of the Exchequer. 
That memorial, which was prepared, I may say, with a considerable 
degree of care by Sir Frederick Young, Sir James Garrick and 
myself, went into the various Acts relating to the payment of 
income tax. In this country I would remind you that income 
tax is chargeable upon all income derived in the several ways 
defined in the Schedules of the Act from property within the United 
Kingdom, or businesses carried on in the United Kingdom by all 
persons, whether they reside here or not. That is a perfectly fair 
principle. It is also charged upon all incomes received by persons 
residing in the United Kingdom, from property elsewhere than in 
the United Kingdom, whether foreign countries or our own Colonies. 
Anybody who resides here six months, if he derive the whole of his 
income from a Colony, pays income tax upon that over here. On 
investigating the Colonial Acts, we find that, with one exception — 
that of New Zealand, where the accuracy of our interpretation of 
the Act was, after the presentation of the memorial, questioned by 
some gentlemen resident in that Colony — the general principle upon 
which the taxation is based is to tax any income derived from pro- 
perty situated within, or business carried on within, the territorial 
limits of the Colony imposing the tax ; while income received by 
persons living in a particular Colony, derived from property outside 
that Colony, is not taxed, it being, in the case of some Colonies, 
expressly exempted, and in others not within the operative words 
of their Act. That appeared to us an extremely fair principle. It 
is not the principle of the Acts here, but it is a principle which we 
feel we can really urge upon the Government ought to be the prin- 

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Thirtieth Annual Oeneral Meeting. 166 

ciple of our Acts, and that, if necessary, there should be an amend- 
ment of the law to give effect to it. This being so, what we urge 
in our memorial is that, although we cannot question the actual 
right of Parliament to impose any tax, still all taxation should be 
just and expedient, and ought not to be in such a form as to create 
any general discontent. We felt that this is a form of taxation 
which is creating discontent, and will continue to do so. It is not 
to our minds right that an exactly similar form of tax should be 
charged on the same property in two different portions of Her 
Majesty's Empire. That is shortly the ground we take up. The 
tax is charged on the income in the Colony where it is earned, and 
if it happens to be received and spent by somebody in this country, 
the same income is subject to the same form of taxation again. 
The reply of the Chancellor of the Exchequer shows, at all events, 
that the matter has been carefully gone into by the Treasury, and 
I would recommend any Fellow of the Institute wishing to see the 
exact position of the matter to obtain from our Secretary one of the 
printed forms of our memorial and the reply, because we should be 
very glad at any time to receive any (observation members might be 
able to make in regard to any of the arguments advanced in reply 
to our memorial. Shortly, the substance of the reply is, first of all, 
that the Government do not see any injustice in income being sub- 
jected to a tax in the Colony where that income is earned, and again 
being subjected to a tax in the country where that income is spent. 
On that point I think we should entertain a different view, but the 
really substantial matter of the argument from the point of view of 
the Government is contained in this short portion of the reply, 
which I wiU read : — 

The system of taxation, both in this country and in the self-governing 
Colonies, has always been based on the principle of treating each area as 
distinct and independent for fiscal purposes ; and Parliament has made no 
concession to the Colonies in such matters which is not equally applicable 
to fareign countries. 

Concessions of this kind have usually been based upon the grant of re- 
ciprocal advantages : and it is from this point of view alone that any such 
measure as that now in question could be justified. 

But for this purpose it would be necessary to consider as a whole 
the fiscal relations and the burdens of the different parts of the Empire. 

The point now raised relates only to the income tax; and the 
Memorialists suggest that the principle of reciprocal exemption should be 
introduced in respect of that source of revenue alone. 

But my Lords must point out that the concession is practically all on 
one side. 

Digitized by 


196 Thirtieth Annual Oemral Meeting. 

The amount of Income enjoyed in the United Kingdom from property 
in the Colonies is far larger than the income enjoyed in the Colonies from 
property in the United Kingdom ; and the loss to the Imperial Exchequer 
would be much greater than the aggregate gain to the individual tax* 
payers in this country. 

This, they Bay, is the system of taxation that you must treat the 
United Kingdom and the Golonies as distinct for this purpose. 
The argument opens up a very wide and important question as to 
whether the burdens of Empire in regard to such important matters 
as the maintenance of the Army and Navy ought to be readjusted 
in some way ; of course that is a very formidable fence to approach. 
But what I want to point out is that I think this reply to a large 
extent fallacious. First of all, I do not think that this Institute 
takes up the position of, so to speak, advocating a concession frpm 
the Imperial Government. We do not advocate the grant by th^ 
Pome Government of a concession in order that a pecuniary benefit 
may result to the Colonial Governments. It would be no part ol 
our function to interfere for such a purpose, and we should not be 
thanked for doing so. What we do urge is, looking at the question 
solely from the point of view of the Imperial Government, that this 
is not a question of reciprocal concessions at all. We consider 
this taxation here is unjust and unfair. Let the Home Government 
put their income tax legislation upon what we conceive to be the 
much fairer basis indicated in the Colonial Acts. From the pure 
point of view of the benefit to the revenue here, although in the 
first instance by giving up this form of tax a certain loss of 
Revenue would result, yet I believe in the long run we would not 
lose anything at all ; for the importance of the question lies in this 
— ^that if you submit income derived from investments in our own 
Colonies to what many people believe to be a vexatious form of 
taxation, the result would be that persons who have money to 
invest will invest elsewhere. They might have capital withdrawn 
from the Colonies, or not invested in the Colonies, and which might 
be invested under other circumstances. All these things tend to 
retard the development of a Colony, and to restrict the volume of 
trade which we would like to see flowing between them and the 
Mother Country. As an insular country we depend entirely on 
trade ; nearly the whole of our revenue, directly or indirectly, is 
derived from it ; and anything which stimulates trade will benefit 
the revenue. Looking at the matter, therefore, from the point of 
view purely of the Home Government, I think our position can be 
ftiUy justified, We feel that having memorialised the Government, 

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Thirtieth Annual General Meeting, 


we have for the present done all we can reasonably be expected to 
do. We shall wait and gee whether there is such a strong body of 
public opinion as will justify us in approaching the Government 
again. It is in the hope of being able to place before the Fellows 
the ezact position of the matter, and to put ourselves perhaps more 
closely in touch with the public at large, that I have ventured to 
make the^ observations again. 
The Chairman announced the result of the ballot as follows :-.-- 

H.B.H. Thb PBnioB op Wales, K.G., G.C.M.G,, <feo. 


fl Jt.H. The Duke of Tobe, E.G. 
HJIJEL Pbinob Chbistian, K.G. 
The Duke op Abgyll, E.G., K.T. 
The Duke op Devonshibe, K.G. 
The Mabquis op Duffebin and Ava, 

K.P., G.C.M.G., G.O.B. 
The Mabquis of Lobne, E.T., 

G.C.M.G., M J». 
The Eabii ov Abebdeen, G.C.M.G. 
The Eabl op Cbanbbook, G.C.S.I. 
The Eabl op Dunbayen, K.P. 

The Eabl op Jbbsey, G.CM.G. 

The Eabl op Bosebeby, E.G., E.T. 

LoBD Bbassey, E.CB. 

Sib Chables Nicholson, Babt. 

Sm Henby Babkly, G.C.M.G., E.CB. 

Snt Henby E. G. Bulweb, G.C.M.G. 

Genebal Bib H. C. B. Daubenet, 

Sib Bobebt G. W. Hebbebt, G.CB, 
Sib James A. Youl^ E,C.M.G. 
Sib Feepebick Youno, EtC.M.G, 


Allan Campbell, Esq. 
F. H. Danoab, Esq. 
Fbedbbiok Dutton, Esq. 
Lieut.-Genebal Sib J. BeyanEdwabdb, 

E.C.M.G., C.B., M.P. 
C. Washington Eves, Esq., C.M.G. 
W. Maynabd Fabmeb, Esq. 
Bib James Gabbick, E.C.M.G. 
Mijob-Genebal Bib Henby Gbebn, 

E.C.SX, C.B. 
Bib Abthub Hodgson, E.C.M.G. 
Admibal Sib Anthony H. Hoseins, 

Henby J. Joubdain, Esq., C.M.G. 
William Ebswiox, Esq. 

LoBD Loch, G.C.B., G.CM.G. 

Lieut.tGenebal B. W. Lowby, 03. 

Neyile Lubbock, Esq, 

Geobge S. Mackenzie, Esq., CB. 

S. Vaughan Mobgan, Esq. 

Sib E. Montague Nelson, E.C.M.G. 

Genebal Snt Henby W. Nobman, 

G.C.B., G.CM.G., CLE. 
Sib Westby B. Pebceyal, E.CM.G. 
Sib Saul Samuel, Babt., E.CM.G., 

Snt Cecil Clementi Smith, G.CM.G. 
Sib Chables E. F. Stibling, Babt. 
LoBD Stbathcona and Mount Boyal, 


Homra/iry Treasurer, 
Sib Montagu F. Ommanney, E.CM.G. 

Mr. H. MoNCBEiFF Paul : I was glad to hear the remarks which 
have fallen from Mr. Dutton on the subject of the double income 
tax, I feel confident the Council will not overlook the matter, an4 

Digitized by 


168 Thirtieth Annual General Meeting. 

that at the proper time they will again approach our friends in 
Parliament with the view to having this put in a more satisfEictory 
position. There is another question to which I should like to 
allude, and that is the investment of Trust Funds in Colonial 
securities, which I am glad to see is engaging the attention of Par- 
liament at the present time. There may be difficulties in the way 
of arranging that Trust Funds may be so invested by reason of th^ 
variety of Colonial securities, and on this point I will observe that 
if in the Australasian group federation were nearer at hand, I believe 
the difficulties which have hitherto existed with regard to invest* 
ment of trust funds would be very much diminished, because under 
a scheme of federation these Colonial securities would be consoli- 
dated and put in a shape which would prevent any jealousy from 
the selection of one class as against another, and it would also put 
them upon a basis which would pave the way for investment being 
made in the way desired. There is another point in the report to 
which I have just alluded, and that is the allusion to Mr. Chamber- 
lain's circular despatch. The conclusions mentioned in the report 
are, I believe, perfectly correct. I should like to call attention to 
one thing which came out prominently in the investigation of this 
subject in another place, namely, that whereas the Merchandise 
Marks Act was prepared with a view of affording some protection to 
purchasers of British goods for shipment to the Colonies, that mea- 
sure has in practical operation had an opposite effect from this 
point of view, that goods made and purchased in Germany and 
transshipped in Great Britain to the Colonies, are seen by the 
marking to have been made not in Great Britain but abroad. Thus, 
a direct trade between the Colonies and the Continent of Europe 
has been fostered, and that between Great Britain and the Colonies 
has suffered from this very proviso intended for their protection. I 
think this point ought to be brought before the attention of those 
concerned, with the view of getting the Act recast in that particular, 
so that instead of working against the cementing of the interests of 
the Mother Country and the Colonies, the Act might be made to 
work entirely in harmony with them. There is no doubt there are 
some goods which the Colonies must get outside the Mother 
Country. For example, America supplies certain agricultural imple- 
ments, buggies, &c., which cannot be so well made elsewhere, 
and for them to America the Colonies must go. I would further 
remark that the Continent is a little ahead of us in what I m^ht 
call the '^ gilt " of their manufactures. They get them up in better 
style, evei;i the cheapest goods ; they are better packed, and in con- 

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Thirtieth Annual General Meeting. 169 

sequence they are rather more attractive than ours are. I think 
these are points which should be commended to the attention o£ 
those concerned. 

The motion was then agreed to. 

Mr, B. S. AsHTON moved : ** That the thanks of the Meeting be 
given to the Honorary Treasurer (Sir Montagu F. Ommanney, 
K.C.M.G.), the Honorary Corresponding Secretaries in the various 
Colonies, and the Honorary Auditors (Mr. F. H. Dangar and 
Mr. W. G. Devon Astle) for their services during the past year." 
It gives me great pleasure to move the resolution. I think the 
business of this Institute is carried on in the most admirable 
manner. We cannot get too much information from the different 
parts of this Empire. We may differ as to the interpretation of 
that information, but by all means let us have it. 

The Chairman seconded the motion, which was agreed to. 

Mr. F. H. Dangab : On behalf of Mr. Astle and myself, I beg to 
thank you ^ost cordially for the resolution. I need not say that, 
as in former years, we found everything in the most perfect order, 
and I congratulate the members of the Institute on the progress 
which has been made during the past twelve months, and which I 
have no doubt will continue in years to come. 

On the motion of Mr. George Slade, which was seconded by the 
Chairman, a cordial vote of thanks was given to the Secretary and 
other members of the permanent Staff of the Institute for their 
services. The Secretary responded. 

Mr. Claude H. Long: As an old Member of this Institute, 
although I do not attend its meetings as often as I could wish, I 
have had particular pleasure in being present to-day and hearing 
the admirable Beport of the Council. It also gives me great pleasure 
to move this resolution : — " That the thanks of the Fellows be ac- 
corded to the Council for their services to the Institute during the 
past year, and to the Chairman of this meeting for presiding.*' I 
know myself, from experience of other places, how much depends 
upon the Council for the success of an Institution Hke this. 

Captain W. P. Boghe seconded the motion, which was adopted. 

The Chaibman : On behalf of the Council, I beg to thank you 
most cordially for the compliment you have paid us. The Council 
feel very gratefcd that you appreciate their labours, which are un- 
ceasing, on behalf of the great interests connected with this Institute. 
With regard to myself I can only say that I am exceedingly glad to 
be present at this Annual Meeting, which marks the thirtieth year of 
our existence. It is, indeed, wonderful to think that so long a period 

Digitized by 


170 Thirtieth Annual General Meeting, 

has elapsed since this Institution was founded, and to think not only 
of what has been accomplished, but what the Institute is destined to 
accomplish in the future. In regard to the very able speech of 
Mr. Dutton, I would like to say that already there is an indication 
that the Council may be stimulated to take further action in the 
matter, because there is evidence in more than one instance that 
members are likely to bring the question before Parliament. Any 
action of that sort would, of course, give the Oouncil just that 
fulcrum for again raising the question of this double income tax 
which they would desire to have. We shall watch, therefore, with 
keen interest what takes place in Parliament, and what is the state 
of public opinion in regard to this question. 

Digitized by 




The Fifth Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at 
the Whitehall Booms, H6tel M^tropole, on Tuesday, March 8, 
1898, when Mr. George Carrington, B.A., F.H.A.S., F.C.S., read a 
paper on " Our West Indian Colonies/' 

General Sir Henry W. Norman, G.O.B., G.O.M.G., O.I.E., a 
member of the Council of the Institute, presided. 

The Minutes of the last Ordinary General Meeting were read and 
confirmed, and it was announced that since that Meeting 28 Fellows 
bad heen elected, viz., 12 Resident, 11 Non-Eesident. 

Besident Fellows : — 

James Crotty, Leon J. Bernstein, W. J. Berrill, F, Beckett Birt, Captavn 
A, B, Daniell, Colonel George E. Francis, John E, Galbraith, The Most Hon, 
the Marqms of Graham, Lieut. Wilfrid Henderson, R,N,, William McFarlanet 
Colonel H, H. Settle, E,E„ D,S.O,, J. P. Tee. 

Non-Eesident Fellows : 

Fred W. Bolton (Qtieensland), Wm, Lance Conlay {Straits Settlements), 
W, E, Davis (Victoria), Henry G. Eccles (Ceylon), George W, A» Lynch, M.B, 
(Fifi), Hon. Thomas K. Mfwrra/y, C.M.G., M.L.A. (late Colonial Secretary, 
Natal), T. A. B. Purchas (Canada), Francis M. Battenbury (British 
Columbia), William B. Shurmer (Transvaal), Bobert T. Tumoull (New 
Zealand), A, J. WiUiams (British Central Africa). 

It was also announced that donations to the Library of books, 
maps, &c., had been received from the various Governments of the 
Colonies and India, Societies, and public bodies both in the United 
Kingdom wd the Colonies, and from Fellows of the Institute and 

The Ghajbman called upon Mr. George Carrington to read big 
Paper on 


Ai^ the present moment, when the attention of all British people ia 
being drawn by matters of momentous import to our Empire, due to 
the encroachments of foreign nations on our territory and trade in all 
parts of the globe — ^and Her Majesty in her Speech at the opening 
of Parliameiit has made special si.nd starring reference to tbe Wes| 

Digitized by 


172 Our West Indian Colonies. 

Indies — ^it is, I hope, not oat of place for me at this centre for the 
expression of Colonial feeling to speak to you to-night on our 
Colonies in the West Indies as we find them to-day. 

They are among the oldest possessions of the British Crown — 
indeed Barbados disputes with Newfoundland alone the proud title 
of being the oldest British Colony, having become part of our 
Empire in 1605. In the EUzabethan era the Caribbean Sea was 
the cradle of the British navy, and in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries the West Indian islands were considered most 
valuable prizes, and many bloody fights were fought on sea and 
land by England's bravest heroes — Blake, Bodney, Hood, Sir 
John Moore and Sir Balph Aberoromby. The British, the French, 
the Spaniards, and the Dutch spent freely their blood and treasure 
for the possession of these gems of the Caribbean Sea. 

In the negotiations which followed the peace of 1768 British 
statesmen seriously debated whether they should not give back 
Canada to France, receiving in exchange the sugar-producing island 
of Guadeloupe, and yet Guadeloupe falls far short in both size and 
fertility of such islands as Jamaica or Trinidad or the mainland 
Colony of British Guiana. 

In those days Canada was merely valued for its fur trade, the 
Cape was a mere geographical expression, and Australia still almost 
unknown. It was not till well on in this century that the develop- 
ment of these great self-governing territories was to compel a 
monopoly of the attention of the British public. It is strange how 
little is known by the general public at home of the resources and 
the charms of the West Indies, where nature has scattered her 
treasures with a lavish hand. 

The action of extinct volcanoes, the silent toil of myriads of 
coral insects, have combined to produce reefs and lagoons, savannahs 
and mountains, clothed with picturesque and tropical vegetation, 
among which the brilliant hues of croton and hibiscus, of flam- 
boyante, poinsettia and bois immortelle vie with the gaudy 
colouring of the feathered tribes to produce a series of sunht 
pictures undreamt of by stay-at-homes beneath our murky skies. 

But while Englishmen, to escape the fogs and snows of home 
manufacture, will go so far to reach a summer clime, these 
Colonies so easy of access are neglected, and visitors to the 
West Indies from America far outnumber those from the Mother 

Let us first deal with Barbados as the port of arrival and the 
centre of the island ship traffic. Little England, as it is called, 

Digitized by 


Ou/t West Indicm Colomes. 178 

unlike most of the other islands, can boast no high mountain ranges 
or wild tropical scenery. 

From the highest point, about 1,200 feet above sea-level, the land 
falls to the sea in a series of coral terraces or plateaux. The whole 
island is one vast garden* for the cultivation of the sugar-cane. 
Scattered over the landscape, surrounded by their well-tilled gardens, 
are the little wooden houses of the labourers, here and there grouped 
into villages, linked together by an excellent system of well-made 
roads. The estates are comparatively small, ranging from 1,500 
acres with steam mill, vacuum pans, and tall chimneys, to small 
holdings of fifty acres with stone-built windmill and tiny boiling 
house. There is probably no place in the world more favourable 
for the growth of sugar — a fertile soil with natural drainage, rain- 
fall of from 60 to 80 inches, and an abundant supply of steady 
labour. Save Malta, this is the most thickly peopled island in the 
world, the population of its 166 square miles amounting to about 
186,000, of whom 20,000 are white. Sugar, about 50,000 tons, 
and its products form practically the whole of the exports. On 
the prosperity of the, sugar industry the welfare, nay, the very 
existence, of this enormous population entirely depends. No 
other tropical produce would furnish employment for one fourth, 
even if the conditions of soil and climate were favourable. 

Barbados is the sanatorium of the West Indies, and has earned 
the enviable reputation of being the healthiest station abroad at 
which British troops are quartered. 

In their industrial conditions Antigua, St. Eitts and Nevis 
very closely resemble Barbados. Like Barbados, they are essentially 
English. They were settled early in the seventeenth century by 
EngUshmen, and have since remained practically without a break in 
EngUsh hands. They are purely sugar-producing Colonies — thickly, 
although not so thickly populated, and experience has shown in 
their case also that sugar is the sole possible staple. Bitter experi- 
ence has taught proprietors the futility of experimenting in minor 
industries except in a few specially favoured localities. These four 
islands differ from the rest of the West Indies in possessing an 
abundant supply of labour, endowed with an inherited aptitude for 
the cultivation of the cane and the manufacture of sugar. 

In contrast with these four essentially English islands, the rest 
of the British West Indian Colonies stand quite distinct and apart, 
in their history, their geological characteristics, their productive 
capacity, even in the language and customs of their inhabitants. 
Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, and Tobago were not 

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i74 Our We$t]Indian Colonies. 

originally settled by the English, but wrested from the French ai* 
more or less settled Colonies. In these five islands, owing partly to 
the sparseness of their population, partly to their configuration — the 
high mountains and deep valleys guaranteeing at once a heavy rain- 
fall and efiiectual protection against the ravages of the trade winds — 
the cultivation of sugar has largely given place to the growth of 
cacao, cofifee, spices, and other minor products. 

The Creole French patois is still the language of the peasantry of 
Dominica, St. Lucia, and Grenada. In nearly all save the four 
essentially English islands there is land waiting to be taken up. 
There is room for a far larger population, and there are still tens of 
thousands of acres of virgin forest ready to be cleared for cultivation 
and settlement in Dominica and St. Lucia alone. 

Time will not allow me to detail the characteristics of each island, 
but St. Lucia demands a passing word, as the Imperial coaling 
station for the fleet, and headquarters for the troops in the southern 
division of the West Indies. For a century and a half the two 
mighty nations of England and France contended for the posses- 
sion of this island, with its magnificent harbour of Castries. 
During this period it was won by British arms and surrendered 
by British diplomacy no less than seven times. It was from the 
harbour of Castries that Rodney sailed in pursuit of De Grasse, to 
win the victory which regained for Great Britain in the hour of her 
humiliation her prestige among the nations of the world. 

Grenada again deserves mention as the one British West Indian 
island comparatively im suitable for, and now quite independent 
of, sugar. Sixty years ago there were 119 sugar estates, but 
these have entirely disappeared, and aU the capital sunk in them 
has been lost. The soil and climate are admirably suited for the 
growth of cacao, and the cultivation of this tree has been enor- 
mously extended. In this island also Col. Duncan has established 
what is now the largest and most valuable nutmeg plantation in 
any part of the New World. It is a special feature of Grenada that 
the labouring classes own a considerable number of small holdings, 
the number of persons holding properties of less than 100 acres is 
6,648, or 11 per cent, of the total population. 

Jamaica — if only on account of its size, its distance from the 
other Colonies, and its proximity to the United States, stands on a 
different footing. Its name, derived from Indian words, signifies 
the land of abundant wood and water. As Columbus told Queen 
Isabella, it is indeed a crumpled country of diversified beauty, with 
hill and valley, mountain ridge and sheer precipice, rough isMf^ 

Digitized by Vof OOQ IC 

Our tFesi Indian Colonies. 175 

and romantic glen enlivened with cascades, streams and rivers. The 
chief town, Kingston, is approached by the magnificent land-locked 
harbour, with the dockyard of Port Eoyal at its mouth, famous as 
the rendezvous in times past of pirates and buccaneers, the finest 
harbour in the West Indies, and in the opinion of Capt. Mahan the 
key of the Caribbean Sea* and also of the canal across the isthmus 
which must sooner or later wed the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 
There is d. great variety of climate, the temperature ranging from 
80"^ to 86° in the plains to the cool or sometimes cold chmate 45° 
to 60° of the famous Blue Mountains, culminating in elevations of 
5,000 to 7,850 ft. ; and it is no exaggeration to say that those who 
would die in the fogs of London or the snows of New York would 
obtain a fresh lease of life by spending the winter in the bright 
life-giving air of Jamaica. The area of the island is 4,000 square 
miles, or considerably more than half the size of Wales. The 
population was in 1896 estimated at 694,000, of whom about 15,000 
were whites. A large portion of the cultivable land is situate more 
than 1,000 ft. above the sea. The great variety of soil and altitude 
in this Colony admits of the cultivation of nearly all tropical and 
sub-tropical plants. Sugar, coffee, logwood, bananas, oranges, 
ginger, tobacco, cacao and cocoa-nuts flourish. The sugar cultiva- 
tion in 1805 amounted to 135,000 tons ^nd 5,000,000 gallons of 
rum, but to such an extent has this once-flourishing staple been para- 
lysed by the operation of foreign bounties that in 1895-6 the exports 
had fallen to about 22,000 tons — almost the whole of which gOes to 
the American market. The mountain coffee is much prized, being 
valued at £5 to £6 per cwt. The fruit trade with the United 
States is a most important industry, and in 1896 the value of the 
fruit shipped attained to the sum of £536,000, the sudden growth' 
in the shipment of oranges being almost entirely due to the famous 
freeze of 1894, which destroyed the orange-trees in Florida. Need- 
less to add, the new industry has been at once attacked by the fiscal 
legislation of the United States, which has imposed a heavy duty on 
imported fruit. Attempts have been made to estabhsh a similar 
trade with England, but so far with unsatisfactory results. 

In Jamaica there exists a larger body of peasant proprietors than 
in any other part of the British West Indies, their number ranging 
from 90,000 to 100,000 ; probably one in every ten of the population 
is possessed of land. Nevertheless, the depression in sugar has told 
heavily on Jamaica, and any further diminution of the industry, 
which circulates, even now, more capital than all the other 
industries together, will entail the severest financial embarras0nient. 

Digitized by 


176 Our West Indian Colonies. 

Lastly, we come to Trinidad and British Guiana ; they have many 
distinctions in common which separate them from the rest of the 
British West Indian Colonies. Both are comparatively recent 
conquests : Trinidad from Spain, British Guiana from the Dutch. 
Trinidad celebrated her centenary as a British possession last year, 
while British Guiana will not celebrate h^rs till 1914. 

In both again, since emancipation, the local supply of labour has 
never been adequate to the demands of the planters, and an exten- 
sive system of coolie immigration from India has been developed to 
meet the deficiency. 

There are now scarcely any of the old Dutch proprietors left in 
British Guiana, but Trinidad's aristocracy is still largely composed 
of descendants of the old Spanish proprietors, and the French 
refugees from Hayti. 

British Guiana is as large as the United Kingdom, and of it only 
a narrow fringe on the coast and rivers is cultivated, while in 
Trinidad two-thirds of the island remain uncultivated. 

Again, both British Guiana and Trinidad can boast the most 
modem methods of sugar manufacture. The planters have had to 
meet the lack of labour and other disadvantages by introducing 
the most perfect processes and the most expensive and powerful 
machinery. British Guiana exports more than 100,000 tons of 
sugar, valued at over £1,000,000, while Trinidad exports 55,000 tons. 
In both Colonies the sugar industry is the dominant one. The 
population of British Guiana is 280,000, of whom 106,000 are East 
Indian coolies and 142,000 negroes. That of Trinidad is 230,000, 
of whom 83,000 are coolies. Most of these coolies in both Colonies 
can claim their return passage to India, and in the event of the 
collapse of the sugar industry this charge would fell on the 
Government. Finally, Trinidad and British Guiana are the only two 
West Indian Colonies with important mineral resources. British 
Guiana may yet realise the dreams of Eldorado which sent Baleigh 
up the waters of the Orinoco. The gold exports already amount to 
about half a million sterling, while Government royalty on the 
exports from the valuable pitch lake in Trinidad suffices to pay the 
interest on the island debt. Trinidad, moreover, has a very large 
cacao industry, and an important entr^dt trade with the republics 
of the Spanish Main. 

One striking feature, and unique perhaps to the West Indies 
and Mauritius, is that practically the whole of the population has 
been artificially imported, the number of the aboriginal Buck 
Indians still surviving being small, while the whole of the negro 

Digitized by 


Our West Indian Colonies. I77 

population is descended from ancestors brought from distant lands 
entirely against their will, and the 200,000 East Indian coolies were 
prevailed on. to immigrate by the inducements of Government 
agents. Thus it is impossible for Britain to escape from the 
responsibility for the welfare of the labouring population in the 

But why is it that these Colonies, favoured by geographical 
position, by climate, by extraordinary fertility of soil, are now in 
the throes of a most cruel depression, from which they can only pass 
to ruin, unless the conditions under which they labour are com- 
pletely changed ? 

Why is it that during the last half -century we have been con- 
stantly face to face with a series of West Indian crises? The 
answer is to be found in the constant injustice that has been meted 
out to her West Indian Colonies by the Mother Country. '< It is not 
we West Indians," as a speaker at a large meeting in Barbados, a 
few weeks since, bitterly exclaimed, ** who have brought about these 
crises/' '^ It is not the West Indians," as Mr. Chamberlain said in 
his recent speech at Liverpool. " The Colonists," as he said " appeal 
to the Mother Country for relief from an exceptional state of things 
which is not due to any fault of their own, and which can only 
be prevented by the action of the Mother Country." Or as Mr. 
Ritchie put it in even stronger terms, "the only thing which 
is going to ruin the West Indian Colonies is their connection with 

The "perish West Indies" school has dictated the policy of 
England towards her West Indian Colonies for fifty years and 
more. To go back to 1884, when the slaves were most justly 
emancipated, the value of the estates and slaves was put down by 
the Government Commissioners at £129,000,000. Great Britain 
published to the world her magnanimity in paying sixteen and a 
half millions as her share of the depreciation caused by that Act, 
leaving the West Indies to lose the balance of the depreciation — ^yet 
Ae had herself held almost a monopoly of this iniquitous trade for 
generations. From 1884 to 1846 the British West Indies, by the 
help of a prohibitory tariff against slave-grown sugar, had been 
slowly but surely rebuilding their shattered industry on the basis 
of free labour. In 1846 this differential duty was lowered, and in 
a few years was entirely abolished. These measures threw the British 
markets open to the slave-owning planters of Cuba and Brazil, 
widespread ruin and disaster befell the British free labour Colonies, 


Digitized by 


178 Our West Indian Colonies. 

prosperity opened to the slave-owning Spaniards and Portngaese^ 
and the slave trade flourished exceedingly, and what for — sugar a 
trifle cheaper to the British consumer. 

The benefit to negro humanity in general from the Emancipation 
Act of 1834 was absolutely nullified by this abuse of economic 
doctrine. Manifest injustice was wrought to the British West 
Indies, manifest injustice greater stiU to the cause of progress and 
civilisation in the continents of Africa and America. Within two 
years, fifty of the largest West Indian firms failed, with liabilities of 
over £6,000,000, and similar disasters overtook the planters of 
Mauritius. For two-and-twenty years the British West Indies were 
forced to carry on their industry under this iniquitous competition. 
No helping hand was given by the Mother Country, and it was only 
through the abolition of slavery in Cuba in 1868 that they were 
once more enabled to compete on fedr and equal terms with their 
foreign West-Indian rivals in the sugar markets of the world. 

But now a more serious competitor had arisen in the sugar made 
from beetroot grown in Continental countries, and fostered by a vast 
system of bounties from foreign Governments. 

In 1864 a convention was signed by Belgium, France, Holland 
and Great Britain, in which this clause appears : ** In the event of 
bounties being granted in the said countries on the exportation of 
refined sugar, the high contracting parties will be at liberty to come 
to an understanding as to the surtax to be imposed on the importa- 
tion of refined sugars, of and from the said countries." That clause 
means nothing else than the imposition of a countervailing duty. 
When this convention was signed, Lord Palmerston was Prime 
Minister, Earl Bussell Foreign Secretary, and Mr. Gladstone 
Chancellor of the Exchequer. A more distinctly Free Trade 
Cabinet could not be imagined, and in order to secure true free 
trade in sugar they introduced this countervailing clause as afford- 
ing the only practical means of aboUshing bounties. This conven- 
tion, though signed, unfortunately proved a dead letter. 

Eighteen years later, in response to earnest and constant repre- 
sentations from the West Indies during that period, in 1880» a 
Select Committee of the House of Commons was appointed ''to 
examine into " the effect of the European sugar bounties, and to 
report what steps, if any, it is desirable to take in order to obtain 
redress from any evil that may be found to exist." The majority 
Beport of the Committee summed up : '* That it is expedient that 
immediate steps be taken to obtain such an alteration of the present 
system as will stop the granting of bounties on sugar, both raw and 

Digitized by 


Our West Indian Colonies. 170 

refined/' No practical results followed. The West Indies com- 
manded no votes, and had no representative in Parliament. 

However, worse was to come. Not content with a negative 
policy of non-interference, the Mother Comitry, unwilling to help 
the West Indies herself, positively forbade them, in her own self- 
interest, to help themselves. 

In the year 1885 the United States, to whose markets the opera- 
tion of the sugar bounties had largely driven West Indian sugar, 
adopted the policy of reciprocity in their fiscal legislation, and 
approached our Government with the view of giving our West 
Indian Colonies a free market for their sugar, on condition that 
they, on their side, should make certain reductions in their Customs 
duties on products of the United States imported by them. They 
were willing that any such reductions should also apply to similar 
products coming from the British Empire, but would not agree to 
their extension to foreign countries. 

The duty in the United States on foreign sugar was £10 per 
ton, and the United States made formal proposals to the effect that 
if the British Government would agree to the reductions in these 
specified West Indian Customs duties, they, on their side, would 
admit West Indian sugar duty free into the United States. 

Here surely was an opportunity which should not have been lost. 
The United States were proposing to waive duties on West Indian 
produce amounting to at least £2,000,000 per annum, while the 
reduction of West Indian duties represented an annual loss of only 
about £200,000. It is obvious that such an arrangement would 
have been of enormous advantage to our Colonies. But the proposal 
was rejected by the British Government practically on the ground 
tiiat such an arrangement was contrary to our treaties with Ger- 
many and Belgium — those treaties that were abrogated last year at 
the demand of Canada. 

No wonder at the strong expression of Colonial feeling addressed 
to Lord Granville : — 

"These proposals," to quote the memorial, "are rejected by Her 
Majesty's Government, mainly on the ground of treaties between England 
and the very countries whose bounties are driving West Indian produce 
out of British markets, treaties in the negotiation of which onr Colonies 
had no part, as to which they have never been in any way consulted, and 
from which they have never derived, and are never likely to derive, the 
slightest benefit. 

"The action of Her Majesty's Government in regard to foreign 
bcmnties, and now again on the question of a commercial treaty with the, 


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180 Owr West Indian Colonies, 

United States, brings prominently to notice the fact that on a question of 
the utmost practioal importsmoe to the Colonies, their interests are 
deliberately sacrificed to forms and theories devoid of application ; and 
hence those Colonies have the mortification of feeling that the only bar to 
their progress and prosperity lies in their connection with a country in 
which all their loyalty and affection are centred." 

It was pointed out that the treaties with Germany and Belgium 
had not been allowed to stand in the way of a treaty, similar to the 
one proposed, between Canada and the United States, which had 
lasted for ten years without any protest either from Belgium or 
Germany. But in spite of all the West Indies could urge, the treaty 
was rejected. No wonder that the late Mr. W. E. Porster said, 
at a deputation to Lords Granville and Derby : " The hardship in 
this case is amazing. The case becomes hard beyond precedent 
because they are injured in every way." 

However, in 1888 the question of abolition came once mord 
within the sphere of practical politics. A convention of all the 
Powers concerned was called by Her Majesty's Government, and 
after lengthy deliberations, the abolition of bounties was agreed to 
by Great Britain, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, Italy, the 
Netherlands and Bussia. This convention contained a clause 
known as the penal clause, by which power was given to the high 
contracting parties to exclude or penalise by a countervailing duty 
bounty-fed sugar. It seemed as if at length the object for which so 
many successive British Governments had been striving would be 
achieved. However, the false cry of dear sugar was at once raised 
in England, and the opposition of theorists and partisans succeeded 
in wrecking the measure, and in perpetuating the rankest follies of 
protection, to the great injury of our Home and Colonial sugar 
industry. In 1892 Germany legislated for the gradual abolition of 
the bounties, and their extinction in 1896 ; but in that year the 
German beet-growers, finding themselves unable to compete at the 
prices then ruling, persuaded their Government to double the former 
bounties, and then the jealousy of Austria, Belgium, Holland, 
and France compelled them each "to go one better** than the 
other, till now we find France giving a direct bounty of £5 4s. 
per ton of refined sugar, equal to 55 per cent, on the gross value. 
It is evidently impossible for individual British planters to compete 
against the exchequers of foreign Governments. But the results of 
the bounty system are two-fold. It is not only the actual bounty 
now given that oppresses the British West liidian industry, but 
also the absolute uncertainty as to the Amount of the jboonty in 

Digitized by 


Ov/t WeBt Indian Oolcmes. Idl 

tbe future, and so long as it remains practically in the power of 
the German Chancellor, by doubling the bounty on beet, to shut 
down the cane industry throughout the world, so long will that 
capital be withheld which is ready to flow into the cane industry 
when it is settled on a sound commercial basis. 

In 1895 a new life seemed to come to the Colonial Office— the 
Bight Hon. Joseph Chamberlain had accepted the post of Colonial 
Secretary of State, and the expectations of Colonists were raised. 
They felt that, as so often before in British pohtics, with the crisis the 
man had arrived to grapple with it. Urgent memorials and petitions 
were sent home from all the West Indian Colonies, and these were 
no longer pigeon-holed. In a communication from the Colonial Office 
to the Treasury Mr. Chamberlain, in his now famous minute, after 
describing the serious condition of all the West Indies, wrote : ** Mr. 
Chamberlain is not prepared, as Secretary of State for the Colonies, 
to accept the responsibility of allowing matters to take their course, 
and to acquiesce in the policy of non-intervention hitherto pursued 
in regard to the bounties," and in January, 1897, he despatched a 
singularly able commission to the West Indies, consisting of Sir 
Henry Norman as Chairman, with Sir David Barbour and Sir 
Edward Grey. 

They unanimously report, firstly : That the products of the sugar- 
cane still form 75 per cent, of the total West Indian exports 
(excluding Jamaica, and gold from British Guiana), in spite of 
prices having fallen over 50 per cent, in the last fifteen years ; that 
sugar is still the staple on which the West Indies depend ; that the 
industry is now threatened with what is practically " equivalent to 
extinction " in the immediate future, and that, with its extinction 
must come the time when it will be '^ impossible for some, perhaps 
the greater number of them, to provide, without external aid, for 
their own government and administration." 

Secondly: The cause of this deplorable prospect? '^Increased 
competition all the world over, but in a special degree the compe- 
tition of beet sugar produced under a system of bounties." 

Thirdly : The remedy. The rehabilitation of the sugar industry 
is the "only one that would completely avert the dangers threatened." 
"The abaaidonment of the bounty system by the Continental 
nations would be the best immediate remedy, and would probably 
enable a large portion of the sugar-cane cultivation to be carried 
on successfully.*' For the land is as good as ever it was; the 
planters thoroughly understand their business, and in those places 
where improved processes of manufacture have not been introduced, 

Digitized by 


182 Our West Indian Colonies. 

it is due not to lack of initiative and enterprise, but to the paraljsis 
of credit and confidence inflicted by the bounties. They further 
find that there is only one remedy which can adequately cure the 
evils complained of— viz., the abolition of the bounty system. 
Moreover, not only is the Mother Country under special moral 
obligations, both to her own sons over the sea and to the negro 
labouring classes, who must depend for generations to come on the 
presence of the white man in their midst, to prevent their reversion, 
at best, to the semi-barbarism existing in our Virgin islands, at 
worst, to the present sad condition of Hayti, but she has also for 
years past been reaping great benefit from precisely that set of 
circumstances which has been a factor in bringing the West Indies 
to the verge of serious disaster. This advantage the Commissioners 
in one sentence, which goes to the root of the whole matter, 
unanimously and emphatically state is '^too dearly purchased by 
the injury which it inflicts on a limited class — viz.. Her Majesty's 
West Indian and other subjects dependent on the sugar industry." 

There would seem to be but one possible conclusion ; but no. Sir 
Henry Norman alone has the courage to press the premises on 
which he and his colleagues are unanimously agreed to their logical 
conclusion. Sir Edward Grey and Sir David Barbour refuse to 
follow their Chairman in recommending the only real remedy — 
active intervention — on the grounds that it would constitute a 
departure from the settled policy of the United Kingdom, and 
that it would be " unwise to open on this issue so large a contro- 
versy, which may possibly spread so far, and lead to a war of 
tariffs," thus avowedly advocating the principles of surrender and 
repudiation — surrender of British interests to the fiscal attacks of 
foreign Governments, and repudiation of the Mother's obligation 
to her "sons of the blood" over the sea. 

A policy of homoeopathic doles and loans is recommended, a policy 
which they openly confess is irrelevant as a remedy, and must 
involve years of experiment and costly expenditure (far exceeding 
the half-million sterling they specify), with only a doubtful chance 
of success. In the words of Sir Henry Norman, " The tenor of 
the evidence, the conclusions of the Beport, and the paper of Dr. 
Morris, than whom there is no higher authority on West Indian 
production, must satisfy anyone that it is impossible to expect that 
any industry, or industries, can within any reasonable time replace 
sugar, whether as affording employment and subsistence to the 
people, or as enabling revenue to be raised to maintain the adminis- 
tration. Even if these alternative industries succeed in the course 

Digitized by 


Our West Indian Colonies. 188 

of time, it is difficult to believe that they will completely replace 
sugar, or that it will be possible to raise anything Uke the present 
revenue, or to maintain the existing population, taking all the 
Colonies together, in a condition of ordinary comfort." It is 
needless for me to emphasise the gravity of these conclusions, which 
have evidently so strongly impressed themselves on the mind of 
Sir Henry Norman, who alone of the Commissioners has had 
experience and responsibility as a Governor. No doubt, with the 
bounties abolished, some of their recommendations would be of 
great benefit to the West Indies, especially the suggestions with 
regard to economy of administration and the organisation of a 
department of Botanic stations. This latter opens a vista of 
great possibiUties. But absolutely the only course to be of the 
least value to the West Indies must be : (1) Put the sugar industry 
on the sound basis of free competition ; (2) develop minor industries 
and economise administration. 

Then as to the value of the objections urged by the two dis- 
sentient Commissioners ? ** Active intervention is contrary to the 
settled policy of the United Kingdom.'* Have Sir David Barbour 
and Sir Edward Grey forgotten that successive Governments have 
for thirty -five years made it their settled policy to try to secure the 
abolition of these bounties ? Why is it that these negotiations have 
been fruitless ? Only because, to quote Lord Salisbury, "asking us 
to go into negotiations when we are absolutely bound to propose 
no countervailing duty is imposing upon us a harder task than 
Pharaoh's task-masters ever imposed. What is the use of your 
going to foreign Powers under these conditions ? Do you imagine 
that supplication, or preaching, or exhortation, or lectures on 
political economy will afifect their policy ? If it is the pleasure of 
the people of this country to give to the Foreign Office the power of 
saying this : Unless you are able to find some means' of alleviating 
this, which we conceive to be an injury, it is in our power, and 
we shall exercise that power, of raising a countervailing duty — if 
a negotiator were able to go into negotiations with that message, 
I have no doubt the negotiations would assume a satisfactory 

At the invitation of Belgium, negotiations are now being 
conducted for a Conference of the European sugar-producing 
Powers, with the object of the abolition of the bounties. It is pretty 
well known that Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and Austria 
are desirous of attaining this end, and France appears to be the 
only Power that wishes to hold out. As in 1888, it depends upon 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 

181 Ow WM Indim Colonic. 

thid country to join with all the other countries of Europe in 
obtaining free trade in sugar by compelling France to give up her 
obnoxious system. Will our leaders have the courage to apply 
Lord Salisbury's maxims and prove to the world that England is 
prepared to insist on the policy of maintaining ** the open door " under 
free trade conditions, not only to British citizens in Chinese and 
African markets, but to British citizens in British markets. 

I think I have already shown that, whatever minor industries 
may flourish in the West Indies, the sugar industry must, for many 
years, be a vital necessity to them, that the depression they are 
suffering from is due to the action of foreign export bounties. 
Again, that a countervaiUng duty or prohibition of bounty-fed sugar 
is the only means to effect the abolition of the bounties, and that 
it would be only labour wasted and time thrown away for our 
Government to join any convention for the abolition of bounties^ 
unless they enter the convention prepared, if necessary, to agree 
to a penal clause. 

The next question for us to consider is : Can the West Indies 
hold their own in a free trade market ? In other words, can the 
West Indies hold their own against other sugar-producing countries 
as regards cost of production? Many wild statements have 
appeared lately in the Press, stating that, bounties or no bounties, 
the West Indies must go to the wall. In the appendices of the 
commissioners' Report will be found a very carefully compiled 
comparison of the cost of production on typical estates in Germany, 
Egypt and the West Indies. It appears from these returns that 
the estate of the Colonial Company in British Guiana can show 
the lowest figure. The returns from the Daira Sanieh in Egypt 
give £9. 18«., Korbisdorf in Germany £9. 6s. 8d, the Colonial 
Company in British Guiana £8. 19s. 4:d,, as the cost per ton. 
Speaking from an intimate knowledge of Barbados, I have no 
doubt that with large modem central factories, the cost per ton in 
Barbados would be less than in British Guiana, where heavy ex- 
penses are necessarily incurred, such as the high cost of staff and 
labour, hospitals, drainage, etc., which would not apply in Barbados. 

Now in regard to European beet sugar, the cost per ton at 
Korbisdorf is well below the general average of German factories. 
Many signs show that the cost of production in Austria is higher, 
while that in France is notoriously far higher. In face of these 
figures, it is impossible to doubt that the West Indies could more 
than hold their own in free competition with their beet rivals on 
the Continent. 

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Our West Indim Colonies. I8ft 

. Secondly, as against the other cane-growing oountrieSi there are 
isolated estates in Cuba which are perhaps more rich and fertile 
than any in the British West Indies ; but if in times past the free 
labour British West Indies held their own against slave-owning 
Cuba, they can certainly hold their own against her in a free trade 
market, quite apart from the fact that it will take Cuba many 
years to recover industrially from her present political dissensions. 
Portions, again, of Hawaii, and certain estates on the east coast of 
Java, appear to be very productive, Java newspapers, however, 
draw a dark picture of the planters' lot and their prospects in 
the near future. Estimating the number of sugar estates in 
that island at 200, the result is the forecast that, as matters now 
stand, eighteen estates will make a small profit, twenty-eight will 
just pay expenses, while the remaining 154 will suffer loss. The 
countries also of the Far East, with their silver standard, have an 
undoubted advantage over their gold-using rivals in the West. 
But against this is to be weighed the extra freight to Western 

In New South Wales sugar is in a perilous position, as the 
fiscal policy of the Government, in gradually removing its protec- 
tive duties, will render its maintenance very diflScult. We find 
also that, in both Mauritius and Queensland, the bounty-fed beet 
sugar is driving them out of the markets of India and Australia, 
which have hitherto been their monopoly, and averted from them 
the disastrous competition which has overtaken the West Indies in 
the free markets of the world. 

It is thus seen that beetroot sugar aided by bounties is destroy* 
ing the cane-sugar industry in all the free markets of the world, 
and that in a very short while, unless bounties are abolished. Great 
Britain will depend entirely on foreign Continental countries for her 
supply of sugar. We may fairly say that among tropical countries 
there are none more suitable for the cultivation of the cane than the 
British West Indian Colonies, alike from the climatic conditions, 
fertility of soil, proximity to the world's best markets, and the 
inherited aptitude of the population both in the agricultural and 
manufacturing operations connected with the industry ; and in this 
paper I have dealt only with the West Indies, but it must be 
remembered that this question of the abolition of bounties is not 
one concerning the West Indian Colonies alone, but is also one o{ 
rapidly increasing importance to all the vast cane sugar-producing 
Colonies of the Empire, and the important home refining industries 
of Great Britain herself. 

Digitized by 


186 Our West Indian Colonies^ 

The question the Government has now, I submit, and at once, to 
decide is, are the British refineries and the British sugar-producing 
Colonies to be allowed to enjoy their legitimate share in the great 
sugar trade of the world ? Are our vast tropical Colonies all over the 
world to be debarred from the growth and manufacture of the crop 
which circulates the most capital and employs the most labour ? 
Is our refining industry, which should be so vast, to disappear 
altogether ? Is the British farmer toibe forbidden to grow beetroot 
for sugar only because he is a Briton. Let me conclude by a few 
quotations from the most eminent statesmen who have studied this 
question. Mr. Gladstone has said : 

** My desire is that the British consumer should have both sugar and 
every other commodity at the lowest price at which it can be procured 
without arbitrary favour to any of those engaged in the competition. But 
I cannot regard with favour [any cheapness which is produced by means of 
the concealed subsidies of a foreign State to a particular industry, and 
with the e£fect of crippling and distressing capitalists and workmen 
engaged in a lawful branch of British trade/' 

Lord Salisbury has said : 

" That by what has been fairly described as an illegitimate conspiracy 
we are driven out of the industry of our own markets." 

Mr. Bitchie says : 

" I venture to think free trade is a circulation of commodities at their 
natural value. What is their natural value? The price of free com* 
petition. A bounty is a violation of free trade. A countervailing duty 
merely re-estabhshes the principle of free competition, which I venture to 
think is the true principle of free trade." 

Sir Henry Norman has said : 

** There seems to be no measure except the imposition of countervailing 
duties which is likely to save a considerable group of British Colonies 
from serious disaster, or prevent obligations falling on the Mother 
Country, which will be very onerous and very difficult to meet in a 
satisfactory manner." 

Mr. Chamberlain says : 

" Now Her Majesty's Government think it to be their duty to try to 
find a remedy for this state of things. They believe that it is a crying 
injustice, and that the British people are generous enough and just 
enough not to wish to make a profit at the expense of their feUow 

Digitized by 


Oiir West Indian Colonies. 187 

In the face of all these plainly expressed opinions, will Her 
Majesty's Government give up the old policy of apathy and in- 
difference for one of initiation and resolution, or will they, like so 
many Governments before them, stop their ears to the cry from 
their sugar Colonies for justice — for justice and free trade? 

The Paper was illustrated with lime-light views of the scenery y 
public buildingsy dc, of the West Indian Colonies. 


Mr. Nevilb Lubbock : Connected as I am with the West Indies, 
I have naturally listened with great interest to Mr. Carrington's 
paper, and knowing as I do something of the past and present 
history of those Colonies, I think I may congratulate him on the 
ability and moderation with which he has set their story before us. 
With regard to the old story of the abolition of the slave trade, I 
may mention a circumstance related to me by the late Bishop of 
British Guiana, who died at a very old age a few years ago, and 
who very well remembered that period. He told me that although 
the British Parliament voted sixteen miUions of money for freeing 
the slaves, not one penny piece of that money ever found its way 
to the West Indies ; it was used up in paying ofif mortgages held 
by EngUsh bankers and capitalists in the West India estates. 
Coming to the present state of the West Indies, I think you 
will agree that the question is practically the sugar bounty 
question; the Eeport of the Eoyal Commissioners made that 
abundantly clear. In connection with this Commission I would say 
that the West Indian Colonies owe a great debt of gratitude to Sir 
Henry Norman for the part which, as chairman, he took in that 
matter. They recognise also to the full the industry and pains 
which Sir David Barbour and Sir Edward Grey devoted to the 
subject, but they think that the premises and arguments of 
those two gentlemen do not warrant the conclusion at which they 
arrived ; while, on the other hand, they do think that the facts 
warranted the conclusion at which Sir Henry Norman arrived, and 
they feel indebted to him, as I have said, for the pluck he showed 
in not being afraid to tell the British public that a countervailing 
duty is the only remedy. This is a large question, and I shall only 
touch on one or two points, on which I think there is great mis- 
conception in this country. The first is that of ** settled policy," 
which is raised by Sir D. Barbour and Sir E. Grey. Now the 

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188 Ow Weit tndim Oohni^. 

abolition of bounties has for the last thirty-five years been the main 
object of every Qovemment ; therefore, so far as abolition of the 
bounties goes, no disturbance of settled policy is involved. If we 
have a settled policy at all, surely that policy is free trade. Can it 
be contended that we have free trade in sugar ? Sugar is protected 
by Foreign Governments in our English markets, and what we are 
asking is that free trade should be restored. To say that that is 
contrary to settled policy seems to me quite absurd. But there is 
another point. It may be said, " Oh, yes, but countervailing duties 
are contrary to settled policy." I would point out, on the contrary, 
that they have formed a part of our settled policy for the last fifty 
years. These duties exist on spirits, cigars, and on chicory. 
British spirits, when they are manufEU^tured in this country, are 
subjected to an excise duty of 10s. 6d, the proof gallon. Foreign 
and Colonial spirits have to pay a duty of 10s. 10^. The reason 
oflScially given for this difference is that 4:d. is a countervailiog 
duty to neutralise the disadvantages which our distillers are sup- 
posed to be under by the Excise regulations. I do not know what 
may be the case with regard to foreign spirits, but I do know, as 
regards West Indian spirits, that they are manufactured under 
regulations every bit as strong as British regulations, and therefore 
we claim that the extra tax is unfair, particularly in view of the 
fact that the Colonial spirits have to pay a heavy freight. What 
we think is that in this matter the Empire should be treated as a 
whole. That is one instance of countervailing duty. I need not 
allude further to the duties on chicory and cigars, which are im- 
posed in order to place the English producer on an equality with 
the foreign competitor. Therefore the principle of a countervailing ' 
duty to restore equality has been recognised as part of our settled 
policy. The next point on which there has been great miscon- 
ception is this. It is constantly stated we are gaining by these 
bounties. What I shall show is that, so far from gaining, 
we are losing heavily. I was reading lately the Report of the 
Boyal Commission to see whether they had fieJlen into this error, 
but I found they had not. They state that the British consumer is 
benefiting by the bounties, but they do not say the country is 
benefited. But while the consumer is benefiting to a certain 
extent, the country, we say, is losing to a far larger extent. I ihirik 
Sir Henry Norman will agree that the general impression of the 
three Boyal Commissioners was that the bounties reduce the price 
of sugar by about £1 per ton. Now our consumption is a little under 
1,500,000 tons, so that on this estimate we are gaining £1,5OO,OO0l 

Digitized by Vof OOQ IC 

Ow West Indian CoUmea. 188 

Now what do we lose? In the first place, these bounties have 
destroyed a very large portion of our refining trade ; it is estimated 
that but for these bounties we should be refining 600,000 tons 
more than we do at present. The cost of refining sugar here 
amounts to about £2 a ton, so that in that one item there is a 
loss of £1,200,000 to the working classes of this country. The 
next largest item is that affebting our engineers. At the meeting 
of the London Chamber of Commerce the other day, at which a 
resolution was passed condemning these bounties, one of our 
engineers told us he estimated that within the last ten or fifteen 
years his firm alone had lost work to the extent of one million 
sterling owing to these bounties. My own estimate is that 
our engineers are losing anything from half a million to a 
million a year ; but putting the figure at half a million you are 
Well within the mark. Then, there are the bag-makers, the 
manure-makers, the harness-makers, who had a large trade 
with the cane-producing countries. I think I may safely put this 
down at another quarter of a million. Then there is the shipping 
industry. The great bulk of the beetroot sugar comes from 
Antwerp or Hamburg, and pays a very small fireight. The cane 
sugar comes from a greater distance and pays a high freight. 
There is no doubt the loss to our shipowners under that head must 
be very large, and I should say £250,000 is well within the mark. 
Again, experiments have proved that but for these bounties, sugar 
could be produced in England. Adding all these things together, you 
will find that for this £1,500,000 of gain, the country is losing about 
£8,000,000 at the very least. There is one question which has not 
been touched upon, and that is, what would be the result of the ruin 
of the sugar industry to the West Indies ? I have given the matter 
a good deal of thought, and although I cannot name any very definite 
sum (it depends partly how rapidly that destruction takes place, and 
on a variety of other considerations), yet I do not think if I were 
offered a contract to pay the whole cost for £10,000,000 I should 
accept it. Directly or indirectly the ruin of this industry will, I 
believe, cost this country something like that sum. I do not think 
any Minister dare go to the House of Commons and tell them that 
that is going to be the result of inaction. It was, I think, because 
Mr. Chamberlain felt the results of inaction would be so intensely 
serious that he got this Commission to report on the condition of 
things. The one hope of the West Indies, I might almost say the 
fotlom hope of the West Indies, is in Mr. Chamberlain, and I 

Digitized by 


190 Out West Indian Colonies. 

venture to believe myself he is not the man to leave the Colonies 
in the lurch in this time of their distress. 

Mr. W. F. Lawrence, M.P. : It is only within the last few days 
that I received the gratifying announcement from the Secretary of 
the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce that that important body had 
by resolution desired the abolition of these bounties. That is a 
very great step for it to take, proceeding, as it does, from a 
thoroughly free trade body. It is a matter of history that the city 
of Liverpool rose from being a very modest community entirely 
owing to its connection with the West Indies. All last century, 
and well into this, the great trade of Liverpool was with those 
Colonies, and I venture to think, at a time when we are endeavour- 
ing to find new markets in other parts of the world, we should be 
making a great mistake in neglecting the old ones. Her Majesty's 
Government have produced the first instalment of their plaii. It 
would be quite premature for us to discuss that plan while so few 
of the details are before us, but I think we may endeavour to guide 
pubUc opinion as to what is the only true and satisfactory remedy 
for this serious condition of things. Mr. Carrington has urged 
what as a matter of fact the Commissioners have themselves urged, 
that the sugar industry must be supported if these islands are to 
prosper. It is not the case that the islands are in any sense im- 
pecunious or distressful through circumstances arising from them- 
selves ; they have plenty of enterprise, and capital has never been 
laclpng if only they were confident that it would meet with its 
proper return. That return would have followed if only the fiscal 
system of Continental countries had not defeated the hopes that 
were so reasonably entertained. What I am afraid is that, owing 
to partial knowledge of the circumstances and the comparative 
cheapness of the remedy, some people may be found to advocate 
merely the creation of minor industries. I have some knowledge 
of the minor industries, and also of the great industry of sugar pro- 
ducing in Jamaica. I am not in the least one of those who would 
disparage the cultivation of these minor industries, but what I 
would wish to emphasise is that they do not require anything like 
the amount of labour and intelligence which the sugar industry 
requires. A friend of mine in Florida told me he could manage 20 
acres of orange trees pretty well off his own bat, whereas we know 
that sugar cultivation requires, I believe, at least one man to every 
1^ acres. It is practically certain, therefore, that if that industry 
ceases, the distress among the population must be intense. Again, 
what ought to bejthe aim of the Mother Country ? It is certain 

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Our West Indian Colonies. 191 

ibat if the sugar industry fails, there will be an absence of British 
capital and intelligence, and little by little these ancient Colonies 
will be devoid of those civilising elements which are essential to the 
well-being of the black population. I was very much struck with 
what Mr. Bitchie has pointed out, viz., that what is really at stake 
is not merely the sugar industry, but to a great extent the connec- 
tion of these Colonies with the Mother Country. They are the 
most loyal of Colonists, they must live, and it seems to me we run 
some risk, while endeavouring to promote reciprocity with the 
United States, of alienating these Colonies from ourselves. It is 
quite obvious if the Mother Country will not treat them fiGkirly, they 
will look to the neighbouring great Bepublic, and small blame 
to them. Mr. Carrington quoted the Commissioners' statement 
against the policy of Government intervention in fiscal matters. I 
submit that this policy of non-intervention is clearly obsolete. In 
various respects connected with our Colonial Government, and 
also in connection with our Government at home. Her Majesty's 
Government have, in fact, of late years, taken a new departure. It 
is high time that we should cast aside trammels which might have 
been very well fifty or sixty years ago, but which are not suited to 
the present time. We, who are interested in the West Indies, must 
remember that we are a small number, while people " in the street " 
are very numerous and very ignorant on this question. It behoves 
us who know this subject, and are attached to this part of the world, 
to go out and spread the light amongst those who are either too 
busy or are too interested in other matters to think of the sufferings 
of their fellow-subjects beyond the seas. 

Mr. Henby J. JoxjRDAiN, C.M.G. : Somewhat unexpectedly 
called upon to address you this evening, my remarks will be very 
brief. It is with the greatest pleasure that I have listened to the 
very interesting description we have just heard of the West Indian 
Colonies of the Empire, and, connected as I have been with the 
sugar producing Colony of Mauritius for the last forty years, I should 
be ashamed of myself if I sat still and did not offer to Mr. 
Carrington the sincere thanks of that Colony for the very admirable 
manner in which he has laid before us the great hardships under 
which the sugar producing Colonies labour tiirough this iniquitous 
system of foreign bounties. So much has of late been written and 
spoken on the subject of these bounties, and the prejudice thereby 
caused to the British sugar industries, that there is Uttle to add, and 
by saying much on the subject to-night I should risk being termed a 
plagiarist, especially after the admirable and exhaustive speech of Mr. 

Digitized by 


198 Our We$t Indian Cohnies. 

Lnbbook. There is only one point which, so far as I remember, has 
not been allnded to. It has been said outside that we are fighting 
for protection. Now, I think that we, the West India Oommittee, 
the Anti-Boonty League, and others, have successfully exposed the 
hoUowness of that assertion ; we have shown most clearly that all 
we ask is free trade in sugar. We want a free market for our own 
produce in our own markets. I think that point has been so &r 
settled, that some of those who were our strongest opponents are at 
last wavering, while many others have come over to our side. It 
has been said that great hardship would be inflicted upon the 
biscuit, jam, and sweetmeat industries of this country by the 
adoption of the countervailing duties we propose should be enacted. 
Oan this assertion really be serious ? When you come to consider 
how little sugar — ^pure sugar-— enters into the composition of sweet- 
meats, what difference would, say, a farthing a pound increase in the 
price of sugar make in the manufacturing cost of the pennyworth 
of sweets sold in the streets ? It is too ridiculous, and I say to 
those gentlemen who complain that this would be to them a serious 
matter — " What tremendous profits you must have been making in 
the last few years, whilst the cane sugar-producing Colonies and the 
British refiners have been suffering under this iniquitous system, 
and the price of sugar has been so unduly depressed ; surely your 
profits for the last few years will compensate you for a good many 
years to come." I think we ought really, as Englishmen, to look at 
this matter firom a higher point of view. Is it to be said, at the 
closing years of the nineteenth century, that for the sake of buying 
our chocolate or sweetmeats a little bit cheaper, we are to allow 
these islands, some of the brightest jewels in the Imperial crown, 
to lapse into savagery or else seek protection under another flag ? 
What would posterity say ot us ? I venture to hope there is still 
enough patriotism left in the British people to say '^ No " to such a 
proceeding. I was particularly struck the other day by being 
stopped at the railway station by a man who came up to me and 
said, '* Bir, I want to thank you for what I heard you say the other 
day on this question of sugar bounties." He turned out to be a 
guard on the London and North- Western Eailway. He said, " I 
heard you speak at that meeting. I and my mates have often heard 
talk of this question, but we never knew anything about it before." 
Of course we would rather pay a trifle more for the little sugar 
we consume than that England should lose her Oolonies or the 
foreigner crush our British refiners. As to the real bearing, an 
example like that showed me that we ought to set to work in 

Digitized by 


Our West Indian Colomes. 198 

this matter, and educate the masses on this question. There may 
be some jam producer here to-night whose corns I am treading 
on, but I venture to hope that he will agree that it is much 
better to make a little less on his jam, than that this state of 
things should go on. If a continuance of the present system of 
bounties is to be tolerated, I warn him his day is to come. We 
know that recently, under the auspices of one of the largest 
chocolate makers in France, a movement was set on foot for asking 
the Government to allow them to manufacture chocolate and sweet- 
meats in bond and send them over here. They say, " You give an 
export bounty on sugar ; give us this export bounty on the sugar 
we export in the form of chocolate and other sweets." There is no 
doubt that if the bounty system is to be continued, some such con- 
cession will sooner or later be adopted in favour of the trade on the 
continent, and then these opponents of ours will have to suffer. 
With these few observations I beg leave to tender to Mr. 
Carrington my best thanks on behalf of Mauritius for his excellent 
paper, and the able manner in which he has treated this question of 
Foreign Sugar Bounties. 

Colonel Victor Milward, M.P. : I wish first of all to thank 
Mr. Carrington for his admirable paper, which deserves to be a text- 
book on this subject. That there is a great deal of interest taken 
in this country on the subject, no one can doubt, and I may 
mention that in the course of three months I received from one of 
the newspaper cutting agencies no fewer than 419 extracts that 
have been taken from English newspapers relating to this question. 
I sometimes feel as if I should Uke to galvanise into life again Mr. 
Cobden, Mr. Bright, and Mr. Villiers, and ask them whether the 
free trade which we now see is really the thing which they meant 
to promote ; whether they really intended that every Continental 
nation should shut its doors to us, except on the payment of large 
import duties, and should use the very money which they collect 
from our manufactures in import duty, in order to levy unfair 
competition against us in our own islands ; whether, in fact, they 
have any right to use their State money to prevent English people 
supplying English people and subj ects of the Crown with British goods, 
but I am afraid that that wish will not be gratified. There are just 
two or three points I would like to emphasise. The first is, that the 
sugar policy is dictated not by Continental nations as a whole, and not 
by one nation, but by a very small section of agriculturists who live 
in the north of France. The other Continental nations wish to give 
up these bounties, which are a great loss to them, but the agricultur- 


Digitized by 


194 Our West Indiah Colonies. 

ists of the sugar-producing districts in the stretch of country between 
Paris and Calais are receiving millions of money from their Govern- 
ment in the shape of bounty, and these are the men who dictate to 
the world what the sugar policy of the world shall be. Further, I 
would like to make it clear that France is not a customer that 
we need particularly bow down to, because year after year she is 
becoming a smaller purchaser of our produce, while we take more and 
more of hers. The exports from the United Kingdom to France in 
1882 amounted to £29,000,000, and in 1896 to £20,000,000, while 
the imports from France into the United Kingdom in 1882 were 
£39,000,000, and in 1896, £50,000,000, so that while in 1882 the 
balance of trade between us and France was £10,000,000 against us, the 
balance in 1896 was £30,000,000. I can understand you showing 
some deference to a large customer, but I cannot understand why 
such deference should be shown to a country which is taking less and 
less of our produce, and conferring smaller and smaller benefits on 
our population. There is only one other point ; that is, that we 
ought never to forget that the West Indies are governed by us ; that 
we have a veto upon the whole of their legislation, and that they 
have no representation in our House of Commons. I wish to good- 
ness the country would give them twenty Irish members to repre- 
sent them in the British flouse of Commons. I would undertake 
that their grievances would soon be heard and abated. I maintain 
that we ought to deal with our Colonies with generosity and with 
sympathy, and even go beyond what they ask, fcr the very reason 
that we govern them from the distance. Above all, we should not 
pursue a policy that will lay us open to the reproach that, as has 
been said in the paper of a former period in the history of these 
islands, we won the West Indies by British arms, and lost them by 
British diplomacy. 

