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Full text of "Proceedings"

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON 

27TH NOVEMBER 1913 TO 25TH JUNE 1914 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. XXVI 




PRINTED AT OXFORD BY HORACE HART FOR 

THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 

BURLINGTON HOUSE, LONDON 




b/\ 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Cross and base, St. Sampson's, Guernsey . Plate facing 3 

Bowl of censer, St. Sampson's, Guernsey . . 4 

Standing candlestick, St. Sampson's, Guernsey . Plate facing 4 
Standing candlestick, and branch and socket of candlestick, 

St. Sampson's, Guernsey . . . Plate facing 4 

Triple candlestick (one branch missing), St. Sampson's, 

Guernsey ....... Plate facing 4 

Branch from a triple candlestick, and branch candlestick, 

St. Sampson's Guernsey ..... Plate facing 4 
Branch candlestick, side and front views, St. Sampson's, 

Guernsey ....... Plate facing 6 

Ivory horn, Borradaile Collection .... Plate facing 8 

Details of ornament on ivory horn, Borradaile Collection 

Plate facing 10 
Ivory triptych (closed and open), Borradaile Collection 

Plate facing 1 2 

French polyptych, Borradaile Collection . . Plate facing 1 4 

Ivory diptych, Borradaile Collection . . . Plate facing 1 4 
Copper-gilt chrismatory, Borradaile Collection . . .17 
Parcel-gilt silver tabernacle, silver-gilt chrismatory, and 

rock-crystal baton, Borradaile Collection . Plate facing 18 

Detail of end of baton, Borradaile Collection . . .19 

An heraldic ' puzzle table ', top and side views . Plate facing 22 
Alabaster table of the Passion of Christ . . Plate facing 31 

Hoard of scrap bronze found near Aiidover, Wilts. Plate facing 32 
Iron axe-head from Clausentum . . . . .33 

Exchequer account with private tallies attached ... 37 
Foot of an English altar-cross of latteii . . Plate facing 42 

Inscription and ornament on lobes of altar-cross foot . . 42 
Inscription on dome of altar-cross foot . . . . .43 
The < Bell ' Salt and the ' Aris ' Cup . . . Plate facing 44 
Wheel of Life, Kempley Church, Gloucestershire . Plate facing 48 



iv 

PAGE 

Wheel of Life, Arundel Psalter, British Museum . Plate facing 48 
Wheel of Life, Leominster Church, Herefordshire Plate facing 52 
Embroidery with Wheel design at Cologne . . Plate facing 56 
West window, Notre Dame, Mantes . . Plate facing 56 

Recumbent stone, Bibury, Gloucestershire . 
Slab with snake-pattern, Bibury . 
Designs on two faces of slab, Bibury 
Design of Viking gravestone, Bibury . 

Stone carving, Somerford Keynes, Wilts. . 67 

Mask from gravestone, Aarhus, Denmark . . 68 

Mask from gravestone, Skjern, Denmark 

Stone carving, Ramsey (Maughold), Isle on Man . . 69 

Stone cross, Kirk Michael, Isle of Man . 69 

Cross-shafts, Ramsbury, Wilts. . .70 

Cross-shaft, West Camel, Somerset . . . . .71 
Engraved bronze plate, British Museum . . . . 71 

Fabricator, Windmill Hill, Wilts .74. 

Long scraper with parallel flaking and white patina, Wind- 
mill Hill 74 

' Horseshoe ' scraper, white patina, comparatively coarse 

chipping, Windmill Hill 75 

Implement from Windmill Hill 75 

Graver-like tool, sliced after the manner of the French burin., 

Windmill Hill 75 

' Laurel-leaf ' implement, Windmill Hill .... 76 
Knife with coarse retouches, Windmill Hill . . . .77 
Celt-like tool, with ends rubbed and smoothed as well as 

the sides, Windmill Hill 78 

Small ovate implement, white patina, Windmill Hill . . 79 

Implement from Clatford Bottom, Wilts 79 

Unaltered cone of black flint, with narrow, parallel flaking, 

Elcot, Marlborough, Wilts 82 

Cone with broad, flat flaking, Windmill Hill . .82 

Arrow-head, Windmill Hill .84 

Old Sarum: Plan of the Cathedral Church, as excavated, 

1912 - 13 .... Plate facing 102 

Old Sarum : Crypt of the Cathedral Church, looking east 

Plate facing 104 
Old Sarum : Plinth and doorway, east side of North Transept 

Plate facing 104 



PAGE 

Old Sarum : Purbeck marble coffin, found in the Canons' 

Cemetery ....... Plate facing 106 

Old Sarum : Graves, with head and foot stones, on south side 

of Nave Plate facing 106 

Old Sarum : Coffin and coffin-lids in the Canons' Cemetery 

Plate facing 108 
Old Sarum : Coffin-lid with inscription to Godwin, Precentor 

of Salisbury . . . . . . Plate facing 110 

Old Sarum: Architectural fragments . . . Plate facing 110 
Old Sarum : Architectural remains of vaulting, etc. Plate facing 112 
Old Sarum : Early crocketed gable mouldings, found outside 

the South Transept ..... Plate facing 1 1 2 

Old Sarum : Arch-stones of a large Norman doorway 

Plate facing 114 
Old Sarum: Finial of gable with two lions, found outside the 

South Transept ...... Plate facing 1 14 

Plan of Old Sarum, based on the 2~56o O. S. map, with 

sections ....... Plate facing 11 6 

Staunton Harold Chapel, Leicestershire : Exterior from the 

north-west ....... Plate facing 120 

Staunton Harold Chapel : West front . . . Plate facing 122 
Staunton Harold Chapel : Interior, looking east, before the 

removal of the plaster . .... Plate facing 124 

Staunton Harold Chapel : Seventeenth-century plate 

Plate facing 126 

Staunton Harold Chapel : Interior, looking west . Plate facing 128 
Fragments of urn found at Deal, with restoration . . .129 
Black urn with incised lines red, M arson, Marne . . 131 

Red urn painted, Marson, Marne . . . . . 131 
Urn with incised ornament, Bussy-le-Chateau, Marne . . 131 
Urn with incised ornament, Mesnil-les-Hurlus, Marne . 132 

Fragment of urn found at Deal, with restoration . . .132 
Fragment of gold filigree from Selsey. Sussex . . . 134 
Plan of the Burtle Pottery Mounds, Somerset . Plate facing 137 
Fragments of ware, Burtle Pottery Mounds . Plate facing 138 

Fragments of ware and jug, Burtle Pottery Mounds 

Plate facing 140 
Fragments of tiles and briquetage, Burtle Pottery Mounds 

Plate facing 142 
Fire-bars and luting, Burtle Pottery Mounds . Plate facing 144 



vi 

PAGE 

Germanic wafering-irons of the sixteenth century Plate facing 146 
Germanic wafering-irons of the sixteenth century Plate facing 148 
Germanic wafering-irons of the sixteenth century Plate facing 150 
Alabaster figure of St. John the Baptist . . . .152 

Copper-gilt Elizabethan Communion cup . . Plate facing 152 
Portion of a bone pax . . . . . . . .153 

Inscription and carvings on fragmentary Roman altar found 

at Corbridge, 1913 Plate facing 186 

Sketch-map showing the course of Ryknield Street between 

Weston and the Foss Way ... . 207 

Alabaster carving of the Adoration of the Kings . . 216 

St. Paul's Cathedral : Sections of Foundations . . 220 

St. Paul's Cathedral : Plan and sections of Pit A . . .221 
St. Paul's Cathedral : Position of borings .... 222 
Pottery from site of St. Paul's Cathedral . . . .225 
Pottery kiln and cluster of four kilns found in London in 

1675 225 

Remains of old St. Paul's : Foundations discovered when 

excavating for heating chamber and workshops, 

1909-10 . ... 226 

Excavation and plan at Paul's Cross ..... 227 
The Danny Unicorn Jewel, front, top, and back views 

Plate facing 236 

Sixteenth-century English tapestry cushion-cover . . 237 

Late-Celtic urn from Letchworth Garden City, Herts. 

Plate facing 238 

Base of urn, from Letchworth Garden City .... 239 
Bronze connecting-link of belt, from Letchworth Garden 

City . . 240 

INDEX ... ..... . 249 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 

or 



SESSION 19131914. 



THURSDAY, 27th NOVEMBER, 1913. 

Sir CHARLES HERCULES READ, Knt., LL.D., President, 

in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From the Rev. Professor Bonney, F.S. A. : Inscriptions from Swiss 
chalets. By Walter Larden. 8vo. Oxford, 1913. 

From the Author : Notes on the history of the Armourers' and Brasiers' 
Company. By E. J. Barren, F.S. A. 8vo. London, 1913. 

From the Author : The Hospital and Chapel of St. Mary Roncevall at 
Charing Cross. By James Galloway, M.D. 8vo. London, 1913. 

From the Author : Esher Place, and its associations with Cardinal 
Wolsey and the Spanish Armada. By the Rev. J. K. Floyer, F.S. A. 
8vo. n.p. n. d. 

From the Author, W. H. St. John Hope, Esq., Litt.D., D.C.L. : 

1. A grammar of heraldry. 12mo. Cambridge, 1913. 

2. Heraldry for craftsmen and designers. 8vo. London, 1913. 

From J. H. C. Evelyn, Esq. : The churches of AVotton, Abinger, and 
Oakwood. By F. R. Fairbank. Privately printed. 8vo. Guild- 
ford, 1911. 

From the Author : CelLe Trichora 3 and other Christian antiquities in 
the Byzantine Provinces of Sicily with Calabria and North Africa, 
including Sardinia. Vol. i. By E. H. Freshlield, F.S.A. 8vo. n.p. 
1913. 

From the Editor : Syrian anatomy, pathology, and therapeutics, or 
f The Book of Medicines'. 2 vols. Edited by E. A. W. Budge, 
F.S.A. London, 1913. 
VOL. xxvi B 



2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

From Rev. G. W. W. Minus, F.S.A. .-Scythians and Greeks. A survey 
of ancient history and archaeology on the north coast of the Euxine 
from the Danube to the Caucasus. By E. H. Minns. 4to. Cam- 
bridge, 1913. 

From the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, LL.D., V.-P.S.A. : Bibliotheca 
Lindesiana. Vol. viii. Handlist of Proclamations, 1714-1910. fol. 
Wigan, 1913. 

From the Author : Barmvell Castle, Northamptonshire. By C. A. 
Markham, F.S.A. 8vo. n.p. 1913. 

From the Author : Rohert and Andrew Foulis and the Glasgow press, 
with some account of the Glasgow Academy of Fine Arts. By David 
Murray, LL.D., F.S.A. 8vo. Glasgow, 1913. 

From Harold Sands, Esq., F.S.A. : Cliff castles and cave dwellings of 
Europe. By S. Baring-Gould. 8vo. London, 1911. 

From Rev. Canon Harwell, F.S.A.: Vincentio Saviolo his Practise. In 
two Bookes. The first intreating of the use of the Rapier and 
Dagger. The second of Honor and honorable Quarrels. 4to. 
London, 1595. 

From the Author, L. F. Salzmaim, Esq., B.A., F.S.A.: 

1. Mediaeval byways. 8vo. London, 1913. 

2. English industries of the Middle Ages. 8vo. London, 1913. 

From the Editor: A handbook for Birmingham and the neighbourhood, 
prepared for the meeting of the British Association, 1913. Edited by 
G. A. Auden, M.D., F.S.A. 8vo. Birmingham, 1913. 

From William H. Whitehead, Esq.: Retrospections. By Sir Charles 
Whitehead, F.S.A. 8vo. Maidstone, n.p. 

From the Author : Ashby-de-la-Zouch Castle, Leicestershire, historic 
and descriptive. By Thomas H. Fosbrooke. 4to. n.p. n.d. 

From the Delegates of the Clarendon Press : The archaeology of the 
Anglo-Saxon settlements. By E. Thurlow Leeds, F.S.A. 8vo. 
Oxford, 1913. 

From the Author : Sussex church plate. By J. E. Couchman. 8vo. 
Brighton, 1913. 

From the Author : The ancient earthworks of Cranborne Chase. By 
Heywood Sumner, F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1913. 

From Rev. William Hudson, F.S.A.: Register or memorial of Ewell, 
Surrey. Edited by Cecil Deedes, M. A. 8vo. London, 1913. 

From the Author : English historical literature in the fifteenth century. 
By C. L. Kingsford, F.S.A. 8vo. Oxford, 1913. 

From the Author : The royal manor and park of Shotwick in Cheshire. 
By R. Stewart-Brown, F.S.A. 8vo. n.p. 1912. 

From the Author, J. W. Willis-Bund, Esq., F.S.A.: 

1. The battle of Worcester. 12mo. Worcester, 1913 ; and 

2. The legendary lore of Worcestershire. 8vo. Lincoln, n.d. 

From the Author : Notes on pre-conquest church architecture in Hamp- 
shire and Surrey. By Colonel H. L. Jessep. 8vo. Winchester, 
1913. 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 3 




: 

i. 1 . CROSS AND BASE : ST. SAMPSON'S, GUERNSEY 



Nov. 27.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 3 

From the Author: The China Collector. A guide to the porcelain of 
the English factories. By H. W. Lewer. 12mo. London, n.d. 

From the Author: Historic Darlington. By Edward Wooler, F.S.A. 
8vo. London,, 1913. 

From the Royal Society : The celebration of the two hundred and fiftieth 
anniversary of the Royal Society of London, July 15-19, 1912. 4to. 
London, 1913. 

From the Author : The Bretts of Rotherby. By Rev. W. D. Bushell, 
F.S.A. 8vo. n.p. n.d. 

From the Vice-Chairman and Board of the National Portrait Gallery : 
Portrait medal of Viscount Dillon, D.C.L., F.S.A. 1913. 

From W. H. Quarrell, Esq., F.S.A. : Portrait of Richard Warren, 
M.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., from a picture by. G. Stuart, engraved by 
G. Bartolozzi. 

The PRESIDENT announced that the late Canon Bar well, F.S.A., 
had bequeathed to the Society any of his books which the Presi- 
dent chose to select, and that in consequence some fifty volumes 
would be added to the Society's Library. 

The PRESIDENT also announced that under the Ancient Monu- 
ments Act the Council had nominated the Earl of Crawford and 
Balcarres to be the representative of the Society on the Advisory 
Board for England and that he himself had been appointed by 
the Trustees to represent the British Museum on the Board. 

The PRESIDENT further drew attention to the improvements 
which had been made in lighting the meeting room. 

Walter Knight, Earl Ferrers, was admitted a Fellow. 

The Rev. WILLIAM TAYLOR, Rector of St. Sampson's, Guernsey, 
sent for exhibition a number of latten objects lately discovered 
in St. Sampson's Church, on which the SECRETARY made the 
following remarks : 

" We have to thank our local Secretary, Dr. Marett, for the 
opportunity of seeing the very interesting group of latten 
objects exhibited here to-night by the Rev. William Taylor, 
Rector of St. Sampson's, Guernsey. 

They were found under the following circumstances on 20th 
June, 1913. It had become necessary to rehang the bell ; and 
the plan adopted was to erect a steel frame whose footings 
should be on a level, or thereabouts, with the crown of the stone 
vault of the tower, the ground floor of which is used as a 
baptistery. The haunches of the vault were found to be filled 
in with rubbly soil nearly to the underside of the wooden floor 
of the bell-chamber, and this soil was being cleared away, in 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

order to put in concrete footings for the bell-frame, when a 
loose stone was noticed in the south wall of the tower. Its 
removal disclosed the entrance to a small chamber in the wall, 
and in this chamber were found the objects you now see. 

They consist of a cross, part of a censer, two standing candle- 
sticks, part of a triple candlestick intended to be set in a socket, 
four branches, and a loose bowl and pricket. 

The cross (fig. 1) is of a type with which the Society is familiar, 
and the example in our own collection is shown for comparison. 

It is provided with a socketed base, in which it stood on the 
altar, but when occasion required it could be taken oft' its base 




Fig. 2. BO\VL OF CKXSKK, ST. SAMPSOx's, (ilTKRXSEY (^). 

and used as a processional cross, set on a long staff'. Compared 
with the Society's specimen, it will be seen that it is not its 
equal in workmanship, and is moreover, except that it retains 
its base, less perfect, having lost the lo/enge at the foot of the 
cross and the sockets which carried the brackets on which stood 
the figures of our Lady and St. John. The three remaining 
lozenges, at the ends of the arms, are engraved with the IHS, 
instead of the evangelistic symbols as on our specimen ; and at 
the back have a design of four leaves, instead of suns. The 
stem and arms have a running leaf pattern on both faces and 
plain bevelled edges from which spring foliate crockets. The 
figure of our Lord is in good preservation, and the three nails 
fastening it to the cross are still in their places. The knop at 
the foot of the cross is hexagonal, the faces of the bosses being 
engraved with four-leaved flowers, and alternating with the 
bosses are leaf-shaped raised figures above and below, with a 
tracery pattern on them. The socketed circular base is domed, 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 4 




Fig. 3. STANDING CANDLESTICK \ ST. SAMPSON'S, GUERNSEY ( 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 4 




Fig. 5. TRIPLE CANDLESTICK (ONE BRANCH MISSING) : ST. SAMPSON^, GUERNSEY 




.SP 






Nov. 27.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 5 

with a gadroon ornament issuing from beneath a projecting 
ring with an open cresting of crosses and fleurs-de-lis, from 
which in turn rises the cylindrical socket over which the socket 
of the cross fits. It has a six-lobed foot to steady it, engraved 
with a hatched zigzag pattern. 

The lower half of a censer (fig. 2) is of a very simple form, 
such ornament as it had being doubtless reserved for the upper 
half, which is unfortunately missing. The bowl is circular, and 
the foot worked into an octagon ; there are remains of what 
looks like incense in the bowl. 

The larger standing candlestick (fig. 3) is 12 in. high to the top 
of the cup and 18 J in. high to the top of the pricket. The cup 
and foot are circular, with simple mouldings, and there are 
rings at the middle and both ends of the stem. The second 
standing candlestick (fig. 4) is of a more elaborate kind, having 
an embattled bowl, and a base raised on three lion's feet. It is 
9^ in. high to the top of the bowl, 12J- in. to the top of the 
pricket. The triple candlestick (fig. 5), retaining unfortunately 
only two of its holders, has a pinhole through its stem at the 
level of the sockets for its two branches, showing that it was thus 
fastened to some form of holder or stem. The sockets are 
marked for fitting with one and two grooves respectively, and 
the remaining branch has a single groove to identify it as be- 
longing to the single-grooved socket. The four branches are 
all odd pieces ; two (figs. 6 and 7) have fitted into ring sockets 
like that last described, a third (fig. 8) which ends in a beast's 
head, has been fastened by something like the hanging hook of 
a door, and the fourth (fig. 9), a remarkable specimen in the 
form of a dragon-like beast with a curved horn and a long 
whip-like tail, and having a shield fastened to his lower jaw, has 
two lugs pierced to fit over a vertical pin. 

It will be well now, before going further, to quote two English 
inventories dealing with similar objects. 

The first is that of Long Melford Church, Suffolk, 1529 : 

Two great candlesticks. 

Two second candlesticks, lately bought, which are called Secondans. 

Two small candlesticks to the nigh altar. 

Two small candlesticks to Jesus altar, both of Lattyn. 

A candlestick of Lattin, with ten branches, standing before the image of 

Jesus. 

A candlestick. 

A candlestick, ten branches, before St. Ann. 
A candlestick, with three branches, belonging to the Trinity ; and now 

the said candlestick standeth before the image of St. Nicholas. 
A candlestick with ten branches, standing before the high altar. 
Two little pretty candlesticks of Lattin, belonging to John Hill's altar. 
A candlestick of Lattin, with ten branches, now in the vestry. 
A candlestick of Lattin, with three branches, now in the vestry. 



6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

The second is of St. Mary's Guild, Boston, 1534 : 

Two great candelstickes of latten. 

Two secondary candelstickes of latten. 

Two lesser candelstickes of latten standing at the altar ende. 

A litill candelstick of latten standyng of three lions. 

An other lesse candelstyk staridynge afore owr lady. 

Two litill caridillstickes of latten standynge on the high altar of owr lady. 

A candelstick of latten w* two flowres for the morow masse. 

An other litill candelstik of latten w* two flowres for one of the side altars. 

Two other litill candelstickes of latten w* two pyimes. 

Two laten candelstickes standinge uppou the altar. 

These are the outfits of a well-appointed church and a wealthy 
guild, and are on a more lavish scale than St. Sampson's could 
probably attain to. The first three items in each inventory are 
similar,' and refer to the lights near the high altar, namely, 
two great candlesticks or standards, two lesser candlesticks or 
secondans, and two small candlesticks standing at the altar end, 
not on the altar, but probably on the iron rod from which the 
costers or riddels hung ; and from the St. Mary's Guild inventory 
it is also clear that there were two little candlesticks standing 
on the high altar also. The branched candlesticks, of ten or 
three branches, stood before various images, but one is said to 
stand before the high altar. 

We may therefore consider that the candlesticks exhibited 
may be described as belonging to a set of latten, and to consist 
of one secondan which could also be carried in procession, one 
altar candlestick, and remains of several sets of branched candle- 
sticks. The triple candlestick may be another form of a three- 
branched candlestick, but it may also be for the Judas candle 
or candles used in the Easter Even service. This was properly 
a taper made of three candles twisted together into one at the 
bottom and separating above into three, fastened to a staff for 
carrying them. As a substitute for this triple candle three 
separate candles were sometimes fixed on to a frame. 

Their use was to carry the new fire into the choir for lighting 
the great paschal candle. 

The remaining branches may have been part either of standing 
candlesticks, like those in the inventories, an elaborate development 
of which may be seen in the drawing of Abbot I slip's hearse at 
Westminster ; 1 or they may have been attached to wall sconces. 
The dragon candlestick and that ending in a beast's head are 
perhaps in the second category, and fitted into sconces, the 
other two being parts of standing candlesticks. 

We know nothing of the history of these objects beyond 
what has been already said, but a few suggestions are possible. 

1 Vetusta Monuments, vol. vii. 









. 



Jba 





Nov. 27.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 7 

In the first place, the date of all is approximately the same, 
namely, 1500 to 1520. From the circumstances of their finding 
they were evidently intentionally hidden, probably with a view 
to their re-use if ever, as Mr. Roger Martin of Long Melford 
said in 1580, the time should serve. 

The inference is, also, that they belonged to St. Sampson's 
Church, though of course this cannot definitely be stated. The 
Channel Islands being more remote in the sixteenth century 
than now, the changes of the Reformation were somewhat slow 
in taking effect, and indeed can hardly be said to have made 
themselves a dominant factor till 1565, when Guernsey was 
transferred from the diocese of Coutances to that of Win- 
chester. This may suggest a date for the disuse and conceal- 
ment of such church fittings, and the excellent condition of all 
is a further proof that they never fell into unsympathetic hands. 
The gilding of the cross, particularly of the base, is so complete, 
allowing for the natural tarnishing due to over three centuries 
of disuse, that it seems likely that the cross was in use up to the 
moment of its removal to the safe hiding-place in the haunch 
of the tower vault. 

The last observation which I should wish to make is that the 
cross, on the analogy of other examples, has every appearance 
of being English work, nor is there anything in the other pieces 
to suggest a different origin. 

We may therefore conclude, with due reservations, that we 
have here the remains of an English-made service of latten, 
acquired by St. Sampson's early in the sixteenth century, hidden 
about 1565 by an adherent of the old faith, and fortunately 
preserved intact till our own days, in which we may hope that 
their safety is definitely assured." 

Mr. GRACE asked whether any other pockets of the vaulting 
had been examined for relics of the same kind. 

Mr. HOPE remarked that the series was curiously made up of 
odd pieces, as if they had been preserved from spoliation in the 
hope of completing the sets later. The work was almost cer- 
tainly English, the crown on the foot of the cross, for instance, 
having alternate crosses and fleurs-de-lis, as on the candle- 
bracket in front of the grate of Henry VIFs chapel at West- 
minster (formerly at Windsor). 

Mr. BARRON agreed as to the provenance of the exhibit. He 
was familiar with the products of Dinant-sur-Meuse, but recog- 
nized something different in the Guernsey specimens, which were 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

inferior to Dinanderie properly so called. They could not have 
been made at Dinant, as that town had been previously sacked 
by Charles the Bold. 

Mr. VALLAXCE noted a resemblance in the foot of the crucifix 
to one from Stoke Poges illustrated in Proceedings, xxiii. 49, 
but did not feel sure that the foot exhibited originally belonged 
to the crucifix. Three lumps round the foot-rim would be 
visible if the candlesticks had ever had feet. The bowl of a 
censer was rarely found, covers being comparatively common. 
The branches suggested that the candles were placed in front of 
consecration crosses. Outside Salisbury Cathedral Church there 
were ten (out of twelve) discs %\ ft. in diameter, each with a 
small hole %\ in. below for fixing a candle. 

The PRESIDENT had no doubt about the English origin of the 
exhibit, which had a general resemblance to Dinanderie, but bv 
a process of elimination could be narrowed down to England. 
Church goods would at that date have been more naturally 
supplied from France, but they would in that case have been of 
superior workmanship. In the absence of proof to the contrary 
that type of cross might be considered English, and several 
examples were known. The thanks of the Society were due to 
the vicar and churchwardens for a most interesting and unusual 
exhibition. 

O. M. DALTON, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., read the following paper 
on medieval objects in the Borradaile Collection : 

"The medieval objects which Mr. Charles Borradaile has 
deposited in the British Museum during the present year in- 
clude works of so fine a quality that it is desirable to draw- 
special attention to their merits. They are not numerous less 
than a dozen in all ; * but as selected examples acquired by a 
discerning collector they attain a remarkably high level ; and, 
since they belong to classes which have almost ceased to appear 
in the auction-rooms, their addition to the medieval series in 
the museum is a matter for special congratulation. They fall 
into two almost equal groups, ivory carvings and metal-work, 
of which the former may be first described. 

The first object to be noticed, the ivory horn, 2 (fig. 1) fills a 

1 It may be mentioned that Mr. Borradaile at the same time deposited 
a number of rare and important pieces of English porcelain. 

2 Acquired at the Magniac sale in 1892, lot 251. Length, >2 inches 
Probably the horn exhibited by Mr. Maguiac at the special exhibition of 






cc 

I 

I 





Nov. 27.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 9 

<rap in the collection which bade fair to remain in per- 
petuity ; for while South Kensington possesses good ex- 
amples, at Bloomsbury the type was unrepresented. These 
horns, or oliphants, 1 are difficult to date or place with any 
precision. It is only certain that they were produced be- 
tween the ninth and thirteenth centuries, and that all but a few 
show direct or indirect oriental influence. Nor is their destina- 
tion always clear. Most of them were undoubtedly made as 
war- or hunting-horns ; but a few, to which we shall revert 
later, may have had some connexion with the hippodrome ; while 
another small group, carved with sacred subjects, was from the 
first associated with churches or monasteries, in early days per- 
haps employed to summon worshippers, command silence, or to 
awaken the monks, in later times to contain relics ; for the latter 
purpose, indeed, any kind of oliphant might in course of time be 
adopted. There are further instances in which the oliphant 
served as a legal symbol, as in the case of the interesting horn 
at York, through which Ulph delivered the seisin of certain 
lands to St. Peter's. 2 

The present specimen was probably made for hunting, and is 
ornamented in a style analogous to that of other known ex- 
amples. A network of interlacing circles containing beasts and 
monsters covers the body ; a zone of similar circles runs round 
the mouth ; while bands of interlacing, zigzag, guilloche, and 
pierced discs separate and enclose the several parts. On the 
body of the horn, the spaces between the circles are filled by 
formal designs possibly derived from bunches of grapes, a sup- 
position perhaps confirmed by the appearance round the mouth 
of intermediate foliage, recalling vine-leaves, on the two external 
rows in the main diaper, of projecting tendrils and leaves, and, 
pendent from one of the circles round the mouth, quite unmistak- 
able grapes. The whole framework of the animals would thus 
suggest a schematized vine. The general idea of the interlacing 
circles is common to early mosaics, textiles, and other objects, 
chiefly East-Roman and oriental, and numerous examples of its 

works of art of the medieval, Renaissance, and more recent periods, 
South Kensington, 1862. (Catalogue, edited by J. C. Robinson, no. 213, 
p. 18.) 

1 For oliphants see E. Molinier, Tvoires, p. 93, and Muse'e national du 
Louvre, Cat. des ivoires, 1896, pp. 63-4 ; C. Cahier, Nouveaux melanges 
(farc.heologie, ii, 1874, p. 35 ; F. Bock, Ueber den Gebrauch der Homer im 
Alter thum, etc., in Mittelalterliche Kunstdenkmale des osterreichischen 
Kaiserstaates , edited by J. Heider and R. Eitelberger, 1862, vol. ii, pp. 
126 if. ; J. Hampel, Alterthiimer des frilhen Mittelalters in Ungarn, ii, 
pp. 888 if., and various references there given. 

2 Reproduced in Poole and Hugall's guide to York Cathedral ; cf. also 
Archaeologia, i, 187. 

VOL. XXVI C 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

employment survive. 1 The beasts 2 in their turn are conven- 
tionalized, the treatment of the joints and the wings being 
probably in origin Eastern, while there are points, such as the 
rounded and upturned tails of the birds, which nearly recall the 
tails of the well-known Sassanian ' gryphon ' ; but features of 
this kind became so early a common artistic heritage, that they do 
not in themselves entitle us to ascribe the hOrn to the East. The 
eagles stand in the Byzantine attitude, with the legs side by side 
before the depending tail ; 3 the birds with the vase represent a 
motive which may have entered Christian art from the East, 
but soon became one of its favourite ornamental designs ; 4 the 
* dragons' with knotted bodies (fig. 2) are perhaps, though not 
certainly, of European invention. 5 The decoration of the horn is 

1 Cf. O.von Falke, Kunstgeschichte der Seidenweberei , 1913, i, p. 18. In 
addition to the antique mosaic pavements, North Italian examples of the 
eleventh century may be compared. Cf. especially that of the cathedral of 
Cremona, E. Aus'm Weerth, Der Mosaikboden in St. Gereon zu Coin, pi. vi. 

2 Round the mouth, the order is as follows : eagle, lion, gryphon, 
large bird, gryphon, lion ; the eagle forming the mid-point, and Hanked 
by the lions and gryphons, which face towards it. 

On the body of the horn, beginning nearest the broad end, we have, in 
the first row : a cock, flanked on each side by the familiar device of 
confronted birds drinking from a vase, beyond which are two contiguous 
circles, each containing a dragon with interlaced body biting its own tail, 
while a smaller subsidiary head, which goes off at a tangent, bites a tendril 
of the vine. The second or middle row contains a gryphon, flanked by two 
winged lions, beyond which are two circles, each with a regardant bird. 
In the third row, at the narrow end, an eagle is flanked by two birds, 
while behind, in a circle of greater diameter than any other, are two 
confronted lions rampant and regardant, two paws raised high over their 
heads, two crossed below their breasts (fig. 2). 

In the treatment of many of the beasts there is an element of the 
grotesque ; the tails are foliated and bitten by their owners, and in some 
cases twisted. Both quadrupeds and birds frequently carry leaves in 
their mouths. It may be rioted that the cock appears on the horn at 
Angers (Cahier, as above, p. 35) and is found on early Persian textiles. 

3 Von Falke, as above, ii, p. 16. 

4 Lasting in Italy into the high Middle Ages. Cf. H. von der Gabe- 
lentz, Mittelalterliche Plastik von Venedig, 1903, p. 71. The birds are 
generally peacocks, but in the present case lack the usual crests. 

5 Quite a near parallel to the dragons on the horn occurs on the cross 
from Gosforth in Cumberland, assigned to the beginning of the eleventh 
century, or even earlier. (Collingwood in Victoria County History, Cumber- 
land, vol. i, p. 263 ; Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires da Nord, 1884- 
1889, p. 17 ; cast in the Victoria and Albert Museum.) Cf. also the font 
at Chaddesley-Corbett (F. Bond, Fonts and Font-covers, p. 53.) The ap- 
pearance of these knotted dragons upon the oliphant makes us instinctively 
think of Scandinavia ; the invention of such devices should not, however, 
be ascribed to Northern art without further investigation. It is probable 
that interfacings as a whole were first borrowed from the South by the 
barbaric tribes at the time of the great migrations (Von der Gabelentz, as 
above, pp. 77 ff., 89), and that some of the grotesque features in beast- 
ornament, such as the knotting of the body, multiplication of heads, etc. , 






Nov. 27.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 11 

in fact due to what has been described as ' the great international 
culture of the earlier Middle Ages ' ; and this cosmopolitan cha- 
racter is responsible for the difficulty of finding a place of origin 
for objects of the kind. 1 When from Mesopotamia to the British 
Isles, from Egypt to Denmark, there appear on every hand beasts 
and monsters of one family and distinguished only in the manner- 
isms imposed on them by different peoples, it is clear that the 
task of locating specimens in which mannerism is not con- 
spicuous must often be a matter of perplexity. Almost identical 
designs may appear at opposite ends of Europe. The analogy 
between the knotted dragons of this horn and those at Gosforth 
has been already noticed ; the confronted lions are in conception 
akin to a similar motive on a seventh-century cross-shaft at 
Collingham, Yorkshire, 2 and to a version of the same subject on 
an early Romanesque capital in France. 3 There is nothing 
national in these designs ; if the use of a long word may be 
pardoned, they are ecumenical, common to most countries of the 
known inhabited world. 4 To what country, then, is the present 
oliphant to be attributed ? There is fortunately a clue which 
suggests an approximate, if not a certain, answer: it has direct 
and close points of resemblance to another horn on which much 
has been written the oliphant of Jasz Bereny in Hungary ; it 

were introduced by peoples in more immediate contact with late-Roman 
and Byzantine civilization than the Scandinavians ever were. A monster 
with a knotted body is carved on a capital in the atrium of S. Ambrogio 
at Milan (F. de Dartein, Etude sur I' architecture lombarde, Atlas, pi. xliii), 
which some consider as early as the ninth century, though others put rather 
later (Cattaneo, Architecture in Italy, English edition, 1896, p. 247) ; and 
on the gold crosses found in Lombard graves the interlacing^ sometimes 
end in beast-heads (Von der Gabelentz, p. 78). When we find dragons 
with interlaced bodies in the Mohammedan art of the twelfth century and 
a little later (Van Berchem and Strzygowski, Amida, pp. 83-4 and figs. 
30-4 : reliefs on Aleppo gate of Diarbekr, citadel gate of Aleppo, coins of 
Qara Arslan), on copper coins of Mohammed II of Turkey, and in medieval 
MSS. from Servia, Bulgaria, and Bohemia (V. Stassoff, L ' Ornement-Slav , 
pi. vi, viii, xxii, etc.), it becomes probable that this style of ornament did 
not start in the north of Europe but in some more central region. 

1 After the fall of the Empire in the West, Graeco-Roman art rapidly 
lost the ground which it still held, and the popular beast-ornament, 
already existing but not officially recognized, broke loose and ultimately 
covered half the world. With the more decided trend to orientalism in 
Byzantine art which iconoclasm encouraged, a new impetus was given to 
a movement destined to continue until the rise of Gothic art. 

2 W. G. Collingwood, in V. C. H. Yorkshire, vol. ii, p. 111. At present 
no photographic illustration of this cross is published. 

3 On a capital in Ste-Radegonde at Poitiers (Vitry and Briere, Docu- 
ments de sculpture franraise du Moyen Age, pi. xxix, fig. 2). 

4 Thus practically the same design may be found on Coptic and Sassanian 
reliefs or stuifs, on Byzantine objects of the middle period, in ' Saracenic ' 
art, in early-medieval sculpture, mosaic-pavements and minor works of 
art, in Northern Italy, France, Spain, Germany, Scandinavia, and the 
British Isles. 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

has also points of analogy with two other horns in the cathedral 
of Prague. 1 Several of the beasts are almost repetitions of those 
round the mouth of the Jasz Bere'ny horn, 2 and the foliate 
ornament in the spandrels between the circles is also identical. 
Further, a similar border of pierced discs is also seen on one of 
the Prague oliphants. Now both these horns of the east of Europe 
have on the body scenes from the amphitheatre or circus, in 
one case jugglers and acrobats, in the other, four-horse chariot- 
races. It is argued that in the tenth or eleventh century, to 
which date they are assigned, such subjects should relate 
to the hippodrome at Constantinople; and therefore the two 
horns have been generally accepted as Byzantine. If that is so, 
Mr. Borradaile's oliphaiit, though without the circus-subjects, 
may also be Byzantine : we have already noticed the Byzantine 
type of the eagle ; arid there is perhaps no feature of which we 
can definitely say that it could not be the work of a Byzantine 
ivory-carver, since at this period beast-ornament was very general 
in the East-Roman Empire. There remains, however, the pos- 
sibility of an origin in North Italy, where Byzantine models 
were closely copied, or perhaps even in some East European 
country where the influences of Constantinople were predominant. 
The horn may well belong to the tenth century, and is not likely 
to be later than the eleventh. 

Of two characteristic Byzantine ivories, one, a panel with the 
subject known as the Deesis, i. e. our Lord between the Virgin 
and St. John the Baptist, beneath a pierced canopy, dates per- 
haps from the early twelfth century. It is a good example of a 
style which does not aim at extreme finish, and is represented in 
various collections, but hitherto imperfectly in the Museum. 3 

1 Both horns are described and reproduced by Hampel, as above, vol. ii, 
pp. 889 if., and iii plates, 532 if. 

2 The birds, both in type and in the manner in which they hold leaves 
in their mouths, recall those on the early cedar chest at Terracina, an 
object which some are inclined to place as early as the eighth or ninth 
century, and for which an oriental origin is probable (J. Str/ygovvski, Das 
orientalische Italien, in Monatshefte fur Kunstwissenschaft, vol. i, Leipzig, 
figs. 8-10 ; A. Munoz. V Art byzantin a I' exposition de Grottaferrata^. 181 
(1906) ; A. Veuturi, Storia dell' arte italiana, ii, figs. 83-5). It is inter- 
esting to note that points of resemblance exist between this coifer and the 
Jasz Bereny horn ; while at the same time it suggests affinities with the 
Franks casket in the British Museum (Catalogue of Ivory Carvings, no. 30). 
A further analogy to the beasts of pre-Carolingian illuminated manuscripts 
should be noted. Lions with twisted tails which they bite, very similar 
to those on the horn, are to be seen in an Augustine on the Heptateuch, 
formerly at Corbie, and dating from the eighth century (Comte A. de 
Bastard, Peintures et ornements des manuscrits, etc., abbreviated edition, 
pi. 21). The same manuscript has beasts holding leaves in their mouths. 

3 The panel, which is 6 in. high, was in the Keele Hall Collection 
and exhibited at Manchester in 1857 and Leeds in 18G8. An example of 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 




To face page 12 






1 






Fig. 3. IVORY TRIPTYCH (CLOSEI)) '. BORRADAILE COLLECTION 




Fig. 4. IVORY TRIPTYCH (OPEN) : 15ORRADAI/.E COLLECTION 



Nov. 27.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 13 

The second, a large triptych 10f in. high, is here reproduced 
(figs. 3 and 4): it may be rather earlier, and of the eleventh cen- 
tury. In the middle is the Crucifixion between the Virgin and 
St. John, with halt-figures of the archangels above, all accom- 
panied by descriptive legends. On the two leaves are half-figures 
of SS. Cyrus and John, and the following saints in pairs : SS. 
George and Theodore Stratelates ; Eustathius and Clement of 
Ancyra ; Menas and Procopius ; Stephen and Cyrion. On the 
outside of the leaves are two ornate crosses, each having at the 
intersection of the limbs a medallion with a bust, one of St. 
Joachim, the other of St. Anna. Above and below the crosses are 
four medallions with busts of SS. Basil, James the Persian, Bar- 
bara, and Thekla. 1 All the saints have their names carved beside 
them in the usual manner. This diptych has unfortunately no 
pedigree ; 2 and it has been objected to it that the cutting of the 
central panel is suspiciously sharp, while this panel also differs 
from the leaves and colour. But the sharpness of execution 
occurs in other triptychs, of which the authenticity has never 
been questioned ; and is perhaps the natural condition of an in- 
terior which is not exposed to rubbing. 

The difference in colour would seem to be rather in favour of 
genuineness than against it. The tinting of ivories being to-day 
a fine art, a forger would be more likely to harmonize his tones 
than to leave a visible contrast between them ; it must also be 
remembered that the centre and the leaves may be derived from 
different tusks. 3 There is another point which is also worthy 

a similar style is the panel from a triptych with the Virgin and Child in 
the Stroganoff Collection at Home (H. Graeven, E/fenbehiwerke in photo- 
yraphischer Nuchblldinig , Italian Series, no. 68). The Deesis occurs on other 
Byzantine ivories at Berlin, Liverpool, in the Vatican, etc. 

1 Of the well-known saints it is unnecessary to say anything here. 
SS. Cyrus and John were martyred in Egypt, and are usually represented 
together (see Acta Snuctorum, Jan. 31) : their day is January 31. St. Cyrion 
belongs to a group of martyrs who suffered at Alexandria on February 14 ; 
lie is described as a priest. St. Barbara is not commonly found in minor 
Byzantine works of art : in this sphere her popularity may not have 
equalled that attained in the West in the fifteenth century ; but she is a 
saint of oriental origin, her legend was widely diffused in Syria and in 
other parts of the East, and she occurs in the Menologium of Basil II 
(fol. 224), as well as in monumental art, e. g. in the mosaics of the Monas- 
tery of St. Luke of Stiris in Phocis (Schultz and Barnsley, p. 50). St. .lames 
the Persian is seen on the Harbaville triptych (E. Molinier, lvoin>.\- } p. 100) 
on the exterior of the right leaf. 

2 It was acquired by Mr. Borradaile in 1905-G, the story being that it 
came from a convent at Reims. 

3 Another feature which might at first sight be urged against the triptych 
is that the leaves are fastened by hinges, instead of by pins working in 
cavities in projecting ledges of the central panel the usual Byzantine 
method. But if this point were made a test of falsity, the ' Triptych 
d'Harbaville' in Paris, the classical example of the Byzantine ivory-carver's 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

of mention. In the bottom right-hand corner of one leaf there 
is a rare saint. Cyrion, and above his halo a very curious hood- 
like projection, which I am unable to explain. Here again, 
it seems unlikely that a forger would leave the safe beaten 
track to attempt an originality generally avoided in his pro- 
fession. But apart from all this, the triptych is homogeneous 
in style and treatment, and consistent with the period to which 
it is assigned. The lettering is good, and the iconography 
apparently correct in its details. While duly observing, there- 
fore, the caution now imperative in the case of every object 
without a history, we may leave the onus probandi to those 
who may feel suspicious. Meanwhile, the triptych may be re- 
garded as an interesting addition to the Byzantine ivories in 
this country, and Mr. Borradaile may be congratulated on his 
courage in making an acquisition of which he knew the risks. 

The charming French polyptych next illustrated, 1 (fig. 5) 
dating from the first half of the fourteenth century, compels its 
own recognition, and may be left to speak for itself. The 
arrangement of the subjects follows a widely accepted scheme, 
exemplified, among others, by a fine larger polyptych in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 2 Upon the leaves are the Annun- 
ciation and Adoration of the Magi, the Nativity and Presenta- 
tion in the Temple. The Virgin with the Child in the middle 
of the composition is a figure of admirable grace and delicacy. 3 

The diptych 4 next illustrated (fig. 6) is not the least remark- 
able among a group of pierced ivories which have given rise to a 
great deal of discussion. 5 They differ widely in execution and 
in merit, but points of analogy in execution and conception 
are always apt to occur between them ; for instance, a certain 
rather unintelligent type of head, especially noticeable in the 
bearded male figures, and a tendency to affected dramatic pose 
and to intensity of facial expression. The architecture is gene- 
rally elaborate this part of the work giving the carver obvious 
scope for display of his dexterity: architectural features are, 
however, not always the same in different examples. If we allow 
for a fanciful treatment, they represent a period comprising 

art, would also be false. The existing hinges, as well as the silver pin 
fastening the leaves when closed, are modern. 

1 Magniae Collection, lot 257. Height, 6| in. 

2 For these devotional tabernacles, or tableaux cloans, as a class, see 
R. Koechlin in A. Michel's Histoire de fart, ii, p. 475. 

3 Iconographically this Virgin and Child are regarded as forming part 
of the Adoration scene, the kings alone appearing on the leaf. 

4 The diptych, which is 4| in. high, does not seem to have formed 
part of any large collection. 

5 For this group, see British Museum Catalogue of Ivoi-y Carvinqs 
pp. xlv, xlvi. 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 14 




Fig. 5. FRENCH POLYPTYCH : BORRADAILE COLLECTION' 




Fig'. 6. IVORY DIPTYCH I BORRADAILE COLLECTION 



Nov. 27.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 15 

the close of the fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth 
century ; they render structural features not as they really 
were, but as they existed in the mind's eye of the artist, and as they 
are depicted in contemporary illuminated manuscripts. To this 
period these ivories are considered to belong, while they are com- 
monly described as of North French or Flemish origin ; both date 
and local attribution appear to be supported by the manuscripts, 
where a similar realistic treatment of the human figure, and, 
one may add, a similar frequency of rather stupid-looking types, 
may be found. The iconography of these ivories, so far as I 
was able to test it while preparing the Catalogue of Ivory Car- 
vings in the British Museum, is correct, and agrees with that 
of the illuminations, whether we examine the finer books, such 
as the Bedford Hours, or the humbler work of the second or third 
order, of which so much remains and so little is known. The 
ivories follow the manuscripts in this marked difference in quality. 
Some are far better than others; and this fact favours the conclu- 
sion that, like the manuscripts, they represent the general style of 
a period translated by hands of varying skill. It seems more 
reasonable to accept this view than to suppose them the work 
of a forger, or small group of forgers, working in the first half 
of the nineteenth century. That date is the latest which the 
sceptical could assign them, because several examples were known 
to exist in collections before that time. 1 The present diptych 
must take rank with the best that was done in this style, and 
probably no other example is more elaborate ; the figures are 
actually in the round, and the tracery is executed with a dexterity 
which is almost Chinese. The leaf on the spectator's left con- 
tains scenes from the history of the Virgin ; that on the right, 
scenes from the life of our Lord. On the left we see, at the 
bottom, the Nativity and Adoration of the Magi ; above this, 
the Death of the Virgin ; at the top, the Virgin's soul received 
by the Almighty, her Assumption, and (in the middle) her Coro- 
nation. Under the intervening canopies are small figures of 
angels with musical instruments, a motive which occurs in the 
pierced panels at South Kensington, and those of the same set 
formerly in the Carmichael Collection. On the right leaf, we see, 
at the bottom, the Holy Women with vessels of ointment, ap- 
proaching the figure of our Lord, behind whom is Hell-Mouth, 
with souls issuing from it, so that the Descent into Hell com- 
bines with the other scene. Above are the Annunciation, the 
Crucifixion, and (in the middle), the Resurrection ; at the top, 
the Agony in the Garden and the Last Judgement, St. Michael 
weighing the souls (the psychostasis) appearing on the left. On 

1 e. g*. those in the Debruge Dumenil and Maskell Collections. 



16 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 



this leaf the small figures under the intervening canopies are 
shown in the attitude of adoration. 

The first of the objects in metal-work is a chrismatory of gilt 
copper on a high foot dating from about A.D. 1200 * (fig. 7). In 
general structure it resembles other medieval chrismatories for 
the three oils. The body has three cylindrical compartments in 
filigree, between which are narrow bands of similar filigree, with 
coloured stones and pastes in plain settings. The hinged lid is 
of architectural design, with three bell-shaped pinnacles ter- 
minating in spheres, and surrounding a dome with high pierced 
drum, surmounted by a modern cross : between the pinnacles and 
the drum are three gables. The foot is of round section, with 
a lobed knop and expanding circular base, round which is en- 
graved a Lombardic inscription with abbreviations, reading : 

HIC e IN6VS DQ OliQO B67Tra ffiKRIQ GT D<3 



On the edge of the foot, in similar characters, are the words : 



The foot and body appear to be of separate origins, and are 
rather clumsily joined : at present they are held together by a 
long metal rod of modern date. They are, however, of much 
the same period ; and both appear to be genuine work of the 
close of the twelfth century or the beginning of the thirteenth. 
The three compartments of the body are now filled by modern 
cylinders, between which is a plate engraved with the initial 
letters IOC : 2 a larger plate at the base of the lid is also- 
modern, and there is a great deal of modern gilding. 

The inscription on the foot gives in full the name of but one 
saint, only the initials of the other two appearing. There would 
seem to be little doubt, in spite of the faulty grammar of the 
engraver, that the K and H represent SS. Catharine and Nicholas; 
and an entry in the list of relics once belonging to the shrine of 

1 Q} in. high . From the Keele Hall Collection. Shown at the Art 
Treasures Exhibition, Manchester,, in 1857 (figured by J. B. Waring, Art 
Treasures of the United Kingdom, 1858, Plates,. Metal-work, pi. i, no. 2), 
and at the Loan Exhibition at South Kensington in 18G2 (Catalogue, as- 
above, no. 1009, p. 57). 

2 The initials stand for \0leum\ Infirmorum, Oleum \catechumenorum\, 
and Chrismu. These indicatory letters are subject to some variation. The 
oil of the infirm is constant as I or 01. But that of the Catechumens 
may be rendered by S, because it is also described as oleum sacrum ; while 
the Chrism may be indicated by SC (Sanctum Chrisma). See G. Helle- 
putte, Revue de Cart chretien, 1884, p. 147. 



Nov. 27.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



17 



St. Cuthbert at Durham, quoted by Mr. Assheton Pownall in 
volume v of Proceedings^- seems to show that the St. Mary 
here mentioned must be St. Mary of Sardinia, since her balm or 
oil is recorded as kept at 
Durham in the same ivory 
casket as that of SS. Cath- 
arine and Nicholas. The 
oil of St. Catharine was 
perhaps the most famous 
of the healing oils, and, as 
is well known, is mentioned 
by Sir John Mandeville in 
his account of Mount Sinai. 

The fact that the word 
Vestimenta is spelled with 
an F instead of a V suggests 
a Teutonic hand ; the name 
Conrad is German ; and it 
seems probable that this 
object was made somewhere 
on the Rhine. Filigree in 
this style, with scrolls and 
pellets, is common in the 
second half of the twelfth 
century, extending into the 
thirteenth ; while the letter- 
ing on the foot should not 
take us far from the year 
1200. 2 

The slender parcel-gilt 
silver tabernacle (fig. 8) is 
again one of those things 
which require no advertise- 
ment beyond their own ob- 
vious excellence. 3 Its only 
fault lies in the crucifix 
at the top, which is of more recent date than the rest. 4 The 

1 p. 119. 

2 The date suggested in the Loan Exhibition Catalogue, viz. second half 
of the thirteenth century,, appears to be too late. Similar filigree on a 
reliquary at Quedlinburg is dated to the period 1184-1203 (J. Marquet de 
Vasselot, Monuments Plot, vi, 1889, 183). 

3 Magniac Sale Catalogue, no. 792, exhibited at the Burlington Fine 
Arts Club in 1901 and at the Royal Academy Winter Exhibition, 1890. 
Formerly Leben Collection, Cologne. 

4 This part may be compared with the top of a fourteenth-century 
ciborium at Aix-la-Chapelle (E. Aus'm Weerth, Kunstdenkmdler des 
christlichen Mittelalters in den Rheinlanden, Album, pi. 38, fig. 5). 

VOL. XXVI D 




Fig. 7. COPPER-GILT CHRIS3IATORY : 
BORRADAILE COLLECTION. 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

proportions of the tabernacle itself are exceedingly elegant, and 
the small group of the Virgin and Child fills its allotted place 
in a manner which leaves nothing to be desired. This graceful 
object, which should be French, and be not later than the 
middle of the fourteenth century, has the greatest possible 
refinement and distinction. 

The next object (fig. 9), also silver-gilt, is of rather later date, 
and from the same country. This too is a Magniac piece. 1 
Mr. Middleton, describing it in the sale catalogue, said, with some 
truth, that it might almost serve as a model for a turret in stone. 
On the rim of the lower part is one of the silversmiths' marks 
which are so rare in the Middle Ages, a lily and a vase, 
with the letters Id underneath (fig. 10), and to the right 
a more modern control mark, a boar's head. Here again 
the destination is not very easy to determine. There is 
a foot, which appears to be part of the original design ; 
but at the sides there are two tubes for suspending cords. 
Fig. 10. Clearly it was intended to stand on a flat surface, but 
also to be carried on occasion. It has been called a 
chrismatory, in which case it would be one of the single recep- 
tacles for the Oleum Injirmorum, of which examples are pre- 
served. 2 But it differs from these in having a detachable instead 
of a hinged lid ; and in the possession of the arrangement for 
suspension. Again, it is rather narrow and deep for this purpose. 
Other suggestions are that it contained a relic, or that it served 
as a penner. 

The sceptre or baton (figs. 11 and 12) also purchased by 
Mr. Borradaile at the Magniac sale, 3 has a history which can be 
traced with certainty as far as the second half of the eighteenth 
century. It was lot seventy-three of the fifteenth day at the 
Strawberry Hill sale, 4 where it was described as having been 
given to Horace Walpole by his niece, Lady Temple. But before 

' * No. 787. Reproduced by P. de la Motte, Choice Examples of Art 
Workmanship Selected from the Exhibition of Ancient and Mediaeval Art at 
the Society of Arts, London., 1851. 

2 Revue de I'art chretien, as above, p. 152, where examples are repro- 
duced ; see also p. 454 if. A good illustration of a priest using a single 
chrismatory for extreme unction occurs in an early Netherlandish drawing 
in the manner of Rogier van der Weyden in the Ashmolean Museum at 
Oxford (Burlington Magazine, xxiv, plate opp. p. 224, B. January 1914). 

8 Magniac Collection, no. 644, shown at the South Kensington Loan 
Exhibition in 1862 (Catalogue, as above, no. 1064, p. 68). In the Magniac 
Catalogue, Mr. Middleton suggests about 1520 as the date, while Mr. 
Robinson in the Loan Catalogue gives the period from 1500-40. 

' An exceedingly beautiful crystal sceptre, richly set in gold with 
pearls, and enamelled. A very curious and interesting relic from Lady 
Elizabeth Germain's Collection, and presented to Horace Walpole by his 
niece, Lady Temple.' 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 18 




Fig. 11 Fig. 9 Fig. 8 

Fig. 8. PARCEL-GILT SILVER TABERNACLE 

Fig. .9. SILVER-GILT OHRIS3IATORY (?) 

Fig. 11. ROCK-CRYSTAL BATON 



BOBRADAILE COLLECTION 



Nov. 27.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



19 






that, as the catalogue also stated, it had been in the collection 
of Lady Elizabeth [Betty] Germain, and appears in the cata- 
logue of her sale in 1770, 
when it fetched 4: 14*. 6d. 1 
Lady Elizabeth collected 
works of art herself, and may 
have acquired this beautiful 
object by purchase, but it is 
just possible that it was once 
the property of the Second 
Earl of Arundel, a part of 
whose collections 2 came to 
her on her husband's death. 
The baton is a rod of rock 
crystal, octagonal in trans- 
verse section, having at each 
end a silver-gilt mount (the 
early catalogues say ' gold ') 
in a transitional Gothic style, 
the two mounts being iden- 
tical in design though differ- 
ing in size. Round the lower 
part of each is a band of 
pearls fixed by pins ; above 
this, the metal is unorna- 
mented until we come to a 
series of mouldings ; above 
these is a projecting octa- 
gonal gallery with balusters 
at the angles, and with a roof 
sloping up from each face, 
upon which are set more 
pearls. From this roof rises 
a smaller pierced octagonal 
gallery with a crenelated cresting, surmounted by a pyramidal 

1 Catalogue of the noble collection of pictures, etc. , of the Right Hon. Lady 
Eliz. Germain. Langford's, Wednesday, March 7, 1770 : 

' Lot 53. A chrystal sceptre enriched with pearls, enamellings, etc.' 

2 Lady Elizabeth was born in 1680 and died in 1769. She was the 
second daughter of Charles, Earl of Berkeley, and married Sir John 
Germain, whose first wife had been Duchess of 'Norfolk. It was this lady 
who possessed the collection of gems made by Thomas Howard, second 
Earl of Arundel (1585-1646), the great collector of pictures, antiquities, 
and other works of art, which on her death passed to her second husband. 
Sir John left it to Lady Betty, and she presented the greater part to Lady 
Mary Beauclerk, her great-niece, who married Lord Charles Spencer, 
brother of the third Duke of Marlborough. The Arundel gems ultimately 
came into the possession of the Dukes of Marlborough and were sold in 1899. 

D 2 




Fig. 12. DETAIL OF END OF BATON : 
BORRADAILE COLLECTION. 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

roof of eight faces enamelled alternately in translucent blue and 
green. This ends in a collar of pearls, and an enamelled ball with 
a ring for suspension. There is a ring or loop at each end. 

This very graceful work of the silversmith's art can hardly be 
older than the latter part of the fifteenth century on account 
of the baluster pinnacles, which are transitional to a Renais- 
sance style : but for this feature, it might well be dated a 
hundred years earlier. Mr. Middleton, in the catalogue of 
the Magniac Collection, suggested an English origin; but 
though one would like to claim so beautiful a thing for our 
country, I think it more probable that we must seek its home 
in quite a different region. Unless Flanders can produce some- 
thing similar, Western Europe as a whole seems excluded, for 
the work is not accepted as French, and does not appear to be 
either German or Spanish. The south-east of the Continent 
seems at present a more probable locality. Translucent enamels, 
and a lavish use of pearls, on an object of which the structural 
forms combine Gothic and Renaissance features, point to a region 
where a North Italian or * Adriatic ' influence prevailed, but, at 
the same time, a conservative use of Gothic. The Venetian area 
was such a region in the late fourteenth century and, in the 
fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, Hungary. In the last- 
named country we find a late persistence of Gothic with intrusive 
Renaissance detail, upon numerous chalices and other examples 
of the goldsmith's art. 1 We also know that King Matthias 
Corvinus (d. 1490) patronized a number of Italian artists, 
whose names are recorded by Vasari. 2 In Hungary, therefore, we 
have the union of conditions required to explain an object of 
this sort, at once so splendid and so refined. Until it is shown 
that the baton must really come from some other part of Europe, 
it may be suggested that it was made by an Italian silversmith 
for a Hungarian patron. Even this much being admittedly 
conjectural, it would be too venturesome to go further, and 
associate it with Matthias Corvinus himself, supposing it 
to have been directly produced for him, like the well-known 
'Calvary' at Gran, which bears his arms. 3 Yet the richness of 
the object tempts us to connect it with some prince or exalted 

1 Cf. Pulszky, Radisics, and Molinier, Chefs-d'oeuvre d'orfevrerie ayant 
figure a I' exposition de Budapest, i, pp. 89, 139; ii, pi. 69,, 87. Die 
historischen Denkmiiler Ungarns, ii, p. 234. 

2 Among these names occur those of two natives of Trau in Dalmatia, 
Giovanni Dalmata and Jacopo Statilic. Cf. Die historischen Denkmiiler 
Ungarns, 11, pp. 291 if. 

Pulszky, Radisics, and Molinier, as ahove, ii, p. 134 ; Die historischen 
Denkmaler Ungarns, ii, p. 209. The Calvary shows a similar juxtaposition 
of Gothic and Renaissance features, as does the well-known cross at 
Florence made by Pollaiuolo and Betto for the Baptistery of that city. 



Nov. 27.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 21 

personage, and we not unnaturally think of the great Hungarian 
patron of the arts. The destination of the baton is not more 
certain than its place of origin. It is not easy to assign it an 
ecclesiastical use; 1 nor is the task much simplified if we suppose 
it secular. It bears no symbol which might justify us in re- 
garding it as a royal sceptre ; and the loops at the two ends 
would, on this supposition, be unusual. For a marshal's baton 
it seems altogether too delicate, though it may have served as 
the insignia of some high court official. 2 For the present, per- 
haps, this small problem must remain unsolved. 

The list closes with a silver processional cross, Italian of the 
late fourteenth century, ornamented with Sienese translucent 
enamels, some of which are of great charm. 3 The illustrations 
will suffice to prove the importance of Mr. Borradaile's medieval 
objects to the Museum, and the high quality of individual speci- 
mens, to which allusion was made at the beginning of these 
notes." 

The PRESIDENT fully approved of the conditions under which 
the works of art described by Mr. Dalton were deposited in the 
British Museum, and thought Mr. Borradaile displayed a rare 
generosity in parting with them during his lifetime. The 
owner's personal qualities led him to express the hope that the 
series would not become national property for many years to 
come. 

H. CLIFFORD SMITH, Esq., M. A., F.S.A., exhibited an Heraldic 
' Puzzle Table ' on which he read the following note : 

" This heraldic ' puzzle table ' consists of a low four-legged 
stool of beech- wood, into the top of which are fitted by pegs small 
painted wooden blocks forming a coat of arms. The top 
measures 15f in. by 11^ in. The height is 8 in. 

This curious and probably unique specimen of English wood- 
work was found by its owner, Mr. M. F. Codner, near Edenbridge 
in Kent, in the possession of an old village carpenter who said that 
he had removed it many years before from a house in the neigh- 
bourhood, where it had been used in the nursery as a children's 
toy, and he further stated that it was supposed to have come 
from Sterborough Castle in the same locality. 

The arms, quarterly, 1 Howard, 2 Thomas of Brotherton, 

1 For a Cantor's baton it would be too short, as these objects appear to 



have been several feet in length . 
2 Cf. Victor Gay, Glossal re archa 



eologique du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance, 
s.v. BATON D'OFFICES. 

3 Formerly in the Spitzer Collection (La Collection Spitser, vol. i, p. 121, 
no. 79). The cross shows signs of restoration. 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

3 Warenne, 4 Mowbray, form the insignia of Howard Duke of 
Norfolk, while the label of three points over all and the earl's 
coronet here unite in indicating an exemplification of the eldest 
son of the house, normally an Earl of Surrey or Arundel. The 
rendering of the arms is summary; and it is peculiar that the 
upper quarterings (1, 2) are in reversed order facing to the 
sinister direction instead of to the dexter, though the lower 
quarterings (3, 4) come in their actual places, but the lion in 4 
is turned to the sinister. 

An heraldic puzzle based upon the ducal armorials and form- 
ing a practical introduction to the composing of a coat of arms, 
if (as I consider it to be) a toy, is one which might well be ex- 
pected to have figured in the nursery of the Norfolk Howards ; 
while the label which here differences the coat indicates the idea 
of the heraldic training of a young Earl of Surrey ; and one may 
perhaps imagine an infant Earl of Surrey of the seventeenth 
century in his nursery taking to pieces and reconstructing this 
precursor of the modern and popular block puzzle forming his 
own heraldic achievement. It would be too much to assert that 
toys of the kind never formed a part of old English nursery 
furniture except in this instance ; but it would be no easy matter 
to prove the contrary. Moreover the Howards of Norfolk stand 
alone in this connexion : that since 1 672 continuously (earlier 
grants from 1483 onwards were forfeited by Howard attainders) 
the Dukes of Norfolk have held the office of Earl Marshal, while 
their heirs apparent as Earls of Surrey or Arundel have been 
called upon occasionally to act as < deputy ' Earls Marshal. 1 " 

Mr. EVERARD GREEN, Somerset Herald, noticed that the arms 
were reversed and that the lions of England were missing from 
the second quarter. It seemed to him quite a juvenile attempt 
at heraldry. 

Mr. BARRON thought such a contrivance would afford very 
questionable instruction in heraldry. Several details were 
missing, and it seemed more to the point to compare the table 
with the picture puzzles of modern times. 

Lord FERRERS suggested that the exhibit was intended to 
cast copies of the arms. 

Rev. E. E. DORLING thought the date suggested was too 
early, that form of coronet not occurring till towards the end 
of the seventeenth century. 

1 G. E. C[okayne], Complete Peerage, vol. v, pp. 263-6. 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 22 





AN HERALDIC ' PUZZLE TABLED TOP AM) SIDE VIEWS (^ 



Nov. 27.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 23 

The PRESIDENT suggested that if different coloured inks were 
applied in turn to the loose pieces, prints could be made of the 
arms in the proper tints ; but its use for woodcuts was any- 
thing but certain. It was conceivable that certain cloths re- 
quired this mark or ornament, and the process would be similar 
to calico-printing by hand at the present day. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communica- 
tions. 



THURSDAY, 4th DECEMBER, 1913. 

Sir CHARLES HERCULES READ, Knt., LL.D., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From Sir Charles Hercules Read, President : 

1. Cylinders and other ancient oriental seals in the Library of J. Pier- 

pont Morgan. Catalogued by W. H. Ward. Privately printed. 
4to. New York, 1909. 

2. Babylonian Records in the Library of J. Pierpont Morgan. Parts 

I and II. Edited by A. T. Clay. Privately printed. 4to. N 7 ew 
York, 1912-13. 

From E. Neil Baynes, Esq., F.S. A. : Y Cymmrodor. Eleven parts help- 
ing to complete the copy in the Society's Library, also Transactions 
of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, 1899-1900. 

From the Author : Ludlow in bye-gone days. By H. T. Weyman, F.S. A. 
8vo. Ludlow, 1913. 

The following were admitted Fellows : 

The Rev. John Frederick Chanter, M.A. 
Captain John Edward Acland, M.A. 

Sir ARTHUR EVANS, D.Litt., F.S.A., read a paper on (1) The 
Pillar Rooms and Ritual Vessels of the 'Little Palace' at 
Knossos, and (2) The Tomb of the Double Axes, with asso- 
ciated group. 

(1) It was shown that the ' Little Palace ' now fully excavated 
west of the great building at Knossos and connected with it by 
a paved way was, like the Palace itself, largely devoted to cult 
purposes. In the first excavated part was a shrine with fetish 
figures belonging to the last Minoan Period (L.M. III). In the 
more recently excavated parts had come to light a series of 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

'Pillar Rooms', apparently the crypts of shrines above. 
Associated with one of these had been found a remarkable 
' rhyton ' or libation vessel in the form of a bull's head. It was 
formed of black steatite with shell inlays, and the eye -balls were 
of crystal with the pupils painted underneath. Near this was 
found part of a stepped steatite socket such as were used to 
insert the shafts of the sacred double axes of Minoan cult. 
Other ritual vessels of painted clay, including another bull's 
head rhyton, were found near. 

The association of other pillar rooms with cult objects was 
pointed out and comparative examples were given of 4 rhytons ' 
in the form of animals' heads, including a fine marble example in 
the shape of a lioness's head from a shrine of the great Palace at 
Knossos. Of special interest was the fact that part of a similar 
stone vessel, evidently of Cretan fabric, was found at Delphi, 
thus identifying the Delphic and Minoan cults in the fifth cen- 
tury B.C. 

(2) The discovery of the ' Royal Tomb ' at Isopata on a hill 
north of the site of Knossos had an important sequel. About a 
quarter of a mile north of this, further Minoan tombs came to 
light, some of great interest. They belong to the last Palace 
Age of Knossos and the first discovered was a built tomb with 
remains of keel-shaped vault like that of the Royal Tomb. In 
this chamber was found a gold ring with a representation of a 
ritual dance. The furniture of some of these graves was charac- 
terized by the appearance of a new class of vessels decorated in 
red, black, and kyanos blue. The colours on these were imper- 
fectly fixed, the brilliant decoration being specially designed for 
the use of the dead. In one of the tombs, the ' Mace-bearer's ', 
was found a faceted stone mace of beautifully variegated marble 
and evidently of ceremonial use. 

The most important of all the tombs was that to which the 
name of the ' Tomb of the Double Axes ' has been given. It 
consisted of a rock-cut vault divided into two sections on one 
side was a small chamber with a stone bench round, on the 
other a raised rock dais in which was sunk the burial cist. At 
the back of the chamber was a projecting pier of rock on which 
was cut a column in low relief. On the floor of the chamber 
stood a magnificent set of painted vases in the ' Palace style '. 
Near the projecting pier and column and at the back of the 
cist were remains of ritual vessels including a bull's head 
'rhyton' of steatite, of the same class as that found in the 
' Little Palace ', and with them two bronze double axes of the 
thin ' votive ' kind associated with shrines. What is specially 
remarkable, however, as indicating the influence of religious 
symbolism, the sepulchral cist itself was carefully cut out of the 



Dec. 4.] (SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 25 

virgin rock in the outline of the sacred double axe. The tomb 
here was at the same time a shrine. 

Elaborate plans and sections of the ' Little Palace ' and tombs 
were exhibited, the results of very careful measurements executed 
on the spot by the architect, Mr. Christian Doll. 

Mr. HOGARTH was not prepared to criticize the work done by 
an excavator of such eminence and authority as Sir Arthur Evans. 
The antiquities recovered under his able direction could not 
easily be compared with any from other places, the Minoan 
civilization having in some curious way developed in isolation. 
Crete was the Mediterranean Japan, and in spite of its relations 
with Egypt and less definite relations with Babylonia, it pre- 
served its individuality. Its civilization owed very little to out- 
side influences, but when in decay it spread in many directions 
and had been traced in Spain, Britain, Ireland, and Scandinavia. 
The illustrations showed how the rosette followed on the spiral 
curves of the lilies, and the Asiatic rosette could thus be traced 
to Crete. It was now said that the Cretan palaces were as much 
shrines of the divinity as residences of the living ; but were they 
divided up for their different functions ? The idea of having a 
separate house for the god did not develop at all, and the space 
allotted for divine occupation was very small when compared 
with the extent of the buildings. The palaces were domestic 
buildings of royalty in which the king and god, in some respects 
identical, lived together. He had come to listen and admire, and 
would express his own gratitude, and no doubt that of the meet- 
ing also, for a feast of rare and beautiful works of art. 

Mr. H. R. HALL had derived much pleasure from the series 
of Ian tern- slides and referred more especially to excavations in 
Egypt that revealed a connexion with Crete. The cruciform 
mark on the dapple of the bull's head recalled the markings on 
the head of Hathor, where the same dappling was seen. On 
the other hand, in Crete the palace and temple were identical, in 
Egypt the temple was the greater building and quite apart 
from the palace, which was mud-built, gaily painted but very 
perishable. Possibly parallels for the combination of temple 
and palace would some day be found in Anatolia. The re-open- 
ing of Minoan tombs for religious purposes corresponded to that 
of the offering chamber in Egyptian tombs, which may even 
have remained open for some time. Inscriptions showed that 
the re-opening in Egypt was to enable the descendants to make 
offerings. 

Mr. LEONARD KING confined his remarks to the novel features 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

of arrangement in the palace and their bearing on the possibility 
of an Oriental strain in Minoan culture. The suggestion had 
been made, for example, though he believed it had never been 
accepted in responsible quarters in this country, that in the 
drainage system of the main palace at Knossos we might per- 
haps see evidence of remote cultural contact with Chaldea. Such 
suggestions were rendered still less probable by the new facts 
ascertained in the course of the work upon the smaller palace. 
For the combination of palace and shrine, which Sir Arthur 
Evans had there clearly demonstrated, was quite contrary to 
Chaldean ideals. 

Sir ARTHUR EVANS in reply expressed his agreement with Mr. 
Hall with regard to a connexion with Egypt, and was prepared 
to believe that the cult of Hathor reached Crete. The island 
was not compelled, as Palestine was, to take the impress of one 
or other of its neighbours, but held the alien at arm's length and 
borrowed at her own discretion. Some older Egyptian element 
had probably permeated Crete, as there were early stone vases 
in the island resembling those of predynastic Egypt, not to men- 
tion designs on seals and amulets. Nor was it possible to 
dispute an Egyptian influence in the Cretan hieroglyphic script. 
The west quarter of the palace at Knossos was, to judge from the 
basement, given over to business and other functions. It con- 
tained more small shrines than there were outside, but he quite 
agreed that it was difficult to separate divine and royal functions 
in such a case. The very name Minos was, like that of other 
early kings, supposed to be divine, and the Cretan kings were at 
the same time divinities themselves, priests of the divinity and 
rulers of men. Anatolia was a great centre of such priest- kings, 
who took the name of a divinity and regarded themselves as 
such. Though Cretan civilization was in a way isolated, in one 
form or another it spread as far as Spain, Italy, and Central 
Europe, and so far lost its insularity. It was at an early date 
bound to Egypt, and Greek culture came in later, but much of 
the old influence remained, and nothing was more suggestive 
than some of the artistic finds at Sparta which represented the 
goddess with lions clearly from a Minoan source. Delphi was 
connected with Crete, and large parts of the Greek epic were 
taken over, through a bilingual medium, from a much earlier 
cycle, along with two kinds of signs that could not belong to 
the age of Homer. 

The PRESIDENT said the marvels of Crete were not altogether 
unfamiliar to the Society, as Sir Arthur Evans had already con- 
tributed a paper to Arcliaeologia on previous discoveries. Its 



Dec. 4.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 27 

civilization, in spite of wide ramifications, seemed to be sui generis^ 
and all would recognize that its identification was due in great 
measure to Sir Arthur's own liberal expenditure of time and 
money on an. undertaking of supreme importance to archaeology. 
The inadequate support afforded him was not entirely due to 
apathy on the part of the Government, but to public indifference, 
which was specially discreditable in view of the enthusiasm shown 
elsewhere in Europe. The objects shown on the screen would in 
themselves justify a national movement, and the neglect of such 
studies in England had already called forth more than one pro- 
test from the chair. The finding of finger-rings too small for 
any finger suggested that the graves were re-opened, as in other 
parts of the world, and the rings placed on the fleshless finger- 
bones; and he had previously remarked on the similarity of 
funeral customs at both ends of the Mediterranean. The brothers 
Siret found large urns used for interments in south-east Spain 
that were not capacious enough for two bodies, but served as a 
receptacle for the fleshless bones of two individuals. The Society 
highly appreciated the first-hand summary of recent finds in 
Crete, which Sir Arthur Evans was above all qualified to give. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for this communication, 
which will be printed in Archaeologia. 



THURSDAY, llth DECEMBER, 1913. 

Sir CHARLES HERCULES READ, Knt., LL.D., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From V. B. Crowther-Beynon, Esq., F.S.A.: The Rutland Magazine and 
County Historical Record. Vols. 1-5,, 1904-12. 8vo. Oakham, 
1904-12. 

From the Author : An introduction to English Church Architecture from 
the eleventh to the sixteenth century. By Francis Bond. 2 vols. 
4to. Oxford, 1913. 

From the Author : A schedule of antiquities in the County of Surrey. 
By P. M. Johnston, F.S.A., assisted by Henry Nevill, F.S.A., and 
H. E. Maiden. 8vo. Guildford, 1913. 

From the Editor : The extinct and dormant peerages of the northern 
counties of England. Edited by J. W. Clay, F.S.A. 8vo. London, 
1913. 

From the Author : Pausilypon, the imperial villa near Naples. By 
R. T. Gunther. 8vo. Oxford, 1913. 



28 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 



From the Author : Tschudi, the harpsichord maker. By William Dale, 
F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1913. 

From the Author : Roman roads in Yorkshire. By Percival Ross. 8vo. 
n.p. 1913. 

FromW. H. Quarrell, Esq., F.S.A. : A mezzotint engraved portrait of 
Richard Payne Knight, F.S.A. 

From A. W. Gould, Esq. : Photograph of an old oil-painting represent- 
ing One-Tree Hill, Greenwich Park. 

William Vandeleur Crake, Esq., and Henry Vassall, Esq., 
were admitted Fellows. 

Notice was given of a ballot for the election ot Fellows to be 
held on Thursday, January 15, 1914, and a list of the candidates 
to be put to the 'ballot was read. 

The Very Reverend J. ARMITAGE ROBINSON, D.D., F.S.A., 
Dean of Wells, read a paper on 'Effigies of Saxon Bishops 
at Wells', which will be printed in Archaeologia. 

In the choir aisles of the Cathedral Church of Wells there 
is a series of recumbent effigies of Saxon bishops, which have 
not received the attention they deserve. Solemn figures, boldly 
sculptured, with a rich variety of dress and pose, they are the 
equals in grace and dignity of the famous statues on the west 
front. They are far better preserved, for they have not been 
worn by the weather, and apart from some accidental breakages 
they are in excellent condition. If they do not come from the 
great sculptors who wrought the figures outside, they are the 
work of their fathers before them, and they have something to 
tell us of the development of English carving in the West. Not 
less interesting than their art is the history of the successive 
changes of name and of position which they have undergone in 
the course of seven centuries. 

The history of these effigies can only be briefly summarized 
here. Two of them appear to be earlier than the other five. They 
have very low mitres, resembling caps, whereas the others have 
the triangular mitres common in the twelfth century ; and other 
details mark them oft' as more primitive. Possibly they were 
made for the tombs of Bishops Dudoc (t 1060) and Giso (f 1088). 
who were buried on the south and north sides of the high altar 
in the Saxon church, and were carved to take the place of earlier 
figures in the second half of the twelfth century. In the first 
years of the next century six more figures were made to com- 
memorate earlier Saxon bishops buried at Wells, and the whole 
series was arranged on the sides of the presbytery of Bishop 
Reginald's new church. When three new bays* were built east- 



Dec. 11.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 29 

ward a century later, the statues were rearranged behind the 
stall work of the choir, so that they could be seen from the aisles 
only. In this position they remained from 1325 for more than 
five hundred years. 

The effigies rested on stone casings which contained bones in 
small wooden boxes, and in each box was a leaden tablet giving 
the name of the bishop. Six of these tablets are still preserved, 
and it is interesting that the names correspond to the Wells local 
tradition of the episcopate more closely than to the scholarly 
tradition of William of Malmesbury and later authorities. 

In 1848 the old stalls were destroyed, and stone stalls were 
substituted: as these were set back between the pillars, the 
effigies could no longer rest on the low wall between the choir 
and its aisles. Some of them were removed to the eastern part 
of the church, and three (apparently) to the undercroft beneath 
the Chapter-house. Two of the latter were brought back in 
1870, but the third is no longer to be found. In the summer 
of the present year the installation of a heating apparatus called 
attention to the unsuitable and inconvenient position assigned 
to them in 1848, and gave the opportunity of putting them 
back as nearly as possible in the places which they had occupied 
for the five centuries before that date. 

, Mr. ARTHUR GARDNER could not agree with the Dean that 
the two sculptures were earlier than the rest. To judge by the 
style, the drapery of the two with low mitres was more advanced, 
that of the others was clumsy, the effigies were flat, the folds 
had a rounded appearance and were all of the same breadth, 
and the heads were large and coarse. The two came nearer 
the statues on the west front, among which the earliest had 
large heads and shortish bodies, the folds of the drapery being 
of early type. The five would date from the time of Bishop 
Reginald, end of the twelfth or beginning of the thirteenth 
century ; and in his opinion they were made when the new choir 
was built. There were at Salisbury Purbeck-marble effigies that 
had been brought from Old Sarum and were earlier than the 
church. Wells was then searching for early Bishops, and had a 
series carved, as was probably also the case at Hereford. 

Mr. GRACE thought the foliated detail of the canopies was an 
item that had been overlooked, but certainly pointed to the 
thirteenth century. Similar foliage was visible where the crozier 
rested at the feet of one figure, and he thought that the earliest 
possible date for the drapery of another was late thirteenth 
century. 

Mr. LETHABY considered the two with low mitres could not 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

be before 1230, the date being written all over them. The lead 
strips were perhaps not cast from bell-founder's letters, but from 
an old stock of moulds. 

Mr. WALTERS thought there was no evidence that the inscrip- 
tions were bell-founder's work, nor that the forms were survivals, 
as Gothic lettering would not be earlier than the end of the 
thirteenth century. 

Mr. EDWARD BELL was of opinion that the excellence of the 
drapery in one group suggested the best period of English 
sculpture, whereas the others were later and were apparently 
cut by an inferior hand in imitation of the earlier group. 

