Skip to main content

Full text of "Proceedings [serial]"

See other formats


University of North Carolina. 

Endowed by the Dialectic and Philanthropic 

Call No. 






Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 

This BOOK may be kept out TWO WEEKS 
ONLY, and is subject to a fine of FIVE 
CENTS a day thereafter. It was taken out on 
the day indicated below: 

mr 1 1 




Price, $2 50 

17. Richmond, Va., May 30 and 31, June 1, 2 and 3, 


18. Birmingham, Ala., June 9, 10 and 11, 1908. 

New Orleans, La. 
United Confederate Veterans. 


I am much pleased to be able to issue in bound 
form Volume Four of the Minutes of the United Con- 
federate Veterans. 

Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 

New Orleans, La., Oct. 31, 1910. 



Seventeenth Annual Meeting 
and reunion 


United Confederate Veterans 



Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday and Monday, 
May 30th and 3ist, June 1st, 2d and 3d, 1907. 

STEPHEN D. LEE, General Commanding 

WM. E. MICKLE, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 





United Confederate Veterans 



General STErHEN D. LEE. General Commanding, Columbus Miss. 
Major General WM. E. MICKLE, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, 
New Orleans, La. 


Lieut. General C. IRVINE WALKER, Commander. Charleston. S. C. 
Brig. General RICHARD B. DAVIS, Adjutant Genera! and Chief of 
Staff, Petersburg, Va. 

South Carolina Division. 

Major General TIIOS. W. CARWILE, Commander. Edgefield. S. C. 

Col. J. M. JORDAN. Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Green- 
ville, S. C. 

Brisr. General ZIMMERMAN DAVIS, Commanding 1st Brigade, Charles- 
ton, S. C. 

Brig. General B. H. TEAGUE, Commanding 2nd Brigade, Aiken. S. C. 

North Carolina Division. 

Major General JULIAN S. CARR, Commander, Durham, N. C. 

Col. H. A. LONDON, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Pittsboro, 

N. C. 
Brig. General P. C. CARLTON. Commanding 1st Brigade, Statesville, 

^ N. C. 
Brig. General W. L. LONDON, Commanding 2nd Brigade, Pittsboro, 

N. C. 
Brig. General JAS. 1. METTS, Commanding 3rd Brigade, 'Wilmington, 

^ N. C. 
Brig. General JAS. M. RAY, Commanding 4th Brigade, Asheville N. C. 

Virginia Division. 

Major General STITH ROLLING, Commander, Petersburg. Va. 

Col. WM. M. EVANS, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. Peters- 
burg, Va. 

Brig. General THOMAS W. SMITH, Commanding 1st Brigade, Suf- 
folk, Va. 

Brig. General JAS. MACGILL. Commanding 2nd Brigade, Pulaski, Va. 

Brig. General R. D. FUNKHOUSER, Commanding 3rd Brigade, Maurer- 
town, Va. 

Brig. General JAMES BAUMGARDENER, Commanding 4th Brigade, 
Staunton, Va. 

West Virginia Division. 

Major General ROBERT WHITE. Commander. Wheeling, W. Va. 

Col. A. C. L. GATE V OOD, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, 
Linwood, W. Va. 

Brig. General DAVID E. JOHNSTON, Commanding 1st Brigade, Blue- 
field, W. Va. 

Brig. General S. S. GREEN, Commanding 2nd Brigade, Charleston, 
W. Va. 

Maryland Division. 

Major General A. C. TRIPPE. Commander, Baltimore, Md. 

Col. DAVID S. BRISCOE, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Bal- 
timore, Md. 

Brig. General OSWALD TIGHLMAN, Commanding 1st Brigade, Easton, 

Brig. General FRANK A. BOND, Commanding 2nd Brigade, Lumber- 
town, N. C. 


Lieut. General CLEMENT A. EVANS, Commander, Atlanta, Ga 
Brig. General E. T. SYKES. Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 
Columbus, Miss. 

Louisiana Division. 

Major General J. ADOLPH PRUDHOMME, Commander, Bermuda, La. 
Col. T. W. CASTLEMAN, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, New 
Orleans, La. 

Tennessee Division. 

Major General GEO. W. GORDON, Commander, Memphis, Tenn. 

Col. JOHN P. HICKMAN, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

Brig. General JOHN M. BROOKS, Commanding 1st Brigade. Knoxville. 

Brig. General JOHN M. TAYLOR, Commanding 2nd Brigade, Lexington. 

Brig. General CLAY STACKER, Commanding 3rd Brigade, Clarksville, 

Florida Division. 

Major General WM. H. JEWELL, Commander, Orlando, Fla. 

Col. KOBT. J. MAGILL. Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Jackson- 
ville, Fla. 

Brig. General SAMUEL PASCO, Commanding 1st Brigade, Monticello, 
. Fla. 

Brig. General JOHN C. DAYAXT, Commanding 2nd Brigade, Brooks- 
ville, Fla. 

Brig. General ROBERT W. DAVIS, Commanding 3rd Brigade, Tampa. 

Alabama Division* 

Major General GEO. P. HARRISON, Commander, Opelika, Ala. 

Col. HARVEY E. JONES. Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Mont- 
gomery, Ala. 

Brig. General JNO. W. A. SANFORD. Commanding 1st Brigade, Mont- 
gomery, Ala. 

Brig. General I*. D. BOWLES. Commanding 2nd Brigade, Evergreen, 

Brig. General J. N. THOMPSON, Commanding 3rd Brigade, Tuscumbia, 

Brig. General J. W. BUSH, Commanding 4th Brigade, Birmingham, Ala. 

Mississippi Division. 

Major General ROBT. LOWRY, Commander, Jackson, Miss. 

Col. J. L. McCASKILL, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Bran- 
don, Miss. 

Brig. General W. A. MONTGOMERY. Commanding 1st Brigade, Ed- 
wards, Miss. 

Brig. General J. P. CARTER, Commanding 2nd Brigade. McComb City, 

Brig. General GEO. M. HELM, Commanding 3rd Brigade, Greenville, 

Georgia Division. 

Major General A. J. WEST, Commander, Atlanta, Ga. 

Colonel J. COLTON LYNES, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Brig. General LOUIS G. YOUNG, Commanding South Georgia Brigade, 
Savannah, Ga. 

Brig. General JOHN W. CLARK, Commanding East Georgia Brigade, 
Augusta. Ga. 

Brig. General LOVICK PIERCE THOMAS, Commanding North Georgia 
Brigade, Atlanta, Ga. 

Brig. General JAMES E. DeVAUGHN, Commanding West Georgia Bri- 
gade, Montezuma, Ga. 

Kentucky Division. 

Major General BENNETT H. YOUNG. Commander, Louisville, Ky. 
Col. W. A. MILTON, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Louisville, Ky. 
Brig. General JAMES R. ROGERS, Commanding 1st Brigade, Paris, 

Ky. . , 

Brig. General W. J. STONE, Commanding 2nd Brigade, Kuttawa, Ky. 
Brig. General D. THORNTON, Commanding 3rd Brigade, Louisville, Ivy. 
Brig. General P. P. JOHNSON, Commanding 4th Brigade, Lexington, 


Lieut. General W. L. CABELL, Commander, Dallas, Tex. 
Brig. General A. T. WATTS, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, 
Beaumont, Tex. 

Texas Division. 

Major General K. M. Van ZANDT, Commander, Fort Worth, Tex. 
Col. GEO. JACKSON, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Fort 

Worth, Tex. 
Brig. General T. J. GIBSON. Commanding 1st Brigade, Mexia, Tex. 
Brig. General T. L. LARGEN, Commanding 2nd Brigade, San Antonio, 

Brig. General F. T. ROCHE, Commanding 3rd Brigade, Georgetown, 

Brig. General W. B. BERRY, Commanding 4th Brigade, Brookstone, 

Brig. General JOHN S. NAPIER. Commanding 5th Brigade, Vernon, 


Indian Territory Division. 

Major General JOHN W. JORDAN, Commander. Cleveland. Okla. 
Col. Z. T. SERNER, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Durant. 

Indian Territory. 
Brig. General DAN J. KENDALL, Commanding Chickasaw Brigade, 

Sulphur, Indian Territory. 
Brig. General D. M. HA1LEY, Commanding Choctaw Brigade. Hailey- 

ville, Indian Territory. 
Brig. General CHAS. M. McCLELLAN, Commanding Cherokee Brigade, 

Clarfmore, Indian Territory. 
Brig. General WM. E. GENTRY, Commanding Creek Brigade, Checotah. 

Indian Territory. 

Missouri Division. 

Major General JOHN B. STONE. Commander. Kansas City, Mo. 
Col. D. K. MORTON. Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Kansas 

City, Mo. 
Brig. General T. J. COUSINS, Commander Eastern Brigade, Hannibal, 

Brig. General J. D. INGRAM, Commanding Western Brigade, Nevada, 


Arkansas Division. 

Major Genera! JAMES H. BERRY, Commander. Pine Bluff. Ark. 
Col. J. S. BELL, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. Pine Bluff, Ark. 
Brig. General JONATHAN KELLOGG, Commanding 1st Brigade, Little 

Rock. Ark. 
Brig. General WALTER S. JETER, Commanding 2nd Brigade, Pine 

Bluff. Ark. 
Brig. General JOHN V. HIGHT, Commanding 3rd Brigade. Fayette- 

ville. Ark. 
Brig. General D. B. CASTLEBERRY, Commanding 4th Brigade, Boone- 

ville, Ark. 

Oklahoma Division. 

Brig. General JOHN THREADGILL, Commander, Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Col. WM. M. CROSS, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. Oklahoma 

City, Okla. 

Brig. General J. P. ALLEN, Commanding 1st Brigade, Oklahoma City 

' Okla. " * ' 

Brig. General D. P. SPARKS, Commanding 2nd Brigade, Shawnee. Okla. 

Brig. General T. A. ANDREWS, Commanding 3rd Brigade, Mountain 

View, Okla. 

North- West Division. 

Major General PAUL A. FUSZ. Commander, Philipsbnrg, Mont. 

Col. WILLIAM RAY, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Philips- 
burg, Mont. 

Brig. General WM. H. H. ELLIS. Commanding Montana Brigade, 
Bozeman, Mont. 

Pacific Division. 

Major General WM. C. HARRISON, M. D.. Commander, Los Angeles, 

Col. LOUIS TIEMANN, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Los 

Angeles, Cal. 
Brig. General S. S. BIRCHFIELD, Commanding New Mexico Brigade, 

Deming, New Mexico. 
Brig. General HUGH G. GWYN, Commanding California Brigade, San 

Diego. Cal. 


Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 


Possibly, the best idea of the conditions existing in the city 
of Richmond can be obtained from the columns of the daily 
press; and the following clippings are taken from the Times- 
Dispatch : 

The seventeenth annual reunion of the United Confed- 
erate Veterans assembles in this city on Thursday of this week, 
the first session of the convention being called to order at 9 :30 
a. m. at the Horse Show Building. At the same hour the 
twelfth annual reunion of the United Sons of Confederate 
Veterans will be called to order in the city Auditorium, and 
the sessions of the two bodies, with a number of adjunct gather- 
ings. State and brigade reunions, will continue in Richmond 
for five days, the exercises closing with a grand rally of 
Veterans, Sons of Veterans, sponsors, maids of honor, memorial 
associations and United Daughters of the Confederacy at the 
Horse Show Building on Monday evening at 8 o'clock. 

Richmond is the place for a Confederate reunion. It is 
here that are gathered the sacred memories; here the history 
of the wartime clusters, and here sleep the holy dead. 

General Bennett H. Young, commanding the Kentucky 
Division, struck the keynote of the reunion in his general order 
to the Veterans of his State, when he told of the large number 
of sons of the West who are descended from a Virginia ances- 
try, to whom the Richmond reunion would be in the nature of a 
home-coming. The soil of the State has been enriched with the 
blood of uncounted thousands of the flower of American man- 
hood, and to the American patriot, be he Northerner or South- 
erner in his sentiment or his politics, there is ever something 
sacred in the return to Virginia and to its capital city. 

Probably no city in the land can give such a reception as 
Richmond is preparing for the gray-coated Veterans from all 
over the South. The reunion marks the completion of two great 
undertakings which have absorbed the attention of the patri- 
otic men and the even more intensely patriotic women, who 
have given of the work of their hands, of their time and of 
their energy to the completion of the monument/; to the memory 
of President Jefftrson Davis and to General J. E. B. Stuart, 

10 Richmond, la., May 30 and 31, June 1, 2 and 3 , 1907. 

Both of these monuments have been completed and fully 
paid for, and with the fund raised for the entertainment of the 
reunion, over $150,000 has been raised for the perpetuation of 
the memory of the Confederacy, and the cause for which the 
South gave so freely of its means and of the best blood of its 



Richmond is once more the capital of the Confederacy, 
the Mecca of the faithful sons of the South, and the Stars and 
Bars wave as bravely in the breeze as they waved here forty- 
two years ago. 

The same gallant soldiers throng the streets, a trifle grayer 
and older than they were two-score years ago, but filled with 
the same fire of chivalry and as loyal and devoted to. the cause 
for which they struggled as they were in the days of '65, 

"While this is true, the bitterness is past, and only the 
memory and glory of great achievement remains. The United 
Confederate Veterans are gathering to hear again the tales of 
wonderful endeavor; of brilliant achievement and of hardi- 
hood, which has changed defeat into victory, disaster into 

There is nothing, perhaps, which tells the story of a united 
country as well as the decoration of the State Capitol, once 
the Capitol of the Confederacy. Here where once sat its Con- 
federate Congress, hangs side by side the Stars and Bars of the 
"Lost Cause" with the Stars and Stripes of this country, 
which no section has done more to upbuild and uphold than 
the South. 

Everywhere is seen the American flag side by side with 
the Confederate, and it is this spirit which prevails among the 
Veterans and which will pervade the reunions. 

Already there are 6,000 reunion visitors here, and every 
train is emptying Veterans, Sons of Veterans and visitors into 
the city. 

To-day no less than thirty-one special trains will bring 
a small army of reunion guests, while the regular trains will 
swell the crowd to not less than 60,000 people. The railroad 
officials say that there has never been such a demand for 
transportation, and that the crowd will break all previous re- 
cords at reunions. 

"Tell the people of Richmond for me," said General 
Stephen D. Lee, Commander-in-Chief of the United Confed- 
erate Veterans, "that I never before got such an enthusiastic 
reception as was accorded me here to-night. 

Introduction. 11 

"I have never before known such an outpouring of the 
people, nor have I ever before seen any city so profusely deco- 
rated for a reunion as is Richmond. 1 am profoundly touched 
by the generous welcome which I have received at the hands of 
the people of the city." 

General Lee, vigorous, hearty and hale, in spite of the 
seventy-six years which have passed over his head, smiled 
with pleasure as he spoke of the enthusiasm with which he 
had been received. 

Outside his window at the Jefferson, the Blues' Band still 
played "Dixie," and a crowd of perhaps 1,000 men and women 
cheered the distinguished visitor. 

From the moment the train pulled into the Southern 
station last night at 10:20 o'clock until some time after General 
Lee had retired to his apartments, only cheers and song, "rebel" 
yells and patriotic music greeted the chief of the Confederate 

Bowing, with hat in hand. General Lee stood in a motor 
car from the time he left the station until he alighted at the 
Jefferson Hotel, for the great throng which lined the streets 
presented the distinguished Veteran with such an ovation as 
falls to the lot of few. 

Not the least pleasing part of the welcome was the presence 
of the Blues, the Howitzers and Company F, of the Seventieth 
Regiment, which acted as an escort to the General. The mili- 
tary, preceded by the Blues' Band, was under command of Major 
Bowles, with Captain Myers, of the artillery, and Captain 
Stone, of the regiment, and made a splendid appearance. 

At the station an enormous crowd collected an hour be- 
fore the train arrived, and waited patiently for the coming of 
the chieftain. There were men, women and children, many 
of whom carried Confederate flags, while not a few Veterans in 
gray coats and service hats mingled with the throng. 

Across the way, drawn up in two lines, the military. 325 
officers and men, waited, while the Blues' Band now and theu 
played to while away the hour. 

At 10 o'clock a great white motor car steamed up. In it 
were Colonel J. W. Gordon, Mr. E. D. Taylor, Mr. James N. 
Boyd and Captain J. Thompson Brown, the committee to re- 
ceive General Lee. 

At 10:20 o'clock a great shout went up as the train came 
slowly into the station, and the crowd began to cheer. 

12 Richmond, la., May 30 and 31, June 1, 2 and 3, 1907. 

As General Lee stepped from the Pullman, Colonel Gordon 
said: "General Lee, we welcome you to Richmond," the hand 
played "Dixie'' with a vim, and people cheered again and again 
for "Lee." 

Hundreds crowded around the Commander-in-Chief to shake 
his hand, and nearly twenty minutes were consumed in reach- 
ing the motor car, but fifty yards away. 

Leaving the station, General Lee, standing in the car, 
passed between the lines of soldiers, all of whom saluted, 
while the band again played "Dixie" — m fact "Dixie" was 
played over and over again, always to the huge delight of 
the people. 

Forming the linn at Gary Street, the march was to Main, 
to Fifth, to Franklin, and to the Jefferson Hotel. The streets 
were crowded with people, who cheered and waved flags, while 
some, even more enthusiastic, burned red lights. 

Arriving at the Jefferson, General Lee was driven to the 
Main Street entrance, and, walking into the hotel between 
Colonel Gordon and Captain Brown, was greeted with applause 
by hundreds of ladies seated in the balconies. 

A sight which delighted every one was the meeting between 
General Stephen D. Lee and Miss Mary Custis Lee. General 
Lee was on the office floor, surrounded by hundreds eager to 
welcome him, when Captain Charles Cotesworth Pinckney in- 
formed him that Miss Mary Custis Lee was waiting on the 
grand stairway to speak a word of welcome. Immediately the 
General left the Veterans, and accompanied Captain Pinck- 
ney to Miss Lee's presence. 

"This is indeed an honor to be welcomed by you to Vir- 
ginia," said General Lee, as he bowed over the hand of the 
daughter of his old Commander. 

The crowd, quick to appreciate the sentiment of the occa- 
sion, applauded vigorously, while a party of children in a 
balcony fluttered Confederate flags. 

General Lee retired to his apartments shortly before mid- 
night, saying that although he had been thirty-six hours on 
the train, the reception he had received had driven away all 
weariness, and left him only with pleasant thoughts of the ap- 
proaching reunion which, he said, is to exceed all other reunions 
in enthusiasm and attendance. 

The welcome given General Lee was remarkable in many 
ways, for it was not only a tribute to a distinguished officer 
of the Confederacy, who holds a high place in the esteem of 
his countrymen, but it was a great mark of affection for the 
noble army of heroes, the rank and file of Confederate Veterans, 

Introduction. 13 

and for the cause which, despite the passing 01 years, holds 
as strong- a place in the hearts of the children as it did in the 
hearts of the fathers more than two score years ago. The 
outpouring of people was not only in honor of the chieftain, 
but in memory of the principles for which he fought and 
in appreciation of those under his command, an army waging 
a great, peaceful war for the upbuilding of the Southland, for 
"truth" in history and for the care of those who need succor 

in their distress. 

* * * # * 

Veterans, Sons of Veterans, Daughters of the Confed- 
eracy and thousands of mere sightseers are pouring into Rich- 
mond on every train, and from all accounts, if accounts before- 
hand are worth anything, the crowds that will reach the city 
to-day, will swell the total to proportions rarely, if ever equaled 

Gray-headed and gray-coated men are visible on every 
hand, and every train and steamboat that reached the city yes- 
to-day added to the grand army of Veterans now invading the 
one-time capital of the Confederacy, and if there was a single 
one who did not receive a hearty welcome his name has not 
been recorded. 

Registers for the enlistment of the names of all visitors 
have been placed in the various State division headquarters, 
and clerks are at work in each, trying to keep a record in 
military style of all the "brave old boys" that come in; but 
it has been more than forty years since, these "old boys" had 
to march up to the clerk's office and do business by military 
rule, and they have forgotten just how to go about it. 

Then Richmond is so wide open to them, and they are being 
made so free to do jnst as they pfease as soon as they get here, 
it is being found very difficult to induce them to comply with 
routine rules and regulations. They are apparently perfectly 
satisfied to get to Richmond once again, well knowing that 
they are in the hands of friends and are, in a measure, at lib- 
erty to do just as they please. Once in Richmond, the old 
fighters are going to do pretty much that way and ask no 
odds of corporals of the guard or any other officers. 

Under these very proper circumstances it is simply im- 
possible to make anything like an accurate list of the arrivals 
so far, and it would be folly to attempt it. 

A visit to the various headquarters and to the John V. 
Gordon Cam]), far out on the west end of Broad Street, is 
enough to reveal the fact that not fewer that 5,000 Veterans 

14 Richmond, la „ May 30 and 31, June 1, 2 and 3, 1907. 

are already in the city to take part in the festivities that are 
to be the order of the day' for the remainder of this week 
and a portion of the next. 

It is perhaps a fact that the majority of those now within 
the limits of the city are from the far-away States, the nearby 
Veterans — that is to say, those from Virginia and North Caro- 
lina — being not so early to start from home. The railroads 
centering here have advices from all along their lines 
that lead to the conclusion that the trains reaching Richmond 
to-day and to-night will unload thousands upon thousands of 
visitors to the reunion, and the outlook now is that by the tima 
the clock in the steeple strikes 12 to-night the population of 
Richmond will be increased something like 30,000 or more. 

A politician up on Broad Street yesterday insinuated that 
it would be a very good time to take a census if the census- takers 
were impressed with an idea of the importance of making 
every edge cut, whether perfectly legitimate or not. 

Camp John W. Gordon was a lively place yesterday, but 
not nearly so crowded as it is expected to be from noon 
to-day until the sun shall go down on the last day of the 

The place has a strictly military appearance and is par- 
ticularly attractive to the old soldier. Numbers of those who 
are already here and of those who are yet to come will take 
more interest in the camp than in the better <|uarters that 
will be freely offered in the private homes and in the hotels 
of the city. Camp life takes them back to the times and 
the scenes they are here to celebrate, and it will be the last 
opportunity that hundreds of them will have to enjoy camp life 
this side of the grand eternal encampment on the other side of 
the great river. 

A grizzled Veteran from "away down in Alabama," now 
quartered at Camp Gordon, talked with a Times-Dispatch man 
yeterday, and while the tears stood in his eyes, he said: 

"Yes, I like it out here. It gives me the last glimpse 
I will ever have in this life of the old times when we marched 
and fought under Marse Bob. I have relatives in Richmond, 
and I have friends here, too, who have invited me to their 
homes; and, more than that, T have money enough to pay my 
way at the hotels: but when I came out here and saw all these 
tents, and when I saw how everything is arranged in the old 
army fashion, I just could not resist it. I couldn't keep out of 
•the tent. When the officer in charge showed me the row of 
tents to be occupied by tha Alabama boys, I just pulled off my 

M oQ U U rt 03 . 

O o) q -w > a: 

* 5 a « S ^ > 
<gg g ftO fl 

^■"^ S -. ■ 

j-d sag* 

<d c * « 
~ .as flfcos 

7" o ' 

~ J - ~ to - a d 

3 a> o a^ ?§ 

— ■ "o i jj .a s a 

ssS- , s?s 

J3 (D 03^ *■" * 

. H H D 3J+J n 

!>> 2 5 "H fe a * 

^ 5 o : i i a 

P m Q .'hMo 

£ 1 1.1 !| I 

JE <j -£ * a T - 

ill *S la 

<d _. « n O •£ 

n ^ a ^ M 

S 2 S . o3 ^ 

»S § ,c m i a 

16 Richmond, Va., May 30 and 31, June 1, 2 and 3, 1907. 

coat and took my place in the ranks, and from now until the 
end of the reunion, I am subject to the orders of the corporal 
of the guard and the other officers in charge. The more rigid 
and the more exacting they make the orders, the better I will 
like it. 1 don't know if I shall not violate some of the rules 
and regulations just for the purpose of getting in the guard- 
house and being punished once more. I am nearly seventy 
years old now, and I guess it is the last chance I will have on 
this earth to be a soldier, and I want to go all the gaits once 
more. Yes, I hope they will send me to the guardhouse before 
they get through. How I expect to enjoy to-night in this 
tent ! ' ' 

Already old acquaintances are being renewed and new ones 
being made. Yesterday two men met in the Capitol Square, 
and both being old soldiers,' each wearing a Veteran's cross 
of honor, they naturally got to swapping Avar history, and as 
they sat on one of the benches in the square and told of each 
other's experience, it developed that both were wounded in 
the famous 12th of May fight in the Spotsylvania Wilderness, 
and strange to relate, they were shot down within a few feet 
of each other at about the same time of day. Both were taken 
to the same hospital at the same time, possibly in the same 
ambulance; both were attended by the same surgeon, both 
recovered from their wounds about the same time, and both 
resumed business at the front about the same day and fought 
the balance of the war out very near to each other, and yet 
yesterday was the first time, so far as either of the men knew, 
that they had ever met. lo use their own language both were 
"high-heeled privates in the rear rank." One of them is Mr. 
Thomas Egerton, of North Carolina, who served in the Twelfth 
North Carolina Regiment, and the other is Mr. Edward C. 
Draper, of Florida. 

They yesterday formed a new friendship. This is simply 
a sample of some of the queer acquaintances that are being 
formed among "the old boys." 

Out at Camp Gordon yesterday afternoon two old soldiers 
met once again for the first time since they parted on the 
7th of April, 1865, when both were on the final march to 
Appomattox. One was in the artillery service and hailed from 
Halifax County, in this State. The other belonged to a Geor- 
gia regiment, and at the time of their queer meeting had been 
separated from his regiment. The two marched along together 
and had the good fortune to run upon a detached Yankee 
sutler, and captured from him some genuine coffee and some 

Introduction. 17 

other good things. Early in the morning, at a place near Farm- 
ville. they stopped for a while to make a fire and try to make 
nse of the captured coffee and other eatables they had taken 
from the sutler. 

They made the fire, cooked the breakfast and were just in 
the act of sitting down to enjoy it when a detachment of Sheri- 
dan's Cavalry rushed down the road in which they were pre- 
paring their early morning meal and the breakfast was scat- 
tered to the four winds. One of the men retreated on one 
side of the road and the other from the opposite side, and they 
never met again until yesterday. 

How many real reunions of this kind will mark the history 
of this general reunion nobody knows, but such cases as the 
above are the real reunions — the ones that "the old boys" sit 
down and laugh over and cry over. A Confederate Reunion 
is a lot more than appears on the surface — more than the 
parade and the speeches and "the fuss and feathers." There 
are reunions and reunions. 

In 1861 all that part of Henrico County which, under an- 
nexation, is now a part of the West End of Richmond, was 
a Confederate camp. A part of it is so again to-day. Camp 
John W. Gordon is a tented field, a soldier city of five hundred 
and more tents, all of which are bedecked with Confederate 
flags. It is a striking scene, and something new and interesting 
to the present generation. 

Camp Gordon is located on the extension of Broad Street. 
in the field just opposite the site of the Home for Incurables. 
The ground selected for the camp is a broad, open space, that 
has plenty of good air. and it is within the territory of the 
city water works, and thus the managers are enabled to supply 
also a sufficiency of good water. 

The tents already put up. large and small, number between 
five and six hundred. Every tent has in it two cots,, and the 
rooming capacity of the camp is therefore something over a 
thousand — possibly 1,500 — for some of the larger tents have 
many more than two cots. 

The tents and the cots are much better than the Confed- 
erate Veterans had during the last days of the war — a great 
deal better, for along in '64 and '6o the old boys had to do 
much of their sleeping between two rails, and sometimes they 
could not get both of the rails. 

The dining tent at Camp Gordon is not a tent at all, 
but is a tin-roofed house, opened at both ends, with long tables 
sufficient to seat five or six hundred people at a time. The 

18 Richmond, Va., May 30 and 31, June 1, 2 and 3, 1907. 

dining tent k supplied with ample table furniture, and arrange- 
ments he v e been made to serve meals that are up to anything 
that can be found at any of the hotels, but, of course, they 
will be served in regulation military style — that is, regular hours 
must be observed. 

But the hours for military meals at Camp Gordon, like 
everything else in Richmond on this occasion, are broad and 
very wide open. The military orders posted on the entrance 
of the dining-tent reads as follows : ' ' Breakfast, 6 to 9 : din- 
ner, 12 to 3; supper, 6 to 9." 

That would seem to leave a whole lot of latitude for the 
belated Veteran, but it is an open secret that if any of them, 
who do their eating during the reunion at the tin-covered din- 
ing-tent at Camp Gordon find it inconvenient to comply strictly 
with even these orders as to meals, they will not necessarily 
go hungry. The fact is, the dining-tent has been provided 
with a sufficiency of servants and a sufficiency of cooking 
utensils and with a sufficiency of commissary stores to enable 
it to keep all-day and all-night hours. 

Though it will be better for the Veterans to observe the 
hours above recorded for meals, the fact remains that no matter 
what time they may apply, no worthy Veteran will leave the 
tent hungry. 

The camp is .laid off in avenues, all of which are named 
for well-remembered Confederate officers. There are seven 
streets and twelve avenues. The streets are wide and well 
"paved" with shavings sawdust. The avenues are somewhat 
narrow and pretty well "wired" with tent ropes. If any of 
the aged Veterans report at camp in the late hours of the 
night they had better walk the "streets" and avoid the "ave- 
nues. ' ' 

* * * * * 

With a brilliant attendance of distinguished visitors from 
every section of the South the reception given in Lee Camp 
Hall last night by Richmond Chapter, United Daughters of the 
Confederacy, proved one of the most memorable social events 
in the history of Confederate Reunion entertainments. 

Decorated in red and white and brilliantly illuminated, 
the hall, as to exterior, beamed a welcoming invitation as soon 
as the eye rested upon it. Within the beautiful draping of the 
Confederate colors and flags and sheaves of red and white 
roses against the green of palm fronds filled every available 
space and nook, and rendered the decorations both artistic 
and complete. 

In trodnction . 1 9 

On the landing at the door, Mrs. P. J. White and Mrs. W. 
R. Vawter welcomed the guests as they passed in. Veterans 
from every camp in the State and many in the South were 
present, and were greeted with warm handshaking and evi- 
dences of Confederate comradeship on every side. 

In a short time every attempt to maintain a receiving line 
was abandoned, owing to the press which rendered every inch 
of space necessary for standing room. Mrs. Stonewall Jackson's 
train being late, she could not be present, greatly to the disap- 
pointment of the many Confederate Veterans who were most 
desirous of taking their old commander's wife's hand in their 
own once more. 

They had the pleasure of greeting Mrs. J. E. B. Stuart, who 
came into the hall a little late, and avIio, though weary from 
her trip, had a kind word and a pleasant greeting for the many 
who were so anxious to meet her. 

It was a genuine joy for the old soldiers who had served 
under General Robert E. Lee to greet Colonel Robert E. Lee, 
Jr., of Fairfax, around whom they thronged. 

"Now tell us just how you are related to the General," 
they said, "and just whose son you are;" and Colonel Lee 
paused long enough in his handshaking to explain always. 

There was not the least formality at the reception. Con- 
federate feeling warmed every heart and shone in every eye. 
Every one talked with everyone else. Cards were exchanged 
between hitherto strangers. And ever} r body exclaimed: "What 
a grand gathering." 

Governor and Mrs. C. A. Swanson were notable figures 
among the hundreds present. Mrs. Swanson looked extremely 
well, gowned in diaphanous white and caught the eye of all 
the old soldiers, as well as the old soldiers' wives by her un- 
affected grace and warmth of manner. 

The Governor was as fresh and as alert as he always is, 
and ready to shake hands and say pleasant things by way of 

Mrs. W. H. F. Lee, the mother of Colonel Robert Lee, Jr., 
who is visiting Mrs. Benjamin Nash, on West Franklin Street, 
was one of the handsomest women present. As she was stand- 
ing a little behind Mrs. Stuart, many persons did not for some 
time realize that she was in the hall. 

Miss Mary Custis Lee stood well to the front, and the visi- 
tors had an excellent opportunity to exchange a few words with 
her as they filed past. 

20 Richmond, la., May 30 and 31, Jane 1, 2 and 3 , 1907. 

The arrangements for the evening in charge of Mrs. Robert 
S. Christian and her capable committee of assistants, were most 
perfectly carried out, there being not an untoward incident 
to mar the pleasure of the evening. 

Charming young girls, dressed in white, passed hither and 
thither among the guests, dispensing hospitality in the most 
delightful manner. 

It was wonderful to note the enthusiasm of feeling pre- 
vailing during the entire evening. Mrs. Norman V. Ran- 
dolph, Mrs. Thomas S. Bocock, Mrs. Stephen Beveridge, Mrs. 
D. C. Richardson, Mrs. J. Enders Robinson and Mrs. J. H. 
Timberlake were among the members of Richmond Chapter who 
were active hostesses. 

Mrs. Dabney Carr seconded their efforts most efficiently, 
and so did Mrs. Kate S. Winn, Miss Sallie Deane and others. 

Among the guest? of the evening was Mrs. Charles Mor- 
gan, of Baltimore, who came in with her sister, Mrs. J. Enders 

The crowd present extended all the way down the stairs 
and for some distance up and down the street around the 
doorway. Those who went early congratulated themselves. 
Those who came late, exercised patience, and if they had enough 
of it, finally got in. 

Dr. James Power Smith was kept very busy all the evening 
shaking the hands of friends and comrades that he met on every 

The opening social event of the reunion was a great suc- 
cess and foreshadows a splendid gathering for the week. 

The crowd will probably surpass even the liberal expecta- 
tions formed in regard to it, so great and widespread is the 
interest which the unveiling of the Stuart and Davis Monu- 
ments has excited throughout the entire South. 

It is thought that by to-morrow most of the sponsors 
and maids of honor will have arrived, and that reunion gaye- 
ties will start in continuously. 

The Southern Confederated Memorial Association will con- 
vene this forenoon in the Second Baptist Church though, on 
account of the parade and the ceremonies, incident to the 
unveiling of the statue to General Stuart, there will be no 
business session. 

Far exceeding the wildest hope of the local committees, 
the army of Confederate Veterans which has reached Richmond 
now numbers close to 10,000 men, and with the thousands of 

22 Richmond, Va., May 30 and 31, June 1, 2 and 3, 1907. 

others who will arrive this morning, the seventeenth reunion 
will open to-day with a promise of exceeding- all others in the 
history of the organization. 

Writers of fact and fiction delight to say and sing "of 
the thin gray line which is fading slowly away," but to those 
privileged to watch the many commands of old soldiers which 
are invading this city, the gray line seems anything but thin, 
and the evidences of fading away are entirely lacking. 

It is a sight to stir the blood and warm the heart — these 
bands of Veterans marching once more along the streets of 
the city which was long ago the capital of the Confederacy. 

The old soldiers, gay as lads and full of fire and enthusi- 
asm, march with a swing, cheering and crying aloud the "rebel 
yell," greeting old friends and quickly making new ones, 
going over again the stirring times of war, recounting deeds 
of valor, and recalling memories of campfire and battlefield. 
Each has his own peculiar hero to extol, each has an incident 
to tell, each thinks his own command the greatest and bravest 
of the war, but all unite in devotion to "the cause" and in 
loyalty to the Southland. 

All through the day special trains emptied their loads of 
Veterans, and along the streets, brilliant with flags and bunt- 
ing, marched from dawn to midnight companies of the old sol- 
diers, pilgrims once more to the "heart of the Confederacy." 
Some carried ancient battleflags, torn almost to rags by shot 
and shell, others proved the truth of a united country by 
marching under the Stars and Stripes, some wore the gray, 
some only civilian's clothes, some bore the marks of prosperity, 
while others gave evidence of poverty and want, but all were 
once more soldiers in the army of the Confederacy, proud in 
the memory of great deeds accomplished and of glory that 
can never die. 

Some of these men have not visited Eichmond since the- 
war ended, and their disappointment at not finding once famil- 
iar landmarks is pathetic. One seeks in vain for the house in 
which he was nursed when wounded; another tries to find resi- 
dences long since pulled down, and not a few inquire for the 
"Spotswood House," the fashionable hotel of war time, which 
was burned in 1871. Last night an aged soldier called at 
hc;i<l(juarters and declared that he must find the "Spotswood 
House." for his wife, he said, would write to him there. 

Never has Richmond extended a welcome which exceeds in 
enthusiasm and wholeheartedness the one which has greeted' 
the Veterans. The city is simply covered with flags, business 

Introduction. 23 

is at a standstill, for the people have only time to greet the 
"men in gray," whom they delight to honor. 

At "Camp John W. Gordon" the scene is realistic, for a 
great forest of tents has sprung up, accompanied by mess-halls 
and kitchens. Here the rank and file of the Veterans will 
live, enjoying the pleasures of camp life, with none of its 

' ' This is like war-time, with plenty to eat ! ' ' exclaimed a 
Veteran last night, after having enjoyed a good supper in the 
mess-hall, and he added: "If we could have gotten such food 
during the war, we would have been fighting yet. ' ' 

All the old soldiers declared they were never so well cared 
for at any reunion as they have been here, and they say they 
do not care how long the reunion lasts. 

One of the pitiful sights of the camp was an old fiddler, 
who, with one arm gone, played with the bow between his 
knees, picking out old war-time airs, such as "The Bonnie Blue 
Flag" and "Dixie." A great crowd stood around, and the 
old man's cap was full of silver before the evening wore away, 
for the familiar tunes brought alms as well as memories of 
the past. The fiddler was not the only pitiful example of 
the war, for many sleeves were armless, and many old men 
moved about on crutches and wooden legs, not without a certain 
pride in having given more than their fellows for their coun- 

At the hotels the crowds were densest, for young and old 
gathered to pay their respects to distinguished officers who had 
not visited Richmond for years. 

Among those who attracted the greatest attention were 
General Stephen D. Lee, General Eppa Hunton, Captain Robert 
E. Lee, son of General Robert E. Lee: Colonel Robert E. Lee, 
grandson of General R. E. Lee, and son of General W. H. P. 
Lee, and Senator Daniel- 
There were also present Miss Mary Custis Lee, daughter 
of General R. E. Lee; Mrs. W. H. F. Lee, Miss Mary Harrison, 
of Mississippi, and Mrs. John Lee, of Alabama. 

Governor Swanson and Mrs. Swanson held an informal 
reception at the Jefferon last night, when the sponsors and 
maids of honor were introduced. 

* # * * * 

Welcome, thrice welcome, and welcome again ! 

That is the greeting of the capital of the Confederacy to the 
Veterans of the ^Confederate armies who gather here to-day for 

24 Richmond, la., A fay JO and 31, June 1, 2 and J, 1907. 

their annual reunion. "When the enemy encompassed Rich- 
mond, these Veterans stood on the outposts ready, if need he, to- 
sacritice their lives in her defense, and then and there especially 
displayed that courage, chivalry and nobility which so distinct- 
ively characterized the Confederate soldier, and made him the 
admiration of the world. It is many years since that heroic 
struggle. Times and situations have changed. A new genera- 
tion has come, and Richmond is a transformed city, vigorous, 
progressive and prosperous. There are few signs of the war's 
devastations. In the place of charred walls, there are great 
buildings of commerce and industry and comfortable homes for 
the people. There are few reminders, save the sacred mounds 
in her cemeteries and the monuments to Confederate heroes 
which adorn her public squares. But Richmond is the same 
in her admiration for the Confederates; in her veneration for 
the Lost Cause; in her gratitude to the boys in gray who were 
her sentinels, and her protectors from the invading foe. She 
opens her gates, her doors, and her loving arms, to every man 
of them, no matter what his station in life; no matter what 
his wealth or poverty, to-day he is a hero in our sight ; he stands 
head and shoulders above the masses, he is a prince in Israel, and 
our city is his to command. 

Richmond is one great Confederate camp, and may the 
bivouac be a joy to the soldiers, as it is an honor to the capital 
of the Confederacy. 

During the reunion we shall unveil the South 's monument 
to President Jefferson Davis and Richmond's monument to 
General J. E. B. Stuart; and each and every soldier will un- 
cover as he passes the figure of Robert E. Lee, poised like a 
God in the Heavens. We shall vie with one another in doing 
honor to these our leaders; but what were a Davis or a Stuart, 
or even a Lee, without such men as ours in the ranks ! The 
strength of the Confederacy was in the quality of its soldiers, 
and that quality was the same whether in the men of the ranks 
or the officers in command. It was the quality of heroic man- 
liness. It is to honor and glorify the Confederate quality that 
this celebration is held. It was peculiar to no man, no officer or 
private; it was common to all. And to-day there is no dis- 
tinction or respect of persons. The monuments to Davis, to 
Lee, to Jackson, to Stuart, to Hill, and all the rest, is each 
a monument to the Confederate soldier, to the i)rinciples for 
which he fought and to the cause. 

The Veterans are here to exalt and conserve the Confed- 
erate spirit — the spirit which animated our soldiers in war 

In trodiiction . 2 5 

and no less our civilians in their battle with reconstruction and 
poverty. It is the spirit which redeemed the South from every 
calamity of the war. which reclaimed her wasted fields, which 
built her factories, her commercial houses, her schools, and all 
her benevolent and religious institutions. It was that spirit 
which gave her the victories of peace. It is that same spirit 
which now gives the chivalric tone to her society, which nerves 
her men to all good endeavor, which makes every home a cita- 
del of honor, which imparts the peculiar flavor to Southern 
life. Nay, it is that spirit which enabled the Confederate States 
to amalgamate with the Union and to become once again an 
integral part of the nation, without compromise of dignity 01 
character, or any cherished principle. It is that spirit which 
enables our Veterans and their descendants to march to the 
strains of "Yankee Doodle" and "Dixie," keeping step to each 
and to both, under the combined colors of the Ked, "White and 
Blue and the Red, White and Eed. 

It is that spirit which animates, exhilarates and glorifies 
the reunion, and which gives character and flavor to Rich- 
mond's welcome; and may the God of a reunited country add 

His blessing. 


In the presence of a great multitude of people, and beneath 
cloudless skies, with the thunder of cannon, the waving of flags, 
the singing of children and the playing of bands, the equestrian 
statue of Major General J. E. B. Stuart was unveiled by a 
granddaughter of the world-famous cavalry leader yesterday 

The exercises at the monument were preceded by one of 
the most notable parades ever seen in Richmond, in which nearly 
10,000 men participated, the column taking over an hour to 
pass a given point. At the monument at Franklin and Lom- 
bardy Streets a great crowd of people from all parts of the 
world filled every available space, extending for several blocks 
down Franklin Street. The inclosure of Richmond College was 
filled with Veteran camps, and the military taking part in 
the parade were packed in the open space to the north side of 
Monument Avenue, stretching, away on beyond the Lee statue. 

Veterans from every section of the South marched in honor 
of the cavalry hero, the old men making -a gallant showing, 
stretching with their banners for more than a mile down Frank- 
lin Street, while a large number of those, who wore the gray, 
unable to stand the fatigue of the march, came early to the 
monument and joined the great throng that even crowded the 

26 Richmond, la., A fay SO a?idJl, Jmie 1, 2 and 3 , 1907. . 

housetops of the neighborhood. When the veil was drawn from 
the monument by the hands of little Miss Virginia Stuart Wal- 
ler, granddaughter of General S.tuart, a great wave of sound 
swept over the assembled multitude as cheer after cheer rent 

the air. 


Promptly at 2 o'clock the parade was formed to do honor 
to the memory of the great General J. E. B. Stuart in assist- 
ing at the unveiling of the splendid bronze equestrian statue 
erected to him at the head of Monument Avenue, and later 
to gather near the graves of the Confederate dead in Holly- 

It was Stuart Day. and the magic name of the great cavalry 
leader set hearts beating fast, while the recollection of his 
glorious deeds awakened wildest enthusiasm. 

The old cry, "Jine the cavalry," was taken up and carried 
on ; men in gray, with yellow facings, the insignia of the cavalry 
branch of the service, walked a trifle statelier and rode with 
a bit more swagger than their comrades; the horsemen claimed 
the day for their own, and five hundred old followers of the 
immortal Stuart lived again and renewed their youth in the 
happiness of honoring their commander. 

Richmond will never again, unless it be on Monday, when 
the Davis Monument is unveiled, see such a gathering of fighting 
men — not men who are able to fight but men who have proved 
their chivalry upon a hundred fields. At the Capitol Square the 
line was formed, a line of Veterans whose banners transcribed 
with the names of mighty battles, told a ragged tale of war. 
Here and there in the line marched the volunteers; the historic 
Blues, with dazzling uniform and a way of marching all their 
own ; the Howitzers, the crack battery of the South, and a bat- 
talion of the Seventieth Virginia Regiment making an excel- 
lent appearance, but these soldier lads were but a foil for the 
grizzled warriors, who received one long ovation from the time 
of leaving the monument in Capitol Square, erected to George 
Washington, the first great "rebel," until the veiled bronze 
monument to Stuart was reached. 

Every house was gay with Confederate colors; overhead, 
strung across the streets, were streamers of white and red and 
flags of the Confederate States, while on the pavements, on 
front JLawns, in the roadways and filling windows and porches 
were people without number alive with Confederate sentiment. 

Through the densely packed streets marched the Veterans, 
keeping time to the strains of "Dixie," "My Maryland," "The 

28 Richmond, J'a., May 30 and 31, June 1, 2 and 3, 1907. 

Bonne Blue Flag" and "Auld Lang Syne, " airs dear to their 
hearts in memory of camp fires and battlefields. 

Old age, infirmities and wounds lost their power to depress, 
for stirred by the old familiar music, the presence of old com- 
rades, the glory of the occasion and the cheers of the vast 
crowd, the old soldiers made a gallant appearance and bore 
themselves like heroes. 

In the line besides the Confederate Generals, His Ex' 
cellency the Governor of Virginia, and Colonel John B. Gordon, 
who received their share of applause, were Miss Mary Custis 
Lee, Mrs. W. H. F. (Booney) Lee, Captain Bobert E. Lee, 
Colonel Bobert E. Lee, Jr., Mrs. Stonewall Jackson, Mrs. 
J. E. B. Stuart. Mrs. Wm. E. Mickle and Miss Caro Mickle, all 
of whom received a royal welcome. Before the stand near 
the Stuart Monument, not less than 50,000 persons gathered 
and applauded the beautiful human Confederate flag, made by 
the school children, listened to a prayer by Bev. Walter Q. 
Hullihen, and notable speeches by Major A. B. Venable and 
Judge Theodore S. Garnett, all members of General Stuart's 
staff, and saw little Miss Virginia Stuart Waller, granddaughter 
of the great cavalryman, unveil the bronze. 

Cheer after cheer arose as the veil fell back and disclosed 
Stuart on his cbarger as his commander knew him and a 
Major General's salute sounded, fired by the Howitzers. 

The march was then taken up to Hollywood, where around 
the stone pyramid raised to the Confederate dead, gathered a 
crowd equally as great as witnessed the unveiling. Dr. William 
Dudley Bowers delivered an oration, an artillery and an in- 
fantry salute was fired, and then weird, and solemn the sound 

of "taps" told the story was at an end. 

When the ceremonies incident to the Stuart Monument 
unveiling had been completed yesterday afternoon, the great 
parade formed as before, except that many of the old soldiers, 
who were tired and could march no more, dropped out of line. 
The column divided, a part leaving the monument by Lom- 
bardy Street and a part filing down Bark Avenue: but they 
came together again on Cherry Street, and followed that thor- 
oughfare to the Hollywood west gate. 

No street in the city had been more elaborately decorated 
with Confederate colors than had been South Cherry. Every 
building on it, from Main Street to Hollywood, was profusely 
adorned with flags, and every porch and window was filled 
with people, eager to see the biggest parade that Bichmond 
has had in vears. 

Introduction. 29 

The occasion of this great outpouring was the usual annual 
celebration of Hollywood Memorial Day. and would have taken 
place had there been no reunion and grand gathering of the 
Confederates from all over the country. Of course, "the fact 
that the reunion was on made the Memorial Day, always observed 
on the 30th of May, in honor of the Confederate dead, by 
the Ladies' Hollywood Memorial Association, of this city, 
all the more interesting and all the more largely attended. 

The procession was later than it had been scheduled in 
reaching the beautiful cemetery, the head of it not entering 
the west gate until ."> :50. It was well after 6 o'clock when the 
vast throng had assembled around the stand on the hill, just 
to the north of the Confederate Monument. Long before the 
procession reached the cemetery all the driveways and walk- 
ways and all the hills and valleys of beautiful Hollywood were 
crowded with people. The whole space was one dense jam of 
humanity, and it was estimated that 20.000 living people were 
in the silent city of the dead. They had already strewn 
beautiful flowers on the graves of Confederate soldiers. 

Entering at the west gate, the long procession wound 
its slow way around the curved driveways to the stand near 
the north gate, and there were the members of the Ladies' 
Hollywood Memorial Association to receive the speakers and 
the celebrities. 


The Confederate Reunion is easily the greatest ever held, 
and a glorious success in every particular. The Veterans 
are here in companies, in regiments, in brigades — a vast army of 
them, and strong enough and brave enough to defend Richmond 
even now against invasion. But this time the Confederates are 
•the invaders, and Richmond is petting them half to death. The 
procession yesterday moved promptly and in an orderly man- 
ner, and the boys were greeted with cheers of praise and af- 
fection as they passed along. 

They paused at the head of Monument Avenue, unveiled 
the Stuart statue, and listened to a patriotic address from 
Judge Garnett; then moved on to Hollywood, paid tribute to 
the Confederate dead who lay buried in that hollowed spot, 
and listened to another patriotic address by Rev. William Dud- 
ley Powers. 

Before the parade the convention opened in the Audi- 
torium, and there was another session in the evening. It is 
a busv time for the Vets, but thev are having a regular cavalry 

30 Richmond, Id., May 30 and 31, June 1, 2 and 3, 1907. 

sort of a time, and it is a question hard to decide which is 
having' the more fun. Richmond or her guests. At any rate 
the Confederate spirit pervades the air, and Dixie is holding- 
high carnival. Richmond is once again the capital of the 
Confederacy, and is proud as ever of the distinction. 

Something over twelve thousand meals were served yes- 
terday at Camp John W. Gordon, according to the estimate of 
Caterer Barney Frischkorn, who is in charge of the culinary 
part of the camp. All day long from six in the morning 
until nearly midnight last night a constant succession of Vet- 
erans were given suhstantial meals with attractive service. The 
tables at the camp^ when set for meals, present a most attractive 
picture, the white oilcloth, with the white enamel, dishes, mak- 
ing a cleanly and most appetizing appearance. Breakfast will 
be ready at 6 o 'clock this morning, the menu consisting of pork- 
steak, with smothered onions, French fried potatoes, scrambled 
eggs, bacon and coffee. 

Mr. Frischkorn is apparently sparing no effort and no 
expense to make the Veterans comfortable, and is giving per- 
sonal supervision to every detail of the table service. He not 
only supervises the kitchens and pantries with practised eyes, 
but personally sees to it that every old Veteran is served with 
an abundance of wholesome and well prepared food. 

Mr. John A. Vanhorn and Mr. John W. "Waters are assist- 
ing Mr. Frischkorn, Mr. Waters having charge of the enormous 
coffee boilers, and the aroma arising from his department is 
one of the most attractive features of the camp. 

, Yesterday for dinner fully five thousand people were fed, 
dinner being served both before and after the grand parade. 
The menu consisted of roast beef, country ham, roast lamb, 
corn, tomatoes, coffee, baked beans, buttermilk, sweet milk and 
roasted potatoes. 

A number of the members of the committee called at the 
camp last night to look after the old men quartered there. 
Colonel John "W. Gordon, general chairman, alarmed by the 
chilling wind which was sweeping over the town last night, 
drove out to camp, only to find rows of bonfires along Davis 
Street, the dividing streets of the camp, and in many cases the 
old men were out in their shirt, sleeves swapping yarns around 
the fires. Twelve hundred additional blankets were issued last 
night, and while there is still some shortage, there are by actual 
count, more than two blankets to every cot in the camp. 

Introduction. 31 

Some men have showed a disposition to utilize everything in 
sight, without regard for the comfort of their neighbors, and 
the representative of the Times-Dispatch called on one old man 
in his tent last night, who was the proud possessor of five 
regulation army blankets issued from headquarters. Among 
the members of the general committee who called at camp last 
night were Colonel John W. Gordon, Colonel J. V. Bidgood, 
Captain D. A. Brown, Captain J. Thompson Brown and Dr. 
C. W. P. Brock. 

Around the campfires last night many experiences were 
being exchanged. On a goods box near the headquarters tent 
was an amateur preacher holding forth. A few yards away 
was another goods box, on which Avas mounted Veteran Brack, 
of Texas, the famous one-armed violinist, who skillfully holds 
his bow between his knees, and with his left arm manipulates 
his fiddle, while one after .another of the Veterans shuffled his 
feet to "Chicken in the Dough Tray" and other famous jigs. 

After a little the spirit of music pervaded the crowd. The 
preacher announced "Nearer, My God, to Thee," which was 
sung in a rumbling bass, while the fiddler led his opposition in 
"0 Mary, Don't You Weep, Don't You Moan." Both crowds 
eventually joined in a hearty "rebel yell" just before taps 
were sounded on the camp bugle. 

Owing to the large number of visitors from the city, and 
the people passing along the roads in every direction, it has 
been found necessary to have better police facilities, and yes- 
terday afternoon a wagonload of officers from the city were 
sent out by authority of Mayor McCarthy. About 11 o'clock 
last night these were relieved by a number of volunteers from 
the Seventieth Regiment, who offered their services for police 
duty during the night. 

A brass band is in one of the big conical tents to the east 
of the camp, and at all hours the sound of martial music breaks 
forth, the men pouring out of the tents, and even from the 
dining-shed lb cheer "Dixie" and the "Bonnie Blue Plag. " 

Almost a riot was precipitated in camp about 10 o'clock 
last night when two uniformed officers attempted to remove an 
old Veteran who was overcome with the march and excitement 
to the hospital tent, The "wounded" soldier chanced to be 
a Texan, and in the uncertain moonlight, the uniform of the 
ambulance officers were mistaken for policemen, and the report 
ran through the Texas division that an attempt was being 
made to arrest a doughty representative of the Lone Star State. 
The battle crv of the Texans rang out, and the whole body. 

32 Richmond, la., May 30 and 31, June 1, 2 and 3, 1907. 

flanked by the Cherokee Indians and the Arkansas Brigade, 
surrounded the sick man and demanded instant explanations. 
Only when the comfortable beds and inconveniences in the 
bib hospital tent back of the camp had been fully inspected, 
would the men allow their comrade to receive any further assist- 
ance from the men in the ambulance corps. 

About midnight last night the residents of West Broad 
Street were startled by the sound of the long roll on a kettle 
drum, somewhat unsteadily played, but evidently by a master 
hand. Those who chanced to look out saw a lone drummer 
"boy," the gray-headed drummer for a far Southern division, 
marching up Broad Street to the sound of his own drum, evi- 
dently imagining himself an entire army with banners. 

He was certainly as happy as a lord, and from all appear- 
ances as full as one, and the cares of this world troubled him 
little. He was allowed to go on his way rejoicing, and by day- 
light he will no doubt be sounding the long roll for the benefit 
of the people of Goochland, or some other nearby county. 

Sergeant C. I. Carrington, of the Blues' Battalion, has been 
the untiring and most efficient executive officer at the headcpiar- 
ters tent, and with the assistance of Mr. H. C. Brown, has 
assigned cpiarters to all comers, smoothed out endless difficulties, 
arranged for blankets, taken care of baggage, sent for doctors, 
received complaints, and for the last two or three days has been 
on ceaseless duty, night and day. As there is no parade to- 
day to take up the attention, many of the Veterans will no doubt 
remain in camp and see to making themselves comfortable. 
Arrangements will also be made to-day for an additional supply 
of fuel for the bonfires, as the nights continue cool. 

Ok jfe 3fe jfe jfc 

The Southern Cross Drill and the grand reunion ball, 
held last night at the Horse Show Building, was as brilliant 
a sight as Richmond has ever seen, and surpassed in gorgeousness 
the social functions of Horse Show week, when society always 
turns out in full force. 

A crowd that packed the seats and boxes filled the immense 
building long before the hour arrived for the drill to begin, 
and watched the arrival of the Veterans, all of whom were in 
uniform, the sponsors, gay in Confederate colors, and the white- 
gowned maids of honor. 

The main floor was set apart for the dancers, and no one 
without a special card of invitation was allowed inside 1 the 
arena, which for the night became a ballroom. Overhead hung 
the Confederate colors, with a great array of battleflags and 

34 Richmond, Va., May 30 and 31, June 1, 2 and 3, 1907. 

groups of colors of the various States of the Confederacy, lit up 
with countless rows of electric lights concealed in red and 
white flowers. 

At the north end the platform was reserved for distinguished 
guests, and here sat Miss Mary Custis Lee, General Lee, Gen- 
eral and Mrs. Cox, Colonel and Mrs. Richardson, Colonel Will- 
iam Gordon McCabe, Mrs. Hyde, Mrs. Edward D. Christian, 
Mrs. Beveridge, Colonel and Mrs. John P. Hickman, Mrs. fm. 
E. Mickle, Miss Caro Mickle, Colonel and Mrs. Jones, Mrs. 
Mahone, widow of General Mahone, General Gordon, Miss Har- 
rison, Mrs. John Lee, Colonel J. Tavlor Stratton, Mrs. Mac- 
gill, Colonel Boiling, Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Taylor, Miss Taylor, 
Colonel and Miss Woodmi, Miss Churchill, Colonel John E. 
Gordon and many others. 

The first arrival of interest was the delegation from Mem- 
phis, with the lovely young girls who were to dance in the 
Southern Cross Drill. 

The Veterans, all in uniform, and the seventeen young 
ladies all in white, wearing the Confederate stars and bars as 
a corsage, were greeted, with a great burst of applause, for 
the "Drill" has become a part of the programme of every 
reunion, and is the entertainment which most delights the Vet- 
erans from every section of the South. 

Soon others began to arrive, officers of the army and the 
State militia, some in the blue and white of the infantry, 
others in blue and red of the artillery, and a few wearing the 
blue and yellow of the cavalry. The "Blues" made a splendid 
appearance in their striking white and blue and silver dress 
uniforms, and one lady, a colonel of cavalry on General Lee's 
staff, iniststed that the uniform was the most gorgeous in the 
world, not even excepting that of the Czar's private guards. 

Beautiful girls of Richmond and from all parts of the 
South were present, from Louisiana, Alabama, Missouri, Texas. 
Mississippi, Tennessee, the Carolinas, Georgia, Maryland, each 
chosen to represent her State because of her undisputed "belle- 
ship." It was a battle of beauty, waged with all the daring 
and skill of charming women, and ending with all the honors of 
war when the fair army retired in the small hours of the morn- 
ing after fearful execution and the slaughter of many hearts. 
The list of casualties will never be known; the names of the 
victims will never be recorded, but those who heard the cries of 
the wounded and observed their signals of distress will bear wit- 
ness that no man escaped without injury, and that many will 
carry their honorable wounds to their graves or more happily 
to a future engagement. 

Introduction. 35 

Veterans of many an engagement and more than one dis- 
aster took courage and bravely attempted the siege of an un- 
known force; but led on by the wiles of strtegy which, like the 
poet, is "born, not made." in woman, fell an easy prey to 
the battery of smiles, supported by volleys of infantry fires from 
eyes trained to deadly execution. 

In the language of the gentleman who wrote Latin books for 
unwilling students, "They came, they saw, they conquered," 
and with a "mere glance of the eye," according to Beau Brum- 

It was 9 o'clock when the band struck up "The Girl I Left 
Behind Me," and out on the floor marched the thirty-three 
couples of Veterans and Memphis girls. With the audience it 
was "a bet" before the line had gotten half around the arena, 
for the Veterans marched with an air, the manner which belongs 
onlv to the men of the South, and the women were as graceful 
and charming as those of Southern song and story. 

What a sight it was ! The old warriors, not one of whom 
but had seen his sixty-fifth birthday, and some who confessed 
to seventy-five years of perennial youth; the women, daughters 
and granddaughters of the cavaliers, who never grow too old 
to forsake the delights of chivalry. 

LTnder the command of Captain W. L. McLane and led by 
General George W. Gordon, the couples marched to the strains 
of "The Girl I Left Behind Me," then to the ancient air of 
"The Mocking Bird," and in a blaze of glory ended to the 
inspiring music of "Dixie," cheered by the thousands who were 
enthused by the picture. 