Mr. C. J. Crospield : Speaking from the refiners' point of view, 
the matter resolves itself into this : that the bounty which is given 
on the refined sugar exported from Continental countries is th6 
thing that ruins us. I think I may say, without fetir of contra- 
diction, that we English refiners are quite capable of holding our 
own against any fair competition that can be brought against us. 
The fact that we still refine some 600,000 tons per annum, 
in spite of the bounty competition, which has destroyed oiw 
large branch of the trade, and is gradually undermining the remain^ 
ing part, proves, I think, that we can hold our own under fair con- 
ditions. We have to fight an unfair competition, and surely we 
can be trusted to fight a fair one. The amount of the additional 

Digitized by 


Our West Indian Colonies. 196- 

bonnty on refined sugar may be put at about 105. a ton, that is to. 
say, 6d, a hundredweight. Now that is a large sum to the refiner, 
who, under fair conditions, would have refined 600,000 tons; 
more than they are doing. This would mean some £800,000 
divided amongst them, but when you come to think of what this , 
6(2. a hundredweight is to the consumer, you will see that it is 
a fraction which he could never feel in his grocer's bill ; it is so 
small that it comes to practically nothing, say 4td. per head per 
annum, taking the consumption of sugar at 84 lbs. per head per 
annum. That perhaps is what our friends, the jam-makers, think 
they are getting. I do not think they are getting it all, because it 
is not necessary always for our competitors in Europe to give us that 
6d. They have only to give up just as much as will undersell us, 
and perhaps l^d. of the Gd. would be quite sufficient for them to 
take our markets away ; so that the jam trade may possibly derive 
a benefit of l^d. a hundredweight from the sugar they use, and, as 
some of our Mends have reminded us, their jam is not all sugar. I 
should like to take this opportunity of thanking Mr. Garrington for 
his very able paper ; it is of the greatest possible interest, and I 
believe that the dissemination of the information which he ha^ 
givenxjannot fail to do good. 

Colonel Alexander Man, C.M.G. : I do not propose to take up the 
time of the meeting by going over matters that have been already 
dealt with by preceding speakers, but there are one or two points I 
would like to mention with special reference to the West India 
Colonies I know best — Trinidad and Tobago. I cannot do better 
than take as my text some words in the opening paragraph of 
Mr. Carrington's most able paper. He speaks of this Institute as 
the " centre for the expression of Colonial feeling *' — that is to say, 
as I understand it, a centre from which the feeling of the Colonies 
goes out all over the Empire. Well, let me mention two matters 
on which, I think, our British people require to be educated. In 
this connection, I lately had the opportunity of speaking before 
a Chamber of Commerce, and in the pourparlers which took place 
previously I was astonished to find what an amount of ignorance 
people, otherwise well-informed, seem to labour under as to the exact 
position of things in the West Indies. I was constantly met by 
the assertion, " Oh, the West Indian Colonies don'^jhelp themselves, 
they don't take the means they might to better their position. They 
are old-fashioned people who won't march with the times, and use the 
best modem appliances and so on." I had the honour of saying before 
an audience, which I am glad to say applauded my statement, that aU 


Digitized by 


196 Our West Indian Colonies. 

this was wrong. Mr. Carrington tells us in his paper that " both 
British Guiana and Trinidad can boast the most modem methods 
of sugar manu&cture. The planters have had to meet the lack of 
labour and other disadvantages by introducing the most perfect pro- 
cesses and the most expensive and powerful machinery." Just so. 
And, besides this, they had shown that the men out there are 
second to none in energy and go-a-headism. Another point on 
which there is misapprehension is this. People at home say that if 
the West Indian planters cannot make sugar pay, they should follow 
the example of Ceylon and try something else ; and that is a senti- 
ment which, especially in the north of Scotland, appeals to many, 
because people from that quarter own and work a great deal of the 
land in Ceylon. It is well known, I presume, to nearly everyone 
here, that when the staple product of that eastern island failed, its 
proprietors turned to tea. But the case is an entirely different case 
to the sugar question in the West Indies. In the case of Ceylon it 
was not the market that failed, but the article grown ; nature 
simply refused to yield her fruits in due season.** In the case of 
the West Indies it was the market that failed, and this through 
artificial causes. Again, people say, " What about minor industries ? 
Surely in a tropical country, if your staple product fails, you could 
turn to other things — cocoa, coffee, spices and what not.'* It is 
true that in some of the islands you could grow these things — m all, 
perhaps, a little. But the question of growing them as staple 
commodities for a market or markets depends on the configuration 
of the land, and on other conditions. Each island has its own 
characteristics; although these so-called minor products could 
certainly be grown in many, they would not be grown in all, or to 
an extent which would justify us in putting any one of them in the 
place of sugar. I say emphatically with regard to Trinidad, fertile 
as the island is — diversified as it is — with large districts capable of 
growing magnificent cocoa and as fine coffee as ever Ceylon pro- 
duced, to mention nothing else, that still the larger part of its 
area is far better adapted for cane farming than for other tropical 
husbandry. In conclusion, I venture to express my himible opinion 
that it is hopeless to expect those lovely islands to prosper under any 
conditions so long as they are crushed by being practically excluded 
from their natural markets. 

Mr. C. S. DicKEN, C.M.G. (Acting Agent-General for Queensland) : 
It has been with the greatest pleasure that I have heard this paper 
from Mr. Carrington about the West Indies. These are Colonies 
with which I am totally unacquainted, and therefore I should not 

Digitized by 


Our West Indian Colomes. 197 

have ventured to take any part in this discussion, had it not have 
been that at the end of his paper he says that the Colony of Queens- 
land is being driven out of the market of India and Australia by 
bounty-fed beet sugar. From this it may be inferred that the sugar 
industry of Queensland is languishing, and as that would be an 
erroneous impression, I think I should explain the present state of 
things. For the last four or five years we have been working in 
Queensland under ** The Sugar Works Guarantee Act.*' At the 
time that Act was first introduced, sugar was producing something 
Hke£3 or £4 a ton more than now ; but even at the present rate, 
vnth the capital which has been expended under this co-operative 
system, in the most improved kind of machinery, the production is 
brought down to such an economic state, that at these new mills, 
which are capable of producing from 2,000 to 6,000 tons, sugar can 
be manufactured at about £S a ton. The refiners purchase under 
agreements the raw sugars from the manufacturers, giving a certain 
bonus according to the quality. This sugar, I understand from 
reports, will perhaps yield to the manufacturer something like 
£8 16s, to £9 2s. 6d. per ton. Therefore, although there is not the 
profit to be made from sugar production there was a few years ago, 
still there is profit to be made and good interest paid on capital in- 
vested. We must remember that in Germany and in other Conti- 
nental countries they are producing sugar at a cost of about £9 10s. 
a ton, and allowing an export bounty of 25s. a ton, this enables 
them to sell their sugar at £S 5s, a ton. I doubt very much, how- 
ever, whether they have been making any profit at that price. If 
they have not, what course is open to them? They must either 
lessen their production, which would mean throwing a good deal of 
land out of beet cultivation, and consequently their mills into 
possible insolvency, or they must extend their markets. In the 
latter event, they may have to go outside Europe, and possibly to 
Australia, where they will come into competition with us. If that 
should be so, and they sent large quantities of sugar to Australia, I 
think it very likely that the Australians will know how to take care 
of their beet farmers and cane cultivators, and follow the example 
of America in that respect and put on a countervailing duty. The 
output for the year was over 91,000 tons, but, as I understand a 
largely increased area is being put under cane in all the districts, 
there is a splendid outlook for this year. I am very sorry indeed 
that the Imperial Government did not boldly take the policy recom- 
mended by our Chairman, of countervailing duties, as I believe 
that if they had done so it would have clinched the bounty nail, and 

Digitized by 


198 Ou/r West iTidian Colomes. 

we should have had the whole trade thrown open under fair condi- 
tions. So long as the present state of things goes on, I am sure 
you will have the sympathy of Australians, I thank you for the 
attention you have given to my few remarks. 

Mr. R. S. AsHTON : I was very glad to hear the speech of the 
representative of Queensland (Mr. Dicken), because what fell from 
him neutralised one of the main arguments in the paper. It is 
very important we should remember that we receive large quantities 
of sugar from other British possessions than the West Indies, and if 
you put on countervaiUng duties, how are you going to deal with the 
cane sugar that comes from Queensland and other parts ? Then, 
again, with regard to Mr. Lubbock's statement, that the sixteen 
millions voted for freeing the slaves in the West Indies went not to 
the planters, but towards paying off the mortgages on their estates. 
If trade were good in the old times, how came they to have these 
heavy mortgages on their estates ?* I think Mr. Lubbock answered 
himself most completely on that point. I notice that in the Eeport 
of the Commissioners emphasis is laid on the fact that some of 
these questions were being advocated by only sectional interests, 
who conceive that the establishment of new industries would be 
detrimental to them ; and I find also, in looking through the Blue 
Book, that important evidence is given by the Bishop of Jamaica, 
who urges that steps should be taken to develop the resources of 
the country in methods suited to the circumstances of the times, 
and especially he insists on the necessity for more scientific know- 
ledge. He says that a stop should be put to predial larceny. The 
collector at Manchester bears testimony to the neglected state of the 
coffee planting. The methods of cultivation are those of one hun- 
dred years ago. Another point to which attention is drawn is that 
so large a part of the West Indian revenue is raised by duties on 
the necessaries of Hfe. If I had time I could show that the revenue 
from Customs constitutes 43 per cent, of the entire revenue, which I 
maintain, as compared with the condition of things elsewhere, for 
example, with 20 per cent, in the United Kingdom and 27 per cent, 
in Australasia, is too large a proportion. I am sure we are all 
sorry that the people should be suffering. I hope the time will 
fipeedily come when, remembering that necessity is the mother of 
invention, they will raise themselves out of their difficulties. I am 
opposed to countervailing duties. 

Dr. T. E. S. ScHOLES (Jamaica) : It has been stated in the course 
of this evening that the decline of the sugar industry in the West 
Indies began with the equalising of the duties, but what I would 

Digitized by V^f OOQ IC 

Our West Indian Cokmes. 199 

desire to point out is that the failure began before that period. It 
began long before then, for in Gardner's " History of Jamaica '* w^ 
read that between 1772 and 1791 estates were greatly embarrassed, 
.and that within that period no fewer than 818 estates changed 
hands for that reason. Thus the failure began long before slavery 
was abolished. Then as to the equalising of the duties. I am not 
here to defend the action of the British Government, but I maintain 
there was a very good reason for equalising the duties, which was 
that notwithstanding the privileges given to West Indian sugar, 
those Colonies were unable to supply the British market. There 
seems to be a strange forgetfulness of the fact that even now West 
Indian sugar enjoys a certain bounty. For whilst every species of 
property owned by the people is taxed to its utmost limit, and by an 
indirect tax, the very necessaries of life consumed by them labour 
under this same embargo, the great stretches of estate-lands escap- 
ing with only a partial tax, the tens of thousands of herds, the 
dwellings, the machinery, and every other article imported for the 
use of these establishments, are wholly exempt from fiscal dues. 
It is also the fact that the Government gives a large subsidy for the 
importation of Hindoo labourers. All this runs into thousands of 
pounds a year. Thus the people are taxed to support the sugar 
estates. Another point is as to the condition of the people. It is 
feared that they will lapse into barbarism because the sugar industry 
is in danger of dying out ; but in opposition to that I make the state- 
ment that the natives engaged in the sugar industry are the most 
unprogressive and the most demoraUsed among the peasantry of the 
West Indies, whilst the most thrifty and energetic are those who had 
forsaken the sugar estates and till their own lands. I would therefore 
urge that we should endeavour to settle the people on their holdings, 
and that when progress is made in this direction, and the island is 
less dependent upon one industry, these periodic crises will not recur. 
The Chaibman (General Sir Henry W. Norman, G.C.B., 
. G.C.M.G., CLE.) : I think we are very much obliged to Mr. Car- 
rington for his valuable paper, which contains much information 
respecting the West Indies well put together, and I would especially 
. instance his remarks showing the difference, not only between the 
several Colonies of the West Indies, but between groups of Colonies, 
which is not generally recognised by the EngHsh public. We are 
very much obliged to him also for his limelight illustrations, and I 
sincerely trust that what has been said to-night, together with these 
illustrations, will induce a good many of our friends who have not 
yet visited the West Indies to take a trip in one of the excursion 

Digitized by 


200 Owr West Indian Colonies. 

steamers, and enjoy the beautiful scenery and the delightful climate 
of the winter months. I think we have received a great deal of 
useful information during the discussion, and I am glad to have 
heard the views of the gentleman from Jamaica who spoke last. 
Of course, I do not agree with all that has been said to-night. My 
views on the general question have been given to the public, and 
they are not changed by anything I have heard since I returned 
from the West Indies. These views are : that the bounties should 
cease, or, if they do not cease, that countervailing duties should be 
imposed. I am glad to see the grant recently proposed in Parlia- 
ment — a grant of what is not after all a very large sum, but which 
will afford material relief in paying off floating deficits of some of 
the poorer islands which are greatly hampering their progress, and 
I am also glad there is to be a sum allotted to enable two of the 
islands, very peculiarly situated, to construct roads and to settle the 
peasantry on land which is at present unproductive. I was rather 
surprised that notice was not taken in the paper of the fact, pro- 
minently alluded to by the last speaker, that long before slavery 
was abolished, and, indeed, in the beginning of this century, a large 
number of estates, notwithstanding the enormous quantity of sugar 
and rum exported at a price three or four times as much as the 
present, were encumbered, and that there were even then cries of 
depression from these islands. This is not perhaps generally 
known, but my predecessor in the Government of Jamaica prepared 
a careful paper which showed how much the planters were then 
embarrassed and burdened. There has been no allusion made to 
the fact that in the years 1891 and 1892 the United States offered 
to enter into an arrangement with the West Indies, with the entire 
sanction of Her Majesty's Government, to take off a large amount 
of duties which they levied on sugar, in exchange for the remission 
of duties on the other side. That actually came into operation, but 
it only lasted a few months, when the United States brought the 
agreement to a conclusion to the great inconvenience of the West 
Indies. Of course, we know the fiscal policy of the United States is 
not of a very permanent character, and I should be sorry to see the 
West Indies relying too much upon arrangements with that country. 
Nor do I think that the arrangement proposed in 1886, by which-, 
in return for a remission of Customs duties by the West Indies of 
£200,000 a year, the United States would sacrifice ten times as 
much, would ever have been sanctioned by the representatives of 
so shrewd and practical a people as those of the United States. A 
small concession, as I have already mentioned, has been promised 

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Ov/t West Indian Colomes. 201 

by Her Majesty's Government ; what more is going to be done, I 
am not in a position to say or to know, but from what Mr. Balfour 
and Mr. Chamberlain said last night, it is quite clear that other 
measures are in contemplation. I should be very glad, indeed, if 
other assistance could be given to the West Indies of a satisfactory 
nature, in addition to the imposition of countervailing duties, and I 
should be very pleased indeed if changes — improvements I should call 
them — were made in the administration, which seem to me neces- 
sary. It was quite impossible for the Commission to enter into all 
the various details of administration, or make suggestions for its 
improvement. Our instructions did not require us to do so. We 
were instructed to complete the inquiry within four months, -and it 
was quite impossible we could in that period have arrived at con- 
clusions as to the beneficial changes that might be made in the 
administration of the several Colonies in order to raise the condi- 
tion of the people or to reduce expenditure. I trust some measures 
will be taken in this direction, as well as with respect to the bounty. 
Some sort of unfavourable allusion has been made to my valued 
friends and colleagues. Sir Edward Grey and Sir David Barbour, 
which I do not think are at all deserved. Those two gentlemen, 
aided by the great experience and knowledge of Dr. Morris, the 
Assistant-Director at Kew, and by the able Secretary to our Commis- 
sion, worked most zealously and with, I think, very great ability in 
investigating the condition of the West Indies, and I certainly never 
could have produced the report, which I believe has commanded 
general respect, as giving a true account of the West Indies, without 
tiie aid and co-operation of these gentlemen. When we had drawn 
up our report on the condition of the Colonies, we had to consider 
what to recommend. And here we differed. They considered that 
countervailing duties would not be an effective remedy, and were 
open to many objections. As honest men they stated their opinion, 
but I well know that they were distressed at the condition of the 
people in many of the places visited, and that their entire sympathy 
was with those people, I am certain that no one in this room will 
rejoice more than they will if measures can be adopted for putting 
the West Indian Colonies in a state of prosperity and contentment. 
I ask you all, ladies and gentlemen, to join in a cordial vote of 
thanks to Mr. Carrington. 

Mr. Cabrington : I thank you very much for the kind way in 
which you have received my paper. At this late horn:, and after 
such a full and valuable discussion, I will not reply at any length. 
There have been raised such points as the protection given to 

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202 ' Our West Indian Colonies^ 

British distillers as against Colonial* distillers, also &s to'th^ utterly 
delusive character of the alleged gain to the Mother Goiiutry by. 
the action of foreign bounties, which points it was impossibla to. 
bringwithin the narrow limits of the paper I haveread, to you to-night. 
It would almost require another paper of equal length to deal with 
them. But there are one or two points I should wish to refer 
to very shortly. First, Sir Henry Norman agreed with one of the 
speakers that there had been periods of depression existing in the 
British West Indies prior to emancipation. In the hmits .pre- 
scribed for my paper, which was to occupy but forty minutes, it was 
impossible for me, and it would have wearied you, if I had attempted 
to detail the anxious times in the West Indies from their first 
colonisation. To give you an outline of the sufferings of the 
British West Indian colonists during the last sixty years, and to 
endeavour to point out the causes of the same, has been all that I 
could essay to do. Again, two of the speakers have spoken disparag- 
ingly of the sugar planters of the British West Indies. This is a 
point on which I ought to be able to speak with some authority, 
holding as I do the diploma of the Royal Agricultural Society of 
England and of the Agricultural Society of Scotland. I have 
mixed with a large number of these planters, and can say that 
they stand very high in regard to agricultural science. Indeed, the 
knowledge of agricultural science of the average sugar planter is 
far and away beyond that of the average British former. It is 
nonsense to say that the planters are behind the times, and that 
the present depression is owing to their lack of knowledge.- More- 
over, the Commissioners* report expressly states an opinion similar 
to mine. Then again, as to the labouring classes, one of the same 
speakers stated that those engaged in the sugar industry were dull 
as compared to those having small holdings or employed in 
the minor industries. This I cannot agree with. Those of you 
who know the West Indies best will bear me out when I say tiiat 
the Barbadian labourer is the sharpest and the cleverest, whether 
in field or factory, and this I believe to be in a great measure due 
to the fact that in Barbados he is constantly in contact with the 
white planters and engineers. Indeed, it appears as il the sugar 
industry has a decidedly sharpening influence on the labouring 
classes. In conclusion, I wo old wish to sound one note of warning. 
It is impossible that sugar can continue very long at a price below 
the natural cost of production, and in this connection I will read to 
you an extract from a speech of Dr. Paashe, a member of the 
German Parliament, who says : " The fight between Cane Sugar 

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Our West Indian Colonies. 208 

and Beet Sugar, which prevails in the sugar market of the whole 
world, must come to an end somehow or other. One of the two 
can only be the victor, and the other must succumb. ... I wish 
that our sugar industry may become great and strong, and I wish 
that we gain the victory over the Colonies, and if the bounty can 
do anything to bring us nearer to this aim, even though incurring 
worse times for ourselves in the beginning, we can say at last, when 
the market is at our command, we have pursued a grand policy, we 
have reached a grand aim." I now beg to propose a hearty vote of 
thanks to our Chairman, Sir Henry Norman, for presiding this 
evening, and in the name of all West Indians to express to him our 
gratitude for his noble exertions on our behalf. 
This having been accorded, the meeting terminated. 

Digitized by 




The Annual Dinner of the Institute took place at the Whitehall 
Booms, H6tel M6tropole, on Wednesday, March 30, 1898. Field- 
Marshal H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge, K.G., G.C.M.G., &c., pre- 

The following is a complete list of those present : — 

Dr. Wm. Aitken, Sir J. W. Akerman, K.C.M.G., J. B. Akeroyd, J. F. Alden- 
hoven, B. Allen, Lord Ampthill, M. Attenborough, Sir W. A. Baillie-Hamilton, 
K,C.M.G., C.B., A. L. Barber, Lieut.-General R. Bateson, C.V.O., H. H. Beau- 
champ, R. M. Beckett, T. Beckett, W. H. S. Bell, L. J. Bernstein, H. F. Billing- 
hurst, H. Birchenough, Sir H. A. Blake, G.C.M.G., J. R. Boos6, R. Bosanquet, 
J. C. E. Bridge, Colonel W. S. Brooke, J. F. Burstall, Dr. A. H. Burt, A. R. 
Butterworth, F. W. Butterworth, Allan Campbell, Colonel Campbell, Sir A. J. L. 
Cappel, K.C.I.E., F. Carter, Wm. Chamberlain, Lieut.-General Sir A. Clarke, 
G.C.M.G., C.B., C.I.E., Colonel Sir George S. Clarke, K.C.M.G., Colonel Sir 
Marshal Clarke, K.C.M.G., Hon. T. H. Cochrane, M.P., J. G. Cohner, C.M.G., 
N. Cork, W. F. Courthope, A. Crampton, D. R. Dangar, F. H. Dangar, Sir A. 
Dent, K.C.M.G., J. R. C. Deverill, G. G. Dick, Rear-Admiral R. S. F. Digby, 
Gordon Dill, Hon. R. R. Dobell (M.P., Canada), G. P. Doolette, Colonel Dowding, 
Fred Dutton, C. N. Dyer, F. Dyer, G. N. Elsom, W. H. Ely, A. D. Essien, C. 
Washmgton Eves, C.M.G., R. A. Fairclough, The Duke of Fife, K.T., R. E. 
Finlay, J. H. Finlayson, F. Finney, (M.L.A., Queensland), B. F. Foran, John 
Eraser, C.M.G., H. Freeman, F. U. Fuller, A. C. Garrick, Sir J. F. Garrick, 
K.C.M.G., A. E. Gawthorp, J. H. Geddes, C. T. Gedye, A. Gilbert, The Earl of 
Glasgow, G.C.M.G., A Golden, J. F. S. Gooday, H. Grant, Maj.-General Sir 
Henry Green, K.C.S.I., C.B., Earl Grey, C. Griffith, C. A. Harris, Hon. Sir W. 

F. Hely-Hutchinson, G.C.M.G., G. T. Henderson, Lieutenant W. Henderson, 
R.N., M. W. Hervey, V. S. Hervey, F. E. Hesse, G. T. Hewitt, Sir Walter C. 
Hillier, K.C.M.G., G. B. Hingley, Sir Arthur Hodgson, K.C.M.G., J. M. Horner, 
Admiral Sir A. H. Hoskins, G.C.B., J. W. Howard, R. J. B. Howard, F.R.C.S., 

G. Hughes, Colonel E. T. H. Hutton, C.B., A.D.C., J. Hutton, G. C. Jack, Henry 
J. Jourdain, C.M.G., W. Keswick, H. Kimber, M.P., The Earl of Kintore, 
G.C.M.G., Robert Landale, R. H. Landale, Colonel R. B. Lane, C.B., F. W. 
Large, W. Lindsay, R. H. Lovell, Sir Hugh Low, G.C.M.G., R. K. MacBride, 
C.M.G., F. V. McConnell, C. J. McCuaig, K. N. Macfee, G. S. Mackenzie, C.B., 
A. J. Macphail, Colonel A. Man, C.M.G., Capt. R. Marshall, Colonel Sir R. E. 
Martin, K.C.M.G., W. R. Mewburn, J. Moorhead, Dr. R. Moorhead, G. Vaughan 
Morgan, P. Vaughan Morgan, S. Vaughan Morgan, Dr. A. Morrison, Dr. D. 
Morris, C.M.G., F. A. Moule, E. H. Nash, Sir E. Montague Nelson, K.C.M.G., C. 
Newberry, A. Nichols, J. C. Nichols, R. Nivison, General Sir H. W. Norman, 
G.C.B., G.C.M.G., C.I.E., Sir Terence O'Brien, K.C.M.G., J. S. O'Halloran, 
C.M.G. (Secretary), Hon. W. H. S. Osmond (M.L.C. Victoria), Rt. Hon. Sir A. J. 
Otway, Bart., Major J. Roper Parkington, H. M. Paul, Sir Walter Peace, 
K.C.M.G., L. Pelly, J. D. Pender, Capt. Pitt, R.N., E. Preston, J. W. Previt^, G. 
Purvis, E. E. Rand, Sir Wm. Robinson, G.C.M.G., A. Ross, C. Rous-Marten, 

Digitized by 


Annual Dinner. 205 

Archbishop of Rupertsland, T. J. Bussell, Capt. W. R. Russell (M.H.R., New 
Zealand), E. Sahnon, Admiral Sir Nowell Salmon, V.C., G.C.B., A.D.C., Sir 
Saul Samuel, Bart., K.C.M.G., C.B., P. H. Savage, W. F. Savage, W. Saville- 
Kent, A. Sclanders, E. Seton-Pattison, M.R.C.S., Colonel H. H. Settle, R.E., 
D.S.O., J. W. Shand-Harvey, N. Sherwood, C. Short, Capt. A. Simpson, C. C. 
Skarratt, G. Slade, Sir Cecil Clementi Smith, G.C.M.G., General Sir H. A. 
Smyth, K.O.M.G., Capt. E. G. Snow, Sir Charles E. F. Stirling, Bart., G. 
Sturgeon, C. Theobald, Colonel J. S. Thompson, A. D. Thornton, H. Tichborne, 
G. A. Tomkinson, S. Toms, Hon. J. Tudhope, W. S. Tupholme, W. C. Tyndale, 
C. R. Valentine, H. F. von Haast, E. Walker, F. Walker, Sir C. G. Walpole, S. 
Warburton, F. J. Waring, C.M.G., P. G. Weddel, W. Weddel, S. Weil, J. Lowry 
Whittle, E. Wigan, J. Wigan, D. F. Wilbraham, W. H. Willans, L. J. Williams, 
A. Williamson, H. F. Wilson, E. Wingfield, C.B., B. M. WooUan, Sir James 
A. Youl, K.C.M.G., Sir Frederick Young, K.C.M.G., Colonel J. S. Young. 

The guests were received by the following Vice-Presidents and 
Councillors : — 

Mr. Allan Campbell, Mr. F. H. Dangar, Mr. Frederick Button, Mr. C. Wash- 
ington Eves, C.M.G., Sir James Garrick, K.C.M.G., Major-General Sir Henry 
Green, K.C.S.I., C.B., Sir Arthur Hodgson, K.C.M.G., Admiral Sir Anthony H. 
Hoskins, G.C.B., Mr. Henry J. Jourdain, CLM.G., Mr. WiUiam Keswick, Lieut.- 
General R. W. Lowry, C.B., Mr. George S. Mackenzie, C.B., Mr. S. Vaughan 
Morgan, Sir E. Montague Nelson, K.C.M.G., General Sir Henry W. Norman, 
G.C3., G.C.M.G., C.I.E., Sir Saul Samuel, Bart., K.C.M.G., C.B., Sir Cecil 
Clementi Smith, G.C.M.G., Sir Charles E. F. Stirling, Bart., Sir James A. Youl, 
K.C.M.G., and Sir Frederick Young, K.C.M.G. 

The Hall was decorated with flags bearing the Union Jack and 
the arms or distinguishing badges of the various Colonies and the 
flag of the Institute, with the motto " The Queen and the United 

His Grace the Archbishop of Eupertsland, Prelate of the Order of 
• St. Michael and St. George, said grace. 

The Duke of Cambbidge, in giving the toast of " The Queen," 
said: It is unnecessary to remind you that in 1897 we passed 
through one of the most remarkable years in the history of our 
Empire. When we look at home, with its concentrated life, and 
abroad to our wide-spreading dominions, we cannot but remember 
the extraordinary fact that Her Majesty has been more than sixty 
years on the Throne, and that she is still in health and vigour. 
There is but one seniiment of devotion and admiration throughout 
this great Empire for that great Sovereign who for these many 
years has, in a manner so admirable and glorious, discharged the 
grave and responsible duties which fall to her lot. 

The Eabl op Kintobb, G.C.M.G. : The illustrious Duke in the 
chair has conferred on me the privilege of offering for your 
acceptance a toast which, at every loyal gatheHng in Great or in 
Greater Britain, comes second only to that of our Sovereign — I 

Digitized by 


206 Annual Dinner. 

mean, of course, the toast of " The Prince and Princess of Wales and 
the rest of the Koyal Family." While we wish that on all happy 
occasions such as the present, our proceedings should be prefaced by 
an act of homage to the Queen, during whose long and memorable 
reign so many blessings have come to this ever-growing Empire, 
we naturally next turn to the members of her family.^ Amongst 
them we can happily number four generations of the direct line, 
and, while some of them are scattered far and wide over many 
lands, yet, whether at home or abroad, they will always be found, 
in entire disregard of any considerations of personal convenience, 
to be giving their time, their ability, and their matchless energy to 
the encouragement of what is great and noble, supporting all de- 
serving proposals for the common good, minisbering to the wants of 
the suffering, and extending to all in real need that sympathy and 
help which mean so much. Lives actuated by such aims, dedicated 
to such purposes, cannot fail to enshrine the Eoyal Family in the 
hearts of all, whether at home, in the Colonies, or the world over. 
Our brethren from over seas whose visit last year did so much for ' 
the completeness of an historic commemoration could not have 
failed to carry back to their homes an enduring and grateful recollec- 
tion of the grace and exquisite courtesy with which they were 
received and welcomed by the Prince and Princess of Wales. 
Members of the Koyal Colonial Institute entirely associated them- 
selves with those feelings. We are ever mindful of the help and 
status given the Society by the continuance — for a period now of pre- 
cisely twenty years — of the Prince of Wales in the office of President, 
Once again we are proud to see in our midst the Duke of Cam- 
bridge, who has cut short an all too brief holiday in order that he 
might lend the support of his presence to us on this occasion. We 
are all mindful that the birthday of his Eoyal Highness was cele- 
brated on Saturday last (" Many happy returns ") ; and we drink the 
toast with the heartfelt wish that before the Prince and Princess of 
Wales, before the illustrious Chairman and all the Koyal Family, 
there may be many sunshine years of health and happiness. 

The Duke of Cambridge : In proposing " The Naval and Military 
Forces of the Empire," said : I very highly appreciate the words 
which have fallen from my noble friend on the right, and from 
other friends. I only wish that all of you, when you have attained 
your 79th year, as I did the other day, may find yourselves cpipable 
of being present on such an occasion as this. My next toast is 
one of considerable importance. We are not allowed to speak 
politics here, and I am very glad of it. I am not a pohtician 

Digitized by 


AnnvM Dinner. 207 

of any party. I am an Englishman who looks shnply to the 
advantage of his country. I do not care from which side it comes; 
all I want to see is that this great Empire shall continue as it is 
now. To ensure that you must have power. Without power no- 
body is of any value, and a country requires power just as much as 
an individual. We live in very critical times, when we must main- 
tain our position and not retrograde from it in any way. You can- 
not do that unless you are strong. You must have force to back 
up whatever you think is necessary for the interests of the country. 
I look upon the Army and Navy as great and essential elements of 
the strength of our Empire, and it has always been my opinion that 
the Navy would do less well than it does were it not backed up by 
the Army. There is solidarity of good feeling among the people for 
both Services, and they do not admire one more than the other. I 
have been at the head of the Army for forty years. I have served 
my country, I hope, faithfully and well, and the great interest shown 
both in that Service and the Navy by the public I hope will con- 
tinue with such force as to keep them in that state of efficiency so 
essential to the protection of this Empire. 

Admiral Sir Nowbll Salmon, V.C, G.C.B. : I feel as diffident 
as I think all sailors would feel on an occasion of this sort at being 
called upon to return thanks for the Naval Profession. My task 
has been made the easier by the kind mention by our illustrious 
Chairman of the cohesion between the two Services. Most heartily 
can I confirm what he says that between the two Services there are 
no jealousies. We are happy to work together for the good of the 
country under all circumstances. Speaking before this gathering 
of gentlemen interested in the Colonies, I feel perhaps a little more 
at home than elsewhere, because I have spent more of my life in 
the Colonies than out of them. Indeed, there are very few of the 
Colonies which I have not visited, but I have not been to Australasia, 
which is one of the greatest regrets of my hfe. I may safely say 
that the pleasantest part of a Naval Officer's life is when he is 
serving in the Colonies. There is another part of this question, and 
that is, what is the Navy to do in return ? There is no Colony 
under the British Crown that, being either an importer or exporter 
of food, does not require a high road. It is the business of the 
Navy to keep these high roads clear. Most of the Colonies, as I have 
said, are either importers or exporters of food. The South African 
Colonies import the greater part of their food ; while Hong Kong, 
amongst other luxuries, imports a million pigs a year, for we know 
that the Chinaman has a great love for roast pork. The various 

Digitized by 


208 Antmal Dinner. 

needs of the Colonies require that the high roads should be kept 
open, and the Navy, I hope, will succeed in keeping them open 
should the necessity arise. Perhaps I may conclude by a little 
anecdote. Not long ago, I was showing a distinguished foreign 
Admiral over Portsmouth Dockyard and the different departments 
there, and when he had seen everything, he said : " My friend, you 
have got the ships, and you have got the men, and you have got the 
docks, but you cannot keep all your foreign possessions.*' I repMed, 
" Never mind, my friend, we mean to have a good try." And that, 
I think, is the feeling of the whole Naval Service. 

General Sir Henry Norman, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., CLE. : It is a 
very high honour to be called upon to respond to the toast of " The 
Army ** at this great and important assembly ; but I feel a difficulty 
in performing this duty in the presence of your Boyal Highness, 
who was for so many years the honoured head of the Army, and 
upon whose staff I had the honour to serve as the first Indian 
officer ever employed at the Horse Guards, thirty-eight years ago. 
It was a source of satisfaction to all, that some short time ago great 
attention was directed to the improvement and strengthening of the 
Navy. No persons rejoiced at this more than those in the Army, 
and I am quite sure that all patriots rejoice also that lately some- 
thing has been done towards the augmentation and improvement of 
our military forces. It may be quite true, as some think, that more 
might have been done, but at all events the greater part of what has 
been ordered is in the right direction, and we may hope that farther 
measures will follow. Our attention has been much drawn of late 
to affairs in the North-west frontier of India, and before I go further 
I may ask whether there is any army in the world from which so 
much is required as from the Army of the Queen ? There is almost 
always some war going on, or likely to go on, and troops are always 
being held in a state of preparation for war in various parts of the 
world. Not only does this apply to the troops of Her Majesty, 
British and Indian, but to troops that can hardly be classed as 
belonging to the regular army in all the various parts of the Empire, 
especially in the different parts of Africa, and we cannot quite for- 
get that there is a large force, excellently organised and disciplined 
by British officers in Egypt at the present moment, from which we 
expect to hear in the next few days of a decisive success under the 
able leadership of General Kitchener. The operations on the North- 
west frontier in the past few months, I think, have conclusively 
proved the heroism and the endurance of the troops engaged, and 
the noble leading that has always shown itself on the part of the 

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Annual Dinner. 209 

officers. I do not know that any branch of the service has failed to 
distinguish itself in that war. The Mountain artillery have shown 
they have been brought to the highest state of efficiency and in a 
most difficult country, and on many occasions have been able to 
render most essential service to the other branches of the Army. 
The Sappers have constantly and rapidly made roads, often under 
fire, or at all events have made pathways passable for the large 
number of animals loaded with ammunition and provisions, that had 
to be kept close to the Army. The Cavalry, I believe, have been 
used more extensively than ever before in a mountain country : they 
have been constantly sent over the most difficult ground to re- 
connoitre by themselves, and have on every occasion where the 
ground permitted inflicted loss with spear and sword, while they 
have dismounted with carbine fire and shown themselves more than a 
match for the skirmishers of the enemy. As to the Infantry, they 
have constantly been engaged, and on all occasions with credit to 
themselves. I believe you all appreciate these services. It is, 
however, almost impossible fully to appreciate their services 
unless you have seen, as I have seen, the difficulty and precipi- 
tous nature of the country, the encumbrance that arises from 
having to take large numbers of camels or mules, with provisions 
and ammimition ; of the ascent up precipices, perhaps 2,000 feet 
high, under constant fire from the enemy, who are sheltered and 
concealed, and probably in a position to hurl down stones and rocks, 
or of retirements before an enemy probably the most active in the 
world, knowing every inch of the ground, and always prepared to 
rush in with their knives if they see the slightest confusion in our 
ranks, owing to the difficulties of the ground or other circumstances. 
I am sure you are all proud of these troops. I thank you most 
cordially for the way you have received this toast ; and when I 
return thanks for the Army, I include not only the regular forces, 
but the MiUtia, the Yeomanry, the Volunteers, to whom we look 
for effective aid in case of need, and also those troops in the 
Colonies with whom many of you have only recently made a first 
acquaintance. I think you may feel assured that the whole of these 
troops are actuated by a feeling of deep loyalty to their Sovereign, 
and will enter with ardour into any contest for the defence of the 
Empire or the maintenance of our honour or our rights. 

Sir Henry Blake, G.C.M.G. (Governor of Hong Kong) : To 
me has been entrusted the pleasant duty of proposing the toast of 
**The Houses of Parliament" — a toast that is always received in 
this country with appreciative warmth ; a toast that commends itself 

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210 Anmud Dinner. 

with peculiar force to those interested in the world-wide possessions 
that form Greater Britain — possessions who in their local legislatures 
have copied, so far as local circumstances will permit, the great 
central Legislature of the Empire, and in every instance have 
accepted the principles, the practice, and the forms of the British 
House of Commons as their model. We have just toasted those 
two great Services to the keeping of whose stout hearts and strong 
right arms are entrusted the honour of the British flag. It is 
right that we should with equal ardour accept the toast of the 
Great Council of the Nation that has so wisely shaped our destinies 
throughout the centuries. The sacred flame of liberty may have 
flickered and burned dim from time to time, but it never burned 
more brightly than at the present moment, when every wave of 
popular sentiment finds ready response in the Houses of Parliament ; 
indeed, it has been said that the response is sometimes too ready, 
and that in a periodically rejuvenated House of Commons, the 
heyday of the blood is not always sufficiently tame and humble to 
wait on the judgment. But we have in the House of Peers an 
assembly more staid and not less gifted, where the sense of personal 
continuity may possibly give strength to resist demands for sudden 
changes until the real trend of public opinion has been definitely 
determined. Speaking on the part of the Colonies — so widely 
represented here this evening — I may say that I think the Colonies 
are satisfied that they will always be fairly considered by the 
Imperial Parliament. Speaking of that important group of 
Colonies from which I have lately come — the West Indies — ^we feel 
that the ready response to the first request made by Her Majesty's 
Government for assistance is an assurance that when further 
measures are necessary to preserve these Colonies from threatened 
destruction, brought about by outside circumstances over which 
they have no control, the British Parliament will not be found 
wanting. I am sure then it will be remembered that it is necessary 
this great nation should preserve these beautiful islands, the first 
fruits of England's expansion — the blue Caribbean Sea around 
which is popularly supposed to be paved with the bones of British 
seamen. We see those blue laughing waters where 

The spirits of your fathers 

Shall start from every wave 1 

For the deck it was their field of fame, 

And Ocean was their grave. 

Never in our memory has there been a time when circumspection 

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Annual Dimi&r. 211 

and firmness were more necessary than at the present moment. 
Happily we have at the head of the affairs of the nation strong 
men who feel that in any action that they may consider to be 
necessary they will have behind them the miited support of the 
Parliament and the people of England. It is, I am sure, the ardent 
wish of everyone present that a peaceful and honourable solution 
may be found of any difficulties that may exist at the present time. 
I do not wish to say more lest, remembering, as Sir Nowell Salmon 
told us, that one million pigs are introduced every year into that 
Colony to which I am about to go, it might be considered that an 
additional bore might be added to the number. I may be allowed on 
the part of every member interested in these Colonies to express 
our sympathy for the giant intellect that for fifty years has played 
80 leading a part in the House of Commons and the country ; who 
always charmed, even when he could not convince, and who is now 
at Hawarden bearing with a noble and Christian fortitude his 
grievous trouble. In the case of Lord Salisbury also, illness and 
domestic anxieties, added to the grave responsibility that rests upon 
him at the present moment, must be to him a serious burden. I 
hope, and you hope with me, that the balmy air of the sunny south 
will soon restore him to the country, and that out of the wisdom of 
Parliament and its leaders may come a continuance of honourable 
peace in the present, and in the future an assured and extended 
prosperity. With this toast I beg to couple the name of His Grace 
the Duke of Fife and the Hon. T. H. Cochrane, M.P. 

The Duke of Fife, K.T., in replying for the House of Lords, 
said : I feel that this is neither the time nor the occasion to enter 
into a disquisition upon the position of the House of Lords. Whilst 
I readily admit that the House of Lords, like other institutions in 
this country, is capable of improvement, and, indeed, in my younger 
days I once summoned up courage to make a speech in the House in 
favour of its reform, yet I hold that the House of Lords has played 
no unimportant part in the development of our liberties, and has 
never opposed the clearly-expressed will of the people. Upon an 
occasion like the present, when one has the honour and privilege of 
being the guest of this Institute, which has played so useful a part 
in connection with our Colonial Empire, I confess that my thoughts 
revert to that portion of this Empire with whose affairs I have been 
intimately connected of late years, and which has attracted a con- 
siderable amount of public attention. Since its creation, now nearly 
nine years ago, until quite recently, I have been Vice-President of 
the British South Africa Company, and during the last few weeks I 


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212 AnmUil Dirin&r. 

have received a good many letters, and even visits, from gentlemen 
of the Press, to inquire as to my reasons for having severed my 
connection with an undertaking with whose work I cordially sym- 
pathise. While certain proceedings formed the subject of a Parlia- 
mentary inquiry I naturally did not wish to leave any of my col- 
leagues in the lurch. But sufficient time having elapsed, I merely 
carried out a decision at which I arrived two years ago. No doubt 
our Colonial Empire owes much to Chartered Companies. At a 
time when the world was in a di£ferent condition, when the scramble 
for the unoccupied places of the earth had not commenced, these 
Companies to a great extent laid the foundation of our world-wide 
dominions. But, speaking from my own actual experience, I am 
convinced that in these days Chartered Companies are an anomaly ; 
and I hope that in the future, wherever the British flag flies, some 
form of direct Imperial control will always be established until, of 
course, self-government, that inevitable development of Anglo-Saxon 
communities, takes place. By all means let British courage and 
British love of enterprise seek out new outlets, if there be any left, 
for the extension of our Empire ; but I do devoutly hope that the 
Colonial Ministers of the future will closely follow the footsteps of 
these adventurous spirits, and at an early stage assume that respon- 
sibility which they must eventually accept A Board of gentlemen, 
sitting in London, however able and honest they may be, cannot 
exercise the same control as the Imperial authority, with all its 
prestige and military power. Therefore, I for one warmly welcome 
the wise and admirable scheme which I observe has been lately 
framed by the present Colonial Secretary for the future government 
of the Chartered Company's territories. You will forgive me for 
alluding to a certain deplorable incident, I mean the invasion of 
a neighbouring territory by the forces of the Company of which I 
was a Director — an invasion deliberately planned and carried out 
by our agents without our knowledge, and without our possible 
consent— as I could easily show you, if I were to go into matters 
which I would prefer to forget. It is, of course, preposterous to 
suppose that such a grave violation of duty could have been per- 
petrated by any individuals who felt themselves under the direct 
control of the British Government. Happily, in the case of the 
Chartered Company, adequate steps have now been taken to prevent 
a repetition of such culpable conduct, and I am glad to think that 
in the future the Home Board of the Chartered Company will be 
relegated to the more humble but very useful position of business 
control, which, in my opinion, and speaking after eight years' ex- 

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Anrmal Dinner. 218 

perienoe, I am convinced is the only one which such a Board can 
or ought to occupy. If these functions are properly carried out by 
experienced and practical business men at home, in conjunction 
with faithful officials in South Africa, Ehodesia will have a bright 
and prosperous future. I believe that those vast and fertile terri- 
tories will realise the highest anticipations which we have formed 
of them, and that they will prove themselves to be not the least 
valuable of the many possessions of the British Crown. 

The Hon. T. H. Cochrane, M.P. : I am very sensible of the 
honour conferred upon me in being asked to reply for the House of 
Commons. I am very grateful for the kind and eloquent terms in 
which Sir Henry Blake has been good enough to speak of the House 
of Commons, and to which you have been good enough to accord 
approval. I am proud of being a member, although only a very 
humble member, of that great legislative assembly which is the 
mother of parliaments. It has done, I believe you will agree, good 
and beneficent work for the people of these islands in the past, and 
I hope and trust that in the future it will have many opportimities 
of doing still more, not only for the inhabitants of these islands, but 
with a due regard to the welfare of those who live in the Britain 
beyond the seas. When, as humble members, we first enter Parlia- 
ment, we are, I believe, universally filled with the idea of all that 
beneficent legislation which each of us as individuals may be able 
to pass for the benefit of our country ; but a very few years' experi- 
ence in the House of Commons sheds many of the ideals with which 
we enter, and whilst we find the opportunities for doing good are 
extremely limited, we unfortunately come to the conclusion that the 
opportunities which members of Parliament possess for doing 
mischief are unbounded and unlimited. From the way in which 
you have received this toast, I believe that you do not class all 
members of Parliament with those members not confined to one 
party or to one particular side of the House, whom I may venture 
to <»11 " the busy bees," who find in a little cheap notoriety the 
very sweetest honey of their existence. I allude to those who, when 
some great and vital question of Foreign or Colonial policy is on the 
tapis, take the opportunity to express their insatiable inquisitiveness 
for inopportune information. Such members of the House of 
Commons, I assure you, do not represent the feelings of the body 
of that House any more than they represent the feelings of the 
gentlemen here present. Our Parliamentary institutions may not 
be perfect. It would pass the wit of man to devise any institution 
which would be free from all imperfections, but our institutions, at 

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214 Ann/ual Dinner. 

any rate, have been copied, and have formed the model for those 
great free Parliaments which exist in our greater Empire beyond 
the seas. Your Boyal Highness alluded to the event which took 
place last year, when these Parliaments sent over their premiers to 
show to us that living under a common flag, enjoying the same 
freedom and privileges, they desired to join with us in paying a 
graceful tribute to the noble lady who has reigned for sixty years 
over a happy and contented people. There was one allusion in Sir 
Henry Blake's speech which I am sure touched the hearts of all 
present, whatever their political feelings maybe. I had the honour 
to serve in the same Parliament for a brief time with the venerable 
and distinguished statesman to whom he alluded, and for whom I 
am sure we all feel the utmost sympathy in his iUness, a man whose 
name will be enrolled amongst those of the greatest men of our race 
and time, and who for over fifty years held up the very best tradi- 
tions of Parliamentary life in the House of Commons and the country. 
Nothing, I think, could be more touching than the brief and eloquent 
speech which, in the midst of his suffering, he dehvered at Bourne- 
mouth, not merely to those collected around him, but to the whole 
of this Empire : ** God bless you all ! and all those who love their 
land." I think that speech will find an echo in every British heart 
all over this groat Empire. 

The Duke op Cambridge, in proposing the toast of ** Prosperity 
to the Royal Colonial Institute,'' said : I have had great pleasure in 
responding to the wish expressed that I should preside this evening, 
but I am afraid that there are many others who would have filled 
the post of Chairman far better (cries of ** No "), especially when I 
remember that last year this gathering was presided over by a most 
admirable Colonial Secretary — Mr. Chamberlain. I am afraid that 
I cannot in any respect attain the eloquence or power with which 
he spoke on that occasion ; but I have long been in the public 
service, and have had great opportunities of studying and knowing 
what the feelings and sentiments are which prevail both at home 
and in our Colonies relatively to one another, and I can only say 
that I believe those sentiments which have been so strongly 
developed during the year of the Jubilee of Her Majesty have proved 
to the world, if that were necessary, that there is a mutual good 
feeling and respect existing between the Home and Colonial Govern- 
ments ; indeed, that there is unanimity of sentiment between them. 
I allude fco that fact, because you may depend upon it the Empire 
must rest upon mutual good feeling, sentiment, and affection, and 
it is necessary that we should support one another if the Empire is 

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Anrnial Dinner 4 216 

not to fall to pieces. We have not fallen to pieces yet, and I hope 
we never shall fall to pieces. It is, however, imperative that this 
couDtry should maintain that great sentiment of Empire which 
alone has made this small portion of Europe so powerful in every 
portion of the world. If we allow that sentiment, that feeling, that 
idea to guide us in the future, as it has in the past, I cannot but 
hope, beheve, and trust that, whatever dangers we may have to look 
forward to, we shall be able, with judicious management, to maintain 
our Empire as it exists at the present time. Unless we are reci- 
procally devoted to one another we shall find that other nations 
will not respect us as they at present, I think, are disposed to do. 
I have one great sentiment in my heart. I am an Englishman, and 
I hope that every member who is present, whether he belongs to the 
Home or Colonial portion of the Empire, is proud of belonging to a 
great country. I believe that that sentiment has very largely in- 
creased in the Colonies. There might have been a time when there 
was an idea that the Colonies were only waiting for a period in 
their life when they could depend upon themselves. I believe that 
sentiment to be absolutely gone now. I believe that now they have 
no wish to exist alone, but wish to continue as members of a great 
and influential power in the world. Under these conditions we 
must look round us and see what we ought to do. There are some 
very remarkable events taking place in every part of the world, and 
one can hardly take up a paper in the morning without reading of 
some incident which affects our great Empire either in regard to • 
our home or our Colonial interests. But that is a very delicate 
subject to enter upon just now, and it is not my intention to discuss 
the position of affairs abroad. What I wish to impress upon you is 
that it should be your guiding consideration not to take into account 
merely one portion of the Empire, but to look at it as a whole, as it 
is essential that we should be absolutely united, and guided by one 
feeling and one idea. We must endeavour to bring all the com- 
ponent parts of the Empire together, in order to make one great 
community, with one great sentiment, one great spring of action, in 
order that we may hold our own against the various other elements 
in the world. The position is this. There is great jealousy existing. 
Every nation has great ideas of its own, and wishes to extend its power, 
especially from the commercial point of view. There is great jealousy 
because we have been successful. Let us continue to be successful. 
We require, however, to be very prudent in stating what we wish, 
very powerful when called upon to act, and to have the courage to 
act when it is necessary. It is no use talking and threatening. 

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216 Ann/ual Dinner. 

Threats are no use unless yon have the power to back them up. If 
you are not prepared to carry out your threats you had much better 
leave the matter alone, because it only shows how very weak and 
feeble you are. Therefore, as I said before, keep your Army and 
Navy in such an efiScient state that when you think you are doing 
the right thing you have the means to back your policy up, ii 
necessary. There never was a time when the necessity for such a 
poUcy is so clearly demonstrated as at present. You must have 
the power to carry out the wish, and the prudence not to ask more 
than you have a right to ask. But if you do ask for a thing, say 
that you are determined to have it. Do not be unreasonable, but 
be judicious in what you ask for, and, having been judicious, say 
you expect to get it, and do not be afiraid of letting the world know 
it. In this Institute we have the great advantage of having a centre 
which enables us to exchange thoughts and ideas and express feelings 
in a very agreeable and peaceful manner, and the more peaceful we 
are the better ; but it is those who are peaceable who ought to be 
prepared for conflict if necessary. During the past year there have 
been many more adherents to the Institute than there ever have 
been before, and I hope it will increase in influence, and develop 
more and more from year to year. Before I sit down I wish to 
remind you of the admirable remarks which were made by your last 
year's Chairman (Mr. Chamberlain), whom I admire very much for 
the way in which he has conducted the duties of his great office. I 
cordially agree with him in the few words he addressed to you 
before he sat down. He said, " Let it be our endeavour, let it be 
our task, to keep alive the torch of Imperial patriotism, to keep warm 
the affection and the confidence of our kinsmen across the seas, that 
so in every vicissitude of fortune the British Empire may present an 
unbroken front to all her foes, and may carry on even to distant ages 
the glorious traditions of the British flag." I agree with every word 
of that, and I hope that the present Prime Minister, whom I am glad 
to hear is better, may soon be in a position at the head of his Govern- 
ment to again perform the duties he so ably discharges with a view 
of achieving the result so splendidly described by his colleague, the 
Colonial Secretary. I propose the toast of " Prosperity to the Boyal 
Colonial Institute." 

Eabl Grey, in proposing " The United Empire," said : The 
days have gone by when this toast could excite any feelings of 
opposition in an assembly of Englishmen. The Eojal Colonial 
Institute, which was established in 1868 to counteract the mis- 
taken policy of scuttle and national disintegration, and ** cut the 


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Annual Dinner, 217 

painter," which had temporarily possessed the minds of some of 
our leading statesmen, has driven that madness away for all time. 
It is now impossible to associate an anti-Colonial policy with any 
group of men, however distinguished they may be, who have any 
serious hope of ever assuming the reins of office. We may thank 
heaven that this ** falling sickness " of the sixties has for ever dis- 
appeared. Every Englishman rejoices from the bottom of his 
heart over the work which the sons of the Empire are doing in 
every portion of the earth and over the rapidly increasing union 
between the Mother Country and her distant Colonies. What is 
the mission of Great Britain? It is to establish Anglo-Saxon 
civilisation, with its high ideals, its independent justice, its faciUties 
for commerce, coupled with the policy of " the open door " wherever 
it can safely do so in the unoccupied portions of the earth, or those 
portions of the earth which might have been submerged by bar- 
barism. This is a work in which every man of Anglo-Saxon 
parentage may feel proud to bear a hand. The Duke of Fife and 
myself have been engaged in a work which we believed was cal- 
culated to promote the interests of the Empire. I must confess 
that I listened with some astonishment and surprise to the noble 
Duke's declared preference in very warm language for Imperial 
administration over Chartered rule. When I was invited to join 
the Board of the Chartered Company in 1889, 1 held the same 
opinion as the noble Duke appears to hold to-day, and I went to Lord 
Salisbury, the Prime Minister, and said I thought this was work 
which the Imperial Government ought to undertake, that it was 
work which ought not to be left to the Chartered Company. It 
was only on Lord Salisbury's assurance that the House of Commons 
could not be expected to vote the supplies required to make the 
administration of Bhodesia a success, that I consented to join the 
Board. I am not aware that the noble Duke went to the Prime 
Minister on such a mission at that time. But I differ from him in this 
— ^that having been out on the spot in South Africa, I have altered 
my opinion, and from the conviction borne in upon me by personal 
observation of what has been done in the Bechuanaland Pro- 
tectorate under Imperial administration, and of what has been done 
in Bhodesia under the administration of the company, I am per- 
suaded that rule by Chartered Company, under proper Imperial 
control, is the most beneficent rule that can be invented for the 
development of a new country. 

The DuEE of Fife : Hear, hear, that is my point. 

Eabl Gbey : I understand the noble Duke says that is his point. 

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218 Anrnuhl Dinner. 

I will not enter into discussion with him at this friendly gathering, 
but my point is that the Chartered shareholders have found ten 
millions and upwards for developing Rhodesia, and making it into 
what the noble Duke rightly described it from the reports he has 
received, and which I know it to be from my own knowledge — a 
country which will shortly prove itself to be one of the brightest 
jewels of the British crown. I regret the noble Duke's departure 
from our Board, but I assure him, if he will take it from me, that 
we have been at work for three or four hours every day for the last 
six months, since I came back from Ehodesia, on business connected 
with the Chartered Company's affairs, that the duties attaching to 
the Board still remain far more onerous and burdensome and 
responsible than he supposed. And I do not intend, for one, if the 
shareholders will give me their confidence, to leave the Board 
until the object has been obtained which has been our hope all 
these years, and which is to make Rhodesia into a powerful 
British State. So powerful, that it will secure the federation of 
South Africa, South of the Zambesi, and establish for ever the 
position of England in paramount influence in South Africa. I 
regret that I should have been compelled by the speech of the noble 
Duke to make this digression, and I now proceed to propose the 
toast of " The United Empire." I have said this toast of 
" The United Empire " must commend itself to every English- 
man, and I hope I may not be understood to reflect upon 
gentlemen present if I say that few can adequately realise, 
without leaving our island home, the full breadth and depth 
and meaning of the proud boast, Civis Britannicus sum. The 
intensity of feeling present in these words is in inverse propor- 
tion to the distance of a man from home. " God Save the Queen,*' 
even when miserably played on the frontiers of the Empire, was 
sufficient to bring a lump into one's throat. The most enthusiastic 
demonstration of loyalty that I have ever witnessed was on the 
part of some French subjects of the Queen in Canada in the Jubilee 
year of 1887, and I can speak from experience, if I may refer to the 
other quarter of the world, when 1 say that the Queen has no 
more loyal subjects than many of the Dutch citizens of Rhodesia, 
who enjoy the security of fair and equal laws. The demonstration 
of passionate loyalty last year, when our Empress-Queen made her 
progress through London, attended by eleven Colonial Premiers, and 
followed by troops drawn from, and who have fought in, every por- 
tion of the world, brought home to the hearts and brains of all 
men, including our foreign critics, that the magnificent resources of 

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Anmcal Dinner. 219 

our United Empire are fully equal to any strain to which they can 
possibly be subjected so long as our statesmen continue to take care 
that we rule the seas. There can be no question as to the strength 
of the sentiment which binds together in ever closer union the com- 
ponent parts of the Empire. It is based upon affection and mutual 
good- will, and so long as it exists the precise manner of its practical 
expression would appear to be immaterial. It is premature at 
present to formulate cut and dried schemes of Imperial Federation. 
Colonial must precede Imperial Federation ; and all of us, I feel 
sure, wish God-speed to the statesmen of Australia and South 
Africa who reaUse this, and the ambition of whose lives it is to 
make Federation, within their spheres of influence, a practical result. 
Meanwhile, it is useful to inquire as to the means whereby common 
citizenship may be fostered and mutual interests promoted. Unity 
is strength, and in the defence of the Empire all should assist. 
Canada, Australia, and the Cape Colony have already spontaneously 
set an excellent example, and have shown by their action their 
desire to share the responsibilities of the Empire. It should be our 
endeavour to foster this feeling as much as possible, and in addition 
to reserving a certain number of commissions for Colonial bom sub- 
jects of the Queen, and to admitting Colonial Judges to the Privy 
Council, which we do at present, we should also establish training 
ships in Colonial ports, and make such other arrangements as may 
give the sons of Colonists an equality of opportunity with those of 
home-bom subjects. I would further like to suggest that by employ- 
ing Imperial credit when the security is sufficient, it is in the power 
of this country, without imposing a penny of additional burden on 
the British taxpayers, to sensibly diminish andUghten the burden of 
Colonial debt. It should also be possible to promote the establish- 
ment of scholarships and exhibitions in British schools and uni- 
versities to be competed for in the Colonies. Graceful concessions 
such as these would cost us little, would be tokens of good-will, 
and tighten the bonds of unity. I have the honour of coupUng 
with this toast the name of Sir Walter Hely-Hutchinson, and in 
doing so, as Bhodesia has been brought on the tapis, 1 cannot 
refrain from thanking him for the assistance which he and his 
Government tendered most willingly and helpfully to Bhodesia in her 
hour of need. It was of the greatest possible assistance in putting 
down the rebellion, and is another illustration of the unity of the 
Empire. Another illustration of that unity is that when on one 
occasion it was my duty when in Rhodesia to fchank a small troop 
of Bhodesian police for services rendered in the field, I ascertained 

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220 Anntuil Dinner, 

that over twenty of the troops who had highly distinguished them- 
selves had come from far Australia to help us in the building up of a 
new and powerful British State. 

The Hon. Sir Walter Hely-Hutchinson, G.C.M.G. (Governor 
of Natal) : I am very grateful to your Boyal Highness for having 
called upon me to reply to the toast. I desire to thank Lord Grey 
for the kindly words which he has used with reference to the Natal 
contingent which was sent to Mashonaland during the rebellion, 
and 1 beg to assure him that they will be most gratefully and 
heartily received in the Colony which I represent here to-night. It 
is most appropriate that this toast of the United Empire should 
have been entrusted to a man who is the successor and the present 
head of the family of that distinguished statesman who, by initiat- 
ing the system of responsible government amongst the greater 
Colonies of the Empire, did so much to promote that kindly feeling 
which makes a United Empire possible. Twenty-four years ago, 
when I first joined the Colonial Service, if this toast had been pro- 
posed, we should have been asked to drink to the accomplishment 
of an earnest desire, to the realisation of a cherished ideal — an ideal 
which, in the minds of many men, was, perhaps, then scarcely more 
than a pious opinion. Now, to-day, we drink to the furtherance 
and development of a virtually accomplished fact ; for although 
the unity of the Empire leaves much to be desired in the matter of 
form ; although Imperial Federation, a national Zollverein, are 
still ideals of the future ; although the solidarity of the Empire 
may not yet be defined by rule and line, yet the essence of the 
thing is there, unity of purpose, unity of interest, the brotherly 
devotion of the subjects of the Queen to one another in whatever 
part of the world they may be. And the bonds that bind us to- 
gether, though soft as silk, are strong as steel. No rules, no laws, 
can make them stronger. As the casting of a pebble into a pool 
of still water that is on the point of freezing may entirely convert 
its surface into a sheet of ice, so some event, in itself apparently 
of no serious importance, may suddenly bring about that closer 
union of the Empire which is necessary to enable it to use its 
strength to the best advantage, whether for purposes of defence or 
for purposes of expansion. And when at last the note is struck, 
the heart-strings of the Empire will respond, each with appropriate 
harmony and overtone, until the world is filled with the sound of 
the great diapason, proclaiming aloud to the nations the new 
departure of the Imperial race. 

Sir William Robinson, G.C.M.G. : At this late hour, and 

Digitized by 


Annual Dinner. 221 

although my territory has been invaded by the Earlof Kintore, Irise 
to propose a toast which I am sure will be received with great cor- 
diality, the health of our Chairman. His Boyal Highness has on 
several occasions taken a prominent part in our proceedings, and on 
each occasion, by his frank, manly, and able speeches, has added to 
his well-deserved popularity, and increased the respect felt for him 
by every subject of Her Majesty's unequalled Empire. I am one of 
the oldest members of the Institute, and having had the honour to 
serve Her Majesty for twenty- four years in various of her possessions, 
I can vouch for the loyalty and devotion of their inhabitants. I 
thank his Eoyal Highness on behalf of the Institute for his 
courtesy, consideration, and kind assistance in aiding the great 
national work which this Institute has undertaken. 

The Duke of Cambridge : I appreciate very highly the dis- 
tinguished service you have done me in accepting this toast with 
such cordiality. I have travelled a good many miles in order to be 
present to-night, and as I am assured I have not disappointed you, I 
can certainly say I have not disappointed myself. 

The proceedings then terminated. 

Digitized by 



The Sixth Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at 
the Whitehall Rooms, Hotel M6tropole, on Tuesday, April 19, 1898, 
when Colonel E. T. H. Hutton, O.B., A.D.C., read a paper on ** A 
Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire." 

Lieut.-General Sir J. Bevan Edwards, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.P., a 
member of the Council of the Institute, presided. 

The Minutes of the late Ordinary General Meeting were read and 
confirmed, and it was announced that since that Meeting 34 Fellows 
had been elected, viz., 16 Resident, 18 Non-Resident. 

Resident Fellows : — 

Arthur W. Andrews, M.A,, J, O, Byrne, Field-Marshal H,R.H, the Duke of 
Cambridge, K.G,, G.C.M.G, (Honorary), Robert W. Chamney, Julius Conradt 
James M. Currie, His Grace the Duke of Fife, K.T., Alfred Gilbert, John 
Henderson, Bicliard W, Jeans, Bt. Hon, Lord Napier of Magdala, Thomas 
Budd, Arthur Street, Hon. John Tudhope, Henry E, Tyser, Henry F, 

Non-Resident Fellows : — 

Edward Aston (Lagos), Arthur E. Biden (Cape Colony), Hon. Charles E, 
Davies, M.L.C. (Tasmania), Thomas Finney, M.LA., J.P. (Queensland), Cecil 
HoUiday (Natal), William Acland Hood (New Zealand), Arthur Hudson 
(Solicitor-General, Sierra Leone), Bichard Evan Jones (Gold Coast Colony), 
William F. Lance (Transvaal), D. J. MacCarthy (Gold Coast Colony), 
Fletclier Matthews (Matabeleland), William Morrison (British Guiana), Henry 
J. Price (Natal), Charles 8. Butlidge (Queensland), Hon. James Stewart, C.M.G. 
(Receiver-General and Assistant Colonial Secretary, Fiji), William H. Stoker 
(Attorney-General, Leeward Islands), Augustus B. Tancred (TransvaaX), 
Aubrey Woolls- Sampson (Matabeleland). 

It was also announced that Donations to the Library of books, 
maps, &c., had been received from the various Governments of the 
Colonies and India, Societies, and public bodies both in the United 
Kingdom and the Colonies, and from Fellows of the Institute and 

The Chaibman : Before calling upon Colonel Hutton to read his 

Digitized by 


Sixth Ordina/ry General Meeting. 228 

paper, I have the pleasure to annonnce that H.E.H. the Duke of 
Cambridge has been pleased to accept the honorary Life Fellowship . 
of our Institute. We all know what interest His Royal Highness 
has taken through a long career in everything which tends to the 
unity of the Empire and to the welfare of our Colonies. Very few 
words are necessary to introduce Colonel Hutton, an officer who 
has given great attention to the subject of his paper, and who has 
had exceptional advantages of studying the question. 
Colonel Hutton then read his paper on 


" Let it be our ta^ to keep alive the torch of Imperial patriotism, to 
keep warm the affection and the coniidence of our kinsmen across the 
seas, that so in every vicissitude of fortune the British Empire may 
present an unbroken front to all her foes, and may carry on even to 
distant ages the glorious traditions of the British flag I " ^ 

When I accepted the invitation of the Council of the Royal Colonial 
Institute to read a paper upon the Defence of the Empire, I felt that 
I had undertaken a task which should more appropriately have 
fallen to the lot of an abler advocate than myself. I only yielded 
because unusual opportunities have been given me as a practical 
soldier of becoming intimately acquainted with the instincts and 
ideas of some of our Colonial comrades in arms. 

ExiSTiNc^ Position op the Defence Question. 

It is now eleven years and a half since the late Right Hon. 
Edward Stanhope, then Secretary of State for the Colonies, wrote his 
celebrated minute to the Governors of Colonies under Responsible 
Government, dated November 25, 1886, in which he stated that,* 
" In the opinion of Her Majesty's Government the question which 
is at once urgent and capable of useful consideration at the present 
time is that of organisation for military defence. * ' In ready response 
to the appeal of the Imperial Government contained in the circular 

* Bight Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, Annual Dinner, Boyal Colonial Institute, 
March 31, 1897. 

« Proceedings of the Colonial Conference^ 1887, presented to Parliament, 
July, 1887. 

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224 A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 

letter above alluded to, representatives from all our Colonies and 
Dependencies met for the now almost forgotten Colonial Conference 
of 1887. Since then the military defence of the Empire to which 
we are all so proud to belong has made little, if any, practical advance, 
and the Colonial Conference of 1887 has not been followed by the 
developments which were hoped for. That Conference may, how- 
ever, be held to be responsible for the naval agreement between the 
Imperial Government and the several governments of the Australian 
Colonies as regards the joint maintenance of a sufficient squadron 
for naval defence in Australian waters ; which may be considered 
chiefly of value in that it has in itself established the principle of 
co-operative defence. The Military Defence of the Empire upon 
any comprehensive scale has practically remained in statu quo, since 
it does not appear that the Colonial Defence Committee has ever been 
authorised to include in their labours any broad scheme for the 
military defence of the Empire, nor to formulate any joint system 
of organised defence in which all portions of Her Majesty's 
dominions shall take their share. 

Upon December 3, 1896, you will, however, recollect that the 
Duke of Devonshire on the part of the Government announced the 
naval policy for the defence of the Empire in perhaps one of the 
most momentous statements made by any British statesman of late 
years,^ as follows: — "Maintenance of sea supremacy has been 
assumed as the basis of the system of Imperial defence against attack 
by sea. That is the determining fjEUJtor in shaping the whole de- 
fensive policy of the Empire." That statement has been received 
unchallenged by the whole world, and our Colonies resting on its 
assurance for the safety of their commercial interests at sea have 
ceased to disquiet themselves in, or to tax themselves with, providing 
ships of war for their own protection in their own waters. Several 
of the Australian Colonies are, for example, disposing of their ships of 
war, and reducing their local naval forces, upon which much money 
has in the past been spent. 