Mr. HOPE laid special stress on the mitre. He had years 
before shown from episcopal seals that up to a certain date the 
mitre was worn with the horns at the sides, not at the front 
and back (Proceedings, xi, 284). The change dated from 1153, 
when Bishop Pudsey turned the horns to the front and back, 
but the old fashion lingered on till 1188, when all examples are 
arranged as on the Wells sculptures under discussion. In the 
doorway of the north porch at Wells was a sculpture with the 
same feature, hence the effigies could not be before Bishop Regi- 
nald's time. The latest of the group were those of Giso and 
Dudoc, which approximated to the sculptures on the west front 
and like them had croziers of wood. That point had been 
already noticed in Archaeologia., lix. 149. The five were of very 
rude work and were conspicuously bearded, another indication 
that they were earlier than the two others. He had already 
suggested l that the site of the Saxon church, which was re- 
hallowed in 1147, was to the south of the present church, in the 
vicars' cemetery ; and the two churches for some time stood side 
by side. The earlier figures probably belonged to Reginald's 
building ; and when the older church was pulled down, the two 
other effigies were probably carved to place over the transferred 
remains. The curious mitres were perhaps nothing but a piece 
of antiquarianism. 

Rev. C. W. SHICKLE referred to the three bishops who mi- 
grated to Bath, where one of them (Reginald) did something to 
his credit in founding a hospital of which the speaker was 
Master. 

The DEAN OF WELLS replied that he was glad of an oppor- 
tunity of stating his opinion, which was formed before reading 

nd Nat ' EiSt S C ' } lV ' 55 ' Archaeol 9 ical 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 31 




ALABASTEK TABLE OF THE PASSION OF CHRIST (-1) 



Dec. 11.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 31 

the work by Messrs. Prior and Gardner. He could find no 
parallels for the low mitres, and the argument from sheer art as 
opposed to costume did not carry one far. He could not ac- 
cept the later date proposed for the two effigies, but agreed that 
the wooden staves were a sign of later date. The unprotected 
feet had seemed to him evidence of early date ; and the five had 
very slight beards that hardly appeared in the photographs. . He 
had seen other instances of plain cushions under the head and 
would not insist on that as an early feature. In spite of criti- 
cism he still believed that the N in WELLENSIS was an early form, 
and was gratified to hear that the five might date from the 
building of the new presbytery. 

The PRESIDENT remarked that the present paper was not the 
first contributed by the Dean, who was always welcome and had 
already done much for Wells. The local monuments well em- 
ployed his learned leisure, and the Society hoped to hear from 
him again on one or other of the glories of Wells. 

The Reverend W. O. B. ROGERS exhibited an alabaster table 
of the Passion of Christ. 

This table was discovered in 1834 1 at Plasn-pentre farm, 
three miles from Valle Crucis Abbey, Denbighshire, of which it 
was originally a grange. In or about that year the farm was 
purchased by a member of the Rogers family, and this alabaster, 
together with another representing St. Armel, was found under 
the floor of a room in the gable. Both alabasters were removed 
subsequently to High Lea House, near Plasn-pentre, where they 
were put into niches in the hall. The alabaster exhibited is 
shortly to be placed in Whitton Church, Hounslow, Middlesex, 
of which the Rev. W. O. B. Rogers is vicar. 

This alabaster, which is 2ft. 11 in. high by 10 in. wide, re- 
presents our Lord seated upon the seamless coat and resting 
against the Cross, remains of which can be seen behind the head. 
The feet are bound with a rope, which passes upwards on the 
right of the body and over the right shoulder. The arms are 
broken off', but evidently were crossed on the knees and bound 
at the wrists by the rope. A mark on the breast indicates that 
the figure held in one hand a reed crossing the body from right 
to left. The figure is naked except for a loin cloth and on the 
head is the crown of thorns, in the torse of which real thorns 
have been inserted. The figure is surrounded by the implements 
of the Passion, and below are two shoulder-blades and two skulls, 
one with a worm protruding from the orbit, while above the 
right-hand shoulder-blade are the head and front feet of an 
1 Arch. Cam., V, i, 215. 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

animal, possibly intended for a toad, issuing from its hole. No 
traces of colour remain except possibly on the loin cloth, which 
is of a whiter colour than the rest of the alabaster. 

The following extract from Rites of Durham 1 affords a striking 
parallel to the object exhibited : 

Betwixt y tow neithermost pillers oppositt to o> La: of Pieties Alter 
thews an alter w* a Roode repteenting y passion [ofo>Sauii?] having his 
handes bounde, w* a crowne of thorne on his head, being comonly called 
y bound roode. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for this communication 
and exhibition. 



THURSDAY, 18th DECEMBER, 1913. 

WILLIAM MINET, Esq., M.A., Treasurer, in the 
Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From the Author, James Curie, Esq., F.S. A. : 

1. Roman and native remains in Caledonia. 8vo. London, 1913. 

2. The Romans in Scotland. 8vo. n.p. n.d. 

3. Notes on some undescribed objects from the Roman fort at New- 

stead, Melrose. 8vo. n.p. n.d. 

From H. E. Balch, Esq., F.S. A.: Reproduction in colour of an ancient 
map of Mendip in Wells Museum. 

Notice was again given of the ballot for the election of Fellows 
to be held on Thursday, January 15th, 1914, and the list of 
candidates to be put to the ballot was again read. 

W. DALE, Esq., F.S. A., exhibited and read the following notes 
on a hoard of scrap bronze found near Andover ; an iron axe- 
head from Clausentum; a greenstone celt of foreign type found 
near Beaulieu; and worked flints from Dunbridge, Hants : 

" The hoard of broken bronze implements I am showing was 
found in laying out a watercress bed by the side of the stream 
known as the Anton about a mile north-east of Andover Junction 
Railway Station. The spot where they were discovered is almost 
on the line of the Portway, the Roman road connecting Sorbio- 
dunum with Calleva, and close to the point where the other road 
from Winchester to Cirencester crosses it. The peaty soil is 

1 Surtees Society, 107, p. 41. 






Dec. 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 33 

here about 2 ft. thick and the hoard was found at the depth of 
a foot. It consists entirely of broken pieces and there are re- 
presented leaf-shaped swords, or perhaps, more properly speaking, 
rapiers, pieces of large winged spear-heads, some long ferrules, 
and portions of carefully made scabbards. The fragments lay 
all close together, and I am sure that I obtained all that were 
there. As, however, only a few of the broken portions match, 
it looks as if it were only part of a hoard. 

The type of implements represented is very late, belonging to 
the latest period of the Age of Bronze in Britain. One of the 
rapiers was not more than an inch wide, and it will be noticed 
that in the two handles that have been preserved the charac- 
teristic notch at the bottom of the blade is scarcely perceptible. 
They are similar to the implements of the Blackmoor hoard 
which are figured in the Victoria County History of Hampshire 
in the chapter on Romano-British Hampshire by Dr. Haverfield. 
and the casual reader might conclude that the Blackmoor bronzes 




were Roman, although it was probably not the writer's intention 
to convey that idea. No scabbards appear to have been found 
at Blackmoor. 

The broken condition of the find is puzzling. The pieces 
were found in soft undisturbed peat, and the determined destruc- 
tion of the implements dates from the age to which they belong. 
They appear to have been perfect weapons, and look too good 
to have been broken up as old metal for recasting. 

The iron axe-head comes from the Roman station at Clau- 
sen turn. It was found near the river in the same stratum of 
black earth which yields Roman pottery and coins. At the 
same time it is not necessarily a relic of the Roman period. 
Medieval objects are often found in this soft yielding earth, and 
it may be a battle-axe of the middle ages or even a domestic 
tool, although I incline to regard it as a military weapon. It 
is 12 in. long and weighs just 41b. I hope its exhibition in 
these rooms may lead to its age being fixed. From the same 

VOL. xxvr E 



34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

place I also show one of the small rings concerning which the 
gruesome theory was advanced a fortnight ago that they were 
for placing on the hand when the flesh had rotted off the 
bones. 

The beautiful greenstone celt which is among my exhibits 
was found near Beaulieu, and is distinctly of a Breton or Con- 
tinental tvpe. At the last meeting of the British Association 
a paper was read by Mr. O. G. S. Crawford on 4 Commerce be- 
tween Britain and the Continent in the Neolithic and Bronze 
Ages'. His evidence concerning the former age was based on 
two greenstone celts in my own collection found in Hampshire 
not far from the sea. I was able to add to these the finding of 
a third, which is the one shown. The material from which it is 
made is pronounced by Professor Bonney to be diorite or horn- 
blendic diabase, a rock which occurs in Brittany. 

Several visits paid to the implement-bearing gravels of 
Dunbridge have resulted in obtaining some more implements 
which present the usual anomaly of some being much water- worn 
and others perfectly sharp. It seems increasingly difficult to 
ascertain from the workmen the horizons where the implements 
occur. For instance, the wedge-shaped implement was said to 
have been found at the bottom, although its patination seems 
to show it came from quite the top of the gravel. Undoubtedly 
found on the surface-soil which caps the gravel are two roughly 
chipped implements which it has been our custom to call celts. 
The one of the colour of a gravel flint is somewhat of the Ciss- 
bury type. The other and larger of the two may be considered 
to approach an Aurignac type." 

Mr. REGINALD SMITH considered the hoard of bronze impor- 
tant on several grounds. The metal was heavy for its bulk and 
would be apt to sink in peat, so that its position 1 ft. below the 
surface would indicate the maximum amount of peat-growth 
since the date of the deposit. That might be determined by 
the types contained in the hoard, and by the condition of the 
specimens. The sword with an imperfect handle ,(a breakage, 
not an unsuccessful casting) had evidently been broken into 
three pieces intentionally, and the long spear-heads had likewise 
been broken for convenience in carrying, the suggestion being 
that it was scrap-metal intended for recasting. A late date 
was indicated by one fragment of a spear-head that was merely 
a shell, 1 the hollow reaching the edge of the blades, and also by 
the rudimentary notches at the base of the second sword-blade. 

1 Canon Greenwell and Mr. Parker Brewis discussed this point in 
Archaeologia, Ixi, pp. 452, 465. Chapes and cylindrical ferrules are 
illustrated in the paper. 



Dec. 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 35 

The notches were normal on swords both of bronze and iron in 
the Hallstatt period, and the wilful destruction of a sword that 
had apparently never been used might be accounted for by the 
introduction of iron, which was preferred for weapons. Whether 
Britain had a Hallstatt period or not, the deposit seemed to 
date from the fifth or sixth century B. c., though earlier oddments, 
such as the spear with solid blades, might easily be included. 
The sheath-like bronzes were frequently found in England, and 
were really the chapes of swords, the scabbard being of leather 
or wood. Both those and the cylindrical spear-ferrules were 
practically confined to Britain, a few being known from France. 1 
The flint implements were of special interest, and included a 
chopper probably of the period of Le Moustier that should not 
have been at the base of the gravel, as typical St. Acheul forms 
(heavily stained with iron and somewhat rolled) were also ex- 
hibited from the pit. Such choppers were known from the 
gravels of north-east London and also from Cissbury mines. 
There was also a rolled white flake like the side-scrapers of Le 
Moustier, and a white unrolled pointed tool similar to several 
found by Mr. Worthington Smith deep in brick-earth near 
Caddington, and perhaps the ancestor of the Cissbury celt. Till 
the stratification could be finally determined, it was impossible 
to date the gravel, but recent finds in the New Forest suggested 
a St. Acheul date for the plateau gravel which was earlier than 
the Dunbridge river-deposits. The 4 picks ' from the surface 
were complete and typical, one with a chopping end and the 
other with a terminal plane : examples were known of both on 
one implement. At present the date was uncertain, but might 
soon be proved palaeolithic. The greenstone polished celt 
seemed to have been shaped by 'pecking 12 before being polished, 
and the former process was characteristic of a group in Scandi- 
navia called blunt-butted cylinder-celts (prikhugning or but- 
nakket Trindox). Implements of that material were best 
fashioned by grinding, not by flaking, and would be largely 
used in countries devoid of flint. The iron axe-head was not 
easy to date, but was unlike the Anglo-Saxon or Viking type, 
and might possibly be Roman, though a medieval date was not 
excluded. 3 

Mr. Bus HE- Fox said the axe-head was not the usual Roman 
form. The finger-ring was not of the original size, but had 



1 Proceedings }f x\in, 169; L' Anthropologie, xiv, 513; xi, 523. 

2 Revue de C Ecole d' Anthropologie de Paris, 1910, 22 (piquage). 

3 Subsequent comparison with those in the Silchester hoard of tools 
(Archaeologia, liv, 147) makes the latter date more probable. 



36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

been made for an adult and subsequently broken and the ends 
brought together. 

HILARY JENKINSOX, Esq., F.S.A., read the following paper on 
' An Original Exchequer Account of 1304 with private tallies 
attached ' : 

" I must begin this communication with an apology. I ought 
perhaps to excuse myself for harping continually upon the same 
subject this of tallies, 1 but I hope to show that in the little file 
of manuscripts here illustrated I introduce to the Society an 
antiquity in a very full sense of the word. 

Antiquities at the present time are being very generally 
raised to the honourable position of historical sources. All our 
discoveries now are collected into ordered series, each is assigned 
a relative place and receives an estimation relative to the extent 
to which it is able to link up itself and its contemporaries with 
predecessors or successors of the same order ; is valued, in fact, 
in so far as it helps to bring its class into an historical relation 
with historical interests of the present day. There remains, 
however, a charm in the true antiquity, the isolated example, 
the museum specimen, which makes a spectacular appeal, sums 
up and exhibits in itself a number of the curious, attractive, 
or striking characteristics which are found scattered over the 
whole class. The source or evidential quality is perhaps more 
common to manuscript, and the museum or spectacular one to 
material remains ; but I would present the accompanying slight 
example as in its way a specimen, a curiosity in medieval 
administrative documents. 

1 I take this opportunity of mentioning 1 some late tallies which I have 
not described before. I have been indebted to the kindness of the officials 
of both the London Museum and the Guildhall Museum while making- an 
inspection of these specimens. The London Museum tallies consist of 
four of the date 1706 and two later ones ; perhaps the most interesting- 
point about the four is the preservation along with them of three docu- 
ments touching the assignment of the moneys involved, which were loans 
to the Treasury : it is perhaps well to emphasize the fact that all are 
Exchequer tallies (stocks) of the normal type. The Guildhall specimens, 
one of which is 3 ft. Sin. in length and has a dent for a halfpenny, are 
all of the nineteenth century ; here again a special interest comes in, three 
of them relating to the repayment by the City of loans made to it by the 
Treasury for public works. 1 have been reminded that I never described 
in detail the large nineteenth-century tallies in the Public Record Office 
Museum and elsewhere in that Office. I took them to be sufficiently well 
known ; and,, indeed, they (and other nineteenth-century tallies) have as 
a rule little of interest about them from the point of view of the history 
of the tally and its place in administration, except as illustrating the 
unwieldy length to which this instrument grew and the consequent 
difficulty experienced by those who tried (without medieval specimens 
before them) to interpret the passage in the Dialogus. Late tallies should 
always be readily traceable in other Records. 



Dec. 18.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



In that working out of the history of English medieval 
administration which those who realize its importance see 
slowly extending, it becomes necessary to distinguish certain 
influences which determined the evolution of records. We 
start record-keeping started with a heterogeneous mass of 




^^i*SCT3f 




EXCHEQUER ACCOUNT WITH PRIVATE TALLIES ATTACHED. 

administrative documents preserved for official reference, of 
scraps of what may be called manuscript memory : among 
them we find scraps upon which are copied original documents 
which have been issued, scraps being memoranda of pro- 
ceedings, and scraps which are themselves originals. The first 
of these two are generally separated off very early into very dis- 
tinct classes by themselves the Patent Rolls for instance, and 
the Plea Rolls. The third class remains the true miscellanea, 
the files of originals ; throwing off', it is true, special files from 
time to time for all kinds of bulky divisions within itself, but 



38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

always keeping an ultimate residuum of pure miscellanea 
the Ancient Miscellanea of the King's Remembrancer of the 
Exchequer, the Chancery files, the Ancient Indictments of the 
King's Bench. 

That is a rough summary of some of the theoretic facts which 
one may draw from a general conspectus of classified examples 
of records in these classes. It remains to display the present 
curious specimen. 

The pure miscellanea to which reference has been made may 
come together (to continue the analysis a little further) from 
three directions. They may be original documents officially 
made and for some reason returned into official custody ; or 
they may be originals not made in the great offices, but made, 
all the same, for their use ; or they may be unofficial both in 
compilation and in their primary aim, of official interest only by 
accident and comparatively late in their career. Let us con- 
sider the provenance of the various parts of the present illustra- 
tion, which comes from what was once the Ancient Miscellanea 
of the Exchequer K.R. 1 

First we have, lying on the top of the file, a purely official 
original the writ or commission to John de Kirkeby, clerk, 
ordering him to examine into the accounts of the Bishop of 
Carlisle, farmer of the King's Castle and demesnes in that town : 
this writ has been returned in virtue of its final clause remit- 
tentis ibi tune hoc breve ; ibi being, in view of the circumstances, 
the Exchequer, then at York. Kirkeby is to examine the 
accounts by view of the visores of the work done there and upon 
their oath to certify the Treasurer and Barons whether the work 
has been well and truly done. 

Next we have, in the natural sequence, the accounts of the 
work done ; compiled privately or semi-privately, but intended 
directly for that official information suggested in the writ to 
which they form a return. They occupy the two membranes 
seen below. The first of these is devoted to 

Expense facte in Castro Karlioli circa bretachia et portas et alia 
necessaria contra adventum Scotorum in marchiam a festo Nativitatis 
sancti lohannis Baptiste Anno regni regis Edwardi xxxj prout patet infra 
per visum Henrici Furbur Willelmi de la Sauserye usque festum Sancti 
Michaelis proximo sequens. 

The sum of this first membrane is % 3s. lid. 

pro quibus affidatur caram [*ic] lohaune de Kirkeby clerico. 
It will be noticed that the testimony of the two visores has 
been placed on this membrane but cancelled because a reproduc- 
tion of it on the second (most of which may be seen, reversed, in 

1 Its reference is now Exchequer Accounts, 482, 22. 



Dec. 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 39 

the photograph) was considered sufficient, though in point of 
fact it related only to the one account upon the second mem- 
brane. 

This second membrane is devoted to 

Operacio et emendacio diversarum domorum in Castro facte per Adam 
de Tliorpp' Constabularium per visum Henrici le Furbur Willelmi de la 
Sauserie a festo Pentecoste a festo Pentecoste [sic] anno Regni Regis 
Edwardi xxx usque festum sancti Michaelis proximo sequens. 



The sum is given as 8 9 

ut patet per talliam. 

The testifying clause, which also refers to a (private) tally 
que attacliiatur liuic rotulo, 

brings us to the last item the two private tallies seen attached 
by thread to the head of the rolls. The inscriptions on these 
are as follows : 

De denariis receptis de Ada de Thorpp' ad operam Castri a festo 
Nativitatis sancti lohannis Baptiste anno regis Edwardi xxxj usque festum 
Sancti Michaelis proximo sequens, 

the amount cut on this tally being 2 3s. lid. ; and 

Contra Adam de Thorpp' Constabularium Castri Karlioli de expeusi-s 
factis circa operam Castri a festo Pentecoste anno Regis Edwardi xxx. 
usque festum Sancti Michaelis proximo sequens. 

The amount cut on this second tally is 8 3s. 1 jd 

It will be seen that these are purely private tallies between the 
parties concerned in the work dated by the time of the work 
i.e. some time before the commission which incidentally resulted 
in their ultimate preservation at the Exchequer. 

We have thus typical examples, filed together in a small space, 
of all the three main varieties of miscellanea to which I referred. 
The whole forms, I venture to say, an unusually neat and com- 
plete administrative curiosity. 

Besides this point of interest, however, there are one or two 
small matters to be noticed with regard to the cutting and so 
forth of the tallies : they are mostly in the nature of confirma- 
tion of certain views which previously I have only been able to 
infer. The accounts themselves are interesting enough, but with 
an interest common to a long series of similar documents ; 
though I might perhaps mention the curious name of certain 
nails fleywenges three thousand of which, at a cost of 20d. 
per thousand, are mentioned in the second account along with 
the more ordinary ' spikinggys ' and 'broddes'. Why the ac- 
counts for making two bretachia without the great gate and 
postern, and of erecting a springal, should be separate from 
those relating to repairs of the great gate, the tower, the Queen's 



40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

chamber, the new chamber and the prison is not certain ; but 
they are clearly distinguished, and perhaps we may assume that 
this was to fit the two tallies which happened to have been 
made separately. 

With regard to these tallies (both of them foils), we may 
notice in conclusion three points : 

1. As might be expected in the case of the tallies of impor- 
tant officials used to Exchequer customs, the cutting conventions 
of that Office have been adopted in many points. The angles 
at both ends are the same ; the relative position of the larger 
and smaller amounts above and below the inscription is similar 
to what we see on the nineteenth-century Exchequer foil at 
Kensington ; and the thickness of the notches is according to 
Exchequer rule. The writing begins in the proper place, though 
in each case it has spread over on to the following side ; upon 
which we find the date figuring quite correctly. 

2. We have here examples of two of the kinds of wording 
which I noticed on private tallies in my first paper. 1 The first 
tally, that on the left, begins de and witnesses in favour of 
Adam de Thorp that he has paid out certain moneys entrusted 
to him, presumably, by the Bishop. The second witnesses, pre- 
sumably on behalf of the Bishop against (contra) Adam de 
Thorp, that the latter has been entrusted with the amount which 
figures in the second account in point of exact fact with a 
penny less. Both have the same effect so far as the Exchequer 
is concerned that of acquitting the Bishop. The de one, how- 
ever, is the more direct as evidence for this purpose ; and it is 
possibly on this account that the contra one is accorded the 
extra note which we saw on the second membrane. 

3. Finally, we have two new points, one on each tally. The 
tally on the right shows what we know to have existed in the 
nineteenth century but have not had medievally evidenced before 
either in written accounts or actual tallies, public or private ; 
that is the mark for a halfpenny, made presumably twice over 
(on stock and foil separately) with a jab of the point of the 
knife. This is seen faintly to the left of the thin (penny) cut 
at the left-hand end of the tally. 

On the other tally, at about the middle of the half-exposed 
face, is what is quite new to me in any connexion half a 
shilling cut, signifying sixpence. 

Medieval private tallies are rare and rarely attached to 
accounts. 2 I hope all the circumstances of the case will be held 
to justify the length of this note." 

1 Archaeologia, Ixii, 367. 

2 There is., of course, nothing to prevent the preservation of private 
tallies in this way, and an examination of the printed List of Exchequer 



Dec. 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 41 

The CHAIRMAN as Treasurer of the Society was interested in 
medieval as well as modern book-keeping, and thought the plan 
current in 1304 was ingenious as furnishing all in one a ledger 
account, cash account, and original voucher for payment. He 
remarked the absence of any auditor's certificate. It was possible 
to see in the document the germs of twentieth-century book- 
keeping. 

H. CLIFFORD SMITH, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., exhibited the foot 
of an English Altar Cross of latten (fig. 1), on which he read the 
following note : 

" The object rests on a sexfoil or six-lobed base 8J in. in 
diameter, with a splayed edge f in. deep turned out below in a 
narrow flange. From this rises a dome-like pedestal contracting 
at the top with an ogee curve, and surmounted by an openwork 
corona If in. in diameter formed of twelve conjoined trefoils. 
The splayed edge of the base is engraved with a guilloche 
pattern ; the upper surfaces of the lobes are engraved alter- 
nately in black letter (fig. 2) : 



3. !!?,&. 
The dome of the pedestal is encircled with the words (fig. 



Into the corona has been fixed the brass stem of a candle- 
stick of later date. 

The object was formerly in the Braikenridge Collection, which 
was formed early in the nineteenth century by George Weare 
Braikenridge and kept in a museum at his residence, Broomwell 
House, near Bristol. The collection was moved by his son Rev. 

Accounts will supply a certain number of instances of the occurrence. 
I am indebted to Mr. R. J. Whitwell for calling my attention to some 
good examples,, among them that which is the subject of the present 
paper. One such is interesting as occurring in the Class of Ministers' 
Accounts (M. A. 1122,, 35). Another (Exch. Accounts, 261, 21) is remark- 
able for giving us no less than twenty-seven tallies, some of them stocks 
and some foils, according to the position of the accountant in question in 
the transaction which originally produced them. It is worth observing, 
also, that some of them, whose "notches deal with amounts of metal, add 
a note explanatory of the amount in cash ; further, that an examination 
of private tallies in any quantity seems to point to the contra form of 
words being the most common ; i.e. the private tally witnesses chiefly 
against the person who has received, the Exchequer tally in favour of the 
person who has paid : a slight indication of the relative importance of 
receiver and payer in the two cases. Nearness of the person concerned 
to official life and, consequently, of the tally to the Exchequer conven- 
tion may naturally be expected in most of the specimens found thus 
attached to Exchequer Accounts. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1913, 



G. W. Braikenridge, to Clevedon, Somerset ; and after the death 
of his successor, W. Jerdone Braikenridge, the greater part was 
disposed of in 1908 in London by Messrs. Christie, Manson 
Woods. The object in question was included in the sale of the 
remainder of the collection at Clevedon, and passed into the 




INSCRIPTION AM) ORXAMKNT ON LOBKS OF A I/I' A R CROSS FOOT. 



hands of a Bristol dealer, from whom it was purchased recently 
by its present owner, Rev. F. Meyrick Jones. 1 

This interesting pre- Reformation altar ornament offers a 
striking comparison with two similar latten objects, both with 
sexfoil bases and dome pedestals, which have come to light in 
recent years. One, the foot of a portable cross from the parish 
church of Stoke Pogcs, Bucks., was shown before this Society on 
February 3rd, 191 0. 2 The other, a complete cross with foot, 
was exhibited on the 27th of last month among the collection of 
latten objects from St. Sampson's Church, Guernsey." It is to 
be observed that all trace of the gilding, which presumably once 
existed on this as on the Stoke Poges and Guernsey examples, 
has disappeared. 

It has siiice been acquired by the Victoria and Albert Museum. 
Proceeding*, vol. xxiii, p. 49. 
' See p. 4, nupni. 






Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 42 




Fig. 1. FOOT OF AX ENGLISH ALTAR CROSS, OF LATTEX (TJ) 






Doc. 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 43 

As regards the date, there is good ground for supposing that 
all three pieces of latten-work are about the same period, and 
belong to the sixteenth rather than to the fifteenth century. 
In determining this question, ecclesiastical plate, the date of 
which is known by its marks or definite style, should serve as an 
almost certain guide, seeing that the latten- workers would pre- 
sumably not be slow in following the models set by the gold- 
smiths. 

The article on English medieval chalices and patens by 
Messrs. St. John Hope and Fallow in the forty-third volume of 







INSCRIPTION ON DOME OF ALTAR CROSS FOOT. 



the Archaeological Journal 1 contains the standard classification 
of pre-Reformation chalices into eight types. Of these are two 
groups belonging to the Tudor period classed as type G and 
type H. In a supplementary classification of Tudor chalices in 
the sixty-first volume of the same Journal, 2 Mr. H. P. Mitchell, 
taking account of five additional examples which had come to 
light in the interval, was enabled to extend the known limits of 
type G to the period 1 507-27, and to subdivide type H into 
two parts, a and 6, of which the dated examples are included 
between the years 1525-7 and 1534 and 1536 respectively. 
The classification is based mainly on the form of the foot, ' the 
most salient feature of distinction,' and it is apparent that the 
type which the latten foot under consideration most closely 
resembles, exhibiting the sexfoil plinth and the domed pedestal 
surmounted by a corona or cresting, is the last medieval chalice- 
type, H6, of which the dated examples were plate-marked in 
1534-5 and 1536-7. If it is objected that a date circ. 1535 is 

1 Arch. Journ., vol. xliii, pp. 137 and 364. 
- Ibid., vol. Ixi, p. 184. 



44 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1913, 

too late to reconcile with the black-letter inscriptions on the 
latten foot, the answer is provided by the Highworth, Wilts., 
chalice of 1534-5 just mentioned, which bears inscriptions of the 
same character. 1 

The brass stem, already noted, which has been attached to this 
late Gothic foot is itself of Renaissance design, and belongs in 
all probability to the first half of the sixteenth century. And 
there is the possibility that the foot itself, having survived the 
general destruction of church ornaments under Edward VI, 
owed its preservation to the fact that the attachment to it of a 
stem enabled it to serve the practical purpose of a domestic 
candlestick." 

Mr. HOPE agreed as to the date of the ' candlestick ', and ob- 
served that the inscription took an unusual form. The prayer 
for help was addressed to Jesus, not to our Lady. The feet of 
crosses first carried in Sunday processions had long been known 
from inventories, and by a curious coincidence three examples 
had lately been brought to the notice of the Society. The 
Wylye chalice with the mark of 1525 had a similar foot, crown, 
and black-letter inscription, and so furnished a date for the group 
of cross-bases. 

E. A. EBBLEWHITE, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited the 'Bell 1 Salt, 
the ' Aris ' Cup, and other plate belonging to the Worshipful 
Company of Tin Plate Workers, on which he communicated the 
following notes : 

*' The 'Beir Salt. This salt-cellar was originally one of two 
4 Fair Silver Salts', made for Mrs. Elizabeth Bell, widow of 
John Bell the Elder, clerk of the Parish Clerks 1 Company : one 
was given by her to the 'Parish Clerks' (which has since been 
lost), and the example shown was given to her son, John Bell 
the Younger, who succeeded his father in the clerkship. In 
1679 he became also Clerk of the Tin Plate Workers' Company, 
who held their meetings in Parish Clerks' Hall; and shortly 
after his appointment he gave this salt-cellar to his new masters. 
The exhibit, which is of plain concave form, has on the upper 
part three projecting scroll-shaped brackets or arms for sup- 
porting a napkin, the salt being contained in a shallow circular 
depression on the upper surface. Beneath the circular spreading 
base is the following inscription in characters of the period : 
'The Gift of John Bell, Clarke to ye Company of Tinn Plate 
Workers'. Hall-mark 1671, London. Maker's mark AD 
conjoined. Weight 14 oz. 15dwt. 

1 J. E. Nightingale, The Church Plate of the County of Wilts., p. 180. 






Dec. 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 45 

The 'Aris" Cup. Thomas Aris (1626-95), who was the 
first Master of this Company in 1670 and 1671-2, and Master 
of the Worshipful Company of Ironmongers in 1680-1, be- 
queathed money by his will dated 6th July, 1688, to enable the 
Master and Wardens of the Tin Plate Workers' Company ' To 
buy one silver bowl with my arms thereon to be engraven'. 
The cup here shown was accordingly bought in April 1695, and 
engraved on one side of the bowl with the arms of the Company 
(A chevron between in chief two lamps, each with one burner, 
respecting each other, and in base a lamp with two burners), in 
a cartouche surrounded by feather ornament, and on the other 
side of the bowl the full heraldic achievement of the donor 
(On a chevron between three rams" heads erased as many roses. 
Crest : a man vested, holding a sword (?) in the sinister hand 
and supporting a spear (?) with the dexter hand). The following 
inscription in characters of the period appears below the Aris 
arms : ' The Gift of Mr. Tho. Aris, first Master of the Tin 
Plate Workers' Company 1670'. Originally the cup had a 
contemporary pedestal, but it was replaced by the present one 
in 1771, when the following additional inscription was engraved 
on the bowl under the Company's arms : ' This Cup was repair'd 
and embellish'd with a new foot and pillar at the expence of 
Edward Walsby, Master, 1771 '. Hall-mark on the bowl Lon- 
don, 1694. Maker's mark W.B. No marks on the pedestal.' 1 

M. 

Mr. HOPE said the salt was a popular form made in various 
materials : he had seen examples in silver and pewter, and him- 
self possessed one in Lambeth delft. Very few people knew 
the use of them, and he had seen them exhibited upside down 
in museums. 

The DIRECTOH welcomed the exhibit as an indication of the 
treasures possessed by the minor City companies, but seldom in- 
spected. He hoped that the present good example would be 
followed by other companies for the benefit of the Society. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications 
and exhibitions. 



46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

THURSDAY, 15th JANUARY, 1914. 

Sir CHARLES HERCULES READ, Knt., LL.D., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From the Author: The history of Wolverhampton Grammar School. 
By G. P. Marnier. 8vo. Wolverhampton, 1913. 

From the Author : Irish seal-matrices and seals. By E. C. R. Armstrong, 
F.S.A. 8vo. Dublin, 1913. 

From Rev. T. W. Oswald-Hicks : The Register of English Monumental 
Inscriptions. Vol. i. 8vo. London, 1912. 

From Thomas Ashhy, Esq., D.Litt., F.S.A. : Catalogue of the British 
Historical and Archaeological Section of the International Fine Arts 
Exhibition at Rome, 1911. 4to. London, 1913. 

From the Author : Windsor Castle. An architectural history. By 
W. H. St. John Hope, Litt.D., D.C.L. Two vols. and one portfolio 
of plans, fol. London, 1913. 

A special vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Hope for his gift 
to the Library. 

Votes of thanks were passed to the Editors of the Athenaeum, 
Notes and Queries, and the Builder for the gift of their publica- 
tions during the past year. 

L. A. LAWRENCE, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a small gold head 
of Apollo, some gold beads found at Volterra, a small gold arm- 
let, and a specimen of gold ring-money. 

This being an evening appointed for the election of Fellows, 
no paper was read. 

The ballot opened at 8.45 p.m. and closed at 9.30 p.m., when 
the following were declared elected Fellows of the Society : 

Major Algernon Tudor Craig. 

William Blake Odgers, Esq., M.A., LL.D., K.C. 

Robert Bagster, Esq. 

William Alexander Cater, Esq. 

Rev. Henry Arnold Hudson, M.A. 

Captain Charles Walter Cottrell-Dormer. 

Charles George James Port, Esq. 

Cuthbert William Whitaker, Esq., M.A. 

Henry Oppenheimer, Esq. 



Jan. 22.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



THURSDAY, 22nd JANUARY, 1914. 

The EARL OF CRAWFORD AND BALCARRES, 

Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 
From the Author : Decorative Ironwork from the xith to the xviuth 

century. By Charles ffoulkes, B. Litt. Oxon. , F. S. A. 4to. London, 

1913. " 
From Harold Sands, Esq., F.S.A.: 

1. Slingsby and Slingsby Castle. By A. St. Clair Brooke. 8vo. 

London, 1902. 

2. The Town of Denbigh and Denbigh Castle. By John Williams. 

8vo. Denbigh, 1860. 

3. The place-names of Nottinghamshire, their origin and develop- 

ment. By Heiurich Mutschmann. 8vo. Cambridge, 1913. 

4. Warwick Castle and its Earls from Saxon times to the present day. 

By the Countess of Warwick. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1903. 

From the Right Hon. Viscount Dillon, D.C.L., F.S.A.: 

1. Pageant of the birth, life and death of Richard Beauchamp, Earl 

of Warwick, K.G., 1389-1439. Edited by Viscount Dillon and 
W. H. St. John Hope. 4to. n.p ii.d. 

2. Degradation and reduction from knighthood. By Viscount Dillon. 

8vo. London,, 1913. 

Cuthbert Wilfrid Whitaker, Esq., M. A., was admitted a Fellow. 

G. McN. RUSHFORTH, Esq., M.A., F.S. A., read a paper on the 
Wheel of the Ten Ages of Life in Leo minster Church : 

" Several years ago when I first became acquainted with the 
wall-paintings in Kempley Church, Gloucestershire, I was struck, 
as every one who has visited the church must have been, by a 
design between the two windows in the north wall of the nave. 
It is a mere skeleton or framework in red paint, and consists of 
a central disc 'from which radiate ten spokes each ending in 
another disc or medallion (fig. 1). The wall on which it is 
painted, and, originally, the two windows, the interval between 
which it exactly fills, are of the early twelfth century ; and the 
well-known paintings in the chancel cannot be very much later. 
But the nave walls were covered with pictures of various dates, 
and the surface has been so much altered by different layers 
of decoration and by varnishing, that it is not easy to find any 
immediate indication of the date of the design. Though the 
circles are accurately set out they seem to have been coarsely 
painted over at a later date. 

Not long after I saw Leominster Church, and there on the 
north wall of the westernmost bay of the north aisle that is to 



48 . PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

say in the Norman part of the building was evidently the same 
design as at Kempley, but in better preservation (fig. 3). Not 
only were there patches of red paint within the medallions, 
suggesting figures or subjects of some kind, but the whole design 
was enclosed within an outer circumference or circle bearing traces 
of an inscription in Lombardic lettering, of which only two com- 
plete words, apparently the last, were obviously legible: me decepit. 
The design had a background of imitation masonry, each stone 
being ornamented with a scroll ending in a flower ; and in the 
bottom left-hand corner was seated the figure of David playing 
on a harp. The style of these fragments suggests the latter half 
of the thirteenth century. 

The remains of the inscription evidently offered the best chance 
of an identification, but for some time I met with no success. 
Recently I lighted bv accident upon a series of iconographical 
papers by the late Mr. J. G. Waller, which appeared in the 
Gentleman s Magazine more than half a century ago ; and in one 
of these, entitled ' The Wheel of Human Life V he described a pic- 
torial design in a well-known BritishMuseum MS. Arundel 83 
consisting of ten circles or medallions illustrating the ten ages of 
life, radiating from a central circle containing the head of God, 
with a descriptive Latin verse inscribed round each. An inspec- 
tion of the MS. (fol. 126 b) showed that the scheme of the design 
was exactly similar to that at Leominster, save that the inscrip- 
tions framed each picture instead of being placed on the outer 
circumference ; but as the last two ended with the words vita me 
decepit the identification was certain (fig. 2). 2 

The Arundel Psalter belongs to the early years of the fourteenth 
century ; and as we saw that the Leominster painting probably 
dates from the latter part of the thirteenth century, while that at 
Kempley may possibly be as old as the twelfth, the illumination 
cannot be the original, because it is, probably, the latest of the 
three examples of the design. But as it is the only one which is 
perfect it will be convenient to describe it first, and then com- 
pare the wall-paintings with it. 

The central medallion contains the head of God with the cross 
nimbus the centre of the ordered life of the universe. Cuncta 
simul cerno : totum racione guberno. 

The ten ages begin at the bottom on the left hand, and move 
from left to right. 

(1) A woman seated with a child on her knee before a fire over 

1 Gent. Mag., xxxix (1853), 494. 

2 The illumination has been reproduced in another article on the same 
subject by Mr. John Winter Jones in Archaeologia, xxxv (1853), p. 167, 
pi. v, and in Sir G. Warner's Reproductions, iii, pi. xxiv. The latter also 
describes it in his Illuminated MSS. in the British Mmeum. 



Jan. 22.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 49 

which a pot is boiling. The handle of a ladle, protruding from 
it shows that it contains something eatable, and not merely hot 
water. The verse explains itself: Mitis sum et humilis : lacte 
vivo puro. 

The next two scenes, as the descriptive verses show, have been 
transposed by mistake, proving, if nothing else did, that the artist 
was copying and not inventing the design. The verses are 
arranged in rhyming couplets, and, as the rhymes are correct as 
they stand, it is the second and third pictures which have changed 
places. We describe them in the correct order. 

(2) A boy pointing to a pair of scales which he holds. Num- 
quarn ero lab-lilt : etatem mensuro. Sir G. Warner describes this 
as an- apprentice, and Mr. Winter Jones as a man of business ; 
but this is the second stage boyhood, from 7 to 14, and the 
verse shows that the scales do not refer to occupation but to 
character. It is the beginning of the age of reflection or self- 
consciousness. The boy is aware that he is growing up, and 
that he must realize and make the most of each stage of life if 
he is not to make mistakes. The representation is not an obvious 
one, but Sir G. Warner is, no doubt, right in describing the boy 
as an apprentice. He was probably thinking of the Calendar 
picture in Queen Mary's Psalter, 1 where September and the sign 
of Libra are illustrated by the scene of a bargain between a buyer 
and seller. Between them stands a youth holding the scales in 
which the quantity of stuff is being weighed. He is, no doubt, 
the merchant or shopman's assistant or apprentice, and we may 
suppose that he appears at this stage in the Wheel of Life because 
this is a common or typical occupation that the boy is set to 
on reaching years of discretion. He has to weigh out the quan- 
tities of his master's goods, and at the same time, symbolically, 
he begins to estimate the value and contents of life. 

(3) A youth combing his hair before a round mirror which he 
holds in his lei't hand. The age of puberty. He begins to take 
interest in his personal appearance because this is the age of 
courtship and love. The verse Vita decens seculi speculo pro- 
batur apparently means that he uses a mirror to assure himself 
that he will make a presentable figure in the world. 

(4) A young man on a white horse with a hawk on his wrist. 
Non ymago speculi sed vita letatur. For the young man, real life 
gives pleasure, and not the mere reflection of it. 

(5) A king on his throne. Rex sum rego seculum: mundus 
meus totus. The prime of life. 

(6) A man in a long black robe lined with fur, the hood drawn 
over his head, holding a staff'. Not, I think, as Sir G. Warner 

1 British Museum, Royal MS. 2Bvii. In Sir G. Warner's edition 
(London, 1912), pi. 140 and p. 25. 
VOL. XXVI F 



50 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

suggests, a monk, but the elderly man conscious of the approach 
of old age. Sumo michi baculum mortifere notus. His attitude 
and gesture perhaps suggest that he is looking back at the past 
instead of looking forward with hope to the future. 

(7) A blind old man, with his right hand supported by a stick, 
and his left resting on the shoulder of a boy in front of him. The 
boy appears to be acting as a guide, but Mr. Winter Jones * 
suggested that it may illustrate the idea of some of the later 
examples of the Ages of Life, in which decrepitude is spoken of 
as the laughing-stock of children. The description is quite 
general. Decrepitati deditus : mors erit michi esse. Death is the 
only existence I can look forward to. 

(8) An old man in bed attended by a doctor who holds up 
a vial, probably a urinal. Infirmitati deditus inciplo deesse. 

(9) A coffin on a bier, covered with a pall, between four tapers. 
Behind stands a tonsured clerk in a surplice, reading the office of 
the dead. Putavi q(uo)d viverem : vita me decepit. 

(10) A tomb in a churchyard with a cross on its cover. 
Versus sum in cinerem : vita me decepit. 

The spandrel spaces in the four corners of the design are 
occupied by four figures representing the four chief ages of life. 
In the lower left-hand corner is Infantia, a boy in a long grey 
tunic seated on the ground, and pointing to a scroll on which his 
name is inscribed. I cannot accept Sir G. Warner's interpreta- 
tion of this as a woman in labour. All the other figures are 
male. The half-reclining attitude of the body, propped by one 
hand resting on the ground, is due merely to the conditions of 
the space to be filled. There is no trace of anguish in the 
features. Lastly, the infant Jesus on the Virgin's lap a few 
pages further on in the Psalter is represented in exactly the 
same way. Mr. Waller and Mr. Winter Jones seem to have had 
no doubt that the figure was that of a boy. The remaining 
figures cause no difficulty. At the upper corner on this side is 
a king pointing to a scroll with luventus, the prime of life ; 
opposite to him on the right is an old man Senectus ; and 
below is man in the last stage, reclining with his head supported 
by the left hand. His title Decrepitus appears from other 
instances to be, not an adjective, but a variety of decrepitas, 
formed on the analogy of senectus. 

We are now in a position to appreciate the remains of the 
wall-painting at Leominster. The westernmost bay of the north 
aisle corresponds to the tower, and like the rest of this part of 
the church belongs to the first half of the twelfth century. A 
transverse arch springing from the north-east pier of the tower 
separates it from the rest of the aisle ; it opens by another arch 
1 Archaeologia, xxxv, 174. 



> 



an. 22.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 51 

on the south into the tower ; and a triplet window has been in- 
serted in the west wall. The north wall, with which we are 
concerned, is pierced by a door which led to the cloisters. 
Above this comes a string-course, between which and the plain 
unribbed cross vaulting is a contemporary round-headed window, 
just like those in the nave clearstory. It is not set in the middle 
of the wall, the larger space to the left being occupied by the 
painting which we are about to consider. The smaller space to 
the right of the window is covered with modern plaster, but as 
the window itself was blocked before Sir Gilbert Scott's restora- 
tion of this part of the church about 1865, we may presume 
that, when the window was opened and the painting discovered 
on the left, the space on the right was also stripped, and nothing 
discovered which was thought worth preserving. It can hardly 
l)e doubted that, originally, it had been decorated at the 
same date as the rest of the wall. Nor was this all. Prof. 
Freeman, writing in 1853 in Arcliaeologia Cambrensis (2 S. IV, 
19), says : ' The western bay [of the north aisle] was originally 
separated by an arch from the rest of the aisle; at some later 
period this arch was blocked with a solid wall. On the west 
face of this wall remain considerable traces of mural paintings ; 
the date, subject, and merit of them I must leave to others better 
versed in that branch of archaeology ; but I may be allowed to 
express a hope that somewhat better care than at present seems 
to be the case may be taken both of them and generally of this 
curious portion of the church, which is now blocked off as a 
coalhole.' It was, no doubt, the St. Andrew's or St. Antony's 
Chapel, to which there are various references; 1 and it looks as 
if the whole chapel had been decorated in the style of the 
picture which has survived. As a matter of fact, remains of the 
same conventional ornament are to be seen, not only on the bare 
stone-work of the string-course below it, but also on the piers 
opposite. It would be hardly rash to suggest that the inserted 
triplet window in the west wall belonged to this new treatment 
of the chapel. Richard Symonds noted in 1645 'in the north 
yle window of the old church, called St. Anthonyes Church, very 
old ' the arms of Croft. 2 By 4 very old ' I think he shows that 
he recognized the difference between thirteenth-century and 
(say) fifteenth-century glass. Perhaps we may conjecture that 
the donors of the new decorations were the Crofts of Croft 
Castle, only a few miles north-west of Leominster. 

To come now to the painting itself, which we can follow in the 
admirable reproduction by our Fellow Mr. C. J. Praetorius 

1 G. F. Townsend, The Town and Borough of Leominster (Leominster, 
1862), p. 229 note. 

2 Diary of the Marches of the Royal Army (Camden Society, 1859), p. 267. 

F 2 



52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

(fig. 3), it may be noticed that from the string-course to the 
crown of the vault is 10 ft. 5 in., the diameter of the wheel 
being 7 ft. 1 in., and that of the smaller circles 19J in. The 
decorative stoning is carefully finished off with a double line at 
the edge of the splay of the window. In addition to the seated 
figure of David on the left there seem to be traces of a figure or 
figures at the top of the wheel, surrounded by scroll work. 
The whole has been set out with no very great accuracy. No 
incised lines can be detected, but only the centre points from 
which the circles were struck. The only colours used, or at any 
rate surviving, are red, of more than one tone, and yellow. The 
backgrounds are white. 

Let us now try to identify what is left of the subjects and the 
inscriptions, on the basis of the version in the Arundel Psalter, 
but with the possibility of variations from it. The two most 
obvious identifications are the seated king in the topmost circle, 
and the verse belonging to the ninth scene : Putavi q(uo)d 
viverem : vita me decepit on the lower right-hand part of the cir- 
cumference. These tell us two things : (1) that the subjects 
were arranged in the same order as in the Psalter, and (2) that 
each verse was placed, not round its picture, as in the Psalter, 
but on the adjacent part of the circumference. Hence arises a 
difficulty. If each verse took up about the same space as this 
one, there is room on the circumference for only eight at the 
most. The other two had to be provided for in another way, 
and this was done by inscribing them on a horizontal band which 
met the circle near the top (where the appropriate scenes were), 
and then followed its outer curve till it reached the correspond- 
ing point on the opposite side, where it became horizontal again. 
No trace of this seems to have survived on the right, but I think 
we shall see that it is necessary to assume what the principle of 
symmetry certainly suggests. Even with this provision for the 
extra verses, we shall find that the end of the tenth and last has 
to stray outside the circumference. 

Beginning with the medallion in the centre, on the right side 
one may trace some of the long hair belonging to the head of 
God, and also part of the lower edge of the nimbus, which here 
did not, as in the Arundel Psalter, coincide with the circle or 
medallion in which the head is set. Here the head of God is 
a bust and its nimbus is considerably smaller than the circle 
which frames the picture. The inscription was placed outside 
the medallion, between the spokes ; but the end, on the right, is 
all that has survived : 

[Cuncta simid cerno, to\tum racione guberno. 
The last syllable is placed above the line, suggesting that this 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 




Fi-. 3. WHEEL OF LIFE., 



Between pages 52 and 53 








PER CHl'RCH, HEREFORDSHIRE 



Jan. 22.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 53 

compression was due to symmetry, and that the verse began in 
the corresponding space on the left side, where, however, all 
traces have vanished. 

Next, taking the outer circles with the stages of life in order, 
the remains in 1 (Infancy) suggest a woman with her child in 
bed, and not the scene depicted in the Psalter, so that here we 
begin with a variation. On the circumference just beyond the 
circle are faint but certain traces of the end of the verse : 
[Mitis sum et humilis lacte v]ivo puro. 

(2) It is followed by the first letters of the verse of the next 
scene (Boyhood), 

Num[quat/i ero labilis etatem mensuro\ 

but all traces of the scene itself and also of the next, (3) (Youth), 
have vanished. Most of the verse of the latter, however, survives 
in a fragmentary state. In the Arundel MS. this runs : 

Vita decens seculi speculo probatur. 

The first word is lost at Leominster, but the second is clearly 
nitens, a natural variant if we remember how nitere and nitidus 
are used in connexion with dress and personal appearance. The 
last word probatur is immediately followed by re[ai\ 9 evidently 
the beginning of the fifth verse belonging to the king in the top- 
most circle. We must therefore look for the intermediate fourth 
verse in the outer inscription band, where it would be fairly close 
to its scene. Of the latter, (4) (Early Manhood), no traces are 
visible, but it can be seen that the inscription begins on the 
horizontal part of the band, to the left ; and we at once become 
aware that it differs from the version in the MS. : 
JVon ymago speculi sed vita letatur. 

The first word is iam ; then, after a gap, comes a termination 
. . . sus, followed by specie : vita me letatur. I propose to restore 
this: 

Iam non visus specie, 

visits being the antithesis to vita, and part of the subject of 
letatur. ' No longer does mere appearance please me by its 
comeliness, but real life.' Mr. Praetorius has, however, pointed 
out to me that the final e of specie has a kind of tail attached 
to it, which looks like an abbreviation. In that case I would 
suggest species, visus becoming the genitive 'No longer does 
comeliness of appearance (or visage) please me ' which I think 
is an improvement. We now come to the circle at the top (5), 
with the king on his throne, one of the best-preserved subjects. 
The verse is immediately over it, and appears to read, with a 
slight variation from the Psalter : 

Re[x snm\ rcgens seculum mundus [metis totus]. 



54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

Mr. Praetor ius thought that the second word also began with 
re, but I cannot make anything out of this ; and as the traces 
are very faint, I assume, provisionally, that the word was sum. 
Of scene 6, the first stage in the decline of life, nothing seems 
to be left ; but the remains of the word \ba\culum on the circum- 
ference close by show that its verse, of which one other letter 
survives, 

[<SW/zo] m[ichi ba\culiim [mortifere notus], 

was placed here, and not, as we should have expected on grounds 
of symmetry, on the outer and partly horizontal band. The latter 
must have contained the verse of the next scene (7), the only one 
of which no letters have survived. There is certainly no room 
for it on the circumference, as the remains of the following verse 
show. Of the scene itself there are considerable traces which 
suggest that the old man's left hand was not resting on the boy's 
shoulder, but raised as if addressing or threatening him. Perhaps 
the motive of age the laughing-stock of children, was here ex- 
pressed more clearly than in the Psalter. Of the next scene (8) 
little or nothing is left, and only the last letters of the verse : 

\Infirmitati deditus incipio de\esse. 

In scene 9 there seems to be a standing figure on the left, 
presumably a clerk, and there may be another next to him. 
Most of the verse can be made out, and part is well preserved : 

Putavi q(uo)d viverem : vita me decepit. 

viverem is not clear, and the way in which it is written may be the 
fault of an illiterate artist : e.g. the final Q may be an 5R turned the 
wrong way. I cannot think of any alternative to viverem. There 
are some fragments of the last scene (10), but we do not seem to 
recognize in them the tomb of the Psalter. The hatching in front 
may represent the ground, or may belong to a shrouded corpse 
about to be interred. Behind there may have been three standing- 
figures, and I have sometimes thought that one at least is nimbed. 
The first letters of the verse can be traced, and further on the 
third word cinerem, after which the available space was brought 
to an end by the beginning of the verse of the first scene, and 
accordingly the last words were inscribed in smaller letters, and 
in the reverse direction, on the decorative background outside 
the circumference. It may be read thus : 

Versus s[um i]n cinerem [vi]ta me [d]e[cepit]. 
Instead of the Four Ages of Life which accompany the wheel 
in the Psalter, we have at Leominster, in the left-hand lower 
corner, a seated figure of David playing on a harp. The obvious 
allusion would be to the < three score years and ten ' of Ps. xc, 10. 
The harp appears to have eleven strings, if not more. Had 



Jan. 22.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 55 

there been ten, we might have suggested a symbolical connexion 
between them and the ten ages of the wheel. Piero Valeriano l 
recognizes both the seven -stringed and ten-stringed lyre or harp 
as a symbol of human life and its ages ; and passages in the 
Psalms (e. g. Ivii, 9 ; xcii, 3 ; cxliv, 9) seem to have been inter- 
preted in a similar manner. It is not impossible that the 
original of our design may have had a ten-stringed harp, the 
significance of which was not grasped by the Leominster copyist. 

I have not been able to discover any literary source of the 
verses which accompany the scenes. Both of the metrical forms 
used, viz. the accentual rhymed couplets accompanying the stages 
of life, and the hexameter with its interior rhyme round the head 
of God, had their greatest vogue in the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries. 

In one case I have come across something of a parallel, and 
that is the verse round the central head of God. It differs from 
the others in metre, and in being a single line and not a couplet : 

Cuncta simnl cerno toium racione guberno. 

I cannot help comparing with this the verse inscribed round the 
late thirteenth-century paten at Wyke in Hampshire : 
Cuncta creo virtute rego pietate refomno* 

The central device is the Agnus Dei, but it is obvious how 
appropriate the words would be with the head of God or the 
Vernicle which so often appears as the central device on patens, 
though, apparently, there is no surviving instance of its use at 
such an early date. Sir William Hope places the paten about 
1280, 3 so that it is more or less contemporary with the Leo- 
minster painting. I am inclined to suggest that its inscription, 
so unlike the ordinary legends on sacramental plate, was derived 
from some picture in which it was connected with a central 
head of God like those at Leominster and in the Arundel Psalter. 

The Kempley wheel, which is on a smaller scale than that at 
Leominster, need not detain us, as it shows only the framework 
of the design in red. The surfaces of the alternate medallions 
are also reddish, which can hardly be due to the accident of 
survival. The lower left-hand spandrel space is filled by a piece 
of scroll-work, also in red, suggestive of a relatively early date. 
The circles of the design have been accurately set out, but the 
red paint has been coarsely applied, not always following the 
setting-out lines, and looks as if it were due to a later repainting. 

It remains to say a few words about (1) the origin and analogies 
of this wheel design ; (2) the representations of the ages of life. 

1 Hieroglyphica (Basel, 1567), p. 348. 

2 Archaeological Journal, xliii (1880),, 154, pi. vii, 375. 

3 Ibid,, p. 375. 



56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

With regard to the medieval Wheel (Rota) designs we may 
distinguish : 

(a) The design made up of concentric circles. This, no doubt, 
goes back to ancient times, especially in the form of the Time or 
Year Wheels (twelfth century), in which the centre is occupied by 
a symbolical figure of the Year, Time, Day and Night, or the head 
of God ; while the surrounding zones show the four seasons, the 
winds, the months, the signs of the zodiac, etc., 1 with which we 
sometimes find combined, as in the Byzantine Manual, the ages 
of life. 2 Another form of the concentric circle design, divided 
into segments by spokes, was used didactically to show the con- 
nexion between a number of different ideas or formulas. Among 
the schematic designs which are such a feature of the Arundel 
Psalter there is a Rota (so described) with the head of God in the . 
centre, round which are set out, concentrically, the seven petitions 
of the Lord's prayer, the seven sacraments, the seven gifts of the 
spirit, the seven works of mercy, and so forth (fol. 129 b). 

(b) Quite different is the representation of an actual spoked 
wheel in the act of being turned by a large human figure standing 
by or behind it, while smaller symbolical figures are attached to 
the spokes or the circumference. The commonest form of this 
is the Wheel of Fortune (e. g. in Rochester Cathedral), but it is 
also found in connexion with the Seven Deadly Sins, and with the 
ages of life. 

(c) The design of the wheel of the Leominster type, with its 
radiating spokes ending in medallions, is distinct from these, but 
it does not stand alone. At Saint Denis 3 and at Chartres 4 are 
windows of the twelfth century in which just the same system of 
a central medallion, connected by radiating spokes with an outer 
circle of medallions, is used for the symbolism of the seven gifts 
of the Spirit. But the design was not confined to the representa- 
tion of the seven spirits, for in a twelfth-century embroidery at 
Cologne it is used (as a pendant to one of the Time Wheels 
referred to above) for the twelve signs of the zodiac radiating 
from a central medallion containing figures of the sun and moon 
(fig. 4). 5 The space to be filled happens to be a square, but 
that does not destroy the circularity of the design, which is 
very like that of the Leominster wheel. Here we get much 

1 F. X. Kraus, Geschichte der chriftt/ichen Kunst, ii, 414 sqq. 

2 Didron (Stokes), Christian Iconography, ii, 381. The words put into 
the mouth of the man in the last but one of the seven ages ' O Time, how 
thou hast deceived me ! ' recall vita me decepii of the Arundel and 
Leominster wheels, but this may he only a coincidence. 

* Michel, Histoire de Fart, vol. i, part ii, p. 785, fig. 419. 

* Didron, Annales archeologiques , i, 217 ; Christian Iconography (Stokes), 
i, 486. 

5 De Farcy, La Broderie, pi. 48, 1, and p. 11G. 




s s 

* g 



.5P 

li- 




I 



Jan. 22.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 57 

nearer to our Wheel of Life, for the analogy between the seasons 
and the ages of man is a commonplace. The design was, then, 
evidently used for subjects which were practically secular ; though 
in our case, as often with the Time Wheels, the introduction of 
the head of God in the centre imparts a religious element. 

It is difficult not to think that this design has some connexion 
with the earlier forms of the wheel window, which first appears 
in the latter half of the twelfth century. That the architectural 
form was applied to these circular designs is shown by the picture 
of a W r heel of Fortune in the sketch-book of the thirteenth- 
century architect, Wilars de Honecort, 1 where the figures of the 
seven kings are set in an actual rose window. Nor does it stand 
alone. In the Hortus Deliciarum of the twelfth-century abbess, 
Herrad von Landsperg, we see Philosophy surrounded by the 
Seven Liberal Arts set in a wheel window of contemporary 
design. 2 We are brought nearer to our design by a window of 
the type of that in St. James's, Bristol, where a central circle is 
surrounded by an outer range of circles. But here we miss one 
of the main features of our design, the connecting spokes which 
suggest the radiating shafts or short columns connected by arches, 
which are so important a feature of the earlier wheel windows. 
Where, as in the great west window of Chartres (about 1225), 
these shafts correspond with the centres of the outer series of 
circles, we get the essential elements of our design, especially if 
it be thought of, not in the terms of architectural draughts- 
manship, but in actuality, with each of the radiating shafts or 
spokes pointing, as it were, to its medallion picture in the glass. 
Following this line of ideas, we are taken, I think, a step nearer 
to the design of the Leominster wheel in the case of the early 
wheel window in the west front of Notre-Dame at Mantes, 
which Viollet-le-Duc 3 places in the last years of the twelfth 
century (fig. 5). Here, owing to the exigencies of construction, 
the spokes or shafts are brought into direct contact with the outer 
medallions or circles, which are formed partly by the reversed 
arch of the radiating arcade and partly by the iron framework 
within it. 

The subject of the representations of the Ages of Life has 
been dealt with in various books and periodicals, among which 
the first place must be given to Didron's treatise, La Vie humaiuc, 
in the first volume of i\\e Annales archeologiqucs (1844). About 
the same time as Mr. Waller's paper in the Gentlemarfs Maga- 
zine, referred to above, Archaeolog'ia (vol. xxxv (1853), p. 167) 

1 R. Willis, Facsimile of the Sketch-Book of Wilars de Honecort (London, 
8,59), pi. xli. 

2 C. M. Engelhardt, Herrad von Landsperg (Stuttgart, 1818). 

3 Diction n a ire raisonne de f architecture franfatie (Paris, 186(>), viii. .'38. 



58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

contained an important article on the Ages of Life (including a 
beautiful reproduction of the Arundel Psalter wheel) by Mr. 
John Winter Jones. In 1859 Dr. Gustav Heider collected a 
great deal of valuable material in an article Das Glucksrad in 
the Mittlieilungen of the Austro- Hungarian Central Commission. 1 
A paper by Karl Weinhold, Glilcksrad und Lebensrad, read 
before the Royal Academy of Berlin in 1892 2 also contains 
valuable suggestions ; and a good deal of information may be 
gained from the works of Kraus, Bergner, Piper, Wackernagel, 
and others, and especially from the recent Die Lebensalter by 
Franz Boll (Teubner, Leipzig, 1913. Reprinted from the Neue 
Jahrbiicherfiir das Idassische Altertum, vol. xxxi). 

The oldest literary evidence for the division of life into ten 
stages is an elegiac poem by Solon, preserved by Philo and 
Clement of Alexandria. 3 It depends, of course, on the number 
seven; there is no connexion between its descriptions and our 
pictures ; and its only interest for us is that it is the oldest 
example of the Ten Age system. Mr. Winter Jones quotes a 
Hebrew poem of the twelfth century giving the same division ; 
and as the influence of Jewish lore on the medieval writers and 
compilers is now recognized, it is not impossible that the system 
may have had a limited vogue in Western Europe about this 
time from some such source. While the Greek and Hebrew 
poems fairly divide the whole of life between their 'hebdomads 1 , 
in the wheel of the Arundel MS. the last two stages are 
superfluous, for the man is already dead. This reveals the 
defect of the system, and explains why it was never very popular. 
The number of stages is too large, and as symmetry compels the 
identification of the middle point with the prime of life, it is 
not easy to differentiate five periods of its decline. As a great 
decorative design it consequently went out of fashion ; and 
it is significant that in the Bodleian MS. Laud. 156, where 
a fifteenth-century scribe seems to have copied the schematic 
designs of Arundel 83, it is omitted. Nevertheless the Ten Ages 
had a certain popularity which we can trace in prints from the 
fifteenth century onwards in Germany, North Italy, France, and 
even England. Often the age is connected with the animal 
which was supposed to symbolize it, and generally (though not 
in the earliest examples) the figures are arranged on a sort of 
pyramid of steps, as in the seventeenth-century English picture 
illustrated in a recent volume of our Proceedings* 

With regard to this pyramid design Weinhold makes an 

^ iv (1859), 113. 
AbhaiKlluuyeii iler k. Ak<ul<>mh> dcr Wixxenschttften su Berlin, 189:>. 

3 Bergk, Poetae Lip-in 6' wed (4th ed.), ii, ol. " 

4 xxiv. 320. 



Jan. 22.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 59 

interesting comparison between it and the half-wheel of the 
south transept at Amiens, where the idea of the Wheel of Fortune 
is combined with that of the Wheel of Life; the ascending 
figures being all young and happy, the descending ones old and 
miserable. There are eight on each side with the king at the 
top, but in the earlier rose window of the north transept at 
Saint-Etienne, Beauvais, which similarly illustrates both Fortune 
and Life, the ascending and descending figures number ten. 
This upper half of a wheel with its ascending and descending 
figures might easily suggest the pyramid of steps ; but the idea 
is much older, as Weinhold shows by the passage in Aelian's 
Varia Historia (ii, 29), which says that the early Greek philo- 
sopher Pittacus set up in the temples at Mytilene ladders or 
steps to symbolize the ups and downs of human life. 

As to the sources or influences which may be traced in these 
pictures a few suggestions can be made here.* The first is the 
influence of astrology. Boll refers to the account in the Tetra- 
biblos of Claudius Ptolemaeus (second century A.D.) of the 
influence of the seven planets on the seven ages of life. 1 Taking 
into account the numerical difference of the systems, some of 
these can, I think, be traced in the Arundel Psalter pictures and 
verses. The first age is governed by the Moon, and the infant 
is 'described with its undeveloped mental powers and liquid 
nourishment, which recalls Mitts sum et humilis : lacte vivo 
puro. The second age belongs to Hermes and is marked by the 
beginnings of intelligence and knowledge, which agrees with our 
interpretation of the second scene. The third is dominated by 
Aphrodite, and is the age of puberty, therefore well illustrated 
by the third picture, in which, moreover, we may note that the 
looking-glass is one of the emblems of Venus. The fourth age, 
the prime of life, in this system is under the Sun, the king of the 
planets, when the man turns from amusements to the pursuit of 
honours and power, and our fifth figure illustrates this idea. 
The other pictures do not seem to have much connexion with 
the influences ascribed to the remaining planets, Mars, Jupiter, 
and Saturn. 2 

The second source is the Wheel of Fortune. Weinhold has 
shown how the Wheel of Fortune developed into the AVheel of 
Life/ 5 Perhaps the earliest picture we have is in the Hortus 
Deliciarum of Herrad von Landsperg (twelfth century), where, as 

1 Die Lebcnsalter, p. 33. 

2 The passages come from the Fourth Book (-rrfpl xp (tv <*> v ftiatpecreus) of 
the Tetmbiblots 3 for which ..until the appearance of a new edition in Teubner's 
Hibliotheca, reference must still he made to that, printed at Basel in 1553 
with the Latin version of Melaiichthon (pp. 241-5). 

3 Gliicksrad nnd Lebensrarl, p. 21. 



60 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

in Wilars de Honecorfs design, the figures on the wheel are all 
kings. The topmost speaks some Latin verses, one of which 
contains the rare word labilis, which occurs in the Arundel 
Psalter : 

Labllis ut ventus sic transit laeta iuventus. 1 
The changes of fortune were next illustrated by persons in 
various stations of life, but in all the Wheel of Fortune designs 
the king almost invariably maintains his position at the top of 
the wheel ; and I think that the king at the summit of our 
wheel and of other Wheels of Life must be connected with 
this. Another common feature of the Wheels of Fortune and 
Life is the representation of a corpse in a coffin on a grave at 
the opposite extremity the bottom of the wheel. It is notice- 
able that in our design the tomb occupies the same position. 

Owing to the analogy between human life and the course of 
the year, another* source which we might expect to have fur- 
nished suggestions is the pictorial system of the Calendars. The 
examples in Mr. James Fowler's well-known article on the 
Calendar pictures in Archaeologia, vol. xlv, provide one obvious 
instance the man going out hawking, frequently on horseback, 
which occurs most commonly in April, but also for May and 
June, all months connected with the springtime of life and 
youth. Hence it formed an obvious treatment for the medallion 
in the Wheel of Life devoted to Early Manhood." 

Mr. PUAETORIUS said the present deplorable state of the 
Leominster painting was due to the distemper covering. If 
that were removed, the white horse, for instance, might come 
to light in one of the upper medallions. Half the central medal- 
lion was clear, but the remainder should be cleaned. The 
painting was in the simplest style, only the light red earth and 
a second colour (probably madder root) being used, on a white 
ground. The second colour was a reddish brown, used for the 
scrolls ; and the lower part was better executed than the top. 
The figure of David, and especially the hand, were vigorously 
painted, and his robe was originally brilliant crimson. Above 
the harp were detected red lines suggesting the left hand ; and 
the lower sound-hole was well painted in purple and preserved. 
The roses were freely drawn, but the flowers had been painted 
a fugitive pink. The curious tomb in the lowest medallion had 
probably had a skeleton lying on it ; and there were still five 
medallions to be cleaned of distemper. 

REGINALD A. SMITH, Esq., F.S.A., read the following paper 
on four sculptures of the Viking period from Bibury, Gloucester- 
shire, now in the British Museum : 

1 G. Heider, Das Glucksrad, p. 114. 



Jan. 22.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 61 

"The greater part of southern England is practically devoid 
of Anglo-Saxon sculpture, and if the abundance of pre- 
Norman crosses in Cornwall is explained by the copious supply 
of raw material, it is difficult to see why Gloucestershire, for 
instance, should not have more relics of the period cut out of 
the local oolite. With the well-known exception at Gloucester, 
the later Anglo-Saxon period was not known to be represented 
in the county till several stone carvings came to light some years 
ago in the churchyard at Bibury, 4 miles north of Fairford, Q\ 
miles north-east of Cirencester, and 1 mile north of the Roman 
road known as Akeman Street. 

It is to the Hon. and Rev. Canon F. G. Dutton, Vicar of 
Bibury, that the British Museum owes a selection from these 
early sculptures, which lay near the surface in the angle between 
the tower and south wall of the nave. Some fragments of 
Norman date are still stored in the church, but the four most 
interesting pieces were presented last year and form the subject 
of this communication. 

The picturesque village is not easily accessible, and few visitors 
would have seen these relics even if space had been found for 
their exhibition locally ; hence it was felt that objects of such 
rare interest would be more fittingly housed with the national 
collection, which should not be wholly sacrificed to the very 
proper desire to see such monuments preserved in the neighbour- 
hood, if not on the spot, of their discovery. If logically carried 
out, such a policy would starve the national museums, and 
cancel the advantages they possess of a central situation and 
official prestige. 

The four sculptures have their own peculiarities, and two are 
of special interest as being examples of Viking rather than 
native art, but it will be convenient to deal first with the two 
that are of a more familiar type. 

The rectangular block here represented (fig. 1) is 32 in. 
long, 14 in. wide, and 10 in. thick, the back and three of the 
four sides being plain. These may or may not be in their original 
condition, but the block seems to have been at one time intended 
for use as a horizontal slab, the arcading on the side being then 
in its normal position. It seems too short and thick for a 
grave-slab, but the raised border does not cross the upper face 
at one end, and if the enclosed pattern of two carrick-bends l in 
relief is complete it is not symmetrical, so that there may have 
been an extension at one end. The row of dots within the 
raised edge is remarkable, and is also wanting at one end, the 
return being visible at the other. One need not look far for 

1 The late Mr. Romilly Allen unfortunately called this the figure-of- 
eight knot; which is different and made with a single cord. 



62 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

parallels, the carrick-bend being not at all uncommon, as for 
instance on two crosses in Cumberland the standing cross of 
St. Bees ( V. C. H. Cumberland, i, 262) and Waberthwaite cross 
(ibid,, facing p. 273). 

The dots are hemispherical, not flat like those used to fill up 
small spaces on many Viking sculptures, but there may be some 
relation between them. If, however, this monument is a stone 
copy of a wooden coffin, the domed studs might well represent 
the nail-heads that would naturally follow the border. Still 
more unusual is the arcading on the side, for which I have failed 
to find a parallel in this country. The pattern requires no 
further description, though the absence should be noted of any 




Fig. 1. RECUMBENT STONE, BIBURY, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

columns dividing the corresponding semicircles below. One is 
reminded of the hog-back gravestones, but the semicircles on 
them are turned the other way and occur in rows simulating the 
tiling of a roof. 

Though referred to the Viking period, this sculpture has no 
feature characteristic of Scandinavian art, and in fact is altogether 
different in style from two of the three following. It is, however, 
not easy to find a name for the style, which is in striking contrast 
to the floral scroll-work of the Anglian series and the figure- 
subjects of the Irish crosses, so that Saxon or Anglo-Saxon seems 
the only alternative; but there is at present nothing to furnish 
a more exact date than the Viking period. 

The next sculpture (fig. 2) is part of a slab 5 in. thick, 12^ in. 
to 12| in. wide, and originally about 28 in. long, the present 
extreme length being 18 in. The front is covered with a regular 
interlaced pattern of a single broad band terminating in 
a pointed tail at the right-hand bottom corner. 



Jan. 22.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUAH1KS 



63 



The pattern, which may be easily completed, is simple 
and indeed commonplace, but the tail warrants the conclusion 
that the other end took the form of a head, and the pattern 
must therefore rank as serpentine rather than pure interlacing. 




1'ia. -. .SJ.A1J WITH SNAKK-PATTKRN, BIJiLKY, (;LOUCKSTKRSHIRE. 

A pattern practically identical but wrongly set out, apparently 
with head and tail complete, occurs on one of the Maughold 
stones in the Isle of Man ; T swan-like heads are also seen on the 
lower block of Dolton font, Devon.' 2 The head and tail dis- 
tinguish the pattern from most of the interlaced sculptures, and 
point to Scandinavia, where the encircling band on a grave- 
stone, generally carrying the runes, normally takes a serpentine 

1 P. M. C. Kermode, Manx Crosses, no. 51, detail on p. 34, %. 22 (9). 
- JMiquary and Illustrated Archaeologist, viii (1902), 247. 



64 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1914, 



form. The broad plait on this Bibury stone much resembles 
that on the red shaft at Cross Canonby ( V. C. H. Cumberland, 
i, 273), and in the same county is an example of serpentine 
interlacing, on the cross already quoted at St. Bees. A still 
better-known example is the Gosforth standing cross. 

The remaining two stones belong to the same school or period, 
and may to a large extent be discussed together. They are 
quite unlike the majority of pre-Norman sculptures in Britain 
or Ireland, and the opportunity presents itself of bringing to- 
gether some at least of the same character found in this country, 
and of reproducing a few parallels from Scandinavia, the head- 
quarters of this peculiar art. Special attention has recently 





Fig. 3. DESIGNS OX TWO FACES OP SLAB, BIBIRY, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

been given to Scandinavian stone- work of the tenth and eleventh 
centuries by Dr. Haakon Schetelig of Bergen, whose work has 
been already referred to in connexion with the Winchester 
bronze panel, and the Whitcombe stones described last session ; 
and a more recent paper from his pen on the Scandinavian 
affinities of Manx sculpture was contributed to the volume pre- 
sented to Prof. Montelius of Stockholm, state-antiquary of 
Sweden, on his seventieth birthday. 

So far as it is purely geometrical, the smaller stone (fig. 3), 
which measures 12| in. to 13J in. in width, 14| in. in length, 
and 2 in. in thickness, may be placed in the Ringerike group, 
though one face is far more characteristic of that phase of 
Scandinavian art than the other. The intersecting segments 
have only a vague resemblance to the typical crossed bands seen 
on the other face ; and the absence of the conventional foliage 
(though this may have appeared on portions of the stone now 
missing) strengthens the suspicion that the two faces are not 
quite contemporary. Though parallels for the first design would 



Jan. 22.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 65 

be hard to find, it must be remembered that work of Ringed ke 
style is rare in England, and if the intersecting segments cannot 
be proved to be of that period, it would, on the other hand, be 
rash to attribute them to any other. 

The other face of this stone is easily recognized as belonging 
to the Ringerike series, which has been isolated by Dr. Schetelig 
and assigned, on unimpeachable evidence, to the first half of the 
eleventh century. It may here be repeated that Ringerike, the 
best-known centre for sculpture in this style, is in the Buskerud 
district of Norway ; but examples have been found elsewhere in 
Scandinavia and in England of a fashion that interrupted the 
traditional animal-ornament of the Teutons, and was apparently 
the outcome of intercourse with the East. During the preceding 
fifty years, perhaps longer, the prevailing style of decoration was 
that best illustrated on the Danish Jellinge stone (about 980), 
and about the time of our Norman Conquest the animal motive 
again prevailed in Scandinavia but is poorly represented, as the 
introduction of Christianity had meanwhile simplified monu- 
mental sculpture in Scandinavia, and reduced the amount of 
funeral furniture. 

A minute description of the ornament on the left face of 
the third stone and on the fourth stone (fig. 4) would be a 
difficult task, and is further unnecessary, as the completed rub- 
bings here reproduced are considerably more intelligible than 
the originals. The setting-out is faulty, and there is a free- 
hand look about the work that cannot indeed compare with 
contemporary Anglo-Saxon or Irish miniatures, 1 but has an 
interest of its own from the archaeological point of view. 
It now seems certain that the style was based on engraved 
pendants and other imports from beyond the Caspian, which 
are found from time to time with Cufic and other coins of 
the eleventh century. 2 Parallels from Cumberland for the 
Bibury stones have been already quoted, and it is instructive to 
note that analogies are also found in the Isle of Man, both these 
being districts strongly influenced by the Viking culture. 

The pellets that occur in single or double rows within the 
interlacing bands, and are also scattered over vacant spaces of 
the design, have been recognized as a Scandinavian feature ; and 
by way of illustration may be cited the Norse cross at St. Bees 
( V. C. H. Cumberland, i, 262), the stones at Desborough and 
Moulton ( V. C. H. Northants, ii, 193), and the panel in the 

1 A reminiscence of this style can perhaps be detected in the Psalter of 
Ricemarch, an Irish illuminated manuscript of the late eleventh century. 
See especially Bruun, Art of the Illuminated MSS. of the Middle Ages, pi. x, 
p. 82. 

2 Schetelig, Kunst-KuUiir, 1910, 38 ; Proceedings, xxiii/400. 

VOL. XXVI G 



66 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1914, 



outer wall of Wroxeter Church, Shropshire. The Isle of Man 
furnishes several examples illustrated by Mr. Kermode. 

Single rows of dots within plain narrow borders are frequent 
on Manx crosses, e.g. on Kirk Michael (no. 101) where the 
design of the upper limb of the cross recalls that of a bone disc 
from the City of London, in the national collection (Proceedings, 
2nd ser., iii, 225 ; V. C. H. London, i, 163, fig. 6 on plate). The 
latter has, however, the dots in several rows, resembling a coat 




Fig. 4. DESIGN OF VIKIXG GRAVESTONE^ BIBURY, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

of mail, on a contorted male figure, the attitude of which is 
quite in keeping with the period (about 1,000), the crucified 
figure on the Jellinge stone (about 980) and the Kirby Stephen 
figure being probably of the same school. Dots in two, three, 
and four rows are also used on the interlaced animals of the 
Kirk Braddan cross (no. 108), which is assigned by Dr. Schetelig 
to about 990 ; and both on the Cunigunda and St. Cordula 
caskets. 

The tapering bands that interlace at the crossing and are 
interrupted at other points by the leafy scrolls of the field are 
common to both these stones, but the larger stone has terminals 
at the base that may be regarded as the heads of monsters con- 



Jan. 22.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



67 




Fig. 5. STONE CARVING,, SOMERF01M> 



KEYNES. WILTS. 



fronted. Animal motives are generally absent from this class 
of monuments, but the best-known example in England (the 
gravestone from St. Paul's Churchyard, in the Guildhall Museum ) 
has a stag- like creature as its central feature, and somewhat 
similar heads are seen on the fragment from Somerford Keynes 
Wilts, (fig. 5). 

The claw-like projections fill- 
ing the lower angles of the 
Bibury stone must on this view 
be regarded as crests or combs ; 
there is a conspicuous tooth in 
both lower jaws (something like 
those of the animals flanking 
fig. 9) closely allied to the pair on 
the right face of the Gloucester 
cross, 1 and a scroll or lappet 
passing in front of either eye 
and meeting below the chin. 2 
There is, however, normally a 
spiral and lappet on either side 
of the base of these tapering 
bands, as on the Vang stone and 
Winchester panel (Proceedings, xxiii, 402 and 398), and it may 
be that the scrolls belong to the original design and the animal 
heads were an afterthought. The triple hooks on the back of 
the head appear in embryo on the London bone disc already 
mentioned, and are used with a sparing hand on the Winchester 
panel. The feet of the Teutonic decorative animal and the 
foliage adapted from Carlo vingian art sometimes take this form, 
but the oriental bronze pendant from Varby, Sweden, figured in 
Proceedings, xxiii, 400, furnishes a more plausible explanation, 
especially as it also exemplifies the joined S scrolls of the Bibury 
stone and something very like the union knot. The latter is 
a fusiform member with forked base, here springing from the 
axils of the scrolls and not placed as usual in the centre of the 
top as a kind of keystone, as on the Winchester panel and the 
bronze panel from the Thames at Hammersmith (Proceedings^ 
xxiii, 400). 