The Southern Cross Drill was devised by Lieutenant Dugan, 
of South Carolina, while a prisoner at Johnson's Island with 
3,000 of his comrades. General Geo. W. Gordon, who led last 
night, was also a prisoner at Johnson's Island, danced it there 
with the other prisoners, and it was he who introduced the 
"drill" at the reunion at Memphis in 1901. Only the members 
of Confederate Historical Association Camp No. 28, which was 
organized in Memphis in 1867, are allowed to take part, and 
it is an honor that is guarded jealously, for "few die and none 
resign." The leader is seventy-five years of age and the young- 
est girl, Miss Margaret Odum, who marches, is but thirteen. 
Bandmaster T. J. Frith, who sounded the bugle calls and who 
arranged the music, was chief musician of a Tennessee Brigade 
in the Civil War and he still plays his part with the Memphis 

36 Richmond, Va., May 30 and 31, Junz 1, 2 and 3, 1907. 

The ball, which followed the drill, and which was danced 
by eight hundred people, was brilliant. Colonel Jo Lane Stern. 
in resplendent gold lace, led, and practically every man on the 
floor wore uniform. The band played old war-time music and 
the young and the old tripped to the strains of "The Bonnie 
Bine Flag," "Dixie," "My Maryland," and a score of other 
melodies made dear to the hearts of the men in gray by campfire 
and on weary march. 

All during the evening refreshments were served, and far 
into the morning hours the dance went merrily on. 

Of course the sponsors and maids of honor and the girls 
of the Southern Cross Drill received the lion's share of atten- 
tion, but among the others whose dance-cards, adorned with 
Confederate flags, were black with names, were Miss Sayre, of 
Alabama ; Miss Neely, of Memphis ; Miss Lewis, of Missouri ; 
Miss Heath, of New Orleans ; Miss Bryan, of Florida ; Miss 
Thomas, of Tennessee; Miss Nora Leary, of Richmond; Miss 
Mankin, of Memphis; Miss Anderson, of Alexandria; Miss 
Bagby, of Richmond: Mrs. McGill, of Petersburg; Miss War- 
field, of Maryland. Miss Tilghman, of Annapolis, and Miss Wed- 

dell, of Richmond. 

* # * * * 

To a stranger the Confederate Reunion might not have 
been in existence, or might have sprung into full-fledged being 
for the first time at the reception given last afternoon from 5 
to 7 o'clock at the Confederate Museum by the Confederate 
Memorial Literary Society. 

Outside of the mansion the entire square surrounding the 
White House of the Confederacy, was solidly blocked with 
Veterans in gray and with the regents of State rooms, the 
presidents of State divisions, the presidents of chapters and 
members of chapters from all the different States represented 
at this Confederate gathering, the greatest ever held. 

The Solid South Room of the museum and the different 
State rooms were all most appropriately decorated with the 
colors of the Confederacy, in flowers, and in Confederate and 
State flags. 

Through the hall, out on the portico, overflowing the Vir- 
ginia, Georgia and Mississippi rooms, ascending the stairway 
to the other State rooms, in each of which a reception was being 
held, surged the throng, eager, enthusiastic and patriotic to 
the last degree. 

Just inside the door of the Solid South Room, however, 
stood Mrs. Alfred Gray, acting President of the Confederate 

/;/ troduction . 3 7 

Memorial Literary Society, and beside her the lovely and gra- 
cious form of Mrs. Margaret Howell Jefferson Davis Hayes, 
the daughter of the first and only President of the Southern 
Confederacy, and toward her every eye was turned, before her 
every head was bowed in simple, unaffected homage to her, 
as the living representative of her father, the noble gentleman 
and statesman, who stood at the helm of Confederate govern- 
ment during the troublous years of 1861-1865, and who, though 
imprisoned and chained, was always an exemplar of unshaken 
fortitude and devotion to the land and the people in whose 
heart he lives. 

Many of the old Veterans, grizzled and age-worn, broke 
into tears as they grasped Mrs. Hayes' hand. 

"Ah," said one, "I saw your father in his last triumphal 
procession through the South. It seems but yesterday that I 
heard his voice in greeting.'' 

"But let me shake hands with Mrs. Hayes." said another. 
"I never expected to have such a pleasure. I am willing to 
pass on now." 

And so the story was repeated. The eyes of many left 
Mrs. Hayes' face involuntarily, to rest upon the portrait of 
her father hanging over the mantel of the South Room, near 
where she stood. The glance suffused the eyes of many, for, 
brave as they were, the tide of feeling rose high and flooding 
the heart, sprang also to the eyes. 

Beside her mother, sweet, fair and girlish, stood Mrs. Hayes' 
young daughter. Miss Lucy Addison Hayes, just back of her 
was Mr. J. Addison Hayes, her father, and next in line was 
Mr. Jefferson Hayes Davis, the grandson of the President, who 
bears his name. 

Farther down the line was Mrs. J. E. B. Stuart, around 
whom the Confederate Veterans, especially members of Stuart's 
Cavalry Division, pressed. Mrs. M. B. Pilcher, regent of the 
Tennessee Room, and Mrs. White, President of the Tennessee 
Division, were with the receiving party. Other State regents 
were either attending the receptions in the different State rooms 
or were late in arriving. Miss Minnie Baughman, Vice-Regent 
of the Solid South Room; Miss Isabel Maury and Mrs. J. Enders 
Robinson were welcoming the visitors and giving them desired 

"And this is where President Bavis lived?" said the old 
soldiers, as they stood and looked through the rooms in which 
the weightiest councils of war were held during the days when 
it was the home of the President. 

38 Richmond, la., May 30 and 31, June 1, 2 and 3 , 1907. 

Into the Virginia Room the tide turned, and here around 
the eases that held General Lee's saddle and sash and gaunt- 
lets, and other thing's associated with his personality and around 
the cases holding- similar relics of Jackson and Stuart, stood 
those that had marched and fought with them, whose quivering 
lips and clenched hands gave evidence of the ineffaceable hold 
of Confederate war-time memories. 

In the Georgia Room and in all the different State rooms 
there were meetings and greetings and hand-claspings and re- 
joicings over the fact that Jefferson Davis had come into his 
own again, and that the house set apart by his former presence 
in it had fallen into the hands of loyal and patriotic Southern 

Mrs. Stonewall Jackson was expected, but was not able to 
be present, greatly to the regret of many who hoped to see 

Rather late in the afternoon General Hooker, of Missis- 
sippi, came in on the arm of Dr. J. R. Gildersleeve and re- 
ceived a cordial greeting from Mrs. Hayes, who was also much 
pleased to meet Mrs. Hunter Holmes McGuire and Mrs. W. W. 
Gordon, of Savannah. Ga. 

Certainly the reception last afternoon was a most delight- 
ful event in the social life of this reunion. 

Refreshments were served in abundance by Mrs. L. M. 
Hart and her committee of efficient and energetic ladies. 

A corps or pretty young Daughters of the Confederacy 
assisted these ladies, and pleased the old Veterans, whom they 
were careful to serve first. 

The reception was a monumental success in every respect. 
Thousands of people attended it. 





United Confederate Veterans 



Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday and Monday, 
May 30th and 31st, June 1st, 2d and 3d,1907. 

FIRST DAY'S PROCEEDINGS-Thursday, May 30th, 1907. 

The Horse Show Building had been put in splendid condi- 
tion. The arena was covered with sawdust and the 1,800 chairs 
were adjusted for the delegates in State sections. The stage 
was handsomely arranged and profusely decorated with South- 
ern colors. Life-sized pictures of President Davis, General 
Lee, General Stuart and other famous Confederates looked down 
upon the great gathering. 

Confederate flags, battle-flags, red. white and red bunt- 
ing, hung from every rafter, and it was not considered at all 
disloyal that the Stars and Stripes were conspicuous by their 

By 10 o'clock the arena was crowded to its utmost capacity 
with Veterans and the boxes around were filled with spectators 
including hundreds of fair Daughters of the Confederacy. 

At 10:15 o'clock General Stith Boiling, of Petersburg, with a 
ponderous gavel rapped for order and called the Convention 

First Day's Proceedings. 41 

to order, saying that he had been ordered by the Commander- 
in-Chief to perform the pleasing dnty, he being the Commander 
of the Virginia Division of United Confederate Veterans. He 
was profoundly sensible of the high honor of presiding tem- 
porarily over the seventeenth annual convention of the bravest 
and noblest men who ever fought under any flag on earth. 
He then introduced the Chaplain-General, Rev. Dr. J. William 
Jones, who said it had ever been the custom of the Veterans 
to open their conventions with prayer, and on this occasion 
the body would be led in this devotional service by Rev. Dr. 
J. J. Gravatt, Rector of Holy Trinity Episcopal Church of 
this city, who offered the following: 

" Almighty and everlasting God, in whom we live and move 
and have our being, who art the author of every good and 
perfect gift, we, thy needy creatures, render Thee our thanks 
for our preservation and all the blessings of this life. We 
thank Thee for the land in which we live, with its history, for 
all the splendid examples of greatest virtue, for the heroic 
virtue evidenced in war and for the moral courage in time of 
peace. Grant that as we followed these men on the field of 
battle we may also follow them in all virtuous and godly living 
as they followed the Captain of our Salvation. Above all. we 
bless Thee for Thine inestimable love in the redemption of, 
the world through our Lord Jesus Christ, who gave Himself \ 
sacrifice for us. Let Thy blessing, we beseech Thee, forever 
rest upon all the homes of this land; may they be kept pure 
and good; that they may become centers from which may go 
streams that may make glad the City of God. We thank Thee 
for this assembly; for this reunion of men bound by sacred 
ties. Direct us now and always in all our doings with Thy 
most gracious favor, that all our work begin, continue and 
end in Thee, that we may glorify Thy holy name. May we 
also live here, so fight the good fight that we may lay hold on 
eternal life and have a blessed reunion in the Kingdom across 
the river and rest under the shade of the Tree of Life. All 
of which we ask through the mercies of our Lord, who has 
taught us when we pray to say (Lord's Prayer). May the peace 
of God which passeth all understanding keep your hearts and 
minds in Christ Jesus and may the blessing of God Almighty, 
Father, Son and Holy Ghost be amongst you and remain with 
you always. Amen." 

After the singing of a hymn, General Boiling said : 
"My comrades, it is my pleasure to present to you as the 
first speaker on this occasion one who will welcome you to this 

42 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3, 1907. 

old commonwealth that many of you so gallantly defended from 
'61 to '65, and where so many of your old comrades fill the 
graves of heroes. While he was too young to bear arms and 
touch elbows with you in that heroic struggle for independence, 
no man has rendered a more efficient work to secure to you 
and your children a correct history of the cause for which 
you fought, I present to you Hon. Claude A. Swanson, Gover- 
nor of Virginia." (Applause.) 


"Mr. Commander, Confederate Veterans, Ladies and Gentle- 
men: I did not come to-day with an elaborate or studied wel- 
come to the Confederate Veterans to the State of Virginia. 
I have been informed by the Commander that the "Command 
will still march" and that my time is limited; besides, I have 
been making a great many addresses recently. I believe there 
is scarcely a day since the Jamestown Exposition opened that 
I have not had two or three addresses to deliver. Not long ago 
I went to my physician and asked him to examine me to see 
if the great many speeches I was making was not doing me 
harm, and he replied, 'It is not injuring your nervous system 
but it is very detrimental to your reputation.' (Applause.) 

"I wish to extend in behalf of the State of Virginia, a warm, 
loving and profound welcome. (Applause.) Virginia welcomes 
you to-day as thoroughly and proudly as she did during the 
dark hours of . '61 to '65 when the men of the South, from 
Texas to Maryland, came to fight her cause. Virginia tells me 
to give to every old Confederate soldier here and to wish him 
all measure of happiness and prosperity; she tells me to tell 
you that she continues in that fond affection that I spoke of. 
When I speak on an occasion like this. I always feel like the 
old Confederate soldier who was once in New York and went 
out to Central Park to hear the band play. The band played 
a number of selections and when the band had completed a 
number he said: 'Mister, I wish you would play Dixie.' The 
leader played Dixie and the old man's mind went back to the 
South, its sunshine, its beauty, and he began thinking, and when 
the band got through the old man said: 'Give me Dixie 
once more,' and it was played louder and more enthusiastic 
than ever; he said: 'Give me Dixie once more,' and the leader 
said: 'AVhen Gabriel blows his trumpet you will ask him 
to play Dixie,' and I want to say that unless he does play 
Dixie some of us will not be able to rise. (Laughter and 

Governor Swanso?i's Address. 43 

"The recent conduct of the Federal Government in sus- 
taining the secession of Panama is a belated but just and correct 
endorsement by the greatest Government under' the sun of the 
principle for which the South fought for four long, weary, 
struggling years. 

"We are glad to have from the Federal authorities at Wash- 
ington a complete endorsement of the righteousness of the 
cause for which you contended. My friends, you have made 
in the State of Virginia, in that lovely country from the Poto- 
mac to the Rappahanoc, and even in Maryland herself and 
Pennsylvania, the brightest record ever held by the soldiers 
of any army. No army has done as much as the Confederate 

"You waged war by your captures; you received from the 
Federal Government the very means to continue the war. You 
had hardly a cannon, you had hardly a gun but had the stamp 
of the United States Government on them to show that you 
had captured them. I think the most amusing thing that 
happened during the whole war was of that greatest of all cav- 
alry leaders, that gallant, brave Jeb Stuart, After he had cap- 
tured stores enough to feed the Confederate Army, he sent 
word to them to please see in the future that the mules supplied 
the Government were stronger and of better quality, as he had 
difficulty in making them haul the supplies captured. (Laugh- 
ter and applause.) 

"You engaged in the greatest Avar of all times and all 
ages. You may talk about the magnitude of others, but the great- 
est war that ever was in the history of the world, the number of 
battles fought in extent of territory over which it was waged, the 
greatest war of all ages and the war of all times, was the War 
Between the States, when you covered yourselves with glory. 
(Applause.) How many battles do you suppose were fought 
in the late Avar with Spain when so many Avere killed, 2,261'/ 
It stands out as the greatest Avar in all times. Noav, I am proud 
of, I glory in the Spanish veterans. I am glad the old Confed- 
erate soldier of Virginia recently contributed to that success, 
but, my friends, the Spanish Avar would not be considered a 
skirmish in the States. It reminds me of an anecdote of a 
fellow who went to Heaven. It said that a man knocked at 
the gates of Heaven and St. Peter demanded to know A\dio 
he Avas. 'I am the hero of the Johnstown flood Avhere eight 
or ten people Avere drowned.' After entering Heaven he told 
often of how he got there and noticed that whenever he talked 
about the flood on the face of a little wrinkled old man a look 

44 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -Jtine 3 , 1907. 

of scorn, and often the little man would turn on his heel and 
walk off. When finally he asked who that little dried up man 
was who would not listen to what he had to say about the 
flood, some one answered, 'That man — that man is Noah. He 
had been in a sure enough flood.' (Laughter and applause.) 
Now, my friends, that is the way I feel about the Civil War. 
It is the greatest ever fought in all times. 

"Now, my friends, I want to assure you that the State of 
Virginia loves you; for the heroism with which you baptized 
the State of Virginia. The men came to defend her soil from 
every section of the South. You have defended the groat capi- 
tal of the Confederacy that is known over the wide world. There 
is not a family from Maryland to Texas that has not in Vir- 
ginia's sacred soil the blood of a relation. 

"I wish to tell you for Virginia, from generation to genera- 
tion, we will cherish the old Confederate soldier; we will cher- 
ish his cause and cherish his heroism and cherish his srlory ; 
the courage and glory which is surrounding the Confederacy 
with a renoun that is imperishable. Those long hours of suf- 
fering and trial still hold- us together in the future as it has 
in the past — one in love of this magnificent country, and so 
help us God, that the sacrifice and the love equal to what the 
late Confederate soldier gave to the cause where the present Con- 
federates will stand together in affection and harmony and for- 
ever. ' ' 

At the conclusion of the Governor's eloquent, but brief 
speech the vast audience arose and shouted and cheered for fully 
five minutes. When the cheering had partially subsided the 
band struck up "Dixie," and then pandemonium broke loose. 
Hats went up in the air, handkerchiefs were waved, men stood 
on their chairs, Veterans resumed the hand-shaking business, 
waving flags filled the air and for five minutes or more the 
greatest enthusiasm prevailed. 

Finally, when the strains of "Dixie" had died out and 
the hurrah had subsided in a measure, General Boiling, again 
pounded the stand with his ponderous gavel and appealed for 
order. Old Vets always obey the orders of their Commander, 
and they got quiet long enough for General Boiling to introduce 
Mayor McCarthy. He said he introduced him not only as the 
head of the government of the finest city on the map, but also 
as a comrade who was right along with "the boys" all the time 
from '61 to '65. 

"I want to say to you privately," said General Boiling, 
"if any of you dear old boys shall happen to fall by the 

46 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3 ', 1907. 

wayside while you are in this good city and get into the hands 
of the officers of the law I am sure the chief executive will, 
not only forbid your going to the lock-up. but will jail the 
officer who arrests you. 


Mayor McCarthy was most enthusiastically cheered as he 
wended his way to the front of the platform. He spoke briefly 
as follows : 

"In the name of the good people of this great and historic 
city, I welcome the Veterans of the South ! For the people of 
this city I not only welcome you, but the sentiments you re- 
present, the memories revived by your presence and the eternal 
principles for which in the proud years of your youth you 
made the boundless sacrifice which offers for home and coun- 
try all that life holds dear — and life itself! 

I hold that you were the champions and defenders of the 
vital principles of free government; that you sustained with 
valor, by force of arms, certain principles which the civilized 
world has always honored and without which the liberties of 
the people cannot be preserved. For a time every revolution 
which fails to accomplish its purpose is denounced, reviled and 
dishonored, but always, even a cause which fails, having had 
the support of courage, constancy and righteousness, is finally, 
in the flight of years restored to dignity and to a place of 
justice, and commands from the world the tribute of admira- 
tion and praise. The world still cherishes with affection the 
memory of unselfish heroism, and preserves in song and story 
the names of those Avho fall for and with their country. 

"Here, then, in the capital and the citadel of the South, 
surrounded by imperishable memories and by the graves of 
ten thousand heroic comrades, receive the heartfelt welcome 
of a brave, generous and hospitable people, who spurn the 
suggestion that any of the sacred memories of the past shall 
perish by forgetfulness. Richmond has not, and will not, 
forget the sentiments and the principles which your presence 
represents. We welcome you and the flag you bear." 

Dr. J. Win, Jones, Chaplain General: "It is a privilege 
and pleasure for an old # Confederate to take one of the sons 
by the hand. We know full well that we are passing away so 
rapidly that soon the sons shall have to take our places in 
the name and the fame in the cause for which we fought. I 
have very great pleasure, therefore, in introducing to you the 

Mayor McCarthy 's Address 47 

representative of the sons on this occasion, the son, by the 
way, of the late Commander of R. E. Lee Camp, Mr. B. B. 

Mr. Morgan most cordially welcomed the aged Veterans 
to Virginia and to Richmond. He said in part : 

"It is recorded of Napoleon Bonaparte that at the tomb 
of Frederick the Great he stood with head uncovered and for 
a time was speechless. 

"There are at rare intervals in our life, times when the pres- 
ence of great men and the memory of their great deeds so 
fill our hearts with deep emotion that we strive in vain for 
words fittingly to express our thoughts. 

"It has been frequently charged that the young men of 
the present generation are in large measure ignorant of the 
great historical facts connected with the Confederacy and be- 
cause of this ignorance have not appreciated the mighty deeds 
and mighty sacrifices which characterized its comparatively 
short, but wonderfn! career. 

"We know and confess that such criticisms have not been 
undeserved, and yet as we have grown older, and with more 
matured minds have studied, to some extent, the bewildering 
records of the Civil War, the wonder grows upon us that not 
having actually participated in it, we realize at all the stupen- 
dous issues involved, or the almost superhuman efforts put forth 
by our fathers in that amazing conflict. 

"The spectacle of a nation fighting for its liberty is no 
new thing in history, but who can show us another instance 
of an oppressed people putting into its ranks more men than 
could be enrolled in its voting population ? Success in battle 
has generally attended the heaviest battalions, but the South, 
outnumbered four to one. for four long years 'maintained un- 
equal war' and victorious on scores of hard fought battlefields, 
more than once came so near to final victory that, so far as- 
human eyes can see, nothing but divine intervention turned 
the tide by removing from the field of action leaders under 
whose guidance the gray cohorts seemed well-nigh invincible. 
For defensive strategy the campaigns of Lee have never been 
surpassed ! Your cavalry established new records in their forced 
reconnoissances and the approved modern method of fighting 
artillery in the front line was first developed by your own 
artillery on the field of Second Manassas. 

"It was something greater than greed of conquest that 
inspired such troops; something higher even than genius that 
produced such leaders and turned prosaic college professors into 
soldiers of world-wide fame ! No wonder then that only slowly 

48 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

there comes to us some realization of what this reunion sug- 
gests, and to-day in the presence of this remnant of that once 
splendid army — 'that array of tattered uniforms and bright 
muskets, that incomparable body of infantry — which for four 
years carried the revolt upon its bayonets, opposing a con- 
stant front to the mighty concentration of power brought against 
it ; which receiving terrible blows, did not fail to give the like, 
and which, vital in all its parts, died only with its annihilation, ' 
we feel that we should remove the shoes from off our feet, for 
the ground on which we stand is almost holy ground! 

"It is a meaningless ceremony for sons to bid their own 
father's welcome. 

"Can we forget the priceless heritage which is ours because 
we are Sons of Confederate Veterans? 

"Can we fail to remember £hat military annals record no 
martial achievement surpassing those of the armies of the 
Confederacy; that these armies fought for principle, not power, 
surrendering all things save honor, which men hold dear, to 
follow that splendid red cross flag, which to-day, though 'furled 
forever,' and with no place among the banners of the nations, 
we proudly cherish and revere, because all untarnished by dis- 
honor, it is hallowed by the blood of thousands from the ranks 
as well as of scores of those rare spirits, who taken by the swift 
winged Valkyries from the very rush of battle are waiting 
in that glorious Valhalla where the choicest spirits of the slain 
are marshalled for the final contest of the Gods? Can we re- 
member these things and not be deeply moved by the almost 
sacred inspiration which comes with the knowledge that these 
men are our own fathers, bone of our bone and flesh of our 

"Do we not know that the highest virtues to which man- 
hood can lay claim were exemplified in the lives of men who 
were your leaders, and that you yourselves, when the end had 
come, when the 'burdens too heavy for mortals to bear' had 
been reluctantly laid down and the very doors of Hope seemed 
shut forever in your faces, did not sink into supine despair, but 
lived out for us marvelous examples of the truest citizenship, 
and laid the foundations of the New South, now the marvel 
as well as the pride of a reunited country ? 

"We hear even now that this magnificent record, this amaz- 
ing empire-building which has had no parallel in all the his- 
tory of human progress, has been accomplished by and is en- 
tirely due to the efforts of strangers and the money of the 
North ! 

Greeting to Commander. 49 

"We would not forget the helping- hands that were held 
out to us in our time of need. Discourtesy and selfishness have 
had small place in the hearts of our best people, but we know 
that the real workers, the foundation-builders of the prosperity 
of Dixie have been the men who followed the stainless ban- 
ners of Lee. and the South of to-day is an enduring and a 
splendid tribute to your own works and made possible only 
by your own lives. How can we find words with which to 
welcome such men? 

"More than a generation ago the trenches around Rich- 
mon. swept by shot and shell, 'where only brave men dared 
to go,' were, for many of you your only home. The passing 
years have wrought many changes. To the four corners of the 
earth the once famous legions have been scattered. Your com- 
rades have fallen on every side. Your own white hairs, veri- 
table crowns of glory, show plainly that for many of you. too, 
the final goal is not far distant. To-day you have come back, 
not with pomp and circumstance of war and without the laurel 
crowns of victory upon your brows, but having with you still 
'the satisfaction which proceeds from the consciousness of duty 
faithfully performed,' while our hearts — the hearts of your 
sons — are filled with tenderest love toward you. What shall we 
say? What can we say to 3*011? 

"For us: 

" 'God of our fathers known of old. 

Lord of our far-flung battle-line, 
Beneath whose awful hand we hold 

Dominion over palm and pine; 
Lord, God of Hosts, be with us yet — 

Lest we forget, lest we forget. ' 

"And for you Veterans of a hundred battles, heroes, sol- 
diers without fear and without reproach : 
"Welcome! Oh, welcome home!" 


"I will now turn this convention and this hall over to 
the command of one of the grandest men in our ranks. Com- 
rades, salute your grand Commander, General Stephen D. Lee, 
of Mississippi. ' ' 

In these few words General Boiling introduced the 
Commander of the United Confederate Veterans, who walked 
to the front of the stage and picked up the gavel, but he could 
not say a word that could be heard. The applause was simply 

50 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30-Jime 3 , 1907. 

Again all the old soldiers arose from their chairs, waved 
their hats and their handkerchiefs and cheered until the last 
one of them was so hoarse his voice could scarcely be heard 
two rows of seats ahead of him. 

Addressing his remarks first to Governor Swanson, Mayor 
McCarthy and Mr. Morgan, General Lee made response to 
the addresses of welcome and then in tender terras he spoke to 
the "long thin gray line." 


General Boiling, Ladies, Gentlemen and Comrades — - 

Ever since Colonial days, a Virginia welcome hag been 
famous. We have been made to feel that your hospitality is 
indeed boundless. The oftener we pay you a visit, the better 
we like it and the more we like you. Every good Southerner 
claims either to have come from a Virginia family, or at 
least to have relatives in the Old Dmoinion. It is a sort of 
American patent of nobility, while to belong to one of the 
real "first families" is distinctly royal. 

When the Confederate soldier comes to Richmond, it is 
a home-coming. The greatest of England's Queens said that 
when her heart should be opened, upon it would be found writ- 
ten the word "Calais" — in every Confederate heart, Rich- 
mond is written forever. Here stand the Capitol and the 
White House of the Confederacy. Yonder is the statue of his 
great commander, a tribute from the genius of France to 
the glorious manhood of Virginia. Here is Stonewall Jackson 
in immortal bronze — a memorial by English gentlemen to the 
Soldier of God and his country. Here, too, is A. P. Hill, who 
gave his native land a soldier's finished service, and yet to 
whom, also, the glory of a patriot's death was not denied. 
And here, ready to be unveiled to the eyes of a loving and 
faithful people, stands the monument to the soldier, the states- 
man, the orator, the historian, the pure and chivalrous gentle- 
man, reared by the hands of Southern woman, to him who 
suffered most for them and for us all; who bore in his own 
body the shame of our defeat, and gathered unto his own 
breast every spear of malice raised against his countrymen — 
Jefferson Davis. 

There are many sacred spots on Virginia's soil — James- 
town and Williamsburg have their great memories; Yorktown 
has its splendid triumph — but Richmond is twice endeared to 
the Southern heart. Dear are Manassas, Seven Pines, Cold 
Harbor, Gaines' Mill, Malvern Hill, Fredericksburg, ChamM'l- 
lorsville, the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Petersburg, Appomat- 

52 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 

tox— her history has made Virginia to be remembered with 
Marathon and Thermopylae. Too noble to be neutral, Vir- 
ginia stood guard over her younger sisters. Every wound of 
the dying Confederacy was over the prostrate body of Virginia. 
As long as heroic actions have a charm for noble hearts; as 
long as desperate courage appeals to brave men, and the heart 
of woman cherishes the memory self-sacrifice, Virginia will 
not be forgotten. 

I love the South of to-day. The gallant and generous 
youths, who sometimes gather with us, are my pride and ad- 
miration. But I shall never again love or honor men as T loved 
and honored the Confederate soldier. "We needs must love the 
highest when we see it." There was masterful spirit in him; a 
spirit that laughed at disaster; a spirit, that privation and dis- 
tress could not tame; a spirit that felt a stain upon its honor 
like a wound. His was a love of country that burned all the 
the brighter amid the chilling floods of defeat. His was 

"The passion of a hope forlorn, 

The luxury of being great; 

The deep' content of souls serene, 

Who gain or lose with equal mien; 

Defeat his spirit not subdued, 

Nor victory marred his noble mood. ' ' 

Of these men General Lee said: "The choice between Avar 
and abject submission is before them. To such a proposal, brave 
men with arms in their hands can have but one answer. They 
cannot barter manhood for peace, or the right of self-govern- 
ment for property." Their choice was unselfish and honor- 
able. The swords they drew were never sheathed, but were 
broken in their hands. 

We have lived to see the day, when the President of the 
United States could write these words: "The courage and 
steadfastness, the lofty fealty to the right as it was given to 
each man to see the right, whether he wore the blue or whether 
he wore the gray, now makes the memories of the valiant feats, 
alike of those who served under Grant and of those who served 
under Lee, precious to all good Americans." We have lived 
to see the day when the tattered battleflags that floated over 
the Confederate armies have come home to stay— our country 
could no more imprison those flags than David could drink 
the water which came from the well of Bethlehem by the gate. 
We have lived to see the day when our whole country does 
honor to the Confederate dead; when the very government 
against which he fought marks with memorial stone the long 

Speech of General Stephen D. Lee. 53 

neglected graves where they sleep beneath the Northern snows. 
Every marble is a benediction, and every green sod a mother's 
kiss. In his death the Confederate soldier has won his last 
victory. The tribute of respect and reverence from his old 
enemies does honor to the human heart. 

I am happy to believe that to-day the old Confederate will 
find everywhere affection and good will, and when at last he 
enters "The low green tent whose curtains never outward 
swing," whatever has been written against him in hate will 
be blotted out with tears. Every trace of the storm of battle 
that broke over our country, sweeping away its ancient land- 
marks, dashing to pieces the stately columns of its old politi- 
cal faith, and spreading desolation and ruin over its fairest do- 
main, has passed away, leaving only the pure air of a new 
patriotism, and the tear-drops glistening upon the flowers of 
memory. "We behold a country truly reunited by bonds of 
mutual interest and affection, a prosperous land, a strong and 
vigorous people, busy in fruitful labor. 

The blossom upon our human tree is once more bursting 
into bloom, and we old soldiers, living as we must in the past, 
are made glad by the reverence and respect of those around 
us. Our lives are sweetened by the gratitude and affection 
of the Southern people. Our children and grandchildren 
gather about us, and listen with swelling hearts to the glorious 
story of the Confederacy. They ride with Stuart. Hampton 
and Forrest. They march with Jackson, Cheatham and Hood. 
They hear the thunder of Pelham's guns. They bear the 
body of Ashby in their arms. They listen to the hoof-beats 
of "Traveler." They behold the kingly man. They hear the 
shout, "Lee to the rear," and then the "rebel yell" rings in 
their ears above the roar of battle, until they almost share 
the mad joy of the soldier, and feel the rapture of the charge. 
We rejoice to remember these things. We know that our pos- 
terity will not forget them. And Ave know that while such 
memories are cherished our country will never lack defenders, 
nor shall shadow fall upon the spotless glory of her fame. 

General Lee : 

I am sorry to say that, owing to the great irregularity in 
the movement of trains, that General stickle missed eonnec- 
tion at Birmingham and Atlanta, so that the certificates of 
Committee on Resolution and Credentials have not arrived. They 
are also in the trunk that has not arrived ; and these committees 
will be announced in the morning papers, so that we will lie ready 
to get to business to-morrow. 

54 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3 , 1907. 

Announcement by Colonel J. Taylor Straton, "I desire to 
announce (if you cannot hear me let me know) — I desire 
to announce to the Committee on Distribution of Badges that 
they are to meet in Room 2 of the Jefferson Hotel. There are 
a number of committees that have not been furnished ; the 
badges will be sufficient for them." 

Colonel Jno. P. Hickman : 

"I move that this Convention now stand adjourned until 
ten o'clock to-morrow, and that the Committee on Resolutions 
and Credentials will meet here at half past nine to be ready 
at the meeting of the Convention." 

General Lee : 

The motion is adopted, and the Convention stands ad- 

SECOND DAY'S PROCEEDINGS- Friday, May 31st, 1907. 

The clay opened with the session of the Veterans at the 
Horse Show Building, which, with a capacity of more than 
5,000, was filled to overflowing. On the main floor were the 
men in gray, while the boxes and seats of the amphitheatre 
were packed with representative people of Richmond and guests 
attending the reunion. Considering the downpour, this at- 
tendance was most remarkable. 

Promptly at 9 :30, General Stephen D. Lee said : 
"The Convention will come to order. Rev. J. W. Finley, 
of Virginia, will lead in prayer." 


Almighty, Eternal and Ever Blessed God, we thank Thee 
for the loving kindness and the tender mercy Thou hast shown 
unto us in the past and even unto this good hour. 

Thou, who wast our head in the day of battle, Thou hast 
watched over and preserved us as the years have come and 
gone, and now, as the burden of age and infirmity wears 
upon us, we are permitted to gather here where so many of us 
assembled in the days gone by, and we look up to Thee as the 
same God in whom we trusted. We thank Thee for the memo- 
ries that crowd upon us as we gather here to-day and we pray 
that, while we cherish them, all bitterness may be banished 
from our hearts and minds and we may be able to rest under 
Thy smile and favor for a reunited country, for the pros- 

Committee o?i Resolutions. 55 

perity of which we will humbly pray and strive. And, now, 
gracious Father, let Thy special benediction rest upon these 
who are gathered here from so many and distant parts of our 
land; preserve them and keep them and give them the peace 
which passeth all understanding and as Thou didst make them 
good soldiers in their time of war, so make them soldiers of 
the cross, following the great leaders whom they followed as 
they followed the Commander of our Salvation. 

Answer their prayers for the loved ones from whom they 
are separated, and when the time comes for them to turn their 
faces homeward, bring them safely to those who watched and 
prayed for their coming. 

Hear us, Father, in these our supplications; blot out our 
sins and bring us all at last to those above, we ask, in Jesus' 
name. Amen. 

Colonel John P. Hickman announced the Committees as 
follows : 


Alabama — Colonel Joseph F. Johnson. 

Arkansas — General B. W. Green. 

District of Columbia — Colonel S. E. Lewis, M. D. 

Florida — General Samuel Pasco. 

Georgia— Major J. C. C. McMahon. 

Indian Territory — Jas. J. McAlister. 

Louisiana — General Albert Estopinal. 

Maryland — General John Gill. 

Missouri — Colonel J. W. Halliburton. 

Northwest — Captain ¥m. H. Mayo. 

Oklahoma — Colonel Win. M. Cross. 

Pacific — Judge J. T. Evens. 

South Carolina — Colonel 0. L. Schumpert. 

Tennessee — Colonel John P. Hickman. 

Texas — Captain E. K. Goree. 

Virginia — General R. B. Davis. 

West Virginia — Adjutant John A. Preston. 


Alabama — General J. N. Thompson. 
Arkansas — Colonel Charles Coffin. 
Florida — General W. L. Wittich. 
Georgia — Colonel J. Colton Lynes. 
Indian Territory — Colonel Z. T. Serner. 
Louisiana —Captain Thomas J. Shaffer. 
Maryland — Major William Pegram. 

56 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 

Missouri — Colonel 0. H. P. Catron. 
Northwest— Brigadier General W. H. H. Ellis. 
Oklahoma — General T. B. Hogg. 
Pacific — Brigadier General S. S. Birchfield. 
South Carolina — Captain Perry Moses. 
Tennessee — Captain G. B. Malone. 
Texas — General W. B. Berry. 
Virginia — Colonel J. Taylor Stratton. 
West Virginia — Colonel A. C. L. Gatewood. 

The Committee on Credentials reported the various divi- 
sions as entitled to representation in the Convention as fol- 

Division. No. of Votes. 

Alabama 183 

Arkansas • 127 

District of Columbia 10 

Florida 93 

Georgia . . . . • 252 

Indian Territory 33 

Kentucky .\ 110 

Louisiana • 138 

Maryland 11 

Mississippi 177 

Missouri • 71 

North Carolina 141 

Northwest ' ■ 30 

Oklahoma 23 

Pacific • 32 

South Carolina 155 

Tennessee 161 

Texas 442 

Virginia 190 

West Virginia 38 

Total 2,417 

Next followed one of the most pleasing incidents of the 
day. It was something of a personal affair, but it created 
general enthusiasm — the presentation of a loving cup to Rev. 
Dr. J. William Jones, Chaplain-General of the United Confed- 
erate Veterans. The first announcement of the gift came from 
General Stone of Missouri, who characterized Dr. Jones as "the 
greatest living Confederate to-day." "He," said the speaker, 
"has done more, prayed harder and preached longer and more 
about the Confederacy than any man since the war." 

58 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907: 

General Stone then explained that the real presentation 
speech of the occasion would be made by "the prettiest woman 
in Missouri;" Miss Edna Pearl Jewell, of Kansas City. 

Miss Jewell, like the true Southern woman, spoke modestly 
and briefly and in a voice that could not be heard far from 
the speaker's stand, but all the same the Veterans cheered, for 
very well they knew that so lovely a young woman could not 
have made anything but a good patriotic talk. 

Dr. Jones was overcome by the testimony to his worth and 
valor as an old-time fighter, but he finally got possession of 
his voice, and made the following brief talk that aroused no 
little enthusiasm. 

"I am not able to speak in the usual way. My saying that 
I was very much taken by surprise and therefore not prepared 
to speak, is my excuse, and 1 have not had time to bring a 
written impromptu in my pocket, and you must know that 
my words must be very few. I return my hearty thanks to my 
Missouri friends for this honor they have done me. My friend, 
Miss Jewell, has greatly over-estimated my services. 

' ' I thank you heartily for the honor you have done me and 
I assure you that I shall cherish it with very great pleasure. 
There is a little woman at my house who always meets me in 
warm weather with ice lemonade. She will use that cup for 
the purpose, and, while it will never be spiced, it will be en- 
joyed and you will be remembered." 

General Lee then introduced Colonel J. W. Daniel, who de- 
livered one of his usual most excellent addresses, which will be 
found in the appendix. Colonel Daniel was frequently inter- 
rupted with tremendous cheers. 

When the applause, long and enthusiastic, which followed 
Senator Daniel's speech had subsided, General Lee stepped to 
the front, and, with a voice that was almost smothered with 
emotion, introduced the only living daughter, the only surviving 
child, of President Jefferson Davis. — Mrs. Margaret Howell 
Jefferson Davis Hayes, the wife of Mr. Addison Hayes. Mrs. 
Hayes was attired in a mourning dress because of the recent 
death of her mother. 

Mrs. Hayes stood before the cheering audience of Vet- 
erans, who sought to do her honor by the waving of hats, flags 
and handkerchiefs, and smilingly acknowledged their greeting. 
General Lee also brought to the front Miss Lucy Hayes, a 
sweet little fourteen-year-old girl, and the handsome boy, Jeff 
Hayes Davis. Clad in Confederate gray and with a face 
and a brow that would attract attention in any gathering, the 

Readi7ig of General W. L. Cabell's Letter. 59 

boy was a fitting representative of the great man whose name 
he bears and will doubtless ever honor. These are the only 
grandchildren of President Davis. 

The presiding officer next presented General S. G-. French, 
of Florida, who, he declared, was the oldest Confederate general 
now living. The aged general came to the front and bowed in re- 
sponse to the greetings of his comrades, but he did not make a 
speech. General French is in his eighty-seventh year, and truly 
ranks as the oldest Confederate general. 

General Lee now stepped to the front and said: "Com- 
rades, I have taken the liberty to violate the rules and the laws 
of our grand organization. I admit it, but I know you will 
forgive me when I tell you the story. It has heretofore been 
our custom to select the chief orator for our reunions from 
among our own ranks. This year we have an orator who was 
but a baby in long clothes, or maybe he wasn't boru, when we 
were sent out to fight; but when I call his name I know you 
will be satisfied with my selection. I now introduce Robert E. 
Lee, Jr., the son of W. H. F. Lee and the grandson of our 
Grand Commander, General Robert E. Lee." Col. Lee was 
greeted with uproarious applause, and his speech received with 
great enthusiasm. 

(This speech will be found in full in the Appendix. — Ad- 
jutant General.) 

It is no disparagement to others to say that Colonel Lee's 
address was the great event of the clay. When he had concluded 
there was no such thing as maintaining order. In vain did Gen- 
eral Lee pound upon the stand with his gavel; in vain did the 
police officer try to obey orders and keep clear the way to the 
grandstand. Every Veteran wanted to shake the hand of the 
grandson of "Marse Bob" who could make that kind of speech. 
Finally somebody suggested that Colonel Bob leave the stand 
and come down among the boys. He was prompt to obey, but 
his presence among the Veterans created so much loud talking 
and so much side cheering that General Lee had to ask Colonel 
Lee to come back to the stand, and let business proceed. 

General Geo. P. Harrison, of Alabama: 

"I desire, Mr. Commander, to offer the following resolu- 
tion for the consideration of the assembly: 

' ' That the consideration of the selection of a place for hold- 
ing the next General Reunion of the U. C. V. be made the 
special order for the hour of 12 m. to-morrow, June 1st, 1907. ' ' 

This was seconded by Colonel Hickman and adopted. 

Colonel Hickman then read the following letter from Gen- 
eral W. L. Cabell, of Dallas, Texas: 

60 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -Jit, le 3 , 1907. 

Dallas, Tex., May 27, 1907. 
My Old Comrades: 

Owing to the fact of my had health I am physically 
unable to meet you in Richmond at this glorious reunion, so 
send you the heartfelt greetings of an old ex-soldier and ask 
you to listen to the following communication I send. 

In December, 1889, Jefferson Davis, the only President of 
the Confederate States, and the greatest man living on earth 
at the time of his death, died at New Orleans. On receiving 
the news of his death I issued an appeal to my old comrades 
throughout the great State of Texas, urging them to attend 
the funeral of this great man whose burial was to take place 
on Dec. 11th, 1889, at New Orleans, and to bring with them 
their noble wives and beautiful daughters. My appeal by tele- 
gram was read and it aroused the spirit of love and patriotism 
of our brave men and noble women and at the same time 
filling the hearts of the people with sorrow and the whole 
State with mourning for our beloved Chieftain. 

The people came from all over the Southland to attend 
the funeral and flowers brought by the beautiful women were 
truly watered by a nation 's tears. The procession was the larg- 
est ever witnessed in New Orleans, for besides the citizens, old 
and young, and Confederates from all over the South, fully 
seven thousand Confederates from Texas and Arkansas alone 
marched side by side to pay this loving honor to their dead 

General W. L. Cabell and ex-Governor Lubbock, both of 
whom had been on President Davis' Staff, were pall-bearers, 
to represent the State of Texas. In July, 1890, you elected me 
at the reunion held at Chattanooga, Lieutenant General to 
command the Trans-Mississippi Department of United Confed- 
erate Veterans. You have honored me by electing me to the 
same position at every reunion to the present time. I have done 
all that I could possibly do to build up our noble Association 
— to encourage brotherly love among our comrades and to keep 
them in touch with each other by devoting my time and all 
the means I could spare to this labor of love. At this reunion, 
at Chattanooga in 1890, there were but five Confederates from 
the Trans-Mississippi Department, three from Arkansas and 
two from Texas besides myself. 

There were, at this time, but two camps fully organized 
in Texas, Pat Cleburne, at Waco, and John B. Hood Camp at 

At the second reunion held at Jackson, Miss., June 3rd, 
1891, at which time a beautiful monument to President Davis 

Readi?ig of General W. L. Cabell 's Letter. 61 

was unveiled, there were but eight camps in this Department, 
and only five could vote in the Convention. At the next re- 
union held at New Orleans, 1892, I went with over one hun- 
dred of the largest camps in the South, and with 7,500 brave 
Confederate soldiers who were registered and took part in the 
grand parade. Texas alone had 75 camps, Arkansas. Missouri, 
Oklahoma and Indian Territory furnishing the remainder with 
fully one thousand Confederate soldiers in the parade. 

In 1894, the Trans-Mississippi Department reached its zen- 
ith of glory registering 592 camps. In 1898 this great column 
of gray which had received its baptism of fire and blood over 
thirty-five years ago, began like the leaves of the forest to 
fall one by one and a perceptible loss in the strength of the 
camps is noticed. Although many of our noblest have crossed 
the river to the Great Beyond, yet we have every right to 
thank a kind and merciful God that the death roll has been 
no greater. This is due to the fact that the great States of 
Texas. Arkansas and Missouri, as well as other States and 
Territories, have provided good and comfortable homes where 
these old heroes, ''the unpaid soldiers of immortal princi- 
ple," can spend the remainder of their lives in comfort and 

You have honored me, my old comrades, by electing ine 
Commander of the Trans-Mississippi Department for seventeen 
years, an honor that I prize as highly as I should if elected 
President of the United States. I have, God knows, given the 
best part of my life and means to the welfare and care of 
my old comrades and keeping green and fresh the memory of 
the gallant and heroic deeds of the great struggle for consti- 
tutional liberty made by the truest, the most patriotic and the 
bravest soldiers that ever drew sword or shouldered a musket 
in a defense of any cause or for any country, but my old com- 
rades. I am growing feeble, my term of enlistment will soon 
expire. I reported to Mr. Davis at Montgomery on April 19th, 
1861, received my resignation as an officer in the United States 
Army, April 20th. signed by President Lincoln. I went on 
duty at Richmond, Va., April 21st, 1861, the first Confed- 
erate officer on duty in Virginia. I left my home in Arkansas 
April 12th, for duty under the Confederate flag. I never was 
absent from my post of duty or from the army or from my com- 
mand a single day unless prevented by sickness or disabled by 
wounds (wounded seven times, four times badly), or con- 
fined in Northern prisons as a prisoner of war, until August, 
1865, the date of my parole, when I was released from prison 
at Ft. Warren, Boston Harbor. Through all the glories, through 

62 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

all the gloom, through all the vicissitudes of war— amidst dark- 
est despair when hope was at times lost sight of, my heart was 
always filled with love and affection for the soldiers with whom 
I served, and especially for the brave soldiers who served under 
me, never failing or never refusing to go into battle, although 
often shoeless, half clad, nothing to eat. hungry, without a 
single murmur of discontent. My words are too feeble to pay 
the Confederate soldier the tribute he deserves. I have indulged 
the hope that I would be with you and live to see the monu- 
ment raised and unveiled to our great and only President Davis. 
Having seen this and being proud of the fact that I am a Con- 
federate soldier and that I served the South honestly and 
faithfully under him — one of the proudest hopes of my life 
will be realized when the great monument to his memory will 
be unveiled, but at the same time my saddest disappointment 
that I will not be with my comrades at this reunion when they! 
thus honor our great Chieftain. Although absent in person, 
my heart is with you. I am conscious of the fact, my old 
comrades, that I am growing old and feeble. I have served 
you over seventeen years. I have organized in that time over 
five hundred camps and should be put on the retired list and 
ask that a younger man be elected at this reunion to fill my 

In the closing hours of my loving and joyful service let 
me thank you, my old comrades, for the honor you have con- 
ferred on me since April, 1861, to the present time. I assure you 
that as long as I live the camp fire shall burn; it may be that 
I may never meet you again, but I shall keep you in my 
heart and ask a kind and merciful God in His great mercy to 
bless you and all dear to you— to bless our noble women — to 
bless our noble Association and allow it to meet for many more 

May a merciful God enable you to enjoy the blessings of a 
long and happy life, and that in the end we may all meet our 
comrades, Davis, Lee, the Johnstons, Beauregard, and all old 
Confederate heroes in heaven is the prayer of 

Your friend and comrade, 

Lieutenant General TJ. C. V., 

Trans-Mississippi Department. 

The old men were deeply touched at the sentiments of this 

Eev. Dr. McKinn : 

"I move that the Adjutant General. General Mickle, be 
instructed to communicate with General Cabell the profound 

64 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, A fay 30 -June 3, 1907. 

regard of every Confederate soldier in this assembly, and 
that his health be spared, with a deep appreciation of all his 
gallantry. ' ' 

This motion was unanimously adopted, and the following" 
dispatch was immediately sent to General Cabell : 

Lieutenant General W. L. Cabell. 
Dallas, Texts. 

Every survivor of the Confederate armies now in Richmond 
has heard with great sorrow of the sickness which keeps you 
from this grand reunion. I am directed by a unanimous vote 
of the "Convention to communicate to you this feeling on the 
part of your comrades, and to express the great admiration 
they feel for you as a Confederate soldier and the love they 
bear you for your untiring labors for the United Confederate 
Veterans. They pray for your speedy restoration to health, 
and that God's choicest blessings may ever be with you. 


Adjutant General, Chief -of -Staff. 

An invitation from Miss Mary Cnstis Lee and Mrs. Mon- 
tague for Confederate matrons and daughters to visit the 
Home for Confederate Women on Saturday afternoon between 
the hours of 4 :30 and 7 :30, was read. 

The choir rendered most feelingly "My Old Kentucky 
Home," and the meeting adjourned to Saturday morning at 
9:30 o'clock. 

THIRD DAY'S PROCEEDINGS— Saturday, June 1st, 1907. 

The meeting was called to order by the Commander-in- 
Chief promptly at 9:30 o'clock, who said: 

"We will open our services this morning with prayer to 
Almighty God, with hearts full of thankfulness for His mercy 
to us. Rev. R. H. McKimm will now lead us in prayer." 


Let Us Pray — "Almighty and Everlasting God, who art 
always more ready to hear than we are to pray, pour down 
upon us at this time, we beseech Thee, the abundance of Thy 
mercy. Give unto us Thy blessing, the blessing of the Holy 
Ghost in our hearts, that we may lift up onr souls to Thee 
and call upon Thy holy name in humility, in confidence and 

Report of Confederate Memorial Association 65 

"Oh God of our fathers, we thank Thee for all our memo- 
ries in the past, for Thy love in the days of our trials, in the 
days of our battle and danger. We beseech Thee, Lord, to 
bind us closer and closer together in the unity of a common 
love and devotion as the days go by and as so many of us fall 
from the ranks, and we beseech Thee that at last Thou wilt 
gather ns in Thy camp and make us soldiers in the kingdom of' 
the heavenly host. Bless every family represented in this Con- 
vention to-day, be with our loved ones far away, grant ther 
Thy mercy and loving kindness. Grant that our Southland may 
be bound toegther in unity of spirit and in the bond of peace 
and in the impe of eternal life. 

"Hear us, our Father, in these our prayers, and guide us 
through life and may we be victorious in death over the last 
enemy, we ask, for Jesus Christ's sake. Amen." 

The following report of the Trustees of the Battle Abbey 
was then read by General Robt. White: 


Maj. Gen. Wm. E. Miekle, Adjutant General and Chief -of - 
Staff : Sir. 

In presenting our annual report. Ave are again compelled 
to chronicle the death of a member of our Board, Major A. G. 
Dickinson, of New York, who represented the Rouss contribu- 
tion, and was always a deeply interested and zealous member, 
though prevented from frequent attendance at our meetings by 
protracted ill health. 

The Florida Division elected as a member of our Board 
Hon. Sam'l Pasco. Ex. U. S. Senator, in the place of Colonel 
Reese, deceased. 

During the past year we have again been handicapped by 
"the law's delays" in the Underwood suit .and the injunction 
which prevented Mr. Peter Rouss, the heir and executor of C. 
B. Rouss, from paying us the balance ($40,000) of his father's 
subscription. We finally got from the Appellate Court a deci- 
sion in our favor on every point involved. 

The matter ought to have ended there at once, but under pre- 
tense of an appeal to the Supreme Court, the other side kept 
us waiting some six months longer until they were finally thrown 
out of court with all of the costs put on them. 

We deem it but just to them to say in this connection that 
our counsel — Battle & Marshall, of New York, two sons of gal- 

66 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

lant Confederate soldiers- -managed our case with great zeal 
and ability, and that they declined to receive from us one 
dollar of fees. 

We gratefully acknowledge their kind liberality, and it 
will be appreciated by Confederates generally. 

As soon as this suit was decided Mr. Peter Rouss wrote that 
he was prepared to pay the $40,000 balance of his father's sub- 
scription as soon as we gave him proof that we had $100,000 
cash in bank to meet the gift of his father of that amount. 

We, therefore, made the necessary collections, our Treas- 
urer sent Mr. Rouss the certificate of our bank, and he promptly 
wired that he would make payment at once of the balance 
($40,000) of his father's subscription. He has since paid $20,- 
000. and promises $20,000 more in a day or so. 

We are able, therefore, to report that our Tresurer has to 
his credit in the Virginia Trust Co. 

This we consider very gratifying after the vexatious delays 
and many obstacles which we have encountered. We deem it 
due to Mr. Peter Rouss to say that we have always found him 
ready, and willing, to carry out the noble benefaction of bis 
father, and that he has proven himself a worthy son of the 
gallant Confederate soldier, and liberal helper of good causes 
which C. B. Rouss was. 

We are now ready to go forward at an early day in the 
erection of our Memorial Building. We bad confidently ex- 
pected to have had it well under way ere this, and our Execu- 
tive Committee made a proposition to the City of Richmond 
which was warmly advocated by the City press, and approved by 
many of our prominent citizens, and we had every reason to 
believe that it would be accepted. But the coming in of a 
new Council, and other causes, delayed action until it was too 
late to press the matter further. 

We purpose now to vigorously push our building enter- 
prise, and hope for rapid progress in it. 

The delay, however, has ;iot been an unmixed evil, as the 
cost of building material arid of labor has been very high during 
the erection of buildings for the Jamestown Exposition, and it 
is hoped that in the near future these will be greatly reduced. 

We would say to our many friends who have promised 
"We. will help you as soon as you are ready to build," that the 
time has come when they may send forward their contributions, 
and we earnestly appeal them to do so. 

We will need additional contributions not only that we 
may erect a building worthy of the cause it represents, but 
that we may meet other demands in furnishing it. 

Report of Confederate Memorial Association. 67 

We propose to collect a great library of American history, 
books, pamphlets and manuscripts, which will enable the his- 
torian to tell the true story of our country, not neglecting 
the history of oar Southland, and especially our great struggle 
for constitutional freedom. 

We wish also to collect as soon as possible statue/-;, por- 
traits, etc., which will make our Memorial Hall a beautiful 
monument to our leaders, our private soldiers and our noble 

We solicit, therefore, contributions not only of money 
but of books, pamphlets, manuscripts, portraits, busts, statues — 
whatever will illustrate our history or honor our noble dead, 
or our cause. 

One gentleman has already donated to our library his large 
collection of books, pamphlets, etc., and we have other pro- 
mises in that direction. 

We repeat what we have said in a previous report that cheek? 
made payable to George L. Christian, Treasurer, and sent to 
J. William Jones, Secretary and Superintendent, 709 14 West 
Clay Street, Richmond, Va., will be turned into our treasury 
without the deduction of a cent for salaries, commissions, or ex- 
penses of any kind whatever. 

Your Board of Trustees, Executive Committee, and officers 
will continue to give their best energies to the earliest possible 
accomplishment of our great enterprise, and w T e bespeak the 
warm sympathy and active co-operation of our people. 

In conclusion we offer the following: 

Resolved : That our counsel, Gordon Battle and Snowden 
Marshall, of New York are, entitled to the hearty thanks of this 
U. C. V. Association for the ability, zeal and success with which 
they have conducted the Underwood case, and for their very 
great liberality in giving to it their time and talent without 
charging us one dollar of fees, and thus saving us thousands 
of dollars, and we hereby express our grateful appreciation 
of their invaluable services, and direct our Adjutant General to 
send to Battle & Marshall an engrossed copy of the resolution. 

By order of the Board of Trustees, 

J. WM. JONES, President. 

Secty. and Supt. 

The report was received and adopted. Immediately after 
adjournment the Adjutant General sent the following dispatch 
to the parties named: 

68 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 

Richmond, Va.. June 1. 1907. 

To Messrs. Battle & Marshall, 

Attorneys-at-Law, New York : 

By a vote of the Convention of the United Confederate Vet- 
erans held this day, I was directed to send you this resolution, 
which has been unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, That our counsel, Gordon Battle and Snowden 
Marshall, of New York, are entitled to the hearty thanks of 
the U. C. V. for the ability, zeal and success with which they 
have conducted the Underwood case, and for their very great 
liberality in giving to it their time and talent without charging 
one dollar of fees, thus saving us thousands of dollars, and 
we hereby express our grateful appreciation of their valuable 
services. The Adjutant General is directed to forward to Bat- 
tle & Marshall a copy of this resolution. 

(Signed) WM. E. MICKLE, 
Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 

The report of the Historical Committee was presented by 
General Evans, but, owing to its length, it was not read to 
the Convention, but was accepted and is as follows : 

Major General Wm. E. Mickle. 

Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 

Dear Sir: 

Within the limits prescribed for this paper, it is impos- 
sible to discuss with any degree of satisfaction the issues in- 
volved in the great conflict between the North and the South 
from '61 to '65. These have, however, been so fully discussed 
by other members of this committee on former occasions that 
but little remains to add to those discussions. 

In a recent work with the somewhat arrogant title, "The 
True History of the Civil War," the writer begins by say- 

"The seeds of dissolution between the North and the 
South were carried to Virginia in the ships commanded by 
Newport and to Massachusetts in the 'Mayflower.' Each kind 
fell upon soil well adapted to nourish its characteristics. * * * 
There was, in the beginning, an almost imperceptible rift be- 
tween the people of the North and those of the South. This 
gradually widened until, notwithstanding the necessity for union, 
a separation in sentiment, thought and custom arose. This 
estrangement developed until it gave to the people of the North 

70 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3 , 1907. 

and the South the aspect of two races, manifesting towards 
each other all the antipathy of rival and dissimilar nations, 
and, in their disagreements, rendering impossible either sym- 
pathy with each other's standpoint, or patient listening to each 
other 's contention. ' ' 

Without intimating any opinion as to how far all the 
other statements contained in this work warrant the author 
in giving it the title selected, a feAV glances at history will. 
convince the most skeptical that the foregoing statement is 
well founded. 

In 1775 when Washington's army was in front of Boston, 
that great patriot- soldier issued a stern order, threatening severe 
punishment to any man found guilty of saying or doing any- 
thing to aggravate what he termed "the existing sectional 
feeling." And during the same year, when Peyton Ran- 
dolph, of Virginia, the first President of the Continental Con- 
gress, died, his brother-in-law, Benjamin Harrison, also from 
Virginia, was nominated for that position: but, as John Han- 
cock, of Massachusetts, was likewise nominated, it is said that 
Mr, Harrison, "to avoid any sectional jealousy or unkindness 
of feeling between the Northern and Southern delegates at 
so momentous a crisis," had his own name withdrawn, and 
insisted on the election of Mr. Hancock. And so. too, in the 
Virginia Convention of 1788, Mr. Henry, in opposing the adop- 
tion of the Federal^.Constitution, after pointing out the pro- 
visions to which he objected, and in which his almost prophetic 
ken saw dangers lurking, which have since been realized, said, 
after all, he did not so much object to the form of the instru- 
ment as he did to the character and dispositions of those with 
whom we were forming' the compact. And another distinguished 
Virginian, with fervid eloquence, exclaimed that our oppres- 
sions under the compact would be "worse than British tyr- 
anny. ' ' 

With these early, and seemingly innate, antipathies, stimu- 
lated and developed by growing conflicting interests, arising out 
of tariffs, acquisitions of territory, and other causes, the "ir- 
repressible conflict," as Seward termed it, would seem neces- 
sarily Only a question of time. 

As to the real cause or causes which precipitated that con- 
flict, there have been, and still are, differences of opinion. In 
our view, the settlement of this question is secondary; and the 
vital questions to be determined are: 

(a) Which side, if either, was responsible for the existence 
of the cause or causes? And if slavery was the cause, which 
side was guilty of wrongdoing in dealing with that cause? 

Report of Historical Committee. 71 

(b) Which was the aggressor in provoking the conflict? 

(c) Which side had the legal right to do what was done? 
And last, but by no means the least : 

(d) Which side conducted itself the better and according 
to the, rules of civilized warfare pending the conflict? 

It seems to us that an answer to these questions is perti- 
nent at all times, and at this distance from the conflict, they 
can be discussed dispassionately, without engendering sectional 
bad feeling. 

Our quondam enemies, knowing, as it seems to us they must 
know, that the evidence on every other point is overwhelm- 
ingly against them, and relying on the sentiment of the world 
now existing against slavery, are prone to charge that the South 
fought for the perpetuation and extension of that institution. 
Or, to put it in the brief and common form, they charge (as 
some of our younger people, in their ignorance, seem to believe) 
that "slavery was the cause of the war." 

It would seem to the unprejudiced mind that the mere 
statement of the fact (which, we believe, is a fact) that more 
than eighty per cent of the Confederate soldiers held no slaves: 
that General Lee, our representative soldier, freed his slaves 
before the war, whilst General Grant, the representative sol- 
dier of the North, held on to his until they were freed by the 
results of the war. and the further fact that General Lee 
said at the beginning of the war, that if he owned all the 
slaves in the South, and could, by freeing them, save the Union, 
he would do so with the stroke of his pen, ought to furnish a 
satisfactory refutation of this unjust charge. 

But let us admit, for the sake of the argument only, that 
the charge is true. How, then, does the case stand as to us, 
both on the law and the facts? 