There is a generally expressed hope that a military policy may be 
evolved from the existing condition of uncertainty, and that upon it 
maybe erected some soHd and satisfactory military scheme of defence. 
The Imperial Government have voluntarily undertaken the naval 
defence of the whole Empire, and the vast responsibilities involved, 
unaided except by the relatively insignificant contribution of the 

* Speech of Duke of Devonshire, President of the Defence Committee of 
the Cabinet at the Guildhall, December 3, 1896. 

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A, Co-operaPioe System for the Defence of the Empire. 225 

Australian Colonies. The question which now agitates all who are 
concerned with the military defence of our Colonies is, What does 
the Imperial Government propose to do as regards the military de- 
fences of the Empire ? The Colonies have been severally warned to 
arrange for their own defence, and in their several ways have en- 
deavoured to do so. The Colonial Defence Committee have in their 
turn given valuable advice, and brought much professional acumen 
to bear upon local Colonial difficulties, and there the subject is left. 
Surely the time has arrived when the Colonies should know whether 
they are. to receive military protection from the Mother Country in 
time of war or threatened invasion, and whether they in their turn 
are to bear a share in the military defence of that Empire of which 
they form a part, and in whose existence they live and move and 
have their being. 

Vast sums of money are yearly spent in a piece-meal defence 
of the various portions of the Empire, and from reasons of self- 
interest, expediency, and economy, it is surely not too much to urge 
that the time has arrived when all portions of Her Majesty's 
dominions, with their enormous military and other resources, 
should be prepared to co-operate for mutual defence, and should 
decide to accept one general policy — elastic it may be — upon 
which they are to maintain their independence as a great 

This is a question which is pregnant with the whole future exist- 
ence of the Empire. It is not long since that the Secretary of State 
for War defined our military requkements.^ Firstly, he stated, " a 
sufficient garrison for the defence of these islands is required," and 
secondly, " two army corps for ofifensive purposes outside the British 
Isles." Is it to be supposed that two army corps numbering 
60,000 men, or even three, are to be the most that the Mother 
Country is prepared to place at the disposal of her Colonial children, 
or to place in the field for offensive-defensive operations in defence 
of the Empire when the hour of trial comes ? It may safely be 
asserted that the true instinct of British feeling throughout the 
Empire would, in the hour of trial, repudiate such a totally 
inadequate limit to the military resources available. The feeling 
of uncertainty which is caused by such a limit being placed to the 
military resources of the Mother Country is alone a sufficient indica- 
tion of the necessity for some dear and defined military policy based 

> Speech of the Marquis of Lansdowne, Secretary of State for War» 
Edinburgh, December 17, 1897. 

Digitized by 


226 A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 

upon the naval policy which has proved so reassuring to the inteiests 
of peace, and of future conunercial development. 

The absence of an officially declared military policy makes it 
difficult to deal with the subject which is now under your con- 
sideration; and it is only possible to do so by assuming such 
postulates as are warranted by the political considerations, and by 
the miUtary exigencies of a defensive system. 

Bequibbmekts of a British Militaby Policy. 

The requirements of our British military policy may be taken to 
be as follows : — 

I. Our Imperial Liabilities. — (a) The maintenance of our 
sovereign rights in all parts of our world-wide dominions, {b) The 
suppression of disorder, (c) The conduct of those military obliga- 
tions necessitated from time to time by the natural expansion of 
our trade and commercial relations. 

The obligations referred to under (a) and (c) may be best undfiv- 
stood by the following extract : ** The policy of Her Majesiy^s 
Government is not the acquisition of new territory/' said the 
Secretary of State for the Colonies, on January 18 last, " but the 
maintenance of free markets even where that involves the ac- 
quisition of new territory, and the taking up of a very firm attitude 
in regard to any attempt which may be made to deprive us of a 
territory which we already possess.** 

II. The Defence of the Empire as a whole, — It will be readily 
conceded by all observers of recent events in our history that a 
mutual, though unwritten, understanding exists between all portions 
of the Queen's dominions. The ties of sentiment and of self- 
interest alike render the maintenance of the Empire necessary for 
the commercial and political development of each and all. A study 
of history, especially that of our own country, demonstrates most 
clearly that the means by which this can best be effected is by an 
" offensive-defensive " system of defence. 

III. The separate Defence of each portion of the Empire ; in 
other words, the local defence of each individual part of the Queen's 

If we assume the foregoing as the basis of our requirements it 
will be. seen that for the first we have our regular army. It is 
frequently and too readily assumed that our regular army with its 
attendant reserve is available for the defence of the United King- 

Digitized by 


A Co-operative System for theiDefence of the Empire. 227 

dom as well as for the defence of our Colonies. This assumption 
is a misleading one, and has been ably exposed, among others, by a 
recent -writer in the Times ("Reform,*' December 28, 1897). The 
regular army should be more properly regarded as an Imperial 
constabulary, and cannot be reckoned upon as the true factor 
in the defence of the Empire comprised under the two last 

The Imperial regular army consists, in peace, of 211,867 men 
and 718 guns, which in war will, by the addition of the reserves, 
be made up to 292,867 men. 

Of these numbers we have, in peace, as follows : — 


India and her dependencies • 75,000 

Mediterranean Garrisons 10,000 

Egypt 4,000 

South Africa, &c 8,000 

West Africa 

West Indies, Bermuda and Halifax 5,000 

Straits Settlements, &o, 3,000 

Home Service . • • 111,000 

The general feeling of insecurity and of foreign pressure con- 
sequent upon the approach of such a dire event as a great national 
emergency would entail the strengthening of all our garrisons 
beyond the limits of the United Kingdom. It may be safely 
assumed that we should have besides, upon our hands, several 
minor wars and complications instigated, it may be, by our more 
powerful enemies, which would involve military operations in various 
parts of the vulnerable portions of our Empire. It may be accepted, 
then, as certain that there would be a portion only of the regular 
army left available at home. 

In face of the varied character of the probable demands for 
reinforcements this residuum could hardly be expected to form any 
complete military unit, such, for example, as the two army corps 
referred to. A dislocation of any system, therefore, which relies upon 
the Imperial army for an effective defence of the United Kingdom, 
much less of the Empire, must be the inevitable result. It 
would at most constitute the much needed stiffening to a defence 
force less carefully trained for war. It should be recollected that 
the removal of the three available army corps from the shores of 
the United Kingdom, for any offensive-defensive purposes beyond 
the sea, would practically leave the existing auxiliary forces of 


Digitized by 


228 A Go-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 

Great Britain without field artillery, without cavalry, and without 
administrative departments. 

We, therefore, arrive at the conclusion that if the integrity of fcba 
Empire is to be maintained by a military force proportionate ta 
such weighty possibilities, it must be by some military system which 
ehall be capable of fulfilling the conditions of the second heading, 

Thi8 can only bt^ insured by having the proportions of troops 
required for offensive -defensive operations so organised and 
©quipped that they can be utilised as an army in the field. 

It is useless, under the conditions of Porhamentary govemmentj 
to expect the establishment of an ideal system, and it becomes 
imperative to adapt ways to means in proposing any system which 
is likely to find faYom\ In thia particular case, however, there is 
in existence the ^lilitia Act of 1B82, Avhich provides for the exact 
force which is required to meet the circumstances. This Act has, 
moreover, been adopted in principle by most of our Colonies, and 
formed the basis of the Federal Defence Scheme recently framed 
for our Australian Colonies, 

The Militia Act of 1^82 of the United Kingdom provides for the 
raising and maintenance of certain quotas of militia which shall be 
found by each county. These quotas can^ if need arise, be en- 
forced by baUot. The systemj therefore^ for providing a niihtary 
defence force which shall answer our requirements is in existence, 
and we have merely to consider whether its developments may not 
be equally easy of creation. 

In the United Kingdom the militia force consists of a certain 
number of battalions of infantry, a fe\Y engineers, and a few 
artillery. It is in no military sense an army or complete military 
organisation. A military force which does not include the pro* 
portion of all arms, viz., infantry, artillery , cavalry and the adminis- 
Irative departments requisite, is valueless for any modem mililsiy 

The primary condition is, therefore, that the militia of Gr^t 
Britain and Ireland shall become a distinct and coinpli^te mili^ 
force charged with the defence primarily of the Unittrd Kirti^tk 
and secondly, for offensive-defensive operation>i in th© ■ 
defence of the Empire. The eo-opeTF'*ivf ^v^tem of .1 , .„ 

advocated will be best iUustrated hy ^ha pLiii in 

framing the Federal Defence l-^ Ik ir . itflmliao i'j'.*rimt^ 



A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire^ 229 

The Australian Fedbraii Defence Scheme a Type of 
Co-operative Defence.^ 

The principles were laid down, firstly, that each of the six Colonics 
should guarantee the " passive defence " of its own cities, towns, 
and harbours of commercial importance ; and, secondly, that the whole 
of the Colonies should be so organised as to jointly guarantee the 
" active defence" of any portion of Australian or Tasmanian soil, 
by what may be called offensive-defensive military operations. It 
will thus be seen that the second and third requirements which 
were shown to be necessary for a British military policy have 
formed the basis of the Australian Scheme, though in this case 
limited only to Australian waters. 

In Australia, as in the United Kingdom, the troops consist of 
regulars, militia, and volunteers. To the volunteers, or those 
serving under the Volunteer Act of 1859, the Federal Scheme 
assigned the " passive defence," while to the militia was assigned 
the " active defence," which thus formed the federal force for 
active operations. It was arranged that each Colony in proportion 
to its population should provide a military contingent, and that 
such contingent should include the proportionate share of a force 
of all arms, with the requisite administrative departments. 

The federal force thus created from the existing military forces 
in Australia comprised a complete mounted brigade of 1,788 men, 
and six guns on peace footing, which should be increased to 2,778 
men in war, and an infantry division of 4,474 men, with 629 
divisional troops, and eighteen guns on peace footing, increased in 
war to 7,680 and 1,084, making in all 

Peace War Guns 

Mounted Brigade 1,738 2,773 6 

Infantry Division 4,474 7,630 — 

Divisional Troops 629 1,084 18 

Federal Force, Grand Total . . . 6,841 11,387 24 

To ea<;h Colony was allotted a proportionate share of all arms and 
of the administrative departments, so that the federal force of any 
single Colony might take the field, if necessary, complete in all its 
requirements of personnel. (Vide Appendix B.) 

In order to utilise the existing military forces in the manner 
described, a Federal Defence Agreement was drawn up, based upon 
the Militia Act of the Imperial Parliament, which, with some 
minor modifications, had already been in existence in four out of the 

* For a short account of the history of the Australian Federal Defence 
Scheme see Appendix A. 

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280 A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 

six Colonies. This Defence Agreement contained all the provisions 
necessary to be included in the Bill which would be required to be 
passed by each Colony ; in other words, the Militia Bill of 1882 was 
enlarged to meet the fresh requirements. 

It will be observed, therefore, that it was not attempted to create 
anything fresh, but rather to utilise what was already in existence. 
It was intended only to bring the whole of the atomic and inde- 
pendent military systems of the six Colonies concerned into one 
generally accepted plan. 

The most serious difficulty which had to be dealt with by the 
Federal Defence Agreement, was the creation of a central control- 
ling authority. The plan adopted was the formation of a Council 
of Australian Federal Defence, whose powers in peace, and whose 
jurisdiction in times of war, were carefully laid down. 

The Australian Federal Defence Scheme included the fol- 
lowing : — 

1. A General Scheme of Defence, 

2. A Federal Defence Agreement, including the powers of the 
Council of Australian Federal Defence. 

8. Allotment of Federal Troops on basis of population. 

4. Tables showing the establishment and general distribution of 
the Federal Military Force among the several Colonies. 

Military students will aver with reason that the system proposed 
for Australia is not new, that a similar system exists in the United 
States of America, and that we have in Switzerland at the present 
moment the highest and best form of a Federal Militia System for 
offensive-defensive military operations. 

We shall, however, be confronted by an obvious difficulty, if the 
plan proposed for the Australian Colonies be adapted to the require- 
ments of the Empire, since the case of Great Britain and her Colonies 
presents an abnormal feature in regard to the control of the Federal 
Defence Force proposed to be created out of the various elements 
which compose the British Empire. History furnishes us with no 
precedent. In the case of the old Greek Eepublics, we find no 
exact parallel. In the Republics of Eome and Carthage it was 
the Mother State which exacted fealty from her offspring, her 
Colonial offshoots, and in each case the parent State stood 
alone in influence and predominance. In the case of the Swiss 
Eepublic and of the great Republic of the United States of 
America, one central government accepts and engrosses all central 
or federal control of the federal military resources of the com- 
bined States. It may be taken for granted that the only plan 
of co-operative defence which would be acceptable to Great Britain 

Digitized by V^f OOQ IC 

A CO'Op&raUve System for thd Defence of the Empire, 231 

and to her Colonies would be one based upon a representative system. 
The political conditions of British Colonies existing prior to 1776, 
based upon the ancient precedent created by the Greeks and by the 
Bomans in the treatment of Colonies by the parent State, can never, 
and will never, be attempted again. The solution, therefore, of this 
difficulty must lie in some system of offensive-defensive alliance, or 
Federal Agreement, which shall include the creation of a central con- 
trolling council, having, in peace, the Umited administrative powers 
necessary for the organisation and maintenance of the federal force 
agreed upon, and, in war, its control and distribution. 

History affords endless examples of such aUiances during times of 
war and national upheaval; among which may be cited many 
where racial, religious and lingual differences might on first con- 
sideration have rendered such alliances necessarily abortive. 

This did not prove to be the case in WeUington*s army of the 
Peninsula, where British, Spanish, and Portuguese troops fought 
side by side. It was not the case in the Crimea when French, 
British, Turks, and Sardinians formed common cause against the 
power of Russia. 

Surely in the case where the sentiment of race, of religion, of 
language, of political incHnations are common to all, it should not 
be difficult to so plan a central controlling authority which would 
make possible a system of co-operative defence, such as that framed 
in the Australian Federal Defence Scheme. 

The Co-opebative System of Defence for the Empire. 

A Co-operative System of Defence for the Empire would probably 
follow upon the lines of the Federal Scheme proposed for Australia. 
These fundamental principles would then be as follows : — 

I. A General Scheme of Defence. 

II. A Co-operative Defence Agreement, including the powers of a 
Council of Defence. 

ni. An Allotment of Federal troops on basis of population. 

I. A General Scheme of Defence. Its guiding principles may be 
taken to be : — 

(a) That mutual defence be guaranteed by one and all parts 
alike of the Empire : 

{b) That British supremacy at sea be maintained by the Imperial 
Government : 

(c) That the true defence of the Empire may best be served by a 
vigorous offensive — that hostilities should be forced upon the 
enemies of the British Empire, and fought out upon other than 
British soil. 

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282 A C(H>ptrativ$ System for the Defence of the Empire. 

n. A Go-operatiye Defence Agreement, inclading the powers of a 
Gonncil of Defence. 

Following the lines of the agreement explained above, Great 
Britain and her Colonies would undertake upon given terms to 
mutually combine for defence and for such offensive-defensive 
operations as might be necessitated for the effective defence and 
maintenance of the Empire. Great Britain would as at present 
undertake with her regular army to maintain the sovereign rights 
of Empire, the suppression of disorder, and the conduct of those 
minor military operations which are a consequence upon our con- 
tinually increasing commercial development. 

It has been shown how the only serious difficulty of creating a 
central controlling authority might be met, and how the difficulties 
attending the institution of a Council of Defence need not be in- 
superable if met in the spirit of toleration, of mutual esteem, and of 
that national feeling so conspicuously shown upon all occasions 
whenever the antagonistic bearing of foreign powers has evoked it. 

III. An Allotment of Federal troops. In Appendix C. is given 
a possible allotment of troops for federal purposes of defence on 
basis of population. A separate column shows the total number of 
troops available for all purposes, so that it may be seen that the 
federal troops bear a proportion only to those for purely local 
or passive defence. It will be noted in the Appendix that a force of 
173,000 Federal Militia Troops, or six Army Corps, would thus be 
provided. These Army Corps, if organised upon the principle pro- 
posed for Australia, would be complete in all respects, with their 
proportion of the three arms and of the necessary administrative 
departments, and would thus be ready to take the field. 

As in the case of Australia, the troops for purely local or passive 
defence in the United Kingdom would include all the volunteers and 
the yeomanry of Great Britain. It has been urged recently by a 
leading journal ^ that the volunteers of Great Britain are not suited 
by their training, organisation, or discipline to face the trained 
soldiers of the Continent. Men in a mass are much what a system 
makes them, and a sound military organisation which shall effectively 
deal with the volunteer forces of Great Britain has yet to be devised. 
The volunteer force sprang into existence at the time of a national 
crisis, and to meet a sudden emergency ; as at present constituted, 
it cannot be considered as an altogether satisfactory element in the 
organised defence of Great Britain and the Empire. 

As regards the militia forces of the United Kingdom, I have 
already shown the changes that will be required ; they are those 
> Leading article Mommg Post, December 23, 1897. 

Digitized by 


A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 288 

necessitated by a re-organisation of that force into a militia army, 
tbns forming a complete and effective military unit. The change 
advocated need present no serious difficulty, and could be effected 
with the existing numbers and at little additional cost. The diffi- 
culties would mainly consist in the creation of the proportions of 
the three arms, and of the necessary administrative departments. 
Three at least of the Australian Colonies have made their militia 
force into complete military units, notably the Colony of New 
South Wales. In this respect they have followed closely upon th 
militia system of the Swiss Federal Militia, and no reason whatever 
exists to prevent the militia of Great Britain also from becoming as 
complete and as effective an organisation as that of Switzerland. 

In Great Britain we may rest assured that no Militia system can 
be satisfactory or complete which is dependent for its recruits and 
for its maintenance upon a centralised system at the War Office. 
A primary factor is for the county system of maintaining the 
militia to be enforced, and for those counties which are unable or 
unwilling to find the necessary quota of their militia to be compelled 
to resort to the ballot. It may be accepted that the fear alone of 
the enforcement of the ballot for militia will in itself be sufficient 
to cause the county and local authorities to exert themselves into 
providing the requisite troops. 

The late Sir Henry Parkes correctly expressed the opinion of all 
thinking men in Australia when, in the Legislative Assembly of New 
South Wales, in the course of a memorable speech on November 13, 
1894, he said, " Unless our military forces are fedettited, it would be 
better to abolish them. . . . The first question, and one of the most 
prominent in men's minds, is that of military defence." 

The present may rightly be regarded as a favourable moment for 
preparing in peace a co-operative system of defence upon broad and 
comprehensive lines, which shall not only prove effective but cheap. 
Effective in that the Empire would be provided with one general 
system of defence, capable of indefinite expansion, which would give 
a feeling of security of untold value to our national and commercial 
institutions ; cheap in that the vast sums now expended by Great 
Britain and her Colonies upon no connected plan would be expended 
upon an organisation which would be sound and effective. 

An apology is due to. the audience for the imperfect manner in 
which I have presented this vexed question of British Defence to 
your consideration. It is a subject of regret that a complete draft of 
the Australian Federal Defence Scheme has never been published, 
as it would in itself have provided an example and a complete 

Digitized by 


284 A Co-operative System for the Defenoe of the Empire. 

illustration of the co-operative system, which it has been the inten- 
tion of the present paper to explain. For reasons which are doubt- 
less considered sound, the whole question of Australian Federal 
Defence has been dealt with confidentially, and I have therefore 
been unable to state more with reference to it than what has already 
transpired in the Australian Press. 

You will allow me to remind you of the striking peroration to the 
speech of the First Lord of the Admiralty upon March 10 last, when 
submitting the Naval Estimates for 1898-99 to Parliament * : ** The 
nation,'' he concluded by saying in allusion to the increased naval 
armaments, " may look forward with ever increasing confidence to 
this prospect : that if there be peace, which God grant, it may be 
peace crowned with honour; and if there be war, which God 
forbid, it may be war crowned with victory.*' 

It will be universally agreed that a similarly reassuring statement 
as regards the Military Defence of the Empire is only possible by 
adopting the dictum of the Secretary of State for the Colonies, that ^ 
" the Sons of Britain throughout the world shall stand shoulder to 
shoulder to defend our mutual interests and our common rights.'* 

You will, I trust, forgive me if I have wearied you, but you will 
hold me justified if, by explaining a system which has been officially 
recognised as sound, I have even in a small degree shown how the 
words of the Secretary of State for the Colonies may be brought 
into practice, and how the varied streams of our National and 
Colonial existence may be conducted into one channel, where their 
mingled waters can flow on together with regenerating strength 
and grandeur to the end of time. 


The Australian Federal Defence Scheme was prepared and sub- 
mitted by the Government of New South Wales, upon the initiation 
of the Premier (Bight Hon. G. H. Beid), to a Conference of the 
Military Commandants of the whole of the Colonies of Australia and 
Tasmania in October 1894, and after certain unimportant alterations 
was adopted. A meeting of the Premiers of all the Australian 
Colonies was then assembled at Hobart in January 1895, by whom 
this scheme was considered and favourably entertained. A further 
Conference of Commandants upon the initiation of New South Wales 

^ Speech of the Bight Hon. G. J. Gbsohen, First Lord of the Admiralty. 
House of Commons, March 10, 1898. 

' Speech of the Bight Hon. J. Chamberlain, Secretary of State for the 
Colonies. Liverpool, January 18, 1898. 

Digitized by 


A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire, 285 

took place in March 1896, which, with some modifications, agreed to 
the provisions of the Federal Defence Agreement proposed by New 
South Wales, together with all the detailed Tables of Federal Mili- 
tary Establishments, &c. A second meeting of the Premiers of the 
Australian Colonies followed, when, though most favourably enter- 
taining its provisions, it was generally agreed that the Defence ques- 
tions should be merged in the greater pohfcical move of Federation 

Indirectly, therefore, the Australian Federal Defence Scheme 
has been the principal agency in resuscitating the question of 
Australian Federation originated by the late Sir Henry Parkes in 

The mihtary organisation for the Australian Federal Defence 
Scheme, which is shown below, has been based upon the following 
principles : To provide two large complete units, each capable of 
action independently or in unison with the other, viz., a Mounted 
Brigade and an Infantry Division complete. In submitting these 
estabhshments it was sought to make of these units a complete 
mihtary organisation — complete, not only in fighting men but in all 
its departments. It has further been laid down as a principle that 
the quota of troops found by each Colony should bring with it the 
proportion of the departments, so that should it be considered 
necessary for federal purposes to detach the troops provided under 
this agreement by any one single Colony for the defence of a stra- 
tegical point on its own shores, or within its own area, it would be 
done without caUing for assistance from the other Colonies for those 
elements of departmental troops without which they cannot exist as 
a mihtary factor. It might possibly be that Queensland would be 
requested to place half a battalion of infantry in garrison at Port 
Darwin. That half battalion would take with it its proportion of 
Army Service Corps, Bearer Company, and Field Hospital, &c., 
making therefore a complete mihtary unit furnished by Queensland. 
There are objections to departmental troops being made up by 
detachments coming from different Colonies, but the disadvantages 
are more than counterbalanced by the advantages. Departmental 
service is not popular, and it is difficult to train and organise the 
departments in time of peace. Further, it is fair that each Colony 
should bear its proportion of departmental troops, and the allotment 
in this scheme bears the same proportion to the federal force that 
the basis of population bears to the whole federal force of Australia. 

Digitized by 


286 A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 

Allotment of the Active Defence ob Fbdebal Field Force 


Decembeb 31, 1898. 


New South Wales 
Victoria . 
South Australia 
Western Australia * 

Total 3,396,058 7,493 12,074 








Proportion of Troops 





» It may be borne in mind that the population of Western Australia is increasing at a very 
rapid rate. 



OF Tboops. 


Establishments— Totals Pboposed. 

Mounted Brigade. 

Brigade Staff 


Mounted Rifles (3 Regiments) 
Artillery (Field) (1 Battery) . 
Ammunition Column • 
Engineers (Mtd. Det.) . 
Army Service Corps 
Medical Staff Corps 


















Infantry Division of two Brigades. 

Staff of Division 28 74 

2 Brigades 20 60 

„ Artillery, Field 4 4 

ArtUlery, Field 300 628 

Ammunition Column 80 136 

Engineers 161 262 

Infantry 4,176 6,984 

Army Service Corps 230 372 

Medical Staff Corps 114 194 

Total 6,103 8,614 

Digitized by 


A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 287 


Establishments — ^Peaob (a), War (6). 
Mounted Brigade, 

Brigade Staff 

Cavalry, Begimental Staff, and 2 Squadrons and half 
Begimental Staff, New South Wales Lanoers 

* New South Wales Mounted Rifles, 1 Regiment (inclusive 

of 4 medical officers) 

* Victorian Mounted Rifles, 1 Regiment (inclusive of 4 

medical officers) 

2 Queensland Mounted Infantry, 2 Companies 

(inclusive of 2 medical officers) 
^ South Australian Mounted Infantry, 2 Com- 
l panics (inclusive of 2 medical officers) . 

* 1 Battery Victorian Horse Artillery .... 

1 Regiment 

* Ammunition 

Column . 

* Mounted 


* Company Army 

Service Corps 

* Half Company 

Medical Staff 

* 1 Bearer Com- 


* Field Hospital 

I New South Wales 
South Australia . 

JNeW South Wales 

New South Wales 



South Australia . 

New South Wales 



, South Australia . 

New South Wales 



. South Australia . 

I New South Wales 
South Australia . 























- 42 
. 28 

• 82 


• 32 


21 » 









1,738 2,773 

' These unmbers are not included in the Troops allotted to each Colouy. 
' Fifrures taken from N5.W. " Peace" and " War " Establishments. 
• Veterinary Surgeon per Regiment not included. 
' Figures taken from Army Tables (Imperial) for " Peace ** and " Wari* 

Digitized by 


288 A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 


Establishment — Peace (a), War (b). 
Infantry Division. 

Staff of Division. 
* (Exclusive of Servants, Batmen, or Orderlies) 


1st Infantry Bbioade. 

Brigade StaflE 

2 1st New South Wales Infantry Regiment (8 Companies) 
^2nd „ „ (8 „ ) 

'^Srd „ „ (8 „ ) 

^ 1st Queensland ,, (8 i, ) 

vice Corps 
■ 1 Bearer Company 

» 1 Field Hospital . 


. I Queensland . 
f New South Wales 
t Queensland . 
j New South Wales 
* 1 Queensland . 









Totals . 
2nd Infantry Brigade. 



} 80 
\ 30 
t- 15 







Brigade Staff 

^ 1st Victorian Infantry Regiment (8 Companies) 
-2nd „ „ (8 „ ) 

'3rd „ „ (8 „ ) 

' Half Battalion Tastnanian Rifles (4 „ ) 
2 Half „ S. AustraUan Rifles (4 „ ) 

»1 Company Army Ser.J™^.^ 

vice Corps 
^ Bearer Company 

» 1 Field Hospital 

i South Australia 

(Victoria . 
South Australia 
Victoria . 
South Australia 

Totals . 

Grand Total 













2,223 3,728 









* These numbers are not included in the troops allotted to each Colony. 

" The War strength of these battalions entails an increase to the Regimental Staff, and 40 
privates per company. 

=» These War strengths have been fixed at one-tliird less than laid down in Imperial Armr 
Tables, owing to reduction in war strength of battalions, and to the fact that these troops wiU 
not be required out of Australian waters. 

Digitized by 


A CO'Operatwe System for the Defence of the ErhpzH. 280 

Infantry Dwision— (continued) » 



No. 1 Company, N.S.W. (Field Company) 
No. 2 „ Victorian 

Telegraph Section, New South Wales 



Army Service Corps 

1 FtBLD Hospital 

I New South Wales 
Victoria . 
Queensland . 
South Australia 
New South Wales 
Victoria . 
Queensland . 
South Australia 






















Brigade Division Field Artillery. 


" A " Battery, New South Wales Field Artillery 

"A" ," Victorian ArtiUery ." , 










Ammunition Column 

, New South Wales 
I Victoria . 

Queensland . 

South Australia 
V Tasmania 







Total . . . . 
Grand Total of Divisional Troops . 















668 18 

1,084 - 

' One section as laid down in Imperial Army Tables. 

■ Takeu at one-third less than laid down in Imperial Army Tables. 

■ These numbers are not included in the troops allotted to each Colony. 

* The Peace Establishment of these batteries is based upon Tables VIII. and XXVI. N.S.W. 

* Taken at one-tliird less than Imperial Army Tables, as strength of Infantry is one-fifth 
less, and in consideration of the fact that these troops will not be required out of Australian 

Digitized by 


240 A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 


Recapitulation op IIL & IV., showing Number of Tboops 


Mounted Brigade. 

New South 










Peace! ^^^ 

Brigade Staff, unallotted 

Mounted Rifles . 
Artillery . 
Ammunition Column 
Engineers . 
Army Service Corps 
Medical Staff Corps 

i 9 21 























Total . 








Total strength of Brigade, including Staff . . Peace, 1,738 ; War, 2,773. 
Infantry Division. 

New South 




















Divisional Staff . 28 74 

2 Brigade Staff . 20 60 

PieldArtiUeryStafl 4 4 

Artillery (Field) . . 

Ammunition CJolumn . 



Army Service CJorps 

Medical Staff Corps . 

Garrisons * — 
Thursday Island 





























Total . . . 













^ This does not include any of the Permanent Artillery', Submarine Miners, or Engineers. 

Total strength of Division and Garrisons, including Staff— Poace, 5,579 ; 
War, 9,386. 

Digitized by 


A Cooperative System for the Defence of the Empire, 241 

Active Defence or Federal Field Force, 

Mounted Brigade 
Infantry Division 








Federal Garrisons — 

Albany 268 

Thursday Island ... 208 










or Deficit 











New South Wales 
Victoria .... 
Queensland .... 
Sunth Australia . 
Tasmania .... 






























+ 68 







IJnaUottcd :— 
Division Staff 
Field Artillery Staff 
Brigade Staff . 











Grand Totals . 

Add Federal Garrison :- 
Albany .... 
Tbursday Island . 





















■ - 



Allotted as per population assessment . 
Bequired as per tables 

In excess . 
Wanting to complete 





Digitized by 


242 A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 


Schedule Showing Allotment of Militia Tro.ops for a Co- 
operative Defence op the Empire upon a Population 


•2 id 

Defence Forces available, 

exclusive of Imperial 

Regular Army 

on Popula- 
tion Basis 

Troops for 


United King- 


Census of 



Militia » . 137,498) 
Yeomanry » 11,891 Ul3,867 
Volunteers' 263,968) 



Dominion of 


Census of 



Permanent Militia 802) 9.^,^ 
MiUtia . . 84,814; ^°»'**'* 



Australian Colo- 
nies ' 


Census of 



Regulars and ) 

Militia . 14,958 

Volunteers . 3,189 

Reserve* . 6,474 J 

• 24,571 



Cape of GkxKi'l 
Natir j 


Census of 



^S^ : \i?,} «.«» 



Grand Total. . 


— 482,009 

173,000 » 


* Establishments not effectives. 

' New Zealand is not included in this colunm, as it was not included in Australian Federal 
Defraice Scheme. 

" This reserve can be hardly deemed effective, as its numbers are almost untrained. 

* Includes Natal Mounted Police. 

* The inclusion of New Zealand would give approzimatdy 2,000 more to this total. 


The Et. Hon. Sir Charles W. Dilke, Bt., M.P. : I respond to the 
invitation of the Chairman to take part in this discussion, although 
it is a somewhat terrifying thing, even to those of us who have 
strong opinions on the subject, to begin the discussion in the 
presence of such an audience. We have here Sir Henry Norman, 
with his great military, Indian, and Australian experience ; we have 
Sir John Colomb and Admiral Philip Colomb, who are our original 
instructors on this question, and who, more than anyone else per- 
haps, have taught even the great American who has popularised 
the principles of national defence ; and we have maiw others here 
who are extremely competent to speak. The paper is one, more- 
over, in which, generally speaking, I concur, so that I do not wish 

Digitized by 


A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 248 

to commence the discussion in at all a hostile sense. At the same 
time in this paper I do find a few points which I have no doubt are 
points upon which Colonel Hutton and I would agree, but as to 
which, perhaps, a guarding word is necessary in regard to deduc- 
tions which might be drawn by some who have not given very much 
thought to the question. For instance, take the immense stress 
laid throughout the appendices and the paper upon the federal 
system as applied to war. The word "federal " may mean many 
things as applied to defence, bufc if we compare the military 
organisation of the Empire of Germany as it was before Prussia 
created the German Empire with the Prussian mihtary system, 
which is the present system, we see what widely different systems 
maybe comprised under one term. No one should desire we. should 
apply to the defence of the British Empire, either by sea or land, 
a federal system in the sense of a divided command, and I am sure 
the First Sea Lord of the Admiralty, upon whose brain power and 
experience the whole strength of the Empire must rest in time of 
war, would sooner stand as he is than have anything Hke federal 
command. So with regard to armies ; and while I quite concur 
with regard to the present system of centraHsation of the War 
OflSce, we must not run away with the idea that we can break up 
mihtary unity as existing at the present time. On the contrary, 
we ought rather to strengthen that unity, for, as regards the troops 
of the Mother Country, we have Foreign Office, Colonial Office, 
and War Office troops, and troops under the India Office serving 
outside India. We have divided command as matters stand now, 
and we want to do away with that rather than increase it. But in 
one sense the attack on the centraUsed system of the War Office 
is one in which I entirely concur. What we mean is that, while we 
do not want to see our War Office deahng directly with battalions 
in the way it does, which is not done by any other War Office in 
the world, we do not want to destroy unity of command so far as 
we have it. Colonel Hutton speaks of the desire of the Colonies 
to know whether they are to receive military protection from the 
Mother Country in time of war or threatened invasion. Now in 
every probable war, every war that is fairly possible, there is not 
much reason seriously to apprehend invasion of the Colonies. 
Of course the question of the Indian Frontier is always present 
to our mind ; but in the sense in which the term " Colonies " is 
used, India is rather excluded, and we are led to think of those 
Colonies which are the special object of those present, namely, 
the great self-governing Colonies and the Crown Colonies. As 


Digitized by 


244 A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 

regards those Colonies, invasion cannot be said to be probable 
in any of those wars which are fairly possible at the present time ; 
but so far as invasion is to be prevented, it is by the efforts of the 
fleet rather than by the efforts of the armies. It is therefore 
perhaps necessary for us to have before us to-night the bearing of 
this paper on the naval side of the problem. At the present time 
you all know that the Australian Colonies contribute towards the 
fleet, but they contribute upon a plan which is really, except from 
the sentimental point of view, perhaps worse than no contribution 
at all, because they contribute on the understanding that a portion 
of the fleet shall be tied by the leg, tethered down to a particular 
portion of the high seas, which is a principle absolutely rejected by 
all naval authorities and every politician who has studied their 
works. Thus as regards the first and most pressing side of this 
question of Imperial defence, we have rather to get rid of what 
exists than work on existing lines. Colonel Hutton suggests that 
we are in some way pledged, by language which has been used over 
here, to put 60,000 men, two army corps, " at the disposal of our 
Colonial children when the hour of trial arrives,'* and asks if that is 
the most we are prepared to do. Well, the pressing dangers of the 
Empire are not the dangers of being invaded. We may hope that 
of all wars, war with the United States, which would lead to the 
invasion of Canada, is perhaps one of the most distant in our minds. 
As regards the other Colonies, invasion needing to be resisted by 
land forces is not a very practical danger, but no one who considers 
with a feeling of responsibility the present position of the Empire 
as regards possible wars, can doubt but that this subject of common 
defence, if the Colonies want to keep the fabric of the Empire 
together, is a pressing one indeed. It is impossible, therefore, to 
exaggerate the importance of the subject ; but I don*t think we ought 
to look at it chiefly from the point of view of the probability of a 
certain number of troops having to be sent to a particular Colony to 
defend it against invasion. What we may be called upon for at any 
moment is the most strenuous effort that can be put forth to wage 
an offensive war for the purpose of destroying those who have 
attacked us, or for the purpose of bringing a war to a close which 
might have dragged on, but which we might be unable to close by 
an honourable peace. The Colonies, if such a stress should come, 
would be burningly anxious to take their part, but they would show 
that anxiety probably too late to be of effective service. For the 
last twenty years we have made no real progress, and what we want 
to bring home to people's minds is this fact— that those sacrifices 

Digitized by 


A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 246 

which they would cheerfully make in time of war must, in order to 
be useful and effective, be made in time of peace ; that they have, in 
fact, got to be provided for in advance. I see here my friend Sir 
Saul Samuel, who has often done battle for his Colony in this room 
and elsewhere, and who, if anyone shows the slightest intention to 
tread on the tail of the coat of New South Wales, is ever ready for 
the fray. His Colony has been chosen for a good deal of praise 
in one way or another ; but I do not see, in the speeches of the 
statesmen of New South Wales, that they have yet had thoroughly 
brought home to them the view which we think is the sound 
view of the subject. We had Mr. Eeid here last year ; but, to judge 
by his speeches before he came and after he went back, he really 
came home for the purpose of preventing our doing that which we 
believe, in the interests of the Empire, ought to be done. I do not 
think it is wickedness on his part, but that we have not yet made 
sufficiently clear that common patriotic motive which we must all 
share, and the desire to bring about the best possible result by the 
best possible means. I cannot quite go with the lecturer in think- 
ing there is any recent development of sound feeling on the part of 
the Mother Colony of Australasia. He suggests Sir Henry Parkes 
brought federation to the front, but as a fact, a great many years 
ago, the British Parliament passed a Federal Act for Australia. A 
Federal Council was called into existence ; that Council had ample 
power to deal with this question of defence. 

Sir Saul Samuel : Subject to the approval of the Colonial Parlia- 

Sir Chables Dilkb : It was the Mother Colony of New South 
Wales, I am afraid, standing out of that Council, that paralysed 
its efforts and prevented its existence having any real bearing on 
this question. The recent movement in Australia has, no doubt, to 
some extent contributed to the matter being discussed in connection 
with the present Commonwealth Bill, and no doubt it would be 
easier to deal with this matter with a Commonwealth Parliament 
than with separate Parliaments ; but still we have to face the un- 
fortunate possibility that the Bill may not become law by the 
adhesion of all the Colonies, and we have to do the best we can by 
raising our voices constantly and strenuously, and trying to bring 
the Colonies to feel with us on this question. No words can be too 
high in praise of the public spirit and devotion of those men who 
are actually serving in the various Colonial forces. They under- 
stand and have thought on this question, and I believe they are an 
admirable element in approaching to proper views of the question ; 

Digitized by 


246 A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 

but I do not think we ought to imagine that very much progress 
has yet been made on the part of leading Colonial politicians on the 
subject, and I think, instead of merely using smooth words, it is 
better to adopt the system of speaking rather plainly and calling 
upon them as patriots concerned with ourselves in the defence of 
the Empire to take beforehand those steps which they would have 
to take under the stress of public opinion in the time of war. 

Sir John Colomb, K.C.M.G., M.P. : I rise in obedience to the 
Chairman's call, but after the most admirable and statesmanlike 
speech of my right honourable friend, who has so well covered the 
whole ground, I rather hesitate to speak at all. I think we are 
very much indebted to the reader of the paper and to this Institute 
for having brought this subject forward at the present time. We 
hear a great deal too little about the question of Imperial defence. 
Naturally, from the antecedents and experience of the lecturer, he 
has dealt with this question much from the Australian point of 
view. The question of Imperial defence, to my mind, cannot be 
approached with any [local colouring at all. You must take the 
Empire in bulk, as a great concrete fact, if the true principles of 
defence are to be applied, and I confess I think the paper lacks this. 
It wants appreciation of what may be called the perspective of 
defence. He dismisses the naval portion by quoting a passage of 
the Duke of Devonshire's speech, but in reprinting the paper he 
will perhaps also draw attention to the fact that after the delivery of 
that speech, the Duke of Devonshire rather climbed down. I can 
find nothing uttered by any statesmen warranting the assumption 
laid down by the lecturer that statesmen hold, or that the policy of 
the Empire is, that the burden of naval defence is to be borne alone 
by the Mother Country for all time. The fact that the Empire 
consists of scattered territories, whose comniunications are the sea, 
makes it obvious you cannot approach the military question imtil 
you are clear on the principles necessary for its naval defence. In 
following the lines laid down by my right hon. friend, I do think 
that once our Colonial friends really understand the perspective of 
defence, they will be under no such confusion, because to them the 
freedom of the sea is as necessary as to us, and the idea that the 
subjects of the Queen in the United Kingdom are to bear the water 
responsibilities of the whole Empire, and that the subjects of the 
Queen in other parts are not to share them, is one which cannot be 
supported by reason, logic, or fact. Granting sea supremacy, what 
are the military requirements ? I entirely agree with the lecturer 
that passive defence is valueless, and that being so, when you come 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 

A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire, 247 

to consider the military question as determined by the facts of sea 
supremacy, what you have got to provide is offensive means or 
striking power through the military arm. Under a false impression 
and belief, we have been pursuing a military policy in my judgment 
that has resulted in locking up too many men for purely local 
defence. Take one illustration. The lecturer tells us that the 
Colonies have accepted freely and thoroughly the doctrine that the 
United Kingdom is to preserve them from attack by sea, and he 
tells us they are so impressed with that fact that they are dismissing 
all ideas of any local effort for naval defence at all. Here is 
Australia, as the lecturer says, disposing of ships because she thinks 
herself navally safe, but at the same time the lecturer tells us that 
Australia is preparing an arrangement for local defence by military 
means, believing she is open to mihtary attack. In conclusion, let 
me briefly say I think the two points to be pressed home on the 
Colonies are — that the primary 6ondition is not division of authority 
in compartments of naval power, but that naval power shall be 
provided by the resources of the Empire, and wielded entirely by 
one central authority. That having been done, this great commercial 
Empire will then be in the position, at all events, of having secured 
its passive defence. This great Empire under modem economic 
conditions of war, would nevertheless be under great immediate 
economic stress, and therefore you have to complete that defence by 
the combination of the resources of the whole Empire to produce 
military forces free to be applied in offensive operations wherever 
necessary to bring war to a finish. I believe the time has come 
for plain speaking on this question, and that real practical com- 
bination and self-sacrifice in the Colonies and Mother Country 
alike are necessary to achieve British security. 

The Hon. Sir Saul Samuel, Bart., K.C.M.G., C.B. : When I 
came here this evening I had not the slightest intention of taking 
part in this discussion, which, so far as my knowledge of military 
matters is concerned, is beyond me ; but as the Colony of New 
South Wales, a Colony I love and have long represented in this 
country, has been pointedly alluded to by my right honourable 
friend Sir Charles Dilke, and also by Sir John Colomb, I desire to 
say that they are both mistaken. In the first place, they are in 
error in saying that New South Wales (I leave the other Colonies 
to speak for themselves) is making no preparation, in time of peace, 
for the defence of the Empire. Why ! I read only a few days ago, 
in a London newspaper, that 50,000 men were encamped within a 
few miles of Sydney for the Easter manoeuvres, and 50,000 men 

Digitized by 


248 A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 

from a population such as that of New South Wales is no small 
number. I do not vouch for the correctness of this statement ; 
but doubtless there were a large number of men assembled for 
military instruction, as is usually the case at this time of the year. 
I have not the slightest doubt the Colony will be prepared to co- 
operate in the defence of the Empire to their last man, and to their 
last shilling, should the Mother Country be unhappily involved in 
war. They have the men, and they are getting the material 
together, what more can they do ? You cannot expect these young 
communities to incur the same expenditure for the purpose of 
defence as the Mother Country is doing. With regard to this 
bugbear of the Australasian squadron being confined to Australasian 
waters, no doubt that is a mistake, but the mistake arose through 
the Admiralty officials consenting to it at the time. My friend, 
Admiral Hoskins, holds up his hand, as much as to say I am 
mistaken, but I was a member of the Conference of 1887, and I 
recollect the discussion which took place ; the matter was referred 
to a committee, and when the proposal came back this provision 
was in it, and no one objected. I ask if there is an admiral worth 
his salt who would not take away these ships, if it were necessary, 
to China, or wherever they might be required; nor would the 
Colonies themselves for a moment hesitate in replying in the 
affirmative, if the admiral on the station made such a request. 
They would reply immediately, saying : " Take the ships, of 
course ; do whatever you think is necessary for the defence of the 
Empire." It is quite a mistake to suppose that the Colonies are 
not making preparations for war. They are doing that at the 
present moment, and are sending here for material, and organising 
as well as they can ; but, as I said, you cannot expect these young 
communities to do the same as if they were old countries. There 
is another little difficulty, and that is that you have a difficult 
Legislature to deal with ; a Government cannot do there as you do 
here, where you make a proposal for the expenditure of millions, 
and get it passed in a night. New South Wales is not in a position 
to do this. Whenever the Colonies are properly called upon to 
take their share in the defence of the Empire, I believe they vrill 
do it to the extent they can afford. No attempt has been made, so 
far as I know, to ascertain this. I would remind you that New 
South Wales has built a naval station and arsenal with all modem 
appliances, at a cost of half a million of money. The Colony has 
also built a dry dock, at a cost of a quarter of a million, which will 
take the largest ship afloat. All this has been done, not to defend 

Digitized by 


A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 249 

the Colony against any local enemy, but against the enemies of the 
Queen, if this country should be involved in war. 

General Sir Henby Norman, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., CLE. : I do not 
think I need take up much time after what you have heard, but I 
think I ought to endeavour at once to disabuse anyone's mind of the 
notion that there are 50,000 men in any camp near Sydney at the 
present moment. That is only one of the mistakes we often see in 
telegrams and correspondence in the newspapers. The total force 
which could be got together in one camp from the whole of 
Australia would not approach 50,000, and I doubt whether there 
are arms for that number. 

Sir Saul Samuel : I am only saying What I read in the news- 

Sir Henbt Norman : I read the statement also, but except by some 
miracle, the collection of such a force would be quite impossible. 
We are very much obliged to Colonel Hutton for his lecture ; on 
one point I most entirely concur, and that is that the home militia 
should be an army possessing all the usual branches, that is to say, 
mounted troops, field artillery, and departmental corps, but it is 
not easy to see exactly how 180,000 mihtia infantry could be readily 
suppUed with a proper proportion of cavalry and field artillery, but 
that is an object to be aimed at. I also agree as to the necessity of 
co-operation between the Colonies and the Mother Country in the 
defence of the Empire. I do not think the AustraUan Governments, 
whatever one or two poHticians might say, would object (I am sure 
they would not in case of war) to the naval squadron, which is 
partially paid for by AustraUa, being taken away in the service of 
the Empire. I think, of course, that more might be done, and that 
other self-governing Colonies should make a substantial contribution 
to the support of the Navy as well as Australia. But we must 
remember that they are self -governing Colonies, and will only con- 
tribute of their own accord. This brings me to another point, and 
that is that I do not beUeve the Australian Governments will 
eyer reaUse the necessity of defence until there is war, and then I 
am quite certain they wUl do all that is necessary. With regard to 
the co-operation of the AustraUan Colonies for defensive purposes, I 
consider that very little has been done to induce them to reaUse the 
necessity of a great system of defence. As far as I understand, they 
have been led to believe they may rely almost entirely against im- 
portant attack on the Navy. They have been led to believe that 
no large force can ever get near them without being arrested by the 
Navy ; that possibly a few ships might get away, bombard a par- 

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250 A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 

ticular place, or levy a contribution ; but they have not been led in 
any way to expect a greater attack than that, or to make any scheme 
by which they could furnish troops to co-operate with other forces 
in defensive or offensive warfare. I think, perhaps, this lecture and 
discussion may arouse them to a feeling that they ought to be better 
prepared for more serious war than has hitherto been the case. Of 
course, there are great difficulties. They are, as I have said, self- 
governing Colonies. It is impossible to dictate to them that they 
shall expend certain sums in raising a force, or in organising means 
of defence or offence. That is one of the difficulties, which can 
only be overcome by an appeal to their patriotism ; possibly war, 
which seems to be impending between other countries, may lead 
them to think a little more seriously on this subject than hitherto. 
With regard to the question of command, of course, there must be 
considerable latitude given to the commanders in each portion of 
the Empire, but I do not agree with what I understand has been the 
scheme proposed in Australia for having a Federal Council of de- 
fence to control the troops. I do not think that would work 
well, and I do not think the troops could be really federated to- 
gether, even if the Federal Council took the matter in hand until 
there is a federation of the whole of those Colonies, and then I 
should hope there would be a commander of the whole, subject, of 
course, to a War Minister representing the people. I do not think 
it would be possible to construct any effective system by which a 
Minister over here should be able to give positive instructions to 
forces that belong to self-governing Colonies. A great deal would 
have to be left to patriotism, and that exists in a great degree 
among the people of the Colonies. In regard to military assistance 
to Colonies from the United Kingdom, I confess I do not see any 
circumstances that could arise to render that necessary, except per- 
haps for Canada. None of the other Colonies have frontiers abut- 
ting on any civilised power, and no doubt if, unhappily, there were 
war between England and the United States, we should have to 
supplement the Canadian forces, but as to Australia or the Cape, 
we could hardly conceive it would be necessary to assist those 
Colonies in repelling an invasion of European Powers. For that 
we must look to the Navy. With regard to the scheme for Australia, 
which the lecturer puts forth as a sort of model, I have nothing to 
say against it. As to Australia, I am perfectly prepared to say that 
even very much larger forces than the lecturer has indicated— com- 
plete in all branches, mounted, departmental, and with field 
artillery — could, I have no doubt, be raised and maintained in a 

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A CO'Operati/ve System for the Defence of the Empire. 261 

state of efficiency, and kept ready for increase. Such a force brought 
into camp for a few weeks under capable commanders, and properly 
equipped, would be a most efficient one. They would, I am certain, 
at all events, possess those great requisites of soldiers — intelligence, 
courage, endurance, and loyalty. 

Admiral P. H. Colomb : I heartily congratulate the lecturer on 
his paper. It seems to me to show his usual grasp and perspicuity 
in dealing with the matters before us, but no one knows better 
than he does that he has not gone into those higher and more im- 
portant considerations which have been brought before you by 
other speakers. He is talking of co-operative miUtary defence, and 
he is not attempting to show how much or how little of that defence 
might be actiially required. He is dealing with what he thought 
he could get, but the great view he is establishing, if I understand 
him, is that which my brother said was very much wanted, namely, 
the knowledge that mobile forces are much more important than 
locked-up forces. This is now truer than ever, because of the 
speed and certainty of transport, and when you have your mobile 
military forces which can be moved quickly you deter the 
enemy from stirring in the most effective way. Therefore, I agree 
with the lecturer so far. But you have heard that practically 
nothing has been done in establishing a regular scheme of defence. 
The real reason, as far as I imderstand, is that there is as yet no 
agreement on the first principles of defence. No one can know 
that better than he who has spent, like myself, several years trying 
to bring about such an agreement. The lecturer himself does not 
wholly escape the difficulty when he touches on the naval side. If 
the Admiralty are able to •protect the commerce of a Colony, they 
protect that Colony from attack of any kind. If they cannot pre- 
vent a port from being attacked, neither can they protect the com- 
merce which frequents that port. It is supposed, we are told, that 
the defence of the Empire is based upon sea supremacy. My 
brother rightly pointed out that the moment it was shown what 
were the results of that doctrine, the Duke of Devonshire was 
obliged to go back and say it was not that kind of sea supremacy 
that was meant. We have been lately told too, that in our scheme 
of defence the defeat of the Navy is not contemplated. I think naval 
officers will say that ought not to be left out of sight, because it is 
possible. When the meaning of this sea supremacy is explained, it 
is seen to be a kind of supremacy which breaks down anywhere 
and everywhere the moment it is put to the test of war. We know 
exactly what the theory of sea supremacy is. The theory is that 

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252 A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire, 

the supreme Navy has a ship to watch and to match, or perhaps 
overmatch every ship of the enemy ; but it follows from that, that 
none of these watched and matched ships can escape to do mischief 
except by stealth, and they can only make an attack by means of 
evasion. The result is that these attacks must be small and minor, 
and that no great one can be carried out. Another thing which is 
never understood is the Admiral's responsibility for preventing 
attacks on territory. It is his first duty, and nothing in history 
has ever excused him from carrying out that duty. Until you get 
an agreement between soldiers, sailors, and statesmen on first 
principles, it is impossible we should obtain what Colonel Hutton 
asks for, because he is dealing with locked -up forces and mobile 
forces ; and until you have settled how much force you are going 
to lock up and why, it is impossible for you to think about your 
mobile forces. You are balked wherever you turn, because of the 
impossibility of getting agreement ; and until you have settled that 
you are actually going to depend upon sea supremacy, to accept its 
results, and to garrison only so far as you calculate that attacking 
forces will be able to evade sea supremacy, you have no means of 
preventing those who wish it from claiming that every post in the 
Empire attackable by sea, shall be garrisoned and prepared to meet 
there the attack of the forces of the whole world. 

Mr. H. 0. Abnold-Forster, M.P. : I regret the last speaker had 
not time to make clear to all of us the conclusion to which he 
desired to lead us, and to connect his very interesting statements 
more closely with the subject of the paper. My only complaint 
against the paper is, perhaps, a radical complaint in regard to the 
title. It is headed " A Co-operative System for the Defence of the 
Empire." What I suggest is that the system contemplated is not 
co-operative, and consequently, that it has nothing to do with the 
defence of the Empire. It is not co-operative, because it is purely 
sporadic. It seems to me not for the defence of the Empire, but 
for a perfectly different matter—the defence of outlying portions of 
the Empire, which is no system of defence at all. It is said that 
what the Colonies do, and are prepared to do, is to provide for their 
own local defence, and that seemed to be all that is expected of 
them. That does not commend itself to my intelligence. If it be 
a fulfilment of duty for the dwellers in Australia or New Zealand to 
confine their efforts to defending themselves, surely it is a fulfilment 
of our duty to content ourselves with defending ourselves. That is 
an absurdity. The whole essence of the paper is the supposition 
that Great Britain and the Colony of Singapore are practically to 

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A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 268 

protect the whole Empire. It is no use saying pleasant things 
about the spirit of heroism and self-sacrifice which will be shown in 
certain events by the Australian Colonies. I do not doubt it, but 
after all, there is a way of calculating these things which come home 
to practical men. The people of the United Kingdom spend 62 per 
cent, of their income in providing for the defence of the Empire ; 
Queensland spends under 1 per cent. I do not accept the plea 
that these are young countries incapable of taking part in high 
matters — I have too great respect for their energy and self-sacrifice 
to accept that argument. They come second in the catalogue of 
wealth among the nations of the world. I do not claim to have the 
experience of officers in this room, but I do claim to have made 
some study of how military operations are prepared for, and I say 
there is no country, large or small, no War Office, enlightened or 
uninformed, which ever thought it had provided for the ele- 
mentary necessities of defence by taking the measures which 
commend themselves to the Governments of the Australian Colonies. 
The defence of an Empire and the defence of a portion of an Empire 
is something totally different. If the stress of war were to come 
to-morrow, the defence of Australia and Australian trade would not 
be off Brisbane or Sydney. The pressure on your bankers and 
financiers would be within the precincts of the British Channel, and 
to suppose that Australia is making adequate preparation for war 
by establishing a camp and a pleasant suburban picnic is an 
absurdity. I protest against the question of the frontiers of Canada 
and of India being so lightly dismissed. They are two very great 
and important parts of our Empire. The whole of India is part of 
the heritage of our race, and we have no right to dismiss the defence 
of that frontier from the consideration of Imperial defence. I miss 
in this paper any contribution to the active offensive operations of 
the Empire, and I fail to see why now, when we are all grown up, 
there should not be some sacrifices made on the part of our Colonies, 
such as we in this country are compelled to make. India is open 
to every man in Australia. It is a reasonable thing that that great 
peninsula, lying washed in the waters of the Southern Ocean, should 
receive something beyond fair words and pleasant expressions, and 
hopes of what is going to be done when war breaks out, and that it 
should receive something in the shape of a substantial contribution 
to its defence organised in times of peace. If it is not organised 
then, we may talk for ever, for it is useless in time of war. We are, 
I say, grown up, and in a position to look facts in the face. If the 
people of Australia say that this Empire is, no doubt, a very 

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254 A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 

interesting thing, but that they are so important that they can 
afford, whatever happens, to stand out, I can quite understand them, 
though I think they would be totally wrong ; but if they do not take 
that view, they must stand up like other men, and they must not 
leave others to do the whole work. 

The Hon. Capt. W. E. Eussell, M.H.R., New Zealand : It is so 
many years since I had the pleasure of belonging to the honourable 
profession of arms, that I naturally feel a little diffident in joining 
in a discussion where so many gentlemen of such consummate 
tactical and technical skill have addressed you. I might have left 
the debate without a word from me, but that I come from New 
Zealand — from one of those Colonies of which Mr. Arnold Forster 
has spoken so contemptuously. I would like this meeting to know 
that though I admit fully that the Colonies have not organised 
these defences to an extent which I think sufficient, yet I remember 
this — and I speak as a man who has served in the Imperial force, 
subsequently in the Militia, and finally in the Volunteers of that 
Colony — that I am a representative of the Colony which was left in 
the lurch in her hour of deepest distress by those people whom 
Mr, Arnold Forster holds up as an example of Imperial generosity. 
I think he has done very little towards advancing co-operation for 
the defence of the Empire by the class of speech he has made 
to-night. I do not say he is not right in saying that the time has 
come when we should speak frankly ; and, therefore, though a 
colonist and resident in the Colonies for many years, I admit that 
the Colonies have not, in my opinion, done their duty properly in 
organising the defence of their countries themselves, they being a 
part of the Empire. But there may be an excuse. The Colonies 
have been peopled by, if you will allow me with all proper deferebice 
to say so, a class of men who are fully the equal of ordintoy 
stay-at-home Englishmen. The people who emigrated to ijhe 
Colonies were men and women of sound muscle and firm braia 
they went out to the unknown, and daily demands of self-sacrifik 
and self-reliance were made upon them. They were obliged, und 
all circumstances, to fight their way, often against the enemy, aj 
continually against adverse circumstances, and this has develot 
in them a spirit of self-rehance which is a distinct chai?] 
teristic, and of which the Empire may be proud. Therefore, 
perhaps, it is that we have not in the Colonies properly va'^ued 
co-operation. The whole genius of the Colonies and of the En^^pire 
is self-reliance rather than much co-operation. Co-operatior*^ \ has 
become the fashion of the day, and I recognise co-operation cr*io^ated 



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A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 256 

out of petty German States the great German Empire. What we 
want is not much talk about co-operation for the defence of the 
Empire, but what, I am sorry to say, has not yet displayed itself, 
some master mind with such magnetic influence as shall compel 
the Empire into some universal scheme of mutual protection. I 
do not agree at all with any of those speakers who say that England 
will, under any circumstances, send one man to the remote Colonies 
to defend them, nor do I believe it is possible for the Colonies to do 
anything very great for the purpose of sending armed forces to 
take part on European battle-fields. That the Colonies are loyal 
I believe ; that they are prepared to make sacrifices for the Empire I 
know, but the individual self-reliance of the people has engendered 
a feeling which makes them loth to submit to the restraints of 
military discipline. When we are told that it is essential the 
defence of the Colonies should be placed on the same basis as 
that of England, and of the necessity for defence by Australia as 
well as England, I agree that is essentially true ; but England, I 
would remind you, depends, to so great an extent for her food 
supplies on foreign-borne commerce, that she must have a fleet to 
defend it whatever may happen to the Colonies. The contribution 
from the Australasian Colonies to the Australasian Squadron is 
spoken of as comparatively insignificant; it is not, I admit, a 
great contribution, but those Colonies must be given the credit of 
having been the first outlying portion of the Empire to contribute 
to the Navy of Great Britain ; and if it is properly put before 
them, if there is a scheme put forward, not in public meeting in 
England, but by some master mind visiting the Colonies and 
impressing his great influence upon them, I have no doubt that 
the wretched tethering by the leg, of which Sir Charles Dilke spoke, 
might be unloosed at once ; and that instead of some ships being 
persistently in the ports of one or other of the Colonies, so that 
expenditure of money might take place there, I am sure, I say, 
that all this would pass away, and any scheme of naval defence be 
generously agreed upon. This must be brought about by one grand 
system, by which it shall be borne in upon the mind of the Colonies 
that they are not units, but members of a mighty Empire for 
arranging the co-operation of the forces of the Empire. We must 
have a National Council by some means or other, including Colonial 
statesmen, in which the Colonies, before they are asked to pay for 
the purpose of Imperial defence, shall have a say in the finding of 
the money which will be necessary for that purpose. I believe it is 
quite possible a National Council of Defence might be established, 

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256 A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 

and that the confidence of the Colonies might be engendered by 
that Council, so that there should be a mutual sacrifice and 
surrender of individual opinions for the defence of that which I 
believe to be, and which I believe will remain, the most glorious 
Empire the world has known, 

Major-General Sir John Ardagh, K.C.I.E., C.B. : I think the 
great object of the lecturer was to draw attention to defects m our 
organisation rather than to boast of the superiority of the system 
which has begun to be developed in Australia, and I think no one 
is more alive than he is to the comparative smallness of those 
efforts. There are one or two points directing attention to what 
must tend to clear the air in regard to the duties of our brethren 
beyond the sea. I speak of the classification of the expenditure 
which they are prepared to contribute, and that expenditure I should 
divide into three parts. The first duty, I think, is towards the 
Imperial Navy. In that respect Australia stands alone. She has 
given a contribution, not a very large contribution, but still it is a 
very good example to the rest of the Empire. That example has 
been taken up by Natal in a lesser degree, and it is one which, we 
hope, will be imitated elsewhere. After the Navy they must look to 
the duty of defending themselves. This they do to a certain extent. 
The third object they must then take in hand should be co-operation 
in the great work of Imperial defence. But I think we are yet a 
long way from coming to the third item of the prograname. 

The Chaibman (Lieut.-General Sir J. Bevan Edwards, K.C.M.G., 
C.B., M.P.) : It has been pointed out that little or nothing has 
been done as the result of the Colonial Conference of 1887 to carry 
out any system of defence for the Empire. Some three years ago a 
Coimcil of Defence, or rather a committee of the Cabinet, was 
appointed to consider this great question, but as far as we have been 
able to ascertain, that committee up to the present time has done 
nothing, nor has it approached our brethren beyond the seas with a 
view to the adoption of a system of mutual and co-operative defence 
for the Empire. In fact, there is no institution in this country that 
can consider and lay down any guiding principles for what is called 
the higher policy of defence, although, in every Foreign State, there 
is some institution which controls the question of defence. I 
should like to tell you from my own experience what happened 
some years ago, as showing how necessary it is there should be 
somebody in this country to look after these questions. In 1877, 
when war was considered probable with Russia, I was sent, in con- 
cert with an officer of Her Majesty's Navy, on behalf of the 

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' A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 267 

Admiralty and War Office, to inspect the harbours at the east end 
of the Mediterranean, so that if it was required we should know 
wh^re to find a harbour for our fleet. We were instructed on no 
account to visit Cyprus, as the island did not contain a harbour that 
could be of any possible use to the fleet. We succeeded in finding 
a harbour in a small island admirably suited for the purpose, 
which was afterwards visited by the commander-in-chief, the late 
Sir Geoffrey Hornby, who was very much impressed with its posi- 
tion and suitability. No action was taken until a year after, when 
an army was brought from India to carry out the occupation of 
Cyprus, an island which a year before had been declared by the First 
Lord of the Admiralty and the Secretary of State for War to be 
useless for the purposes of our fleet in the Mediterranean. Nothing 
shows clearer the necessity of some authority to settle questions of 
this kind. There are some distinguished members of Parliament 
present, and I think they will agree that whatever proposal of 
a reasonable character a Minister has ever put before Parliament 
for the organisation or increase of the Army or Navy, has always 
been readily voted ; it is not therefore right to say that Parliament 
prevents any proper system being adopted. The War Office is in- 
capable of dealing with questions of this kind ; it cannot even 
organise its forces for the defence of this country, much less the forces 
for the defence of the whole Empire, and this question can only be 
settled satisfactorily by the enlargement of the powers of the com- 
mittee of the Cabinet and by making it a reality instead of a sham. 
Concerning the Militia, it is quite clear that if at any time we are 
engaged in the defence of our interests against a Great Power or 
combination of Powers, that our small regular army would be 
entirely absorbed in garrison and local duties of defence in different 
parts of the Empire, so that there would be little left for those ex- 
tensive operations of which we have heard, I need hardly point 
out that should the great Empire of India be threatened by Russia, 
a Power rapidly increasing its prestige, there would be a spirit 
of imrest throughout that Empire which would oblige you to dis- 
patch forces of considerable magnitude for garrison purposes, quite 
irrespective of those you would have to put on its frontiers for 
defence. This is a question of the first magnitude, and one which 
can only be dealt with by such a defence committee as we hope and 
trust will, before long, be established. In conclusion, I beg to 
tender on your behalf our cordial thanks to Colonel Hutton tor his 

Colonel E. T. H. Button, C.B. : I am reminded by the Chairman 


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SS8 A Co-operative System for the Defence of the Empire. 

that the lateness of the hour will not admit of any lengthened reply 
to the distinguished speakers who have taken part in this discussion. 
The guiding principle throughout my paper, and that which I en- 
deavoured to impress when in Australia, is that the defence of the 
British Empire is not the passive defence of British soil, similarly 
that the defence of Australia is not the defence of Australian 8oil« 
The defence of the United Kingdom is not the defence of the shores 
of the British Channel. It has not been so in the past, and we 
may rest assured that it will not be so in the future. The defence 
of Australia, Uke the defence of the United Kingdom, must be out 
of the actual range of its shores, it must be a vigorous offensive 
stroke aimed at our would-be enemies. History repeats itself, and 
tells the same tale for the last three or four hundred years. All 
thinking men and experts of the calibre of those who have spoken 
to-night agree that the true defence of the British Empire is one of 
offence, and the suggested plan of Co-operative Defence, which I 
have submitted to you this evening, is based upon the necessity 
which thus arises for the creation of a military force capable, by its 
organisation and by its composition, of taking part in active offen- 
sive operations in the field. A speaker has remarked that the 
Australian Federal Scheme restricts the use of the proposed federal 
troops to Australia. This is true, and at the time this scheme was 
framed public opinion in Australia would not have accepted a more 
enlarged sphere. Those of the audience who are accustomed to 
deal with Colonial Oovemments will readily agree that it is most 
unwise to go too far in advance of public opinion. If you wish to 
(sarry out any great measure of reform in our Colonies, as in this 
country, it must be by first educating public opinion to accept facts 
and measures which may not at first sight appear necessary. My 
effort has not been to suggest any ideal system, but rather to 
suggest for consideration a system which I believe is workable with 
the means at our disposal. As regards many of the questions 
which have been raised, especially as regards the contribution of 
the Colonies to Imperial defence, they are outside the scope of the 
paper, because I have only endeavoured to deal with such forces 
and such means as are in existence, without considering additional 
expenditure or the creation of any previously unknown system. 
The meeting then terminated. 

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The Seventh Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at 
the Whitehall Rooms, Hotel M^tropole, on Tuesday, May 10, 1898, 
when Major A. St. H. Gihhons read a paper on *' Marotseland and 
the tribes of the Upper Zambezi." 

Sir Frederick Young, K.C.M.G., a Vice-President of the Institute, 

The Minutes of the last Ordinary General Meeting were read and 
confirmed, and it was announced that since that Meeting 17 Fellows 
had been elected, viz., 5 Resident, 12 Non-Resident. 