The termination of the scroll-work in two human heads is a 
feature of special interest and novelty. The same moustaches 
are worn by the soldiers seizing Christ on the cross of Muiredach 
at Monasterboice, Co. Louth, 3 and something similar but still 

1 Trans. Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Soc., xiii, 122, pi. vi. 

2 Cf. design 011 tortoise-brooch, 8th century: Moiitelius, Ofversigt ofwr 
den nordiska Forntidens perioder 30, fig. 39. 

s Outline drawing of panel in R. Allen's Early Christian Symbolism, 201. 

G 2 



68 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1914, 



more grotesque is seen on three runic stones in Denmark, all of 
the Ringerike style : the great Aarhus stone known as Aarhus II, 
date about 1000 (fig. 6) ; the Sjoelle stone, west of Aarhus ; and 
the Skjern stone (fig. 7), west of Randers, 1 the head on which is 
practically identical with that on the Lundagaard stone in 
Scania. 

There are enough examples in England to show that the 
Ringerike style took root here, most of ours being stone monu- 
ments that were no doubt made on the spot and not imported 





Fig. 6. MASK PROM GRAVESTONE, 
AARHUS, DENMARK. 



Fig. 7. MASK FROM GRAVESTONE, 
SKJERN, DENMARK. 



ready-made. There may be more specimens awaiting recognition 
in the districts specially affected by the Vikings, but one would 
hardly have expected such work in Gloucestershire, though Canon 
Button informs me that Bibury has its Danish traditions. It can 
hardly have been more than a passing phase in England, and it 
may well be that the animal motive was not wholly abandoned. 
There are several monuments that show a close connexion with 
the Jellinge series, but must be regarded as debased examples, 
produced perhaps in the half- century that separated the Jellinge 
style from that named after Urnes in Norway. Dr. Schetelig 
takes this view of several Manx stones. 2 the numbers in 

1 Both figured in P. G. Thorsen's De Danske Runemindesmairker, nos. 
29, 48, 22 ; see also L. F. A. Wimmer, De Danske Runemindesmcerker , 
vol. i, pt. 2, pp. 126, 139; and vol. ii, p. 171. The Swedish stone is 
vol. iii, p. 132. 2 Oscuri Montelio, 401. 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 




Fig. 8. STONE CABVINCJj RAMSEY 

(MAUGHOLD), ISLE OF MAN. 



Fig 1 , i). STONE CROSS, KIRK .MICHAEL 
ISLE OF MAN. 



70 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1914, 



Mr. Kermode's book being 82 (Maughold), 89 and 90 (Michael), 
96 (Ramsey), perhaps 104 (Michael) and 113 (Conchan), and the 
later school of Gaut (77, Ballaugh, and 110, Braddan). Two of 
the above list are reproduced here (figs. 8, 9), and others that 
seem to be late examples of the Jellinge style are also given in 
outline (figs. 10, 11, 12), as they have been discovered in counties 





Fig. 10. 



CROSS-SHAFT; 
WILTS. 



RAMSBURY, 



Fig. 11. CROSS-SHAFT^ RAMSBURY, 
WILTS. 






bordering on Gloucestershire and therefore presumably on the 
same artistic level. 

The carvings represented by figs. 10 and 11 are two faces of 
the cross-shaft known as Ramsbury A, 1 and though contem- 
porary portray the head of the lacertine animal from different 
points of view, a point of some importance in the study of 
this peculiar art. Fig. 10 is more true to type, but the inter- 
lacing shows in both cases a certain decadence ; and the 
Ramsbury shaft, as well as that at West Camel, Som. (fig. 12), 2 

1 Wilts. Arch. Mag., xxvii, 64. 

2 Poole, Old Crosses of Somerset, 157. 



Jan. 22.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



may be provisionally assigned to the close of the Jellinge period, 
or the opening years of the eleventh century. 

Perhaps the most typical example of the Jellinge style in 
England is the scabbard-chape found aiYork(Proceeding's t xzii 9 6). 
The carving found at Rowberrow, Som., 1 seems to be a later 
specimen, and about the same date is the elaborate Gloucester 
stone, 2 especially the front and left side, where the animal is 
represented in top and side views. Examples of the Ringerike 
style are considerably rarer in England, and the following is 
a provisional list, those already mentioned being here repeated 
to make it as complete as possible : 





Fig. 12. CROSS-SHAFT, WEST CAMEL,, 
SOMERSET. 



Fig. 13. ENGRAVED BRON/E PLATE 
BRITISH MUSEUM (j). 



London, St. Paul's Churchyard, gravestone now in the Guild- 
hall Museum, and two fragments of another in the British 
Museum, probably from the same spot ; both figured in 
V. C. H. London, "i, 168. 

Bibury, Gloucs., two gravestones, figs. 3, 4. 

Berks, (probably), engraved bronze plate in British Museum, 
with traces of gilding (fig. 13). 

Winchester, Hants, bronze panel, figured in Proceedings, xxiii, 
398. 

London, Thames at Hammersmith, bronze model tombstone, 
figured in Proceedings, xxiii, 400. 

London, bone comb in British Museum, figured in V. C. H. 
London, i, 164 (Roach Smith collection). 

London, St. MartinVle-Grand, bone cylinder in Guildhall 
Museum, figured in V. C. H. London, i, 169. 

1 Francis Bond, Fonts and Font-covers, 103. 

2 Tram. Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Soc., xiii, 118 ; Builder. 1888, pp. 196 
(plate), 218, 234, 253. 



72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [ 1914 > 

Dolton, Devon, upper block of font ; Bond, Fonts and Font 
Covers, 102, 103; Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeo- 
logist, viii (1902), 251. 

Somerford Keynes, Wilts., stone fragment, fig. 5, from Wilt*. 
Arch. Mag., xxvii, 65 ; details in Reliquary and Illustrated 
Archaeologist, 1893, 49. 

H. CLIFFORD SMITH, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., exhibited a profile 
portrait of Christ, temp. James I, in oils on a circular oak panel. 
Diameter 6f in. The background of the portrait is in gold. The 
inscription in cursive hand in white on black is as follows : 

This present fyguer is The symilitude of Our Sauiour Christ 
Jesu Imprinted in Emeralde by The predecessors of the . Greet 
Turke and sente To pope Innocente The viii At the coste 
of the Great Turke For A token of y 8 cause Beinge as A 
Ransom To Redeeme his Brother Maximilian The Greate which 
was taken Prisoner. 

Similar paintings with various garbled inscriptions stating the 
portrait to be a copy of the emerald asserted to be preserved in 
the Treasury of the Vatican are known, and there are references 
to several such by Mr. Albert Way in the ArchaeologicalJournal, 
vol. xxix, p. 110. Engravings of the same character are more 
commonly met with. The discovery of this further example is 
worthy of record. 

Mr. G. F. HILL remarked that the profile bust of Christ was 
derived from an Italian medal made in or soon after 1492, on 
the reverse of which was an inscription claiming that the bust 
was a reproduction of one on an emerald sent by Bajazet II to 
Innocent VIII, in order that the Pope might retain Bajazet's 
brother Djem in captivity. This legend was reproduced in all 
essentials in the English inscription on the panel. The type of 
bust, however, was not of Byzantine origin, but went back to 
a Flemish original, and might be seen in the panel of the school 
of the Van Eycks in the Berlin Gallery. The type was very 
popular in the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and was re- 
produced in innumerable forms (medals, reliefs, woodcuts, etc.). 1 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications 
and exhibition. 

1 See G. F. Hill, Medallic Portraits of Christ, in the Reliquary and 
Illustrated Archaeologist, 1904, pp. 173-93. 



Jan. 29.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 73 

THURSDAY, 29th JANUARY, 1914. 

Sir CHARLES HERCULES READ, Knt., LL.U., President, 

in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From Ralph Griffin, Esq., F.S.A.: 

1. The Church and Fortress of Dover Castle. By Rev. John Puckle. 

8vo. Oxford and London, 1804. 
1. Le Psautier de Peterborough. Par J. van den Gheyn. fol. 

Haarlem, n. d. 
">. Vestiges of Antiquity, or, a series of etchings and engravings of the 

ancient monastery of St. Augustine, etc., in Canterbury. By 

T. Hastings, fol. London, 1813. 

From AV. de C. Prideaux, Esq. :- Sutcombe Church and its Builders. By 
Edith K. Prideaux. 8vo. Exeter, 1913. 

The following were admitted fellows : 
William Alexander Cater, Esq. 
Major Algernon Tudor Craig. 
Henry Oppenheimer, Esq. 

On the nomination of the President, the following were 
appointed auditors of the Society's accounts for the past year : 

Harold Sands, Esq. 
Horace Wilmer, Esq. 
Francis William Pixley, Esq. 
Cecil Arthur Tennant, Esq. 

The Reverend H. G. O. KENDALL, M.A., F.S.A., read the 
following paper on ' Flint Implements from the surface near 
Avebury : their classification and dates '. 

" The district from which come the flint implements forming 
the subject of this paper has Avebury for its centre. Within 
its area are some unique prehistoric monuments, such as Silbury 
Hill, the largest artificial mound in Europe ; and Wansdyke, 
running for miles along the shoulders of the hills. There are 
also barrows, both long and round, the latter very numerous ; 
cromlechs, camps, enclosures, terraces, etc. 

The implements have been turned up by the plough, and 
picked up on the surface of the ground. On the red and yellow 
clays, on the top of the highest downs, as well as on the Lower 
Chalk plateau, many tools of ' eolithic ' facies occur, with their 
chipped surfaces stained green or yellow. With them, and of 
equal or greater antiquity, are definitely flaked palaeoliths. 
These older groups, belonging to a different age, require a paper 
to themselves, and will not be treated of on the present occasion. 



74 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1914, 



The best-known site for the later, unstained flints with white, 
blue, or black patination is Windmill Hill, one mile from 
Avebury. The top of the hill is surmounted by a camp. Within 
its boundaries are four round barrows, and many others are 
scattered about the sides and foot of the hill. 

An immense number of chipped flints has been found on this 
site. Dr. Blackmore remarks that, in a collection formed many 
years ago, 'fabricators' were specially numerous (fig. 1). The 
writer has found several dozens of these instruments, varying 
from the very finest to quite coarse specimens. Arrow-heads of 
various types are numerous, and ' horseshoe ' scrapers specially so. 
On each of two favourable days within the same week, fifty-five 





r lg. . LONG SCRAPER WITH PARALLEL 
FABRICATOR, WINDMILL BAKING AND WHITE PATINA, WINDMILL 

HILL (4). HILL ($) 1T HESEMBLES SPECIMENS OF 

THE CAVE DIVISION, PALAEO. AGE, FROM 



good specimens were picked up. and the varieties are numerous 
mid interesting. 

Mr. Reginald Smith was the first to point out the extraordi- 
nary likeness between the Windmill Hill flints and those of the 
Aurignac stage of the Cave Division of the Palaeolithic Age. 
This extends not only to similarity of type but also of style, the 
long, narrow fluting being noticeable on many specimens! 

Seven selected from this group form perfect replicas of those 
illustrated on p. 217 of Prof. Sollas's Ancient Hunters. There is 
the carinated scraper, of which several exactly similar specimens 
have come to hand ; the knob-headed scraper, both with large 
and with small scraping end ; the narrow form of tool which 
links the keeled scraper with the beaked burin or graver; the 
beaked graver itself; and a broad plane with a high back. 

A considerable number of long scrapers on blades occur (fig. 2). 
Most of them have the oldest patina, a thick white. The flak- 



Jan. 29.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



ing on the outer face is clean, tending to parallelism. 

portion of long scrapers in the later 

periods is perhaps rather less. In any 

case, those of later date do not so often 

show the cave style of flaking. It must 

be remembered, however, that the shorter 

horseshoe scrapers (fig. 3) are much more 

numerous than the long form in all the 

periods, including the earliest. Attention 

should be drawn, in passing, to the tool 

figured as fig. 4. It lies between a long 

scraper and a fabricator. The round end 

is rubbed smooth. Rubbed ends, edges, 

etc., are frequently found on scrapers, 

flakes, etc., in this district. Sometimes 

very fine edges have been rubbed. 



The pro- 




Fig. 3. ' HORSESHOE ' 
SCRAPER, WHITE PATINA, 
COMPARATIVELY COARSE 
CHIPPING. WINDMILL HILL 
(I). 





IMPLEMENT FROM WINDMILL 
HILL . 



Fig. 5. GRAVER-LIKE TOOL, SLICED 
AFTER THE MANNER OF THE FRENCH 
BL'RIN. WINDMILL HILL (f ). 



Small planes for holding in the fingers are frequently found. 
The planing end varies from broad to narrow. Some specimens, 
again, are steep-ended and others acute-edged. 

Several dozens of graver-like tools have been picked up by the 
writer (fig. 5). Generally, though not always, they seem to 
belong to the oldest group. In some cases they have been sliced 
down one edge, after the traditional manner of French Cave burins. 
They are of several forms : triangular, long and narrow, and beak- 
shaped, and are seldom as clean and regular in their flaking as 
French specimens. 1 This may be due to the badness, and possibly 

1 A graver found by the writer] at Wangford, Suffolk, should be men- 
tioned. It is a perfect likeness of some gravers of the Madeleine period 
and is of a dark brown colour. 



76 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1914. 



also the abundance of the flint in North Wiltshire, whereas in 
South France the material would be more carefully used. The flint 
of this neighbourhood is not only of poor quality, but, as a rule, the 
blocks are small. The general run of the chipped flints, there- 
fore, is also small at Windmill Hill. An attempt seems to have 
been made to form graving-tools of the basal ends of three or 
four scrapers, which are retouched along the edges, after the 
manner of some Cave scrapers. 

There are some remarkable likenesses between chipped flints 
from Windmill Hill and specimens from France of the Solutre 
period. A blade with a curved edge and a blue-white patina is 




Fig. 0. ' LAUREL-LEAF ' IMPLEMENT. WINDMILL HILL (3). 

a replica, almost chip for chip, of one from Laugerie Haute. 
Another variety, which is shorter and has a truncated base, is 
similarly duplicated by a specimen from the Grotte de Roche- 
berthier, le Placard. Some implements of laurel-leaf type (fig. 6) 
resemble the French specimens, and, like them, many are broken. 
It is noticeable that out of a series of some two dozen broken 
pieces from Windmill Hill, only two are points, and the re- 
mainder are bases. This fact, coupled with the nature of their 
edges, suggests that some were purposely made as they are now 
found and were used as cutting tools, the middle fracture serving 
as a rest for the forefinger. Others, however, are no doubt 
fragments of once complete laurel-leaf implements. A large 
number of small flakes closely resemble Le Moustier ' points ' 
in outline. Some have untouched edges, whilst others have 
been retouched, on one face only, and made into well- shaped 



Jan. 29.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



77 



knives (fig. 7). There are also some larger knives with coarser 
retouches, i.e. edge-chipping. 

So far, the flints from Windmill Hill alone have been con- 
sidered. But there are other sites in the neighbourhood which 
are of great interest. These may be divided into four classes : 

1. The tops of the highest downs and of a few of the lower 
hills are covered with patches and pockets of red and yellow 
clay, together with a thin flint drift. The chipped flints on these 
sites (other than the much older stained specimens) are either 
sharp and of unchanged black or grey flint, or else have their 
ridges slightly dulled and are of a colour which may be described, 





Fig. 7. KNIFE WITH COARSE KKTO17CHE*. WIXDM1LL HILL (ft). 

generally, as dark blue. Very occasionally a white specimen is 
found. The characteristic types from these horizons include 
'cores 1 or, as some prefer to call them, ' cones ' and ' prisms ', tend- 
ing to regularity of shape, and bearing long, narrow facets with 
a tendency to parallelism. There are many horseshoe scrapers, 
a small proportion of fine thumb-scrapers ; and a few arrow- 
heads, barbed, as well as leaf-shaped, etc. The only specimens 
of pygmy implements (in the technical sense of the term) which 
have come to hand in ten years were found on one of these sites, 
viz. Hackpen Hill. The field in question is the best site for 
cones and prisms, and for fine, narrow flakes. The pygmies are 
all sharp and of unchanged flint. 

2. Below the foregoing positions come the chalk hill-sites, 
such as the face of the escarpments and the highest part of 
Windmill Hill. These are frequently covered with about 6 in. 



78 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1914, 




of black soil. The majority of the chipped flints show white 
or blue-white patinas. 

Some of the characteristic implements and 
tools have been already mentioned. There 
are also arrowheads, which on Windmill Hill 
occur in a great variety of types. 'Lumps'*, or 
small blocks chipped all over, sometimes show 
the familiar triangular section and have three 
chopping edges. They shade off into rude 
hand-celts and the * tea-cosy ' type of cutting 
tool. The identity of these and other tools 
from Windmill Hill, and similar sites in 
North Wilts, with types from Cissbury and 
Grime's Graves is manifest. Dozens of 
pieces of broken-up polished celts have been 
found (Hg. 8). There is also a considerable 
number of small ovate implements (fig. 9). 

3. On the footslopes of the downs there 
is sometimes to be seen a pale, tawny soil, 
or wash, as it may be termed. 

A few white chipped flints are picked up 
on these sites, but a large proportion have 
a patina that may be termed light blue. 
To this group belongs an implement of River- 
drift type, picked up by Mr. Cunnington, 
jun., in Clatford Bottom, north of the Bath 
road (fig. 10). A large proportion of imple- 
ments from the surface, described by collec- 
tors as of palaeolithic type, only resemble 
River-drift palaeoliths in outline and general shape, not in style 
of workmanship. The specimen under consideration is, how- 
ever, remarkably like a River-drift implement in both those 
respects. The light-blue flints frequently exhibit a quantity of 
dark orange blotches of iron stain, that are manifestly ancient^ 
for they have, in some instances, been partially removed by re- 
chipping in a later prehistoric (at latest Romano-British) period. 
The light-blue tools are sometimes much striated. The 
striations and small white lines bear a close resemblance to those 
abundant on palaeoliths from Knowle Farm Pit and Hackpen 
Hill. Striations are formed, also, on the tools with a thick white 
patina. The white marks on the group under consideration 
sometimes cross the iron stains. A certain proportion of narrow 
lines of iron stain may be modern. 

The flakes are almost always thick, clumsy, and irregular. 
Comparatively shapeless lumps abound, and there are a few finer 
implements. 



Fig. 8. CELT-LIKE 

TOOL, WITH ENDS 
RUBBED AND SMOOTH- 
ED AS WELL AS THE 
SIDES. WINDMILL HILL 

(if)- 



Jail. 29.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



70 



4. The valley bottoms that form the fourth group of sites lie 
at heights of more than 400 ft. or 500 ft. above O. D., though 
they are more than 300 ft. or 400 ft. below the highest downs. 




Fig. i). SMALL OVATE IMPLEMENT, WHITE PATINA. WIMXMILL HILL (3). 




Fig. 10. IMPLEMENT FKOM CLATFORD BOTTOM (^). 

The top of Hackpen Hill is 875 ft. above O. D., and Milk Hill 
is but little short of 1,000 ft. 

The valleys frequently contain a dark red clayey deposit, with 
a large number of naturally fractured flints having a blue patina 
and but slight traces of wear. A section, at the foot of Monkton 
Down, revealed a large sarsen entirely enclosed by the clayey 
deposit in a bowl-shaped hollow of the chalk. It was too big to 
have been water-borne. 

The chipped flints of the valley bottoms bear a strong resem- 
blance in colour to those of the high hill-tops. There is this 



80 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

difference, however, that whilst a highly lustrous and much 
striated specimen may occasionally be found on the upper level, 
they are numerous below. Lustre and striation, as in other 
instances, seem to go together, and also to occur most commonly 
in low positions. 

The classification and dating of the chipped flints are most 
difficult, but the attempt may be made by one well acquainted 
with the ground. It is not pretended that every flint can be put 
into its proper place, but that the evidence shows the existence 
of four or five periods. Patina is of considerable value in making 
comparisons within a given district, but is not claimed as an 
absolute criterion of age. 

There are various puzzling anomalies to be discussed, e. g. some 
tools may be decayed and white, and others, of the same period, 
unchanged ; or a majority may be white on both faces, whilst 
a few are white on one face and black on the other. 

The fact is, that while the majority of flints belonging to 
a given period may have had a normal history, the circumstances 
of a smaller number may have been abnormal ; e.g. most flints of 
one period of the Bronze Age may have been exposed under con- 
ditions which induced decay, and now have a blue- white patina. 
A beautifully chipped knife, on the other hand, had been placed, 
with a Bronze Age burial at Winterbourne Monk ton, under 
a large sarsen, and was covered, in addition, by a foot or more 
of black soil. It was, therefore, well protected, and is sharp and 
unchanged to this day. 1 It is these flints with abnormal histories 
that make the task of classification so difficult. 

Tools with multiple patination facilitate the comparative 
dating of the chipped flints of a neighbourhood. There are 
specimens from the surface in the writer's collection from Herts., 
Suffolk, etc., with the following history. At some ancient period 
a block of flint has been chosen, chipped into shape and eventu- 
ally lost, or left by its owner on the ground. During a period 
of time, perhaps a long one, the flint lay on or near the surface 
of the ground, subject to conditions which caused the decay of 
its faces. The exterior of the stone was affected to an appreci- 
able depth, and the facets turned to a blue- white colour. Eventu- 
ally, the flint was picked up by a man of a later period, and was 
by him rechipped for his own purposes. The rechipping 
removed part, but not all, of the older blue- white facets, the line 
of demarcation between these and the newer chippings being 
perfectly distinct. Again the tool was abandoned, and once 
more it underwent decay. Either the conditions inducing decay 
were on this occasion not so strong, or the time during which 
the stone lay exposed was shorter. At any rate, the exterior of 
1 The specimen is in the Devizes Museum. 



Jan. 29.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 81 

the flint was affected but slightly, and the black flint, showing 
through the thin film of decay, gives a blue colour to these 
facets, quite distinct from the blue-white of the original chipping. 
Once more was the tool found and re-chipped, and once more it 
lay on the ground, or just under the soil, when done with ; and 
though, at the least, some two thousand years have passed by 
since its final abandonment, no change has taken place on its 
surface, save that the latter is now smooth and lustrous ; whereas, 
when freshly chipped, it was dull and rough. The stone shows, 
ultimately, three different patinations : the blue-white facets 
(partially removed by the blue) ; the blue (which have been 
broken into and to some extent replaced by the black) ; and, 
lastly, the black, which have remained untouched to this day. 
Here is irrefragable evidence of at least three periods, apparently 
of considerable length, in one district. Whilst it is admitted 
that some specimens are puzzling and difficult to place, yet a pro- 
longed study of one district makes it evident that a large number 
of specimens with a normal history can be assigned to one or other 
of the periods represented on the tool with multiple patination. 

The examination of a considerable number of the latter, and 
comparisons with great quantities of tools having a single patina, 
result in the determination of at least five periods among the 
surface implements of North Wilts., as follows, the sequence 
dates being given by numbers : 

110. Chipped flints with a thick white patina, the re-chippings 
of a later period showing blue-white. 

120. The blue- white ; re-chippings light blue. 

130. The light blue ; re-chippings (quite distinct) showing 
dark blue. 

140. The dark blue ; with black re-chippings. 

150. The black or grey ; unchanged in colour, but lustrous. 

To periods nos. 110 and 120 belong the majority of the Wind- 
mill Hill flints. Those of period 130 are found on the foot-hill 
sites ; 140 and 150 on the tops of the downs. Perhaps the valley 
flints belong to these two last periods. 

Thick white patina and comparatively coarse chipping are 
found associated. The work on the blue-whites is usually finer. 
Truncated prisms of regular shape are rare in those periods, 
whilst ' lumps ' are numerous. None of the former has, as yet, 
been found in period 130 at all. Cones (figs. 11, 12) are less 
numerous and less regular in outline (often retaining a portion 
of the crust of the flint) in 110 and 120 than in 140 and 150. 
There is a certain proportion of long, narrow flakes in 110 and 
120. They are rare or absent in 130. Regular, truncated 
prisms and cones are numerous in 140 and 150. 6 Pygmies \ 
which have been found only in period 150 in North Wilts., and 

VOL. xxvi H 



82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914' 

then in small quantity, have also been found by the writer, in 
association with prisms and cones, at Dozmare Pool and Booby 
Bay, Cornwall, and at Wangford in Suffolk. The cones and 
prisms occur in Hertfordshire, in the Lea Valley, and on various 

sites abroad. 

It is evident that the re-chipped polished celts with white 
patination are among the oldest of the surface flints of the 




Fig. 11. UNALTERED CONE OF BLACK FLINT, WITH NARROW, PARALLEL 
FLAKING. ELCOT, MARLBOROUGH (f ). 




Fig. 12. CONE WITH BROAD, FLAT FLAKING. PERIOD 110. THE OUT- 
LINE IS USUALLY LESS REGULAR THAN IN PERIODS 140 AND 150. WINDMILL 
HILL (I). 

neighbourhood. Re-chippings make it absolutely certain that 
the white patina is the oldest. Not only is the polished surface 
of the broken celts white, but the facets formed on them by re- 
chipping are white also. 

If, therefore, any of the surface flints of this neighbourhood 
are to be assigned to one of the periods of the Cave division 
of the Palaeolithic Age, these polished celts must certainly be 
included. 

A sequence of five periods among the surface flints round 
Avebury has thus been made out, as the result of ten years' 
study. Can an actual date be given to any of these periods ? 

a. Certain very finely chipped tools from the black soil on the 
tops of the round barrows have a dark blue patina, and bear 
other resemblances to the flints of periods 140 and 150 from the 
high hill-tops. 

b. Two late Celtic pits, of beehive shape, were discovered at 
the foot of Winterbourne Monkton Down, in the making of 



Jan. 29.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 83 

a reservoir, during 1913, and another on Wadon Hill. 1 Flint 
flakes, scrapers, and cones were dug out of these pits, and out 
of one of them fragments of pottery. Some of these were fitted 
together again, and formed two cooking pots. In the same pit 
was a small earthenware crucible for melting bronze, of which 
metal traces were seen. ' A considerable number of similar 
small crucibles were found in the Glastonbury Lake Village, and 
are fully described and illustrated in The Glastonbury Lake 
Village, vol. i, pp. 300-9, where a list is given of crucibles 
found elsewhere. Most of these are of the Late Celtic period, 
to which also no doubt the Monk ton Pits belonged. General 
Pitt-Rivers found a single example in each of the Romano- 
British villages of Rotherley and Woodcuts.' 2 

The flint tools are sharp, the patina dark blue and sometimes 
grey. It is evident that they were made by the occupants or 
users of the pits. Other chipped flints, dug out near by, im- 
mediately above the chalk and beneath some six inches of blackish 
humus, are also sharp. The blue colour of their facets is less dark 
than on those from the pits. 

c. Beneath a pale tawny wash, varying from one to two feet 
in depth, flint flakes, etc., similar to the last-named, have been 
taken out by the writer in situ, together with pottery which has 
been pronounced to be as late as the Roman period. 

d. There has been a recent find of a quantity of flint flakes, 
scrapers, cones, prisms, and some finer implements near the Marl- 
borough Sewage Works, at Elcot, in the same field where the 
Marlborough bucket was found. Pottery and bronze relics were 
dug out, according to Mr. Joshua Brooke, of Marlborough, at 
about the same depth as the flints, the bronze articles being of 
undoubted Late Celtic character. The stratum in which the 
articles were found lies beneath 1 ft. or more of humus, and imme- 
diately overlies gravelly clay from which it is quite distinct. It 
is traceable by a line of small natural flints, which occur with 
the chipped specimens. Mr. Brooke possesses a large triangular 
arrow-head and a 'fish-throttle' from this site. The chipped 
flints are identical with those from Hackpen Hill and, like them, 
are of two periods. The older specimens have a dark blue patina. 
The clearly defined re-chippings of the later period are unchanged 
black or grey. The tools of the older period agree in condition 
and style with the specimens from the Late Celtic pits. 

The evidence, given under , >, c, and d goes to show that all 
the chipped flints thereunder described having the older of the 

1 Stukeley calls it Weedon Hill. 

2 Rev. E. H. Goddard, Wilts. Arch, and Nat. Hls-t. Mag., vol. xxxviii, 
June, 1913. Mrs. Cunningtou also considers that all the indications point 
to a Late Celtic age for these pits. 



84 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

two patinas (usually dark blue) belong to the Late Celtic Period. 
This being so, the later, unchanged specimens must be Romano- 
British. The Late Celtic flints would be on or very near to the 
surface when Roman and Briton settled down together in the 
neighbourhood. The Romano-Britons frequently re-chipped and 
re- used the earlier tools, and it is evident that there would be 
considerable mingling by the time that the site was deserted. 

If Late Celtic specimens be taken as a basis, the question arises 
whether any of the earlier groups can also be dated. 

The elaborately barbed and delicately chipped arrow-head 
(fig. 13), has the blue-white patina belonging to period 120. 
Arrow-heads of this type have been found in the closest asso- 
ciation with burials of the Bronze Age, and not, so far as is 




lg. 13. ARROW-HEAD. WINDMILL HILL (). 

known, with interments in Long Barrows. This points to the 
finely made tools of this character being of the Bronze Age. 
The light blue group, of sequence-date 130, being later than 
these, yet earlier than the Late Celtic specimens, must therefore 
be ascribed to a later period of the Bronze Age. 

There still remains the industry numbered 110 to be dealt 
with. It contains the oldest specimens, with a thick white patina. 
The probability that white polished celts belong to this period 
has been already mentioned. It is tempting to round off these 
efforts at dating flint implements from the surface, by assigning 
these earliest specimens io the Neolithic Age. But in deference 
to the persistent investigations which Mr. Reginald Smith has 
instituted and is making, and the remarkable resemblances to 
French Cave types, the writer refrains from definitely dating 
period 110 until further light is thrown on the subject. 

Flints from one or other of the groups described in this paper 
must eventually be assigned to the Neolithic Age. But it must 
be remembered that five is the least number of periods that the 
evidence seems to warrant, and it is possible that among the 
older specimens subdivisions may yet have to be made. 

N.B. It is suggested that the stereotyping of the following 
nomenclature would conduce to clearness and prevent confusion : 
Pre-Crag, Palaeolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron Ages. 






Jan. 29.] soriKTY <>F ANTIQUARIES 85 

Plateau (hitherto known as ' Eolithic '), River Drift, and Cave 
Divisions of the Palaeolithic Age. Sub-divisions of these 
Divisions (e. g. Chelles, Solutre, etc.) should be spoken of as 
Periods. 

Any sub- division of the other Ages should be into Periods, as 
e. g. Iron Age, La Tene Period I, La Tene Period II, etc. This 
system has been adhered to in the foregoing paper/ 1 

Mr. REGINALD SMITH remarked that the tendency in Scandinavia 
was to reduce the length of the Stone Age, but it was surprising 
to find a flint industry in the Late Celtic period. In spite of the 
occasional chipping of flint in Merovingian times, it seemed to 
him that proof was wanted of the true association of patinated 
flints and British pottery, in view of the abundance of flint chips 
in the soil of the district. He instanced the discovery of flint 
scrapers and other forms in the material of round barrows, the 
earth having been scooped up from outside the circumference, 
and older surfaces being possibly reached in the process. Thus 
the Saxon barrow at Taplow contained flint flakes at the top and 
later remains in descending order, exactly the reverse of their 
original position in the soil. It was difficult to imagine blue 
patina produced in the comparatively short space of two thousand 
years ; and the frequency of patinated flints in and round the 
barrows might be explained by the disturbance of the soil in the 
Bronze Age. Discoveries of various kind were bound to occur 
where the land is bared to a certain depth over a large area, as 
in the ironstone region. Prehistoric classifications were based 
not so much on resemblances but on groups of resemblances, and 
several forms from Windmill Hill seemed to him to correspond 
closely with Cave period flints in France from one particular 
horizon. The latter were accurately and finally dated, and it was 
allowable to assign the British specimens to the same period if 
there was no good evidence to the contrary. Palaeolithic Cave 
man inhabited caves in the limestone region, but cannot be proved 
to have avoided south-east England, where no caves existed. 
Unless the whole area between the Dordogne caves and Wales 
were deserted, Cave man must have left his flints on or near 
the surface, and it was the business of archaeology to sort the 
surface finds by comparison with dated series. For instance, blade- 
scrapers were the normal type in the Cave period, yet collectors 
habitually assigned surface examples to the Neolithic period, with- 
out inquiring whether Neolithic man ever made that pattern. 
Patina again was very deceptive and was largely a matter of 
accident. It seemed an established fact that white patina re- 
quired a very long period of exposure, but once a flint was white 
further progress in patination could only be measured by its 



86 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

depth, revealed only by breaking the flint. Blue or unchanged 
flints might be as' old as the Avhite, patination having been 
arrested or prevented by situation or some other accident ; 
and it should be remembered that the earliest Cave flints were 
normally unchanged, whether found in the cave of Le Moustier 
or in brick-earth as at High Lodge, Mildenhall ; whereas many 
Solutre and Aurignac specimens were pure white. A much safer 
indication of date, when controlled by a number of coincidences, 
was form, which lay at the root of the dominant French classifica- 
tion, and with proper safeguards was a useful criterion. There 
were difficulties in the way of regarding all or even the majority 
of white flints as palaeolithic, but when large groups of that 
colour were found exhibiting the same style and the same forms, 
it was prudent to consider such a date possible. There were 
white arrow-heads and white polished celts re-chipped at a later 
date, both considered typical of the later Stone Age. There 
were also polished specimens, with a porcellanous creamy patina, 
that showed white where re-chipped, and a great antiquity might 
be claimed for the polishing. It was possible that warmth, such 
as the embers of a funeral pyre, accelerated the process of patina- 
tion, and exposure on the surface to the sun seemed to bring 
about the same result. The discovery of hand-axes, of which 
one was exhibited, on the surface but with a bluish patina not 
far advanced, proved that later palaeolithic finds might occur 
on the surface also, as they undoubtedly did in numbers ; and the 
Windmill Hill series contained several that in his opinion were 
undoubtedly of the Cave period. Mr. Kendall's work in Wilts, 
had been most successful, and raised many points that could only 
be settled by continued search in that and other districts. Circum- 
scribing the area compensated to some extent for the inevitable 
uncertainty of surface association. 

Mr. DALE congratulated the author on a painstaking piece of 
work, but felt that much should be put to the suspense account. 
In 1882 he had visited Mr. John Brown at Avebury, who first 
discovered the site on Windmill Hill and had a good collection, 
but its fate was unknown. It included a long pick, the like of 
which Sir John Evans had never seen. For himself the most 
striking feature of the series on exhibition was the white patina, 
but there were several finely chipped pieces, especially among 
those with blue patina. He thought the variety of conditions 
rendered conclusions from the various patinas very dubious. It 
was often found that chipped celts had been re-sharpened : having 
broken in use, they were again adapted for hafting. Butt ends 
were usually found, and he thought that the other parts had been 
taken away for re-chipping and so were not found on the same 



Jan. 29.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 87 

site. Some of the polished celts found in Hampshire had a thick 
white patina, and if those were to be assigned to an earlier date 
on that account, what was to become of the Neolithic period ? 

Mr. KENDALL replied that the local flint was not only small 
but of poor quality, hence the small dimensions of the Windmill 
Hill series. The average size was shown by the exhibits. The 
dark blue patina was found on the top of barrows and in Late 
Celtic pits at Elcot, all the specimens being quite sharp and, in 
his opinion, contemporary with the other relics. The Elcot section 
showed the flints in a thin stone layer under 1 ft. of soil, over- 
lying stiff' clay, and apparently river-drift below. Those found 
on the summit of barrows had a dark-blue patina. The dark 
blues were rarely found on Windmill Hill, and the white flints 
were older. Polished celts were often re-chipped to form entirely 
different tools, and he showed the two best specimens in his 
collection. It seemed clear that they were older than many 
surface flints of the district and had been wantonly broken up. 
If any group of the surface finds was to be classed as Cave period, 
the same would apply to the polished celts. 

The PRESIDENT said Mr. Kendall had given a clear demonstra- 
tion of his views with regard to the flints found in his district, 
and would hardly object to being regarded as an enthusiast. 
Collectors like him and Dr. Sturge did much for the study of 
early man that museum officials found beyond their powers. 
Local research extending over several years could alone establish 
the types and their sequence, by a study of the conditions under 
which each group was deposited. The work was for the moment 
unremunerative, but would be appreciated in the future by the 
scientific world. The science of pre-history was only sixty or 
seventy years old, and it had taken a long time to establish the 
human origin of any flint specimens. In the present case the 
only evidence of date and origin lay in the objects themselves. 
Often additional evidence was afforded by the geological aspect, 
by the associated fauna, by stratification and isolation in caves 
that eliminated the possibility of error. But surface finds could 
only be classified on broad lines, as England was a small island 
that had been thickly and continuously inhabited, so that human 
relics of all dates might be found in association on the surface. 
The task of re-sorting the accumulation was an arduous one, but 
the exhibits showed certain distinct groups that probably fitted 
into a sequence. It had long been disputed whether certain celts 
received their polish before or after they were chipped, and the 
question of precedence remained. The chemical change, which 
seemed to be the cause of patination, often went very deep, and 



88 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

be had seen specimens of flint altered all through, no black core- 
showing in a section ; but what caused that extraordinary change 
it was impossible to say. It was certainly not age alone, as most 
specimens of Le Moustier date, at the very beginning of the 
palaeolithic Cave period, showed no change, whether found in 
French caves or on certain British sites. Some admittedly neo- 
lithic flints were on the other hand altered to a measurable depth 
by some unknown agent. Therefore patina was a fallacious test 
of age, and he had long urged that form was in itself no better 
criterion. The graving-tool or French burin was a curious form 
difficult to produce, with a strong point for marking bone ; and 
its appearance in Wiltshire was certainly a fact of importance. 
The whole subject was one of peculiar interest, though perhaps 
the few who treated it seriously were apt to take for granted in 
others a close acquaintance with technicalities and classifications 
that were by no means common property. There was much to 
be done in England, and Mr. Kendall's close investigation of a 
definite area was a useful contribution to the more scientific side 
of archaeology. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for this communication. 



THURSDAY, 5th FEBRUARY, 1914. 

SIR CHARLES HERCULES READ, Kt., LL.D. President, 
in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From the Author : Markham memorials. By Sir Clements Markham. 
2vols. 4to. London, 1913. 

From Harold Sands, Esq., F.S.A.: 

1. Castles of England and Wales. By Herbert A. Evans. 8vo. 

London. 

2. Old and new London. By Walter Thornbury and Edward Walford. 

(5 vols. 8vo. London, n.d. 

3. Extracts from the documentary history of the Tower of London. 

By Harold Sands, F.S. A. 2 parts. 8vo. London, 1912-13. 
From the Author : The hundred of Stanborongh or Dippeforda in the 
time of Testa de Nevil, A.IX 1243. By Rev. (). J. Keichel, F.S A. 
8vo. n.p. 1913. 
From the Author, Horace Sandars, Esq., F.S. A. : 

1. The weapons of the Iberians. With supplement containing text 
of the passages from classical historians. 4to. Oxford, 1913. 



Feb, 5.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 89 

2. False Iberian weapons and other forged antiquities from Spain. 

8vo. Oxford, 1913. 

3. Notes on the Puente Quebrada on the Guadalimar river, near 

Linares, province of Jaen (Spain). 4to. Madrid, 1913. 

The following were admitted fellows : 
Robert Bagster, Esq. 
Captain Charles Walter Cottrell-Dormur. 

W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, Esq., Litt.U., D.C.L., read the first 
part of a paper on the Funeral, Monument and Chantry Chapel 
of King Henry V at Westminster, in which he dealt with the 
funeral. Of this there were at least three contemporary accounts : 
a French one of Engerraud de Monstrelet, a version in Latin bv 
Thomas ofWalsingham, and what is probably an official account 
in English (now in the Heralds' College). There was also a later 
version in English in Edmund Hall's Chronicle. These all 
agreed in the main as to the king's death in 1 422 in the Bois de 
Vincennes, and the removal of his body after embalming to 
Paris, and thence to Rouen, where it lay some time. Thence it 
was conveyed with great pomp and solemnity, to Abbeville, 
and so to Calais, where it was brought oversea to England. 
The body was landed at Dover just two months after the king's 
death, and after resting at divers places on the way, at each of 
which a splendid herse was set up, was finally brought to London, 
and so to Westminster, where it was buried in the abbey church 
of St. Peter. So magnificent a funeral had not been seen in 
England for 200 years. There were certain discrepancies in the 
accounts as to the number of horses that drew the charet with 
the king's body and effigy of boiled leather, and as to the 
armorial devices on the trappers. Mr. Hope showed how these 
differences might be reconciled, and quoted from the accounts 
of the sacrist of the Abbey evidence that there were finally four 
horses with new trappers with the king's badges, all of which 
became with other things the perquisite of the Abbey because the 
horses drew the charet up the nave of the church. Mr. Hope 
also discussed an interesting variation between the badges on the 
trappers and those now visible upon the King's Chantry Chapel. 
These consisted of the Bohun swan and the king's antelope 
chained to beacons on one side and to oak trees on the other. 
But it was clear from the trappers and other contemporary evi- 
dence that the king actually bore the antelope in two aspects : 
first, as engaged in ' busie laboure ', drawing in a horse-mill ; and, 
secondly, as taking 'victorious resle', reposing on a stage, with 
gold branches over him. On the chapel the horse-mill had been 
blundered by the carver into a beacon, no example of which, as 
a badge of King Henry V, seemed to occur elsewhere. 



90 PROCEEDINGS OF TIJE [1914, 

Mr. TIPPING remarked on the association of the swan badge 
with a mill, beacon, or tree. He was the owner of an old house 
(Mathern Palace, near Chepstow) that had belonged to the bishops 
of Llandaff* and been rebuilt by Bishop Zouche in the reign 
of Henry V, as recorded on a stone in Monmouth museum. On 
pulling down an old doorway, he had found stones bearing on 
one face traces of the swan and tree, and over the latter was 
a bird. He was unable to explain the significance of that 
addition, but thought the design was the badge of Henry V. 

The PRESIDENT was disappointed to notice that the paper had 
not given rise to a discussion, especially as questions of heraldry 
had arisen. He did not think the discrepancy as to the 
number of horses was important or remarkable, as reports, even 
of eye-witnesses, seldom tallied exactly at any period. The 
author would no doubt agree that a blunder on the part of the 
mason was hardly a satisfactory explanation of the irregularities 
noticed on the frieze of the chapel, but nothing better occurred 
to himself at the moment. The Society would look forward to 
the sequel of the paper and convey its thanks to Mr. Hope for 
an interesting account of an historic pageant. 

T. M. LEGGE, Esq., M.D., exhibited a collection of fragments 
of English fifteenth-century stained glass, most of which had been 
acquired in Norfolk and was of the Norwich school. 

Mr. HOPE noticed the arms of the City of Rochester on one 
of the pieces of glass, which, as the author subsequently explained, 
did not belong to the series from East Anglia. The arms were 
not invented till the days of Elizabeth, and their use might 
prove a clue to the origin of the fragment. 

The PRESIDENT remarked on the Trappist attitude of the 
meeting and on the rare appearance of stained glass as exhibits. 
Few things were so portable or more easily shown to advantage. 
It was also curious that nothing had been written on the subject in 
the severe archaeological spirit since Charles Winston's admirable 
work on Glass-painting appeared in 1847 (second edition, 1867). 
East Anglia was known to have had an art of its own and to 
have been practically isolated, so that one would have expected 
such work to be confided to a local school of glass-workers, and 
to exhibit striking peculiarities, in view of the exotic character 
of the population. There was an admirable treatise on the 
various methods of decay in glass to be found in Archaeologla, 
vol. xlvi, from the pen of the late James Fowler, which might 
throw some light on the specimens kindly brought by Dr. Legge. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for this communication 
and exhibition. 



Feb. 12.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 91 



THURSDAY, 12th FEBRUARY, 1914. 

The EARL OF CRAWFORD AND BALCARRES, 

Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From the Author : Loddendeu and the Usbornes of Loddenden. The 
story of a Kentish homestead. By H. S. Cowper, F.S.A. 4to. 
Ashford, 1914. 

From E. A. B. Barnard, Esq., F.S.A.: Churchwardens' accounts of the 
parisli of Badsey, with Aldington, Worcestershire, from 1525 to 1571. 
8vo. Hampstead, 1913. 

The following were admitted fellows : 

Charles George James Port, Esq. 
Rev. Henry Arnold Hudson, M.A. 

W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, Esq., Litt.D., D.C.L., read the second 
part of his paper on the Funeral, Monument and Chantry Chapel 
of King Henry V at Westminster, in which he dealt with the 
monument and chapel. The site of the king's burial-place had 
been fixed by the king himself in 1415 to be 'among the tombs 
of the kings in the place where the relics of the saints are kept '. 
This was behind the Trinity altar to the east of St. Edward's 
shrine, and here a platform of Caen stone, supplied by John 
Arderne, was built out into the ambulatory in September, 1422, 
for the king's grave and tomb. 

The platform was afterwards cased with marble, and a tomb 
of the same material set up on it, carrying an effigy of the king 
made of oak, with a plating and ornaments of silver- gilt. The 
tomb was protected by a closure of iron and wood made by 
Roger Johnson, smith, in 1431. The wonderful bridge-like 
chapel that formed a canopy to the king's tomb was begun in 
1439, of stone obtained the previous year, and its setting up was 
marked by an entry, in the Sacrist's account for 1440-1, of the 
plucking down and sale of Johnson's ironwork, and of the taking 
down of the wooden closure of the Trinity altar pro novo edifido 
ibidem erigendo. The chapel was built partly of Purbeck marble, 
and partly of a hard limestone, but mostly of firestone, and 
consisted of a vaulted basement spanning the king's tomb and 
the ambulatory, and a chapel above reached by twin stair-turrets. 
The tomb was again protected by an iron grate, but this was 
not sufficient to hinder the theft of all the ornamental parts of 



9.2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

the king's effigy before 1467. On account of this a further 
protection was added, it is said by King Henry VII, in the form 
of the existing iron screen and gates at the west end of the 
chapel ; but burglars again broke in in 1545-6, and robbed the 
effigy of the rest of its silver-gilt plating. Mr. Hope described 
at length the statues that adorned the turrets, including those of 
King Sebert and King Henry III, St. John as the pilgrim, and 
King Edward the Confessor, St. Katharine and King Edmund, 
with two figures of cardinals, who, the Provost of King's thought, 
might be St. Ambrose and St. Bonaventura. Mr. Hope also 
described the arrangements of the chapel, with the remarkable 
series of cupboards around the altar, and the great displays of 
imagery over the altar with large figures of the Holy Trinity 
(lost), the Blessed Virgin and the Angel of the Annunciation, 
St. Edmund and St. Edward, St. George and St. Denis. The 
numerous figures on the outside of the chapel were associated on 
each side with a coronation scene. Mr. Hope suggested that 
these depicted the acclamation with the simultaneous donning 
of their hoods (before coronets had come into fashion) by the 
lords present, and the enthronement and homage of the peers. 
The king was also represented riding across country, in England, 
perhaps, and in France, with allegorical figures over him of 
ladies holding books with accounts of his great deeds and works. 
The master mason of the chapel was John of Thirsk, who 
was appointed master mason of the Abbey in 1421, and 
died in 1452. Above the chapel were now fixed a tilting helm, 
a shield formerly bearing the king's arms in painted gesso, 
and a saddle once covered with blue velvet. These interesting 
objects, which were exhibited by kind leave of the Dean of 
Westminster, Bishop Ryle, probably formed part of the funeral 
trappings which became the perquisite of the abbot and convent, 
through their being brought into the abbey church on the day 
of King Henry's burial. Lastly, Mr. Hope referred to the con- 
siderable traces of the lime wash with which the whole of the 
marble and firestone portions of the tomb and chapel, including 
all the imagery, had originally been covered. Where this 
remained, the surfaces were still intact ; where it had gone, the 
surfaces were crumbling to powder, and there could be no ques- 
tion that common sense called for the bold policy of a speedy 
renewal of the protective distemper, if so grand a monument was 
to be handed on to posterity in its present condition. 

Mr. LETHABY stated that in the triforium at Westminster 
was a set of wrought-iron door-standards with spoke bars that 
had probably formed part of the closure at the east end of the 
door into Henry V's Chapel. 



Feb. 12.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 93 

Major FARQUH ARSON thought it remarkable to see on the 
table a piece of armour that had been carried in one of the most 
memorable funerals in our history. Though it had some curious 
features, the helmet was quite authentic, and he regarded it as 
an unfinished tilting helm adapted for the funeral. The front 
part was very thick, to withstand a lance-thrust, but the back 
was thin and left unfinished, as being of less importance. It 
would have carried mantling and had evidently been gilt in 
front. It was quite a practical piece of armour but had not 
been worn by the king at Agincourt, where he is recorded to 
have worn a bel bascinet a bavicre. The term casque was in- 
correct in the present case. The hole at the top was roughly 
made for a crest of light wood. 

Mr. STEPHENSON recalled the tradition that the two slabs of 
which rubbings were exhibited marked the graves of John and 
Margaret, children of William de Valence. Some of the letters 
and the stem of a cross were still visible on one, and the mosaic 
slab had similar lettering. Restorations of both were given in 
Mr. Lethaby's Westminster Abbey and the King's Craftsmen, 
p. 318. 

Mr. J. G. WOOD inquired as to the recurrence of the antelope, 
swan, and beacon. Years ago tiles had been found in the priory 
church at Monmouth bearing a swan, a badge which was 
thought to have come to Henry V through his mother, Mary 
de Bohun. 

Mr. C. L. KINGSFORD said that a chronicle of 1431 mentioned 
under Nov. 7 that the tomb was set up at the cost of Queen 
Katherine and the workmen's names were English. It also 
detailed the arrangements made in the City of London, and 
proved that the procession did not pass from London Bridge 
along Lombard Street, but by way of Gracechurch Street and 
Cornhill. The identification of one of the stone figures on the 
screen in the chapel must be incorrect, as Thomas Langley was 
never called Cardinal in England. 

Mr. Hor-E replied that, a week before, he had given a full 
account of the king's badges and pointed out that the beacon 
was not one of them but merely a blunder for the horse-mill 
which was drawn by the antelope. He had quoted the account 
mentioned of the City's part in the funeral and had seen the 
original manuscript. The costumes worn were black, not white. 
With regard to the cardinals represented, he had quoted the 
Provost of King's, and was prepared to stand by that opinion. 



94 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

The CHAIRMAN referred to the paper as one that would be 
memorable in the history of the Society, and expressed the thanks 
of the meeting to Mr. Hope, and the Dean and Chapter who had 
generously lent the exhibits. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for this communication, 
which will be printed in Archaeologia. 



THURSDAY, 19th FEBRUARY, 1914. 

Sir CHARLES HERCULES READ, Knt., LL.D., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From Philip Norman, Esq., LL.D., V.-P.S.A.: A volume of tracts relat- 
ing to the Society of Antiquaries of London, written by John Bruce, 
T. J. Pettigrew, Sir Fortunatus Dwarris, etc. 1852. 

From the Compiler, Robert Bateman, Esq. : The Manchester Whitworth 
Institute. Catalogue of a loan collection of works by William Blake, 
February to March, 1914. Sm. 4to. London, 1014. 

Notice was given of a ballot for the election of Fellows to be 
held on Thursday, March 5th, 1914, and a list of the candidates 
to be put to the ballot was read. 

J. P. BusHE-Fox, Esq., read the report on the excavations at 
Wroxeter in 1913, which will be printed in Reports. 

During the excavations carried on in 1913 an area of about 
1^ acres was explored and two buildings were uncovered. One 
proved to be a temple, and the other a large dwelling-house. 
The latter had a frontage of 115 ft., and extended back from 
the street line for 200 ft., although its limit in this direction has 
not yet been ascertained. As this building was not completely 
excavated it was not dealt with in this report. 

The temple, which measured 98 ft. by 56 ft., consisted of a 
podium supporting a cella or shrine which stood at the back of 
an enclosed space with a paved courtyard and a three-sided 
ambulatory in front. The entrance Avas from the main street 
under a portico of six columns. That the building must have 
been a fine one was shown by the number of carved architec- 
tural fragments found. Portions of several life-sized statues 
were also discovered, as well as the carved head of a horse and a 






Feb. 19.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 95 

small female head in stone. There were also some small frag- 
ments of a bronze statue. Although parts of two altars came to 
light, no inscription was met with, so it was not possible to say to 
whom the temple was dedicated. This type of temple was com- 
monly found on Roman sites, and several similar examples were 
shown from the Continent and North Africa. The building 
appeared to have been erected about the middle of the second 
century, and to have fallen into disuse about the end of the third 
century. 

A great number of small finds were discovered. They con- 
sisted of many brooches, pins, ornaments, etc. Among the 
most noteworthy were a finely cut amethyst paste gem engraved 
with a figure of Venus, a small cameo of a Medusa head, and a 
well carved clasp-knife 'handle, in the form of a crouching tiger. 
A large amount of beautifully decorated Samian ware was 
found, a considerable portion of it dating from the first century. 
The potters' stamps recorded amounted to about 200, and repre- 
sented most of the large continental factories of the period. 
The coins were in excess of those found in 1912, and numbered 
476. They ranged from the Republican period to the end of the 
fourth century. Two coins of the Emperor Theodosius I were 
discovered, thus adding another decade to the life of the town. 
Four silver coins of the Emperor Carausius were worthy of note : 
one of these was of the Adventus type, with the RSR mint- 
mark, and was extremely rare. Several articles were met with 
showing that working in metal and bone was practised on the site. 

Sir ARTHUR EVANS said the paper showed the high civilization 
attained during the Roman occupation of Britain ; and such a 
settlement on the Limes proved that the Romans had Wales 
well in hand. He claimed the rare coin of Carausius for Britain : 
the Rouen fabric was quite different and barbarous, and the 
letters RSR might stand for Richborough, but perhaps did not 
indicate the place of mintage at all, and the coin might have been 
struck at London or Colchester. 

Professor HAVERFIELD congratulated the Society on having 
such a fine site as Wroxeter to explore, and Mr. Buslie-Fox on 
a most successful season. The last report was an excellent piece 
of work, far above the average, and the second year's work had 
been most ably described to the meeting. The construction of 
the temple, though simple enough when represented in a dia- 
gram, was not easy to detect on the spot, and its elucidation 
was somewhat of a feat. The other temple-plans shown on the 
screen were of two types : one classical, as at Pompeii and 
Wroxeter, the other Celtic and N. Gaulish, as at Caerwcnt. 



96 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

The Wroxeter building was non-Celtic and of Mediterranean 
origin. If the last letter of the inscription SETMAPEM stood 
for nianu, the rest was not, as Sir John Rhys argued, Celtic : he 
himself preferred to read L in place of T. A Celtic legend 
would be an interesting discovery and such had come to light in 
Gaul, but the few inscriptions on tiles, etc., in Britain were in 
Latin. To prove the use of the Celtic language in such towns 
as Wroxeter, words as well as personal names were required. 

Professor GOWLAND joined in congratulating Mr. Bushe-Fox 
and the Society on the work done at Wroxeter. Metallurgical 
specimens were few, and it was surprising that lead was so scarce, 
as the site was near a mining district and no less than five pigs 
of lead bearing Hadrian's name had been found in the neigh- 
bourhood. There were specimens of lead ore exhibited that had 
been obtained from surface workings, and curiously enough a 
large nail of that metal. One of the bronze specimens was 
a complete casting, showing that the Romans used four or five 
times the amount of metal that would be used at the present 
day ; the excess served to press down the molten metal well into 
the mould. The upper part of another casting showed the 
channel through which the metal was poured, and also casts of 
the air-holes made to allow the air to escape from the mould. 
Further, the crucible had been used as at the present day ; it 
was thrust into the fire, and not protected from the fire below. 
In earlier times the crucible was nearly buried in the hearth, and 
the fire piled over it. There were pieces of slag that had been 
produced in the melting of bronze, and an important specimen 
formed part of the hearth of a cupellation furnace, for extract- 
ing silver from lead. The use of such furnaces had been conclu- 
sively proved at Silchester. The Romans also used bone ash in 
the construction of the hearth, and its use had continued to the 
present time. Mr. Bushe-Fox had excavated on another site, 
on the south coast, extensive remains of the same industry, and 
one lump weighing 30 Ib. contained %0 worth of silver. 



Mr. WALTERS had examined some of the pottery on the spot 
during a few days' visit in September, but had no comments to 
make on the series exhibited. Among those who had assisted at 
Wroxeter was his colleague at the British Museum, Mr. Pryce, 
who had devoted his attention to bottle-necks. 

Mr. STEPHENSON thought the progress made at Wroxeter re- 
flected great credit on Mr. Bushe-Fox and the Society generally. 
There was a large house to be opened up next season, and it was 
to be hoped that farther north along the main street they would 



Feb. 19.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 97 

come upon the public buildings. The continuation of the work 
would need all the funds that the Treasurer and individual 
Fellows could provide. 

Mr. REGINALD SMITH thought the large leaden nail might be 
a survival of the old notion of currency perpetuated in the 
name drachma a handful of rods more or less in the form of 
nails, as the unit of value. If that were so, the nail would be a 
votive offering of money in a primitive and traditional form. 
There were Roman bronzes in the form of nails with incised 
ornament, that could not have been used in the ordinary way. 
Though there were earlier buildings on the temple site, there 
was nothing later, nor did the small finds seem to date beyond 
the middle of the third century. Was the site respected after 
the destruction of the temple, or was there another reason for 
the absence of later remains ? 

Mr. GARRAWAY RICE remarked that lead nails or pegs were 
used for fixing the roof-slates of buildings exposed to fumes, like 
gasworks ; and he thought their use might have been necessi- 
tated at Wroxeter by the presence of noxious fumes due to some 
industry. 

Dr. WRIGHT noted the sea-horse as a motive from the eastern 
Mediterranean ; and drew attention to the accurate rendering 
of certain anatomical details on the stone carving exhibited. 

The PRESIDENT thought that an additional reason for carry- 
ing on excavations of ancient sites was that a training ground was 
thereby provided for young antiquaries. The British Museum 
assistant who had specialized in bottle-necks would no doubt 
proceed to treat the bottle as a whole and do useful work in 
that direction. The Society would be interested to know that 
the first Franks Student in the University of London had also 
spent some time at Wroxeter. He seemed to remember seeing 
at Leyden a large series of pipeclay figures, invariably of Venus, 
but had never come across a perfect example in Britain, though 
many fragments had been found in London. Another interest- 
ing relic was the deer-horn pick, which was usually found in much 
more ancient surroundings, as at Avebury, Grime's Graves, and 
Cissbury. The Roman example from Wroxeter was one more 
object-lesson in archaeological caution. In connexion with the 
Roman control of Wales he cited the milestone inscribed 8 
miles from Canovium (near Conway) in the British Museum, 
which was alone sufficient evidence of peace and order. He 
approved the idea that the leaden nail was votive, such offerings 

VOL. xxvi i 



98 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

being often useless copies of weapons or implements. The 
Society would appreciate the work done at Wroxeter, and the 
meeting had enjoyed listening to a business-like report, admir- 
ably illustrated. 

PHILIP NEWMAN, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited an illuminated Letters 
Patent of Henry VIII to John Lambart of Calton, co. York., on 
which W. Paley Baildon, Esq., F.S.A., read the following note : 

" The original document exhibited by Mr. Newman is of some 
interest. It is a grant, dated March 4, 31 Henry VIII, 1539-40, 
under the great seal, to John Lambart of Calton in Craven, 
Yorkshire, gentleman, of certain rents and lands at Malham, 
Ayrton, Scothorp and Hellifield, all in the neighbourhood of 
Skipton and Settle, which had formed part of the possessions of 
Bolton Priory, as fully as Richard Mone, late Prior, or his pre- 
decessors, held and enjoyed the same, to be held of the king in 
chief by the service of a twentieth part of a knight's fee and a rent 
of 14s. 5d. yearly for all service. The consideration money was 
^129 Us. 8d. 

So far it is all commonplace enough ; but the document itself 
is very unusual from the fact that it is illuminated and has on it 
the arms of the grantee. The top line, containing the words 
* Henricus Octavus Dei gracie Anglie et Francie Rex Fidei \ is 
placed on a border ornamented with sprays of roses. The initial 
letters H, O, and R are painted with gold strap-work on a blue 
ground, the O and the R also containing painted roses. The 
letter A is painted yellow on a square blue panel. The capital H 
of Henricus contains a picture of the king, holding the orb and 
sceptre ; he is clothed in a pink gown, and a blue robe powdered 
with a conventional flower in yellow. He is seated on a throne, 
which has a canopy with a green frame, hung with cloth of gold 
with a red arabesque pattern. In the centre of the top line is 
a shield with the arms of France and England quarterly under 
a crown. The dexter supporter is a sitting lion crowned proper, 
holding a blue banner with a gold rose (?) on it. The sinister 
supporter is a silver rampant dragon, holding a blue banner with 
a gold fleur-de-lis. There is a gold fleur-de-lis over the word 
'Francie'. The design of the lettering and ornamentation is 
common enough in patents, but is usually in pen- work only ; 
I have never seen one similarly illuminated. 

On the dexter margin of the vellum is painted a large shield 
bearing the arms of Lambert, viz. gules, a chevron between three 
lambs passant silver, a chief cheeky gold and azure. The silver 
here (and elsewhere) has turned black, and on this shield appears 
to have been painted black at a later date. Underneath is a scroll 
bearing the word NOTHOSOLITHOS. So far as I am able to 



Feb. 19.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 99 

translate this word it means 'imitation stone 1 , but what signifi- 
cance that may have as a motto I cannot say. 

On the sinister margin is drawn in pen and ink, not coloured, 
a monster having the head, arms and body of a woman, and the 
four legs and body of a cloven-footed animal ; in her hands she 
holds a scroll with the word NOTHOSOLITHOS. Underneath 
is a silver six-foil with a red centre. The monster is the crest of 
the Lamberts, which is described in the Visitation of Yorkshire, 
1584-5, as a female centaur proper, crined or, holding a flower 
argent, leaved and stalked vert. There is some uncertainty what 
this beast really was, for Harley MS. 1487 (fo. 354 b) shows a 
conventional sphinx, with four limbs only, and Harley MS. 1394 
(fo. 200) shows the head, arms, and body of a woman joined to 
the hind-quarters of a hoofed animal with a dog's tail. It is 
possible that the crest was intended for Lamia, the Greek fabulous 
monster, said to live on human flesh, and that the heralds were 
not quite clear how this interesting creature should be drawn. 

All this fancy-work must have been inserted at the instance of 
John Lambert, the grantee, about whom a good deal is known, 
and little to his credit. He was a lawyer (not of Lincoln's Inn), 
vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and had been steward 
to Bolton Priory. The last fact probably accounts for his getting 
a considerable slice of the Priory lands, as he was in a position to 
make early application. He was, beyond reasonable doubt, the 
forger of a considerable series of charters to bolster up a spurious 
pedigree showing his descent from Count Lambert of Louvain, 
who died in 1004. Some of these were denounced as forgeries by 
Whitaker in the first edition of his History of Craven (1805), and 
were subsequently made the text of one of Dr. J. H. Round's 
most slashing articles in The Ancestor, vol. iii. The document 
here shown is, I feel no doubt, a part of the scheme devised and 
carried out by Lambert for the spurious glorification of his 
family. 

The six-foil is evidently in allusion to a quartering, of very 
doubtful authenticity, allowed to the Yorkshire Lamberts at the 
Visitation of 1584-5, which has been adopted as their arms by 
several families of Lambert claiming descent from the Yorkshire 
house, and through it, of course, from Count Lambert. The 
Visitation gives the coat as gules, an annulet or, between three 
chaplets argent. The charges are variously described as nar- 
cissuses, roses, chaplets, cinq-foils, and six- foils. Here the object 
is very clearly drawn as a six-foil." 

Lord BOLTON, F.S.A., exhibited and presented a deed, with the 
seal of the Abbot of Furness attached, between the Abbot and 
Convent of Sawley and the Abbot and Convent of Furness 



100 PROCEEDINC4S OF THE [1914, 

regarding the tithes of the manor of Wynterbourne within the 
parish of Gargrave. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications 
and exhibitions. 



THURSDAY, 26th FEBRUARY, 1914. 

Sir CHARLES HERCULES READ, Knt., LL.D., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From the Author : The Avowries of Cheshire (Reprinted from the English 
Historical Review, January 1914). By R. Stewart-Brown, F.S.A. 
8vo. London, 1914. 

From the Librarian of the London Library : Catalogue of the London 
Library, St. James's Square, London. By C. T. II. Wright and C. J. 
Purneil. 2 vols. 4to. London, 1913-14. 

From the Royal Anthropological Institute : Description of the test speci- 
men of the rostro-carinate industry found beneath the Norwich Crag. 
By Sir Ray Lankester, K.C.B., F.'R.S. 8vo. London, 1914. 

William Blake Odgers, Esq., K.C., LL.D., was admitted a 
Fellow. 

Notice was again given of the ballot for the election of Fellows 
to be held on Thursday, March 5, 1914, and the list of the 
candidates to be put to the ballot was read. 

W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, Esq., Litt.D., D.C.L., read the Report 
on the Excavation of the Cathedral Church of Old Sarum in 1 913. 

"I have the honour of submitting to the Society of Antiquaries, 
on behalf of my colleagues, Lt.-Col. Hawley and Mr. D. H. 
Montgomerie, and myself, a report on the excavations at Old 
Sarum during the year 1913. 

The chief part of our operations during the preceding year 
was confined to tracing the outline of the cathedral church 
and to such provision as could be foreseen for the complete 
clearance of the cathedral site. 

One fact that had been ascertained was that on the north 
side of the church there was a deep deposit of broken-up building 
rubbish. The disposal of this rubbish presented a difficulty, 
since the only places to which it could be transported still 






Feb. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 101 

awaited excavation. It luckily happened that at some not 
very remote period a large excavation for chalk had been made 
on the north side of the hill of Old Sarum, the filling up of 
which would restore its broken outline. There being no ob- 
jections to this, a wooden bridge was thrown across the ditch, 
with a shoot at its inner end, by which any excavated material 
might be transferred from a full wagon on the top to an empty 
one on the bridge, and this in turn could be run across and 
emptied into the chalk pit. 

These preliminaries having been settled, on 28th April the 
bridge was begun. Some trial trenches were also cut across the 
eastern part of the church. By 2nd May we were able to begin 
laying down the tramway from the shoot towards the church. 
A fortnight later, during the laying of a second line of 
rails, a quite unexpected discovery was made, in the form of a 
deposit of ridge tiles. More of these were found the following 
day, and it was then seen that they had been laid side by side 
in four rows, each of eight tiles. With them were also a 
number of ordinary roofing tiles. The deposit had been sys- 
tematically laid at a quite early date, apparently for some 
drainage purpose, and the ends of the rows were closed by pairs 
of L-shaped stones, disposed bridge-wise, with a supporting 
block under. The tiles are covered outside with a fine green 
glaze, and cannot well be later in date than the middle of the 
twelfth century. Many fragments of ridge tiles of similar form 
were found when we excavated the castle. 

Beyond the discovery of many pieces of worked and moulded 
stonework, nothing worth recording occurred during the laying 
of the tramway lines, which in due time reached the church and 
enabled us to 'begin the clearing of its site. 

Before describing the remains of the church it will be advisable 
to recall a few facts belonging to its history. 

The transfer of the bishopric of Sherborne to Old Sarum, in 
accordance with the edict of the Council of London of 1075, which 
directed the transfer of episcopal sees from villages to more popu- 
lous places, involves not only the suggestion but the probability 
that there already existed at Old Sarum a church into which the 
bishopVstool could be transferred. Bishop Hermann, in whose 
days the transfer was made, is said to have begun a church of 
new work, but to have died of old age before the time of its 
dedication. His successor Osmund, who was consecrated in 
1078, finished the building, which Simeon of Durham says was 
hallowed with the help of Walkelin bishop of Winchester and 
John bishop of Bath on Monday, 5th April, 1092. 

Five days after the church had been consecrated, it was struck 
by lightning and seriously damaged. William of Malmesbury, 



102 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

writing of the events in the fifth year of King William Rufus, 
says that the violence of the lightning utterly threw down the 
roof of the tower of the church and shook down much of the 
walling. 

Many traces of this catastrophe have come to light during the 
recent excavations in the shape of scorched and reddened stones 
and pieces of moulded work, used up as rubble in the later wall- 
ing of the church. 

William of Malmesbury also states that bishop Roger, who 
held the see from 1103 to 1139, 'made new the church of Salisbury 
and adorned it with ornaments, so that it is inferior to none in 
England but surpasses many ; and he himself not untruly can 
say to God, " Lord, I have loved the glory of thy house ".' 1 

In or about the year 1227, for reasons that were fully set forth 
in our 1909 Report, the ecclesiastical establishment and most 
of the civil population removed from Old Sarum to the new 
church and city in the plain below. The old church was there- 
upon disused, and partly destroyed against the possibility of a 
return to it. In any case the building seems to have become 
derelict, and to have passed into the king's hands. 

In 1327 licence was granted for the dean and chapter to 
enclose with a battled wall the close of their church. This was 
followed, by letters patent of 1st March 1330-1, by the gift of 
the king, to the bishop and to the dean and chapter of Salisbury, 
of all the stones of the old cathedral church of Old Sarum, and 
of the houses within the king's castle there which the bishop 
and canons of that church formerly occupied, for the repair of 
their church and for the enclosure of the precinct of the same. 

The church and all the buildings annexed to it were accordingly 
razed to the ground, and the site of them became practically a 
waste place. 

The excavations of 1912 showed that the church thus de- 
stroyed had consisted of an aisled and square-ended presbytery 
with eastern chapels, north and south transepts, with a south 
porch, and of a nave and aisles with an added section at the west 
end. We also found that a building with a groined subvault 
adjoined the north end of the transept, in connexion probably 
with a cloister north of the presbytery. The broad outline of 
the church had been noted during a dry summer so far back as 
1835, and was partly confirmed by excavations in the following 
year. 

Now it has long been obvious to those who are acquainted 
with the laying out of eleventh-century churches that the plan 
of the cathedral church of Old Sarum, as marked by these ex- 
cavations, and more fully by those of 1912, could not possibly 
1 Gestu Regum Aiigforum (Rolls Series,, 90),, ii,, 484. 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. 




IO O 2O 4O 



Feb. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 103 

be that of the church of bishop Osmund. We had also noticed 
that the eastern parts of the church and its western addition 
were built with yellow mortar, while the nave was as clearly 
built with white mortar. An early opportunity was accordingly 
taken of cutting a trench down the middle line in the hope of 
finding traces of an earlier building. This trench, which was 
begun about the middle of the later presbytery, had not been 
carried far before a cross wall was met with, nearly 7 ft. thick, 
and apparently curved instead of straight. It was accordingly 
traced north and south, and, though mutilated for later works 
at both ends, proved to be the main apse of bishop Osmund's 
church, and to be built with the white mortar. Further, it had 
against it on its western side a foundation of rubble masonry 
8 ft. long and from 4 ft. to 4J ft. wide, which formed the base 
either of the altar hallowed by the three bishops in 1092, or 
(what is more probable) of the bishop's throne. 

It was not possible at the time to proceed further with our 
investigations, but as soon as the area of the transepts had been 
cleared, it did not take long to find and trace out the other 
apses of Osmund's church and to recover its complete plan, as 
well as to establish its relation to the later work. 

The first church was 178 ft. long from east to west, and 
113J ft. across the transepts. It consisted of an apsidal pres- 
bytery, with narrow north and south aisles, square-ended outside 
but probably apsidal within, north and south transepts, each 
with an eastern apse, a tower over the crossing, and a nave and 
aisles. 

Of these the nave and aisles only had remained to the end. 
The rest had all been pulled down to make way for later works, 
and nothing was left save their foundations. These are for- 
tunately of good flint rubble with white mortar, and of massive 
character, and are everywhere carried down to the solid chalk. 
What exactly stood upon them is of course guesswork, but from 
analogy with contemporary examples of the same type of church 
it is possible to reconstruct the building with some degree of 
certainty. 

It is also clear from what remains of it that bishop Osmund's 
church at Old Sarum may be added to an interesting class built 
under Norman influence during the second half of the eleventh 
century, of which several contemporary examples exist in this 
country. 

At some unrecorded date early in the twelfth century the 
canons of Salisbury began to lay out to the north-east of their 
church a four-sided cloister. It cannot be called square, since 
its sides are all unequal, and it may not be described as rect- 
angular, since none of its angles is a right angle. The south side 



104 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

measures 137 ft., the north 133|- ft., the east 125J ft., and the 
west 113J ft. The cloister therefore was approximately about 
as large as that at Christchurch, Canterbury, and had covered 
alleys on all four sides. Such an adjunct to a purely secular 
church did not serve the same purpose as a monastic cloister, 
the alleys of which were more or less living places, but usually 
contained the burying ground, and the alleys were to enable 
processions to go about this under cover. The cloister or Palm 
churchyard at Wells was so laid out by bishop Joscelin about 
1240, and that attached to St. Paul's was long known as ' pardon 
churchyard'. The Old Sarum cloister is perhaps the earliest 
example of its kind in this country. 

At the same time as the laying-out of the cloister there 
was built against its west side a two-storied structure of remark- 
able character (fig. 2). What remains of it is a sub vault or crypt, 
measuring internally 60 ft. from east to west and 26 ft. from 
north to south. It is four bays long, and divided into two 
alleys by three large round pillars 5 ft. in diameter, with corre- 
sponding semicircular responds about the walls. Upon these, as 
may be proved by the mortar casts of the springing stones, rested 
a ribbed vault, now unhappily destroyed. The whole of the in- 
terior of the crypt is also greatly ruined, and both walls and pillars 
have been stripped of nearly all their original ashlar facing, 
which had a chamfered plinth at the floor level. The crypt was 
lighted by eight windows with stepped sills, one in each bay, on 
the east, north, and west, but the south wall had not any windows 
through being built up against the old church. It has, however, 
in both the third and fourth bays the remains of a round-headed 
almery, while the first bay contained the entrance. In the 
second bay on this side was a well in the floor, 6 ft. in diameter. 
It seems to have had two courses of masonry round the top, 
below which the shaft is sunk through the solid chalk ; no 
attempt has yet been made to clear it. The south-east com- 
partment of the crypt is almost filled by the block of a staircase 
into it. The steps had treads 14 in. wide, and there were six 
up to the doorway, which was fitted with a drawbar. The door- 
way itself and all the work above are unfortunately hopelessly 
ruined. The walls of the crypt are built throughout of flint 
rubble with the white mortar,* but vary in thickness, that of the 
east and west walls being 10 ft, of the north wall 12 ft., and of 
the south wall 8 ft. Both north and south walls had also two 
broad pilaster buttresses, in line with the first and third pillars. 

In order to form this crypt a deep excavation was made out- 
side the north transept of bishop Osmund's church, with a vertical 
face against which the south wall was built. This wall is not 
quite parallel with the transept, nor does it touch it, but it is so 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 104 




Fig. 2. THE CRYPT, LOOKING EAST 




Fig. 3. PLINTH AND DOORWAY : EAST SIDE OP NORTH TRANSEPT 



Feb. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUAKIES 105 

near that a chase must have been cut in the church wall to enable 
the western buttress to be carried up. The west wall of the 
crypt, as the plan shows, is in line with the west side of Osmund's 
transept and probably butted up against it. 

For what purpose the crypt was built is uncertain, nor is it clear 
for what it was at first used. A subvault of such massive con- 
struction could not have been built for itself, and it is practically 
certain that another large room stood upon it. This was most 
likely the chapter-house, but there is nothing to show how and 
where it was entered. It could, however, without difficulty have 
had a way into it from the transept in the westernmost bay. 

The laying out of the cloister evidently suggested, if it was 
not part of a scheme in connexion with, the enlargement of the 
church by a new presbytery, which was followed by a rebuilding 
of the transepts, also on a larger scale. This work, from the 
architectural details, seems not to have begun much before the 
second quarter of the twelfth century, and represents 'the church 
of Salisbury' which, according to William of Malmesbury, was 
' new made ' by that great builder, bishop Roger, who held the 
see from 1103 "to 1139. 

The new work is characterized throughout by the use of a 
mortar of a bright yellow colour, instead of the white mortar 
of the older work. It was probably begun on the north side by 
building a wall southwards in line with the east wall of the crypt, 
and then returning it eastwards for two-thirds of the length of 
the cloister against a vertical face cut for it in the chalk. Care 
was taken at the same time to set out the new presbytery in line 
with the older church. There was probably a pause to enable 
the services to be transferred from the old church to the new 
building when finished, and then Osmund's work was demolished 
as far as the nave and the rebuilding continued westward. 

Owing to the wholesale destruction of the church in the four- 
teenth century hardly any of the twelfth-century building 
remains above the floor level, and in the presbytery not a frag- 
ment is left of pillar or respond. It is nevertheless possible to 
recover many of its details, and, what is more extraordinary, 
most of the pattern and colouring of the floor ! To the con- 
siderable difference between the levels on the two sides of the 
presbytery is due the fortunate circumstance that the lower parts 
of the walls forming the south-west corner of the cloister were, 
early in the destruction, buried in rubbish. The rubble cores 
here have at the base several courses of excellent ashlar masonry, 
showing the chamfered lowest member, with two battering courses 
above, of the plinth, and the bases of two of the transept pilaster 
buttresses. The two bottom steps are also left of a wide ascend- 
ing flight from the cloister into the church. 



106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

The new presbytery was of four bays, with piers set upon a low 
wall raised above the floor in the same way as in the cathedral 
church of the Salisbury of to-day. The arcades opened into 
aisles, which were carried a bay eastwards and joined by an 
ambulatory behind the presbytery end. The presbytery not 
improbably had an arcade of three narrower arches towards the 
ambulatory, with its eastern windows above. Beyond the am- 
bulatory, which was a step higher than the aisles, was a row of 
chapels. 

The west end of the presbytery abutted upon a tower over 
the crossing, carried by compound piers arranged with their 
longer axes east and west. Of these only the core of the north- 
west pier remains, to a height of about 3 ft. ; the others have 
entirely perished. They can, however, all be laid down on plan. 
The north transept had for its end the north wall of the chapter- 
house, or whatever the building was over the crypt, but its east 
and west sides were planned without any reference to the chapter- 
house buttresses. The sides of the transepts were pierced with 
three arches opening into eastern and western aisles of the same 
width, 1&| ft., as those of the presbytery. To carry these arcades, 
the lower piers, and the arches extending from them, wide and 
continuous concrete foundations of great strength were laid, 
which cut through, and in some places obscure, the similar foun- 
dations of bishop Osmund^s church. In the north transept the 
piers that stood upon these foundations can only be traced by 
their mortar beds, which are also marked out in an interesting 
way by the lines incised in the concrete by the master-mason. 
In the south transept the lowest courses of the pier blocks remain 
in place, and are &| ft. square. In both transepts the arches 
must have been unequal. 

Both transepts have other unusual features beside western as 
well as eastern aisles. The north transept, for instance, had in 
the middle bay of its eastern aisle a flight of seven steps coming 
up from a landing, on to which there opened a wide doorway, 
approached by two more steps, from the cloister (fig. 3). In the 
north end of the same aisle was another flight of steps leading 
down into the earlier crypt, which probably was now used as the 
vestry and treasury. There seems, therefore, to have been no con- 
venient place in this aisle for the two altars that otherwise could 
have been in it, and they may accordingly have stood in the 
transept against the piers. 