It will not lie charged by the greatest enemy of the South 
that it was in any way responsible either for the existence of 
slavery, or for inaugurating that vilest of traffics, the African 
slave trade. On the contrary, history attests that slavery was 
forced upon this country by England, against the earnest pro- 
tests of the South, as well as of the North, when the States 
were Colonies under the control of that country; that "the first 
statute establishing slavery in America is to be found in the 
famous Code of Fundamentals, or Body of the Liberties, of 
the Massachusetts Colony of New England, adopted in Decem- 
ber, 1641," that the "Desire," one of the very first vessels built 
in Massachusetts, was fitted out for carrying on the slave trade 
"that the traffic became so popular that great attention was 
paid to it by New England shipowners, and that they practi- 

72 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

cally monopolized it for a number of years." (The True Civil 
War, pp. 28, 29, 30.) And history further attests that Virginia 
was the first State, North or South, to prohibit slave traffic from 
Africa, and that Georgia was the first to incorporate that pro- 
hibition in her Constitution. 

We have no desire to say in this paper unkind things about 
the North. But it is easy to show that as long as slavery existed 
there, as it did in all the Colonies when independence was de- 
clared, the treatment of slaves by the people of that section was as 
harsh, if not more so, than was ever known in any part of the 
South. Not only is this true ; but it is also easy to show that, as 
long as the people of the North were the owners of slaves, they re- 
garded and treated and disposed of them as ''property" just 
as the people of England had done since 1713, when slaves were 
held to be "merchandise" by the twelve judges of that country, 
with the venerable Holt at their head. We could further show 
that slavery existed at the North just as long as it w T as profitable 
to have it there; that the moral and religious sense of that 
section w r as only heard to complain of that institution after it 
was found to be unprofitable, and after the people of that 
section had, for the most part, sold their slaves to the people 
of the South; and that after Whitney's invention of the cotton 
gin, which wrought such a revolution in the production of cot- 
ton at the South, as to cause slave labor greatly to increase 
in value, and which induced many Northern men to engage in 
that production ; these men almost invariably purchased their 
slaves for that purpose, and many of these owned them when 
the war broke out. 

The South was, then, in no sense responsible for the ex- 
istence of slavery within its borders, but it was brought there 
against its will; it was clearly recognized and attempted to be 
controlled and protected by the Constitution — the supreme law 
of the land — and the people of the South, not believing that 
any other or better disposition could be made of the slaves! 
than by holding them in bondage, only continued to do this. 

In the meantime, numerous efforts were made, both by 
Southern States and by individuals, to abolish the institution, 
and it is the almost universal belief now that these efforts would 
have been gradually successful but for the harsh and unjust 
criticisms of the Southern people by some of those at the North, 
and the outrageous, illegal and incendiary interferences by the 
abolitionists and their emissaries. As early as 1769 the House 
of Burgesses of Virginia tried to abolish slavery in Virginia, 
but was prohibited by the act of George III, then King of 
England, "in the interests of English commerce." And through- 

Report of Historical Committee . 73 

out the period from 1776 to 1832, when the work of the aboli- 
tionists first began to be felt, the question of how to accomplish 
emancipation engaged the thought of some of the most eminent 
men of Virginia and other Southern States. 

Mr. George Lunt. a distinguished lawyer of Massachusetts, 
in his interesting work, entitled "Origin of the Late War,*' in 
which he shows that the North was the aggressor and wrong- 
doer throughout, says : ' ' Slavery, in the popular sense, was the 
cause of the war, just as property is the cause of robbery." 

Whilst we do not endorse this statement, looking at the 
subject from the viewpoint of a Southerner, yet, if it were true, 
surely there is nothing in it from which the people of th$ 
North can take any comfort or credit to themselves. 

But so anxious are our former enemies to convince the 
world that the South did fight for the perpetuation of slavery, 
that some of them have, either wittingly or unwittingly, resorted 
to misrepresentations or misinterpretations of some of the say- 
ings of our representative men. to try to establish this as a fact. 
A noted instance of this is found in the oft-repeated charge 
that the late Mr. Alexander H. Stephens, Vice-President of 
the Confederacy, had said in his famous speech, delivered at 
Savannah in February, 1861, "that slavery was the corner- 
stone of the Confederacy." 

We have heard this charge made by one of the most en- 
lightened and liberal men of the North, and yet we have at 
hand utterances from this same Northerner, tantamount to what 
Mr. Stephens said in that speech. Mr. Stephens was speaking'' 
of the Confederacy, just then organized, and contrasting some 
of the principles on which it was founded with some of those 
of the Republican party, then coming into power for the first 
time, and he said : 

"Our government is founded on exactly the opposite idea 
(that the two races — black and white — are equal) ; its founda- 
tions are laid, its cornerstone rests upon the great truth that the 
negro is not the equal of the white man ; that slavery, subordina- 
tion to the superior race, is his (the negro's) natural and normal 

Now, it will be observed in the first place, that Mr. Stephens 
said the "cornerstone" of the Confederacy "rests upon the 
great truth that the negro is not the equal of the white man." 
And isn't this recognized as true to-day in every part of 
this land? 

But hear now the utterances of this liberal and cultured 
Northerner, on the same subject, when he says, as he does : 

74 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

"The Africans are distinctly an inferior order of being, 
not only in the South, or former slave States, but throughout 
the North also, not entitled to unrestricted pursuit, on equal 
terms of life, liberty and happiness." 

Is there any difference in principle between these two ut- 
terances ? 

If, as this distinguished Northerner asserts, and as every 
one knows to be true, the negroes are "distinctly an inferior 
order of being" and "not entitled to the unrestricted pursuit, 
on equal terms (with the whites) of life, liberty and happi- 
ness," does not this make "subordination to the superior 
race his natural and normal condition," as Mr. Stephens says 9 

But hear now what Mr. Lincoln himself, the great demi- 
god of the North, had to say on this subject in a speech deliv- 
ered at Charleston, 111., in 1858, when he said: 

"I will say, then, that I am not. nor never have been, in 
favor of bringing about, in any way, the social or political equal- 
ity of the white and black races. I am not. nor never have 
been, in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of 
qualifying them to hold office, nor of intermarriage with white 
people; and I will say, in addition to this, that there is a physi- 
cal difference between the white and black races, which, I 
believe, will forever forbid the two races living together on 
terms of social and political equality. Inasmuch as they cannot 
so live, while they do remain together there must be a position 
of superior and inferior, and I, as much as any other man, 
am in favor of having the superior position assigned to the 
white man." 

Again we ask, is there any difference in principle between 
what is here said by Mr. Lincoln and what was said by Mr. 
Stephens in his famous "cornerstone" speech? 

And notwithstanding, Mr. Lincoln issued his "Emancipa- 
tion Proclamation" eighteen months later, he said in his first 
inaugural : 

"I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with 
the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. T be- 
lieve I have no lawful right to do so. and I have no inclina- 
tion to do so." 

Could he have 1 used stronger language to show that he 
believed, not only in the legality of the position of the South 
on the subject of slavery, but that he believed in the propriety 
of that position as well? 

Mr. Toombs said in a speech delivered in Boston in 

76 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June J, 1907. 

"The white is the superior, and the black the inferior, 
and that subordination, with or without law, will be the status 
of the African in this mixed society. Therefore, it is to the 
interest of both, and especially to the black race, that this 
status should be fixed, controlled and protected by law." 

And this is just as true to-day as it was when this 
statement was made by this great statesman in 1856. 

But there is this remarkable fact, in connection with slav- 
ery and its relation to the war, which we have not seen else- 
where referred to, and which is, to our mind, a conclusive 
refutation of the charge that the continuation or the extinction 
of slavery had any influence whatever on the conduct of the 
Southern people, and especially that of the Confederate sol- 
dier in that war. 

The writer belonged to one of the three companies in 
the army, the personnel of which is so vividly described by the 
author of "Four Years Under Marse Robert," in which there 
were serving, as privates, many full graduates of the University 
of Virginia and other leading colleges, both North and South. 
In these companies a variety of subjects, pertaining to the 
war, religion, politics, philosophy, literature and what not, were 
discussed with intelligence, and often with animation and abil- 
ity; and yet, neither he nor any of his comrades can recall 
the fact that they ever heard the subject of slavery, or the 
relations of the slaves to the war, referred to in any way 
during that period, except that, when it was determined to 
put slaves in our army, a violent protest against doing so went 
up from the ranks, and the only thing which even partially 
reconciled our men to this proposed action was the knowledge 
of the fact that it had the sanction and approval of General 
Lee. We have inquired of comrades of various other commands 
about this, and with the like result. Do men fight for a thing, 
or a cause, they never speak of or discuss? It seems to us 
that to ask this question is to furnish the answer. 

Not only is the foregoing statement true, but, with the 
exception of the st^ps taken to send negroes to help erect for- 
tifications, employing them as laborers, etc., but little considera- 
tion seems to have been given them or of their status .to the 
war, either in the Congress or the Cabinet of the Confederacy. 

The reasons for this are manifest to those of us who lived 
in those days, but a word of explanation may be necessary to 
those who have since come on the stage of life. In the first 
place, slavery, as it existed in the South, was patriarchal in 
its character; the slaves (servants, as we called them) were re- 
garded and treated as members of the families to which they 

Report of Historical Committee. 77 

severally belonged ; with rare exceptions, they were treated with 
kindness and consideration, and frequently the relations between 
the slave and his owner were those of real affection and confi- 
dence. As. Mr. Lunt, the Boston writer, from whom we have 
already quoted, says: 

''The negroes were perfectly contented with their lot. In 
general they were not only happy in their conditions, but 
proud of it." 

Their owners trusted them with their families, their farms 
and their affairs, and this confidence was rarely betrayed — ■ 
scarcely ever, unless they were forced to violate their trusts 
by coming in contact with the Federal armies, or were beguiled; 
and betrayed themselves by mean and designing white men. 
The truth is, both the white and the black people of the South 
regarded the Confederate cause alike as their cause, and looked 
to its success with almost, if not quite, equal anxiety and de- 
light. A most striking illustration of this and of the readi- 
ness of the slaves to fight even, if necessary, for the Confed- 
erate cause, is furnished by the following incident : 

In February, 1865, when negro troops had been authorized 
to be enrolled in the Confederate army, there were employed 
at Jackson Hospital, near Richmond, seventy .two negro men. 
The surgeon in charge, the late Dr. F. AV. Hancock, of Rich- 
mond, had these men formed in line, and, after asking them 
"if they would be willing to take up arms to protect their 
"masters' families, homes and their own from an attacking foe, 
sixty out of seventy-two responded they would volunteer to go 
to the trenches and fight the enemy to the bitter end." (War 
Reb. Rec, series iv, Vol. Ill, p. 1193.") 

At the date here referred to we know that the life of the 
Confederate soldier was one of the greatest hardships and peril, 
and the fact that five out of every six of these negroes were 
then ready to volunteer and go to the trenches showed conclus- 
ively how truly they regarded the Confederate cause as their 
cause, as well as that of the white people of the South. 

Indeed, we doubt if a larger per centum of the whites, in 
any part of the country, would have volunteered to go to the 
front at that stage of the war. If then it is true, as alleged, 
that the white people of the South were fighting for slavery, does 
it not necessarily follow, that the slaves themselves were as ready 
to fight for it too? One of these positions is just as 
true as the other. 

We think we have shown, then. that, even if we admit 
that slavery was, as falsely charged, the "cause of the war," 
the South was in no way responsible for the existence of that 

78 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

cause, but that it was a condition forced upon it, one recognized 
by the supreme law of the land, which the South dealt 
with legally and justly as contemplated by that law ; and history 
shows that in every respect and in every instance the aggres- 
sions and violations of the law were committed by the North. 
"Sir. Lunt says: "Of four several compromises between the 
two sections of the country since the Revolutionary War, each 
has been kept by the South and violated by the North," In- 
deed, we challenge the North to point out one single instance 
in which the South violated the Constitution, or any of the 
laws made in pursuance thereof, whilst, on the other hand, four- 
teen of the Northern States passed acts practically nullifying 
the fugitive slave law, passed by Congress in obedience to the 
Constitution, denounced and defied the decisions of the Supreme 
Court, and Judge Black, of Pennsylvania, says of the abolition- 
ists : 

"They applauded John Brown to the echo for a series of 
the basest murders on record. They did not conceal their hos- 
tility to the Federal and State governments, nor deny their 
enmity to all laws which protected white men. The Constitution 
stood in their way, and they cursed it bitterly. The Bible was 
quoted against them, and they reviled God, the Almighty, Him- 

2. Our next inquiry is : Which was the aggressor in pro- 
voking the conflict? 

Mr. Ilallam, in his Constitutional History of England, states 
a universally recognized principle when he says: "The aggres- 
sor in war (that is, he who begins it) is not the first who uses 
force, but the first who renders force necessary." 

We think we have already shown, by Northern authorities, 
that the North was the aggressor and violator of the Consti- 
tution and of the legal rights of the South in reference to what 
they allege to be the "cause of the war," and it is as easy to show, 
by like authorities, that it was clearly the aggressor in bring- 
ing on the war. On the 7th of April, 1861, President Davis 
said: "With the Lincoln administration rests the responsibil- 
ity of precipitating a collision, and the fearful evils of pro- 
tracted and cruel war." 

In his reply to Mr. Lincoln's call for Virginia's quota of 
seventy -five thousand troops to coerce the South, on April 15, 
1861, Governor Letcher said: "You have chosen to inaug- 
urate civil war, and you can get no troops from Virginia for 
any such purpose." 

But we are not content to rest this question on the state- 
ments of these Southern authorities, as high as they are, but 

Report of Historical Committee. 79 

will let Northern writers say what they think about this im- 
portant question. Mr. Lunt says, in reference to Mr. Lincoln 
sending the fleet to reinforce Sumter in April, 1861: "It was 
intended to draw the tire of the Confederates, and was a silent 
aggression with the object of producing an active aggression 
from the other side.'" 

Mr. Benjamin J. Williams, another Massachusetts writer, 
says : 

"The South was invaded, and a war of subjugation, de- 
stined to be the most gigantic which the world has ever seen, 
was begun by the Federal government against the seceding 
States, in complete and amazing disregard of the foundation 
principle of its own existence, as affirmed in the Declaration of 
Independence, that governments derive their just powers from 
the consent of the governed. 

But, let us hear what Mr. Lincoln himself has to say on 
this epiestion, and with his testimony we shall regard the issue 
as conclusively settled. In reply to a committee from Chicago, 
sent to intercede with him, to be relieved from sending more 
troops from that city to the Northern armies, Mr. Lincoln said. 
in a tone of bitterness : 

"Gentlemen, after Boston, Chicago has been the chief in- 
strument in bringing this war on the country. The Northwest 
has opposed the South, as New England has opposed the South. 
It is you who are largely responsible for making blood flow as it 
has. You called for war until we had it; you called for eman- 
cipation, and I have given it to you. Whatever you have asked 
you have had. Now you come here begging to be let oft". You 
ought to be ashamed of yourselves." (See Tarbell's Life of 
Lincoln, Yol. II, p. 119.)' 

3. Which side had the legal right to do what was done? 

On the column of the monument erected to our great civic 
leader are the words pro oris et focis, meaning that the real* 
cause of the South was that we fought in defense of our altars 
and our firesides. And the man who would not 

Strike for his altars and his fires, 
God and his native land, 

is a c-aven and a coward and unworthy even of the name of 
man. Our country was invaded by armed men. intent on coer- 
cion and conquest. We met them on the threshold and beat 
them and drove them back as long as we had anything to eat 
..r strength to fight with. We could do no more; Ave could 
do no less; and history, our children, and even many of our 
former enemies now applaud our conduct. 

80 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3 , 1907. 

There were, however,, two, and but two, questions really 
involved in the conflict. We can scarcely do more than state 
these, and cite some of the many Northern authorities at hand to 
sustain the position that the South was right on both of these. 
They were : 

(a) The right of a State to secede. 

(b) The right of the Federal government to coerce a seced- 
ing State. 

As to the first of these questions, the late Judge Black, 
of Pennsylvania, said what is true, that ' ' Secession, like slavery, 
was first planted in New England. There," he says, "it grew" 
and flourished and spread its branches far over the land, before 
it was ever dreamed of at the South." 

And he further says, that John Quincy Adams ,in 1839, 
and Abraham Lincoln, in 1847, made elaborate arguments in 
favor of the legal right of a State to secede. 

Mr. William Eawle, also late of Pennsylvania, in his work 
on the Constitution, the text-book used at West Point before 
the war, says: "It depends on the State itself to retain or 
abolish the principle of representation, because it depends on 
itself, whether it will continue a member of the Union." 

Timothy Pickering, Josiah Quincy and Mr. Henry Cabot 
Lodge, all of Massachusetts; the late Horace Greeley, Gohlwin 
Smith, General Don Piet, of the Federal Array, and the Hart- 
ford Convention, all asserted and affirmed the same principle. 
And we know that, had not this right been understood to exist 
at the time of the adoption of the Constitution, it would never 
have been adopted. 

As to the second of these questions — i. e., the right of the 
Federal government to coerce a seceding State : 

This question was discussed to some extent in the conven- 
tion which framed the Constitution. Mr. Madison (called the 
"Father of the Constitution") said: 

"The more he reflected on the use of force, the more he 
doubted the practicability, the justice and the efficiency of it 
when applied to people collectively, and not individually. A 
union of the States containing such an ingredient seemed to 
provide for its own destruction." 

And Mr. Hamilton said: 

"But how can this force be exercised on the States col- 
lectively. It is impossible. It amounts to war between the 
parties. Foreign powers also will not be idle spectators. They 
will interpose, and a dissolution of the Union will ensue." 
(5th Mad. Pap. 140 and 200.) And no such right or power can 
be found anvwhere in the Constitution. 

82 Seventeentli Reunion. Richmond, May 30 -June 3, 1907. 

The late James C. Carter, of New York (a native of New 
England) one of the greatest lawyers this country has ever 
produced, said : 

"I may hazard the opinion that, if the question had been 
made, not in 1860, but in 1788, immediately after the adoption 
of the Constitution, whether the Union, as formed by that instru- 
ment, could lawfully treat the secession of a State as rebellion, 
and suppress it by force, few of those who participated in form- 
ing that instrument would have answered in the affirmative." 

In November, 1860, the New York Herald said: 

"Each State is organized as a complete government, hold- 
ing the purse and wielding the sword, possessing the right to 
break the tie of confederation, as a nation might break a treaty. 
and to repel coercion as a nation might repel invasion. * * * Coer- 
cion, if it were possible, is out of the question." 

The question was maturely considered by Mr. Buchanan 
and his Cabinet at the close of his administration, and it was 
unanimously determined that no such right existed. 

One of the resolutions of the platform of the Chicago con- 
vention, on which Mr. Lincoln was elected, and which he re- 
affirmed in his first inaugural, was the following: 

"Kesolved, That the maintenance inviolate of the rights 
of the States, and especially the right of each State to order and 
control its own domestic institutions, according to its own judg- 
ment exclusively, is essential to the balance of power on which 
the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depends, 
and we denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil 
of any State or Territory, no matter under what pretext, as 
among the gravest of crimes." 

To show that Mr. Lincoln was fully cognizant of the fact 
that he was committing this "gravest of crimes" when he 
caused his armies to invade the Southern States, we will give 
his own definition of the meaning of the terms "invasion" and 
"coercion," as contained in his speech delivered at Indianapolis 
on his journey to Washington, to be inaugurated, in February, 
1861. He asks, "What, then, is 'coercion'? What is 'invasion''? 
Would the marching of an army into South Carolina, without 
the consent of her people and with hostile intent toward them 
be 'invasion'? I certainly think it would, and it would be 
'coercion' also, if South Carolinians were forced to submit." 

Is not this exactly what he did to South Carolina and to all 
the other Southern States '? And is it not true that because this 
"gravest of crimes" was committed by him, without the authori- 
ty of Congress, or any legal right, the sole cause why the South- 
ern people went to war? 

Presentation to General Lee. 83 

We know that such is the fact, and surely no further 
authorities can be necessary to show that the South was right on 
both of the only two questions involved in the war, and, if it 
had not resisted and foug'ht under the circumstances in which 
it was placed, it would have been eternally disgraced. 

We can only state, and without discussing at all, our last 
inquiry, which is : 

4. Which side conducted itself the better and according 
to the rules of civilized warfare pending the conflict? 

With the notoriously infamous records of the conduct of 
Sheridan, Hunter and Milroy in the Valley (to say nothing of 
how far Grant participated in that conduct) ; of that of Pope 
and Steinwehr, in Piedmont Virginia ; of that of Butler, in Nor- 
folk and New Orleans ; and worse than all, the confessed van- 
dalism of Sherman on his "March to the Sea," together with the 
burning of Atlanta and Columbia, the last stimulated and en- 
couraged by Halleck, the chief-of-staff of the armies of the 
Union; and contrast all this with the humane order of General 
Lee, on his campaign of invasion into Pennsylvania, and the 
conduct of his army in that campaign, and there can be but 
one answer to this inquiry. That answer is that the South did 
right, and that the North did wrong. 

"God holds the scales of justice; 

He will measure praise and blame; 
And the South will stand the verdict. 

And will stand it without shame." 

For the Committee, 


Lieutenant Colonel John J. Scott, M. D., Chairman of 
.Monumental Committee, through Colonel Saml. E. Lewis. M. D., 
Secretary, presented his report, which was received and ap- 
proved. (This report will be found in full in the appendix. — 
Adjutant General.) 

A cane was then presented to General Lee by J. J. Estis. 
Co. D, 8th Va. Cavalry. This cane was "cut in the center of 
Gold Harbor Battle Field where 18,000 soldiers were killed 
in thirty minutes, June 3rd, 1864." 

General Lee. "My comrades and my comrades' friends, I 
accept with deep emotion this cane. I was very proud of my 
service in Virginia. I started as a Captain of Artillery and I 
had the honor to command the Fourth Virginia Cavalry, and 
the only order issued me by the loved Commander Robert Lee 

84 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 

was while I was in the Fourth Virginia Cavalry. The Virginia 
boys gave me my spurs as Brigadier General before I started 
for the West, and with deep appreciation I accept this cane 
which will support me in my declining years." 

General B. H. Young, "A report came to me last night in my 
dreams that thrilled every fiber of my Confederate being, ' Fate 
denied the Confederate States a place in the constellation of 
fame.' The Confederate States should be given the brightest 
fame that the constellation contains. 

"There are more monuments erected to the Confederate cause 
than were ever erected to any cause, human or divine. My 
State, Kentucky, has forty monuments to Confederate soldiers 
and not a single one to a Federal soldier. Stones are faithful 
in explaining the splendor of the heroism and courage and 
patriotism of the Confederate soldier. It seems to me, my com- 
rades, your cause was not lost. Protest against that fact and 
proclaim in the numberless monuments that our fame shall 
never die. (Applause.) This wonderful condition is unknown 
in any nation of the world except in the South. There are at 
Chicago six thousand nameless graves. Thence to the Ever- 
glades of Florida where the flowers are ever blooming, these 
memorials arise to tell the world that the Confederate Army 
was the greatest army that ever marched on any ground. (Ap- 
plause.) Three causes have produced this marvelous condition; 
first, our own heroism and our gallantry under all conditions, 
for we performed our duty as only Southern men could per- 
form a duty. Second, the women of the South (applause) 
whose lives, whose patience, whose gentleness, whose courage 
under trials, who, when we came back from the war with our 
tears, looked up to us and said, 'We will share your burden, 
we will bear your misfortune, and out of this great disaster we 
will bring yet a nation and a history that will have more 
power.' Third, our principles and our papers; and. among 
them, I do not hesitate to say that we owe to the editor of 
the 'Confederate Veteran' more than to any other publication. 
Mr. President, with your permission I am going to offer a 
motion, 'That we have read with pleasure the recommendations 
made by our Commander-in-Chief, our Department, Division 
and Brigade Commands of our organ, the Confederate Vet- 
eran.' " 

Adopted with great enthusiasm. Colonel S. A. Cunningham, 
of the Veteran, was presented, and received an ovation. 

General Lee, "Comrades, I am going to present to you one 
of the most gallant Confederate soldiers who served under 
the Stars and Bars, who lost his leg on the field of battle, 

Senator Berry's Speech. 85 

who in Washington has stood and vindicated the South on 
every possible occasion, my comrade and friend, Senator Berry, 
of Arkansas." 

(.Uproarious applause, the whole audience rising.) 

Senator Berry : 

"Mr. Chairman and Confederate Soldiers — It demands a 
braver man than I to attempt to speak at any length after 
the wonderful orations delivered from this stand on yesterday. 
There are few, if any, who can speak with any credit to 
himself after John W. Daniel (applause), and I doubt if any 
man can compare favorably with the wonderful address yes- 
terday that came from the descendant of the greatest captain 
and the purest man that the world has ever known. (Applause.) 
I rejoice to tell you that I was struck yesterday with the 
remark of Major Daniel when he said that 'Confederate sol- 
diers never change.' Forty-two years have passed since the 
war. Forty-four years have come and gone since the fate of 
the Southern Republic was determined on the heights of Get- 
tysburg. In all the changes of changing time in this ever 
changing and growing country, the Confederate soldier in con- 
crete has never changed from his conviction that the cause 
for which he fought and for which our comrades died was a 
pure and holy (applause) one. One thought only I am going 
to give expression to here today. It has always seemed to 
me that the great, greatest, cause to rejoice of the Southern 
people since the war and it was impressed upon me yesterday 
when the daughter of our brave President stood upon the 
platform, the loyalty and devotion that characterized the South- 
ern soldier not only to the cause but to the leaders who led 
in that cause. In the history of the whole world those men who 
made war on established government and have failed, sought 
to excuse themselves by throwing the blame upon their leaders ; 
but not in our Southland. Thank God for it to-day. When 
the war was over and peace pervaded the land, when our great 
leader was arrested and thrown into Fortress Monroe, every 
true son of the South knew that Jefferson Davis was not guilty 
of treason; we were ready to share whatever punishment might 
be put upon him, and I thank God that when, years afterwards, 
he was carried to his last resting place that he was laid to 
rest amid the tears and love of every man. 

"Comrades of the dark and bloody past, standing here to- 
day before this immense audience, my mind goes back to the 
terrible days of the past and I was a soldier, and think that, 
while many leaders of the war have been successful in the 

86 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 

great conflict of life, I want to stand here and speak for 
myself, that no honor that has ever come to me, no honor 
that ever can come to me, will he treasured, nor will I prize 
it so much, as the glorious honor to know that I was a soldier 
in the Confederate Army." (Applause.) 

General Lee : ' ' We have now a committee of the Sons of 
Veterans who are paying us a visit. We are glad to receive 

"My comrades, I present to you Mr. John W. Apperson, 
who comes here from the Sons of Veterans to deliver a greeting 
to us. ' ' 


"General Lee, Ladies, Confederate Veterans: 

"On behalf of the United Sons of Confederate Veterans. 
I am commissioned to-day to deliver to you our greeting. To 
you, that noble band of patriots, our fathers and comrades 
of our fathers, who followed the fortunes of a Lee and a Jack- 
son, of a Johnston or a Beauregard, of a Morgan or of a Jack- 
son, all of the generals of the Confederacy, I cannot mention, 
and the general from down in old Tennessee, in the old Volun- 
teer State, Bedford Forrest, the only general that ever lived, 
and yet in every section of this great Southland you have 
your favorites. 

"You have met here in Richmond to hold your annual 
meeting. Let me say to you that it is something in the history 
of the world that has never been equaled. Where do you 
find a nation celebrating its defeat? And yet you are here 
to-day for this very purpose. Every principle has been vin- 
dicated, not only constitutionally but civilly as well, and legally 
by the Supreme Court of the United States (applause) ; and 
let me say to you, my father, because you are all my father, 
(grant me that special privilege for that father of mine that 
died when I was but twenty-six days old, gave to me the 
proudest heritage that was ever given to mortal man, and I 
say to you that I would not exchange it for the greatest 
gift in the hands of the American people to-day). (Applause.) 
We have had times when the war between the States had been 
called the Civil War and the War of the Revolution. Let 
me say to you, gentlemen, that it does not hurt me a particle 
to call me a son of a rebel. (Applause.) When we stop to 
think, the rebels of Revolutionary fame and the South are 
the same. The fundamental principles of the government were 
founded and based on revolution, and I am proud to-day to be the 

88 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 

son of a rebel. (Applause.) Again, in this age and time of 
commercialism they say to us, 'We have a new South.' Oh, 
pardon me. Veterans, there is no new South (applause) ; the 
same old South, the same beautiful and fertile fields, its hills, 
its valleys, the same beautiful sky, the same lovely women 
(applause), the same heroic, chivalrous and valiant men; and 
I say to you that the sons of Confederate Veterans have not 
degenerated: they are worthy sons of worthy sires. How could 
it be otherwise? Like begets like, and we are to-day taking 
up that life work where you will leave it off and I trust that 
the mantle may fall on worthy shoulders. (Applause.) I de- 
sire to say further to you that it is the principles of the 
organization of the sons of Confederate Veterans to protect 
those memories and keep them as clean and spotless as when 
they were handed to us. I know not what else to say to you. 
I realize that every year, as the Reunion comes around, there 
are a few more places vacant. Some have gone on to answer 
to that roll call, when the Great Commander-in-Chief has called 
you to his own, and I know that you will then stand at atten- 
tion as a true, valiant and loyal soldier should and say 'Present.' 
Let me say to you, however, that, whether you are with us 
ten years from now, the sons have not forgotten you and will 
carry on these Reunions forever and forever." (Applause.) 

At the request of General Lee, Chaplain General Jones 
made a brief reply to the Sons, urging them to be worthy 
of their sires ; and to see that the histories of the great con- 
flict were true, a faithful record of facts, and not pictures of 
the imagination. 

Colonel Jno. P. Hickman, from the Committee on Resolu- 
tions, presented a report. The various resolutions were ap- 
proved as presented; and are as follows: 

No. 1. 

"That the speeches of General S. D. Lee, Hon. John W. 
Daniel and Colonel R. E. Lee be published together in pam- 
phlet, and mailed by the Adjutant General to all Camps of 
the IT. C. V. in good standing; to the Camps of the Sons; 
and to the Chapters of the Daughters of the Confederacy. ' ' 

Offered by Rt, Rev. C. C. Penick. 

No. 2. 

Whereas, the Arlington Confederate Monument Associa- 
tion, representing the United Daughters of the Confederacy, 
the Sons of the Confederacy, and Camp 171 Confederate Vet- 

Report of Committee on Resolutions. 89 

erans, all of the District of Columbia, have perfected an organi- 
zation for the purpose of erecting on Arlington Heights — for- 
merly owned by the illustrious R. E. Lee — in that part of 
the National Cemetery set apart as a Confederate burial ground, 
a shaft of noble proportions, worthy of the spot, worthy of 
the heroic deeds of the Confederate soldier, and worthy of the 
South ; and. 

Whereas, the plan of said Monument Association is to bring 
into its membership as many Veterans as possible, so that it 
shall be truly, and in fact, representative of the entire South ; 

Be it resolved. That the object, purpose and plan 
of the organization of the Arlington Confederate Monument 
Association is approved and indorsed by this Convention. It 
is recommended by this Convention, that the camps and indi- 
vidual members composing our organization, lend their moral 
and financial support in carrying out the purposes of said 
Association, that there may be erected such a monument on 
the banks of the Potomoc in honor of our immortal dead, that 
future generations in their pilgrimage to the capital of our 
united country, shall there find a fitting expression of the 
Southland, to commemorate the valor and virtue of those men 
who died for a cause that was to them the embodiment of 
Liberty and Sacred Eight. 

Offered by Rev. R, H. McKim, D. D. 

No. 3. 

Whereas, June 3, 1908, will be the one-hundredth anni- 
versary of the birth of Jefferson Davis, the first and only 
President of the Confederate States of America, who for four 
bloody years guided the destiny of the "storm-cradled nation 
that fell ' ' ; therefore, 

Resolved, That as a testimony of our reverence for the 
exalted character and unselfish devotion, and of our undying 
affection for the great-hearted man who suffered martyrdom 
for his people, it is hereby recommended that June 3, 1908, 
be observed with appropriate ceremonies in honor of the memory 
of our great chieftain, by Confederate Veterans, Sons of Vet- 
erans and Daughters of the Confederacy wherever they may be 

No. 6. 

That the Convention most heartily endorses the plan of 
the Confederate Memorial and Literary Society to secure and 

90 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3, 1907. 

preserve original documents in relation to the war; and it 
urges its members to do all possible to aid in the movement. 

No. 7. 

Whereas, the house in Lexington, Virginia, which was the 
home of Stonewall Jackson when he died, and the only home 
he ever owned, has been purchased by the Mary Custis Lee 
Chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy, has been reno- 
vated, and, with Mrs. Jackson's approval, is being converted 
into a hospital, to be thoroughly equipped, established and 
maintained in loving memory of its former illustrious owner; 

Whereas, to carry out this design a much larger sum 
will be needed than that which the devoted and patriotic women 
who have undertaken this work have been able to secure through 
their persistent efforts, already continued through several years ; 

Be it resolved, That the United Confederate Vet- 
erans cordially commend the Stonewall Jackson Memorial Hos- 
pital to the generous support of our countrymen as a worthy 
memorial of the exalted character and unselfish devotion of a 
heroic life which was consecrated to the service of his country. 

No. 8. 

Having learned with great pleasure that the authorities of 
Washington and Lee University propose to carry out the sug- 
gestion made by the joint committee of Veterans and Daughters 
of the Confederacy, who arranged for celebrating the one hun- 
dredth anniversary of our great chieftain, Robert Edward Lee, 
by establishing a permanent memorial of him in the institu- 
tion of which he was president, therefore, be it resolved: 

1. That we heartily approve the plan of the university 
to convert the chapel in which lie his precious remains into a 
permanent Robert E. Lee Memorial, enlarging and properly 
beautifying it. We also approve the plan of establishing a 
chair of American History, to be named the Robert E. Lee 
chair, where future generations of students may study every- 
thing pertaining to the history of this great country, especial'ly 
the part played by our own Southland, the career of our own 
great chieftain, and of those who followed him in their patri- 
otic struggle for constitutional freedom. 

2. That we warmly commend this enterprise to the sym- 
pathy and the liberality of our camps of Veterans and Sons of 
Veterans, to our Chapters of Daughters of the Confederacy, aud 
to our people generally, and that we anticipate its success with 
the liveliest satisfaction. 

Offered by Rev. J. Wm. Jones, D. D., of Richmond, Va. 

Report of Committee on Resolutions. 91 

No. 11, 

Whereas, by act of the Fifty-eighth Congress of the United 
States, there was ordered to be returned to the States of the 
Southern Confederacy all the Hags of their soldiers which 
were captured in war; and whereas, by act of March 9, 190G, 
Congress appropriated two hundred thousand dollars for the 
purpose of identifying and caring for the graves of Confed- 
erate soldiers who died in prison and were buried in Northern 
soil, and that white marble headstones, similar to those in 
the National Cemetery at Arlington, to be placed above them ; 

"Whereas, the President was directed to appoint a Commis- 
sioner to execute this trust, and bestowed the appointment on 
Colonel William Elliott, of South Carolina, who was disting- 
uished as a Confederate soldier, and afterwards as a Represen- 
tative in the Congress of the United States, and is in character 
and service alike eminently worthy to discharge the sacred 
trust ; 

It is hereby resolved by the Association of the United 
Confederate Veterans, that our thanks are most gratefully 
extended to the Congress and to the President of the United 
States as well, for the noble chivalry and generous patriotism 
which inspired these acts and the appointment made. 

It is by such acts as these that a fine example is set before 
us, and that a great people delight to denote and to cement 
the union of hearts and hands. 

It will be our highest ambition to reciprocate in everv 
way that we can such considerations of regard for all the 
people and all the soldiery of the Union. 

Resolved, second, that a copy of these resolutions be trans- 
mitted to the President of the United States and to the House 
of Representatives and the Senate. 

No. 12. 

Whereas, on the 3rd of May, inst., the Twenty-third Regi- 
ment of New Jersey Infantry of the Army of the Potomoc, 
held a reunion on the battlefield of Salem Church, where their 
courage was nobly exemplified and many of their comrades 
fell ; and w T hereas, they there erected a monument to the memory 
of those comrades who gave their lives to their cause, and on 
one tablet engraved the following legend: "To the brave Ala- 
bama Boys, our opponents on this field of honorable battle, 
whose memory we honor, this tablet is dedicated." 

92 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3, 1907. 

And whereas, so splendid an exhibition of soldiery, honor 
and chivalrous feeling, deeply touches our hearts, and has 
scarce a parallel ; 

And whereas, we can only say in the language of one of 
our public journals that "Nothing could be finer, nothing more 
chivalric, nothing could testify more eloquently to the nobility 
of soul of these New Jersey soldiers." We salute them with 
admiration, gratitude and homage, and send to each and all 
of them our fraternal regards. 

Resolved, that a copy of these resolutions be transmitted 
to General E. Burd Grubb, who was an officer of the Twenty- 
third New Jersey Infantry, with a request that he communicate 
them to his fellow soldiers ; and we assure him and them that 
nothing could make us happier than opportunity to reciprocate 
the generous sentiments which have actuated them. 

No 20. 

Resolved by the United Confederate Veteran Association, 
that they claim the privilege of uniting with their fellow 
American citizens in lamenting the death of the wife of the 
late President McKinley, that most excellent lady, who in the 
relations of maiden, wife, mother and friend, was an example 
of the highest type of American womanhood. 

That the Secretary of this Association mail a copy of this 
resolution to the family of Mrs. McKinley. — By Wm. H. S. Bur- 

No. 4. 

"That the action of this Association (on the correct repre- 
sentation of the Confederate Battle Flag — Adj. Gen.) at its Con- 
vention held in Nashville, Tenn., in 1904, be endorsed and re- 
affirmed. ' ' 

The election of officers was then gone into, resulting in 
the choice of Stephen D. Lee, General Commanding; C. Irvine 
Walker, Commander A. N. V. Dept. ; Clement A. Evans, Com- 
mander Army Tenn. Dept. ; W. L. Cabell, Commander of 
Trans-Miss. Dept. 

General Lee: 

"My comrades, I thank you from the bottom of my heart 
for this renewed evidence of your kindness toward me. There 
is not a throb or an impulse of my heart that does not go out 
in love of you for the very many honors which you have be- 
stowed upon me and so long as I have the strength I will serve 
you as best I can." (Applause.) 



1 J v>N?li iM^iC ilt^iirfi^iirilB 

Broad, Capitol, Tenth and Eleventh Streets 

94 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 

General Walker: 

"My comrades, I have only to say that I appreciate from 
the very bottom of an ardent and loving heart the continued 
honors that yon have showered upon me. As I said before I see 
but one higher honor in the gift of the American people and 
that would be the honor which you have so justly and worthily 
conferred upon your Commander-in-Chief, but next in honor 
is that bestowed upon one who feels as I do." 

General Evans: 

"My comrades, you have not only the right to command 
my services but there is not a true man in all our Southern 
country who ought not to put himself absolutely at the command 
of the Confederate Veterans. (Applause.) Our sons belong 
to us and they are offering us their services; above all. our 
women, we belong to them and they are giving us their very 
best services. (Applause.) And what shall I do but serve 
you still ? For every honor that I have ever had has come to 
me directly or indirectly from my Confederate comrades. I 
am proud to-day to follow our Commander-in-Chief, Stephen 
D. Lee. With God's blessing upon him for many years we will 
follow him to the very last, and now, my comrades, you and 
your sons and your daughters, we are fighting after all the 
very best fight we have ever made, not merely the fight for 
life, not merely to live as long as we can, but to so live that 
our Hag, the banner of principle, that floats wherever there 
is a lover of liberty, so that we shall be amongst the men 
who will be foremost at last to keep our union indeed." (Ap- 

The greatest interest was taken in the election of the Com- 
mander of the Trans-Miss. Dept., one comrade saying: 

Comrades of the Trans-Mississippi appear here, but the Com- 
mander is not present. It is an honor to represent W. L. Cabell. 
(Applause.) Two days ago I heard that General Cabell was not 
physically able to attend this meeting. Yesterday we received 
a message from him stating that he could not serve. To-day I 
learn that General Cabell is dying. I would rather vote for 
General Cabell dead as the Commander of the Trans-Mississippi 
Department than any other man living. (Applause.) Let us 
make it a unanimous election and send a message to Cabell 
on his dying bed that the Trans-Mississippi sends greeting to 
him, that they have elected him unanimously. (Applause.) 

Senator Berry : 

"Mr. Chairman, General W. L. Cabell commanded a bri- 
gade of Arkansas soldiers as bravely as ever rode to battle. 

Selection of Place for Next Reunion. 95 

For twenty-one years he lias been one of the most devoted 
friends I have had. I regret to hear the statement about him, 
but, sick or well, I hope every Confederate soldier west of the 
Mississippi will rise to their feet and vote for General W. L. 
Cabell for Commander." 


General Lee : 

"It is the order that at twelve o'clock the election of a 
place for our next reunion, and that order will now be taken up." 

J. II. Fitzpatrick, of San Antonio, Tex. : 

"Confederate Veterans, I come from the historic old city 
of the Alamo. I bring to you a message from the metropolis 
of Texas; I bring to you an expression from the four million 
citizens of the Lone Star State; (applause) I bring to you 
the assurance of the Legislature of the State of Texas of its 
love and regard towards you. I have this message to say to you, 
my friends, that Texas wants the honor to have the next reunion. 
There is no commercialism in it, for I say to you to-day there 
are more Confederate Veterans in Texas to-day than in any two 
Southern States. I want to say to you people from the other 
States, come out there and meet your brothers, come out there 
and get acquainted with the men and women who have moved 
from Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and Carolina and the other 
Southern States. They are there by the multiplied hundreds 
of thousands. Come out to Texas and have the reunion of 
your life. I want to say to you people of Georgia, come out to 
the Alamo State and see where your Georgians have helped 
to make immortal to the State of Texas the fight of the Alamo; 
I want to say to you Tennesseeans, to come out and see where 
David Crockett gave his life for Texas; I want to say to you 
people of Carolina, to come out there and see where one of 
your sons offered up his life as a libation to liberty. My 
friends, San Antonio opens wide her arms. She has everything 
that is necessary to make your stay in our midst happy and 
contented. If you come, we will say to you old Veterans 
that we will house every one of you under a roof as good as 
this. (Applause.) We want to say further to you that with 
our eighty-five thousand citizens, with our car systems, with 
our hotels, that we can take care of you as decently as any State 
in the South, I care not where. Furthermore, I want to say 
this to you, that the business men in San Antonio are back 
of this proposition and all the money that is necessary to make 

96 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June J, 1907. 

this a success is pledged to this, and, in conclusion, let me say 
to you, come out to Texas, get acquainted with the Empire 
State, come out there and visit your sons and daughters, come 
to old San Antonio. Our young men will cheer you as you pass, 
our young women will shout with joy and dance before you 
and ten thousand school children will sing. Come to San An- 
tonio and we will make you have the time of your life and 
the whole municipality of the State of Texas promises to make 
this promise good." 

Judge Norman G. Kittrell: 

"Comrades, Ladies and Sweet Children — I have heard it 
said (I live in Texas, this place is too small for me), I have 
heard it said that it is too far to San Antonio. I want to say 
to you that mathematical calculation has proved beyond a doubt 
that it is as far from there to here as here there. If it is not 
too far to journey twice to Richmond to see you, to gather here 
in this historic city which holds two statues of Jefferson Davis, 
it was not too far a few years ago when two thousand of us 
men journeyed over mountain and plain and roaring rivers to 
stand in this beautiful city. I hear no complaint, but I ask 
you to come to Texas and I stand here prepared to peldge that 
the railroads of that State will give better rates than before. 
I want you to come to Texas." 

General Geo. P. Harrison, of Alabama : 

"Comrades, I am proud to see how much our Texas friends 
think of themselves. They are a great people, a great State, 
but the railroads go through Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi, 
and we on the east of the Mississippi did a little fighting our- 
selves. I am commissioned by the remnants of forty thousand 
Alabamians who did duty on every battlefield with the Army 
of Virginia or the Army of the West, to renew to you the invi- 
tation that I presented at our last reunion in New Orleans, to 
come to Alabama. We all then had Richmond on the brain ; 
we all wanted to come to Richmond, and to tell the truth, I 
wanted to come very much myself. The gate is held open by 
Alabama, the center of the Confederacy ; Alabama, who gave 
her the first capital; Alabama, that is midway between Virginia 
and Texas, in a city, new it is true, but composed of the best 
people of all the States that join it. A city that has grown 
like magic, in the very center of the Confederacy, will put no 
hardship on any one, particularly my good friends in Texas. 
We are ready prepared for you. I desire as the Commander 
ni the State, commissioned by my division, unanimously com- 

Selection of Place for Next Reunion. 97 

missioned by the Veterans of my State, commissioned by the 
daughters to hold both our arms open to you. Come, come to 
see the Alabama boys and God bless you, you will never regret 

General J. W. Bush, of Birmingham : 

"I am commissioned by the Board of Trade, by the Com- 
mercial Club and by the Mayor and Aldermen of the city of Bir- 
mingham, to ask you to come to our city. I assure you that 
our comrades and our brave young sons of comrades and the 
Daughters of the Confederacy and all of the brave men and 
beautiful women of Birmingham will give you a hearty welcome. 
(Applause.) I tell you that Birmingham to-day is the center, 
is the central point of the Confederacy. It is the neaivst 
place to get to from any other point in the whole Confederate 
States, and I assure you of the most hearty welcome there and 
that we will be able to entertain you in good and grand style, 
and I extend a hearty invitation to Birmingham." 

Mr. Leland Hume, of Nashville : 

"Ladies and Soldiers of the Confederate States — Nashville 
needs no introduction to you at my hands. Nearly every Con- 
federate Veteran within the sound of my voice has fought on 
some of the many battlefields that make Nashville historic 
from a Confederate standpoint. One hundred and six thou- 
sand Confederate soldiers volunteered from Tennessee, and 
many of them are looking for you to come back home to Nash- 
ville and hold your next reunion. We come here extending 
this invitation in the name of Nashville Board of Trade, which 
is the largest delegation of the kind in the entire Southland; we 
come here in the name of three million people who live in 
the Volunteer State and extend to you the invitation. We 
come here asking that you bear in mind that Tennessee has 
the largest organization of Sons of Confederate soldiers in the 
entire Southland. I am not here to say a word against people 
or the ability of these other States to entertain you. but T 
am here to call attention to the fact that Nashville is the only 
State extending the invitation that has battlefields almost within 
the city limits. Over there at Nashville, right under the shadow 
of the capitol dome, is the great battlefield of Franklin, and or 
dozens of other battlefields, where the sons of the South met 
the enemy of the North, for not "what they thought was right, 
but for what they knew was right." Though having had to furl 
our flag for forty-three years you have been successful. God 
be praised, that the men of the South, when they laid down 

98 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

their arms they went to work like men, like heroes that you 
are and as long as people appreciate valor, just that long- 
will the men who followed Jackson and Lee and the other 
great generals, just as long as men are born into the world 
who love their mothers, the Daughters of the Confederacy, just 
that long will the Confederate States of America continue to 
exist. Now, comrades, my father and my grandfather and 
my uncle, yes, my mother and my aunts, ask you to come to 
Nashville. Come to Nashville ; we want you there. We have 
entertained you there before, we want you to come there every 
year. I seriously and honestly extend the invitation in the 
name of the city of Nashville, in the name of the people of 
Tennessee, and say to you that you are getting old, these long 
trips overtax you. Nashville stands on the map of the country 
in the very center of the States of America, and did you ever 
see a map of Kentucky that Tennessee was not upon it? Ken- 
tucky on the north, old Virginia, North Carolina, Alabama, 
Georgia, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri. Could you find a 
State in better company? "We want you to come to Tennessee. 
Do not be traveling to the four corners of the earth. Come 
to Nashville next year and forever, as long as you hold these 
reunions. If you must go to some other State and I am there, 
just remember that you are visiting and that you call Nashville 
your headquarters for every reunion." 

General Bennett H. Young, of Kentucky: 

"Did you ever see a map of Kentucky and Tennessee but 
that Kentucky is always on top?" 

General Geo. AV. Gordon, Commander of the Tennessee 
Division : 

' ' Comrades, on behalf of the Veterans of the Tennessee 
Division, I desire to second the nomination of Nashville. We 
have had two reunions in that city and it is there that you 
remember that old adage that the third time brings the real 
charm. If we have entertained you acceptably on two occa- 
sions, if you will do us the honor to come a third time, we 
will try to make you more and better pleased than ever before. 
We already have there a most beautiful auditorium for our 
convention ; we are the most centrally located place of the 
Confederacy, and if you come again we will endeavor to give 
you such a reception and entertainment that you will want to 
have all of your reunions at Nashville hereafter." (Applause.) 

General Thos. W. Carwyle : 

"Comrades, after all the flowery speeches made by the 
gentlemen from Texas and Tennessee and Alabama, I rise in 

100 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3 , 1907. 

behalf of the Palmetto State, instructed by my Division, to 
second the nomination of the Pittsburg city of the South, and I 
heartily second that nomination." 

Comrade Adkins, of North Carolina : 

"Ladies and Gentlemen — I notice that all of our disting- 
uished generals and brigade generals and colonels have done all 
the talking. Now, with all due respect, during the war we 
old boys did the fighting. (Applause.) I just come now before 
my fellow comrades ; I do not know this gentleman from Ala- 
bama ; I never met one of them on the field ; but I have come 
here to second the nomination of Birmingham, Alabama. I fol- 
lowed Robert E. Lee round this capital for three years. McClel- 
lan was so close to this city that the soldiers could hear the 
sound of the city clocks striking. 

"My comrades, I have on gold lace here but ought not 
to have it on. I was a private in the Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia. I want to tell you now there was a great battleship 
once that a man went on, and he said, 'Admiral, let me speak to 
these men, will you?' And he said, 'Certainly, sir.' And the 
man returned, 'Admiral, what must I speak about?' I am 
authorized by the North Carolina Division to second the nomi- 
nation for the next reunion at Birmingham, Ala." (Applause.) 

General Lee ordered that the votes be cast; and the result 
was as follows : 


No. of 

Division. Votes. 

Alabama 183 

Arkansas 1 27 

District of Columbia. 10 

Florida 93 

Georgia 252 

Indian Territory .... 33 

Kentucky 110 

Louisiana 138 

Maryland 11 

Mississippi 177 

Missouri 71 

North Carolina 141 

Northwest 30 

Oklahoma 23 

Pacific 32 

South Carolina 155 

























Select ion of Meeting Place for Next Reunion. 101 

Tennessee 161 . . . 161 

Texas 442 442 ... \\\ 

Virginia 190 3 187 

West Virginia 38 ... 38 

2417 801 1616 

When the roll was called and the name of Tennessee had 
been reached. General Gordon withdrew the nomination of Nash- 
ville, and cast the votes of Tennessee for Birmingham. The 
vote by States, which was taken amidst excitement, and not a 
little confusion, resulted in the selection of Birmingham. Be- 
fore the vote could be announced, however. General Van Zanclt, 
the Commander of the Texans, arose and moved that the election 
of Birmingham be made unanimous, and the motion was car- 
ried with a hurrah and a genuine "rebel yell." 

The real business of the Convention was now over, but the 
exercises did not end then. General Lee said the man to whom 
was due in a very large measure the success of this great reunion 
would be ordered to report at headquarters immediately. An 
officer brought to the front Colonel John W. Gordon, of this 
city, and then Captain J. Thompson Brown, on behalf of the 
general local committee, presented to Colonel Gordon a hand- 
some loving cup as a token of the appreciation by the com- 
mittee and the people of Richmond of the courtesy, skill and 
ability which Colonel Gordon, as general chairman, had dis- 
played in planning and managing the details of this great re- 
union. Colonel Gordon accepted the loving cup and responded 
briefly to the speech of Captain Brown. 

Resolutions of thanks to the people of Richmond, the rail- 
ways, the newspapers, and to others, were passed, and then 
Colonel West, of Georgia, stepped to the front and said: 

"I now move that we adjourn to meet in Birmingham, 
Ala., on such clay as the Commander-in-Chief shall elect." 

The motion was carried, and thus closed the business sessions 
of the Seventeenth Annual Convention. 

Official : 

Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 


Sunday, June 2, 1907. 

The memorial exercises of the United Confederate Veterans 
were held this afternoon in the First Baptist Church, under the 
auspices of the United Confederate Veterans and Southern Con- 
federated Memorial Association, Rev. J. Wm. Jones, D. D., 
Chaplain General United Confederate Veterans, presiding. 

The large church was filled to its full capacity by a most 
earnest and attentive gathering of veterans and ladies, the 
aisles being filled with those unable to secure seats. 

After singing the doxology. Chaplain Jones offered the 
following prayer : 

"We invoke, God, Thy presence and Thy blessing and 
we beseech Thee that the service here this afternoon may be 
not only pleasant but profitable. Help those who are to speak 
and help us in hearing. Grant that influences may go out from 
this meeting to bless the communities from which these come 
and the world. We ask it in the Saviour 's name. Amen. ' ' 

Hymn : ' ' Am I a Soldier of the Cross. ' ' 

Reading the Scripture — Rev. W. R. L. Smith, D. D. : Psalm 

Prayer, Rev. Landon R, Mason, Chaplain R. E. Lee Camp 
No. 181, United Confederate Veterans: 

"Almighty and ever gracious God, Thou art our God and 
our fathers' God. Thou art to us the Light of Life and the 
Rest of our Souls and in Thee we may find wisdom and grace 
and blessedness. "We give Thee humble and hearty thanks for 
the multitude of Thy tender mercies and for Thy wise provi- 
dence that is making all things work together for good for 
them that fear Thee. We thank Thee for all the way that 
Thou hast led us, often ways we knew not of. Father in Heaven, 
we are assembled this afternoon in memory of a great past, one 
that is very sacred and very tender in our memory. We thank 
Thee, Father in Heaven, for any opportunity we have had to 
prove our manhood and to grow therein. We thank Thee for 
any opportunity we have had to testify for truth and righteous- 
ness before our fellow-men. We thank Thee for any sacrifices 
we have been permitted to make, for any struggles through 
which we have passed. and for any conflict in 

Memorial Exercises. 103 

which we have borne any part whereby we might stand before 
our fellow-men and before all the world and all time to come 
for great and precious principles of self-government. We thank 
Thee, Father in Heaven, for the memories that come to us to-day. 
We thank Thee that there is given to all our Southland the 
memories of leaders who were noble and lofty men, the mag- 
nificent illustrations of all that is pure and high and sweet 
in true manhood and we thank Thee for the memories and the 
examples of a mighty host who once went to battle for their 
homes and for their country and for truth ami for righteous- 
ness. We remember this afternoon the many that fell in battle 
and so many that we knew and that we loved and that we 
trusted and whom we are hoping to meet again in the world 
where there is no war and where peace and righteousness dwell 
forever and forever. Our Father in Heaven, we thank Thee 
for Thy favour upon our broad land; we thank Thee for Thy 
favour, Lhe kind providence with all Thy bounty bestowed upon 
the people of our Southland; we thank Thee for any degree of 
prosperity that Thou hast given to them and any that has come 
from the ruin and destruction of war. xVnd now Father in 
Heaven, we are engaged this afternoon in Thy presence, in 
the hours of Thy holy day, remember before Thee those times 
and those great men and all those things which are so precious 
and so tender to our homes. We pray Thee sanctify them to 
all holy and lofty uses in our characters and in our lives. Look, 
we pray Thee, with an especial favour and deal very tenderly 
with those that we love, widows and orphans in the land and 
upon the families of those that we once honored and loved, and 
let Thy blessing rest upon all these homes. Father in Heaven, 
upon these men that have grown old. Fill their hours with 'the 
favour of God which is life, and His loving kindness, which 
is better than life,' and may these last days be the brightest 
and the best because of the light that comes from the open door 
that is before them ; and. Father in Heaven, may we as comrades 
draw yet nearer together and nearer unto Thee and nearer 
unto the Lord Jesus, the Great Captain of our Salvation and 
after a while, when we have accomplished that which Thou 
hast given us to do, we pray Thee that we may lay down our 
burdens with a sweet confidence and with the blessed hope that 
we shall gather with those that have gone before in the Everlast- 
ing Fields. And these things we ask for Christ's sake. Amen." 


General Lee : 

"I will explain this Memorial Service which we are having 
this afternoon. The Southern Confederated Memorial Association 

104 Seventeenth Relation, Richmo?id, May 30- June 3 , 1907. 

was in the habit in connection with our meetings of having for 
some years memorial services held in one of the churches of 
the city, where the general association met, and some years ago 
General Jno. B. Gordon, who was the president of our associa- 
tion, the commander of our United Confederate Veterans, issued 
'an order that there should be a memorial service in connection 
with the veterans' meetings and that the hour from 12 o'clock 
to 1 o'clock on the second day should be appropriate for the 
service. It was thought, however, that it would be better to 
unite the services. This has been done and the meeting here 
this afternoon is the meeting of the Ladies' Association and the 
United Confederate Veterans. It has been deemed best to have 
it in the afternoon hour. As is generally understood, we 
originally expected to hold it in the City Auditorium, but. for 
reasons unnecessary to go into, we changed it. By the kind 
courtesy of this church we are here this afternoon to hold this 
memorial service." 