Resident Fellows : — 

Howard H. d^EgvilUy John V. Qrahame, Charles Kaufman, Clarence 
LiccaSi Mii8,B., Hon. Edward H, Wittenoom, 

Non-Resident Fellows : — 

Martindale S. Andrews (Gold Coast Colony), William O, Baker {Natal)f 
Captain A, H. Bleksley (Transvaal), Thomas Crosse {New Zealand), Albert E» 
Lorant (Natal), Johan G, Mocke (Cape Colony), Hon, Henry Moses, M.L»C, 
(New South Wales), Charles A, O'Brien, LL,D, (Gold Coast Colony), 
Dugald Ritchie (British Guiana), William F. Wenyon (Hong Kong), John M, 
Williams (Western Australia), W G. Williams (Lagos). 

It was also announced that donations to the Library of books, 
maps, &c., had been received from the various Governments of the 
Colonies and India, Societies, and pubhc bodies both in the United 
Kingdom and the Colonies, and from Fellows of the Institute and 

The Chairman : I have to express regret at the unavoidable 
absence of several gentlemen whom it was expected would be present 
this evening, notably Earl Grey, who is in Northumberland ; Mr. 
Cecil Rhodes ; Sir Marshal Clarke, who, as we noticed the other 
night, when his new appointment in Rhodesia was announced in 
Parliament, has the good fortune to be spoken well of by men of 
all political parties in the House ; Sir Harry Johnston ; and my old 
friend, Mr. Selous, who has written to me to express his great 
regret at being absent from Major Gibbons' lecture, as he has been 
called to Scotland and wiU not return before to-morrow. While we 


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260 Seventh Ordma/ry OenercU Meeting. 

are disappointed at the absence of these gentlemen, I have great 
pleasure in announcing that we are £&voured with the presence of Lord 
Brassey, the popular Governor of Victoria, who at present presides 
over that great Colony. His lordship has only arrived in England 
within the last few days, and we give him all the warmer welcome, 
in consequence of his kindness, notwithstanding his other very 
numerous engagements on his recent return to this country, that he 
should have found time to be present once more at this evening's 
Meeting of the Institute, of which he is one of the Vice-Presidents. 
The reader of the paper (Major Gibbons) has already won distinction 
as a sportsman and an intrepid traveller in regions almost un- 
visited by white men, and as one of our noble band of pioneers 
in Africa. An interesting account of his travels has recently been 
published. He is about to return in the course of a week or two 
to those regions, and, in introducing him to you, I may be allowed 
to express my opinion that I think it probable he very kindly 
postponed his intended departure from England in order that he 
might give us the benefit of his lecture this evening. 
Major A. St. H. Gibbons then read his Paper on 


A PAPER on Marotseland, or Barotseland, as the country bordering 
on the upper reaches of the Zambezi is more generally called, 
would have been of special interest to geographers only a single 
decade ago, when the northernmost borders of our South African 
Empire were separated from the Zambezi by 1,000 miles of ♦waste, 
and could only be reached after three months* hard trekking in 
bullock wagons— mainly through the sandy thirstland of the 
Kalahari Desert. 

At the rate of progress at which the empire in Africa was 
advancing at so recent a date as 1889, few would have ventured to 
prophesy that the practical colonisation of the remote districts 
under discussion would have commenced before the middle of next 
century, and probably none, not even that far-seeing and energetic 
statesman who in a few years has added nearly a million of miles 
to Greater Britain, would have foretold that in this year, 1898, our 
South African Empire, having absorbed all the territory that was 
left to it by the actions of former governments, would be, in fact, 
not merely crossing the borders of Central Africa with a view to 
developing what resources those districts offer, but that a railway 

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Marotseland and the Tribes of the Vpper Zcmbezu 261 

across the Zambezi and beyond would probably be a matter of only 
a couple of years. 

As this state actually does exist, Marotseland is becoming a 
country of practical concern to those of us who take an interest in 
Imperial progress. I therefore venture this evening to give you the 
result of my experience there, so far as it relates to the apparent 
characteristics of the country and its inhabitants. 

Before proceeding to discuss the people and resources of Marotse- 
land, I propose giving a general description of the country and its 
boundaries, so far as this name may be applied to those districts 
over which Liwanika, King of the Marotse, rules or exercises 

The southern boundary is clearly defined by the Zambezi and 
Kwando rivers ; the eastern by a longitudinal line commencing in 
the south from the Zambezi a few miles below the Victoria Falls, 
crossing the Kafukwe river, and passing northwards towards the 
Zambezi-Congo watershed; on the west the country is probably 
boimded by the Kwito river and a longitudinal line running north- 
wards. The Congo-Zambezi watershed, or the southern borders of 
the Congo Free State, I take as the northern boundary of this 
black empire, in the absence of more definite information than we 
possess at present. 

This territory, with its area of something like 120,000 square miles 
— the mileage of Great Britain and Ireland is 121,115 — first of all by 
the spontaneously expressed wish of Liwanika, its ruler, that the 
Great White Queen should extend her protection to him as she had 
already done to Khama, and secondly, by European consent. Great 
Britain is indisputably entitled to include within the sphere of her 
influence ; and in face of these facts, I doubt whether even the 
most prejudiced of Little Englanders could bring forward their usual 
arguments against our performing our duties as a great civilising 

The country is not that malarious, swampy waste it has frequently 
been represented to be by those who have not seen it, or who have 
never penetrated beyond the Zambezi itself. True, the immediate 
precincts of the river are no more healthy than those of other 
tropical rivers, and there are low-lying plains which become 
swamps in the rainy season ; but these are either contiguous to the 
river, or form the comparatively small area between the plateaux, 
and are none of them of a lower altitude than 8,200 feet. The 
plateaux are high and healthy, rising in places to over 4,000 feet 
above the sea-level. In fact, the Matoka and northern Mashiko- 

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S68 Ma/rotseldnd and th^ Tribes of the Upper Zcmbezu 

Idmbwe plateaux bear favourable comparison with any tract of 
country I have seen in South Africa, and, it is not improbable, will 
open out valuable fields for enterprise in the near fature, minera- 
logically speaking, and more certainly from an agricultural and 
pastoral standpoint. 

The majority of the rivers in this country, unlike those in South 
Africa, contain water throughout the dry season, and, for the most 
part, wind through valleys from two to eight hundred yards wide, 
capable of carrying vast herds of cattle and being turned to good 
agricultural account. 

Early in the present century Sebitwane, chief of the Makololo — a 
tribe kindred to the Basutos and originally occupying territory to the 
south of Bechuanaland of to-day — crossed the Kwando«nd Zambezi 
at the head of his warriors and subjugated the Masubia and 
Matoka. For a time he settled down on the healthy highlands 
occupied by the latter tribe. Of this chief Livingstone speaks in 
highly eulogistic terms ; he was lenient with the tribes he subdued, 
and administered justice with a fairness and consideration unhappily 
so unusual among native conquerors. 

A few years later, one of Mosilikatse's raiding impis surprised his 
people, and retreated across the river with many of the women and 
cattle. Gathering together all his available warriors, Sebitwane 
gave chase, caught up and defeated his Matabele foes, and recovered 
the stolen property. Foreseeing an active attempt on the part of 
the Matabele chief to avenge this unwonted defeat of one of his 
impis, Sebibwane, acting on the old adage, '' discretion is the better 
part of valour,'* commenced a movement northwards in order to 
place as much space as possible between his enemy and himself, 
and ultimately, at the invitation of a malcontent faction of Marotse, 
subdued that tribe and proclaimed himself their king. This last 
conquest made Sebitwane master of almost the whole country 
described at the commencement of this paper as far as 14^ south 
latitude. His desires for conquest now ceased, and he set to work 
to consolidate in peace the large empire he had obtained in war. 
In 1850, Sebitwane died from the effects of an old lung wound, and 
was succeeded by Ma-Mochisane, his daughter. This young lady, 
being of a domestic turn of mind, renounced the regal rights be- 
queathed her by her father, and handed over the rule to her young 
brother Sekeletu, then a youth of eighteen, whom Livingstone 
describes as being '' about five feet seven inches in height ; not so good 
looking or able as his father, but equally friendly to the EngHsh." 
After ruling about fourteen years, Sekeletu died of leprosy, and gave 

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Marotseland and the Tribes of the Upper Zambezi. 263 

I^ace to Mbolowa, brother of Sebitwane. After but three months' 
rule, a rival faction disputed his rights, civil war broke out, the 
Makololo spilt their own blood freely and relentlessly, and the once 
compact and powerful oligarchy dissipated its own power and became 
enfeebled. The conquered Marotse saw their opportunity ; a plot 
was formed ; every Makololo was marked down, and in a single 
night all, save a few young women and a small band which escaped 
across the river, were massacred in cold blood. These latter were 
treacherously murdered to a man by the people of Ngami, among 
whom they had sought refuge. There is something pathetic about 
this people's history. A superior race had established a powerful 
black empire. In due course personal ambition gave place to 
faction, and resulted in annihilation, so that to-day all that remains 
of the Makololo is their language and their empire. 

Sepopo, son of Malunda, a former Marotse king, now became 
paramount chief. At first he ruled temperately, but ultimately gave 
wiqr to cruel and wanton brutality. None of his subjects' lives were 
worth a moment's purchase, and the crocodiles at Sesheke, his head- 
quarters, were replete with the flesh of men, women, and children, 
with which, from motives sometimes of caprice, but more often for 
sheer amusement, this chief almost daily indulged them. To the 
present day the crocodiles of Sesheke remember those days of 
repletion, and scarcely a month passes during which a woman or 
child is not taken when in the act of filling their calabashes from 
the river. Some time in the seventies the people grew tired of 
Sepopo. An army was collected in his northern dominions, which 
marched on Sesheke to depose their tyrant king, who, on hearing of 
their approach, fled with a few trusty servants. One of these faith- 
ful ones, however, shot his master in the back, and the fugitive king, 
after an attempt to escape from the country in a canoe, succumbed 
to the wound. He was succeeded by his nephew Nganwina, who 
in turn was deposed by another nephew — Liwanika, the present 

Liwanika's early reign was marked by harshness and cruelty. 
He had ruled for some years, when, in 1885, he in his turn was 
driven from power. With his son Litia — then a boy of about four- 
teen — he escaped to the outskirts of his dominions on the Kwando 
river. The people there received him well, so he remained among 
them until he had collected a sufficient following to march on 
Lialui, his former capital. Here he gave battle to his revolted 
subjects. After a fierce fight the king's faction showed signs of 
giving way. A party of Mambari slave-dealers who chanced to be 

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264 Mdrotseland and the Tribes of the Upper Zambezi. 

visiting Lialui accepted Liwanika's promises of ivory and slaves, 
joined in with their guns, and reinstated the exiled king. The 
Mambari were handsomely rewarded for their services, and Liwanika 
is still king of the Marotse, though, thanks to the influence of M. 
Coillard, the French missionary, wanton bloodshed is a thing of 
the past in his country, and killing for witchcraft is no longer 
practised ; if anything, he errs on the side of leniency, a tendency 
which the African is inclined to construe into weakness. 

The tribes of the Upper Zambezi are intensely black, and allow 
their woolly hair to grow longer than is customary with the South 
African natives. Physically speaking, they are above the average, 
especially the Marotse and Masubia. For Africans, they are by no 
means an indolent people, each tribe having its special industries. 
The Marotse are clever at wood-carving, a craft they probably 
learned from the Makololo, whose kinsmen, the Basuto, are adepts in 
this art. The Mabunda make excellent mats and baskets, very 
tastefully worked in pattern, the latter being so closely woven as to 
render them watertight. The Matutela are the iron- workers of the 
empire ; they smelt their own metal, and work it into axes, knives, 
spear-heads, &c. They also construct most of the dug-out canoes 
in use on the river. The Masubia are a tribe of paddlers and hunters, 
the Matoka agriculturists, the Mankoya hunters, and the Mashi- 
kolumbwe the dirtiest, laziest, most good-for-nothing lot of stark 
naked savages I have ever travelled among. Like all unsophis- 
ticated and primitive people, these tribes are extremely superstitious ; 
witches and evil spirits abound, and are ever at work to the detri- 
ment of mortal man. Every misfortune, disease, and even death it- 
self, is directly due to the machinations of these unholy sprites. In 
consequence, any unpopular person, or anyone whose wealth creates 
feelings of covetousness among the chiefs, is at once suspected of 
harbouring in his mortal frame one of these little devils. Now, the 
only way the malevolent little lodger, owing to his invisibility, can 
be got at, is by resorting to the " ordeal of boiling water." The 
suspect submerges both hands in a boiling cauldron for several 
seconds. If within twenty-four hours the skin comes off, he is guilty ; 
whereupon both man and fiend are burned alive. Happily 
Liwanika, in his recent and more enhghtened days, has forbidden 
this practice, though in the outlying districts of his country this or 
some other method of destroying witches is undoubtedly resorted to 
on the quiet. To tie a man down over a nest of carnivorous ants, 
or to put him under the river reeds, used to be by no means an un- 
common method of dealing with the condemned. In fact, when I 

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Marotseland and the Tribes of the Ujpjper Zambezu 265 

first arrived at Kazungula, the wife of a dead chief, who was accused 
of encompassing the death of her lord hy practising witchcraft at a 
distance of sixty miles — for he died at Sesheke — only evaded this 
latter death hy escaping to the mission station. This brought the 
case to the notice of Litia, who governs that district in his father's 
name, and the execution was forbidden. In addition to these evil 
spirits, they acknowledge the existenceof a great and good god, whom 
they occasionally worship through the sun. As they know he has 
no intention or wish to do them harm, he is very much neglected in 
favour of the evil and more active spirits. We cannot afford to 
devote any more time this evening to the conditions under which 
the inhabitants of Marotseland exist, so far as those conditions affect 
the people themselves, and do not bear on our future relationship 
with them ; but I hope enough has been said to give a general idea 
of the existing conditions obtaining in that far corner of the Empire. 
In dealing with its resources and possibilities, I will take the liberty 
of quoting one or two paragraphs from an appendix chapter of a 
book I inflicted on the British public a few months ago, as I do not 
feel capable of dealing with this part of my subject more concisely 
than I have already done in the above-mentioned effort. 

In so large a tract the surface of the country varies considerably, 
as might be expected. The Matoka and Mashikolumbwe occupy 
distinctly superior districts to those inhabited by their western 
fellow subjects. High above the swamps of the Lower Umgwezi 
and the Kafukwe, huge plateaux rise to a height of 4,000 feet and 
upwards. These are broken, well watered, and picturesque. In the 
open valleys of the numerous rivulets which intersect the forest, the 
soil is rich and productive, the air bracing, and the temperature 
comparatively low. ... In places the broken, rocky nature of the 
ground is suggestive of possible mineral wealth. 

The Matoka are industrious, and will make useful and wilUng 
servants. The Mashikolumbwe are lazy, and will probably prove not 
only useless, but troublesome. Some of the main rivers in both these 
countries characteristically resemble the typical South African river 
— clean-cut banks, sandy beds, occasional pools in the dry season, 
and torrents of water during the rains. Others have a continuous 
flow of water throughout the year, and, as a rule, flow through open, 
grass-covered valleys. To the west ... the character of the 
country is quite different. Undulations of white sand roll, as it 
were, from N.W. to S.E. ; these are covered with trees growing to a 
height of thirty or forty feet. Except in the neighbourhood of the 
Zambezi, the acacia and mopani are seldom met with in this 

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266 Marotseland and the Tribes of the Upper Zambezi. 

western section of the country. ... So well watered is this part 
of Africa, that, during my journey along the watershed of the Lni 
Lambi and Njoko at the very end of the dry season, I never 
travelled twelve miles without striking some pan or rivulet con- 
taining good water. 

The valleys through which these rivers and their tributaries flow 
are covered with an excellent pasture, retaining its succulence 
throughout the year, the surfekce of the ground being dry in the 
winter and swampy in the summer season, when they become 
favourite breeding grounds for large numbers of geese, duck, teal, 
and other waterfowl. 

Though no rice is grown by the natives, these valleys are admir- 
ably adapted for its cultivation, and are also capable of supplying 
winter pasture for considerable herds of cattle. The difference 
between the condition of the Marotse cattle at the end of the dry 
season and that of those in South Africa, where the late winter pas- 
ture is dry and unnutritious to a degree, is most noticeable. 

The Marotse cattle are very similar, both in size and appearance, 
to those possessed by the Bechuanas, and in all probability are 
descended from the herds brought with him by Sebitwane, the 
Makololo conqueror, when he invaded the country early in &e 
century. The cattle of the Matoka and Mashikoliimbwe are, on 
the contrary, very small, in some instances not exceeding thirty-six 
inches at the shoulder. Prior to the subjection of these tribes by 
the Marotse, the latter made frequent raids into their territory, and 
thus became possessed of large numbers of pigmy cattle. The 
result of this introduction of the smaller breed has done much to 
spoil the size of the larger, and has given to many herds a very 
uneven appearance. 

The goats and sheep found throughout the country are pigmy 
counterparts of the native breeds of South Africa, where the sheep 
grow hair in the place of wool, and carry abnormally large and fat 
tails, which are much valued by the wielder of the frying-pan. 

The natives cultivate patches of ground in the vicinity of their 
villages, generally choosing the rich river valleys previously alluded 
to. Mealies, sorghum, and a small seed known in the country as 
mabele-bele are the principal cereals cultivated, while cassava, 
monkey-nuts, pumpkins, watermelons, marrows, and a species of 
cucumber are also grown. So far as soil, altitude, and climate are 
concerned, the country is capable of producing wheat, oats, coflfee, 
indiarubber, many kinds of fruit, rice, and other agricultural pro- 
ducts. Unfortunately the marvellous productive power of the soil 

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Marotseland and the Tribes of the Upper Zambezi. 267 

is severely discounted by the depredations of locusts, which since 
1890 liave done considerable damage to native crops. In fact, in 
1894 and 1895 whole districts were entirely deprived of their 
harvests, with the result that the people had to depend for 
livelihood on fish, roots, and game. In 1896, however, disease 
showed itself among the locusts, and the harvest was abundant, so 
that had there been railway communication between the Zambezi 
and Bulawayo, a distance of only four hundred miles, in the early 
months of that year, as it is to be hoped there will be in the near 
future, thousands of bushels of corn could have been imported into 
Matabeleland, and thus one of the principal causes of trouble 
during that unfortunate period would have been removed. Drought, 
the curse of South Africa, would appear to be rare in these northern 
Zambezi districts. In fact, M. Ooillard, the missionary, who has 
carefully observed the rainfall on the river for many years, informed 
me that it has not varied more than a point from thirty-four inches 
in any one year during his long residence in the country. Iron 
and copper are worked by the natives, but although I imagine gold 
will be found in certain districts, I refrain from asserting its exist- 
ence, as I am no expert in the science of mineralogy. However, 
though the finding of gold is without doubt the most powerful 
stimulant for present colonial enterprise, the fact should not be 
ignored ihdX future progress and development are more closely con- 
nected with the agricultural than the mining industry. 

The climatic influences north of the Zambezi are so different 
from those south, where a drought frequently affects the plateau 
from the river to its southern boundary, that our future South 
African Empire may yet have reason to be grateful that Marotse- 
land forms part of it, if only as a food-supplying country in times 
when famine or scarcity prevails in the south. 

Politically speaking, the prospects of the country are encourag- 
ing, and it is to be hoped that British influence and rule will be esta- 
blished over Liwanika's wide empire in as bloodless a manner as 
has been the case in Ehama's country, and that it will never be 
found expedient to embark on a native war, as has unfortunately 
been found necessary so frequently during the progress of colonisa- 
tion inJSouth Africa. 

Sometimes, no doubt, maladministration, but more generally, I 
imagine, misunderstanding between the native population and the 
local governing power, is the direct cause of friction. 

It is, at least, dangerous to attempt to rule the African during 
the first stages of civilisation on the same lines as Europeans. On 

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268 Marotseland and the Tribes of the Upper Zambezi. 

the one side you have a civilised and cultivated people, on the 
other a primitive people, in no way capable as yet of entertaining 
the higher sentiments of mankind. Those who assert to the 
contrary — and we occasionally hear such assertions from another 
place — must deny the principle of heredity, the superiority of the 
improved domestic animal of to-day over his early progenitors, or 
the possibility of high-minded, intellectual men impressing their 
influence on succeeding generations. 

One law, no doubt, is all that is required, but it is necessary at 
times to apply it differently to the two races in order to attain the 
object for which it exists in each case, ix. order and security of 
person and property. 

In governing native tribes which are new to the white man's 
yoke, and who at the same time largely outnumber him, their 
susceptibilities should be taken into account, and their system of 
government should be utilised — of course under proper control — 
and not obliterated. It is because Great Britain, more than any 
other nation, recognises these principles that she has been so much 
more successful than others as a colonising power, and when she or 
her deputies have failed in these considerations, trouble has 
invariably ensued, as might be expected. People whose travels 
have been confined to the civilised world are very apt to assume 
that all native races in the far interior are stark naked savages, or 
nearly so, little better than the beasts they prey upon, devoid of 
intelligence, sense of justice, or self-respect. True, the native's 
intelligence does not soar to higher mathematics or the learned 
sciences, but he is uncommonly shrewd in matters of everyday 
life, and quite capable of taking care of himself in matters of 
trade. His sense of justice too often stops with himself ; but it is 
there all the same. The upper classes have a great idea of their 
own dignity, and in many instances their grace of movement and 
courteous demeanour would be borrowed with advantage to them- 
selves by some white men, whose pretensions are not the least part 
of their social acquirements. 

Few tribes in Africa have had less intercourse with white men 
than the inliabitants of Marotseland, and yet they possess an un- 
written constitution, a system of government, and a society with 
its classes and masses — a king, royal family, aristocracy, and 
various popular grades. When, therefore, I say that to govern 
successfully such a country as this, native susceptibilities should be 
taken into account, it must not be forgotten that Africans look on 
their king with a respect and awe almost amounting to worship, 

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Ma/totseland and the Tribes. of the Upp&r Zamhesiu 269 

therefore considerable tact should be used in dealing -with him ; for 
apart from the fact that he has real rights which cannot in justice 
be ignored, his friendship means co-operation — his hostility ob- 
struction at least. Liwanika is very favourably disposed towards 
Englishmen, and his reverence for the Great White Queen is the 
respect of a native potentate for a ruler whom he looks upon as the 
greatest and most powerful sovereign in the world. 

To illustrate the advantage of utilising existing native systems 
of government instead of tearing down the old structure before the 
materials are ready to build a fresh one in its place, no better 
instance could be adopted than that of the country under discussion. 
Imagine a country as large as the German empire, with a scattered 
population dependent for intercommunication on nothing more 
rapid than their own legs, or, where the river passes, on canoes. At 
present Liwanika, the paramount chief, rules the whole, and under 
him two princesses — a sister and a niece — and his son Litia 
govern large provinces. The provinces are in their turn divided 
into districts, presided over by chiefs, to whom lesser chiefs are 
directly responsible. Every individual is either a chief or a slave. 
By right of birth every Marotse is a chief, while all others come in 
the latter category. In many instances slaves own slaves. My 
hunter, Madzimani, for instance, was the slave of a Sesheke chief, 
but though a slave, he ruled and owned a large village, which only 
indirectly belonged to his chief. A slave is not necessarily inter- 
fered with by his chief, but owes him fealty, nor can he leave his 
district without his owner's permission or his orders. It is the 
feudal system of the middle ages over again : protection and the 
right to exist are bought by personal service or payment in kind, 
if and when required. Thus it will be seen that an order from 
Liwanika, when transmitted through this official channel, can be 
Imown to every one of his subjects in an incredibly short space of 
time, for native runners travel quickly. So, likewise, he can lay 
his hands on anyone he will by the simple process of intimating his 
wish to the governor of a province, who communicates with a chief, 
and he with a sub-chief, and so on, till the meanest slave can be 
brought to book. Thus, in this case, if the king co-operates with 
the Company's administrator, the native population is in absolute 
control, and no servant dare rob, steal, or desert his master. Once, 
however, make an enemy of the king, and break the power of his 
chiefs, and what is the result ? The whole system crumbles, and 
popular organisation gives place to an irresponsible and incongruous 

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270 Marotseland and the Tribes of the Upper Zambezi. 

mass of human beings, who can and will thieve or desert at their 
own sweet will, aided and abetted by their fellows. 

An interesting and unique constitutional condition, which ought 
not to be passed unnoticed, is the fact that the ruling king's eldest 
sister, under the official title of Mokwai, theoretically shares the 
reigning rights and dignities with her brother. No important step 
is, by the unwritten law, permissible without the knowledge and 
consent of this lady. In practice, however, I imagine Liwanika 
has as much of his own way as he wishes, so that, in fact, the only 
two priyileges the Mokwai acquires which she does not share with 
the other two governors of provinces — her nephew at Eazungula 
and her daughter at Sesheke — are social precedence and a more 
absolute control over the province she governs. There is some- 
thing of wisdom in making the queen's tenure of office coterminate 
with the death of the king. The present Mokwai is a capricious 
and jealous woman, is extremely envious of the lion's share of 
power enjoyed by her brother — whom she speaks of as her little 
brother — and I surmise that if it were not for the conditions under 
which she holds office, she would contrive to get rid of Liwanika 
as she has already done in the case of the six husbands who pre* 
ceded No. 7. 

Perhaps the most important question relating to the affairs of 
Marotseland at the present moment is the uncertainty of its west- 
ern border. Great Britain, as previously stated, has an unques- 
tionable right to Liwanika's dominions. The point, therefore, is, 
where do these dominions end ? The Portuguese assert that the 
Zambezi forms the boundary line. This claim, I hope to show, 
is absolutely untenable. First, I would draw attention to the fewst 
that Liwanika's capital, Lialui, stands on the eastern bank of the 
Zambezi in 15° 13' S. lat. Who has ever heard of a native chief 
making his headquarters on the borders of his dominions ? Nalolo, 
the principal town of the Mokwai, stands near the west bank of 
the Zambezi, in 15® 82' S. lat. Is it reasonable to suppose that so 
important a town should stand actually outside the country of 
which it is a head, and should not even be stockaded ? Again, 
Barotse, the home country of the Marotse, extends even more to 
the west than it does to the east of the river, and the oldest 
subjects of these people, the Mabunda and Masubia, who formed 
part of the Makololo kingdom when Livingstone arrived there 
in the forties, occupy more territory to the west than they do to 
the east. Is it reasonable to cut these tribes into two sections and 
deprive Liwanika of the very threshold of his dominions, when 

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Marotseland and the Tribes of the Upper Zambezi, 271 

the only argument the Portuguese Government could advance in 
favour of doing so is the occasional visits to Barotse in the past 
of subjects of theirs — almost all of whom were full-blooded coast 
natives or half-castes — to deal with the king in slaves and ivory ? 
No, Liwanika's country certainly extends to the Kwando — ^how 
much farther the future will disclose. Do not let us deprive the 
Portuguese of any of their just rights, more especially as we are 
a powerful nation dealing with a weak one ; but we must not forget 
that we accepted the rights and responsibilities we have acquired 
over the chiefs dominions on the condition that we undertake to 
protect his interests, and unless we fulfil our obligations, as I am 
sure we will, I venture to foretell we will regret not having done 
so. . The sooner this question is settled the better for all parties 
concerned. There has been considerable delay in the settlement of 
this dispute on account of the almost total absence, until recently, 
of sufficiently reliable information relative to the facts of the case, 
both in this country and at Lisbon. But there is no reason to 
suppose that, when this boundary question comes to be officially 
discussed, the Portuguese Government will do otherwise than treat 
it in a spirit of fairness and justice. 

Up to 1896 the game in many districts of this country was as 
plentiful as it was in South Africa fifty years ago, and I had no 
difficulty in getting together a bag in less than a year which it 
would take me ten years to acquire south of the Zambezi to- 
day. Hippopotami, buffalo, roan and sable antelopes, zebra, 
wildebeest, tsessebe, lichenstein's hartebeest, waterbuck, pookoo, 
lechwe, reedbuck, pallah, warthog, and several of the smaller 
antelopes were common, while eland and koodoo were fairly plenti- 
ful in some districts. Lions and leopards were numerous, but on 
account of their habits seldom seen. Since then, however, the 
rinderpiest scourge has swept most districts. The cattle in the 
Marotse plain have happily escaped, though south and east whole 
herds were swept away. I was interested the other day to hear 
that the tsetse fly in Matabeleland has become extinct owing to the 
decimation of wild game, so probably my old friends north of the 
Zambezi have met a similar fate ; in which case, many districts 
which hitherto were not available for cattle-rearing will in con- 
sequence be brought within the margin of utility. 

Though Marotseland is far away, it is very rapidly becoming 
nearer and nearer. In 1895 it took me three months* hard travelling 
to reach Zambezi ; to-day it is only two months distant, and in 
three years* time it will in all probability be but three weeks' 

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272 Marotseland and the Tribes of the' Upper ZamhezL 

journey from Southampton. With the inhospitable Kalahari 
Desert and the contingent difficulties and expense of transport 
between Bulawayo and the Upper Zambezi, little will be done 
before railway connection is complete, and then a novel fact will 
be demonstrated for the first time, namely, that the most effective 
method of colonisation is that in which the very first effort is the 
construction of a railroad. 

I hope I have succeeded in giving you a correct idea of this very 
remote but not uninteresting comer of the Empire, whose welfare 
the Royal Colonial Institute has done and is doing so much to 

The Paper was illustrated with limeUght views of the scenery, 
natives, etc., of the country described. 


Mr. W. W. A. Fitzgerald : I have, first of all, to express the very 
great pleasure with which I have listened to the able lecture which 
Major Gibbons has given us to-night. In listening to the interest- 
ing details concerning this little known land — the customs of the 
people and their industries, the fertility and the products of the 
country — which appears destined in the near future to become one 
of the granaries of South Africa, one is impressed more and more 
with the great importance of the excellent work which is being 
accomplished by the Royal Colonial Institute, by its annual series 
of lectures, in educating and in bringing home to the public mind 
information as to the vast extent, value, and importance of our 
immense Empire, as well as the heavy responsibilities which that 
Empire entails. I cordially agree with every word that Major 
Gibbons has said wijh regard to what ought to be the nature of the 
connection of the English administrators with the native tribes 
and people of Africa. But I go even further than he does. I 
think that the duty of England in the portions of Africa which 
Providence has placed under our charge, entails a higher duty than 
merely the protection of life and property. I hold that the mission 
of England in Africa is not only to elevate the moral nature of the 
people committed to her charge, but to ameliorate as much as lies 
in her power their physical condition as well. Wherever I have 
been able to do it, I have raised a warning and appealing voice to 
the advocates for the abolition of slavery in Africa. All honour to 
them for the great work they are endeavouring to carry out, for I 
believe our endeavours ought to be directed not only to the 

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Marotseland and the Tribes of the Upper Zambezi. 278 

present condition of the African native, but to the future. We 
have just heard how deeply ingrained the custom of slavery is 
amongst the Africans. It exists not only on the coast, but through- 
out the inland tribes* The Wanika barter slaves, as do the Wa 
Galla and the Somalis. Our duty, while doing away with the slave 
trade, is also to look beyond. It may perhaps give a little more 
emphasis to my words when I say that I speak with a certain 
amount of knowledge of African slavery, as it was my lot to live 
intimiately amongst these people for the space of over two years. 
I hold that our duty there is twofold — to do away with the slave 
trade, and at the same time to look to the future welfare of the 
African native. I have endeavoured to call attention to this in my 
suggestions that model plantations should be established in suitable 
localities, with natives from India in charge — ^men accustomed to 
cotton, tobacco, and cocoanut cultivation. The Hindoo, by his 
greater knowledge and habits of thrift, would be able to stimulate 
and instruct the native African to a better knowledge of agriculture 
and industry than he at present possesses. It is because I feel so 
much interest in the development of East Africa, and have such 
great faith in the future of that country, that I welcome with 
pleasure the reading of a paper such as this, which brings home to 
the British nation at large the importance — the great and growing 
importance — of what I believe firmly will eventually become our 
East African Empire. 

Dr. Alfred P. Hillier : I assure you I have listened with very 
great pleasure to Major Gibbons' extremely interesting and valuable 
paper. It is to such men as he that our country has been indebted 
in the past ; men who, with their lives in their hands, go to these 
outlying districts of the world; and though Major Gibbons has 
spoken very modestly of his adventures, we must see that he went 
at great peril to himself, not only through Barotseland, but also 
through Matabeleland. He has touched on many points which, of 
course, one can only briefly allude to. But there is one which has 
interested me specially, and which, had Mr. Selous been here, we 
might have had some more information upon. That is the question, 
of the racial origin of the Barotse tribes. They are probably 
branches of the great Kafir or Bantu family, but as a matter of fact 
the origin of all the Bantu tribes is more or less a matter for specu- 
lation. Mr. Selous has given to the world a theory with regard to 
the origin of the Bantu tribes, which I think is most probable, and 
that is that they are the result of an intermingling of the Arab 
and the Negro. Major Gibbons, in describing some of the Barotse, 


Digitized by 


B74 Ma/rotselcmd tmd the Tribes of the Upper Zambezi. 

has remarked upon their intense blackness, and if we may jttdge 
from the pictures he has shown us, it is obvious that the negroid 
type is much more prominent among them than among their 
neighbours further east. For myself I have frequently noticed 
that, in the families of Kafir chiefs, the Arab strain and type of 
countenance predominate. They are lighter in colour and have 
more aquiline features, while among the slaves the negroid cast 
prevails. Another point which is of interest, referred to by Major 
Oibbons, is a plague which, from the days of Pharaoh, has from 
time to time prevailed and wrought devastation throughout the 
continent of Africa. I refer to the locusts. Major Gibbons tells us 
that in 1896 disease showed itself among the locusts ; I think that 
is an extremely interesting fact, and may be an extremely valuable 
one. Curiously enough, these locusts, from one end of Africa to 
another, come after periods of great abundance, when the rains 
have been heavy and the harvests plentiful. It is in fact one of 
life's ironies in Africa that no sooner has a farmer got a good crop 
than the locusts come down and devour it. The locusts are a scourge 
which bring absolute starvation to the natives, frequently ruin to 
the European farmer, and desolation to the whole country. The 
locust is a parasite which preys upon the food of mankind. I ven- 
ture to think that the fact mentioned by Major Gibbons may, as I 
have said, prove of importance, and that, perhaps, the remedy which, 
for thousands of years, has been sought in vain, may yet be 
found in implanting among these parasites some parasites which 
would prey on them. It may be thought that this is an imaginative 
thing to suggest, but as a matter of fact we remember that when 
disease appeared among the silkworms and threatened destruction 
to the silk industry in Europe, the matter was investigated by 
Pasteur and a remedy found. The disease was found to be due to 
a parasite, and I have no doubt the disease which Major Gibbons 
has mentioned is equally due to a parasite among the locusts. I 
would venture to suggest therefore that one way of getting rid of 
this pest might be to inoculate the different swarms of locusts with 
some of their kind suffering from disease, and by this means spread 
the disease amongst them. At any rate I shall certainly call the at- 
tention of my friend at the head of the Bacteriological Department 
in the Cape Colony to this matter. Major Gibbons' account of the 
resources of the Barotse country gives to his paper a very wide and 
Imperial aspect. It is one more piece of valuable evidence of the 
great resources yet untapped by civiUsation. He has pointed out to 
us the great advantages that would accrue if these regions were open 

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Ma/rotseland and the Tribes of the Upper Zambezu 275 

to railway oommunioation, and we cannot forget that at the present 
moment there is before the people of England a proposal by the one 
man more than any other who has helped to develop these Central 
African regions, the Bight Hon. Cecil Rhodes. The proposition is 
that this country should come to his aid to the extent of pledging 
its credit and enabhng him to raise a loan of two millions, at a low 
rate of interest, in order to carry out his scheme of a railway from 
Bulawayo to Lake Tanganyika. This proposal is at present under 
the consideration of the trustees of the people of this country, and 
by the trustees I mean the Government of the country. I venture 
to believe that they will be consulting the wishes of the people if 
they consider favourably this proposal, and, adhering to the tradi- 
tions of our race, come forward to aid, in a substantial manner, this 
great pioneering work. 

Sir Sidney Shippard, K.C.M.G. : It is not, I regret to say, in 
my power to add any very interesting facts to the information 
wliich has been laid before us. With most of the remarks the 
lecturer makes, with regard to the natives in particular, I entirely 
concur. My experience during the ten years I lived in Bechuana- 
land convinced me that the same rules have to be applied to all 
human beings, whatever their race or colour, if you desire to govern 
them properly, and so as to secure their allegiance and obedience to 
the laws. You are bound to grant them perfect justice and equality 
before the law, and you have also, in the case of the natives, who 
are comparatively speaking in some respects children, to treat them 
with gentleness and kindness, while at the same time making them 
understand that in the main you are firm. That is my experience, 
and I may say that, as the result of this system, I could always get 
the natives to do anything I liked to ask them. With regard to 
the country to the north, I have never been further than Bulawayo. 
I remember when coming down from Bulawayo ten years ago, 
rather a large party, we were accosted by a number of these black 
men from the Barotse country : they came to us in some fear and 
trepidation on account of the troubles in Matabeleland, and begged 
to be allowed to follow our waggons. We ook them with us, 
engaging them as servants, and they all turned out remarkably 

The Chairman (Sir Frederick Young, K.C.M.G.) : It was not 
to be expected we should have any great amount of discussion on 
this occasion, because the paper deals with a country which very few 
have been able to explore or know much about, but I think we are very 
much indebted to the various speakers who have favoured us with 


Digitized by V^fOOQlC 

276 Marotseland and the Tribes of the Upper Zambezi. 

their remarks. There are many points in the paper of great interest, 
and indeed importance, in reference to this vast territory. In one of 
his opening remarks, the lecturer says that this country is of practical 
concern to all those who take an interest in Imperial progress. I 
wonder who of us among Britons nowadays does not ? At all events, 
I think I can answer in this respect for every member of this In- 
stitute. Allusion has been made to railway conmiunication as being 
the real pioneer of modem civilisation, and I am extremely glad that 
Dr. Hillier called special attention to the great project which has 
been launched by one of the " Makers of the Empire,*' whom we 
have at this moment in London, and who is throwing his vast 
influence and comprehensive and patriotic views into its realisation. 
I trust sincerely that our Government will be wise enough, enter- 
prising enough, and bold enough to lend their support to that great 
scheme. Reference has also been made to the Boundary question. 
Many of us who take an interest in this part of Africa have been very 
much disappointed at the delay which has occurred in the delimitation 
of the boundaries between Great Britain and Portugal, and we trust 
that no long time will elapse before the British and the Portuguese 
Governments take seriously in hand the settlement of this important 
question. With these few observations which have occurred to me, 
in connection with this Paper, which is replete with much valuable 
information, I beg to propose a vote of thanks to Major Gibbons on 
your behalf. 

Major Gibbons : It is a matter of great gratification that my 
humble efforts have been received so kindly. I had anticipated a 
certain amount of more or less hostile criticism, but this has not 
been forthcoming. I would make one observation in regard to Dr. 
Hillier's question. So far as I could gather, the Marotse people 
have not been in their present locality for more than possibly two 
hundred years. They undoubtedly came originally from lower down 
the Zambezi, and, from what I could make out, probably about half- 
way between the Victoria Falls and the river mouth. That is 
partly a surmise, but the fact that these Barotse people more nearly 
resemble the Arab than the negroid type, than the natives among 
whom they live, would lead one to suppose they had come from the 
north-east in the first instance, and ultimately found their way to 
the present locality. 

A vote of thanks to the Chairman for presiding concluded the 

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An Afternoon Meeting was held in the Library of the Institute 
on Tuesday, May 24, 1898 — William Keswick, Esq., in the Chair — 
when Mr, W. F. Wenyon read a Paper on 


[Abstbact.] ^ 

Mb. Wenyon said recent events in the Far East had somewhat 
diverted attention from the south to the north of China. He 
thought that while attention was fixed upon Wei-Hai-Wei in the 
extreme north, there was danger of our forgetting the importance 
of the extreme south of China in its relation to the maintenance 
and growth of British trade at Hong Kong. He therefore pro- 
posed to consider briefly the trade routes of South China in order 
to show how far-reaching were the trade interests of Hong Kong, 
and that they might see the value of those great arteries through 
which our trade circulated, and determine to do their utmost to 
keep them open and make them free. A mere dot in the China 
Sea, Hong Kong was the great heart of our Far Eastern trade. It 
contained a fine city of about 250,000 hard-working and thrifty 
people, with a commerce of over £20,000,000 sterling, while the 
shipping entering and clearing at Hong Kong amounted in 1896 to 
16,515,958 tons. Steamship lines placed Hong Kong in direct 
communication with Japan, the Straits Settlements, Siam, the 
Philippine Islands, Corea, the China Coast, and Tonquin, with 
which places alone British trade far exceeded that of Great Britain 
with India. But it concerned him more to ask what became of the 
nearly three million tons of imports landed in Hong Kong annually, 
and how the exports of more than one and a half million tons from 
the interior reached Hong Kong. From Hong Kong nearly every 
alternate day steamers left for the principal coast ports of the south 
of China, while at least three steamers left daily for Canton, ninety 
miles up the West River, Mr. Wenyon then described a journey 
northwards by the ordinary coasting steamers calling at Swatow, 
Amoy, and Foochow, detailing the different sorts of goods carried, 
the places where they were landed, and the ways in which they were 
distributed, the largest portion of the goods landed at Swatow being 
sent by water to Chau-Chau-Fu and thence farther distributed by 
coolies. The bulk of the exports of Swatow and district found their 

* A copy of the Paper itself is preserved in the Library and is always 
available for reference. 

Digitized by 


278 The Trade Boutes of South China and their Belation to the 

way to Hong Eong. The exports from Amoy to Hong Eong were 
chiefly goods for Chinese consumption. At Foochow there was 
a large consumption of British goods. Mr. Wenyon then de- 
scribed the trade route from Hong Eong into the far interior 
df Southern China, showing how British goods entered chiefly 
by way of Canton or Pakhoi. He described the distribution of 
the goods at Canton, a vast city of more than two million inhabi- 
tants, where were collected many curious types of native river craft, 
each adapted to the peculiarities of the particular river navigated 
and the cargo carried. The principal trade routes along which 
goods passed from Canton were the waterways, i.e, the West Biver 
and its tributaries. Bising in Yunnan, what was usually called the 
main branch of the West Biver flowed for a thousand miles to the sea. 
It flowed through Ewangsi and Ewangtung to Sam Shui, one of the 
newly opened treaty ports, after which it formed quite a network of 
navigable streams, with two principal outlets to the sea, one near 
Macao, and one near Hong Eong. But this main branch of the 
West Biver was not navigable by any but very small boats in its 
upper reaches, until it came to a point about 100 miles above 
Wu-Chau-Pu, another treaty port on the West Biver, opened last 
June. The most important branch of the upper West Biver was 
the Nam-Ning branch, formed by the confluence of two streams, 
one, the Pese branch, rising in Yunnan, and the other, the Lung- 
Chau branch, on the borders of Tonquin. This stream met the 
main branch of the West Biver about 100 miles above Wu-Chau-Fu, 
at which place the Fu Biver, after flowing 800 miles due south 
from the borders of Hunan, entered the West Biver, while a few 
miles below Wu-Chau-Fu the Lo-Ling stream entered from the 
south. At Sam Shui the volume of the West Biver was augmented 
from the north by the North Biver, which was navigable to within 
thirty miles of the Eiang-Si border. Between Canton and Hong 
Eong the East Biver, which rose in the hills west of the Swatow 
district, entered the West Biver. Along these streams merchandise 
was carried throughout Ewangtung and Ewangsi provinces to 
markets from which it was in many cases again distributed to 
other, provinces. Having described other trade routes into Hunan, 
Western Ewei-Chau or East Yunnan, and into Western Ewangsi by 
the Pakhoi overland route, Mr. Wenyon pointed out that since the 
opening of the Bed Biver route to Yunnan there had been a great 
falling off in the quantities of piece goods and yam imported by this 
and the West Biver route into Nam-Ning. According to one of the 
largest merchants in Nam-Ning, there had been a decrease of 
25 per cent, in the imports of yam, and of 70 per cent, in those of 

• Digitized by VofOOgLC 

Development of Hong Kong. 279 

piece goods. Mr. Wenyon thought it was but natural that imports 
into and exports firom Southern Yunnan should be diverted to the 
Bed Biver route, the charges by this being considerably less than 
by the other route, notwithstanding the exactions of the French 
Customs. A description of the island of Hainan, with its treaty port 
of Kiung-Chau or Hoihow, was next given, followed by an account of 
the peninsula of Lui Ghau, across the narrow straits of Hainan and 
within sight of Hoihow. On the south-east coast of Lui-Chau was the 
port of Lei-Ghau,from which a short railroad with two branches would 
tap Shun-Tak, the wealthiest silk-growing district, and Lo-Teng, the 
richest cassia district of Ewangtung. Lei-Ghau in the hands of 
any other power than England would, if made a free port, injure 
the trade of Hong Eong. Sugar was grown there, and there was 
in places a considerable quantity of gold exploited by the natives, 
who managed to wash out of the soil in rice pans sufficient gold to 
keep themselves day by day. And there was in proximity a large 
coalfield, which would make the port an important coaling station* 
The foreign goods passing through these straits were almost 
entirely British, the bulk coming from Hong Kong, but chiefly in 
French ships. A German company, however, had recently begun 
to run vessels from Hong Kong to Hoihow, Pakhoi, and Haiphong. 
Some years ago the French had but one ship running ; but of late 
years a French firm, heavily subsidised by the French Government, 
had put several new steamers on the run, and chartered others. 
Thus French steamers were carrying British trade, and the French, 
whose enterprise was to be commended, would soon, no doubt, claim 
to have the chief interest in these waters. Already in Tonquin, on 
the borders of Kwangsi, the French were doing all in their power to 
divert the great aniseed trade from the West Biver and Pakhoi 
routes to Haiphong. If they secured Lei-Ghau and railway rights, 
they would doubtless attempt to divert some of the cassia and silk 
trade from the waterways leading to Hong Kong. Mr. Wenyon 
said the 2,000 miles of navigable waterways, down which came the 
exports which Hong Kong sent to many lands, and up which were 
sent the corresponding imports into Kiangsi, Hunan, Kwei-Ghau, 
and Yunnan must be made and kept free. Large as the trade was 
which those waterways brought to Hong Kong, it was not a tithe of 
what it should be. Some disappointment had been felt in Hong 
Eong at the poor results commercially of opening the Treaty Ports 
of Wu-Ghau-Fu and Sam-Shui ; but this was not much to be aston* 
ished at, seeing that only about 200 miles of the West Biver from 
Oanton had been opened, and all the country around the ports 
t)pened was dosed. The British Government ^ould have availed 

Digitized by V^rOOQlC 

280 The Trade Boutes of South China and their Belation to the 

themselves of the opportunity to get the river opened right up to 
Nam-Ning and Pese, at the extremity of the navigable part of the 
West Biver, a distance of nearly 1,000 miles. If the likin stations, 
placed every few miles along these rivers, were abolished, and the 
waterways made free. Hong Kong trade would greatly increase. But 
how much greater increase would result from the development of the 
vast wealth lying beneath the soil along all these waterways ! Few 
people had any idea of the mineral wealth of the south of China. 
Coal, iron, copper, lead, silver, antimony, and gold were all there 
close to these waterways, awaiting foreign enterprise and skill. Few 
people realised how little the resources of the south of China were 
properly utilised for the support of its people. Within 400 miles of 
Hong Kong aborigines roamed about over vast tracts of unsettled 
country. There was no reason why China should send one of her 
sons to foreign soils, as was done to so considerable an extent. The 
peasant of Kwangsi planted a few sweet potatoes, and barely existed ; 
hundreds were swept away by the first approach of famine. Yet at 
their very feet was fabulous wealth. Mr. Wenyon said he had seen 
a peasant arduously carrying on his back a load of wood for fuel, 
over a path cut through unexploited coal in the hillside. There was 
more mining work in China than labour could be found for even in 
populous China, yet millions were living on two shillings per head, 
and less, per month. If the waterways were made free, and it were 
permitted to the foreigner to join Chinese concessionnaires (even if 
not permitted to become concessionnaires themselves) wealth would 
come to millions of poverty-stricken peasants, the half-deserted rivers 
would be alive with craft, and Hong Kong would be but at the very 
beginning of her prosperity. 


Sir William Eobinson, G.C.M.G. (late Governor of Hong Kong) 
said he thought that the Council of the Institute, the community of 
Hong Kong, and Her Majesty's Government were, or would be, 
indebted to Mr. Wenyon for his very instructive and interesting 
paper. He himself regarded Hong Kong as the hub of the East- 
He fully believed that when we had our proper position in Kau-lung 
and elsewhere Hong Kong might be called " the Clapham Junction 
of the Far East.'* 

Sir William Des Vceux, G.C.M.G., said that although British 
trade might not decrease, yet we should have a very small share 
indeed of the enormous development which would take place in 
China if we allowed other nations to have exclusive possession of 
that country. He had been glad to find from Mr. Chamberlain's 

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DeveUypment of Hong Kong, 281 

recent speech that the Government were beginning to recognise the 
greatness of the question of British trade in China, but, unless we 
stirred quickly, we should lose this splendid heritage. What was 
wanted was Government support of British enterprise in China. 

Mr. R. G. Webster, M.P., considered that our interests in China 
were purely or mainly commercial, and that those interests were 
diiefly in South China, although, no doubt, there were great 
potentialities in the north. 

Mr. A. R. CoLQUHOUN said that Mr. Wenyon had gone into the 
interior of the country and had entered into direct relations with 
the Chinese. This was what he himself and many others had been 
for many years advocating that English manufacturers should do. 
Although the region served by the waterways of the West River 
basin was at present poor compared with other sections of China, 
it was capable of great expansion. He believed the south-western 
provinces of China to be immensely rich in minerals. They had in 
Hong Kong, under their own eyes, under British rule, a magnificent 
object-lesson as to what could be done in the way of utilising the 
resources of China. He asked them to think of what might happen 
in North and Central China if the forces of China came under the 
direction and guidance of other Powers. He absolutely endorsed 
what Mr. Wenyon had said about Pakhoi and Nam-Ning; they 
ought to insist on Nam-Ning's being made a treaty port and kept 
open. They must at all costs maintain the theory of " the open 
door.'* They had in the case of Nam-Ning and the West River a 
perfect example — a test case — which would have to be dealt with by 
this country. If they gave way in the south as they had done in 
the north, and accepted assurances from France as they had from 
Russia in the north, he feared that the theory of their being able 
to take British goods in British ships to the most remote portions of 
the Chinese Empire would be the merest fiction. 

The Chairman (Mr. William Keswick) thought that although 
our trade was not likely to diminish through measures taken by any 
other nations in China, most undoubtedly our Imperial interests and 
our prestige would pass away if we allowed in that vast empire any 
other country to take a position before our own. 

Mr. Wenyon, in answer to a question, urged the importance of a 
distinct line being drawn in the south of China as in the north. 
This country should say to other Powers who wished to divert 
British trade, " Thus far and no further." 

A vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. Wenyon and to the Chair- 
man at the close of the meeting. 

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The Eighth Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at 
the Whitehall Rooms, H6tel M^tropole, on Tuesday, June 14, 1898, 
when a Paper on " Recent Social and Political Progress in Victoria " 
was read by the Right Hon. LordBrassey, K.C.B. 

General Sir Henry W. Norman, G.O.B., G.O.M.G., C.I.E., a 
Member of the Council of the Institute, presided. 

The Minutes of the last Ordinary General Meeting were read and 
confirmed, and it was announced that since that Meeting 28 Fellows 
had been elected, viz., 3 Resident and 25 Non-Resident. 

Resident Fellows : — 

Algernon E, Aspinall, Bev, Hugh C FrerCi Edward U, Whitney. 

Non-Resident Fellows : — 

Charles N, Armstrong (Canada), Harmood A, Banner {New Zealand), Ernest 
Dillon Bell (New Zealand), Stewa/rt G. Black (Victoria), Thomas Buckland 
(New South Wales), P. Carmody (Oovernmsnt Analyst, Trimdad), Arthur 
L, Chambers (Matabeleland), Alexander Conway, J,P. (New Zealand), 
J, Oswald Fairfax (New South Wales), Ven, Archdeacon Wm, J". Gilnther, MA, 
(New South Wales), James Jones (Cape Colony), Kelso King (New South 
Wales), Lt.-Col(mel Thomas McDonnell (New Zealand), Michael McTurk, 
C.M.O, (British Guiana), Keith Ramsay (New Zealand), John Reid (Western 
Australia), Joseph A. Richardson (New Zealand), George Robertson (New 
Brunswick), Bernard Senior (Cyprus), Harry Simm^ (Victoria), Colin Smith 
(New South Wales), George W, Staples (Victoria), Hon. D. Ross Stewart, 
M,A,, LL.B. (Chief Magistrate, Gambia), Hon, J. Howard Taylor, M.L,C. 
(Western Australia), Aiden D. Wilson (Tran>svaal), 

It was also announced that donations to the Library of Books, 
Maps, &c., had been received from the various Governments of the 
Colonies and India, Societies, and public bodies both in the United 
Kingdom and the Colonies, and from Fellows of the Institute and 

The Chairman introduced the Right Hon. Lord Brassey, K.C.B., 
and called upon him to read his Paper on 


When a Governor on leave endeavours to give to the people of the 
Old Country the impressions formed during his residence in the 
Colony to which he is accredited, his first thoughts naturally turn 

Digitized by 


Becent Social and Political Progress in Victoria. 288 

to the incidents connected with his landing and reception by the 
Government and the people. 

We arrived off Melbourne at the close of a stormy day, under 
steam and sail, and, with a roaring tide in our favour, we passed 
through Port Phillip Heads with an impetuous rush. As we 
reached the sheltered waters inside, thankful that our long voyage 
was ended, we were quickly surrounded by a picturesque flotilla of 
a hundred fishing boats. As soon as the anchor was let go a large 
party came on board from Queenscliff with an address of welcome, 
a copious wealth of flowers, and a hearty outpouring of the kindest 
words. It was a fitting prelude to the ceremony of the morrow. 

The day of our landing in Melbourne was favoured with the 
most perfect Australian weather. More than 100,000 persons were 
assembled on the line of procession from the landing-place to the 
Exhibition building, where the swearing-in ceremony took place. 
There was little of pageantry or display ; the people mustered to 
express their love for the Mother Country, and their loyalty to the 
British Empire, by giving a warm welcome to the Bepresentative 
of the Crown. 

On a smaller scale, the same demonstrations of public feeling 
have been renewed again and again during our residence in Victoria. 
They have been as warm in the most secluded parts as in the great 

During the celebrations on the occasion of the Diamond Jubilee 
of the Queen, the spontaneous outbursts of loyalty were most 
gratifying. They had a political significance of no mean im- 
portance. Far more interest attaches in such a case to things done 
by the people themselves than to any ceremonies organised under 
official direction. Viewed in this light, viewed as an expression of 
what was felt in the heart of the people, it is especially gratifying 
to remember an inspection of 1,500 boys of the Cadet Corps of our 
State school, whose lusty cheers in honour of the 800 veterans 
of the navy and the army who were present on the ground were 
an earnest and a proof that in the next generation of men Old 
England will not want defenders. We had another gratifying 
incident in a procession, interminable in its length, consisting of 
the members of the Trade Societies and of the Irish Societies, the 
latter loyal to the heart's core when migrated from Ireland to 
Australia. These were things done by the people for the people, 
and with the people ; and they give the deep and confident assurance 
that, happen what may, this old country will never be forsaken by 
her sons across the seas : — 

Digitized by 


284 Becent Social and Political Progress in Victoria, 

Come the three corners of the world in arms, 

And we shall shock them : naught shall make us rue, 

If England to itself do rest but true. 

What is the secret of the success of the Empire beyond the seas ? 
It is, as the Lord Chief Justice well said at the last South Austra- 
lian dinner, that the Mother Country has not attempted to keep the 
Colonies in leading strings, but has given them a free hand. 

Having spoken of their loyal feeling, I may appropriately say a 
few words in reference to the co-operation of the Australian Colonies 
with the Mother Country in the common responsibility of providing 
for the defence of the Empire. Under an agreement, which has 
recently been renewed, Australasia makes a certain contribution to 
the cost of the Naval force in local waters. In comparison with an 
aggregate expenditure of ^^25,000,000 sterling, the Australasian sab- 
sidy is as a drop in the ocean. Eegarded as an acknowledgment of 
a principle, it has a larger significance. The question, however, 
remains for consideration whether the co-operation of the Austra- 
lian Colonies can most effectually be offered in its present form. It 
is the duty of the statesman to turn to the fullest account all the 
means of defence that we possess. We must, therefore, look at the 
local conditions and local resources. Australia has no resources for 
the construction of ships. It possesses exceptional resources for 
raising a force of Mounted Rifles. In no part of the Empire, pro- 
bably in no part of the world, are horses so enduring, especially in 
hot climates, and so cheap as in Australia ; in no part of the world do 
you find horsemanship so universal an accomplishment as in the 
Australian Bush. In the Jubilee Procession you saw, and you 
greatly admired, those mounted men of Australia ; they were but 
average specimens of the force which it was their privilege to repre- 
sent. It may seem scarcely credible, yet it is true, that the sub- 
sidy for a mounted man in Australia does not exceed two guineas 
a year. I desire to impress it on this audience, and the public at 
large, that we have in Australia an unique military resource, not uti- 
lised as yet, which should in some form or other be made available 
for the defence of the Empire, and especially for service, if the 
occasion arose, at the Cape or in India. I cannot go further into this 
question on the present occasion. It is the less necessary or desir- 
able to do so, because the subject is under the consideration of the 
responsible authorities. 

And now I turn to give a public answer to questions constantly 
put in private intercourse : How do you like the life ? How do you 

Digitized by 


Becent Social and Political Progress in Victoria. 285 

like your duties ? How do you like the people ? You will assume 
that to such questions a Governor could hardly give an independent 
answer. I have no wish to give an independent answer : I am too 
well content to live under the control of the public opinion of the 
Colony of Victoria. I have to deal with a community of men and 
women in whom are embodied all the best quaUties of the Anglo- 
Saxon race, — the honour, the honesty, the perseverance and the 
courage of its men ; the charm and the goodness of its women. 
There are no kinder hearts anywhere in the world than are to be 
found in AustraHa. For them it is a privilege to be able to render 
services, and here I speak for my wife as I speak for myself. 

No doubt there are points which make a difference between life 
in Australia and Ufe in this old country. Here we have at the head 
of society families of ancient hneage, and bearing their dignity with 
ease and grace. In a new country there are not, and there could 
not be, a corresponding order of men. 

In another part of the social scale, among the mass of the 
middle class, and the cream of the artisan class, we see in Australia, 
to the best advantage, the results achieved by a most liberal system 
of State education, and the benefits to be derived from liberal wages 
judiciously applied. At the annual dinner of the men employed on 
the railways, the stoker, who has just descended from the foot- 
plates of the engine, will turn out in an irreproachable evening suit, 
and sing the newest song by a Sullivan or a Claribel as well as the 
accomplished amateurs of our London drawing-rooms. 

Nowhere does the Austrahan crowd appear to more advantage, 
as compared with the Mother Country, than on the occasion of the 
great annual carnival. The race for the Melbourne Cup generally 
brings together 100,000 spectators. The contrast between the 
Flemington Kacecourse and the Epsom Hill on the Derby 
day is rather painful to an English reader. There are no loafers, 
nor any drunkards ; nothing is seen of that seamier side of human 
life which is so much in evidence on the Epsom Downs. If we 
look to the more serious side of life, to the training for the 
professions and for business, excellent work is being done at the 
Melbourne University. It is perhaps to be regretted that the 
higher culture does not claim so many votaries as with us, where 
the leisured classes are more numerous ; but all the teaching which 
helps on the practical side of life is admirably given and eagerly 
sought by thousands of earnest students of both sexes. 

The movement of the population is perhaps the most decided 
indication of the relative progress of a country. The rush to the 

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286 Recent Social and Political Progress in Victoria. 

goldfields of Western Australia naturally attracted a larger number 
of persons from Victoria than from any other Colony. Owing to 
this cause, the total population during the last two years shows a 
slight decrease of 6,618. If the aggregate numbers have remained 
stationary, there are highly satisfactory evidences of the improved 
condition of the people. No less than thirty-one out of every lOO 
men, women and children in the Colony have now deposits in the 
savings bank In the last two years the depositors have increased 
by seven per cent. ; the deposits show an increase of two-thirds of a 
xniUion sterling ; the average amount to the credit of each depositor 
is about £22. 

The flourishing condition of the Friendly Societies affords further 
indication of the thrift which is practised by the people. In 1897 
more than one in every four men between the ages of 20 and 60 
years was a member of some society, while the accumulated funds 
amounted to over j^l ,000,000 sterling. In the two years ended 
with 1897 the membership increased by nearly fifteen hundred, 
and the funds by £76,000. Their total amount at the present 
time is £1,166,408. 

Further evidence of the exercise of prudence and foresight is 
afforded by the fact that one in every nine p^sons of all ages 
insure their lives. In the two years ended with 1896 the number 
of policies in force increased by nearly 1,600. 

Impressed with the necessity, especially in a country of universal 
suffrage, of giving the means of education to every citizen, the ex- 
penditure on the part of the Government on education has been 
liberal and lavish. In 1891, the payments under the Education 
Department amounted to £724,000 ; they still exceed half a million 
sterling. Public schools have been erected in every part of the 
Colony. In 1896, as compared with 1894, the number of scholars 
in average attendance in public and private schools increased by • 
over 10,000. 

In connection with the improvement that has taken place in so 
many directions, it is satis&ctory to find a substantial decrease in 
the amount of crime. 

The Parliament of Victoria is sedulous in its endeavours to 
improve the condition of the people. In the sessions of 1896 and 
1897 a Factory Regulation Bill was one of the measures most 
earnestly debated. The lower House was in favour of greater 
stringency of regulation ; the upper House felt strongly the objec- 
tions to a system which deprives the workers of their personal inde- 
pendence. The measure, as finally passed, will have the effect of 

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Becent Social cmd Political Progress in Victoria. 287 

restricting the competition of Chinese with Europeans, and of 
domestic with factory labour. The principle of fixing minimum 
wages by elective boards is accepted. As Mr. Henry de B. Walker, 
in his admirable volume on '* Australasian Democracy," observes, the 
Act should be regarded as a humane attempt to minimise the suffer- 
ings of the outworkers and to improve the conditions of labour of 
the toiling masses of the people. No legislation will provide 
employment for the less efiScient. The restrictions as to the rates 
of wages now imposed have borne hardly on the aged, who cannot 
do a full day's work. The law cannot compel an employer to pay 
wages which the worker is unable to earn by an equivalent in work 
done. This is an aspect of the case which it will be necessary to 
keep in view. 

This brings us to the consideration of the measures taken in Victoria 
to provide relief for those in necessitous circumstances. Though 
blessed with many advantages in soil, in climate, in mineral 
resources, no Colony, not even the most favoured, is without its 
submerged tenth. In Victoria the sudden contraction of all 
expenditure, both public and private, resulting from the collapse 
which followed a period of inflation, threw many thousands out of 
employment. We have no Poor Law as in the Old Country. 
Extreme distress is sometimes relieved in the case of the able-bodied 
by sending them to prison. The young and the aged are received 
in asylums designated, for the sake of euphony, as Emigrants' 
Homes. I will not describe institutions which bear a close 
resemblance to those existing elsewhere ; it will be more interesting 
to refer to our Labour Colony, founded upon German models. It is 
situated at Leongatha, eighty miles east of Melbourne, in the hilly 
region of the Dividing Range. I had the opportunity of visiting the 
Colony in company with our Minister of Lands, Mr. Best, and 
under the guidance of the Honorary Superintendent, Colonel 
Goldstein. The aim is to give temporary work at low rates of 
wages, the maximum being four shillings a week. The employment 
consists chiefly in clearing the heavy timber off the land and in 
market gardening. When thirty shillings has been accumulated to 
his credit, the worker must seek employment elsewhere. In a large 
number of cases men are successful ; others return again and again. 
I remember well the baker of the establishment, a fine fellow 
physically, and with no outward indications of mental or moral 
incapacity. He cannot hold his own in the battle of life. He has 
left and returned to the Colony again and again. All the provision 
for feeding, housing, and clothing at Leongatha is rude, but 

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288 Becent Social and Political Progress in Victoria, 

Buffioient, and the oost is surprisingly low — considerably below the 
expenditure under the Poor Law at home. The men themselves 
seem well satisfied with their treatment. I did not see the sullen, 
dispirited, and dejected looks which are common in our work- 
houses. In the course of our visit we conversed freely with the 
men. I had a long dialogue with an old fellow who was 
working in the bottom of a deep ditch on a pouring wet 
day. He was low in the world, but he had not lost the 
spirit of independence. It was amusingly displayed in an 
answer which he gave in reply to a leading question : " Yes, 
sir, we are well satisfied at Leongatha; we think the Govern- 
ment is doing its best to deal with the difficult question of the 

Time will not permit of an extended reference to experiences 
in other Colonies. I cannot, however, pass from this subject 
without a brief word on the institutions for the relief of the aged 
poor estabUshed by the Government of Queensland on an island in 
Moreton Bay. I visited this island with Sir Horace Tozer and Sir 
Samuel Griffith. 

In a Colony where land is to be had for the asking, where every 
natural advantage is to the fullest degree enjoyed, it was surprising 
to find 8,000 men gathered together passing a dreary old age in the 
condition of paupers. The explanation is to be found in the circum- 
stance that in all the Colonies, in Australia as in Canada, the em- 
ployment on the land is to a large extent of a temporary character. 
At shearing time and at harvest time men are in full work at high 
wages. A large part of the year is unfortunately spent in idleness 
in the towns, where the earnings of hard work in the country are 
freely spent in dissipation. In this class too many have no savings ; 
they have no settled homes, and when old age comes they are 
penniless. In Queensland, as in Victoria, the relief of the poor is 
given at a surprisingly low cost. This cheapness of living makes 
it the more strange and the more regrettable that so many are un- 
able to maintain themselves. There is infinitely less extreme 
poverty among women than men. In Mordton Bay not more than 
200 women were in the unhappy position that I have described. 

I must not enlarge on the problem of poverty. " The poor you 
shall have always with you." That saying of the Founder of our 
religion is only too truly verified in the experience of modem 
days, whether in new or old countries. I may set side by side with 
the description which I have given of Australian conditions an 
experience I once had in Argentina. Twenty years ago, I visited 

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Becmt Social and Political Progress in Victoria. 289 

that country, in which my father's firm had»some years before com- 
pleted a line of railway, the payment for which from the Govern- 
ment had taken the form of a land grant. To commence a settle- 
ment of the country, some hundreds of families had been sent over 
to Argentina from all parts of Europe. Their passages were paid, 
and on their arrival a free grant of 80 acres of fertile land was made 
to every family : for each a house was built, a well was dug, tools 
and seeds were provided gratis, and provisions were supplied for 
one year. At the date of my visit three years had elapsed since the 
settlements were formed, and, though all had started level in the 
race of life, and all had had a good start, a third of the settlers 
were being fed at soup kitchens, while others had already attained 
prosperity and were eager buyers of the land allotted to those less 
fortunate. Inequality of success seems inherent in human con- 
ditions. The difference between sickness and health is, in the case 
of those who have to work with their hands, a most essential 
difference, and it is one which is independent of human control. 
Eecognising that there will always be more or less of poverty in 
our midst, it is an obvious duty to be sparing of no pains for its 
mitigation and relief. In Australia we are doing our best to correct 
the evils of a nomadic existence by giving increased facilities for 
settling in pastoral districts in the form of grazing homesteads. 