The south transept probably had its two altars in the eastern 
aisle. This has also at the south end a thickening of the wall 
internally, which suggests an entrance there into the lobby or 
passage at the foot of a vice. The south end of the transept 
proper has a broad bench across it, interrupted in the middle by 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 106 





Fig 1 . 4. PURBECK MARBLE COFFIN, FOUND IN THE CANONS* CEMETERY 




Fig. 5. GRAVES, \VITH HEAD AND FOOT STONES, ON SOUTH SIDE OF NAVE 



Feb. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 107 

two steps. There was also a third step at the higher level form- 
ing the sill of a wide doorway from without. The existence of 
this is confirmed by the foundation walls of the porch that 
covered it. This porch has a projection of 20 ft., and was about 
13 ft. wide within, with a stone bench along each side. Some of 
its stone floor remains in place, and the step of the outer arch, 
much worn, also exists in parts. 

The transepts are plainly defined by the rubble cores of the 
walls, which remain all round to a height of about 3 ft., but all 
the ashlar facing has been stripped oft* save a few odd stones. 
There is an irregularity in the west wall of the south transept 
which is not easy to account for. 

From these general remarks on the plan of the newer work of 
the church we may pass to the consideration of its details and 
arrangements. 

Mention has already been made of the recovery of the pattern 
and colouring of the floor ; to which may be added the evidence 
for the position of sundry steps and consequent changes of level. 
The whole of the new work, except in one or two places, was 
paved throughout with squared blocks of stone, either of the 
white Chilmark or the delicate green from Hurdcote. These 
blocks were faced on one side only, leaving the other quite 
rough ; in order, therefore, to obtain a level surface, the blocks 
were laid in a very thick bed of mortar. When the church 
was dismantled these blocks were taken up, leaving the mortar 
beds exposed, with here and there embedded chips of the dis- 
placed stones. By diligent brushing of the dust and rubbish out 
of the hollows we have been able to recover from these beds the 
disposition of the blocks, and Lt.-Col. Hawley noticed one damp 
day the alternating colours of the stone chips. Mr. Montgomerie 
and I have accordingly been able to measure and lay down on 
paper the patterns, with the colouring, of a large extent of the 
floor, and so to recover what may at present be looked upon as 
a unique feature of a twelfth-century English church. 

It has been pointed out that the ambulatory behind the high 
altar had to the east of it a row of chapels. The two at each 
end, in continuation of the aisles, had a step at the entrance, 
and two more steps up to the altar. How this was arranged it 
is impossible now to say, and it is also uncertain whether the 
chapels were not apsidal within though square-ended without. 

The space between the end chapels presents several problems. 
There was certainly a step up to it from the ambulatory, and the 
middle part contained a chapel, but after that difficulties begin. 
The chapel was only 14 ft. 9 in. wide and at least 30 ft. long, 
and was crossed by a step at 20 ft. from the entrance, and by 
another 3 ft. farther east. Upon this platform stood the altar. 



108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

From the fragments scattered about, it seems to have been 
covered by a slab of black marble or touch. How the chapel ended 
is a question. The mass of rough foundation behind the altar 
is so irregular that it may just as likely have helped to support an 
apse as a square end. The altar platform was paved with rows 
of stone blocks, alternately white and green, and some of the 
mortar beds remained in part in front and to the north of the 
altar. The chapel floor also retained the mortar bed of a curious 
pavement of interlacing circles, but not of the same material as 
the altar platform, the stones composing it having been flat and 
not rough underneath. Between this middle chapel and those 
north and south of it there is on each side an intervening space 
nearly 15 ft. broad which has to be accounted for. This interval 
has on either hand fragmentary masses of rubble walling. Next 
the outer chapels, these clearly belonged to walls 6 ft. thick, in 
line with the side walls of the presbytery. The fragments next 
the middle chapel were certainly 5 \ ft. thick, so that the interval 
between the walls was about 3 ft. The only feasible suggestion 
as to the use of these narrow areas is that they either formed 
passages to vices at their eastern ends, or themselves contained 
ascending flights of steps to the tipper works. 

The southern end of the ambulatory is blocked by a mass of 
rubble masonry about 8 ft. square built athwart it. This is 
clearly of medieval date, but as it has been stripped of any facing 
stones it is difficult to imagine its purpose. It may have been 
a tomb, but in any case it must have effectually barred the 
procession way. 

There is the further possibility that this obtrusive fragment 
may belong to works done to retain the chapel for a certain 
chantry in the old cathedral church which the dean and canons 
obtained licence in 1331 to rebuild in any other place ' within 
the castle '. A chapel of the Blessed Mary ' where the bishop's 
seat was wont to be 1 is mentioned in the Liberate Roll of 
1246, and Leland says that in his day the only token of the 
cathedral church * is but a chapelle of Our Lady yet standing 
and mainteynid'. 

Both the ambulatory and the presbytery aisles, as well as the 
eastern chapels, had groined vaults. 

The presbytery is still enclosed to the height of some inches 
by the rubble cores of its walls, which were 6 ft. thick, but there 
are no definite traces of the arcades. In the first bay, to the 
south of the altar-place, there are the remains of a stone-lined 
grave within the wall, and there is the foot of a similar grave in 
the second bay. Now it is recorded of dean William de Wanda 
that on the feast of the Trinity in the year 1226 he caused to be 
removed ' from the castle of Sarum to the new fabric the bodies 




Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To fair ]>(iyi> 108 




Fig. 6. COFFIN-LIDS IX THK CANONS* CEMETEKY 




Fig. 7. CONFIX AND COFFIN-LID IX THE CANONS* CE.MKTKHY 



Feb. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 109 

of three bishops, namely, the body of the blessed Osmund, the 
body of bishop Roger, and the body of bishop Jocelin". For 
two of these bishops, Roger and Jocelin, there still exist monu- 
mental effigies brought down from Old Sarum, and it is very 
probable that they originally occupied the recesses in the presbv- 
tery wall. Bishop Osmund was no doubt first buried in a place 
of honour in his own church, but when its eastern parts were 
demolished, he was most likely taken up and translated to the 
north side of the altar in the new presbytery, where there are 
some indications of another tomb. His memorial at Salisbury 
is a marble tomb of peculiar fashion, with three oval openings 
in each side, which seems to date from William de Wanda's 
translation. The presbytery was raised as to its western half 
a step above the aisles, and there must have been other steps 
eastwards up to the altar platform, but owing to their nearness 
to the present ground level all traces of them have long been 
destroyed by the plough. 

During the excavation of this end it was found that at a depth 
of 6 in. below the foundation level there was an expanse of plaster 
flooring. Part of it was destroyed, but a little more than half 
its width is preserved. Careful examination showed that the 
plaster surface is scored with groups of parallel lines and with at 
least one curved line, and it seems fairly certain that, like the 
chapter-house floor at Wells, this had been laid for use as a 
setting-out board for the master-mason while the presbytery was 
in building. It would be interesting to know if any other such 
example has been noticed. 

In the middle of the presbytery there is a stone socket in the 
floor. Its position is so far east of the quire that any desk here 
could not have been used by the chanters or rulers ; the socket 
most likely therefore marks the place of the desk in the presby- 
tery, at which, according to bishop Osmund's Customs, the Gospel 
was read on weekdays. In later times the desk, which was usually 
surmounted by an eagle, stood at the north end of the altar. 

The main level of the presbytery extended westwards to a 
platform filling the fourth bay. This platform seems to have 
had at each end the openings known as the upper entrances into 
the quire, and on the west was a step, that called the gradiis 
chori. The quire proper extended under the crossing, with the 
stalls arranged on either side against the tower piers and dwarf 
walls within the arches, and abutted westwards against the 
pulp'itum. This filled up the narrow space west of the tower 
and was a more or less solid construction of masonry, 14 ft. deep, 
with a passage between quire and nave through the middle. On 
one side or the other there would be a staircase to the loft on 
top, from which the Epistle and Gospel were read from a brass 



110 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

eagle desk on Sundays and festivals. Enough was left of the 
base of the pulpit urn to enable it to be laid down on plan. 

The eastern aisles of the transepts were a step lower than those 
of the presbytery, and had a continuous stretch of flooring, upon 
which any altars or altar platforms must have been built. The 
aisle floor extended outwards to the western face of the arcade, 
and then another step lowered the level to that of the main area 
of the transept and of its western aisle. 

It has already been pointed out that the nave and aisles of 
bishop Osmund's church remained in use throughout. 

The arch at the east end was blocked by the pulpitum of the 
new work. This had in front of it a platform raised two steps 
above the floor of the nave and aisles, with another step from it 
into the passage through to the quire. Upon the platform 
apparently stood two altars, one on either side of the quire door. 
The wall blocking the arch at the east end of the south aisle 
also probably had an altar against it. The corresponding wall 
on the north, on the other hand, must have had a doorway 
through it, for the passage of the Sunday and other processions, 
which after visiting and censing all the other altars in the church, 
passed down the aisle of the nave to the font, and then turning 
up the nave made the accustomed station before the Rood above 
the pulpitum. The usual order for these processions was to start 
from the north door of the presbytery and turn eastwards so as 
to visit the altars beyond the presbytery ; then turning westwards 
to traverse the transept and go down the south aisle of the nave. 
But the order here must have been reversed : first, because access 
to the south aisle was barred by the wall blocking its arch, and 
secondly, because the cloister lay on the north instead of the 
south. From the platform for the nave altars there were no 
more steps westwards, but the floor sloped gently down to the 
west end. There is one other feature to be noted in connexion 
with the nave, and that is the existence of a doorway in the 
middle bay of the south aisle. As this was built with the yellow 
mortar it was evidently an insertion. 

The addition to the front of bishop Osmund's nave is built of 
flint rubble with the yellow mortar and was originally faced with 
ashlar. It is noteworthy for the massiveness of its foundations. 
What the foundations exactly carried is uncertain, but it was 
evidently meant to be something heavy. 

The whole front is about 75 ft. broad, and its depth 3Qi ft. to 
the nave wall. Internally there are two cross walls 5 ft. thick 
dividing the area into three. The southern of these walls ranges 
with the nave arcade, but the northern is just 2 ft. out of line. 
The west wall was 8 ft. thick at the base, and the end walls about 
5 ft. At the angles are projections for stair turrets. 






Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face /></<! 10 




Fig. 8. COFFIN-LID WITH INSCRIPTION TO GODWIN, PRECENTOR OF SALISBURY 




Fig 1 . 9. ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENTS 



Feb. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 111 

The questions now arise, whether the foundations carried 
towers, and if so, were there two, after the Norman manner, or 
only one in the English fashion ? 

Any two towers must have been quite oblong in plan, with 
side walls thinner than their ends. The middle division, on the 
other hand, could have been surmounted by a tower practically 
square in plan, with proper supports eastwards, northwards and 
southwards. It could also have had arches opening into the end 
divisions and so have reproduced the original arrangement of the 
cathedral churches of Winchester, Hereford, and Ely, and the 
abbe} 1 church of St. Edmundsbury. Further than this we cannot 
go, since nothing remains to us above the foundations, and there 
is nothing to prove that anything was ever built upon them. 

Before leaving the church it may be recorded that various 
trenches were cut across the nave in the hope of finding traces 
of an earlier building. Nothing, however, was found to confirm 
this, but one of the trenches passed through a depression con- 
taining very black rubbish, which yielded a little pre-Roman 
British pottery and part of a bronze brooch of the same date. 

The church as altered by bishop Roger must have had an 
internal length, including the added western member, of 316 ft., 
and across the transepts of 138 ft. It shares its peculiar feature 
of western as well as eastern aisles to the transepts with a few- 
churches of quite the first rank, including Winchester, Ely. 
Westminster, Beverley, Lincoln, and York. The church is also 
noteworthy for being one of the first to have an aisled and 
square-ended presbytery with eastern chapels : Hereford and 
Romsey being among the few other contemporary instances of 
a plan that was adopted later at Byland and Abbey Dore, 
Lichfield, St. Albans, Exeter, Wells, and elsewhere. 

The last section of last year's work was one of the most 
interesting. 

It had been noted in 1912 that from the south-east angle of 
the transept there was a wall, ft. thick, extending eastwards for 
some distance and apparently enclosing a burial-ground. Parts 
of several coffins and gravestones were disclosed while the church 
walls were being traced, and a fine coffin of unpolished Purbeck 
marble, which contained the skeleton of a priest with a pewter 
chalice, was removed and transferred to the cathedral church of 
Salisbury (fig. 4). 

On 7th October we began cutting trenches across the area, and 
were quickly rewarded by corning upon a coped tomb with a long 
Latin inscription, and another beside it with a massive but plain 
cover of Purbeck marble. The work was continued with increasing 
energy on the two following days and resulted in the finding of 
more than a dozen other tombs and coffins. 



112 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

It will be noticed that the quadrangular foundation discovered 
in 1912, supposed to have been the base of a churchyard cross, 
stands at what was perhaps the corner of the enclosure of the 
graveyard, but nothing could be found of an eastern boundary. 

The description of the tombs is as follows (figs. 5-7) : 

Of no. I only the greenstone bearers are left. No. II has an 
oolite slab with middle rib and roll-moulded edges, and a foot- 
.stone, partly broken, bearing a cross potent. No. Ill is a plain 
slab of Purbeck marble much weathered. No. IV is an oolite 
slab with double chamfered sides, and a middle rib which bears 
a small cross formv. The slab tapers with a slight curve, and is 
of very graceful design. 

Of no. V only the lower part remains, made up of oolite slabs, 
with a rough upper surface. No. VI has been partly destroyed 
and shows only some of its oolite bearers. No. VII is a flat oolite 
slab, cracked across, having on its rough surface six shallow square 
depressions which seem intended as sockets for pillars carrying an 
upper stone. On the flat top of no. VIII is carved a wheel cross 
on a stem starting from a stepped base ; at the foot is a plain 
stone with segmental head. 

Close to and south of the above is a greenstone coffin, no. IX, 
with shaped interior. Fart only of its covering slab remains, also 
of greenstone, without ornament. West of this pair is a rather 
remarkable tomb, no. X, cut from a single block of greenstone, 
without taper ; the side edges are chamfered and the ends form a 
broad slope. South-west of this are a pair of which the northern- 
most is reduced to its greenstone bearers ; the other, no. XII, re- 
sembles closely no. II, even to the design of its cross which is cut 
upon the headstone. 

Further to the west stands a single tomb, no. XIII, in good 
preservation, with a coped greenstone slab, and head- and foot- 
stones of oolite. The former has a circular head carrying a cross 
formy on its outer face ; it seems to have been intended for a 
smaller tomb and in a reversed position, for the present outer 
side has a recess below with curved head. 

Near the angle between the south transept and the wall of the 
church our excavations revealed a remarkable group of inter- 
ments, numbering seven in all ; four of these, nos. XIV to XVII, 
stand nearly side by side. The first (no. XIV) is a plain slab of 
greenstone with chamfered edges ; at a few inches distance on the 
south is another and similar one (no. XV), save that it bears a 
long rhyming inscription along the sides, another inscription on 
the head, and an incised cross at the foot. The longer inscription 
appears to read : 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 112 




Fig. 10. ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS OF VAULTING, ETC. 




Fig. 11. EARLY CROCHETED GABLE .MOULDINGS, FOUND OUTSIDE THE 
SOUTH TRANSEPT 



Feb. 26.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



113 



(South side) 

+ ECCE TVIS ALWARD ERVAS RAM NESBERI ARVM 

+ Q_VI FVERASQ_VOD DEBVERAS FLOS FOMES EARVM. 

(North side) 

+ SEXTA DIES IANI MVNDO TVRBIVAT INANI 

Q_VA MVNDVM MVNDA MVND AT BAPTISM ATIS VND A. 

The inscription on the head is 

PVLIIMATANTADES 
SIT + VERA Q_ES, 

and should perhaps read ultima tanta dies sit tibi vera quies. 

Of Alward of Ramsbury nothing seems to be known, but he 
may be the Ailward who witnesses a charter of bishop Roger of 
a date about 1108. 

Beyond the above tomb is another (no. XVI), having a very 
large and well-cut stone of hard oolite, in extraordinarily good 
condition, seeing that its upper surface was but a few inches 
below the modern soil level. Both sides and ends have broad 
sloping faces, but the stone is quite plain and uninscribed. The 
weight of the block has forced down its bearers, but without 
dislodging them, and the whole tomb has a tilt to the west. 
Tomb XVII, which lies a few feet south of the last, is the most 
interesting, in that its upper surface is covered with six lines of 
a rhyming inscription in Latin hexameters (fig. 8). Unhappily, 
the material chosen by the carver was a soft oolite, and the slab 
has cracked and crumbled with the failure of its supports and 
the weight of the soil and rubbish above it. It has therefore 
not been possible to do more than to photograph the stone care- 
fully and to take rubbings of the best-preserved portions. So 
far as it can be read the inscription seems to be as follows : 

(South slope) 

?roD\Jus A PVERO GODWINw9[ ] VITA 
MANDATIS STVDVIT DIVINIS MenJE P^rlTA 
?re$B\Jer ANSELMO SACRATVS CANTVRIENSI 
CANTOR \n ECCLmA MICVIT SERESBERI ENSI. 

(North slope) 

ME Q.VI CVLTOREM STABI[/*] wRTVTE B[oHor]VM 
e\ CORRECTOREM LIBERVM FECIT V\C\ORum 

] FACIAT SVPer ASTRA LEVARI 
CETIBVS YMNIRIS ELE [ ]ARI. 

Tomb XVIII, a greenstone coffin with shaped interior, is 
placed against the south wall of the church, and a little beyond 
it are the rough foundations of another (no. XIX). No. XX, 



114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

farther west, was the fine coffin of Purbeck marble described in 
last year's Report. 

Besides this interesting and almost unique collection of 
memorials of dignitaries and canons of Old Sarum, none of which 
can well be later than the first quarter of the thirteenth century, 
mention must again be made of several others that were found 
in 1912 when following the south side of the nave. These have 
all been laid down on our plan, and were mostly plain and un- 
inscribed coffin lids of oolite or greenstone, slightly rounded or 
ridged down the middle. Just outside the third bay of the 
aisle two were found side by side. Each stone has in low relief 
a cross paty on a shaft starting from a stepped base, and had 
other stones bearing crosses set up at each end. Both head- 
stones remain : one has a plain wheel cross on each side ; the 
other has on both sides a cross paty with square ends, plain on 
the back but more ornate on the front, and the outer vertical 
edge is covered with a row of lozenges containing crosses. The 
footstone of the southern stone is badly damaged, but its fellow 
is more perfect ; both had wheel crosses on both sides in low re- 
lief. This remarkable group of stones, which are all wrought in 
the soft greenstone, dates from the eleventh century, and prob- 
ably forms the memorial of some unknown citizen and his wife. 
A small tomb, probably that of a child, was disclosed in the 
excavation bank facing the north wall of the nave. 

In addition to the discoveries south and east of the church, 
something more must be said about the cloister north of it. Its 
dimensions have already been noted ; also the fact that it had 
covered alleys on all four sides. These alleys were 12 ft. wide 
on three sides, but the south alley was 13 ft. wide. The wall 
towards the garth that carried the pentise roof could be traced 
all round and was 2 ft. thick, but only more or less of its 
foundation remained, and there was nothing to suggest what 
had stood upon it. From the large number of fragments found, 
the pentise seems to have been roofed with tiles. The rain 
water from the roofs and garth had been carried off by a stone 
drain roofed originally with planks covered with mortar. 
Part of this was traced, running out under the north-east angle. 
That end of the south alley which extended eastwards beyond 
the church had been filled at some time by a dwelling-house. 
This had at least two rooms on the ground level of the alley, 
each with a hearth of tiles laid on edge, and there was a 
third room filling up the corner of the cloister with a doorway in 
its north wall. This room had also a garderobe pit on the 
south, which seems to have been in the line of a flight of 
steps that once led from the cloister up to the cemetery. The 
garderobe was 5 ft. 3 in. long, 4 ft. broad, and 14 ft. deep, 






Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 114 




Fig. 12. ARCH-STONES OF A LARGE NORMAN DOORWAY 




Fig. 13. FINIAL OF GABLE WITH TWO LIONS, FOUND OUTSIDE THE 
SOUTH TRANSEPT 



Feb. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 115 

and yielded a good many blocks of ashlar. At the bottom 
were the remains of two glass flagons with thick necks and wide 
lip-rims, but no pottery. 

There has not yet been any opportunity of clearing, or examin- 
ing for graves, the area of the cloister garth. 

Outside of and attached to the north-west angle of the 
cloister are some remains of another building, but the further 
investigation of this and others of which indications have been 
found farther west will form part of the work of the present 
year. 

The clearing of the cloister alleys brought to light some in- 
teresting illustrations of the way in which the buildings were 
destroyed. Large cavities had been cut in the masonry and 
props of wood inserted as the work proceeded. Then these had 
been set on fire, and, as they burnt through, the walling above 
subsided into the hollows in fractured masses or was overthrown 
in bulk. By the steps up into the transept may be seen two 
such masses. One on the north of the doorway has dropped 
about 3 ft., and has in it part of the chase for the drawbar of 
the door. Another fragment at the junction of the transept 
and presbytery retains its ashlar facing, and the floor of a locker 
or recess of some kind. Towards the east end of the presbytery 
lie two overthrown lengths of wall core, from behind which 
were recovered quite a number of carved and moulded stones as 
well as ashlar blocks. 

During the five and a half months of last year's operations 
and those of the preceding year a very considerable number of 
architectural remains was accumulated (figs. 9, 10). From many 
of these it is possible to form an idea not only of the general 
richness of the twelfth-century work, but to go far towards re- 
constructing some of the parts on paper. This, however, has yet 
to be done. Of carved heads of varying degrees of grotesqueness 
there is quite a collection, including two of large size belonging 
to a series round some important doorway (fig. 12). One of these 
has a sixfold tongue protruding from the mouth, and the other 
a mermaid hanging on to the teeth. The curious thing is that 
these two heads, and it is to be presumed the rest that completed 
the half-circle, were carved upside down. Outside the end of the 
south transept there were found in 1912 a considerable number of 
stones that had belonged to a row of small gables, part perhaps 
of the decoration of the south doorway or of the porch that 
covered it. These gables are peculiar in exhibiting what are 
probably the earliest examples of true crockets (fig. 11). They 
seem also to have enclosed some such ornaments as the large 
rosette which was found with them. Several gables were sur- 
mounted by pairs of creatures, one having two lions gnawing a 



116 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914. 

round object, carved with considerable spirit (fig. 13); another 
had two birds, and a third a plain cylindrical h'nial. Proof that 
parts of the new presbytery were vaulted is afforded by a number 
of lengths of ribs, and of a key with a damaged boss in form of 
a floriated cross in a beaded circle. Quite a number of small 
blocks are carved with rosettes and other devices in relief, and 
many others of the series may be seen built into the close wall 
in Salisbury ; they probably formed components of ornamental 
diapers. There are also one or two examples of the springing 
blocks of pairs of arches with zigzag patterns which, combined 
with such diapers, would furnish a design almost identical with 
that of the contemporary triforium at Rochester. Many other 
details, such as carved and simple capitals, pieces of string- 
courses, and arch mouldings of various patterns, still await draw- 
ing out and classifying, for which we hope to find time during 
the forthcoming season. 

Among the minor objects discovered may be mentioned a 
number of fragments of plain and patterned floor tiles, which 
were found for the most part scattered in or about the eastern 
part of the church and in the south alley of the cloister. The 
stone flooring already described can be traced over so much of 
the church that it is difficult to see where these tiles could have 
been laid, but possibly on the destroyed platform of the high 
altar. 

A more remarkable discovery is that of quite a considerable 
quantity of pieces of verde-antico and red porphyry of various 
sizes. These materials are so rare in this country, Westminster 
and Canterbury (both at Christchurch and St. Augustin's Abbey) 
being the only other known places of their occurrence, that it 
would be very important to say how they could have been used 
here. They were, however, so scattered about that this is im- 
possible. There was, moreover, no shrine or important tomb 
here that we are aware of, yet these precious materials were 
used in a church that was destroyed before the Canterbury and 
Westminster works were begun ! 

One other singular discovery deserves notice, this time within 
the church. During the clearance of the north end of the 
ambulatory the remains of several human skeletons were found, 
lying on the floor level in such a way as to suggest that they 
had been thrown out of stone coffins when the church was de- 
stroyed. With one of these skeletons was deposited a wonder- 
fully perfect set of leg-irons, consisting of two closing rings 
which were still riveted and connected by two long and one 
round link. The unfortunate man whose bones these were had 
evidently therefore been buried in his fetters. He must have 
been a person of note, or he would not have received burial at 



llf. 











Feb. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 117 

the hands of the canons in an honourable part of their church. 
So far no one has been able to suggest his name, but it ought to 
be possible to find what notable person could have been im- 
prisoned in the castle between the building of the new presby- 
tery in the middle of the twelfth century and its destruction 
early in the thirteenth. 

It only remains to add that the supervision of the work day 
by day was undertaken, as in previous years, with his usual 
care and patience by Lt.-Col. Hawley. I myself also visited 
Old Sarum at frequent intervals and was able to take part in 
the discovery and planning of many of the interesting features 
in the church. Mr. Montgomerie joined us towards the end of 
the season and stayed on for many weeks taking photographs, 
finishing the plan, and supervising the protective works 
necessary against the winter. 

During the season visits were paid us by the Hampshire Field 
Club, the Bournemouth Science Club, a joint gathering of 
the Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Wiltshire 
Archaeological Society, the Surrey Archaeological Society, 
and by a large party of members of the Royal Archaeological 
Institute. A projected visit of the Society of Antiquaries un- 
fortunately fell through, but many of the Fellows came over 
from time to time, and the interest shown by visitors in general 
is attested by the ^11^ received as gate-money, and the ^16 
from the sale of our reports." 

Mr. WILMEU took the opportunity presented by the report to 
say a few words on the financial aspect of the two excavations 
in progress under the auspices of the Society. A study of the 
balance-sheet would reveal the extent of the Society^ indebted- 
ness to Mr. Tapp, who filled the office of Treasurer last year. 
He himself ventured to ask for the collaboration of certain 
Fellows who last year helped to collect funds for the work, as 
the Research Fund was small and many calls were made upon it. 
Although 80 per cent, was allocated to the excavations, there was 
a large sum still to be found. Voluntary efforts had to be relied 
upon, and individual appeals made on behalf of either excavation 
or both. There would be drawbacks to a State subsidy, but till 
a Department and Minister of Fine Arts were established, the 
Society must pay its own way. There was no question as to 
the value of the work, and many problems would be solved by 
the advance of critical science. He would make the appeal for 
funds a personal one, and did not feel called upon to apologize 
for begging on behalf of such a cause. The great interest shown 
in the paper was a tribute to the Council's wisdom and enterprise 
as well as to the ability of those in charge on the spot. 



118 PROCEEDINC4S OF THE [1914, 

Mr. PEEKS congratulated the Society on witnessing the dis- 
interment of another English cathedral, Which added one more to 
the interesting series of late eleventh-century plans immediately 
succeeding the Conquest. There was no question that the Con- 
quest did smother native architecture, but it also brought over 
a notable endowment of architectural skill. Up to the middle of 
the twelfth century England led the way in architecture, but after 
that date the lead was taken by the French. In 1901 he had laid 
before the Society the details of Rom sey Abbey, where an apse was 
found within the lines of the twelfth-century central tower, belong- 
ing to an earlier building. The enlargement of the pre-Conquest 
church was probably begun after 1085, when the abbey obtained 
an accession of wealth ; and did not range with the French plan 
adopted in other places in England, showing that the Saxon 
plan survived the Conquest. Sarum was an interesting example 
of the imported plan, with a short presbytery of one bay, while 
Westminster had a two-bay presbytery, and Christchurch (Hants) 
three bays. St. Albans, with four bays, was inspired by St. Stephen's 
at Caen, and the French plan was becoming universal at the time 
when Sarum was built, at the end of the eleventh century. Early 
in the twelfth century the Sarum church was enlarged in a charac- 
teristically English way,' with a square east end ; the main span 
was widened, so that the tower piers were not on the line of the 
old arcades but outside them, and it was evidently intended to 
rebuild the nave on this larger scale. This was never done, and 
walls were therefore built between the transepts and the aisles 
of the nave, to mask the change of line between the old nave 
arcades and the newer tower piers. The west end of the nave 
was also lengthened, but as in this case the span of the added 
work corresponded with that of the nave, it was clear that this 
lengthening was either earlier than the eastern extension of the 
church, or was made after the idea of rebuilding the nave was 
abandoned. 

Rev. E. E. DORLIXG was able to supplement what had been said 
about Godwin the precentor, who had previously been chancellor 
of Salisbury. His name appeared with that of other witnesses 
about 1108. It was generally believed at Salisbury that the tomb 
of Jocelyn had a restored head. The late Mr. Arthur Maiden 
was engaged at the time of his lamented death in a search for 
further information about Aylward, but there seemed to be 
nothing in his papers about either him or Godwin. 

The PRESIDENT spoke of the work at Old Sarum as one of the 
Society's heaviest responsibilities, and had omitted to mention, 
when Mr. Bushe- Fox's report on Wroxeter was presented, that 






Feb. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 119 

the Research Fund was much indebted to Birmingham University 
for showing interest in that site to the extent of ^500. The 
Society was only too pleased to recognize this valuable co-opera- 
tion, and Lord Barnard, as owner of the site, would not overlook 
Birmingham's claims to a share in the proceeds of the excava- 
tions. The proposed visit of a party to Old Sarum had unfortu- 
nately fallen through, and nothing but a personal acquaintance 
with the site could bring home the points discussed by Mr. Hope. 
The reappearance of a ground-plan that had been buried 600 years 
was in itself an imposing event, and there were details enough for 
the most exacting architect. The Society fully appreciated the 
achievements of those in charge of the work at Old Sarum : 
Mr. Hope's knowledge and lucidity were everywhere recognized ; 
and Colonel Hawley, who was unfortunately unable to be present, 
as well as Mr. Montgomerie, deserved the Society's warmest thanks. 
The new bridge had been mentioned in passing, but he might add 
that its construction cost 77, one of those incidental expenses 
for which there was little to show but which nevertheless en- 
croached on the funds available. He did not share the belief 
that a Minister of Fine Arts would save the situation, and thought 
that before entering on such a scheme it would be well to inquire 
how the Department worked in France, from those serving under 
the minister in question. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for this communication. 



THURSDAY, 5th March, 1914. 

Sir CHARLES HERCULES READ, Knt., LL.D., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From L. B. Phillips, Esq., F.S.A.: Traite de 1'horlogerie mecanique et 
pratique. Par Thiout 1'aine. 2 tomes. 4to. Paris, 1741. 

From Seiior Jose Ramon Melida, Hon. F.S.A.: Excavaciones de 
Numancia. Memoria presentada al Ministerio de Instruceum Public* 
y Bellas Artes por la Comision Ejecutiva. fol. Madrid, 1912. 

From C. R. Peers, Esq., Secretary : -Report of the Inspector of Ancient 
Monuments for the year ending 31st March, 1913. 4to. London, 
u.d. 



120 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

E. NEIL BAYNES, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited the matrix of the 
seal of the extinct borough of Newborough, Anglesey, dis- 
solved in 1814 and a brass to Marcelie Lloyd, 1609, from the 
disused church of Llanwenllwyfo, Anglesey. 1 

L. A. LAWRENCE, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a collection of posy 
rings. 

TALFOURD ELY, Esq., D.Litt., F.S.A., exhibited an oil por- 
trait on copper supposed to represent Richard Cromwell. 

This being an evening appointed for the election of Fellows 
no papers were read. 

The ballot opened at 8.45 p.m. and closed at 9.30 p.m., when 
the following were declared duly elected Fellows of the Society : 
Charles Harry St. John Hornby, Esq., B.A. 
Rev. Philip Thomas Byard Clayton, M.A. 
Henry William Lewer, Esq. 
Robert Copp Fowler, Esq., B.A. 
William de Courcy Prideaux, Esq. 
Jonathan Edward Hodgkin, Esq. 
Arthur William Gould, Esq. 
Colonel Sir Clement Molyneux Royds, C.B. 
Arthur Thomas Bolton, Esq. 



THURSDAY, 12th MAIICH, 1914. 

Sir CHARLES HERCULES REAJD, Knt., LL.D., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From John Gibson, Esq. : Guide to the Priory Church of St. Andrewj 
Hexham. By C. C. Hodges. 8vo. Hexham, 1913. 

From Harold Sands, Esq., F. S. A. : Barking Abbey in the middle ages. 
By Walter A. Locks. 8vo. London, 1913. 

From Mill Stepheuson, Esq., B.A., F.S.A.: Two thousand years of gild 
life. By Rev. J. M. Lambert. 8vo. Hull, 1891. 

1 See Arch. Camb. Ill, v, 170. 



Mar. 12.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 121 

The following were admitted Fellows : 
Henry William Lewer, Esq. 
William de Courcy Prideaux, Esq. 
Robert Copp Fowler, Esq., B.A. 

Earl FERRERS, F.S.A., on behalf of the Rev. ROLAND BOROUGH, 
read the following paper on the private chapel of the Earl 
Ferrers at Staunton Harold : 

" In the year 1653, no doubt owing to the overthrow of the 
Prayer Book services in the parish church, Sir Robert Shirley 
built a large and spacious church close to his own mansion at 
Staunton Harold. When it was completed the Lord Protector 
demanded a large sum of money from him on the ground that if 
he could afford to build a church he could afford to provide 
him with a regiment of soldiers. On his refusal he was im- 
prisoned in the Tower and died suddenly soon afterwards. 

The casual observer on first catching sight of the building 
would be inclined to mistake it for a church of the fourteenth 
or fifteenth century (fig. 1). It consists of a chancel, a nave with 
north and south aisles, and a west tower containing a ring of 
eight bells. The nave has a clearstory and is separated from the 
aisles by arcades of three bays. The nave roof is almost flat ; 
the other roofs are very low-pitched, and all the walls have 
embattled parapets. The tower, the west door of which forms 
the only entrance to the church, is a massive structure of three 
stages, with pairs of buttresses at the angles. The uppermost 
stage has two two-light windows in each face and large crocketed 
angle-pinnacles with vanes. 

The chancel is low in proportion to the nave, and is separated 
from it by a low pointed arch having a blank wall-space above ; 
its details and those of the nave arcades have a close general 
resemblance to medieval work. There is, however, a complete 
departure from the English medieval type in the roofs, and also 
in the woodwork, which is of the kind usual in the early part of 
the seventeenth century. 

Round the outside of the chancel runs an inscription, as 
follows : 

SIR ROBERT SHIRLEY BARONET : FOYNDER OF THIS 
CHVRCH : ANNO DOMINI 1653 ON WHOSE SOVL : GOD HATH 
MERCY. 

It looks as though his successor wished to cling to old phrases 
so far as possible, but fighting shy of the precatory have ' sub- 
stituted the assumption 4 hath\ Over the entrance (fig. 2), 
which is at the west end as already mentioned, is this beautiful 
and touching inscription : 



122 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

In the yeare : 1653. 

when all things sacred were throughout y e nation 

either demollisht or profaned 

S r Robert Shirley Barronet 

PVmnded this Church 

whose singular praise it is 

to have done the best things in y e worst times 

And 

hoped them in the most callamitous 
The Righteous shall be had in everlasting remembrance. 

On entering the church (fig. 3), the first thing that catches the 
eye is the fine wronght-iron chancel-screen and gates, surmounted 
by the Shirley Arms. There is a broad gangway between the 
pews, which are of fine workmanship, of the square type with 
doors, but not unduly high. Every seat faces east. There are 
also smaller gangways in the aisles. The oak panelling is carried 
up the pillars as high as the capitals, and to a corresponding 
height along the walls. 

The walls were originally plastered and distempered, but the 
plaster, becoming cracked, was unfortunately removed altogether 
only a short time ago. The stonework beneath is rough and 
unfinished. 

The roofs are boarded and almost flat, and are painted in 
a most uncommon way with a representation of the Creation. 
Clouds are the predominating feature, while the sun and moon 
are in evidence in the nave ; and just before the entrance to the 
chancel, within a 4 glory ', is the Sacred Name of God nnJTj. This 
is a noteworthy example of the very superficial knowledge of 
Hebrew in those days. Vau (l) is so clumsily written as to be 
more like resh (n), while the first letter ought to be yod (') and 
not van at all. Moreover, the insertion of the pointing of the fcYf 
(what is read) Adojiai, would have been thought out of place by 
anybody who knew that the word Jehovah was formed accidentally 
from the vowels of Adonai (the Lord) being combined with the 
K^thw (what was written), namely thetetragrammaton J H V H. 

On the chancel ceiling, just over the altar, is the word Oeo? 
surrounded by a circle of winged heads represented alternately 
as singing < Halleluiah' and ' Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus'. The 
chancel is on the same level as the nave, with no step either up 
or down, and is quite empty, without stalls of any kind. There 
is an ascent of three steps to the presbytery. 

Until quite recently these steps were fitted with movable 
kneeling-benches with flat tops, permanently hung with house- 
ling-cloths of dark blue or purple cloth, en suite with all the 
hangings and upholstery in the church. 

The Decalogue is now written on one small table to the north 
of the altar, the Creed and Lord's Prayer being contained on 



I 

I 






.^> 

I 

"5 



I ! 



Jl 



Mar. 12.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 123 

another to the south. This, however, was done within living- 
memory, the original Tables of the Commandments being over 
the chancel arch and so large as to be easily read from the west 
gallery. 

The presbytery is paved with squares of black and white 
marble, and the nave with good flagstones. 

The altar itself is just an inch short of 3 ft. high, and the 
original pall and tasselled cushions are still in use. The colour 
is, or was, a dark red-purple, with heavy gold fringe, and the 
altar-pall is pulled out at the lower corners, giving the altar the 
appearance of being longer than it really is. Altar coverings of 
this kind are sometimes to be seen in thirteenth-century minia- 
tures, and although their place was taken latterly by the flat 
straight-hanging frontal familiar to us now, this large loose- 
fitting type survived in places. There is an interesting eighteenth- 
century example in a well-known French devotional book. 

The design in the midst of the front consists of rays surround- 
ing a crown of thorns, within which is the sacred monogram 
surmounted by a cross, while the three nails and a. heart are 
beneath. The heart appears also on the almsdish. 

A pulpit-hanging with the same design on a smaller scale was 
found in the house a few years ago, but has not so far been 
restored to use. 

The linen altar-cloth is fringed all round and reaches to the 
ground in front, and beside the corporas there is a long narrow 
strip of very old and fine linen. This seems to be a survival of 
the early medieval type of corporas, which had four folds to the 
length and three to the breadth. The two eastern folds were 
turned up behind the chalice and used to cover it. Afterwards, 
the easternmost fold was severed from the rest and formed a 
separate strip such as this. 

The altar-pall and cushions are removed out of service-time, 
while the ornaments appear only at the Communion. These 
consist of two very fine gilt candlesticks, a large and handsome 
alms-basin, two flagons, two chalices with covers, two standing 
patens with covers, and two knives (but these are modern) (fig. 4). 
In accordance with the medieval custom, these are all set out upon 
the altar by way of decoration, even when all are not required 
for use. The covers to the chalices and patens are surmounted 
by crosses. The flagons have ' Holiness to the Lord ' on their 
lids, while the body is engraved with the crown of thorns sur- 
rounding the words * The Blood of the New and .Eternal Testa- 
ment '. Each chalice has engraved upon its side a figure of the 
Good Shepherd carrying a lamb upon His shoulders, while one 
has also the inscription k My blood is drink indeed ', and on its 
cover ' My flesh is meat indeed '. On the paten-covers are the 



124 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

words ' My Love is crucified ', and on the patens themselves 
4 This is the true Bread that came down from heaven '. The 
plate is dated 1640 and 1654, and has been dealt with more 
fully in Trollope's Church Plate of Leicestershire.^ 

The custom has only lately been discontinued of placing two 
handsomely bound books or t&rtta, for the Epistle and Gospel 
respectively, on the altar north and south, leaning against the 
east wall between the alms-basin and candlesticks. These were 
in addition to the two service-books, and it is a very striking 
survival of an early custom. There were other cases of sur- 
vival at Winchester Cathedral, Christ Church, Oxford, and 
Peterborough, but probably all trace has now disappeared ex- 
cept from old pictures. There are also rubrics for the same in 
eighteenth-century French missals. 

The original books are in the library at Staunton Harold, 
and have crucifixes engraved on both back and front. The 
books that replaced them are now in the church chest, and a 
painting in the library shows that at one time they were placed 
outside the candlesticks at the extreme ends. The Bidding 
Prayer has never been discontinued. 

Marks on the stone- work prove that the pulpit had a sound- 
ing-board at one time, and its removal is a disaster, as the posi- 
tion of the pulpit just beyond the spring of an arch puts an 
enormous strain on the preacher's voice. 

The separation of the sexes has been rigidly preserved from 
the first, the men being placed on the south side, and the 
women on the north. At the Communion all the women re- 
ceive first, the men afterwards, and only one railful is allowed 
within the chancel gates at a time. Each communicant kneels 
upon a separate cushion. 

There is a font at the west end, but rather too much to one 
side ; it has a good cover of simple character worked by brass 
chains. The priest stands facing north. 

A fine screen of Renaissance character separates the nave from 
the tower and supports the west gallery where the organ stands 
(fig. 5). Above the organ a species of wooden tympanum covers 
the apex of the tower-arch, and serves to display the Shirley arms 
painted on an oval escutcheon. The whole compositionis strangely 
reminiscent of the medieval rood-screen with its loft and tym- 
panum, although it is in reality more to be connected with"the 
pre-lieformation west galleries. 

The gallery holds the choir and the very sweet-toned little 

organ, without pedals, by Father Schmidt. This has been moved 

eastwards at some time, possibly to give more room in the belfry, 

but the organist and singers are now distinctly cramped. There 

1 Vol. i, 11. 



Proc, 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To fa ce page 124 




3. STAUXTOX HAROLD CHAPEL I INTERIOR, LOOKIXG EAST 
BEFORE THE REMOVAL OF THE PLANTER 



Mar. 12.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 125 

is no question as to the genuineness of the organ. Mr. Francis 
Burgess, the well-known plainsong expert, wrote as follows after 
examining it : 4 The organ stands in its original case in the west 
gallery, and is now practically the same as when it left the 
builder's hands some two centuries and a half ago. It contains 
the usual specification of the period (Open and Stopped Dia- 
pasons, Principal, Fifteenth, and Sesquialtera), most of the stops 
being drawn in two halves, a convenient device for a one-manual 
instrument. The original pipes, entirely of wood, are somewhat 
the worse for wear, but they still show signs of the superb crafts- 
manship of their maker. The tone is " small ", but by no means 
ineffective, as the organ is well placed in a splendidly resonant 
building. 1 

A verger in gown, carrying a wand, used to add to the dignity 
of the chapel and its services ; but the last occupant had held 
the post so long, and become so identified with it, that at his 
death no successor was appointed. The gown and wand are 
still in existence. 

Before closing this paper one question arises Where is the 
litany-desk ? Knowing what we do of the Caroline era, and 
knowing, too, that Sir Robert Shirley was the very embodiment 
of all that was best in the ideas of the time, it is hard to believe 
that what was then looked upon as so essential a piece of furni- 
ture could have been missing. There are seventeenth- century 
litany-desks still existing in Durham Cathedral (the gift of 
Bishop Cosin) and the parish church of High Wycombe, Buck- 
inghamshire, and it seems highly probable that there was one at 
Staunton Harold, which was removed during the eighteenth cen- 
tury or the early days of the nineteenth. There are signs that cer- 
tain changes of questionable character took place about then e.g. 
the space partitioned off' for a vestry used to be at the east end 
of the north aisle, but was moved to the south aisle behind the 
pulpit ; also, the writer is inclined to doubt whether the reading- 
desk was always used for reading Morning and Evening Prayer. 
The big Prayer Book now in use only dates from 1840, while 
the Bible is of 1660 there is not real room for both on the desk, 
there is no seat, and it does not seem built to kneel to ; this is 
only possible by using a very high hassock, whereas by removing 
the hassock and placing only the Bible on the cushion, it can 
at once be seen how ideal it is for reading the Lessons. 

The desk below, facing north, is furnished with a seat, and 
may well have been used by the chaplain, as there could not be 
a real clerk in a private chapel. 

Posterity and present-day ecclesiologists owe a deep debt of 
gratitude to the Shirley family for the preservation of so much 
that is of value both in the building itself and its traditional 
customs/' 



126 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

Mr. HOPE claimed a personal interest in the chapel inasmuch 
as his father baptized the last Lord Ferrers and had often 
officiated there. The building was of special interest as the only 
one erected during the Civil War ; and it was curious that the 
Gothic tradition should have survived so long. There were 
similar unexpected Gothic details at Wadham College, Oxford, 
and the date was vouched for by documents. Peterhouse, Cam- 
bridge, was another case in point. The skinning of the walls 
was unfortunate as their present appearance was unpleasant, and 
it was a mistake to regard plaster as an invention of modern 
churchwardens. He had no doubt that the screen was Bake- 
well's work, and compared some work at All Saints', Derby ; 
there was also a pair of gates to the old silk mills in that town 
by the same maker, as was proved by his name being stamped 
on them. The red colour on the western door he suggested 
might be lichen and not paint, and quoted a case at Fountains 
Abbey. One level throughout the church was an interesting 
feature that modern architects would regard as incorrect. The 
wonderful collection of plate was doubtless of the same date as 
the building, for an identical set by the same maker existed at 
Rochester, and a third at the Chapel Royal, St. James's. Still 
stronger Gothic influence was noticed on six sets in South 
Derbyshire, dating about 1640, which looked at first sight like 
sixteenth-century work. He inquired the date of the shelf 
placed above the altar, an arrangement which he thought would 
not have been tolerated in the seventeenth century. 

Mr. NORMAN mentioned the church of Berwick-on-Tweed as 
another built during the Civil War, about 1645, but of much 
later appearance than Staunton Harold chapel. St. Catherine 
Cree in the City was a Laudian church with a Gothic plan, but 
otherwise debased Renaissance. There were many other churches 
in London that were built in debased Gothic style or added to 
during the seventeenth century, such as All Hallows, Barking; 
St. Alban, Wood Street ; and St. Mary Aldermarv. 

Rev. E. E. DORLING was interested in the linen strip described 
as a corporas. At Wimborne Minster the altar-rails and wooden 
benches were always covered with cloths of white linen, and as 
that use of houseling-cloths had only survived in a few cases, he 
thought the linen strip might belong to that class of coverings. 

Mr. E. P. WARREN said the chapel followed an earlier type 
of Gothic than the staircase at Christ Church, Oxford, and was 
more Gothic than Wadham, which was forty years earlier. 
Staunton Harold showed no undue clinging to architectural 




1 ? 



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Mar. 12.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 127 

tradition that might be expected in an elderly mason. He had 
seen no example of a small altar with its cloth spread out in 
that way except in Lutheran churches in Denmark, as in the 
small chapel at Frederiksborg Palace. At Dursveston the altar 
had a shorter cloth of that kind simulated in oak, with the sacred 
monogram. It was intended to be covered and to throw out 
the angles of the cloth, the date being about 1800. He de- 
plored the removal of the wall plaster, and quoted Groombridge 
chapel as a case of survival. It was built 1605-10, but had 
perpendicular windows at the east and west ends, an interesting 
Gothic porch with a Renaissance doorway, and a tablet referring 
to Prince Charles's return from Spain. 

Mr. BAILUOX cited as a parallel the chapel of Lincoln's Inn, 
which was built by Inigo Jones in 1625. Among other features 
might be mentioned the curious double or quadrangular arches, 
and a combination of pilasters reappearing in the crypt of 
Lincoln's Inn. The pulpits were similar in design, and the Inn 
had equally suffered the loss of its sounding-board, though it 
had since been recovered. 

Mr. QUARREL!, remarked that the name of the artist of the 
ceiling was well known in the neighbourhood. The paper had not 
touched on another matter connected with the name of Shirley, 
namely, the alabaster tombs at Bredon-on-the-Hill, dating from 
1570-1 and 1591. The subject was worth following up, for 
Bredon lay in a backwater and preserved many ancient fea- 
tures, including the oak pew of the Shirley family, also a sword, 
gauntlet, and helmet, though the last would not pass muster with 
an expert. 

Mr. GRACE quoted Shifnal church with its timber roof as 
built late in the reign of James I, and referred to the altar of 
the church at present known as that of St. Charles the Martyr at 
Tunbridge Wells. He thought the beautiful outline and refined 
lines of the candlesticks showed they were not of the same date 
as the remainder of the church plate. 

Mr. PEERS considered the chapel an extremely interesting 
example of architectural development, and pointed out that 
seventeenth-century Gothic was not a wilful mixture. In spite 
of the influence of Inigo Jones a Gothic style still survived that 
took its details from various models. Thus at St. John's, Peter- 
borough, there were windows altered late in the eighteenth 
century with tracery like the east end of Staunton Harold. 
The latter church had perpendicular tracery in the tower, but 





128 PROCEEDINGS OP THE [1914, 

certain details showed that it was all of one date. The heads 
of the upper lights were rounded in a peculiar way, but the 
roll-moulding and fillet might have dated from William of 
WykehanVs time. The work still retained the Jacobean feel- 
ing, with none of the severity of Inigo Jones, and was a pecu- 
liarly English variety of Renaissance. The two stages of the 
tower, though different, were probably the work of the same 
mason. The screen under the organ gallery and the panels of 
the gallery were Jacobean in style though dating from the time 
of the Commonwealth. Windows at Bishop's Waltham, dated 
1651, were built in a curious style that might be called vernacu- 
lar Gothic, and the spire of Onndle church was a surprising work 
for 1629. 

Lord FERRERS replied that there was much truth in Mr. Peers\s 
remark that the chapel was built in that style because it was 
the inevitable expression of contemporary feeling ; but it should 
be observed that the earlier Gothic style was deliberately chosen 
as a basis. There was a desire to reproduce something strictly 
medieval, and the latest Gothic tradition was perhaps instinc- 
tively ignored. He had no theories about the worn strip of 
linen that might have been a corporas. The author had not 
intended to claim Staunton Harold as the only Gothic church 
of the seventeenth century ; it was unique in being built during 
the Civil War. He was still inclined to regard the red colour 
as paint that had not been weathered by wind and rain, and had 
a thin lime coating to preserve it. The altar-shelf seemed to 
be contemporary with the other woodwork, but there had been 
some slight additions on the top. 

The PRESIDENT said the meeting had listened to what had 
been in the truest sense an interesting paper, for which thanks 
were due both to Mr. Borough and Earl Ferrers. England was 
extremely rich in remains of that kind, and the present building 
had in private hands happily escaped the ravages of time and 
restoration. He had been specially attracted by the display of 
church plate, and the covered paten reminded him of an eccle- 
siastical vessel exhibited to the Society twenty years ago that 
had been called a font, but exactly resembled the lower part of 
that paten. It bore an inscription, and had passed into the 
possession of Lord Swaythling. A Gothic feeling was manifest 
in all parts of the chapel except the woodwork, and it might be 
that those craftsmen were more in touch with the spirit of the 
time than the stone-masons. 

S. HAZZLEDINE WARREN, Esq., F.G.S., exhibited portions of 



Troc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 128 




Fig. 5. STAUNTON HAROLD < HAPKL : INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST 



Mar. 12.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



129 



two cinerary urns of the Early Iron Age found together at Deal, 
on which Mr. REGINALD SMITH read the following notes : 

" The east coast of Kent is of all parts of England the most 
likely to contain relics of foreign origin, and attention has 
recently been called to pottery from Broadstairs (ten miles dis- 
tant on the coast) similar to wares of the Champagne and 
Saxony. 1 The present exhibit adds two other items to the list ; 
and Mr. Warren has shown his appreciation of their importance 
by handing over the fragments as a gift to the British Museum. 

The first group of fragments, now accurately put together in 
plaster, is notable for the designs incised on the neck and 
shoulder, differing from indigenous vessels both of the Bronze 
and Early Iron Ages. Only a small portion is preserved (fig. 1), 




Fig. 1 . FRAGMENTS OF URN FOUND AT DEAL, WITH RESTORATION*. D. 8 IN. 

but enough to give the original form with the exception of the 
foot, the diameter being 8 in. and the height 7 in. The ware 
is thin, dark brown and slightly burnished, the pattern being 
traced with a rounded point before firing. On the neck is a 
step pattern derived from the Greek fret or key pattern, and 
furnishing a clue to the country of origin. Etruscan wares 
dating before the fifth century B.C. are considered to be the proto- 
types of step-pattern urns, ornamented by means of a toothed 
wheel, which occur on the Elbe banks, in Mecklenburg, Hanover, 
Lauenburg, and Holstein, also in Denmark (Lolland) and 
Bohemia. 2 

Later examples of the step or degenerate fret pattern are 
found in Southern Scandinavia 3 and are attributed to the early 

1 Proceedings, xxii, 509 ; xxv, 89. Cf. Archaeologia, lii, pi. xii, tigs. 1,3. 

8 Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires du Nord, 1896-1901, 372, 375, 
fig. 2. 

3 Cremation urn at Nybble, Vikingstad : Meddelanden j ran Ostergotlands 
Fornminnesforening, 1912, p. 11. 

VOL. XXVI L 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

Roman period of that region, that is, to the first or second cen- 
tury of our era ; but the lines making up the design are dotted, 
not continuous, either in single or double rows. Dr. Sophus 
Miiller l describes and illustrates Jutish urns of the same period, 
with lightly engraved lines in angular fret patterns, sometimes 
filled with hatching or dots, and one from Hanover on a con- 
tracted foot has a triple fret of dotted lines. 

The step-pattern or simplified fret is generally called the 
meander on the Continent, though in English a wavy pattern is 
usually implied by that term. In a paper on meander urns Dr. 
Kossinna 2 of Berlin has summarized the known finds which are 
both East and West German, especially in the larger river 
valleys (Vistula, Oder, and Elbe). They are often associated 
with La Tene objects, and are classified as follows, in chrono- 
logical order : 

(a) Simple empty band of double lines ; 

(b) Band filled with hatching ; 

(c) herring-bone pattern ; 

(d) short longitudinal lines ; 

(e) dots. 

Various combinations of continuous and dotted lines are found, 
the latest being a single dotted line, produced at the beginning 
of the Roman Empire by the roulette. The period covered in 
North Germany is from the eighteenth century B. c. to the second 
century A.D. Specimens are illustrated by Voss and Stimming 
( Vorgeschichtliche Alterihumer aus Brandenburg, part v, plates 
1, 4, 10, 12-14), and Beltz ( Vorgesch. Alt. Mecklenburg- Schzverins, 
plate 60). The former series is from Westhavelland, and is 
decorated with double or triple discontinuous lines ; and the 
latter shows a closer connexion with the Hallstatt period wares of 
South-west Germany. 

Though the meander was a favourite and widespread form of 
decoration in North Germany, it was probably from the Celtic 
area of the Marne that the Deal specimens were derived. Apart 
from the Broadstairs examples, several features of the two frag- 
ments correspond to Gaulish wares in the Morel Collection 
(British Museum), and a few diagrams are given for comparison. 
Panels enclosing plain crosses are incised on the neck and shoulder 
of an elegant blackware vase (fig. 2) from Marson, Marne 
(Morel, Album, pi. xli, fig. 23), the design being filled with red. 
A red bowl from the same locality and probably the same 
cemetery (Album, pi. xli, fig. 12) has the design painted in a 
deeper colour, the simplified fret being on the neck and a step- 

1 Nordische Altertumskunde , ii, 60 ; Urgeschichte Europas, 168. 

2 Correspondenzblatt (Archiv fur Anthropologie), 1907, 165 ; see also 
Zeitschrift fur Ethnologic, xl (1908), 772. 



Mar. 12.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



131 



pattern on the body (fig. 3). In the same collection is a vase 
from Mesnil-les-Huflus, Marne, with a triple step-pattern painted 
on the neck in red on a black ground; and a tall urn from 
Bussy-le-Chfiteau in the same Department (fig. 4) is interesting 




Fig. 2. 1JLACK I RN WITH INCISED LINES RED, MARSON, 3IARNE. H. 6'8 IN. 




fig. 3. RED URN PAINTED, MARSON 
MARNE. II. 4'5 IN. 



4. URN WITH IN(I-ll) 
ORNAMENT, BUSSY-LE-CHATEAU, 

MARNE. H. 7'7 IN. 



as showing the degeneration of the simplified fret into a double 
horizontal scroll, obviously due to a careless rendering of the 
angular pattern (Album, pi. xxxv, fig. 6). The panel separating 
the scrolls recalls that of the Deal example, which with the 
second fragment is evidently akin to a large urn from Mesnil- 
les-Hurlus, Marne (Album, pi. xli, fig. 7). The decoration is 
incised, and consists of a simplified fret on the neck and a double 



132 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1914. 



row of chevrons running round the shoulder (fig. 5). The 
latter design occurs on the second Deal fragment (fig. 6), the 
outline of the completed urn being based on a plain specimen in 




Fig 



URN WITH INCISED ORNAMENT, 3IESNIL-LES-HURLUS; MARNE. 
H. 104 IN. 




Fig. 6. 



FRAGMENT OF URN FOUND AT DEAL; WITH RESTORATION. 
D. 13 IN. 



the Morel Collection from Somme Bionne, Marne. The ware is 
a reddish" brown with minute white particles in the paste; and 
the design consists of three incised zones on the shoulder con- 
taining groups of three sloping lines and plain chevrons. As 



Mar. 12.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 133 

restored the height is about 10-J in., that of the Somme Bionne 
urn being 8 in. in height and diameter. As the Marne ceme- 
tery is known to date from the fifth century B.C. it is possible 
that the urn in question is of the same century ; and if, as 
seems evident, the two Deal fragments are contemporary, that 
date is indicated on every ground, and a further addition made 
to the list of antiquities representing in Britain the earliest 
Iron Age or Hallstatt period of the Continent. 

A small fragment possibly of the same date as that from 
Deal, with a design still closer to the Greek fret, is in the 
possession of Mr. Montgomerie Bell, and was found in Oxford. 
It has long been regarded as unique in this country, but falls 
into its place beside the Deal specimens ; and there now seems 
to be a clue to the foreign connexions of Kent in the dark cen- 
turies that succeeded the Bronze Age. Possibly there was com- 
merce between the Remi and the Cantii, and if there was also a 
blood connexion, we may regard these fragments as signs of a 
Belgic invasion earlier than is generally recognized. That 
alluded to by Caesar may have brought us our first coinage in 
the second century B.C., but there are now grounds for suppos- 
ing that certain Belgae crossed into Kent two or three centuries 
earlier, and prepared the way for the culture of La Tene that 
was to have a splendid development on this side of the Channel." 

I,. A. LAWRENCE, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a fragment of gold 
filigree from Selsey, on which Mr. REGINALD SMITH read the 
following notes : 

" The shore between Selsey and Bognor has yielded an extra- 
ordinary amount of gold in minute fragments for many years 
past, but practically all date from the close of British indepen- 
dence under the local kings Tincommius, Verica, and Eppillus, 
all sons of Commius. Specimens are in the British Museum 
and an account was published by Mr. Ernest Willett 1 , whose 
father, the late Mr. Henry Willett, of Brighton, contributed 
largely to the collection and was formerly the owner of the 
fragment now exhibited. His son, Mr. Edgar Willett, gave it 
to Mr. Lawrence, with an assurance that it was found on the sandy 
shore from which so much of the same metal has been recovered. 

It consists of a thin plate almost of butterfly form with the 
upper edges strengthened by an overlapping strip with filigree 
border in front, now much worn. The triangular spaces in 
front are covered with a serpentine design in gold filigree, re- 
peated but not pointing in the same direction. The serpentine 
coils are not continuous, the object being merely to fill the space 

1 Numismatic Chronicle, N.S. xvii, 309 ; Sussex Arch. Collns., xxix, 7- 
and xxx, 1 ; and Evaiis, Coins of the Ancient liritimx, Supplement, 490. 



134 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1914, 



with an interlaced pattern, but the head is clear in both cases. 
The interlacing is executed in triple filigree, the central line 
being the stoutest of the three. A similar arrangement of roped 
instead of beaded wires is seen on pieces in the Terslev hoard 
near Praesto, Zealand, dated by coins about A.D. 950. 1 

The fragment probably belonged to a brooch or other piece of 
personal jewellery, but it is not easy to place with any certainty. 
Four-sided plates of filigree were commonly set in the ends of 
penannular brooches (as the Tara brooch) dating from the best 




FRAGMENT OF GOLD FILIGREE FROM SELSEY (j). 

Irish period, which seems, from a comparison with the illuminated 
manuscripts, to coincide with the eighth century ; and the pre- 
sent example shows a slight falling- off in design and workman- 
ship. Some allowance must, however, be made on account of the 
clumsiness of the medium when compared with contemporary 
miniatures that attained such extraordinary perfection. What- 
ever its true purpose, this gold fragment must date from the 
late Anglo-Saxon period, the design and method of execution 
being equally characteristic. Though gold-work or any other 
art-products of the time, apart from manuscripts, are rare in 
England, the process of elimination justifies its attribution to 
the first half of the ninth century. How it ever reached the 
Sussex coast is a matter of conjecture, but it may be mentioned 
that works of Irish art were then being pillaged and carried off 
to Norway ; and some English treasure can hardly have escaped 
a similar fate."' 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications. 
1 K. F. Johansen, Solvskattenfra Terslev (Copenhagen, 1913). 



Mar. 19.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 135 



THURSDAY, 19th MARCH, 1914. 

The EARL OF CRAWFORD AND BALCARRES, 

Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From Mrs. Arthur Cates : 

1. An account of Winfield Manor. By S. O. Addy and J. Croston. 

4to. Derby, 1885. 

2. Old and new Birmingham. By II. K. Dent. 8vo. Birmingham, 

1880. 

3. Two centuries of Soho. By Rev. J. H. Cardwell, etc. 8vo. 

London, 1898. 

4. Old Glasgow : the place and the people. By Andrew Macgeorge. 

3rd edit. 8vo. Glasgow, 1888. 

5. Deerhurst, a parish of the Vale of Gloucester. By George Butter- 

worth. 8vo. Tewkesbury, 1890. 

6. A history of Tong, Shropshire, with notes on Boscobel. By 

George Griffiths. 2nd edit. 8vo. Newport, 1894. 

7. The history of Torquay. By J. T. White. 8vo. Torquay, 1878. 

8. Rambles round old Canterbury. By F. W. Cross and J. R. Hall. 

8vo. London, 1884. 

From George Hubbard, Esq., F.S.A.: Plan of the site of the Globe Play- 
house of Shakespeare. 

The following were admitted Fellows : 

Jonathan Edward Hodgkin, Esq. 

Charles Harry St. John Hornby, Esq., B.A. 

CHARLES FFOULKES, Esq. B.Litt, F.S.A., read a paper on a 
carved chest front at New College, Oxford, illustrating the Battle 
of Court rai. 

The chest is of Flemish workmanship of the early years of the 
fourteenth century. It is a particularly valuable record of the 
military equipment of the period, and is unique in that it con- 
tains the only known representation of the weapon used by the 
Flemish burghers, called by the chronicler Guiart the ' Goden- 
dag' or 'plangon a picot'. The heraldry displayed by the 
mounted men is somewhat difficult to elucidate, but the banners 
of the Trade Guilds are clearly shown and are of great interest 
as contemporary records. From these and other evidences the 
carving may be considered to be a graphic representation of the 
Battle of Courtrai in 1302, when the Flemish burghers, under 
Gui de Namur and Pierre Conine, defeated the French under 
the Comte d'Artois with great slaughter. The arms of Pierre 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

Conine are shown on one of the banners and are found on no 
other records except on a seal in the archives of Bruges. 

Mr. CLIFFORD SMITH hoped that the author would be able to 
pursue his studies in connexion with armorial chests and ivories. 
There was a famous chest at the Victoria and Albert Museum 
like that at York, but the subject was reversed, with the castle 
on the right hand. Chests in England were generally of uncer- 
tain origin, but most were probably Flemish, though Mr. Prior 
had suggested that the York example was the work of a local 
school of carving. 

Mr. VALLANCE had seen the chest soon after it was acquired 
by New College and felt at the time that it had been shortened. 
The York example showed how it had been made up with upright 
standards at the ends. He congratulated the author on his clever 
elucidation of the heraldry. 

The CHAIRMAN expressed a hope that a good photograph of 
the chest represented by the engraving would be obtained and sub- 
mitted to the Society for an opinion. His own interest had been 
stimulated by the remark that Flemish antiquaries looked upon 
the New College chest as a forgery, and he would be glad to hear 
whether any evidence had been published to substantiate the 
charge. The uniformity of the figures of burghers in the second 
panel on the left was alien to the vivacity and spirit of the four- 
teenth century; and the parallel straight lines marking the waists 
recalled ivories of the eighth or ninth century in the Po valley. 
At the present day there were carpenter wood-carvers, to quote 
the author's term, but they did not exist about 1800. Every 
wood-carver was then an artist, and vice-versa ; and the rough- 
ness of the style seemed to him to conflict with the evidence of 
authenticity. On the other hand, he thought the carver would 
not have been particular about the enemy's arms, and it would 
have been surprising to find the French heraldry correctly repre- 
sented. Uniformity was again noticeable in the use of the left 
hand. Every figure moving towards the left was using his left 
hand. The possible cutting down of the panels was another 
point of interest, but the vertical sequence was proved by the 
correspondence of the feet and figures of the burghers carrying 
trade ensigns ; and he did not think the top right-hand panel 
was imperfect at the end. It was a great achievement to estab- 
lish the identity of the weapon called a Godendag. 

Mr. FFOULKES wished, in replying, to exclude Pirenne from the 
Belgian antiquaries whose adverse opinion of the chest he had 



Mar. 19.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 137 

criticized. As a body they had at once made up their minds on 
seeing the photograph that the carving was a forgery, and he 
could not understand such a prepossession. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for this communication, 
which will be printed in Archaeologia. 



THURSDAY, 26th MARCH, 1914. 

Sir CHARLES HERCULES READ, Kut., LL.D., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From Harold Sands, Esq., F.S.A. : 

1. A short history of the Royal Navy 1217-1815. By David Haimay. 

2 vols. 8vo. London, 1898-1909. 

2. British castles. By C. H. Ashdown. 8vo. London, 1911. 

From the Author : Roman remains found at Barrington, Somerset. By 
H. St. George Gray. 8vo. ii.p. n.d. 

From the Author: Three ballads illustrating the history of Holland. 
By C. H. Firth, F.S.A. 4to. Oxford, 1914. 

Notice was given of the Anniversary Meeting for the election 
of President, Officers, and Council to be held on Thursday, 
April 23rd, St. George's Day, at 2 p.m. 

ARTHUR BULLEID, Esq., F.S.A., read the following paper on 
Romano-British Potteries in Mid- Somerset : 

44 It should be clearly understood at the outset that the subject 
of my paper has no claim to be new archaeological matter, for 
the potteries have been known to antiquaries since the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century. Owing to modern agricultural 
developments and peat-digging, an interesting and in some re- 
spects important collection of Roman antiquities is being gradu- 
ally but surely swept away, and it was chiefly from the de.sire 
that there should be some detailed account of the sites before 
they are entirely lost that I undertook the examination of some 
mounds last autumn. The potteries are situated in the Brue 
district on the north side of the Polden range of hills, some 
eight miles WNW. of Glastonbury and four miles from the 
present coast-line. They extend for some three miles along the 
margin of what was at some time a swamp in the neighbourhood 



138 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

of the Burtle sand beds, at a point where the peat begins to be 
covered by beds of alluvial clay. My attention was first drawn 
to the pottery mounds by a short account of them written by the 
late Mr. William Stradling in his little book entitled A Descrip- 
tion of the Priory of Chilton super Polden, published in 1839. 
The same account of the mounds with additional information was 
incorporated in a paper on the Somerset Turbaries which appeared 
in the first volume of the Proc> Som. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. 
in 1849. Besides a short reference to the potteries by Professor 
Haverfield in the Victoria County History taken from Stradling's 
account, and a reference to them by Mr. John Morland in vol. xl 
of the Somerset Proceedings, I am not aware of any other pub- 
lished notice. In passing it maybe noted that Mr. Stradling 
was a friend of Sir Richard Colt Hoare and that the Priory about 
which he writes had no connexion whatever with any religious 
house, although built in the form of a church. It was erected 
by Stradling from architectural odds and ends collected from old 
houses and probably church restorations in the neighbourhood, 
and used by him as a museum. The building was known locally 
as Stradling's Folly. 

Stradling's account of the potteries may be summarized as 
follows : When a boy he was often taken to the Burtle villages 
by a relative, who on the \vay pointed out to him a number of 
mounds or barrows, as they were then considered by many. In the 
year 1833 Stradling came to reside in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the mounds, and soon determined to make an examination 
of some of them to find out their origin. He says the mounds are of 
various sizes and composed of a mass of potsherds of black Roman 
ware, many of the heaps containing several hundred loads of 
fragments. He states his labours were soon rewarded, for at the 
distance of a few yards from one of the mounds, at the depth of 
18 in., a square platform of clay was found, around which were 
several pieces of Roman ware mixed with rude brick, bearing marks 
of straw. Upon making further search he adds that he was con- 
vinced that he was standing on what was once a Roman pottery, 
and the bricks were for the purpose of keeping the rudely 
formed pitchers, pipkins, vases, and a sort of patera, in position 
during the process of burning. Stradling says the mounds were 
very numerous, and concludes they were formed of the potsherds 
of the different vessels broken whilst baking on the platforms of 
clay which served for kilns. He states that the potteries were 
sufficiently numerous to have supplied the country with the com- 
mon black ware for a vast distance round, and adds, I found 
afterwards on one of the kilns in the parish of Huntspill some 
small pipkins which were perfect, until unfortunately cut through 
by the peat scythe. Both peat and wood were used for fuel, as 



Prac. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



Tofa-e jxige 138 




VIM 



IX 



Fi /. 2. FRAGMENTS OF WARK 



Mar. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 139 

appears by pieces of charcoal. Scoriae of iron and pieces of coal 
were found in some places. Clay and sand were to be had at no 
great distance. After the process of burning all the perfect 
pieces were no doubt selected for package, and those with fire- 
flaws and other injuries were thrown by, and served to form 
those numerous and large heaps of potsherds. 1 Sbradling, unfor- 
tunately, does not give us an idea as to the exact number of 
mounds existing in his day, neither does he mention any details 
regarding kiln construction, nor the number of the mounds ex- 
plored. The remaining information he gives about the potteries 
is with reference to a much-prized and nearly complete Roman 
jug which was found in one of the mounds (fig. 3, iii). This vessel 
is the only relic that has been preserved from his excavations, 
and is now in Taunton Museum. 

My interest in the mounds dates from 1885, when, in conjunction 
with Mr. John Morland of Glastonbury, 1 saw one of the mounds 
(no. vi) opened (fig. 1). Subsequently a survey of the district was 
made by myself, also a plan showing the position of forty mounds. 
Last autumn I examined three mounds and went over the locality 
again, with the result that ten more sites were added to the list. 
Samples of pottery have been obtained from all the mounds with 
the exception of four, the origin of which should, therefore, for a 
time be considered doubtful. Although it was hoped to get more 
definite information regarding the kilns, the digging in this re- 
spect was a failure, inasmuch that only a clay floor was discovered 
similar to that described by Stradling. With reference to the 
shape and size of the mounds, the majority are roughly circular, 
two are crescent-shaped, and one or tw r o are oval. The size 
ranges from 30 ft. to 100 ft. in diameter, and from 1 ft. to 5 ft. in 
height at the centre. The mounds consist of innumerable frag- 
ments of pottery, mingled with large quantities of briquetage, 
and fire ash. Looked at in section, a mound appears stratified, 
but upon tracing any given series of layers they are found to be 
restricted to a small area and do not run continuously through 
the whole diameter of the mound. Samples of potsherds and 
briquetage from mounds vi, xxxviii, xxxix, xl are exhibited here 
to-night, and altogether about twelve distinct shapes are repre- 
sented. These types of pottery for the most part are common to 
Roman sites. The shape found with greatest frequency is : 

1. The olla, with over-bent rim, and rough band round the 
bulge of variable width (fig. 2, i, ix). The band is usually orna- 
mented with latticed lines ; a considerable number of fragments 
of this shape are ornamented with a chevron design placed side- 
ways with points to the right, and some with plain oblique 
lines (fig. #, ii, iii, v, vii). It will be observed that the 
shoulder and upper part of the body of some fragments have 



140 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

been coated with a slip which with secondary firing has burnt 
a different colour (fig. 3, i). At Long Sutton, about thirteen 
miles distant south-east from the potteries, two cremated burials 
in vessels of this type were discovered in 1894 associated with 
other Roman remains and coins dating from 250 to 300 A.D. 
In Devizes Museum is a cinerary urn of this form with band 
of lattice-pattern 1| in. wide, found at Westbury Ironworks, 
Wilts., in 1881, containing burnt bones and a bronze coin of 
Constantine I. The mouth of the vessel was blocked by another 
pot in such a way as to prevent the coin falling in after burial. 
Mr. Thomas May tells me an example of the same type of vessel 
from Hambledon also contained Constantine coins. 

2. The straight-sided flanged bowl occurs next in frequency, 
ornamented with overlapping curved lines (fig. 2, iv). This is 
a shape of common occurrence, and was found in large quantities 
by General Pitt-Rivers in the Romano-British settlements of 
Woodcuts and Rotherley, Wilts. 

3. The shallow dish with upright sides is also met with 
frequently (fig. 2, vi). 

4. Vessels with wide overhanging rims of light red, or less 
frequently of light grey, paste are common (fig. 3, vi). The 
ware is hard baked with light grey surfaces ornamented with 
bands of a single waved line or a series of horizontal lines of a 
darker shade of grey. 

The following types occur less often : 

5. The vertically indented or fluted beaker of grey paste has 
a peculiar form of ornament drawn with a blunt point, namely, 
herring-bone with upright stem drawn through the middle of 
the depression and ribs rising obliquely on either side (fig. 3, ii). 
The ornament, I believe, is uncommon and recalls the painted 
design on some of the New Forest ware. 

6. Narrow rimmed vessels or jugs with tapering necks, of light 
grey paste, and dark grey surface tooled vertically and ornamented 
with vertical lines (fig. 2, viii). 

7. Vessels ornamented with waved lines, incised with a comb- 
shaped tool, probably fragments of vessels similar to Stradling's 
jug (fig. 3, vii). 

8. Fragments of vessels with close-set horizontal ribs or 
grooves. 

9. Fragments of red glazed ware. One of these is ornamented 
with rouletted bands, and a second is part of a plain flanged 
bowl. These fragments are probably importations, whereas the 
other types occurring more or less frequently may be regarded 
as productions of the locality. 

The briquetage consists of : 
1. Thin rectangular tiles. 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To f (ice page 140 




VII 



Fig. 3. FRAGMENTS OF WARE (1) AND , JUG 



Mar. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 141 






2. Thick tiles or bricks. 

3. Bars. 

4. Fragments of moulded clay, probably parts of the kilns, 

or possibly seggars. 

5. Fragments of clay with finger imprints, luting. 

1. The thin tiles vary from f in. to 1 in. in thickness, but as no 
specimen has been found complete the size is still a matter of 
uncertainty. It will be noticed that the upper surface is dotted 
over with shallow circular indentations, the under surface being 
marked with the impression of grass (fig. 4, i-vii). The marginal 
surfaces in several instances are distinctly cut with a knife or some 
sharp tool. So far I have met with only one other instance of 
the circular indentation, and this occurs on the base of a vessel 
in the Pitt-Rivers collection. 

2. The thick tiles or bricks vary from 1 J in. to If in. in thick- 
ness : the size is again uncertain. It will be noticed that several 
fragments have a rectangular notch cut at one corner (fig. 4, x, xi). 
The reason for this does not seem apparent, but if the notches of 
four bricks are fitted together, the space so formed corresponds 
roughly with the size of a bar. 

3. Bars occur in two forms, square and oblong in cross-section 
(fig. 5, i-vii, xii, xiii). The square bars vary from 1 in. to 1 J in. in 
width and thickness, and about 1 3J in. in length. The oblong vary 
from 1 J in. to 2f in. in width, and f in. to 1 J in. in thickness ; the 
length is uncertain. In both varieties the upper end is pinched and 
flattened. The lower end of the square bars is flat and in the oblong 
rounded. I have had no opportunity of comparing the Somerset 
bars with those from the Red-hills, Upchurch Marshes, or other 
pottery sites, so cannot say if there is anything in common between 
them. Neither have I been able to form an opinion as to the 
exact use and purpose of the two types which occur in about equal 
numbers in the mounds. The clay of which the bars are made is 
mixed with grass, badly baked and generally of a buff colour. 

4. Fragments of roughly moulded and badly baked clay are 
frequently met with (fig. 4, viii, ix), but it is a difficult matter to 
determine from the pieces whether they belong to the ovens or 
are parts of seggars, because no piece showing the angle-curve 
of the base of the latter has been found. 

5. Fragments of luting occur in great variety with finger marks 
(fig. 5, viii-xi, xiv). 

Besides the above, pieces of slag, semi-fused potsherds and frag- 
ments of charcoal are found in varying quantities embedded in 
the fire ash. 

With reference to the process of firing, it is doubtful if more 
than the one method were employed namely, the smother kiln. 
The fragments of buff and red-coloured pottery were probably 



142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

due either to faulty firing or secondary burning after being thrown 
away on the heap. 

There also arises the question of the date of the potteries, apart 
from the information to be gained from the pottery. 

Stradliug, writing in 1839, states 'that manyyears since a great 
many clay moulds for casting Roman coins were found in the 
parish of Chilton Polden ; also upon August 26, 1835, almost 
adjoining one of the pottery mounds a large number of similar 
moulds was found a foot beneath the surface of the peat'. The 
moulds were made from coins dating apparently from 180 to 
230 A. i). In the year 1838 'two small leather purses were dis- 
covered in a pottery mound, one containing the smallest kind of 
silver coins of the later Emperors ', the other purse the smallest 
size bronze of the same era. Another hoard of coins was 
found early in the last century in a field belonging to the late 
Mr. Norris, adjoining some of the pottery mounds, but appears 
to be unrecorded by Stradling. 

Mr. N orris's son has now forty-eight coins in his possession, 
forty-one of which are silver, and of these thirty-two belong 
to the fourth or very early fifth century. These coins are pre- 
sumably only part of the hoard found in a pot which was 
placed on a post and broken by workmen throwing stones at 
it. Some other finds of Roman date have been discovered 
in the neighbourhood of the Burtle potteries. An upper 
quern-stone 18 in. in diameter was found in the field next to that 
containing the coins. On Aug. 7th, 1868, a small hoard of coins, 
chiefly Constantine I and II, was found in the peat diggings about 
two miles distant from the potteries. When digging for the 
foundations of a bridge near Highbridge, fragments of Roman 
pottery, moulds for casting coins, and pieces of small bricks such 
as were used for kiln-building were discovered in 1804. 

I regret that the information regarding kiln-construction is so 
scanty, but as the excavations were only of a tentative character 
it is to be hoped that a site may be found disclosing the shape 
and size of the ovens at some future time. In the locality of the 
potteries about two-thirds of the fields have been disturbed by 
peat digging, so it is impossible to estimate the extent of the 
potteries, or the number of mounds that have been destroyed. 
The destruction was evidently taking place in the early part of 
last century, and it has been steadily going on since. During 
the last twelve years six sites have entirely disappeared. From 
the number of sites noted or still existing, it may be assumed 
that a very considerable industry was carried on in this out- 
of-the-way district of Somerset during the latter part of the 
Roman occupation of Britain, and that the trade was flourishing 
in 230 A. D. The locality is sparsely populated now, but at the 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 142 




X! 