Solo: "I Will Sing You a Song of a Beautiful Land"— 
Captain Frank Cunningham 

Address of Rev. AV. W. Moore, D. D., LL. D., President 
of Union Theological Seminary, Richmond, Va., in behalf of 
the Confederated Southern Memorial Association, June 2, 

"Mr. Chairman, Members of the Confederated Memorial 
Association, Veterans of the Armies of the South — On the third 
of June, 1808, just ninety-nine years ago to-morrow, there Avas 
born in Christian County, Kentucky, a man who was destined 
to be both reviled and revered in a way which has fallen to 
the lot of:-no other man of modern times. Growing up through 
a pure and studious boyhood and graduating from the Military 
Academy at West Point in 1828, he served for seven years on 
the Northwestern frontier against the Indians, and then, resign- 
ing from the army, became a cotton planter in Mississippi. Ten 
years later he was selected to Congress, but served only six 
months, resigning his seat in order to take command of a Mis 
sippi regiment in the Mexican War. In the storming of Monte- 
rey he evinced the qualities of an intrepid and resourceful 
soldier; ,and, in the brilliant action at Buena Vista, where 
though wounded and bleeding he remained in the saddle all day, 
he and his famous Mississippi Rifles won the battle which made 
Zachary Taylor president of the United States. He returned 
to his home to find awaiting him the highest honors within the 
gift of his State. Taking his place in the United States Semite, 
in the splendid prime of his powers, with his luminous mind 
ripened and enriched by careful reading and long reflection, 
and with those thoroughly reasoned views of the Constitution of 

POST OFFICE, Main between 10th and 11th 

(Now Confederate Museum, 12th and Clay) 

106 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

his country to which he adhered as long as he lived, he quickly 
assumed his rightful place among the leaders of that august 
assemblage. Never before and never since have so many illus- 
trious men sat together in the supreme council of the nation. 
There were John C. Calhoun and Daniel Webster and Henry 
Clay and Salmon P. Chase and Lewis Cass and R. M. T. Hunter 
and Wm. R, King and John Bell and Samuel Houston and 
Stephen A. Douglas and Thomas H. Benton — 'there were giants 
in the earth in those days'— vet. it is said that the historian. 
Prescott. pronounced the Senator from Mississippi the most 
accomplished man in that wellnigh matchless body of statesmen. 
The justification of this high estimate may be found in his 
lucid and elevated discussion of the great questions then engag- 
ing the attention of the country, in his distinguished service 
as Chairman of the Committee on .Military Affairs, in his 
masterly administration as Secretary of War in the Cabinet of 
President Pierce, in his earnest but unavailing efforts to pre- 
serve the Union, and in the beauty, dignity and pathos of his 
farewell address to the Senate, of which he was then the recog- 
nized leader. When the States which had withdrawn from the 
Union in order to save the Constitution formed their Confed- 
eracy, he was unanimously chosen as its Chief Magistrate, no 
other name but his being mentioned for that exalted and arduous 
office. To the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States 
of America, he addressed a message which was pronounced by 
the London Times, the foremost journal in the world, to be 
the ablest state paper which had ever emanated from the 
Western Hemisphere. Desiring only to withdraw in peace, 
the South was totally unprepared for war, without an army, 
without a navy, without munitions, and without the manufac- 
turing establishments necessary to provide them. Yet, when 
war was forced upon her, the genius of her president 'met 
every difficulty and supplied every want. He created, as if by 
magic, the most splendid army that ever marched to victory and 
supplied it with the ablest commanders of the age.' This is 
not the language of mere partisan zeal. President Roosevelt 
himself has said with perfect truth in his life of Thomas H. 
Benton that 'the world has never seen better soldiers than 
those who followed Lee, and their leader will undoubtedly 
rank as without any exception the very greatest of all the great 
captains that the English-speaking peoples have brought forth.' 
During the dreadful years of toil and carnage and agony, 
through which Mr. Davis and his people passed, his preeminent 
ability, his self-sacrificing devotion, his adamantine firmness, 
his stainless character, and his Christian faith, shone with 
ever-increasing luster: and when at last that gallant army which 

Memorial Exercises. 107 

had always been outnumbered and never been outfought was 
'compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources' 
and he himself was captured and cast into prison and subjected 
to indignities, the memory of which now causes men, both North 
and South, to blush for their kind, the hearts of his stricken 
people went out to the vicarious sufferer in a new and tender 
rush of devotion. In the quiet years of his later life, he wrote 
his book, 'The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government' — 
a book which yet awaits an answer ; and, in the words of dedica- 
tion prefixed to that book by its illustrious author, I find the 
text of the brief remarks which I wish to offer on this occasion : 


The Women of the Confederacy 

Whose Pious Ministrations to Our Wounded Soldiers 

Soothed the Last Hours of Those 

Who Died Far From the Objects of their Tenderest 


Whose Domestic Labors 

Contributed Much to Supply the Wants of Our 

Defenders in the Field ; 

Whose Zealous Faith in Our Cause 

Shone a Guiding Star, Undimmed by the 

Darkest Clouds of War ; 

Whose Fortitude 

Sustained Them Under All the Privations 

To Which They Were Subjected ; 

Whose Annual Tribute 

Expresses Their Enduring Grief, Love and Reverence 

For Our Sacred Dead : 


Whose Patriotism 

Will Teach Their Children 

To Emulate the Deeds of Our Revolutionary Sires; 

These Pages Are Dedicated 

By Their Countryman,, 


' ' Every word of that tribute is true. Seven years ago, when 
these noble women asked the privilege and pleasure of holding 
the meetings of their Memorial Association at the same place 
and time that the United Confederate Veterans hold their 
reunions, they themselves expressed it thus: 'Many of us are 
veterans — veterans as much as the gray, battle-scarred old 
veterans — though we bided at home. While they stood amid the 
smoke of battle, we stood amid the smoke of burning homes; 
when they fought, we wept and prayed ; when they were hungry, 

108 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

we had only a crust at home ; when their clothes were wearing 
threadbare on the long and weary march, we were busy with 
wheel, and loom and needle : when they were in peril on picket, 
we held tearful, prayerful vigils. Are we not veterans as well 
as they ? ' 

"Assuredly they are; and you endorsed that sentiment 
and granted that request by a rising vote. But it is the sacred 
service which they have rendered to our cause since the war 
of which I am especially to speak at this time. Soldiers of the 
South, you well remember that when the war closed at Appo- 
mattox, our people accepted the decision of the sword with 
manly sincerity, without apology and without complaint. As 
brave and chivalrous men, they had never dreamed of blaming 
their gallant foes for acting upon their convictions of duty and 
fighting for what they believed to be right, and they supposed, 
of course, that their actions, too, would be viewed in the same 
why by those on the other side. It was, therefore, with a shock of 
indignant surprise that they discovered that, while many of 
their former adversaries did take this magnanimous view of 
the South 's devotion to her conscientious convictions, many 
others were determined to fasten upon her, if possible, the stigma 
of treason, and to blacken the character of her heroic defenders, 
and that partisan misrepresentation and slander, spread abroad 
by the teeming press of the victorious and wealthy North, were 
the means by which they proposed to accomplish their purpose. 
Under the inexorable necessity of rehabilitating their ruined 
country and in the midst of their hard struggle for the barest 
necessaries of life, the men of the South, decimated and borken 
and bleeding as they were, leapt to the rescue of their honor 
thus assailed, and thanks to the labors of the various historical 
necessaries of life, the men of the South, decimated and broken 
and honorable men of the North who had withstood them on 
the field, and by an increasing number of authors in the South 
who could secure leisure from the absorbing struggle for bread, 
these foul aspersions were shown to be false, and the character 
of the Confederate soldier vindicated before the world. But it 
is certain that this vindication could not have been so speedy 
or complete but for the pious labors of our dear and honored! 
v omen, who through their various memorial associations and 
by the most assiduous efforts 'removed from wayside and 
battlefield our sacred dead, placed them in cemeteries of our 
own .and builded monuments that will bear lasting testimony 
to the courage, endurance and patriotism of the Confederate 
soldiers.' Their work, I say, was necessary and timely and 
effective. Comparatively few people read books and reports 
of committees, but every passerby sees the green and flower- 

Memorial Exercises. 109 

strewn graves which are the special care of our women, and 
the silenl but eloquent monuments, the erection of which is 
their special trust, and which now proclaim in every part of 
our land the purity and valor and devotion of the men who 
laid down their lives to preserve their constitutional rights and 
their heritage of freedom from the Fathers of the Republic. 
The numerous monuments erected prior to 1895 were all built 
by the women of the various memorial associations of the South 
Years ago plans were made to erect in the Capital of the Con- 
federacy a worthy monument of our great Chief Magistrate. 
In 1899 the United Doughters of the Confederacy took in hand 
this unfinished work, and tomorrow, on the ninety-ninth anni- 
versary of his birth, they bring that part of their work to 
fitting completion in the unveiling before the assembled veterans 
of the army and navy of which he was Commander-in-Chief 
an enduring and voiceful monument of Jefferson Davis. May 
the God of Justice speed them in all the labor of love to which 
they and the Confederate Memorial Association shall lay their 
hands in the time to come ! 

"Of course, nothing is farther from my purpose than to 
. stir any bitter memories by my words today. North and South 
alike, we are now all for the Union. As Mr. Davis himself said 
in 1878 : 'We have recently been taught that those win mi we had 
considered enemies, measuring them by standard bearers whose 
hearts were filled with malignity, that they in our hour of 
trouble had hearts beating in sympathy with our grief. We have 
been taught by their generosity that bounded with quick response 
to the afflictions of the South, that the vast body of people at 
the North are our brethren still. 

" 'And the heart would be dead to every generous impulse 
that would try to stimulate in you now a feeling of hostility 
to those where so large a majority have manifested nothing but 
brotherly love for you. 

" 'In referring, therefore, to the days of the past and the 
glorious cause you have served — a cause that was dignified by 
the honor in which you maintained it — I seek but to revive a 
memory which should be dear to you and pass on to your chil- 
dren as a memory which teaches the highest lessons of manhood, 
of truth, and of adherence to duty — duty to your State, duty 
to your principles, duty to the truth, duty to your buried 
parents, and duty to your coming children. ' 

"We count him the true hero of the present 'who puts 
the past in its truest light, does justice to all, and knows no 
foe. but him who revives the hates of a bygone generation,' 
As to the past, we ask nothing more than the truth, we shall 
be content with nothing less. On such occasions as. this, we 

110 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3 , 1907. 

review the course of our leaders and our people because it m 
still necessary to the vindication of their memory and because 
we wish the whole world to know that we mean to hold them in 
everlasting honor. Our purpose in having the whole truth 
brought out is really conciliatory and to explain some things 
which may appear contradictory. ' It enables both parties in this 
struggle to give full credit to each other for patriotic motives, 
though under a mistaken view of what that patriotism may have 
required. It shows why no attempt was ventured to bring 
attainder of treason against the Southern chiefs, which could 
not afford to be ventilated before any civil court under the 
terms of the American Constitution. It explains how through 
a noble forbearance on both sides (always excepting the infamies 
of the reconstruction period) the wound has been healed in the 
complete reconciliation of a divided people. It explains how 
\vp of the South, convinced of the rightfulness of our cause, 
can accept defeat without the blush of shame mantling the 
cheek of a single Confederate of us all ; and while accepting 
the issue of the war as the decree of destiny, openly appeal tot 
the verdict of posterity for the final vindication of our career. ' 

"Soldiers of the South, the crowning blessing of God to 
the Confederacy was the Christian character of her leaders. 
Every one of her foremost men was an humble believer in Our 
Lord Jesus Christ. You followed them to victory on a hundred 
fields of conflict. Will you not follow them to the final victory 
by faith in the Divine Redeemer, in whom they trusted: Your 
thin gray line grows thinner every year; the day is not distant 
when all of you must answer the last call and meet the last 
enemy. I pray that you may meet him to conquer him. as 
Davis and Lee and Jackson conquered him, by faith in Him 
who hath abolished death and brought life and immortality to 
light through the Gospel, and that, passing over the river, you 
may rest under the shade of the trees." 

Hymn, by the Choir: "Let us pass over the river and rest 
under the shade of the trees." (Last words of Stonewall Jack- 

Address — Rev. Carter Helm Jones, D. D., of Louisville, 
Ky., (former Chaplain General of Sons of Confederate 
Veterans : 

"My Father's Comrades, My Mother's Sisters, Ladies and 
Gentlemen — As I think of all that this occasion means I feel as 
if I am girt about with the tender light of the aftermath of 
the world's brightest day of chivalry in a utilitarian age, and 
the crucial question is, Will it pay? It is sweet to sec thousands 
of men and women leave their homes, perform arduous duties, 
terrible journies. suffer sometimes real privations, all for the 
joy which memory give-,. Sentiment is not dead. We do not 

112 Seventeenth Reitnio?i, Richmond, May 30 -June 3, 1907. 

walk entirely by the click of the intellects of the head, but we 
have not forgotten, thank God, to walk to the music of the heart 
beats. There is something behind us and memory brings names 
that were not born to die among us. Jefferson Davis and Robert 
Edward Lee and Thomas Johnston (Stonewall) Jackson and 
Jeb Stuart and Fitzhugh Lee and A. S. Johnston and Jos. E. 
Johnston and J. H. Morgan and Bedford Forrest and Joseph 
Wheeler and a countless host of others, silent for the moment 
but yet alive in all that they were and are. They are our 
heritage ; they are still your comrades, they ever form the stars, 
the fixed constellations in the horizon of the true sons of our 
Southland. But did not they fight for a lost cause? Did they 
not suffer and struggle in Tr ain? I love to think that when those 
men went to the front it was not because they sought the bright 
guerdon shining in the garish day of a world's tomorrow, not 
because they listened for the raucous cry of the cheap applause 
of the groundlings, but because they heard the categorical im- 
perative order to obey, the still small voice in their bosoms, the 
voice ( f God. which was the voice of duty. They never stopped 
to ask whether they would succeed or not, they never stopped 
to ask what their place in history would be, they never stopped 
to ask what their pay or position should be. They came in the 
spirit born of a long line of libertydoving ancestors, that they 

should be true to God, to constitutional government, to the hearth- 
stones of their ancestors, who fell asleep in the faith for which 
their sons were even then ready to die. A lost cause? A lost 
cause ? True, the corporate Confederacy was dissolved after it had 
been overwhelmed by alien resources ; but look ! Its great proto- 
type, though its earthly house was dissolved, it had a 'building of 
God, a holism not made with hands, eternal in all history. He slept, 
but the grave could not hold Him and, as he rose, He gave the 
pledge for all succeeding truth, 'Because I live ye shall live also.' 

'Speak, History! who are Life's victors? Unroll thy long annals 

and say. 
Ar° they those whom the world called the victors — who won the 

success of a day? 
The M ar tyrs of Nero? The Spartans, who fell at Thermopylae's 

Or the Persians and Xerxes? His judges or Socrates? Pilate 

or Christ.' 

"The march of might and the grasp of power before us have 
never yet been the criterion of true justice and the fact that 
a lost cause. It simply means that on a field of chivalry more 
in gray, fought does not mean that they fought a losing fight in 
a lost cause. It simply means that on a field of chivalry more 

Memorial Exercises. 113 

glorious than any since the Round Table they did their high 
duty as God gave them strength, as He gave' them grace and 
a stainless banner held aloft by clean hands and defended by 
pure souls, lives in the lives and in the history and in the world 
as gloriously as the grass itself catches the light of the heaven 
or is borne upon the hearts of men today. A lost cause ? Two 
weeks ago when the ship went down the beautiful river I stepped 
for the first time, though I had passed it scores of times in child- 
hood, on the shores of old Jamestown. A few ruins, an old tower, 
some resurrected gravestones, and relics and antiques. James- 
town gone? Has it? I uncovered, I walked with hushed heart 
and hallowed step because I knew that thirteen years before 
the brave men settled on Plymouth Rock there was rocked the 
cradle of our great country to the music of the majestic James. 
There was developed every element of greatness in our country, 
the building of hearthstones, the building of a church, the 
founding of a school and also the establishment of a legislature 
of representative government. Let the James sing the requiem 
of the Jamestown that was. but, rather, let it run by the mur- 
murs of two shores and then answer me whether Jamestown is-j 
dead or even can die So it is sweet for me to know today 
that absolutely every principle for which you fought, dear boys 
in gray and you are boys in gray now, for time has been pencil- 
ing those raven locks and you will be gray boys till the darkness 
comes and then you step from the shadow of the day break 'and 
the shadows flee away.' Every principle for which you fought, 
every obligation that sent you to the rostrum of comrades have 
been achieved. 

"The United States could not be today what it is if you 
had not been true to trusts and true to faith and true to duty 
and there is no part of this country, North, East, West, as well 
as South, where astute editors, where printing publishers, where 
far-seeing statesmen like men are not taking the same positions 
you took in '61 to '65 as regards American principles, the 
purity of home rule and the glory of the individual before God 
and before man. Can such a cause as that be lost? Come we 
indeed today to the right spot, come we today to the old battle 
ground. Capital of the Confederacy, come we today to this the 
focal point toward which love and prayer and work and battle 
tended and exerted influences throughout the world ; come we 
today and make our own these precious Southern lines as they 
are applied not only to the olden knights but to all the knights) 
'whose names are writ where stars are lit. ' Such is a nation 
that never dreamed of aggrandizement, that never was tainted 
with graft, that never thought the lying thoughts of political 
ambition, a nation that rose simply and purely as husbands and 

114 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

fathers and sons and brothers now rise when the enemy is 
near the door and when the loved ones are in danger and stood 
shoulder to shoulder and heart to heart while all the world 
wondered and while the muse of history paused with pen in 
hand, waiting for the moment when she might write the name 
of a new nation, or, as the English poet sang: 

'But let her bear this blessing to the end of times, 

No nation rose so white and fair or fell so pure of crimes.' 

"And whatever may have been the sad, sad end, whatever 
ihay have been the memories of your Gethsemane, whatever may 
have been the agonies of your Golgotha, remember that there 
was a glorious resurrection : 

'Truth forever on the scaffold, wrong forever on the throne. 
But that scaffold sways the future and behind the dim unknown 
Standeth God within the shadows keeping watch above His own." 

"Find me the man in all this company who would love to 
bring back from the grave, though it be a bloody grave, the 
hero of his home, the partner of his youth, the proud inspira- 
tion of his manhood. No. If it were all to do over again, I 
believe that Stuart's bugle call would still bring the cavalry. 
I believe that Stuart could still call for his cavalry ; I believe 
that Robert E. Lee could still assemble about him that f lower' 
of the chivalry born under the Stars and Bars as I see living and 
reared under Old Glory as she flings the Stars and Stripes to 
the breeze. I thank God that, through His Grace, He permitted 
me to be born in the old Confederacy, the son of a Confederate 
soldier ; I thank God that on no platform or pulpit have I ever 
felt for one moment ashamed or afraid of the record that he 
and his comrades made, but I believe, as absolutely, after the 
calm judgment of manhood has had its play in 1he principles 
of those days as did you when you walked to the music of the 
guns. I learned to think in my boyhood, as I thought of what 
men then called the lost cause, of a mighty oak fallen, which 
now lies along its native mountainside uptorn. 

"Yet think not that I come to shed the idle drops of pity 
o'er thy head. No, still it is thine then, though fallen, imperial 
oak, to teach this lesson to the wise and prove that it is far 
better overthrown and broken in freedom's cause to sink into the 
grave than in submission to a tyrant yoke like the vile wretch 
to bow and be a slave. 

"Citizens of immortality, I greet you today as citizens 
of a glorious reunited country. We come not with the shock 
of newness, we come not even as a prodigal son with repentance 
upon our lips, we simply stand where we have always stood and 
the tides of time have come back and wrapped us about. As; 

Memorial Exercises. 115 

I have said, the cradle of our country was rocked within our 
own dear Southland. Its institutions were beautiful, built and 
developed from the principles there inculcated, and when from 
over the seas, a nation sent its mandates of oppression, we gave 
the man whose clarion call rang out in this very city for liberty, 
we gave the man whose brain conceived the plan, whose pen wrote 
the great Declaration of Independence. We furnished the man 
who with a thousand other leaders could defend it, we. in our 
father's house, upon our own soil and wherever we may go and 
wherever we may stand unashamed and unafraid we are fol- 
lowing in the footsteps o_f those, whether they fought in '76 
or whether they fought from '61 to '65. It is a beautiful thing 
to recall the valorous deeds of the men in the field, but, may I, 
in conclusion, say that it has been my joy as a young lad and, 
afterward, as a man familiar with our Southland, to watch the 
brave boys in gray in post bellum times. Peace hath her 
tests of manhood which battle never knew. "When Robert E. 
Lee pushed aside the commands of great armies, pushed aside 
positions of great emolument and Avent quietly in dear old 
mountain cradled Lexington, whose soil was forever sacred with 
the dust of his mighty lieutenant, to teach the youth of this land. 
You have followed him in principle and many of you in prac- 
tice and , 0, the joy of those years, that, though that vile, vile, 
vile, the language is too weak to depict it, that many times 
vile era of reconstruction, which tested your courage more than 
the heights of Gettysburg, more than the heights of Chicka- 
mauga; more than the plains of Manassas or the wilds of the 
wilderness. You stooil alone, safe in the consciousness of duty 
and helped upbuild the land which shall decide the destiny of 
this great country, which, in itself. I think, bears the steward- 
ship to the other nations of God 's finest type of man. Let them 
talk about the New South if they will and I will thank God for 
it if they understand what they mean, but there was nothing 
true, nothing strong, nothing beautiful, nothing winsome, noth- 
ing gracious, nothing glorious, in the New South that is not 
the product of the Old South and that was not made by these 
brave soldiers who turned their 'swords into plowshares,' who 
went back not only to work the crops and make a living for 
their families, but put into the children the iron of splendid 
principle and with their glorious women by their side to make 
the wonder of a watching world. 

"God bless you old veterans, God bless you immortal ones, 
and, as you go down the western hills toward the sunset, sweet 
be the gloaming and glad the eventide. As my predecessor has 
beautifully said, 'Oh, hear them calling to you still'; Stuart first, 
as he calls from the trees of Paradise, near where the Paver of 

116 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3 , 1907. 

the Water of Life runs ; Lee, as calmly through the gates 
he went into an immortality of glory, and all the rest, hear 
them, and some sweet day among the fields of that land 'fairer 
than day' that shadowless land there will be a reunion no less 
glorious, no less beautiful, across which shall never fall the 
shadow of hate, because dear to God are your deeds and dearer 
still your souls. Oh, sons of the South, sons of the Confederacy, 
be it ours, upon our knees daily to ask God that He make ud 
worthy of our heritage, that He make us worthy and able to 
transmit to our children and our children's children these 
glorious honors, that we keep true to truth of history. Let us be 
reunited in a great light where God is teaching strong men 
to see eye to eye and face to face; help build a nation whose 
God shall be the Lord, and where the horizon of our future 
shall be arched with God's glorious bow, we shall know that 
God's in His Heaven and all's right with the world.' 

A hymn was sung, the benediction pronounced and the 
old men wended their way home in deep thought, greatly 
impressed with the beauty and solemnity of the exercises. 


Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 


Monday, June 3. 

Despite the cold and inclement weather, which for two days 
threatened to upset the plans for the unveiling of the monument 
to President Davis, yesterday's sunshine played its happy part 
in making the occasion the greatest ever known in the State of 
Virginia, or indeed in the whole South. 

As on Thursday, when the statue of General J. E. B. Stuart, 
the peerless cavalry leader, was unveiled, nature seemed to 
rejoice in paying a tribute to the great President of the Con- 
federacy, the man whose noble humiliation and whose steadfast- 
ness of purpose stands to-day a monument in the hearts of every 
true son and daughter of the South, the emblem of those mar- 
tyred principles for which the Lost Cause suffered. 

Such an outpouring of people has never before been seen 
at any gathering of Veterans at any unveiling of monuments, 
at any burial of Confederate heroes, for as an old one-legged 
soldier expressed it, "We each loved our own commander, but 
Jeff Davis belongs to the whole Confederacy." 

It was that feeling of loyalty to the representative of the 
"Lost Cause," of love and affection for the man who suffered 
in his countrymen's stead, that strengthened many a man and 
woman to make the sacred pilgrimage to the old capital of the 
Confederacy and to take a part in the service of honor for the 
man who sacrificed his life to duty. 

From the old Capitol Building to the monument, three 
miles away, a solid wall of people, four and five and in some 
places ten deep, lined the streets along which the procession 
slowly passed. Cheers and "rebel" yells marked the passage 
of the Veterans, while the names of well-known soldiers shouted 
aloud, brought a thrill like the touch of an old-time friend. 

Never before has there been seen such enthusiasm, never has 
there been displayed such a warm bond of blood and patriotism, 
never have those of a younger generation entered so closely 
into the spirit of the trying days of two-score years and more. 

The occasion was a vindication of President Davis, an utter 
rout for the army of slanderers, and above all, a noble tribute 
In the memory of the "Lost Cause." 

Along streets profusely decorated with flags and colors, 
cheered by not fewer than 200,000 people, and to the inspiring 

Unveiling of Davis Monument. 119 

music of "Dixie," "My Maryland/' and "The Bonnie Blue 
Flag," marched 12,000 Veterans and sons of those who bore 
arms in the army and navy of the Confederacy. 

Old men marched like boys, forgetting the lapse of years 
since Appomattox, but full of the strength of loyalty to the 
Stars and Bars. 

An aged, gray-clad man, bent and weary, hobbling home, 
exclaimed with a great sigh: "I was a boy again while the 
march lasted, but now that it's over, I'm an old broken man, 
ready to die." 

Some idea of the number of men in the parade will be 
gathered from the fact that it took exactly two hours and 
seven minutes for the line of march to pass. 

On the stand was perhaps the most notable gathering of 
Confederate women ever assembled at an unveiling, for just 
behind General Lee sat Mrs. Hayes, daughter of President 
Davis; Miss Mary Custis Lee, Mrs. Stonewall Jackson, Mrs. A. 
P. Hill, Mrs. William Mahone, Mrs. J. E. B. Stuart, Mrs. W. 
H. F. Lee, Mrs. John R. Cooke, Miss Nannie Heath, Mrs. Magill, 
Mrs. N. V. Randolph, Mrs. "Wm. E. Mickle, Mrs. W. J. Behan, 
Miss Caro Mickle, Mrs. Lizzie George Henderson, Mrs. Wm. R. 
Cox, Mrs. Lomax, Mrs. Logan and many others equally dis- 
tinguished. Also were to be noted the following: General 
Stephen D. Lee, Commander-in-Chief; Rev. J. William Jones. 
D. D., Chaplain General; General Stith Boiling, Chief Marshal 
of the parade ; Governor Claude A. Swanson, of Virginia ; Hon. 
Carlton McCarthy, Mayor of Richmond; Major-General Clement 
A. Evans, of Atlanta, orator of the day ; Major General Samuel 
G. French, the oldest surviving major general of active service; 
Major General Wm. E. Mickle. Adjutant General; ex-Senator 
Carmack. of Tennessee, and Judge Theodore S. Garnett, of Nor- 

The exercises opened with the singing of "Praise God From 
Whom All Blessings Flow" by the choir, followed by: 

Prayer by Chaplain General Jones : 

"Oh, God, our help in ages past, our help for years to 
come, we humbly thank Thee for the circumstances of mercy 
and of grace under which we meet upon this occasion, and 
we pray that Thy blessing may be upon the exercises of this 
day. We thank Thee for the heroic men and the noble women 
of our Southland and we thank Thee especially for him whom 
we honor to-day, the patriotic soldier, statesman, orator, high- 
toned gentleman, but especially the humble Christian. We 
thank Thee for what he was enabled to do. We bless Thee 

120 Seventeenth Reunio?i, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

that there is a disposition throughout the Southland to honor 
him, he lives in the memories and in the hearts of his people. 
And now, we thank Thee that Thou didst put it into the hearts 
of these people to make this monument, and we bless Thee for 
the monument of our noble women who have brought it to this 
success. Bless our Southland, the country and the world, we 
ask in the name and for the sake of Christ, our dear Redeemer. 
Amen. ' ' 

General Lee : 

"Eleven years ago, we laid the cornerstone of a monument 
to Jefferson Davis. We laid it as men lay the cornerstone of 
a great cathedral, in faith that it would some day stand com- 
plete, even if it should wait a thousand years. For men honor 
faithfulness as they honor God, and character is the most abid- 
ing thing in His universe. So in the fair spring days the chil- 
dren of Richmond, whose fathers and mothers were dear to 
Mr. Davis, drew this statue here with their own hands, and with 
them came white-haired men, who were his soldiers, and who 
rejoice to see this day. 

"We are come to unveil a monument to the President of 
the Confederacy; to the prisoner of Fortress Monroe; to him 
who suffered for our sake, and is enshrined in our core of hearts 
forever ; a monument, which commemorates also the faithfulness 
of the Southern people to the highest ideals, and to the men 
who embodied them. May all hereafter, who shall look upon 
this monument, go hence, bearing his image in their hearts ! 

' ' I beg now, my friends, to introduce the Governor of glor- 
ious old Virginia, Governor Swanson." 


"It is my privilege and pleasure, as Governor of Virginia, 
to extend to all of you a cordial, warm, loving welcome, and 
to express on behalf' of the people of this State their profound 
appreciation of the honor of having erected in Richmond this 
splendid monument to commemorate the Confederate cause, 
and to give testimony to the abounding and abiding affection 
which the people of the South entertain for President Jefferson 

"I wish to assure you that there is no State in the South 
where the memories of the War Between the States, where the 
heroism and glory of the Confederate soldiers are more deeply 
cherished than in the State of Virginia. You Confederate Vet- 
erans now received from Virginia as warm and generous a 
welcome as that accorded you during the dark hours of the 

Unveiling of Davis Monument. 121 

great Avar, when you brave men came from Texas to Maryland 
to fight on her soil in a just and righteous cause. Your pres- 
ence in this superb city, around which clusters a deathless 
fame, due to your wonderful achievements, kindles anew in 
our hearts those ties of brotherly affection which cemented us 
and made us all one people during the trying hours and suffering 
of that great conflict. With quickened pulse and throbbing 
heart, Virginia salutes you Confederate soldiers with feelings 
of profound reverence and undying admiration. She directs me 
to convey to you her blessings and benedictions, and to tell you 
that there is no portion of her superb career in statehood in 
which she more glories that in which she has greater pride, 
than that part extending from Bethel to Appomattox. 

"No people in the history of the world ever suffered more, 
or were inflicted with more dire calamities, than the people of 
Virginia during the four years of terrific warfare within her 
borders. During this war was fought within this State 1,404 
battles, actions and combats of sufficient importance for men- 
lion in the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. 
Here devastation, desolation and ruin were experienced in their 
most oppressive and disastrous form. Here for four long, 
weary years was war around the very homes and firesides of the 
people. Here were frail women and innocent children made to 
feel the terrors and sufferings of bloody and destructive warfare. 
Yet, all of this distress fades and becomes overshadowed by the 
splendors of Confederate glory and achievements. 

"There is scarcely a hilltop, village or stream in Virginia 
that has not been made historical and famous by some deed of 
valor, military genius, or prowess displayed by the brave sol- 
diers of the South. There is scarcely a family from Texas to 
Maryland which has not some spot in Virginia that its heart 
goes out to in loving remembrance on account of some dear one 
whose heroic blood has sanctified it, or whose valor has crowned 
it with imperishable renown. Virginia is proud to have been 
the stage upon which such a heroic drama was enacted ! Vir- 
ginia is proud to share with her sister Southern States that price- 
less heritage of valor, sacrifice and courage displayed by the 
Confederate soldier, and which furnish the brightest pages in 
the annals of warfare. You can rest assured that your generous 
partiality has placed this memorial of your devotion in a State 
that will cherish to remotest time the justice of your cause and 
the greatness of your achievements. From generation to gene- 
ration the sons and daughters of Virginia, with reverent hearts 
and loving hands, will bedeck with flowers the graves of our 

122 Seveyiteenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3, 1907. 

heroic dead, our soldier saints, who sealed their devotion with 
their lives, and who won 'death's royal purple' in the foeman's 

"Sirs, when the passions and prejudices of the late Civil 
formed the part assigned me if I should fail on this occasion 
to convey to you her continuous conviction of the justice of our 
cause and her firm belief that the conduct of herself and her 
sister States in this conflict needs neither defense nor apology. 
In this war the South contended for the sovereignty of States 
against Federal aggression and power. She fought for the 
great principle of home rule against outside, illegal interfer- 
ence. This great doctrine of home rule is the most precious 
of all rights possessed by mankind. For its maintenance more 
armies have been marshaled, more battles fought, more blood 
sacrificed, more treasure expended, than all other causes com- 
bined for which man ever contended. The recent action of 
the Federal authorities in Washington in sustaining and aid- 
ing the secession of Panama from the Republic of Colombia, 
in South America, was a complete and thorough indorsement 
of the justice of the Southern secession movement. We are 
glad to receive in the course of time from this high source 
a thorough approval of the righteousness of our cause, though 
it may come a little belated. 

"Sirs, when the passions and prejudices of the late Civil 
War shall have subsided ; when the glamour of immediate suc- 
cess shall have been dissipated ; when the mists of falsehood and 
misrepresentation shall have disappeared, and an impartial 
history records her final judgment, out of this terrific conflict 
shall emerge a figure of heroic proportions, calm, serene, brave 
in defeat, firm in resolution, lofty in purpose, and from whose 
manacled hands each year will come an increasing glory — then 
to be imprinted forever, with beauty and force, upon the scrolls 
of time will appear Jefferson Davis, the faithful and fearless 
President of the Southern Confederacy. Few men ever 
possessed such vast powers. Few ever bore greater bur- 
dens or responsibilities. In all of his public career, be it said 
to his glory and greatness, no stain ever followed his footsteps; 
no selfishness ever soiled his public service. 

"Sirs, each year makes more wonderful the achievements 
of the Confederate government and soldiers, and adds additional 
lustre to their fame. The records show that the Federal gov- 
ernment enlisted and had subjected to its control four times 
as many troops as the Confederacy. These records disclose 
that the Confederacy killed, wounded, captured and routed 

ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, Broad, between 24th and 25th— Famed by-Patrick Henry 


124 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

more Federal troops than it possessed. This is amazing, and 
cannot be surpassed by the military achievements of any people. 

"History cannot furnish another instance than that of 
the Southern people, where armies almost destitute of war 
equipments won great victories from armies far larger, sup- 
plied with the latest and most efficient arms. With indomi- 
table and amazing genius the Confederate soldiers wrested from 
the enemy the very means and the very equipments for waging 
war. Sirs, I firmly believe that if the South had had access 
to the seas, and could have disposed of her great cotton and 
tobacco crops and received in exchange arms, ammunitions and 
the various stores of war, she would have triumphed and won 
her independence. 

"In modern civilization with all its complexities of com- 
merce, that nation must prevail finally that is supreme on 
the seas. A nation with its ports blockaded practically wages 
war against the world. Heroic courage, brilliant victories and 
great military genius may for a time delay, but the catastrophe 
must and will inevitably come. The shadows of Southern doom 
rose slowly but surely from the pitiless sea. 

"Sirs, the brave and noble deeds of the Confederate sol- 
diers, extending from the drummer-boy to the great commander, 
the godlike Lee, constitute for the South her proudest and most 
precious heritage. We will teach our children's children to 
cherish the glory, the unsullied honor and the dauntless cour- 
age of the Confederate soldier. We purpose that in every 
county and city of the South some day shall stand a granite 
or marble column to bear testimony to his heroism and glory. 
The surviving heroes of the Confederacy shall ever have our 
most tender, loving and generous care. I think a flag disgraces 
the very sunshine in which it flaunts if it fails to provide for 
its brave and valiant defenders. 

"Every Southern State should make ample and generous 
provision for the needy Confederate soldiers, their widows and 
orphans. We shall never forget the suffering and sacrifice of 
those four long years. The memory and association of these 
years shall unite forever into a brotherhood the Southern States; 
shall serve to stimulate us and make us cling to our beloved 
South, and make us resolve with brave heart and strong arm 
to defend her from all trials and tribulations which may beset 
her in the future, and make us resolve that the glorious South 
shall once again attain her former splendor and power. We 
shall strive to give to the service of our reunited and common 
country that loyalty, that devotion, that patriotism and that 

Unveiling of Davis Monument . 125 

self -sacrifice that the Confederate soldier gave to the 'Lost 
Cause.' We shall never forget the noble women of the South. 

' ' This magnificent memorial is a gift from the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy, whose loyalty to the Confederate 
cause is ardent and lasting, and whose splendid qualities and 
patriotism are sufficient to stimulate and make great and glori- 
ous any people. We can never forget how in the darkest hours 
of the war the women of the South divested themselves of all 
the comforts and nearly all the necessities of life in order to 
feed and clothe the army. We shall never forget how in the 
prosecution of the war. with generous profusion, they sacrificed 
father, husband, son, lover, all on the altar of their sacred 
cause. We shall never forget that during the darkest and 
most trying hours of this terrible conflict their brave hearts 
never gave utterance to cry of distress, or complaint ; never 
counseled submission or surrender. 

"During these years Southern womanhood reached heights 
of sacrifice and courage, which will live forever in story and 
in song. With such glorious women men could not fail to be 
heroes. Sirs, soft, sweet and sad as the memories of buried 
love will ever lie in our hearts the 'Lost Cause,' with its beau- 
tiful, brave women, and its valiant and matchless soldiers." 

General Lee : 

"I now introduce the Mayor of Richmond, a name that 
is enshrined in every Southern heart, in a city that has sur- 
passed even her reunions heretofore in entertaining the Con- 
federate soldiers in this reunion." 

mayor McCarthy accepts the monument for 


The Mayor accepted the monument on the part of the 
city, and welcomed the visitors gracefully, saying: 

"God commands men everywhere to repent, and graciously 
promises to blot out the remembrance of their sins. Men every- 
where in all ages of the world and in every clime, gladly ac- 
cept forgiveness and rejoice to know that their sins will be 
remembered against them no more forever! 

"Nowhere do men perpetuate the memory of their crimes 
or blazon to the world their own shame ! Nor do we. But 
when the great men of any race illustrate by their lives the 
virtues of their people and by great and noble deeds make their 
day and generation illustrious, virtue and truth seize the trum- 
pets and sound their names right proudly generation after 

126 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 

' ' For virtue and truth were always of dauntless courage ! 
And so, I take it, that those who have wrought this great work, 
and those who now accept it deem themselves the servants of 
truth and the sure defense of virtue. Each people must judge 
itself; for so hath God ordained and made no nation judge over 
another. And no generation or single age can see; many ages 
must measure and weigh the deeds of men and eternity must 
unfold the purpose of the King of kings! 

' ' And so we, with sublime faith in the cause we maintained, 
have elected to honor the chieftain who led the dance in 'the 
land where we were dreaming!' And who can say us, Nay? 
Eere, then, we manfully set forth in stone and in bronze, not 
memories only, but stern, solemn facts and imperishable prin- 

"In the name of this good city I accept this enduring ex- 
pression of the firm faith of a proud and fearless people this 
noble tribute to a man who being faithful unto death is crowded 
and enthroned in the hearts of the people who knew him best. 
The sacred trust, with all the truth and glory that it bears, 
is ours ! ' ' 

General Lee : 

"We will now have a welcome from a representative of our 
splendid and noble women, from Mrs. Norman V. Randolph. 
Judge David Crockett Richardson will speak for Mrs. Ran- 

Judge Richardson : 

"Gentlemen, she has requested me to respond. At a time 
when it seemed almost certain that men would fail in erecting 
this monument to our President, they wisely turned to the 
women of the South for aid and they came to the rescue 
and discharged their duty with resolution and energy until 
to-day we see the result of their labors. When the chairman 
of the Executive Committee of the Jefferson Davis Monument 
Association beheld in this completed memorial the consumma- 
tion of her hopes, her prayers and of her unceasing labor, 
the emotions that filled her breast stifled utterance, and she 
is unable to speak the words she would desire to say in wel- 
coming you, her co-workers, to the city of Richmond. I am 
here feebly to discharge that task, but I am not unmindful 
of the fact that her silence and her tears on this occasion are 
more eloquent than any words that I can utter. (Applause.) 
We welcome you, her co-workers in this glorious cause, to the 
city of Richmond; we welcome you to the city upon which for 

Unveiling of Davis Monument . 12 7 

four years were focused the eyes of the civilized world; to 
the city of Richmond, against which the armies of the invader 
were repeatedly hurled to be beaten back and back again ; to 
the capital of the Confederacy, of the fortress of the Southern 
heart, around which were gathered so many heroic defenders, 
and where so many of the flower of our Southland found heroic 
death and now sleep in unknown graves. We welcome you 
to the city of Richmond, that city whose streets echo with the 
tread of marching legions, where the battle was waged in the 
day time and the nights were lighted up with the glare of 
the conflict, and where the booming of the guns and rattle of 
the musketry marked the ebb and flow of the battle, where 
the glorious women of the South, unmindful of danger in 
battlefield and in hospital, bound up the wounded, ministered 
to the suffering and prayed with the dying. Yes, we welcome 
you to that Richmond, that city which valor could not save, 
but which finally went down a prey to the devouring flames. 
We welcome you to Richmond, a new Richmond that has arisen 
here, but I am glad it is the same old Richmond whose people 
loved the soldiers of the Confederacy with a devotion impos- 
sible to describe, which neither time nor fortune can ever 
change." (Applause.) 

General Lee : 

"It is my privilege to introduce another splendid woman 
of the South, the President of the Confederated Southern 
Memorial Association, an association that began to erect the 
monuments to the dead, Mrs. W. J. Behan." 

Mrs. Behan spoke as follows : 

"In the name of the Confederated Southern Memorial 
Association, composed of the women of the sixties, the contem- 
poraries of the men who wore the gray, I thank you for this 
hearty welcome. To the loyal and patriotic women of Vir- 
ginia, and particularly to the members of the Central Com- 
mittee of the Jefferson Davis Monument Association, U. D. C. 
we extend sincere congratulations and rejoice with them that 
our labor of love is accomplished. It is not my purpose to 
deliver a lengthy address or eulogy on the life of Jefferson 
Davis. This will be portrayed in more eloquent words by the 
orator of the day. I esteem it a great privilege, however, to 
stand here to-day as the representative of memorial associa- 
tions, and in the presence of this vast assemblage in an humble 

128 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

way and feeble voice give testimony to the loyalty and devotion 
of Southern women, who proclaim to the world their love and 
reverence for the first and only President of the Confederate 
States of America. 

The gray-bearded veteran, the silver-haired wife and 
mother, patriotic sons and daughters are here to-day to witness 
the unveiling of this monument, erected by the people of the 
South and dedicated to the lofty patriotism and sublime cour- 
age as exemplified in the character of Jefferson Davis. 

"Kentucky is here to claim him as a son, Mississippi is 
proud of him as the able representative of that State, and the 
people of the South are here at your invitation to honor him 
as President of the Confederate States of America. 

"Mr. Davis possessed in an eminent degree the heroic vir- 
tues of fortitude, constancy and devotion to principle. To him. 
our resolute leader, and the stanch defender of the Constitu- 
tion, the South owes a debt of gratitude. Our children and 
our children's children should be taught to honor and revere 
his memory, and assemble on June 3, the anniversary of his 
birth, to strew immortelles on his grave, and to learn from 
the matchless oratory of our gallant veterans the true worth 
of this great American patriot, statesman and Christian sol- 

"It has been well said that 'to-day his fame is ours, a 
century hence it will be the world's.' In this historic city 
the destinies of our short-lived but glorious nation were shaped 
and guided by his giant intellect, his services dedicated to his 
people and to their cause. 'The grandest that ever rose, the 
purest that ever fell.' 

"He was the vicarious sufferer of the Southern people. 
No man of the Confederacy was more ruthlessly maligned, more 
grossly misrepresented, and it devolves upon us to protest 
against the base calumnies that have been charged against him. 

"Having implicit faith in his stainless character, we ask 
that the searchlight of impartial history be thrown upon the 
life and character of Jefferson Davis, believing that his name 
will shine forth as a bright example of patriotism, statesman- 
ship and Christian virtue, for he was a man 'faithful to all 
trusts.' The Women of the Confederacy have come from the 
furthest ends of the South with garlands of love and affection, 
which they offer as a tribute of love and reverence to his 
memory. Come hither, you battle-scarred veterans, loyal rem- 
nant of the grandest army ever marshaled in battle array; 
come, honored heroes, as great in peace as you were valiant in 

CO oS 

J ft 

iJ 03 

130 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3 , 1907 

war, and with bowed heads and grateful hearts lay your testi- 
monials at the feet of your beloved President. Let all unite 
in honoring the name of Jefferson Davis, the noble exemplar 
of truth and justice, who. when the roar of battle ceased, "with- 
drew from his exalted charge with the dignity made strong 
by his faith,' and 'gained for himself the love and reverence 
of his people, who trusted him.' " 

General Lee: 

"I have the pleasure now of introducing to you the chair- 
man of the Jefferson Davis Monument Association, that asso- 
ciation which performed the arduous work of erecting the monu- 
ment which we honor to-day, Mrs. George S. Holmes." 


"Mr. Chairman and Madame President — I now announce 
to you the execution of the commission given by the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy to the Jefferson Davis Monument 
Association ; the memorial to President Davis is before you, 
and thus we have fulfilled the trust transferred to us by the 
United Confederate Veterans. 

"Others have honored the Christian gentleman, the patri- 
otic citizen, the resolute, resourceful soldier, the learned his- 
torian, or the eminent statesman; but the people of the South 
have erected this monument to their President, to shadow forth 
their love. 

"History records no such rare triumphal procession as this 
aged man was granted; his bier strewn with roses, palms and 
lilies and draped in the stars and bars, was borne to the 
funeral car for that long journey from New Orleans on the 
Gulf to Richmond on the James. Hour after hour, day and 
night, the wheels of that funeral car rolled over boughs of 
cypress and magnolia, palmetto and pine, wild flowers and 
cedar, laurel and oak, bedewed by the tears of his people, who 
stood in silence on the right hand and left, with bared heads. 

"Surrounded by his household, Jefferson Davis lies in his 
honored grave at Hollywood, bearing a title which no man ever 
wore before, and which no mortal man may ever wear again — 
'The President of the Confederate States of America/ 

"While his fame grows, silently as a tree, through the 
ages, may this monument endure ! ' ' 

General Lee : 

"I have the great pleasure of introducing to you the Presi- 
dent of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. When we 

Unveiling of Davis Monument . 131 

old veterans could not build that monument we turned it over 
to the Daughters of the Confederacy, of which Mrs. Lizzie 
George Henderson is the President. Senator Carmack will 
speak for her: 


The Senator spoke in part as follows : 

"Ladies and Gentlemen — It is my privilege to appear in 
the exercises of this great occasion as the representative of 
the United Daughters of the Confederacy, whose noble part 
it is and has ever been to 'keep the fires of chivalry alight 
in hearts of gold.' Let me add that this monument to the 
South 's great leader is no less a monument to the South 's great 
women, who have wrought into it all their wealth of devotion 
to the memory of his heroic services and his stainless life, 
as well as to the cause of which he was alike the foremost cham- 
pion and the most illustrious victim. 

"It is no part of my task to justify this monument. Let 
me only say that if the unselfish devotion of all the powers of 
a great mind, patient self-sacrifice and heroic suffering deserve 
a grateful remembrance, no man ever builded more surely than 
Jefferson Davis the" foundations of his fame. Great in all the 
years of his active life, he was surpassingly great in those last 
years in which mistaken malice laid on his devoted head all 
the supposed sins of his people. With the serenity of a great 
and unconquerable soul he bore the fury of persecution and 
opposed a mighty and magnanimous contempt to the crawling 
calumnies of his defamers. These have lived their summer 
day. and died; while the fame of Jefferson Davis gathers new 
splendor with each passing year. 

"Here let me say that there is no Southern Soldier pusi- 
lanimous enough to accept that lenient judgment sometimes 
proffered by the charity of his critics — that he was the inno- 
cent, deluded victim of a wicked leadership. No soldier of 
the South, however ruined in fortune or broken with wounds, 
no wife bereft of her husband, no mother bereft of her son, has 
ever raised an accusing voice against the leaders of the South. 
The Southern people are not of that coward breed that seeks 
a vicarious sufferer for its own deeds. Let no man mistake 
us — the South, the whole South, gave both heart and hand to 
the War of Secession ; and as history shall judge Jefferson 
Davis, so let it judge every soldier who fought beneath the 
flag of the Confederacy. Yea, and so let it judge us of a new 
generation who ask for ourselves no higher honor and no 

132 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3 ', 1907. 

prouder fate than that by their deeds we may be judged, and 
whose most fervent prayer is that the sons of these heroes may 
be worthy of their sires. No, my countrymen, it is not as a 
trembling penitent that the South approaches the judgment 
bar of history. 

"Standing in the presence of this noble and impressive 
monument, we proudly front the world and proclaim to the 
present and the coming time : ' This was our hero and his cause 
was ours.' Whether for chieftain or for private, we make no 
confession of wrong, we plead for no forgiveness of error, 
we ask no tenderness of the future historian, no charity from 
the enlightened judgment of mankind. If there are those who 
are shocked by such sentiments, let me add that this reunited 
country will not be best defended by conscious criminals crawl- 
ing for mercy at the victor's feet. 

' ' Thoughtless people have sometimes reproached us for 
such scenes as this, and have demanded as a pledge of our 
loyalty to a reunited country that we give the memory of our 
heroes to oblivion and their graves to the wilderness. They 
know not what they ask. They would have us prove our loyalty 
to the Union by proving ourselves recreant to the noblest senti- 
ments that could swell the bosom of an American patriot. I 
say that the valor of our Southern soldiers, the fortitude of our 
Southern women, the fidelity with which we cherish the memory 
of their deeds and their suffering, are but the measure of our 
loyalty to a reunited country and to the flag that floats over 
it from the Lakes to the Gulf and from sea to sea. 

"If the Southern people could so soon forget, if they were 
so fickle and inconstant that they could learn to despise the 
cause for which they gave the best blood of their veins, if 
they could be ashamed of a record that is the wonder and 
admiration of the world, then, indeed, might they be despised 
as a degenerate and ignoble race, who could not be loyal to 
any country or faithful to any flag. He is foolish, indeed, who 
holds that the Southerner must surrender, not only his arms, 
but his manhood and self-respect, before he can become a faith- 
ful soldier or a worthy citizen of the republic. No, my country- 
men, the world respects us for what we are doing this day. 
It will despise us if we ever come to despise our own glorious 

"My countrymen, this monument is also commemorative of 
the soldiers and the sailors of the South. Whatever else may 
be said, no man has the hardihood to question the splendid valor 
and prowess of the South, whether by land or by sea. With 
a courage so great that her adversaries have loved to stigma- 


' ca cs £fs ca K3 gS 1 .rai raj{r,T H»-fi I 
?.g§ srai (p Ea eS B3] c=n I i-fi hidlp -V7 **j k¥^? 

' Ijni 0~i CtE <nf frX fi=5 (P5 trS CFaj ; hl j h.r^M 
:' /JftV &$ (Jul .Sfl (H| (pi Eji! GS ffB fet ™ J| 

/Im - - Jen in «? 

In Effi <m» ej ra; c=3) ra F® (Fn St fc^g' 




O c 



134 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3 ', 1907. 

tize it as sheer folly and madness, she challenged the power 
of a great nation, vastly superior in numbers, in wealth, in 
everything that makes ready for war. 

"Without an army, without a navy, without money, with- 
out credit, without arms or munitions of war, without factories 
to supply them, she entered upon that fearful struggle. Against 
it the appalling odds of nearly four to one, they maintained it 
for four years, and for a long time the issue of battle hung 
doubtful in the balance. 

"Nay, more — I dare assert that there would have been no 
victory for the Union if the contest had been on land alone. 
It was the fatal weakness of the Confederacy at sea that turneu 
the tide of war. Given men. the organization of an army is a 
matter of comparatively easy achievement. It is another mas- 
ter to improvise a navy for instant service. The navy of the 
United States in 1861 ranked fourth among the navies of the 
world, and in proportion to its strength was second to none, 
perhaps superior to any, in efficiency. Its merchant marine 
was the greatest upon the sea. A rich nation with all the 
appliances for ship-building would have been at immense dis- 
advantage. The Confederacy had no such appliances and was 
poor. Makeshift trading craft constituted the bulk of the Con- 
federate navy. Yet under all these adverse conditions, the 
genius of the South shone with as much brilliancy by sea as 
by land. 

''But, my countrymen, no just tribute to the quality 
of Southern manhood could be made that did not include the 
story of its marvelous achievements in the redemption of the 
South after the war. 

"To my mind, there is nothing in all history so magnifi- 
cent as the indomitable and invincible spirit which enabled a 
defeated people to rise in arms and victorious resistance to 
the policy of the conqueror's government. The Southern peo- 
ple could accept what they deemed the legitimate results of 
the war. 

"They could give up shivery without a sigh. They could 
live under the Union and under its flag — after all, it was their 
land and their flag. But to be despoiled of their heritage, to be 
subject to the rule of a servile master, against such degrada- 
tion and dishonor they rose as one man. with one spirit. A 
leading jurist, but by no "means friendly critic, could not with- 
hold his admiration for the 'indomitable men, who, being con- 
quered in war, yet resisted every effort of the conqueror to 
change their laws or their customs, and this, too. not only 
with unyielding stubbornness, but with success.' He admits 

Unveiling of Davis Monument. 135 

that, in all this they showed the elements that go to make up a 
grand and kingly people, and that their 'triumph was incredibly 
grave,' that it was the most 'brilliant revolution ever accom- 
plished. ' 

"And grand it was, not for the South alone, but for the 
whole country; for free government could not have long sur- 
vived under the rule of the worst elements of the North, com- 
bined with the ignorant negroes of the South. Let it be the 
proud boast of the North that, by the power of the bayonet 
and the force of numbers, it saved the country from disunion. 
It is the proud boast of the South that, with its naked hands, 
it saved it from degradation and destruction. 

"My countrymen, let me say that such are not the deeds 
of conscious criminals — they are possible only to men deeply 
convinced of the justice of their cause. The world has paid its 
just tribute to the Confederate leaders and the Confederate 
soldiers. History has placed the statesmen, the military chief- 
tains and the armies of the South beyond the reach of calumny 
or detractions. President Roosevelt has written that the South- 
ern soldier was more effective in battle than his Northern ad- 
versary. Those who would apply the name of traitor to such 
men are but teaching the youth of America that treason is a 
nobler school of manhood than loyalty, and that crime can 
outrival virtue in the greatness of its deeds and the sublimity 
of its sufferings. 

"My countrymen, the doctrine of secession is dead; but 
because it is dead, because it can never again plague the 
councils or disturb the repose of the nation, we can afford to 
speak and teach the truth about it. Our children have a right 
to know that their fathers fought for a right which belonged 
to them under the Constitution ; that the doctrine of secession 
from the very earliest of our history, was taught by the ablest 
publicists of the North as well as of the South; that the very 
first treatise on the Constution, written by the then leader of 
the Philadelphia bar, taught the right of a State to secede from 
the Union ; that a standard work on the Constitution at West 
Point when Jefferson Davis was a student there, taught the 
same doctrine, and Jefferson Davis learned his lesson of 
secession from the Government of the United States. 

"All these things are now but glorious memories. Proud 
of her glorious history, proud of every drop of blood that has 
gushed from the veins of her sons, proud of every grave and 
every ruin that proclaims the splendor of her deeds, 
while it marks the failure of her hopes, the South 
turns resolutely from the ashes of the past to the fruits of 

136 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3 , 1907. 

the future. We may strew our flowers, and let fall our 
tears upon the hollowed mounds where valor sleeps in his bloody 
shroud; but the lesson of the lives of our heroes admonishes 
us to do our duty as bravely as they did theirs. We owe 
love and memory to the past ; we owe love and labor to the 
present and to the future. 'Peace hath her victories no less 
renowned than war.' In the field of commerce and industry. 
the South has already reaped a golden harvest, and she has not 
thrust her sickle into the grain. The present country is stored 
with the richest blessings for our Southern section. 

"In the field of statecraft the opportunity is again at hand 
for the South to assert her old pre-eminence in the nation's 
councils. The perils that menace the republic call for courageous 
leadership. We of the South have a high and noble lineage, and 
with it a high duty and a great responsibility. We are the 
descendants of a Revolutionary, a Colonial ancestry. Elsewhere 
the blood of the pioneers trickles in a thin and diminished 
stream. We are the sons of sires who laid broad and deep the 
foundations of free government, who hewed the logs of the 
wilderness to build their rude but imperishable temple, and 
dedicated it to liberty forever and ever. In our veins flows 
the pure blood of the founders of the republic ; and as we have 
kept the blood, so let us keep the faith." 


The orator of the day Lieut. General Clement A. Evans. 
of Atlanta, Ga., was then announced. General Evans was the 
orator at a great Confederate gathering in Atlanta a week ago, 
when a monument to General John B. Gordon was unveiled in 
that city. 

Owing to the lateness of the hour General Evans cut 
short a portion of his speech, but his remarks were heard with 
great interest, and were received with a storm of applause. 
He said : 

"It is the honor of Virginia to have in trust the vigil of 
the body of Jefferson Davis ; it is an honor to Jefferson Davis 
to have Richmond chosen to guard his tomb ; it is the honor of 
Southern womanhood to kindle the patriotism of our country- 
men and to keep it glowing forever by live coals from the 
altars of this magnificent monument which they have erected; 
it is to the honor of true manhood that it has an exalted appre- 
ciation of woman's gracious and graceful work in fostering 
the best virtues of our republic. These multitudes of Confed- 
erate soldiers here assembled, and the people of the country 


M 03 

1 = 

138 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

will manifest their special gratitude to the Davis Monument 
Association, to the Daughters of the Confederacy, to the South- 
ern Confederated Memorial Association and the Women of 
the South for their devotional contribution to the memory of 
the illustrious President of the Confederate States of America. 

"In analysis of the life of Mr. Davis you will observe that 
certain conrtibutory influences wrought together to make that 
masterful nature which fitted him for an illustrious career. He 
was one of those naturally gifted men who achieve true gerat- 
ness by co-operating with opportunities that come to them laden 
with duties of the highest order. By the union of his just 
ambitions with the influences and opportunities of rare times 
the superb character was formed and career produced which fair 
history will award to the 'First and only President of the 
Confederate States.' 

"Let us note first as a permanent factor of his great life the 
due influence of heredity and early associations. His remote 
ancestry was of tbat ruddy fair- faced people living in the early 
eras of ancient Europe who roved westward across the continent 
and occupied the British Islands. Wales, enlightened centuries 
before Europe discovered America, was the home of his English 
forefathers. Evan Davis, his grandfather, came to America 
when the British Colonies were nearing the brink where final 
choice must be made between a monarchy or a free republic, 
even if their independence must be won by war. This ancestor 
selected his home in Georgia and when the "War of the Revo- 
lution began he joined the army of American patriots. His 
son, Samuel Emory Davis, was born in that State and, follow- 
ing the example of his father, enlisted when sixteen years 
old, fought until independence was won, closing his service 
with the rank of Captain of a Georgia company of cavalry. 
After marriage with an accomplished South Carolina girl, he 
cultivated his Georgia farm a few years and then transferred 
his little family to a Kentucky home where, ninety-nine years 
ago, his son Jefferson Davis was born, whose patriotic life is 
signally commemorated throughout the country on this, his 
birthday, and most memorably honored by the richly signifi- 
cant monument erected by the women of all the South. 

"We will survey further the factors of his character in 
the school, the home and the social influences of his boyhood. 
Early in childhood he was taken with the family to Louisiana 
and then to Mississippi, where he began his education, and 
it was steadily forwarded through primary, academic and col- 
legiate training to be further advanced in the university of 
his native Kentucky. Without a halt his progress continued in 

Unveiling of Davis Monument '. 139 

these Southern schools, where the most wholesome educational, 
social and patriotic influences molded his brain and heart. 
Meanwhile, noble traditions inspired him with patriotism. 
Around the fireside of his intelligent father and mother, and 
in the homes of their neighbors, he heard inspiring accounts 
of the yet fresh memories of Colonial struggles for free Ameri- 
can citizenship. The incidents of the Revolutionary War in 
which his father and grandfather had fought kindled his young 
soul with love of country. His three brothers had been pri- 
vate soldiers in the War of 1812, and from them he learned 
about Jackson's battles and the victory at New Orleans. Thus 
he grew on the soil and in the ordinary conditions and atmos- 
phere of good Southern life, without either poverty or great 
riches. Before his boyhood had ended he had learned by 
family tradition as well as by instruction in the schools, the 
facts and principles of the American Union, and had been 
taught the prominent, political doctrines of Jefferson, Madi- 
son and Monroe. Upon such food as this the youthful patriot 
fed and by its nourishment he became a truly great American. 
From these fountains he drank deep draughts of ever-living 
principles, and the monument entrusted to-day by Southern 
women to the custody of Virginia will forever proclaim that 
Jefferson Davis who was to the 'manor born,' lived and died 
true to the manner of his rearing. 

"I pursue this search into the illuminated recesses of a 
noble life by considering another influence which came fully 
into power to form the character of this educated young South- 
ern citizen. His training hitherto had been distinctly given in 
the best Southern situations and he was now to secure in the 
Military Academy at West Point a yet wider but similar vista 
of the citizen's obligations in national life. By the wish of 
his father and his own desire, he entered at seventeen years 
of age our National Military Institute by appointment of Presi- 
dent Monroe. He appeared there, as described by classmates, 
a cultured youth of almost faultless physical manhood, with 
graceful form, soldierly bearing, a clear, bright expression 
of his classic features, and with manners of natural courtly 
grace. He had now arrived with all these rare advantages 
into a national atmosphere. His associates were young men from 
all sections. His instructors were gifted scholars imbued with 
the national spirit, and their instruction conserved the priciple 
that allegiance to the State did not lower, but it heightened, 
the spirit of obedience to the constitutional authority of the 
United States. The text-book in the Constitution was pre- 
pared by Iiawle, of Pennsylvania, from which Mr. Davis and 

140 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3, 1907. 

his fellow students were taught to defend the States and Terri- 
tories of our whole country anywhere with due respect for all 
authorities. From the same source they learned the special 
doctrine which was involved in the issues of the Confederate 
struggle, that the adherence of the States to the Union, or 
their secession therefrom, depended on the will of the people of 
each State, fairly and orderly expressed ; and that ' they may 
wholly withdraw, but while they continue in the Union every 
State must maintain the character of a representative republic' 
Every day of his life at West Point the nationality of the 
United States appeared to cadet Davis in the symbol of our 
country's flag in which each State was blazoned by a star. Ev- 
ery day he wore with pride the military uniform of cadet gray. 
From every source the national spirit poured into his life in 
perfect accord with all the influences of his previous years and he 
was thus brought into the clear concepiton of the inspiring idea 
that his country was a democratic nationality of States re- 
splendent by its achievements, sublime in its civic virtues and 
already rich in glorious memories. Such as these were the strong 
influences which for four years fashioned his political views, 
gave him confidence in his country, and inspired him with the 
warm ardors of the highest sentiment of patriotism. May such 
loyal love of country forever inspire the West Point student, 
and the young soldiery of the National Guard. 

"With all the zeal shown in his former student life, Mr. 
Davis passed the four years' course at West Point, graduating 
with honor, and was commissioner Brevet Lieutenant in the 
Regular Army in 1828, when 20 years of age. He was as- 
signed at once to infantry service and ordered on arduous 
duty within the great Western territory where pioneers from 
the East were in peril from the tribes of hostile Indians. I 
will not portray in any detail the hard and dangerous duties of 
his position under the command of Harney, Gaines and Zach- 
ary Taylor. The scope is too vast, the expeditions too numerous, 
the hardships too severe, the service too arduous, and his 
course too faithful through all the seven years of this service 
in protection of his Western countrymen, to be justly related 
in a brief description. I have taken pencil and map to trace 
his course over Indian trails, in vast forests to locate the 
forts he built, the places where he fought the Indians, and 
the marches over the wilds of the Western territory. I found 
him traversing often and everywhere the wilderness area of 
territories from which have arisen seven of the populous, rich, 
prosperous, self-governed States of the great West and North- 
west, and closing his service of seven years with marked dis- 


(Now Virginia Historical Society) 

142 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

tinction in the Black Hawk War. During all this arduous 
national military service he was engaged in the perilous duty 
of 'winning the West." By his fidelity he gained the grati- 
tude of the settlers. By courage, skill and tact he subdued 
the vicious Indians, and by all the acts which distinguish a true 
soldier he won the fame which his country gladly gave him then, 
and should not now forget. 