Federation is the last subject on which I shall touch : it is the 
most important topic which has been under discussion during my 
residence in Victoria. The present movement for Federation had 
its origin in the visit of a distinguished Imperial officer. Sir Bevan 
Edwards. In his able report he insisted that the organisation of a 
common system of defence could only be accomplished by a federa- 
tion of the military forces of Australia under the supreme command 
of an officer of adequate rank. On receiving his report, the late Sir 
Henry Parkes sounded the note of Federation, and addressed a 
formal invitation to the Premiers of the six Colonies. This invita- 
tion was followed by the Conferences which have since been held, 
twice in Sydney, twice in Melbourne, and once in Adelaide. It may 
be claimed that Federation is approved by the best men and the 
highest in Australia^ by the leaders in poUtics, the leaders in 
enterprise and commerce, and by the ablest journalists. It has 
not roused popular interest in the same degree. Questions of 
tariff, regulations affecting labour, and other cognate subjects 
monopolise attention in the democratic constituencies of AustraHa. 
They will see the advantages of Federation more clearly in ihe 
course of time. Two great practical advantages should certainly 

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290 Becent Social and Political Progress in Victoria. 

be secured by Federation. Union for defence is most desirable, 
and there are no difficulties in the way. A Customs Union of the 
Australian Colonies is equally desirable, but more difficult. In 
New South Wales a free-trade policy has been adopted ; Victoria 
remains protectionist. Between these antagonistic principles some 
compromise is required. Happily, a great practical experiment is 
actually under trial, under similar conditions as to climate, natural 
resources, and the price and efficiency of labour. It should certainly 
be possible ere long to determine whether Victoria or New South 
Wales has the advantage. If it is found that there are material 
differences, whether in the cost of living, the average rates of wages, 
or the regulation of employment, it will not be difficult to decide 
how far those differences are traceable to fiscal poHcy or to 
other causes. It may perhaps be found that the effects of protec- 
tion on the one hand and free-trade on the other, on the material 
and social condition of the people, are less considerable than some 
have anticipated. If such a view should prevail, it will materially 
help the people concerned to arrive at some compromise which 
may be mutually satisfactory. Under the provisions of the 
Commonwealth BUI a Federal Tariff must be framed within two 

Mnance has been one of the greatest difficulties in the way of 
Federation. Under the scheme as approved at the first meeting of 
the Federal Convention at Sydney, it was proposed to provide the 
Government with a revenue by the surrender of the duties of Cus- 
toms and Excise. The assigned revenues would aggregate nine 
ttiillions sterling, a sum enormously in excess of the Federal expen- 
diture on any reasonable scale ; and all experience shows how hard 
it is to resist the temptation to raise expenditure to the level of 
income. The difficulty has been dealt with by a clause in the 
Commonwealth Bill which limits the expenditiure of the Federal 
Govenmaent to not exceeding a quarter of the revenue. None of 
the States of AustraHa could afford to make the sacrifice which was 
demanded unless it were reHeved of its debt, or unless the surplus 
income were returned after defraying the necessary payments for 
Federal expenditure. On this point a writer in " The Leader " news- 
paper has remarked that the problem to be solved is to distribute 
the surplus in such a way that each State shall receive back the 
amount it contributes, less its proportionate share of Federal cost. 
But the difficulty, in the absence of actual experiment, is to discover 
any safe plan of distribution. No one can foretell the exact results 
of an uniform tariff, or say how it will operate as between onfe 

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Becent SooM andPoUtical Progressiin Vioioria^ ^1 ^ 

Colony and another. The Treasurers of the several Colonies, meet- 
ing as a special committee on finance, devised a scheme which is 
embodied in the Commonwealth Bill. The scheme is compUcated, 
but it has been generally admitted that it is the best that can be 
contrived in the circmnstances. 

In the long discussions which have taken place, many subjects 
were debated at great length which would not excite deep interest 
outside the Federal Convention. Briefly, the Commonwealth Bill 
may be described as giving to Australia a Constitution more liberal 
than any other Constitution in the world. It provides a machinery 
for giving to the popular will the most absolute control over the 
course of legislation. It is a Constitution under which it is incon- 
ceivable that there can be any wrongs which are not easily and 
speedily redressed. 

There is no reason to fear that the Federation of Australia means 
disruption of the Empire. Canada is more loyal since Federation 
than before ; and throughout the proceedings of the AustraUan 
Federation Convention, whenever an opportunity has been afforded, 
the same loyal feeling has been warmly displayed. 

Speaking of my personal action, I may say that I have never 
lost a chance of warmly advocating the broad principle of Federation. 
I have done so with not the less earnestness because I have 
recognised that there are difficulties in framing a complete scheme 
in the initial stage. It would certainly have been easier to proceed 
in a more tentative fashion, commencing with larger powers for the 
present Federal Council, and enabling it to deal at once and effec- 
tively with Federal defence. A scheme so partial and imperfect 
would, however, have excited no interest in Australia. You could 
not have got the best men in the Colonies to meet in convention 
for an object so limited. 

Since I left Victoria, Federation has passed through a further 
stage : it has been the subject of a popular vote. In three out of 
the five Colonies that were represented in the Convention, the 
majorities in favour of Federation were, as we know, considerable. 
In New South Wales the majority was below the minimum number 
of 80,000 votes as fixed under a special enactment of the local 
Parliament. According to the latest advices, renewed efforts are 
being made by Sir George Turner to bring New South Wales into 
the Confederation. 

A few words in conclusion. In their endeavours to form a 
Federal Government for Australia, the staunch advocates of the 
cause have been actuated by no ignoble aims. They have looked 


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293 Beeent Social and PoUHeal Progr6B» in Victoria. '. 

not to the baser considerations of mere selfish advantage, but to 
those loftier conceptions which truly ennoble the Ufe of nations* 
These views have found expression in many stirring utterances by 
idle great statesmen whom Australia has produced. Going back to 
an early stage in the Federal movement, and to a Colony which 
still hesitates to send representatives to a Federal Convention, we 
find the manly and patriotic sentiments of the Australian people 
vigorously and forcibly proclaimed by Sir Thomas Mcllwraith, at 
that time Premier of Queensland. " This," he said, " is no 
question of party politics. We are determined, so far as we can, 
to act side by side ; we are determined to create an United 
Australia ; we are determined ultimately, and I beheve before the 
present generation has passed, to form ourselves into a great nation 
— a nation which I believe will not have its parallel, at any rate 
south of the Equator. It will be a great southern power, a power 
for peace, not a power for war. I look forward to that time with 
perfect certainty, believing that the people of all the Colonies are 
actuated by the same desire." 

Descending to the latest utterances of leading members of the 
last Convention, Mr. Reid thus described the advantages of Federa- 
tion : ** Divided strength, and varying, and sometimes intensely con- 
flicting, purposes, now radiate from five or six centres of political 
thought. Our government and legislation must some day be united, 
and the whole manhood, intellect and power of all the Colonies 
must be crowned by an Act of Union. If there is written in the 
book of destiny one fact clearer and more significantly than any 
other in reference to these southern lands, it is the fact that, sooner 
or later, by one sort of contrivance or other, the whole of the 
boundaries which separate Australian from Australian must come 

I cannot close without paying my tribute of admiration to the 
statesmen who have undertaken the far from easy task of federating 
AustraUa. I have seen them at their work, I have heard them in 
debate, I have conferred with them in the confidences of private 
life, and I desire to bear my testimony to their parliamentary 
ability, their power in debate, their skill in administration, to the 
wealth and fulness of their information, and their patriotic aspira- 
tions. The men who have sat in the Federal Convention of Aus- 
tralia are statesmen of whom any country might well be proud. 
They are, in a true sense, pillars of the British Empire. It re- 
dounds to the glory of the local legislatures of Australia that such 
men have been reared up for the great task upon which they have 

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Recent So&ial and PoUPioal Progress m Victoria. 298 

.been engaged, and which, I am confident, they wiU bring, sooner or 
later^ to completeness, for the lasting advantage of the Australian 

TheCHAiBMAN : Mr. Herbert Jones, a Fellow of this Institute, will 
now rapidly describe some lantern-slides which he has been kind 
enough to lend. He has an intimate acquaintance with many of 
our Colonies, including Victoria, and is devoting himself to the dis- 
semination of information concerning them. 


,. Hon. J, A. CocKBURN, M.D. Lond. (Agent-General for South 
Australia) : I thank the Council of the Institute for giving me this 
early opportunity after my arrival of attending one of their highly 
interesting gatherings, though I did not expect to have the honour of 
occupying so prominent a position this evening. I happened to be 
in the adjoining Colony of South Australia when His Excellency 
arrived in his magnificent yacht ; the Sunbeam was already familiar 
to our southern seas, and with its distinguished owners was always 
most cordially welcome. In fact, I think I may claim the honour of 
being the first of Australians to meet his Excellency and Lady 
Brassey when they reached our shores, having been told oflf by the 
Government for the purpose of bidding them welcome, as far as our 
Colony was concerned. Thus I know all about the circumstances 
of their arrival, and I would beg to say that in his most interesting 
and instructive paper Lord Brassey has done himself some injustice. 
The huge crowds which assembled at Melbourne came not only to 
welcome him as Governor, but also to do honour to Lord Brassey 
himself. He had been a visitor to Australia before, and was well- 
known not only as a man of rank and influence, but as one who took 
an intelligent interest in AustraUan problems, and who was recog- 
nised all over the world as an authority on such questions as those 
of naval defence — questions specially interesting to Australia, as 
relating to the high seas, which constitute, so to speak, the main 
street of Great Britain. If Lord Brassey was popular even before 
his arrival, his popularity then was nothing to what it is now. No 
Australian Governor has ever more closely identified himself with 
the life of the people, or has shown a more sympathetic interest in ques- 
tions that intimately touch their welfare and happiness. I myself, 
not three months ago, was in Victoria attending the late Federal 
Convention, and I witnessed the sort of work Lord Brassey did, the 
jnde&tigable spirit with which he associated himself yriHx the life 

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294 Becent Social <md Political Progress in Victoria. 

(A the Oolony • Lord Brassey touched on the questioii of Federation. 
Of oourse we are all deeply disappointed with the result of the poll, 
but there is no cause for despair nor even for despondency. The 
Australians have one characteristic, which they inherit from the 
glorious race to which they belong. The lion's cubs have not only 
the lion's claws but also some of the old lion's determination, and 
one of the characteristics of Australians is that when they set their 
mind on an object they always find a means of carrying that object 
into effect. Australia has made up its mind on the question of 
Federation. Public opinion is constantly becoming more and more 
firmly set in that direction, and it will not be long before our hopes 
are realised. As evidence of the continually widening sphere of in- 
terest which has attended the question of Federation, I may be per- 
mitted to allude to the manner in which the various Conferences in 
late years (all of which I have had the honour to attend as a repre- 
sentative of South Australia) have been appointed or elected. In 

1890 the representatives were nominated by the Executive of the 
various Colonies — a distinguished but not widely extended base. In 

1891 they were elected by the various Legislatures — a wider base, 
indeed, but very limited, when compared to that of the late Conven- 
tion, the members of which were elected in almost all the Colonies 
by a popular vote, and in South Australia by the adult vote of men 
and women equally joined in the ballot box. This shows the con- 
stantly extending basis of interest attending the solution of the 
Federal problem, and I say advisedly that Australia has made up 
its mind in this matter. It will not be very long, I believe, before 
a practical scheme is evolved, and, even if this should fall short of 
the highest anticipation as far as completeness of constitution is 
concerned, still some scheme will be evolved which wiQ be practic- 
able to begin with, and which the formative genius characteristic of 
Britons will render more and more efiScient in its working. Thus 
we have nothing to fear in this respect. We are disappointed, but 
only, I am persuaded, for a short space of time, and " the winter of 
our discontent " will before long pass into a glorious summer of 

Mr. H. DB E. Walkbb : Though I have spent only a year in 
Australasia it was one of the happiest of my life, and I am, there- 
fore, very glad to be able to express to an audience, many of whom 
are Australasians, my appreciation of the very great kindness and 
hospitality shown to me. I can emphatically corroborate what 
Lord Brassey has said, that there are no kinder hearts anywhere 
in the world. Lord Brassey faafii referred to some of the matters in 

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Becent Social ait4 Political Progress in Victoria, 295 . 

wliich we may attempt to increase the feeling of. kinship between 
Australia and Great Britain. It would be a most desirable thing 
if arrangements could be made for an interchange of troops between 
England and Australia, and for them to serve not only in both 
countries, but at the Cape and in India. Australia is a long way 
from Great Britain, and isolated from the rest of the world, and we 
^ should do all we possibly can to maintain the interest of Australians 
in the Empire. It is easy enough for those who can afford to travel 
to understand the magnitude of the issues at stake, but the mass 
of people cannot be expected to reaHse them, and every Australasian 
who had served in the Army or Navy would, upon his return, im- 
pregnate his countrymen with ideas of a wider citizenship. Re- 
ferring to the question of defence. Lord Brassey has asked whether 
the co-operation of the Australian States can most effectually be 
offered in its present form. I was in Australia entirely unofficially, 
and may, by mixing with all sections of the population, have 
tapped sources of information which do not reach the official ear. 
As a result of these communications, I give it as my opinion that, 
while Australians are most anxious to do all they possibly can to 
join in the defence of the Empire, many of them disHke, and see 
danger in, the "taxation without representation *' involved in the 
present form of contribution. We have been delighted to receive 
spontaneous offerings recently from the Cape and from Natal. I 
believe Australians would be glad to do something of that sort, and 
that many of them would be prepared to spend much more than at 
present, if the matter were under their own control. They might 
provide coal for British ships, or establish such Australian forces as 
would be able to defend naval bases like King George's Sound and 
Thursday Island adequately in times of war. With regard to 
Federation, I am delighted to see that Lord Brassey has mentioned 
the case of Canada and its increased loyalty to Great Britain since 
the Federation. 1 feel very strongly that the same result would be 
certain to follow in Australia. We should see at once growing up 
a national sentiment, a feeling of pride in Australia as a nation, 
and we should find AustraHans more convinced of the importance 
of defending the whole territory against any possible invader. I 
am sure we were all sorry to see the temporary set-back that has 
been given to the movement. I have no time to say anything on 
this question except that the proposals are of an extremely liberal 
and democratic character, and that the men who framed the 
"Commonwealth" Bill have shown evidence of great statesman- 
ship. It is of interest to note that the Federal Government is to 

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296 Becmt Social and Political Progress in Victoria. 

be authorised to legislate in regard to oonoiliation in industrial 
disputes and old age pensions, an exemplification of one of the 
dominant notes of Australian character — the strong feeling of 
humanity and hatred of suffering that can in any way be obviated. 
In conclusion, I would offer our best wishes for a speedy Federation 
to our kinsfolk across the seas. 

Sir John Colomb, K.C.M.G., M.P. : I am sure we must all agree 
that we have had a most instructive and agreeable evening. We 
rejoice to see Lord Brassey back again, if only for a time, and we 
know that in no place is he more welcome, although he is welcome 
everywhere, than within the walls of this Institute. I would first 
of all like to ask Lord Brassey a question, because I am a little bit 
puzzled by a statement coming from him with all the weight of his 
authority. He spoke of the Australian agreement as to the fleet 
having been recently renewed. I would like to ask whether that is 
really so. It is not more than six weeks since the President of the 
Defence Committee of the Cabinet (the Duke of Devonshire) stated 
publicly that negotiations were going on for the renewal of that 
Agreement. If Lord Brassey*s statement is correct, therefore, this 
renewal has been effected within the last few weeks. From 
correspondence I have had I am under the distinct impression that 
South Australia has not yet undertaken to renew the Agreement at 
all, and I understand the Agreement must embrace the whole of 
the Colonies. If it be true that South Australia is holding back, I 
cannot quite reconcile that fact with Lord Brassey's statement, and 
perhaps he will enlighten us on the point. I observe, he states, 
with all the weight of his authority, that it is a question whether 
that Agreement is the best form of Australian co-operation for 
defence. I think, myself, it is certainly not the best form. It is a 
delusion to Australia, I think, and instead of being a help to the 
naval forces of the Empire it is a detriment. Lord Brassey refers 
to the Australian cavalry, and with his remarks concerning the 
excellent qualities of that corps, anybody who knows anything about 
them will entirely agree, but he seems to think that in the applica- 
tion of such a force to the general defence of the Empire there are 
no difficulties or very few difficulties in the way. I am happy to 
say, and indeed I know that this among other suggestions is now 
before the authorities in this country, but I think that before any 
authority can approach in a practical way the utilisation of the 
forces in the Colonies for Imperial purposes, the Colonies have a 
preliminary duty. This duty, in the case of Australia, is to release 
by law these troops from purely local service and render them 

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Becent Social and Political Progress n Victoria. 297 

available for the general service of the Empire. I cannot see the 
use of the authorities discussing what shall be done to utilise this 
force, however excellent, for the general defence of the Empire so 
long as Australia ties them up by legal enactment and does not 
permit them to leave their shores. That is an extremely important 
matter. Lord Brassey mentions twenty-five millions sterling as the 
outlay of the United Kingdom upon the Navy. That Navy is for 
the defence of the whole Empire, including Australasia. Lord 
Brassey gives no figures showing what Australia contributes, but 
he rightly says it is a mere drop in the ocean. The contribution of 
the people of Australasia in the aggregate to the support of the 
fleet upon which the whole Empire relies for protection and 
security, as compared with that of the population of the United 
Kingdom, is about as one to 115, while at the same time the 
aggregate revenue of Australasia is between three and four millions 
more than one-quarter of the total revenue of the United Kingdom. 
Now we cannot look round the world and see what is going on 
without asking ourselves, Can we possibly be successful when the 
struggle comes if, while other nations are able to draw upon the 
whole resources of their Empires, our Empire can draw only upon 
the resources of two islands in the north-west sea ? We have seen 
upon the screen some very beautiful photographs, and have had an 
excellent and very amusing description of them. We have seen 
town after town and street after street of magnificent buildings. 
Melbourne itself has been described as a city of palaces. I would 
have liked to see side by side with these photographs some pictures of 
the East End and South of London, where the population is much 
denser, and then I would have liked just to bring home this fact — 
that while Victoria (which is only a portion of Australia), with all 
its cities and palaces, and abounding evidences of wealth, contributes 
practically nothing at all to the general defences of the Empire, the 
people in the south and east of London (every man, woman, and 
child, practically) has to contribute to the fund that is to provide for 
the security of the Empire, and for the protection of the trade and 
commerce of this great Colony of Victoria. These are not pleasant 
facts to have to say on such an occasion, but somebody must say them, 
and I make no excuse for offering them for your consideration. 

Sir Fbedbbick Young, K.C.M.G. : It has been my privilege and 
pleasure during the last week to listen to two papers on the subject 
of Victoria firom His Excellency Lord Brassey. This day week in the 
city we had a most instructive paper on the commercial progress of 
the Colony, and to-night we have had an equally instructive paper 

Digitized by 


298 Becent Social and Political Progress inj^ctoria, 

on its recent social and political progress, and I think we may con- 
gratulate ourselves on having obtained so much valuable informa- 
tion from so authoritative a source. I do not propose to follow my 
triend Sir John Colomb in the somewhat scolding tone which he 
has adopted. No doubt, as Lord Brassey has pointed out, the con- 
tribution from Australia as compared with that of the United 
Kingdom is a mere drop in the ocean, but I regard that contribution 
as the acknowledgment of a principle, and from that point of view 
a matter of great significance. I rather prefer to dwell on the 
principle, believing that by and by we shall, by degrees no doubt, be 
able to prevail on our Colonial brethren to take some further step in 
the desired direction. I pass on to the interesting instances which 
have been given of the progress which is being made in our 
Australian Colonies under the leadership of the high-minded men 
at their head, and I wish particularly to emphasise my own 
particular sympathy with the latter part of Lord Brassey's paper, 
in which he refers to the great subject of Federation. To all 
those who, like myself, have for many long years taken a deep 
interest in the Federation of the Empire generally, everything 
that makes towards that end cannot but be regarded with the 
greatest possible sympathy, and I heartily endorse the opinion of 
those who, like the first speaker, say that it is only a question of 
time. When we consider what has been done by different confer- 
ences held on the subject since the movement was initiated, I think 
we must admit that but a short time comparatively must elapse 
before the Federation so ardently desired by so many of us will be 
happily accomplished. 

The Chairman (General Sm Henry W. Norman, G.C.B., 
G.C.M.G., CLE.) : We have had an excellent address from Lord 
Brassey, and we have had some admirable views of places in Victoria 
lucidly explained to us by Mr. Herbert Jones. The discussion also 
has been a most interesting one. The only complaint I have to 
make is that Lord Brassey's account of Victoria might have been a 
little longer, and we should have enjoyed all we could hear from 
him on the subject. The Colony, of which he is the worthy 
Governor, has in the last few years suffered greatly, but we are 
happy to learn from him and from other sources that the period of 
depression has passed away, and that very soon there will be an 
amount of prosperity in Melbourne which will more accord with the 
magnificent buildings in that city which, during the last three or 
four years, have been rather in excess of the wants of the people. 
As to the loyalty of the people, I most heartily agree with what Lord, 

Digitized by 


Becent Social and Political Progress in Victoria. 299 

Brassey said. I am sure no one can be a Governor in Australia for 
a number of years, as I have been, without feeling that the people 
are thoroughly loyal to the Crown. The cordiality with which one 
is received, even in the most remote and rougher parts of the 
Colonies, is most gratifying. With regard to the troops, I do not 
think a word has been said about them by Lord Brassey more than 
they deserve. They are a splendid body of men, and you may be 
quite certain that whatever difficulties may present themselves at 
the present moment there will be no great war in the future in which 
England is engaged in which the Australians will not take their 
fall share. As for employing them in England in time of peace, I 
do not myself think that that is possible. I am not at all certain 
that it would be desirable. You must remember that these men 
are not permanent soldiers, but people in business and in professions, 
who have to earn their living, and that they give their time and 
energy for a certain number of days in the year in order to perfect 
themselves in military matters. They are accustomed to receive 
very considerable pay, the private soldier in Queensland, for example, 
receiving as much as six shillings a day, whereas our own soldiers 
go all over the world for a shilling a day. In time of war that 
difficulty would disappear no doubt. With regard to the Naval con- 
tribution, I do not know what Lord Brassey will say. I was not aware 
that the Agreement had- been renewed, and I trust myself that it 
will be renewed in rather a different way. I would very much like 
to see a good lump sum given by the Australian Colonies or by the 
combined Colonies after Federation as their contribution to the 
general expenses of the Navy, and I would throw on the Admiralty 
and the British Government the responsibility of defending as far 
as the Navy is concerned the whole possessions of the Empire. 
Lord Brassey has made some important remarks on the subject of 
Federation — a movement which for the present seems to have been 
somewhat arrested. I don't think we ought to leave out of sight 
the foct, that in the year 1886 there was a very honest and sincere 
attempt to make a beginning in this matter by the establishment of 
the Federal Council. It is certain in my opinion, and I beheve it is 
the opinion of many statesmen in Australia, that if the Colonies had 
heartily entered into that effort, that Council would have been en- 
larged and would have developed into a great representative body, 
by which many of the questions which still remain unsettled in 
Australia might have been settled years ago. We look forward 
with interest to the course which will be taken in consequence of 
what has happened in the parent Colony of New South Wales. I 

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800 Becmt Social cmd PoUtical Progress in Victoria. 

am sure you will join with me in giving a hearty vote of thanks to 
Lord Brassey for his address^ and that you will wish him and Lady 
Brassey success and happiness during the remainder of their term 
in Australia. 

Lord Brassey : It now only remains for me to tender to you my 
grateful thanks for the vote which has just been carried by acclama- 
tion. I appreciate it very much, and accept it as a most adequate 
reward for any trouble that I may have taken to prepare my short 
address. At this late hour I must not be drawn into debate, 
interesting as it might be to ourselves, with my old friend Sir John 
Colomb. He has asked me a question, and I will endeavour to give 
him an answer. I believe that at the meeting of the Premiers with 
Mr. Chamberlain, on the occasion of the Jubilee last year, a general 
understanding was arrived at in favour of the renewal of the present 
Australian Agreement. There is, however, I believe, one member of 
the group of Austrahan Colonies which is standing out from the 
Agreement, South Australia, and I am told by Dr. Cockburn that 
the reason why they have not agreed to join with the other Colonies 
is because they think there is some other way by which the mutual 
assistance can best be rendered. That, I believe, is practically the 
present state of the case. Sir John Colomb, with his never failing 
power of speech, has reminded this audience of the insufficiency, as 
he thinks, of the Australian contribution to the cost of common de- 
fence. As I have said, I must not enter into any controversy on the 
subject now, but I may remind you that in one most substantial way 
the people of Australia are making a considerable contribution to 
the cost of common defence. They are indebted to the Mother 
Country to the extent of £300,000,000, and upon that sum they pay 
a considerable rate of interest. That obligation is a considerable 
load for a people of some four millions to carry upon their shoulders. 
Australia is still in an early stage of development, and the burden 
of money borrowed from the Mother Country rests, as I have said, 
heavily upon her. In due course, no doubt, that debt will be dis- 
charged, and when that time arrives I do not doubt that in som^ 
form or other Australia will do its best to co-operate with the 
people of the Mother Country for common defence. Only one more 
duty remains to me, and that is to propose a hearty vote of thanks to 
Sir Henry Norman for his kindness in presiding over our proceed- 

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The Twenty- fifth Annual Conversazione was held at the Natural 
History Museuni,by permission of theTrustees of the British Museum, 
on Wednesday, June 29, 1898, and was attended by over 2,000 
guests. The String Band of the Royal Artillery, conducted by 
Cavaliere L. Zavertal, performed in the Central Hall, and the String 
jpand of the Royal Marines (Chatham Division), conducted by Mr. J. 
Wright, performed in the Bird Gallery. Refreshments were served 
in various parts of the building, which was decorated with choice 
flowers and palms and the flags of the various Colonies. The guests 
were received by the following Vice-Presidents and Councillors : — 

Vice-Presidents : Lord Brassey, K.C.B., Sir Henry Barkly, 
G.O.M.G., K.C.B., Sir Henry Bulwer, G.C.M.G., Sir Robert G. W. 
Herbert, G.C.B., Sir James A. Youl, K.C.M.G., Sir Frederick Young, 
K.C.M.G. Councillors : Mr. Allan Campbell, Mr. F. H. Dangar, 
Mr. Fred. Button, Lieut.-General Sir J. Bevan Edwards, K.C.M.G., 
C.B., M.P., Sir James F. Garrick, K.C.M.G., Major-General Sir 
Henry Green, K.C.S.I., C.B., Sir Arthur Hodgson, K.C.M.G., Mr. 
Henry J. Jourdain, C.M.G., Mr. G. S. Mackenzie, C.B., Mr. S. 
Vaughan Morgan, Sir Montagu F. Ommaney, K.C.M.G., Sir Saul 
Samuel, Bart., K.C.M.G., C.B., Sir Charles E. F. StirUng, Bart., 
and Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal, G.C.M.G. 

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The following correspondence with the Bight Hon. the Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer is published by direction of the Council, for 
general information : — 

Boyal Colonial Institate, 
Northumberland Avenne, London, 
28th June, 1898. 

Double Income Tax. 

With further reference to the Memorial presented by this Institute 
on the subject of Double Income Tax on the 16th April, 1896, and 
your reply thereto of the 27th May, 1896, 1 am desired by the Council 
to say that they have since continued to observe with satisfaction the 
gradual development of public interest in this question, as well as 
the attention and consideration which it has received from Her 
Majesty's Government. 

In this connection they have specially noted the important fact 
that in the Colony of Victoria this question was recently the sub- 
ject of discussion at Melbourne between a Deputation of Financiers 
and the Premier of that Colony, Sir George Turner, and also in the 
House of Commons on a Budget amendment moved by Sir George 
Baden-Powell, M.P., on the 13th June, 1898. 

I am instructed to say that the Council see no reason to alter 
their views on this question, as expressed in their said Memorial, 
although they recognise that the amendment of the law which they 
advocate is subject to difficulties, some of which are forcibly dealt 
with in your communication of the 27th May, 1896. They trust, how- 
ever, that the question will continue to engage the attention of Her 
Majesty's Government, and that in due course any difficulties may 
be removed and a satisfactory remedy found for the inconvenience 
and hardship resulting from this double form of taxation. 

Digitized by 


Appendiic. 808 

With this object they venture to suggest for your consideration 
whether the time has not arrived when Her Majesty's Government 
might communicate with the various Colonial Governments in 
order to ascertain their views on this question, and especially also 
to obtain from them statistical information as to the extent to 
which the fact of Double Income Tax being payable is causing or 
is likely to cause capital to be withdrawn from their respective 

The Council feel that the possibility of such withdrawal of capital 
and the effect thereof have perhaps not hitherto been sufficiently 
recognised by Her Majesty's Government. 

In your letter of the 27th May, 1896, the question is dealt with as if 
it were one solely affecting the Colonial Governments, or persons who 
had previously resided in the Colonies. The Council do not regard 
this question in such a restricted sense, as it must not be overlooked 
that investments representing a very large amount of capital have 
for many years past been made in the Colonies by persons resident 
in the United Kingdom who have never resided in a Colony, and 
who, apart from such investments, and possible business transactions 
resulting therefrom, have no other direct connection with the 

It is this class of investors who are likely to withdraw their 
capital, because the deduction of a Double Income Tax is calculated 
to render the employment of capital in this way not sufficiently 
remunerative to justify the risk of investment so far away from the 
owner's own control. 

Such withdrawal of capital, while undoubtedly detrimental to 
the interests of the Colonies themselves, cannot fail, in the opinion 
of the Council, also to have a direct detrimental effect on the 
Imperial revenue, as the volume of trade between the Mother 
Country and the Colonies may thereby be reduced, and thus lead 
to a diminution of Income receipts in this country from Income 
Tax and other sources. 

On the other hand, if the removal of such Double Income Tax 
were likely to result in a stimulation of such investments, and of 
trade, the apparent loss of revenue in the first instance, which is 
referred to in your letter of the 27th May, 1896, and again in your 
recent speech in Parliament, might be more than compensated 
for by additions to the revenue receipts in other ways. 

The Council, therefore, will be glad to hear that this important 
question will not be lost sight of by Her Majesty's Government, 

Digitized by 


804 Appendix. 

and they hope that the amendment of the Income Tax law which 
they advocate may soon be effected. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 
J. S. O'Halloran, Secretary. 
The Bight Honourable 
Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, Bart, M.P., 
Chancellor of the Exchequer. 


Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
Treasury Chambers, Whitehall, S. W. : 

June 30th, 1898. 

Sir, — I am desired by the Chancellor of the Exchequer to 
acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 28th instant on behalf 
of the Council of the Royal Colonial Institute with reference to the 
question of a Double Income Tax, and I am to say that he has 
nothing to add to the views expressed in his letter of the 27th of May, 
1896, and in his reply to Sir George Baden-Powell's motion on the ' 
18th of June last. 

I am, Sir, Your obedient servant, 

W. A. Mount, 
The Secretary, Eoyal Colonial Institute, 
Northumberland Avenue. 

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Jtr Pajfstp |l0pl Charter oi ^nmi^mixm, 

DATED 26th SEPTEMBEB, 1882. 

dXtCtOtia^ by the Grace of God, of the United King* 
dom of Great Britain and Ireland, Queen Defender of the 
Faith, Empress of India, ^o all tO toljom these Presents 
shall come Greeting. 

W^tttSi^ His Royal Highness Albebt Edwabd, 
Pbince of Wales, K.G., and His Gkace the Duke of 
Manchester, K.P., have by their Petition humbly 
represented to Us that they are respectively the Presi- 
dent and Chairman of the Council of a Society esta- 
blished in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-eight, and called by Our Royal Authority the 

Digitized by 


806 Boyal Colonial Institute. 

Royal Colonial Institute, the objects of which Society 
are in various ways, and in particular by means of a 
place of Meeting, Library and Museum, and by reading 
papers, holding discussions, and undertaking scientific 
and other inquiries, as in the said Petition mentioned, 
to promote the increase and diflfusion of knowledge 
respecting as well Our Colonies, Dependencies and 
Possessions, as Our Indian Empire, and the preservation 
of a permanent union between the Mother Country and 
the various parts of the British Empire, and that it 
would enable the said objects to be more effectually 
attained, and would be for the public advantage if We 
granted to His Royal Highness Albert Edward, 
Prince of Wales, E.G., Willla^m Drogo Montagu, 
Duke of Manchester, K.P., and the other Fellows of 
the said Society, Our Royal Charter of Incorporation. 

5ilnb \Sil^tttQ^ it has been represented to Us that the 
said Society has, since its establishment, sedulously 
pursued the objects for which it was founded by collect- 
ing and diffusing information ; by publishing a Journal 
of Transactions ; by collecting a Library of Works 
relating to the British Colonies, Dependencies and 
Possessions, and to India ; by forming a Museum of 
Colonial and Indian productions and manufactures, 
and by undertaking from time to time scientific, literary, 
statistical, and other inquiries relating to Colonial and 
Indian Matters, and publishing the results thereof. 

I^Oto ftnotD ge that We, being desirous of encourag- 
ing a design so laudable and salutary, of Our especial 

Digitized by 


Charter. 307 

grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, have wiUed, 
granted and declared, and tio by these presents for Us, , 
Our heirs and successors, will, grant and declare in 
manner following, that is to say : — 

1. His Eoyal Highness Albert Edward, Prince 
OF Wales, and His Grace the Duke of Manchester, 
and such other of Our Loving Subjects as now are 
Fellows of the said Society, or shall from time to time 
be duly admitted Fellows thereof, and their successors, 
are hereby constituted, and shall for ever hereafter be by 
virtue of these presents one body politic and corporate 
by the name of the Eoyal Colonial Institute, and for 
the purposes aforesaid, and by the name aforesaid, shall 
have perpetual succession and a Common Seal, with 
full power and authority to alter, vary, break, and renew 
the same at their discretion, and by the same name to 
sue and be sued in every Court of Us, Our heirs and 
successors, and be for ever able and capable in the law 
to purchase, receive, possess, hold and enjoy to them 
and their successors, any goods and chattels whatsoever, 
and to act in all the concerns of the said body politic 
and corporate as effectually for all purposes as any 
other of Our liege subjects, or any other body politic or 
corporate in the United Kingdom, not being under any 
disability, might do in their respective concerns. 

2» €IJC lHopaJ Colonial SfnjStitUte (in this Charter 
hereinafter called the Institute) may, notwithstanding 
the statutes of mortmain, take, purchase, hold and enjoy 
to them and their successors a Hall, or House, and any 


Digitized by 


808 Boyal Colonial Institute. 

such messuages or hereditaments of any tenure as may 
be necessary for carrjdng out the purposes of the 
Institute, but so that the yearly value thereof to be 
computed at the rack rent which might be gotten for the 
same at the time of the purchase or other acquisition, 
and including the site of the said Hall, or House, do 
not exceed in the whole the sum of Ten Thousand 
Pounds. 2llnll Wt bO hereby grant Our especial 
Licence and authority unto all and every person and 
persons, bodies politic and corporate (otherwise com- 
petent), to grant, sell, alien and convey in mortmain 
unto and to the use of the Institute and their successors 
any messuages or hereditaments not exceeding the 
annual value aforesaid. 

3. (^ffCtt shall be a Council of the Institute, and the 
said Council and General Meetings of the Fellows to be 
held in accordance with this Our Charter shall, subject 
to the provisions of this Our Charter, have the entire 
management and direction of the concerns of the 

4. C{)ete shall be a President, Vice-Presidents, a 
Treasurer, and a Secretary of the Institute. The 
Council shall consist of the President, Vice-Presidents, 
and not less than twenty Councillors ; and the Secretary, 
if honorary. 

5. His Koyal Highness Albebt Edward, Prince 
OF Wales, shall be the first President of the Institute, 
and the other persons now being Vice-Presidents and 

Digitized by 


Charter. 809 

Members of the Council of the Institute shall be the 
first Members of the Council, and shall continue such 
until ' an election of Officers is made under these 

6. % General Meeting of the Fellows of the Institute 
shall be held once in every year, or oftener, and may 
be adjourned from time to time, if necessary, for the 
following purposes, or any of them : — 

(a) The election of the President, Vice-Presidents, 
Treasurer, and other Members of the Council. 

(b) The making, repeal, or amendment of rules 
and bye-laws for the Government of the Institute, 
for the regulation of its proceedings, for the 
admission or expulsion of Fellows, for the fixing 
of the number and functions of the Officers of the 
Institute, and for the management of its property 
and business generally. 

(c) The passing of any other necessary or proper 
resolution or regulation concerning the affairs of 
the Institute. 

7. /Cf)e General Meetings and adjourned General 
Meetings of the Institute shall take place (subject to 
the rules of the Institute and to any power of convening 
or demanding a Special General Meeting thereby given) 
at such times as may be fixed by the Council. 

8. C|)e existing rules of the Institute, so far as not 
inconsistent with these presents, shall continue in force 

Digitized by 


810 Boyal Colomal Institute. 

until and except so far as they are altered by any 
Greneral Meeting. 

9. Cfje Council shall have the sole management of 
the income, funds, and property of the Institute, and 
may manage and superintend all other affairs of the 
Institute, and appoint and dismiss at their pleasure all 
salaried and other officers, attendants and servants as 
they may think fit, and may, subject to these presents 
and the rules of the Institute, do all such things as 
shall appear to them necessary and expedient for 
giving effect to the objects of the Institute. 

10. ^||e Council shall once in every year present to 
a General Meeting a report of the proceedings of the 
Institute, together with a statement of the receipts and 
expenditure, and of the financial position of the Institute, 
and every Fellow of the Institute may, at reasonable 
times to be fixed by the Council, examine the accounts 
of the Institute. 

11. Cf)e Council may, with the approval of a General 
Meeting, fi-om time to time appoint fit persons to be 
Trustees of any part of the real or personal property of 
the Institute, and may make or direct any transfer of 
such property necessary for the purposes of the trust, 
or may at their discretion take in the corporate name of 
the Institute Conveyances or Transfers of any property 
capable of being held in that name. Provided that no 
sale, mortgage, incumbrance or other disposition of any 
hereditaments belonging to the Institute shall be made 
unless with the approval of a General Meeting. 

Digitized by 


Charter. 811 

12. 1^0 Jflule, 25pe-Htoto, JHejerolution or other 

proceeding shall be made or had by the Institute, or 
any Meeting thereof, or by the Council, contrary to the 
General Scope or true intent and meaning of this Our 
Charter, or the laws or statutes of Our . Realm, and 
anything done contrary to this present clause shall be 

%Xi H&lXXit^^ whereof We have caused these Our 
Letters to be made Patent. 

WfVCOt^^ Ourself at Our Palace at Westminster, the 
Twenty-sixth of September in the Forty-sixth year of 
Our Reign. 

25p J^er a^jejjtp^jf Commanli* 


Digitized by 


Digitized by ' 




(Those marked * are Honorary Fellows.) 
(Those marked f hare componnded for life.) 


Tear of 

1897 t^-ABABBELTON, EoBBBT, 26 SUvcT Street, E,C, 

1898 Aabons, Lewis, 16 Devonshire Place, W. ; and 21 Gresham House, E.C. 
1891 Abebdbbn, the Bight Hon. the Eabl of, G.C.M.G., Haddo House, 

Aberdeen, N.B. 
1872 Abraham, Augustus B., Reform Club, Pall Mall, 8,W, 
1886 t-^CLAND, Captain William A.D., R.N., The Dockyard, Devonport, and 
Junior United Service Club, Charles Street, S» W, 

1886 f Adam, Sib Chables E., Babt., 3 "New Sqxiare, Lincoln's Inn, W,C., and 

BkUr-Adam, KinrosS'shire, N.B, 

1893 Adams, Geobob, 23 Northuniberland Avenue, W.C. 

1889 Adams, James, 9 Graeechurch Street, E.C 

1874 Addbblet, Sib Augustus J., K.C.M.G., 4 Louro Place, Kensington, W, 

1896 Agab, Edwabd Labpent, 7 Spencer Hill, Wimbledon. 

1887 Agius, Edward T., 101 LeadenhaU Street, EC ; and Malta, 
1879 Aitchison, David, 6 Pembridge Square, Bayswater, W, 

1879 AiTKEN, Alexandeb M,, care of J. Thomson, Esq., 30 Lynedoch Street, 


1895 Axebotd, James B., Chester Court, 4 Heathfield Road, Wandsworth 

Common, S.W, 
1886 Alcock, John, 111 Cambridge Gardens, North Kensington, W, 
1885 fAxDENHOYEN, JosEFH Fbank, St. Dunstan's Buildings, St. Dunstan's 

HiU, E.C. 
1882 Algeb, John, 29 Penywern Road, Earl's Court, S.W., and Oriental Club, 

Hanover Square, W. 
1869 Allen, Chables H., 17 Well Walk, Hampstead, N.W. 

1896 Allen, Richmond R., F.R.C.S.I., 2 West Hill, Bartford. 

1880 t^^*"^* Robebt, Cranford, Kettering. 
1880 Allpobt, W. M., 63 St. James's Street, S.W. 

1893 Alsop, Thomas "W., FalJdrJc Iron Co., 67 Upper Thames Street, E,C. 

1896 Ames, Edwabd, 62 Lee Terrace, Blackheath, S.E, 

1897 Andebson, Andbbw, 60 Lime Street, E.C. 

1876 fANDBBSoN, Edwabd R., care of Messrs, Murray, Roberts ^ Co., Bunedin, 
New Zealand. 

Digitized by 


314 Royai Cohniai Institute. 

Year' of 

1890 Anderson, John Kingdon, 6 Clarence Terraoe, Regent*8 Park, N, W, ; and 

16 8t, Helen's Place, E.C, 

1897 Anderson, Kenneth S.^ 5 Fenchurch Avenue j B.C. 

1891 Anderson, W. Herbert, 17 Kensington Gardens Terrace, W, 

1898 Andrews, Arthur W., M.A., Hawarden Lodge, Eastbourne, 
1894 Andrew, Donald, 16 PhUpotLarte, E.C, 

1887 Andrews, William, M. Inst. C.E., 7 Park Orescent, Tonbridge, Kent. 

1873 Arbuthnot, Colonel G., B.A., 6 Belgrave Place, 8,W,; and CarlUm 

CM, S.TV. 

1894 Arbuthnot, Wm. Kibrson, Plaw Hatch, East Grinstead. 

1881 Archer, Thomas, C.M.Gr., Woodlands, Lawrie Park, Sydenham, 8.E, 
1868 Argyll, His Grace the Duke of, KG., KT., Argyll Lodge, Cafnpden 

Hill, Kensington, W. ; and Inveraray Castle, Argyleshire, 
1883 f Armitage, James Eobbrtson. 
1891 Armstrong, W. C. Hbaton-, 93 Bishopsgaie Street, E,C, 

1888 Armttage, George F., 33 Campden House Road, Kensington, W, 

1888 t-^^^^^^TAGB, Oscar Ferdinand, M.A., 59 Queen's Gate, 8,W, ; and 
New University Club, St, James's Street, 8, W. 

1889 Arnott, David T., 29 Linden Gardens, Bayswaier, W, 
1891 Ashby, Captain William, 1 Church Walk, Oxford, 

1895 t-A^HCROFT, Edgar A., A.M.I.E.R, care of Messrs, A, GUbbs 4 Sons, 35 
Bishopsgaie Street, E.C, 

1874 Ashley, Right Hon. Etelyn, Broadlands, Romsey, Hants, 

1891 t Ashman, Eev. J. Williams, M.A., M.D., National aub, Whitehall 
Gardens, S.W, 

1896 AsHTON, Balfh S., B.A., 10 Lansdown Road, Lee, 8,E, 

1879 AsHWOOD, John, care of Messrs, Cox ^ Co., 16 Charing Cross, 8,W, 

1898 AspiNALL, Algernon E. ; 25 Jermyn Street, 8,W, ; and West India 

Committee, Billiter Sqtiare Buildings, E,0, 

1889 AsTLE, W. G. Devon, 61 Old Broad Street, EC. 

1888 t-A^TLEFORD, Joseph, National Liberal Club, Whitehall Place, 8, W. 

1874 f Atkinson, Charles E., Algoa Lodge, Brackley Road, Beckenham, Kent, 

1892 Attenborough, Mark, Inglcton, Beulah Hill, Upper Norwood, S.E, 
1879 Attlee, Henry, 10 BUlUer Square, EC, 

1885 Aubbrtin, John James, 33 Duke Street, St, Jame^s, 8,W, 
1896 AvA, The Earl of, 22 Ryd&r Street, S.W, 




Backhouse, Eichard Onians, 11 East Parade, Llandudno, 
Badcock, Philip, 4 Aldridge Road VUlas, Bayswater, W, 
Baden-Powell, Sir George S., K.C.M.G., M.P., M.A., F.R.A.S., F.S.S., 

114 Eaton Square, S,W, 
Bailey, Frank, 59 Mark Lane, EC, 

Bailue, James R., 1 Akenside Road, Fitzjohn's Avenue, N W. 
jBailward, a. W,, Horsington Manor, Winoanton,Somer8et, 
Baker, Albert Pomeroy, The Lymes, Seymour' Grove, Manchester, 
Baker, John Holland, 45 Kensington Mansions, EarVs C&wrt, S.W. 
Baker, Major D'Arcy, care of National Provincial Bank of England, 

185 Aldersgate Street, E.C, 
tBALDwiN, Alfred, M.P., St. Ermin's Mansions, Victoria Street, 8. W, / 

and Wilden House, near Stourport 

Digitized by V^rOOQ IC 

Tear of 












Besident Fellows, 315 

Balfoub, B. B., TownUy HaU, Drogheda, Ireland ; and Junior Athenaum 

Club, Fiocadilly, W. 
Balhb, Charles, 61 Basinghall Street y E»C, 
tBANKs, Edwin Hodge, High Moor, Wigton, Cumberland, 
Bannebman, Gr. Leslie, 3 Pump Court, Temple, E,C. 
Babbeb, Alfaed J., CasUemere, Homseg Lane, N, ; and Midland Railway 

Company of Western Australia, 14 Queen Viotoria 8creel, E»C, 
Baebeb, Lxjdwio G-., 2 Drapers* Gardens, E.C. 
Barclay, Hugh Gurney, Colney Hall, Norwich. 
Barclay, John, Junior Constitutional Club, Piccadilly, W, 
fBARiNG-GrouLD, F., Merrow Grange, Gruildford, 
Barker, William Henry, 8 Finch Lane, E.C, 
Barexy, Sir Henry, G.C.M.G., K.G.B., 1 Bina Gardens, South Kensing' 

Barnard, H. Wyndham, 2 Terrace Houses, Biohmond Hill, 8. W, 
Barnett, Bichard Whibldon, M.A., B.C.L., 1 Sare Court, Temple, E,C. 
Barb, E. G., 76 Holland Park, Kensington, W, 
Barratt, Walter. 

Babron, Thohas M., Church Bow, DarUngton, 
Barry, James EL, Byecotes, Dulwich Common, 8,E,; and 110 Cannon 

Street, E.C, 
Barsdorf, August, 32 Pembridge Square, Bayswater, W. 
Batley, Sidney T., 16 Great George Street, 8.W.; and St. Stephen's Club, 

Westminster, S. W. 
Baxter, Alexander B., Australian Joint Stock Bank, 2 King William 

Street, E.C, 
Baxter, Charles E., 15 Blomfield Boad, Maida HUl, W, 
Bayldon, E. H., J.P., Oaklands, Bawlish, Devon. 
Bayliss, Thomas A., J.P., Thirlmere, Wheeleys Boad, Edgbaston, Bir^ 

Bayneb, Donald, M.D., 43 Hertford Street, W, 
fBAZLEY, Gardner Sbbastl^n, Hatherop Castle, Fairford, Gloucester' 

Bealey, Adam, M.D.,2^Mam Lodge, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 
Bealey, Samuel, 55 Belsize Park Gardens, N.W, 
Bears, Samuel Prater, The Oaks, Thorpe, Norwich, 
Bbare, Prof. T. Hudson, B.Sc, Park House, King's Boad, Biohmond, 

Bbattie, John A. Bell, 4 St. Andrew's Place, Begenfs Pa/rk, N. W. 
Beattie, Wm. Copland, Pittodrie House, Pitcaple, Aberdeenshire, N.B. 
Beauchamp, Henry Herron, 91 Addison Boad, W. 
Beaumont, John, cjo New Zealand Loan ^ Agency Co., Portland House, 

73 Basinghall Street, E.C. 
Beck, A. Cecil T., 32 Queensborough Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 
Beckett, Thomas, 16 Eccleston Square, S.W. 

Bedwbll, Commander E. P., E.N., 20 Upper Westboume Terrace, W, 
Beeton, Henry C, 2 Adamson Boad, South Hampstead, N.W. ; and 

33 Finsbury Circus, E.C. 
Bbgo, F. Faithpull, M.P., Bartholomew House, E,C, 
f Bell, D. W., J.P., 77 Holland Park, W. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Year of 

















Boyal Colonial Institvie. 

BblLj John, 13 Fenchurch Avenue^ E.C, 

Bell, Mackenzie, F.E.S.L., Elmstead, 33 Carlton Boadt Putney, 8^W, 

Bell, Thomas, 47 Belsize Avenue, N. W, 

Bell, Majob William Moeeison, Hann, Birchington, Kent, 

Bennett, Jambs M., 1 Northumberland Avenue, Putney, 8. W, 

fBBNSON, Akthtjb H., 62 Ludgate Hill, E.C, 

Benson, Colonel F. W., A.A.G-., Dover, 

Berbsfobd, Eeab-Admibal Lobd Chables, G.B., M.P., 2 Lower 
Berkeley Street, W, 

Bbbnstein, Leon J., 101 Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park, W, 

Bbbbill, W. J., Messrs, Gordon Jt Gotch, 16 8t, Bride Street, E.C. 

IBbbtband, Wm. Wickham, care of Falkland Islands Company, 61 Graoe- 
church Street, E.C. 

•fBETHELL, Chaeles, Ellesmcre House, Templeton Place, EarVs Court, 8. W. ; 
and 22 Billiter Street, E.C 

Bethell, Commandeb Gr. E., E.N., M.P., 43 Curzon Street, Mayfair, W, ; 
and Bise, Holdemess, Yorkshire. 

Bbyan, Fbancis Augustus, 59 Princes Gate, 8, W, 

Bevan, William Abminb, 60 Harrington Gardens, South Kensington, 8, W, 

Bhumoaba, Jamsitjbe S., 135 London WaU, E,C, 

BiDDiscoMBB, J. E., Elmington, MthamBoad, Lee, S.E.; and 101 Leaden- 
hall Street, E.C. 

fBiLLiNGHUBST, H. F., 35 GranvHU Park, Blaokheaih, 8.E. 

fBiNNiB, Gbobge, 4D Station, Quirindi, New South Wales, 

BiBCH, Sib Abthub N., K.C.M.G., Bank of England, Burlington Gar- 
dens, W. 

BiBCHBNOUGH, Henby, Broomlands, Macclesfield ; and Beform Club, Pall 

BiBT, F. Beckett, The Co])sey Wimbledon. 

Black, Subqeon-Majob Wm. Galt, 2 George Square, Edinburgh, 

Blackwood, Geobgb E., St, James's Club, Piccadilly, W, 

Blackwood, John H., 16 Upper Grosvenor Street, W, 

fBLAGBOvB, Lt.-Colonbl Henby J., Army and Navy Club, Pall Mall, S, W, 

Blake, Abthub P., Sunbury Park, Sunbury-on-TJiames ; and Oriental 
Club, Hanover Square, W. 

Blandfobd, Joseph J. Gt., B.A., M.E.C.S.E., Banstead Asylum, Sutton. 

Bleckly, Ohables Abnold, 61 King William Street, E.C. 

Bligh, The^Hon. Ivo, Glemham House, Saxmundham, 

Bligh, William Gt., M. Inst. C.E., 68 Clapham Boad, Bedford, 

Blofeld, Fbank, 13 Cornwall Terrace, Begenfs Park, N,W. 

BoHM, WiLLtiM, 23 Old Jewry, E,C. 

Bois, Henby, 5 Astwood Boad, South Kensington, 8. W. 

BoLLiNG, Fbancis, 2 Laurence Pountney Hill, E.C, 

Bolton, John, 15 Clifton Boad, Crouch End, N, 

BoMPAS, His Honoub Judge Henby Mason, Q.C, Fairfield, Leeds, 

Bond, Fbank Waltebs, 117 Leadenhall Street, E.C, 

Bond, Fbedebick William, 15 Dorset Square, N. W, 

BoNwiCK, James, Yarra Yarra, South Vale, Upper Norwood, S.E 

Bookeb, Geobge W., Avonrath, Magherafelt, Ireland. 

Digitized by 


Besident FetlowB, 













Boo&EB, J. 1)awson, care of National Bank of AustrdtasiOt^ 123 BishopS' 

gate Street, E,C, 
tBooTH, Alfred E., Finshury Circus Buildings^ E,C, 
BoBBOW, Rev. Henby J., B.A., The Old Falace, Bekesboume, Canterbury, 
f BoBTON, Rbv. N. a. B., M.A., Burwell Vicarage, Cambridge, 
BosANQUBTy BiCHABD A., Mardens^ HUdenborough, Kent, 
fBosTocK, Hewitt, M.P., House of Commons, Ottawa, Canada, 
fBosTOCK, Samuel, Lainston, near Winchester, 
BoswBLL, W. AxBEBT, WoodvUle, Brentwood, Essex. 
BoxTLT, "Wm. Holkbb, 41 Baldry Gardens, Streatham, S. W, 
fBouLTON, Habold E., M.A., 64 Cannon Street, E,C, 
fBouLTON, S. B., Copped Hall, Totteridge, Herts. 
BouBNB, Henby, Hotbrook, London Road, BedhiU, Surrey, 
BoTTBMB, H, R. Fox, 41 Briory Road, Bedford Bark, Chiswick, 
BouBNE, RoBEBT WiLLiAM, C.E., 18 Hereford Square^ S,W, 
Bowbn, Right Hon. Sib Geobge F., a.C.M.a., 16 Lowndes Street, S,W. 
BowLBY, Edwin, F.S.S., 78 South Hill Park, Hampstead, N,W. 
Boyd, James R., Devonshire Club, St, Jameses Street, S. W, 
Boyd-Gabpenteb, H., M.A., The Palace, Ripon ; Kin^s College, 

Cambridge; and 9 Stafford Street, lAsson Grove, N,W, 
Boyle, Lionel R. C, Army and Navy Clvb, Pall Mall, S, W, 
fBBADBEBBY, Thomas R., Mclfont, Shootup HiU, Cricklewood, N, W, 
Bbadpobd, Fbancis Richabd, c/o County of Gloucester Bank, Swindon, 
Bbamston, Sib John, K.C.M.G., C.B., 14 Berkeley Place, Wimbledon, 
Bbandon, Henby, 4 Kent Gardens^ Castle HiU Park, Ealing, W, 
Bbassey, The Hon. Thomas Allnutt, 23 Park Lane, W, ; and Park 

Gate, Battle, 
Breitmeyeb, Ludwio, 29 & 30 Holbom Viaduct, E,C, 
Bbidges, Captain Walter B., R.N., care of Messrs. Woodhead ^ Co., 

44 Charing Cross, S.W. 
Bbioht, Chables E., G.M.G-., 12 Queen*s Gate Gardens, South Kensington, 

S.W. ; and Wyndham Club, S.W. 
Bright, Samuel, 5 Huskisson Street, Liverpool; and Raleigh Club, Regent 

Street, S.W. 
Briscoe, William Arthur, Somerford Hall, Brewood, Stafford, 
Bristow, H. J., The Mount, Upton, Bexley Heath, Kent. 
Brocklehurst, Edward, J.P., Kinnersley Manor, Reigate. 
Brooke, Major-Gtbnbbal .Edwabd T., 65 Wynnstay Gardens, Ken- 
sington. W. 
fBBOOKES, T. W. (late M.L.C., Bengal), 120 Ash/ey Gardens, S.W. 
f Bbookman, Geobge, Bailey's Hotel, Gloucester Road, S. W. 
Bbookman, William Gobdon, 9 St. Mildred's Court, E.C. 
tBBOoKS, Herbert, 9 Hyde Park Square, W, ; and St, Peter's Chambers, 

Comhill, E.C, 
Brooks, H. Tabor, St, Peter's Chambers, Comhill, E.C, 
Brooks, Sir William Cunliffb, Bart., 5 Grosvenor Square, W, ; and 

Forest of Glen- Tana, Aboyne, N.B. 
Brown, Alexander M., M.D., 21 Bessborough Street, St, George's Square, 

Brown, Alfred H., St, Elmo, Calverley Park Gardens, Tnnbri/fge Wells. 

Digitized by 


318 Boyal Colonial histitute. 

Year of 

1897 Bbown, Cbcil Setmottb, Whites Club, St, Jamess Street, 8,W. 

1896 Bbown, JahbsB., 8 Bolton Gardens, 8,W, 

1886 Bboww, Oswald, M. Inst. C.K, 82 Victoria Street, 8.W. 

1881 Bbown, Thomas, 57 Cochrane Street, Glasgow. 

1884 Bbown, Thomas, 59 Mark Lane, E,C, 

1892 Bbo-wnb, Abthub Scott, Buckland Filleigh, Highampton, North Devon, 

1894 Browns, Edwahd Wm., F.S.S., Colonial Mutual lAfe Assurance Co., 

33 Poultrg, E.C. ; and 91 Philbeach Gardens, S.W, 

1897 Beowne, Habbt, Portwag Lodge, Frome. 

1883 Browkb, John Habbis, Adelaide Club, South Australia, 

1897 Bbownb, Lbnnox, F.E.C.S.E., 15 Mansfield Street, W. 

1888 Bbowning, Abthub Gieaud, Assoc. Inst. C.E., 16 Victoria Street, S.W. 
1877 BBOWNma, S. B., 126 Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Pairh, W, 

1898 Beuce, Keab- Admiral Jambs A. T., United Service Club, Pall Mall, 8, If, 

1895 Beuck-Jot, Albbrt, R.H.A., F.R.Gr.S., 16 Impasse du Maine, Paris; 
Chase Lodge, HaslemerCy and Athenaum Club, 8, W. 

1892 Bbuning, Conbad, 101 Leadenhall Street, E.C. 

1884 Buchanan, Benjamin, Messrs. Goldsbrovgh, Mort, ^ Co., 149 Leadenhall 
Street, E.C. 

1889 Buchanan, Jambs, 5 Stanhope Street, Hyde Park, W. ; and 20 Bucklers^ 
bury, EC. 

1896 Buckland, James, 22 Cavendish Square, W, 

1886 Bull, Hbnbt, 28 MUton Street, E.C; and Drove, Chichester. 
1869 BuLWEB, Sib Hbnbi JE. G., G.C.M.G., 17a South Audley Street^ W,; and 

Athenaum Gub, Pall Mall, S.W. 
1894 BuBKB, AsHWOBTH P., 121 Victoria Street, S.W, 

1890 BuBKE, H. Fabnham, College of Anns, Queen Victoria Street, E,C. 
1890 Bubnib, Alfbed, 12 Holly Village, Highgate, N. 

1897 Burst ALL, John F., 67 Gracechurch Street, E.C. 

1889 BuBT, Frederick N., Sloe House, Halstead, Essex, 

1894 Bushby, Henbt North G., J.P., Ravenscourt, Great Amwell, Ware. 

1887 Butt, John H., 1 Bank Buildings, Lothbury, E.C. 

1890 BuTTERwoRTH, Arthur R., 7 Fig Tree Court, Temple, E.C; and 47 
Campden House Boad, W. 

1894 fBuxTON, Noel E., Brick Lane, E. 

1897 JBuxTON, T. F. Victor, M.A., J.P., Warlies, Waltham Abbey, Essex, 

1898 Byene, J. , 12 New Court, Lincoln's Inn, W,C. 



tCALDECOTT, Rev. Peopebsob Alfbed, B.D., Lopham Bectory, Thetford, 

Calvert, James, 4 Bishopsgate Street, E.C . 

♦Cambridge, Field-Marshal H.R.H. the Dokb of, K.G., G.C.M.G., 

Gloucester House, Park Lane, W. 
Cambbon, Ewen, Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, 81 Lombard St., E.C, 
tCAMBBON, Majob Maubicb A., R.E., 27 Brunswick Gardens, W, 
f Campbell, Allan, 21 Upper Brook Street, W, 
Campbell, Finlat, Brantridge Park, Balcombe, Sussex, 
Campbell, Sir George W. R., K.C.M.G., 60 Cornwall Gardens, 8, W, 
Campbell, Gordon H., Hyde Park Court, S. W, 
Campbell, J. Stuabt, 1 Gresham Buildings, Basinghcdl Street, E.C, 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 

Year of 





















Resident leUows. 319 

QA3SMXLL, MoSTOK, Stfocothro House, Brechin, Forfarshire, 
fGAXFBBLL, W. MiDDLETON, 23 Rood Lane, E,C, 

CAHFBELirJoHirsToir^CoNWAT S., 3 Morpcth Terroce, Victoria Street, 8,W* 
Cakiomo, H£BBbbt, British South Africa Co,, 15 St, Swithin's Lane,E,C, 
Cantlib, Jambs, MJB., F.E.C.S., 46 Devonshire Street, Portland Place, W, 
Cantlok, Colonel Louis M., Hyver Rail, Bamet Gate, Bamet. 
CAFPELySiB Albbbt J. Leppoc, K.C.I.E., 27 Kensington Court Gardens, W, 
Caelill, Arthub J. H., Dock House, BiUiter Street, E,C, 
Cabbington, Eight Hon. Eabl, Q-.C.M.Q-., 60 Grosvenor Street, W, 
Cabbxjthebs, John, M. Inst. C.E., 19 Kensington Park Gardens, W, 
Gabteb, Fbedbbic, Harden Ash, Ongar, Essex, 
fCABTEB, William H., B.A., 9 Bush Lane, Cannon Street, EC, 
Casella, Louis Mabino, 47 Fitzjohn^s Avenue, N,W,; and Vachery, 

Cranleigh, Surrey, 
Cautlet, Colonel Henbt, K.E., 65 Albert Hall Mansions, S,W,; and 

Junior United Service Club, Charles Street, S. W, 
Cawston, Geobge, 66 Vfj^ Brook Street, W, 
Cayfobd, Ebenezbb, 146 Leadenhall Street, E,C, 
Chadwick, Osbebt, C.E., C.M.Q-., 11 Airlie Gardens, Campden HiU, W, 
Challinob, E. J., 7f Cornwall Residences, Clarence Gate, N, W, 
Chambebs Abthub, Briar Lea, Mortimer, Berks, 
tCHAMBBBfl, Fbedebick D,, 1 Port Vale Terrace, Hertford, 
Chamnbt, Robbbt Wm., 4 Cowrtfidd Gardens, South Kensington, S, W, 
Chakdleb, John E., F.E.G^.S., Frenches Park, Crawley Down, Sussex, 
Chaplin, Holboyd, B.A., 19 Lincoln^ s Inn Fields, W,C, 
Chapman, Edwabd, Wynnestay, Bedford Park, Croydon, 
Chapphll, John, J.P., ca^re of Messrs, F, B, Smart ^ Co,, 22 Queen Street, 

tCHABRiNaTON, Abthub F., Eost HiU, Oxted, Surrey j and Oxfwd and 

Cambridge Club, Pall Mall, S. W, 
fCHABBiNGTON, HuGH Spbnoeb, i>ot;« CUff, Burton-on- Trent 
tCHEADLE, Fbank M., 11 Springfield Boad, St. John's Wood, N,}V, 
Cheadlb, Waltbb Butleb, M.D., 19 Portman Street, Portman Square, W, 
Chisholm, James, Addiscombe Lodge, East Croydon, 
Cho'^n, T. C, Glenmore, SiherhUl, St, Leonards-on^Sea ; and Thatched 

House Club, St, James's Street, S.W. 
Christian, H.E.H. Pbince, K.G., Cumberland Lodge, Windsor Great Park, 
Cheistib, D, a. Traill, 7 Holland Villas Road, Kensington, W, ; and 

Oriental Club, Hanover Square, W. 
Christmas, Habby William, 42a Bloomsbury Square, W,C, 
Chumlbt, John, Standard Bank of South Africa, 10 Clemenfs Lane, E,C. 
Church, Waltbb, 19 Nevem Mansions, EarVs Court, S.W, 
f Churchill. Colonel Mackenzie, Omagh, Co, Tyrone, Ireland, 
Churchill, Charles, Weybridge Park, Surrey; and Z7 Portman Square, W, 
CiANTAR, Umbbrto, Park House, MaitlandPark Road, N,W, 
Clarence, Loyell Burchett, Coaxden, Axminster. 
Clark, Alfred A., 9 Cavendish Square, W; and St, Stephen's Club, 

Westminster, S,W, 
Clabx, Chablbs, 45 Lee Road, Blackheath, S,E, ' 
f Clark, Edward 6r. U., Lapsewood, Sydenham HiU, S,E, 

Digitized by 


320 Boyal Colonial Institute. 

Year of 

1891 Clabk, JonathaK; 1 Devonshire Terrace, Portland Tlaoe^ W. 

1868 Clasxb, LiBUT.-GBMBBiJL Sib Amdbew, B.E., a.C.M.G., C3., CLE.^ 
42 Portland Place, W. ; and United Service Club, PaU Mall, 8,W, 

1890 Glabkb, Lt.-Golonbl Sib G^bobob Stdbnhah, B.E., K.G.M.G., FJK.S., 

24 Chenieton Gardens, Kensington, W, 

1884 tCLABKE, Hbnbt, Cannon Hall, Hampstead, N,W.; and 17 Graccchurck 

Street, E.C, 
1886 Clabke, Pebcy, LL.B., College Hill Chambers, E,C, 
1889 \OiAsxB, Stbachan Q„ Messrs, J» Morrison ^ Co., 4 Fenchurch Street, 

1 882 tCLABKsoN, J. Stbwabt, cjo T, Finney, Esq,, M.L.A., Brisbane, Queendand, 

1880 Claydbn, Abthub, 1 Upper Wobum Place, W.C, 
1886 fCi^TTON, Ebqinald B. B., 88 Bishopsgate Street, E,C, 

1891 fCiATTON, Wm. WntBLET, C.E., Gripton Lodge, Leeds, 
1896 Olbatbb, William, The Rock, Reigate, 

1893 Clbghobn, Eobbbt C, 14 St, Mart/ Axe, E,C, 

1877 Clencr, Fbbdbbick, M.LM.E., The Shrubberies, Chesterfield, 

1886 Clowbs, W. C. Kwioht, Duke Street, Stamford Street, SJ!, 

1896 tCoATBS, Majob Edwabd F., 99 Gresham Street, E,C. 