Fig. 4. FRAGMENTS OP TILES AND BRIQUKTAGE (3) 



Mar. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 143 

time the potteries were in full swing the number of inhabitants 
was probably much greater. Some of the types of pottery are 
of common occurrence wherever Roman remains exist, and it is 
difficult, therefore, at this stage to say how far the Somerset ware 
may have been distributed. It has been traced to North Somerset 
in the neighbourhood of Bath. Mr. Thomas May has examined 
some fragments and says the paste is not familiar ; that being 
the case, it should be possible to identify the ware in other dis- 
tricts. A vessel found at Westbury is a duplicate of Stradling\s 
jug, and it may at least be conjectured that the wares passed 
beyond the confines of the present county into Wilts. It must 
also be borne in mind that the potteries were near a navigable 
river, and some of the ware may have been distributed by boat 
to places more remote." 

Mr. WILMER remarked that the Red-hills of Essex had been 
referred to in the paper as pottery sites, and he only wished that 
anything so definite could be said about them. They were 
earlier than the Somerset site, the bulk of the pottery being Late- 
Celtic, among which only one piece of Samian ware had been 
found. He had been advised to concentrate his attention on 
the Red-hills pottery, but experience in India prompted him to 
take special note of the ' wasters ' that accompanied potsherds on 
the sites of potteries. There were no wasters in the Red-hills, 
and domestic pieces were so rare that the relics must have been 
the utensils of some other industry. Riveted pottery pointed in 
the same direction, as it would not have been worth while to 
mend pottery where it was made. The cut clay was not the 
same as the briquetage, and there was no clay of the sort in the 
Red-hills. Considerable weight must be allowed to Mr. Reginald 
Smith's theory that they were the sites of salt-works, in view 
of the recent discoveries at La Seille, near Nancy. Another in- 
teresting feature was the porosity of the briquetage, which on 
the theory just mentioned was designed to assist the efflorescence 
of the salt. The same porosity was noticed in the Somerset 
specimens, and might have been deliberate or accidental. Straw 
was mixed with the clay in India to make bricks more weather- 
proof, the increased porosity assisting in the drying process. 
Similarly, sawdust was mixed with fire-clay to make kiln-supports 
for enamels. The Somerset clay-products were inferior to those 
of the Red-hills, but there was a general similarity ; and in 
spite of the difference in date, he thought both were the sites of 
an industry requiring furnaces, fire-bars, and luting. 

Mr. BusHE-Fox thought the absence of ' wasters ' (pieces 
warped or stuck together in firing) showed that the remains did 



144 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

not belong to pottery kilns in any form. Some of the sherds 
had been re-fired, but that might easily occur if they were 
collected and embedded in the sides and roofs of ovens. The 
pottery told its own story and was not earlier than 200 A. D., 
much of it belonging to the fourth century. The wares were 
common and found in most places, but he was not familiar with 
two of the designs the chevron and the fluted bars with leaf 
pattern. 

The PRESIDENT agreed with what had been said with regard 
to the similarity of the Somerset and Essex sites, and thought 
Mr. Smith's suggested explanation of the Red-hills of special 
interest in the present circumstances. There seemed to have 
been on the western site two industries that might or might not 
have been contemporary, but he saw no reason why the pottery 
should not be of the same date as the briquetage. In a remote 
and unattractive district such as the Somerset marshland, primi- 
tive industries, like salt-making by the evaporation of sea-water, 
might have lingered on when elsewhere new processes had been 
introduced by the Romans. He agreed with Mr. Bushe-Fox's 
dating and felt convinced that the mounds had nothing to do 
with the manufacture of pottery. The absence of 'wasters', 
i. e. distorted or damaged pieces that were thrown aside as use- 
less, seemed conclusive on that point. To the present day the 
shardruck or waste-heap was a prominent feature of every 
pottery- works, adjoining the kiln ; and sherds broken but not 
warped in firing were in themselves no evidence of a factory on 
the spot. Though something had already been published about 
the finds, enough had been learnt in the interval of eighty years 
to make the exhibition most welcome to the Society. 

W. L. HILDBURGH, Esq., M.A., Ph.D., exhibited a collection 
of Germanic Wafering-Irons of the sixteenth century, on which 
he read the following notes : 

" The irons which I am exhibiting were used for making very 
thin crisp cakes. Such cakes, which are still made in many parts 
of Europe, usually bear some design upon their surfaces, partly 
because the hollows in the metal plates tend to retain the thin 
batter which might otherwise be driven away completely, in areas, 
from the space between the plates ; partly because of the facility 
with which the batter used takes a sharp impression. In the 
irons used for making this kind of cake the major portions of 
the surface of the plates may be brought into actual contact 
when the instrument is empty, while the design sunk within one 
plate bears no definite relation to that within the other. The 
plates are hinged together, and each is provided with a long 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 





VII 






XIK 




XIV 



Fig. 5. FIRE-BARS AND LUTING 



Mar. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 145 

handle so that pressure may be brought to bear upon the batter. 
Irons of a similar kind have been used for many centuries for 
making holy wafers ; irons of a different kind, in which projec- 
tions from one plate fit into recesses in the other, and in which 
there is a small space between the two plates when the irons are 
closed, are used for making thin cakes of a related but somewhat 
different sort. 

All the irons of the present series have been made, I think, 
for private use, and probably for use in the household, although 
the designs of some of them suggest that they may have been 
used for making wafers to be sold either at shops or, as is still 
commonly done with similar cakes on the Continent, at fairs. 
None of them is for ecclesiastical use, and none of them seems 
to have been made especially for the use of religious communities 
or guilds. 

The designs of the irons of the present series, except for one 
deficiency? are fairly representative of those generally used. They 
consist of: () The arms of private families, presumably those 
of the owners, together with crests, &c., some of these arms being 
genuinely heraldic, others suggesting that they have been adapted 
from merchants' marks, (b) The arms of great reigning families, 
employed seemingly as ornamental designs, the crudity of the 
workmanship which dates from a period when the technical excel- 
lence of objects intended for use by the wealthier classes was 
very high, and the occasional appearance of errors in the heraldic 
drawings, indicating that the irons upon which such arms occur 
were not intended for use by the families by whom the arms were 
borne, (c) Representations of sacred subjects, such as the Cruci- 
fixion, or the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, (d) Purely fanciful 
or conventional designs, (e) Inscriptions, such as those referring 
to the family of the owner, or to the family of the ruler, or to 
the subject of the pictorial design, or to piety, or to eating or 
drinking, and dates. To these we should add (f) Representations 
of secular subjects, such as hunting scenes, of which there is no 
example in the present series. 

The hollows within the plates, by which the designs are pro- 
duced, may be regarded as being broadly of three kinds : (1) 
Lines, all of approximately uniform depth and width, which are 
used to form conventional designs, the outlines of objects or of 
borders, inscriptions, etc. Designs formed of lines of this kind 
are the simplest to produce, and, since they may be made by 
any one with sufficient skill and strength to use a cutting- tool and 
a hammer, vary from crude markings of no artistic value up to 
designs of a flowing and graceful character. The outlines formed 
by such lines may be filled in by finely scratched lines indicating 
solid surfaces, heraldic tincturings, etc. (2) Hollows individually 

VOL. xxvi M 



146 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

of varying shape, area, and depth, whereby designs in varying 
relief are produced ; these hollows may be made either by actually 
cutting the metal away, by driving it aside by means of suitable 
tools, or by cutting away a part and then finishing the hollows 
with blunt-ended tools. Since work of this kind can be produced 
only by a skilled workman, we generally find it good of its period. 
(3) Hollows produced by stamps. The stamps used are generally 
of small size, and each represents an object or a part of an object 
in the complete design which the cake is to bear ; they may be 
used to represent animals, leaves, flowers, fruits, vases, portions 
of garlands, etc., or even merely square or circular dots of different 
sizes. They are generally in low relief, although sometimes the 
relief is quite high. The designs produced by the stamps may 
be regular, and divisible into a series of similar sections executed 
each with the same set of stamps used in the same order, or they 
may be irregular and executed by means of a series of stamps 
employed, according to the workman's fancy of the moment, to 
produce, for example, a hunting scene. In general the stamps 
employed for work of this kind are small as compared with the 
surfaces to be covered, so that when the workman had a con- 
siderable number of stamps at his disposal, as seems frequently 
to have been the case, he had opportunities for producing many 
delightful designs. 

The decoration of the plates of a pair of irons may be by means 
of two or by all three of the types of hollows described. For 
example, a plate whose principal ornamentation consists of 
stampings or of a large intaglio figure may have a series of con- 
centric lines, as a border, at some distance from the centre, or 
may bear an inscription ; or a plate with stamped ornamentation 
and engraved lines as a border may have an intaglio heraldic or 
other device at the centre. The technical quality of some of 
the irons, and especially of some of the stamped or chased ones, 
is very high ; not only is there shown a perfect sureness of hand 
and of eye, but the work seems sometimes to suggest by its 
character that the workman has tried, like his brother smiths in 
other departments, to show his mastery of his material by creating 
difficulties to be overcome. 

The irons of the present series are all of Germanic origin, 
coming from Austria, Bavaria, and Switzerland, and illustrate 
all the types of workmanship to which I have referred. They 
show, however, the same tendency, exhibited by collections 
in those countries, towards engraved or chased decoration as 
distinguished from stamped. In the Historical Museum at 
Basel is the earliest iron for non-ecclesiastical use that I have 
noted ; it is there ascribed to the fourteenth century, and it has 
each plate engraved with a central circle containing a figure and 



Mar. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 147 

surrounded by a cross-hatched pattern, with an inscription round 
the edge of the plate. 

In the latter half of the fifteenth century wafering-irons with 
stamped plates were made in Italy, dated specimens of which 
still exist, while there are others which show by their character 
that they, or at least the stamps for making them, are of the 
same period. Wafering-irons of this kind were made in Italy, 
as witnessed by the gradual changes in design, down to about the 
end of the sixteenth century that is, through the period to 
which these Germanic irons belong and perhaps later ; fifteenth 
or sixteenth century stamps may have been used at a later period, 
giving a fictitious character to plates made by their aid. During 
the period (to be conservative) of from about 1475 to 1600 almost 
all Italian wafering-irons and large numbers must have been 
produced at that time seem to have been stamped ; during the 
Baroque period irons engraved with purely linear designs ex- 
pressive of the Baroque taste came into use. 

But during the sixteenth century, just across the Alps, the 
ornamentation of the commonly used wafering-irons seems com- 
paratively seldom to have been produced by stamping. In the 
collections of the National Museum at Munich, the Museum at 
Salzburg, the National Museum at Zurich, the Basel Historical 
Museum, and the various other art-historical or folk-museums in 
Germany, Austria, or Switzerland, the wafering-irons of the six- 
teenth century have mostly been produced by engraving or 
chasing. The Germanic stamped irons are characterized in general 
by less beauty of design than the Italian, and by, I believe, little 
or no adherence to the classical forms favoured in Italy. In 
boldness of execution, however, some of the Germanic stamped 
irons transcend, I think, even the best of the Italian that I have 
seen, while others excel in the delicacy of their treatment. 

For assistance in working out the designs and the heraldry of 
some of the irons exhibited I am indebted to Mr. Charles Bailey 
and Mr. A. Van de Put, of the Victoria and Albert Museum. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Fig. 1. The plates of this pair of irons are rather large, being 
7 in. in diameter. The decoration of both plates is entirely in 
the form of linear engraving, following the outlines of the objects 
represented, and is rather crude in character. On one plate are a 
double-headed eagle, with the arms of Austria, and an inscription, 
which seems to consist of poor German badly spelled, including 
the date 1558. The inscription reads : 

+ IERLIEWENGOaDl/IEMDVEDRGVED 1558. 



148 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

I have not been able to translate this inscription, which may 
be an anagram ; it seems to me possibly to have some reference 
to an injunction to * love God's name '. 

On the other plate are the arms of the Palatinate and Bavaria 
quarterly, with crests, surrounded by various ornaments including 
a bird with a worm, a stag, and scrollwork with leaves and 
acorns. 

Fig. 2. The plates of this pair are entirely engraved. Diameter, 
6 in. On one plate is a representation of the Martyrdom of St. 
Sebastian and the German invocation, HEILIGER HER SAl/l 
SEBASDIAN-PID-GOD VIER V I/IS ', 'Holy Lord St. Sebas- 
tian, pray God for us \ On the other plate is a double-headed 
eagle with the arms of Austria and Burgundy (ancient) and 
an inscription and date: + VER THRAVSCHAV WEM 1559. 
The inscription is a rendering of a well-known German proverb, 
6 If you trust, look well in whom \ 

Fig. 3. The plates of this pair (diameter, 5-8 in.) are entirely 
engraved ; the outlines are coarsely made, while parts, such as the 
wings of the eagle and the tincturings, are finely scratched. On 
one plate are a single-headed eagle with the arms of Austria 
and Burgundy (ancient), and a German inscription and date : 
GOT - ALLAIN - DIE ER 1564, 'To God alone the honour, 
1564 \ On the second plate are the arms of the Palatinate 
quartering Bavaria, and the same inscription with the date 
written MDLX4'. 

Fig. 4. The plates of this pair (diameter, 6-3 in.) are entirely 
engraved, the engraving, however, being more skilfully done than 
on any of the irons examined up to the present. On one plate 
are arms (a mill-wheel ; crest, a mill-wheel), the date 1575, and 
a rhymed German inscription : MENSCH DRINCK VND 
IS DES HEREN - WORT - NIT PER - CIS, O, Man, eat 
and drink, (but) forget not the Lord's Word \ On the other 
plate are arms, the date 1575, and a rhymed German inscription, 
RICHTACEN ZITHLICH GUT - HAT - MENCHER Bl 
FRED NOCH MUT, which seems to mean 'In rich days or 
temporary good times many a one has besides pleasure still 
courage '. 

I have not obtained the name of the family for which this pair 
of irons was made ; the mill-wheel was borne by many families, 
and Mr. Van de Put has not found the arms which appear on the 
second plate. 

Fig. 5. The decoration of the plates of this pair (diameter 
5*7 in.) has been produced by engraving. One plate bears 
arms, a crest, the date 1577, and the inscription : MARTIN 
WEBER KAI HOFGERICHTS : ZU ROTWEIL FISCAL, 
4 Martin Weber, Imperial Superior Court of Justice at Rotweil, 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 148 






/ f 'f 

/ I. 



/..'.I 






GERMANIC A\ AKKRIX^-IROXS 




ar. 26 ] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 149 



Attorney-general ' (or 6 of the exchequer '). The arms are those 
of Weber, silver* a deer's head, gules. A Martin Weber was 
steward of the Landgraf of Klettgau in c. 1600. 1 The other 
plate bears a two-tailed lion surrounded by a coarse network of 
lines. 

Fig. 6. The plates of this pair (diameter 4-2 in.) are entirely 
engraved, the outlines being in coarse cutting, the filling of the 
surfaces of the figures and the tincturing of the arms being 
in fine hatching. On one plate is Christ upon the Cross, 
between the Virgin Mary and St. John, with the date 1569. 
The other plate bears the arms of Nothaft, of Bavaria, quarter- 
ing another coat, perhaps those of his wife, and an inscription : 
+ HANNS-H- NOTHAFT - ANNA - WISPECKHIN 69. These 
irons were probably made for the purely personal use of a family ; 
the arms and inscription suggest that perhaps they were a wed- 
ding-gift, or part of the gear brought by the bride at marriage. 
The plates are the smallest of the present series. 

Fig. 7. The plates of this pair of irons (diameter 7 in.) are 
engraved somewhat crudely. One plate bears the arms, quarterly, 
of Bohemia, Hungary, Castile, and Leon (the fleur-de-lys is an 
heraldic inadvertence), and Austria impaling Arragon, the date 
<59\ and an inscription : +FERDND -DC ROM . VNG - BOE- 
DA G REX, relating to Ferdinand I, King, by the Grace of 
God, of Rome, Hungary, Bohemia, Dacia, Germania. On the 
other plate is a single-headed eagle, with the arms of Austria, 
and a dated inscription : GOT ALLAINDIE ERR 1559. 

Fig. 8. In this pair of irons (diameter of plates, 7 in.) we 
come to intaglio work which we may call chased ; that is, the 
designs have been hammered into the iron, deeply and in various 
ways, by the aid of tools, possibly after cutting away some of the 
metal ; the larger areas have not been engraved, as seals are 
engraved, by scooping away the material. On one plate is a 
figure of the Virgin Mary, with the Infant Jesus, about to be 
crowned by two angels ; she stands upon a crescent moon, and 
has a background of rays ; above her are the letters DER, being 
the last letters of the last word of the inscription. Round 
the edge of the plate runs the inscription: +OIVNKFRAW 
MUETER MARIA - BIT GOT DEI NGELI EBTEN - SVN 
IHESVM . CHRISTVM FVR . VNS ARM - SVN, ' O, Virgin 
Mother Mary, Pray God Thy Beloved Son Jesus Christ for us 
Poor Sinners'. On the other plate are arms, the date 1538, and 
the inscription : IOHAN . PIETENPERGER LICEN CAMER- 
MAISTER ZV-SALZB-KIRCHHERR-ZV. LAVFFEN VND 
WAGING, 'Johan Pietenperger, Licentiate, Chamberlain at 

1 Siebmacher, Biirgertiches Wappenbnch, iii, 17. 



150 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

Salzburg, Patron of the Churches (For Vicar) at Latiffen and 
Waging \ 

Fig. 9. The plates of this pair of irons (diameter 6 in.) have 
been made in similar manner to those of Fig. 8, except that 
a few simple stamps have been used for the borders. The de- 
signs upon both plates consist of personal arms which I have 
not identified. This pair, which is undated, was probably made 
in the second half of the sixteenth century. 

Fig. 10. We pass here to irons whose plates have been deco- 
rated principally by the aid of stamps. In the present pair of 
plates (diameter 4-9 in.) the stampings indicate the employment 
of only a few stamps, which were rather coarsely and simply 
made. These stamps appear to have been : a bird, a floral 
object, a crescent-shaped piece, and a straight piece. The two 
plates are similar to each other ; they are undated, but belong 
perhaps to the late sixteenth century. 

Fig. 11. In this pair of plates (diameter 4-5 in.) we find 
the principal method of decoration by stampings supplemented 
by a certain amount of engraving or chasing. The arms upon 
one of the plates, although similar to those of several other 
families, are perhaps those of Ehrenfels, of Switzerland, this 
being indicated by the final letter of the initials M : V : D : E : . 
The foliage and the border on this plate are stamped. On the 
other plate the whole of the decoration has been produced by 
means of small stamps, of whose marks I have found at least 
sixteen varieties ; these stamps included several kinds of flowers 
and of leaves, a finial, an acorn, an urn, and some purely con- 
ventional designs. The plates appear to date from the late six- 
teenth, or the early seventeenth century. 

Fig. 12. The plates of this pair of irons (diameter 6-4 in.) are 
remarkable for the technical excellence of their workmanship ; 
practically the whole of their decoration has been produced by 
the employment of a comparatively few stamps used with great 
accuracy and, in some parts, penetrating to an unusual depth. 
At the centre of one of the plates are two shields, with the date 
1574 and a five-petalled flower ; round these is a design of acorns, 
each within a square of its own, ending in a border of small five- 
petalled flowers. The stamps employed appear to have been 
merely those for the acorns, a small ball, the two sizes of flowers, 
and, perhaps, a long-edged chisel for stamping a straight line. 
Where a portion only of an acorn has been impressed, the im- 
pression is not so deep as where the whole acorn is shown. The 
second plate is stamped deeply with a series of small five-petalled 
flowers (like those on the first plate), each within a square of its 
own, with a border of star-like five-petalled flowers. 

Fig. 13. The decoration of the plates of this pair of irons 



Proc. 2nd 8. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 150 




GERMANIC WAFKRING-IROX- 



Mar, 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIKS 151 

(diameter 5-5 in.) has been produced principally by the use 
of stamps. Here, however, the stamps have been impressed to 
only a slight depth, and, in the feathers of the eagle especially, 
sometimes with remarkable delicacy. The principal object 
represented upon one plate is an eagle, portions of which are 
engraved, portions stamped. Surrounding this eagle are bands 
of ornament, produced by stamps, formed by lines of tassel-like 
objects, a cord, balls, a cord, leaping hares, alternating with small 
five-petalled flowers, a cord, balls, a cord, and tassel-like objects. 
I think that only five figured stamps have been used for this plate, 
those for the small feathers of the eagle, the tassel-like objects, 
the balls, the leaping hares, and the flowers. On the second 
plate the central design is a diapered one consisting of cords 
forming a network each of whose meshes holds a cruciform 
object ; surrounding this are bands of ornament. I think that here 
also five stamps have been used, two of them those employed 
upon the first plate, while the cruciform object and two objects 
of the borders are peculiar to this plate. The plates are undated^ 
but I think that we need not hesitate to ascribe them to a crafts- 
man of the sixteenth century, working probably about the 
third quarter. They are thoroughly Germanic in design and 
treatment, yet I think that one may find in them an indefinable 
Italian influence, connecting them with the Italian irons of the 
same period and earlier, which seems to be absent in the other 
irons of the present series, whether engraved, chased, or stamped." 

The PRESIDENT referred to previous exhibitions of similar 
specimens, though possibly not of German origin. He preferred 
the English name wafering-irons to the French gauffering. It 
was no doubt surprising to many present to see so many examples 
in a private collection, but Dr. Hildburgh was an enthusiastic 
collector of many other out-of-the-way things, and would perhaps 
allow the Society on future occasions to become acquainted with 
other groups of no less interest to antiquaries. 

W. DE C. PRIDEAUX, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a cast of the font 
at Melbury Bubb, Dorset. The font appears to have originally 
formed part of a cross shaft and to have been adapted as a font 
later, but on this there is considerable difference of opinion. 1 It 
may be classed with the fonts at Dolton, Devon and Wilne, 
Derbyshire, and is like the cross shaft at Wolverhampton. 54 
The font is decorated with scenes from the Bestiaries. 

1 Bond, Fonts and Font Covers, 106, 1:38 ; Ronully Allen, Early Christian 
Symbolism, 376. 

2 Proceedings, xxv, 158. 



152 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1914, 



Mr. REGINALD SMITH thought the carving deserved fuller 
treatment than the late Mr. Romilly Allen had given it, but the 
subject involved a close study of the medieval bestiaries, which 
were not too familiar. The interlacing in the field was often a 

prolongation of the tail or 
limbs of an animal (as on a 
fragment in the wall of 
Wroxeter Church), not a 
serpent complete in itself; 
and the date of the original 
work was in all probability 
the first half of the eleventh 
century. 



Mr. DRUCE had gone to 
Melbury Bubb in search of 
an alleged crocodile on the 
font, and had taken the 
photographs reproduced on 
the screen. The hostility of 
the stag and dragon was one 
of the subjects represented, 
and went back as far as Pliny. 
A stag biting a serpent was 
to be seen in Durham Castle, 
and the style of the animals 
on the font reminded him 
of the Scotch crosses. He 
shared the view that the 
font had once formed part 
of a cross shaft, and would 
like to know something 
more of its history. 



Sir GEORGE SITWELL, 
F.S.A., exhibited an ala- 
baster effigy of St. John 
Baptist which he had re- 
cently acquired in Italy. The figure is of English work, and 
represents St. John wearing a chasuble-like cloak, below which 
can be seen the coat of hair. In his right hand he holds a book 
on which is seated the lamb but without the staff and pennon. 
The figure, which has been cut off below the knees, now measures 
11 \ in. in height. No traces of colour remain. 

Canon BEANLANDS, F.S.A., exhibited an Elizabethan Com- 





ALABASTER FIGURE OF ST. JOHN 
BAPTIST Q). 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 152 




COPPER-GILT ELIZABETHAN C03IMUXIOX CUP I ABOUT 



Mar. 26.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



153 



munion Cup of copper-gilt. The cup is of a type common be- 
tween the years 1575 and 1620, but beyond the material of which 
it is made, it is peculiar owing to the excessive trumpet shape of 
the lip, the curious flattened moulding above the stem, and the 
little dog-tooth punching of the base moulding. 

With regard to the metal of which the cup is made, chalices 
of metal other than gold and silver were forbidden before the 
Reformation ; and after the Reformation in England only two 
cases can be found suggesting the permissive use of ' some other 
pure metal'. One of these instances is Bancroft's Canterbury 
Visitation of 1605, and the other is as late as 1638, when per- 
haps pewter was becoming recognized as a suitable material for 
sacramental vessels in poor parishes. 

The cup shows signs of having been withdrawn from use at an 
early period, and presumably was superseded by a silver chalice 
after a few years of use. 

The PJIESIDENT pointed out the difference between the speci- 
men exhibited and silver com- 
munion-cups of the same period, 
about 1570-1580: it was more 
slender and elegant, but had 
features that might be found on 
other cups of the same date. It 
had had a reversible paten as a 
cover. Metal chalices not of gold 
or silver were then very unusual, 
but many of that date and earlier 
had the foot of base metal and 
the bowl of silver. 

W. PAGE, Esq., F.S.A., ex- 
hibited a fragment of a bone pax 
of the fourteenth or fifteenth cen- 
tury, representing the Crucifixion, 
sent to him by Mr. F. H. Cheetham. 
It was found under the floor of the 
vestry of the Church of St. Michael 
on Wyre, North Lancashire, and is now in the possession of 
Mr. Hugh Phipps Hornby of that place, who keeps it in his 
private museum. 

The PRESIDENT remarked that the pax was of interest to the 
student of ivory-carvings as belonging to a class which had by 
some been regarded as false. 1 Among characteristics of this 

1 See British Museum Catalogue of Ivory Carvings, Introduction, 
p. xlvii. 




PORTION OF A BONE PAX (j). 



154 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

group regarded as particularly suspicious, were the hatched 
backgrounds, and the appearance of the sun and moon as radiate 
semicircles at the sides of the panels. Both these features were 
found in the present example ; and if the conditions of its dis- 
covery showed that it was in the place where it was found before 
the beginning of the nineteenth century, that might be regarded 
as so much evidence in favour of the genuineness of the whole 
group. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications 
and exhibitions. 



THURSDAY, 2nd APRIL, 1914. 

Sir CHARLES HERCULES READ, Knt., LL.D., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From the Corporation of the City of London : Calendar of coroners' rolls 
of the City of London, 1300-1378. Edited by R. R. Sharpe. 8vo. 
London, 1913. 

From Harold Sands, Esq., F.S.A.: 

1. Medals and decorations of the British army and navy. By J. H. 

Mayo. 2 vols. 8vo. Westminster, 1897. 

2. Greater London. By Edward Walford. '2 vols. 4to. London. 

n. d. 

Arthur William Gould, Esq., was admitted a Fellow. 

Notice was again given of the Anniversary Meeting to be held 
on Thursday, April 23rd, St. George's Day, at 2 p.m., and lists 
were read of the Fellows proposed as President, Council, and 
Officers for the ensuing year. 

The Report of the Auditors of the Society's accounts for 1913 
was read (pp. 156-61), and thanks were voted to the Auditors 
for their trouble and to the Treasurer for his good and faithful 
services. 

REGINALD A. SMITH, Esq., F.S.A., and HENRY DEWEY, Esq., 
F.G.S., read a paper on the High Terrace of the Thames ; being 
the report on Excavations at Greenhithe and Crayford made in 
1913 on behalf of the British Museum and H.M. Geological 
Survev. 



April ; 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUAKIK> 155 






Since the last Report was presented in April, 1913, 1 work on 
the 100-ft. terrace of the lower Thames has been continued 
on eighteen days under the same conditions. A few sections 
remained to be verified at Swanscombe, and finds in an adjoining 
pit show the St. Acheul horizon, which is absent or practically 
barren at Barnfield. 

At Ingress Vale, about a quarter of a mile north-west of that 
site and on the other side of a small valley, is the deposit known 
for several years as the Greenhithe Shell-bed, and noted for well- 
preserved specimens of Neritina grateloupmna and a fauna with 
Pliocene affinities. Eight days 1 work on this site produced not 
a single flint implement, but about 500 good flakes exactly 
resembling those of the Lower Gravel at Barnfield and at exactly 
the same height. The conclusion arrived at is that the two beds 
are contemporary and were once continuous, forming the earliest 
known deposit of the 100 ft. terrace. The industry may be classed 
as pre-Chelles and previous to a glaciation ; and the white imple- 
ments of St. Acheul type recovered years ago from the Shell-bed 
may belong to a later deposit that has superficially disturbed the 
earlier. 

A week was also spent at Wansunt gravel-pit, south of Crayford 
Station and at the north end of Dartford Heath, between the 
valleys of the Cray and Darenth. A recent paper by Messrs. Leach 
and Chandler on finds in the loams capping the gravel here 2 raised 
the question of a transverse channel on the brow of the hill (about 
lOOft.o.D.), unworn flint implements found at the base of the clay 
having presumably been dropped there by people living on the 
bank. The occurrence of late Drift implements was confirmed, 
but the authors were disposed to regard the deposits overlying 
the gravel as the upper members of the terrace, and to attribute 
their presence to the action of the main river. 

Mr. \V. M. NEWTON described his exhibit, which comprised 
some remarkably large pointed palaeoliths from a Dartford pit 
that he had been working for some years solely for purposes of 
research. One was found 16 ft. in the gravel and 2 ft. above the 
chalk. His shell-bed specimens had been obtained from an 
employe of the Cement Company who passed the site every 
morning and made inquiries regularly when excavation was going 
on there. In his own mind there was no doubt as to the authen- 
ticity of the implements. A digger in the Wansunt pit had 
procured him some specimens there, but the gravel was evidently 
barren, as he had had a man working there for five years without 
success. 

1 Archaeologia, Ixiv, 177. 

2 Proc. Geol. Assoc., xxiii, 10'2. 



156 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1914, 



INCOME AND EXPENDITURE ACCOUNT 



INCOME. 



Subscriptions 



unpaid (7 Fellows) 



Admissions 

Less i to Research Fund 



Dividends 



from Court of Chancery . 



Sale of Publications : 

General ..... 
Catalogue of Alabaster Exhibition 

Sundry Receipts : 

Income-tax repaid 
Interest on deposit 
Anniversary dinner receipts 
Wroxeter and Old Sarum Funds 
Sundries 



s. d. 

1935 3 

22 1 

273 

54 12 

843 10 4 

122 6 1 



198 19 6 
44 18 9 



79 6 11 

32 9 6 

26 5 

22 

32 9 



s. d. 



1957 4 



218 8 



965 16 5 



243 18 3 



192 10 



3577 17 1 



April 2.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



157 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING 31st DECEMBER, 1913. 






EXPENDITURE. 

Publications : 

General ...... 

Catalogue of Alabaster Exhibition 

Library : 

Books .... 
Binding .... 
Subject catalogue 

Subscriptions to Societies . 
Franks Scholarship . 
Salaries, Wages, Allowances, Pension 
Secretary .... 

assistant 
Clerk and Librarian . 

allowances 

Porter .... 

allowances 
Wages .... 
Pension, W. H. St. John Hope 
Income-tax and insurances on above 

Repairs : 

General ..... 
Electric light alterations 

House Expenditure : 

Insurance ..... 

Lighting 

Fuel 

Tea at Meetings 

Cleaning ..... 

Clock winding .... 

Official Expenditure : 

Printing ..... 
Postage ..... 
Stationery ..... 
Telephone ..... 

Sundry Payments : 

Legacy duty and costs 
Auditors ..... 
Anniversary dinner 
Various subscriptions . 
Inventory of furniture 
Wroxeter and Old Sarum . 
Sundries ..... 

Balance, carried to Balance Sheet 



s. d. 

1116 10 3 
117 16 



127 13 6 
92 11 

98 18 7 



50 

250 

250 

20 10 

141 

19 18 

149 2 

250 

30 12 9 



108 

77 



8 10 
7 



26 4 
50 6 4 
22 4 
20 19 2 
75 4 2 
220 



132 15 9 

17 11 

43 4 9 

900 



16 10 
3 



24 

35 

14 

13 6 

22 

44 12 5 



2 

3 



s. d. 



1234 6 3 



318 13 
50 10 6 
54 



1161 2 9 



185 15 10 



196 19 8 



202 1 5 



169 16 5 
4 11 3 

3577 17 1 



158 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1914, 



Sundry Creditors . 

Owen Fund .... 

Balance, 31st December, 1912 
Less creditor omitted 1912 
Less two Fellows amoved 



LIABILITIES. 



113 3 3 
550 



BALANCE SHEET, 



s. d. 



30899 8 
118 8 3 



30780 19 9 
Balance from Income and Expenditure Account 4 11 3 



s. d. 

1116 3 4 

39 7 5 



30785 11 



31941 1 9 



April 2.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



159 






31st DECEMBER, 1913. 



Investments General : 



ASSETS. 



10583 19s. 7d. Metropolitan 3 per cent. 1 

1010 Is. Metropolitan Water Board 3 per 
cent. "B" Stock 2 .... 
Ditto Stevenson bequest : 

2128 9s. 6d. Bank Stock x 

2725 Great Northern 4 per cent. Perpetual 
Preference Stock 1 

2757 London and North Western 4 per cent. 
Guaranteed l ..... 

2761 North Eastern 4 per cent. Guaranteed l 

592 5s. lOd. Midland 2 per cent. Consoli- 
dated Perpetual Preference 1 . 

Sundry debtors : 

Subscriptions ...... 

Publications ...... 

Sundries ....... 




11060 

1000 
7162 
3692 

3763 
3741 



Cash 



Deposit account 
Current account 
In hand . 



22 

158 

2 



800 
31 13 
12 18 



494 11 3 



s. d. 



30913 19 5 



182 10 3 



844 12 1 
31941 1 9 



1 Valued at Stock Exchange List prices on 31st December, 1899. 

2 Valued at cost, as when purchased in 1905. 



We have examined the above Income and Expenditure Account and Balance 
Sheet with the Books and Vouchers and certify them to be correct. We have 
inspected the Certificates representing the Investments, except the Inscribed 
Stocks, for which we have seen Certificates from the Banks in whose books 
they are inscribed. The value of the Library, Antiquities, Furniture, and 
other property of the Society is not taken credit for in the Balance Sheet. 



HAROLD SANDS. 
HORACE WILMER. 



FRANCIS W. PIXLEY. 
CECIL TENNANT. 



160 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1914, 



RESEARCH FUND- 



RECEIPTS. 



Balance in hand, 31st December, 1912 ..... 31 
Dividends .......... 125 5 

Grant from General Account, part admission fees . . . 54 12 

80 3 



Donations and Subscriptions 

Donation on account of Old Sarum Excavation Fund 



20 



s. d. 

4 3 







293 4 3 



Metropolitan 3 per cent. .... 

Bank Stock 

Great Northern Railway Consolidated 4 per cent. 
Perpetual Preference .... 

London and North Western Railway 4 per cent. 
Guaranteed ...... 

North Eastern Railway 4 per cent. Guaranteed 

Midland Railway 2 per cent. Consolidated Per- 
petual Preference ..... 

Metropolitan Water Board 3 per cent. " B " Stock 



STOCKS AND INVESTMENTS, 

Value, 

Amount 31st December, 
of Stock. 1913. 

s. d. s. d. 
. 10583 19 7 8784 14 
2128 9 6 4991 5 2 



2725 2616 

2757 2757 
2761 2733 7 9 



592 5 10 
1010 1 



358 6 9 
752 9 9 



22557 15 11 22993 3 5 



per cent. Consols 



OWEN FUND. 



300 00 215 5 



RESEARCH FUND. 
India 3| per cent. . 

J. Dickinson & Co., Ltd. 5 per cent. Preference 
Victoria 3 per cent. Consolidated Inscribed 
Metropolitan Water Board 3 per cent. " B " Stock 



1805 13 
500 
527 13 
966 4 



1534 16 
500 
401 
719 16 



3799 10 6 3155 13 1 






April 2.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



SUMMARY OF CASH ACCOUNT. 

PAYMENTS. 

Byzantine Research Fund .... 
St. Augustine's College, Canterbury, Excavation 

Fund . . . 

Glastonbury Abbey Excavation Fund 
Meare Village Excavation Fund 
Maumbury Rings Excavation Fund 
Kenchester Excavation Fund . 
Slack Excavation Fund . 
Old Sarum Excavation Fund . 
Wroxeter Excavation Fund 
Corbridge Excavation Fund . 
Balance, 31st December, 1913 
Balance due to Old Sarum Excavation Fund 



43 12 3 
200 



Audited and found correct : 



161 



s. d. 
10 

500 



4 4 



HAROLD SANDS. 
HORACE WILMER. 
FRANCIS W. PIXLEY. 
CECIL TENNANT. 



220 

220 

220 

220 

100 

100 

20 



45 12 3 

293 4 3 






31st DECEMBER, 1913. 



In the High Court of Justice, Chancery Division. 

In the suit of Thornton v. Stevenson. 

The Stocks remaining in Court to the credit of this cause are as 
follows, viz. : 

Great Western Railway 5 per cent. Guaranteed 
Midland Railway 2| per cent. Perpetual Preference 



Amount of 
Stock. 



8894 
14992 



23886 8 5 



After payment of certain annuities, now amounting to 300 per annum, the 
Society is entitled to one-fourth share of the residue of the income of the above 
fund. 



WILLIAM MINET, 

Treas. S. A. 



VOL. xxvi 



162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

Dr. STRAHAN said the purpose of the excavations was to deter- 
mine what types of implements occurred in the various deposits, 
and to decide whether they could be utilized as zone-fossils. Some 
points were already settled, as the horizons of certain specimens 
had been certified by the excavators. But he confessed to some 
doubt as to the distinction of one bed from another, and thought 
that the gravels, sands, and clays all belonged together and were 
deposited in one period. They appeared to shade off one into 
another, and were probably not persistent. He was not satisfied 
that they marked different periods, and last year's work had 
revealed an inexplicable mixture of types. The lowest bed at 
Barnfield was of special interest, as the industry was homogeneous 
and the fauna well represented, but unfortunately no implements 
had occurred at that level, whereas in the Shell-bed the same 
flakes occurred with definite implements considered to be of much 
later date. Disturbance of an older bed by ice or some other 
natural agency was an unsatisfactory explanation, and the occur- 
rence of St. Acheul forms at that level was disastrous to the 
theory advanced. There was a great deal still to be done, but 
he could make no promises as to future participation, though 
it seemed a pity to interrupt an investigation that had begun 
so well. 

Professor M C KENNY HUGHES was not familiar with the pits 
examined, but had mapped gravels beyond. There was a similar 
sequence near Cambridge, different horizons being characterized 
by Elephas antiquus and E. primigenius^ and no intermingling 
had yet been noticed there. He put forward the theory of 
arrested surface-soils, and thought the flints had acquired their 
characteristic patina before being buried. 

Mr. DALE referred to the lowest gravel deposit of the 100 ft. 
terrace. When the previous report was presented, the meeting 
was assured that only flakes had been found at that horizon, but 
implements from a corresponding bed were now exhibited. The 
flakes showed no secondary working, only the bulb of percussion, 
and yet a pre-Chelles industry had been mentioned, with a Pliocene 
fauna. He concluded with a note of caution as to classification 
and dating. 

Mr. RICE dwelt on the difficulty collectors had in getting details 
from the workmen, and found that the most careful excavation 
did not suffice to solve the problems that arose. Though a satis- 
factory conclusion had not been reached, he regarded the under- 
taking as a move in the right direction ; and both archaeologists 




April 2.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 163 

and geologists owed a good deal to the excavators, who had 
provided much food for thought. 

Mr. CLEMENT REID thought there was evidence of an alterna- 
tion of warm and cold faunas, and suggested that there was a 
similar alternation of the population. There might have been 
two parallel sequences, originating in the north and south respec- 
tively, the civilization and the fauna changing from time to time 
on the same spot. The implements might in that case represent 
not an advance in general culture, but alternating phases of 
culture due to successive occupations of the area in question by 
immigrants from different directions. 

Mr. REGINALD SMITH replied that if the St. Acheul implements 
of the Shell-bed were in their original position, it would be much 
more difficult to explain the presence of a fauna with Pliocene 
affinities, as the implements were late in the Drift series. If the 
twist were involuntarily produced in handling the flint during 
manufacture, it became necessary to explain the greater propor- 
tion of straight- edged implements. A glaciation had not been 
invented to explain a disturbance of the Shell-bed. Many leading 
geologists who knew something of archaeology recognized a change 
to severe cold after the St. Acheul period ; and, however described, 
such a change would be adequate for the purpose. All but a few 
acknowledged one or more glaciations in the Pleistocene, and the 
fauna alone was sufficient evidence. Archaeologically the strata 
at Swanscombe were quite distinct, whether the geologists rolled 
them into one or not ; and the cave-deposits at any rate proved 
frequent and considerable changes of fashion in palaeolithic imple- 
ments. It was difficult to believe that Drift man used every type 
throughout, without any change. From the very nature of the 
matrix, finds in gravel were frequently of mixed character, but 
an attempt had been made to find and examine an undisturbed 
bed with a homogeneous series of flints. The flint flakes found 
in the Shell-bed last year agreed in quantity and quality with 
those of the lowest gravel at Barnfield, but differed widely in 
character and patination from the white twisted St. Acheul 
implements exhibited ; and the authors were not inclined to 
associate the two groups without further evidence. 

The PRESIDENT stated that the report was the second presented 
to .me Society on official excavations undertaken with a view to 
Determining with greater precision the different horizons of the 
gravels and the implements characteristic of them. For the last 
sixty or seventy years collectors had been satisfied with the infor- 
mation given by workmen with regard to the occurrence of flint 



164 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

implements, but the example set by Professor Commont was 
having its effect in England, and an attempt was being made to 
study the stratification of Pleistocene deposits from various stand- 
points. In England there was as good a field as in France, if not 
better ; and with the sanction of the British Museum Trustees and 
the Director of the Geological Survey two seasons' work had been 
done in the lower Thames valley, the investigators having been 
chosen so as to concentrate attention on the archaeological and 
geological aspects of the excavations. He was glad to think that 
the work had been continued, and hoped that nothing would 
interfere with it in other parts of the country, as the exploration 
of one spot was not enough to prove the sequence of types and 
horizons. The exhibits were very welcome in illustration of the 
report, and thanks were due to those who had contributed from 
their private collections. The undertaking was rather a novelty 
in England, and much was expected from the alliance between 
geology and archaeology. Specimens taken out of the gravels 
under close supervision were classical pieces, and might well rank 
as zone-fossils, which should lead to a more hopeful view of the 
Pleistocene deposits. Hitherto the conflicting views of geologists 
had had nothing but a depressing effect on those interested in 
pre-history ; and if the logic of geology were to control excava- 
tions, no one would venture to open any superficial deposit at 
all. There was, however, comfort in the thought that geological 
criticisms were mutually destructive ; and the discussion of such 
pressing problems as glaciation and patination could not be 
barred for ever. The action of ice and change of climate were 
invoked by some and ridiculed by others ; and a comparatively 
simple case of patination, the counterchanged flints of the 
Egyptian desert, still remained a mystery. But a beginning 
had been made on sound lines, and Messrs. Smith and Dewey 
merited the thanks of the meeting for a clear exposition of the 
points involved. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for this communication, 
vhich will be printed in Archaeologia. 






April 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 165 

ANNIVERSARY. 

THURSDAY, 23rd APIUL, 191 4. 
St. George's Day. 

WILLIAM MINET, Esq., M.A., Treasurer, and afterwards 
Sir CHARLES HERCULES READ, Knt., LL.D., President 
in the Chair. 

Robert Garraway Rice, Esq., and Wilfrid James Hemp, Esq., 
were appointed Scrutators of the Ballot. 

Colonel Sir Clement Molyneux Royds, .C.B., was admitted a 
Fellow. 

The PRESIDENT proceeded to deliver the following Address : 

6< GENTLEMEN, 

I am happy, in meeting you again on St. George's Day, to 
be able to record a prosperous year. Although it has not been 
marked by any outstanding events, we have pursued our even 
course usefully, I think, and may regard our present position 
with a fair amount of satisfaction. 

Our losses by death have been about normal. 
The names of the deceased Fellows are as follows : 

Ordinary Fellows : 

*John, Baron Avebury. 28th May, 1913. 
Rev. Arthur Henry Sanxay Bar well. 1 5th November, 1913. 
Colonel Alessandro Pal ma di Cesnola. 24th February, 1914. 
William Henry Duignan. 27th March, 1914. 
Frederick Royston Fairbank, M.D. 3rd October, 1913. 
William Younger Fletcher. 17th November, 1913. 
Rev. Frederick Charles Hipkins. 8th January, 1914. 
Sir Hubert Edward Henry Jerningham, K.C.M.G. 3rd April, 

1914. 

Edward Laws. 25th July, 1913. 
Isaac Saunders Leadam. 18th December, 1913. 
Arthur Russell Maiden. 22nd October, 1913. 
Frank Johnstone Mitchell, llth October, 1913. 
Rev. Morgan Thomas Pearman. 15th June, 1913. 
Rev. Frederick Walker Preston-Joy, D.D. 1st October, 

1913. 

Sir Augustus Prevost, Bart. 6th December, 1913. 
William Henry Hamilton Rogers. 20th November, 1913. 



166 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

* John Oldrid Scott. 30th May, 1913. 

Eugene Edward Street. 9th October, 1913. 

*John William Trist. 24th October, 1913. 

George Troyte-Chafyn-Grove. 27th September, 1913. 

Sidney Young. 10th March, 1914. 

Honorary Fellows : 
Dr. Hans Hildebrand. 
Professor Johann Rudolf Rahn. 

The following has resigned : 
Thomas Foster Shattock. 

The following have been elected : 
Robert Bagster. 
Arthur Thomas Bolton. 
William Alexander Cater. 
Rev. John Frederick Chanter, M.A. 
Alfred William Clapham. 
Rev. Philip Thomas Byard Clayton, M.A. 
Captain Charles Walter Cottrell-Dormer. 
Major Algernon Tudor Craig. 
William Vandeleur Crake, B.A. 
Archibald Campbell Dickie. 
Robert Copp Fowler, B.A. 
Arthur William Gould. 
Jonathan Edward Hodgkin. 
Charles Henry Hop wood. 
Charles Harry St. John Hornby, B.A. 
Rev. Henry Arnold Hudson, M.A. 
Montagu Edward Hughes-Hughes. 
Major Francis Fane Lambarde. 
Henry William Lew r er. 
William Blake Odgers, M.A., LL.D., K.C. 
Henry Oppenheimer. 
Charles William Dyson Perrins. 
Charles George James Port. 
William de Courcy Prideaux. 
Maurice Rosenheim. 

Colonel Sir Clement Molyneux Royds, C.B. 
Frank Simpson. 
Henry Vassall, M.A. 
Cuthbert Wilfrid Whitaker, M.A. 

One of the events of the past year, which affects not only our 
Society but in a greater degree the world at large, is the death 
of my predecessor in the Chair, Lord AVEBURY. A man of the 

* Compcnmders. 



April 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



167 



widest interests, of many gifts, among which I think the most 
useful to the world at large was the extraordinary power of 
application to the study which interested him at the moment, he 
has left a blank which, as far as one can see, is not likely to be 
. filled. During his four years' occupancy of the Presidential Chair 
he unfortunately had but few opportunities of bringing to bear 
upon our business the wide erudition which he possessed. With 
the claims of the House of Lords, of the business of the bank, and 
of the more strictly scientific pursuits which have been both the 
solace of his leisure and have largely contributed to the instruc- 
tion of his contemporaries, but little time was left for the 
avocations that belong to the office I now hold. It is perhaps 
unfortunate for the Society that Lord Avebury did not occupy 
the post of our President at an earlier period of his career when 
his tastes were more definitely antiquarian. At an early age, 
when he was, in fact, thirty-five, he produced a volume entitled 
I 're historic Times, a work not only remarkable as summarizing 
the whole of prehistoric knowledge at that time, but which 
attained such a popularity as to have survived the enormous 
advance that has taken place in this branch of science. It is 
said, and I believe with truth, that in order to master the litera- 
ture of the subject, he learnt more than one of the Scandinavian 
languages, a feat which would be remarkable in almost any one, 
but which for a man of his absorbing occupation as a banker is 
something that is given to very few to be able to compass. 

It is hardly necessary for me in this place to attempt a 
biography of Lord Avebury : all that seems needful is to give 
such an appreciation of his standing in the world of Science and 
Letters as may form for posterity some kind of idea of the rela- 
tion that he bore to us. While it is true that his earlier studies 
were devoted to the archaeological side of science, yet there can 
be no question that his heart was infinitely more bound by the 
ties of popular science, and it is in this direction that he shines 
the most. The study of landscape as related to geology, devo- 
tion to the various sides of natural history, close observation of 
the habits and lives of bees, ants, and other small creatures, all 
gave him more entertainment in his leisure at High Elms than 
probably would be found in the more abstruse antiquarian prob- 
lems that have arisen and been discussed during his long and 
useful life. As most of the Fellows know, his home was within 
a stone's throw of that of the great Charles Darwin, and to that 
propinquity must certainly be attributed his bent for the pursuit 
of natural science. The intimacy of the friendship between 
Lubbock and Darwin was deep and constant, and it can hardly 
be doubted that this friendship incited him to study the prob- 
lems of animal and insect life. It is always difficult to foresee 



168 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

in what light the future will regard men whom we call great, 
but in my view it can hardly be questioned that posterity will 
be grateful to Lord Avebury for presenting to them the wonders 
of science in a guise that can easily be grasped. This is not the 
place in which to enlarge upon his useful work as the originator 
of bank holidays ; but here again he has earned the gratitude of 
a vast number among the more humble of his fellow countrymen. 
His interest in the hours of shop assistants also appeals to 
a class with whom one might think he had little in common ; but 
in point of fact one outstanding feature in Lord Avebury's 
character was the intense sympathy that he had with working- 
men's clubs and the desire for knowledge of the class who 
frequented them. Even less is it my business to deal with his 
professional occupation as a banker ; but from what I know, it is 
admitted that the common sense and commercial sanity which 
were two of his best- known features led to his being regarded 
in the City as a man of weight, and as one on whose judgement 
reliance could be placed. 

There remains little for me to add. Through my friendship 
with Sir Wollaston Franks I made Lord Avebury's acquaintance 
in the early 'seventies, and from that time onward we had been 
on the most intimate terms ; he was always kindness itself, not 
only to me, but to everybody with whom he came in contact. An 
additional bond between us was formed by his marriage with the 
daughter of another great friend of mine, General Pitt-Rivers, 
and it may be of interest to record in this place that the General 
shortly before his death arranged with Lord Avebury and myself 
that we should be the trustees of the various museums and other 
collections that General Pitt-Rivers had gathered together at his 
seat in Dorsetshire. But the law stepped in and prevented the 
fulfilment of General Pitt-Rivers's desires. I think that this is 
greatly to be deplored, for I am sure that his purpose was that 
these collections should be maintained as a museum for the 
public good. Unfortunately, their present legal condition is that 
they may be dispersed to the four winds at any moment. 

Another great character, who, although not a Fellow of the 
Society, it yet seems fitting that I should notice here, is Sir 
JONATHAN HUTCHINSON, the eminent surgeon, especially known 
for his investigation of leprosy, who died on the 23rd June last. 
His professional life, like that of Lord Avebury, although of great 
public advantage and distinguished in many directions, has but 
little concern with our Society ; but as a hobby in his later years 
he took a keen interest in education, and in the possibility of 
making museums useful in that direction. During the last year 
or two, as we all know, this has taken a lively form in London at 
the British Museum, and other public institutions have followed 



April 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 169 

the example first set through the enthusiasm of Lord Sudeley. 
But Sir Jonathan Hutchinson's ideas were that local museums 
might be made of definite educational value if the objects gathered 
together were arranged on proper lines ; and with these views he 
built and partly endowed a museum at Haslemere, near his own 
house, and gave a vast deal of thought and attention to the means 
by which this institution could be rendered of permanent utility to 
those living in the neighbourhood. This museum still exists, and 
I trust will continue to exist ; but it must be confessed that unless 
a greater amount of local enthusiasm and public liberality is 
forthcoming in order to provide a fitting endowment for it, there 
is a chance that it may suffer extinction, and the public will be 
a loser. England is fortunate, not only in the attainments of her 
scientific men, but perhaps more in their character, and men 
like Sir Jonathan Hutchinson, who have great and distinctly useful 
ideals, deserve the support of the intelligence of their fellows. 
Recent experience has shown with what intensity the ordinary 
frequenter of museums accepts the more educational side of 
such institutions, and it would be a lasting pity if Sir Jonathan 
Hutchinson's museum at Haslemere were to come to a premature 
end for want of the public support which it so eminently deserves. 
Although Monsieur Louis MAIIC SOLON was not only not a 
Fellow of the Society but would have deprecated being called 
an Antiquary, yet his tastes were of such a character as to bring 
him within our purview. An artist to his finger-tips, he started 
life as an etcher and entered the studio of Monsieur Lecoq at an 
early age, and produced in due course some very charming etch- 
ings of decorative subjects. But he only found his real vocation 
when he obtained a post in the Imperial Porcelain Factory at 
Sevres, where he took up the charming craft of which afterwards 
he became the chief exponent. This was a technical process 
known as 'pate sur pate 1 *, in which a fine porcelain paste is 
applied in varying thicknesses upon a base of the same material, 
so that when it has passed through the furnace it comes out 
resembling a cameo. No other artist of his time has ever 
approached the perfection with which Solon handled his own 
peculiar method. But for the Franco-German War no doubt 
Louis Solon would have remained one of the chief ornaments of 
the manufactory at Sevres to this day, but being in poor health 
he elected to leave France at that time and formed friendships 
with the chiefs of Minton's Works at Stoke. He entered their 
service, arid from that time until within a few years of his death 
he continued to practise his beautiful art under their auspices. 
Although this was his main business in life, his claims for recog- 
nition in this Society are due to the fact that his amusement 
consisted in collecting the indigenous wares of the Staffordshire 



170 PROCEEDINGS OF THK [1914, 

potters of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and of these 
he made a singularly fine collection, which was dispersed shortly 
before his death. Works of art of all kinds have appreciated in 
value vastly during the last thirty years, but hardly anything 
has risen to so high a pitch both in price and public apprecia- 
tion as the naive but artistic productions of the old English 
potter. It is a singular thing that the man who was the master 
of the ultimate of refinement of the art of the potter should have 
taken pleasure in collecting some of his most primitive products. 
Not only did he collect them, but he published sumptuous works, 
illustrated with his own etchings, both on The Art of the 
English Potter and on the analogous wares of the Rhine. In 
addition to the actual products of the various factories, he made 
also an exhaustive collection of works on the subject and pro- 
duced a catalogue of this remarkable library. He was born in 
the year 1835, and until his sight failed shortly before his death 
it may be said that he was constantly at work, and although 
he lived in England for forty years, he remained essentially 
a Frenchman to the day of his death. 

Mr. WILLIAM YOUNGER FLETCHER, who died on the 18th 
November last, was an old colleague of mine at the Museum for 
many years. Born on the 12th July, 1830, he entered the 
Department of Printed Books in 1849, where he was usefully 
employed until he retired in the year 1895. His chief interest 
and employment during his maturer years was in connexion 
with the old book-bindings in his Department, and on these he 
wrote some useful works and was a recognized authority. He 
belonged to the old school of British Museum officials and was 
among the most genial and urbane of men ; his retirement was 
generally regretted among his colleagues in the Museum. 

Although Sir HUBERT JERNINGHAM but seldom appeared at 
our meetings, yet, as a very old friend of my own, and an agree- 
able personality in the diplomatic and literary world, I can 
hardly pass him by without a few words of appreciation. He 
was born on the 18th October, 1842, at Painswick in Gloucester- 
shire. His early education was entirely French, and to that he 
owed the facility with which he spoke that language, a tongue 
essential in diplomacy. He was an attache in Paris, then at 
Constantinople, and proceeded later to Carlsruhe and Darmstadt, 
rising in the profession until he became Second Secretary and 
acted as Charge d'Affaires. After filling other diplomatic and 
consular posts, he entered Parliament, and represented Berwick- 
on-Tweed, near which his country house was situated, from 1881 
to 1885. In 1887 he was appointed Colonial Secretary of 
British Honduras, and afterwards Lieutenant-Governor of 
Mauritius and Governor of Trinidad and Tobago. On his 



April 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIKS 171 

retirement from public life, he spent a good deal of time in 
England, both in town and at his country seat, Longridge, and 
occupied his leisure in producing various books, The Reminis- 
cences of an Attach^ The History of Norhurn Castle, and 
sundry books of travel. In appearance he was striking, and he 
possessed to the full the urbane and courteous demeanour that is 
associated with the Diplomatic Service. His interest in anti- 
quarian pursuits was always strong, and but for the demands of 
society upon his time and energies, he might have produced 
work that would have placed him in an assured position in the 
archaeological world. He died after a short illness on the 3rd 
of the present month. 

The Rev. ARTHUR HENRY SAXXAY HARWELL, Canon of 
Chichester, died on the 15th November last. He was born on 
the 13th July, 1834, at Goetteville, in Normandy, and he after- 
wards lived with his parents at the Chateau cTOmonville, near 
Dieppe. Ke was educated first at Rouen, and later at a school 
at Maidstone. His father, uncle, and two brothers were all in 
the Army, and family feeling all ran in that direction, so that 
Canon Bar well at the age of 18 was gazetted to the Bombay 
Army, and in the following year obtained a commission in the 
Bombay Native Infantry, while his two elder brothers were in 
the Madras Native Infantry and in the 84th Regiment, both of 
them serving later in command of corps of Bashi-bazouks in the 
Crimean War a somewhat odd setting for a man who was after- 
wards to become an ideal country parson and a canon. His 
heart, however, was much more strongly inclined towards his 
ultimate career than towards the Army, and after three years he 
resigned and came home to read for Orders. In 1855 he became 
a pensioner at Trinity College, Cambridge, matriculated in the 
following year, and took his degree in 1860. He held various 
cures, and finally, in 1873, he settled as rector at the charming 
village of Clapham on the shoulder of the downs behind Ferring, 
in Sussex. Here he lived an ideal life as a country parson until 
the- vear 1904, when his apparently vigorous health gave way, 
and he retired from active work to Blechingley, and there lived 
contentedly, but by no means idle, until his death last year. 
This is a simple and it may seem a very commonplace story, 
but those who knew Canon Barwell can readily testify to the 
fact that he was anything but a commonplace man. His energy 
and thoroughness in the conduct of his apparently small cure, 
joined to a hard common-sense and a most uncompromising 
honesty, would alone have lifted him out of the mass of clergy- 
men of this country. It was fortunate for me that he possessed 
one quality that brought him within my sphere, viz. his passion 
for the enamels of Limoges. To this taste that he had in 



172 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1914, 

common with myself, I owe a long friendship which was to me 
during its whole course of inestimable value. As the Society is 
mvare, he left to the British Museum practically the whole of 
his magnificent collection, the best of the kind in private hands 
in Europe, and in the Museum they will always remain as 
a witness of his admirable taste. To the Society he bequeathed 
the choice of such books from his library as were needed, and in 
this way we have considerably enriched our shelves. 

In niy experience characters such as Canon Harwell's are of 
rare occurrence. There is hardly any situation in which a man may 
run to seed more easily than in the conduct of a small country 
parish. His duties and responsibilities, beyond a very limited 
area, are practically what he chooses to make them, and free- 
dom from any financial anxiety, which was Canon Bar well's case, 
is hardly likely to add to his energies in the duties of his cure. 
The width of his interests both in artistic and more general 
matters prevented anything like stagnation, while intercourse 
with a fairly large circle of friends brought the echoes of the 
great world into the quiet parish on the Downs, with a grateful 
influence for both sides. 

A highly picturesque personality is gone from the ranks of the 
Society in Colonel ALKSSAXDRO PALMA DI CESKOLA, who died in 
Florence on 24th February in his seventy-fourth year. His life 
is so full of picturesque and dramatic elements that, although 
it is only partly concerned with archaeological matters, a brief 
summary may be interesting. At the age of fifteen he enrolled 
iu a battalion of Bersaglieri, and volunteered for the Crimean 
War, where he was present at the battles of Tchernaia and 
Sebastopol. In 1859 he engaged in the War of Independence, in 
which he distinguished himself at Palestro and San Martino. 
Again, in 1866, he joined the forces of the Nationalists, and was 
present at the famous battle of Lissa. Finding no outlet for his 
energies at home, he went in 1870 to Rio de Janeiro, and in that 
year fitted out an expedition to explore the interior of the Argen- 
tine, reached the sources of the Rio de la Plata, and travelled 
through Paraguay, where he found the capital in ruins as the 
result of another War of Independence. Further explorations in 
Brazil among the Indian tribes brought him into conflict with 
his o\vn countrymen and the newspapers. Returning to relative 
civilization at Buenos Aires, he fell upon a yellow-fever epidemic. 
Taking up nursing the victims of this deadly disease, he himself 
succumbed to it. He recovered, however, and found himself sound 
in health but without money, so proceeding to Montevideo, he 
took the post of Captain of the National Mobilized Guards in 
that city, and finally, at the termination of the revolution, became 
a Major in the Republican army. This exciting South American 



April 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 173 

episode occupied just three years, for in 1873 he left South America 
for New York, a voyage that occupied no less than three months. 
Here he joined his brother Luigi, a General in the United States 
Army. The latter having been made U.S. Consul for Cyprus, 
the two left for that island, and Alessandro, our late Fellow, 
was nominated U.S. Vice-Consul at Paphos. 

At this stage begins what may be called his archaeological life. 
The two brothers started diggings on the fruitful ancient sites, and 
were able to gather a vast collection of antiquities, the great part 
of which were destined for the Metropolitan Museum at New York, 
where, on arrival, they produced a vast amount of controversy and 
recrimination. Alessandro was finally left to work alone in Cyprus, 
the brother being appointed Director of the Museum in New York, 
and continued excavation for Mr. E.H.Lawrence, whose daughter 
he afterwards married. He gathered together a vast series of 
antique glass and jewellery, which I remember well in my earlv 
days. The British occupation of the island brought his aspira- 
tions to an end. Cesnola published a volume on his investiga- 
tions at Salamis, called Salaminia, and an album of illustrations. 
It was at about this time (1882) that he was elected a Fellow, and 
from that time onward he has lived a more or less retired life in 
his native country. It is but seldom that so variegated a career 
is to be found in the annals of our Society, and it seems to me 
worthy of record. 

Three years ago in my address I alluded to a suggestion that 
had been made for the establishment in this country of a Ministry 
of Fine Arts. My view then was that such a step should only be 
taken after very serious consideration, if at all. I am not sure 
that my views have changed. In the meanwhile, however, I under- 
stand that a Society has been formed to support the appointment 
of a Minister, and for putting before the Government of the 
country the arguments that may be found useful in its promo- 
tion. There are one or two fundamental considerations that, in 
my judgement, should not be overlooked in this matter. In the 
first place, I think it is not unfair to assume that it is the exis- 
tence of such a Ministry in France which has led to the suggestion 
that we should possess one ; but it is well to remember that the 
conditions of the Fine Arts in England and France are radically 
different. In France, or more precisely in Paris and in the great 
cities, there is unquestionably a widespread feeling for Art and 
an everlasting desire on the part of the citizens to learn more and 
see more in connexion with it, as well as a critical appreciation, 
more or less instructed, of the great works of art which are 
exhibited in the galleries, museums, and in other parts of the 
country. I wish I could say that such a feeling or such a desire 



174 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

exists in England. But it is a common experience with almost 
every one to discover that the ordinary person that one meets in 
everyday life has hardly ever been inside the National Gallery, 
and is profoundly ignorant as to the contents, and even of the 
functions, of our great public museums. One or other such institu- 
tion may be a fashionable craze for a few months, but it soon falls 
into line as one of the things that are realized, but hardly ever 
visited. It is hardly necessary for me to insist on the importance 
and value of the contents of our London galleries and museums, 
and if they are neglected by our modern public, the reason can 
only be that the public is not interested. Therefore, and this 
is my point, the difference between the functions of a Fine Art 
Minister in France and in England is fundamental. In France- 
he is engaged in the control of a powerful stream of public taste- 
and public opinion, perhaps more vigorous and rapid than he- 
would desire, and the effects of his guidance may be destructive 
or beneficent as with other streams. But I take it that the exis- 
tence of a strong body of artistic opinion in France is not likely 
to be denied. While, therefore, the French Minister finds his 
hands full with control and guidance, what will be the duties of 
his English confrere ? He cannot guide a thing that has no 
existence, and his chief business will therefore of necessity be 
constructive, and it will be his duty to gather round him a body 
of men who can be trusted as guides for an uninstructed nation, 
and thus, by transforming their ideas into acts, to evolve from 
the present chaos of unreason and parrot- like repetition some 
intelligent standards of artistic understanding. There are at the 
present time evident tendencies in this direction, and one of -them 
is seen in the invitation to certain bodies like ourselves, who have 
no concern with the Government or with politics, to bear our 
share in the specialized work of the Government departments. 
The Advisory Board under the Ancient Monuments Act of last 
year is a case in point. Here we and the other societies who 
work with us can bear a useful part and bring our influence to 
control public opinion so as to raise the standard of national 
taste. 

With our party system of government it is, of course, inevitable 
that the Minister to be appointed shall be a supporter of the 
Government of the day, a grave defect, inasmuch as it might rule 
out the man who is clearly best for the post. But, being inevitable, 
we must needs accept it, and do our work with the only tools we 
';an get. Our successors will hardly bless us if we sit with folded 
hands as a protest against methods that fall short of the ideal. 
If therefore we are to have the opportunity of experimenting with 
a Minister of Fine Arts, let us wish him well and see to it that 
our influence is usefully present in all matters that fall within 
our province. 



April 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 175 

It is two years ago that I had the pleasure of calling the atten- 
tion of the Society to the opening of the London Museum, which 
had then just been installed in a suite of rooms in Kensington 
Palace. It was obvious then, and became increasingly clear as 
time went on, that the limited amount of space available in the 
Palace would call for some drastic changes if the Museum was to 
be a living organism. A combination of circumstances and 
a good deal of generosity have provided a solution, which, though 
by no means ideal, will yet serve to postpone for some time the 
consideration of the final habitat of the collections. When the 
Duke of Sutherland gave up his splendid mansion the remainder 
of the lease was bought by Sir William Lever, and he, with 
a public- spirited generosity that is fortunately not rare with us, 
presented it to the Trustees of the London Museum. The collec- 
tions were transferred to their new home with praiseworthy 
promptitude, and thrown open to the public on the 23rd March 
last. Although Stafford House is by no means ill suited for 
such a use, it has, perhaps, more of the attributes of a palace than 
was the case at Kensington, and gorgeous as the rooms are, as 
well as admirably lighted, it is self-evident that a palace can 
hardly be expected to serve as a museum without great sacrifices 
on the one side or the other. Of this there can hardly be a better 
example than the Museum of the Louvre. The danger of fire, 
to instance only one point of view, must necessarily be greater 
in elaborately decorated saloons, innocent of what is optimistic- 
ally called fire-proof construction, than in a building in which 
such a necessity is kept in view throughout every stage of its 
building. I have no doubt, however, that those responsible for 
the collections have given earnest thought to this and other 
similar matters. 

It cannot be denied that as they stand now the contents 
of the Museum present a very attractive appearance, and it can 
hardly be doubted that in their new environment they will be 
even more popular than they were at Kensington. The most 
has been made of the very handsome setting, and the arrange- 
ment reflects great credit on the very limited staff'. 

As an old museum official, I feel that it is perhaps a duty for 
me to say a few words on the principles that should be held in 
respect in the formation of such a museum. The initiation of 
a new museum is always difficult, and no one knows better than 
I how many pitfalls lie open for the unwary feet of even the most 
cautious of enthusiastic directors. It is almost impossible to 
foresee with precision how the best-laid schemes will work out in 
practice. One has only to think for a moment of the innumerable 
interests that belong to the history of a city like London over 
a period of two thousand years. Relics of places or persons. 



176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914 ? 

documents, prints, drawings relating to people, places, or things, 
the history of the ever-changing topography, the many thousands 
of works of art, many of them quite insignificant in themselves, 
but as reproducing the daily life of old London of inestimable 
value, all demand a place. If one adds to all this a library of 
books relating to London, contemporary paintings of the vanish- 
ing city, either of which would be quite in keeping, it will be 
seen that Stafford House, capacious as it may seem, would hardly 
suffice to contain the collections that may reasonably be expected 
to accrue. In carrying out the formation of such a museum the 
difficulties of a director are surely great enough ; but he is met 
almost inevitably by the generous donor offering valuable gifts 
eminently desirable in themselves, but obviously as unsuitable 
for such a museum. 

For all these reasons, but in the main for reasons of space, 
I would strongly urge that the collections at the London Museum 
should be strictly confined within the historical period. In fact, 
that it should be limited to the time when London existed, and 
exclude the remains of the mammoth hunter on the terraces of 
the Thames. To illustrate historical London is a gigantic enter- 
prise, vast enough for the energies of any museum, while the 
interest of the exhibits remains coherent and consecutive, being 
based on their historical sequence. Once go beyond the limits 
of history, the interest and importance of the objects are not only 
of an entirely different kind, and demand a totally new stand - 

Soint, but they have nothing to do with London because London 
id not exist. 

It is my duty on occasions of this kind to make some reference 
to the explorations that the Society has in hand. I need not 
remind the Fellows, for I have often done so on previous occa- 
sions, of the important obligations which we owe to ourselves 
and to the world in the proper accomplishment of our explora- 
tions at Wroxeter and Old Sarum. There has been no question 
that they are in thoroughly competent hands, and that, with the 
guidance of the Research Committee, the work of each season 
will be well done. The yearly cost of these two undertakings is 
about 1,500, and although we obtain handsome contributions 
from the local societies and from others outside our body, yet it 
cannot be too strongly impressed upon the Fellows of this Society 
that they, through the Council, have made themselves responsible 
for the efficient performance of these contracts. Some of our 
friends in the Society have been very generous in their contri- 
butions, and the appeals for subscriptions are a necessary though 
an ungrateful task for the officers, but I think there is nothing 
that comes within our scope that is more worthy of the support 






April 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 177 

of the Fellows of the Society, or where their contributions would 
be more gratefully received and well expended. The responsi- 
bility of such undertakings is by no means at an end when the 
excavations are complete. It is of little use to make explorations 
without adequate publication of the results. Here again the 
expense is by no means small, but I am sure that no one within 
the Society grudges this most appropriate expenditure of its 
income; the ideal position would be that our Research Fund 
should attain to such dimensions that the income would suffice 
to defray about half of the annual expenses of these explorations ; 
we could then appeal with a better face for outside help. At 
present our Research Fund produces only a negligible income, 
and practically all the expense of these particular works is de- 
frayed by voluntary contributions. What we really require is 
a few generous gifts or, in an extreme case, legacies, so that the 
capital of our Research Fund may be sensibly increased. Until 
some such condition is attained, a great deal of very ungrateful 
labour will necessarily be imposed on the officers of this Society. 

Every Fellow will have received, during the last week or two, 
a circular from me on this subject, inviting them to give orders 
to their bankers for a very modest annual contribution towards 
research. The minimum sum there mentioned is, I think, well 
within the means of every Fellow, but it is my duty to emphasize 
here that we confidently hope that a large number of our Fellows 
will feel themselves bound to contribute on a more generous 
scale, and thus secure a very much larger average annual subsidy 
towards our explorations. 

A suggestion that I hope may be borne in mind by my suc- 
cessors in this chair is the propriety of making an appeal in due 
course for a grant from the Government towards our Research 
Fund. It is a most proper and reasonable expenditure of public 
money, and the amount would in any case be relatively small. 
The action of the Government in passing the Ancient Monu- 
ments Act shows that archaeology as related to the history of 
the country is recognized as having a legitimate place in the 
national budget. Further, the utility of the public collections, 
as factors in the educational system, is now commonly accepted 
and acted upon. If it were made a condition of a Government 
grant that all remains discovered by its aid should be permanently 
preserved in a properly constituted museum, there could then be 
no question as to the propriety of voting money for the purpose 
of exploration. The museums would not only be definitely en- 
riched, but the added treasures would be of far greater historical 
value from the fact that they had been brought to light under 
scientific conditions. With even 2,000 or 3,000 a year what 
a vast amount of useful work could be done, and how effectively 

VOL. xx vr o 



178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [ 1914 > 

the reconstruction of the history of the country could be achieved. 
In this respect no body could take action with more effect or 
with greater propriety than the Society of Antiquaries. 

An argument of an indirect kind may be found in the founda- 
tion of the Franks Scholarship by the Society. That at least 
demonstrates that we do not forget that, while we deal with the 
past, we yet look to the future in relation to archaeological 
studies, and are ourselves not neglectful of our own side of 
education. 

Some years ago I referred to the question of the administra- 
tion of the law of treasure- trove and to the fact that the 
Council had appointed a Committee to consider what action the 
Society might well take in placing suggestions on the subject 
before the Lords of the Treasury. As I then informed you, this 
Committee held several meetings and discussed the matter in all 
its aspects from the archaeological point of view. This report 
of the Committee was in due course sent to the Treasury, but 
no action has since been taken. The delay was partly due to 
conversations that I had with officers of the Treasury, who were 
strongly of opinion that the Report as it stood could not be 
accepted by the Government. This decision hardly surprised 
me, but I took no further steps at the time, for two reasons. 
One was the retirement from the Treasury of Sir George Murray 
and the subsequent appointment of two other gentlemen to take 
his place, neither of whom I knew ; and secondly, because these 
steps brought me so near my retirement from the Presidential 
Chair that I felt it would be futile for me to initiate a policy 
which I should certainly be unable to see to an end. The matter, 
therefore, must rest in the hands of my successor, and I feel sure 
that the experience of your President and of the Committee on 
Treasure Trove will amply suffice to place before the Govern- 
ment the matured views of the Society in regard to this matter. 
In my previous reference to the law of treasure-trove I came to 
the conclusion that it would be better to endeavour to ameliorate 
the present conditions rather than to try for the abolition of the 
law : further experience and consideration make me doubt 
whether this is the best course to pursue. I am rather inclined 
now to believe that the Society would stand a better chance of 
success if it could represent to the Government the benefit that 
might result from the entire disappearance of the law of treasure- 
trove from the Statute Book. In this, I must confess,! am adopting 
rather what is expedient than what might be called ideal from 
the scientific standpoint. As I pointed out before, the Crown, 
while it has the right to claim treasure- trove, is on the side of 
archaeology, inasmuch as the more precise the evidence of dis- 



April 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 179 

covery can be made, the better the chance of the Crown to estab- 
lish its case. Such records are, of course, of the highest importance 
for us, and if the rights of the Crown with regard to treasure- 
trove be abolished, there will be no official inquiry as to the 
circumstances of the discovery of the objects. It is common 
knowledge that the law is constantly evaded ; compromises are 
often made with regard to it, and of this a recent instance 
occurring in London is an admirable example. There can be 
little question that the whole procedure belongs to a past time, 
and is practically obsolete, and but for the fact that the precious 
metals are concerned and become the prize when the law is put 
into operation, the whole statute would long ago have passed 
into oblivion. This Society, however, is more or less the official 
custodian of archaeological tradition, and it is its duty to perform 
the functions appertaining to this office for the benefit of the 
community at large, and to fight for what it considers the proper 
course, no matter who the opponent may be. 

I have once or twice alluded to the difficulties which have beset 
me personally from the fact that I am an officer of the British 
Museum while I occupy this chair. I feel that I owe an apology 
to the Society for what may have seemed to be an apathetic 
attitude towards some of its affairs. I have, however, felt very 
strongly that as a servant of the Government there are functions 
appertaining to the proceedings of this Society which I could 
hardly perform in my own person. It is a common practice in 
laying before the Government the opinions of the Society upon 
specific matters to send a deputation to a Minister of the Crown, 
and in the case of a Society such as ours, it is but natural that 
the President should take his proper place as the leader and 
spokesman. It is easy to imagine that the views of the Society 
might be diametrically opposed to that of the Government on 
some archaeological points, and it would then become the duty 
of the spokesman of the Society to use forcible language in 
presenting the Society's case to the Minister. The difficulty in 
my own case hardly needs to be pointed out, and I have steadily 
refrained from taking any active part in such deputations, not 
from any want of feeling in the matter, but from my conviction 
that a Government servant is bound to let his position as such 
take the first place to the exclusion of other, and what must be 
secondary, interests. Another result of my holding this dual 
position is that a distinction that falls upon the President of this 
Society upon election has in my own person been somewhat of 
a dead-letter. I refer to the fact that the President is ex qfflcio 
a Trustee of the British Museum. I cannot speak too strongly 
of the kindness with which the proposition that I should stand 



180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

as President of this Society was received by the Standing Com- 
mittee of the Trustees of the British Museum some six years ago. 
I was not only permitted to stand, and thus necessarily become 
a Trustee of the Museum, but many of the Trustees congratu- 
lated me very warmly upon the honour it was proposed to bestow 
upon me ; nothing, in fact, could have been more agreeable than 
the relations between myself and the other Trustees. As a matter 
of fact, however, it is of very little avail to belong to the general 
body of Trustees ; it is undoubtedly an honour, but it has no 
serious duties, the only section of the Trustees who take active 
part in the government of the Museum being the Standing Com- 
mittee, and it is very evident that it would have been an impossible 
position for me to have sat upon that body, and thus have helped 
in framing the regulations that governed my own conduct and 
that of my colleagues at the Museum. In order to preserve con- 
tinuity I did attend one meeting of the Trustees at the Prime 
Minister's house. I trust that it may be the good fortune of my 
successor to be elected to the Standing Committee of Trustees ; 
he at any rate \vill not suffer from the same disqualification as 
myself, and the presence of the President of the Society on the 
Standing Committee cannot fail to be of great advantage both 
to himself and to me and my colleagues on the archaeological 
side of the Museum. 

It is almost inevitable that in the course of this my last 
address, I should attempt a brief review of the events of my 
Presidency. Looking back is of necessity a somewhat sad busi- 
ness, and signal gaps have been made in our ranks during the 
past six years. Many names of distinction and of men for whom 
we all felt a sincere regard have disappeared from our list, but 
I feel confident that the process of renewal that is always going 
on will keep the status of the Society up to the level becoming 
its ancient dignity and modern position. It is at any rate the 
duty of every Fellow to use his best efforts towards this end. 

A few years ago saw the completion of the exploration of the 
city of Silchester, though its cemetery has yet to be located and 
explored. This allowed the Society to begin the long-promised 
attack on the Roman city at Wroxeter, as well as that on the 
interesting many-sided site of Old Sarum. These two are now 
well begun, and the Fellows may feel assured of the quality of 
the work at both places. The gentlemen in immediate charge 
of the work are both competent and experienced, and are acting 
in harmony with the Research Committee, in whose hands the 
Council has placed the direction of these two undertakings. Our 
late Treasurer, Mr. Norman, has during some years past given 
a great deal of time and attention to London archaeology, in 



April .23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 

collaboration with Mr. Reader, and has gained the position that 
he eminently deserves as one of the leading authorities on the 
subject. 

Without question, the most signal advance in Government 
recognition of archaeology has been the appointment of the three 
Royal Commissions for the Survey of Ancient and Historical 
Monuments for England, Scotland, and Wales, and a fourth to 
deal with the custody of Public Records. Of equal importance is 
the Ancient Monuments Act, for which the Society, with other 
bodies, has a representative on the Advisory Board. Recent events 
have shown that this type of legislation has come none too soon. 
It is greatly to be regretted that ecclesiastical buildings were in- 
evitably omitted from its scope. It is little less than a scandal 
that the most important buildings in the country should be 
practically the freehold of those whom chance has placed in 
temporary control without any safeguard but what is provided 
by public opinion. It is not generally enough realized that 
cathedral churches are extra diocesan, and that for alterations or 
for selling their property they do not require the sanction of 
a faculty, as is fortunately necessary elsewhere. I am regrettably 
debarred from alluding to a recent instance where the merest 
chance prevented the alienation of some of the pre-Reformation 
plate of one of our cathedrals. The mere recital of it would 
demonstrate effectually the need for safeguards, and these I hope 
legislation may eventually provide. 