"Although two years intervened between the end of the 
campaigns among the Indians of the West and the beginning 
of the War with Mexico on behalf of Texas, it is appropriate 
to mention in connection with that first military service the 
subsequent brilliant career of Mr. Davis in the Mexican War. 
We are yet considering the strong influences of military life 
in producing love of country among soldiers and citizens as 
well. The true soldier loves his country with increased ardor 
after he has served it under arms, imperilled his life for it, 
or shed his blood from wounds received in its defense. The 
true citizen also esteems his country more when its soldiers re- 
spect the civil authority, obey the laws in times of pease, and 
consider the humanities due the foe in times of war. War is 
not heaven, nor is it hell, when honorable combatants fight 
each other to the end of their controversy, each making his 
cause illustrious by courage. I say for myself that I saw grandeur 
on its lofty crest in the great battles of the War between 
the States, where brave armies fought, but I can see nothing 
grand in savage sacking of defenseless homes or in the flames 
which burn cities, or in the wretchedness of women and chil- 
dren amidst the needless desolations made by a cruel war. 

"Mr. Davis was in Congress when the Mexican War was 
imminent, and promptly resigned to take command of the Mis- 
sissippi Rifle Regiment with the rank of Colonel given him by 
his State. At Monterey, under Taylor, he led his regiment 
against Fort Teneria and, after hard fighting, won it. The 
next day with a command of Tennessee and Mississippi regi- 
ments, he drove the Mexican soldiers out of their redoubt and 
pushed them into the city. At Buena Vista he attacked the 
enemy impetuously at a critical moment when they were press- 
ing back a part of Taylor's Army, and under heavy fire, he 
regained the lost ground. His victorious command was charged 
at once by a fresh body of cavalry, but he met the onset with 
a quickly ordered formation of his men in diverging lines to 
deliver converging vollies from their rifles so repeatedly, rapidly 
and deadly that the daring lancers fled in panic. On the same 
day. after brilliant fighting from the morning into the evening, 
his splendidly handled comrades, led again by their skillful 

Unveiling of Davis Monument . 143 

commander, charged the Mexican line at double quick, broke 
it, and gave the victory of the whole battle at Buena Vista 
to the American Army. In the earlier fighting" of this battle 
Colonel Davis was severely wounded, but retained his place 
to the end. Compliments in official reports were lavished on 
him by General Taylor. A commission as Brigadier General was 
tendered him by the President, and when he returned to Mis- 
sissippi, disabled by his wounds, his people gave him the popu- 
lar honors which he had nobly won. It is enough to say 
that his military fame was now established ; his maneuvers in 
battle under General Taylor were studied by military critics; 
his State made him Senator and his country, in appreciation 
of his civic and military abilities, called him into its service 
as Secretary of War in the cabinet of President Pierce. 

"I desire to be followed next in a review of the political 
life of Mr. Davis, using that term in its best meaning. There 
is a field of human action where those qualities of good citizen- 
ship which are required in good government are of stronger 
and finer strains than such as are usually produced by war. 
Civil life is a field where the people in community may wisely 
govern themselves and should consent to be thus governed. 
The mere consent of a people to be governed is not the only rule 
of government, for the people can and sometimes do passively 
consent to be badly governed. The consent should be intelli- 
gent, should be just, should be effective in producing peacably 
the good government which is the community's greatest need. 
Such a just consent in the exercise of just powers would have 
made war between the Northern and Southern States impossible 
by its prevention of sectionalism.! Prevention of civic evils is 
better than the cure. The symbol of war is the sword, the 
symbols of peace are the sheaf of wheat, the olive branch and 
the evenly suspended scales of justice. For all reasons man- 
kind should esteem the just, civil administration of the country 
in peace above the showy glories won in war. Our Washing- 
ton was great in war, great in peace, but greatest in the 
hearts of his countrymen because he guided them into the 
ways of good self-government when he might have betrayed 
them into the acceptance of a pseudo-monarchy. So also may we 
esteem Mr. Davis for his superior military talents, but we will find 
him greater in civil life than in war. 

"Mr. Davis was sent from the battlefield into political 
life by the people of Mississippi, who advanced him to the 
United States House of Representatives, and then to the Senate, 
in which lofty, station he rose to eminence as a statesman. I 
will discuss his political life so far only as his views are ger- 

144 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

main to the question of his fidelity at all times to the princi- 
ples of the Constitution, to the Union, and to the laws of 
the land. During his youth there were only two distinctly 
different policies which were in clearly defined and irreconcil- 
able antagonism. The brilliant Hamilton led one side pre- 
eminently. He had tried to lure the young republic to seek 
national glory through federative powers concentrated in one 
administrator. This able, ambitious leader did not seem to 
know that the way he pointed out as the path to governmental 
glory would lead popular liberty to its grave. He did not 
consider that his policy would work like a worm in the bud 
of American freedom to blight the knightly flower of State- 
hood. He did not understand that his plans would leave the 
people, whenever oppressed beyond endurance, to the lone re- 
medy of armed rebellion and the fate of defeated traitors. 
But the better idea of a constitutional unity of State and 
national powers in harmonious activity, controlled the minds 
of other statesmen such as Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Mar- 
shall, Macon and Madison, who summoned the sovereign people 
to march as one army but in columns by actual States in order 
to move together beneath one flag of many stars and thus 
greaten the Union they had created without lessening the lib- 
erties of the people or destroying the States. The former idea 
used the Constitution as a cloak to conceal a monarchy like 
Mokanna used his silver veil to hide a despot's face. The lat- 
ter regarded the Constitution as an open chart chosen by the 
free and sovereign people to guide and govern both the general 
government and the States by the plainly defined plan of inter- 
cooperative sovereignty, as Moses the Lawgiver used the pillar 
of cloud to guide the tribes in their free republic to complete 
deliverance from despotism. 

"Mr. Davis accepted the ideas of the eminent makers of 
the Constitution and believed that they had ordained and estab- 
lished a general government which had ample powers to eon- 
duct the States to the broadest and loftiest national glory, 
without having conferred a grant of even one power to oppress 
a citizen or a class of citizens, nor to discriminate against a 
section or scourge a State. This principle in the structure 
of our government is a stone laid in the foundations of the 
political faith of Jefferson Davis and is yet as indispensable as 
it was when our fathers made it the substantial cornerstone 
of the Union. On his steady conviction that these founda- 
tions would not be removed he had reposed his confidence 
in the fairness of administrations, and, therefore, believed in 
the stability and prosperity of the country. Consistent with 

Monument in Hollywood to Commodore Matthew F Maury 
and Mausoleum of President Monroe. 

146 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3 , 1907. 

that view, he saw that the United States could retain a dual 
integrity and yet protect and employ all their powers, conserve 
interstate relations, increase the country's area, promote com- 
merce, enlarge industries, restrain commercial evil aspirations 
and prevent sectional discords. He therefore approved the 
reasons made known to him in early manhood why the Louisi- 
ana territory had been lawfully and wisely acquired. The pur- 
chase was a sequence of constitutional duty but not a breach 
thereof, and hence he did not agree with some statesmen that 
this purchase was a good cause for secession, although he con- 
ceded the right at that time of those dissatisfied States to 
secede. Nor did he see any good cause for the action of the 
Hartford Convention, nor for the suggestion of a New Eng- 
land Republic. Mr. Davis also believed that the State of 
Texas could be lawfully annexed, because this was necessary 
to the saving of Texan independence and expedient as a lawful 
extension of our country's domain, since it was made by ac- 
cepting, through a treaty the offer of a contiguous republic. 
Statesmen outside the South inisisted that this acquisition was 
a sufficient reason for the withdrawal of their States from the 
Union. But while admitting the privilege of these States to 
'become wayward sisters and go in peace,' he was glad to have 
them remain and see the wisdom of the annexation. According 
to his views nullification of a national law as once proposed 
by a Southern State was illegal and might be fatal to both the 
Union and the State, although it was urged by Calhoun that 
this mode of redressing a wrong was better than secession, 
because it would preserve the Union and protect the interests of 
a State. Yet, in after years, fourteen great States (not in 
the South) nullified by State legislation a national law which 
had been placed among the national statutes in obedience to 
an express Constitutional obligation binding on all States 
alike. But Mr. Davis held that these States had no right to 
subvert the general government by authoriizng and requiring 
their officials and people to disobey the supreme law of the 
land while still enjoying the benefits of the Union. 

"I say for Mr. Davis in a general statement without fur- 
ther specifications that, on account of his reverential regard 
for constitutional powers and privileges, he defended in Con- 
gress, in the Senate, and wherever he addressed the people 
the views of the original, patriotic, independent States which 
had formed and joined the Union with the understanding ex- 
pressed and implied that they could peacably withdraw from 
the Union without resorting to rebellion or incurring the guilt 
of treason or suffering the pangs of military coercion. He 

Unveiling of Davis Monument . 147 

agreed with eminent constitutional lawyers in all parts of our 
country that a State could not be held in obedience to the 
general government by military force after it had adopted the 
ordinance of secession. Deploring those agitations whose roar 
alarmed the South like the sounds of the fire-bells at night, he 
feared that the supremacy of sectionalism which was long 
while a lurid threat, would be fanned into a dreadful de- 
structive fact. He doubted the permanency of the fraternal 
compromise measures of 1850. and while Secretary of War 
and afterwards Senator from Mississippi, he united with many 
of the great statesmen. North and Soutb. Whigs and Democrats, 
who were sincerely seeking to repress those agitations of sectional 
questions that were overwhelming all the feelings of interstate 
fraternity. Inflammable, selfish interests in territorial lands 
and in the perquisites of office raised certain furious riots and 
rebellions in one or two territories which were permitted and 
even encouraged to embroil the entire country. I call earnest 
and honest attention to the dignified, patriotic course of Mr. 
Davis through all these agitations. Even slight investigation 
will disclose the fact that the training of his life by all patri- 
otic influences had not failed to sustain bis desire to save the 
Union nor his devotion to the memories of his life-long service 
of his great country. He was certainly never a disunionist 
per se. He said: 'As Ions; as I held a seat in the Senate 
my best efforts were directed t<> the maintenance of the Constitn- 
-tion and the Union resulting from it, and to make the general 
government an effective agent of the States for its prescribed 
purposes. As soon as the paramount allegiance due to Mis- 
sissippi forbade a continuance of these efforts I withdrew from 
the position.' Thus Senator Davis approved the secession of 
his State and prepared to defend it. He had said in his place as 
United States Senator: 'From sire to son has descended the love 
of the Union in our hearts, as in our history are mingled the 
names of Concord and Camden, of Saratoga and Yorktown, of 
Bunker Hill and New Orleans. They are monuments of our 
common glory, and no Southern man would wish to see that 
monument reduced by striking off one of the names of Nor- 
thern battles.' Afterwards when he had passed through the 
Confederate epoch, and in the quiet of his home was writing 
his great work on the 'Rise and Fall of the Confederacy.' he 
concluded his valuable labor by writing the following state- 
ment : 'In asserting the right of secession it has not been 
my wish to incite to its exercise ; I recognize the fact that the 
war showed it to be impracticable, but this did not prove it to 
be wrong, and now it may not be again attempted, and that the 

148 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June J, 1907- 

Union may promote the general welfare, it is needful to that the 
truth, the whole truth should be known, so that crimination 
and recrimination may forever cease ; and then on the basis 
of fraternity and faithful regard for the rights of the States 
there may be written on the arch of the Union, i Esto perpetual 

"Mr, Davis passed honorably from the Senate in which 
he was leader of his party and had won distinceiton that 
foretokened continuance of national honors. He left his seat 
as a citizen of independent Mississippi and accepted the chief 
command of its militia. Southern States were adopting ordi- 
nances of secession and moving into position to lawfully and 
peacably organize a constitutional confederacy. They sought 
for the men who should be President and Vice-President of 
the new government and while they found many who were 
qualified, the choice was unanimously made of Jefferson Davis 
and Alexander II. Stephens. Both possessed the noble talent 
for governing men, and were learned in the folk-lore princi- 
ples of liberty and in the high art of government. Broad, pro- 
found and lofty knowledge had been gained by both amidst 
similar controlling influences. Both steadfastly believed in 
the true republican democracy of the forefathers and founders 
of home rule in America. They agreed in judgment that the 
States had lawfully seceded, and as sovereign republics had law- 
fully formed the Confederacy. They were of equally undoubted 
integrity, national reputation, personal courage and long ex- 
perience in public, service. It was not possible to have found 
two men in all the world better fitted for these two positions 
than Jefferson Davis and Alexander H. Stephens. 

"Mr. Davis was not in attendance on the convention at 
Montgomery, but was at home organizing a division of Missis- 
sippi State Militia. He desired no civil position and wished 
for no honors except the post of danger at the foremost salient 
of a fortress upon which the fiercest hostilities would be 
focussed. Regardless of its perils, as he was unambitious of its 
honors, he accepted the civic leadership in the high emprise 
to which his people, in the spirit of their forefathers, had 
pledged their lives, their fortunes and their sacred honors. 

"First among all the acts of his administration he sent 
by authority of Congress certain ambassadors of lofty char- 
acter to seek an audience of the United States Government 
and to present proposals of firm, fraternal alliance in peace, 
but these distinguished commissioners were kept away from 
even the footstool of the new administration and at last de- 
parted when hostile ships began to move on an evident mission 
to subdue Charleston and make war upon the Confederacy. This 

Main, near Nineteenth 

150 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond ', May 30- June 3 ', 1907. 

naval demonstration was foiled by the immediate capture of 
Fort Sumter by the Confederates ; and on the instant moment 
of that event the call was made for 75,000 men to be armed, 
equipped and rushed on to Richmond over the body of Vir- 
ginia. The frowning-front of grim-visaged war portended the 
immediate capture of Richmond at the points of three-score 
thousand bayonets. But this intended quick overthrow of the 
Confederacy which came finally after four years' fighting on 
the same line was now averted by the Confederate Government 
by the rapid assembling of an ardent Southern Army under 
able and experienced officers to meet the invasion. Then came 
the clash of American soldiers on ' the field of Manassas, the 
gleam of bayonets, the roar of cannons, the vollied crash of 
rifles, the outcries of fighting infantry and cavalry with all 
other horrid circumstances of dreadful battle lasting from the 
dawn until the noon. And then the break in panic of the in- 
vading host after they had bravely fought all the morning, and 
next the wild rush eastward while the sun in the west was 
laughing behind their backs and the stars in the east came out 
to beckon them back to Washington. 

"But it is not within the scope of my duty to-day to 
fight over again the four years' war between the sections, but 
instead to mention only the principal features of the civil 
administration of President Davis which will show the diffi- 
culties of his position, the unalleviated cares of his office, and 
his heroic service from the luminous rise of the Confederacy 
to its final fall on the field of honor, never to rise again. 

"It was not singular that differences of judgment arose 
among the distinguished leaders of the Confederacy. Neither 
is it surprising that amidst their differences these great men 
were equally true to the Confederacy. As instances of these 
differences I mention the defensive policy of Mr. Davis in 
the first year of his administration. Able statesmen and ardent 
generals, as well as nearlv the entire Confederate Army, urged 
the crossing of the Potomac and Ohio to carry the war on 
Northern soil ; but it is clear that the South was not able 
at once to sustain such an invasion, nor was it the original 
intentian to make war upon the States of the North. There 
was also opposition to the act of conscription, but President 
Davis urged that equality in the burdens of the war could not 
be otherwise maintained. Financial embarrassments became so 
acute that the war was soon fought on paper money which had 
no responsible redeemer. The President was also censured 
for not removing generals and then complained of when some 
were removed. Resources shrunk to the state of starvation. 

Unveiling of Davis Monument . 151 

Southern armies diminished by disease, casualties and captures 
for four great years of war. And the South was overpowered. 

"The fidelity of Mr. Davis to his country has never been 
questioned, and yet his enemies of the North persist in calling 
this virtue a stubborn personal pride. But, my countrymen, 
what higher virtue can a ruler have than firmness in maintain- 
ing the cause of his people? Let it then be admitted that the 
President was never willing to make peace by the surrender 
of his people without obtaining the just terms which their 
cause, their courage and their own character demanded, and 
let it be also asked why no frank statement of any terms ex- 
cept unconditional surrender was ever offered the Southern 
people from the moment the Confederate Peace Commission 
arrived in 1861 in Washington to the close of the Hampton 
Roads Conference in 1865. 

"He was condemned by his foes and by some of his country- 
men for not making peace during the Peace Conference of 
1865 at Hampton Roads. Put his censors did not consider 
the proofs of his readiness to disband all forces and suffer 
the Confederacy to dissolve itself if the simplest authorized 
pledge could be obtained that the seceded States would be treated 
as States in the Union and its people as citizens without any 
war' revenges upon them. Doubtless, as I believe, all this ulti- 
mata of the Southern people were assented at the time by the 
heart of President Lincoln, but he was without power to advise 
more than surrender without terms with trust in Congress for 
the consequences. This proposal implied that the Southern 
people were in overt rebellion and that their fate must be 
left to the conqueror. It is also conceded that President Lin- 
coln would not have advocated extreme measures against the 
overpowered South and that thousands of Union nun would 
have hailed a peaceful restoration at once of the Southern 
states to the Union, without the degradations of Reconstruc- 
tion. But neither Mr. Lincoln nor this class of patriots had 
sufficient 'influence with the administration' to secure such an 
honorable ending of the war, and Mr. Davis and his people 
could not accept such conditions because their acceptance would 
dishonor them, and ruin not only the South but the Union as 

"In the first two years of the war, Mr. Davis had the joy 
of knowing that the Confederate Divisions were winning great 
battles against the mora powerful Northern Armies, and was 
cheered by the prospects of success. But the subsequent wan- 
ing' of Confederate strength commenced and continued until 
he knew that the Southland he loved was bleeding at every 

152 Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3 ', 1907. 

pore, and yet in all these years he was not puffed up by vic- 
tories nor dismayed by defeats. If there is one who would 
malign such a President or betray such a people as the people 
of the South, 'let him speak for him have I offended.' 

"After complete surrender of all the Armies of the Con- 
federacy, and when peace in all the South prevailed, there were 
false charges made in the vicious heat of passion and after- 
wards withdrawn, against Mr. Davis and other Confederate 
officials, of inhumanity to prisoners, which I will not discuss. 
The Confederate survivors who had returned to their homes 
were justly indignant at this purpose to cast odium on the Con- 
federate Government. Protests were also made by just-minded 
Northern people, and there was also a world-wide sentiment 
against these modes of avenging the Union. Blind passion 
caused these accusations, and the insane spirit of revenge could 
not reason that if the sufferings and death of brave Union pris- 
oners were chargeable to Mr. Davis because he was President, 
the similar misfortunes of brave Confederate soldiers were 
chargeable to Mr. Lincoln because he was also President. It 
is clear that Mr. Lincoln had no purpose in his mind, no desire 
in bis heart, to make Mr. Davis the vicarious sufferer for the 
alleged rebellion of the Southern people. When the capture 
of Richmond by the armies of General Grant seemed imminent, 
Lincoln was asked by a friend, 'What will you do with Davis?' 
He replied by telling a significant anecdote of which the point 
was, 'If Davis should escape, let him go unbeknown to me.' 

"The Southern people have always felt indignation at the 
suggestion that they might be held guiltless or excusable by an 
expiation made for them by the sufferings of Mr. Davis. The 
inflamed men who had conceived and tried to execute this 
cruel device were inexcusably ignorant of the truth that such 
an expiation admitted the absolute innocency of the chosen 
victim. In whatever light the blunder of the long imprison- 
ment of Mr. Davis can be considered, its circumstances were 
needless cruelties, and his shackling was a horrible shame put 
upon the people of the North as well as the South. 

"Our thoughts will now follow the President of the Con- 
federacy after he was set at liberty and welcomed by demon- 
strations of great affection in all the South. The Southern 
soldiers and people were already engaged in the spring of 
1865 in the duties of citizens, and were soon combating a mode 
of reconstruction in which prejudice joined cupidity in shame- 
ful political and venal atrocities. Bravely indeed the South- 
ern people maintained their manhood. They worshiped at no 
altar like that on which the pagan Hamilcar swore his son to 

154 Seve?itee?ith Reunion, Richmo?id, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

eternal vengeance, but they set up the Constitution as the 
Ark of the Covenant restored to its old place and power as the 
supreme law of the United States. Mr. Davis sought no notor- 
iety at any time, and his retirement was not seclusion nor exile. 
He had no wish to be brought into public notice, but hs was 
often drawn before the people who accorded him the affection 
and ovation due the unsullied though discrowned President of 
a Republic. Among other occasions Richmond called him to 
mourn with her the death of Lee. Georgia drew him to her 
heart to witness the honors given to Ren Hill when his statue 
was unveiled. Other States and cities were his hosts on occa- 
sions when he was the guest of honor. His last years were 
clouded by no frown from his people, but he lived in the calm 
atmosphere of their love amidst wife, children, friends and 
sacred memories. -Let no man think that the Southern sol- 
diers or people ever wavered in their regarel for him ! 

' ' Tbe Southern people became more distinctively his people 
when the misfortunes of the fallen Confederacy came upon him- 
self and them. They were gratified by the lengthening of his 
life into old age, although their troubles bore heavily on his 
heart. They were glad he lived to manifest his fidelity to them 
and to witness their devotion to him. He had no farewells to 
make to greatness, for all true greatness remained in his retinue 
to the end of his days. He outlived obloejuy ; he saw detraction 
die by its own sting ; he saw vicious censures put to shame ; 
he beheld resentments of South and North withering in stem 
and root, leaving no seed. As tbe watchman who had stood 
steadily on his post through the long night, he was rewarded 
in his old age by the salute of the sunrise of Southern pros- 
perity. With a satisfied christian spirit he departed this life 
in peace with God and good will to men. Emperors, kings 
and princes have crawled along the latter days of life tor- 
mented with torturing memories; philosophers who proudly 
claimed to have possessed a rare power which gave them re- 
pose of mind, died mumbling the word remorse ; one who 
had been mighty in evil counsel cried at last, 'Had T served 
my God as well as I served my king he would not have de- 
serted me in my old age.' But this venerable statesman, who 
had been faithful to country, conscience anel God, expired in 
peace, enfolded by the love of his people. He did not deserve 
to have an enemy in the world! 

"At the first hour of the morning of December the sixth. 
1889, he breathed his life gently away without heaving a sigh, 
resting his hand in the hand of his beloved wife. The great 
metropolitan city. New Orleans, bestowed funeral obsequies upon 

Unveiling of Davis Monument. 155 

him which would have honored the character and fame of the 
greatest of men. Messages of his death were hurried every- 
where, and messages of sympathy came from everywhere South 
and North. Governors, Senators and other eminent men tele- 
graphed the common sorrow. Flags were at half mast and pub- 
lic meetings were held where hundreds of orators gave those 
tributes which the truest eloquence can utter when inspired. 
The procession which followed his casket was composed of repre- 
sentative men of many States, the Confederate Veterans' As- 
sociations, the local Grand Army of the Republic, the regular 
military and the Volunteers, besides thousands of people. It 
moved as a great honorary escort until the casket was placed 
within a temporary vault in New Orleans with the religious 
rites of the Christian faith. Several States at once claimed 
the honor of having the permanent custody of his body, each 
giving reasons that merited consideration, and finally it was 
determined to commit this trust to the permanent keeping of 
Richmond, once the Capital of the Confederacy. Then fol- 
lowed one of those remarkable ovations which have occasion- 
ally occurred after the death of men of lofty station when their 
honored remains are conveyed across states and countries for 
final burial. Mr. Davis was thus borne across the South from 
the Missisippi to the James — from New Orleans to Richmond — 
ideally in the hearts of his people. The funeral cortege passed 
between the continuous double open ranks of a loving people 
who looked upon his bier by day and night as it was carried 
on the funeral train, or was laid in state in the Capitols of the 
South. It seemed to me while journeying with the train that 
the President of the Confederacy was then passing into immor- 
tality under an extended arch of triumph, erected with the liv- 
ing uplifted arms of his loving Southern people. Such ovations 
are rarely given even to the most illustrious men of any age. 
and even they were exceeded by the imposing reception in 
Virginia and in Richmond, where his body was committed to 
its final grave. 

"My countrymen, I have made an imperfect portrayal of 
the masterful Chief of the great people who were opposed in 
war by another great people, on questions of the principles and 
policies of government. Not one brave and true man of either 
side" would ask another to forget the best memories of that 
mighty war. I have spoken of Mr. Davis without using words 
of superlative praise. He was not faultless, but he was upright. 
True, brave, fair and absolutely incorruptible. He is entitled 
to the generous American judgment of the present sober asre 
which will be rendered on consideration of the facts of his whole 

156 Seventeenth Reunion. Richmond, May 30 -June 3 , 1907. 

career. History will surely give him an honorable and dis- 
tinguished place among the noble characters of past times. All 
the elements of greatness were components of his life, and it 
cannot be insisted that success in his last service of his people 
was necessary to make him truly great, although had the Con- 
federacy established its independence, his fame would have filled 
the world as the Father of the new American Republic. 

"Just men of the present times will note that the especial 
crimination of him by words is an unjust mode of continuing 
a strife, which every manly patriot must condemn. The South- 
ern people now insist on the cessation of the 'War of Words.' 
since the fight with guns has ended. From this hour the monu- 
ment of Mr. Davis will plead in his own language and true 
spirit against all the evils of sectionalism that still in any form 
dishonor the people of the United States. It will ask the ques- 
tion, how can the people of the American Union dare to engage 
in unfraternal brawls for sectional advantages over the gravex 
end amidst the blood of the Union and the Confederate Ar- 
mies? It will point out the fact that there is this new addition 
to the body of our political truth, that the Union of the States 
has been raised into greater saeredness by the bloody war which 
ended on the surrender of the Confederate States to the power 
of the Union Armies. Obligations to maintain the honor and 
the equal use of our general government rest now with double 
weight upon all who are placed in power by the people. All 
Americans now tread on soil made more sacred since the seal of 
the final surrender was set to the pledge that these States shall 
not fight each other any more forever, but they shall enjoy in 
common fraternal use all the blessings of their reunited country. 

The benediction was then pronounced ; and the vast crowd 
gathered about the monument wended their way back to the beau- 
tiful "Richmond on the James," delighted to have taken part in 
these sacred, and never-to-be-forgotten exercises. 

And thus closed the great Richmond Reunion of 1907. 


Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 


I. Speeches of Gen. S. D. Lee, Col. Jno. W. Daniel and 

Col. R. E. Lee, Jr. 

II. Summary by Adjutant General up to May 23, 1907. 

III. Itemized Report of Adjutant General for year 1906. 

IV. Report of Monumental Committee April 26, 1906. 

V. Report of Monumental Committee May 30, 1907. 




Com m a n der - in - Ch icf, U. C. V T . 

On Accepting the Auditorium for the Use of the Convention Held in 
Richmond, Va., May 30 to June 3, 1907. 

General Boiling, Ladies, Gentlemen and Comrades — 

Ever since Colonial days, a Virginia welcome has been famous. 
We have been made to feel that your hospitality is indeed boundless. 
The oftener we pay you a visit, the better we like it, and the more we 
like you. Every good Southerner claims either to have come from a 
Virginia family, or at least to have relatives in the Old Dominion. 
It is a sort of American patent of nobility, while to belong to one of 
the real "first families" is distinctly royal. 

When the Confederate soldier comes to Richmond, it is a home- 
coming. The greatest of England's Queens said that when her heart 
should be opened, upon it would be found written the word "Calais" 
— in every Confederate heart, Richmond is written forever. Here 
stand the Capitol and the White House of the Confederacy. Yon- 
der is the statue of his great commander, a tribute from the genius of 
France to the glorious manhood of Virginia. Here is Stonewall 
Jackson in immortal bronze — a memorial by English gentlemen to 
the the Soldier of God and his country. Here, too, is A. P. Hill, who 
gave his native land a soldier's finished service, and yet to whom, 
also, the glory of a patriot's death was not denied. And here, ready 
to be unveiled to the eyes of a loving and faithful people, stands the 
monument to the soldier, the statesman, the orator, the historian, the 
pure and chivalrous gentleman, reared by the hands of Southern 
woman, to him who suffered most for them and for us all; who bore 
in his own body the shame of our defeat, and gathered unto his own 
breast every spear of malice raised against his countrymen — Jefferson 

There are many sacred spots on Virginia's soil — Jamestown and 
Williamsburg have their great memories; Yorktown has its splendid 

triumph — but Richmond is twice endeared to the Southern heart. 
Dear are Manassas, Seven Pines, Cold Harbor, Gaine's Mill, Mal- 
vern Hill, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, the Wilderness, Spotsyl- 
vania, Petersburg, Appomattox — her history has made Virginia to 
be remembered with Marathon and Thermopylae. Too noble to be 
neutral, Virginia stood guard over her younger sisters. Every wound 
of the dying Confederacy was over the prostrate body of Virginia. 
As long as heroic actions have a charm for noble hearts; as long as? 
desperate courage appeals to brave men, and the heart of woman 
cherishes the memory of self-sacrifice, Virginia will not be forgotten. 
I love the South of to-day. The gallant and generous youths, who 
sometimes gather with us, are my pride and admiration. But I shall 
never again love or honor men as I loved and honored the Confed- 
erate soldier. "We needs must love the highest when we see it." 
There was masterful spirit in him; a spirit that laughed at disaster; 
a spirit that privation and distress could not tame ; a spirit that felt 
a stain upon its honor like a wound. His was a love of country 
that burned all the brighter amid the chilling floods of defeat. His was 

"The passion of a hope forlorn; 
The luxury of being great ; 
The deep content of souls seren, 
Who gain or lose with equal mien ; 
Defeat his spirit not subdued, 
Nor victory marred his noble mood." 

Of these men General Lee said : "The choice between war and 
abject submission is before them. To such a proposal, brave men 
with arms in their hands can have but one answer. They cannot 
barter manhood for peace, or the right ot self-government for prop- 
erty." Their choice was unselfish and honorable. The swords they 
drew were never sheathed, but were broken in their hands. 

We have lived to see the day, when the President of the United 
States could write these words: "The courage and steadfastness, the 
lofty fealty to the right as it was given to each man to see the right, 
whether he wore the blue or whether he wore the gray, now makes 
the memories of the valiant feats, alike of those who served under 
Grant and of those who served under Lee, precious to all good 
Americans." We have lived to see the day when the tattered battle- 
flags that floated over the Confederate armies have come home to stay 
— our country could no more imprison those flags than David could 
drink the water which came from the well of Bethlehem by the gate. 
We have lived to see the day when our whole country does honor to 
the Confederate dead; when the very government against which he 
fought marks with memorial stone the long neglected graves where 
they sleep beneath the Northern snows. Every marble is a benedic- 

tion, and every green sod a mother's kiss. In his death the Confeder- 
ate soldier has won his last victory. The tribute of respect and rev- 
erence from his old enemies does honor to the human heart. 

I am happy to believe that to day the old Confederate will find 
everywhere affection and good will, and when at last he enters "The 
low green tent whose curtains never outward swing," whatever has 
been written against him in hate will be blotted out with tears. 
Every trace of the storm of battle that broke over our country, sweep- 
ing away its ancient landmarks, dashing to pieces the stately col- 
umns of its old political faith, and spreading desolation and ruin 
over its fairest domain, has passed away, leaving only the pure air 
of a new patriotism, and the tear-drops glistening upon the flowers 
of memory. We behold a country truly reunited by bonds of mutual 
interest and affection, a prosperous land, a strong and vigorous people, 
busy in fruitful labor. 

The blossom upon our human tree is once more bursting into 
bloom, and we old soldiers, living as we must in the past, are made 
glad by the reverence and respect of those around us. Our liyes are 
sweetened by the gratitude and affection of the Southern people. Our 
children and grandchildren gather about us and listen with swelling 
hearts to the glorious story of the Confederacy. They ride with 
Stuart, Hampton and Forrest. They march with Jackson, Cheatham 
and Hood. They hear the thunder of Pelham's guns. They bear 
the body of Ashby in their arms. They listen to the hoof-beats of 
"Traveler." They behold the kingly man. They hear the shout, 
"Lee to the rear," and then the "rebel yell" rings in their ears above 
the roar of battle, until they almost share the mad joy of the soldier 
and feel the rapture of the charge. We rejoice to remember these 
things. We know that our posterity will not forget them. And we 
know that while such memories are cherished our country will never 
lack defenders, nor shall shadow fall upon the spotless glory of her 

Headquarters United Confederate Veterans, 1 

New Orleans, La., April 22, 1907. 

General Orders} 
No. 64. J 

The General Commanding feels that it will be eminently 
fit to arrange matters so that the gathering of the gallant remnant 
of the glorious Army of Northern Virginia in the Capital City of 
the Confederacy and on the sacred soil of Virginia shall in some 
way be associated with the immortal name of their great leader, 
Robert E. Lee, the hundredth anniversary of whose birth was 
celebrated with so much affection and enthusiasm throughout the 
country. He, therefore, has great pleasure in announcing that he 
has selected as orator on this occasion, Col. Robert E. Lee, Jr., son 
of Gen. W. H. F. Lee (lovingly named by his Virginia Associates 
" Runy " Lee), and grandson of the great Confederate General. 

Colonel Lee is gifted with great oratorical powers, which he 
cultivated as a student at Washington and Lee University; and 
added to as a member of the Virginia Legislature and in the halls 
of Congress. Of commanding presence ; rich, deep voice, wonderful 
flow of words ; earnest and animated in deliver — he will interest 
the old soldiers, and be a credit to the great name he bears. 

By command of 


General Commanding. 

Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 




Commander; Confederate Soldiers — 

Notwithstanding the fact that we are told upon the best of author- 
ity that "out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh," )^et 
there are times in the lives of men when that fullness is so ample, 
the demand so great, that the poor stammering, stuttering tongue 
remains silent and palsied at the magnitude and magnificence of the 
task that is set before it. Surely this is such a moment — in the life 
of every true man of the South — when he attempts to depict the 
days of doubt and dread between '61 and '65; to describe the patriot- 
ism and self-sacrifice of the people of the South, to recite the deeds 
of unparalleled courage and heroism wrought by her incomparable 
armies, and lay memory's sweet immortals upon the graves of the 
countless heroes of the Confederacy. 

There has never been a more critical period of American history 
than that which ushered the year 1861 upon the world's stage of 
action. The trouble was not of recent origin; it was not the spas- 
modic outburst of an hour; nor the stubborn and senseless resistance 
of a factious maintenance of groundless opinions. It was the result 
of the existence of antagonizing forces which had been operating in 
the country for a long time, the seed being first sown by the fore- 
fathers, some in the fertile valley of the James, and some on the 
rock-bound coast of New England. Sectional differences exhibited 
themselves before the adoption of the Federal Constitution. Wash- 
ington found it necessary to issue a stern order to the army before 
Boston in 1775 "promising exemplary punishment to any man who 
would say or do anything to aggravate what he calls '"the existing 
sectional feelings." : Eleven years later Mr. Jay actually recom- 
mended to Congress that the free navigation of the Mississippi river 
should be exchanged for an advantageous commercial arrangement 
with Spain. New England, caring nothing for the distant Father of 
Waters, supported this narrow and selfish policy which filled the 
South with "fierce indignation," for a large part of her territory 
bordered on that mighty stream. As we look through the vista of 
time between the adoption of the Federal Constitution and 1832, 

when, for the first time, the question of slavery was introduced into the 
political arena, we find many things showing the spirit of these times 
which did not indicate smooth sailing for the vessel of State long 
before Southern revolt began to assume any definite aspect. The 
contest over the alien and sedition laws in Adams' administration; 
the fear of New England as to the "absorbing of the northern states 
and rendering them insignificant in the Union" in the event of the 
Louisiana purchase; the passage of the Embargo Act by Congress; 
the separate course of New England in 1812, closely followed by the 
Hartford Convention; the iniquitous tariff of 1828; the abandonment 
of the sale of public lands in the West; the protest of South Carolina 
against the tariff statutes, which resulted in the Clay compromise; 
all followed in rapid succession, and all led to the great civil con- 
flict in which "not brigades nor divisions, but great armies were the 
units, where States were fortified camps, and a Continent a battle 

For the purpose of this occasion we care not how the African slave 
first placed his unhallowed foot on southern soil. Suffice it to say 
that although the South had, at one time, no inconsiderable career 
of maritime adventure, "no ship or ship-masters of hers has ever in 
a single case been implicated in the illicit African slave trade." Her 
greatest men always maintained slavery to be the most dangerous 
element of the country. From the beginning the statesmen of the 
South scented danger in the great race problem with which they 
were being saddled, and the question that was uppermost in their 
minds was, what shall be done with the emancipated serf? "Much 
as I deplore slavery," says Patrick Henry, "I see that prudence for- 
bids its abolition." Henry Clay admitted that "The evils of slavery 
are absolutely nothing in comparison with the far greater evils 
which would inevitably follow from a sudden, general and indis- 
criminate emancipation." And again he says, "If we were to invoke 
the greatest blessing on earth which Heaven, in its mercy, could now 
bestow on this Nation, it would be the separation of the two most 
numerous races of its population and their comfortable establishment 
in distant and distinct countries." Mr. Mason of Virginia went 
further in declaring "The traffic is infernal. To permit it is against 
every principle of honor and safety." Mr. Calhoun was of the 
opinion that the existing relations between master and servant 
"cannot be destroyed without subjecting the two races to the greatest 
calamity and the section to poverty, desolation and wretchedness." 
Slavery has been practiced in the world for nearly six thousand years. 
As long as the traffic proved profitable to European and American 
traders, "conscience slept," and it was not until the American Revolu- 
tion of 1775 that the attention of the world was drawn to slavery and 
the slave trade. At that period slavery existed in every one of the 
American colonies. In the meantime, measures had been taken by cer- 


tain colonies of the South to prevent the introduction of slaves into 
their territories. Prominently, South Carolina in 1760. The 
Burgesses in Virginia made twenty-eight different attempts to stop 
the evil. Protest after protest, couched in the most respectful and 
loyal language went up from the southern colonies to his Majesty 
"to express the high opinion we entertain of his benevolent intentions 
towards his subjects in the colonies," and "ask his paternal assistance 
in averting a calamity of most alarming nature ; that the importation 
of slaves from Africa has long been considered as a trade of great 
inhumanity" ; therefore, "implore him to remove all restraints in 
his Governors from passing acts of assembly which were intended to 
check this pernicious commerce; and that we presume to hope that 
the interest of a few of his subjects in Great Britain will be disre- 
garded, when such a number of his people look to him for protection 
in a point so essential." These petitions were refused as often as 
they were presented, for his royal personage derived a handsome reve- 
nue from the products of slave labor, and he knew too well that slav- 
ery was an element of weakness, calculated to keep the colonies in 
subjection to his rule* Thus, "had King George III, in the plenitude 
of his power, desired, like some wicked fairy of old, to curse with a 
fatal gift the fair child of Liberty, he could have chosen nothing 
more sure, more deadly" than the African slave. 

Virginia, in October, 1778, and Georgia in 1798, passed acts pro- 
hibiting the importation of slaves. The former act provided for a 
penalty of 1000 pounds, and also every slave imported contrary to 
the true intent and meaning of this act shall, upon such importation, 
become free. Thus to the everlasting credit of the South, upon whose 
devoted head the vials of holy wrath have been so unjustly and bru- 
tally poured out for propagating, nourishing and harboring slavery, 
she leads the world in an earnest attempt to prevent the very thing of 
which she is accused. 

In the original draft of the Declaration of Independence, Mr. 
Jefferson inserted an article unqualifiedly reprobating the foreign 
slave trade and urging the protection afforded to it by the King as 
a powerful motive in the justification of the Revolution. This clause 
was finally withdrawn, and his reason for doing so, recorded by 
himself, after referring to the disposition of some of the southern 
States to keep up the slave trade, he continues: "Our northern 
brethren also, I believe, felt a little tender under those censures, for 
though their people have few slaves themselves, yet they have been 
pretty considerable carriers of them to others." When it came to 
the Convention in 1787 w T hich framed the Federal Constitution, the 
Committee appointed to draft the instrument, composed of Messrs. 
Rutlidge of South Carolina, Randolph of Virginia, Gorham of 
Massachusetts, Ellsworth of Connecticut, and Wilson of Pennsyl- 
vania, reported an article prohibiting the slave trade after 1800. 

When this report came up for consideration on the floor of the Con- 
vention, Mr. Pinckney moved to strike out the words "the year 1800" 
as the year limiting the importation of slaves, and to insert "the year 
1808." Mr. Gorham of Massachusetts seconded the motion which 
prevailed, all of the New England States present voting in the 
affirmative. Thus the African slave trade was continued, a stigma 
upon the country, for twenty years longer. General Washington in 
his report of the Convention declares that by this vote "the great 
principles of the Constitution were changed in the last days of the 

During the great fight of 1820-21 which resulted in the Missouri 
Compromise, so little had slavery become a political question, and 
as a further proof of the southern states had not at that early period 
banded together in support of the system, the States of Virginia, 
Kentucky and Tennessee were earnestly engaged in practical move- 
ments for gradual emancipation of their slaves, and this good work 
continued until it was arrested by the Abolitionists who "insisted 
upon convicting as criminals those who were so well disposed to bring 
about the very result at which they themselves professed to aim." 
"Promised emancipation refused to submit itself to hateful abolition." 
Under the guise of philanthropy and humanity and notwithstanding 
the fact that England had liberated four hundred thousand slaves 
at the cost of 20,000,000 pounds paid to their owners, the abolitionists 
demanded the uncompensated freeing of the slaves, the great majority 
of which were in the South. Such a wholesale attack on private prop- 
erty by the State has no parallel in history. Finally scheming poli- 
ticians "invincible in peace, invisible in war" took advantage of the 
unfortunate state of affairs, adopted slavery for their slogan and a 
vehicle for their selfish ends. A Massachusetts author says, "Self- 
seeking and ambitious demagogues, the pest of republics, disturbed 
the equilibrium, and were able at length to plunge the country into 
that worst of all public calamities, civil war. The question of morals 
had as little as possible to do with the result." Philanthropy might 
have sighed, fanaticism have howled for centuries in vain, but for the 
hope of office and the desire of public plunder, on the part of men 
who were neither philanthropists or fanatics." Thus slavery was the 
occasion, not the cause of the revolt, "just as property is the cause of 
robbery." "Slavery was the South's calamity and not her crime." 
Two most significant facts remain in this connection. First, there 
was incorporated in the organic law of the Southern Confederacy, 
made wholly by slave states, an absolute prohibition of the foreign 
slave trade. The final act was the emancipation of slaves by the 
votes of the Southern States. Mr. Lincoln's proclamation of Jan- 
uary, 1863, was legally absolutely void and ineffective. The Negroes 
were freed by the thirteenth amendment to the Constitution. When 
it was adopted, the Federal Union was composed of thirty-six States. 

The Fifth Article of the Constitution provides that no amendment to 
the Constitution shall become part thereof until "ratified by the legis- 
latures of three-fourths of the States." Therefore it required twenty- 
seven votes to ratify an amendment. On the 18th of December, 1865, 
the Secretary of State reports twenty-seven States having so ratified, 
sixteen of these were northern States; nine of those States refused to 
vote for the measure, and the remaining eleven required to make up 
the two-thirds were the Southern States. Thus the much maligned 
slave torturing South became the liberator of the serf. It is one of 
the ironies of history that the South, which had done so much to 
prevent and stamp out the black terror should be called to be the 
sacrifice on the altar of the opinions of those who were in a large 
measure responsible for the existence of the African within her 
borders. There is a legend in the East that Mohammed once touched 
with his staff a homely and flowerless plant and turned it into a 
geranium. "You gave me a village, and I left you a city," was the 
language of some old Roman. So the African was brought to the 
South a wild, naked, shrieking, ash-besmeared savage. She fed and 
clothed him, wintered and summered him, Christianized and civil- 
ized him, and fitted him, in the opinion of many, for the franchise, 
that greatest right of a free-born American. "Let him that is with- 
out sin cast the first stone," is the decree of the Master. If that 
divine ruling had been faithfully followed, there would not have been 
enough pebbles thrown at the South to have supplied David with 
ammunition on his celebrated expedition against the howling Philis- 

The South is charged w r ith the desire to destroy the Union. As 
fair and impartial a judge as Lord Wolseley falls into this error 
when he says, "Few will find fault with the men of the North for their 
manly determination, come what might, to resist every effort of their 
brethren in the South to break up the Union." Secession was not 
preached for the first time in the South, as pointed out by the Rev. 
Dr. McKim of Washington, a gallant Confederate soldier. "It 
was threatened in the North four times before South Carolina seceded. 
The first came from Col. Timothy Pickering of Massachusetts, a 
friend of Washington and a member of his cabinet, opposing the 
acquisition of Louisiana ; the second time from Josian Quincy, an- 
other distinguished citizen of Massachusetts, over the proposed ad- 
mission of Louisiana as a State in the Union ; the third from the 
Hartford Convention in which five States were represented, over 
the dissatisfaction occasioned by the war with Great Britain; and 
fourth, from the legislature of Massachusetts, because it was proposed 
to annex Texas to the Federal Union. The steady development 
of the South, especially territorially, stirred in the North a great 
"jealous anxiety," a fear of a great slave empire and loss of political 
power. The venerable Quincy pronounced it the duty of the North 


to take possession of the Government at any hazard. "Even of the 
dissolution of the Union itself." When Louisiana knocked at the 
door of the Federal family it so stirred this distinguished Massa- 
chusetts statesman that he boldly declared on the floor of Congress, 
resisting the bill granting statehood to Louisiana, "If this bill passes 
it is my deliberate opinion that it is virtually a dissolution of this 
Union ; that it frees the States from their moral obligations ; and as 
it will be the right of all, so it will be the duty of some, definitely to 
prepare for a separation, amicably if they can, violently if they must." 
Adams and Giddings were also nerved to such a pitch when they 
issued an address declaring that the annexation of Texas would be 
"so injurious to the interest of the northern states as not only inevi- 
tably to result in dissolution of the Union, but to fully justify it." 
Zachariah Chandler wrote the Governor of Michigan requesting him 
to send delegates to the Peace Compromise Congress, called by a 
Southern State, being the only effort made by a State to avert the 
war. "Without a little blood letting this Union will not, in my es- 
timation, be worth a curse." When the conference failed of its pur- 
pose there sprang from the throats of the radicals this triumphant 
note, "We have won the battle and we mean to have the fruits." It 
would seem that Mr. Lincoln himself puts at rest all doubt as to the 
responsibility of the conflict in an interview with- Medill of the Chi- 
cago Tribune, as given by Miss Tarbell in her "Life of Lincoln." 
"Gentlemen," he is reported as saying, "after Boston, Chicago has 
been the chief instrument in bringing this war to the country. The 
Northwest opposed the South, as New England opposed the South. 
It is you, Medill, who is largely responsible for making blood flow as 
it has. You called for war until you had it. I have given it to you. 
What you have asked for you have had. Now you come begging to 
be let off from the call for more men, which I have made to carry on 
the war you demanded. You ought to be ashamed of yourself." 
"How can the Union be saved!" exclaimed Mr. Calhoun from the 
floor of the Senate eleven years before the beginning of hostilities. 
"There is but one way by which it can be with certainty; and that 
is, by a full and final settlement on the principle of justice of all the 
questions at issue between the two sections. The South asks for 
justice, simple justice, and less she ought not to take. She has no com- 
promise to offer, but the Constitution, and no concessions or surrender 
to make. She has already surrendered so much that she has little 
left to surrender. The weaker party can do nothing ; it is for the 
stronger. The North has only to will the salvation of the Union, to 
accomplish it by doing justice and conceding to the South an equal 
right in the acquired territory, and by doing her duty by causing the 
stipulations relative to the fugitive slaves to be faithfully fulfilled, to 
cease the agitation of the slave question and to provide for the in- 
sertion of a provision in the Constitution, by amendment, which will 


restore to the South, in substance, the power she possessed in protecting 
herself before the equilibrium was destroyed by the action of this 
Government. But will' the North agree to this? It is for her to 
answer the question. The responsibility of saving the Union rests 
on the North, not on the South. The South cannot save it by any 
act of hers ; the North may save it without any sacrifice whatever, 
unless to do justice and to perform her duties under the Constitu- 
tion should be regarded by her as a sacrifice." Where can language 
more explicit be found or higher authority adduced. Surely "The 
times were out of joint," but there throbbed in the manhood of the 
South a braver heart than that which beat in Hamlet, and they did 
not lament that they were born to set it straight. 

When the red curtain of war rolled up on the American stage, it 
revealed the South in arms ready to defend all that makes life worth 
living — the freedom of country, the honor of people, the sanctity 
of home. There was also exhibited the sublimest and most unique 
figure the world has ever seen, that of the Confederate soldier, the 
evolution of a revolution, which history here takes up never again 
to put down. 

The courage of the Confederate soldier was like that of the Lace- 
demonians; he enquired not for the number of his enemy, but the 
place where they could be found. "The available forces scattered 
over the Confederacy from Richmond to New Orleans, from the 
frontier of Arkansas to the everglades of Florida, can hardly have 
been numbered in April, 1862, one hundred and fifty thousand, about 
one-fifth of those of the enemy." The Confederates attacked in the 
tangled Wilderness an enemy three times their force; fifty-one thou- 
sand Confederates confronted Grant with his one hundred and ninety 
thousand, attacked him whenever he showed an uncovered front, 
killed, wounded and captured more men than the number of the whole 
Southern army. On the field of Sharpsburg the Confederates, with 
less than one-third of the number of the enemy, resisted from day light 
until dark the entire Federal Army, and stood ready the whole of the 
following day to resume the conflict on the same ground, and retired 
next morning unmolested across the potomac. A Confederate force 
of fifty-seven thousand men confronted at Chancellorsville "Fighting 
Joe" Hooker, with an army of one hundred and thirty thousand 
strong, which he boastingly wired to Washington "was the finest 
army on the planet," and confidently predicted a grand and glorious 
victory, but "Fighting Joe" soon found himself up against an army 
which in soldierly quality, military morale, terribleness of onslaught, 
sulliness in retreat, masterly strategy, and sublimity in victory, and in 
tact in every quality which goes to make up a noble army of patriots, 
the finest which has ever been on this or any other planet, Mars not 
excepted. Yet the tendency of the time is to belittle the idea of su- 
periority of Federal numbers. I can only point to true history and 


ask you to read there the story of the difference between the energy 
of one struggling under the dictates of conscience at the call of duty 
for hearthstone and freedom, and the animation of another con- 
tending for pride, vengeance and a mere idea. 

We are told that his cause was lost; from the standpoint of estab- 
lishing his heart's desire, and of winning his independence and his 
idea of self-government, no man can gainsay; but from a martial 
aspect his cause was anything but lost; he forced himself into the ram- 
parts of an enemy's fear and astonishment, and into the very citadel 
of a world's admiration and wonder. His flag never trailed in the 
dust of dishonor, nor soaked in the mire of shame. 

"It was the cause, 
And not the fate of the cause, 
That is just." 

I care not what some may think of the Confederate soldier as an 
individual; put his cap on his head, button around him his old gray 
jacket, put his musket on his shoulder, place him in the war-worn and 
weather-beaten ranks of his fallen country and see how he towers 
above the rest of mankind, how grandly he enters the awful realm of 
war, in which he has become a denizen, unfolding its mysteries and 
interpreting its strategies, permitting the military genius of the world 
to gaze, an humble reverent observer. Away then with the lukewarm, 
and if you please, molly-coddling expression that the Confederate 
soldier fought for what he believed to be right. / If precedent is a 
guide, if argument has any convincing force, approving conscience 
any solace, subsequent approbation, by those who once disagreed with 
him, be any vindication, if duty magnificently performed is any indi- 
cation, then we can assert without fear of successful contradiction that 
the Confederate soldier fought, bled and died, for what he knew to 
be right. "I would not give my dead Ossory for any living son of 
Albion," was the cry of a bereaved English mother. "Yea, I would 
not give the memory of my dear, dead country, and her glorious past, 
for all of the living anticipations of the nations of the world," is 
a true Confederate soldier's proud declaration. Wherever his hal- 
lowed bones are buried, earth has the care of one more hero's grave, 
and Heaven the custody of an additional soul over which the plaudit 
of, "well done, good and faithful servant," has been pronounced. 
Why a monument to the Confederate soldier? 

What need our heroes for their honored bones, 

The labor of an age in piled stones? 

Or that their hallowed relics should be hid 

Under a starry pointed pyramid, 

Dear sons ot memory, great heirs of fame. 


Why then a monument to the Confederate soldiers? Their achieve- 
can marble and brass, which pass away, add to his fame, which i£ 
immortal? What monument is as indestructible as the "Stonewall" 
ments are their monuments and the Southland is their pedestal. How 
on the plains of Manassas? What more dazzling than the ride of 
Stuart around McClellan ; sublimer than the charge of Pickett's 
Division at Gettysburg, or more pathetic than the "cross and passion" 
of disappointment, the "agony and bloody sweat" of despair at Appo- 
mattox? I ask again, why a monument to the Confederate soldier? 
And the reply is, Not for the glory of the Confederate soldier, but 
for the honor of Dixie. I thank God that the South, out of her 
poverty and distress, has raised innumerable pure marble shafts with 
their fingers ever pointing to the home where the men whose memories 
they perpetuate have gone. His name* and fame are thus preserved 
and protected by the citizens of the South, as true and as brave a 
people as ever guarded the dust of heroes or kept pure and bright 
the vestal fires of fame. 

Byron tells us, and human experience bears him out, that 

"'Tis sweet to hear the watch dog's honest bark 

Bay deep mouthed welcome as we draw near home. 
'Tis sweeter far to know there is an eye will mark 
Our coming, and grow brighter when we come." 

Such was the anticipation but not the realization of the Confed- 
erate soldier, when for the first time in four years he turned his back 
on the carnage of battle, and took his weary way homeward. Here 
commences a scene of horrors for which history has no language, and 
poetry no pencil. In many instances he found the ashes of his happy 
home slaked in his loved ones' tears. His little children, his delicate 
nurtured daughter, with slender form upon who no rain had ever 
beat, no wind ever visited too roughly, and the wife of his bosom 
"who shared all of his sorrows entered into all of his joys, and en- 
couraged his every aspiration," they one and all wandered with bleed- 
ing feet, half clad, and homeless, over a war-worn and battle scarred 
country, knowing not where to find a place of refuge. I do not point 
to this sad picture hanging on memory's wall to excite in you hatred, 
or malice, but simply to see and appreciate the sacrifice the Southern 
women cheerfully offered on their country's altar. There was no 
more zealous patriot, no greater help to the Confederate soldier, nor 
more uncompromising advocate of "the cause" than the woman of the 
South. She was denied the activity of the field, but not, in one 
sense, the masterly inactivity of the home; hers was not the courage 
that steadied men in battle's dreadful line, but the superb and match- 
less heroism that overcame poverty, loneliness, uncertainty and 
bereavement; she was denied the wild rush of battle, the glory of 


victory, the reward of gallantry and the fame of a soldier's death, 
but she showed she had more than tears to give her country, without 
a murmur, and without hesitation she freely gave her sons, her 
brothers, her sweethearts and her husbands for her country's soldiers, 
to be sacrificed, if needs be, in the red burial of battle. 

She suffered, but she murmured not, 
To every storm she bared her breast, 
Contented with the glorious lot, 
Of giving her country her very best. 

The story is told of a brother leaving for the war, his two sisters, 
bidding him goodbye, said, "Go, and we will do the best we can." 
They clothed their patriot brother, gathered the crop and took care 
of it, wove about one hundred yards of cloth for the soldiers, made 
about forty garments for them, besides taking care of and feeding all 
the stock. The true sentiment of the heart of the Southern woman 
was voiced by one of her noble sisters when she buckled on the armor 
of her husband, "I had rather be the widow of a brave man than the 
wife of a coward." A no less sublime sentiment was that of an old 
lady, a mother of several dearly beloved sons, all in the army, "War 
I know is very dreadful, but if by the raising of my finger I could 
prevent my sons from doing their duty to their country now, though I 
love them as my life, I would not do it ; i am no coward, nor have 
I brought up my sons to be cowards. They must go if their country 
needs them." These are those that are most loved and of whom fame 
speaks not with her clarion voice. 

The maid who binds her warrior's sash, 

With smiles that all her pain dissembles, 
The while beneath the drooping lash, 

One pearly tear drop hangs and trembles, 
Though Heaven alone records the tear, 

And fame shall never know her story, 
Her heart has shed a drop as dear, 

As ever dewed a field of glory. 

The wife who girds her husband's sword, 

Mid little ones that weep and wondei, 
And bravely speaks the cheering word , 

What though her heart be rent asunder, 
Doomed nightly in her dreams to hear 

The bolts of war around him rattle, 
Has shed as sacred blood as e'er 

Was poured upon a field of battle. 


The mother who controls her griet, 

While to hei breast her son she presses, 
Then breathes a few brave words, and brief 

Kissing the patriot brow she blesses, 
With no one but her secret God 

To know the pain that weighs upon her. 
Sheds hoh- blood as e'er the sod 

Received on Freedom's field of honoi. 

These blessed post-bellum camp-fires, which you kindle year by 
year, warm into life the shadows of the past and the mighty days 
from '6 1 to '65 which are dead and gone. Now the polemic heat of 
the quarrel, having passed without "recrimination or abuse," without 
"throwing faith to the winds," without "waving good-bye to confi- 
dence," theSouth proudly points to the actors in that great drama as 
her_ rarest jewels, and places them in the diadem that crowns the 
nation's head, to shed undying luster on American arms. She is not 
disturbed that people know so much about her; but what wounds and 
offends her is that they know so much that is not so. She still has 
problems to solve and burdens grievous to be borne. It is recorded 
that the great Napoleon, walking at St. Helena with an English lady, 
met in a narrow path a man struggling under a great load ; the lady 
ordered him to get out of the Emperor's way; the Little Corporal, 
stepping aside, turned on her and with his characteristic fire, ex^ 
claimed: "Madam, respect the burden." Thus the South calls on 
the nation and the world to respect her burdens and add not to them, 
but let her alone while she solves those problems which only she 
can solve, and bear those burdens which she alone can bear. Some 
day generations yet unborn will rise and call her blessed for the 
determined fight which she has made, is making and will ever make 
to keep Anglo-Saxon blood untarnished and American citizenship 
pure and unbesmirched. 