1881 Cobb, Alfbbd B., 52 Penn Road Villas, Hollowag, K 
1877 CocHBAN, Jambs, 88 Hyde Park Gate, S,W, 

1895 CocHBANB, Hon. Thomas H.; M.F., 12 Queen's Gate, S,W, ; and Crau^ord 

Priory, Cupar, Fife, N,B. 
1898 CocKBUBN, Hon. John A., M.D, (^Agent-General for South Australia), 
1 Crosby Square, E,C, 

1886 tCk>HBN, Nathanibl L., 3 Devonshire Place, W. ; and Round Oak, EngU- 

field Green, Surrey, 

1885 Coles, William B. E., 1 Adelaide Buildings, London Bridge, KC, 

1887 OoLLisoN, Hbnbt Glbbkb, 17b Great Cumherland Place, W.; andNatumd 

Club, I Whitehall Gardens, S,W, 

1882 tCoLLXTM, Bey. Huok BobbbT; M.B.I.A.; F.S.S., J%e Vicarage, Leigh, 

Tonbridge, Kent. 
1882 Ck>LMEB, Josbph Gt,, C.M.Q-. (Secretary to High Commissioner for Canada), 

17 Victoria Street, S.W, 
1872 CoLOMB, SiB John C . B., K.C.M.Q., M.P., Dromquinna, Kenmare, Co. Kerry , 

Ireland ; 75 Belgrave Road, S. W.; and Carlton Club, Pall Mall, 8,W, 

1896 CoMBB, BiCHABD, 33 Lennox Gardens, S, W, 

1898 CoNBAD, Julius, Junior Athenaum Club, Piccadilly, W. 

1880 CooDB, J. Chables, C.E., 19 Freeland Road, Ealing, W, 

1874 tCooDB, M. F., care of Messrs. Ah Scott 4' Co., Rangoon, Burma, 

1896 ^GooK, John M., F.R.G-.S., Ludgate Circus, EC, 

1886 fCooKB, Henbt M., 12 Friday Street, E.C. 

1882 CoopEB, Bev. Chables J., The Rectory, Mundford, Norfolk, 

1874 CooPBB, Sib Daniel, Babt., G.C.M.a., 6 Be Vere Gardens, Kensington 

Palace, W, 
1882 CoopEB, John Astley, 8t, Stephen's Club, Westminster, 8.W. 
1884 CooPBB, BoBBBT Elliott, C.E., 81 Lancaster Gate, W,; and 8 The 

Sanctuary, Westminster, S. W, 
1891 CooPKB, William C, 21 Upper Grosvenor Street, W. 

Digitized by 


Year of 










Resident Fellows. 321 

CoHBBT,F.H. M., B.L. {Hon, Executive Officer for Ceylon, Imperial Imtitute), 

27 Longridge Road, S, W, ; and 2 Mitre Court Buildings, E» C 
Ck)BDiNa, G-EOBOB, 304 Camden Road, N, W, 

Cork, Nathaniel, Convmercial Bank of Sydney, 1 8 Birchin Lane, E. C, 
Cotton, Sydney H., 46 Hertford Street, JV. ; nnd Devonshire Clvh, St. 

Ja/mes*s Street, S, W, 
CouBTHOPB, William F., National CM, 1 Whitehall Gardens, S,W, 
CowiB, G-BOBGB, 81 Philbeach Gardens, S.W, and 113 Cannon Street, 


Cox, Alfred W., 30 St, James's Place, S, W, 

Cox, Frank L., 118 Temjple Chambers, E.C, 

Cox, Nicholas, 69 Talgarth Road, West Kensington, W. 

f CoxHBAD, Major J. A., B.H.A., Naval and Military Club, PicoadUly, W, 

f Craig, Georqb A., 66 Edge Lane, Liverpool, 

Cranbrook, Bight Hon. thb Earl of, G.C.S.I., Hemsted Park, Cranbrook, 

Crane, S. Leonard, M.D., C.M.Q-., 12 Kensington Court Gardens, W, 

fORAWLBY-BoBVEY, Anthony P., Oriental Club, Hanover Square, W, 

Crbssby, G^eorob H., M.R.C.S., Timaru, Cockington, Torquay, 

Crew, Josiah, Tavistock Hotel, Covent Garden, W,C, 

Crichton, Eobbrt, The Mardens, Caierham Valley, 

Critchbll, J.Troubridgb, 9 Cardigan Road, Richmond Hill, 8,W, 

Cross, Andrbw L., 41 Coates Gardens, Edinburgh, 

Crow, David Beid, Ardrishaig, Argyleshire, 

Crow, Jambs N. Haryby, M.B., CM., Ardrishaig, Jkrgyleshire, 

Cuff, William Symbs, JJpton House, 2 Rosslyn Gardens, Hainpstead, 

Cunliffb, Wm. Gill, Heathlands, Kew Gardens, 8,W, 
Cunningham, Francis G., Willey Park, Famham, Surrey, 
Curling, Bey. Joseph J., B.A., Hamble House, Hamhle, Southampton, 
f Curling, Bobbrt Sumner, Southlea, Batchet, Bucks, 
CuRRiB, Jambs M,, BraeTnar, Netherall Gardens, Hampstead, N, W, 
CuRRiB. Sir Donald, G.CM.G., M.P., 4 Hyde Park Place, W, 
f Curtis, Spencer H., 171 Cromwell Road, S,W, 
CuYHJB, Oswald B., F.C.A., 2 Stuart Street, Cardiff; and 4 Bishepsgaie 

Street, E,C. 
CzARNiKOw, CiESAH, 103 Eaton Square, S,W, 

Dalton, Bev. Canon John Nbalb, M.A., C.M.G., The Cloisters, * Windsor, 

Daly, James E. C, 

Danoar, D. B., Lyndhurst, Cleveland Road, Ealing, W. 

Danoar, F. H., Lyndhurst, Cleveland Road, Ealing, W, 

Danibll, Colonel James Legbyt, United Service Club, Pall Mall, S, W, 

Darby, fl. J. B., Conservative Club, St, James's Street, 8, W. 

UAbcy, William Knox, Stanmore Hall, Stanmore, 

Daubeney, General Sir H. C. B., G-.CB., Osterley Lodge, Spring Grove, 

Davis, Charles Percy, 23 Lowndes Street, S, W, ; and Conservative Club, 

St, James's Street, S.W, 
Davis, T. Harrison, Bishopsgate Street House, E.C, 

Digitized by SoOgle 


Tear of 

















Boyal Colonial Institute. 

fDAYSOK, EowABD R., 20 Ennismore Cfardeus, 8.W, 

fDATBON, Hbnbt K, 20 Ennismore Gardens, S.W. 

Davson, Jahbs W., 42 Lansdowne Cresetnt, NotHmg Hill, W. 

DAWB8, Sib Edwyk S., K.C.M.a., 3 Tenterden Street^ Hanover Square, W, ; 

and 23 Great Winchester Street, E,C, 
Dawsok, Johk Duff, Oriental Club, Hanover Square, W. 
tDBBBKHAM, Ernbst R., 17 MeOmrTi Eoad, Kensington, W, 
DsBBWHAM, Fbahk, F.S.S., 1 Fitzjokn*s Avenue, N.W. 
fDB CoLYAB, Hbnbt A., 24 Palace Gardens Terrace, W. 
Dbhd, Waltbb, C.E., Windsor Cottage,\Bolbury, Kingsbridge, Devon. 
d'Eqtiixe, Howabd fl^ 10 Princes Street, Cavendish Square, W. 
Delmeoe, Edwabd T., 17 i8^. Helenas Place, E.C. 
fDror, Sm Aijbto, K.C.M.G., 11 Old Broad Street, EC; and Bavent- 

worth, Eastbourne. 
DiiPBBE, Chablbs Ftnkbt, 3 Morley Rood, Southport, 
Db Satob, Hbnbt, Hartjield, Malvern Wells ; and Rrform aub, S. W. 
Db Satoe, Oscab, Elys6e, Shomdiffe Bead, Folkestone; and Junior 

Carlton aub. Pall Mall, S.W. 
DBS V<bttx, Sib G. William, G.C.M.a., 7 Cromwell Gardens, 8.W. ; a$ul 

Travellers' Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 
D'EsTBBBB, J. C. E., Ehnfield, Hill, Southampton. 
DBvrrr, Thomas Lanb, 12 Fenchurch Buildings, E,C. 
Dbvon8hibb,Hi8Gbacb thb DuitBOF,KG., Devonshire Hou$e,tiocadsai/,W, 
Dbwab, Thomas Robbbt, F.R.G.S., 48 Lime Street, E. C. ; and Capel Lodge] 

Db Winton, Majob-Gbnbbal Sm Fbancis W., R.A., G.C.M.G., C.B^ 

York House, St. Jameifs Palace, S. W. ; and United Service Club,Pdl 

fDicK, Gatin Gbmmbll, Queensland Government Office, I Victoria 

Street, S.W. 
Dick, Gbobob Abbbceombt. Park Place, Stirling, N.B. ; and Junior 

Constitutional Club, Piccadilly, W, 
DicKBN, Chablbs S., C.M.G., Queensland Government Office, 1 Vtotoria 

Street, S.W. 
Dickinson, Jambs W., Queensland National Bank, 8 Princes Street, EC. 
Dickson, Ratnbs W., Edenhurst, Dulwioh Wood Park, SJ!., and 11 Quee» 

Victoria Street, E.C. 
DisMOBB, John Stbwabt, Ashleigh, Brondesbury Park, N.W. 
Dobbbb, Habbt Hankey, 6 Tokenhouse Yard, E.C. 
Donne, William, 18 Wood Street, EC 
DoNOTTGHMOBE, Rt. Hon. THB Eabl OF, K.C.M.G., 6 ColUwjham 

Place, S.W. ^ 

Douglas, Alexandbe, 99 Elgin Crescent, Notting Hill, W. 
Douglas, John A., AuchendoUy, Dalbeattie, N.B. 
Douglas of Hawick, Lobd, Army # Navy aub. Pall MaU, S.W. 
DoYTUNG, Joseph, Welstead Grange, Lindfidd, Sussex. 
Dbage, Geoffbbt, M.P., United University Club, Pall Mall East, 8.W. 
Dbapbb, Gbobob, Eastern Telegraph Company, Limited, Winchester 

House, 50 Old Broad Street, EC. 
Pbatsok, Walthb B. H., Tudor House, High BamsU 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 

Resident Fellows. 323 

Year of 

1868 tDuciB, Bight Hon. the Eabl of, Tortworth Court, Falfield, Glos, 

1889 f Dudgeon, Abthub, 27 Rutland Square, Dublin. 

1889 t^uDGEON, WnxiAM, 43 Craven Boad, W, 

1894 fl^uDLBY, Eight Hon. the Eabl of, 7 Carlton Gardens, 8,W, 

1888 Duff, G. Smyttan, 68 Queen^s Gate, 8,W. 

1884 Duncan, David J. Eussell, 28 Victoria Street, 8,W. 

1889 Duncan, John S., Natal Bank, 156 LeadenhaU Street, B.C. 
189»5 t^^^^CAN, EoBBBTy Whitefield, Govan, KB, 

1886^ DuirooNALD, The Eabl of, C.B., Z^Portman Square, W. 
1894 tDuNBLL, Owen E., BrooJcwood Park, Jlresford, Hants; and Junior 
Carlton avb, Pall Mall, 8,W. 

1885 fDuNN, H. W., C.E., Charlcorribe Grove, Lansdown, Bath. 
1885 Dunn, Sib William, Babt, M.P., Broad Street Avenue, E.C, 

1878 fDuNBAVBN, Eight Hon. the Eabl of, KJ*., 27 Norfolk Street, Park 

Lane, W, ; Kenry House, Putney Vale, S, W. ; and Carlton Club, S, W, 
1876 DuBHAM, John Hbnby, 110 Cannon Street, E.C. 
1896 DuBBANT, Wm. Howabd, Ellery Court, Beulah Hill, 8.E.; and 26 

Milton Street, E.C. 
1884 Duthib^Libut.-Colonel W. H. M., E.A., Bow House, Doune, Perthshire ; 

and Junior United Service Club, 8. W, 
1892 Duthoit, Albbbt, 1 Fenchurch Street, £.C, 
1880 t^^^"^TON, Fbank M., 74 Lancaster Gate, W,; and St, Georgt^s Club, 

Hanover Square, W. 
1880 Button, Fbedebick, 112 Gresham House, Old Broad Street, E,C.; and 

79 Cromwell Houses, S.W, 
Dtbb, Ohables, 47 Cromwell Boad, West Brighton, 
Dyeb, Fbedebick, The Pentlands, Park Hill Boad, Croydon; and 17 

Aldermanbury, E.C. 
fDTBB, Joseph, care of Messrs. A, H, Wheeler ^ Co., 188 Strand, W.C, 









Eadt, Qt, J. HuGMAN, 62 Addison Boad, W. 

East, Ebv. D. J„ Calaha/t Cottage, Watford, Herts, 

Eckebslet, James C, M.A., Ashfield, Wigan; Carlton Manor, Yeadon, 

Leeds; and United University Club, Pail Mall East, S.W. 
Edgb-Pabtington, J., care of C. H. Bead, Esq., British Museum, W.C. 
fEDWABDES, T. Dyeb, 6 Hyde Park Gate, 8. W. 
Edwabds, Libut.-Oenebal Sib J. Betan, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.P., The 

Gables, Folkestone. 
f Edwabds, S. 

JEldbb, Fbedebick, 7 St. Helenas Place, E.C. 
fELDEB, Thomas Edwabd, Wedmore Lodge, Bemenham Hill, Henley- 

fELDEB, Wm. Geobge, 7 St. Helen's Place, E.C. 
Elias, Colonel Eobebt, Oaklands, Saxmundham ; and Army and Navy 

aub. Pall Mall, S.W. 
Elliott, Gbobge Eobinson, M.E.C.S.E., Pendennis, Beulah Hill, Upper 

Norwood, 8.E. 
Eu^iOTT, Joseph J., Hadley House, Bamet, 
EitUOTT, ThomaS) CM,Q*,'l5^Grange Boad, Ealing, W* 

Digitized by SbOgle 

324 Royal Colonial Institute, 

year of 
1889 Elwell, Wm. Ernest, Holyhoume^ Alton, Hants, 
1896 Emett, Fabdbbick W., LangsidCy Acton Lane^ Harlesden, N. W, 
1892 Enqledue, Colonel Willum J., E.E., 'Petersham "Placet Byjleett Surrey, 
1874 Enoleheabt, Sib J. Gtabdneb D., K.C.B., Duchy of Lancaster, Lancaster 

Place, W.C. 

1886 t^NOLisH, Fbbdbbick a., Warnford Court, KC. 
1891 Enys, John Divibs, Enys, Penri/n, Cornwall, 
1886 Ebbsloh, E. C, Ye Olde Cottage, Walton-on-lTutmes ; and 16 Queen Street, 

1883 fEvBs, Charles Washington, C.M.G., 1 Fen Court, E,C, 
1894 EviLL, John Pebct, 10 Hillside, Wimbledon. 

1881 EvisoN, Edward, Blizewood Park, Caterham, Warlingham Station, Surrey. 
1886 EwABT, John, Messrs, James Morrison ^ Co., ^ Fenchurch Street, E.C, 
1879 EwBN, John Alexander, 11 Bunhill Bow, E,C. 
1 896 Eyles, George Lancelot, M.Inst. C.E., 2 Delahay Street, Westminster, S. Wl 









Faibbaibn, Andbew D., 64 Cannon Street, E.C. 

Faibclough, E. a., Messrs. B. G. Lennon ^ Co,, 76 LeadenhaU Street, E.C. 

Faibclough, WiLLLiM, Bank of Victoria, 28 Clements Lane, KC, 

fFAiBFAX, E. Boss, 5 Princes Gate, S.W, 

JFaibfax, Admibal Sir Hbnby, K.C.B., 6 Cranley Place, S,W, 

f Fairfax, J. Mackenzie, 6 Princes Gate, 8. W. 

f Farmer, W. Maynard, 18 Bina Gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 

Farquhar, Kt. Hon. Lord, 7 Grosvenor Square, W. 

Fawns, Ebv. J. A., cjo Messrs. H. Meade-King ^ Bigg, Bristol. 

Fearnsides, John Wm., 4: Brick Court, Temple, E.C, ; and dBaviet Street 

Berkeley Square, W, 
fFsARON, Frederick, The Cottage, Tajplow. 
Fell, Arthur, 46 Queen Victoria Street^ E.C, 

Fbnn, Henry, F.E.H.S., Bossmore, Josephine Avenue, Brixton Hill, S,W, 
Ferguson, A. M., Nanuoya, 14 Ellerdale Boad, Hampstead, N.W, 
Ferguson, John A., Green Bank, Tunbridge Wells. 
Fhrgusson, Eight Hon. Sir James, Bart., M.P., G.C.S.I., K.C.M.O., 

CLE., 80 Cornwall Gardens, S. W, ; Carlton Club ; and Kilkerran, N,B, 
Fbrgusson, Lieut.-Colonel John A., Boyal Military College, Camherley, 

Surrey ; and Junior Carlton Club, Pall Mall, S. W. 
Fernau, Henry S., 21 Wool Exchange, E.C. 
Fife, His Grace the Duke of, K.T., 16 Portman Square, W, 
tFiNCH-HATTON, The Hon. Stormont, 29 Kensington Square, W, ; and 

White's Club, St. James's Street, S. W. 
FiNLAY, Colin Campbell, Castle Toward, Argyleshire, N,B, 
FiREBRACB, Egbert Tabyeb, Conservative Club, St. James's Street, S.W, 
Fitch, Abthub Wellington, 23 Moorjields, E.C. ; and 4 Grange Boad^ 

Canonbury, N. 
f FiTZGBBALD, WiLLiAM W. A., Carrigoran, Neumarket-on*Fergus, Clare, 

Flack, T. Sutton, Inanda House, 66 Alleyn Park, West Dvlwich, 8,E, ; 

and 2 Boyal Exchange Buildings, E.C. 
Flbbong, Albin, Brook House, Chidehurst ; and Messrs, J, W* Jogger ^ 

Co., 34 Gresham Street, E.C, 

Digitized by 


Tear of 











Resident Fellows. 325 

Flbtchbr, Henry, 14 The Par a ff on, Blackheath, 8,E, 

♦Flower, Sib William H., K.C.B., F.E.S., 26 Stanhope Gardens, 

Flux, "William, 39 Warrmgton Crescent, W. 
FoBD, Lewis Petbb, Shortlands House, Shortlands, Kent, 
FoBD, Sydney, St. Johns, The Aventce, Kew Road, Richmond^ S,W, 
FoBLONO, CoMMANDBB Chables A., E.N., The Coastguard, Souths^, 
Fobtescxje, The Hon. Dudley F., 9 Hertford Street, Mayfair, W, 
FosBEBY, Majob William T. E., The Castle Park, Warwick, 
FowLBB, David, 6 East India Avenue, E,C, 

FowLBB, WiLLLUf, 43 GrosvtnoT Square, W, ; and Moor Hall, HaHow. 
FowLiB, William, 15 Coleman Street, E.C. 
Fbancis, Colonel Geobqe E., 133 Victoria Street, S,W. 
Francis, Daniel, 191, Gresham Housey E.C, 

Fbanckbiss, John F., Constitutional Club, Northumberland Avenue, W,C, 
Fbasbb, Sjb Malcolm, K.C.M.G., 43 Wynnstay Gardens, Kensing^ 

ton, W. 
fFBASEB, William, Millbum House, Inverness, N,B, 
Fbebe, Rev. Hugh Corbie, Stan^ford-dn-the- Vale, Faringdon, Berks, 
Fbbshfield, William D., 5 Bank Buildings, E.C, 
Fbewbn, Mobeton, B.A., 25 Chesham Place, S.W, 
Fbiedlaendeb, Waldemab, (^een Anne Lodge, South Hill Park, Bromley, 

Kent; and Junior Constitutional Club, Piccadilly, W, 
Fby, Fbbdebick Wm., Adkins, Ingatestone, Essex, 
Fuller, W. W., 24 Burlington Road, Bayswater, W, 
Fulton, John, 26 JJ'jfypeT Phillimore Gardens, Kensington, W, 

Galbraith, John H., 32 Victoria Street, S,W, 

Galsworthy, John, South House, Campden Hill, W, 

fGALTON, Sir Douglas, K.C.B., F.R.S., 12 Chester Street, Grosvenor 

Place, S.W, 
Game, Jambs Aylwabd, Yeeda Grange, Trent, New Barnet, Herts; and 

3 Eastcheap, E,C, 
Gammidob, Hbney, Standard Bank of South Africa, 1 Clement's Lane,E, C, 
fGABDiNBR, William, Rockshaw, Merstham, Surrey, 
fGARDNBR, Stewart, Georgetown, British Guiana, 
Gardynb, Jambs W. Bruce, Middleton, Arbroath, N,B, 
Gabbick, Alfeed C, 21 Upper Phillimore Gardens, Kensington, W, 

1884 ^ Gabbick, Sib James Francis, K.Q.M.G., 17 Brechin Place, S,W, 

Gawthrop, Arnold E., Renter's Telegram Company, 24 Old Jeviry E.C, 
fGEDYB, C. TowNSBND, 17 Cravcn Hill Gardens, Hyde Park, W, 
Gborge, David, Bank of New South Wales, 64 Old Broad Street , B^C, 
GiBBRRD, Jambs, Portland House, Basinghall Street, E,C, 
GiBBS Henry J., Tentercroft, Aldrington Road, Streatham Park, S,W, ; 

and 9 New Broad Street, E.C, 
Gibson, Frank Wm., 8 Finsbury Square, E.C. 
tGiFUEN, Sib Robebt, K.C.B., 9 Bina Gardens, S, W, 
Gilbebt, Alfbbd, Mutual Life Association ofAtcstralasia, 5 Lothbury, E. C, 
fGiLCHRisT, WiLUAM OswALD, 200 Qoecn's Gate, S.W, 

Digitized by 


326 Boyal Colonial InsUtute. 

Year of 

1897 OiiXANDBBS, JAMEf , 41 8L Germaint Road, Forest HiU, S.E.; and 33 
Toolet/ Street, 8.E, 

1881 GnxBSPiB, Colin M., 23 Crutched Friars, E.C. 

1875 t^^^^^P™> S^^ Egbert, 11 Eaton Gardens, Hove, Brighton, 

1891 Q-iixiNG, Hbnbt E., Oaklands, ArJeley, Bamet. 

1889 GiBDWooD, John, J.P., Grove House, 93 Addison Road, W. 

1883 Glanfibld, Gbobob, Hale End, Woodford, Essex, 

1892 Glasgow, Et. Hon. Thb Eabl of, G.C.M.G., Kelbume, Fairlie, N,B. 

1883 Glenesk, Eight Hon. Lobd, 139, Biccadilly, W, 

1888 GoDBY, Michael J., c/o Union Bank of Australia, 71 Cornhill, E,C. 

1888 tGoDFBET, Eatmond, F.E.G.S., F.E.A.S.(^a^tf of Ceylon), 79 Cornhill, E.C. 

1894 GoDSAL, Captain William, E.E., Iscoyd Park, Whitchurch, Salop, 

1894 Godson, Edmund P., Castlewood, Shooters Hill, Kent, 

1869 OtOT>so}!i,QBOBXiBB.., Kensirtyton Palace Mansions, Kensington, W, 

1897 Golden, Albbet, c/o Messrs, J, 8. Thompson ^ Co., 7 Copthall Court, E,C, 

1882 GoLDSWOBTHY, Majob-Gbnebal Waltbb T., M.P.,.22 Hertford Street, 

May fair; W. 

1896 Goodman, Louis H., cjo E. H, Hilton, Esq., 63 Victoria Street, S,W. 

1893 GooDsiB, George, Messrs, W. Weddel % Co., 16 St, Helens Place, EC- 

1876 Goodwin, Ebv. E,, Hildersham Rectory, Cambridge, 
1886 fGoBDON, Gbobob "W., The Brewery, Caledonian Road, N, 
1893 fQt)BDON, John Wilton, 9 New Broad Street, E,C, 

1869 GoscHEN, Eight Hon. G. J., M.P., The Admiralty, WhUehaU, 8, W. 

1892 Gow, William, 13 Rood Lane, E,C, 

1886 Gbaham, Frederick, Colonial Office, Downing Street, 8,W, 

1881 Graham, Joseph, 167 Maida Vale, W, 

1898 Grahame, John V., 16 St. Helen's Place, E.C. 

1868 Grain, William, Lancaster House, Beckenham^ Kent, 

1885 tGRANT, CARbROss, Bruntsfield, Beckenham, Kent. 

1884 Grant, Henry, Sydney Hyrst, Chichester Road, Croydon, 

1882 Grant, J. Macdonald, Queensland Government Office, 1 Victoria Street, 8, W, 
1876 Graves, John Bbllbw, Deer Park, Tenby, South Wales, 

1880 Gray, Ambrose G. Wentworth, 31 Great St. Helen's, E.C, 

1891 Gray, Benjamin G., 4 Inverness Gardens, Kensington, W. 

1883 Gray, Henry F., The Mansion, Frognal, Hampstead, N,W, 

1881 Q[^iLT,lSiow&R'£Z., 21 Milton Street, E.C. 

1898 ^Qbay, Eobebt Kaye, M. Inst., C.E., Lessness Park, Abbey Wood, Kent, 

1888 Gbeen, Majob-Gbn. Sib Henby, K.C.S.I., C.B., 9^ Belgrave Road, 8,W. 

1881 t Gbeen, Mobton, J.P., The Firs, Maritzburg, Natal, 

1888 Gbeen, W. S. Sbbbight, 6 Spring Gardens, Charing Cross, S.W. 
1879 Gbeig, Henby Alfbed, 12 Lansdowne Place, Blackheath Hill, S,E, 

1892 Gbbswbll, Abthub E., M.A., Broomhill, 29 Southend Road, Beckenham, 


1882 Gbeswell, Ebv. William H. P., M.A., Dodington Rectory, near Bridg* 

water, Somerset, 

1882 Gbetton, Majob Geobgb Le M., 64 Perham Road, West Kensington, W. 

1889 tGBBY,ET. Hon. Eabl, Howick Hall, Alnwick, Northumberland, 

1884 Gbibblb, Geobgb J., 22 St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 

1897 Grieve, Norman W., Harbury, Forest Row, Sussex, 

1876 Griffith, W. Downbs, 4 Bramham Gardens, Wetherby Road, S.W 

Digitized by V^rOOQ IC 

Bmdmt Fellow$. 


Year of 


















188 4 





tGrarpiTHS, WiLtUM, 42, The Parade, Cardiff, 

G^BixALDi, "Wtnpobd B., Hathewoldcn, High Halden, Ashford, Kent 

GuTTxmffABT), Abthub G., EUtham, Kent, 

Gull, Sib "William Cameron, Babt., M.P., 10 Hyde Park Gardens, W» 

GwiLLTAM, Ebt. S. Thobk, Hampton Poyle Bectory, Oxford. 

GwTK, "Waltbb J., 22 BiUiter Street, E,C. 

Gwtnnb, Fbancis a., Constitutional Club, Northumberland Avenue, W,C, 

GwYHNB, John, Kenton Grange, The Hyde, N, W, ; and 64 Cannon Street, 

GwTTHBB, J. HowABD, 34 Belsizs Park Gardens, N.W, 

fHAGOABD, Edwabd, 7 Nsw Square, Lincoln's Inn, W,C. 

Haines, Fihld-Mabshal Sib F. Paul, G.C.B., G.C.S.L, C.I.E., United 

Service Club, Pall Mall, S,W. 
Halcboiit, James, 6 Great Winchester Street, E.C, 
Halibubton, Rt.Hon. Loed, G.C.B., 67 Lowndes Square, S,W, 
Halswbll, Hugh B., J.P., 26 Kensington Gate, Hyde Park, W, 
fHAMiLTON, Jambs. 
Hamilton, John James, 1 Barkston Gardens, EarVs Covert, S,W, ; and 

17 St, Helen's Place, E,C, 
Hanham, Sib John A., Babt., St. Stephen's Club, Westminster, S,W. 
Hankbt, Ebnbst Albbs, Hinxton Hall, Saffron Walden, 
Hanlet, Thomas J., 66 Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park, W, 
Hanson, Chables Augustus, 67 Holland Park, W,; and 99 Gresham 

Street, E.C. 
Habdie, Gbobob, 17 Bavenscroft Park, High Barnet. 
Habdino, Edwabd E., 66 Cannon Street, E.C. 
Habdt, Thomas E., care of M. Cohen, Esq., 20 Bucklersbury, E.C* 
Habe, Beoinald C, Western Australian GovemTnent Office, 15 Victoria 

Street, S.W. 
Habbwood, Rt. Hon. the Eabl of, Harewood House, Leeds, 
Habkbb, James, 66 Gresham Street, E.C. 
Habmswobth, Alfbbd C, 36 Berkeley Square, W. ; and Elmwood, St, 

Peter^s, Kent. 
Habfeb, Reginald Tbistbam, 63 Sloane Square, S. W. 
Habbis, Sib Geobgb D., 32 Inverness Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 
Habbis, Geoboe Stanley, Grosvenor Club, New Bond Street, W. 
Habbis, Colons Josiah, F.R.G.S., 8 Union Court, Old Broad Street, E,C. 
Habbis, Waltbb H., C.M.G., 12 Kensington Gore, S.W. ; and Junior 

Carlton CM, PaU Mall, S.W. 
fHABBis, Wolf, 197 Queen's Gate, S.W. 
Habbison, Abthub, L.R.C.P. {Surgeon Superintendent, India/n Bmgra* 

tion Service), Stoneleigh House, Curry Bivel, Taunton, 
fHABBisoN, Genbbal Sib Richabd, R.E., K.C3., CJiI.G., Hawley HUl, 

Blofikwater, Hants. 
Habbold, Leonabd Fbedebick, 147 Fenchurch Street, E.C, 
Habboweb, G. Cabnabt, College Hill Chambers, E.C. 
Habbt, Captain Thomas Row, 10 Ba/rwom Terrace, St. Ives, Cornwall* 
Hart, E. A., Union Steamship Company, 94 Bishopsgate Street, E.C, 
Habybt, T. Mobgan, Portland House, 73 Basinghall Street, E,C, ' 

Digitized by 


328 Royal Colonial Institute. 





Habwood, Joseph, 90 Cannon Street, E.C, 
fHASLAH, Ralph E., Park Lodge, Church Street, Chelsea, S.W, 
Hatheeton, Eight Hon. Lobd, C.M.G., 56 Warwick Square, 8, W. ; and, 
Teddesley, Penkridge, Staffordshire, 

1883 t^'^^THOBN, Jambs Kenion, St, Ninian's, Pope's Grove, Tkoicken- 


1893 fSAWTHOBN, Rbqinald W.E., care of F, W,Diamond, Esq., P,0,Box 360, 

Johanneshwrg, Transvaal, 

1896 t^AY, Colonel Charles, Chris fs Hospital, Newgate Street, E,C, 

1892 Hathan, Henbt, 18 Pembridge Square, W,; and 3 Coleman Street, E.C. 
1890 Hatkbs, T. H., 20 Billiter Square Buildings, E.C, ; and Rough Down, 
Bomnoor, Herts, 

1882 H Hatitabd, J. F., Aroona, freshford, Bath, 

1894 ' Hatzbn, Gbobgb Tatlob, Bdle Vue House, Blythe HUl, Catford, 8,E, ; 

and 9 St, Mildred's Court, Poultry, E.C, 
1880 Healbt, Edwabd C, 86 St. James's Street, S,W. 
1886 t^BAP, Ralph, 1 Brick Court, Temple, E.C, 

1890 Heath, CoMMAia)BB Gbobgb P., R.N. 

1892 Hbaton, William H., 21 Fairftdd Road, Croydon, 

1891 Hbctob, Captain G. Nelson, R.N.R., Thatched House Club, St, James'e 

Street, S,W, 

1886 Hbdgman, "W. Jambs, The Firs, Upper Richmond Road, Putney, S,W. 

1887 Hbgan, Chables J., Oxford and Cambridge Clvh, Pall Mall, S,W. 

1893 Heinbket,RobbbtB., Messrs. Vavasour^ Co,, 13 St, Swithin^s Lane, E,C, 
1877 Hemmant, William, Bulimha, Sevenoaks; and 32 Whitecross Street, E,C. 

1897 t^ENDBBSON, Gbobge T., 7 Billiter Square, E.C, 

1898 Hbndbbson, John, 26 Queen's Gardens, Bayswater, W. 

1898 Hendbbson, Libut. Wilfbid, R.N., Sunnyhcmk^^ Lennox Road, Southsea- 

1895 Hbnbagb, Chables, Sussex Club, Eastbourne ; 28 Grand Parade, East- 

bourne ; and Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, W, 

1885 Henbiqubs, Fbedk. G., 19 Hyde Park Square, W, 
1897 Hbntt, Richmond, 111 Dennett's Road, Peckham, 8.E, 
1889 Hbnwood, Paul, Moorgate Court, Moorgate Street, E.C, 

1886 Hepbubn, Andbew, 10 Broad Street Avenue, E.C, 

1893 Hbbbbbt. Sib Robbbt G. W., G.C.B., Ickleton, Great Chesterford, Essex, 

1884 Hbbiot, Majob-Genebal James A, Mackat, R.M.L.I., c/o Messrs. 

StUwell ^ Sons, 21 Great George Street, S.W, 

1883 Hebvey, Dudley F. A., C.M.G., Buckhold Hill, Pangboume, Berks. 
1895 Hbrvby, Matthew W., C.E., Beavor House, St, Peter's Road, Hammer^ 

smUh, W, 
1895 Hbbvby, Valentine S., 33 Hyde Park Gate, 8, W, 
1891 Hebtby, W. B., Messrs, Gddsbrough^Mort, ^ Co., 149 Leadenhall St,, E.C. 

1884 Hbssb, F. E., Eastern Extension, ^c. Telegraph Co,, Limited, Winchester 

House, 50 Old Broad Street, E.C, 

1884 Hewison, Captain Wm. Fbbdbbick, Eastnor, Exmouth, 

1897 Hickinbotham, William, Junior Conservative CM, Albemarle Street, W. 

1885 Hill, Charlbs Fitzhenbt, Ebrapah, Park Road, Portswood, Southampton, 
1880 fHiLL, Jambs A., Kimberley, Cape Colony, 

1884 fHiLL, Pearson, 6 Pembridge Square, Bayswater, W, 

1885 tHiLL, Sidney, Langford House, Langford, near Bristol, 

Digitized by 



Resident Fellowi. 


Year of 












fHiLL, Stanley Q-. Gbantham, The Gables, BwanagCt Dorset, 

HiLLiER; Alfred P., B.A., M.D., 30 Wtmpole Street, W. 

HiLLMAN, Valentine A., C.E., Moorambine, Woodstock JRoad, Redland 

Green, Bristol, 
fHiLTON, C. Shibreff B., 41 Qtieen's Gate Gardens, 8,W, 
HiND,T. Almond, Goldsmith Building , Temple, E.C, 
fHiNDSON, Eldbed Grave. 

HiNDBON, Lawrence, The Elms, Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, 
HiNOLET, George B., High Park, Droitwich, 
HiTCHiNs, E. Lttton, 7 Barton Terrace, Dawlish, Devon, 
HoARE, Edward Brodie, M.P., Carlton Club, Pall Mall, 8, W, ; and 

TencKleys, Limpsfield, Surrey, 
HoDGKiN, Thomas, D.C.L., Newcastle-on-Tgne ; and Tredourva, Fhlmouth, 
Hodgson, Sir Arthur, K.C.M.G., Clopton, Stratford-on'Avon ; and. 

Windham Club, St. Jameses Square, S, W, 
fHoDGSON, Gerald Tylston, B.A., Midway, Greenwood, British Columbia, 
tHoDGsoN, H. Tylston, M.A., Harpenden, Hertfordshire, 
HoFFNUNG, S., 21 Queeiis Gate, S.W, 
HoGAN, James F., M.P., 62, Great Russell Street, W,C, 
f Hogarth, Francis, SackvUle House, Sevenoaks, 
fHoGG, Quintin, 6 Cavendish Square, W. 
HoLDEN, Peter W., Queen Anne's Mansions, S. W, 
HoLDswoRTH, JoHN, Barclay House, Eccles, Manchester, 
tHoLGATB, Clifford "Wtndham, The Close, Salisbury, 
Holmested, Ernest A., Daylesford, Linden Road, Bedford, 
Hooper, George N., F.R.G.S., F.S.S., Elmleigh, Hayne Road, 

f Hopetoun, Rt. Hon, the Earl of, G.C.M.G., Carlton Club, Pall Mall, 

S.W. ; and Hopetoun House, South Queensferry, N.B, 
Hopkins, Edward, 79 Mark Lane, E.C. 
Hopkins, John, Little Boundes, Southborough, Kent ; and 79 Mark 

Lane, E.C. 
fHoPKiNSON, Samuel Day, 75 Old Broad Street, E,C. ; and 14 Campden 

Hill Road, W. 
HoRA, Jambs, 123 Victoria Street, S.W, ; and 147 Cannan Street, E.C, 
Horn, Wm. Austin, Junior Carlton Club, Pail Mall, S. W. 
HosKiNS, Admiral Sir Anthony H., G.C.B., 17 Montagu Square, W. 
fHousTOUN, George L., Johnstone Castle, Johnstone, Renfrewshire, N,B, 
Hoyenden, Frederick, Glenlea, West Dulwich, S.E. 
Hudson, John, Kensington Palace Mansions, De Vere Gardens, W, 
Hughes, George, F.C.S., Coombe Leigh, Kingston Hill ; and Bridgetown, 

tHuGHBs, John, F.C.S., 79 Mark Lane, E,C. 

Hughes, John Arthur, Rosmoyne, Laurie Park Road, Sydenham, S,E, 
Hughes-Hughes, William, J.P., 5 Highbury Quadrant, N, 
fHuLL, "W. WiNSTANLEY, North Muskham, Newark. 
Hurley, Edward B. 

Hurst, Henry E., Kalgoorlie Lodge, 36 South Nonvood Hill, S.E. 
HuTTON, Colonel Edward T.H., C.B., A.D.C., 34 Eaton Place, 8,W,; and 

United Service Club, Pall Mall, S,W, 

Digitized by 


330 Boyal Colonial Imtitute. 

Tear of 
1889 tiBtiBfl, Gbobqh M., Inehera, Glanmire, Co. Cork, Ireland, 
I8d8 tiNGLis, CoBNisLnTs, MJ)., 124 Victoria Street, 8.W. ; and AthentBvm 


1881 Imgbam, Sir Wuxum J., Babt., 198 Strand, W.C, 
I860 Ibvikb, Thomas W., 17 AUermaiibwry, E.C, 
1893 Ibwbll, Hbrmak, 74 Jermyn Street, S.W,; and 24 Coleman Street, 


1884 Isaacs, Jacob, 40 Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park, W, 
1893 IzABD, Walter G., C.R, 10 The Paragon, Blaekheath, S.E, 











Jack, Gbobgb CEastem Extension Telegraph Co,, 50 Old Broad Street, E. C. 

f Jackson, Jambs, J.P., Choemaffel, Eastbourne, 

fjACKsoN, Thomas, Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, 

31 Lombard Street, E.C, 
Jacomb, Fredk. Ohas., 61 Moorgate Street, E,C. 
Jacomb, Bboimald B., 61 Moorgate Street, E.C, 
Jambs, Edwin M., M.R.C.S., L.S.A., Belgrave Mansions, Grosvenor 

Gardens, S. W, ; and Pavilion, Melrose, N,B. 
f Jamibson, William, care qf Broken HiU Proprietary Company, 31 Queen 

Street, Melbourne, Australia, 
Jarvis, a. Wbston, 66 Park Street, Grosvenor Square, W, 
Jbans, Biohard W.y Avondcde, 32 Worple Road, Wimbledon, 
Jetfcoat, Deputy Sxjroeon-Genbhal James H., 12 The Avenue Mmers, 

Jefferson, Harrt Wtndham, 7 Bryanston Square, W. ; and 76 Old Broad 

Street, E.C. 
t Jbffrat, R. J., 4 Kensington Court Mansions, W, 
Jenxinson, William W., 6 Moorgate Street, E.C, 
Jennings, George H., West Bene, Streatkam, S.W. ; and Lambeth Palace 

Road, S.E. 
Jennings, Gilbert D., 28 Gracechurch Street, E.C, 
Jephson, a. J. Motjntenbt, 22 Ryder Street, S.W., 
fJERSBT, Right Hon. the Earl of, G.C.M.G., Osterley Park, Meworth ; 

and Middleton Park, Bicester, 
Johnson, General Sir Allen B., K.C.B., 60 Lexham Gardens, W, 
Johnson, Godfrey B., Colonial College, 11 Pall Mall, S.W. 
Johnson, L; O., 40 Marlborough Hill, N. W., and 32 Snow Hill, E.C. 
Johnson, Robert, Colonial College, Hdlesley Bay, Suffolk. 
Johnston, Alexander, Acton House, Lyndhurst Road, Hampstead, N.W, 

and 1 Whittington Avenue, E.C. 
t Jolly, Stewart, Perth, N.B. 
Jones, Alfred L., Messrs, Elder, Dempster, ^ Co,, 14 Castle Street, 

t Jones, Henry, 49 Maresfield Gardens, Hampstead, N.W, 
Jones, J. D., 2 St. James* Mansions, West End Lane, Hampstead, N. W. 
Jones, Owen F., 23 College HiU, E.C. 
Jones, R. Hesketh, J.P., Dunrobin, Eastbourne. 
Jones, R. M., Union Bank of Australia, 71 ComhUl,E.C. 
JoNBS, W. WooDGATB, Hill Side, White Hill, Bktchingley, Surrey. 

Digitized by V^rOOQ IC 

Year of 













Resident Fellows. 331 

Joseph, Jitliak, 10 Drapers Gardens, E.C, 

JosLor, Hbnby, Gat/nes Park, Upminster, Essex. 

JouBDAm, Hbnbt J., C.M.a., The Elms, Watford; and 41 Easteheap, 

JuLTAN, Sib PmmosB G., K.C.M.G., C.B., Stadacona, Tbrqmy. 

Kabuth, Fbakk, 29 Nevem Mansions, EarVs Court, 8,W. 
tKAumcAN, Chablbs, Boyal Palace Hotel, Kensington, W. 
Keabiib, Samuel R, Kingswood, Lyndhwrst Gardens, Hampstead, 

Kbabtok, Gbobqb H., Walton Lodge, Banstead; and 70-71 Bishopsgate 
' Street, E.C. 
Keep, Chables J., 1 Guildhall Chambers, BasinghaU Street, E.C. 
£eiixbb, "Wiixiam,' Fernwood, Wimbledon Park. 
KEiTH-DcjfUGiAs, Stbwabt M., Oriental Club, Hanover Square, W. 
Kemp, Datid R., Messrs. Balgett/^ Co., 62 Lombard Street, E.C. 
Kbmp-Welch, Jambs, Parkstone, Wegbridge; and 61 Bemers Street, 

Oxford Street, W. 
Kbndall, Fbanklik R., 1 The Paragon, Blackheath, S.E.; and St. 

Stephen's CM, S.W. 
Kbnkbdt, Johk Mubbat, Knockralling, Kirkcudbrightshire, N.B.; and 

New University Club, S.W, 
fKEKWEDT, Pitt, KettleweU, Woking ; and New Oxford and Cambridge 

aub, 6S Pan Mall, S.W. 
Kennedy, Samuel, LJR.C.a, L.R.C.P., 96 Addison Road, W. 
Kenmion, Rt. Rev. Geoeqb Wyndham, D.D., Lord Bishop of Bath and 

Wells, The Palace, Wells, Somerset. 
Kent, Robebt J., 1 Vere Street, Cavendish Square, W. 
IKenton, James, M.P., Walshaw Hall, Bun/. 
Keb Robebt A., 16 St. Helen's Place, E.C. 

Kebb, J. E., care of Messrs. S. Dobree ^ Sons, 6 Tokenhouse Yard, E.C. 
Keswick, Jambs J., HaUeaths, Loehmaben, N.B. 
fKESwiCK. William, Eastwick Park, Leatherhead. 
KiLBY, Henby G., elo Commercial Bank of Sydney, 18 Birchin Lane, E.C. 
Kimbbe, Henby, M.P., 79 Lombard Street, E.C. 
King, Chablbs Wallis, Newnham House, Marshgate, Richmond, S.W. 
KiNNAiBD, Right Hon. Lobd, 1 Pall Mall East, S. W. 
Kintobb, Rt. Hon, the Eabl op, G.C.M.G., 6 Portman Street, W. 
KiTTo, Thomas Collingwood, Cedar Lodge, Spring Grove, Isleworth. 
Knight, A. Halley^ Bramley Hill House, Croydon. 
Knight, James Watson, 33 Hyde Park Square, W. 
fKNiGHT, William, Homer Grange, West Hill, Sydenham, S.E. 
Knighton, William, LL.D., TUeworth, SUverhill, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 
Knott, Captain Michael E., 

Kbohn, Hebman a., B.A., Maiden Court, Maldon, Essex. 
KxjMMBBBB, Rudolph, 20 Bury Street, St. James's, S.W. 

tLAiMG, Jambs Robebt, 7 Australian Avenue, E.C. 
Laing, Majob D. Tybib, cjo Messrs. Searle, Smith f Co., 4 Sun Court, 
ComhiU, E.C. 

Digitized by 


332 Royal Colonial Institute. 


1875 Landale, RoBBET, 11 Holland Park, W.; and Oriental Club, Hanover 

Square^ W, 

1876 t^^^^^"^^^^» Walter, Oriental Club, Hanover Square, W. 

1887 Lane, Colonel Ronald B., C.B., 14 Curzon Street, W. 

1896 Lano, James J., care of African Estates Company, Winchester House, E,C, 
1881 Langton, James, Hillfidd, Reigaie, 

1883 t^NSDOWNE, Right Hon. the Marquis of, K.G., G.C.S.I., G-.C.K.G,, 

G.C.I.E., Lansdowne House, Berkeley Square, W. ; and Bovoood, near 
Calne, Wiltshire, 

1884 fLANSBLL, George, Sandhurst, Victoria, Australia. 
1881 Lanyon, John C, Birdhurst, Croydon, 

1876 r fLARDNEE, W. G., 11 Fourth Avenue, Hove, Brighton; andJitnior Carl* 

ton Club, Fall Mall, S. W. 
1878 Lark, F. B., 32 Old Jewry, E. C, 

1878 Lascelles, John, 13 Ashchurch Terrace, Shepherd's Bush, W. 
1881 Laughland, James, 50 Lime Street, E.C, 

1893 Laurie, William Forbes, Montagus House, High Wycombe, Bucks. 

1897 Lawrence, T. H., Z Arundel Street, Strand, W.C. 

1875 Lawrence, W. F., M.P., 6 St. Ermin's Mansions, Victoria Street, S.W.; 

Cowesfield House, Salisbury ; and New University Club, St. James's 

Street, S.W. 
1886 Lawrib, Alexander, 14 St. Mary Axe, E.C. 
1886 tLAWRiB, Alex. Cecil, 14 St. Mary Axe, E.C. 
1896 Lawson, Sir Charles, 15 Evelyn Gardens, S.W, 
1892 Lawson, Robertson, 34 Old Broad Street, E.C. 

1894 Leake, Wm. Martin, Ceylon Association, 61 Gracechurch Street, E.C. 
1896 Lee, Arthur M., 41 Bosary Gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 

1886 Lbb, Henry William, San RcTno, Torquay. 

1880 fLEES, Sir Charles Cameron, K.C.M.G., 11 Onslow Square, South 
Kensington, S. W. 

1896 Leeson, William F., 6 Pclworth Eoad, Streatham, S.W. 

1889 Lb Gros, Gervaise, Seafield, Jersey. 

1892 Le Maistrb, John L. B., Messrs. G. Bdlleine ^ Co., Jersey. 

1888 Leon, August, 23 Tregunter Road, South Kensington, S.W. 

1879 Lethbridge, William, M.A., Courtlands, Jjympstone, Devon. 

1873 Levey, G. Collins, C.M.G., National Liberal Club, Whitehall Place, 8. W. 

1874 Levin, Nathaniel W., 11 Gledhow Gardens, S.W. 

1897 Levy, Alfred G., M.D., 124 Baron's Court Road, West Kensington, W. 
1885 Lewis, Isaac, Hyme House, 3 FitzjohrHs Avenue, Hampstead, N.W.; and 

8 Finch Lane, E.C. 

1887 Lewis, Joseph, 8 Finch Lane, E.C. 

1890 Lewis, Owen, 9 Mincing Lane, E.C. 
1897 Lister, R. A., J.P., The Towers, Durdey. 

1884 Little, J. Stanley, 18 Brakefield Road, Upper Tooting, 8.W, 

1885 Little, Matthew, 5 Lyndhurst Gardens, Hampstead, N.W, 

1886 fLiTTLEjoHN, RoBBRT, African Banking Corporation, Cape Town, Capo 

1874 Littleton, The Hon. Henry S., 26 Mount Street, Grosvenor Square, W. ; 
and Teddeeley, Penkridge, Staffordshire^ 

1888 LiVESBY, George, C.E., Shagbrook, Reigate, 

Digitized by 


Yeat of 






















Resident Fellows. 333 

Llotd, F. Grahax, 78 Queen Victoria Street, E.G. 

fliLOTDi Hbbbbbt, 4 Salisbury Court, E,C, 

Llotd, Bich^bd Duppa, 2 Addison Orescent, Addison Boad, W» 

♦Lloyd, Sampsok S., Carlton aub, Pall MaU, 8.W, 

Loch, Bt. Hon. Loed, G.C.B., G.C.M.a., 44 Elm Park Gardens, 8.W. 

LocKWOOD, David, City Club, York, 

f LoBWEMTHAL, LEOPOLD, Idonsdole, Gloucester Gate, N. W, 

f LoKO, Glaxtdb H., M.A., Arthur's Seate, Whyte Hill, Caterham, Surrey, 


fLoNGSTAPP, Geoboe B., M.A., M.D., Highlands, Putney Heath, 8,W, ; 

and Tuyitehen, Morthoe, near Ilfracombe, 
LoRiNG, Abthur H., 25 Old Queen Street, Westminster, S, W, 
fLoBNB, Bight Hon. Mabquis of, K.T., G.C.M.G., M.P., Kensington 

Palace, W. 
fLoTHLiN, Maxtbicb John, Rsdwood, Spylaw JRoad, Edinburgh. 
LoTE, WiLLiAif McNauohton, Blythswood, Leigham Court Boad, Sireat' 

Low, Sib Hugh, G.C.M.G., 23 De Vers Gardens, W.; and Thatched 

House Club, St, Jameses Street, S,1V, 
tLow,W. Andebson, Courtfield House, Boyne Hill, Maidenhead. 


LowLES, John, M.P., Hill Crest, Darenth Boad, Stamford HiU, N. 
Lowndes, Fbhdebic S. A., M. A. (Oxen), 1 1 Great College Street, West' 

minster, S,W, 
LowBT, Libut.-Gbnebal B. W., C.B., 25 Warrington Crescent, Maida 

Hill, W, ; and United Service Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 
LX7BBOCK, Bt. Hon. Sib John, Babt., M.P., 2 St. James's Square, S, W, ; 

and 15 Lombard Street, E.C. 
LxjBBOCK, Nhyilb, 20 Eastcheap, E.C; and 65 EarPs Court Square, 

Lucas, Clabbncb, Mus.B., 23 Portland Terrace, St, John's Wood, N.W. 
LuNNiss, Fbedbbick, 145 TottenJtam Court Boad, W, 
Ltall, Booeb Campbell, United University Club, Pall Mall East, S, W. 
fLTELL, Captain Fbancis H., 2 Elvaston Place, S, W, ; and Naval and 

Military Club, Piccadilly, W, 
Lyell, John L., 30 Christchurch Boad, Streatham HiU, S.W. 
Ltlx, Wm. Bbat, Velley, Hartland, North Devon. 
fLyoN, Geobge C, Lyneden, Vrummond Street, Ballarat, Victoria, 

Lyons, Fbank J., 3a Wood Street, E.C. 
fLYTTELTON, Thb Hon. G. W. Spbncbb, C.B., 49 Hill Street, Berkeley 

Square, W, 

Macalisteb, Jambs, Ethelstane, 32 Maresfield Gardens, Hampstead, 

Macan, J. J., M.A., M.D., M.B.C.S., 62 George Street, Portman Square^ 

W. ; and Bockhampton, Queensland. 
MacBbide, Bobebt K., C.M.G., M.InstC.E., Junior Carlton dub. Pall 

Mall, S.W. 
fMACDONALD, JosEPH, J.P., Sutherland House, Fgham, Surrey, 

Digitized by 


334 BoycU Oohnicd InsHMe. 

Tear of 

1 892 Macfadtbn, Jamu J., Millbrook, Bedwardine Boad, Upper Norwood, 8.E, 
1873 iKLCFABLAHf Albzandsb, TMsh, HdrntdaUf N3. 

1889 tMACFABLANB, Jaios Qr„ Memt, W, Dunn ^ Co,^ Broad St, Avenue, E,C, 

1889 fMACFiB, JoHir W.y BowUm Hall, Ckeeier. 

1889 Maofib, Matthew. 71 Springfield Boad, 8t. Jokn*$ Wood, N.W. 

1890 MacGrboob, Wx. Grant, 18 Coleman /Street, KO. 
1881 fMAclYBB, David, 16 Brunewiok Street, Liverpool, 

1881 'MACKAY,A.MkCKMix%tE,60Lime8treet,E,C. 

1895 fMACKAT, Daitiel J., Hawtkomden, Crreencroft Gardem, Hampetead, N, W, 

1893 Mackat, Donald, Beay Villa, Bodenham Boad, Hereford, 

1897 tMACKAY, Sm Jambs L., KO.IJB., 7 Seamore Place, Park Lane, W, 

1885 fMAOKBNZiB, GoLnr. 

1890 Mackbnzib, Gbobob S., C.B., 52 Queen's Oaie Gardens, 8.W, 

1897 Macekbnzie, Thomas, 110 Fenchurch Street, E.C, 

1882 Mackib, David, 1 Gliddon Boad, West Kensington, W. 

1886 Mackibstosh, P. Abthttb, The Limes, Avenue Boad, Torquay, 
1889 Maclban, Bobbbt M., Eliot Hill, Blackheath, SJJ, 

1889 Maot-bab, ViCB-ADMnuL J. P., Beaconsoroft, Cbiddingfold, Godalming; 

and United Service aub. Pall Mall, S.W. 

1896 fHAcLBAT, SnfOLAiB, 1 Norfolk Street, Park Lane, W. 

1887 MACMiLLAir, Maubicb, St, Martinis Street, Leicester Square^ W,C, 
1892 Hacfhah^ Albxandbb J., 10 St, Helens Place, E,0, 

1887 Macfhbbson, Lacelab A., Wyrley Grove, Pelsall, Walsall, 

1882 MacBostt, Albxandbb, West Bank House, Esber, 
1869 McAbthub, Albxandbb, 79 Holland Park, W, 

1886 McAbthttb, John P., 18 Silk Street, Cripplegate, E,C, 

1883 McAbthub, Wh. Albxandbb, M.P., 14 Sloane Gardens, S,W, ; and 18 #> 

19 Silk Street, Cripplegate, E,C. 

1885 McGaul, Gilbbbt John, Creggandarroch, Ckislekurst; and 27 WaStrook, 


1892 t^cCoNNBLL, Abthxtb J., 7 Bramham Gardens, South Kensington, S,W. 

1893 McGoNNBLL, Fbedebick y., 65 Holland Park, W, 

1897 McGttlloch, Golin J., 9 New Broad St„ E,C, ; and I Ashley Gardens, 8, W, 

1890 fMoGuLLOOH, Geoboe, 184 Queen's Gate, S.W. 

1883 McDonald, James E., 4 Chapel Street, Cripplegate, E.C, 

1887 McDonald, John, 43 Threadneedle Street, E.C. 

1882 McDoNELL, Abthub W., 2 Beotory Place, Portsmouth Boad, Guilford. 

1882 McEuBN, David Paintbb, 24 Pembridge Square, W, 

1898 McFablane, William, Messrs. W, Dunn ^ Co., Broad Street Avenue, E.C. 

1894 McGowAN, David H., 9 Australian Avenue, B.C. 

1879 McIlwbaith, Andbbw, 3^4 Lime Street Square, EC, 

1884 McInttbb, J. P., 3 New Basinghall Street, EC. 

1880 McEellab, Thomas, Lerags House, near Oban, N.B. 

1897 McKbnzib, Fbbdbbick A., 9 Bernard Street, Bussell Square, W,C, 

1886 MQiBONB, Hbnbt, C.E., 13 Victoria Street, S.W. 
1886 McLban, Nobman, West Hall, Sherborne, Dorset. 

1882 McLean, T. M., 61 BelsieePark, N.W. 

1885 McMahon, Gbnbbal G. J., B.A., KnooJdofty, Clonmel, Ireland; and 

Junior Army and Navy Club, 8t, James's Street, W* 

1883 M4iinrABiK0, Bandolfb. 

Digitized by 


Year of 
















Resident Fellows. 335 

Maixjolbi, A. J., 27 Lombard Street, KG, 

Maxcomson, David, cars of Messrs, Coutts ^ Co., 59 Strand, W,C, 

Mallbson, Fbank 'R,,Dixton Manor House, Winchcombe, Cheltenham. 

Mandbb, S. Thbodobe, B.A., Wighiwick Manor, Wolverhampton. 

Manlet, William, 106 Cannon Street, E,C, 

Manning, John R., M.d.A., Milkwood Estate Office, Heme Hill, S,E, 

Mantkll, David G., Ceylon House, St, Andrew's Road, Bedford, 

Mabdbn, Willum, 14 Fenchurch Street, E.C, 

Mabks, David, Astwood House, 111 Cromwell Road, S,W. 

Maesdbn, Thb BiaHT Rbv. Bishop, D.D., Dyrham Lodge, Cl\fton Park, 

Mabshall, Abthub, 7 East India Avenue, E.C, 
Mabs«all, Bbnbst Ltjxmooke, 9 St, Helen's Place, EC. 
fMABSHALL, HbnbtB., 15 Great St. Helenas, EC, 
Maeston, Edwabd, St. Dunstan's House, Fetter Lane, EC. 
Martin, Edward, 112 Fenchurch Street, E.C. 
fMARTiN, Francis, The Grange, Wroxham, Norfolk. 
Martin, Hbnrt, 13 Fitzjohn's Avenue, N,W. 
Martin, Jambs, Sunntfside, Palace Road, Streatham, S.W.; and Suffolk 

Howe, Laurence Pountney Hill, E,C. 
Mathbrs, Edward P., Glenalmond, Foxgrove Road, Beckenham • amd 

39 Old Broad Street, E. C. 
tMATHBSON, Albx. Pbrcbval, 31 Lombard Street, E.C, 
Mathieson, Frbdbric C, Beechworth, Hampstead Heath, N.W. 
Maton, Leonard J., B.A., Grosvenor I^odge, Wimbledon. 
Mattbrson, William, Tower Cressy, Campden Hill, W. 
MATTBXwa,jAXBB,i5JesmondRoad,Mwcastle--on'7^; and St. Georges 

Club, Hanover Square, W, 
Matthews, Libut.-Colonel R. Lee, 1 Myrtle Crescent, Acton, W. 
Maurice, John A. 

Mead, Frederick, The Moorings, St, Albans. 
MsiNERTZHAaBN, Ernbst Lox7i8, 4 Chcyns Walk, Chelsea, S.W, 
Melhuish, William, Constitutional Club, Northumberland Avenue, W.C. 
Mbrewethbr, F. L. S., Ingatestone Hall, iTigatestone, Essex. 
Metcalfe, Sm Charles H. T., Bart., Junior Carlton Club, PaU Mall 

f Metcalfe, Franz E., Gloucester House, Stonebridge Park, N.W. 
Mbwburn, WiLLLiM R., 71 Comhill, E.C. 
MiDDLiffON, R. v., 16 Connaught Square, W. 
Miller, Charles A. Doff, 46 Belgrave Road, S. W. 
tMnxs, Thomas, Longdown House, Sandhurst, Berks. 
MiLNER, Robert, Cherwell Croft, Kidlington, Oxon, 
MisKiN, Herbert, 16 PhUpot Lane, E.C, 
fMrrcHELL, John Sthvbnson, 43 London Wall, E.C. 
Mitchell, William, 25 Fenchurch Street, E.C, 
MrrcHENER, John, Highlands, Thurlow Hill, West Dultoioh, S,E. 
MocATTA, Ernest Qt,, 4 ThrogTnorUm Avenue, E.C. 
Mom, Robert N., St, Georges Club, Hanover Square, W, 
Molesworth, The Rev. Viscount, St, Petrock Minor, St. Issey, Cornwalh 
Moltbkoi Fbrcy Allfobt, 10 Palace Court, Bayswater, Wt 

Digitized by VofOOQlC 

836 Royal Colonial Institute, 

Year of 










f Monro, Malcolm, Cane Grove, 10 Kelvinside Gardens, Gloigow, 

MoNTBFiORB, Hbbbbbt B., 11 Queen Victoria Street, E.C, 

MoMTBFioBB, JosBPH Qt., 14 Westhoume Park Eoad, W. 

MoirrBFioBB, Louis P. 

tMoow,EDWABD K. P., M.P., 32 Egerton Gardens, 8,W, 

MooRB, Arthitb Chisolm, 23 Essex Street, Strand-, W,C. 

MooBB, John, 23 Knightrider Street, E»C, 

fMooBHOusB, Edward, care of Bank of New Zealand, 1 Queen Victoria 

Street, E.C. 
MoBEiNO, Ghablbs Alobbnon, M.lDst.C.E., F.G.S., Moore Place, Esher. 
Morgan, Surgeon-Major A. Hickman, D.S.O., 14 Grosvenor Place, 

f Morgan, Gwtn Vauohan, Z7 Harrington Gardens, South Kensington, S. W* 
Morgan, Septimus Vaughan, 37 Harrington Gardens, South Kensington, 

S.W,; and 42 Cannon Street, E.C. 
Morgan, William Pritchabd, M.P., 1 Queen Victoria Street, E.C, 
MoRRBLL, John Bowes, Holdgate House, York. 
MoBBis, Daniel, C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc., F.L.S., 14 Cumberland Boad, 

MoBRis, Edward Robert, J.P., 61 Fitzjohn's Avenue, N.W. 
tMoRRisoH, John S., Thatched House Club, St. James's Street, S. W. 
Morrison, Walter, M.P., Malham Tarn, Bell Busk, Leeds; and 77 

Cromwell Boad, S.W. 
tMoRROGH, John, Lee Villa, Sundays Well Boad, Cork, 
MoRT, William, 1 Stanley Crescent, Notting Hill, W, 
MosENTHAL, Habrt, 23 Dawsou Place, Bayswater, W, 
MossB, James Robert, M.Inst.C.E., 6 Chiswick Place, Eastbourne, 
Muck, Fred A. E., Devonshire Club, St. Jameses Street, S.W, 
fMuiR, Robbrt, Heathlands, Wimbledon Common. 
MuNN, Winchester, Laverstoke, near Whitchurch, Hants. 
MuBE, Andbew, 9 Bean Park Crescent, Edinburgh. i 

fMuRRAY, Charles, Kylemore, Eton Avenue, Hampstead, N.W, 
Mtbrs, Alexander, 126 Sutherland Avenue, Maida Vale, W, 
Myers, Isaac, Thorganby, Westfield Boad, Edgbaston, Birmingham, 

tNAiRN, John, Garth House, Torrs' Park Boad, Bfracomhe, 

Napier of Magdala, Rt. Hon. Lord, 9 Lowndes Square, S,W.; and 

Carlton Club, Pall MaU, S.W. 
Nathan, Alfred N., 6 Hamsell Street, E.C. % 

Nathan, Louis A., Bashwood House, 9 New Broad Strut, E.C, 
Nathan, Captain Matthew, R.E., 11 Pembridge Square, W. 
tNAz, Hon. Sir Virgile, K.C.M.G., MX.C. {Port Louis, Mauritius), care 

of Messrs. Chalmers, Guthrie ^ Co., 9 Idol Lane, E.C. 
tNEAMB, Arthur, Woodlands, Selling, Faversham. 
Nbave, Edward S., 7 Great St. Helen's, E.C, 
Neil, William, 35 Walbrook, E.C, 
Neill, Harold, 8 Canning Place, Be Vere Gardens, W, 
fNEisH, WiLUAM, The Laws, Dundee; and Hogarth Club, Dover Street, W, 
Nelson, Sir Edward Montague, K.C.M.G., Hanger Hill House, Ealing, 


Digitized by 


Begident Fellows. 


Tear of 
























Nelson, Haeold, Hanger HiU Ebtcse^ Ealing, W. 

Ness, Gavin Paekeb, 19 Porchester Terrace, Hyde JParJc, W. 

Nestle, "William D., Royal London Yacht Clttb, 2 Savile Row, W, 

Neumann, Sigmund, 146 Piccadilly ^ W, 

tNswMABCH, John, 60 Wailing Street, E,C. 

NiCHOL, EoBEBT, 1 1 BunkUl Row, E. C, 

NiCHOLLS, Alfred M., 8 Courtfidd Gardens, 8. W. 

Nichols, Abthub, Bank of Egypt, 26 Old Broad Street, E.C. 

fNicHOLLS, Walter, White Rock, Canterbury, New Zealand. 

Nicholson, Sib Chables, Babt., The Grange, Totteridge, Herts, N. 

Nicholson, Daniel, 51 St, PauVs Churchyard, E.C. 

Niven, G-eobge, Commercial Bank of Australia, Limited, 1 Bishopsgate 

Street, E.C. 
fNivisoN, Robert, 8 Finch Lane, EC^ 
Norman, General Sir Henry W., G.O.B., G.C.M.G.., CLE., 85 

Onslow Gardens, 8.W» 
f North, Charles, Sun-Woodhouse, near Huddersfidd. 
North, Frederick William, F.G.S., 18 St. Swithin's Lane, E.C. 
fNoRTHBSK, Right Hon. the Earl of, 19 Herbert Crescent, Hans Place, 

NowLAN, John, A.M.In8t.C.E., Abercorn, Bolingbroke Grove, Wandsworth 

Common, S.W. 
Nugent, Colonel Sir Charles B. P. H., R.E., K.C.B., Junior United 

Service Club, Charles Street, S.W. 

Oliver, Frederick S., 1 Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 

Ommannet, Charles II., 3 Great Winchester Street, E.C, 

Ommanney, Sir Montagu F., K.C.M.G., Crown Agent for the Colonies, 

Downing Street, S. W. 
Onslott, Rt. Hon. the Earl of, G.C.M.G., 7 Richmond Terrace, White^ 

hall, S. W, ; and Clandon Park, Guildford. 
tOpPBNHEiM, Hermann. 

Oronhtatekha, Acland, M.D., 24 Charing Cross, S.W. 
tOsBORNB, Captain Frank, Moreton Morrell, Warwick. 
OstROROG, Count Stanislaus J., F.R.G.S., 17 Victoria Grove, Chelsea, 

Oswald, Wm. Walter, National Bank of Australasia, 123 Bishopsgate 

Street, E.C. 
Otwat, Right Hon. Sir Arthur John, Bart., 34 Eaton Square, S. W. ; 

and Athenaum Club, Pall Mall, S. W. 
Owen, E. Cunliffe, C.M.G., 11 Devonshire Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 
Owen, P. Berry, Beulah Spa Hotel, Upper Norwood, S.E. 
OxLEY, Jambs 0., 71 King William Street, E.C. 

Pace, David S., cfo Messrs. Walker Bros., 36 Basinghall Street, E.C. 
tPADDON, John, Suffolk House, 5 Laurence Pountney Hill, E.C, 
Palmer, Capt. Richard E., Oaklands Park, Newdigate, Surrey. 
Parbury, Charles, 3 De Vere Gardens, Kensington, W. 
fPARFiTT, Captain James L., 2 HumJber Road, Westcombe Park, Blacks 
heath, S.E. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

338 Boyd Colonial Institute. 

Year of 

1 879 Pabfitt, CiPTiLnf William, 26 Atkol Mansions, South Lambeth Road, S,E, 

1880 Pabk, W. C. Cunningham, 25 Lime Street, E,C. 

1886 Fabkbb, Abchibald, Camden Wood, Chislehttrst ; and 2 East India 
Avenue, KC, 

1889 fPABKEB, HeNBT, 

1893 tPABKiN,GK0BOB B.,M.A.,C.M.G., Upper Canada College, Toronto, Canada. 
1886 Pabkington, Major J. Bopee, J.P., 24 Crutdhed Friars, E.C, ; 6 Devon- 

shire Place, W, ; and United Service Cluh, Pall Mall, S.W. 