During my occupancy of the Chair I think we may congratulate 
ourselves on the high average of the attendances at the evening 
meetings, and I think, though I am not sure about it, that there 
has been some slight increase in the amount of discussion follow- 
ing the papers. There have been times when the discussion has 
added very considerably to our knowledge and to the interest of 
the communications. 

During the last few years, as some of the Fellows may have 
observed, these discussions have been uniformly reported in 
Proceedings. But I am not so sure that the Society is aware 
that this innovation is entirely due to the voluntary good offices 
of my friend Mr. Reginald Smith. He is one of the most regular 
attendants, and has put us all under an obligation in this way as 
well as in rearranging our museum and superintending the proper 
labelling of the contents. For these, as well as for other services, 
we owe him our thanks. 

I alluded last year to the new scheme of lighting in our meeting- 
room ; in the interval this new method has been put into opera- 
tion, and I think is an unqualified success. Some care will no 
doubt be necessary to maintain the high standard that has been 



182 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

set at its inception, but, for agreeable qualities and adequate 
lighting, it is hard to see in what way it could be improved. 

I now come, Gentlemen, to the end of my long address to you ; 
it is only natural that in arriving at this point I feel, as I think 
any of you would do in my place, that there is a tinge of pathos 
in it. No one can knowingly do any important thing for the 
last time without a slight feeling of sadness ; it is something like 
a parting, a farewell to a known past and the putting of one's 
foot on the threshold of an unknown future. 

During the past six years I have experienced very much kind- 
ness from the Society as a whole and so many friendly actions 
from individuals that I must naturally feel a keen regret at 
parting from you in my present capacity. In speaking of a 
parting, however, I need hardly say that it is merely nominal ; 
I hope for a good many years yet to take a full share in your 
deliberations, and I need hardly assure you that, after twenty- 
two years continuously spent in the active service of the Society, 
I am' not likely to give up the habits formed during that time, 
and, so far as my official duties will permit, I shall be always at 
your service. I take pleasure in thanking you all for your con- 
stant kindness to me at the meetings and on all occasions when 
we have met together in consultation, and I shall always cherish 
the memory of our friendly relations. I especially desire to express 
my gratitude to my brother officers who have so ably seconded 
my efforts in the conduct of the Society. I have already been 
able to pay a tribute to the loyalty and goodfellowship of our 
former Treasurer, Mr. Philip Norman. His successor, Mr. Minet, 
though young as our Treasurer, is a very old friend of mine, and 
I know of no one who could more efficiently perform the duties 
of his office. Mr. Peers, our Secretary, I have also known for a 
good many years, but I cannot speak too highly of the enthusiasm 
and good sense that he has brought to bear upon the affairs of 
the Society. He has of late greatly increased his responsibilities 
by the competent way in which he has directed the Inspectorship 
of Ancient Monuments, an office which makes him doubly valu- 
able to the Society ; and although it may not allow him to 
devote so much of his time as he would like to our affairs, he has 
in that direction secured for himself a status in the archaeological 
world of no small dignity, and the Society should be proud in 
having a man of his attainments in its service. My other friend, 
our Director, Sir Edward Brabrook, is known to all of you, and 
it is hardly necessary for me to say anything in commendation 
of him as one of our officers. He is rapidly attaining, if he has 
not already attained, the proud and honourable position of the 
Father of the Society, and for urbanity and goodfellowship it is 



April 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 183 

hard to find any one in the Society who can claim to be his equal. 
In the same way, I think I can safely leave Mr. Kingsford to the 
judgement of the Society ; he undoubtedly comes into closer 
contact with the Fellows than the majority of the officers. So 
far as my relations with him have been concerned, I can only feel 
the most entire satisfaction at having been largely instrumental 
in securing him as our Assistant Secretary. He has by this time 
a wide experience of the duties of such a post, and performs them 
in the most competent and satisfactory way. Of Mr. Clinch I can 
speak with confidence, and here again I have the satisfaction of 
thinking that I was a party to his being appointed to his post in 
the Society ; he has, in my opinion, more than justified all that 
I was able to say about him as an applicant, and his intimate 
knowledge of our library and the obliging way in which he makes 
this knowledge free to the Fellows of the Society make him very 
valuable to us in his office of Librarian. 

In these very competent hands, then, Gentlemen, I leave you, 
and I am very sure that under the guidance of the President 
whom you have just elected, the future of the Society should be 
assured." 

The following resolution was thereupon proposed by the Earl 
of Crawford and Balcarres, seconded by Lt.-Colonel Sir Arthur 
Leetham, and carried unanimously : 

"That the best thanks of the meeting be given to the Presi- 
dent for his address, and that he be requested to allow it to be 
printed." 

The PRESIDENT signified his assent. 

The Scrutators having handed in their report, the following 
were declared elected as Officers and Council for the ensuing- 
year : 

Eleven Members from the Old Council. 

William Minet, Esq., M.A., Treasurer. 

Sir Edward William Brabrook, Knt., C.B., Director. 

Charles Reed Peers, Esq., M.A., Secretary. 

David, Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, LL.D. 

Montague Spencer Giuseppi, Esq. 

David George Hogarth, Esq., M.A. 

Philip Norman, Esq., LL.D. 

Sir Charles Hercules Read, Knt., LL.D. 

Harold Sands, Esq. 

Harold Clifford Smith, Esq., M.A. 

Horace Wilmer, Esq. 



184 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

Ten Members of the New Council. 

Sir Arthur John Evans, Knt., M.A., D.Litt., F.R.S., Presi- 
dent. 

Oswald Barren, Esq. 
Reginald Blomfield, Esq., M.A., R.A. 
Ralph Griffin, Esq. 
William Martin, Esq., M.A., LL.D. 
William Page, Esq. 
Francis William Pixley, Esq. 
D'Arcy Power, Esq., M.A. 
Horace William Sandars, Esq. 
Cecil Arthur Tennant, Esq., B.A. 



THURSDAY, 7th MAY, 1914. 

Sir ARTHUR JOHN EVANS, Knt., M.A., D.Litt., F.R.S., 

President, in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From William Page, Esq., F.S.A.: 

1. Monastic Schools in the Middle Ages. By G. G. Coulton. 8vo. 

London, 1913. 

2. Architectural Association Sketch Book, Vols. 6-11, 1872-1878. 

Analytical Index, Vols. 5-8. Sketch Book, New Series, Vols. 
4-5. 

From the Author : The medical education and qualifications of Oliver 
Goldsmith. By Sir Ernest Clarke, F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1914. 

From the Author : St. Margaret's, Westminster. The church of the 
House of Commons. By Rev. II. F. Westlake. 8vo. London, 1914. 

From Harold Sands, Esq., F.S.A.: 

1. A history of the dress of the British soldier. By Lt.-Col. John 

Luard. 8vo. London, 1852. 

2. The Tower of London. By Richard Davey. 8vo. London, 1910. 

3. Genesis of Lancaster, or the three reigns of Edward II, Edward III, 

and Richard II, 1307-1399. 2 vols. By Sir James Ramsay. 
8vo. Oxford, 1913. 

4. Fore and Aft : the story of the fore-and-aft rig from the earliest 

times to the present day. By E. K. Chatterton. 8vo. London, 
1912. 

5. Sailing ships : the story of their development from the earliest 

times to the present day. By E. K. Chatterton. 8vo. London, 
1909. 



May 7.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 185 

6. Mediaeval military architecture in England. 2 vols. By (J. T. 

Clark. 8vo. London, 1884. 

7. Regesta Ilegum Anglo-Normannorum 10G6-1154. Vol. I. Edited 

by H. W. C. Davis and 11. J. Whitwell. 8vo. Oxford, 1913. 

8. History of marine architecture. By J. Charnock. 3 vols. 8vo. 

London, 1800-2. 

A special vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Harold Sands for 
his gift of Charnock's Marine Architecture to the Library. 

Arthur Thomas Bolton, Esq., was admitted a Fellow. 

The PRESIDENT announced that he had appointed the following 
to be Vice-Presidents of the Society : 

David, Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, LL.D. 

David George Hogarth, Esq., M.A. 

Philip Norman, Esq., LL.D. 

Sir Charles Hercules Read, Knt., LL.D. 

Professor HAVERFJELD, LL.D., D.Litt., F.. A., read the follow- 
ing paper on the excavations at Corbridge in 1913 : 

" In previous reports to our Society I have remarked that the 
Corbridge excavations have given us a surprise, and indeed a 
different form of surprise, every year. They have been true to 
their nature in 1913, though the new feature with which they have 
presented us is not quite what we wanted. Last year was the 
first in the series of excavations of this site which has failed to 
yield some really important group of discoveries, whether of 
buildings or of coins or other small objects. The area selected 
for trenching in 1913 lay to the north-east of that previously 
explored, and, as it seems, on the north-east or north of the 
entire site. Like the area excavated in 1909, it extended up to 
the lane which leads from Corbridge towards Hexham Bridge, 
and it somewhat resembled that area ; it was, however, even less 
full of well-preserved buildings which might be thought once to 
have possessed a definite character. Across the north of it ran 
a continuation of the north ditch found in 1909, which formed 
during part of the Roman occupation the northern limit of 
Corstopitum. Near its eastern edge ran a continuation of the 
north-and-south street found in 1910. On either side of this 
street were buildings, but they were for the most part even fewer 
and less important than those found along the southern part of its 
course (Sites XXI-XXV). At its northern end this road crossed 
the ditch and apparently proceeded northwards, so that it must 
have very shortly fallen in with the still visible remains of the 
Dere Street which ran over Stagshaw Bank towards Scotland. 



186 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

This suggests that the line of this road, close to Corstopitum, 
ran a few yards east of the cart-track with which it has been 
generally identified, but the question is one of little more than 
strictly local moment. The road was equipped with gutters, 
and, like the main east-and-west road, showed three periods of 
construction. 

Some little distance west of this road was the one large build- 
ing which Mr. Forster was able to discover (Site LVI). This 
was a very long buttressed building, with a central wall down 
the middle of at least its southern end ; it measured 30 ft. in 
width and probably 150 ft. in length, though its northern end 
was somewhat obscure. Apparently this northern end overlay 
and was later than the north ditch just mentioned. The southern 
end, on the other hand, seems to have been destroyed at some 
time within the Roman period, and a later Roman building 
planted over it. Very little pottery was found in it ; what there 
was seemed to belong to the middle or the latter half of the 
second century. The whole structure most resembles a granary, 
though the surviving foundations do not show the usual venti- 
lating windows or passages. Mr. Forster has conjectured that 
it was a granary of later date and worse masonry than the 
granaries found on the main east-and-west street (Sites VII 
and X), and that, while these date from the middle of the second 
century in their origin, this one may have been added in con- 
nexion with the campaigns of Septimius Severus. Indeed 
though this may be an accident a coin of that Emperor was 
found at a low level in the gravel lying against the foundations. 

If this building is disappointing in the poorness of its masonry 
and the obscurity of its character, the smaller finds were hardly 
more encouraging. The principal discovery was the top of a small 
altar (figs. 1-4), extracted at the very end of the excavations from 
one of the ventilation passages of the East Granary on the main 
east-and-west street (Site VII). A good many late third and 
early fourth-century coins were found in these passages, but they 
do not appear to afford any clue to the date of the altar ; that 
must have been broken up intentionally to be used as repairing- 
material, and thus the top of it got into this granary, while the 
bottom, if it survives at all, may be anywhere. The altar bears 
on the front, above the cornice, two letters, of which the second 
is F, and the first is either B or P or R. We might think 
that it represented an abbreviation of Bonae Fortunae or Reduci 
Fortunae, if it were worth guessing on such scanty evidence. 
Below the cornice, on the shaft of the altar, is the beginning of 
a neatly cut inscription, of which the first two lines ' Deae 
Pantlieae ' alone survive. It seems that the goddess to whom 
the altar was dedicated, whose name no doubt followed in the 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 186 





1-4. INSCRIPTION AND CARVINGS ON I RA'i.A.ENTABY ROM AX ALTAR 
FOUND AT CORBRI1KJK, 1913 

(From photographs by Mr. It. H. Forster) 



May 7.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 187 

third line, was given by her worshipper the epithet 4 Panthea \ 
which was used occasionally, both in Italy and even in the 
provinces, and which apparently meant that the god who was 
worshipped was regarded as for the moment possessing the attri- 
butes of all the gods. It was a curious inverted pantheism 
which does not seem to have spread very far, and about which 
there is probably not much to know. The goddess most fre- 
quently honoured with this appellation on other altars seems to 
be Fortuna. 

The other three sides of this altar-top contain the upper 
parts of three figures of which only the heads survive. One is 
obviously a head of Mercury. The other two heads, which lean 
over on to the shoulder and are covered with Phrygian caps, are 
less certain. Our Fellow Professor P. Gardner, and our Presi- 
dent, Sir A. Evans, agree in suggesting that they represent the 
two figures which we see on Mithraic monuments, and indeed 
also on tombstones, wearing Phrygian caps and carrying torches. 
The Mithraic figures, however, do not appear to lean their heads 
over in the fashion of our altar; for that, we must go to the 
tombstones bearing the figure of <Attis\ It seems useless to 
speculate on the connexion of these figures and of Mercury with 
the nameless goddess who bore the epithet Panthea. 

Other finds demand shorter notice. They include a rude figure 
of Jupiter with his thunderbolt (18 in. high, feet lost), a rude 
figure of Mercury, a curious head surmounted by circular scale- 
work which suggests either a Caryatid or a corbel, and in 
pottery another fragment of what may be called the Corbridge 
'applique' w r are, which was struck from a mould almost, but 
not quite, identical with the mould generally known as ' Harry 
Lauder'. This ware seems to be a rough local imitation of the 
more refined Samian and the Castor work in the ' applique ' style ; 
from the number of pieces which have now been found, we may 
perhaps think that it was not an isolated venture, but that several 
pieces of this class were made in Corbridge. 

Noteworthy, lastly, is a small bronze head, hollow inside, 
obviously the head of a barbarian with appropriate moustachios, 
and with the hair dressed in what I am told is the Numidian 
fashion. It seems to have had a lid and arrangements for sus- 
pension, and must be classed with other similar objects which are 
sometimes called ' balsamaria \ Its interest lies mainly in the 
character of the face, which seems to be neither African not- 
Gaulish, nor indeed to agree with any known barbarian type. 

This is a brief list of finds. I trust that when Mr. Forster 
opens the ninth year of the Corbridge excavations in July, 191 4, 
surprises will greet him of a more agreeable and important 
character.' 1 '' 



188 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

Mr. FOKSTER admitted it was a lean year when compared with 
past seasons, but the Corbridge standard was high ; and even if 
there were nothing novel, the mass of finds would do credit to 
any other site, and served to confirm former discoveries. The 
new road-section corrected certain details of McLauchlan's 
survey. At the north end of the field the road crossed marshy 
ground, and a section showed a foundation of roughly dressed 
stones, but farther south a bed of large cobbles. On the plan 
could be seen an empty space between the road with its build- 
ings and the long buttressed building, and the conclusion arrived 
at was that the space had once been marshy ground, connected 
with that found farther west in 1909. It had been partly filled 
in but never enough for buildings to be erected on it. During 
the latter part of the Roman occupation, Corstopitum was in a 
state of decay. The buttressed building was 150 ft. long and 
over 25 ft. wide, the largest yet found, with the exception of the 
Forum ; it dated probably from the time when Severus was 
organizing the conquest of Caledonia. It was of inferior con- 
struction, and served in all probability as a store-house for grain. 
At the north end the masonry was missing and the clay founda- 
tion ended in a straight line. There was no trace of a raised 
floor as in other granaries. The buttresses enabled walls to be 
run up of less breadth, thus saving time and material ; and 
there would have been temporary pressure at that particular 
date. In connexion with the Dea Panthea, he cited the inscrip- 
tion at Carvoran or Magna (C././,., vii, no. 759). 

Mr. BusHE-Fox said that sensational finds were not always 
the most useful. The season's work showed that the early 
occupation did not reach the area excavated, as the early pottery 
was missing. What there was confirmed the theory that the 
long building dated from Severus. Corbridge was the site most 
likely to throw light on the dark period of Trajan, when a whole 
legion disappeared. It was curious that no traces of fortification 
had been found, and he wondered if the large masses of stone 
were the foundations of a gateway at the north end of the town. 

The PRESIDENT congratulated the excavators of Corbridge on 
advancing the knowledge of Roman Britain. Great accuracy 
had now been obtained in dating by the pottery, and the long 
building might well have been the stores and base of Severus. 
The Carvoran parallel had occurred to himself, and he mentioned 
the blending of attributes, not on the official coins, but on signets 
and other personal ornaments about A.U. 200. This tendency 
reflected the philosophic struggle with Christianity in the fourth 
century. The figures on the sides of the altar with leaning 



May 7.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 189 

heads probably bore reversed and upright torches, as in the 
Mithraic sculptures. 

A. HAMILTON THOMPSON, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., read the follow- 
ing paper on 'Visitations of Religious Houses by William 
Alnwick, Bishop of Lincoln 1436-49 ' : 

"The manuscript record of Bishop Alnwick's visitations of 
the religious houses of his diocese, among the episcopal muni- 
ments at Lincoln, consists of 133 leaves of foolscap paper, closely 
written upon both sides in the minute hand of the bishop's 
registrar, Thomas Colstone. These leaves, long unbound, have 
suffered much in time past from neglect and damp, and a well- 
meaning mender in comparatively recent times has preserved 
their tattered edges by pasting strips of nearly opaque paper 
over them, regardless of the writing beneath. Workers for the 
Victoria History of the Counties of England have briefly sum- 
marized the contents of the manuscript so far as they relate to 
the Buckinghamshire, Lincolnshire, and Oxfordshire houses ; and 
a full transcript of the whole manuscript has been made, and 
will shortly be published with a translation by the Lincoln 
Record Society. It is obvious that such a record, dealing with 
a diocese which embraced eight English counties and part of a 
ninth, is of peculiar value to students of the religious life in 
England during the later Middle Ages. While, however, any 
detailed examination of its evidence with regard to individual 
religious houses must be reserved until the publication of the 
text renders it available for general study, the composition of the 
visitation minutes and of the injunctions which in several cases 
follow them provides information of a very definite kind, which 
may be submitted in this place as throwing much needed light 
upon a certain class of medieval document. 

The foundations visited were sixty-nine in number six abbeys 
and four priories of Benedictine monks, 1 two abbeys and seven 
priories of Benedictine nuns, seven priories of Cistercian nuns, 
nine abbeys and twenty-one priories of Austin canons, one abbey 
and four priories of Austin nuns, seven colleges of secular clergy, 
and one hospital. 2 Naturally, there is no information with re- 
gard to houses of exempt Orders ; but every important house of 
the Orders mentioned above is represented, and of Bardney and 
Peterborough abbeys and St. Michael's priory, Stamford, there 
are three visitations each, and of Dorchester abbey and the 

1 In addition to these, visitations of the cells of Frieston, Oxriey, and 
St. Ives are included in those of their respective mother houses. Cropland, 
Peterborough, and Ramsey. 

2 There is also a cancelled notice of a visitation of St. John's Hospital, 
Northampton. 



190 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

college of Fotheringhay two. Although dates are carefully 
given, the minutes follow no chronological order. They extend 
over a period from the end of 1437 to the middle of 1447. To 
the end of 1439 belongs the visitation of the chief houses in the 
archdeaconry of Huntingdon. The reports for the archdeacon- 
ries of Lincoln and Stow in 1440, of Leicester in 1440 and 1442, 
of Northampton in 1442, of Bedford in 1443, and of Oxford in 
1445, are fairly complete. Buckingham received very little 
attention. 1 The registrar kept the sheets of minutes by him 
and entered a visitation wherever he found a blank leaf. Occa- 
sionally he left a blank space to be filled up with injunctions or 
the continuation of some process which delayed the conclusion 
of the visitation, and did not complete his work. It is therefore 
probable that a large number of visitations held by Alnwick or 
his commissaries remain unrecorded, and minutes of his primary 
visitation in particular seem to be wanting save in the case of a 
few houses. Unfortunately, the dates in his official register, 
which was carelessly kept and posted up only at long intervals, 
afford little additional information as to his movements and are 
sometimes inaccurate. 

Each set of minutes begins with a heading containing the 
name of the house and the precise date of visitation. No account 
is given of the formal reception of the bishop, which is frequently 
noted with some detail in the book of Norwich visitations edited 
by the late Dr. Jessopp. 2 The account of the proceedings 
begins in the chapter-house, where the bishop, sedens iudicialiter 
pro tribunal^ listened with the assembled convent to a sermon 
preached by one of his clerks or, in the larger houses, by one of 
the more learned brethren. The head of the house was then 
called upon to return his or her certificate of the notice of visi- 
tation and to show the titles of their incumbency, viz. certifi- 
cates of election, confirmation, and installation, the foundation 
charter of the house, and its current balance-sheet (status domus). 
The chapter-house was then cleared, and the individual members 
of the house were examined privately by the bishop and his 
assessors. Their evidence, taken down in summary form, was 
known collectively as the detecta i.e. the matters discovered to 
the visitor; and from a sifting of these, the results of the 
preparatory inquiry, the comperta, or matters discovered by the 
visitor, were established. 3 In the case of serious individual 

1 Only two houses, Aukerwyke Priory and Nutley Abbey, appear. 

2 Visitations of the Diocese of Norwich, A.D. 1492-1532, ed. A. Jessopp, 
D.D., F.S.A. (Camden Soc.). There is a very full and elaborate account 
of the proceeding's at a visitation of Lincoln Cathedral in 1432 in Lincoln 
Epis. 'Reg. Gray, if. 121 sqq. 

3 The distinction between the detecta and comperta is sometimes over- 
looked. It is clearly shown, however, in the elaborate injunctions to 



May 7.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 191 

faults, where a member of the house was definitely accused 
(diffamatus or notatus) of a crime or noteworthy breach of rule, 
he was summoned before the bishop and articles were laid against 
him. If he pleaded not guilty, he was given a term, usually till 
the afternoon of the same day, to find compurgators. Occasion- 
ally a case or cases of this kind involved an adjournment of the 
visitation, especially where an apostate member of the house had 
to be sought out and brought to the bar. Some visitations in 
this way dragged on at intervals for months, and the processes 
thus recorded are of the greatest interest. But, as a rule, the 
bishop was able to conclude his visitation, after attending to 
individual cases, on the same day or the next morning. *" On 
leaving, he made a summary publication of the detecta and com- 
perta, and issued certain verbal injunctions, usually in a brief 
form, which were supplemented, often within the next few days, 
by a series of written injunctions. 

The Alnwick MS. provides full reports of t\\e detecta produced 
at each visitation. In order to facilitate reference, the name or 
office of the person to whose default each detectnm points is fre- 
quently written against it in the margin. 1 Occasionally a 
deponent presented a written schedule which was abstracted in 
the text. In a few cases the schedule itself has been preserved. 2 
The detecta are followed by notes relating to the conclusion or 
adjournment of the visitation. In several instances the minutes 
end here. Sometimes everything was satisfactory and the bishop 
saw no need to issue new injunctions ; in one case, at Bourne, he 
merely confirmed Bishop Flemyng's injunctions with one slight 
addition. The procedure, however, where more than this was 
necessary is illustrated at the visitation of Gracedieu priory 
in 1 440-1. 3 A list of twenty-three compdrta, chiefly reflecting 
upon the prioress's misrule, follows the minutes of the evidence, 

Ramsey Abbey (ff. 48 sqq. of tbe MS.), e. g. ' quia per inquisicionem 
diiigentem et sollertem per nos in Imiusmodi visitacione factam com peri mus 
nonnulla puritati religionis iiiimica et contraria indies committi', etc. ; 
'item quia comperimus nobis simili modo detectum', etc. ; ' quia detectum 
simili modo inuenimm et delatum ', etc. Reperire, invenire are used as 
synonyms for comperire ; deferre as equivalent to detegere. 

1 The detecta printed in Bradsbaw and Wordsworth, Lincoln Cathedral 
Statutes, ii, 366 sqq., illustrate this method. 

2 e. g. the schedule presented by a prior at Peterborough in 1437, and 
the gravamina laid against the abbot by a canon of Dorchester in 1445. 

3 The nunnery has some celebrity owing to the literary charm with 
which Cardinal Gasquet has drawn a picture of its internal life founded 
upon domestic accounts kept some twenty-five years before Alnwick's 
visitation (English Monastic Life, 1904, pp. 158-76). Some of the evi- 
dence in 1440-1 throws a light upon the financial state of the convent 
at that very period, which proves that account-books provide an unsafe 
basis for general inferences as to monastic life. 



]92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

and is supplemented by further comperta respecting other 
members of the house and one of the chaplains ; after which 
come the written injunctions. Similarly at Ramsey the detecta 
are followed by a list of comperta, between which and the written 
injunctions is inserted the text of the verbal injunctions left by 
the bishop. 

The language in which the written injunctions were couched 
was founded upon traditional precedents, and the student of 
episcopal registers soon becomes familiar with the characteristic 
phraseology of such documents. 1 So often are similar injunc- 
tions repeated in almost similar terms, from the thirteenth cen- 
tury onwards, that there is a natural temptation to regard their 
contents as merely formal pieces of advice, bearing no direct 
reference to facts, but intended to enforce rules which, if 
slackened in any way, might become a dead letter. This view 
has been encouraged by writers whose object is to defend the 
monastic life of the Middle Ages against the attacks of zealots. 
It has gained credence because hitherto there has been no means 
of studying a long series of carefully composed injunctions side 
by side with the minutes of the visitations which they followed. 2 

The fact, however, that a large number of injunctions with 
a close family likeness are included in a single register would be 
pointless if they were nothing more than repetitions of common 
forms without reference to definite facts. An episcopal register 
is primarily a collection of precedents. The comparative poverty 
of documents in the later registers for example at York, and 
even at Lincoln is due to the fact that few new precedents 
were by that time needed. The earlier registers contained 
enough and to spare. If injunctions sent to religious houses 
were merely polite circulars, a few common forms would be 

1 For printed series, see especially Registrum Ep-Uttolarum fratris 
Johannis Peckham Archiepiscopi Cantuariensu (Rolls ser., no. 77), ed. C. T. 
Martin, F.S. A., 1882-5 ; Regi&trum Radulphi Baldock, etc., Episcoporum 
Londoniemium (Cant, and York Soc.), ed. R. C. Fowler, F.S. A., 1911 ; 
and the York Registers (Giffard, Wickwane, and John le Romeyn), ed. 
W. Brown, F.S. A. (Surtees Soc.). Some English injunctions from Long- 
land's register at Lincoln were contributed to Archutologia , vol. xlvii, by 

1. Peacock, F.S. A., and a volume of injunctions from the registers o*f 
Bishops Flemyng and Gray at Lincoln is now in the press for the Lincoln 
Record Soc. 

2 The need of such an opportunity is shown by the note of a writer in 
V. G. H. Lincoln, ii, 173 : ( It is impossible, without the actual visitation 
report, to say how far injunctions are merely formal or meet actual 
difficulties.' A certain number of injunctions occur in Dr. Jessopp's 
volume of Norwich visitations ; but these are for the most part brief notes, 
like those already mentioned in Alnwick's visitations of Ramsey and 
Gracedieu, or the verbal injunctions issued by Bishops Goldwell and 
Nykke. 






May 7.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 193 

enough, and these could be easily found in earlier books. A 
whole quire of injunctions in a fifteenth-century register such as 
Gray's at Lincoln, would be a piece of wasted labour. Their 
presence is explained only upon the hypothesis that each was a 
special decree, issued as a permanent and binding addition to the 
statutes of the house which it concerns. In the archiepiscopal 
registers at York the ordinary marginal description of a set of 
injunctions is decretum. 1 In the registers of any diocese they 
will be found referred to under four terms, practically synony- 
mous but often bracketed together for the sake of emphasis, 
injunctioneS) ordinatioties, mandata, and statuta. Each item is 
constantly introduced by such phrases as Statuimus et miungi- 
mus, mlungiuius et mandamus^ mandamus districtius inmngendo^ 
and other variations which effectually preclude the idea that it 
is merely a pious counsel. The last clause is usually a triple 
and peremptory admonition, enjoining the observance of the in- 
junctions and the exaction of the penalties defined in them under 
pain of the greater excommunication. They are ordered to be 
read in public a certain number of times in the year and to be 
fastened up in some conspicuous place in the dorter, so that no 
one may be able to plead ignorance of their purport. Their 
language therefore, although chosen with regard to general facts, 
had to be drawn up in the form of general rules for future con- 
sultation ; and thus it may occasionally cover in its general 
terms breaches of rule of which the visitation afforded no 
positive evidence, but the risk of which made their inclusion 
desirable. Gross faults affecting individuals, as has been noted 
already, were dealt with separately ; and sometimes, where a 
whole house was contaminated by grave failings, a bishop was 
willing to spare it open shame by dispatching separate sealed 
injunctions relating to the more serious comperta? It some- 
times happens, however, that the ordinary injunctions contain 
detailed references to actual facts and the names of individuals ; 
and such instances distinctly imply that there was urgent neces- 
sity for calling attention to facts which applied to more than one 
particular case. 3 

This theory of the composition and meaning of episcopal in- 

1 See e.g. Keg. Romeyn, ed. Brown (Surtees Soc.), i, 317, /Decretum 
super visitacione <le Novo Loco in Schirewode ' ; Reg. Thoresby, fo. 241 
;ind rf, ' Decretum de Fellay ', etc. 

2 This was the course adopted by Bishop Gray in his visitations ot 
Lincoln Cathedral and Ramsey Abbey in 1432 (Line. Epis. Reg. Gray, 
ff. 124 and d, 196 d), and Aluwick did not spare the feelings of the monks 
of Ramsey so readily. 

3 It may be noted that, out of thirty-one sets of injunctions in the 
Alnwick MS., only one, addressed to Bourne Abbey, is a mere endorse- 
ment of previous injunctions the text of which may be found in Line. 

VOL. xxvi p 



194 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

junctions must suggest itself to any one who studies and collates 
their contents with the necessary care and attention. Its proof 
is supplied by the condition of the written injunctions as they 
exist in the Alnwick MS. These documents are rough copies, 
iull of erasures, interlineations and marginal additions, and have 
been manifestly composed as a result of a painstaking collation 
of the detecta and comperta. The paragraphs in many cases are 
numbered, and in some of these cases the detecta are actually 
furnished with marginal reference-numbers corresponding to 
those of the injunctions which cover them. 1 The composition 
was entrusted to Thomas Colstone, who, modelling his language 
upon the common forms with which he had been familiar through 
nearly half a century of service under successive bishops, adapted 
these to the relative severity or mildness of tone which the 
detecta required. 2 For houses of monks or canons and secular 
colleges he wrote in Latin, for nunneries in an English which is 
a close translation of the Latin forms in which he thought. 
After they had been composed and revised, they were submitted 
to the bishop for correction, and, while many of the erasures and 
substitutions are Colstone's own, there are many alterations and 
notes in a different hand which may be that either of the bishop 
himself or of one of his household clerks. The injunctions were 
then copied out and dispatched, and the rough copy was kept 
to be copied into the permanent register. 3 

In the transcript of the manuscript about to be published, 
all interlineations and marginal additions in the text have been 
clearly marked, and all cancelled words and passages, which it is 

Epis. Reg. Flemyng, fo. 234 d. To this endorsement, however, is added 
a special injunction requiring the recall of an apostate canon, who had 
assumed a secular hahit. He had obtained the office of secundarius a 
decano in St. Mary's, Warwick, and had been recognized there by some 
Bourne people who were going on pilgrimage to Hayles Abbey in 
Gloucestershire. 

1 This is the case, e. g., with the injunctions for the abbey and the 
* new college ' at Leicester. 

2 This is a striking characteristic of Peckham's injunctions, in which, 
although there is naturally much similarity of phrase, it is obvious that 
each set was specially composed for the house to which it was sent. Mr. 
Fowler, in his introduction to Reg. Rad. Baldock, etc., p. iii, notes of the 
injunctions contained in the volume : 'The differentiation of the orders to 
various houses shows clearly that they were in no sense mere formalities, 
but aimed at definite evils? See also the learned article by Mr. G. G. 
Coulton upon The Interpretation of Visitation Documents (Ens. Hist. 
Review, Jan. 1914). 

8 There is no trace of these fair copies in Alnwick's register, which, as 
noted above, was unsatisfactorily kept. The only set of injunctions in the 
register is addressed to Bardney Abbey (fo. 37, 1 April, 1440), and of 
these no rough copy remains. The preservation of the visitation MS. is 
possibly due to the delay in copying. 



May 7.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 195 

generally easy to read beneath the single lines of the pen which 
struck them out, have been restored as far as possible, so as to 
give the student a full opportunity of following the method of 
composition for himself and drawing his own inferences. It is 
sufficient here to illustrate the present writer's conclusions by 
drawing attention to a few instances connected with one very 
common type of injunction, which, perhaps more than any other, 
might be taken as favouring the theory of the polite circular. 

Finance appears at no time to have been the strongest point 
in the monastic economy ; but the difficulty of making both ends 
meet, if it was occasionally due to extravagance, was also the 
result of necessary expenses and outgoings which were very con- 
siderable. Constant hospitality to strangers and pilgrims was 
a severe drain upon the resources even of the wealthier houses, 
where such hospitality naturally increased in proportion to their 
importance. The habitual excuse pleaded for the appropriation 
of parish churches was the drain on the resources of the monastery 
caused by the recourse 4 of strangers and the neighbourhood of the 
king's highway, while on the other hand its rents were in arrear 
and the value of its property had been lowered by fire, flood, and 
pestilence. 1 A house was frequently burdened, moreover, with 
external charges the nature of which is well known. The founders 
and patrons claimed the right of pensioning off poor relations or 
old servants upon the convent, who supplied them with doles or 
corrodies of bread and beer, or a money-payment in commuta- 
tion, out of the common goods. As time went on, it became 
common for the convent to sell corrodies, annual pensions, and 
other doles for ready money to applicants, often for the term of 
their lives and sometimes with remainder to their heirs ; and it 
is obvious that the advantage gained by the transaction was not 
so permanent as the yearly disbursement incurred. 2 An injunc- 
tion common to the large majority of such documents forbids 
such sales without licence from the bishop and without the 
consent of the more and sounder part of the convent, and 
couples with them the equally imprudent habit of cutting down 
and selling timber for the immediate needs of the convent. 

It might fairly be argued, with such injunctions by themselves 
to guide us, that this was merely a precautionary piece of advice. 



1 Instances are very numerous. Two may be mentioned from York 
Archiepis. Reg. Zouche, ff. 71 d, 145, viz. the appropriations of Great 
Ouseburn Church to the Abbot and Convent of Eggleston (23 May, 1348) 
and of Cotham Church, Notts., to the Prior and Convent of Thurgarton 
(1 Dec., 1360). The preambles to these decrees are full of interesting 
matter. 

2 See Dr. Kitchin's remarks on Compotus Rolls of the Obedientiaries of St. 
Swithuns Priory, Winchester (Hants Rec. Soc.), pp. 23-5. 

P* 



196 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

Let us take, however, a few examples and compare them with the 
detecta which they follow. 

In the English injunctions to Harrold priory, a house of Austin 
nuns in Bedfordshire, which Alnwick visited on 16th January, 
1442/3, the injunction referred to is given in two separate parts, 
which may be quoted as a specimen of the customary forms : 

( Also we enioyne yow prioresse and your successours vndere payne 
of pryuacyone and perpetuelle amocyone fro your and thaire astate 
and dygnyte that fro hense f'orthe ye ne thai selle graunte ne gyfe to 
ouy persone what euer thai be any corrodye, lyverye, peusyone or 
anuyte to terme of lyve certeyn tyme or perpetuelly but if ye or thai 
fyrste declare the cause to vs or to our successours bysshoppes of 
Lincolne and in that case have our specyalle licence or of our saide 
successours and also the fulle assent of the more hole parte of your 
couent. 

' Also we enioyne yow prioresse and your successours vndere the 
payne of priuacyone afore saide that ye ne thai selle gyfe alyene ne felle 
no grete wode or tymbere saue to necessary reparacyone of your place 
and your tenauudryes but if ye arid thai hafe specyalle licence ther 
to of vs or our successours bysshoppes of Lincolne and the cause 
declared to vs or our successours.' 

Turning to the detecta for definite evidence, we find among 
certain complaints presented by dame Thomasine Courteney : 

' Item dicit quod sunt ibidem duo corrodiarii vims de tempore nunc 
et alius de tempore alterius priorisse.' 

She made no specific allusion to the felling and selling of timber, 
but at the end of her evidence is the petition 

( Fiat prouisio de nemoribus 11011 vendendis vel alieiiandis', 

upon which the special injunction was founded. 1 

Another set of English injunctions, addressed to the Cistercian 
nunnery of Hey n ings, belongs to the class in which summaries of 
special detecta or comperta are prefixed to the various clauses : 2 

1 Also for as muche as hit is detecte to hus that here a fore ther 
has been grete parcelles of your wodes felled and sold we charge yow 
pryoresse undere payn of pryuacyone of your dygnytee that fro hense 
ye iieyther felle ne selle . . . 3 but to your necessary fewelle and 
beldyng ne that ye graunte ne gyfe corrodye lyvery ne annuytee 
wythe owte our leve or our successours asked and had and expresse 
assent of your couent.' 

In this case the second part of the injunction is added merely 

1 The reference to the present numbering of the leaves of the MS. is 
ff. 113 d, 114. The visitation took place on Jan. 16 ; the injunctions were 
dispatched two days later from Newnham Priory. 

* Sets of injunctions in which this method is freely used are those for 
Croyland Abbey (June 1440), Newarke College, Leicester (Dec. 1440), 
Newnham Priory (Jan. 1442-3),, Nutley Abbey (Aug. 1447), Ramsey 
Abbey (June 1439), Thornton Abbey (July 1440)." 

3 This portion of the injunction is now illegible. 



May 7.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 197 

as a corollary to the first. The actual detectum comes from the 
evidence of dame Alice Portere : 

( Item (licit quod priorissa prosternit grossas arbores extra casum 
necessitatis.' 

This the prioress denied : 

' Ad hec dicit quod nullas prostemi fecit nisi ab euidente, etc., 
vtilitate et de expresso consensu conuentus.' 

Whether, however, this was true or not, the bishop found it 
advisable to make an injunction against the usual improvident 
means of raising ready money. 1 

On July 15, 1442, bishop Alnwick visited the priory of Daven- 
try, a house originally Cluniac, over which the bishops of Lincoln 
had acquired the right of visitation at an early date. Bishop 
Gray had visited the monastery in 1433 and had delivered 
injunctions, one of which dealt with the question of granting 
corrodies, coupled with the allied contingencies of felling timber 
and pawning valuables. 2 Alnwick's injunction concerns the first 
two of these points : 

' Item iniungimus vobis priori qui nunc estis et qui vobis succedent 
in futurum sub pena amocionis et finalis priuacionis vestri et sui ab 
officio statu et dignitate huiusmodi ne aliqua feoda corrodia liberates 
aut annuales redditus quibuscunque personis ad certum teinpus ter- 
minum vite vel imperpetuum concedatis vendatis vel douetis nee 
nemora vel grossas arbores quouismodo vendatis aut prosternatis nisi 
solum ad focalia necessaria et reparaciones necessarias faciendas 
absque nostri vel successorum nostrorum episcoporum Lincolniensium 
licencia petita et obtenta et eciam de consensu maioris et sanioris 
partis conuentus predicti.' 

Here again the second part of the injunction is added as a 
corollary to the first. It appears that the prior had wasted the 
goods of the house to such an extent that the bishop found it 
necessary to assign the temporalities in commission to the sub- 
prior and another monk ; but there is no direct statement that 
he had felled timber. The need for the injunction, however, 
appears from the revelations of the sacrist, William Daventre, 
to which the prior's answers are appended : 

' Item dicit quod prior concessit sub sigillo suo cuidam Johanni 
West de Dauentre vnuin censum annuum xx solidoruni et vnam 



1 Ff. 22, 23. The visitation was on April 1, 1440 : the injunctions are 
not dated. 

2 Line. Epis. Reg. Gray, fo. 199. The preamble to Gray's injunctions 
was that which he used for Huntingdon Priory, and could have been sent 
only to a house in a state of utter decay : ' Heu prothdolor religio periit 
caritas exulat obseruancie regulares . . . quasi obliuiscuntur . . . Noil est 
hie aliud nisi ebrietas et crapula sompnolencia non dicimus incontinencia 
sed torpor et omne aliud quod in malum declinat et homiuem trahit ad 
gehennam.' 



198 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

togam de liberata domus absque cpiisensu conuentus cum in nullo 
sciat aut possit prodesse prioratui. Negat concessionem. 

' Item prior concessit Johaimi Home de Daueritre vnum annuum 
censum v marcarum vt staret pro monasterio in agendo et tameu 
pocius contra prioratum quam cum domo. Fatetur pactum cum 
eodem Johanne tamen non est sibi solutum.' * 

At Dorchester abbey in 1441 the convent was generally in a 
bad state : the abbot was guilty of immorality and dilapidation, 
and the temporal government had fallen into the hands of a lay- 
man, who lived in the monastery with his servants at the common 
expense. There is no further evidence in the detecta as to the 
corrodies and pensions which this irregular state of things pro- 
bably involved ; but there is an injunction in the usual term*. 
This, however, is not a mere wanton or formal addition to the 
document ; for at the end of the detecta comes the special note 
that the abbot was enjoined in virtue of obedience and under 
pain of excommunication and deprivation, to grant no corrody, 
pension, etc., in perpetuity, etc., without the advice, consent, and 
licence of the diocesan and patron asked and had. It is impossible 
to doubt that such an injunction, evidently the verbal injunction 
made at the visitation, was founded on good cause, and that the 
written injunction was not composed without consideration. 2 

The injunctions (July 1440) for the small Benedictine abbey 
of Humberstone, near Grimsby, originally an offshoot of the 
Tironensian abbey of Hambye in the diocese of Coutances, :i con- 
tain a clause forbidding the granting of corrodies, couched in the 
usual terms, but without the addition of the clause against felling 
timber. The evidence of Thomas Fressheneye upon this point is 
very detailed, and is interlineated with the abbot's answers. 

'Item dicit quod abbas isto absente vendidit vnum corrodium 
cuidam Wyldbore pro quo recepit c marcas et valet fere per annum x 
marcas (fatetur de consensu) ; et aliud vendidit Willelmo Paincharde 
pro quo recepit x libras et valet per annum xxxiij s. iiij d. (fatetur de 
consensu tamen conuentus) ; et aliud Johanni Hoise pro quo recepit xx 
libras et valuit per annum quatuor marcas ; et aliud Roberto Howet 
de Normanby pro xx libris et valuit quatuor marcas per annum 
(fatetur de consensu) ; et aliud Roberto Howet sargeaunt portere isto 
existente apud Molycourt pro viij marcis et valet v nobilia per annum 
(fatetur) ; et aliud Ricardo Bekeryng botylere pro xx marcis et valet 
xlvj s. viij d. per annum (fatetur) ; et quod actum est de istis receptis 
nescitur nisi de xvij marcis receptis de Ricardo Botylere cum quibus 
Anderby tune cellerarius soluit debita abbatis.' 

That is to say, the abbot, for ready money amounting to 

Ff. 88 rf-90. The injunctions bear date from Daventry Priory, July 1 7. 

2 Ff. 111-113. The visitation was on March 27, 1441 ; the injunctions 
bear no date. 

8 This is noted in the injunctions delivered by Flemyug in 1422-3 
(Line. Epis. Reg. Flemyng, fo. 234). In the heading of Alnwick's 
visitation the monastery is said to be ordini* Turonensis (sic). 



May 7.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 199 

125 6s. 8J., had committed the convent to yearly charges 
amounting to ^17 1.3s. 4sd. ; while of the sum received only 
c^Pll 6,?. 8d. had been properly accounted for. 1 

The abbey of St. Mary of the Meadows at Leicester, the most 
important house of Austin canons in the diocese, was visited by 
Alnwick in December 1440. One of the elaborately composed 
injunctions forbids the granting of corrodies and felling of timber, 
with the following additional clause : 

' quodque nee queiiquam extraneum de bonis communibus mona- 
sterii sustentetis aut tali aliter quam vt hospiti transeunti alimoniam 
de hiisdem bonis quouismodo ministretis sen ministrari faciatis aut 
permittatis nisi in hoc aliter processeritis de expresso consensu et 
assensu conuentus predict! aut sanioris et maioris partis eiusdem.' 

In this case the injunctions are for the most part directed against 
the abbot, William Sadyngton, whose masterful control of the 
common funds and ill temper had alienated a generally well- 
conducted body of canons. 2 All money passed through his hands : 
the cellarer and treasurer had only a nominal tenure of offices 
which he usurped. The accusation of felling timber is covered 
by the complaint that he had employed the common sources of 
income in unauthorized building expenses, and took all the credit 
to himself, as if he had paid out of his own pocket. William 
Coventre, the guest-master, said : 

' quod abbas habet in maim sua officia thesaurarii et cellerarii et 
quando vltimo computauit dixit quod melius foret vt non computaret 
quia pocius foret sibi conuentus indebitatus quam ipse conuentui ; et 
semper recipit arreragia compotorum miiiistrorum et de hiis receptis 
nullum reddit compotum ; et dicit quod omnia edificia monasterii de 
uouo facta sunt expensis communibus et elemosinis et tamen abbas 
dicit quod ipse fecit hec omnia.' 

John Sadyngton, the cellarer, supplied the reason for the injunc- 
tion against corrodies and the amplifying clause by which the 
maintenance of strangers was forbidden : 

' Item dicit quod sunt duo qui sustentantur de bonis communibus 
domus per abbatem vnus clericus et alter laicus sed nescit qualiter 
vel quando venerunt in monasterium.' 

These, as other detecta show, were suspected of practising the art 
of 'multiplying 1 with the abbot, who, in his zeal for money- 
getting, had traffic with professors of the black art and used 
charms and incantations. Henry Gysley laid information : 

( de quodam hospitato iuxta portas monasterii ad sumptus mona- 
sterii per quod credit fratres peius valere cuius nomen ignorat.' 

1 Ff. 69, 70, 74 d. The visitation was on 6 July, 1440 : the injunctions 
were dispatched from Wellow Abbey on 8 July. 

2 John Whytley deposed { quod abbas in correctione non est modestus 
sed rigorosus et crudelis et si quis canonicus sibi displiceat inhumaniter 
reprehendit eos eciam opprobriose ac contumeliose in eorum scandalum '. 



200 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

Two of the detecta furnished by William Coventre have marginal 
numbers pointing to this injunction : 

'Item dicit de multiplicatore vt supra nominate Roberto et 
seruiente suo Thoma vt supra et dicit quod sic diuulgatum est in 
partibus et timet quod per hoc dampnificabitur monasterium per 
ministros regis. 

t Item dicit quod sunt infra monasterium lij seruientes seculares et 
in verneyerde [sic] xviij quorum plures sunt nedum inutiles sed 
dampnosi monasterio.' 

Coventre also added : 

f quod abbas habet plures tales seculares ignotos sibi adherentes 
quibus vltimate fauet.' 

William Buttre, the sub-chanter, dealt with the last point in 

fuller detail : 

' Item dicit quod abbas multum extraneat se a confratribus et 
multum dedignanter et toruo vultu respicit eos nolens eis loqui sed 
preteriens indignanter ; et cum sederint secum in mensa tempore 
minucionum non est affabilis inter eos nee communicat cum eis in 
mensa sed tantum cum secularibus sibi seruientibus et sic non tractat 
eos ut fratres aut filios sed tanquam forent sibi ignoti vel alieni.' J 

Two final examples may be taken from houses of Austin canons 
in north Lincolnshire. There is an injunction to Thornholm 
priory (April 1440) closely similar to the Leicester injunction 
and divided into three parts in the same way. The last clause, 
however, is confined to the maintenance of one particular type 
of outsider : 

' quodque non sustiueatis quoscunque de parentela vestra sumptibus 
domus/ etc. 

William Lincolne said : 

' quod prior vendidit cuidam Edwardo vnum corrodium pro quo 
recepit xx.li. quod stat in vj panibus certi . . . melioris ponderis . . . 
et conuentus 2 et totidem lagenas [sic] et viiam domum pro habitacione 
sua certum focale nescit quantum vnum porcum pro lardaria et 
vnum medium pro farina. 

' Item vendidit aliud corrodium Johanni Cutylere ad terminum vite 
et coniugis sue ipso mortuo ad medietatem pro xx marcis quod 
consistit in sua habitacione ad reparacionem prioris septem similibus 
panibus et vij lagenis ceruisie. 

' Et preter ista sunt v alia corrodia antiquitus vendita.' 
Richard Burstalle's evidence gives the reason for the last part 
of the injunction: 

' Item dicit quod prior expensis domus sustentat fratrem stium 
naturalem et eius filium et sustentauit per biennium et in nullo 
prosunt domui. 

1 Item dicit quod in prioratu sunt sex corrodiarii quorum quilibet 
valet annuatim ad minus xls. et duo sunt ad extra.' 

1 Ff. 104-106. The visitation took place on 3 December, 1440 : the 
injunctions were dispatched later in the month from Liddington, Rutland. 
This passage is illegible, but the change of case in the rest of the 
piragraph appears to be a mere piece of carelessness. 






May 7.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 201 

Simon Lincolne, a canon in the infirmary, corroborated Burstalle's 
evidence about the prior's relations, and stated further : 

e quod prior recipit ad mensam filios generosorum et nichil recipit 
ab eisdem non obstante quod prioratus oneratur ere alieno et aliis 
grauibus.' 

The sale of timber was mentioned by William Asshendone : 

' Item dicit quod prior vendidit diuersas grossas arbores per se : 
videatur igitur si precium earum contineatur in billa miuistrata per 
priorem.' 

This was repeated by Simon Lincolne, while Burstalle complained 
that the sale had been effected to the detriment of necessary 
repairs to the buildings : 

' Item dicit quod pecunie recepte pro boscis venditis per priorem 
extendunt se ad c. marcas et quod edificia propter non reparaciouem 
deteriorantur ad xl. li. in defectu prioris, et istud dampuum euenit 
tempore istius prioris propter ipsius incuriam.' l 

The ninth injunction to Wellow abbey, close to Great Grimsby, 
concerns corrodies only, without further additions. The evidence 
comes from the deposition of John Tolsone : 

( Item dicit quod abbas vendidit vnum corrodium Johanni Mathewe 
pro 1 marcis de consensu conuentus : non stat in tanto quantum 
percipient [sic] duo canonici in esculentis et poculentis et stetit in eo 
x annis et amplius.' 2 

Only one type of injunction has been examined here, and that 
of the most general and inclusive character, and the examples 
have been purposely selected without any attempt to present the 
conclusions of the present writer in a designedly favourable light. 
The examination, however, of others in the same way produces 
the same results. 3 Cases in which an injunction apparently bears 
no reference to the depositions are extremely rare ; and in such 
instances it would appear that the compiler had reason for 
thinking that such an injunction might be useful, and so inserted 
it. Now and then he certainly wrote down an injunction which 
he or the bishop, comparing it with the evidence, thought un- 
necessary and crossed out. 4 Secondly, it is not uncommon to 
find an injunction modelled upon a time-honoured form, of which 

l -Ff. 86</-88. The date of the visitation was 12 April, 1-440: the 
injunctions were not issued until 4 August following, from Sleaford 
Castle. 

2 Ff. 71 , 77 d. The visitation was held on 7 July : the injunctions bear 
no date. 

3 e. g. an injunction against potacionea post eompletorium occurs in 15 
out of the 31 sets of injunctions, and is borne out in every case by the 
detecta. 

* The injunctions to Dorchester Abbey in 1440 are a case in point. 
Two injunctions, forbidding the keeping of hounds in the monastery and 
ordering a careful survey of buildings, were cancelled : one, forbidding 
the access of women to the cloister, was added as an afterthought. 



202 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

a part only is supported by the detecta. Yet here the common 
form has been built up on a recognition of the similarity of the 
practices which it denounces : one affords suspicion of or actually 
implies another. There is, therefore, good reason for applying 
the common form in a wider sense than the evidence at first sight 
appears to warrant. But there are also the numerous cases in 
which the text of an injunction, modelled upon a common form, 
is modified or amplified either to exclude or to emphasize the 
detecta. Sometimes only part of the common form is used: some- 
times it is left out altogether. At other times it is given in full 
with special alterations and additions. The same variety is found 
in injunctions of which the visitation records are lost : Flemyng's 
and Gray's in their fair copies show differences the only explana- 
tion of which is that they are founded directly upon a con- 
scientious examination of the detecta, and consequently contain 
historical evidence as to the contemporary state of the monasteries 
to which they refer, which cannot be overlooked or treated 
lightly. 

It is undoubtedly true that Aln wick's visitations cannot lead 
the candid student to very favourable conclusions as to the state 
of the religious houses of his diocese in the fifteenth century. 
Carelessness in the observance of the rule was almost universal. 
Money matters were unsatisfactory. Divisions and quarrelling 
were very general : the abbot or prior, as at Leicester abbey, 
sometimes was at war with the whole house : sometimes he had 
his party, while one of the obedientiaries led another. 1 The 
buildings, as at Bardney, were sometimes ruinous, and no steps 
were taken to repair them. 2 There was a general tendency, 
especially in nunneries, for religious to abandon the common 
life and occupy private rooms, where parties of friends had their 
meals together instead of in the frater. There was much inter- 
course with lay-folk and superfluous entertainment, which wasted 
the alms of the house. There was also a lowering of the moral 
standard, of which, though it very seldom extended to the whole 
convent, there are individual instances in a very large number of 

1 This happened, e. g. } at Gracedieu Priory, where the prioress favoured 
some of the young nuns, calling them her discipule and encouraging them 
to spy upon their sisters. 

2 Architectural references are neither numerous nor definite ; but a 
visitation of Nun Cotham, a priory of Cistercian nuns, supplies evidence 
for the division of Cistercian fraters into upper and lower stories, the 
lower being used as the misericord. Dame Ellen Frost, the sub-prioress, 
besought ' quod refectorium seruetur omni die cum sit vnum refectorium 
superius in quo vescuntur piscibus et lacticiniis et aliud iiiferius in quo ex 
gracia vescuntur carnibus ', etc. This arrangement clearly existed during 
the fifteenth century in several Cistercian abbeys, e. g. Jervaulx, Kirk- 
stall, and Ford ; but hitherto documentary evidence for it appears to have 
been wanting. 



May /.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 203 

the houses visited. These facts, however, reflect discredit upon 
the weakness of human nature, not upon the monastic ideal, and, 
before they are made the basis of an attack upon the monastic 
system, it is well to consider how far we ourselves would have been 
able to live up to its stern requirements. The close examination 
of such documents serves to bring us closer to the truth of a 
problem which is still often hotly disputed, and to raise its dis- 
cussion above the inaccuracies of partisan statement.' 1 '' 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications. 



THURSDAY, 14th MAY, 1914. 

Sir AliTHUR JOHN EVANS, Knt., M.A., D.Litt., F.R.S., 

President, in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From J. E. Pritchard, Esq., F.S.A. : A sketch of the early history of 
Bathford and its neighbourhood. By H. D. Skrine. 12mo. Bath. 
1871. 

From the Author : The development of London,, and the London Build- 
ing Acts. By W. R. Davidge. 4to. London, 1914. 

From Lawrence Weaver, Esq., F.S.A. : The gilds and companies of 
London. By George Unwin. 8vo. London, 1908. 

The Rev. Philip Thomas Byard Clayton, M.A., was admitted 
a Fellow. 

Notice was given of a ballot for the election of Fellows on 
Thursday, June 11, 1914, and the list of the candidates to be 
put to the ballot was read. 

The MARQUKSS OF NORTHAMPTON exhibited the Clephane horn, 
upon which O. M. DALTOX, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. , read a paper 
which will be printed in Archaeologla. 

The medieval oliphant, known as the Clephane horn, was 
long preserved by the family of that name at Carslogie Castle 
in Fife, and presumably passed into the possession of the Mar- 
quesses of Northampton after the marriage of the second 
Marquess with Miss Clephane in 1815. It was published by 
Sir Walter Scott in his Border Antiquities in 1814; and was 



204 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

shown at the Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition in 1857, 
and at South Kensington in 1862. It has been variously re- 
garded as late-antique, Carolingian, and Romanesque ; but a 
comparison with other oliphants, with designs in illuminated 
manuscripts and with frescoes, seems to show that it should be 
ascribed to the province of Byzantine art, and that it probably 
belongs to the eleventh century. Though considerably damaged, 
it is in some respects the most remarkable of all known oli- 
phants ; and its rich figure-decoration, illustrating the contests 
of the amphitheatre, lends it an exceptional importance to 
archaeology. 

Professor BOYD DAWKINS hazarded the suggestion that the 
word oliphant was derived from the Greek word for ivory. 

The PRESIDENT said the absence of criticism was a tribute to 
the thoroughness of Mr. Dalton's researches. He was himself 
inclined to accept a Byzantine origin, but saw one or two diffi- 
culties ; some decorative elements in that style did not appear 
on the Clephane horn, and there was a certain reticence in the 
handling of the foliage that suggested an earlier date. It was 
interesting to find so much left of the classical spirit in the 
eleventh century, such as the amphitheatre, the wrestling, and 
other contests. The dress of the wrestlers was that usually 
associated with gladiatorial shows. One would gladly know 
how such things reached Constantinople and western Europe ; 
and it was tempting to regard the horn as one used in the 
amphitheatre and depicted on certain examples. There were 
remarkable vases in Crete resembling a straight horn, and dating 
about 1600 B. c. They were not only an early form of the 
rhyton but were divided into zones representing divisions of 
metal plates, and the subjects depicted were curiously like those 
on the oliphants. Was it possible to trace the use of the horn 
from Carlovingian times back to Minoan Crete ? The Clephane 
horn seemed to preserve the classical tradition in an early and 
simple form, but he was not prepared to dispute Mr. Dalton's 
chronology. 

Mr. DALTON replied that the style in fact closely followed 
classical tradition, but there were features later than the sixth 
century; and as the wars of Heraclius and the iconoclastic 
troubles compelled us to overleap two or three hundred years, 
it seemed necessary to assign the horn to the revival which 
followed the close of the ninth century. 

G. B. GRUNDY, Esq., D.Litt., communicated the following 
note on the so-called Kyknield or Riknild Street : 



May 14.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 205 

" The general course of this road from Littleover, near Derby, 
to a point at Weston-sub-Edge, near Broadway in Worcester- 
shire, is fairly well known. The course from Weston to the 
place where the road met the Foss Way has always been a 
matter of conjecture. 

This conjectural part of it passed over the Cotswold Hills. 

Professor Haverfield in his article on Roman Worcestershire 
in the Victoria County History, and Mr. Codrington in his book 
on Roman roads suggest that, after passing Weston, it followed 
the line of the west boundary of the parishes of Weston and 
Chipping Campden up to the road from Broadway to Stow-on- 
the-Wold, which is here called the Five Mile Drive. This 
parish boundary is straight ; and the tendency of parish boun- 
daries to follow the line of a Roman road is well known. After 
crossing the Drive the boundary becomes a county boundary 
between Gloucestershire and Worcestershire as well as a parish 
boundary. For about a third of a mile after crossing the Drive 
it continues in the same straight line. It then bends through 
an angle of about fifteen degrees, and runs south by east along 
a green road which is now no more than a cart-track. After 
crossing the road from Chipping Campden to Snowshill it enters 
the private grounds of the late Major Knox of Spring Hill, and 
passes for nearly a mile through a line of plantations, some of 
which are of recent planting. The boundary runs parallel to, 
and from ten to twenty yards east of, a private road locally 
known as the Switchback, up to a point about a quarter of a 
mile north-east of the house at Spring Hill. It then continues, 
partly through the garden, partly along the east edge of it, 
down into a valley to the south-east of the house. At that 
point the county boundary turns west at right angles, and be- 
comes, of course, of no further interest as a conjectural line of 
the road ; but if the line of the straight piece of the county 
boundarv be produced southwards, it is taken up, after an 
interval of two and a half miles, by a straight piece of road 
running from the north to the village of Condicote. Just north 
of the village it diverges from the line to enter the village ; but 
immediately south of the village the line is taken up again by 
an absolutely straight but little used lane which runs from 
Condicote for about two miles as far as the road from Stow-on - 
the- Wold to Cheltenham. This point is about two miles from 
the Foss Way. If the line of this lane were continued to the 
Foss Way it would meet that road at a point about a mile due 
north of Bourton-on-the- Water. 

By the kind hospitality of the late Major Knox of Spring 
Hill I was recently able to explore this conjectural line of road 
at that part of it which is supposed to coincide with the county 



206 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

boundary; and with his help I gathered some evidence which 
may be useful in determining the course of the road. 

From the Five Mile Drive to the road from Chipping Camp- 
den to Snowshill the county boundary follows what has evidently 
been a broad balk dividing the plough-lands of one parish from 
those of the other. It has already been said that the line bends 
through an angle of about fifteen degrees in this part of its 
course; and the object of this bend is evidently to carry the line 
round the head of a deep steep-sided combe known as Tilbury 
Hollow. It is a combe which even a Roman road would seek 
to avoid, if it could do so without too great a divergence from 
the straight line. Along the balks, as is usually the case with 
the broad balks which divide the plough-lands of neighbouring 
village communities from one another, a cart track and right- 
of-way have developed. The boundary wall is on the west side 
of the balk. Running along the balk beside the wall for prac- 
tically the whole distance of a mile is an agger such as is asso- 
ciated with the remains of Roman roads in this country. It 
rises from a foot to eighteen inches above the general sur- 
face of the balk. The modern cart track has in some places 
cut into it, but has for the most part avoided it, keeping along 
the east side of the balk, i.e. on the side opposite to the wall. 
The present breadth of the agger is from twelve to fourteen 
feet ; but it is obvious that its original breadth has been 
diminished by the cutting of a ditch along the side of the wall. 
In the plantations on Major Knox's estate there is what looks 
like the line of an agger, which is more or less clearly traceable 
until you come to the garden. There it has disappeared. But 
it appears again just below the gate where the drive leaves the 
garden, and extends for a few hundred yards into the small 
valley to the south of the house. But in this part it has been 
much cut up by the making of a ditch and bank. On the far 
or south slope of the valley the agger is not apparent ; and 
beyond that point ploughed fields extend as far as the eye can 
see in fact, the land is not of such a nature as to hold out any 
hope of the agger of a Roman road having survived upon it. 

After examining this line I chose two places, one on the balk, 
and one in the woodland, at which to make a section of the 
apparent agger. That in the woodland known as the Central 
Wood I made first. It did not appear very promising, because 
the soil had been much disturbed by the roots, not merely of 
the present trees, but of old trees which have stood upon the 
same ground. What I found was as follows : the top layer 
for about nine inches deep in the centre, and about six inches 
deep at the sides, consisted of what was probably leaf- mould, 
with a certain admixture, not very noticeable, of fine broken 



May 14.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 

"" Campden 



207 




SKETCH-MAP SHOWING THE COURSE OF RYKNIELD STREET BETWEEN WESTON 
AN!) THE FOSS WAY. 



208 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

stones. Underneath that came a distinctly marked layer of 
stones in the shape of rough slabs of a more or less square 
shape, and from twelve to eighteen inches' side. These were 
the slabs which are easily split from the plentiful local stone, 
and are now largely used in wall building. This layer of 
stones was about six inches thick. Underneath the layer of 
stones was a layer of earth which had obviously been beaten. 
It was of quite a different nature to the soil of this country 
when in its ordinary condition ; but was in that condition into 
which it is reduced by, for instance, the continual trampling of 
animals. Beneath this was the rock which lies so near the 
surface in the Cotswold country. 

So far the investigation had not led to any conclusive results. 
The structure was such as might be suspected to be that of a 
road ; but it was not that of any Roman road of which I had 
previously taken a section. 

The second section was made on the balk, a little more than 
a hundred yards north of the Chipping Campden and Snows- 
hill road. There the apparent agger was much more marked 
than in the wood. The surface in this case was covered with 
a layer of turf. When the turf was removed a layer of 
small broken stones and earth was disclosed. In this instance 
the stone largely preponderated in quantity over the earth. 
Underneath this came a layer of flags or flat stones similar to 
those found in the same relative position in the wood. This 
was about six inches thick. Underneath that came the same 
beaten earth which had been noticed in the previous section ; 
but in this case it was deeper. After that came the local rock 
of the country. 

My own impression is that this is the actual line of road. The 
small stone of what I believe to have been the original surface of 
the road corresponds to that which Professor Haverfield and I 
found on the surface of the Akeman Street in Blenheim Park. 
Underneath the structure is different to what we found on the 
Akeman Street. In the present instance the layer of slabs seems 
to have been designed to prevent the small surface-stones from 
being trodden into the earth ; and the beaten earth is intended 
to form a solid foundation for the road, and, at the same time, 
to raise the roadway well above the surface of the adjacent ground 
level. In the case of the Akeman Street the same precaution was 
taken, but in a more elaborate way, against the possibility of the 
surface-stones being trodden in." 

The PRESIDENT, on behalf of E. H. BINNEY, Esq., M.A., com- 
municated the following note on Roman Pottery, etc., found at 
Nythe Farm, Wilts. : 






May 14.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 209 

"Near Nythe Farm, Stratton St. Margaret, Wilts., at a spot 
about 3 miles east of Swindon Station, on Ermine Street, the 
Ordnance Map marks 'Nidum, Roman Station'. Visiting the 
place so marked in April last I found that the ground being 
covered with pasture in that neighbourhood showed nothing on 
the surface (except some irregularities in the level close to 
'Covingham Farm 1 ), but in a large field belonging to Nythe 
Farm, about 200 yards farther north (on the west side of the 
road), a great number of holes had been dug to a depth of about 
3 ft., apparently to receive posts for new railings. 

Those along the side of the road, forming a line parallel with 
the hedge and about 2 yds. within it, and the holes along the 
two sides leading to the road (to a distance of some 50 yds. 
from it) yielded black earth containing a large quantity of frag- 
ments of pottery, mostly grey and black ware of varying degrees 
of coarseness, a few pieces being large enough to indicate roughly 
the size and shape of the vessels to which they belonged. There 
were a fair number of pieces of * Samian ' ware, a number of iron 
nails, and an iron spiked implement with a socket. Two frag- 
ments of glass were found, one of them being a piece of the 
hollow rim of a flat-sided vessel. I found one bronze coin, and 
obtained another from a workman who had found it in digging 
foundations for a new cottage adjoining the north side of the 
field, but both were so corroded as to be difficult to identify. 

In the holes near the road the black earth extended to a depth 
of nearly 3 ft., below which was clay. As one receded from the 
road the clay was found nearer the surface, and at 50 yds. from 
the road there was very little of the black earth below the 
turf/' 

Professor BOYD DAWKINS referred to maps on which Ryknield 
Street could be distinctly traced. From Chipping Campden 
there was a long straight piece of Roman road that he thought 
came due south from Alcester ; and south of Chipping Campden 
there were small sections that could be picked out on the map, 
indicating its course till it reached the Foss Way. It was a good 
instance of Roman point-to-point road-making, as contrasted 
with the pre-Roman roads that were mostly ridgeways. In this 
case the older road, ' Buckle Street n (1 in. contour Ordnance 
Map, sheet 217), occupies the divide on the west and makes for 
the Foss Way, near Bourton-on-the- Water, taking the line of 
least resistance. He had endeavoured to make out a scheme of 
pre-Roman roads, and many were clear in Hants, W r ilts., and 
Somerset. The Romans found them not straight enough and 
in some cases modified the earlier course. Bronze Age camps 
were linked together by those early trackways, which were also 

VOL. xxvi d 



210 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

marked by tumuli ; and in many cases the Roman and British 
roads might be compared to a bowstring and a bent bow. 

Mr. J. G. WOOD referred to the utilization and straightening 
of British roads by the Romans. The Foss Way south of Ciren- 
cester went straight, and the earlier road went round by Tetbury, 
making a bow. If the line from Honeybourne to Weston were 
produced south, it would coincide with a stretch between Condi - 
cote and the Foss Way, but between Weston and Condicote there 
was a gap. The reason why the Roman road did not run straight 
there was that it would have had to cross the Midford sands, 
which were water-bearing. A diversion was therefore made to 
the west. There was a spur to carry the road at Springhill 
where the fragments occurred, and that arrangement showed the 
ingenuity of the Roman engineers. The discovery was of much 
interest, and he inquired whether the stone used for paving was 
of local origin. 

Mr. PEERS said the road was composed of three layers earth 
with small stones, flags, and a layer of beaten earth. He had 
lately taken over officially a mile and a half of a Roman road in 
Goathland parish, North Riding, Yorks., parts of which had been 
quarried by the farmers. The simplest course was to expose it, 
and that had been done. It was a paved way, 12 ft. to 14 ft. 
wide, with irregular kerbing. The section was visible where 
streams had cut through. A bed of clay had been laid in a 
trench. Stone slabs were set on this, and earth or clay placed 
above them to make a level surface. There was a curious re- 
semblance to the road described in the paper, which could only 
have been intended for light traffic. 

Mr. REGINALD SMITH inquired whether it was possible to 
determine the relation of the burials or cemetery mentioned in 
Mr. Binney's paper to the line of the Roman road near Swindon. 
The main roads were often flanked by burials, and an examina- 
tion of the pottery, coins, and other objects from the graves 
might give a limiting date for the construction of one of the 
chief Roman roads in Britain. 

The PRESIDENT was aware that Professor Boyd Dawkins had 
proved in many districts the adaptation of older tracks by the 
Romans. Mr. Grundy was investigating other points on the 
Berkshire Downs, and a new chapter in the history of Roman 
Britain would probably be opened. Certain roads had been too 
hastily condemned by specialists in the Roman period. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications. 



May 28.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 211 

THURSDAY, 28th MAY, 1911. 

Sir ARTHUR JOHN EVANS, Knt., M.A., D.Litt, F.R.S., 
President, in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From the Author : St. Nicholas's Church, Liverpool : its architectural 
history. By Henry Peet, F.S.A. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1913. 

From the Author : Portraiture of our Stuart monarchs from their coins 
and medals. Part V. William III. By Helen Farquhar. 8vo. 
London, 1913. 

From Harold Sands, Esq., F.S.A. : Mast and sail in Europe and Asia. 
By H. Warington Smyth. 8vo. London, 1906. 

From the Brighton and Hove Archaeological Club : Brighton and Hove 
Archaeologist. Vol. I, 1914. 8vo. Hove, 1914. 

Frank Simpson, Esq., was admitted a Fellow. 

Notice was again given of the ballot for the election of Fellows 
to be held on Thursday, June llth, and the list of the candidates 
to be put to the ballot was again read. 

A. L. RADFORD, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a small collection of 
English regal heraldic stained glass, mostly of the early sixteenth 
century, consisting of the following pieces : shield of arms of 
Richard I, from Lichfield Cathedral, temp. Edward I ; two blue 
and white Lancastrian roses, temp. Henry V; one white rose, 
temp. Edward IV ; quarries with the crowned R and boarVhead 
badge of Richard III ; portrait of one of the daughters of 
Edward IV, from the Becket window, Canterbury Cathedral ; 
crowned red rose of Henry VII ; arms of Henry VIII and Jane 
Seymour in a Gothic wreath composed of red and white roses ; 
another piece, but smaller, with the same arms ; arms of Henrv 
VIII in a wreath, with the initials H.K. P., being the initials of 
Henry and Katherine Parr ; monogram H. K. P.,in a classic wreath 
divided by bands of red and white roses ; the badge of Jane 
Seymour, in the form of a signet ring; arms of Henry VIII in 
a Gothic wreath of red and white roses ; arms of Edward VI 
in a wreath of amorini ; Prince of Wales's feathers, with initials 
E.P. and motto Hie DEIN in a wreath of amorini; small coat 
of arms of Henry VIII, with initials H. R. and date 1532 ; arms 
of Edward VI, with prince's crown, in wreath of amorini ; red 
and white Tudor rose and crown, temp. Edward VI. 

The bulk of the collection was formed by the late Richard 
Cockle Lucas, the sculptor, and was acquired twenty-six years 



212 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [191 4> 

ago, from his son, by the present owner. The two last pieces 
were obtained later, and were formerly in Cowick priory, near 
Exeter. 

J. P. BusHE-Fox, Esq., read a report on the excavations 
undertaken at Hengistbury Head in 1912-13 : 

Hengistbury Head is situated to the east of Bournemouth, 
and south of Christchurch Harbour. In prehistoric times it 
had been converted into a promontory fort by the throwing up 
of large earthworks. The area actually explored amounted to 
about forty-two acres. Three barrows, two of them 100 feet 
in diameter, were also dug ; these yielded fine examples of 
Bronze Age pottery. With one of the burials was an incense 
cup, a bronze and amber pendant, some amber beads, and two 
gold bosses. The settlement was situated on a gently sloping 
tract of land bordering the harbour, on the north side of the 
Head. The inhabitants lived in huts composed of wattle and 
daub, with clay and gravel floors. There was evidence of work- 
ing in gold, silver, bronze, iron, glass, and Kimmeridge shale. 
The presence of loom-weights and spindle-whorls showed that 
the art of weaving was known. Coins also appear to have 
been minted to a large extent, over 4,000 gold, silver, and 
bronze examples having been found, as well as metal in the 
crude state. The greater part of the coins was British, with a 
sprinkling of Gaulish and Channel Islands examples ; many of 
them were new types. A large number was of a type that has 
only once been found before, and in the same locality. 

These were all in mint condition, and appeared to have never 
been in circulation. About 100 Roman coins were found in 
connexion with these British examples. The latest of these 
belonged to the reign of Antoninus Pius, in the middle of the 
second century A.D. That British coins should have been 
minted in the second century A. D. is of extreme interest, as it 
shows that the inhabitants of this part of the island, at anv 
rate, had been little affected by the Roman occupation that 
began nearly a hundred years before. 

Many small objects were also met with, including a bracelet 
of thick twisted gold wire, part of a gold tore, many 
brooches and other articles of different metals, also glass beads 
and bracelets of different colours. 

The occupation of the site must have begun at an early 
period, as a large number of flints was discovered, most of 
them belonging to the Neolithic period. The latest objects 
found may be placed in the fourth century A.D. 

It has been very difficult to fill the gap between the end of 
the Bronze Age and the period immediately preceding the 



May 28.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 213 

Roman period in this island. The excavations at Hengistbury 
have added considerably to our knowledge in this respect. 

This period has been divided into two sections on the Con- 
tinent, which have been named after sites where a large number 
of objects have been found, viz. Hallstatt, in the Austrian 
Tyrol (800 to 400 B.C.), and La Tene in Switzerland (400 B.C. 
to the Roman period). At Hengistbury a complete series of 
pottery, including the Hallstatt and La Tene periods, has 
been found. Many of the Hengistbury types have direct 
parallels in such places as the Armorican peninsula, the valley 
of the Aisne, Bavaria, and the south-west of France and the 
Pyrenees. Their prototypes may, in many instances, be traced 
back to the Illyro-Italic people, who inhabited the north of 
Italy and the lands north of the Adriatic. The Hengistbury 
examples include some fine specimens of the pedestal and cor- 
doned urns, as well as pottery decorated with running scrolls, 
the Greek fret and wave patterns. 

The paper will be printed in Reports. 

Mr. REGINALD SMITH said the meeting had listened to a 
business-like account of a remarkable enterprise, and hoped that 
it would be worthily published. The Society was deeply in- 
debted to Sir George Meyrick and the other contributors to 
the fund for the exploration of Hengistbury, and much good 
fortune as well as hard work had fallen to the share of Mr. 
Bushe-Fox. The exhibits were creditable to all concerned, and 
represented a period which might at last be said to be proved 
in England. One of the dark periods in British prehistory was 
that between the end of the Bronze Age and the Early Iron 
Age of La Tene ; and Hengistbury had done much to make the 
transition clear. There was no time to describe the flints in 
any detail, but he thought some were earlier than the bulk of 
surface-finds. The occurrence of flints in the body of a grave- 
mound only implied that they had been lying on or near the 
surface when the barrow was raised ; and erroneous conclusions 
might be drawn, for instance, from the flints found in Yorkshire 
barrows. The concentration of the flints in certain spots, in 
association with Bronze Age or later remains, proved not that 
they were all contemporary, but that ancient workshop sites 
had been disturbed ; otherwise flints ought to have been found 
in all the excavated sites. It was a pity that the excavations 
had thrown no new light on the date of the double dykes which 
cut oft* the promontory fort. Pitt-Rivers had failed to prove 
by excavation the exact date of somewhat similar defences at 
Flamborough, but disposed of their traditional attribution to 
the Danes. 



214 I'KOCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

Professor BOYD DAWKIXS agreed with the last speaker as to 
flints occurring in the barrows and even on Roman sites ; they 
could not be regarded as contemporary with either. The isola- 
tion of the headland reminded him of Glastonbury, where the 
British lake-village was cut off from the mainland by a deep 
foss and high bank. It would be interesting to know whether 
any of the dwellings explored were round or square in plan. 
He knew of no square buildings of that date in the country ; 
and the nearest approach to that plan was at Glastonbury, 
where some seemed to have been pulled down to make way for 
circular huts. At Tre'r Ceiri it was possible the square plan was 
later than the British hut-circles. The paper had been one of 
the old-fashioned kind with a large proportion of original 
information and a minimum of theory. 

The PRESIDENT bore witness to the high scientific interest of 
the paper, which followed the true comparative method and re- 
vealed a close study of the Hallstatt forms. With such a wide 
outlook the author had been able to establish the interesting 
fact that Hengistbury illustrated the history of Britain over a 
whole millennium, from the seventh or eighth century B.C. to 
the third century after Christ. That had not hitherto been 
possible, but the exploration of the site had shown a connexion 
between the late Bronze Age and Hallstatt forms of Britain, 
Bavaria, S. France, and the Pyrenees. The period named after 
La Tene, which began in Britain about the fourth century B.C. 
but lasted longer there than elsewhere, generally went under 
the name of Late-Celtic, and he was particularly gratified to 
find his own views as to the cordons and pedestals of Aylesford 
confirmed by later discoveries. New forms had come to light 
that found their closest analogies in the painted pottery of the 
Venetian region. A piece of enamel showed a further connexion 
with Mont Beuvray (the ancient Bibracte), Saone-et-Loire, 
France, and the art was evidently practised at Hengistbury. 
The Glastonbury parallels illustrated the transitions to Roman 
Britain. The coin finds were of special interest, Roman silver 
and British copper extending over about three centuries, most 
of the latter series being derived from the well-known Mace- 
donian prototype ; but there were others that were not British 
and indicated the ancient lines of commerce. Some forms were 
derived from coins of Seleucus, one probably came from the 
Cenomani, and others showed a connexion with the Pyrenees 
right across France. He himself had traced coins of the Greek 
emporia of N.E. Spain to the dolphin type of Syracuse. 
The latest native coinage was rather pathetic,' being cast in the 
last state of degradation but still showing the British spirit of 



May 28.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 215 

the West struggling against foreign influence. Gold was re- 
placed by baser metal, and the last stage was copper, which was 
not even struck, but the old style persisted down to the second 
century. 

Mr. BusHE-Fox replied that the presence of rabbits in large 
numbers made stratification impossible, and the shape of the 
dwellings could not be accurately determined, but seemed to be 
oval rather than square or circular. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications. 



THURSDAY, llth JUNE, 1914. 
PHILIP NORMAN, Esq., LL.D., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From the Author : Notes on the history of the parish of North VTraxhall, 
co. Wilts. By Professor W. J. Lewis, F.R.S. 8vo. London, 1913. 