In the future some historian shall come forth, both strong and wise, 

With a love for the Republic and the truth before his eyes , 

He will show the subtle causes of the war between the States; 

He will go back in his studies far beyond our modern dates; 

He will trace out hostile ideas as the miner does the lodes , 

He will show the different habits born of different codes; 

He will show the Union riven, and the picture will deplore; 

He will show it re-united and made stronger than before; 

Slow and patient, fair and truthful, must the coming teacher be, 

1 o show how the knife was sharpened that was ground to prune the 

He will hold the scales of justice, he will measure praise and blame; 
And the South will stand the verdict, and will stand it without 



Col. J. W. Daniel was introduced by General Lee; and as he 
advanced to the front of the stage, was greeted with vociferous 
applause. He spoke as follows : 


General Lee, my comrades and countrymen : You, sir, as the 
Commander-in J Chief of the rear guard of an army, of whom all 
their countrymen say that no men of equal number ever surpassed 
them in all the battle-fields of human history, and we may say also 
of them that no body of American citizens of equal number surpasses 
them in patriotism, in devotion and in the spirit olf cheerful sacrifice 
for their faith. It was said in the olden times that he who is diligent 
in his business shall stand before kings. In the lexicon of your lives 
there have been no kings but principle, patriotism and virtue — virtue 
with the old Roman flavor in it that means valor. I deem it more 
honor to-day to stand before you than I would have standing in the 
presence of the collected kings, emperors and czars of the universe. 
(Applause.) The titles which men confer upon each other and the 
titles which are seized thereby, compared with your efforts, are but 
transitory and ephemeral things ; but. the character of fame, the good 
name all over the world of the Confederate soldier and sailor, who 
were in daily grip with danger, with death, with misfortunes, with 
hardship, with sacrifice and with suffering, is imperishable. Napoleon 
Bonaparte, the great Emperor of France, would permit no other hand 
than his own to crown him with the imperial crown that he had 
gained by his genius and valor. In a larger and in a purer sense you 
have been the emperors of your own fortune and you have crowned 
yourselves with an aureole of true and enduring glory (applause) 
that will fill the world with a light and warmth of true virtue as 
long as principle, freedom and virtue are esteemed among the children 
of men. When the war ended, my comrades, you had but ended a 
four years' charge, and you began at once and instantly a forty years' 
siege. The Confederates so became, in a large measure, a scattered 
nation. They vanished from the battle-fields to their work-shops, to 
their plantations, to their homes, and they started to work wherever 
they could find it. I have never been a great deal of a traveler, 
but I have traveled a little, from Portland, Oregon, to New Orleans, 
and from old Virginia to England and France; and I have never 
been in a city where I did not come across an old Confederate 
soldier. I never came across him anywhere that he was not standing 
straight and well among those with whom he had cast his fortunes. 
There is one of them now standing right by my side, a private 
soldier, who went out in the war 'from the Palmetto State, and he 
has on many fields shown the courage and chivalry of his tribe ; 
he is now from Tennessee and has booked as Texas (applause), and 


she says she will always be glad to get more men like him to come 
to her. Here is the point of the joke about him: he was over 
here, near Petersburg, when on one fine morning there came the 
explosion of the crater and everything all around went up towards 
the clouds — Lipscomb went up, and he went up into the region of 
the nether stars; but when he came down he alighted on his feet 
and went right into the charge with the brave Alabamians who 
took the Gap. (Great applause for Lipscomb.) That man has got 
nerve and brass enough to take hell if he had the chance, and such 
nerve as his makes me hope some day we will all get a chance to 
take it in the victory over soil. Somebody ovtr there says, "Hoorah 
for Texas!" Amen. And now I am going to tell you what I think 
was the grandest eulogy ever pronounced upon the Confederate sol- 
dier. Were any of you boys here at the battle of Gaines's Mill, 
on the 27th of June, 1862? (Answers of "Here! Here!") Well, 
it is a wonder you are here now. I tell you if Rome ever howled in 
this country, it was howling that day par excellence. That was one 
of the greatest charges that the Confederate army ever made. It 
seemed as if the skies above us were made out of sheet-iron, as if 
the fiends of hell were ripping them up and flinging them around 

all to pieces. While that tremendous charge was going on, T 's 

brigade of Longstreets's division was called to go to the front in 
the next line. Boys, tell the truth about it — did any of you ever 
feel a little pale (laughter) as we marched down into the valley, 
with all the fiends of hell in the air about us and a raging volcano 
above us? Among the other wounded about us, I saw a young 
Confederate officer, whose arm had been torn out right in the 
shoulder joint by a cannon ball. Notwithstanding, he sat in his 
saddle steadily, a great deal cooler than I am now. When our 
regiment, the Eleventh Virginia, opened up for him to pass and 
the men looked up at him, admiring the hero and pitying the man, 
he said: "Go on, boys, and do your duty and don't mind me." 
About that time there came a cheer on our left, and there came 
Texas. ("Hoorah for Texas!" — cheers.) A few minutes later I 
saw two rather sorry looking men on horseback, and they looked 
like tramps who had "been taken from the mills. They rode along 
behind this work which had now been taken, and from which the 
receding battle was only annoying with a stray shot here and there. 
As soon as I saw them I recognized in one, w T ho had on an old blue 
cap pulled down over his eyes, and who also looked like a sailor who 
had just landed and. had fallen up on horseback and did not know 
how to get down. It was Stonewall Jackson. (Much applause.) 
("Hoorah for old Virginia!") He passed in the rear of that tre- 
mendous place, over which Hood's men had charged, just as the 
setting sun was departing in the west, and looking over that scene of 
awful slaughter and splendid valor, he spoke four words: "These men 


were soldiers." It was nerve and the act of the brave men o<f 
Texas, who on every field showed the soldier of the Lone Star (ap- 
plause) and remember, my comrades, that the soldier of no Southern 
State can truly offer himself to take precedence over those of any 
other State in the whole of the Confederate Army. All men were 
heroes, and all will so remain forever. (Applause.) There was 
glory enough for all, be he the humblest who wore a gray coat and 
did his duty as best he could. I would not pluck a single feather 
from the plumes of Texas when I recall that exploit of the soldiers 
of the West, and crave it also for the Army of Northern Virginia. 
History has given to - us all a sufficiency to satisfy the praises of 
valor that envelops all with true and modest honor. It is woman — 
she shall sum up our cause; she shall say, and it will be true, that 
all these men of the Confederate Army were soldiers. (After an 
interruption.) A poor orphan boy from 'Maryland wants me to say 
a word for him. They were not many, but they were much, these 
men of Maryland. They seemed little when their short lines stood 
amongst the longer ones from other Scates, but if you had heard them 
open with a battery of artillery or with their maximum of Maxim 
guns, or if you had seen them line up with the Maryland line under 

Johnson or Dorsey; if you had seen old F at Gettysburg, 

when he led in the Tar Heels, you would have said that this 
orphan boy was one who kept most excellent company, and we 
are not surprised to see that he is loyal and devoted to-day. It was 
the Captain of the Raccoon Roughs, of Georgia, Major, Colonel, 
Brigadier, Major General, Commander of the old second guard of 
the Army of Northern Virginia, which had been led by Jackson, 
by Ewell and Early, Jno. B. Gordon, (applause) who was from spur 
to plume a star of tournament, who had more magnetism in him 
than any field officer I ever saw (applause) and when he drew 
his sword and rode forth on that splendid black horse of his and 
said, "Come on, Georgians," he was so fascinating that you would 
have deemed it a privilege and a principle of life to follow him. 
(Applause.) But yesterday Georgia erected to him an equestrian 
monument. A little before, that Volunteer State of Tennessee 
erected to the Wizard of the saddle on the banks of the Mississippi 
an equestrian statue in bronze which will not last longer than the 
fame of this hero. (Applause.) The man on horseback is getting 
pretty fashionable all over this country now. (Applause.) Yester- 
day, amid the thunder of the guns, you saw handsome, blue-eyed 
Stuart ride once more at the head of his cavaliers. (Applause.) 
The day is not very distant when all the great heroes of the South 
will ride again amongst their people to hold up great examples of 
human valor, patriotism and virtue. You will see many of these 
monuments here in this city, which was once the citadel of your 
defence, which became the capital of your nation, which, then and 


now and at all times holds open its doors, and it has no more 
earnest or warmer yearning than to be considered every time your 
home. I am not a Richmonder. Like yourselves, I am, technically 
speaking, at least, a stranger within 'her gates; but I do not consider 
I surpass the lines which modesty would suggest, when I say that 
the blessing of every true Confederate soldier is upon this people. 
(Applause.) You cannot look over her spires and temples without 
seeing that she thinks of .you. Yonder is Mars Robert, (applause) 
and there is J. E. B. Stuart; out yonder on the road that leads north 
is A. P. Hill. (Applause.) There in a public park is Wickham, 
and there is Pegram, with the ram-rod ready to load; (applause) 
but, towering over city and temple, towering over all the roofs of 
this glorious city, there rises to the heavens a slender column, and 
on its summit, looking on the east, there stands, not the soldier of 
Virginia, nor the soldier of Richmond, but the Confederate soldier 
of the South. (Applause.) They are a people that do not forget. 
There can be no great generals without gnat armies behind them. 
(Applause.) A general is a lonesome nobody unless he has a 
line and a heart that will follow him. Men, as a rule, will not fail 
to recognize that they are in the midst of a plain, democratic Amer- 
ican people, who honor truth, valor and patriotism in whomsoever 
and wheresoever found. (Applause.) My countrymen, this is a 
changeable and ever shifting world we live in ; flags change, coun- 
tries get in the habit of changing a little now and then, but the old 
Confederate changes less than anything he has ever had to do with, 
or anything he has had to deal with. (Applause.) He is always 
true to the people and to the flag that he belongs to; (applause) 
and that is the fundamental principle of the moral law of the uni- 
verse. There is nothing higher, and so, when this country began 
to get itself in a little trouble in 1898, why, the old Confederates 
tried to jump over each other to get a chance with a Yankee uniform 
and under the flag to fight for Uncle 'Sam (applause) and Wheeler 
and P'itzhugh Lee, in the midst of many whose names I cannot 
remember at this minute, dropped in again to the front. They still 
had their hearts with their own people, and they do tell me, and 
I hope it is so, that when Wheeler got to charging the Spaniards at 
Santiago, he cheered up his men by saying, "Come on, boys; the Yan- 
kees are running." (Much applause.) I want to say this: there 
never has been in all human history, either in the days of the 
Spartan, the Roman Legions, or the old guard of Napoleon, or any- 
where amongst any people, there never have been times and occasions 
when a wise and prudent man, after a careful investigation of the 
surrounding circumstances, that would not retire from the position 
he was in if he had to be so undignified as to run. There are a 
great many consolations about the war, and one of the consolations 
is that, even if we on some occasions did observe the doctrine of true 


philosophy, we gave the other side a good many experiences and 
instructions in the same business before we followed the occupation 
ourselves (applause, much and continued) ; and I want to say this 
about them. Of all of the brave men born under the Southern flag, 
look at those men that charged Gettysburg Heights. If my hat was 
not already off, I would take it off. But I see that you were so 
fortunate as to get away unscathed. What I do say about those 
chaps in blue that came down here; they are the most obstinate and 
unreasonable fellows I ever knew. They would keep on coming 
back. We gave them a little hint at the first battle of Manassas 
that we went in. They only took it for a short time and, thinking 
they had mistaken the door they had knocked at, they came to the 
back door at Richmond. We renewed the hint, and they only 
lenewed the application at a place down in Northern Virginia. The 
fact is, there is one thing about these American people, as well 
North as South, they have much comebackativeness, and that is the 
reason that we old Confederates are proving to the world to-day 
that you cannot keep a working man down. (Applause.) But the 
chief consolation to me, my friends — and I hope you won't put me 
down for a mollie-coddle — the chief consolation to me about that 
war is that so many of you are alive and that the war is over. 
(Applause.) It looks to a man that reads over coolly and deliber- 
ately now that so many intelligent and so many kind and fair men, 
so many really good men that we had in every State in the Union 
in 1 86 1 ought to have had sense enough and forbearance enough 
and diplomacy enough to keep you boys from getting into such a 
deep and lasting struggle. But they did not, and that is why we 
are here to-day. (Applause.) The still, small, sweet voice of one 
was heard over voices of contention— it was that of a Colonel in 
the Aimy of the United States, and w : hen one of our Southern 
brethren, no doubt just as sincere and true, said in his presence, "Oh, 
we will clean out the Yankees in three months," he said, "You 
forget, my friend, that we are all Americans." When another said 
four or five months would do the business, he answered that it 
would take at least four years, and it did. A man of peace, he 
stood for peace down to the very fiery edge of battle — a Southern 
man, a Virginian, he was the foremost of all leaders in battle. When 
the war was over and all of us were beginning to realize the great 
and abiding proof that we were all Americans, he became the leader, 
not only of the South, but of the North itself, for fraternity, for 
brotherhood, for peace and reconciliation and for building up this 
country without regard to section. I need not tell you that it was 
Robert E. Lee. (Much applause.) I am afraid you will think that 
I am unlike the war in one respect because my speech will have no 
end. (Laughter.) Now, I have spoken about the Confederate in 
war and about my conviction that as long as the men who were in 
the last great big war were living, they would keep this country 


from getting into another one, in Havana harbor up went the 
"Maine," which brought to realism the truth which I remember to 
have read in either Voltaire or Johnson, I forget which, but this 
was what he said : "That if the men of Athens in the ancient days 
had assembled upon its portico and if Sparta and Athens were dis- 
coursing to them about the beauty of philosophy, and there had 
ridden up before them Charles XII of Sweden and said, "Let alone 
those dry things and let us take the works," they would have all 
leaped on horseback and followed wherever he would lead them. It 
was with those boys in 1897-8 as it was in '6 1 -'64, and as soon as 
the drums and fifes were sounding, the youth of this country from 
every State were marching and keeping step and going to the front. 
I had the honor of being one of those who, when war was unavoid- 
able, stood by those who declared it, and at the solemn hour in the 
Senate you could have heard a pin drop on the floor, and amongst 
those who had been to war there was the grave sense that comes 
to every soldier on the eve of battle. Many discourses were made, 
but I tell you, my comrades and countrymen, that the one which was 
to my mind broadest in its patriotism, finest in its suggestion, came 
from a person, a one-legged soldier in the person of a Confederate, 
and he said as he concluded his wise observation: "I hope, my 
fellow Senators, that when the Spanish War is over, all over this 
country there may be the sense that no man can tell and none dare 
say which did best, the soldiers of the North or the soldiers of the 
South." (Applause.) I have not had time in this speech to allude 
to the different States of the South. With some of them my contact 
was more frequent than with others in the war, and you must 
permit something of that personality and comradeship which can 
never be effaced from the memory of our experience. I have some 
memories of you, sir, our Commander-in-Chief, though I did not have 
the honor to be in your command or to share your sufferings, but 
on an afternoon of August, 1862, being young and unemployed and 
with a horse to go, I rode to the front to see what was happening 
in the front of Jackson. I saw a handsome person near Robert E. 
Lee, who was putting some artillery into action. It was Lieutenant- 
Colonel Stephen D. Lee. (Very much applause.) He passed to 
higher fortunes and soon became a Lieutenant General of the Army 
of the West. The last time I had the pleasure of grasping his hand 
was in the city of Chicago, when he and I were both engaged in 
addressing an assemblage of the Grand Army Club. (Applause.) 
No treason in it, boys — not a bit. I went there because the city of 
Chicago, in her beautiful park, out of her own pocket, had put up 
money to build a monument to your comrades who sleep upon her 
borders. (Applause.) We may get a little mean sometimes; we 
may sometimes use some words and make observations that would not 
be countersigned by our worthy, prudent and careful friend, the Rev. 

James William Jones; but, notwithstanding that, when a great and 
noble magnanimity is displayed, I hope it may always be that the 
surviving Confederate soldier and his son will ride, walk or crawl 
with those (applause) who will go furthest to show that it is appre- 
ciated and try hardest to follow it. (Applause.) I was in a 
division that contained for a long time Hoke's the Tar Heel Brigade, 
Gordon's Georgia Brigade, Hay's Louisiana Brigade and B-illie 
Smith's, and sometimes Pegram's Brigade, first commanded by Jubal 
Early. I tell you, boys, it would have taken a keener eye than the 
Senator of Arkansas to tell which was the best in that division. It 
was always the one who had fought the last battle. I saw the Tar 
Heels and the Louisianians together when to the left of Gordons- 
he assembled on the right — they broke the line at Gettysburg; and 
I saw Avery lead the Tar Heels and the Louisianians when they 
climbed the top of Cemetery Hill. They would have had Meade's 
army cut in two and beaten, and I knew that the Tar Heel State 
is always ready to lead where duty calls and where patriotism invites 
us; that amongst the riders into the future generation there will be 
the figures of Robert Hoke, Ramsey and D. H. Hill, and many of 
those other illustrious spirits that led her. (Much applause.) 

(Interruption: What of Culberson?) I know nothing about 
him as a Confederate soldier. You mean Colonel Culberson? He 
was all right. 

I have talked about the soldier, — a word about our great leaders. 
We rejoice in the high character of the political leaders of the South 
as well as in that of her soldiery. (Applause.) I never heard of a 
Southern Confederate Senator or Representative who stole anything. 
(Applause.) I never hear that anyone of them was engaged in any 
kind of grafting. (Applause.) No matter what his enemies m£y 
have said or may^ say about him, Jefferson Davis (applause), the 
first and only President of the Confederate 'States, was as pure and 
clean as any white marble that will ever bear his name. (Applause.) 
He did all that he could; neither angels nor men could do more. (Ap- 
plause.) He has been much misrepresented, much misapprehended; 
he has been the object of a stream of prejudices, because he was so 
faithful and uncompromising for you and for your country. (Ap- 
plause. ) Fame is often of slow birth and slow growth, and what grows 
the quickest is not always the strongest or most enduring. It was two 
hundred and fifty years after the enemies of Cromwell cut off his 
head and lifted it in derision and contempt before England could 
forget its animosities, realize the greatness of the man and rear a 
monument to his memory. The fame of Jefferson Davis (applause) 
throughout all this country has not grown as fast as that of some 
other people; neither will it be fading away when some of those are 
forgotten. (Applause.) Understand, my countrymen, that the fame 
of Jefferson Davis is young yet (applause) and is growing slowly and 


compactly and so well knit together, that when it has gotten in 
full bloom it will stay so while generations and generations pass into 
the forgotten past. 

I see around me now some young looking and a great many 
quite handsome men who were old soldiers when their cause went 
down. More, many are yet in the prime of life, while their nerves 
still thrill and their hearts rebound with the aspirations of love's 
ambition. Old hates and enmities, old prejudices and words of dislike 
are whistling down the wind like autumn leaves, and the sunshine 
of a beautiful spring is bringing forth bloom and beflowering our 
country. I thank God, my comrades, to have seen this day, and I 
thank Him, too, that He has given to all of you this privilege, 
for this is the greatest gathering of Confederates that will ever take 
place this side of the Great White Throne. (Applause.) None of 
you have come here to mourn ; none of you have here a temple of 
vain regrets. You carried from the last battle-field on which you 
fought, back to your home when you returned to labor, the con- 
sciousness of duty faithfully performed. (Applause.) It has abided 
with you as your "buckler and your shield," and all men now 
recognize you, not only as knights of war, but knights of glorious 
peace and of happy fraternity amongst all American people. (Ap- 
plause.) Let it fade or let it flame, and the war roll down like a 
wind, you proved you had hearts in your cause, you are noble still, 
and we acknowledge the purpose of God and bow humbly to His 
will. Of all things that have been said about that war, the wisest, 
the most profound, the most Christian-like and best, was a line 
written by our great commander, Robert E. Lee, "God beside, let 
that suffice; He who rides upon the whirlwind and directs the storm 
in the hollow of His hand, is the Defender of men and nations." 
He also said another thing. When I see the old Confederates com- 
ing together I recall it: "Wear your religion gaily. See you have 
it before you wear it at all times." That first expression, "Wear 
your religion gaily," was worthy of the splendid Commander-in- 
Chief, that human fortitude must be equal to human misfortune. So, 
my comrades, from the States of the South, from New York, which 
has a great colony of you; from Baltimore and West Virginia, from 
the Chickasaw and the Cherokee Nation, North, South, East, West, 
welcome here, have a good time as the first of your duties while 
you are here. "Wear your religion gaily," and so let the wide, world 
wag as it will, we will be gay and happy still. (Applause.) Gay 
and happy, gay and happy; may you all be gay and happy still. 








He commends Camps and Officers for promptness and cheerfulness in 
paying dues; he expresses satisfaction at the great number new 
Camps added; he congratulates the Commander-in-Chief 
on the love and confidence shown him by his old 
comrades-in-arms, and the hearty 
endorsement given his ad- 



New Orleans, La., May 23, 1907. [ 

General Stephen D. Lee, General Commanding. United Confederate Veterans, 

Coin m bus , Miss . : 

General — In presenting my report for the year ending December 31, 
1905, I expressed the pleasure I felt in chronicling the best state of affairs that 
had ever been noted in the history of our Federation. I felt convinced that no 
future showing would be so satisfactory, for the reason that the rapidly -diminishing 
sources from which the revenue of the Order is drawn must necessarily produce 
reduced income. I am able, however, to state that the present report covering 
the year 1906 as far surpasses 1905, as that year had all others. 

I submitted to the Convention held in New Orleans last year a list of 
four hundred and twelve Camps which had contributed nothing towards the 
support of the Order for many years; and I suggested that action be taken, 
looking to the dropping of them from the Roster. The Convention realized the 
injustice of carrying as a part of the Order a lot of dead Camps, and passed a 
resolution directing the Adjutant -General to drop all Camps in arrears for five 
years or more. I immediately addressed the Commanders or Adjutants of these 
derelict Camps, and urged that the debts be paid, saying, among other things: 
" I cannot think, my dear comrade, that you and your associates have failed to 
pay these dues from inability or lack of interest in our beloved cause, but solely 
from inattention ; and I sincerely trust that this simple notice will serve to remind 
you of your failure, and that I may hear from you at once. I am ready to make 
an equitable compromise if the Camp cannot pay in full." I am gratified to be 
able to state that twenty -two Camps made favorable response; but I was com- 
pelled most reluctantly to erase from the Roster the names of the other three 
hundred and ninety. 

During the year which has passed since our last meeting there have been 
added to our " social, literary, historical and benevolent " organization forty-one 
new Camps, which is the largest addition for many years. The number of Camps 
now embraced in our Order is set forth in the following table, which will show 
also the number dropped for non-payment of dues, and the divisions to which 
they belonged : 





Chartered Last 


Dropped for 


of Dues 


During Year 


Net on Roster 































9 51 


South Carolina 









North Carolina 














Indian Territory 



West Virginia 









District of Columbia 




Added 1906-07 





Total charters issued 


The collections from the Camps, now greatty reduced in number, with 1 
membership depleted by death, are far in excess of any former year. This! 
showing is as remarkable as it is gratifying. The officers, too, have displayed al 
keener interest in the association, not only in the matter of settling promptly and I 
cheerfully their dues, but in calling for commissions, more of these having been I 
issued during the past twelve months than for a very long period. A fair idea of I 
the financial condition of the Order will be seen from the following summary of I 
receipts and disbursements for the twelve months ending December 31, 1906: I 


Officers' Dues $1,356 50 

Camp Dues 4,736 35 

Commissions 43 00 

Donations 322 85 

$6,458 70 

Salaries (including amounts paid for extra help 

at and immediately preceding the Reunion).. $3,120 00 

Printing 1,418 50 

Postage 375 22 

Rent 660 00 

Miscellaneous 279 41 

$5,853 13 

When it is recalled that for many years the annual deficit gradually grew 
from year to year, and that at the present moment there is not only no deficit, and 
no debts owed by the Order, but ample funds on hand to meet all demands; when 
it is noted the keen interest manifested by officers and men alike in the good of 
the Order, you, sir, should feel proud at the love and devotion of your comrades, 
and the approval of your course as Commander-in-Chief, which this condition of 
affairs reveals. Such confidence and veneration come into the lives of few. 

During the past year the hand of death has lead away our beloved Varina 
Jefferson Davis, wife of our only President ; and Col. Samuel Spencer of your staff. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

Adjutant -General and Chief of Staff. 

Report of 

Major-Gen'l Wm. E. Mickle 

Adj't-Gen'l and Chief of Staff 

United Confederate Veterans 

^\ j^K 

Itemized Statement of Receipts and Expenditures from 
January 1st' 1906 to December 31st, 1906 


The report of our Adjutant General for the year ending December 
31, 1906, is both surprising and gratifying. Neither the Finance Com- 
mittee nor the Association had any right to expect such an altogether 
satisfactory showing. 

When the Finance Committee, by order of Gen. Gordon, met in 
New Orleans to examine into the affairs of the Association and to name 
a successor to the lamented Gen. George Moorman, it found that the late 
Adjutant General had in his enthusiasm for the organization and his 
whole-souled generosity, borrowed money to carry on the business of 
the Association, and that he had made himself personally responsible, 
while every dollar had gone to meet the expenses of the U. C. Vs., thus 
making a debt about $2500.00. While the Association could not be held 
legally responsible for the debt, the Committee felt that it was morally 
responsible, and determined to pay every cent at the earliest possible 
moment. The debt was paid in full within two years and without 
crippling the association. 

General Moorman refused time and again to accept any remun- 
eration for his services as Adjutant General for the reason that such 
acceptance would compel him to devote his time to the office work and 
his other business engagements forbade this. The result was his dis- 
charge of the onerous duties at such times as he could find; and to get 
through he was compelled to employ extra help all through the year, 
and short time service is always very expensive. It further resulted 
in a sort of hit or miss system that prevented any certainty as to th& 
amount of revenues. Officers and members of camps not being kept in 
close touch with headquarters, were indifferent, and only paid up when 
the camps had delegates present at reunions. 

When the Finance Committee completed its examination in Jan. 
1903, it agreed unanimously that the best interests of the Association 
demanded the constant attention of the Adjutant General, and that it had 
no right to ask for competent service without remuneration; it therefore 
with equal unanimity agreed upon a salary for the Adjutant General, 
not such as the work to be done was worth, but enough to enable the 
incumbent to live. Col. William E. Mickle, of Mobile, who had for some 
years been Gen. Moorman's assistant, was selected and installed; and 
the wisdom of the action has been demonstrated and reiterated as each 
succeeding year has rolled around. 

Each year his itemized reports of receipts and disbursements have 
been carefully checked up and all vouchers examined. The debts have 
been paid in full, all running expenses promptly met and the last report 


shows a balance in bank of over $1000.00, sufficient to meet current ex- 
penses for the first quarter of the year, and all this in spite of the in- 
creased work and added expenses. During the administration of Gen. 
Moorman, and for the first eighteen months of Gen. Mickle's term, the 
Association occupied as headquarters, rooms on the third floor of a build- 
ing on Common Street, two long heart breaking flights of stairs, in dingy, 
dark, uncomfortable rooms, without any means of heating, except a gas or 
oil stove, quarters entirely out of keeping with the dignity of the 
Association; they were cheap and were the best Gen. Moorman felt 
that the Association could afford at that time. Now, the Association 
Headquarters are located in about the handsomest building in the city 
of New Orleans, well lighted, ventilated and heated and with every 
convenience demanded for comfort and the economy of time in ad- 
dition to being absolutely fire-proof. There arc no long flights of 
stairs to exhaust a large part of the remaining vitality of Veterans 
having business with the Adjutant General. It is true these quarters 
cost four times what the old ones did, but the running expenses 
of the office are but very little more than they were under the 
old system. Besides the added rental expenses, the expense of 
publishing expensive and important reports have been met and the 
minutes of one reunion, never written up or put in print before have 
been compiled and printed. To the close touch and constant communica- 
tion between Headquarters and camps is attributable the very satisfac- 
tory condition of Association affairs, as well as to the fact that the Ad- 
jutant General has attended a number of Division Reunions, and made 
short talks, thus bringing the men into closer relations with Headquarters. 
Every Camp Officer feels that at Headquarters is an officer who is deeply 
interested in every item that concerns the United Confederate Veterans, 
and this serves to keep alive the interest in camps and to keep them in 
good standing and active in the work that gave the Association birth. 
During the reunion held in New Orleans last year the Finance 
Committee met in the office of the Adjutant General, and made a thorough 
examination of the office, the books, papers and methods of keeping the 
records. At a moments notice any document was produced or any 
record turned to when called for. The books were a complete record 
of every transaction, and so arranged that any one of the thousands 
could be readily referred to. After the examination the Committee 
passed, unanimously, a vote of thanks to Gen. Mickle for the good work 
he had done and was still doing. It is a pleasure to the Committee to 
know that the Commanding General, after a careful inspection made but 
a short time ago, entirely endorses the opinion of the Finance Committee. 

Respectfully Submitted, 


Secretary Finance Com. 




Itemized Statement of Receipts and Expenditures from January 1st, 
1906, to December 31st, 1906. 

Jany. 2. Brig. Gen. Geo. M. Helm (Greenville, Miss.) $ 20 00 

C. H. Alley 2 50 

Pat. Cleburne (88) 4 50 

J. B. Hood (103) 7 50 

Stonewall Jackson (1452) 2 40 

Maj. D. S. Sullivan (New Orleans, La.) 1 00 

J. W. Throckmortin (109) 9 00 

Hattiesburg (21) 7 50 

John C. G. Key (156) 4 50 

Frank Phillips (1506) 3 50 

William Gamble (1184) 3 40 

Brig.-Gen. David E. Johnston (Bluefield, W. Va.) 10 00 

Joseph E . Johnston (34) 6 00 

Sumter (642) 16 00 

Lamar Fontaine (1331) 6 00 

Amite (78) 2 00 

A. R. Johnson (1008) 4 50 

W. L. Moody (87) 6 10 

Col. E. S. Griffin (1233) 2 90 

Col. A. R. Blakely (New Orleans, La.) 5 00 

Capt. Jas. W. Sneed (Knoxville, Tenn.) 2 50 

Brig.-Gen. Jno. F. Home (Knoxville, Tenn.) 10 00 

Menardville (328) 5 30 

Brig.-Gen. J. G. Holmes (Macon, Ga.) 100 

Col. J. W. Wilcox (Macon, Ga.) 1 00 

Maj.-Gen. N. T. Roberts (Pine Bluff, Ark.) 1 00 

Col . Geo . H . Gause (Slidell, La . ) 5 00 

Maj. Chas. A. Brusle (Plaquemine, La.) 2 50 

Ben. T. Du Val (146) 4 50 

Capt. Henry T. Ault (Knoxville, Tenn.) 2 50 

Maj . W. Williams ( Hopkins ville, Ky. ) 2 50 

Geo. H. Nixon (1494) 6 00 

Winnie Davis (479) 5 40 

Capt. W. L. Armstrong (Stony Point, Tex.) 2 50 


Jau. 2 . Mike Powell, (1564) $ 2 50 

Capt. J. W. Godwin (Jefferson City, Tenn.) 2 50 

Lt.-Col. Chas. Reed (Padncah, Ky. ) 2 50 

Capt. H. O. Nelson (Knoxville, Tenn.) 2 50 

Walker-McEae (687) 2 70 

Maj . Wash . M . Ives (Lake City, Fla . ) 5 00 

E. A. Perry (150) 4 30 

Lt.-Col. J. T. Stubbs (DeFuniak Springs, Fla.) 2 50 

Lt.-Col. F. Finis Fox (Ardmore, Ind. Ter.) 2 50 

4. Jeff. Davis (213) 3 40 

Col. J. M. Dickinson (Chicago, 111.) 5 00 

Lt.-Col. A. O. MacDonnel (Jacksonville, Fla.) 2 50 

Joe Brown (1148) 6 60 

8. Maj. Chas. Scott (Rosedale, Miss. ) 2 50 

Cabarrus Co. C. V. Assn. (212) 6 60 

Fitzgerald (1284) 10 00 

McGregor (274) 4 00 

Maj.-Gen. Paul A. Fusz (Philipsburg, Mont.) 100 00 

Ben. McCulloch (563) 3 70 

Col. S. B. Gibbons (438) 6 00 

' ' Pap ' ' Price (1360) 5 00 

Granbury (1323) 6 20 

9. Perry County (1035) 1 70 

Col. W. D. Pickett (Lexington, Ky.) 5 00 

Col. Jno. W. Faxon (Chattanooga, Tenn.) 5 00 

10. West Feliciana (798) 4 50 

Maj. F. M. Mumford (St. Francisville, La.) 2 50 

Maj. Jos. A. Hincks (New Orleans, La.) 2 50 

Friendship (383) 4 70 

Geo . Moorman (130) 1 10 

Ike Turner (321) 5 10 

11. H. B. Lyon (1259) 7 00 

J. L. Power (1394) : 2 50 

Bernhardt (988) 2 00 

Calcasieu C . Vet . (62) 3 00 

15. Nash County (1412) 9 90 

James Adams (1036) 4 50 

Maj. J. W. Dumas (Fresno, Cal.) 2 50 

Col. J. B. Trulock (Pine Bluff, Ark. ) 5 00 

Maj . G. G. Gill (Homer, La . ) 5 00 

Maj.-Gen. F. P. Flemming (Jacksonville, Fla.) 20 00 

Maj.-Gen. V. Y. Cook (Elmo, Ark. ) 30 00 

Tom. Hindman (318) 5 00 

Lt.-Col. W. W. Leake (St. Francisville, La.) 2 50 

Lt.-Col. H. Buchanan (Hickman, Ky.) 5 00 

Jan. 15. Maj. A. Tinder. ( Madison ville, Ky.) $ 2 50 

Lt.Col. Jno. W. Wofford Kansas City, Mo.) 2 50 

Lt.-Col. John H. Britts, M. D. (Clinton, Mo.) 2 50 

Maj . Jno. M. Weidemeyer (Clinton, Mo. ) 2 50 

Maj.-Gen. James B. Gantt (Jefferson City, Mo.) 20 00 

16. Gen. Frank Gardner (5S0) 5 10 

Up Hays (831) 1 50 

Wm. P. Townsend (111) 2 40 

Charles L. Eobinson (947) .» 6 20 

C. H. Howard (688) 2 10 

Brig.-Gen. H. W. Graber (Dallas, Tex. ) 5 00 

Baton Bouge (17) 8 20 

Hugh McCollum (778) 4 30 

Col. J. A. Harral (New Orleans, La.) 5 00 

Col. E. P. Lake (Memphis, Tenn.) 5 00 

Magruder (105) 7 80 

17 . Maj . Victor Maurin (38) 2 70 

Featherstone (1516) 2 80 

Capt. W. A. Dills (Bay St. Louis, Miss.) 2 50 

Ponchatoula (1074) 1 05 

Stockdale (324) 3 00 

D. C. Walker (640) 3 70 

Walter R. Moore (833) 2 00 

Mike Powell (1564) 2 50 

P. A. Hainan (1499) 170 

Col. A. A. Lelong (New Orleans, La.) 5 00 

W. R. Stone (1529) 100 

Maj. B. F. Murdock (Platte City, Mo.) 2 50 

Chaplain B. F. Blackmail (Fulton, Ky . ) 1 00 

Ben. McCulloch (300) ..." 3 80 

Gen. Geo. Moorman (270) 1 00 

18. Gen. Jos. H. Lewis (S74) 2 30 

Geo . E . Pickett (204) 6 90 

John B. Clark (660) 4 70 

Maj. A. J. Furr (Fayette, Mo.) 2 50 

Finley (1519) 6 10 

Gen . Fred . L . Robertson 7 00 

22. John P. Taylor (792) 10 50 

Catawba (162) 4 00 

Bill Adkins (1512) 3 00 

Chaplain Jno. R. Deering (Lexington, Ky.) 2 50 

Vinita (800) 5 00 

Maj . Joe . McVoy (Cantonment, Fla . ) 2 50 

Humboldt (974) 2 50 

Cape Fear (254) 11 50 

Jan. 22 . Henry Gray, (551) $ 80 

Lt.-Col. C. F. Jarrett (Hopkinsville, Ky.) 2 50 

Ma j . E . D . Jones (Hopkinsville, Ky . ) 2 50 

Maj . S . Berney (Mobile, Ala . ) 2 50 

23 . Capt . Gooch Eoland (Nevada, Tex . ) 2 50 

Sam . Lanham (1513) 1 80 

Alfred Iverson (1482) 3 10 

R . E . Lee (58) 8 30 

Capt . Win . Curl (Linden, Tenn . ) 2 50 

Lt.-< !ol. Thos. S. Kenan, (Raleigh, N. C.) 2 50 

Stonewall Jackson (42) 5 50 

J . Ed . Murray (510) 8 30 

Capt. W. H. Farmer (Lone Mountain, Tenn.) 2 50 

Leonidas J. Merritt (387) 2 00 

Macon (1477) 6 40 

Alamo (1599) 3 80 

24. W. R. Stone (1529) 80 

Gen . Francis T . Nicholls (1142) 4 20 

Lomax (151) 10 00 

25. Jackson (806) 4 10 

Brig. -Gen. Wm. H. Jewell (Olando, Fla.) 5 00 

Lewis-Dowd-Wyatt ' (1533) 10 00 

Private Ike Stone (1283) 5 10 

Catawba (278) 4 20 

29. Lt.-Col. R. M. Clayton (Atlanta, Ga.) 2 50 

W. B. Plemons (1451) 4 10 

Sam '1 H . Giest (1481) 3 50 

Brig. -Gen. E. G. Williams (Waynesville, Mo.) 10 00 

Chas. J. Batchelor (1272) 1 70 

Maj. W. W. Mains (Mains P. O., La.) 1 00 

Lt.-Col. Lee O. Lester (Deming, New Mexico) 2 50 

Capt. C. J. DuBuisson (Sonora, Yazoo Co., Miss.)... 5 00 

Col . E . Q . Withers (Lamar, Miss . ) 5 00 

Maj . W . M . Dunbar (Augusta, Ga . ) 2 50 

Jackson County (1170) 4 30 

Adjt . Edgar Hull (Scranton, Miss . ) 2 50 

Lt.-Col. C. Jackson, M. D. (Los Angeles, Cal.) 2 50 

Tom . Douglass (555) 4 80 

Gordon Memorial (1551) 2 20 

Stonewall Jackson (249) 8 60 

30. Maj. P. K. Mayers (Scranton, Miss.) 2 50 

1st Lt. Com. S. R. Thomson (Scranton, Miss.) 2 50 

Surg. B. F. Duke (Scranton, Miss.) 2 50 

Sgt.-Maj. W. J. Farragut (Scranton, Miss.) 2 50 

J. E. B. Stuart (716) 5 00 


Jan. 30. Col. Lee S. Daniel, (New Orleans, La.) $ 11 00 

Col. H. Moorman (Ownesboro, Ky.) 5 00 

31. Maj. T. A. Nettles (Tunnel Springs, Ala.) 2 50 

8am. Davis (1056) 2 30 

Felix K. Zollicoffer (46) 3 30 

Marmaduke (685) 2 60 

Joseph E. Johnston (1444) 5 00 

Savage-Hacket (930) 2 10 

Feby. 1. Edw. F. Bookter (1082) 1 20 

Henry L . Wyatt (984) 3 00 

Gen. H. A. Tyler (Hickman, Ky.) 25 00 

5. M. W. Gary (1549) 2 40 

Maj. -Gen. A. W. Hutton (Los Angeles, Cal.) 12 50 

Buck-Kitchen (1574) 5 40 

C. A . Evans (983) 7 50 

John White (10S4) 7 60 

Pickett-Buchanan (1182) 10 00 

Ed. II. Voiitress (1453) 2 50 

Capt. Robt. C. Crouch (Morristown, Tenn.) 2 50 

Wm . B . Tate (725) 8 60 

Floyd County (368) 6 50 

Lt.-Col. F. C. Barrett (Vinita, Ind. Ter.) 5 00 

Geo. B. Harper (714) 4 90 

Beaford Forrest (1361) 4 00 

Col. T. W. Givens (Tampa, Fla.) 5 00 

Col. Jno. B. Pirtle (Louisville, Ky.) 10 00 

Chaplain E. A. Smith (Brewton, Ala.) 2 50 

Rappahannock ( 1524) 3 00 

Capt . Wm . Lee (338) 5 00 

Lt.-Col. Chas. P. Blakeley (Bozeman, Mont.) 5 00 

6. Beauvoir (120) 6 10 

Maj. Thos. Costa (Tallahassee, Fla.) 2 50 

John B. Hood (1343) 2 00 

John Percival (711) 2 30 

7. Ensign Ed. B. Hammond (Scranton, Miss.) 2 50 

8. Maj. S. Turner Sykes (Aberdeen, Miss.) 2 50 

Maj . E . L . Sykes (Aberdeen, Miss . ) 2 50 

Washington Artillery (15) 20 60 

R. E. Lee (1055) 2 80 

Franklin Buchanan (1214) 1 00 

Col. J. V. Harris, M. D. (Key West, Fla.) 5 00 

Col. Archer Anderson (Richmond, Va.) 5 00 

W . A . Johnson (898) 5 00 

12 . Samuel Corley (841) 7 40 

Joseph E . Finnegan (1514) 2 60 


Feb. 12 . John W. Rowan, (908) $ 2 10 

A. P. Hill (1365) 120 

Maj. J. E. Abraham (Louisville, Ky.) 2 50 

G. C. Wharton (443) 5 00 

A. P. Hill (269) 5 20 

Col. J. W. Reed (Chester, S. C.) 5 00 

Col. Homer Atkinson (Petersburg, Va.) 5 00 

Maj. W. A. Smith (Ansonville, N. C.) 2 50 

Maj. G. M. Davis (Macon, Ga.) 2 50 

M. J. Ferguson (1289) 3 00 

13. Valverde (1419) 4 40 

Joe . Shelby (975) 2 10 

Shelby County (1344) 4 20 

Thos . H . Hunt (253) 2 60 

C. V. Anns of D. C. (171) 10 00 

Col. Robt. J. Magill (Jacksonville, Fla. ) 5 00 

Brig. -Gen. E. D. Willett (Long Beach, Miss.) 10 00 

John C. Upton (43) 7 00 

Stonewall Jackson (1559) 1 20 

14. Fagan (903) 160 

Pleasant Hill (691) 1 40 

Lt.-Col. E. C. Graham (Alexandria, Va.) 3 50 

Taylor County (1554) 8 00 

Sam. Davis (1089) 2 80 

Sul Ross (185) 2 00 

Army Tenn . , La . Div . (2) 30 30 

15. Sec. Lt. James Koger (Paducah, Ivy.) 2 00 

Stonewall (1048) 2 10 

Pat . Cleburne (1027) 2 00 

Brig.-Gen. J. H. Lester (Deming, N. Mex.) 10 00 

Lt.-Col. John C. Lewis (Louisville, Ky.) 5 00 

Brig.-Gen. R. R. Poe Clinton, Ark.) 11 00 

Lt.-Col. James H. Fraser (Clinton, Ark.) 3 50 

Lt.-Col. J. C. Ijams (Marietta, Ind. Ter.) 5 00 

Pink Welch (848) 4 00 

John W. Morton (1443) 2 30 

20. Gordon (1480) 8 60 

Maxey (281) 2 60 

Ned Merriweather (241) 8 20 

Hillsboro (36) 5 60 

William Rose McAdory (157) 8 00 

R. G. Prewitt (439) 3 80 

Lt.-Col. D. A. Smith, M. D. (Anthony, Fla.) 5 00 

Geary (1230) 2 00 

Lt.-Col. A. J. Beale (Cynthiana, Ky.) 2 50 


Feb. 20. Jefferson Davis, (1267) * 1 - {) 