1897 PabBjRbv. Edwabd G. C, 1 Bolton Gardens, South Kensington, S,W. 
1888 Pastbub, Hbnbt, 19 Queen Street, Mayfair, W. 

18C9 Patbbson, John, 7 # 8 Australian Avenue, E.C. 

1886 t Patbbson, J. Glaistbb, 7 # 8 Australian Avenue, KC. 

1892 Paton, Libut.-CJolonel John, 4 Stanhope Place, Hyde Park, W,; and 
Reform Club, PaU Mall, S.W. 

1887 t^ATTBRSON, Mtles, 7 Egerton Gardens, S.W,; and Oriental Club, Han' 

over Square, W. 

1898 Pkxii, AuRnusfiy^B,,^! Chester Terrace, Regent' 8 Park, N,W, 

1881 Paul, Hbnby Moncbeifp, 12 Lansdowne Crescent, Nbtting HUl, W. 
1896 Paynb, Edwabd J., 2 Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

1880 Payne, John, 34 Coleman Street, E.C. ; and Park Grange, Sevenoaks. 

1881 ^Peace, Sib Walteb, K.C.M.G. {Agent- General for Natal), 26 Victoria 

Street, S.W. 

1877 Peacock, Gboege, 27 Milton Street, Fore Street, E.C. 

1886 t^EAKE, Gbobgb Heebebt, B.A., LL.B., Hooton Pagnell Hall, Doncaster. 

1887 Peabs, Walteb. 

1896 fpEAESON, Sib Weetman D., Baet., M.P., Paddockhurst, Worth, Sussex; 
and ]0 Victoria Street, S.W. 

1894 Pease, Alfbed John, J.P., 22 Corn Exchange Buildings, Manchester, 

1878 tI*EEK, Cuthbebt Edgab, 22 Belgrave Square, S.W. 

1883 tPEEK, Sib Henby W., Babt., Rousdon, Lyme Regis. 

1896 fPKMBEBTON, Majob Ernest, K.E., Royal Pier Hotel, Southsea; and 
United Service Cluh, PaU Mall, S.W. 

1 882 Pembebton, H. W., Trumpi7igton Hall, Cambridge. 

1894 Pendeb, John Denison, Eastern Telegraph Co., Winchester House, 60 Old 

Broad Street, E.C. 

1884 Penney, Edwabd C, 8 West Hill, Sydenham, S.E. 
1892 Pebceval, Sib Westby B., K.C.M.G., 11 Comhill, E.C. 

1890 Perkins, Henby A., 

1895 Peeks, Robebt Wm., M.P., A.M.Inst.C.E., 11 Kensington Palace 

Gardens, W. 
1880 Perbing, Charles, Oxford and Cambridge Cluh, Pall Mali, S.W. 
1882 Peters, Gobdon Donaldson, Moorfields, E.C. 

1879 fPETHEBicK, Edwabd A., 85 Hopton Road, Streatham, S.W. 

1 896 Phillimobe, Major W. G., Junior United Service Club, Charles Street, S. W. 
1884 f Phillips, Lionel, 33 Grosvenor Square, W. 

1896 Phillips, William A., Red Holme, Teddington. 

1897 PiCKEN, Andbew, Woodside, Greenock, N.B. 

1884 Pickeeing, William A., C.M.G., 64 Warwick Gardens ,Ketmngio», W. 
1897 Prrrs, Thomas, Local Government Board, Whitehall, S.W, 

1888 fPi-ANT, Edmund H. T., Charters Towers, Queensland, 

Digitized by 


Besidmt Fellows. 
















Fi.ETi>Eix^ T. 0-., JSast Sussex Club, 8L Leonards-on-JSea, 

PoLLAED, W. F. B., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 44 Belle Vue Road, Bamsgate, 

fPoNSONBT, Ebv. S. GrOEDON, The Bectory, Devon/port ; and 57 St. 

Jmneis Street , S»W, 
PooLB, John B., Tktdor Houses Hadlet/, New Bamet, 
tPooBB, Major R., 1 Carlyle Gardens, Chelsea, 8, W, 
PoBTEB; RoBBBT, Amholl, BrecMn, N,B. 
PosNO, Chables JAaxTEs, 7%e Woodlands, Grove Park, Lee, 8»E, ; and 

19 Finshury Circus, E*C, 
tPoTTEB, John Wilson, 2 Fenchureh Avenue, E,C, 
Vbaxd, Arthub Campbell, 75 Elm Park Gardens, 8,W. 
Prance, Beginald H., 2 Hercules Passage, E,C,; and The Ferns, Froynal, 

Hampstead, N,W, 
Prankerd, Percy J., 1 New Square, Lincoln* s Inn, W.C, 
Prankerd, Peter D., The Knoll, Sneyd Park, Clifton, Bristol, 
Pratt, J. J., 79 Queen Street, Cheapside, E,C, 

Preece, Wm. Henry, C.B., F.R.S., M.Iii8t.C.E., Gothic Lodge, Wimbledon* 
pRBviTB, Joseph "Weedon, Oak Lodge, Pond Boad, Blackheath, S,E, 
Price, Evan J., 27 Clement's Lane, E.C, 
Prince, John S., BoviUs Hall, Gazeley, Newmarket, 
Pritchard, Lieut.-General Gordon D., B.E., C.B., United Service 

Club, Pall MaU,8,W. 
Pbillbvitz, J. M., Margaret Lodge, 94 Finchley Boad, N.W. 
Probyn, Lesley Charles, 79 Onslow Square, 8, W, 
Proctor, Philip F., Colonial Bank, 13 Bishopsgate Street, E.C. 
Prynw, Fred, Messrs. Stuttaford ^ Co,, New Union St,, Moor Lane, E,C, 
Pdlbston, Sir John Henry, 2 Whitehall Court, 8, W, 
Purvis, Gilbert, 5 Bow Churchyard, E,C, 

Badcliffb, p. Copleston, Derriford, Crown Hill B,8,0. Devon; and 

Union Club, S,W, 
Radford, Alfred, 59 Queen^s Gardens, Hyde Park, W, ; and 4 Harcourt 

Buildings, Temple, E,C, 
Rainey, Major-General Arthur Macan, Trowscoed Lodge, Cheltenham, 
Rait, George Thomas, 70 ^ 71 Bishopsgate Street Within, E,C* 
Ralli, Pandbli, 17 Belgrave Square, S,W, 
Ramsay, Robert, Howletts, Canterbury, 
Ramsden, Richard, Chadmck Manor, Knowle, Warwickshire, 
Rand, Edward E., National Liberal Club, Whitehall Place, 8,W, 
tRANDALL, EuoENB T., c/o Commercial Bank of Sydney, 18 Birchin Lane^ 

Ranken, Peter, Fumess Lodge, East Sheen, Surrey, 
fRANKiN, Sir James, Bart., MJ*., 36 Ennismore Gardens, 8,W,; and 

Bryngwyn, Hereford, 
Rawes, Lieut.-Colonel "Wm. Woodward, R.A., Junior United Service 

Club, Charles Street, S,W. 
Raymond, Rev. C. A., The Vicarage, Bray, near Maidenhead, 
Readman, James Burgess, B.Sc, 4 Lindsay Place, Edinburgh, 
fRBAY, Rt. Hon. Lord, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., 6 Great Stanhope Street, W* 
Reeves, Hugh Wm., 67 Egerton Gardens, 8,W, i 

Digitized by^^OOQlC 

340 Boyal Colonial Institute. 

Year qI 

1896 Beeybs, Hon. Williau P. (AffenU General far New Zealand), 13 

Victoria Street, S.W. 

1889 Bbid, Majob-Gbnbbal A. T., Derby House j Victoria Boad, Norwood, S.E, 

1 896 Reid, David Boswbll, M.RC.S.E., 37 Robert Street, Hampstead Road, N, W. 
1893 Eennib, George B., 20 Lowndes Street, S. W, 

1883 Ebnnib, Gbobob Hall, 6 East India Avenue, E, C. 

1895 Bicabde-Seayeb, Majob Fbancis I., A.lD8t.C.£., F.G.S., 16 Grafton 

Street, W. ; and Athenaum Club, Pall Mall, S,W, 

1897 fl^iCHABDS, Hbkbt C, Q.C, M.P., 2 MUre Court Buildings, Temple, E.C. 

1890 fl^iCHABDS, Rev. W. J. B., D.D., St. Charles* College, St, Charles* slquare, 

North Kensington, W. 

1898 RicHABDSOK, Ebnald, J.P., Glanbrydan Park, Manordeilo, Carmarthen' 


1893 Richabdson, Jambs H., New Lodge, Hendon, N. W, 

1881 Ridley, William, MJnst.CJ:., F.G.S., Woodhatch, Mount Ephraim 
Road, Streatham, S,W. 

1896 RippoN, Joseph, 33, Old Broad Street, E,C. 

1891 RiviNGTON, W. John, *' British Trade Journal," 24 Mark Lane E.C. ; 

and 21 Gledhow Gardens, S,W. 

1894 RoBEBTS, G. Q., M.A. London Hospital, Whitechapel Road, E, 

1895 RoBBBTS, RicHAED Nbvill, 3 St, John*s Wood Park, N.W, 

1892 Roberts, Thomas Fbancis, Gower House, George Street, N,W. 

1884 Robbbts, Thomas Langdon, Rookhurst, Bedford Park, Croydon. 

1881 Robebtson, Campbell A., JDashwood House, 9 New Broad Street, E.C. ; 

and 11 Oakhill Park, Hampstead, N.W. 
1 869 Robinson, Major-General C. "W., C.B., Army ^ Navy Club, PallMaU, S. W. 
1878 Robinson, Sir WiLLLUf, G.C.M.G., 28 Evelyn Mansions, Carlisle Place, 

8. W; and Windham Club, St. James's Square, S. W, 
1889 Robinson, G. Crosland. 
1894 fRoBiNsoN, Joseph B., Dudley House, Park Lane, W.; and 1 Bank 

Buildings, Lothbury, E.C. 
1889 Robinson, Thomas B., Messrs, Mcllwraith McEacham ^ Co., 4 Lime 

Street Square, E.C. 

1896 RoBSON, Chables R., Batchaore Hall, Newport, Salop. 
1894 RocKB, Charles, 14 Denning Road, Hampstead, N,W. 

1897 Rogers, John Warrington, Kirklands, Headley, Hants; and Oxford 

4- Cambridge Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 
1886 ' RoLLO, William, 5 Stanley Gardens, Kensington Park, W, 

1885 Rome, Robert, 45 Dover Street, Piccadilly, W. 
1896 Rome, Thomas, New Club, Cheltenham. 

1888 t^^oNALD, Byron L., 14 Upper PUllimore Gardens, W. 

1876 Ronald, R. B., Pembury Grange, near Tunbridge Wells. 
1888 Roper, Freeman, M.A. Oxon., 32 Great St. Helens, E.C. 

1878 ^RosB, B. Lancaster, 1 Cromwell Road, South Kensington, S.W. 

1879 Rose, Charles D., 10 Austin Friars, E.C. 

1881 t^osEBBRY, Right Hon. the Earl op, K.G., K.T., 38 Berkeley Square, 

W. ; and Dalmeny, near Edinburgh, N,B, 
1891 Ross, ALEXAia)BR, St. Kierans, Lawrie Pa/rk Road, Sydenham, S,E. 
1888 Ross, Captain Gbobge E. A., F.G.S., 8 Collingham Gardens, S.W. ; and 

Junior Carlton Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

Digitized by V^f OOQ IC 

Resident Fellows, 341 

Tear of 

1886 Boss, Hugh C, Standard Bank of South Africa, 10 Clement' a Lane, E,C, 

1880 Bobs, John, Morven, North Hill, Highgate, N, ; and 63 Finsbury Pave^ 

mentf E,C, 

1882 Boss, J. Gbaftok, Oriental Club, Hanover Square, W. 

1881 'SLoTa,^.'LssQ,Z2Pre8cott Street, Halifax, 

1894 BoTHWBLL, Gbobge, 5 Throgmorton Avenue, E,C. 

1889 BoTDs, Crjlblbs Jambs, Windham CM, St. James's Square, S,}f, 

1890 BoTDS, Edmund M., Windham Club, Si, James's Square, S. W, 
1 898 BuDD, a?HOMAs, Aihenaum Club, Pall Mall, S,W, 

1892 BuMNET, Howard, F.B.G.S., 17 and 18 Basinghall Street B.C.; and 

Devonshire Club, St, James's Street, S,W, 
1879 BussELL, P. N., Junior Carlton Club, Pall Mall, S,W, ; and 66 Queens- 
borough Terrace, W. 

1895 BussBLL, BoBBBT C, 25 Down Street, W, 

1875 BussBix, Thomas, Haremere, Etchingham, Sussex, 

1878 BussBLL, Thomas, CM.a., 59 Eaton Square, S,W. 

1898 BussBLL, Thomas J., London ^ Westminster Bank, 41 Lothbury, E,C, 

1875 BussBix, T. Pubvis, Warroch, Milnathort, Kinross-shire, NtB. 

1879 fl^ussKix, T. B., 18 Church Street, Liverpool, - 

1891 BussBix, Wm. Cecil, Haremere, Etchingham, Sussex, 

1889 BuTUBBFO&D, H. K,, Pohnont, Kenley, Surrey, 

1866 Saalfbld, Alfbhd, 38 Eveij/n Mansions, Carlisle Plan, 8,W, 

1881 fSAiixABD, Philip, 87 AldersgaU Street, E.C, 

1890 Salmon, Edward G., 1 Ths Triangle, St. QuinUn's Avemu, W, 
1874 Samubl, Sm Saul, Babt., K.O.M.a., C.B., 34 Nevem Square, S. W. 

1893 Sandbman, Albert G., Presdales, JVd^^' 

1897 fSANDEMAN, LiBUT.-CoLONBL GsoRGB G., 34 GrosvcnoT Gardens, S,W, 
1874 f Sanderson, John, BuUer's Wood, Chislehurst, Kent, 

1887 Sandover, William, 29 Great St. Helens, E.C, 
1873 Sassoon, Arthur, 12 Leadenhall Street, E.C. 

1891 f Saunders, Frederic J., FJI.G.S., Cambridge Houss, Harmondsworth, 


1898 Savage, Percy H., Pinecrojt, Weybridge, 

1885 Savage, Wm. Fredk., Blomfidd House, London Wall, E,C, 
1897 Savill, Walter, 9 Queen's Gardens, West Brighton, 

1883 fSAWYEB, Ernest E., M.A., C.E., Hilhouse, Woking, 

1895 ScAMMBLL, Edward T., Broad Street House, E.C. 

1885 tScABTH, Lbveson E., M.A., Elms Lea, Cleveland Walk, Bath. 

1877 ScsiFF, CoASLBS, 22 Lowndes Square, S.W, 

1896 ScHLicH, WiLUAM, Ph. D., C.I.E., Cooper's Hill College, Egham. 

1897 Schmidt, Bobert F. W., Ph.D., F.B.G.S., 2 Baron's Court Terrace, West 

Kensington, W. 
1889 ScHOLET, J. Cranbfield, Boyal Thames Yacht Club, Albemarle Street, W. 

1882 ScHWABACHBR, SiEGFRiED, 86 St, Jamss's Street, S.W. 

1885 ScHWARTZB, G. E. B., M.A., Trinity Lodge, Beulah Hill, S,E, ; and 

Conservative Club, St. James's Street, S. W, 
1879 ScLANDERS, ALEXANDER, 10 Ccdars Boad, Clapham Common, S,^, 

1884 Sconce, Captain G. Colquhoun, Board of Trade Office, Custom House, 


Digitized by 


342 Boyal Oohniai InstiMs. 

Year of 




SooTTy AmuwAV, 8 O^ord Square, Hyde Park, W. 
Soon, Ain>BBW, City Central Hotd, Nnoyate Street, E,C. 
Scott, Archtbat.t) E., Park Cottage, East Sheen, S.W,; and United 
University Club, Pail Mall East, S.W. 

1886 ScoTTy Ohablbs J., Hilgay, Guildford. 

1885 SoouBFiELD, BoBBBT, HiU House, Llanstephan, Carmartkenshir$t 
1893 SoBXTTTONy Jaiois Herbbbt, 9 Graoeokureh Street, E,C, 
1881 Sklbt, Pbidbaxjx, Koroit, Chepstow Boad, Croydon. 
1892 Sblulb, Jaxes Andbbsoit, Woodparh, Lewisham Park Crescent, SJS,; mid 
36 BasinghaU Street, E.C. 

1891 SncFLB, Jambs 0., F.RGJ3., 2 Marine Terrace, Kingstown, Dublin, 

1887 SsiiiOBy Edwabd Nassau, 147 Cannon Street, E,C, 
1871 Sbbooold, G. Fbabcb, 156 Sloane Street, S,W, 

1898 Sbttlb, Colonbl Hbmbt H., B.E., G.B., D.S.O., United Service Omb, 
PaU Mall, S.W. 

1888 SHAifD, Jambs, MJnstCE., Parkhohne, Elm Park Gardens, S.W.; and 

75 Upper Ground Street, S,E. 
1888 Shand, Johw Loudoun, 24 Bood Lane, E,C. 
1896 Shaiiks, Abthub, M.InstG.E., FairmUe Lea, Cchham, Surrey. 

1892 Shaxtnon, Abchibald, care of Scottish Australian Investment Co^ 50 Old 

Broad Street, KC. 

1891 Shabfb, W. E. Thompson, M.P., 11 Ladbroke Square, Netting HiU, W. 

1892 Shelpobd, William, M.Inst.C.£., 35a Great George Street, Westm^iuter, 

1885 Shbblock, Wuxum H., Beecheroft, Hopton Boad, Streatham, S.W* 

1893 Shbbwood, N., Dunedin, Streatham Hill, S. W. 

1880 fSHipPABD, Sib Sidmbt 0. A., K.OJLa., 15 West Halkin Street, S.W., # 

Union Club, Trafalgar Square, S,W. 
1874 SmpffTBB, Hbbbt F., 87 Kensington Gardens Square, W. ; and Conserva- 
tive Club, St. James's Street, S.W. 

1887 t^HiBB, Bobbbt W., 6 jLnerley Park, S.E. 

1883 Shobt, Qhablbs, Cffiee of" The Argus," 80 Fleet Street, E.C. 
1885 SiDBT, Ghabubs, 23 Harrington Gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 

1884 SnxBM, John Hbnbt, Southlands, Esher, Surrey; and Junior OerUon 

Club, S.W. 

1883 fSiLTBB, Colonbl Huoh A., Jhbey Lodge, Chislehurst. 
1868 tSiLVBB, S. W., 3 York Gate, Begenfs Park, N.W. 

1885 Bm, Majob-Gbnbbal Edwabd Cotsoabnb, E.E., 69 St. EmMs Mansions, 

Victoria Street, S.W, ; and United Service CM, S.W. 

1884 t^^iMMONS, Fdbld-Mabshal Sm Lintobn, Gt.CB., a.C.M.G., 36 Cornwall 

Gardens, S.W. ; and United Service aub, Ptill Mall, S.W. 

1881 Simpson, Gommandbb H. Q., B.N., care of Messrs. Burnett ^ Co., 123 Pall 

Mall, S.W. 

1 883 tSiMPSoN, Subgbon-Majob Fbanc, Naval and Military Club, PiccadSly W. 

1884 Sinclaib, Abthxtb, Ashfield, Cults, Aberdeen, N.B. 

1888 SiNGLAiB, Augustine W., L.B.GJ*., LJI.G.S. (Edin.), Ivy Lodge, South 

Petherton, Somerset. 

1885 SiNCLAiB, Dayid, 2 Eliot Bank, Forest Hill, S.E.; and 19 Silver Street, 


1894 ^9iwcLAiB, NoBMAN A., 11 St. George's Boad, S.W. 

Digitized by 


Besidmt Fellows. 343 

Tear of 
















Skdinbb, William Banks, Btuhdene, Park Bill, Ealing, W. 

Sladb, Geoboe, Bush Lane HousCy Bush Lane, E,C. 

f Sladb, Hbnby G., F.R.G.S., Groavenor Club, New Bond Street, W. 

Sladbn, St. Bab&b Eussbll, Heathfield, Beigate, 

fSMABT, Fbancis G., M.A., Bredhury, Tunhridge Wells, 

SmTHy Albzandbb Dawson, 5 Belmar Terrace, PoUokshields, (Glasgow. 

Smith, Sib Cbcil Olbmenti, G.CM.G^ The Garden Houte, Wheat'' 

hampsiead, 8t, Albam, 
fSMiTH, D. JoHNSTONB, 149 Wett George Street ^ Glasgow, 
Smith, Sib Fbancis ViLLBNBuyB, 19 Harrmgton Garden$, South Kmmng" 

ton, S,W. 
Smith, Henbt Gabdnbb, Tinio, KiUieser Avenue, Streaiham Hill, S, W, 
Smith, Jambs Wiluah* Stromneu, Orkney ; and National lAUrtd Chb, 

Whitehall Place, S,W. 
Smith, John, 2 Aldermanbury Postern, E.C, 
fSMiT H, JosBFH J., Wells Eouse, Ilkley, Yorkshire, 
S3Iith7Bichabi> Tildbn, 158 LeadenhaU Street, E,C, 
Smith, Samuel, M.P., Carleton, Princes Park, Liverpool ; and 11 Bslahay 
;^ Street, S,W. 

Smith, Thomas, 43 Mount Park Crescent, Ealing, W, 
Smith, Waltbb F., 37 Boyal Exchange, KC. 
Smith, William, J,V,,lSundon House, Clifton, Bristol. 
Smtth-Bbwsb, Eustacb A., ConserwiHw Club, St. James's Street, S.W. 
Smyth, Gembbal Sib Hbnbt A., K.C.M.G., 7^e Lodge, Stone, Aylesbury. 
Smtth, Hbbbbbt Wabinoton, 5 Invemeu Terrace, W, 
Smtth, Rey. Stbwabt, St. Marias Vicarage, Silvertown, S. 
fSoMBBYiLLB, Abthub Fownes, Binder House, Wells, Somerset; and 

Osford and Cambridge Club, Pall MaU, S. W. 
SoFEB, Wm. Gabland, B.A., J.F., Harestone, Caterham Valley; and 

Devonshire CM, St. Jame^s Street, S.W, 
Spanibb, Adolf, 114 Fellows Boad, N.W, 
Spbncb, Edwin J., Wyhaugh, King Charles Boad, Surbiion, 
Spbncb, CoMunu John, 15 Victoria Park, Dover, 
Spbncbb, T. Sdwabd, 9 Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
Spbns, Bbqinald Hopb ; W.S., 30 Gt. George Street, Westminster, S.W, 
Spbnslby, Howabd, F.R.G.S., 4 Bolton Gardens West, S.W, 
Spicbb, Albbbt, M.P., 10 Lancaster Gate, W.; and Brancepeth House, 

Woodford, Essex, 
Sfibbs, Felix William, 68* Lowndes Square, S. W. 
SpmauL, Abthub, 49 Greenoroft Gardens, West Hampstead, N. W, 
Sfoonhb, Chablbs H., Queen Ann£s Mansions, S, W, ; and 1 1 Poultry, E, C, 
Spottiswoodb, Geobob a., 3 Cadogan Square, S. W, 
fSPBOSTON, Huoh, ClairvoAix, Plaistow Lane, Bromley, Kent. 
SpBOfiTON, Mannino K., Cloirvaux, Plaistow Lane, Bromley, Kent, 
Squibb, Bey. Gboboe Mbylbb, M.A., Clothall Bectory, Baldock, Herts, 
Stafpobd, Sib Edwabd W., G.C.M.G., 69 Chester Square, S.W, 
Stalby, T. p., 2 Fenchurch Avenue, E.C. 

Stamfobd, Biqht Hon. the Eabl of, 15 St. James's Place, S.W. 
Stanfobd, Edwabd, Jun., 26 Cockspur Street, S,W, 
fSTANFOBD, William, 13 Long Acre, W.C. 

Digitized by 


344 Royal Colonial Institute, 

Year of; 

1886 ( fSTANLBT, Walvslet, M.Inst.C.E., The Knawle, Leigham Court Boad^ 

Streatham, S.W, 
1883 Stanmorb, Right Hon. Lord, G.C.M.G., 10 Sloane Gardens, 8,W, ; and 
The Bed House, Ascot. 

1876 Stabkb, J. Or, Hamiltok, M.A., F.S.A. (Scot.), Troqueer Holm, near Dum' 

fries, N,B, 
1896 Stablbt, John K., Barr Hill, Coventry, 
1875 Stein, Andrew, Broomfield, Copers Cope Boad, Beckenham, 
1894 Stephenson, Eowland Macdonald, 21 Kensington Gardens Square, W. ; 

and Oriental Club, Hanover Square, W, 
1891 Stephenson, Thomas, North Stainley Holly Bipon, 
1896 Stevens, Charles W., 16 Great St Helens, E,C, 

1882 Stewart, Charles W. A., care of Messrs, Maiheson ^ Grant, 13 WaU 

brook, E.C, 

1888 Stewart, Edward C, care of Messrs, J, ^ B, Morison, Blaekfriars 

Street, Perth, N,B. 

1 887 Stewart, Eobbrt, Ctdgruff, Crossmichael, N,B, ; and Army and Navy Club, 

Pall Mall, S.W. 
1881 Stewart, Robert M., 28 Finsbury Street, E,C, 

1874 fSTiRLiNG, Sir Charles E. F., Bart., Glorat, Milton oj Campsie 

N,B, ; OMd Junior Carlton Club, Pall Mall, S.W, 
1881' Stirling, J. Archibald. 

1877 Stone, Frederick W., B.C.L., Holms HiU House, Bidye, Bamet ; and 

10 New Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C, 
1891 Stonbham, Allbn H. P., Messrs, Monkhouse, Goddard ^* Co., 28 St, 

Swithin's Lane, E.C.; and HaulJcerton, Long Ditton. 
188t t^TOW, F. S. Philipson, Blackdown House, Haslemere, Surrey; and 

Union Club, Trafalgar Square, S. W. 

1 875 t^TRANGWATs, FoN. H. B. T., Shapwick, Bridgwater, Somerset, 

1873 fSTRATHcoNA AND MouNT RoYAL, RiQHT HoN. LoRD, G.C.M.G. {High 

Commissioner for Canada), 17 Victoria Street, S,W, 
1898 Street, Arthur, 5 Serle Street, Lincoln's Inn, W.C, 
1880 fSTREET, Edmund, MUlfieldLane, Highgate Bise, N, 

1883 Strickland, Oliver Roper, Hampsfield, Putney, S.W, 

1888 tSrsuBEN, Frederick P. T., Kya Lami, Torquay, 

1884 Stuart, John, F.R.G.S., 20 Bucklersbury, E.C. 

1886 f Stuart, Walter, Kingledores, Broughton, Peebleshire. 

1894 Stucket, Leonard Cecil, 270 King's Boad, Chelsea, S. W. 

1887 Stuhges, E. M., M.A., StanlaJce Park, Twyford, Berks, 

1896 Sturt, Major-General Charles S., The Dinadors, Badipole, eymouth, 

1895 Sturt, Colonel Napier G., Llanvihangel Court, near Abergavenny, 
1891 Sutton, Arthur Warwick, Bucklebury Place, Woolhampton, Berks. 
1891 Sutton, Leonard, Hazelwood, Beading, 

1896 SonoN, M. H. Foquett, Wargrave Manor, Berks, 
1896 Sutton, Martin J., Wargrave Manor, Berks, 
1883 Swanzy, Francis, 147 Cannon Street, E.C, 

1895 Sweet, Thomas George, 4 Bavensbourne Park, Catford, S,E. 

1889 Swift, Dean, Steynsdorp, 100 Highbury New Park, N, 

1889 tSYKEs, George H., M.A., M. Inst. C.E., Glencoe, Tooting Common, 


Digitized by 


Resident Fellows, 345 

Year of 
















fSYKES, EoBBBT D., Croum Hotel, Leamington, 
Symons, G. J., F.R.S., 62 Camden Square, KW. 

Talbot, Majob-Oekebal the Hon. Bbginald, C.B., 68, Grosvenor 

Street, W. 
fTALLBNTS, Gbobob Wm., B.A., 62 'E^nismore Gardens, BJW, 
Tangtb, Ghoegb, Heathfield Hall, Handsworth, Birmingham; and 85 

Qaem Victoria Street, E.C. 
Tangyb, Sib Richabd, Gilbertstone, Kingston Vale, Putney, 8, W, ; and 

36 Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 
Tanneb, J. Edwabd, C.M.G., M.Inst.C.E., 91 Warwick Boad, Earfs 

Court, S,W, 
Tatlob, E. B. a., C.M.G., Wyvernhoe, ClifionvUle, Margate. 
Tatlob, Ebnbst G. 

Tatlob, Hugh L., 23 PhiUimore Gardens, W, 
Taylob, Inglis, M.B., r.R.C.S.E., 20 Montpelier Boad, Ealing, W, ; and 

5 Bulstrode Street, W, 
Taylob, Jambs B., Badanloch, Kinbrace, Sutherland, N.B, 
Taylob, J. V. Elliott, 14 Cockspur Street, S,W, ; and 6 Heathfield Boad, 

Wandsworth Common, S»W, 
fTAYLOB, Theodobb C, Suuny Bank, Batley, Yorkshire, 
Tee, John Fbancis, 16a Limes Boad, Croydon. 
ITennant, Hon. Sib David, K,C.M.G. (Agent- General for the Cape of 

Good Hope), 112 Victoria Street, S.W. 
Tbnnant, Bobebt, Bojjey, Horsham. 
Tebby, John H., 7 Bavenscroft Park, High Bamet. 
fTBw, Hbbbbbt S., Lansdowne Lodge, Westbrook, Worthing, 
Thomas, James Lewis, F.S.A., F.R.G.S., Thatched House Club, St, 

James's; and 26 Gloucester Street, Warwick Square, S.W, 
Thomas, John, 18 Wood Street, E.C. 

*Thompson, Sib E. Maundb, K.C.B., LL.D., British Museum, W.C. 
Thompson, E. Eussell, Trinity Bonded Tea Warehouses, Cooper's Bow, 

Crutched Friars, E. C. 
Thompson, E. Symbs, M.D.. F.R.C.P., 33 Cavendish Square, W, 
tTnoMPSON, Sydney, Wood Bene, Sevenoaks. 
Thomson, Albxandeb, Bartholomew Home, E.C. 
Thomson, Alexandrb, 27 Mincing Lane, E.C. 
Thomson, J. Duncan, The Old Bectory, Aston, Stevenage, Herts; and 

St. Peter's Chambers, Comhill, E.C. 
Thobne, William, Messrs. Stuttaford ^ Co., Ne^n Union Street, Moor 

Lane, E.C; and Busdon, Bondebosch, Cape Colony. 
f Thobnton, Chables, 1 Mount Street, Chrosvenor Square, W. 
Thbupp, Leonabd W., 10 Anglesea Terrace, St. Leonards-on-Sea, 
Thwaites, Hawtbey, 27 Bramham Gardens, S. W. 
TiLLiB, Albxandeb, Maple House, Ballard's Lane, Finchley, N. 
TiMSON, Samuel Rowland, care of Messrs, W. Cooper Sf Nephews, Berk* 

tTiNLiKE, Jambs Maddbb, The Grange, Bockbearc, near Exeter, 
Tippetts, William J. B., 2 Nevem Boad, South Kensington, S.W.; and 

11 Maiden Lane, E.C, 

Digitized by 


346 Boyai Oolonial Institute. 

Year of 

1886 Y£oj), HsimT, cjo Ceylon Tea Plantatiom Co,, 20 Ea$tekeaf, E.C, 
1882 ToMKiMSON, Gbobob Abnold, B^, LL.6., 16 Pall MaU East, 8.W. 
1884 ToBLBSSB, CoMMANDBB Abthub W., B.N., oare of Mesere. Wbodhead ^ Co,, 

44 Charing Cross, 8,W, 
1884 tTowN, Hbnbt, Danmark Villa, Old Boad, Gravesend, 

1897 TowKBND, Thokas S., Oaklea, Church Boad, ShortUmds, Kent. 
1892 TowxBOSfD, Ghabubs, J.P., St. Man/'s, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

1887 TozBB, HoK. Sib Hobacb, KC.M.a. (Ageni-efeneral for Queensland), 

1 Victoria Street, S,W. 
1884 tTBAYEBS, JoHX AicoBT, Lomsy House, Wepbridge, Surrey. 

1884 Tbill, Obobgb S., Lowood, Crystal Palace Park Boad, Sydemham, 8JL 

1885 Tbindbb, Oliybb J., 4 St, Mary Axe, E.C, 

1886 Tbittok, J. Hbbbbbt, 54 Lombard Street, E. C. 

1898 Tudhofb, Hon. John, Johannesburg Consolidated Investment Co,, lAm,, 

10 Austin Friars, E,C. 
1885 TuBKBrix, Bobbbt Thobbubk, 5 East India Avenue, EC, 

1885 TuBNEB, GoBDON, Coloniol Bank, 13 Bishopsgate Street, EC, 
1896 Tttstin, J. E., 156 Denmark HiU, 8.E. 

1 896 TwBEDDALB, MosT HoK. THB Mabqxtis OF, 6 HUl Street, Berkeley S^[uare, W. 
1891 TwBBDiB, David, 73 BasinghaU Street, EC, 

1886 TwTNAH, Obobob E., MJ)., 31 Gledhow Gardens, South Kensington^ 8.W. 
1898 Ttsbb, Hbnby Ebskihb, 16 Fenchurch Avenue, E,C. 

1897 Ttseb, WnxiAM H., 16 Fenchurch Avenue, EC, 






Ulcoq, CLEMBirr J. A., 22 Pembridge Gardens, W, 

Valbmtinb, Chables B., Whitdiffe, Grove Park, Lee, S.E, 

tVAiENTiNB, Hugh Sutbkkland, Wellington, New 2jealand. 

Van Etn, Jacobus, 64 Laneasier Gate, W, 

Vauohan, B. Wyndham, M.In8t.C.£., 16 Dry Hill Park Boad, Tonbridge, 

Kent; and Broad Street Avenue, E,C. 
Vautik, Glaudb, 28 BastughaU Strut, E,C, 
Vaux, William E., c\o Messrs, Bulloch Bros. ^ Co., 13 Fenchurch Avenue, 

Vbitch, Jambs A., Fysche Hall, Knaresborough. 
Vebnon, Hon. Fobbbs G. (Agent- General for British Columbia), 39 

Victoria Street, S.W. 
tViHCBNT, SmC. E.HowABD, C.B., M.P., 1 Grosvenor Square, W. 
Vincent, J. E. Matthbw, -ffyc^ Park Court, S.W. 
Vine, Sib J. B. Sombbs, C.K.a., 85 Barkston Gardens, S.W. 
Von Haast, Heinbich E., 66 Tedvjorth Square, Chelsea, S.W. 
Voss, Hebmann, Anglo-Continental Guano Works, 15 Leadenhall St., E.C, 

1884 Waddington, John, Eay Grange, Frant, Tunbridge Wells, 

1881 Wade, Gbcil L., Middleton House, Longparish, Hants, 

1884 Wadb, Nuoent Chablbs, 128 Mount Street, Grosvenor Square, W* 

1897 Wadham, Wm. Joseph, 5 Halkyn Boad, Flookersbrook, Chester, 

1879 Wakefield, Chables M., F.L.S., Behnoni, Uxbridge, 

1878 Wales, H.B.H. The Pbincb of, KG., K,T., KJ„ G.CBm G.CSX, 
a.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., Marlborough House, S.W. ^ 

Digitized by 


Resident Fellows. 


Year of 














Walks, Douglas W., 145 Palmeraton Buildimffs, ELC. 

Walkbr, Edmund, 65 De 'Pwrys Avenue, Bedford,, 

Walkbb, Fbank, The Avenue, Upper Norwood, 8,E, ; nnd 86 JBaainghall 
Street, KC, 

tWALKBR, Henbt db BosEifBACHy 23 CotJc Street, W. 

tWALKBB, BoBBBT J., F.B.0.S., F.B.HistJ3., OmUdale, KniffkUm Park 
Boad, Leicester, 

Walkbe, Russbll D., North VUla, Park Boad, Begenfs Park, NW. 

Wallace, Lawbbncb A., A.M.Inst.C.E., 18 Bwmt Ash Hill, Lee, S,E, ' 

Wallace, T. S. Do^wicino, Heronfield, Potters Bar, 

Wallbe, William N., The Qrove, Bealings, Woodbridge, St^olk. 

Wallis, H. Botd, GraylandSf near Horsham, 

Walpolb, Sm Obablbs Qc,, Broadford, Chobham, Woking, 

Waltham, Edwabd, F.E.G.S., Wolsingham House, 45 Christohvrch Boad, 
Streatham Hill, 8,W, 

Wabbubton, Samuel, 152 Bedford HiU, Balham, 8,W. 

Wabd, J. Gbipkn, J.P., The Manor House, Botherhy, Leicester, 

Wabing, Fbakcis J., C.M.G., MJnst.C.E., Uva Lodge, Mount Avenue, 
Haling, W, 

Wabbbn, LiBUT.-GhnrBBAL Sib Ghablbs, B.E., G-.C.M.G., K.C.B., 
Government House, Chatham, 

WatbbhousB; Hon. G. H., Hawthomden, Torquay, 

fWATEBHousE, Lbokabd, BavenhuTst, St, John's Boad, Eastbourne, 

Watbbhousb, p. Leslie, M.A., A.R,I.B.A., 9 Staple Inn, Holbom, W,C, 

Watkiks, Chablbs S. C, Ivg Bank, Mayfield, Sussex, 

fWATSOK, Colonel Chablbs M., R.E., C.M.G., 43 Ihurloe Square, S,W. 
Watson, S. Habtlbt, The Manor House, White Waltham, Berks, 
Watson, William Colling, 10 Lyndhursi Boad, Hampstead, N,W,: 

and 15 Leadenhall Strmt, KC, 
fWATT, Hugh, Grosvenor Club, New Bond Street, W. 
tWATTB, John, Allendale, Wimbome, Barest, 
Weatheblbt, Chablbs H., Messrs, Cooper Bros, f ^^v ^^ George Street, 

Mansion House, E,C. 
Webb, Hbnbt B., Holmdale, Dorking, Surrey. 
Wbbb, William, Newstead Abbey, near Nottingham, 
Wbbstbb, H. Cabtick, 10 Huntly Gardens, HUlhead, Glasgow, 
Webstbb, Captain Matthbw P., Orotava House, Brondesbury, N. W, ; and 

Junior Athenasum Club, Piccadilly, W, 
Wbbstbb, Bobebt Gbant, M.P., 83 Belgrave Boad, S,W, 
Weddel, Patbick G.. 16 St, Helenas Place, E,C, 
Wbddbl, William, 16 St, Helen's Place, E.C, 
Wbioht, Jambs W., English and Foreign Debenture Corporation, 2 Moor* 

gate Street, E,C, 
Wbld-Blundell, Hbnbt, Lulworth Castle, Wareham, 
f Wblstead, Lbonabd, HoTne Place, Battle. 
Wbmyss and Mabch, Right Hon. thb Eabl of, 23 St, James's Place 

West, James, M.I.M.E. 

West, Rev. Hbnbt M., M.A., Saeombe Bectory, Ware, 
Wbstbbn, Chablbs R., Broadway Chambers, Westminster, S. W, 

Digitized by 


848 Royal Colonial Institute. 


1896 Wbsthbn, Ebv. William T., MjI., BartUm Bectory, Cambridge. 
1888 Westok, Dyson, 138 LeadenhaU Street, E.C. 

1897 fWBSTBAY, Jameb B., 138 LeadenhaU Street, E. C, 

1877 Wbthbbell, William S., 79 Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 

1880 Whabton, Hbnbt, 19 Beaufort Gardens, S. W. 

1888 Whbblbb, Abthub H., A&henground^ Hay wards Heath; and 188 Strand, 


1878 Whbblbb, Chablbs, 1 Via ddle Porto Nuovo, Florence, Italy, 

1897 Whblak, Chables J., Great Eastern House, Bishopsgate St, Without, E.C. 

1881 Whitb, Lbedham, 16 Wetherby Gardens, S.W. 

1892 White, Montagu {Consul- General for the TransvaaV), Amberley House, 

Norfolk Street, W.C. 
1885 fWHiTE, Ebv. W. Moobe, LL.D., The Vicarage, Pokesdown, Bournemouth. 

1897 Whittle, Jambs Lowby, 2 Brick Court, Temple, E. C. 

1898 Whitney, Edwabd U., 21 Nicosia Boad, Wandsworth Common, S.W, 
1896 Whittindale, J. Gbiffiths, L.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Lime House, Bishops 

Waltham, Hants. 

1882 Whyte, Eobebt, 6 Milk Street Buildings, E.C, 

1893 WiCKHAM, Bbginald W., Millthorpe, Horsham. 

1885 WmNHOLT, Edwabd, WeUisford Manor, Wellington, Somerset. 

1894 WiGAN, Jambs, J. P., Cromwell House, Mortldke, 8.W. 

1896 f WiLKiNS, Thomas, 19 Lyndhurst Boad, Beckham, 8.E. ; and 21 Great St. 
Helens, E.C. 

1889 Wilkinson, Richabd G., Bank of Adelaide, 11 Leadenhall Street, E.C. 

1885 WiLLANS, Wm. Hbnby, 23 Holland Park, W. ; and High Cliffe, Beaton, 

1896 WiLLATS, Hbnby E., Lydia Lodge, Stradella Boad, Heme Hill, 8.E.; amd 
Claringbold Cottage, St. Peter's, Kent. 

1883 WiLLcocKS, Gbobge Wallbb, MJn8t.0.K, Glenhrae, Valley Boad, 

Streatham, S.W. 

1895 Williams, His Honoub Mb. Justice Conde (of Mauritius), 4 Park 

Crescent, Worthing, 

1 895 Williams, Colonel Eobebt, M.P., 1 Hyde Park Street, W, ; and Bridehead, 


1888 Williams, Walteb E., 6 Raymond Buildings, Gray's Inn, W.C. 

1896 Williams, Eev. Watkin W., St. Augustine's College, Canterbury ; and 

Savile Club, Piccadilly, W. 

1889 fWiLUAMSON, Andbbw, 27 ComhiU, E.C. 

1887 tWiLUAMsoN, John P. G., Bothesay House, Bichmond, S.W, 

1874 Wills, Geobge, 3 Chapel Street, Whitecross Street, E,C. 

1896 Wills, J. Hbnby, 3 Chapel Street, Whitecross Street, E.C. 

1886 Wills, John Tayleb, B.A., Q^een Anne's Mansions, S.W, ; and 2 Kingi*e 

Bench Walk, Temple, E.C. 
1891 Wilson, Eev. Bebnabd E., M.A., St. Matthew's Bectory, Bethnal Green, 

1898 Wilson, Hbnby F., 35 Kensington Square, W. 
1886 tWiLSON, John, 51 Courtfield Gardens, S.W. 
1889 Wilson, J. W., Elmhurst, Kenley, Surrey, 
1898 Wittenoom, Hon. Edwabd H. (Agent- General for Western Australia), 

15 Victoria Street, S.W. 

Digitized by 










BesidmfJPellows. 349 

tWoLFF, H.E. Eight Hon. Sib Hbnbt Dbummond, G.O.B., a.CM.G., 

The British Embasst/f Madridf Spain; and Carlton Club, Pall Mall, 

Wolf, Waltbb Hbnby, 21 Mincing Lane, E,C. 
Wood, Alfbed, The Tyrol^ Church Boad, Upper Norwood, 8»E, 
Wood, 0boboe, The Oaks, Cambridge Hood, Teddington, 
Wood, Thomas Lett, 41 Cathcart Road, South Kensington, 8,W.; United 

University Club, Pall Mall East, S. W, 
WooDALL, CoBBBT, C.E., 95 Polacc Chamhers, Westminster, 8»W. 
fWooDS, Abthub, 8 St, Martinis Place, W,C, 
WooDWABD, James E., BerUy House, Bickley, 
WooDWABD,R. H. W., M.A., Titan Barrow, Bathford, Bath; and Junior 

Carlton Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 
tWooLLAN, Benjamin M., Fairfield Lodge, Addison Poad, W, 
fWooLLAN, Fbank M., Winchester House, E,C 
WoBSFOLD, W. Basil, M.A.., 2 Pump Court, Temple, E»C» 
Wobthington, Geobob. 

Wbight, Alfbed, Bessingby Hall, Bridlington, Yorks, 
Wbight, Henbt, 35 Parliament Street, S. W, 
Wbight, Lee, BA., 49 Holland Road, W, 

Wylde, John h\, 38a Granville Gardens, Shepherd's Bush Green, W. 
Wtllib, Habvey, Balgownie, Blyth Road, Bromley, Kent, 
Wtndham, Qbobgb, M.P., 35 Park Lane, W. 
Wynteb, Andbbw Ellis, M.D., M.R.C.S., Corner House, Bechenham, 

Yabdlby, Samuel, C.M.G., New South Wales Government Office, 9 Victoria 

Street, S.W, 
Yates, Leopold, Southwell House, Southwell Gardens, S. W, 
Yebbtjbgh, Kobbbt a., M.P., 25 Kensington Gore, S.W, 
YoBK, H.E.H. theDuke of, K.G., K.P., York House, St. Jame^s Palace, S. W. 
YouL, Sib James A., K.C.M.G., Waratah* House, Clapham Park, S.W. 
Young, Edwabd Bueney, 35 Walbrook, E.C. 
Young, Edwabd G. 
fYouNG, Sib Fbedebick, K.C.M.G., 5 Queensberry Place, South Kensing^ 

ton, S.W, 
Young, Jaspeb, 74 Gloucester Road, South Kensington, S.Tfr, 
Young, Colonel J. S., 13 Gloucester Street, 8.W. 
Yuillb, Andbbw B., 53 Nevern Square, EarVs Court, 8,W, ; ^ Bdlevue, 

Bridge of Allan, N.B. 


Digitized by 




Tear of 

1889 Abbott, Datid, 470 Chancery Lane, Melboume, AustraUa, 

1889 Abbott, Henbt M., Barrieter-at-Law, 8t, Kiits, 

1884 t Abbott, Phiuf Wnxux, Kingeton, Jamaica, 

1885 Abbott, Hon. B. P., MJi.C., Unian Club, Sydney, New South Wtles, 
1894 Abdttixah of Pebak, thb Ex-Sultan, Singapore, 

1896 t^^BBBT* Henbt, Ideal Farm^ Sydenham^ Natal, 

1883 fAsuBEOW, Chablbs, F.R.G.S., P.O. Box 634, Johannesburg, Tranewal, 

1878 AcKBOTD, Sib Edwabd Jahes. 

1891 tAcLAND, Henbt Dyke, Australian Club, Sydney, New South Wales, 

1883 Acton- Adaics, William, J.P., Christchurch, New Zealand, 

1897 Acutt, Cotton, Connington, Moot Biver, Natal, 

1893 Acutt, Lbonabd, care of Standard Bank, Johanne^rg, Transvaal, 

1889 Acutt, E. Noble, Durban, Natal. 

1894 Adams, Pebct, Barrister-at-Law, Nelson, New Zealand, 
1894 Adams, Eichabd P., Sandgate, Brisbane, Queensland, 

1896 Adams, Rey. Principal Thomas, M.A., D.CX., Bishop^s College, Lennox^ 

ville, Quebec, Caimda. 
1896 Adcock, Chablbs C, P. O. Box 1079, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 
1893 Adolphus, Gbobgb A, {Supervisor of Customs), Accra, Gold Coast 


1896 t^DLAM, Joseph C, P. 0, Box 2173, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1897 Adlbb, Hbnby, P. 0, Box 1069, Johannesburg^ Transvaal, 

1886 Adlbb, IsmoB H., Central Hotel, Hamburg, 

1887 t-^^ Lieut.-Colonel Goodson, Mominabad, Beccan, India, 
1893 AoAB, Walter J., Lawrence Estate, Norwood, Ceylon, 

1896 f Agbebi, Bey. Mojola, M.A., Ph.D., Lagos, West Africa, 
1881 Agnew, Hon. Sib James W., K.C.M.G., Hobart, Tasmania, 

1897 fAiNswoBTH, H. S., Belvedere, Geraldton, Western Australia, 
1881 \Ajrth, Alexander, Durban, Natal, 

1884 f AiTKEN, James, Geraldton, Western Australia, 

1890 AiTKBN, James, care of Messrs. Dalgety ^ Co., Melbourne, Australia, 
1876 Akbrman, Sir John W., K.C.M,G. 

1888 Albrecht, Henry B., BrynbeUa, Willow Grange Station, Natal, 
1897 Alcock, Bandal J., 460 Collins Street, Melbourne, Australia. 
1896 t Alexander, Abraham D., P. 0. Box 76, Johannesburg, TVansvaal. 
1896 Alexander, Gordon W. E. C, New Zealand. 

1892 Alexander, John, Venture Estates, Kalthuritty, Travancore, India, 

1896 Alison, G. Lloyd, Jun., Colombo, Ceylon, 

1881 Alison, James, Union Club, Sydney, New South Wales, 

1891 ' Allan, Alexander C, F.B.G.S., Australian Club, Melbourne, Australia, 
1872 Allan, Hon. G. W., Moss Park, Toronto, Canada. 

1897 ' t Allan, Hugh Montague, Bavenscraig, Montreal, Canada, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

NonrBmdmt Fellows. 351 

Year of! 

1883 Allan, William, Braeside, Warwickf Queensland, 

1896 AixANsoir, Johh, 416 Prince Alfred Street, Maritzhurg, Natal, 

1883 AiXDBiDCiBy T. J.y F.B.G.S., F.Z.S., District Commissioner, Sherbro 

West Africa (Corresponding Secretary), 
1883 fALLBN, Jambs, M.H^., Dunedin, New Zealand] (Corresponding Secre* 

1887 Allen, John S,, Charters Towers, Queensland, 

1887 Allen, S. Nbsbitt, Townsville, Queensland, 
1882 Allbn, Thaine, Kimherley, Cape Colony, 

187^ f Allpobt, Waltbb H., C.E., The Repp, Newmarket P,0,, Jamaica, 

1892 AxLwooD, Jambs, Collector-General^ Kingston ^ Jamaica, 

1892 Alsop, David Q-. E., Messrs, Bligh ^ HarhotHe, Flinders Lane, Metboumet 

1882 Ahbbosb, Hon. Ambrose Foyah, M.C.G., Port Louis, Manikins, 

1896 Ambs, William C, Summer Hilh Sydney, New South Wale^, 

1885 Amhbbst, The Hon. J. G. H., M.L.C., Perth, Western Australia, 

1888 Amphlbtt, Gbobob T., Standard Bank, Cape Town, Cape Colony, 

1892 Anderson, C. Wiloress, J.F., Government Land Department , Georgetown, 

British Guiana, 
1873 f Anderson, Dickson, 223 Commissioner Street, Montreal, Canada, 

1880 Anderson, F. H., M.D., Government Medical Officer, Georgetown, British 

1894 Anderson, George William, M.P.P., Lake District, Victoria, British 

1894 Anderson, James, J.P., Bandarapola, Matale, Ceylon, 

1881 t Anderson, James F., F.E.G.S., 2 Avenue Friedland, Paris. 

1894 Anderson, His Honour Chief Justice Sir Wm. J., Belize, British 


1889 Anderson, William Trail, Kimberley, Cape Colony, 
1889 t Andrew, Dxtncan C, Cape Town, Cape Colony, 
1891 > Andrews, George B., Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1898 Andrews, M. Stewart, Director of Telegraphs, Accra, Gold Coast 

1891 f Andrews, Thomas, Rand Club, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1879 IAnoas, Hon. J. H., M.L.C., J.P., CoUingrove, South Australia, 

1893 IAngus, Jambs, 32 Mizabeth Street, Sydney, New South Wales, 

1897 Angus, James, Assistant Storekeeper-General, Port Louis, Mauritius, 

1886 f Annand, George, M.D., St. Kilda, Melbourne, Australia, 

1895 Anthing, Louis, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 

1891 Anthonisz, James 0., Police Magistrate, Singapore, 

1896 Archer, F. Bissft, Assistant Colonial Secretary, Lagos, West Africa, 

1880 Armbrister, Hon. Wm. E., M.E.C, Nassau, Bahamas, 

1892 Armstrong, Alexander, Beacon^field, Cape Colony, 

1898 Armstrong, Charles N., Montreal, Canada, 

1889 Armstrong, George S., Verulam, Natal, 

1887 Armttage, Bert rand, Melbourne, Australia. 

1881 Armttage, F. W., Melbourne, Australia. 

1890 Arnell, C. C, 624 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne, Australia, 
1896 Arthur, Alexander C, Gisborne, New Zealand, 

1877 Arundel, John Thomas, South Sea Islands. 

Digitized by 


352 Royal Colonial Institute. 

Year of 

1896 AsHB, Eyeltn 0., M.D., Kimberley, Cape Colony, 

1885 AsHLETy Hon. Edwabd Chablbs, Auditor- General^ Port Lonisi Mauriitua. 

1B97 AsPBLiNG, John S., P. 0. Box 193, Johannesburff, Transvaal, 

1883 AsTLES, Habyet Eustacb, M.D., 156 Hay Street^ Perth, Western Aus- 

1898 Aston, Edwabd, Government FaUwaySt Lagos, West Africa, 

1896 AsTBOP, John H., P.O. Box 430, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
1880 fATHBBSTONB, GuYBON D., M.Inst.C.E., Bloemfontetn, Orange Free 

1885 f Atkinson, A. R., Messrs. Morison ^ Atkinson, La/mbton Quay, Wellington, 

New Zealand. 

1880 f Atkinson, Nicholas, Georgetown, British Guiana, 
1887 Atkinson, J. Mitfobd, M.B., Government Civil Hospitalf Hong Kong, 
1889 fA-TKiNSON, R. Hopb(J:P. ofN. 8. Wales), New York Life Insurance Co., 

Montreal, Canada. 
1882 f Attenbobough, Thomas, Cheltenham, near Melbourne, Australia, 
1893 AuBET, John Geobqb, Advocate, P.O. Box 287, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1897 Austen, John, Gwelo, Bhodesia. 

1878 AuvBAY, P. Elicio, Kingston, Jamaica. 

1896 AwDBT, James A., P.O. Box 886, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

1892 Aykbs, Fbank Eichman, Barrister-at-Law, Adelaide, South Australia, 




Babbaoe, Eden H., Bank of Australasia, Sydney, New South Wales. 
Babbagb, Fbank E., Bank of Australasia, Sydney, New South Wales. 
Badnall, Hbbbebt Owen, J.P., Resident Magistrate, Beaconed, Cape 

f Bagot, Geobge, Plantation Annandale, British Guiana, 
•fBAGOT, John, Adelaide Club, South Australia. 
f Bailey, Abb, P.O. Box 60, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Bailey, Hon. Allanson, Government Agent, Kandy, Ceylon. 
Bailey, Edwabd T., Sandakan, British North Borneo. 
Bailie, Albxb. Gumming, F.R.G.S., Rand Club, Jo?iannesburg, Transvaal. 
Bainbbidob, Captain "William. 

tBAiBD, A. Reid, Woodstock, Kew, Melbourne, Australia, 
Baibd, BoBTHWicac R., Arrowtoum, Otago, New Zealand, 
Baibd, Robebt Tweed, Kalgoorlie, Western Australia; and Brisbane, 

Bakeb, Geobge Eable, Perth, Western Australia. 
Bakeb, "William G., Musgrave Road, Durban, Natal. 
Bakewell, John "W., Adelaide, South Australia. 
f Balfoub, Hon. James, M.L.C., Tyalla, Toorak, Melbourne, Australia, 
Ball, Captain Edwin, R.N.R. 
Ballancb, H. C, Albany Grove, Durban, Natal. 
f Ballabd, Captain Henby, Durban, Natal. 
f Balme, Abthub, Walbundrie, near Albury, New South Wales, 
Bam, J. A., Cape Town, Cape Colony. 

Bam, PetbUB C. van B., Villa Maria, Sea Point, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
Bandabanaikb, S. Dias, HorogoUa, Veyangoda, Ceylon. 
Bankabt, Fbbdebick J., Georgetown, British Guiana. 
fBANKiEB, Fbank M., Georgetown, British Guiana, 

Digitized by 


Non-Besident FeUotes. 


Year of 



















Banmbb, Habmood a,, Thompson Soad, Napier, New Zealand, 

Bafhstb, Gsobgb a., Stipendiary Moffistrate, Bote Belle, MmtrUiui* 

Babbbb, Ghablbs, J.F.i Grahamatoum, Cape Colony, 

Babbbb, Hilton, J.F.| Hales Owen, Cradock, Cape Colony, 

Barclay, Chables J., Commercial Bank, Hobart, Tasmania^ 

Babff, H. £., Begistrar, Sydney University, New South Wales. 

fBABKLTK, T. W. S., The Treasury, Georgetown, British Guiana, 

Babnabd, Saicubl, M.L.C., J.P., St, Lucia, West Indies, 

f Babnbs, Douglas D,, Belize, British Honduras, 

Babitbs, J. F. Etbltn, CE.^ Assistant Colonial Engineer and Surfteyor^ 

General, Maritzburg, Natal, 
fBABMEs, EoBBBT S. W,, A.M.IiistC.E., Durban Club, Natal* 
f Babnbtt, Caft. E. Alobbnok. 

Babbaitt, Edwabd H., District Officer, Sandakan, British North Borneo, 
f Babbbtt, Chablbs Hugh, Pretoria, Transvaal, 
BabbdcgtoN; John Wildkan S., Portland, Knysna, Cape Colony, 
fBABB-SiaTHy EoBBBT, Torrcns Park, Addaide, South Australia, 
Babb-ShitH| Thomas E., Adelaide, South Australia, 
f Babbt, Abthub J., Pretoria Club, Transvaal, 
Babbt, Hon. 'Bm Jacob D., Judge President, Eastern District Court, 

Grahamstown, Cape Colony, 
Babtbb, Chables, B.C.L., Besident Magistrate, The Finish, Maritzburg, 

Babton, Fbbdbbicx Qt,, J.P., **Moolbong," Booligal, New South Wales; 

and Australian Club, Melbourne, Australia. 
Babton, Gbobgb W., care of Union Bank of Australia, Sydney, New 

South Wales. 
Babton, William, Barrister-at'Law, Trentham, Wellington, New Zealand, 
Batchblob, Febdinand C, M.D., care of Bank of New Zealand, North 

Dunedin, New Zealand, 
Bates, G. Dudlby, Salisbury, Bhodesia. 
Bates, Eichabd W., P,0, Box 26, Bulawayo, Bhodesia, 
Bathubst, Hbnbt W., Seremban, Sungei Ujong, Straits Settlements. 
fBATTLET, Fbedbbick, J.P., Auckland, New Zealand, 
Battt, James A., Pretoria, Transvaal, 

Batlet, Lieut.-Colonbl Abdbn L., West India Begiment, Sierra Leone, 
tBATLET, WmuAM HuNT, Pahiatua, Wellington, New Zealand, 
Batlt, Majob Gbobgb C, F.R.G.S., Chief of Police, 8t,\George^8, Grenada. 
fBATNES, Joseph, M.L.A., J.P., Nels Best, Upper Umlass, Natal, 
Batnes, W. H., Brisbane, Queensland, 
Batnes, William, Durban, Natal. 

fBBALEY, BicHABD NowELL, Haldou, Hororota, Canterbury, New Zealand. 
Beanlands, Rev. Canon Abthub, M.A., Christ Church Bectory, Victoria, 

British Columbia. 
Bbabd, Chablbs Halman, Nonsuch, Highgate, St, Mary's, Jamaica. 
Beab, Geobgb Abchibald, Grahamstown, Cape Colony, 
Beaufobt, Hon. Leicbstbb P., M.A., B.C.L., Sandakan, British North 

Beck, Abthub W., Bloemfontein, Orange Free State. 
fBBCKi Chablbs Pboctob, Bloemfontein, Orange Free State, 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 

354 Boyal Colonial Institute, 

Year of 

1882 fBacx, Jobn, Adelaide, South Australia, 

1886 t^BCKETT, Thomas Wm., Church Street East, Pretoria^ Transvaal, 
1889 t^BDDT, WnxiAM Henry, Fauresmith, Orange Free State. 

1887 fBEDFOBBj Sttbobon-Majob Gttthbib, Hobart, Tasmania, 

1884 Bbbtham, Gbobob, Wellington, New Zealand {Corresponding Secretary), 

1877 Bebtham, William H., Wairarapa, Wellington, New Zealand, 
1891 Bbgo, Albxandbb, 22 Kingston Street, Victoria, British Columbia. 

1897 Bell, Albxandeb, Makino, Feilding, Wellington, New Zealand. 
1893 Bell, Anthony, Civil Service Club, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 

1898 Bell, Eenbst T. Dillon, 66 Thomdon Quay, Wellington, New Zealand. 
1896 Bell, Feed, Durban, Natal, 

1896 Bell, F. H. Dillon, Barrister-at-Law, Wellington, New Zealand. 

1884 Bell, Geo. F., care of Messrs. Gibbs, Bright, f Co., Melbourne, Australia. 
• 1886 Bbll, John W., Attomey-at-Law, Queenstown, Cape Colony, 

1889 Bell, Hon. Valentinb G., M.L.C, M.In8t.C.E., Director of Public WorJks, 
Kingston, Jamaica, 

1895 t^ELL, Wm. H. Someeset, P.O. Box 678, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1882 IBellaibs, Seafobth Mackenzie, 69 Main St., Georgetown, British 

1888 t^BLLAUY, Hbnby F., A.M.Inst.O.E., F.B.H.S., Superintendent of PMic 

Works, Selangor, Straits Settlements, 

1893 Bbninofieid, Jambs J., Durban, Natal. 

1885 BsNiNaFiBLD, S. F., Durban, Natal, 

1884 fBEN7AMiv, Lawbbnce, Nestlewood, George St, East, Melbourne, Australia, 

1894 Bennett, Alfbed C, M.D., District Surgeon, Griqua Town, Cape Colony, 
1888 f Bennett, Chbis., Bockmore, Sutton Forest, New South Wales, 

1885 Bennett, Coubtbnay Walteb, H.B,M, Consul, Bhinion, 

1880 Bennett, Hon. Samxtel Mackenzie, Colonial Treasurer, Freetown^ Sierra 

1897 Bennett, William H., Assistant Govermnent Secretary, Nicosia, Cyprus, 

1896 Bennib, Andbew, Market Square, Kimberley, Cape Colony, 
1875 Bensusan, Balph, Cape Town, Cape Colony, 

1895 Bebbob-Wilkinson, Edmond, Straits Development Co,, Singapore. 

1897 Bebesfobd, H. Lowby L., XJmtaXi, Bhodesia. 

1878 Bebkblby, His Honoub Chief Justicb Sm Henby S., Suva, Fiji, 

1880 Bebkeley, Captain J. H. Haedtman, Shadwell, St, Kitts, 

1894 IBbblbin, Julius, P.O. Box 550, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
1897 Bebtbam, Ben, M.D., Rand Club, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1893 Bebtbam, Bobebtson F., P.O. Box 128, 'Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

1887 fBETHUNE, Geobob M., Le Ressouvenir, East Coast, British Guiana, 

1888 t^ETTELHEiM, Henbi, P.O. Box 1112, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

1891 fBETTiNGTON, J. Bbindley, Brindley]Park, Memwa, New South Wales, 

1897 Bbyebs, F. W., P. 0. Box l1i,lJohannesburg, Transvaal. 

1895 BiANCABDi, Capt. N. Gbech, A.D.C., The Palace, Malta. 
1884 fBiCKPOBD, William, Adelaide,'^SouthlAustralia. 

1898 BiDBN, Abthub E., Postmaster,^ Grahamsioum, Cape Colony. 

1881 t^iDEN, A. G., Port Elizabeth, Cape^ Colony. 

1889 t^iDBN, William. Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 

1884 Bid-well, John C, J.P., Pihautea, Wairarapa, Wellington, New Zealand. 

1886 tBiOGS, T. Hesketh, F.S.S., 2%e Treasury, Calcutta. 

Digitized by 


Nan-Besident FelUmt. 


Year of 















BiHBECx, John, P,0,Box 19, Johannesburg ^ Transvaal, 

BiBCH, A. S., Fitzherbert Terrace, Wellington, New Zealand, 

BiBCE, HoK. James Kobtright, Treasurer, Singapore. 

Birch, William C. Caccia, Erewhon, Napier, New Zealand, 

BiscH, W. J., Erewhon, Napier^ New Zealand, 

fBiECH, William Waltbb, Georgetown, British Guiana, 

Bishop, Hon. T. C, M.L.C., Freetown, Sierra Leone, 

BissENBBBGBB, Fbank, White Feather, Coolgardie, Western Australia, 

Bissbt, a. H., Maritzburg, Natal, 

Black, Eenest, M.D., i?tf«f<^^ Magistrate, E8perance,vidAlbang, Western 

fBiACK, Stbwabt G., Glenormiston, Noorat, Victoria, Australia, 

•fBLACKBTJEN, Alfbed L., Capc Towu, Cape Colony, 

Blackwood, Abthub E., Mont Alto, Melbourne, Australia. 

Blackwood, Bobe&t 0., Melbourne, Australia, 

Blainb, Captain Alpbhd E. B., C.M.E., Mount Frere, Griqualand East, 
Cape Colony, 

tBLAiNB, Sib C. Fbbdebick, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony, 

fBLAiNB, Herbert F., Barrister-ai-Law, Grahamstown, Cape Colony. 

Blaib, Wiluam, Inspector of Schools, Georgetown, British Guiana, 

fBLAizB, RiCHABD Bealb, Lagos, West Africa, 

JBlakb, H.E. Sib Hbnby A., G.C.M.G., Government House, Hong Kong, 

Blanchabd, William, African Direct Telegraph Co,, Lagos, West Africa, 

Bland, R. N., Collector of Land Bevenue, Singapore, 

Blank, Oscab, Hamburg, 

Blbkslht, Captain A. H., P,0, Box 1049, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

Bleloch, William, P, 0, Box 738, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

B1.BNKIB0N, Jambs E., Zomha, British Central Africa, 

fBLOw, John Jblunos. 

Blyth, Danibl W., Civil Service, GaUe, Ceylon, 

fBoDY, Rbv. Professor C. W. E., D.C.L., General Theological Seminary, 
New York, 

tBoooiB, Albzandbb, Bidawayo, Bhodesia, 

Bois, Fbbdbbic W., J.P., Colombo, Ceylon, 

Bois, Stanlbt, Colombo, Ceylon, 

Bolton, Fbbd W., Mackay, Queensland, 

BoMPAS, Fbbdbbick William, P,0, Box 346, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

fBoNAB, Thomson, M.D., 114 Via de Babuino, Piazza di Spagna, Borne, 

Bond, Hhbbbbt W., Torrington, Toowoomba, Queensland, 

Bond, Hon. Eobbbt, M.L.A., St, John*s, Newfoundland, 

BoNNiN, P. Fbed., J.P., Tchaba, Glenelg, South Australia, 

BoNNTN, William Wingfibld, A.M.Inst.O.E., St, John's, Newfoundland, 

Booth, Eabl E. C, P,0, Box 1037, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

Booth, Eobbbt M., Stipendiary Magistrate, Suva, F\fi, 

f BoBTON, John, Casa Nova, Oamaru, New Zealand, 

fBoss, Aaboh a., P,0, Box 662, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

BoTSFOBD, Chablbs S., 524 Queen Street West, Toronto, Canada, 

BoTTOMLBT, JoHN, P,0, Box 1366, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

Bouchbbvillb, a. db, Inspector of Schools, Port Louis, Mauritius {Corre- 
sponding Secretary), 

aa2 t 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 

356 Boyal Colonial Institute. 


1888 BovLT, Fbbct S., Barberton, Transvaal, 

1883 BoTTBDiLLON, E., Poundu/ord, BloemfonUin, Orange Free State, 

1897 *BouBiNOT, Sib John Gt., K.C.M.G., LL.D., Ottawa^ Canada, 

1892 t^^""™» Edmund F., Pretoria, Transvaal, 

1879 BoTJBiCB, Wblleslbt, 155 King Street, Kingston, Jamaica, 

1892 fBouBNB, E. F. B. 