From the Author : An account of the Boynton family and the family 
seat at Burton Agnes. By Rev. C. V. Collier, F.S.A. 4to. 
Middlesbrough, 1914. 

From the Author : Some notes on a new Hittite inscription found at 
Carchemish. By R. Campbell Thompson, F.S.A. 8vo. u.p. n.d. 

From Professor Haverfield, LL.D., F.S.A.: 

1. Old houses in Oxford. By F. E. Howard, Rev. H. E. Salter, and 

C. M. Toynbee. 8vo. Oxford, 1914. 

2. An account of the Roman remains in the parish of Corbridge-on- 

Tyne. By Professor Haverfield. 4to. Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1914. 

From Madame Hymans : Portrait medal of the late M. Henri Hymans, 
Hon. F.S.A. 

Lt.-Colonel G. B. CROFT LYONS, F.S.A., exhibited a glass quarry 
with the arms of Manning of Down, Kent. 

L. A. LAWRENCE, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited part of a set of seven- 
teenth-century counters, engraved with the Cries of London. 

F. W. COCK, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., exhibited three pairs of iron 
ember- tongs. 

WILSON CREWDSON, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., exhibited a portion of 
an alabaster carving representing the Adoration of the Three 



216 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1914, 



Kings. The exhibit consisted of the figures of the Kings only, 
those of our Lady and Child having been on a separate panel. 
The figures are headless, but as holes for pins are visible, the 
heads were apparently carved separately. The alabaster is very 
delicately executed with a wealth of detail, and is probably of 




ALABASTER CARVING OK THE ADORATION OF THE KING-S. (^) 

Flemish or French workmanship of the last quarter of the fifteenth 
century. It is 11 in. high by 10 in. broad. 

The front king kneels and presents an ornamental coffer con- 
taining coins. The lid, which he is opening, is mutilated, and 
the hands are gone. He wears a long cloak, and his right boot 
is fastened by a buckle: his left foot is hidden by the cloak. 
On the ground at his feet rests a cap, turned up with fur and 
surrounded by a coronet. 

The second king stands immediately behind and rather to the 
back of the kneeling figure, and carries a covered horn -shaped 
vessel, round which is twisted a strap or belt ornamented with 



June 11.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 217 

quatrefoils. The left arm is broken oft* below the elbow, but 
from the position of the arm it seems likely that the figure was 
represented as removing his cap, while the bend in the right leg 
indicates that the figure was represented in the act of kneeling. 
He wears a long cloak, fastened at the neck with a tasselled cord 
and caught up in his right hand to show the skirt of the tunic 
which is cut into points and fringed. He wears long hose. 

The third king is standing, and holds a covered cup in his 
hands. He wears a long cloak fastened on the right shoulder by 
two buttons. It is caught up in front to show the lower part of 
the breastplate and a skirt of mail. He, too, wears long hose. 

The figures are free standing, and the cloaks fall behind in 
long graceful folds. Below the base is a hole for the pin by 
which the carving was fixed. 

This being an evening appointed for the election of Fellows 
no paper was read. 

The ballot opened at 8.45 p.m. and closed at 9.30 p.m., when 
the following were declared elected Fellows of the Society : 
Thomas Henry Harvey, Esq., J.P. 
John Edwin Couchman, Esq. 
Thurstan Collins Peter, Esq. 
William Henry Ward, Esq., M.A. 
Willoughby Gardner, Esq., F.L.S., F.R.G.S. 
William Mangles TAnson, Esq. 

Frederick William Morton Palmer, Esq., M.A., M.D., B.C. 
John Alexander Herbert, Esq., B.A. 






THURSDAY, 18th JUNK, 1914. 

Sir ARTHUR JOHN EVANS, Knt., M.A. D.Litt., F.R.S., 

President, in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From H. W. Lewer, Esq., F.S.A. : The naval history of Great Britain. 
By William James. 6 vols. 8vo. London,, 1837. 

From the Author, R. Stewart-Brown, Esq., F.S.A. : 

1. Notes 011 Childwall. 8vo. Liverpool, 11)14. 

2. Notes on the Chester Hand or Glove. 8vo. Chester, 1914. 

From G. F. Hill, Esq. : A collection of sketches, tracings, rubbings, and 
photographs of early datings, etc., in ' Arabic' numerals, mounted in 
a scrap-book. 



218 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

From Henry Yates Thompson, Esq., F.S. A. : Illustrations from one 
hundred manuscripts in the library of Henry Yates Thompson, con- 
sisting of 82 plates illustrating 1(5 MS$. of English origin from the 
twelfth to the fifteenth centuries, fol. London, 1914. 

A special vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Yates Thompson 
for his gift to the Library. 

The following were admitted Fellows : 

John Alexander Herbert, Esq., B.A. 
William Henry Ward, Esq., M.A. 

MERVYN MACARTNEY. Esq., F.S. A., read the following paper 
on some investigations into the soil in and around St. Paul's 
Cathedral, and comparison with data in Parentalia : 

"In writing this paper I have had two objects in view: 
first, to put on record the results of exploration and excavation 
in and around St. Paul's, during the time I have been surveyor 
to that building ; secondly, to examine the truth of some of the 
statements in Parentalia. 

This book has been generally regarded as a trustworthy guide 
as to the operations connected with the rebuilding of the cathe- 
dral. It was prepared by Wren's grandson from papers and 
information supplied by Sir Christopher Wren's son, the younger 
Christopher, and published about 1750. Stephen Wren (the 
grandson) was born in the year 1722, a year previous to Sir 
Christopher Wren's death. It is evident therefore that the com- 
piler had to trust to his father for most of his facts, and corro- 
boration of these was difficult, as most of the men engaged on 
the building are likely to have died before Sir Christopher. 

It is safe to assume that there were few, if any, men living who 
could speak from personal knowledge of the events connected 
with the rebuilding, when Stephen Wren wrote the Parentalia. 
The book, therefore, cannot be taken as absolutely reliable. 

For the sake of reference I have divided my paper into three 
sections: 1, The Architectural ; 2, the Geological; 3, the Anti- 
quarian. 

1. Under the Architectural head, those discoveries which ap- 
pertain more or less directly to remains of the old cathedral and 
the foundations of the present building will be considered. 

2. Under the Geological division I propose to enumerate the 
results obtained from bore-holes, trial-pits, etc. 

3. Under the Antiquarian division, the objects that have been 
discovered in the shafts and excavations in and around the 
cathedral and the remains of the old cathedral will be touched 
upon. 

1. The well-known account of the erection of the north-east 



June 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 219 

angle seems to me untrustworthy. Let me quote the extract 
from Parentalia 1 : 

6 In the Progress of the Works of the Foundations, the Sur- 
veyer met with one unexpected Difficulty ; he began to lay the 
Foundations from the West-end, and had proceeded successfully 
through the Dome to the East-end, where the Brick-earth Bottom 
was yet very good ; but as he went on to the North-east Corner, 
which was the last, and where nothing was expected to interrupt, 
he fell, in prosecuting the Design, upon a Pit, where all the Pot- 
earth had been robVd by the Potters of old Time : Here were 
discovered Quantities of Urns, broken Vessels, and Pottery-ware 
of divers Sorts and Shapes. . . . 

4 It was no little Perplexity to fall into this Pit at last : He 
wanted but six or seven Feet to compleat the Design, and this 
fell in the very Angle North-east ; he knew very well, that under 
the Layer of Pot-earth, there was no other good Ground to be 
found till he came to the Low-water mark of the Thames, at 
least forty Feet lower. . . . 

4 His endeavours were to build for Eternity. He therefore 
sunk a Pit of about eighteen Feet square, wharfing up the Sand 
with Timber, till he came forty Feet lower into Water and Sea- 
shells, ... he bored through this Beach till he came to the 
original Clay ; being then satisfied, he began from the Beach a 
square Peer of solid good Masonry, ten Feet square, till he came 
within fifteen Feet of the present Ground, then he turned a short 
Arch under Ground to the former Foundation, which was broken 
off by the untoward Accident of the Pit." 

In the first place, Wren did not begin to rebuild from the 
west. He was instructed in 1675 to make a 4 new Quire ', ' with 
the present stock of money ', and no man with such a command 
would begin at the other end of a building, 600 ft. long, en- 
cumbered as it was with enormous piles of masonry, some of 
them reaching to the height of 200 ft. 

Moreover, we have the cathedral account books, and no men- 
tion is made there of the west end till 1689, nor of any pit except 
the well in the middle of the building under the dome, whereas 
great care is taken to specify the work in laying the foundations 
on the north and east sides, at which places mention is made of 
excavations 24 ft. deep. 

Furthermore, when examining the condition of the foundations 
for the London County Council I exposed the footings at the 
points marked on figs. 1 and 2. The shafts were sunk as close 
to this north-east corner as was safe, and in both cases, on reach- 
ing the last course of footings, I drove an iron crowbar as far 
under the pier as I could, without encountering any solid mass. 
1 London,, 1750, p. 286. 



220 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

I am obliged, therefore, to regard this statement from Parentalia 
with suspicion, though I do not say that it is absolutely im- 
possible. The exploration of the footings in the east end lead 
one to conclude that it was on this side that Wren experienced 
the greatest difficulty, though from the Conyers MS. (to which 
I will refer again) the north must also have occasioned him 




5TPAUL5 

CATHEDRAL 



Jcale <f feel 



Lewi of London Clqy^ 



B A 



Fig. 1. ST. PAUJ/S CATHEDRAL I SECTIONS OF FOUNDATIONS. 

trouble. The cathedral accounts specifically mention an excava- 
tion 50 ft. long, 20 ft. wide, and 24 ft. deep in this place. 

2. I now proceed to the second part of my subject, the geo- 
logical. It has been my fortune, good or bad, to have sunk a 
considerable number of bore-holes since I have been surveyor. 
Nine borings, 6 in. in diameter (fig. 3), have been taken down to 
the London Clay, in and around the building, which have im- 
parted much information as to the water-levels. It must be remem- 
bered, however, that the readings given below were not taken 
simultaneously, and that the water-level varies with weather 
conditions and the seasons of the year. 



June 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



221 



i I 



q 







S 



H 






bi) 



222 
Bore-hole No. 1 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1914, 



3. 

4. 

5. (Daily Mail) 

0.) 

7. L.C.C. 

8.J 

9. at G.P.O. 



Water-level is 20'9 feet above Ordnance Datum. 
23-0 
2010 
21-0 



22-59 

22-0 

20-5 

2375 

26-43 




SLC.C. 



Boring N9 on POSlte. 
Fig. 3. POSITION OK BORINGS, ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 

These figures show that there is a gradient south and west, and 
that the water-level is on the average 9-65 ft. above high-water 
mark, not, as stated in Parentalia* on the low-water level, which 
is 6 ft. below Ordnance Datum. Here is a definite statement 
which is manifestly inaccurate ; for it is known that the level of 
the water in the soil has fallen in recent years. As an instance, 
the 4 ft. drain, built by Wren himself, which runs round the 
building, to keep the foundations free from water, is now quite 
dry. 

It is unfortunate that Stephen Wren's facts cannot be depended 
on, as otherwise it might have been possible to make certain 
valuable deductions from his statements. 

Nearly all the nine borings show similar strata. There is the 
debris ; then pot-earth ; then sand, and gravel, then both together, 
and lastly clay. In the debris are two layers of interments, 
medieval and Roman. 

Here I must break through the dividing line of my sections 
and quote extracts from a contemporary diarist, an apothecary 



June 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 223 

of Cheapside, by name Conyers, whom I have already mentioned. 
He confirms some of the Parentalia statements and gives some 
interesting particulars about the discoveries when the excava- 
tions were made, as to the Roman occupation. He writes as 
follows, 1 in a hand extremely difficult to decipher : 

'1675, Aug. 20. Memorandum that this month at severall 
dayes the labourers at the east end of St. Pauls London can tell 
one the north side of the church as the church is now altered bv 
the care and direc[ti]ons of the Learned Sir Christopher Wreii 
etc. this being the part of the church nearest to by the high way 
and Pauls Schoole and under part of the place where St. Paulls 
Cross formerly stood and a new cutt for foundacion the chirch being 
made wider much then formerly, the widening, the widnes all 
towards the North or the booksellers as you go to and from 
Cheapside there they was forced to digg in som places neare 5 or 
6 and twenty or 30 foot deep for sound ground and there make- 
ing the foundacion new all one that side vizt. ye north side of the 
east end of St. Paulls it doth appeare that in the highest part of 
sound ground the ground hath been raised at the least 15 or 16 
foote and now it appeares allso that by 2 layers of corpes the 
one layer 6 or 7 foot deep and the other neare 10 or 12 foot 
deep the ground hath been there raised twise since they used to 
burye in that chirch yard and about 12 feet deep there was a 
layer of white matter which might bee chalke and hewings of 
stone when the chirch was built by William the Conquerors 
favorite Lanfrank Bishop of London. Now a little below this 
veine of white chalke (that lay all along paralel the east end of 
St. Paulls) there appeared here and there flint pavement which 
was the pavement of yards for Lanfrank is said to purchase 
houses of citizens then to add to the chir[ch"|yard of St. Paul 
which chirch was then layed in a larger foundacion then then 
ever before. Now below the said flint pavements as the ground 
ceased to be black earth and came to be more of the yellow sand 
collour there was found a sort of Redd earthen Pottsheards the 
Pott as redd and firme as sealing wax 1 , having inscriptions on 
them. Coins of 'Romulus and Rheums', Constantine, and 
Claudius, 'som glass and potts like broken urnes which were 
curiously layed one the outside with like Thorne pricks of rose 
trees and in the manner of raised work this upon potts of murrv 
collour and here and there greyhounds and staggs and hares all 
in rais'd work, other of these were Cinamon collour urne fashion 
and were as guilded with gould, but vaded som of strang fashiond 
Juggs the sides bent in so as to be six square and these raisd 
worke upon them and curiously pinched. . . . Many of these 

1 Sloane MS. 958, f. 105. 



224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1914, 

potts of the finer sort are lite and thinn and these workes raised 
or indented were instead of collours,' etc., etc. (figs. 4 and 5). 

I must digress once more here to give the views of the com- 
pilers of Parentalia on this subject. It is stated that ' the Graves 
of several Ages and Fashions in strata, or Layers of Earth one 
above another, particularly at the North side of Paul's, mani- 
festly shew'd a great Antiquity from the British and Roman 
Times, by the Means whereof the Ground had been raised ; but 
upon searching for the natural Ground below these Graves, the 
Surveyor observed .that the Foundation of the old Church stood 
upon a layer of very close and hard Pot-earth, and concluded 
that the same Ground which had born so weighty a Building, 
might reasonably be trusted again '. 

3. Now I approach the third section of my subject, the archaeo- 
logical. According to Conyers, large quantities of bones of 
animals were found on the site of St. Paul's Churchyard, and 
great stores of crockery. Parentalia bears out these statements, 
but quotes Wren as an opponent to the theory that St. Paul's 
was the site of a temple to Diana. Remains of an altar to that 
deity were discovered near St. Vedast, Foster Lane, and I see 
nothing impossible in the popular superstition. 

In my own excavation to the north-west, remains of graves 
at different levels were found, of the kind shown in fig. 6. 
Piers of rough masonry were also found which evidently belonged 
to the previous cathedral. The excavation for the foundations 
of Paul's Cross (fig. 7) revealed numerous remains of bones, the 
upper layer laid uniformly east to west, the lower without any ap- 
parent order. Some pieces of earthenware were found, but nothing 
of exceptional value or at any rate nothing has come into my 
hands, with the exception of the few articles found in excavations 
in Paternoster Row which were presented to the cathedral by 
our Fellow Mr. Bagster. 

But I understand that Mr. Philip Norman has been fortunate 
enough to secure some most interesting finds which he will de- 
scribe at some future date. Perhaps he may be able to settle 
this veocata qnaestio of Diana's Temple." 

Mr. SOMERS CLARKE had for more than forty years been doubt- 
ful whether Wren began at the west end, and was at length con- 
vinced that the church was started at the east end. Wren was 
overwhelmed with material and was obliged to get rid of the 
surplus at the west end when the building was nearing comple- 
tion. The flow of water towards the river was so rapid that it 
could be seen passing under the cathedral, and the gravel through 
which it flowed was very light. 



June 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



225 




..n*^ ^ 
ht.l~ i* jfc v%w 4*-f^ . 



Fig. 4. POTTERY FROM SITE OF ST. PAUI/S CATHEDRAL : FRO3I CONYERs' 31S. 

SLOANE 958. 










Fig 5. POTTERY KILX AND CLUSTER OF FOUR, KILNS FOUND IN LONDON IN 

1075 : FROM CONYERS' 3is. ; SLOANE 958. 



VOL. xxvi 



227 




StcUon A-B 




Fig. 7. EXCAVATIOX AND PLAX AT PAUI/S CROSS. 



228 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

Mr. WEAVER had in 1909 exhibited the heirloom copy of 
Parentalia. 1 The book was brought out by Stephen Wren, grand- 
son of the architect, assisted by Mr. Ames, a former Secretary of 
the Society ; but nothing could prevent its being a scrap-heap of 
documents. 

Mr. NORMAN thought the foundations of the cathedral were 
obviously in a dangerous condition ; and it was a relief to know 
that the fabric was carefully watched. The water-level on the 
north side was 5 ft. higher than on the south, and the running 
sand had a tendency to slip towards the river. Wren looked 
ahead but did not take his foundations deep enough, and the 
problem at the present time was to anchor such a huge mass of 
masonry. 

Mr. REGINALD SMITH thought that justice had not been done 
to the apothecary Conyers, who was no artist but a careful ob- 
server ; and his sketches of the kiln and Roman vases found in 
the churchyard were easily intelligible to the modern archaeolo- 
gist. Mention might have been made of the row of wells found 
at the north-east angle, which had been taken as evidence of a 
Roman road 2 running to Newgate across Paternoster Row. 

REGINALD A. SMITH, Esq., F.S.A., read a paper on Irish 
brooches of five centuries, which will be printed in Archaeologla. 

No systematic attempt had hitherto been made to date the 
large series of Irish penannular brooches, which had been assigned 
to widely different periods. There was a considerable variety in 
their form, and they were seldom found associated with each 
other or with datable objects ; but the study of a large number, 
in the light of finds at Rogart and Croy in Scotland, and at 
Ardagh in Ireland, had brought to light a chronological sequence 
covering the greatest period of Irish art. The penannular brooch 
assumed its Irish form in the sixth century, and reached its high- 
est development in the eighth, reflecting the glory of the Book 
of Kells. Notable specimens had been found in Scotland, and 
a few were preserved from England, but were probably made, 
like the enamelled bowls, by Irish craftsmen. Viking loot dis- 
covered in Norway included the brooch, which contrasts with 
the typical Viking type common in the tenth century. This was 
an adaptation of the Irish pattern under oriental influence, and 
the contemporary 'thistle' brooch marked the commercial route 
by way of Scandinavia. The type survived to the present day 

1 Proceedings, xxii, 524. 

2 The true'Watling Street : V. C. H. London, \, 33. For the wells, see 
Parentalia., p. 272. 



June 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 229 

in Algeria and Northern India, and a modification of it was com- 
mon in Scotland through the middle ages, but the series under 
discussion terminated with the tenth century. The typological 
method could here be controlled to some extent by historical 
data ; and even approximate dates for the various forms assumed 
by the brooch might be of service in other branches of archaeo- 
logy, and serve as a basis for future discussion. 

Mr. LYON THOMSON said the author had assumed a good deal of 
knowledge on the part of his audience, and one or two points 
remained a little obscure. When the hoop was closed, the 
brooch could only have been worn by sewing it on the costume. 
The series represented was of extraordinary interest, as it showed 
among other things the development of metal- work. The splayed 
ends were produced by hammering, but later came the art of 
brazing metals. The Viking brooches were all hammered and 
riveted together. The use of wire was also an important point, 
and it seemed to him impossible for any one to produce such 
lengths of wire without an acquaintance with modern processes. 

Mr. GRACE thought a broad distinction existed between the 
models with open and closed hoops, and considered the change 
a radical one, the original form having been lost sight of during 
an interval. 

Lord CRAWFORD remarked that the flanged pin was broad, 
and it was more probably passed through a button-hole than 
through the cloth. 

The PRESIDENT thought the meeting had enjoyed a beautiful 
study in the evolution of form and ornament. The chronological 
succession proposed in the paper should on the whole be accepted. 
There were certain fixed points, the simple form of the penan- 
nular brooch being, for instance, known from quite early Roman 
times, as at Hod Hill. In the fourth or fifth century it seemed 
to have crossed to Ireland, and its later development was well 
illustrated by the Croy and Cuerdale finds. Other evidence of date 
was afforded by the illuminated manuscripts, such as Lindisfarne 
and Kells, and the still earlier Book of Durrow. These consti- 
tuted a solid basis for the classification proposed, and it was 
interesting to see the Celtic spiral supplemented by the Teutonic 
animal-motive, the result being a credit to Irish taste. In the 
discussion stress had been laid on the joined terminals, which 
made the penannular brooch annular. That form was adopted 
in the eighth century, and he suggested might be regarded as late 
Irish as opposed to the Viking form. Another interesting point 



230 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

just mentioned in the paper was the survival of the penannular 
brooch in widely distant parts of the world ; and it was curious to 
see how a British form passed right across to the Arabs, North 
India, and modern Algeria. It was an interesting commentary 
on Viking activity in many regions that linked up the east anil 
the west. In the Cuerdale hoard there was strong oriental influ- 
ence, but there was also a counter current that took Irish forms 
to the extreme east and south, and even to the remotest parts of 
Siberia. 

Mr. SMITH, in replying, could not accept any hiatus in the pen- 
annular series described, as enough examples were extant to form 
a complete chain of evolution from the sixth to the tenth century ; 
and the true penannular persisted throughout, though excep- 
tional specimens, mostly heavy and elaborate, had the terminals 
joined. In the latter case the pin was detached at the head by 
means of a bolt at the back, the mechanism suggesting that the 
brooch was not often removed from the costume. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communica- 
tions. 



THUKSDAY, 25th JUNE, 1914. 

Sir ARTHUR JOHN EVANS, Knt., M.A., D.Litt., F.R.S., 
President, in the Chair. 

The following gifts were announced, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned to the donors : 

From Mill Stephenson, Esq., B.A., F.S.A. : 

1. A descriptive and historical account of the Russell monuments in 

the Bedford Chapel at Cherries. By George Scharf, F.S.A. 4to. 
London, 1892. 

2. Chenies Church and Monuments. By Adeline Marie,, Duchess of 

Bedford. Small 4to. London, 1901. 

From the Author : Aspects of death in art and epigram. Second edition. 
By F. Parkes Weber, F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1914. 

From the Author : Hertfordshire maps. A descriptive catalogue of the 
maps of the county, 1579-1900. Supplement. By Sir Herbert George 
Fordham. 4to. Hertford, 3914. 

From Ralph Griffin, Esq., F.S.A. : A survey and record of Woolwich and 
West Kent. Edited by Rev. C. H. Griiiling. 8vo. Woolwich, 1909. 

From Ralph Griffin, Esq., F.S.A., and T. Fair-man Ordish, Esq., F.S.A. : 
1 Le Livre eiichaine,' ou Livre des Fontaines de Rouen, manuscrit de 
la Bibliotheque de Rouen, 1524-1525. Par Jacques Le Lieur. Texte 
et planches, fol. Rouen, 1911. 






June 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 231 

From J. D. Grace,, Esq., F.S.A. : 

Palestine Exploration Fund 1. Quarterly Statement^ October, 1896, 

to April; 1914. 
2. Annual for 1911, and 1912-13. 

Sir ARTHUR EVANS, President, exhibited some matrices of seals 
and signet rings from the collection of the late Sir John Evans. 

MAURICE ROSENHEIM, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a collection of 
signet rings and seal matrices. 

C. L. KINGSFORD, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., read a paper on ancient 
deeds and seals belonging to Lord De Lisle and Dudley, which 
will be printed in Archaeologia. 

The true Sydney descent was from a family settled at La 
Sydenye, in Alford, near Guildford, as early as the reign of 
Edward I. Through the acquisition of lands in Surrey and 
Sussex the family had risen to a good position early in the 
fifteenth century. William Sydney, of Kingsham, Sussex, was 
the first to use a seal with armorial bearings on a deed, dated 
15 August, 1451. He was three times married. His son Nicholas 
by his third wife inherited an estate at West Preston, in Sussex, 
and married Anne, daughter of Sir William Brandon, and aunt 
of Charles Brandon, afterwards Duke of Suffolk. By her he had 
a son William (1487-1554), who was knighted at Flodden, was 
chamberlain to Edward VI as Prince of Wales, and had grants 
of Robertsbridge Abbey in 1539 and of Penshurst in 1552. His 
son Sir Henry Sydney (1529-86) was the Deputy of Ireland, 
and his grandson the famous Sir Philip. As one of the coheirs 
of the young Dukes of Suffolk, who died in 1551, Sir Henry ac- 
quired the lands of Tatteshall College. The early deeds, now in 
the possession of Lord De Lisle and Dudley, for the most part 
related to Penshurst, Tatteshall, and Robertsbridge. 

In 1580 the notorious Robert Cooke constructed a pedigree of 
the Sydney family, tracing their descent to a supposed William 
de Sidnei, who was described as chamberlain to Henry II. This 
pedigree was supported by four alleged deeds, which are manifest 
forgeries, though three of them have genuine seals, one being a 
fine specimen of the seal of Henry II as Duke of Normandy. 

The Penshurst deeds were of interest for the history of the 
house, and also for some good heraldic seals : William de 
Pulteney,1356; Sir Nicholas de Loveyn, 1370; Sir John Colpeper, 
1370 ; John Platyn, 1375 ; Sir Robert Belknap, 1380 ; Richard 
Chamberlayn, 1480. 

The Tatteshall deeds related chiefly to the College founded by 
Ralph, Lord Cromwell, but include some early seals, notably 
Walter Bek, c. 1210, and Maude de Cromwell, 1400. 



232 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

The deeds (over 600) of Robertsbridge Abbey had numerous 
seals of early date in fine preservation ; about 400 deeds were of 
earlier date* than 1300. Many were older than 1200. At the 
Abbey the deeds were carefully kept with an interesting system 
of press-marks. 

Sir HERCULES READ said the exhibit of medieval seals was of 
special interest as showing that there was an English school of 
seal-engraving that was hardly surpassed by any other. His 
official responsibilities were confined to the matrices, which pre- 
sented special difficulties in the absence of documents. The author 
had been led by the character of a counterseal to assign a later 
date to the corresponding seal than was otherwise indicated ; 
but there was no necessary relation between the seal and counter- 
seal and they might be of widely different dates. He had noticed 
in the series exhibited two seals on one document that were not of 
the same date. He recollected that the Robertsbridge seals had 
been described by Mr. Perceval years ago, and published in 
Archaeologia. 1 

Sir WILLIAM HOPE had been fortunate in seeing the exhibits 
some years before, and thought the most interesting question was 
whether four of the documents were genuine or not. The writing 
shown on the screen could not possibly date from the twelfth 
century, and was a clumsy imitation of later date, the work no 
doubt of the notorious Robert Cooke. The seal was certainly 
genuine and belonged to the individual concerned, having been 
appended to that particular piece of parchment in the twelfth 
century ; but any one could see that the original writing had 
been scraped out, some traces of it being still left between the 
lines. The introduction of the Sydney pheon was another point 
of interest, and Lord Dillon had connected it with the broad 
arrow of Henry VIII. The first of the name only had W, but if it 
were written W the transition to the pheon would have been a 
simple matter, and the latter had been used by the Sydneys since 
1451. He hoped for more details with regard to the keeping of 
deeds and the use of press-marks. Documents he had examined 
at Rochester had notes on the back for that purpose. In the fine 
series of matrices exhibited by the President there were several 
simple seals such as were used by persons of humble origin not 
able to afford seals of more expensive material than lead, jet, or 
wood. 

Matrices bearing medieval gems were worthy of special study, 
and some were of real importance. The great twelfth-century 
seal of Waltham Abbey had a gem nearly 3 in. long with fine 
1 xlv, 427. 



June 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 233 

heads upon it. There were impressions in the Record Office, but 
at a later date it was cracked right across and encased in a larger 
matrix, the Society possessing an original impression in the extra 
condition. The result was one of the most beautiful seals of 
medieval times. It was possible to make a cast of any original 
impression, and he undertook to produce copies indistinguishable 
from the original. Unless it was assumed that Cooke made a cast, 
a genuine impression must have been removed from a charter by 
introducing a heated blade between the faces ; but it seemed 
impossible to do that and leave the seal as it was. 

Mr. O. BARRON had derived much pleasure from the exhibition, 
and thought the photographer should be congratulated as well as 
Mr. Kingsford, who had well chosen his seals from a definite and 
early period. Every one had noticed the foreign example when 
it was thrown on the screen, and the fine English series showed 
the development of heraldry in a most interesting manner. The 
charges were at first crude, and led up to the Etchingham seal. 
Heraldry rose up in this way both in England and France during 
the twelfth century, and then a clumsy and inartistic rendering 
of the charges was noticeable. The theory was perfect from the 
start, but the development spoken of perhaps took place in the 
mind of a particular man. The current flowed freely between 
France, England, and Flanders, and the development went on for 
about a hundred years. Then there was a change, as sudden as 
the start of heraldry. By 1300 all the great barons had new 
seals with the charges engraved, and as a rule magnates about 
that time had seals of the new style. In the fourteenth century 
the humblest citizen was able to order a seal such as could not 
have been procured at all a century earlier. Carelessness as to 
the number of bars on a shield had been alleged, but those were 
not bars in the true sense. An indefinite number of lines across 
the shield went under the name of burelly, and in early heraldry 
any number of bars above three was an indefinite number. 

Mr. JEXKINSON said forgeries of still earlier date were common 
in the Record Office. If a forgery could be so well executed, 
then ideas on other points might have to be revised. He had 
never seen an erasure which allowed such perfection of writing 
on the surface subsequently ; and no amount of pumice-stone 
could have prepared such a surface. The possibility of the seal 
being a cast had also to be considered. The nature of the tag 
was peculiar, and he had seen no instance of a tag twisted in that 
way among a good many charters of Henry II. The wax of the 
impression seemed to him curious : the red material was beeswax 
coloured, and a seal of the sixteenth century would be of different 



234 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

wax, so that a forger would have had to make a strange wax, with 
a spotted result. Very little was known as to press-marks of 
medieval muniments, and further work on the subject would be 
an interesting addition to archivistics. 

Lord CRAWFORD remarked that the presumed forgery was 
scarcely 4 inches deep. If the seal were genuine, the parch- 
ment was also genuine and not a palimpsest ; but there was often 
a blank space above the seal that might be utilized for later 
writing. 

Mr. BAILDON was inclined to agree with Mr. Jenkinson, that 
the parchment was not of the date it purported to be. Notwith- 
standing the authority of the seals, the wax could have been 
moulded by Cooke with the aid of plaster of Paris ; and he felt 
sure he could turn out a still more plausible charter. He had 
seen a palimpsest which still bore traces of the erased document, 
and had the new writing dated a !: year or two after the death of 
the person concerned. Gem seals occurred in considerable num- 
bers, but he had never seen one with more than one gem, and 
three in one matrix must be extraordinarily rare. 

The PRESIDENT thought the paper, interesting in itself, had 
given rise to a useful discussion, and was himself inclined to ac- 
cept Lord Crawford's explanation of the forged document as the 
simplest brought forward. The extraordinary series of twelfth- 
century seals showed the great proficiency of engravers in England 
during the middle ages. In the beginning of the thirteenth 
century English work could compare with any on the Conti- 
nent. The seals with mounted knights reminded him that they 
belonged to those parts of the world which were moulded by 
the Normans, and those very horsemen recurred with the same 
details on coins of the Normans in Sicily. In England the coin- 
age lagged behind seal-engraving. Old engraved gems were still 
used at that time, and their adoption affected the actual engrav- 
ing of the matrix, the engraver endeavouring to copy something 
good and classical, and twelfth- century Avork was often closely 
copied from classical originals. The same result was achieved 
on a grander scale in Italy and at as early a date. The Society 
would do well to prepare a corpus of the best examples of such 
seal-impressions from documents. There was a greater continuity 
of history in England than elsewhere ; and with assistance from 
many quarters, the result might give a new impression as to the 
state of medieval art in England. 

Mr. KINGSFORD replied that there was no red wax with specks 
about 1100. As to the traces of former writing on the suspected 



June 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 235 

charter, he considered that the existing writing had set off* in 
folding, though some of the marks might be imperfect erasures. 
For facilities afforded in the preparation of the paper he was 
much indebted to Lord I)e Lisle and the Royal Historical Manu- 
scripts Commission. 

H. CLIFFORD SMITH, Esq., M. A., F.S. A., exhibited the ' Danny 
Unicorn Jewel ', on which he read the following note : 

" This remarkable pendent charm of Elizabethan date, which 
I have entitled the ' Danny Unicorn Jewel ', is exhibited by the 
kindness of its owner, Colonel W. H. Campion, of Danny, Sussex. 
The jewel is formed of a half-section of a narwhal's tusk, set in 
enamelled gold and forming a semicircular pendant. The gold 
mount on the top is decorated with scrolls of arabesque foliage 
on a ground of black champleve enamel. On an arch in the 
centre of the top is a rosette. Attached to this and to a lion's 
mask at either end are three gold chains united above by a ring, 
from which the jewel is suspended. The front has a band of 
black enamel, and a circular boss with a pattern of interlacing 
strapwork in blue and white enamel filled in with foliage on 
a black ground. The goldwork of the back, which is partly 
missing, is decorated with strapwork in pale blue enamel of two 
shades. Round the bottom runs a gold band with a rosette in 
the centre having the remains of a ring from which was probably 
hung a pendent pearl. 

The jewel has been preserved for years at Danny, the Eliza- 
bethan home of the Campions in Sussex. There is no further 
record of its history. 

Height, 1J in. (with chain 3| in.); width, 2| in.; depth, -f-Q in. 

The long spiral horn, which was none other than the tusk of the 
narwhal (Monodon monoceros) of the Arctic seas, was for centuries 
foisted upon the credulous as the horn of the fabled unicorn. 
Being esteemed of enormous value in early times the horn was 
seldom preserved entire, save in the treasuries of princes or of the 
Church. More generally, as in the present case, it was cut up, 
and the precious fragments sumptuously mounted were worn as 
ornaments to ward off evil or bring good luck. They were also 
used to neutralize or detect the presence of poison in food or 
drinks. For when, suspended by its chain of gold, it was plunged 
into a poisoned dish, the horn was supposed to sweat and change 
colour. The persistence of the belief in its power may be judged 
by the fact that in the Court ceremonial of France as late as 
1789 the unicorn's horn was still used for testing the royal food 
for poison. The horn was evidently esteemed of value also as 
a medicinal amulet, for the surface of the tusk at the back of 
this jewel can be seen to have been partially scraped away, the 



236 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

powder mixed with water having been probably taken internally 
as a medicine. 

A semicircular pendant of precisely the same design, formed 
evidently of a unicorn's horn in black enamelled setting, is shown 
on a portrait, dated 1580, of Robert Bristow, ascribed to Zuc- 
caro, in the possession of Sir Thomas Neave at Dagnam Park, 
Essex. 

The black enamel with which the goldwork of the pendant 
is enriched offers an interesting comparison with similar black 
enamel- work upon other Elizabethan jewels, notably the Memento 
Mori charm from Tor Abbey, Devonshire, in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, and the small pendent gold case containing the 
last prayer of Edward VI, the property of Lord Fitzhardinge, 
preserved among the Hunsdon heirlooms at Berkeley Castle. 1 
Another similar example is the gold enamelled prayer-book 
belonging to the Earl of Romney. 

The following lines from a contemporary play, Chapman's 
Bussy cTAmboise, published in 1607 (Act i, Scene i), are of especial 
interest in connexion with the jewel now exhibited : 

e An angrie Unicorne in his full carier 
Charge with too quicke an eie a Jeweller, 
That watcht him for the Treasure of his browe ; 
Arid ere he could get shelter of a tree, 
Naile him with his rich Antler to the Earth.' " 

Mr. CLIFFORD SMITH also exhibited a tapestry cushion-cover 
woven in coloured wools and silks and enriched with silver and 
silver-gilt thread English (probably Warwickshire) work of the 
second half of the sixteenth century. 

" This fine tapestry panel, woven with twenty warps to the 
inch, measures 1 ft. 7 in. in height, and 1 ft. 6^ in. in width. 
The border, 3 in. wide all round, is decorated with apples, 
pears, plums, pomegranates, and apple and pear blossom, 
the fruit being arranged in the corners in baskets. On each 
side is a terminal figure ; the remainder of the border being 
ornamented with oval medallions united by strap work and 
containing six lion masks and two female busts. The centre 
of the panel is occupied by a shield with the arms of Sache- 
verell : quarterly of six. 1. Silver, on a saltire azure five water- 
bougetsgold(Sacheverell). 2. Silver, a lion rampant sable crowned 
gold, with a mullet for difference (Morley). 3. Gules, a pale 
lozengy silver (Statham). 4. Azure, a lion rampant silver ( . ? ). 
5. Gules, a duck silver ducally gorged gold (Snitterton). 6. Silver, 
three hares playing bagpipes gules (Hopwell). Across the chief is 

1 H. Clifford Smith, Jewellery, plates 44 and 35. 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



.237 



June 25.] 

a label of three points. 1 Below the shield are the initials H. S. P., 
i. e. Henry Sacheverell Primogemtus (?), probably Henry Sache- 
verell (died 1581), the eldest son of Ralph Sacheverell of Rearsby, 




SIXTEENTH-CENTURY ENGLISH TAPESTRY CUSHION-COVER. -- 

Leicestershire. The field around the shield is decorated with a 
variety of flowers: larkspur, foxglove, pansy, rose, marigold, pink, 
cornflower, daisy, strawberry, picotee, daffodil, lily of the valley, 

1 One-third of this, worked in a lighter-coloured wool, is now apparently 
silver. 



238 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

and cuckoo flower. On either side of the shield is a coloured 
popinjay. The flowers, it is interesting to note, are the same as 
those mentioned in Shakespeare, 1 in whose time and country the 
tapestry was probably woven. There are besides, apart from the 
arms, other features which prove this panel to be of English 
work : the design of the lion masks, which is characteristically 
Elizabethan ; the crisp colouring ; and especially the presence of 
a yellow dye, more permanent than that employed by the Flemish 
weavers. 

This rare and remarkable specimen of English weaving was 
formerly at Wollas Hall, the seat of the Hanford family, 
situated on the borders of Worcestershire and Gloucestershire ; 
and was produced, in all probability, at the factory first set up 
and endowed about 1550 by William Sheldon in Warwickshire. 
In addition to the five tapestry maps, two in the Bodleian 
Library and three in York Museum, which are known to have 
come from the Sheldon looms, other specimens, presumably from 
the same source, have been brought to light during the last few 
years. These, the panels of the four seasons at Hatfield, the 
panel with the arms of the Earl of Pembroke (d. 1570) in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, and the hangings from an old 
house in Worcestershire now the property of Mr. Henry Howard, 
of Stone House near Kidderminster, are described by Mr. A. F. 
Kendrick in the second annual volume of the Walpole Society 
(1912-13), p. 89. Further examples are the hanging belonging 
to Mr. M. G. Knight at Chawton Manor, Hampshire, executed 
in 1564 for the family of Lewkenor; 2 and a smaller panel at 
Hatfield with the arms of Cecil impaling Cooke, being those of 
William Cecil, first Lord Burghley, and Mildred Cooke, whom 
he married in 1545, as his second wife, and who died in 1589." 

HAROLD CRASKE, Esq., exhibited a Late-Celtic cinerary urn 
found at Letchworth Garden-city, Herts., and the following note 
on the exhibit was subsequently communicated by Mr. REGINALD 
SMITH : 

" The cordoned urn with pedestal foot, of which a photograph 
is reproduced (fig. 1), was found a few inches below the surface 
by workmen digging gravel in 1913 at Letchworth, near Hitchin, 
and belongs to the First Garden City, Ltd. It was accidentally 
damaged at the time of its discovery, but is fortunately complete 
except for a hole near the foot and about half the foot itself. 
It is 15 in. high with a maximum diameter of 9-3 in., and the 
outside measurement across the mouth is 8-5 in. The occurrence 

1 H. N. Ellacombe, The Plant Lore and Garden Craft of Shakespeare ; 
C. Roach Smith, Rural Life of Shakespeare (2nd ed., 1874). 

2 W. Austen Leigh, Chawton Manor, p. 146. 



Proc. 2nd S. Vol. XXVI 



To face page 238 




Fig. 1. LATE-CELTIC URN FROM LETCHWORTH GARDEN CITY, HERTS. (ABOUT 



June 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 239 

of human bones suggests that this was an interment after 
cremation. 

Similar finds in the neighbouring town of Hitchin have been 
published by the Society (Proceedings, xiii, 16) and seem to be 
related to the Welwyn group (Archaeologia, Ixiii, pi. Ill) ; but 
the Letch worth urn may be not exactly contemporary with 
either. Its slender form is significant, and its cordons are well 
turned, while the high shoulder is a feature that links it with the 
older series of La Tene objects in this country. The ware is of 
the usual brown colour, fairly soft, and wheel-made, the body in 




Fig. 2. BASK OF URN : LETCHWORTH GARDEN CITY. (^) 

two pieces joined about the middle, and the foot applied after- 
wards. 

The view here given of the broken base (fig. 2) shows the 
peculiar construction of the pedestal, which is common in the 
pre-Roman period ; and the concavity of the foot is a rough 
criterion of date. The Marne specimens dating from the period 
known as La Tene I have the foot hollow, 1 and the floor of the 
urn seems gradually to sink till it is practically level with the 
foot-rim, as in several of the Aylesford examples. 

The bronze object (fig. 3) found with the urn may be regarded 
as a link to connect two straps, and is not unprecedented. One 
somewhat smaller (1-4 in. long) with two joined rings in the 
centre was found in the Glastonbury Lake-village and is de- 
scribed as a harness- ornament ; 2 and another figured on the 

1 Iron Age Guide (Brit. Mus.), p. 66, fig. 57. 

2 Bulleid and Gray, Glastonbury Lake-village, i, 229, pi. xliv, E 262. 
Other examples quoted on p. 228. 



240 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

same plate (E 190) has three columns joined in the middle and 
a free column at either end, 'suggesting a junction between 
strap-ends \ The present example has in the openwork centre 
a device that occurs in various forms on objects of Late-Celtic 
art ; it is an irregular trigram with two dots on the front, plain 
at the back. A symmetrical example is published from Dowalton 
Loch crannog, Wigtownshire. 1 There are two projections on 
the front of the swelling hoop that are much rubbed and cannot 




Fig. 3. BRONZE CONNECTING-LINK OF BELT. (y) 

be more precisely described. The extreme length is 1-8 in., and 
height 1-6 in. 

This is not only an addition to a very small class of Late- 
Celtic bronzes, but the association of the bronze and the cinerary 
urn is important from the chronological point of view; and 
a few more discoveries of the kind would render possible a more 
precise division of the four centuries immediately preceding the 
Roman conquest." 

ALEX. O. CURLE, Esq., F.S.A., Local Secretary, communicated 
the following report on archaeological discoveries in Scotland 
during the session 1913-14 : 

" A considerable amount of research has been conducted in 
Scotland during the past year and important results have been 
obtained. 

In certain districts of Scotland, especially on the lower moor- 
lands, hut circles are numerous, but hitherto very little explora- 
tion has been done on this class of structure, and evidence of 

1 Cat. Edinb. Mm. Antiq., 254, HU 62. 



June 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 241 

their period of erection has been scanty. Last autumn, Mr. J. G. A. 
Baird, F.S.A.Scot., of Muirkirk, in Ayrshire, excavated two hut 
circles on that estate. The first, situated at an elevation of 
about 900 ft. above sea-level, measured some 18 ft. in diameter 
and was represented by a low ring of turf and stones. In the 
interior, on the removal of the surface soil, a paved hearth 
was exposed, 6 ft. in from the entrance, adjacent to which 
lay the fragments of an urn of Bronze-Age pottery, but 
insufficient in quantity to afford indication of the exact form 
of the vessel. The second circle, at an elevation of 700 ft., 
was of larger dimensions, measuring some 34 ft. by 38 ft. 
internally, and near its centre was found a circular pit, 4| ft. 
deep and 7 ft. wide, from the bottom of which was recovered 
almost the whole of a vessel of the same period having the shape 
of a beaker of late type decorated with impressed markings, but 
not, however, in the characteristic style of a vessel of that class. 

Mr. A. H. Bishop, F.S.A.Scot., conducted an exhaustive 
examination of shell mounds in the Island of Oronsay, from 
which he obtained multiple-barbed harpoons, a number of round- 
ended, chisel-like objects of bone and stone, and a necklace of 
small pierced cowrie shells. From a careful examination of the 
stratification, and observation of the levels, the explorer con- 
cluded that the site had been occupied during the period of the 
formation of the 25-30 foot beach in Scotland, by a people 
whose culture filled the gap between the Palaeolithic and Neo- 
lithic phases. 

The writer himself explored a small vitrified fort overlooking 
the estuary of the Urr in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. Be- 
fore excavation vitrifaction was only observable at one or two 
places, and that in very small quantities ; the cutting of 
a rampart, however, on one flank, revealed within a vallum of 
loose earth and stone, some 14 ft. wide, a built wall 18 in. thick 
and 3 ft. high, firmly coagulated with vitrified matter from top 
to bottom. The rampart followed the contour of the hill at the 
edge of a steep slope, and the wall occurred within it at a regular 
distance of 3 ft. 6 in. from the outer face, thus acting as 
a revetment to hold the rampart in position. Seeing that 
vitrifaction occurred at no other part of the rampart, and was 
complete throughout the wall, the writer concluded that in this 
instance at least vitrifaction was a structural process and could 
not have been produced with such regularity by the occurrence 
of watch-fires. Further, the evidence showed that the wall must 
have been built and vitrified previous to the completion of the 
rampart. In the interior of the fort there was discovered the 
site of a foundry in which objects of Celtic art had been cast in 
bronze from moulds of baked clay. Numerous fragments of these 

VOL. xxvi s 



242 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914> 

moulds were found, for casting penannular brooches, crosses, and 
plaques showing interlacing designs, also for pins and carding 
combs. In the interlaced patterns it is noteworthy that the 
bands forming the interlacements are in many cases incised with 
a double line, a characteristic usually claimed for the Italian 
and continental patterns as opposed to the Celtic. A number 
of small pieces of glass beakers were also found, showing some 
analogy to Anglo-Saxon glasses and to certain beakers found in 
the Island of Bjorko, near Stockholm. A ninth-century date is 
suggested for these finds. 

The more important objects added to the National Museum 
of Scotland during the past year are as follows : two pairs of 
oval, bowl-shaped Viking brooches of bronze. In one pair the 
brooches are formed of single plates enriched with clearly 
expressed zoomorphic ornament. They were found in a grave 
in the Island of Oronsay, associated with a pair of iron shears, 
a bronze pin with a movable ring head, and a short cylindri- 
cal object of bone, 2f in. in length, perforated longitudinally 
and transversely. The second pair came from a grave in 
sand-hills in Caithness. The brooches in this latter case are 
formed with a pierced shell over a gilded convex oval plate, and 
the zoomorphic character of the design is more debased than in 
the foregoing examples. The associated relics in this grave were 
a bronze pin, very similar to the last, a horse's bit of iron, and 
a buckle which had been coated with tin. From Dumfriesshire 
there was acquired a Viking sword with a triangular segmented 
pommel and curving guards, similar to a sword in the British 
Museum found with a pair of oval bowl-shaped brooches at 
Santon, Norfolk. A bronze sword-blade of rapier form, 18-2 in. 
in length, found many years ago with five or six smaller blades 
in the ditch of a circular earthwork at Drumcoltran in the 
Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, was presented. There were ob- 
tained an urn of food-vessel type, and portions of a beaker urn, 
found associated in a short cist at Edington Mill, Chirnside, in 
the county of Berwick. Though no cairn now exists at the 
spot, there was evidence of the cist having been formerly within 
?;uch an erection, which indicates the likelihood of a secondary 
interment having taken place when the food-vessel was placed in 
the cist. 

Detailed accounts of the above-mentioned excavations, and 
more particular descriptions of the objects acquired by the 
National Museum, will appear in the next (forty-eighth) volume 
of the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 

That Society has begun this summer excavations on a 
fortified hill of considerable extent in East Lothian, known in 
former times as Dunpender, but now popularly as Traprain Law. 



June 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 243 

Already, on the sites examined, evidence of three different 
occupations has been revealed, the earliest of which was con- 
temporaneous with one of the earlier Roman expeditions into 
Scotland. A number of Late-Celtic relics have been found in 
association with pieces of Samian ware, which will be particu- 
larized in a subsequent report. 

The volume published this year by the Ancient Monuments 
Commission (Scotland) deals with the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 
and contains inter alia descriptions and plans of several Neolithic 
chambered cairns, also illustrations of the numerous examples of 
cup-and-ring markings to be found on rocks in that region." 

GEORGE MACDOXALD, Esq., LL.D., communicated the follow- 
ing report as Local Secretary for Scotland : 

"During 1913-14 the Glasgow Archaeological Society has 
made considerable progress with the systematic excavation of the 
fort, at Balmuildy, which had obviously been one of the most 
important of the 'stations' on the Antonine Wall. Although 
the site has been sadly plundered since Gordon and others wrote 
of it so enthusiastically in the early part of the eighteenth 
century, it has proved possible to recover a very complete plan 
of the original structure, which had evidently been subjected, on 
at least one occasion, to extensive alterations. When the results 
are fully worked out, they ought to be of much interest, and to 
throw a clearer light on the history of the Limes. At present 
the indications seem to point to three well-marked 'periods'. 
Among the individual buildings the best preserved are two sets 
of baths, one within the walls of the fort and the other in an 
annexe outside. So far there is no trace of an Agricolan occu- 
pation. Pottery, coins, and inscriptions appear to be all of the 
second century. The finds include some interesting fragments 
of sculpture. 

Elsewhere on the line of the Wall operations conducted by 
myself on a very much smaller scale have yielded a certain 
amount of valuable information. Their immediate object was 
to determine as nearly as possible the exact course followed by 
the Limes in those places where no marks of its presence are now 
left upon the surface. Sometimes this can be done by uncover- 
ing the stone foundation that supported the great rampart. 
More frequently the foundation has long since been torn up, and 
there is nothing for it but to search for the ditch. The longest 
continuous stretch dealt with in this way last year consisted of 
two miles at the western extremity. Earlier surveys, carried 
out as they were without any help from the spade, had been 
compelled to leave the space almost entirely blank. Now it has 
been filled in from end to end. A highly satisfactory confirma- 



244 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

tion of the soundness of the methods employed was forthcoming 
when the banks of the Clyde were reached. The exact position 
of the terminal fort, hitherto unknown, was revealed and some 
remains of the ramparts brought to light. Nine or ten miles 
farther east a singularly troublesome gap at Gadder has been 
successfully bridged; and here again a buried fort has been 
located and its original dimensions approximately ascertained. 
Towards the Forth the problem is even more severe, although 
not by any means hopeless. Good beginnings have been made 
to the west of Polmont and also at Kinniel. A year hence it 
may be possible to report substantial progress. In the meantime 
it is worth noting that something has been done towards deter- 
mining the outline of the fort at Mumrills, first discovered three 
years ago. It had been defended by a rampart of earth, resting 
on a stone foundation and supported at either side by a bank 
of clay. It is remarkable that a homogeneous work like the 
Antonine Limes should present examples of the Erd-, the Rasen-., 
and the Steiiikastell. Further, the great rampart itself is less 
homogeneous that has been usually supposed. To the west of 
Falkirk it seems to be everywhere built of turf. On the other 
hand, wherever I have cut into it to the east of that town, I have 
failed to find the slightest sign of caespiticious construction ; it 
has been of earth and clay precisely like the rampart that 
surrounded the fort of Mumrills. 

At Cadder the labour for the investigations I have been de- 
scribing was generously provided by Captain Stirling of Keir. 
The expense incurred at other points has been defrayed out of 
a research grant from the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of 
Scotland. With the help of the same grant, Professor Haverfield 
and I examined a large fortified enclosure in the north of 
Aberdeen shire, near the head- waters of the Ythan. Although 
we were not fortunate enough to find any datable objects, the 
nature of the defences was sufficiently characteristic to leave no 
doubt in our minds as to their Roman origin. The rampart 
had been laid upon a base of clay, the ditch was V-shaped, and 
the gates had been strengthened by traverses. The camp for 
it was rather a camp than a fort had covered an area of 120 
acres, and must have been capable of accommodating a considerable 
number of men, perhaps as many as 15,000. In all probability 
it should be associated either with the last of Agricola's 
campaigns or with the punitive expedition of Severus. It would 
be interesting if further work enabled a definite decision to be 
come to. The camp at Ythan Wells, it should be added, does 
not stand alone. It is the most northerly of a series that Roy 
shows extending through Strathmore between the Grampians 
and the sea." 



June 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 245 

F. W. BULL, Esq., F.S.A., communicated the following report 
on Romano-British finds at Kettering : 

" On 18th April, 1912, I read a few additional notes on these 
finds to the Society. 1 The workings on the Kettering Parish 
boundary have since then been proceeded with. For a time 
finds of a similar nature to those already described were made, 
but few, if any, have found their way to the collection now 
deposited at the Kettering Public Library. Most of them have 
unfortunately been sold to any collector who came along. For 
the last few months, however, practically no items of interest 
have been discovered, and it may probably now be assumed that 
the limit of the area of occupation in a northerly direction has 
been reached. 

A find has however been made, in another part of the parish 
altogether, in the shape of an urn of rough light brown ware 
filled with earth and burnt bones. It is 7 in. high and tapers 
from about 5 in. across the top to 3 in. at the base. It has 
no distinctive marks, but Mr. Reginald Smith puts it about 
the second century. The urn was found by itself about 2 ft. 
below the surface of a field in the southern part of the parish 
numbered 59 on the Ordnance Survey ( 1900, 2nd edition) and 
adjoining the Long Spinney. The site has been from time to 
time worked for sand but no other finds are recorded. The field 
lies to the south of the road leading to Barton Seagrave, w r here, 
not more than about half a mile distant, some interesting Anglo- 
Saxon finds now in the British Museum were made many years 
since." 

E. C. R. ARMSTRONG, Esq., F.S.A., subsequently communicated 
the following report as Local Secretary for Ireland : 

''The period 1913-14 has not been an eventful one for Irish 
archaeology. The various subjects of interest may be divided 
as follows : 

1. Excavation. (a) Lochpairc Crannog near Tuam, Co. 
Galway. This was excavated in the summer of 1913. The 
objects discovered were of the types usually found in Irish 
crannogs, and presented no unusual features. They were late 
in date. A full account of the work and the finds is published 
in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxxii, Sec. C, 
p. 147. 

(b) A rath on the townland of Knockshanawee (Cnoc Sean- 
Mhaighe) near Crookstown, Co. Cork. This rath was examined 
in October, 1913, with a view to discovering Ogham inscriptions 
on the lintels, etc., of the Souterrain in the fort. Six inscrip- 

1 Proceedings, xxiv, '2'2-}. 



246 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1914, 

tions of an interesting nature were discovered, and the inscribed 
stones have been placed in the museum of University College, 
Cork. A great deal of most unfortunate newspaper contro- 
versy was raised by the removal of these stones and the conse- 
quent falling-in of the chamber, but archaeologists will be 
grateful for any excavations carried on in a proper manner, and 
the removal of objects of interest to places where they will be 
available for study. An account of the rath will be found in 
the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, 
vol. xvii, second series, p. 59, and an account of the Ogham 
inscriptions in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 
vol. xxxii, Sec. C, p. 140. 

2. Finds, (a) An interesting find of objects was made in 
April, 1913, at Annesborough, between Lurgan and Loch 
Neagh, Co. Armagh. The objects comprised a nearly complete 
bronze tore, a fragment of another, three bronze bracelets, of 
which only two were obtained, a bronze palstave, and a hinged 
brooch of provincial Roman type. The find was acquired for 
the Royal Irish Academy's collection in the National Museum. 
Gold twisted tores have often been found in Ireland, but there 
is only one of bronze in the Academy's collection and its 
provenance is considered doubtful, so it is interesting to get 
a well-authenticated example. The brooch is also of importance 
as having a recorded locality. As the objects of the find differ 
considerably in date it is probable that they represent a founder's 
hoard collected together for the purpose of remelting. The objects 
together with a full account of the find are published in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxxii, Sec. C, p. 171. 

(b) A hoard of gold objects supposed to have been found in 
the neighbourhood of Strangford Loch, Co. Down. Much 
uncertainty surrounds the discovery of these ornaments, as they 
were removed from Ireland and passed into the hands of a London 
dealer who offered them to the British Museum, and it is owing 
to the courtesy of the authorities of the Department of British 
and Medieval Antiquities, who at once communicated with the 
officials of the National Museum, that the objects were enabled 
to be acquired for the Irish National Collection. They were 
purchased at Count Plunkett's suggestion by the Rt. Hon. 
Viscount Iveagh, K.P., F.S.A., and by him presented to the 
National Museum. The portion of this hoard which is now in 
Dublin consists of a gold twisted tore which has been enlarged 
by attaching a twisted bar to the recurved ends, a model of 
a shield, two pins, and five model axes with flanges and slight 
stop ridges. The shield, one of the pins, and all the axes are 
ornamented with spirals. Other portions of this find are extant, 
the whereabouts of two of the gold axes being known and of 



June 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 247 

others suspected. It is much to be regretted that this find 
should have been dispersed, but we must be thankful that a 
portion of it at least is available for study. It is published in 
the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxxii, Sec. C, 
p. 176. 

3. Preservation of Irish Archaeological Monuments. The 
obtaining of a Royal Commission on the Ancient Monuments of 
Ireland similar to those now at work in England, Scotland, and 
Wales has been exercising the minds of Irish archaeologists for 
several years, and efforts have been made by the Councils of the 
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland and of the Royal Irish 
Academy to have a Commission appointed to deal with Ireland, 
but hitherto without success. On May 25th, 1914, the question 
was again brought before the Royal Irish Academy in the form 
of a full Report dealing with the matter historically and showing 
how the working of the Church Act, Ancient Monuments Protec- 
tion Act, the Local Government Act, and the Land Act have 
affected the monuments and their preservation, and giving a 
selected list of twenty-five monuments that have been destroyed 
or seriously injured since the passing of the Land Act of 1903. 
The Report was ordered to be referred to the Council to consider 
what steps should be taken to urge upon the Government the 
necessity of preparing a survey of the ancient monuments of 
Ireland. The Report has been published in full in the Academy's 
Abstract of Minutes, 1913-14, and all who are interested in the 
preservation of Ireland's ancient monuments are recommended 
to read it. In connexion with this it may be mentioned that 
voluntary effort is doing something, the Honorary Secretary and 
Honorary Editor of the Gal way Archaeological Society having 
made surveys of three parishes in the Barony of Dunkellin, which 
have been printed in the Journal of the Galway Archaeological 
and Historical Society. Dr. R. Cochrane has also published 
a list of the ancient and national monuments in the County of 
Cork, which has appeared in the Journal of the Cork Historical 
and Archaeological Society. Excellent as these efforts are it is 
quite out of the question to expect that individuals will be able 
to deal in a satisfactory manner with the 60,000 antiquities of 
various kinds that it is estimated now exist in Ireland, and which 
require to be properly surveyed and listed. 

4. General. The retirement at the end of March, 1914, on 
a pension, of Mr. George Coffey, for many years Keeper of Irish 
Antiquities in the National Museum was a matter of regret to 
all students of Celtic antiquities, to whom his work was well 
known. His retirement was necessitated by continued ill health, 
and it is hoped that complete rest may do something to restore 
this. The Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction 



248 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES [1914. 

for Ireland appointed to the Keepership the writer of this notice, 
who had formerly acted as Mr. Coffey's assistant. 11 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications 
and exhibitions. 

The Ordinary Meetings of the Society were then adjourned 
until Thursday, November 26. 



INDEX 

TO 

PBOCEEDINGS, SECOND SEEIES, VOL. XIVI 



Aberdeenshire, Roman remains in, 
244. 

Acland, Captain John Edward, ad- 
mitted, 23. 

Adoration of the Three Kings, ala- 
baster carving of, exhibited, 215. 

Akeman Street, 208. 

Alabaster : carving representing the 
Adoration of the Three Kings, 215- 
17 ; effigy of St. John the Baptist, 
from Italy, 152 ; tables of St. Armel 
and of the Passion of Christ, from 
Plasn-pentre (Denbighshire), 31. 

Allen, Romilly, Gin.. 67 n., 152. 

Alms-basin, at private chapel of the 
Earl Ferrers, Staunton Harold 
(Leic.), 123, 124. 

Alnwick, William, Bishop of Lincoln 
1436-49, Visitations of religious 
houses by, 189-203. 

Altar-cloth and pall, in private chapel 
of the Earl Ferrers at Staunton 
Harold (Leic.), 123. 

Altar-cross, latten foot of, with in- 
scription in the Braikenridge Col- 
lection, 41-4. 

A 1 ward of Ramsbury, tomb of, Old 
Sarum (Wilts.), 113. 118. 

Amber beads, Hengistbury Head 
(Hants), 212. 213; amber and 
bronze pendant, ib. 212. 

Ames, Joseph, 228. 

Amiens (France), window in cathe- 
dral symbolizing Fortune and Life, 
59. 

Ancient and Historical Monuments, 
Royal Commission for the Survey 
of, 181. 

Ancient Monuments Commission 
(Scotland), 243. 

Ancient Monuments of Ireland, ques- 
tion of Royal Commission on, 247. 

Ancient Monuments Protection Act, 
passing of, 177, 181, 247 ; Advisory 



Board, 174, 181 ; the Earl of Craw- 
ford and Balcarres nominated by 
the Council to represent the Society 
on the Advisory Board for England, 
3. 

Audover (Hants), hoard of broken 
bronze implements from, 32, 34. 

Anglesey : see Llanwenllwyfo, New- 
borough. 

Anglo-Saxon : finds, Barton Seagrave 
(Northants), 245; gold filigree, 
Selsey (Sussex), 133-4 ; sculpture 
in Gloucestershire, 60 ff. 

Animal remains, St. Paul's Cathedral, 
London, 224. 

Annesborough (co. Armagh), find of 
objects at, 246. 

Antiquaries of Ireland, Royal Society 
of, 247. 

Antiquaries of Scotland, Society of, 
242. 

Antiquaries, Society of : Anniversary 
meeting, 165 ; appointment of Vice- 
Presidents, 185 ; auditors, 73 ; 
balance-sheet, 156-61 ; election of 
officers and Council, 183-4 ; Fellows 
elected during the year, 166 ; light- 
ing of the meeting-room, 3, 181 ; 
rearrangement of Museum, 181 ; re- 
ports of discussions, 181 ; Research 
Committee, 176, 180; Research 
Fund, 176-8. 

Antonine Limes, 243-4 ; Wall, ib. 

Antoninus Pius, coins of, Hengistbury 
Head (Hants), 212. 

Apollo, gold head of, exhibited, 46. 

Architectural remains, twelfth-cen- 
tury, Old Sarum (Wilts.), H5- 
16. 

Ardagh (co. Limerick), penannular 
brooches irom, 228. 

'Aris' cup, silver, belonging to the 
Company of Tin-plate Workers, 
exhibited, 45. 



250 



INDEX 



Aris. Thomas, Master of the Company 
of Tin-plate Workers, arms of, 45. 

Armlet, gold, exhibited, 46. 

Armour : see Helmet, Saddle, Shield. 

Arms : see Arrow-heads. Axes, Bronze 
objects, Celts, Godendag, Kapiers, 
Scabbards. Spear-heads, Spears, 
Swords. 

Armstrong, E. C. R., appointed Keeper 
of Irish Antiquities in the National 
Museum, 248; report on archaeo- 
logical work in Ireland in 1913-14, 
245-8. 

Arragon, arms of, on Germanic wafer- 
ing-iroiis of the sixteenth century, 
149. 

Arrow-heads, neolithic, from Avebury 
(Wilts.), 77; Elcot, Marlborough 
(Wilts.), 83; Windmill Hill 
(Wilts.), 74, 78, 84. 

Arundel Psalter (British Museum 
MS.), symbolic wheel of the ten 
ages of life in, 48-50, 52-5, 58-60. 

Arundel, Thomas Howard, second 
Earl of, collection of gems made 
by, 19. 

Auditors, report of, 154. 

Austria, arms of, on Germanic wafer- 
ing-iroiis of the sixteenth century, 
147, 148, 149. 

Avebury, John, Baron, death of, 165 ; 
obituary notice, 166-8. 

Avebury (Wilts.), flint implements 
from the surface near, 73-88. 

Axe-head, iron, Clausentum (Hants), 
33, 35. 

Axes : double, of Minoan cult, 23-4 ; 
gold model, Strangford Loch (co. 
Down), 246. 



Bagster, Robert, elected, 46; ad- 
mitted, 89. 

Baildon, W. Paley, on an illuminated 
letters patent of Henry VIII to 
John Lambert, of Calton, co. York., 
98 ; remarks by, 127, 234. 

Bailey, Charles, 147. 

Baird, J. G. A., of Muirkirk (Ayr- 
shire), excavations by, 241. 

Balance-sheet, 156-61. 

Balmuildy (Scotland), excavation of 
the fort at, 243 ; objects found, fb. 

Bardney Abbey (Lines."), episcopal 
visitation of, in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, 189 ; injunctions to, 194 n. ; 
state of buildings, 202. 

Barnard, Lord, owner of site of ex- 
cavations at Wroxeter (Salop), 119. 

Barnfield (Kent), excavations at, 155, 
162, 163. 



Barron, Oswald, elected a member of 
the Council, 184 ; remarks by, 7, 
22, 233. 

Barrows : in Wilts., 73, 74 ; with 
examples of Bronze Age pottery 
and other objects, Hengistbury 
Head (Hants), 212-14. 

Barton Seagrave (Northants), Anglo- 
Saxon finds at, 245. 

Barvvell, Rev. Arthur Henry Sanxay, 
bequest to the Library, 3 ; death of, 
165 ; obituary notice, 171-2. 

Basel Historical Museum : wafering- 
irons of fourteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, 146, 147. 

Baths, Roman, fort at Balmuildy 
(Scotland), 243. 

Baton or sceptre, rock crystal, with 
silver-gilt mount, 18-21. 

Bavaria and the Palatinate, arms of, 
on Germanic wafering-irons of the 
sixteenth century, 148. 

Baynes, E. Neil, exhibits matrix of 
seal of the extinct borough of New- 
borough (Anglesey) and a brass to 
Marcelie Lloyd, from the disused 
church of Llariwenllwyfo (Angle- 
sey), 120. 

Beads, amber, Hengistbury Head 
(Hants), 212, 213 ; gold, from Vol- 
te rra, 46. 

Beakers : glass, Stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright (Scotland), 242 ; Romano- 
British, from the Brue district 
(Som.), 140. 

Beaker urn, Edington Mill, Chirn- 
side (Berwick), 242. 

Beanlands, Canon, exhibits an Eliza- 
bethan Communion cup of copper- 
gilt, 152-3. 

Beast and bird ornaments on medieval 
objects, 9-12. 

Beauvais (France), rose window in 
Saint Etienne, illustrating Fortune 
and Life, 59. 

Bedford, archdeaconry of, diocesan 
visitations in 1443, 190. 

Bedfordshire : see Bedford, Harrold 
Priory, Newnham Priory. 

Bek, Walter, seal of, 231. 

Belknap, Sir Robert, heraldic seal of, 
231. 

Bell, Edward, remarks by, 30. 

Bell, John, the elder, clerk of the 
Parish Clerks' Company, 44. 

Bell, John, the younger, clerk to the 
Company of Tin-plate Workers, 44. 

Bell, Montgomerie, owner of small 
fragment of urn of the Early Iron 
Age, found at Oxford, 133. 

' Bell ' salt, silver, belonging to the 



INDEX 



Company of Tin-plate Workers, 
exhibited, 44. 

Berwick : see Ediiigton Mill. 

Bestiaries, scenes from the, on font 
at Melbury Bubb (Dorset), 151-2. 

Bibury (Glos.), four sculptures of the 
Viking period from, 60-72. 

Binney, E. H., on Roman pottery 
found at Nythe Farm ( Wilts. \ 
208-9. 

Birmingham University, co-operation 
of, in research work at Wroxeter, 
119. 

Bishop, A. H., examination of shell - 
mounds in the Island of Oroiisay 
(Scotland), 241. 

Blomfield, Reginald, elected a mem- 
ber of the Council, 184. 

Bodleian Library, Oxford, tapestry 
maps in, 238. 

Bohemia, arms of, on Germanic wafer- 
ing-irons of the sixteenth century, 
149. 

Bolton, Arthur Thomas, elected, 120 ; 
admitted, 185. 

Boltoii, Lord, exhibits and presents 
a deed relating to tithes, with the 
seal of the Abbot of Furness at- 
tached, 99. 

Bolton Priory (Yorks.), lands of, 98, 
99. 

Bone ash, use of, by the Romans, 96. 

Bone objects : from Island of Oronsay 
(Scotland), 241 ; Wroxeter (Salop), 
95 ; comb, London, 71 ; cylinder, 
St. Martin's-le-Grand, London, 71 ; 
cylindrical object, Island of Oron- 
say (Sc.), 242 ; disc, City of London, 
66, 67 ; pax, St. Michael on Wyre 
(Lanes.), 153. 

Borough, Rev. Roland, on the private 
chapel of the Earl Ferrers at Staun- 
ton Harold (Leic.), 121-5. 

Borradaile, Charles, 8, 12-14, 18, 21. 

Borradaile Collection, medieval ob- 
jects in, 8-21 ; baton or sceptre, 
rock crystal, with silver-gilt mount. 
18-21 ; chrismatory, gilt copper, 
16; parcel-gilt, 18; diptych, 
ivory, with scenes from the life of 
our Lord and the Virgin, 14-16; 
horn, or oliphant, ivory, carved 
with beasts and monsters. 9-12 ; 
panel, ivory, with our Lord between 
the Virgin and St. John the Baptist, 
12 ; polyptych. ivory, with Virgin 
and Child, and scenes in early life 
of our Lord, 14 ; processional cross, 
silver. 21 ; tabernacle, parcel-gilt, 
with Virgin and Child. 17 ; trip- 
tych, ivory, scene of Crucifixion 



between the Virgin and St. John, 
with medallions and busts of 
saints, 13-14. 

Bosses, gold, Hengistbury Head 
(Hants), 212. 

Boston (Lines.), candlesticks in in- 
ventory of St. Mary's Guild, 6. 

Bourne Abbey (Lines.), episcopal 
injunctions addressed to, 193 n. 

Bournemouth Science Club, 117. 

Bowl, latten, from St. Sampson's, 
Guernsey, 4. 

Brabrook, Sir Edward William, 182 ; 
re-elected Director, 183 ; remarks 
by, 45. 

Bracelets : bronze, Annesborough 
(co. Armagh), 246 ; of thick twisted 
gold wire, Hengistbury Head 
(Hants), 212. 

Braikenridge, George Weare, collec- 
tion of, 41-2. 

Brass, monumental, to Marcelie 
Lloyd, from the disused church of 
Llanwenllwyib (Anglesey), 120. 

Brass objects ; latten bowl, loose, and 
latten bowl of censer, from St. 
Sampson's, Guernsey, 4 ; latten 
candlesticks, Long Melford Church 
^Suffolk), 5; St. Mary's Guild, 
Boston (Lines.), 6 ; St. Sampson's, 
Guernsey, 4, 5, 8 ; latten foot of 
altar-cross, from the Braikenridge 
Collection, 41-4 ; latten foot of port- 
able cross, Stoke Poges (Bucks.), 
42 ; latten pricket, St. Sampson's, 
Guernsey, 4 ; latten processional 
cross, St. Sampson's, Guernsey,. 4, 
7, 8, 42 ; stem of candlestick, from 
the Braikenridge Collection, 41, 44. 

Bricks : Romano-British, from the 
Brue district (Som.), 141-2. 

Briquetage : Brue district (Som.), 
140-1 ; Red-hills (Essex), 143-4. 

Bristol (Glos.), wheel-window in 
St. James's Church, 57. 

Bristow, Robert, portrait of, 236. 

British Museum : Arundel Psalter, 
48-50, 52-5, 58-60 ; cinerary urns 
found at Deal, 129 ; Department of 
British and Medieval Antiquities, 
246 ; engraved bronze plate, 71 ; 
fragments of gravestone, 71 ; Gaul- 
ish wares in Morel Collection, 
130-2; gold filigree, specimens of, 
133 ; medieval objects in the Borra- 
daile Collection, 8-21 ; report on 
excavations at Greenhithe and 
Crayford (Kent), made on behalf 
of, 154-5, 164 ; sculptures of the 
Viking period. 60, 61 ; Viking 
sword, 242. 



252 



INDEX 



Bronze Age : burial, Winterbourne 
Monkton (Wilts.), 80 ; pottery, 
Muirkirk (Ayrshire), 241 ; cinerary 
urn, Late-Celtic, Letchworth 
(Herts.), 238-40; urn, Muirkirk 
(Ayrshire), 241 ; remains at Hen- 
gistbury Head (Hants), 212-14; 
tools of, 84. 

Bronze objects : bracelets, Annes- 
borough (co. Armagh), 246 ; bronze 
and amber pendant, from Hengist- 
bury Head (Hants), 212 ; brooch, 
Old Sarum (Wilts.), Ill ; brooches, 
Viking, from Caithness and Island 
of Oronsay (Scotland), 242; con- 
necting-link of belt, Letchworth 
(Herts.), 239 ; engraved plate, from 
Berkshire, 71 ; head, Corbridge 
(Northumb.), 187 ; implements, 
Andover (Hants), 32 ; Elcot, Marl- 
borough (Wilts.), 83 ; nails, Wrox- 
eter (Salop), 97 ; oriental pendant, 
Varby (Sweden), 67 ; picks, Dun- 
bridge (Hants), 35 ; panels, Win- 
chester (Hants), 64, 67, 71 ; Thames 
at Hammersmith, 67, 71 ; pins, 
Caithness and Island of Oron- 
say (Sc.), 242 ; palstave, An- 
nesborough (co. Armagh), 246 ; 
rapiers, Andover (Hants), 33 ; scab- 
bards, Andover (Hants), 33, 35 ; 
spear-ferrules, Andover (Hants), 
33, 35; spear-heads, winged, And- 
over (Hants), 33, 34 ; statue, frag- 
ment of, Wroxeter (Salop), 95; 
sword-blade, Drumcoltran (Kirk- 
cudbright), 242; swords, leaf- 
shaped, Andover (Hants), 33-5; 
tores, Annesborough (co. Armagh), 
246; various objects, Stewartry 
of Kirkcudbright, 241 ; Wroxeter 
(Salop), 96; votive double axes, 
Knossos (Crete), 24. 

Brooches : bowl-shaped, from Santon 
(Norfolk), 242; hinged, of pro- 
vincial-Roman type, Annesborough 
(co. Armagh), 246; of different 
metals, Hengistbury Head (Hants), 
212 ; penannular, Irish, 228-30 ; 
Viking, bronze, from Caithness and 
Island of Oronsay (Scotland), 242. 

Brooke, Joshua, of Marlboroueh 
(Wilts.), 83. 

Buckinghamshire, religious houses 
in, records of episcopal visitation 
in the fifteenth century, 189, 
190. 

Buckinghamshire : see Nutley, Stoke 
Poges. 

Buckle coated with tin, Caithness 
(Scotland), 242. 



Bull, F. W., on Romano-British finds 
at Kettering (Northants), 245. 

Bulleid, Arthur, on Romano-British 
potteries in Mid-Somerset, 137-43. 

Burgess, Francis, 125. 

Burghley, William Cecil, first Lord, 
arms of, impaling Cooke, on tapes- 
try at Hatfield House, 238. 

Burgundy, arms of, on Germanic 
wafering-irons of the sixteenth- 
century, 148. 

Burials : Bronze Age, Winterbourne 
Monkton (Wilts.), 80 ; cremated, at 
Long Sutton (Lines.), 140. 

Bushe-Fox, J. P., on excavations at 
Hengistbury Head (Hants) in 1912- 
13, 212-13*; on excavations at 
Wroxeter (Salop), 94-5 ; remarks 
by, 35, 143, 188, 215. 

Bussy-le-Chateau, dept. Marne 
(France), urn with incised orna- 
ment, 130, 131. 

Cairns, neolithic, 242-3. 

Caithness (Scotland), brooches,bronze 
Viking from grave in sand-hills, 
242 ; buckle coated with tin, ib. ; 
horse's bit, iron, ib. 

Cambrian Archaeological Associa- 
tion, 117. 

Camp, Windmill Hill (Wilts.), 74. 

Campion, Colonel W. H., of Danny 
(Sussex), owner of the l Danny 
unicorn jewel ', 235. 

Candlesticks : gilt, private chapel of 
Earl Ferrers, Staunton Harold 
(Leic.), 123, 124 ; latten, Long Mel- 
ford Church (Suff.), 5 ; St. Mary's 
Guild, Boston (Lines.), 6 ; St. Samp- 
son's, Guernsey, 4, 5, 8 ; pricket, 
latten, St. Sampson's, Guernsey, 4. 

Capital, early Romanesque, with 
carved lions, Poitiers (France), 11. 

Carausius, silver coins of, Wroxeter 
(Salop), 95. 

Carnegie Trust for the Universities 
of Scotland, research grant from, 
244. 

Carvings : see Alabaster, Ivory carv- 
ings, Sculpture. 

Castile, arms of, on Germanic wafer- 
ing-irons of the sixteenth century, 
149. 

Cater, William Alexander, elected, 
46 ; admitted, 73. 

Cave Period flints, 74-6, 82, 84-8. 

Celtic, Late : bronze objects, Stewartry 
of Kirkcudbright (Scotland), 241- 
2 ; cinerary urn from Letchworth 
Garden City (Herts.), 238-40 ; flint 
implements, Avebury (Wilts.), 84 ; 



INDEX 



253 



pit, Wadon Hill (Wilts.), 83; pits 
at Winter-bourne Monkton (Wilts.), 
83 ; relics, in association with Sa- 
mian ware, Traprain Law, East 
Lothian, 242. 

Celts: greenstone, Beaulieu (Hants \ 
34, 35; stone, Windmill Hill 
(Wilts.), 78. 

Censer, bowl of, latten, St. Sampson's, 
Guernsey, 4. 

Cesnola, Colonel Alessandro Palma 
di, death of, 165 ; obituary notice, 
172-3. 

Chaddesley-Corbett (Wore.), dragon 
engraved on font at, 10 n. 

Chalices : Elizabethan Communion 
cup, of copper-gilt, 153 ; medieval 
and Tudor chalices and patens, 
classification of, 43 ; pewter, Old 
Sarum (Wilts.), Ill ; with covers, 
engraved, at private chapel of Earl 
Ferrers, Staunton Harold (Leic.), 
123. 

Chamberlayn, Richard, heraldic seal 
of, 231. 

Chanter, Rev. John Frederick, ad- 
mitted, 23. 

Chartres (France), twelfth-century 
window with wheel-design of seven 
gifts of the Spirit, 56, 57. 

Cheetham, F. H., 153. 

Chrismatories : gilt copper, 16 ; 
parcel-gilt, 18. 

Christ, profile portrait of, in oils, on 
a circular oak panel, exhibited, 72. 

Church plate : at private chapel of 
Earl Ferrers, Staunton Harold 
(Leic.), 123; Elizabethan Com- 
munion cup, 152-3 ; lack of safe- 
guards to prevent alienation of, 
181. 