Caddo Mills (502) 2 00 

Capt. W. J. Lewalling (Caddo Mills, Tex.) 2 50 

Brig. -Gen. Wm. H. H. Ellis (Bozeman, Mont.) 10 00 

Lt.-Col. C. H. Lee, Jr., (Falmouth, Ky.) 5 00 

W. H. Batcliffe (682) 2 80 

W. P. Lane (621) [ 12 90 

Jno. H. Waller (237) [[ 4 o 

Jno. B. Gordon (200) 4 00 

Eodes (262) 10 00 

Yazoo (176) 8 30 

Stonewall Jackson (118) 4 gQ 

Capt . David H. Hammond (177) „ 5 00 

Crittendon ( 707) 3 70 

Granbury (67) 3 80 

John Pelham (565) 2 90 

21 . Transylvania (953) 3 qo 

Hopkins Co . Ex . Con . (528) 6 00 

Maj . Thos . Dennis (Mobile, Ala . ) 2 50 

John B . Baylor (585) 2 00 

Harrison (1125) 3 30 

22. Elmore County (255) 2 20 

John Pelham (411) 2 00 

Ross-Ruble (1558) 6 00 

Stonewall (1-138) 6 50 

Maj.-Gen. C. M. Wiley (Macon, Ga.) 20 00 

Turney (12) 5 20 

C. V. Assn. of D. C. (171) 10 00 

Maj. W. C. Crane (Houston, Tex.) 2 50 

Calhoun (497) q iq 

26 . Geo . B . Eastin (803) 30 00 

Mayfield (1249) 6 20 

Gen . Dick Taylor (1265) 4 00 

Skid Harris (595) 4 00 

N. B. Forrest (4) 17 70 

Tandy Pryor (1483) 5 20 

Gen. John S. Williams (1295) 4 00 

Milton (132) 2 70 

Dick Anderson (334) 7 00 

28 . Humboldt (974) 1 50 

Amite County (226) 2 50 

Henry E . McCnlloch (557) 5 50 

Eobert E . Lee (1386) 2 40 

Stonewall Jackson (1011) 2 00 

Fred. Ault (5) 1 60 


Feb. 28. Henry W. Allen, (182) $ 4 10 

Lt.-Col. C. H. Howard (Crocker, Mo.) 2 50 

C. V. Assn., Union Parish (379) 3 20 

Mch. 1. Gen. Jno. B. Gordon (MOO) 3 40 

Lt.-Col. B. F. Phillips (Asher, Okla.) 5 00 

Daniel H . Reynolds (1285) 4 00 

Jo O . Shelby (630) 90 

Adjt. H. W. Williams (Mexia, Texas) 25 

Lt.-Col. James A. Miller (Chandler, Okla.) 5 00 

Mouton (41) 6 50 

Loring (1126) 6 50 

Geo. W. Murphy (1059) 2 10 

Maj. W. M. Graham (Sumter, S. C.) 2 50 

Robt . J. Breckinridge (1246) ' 4 00 

Joe . Wheeler (1600) 2 00 

Jeff-Lee (68) 3 20 

Wynne Wood (1448) 1 40 

A. P. Hill (951) 3 70 

Patton Anderson (59) 2 50 

Lt.-Col. G. N. Saussy (Hawkinsville, Ga.) 2 50 

5. Preston Smith (1362) 1 80 

Joseph E . Johnston (1553) 3 60 

Vicksburg (32) 5 00 

G. G. Dibrell (1171) 2 50 

Norfleet (436) 10 00 

Tom. Green (652) 2 00 

James Mcintosh (862) 5 00 

Capt. Jas. W. Irwin (Savannah, Tenn.) 2 50 

Albert Sidney Johnston (1100) 2 00 

Capt. Tom. Dillon, Sr. (Hickman, Ky.) 2 50 

J. B. Ward (981) 170 

Maj. J. A. Long (Eoxbury, X. C.) 2 50 

Jones (1206) 5 40 

J. E. B. Stuart (45) 5 50 

Stonewall (1048) 1 10 

Sterling Price (1378) 5 00 

Forbes (77) ' 9 00 

Howdy Martin (65) 2 50 

Sidney Johnston (863) 3 40 

First Lt. T. Matt. Stratton (Holly Springs Miss.)... 2 50 

Gen . LeRoy Stafford (3) 4 00 

Garnett (902) 10 00 

Gen. J. S. Marmaduke (554) 3 00 

Paragould (449) 8 60 

Dimmit County (1601) 4 00 


Meh. 6. Lt.-Col. 0. L. Sehurnpert, (Newberry, S. C.) $ 2 50 

James D. Nance (336) 24 00 

Lee (401) 2 00 

Cavalry Camp (9) 8 20 

Bill Dawson (552) 5 00 

Jos . E . Johnston (259) 4 30 

Maj . W. E . Hunt (Greenville, Miss . ) 2 50 

Lt.-Col. Wm. F. Lee (Pensacola, Fla.) 2 50 

Moore (60) .. ... 190 

7 . Hamilton Mayson (1355) 2 00 

Altus (1417) 1 70 

Feliciana (264) 5 20 

Maj. W. J. Bohon (Danville, Ky.) 2 50 

Maj . -Gen . N . T . Boberts (Pine Bluff, Ark . ) 20 00 

Garland-Bodes (1521) 7 50 

Martin H . Cofer (543) 1 90 

Stonewall Jackson (1581) 4 90 

Matt . Ashcroft (170) 4 00 

Lt.-Col. T. W. Bichards (Los Angeles, Cal.) 30 

A. Buford (1335) 2 30 

8. Pelham (258) 5 90 

Sul Boss (129) 10 10 

Pat . Cleburne (1488) 1 00 

Young County (127) 2 00 

Gen. Joe. Wheeler (1505) 5 40 

Ely M. Bruce (1518) 2 50 

John H. Cecil (1258) 2 30 

Gen . Francis T . Nicholls (1142) 4 30 

Greenfield (972) 2 30 

John Sutherland (890) IS 00 

Maj. A. A. Young, M. D. (Oxford, Miss.) 2 50 

John B. Dickens (341) 9 50 

Boyd-Hutchison (1019) 3 00 

S. B. Maxie (860) 1 10 

Washington Artillery (1102) 1 60 

Ben . McCulloch (542) 8 30 

9. Gen. Adam B. Johnson (481) 2 50 

Wm. M. Slaughter (971) 5 20 

Henry L. Wyatt (1248) 3 00 

10 . Isham Harrison (27) 3 00 

Lt.-Col. J. Kellogg (Little Bock, Ark.) 1 00 

Albert Sidney Johnston (71) 10 50 

T. N. Walls (1588) 2 00 

Jim. Pearce (527) 2 00 

W. D. Mitchell (423) 9 80 


Mch. 10 . John B. Gordon, (50) $ 3 50 

Lt.-Gen. W. L. Cabell (Dallas, Tex.) 20 00 

Hutto (1202) 9 00 

McDaniel-Curtis (487) 4 00 

Stonewall (758) ; 5 50 

Horace Randall (1367) 5 00 

Stonewall Jackson (469) 15 00 

Buchanan (1151) 2 30 

Jenkins (876) 2 90 

12. Winchester Hall (17S) 1 40 

Jas . R . Lowe (954) 3 00 

Andrew Coleman (301) 3 00 

Emma Sansom (275) 6 50 

Col. D. P. Bestor (Mobile, Ala.) 5 00 

Tom . Moore (556) 2 40 

Chicamauga (473) 9 50 

Maj. J. N. Bradley (Eockville, Mo.) 3 50 

Mecklenburg (382) 10 00 

B. E. Lee, (231) 3 10 

C. W. Boyd, (921) 2 40 

Jack McClure, (559) 2 60 

C. V. Assn. of Savannah, (756) 14 00 

James A. Jackson, (1308) 5 60 

Albert Sidney Johnston, (144) 10 00 

Cabell, (976) 4 00 

Arthur Manigault, (76S) 2 40 

Maj. J. R. Chowning, (Madison, Mo.) 3 50 

Palmetto Guard, (315) 2 40 

Willis S. Roberts, (1458) 3 60 

Albany, (1406) 4 15 

Dudley W. Jones, (121) 2 50 

W. H. Eateliffe, (082) 30 

Gen. Frank Cheatham, (1546) 1 40 

13. Col. W. B. Halderman, (Louisville, Ky.) 5 00 

Ward Con. Vet., (10) ; 12 20 

Jos. E. Johnston, (1424) 3 50 

Forrest, (1496) 3 80 

Catesby Ap. B. Jones, (317) 12 50 

A. N. Va., (1) 12 30 

Jas. D. Sayers, (825) 2 00 

Hammond, (1093) 1 10 

14. J. W. Throckmorton, (109) 1 20 

Tolar, (1587) 2 55 

Thos. J. Glover, (457) 6 00 

Maj. W. J. Wilkinson, (Crystal Springs, Miss.) 2 50 


Mch. 14. R. Q. Mills, (106) $ 4 80 

Terry, (1540) " ' ' " x 60 

Rice E. Graves, (1121) 9 50 

Brig. Gen. Hugh G. Gwyn, (San Diego, Cal.) 10 00 

John H. Morgan, (1198) 2 70 

Albert Sidney Johnston, (70) 10 00 

Capt. Geo. A. Tennisson, M. D., (Montieello, Miss.) 2 50 

M. A. Oatis, (1486) 5 30 

Harmanson-West, (651) 2 50 

15. Marshall B. Jones, (1322) 2 00 

Maj. Gen. V. Y. Cook, (Elmo, Ark.) 6 00 

Lloyd Tighlman, (965) 4 00 

Maj. A. A. Stephens, (Wolfe City, Tex.) 2 50 

Ben MeCullough, (851) 2 00 

Benning, (511) 30 00 

Saml. J. Gholson, (1255) 4 40 

Stonewall Jackson, (1395) 2 60 

Smith, (891) ' \[[ 5 1Q 

Albert Sidney Johnston, (75) 9 00 

Evans, (355) 2 10 

Brig. Gen. D. W. Castleberry, (Booneville, Ark.) 10 00 

X. B. Forrest, (623) 7 50 

Winnie Davis, (108) 5 10 

Eunice, (671) 2 10 

Perry County, ( 1035) 30 

Maj. S. H. Bush, (Elizabethtown, Ky.) 2 50 

A. H. Colquitt, (1544) " 6 70 

Col. E. D. Cavett, (Macon, Miss.) 6 00 

Geo. E. Pickett, (570) ! 20 

Montgomery, (52) 3 90 

J. T. Stuart, (1294) 2 50 

Col. A. T. Holt, (Macon, Ga.) 5 00 

W. W. Loring, (154) '[ 2 40 

Holmes County, (398) q 5 q 

John H. Morgan, ( 107) g 00 

Col. R. A. Smith, (484) 10 00 

19. Jasper County, (1319) 5 30 

John G. Walker. (128) 5 30 

W. W. Loring, (13) .......'.'.'.'.'.'.['. 2 00 

X. B. Forrest, (430) 8 00 

Mcintosh, (531) 5 o 

President Jeff Davis, (1293) 2 00 

G. R. Christian, (703) 2 50 

Issac R, Trimble, (1025) 10 00 

Fred X. Ogden, (247) '" 4 00 




Mch. 19. Natchitoches, (40) $ 5 00 

Hill County, (166) 5 00 

M. M. Parsons, (735) 4 00 

Brig. Gen. John A. Cobb, (Americus, Ga.) 10 00 

Florian Coinay, (345) 5 00 

Lt. Col. W. P. Manning, (Galveston, Tex.) 5 00 

Harvey Walker, (1415) 5 40 

Hiram S. Bradford, (426) 10 00 

West Point Vet., (571) 3 60 

Jas. F. Gresham, (883) 1 00 

Jesse S. Barnes, (1264) 7 40 

S. Ga. Confed. Vet., (819) 5 20 

20 . Nathan Parker, (1224) 3 00 

Pike Co. Confed. Vets., (421) 4 00 

A. H. Colquitt, (1115) 2 00 

Magruder, (1209) '. 5 00 

Lake Providence, (193) 1 10 

Adjt. Jehu G. Postell, (Macon, Ga) 2 00 

Le Seur, (663) 3 30 

Tige Anderson, (1455) 5 00 

Tom Green, (169) 6.00 

S. B. Maxey, (860) 1 10 

Merkel, (79) ' 4 00 

Hannibal Boone, (102) 6 80 

Maj. J. C. Wallace, (Keytesville. Mo.) 3 50 

Wm. Frierson, (83) 4 20 

Pat I 'Mamie. (216) 4 00 

Ben Bobevtsnn, ( 796) 8 00 

Macon Co. < '. V. Assn., (G55) 3 20 

D. L. Kenan, (140) 6 00 

21 . James C. Monroe, (574) 6 40 

Bridgeport, (568) 3 10 

Kitt Mott, (23) 6 00 

St. Helena, < 1484) 3 70 

Standwatie, (514) 7 10 

< lapt. Geo. A. McNutt, (Knoxville, Tenn.) 2 50 

Maj. H. J. Long, (Newport, Ark.) 1 00 

Bartow, (1591) 9 00 

Louden Butler, (409) 3 20 

W. A. Montgomery, (26) 3 50 

\Y. L. Byrd, (1545) 5 00 

22. Jones County, (612) 6 00 

Thos. H. Eobbs, (400) 4 50 

[berville, (18) 4 00 

Statham Farrell, (1197) 5 20 

Sumter, (642) 2 00 


Mch. 22. Anson. (846) $ 5 00 

E. Kirby Smith. (251) 2 70 

John M. Bradley. ( 352) 4 10 

Col. P. G. Carter, (Celeste, Tex.) 5 00 

E. E. Lee, (485) 3 80 

John H. Morgan, | 1330) 5 40 

Wm. Henry Trousdale, (495) 14 50 

Sam Lanham, (1383) 6 40 

Robert E. Lee, (126) 5 00 

Chas. J. Batchelor, (1272) 1 50 

23. Elloree. (1192) 4 SO 

James J. A. Barker, (1555) 3 30 

Joe Wheeler, (581) 1 10 

Altns. (1417) 3 30 

Joe Sayers, i L396) 3 90 

Fagan, (903) 1 00 

Haller, (192) 2 55 

E. E. Lee, (181) 32 10 

A. W. Ellis, (1435) 1 40 

J. J. Beeson, (1598) 1 90 

James Longstreet, (1399) 4 00 

Stonewall Jackson, (1217) 1 30 

Sumter, ( 332) 10 50 

Seales-Boyd, (1462) 8 00 

24 . Gen. Peg-ram, (1(502) 4 00 

Geo. D. Traynor, (590) 3 00 

Jos. !•:. Johnston, (267) 9 50 

Buchanan, (1151) 1 75 

Karnes ( 'ounty. ( 1307) 2 50 

Ma j. Gen. Julian S. Carr, i Durham, N". C.) 25 00 

S. L. Freeman, (884) 1 SO 

Charles Broadway Rouss, (1191) 3 00 

Fred A. Ashford, I 632) 3 00 

Winchester Hall, (178) 140 

Col. Jno. A. Green, ( 1 -(il .) 7 50 

Keyward, ( 462) 3 90 

Dibrell, (55) 5 20 

Alcibiade DeBlanc, (634) 4 40 

Winnie Davis, (1244) 2 50 

Wills Point, (302) 2 10 

R. A. Smith. (24) 8 20 

26. E. C. Leech, (942) 1 50 

Col. James Walker. (248) 160 

Albert Sidney Johnston, (48) 6 80 

Gordon County, (1101) 2 80 


Mch. 26. Baphael Semmes, (11) $ 21 10 

Bowie Pelhams, (572) 6 00 

Pat Cleburne, (537) 2 40 

Lafayette County, (752) 8 20 

E. S. Bugeley, (1428) 7 40 

27 . H. L. Buck, ( 1556) 1 40 

Lt. Col. A. J. Hinton, (Greenville, Ga.) 2 50 

Claiborne, ( 167 ) 4 00 

Bayboro, (1222) 1 20 

Winnie Davis, (625) 3 00 

Robinson Springs, (396) 2 40 

B. H. Powell, (499) 4 60 

Alcibiades De Blanc, (1503) 18 30 

Kansas City, (80) 11 00 

Emmett McDonald, (1370) 1 50 

Lt, Col. J. T. Stubbs, (DeFuniak Springs, Fla.) 2 50 

E. Kirby Smith, (282) 4 70 

D* G. Candler, (1118) 2 00 

Eoss-Ector, (513) 4 80 

David Pierson, (1603) 2 00 

Maj. Jno. S. Cleghorn, (Summerville, Ga.) 2 50 

Maj. R. T. Budicil, M. D., (Summerville, Ga.) 2 50 

Chattooga, (422) 4 40 

Ponchatoula, (1074) 1 05 

Ben Hardin Helm, (1260) 2 40 

Bob McKinley, (1347) 2 80 

28 . R. E. Lee, (158) 46 00 

Jno. H. Woldridge, (586) 10 20 

Lawson-Ball, (894) 10 00 

Wick McCreary, (842) 2 10 

Rion, (534) 2 00 

Cleveland, (1045) 3 20 

Sul Ross, (172) 5 10 

K. M. Van Zandt, (1459) 3 50 

Shackelford-Fulton, (114) 4 40 

Capt. A. G. M. Lay, (Marietta, Ind. Ter.) 2 50 

W. C. Rice, (1449) 2 10 

Alfred Rowland, (1302) 2 00 

Harrison, (1103) 3 00 

Saml. V. Fulkerson, (705) 5 30 

Maj. J. R. Jones, (Mountainville, Tenn 5 00 

E. E. Lee, (14) 6 10 

S. H. Powe, (1144) 6 50 

Maj. J. A. Hughes, (Centre Point, Ark.) 2 50 

A. W. Ellis, (1435) 1 10 


Mch. 28. Hugh A. Reynolds, (218) $ 3 70 

Jeffries, (889) 1 30 

John H. Morgan, (1463) 3 00 

Capt. T. R. Allen, [Justin, Texas) 2 50 

First Lieut, D. H. Gate, (Justin, Texas) 2 50 

Marietta, (763) 4 00 

Montgomery-Gilbreath, (333) 8 30 

Colquitt County, (1604) 4 60 

29. Lt, Col. A. H. Joblin, (St. Louis, Mo.) 2 50 

James Gordon, (553) 6 50 

C. M. Winkler, (147) 10 00 

Pearl River, (540) 4 60 

Lee-Jackson, (1200) 6 00 

Henry M. Shaw, (1304) 2 75 

Maj. Gen. V. Y. Cook, (Elmo, Ark.) 3 00 

Claiborne, (548) 2 70 

Albert Sidney Johnston, (654) 4 10 

L. F. Moody, (123) 2 10 

John A. Hudson, (1213) 1 40 

Joe Johnston, (94) 10 50 

John McEnery, (749) 1 60 

W. J. Hardee, (1087) 2 60 

Putsey Williams, (1070) 2 50 

Fred S. Ferguson, (1167) 3 00 

Scott Anderson, (619) 3 50 

David O. Dodd, (325) 6 00 

M. M. Parsons, (718) 6 00 

30. Standwaite, (573) 2 60 

Capt, A. Gredig, (Knoxville, Tenn.) 2 50 

S. Ga. Con. Vet., (819) 5 20 

T. J. Bullock, (331) 4 20 

Col. John A. Rowan, (693) 2 40 

Rev. J. Wm. Jones, D. D., (Richmond, Va.) 5 00 

E . Giles Henry, (312) 2 10 

Barrett, (1049) 4 10 

J. W. Harris, ( 1352) 12 00 

Pap Price, (773) 2 00 

A. P. Hill, (1313) 1 50 

Stonewall Jackson, (1385) 1 30 

Prairie Grove, (384) 7 50 

John B. Gordon. (1573) 1 60 

Nevada, (662) 7 70 

Maj. J. D. Ingram, (Nevada, Mo.) 2 50 

N. B. Forrest, (1166) 4 10 

Pendleton Groves, (1497) 4 00 


Mch. 30. John Pelham, (629) $ 2 20 

Bedford Forrest, (1251) 2 20 

Isaiah Norwood, (110) 4 10 

E. C. Walthall, (1301) 4 10 

31. John H. Keagan, (44) 3 40 

Maj. A. H. Hefner, (Greenville, Tex.) 2 50 

Ex. Con. Assn. Coryell Co., (135) 8 00 

Stonewall Jackson, (91) 4 00 

Maj. V. P. Sanders, (Bandera, Tex.) 2 50 

Bandera, (643) 2 90 

Egbert J. Jones, (357) 6 40 

S. M. Manning, (816) 5 00 

John M. Stone, (131) 6 00 

Jasper Hawthorne, (285) 3 40 

Apr. 2. David Pierson, (1603) 4 30 

Brig. Gen. Wm. Shields Mc-Cliutic, (Missouri City, Mo.) 10 00 

Maj . Thos. J. Cousins, (Hannibal, Mo.) 2 50 

Capt. D. Howard Shields, (Hannibal, Mo.) 2 50 

J . T . Walbert, (463) 8 70 

Manor, (664) 2 00 

Steadman, (668) 4 00 

W . A . Percy, (238) 11 25 

El Dorado, (859) 1 70 

Mildred Lee, (90) 6 10 

Jasper County, (522) 9 10 

Capt. C. C. < latron, (Carthage, Mo. ) 2 50 

3rd. Lt. Z. H. Lowdermilk, (Carthage, Mo.) 2 50 

Maj. J. W. Halliburton, (Carthage, Mo.) 2 50 

Chattooga, (422) 10 

Forrest, (1281) 2.20 

Key, (4S3) 4 00 

Sterling Price, (31) 90 10 

Bridgeport, (568) 4 00 

3 . Frank Cheatham, (35) 35 00 

Maj. Gen. Paul A. Fusz, (Philipsburg, Mont.) 25 00 

Jeff Davis, (843) 2 50 

Neff-Kice, (1194) 4 SO 

Newbern, (1162) 12 00 

Nassau, (104) 3 60 

Francis T. Nieholls, (909) 3 00 

< labell, (89) 4 00 

Ruston, (7) 5 00 

Col. R, M. Russell, (906) 3 40 

P. F. Liddell, (561) " 3 00 

Albert Pike. (1414) 1 50 


April 3. Frank T. Ryan, (Atlanta, Ga.) $ 2 00 

W . R . . Barksdale, (189) 2 00 

Lee County, (261) 3 80 

Maj . John Jenkins, (784) 4 10 

Maj. Gen. Robt. White, (Wheeling, W. Va.) 20 00 

Bell County, (122) 4 00 

Washington, (239) 4 30 

Adairsville, (962) 4 00 

W. H. H. Tison, (179) 6 50 

Pat R. Cleburne, (190) 3 70 

S. E. Hunter, (1185) 4 70 

4. Wm. Barksdale, (445) 3 60 

Pat R . Cleburne, (191) 1 40 

E. S. Rugeley, (1428) 3 70 

Mcintosh, (1328) 1 50 

Yaldosta, (1076) 4 40 

Col. Philip H . Fall, ( Houston Tex.) 5 00 

R. E. Lee, (66) 2 80 

W . R . Scurry, (516) 4 00 

J. J. Whitney, (22) 2 10 

Stonewall Jackson, (780) 5 20 

R . S . Owen, (932) 2 30 

Stonewall Jackson, ( 1288) 2 00 

Morrall, (896) 2 50 

Lt. Col. I larter R. Bishop, (Petersburg, Va.) 2 50 

Lt. Col. Simon Seward, (Petersburg, Va.) 2 50 

Lamar, (425) 2 10 

Jefferson-Laniar, (305) 5 SO 

Lee < '.unity. ( 1547) ! 5 10 

Garlington, (501) 5 50 

5. Jeff Falkner, (1382) 6 80 

Stonewall Jackson, (1395) 5 20 

Ruffin, (320) 5 SO 

Albert Sidney Johnston, (1164) 5 10 

Win. M. Mcintosh, (1085) 5 00 

Lakeland, (1543) 5 10 

John T . Wing-field, (391) 6 20 

Maj . Z . C. Dyson. ( Washington, Ga. ) 1 50 

J. W. Gillespie. (923) 2 00 

Brig. Gen. S. S. Green, (Charleston, W. Va.) 10 00 

Stonewall Jackson, (878) 5 00 

Col. B. Timmons, (61) 2 00 

Bill Green, (933) 2 90 

J . Ed . Rankin, (558) 3 90 

Talladega, (246) 16 00 


April 5. Mangum, (1135) $ 3 90 

Tom Green, (1589) 3 30 

Jefferson Davis, (1501) 3 60 

Pat Cleburne, (222) 12 00 

Joe Johnston, (995) 8 00 

John A . Jenkins, (998) 3 00 

Maj. H. J. Long, (Newport, Ark.) 2 50 

Fagan, (1430) 2 00 

6. Frank Cheatham, (1432) 30 

Rev. B. F. Blackman, Brig. Chaplain, (Fulton Ky.) . . 2 50 

D. L. Killgore, (1176) 2 50 

W. B. Bate, (1580) 3 20 

Rankin, (265) ; 7 00 

Paul J. Semmes, (832) 2 70 

Ben McCulloch, (30) 2 50 

Isaiah Norwood, (110) 2 00 

Horace King, (476) 2 10 

Dick Dowling, (197) 14 00 

Col. W. T. Black, (1095) 3 00 

Ryan, (417) 2 50 

7 . J. B. Kershaw, (413) 3 20 

Jas. W. Moss, (1287) 3 00 

Maj. H. Clay Sharkey, (Jackson, Miss.) 2 50 

John C. Brown, (520) 2 50 

Gen. Turner Ashby, (240) 9 00 

Cooper, (1431) 1 70 

W. J. Houston, (1490) 5 40 

Standwatie, (1442) 80 

Capt. I. N. McNutt, M. D., (Pevely, Mo.) 2 50 

Capt. Geo. W. Caraker, (Milledgeville, Ga.) 2 50 

George Doles, ( 730) 17 00 

Franklin, Buchanan, (747) 7 50 

Denson, (677) 6 10 

Thomas Ruffin, (794) 3 20 

Cundiff, (807) 3 50 

J. B. Robertson, (124) 3 00 

Richard Robertson, (1040) 80 

Jake Carpenter, (810) 2 30 

9 . Horace Randall, (163) 3 00 

E. H. Leblanc, (1439) 1 00 

Meadville, (911) 6 00 

Robert Ruffner, (676) 3 10 

Jeff Davis, (117) 2 90 

De Soto, (220) 3 00 

O. M. Dantzler, (1107) 1 00 

Maj. H. M. Hyams, (Natchitoches, La.) 2 50 


April 9. Lt. Col. Lucile Hyams, (Natchitoches, La.).. $ 2 50 

Sumter, (250) ^ 6Q 

W. C. Preston, (1243) 2 00 

Thos. H. Watts, (489) 3 QQ 

Buchel, (228) 3 2Q 

Vermilion, (607) ' " g 1Q 

Alonzo Napier, (1349) 5 40 

Van H. Manning, (991) 2 00 

Lexington, (648) " ' g g 

O. F. Strahl, (1329) "" 2 Q 

E. C. Walthall, (92) ^ 3Q 

Hanging Rock, (738) \ 9 0Q 

J. E. E. Giles, (708) ' " ' 4 gQ 

10 . Eobt. McLain, (1469) 2 45 

John M. Lillard, (934) 3 7 q 

Woody B. Taylor, (1020) 2 ' QQ 

Eodgers, (142) 2 20 

L. O 'B. Branch, (515) 4 gQ 

Wm. Wadsworth, (491) . . - on 

Mi Uer, (385) "" "i! "!!"!." !"." ! 520 

Clark L. Owen, (666) 9 ^ Q 

Clement A. Evans, (665) g 40 

Arcadia, (229) 2 80 

Col. W. W. Whittington, Jr., (Alexandria, La.) .... 5 

Sabine Eiver, (1470) 6 30 

J 1 . Featherstone, (517) 4 9Q 

Jeff Davis, (6) " ['[ [[[[[[[ '.'.'.'.'.'.'.['. [ 15 00 

Ben Humphreys, (19) 4 60 

Hobart, (1605) •...............'.'.'." 4 00 

Bedford Forrest, (1606) g QQ 

St. Louis, (731) .....'.'.'.'..'. 10 9 

John W. Caldwell, (139) 4 30 

Stonewall Jackson, (1288) [ o 00 

Et. Rev. George W. Peterkin, (Parkersburg, W Va ) ' 10 00 

Platte City, (728) g 4Q 

Eosser-Gibbons, (1561) 2 10 

Pat Cleburne, (1337) 5 

Joel L. Neal, (208) , ., 

E. E. Eodes, (661) 

Brig. Gen. Stith Boiling, (Petersburg, Va.) ........... 10 


5 00 

Gen. Nat H. Harris, (1607) 7. ....... "3 60 

Ben Eobertson, ( 796) " 0Q 

Oktibbeha, (1311) 4 

Walter P. Lane, (639) 1Q Qn 

Benton County, (219) Q0 

Fayetteville, (852) H 20 


Apr. 12. Troup County, (405) $ 4 40 

J. Z. George, (1310) 4 50 

R. E. Lee, (1314) 2 SO 

Randolph County, (465) 1 30 

( (nifederate Veteran, (1525) 80 

Pierce B. Anderson, (173) 2 30 

Dixie, (1520) 2 50 

Joe B. Palmer, (81) 7 00 

Braxton Bragg, (196) 7 00 

Frauds Cockrell, (1220) 3 00 

John Ingram, (37) 6 00 

Sylvestor Gwin, (235) 6 20 

Capt. Wm. A. Handley, (Eoanoke, Ala.) 2 50 

3rd. Lt. Z. M. Handley, (Roanoke, Ala.) 2 50 

1st .Lt. B. F. Weathers, (Roanoke, Ala.) 2 50 

2nd. Lt. J. W. Stuart, (Roanoke, Ala.) 2 50 

Aiken-Smith, (293) 23 20 

13 . Peachy-Gihner-Breckinridge, (1210) 3 80 

Orange County, (54) 5 00 

Benton County, (1014) 3 30 

John M. Stephen, (1341) 3 10 

Rivers Bridge, (839) 2 00 

Ohio, (1181) 2 70 

Co. A. Wheelers Cav., (1270) 8 50 

Willis L. Lang, (299) 3 60 

Darlington, (785) 20 00 

Plainview, (1548) 3 20 

Joe AVheeler, (1600) 1 70 

Maj. Kyle Blevins, (777) 5 10 

Capt. D. M. Logan, (1336) 1 80 

Col. L. C . Campbell, (488) 6 00 

Pickens, (323) 3 60 

Maj. Robt. McCulloch, (St. Louis, Mo.) 20 00 

Maj. A.M. Foute, (Cartersville, Ga.) 2 50 

M Leah Jenkins, (702) 3 20 

R. C. Pulliam, (297) 11 00 

14 . Dabney H. Maury, (1312) 4 50 

Capt. L. F. Jones, (St. Louis, Mo.) 30 00 

Scott Anderson, (619) 3 00 

Joe D. Harrison, (1608) 4 80 

Col. Early A. Steen,(742) 2 60 

Capt. N. E. Harris, (Macon, Ga.) 2 50 

W. J. Hoke, (1596) 3 00 

The Grand ( 'amp C. V., Dept. of Va., (521) 15 70 

Polk County, (403) 2 30 

Jno. M. Simonton, (602) 5 20 


Apr. 14. A.l.jt. E. H. Rogers, ( Planter sville, Miss.) $ 2 50 

Capt. B . S. Thomas, (Plantersville, Miss.) 2 50 

Gen. Jas. Conner, (374) 2 30 

16. Geo. T. Ward, (148) 3 00 

Healy Claybrook, (812) 4 00 

Ben McCulloch. (388) 2 50 

Confed. Hist. Assn., (28) 21 00 

Marion Co. C. V. Assn., (5(3) 25 40 

Omer B. Weaver, (354) 20 00 

Wickliffe, (1080) 5 40 

Denison, (885) 2 00 

Cobb-Deloney, (478) 4 00 

John B. Gordon, (1456) 1 00 

D. T. Beall, (1327) 1 20 

W. L. Cabell, (1348) ' 2 10 

Walthall, (25) 10 00 

Allen C. Jones, (266) 4 00 

Col. E. Crossland, (1228) 2 20 

O. A. Lee, (91S) 2 00 

Maj. W. W. Graham, (Baxley, Ga.) 2 50 

Wood County, (153) 6 00 

D. H. Hill, (168) 2 00 

Patrons Union, (272) 9 20 

17 . Col. A. M. O 'Neal, (Florence, Ala.) 5 00 

E. A. O 'Xeal, (298) ' 12 00 

James Xorris, (1309) 7 90 

Hampton, (389) 13 50 

S. G. Shepard, (941) 5 60 

Ben McCullough, (851) 30 

Joseph E. Johnston, (119) 5 00 

Albert Sidney Johnston, (165) 1 40 

J. B. Biffle, ( 1565) 1 40 

Stephen Elliott, (51) 3 50 

Jim Pirtle, (990) 8 00 

Thomas H. Woods, ( L180) 2 50 

18. Henry Gray, (490) 5 00 

Sterling Price, 1305) 3 70 

Sul Boss, (164) 3 40 

Natchez, (20) 8 00 

Noxubee < lounty, (1326) 5 no 

I'. M. B. Young, (820) 4 00 

Thomas G. Lowrey, (636) 3 40 

Col. Eeuben Campbell, (394) 6 00 

Morgan County, (617) 3 60 

X. B. Forrest, (943) 1 20 


Apr. 18 . Marion Cogbill, (1316) $ 4 70 

J. W. Garrett, (277) 6 00 

John C. Breckinridge, (100) 9 00 

Wm. Preston, (96) 2 40 

John H. Morgan, (95) 3 00 

Geo. W. Johnson, (98) 3 40 

Patrick R. Cleburne, (252) 2 00 

Peter Bramblett, (344) 1 50 

Jos. E. Johnson, (442) 2 00 

Crawford Kimbal, (343) 3 60 

Sam Davis, (1169) 6 00 

Gen. Alfred Mouton, (1465) 3 00 

New Roads, (1232) 4 10 

Henry St. Paul, (16) 1 60 

John F. Hill, (1031) 8 70 

Ben T. Embry, (977) 10 00 

Edward Willis, (1138) 6 00 

19. Lake County C. V. Assn., (279) 7 50 

Walker-Gaston, (821) 3 30 

Cary Whitaker, (1053) 1 50 

William Watts, (205) 10 00 

E. T. Stackhouse, (1575) 1 80 

Mercer County, (858) 4 00 

Abner Perrin, (367) 1 50 

Harrison, (1103) 2 25 

L. B. Smith, (402) 4 20 

Warren McDonald, (936) 5 00 

Joe Shelby, (844) 1 30 

DeRussey. (1485) 6 60 

20 . Fort Mill, (920) 2 00 

John M . Stemmons, (1044) 1 90 

Ex. Confed. Assn. Chicago, (8) 3 00 

Hankius, (1231) 2 80 

Surrey County, (797) 3 50 

Jeff Thompson, (987) 2 10 

Winnie Davis, (950) 2 00 

Thornton, (1271) 140 

Brig. Gen. C. H. Tebault, (New Orleans, La.) 10 00 

21. John M. Kell, (1032) 2 80 

John G. Fletcher, (638) 10 00 

Saunders, (64) 2 50 

Robt. McClain, (1469) 95 

Tom Coleman, (429) 2 50 

Ben McCulloch, (29) 2 40 

Albert Sidney Johnston, (S92) 4 30 


Apr. 21. J. T. Fleming, (1389) $ 4 ()0 

Ridgely Brown, (518) g qq 

24. A. P. Hill, (837) ........'..'.'.'..'" 29 00 

Sedalia, (985) 1 5Q 

Pee Dee, (390) '" 5 00 

Maj. E. W. Blanchard, (Greenville, Miss.) 2 50 

Col. J. L. MeCaskell, (Brandon, Miss.) 5 00 

Brig. Gen. W. C. Stubbs, (New Orleans, La.) 10 00 

Liberty Hill, (1609) 6 50 

Culpeper, (774) 3 00 

Maj. Gen. Theo. S. Garnett, (Norfolk, Va.) 20 00 

Col. Harrison Watts, (Paducah, Ky.) 5 00 

Albert Pike, (340) ' 7 0Q 

Maj. J. M. Keller, (Hot Springs, Ark.) 5 00 

Maj. Chas. Humphries, (Crystal Springs, Miss.) 2 50 

Lt. Col. Henry Clay, (Brandon, Miss.) 2 50 

Col. W, A. Milton, (Louisville, Ky . ) 5 00 

25. L. P. Thomas, (1467) ' 5 00 

Archibald Gracie, (SOS) 10 00 

E. C. Walthall, (1411) 1 10 

Capt. Thos. McCarthy, (729) I ll() 

Bassett, (1571) 1 50 

Jno. B. Gregg, (5S7) 3 00 

Gordon, (369) 8 00 

Wm. McKnight, (1447) 2 00 

Abilene, (72) 3 qq 

Erath, (1530) ' 6 30 

Fagan, (1570) 3 00 

W. J. Hardee, (39) 4 o 

S. H. Stout, (5S3) 3 00 

John H. Morgan, (448) 2 00 

Barbour County, (493) 5 40 

Meriwether, (1610) 8 00 

Albert Sidney Johnston, ( 165) 2 50 

Brig. Gen. A. T. Watts, (Beaumont, Tex.) 10 00 

Ziegler, (1493) ' x 00 

B, T. Davis, (759) 3 50 

Stonewall Jackson, (772) 2 10 

Lafayette McLaws, (596) 12 50 

Kershaw, ( 743) 1 qq 

H. A. Clinch, (470) 4 00 

Maurice T. Smith, (1277) 5 00 

Bob. M. McKinney, (1527) 7 00 

26 . George T. Ward, ( 1090) 2 00 

Brig. Gen. C. M. McLellan, (Claremore, I. T.) 10 00 


Apr. 26. Col. John W. Jordan, (Tulser, I. T.) $ 5 00 

Clanton, (1072) 1100 

John M. Stemmons, (1044) 1 90 

30. Brig. Gen. H. A. Newman, (Huntsville, Mo.) 10 00 

Jackson, (838) 5 50 

Crockett, (141) 6 45 

May 1 . Wm. E. Jones, ( 709) 4 00 

Gen. James Connor, (939) 2 10 

2. John Peck, (183) 3 60 

Geo. W. Robinson, (1473) 6 90 

Raines, (698) 3 00 

James R. Herbert, (657) : 3 50 

Magnolia, (588) 1 90 

( '(.]. W. .!. Woodward, (Wilmington, N. C.) 5 00 

Velasco, (592) 120 

Eufaula, (958) 6 00 

Atlanta, (159) 30 00 

Maj. J. B. Beaumont, (Union Springs, Ala.) 5 00 

M. T. Owen, (416) 2 00 

Geo. W. Foster, (407) 2 80 

7. 3rd Lt, C. M. Nunery, (Waycross, Ga.) 1 00 

.Sam Johnston, (1139) 2 50 

John Bowie Strange, (464) 5 00 

8. Et. Rev. J. M. Lucey, Div. Chaplain, (Pine Bluff, Ark.) 5 00 

Cabell, (125) 9 10 

Marion, (641) 6 00 

9. A. P. Hill, (951) 4 00 

J. E. B. Stuart (1001) 3 SO 

Stanly, (1369) m 1 00 

.las. H. Dunklin, (1475) 6 SO 

Guilford, (795) 11 50 

Zebulon Vance, (681) 6 00 

10. Urquhart Gillette, (1611) 6 00 

Bourbon, (1368) 2 30 

Upshur County, (1240) 4 00 

Dooly ( lounty, (1109) 6 10 

S. D. Fuller, ( 1504) 3 80 

14. Raines, (698) 3 00 

Garvin, ( 1523) 4 00 

V. Y. Cook, (1474) 1 70 

Joe Walker, (335) 2 80 

Brig. Gen. J. L. Sweat, (Waycross, Ga.) 10 00 

Tippah County, (453) 9 20 

Confed. Surv. Assn., (435) 18 10 

Col. S. E. Lewis, M. D., (Washington, D. C.) 5 00 


May 20 . Stephen D. Lee, (753) $ 4 00 

Richard Kirkland, (704) 5 00 

22. A. Burnett Rhett, (767) 6 00 

Thos. M. Wagner, (410) 2 40 

Presley, (757) 5 10 

Beaufort, (366) 4 10 

Barnard E. Bee, (84) 5 00 

Rion, (534) 2 00 

Wallace, (1196) 1 00 

I ). Wyatt Aiken, (432) 5 00 

( 'apt. .las. W. Moore, (Hampton, S. C.) 2 50 

Eutaw, (1189) 1 50 

Lamar, (161) 2 00 

McMillan. (217) 100 

23. Sam Davis, (1280) 4 60 

Harllee, (840) 4 10 

Maj. B. J. Hammet, (Blaekville, S. C.) 2 50 

24. Gen. James Connor, (939) 1 50 

Lamar-Gibson, (814) 1 50 

< tol. Geo. H. Gause, (SliJell, La.) 5 00 

Lt. Gen. Clement A. Evans, (Atlanta, Ga.) 20 00 

Brig. Gen. W. A. Montgomery, (Edwards, Miss.) 10 00 

Maj. < ). .J. Meade, (Kern, Cal.) 2 50 

28. Jeff Davis, (1612) 3 SO 

Maj. G. W. Bowman, (Piano, Tex.) 2 50 

Brig. Gen. D. Thornton, (Louisville, Ky.) 10 00 

30. Lt. Col. Wm. F. Beard, M. D., (Shelbyville, Ky.) 5 00 

Edward Willis, (1138) 15 00 

Maj. Columbus Hallen, (New Orleans, La.) 2 50 

Col. W. B. Berry, (Brookston, Tex.) 5 00 

Lt. Col. Hall P. Street, (Oklahoma City, Okla.) 3 50 

31. Lee Sherrell, (1256) 1 50 

June 4. Organ ( Ikurch, (1535) 2 00 

Lt. Col. Elijah Basye, (Louisville, Ky.) 2 50 

Maj. W. P. Gibson, (Warrensburg, Mo.) 5 00 

Maj. A. G. Levy, (Mobile, Ala.) 5 00 

Brig. (Jen. John M. Brooks, (Knoxville, Tenn.) 10 00 

John C. Brown, (468) 2 40 

Capt. Alex Moore, (Krebs, Ind. Ter.) 2 50 

Maj. B. F. ( 'urtis, (Winchester, Ky.) 3 50 

6. Eunice, (671) 60 

Stanwatie, (1442) 10 

Lt. Col. S. Emanuel, (New York, N. Y.) 6 00 

14. ('apt. J. G. Deupree, (University, Miss.) 2 50 

15 . Maj. W. A. Via, (Rolla, Mo.) 2 50 


June 18. Lt. Col. Leland Hume, (Nashville, Tenn.) $ 2 50 

Capt. W. A. Dickkinson, (Johnson, City, Tenu.) 2 50 

19. Capt. Gordon S. Levy, (New Orleans, La.) 1 00 

Brig. Gen. D. B. Gurley, (Waco, Tex.) 10 00 

Col. John W. T. Leech, (New Orleans, La.) 6 00 

21. Maj. T. T. Eaton, (Louisville, Ky.) 2 50 

25. Lt. Col. D. A. Spivey, (Conway, S. C.) 2 50 

Gen. C. M. Wiley, (Macon, Ga.) 1 00 

26. Lt. Col. J. B. Gathright, (Louisville, Ky.) 5 00 

Bob Stone, (93) ... 4 40 

Lt. Col. Lamar O. Quintero, (New Orleans, La.) 5 00 

27. Brig. Gen. John M. Brooks, (Knoxville, Tenn.) 1 00 

Brig. Gen. S. S. Birchfield, (Deining, N. Mex.) 25 00 

July 2. Col. Jno. W. Morton, (Nashville, Tenn.) 5 00 

Col. Thos. Claiborne, (Nashville, Tenn.) 5 00 

Col. E. N. Pro vine, (Coles Creek, Miss.) 5 00 

Col. C. C. Slaughter, (Dallas, Tex.) 5 00 

Lt, Col. H. Kempner, (Galveston, Tex.) 5 00 

Col. Henry Moore, (Texarkana, Ark.) 5 00 

Screven County, (1083) 6 50 

Lt. Col. E. L. Wilkins, (Manning, S. C.) 2 50 

Lt. Col. D. J. Bradham, (Manning, S. C.) 2 50 

Col. S. A. Cunningham, (Nashville, Tenn.) 5 00 

3. Carraway, (1613) 7 80 

9. Maj. C. C. Kavanaugh, (Little Eock, Ark.) 5 00 

Col. Tim E. Cooper, (Memphis, Tenn.) 5 00 

Lakeland, (1543) 5 10 

Col. B. F. Eshleman, (New Orleans, La.) 5 00 

Col. N. G. Pearsall, (Covington, La.) 10 00 

11. E. B. Pickett, (626) 9 80 

Stewart, (155) 1 50 

Crisp County, (1614) 4 20 

16. Maj. D. M. Dockery, (Hernando, Miss.) 2 50 

Col. James G. Holmes, (Macon, Ga.) 5 00 

A. F. Alexander, (1457) 2 50 

17 . Col. W. E. Poulson, (Chicago, 111.) 5 00 

Col. B. S. Wathen, (Dallas, Tex.) 10 00 

Ben T. DuVal, (146) 2 20 

18 . Stonewall Jackson, (427) 2 80 

24. Lt. Col. B. A. Munnerlyn, (Georgetown, S. C.) 5 00 

Lt. Col. A. H. Bahnson, (Winston-Salem, N. C.) 2 50 

Barbour County, (493) 4 80 

Maj. F. B. Harris, (Morton 's Gap, Ky.) 2 50 

25. Lt. Col. J. W. Scott, (Greensboro, S. C.) 5 00 

26. Lt. Col. Ben B. Chism, (Paris, Ark.) 2 50 


Aug. 14. Bryan County, (1229) $ 4 50 

Col. H. M. Dillard, (Meridian, Tex.) 5 00 

Beauregard, (1205) 3 00 

" Jeb ' ' Stuart, (1585) 3 10 

A. B. Witt, (1615) 2 00 

Winnie Davis, (1244) 2 50 

Lt. Col. B. B. Henry, (Tazewell, Va.) 5 00 

Col. F. A. Hervy. Sr., (Mobile, Ala.) 10 00 

15. Flainview, (1548) 1 80 

20. Brig. Gen. E. M. Hudson, (New Orleans, La.) 20 00 

Sterling Brice, (1030) 15 00 

Col. C. H. Todd, M. D., (Owensboro, Ky.) 10 00 

21. Charles Seton Fleming, (1616) 3 40 

J. J. Dickison, (1617) 6 50 

28. C. V. Assn. of Cal., (770) 12 20 

J. I. Metts, (1578) 4 00 

Oscar B. Band, (127S) 5 70 

29 . Hi. Bledsoe, (1201) 5 00 

Elliot Muse, (161S) 5 20 

Wichita C. V. Assn., (1350) 5 00 

Sept. 3 . Woodville, (49) 2 60 

Dooley County, (1109) 5 60 

4. Col. H. C. Hunt, (Calhoun, Ga.) 1 00 

17. Brig. Gen. D. B. Gurley, (Waco, Tex.) 10 00 

Bichard, Coke, (600) 8 00 

Wade Hampton, (1064) 5 00 

18 . Bartow, (604) 5 50 

Joseph E. Johnston, (34) 6 00 

Gracie, (472) 20 00 

Moffett-Boage, 949) 14 85 

A. E. Witt, (1615) ■ 3 30 

Bill Feeney, (353) S 00 

19 . Ben McCulloch, (946) 19 00 

Marmaduke, (615) 8 70 

Col. Johu F. Hickman, (Xashville, Tenn.) 5 00 

25. Ivanhoe, (1507) 1 70 

McElhaney, (835) 8 70 

26. Bobert Emmet Bodes, (1619) 5 90 

Oct. 3 . Maj. John L. Mirick, (684) 2 30 

J. W. Starnes, (134) 5 00 

Gratiot, (203) 2 00 

4. Sutton, (1404) 2 70 

11. Fitzhugh Lee, (1141) 5 00 

James W. Fulkerson, (1340) 3 00 

Ector, (234) 180 

16. Mcintosh, (1328) 2 00 


Oct. 16. Tom Smith, (1372) $ 4 80 

Alfred Iverson, (1482) 2 00 

30 . Fred A. Ashf ord, (632) 3 00 

Geo. E. Pickett, (570) 1 40 

31. Albert Sidney Johnston, (115) 4 10 

Brig. Gen. E. G. Williams, (Waynesville, Mo.) 10 00 

Callcote- Wrenn, (1620) 2 00 

David Coleman, (1621) 2 00 

W. P. Eogers, (322) 6 00 

Joseph E. Johnston, (1424) 2 40 

Nov. 1. John G. Walker, (128) 5 50 

Joe Johnston, (722) 3 00 

Joe E. Johnston, (915) 3 00 

Gid Lowe, (1532) 5 00 

Brig. Gen. J. Kellogg, (Little Rock, Ark.) 1 00 

Bernhardt, (988) 2 00 

Sterling Price, (414) 2 00 

Albert Pike, (340) 3 00 

Ben T. Duval, (146) 4 00 

E. W. Harper, (207) 5 00 

Col. J. R. Woodside,. (751) 1 30 

Lane-Diggs, (750) 5 10 

M. P. Dowry, (342) 8 00 

W. J. Hardee, (1087) 2 60 

Ector, (234) 1 20 

Col. S. Spencer, (New York, N. Y.) 5 00 

Throckmorton, (1433) 4 00 

5 . Maj. Gen. James H. Berry, (Bentonville, Ark.) 1 00 

7 . Ebeneeser, (1622) 4 40 

8 . Graybill, (1534) 2 00 

Capt. Wm. L. Ritter, (Baltimore, Md.) 2 50 

12 . Jefferson, (826) 3 00 

John L. Barnett, (1114) 5 10 

Wm. M. Slaughter, (971) 3 20 

Warthen, (748) 7 50 

Bill Harris, (1149) 4 60 

13 . H. A. Wise & W. H. F. Lee, (1623) 2 00 

Adam Johnson, (1008) 4 40 

14. Jones M. Withers, (675) 5 80 

Maj. Gen. A. C. Trippe, (Baltimore, Md.) 20 00 

15. Col. J. V. Harris, M. D., (Key West, Fla.) 5 00 

Franklin Buchannan, (1214) 1 00 

19. Dee, (401) 2 00 

Gen. D. M. Frost, (737) 11 60 

Maj. W. R. Jones, M. D., (Hawesville, Ky.) 1 00 


Oct. 20. Bedford Forrest, (1387) $ 3 60 

Wiggonton, (359) , 5 00 

Lt. Col. J. W. Hollingsworth, (Princeton, Ky.) 1 00 

22 . A. E. Steen, (1624) 2 00 

Geo. W. Murphy, (1059) 6 20 

27 . Sumter, (642) 18 00 

Dec. 4. Jas. B. Martin, (292) 5 00 

Joseph E. Johnston, (1625) 3 10 

5. J. H. Dunklin, (1475) 10 50 

6. Lamar Fontaine, (1331) 3 00 

Francis S. Bartow, (284) 4 00 

13 Hattiesburg, (21) 8 60 

Chas. J. Batchelor, (1272) 1 50 

Maj. Gen. Wm. C. Harrison, M. D., (Los Angeles, Cal.) 1 00 

Confed. Surv. Assn., (524) 5 00 

Gen. LeEoy Stafford, (3) 3 50 

17. Goss-Grigsby, (1515) 3 00 

18. Maj. Gen. Wm. H. Jewell, (Orlando, Fla.) 2 00 

Total Receipts $ 6458 70 

Balance on hand (as per report Dec. 31, 1905) . 518 90 

TOTAL $ 6977 60 


Officers ' Dues $ 1356 50 

Camp Dues 4736 35 

Commissions 43 00 

Donations 322 85 














$ 6458 70 

Voucher No. 320 $ 260 00 

Voucher No. 321 17 42 

Voucher No. 322 55 00 

Voucher No. 323 2 05 

Voucher No. 324 9 00 

Voucher No. 325 14 25 

Voucher No. 326 13 20 

Voucher No. 327 7 62 

Voucher No. 328 260 00 

Voucher No. 329 14 46 

Voucher No. 330 55 00 

Voucher No. 331 27 40 

Voucher No. 332 7 56 


Meh. 31. Voucher Xo. 333 $ 22 00 

31. Voucher No. 334 39 63 

Voucher Xo. 335 260 00 

April 2. Voucher Xo. 336 55 00 

7. Voucher Xo. 337 5 70 

20. Voucher Xo. 338 50 25 

28. Voucher Xo. 339 45 90 

30. Voucher Xo. 340 41 93 

Voucher Xo. 341 260 00 

May 1. Voucher Xo. 342 55 00 

9. Voucher Xo. 343 9 00 

19. Voucher Xo. 344 IS 00 

24. Voucher Xo. 345 31 50 

Voucher Xo. 346 73 75 

31. Voucher Xo. 347 37 80 

Voucher Xo. 348 260 00 

June. 1. Voucher Xo. 349 15 06 

5. Voucher Xo. 350 55 00 

18. Voucher Xo. 351 91 25 

19. Voucher Xo. 352 6 75 

25. Voucher Xo.. 353... 16 00 

30. Voucher Xo. 354 91 35 

Voucher Xo. 355 260 00 

July 2. Voucher Xo. 356 55 00 

10. Voucher Xo. 357 65 85 

16. Voucher Xo. 358 4 80 

25. Voucher Xo. 359 208 00 

31. Voucher Xo. 360 100 81 

Voucher Xo. 361 260 00 

Aug. . 2. Voucher Xo. 362 55 00 

23. Voucher Xo. 363 19 35 

31. Voucher Xo. 364 44 35 

Voucher Xo. 365 260 00 

Sept. 1. Voucher Xo. 366 55 00 

17. Voucher Xo. 367 32 95 

29. Voucher Xo. 368 17 57 

Voucher Xo. 369 260 00 

Oct. 2. Voucher Xo. 370 55 00 

31. Voucher Xo. 371 15 03 

Voucher Xo. 372 260 00 

Xov. 3. Voucher Xo. 373 55 00 

5. Voucher Xo. 374 3 99 

22. Voucher Xo. 375 4 25 

30. Voucher Xo. 376 19 60 

Voucher Xo. 377 260 00 


Dec. 1. Voucher No. 378 55 00 

14. Voucher No. 379 12 98 

31. Voucher No. 380 61 25 

Voucher No. 381 80 00 

Voucher No. 382 260 00 

Voucher No. 383 37 15 

Voucher No. 384 55 00 

Voucher No. 385 250 00 

Voucher No. 386 337 00 

Voucher No. 387 25 00 

Voucher No. 38S 24 37 

Total Expenditures $ 5853 13 

Balance in Bank this date. . . 1124 47 

TOTAL $ 6977 60 

Salaries (including amounts paid for extra 
help at and immediately preceding the 

Beunion) $ 3120 00 

Printing 1418 50 

Postage 375 22 

Bent 660 00 

Miscellaneous 279 41 

$ 5853 13 

Adj't-Gcn'l and Chief of Staff. 
New Orleans, Dec. 31, 1906. 

We, the undersigned, a sub-committee of the Finance Committee, 
have examined the foregoing account of the Adjutant-General, care- 
fully checking each item, verifying the footings, and comparing the 
expenditures enumerated with the vouchers submitted for examination, 
and find the same correct in every particular. Accompanying the report 
is a certified statement from the Cashier of the Citizens' Bank of 
Louisiana, that the balance represented on hand is actually on deposit 
to the credit of the United Confederate Veterans, subject to check. 

Secretary Finance Committee. J. F. SHIPP, 


I have carefully checked the above, and concur in the statement 

WM. A. MONTGOMERY, Chairman of Finance Committee. 


Gen. Fred L. Robertson says: "The splendid showing presented 
in this Report is due to the faithful, persistent and pains taking efforts 
of the Adjutant General in the management of the affairs of the Order. 
To Gen. Mickle solely belongs this credit. He is certainly the right 
man in the right place." 

Gen. Virgil Y. Cook writes: "Everything considered, and that 
means perplexing obstacles to surmount, 1 think your Report for the 
fiscal year ending Dee. 31, 1906, a remarkably good showing. Knowing 
the conditions and difficulties under which you so ardently and arduously 
labor, it is ineded gratifying to see what you have done. ' ' 

Col. Philip H. Fall: "Your statement is surprising to me. When 
yoa were selected to succeed Gen. Moorman, we were owing several 
thousand dollars, and I never dreamed that we would recover, but we 
are ahead. You deserve the thanks of our beloved Order for your 
splendid management of affairs." 

Gen. W. A. Montgomery, Chairman: "Our Association is to con- 
gratulated on the Report you make of our finances. As Chairman of the 
Finance Committee, I would express to you my gratification at the 
mariner in which you have conducted our affairs." 



To Dr. John J. Scott, 


Sir— The by-laws of the Constitution of the United Confed- 
erate Veterans' Association (Art. V, p. 7) provide for four com- 
mittees—viz., Section 2, Historical ; Section 3, Relief ; Section 4, 
Monumental; Section 5, Finance. The Historical and Finance 
Committees have long since teen established and in discharge of 
their respective duties. But it seems to appear that the Relief 
Committee has yet no existence, and the Monumental Commit- 
tee is but now in process of formation. The language of Sec- 
tion 4, Article V, of the by-laws is as follows: "The Monumental 
Committee shall have charge of all matters relating to monu- 
ments, graves and the Federation's objects and purposes in 
these respects." 

The Adjutant-General states under date of January 24, 1906, 
that he has found it difficult to satisfactorily form the entire 
committee, but that anouncement by general orders of the con- 
struction of the committee would be made as soon as practicable. 

At the present date the members selected are: Dr. John J. 
Scott, Shreveport. La., chairman: Dr. Samuel E. Lewis, Wash- 
ington, D. C, secretary; F. L. Creech, Greenville, Ala.; T. "W. 
Givens. Tampa. Fla., and Val. C. Giles. Austin, Tex. 


Comrade F. L. Creech writes : 

"The Cities of Montgomery, Tuscaloosa, Union Springs, 
Hayneville. Camden, Greenville, and probably others, have monu- 
ments erected to the Confederate dead. In most of the places 
they have a number of graves, but, so far as I have been able to 
discover, they have no separate burial-ground." 

Comrade T. W. Givens writes : 

"I can only give you a list of the Confederate monuments 
erected in our State, which are : 

"Pensacola— Quite a handsome monument. 

"Mariana— A neat and modest affair in Courthouse Square. 

2 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

"Tallahassee — Another neat one at west front of capitol. 

"Monticello — A handsome one in front of courthouse. 

"Lake City — One, probably in cemetery. 

"Jacksonville — A handsome bronze, called the 'Hemming 
Monument,' in Center Park, principally at the expense of 
Charlie Hemming, a Florida Veteran, but now living in Texas. 

"St. Augustine — A very substantial one in the plaza, dedi- 
cated to the memory of some of her gallant sons, but whose names 
I cannot give at present. 

"Gainesville — Has one, erected about a year ago. 

"Tampa — There are probably about twenty -five or thirty 
Veterans buried in our cemetery h^re, all since the war. Will 
in a few days secure a list of them." 

Comrade Dr. Samuel E. Lewis desires to state that near the 
District of Columbia line, situated in Montgomery County, 
Maryland, at Woodside. are the remains of seventeen unknown 
Confederate soldiers in one grave, marked by an appropriate 
granite monument bearing a suitable inscription. These sol- 
diers fell near Fort Stevens on the occasion of the raid of Gen- 
eral Jubal A. Early on Washington City, July, 1864. 

At Arlington Cemetery, Virginia, adjacent to Washington 
City, prior to 1874 there were 377 graves of Confederate sol- 
diers and State prisoners. About that date 241 were removed 
to their respective States by North Carolina, South Carolina 
and Virginia, leaving 136 from other States. The existence of 
these graves was forgotten till August, 1898, w T hen a few Con- 
federate Veterans undertook to make an investigation. They 
found a deplorable condition, in that these 136 graves were scat- 
tered about the cemetery of over two hundred acres, not marked 
at all as soldiers, and intermingled with the graves of Union 
soldiers, civilians, quartermaster employees, refugees and negro 
contrabands of war. These veterans organized the Charles 
Broadway Rouss Camp No. 1191, U. C. V., for the purpose of 
securing Government action to bring about honorable care for 
the graves of the Confederate soldiers, and petitioned President 
William McKinley to that end. This effort resulted in Con- 
gress making an appropriation of $2,500 and the gathering of all 
Confederate dead in the Arlington Cemetery and the Soldiers' 
Home Cemetery (264 in all) into one burial-ground of about 
three and one-third acres, situated in the most desirable part 
of Arlington Cemetery; and erecting over each grave a white 
marble headstone, bearing inscription of the number of the grave, 
the name of the occupant, his rank, company, regiment, State, 
and the letters "C. S. A.," signifying Confederate States Army. 
The work was completed in 1901. (See Arlington report here- 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 3 

Before the completion of this work this Camp had extended 
their investigations into the location and condition of the 30,152 
graves of Confederate soldiers lying in the North, and prepared 
a paper for dissemination, entitled "Some Data Relating to the 
Locations and Condition of the Graves of Confederate Soldiers 
Who Died in Federal Prisons and Military Hospitals in the 
Northern States and Were Buried Near Their Places of Confine- 
ment ; Also, Some Suggestions as to the Necessary Congressional 
Legislation to Provide for Remedial Measures." More than five 
thousand of these documents were distributed to the several 
Confederate organizations and influential Southern people and 
to some Northern people. In 1902 the committee of the Camp 
having the matter in charge prepared the bill providing for an 
appropriation of $200,000 for the reacquirement of the burial- 
grounds by the United States Government, erecting suitable head- 
stonas and building substantial fences, etc. ; and requested Sen- 
ator Foraker to introduce it in the United States Senate in De- 
cember. 1902, and to reintroduce it in December, 1904, and 
December, 1905, and finally brought about its enactment into 
law March 9, 1906. (See Report 25, Senate, Fifty-ninth Con- 
gress, first session.) 

In effecting these results, it may properly be written that not 
only has there been brought about at last provision for bonor- 
able care for our dead comrades, neglected in unhonored graves 
for more than forty years, but also there has been rendered an 
important service to the South in removing from it the implica- 
tion of indifference as to the graves of its soldier patriots ; to the 
Northern people and the Federal Government from failure to 
discharge an imperative duty to a vanquished and gallant foe; 
to the entire country for removing from its escutcheon a stain 
shameful to be permitted to exist among civilized people; and 
1o history in preserving from oblivion the visible evidences of 
one of the greatest and most important features of the greatest 
war of modern times, contingent on the stern war policy of the 
Federal Government that prisoners of war held in Federal hands 
were no more than dead men, but, if exchanged, would insure 
the destruction of the Army of General Sherman, and jeopardize 
the safety of the Army of General Grant. 

The direction which the committee shall determine as ad- 
visable for their labors to take is of importance, and should be 
carefully considered at this Reunion. But, if nothing else should 
be done than the gathering of historical data relating to the dead, 
and perpetuating their memory, it will be a praiseworthy labor 
of importance to justify our best efforts. 

The secretary desires to suggest the importance, for the pur- 
pose of preserving historical information for the records of com- 

4 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

panies, regiments, States and commands, and of families, that the 
committee recommends to the convention to be assembled at New 
Orleans this year that a resolution be adopted urging upon the 
people of the South that hereafter it shall become the uniform 
custom to inscribe upon all tombstones of deceased Confederate 
soldiers the full name, rank, company, regiment, State, command, 
etc., of the deceased soldier. The manifold advantages of an en- 
during record of this kind must be manifest to all persons. The 
tombstones might well be made of a pattern which, as far as the 
eye could reach, would indicate the grave of a Confederate sol- 
dier. Such a design might be described in outline as consist- 
ing of upright straight lines surmounted by lines forming a 
right-angled triangle, the apex thus : 

1 o** c - w -% 

In concluding this report, the secretary begs leave to bring to 
the attention of the committee the valuable work of Mrs. W. J. 
Behan, of New Orleans, La., President of the Confederated 
Southern Memorial Association, entitled "History of the Con- 
federated Memorial Associations of the South," printed by the 
Graham Press, New Orleans, in 1904. 


Secretary Monumental Committee, 
United Confederate Veterans' Association. 

Washington, D. C, April 18, 1906. 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 


(By the Charles Broadway Rouss Camp Xo. 1191, United 
Confederate Veterans, Washington.) 


Samuel E. Lewis, M. D.. District of Columbia; E. W 1 . Ander- 
son, District of Columbia; Henry M. Marchant, Texas; William 
Broun, Virginia ; John M. Hickey, Tennessee ; Nathan C. Mun- 
roe, Georgia; Silas Hare, Texas; Julian G. Moore, North Caro- 
lina; George C. Giddings, Texas. 


This report is issued for the information of the Camps of the 
Association of the United Confederate Veterans in compliance 
with the following resolutions : 

' ' Headquarters 
' ' Charles Broadway Rouss Camp 
"No. 1191, U. C.V. 

"Washington, D. C, Tuesday, November 12, 1901. 

"Resolved, That the final report upon the gathering together 
of the heretofore scattered Confederate dead in the Soldiers' 
Home National Cemetery, in the District of Columbia, and those 
in the older part of the National Cemetery at Arlington, Va., 
into the new 'Confederate section' in Arlington Cemetery, and 
marking their graves with white marble headstones adequately 
inscribed, is hereby accepted and adopted. 

'And, being of the opinion that the history of the reburial 
at Arlington, the views of eminent Confederate leaders and 
prominent societies regarding the same, and the action of the 
Reunion Convention at Memphis, Tenn., 1901, relating to the 
Confederate dead are matters wherein many Confederate Vet- 
erans feel a deep interest and desire to be informed; therefore, 
be it further 

"Resolved, That the report dated April 25, 1901, be returned 
to the chairman of the Committee on Confederate Dead, and 
that he be, and is hereby, authorized and directed to have 
printed, in pamphlet form suitable- for distribution to the Camps 
of the United Confederate Veterans, the final report herein- 

6 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

before referred to, with the report dated April 25, 1901, the 
resolution passed at Memphis, May 29, 1901, all necessary maps 
and diagrams, and such additional matter as may be necessary 
to clearly set forth the entire subject in a proper manner. 

"Samuel E. Lewis, 

"Commander Charles Broadway Bouss Camp, U. C. V. 

"A true copy. 
"Wm. Broun, 


The Final Report of the Committee on Confederate Dead. 

Charles Broadway Rouss Camp 
No. 1191, TJ. C. V. 

Washington, D. C, Tuesday, November 12, 1901. 

The Chairman of the Committee on Confederate Dead respect- 
fully submits for consideration the final report upon the re- 
burial of the new "Confederate section" in the National Cem- 
etery at Arlington, Va. 

It is but fitting to state in brief resume that the investigation 
as to the condition of the graves of the Confederate dead in the 
older part of Arlington Cemetery, begun in August, 1898, having 
been followed on December 14, 1898, by the patriotic speech of 
President McKinley at Atlanta, Ga., the way appeared open for 
remedial measures, and a petition to him, June 5, 1899, resulted 
in an appropriation by Congress, approved June 6, 1900, and 
the order for the execution of the work by the Secretary of War 
April 25, 1901. 

By order of the Quartermaster-General, the Depot Quarter- 
master at Washington at once commenced work by advertising 
for proposals for the disinterment of the 128 Confederate dead 
in the National Soldiers' Home Cemetery, in the District of 
Columbia, and the 136 Confederate dead in the older part of the 
National Cemetery at Arlington, Va., and the reburial of the 
entire number (264) in a separate plot of ground set aside in the 
newer part of Arlington Cemetery, named the "Confederate sec- 
tion." The reburial having been accomplished, proposals were 
invited for furnishing new white marble headstones, thirty-six 
inches long, ten inches wide and four inches thick, inscribed in 
succession from the top downward with the number of the grave, 
the name of the Confederate soldier, his company, regiment, 
State, and, finally, the letters "C. S. A." 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 7 

The general survey, laying out the bounds of the section, out- 
lining the burial sites and carriage drives, and designating the 
individual graves, having been previously made and mapped, 
and, as above stated, the reburial having been accomplished, the 
Engineer Officer made the necessary levelings for the carriage 
drives, drainage, etc., while the headstones were being prepared, 
and the remaining work to be done definitely ascertained. In 
brief, two thousand cubic yards of earth were required for filling 
in depressed portions of the section ; the carriage drives were 
excavated to required grade to receive about thirteen or fourteen 
inches of material to form a solid and firm, but at the same time 
elastic, roadbed, built up as follows from the bottom : Six inches 
of broken cobblestone dressed with about two inches of loose 
earth, for the purpose of binding, well tamped and rolled, fol- 
lowed by a mixture of three inches of gravel from the gravel pit 
on the grounds and three inches of clean Potomac River gravel 
well intermixed and well rolled to the utmost degree of com- 
pactness, and to an established grade longitudinally and arched 
transversely. Drainage established through well-built cobble- 
stone gutters on each side of the drives empties into ample 
pressed-brick basins, conveying the water to the low grounds far 
distant through eight-inch terracotta drainage pipe. The entire 
surface of the burial site and its boundaries was thoroughly and 
plentifully covered with rich compost, well harrowed in and 
sown with grass seed. 

The setting of the headstones was completed about October 1, 
1901, and was the final stage except the planting of the trees and 
shrubbery, which will probably be deferred till early next spring. 
The time required for the execution of the work was about five 

The expenditure of money has thus far been about $7,000, as 
follows: Appropriated by Congress, $2,500; requisition upon the 
annual fund of the cemetery, $2,500, and a further requisition, 
amount unknown, perhaps, $1,000 or $2,000. Hereafter the care 
given will be the same as for all other parts of the cemetery 
provided for by annual appropriation of Congress. 

From the beginning of the work your committee has witnessed 
every stage till its full completion. They have seen the old 
graves excavated to their original extent, the new coffins made, 
the entire remains removed and placed in the new coffins, the 
excavation of the new graves, the reinterments, the filling up of 
the new graves and the old ones, and, finally, the setting of the 
white marble headstones. They have also seen the surveys and 
levelings, the excavations for the carriage drives and the filling 
up of the depressed portions alluded to, the building of the gut- 
ters and basins, the laying of the drainpipes and the building 
up of the carriage drives; and your committee takes great pleas- 

8 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

ure in testifying to the exact compliance with the specifications, 
and that all has been done in a thoroughly workmanlike manner, 
entirely satisfactory to us and highly creditable to all concerned. 

The care exercised by the Government that the inscriptions 
upon the new headstones should be as near absolutely correct 
as possible is especially worthy of mention. Arlington Cemetery 
was established in 1864, and at that time but a small register 
was needed ; but, as the number of interments grew to many thou- 
sands (18,000), it became often necessary to make new registers, 
and as often as a new one was made clerical errors crept in and 
past errors were perpetuated and multiplied, so that finally there 
became very many errors as to name and rank. 

When the time came to prepare the inscriptions for the new 
headstones the Depot Quartermaster sent the lists, drawn from 
the existing registers in the superintendent's office at the cem- 
eteries, to the War Department for correction by actual com- 
parison with the muster rolls in the Confederate archives of the 
department. Thus, there can scarcely be in the result an error 
at all possible to have been avoided. It is difficult to estimate 
the importance of this care upon the part of Major T. E. True, 
the Depot Quartermaster. 

In compliance with the resolution of the Camp, dated May 14, 
1901, as follows: "Resolved, That Commander S. E. Lewis be 
directed to prepare a statement of the labors performed by the 
Charles Broadway Rouss Camp No. 1191, United Confederate 
Veterans, in its efforts to secure the collection of the Confederate 
dead in the District of Columbia and vicinity and the reinter- 
ment of their remains in a section of the Arlington National 
Cemetery, to be known as the 'Confederate section,' and furnish 
the same to Gen. John B. Gordon for the information of the 
Convention of the United Confederate Veterans to be held at 
the reunion at Memphis, May, 1901," the chairman of the com- 
mittee prepared a report, somewhat in detail, as to the status of 
the matter up to April 25, 1901, and incidentally commented 
upon the necessity for requesting Congress to take appropriate 
action for the care of the 28.000 Confederate dead said to be re- 
maining in the Northern States. This report was designed to 
be laid before the Convention of the United Confederate Vet- 
erans at Memphis for their information, together with a resolu- 
tion, to be adopted, thanking Congress and the President for 
the appropriation for the reburial at Arlington. The resolution 
was offered and adopted. 

The entire report was laid before Gen. Stephen D. Lee, whose 
headquarters had been courteously tendered to your committee 
for its use, and there it was carefully read and received the 
approval of the many eminent visiting Confederate soldiers 
actively engaged in the work of the United Confederate Vet- 

.„:„ , United Confederate Veterans' Association. 9 

ierans' Association; but, owing to the shortness of the session 
and other reasons unnecessary to mention, there was no suitable 
opportunity for it to be submitted to the assembled convention, 
but the substance of it was ably presented to the Committee 
on Resolutions by Col. Hilary A. Herbert, the member on that 
committee from the District of Columbia, and your chairman 
assisted by exhibiting and explaining the maps of Arlington 
Cemetery, the new Confederate section and the burial site, the 
specifications for the disinterment and reinterment and for the 
new headstones, and the diagram accompanying th? latter. 

A duplicate of the report was presented to Gen. Stephen D. 
Lee, the chairman of the Historical Committee of the United 
Confederate Veterans' Association, for such use as he might 
deem fitting, and the other copy is herewith returned to the 
Camp for its disposal. 


Samuel E. Lewis, 


Report on the Present Condition and the Care of the Con- 
federate Dead in the District of Columbia 
and Immediate Vicinity. 

Charles Broadway Rouss Camp 
No. 1191, IT. C. V. 
1418 Fourteenth Street, N W., 

Washington. D. C. April 25, 1901. 
Gen. John B. Gordon, 

Commander-in-Chief of the United Confederate Veterans: 

General— In compliance with a resolution adopted by the 
Camp. I have the honor to submit the following report, relating 
to the Confederate dead in the District of Columbia and im- 
mediate vicinity : 

It has not yet been definitely learned how many remain. It 
was currently known to. Confederates here in the early years 
after the close of the war that there were seventeen unknown 
near Fort Stevens, just outside the boundary line of the Dis- 
trict, who bad been left by Gen. Jubal A. Early on the field of 
battle after his attack on Washington City, July 11, 1864, and 
that there were 377 in Arlington Cemetery. In the early 
seventies 241 of the latter were removed to the States of Vir- 
ginia. North Carolina and South Carolina, leaving 136, which 
remain to the present day. Those near Fort Stevens were many 
years ago gathered together and buried in a common grave at 

10 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

Grace Church, Woodside, Montgomery County, Maryland, and 
in 1896 the Confederates of that county and of the District of 
Columbia erected there a handsome monument to their memory. 

From the time of the removal of the 241 dead above referred 
to until August, 1898, everyone was under the impression that 
there were no Confederate dead anywhere near here, except, 
perhaps, a scattering half dozen in Arlington and those above 
referred to at Woodside. But at that time a few veterans, of 
their own volition, undertook to make an investigation. They 
were surprised to find, after considerable difficulty, the graves 
of 136 in Arlington, scattered about the cemetery, mainly in 
four irregular, straggling groups, widely separated and inter- 
mingled with those of the Union soldiers, quartermaster depart- 
ment employees, State prisoners, citizens and others, where they 
had been indiscriminately buried during the war. In this cem- 
etery there are more than 17,000 graves, of which about 12,500 
are the Union-soldier dead. The other classes named constitute 
the remainder, and each grave of these 4,500 or more has a 
white marble headstone, two inches thick, ten inches wide and 
twenty inches in height, of exactly the same description in every 
respect, and inscribed thereon the number of the grave and the 
name of the individual; as, "250— John Doe." There is no 
possible way to distinguish the several classes from each other; 
no way to learn from them which are Confederates or whether 
they were soldiers at all. They have received, and still do re- 
ceive, the same care as is given to the Union dead, but it is im- 
possible for a visitor to identify the Confederates except by ref- 
erence to the register, far away in the superintendent's office 
in the mansion. 

From 1861 to 1865 this city and its vicinity was frightful with 
the deadly activity of war, and many Confederate soldiers and 
State prisoners were brought to its prisons and hospitals, in 
which a large number of them died and were buried here, prin- 
cipally in the National Military Cemetery at the Soldiers' Home 
and the National Military Cemetery at Arlington. Amidst the 
rush and turmoil of rapidly succeeding events such care as was 
possible was taken that all dead should be given decent burial 
and proper record, whether they were Federal soldiers, employees 
of the Government, citizen refugees, State prisoners, Confederate 
soldiers, etc. 

From the time of their burial all alike were marked by tem- 
porary headboards, similar to those which to-day mark the graves 
of the Spanish- American soldiers and the Maine seamen at Ar- 
lington, until, in the year 1867, the Congress of the United States 
began legislation which resulted, in 1874, in replacing them by 
white marble headstones, those which mark the graves of the 
Federal soldiers being from eighteen to twenty inches above 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 11 

ground, ten inches wide and four inches thick ; the others of the 
same height and width, but only two inches thick. The num- 
bers of the graves and the names are recorded in the same regis- 
ters and in the same manner as are those of the Federal dead— 
the Confederates being properly indicated under the head of 
"Remarks." The graves of all are well sodded and cared for 
by appropriate regulations applicable to all alike. 

In order that the facts so far learned might receive proper 
record for possible future use, it was the intention to prepare a 
full statement of the same, to be transmitted to Gen. Stephen D. 
Lee, the chairman of the Historical Committee of the United 
Confederate Veterans. While the statement was being prepared, 
however, Mr. McKinley made the now famous speech at Atlanta, 
Ga., December 14, 1898, regarding the sharing with us in the 
care of the graves of the Confederate soldiers, which is here 
quoted from the Atlanta Constitution of December 15, 1898 : 

"Sectional lines no longer mar the map of the United States. 
Sectional feeling no longer holds back the love we bear each 
other. Fraternity is the national anthem, sung by a chorus of 
forty-five States and our Territories at home and beyond the 
seas. The Union is once more the common altar of our love and 
loyalty, our devotion and sacrifice. The old flag again waves 
over us in peace, with new glories which your sons and ours 
have this year added to its sacred folds. What cause we have 
for rejoicing, saddened only by the fact that so many of our 
brave men fell on field or sickened and died from hardship and 
exposure, and others, returning, bring wounds and disease from 
which they will long suffer. The memory of the dead will be a 
precious legacy, and the disabled will be the nation's care. 

"A nation which cares for its disabled soldiers as we have 
always done, will never lack defenders. The national cemeteries 
for those who fell in battle are proof that the dead as well as 
the living have our love. What an army of silent sentinels we 
have, and with what loving care their graves are kept! Every 
soldier's grave made during our unfortunate Civil War is a 
tribute to American valor. 

"And while, when these graves were made, we differed widely 
about the future of this Government, these differences were long 
ago settled by the arbitrament of arms; and the time has now 
come in the evolution of sentiment and feeling, under the provi- 
dence of God, when in the spirit of fraternity we should share 
with you in the care of the graves of the Confederate soldiers. 

"The cordial feeling now happily existing between the North 
and South prompts this gracious act, and, if it needed further 
justification, it is found in the gallant loyalty to the Union and 
the flag so conspicuously shown in the year just passed by the 
sons and grandsons of these heroic dead. 

12 16th .Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

"What a glorious future awaits us if, unitedly, wisely and 
bravely, we face the new problems now pressing upon us, deter- 
mined to solve them for right and humanity!" 

After due consideration it was determined to make of avail 
the favorable opportunity thus presented to request the Presi- 
dent to take executive action for the carrying out of such 
remedial measures as were deemed desirable, and accordingly a 
petition to that end was laid before him by the Charles Broad- 
Avay Rouss Camp No. 1191, United Confederate Veterans, June 5, 
1899. (See Appendix "A.") It was' received most kindly by 
him, and in August of the same year a site was designated by 
the Government in the new part of Arlington Cemetery, and 
drawings made of plans for a place to which all the Confederate 
dead now in the national cemeteries within or in the immediate 
vicinity of the District of Columbia should be gathered together, 
to be designated as the "Confederate section"; but, unfor- 
tunately, owing to there being no provision of law at that time 
by which the work could properly be done, and there being no 
available funds with which to do it, the project was for the time 
being indefinitely postponed. 