1878 t^orsFiBLD, Thb Bight Rev. H. B., D.D., Lord Bishop of Pretoria, 

Bishop*s Cote, Pretoria, Transvaal* 

1887 tBoTBLL, Hon. Henbt A., Q.C., M.E.G., Attome^General, Georgetown, 

British Gruiana, 

1896 BowELL, Hon. Sib Mackenzie, K.O.M.G., BellevUle, Canada, 

1882 BowBN, Hon. Ohables Chbistofheb, M.L.C., Middleton, Christchurch, 

New TkaXand {Corresponding Secretary), 

1886 BowEN, ThomjlS, M.D.y Health Officer, Barbados. 

1886 tBowBN, WnxiAM, Kalimna, Balnarring, Victoria, Australia, 

1889 BowxEB, John Mitfobd, Tharfield, Port Alfred, Cape Colony, 

1893 Boyd, Captain E. N. Buchanan, Accra, Gold Coast Colony, 
1886 BoTLB, Abthub Edwabd, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 

1889 BoTLB, Hon. Sib Catendish, K.CJSi.G., M.E.C., Government Secretary ^ 
Georgetown, British Guiana. 

1885 t^''"^^ Fbank. 

1881 fBoTLB, Moses, Freetoum, Sierra Leone, 

^879 Bbadfield, Hon. John L., M.L.O., Dordrecht, Cape Colony, 

1896 Bbadfield, Thomas J., Attomey-at'Law, Dordrecht, Cape Colony, 

1883 Bbadfobd, W. K., Kimberley, Cape Colony, 

1897 Bbadlet, Benjamin, Bulawayo, Bhodesia, 
1893 Bbainb, C. Ddiond H., C.E., Bangkok, Siam, 

1886 Bbandat, J. W., Kingston, Jamaica, 

1878 Bbasset, H.E. Bt. Hon. Lobd, K.C.B., Government House, Melbourne, 


«1890 Bbasset, Majob W., Wanganui, New Zealand, 

1884 fBBAUD; Hon. Abthub, M.O.F., Mon Repos, British Guiana, 

1887 Bbeakspeab, Thomas J., Mount Bay, Jamaica, 

1889 Bbbtt, J. Talbot, M.B.O.S., Melbourne, Australia, 

1874 Bbidoe, H. H., Fairfield, Ruataniwha, Napier, New Zealand, 

1895 Bbidoes, G-eoboe J., Axim, Gold Coast Colony, 

1880 Bbidgbs, W. F., Berbice, British Guiana, 

1890 fBBiNK, Andbies Lange, P.O. Box 287, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

1893 Bbistowe, Lindsay Wm., District Commissioner, Accra, Gold Coast 

1896 t^BiTTEN, Thomas J., P.O, Box 494, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 
1896 Bboad, Abthub J., Mauritius Assets Co., Port Louis, Mauritius, 
1892 Bbock, Jeffbey Hall, 458 Main Street, Winnipeg, Canada, 
1883 t^^o^^^^^y Geobge Alexandeb. 

1888 Bbodbick, Alan, Pretoria, Transvaal, 
1887 BbodbTok, Albebt, Pretoria, Transvaal, 

1896 Bbodbick, Habold, P.O, Box 77, Pretoria, Transvaal, 

1897 Bbooks, Geobge L., Superintendent of Police, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 
J889 Bbooks, James Hbnby, M.E.G.S.E., Mahi, Seychelles, 

1892 Bbothrbs, C. M., Queenstown, Cape Colony, 

Digitized by 


Ncm-Beddent Fellows. 


Tear of 

1890 Bbown, a. Selwtn, C.E., Hayes St,, Neutral Bay, Sydney, New South 


1896 Bbown, Edmund A. B., iVytf, Province Wellesley, Straits Settlements, 

1891 Bbown, Captain Howabd, 8 Andrassy Strasse, Buda-Pesth, Hungary. 
1896 Bbown, Hon. Jambs J., M.O.G., Receiver- General, Port Louis, Mauritius. 
1884 Bbown, John Chables, Durban, Natal. 

1888 Bbown, John E., Standard Bank, Cradock, Cape Colony, 

1892 Bbown, J. Ellis, Durban, Natal. 

1893 Bbown, J. H., Nassau, Bahamas, 

1889 t^BOWN, John Lawbencb, Methden, Bowenfels, New South Wales. 

1894 tBBOWN, Leslie E., Messrs, Brown ^ JosTce, Suva, Fiji, 

1882 t^®<>''^> Maitland, J.P., Besident Magistrate, Geraldton, Western 


1889 Bbown, Hon. Bichabd Mtles, M.L.C., District Judge, Mahl, SeychetUf, 

1890 Bbown, William, M.A., M.B., High Street, Dunedin, New Zealand, 

1892 Bbown, William Vhxiebs, TownsviUe, Queensland, 

1896 t^BOWNB, Evbbabd, Cororooke, Colae, Victoria, Australia. 
1880 fBBOWNE, Hon. C. Macaulat, M.L.O., St, Georges, Grenada. 

1888 Bbownk, Leonabd G., J.P., Buckland Park, Adelaide, South Australia. 

1895 f Bbowne, Stlyestbb, Melbourne, Australia. 

1889 f Bbowne, Thomas L., Barrister-at-Law, Adelaide Club, South Australian 

1897 Bbownhll, William P., Liverpool Street, Hobart, Tasmania, 
1897 Bbownino, John Gbant, C.E., Selangor, Straits Settlements, 

1884 Bbucb, H.E. Sib Ghablbs, K.C.M.G-., Government House, Port Louis,. 

1889 t^BUCB, Gbobge, P.O. Box 646, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1890 t^BUCB, J. B. Baxtbb, 20 Bridge Street, Sydney, New South Wales. 
1887 t^BUCB, John M., J.P., Wombalano, Toorak, Melbourne, Australia, 
1886 fBBXTNNEB, Ebnest Auoust, Eshowe, Natal, 

1895 Bbttnskill, John S., P.O. Box 313, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

1896 Bbunton, John Spbnceb, Sydney, New South Wales. 

1896 Bbtant, Alfbed, Standard Bank, Cape Town, Cape Colony, 

1893 f Bbtant, Alfbed T.^ District Officer^ Dindings, Straits Settlements, 

1897 t-^BTANT, Joseph, J.P., Mount Magnet, vid Geraldton, Western Australia^ 

1880 Buchanan, Hon. Mb. Justice E. J., Cape Town, Cape Colony, 

1883 Buchanan, Waltbb Clabkb, M.H.R., Wairarapa, Wellington, New 


1 88 1 Buchanan, Walteb Cboss, Palmerston Estate, Lindula, Talawakelle, Ceylon,, 
1886 t^^CHANAN, W. F., J.P., Union Club, Sydney, New South Wales. 

1898 BucKLAND, Thomas, Union Club, Sydney, New South Wales, 

1897 Buckle, Athanasius, JP., Carlton House, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 

1897 Buckle, James A. T., FJI.G.S., Chafna, Gold Coast Colony, 

1897 Buckley, G-. A. McLban, Lagmhor, Ashburton^ New Zealand. 

1889 fBucKLBT, Mabs, J.P., Beaulieu, Toorak, Melbourne, Australia. 

1891 BuDD, John Ghambbb, Chartered Bank of India, Yokohama, Japan, 
1897 BuLLEN, Wm, Alfbed, Star Life Assurance Society, Cape Town, Cape 


1881 BuLLEB, Sib Walteb L., K.C.M.G., E.R.S., Wellington, New Zealand. 

1877 BuLUYANT, William Hose, Yeo, Irrewarra, Victoria, Australia, 

Digitized by 


358 Bayal Calonid Inatituie. 

Year of 










*Bdlt, C. Makoin, J.P., care of F, Bult, Esq., Attomey-GeneraVa Office j 

Cape Town, Cape Colony, 
BiraBtJBT, Edwasd P., New Zealand Loan and Agency Co., Oanuxru, New 

fBuBDSKiK, Stdwby, J.P., Sydney, New South Wales. 
BuBGBSs, Hon. W. H., Hohart, Tasmania. 

BuBXB, Hon. Samubl CoNSTANnNE, M.L.C.,FJl.G.S., Jtin^«ton, Jawifltca. 
fBuBKiNSHAw, Hon. John, M.L.C., Singapore, 
BuHMBSTBE, JoHN A., Batwatti, Ukuwala, Ceylon, 
BuKNiB, Edwabd, Hong Kong, 

BuBNiE, JohnD., Howmains, Nirranda, Warmambool, Victoria, Australia, 
BuBBOws, Stephen M., Civil Service, Colombo, Ceylon, 
fBuBSTAix, Bbtan C, Melbourne, Australia, 

BuBT, Albbbt Hamilton, M.E.C.S.E., L.KC,T., Port of Spain, Trinidad. 
BuBT, Hon. Septimus, Q.C., M.L.A., Perth, Western Australia. 
Busby, Axbxandeb, J.P., CassUis, New South Wales, 
Bush, Bobebt E., Clifton Downs, Gascoyne, Western Australia. 
BussBT, Fbank H., Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Butleb, Henbt, Melbourne, Australia. 
Butt, J. M., Bank of New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand, 
BuTTEBTON, WiLLiAM, M.Inst.C.E., Govemmeut Railways, Durban, Natal, 
fBuTTON, Fbedbbick, Durban, Natal. 
Buxton, H.E. Sib T. Powell, Baet., K.C.M.G., Government House, 

Adelaide, South Australia. 
BuzACOTT, Hon. C. Habdie, M.L.O., Brisbane, Queensland. 
Btbd, Fbedebic, Oriental Estates Co,, Port Louis, Mauritius, 

fCACCiA, Anthony M., Jubalpore, Central Provinces, India. 

fCAiN, William, South Yarra, Melbourne, Australia. 

fCAiBNCBOSS, John, J.P., De Hoop, Somerset West, Cape Colony. 

Caldecott, Habby S., P.O. Box 574, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Caldeb, William Hbndebson, Ravehton, St. Kilda, Melbourne, Australia, 

Caldicott, Habtby, C.E., Public Works Department, Sungei Ujong, 

Straits Settlements, 
Callcott, John "Rope, Deputy Colonial Engineer and Surveyor^ General, 

Penang, Straits Settlements, 
Caltebt, Albbbt F., F.R.G.S., Perth, Western Australia. 
Cambbon, Allan, P.O, Box 716, Johannesburg. Transvaal. 
Camebon, Donald A., H.B.M. Consul, Port Said, Egypt. 
Campbell, A. H., 17 Manning Arcade, Toronto, Canada. 
Campbell, G. Mubbay, C.E., State Railways, Bangkok, Siam. 
Campbell, J.P., Temple Chambers, Featherston St., Wellington New Zealand, 
Campbbli* John Mobbow, B.Sc., F.C.S., F.R.a.S., Aaim, Gold Coast 

Campbell-Johnston, Augustine, Garvama, California, TJ.SA. 
tCAMPBBLL, Mabshall, Mouut Edgecwnbc, Natal. 
Campbell, Rev. Joseph, M.A., F.G.S., Si. Nicolas College, Randwick, 

New South Wales. 
Cape, Alfbbd J., Karoola, Edgediff Road, Sydney, New South Wales. 
Cape, John S., Weld Club, Perth, Western Australia. 

Digitized by 


Tear of 












Nortr-Beddent Fellows. 36© 

Cappbb, H. H., « Times'' Office, Colombo, Ceylon, 

Caffbb, Hon. Thomas, M.L.C., Kingston, Jamaica, 

Cabdbn, Thomas F., P,0, Box, 927, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

Cabdew, H.E. Colonel Sib Fbedebick, K.C.M.G., Government Hotise, 

Sierra Leone, 
GabdioaN; Geobge H., Bulawayo, Bhodesia, 
Caboill, Edwabd B.y Bunedin, New Zealand, 
Caboill, H. E., Coolikoode Tea Essate, Neth. P.O, Assam, India, 
tCABGiLL, Henby S., Quamickan, Vancouver's Island, British Colu?nbia, 
tCABGELL, "Waltbb, carc of Colonial Bank, Bunedin, New Zealand* 
Cablile, James "Wbbn, Barrister-at-Law, Napier, New Zealand, 
Cablisle, Tom Ffbnnell, H.B.M, Legation, Bangkok, Siam, 
Gabon, Hon. Sib Adolphb P., K.G.M.G-., M.P., Ottawa, Canada, 
Cabpenteb, p. T., M.R.C.S.E., Assistant Colonial Surgeon, Stann Creek, 

British Honduras. 
Cabb, G. E., District Commission^, Bandajuma, Sierra Leone, 
f Gabb, Mabk Wm., M.Inst.C.E. 

Gabb, Wm. St. John, P.O. Box 130, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 
Gabbick, Alexandeb, Canterbury Club, Christchurch, New Zealand, 
fGABBiNGTON, Majob-Genebal Sib Fbedebick, X.G.B., X.G.M.G.I 6^- 

Gabbinoton, Geobge, F.C.S., Carrington, Barbados, 
fCABBiNGTON, His HoN. Chief Justice Sib J. WoBBELL, G.M.G., HongKong* 
tGAEBTTTHBBS, Daytd, Eost Demcrara Water Commission, Georgetown, 

British Guiana, 
Gabbuthebs, Geobge F., 453 Main Street, Winnipeg, Canada, 
Gabteb, Ghables Glattdius, J.P., General Post Office, Melbourne, Australia, 
Gabtbb, H.E. Sib Gilbebt T., K.G.M.G., Government House, Nassau, 

Casey, His Honoub Judge J. J., G.M.G., 36 Temple Cowt, Melbourne^ 

f Gastaldi, Evaeisto, 18 Strada Zaccaria, Valletta, Malta, 
Gastens, Emil, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 
Gatob, Geobge G., Kimberley, Cape Colony. 
Gatto, John, Melbourne, Australia, 
Catet, Geobge, Charters Towers, Queensland, 
f Genteno, Leon, Port of Spain, Trinidad. 
Ghabattd, John A., Attomey-at-Law, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony, 
fGHADWiCK, BoBEBT, Camden Buildings, 418 George Street, Sydney, New 

South Wales, 
Ghafvet, William B., Mildv/ra, Victoria, Australia, 
*Ghaillby-Bebt, Joseph, Auxerre, Yonne, France, 
Ghalmebs, Nathaniel, Valed, Savu Savu, Fiji, 
Ghambebs, Abthub Leo, Gwelo, Rhodesia. 
Ghambebs, John Batcliffb, St. Kitts, West Indies, 
Ghambebs, Roland, J.P., Middlemount, Bichmond Division, Cape Colony, 
Ghafbcan, Ghables W., 39 Queen Street, Melbourne, Australia, 
Chapman, H. B. H., Director of Public Works, Lagos, West Africa, 
Chapman, Stanfobd, 189 William Street, Melbourne, Australia, 
Ghastellieb, Piebbe L., Q.G., Port Louis, Mauritius, 

Digitized by 


860 Boyal Colonial Institute, 

Tear of 

1888 Chatbb, Hon. C. Paul, C.M.a., M.L.C., Hang Kong, 

1889 fCHAYTOB, John C, Tkiamarina, Picton, New Zealand, 

1883 fCHSBSHANi BoBBBT SucxLiNO, St. Vvncent, West Indies, 
1898 Ghbbtham, Gboboe Bochb, 5 Mission Bow, Calcutta, 

1896 Chbstebton, Lbwis B., P,0, Box 2210, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1896 tCHBWiNGS, Chablbs, Fh.D., F.G-.S., Albany, Western Australia, 


1887 GmsHOLic, Jambs H., Market Square, Kimberley, Cape Colony, 
1880 fCmsHOLic, W., Kimberley, Cape Colony, 

1897 Chrisp; Captain Thomas, Gisbome, New Zealand, 

1896 Chbistian, Chablbs, Limassol, Cyprus. 

1876 fCHBisTiAN, Hbnbt B., Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony (^Corresponding- 

1884 f Chbistian, Owbn Smith, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony, 

1897 Chbistib, Thomas Nobth, 8t, Andrews, MasJceliya, Ceylon, 

1888 Chbistison, Bobebt, Lammermoor, Hughenden, Queensland, 

1889 fCHUBCHiLL, Fbank F., ChaHfont, Gillitfs Station, Natal, 

1884 Chubchill, Hon. Captain John Spbncbb, Colonial Secretary, Nassau^ 

1889 tCiABK, GowAN C. S., Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony, 
1889 Clabx, James A. B., care of Messrs, Balgety ^ Co,, Melbourne, Australia, 
1 896 Clabk, John Mtjbbat^ M. A., LL.B., Barrister-at-Law, 2 7 Wellington Street 

East, Toronto, Canada. 
1882 fCiABK, Captain Waltbb J., Melbourne Club, Australia. 

1880 Cl4bk, Hon. William, Attorney-General, Accra, Gold Coast Colony {Cor- 

responding Secretary), 
1888 Clabk, Majob William, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, 

1885 tCiABKB, Alfbbd K, Coldblo\ Malvern, MeUxmme, Australia, 

1887 Clabke, His Honoxtb Chief Justice Sib Fieldino, Kingston, Jamaica, 
1884 Clabke, Gboboe O'Mallbt (Police Magistrate), Union Club, Sydney, New 

South Wales, 

1886 Clabke, His Honoub Colonel Sib Mabshal J., B.A., K.C.M.G., Resident 

Commissioner, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, 
1886 Clabkson, Captain J. "RoofTK, Reform Club, 233 F{fth Avenue, New York, 
1896 Clausen, Cabby A., Royal Exchange, Adelaide, South Australia, 

1896 Clayton, Abthub G., Colonial Secretariat, Belize, British Honduras, 

1897 Cleuoh, John, Postmaster- General, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 

1888 f Cleveland, Fbank, Bunbury, Western Australia, 

1882 Cliffobd, Sib Geobgb Hugh, Babt., Stony hurst, Christchurch, New 

1896 CiiFFOBD, Hon. Hugh C, British Resident, Pekan, Pahang, StraitB 


1888 CoATES, John, 286 Collins Street, Melbourne, Australia, 

1897 CocHBAN, S. "R., St, Julien Estate, Mauritius. 

1889 Cock, Cobnelius, J J*., Peddie, Cape Colony, 

1884 CocKBUBN, Adolfhus, Cape Gracias & Dios, Republic of Nicaragua (vid 
Grey Town), 

1881 CocKBTTBN, Samuel A., BcUze, British Honduras, 
1880 CoDD, John A., P.O, Box 407, Toronto, Canada, 
1894 CoDBiNGTON, BoBEBT, Zomba, British Central Africa. 

Digitized by 


Non-Bmdent Fellows. 361 

Year of 

1889 CoGHLAN, Ghables p. J., Kimberley, Cape Colony, 

1889 CoGHLAK, Jakes J., J.F., Attomey-at-LaWy Kimberley, Cape Colony. 

1897 Cohen, Abmbr, P.O. Box 117$ Bvlawayo, Bhodeaia, 

1897 Cohen, Alfred, Sali^ry, Rhodesia, 

1896 Cohen, H. Hibschbl, Badminton Club^ Victoria, British Columbia, 
1888 Cohen, Naph. H., P,0, Box 1892, Johannesburg , Transvaal, 

1883 Cohen, Nethxb D., care of Messrs. D, Cohen ^ Co., Maitland West, New 

South Wales, 
1888 Cole, Fbedbbick E., Clerk of the Courts, St. Elizabeth, Jamaica, 

1897 Cole, Nicholas, West Cloven Hills, Camperdown, Victoria, Australia, 

1893 Cole, Samuel S., Jubilee House, Accra, Gold Coast Colony, 

1894 Cole, Wm. O'Connob, 622 Walpole Street, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 

1891 CoLEBBOOX, Albert E., 142 Flinders Street, Melbourne, Australia, 

1885 CoLEBBOOK, Geobob E., Messrs. LiUey, Skinner, ^ Colebrook, Melbourne^ 

1892 fCoLEMAN, Jambs H., Waititirau, Napier, New Zealand, 
1897 CoLBNBBANDEB, J. W., Bulawayo, Rhodesia. 

1896 CoLLBDGE, Joseph C, Brisbane, (Queensland. 

1888 f Collet, The Ven. Abchdeacon Thomas, Maritzburg, Natal. 

1889 Collier, Fbedbbick William, PostTnaster- General, Georgetown, British 


1892 CoLLiEB, Jenkin, Werndew, Irving Road, Tocrak, Melbourne, Australia^ 

and Australian Club. 
1885 Collins, Ebnest E., Renter's Telegram Co., Lim., Sydney, New South 

1897 Collins, William Fbancis, P.O. Box 170, Coolgardie, Western Australia, 

1897 Collins, William Fbedbbick. 

1880 CoLLYEB, Hon. Wiluam R., Attorney- General, Singapore, 

1894 CoLQXTHOXJN, Abchibald R., Public Works Department, Calcutta, 

1884 t^OLQTJHOUN, Robebt a., Pretoria, Transvaal. 

1883 CoLTON, Hon. Sib John, K.C.M.G-., M.P., Adelaide, South Australia, 
1876 CoMissiONG, Hon. W. S., Q.C., M.E.C., St. George's, Grenada, 

1881 CoMPTON, Captain J. N., R.N., Commanding Colonial Steamer " Countess 

of Derby," Sierra Leone. 

1898 CoNiGBATB, B. Faibfax, Perth, Western Australia. 

1893 Connolly, J. F., Georgetown, British Guiana. 

1881 Connolly, R.M., P. 0. Box 2526, Johannesburg, Transvaal, and Kimberley 

Club, Cape Colony. 
1889 CoNNOB, Hon. Edwin C, M.L.C., Belize Estate and Produce Co,, British 

1898 Conway, Alexandeb, J.P., Colyton, FeUding, New Zealand, 
1891 Cook, E. Boyeb, J.P., Thomhill, Herbert, Cape Colony, 

1885 Cooke, John, Australian Club, Melbourne, Australia, 
1889 CooLEY, WnjJAM, Town Clerk, Durban, Natal, 

1889 CooPE, Colonel Wm. Jesseb, MariedaM Cottage, Newlands, Cape Town, 

Cape Colony. 

1895 fCooPE, J. C. Jesseb, care of Chartered Co., Bulawayo, Rhodesia, 
1895 CooPEB, Abnold W., Richm^ond, Natal, 

1890 CooPBB, Hon. Mb. Justice Pope A., Brisbane, Queensland 

1897 I Cobdeb, Fbbdebicx H. S., P,0, Box 1449, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

Digitized by VorOOQlC 

362 Boyal Colonial Institute. 

Year of 

1897 CoKDEB, W. J., P.O. Box 433, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 

1 889 tCoBONBB- Jambs, John H. , A.M.Iiist.C.E., P. 0, Box 1 1 56, JohoMMsSbwrgy 

1882 CoBK, Fhujp 0., Assistant Colonial Secretary, Kingston, Jamaica, 

1892 CoBKEB, Charlbs, A.M.Inst.C.E., 910 Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas^ 

1896 CoENiSH-BowDEN, Athblstak H., Govemment Land Surveyor, King 

William's Toum, Cape Colony, 

1883 CoBNWAix, Moses, J.P., Kimberley, Cape Colony, 

1897 CoBNWALL, William L., P.O, Box 28, Salisbury, Rhodesia, 

1891 CosBT, Majob a. Moboan, London and Ontario Investment Co,, Toronto^ 


1892 Cotton, Alfbed J., Goorganga, Bowen, Queensland, 
1896 Cottebill, A. J., Napier, New Zealand. 


1895 fCouLDBBT, William H., JP., Brisbane, Queensland, 

1896 CouPEB, John L., Natal Bank, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1880 CouBTNBY, J. M., C.M.Q-., Deputy Finance Minister, Ottawa, Canada, 
1889 CousENS, R. Lewis, P.O. Box 1161, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1883 CowDBBOY, Benjamin, 60 Market Street, Melbourne, Australia {Corre» 

spending Secretary), 
1896 CowBBN, William, Patea, New Zealand, 
1889 f CowiB, Alexandeb, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony, 
1896 tCo-WLEY, W. H., care of General Post Office, Colombo, Ceylon, 

1882 Cox, Chablbs T., Georgetown, British Guiana, 

1896 Cox, Geoegb Cubling, ** Daily Press " Office, Hong Kong, 

1897 Cox, His Honotjb Chief Justice Sib Lionel, Singapore, 
1877 fCox, Hon. Gbobgb H., M.L.C, Mudgee, New South Wales, 

1887 t^^'^^'^N' Ralph C, Bulkeley Station, Ramleh, Alexandria, Egypt ( Corrb- 

spending Secretary), 

1889 Cbaiq, Robebt, Chapelton, Jamaica, 

1897 Cbaig, Wiluam J., 14 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne, Australia, 

1892 tC»AiGBN, Hon. William, M.C.P., Georgetown, British Guiana, 

1897 Cbambb, Hermann J., Punta Gorda, British Honduras, 

1897 Cban, Jambs M., M.B., CM., Belize, British Honduras, 

1890 Cbanswick, William F., J.P., P.O. Box 76, Kimberley, Cape Colony 

{CorrespoTiding Secretary), 
1890 fCRAWFOBD, Hon. Alfbed J., M.L.C., Newcastle, Natal, 
1875 Cbawfobd, Libttt.-Colonbl Jambs D., Westmount, near Montreal, Canada^ 

1896 Cbeagh, Chaeles Vandelbub, C.M.G. 

1884 tCBBBWBLL, Jacob, P,0, Box 469, Johannesbmg, Transvaal, 

1897 Cbbighton, Captain Fitzmaubice db Vebb, Govemment House, LagoB^ 

West Africa, 
1890 Ceessall, Paul. 

1883 fCsoGHAN, Edwabd H., M.D., P.O, Box 2187, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 
1896 f CaoGHAN, John Gr., M.D., District Surgeon, KHpdam, Griqualand West, 

Cape Colony, 
1896 Cbombib, Fbank E. N., Northern Club, Auckland, New Zealand. 
1892 Cboppbb, Obobgb P., Accra, Gold Coast Colony, 
1886 f Cbosby, Hon. William, M.L.C., Hobart, Tasmania, 

Digitized by 


Konr-Bmdent Fellows. 


Year of 

















Obosbt, WilliaM; P.O, Box 551, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 
fCBOSs, John Wm., J.F., E.M., The Besideney, 8tanger, Natal. 
Cbosse, Thomas, Hastings^ Hawk^s Bay, New Zealand, 
Cbowe, James, The Loquats, Berea, Lv/rhan, Natal, 
Cbijmp, G-. Cbbsswell, Birrdleey Bowen, Queendand, 
CuDDEFOBD, WiLLiAM, AudUoT, St, Geovg^s, Crrenada. 


f CuLMBB, Jambs William, M.L.A., Nassau, Bahamas, 

Gumming, James, WesselVs Nek^ Natal. 

GxTMMiNG, W. GoBDON, District Magistrate, Kokttad, Griqudland East, 

Cape Colony, 
CuMMiNGS, Henet, Cape Coast, Gold Coast Colony, 
CuNDALL, Fbank, F.S.A., Institute of Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica, 
CuNiNGHAM, Alubed A., Bundookmara, Eaildkandi, P. 0., Cachar, India, 
Cuningham, Qbanyille C, 271 University Street, Montreal, Canada. 
Cunningham, A. Jackson, Lanyon, Queanbeyan, New South Wales, 
CuBNOw, Wm., *' Sydney Morning Herald," Sydney, New South Wales. 
fCuBBiB, Oswald J., M.B., M.R.O.S.E., 60 Longmarket Street, MarUeburg, 

f CuBBiE, Waltbb, Bulawayo, Bhodesia, 

CuBTis, Joseph Wm., Bank of British Columbia, Portland, Oregon, U,S.A» 
Cuscaden,Gbo.,L.R.C.S.E., L.R.C.P.E., Bay St., PortMelboume, Australia. 
Cuthbebt, Hon. Sib Henbt, K.C.M.G., M.L.C., Australian Club, Mel- 
bourne, Australia, 

Dalbymfle, John Tatlob, Waitatapia, Bulls, Wellington, New Zealand, 

fDALBTMFLE, Thomas, Blost Loudon, Cape Colony, 

Dalton, E. H. Gobing. 

fDALTON, WnxiAM Hbnby, 31 Queen Street, Melbourne, Australia. 

Dangab, Axbebt a., Baroona, Whittingham, Sydney, New South Wales. 

Dabbtshibb, Benjamin H., Barrister-at-Law, Weld Club, Perth, Western 

Dablet, Cecil W., MJn8t.C.E., Harbours and Bivers Department^ 

Sydney, New South Wales, 
Dayenpobt, Howabd, 12 Way mouth St.^ Adelaide, South Australia, 
fDAVENPOBT, Sib Samuel, K.C.M.G., Beaumont, Adelaide, South Australia, 
Davebin, John, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony, 
f Datey, Thomas J., 9 Queen Street, Melbourne, Australia, 
Datidson, James, Australian Joint Stock Bank Chambers, George Street, 

Sydney, New South Wales. 
fBAviDSON, RoBEBT, Port Mizobeth, Cape Colony. 
Davidson, T., North British Insurance Co., 215 Peel St., Montreal, Canada. 
Davidson, William, Kimberley, Cape Colony, 
f Davidson, W. E., CivU Service, Colombo, Ceylon. 
Davidson, W. M. {late Surveyor- General), Oxley, Brisbane, Queensland, 
Davies, Chables Allan Wm. 

Davies, Hon. Chables E., M.L.C., Hobart, Tasmania. 
Davibs, J. A. SoNGo, Customs Department, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 
Davies, Majob J. G., M.H.A., Hobart, Tasmania* 
Davibs, Philip V., Karridale, Western Australia. 

Digitized by 


364 Boyal Colomcd Institute. 

Year of 


1886 fl^AViBS, Sib Matthew H., Afdboumef Australia, 

1886 t^ATiBS, Maubice C, J.P., Karridale, Western Australia, 

1897 fl^ATiES, Waltbb Kabbi, P,0, Box 2040, Johanneshurgy Transvaal, 

1882 Davibs, William Bbotjghton, M.D., Freetown, Sierra Leone, 

1892 Davis- Allen, John. 

1873 fl^AYis, Hon. N. Dabnbll, C.M.G., M.E.C., Auditor- General, George' 

town, British Guiana, 

1897 Dayis, Monbs, P. 0. Box 249, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 
1876 fl^AviB, P., JuN., Maritzhurg, Natal, 

1898 Davis, W. E., 7 CoUins Street, Melbourne, Australia, 

1896 Davson, Chablbs S., Barrister-at-Law, Georgetown, British Guiana, 
1889 Dawes, Eichabd St. Mabb, L.E.C.P., M.R.C.S., Gawler, South Aus- 

1897 Dawson, A. W., Bulawayo, Rhodesia, 

1896 *Dawson, Sm J. William, CJME.G-., L.L.D., F.R.S., Montreal, Canada, 

1882 f Dawson, John Eugene, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 

1883 t^AwsoN, Kankine, M.A., M.D. 

1884 Dawson, William, Kaikowra, Princes Street, Kew, Melbourne, Australia. 

1893 fl^'^'^soN W. H., care of Post Office, Rangoon, Burma, 

1882 Day, William Henbt, Q^eensland Club, Brisbane, Queensland, 

1892 Debnbt, Stanley T., Kuala Lumpor, Straits Settlements, 

1897 De Gboot Budolfh, Police Magistrate, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 
1897 Db EUmbl, Captain H. Babby, Pclice Department, Singapore, 

1882 Db Lamabee, Louis Beet, care of Messrs, F, H, Taylor ^ Co,, Bridgetown, 

1897 t^EliAUTOUB, Bbiqade-SubgeonLt.-Colonbl Habby a., M.B.C.S., Reed 

Street, Oamaru, New Zealand. 
1892 Db Mbbcaoo, Chables E., J.P., Kingston, Jamaica, 
1878 De La Mothe, E. A., St. George's, Grenada, 
1895 Delgado, Benjamin N., Kingston, JaTnaica, 

1874 Dbnison, Lieut.-Oolonel Geobgb T., Commanding the Govemor-GeneroTs 

Body Crttard, Heydon Villa, Toronto, Canada, 

1889 fl^ENNY, F. W. Ramsay, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 

1890 Denton, Hon. Captain Gbobgb C, C.M.G., Colonial Secretary, Lagos, 

West Africa, 
1881 Db Pass, Elliot A., F.R.G.S. 
1881 Db Pass, John, Kimberley, Cape Colony. 

1894 Desai, Jivanlal V., B.A., Barrister-at-Law, Ahmadabad, Bombay, India. 

1889 De Smidt, Adam Gabbibl, M.L.A., George, Cape Colony, 

1897 De Soysa, Mudaliyab J. W. Chablbs, M.A., J.P., Alfred House, Colombo, 

1894 Dbstbeb, a. C, 435 Collins Street, Melbourne, Australia, 

1883 Db Villiebs, Isaac Hobak, P,0. Box 428, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1890 tDB Villiebs, Jacob N., P.O. Box 118, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1890 Db Villiebs, Josias E., A.M.Inst.C.E., Ambleside, Sea Point, Cape Town, 

Cape Colony, 
1889 De Villibbs, Tiblman N., Pretoria, Transvaal. 
1892 De Wolp, James A., M.D., Government Medical Officer, Port of Spain, 


1891 Diamond, Fbbdebick Wm., P,0, Box 360, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

Digitized by 


Non-Resident FeUowa. 


Year of 












JhA3, FblxxBsoimald, M.A.,LIi.M., Crown Counsel, Colombo, Ceylon, 
f DiBBS, Thomas A., Commercial Banking Co., 347 George Street, Sydney, 

New South Wales. 
DiCBT, Edward C, P.O. Box 249, Johannesburg, Tranwaal. 
DiCKiNSOir, Francis M,, Broken HUl Froprietary Co,, Melbourne, Australia. 
Dickson, Hon. Gbobgb W., BA,, M.In8t.C.E., Colonial Civil Engineer, 

Georgetown, British Guiana. 
Dickson, Hon. Jakes B., C.M.G., M.L.A., Toor^k, Brisbane, Queensland. 
tDiCKSON, B. Casimib, Fort Madeod, Alberta, Canada. 
tDiCKSON, William Samxtel, Fauresmith, Orange Free State* 
DiBTBiCH, H., P,0. Box 12, Zeerust, Transvaal. 
DiGBT-JoNBS, C. K., P.O. Box 242, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
DiGNAN, Fatbick L., Bank of New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand, 
fDiSTDf, John S., Edendale, Carlton, Cape Colony, 
Dixon, Gbobob Qc., C.E., Wellington, New Zealand, 
Dixon, M. ThbodobB| P.O. Box 1816, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 
DixsoN, Hugh, Jtjn., YandUla, Henson Street, Summer Hill, Sydney, 

New South Wales. 
Dobbib, a. W., College Park, Adelaide, South Australia, 
tDoBBLL, Hon. Bichabd B., M.F., Beauvoir Manor, Quebec, Canada, 
Dobson, Hon. Alfhbd, Solicitor' General, Hobart, Tasmania. 
DoBSON, Hon. Henbt, M.H.A., Hobart, Tasmania. 
Dobson, Jambs M., M.In8t.G.E., Chief Engineer, Harbour Works, Buenos 

DocKEB, Thomas L., Commercial Bank of Sydney, Sydney, New South 

DocKBB, Wilfrid L., Nyramida, Darlinghurst Road, Sydney, New South 

Wales (Corresponding Secretary). 
Dollar, Edward, Krugersdorp, Transvaal, 
Domtillb, Libut.-Colonbl Jambs, M.F., Rothesay, New Brunswick, 
Don, David, Durban, Natal. 

tDoNALD, J.M., Rand Club, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 
Donovan, Fbrgus, P.O. Box 4, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
tDoNovAN, John J., Q.C., M.A., LL.D., 165 King Street, Sydney, New 

South Wales. 
DooLBTTB, Gborob F., J.F., Adelaide, South Australia. 
DoRNiNO, Hhnrt B., Messrs. Pickering ^ Berthoud, Sherbro, West Africa* 
DonoHTT, Arthur G., MjL, Public Works Dept., Quebec, Canada, 
DoxTGLAS, Hon. Adtb, Q.G., MX.C., Hobart, Tasmania, 
D0X70LAS, Hon. John, C.M.G., Govemfnent Resident, Thursday Island, 

Torres Straits, 
Douglass, Arthur, MX.A., Heatherton Towers, near Grahamstown, Cape 

DovB, Fredbrick W., Oxford Street, Freetown, Sierra Leone. 
Dowung, Alfrbd, P.O. Box 158, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Downbs, S. Trouncbr, Boy^ Model School, Durban, Natal. 
DoTLB, Denis, P.O. Box 183, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 
Drew, Henrt Wm., M.B., District Surgeon, Beaufort West, Cape Colony, 
Driver, Hon. James, BJL, MX.C., Mahi, Seychelles, 
Dudley, Cecil. 

Digitized by 


366 Boyal Colonial Institute. 

Year of 






DxjiT, BoBEBT, Immigration Department, Georgetown^ British Guiana, 


DuiBS, David P., M.D., P.O. Box 610, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 
DuMAT, Fbaitk Campbell, Barrister-at-Law, P.O. Box 370, Johannesburg, 

, Transvaal. 
Duncan, Captain Alexandbe, Georgetown, British Guiana, 
DuNCAN; Hon. Alexander M. T., M.L.C., Suva, Fiji, 
tDuNCAN, Andrew H. F., Bulawayo, Rhodesia. 
Duncan, Jahbs Dbnoon, Attomeg-at-Law, Kimherley, Cape Colony. 
tDuNCAN, John J., Hughes Park, Watervale, South Australia. 
tDuNCAN, "Walter Hughes, Adelaide Club, South Australia, 
Duncan^ Wm. H. Greyille, F.R.G.S., Colombo, Ceylon. 
DiTNCOMBE, H. F., District Commissioner, Lagos, West Africa, 
DuNLOP, Alexander K., Sanddkan, British North Borneo, 
DuNLOP, Charles E,, CivU Service, Kalutara, Ceylon. 
fDuNLOP, W. P., Clarence Street, Sydney, New South Wales, 
DupoNT, Major C. T., Victoria, British ColumMa. 
tDu Prebz, Hercules Petrus, J.P., Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
tDuRLACHER, Alfrbd F., FrcTnantlc, Western Australia, 
Dutton, Henrt, Anlaby, Kapunda, South Australia. 
Button, Henry S., Premieres Office, Brisbane, Queensland. 
Dyason, Durban, Attomey-at-Law, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 
Dyer, Joseph Rubidqe, Pretoria, Transvaal, 
Dyer, Stephen, Potchefsiroom, Transvaal, 
Dyer, Thomas Nowell, King William*s Town, Cape Colony, 
Dyett, Wm. C. L., Port of Spain, Trinidad, 

Eakin, J. W., M.D., Government Medical Officer, San Fernando, Trinidad. 

IEalbs, William John, Hyde Park, Madras, India, 

Earlb, Percy M., L.R.C.S., L.R.CP., Morawhanna, North-West Distriet, 

British Guiana, 
Earlb,. Robert C, M.R.C.S.E., L.S.A., Wanganui, New Zealand, 
Eabf, Frank, Newcastle, New South Wales. 
f Easmon, J. Farrell, M.D., Accra, Gold Coast Colony. 
Eastwood, Philip B., Band Club, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 
Eaton, Henry F., Yatala, Walsh St., South Yarra, Melbourne, Australia, 
Ebden, L. p.. Collector of Land Revenue, Selangor, Straits Settlements, 
IEbert, Ernest, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 
Eoclbs, Henry Glyn, Cottaganga, BangaUa, Ceylon. 
tEcxsTEiN, Frederick, P,0, Box 149, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Edb, N. J., Hong Kong. 

fEDOsoN, Arthur B., care of Stock Exchange, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Edkins, Septimus, P. O, Box 685, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Edun, Hon. Francis 0., Queen's Advocate, Lagos, West Africa, 
Edwards, David, R., M.D., ca/re of Australian Mutual Provident Society, 

Albury, New South Wales. 
Edwards, E. H., Forest Side, Mauritius. 
Edwards, G. Baker, P.O. Box 1023, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
fEDWARDS, HERBHttT, Oafnaru, New Zealand. 
Edwards, Nathaniel W., Nelson, New Zealand, 

Digitized by 


Non-Resident Fellows. 367 

Year of 

1874 1 fEDWAEDs, Hon. W. T. A., M.D., Chxvmhly VHU, Curepipe Rd,, Mauritius, 

1887 EoAN, Craxlbs J., M.D., Kin^ William's Town, Cape Cohwg, 

1883 Egbeton, Waltee, Magistrate of Police, Penang, Straits Settlements, 
1897 Ehehaedt, Albbet F., District Commissioner, Lagos, West Africa. 
1889 EiCKB, Adolph, Berg Street, Mariteburg, Natal, 

1894 Elliot, Haeet M., P,0, Box 67, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1882 Elliott, Ret. Canon F. W. T., St, MichaeVs Bectory, West Coast, 
British Guiana, 

1886 Ellis, J. Chute, Invercargill, New Zealand, 

1894 Elmslib, Cheistofhee Tatham, Croydon, Queensland, 

1885 Elstob, Aethue, Beach Grove, Durban, Natal, 

1888 Elwobtht, Edwaed, Tljnaru, New Zealand, 

1894 Emlet, Feank, Rand Club, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1889 t^<*ELKBN, Emil William, Port EHzabeih, Cape Colony, 

1889 England, Edwaed, Genista, Irving Road, Toorak, Melbourne, Australia, 

1897 t English, Thomas Rowb, De Beers Consolidated Mines, Kimb^ley, Cape 

1884 Eesktnb, Captain W. C. C, Rand Clvb, Johanriesburg, Transvaal, 
1874 fEscoMBB, Rt. Hon. Haeet, Q.C, Durban, Natal, 

1883 Escott,E. B. Sweet, C.M.G-. 

1897 EssiEN, Albeet Due:b, Cape Coast, Gold Coast Colony, 

1896 fEssEET, Edwin, J.P., Riet Valley, tTmhlali, via Durban, Natal, 

1897 EsuMAN-GwiEA, John Buckman, Cape Coast, Gold Coast Colony^ 
1894 Ettling, Captain Gustat A., Kimberley, Cape Colony, 

1880 Evans, Hon. Feedeeick, C.M.Q^., Colonial Secretary, Kingston, Jamaica, 

1889 Evans, J, Emets, British Vice- Consulate, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 
1897 Evans, Samuel, P.O. Box 1602, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1888 Evans, William, Singapore, Straits Settlements, 

1890 Evans, William Gwtnne, P.O. Box 668, JoJmnnesburg, Transvaal, 

1 893 Evelyn, Julian B., care of Messrs, M, Cavan ^ Co., Bridgetown, Barbados, 

1890 EviLL, Febdeeick C, M.R.C.S.E., L.R.C.P, 






Faiebaien, Geoege, care of Union Mortgage and Agency Company, 

William Street, Melbourne, Australia, 
Faiebeidge, Rhys S., Salisbury, Rhodesia, 

Faiefax, Gboffeby E., Bdrrister-at-Law, Sydney, New South Wales, 
tFAiEFAX, James Oswald, Koorali, Wolseley Road, Point Piper, Sydney, 

New South Wales. 
Faiefax, Sie James R., Sydney, New South Wales, 
Faithfull, Robeet L., M.D., 5 Lyons Terrace, Sydney, New South Wales, 
Fanning, John. 
Faedo, Feedeeick R. H., African Direct Telegraph Company, Freetown, 

Sierra Leone, 
fFAEQUHAESON, Aethue W., Kingston, Jamaica, 
Faequhaeson, Chaeles S., Savanna-la-Mar, Jamaica {Corresponding 

tFABQUHAEsoN, JoHN C, J.P., Garland Grove, Moniego Bay, Jamaica, 
Faequhaeson, Walteb H. K., J.P., Retreat Estate, Little London,Ja/nmca, 
tFAULKNEB, Enoch, District Commissioner, Waterloo, Sierra Leone, 

Digitized by 


368 Boyal Colonial Institute. 

Year of 

1 892 tFAULKNBB, Fbrdbrick Cm M. A., The High SchooUPerth, WestemAmtralia. 

1890 FAWcnrr, Jambs Habt, care of Bank of AustraXaHa, Perth, Western 


1890 ^Fjiircairr, Hon. William, M.L.C., B.Sc., F.L.S., Director, PubUe Gardens, 
Gordon Toumf Jamaica. 

1894 Fbbz, Golonbl Albbbcht, Queensland Club, Brisbane, Queensland, 

1895 Fbildin, Captain Bobebt B., BjL, A.D.O., Government House, George" 

town, British Guia$M. 

1888 Fell, Hbnbt, M.L.Av Maritzburg, Natal, 

1896 Fblton, Hon. J. J., M.L.C., Stanley, Falkland Islands, 
1898 t^BBOUSON, Donald W., Colombo, Ceylon, 

1889 Fbboxtson, Jambs E. A., M.B.y CM., Public Hospital, Georgetown, BriHsh 


1897 Fbbouson, Jambs Finlat, Durban^ Natal, 

1890 t^'^BO^'^^i Jambs, P,0, Box 98, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1879 fFsBonsoN, John, Cinnamon Gardens, Colombo, Ceylon {Corresponding 


1886 Fbbguson, Hon. John, MX.C., Bockhampton, Queensland, 

1892 t^^^^"^^» Antonio F. 

1895 Fiedlbb, Hbnbt M., 859 Collins Street, Melbourne, Australia. 

1890 Fibld, a. Fbbot, Pretoria, Transvaal, 

1 880 Field, Hon. William Hbnbt,M.L.G., Barrister-at'Law, St, John^s,Antigua, 
1895 Fueldino, Hon. William S., MJP., Ottawa, Canada, 

1873 FiFB, GeobQb B., Brisbane, Queensland, 

1882 FnxAN, Jambs Cox, Wall House Estate, Dominica. 

1881 t^INAUGHTT, H. J. 

1891 FiNDLAT, Jambs M., 63 Pitt Street, Sydney, New South Wales, 
1889 FiNLATSON, Dayid, Union Bank of Australia, Melbourne, Auetralia, 
1881 FiNLATsoN, H. Mackenzib, Seaforth, Mackay, Queensland, 

1876 FiNLATSON, J. Habtbt, Adelaide, South Australia, 

1895 FiNLATSON, BoBEBT A., Kimberlcy, Cape Colony, 

1878 fFiNNEMOBB, Hon. Mb. Jvsticb Bobbbt I., Mariteburg, Natal, 

1898 FiNNET, Thomas, M.L.A., J.P., Brisbane, Queensland, 
1897 FiNNiE, J. P., GwOo, Bhodesia, 

1891 FiNT7CANE, MoBOAN I., M.B.C.S.E., Assistant Colonial Surgeon, Suva, Fiji, 

1896 tFj»>'°^<*"»» ^^- Waltbb K., M.A., care of Messrs, Griniiay # Co,, 


1893 FiSHBB, Fbancis Conbad, Government Agent, BaduUa, Ceylon, 
1889 fFisHEB, Joseph, J.P., Adelaide, South Australia, 

1893 FiSHBB, John Meadows, P,0, Box 339, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1884 FiSHBB, B. H. Undbbwood, J.P., Durban, Natal, 

1881 fFiSKBN, John Inolis, Corrabert, Toorak, Melbourne, Australia, 

1892 FrrzQBBALD, Fbancis, Melbourne Club, Australia. 


1876 FiTZOiBBON, E. G-., C.M.Q-., Melbourne, Australia, 

1895 FiTZPATBicK, G. C, P,0, Box 377, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1895 Flack, Edwin H., 9 Queen Street, Melbourne, Australia, 

1887 fFLAcx, Joseph H., 9 Queen Street, Melbourne, Australia, 

1892 Fleibchack, Albbbt B., Judicial Commissioner, P,0, Box 2205, Johanne9» 
burg, Transvaal, 

Digitized by 


Tear of 



, 1894 






NoTi'Beddent Fellows. 369 

Flbmimo, Chablbs D., Assistant Mining Commissioner, Gwdo, Bhodesia. 
fFuiMma, H.E. Sib F&ancis, K.G.M.G., Government House, 8t. John's, 

Fleibno^ John, Charlotte Town, Grenada. 
Flbiono, Bichabd, P,0, Box 393, Johannesburg^ Trwnsvadl, 
FLEMiKa, Sib Sandfobo, K,Q,'iS„Qr,\Ottav)a,^Canada {Corresponding Sec,). 
FiAHMBB, A. S., Band Club, Johannesburg^ Transvaal. 
Flbtchbb, WiixiAic, Cape Town, Cape Colony, 
Flbtcheb, William, Orandunbie, Walcha, New South Wales. 
tFLiNT, Captain Wh. Baffles, Sandakan, British North Borneo. 
Flower, Jambs, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
Floto, Kbv. Wiluam, Levuka, Fffi, 
Foots, Mtbb J., P.O. Box 469, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Foots, Hon. Thomas D., M.E.C., C.M.a., Parham HUl, Antigua. 
tFoBBSs, Fbbdx. William, P.O. Box 469, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
fFoBBBS, HsNBT, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 
FoBBES, Jambs, Colombo, Ceylon. 
FoBBBs, Majob Patbick W. (6^A Dragoons), Blantyre, British Central 

FoBD, HsNBT B., Lot 91, Middle Street, Georgetown, British Guiana. 
f FoBD, Jambs P., Port Elisabeth, Cape Colony. 
FoBO, JosBFH C, 117 Buke Street, Kingston, Jamaica. 
FoBD, Bobsbt, Water Works Co., Kimberley, Cape Colony, 
fFoBDB, Bobsbt M., LJB.G.P., L.B.C.S., Colonial Surgeon, Bathurst, 

fFoBSMAN, Joseph, M.B.O.S., L.B.O.P., 215 Macquarie Street, Sydney,. 

New South Wales. 
Fobbbst, Bt. Hon. Sib John, K.C.M.a-., M.L.A., Perth, Western Australia. 
FoBBEST, Hon. William, MX.C, Brisbane, Queensland. 
FoBSAiTH, Bey. T. Spbnceb, Morton House, Parramatta, New South Wales.. 
FoBSHAW, £. BoNET, Barrister-at-Law, Georgetown, British Guiana. 
FoBSTEB, JuLTUs J., Bank of Madras, Madras, India. 
FoBSTEB, Lieut. Stewabt E., B.N. 

FoBTiEB, LoFTUs M., Department of the Interior, Ottawa, Canada. . 
FoBTUNo, Joseph, Melmoth, Natal. 

FosTEB, Edwabd Albxandbb, Auditor- General, St. John's, Antigua. 
FowLEB, Alpin Gbant, M.InstC.£., Lagos, West Africa. 
FowLEB, Geobob M., Civil Service, Nuwara EHiya, Ceylon. 
tFowLEB, Jambs, Adelaide, South Australia. 
FuAMsa, PBBdTAL Boss, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, 
FnANas, John Joseph, Q.C., Hong Kong. 

Fbankland, Fbedbbick W., New York Life Insurance Company, Broad- 
way, New York, 
Fbanklin, Bey. T. Augustus, The Parsonage, Cullen Front, Essequebo,. 

British Guiana. 
Fbanklin, Bobsbt H., Assistant Surveyor, Belize, British Honduras, 
Fbanklin, William, J.P., Barkly West, Cape Colony. 
Fbanks, Godfbbt F., M.A., Queen's College, Georgetown, British Guiana. 
Fbaseb, Alexandeb W., Bonaby, Alma Boad East, St. Kilda, Melbourne, 


Digitized by 



Year of 
























Bayed Colonial InstitvU. 

Ebasxb, Chablbs a., Commandant ofPoUee, Ntuaau, Bahamas, 

Pbassb, Hugh, BandaraipcUa EttaU, Matale, CeyUm. 

Fbasbb, Jambs L., Gong Gong^ Barkly West, Ca^ Coiony. 

Fbasbb, Josbph, DanUmlagaUa, Matale, Ceylon, 

Fbasbb, Malcolm A. C.» Perth, Western Australia, 

Erasbb, Bobbbt a., Toorak, Meiboume, Australia, 

Fbabeb, Bobbbt S., Kandanewera, Elkadmoy Ceylon, 

Fbasbb, William Pbbct, P,0, Box 26, Johanne^ury, Transvaal, 

Fbbbmak, Jomr, Mariteburg, Natal. 

Fbbmantlb, H.E. OBNBBALSiBA.LTON,G.G.M.a., G.B., ThePdace, Malta. 

Fbickbb, William C, care of Standard Bank, Cape Town, Cape Colony, 

fFsooD, Thomas Mobton, MJ)., P»0. Box 1984, Johanne^urg, Transvaal, 

Fbo8T| Hob. John, C.M.G., M.L.A., Queenstovm, Cape Colony. 

Fbost, W. T. H., P,0. Box 806, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Fbte, Maubiob W., care of E. B. Syfret, Esq., 39 8t. Georges Street, Cape 

Town, Cape Colony, 
fFuLLBBi Alfbbd W., Southem Wood, East London, Cape Colony, 
fFuLLBBy William, Thorny River Station, ffid King WxUmuCs Town, 

Cape Colony. 
"FvLTour, Fbabcis Gbosslbt, Napier, New Zealand, 
FxJBSB, Fbbdbbick J., Gwelo, Rhodesia. 
fFrsH, Hob. Sm Philip 0., K.G.M.a., M.H.A., Hohetrt, Tasmania, 

fGAixwAD, Shbdcant Sampatbao K., M.B.I.y M.B,AJ8., Baroda, India. 
Gaisfobd, Hbbbt, Oringi, Napier, New Zealand. 
Gabdmbb, G. H., JJP., Edward Street, Brisbane, Queensland, 
Gabdibbb, Fbancis J., J. P., Board of Executorst Kimberley, CApe Colony. 
Gablabd, p. J., L3.G.S.I., L^.GJ?.Im Assistant Colonial Surgeon, Accra, 

Gold Coast Colony. 
Gabland, Waltbb F^ MJnstGJS., MogkuUerai Gya Railway, Ikhri-on- 

Sons, Shahabad, Bengal^ India, 
Gabbett, Habbt, Plantation Nonpareil, British Guiana, 
Gabnett, William J. 

Gabbawat, Thomas S., Bridgetown, Barbados. 
Gabbbtt, Hbbbt K, M.K.G.S.E., Australian Mutual Provident Society, 

87 Pitt Street, l^dney, New South Wales, 
GasxiN; G. p., Berbice, British Cruiana. 
Gattt, His Homoub Ghibf Justice Stephen H., Gibraltar, 
Gatt, Jxtlitts, P.O. Box 209, Johanne^mrg, Transvaal, 
Gaul, Rt. Rev. William T^ D J)., Lord Bishop of Mashonaland, Salisbury^ 

fGAT, Abnold E., 2%e Brothers, Grenada, West Indies, 
jGat, £. T., The Brothers, Grenada, West Indies, 
f GhiABDi John, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony, 
Gbabt, Alfbed, Durban, Natal. 

Gbb, Gbobob F., care of National Bank of New Zealand, Limited, Wel- 
lington, New Zealand. 
Gbddbs, J. H., Dean Hollow, Mosman's Bay, Sydney, New South Wales, 
Gbntlbs, Albxakdbb B., Hampstead, Falmouth P.O., Jamaica. 
GboboE| Abthub Kingston, Jamaica. 

Digitized by 


Nori'Besident Fellows. 371 . 

Year of 

1883 I Gbobge, Hon. Chables J,, M.L.C., Paeifie Houu, Lagos, We»i Africa* 
1894 Gibbon, Chables, GoonambU, WcUtegama, Ceylon, 

1882 Gibbon, Edwabd, 59 Hope Street, Cape Town, Ca^ Colony. 

1885 Gibbon, W. D., Kandy, Ceylon. 

1897 Gibbons, Majob Alfred St. Hill, Cape Town, Caj^e Colony % 

1896 Gibbs, Isaac, New Zealand Shipping Co,, Chriatchurch, New Zealand. 

1897 fGiBBS, John, African Lakes Corporation, Mandala House, jilantyre, 

British Central Africa, 
1889 Gibson, Habby, South African Association, 6 Church Square, Cape TowHi 
Cape Colony (Corresponding Secretary), 

1896 Gideon, Hon. D. S., M.L.C., XP., Port Antonio, Jamaica. 

1894 GiFFOBD, Chables Milwabd, Brown's Town^ P.O,, Jamaica, 

1886 f Gilchbist, William, P,0, Box 401, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 

1879 Giles, Thomas, J.P., Adelaide Club, South Australia. 

1898 Giles, Thomas O'Halloban, M.A., LL.B., Grsr^eU Street, Adelaide, 

South Australia, 
1889 Gill, Dayid, C.B., LL.IX, F.K.S., Astronomer Boyal, The Observatory, 
Cape Town, Cape Colony, 

1897 Gill, Henby H., Woodboume, Davey Street, Hobart, Tasmania, 

1889 GiLLEs, Alfred W., Hinemoa, Edgecliffe Road, Sydney, New South Wales. 

1895 Gillbs, David, Hong Kong and Whampoa Bock Co,, Hong Kong, 

1 887 Gillespie, Egbert, 1 9 Chamwood Crescent, St, Kilda, Melbourne, Australia. 

1891 ^QiLLBSPiE,'RosBn'rK,,JJ?,,Englewood,Inverleigh, Victoria, Australia, 

1892 GiLLOTT, Samuel, 9 Brunswick Street, Melbourne, Australia. 
1882 GiLMOTTB, Andrew, 17 Queen Street, Melbourne, Australia, 

1885 GiLZEAN, Hon. Alexr. Bussbl, M.C.P., Anna Begina, British Guiana. 
1889 t^^^i-^sTONE, Nelson S., J.P., Prince Alfred Street, Grahamstown, 
Cape Colony, 

1895 GisBOBNE, Dudley G., P,0, Box 16, Btdawayo, Rhodesia {Oyrresponding 


1889 GiTTENs, Joseph A., Oughterson, St. Philip, Barbados, 

1896 Gladwyn, Arthur G., Klipdam, Griqualand West, Cape Colony. 
1877 t^''^^^^^^' Thomas, Mile Gully P.O., Manchester, Jamaica. 

1897 Glossop, F. G., Lokcja, Niger Protectorate, West Africa* 
1885 Glossop, W. Dale, Mirarnar, Lega da Palmeira, Portugal. 
1897 t^LUYAS, Charles, P,0. Box 8, Johannesburg, Transtsaal. 

1884 GhHJH, G. H., P.O. Box 163, Johannesburg, Transwial. 

1896 GocH, Samuel F., B.A., LL.B., Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

1897 GoDDARD, Harry, P.O. Box 418, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

1897 GoDDARD, William C, Norwich Chambers, Sydney, New South Wales, 

1889 fGoDDARD, William, P.O. Box 418, Johminesburg, TVansvaal, 

1895 Godfrey, Joseph James, care of Messrs. Butherfoord Bros,, Adderley 
Street, Cape Town, Cape Colony, 

1895 GoLDiB, A. B., Sebrof, Orrong Road, Armadale, Victoria, Australia. 
1891 Goldmann, C. Sydney, P.O. Box 485, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

1896 Goldmann, Bichard, P.O. Box 485, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

1880 fGoLDNXY, His Honoxtr Chief Justice Sir J. Tanxertillb, Trinidad, 

1 885 GoLDRiNG, A. B. Chamber of Mines, P, 0. Box 809, JohasmUlmrg, Transvaal. 

1890 Gk)LLiN, Gbobgb, Melbourne, Australia. 

Digitized by (SCt)gle 















Boyal Colonial InsUhde. 

GooDALL, Chakus, H3., Otey Str^ 8t, Kilia, MeVxmmef Australia. 
GooDBy Cbaxlbs H.y Adelaide, South Australia. 
fOooDi, William Haxiltow, P.O, Box 176, Kimberley, Cape Colony. 
GooMtNOUGH, I/r.-GnnuuL Snt William H., KC.B^ Comma$UUng the 

Droops, Cape Toum, Cape Colony, 
QooDUFwm, John, 828 Smith Street, Durban, Natal (Corresponding 

QooDHAX, HoK. William "Mmau, Attomey-General, Hong Kong. 
Goold-Adams, Lt.-Colonsl H. J., CJB,, C.H.G^ Mqfekiny, Cape Colony. 
fGoBDON, Charles, M.D.y Maritzburg, Natal, 
fGoBDON, Chablbs Giumston, C.E., Club de Besidentes EtranySres^ 

Buenos Ayres, 
fGoBDON, Gbobob, Port Elitiaheth, Cape Colony, 
fGoBDON, JoHK, Messrs. D. ^ W, Murray, Addaide, South Australia. 
fGoBDOw, HoK. W. GoBDON, M.L.C., KnowlsslyJl Queen's Park, Trinidad* 
Gordon, WnxLUC Montgombbib, Mayfidd'jCottage, St. John's, Antigua. 
GoBB, Hon. I/t.-Golonbl J. C, Colonial Secretary, Freetown, Sierra Lsone. 
GoBTONy Libut.-Golonbl EdwabDi JJP.y Bangiatea, BuUs, Wellington, 

New Zealand, 
Gould, Josbph, Christchurch, New Zealand, 
GouLDiB, Joseph, Kimberl^, Cape Colofiy. 
fGoTBTT, BoBEBT, Cullodtu Station, near Arramae, Queensland. 
GouBLAT, William Dickson, Bock Bead, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
fGowANS, Louis F., care of Messrs. F.^A, Swanzy, Cape Coast, Gold Coast 

GowBB-PooLE, Pbbct, M.IJME.E., F.R.G.S., P.O. Box 20, KUrksdorp, 

GoTDBB, Gbobob Woodboffb, G.M.G., Adelaidejf South Australia, 
Gbacb, Hon.MoboanS.,C.M.G.,M.L.C.,MJ)., Wellington, New Zealand. 
Gbafton Fbbdinand, Polela, Natal, 

Gbaham, Francis G. G., C.C. and B.M,, Somerset East, Cape Colony, 
Gbaham, John, 88 Simcoe Street, Victoria, British Columbia. 
Gbaham, William H., Albany, Western Australia, 
fGnAHAM, WooDTHOBPB T., P.O. Box 1155, Johannssfmrg, Transvaal 

{Corresponding Secretary). 
Gbainoeb, Richard Kbat, Barkly West, Cape Colony, 
Gbannum, Clifton, Auditor, Freetown, Sierra Leone. 
Gbant, Hon. Charles Hbnry, MX.C., li.In8t.C.E., Hobart, Ihsnumia. 
Grant, Duncan, Melboume, Australia. 
fGBANT, E. H., Colonial Bank, St. John's, Antigua. 
Grant, The Very Ret. G. M., M.A., D.D., Principal, Queen's Universify, 

Kingston, Canada (Corresponding Secretary). 
Grant, Henry E. W., Harbour Island, Bahamas. 
Grant, Sm James A., M.D., K.C.M.G., F.G.S., 150 Efgin Street, Ottawa, 

Grant, Colonel Thomas Hunter, care of William BigneU, Esq., Qu^ec^ 

Grant-Dalton, Alan, M.Iiist.C.E., Government Bailways, East London, 

Cape Colony. 
Graves, Somerset H., Ashburton, New' Zealand, 

Digitized by 


Non^Resident FeUc/ws. 373 

Year of 

1884 Gbat, Hon. Gbobob W., M.L.C., Brisbane, Queensland, 

1888 f Gbat, Bobbbt, care of Messrs, Dalgety ^ Co,, Sydney, New Sonth Wales, 

1892 Gbat, Wbntwobth D., caare of Post Office, Gwanda, New Tuli Boad, 


1887 fGBBATHEAD, JoHN BALDWIN^ M^.^ OM, (Ediiu), Grdhamstown^ Cape 

1897 Gtbkch, Saltatobe, MJ)., Margherita House, Cospicua, Malta, 

1 888 fGBBBN, Dayid, Durban, Natal. 

1896 GbebNi Fbaitk J., PMic Works Department, Lagos, West Africa, 

1882 GsEEN, Geobob Dutton, Adelaide, South Australia, 

1889 Gbben, John £., P.O. Box 340, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 
1884 fGBBEN, RiCHABD Allan, AllanvdU, Newcastle, Natal, 
1877 t^**^^> KoBEBT Cottle, Pretoria, Transvaal, 

1880 fGBBENACBB, Benjamin W., M.L.A., Durban, Natal, 

1896 Gbbbnacbe, Walteb, Durban, Natal, 

1889 Gbbbme, Edwabd M., M.L.A., Advocate, Maritzburg, Natal* 

1884 Gbeeiib, Moleswobth, Greystones, Melbourne, Australia, 

1893 tGBBENLEES, James Neilsok, P,0, Box 474, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

1894 fGBEBMLBES, Thomas B., M.B., CM., The Asylum, Fort England, 

Crrahamstoum, Cape Colony, 

1897 Gbeenslabb, Henbt J., Thames, New Zealand, 

1895 Gbeeicwood, G. Dean, Teviotdale, Canterbury, New Zealand, 

1896 Gbeio, Geobgb, Laxapana, Maskeliya, Ceylon, 

1894 Gbet, Right Hon. Sib Geobob, K.G.B., Auckland, New Zealand, 

1895 Gbby, Captain Baleioh, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, 

1881 fGBET-WiLsoN, H.E. William, Ojli.G., Government House, Staidey, 

Falkland Islands, 
1879 fGBicE, John, Messrs, Grice, Sumner j- Co., Melbourne, Australia, 

1885 Gbiffin, C. T,, M.ILC.S.E., L.R.C J?.E., Superintending Medical Officer, 

Haputale, Ceylon, 
1395 Gbiffith, Abthijb G., H.B.M. Vice-Consulate, Old Calabar, West Africa. 
1884 Gbiffith, Colonel Chablbs D., C.M.G., East London, Cape Colony. 

1882 fGBiFFiTH, Hon. Hobacb M. Bbandfobd, Treasurer j Bathurst, Gambia, 
1881 Gbiffith, His Honoub Chief Justicb Sib Samuel W., G.C.M.O., 

Brisbane, Queensland, 
1875 Gbiffith, His Honoub T. Eiselt, C.M.G., Administrator, St, Kiits, 

1883 f Gbiffith, His Honoub Chief Justice Sib William Bbandfobd, BJL« 

Accra, Gold Coa^st Colony. 

1889 t^M'"''^» Thomas Gbiff, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony, 

1890 Gbimani, Edmund Hobnbt, Tamsui, Formosa, China, 

1896 Gbimmeb, Wm. P., Salisbury, Rhodesia. 

1 884 fGBiMWADE, Hon. F. S., M.L.C., Harleston, Caulfield, Melbourne, Australia. 

1885 Gbinunton, Hon. Sib John J., M.L.C., AJnatCE., Colombo, Ceylon, 

1897 Gbinteb, Rev. John, The Rectory, San Jose, Costa Rica, 
1897 f