Cinerary urns : Early Iron Age, found 
at Deal (Kent), 128-33; Late-Celtic, 
Letchworth Garden City (Herts.), 
238-40 ; Romano-British, Brue 
district (Som.), 139 ; Long Sutton 
(Line.), "140 ; Westbury (Wilts.), 
140. ' 

Cissbury (Sussex), flint implements 
fro-m, 35, 78. 

Cist : Edington Mill, Chirnside 
(Berwick), 242 ; burial, rock-cut, 
Knossos (Crete), 24. 

Clarke, Somers, remarks by, 224. 

Clatford Bottom (Wilts.), implement 
of River-drift type from, 78-9. 

Clausentum (Hants), axe-head, iron, 
33, 35 ; finger-ring, 34, 35. 

Clayton, Rev. Philip Thomas Byard, 
elected, 120 ; admitted, 203. 

Clephane horn, the, 203-4. 



Clinch, George, 183. 

Cochrane, Dr. R., 247. 

Cock, F. W., exhibits three pairs of 
iron ember-tongs, 215. 

Codner, M. F., owner of heraldic 
< puzzle table', 21. 

Codrington, Thomas, 205. 

Coffey, George, retirement from 
Keepership of Irish Antiquities in 
the National Museum, 247. 

Coffins, Old Sarum (Wilts.), 111-14, 
116. 

Coins : British and Gaulish, found 
at Hengistbury Head (Hants), 212, 
214 ; Roman, from Balmuildy(Scot- 
land), 243 ; Corbridge (Northumb.), 
186 ; Brue district (Som.), 142 ; 
Hengistbury Head (Hants), 212 ; 
Nythe Farm (Wilts.), 209; St. 
Paul's Cathedral, London, 223 ; 
Westbury Ironworks (Wilts.), 140 ; 
Wroxeter (Salop), 95 ; of Antoni- 
nus Pius, 212 ; of Carausius, 95 ; of 
Theodosius I, 95. 

Collingham(Yorks.),seventh-century 
cross-shaft, 11. 

Cologne (Prussia), twelfth-century 
embroidery of the twelve signs of 
the zodiac, 56. 

Colpeper, Sir John, heraldic seal of, 
231. 

Colstone, Thomas, manuscript record 
by, of the visitation of religious 
houses by the Bishop of Lincoln. 
1436-49, 189-203. 

Commont, Prof., 164. 

Conine, Pierre, arms of, 135-6. 

Constantine I, coins of : Brue district 
(Som.), 142 ; Westbury Ironworks 
(Wilts.), 140. 

Constantine II, coins of : Brue dis- 
trict (Som.), 142. 

Conyers, a Cheapside apothecary, on 
discoveries made at the rebuilding 
of St. Paul's Cathedral, 220, 223, 
224, 225, 228. 

Cooke, Robert, forged pedigree of the 
Sydney family, 231-4. 

Copper-gilt chrismatory, Borradaile 
Collection, 16; Elizabethan Com- 
munion cup, exhibited, 152-3. 

Corbridge (Northumb.), excavations 
at, in 1913, 185-9 ; altar, small, 
186-8; inscription on, 187; bronze 
head, 187 ; building buttressed, 
186, 188 ; coins, 186 ; Dere Street, 
remains of, 185 ; ditch, north, 185, 
186 ; granary, 186, 188 ; masonry, 
186, 188; objects found, 186-7; 
pottery, 186, 187 ; statuary frag- 
ments, 187 ; streets, 185, 186 ; ven- 



254 



INDEX 



tilation passages, 186 ; wall of 
building, 186. 

Cork, co., list of the ancient and 
national monuments in, 247. 

Cork, University College Museum, 
inscribed stones from Knockshana- 
wee, 246. 

Cornwall. pre-Norman crosses in, 
61. 

Corstopitum (Northumb.), Roman 
occupation of, 185, 186. See Cor- 
bridge. 

Corvinus, Matthias, 20. 

Cotham Church (Notts.), appropria- 
tion of, 195. 

Cottrell-Dormer, Captain Charles 
Walter, elected, 46 ; admitted, 89. 

Couchman, John Edwin, elected, 217. 

Coulton, G. G., on visitation docu- 
ments, 194 n. 

Counters, seventeenth -century, en- 
graved with the cries of London, 
exhibited, 215. 

Courtrai (Flanders), battle of, illus- 
trated on a carved chest front at 
New College, Oxford, 135-6. 

Cowrie-shells, necklace of, Island of 
Oronsay (Scotland), 241. 

Crace, J. D., remarks by, 7, 29, 127, 
229. 

Craig, Major Algernon Tudor, elected, 
46 ; admitted, 73. 

Crake, William Vandeleur, admitted, 
28. 

Craske, Harold, exhibits a Late-Celtic 
cinerary urn found at Letch worth 
Garden City (Herts.), 238. 

Crawford and Balcarres, David, Earl 
of, appointed Vice-President, 185 ; 
elected on the Council, 183 ; nomi- 
nated by the Council to be the 
representative of the Society on the 
Advisory Board for England under 
the Ancient Monuments Act,3 ; pro- 
poses vote of thanks to the Presi- 
dent, 183 ; remarks by, 94, 136, 
229, 234. 

Crayford (Kent), excavations at, 
154-5. 

Crete, archaeological discoveries in, 
23-7. 

Crewdson, Wilson, exhibits portion 
of an alabaster carving of the Ado- 
ration of the Three Kings, 216. 

Croft family, arms of, in Leominster 
Church (Hereford), 51. 

Cromwell, Maude de, seal of, 231. 

Cromwell, Ralph, Lord, 231. 

Cromwell, Richard, oil portrait on 
copper supposed to represent, ex- 
hibited, 120. 



Cross Canonby (Cumberland), red 
shaft-cross, <>4. 

Crosses : chui'chyard, base of, Old 
Sarum (Wilts.), 112 ; dragons on, 
Gosforth (Cumberland), 10, 11 ; 
latten foot of altar, 41-4 ; latten foot 
of portable, Stoke Poges (Bucks.). 
42 ; latten processional, St. Samp- 
son's, Guernsey, 4, 7, 8, 42; pre- 
Norman, Cornwall, 61 ; shafts, 
Collingham (Yorks.), 11 ; Cross 
Canonby ' v Cumb.), 64 ; Melbury 
Bubb (Dorset), 151-2; Ramsbury 
(Wilts.), 70; West Camel (Som.), 
71 ; Wolverhampton (Stafford). 
151 ; silver processional, Italian. 
21 ; standing, Gloucester (Glos.), 
67 ; Monasterboice (co. Louth), 67 ; 
St. Bees (Cumberland), 62, 64 ; 
Waberthwaite (Cumberland), 62. 

Croy (Scotland), penannular brooches 
from, 228. 

Croyland Abbey (Lines.), episcopal 
visitation of, in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, 189 ; injunctions to, 196 n. 

Crucifixion, the, representation of, 
on fragment of bone pax found at 
St. Michael on Wyre (Lanes.), 153. 

Cuerdale (Scotland), penannular 
brooches from, 229, 230. 

Cumberland: see Cross Canonby, Gos- 
forth, St. Bees, Waberthwaite. 

Cunnington, Mr., jun., 78. 

Cunnington, Mrs., 83 n. 

Cups : ' Aris', silver, 45; Elizabethan 
Communion, of copper-gilt, 152-3. 

Curie, Alexander O., excavations by, 
241 ; report on archaeological dis- 
coveries in Scotland during the 
session 1913-14, 240-3. 



Dale, William, exhibits bronze, iron. 

and flint objects, with notes, 32-4 ; 

remarks by, 86, 162. 
Dalton, 0. M., on medieval objects in 

the Borradaile Collection, 8-21 ; 

on the Clephane horn, 203-4. 
' Danny unicorn jewel ', the, 2o5-<>. 
Dartford (Kent), palaeoliths from, 

155. 
Daventry Priory, episcopal visitation 

of, 197, 198 H. ; injunctions to, ib. 
Dawkins, Prof. Boyd, remarks by, 

204, 209. 
Deal (Kent), two cinerary urns of the 

Early Iron Age found at, 128-33. 
Deeds, ancient, belonging to Lord 

De L'Isle and Dudley, 231-5. 
De L'Isle and Dudley, Lord, ancient 

deeds and seals belonging to, 231-5. 




INDEX 



255 



9lphi, its connexion with Crete, 24, 
26. 

Denbighshire : see Plasn-pentre. 

Denmark, masks from gravestones, 
68 ; runic stones, 67-8. 

Desborough (Northants), carved stone 
at, 65. 

Devizes Museum : cinerary urn, from 
Westbury Ironworks (Wilts.), 140. 

Devonshire : see Dolton. 

Dewey, Henry, on the High Terrace 
of the Thames, 154-5. 

Diana, temple to, on site of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, 224. 

Dillon, Viscount, 232. 

Diptych, ivory, with scenes from the 
life of our Lord and the Virgin, 
14-16. 

Documents : ancient deeds belonging 
to Lord De L'Isle and Dudley, 
231-5 ; records of visitations of 
religious houses by William Aln- 
wick, Bishop of Lincoln 1436-49, 
180-203. 

Doll, Christian C. T., plans and sec- 
tions of the l Little Palace ' and 
tombs at Knossos, 25. 

Dolton (Devon), sculptured font at, 
63, 72, 151. 

Dorchester Abbey (Oxon.), episcopal 
visitation of, in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, 189, 191 w., 198; injunctions 
to, 198, 201 n. 

Dorling, Rev. E. E.. remarks by, 23. 
118, 126. 

Dorset : see Melbury Bubb. 

Dragons engraved on medieval ob- 
jects, 10-11. 

Druce, G. C., remarks by, 152. 

Drum coltran( Kirkcudbright), bronze 
sword-blade from, 242. 

Dublin, National Museum at, 246, 
247. 

Dudoc, Bishop, effigy at Wells (Som.), 
28, 30. 

Duignan, William Henry, death of, 
165. 

Dumfriesshire, Viking sword from. 
242. 

Dunbridge (Hants), worked flints 
from, exhibited, 32, 34. 

Dutton, Hon. and Rev. Canon F. G., 
61, 68. 



Ebblewhite,E. A., exhibits the ' Bell ' 
salt, the < Aris ' cup, and other plate 
belonging to the Company of Tin- 
plate Workers, with notes, 44-5. 

Edenbridge (Kent), heraldic ' puzzle 
table' from, 21. 



Edington Mill, Chirnsido 'Berwick", 
cist at, 242. 

Edward VI, arms of, on stained glass, 
211 ; pendant gold case, containing 
the last prayer of, 236. 

Effigies of Saxon bishops at Wells, 
28-31. 

Egypt, excavations in, 25-6. 

Ehrenfels, family of (Switzerland . 
arms of, on Germanic wafer! HL:- 
irons of the sixteenth century, 150. 

Elcot, Marlborough (Wilts.), flint 
implements, pottery, and bronze 
relics from, 82, 83, 87. 

Ely, Talfourd, exhibits an oil por- 
trait on copper supposed to repre- 
sent Richard Cromwell, 120. 

Ember-tongs, iron, exhibited, 215. 

Embroidery, twelfth-century, with 
twelve signs of the zodiac, 50. 

Enamel : on the ( Danny unicorn 
jewel', 235-6 ; on portrait of Robert 
Bristow, 236 ; prayer-book, 236. 

Eoliths, Avebury (Wilts.), 73. 

Essex : see Waltham Abbey. 

Evans, Sir Arthur, 187 ; elected 
President, 184 ; exhibits matrices 
of seals and signet rings from the 
collection of the late Sir John 
Evans, 231 ; on the Pillar Rooms 
and ritual vessels of the ' Little 
Palace' at Knossos, and the Tomb 
of the Double Axes, with associated 
group, 23-6 ; remarks by, 26, 29, 
188, 204, 210, 214, 229, 234. 

Exchequer account of 1304, with 
private tallies attached, 36-40. 

Fabricator, Windmill Hill (Wilts.;, 
74, 75. 

Fail-bank, Dr. Frederick Royston, 
death of, 165. 

Farquharson, Major V., remarks by, 
93. 

Fauna, palaeolithic, of the lower 
Thames, 155, 162, 163. 

Ferrers. Walter Knight, Earl, ad- 
mitted, 3 ; on the private chapel 
of the Earl Ferrers at Staunton 
Harold (Leic.\ 121, 128 ; remarks 
by, 22. 

Ferrules, bronze, Andover (Hants', 
33, 35. 

ffoulkes, Charles, on a carved chest 
front at New College, Oxford, illus- 
trating the battle of Courtrai, 135-6. 

Fibulae : see Brooches. 

Filigree work : chrismatory of gilt 
copper, Borradaile Collection, 16 ; 
gold, fragment of, from Selsey 
(Sussex), 133-4. 



256 



INDEX 



Finial of gable, with two lions, Old 
Sarum (Wilts.), 115-16. 

Fitzhardinge, Lord, owner of pen- 
dant gold case containing the last 
prayer of Edward VI. 236. 

Flagons, engraved, at private chapel 
of Earl Ferrers, Staunton Harold 
(Leic.), 123 ; glass, Old Sarum 
(Wilts.), 115. 

FJemyng, Richard, Bishop of Lin- 
coln, 191, 192 w., 194rt.,198.,202. 

Fletcher, William Younger, death 
of, 165 ; obituary notice, 170. 

Flint implements : Avebury (Wilts.), 
73; Cissbury (Sussex), 78; Dartford 
(Kent), 155; Dunbridge (Hants), 
35; Elcot, Maryborough (Wilts.), 
82, 83, 87; Grime's Graves (Nor- 
folk), 78 ; Hackpen Hill (Wilts.), 
77 ; Hengistbury Head (Hants), 
212-14 ; Windmill Hill (Wilts.), 
74-7 ; French specimens, 75, 76. 

Font, carved dragon on, Chaddesley- 
Corbett (Wore.), 10 n. ; decorated 
with scenes from the Bestiaries, 
Melbury Bubb (Dorset), 151-2 ; 
sculptured, Dolton (Devon), 63, 72. 

Forster, R. H., excavations at Cor- 
bridge (Northumb.), 186 n., 187; 
remarks by, 188. 

Foss Way, the, 205, 209, 210. 

Fotheringhay (Northants), episcopal 
visitation of college of, in the fif- 
teenth century, 190. 

Fowler, James, 60. 

Fowler, Robert Copp, elected, 120; 
admitted, 121. 

Franks Scholarship, the, 178. 

Franks, Sir Wollaston, 168. 

Freeman, Prof. E. A., 51. 

Funeral customs, 24, 27; trappings 
of Henry V, 92. 

Furness (Lanes.), seal of the Abbot 
of, attached to a deed relating to 
tithes, 99. 

Gable mouldings, early crocketed, 
Old Sarum (Wilts.), 115-16. 

Gahvay Archaeological Society, sur- 
vey of three parishes by, 247. 

Gardner, Arthur, remarks by, 29. 

Gardner, Prof. P., 387. 

Gardner, Willoughby, elected, 217. 

Gasquet, Cardinal, on English monas- 
tic life, 191 n. 

Gems : amethyst paste gem, en-, 
graved with a figure of Venus, 
from Wroxeter (Salop), 95 ; cameo 
of a Medusa head. Wroxeter (Salop), 
95. 



Geological Survey, H. M., report on 
excavations at Greenhithe and 
Cray ford (Kent), made on behalf 
of, 154-5, 164. 

Germain, Lady Elizabeth, 18, 19. 

Germanic wafering-irons of the six- 
teenth century, 144-51. 

Gilt candlesticks, at private chapel 
of Earl Ferrers, Staunton Harold 
(Leic.), 123. 

Giso, Bishop, effigy at Wells (Som.\ 
28, 30. 

Giuseppi, Montague Spencer, re- 
elected a member of the Council, 
183. 

Glasgow Archaeological Society, re- 
port for 1913-H, 243-4. 

Glass objects : beakers, Stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright (Scotland), 242 ; 
flagons, Old Sarum (Wilts.), 115. 

Glass, stained : collection of frag- 
ments of English fifteenth-century, 
exbibited, 90 ; portrait of one of 
the daughters of Edward IV, from 
the Becket window, Canterbury 
Cathedral, 211 ; quarry, with the 
arms of Manning of Down (Kent), 
215 ; regal heraldic, of the early 
sixteenth century, 211. 

Glastonbury (Som.), British lake- 
village, 214; harness -ornament 
found at, 239. 

Gloucester (Glos.), Anglo- Saxon 
sculpture at, 61, 71 ; cross, stand- 
ing, 67. 

Gloucestershire : see Bibury, Bristol, 
Gloucester, Kempley. 

Goddard, Rev. E. H., 83 n. 

Godendag, the (plan$on a picof), 135, 
136. 

Godwin, Precentor of Salisbury, 
coffin-lid with inscription to, 113- 
14, 118. 

Gold objects : armlet, 46 ; beads from 
Volterra, 46 ; bosses, Hengistbury 
Head (Hants), 212; case contain- 
ing the last prayer of Edward VI. 
236; enamelled prayer-book, 236; 
filigree, Selsey (Sussex), 133-4; 
head of Apollo, 46 ; model axes and 
model of shield, Strangford Loch 
(co. Down), 246 ; pendants, Eliza- 
bethan, 235-6 ; pins, Strangford 
Loch (co. Down), 246 ; ring money, 
46; tore, Hengistbury Head(Hants), 
212; tore, twisted, Strangford 
Loch (co. Down), 246 ; wire brace- 
let, Hengistbury Head (Hants), 
212. 

Gold-ring money, specimen of, ex- 
hibited, 46. 



INDEX 



257 



Gosforth (Cumberland), standing- 
cross at, 10 n., 11, 64. 

Gothic architecture, seventeenth- 
century types of, 126-8. 

Gould, Arthur William, elected, 120 ; 
admitted, 154. 

Gowland, William, remarks by, 96. 

Gracedieu Priory (Leic.), episcopal 
visitation in 1440-1, 191, 192 n.; 
espionage at, 202 n. 

Grave furniture, Knossos (Crete), 
24. 

Gravestones: Aarhus (Denmark), 68; 
Old Sarum (Wilts.), Ill, 112 ; St. 
Paul's churchyard, London, 67, 71 ; 
Skjern (Denmark) 68; Viking, 
from Bibury (Glos.), 60-72. 

Graving-tools : Wangford (Suffolk), 
75; Windmill Hill (Wilts.), 74-5. 

Gray, William, Bishop of Lincoln, 
193, 197, 202. 

Green, Everard, Somerset herald, 
remarks by, 22. 

Greenhithe (Kent), excavations at, 
135-6. 

Griffin, Ralph, elected a member of 
the Council, 184. 

Grime's Graves (Norfolk), flint im- 
plements from, 78. 

Grundy, G. B., on the so-called Ryk- 
nield or Riknild Street, 204-8. 

Guernsey, St. Sampson's Church, 
latten objects lately discovered at, 
3-7 ; bowl, loose, 4 ; candlesticks, 
4, 5, 8 ; censer, bowl of, 4 ; cross, 
processional, 4, 7, 8 ; pricket, . 

Guildhall Museum : gravestone from 
St. Paul's churchyard, 67, 71 ; 
nineteenth-century Exchequer tal- 
lies, 36 n. 

Hackpen Hill (Wilts.), flint imple- 
ments from, 77, 78, 83. 

Hall, H. R., remarks by, 25. 

Halstatt period, 213, 214. 

Hammersmith, bronze panel from 
Thames, 67, 71. 

Hampshire Field Club, 117. 

Hampshire : see Andover, Clausen- 
turn, Dunbridge, Hengistbury 
Head, Silchester, Winchester, 
Wyke. 

Harpoons, multiple - barbed, from 
shell-mounds in the Island of 
Oronsay (Scotland), 241. 

Harrold Priory (Beds.), episcopal 
injunctions to, 196. 

Harvey, Thomas Henry, elected, 217. 

Hatfield House (Herts.), tapestry at. 
238. 

Hathor, cult of, 25-6. 
VOL. XXVI 



Haverneld, Prof., 138, 205, 208; 
archaeological investigations in 
Aberdeenshire, 244 ; on excava- 
tions at Corbridge (Northumb.) in 
1913, 185-7; remarks by, 95. 

Hawley, Lt.-Col., excavates at Old 
Sarum (Wilts.), 100, 107, 117. 

Helmet, tilting, from the chantry 
chapel of Henry V at Westminster, 
exhibited, 92, 93. 

Hemp, Wilfrid James, appointed 
scrutator, 165. 

Hengistbury Head (Hants), excava- 
tions at, in 1912-13, 212-15 ; area 
of site, 212; barrows, 212-14; 
coins, 212, 214 ; flint implements, 
212-14 ; huts, 212 ; objects found, 
212; pottery, 212-14; supposed 
period of occupation, 212-13 ; weav- 
ing implements, 212. 

Heniy II, seal of, as Duke of Nor- 
mandy, 231. 

Henry V, funeral, monument, and 
chantry chapel of, at Westminster, 
89, 91-4. 

Henry VIII, arms of, on stained 
glass, 211 ; illuminated letters 
patent of, to John Lambert, of 
Calton, co. York., exhibited, 98. 

Heraldic ' puzzle table ', with arms 
of an Earl of Surrey or Arundel, 
exhibited, 21 ; seals belonging to 
Lord De L'Isle and Dudley, 231-5; 
stained glass, of the early sixteenth 
century, exhibited, 211. 

Heraldry : arms and badges of Henry 
V, 89, 90, 92, 93 ; arms and crests 
on Germanic wafering-irons, 145, 
147-9 ; arms of Thomas Aris, 45 ; 
Arragon, 149; Austria, 148, 149; 
Bavaria and the Palatinate, 148 ; 
Sir Robert Belknap, 231 ; Bohemia, 
149 ; Burgundy, 148 ; Castile, 149 ; 
Cecil impaling Cooke, 238 ; Richard 
Chamberlayn, 231 ; Sir John Col- 
peper, 231 ; Pierre Conine, 135-6 ; 
Croft family, 51 ; Edward VI, 211 ; 
Ehrenfels family, of Switzerland, 
150 ; England and France, 98 ; 
Henry VIII, 211 ; Henry VIII and 
Jane Seymour, 211 ; Henry VIII 
and Katherine Parr, 211 ; Hun- 
gary, 149 ; Lambert, of Colton 
Yorks.), 98, 99; Leon. 149; Sir 
Nicholas de Loveyn, 231 ; Manning 
of Down (Kent), 215 ; Nothaft, of 
Bavaria, 149 ; Earl of Pembroke, 
238; John Platyn, 231; William 
de Pulteney, 231 ; Richard I, 211 ; 
city of Rochester. 96 ; Sacheverell, 
236-7 ; Shirley family, 122, 124 ; 



258 



INDEX 



Earl of Surrey or Arundel, 21 ; 
William Sydney, of Kingsham 
(Sussex), 231 ; on seals of Sydney 
family and Penshurst deeds, 231 ; 
Martin Weber, 148-9 ; banners of 
Flemish Trade Guilds, 135, 136 ; 
boars-head badge of Richard III, 
211 ; red and white roses, early 
sixteenth century, 211. 

Herbert, John Alexander, elected, 
217 ; admitted, 218. 

Herefordshire : see Leominster. 

Hertfordshire : see Hatfield, Letch- 
worth. 

Heynings, nunnery of, in junctions to, 
196. 

Highbridge (Som.), Roman remains 
at, 142. 

Hildburgh, W. L., exhibits collection 
of Germanic wafering-irons of the 
sixteenth century, with notes, 144- 
51. 

Hildebrand, Dr. Hans, death of, 166. 

Hill, G. F., remarks by, 72. 

Hipkins, Rev. Frederick Charles, 
death of, 165. 

Hoare, Sir Richard Colt, 138. 

Hodgkin, Jonathan Edward, elected, 
120 ; admitted, 135. 

Hogarth, David George, appointed 
Vice-President, 185; re-elected a 
member of the Council, 183 ; re- 
marks by, 25. 

Honecort, Wilars de, thirteenth- 
century architect, Wheel of For- 
tune in sketch-book of, 57, 60. 

Hope, Sir William, 55 ; on the ex- 
cavation of the Cathedral Church 
of Old Sarum, 100-17 ; on the 
funeral, momunent, and chantry 
chapel of King Henry V at West- 
minster, 89, 91-2 ; remarks by, 7, 
30, 44, 45, 93, 126, 232. 

Horn or oliphant, 204 ; ivory, carved 
with beasts and monsters, 9-12. 

Hornby, Charles Harry St. John, 
elected, 120 ; admitted, 135. 

Hornby, Hugh Phipps, owner of 
fragment of bone pax, with repre- 
sentation of the Crucifixion, 153. 

Horse's bit, iron, Caithness (Scot- 
land), 242. 

Howard, Henry, of Stone House, 
near Kidderminster, owner of 
tapestry, 238. 

Hudson, Rev. Henry Arnold, elected, 
46 ; admitted, 91. 

Hughes, Prof. M c Kenny, remarks by, 
162. 

Human remains: Letch worth(Herts.), 
239; Old Sarum (Wilts.), Ill, 116 



Wells Cathedral (Som.), 29 ; West- 
bury Ironworks (Wilts.), 140. 

Humberstone Abbey (Lines.), injunc- 
tions to, 198. 

Hungary, arms of, on Germanic 
wafering-irons of the sixteenth 
century, 149. 

Huntingdon (Hunts.) : archdeaconry, 
episcopal visitation (1439) of the 
chief houses in the, 190 ; priory, 
injunctions to, 197 n. 

Huntingdonshire : see Huntingdon, 
Ramsey. 

Hutchinson, Sir Jonathan, obituary 
notice, 168-9 ; museum of, at 
Haslemere, 169. 

I'Anson, William Mangles, elected, 
217. 

Ingress Vale (Kent), excavations at, 
155. 

Injunctions, episcopal, of the fif- 
teenth century, 191-202. 

Inscriptions : Latin, on tombs, Old 
Sarum (Wilts.), 111-13 ; Lombardic, 
on copper-gilt chrismatory, Borra- 
daile Collection, 16 ; Roman, at Bal- 
muildy (Scotland), 243 ; on Roman 
altar at Corbridge (Northumb.), 
186-7 ; on an illuminated letters 
patent of Henry VIII, 98, 99; 
on chalices, flagons, and paten- 
covers at private chapel of Earl 
Ferrers, Staunton Harold (Leic.), 
123-4 ; on effigies of Saxon bishops 
at Wells (Som.), 29-31 ; on foot of 
an English altar-cross of latten, 
41-3 ; on Germanic wafering-irons 
of the sixteenth century, 145. 147- 
50 ; on oak panel-portrait of Christ, 
72 ; on silver salt-cellar belonging 
to the Company of Tin-plate 
Workers, 44 ; on thirteenth-cen- 
tury paten at Wyke (Hants), 55 ; 
on wall-painting of Wheel of the 
Ten Ages of Life in Leominster 
Church (Glos.), 48, 52-5; to Sir 
Robert Shirley, in private chapel 
of Earl Ferrers at Staunton Harold 
(Leic.), 121. 

Ireland, National Museum of: ac- 
quisition of objects found at Annes- 
borough (co. Armagh) and from 
the neighbourhood of Strangford 
Loch (co. Down N , 246. 

Ireland : report of archaeological 
work in 1913-14, 245-8. See also 
Annesborough, Ardagh, Cork, Dub- 
lin, Galway, Knockshanawee, 
Lochpairk Crannog, Monasterboice, 
Strangford Loch. 



INDEX 



259 



Irish archaeological monuments, pre- i 
servation of, 247 ; penannular 
brooches of five centuries, 228-30. 

Iron Age, Early, cinerary urns of 
the, 128-33. 

Iron objects : axe-head, Clausen turn 
(Hants), 33, 35 ; ember-tongs, 215; 
horse's bit, Caithness (Scotland), 
242 ; leg-fetters on skeleton, Old 
Sarum (Wilts.), 116; shears, Island 
of Oronsay (Scotland), 242. 

Islip, Abbot, hearse of, at Westmin- 
ster, 6. 

Isopata (Crete), ' Royal Tomb ' at, 24. 

Italian wafering-irons of the fifteenth 
;uid sixteenth centuries, 147, 151. 

Iveagh, Viscount, presentation of 
gold objects to the Irish National 
Collection, 246. 

Ivory carvings : diptych, medieval, 
with scenes from the life of our 
Lord and the Virgin, 14-16 ; horn 
or oliphant, medieval, 9-12 ; panel, 
early twelfth century, with our 
Lord between the Virgin and St. 
John the Baptist, 12 ; polyptych, 
French, fourteenth century, depict- 
ing Virgin and Child and scenes 
connected with the Nativity, 14 ; 
triptych, eleventh century, depict- 
ing the Crucifixion between the 
Virgin and St. John, with medal- 
lions and busts of saints, 13-14. 

Jasz Bereny (Hungary), horn or oli- 
phant, carved, 11-12. 

Jellinge style of sculpture, Danish, 
65, 68, 70, 71 ; crucified figure, 66 ; 
scabbard-chape, 71. 

Jenkinson, Hilary, on an original 
Exchequer account of 1304, with 
private tallies attached, 36-40 ; 
remarks by, 233. 

Jerningham, Sir Hubert Edward 
Henry, death of, 165 ; obituary 
notice, 170-1. 

Jessopp, Dr. A., on visitations of the 
diocese of Norwich, 190, 192 n. 

Jewels : the 'Danny unicorn', 235-6 ; 
gold case containing the last prayer 
of Ed ward VI, 236 ; gold enamelled 
prayer-book, 236 ; Memento Mori 
charm from Tor Abbey (Devon), 
236. 

Jocelin, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
104, 118 ; monument at Old Sarum 
(Wilts.), 109. 

John the Baptist, St., alabaster effigy 
of, exhibited, 152. 

Johnson, Roger, 91. 

Jones, Rev. F. Meyrick, 42. 

VOL. XXVI '\ 



Jones, John Winter, on the ' wheel 
of human life ' in the Arundel 
Psalter, 48-50, 58. 

Kempley (Glos.), symbolic wheel on 
wall-painting in church, 47, 55. 

Kendall, Rev. H. G. 0., on flint im- 
plements from the surface near 
Avebury (Wilts.), 73-86; remarks 
by, 87. 

Kendrick, A. F., on English tapestry, 
238. 

Kent : see Barnfield, Gray ford, Dart- 
ford, Deal , Edenbridge, Greenhithe, 
Ingress Vale, Rochester, Swans- 
combe, Wansunt. 

Kermode, P. M. C., 63 n., 66, 70. 

Kettering (Northants), Romano- 
British finds at, 245. 

Kingsford, C. L., on ancient deeds 
and seals belonging to Lord De 
L'Isle and Dudley, 231-2 ; remarks 
by, 93. 234-5. 

Kingsford, H. S., 183. 

Kirk Braddan (Isle of Man% stone 
cross at, 66, 70. 

Kirkby Stephen (Westm.), stone 
figure at, 66. 

Kirkcudbright, Stewartry of (Scot- 
land), excavations in the, 241-2 ; 
neolithic chambered cairns, 243 ; 
objects found, 241-2 ; vitrified fort, 
241. 

Kirk Michael (Isle of Man), stone 
cross at, 66, 69, 70. 

Kitchin, Dr., 195 n. 

Knight, M. G., of Chawton Manor 
(Hants), owner of tapestry, 238. 

Knives, neolithic, Windmill Hill 
(Wilts.), 77. 

Knockshanawee, near Crookstown 
(co. Cork), rath at, 245-6 ; Ogham 
inscriptions, ib. 

Knossos (Crete), the Pillar Rooms and 
ritual vessels of the ' Little Palace ' 
at, and the Tomb of the Double 
Axes, with associated group, 23-7. 

Knowle Farm Pit (Wilts.), palaeo- 
liths from, 78. 

Knox, Major, of Spring Hill, 205, 
206. 

Kossinna, Dr., of Berlin, 130. 



Lambert. Count, of Louvain, 99. 
Lambert (or Lambart), John, of Cal- 

ton, co. York., illuminated letters 

patent of Henry VIII to, exhibited, 

98 ; arms of, 98-9. 
Lancashire: see Furness, St. Michael 

on Wyre. 



260 



INDEX 



Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

223. 

Late-Celtic : see Celtic. 
La Tene period, 213, 214. 
Latten objects : see Brass. 
Lawrence, L. A., exhibits a small 
gold head of Apollo, gold beads 
found at Volterra, a small gold 
armlet, and a specimen of gold-ring 
money, 46 ; exhibits a collection 
of posy rings, 120 ; exhibits a frag- 
ment of gold filigree from Selsey 
(Sussex), 133 ; exhibits part of a 
set of seventeenth-century counters, 
engraved with the cries of London, 
215. 

Laws, Edward, death of, 165. 

Leadam, Isaac Saunders, death of, 
165. 

Lead objects : nail, Wroxeter (Salop), 
96, 97; tablets with names of Saxon 
bishops, Wells (Som.), 29, 30. 

Leetham, Lt.-Colonel Sir Arthur, 
183. 

Legge, Dr. T. M., exhibits collection 
of fragments of English fifteenth- 
century stained glass, 90. 

Leg-irons on skeleton, Old Saruin 
(Wilts.), 116. 

Leicester : Abbey of St. Mary of the 
Meadows, episcopal visitation of, 
199; injunctions to, 194 n., 199- 
200 ; state of, in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, 202. Archdeaconry of, episco- 
pal visitations in 1440 and 1442, 
190. 

Leicestershire : see Gracedieu, Leices- 
ter, Newarke, Staunton Harold. 

Leominster Church (Hereford), archi - 
tectural details, 50-1 ; wheel of the 
ten ages of life on wall-painting, 
47-8, 50-5, 60. 

Leon, arms of, on Germanic wafering- 
irons of the sixteenth century, 149. 

Letchworth Garden City (Herts.): 
bronze connecting-link of belt, 239 ; 
Late-Celtic cinerary urn, 238-40. 

Lethaby, Prof. W. R., remarks by, 
29 92 

Lever, Sir William, gift of Stafford 
House to Trustees of the London 
Museum, 175. 

Lewer, Henry William, elected, 120 ; 
admitted, 121. 

Lincoln (Lines.) : episcopal muni- 
ments, 189, 192, 193, 197, 198 ; 
visitation of the cathedral in 1432, 
190w.,193w. 

Lincoln Record Society, 189, 192 n. 

Lincolnshire, religious houses in, 
records of episcopal visitation in 



the fifteenth century, 189ff. See also 
Bardney, Boston. Bourne, Croy- 
land, Humberstone, Lincoln, Long 
Sutton, Stamford, Stow, Tatteshall 
College, Thornholm, Thornton 
Abbey, Wellow Abbey. 

Llanwenllwyfo (Anglesey), brass from 
the disused church of, exhibited, 
120. 

Lloyd, Marcelie, brass to, from the 
disused church of Llanwenllwyfo 
(Anglesey), exhibited, 120. 

Lochpairk Crannog, near Tuam (co. 
Galway), excavations at, 245. 

London : bone comb, 71 ; bone cylin- 
der, from St. Martin's-le-Grand. 
71 ; bone disc, from the- City, 66. 
67 ; excavations in Paternoster 
Row, 224 ; gravestone from St. 
Paul's churchyard, 67, 71 ; remains 
of an altar to Diana, St. Vedast. 
Foster Lane, 224 ; St. Paul's Cross. 
223, 224, 227; St. Paul's School, 
223. See also British Museum. 
Guildhall Museum, London Mu- 
seum, St. Paul's Cathedral, Victoria 
and Albert Museum, Westminster. 

London, Council of (1075), 101. 

London, cries of, engraved on set of 
seventeenth-century counters, 215. 

London Museum : eighteenth-centuiy 
Exchequer tallies, 36 n.; its new 
home at Stafford House, 175-6. 

Long Melford (Suffolk), candlesticks 
in church inventory, 5. 

Long Sutton (Lines.), cremated 
burials and associated Roman re- 
mains, 140. 

Loom-weights, Hengistbury Head 
(Hants), 212. 

Lothian : see Traprain Law. 

Loveyn, Sir Nicholas de, heraldic 
seal of, 231. 

Lucas, Richard Cockle, collection of 
English regal heraldic stained 
glass, 211. 

Lyons, Lt.-Colonel G. B. Croft, ex- 
hibits a glass quarry with the arms 
of Manning of Down (Kent), 215. 

Macartney, Mervyn, on some investi- 
gations into the soil in and around 
St. Paul's Cathedral, 218-24. 

MacDonald, George, report of the 
work of the Glasgow Archaeological 
Society for 1913-14, 243-4. 

Maiden, Arthur Russell, death of, 
118, 165. 

Mahnesbury, William of, 29 ; on 
cathedral church of Salisbury, 
101-2, 105. 



INDEX 



261 



Man, Isle of: see Kirk Eraddan, Kirk i 

Michael, Manghold. 
Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition ' 

(1857), 204. 
Manning of Down (Kent), arms of, j 

on glass quarry, exhibited, 215. 
Mantes (France), wheel-window in 

Notre-Dame at, 57. 
Manx crosses, 66, 69, 70 ; sculpture, 

63-6, 68, 70. 
Manuscripts, illuminated : Arundel i 

Psalter, British Museum, 48-50, i 

58-60 ; letters patent of Henry 

VIII to John Lambert, of Calton, 

co. York, exhibited, 98. 
Mai-ble coffin, unpolished Purbeck, 

Old Sarum (Wilts.), Ill, 114 ; mace, 

Knossos (Crete), 24 ; rhyton in 

shape of lioness's head, Knossos, ' 

24 ; slabs, Old Sarum (Wilts.), 111- 

12. 

Marett, Dr. R. R., 3. 
Marson. dept. Marne (France), black 

urn, with incised red lines, 130, 

131. 
Martin, William, elected a member 

of the Council, 184. 
Masks from gravestones, Aarhus and 

Skjern (Denmark), 68. 
Maughold (Isle of Man), snake-pat- 
terned stones at, 63. 
May, Thomas, 140, 143. 
Medusa head, cameo of, Wroxeter 

(Salop), 95. 
Melbury Bubb (Dorset), cast of the | 

font at, exhibited, 151-2. 
Mesnil - les - Hurlus, dept. Marne 

(France), urn with incised orna- 
ment, 131, 132. 
Mesolithic implements, Island of 

Oronsay (Scotland), 241. 
Metal-work, Wroxeter (Salop), 95. 
Meyrick, Sir George, 213. 
Middlesex: see London. 
Milan (Italy), capital with carved 

monster in the atrium of S. Am- 

brogio, 10 n. 
Minet, William, 182 ; re-elected . 

Treasurer, 183 ; remarks by, 41. 
Ministry of Fine Arts, suggestion of, 

173-4. 
Minoan cult, 23-6 ; funeral customs, 

24 ; pottery, 24 ; tombs, 23-6. 
Minos, 26. 
Mitchell, Frank Jolmstone, death of, 

165. 
Mitres of Saxon bishops, carved on 

effigies at Wells (Som.), 28-31. 
Monasterboice (co. Louth), cross of 

Muiredach at, 67. 
Montelius, Prof., of Stockholm, 64. 



Montgomerie, D. H., excavates at Old 

Sarum (Wilts.), 100, 107, 117. 
Monuments : effigies of Bishop Jocelin 

and Bishop Roger, Old Sarum 
Wilts.), 109 ; tomb of Henry V at 

Westminster, 89, 91 ; tombs. Old 

Sarum (Wilts.), 111-13; tombs of 

Saxon bishops, Wells (Som.), 28-9. 

See also Ancient Monuments, Brass, 

Gravestones. 
Morland, John, of Glastonbury, 138, 

139. 
Moulds, Celtic, for casting brooches, 

crosses, plaques, etc., Stewartry of 

Kirkcudbright (Scotland), 242. 
Moulton (Northants), carved stone 

at, 65. 
Mounds, pottery, in the Brue district 

(Som.), 138-9. 
Muirkirk (Ayrshire), excavations at, 

241. 

Miiller, Dr. Sophus, 130. 
Mumrills (Scotland), fort at, 244. 
Munich National Museum : wafering- 

irons of the sixteenth century, 147. 
Murray, Sir George, 178. 



Nails from Wroxeter (Salop) : bronze, 
97 ; lead, 96, 97. 

Neave, Sir Thomas, Dagnam Park 
(Essex), owner of portrait of Robert 
Bristow, 236. 

Neolithic cairns, Stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright (Scotland),242-3 ; imple- 
ments, 84, 85; Avebury (Wilts.), 
77 ; Beaulieu (Hants), 34, 35 ; Ciss- 
bury (Sussex), 35, 78 ; Dunbridge 
Hants), 32, 34 ; Elcot, Marlborough 
Wilts.), 83 ; Grime's Graves (Nor- 
folk), 78 ; Hengistbury Head 
Hants), 32, 34; Windmill Hill 
(Wilts.), 74-8, 84. 

Newarke College (Leic.), episcopal 
injunctions to, 196. 

Newborough (Anglesey), matrix of 
the seal of the extinct borough of, 
exhibited, 120. 

New College, Oxford, carved chest 
front at, illustrating the battle of 
Courtrai, 135-6. 

Newman, Philip, exhibits an illumi- 
nated letters patent of Henry VIII 
to John Lambert, of Calton, co. 
York. , 98. 

Nevvnham Priory (Beds.), injunctions 
to, 196 n. 

Newton, W. M., exhibits palaeoliths 
from Dartford (Kent), 155. 

Norfolk: see Grime's Graves, Norwich, 
Santon. 



262 



INDEX 



Norman Conquest, architectural de- 
velopments due to, 118. 

Norman, Philip. 187, 224 ; appointed 
Vice-President, 185 ; re-elected a 
member of the Council, 183 ; work 
on London archaeology, 180 ; re- 
marks by, 126, 228. 

Northampton, archdeaconry of, dio- 
cesan visitations in 1442, 190. 

Northampton, Marquess of, exhibits 
the Clephane horn, 203. 

Northamptonshire : see Barton Sea- 
grave, Desborough, Fotheringhay, 
Kettering, Moult on, Northampton, 
Peterborough. 

Northumberland : see Corbridge, Cor- 
stopitum. 

Norway, penannular brooches from, 
228. 

Norwich (Norfolk), episcopal visita- 
tions 1492-1532, 190. 

Nothaft, of Bavaria, arms of, on 
Germanic wafering-iron of the 
sixteenth century, 149. 

Nottinghamshire : see Cotharn. 

Nutley Abbey (Bucks.), injunctions 
to, 196. 

Nythe Farm, Stratton St. Margaret 
(Wilts.), Roman pottery, etc., 208-9. 

Odgers, William Blake, elected, 46 ; 
admitted, 100. 

Ogham inscriptions, Knockshanawee. 
near Crookstown (co. Cork), 245-6. 

Old Sarum (Wilts.), excavations at, 
in 1913, upon the site of the Cathe- 
dral Church, 100-19, 176, 180. 
Bishop Osmund's church (eleventh 
century), 101, 103-6, 109-10 ; di- 
mensions, 103; foundations, 106; 
historical facts, 101-2 ; plan, 103 ; 
struck by lightning, 102. Bishop 
Roger's church (twelfth century } : 
aisles, 102, 106, 107, 109-11 ; alleys, 
114, 115; almery, 104; altar plat- 
forms, 108, 110; altars, 103, 106, 
107, 110; ambulatory, 106-8, 116; 
arcades, 106, 110 ; arches, 106, 107, 
109, 110 ; architectural remains, 
115-16 ; bench, stone, 107 ; bishop's 
throne, 103; burial-ground, 111, 
112; buttresses, 104-6; chapels, 
102, 106-8, 111 ; chapter-house, 
105, 106 ; cloister, 102-6, 110, 114, 
115; coffins, 111-14, 116; crypt, 
104-6 ; dimensions of church, 110, 
111 ; disused and destroyed, 102, 
105, 115; doorways, 106, 107, 110 ; 
drain, stone, 114 ; eagle-desk, 109, 
110 ; floor, aisle, 110 ; pattern 
and colouring of, 105, 107, 116 ; 



plaster, 109 ; stone, 107, 116 
foundations, 106, 109-11 ; garde- 
robe pits, 114; garth. 114, 115; 
graves, 108 ; gravestones, 111, 112 ; 
house, remains of, 116 ; human 
remains, 111, 116; inscriptions on 
tombs, 111-13; loft, 109; monu- 
ments, 109, 111-13 ; nave, 102, 103, 
109-11, 114; objects found, 101, 
102, 109-16 ; pavement, 107, 108 ; 
pentise roof, 114 ; piers, 106, 109 ; 
platform, 109 ; porch, 107 ; pottery, 
111 ; presbytery, 102, 103, 105, 106, 
108-11, 115-17 ; pulpitum, 109, 110 ; 
quire, 109, 110; rood, 110; stair- 
case, 104, 109 ; stair-turrets, 110 ; 
stalls, 109 ; steps, 104, 106-8 ; stone 
socket in floor, 109 ; subvault, 102, 
104, 105; tiles, 114, 116; pat- 
terned, 116 ; ridge, 101 ; roof- 
ing, 101; tombs, 108, 111-14; 
towers, 106, 109, 111 ; transepts, 
102, 105, 106, 110, 111, 115 ; vaults, 
104, 108; vices, 108; walls, 102, 
104, 107, 108. 110, 111, 114; well, 
104. 

Oliphant : see Horn. 

Olla, Romano-British, from the Brue 
district (Som.), 139. 

Oppenheimer, Henry, elected, 46 ; 
admitted, 73. 

Oronsay, Island of (Scotland), shell- 
mounds in, 241 ; Viking bronze 
brooches, 242. 

Osmund, Bishop, church of, at Old 
Sarum, 101, 103-6, 109-10 ; Customs 
of, 109 ; tomb of, 109. 

Ouseburn, Great (Yorksj, appropria- 
tion of church at, 195 n. 

Oxford : see Bodleian Library, New 
College. 

Oxfordshire, religious houses in, re- 
cords of episcopal visitation in the 
fifteenth century, 189, 190. See also 
Dorchester, Oxford. 

Page, William, elected a member of 
the Council, 184 ; exhibits frag- 
ment of a bone pax of the four- 
teenth or fifteenth century, found 
at St. Michael on Wyre (Lanes.), 
153. 

Paintings : on roof of private chapel 
of Earl Ferrers at Staunton Harold 
(Leic.), 122 ; portrait, oil, on copper, 
supposed to represent Richard 
Cromwell, 120 ; portraits of Christ, 
in oils, on circular oak panel, 72. 
See also Glass, Wall-paintings. 

Palaeolithic fauna of the lower 
Thames, 155, 162, 163. 



INDEX 



263 



Palaeoliths, 73, 78, 85, 86 ; from Ave- 
bury (Wilts.), 73 ; Dartford (Kent , 
155; Hackpen Hill (Wilts.), 78; 
Knowle Farm Pit (Wilts.). 78 ; 
Kiver-drift type, 78 ; Windmill 
Hill (Wilts.), 82. 

Palmer, Frederick William Morton, 
elected, 217. 

Palstave, bronze, Annesborough (co. 
Armagh), 246. 

Panels : bronze, from Thames at 
Hammersmith, 67, 71 ; Winchester 
(Hants), 64, 67 ; in outer wall of 
Wroxeter Church (Salop), 66 ; oak, 
with portrait of Christ, 72. 

Pnrentalia, Stephen Wren's, compari- 
son with data in, respecting the 
rebuilding of St. Paul's Cathedral, 
218-24, 228. 

Parr, Katherine, arms of, on stained 
glass, 211. 

Patens : standing, with covers, at 
private chapel of Earl Ferrers, 
Staunton Harold (Leic.), 123-4; 
thirteenth - century, at Wyke 
v Hants), 55. 

Patina on flints, 74, 75, 79 ; its value 
in determination of age, 80-7. 

Pax, bone, fragment of, fourteenth 
or fifteenth century, found at the 
church of St. Michael on Wyre 
(Lanes.), 153. 

Pearman. Rev. Morgan Thomas, death 
of, 165. 

Peers, Charles Reed, 182 ; re-elected 
Secretary, 183 ; on latten objects 
from St. Sampson's, Guei-nsey, 3-7; 
remarks by, 118, 127, 210. 

Pembroke, Earl of, arms of, on tapes- 
try at Hatfield House (Herts.), 238 

Pendants : amber and bronze, Hen- 
gistbury Head (Hants), 212 ; bronze, 
Varby (Sweden), 67 ; Elizabethan, 
235-6. 

Penshurst (Kent), deeds and seals at, 
231. 

Peter, Thurstan Collins, elected, 217. 

Peterborough Abbey (Northants), 
episcopal visitation of, in the fif- 
teenth century, 189, 191 n. 
1 Pillar Rooms', Knossos(Crete). 23-4. 
Pins : bronze, from sand-hills, Caith- 
ness (Scotland), 242 ; with a mov- 
able ring head, Island of Oronsay 
(Sc.), 242; gold. Strangford Loch 
co. Down), 246. 

Pits : Barnfield (Kent). 155, 162, 163 ; 
Dartford (Kent), 155; Knowle 
Farm (Wilts.), 78 ; Muirkirk (Ayr- 
shire), 241 ; St. Paul's Cathedral, 
London, 218, 219, 221 ; Swans- 



combe (Kent}, 155. 13 ; Wadon 
Hill (Wilts.), 83 ; Wansunt(Kent), 
155; Winterbourne Monkton 
(Wilts.), 82. 

Pitt-Rivers, General, 140,213; collec- 
tion of. 141, 168. 

Pixley, Francis William, appointed 
auditor, 73 ; elected a member of 
the Council, 184. 

Plasn-pentre (Denbighshire), ala- 
baster table of the Passion of 
Christ and another representing 
St. Armel, 31. 

Plate : engraved bronze, from Berk- 
shire, 71 ; silver cup and salt-cellar, 
in possession of the Company of Tin- 
plate Workers, 44-5; thirteenth- 
century paten, Wyke (Hants), 55. 
See also Church plate. 
Platyn, John, heraldic seal of, 231. 
Plunkett, Count, 246. 
Poitiers (France), early Romanesque 
capital with carved lions in Ste- 
Radegonde, 11. 

Polyptych, French, fourteenth cen- 
tury, depicting scenes connected 
with the Nativity, 14. 
Porphyry, verde-antico and red, Old 

Sarum (Wilts.), 116. 
Port, Charles George James, elected, 

46 ; admitted, 91. 
Portraits : see Paintings. 
Potters' stamps, Wroxeter (Salop), 

95. 

Pottery : Balmuildy (Scotland), 243 ; 
Corbridge (Northumb.), 187; Elcot, 
Marlborough (Wilts.), 83 ; Hengist- 
bury Head (Hants), 212-14 ; Knos- 
sos (Crete), 24 ; Mid-Somerset, 137- 
43 ; Muirkirk (Ayrshire), 241 ; 
Nythe Farm (Wilts.), 209; Old 
Sarum (Wilts.), Ill; St. Paul's 
Cathedral, London, 219, 223; Stew- 
artry of Kirkcudbright (Scotland), 
243 ; Wroxeter (Salop), 95, 96. 
Power, D'Arcy, elected a member of 

the Council, 184. 
Pownall, Assheton, 17. 
Praetorius, C. J., 51,53, 54 ; remarks 

by, 60. 
Prague Cathedral (Bohemia), horns 

or oliphants, carved, 12. 
Preston-Joy, Rev. Dr. Frederick 

Walker, death of, 165. 
Prevost, Sir Augustus, death of, 165. 
Prideaux, William de Courcy, elected, 
120 ; admitted, 121 ; exhibits a cast 
of the font at Melbury Bubb (Dor- 
set), 151. 

Pryce, F. N., 96, 97. 
Public Record Office : forgeries of 



264 



INDEX 



documents in, 238 ; nineteenth- 
century Exchequer tallies, 36 n. 

Public Records, Royal Commission 
on, 181. 

Pulteney, William de, heraldic seal 
of, 231. 

Quarrell, W. H., remarks by, 127. 

Radford, A. L., exhibits small collec- 
tion of English regal heraldic 
stained glass of the early sixteenth 
century, 211. 

Rahn, Prof. Johanii Rudolf, death of, 
166. 

Ramsbury (Wilts.), cross-shafts at, 
70. 

Ramsey Abbey (Hunts.), episcopal 
visitation of, in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, 189, 192, 193 ., 196 n. 

Rapiers, bronze, Andover (Hants), j 
33. 

Read, Sir Charles Hercules : Presi- 
dential address, 165-83 ; re-elected 
a member of the Council, 183 ; 
appointed Vice- President, 185 ; 
remarks by. 8, 21, 23, 26, 31, 87, j 
90, 97. 118, 128, 144, 151, 153, 163, 
232. 

Reader, Francis W., his work on 
London archaeology, 181. 

Records : see Documents, Public Re- 
cord Office. 

Red-hills (Essex), pottery and bri- 
quetage at, 143-4. 

Reginald, Bishop, builds church at 
Wells (Som.), 29, 30. 

Reid, Clement, remarks by, 163. 

Religious houses in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, state of, 202. 

Rhytons, or libation vessels, in the 
form of heads of bulls, lions, and 
other animals, from Knossos 
(Crete), 24-5. 

Rice. Robert C4arraway, appointed 
scrutator, 165-; remarks bv, 97, 
162. 

Richard I, shield of, on stained glass, 
from Lichfielcl Cathedral, 211. 

Richard III, boar's-head badge on 
quarry of stained glass, 211. 

Ringerike (Norway), style of sculp- j 
ture,64ff., 71. 

Rings : finger, small, Clausentum 
(Hants), 34, 35; posy, collection I 
of, 120 ; signet, 231. 

Ritual vessels, of painted clay, from 
Knossos (Crete), 24. 

River-drift palaeoliths, 78. 

Robertsbridge Abbey C Sussex), deeds 
and seals of, 231 , 232. 



Robinson, Very Rev. J. Armitage, on 
effigies of Saxon bishops at Wells, 
28-31. 

Rochester (Kent), arms of city on 
fragment of stained glass, 90 ; 
' wheel of fortune ' in cathedral, 
56. 

Rogart (Scotland), penannular 
brooches from, 228. 

Roger, Bishop, 113; church of, at 
Old Sarum, 102, 105, 111; monu- 
mental effigy of, 109. 

Rogers, William Henry Hamilton, 
death of, 165. 

Rogers, Rev. W. 0. B., exhibits an 
alabaster table of the Passion of 
Christ, 31. 

Roman and pre-Roman roads in Eng- 
land, 205-10. 

Roman pottery, etc., found at Nythe 
Farm (Wilts.), 208-9. 

Roman remains : Akeman Street, 208; 
Andover (Hants), 32-3; Annes- 
borough (co. Armagh), 246 ; Bal- 
muildy (Scotland), 243; Cadder 
(Sc.), 244; Clausentum (Hants), 
33 ; Corbridge (Northumb.), 185-8 ; 
Corstopitum(Northumb.), 185, 186; 
FossWay, 205; Hengistbury Head 
(Hants), 212, 214; Highbridge 
(Som.), 142 ; Long Sutton (Lines.), 
140 ; Mid-Somerset, 137-43 ; Mum- 
rills (Sc.) ,244; Nythe Farm(Wilts.), 
208-9; Ryknield Street, 204-8; 
St.Paul'sCathedral,London,siteof, 
223 ; Trap rain Law (East Lothian), 
243 ; Westbury Ironworks (Wilts.), 
140 ; Wroxeter (Salop), 94-6 ; Ythan 
Wells (Aberdeenshire), 244. 

Romano-British finds at Kettering 
(Northants), 245 ; potteries in Mid- 
Somerset, 137-43. 

Romney, Earl of, owner of gold 
enamelled prayer-book, 236. 

Rosenheim, Maurice, exhibits a col- 
lection of signet rings and seal 
matrices, 231. 

Round, Dr. J. H., 99. 

Rowberrow (Som.\ carving on font, 
71. 

Royal Archaeological Institute, 117. 

Royal Historical Manuscripts Com- 
mission, 235. 

Royal Irish Academy, 246, 247. 

Royds, Colonel Sir Clement Moly- 
neux, elected, 120 ; admitted, 165. 

Runic stones in Denmark, 67-8. 

Rushforth, G. M C N., on the Wheel of 
the Ten Ages of Life in Leominster 
Church (Hereford), 47-60. 

Ryknield or Riknild Street, 204-10. 



Kyle, Bishop, 
92. 



=?an of Westminster, 



Sacheverell, arms of, on sixteenth- 
century tapestry cushion-cover, 
236-7. 

Sacheverell, Henry, 237. 

Sa che verell, Ralph , of Rearsby ( Lei c. ) , 
237. 

Saddle, from the chantry chapel of 
Henry V at Westminster, 92. 

St. Acheul type of implements from 
the Greenhithe shell-bed, 155, 162, 
163. 

St. Bees (Cumberland), Norse cross 
at, 62, 64, 65. 

Saint Denis (France), twelfth-cen- 
tury window with wheel-design of 
seven gifts of the Spirit, 56. 

St. Michael on Wyre (Lanes.), frag- 
ment of bone pax of the fourteenth 
or fifteenth century, found under 
the floor of the church vestry, 158. 

St. Paul's Cathedral, some investiga- 
tions into the soil in and around, 
and comparison with data in Wren's 
Parentalia^ 218-24 ; animal remains, 
224; architectural discoveries, 218- 
20, 223; bore-holes, 218-20, 222; 
cathedral account-books, 219, 220 ; 
churchyard, 223, 224 ; coins dis- 
covered, 223 ; dome, 219 ; footings, 
219, 220; foundations, 219, 220, 
223, 224, 226, 228 ; geological for- 
mation, 218, 220-4 ; graves, 224 ; 
kilns, 225, 228 ; objects discovered, 
218, 223, 228 ; piers, 219, 224 ; pits, 

218, 219, 221 ; pottery, 219, 223, 
225, 228 ; quire, 219 ; water-level, 

219, 220, 222 ; wells, 219, 228. 
St. Sampson : see Guernsey. 
Salop : see Wroxeter. 

Salt-cellar, silver, in possession of the 

Company of Tin-plate Workers, 44. 
Salzburg Museum : watering-irons of 

the sixteenth century, 147. 
Samian ware : Nythe Farm (Wilts.), 

209 ; Stewartry of Kirkcudbright 

(Scotland), 243 ; Wroxeter (Salop), 

95. 
Sandars, Horace William, elected a 

member of the Council, 184. 
Sands, Harold, appointed auditor, 73 ; 

re-elected a member of the Council, 

183 ; special vote of thanks to, for 

gift to the Library, 185. 
Santoii (Norfolk), oval bowl-shaped 

brooches from, 242. 
Sarum, Old : see Old Sarum. 
Saxon bishops, effigies of, at Wells 

(Som.), 28-31. 



Scabbard-chape, from York, 71. 

Scabbards, bronze, Andover (Hants), 
33, 35. 

Scandinavia : penannular brooches 
from, 228 ; sculpture, 63-8. 

Schetelig, Dr. Haakon, of Bergen, 64, 
65, 66, 68. 

Schmidt, Father, organ by, at private 
chapel of Earl Ferrers, Staunton 
Harold (Leic.), 124. 

Scotland, archaeological discoveries 
in, during the session 1913-14, 
240-4. 

Scotland, National Museum of, objects 
added to the, 242. 

Scotland : see Aberdeenshire, Bal- 
muildy, Caithness, Croy, Cuerdale, 
Drumcoltran, Dumfriesshire, Glas- 
gow, Kirkcudbright, Muirkirk, 
Mumrills, Oronsay, Rogart, Trap- 
rain Law. 

Scott, John Oldrid, death of, 166. 

Scott, Sir Walter, on the Clephane 
horn, 203. 

Scrapers, near Avebury (Wilts.), 77 ; 
Windmill Hill (Wilts.), 74-6. 

Sculpture : animal motives, 63, 65, 67 ; 
architectural fragments of temple, 
Wroxeter (Salop), 94 ; capital, early 
Romanesque, with carved lions, 
Poitiers (France), 11 ; capital, with 
carved monster, S. Ambrogio, 
Milan, 11 n. ; carving on cross- 
shafts, Ramsbury (Wilts.), 70; 
West Camel (Som.), 70-1 ; on fonts, 
Dalton (Devon), 63, 72 ; Rowberrovv 
(Som.), 71 ; chest-front at New 
College, Oxford, 135; clasp-knife 
handle, Wroxeter (Salop), 95 ; 
crucified figure on Jellinge stone, 
66 ; designs on gravestone and 
slabs, Bibury (Glos.), 64-7 ; effigies 
of Saxon bishops, Wells (Som.), 
28-9 ; fragment on wall of Wroxeter 
Church (Salop), 152 ; fragments, 
Balmuildy (Scotland), 243; head 
of a horse and small female head, 
Wroxeter (Salop), 94-5; heads, 
Old Sarum (Wilts.), 115 ; heads on 
stone fragment, Somerford Keynes 
(Wilts.), 67, 72; Jellinge style 
(Danish), 65 ff. ; mitred figures, 
Wells (Som.), 30; Ringerike style 
(Norway), 64 ff., 71 ; Scandinavian. 
63 ff. ; stag-like creature on grave- 
stone, St. Paul's churchyard, Lon- 
don, 67 ; stone carvings from Glou- 
cester (Glos.), 61, 71; Maughold 
and Ramsey (Isle of Man , 69, 70 ; 
Somerford Keyne (Wilts.), 67, 72; 
stones of snake-pattern, Maughold 



266 



INDEX 



(Isle of Man), 63 ; Viking period, 
carvings of, from Bibury (Glos.\ 
(JO ff. See also Alabaster, Ivory 
carvings, Stone objects. 

Seals : medieval, belonging to Lord 
De L'Isle and Dudley, 231-5 ; of 
the Abbot of Furness (Lanes.), 99 ; 
of Henry II as Duke of Normandy, 
231 ; of Robertsbridge Abbey (Sus- 
sex), 231, 232 ; of Tatteshall College 
(Lines.), 231 ; of Waltham Abbey 
(Essex), 232 ; on Penshurst deeds, 
231 ; matrices exhibited from the 
collections of M. Rosenheim and 
the late Sir John Evans, 231, 232 ; 
of the extinct borough of New- 
borough (Anglesey), 120. 

Selsey (Sussex), fragment of gold 
filigree from, 133-4. 

Septimius Severus, coin of, 186. 

Seymour, Jane, arms and badge of, 
on stained glass, 211. 

Shakespeare, plant-lore of, 238. 

Shears, iron, Island of Oronsay (Scot- 
land), 242. 

Sheldon, William, weaving factories 
of, in Warwickshire, 238. 

Sherborne, Bishopric of, transferred 
to Old Sarum, 101. 

Shickle, Rev. C. W., remarks by, 30. 

Shields : from the chantry chapel of 
Henry Vat Westminster, exhibited, 
92 ; gold, model of, Strangford Loch 
(co. Down), 246. 

Shirley, Sir Robert, arms of, 122 ; 
founder of church at Staunton 
Harold (Leic.), 121 ; inscription to, 
in the church, ib. 

Silchester (Hants), excavation at, 
180. 

Silver objects : ' Aris ' cup, 45 ; baton, 
silver-gilt mounted, fifteenth cen- 
tury, 18-21 ; < Bell ' salt-cellar, 44 ; 
chrismatory ?, parcel-gilt, medieval 
French, 18 ; processional cross, 
fourteenth - century Italian, 21 ; 
tabernacle, parcel-gilt, with Virgin 
and Child, fourteenth - century 
French, 17. See also Plate. 

Simpson, Frank, admitted, 211. 

Sitwell, Sir George, exhibits an ala- 
baster effigy of St. John the Baptist. 
152. 

Skeletons, human, Old Sarum 
(Wilts.), Ill, 116. 

Smith, H. Clifford, on an heraldic 
'puzzle table', with exhibit, 21-2; 
exhibits latten foot of English 
altar-cross, with note, 41-4 ; ex- 
hibits profile portrait of Christ, in 
oils, on a circular oak panel, 7'2 ; 



oil the 'Danny unicorn jewel', 
with exhibit, 235-5 ; on a sixteenth- 
century English tapestry cushion- 
cover, with exhibit, 236-8; re- 
elected a member of the Council, 
183. 

! Smith, Reginald A., 74, 84, 245 ; on 
four sculptures of the Viking period 
from Bibury (Glos.), 60-72 ; on two 
cinerary urns of the Early Iron Age 
found at Deal (Kent), 129-33 ; on 
a fragment of gold filigree from 
Selsey (Sussex), 133-4; on the 
High Terrace of the Thames, 154- 
5 ; on Irish brooches of five cen- 
turies, 228-9; on a Late-Celtic 
cinerary virn found at Letchworth 
Garden City (Herts.), 238-40 ; re- 
arranges the museum of the Society, 
181 ; remarks by, 34, 85, 97, 152, 
163, 210, 213, 228, 230. 

Smith, Worthington, 35. 

Sollas, Prof., 74. 

Solon, Louis Marc, obituary notice, 
169-70. 

Somerford Keynes (Wilts.), stone 
carving from, 67, 72. 

Somerset (Mid), Romano-British 
potteries in, 137-43 ; bars, 141 ; 
beakers, 140; bowls, 140; bricks, 
141-2; briquetage, 140-1, 144; 
cinerary urns, 139 ; clay, 141 ; 
coins, 142 ; date of the potteries, 
142, 144 ; dishes and jugs, 140 : 
kilns, 141, 142, 144 ; luting, 141 ; 
mounds, 138-9, 144 ; olla, 139 ; 
process of firing, 141 ; red glazed 
ware, 140 ; tiles, 140-1 ; urns, 139- 
40 ; ' wasters ', absence of, 143, 144. 

Somersetshire: seeGlastonbury,High- 
bridge, Rowberrow, Wells, West 
Camel. 
I Somme Bionne, dept. Marne (France), 

cinerary urn from, 132, 133. 
j South Kensington Exhibition (1862). 
204. 

Spear - ferrules, bronze, Andover 

(Hants), 33, 35. 
i Spear -heads, winged, Andover 

(Hants), 33, 34. 
| Spindle-whorls, Hengistbury Head 

(Hants), 212. 

' Staffordshire : see Wolverhampton. 
; Stamford (Lines.), episcopal visita- 
tion of St. Michael's Priory in the 
fifteenth century, 189. 

Statues, fragments of, Wroxeter 
(Salop), 94-5. 

Staunton Harold (Leic.), the private 
chapel of the Earl Ferrers at, 121- 
8; altar. 122, 123; altar-cloth, 



INDEX 



267 



123, 127 ; altar-pall, 123 ; arms of 
Shirley family, 122, 124; ceiling 
androof, painted, 122, 127 ; chancel, ; 
121, 122 ; choir, 124 ; corporas, 123, ! 
126, 128 ; font, 124 ; gallery, 124 ; 
inscriptions to Sir Robert Shirley, I 
122, 124 ; nave, 121-3 ; oak panel- 
ling, 122, 128; organ, 124-5 ; orna- j 
ments, 123 ; paten, covered, 128 ; j 
pavement, 123 ; plate, 123-4, 126, i 
128; presbytery, 122, 123; pulpit, | 
124 ; reading-desks, 125 ; roofs, 121, ] 
122 ; screen, 124, 128 ; service- 
books, 124, 125 ; tables of the Deca- 
logue, etc., 122-3 ; tower, 121, 124, 
127-8; vestry, 125 ; walls, 121, 122, 
126. 

Staves, pastoral, on Saxon effigies at 
Wells (Som.), 31. 

Steatite, bull's-head rhyton, Knossos 
(Crete), 24. 

Stephenson, Mill, remarks by, 93, 96. 

Stirling, Captain, of Keir, gift for 
research work to the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland, 244. 

Stoke Poges (Bucks.), latten foot of 
portable cross from, 42. 

Stone objects : arch-stones of Norman 
doorway, and architectural re- 
mains of vaulting, etc., Old Sarum 
^ Wilts.), 115-16 ; casings for boxes 
containing human bones, Wells 
(Som.), 29 ; chisel-like objects, 
Island of Oronsay (Scotland), 241 ; 
coffin-lids, Old Sarum (Wilts.), 112- 
13; coffins, Old Sarum (Wilts. , 
111-14,116; figure, Kirkby Stephen 
(Westm.), 66 ; flooring, Old Sarum 
(Wilts.), 116 ; mace, Knossos 
(Crete). 24 ; recumbent slab, Bibury 
(Glos.), 61-2 ; rhyton in shape of 
lioness's head, Delphi, 24 ; slab 
with snake-pattern, Bibury (Glos.), 
62-4 ; slabs, with designs on face, 
Bibury (Glos.), 64-5 ; tombstones, 
Old Sarum (Wilts.), 112-14; worked 
and moulded stones, Old Sarum 
(Wilts.), 101, 102, 115. See also 
Sculpture. 

Stow (Lines. . episcopal visitation of, 
in 1440, 190. 

Stradling, William, 011 potteries in 
the Brue district (Som.), 138-9, 
142. 

Strahan, Dr., remarks by, 162. 

Strangford Loch (co. Down), hoard 
of gold objects from neighbour- 
hood of, 246-7. 

Street, Eugene Edward, death of, 
166. 

Sturge, Dr., 87. 



Suffolk : see Long Melford. 

Surrey Archaeological Society, 117. 

Sussex : see Cissbury, Robertsbridge 

Abbey, Selsey. 
Swan scorn be (Kent), excavations at, 

155, 163. 
Sword-blade, bronze, Drumcoltran 

(Kirkcudbright), 242. 
Swords : bronze, leaf-shaped, And- 

over (Hants), 33-5 ; Viking, from 

Dumfriesshire, 242. 
Sydney family, descent of, 231. 
Sydney, Sir Henry, 231. 
Sydney, Nicholas, of West Preston 

(Sussex), 231. 
Sydney, Sir Philip, 231. 
Sydney, William, of Kingsham ^Sus- 
sex), arms of, 231. 
Sydney, Sir William, of Peiishurst 

(Kent), 231. 

Tabernacle, parcel-gilt, with Virgin 
and Child, 17. 

Tables, alabaster : of St. Armel and 
of the Passion of Christ, from 
Plasn-pentre (Denbighshire), 81. 

Tablets, lead, with names of Saxon 
bishops, 29, 30. 

Tallies, private, from an original 
Exchequer account of 1304, 36-40 ; 
eighteenth-century tallies in the 
London Museum, 36 n. ; nineteenth- 
century tallies in the Guildhall 
Museum and Public Record Office, 
t'&.; examples of wording, 40; marks 
for halfpenny and sixpence, 40 ; 
methods of cutting, 39-40. 

Tapestry : hangings at Chawton 
Manor (Hants), 238 ; heraldic, 236- 
8 ; maps in the Bodleian Library 
and in the York Museum, 238; 
panels at Hatfield House (Herts.), 
238; sixteenth-century English 
cushion-cover, 236-8. 

Tapp, W. M., 117. 

Tatteshall College (Lines.), deeds and 
seals of, 231. 

Tauiiton Museum : Roman jug from 
pottery in the Brue district (Som.), 
139. 

Taylor, Rev. William, exhibits a 
number of latten objects lately dis- 
covered at St. Sampson's Church, 
Guernsey, 3-7. 

Temple, Lady, 18. 

Tennant, Cecil Arthur, appointed 
auditor, 73 ; elected a member of 
the Council, 184. 

Thames, bronze panel from, 67, 71 ; 
geological survey of the High 
terrace of the, 154-5. 



268 



INDEX 



Theodosius I, coins of, Wroxeter 
(Salop), 95. 

Thirsk, John of, 92. 

Thompson, A. Hamilton, on visita- 
tions of religious houses by William 
of Alnwick, Bishop of Lincoln 
1436-49, 189-203. 

Thomson, Lyon, remarks by, 229. 

Thornholm Priory (Lines.), injunc- 
tions to, 200-1. 

Thornton Abbey (Lines.), injunctions 
to, 196. 

Tiles: Brue district (Son.), 140-1; 
plain and patterned, Old Sarum 
(Wilts.), 101, 114, 116. 

Tin-plate Workers, Company of, plate 
belonging to, exhibited, 44. 

Tipping, H. A., remarks by, 90. 

Tomb of the Double Axes. Knossos 
(Crete), 24-5. 

Tores : bronze, Annesborough (co. 
Armagh), 246 ; gold, Hengistbury 
Head (Hants), 212; twisted, Strang- 
ford Loch (co. Down), 246. 

Traprain Law (East Lothian), excava- 
tions on, 243-4. 

Treasure trove, rights in regard to. 

Triptych, ivory, with scene of Cruci- 
fixion between the Virgin and St. 
John, with medallions and busts 
of saints, 13-14. 

Trist, John William, death of, 166. 

Troyte-Chafyn-Grove, George, death 
of, 166. 

Unicorn jewel, Danny (Sussex), 

Urns: Broadstairs (Kent), 129, 130; 
Brue district (Som.), 139-40; 
Bussy-le-Chateau, dept. Marne 

' (France), 130, 131 ; Deal (Kent\ 
128-33 ; Denmark, 129 ; Edington 
Mill, Chirnside (Berwick), 242 ; 
Germany, 129 ; Hengistbury Head 
(Hants), 213, 214; Kettering 
(Northants), 245 ; Letchworth Gar- 
den City (Herts.), 238-40; Marson, 
dept. Marne (France), 130, 131 ; 
Mesnil-les-Hurlus, dept. Marne 
(France), 131, 132; Scandinavin. 
J29; Sornme Bionne. dept. Marne 
(France), 132, 133. See also Cine- 
rary urns, Vases. 

Valeriano,Piero,on symbols of human 
life, 55. 

Vallance, Aymer, remarks by, 8. 136. 

Van de Put, A., 147, 148. 

Varby (Sweden), oriental bronze- 
pendant from. 67. 



Vases : painted, ' Palace style ', 
Knossos (Crete), 24 ; polychrome, 
Knossos, 24. 

Vassall, Henry, admitted, 28. 

Venus, amethyst paste gem, engraved 
with figure of, Wroxeter (Salop), 
95. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, South 
Kensington : carved chest, 136 ; 
horn or oliphant, 9 ; latten foot of 
altar-cross, 42 ; Memento Mori charm, 
236 ; polyptych, 14 ; tapestry, 238. 

Viking period : brooches, bronze, 
Caithness and Island of Oronsay 
(Scotland), 242 ; penannular, 
228-30 ; sculptures, Bibury (Glos.), 
60-72 ; sword, Dumfriesshire, 242. 

Vitrified fort, Stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright (Scotland), 241. 

Volterra (Italy;, gold beads from. 
exhibited, 46. 

von Landsperg. Herrad, twelfth-cen- 
tury abbess, wheel-window in the 
Hortus DeUciarum of, 57, 59. 

Waberthwaite (Cumberland), stand- 
ing cross at, 62. 

Wadon Hill (Wilts.), Late-Celtic pit 
at, 83. 

Watering-irons of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, Germanic, 144-51 ; arms and 
crests on plates, 145, 147-50 ; de- 
signs produced by engraving and 
by stamps, 144-51 ; inscriptions, 
145, 147-50 ; representations of 
sacred and secular subjects, 145, 
148-51. 

Waller, J. G. , on the l wheel of human 
life' in the Arundel Psalter, 48, 
50, 57. 

Wall-paintings : wheel of life, Kemp- 
ley Church (Glos.), 47, 55; wheel 
of the ten ages of life, Leominster 
Church (Hereford), 47-8, 50-5, 60. 

Walpole, Horace, 18. 

Walters, H. B., remarks by, 30, 96. 

Waltham Abbey (Essex), seal of, 
232-3. 

Wanda, William de. Dean of Salis- 
bury, 108, 109. 

Wangforcl (Suffolk), graver from. 
75 n. 

Wansunt (Kent), excavations at, 155. 

Ward, William Henry, elected, 217 ; 
admitted, 218. 

Warner, Sir G., on the ' wheel of 
human life ' in the Arundel Psal- 
ter, 49, 50. 

Warren, E. P., remarks by, 126. 

Warren, S. Hazzledine, exhibits por- 
tions of two cinerary urns of the 



INDEX 



26!) 



Early Iron Age, found at Deal 
(Kent), 128. 

Way, Albert, 72. 

Weaver, Lawrence, remarks by, 228. 

Weaving: English, sixteenth-century 
specimens of, 236-8 ; implements. 
Hengistbury Head (Hants), 212. 

Weber, Martin, arms of, on Germanic 
wafering-iron of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, 148-9. 

Weinhold, Karl, on the symbolism of 
wheel-windows, 58-9. 

Wellow Abbey (Lines. \ injunction 
to, 201. 

Wells (Som.), effigies of Saxon bishops 
at the Cathedral church, 28-31. 

Westbury Ironworks (Wilts.) : bronze 
coin of Constantine I, 140 ; cinerary 
urn, ib. 

West Camel (Som.), cross-shaft at, 
70-1. 

Westminster, monument and chantry 
chapel of King Henry V, 89, 91-2 ; 
statues and imagery, 92. 

Westmorland : see Kirkby Stephen. 

Wheel-windows, symbolical of Lifo 
and Fortune, 47-60 ; wheels at 
Amiens, 59; Chartres, 56, 57; 
Cologne, 56 ; Leominster (Here- 
ford), 47-8, 50-5, 60 ; Notre-Dame, ! 
Mantes, 57 ; Eochester Cathedral, 
56; Saint Denis, 56 ; SaiiitEtienne, 
Beauvais, 59; St. James's, Bristol, 
57 ; in the Arundel Psalter, 48-50, : 
52-5 ; in the Hortus Deliciarum of 
a twelfth-century abbess, 57, 59 ; 
in sketch-book of a thirteenth-cen- 
tury ai'chitect, 57, 60. 

Whitaker, Cuthbert Wilfrid, elected, 
46 ; admitted, 47. 

Whitwell, E. J., 41 n. 

Willett, Edgar, 133. 

Willett, Ernest, 133. 

Willett, Henry, 133. 

Wilmer, Horace, appointed auditor, 
73 ; re-elected a member of the 
Council, 183 ; remarks by, 117, 
143. 

Wiltshire Archaeological Society, 117. 

Wiltshire : see Avebury, Clatford 
Bottom, Elcot, Hackpen Hill. 
Knowle Farm, Old Sarum, Eams- 
bury, Somerford Keynes, Wadon 



Hill, Westbury, Windmill Hill. 
Winterbourne Monkton. 

Winchester (Hants), bronze panel at, 
64, 67, 71. 

Windmill Hill (Wilts.), flint imple- 
ments, 74-9, 81-2. 

Winterbourne Monkton (Wilts.), sar- 
sen at, 79 ; knife under sarsen, in 
a Bronze Age burial, 80 ; two Late- 
Celtic pits at, 82. 

Wolverhampton (Stafford), cross- 
shaft at, 151. 

Wood, J. G., remarks by, 93, 210. 

Wood objects: boxes containing 
human bones, Wells (Som.), 29 ; 
heraldic ' puzzle table ' on four- 
legged stool, from Edenbridge 
(Kent), 21 ; staves, pastoral, on 
Saxon effigies at Wells (Som.), 31. 

Worcestershire : see Chaddesley-Cor- 
bett. 

Wren, Sir Christopher, and the re- 
building of St. Paul's Cathedral, 
218-24, 228. 

Wren, Christopher, the younger, 218. 

Wren, Stephen, his statements in 
the Parentalia, as to the rebuilding 
of St. Paul's Cathedral, 218-24, 
228. 

Wright, Dr. W., remarks by, 97. 

Wroxeter (Salop), excavations at, 
94-8, 176, 180 ; discovery of temple. 
94-5 ; objects found, 95. 

Wroxeter Church (Salop), carved 
panel in outer wall, 66, 152. 

Wyke (Hants), inscription on thir- 
teenth-century paten, 55. 

York Cathedra], archiepiscopal regis- 
ters at, 193 ; horn or oliphant, 
carved, 9. 

York Museum, tapestry maps in, 238. 

Yorkshire : see Bolton Priory, Colling- 
ham, Ouseburn, York. 

Young, Sidney, death of, 166. 

Ythan Wells (Aberdeenshire), Eoman 
camp at, 244. 

Zuccharo, portrait ascribed to, 236. 
Zurich National Museum : wafering- 

irons of the sixteenth century, 

147. 



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