Upon this state of the matter being laid before Senator Haw- 
ley by Gen. Marcus J. Wright, the Senator reqaested that the 
condition of affairs at Arlington be briefly stated in writing, 
accompanied with an estimate of the amount of money neces- 
sary to carry out the remedial measures required, and kindly said 
1hat he would consult the President, and, meeting with his ap- 
proval and consent, he would offer an amendment to the sundry 
civil expense appropriation bill, on its coming to the Senate, 
for an appropriation of the amount of money required. The 
undersigned, at that time chairman of the Committee on Con- 
federate Dead in the District of Columbia, accordingly furnished 
a statement in writing, with some necessary drawings, for the 
use of Senator Hawley. and also for Mr. Cannon, the chairman 
of the Appropriation Committee of the House of Representa- 
tives: and. Senator Hawley having requested Gen. Wright to 
prepare an amendment to meet the case, he and the undersigned 
jointly prepared a suitable one, to be added to said bill, de- 
signed to obtain the remedial measures desired. This effort met 
with the approval and cordial support of Senator William B. 
Bate and Senator T. B. Turley, of Tennessee: Senator F. M. 
Cockrell, of Missouri ; Senator John T. Morgan, of Alabama, and 
of the Hon. Joseph Cannon, chairman of the Appi op nation Com- 
mittee of the House of Representatives, and others: and, when 
rinally announced, met with the hearty support of all. and was 
adopted bv Congress, and approved by the President June 6, 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 13 

The law thus enacted is as follows : 

" (Public— No. 163.) 
"An Act making appropriations for sundry civil expenses oC 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, 
nineteen hundred and one, and for otner purposes. 
"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the 
following sums be, and the same are hereby, appropriated for 
the objects hereinafter expressed for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and one — namely: 

"Under the War Department. 
"National Cemeteries. 

"To enable the Secretary of War to have reburied in some 
suitable spot in the National Cemetery at Arlington, Virginia, 
and to place proper headstones at their graves, the bodies of 
about one hundred and twenty-eight Confederate soldiers now 
buried in the National Soldiers' Home, near Washington, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, and the bodies of about one hundred and 
thirty-six Confederate soldiers now buried in the National Cem- 
etery at Arlington, Virginia, two thousand five hundred dollars, 
or so much thereof as may be necessary. ' ' 

It is necessary to state, in order to explain, that, after the 
presentation of the petition to the President, June 5, 1899, un- 
expectedly an additional number (128) of graves of Confederate 
soldiers was found in the National Soldiers' Home Cemetery in 
the District of Columbia, and these were, therefore, incorporated 
in a supplement to the petition which was made to the President 
July 13, 1899. (See Appendix C.) 

After the enactment of June 6, 1900, the proposed site was 
surveyed and staked off ready to begin work in October of that 
year, but it was thought proper to defer it until the lists of the 
Confederate dead of both cemeteries could be published in the 
press throughout the South, with the announcement that all rela- 
tives desiring to remove their dead might be given opportunity to 
do so. This was accordingly done, but it is understood that no 
remains whatever have been asked for by any of the relatives. 

Having waited to the last possible moment before the lapse of 
the appropriation, July 1, 1901. to hear from relatives of the 
dead, and hearing from none, the Secretary of War, on the 25th 
of April, 1901, has given final directions for the execution of 
the work, and it will be commenced at once and pushed vigorously 
to completion as originally projected. 

Pending action by the Secretary of War, a few of our South- 
ern ladies made application to him for permission to remove all 
these remains to Hollywood Cemetery, near Richmond, Va., or 

14 16th Annual Keport Secty. Monumental Committee. 

to some other one of the large cemeteries of the South, or to the 
several States from which the soldiers came. It was a most 
impracticable conception. Their patriotic sentiments, of course, 
are fully appreciated, as is also their indefatigable energy in 
the prosecution of all work relating to Confederate affairs. But 
in the District of Columbia, of nearly three hundred thousand 
population, there is embraced about one hundred thousand who 
constitute a Southern community, made up of cities from all 
the Southern States, and their children, having the same thoughts 
and feelings and the same devotion as those still farther South. 
Wle feel that our fair sisters in the farther South have not clearly 
understood that which we are endeavoring to do and the labor 
it has cost us. They seem to forget that we are Southern as 
well as they. 

We feel that, if they could be brought to understand this, they 
would leave us unhampered in our local work, and, indeed, would 
come to our aid most cheerfully. There is work enough for all, 
and for us older ones but little time remaining in which to do 
it. It must be evident that, if local work is to be interfered 
with anywhere by those at a distance, it cannot serve otherwise 
than to discourage that active, patriotic effort and emulation 
which should be ever encouraged, and which would prove pro- 
ductive of the best results. 

That the work will be satisfactory to all when completed there 
can be no reasonable room for doubt, for the site is most promi- 
nent and eligible in every way, and the plan of leburial most 
beautiful, as is shown by the drawings and explanatory notes 
which are hereto appended. (See Appendices N, P, Q and 
R, etc.) 

In this beautiful plot are to be gathered together all the now 
scattered dead, each grave properly marked with a white marble 
tombstone, where hereafter we can keep faithful guard over the 
graves of these patriotic soldiers, keep them green, and preserve 
and perpetuate them in the care of our children as a sacred, 
patriotic shrine for all Southern people who maj hereafter visit 
the City of Washington, as is beautifully expressed in the reso- 
lution of the Ladies' Southern Relief Soeiety of this city. 

It is fitting that the Charles Broadway Rouss Camp of Con- 
federate Veterans, and especially the committee entrusted with 
the work in hand, testify their high appreciation of the com- 
mendable attitude of the Government throughout The kindly 
spirit exhibited by all, from the President to the humble em- 
ployee, has been remarkable, and foreshadows what might be 
accomplished if our efforts be properly directed in the like right 
spirit. From our first approach to the President our views and 
expression of desires have been requested, and all we hoped for 
has been cheerfully and promptly granted, and even the delay 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 15 

which has ensued in the execution of the law of Congress was 
itself an effort upon the part of the Secretary of War to afford 
an opportunity for full expression of Southern sentiment re- 
garding the matter, and for relatives who might so desire to 
remove their dead. It is with great pleasure that honorable men- 
tion is made of Mr. George B. Cortelyou, the secretary to the 
President; of Major T. E. True, U. S. A., the Depot Quarter- 
master; of Mr. Charles E. Miller, the clerk in charge of cemetery 
affairs in his office; of Col. W. H. Owen, civil engineer, Quar- 
termaster's Department, and of Superintendent A. B. Drum, of 
Arlington Cemetery. These gentlemen with the utmost courtesy 
afforded the committee every facility for acquiring informa- 
tion, showing kindly sympathy and rendering valuable aid. 

But there is also much work to be done in the care of the 
twenty-eight thousand Confederate dead scattered throughout 
the Northern States, already too long deferred, and, however 
willing we may be, we acknowledge our inability to effect the 
desired result. 

It is stated (unofficially) at the Quartermaster's Department 
that acceptable headstones could be delivered at the several na- 
tional cemeteries in the North at a cost not exceeding two dol- 
lars and a half each. 

Col. Robert C. Wood, in his "Confederate Handbook," pre- 
pared with great care and published in New Orleans, La., in 1900, 
states as follows (page 38) : 

16 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental, Committee. 

Confederate Prisoners Confined in Federal Prisons and 
Number of Deaths in Each. 

Name of prison 




Point Lookout, Md 

Fort Delaware, Del 

Camp Douglas, 111 

Camp Chase, Ohio.-- 

Camp Morton, Ind :. 

Elmira, N. Y 

Louisville, ,Ky 






































Alton, 111 

Johnson's Island. 

Old Capitol, D. C 

Newport News, Va 

Fort McHenry, Md 

Ship Island, Miss. 



St. Louis, Mo 

Camp Butler, 111. 

Hart's Island, N. Y. 



Rock Island, 111 






''The remaining 43,864 of the 220,000 Confederate prisoners 
were confined in Fort Warren, Fort Lafayette, and other prisons- 
The above table has been so frequently used without question of 
its accuracy, that it may be accepted as reliable." 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 17 

On the presumption that the percentage of deaths in the 
43,864 at Fort Warren, Fort Lafayette and other prisons was 
about the same as the percentage in the 176,136 in the table fur- 
nished, it may be assumed that there is a total of 22,878 plus 
5,263, or 28,141— say, 28,000 — Confederate dead remaining un- 
cared for in the North, which may be marked with enduring 
headstones suitably inscribed at a cost of $70,000. To correct 
the entries in the registers at the cemeteries by verification from 
the Confederate archives at present in the War Department at 
Washington as far as they possibly show, would necessitate, in 
clerical labor, stationery, etc., several thousand dollars addi- 
tional — say, $80,000 in all. As it may be possible that theso 
figures are too close, and that a suitable margin for errors and 
contingencies should be allowed, it is reasonable to add twenty- 
five per cent, additional, making a total of $100,000. 

It would seem but the part of wisdom that a committee should 
be appointed to ascertain the facts regarding these matters, and 
lay them before the convention at the next annual reunion, with 
the view of obtaining future action thereon by the United States 

The early attention to the care of these dead in a manner 
satisfactory to the Southern people would be productive of 
much good, far beyond the value of the money expended and 
the trouble and care of carrying it out, in its tendency to re- 
move from discussion a still fruitful source of irritation. 

It is sincerely trusted that an effort may be made at the Re- 
union to bring our people into accord. Especially is it to be 
hoped that our patriotic Southern women may be prevailed upon 
to relinquish their views regarding the removal of the Confed- 
erate dead from the Northern States to the South at this late 
day. Our Southern people and their children are now to be 
found not only in the South, but living permanently in every 
State and Territory of the Union; and we feel assured that, if 
we could succeed in bringing to light and placing enduring 
headstones over the 28,000 Confederate dead in the North, the 
watchfulness of our friends and their children would see that 
they have all proper care in the present and for perpetuity. It 
should be borne in mind that the records in the cemetery regis- 
ters concerning these dead have existed in great measure un- 
disturbed since the war, and it is possible now to have access to 
them, and learn the whereabouts of the graves; but, once dis- 
turbed, and possibly destroyed, by removal, all possible chance 
will be lost for identification hereafter. This would be desecra- 
tion and a great wrong to their possible living relatives or de- 
scendants. Everyone must concede that to gather our scattered 
dead into one suitable plot, and properly mark their graves and 
perfect the entries in the register in the cemeterv, is a better- 

18 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

merit of their condition which it is our sacred duty to perform 
for those who are to succeed us and for the truth of history. 

It is believed that the Veterans, in convention assembled, will 
regard with approbation the enactment of the law heretofore re- 
ferred to and the execution of the work in accordance there- 
with, and that suitable resolutions appreciative of the action of 
Congress and its approval by the President, with honorable men- 
tion of Senator Hawley and Representative Cannon for their 
kindly offices in bringing about the congressional action, will 
be adopted. 

Herewith are submitted copies of the petition to the President 
of the United States, June 5, 1899 ; the supplement to the peti- 
tion, July 13, 1899 ; letters endorsing the reburial at Arlington 
from Gen. John B. Gordon. Gen. Stephen D. Lee, Col. Hilary A. 
Herbert and Mr. Charles Broadway Rouss ; resolutions from the 
Confederate Veterans' Association of the District of Columbia, 
Camp No. 171, United Confederate Veterans; the Ladies' South- 
ern Relief Society of the District of Columbia, and the Ladies' 
Memorial Association of Montgomery, Ala. ; also, official copies 
of the drawings, showing the site and plan of reburial and of 
the specifications for disinterring and reinterring the dead, and 
for furnishing the headstones, and the list of Confederate dead 
to be reburied in the "Confederate section" of Arlington 

Finally, it is due that my colaborers of the committee should 
receive honorable mention, for they have been very faithful, and 
have rendered great service in this work from its inception, in 
August, 1898, to the present date. They are : Major E. W. An- 
derson, of the District of Columbia, the First Lieutenant-Com- 
mander ; Capt. Henry M. Marchant, of Texas, the Second Lieu- 
tenant-Commander; Capt. William Broun, of Virginia, the Ad- 
jutant; Capt. John M. Hickey, of Tennessee; Lieut. Nathan C. 
Munroe. of Georgia; Judge Silas Hare, of Texas; Capt. Julian 
G. Moore, of North Carolina, and Col. George C. Giddings, of 

I have the honor to be. 

Yours most obediently, 

Samuel E. Lewis, 



A — Petition to the President of the United States. 
B— Report from the Quartermaster-General's Department, 
June 28, 1899. 

C— Letter to the secretary to the President, July 13, 1899. 
D— Lelter from Gen. John B. Gordon, March 12, 1901. 
E- Loiter from Gen. Stephen D. Lee, February 8, 1901. 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 19 

F— Letter from Col. H. A. Herbert, February 6, 1901. 

G— Letter from Charles B. Rouss, April 18, 1901. 

H— Resolutions at Charleston, S. C, May 11, 1899. 

I — Resolution of the Confederate Veterans' Association, Dis- 
trict of Columbia. Camp No. 171, United Confederate Veterans, 
March 7, 1901. 

K— Resolution of the Ladies' Southern Relief Society of the 
District of Columbia, February 7, 1901. 

L— Resolution of the Ladies' Memorial Association of Mont- 
gomery, Ala., April 1, 1901. 

M— Letter to the Secretary of War from the Charles Broad- 
way Rouss Camp No. 1191, United Confederate Veterans, March 
28, 1901. 

N — The "Confederate section" (Explanatory Notes). 

O— List of dead in the "Confederate section" in Arlington 
Cemetery (embracing all those heretofore in the older part of 
Arlington Cemetery and those in the Soldiers' Home Cemetery). 

P — Map of Arlington (Va.) National Cemetery. 

Q— Map of the "Confederate section," Arlington National 

R — Map of the burial site in the "Confederate section." 

S — Diagram of the new headstones for the Confederate dead, 
Arlington (Va.) National Cemetery. 

T — Specifications for reburial of the Confederate dead. 

U— Specifications for the new headstones for the Confederate 


A Petition From the Charles Broadway Rouss Camp of 
Washington, D. C, Being Camp No. 1191 of the United 
Confederate Veterans, Relating to the Confederate 
Graves in the National Military and Naval Cemetery 
at Arlington, Virginia. 

Charles Broad w t ay Rouss Camp 
No. 1191, U. C. V. 

1418 Fourteenth Street N. W., 
Washington, D. C. 

To the President of the United States: 

Sir— We appear before you as a committee representing the 
Charles Broadway Rouss Camp of Washington, D. C. (being 
Camp No. 1191 of the United Confederate Veterans), in an 
endeavor to perform that which the Camp conceives to be a sacred 

20 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

duty and in fulfillment of one of the principal objects of the 
constitution of the United Confederate Veterans— "to perpet- 
uate a record of the services of every member, and, as far as 
possible, of those of our comrades who have preceded us into 
eternity, and to mark with suitable headstones the graves of 
Confederate dead wherever found." 

We respectfully crave your attention to the representations 
submitted herein regarding the present condition of the Con- 
federate graves in the National Military and Naval Cemetery 
at Arlington, and the records pertaining thereto, and to our peti- 
tion for remedial measures regarding the same. 


We have found that the register at Arlington is a transcript 
inaccurate and incomplete, there being headstones of Confed- 
erate graves in the cemetery the names on which appear not to 
be therein ; no records of the removal of Confederate dead nor 
of the unknown appear to be there. The Depot Quartermaster's 
Office reports 141 graves, but the register appears to show but 
113 names. 

We have been informed at the Depot Quartermaster's Office 
in Washington that the original records are stored in boxes in 
Philadelphia because there is no suitable fireproof building in 
this city for that purpose. The true record is, therefore, in- 
accessible to the public. 


The graves are scattered about the cemetery, principally in 
three straggling groups, distant from each other, and are inter- 
mingled with those of United States soldiers, citizens, quarter- 
master's employees and negro contrabands, and one is forcibly 
impressed with the idea that they are singularly misplaced. 
There is absolutely no way to distinguish the grave of a Con- 
federate soldier from that of a quartermaster's employee, a 
citizen or a negro contraband. The same style of headstone 
marks all alike, bearing only the number of the grave and the 
name of the individual. The slabs are only two inches thick, 
about ten inches wide, and about eighteen inches high. Many 
of them are in exposed places, near low fences, and are liable 
to be stolen or mutilated by evil-minded persons. 

Thus, the original records are inaccessible, the transcripts 
appear to be incomplete and inaccurate, the headstones lacking 
in information and liable to loss, and the graves scattered from 
one end of the cemetery to the other in confused intermingling 
with others. Such is the condition now, notwithstanding the 
efforts of the courteous and efficient superintendent; and who 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 21 

can doubt that, unless remedial measures be at once taken, a 
few years hence all reliable record of these graves will be for- 
ever lost? 


In remembrance of the noble sentiments uttered by you at 
Atlanta regarding the sharing with us the care of Confederate 
graves, a sentiment highly appreciated by every true Southern 
heart, we feel encouraged to ask your help where we are other- 
wise helpless; that is, in a national cemetery, where we have no 
right of action such as we have in our own Southern burial 

We have been informed that Arlington estate contains about 
eleven hundred acres, and that as yet only two hundred acres 
are in use as a cemetery. It is our desire and request that of 
the large unused remainder there shall be parceled off a suitable 
plot of one or more acres, to which shall be gathered together 
all the Confederate dead at Arlington and other national cem- 
eteries within the District of Columbia ; that they shall be ar- 
ranged in divisions according to States, and that appropriate 
headstones, bearing a legend of the name, company, regiment 
and State of the soldier, be placed to mark the grave, and that 
a suitable monument be erected to mark the site. 

And to the end that the facts regarding these soldiers of the 
South shall be made accessible to the public, complete records 
shall be prepared in triplicate, reciting all the i known facts 
regarding their full names, company, regiment, State, capture, 
death and interment, and that one copy shall be kept at Arling- 
ton for visitors, one in the Depot Quartermaster's Office in 
Washington, and the third in the War Records Office. 

The committee is of opinion that not only would the Southern 
people highly appreciate such action, but also that there are 
many good people in the North who, no longer cherishing ani- 
mosity, would be gratified at the removal of Confederate dead 
from the midst of the Federal graves. 

To you, as our President, we appeal also in fraternal spirit, 
having all confidence in your wisdom and kindness, that, having 
made our distress and our needs known, we may rest our cause 
in your care, to do or cause to be done that which may be deter- 
mined by you to be most fitting. 

With the highest esteem and best wishes for all good to you 
and those dear to you, we, the committee appointed by our Camp 
above named, bring these matters before you; and, sir, though 
lacking in knowledge as to the details relating to the conduct of 

22 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

such matters, it has occurred to us that perhaps all remedial 
measures could be at once effected by an Executive order, avoid- 
ing the tediousness and delay of legislative action. 

(Signgd) Samuel E. Lewis, Chairman, 
Of the District of Columbia, 1st Lieut. Com. 

(Signed) E. W. Anderson, 
Of the District of Columbia, 2d Lieut. Com. 

(Signed) William Broun, 

Of Virginia, Adjutant. 

(Signed) *WL H. C. Bayly, 

Of the District of Columbia. 

(Signed) John M. Hickey, 

Of Tennessee. 

(Signed) N. C. Munroe, 

Of Georgia. 
Washington, D. C, June 5 ' \ 

* Died Januarv 4, 1901. 

Report From the Quartermaster-General's Department, 

Based Upon the Petition Presented tch the 

President, June 5, 1899. 

The report is dated June 28, 1899, and states that there were 
originally 377 interments of Confederate dead in Arlington, of 
which 241 have been removed by the States of Virginia, North 
Carolina and South Carolina, and that there remain 136 ; that 
these dead have received honorable burial and honorable care, 
and that proper records have been kept ; that the headstones are 
from thirty-six to forty-two inches long and project from the 
ground about eighteen inches, and that they are the same size 
as those for Union soldiers, except that they are only two inches 
thick; that these graves are not more exposed than those of the 
Union soldiers; that they receive better care than would be 
likely given them in any private cemetery. 

The recommendations in the report are as follows: 
That, if all the dead are at Arlington, those in the groups in 
the northeast corner and the southwest corner be brought to 
the central group, where there are 113 vacant sites ; that the same 
headstones might be used by adding the additional inscription 
below the name, but that, if new headstones be placed, they be 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 23 

of similar character as those for the Union soldiers, with num- 
ber of grave, name and State; that, if other dead than those at 
Arlington be discovered, a separate plot of one or more acres be 
set aside in the southern portion of the cemetery at Arlington 
to which all shall be removed. 

The report also states that there are 128 Confederate graves 
in the National Soldiers' Home Cemetery. 

This report was forwarded to the President by the Secretary 
of War, and on July 5, 1899, the undersigned was invited by 
letter from the secretary to the President, Mr. George B. Cor- 
telyou, to call at the Executive Mansion, and read the same. After 
perusal of the report and commenting upon its contents, the 
secretary replied that the President would like to have the ex- 
pression of the views made by the committee put in writing. 

Accordingly, a letter in the nature of an answer to the report 
and supplement to the petition was addressed to the secretary, 
July 13, 1899, as follows : 

Supplementary to the Petition of June 5, 1899. 

' ' Headquarters of the 
' ' Charles Broadway Rouss Camp 
"(Camp No. 1191, U. C.V.) 

"Washington, D. C., July 13, 1899. 

"Mr. Secretary — The Committee of the Charles Broadway 
Rouss Camp on Confederate Dead within the District of Co- 
lumbia, having been accorded the privilege of examining the 
report from the War Department relative to the same, desire 
to express their high appreciation of the careful consideration 
which has been given to the matter of the petition presented to 
the President June 5, 1899. The committee find the report to be 
fair and the recommendations reasonable. 

"After carefully weighing the recommendations in the report, 
the committee remains of opinion that the most satisfactory dis- 
position of the matter would be best effected by carrying out 
the requests expressed on page 3 of the petition, lines 12 to 28. 
inclusive, and line 1 on page 4— viz. : 

'It is our desire and request that of the large unused re- 
mainder there shall be parceled off a suitable plot of one or 
more acres, to which shall be gathered together all the Confed- 
erate dead at Arlington and other national cemeteries within 
the District of Columbia ; that they shall be arranged in divisions 

24 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

according to States, and that appropriate headstones, bearing a 
legend of the name, company, regiment and State of the soldier, 
be placed to mark the grave (and that a suitable monument be 
erected to mark the site). 

" 'And to the end that the facts regarding these soldiers of 
the South shall be made accessible to the public, complete records 
shall be prepared, in triplicate, reciting all the known facts re- 
garding their full names, company, regiment, State, capture, 
death and interment, and that one copy shall be kept at Arling- 
ton for visitors, one in the Depot Quartermaster's Office in 
Washington, and the third in the War Records Office.' 

"It appears to the committee that it is necessary the work 
should be done, and that so thoroughly and permanently as to 
be satisfactory and creditable to all concerned; that it would 
not be sufficient to merely change the inscriptions upon the head- 
stones now standing, or to place new headstones, permitting the 
remains to lie where they now are, for the following reasons : 
That now they are passed by unnoticed, but, when distinguished 
as Confederates, the inappropriateness of their location and 
scattered grouping would become apparent to all; that, if those 
in Arlington be all grouped in the central section, they would 
still be in the midst of the graves of the Union soldiers of the 
Civil War ; that there would be only forty-five grave-sites re- 
maining for other remains which may hereafter be discovered; 
that, inasmuch as it would be necessary to make a number of 
disinterments, and as the entire number so far discovered is 
only 264, it is considered that it would be far better to disinter 
all and gather them together in one separate plot; also, that a 
simple, inexpensive monument, bearing some appropriate, but 
simple, inscription, should be placed to mark the site ; that, in so 
doing, the preservation and perpetuation of these graves of 
Southern soldiers would be best effected. 

"As in duty bound, in memory of our dead comrades, the 
committee begs that due consideration be given to the views ex- 
pressed herein. 

"The committee desires to acknowledge the attention and 
icourtesy it has received at your hands. 

' ' Respectfully, 

(Signed) "West Steever, 

"Of Louisiana, Commander. 

(Signed) "Samuel E. Lewis, 
"Of the District of Columbia, 1st Lieut. Com. 

(Signed) "E. W. Anderson, 
"Of the District of Columbia, 2d Lieut. Com. 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 25 

(Signed) "William Broun, 

"Of Virginia. Adjutant. 

(Signed) *"Wm. H. C. Bayly, 

"Of the District of Columbia. 

(Signed) "John M. Hickey, 

"Of Tennessee. 

(Signed) "Nathan C. Munroe, 

"Of Georgia. 
"George B. Cortelyou, Esq., 

"Secretary to the President." 

* Died January 4, 1901. 


Letter of Endorsement by Commander-in-Chief of the 
United Confederate Veterans. 

"Nevada, Mo, March 12, 1901. 
"Hon. Hilary A. Herbert, 

"Washington, D. C: 

"My Dear Comrade — I have just learned through Gen. S. D. 
Lee of some hesitation on the part of the War Department to 
use the money appropriated by Congress for gathering into a 
common burying-ground the Confederate dead who lie at differ- 
ent points in the District of Columbia. I have also learned for 
the first time of the reasons for any hesitation on the part of the 
War Department; and I write to say that I sincerely trust that 
the wishes of our comrades in the District, backed as they have 
been by an appropriation by Congress, will be speedily met. The 
formal action taken by the United Confederate Veterans in the 
general reunion clearly shows that the organization is in entire 
accord with the Veterans of the District. It is not practicable 
for our ladies to carefully protect and keep in perfect condition 
all Confederate graves in the entire country. North and South. 

"With the hope that the appropriation made by Congress will 
be at once used for the purposes for which it was intended, and 
with all good wishes for you individually, I am, 

"Your comrade and friend, 

(Signed) "J. B. Gordon, 

"Atlanta, Ga. " 

26 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 



"Mississippi Historical Society. 

"Headquarters at University, Mississippi. 

"Gen. Stephen D. Lee, President. 

"'Columbus, Miss., February 8, 1901. 
"Hon. Hilary A. Herbert: 

"My Dear Comrade— I am well informed as to the persistent 
efforts of the Charles Broadway Ronss Camp of Confederate 
Veterans and kindred Confederate organizations in the District 
of Columbia in having the record corrected of Confederate pris- 
oners who died during the w T ar and were buried in the National 
Cemetery at Arlington, and also in the Soldiers' Home Cemetery. 
These Confederate soldiers in the District have for years worked 
to get the bodies moved and reburied in a separate plot of ground. 
After hard work they appealed to Congress to assist them, and 
an act was passed appropriating $2,500 for removal, burial and 
remarking graves and ornamenting the plot. 

"It appears that an organization of ladies, full of zeal, is en- 
deavoring to stop the work of our comrades and other Confed- 
erate societies in the District, and defeat what they have labored 
so hard to accomplish. I feel they do not fully understand the 

"The reunion at Charleston fully expressed themselves to the 
effect that, while the ladies in the South would try to care for 
the graves of the fallen Confederates in the Southern States, 
they were glad to have the Government care for the graves in the 
North. Our comrades in the District, in line with this action, 
nobly went to work, and had about succeeded, when a new or- 
ganization of ladies appeared and interfered, with good, but I 
think unwise, intent. While it would be well could our ladies 
do all this work, it is of such magnitude that it is impossible for 
them to do so. They cannot properly care for the graves of the 
South ; certainly, they could not, in addition, care for 30,000 
dead buried at the North. 

"The United States Government honorably buried such Con- 
federates as died in their hands. At Chicago they are caring 
for them ; in Ohio the same. In fact, the spirit enunciated by 
President McKinley at Atlanta was most praiseworthy and gen- 
erous, and held out the olive branch as to our dead, certainly at 
the North ; and in that spirit did Congress appropriate money to 
carry out the efforts of our comrades in the District as to the 
removal of bodies and putting them in a separate plot. 

"I do hope the Honorable Secretary of War will carry out at 
:nce the wishes of the District Confederates, and permit the ap- 

Uniied Confederate Veterans' Association. 27 

propriation to be spent for the object intended. Certainly, such 
action must tend to allay sectional feeling, and not to reopen it. 
I believe prompt action by the Secretary will do great good. It 
is not strange that there should still linger some sectional feel- 
ing after so terrible a war, even at this late day. It is more 
strange that such fraternity now exists over our broad land. 
Those of us who want to see all sectional feeling and bad blood 
resulting from the war removed should act always in the spirit 
manifested on all occasions by President McKinley whenever he 
touches on the war. 

"I, therefore, hope, my dear comrade, that you may induce 
the Honorable Secretary of War to act promptly in the matter, 
so that the money appropriated may not be returned to the 
treasury, and the effort of a most praiseworthy undertaking be- 
come a past incident July 1, 1901, the beginning of the new 
fiscal year. 

"With kind wishes, 

"Your comrade and friend, 

(Signed) "Stephen D. Lee." 


Copy of Letter Addressed to the Secretary of the Confed- 
erate Veterans' Association No. 171, U. C. V. 
"Herbert & Micou, Attorneys at Law. 

"Washington, D. C, February 6, 1901. 

"My Dear Comrade— I am very sorry that a dinner engage- 
ment to meet Miss Mary Lee will prevent me from attending the 
meeting of our Association to be held to-morrow evening. 

"I understand that the question is to be discussed as to 
whether the Confederate dead, some of whom are now resting in 
Arlington Cemetery, and others nearby and outside of the city, 
are to be removed to the plot selected as the Confederate section 
of the Arlington Cemetery, or whether they shall be given in 
charge of certain of our dear Southern women, who have con- 
ceived the idea that these Confederates ought not to rest in the 
same cemetery as the Union dead, but ought to be given into 
their hands, to be removed to some place in the South. 

"In my opinion, it would be a lamentable mistake for Con- 
federate Veterans' Associations to refuse to accept this graceful 
peace overture made by the General Government. 

"First. When President McKinley on his Southern tour ex- 
pressed the idea that the Genera] Government ought to care for 
the graves of the Confederate dead, his words were received with 

28 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee 

glad acclaim throughout the South. There were certainly very 
few Confederates whose hearts did not respond to this senti- 
ment. The appropriation of this money to place the remains of 
the dead whose bodies now lie near Washington is a first step 
in that direction. If we reject this appropriation, that will be 
an end to the whole matter. Congress can never again be ex- 
pected to do anything more in the direction of caring for the 
Confederate dead. 

"Second. The proposition of the Government is, as I under- 
stand it, to carry out a plan, which, if not disowned by, has at 
least the approval of, leading Confederates here in Washington, 
to devote an entire plot of three and a half acres in the Arling- 
ton Cemetery to these Confederates, to lay it out with driveways, 
plant it with many varieties of trees, to ornament the center 
with a large vase filled with plants and evergreens ; in short, to 
make the last resting place of these Confederates as beautiful 
and as ornamental as is the resting place of the Union dead ; and, 
when once laid there, these remains will be cared for perpetually 
by the Government. For myself, I fail to see why any thought- 
ful Confederate could fail to be proud that the Government 
against which we all fought so desperately in the days that are 
gone should have come to recognize in this substantial manner 
the purity of motive, the gallantry and the patriotism of our 
brethren who fell in the strife. 

"Third. Arlington is a place that will be visited by genera- 
tions yet unborn, by both Americans and foreigners. The Con- 
federate section of that cemetery, if established as proposed, 
would direct the attention of every visitor, and would proclaim 
in unmistakable terms the respect and admiration for the South- 
ern soldier entertained by his former foes. Can it be possible 
lhat the real sentiment of the Confederates of this day is that 
Ihis shall not be? If so, then what? 

"Fourth. The alternative seems to be that the remains of 
those soldiers shall be disinterred, and sent somewhere South to a 
cemetery where Confederates are already resting. The addi- 
tion of these remains to any one or more of the Confederate 
cemeteries now scattered throughout the South would add but 
little, if anything, to the beauty, attractiveness or sacredness of 
these existing cemeteries. The effort, however, to make such re- 
moval would be an added burden placed upon the shoulders of 
the blessed women who are already overtaxed to take care of the 
cemeteries now in their charge. * * * I have seen a me- 
morial recently addressed by the ladies of Virginia to the Legis- 
lature of that State, asking the Legislature to contribute small 
sums of money, and which specifies $10. $15 and $20 each to 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 29 

different cemeteries throughout the State, and this is asked on 
the ground that the responsibility of taking care of these graves 
is a heavier one than the associations having them in charge are 
able to bear. 

' ' Can there be any good reason why the burdens of these ladies 
should be added to by the effort to remove these bodies South? 

"Lastly. If the bodies of the Confederate dead now lying in 
the District of Columbia and at Arlington Cemetery are taken 
up and carried South, this would be giving up the capital of 
what is now our common country entirely to the Union dead. 
The Confederate dead will have no interest and no memorial tell- 
ing of them or of their deeds anywhere within the reach of the 
city that was named for George Washington, the greatest of 
American rebels ! 

"For myself, I have always believed that the Confederates 
fought for the constitution of our fathers — for liberty and good 
government— and my belief is that, now that the Confederacy 
has passed away, the only hope for the future of ex-Confederatas 
imd their descendants lies in the perpetuity of the Union of 
these States under the constitution of our fathers. 

"I sincerely hope that our Association will express itself as 
< pposed to the removal of these remains, and as decidedly in 
lavor of the plan of interring them in Arlington Cemetery. 
"Faithfully yours, 

(Signed) "H. A. Herbert." 


"Charles Broadway Rouss. 

"New York City, April 18, 1901. 

"Charles Broadway Rouss Camp, 

''Washington, D. C: 

"Gentlemen— The papers sent by you relating to the re- 
moval of the Confederate dead have been carefully read, and I 
return them, as they may be valuable to you. 

"I can only repeat with greater emphasis, if possible, what 
I said in my last letter to you — that I know of no more appro- 
priate spot than Arlington Cemetery where should rest the re- 
mains of our dead heroes; and, if our great leader, Robert E. 
Lee, were alive, he would say so, and he would doubtless say, 
in addition, that no spot could be as acceptable to him as a rest- 
ing place than that where his wife and children were born and 
the happiest moments of his life were spent. 

"His was a too exalted spirit to object to sleeping in the same 

30 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

cemetery with a brave and gallant foe — a foe which had always 
been as quick and proud to honor him as an illustrious soldier 
as to praise the great warriors of their own side. 

"Nor would he spurn the presence of the honored flag which 
floated over the heroic dead of a happy, reunited and now com- 
mon country because at one time he considered it his duty to 
his State to fight under the Stars and Bars. 
' ' Very truly yours, 

(Signed) " Charles B. Rouss. " 


Resolution Presented by Gen. Stephen D. Lee at the 
Charleston Reunion, May 11, 1899. 

"Whereas, in Atlanta, Ga., on December 14. 1898, the Presi- 
dent of the United States of America gave utterance to tbe senti- 
ment that 'the time has come when the United States should 
share in caring for the graves of the Confederate dead'; and, 

"Whereas, this utterance of the Chief Executive of the na- 
tion demands from us, the survivors of our dead comrades in 
arms, a frank and generous response to so lofty and magnani- 
mous a sentiment; therefore, be it 

"Resolved by the United Confederate Veterans, in annual con- 
vocation assembled, That in this act of President MeKinley, and 
in its reception by our brethren of- the North, we recognize au- 
thoritative evidence that we are again a united people and one 
in determination to exhibit to the world the gentler as well as 
the sterner traits of American character; and that we accept 
the statement of our Chief Executive in the spirit in which it 
was made, believing that such legislation by the General Gov- 
ernment as he has suggested would show clearly the advance 
that the American people have achieved in those higher virtues 
that adorn a great nation." 

The above resolution was referred to the Committee on Reso- 
lutions, which reported the following substitute and recom- 
mended its adoption, and it was adopted by formal vote of the 
convention : 

"The United Confederate Veterans, in this annual reunion, 
desire to place upon record their sincere appreciation of the 
utterances of the President of the United States in Atlanta in 
December last concerning the assumption of the care of the 
graves of our Confederate dead by the National Government. 

"We appreciate every kindly sentiment expressed, and we 
shall welcome any legislation which shall result in the care of the 
gravas of our comrades in the Northern States by our Govern- 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 31 

"In regard to our dead whose remains are resting- in the States 
which were represented in the Confederacy and Maryland, the 
care of their final resting places is a sacred trust, dear to the 
hearts of Southern women, and we believe that we can safely 
let it rest in their hands." 

The following resolution was passed by the Confederate Vet- 
erans' Association of the District of Columbia. Camp 171. U. C 
V., March 7, 1901 : 

"Whereas, Congress appropriated the sum of $2,500 for the 
removal of the Confederate dead now scattered about in Arling- 
ton Cemetery and Soldiers' Home (District of Columbia) Cem- 
etery, to a desirable and prominent plot, selected and to be orna- 
mented and properly cared for. in Arlington Cemetery, and not 
one Confederate Camp has been reported as offering the slight- 
est objection to the proposed removal of these bodies, though 
the list was published in a large number of newspapers through- 
out the South ; therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That a committee of five from the Confederate 
Veterans' Association, with the privilege of conferring with or 
acting in conjunction with a committee or committees of any 
other Southern organization or organizations favoring this move- 
ment, be appointed to urge upon the Secretary of War or other 
proper authority the advisability of proceeding at the earliest 
time possible to carry out the object of the act as passed by 
Congress and approved by the President of the United States, 
the monev for which is now available." 


Resolution of the Ladies' Southern Relief Society of the 
District of Columbia, Passed February 7. 1901. 

"Be it resolved, That this Society takes this method to express 
its deep gratification of the passage by the last session of Con- 
gress of the following resolution : 

" 'To enable the Secretary of War to have reburied in the 
National Cemetery at Arlington, Va., and to place proper head- 
stones at their graves, the bodies of about one hundred and 
twenty-eight Confederate soldiers now buried in the National 
Soldiers' Home, near Washington, District of Columbia, and 
the bodies of about one hundred and thirty-six Confederate sol- 
diers now buried in the National Cemetery at Arlington, Va., 
two thousand five hundred dollars, or as much thereof as may 
be necessarv. ' 

32 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

"Also, that this Society heartily approves of this reburial for 
the reason that it will gather together all the now scattered Con- 
federate dead in one spot ; that each grave will be properly 
marked with a white marble tombstone, and that ever hereafter 
we can keep faithful guard over the graves of these patriotic 
soldiers, keep them green, and preserve and perpetuate them 
in the care of our children as a sacred, patriotic shrine for all 
Southern people who may hereafter visit the District of Colum- 
bia in all time to come. 

"Be it also further resolved, That the Secretary of War be 
properly informed of our approval; and that it is our earnest 
desire that he take immediate, final and favorable action in order 
that the work may be done without further delay." 

Virginia Miller, 
President Southern Belief Society, 
District of Columbia, 1729 P Street. 
Mrs. H. Gillen water. 

Recording Secretary, 1906 New Hampshire Avenue. 


Resolution Adopted by the Ladies' Memorial Association of 
Montgomery, Ala. 

Memorial Association Indorses Act of Congress. 

Before holding a meeting for the purpose of discussing this 
subject, Mrs. I. M. P. Ockenden, as secretary of the Ladies' 
Memorial Association, Montgomery, Ala., wrote to all parts of 
the State, asking expressions of opinion, and among all the re- 
plies she did not receive one adverse communication. With com- 
mon accord those interested expressed themselves as in favor 
of giving the Confederate veterans who managed their affairs iu 
time of war the privilege of deciding for them in time of peace. 
The resolutions adopted at this meeting were as follows : 
"Whereas, the act of Congress making an appropriation for 
the reinterment of the Confederate dead now scattered in and 
around Washington, District of Columbia, to a spot selected, to 
be ornamented and cared for by the United States Government, 
in Arlington Cemetery, has been carefully considered by us 
+ 'rom every point of view ; and, 

"Whereas, the graves are to be marked with marble head- 
stones, giving their names where obtainable, and to be perpetually 
cared for, it seems to be the most conciliatory act of legislation 
et taken by Congress towards the South ; and. 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 33 

"Whereas, the United Confederate Veterans, at their annual 
reunion, indorsed this act, placing on record their appreciation 
of the utterances of President McKinley in Atlanta concerning 
the care of the Confederate dead by the National Government, 
which has resulted in this act, which represents not the North 
alone, but the entire country, the spirit of which must be ac- 
cepted without any question of motive, for charity is 'not easily 
provoked and thinketh no evil,' and, though our patriotism 
'speaketh with the tongues of men and angels, and have not 
charity, it becomes as sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal': 

"Whereas, we regret that prominent ladies in various asso- 
ciations differ with the United Confederate Veterans and with 
us (the same loving spirit of reverence for our dead animating 
them as ourselves, we ask the kindly judgment founded on love, 
peace and gentleness) ; and, 

"Whereas, such veterans as Gen. John B. Gordon, of Georgia; 
Generals Morgan, Wheeler, Pettus, and Col. H. A. Herbert, of 
Alabama ; Gen. Bate, of Tennessee ; Gen. Butler, of South Caro- 
lina; Gen. Ransom, of North Carolina, and Gen. Stephen D. Lee, 
of Mississippi, including the United Confederate Veterans, have 
accepted this act in good faith, and, such men as these having 
fought our battles in war, we can safely trust them to guard 
our interests in peace, believing they will set us no unworthy 
example, nor ask of us anything inconsistent with the lofty char- 
acter of patriotic and devoted Southern women, nor of the proud 
record made by their now silent comrades, who fought the 
bravest fight that was ever fought for the fairest land in all the 
world ; therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That, deploring the fact that there exists in this age 
c'i citizen of this Republic who could give utterance to senti- 
ments of hostility to a fallen foe, and not believing that such 
sentiments are representative of the North or the Grand Army 
of the Republic, we express ourselves in sympathy with the 
action of the United Confederate Veterans, accepting the said 
act of Congress, assisting in the performance of a sacred duty 
in the spirit of gentle judgment, which not only adorns the 
records of chivalry, but is the Christian grace of the great 
orotherhood and sisterhood of mankind. 

"Resolved, further, That Hon. H. A. Herbert and Senator Mor- 
gan, representing the Confederate Veterans of Alabama, and 
Miss Virginia Miller, president of the Southern Relief Society 
of the District of Columbia, be appointed and requested to prop- 
erly inform the Secretary of War of our action and our earnest 
desire that immediate steps be taken to secure for us these honors 
for our noble and never-to-be-forgotten dead. 

34 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

"Resolved, further, That this committee be requested, at such 
time as the sacred remains of our dead be removed, to plan and 
execute such ceremonies as will fittingly express the divine senti- 
ments of love and gratitude which we cherish for our beloved 

On motion, these resolutions were passed unanimously. 
(Signed) Mrs. Emmett Seibels. 
Mrs. E. T. Ledyard, 
Mrs. S. Hails Janney, 
Mrs. W. B. Jones, 

Committee on Resolutions. 
For the Memorial Association : 

Mrs. M. D. Bibb, 
President Ladies' Memorial Association. 
Mrs. I. M. Porter Ockenden, 
Secretary-Treasurer Ladies' Memorial Association. 
April 1, 1901. 


The following letter was laid before the Secretary of War, 
March 28, 1901 : 

4 ' Headquarters 
' ' Charles Broadway Rouss Camp, 

"No. 1191, U. C. V. 
"1418 Fourteenth Street N. W. 

"Washington, D. C, March 28, 1901. 
"Hon. Elihu Root. 

"Secretary of War: 
"Sir— In high appreciation of the patriotic sentiments ex- 
pressed by the President at Atlanta, Ga., December 14, 1898, as 
follows: 'And the time has now come in the evolution of senti- 
ment and feeling, under the providence of God. when, in the 
spirit of fraternity, we should share with you in the care of 
the graves of the Confederate soldiers'; and also: 'Every sol- 
dier's grave made during the unfortunate Civil War is a tribute 
to American valor,' and in earnest endeavor to carry out one 
of the principal objects of the constitution of the United Con- 
federate Veterans— viz., 'to perpetuate a record of the services 
of every member, and, as far as possible, of those who have pre- 
ceded us into eternity,' and 'to mark with suitable headstones 
the graves of Confederate dead wherever found'— the Charles 
Broadway Rouss Camp of United Confederate Veterans of the 
District of Columbia, through 'its committee, petitioned the 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 35 

President of the United States June 5, 1899, requesting remedial 
measures relating to the care of the dead in the District of Co- 
lumbia, which resulted in an appropriation by Congress, ap- 
proved June 6, 1900, of $2,500 for the purpose of reinterring and 
suitably marking the remains of about 261 Confederate dead in 
a suitable spot in Arlington Cemetery. 

"In accordance with the law thus enacted the Government 
selected a site and prepared drawings of the plan of burial which 
were acceptable to the 'committee and unanimously approved by 
the Camp, as. well as by the sister-Confederate societies in the 
District of Columbia— viz., the Confederate Veterans' Associa- 
tion No. 171, U. C. V., the Ladies' Southern Relief Society, the 
United Sons of Confederate Veterans, and the Daughters of 
the Confederacy— and by the Southern people resident in Wash- 
ington generally. 

"It has recently come to our knowledge that- protests have 
been made to the Secretary of War by an organization very re- 
cently formed, purporting to be interested in the erection of 
monuments in cemeteries to the memory of Confederate dead, 
that the existing law be set aside and that the remains of the 
dead of each State be shipped to that State for reburial there. 

"We are of the opinion that no one whatever has any right 
to these remains other than their relatives and the United States 
Government, which gave tbem honorable interment more than 
thirty-five years ago, and which has given them honorable care 
through all the years since, like unto that which has been ac- 
corded the Federal dead ; and we would view with great sorrow 
the carrying out of the plan proposed by the organization above 
referred to — would deem it a desecration, a great wrong, to our 
revered dead comrades and their possible living descendants. 

"We are not aware that any of the members of that organi- 
zation are related to these dead, and we feel assured that they 
are not from the fact that as long ago as last August the War 
Department furnished a complete list of them, which was pub- 
lished in full by newspapers generally throughout the South, 
as also by some Northern newspapers, notably the New York 
Journal and the Baltimore Sun, and to this date not one of these 
dead soldiers has been claimed by anyone, and the natural 
inference, after so long a period, is that no one will ever be 
so claimed. 

"It is onr earnest desire that these dead comrades remain in 
the care of the United States Government, having every con- 
fidence they will continue to receive that honorable care which 
has heretofore been accorded them, and that they may remain 
here, near to their numerous living comrades and friends in 
the District of Columbia. 

36 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

"Therefore, we beg leave to submit the above for your con- 
sideration, and earnestly request that the provisions of the law 
as existing may be executed at as early a date as may be prac- 
ticable and consistent with your views. 

"Very respectfully, 

(Signed) "Samuel E. Lewis, Commander, 

(Signed) "E. W. Anderson, 

"First Lieutenant-Commander. 

(Signed) "H. M. Marchant, 

"Second Lieutenant -Commander. 

(Signed) "William Broun, 

(Signed) "John M. Hickey, 

"Of Tennessee. 
(Signed) "N. C. Munroe, 

'Of Georgia. 
( Of Texas." 

(Signed) "Silas Hare, 


The Confederate Section. 
(Explanatory Notes.) 

The entire plot (square) has an area of about three and one- 
third acres. The largest circle is 300 feet in diameter, and has 
an area of about one and three-fifths acres. 

In the center is a reservation for a monument in the future, 
but to be occupied by a large iron vase, filled with plants and 
evergreens, in the meantime. 






1. Corporal C. W. Riel _ Co. H, 6th North Carolina Inf. 

2. N. A. Rogers Co. E, 44th North Carolina Inf. 

3. J. W. Wilson Co. B, 2d North Carolina Inf. 

4. T. R. Carlton Co. B, 57th North Carolina Inf. 

5. Jonathan Nickens Co. A, 5th North Carolina Inf. 

6. W. H. Gusston Co. E, 44th North Carolina Inf. 

7. Wm. Brown Co. F, 5th North Carolina Inf. 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 37 

8. E. T. Armes Co. E, 5th South Carolina Inf. 

9. W. F. Reynolds...- Co. F. 1st Louisiana Infantry. 

10. A. J. Bayless ...Co. K, 63rd Tennessee Infantry. 

11. Merida Brown Co. E, Phillips' Legion, Ga. Inf. 

12. Fleming Jordan..... Co. G, 4th Georgia Infantry. 

13. Lieutenant B. F. Persons Co. G, 4th Georgia Infantry. 

14. T. H. Hickman Co. B, 12th Georgia Infantry. 

15. W. A. Phillips..... -.Co. B, 4th Georgia Infantry. 

16. Sergeant E. P. Stanley Co. D, 4th Georgia Infantry. 

17. W. P. Bernard Co. A, 44th Georgia Infantry. 

18. W. L. Brown... Co. I, 21st Georgia Infantry.. 

19. J. A. Smith Co. H, 16th Georgia Infantry. 

20. James Russell.. ....—— 43d Georgia Infantry. 

21. W. C. Cheseldine -.Co. C, 1st Maryland Cavalry. 

22. W. J. Perkins — , 7th Cavalry. 

23. Unknown...... , 103d Virginia Militia. 

24. Jno. Leacock- Citizen, State Prisoner. 

25. W. J. Gray Prisoner of war. 

26. Unknown — , • 

27. Unknown — - Captain. 

28. Fritz Kimple. -.Co. A, 12th Mississippi Infantry. 

29. W. R. Dearing -Co. A, 19th Mississippi Infantry. 

30. Captain T. W. Farrell ......Co. E. 12th Mississippi Infantry. 

31. R. T. J. Harris —Co. B, 6th Alabama Infantry. 

32. James Scales Co I, 17th Alabama Infantry. 

33. W. C. West....' -- Co. F, 4th Alabama Infantry. 

34. Leon Brower _ —Co. I, 61st Alabama Infantry. 

35. H. Howard ....Co. A, 61st Alabama Infantry 

36. Corporal W L. Nicks -Co. B, 61st Alabama Infantry. 

37. W. H. Worley. ....Danville Artillery, Virginia. 

38. Corporal Winston Meredith ...Jones' Battery, Virginia H. A. 

39. A. J. Mustain Co. H, 21st Virginia Infantry. 

40. Wm Holder _ -Co. H, 24th Virginia Infantry. 

41. Jacob Barnes Co. D, 2d North Carolina Inf. 

42. James McCallen -Co. C, 5th North Carolina Cav. 

43. Jno. Burns..— Co. H, 15th North Carolina Inf. 

44. Cornoral A. A. Bostain Co. K, 57th North Carolina Inf. 

45. J. F. Dean.... -Co I, 43d North Carolina Inf. 

46. D. G. Coleman.... Co. A, 20th North Carolina Inf. 

47. D. W. Berry Co. C, 6th North Carolina Inf. 

48! Wm. Stone — -- Co. K, 1st South Carolina Cav. 

49. Jerry Cronan Co. E, 10th Louisiana Infantry. 

50. W. C. Tripp - -Co. B, 44th Tennessee Infantry. 

51. J. L. Epps - Co. A, Cobb's Georgia Legion 

52. J. A. Jackson. — -Co. B, 12th Georgia Infantry. 

53. James McClendon. Co. G, 64th Georgia Infantry. 

54. Corporal T. C. Turner Co. C, 12th Georgia Infantry. 

55. J. A. Curry Co. E, 12th Georgia Infantry. 

56. Elias McElveen. ....Co. E, 20th Georgia Infantry. 

57. F. M. Autry Co D, 12th Georgia Infantry. 

58. Jno. Abney Co. D, 45th Georgia Infantry. 

59. T. S. Lay — Co. G, 35th Georgia Infantry. 

60. Thos. Rodgers... --Co. G, 21st Georgia Infantry. 

61. Dan. Conley -Citizen, Pris. 

62. J. D. Ballowe , • 

63. J. W. Purse --— , ■ 

64. Lewis Glease - Citizen, PrK 

65. James West - - Prisoner. 

66. Unknown ~~ , • 

67. Unknown , ■ 

38 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

Isaac Neill Co. D, 16th Mississippi Infantry. 

Michael Quinn.. .Co. F, 13th Mississippi Infantry. 

James Lynn..... Co. K, 12th Mississippi Infantry. 

T. F. Morgan Co. F, 59th Alabama Infantry. 

J. S. Russell... Co. I, 61st Alabama Infantry. 

James Foreman. Co. E, 59th Alabama Infantry. 

Wm. Herod Co. E, 6th Alabama Infantry. 

Jno. Roberts Co. D, 15th Alabama Infantry. 

Lieutenant W. S. Renfral ....Co. H, 12th Alabama Infantry. 

Samuel Moorman Co. K, 7th Virginia Cavalry. 

Captain E. W. Capps Co. C, 15th Virginia Cavalry. 

Sergeant Robert Wood. Co. F, 19th Virginia Infantry. 

W. Hadgkins.... Co. A, 115th Virginia Militia. 

Sergeant S. J. Boyce ...Co. K, 30th North Carolina Inf. 

Uriah Rash Co. H, 44th North Carolina Inf. 

Rufus Walston Co. G, 13th North Carolina Inf. 

J. D. Bounds.. Co. E, 38th North Carolina Inf. 

N. L. Craft ....Co. K, 52d North Carolina Inf. 

H. W. Overcash Co. B, 57th North Carolina Inf. 

C. Kinkin Co. C, 44th North Carolina Inf. 

Wm. Esters Co. D, 5th South Carolina Cav. 

Sergeant T. D. King ._ ....Co. I, 9th Louisiana Infantry. 

U. P. Nichols , 1st Tennessee Infantry. 

S. Jessup-- Co. C, 4th Georgia Infantry. 

A. H. Early..... Co. I, 4th Georgia Infantry. 

N. S. Bates. , 19th Georgia Infantry. 

Patrick Boyle. Co. B, 19th Georgia Infantry. 

J. M. Page ....Co. B, 37th Georgia Infantry. 

J. H. Hagans Co. H, 44th Georgia Infantry. 

J. T. Graves ..Co. H, 45th Georgia Infantry. 

F. M. Threlkeld Co. F, 27th Georgia Infantry. 

D. L. Taylor Co. G, 12th Georgia Infantry. 

J. H. Rogers ....Co. B, Cutt's Georgia Battalion. 

C. B. Chollette Co. F, White's Battery. 

James Beck , Artillery. 

Thos. McMeekiu _ _. , . 

Geo. Daymund Citizen prisoner,. 

Wm. Loveless Prisoner. 

Unknown , . 

Unknown.. , . 

W. N. Jenkins , 19th Mississippi Infantry. 

Harvey Barnett.. Co. K, 19th Mississippi Infantry. 

H. H. Roberts Co. H, 37th Mississippi Infantry. 

J. C. Cannon , 61st Alabama Infantry. 

Willis Kenneman , 12th Alabama Infantry. 

James Sandlin Co. D, 9th Alabama Infantry. 

Wilson Taylor.. Co. C, 61st Alabama Infantry. 

J. W. Barkley..... Co. C, 59th Alabama Infantry. 

G. W. Raynor...... Co. G, 12th Alabama Infantry. 

J. A. Murphy Co. C, 17th Virginia Infantry. 

Loop , 19th Virginia Infantry. 

Peter Moss Co. B, 1st Virginia Infantry. 

A. T. Rea Co. K, 19th Virginia Infantry. 

Wm. Tucker.. Co. C, 36th North Carolina Inf. 

J. W. Cox Co. G. 2d North Carolina Inf 

Sergeant J. W. Armsworthy Co. H, 54th North Carolina Inf. 

Corporal Simeon Swanson Co. K, 44th North Carolina Inf. 

J. B. Ralph Co. H, 5th North Carolina Inf. 

A. J. Bethune Co. A, 63d North Carolina Inf. 

Captain W. E. Davis Co. B, 30th North Carolina Inf. 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 39 

128. J. E. Marshall Co, G, 13th North Carolina Inf. 

129. H. A. Barber Co. G, 6th South Carolina Inf. 

130. Corporal R. P. Many 3d Co., Washington Art., La. 

131. Lafayette Hogan Co. G, 14th Tennessee Infantry. 

132. B. H. Hickman -Co. F, 38th Georgia Infantry. 

133. E. K. Field Co. K, 24th Georgia Infantry. 

134. Captain J. Y. Bedingfield Co. G, 60th Georgia Infantry. 

135. Sergeant J. T. Hardy Co. B, 60th Georgia Infantry. 

136. Sergeant J. A. Bennett Co. B, 7th Georgia Infantry 

137. E. F. Nowell - . 31st Georgia Infantry. 

138. M. C. Pool.... Co. I, 13th Georgia Infantry. 

139. Sergeant James McCord , 13th Georgia Infantry. 

140. Wm. Crawford -Co. H, 44th Georgia Infantry. 

141. G. J. Holmes- - Co. A, 26th Georgia Infantry. 

142. J. M. Perry - Co. K, 12th Georgia Infantry. 

143. Sergeant Jno. Anderson. Co. K, 44th Georgia Infantry. 

144. J. F. Lloyd ......Co. E, 45th Georgia Infantry. 

145. T. H. Hudson Page's Batt'n, Virginia Artillery. 

146. J. T. Looney Louisiana Rifles. 

147. G. L. Holt -.... , . 

148. J J. Ashby Citizen. 

149. Robert Beachman Citizen, prisoner. 

150. Wm. Inkfield Prisoner. 

151. Unknown , . 

152. Unknown , . 

153. J. R. Mullins ...Co. H, 42d Mississippi Infantry. 

154. E. R. Coleman .Co. A, 17th Mississippi Infantry. 

155. J. L. Riley Co. I, 21st Mississippi Infantry. 

156. L. G. Geuss... Co. K, 2d Mississippi Bat. 

157. Henry Span...... . Co. C, 11th Florida Infantry. 

158. J. W. Norwood Co. I, 3d Alabama Infantry. 

159. G. H. Smith , 14th Alabama Infantry. 

160. Wm. Wilkerson Co. F, 43d Alabama Infantry. 

161. J. McDonald Co. I, 3d Alabama Infantry. 

162. C. B. Royston .Co. D, 14th Alabama Infantry. 

163. H. M. Shaw... .Co. K, 41st Alabama Infantry. 

164. P. R. Scroggin Co. B, 17th Virginia Infantry. 

165. J. H. Chism .....Co. H, 38th Virginia Infantry. 

166. Noah Farmer Co. C, 24th Virginia Infantry. 

167. G. W. Hubbard Co. D, 28th Virginia Infantry. 

168. Jno. Kirk Co. H, 14th Virginia Infantry 

169. W. O. Pollard Co. C. 44th North Carolina Inf. 

170. Jno. Finch .— Co. A, 47th North Carolina Inf. 

171. Wm. Beal...... --. - - -Co. G, 48th North Carolina Inf. 

172. Corporal Asa Williams Co. I, 2d North Carolina Cav. 

173. Andrew Pfaff -Co. D, North Carolina . 

174. Wm. Strayhorn .Co. H, 15th North Carolina Inf. 

175. Jno. Harris - Co. H, 22d North Carolina Inf. 

176. W. E. Jenkins...- — -Co. C, 44th North Carolina Inf. 

177. T. C. Christopher Co. B, 14th South Carolina Inf. 

178. Corporal Green Sayles , Louisiana Guards Artillery. 

179. Pinckney Prothro _ - -Co. D, 2d Georgia Infantry 

180. W. H. Colquitt —Co. H, 31st Georgia Infantry. 

181. James Conaghan -Co. I, 13th Georgia Infantry. 

182. A. J. Waldrip - -.Co. K, 14th Georgia Infantry. 

183. Aaron Morris - — -Co. C, 3d Georgia Infantry. 

184. Homer Broxton.. — Co. E, 3d Georgia Infantry. 

185. Joseph Genrard , 18th Georgia Infantry. 

186. Joshua Kirkland .....Co. H, 48th Georgia Infantry. 

187. B. B. Burdick —Co. D, 12th Georgia Infantry. 

40 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

188. W. D. Amos .Co. D, 5th Georgia Infantry. 

189. W. H. Brand Co. G, 35th Georgia Infantry. 

190. J. H. Wallace...... Co. F, 21st Georgia Infantry. 

191. C. M. Cannon Co. H, 9th Georgia Infantry. 

192. G. W. Hall Co. E, 60th Georgia Infantry. 

193. H. W. Crone... Page's Batt'n, Virginia Artillery. 

194. W. H. Cole Co. E, 7th Virginia Infantry. 

195. Jno. Brown. _ . . 

196. Geo. Whaley Citizen. 

197. James Emory Citizen, prisoner. 

198. Wm. Keyes Prisoner. 

199. Unknown... . , . 

200. Unknown...... _ , . 

201. A. M. McAllister Co. H, 19th Mississippi Infantry. 

202. C. M. Jones... : .Co. I, 14th Mississippi Infantry. 

203. N. B. Bryant .». Co. K, 19th Mississippi Infantry. 

204. Geo. Johnson ...Co. H, 17th Mississippi Infantry. 

205. Wyatt Jackson Co. K, 2d Florida Infantry. 

206. Thos. McGee , 1st Alabama Infantry. 

207. T. B. Thompson , 5th Alabama Infantry. 

208. W. B. Cain Co. E, 9th Alabama Infantry. 

209. P. H. Flanney Co. I, 8th Alabama Infantry. 

210. Lieutenant E. M. Cook Co. F, 10th Alabama Infantry. 

211. Jno. Mead.. Co. G, 10th Alabama Infantry. 

212. G. W. Loop .-- Co. D, 11th Virginia Infantry. 

213. Captain J. F. Jordan __.Co. B, 13th Virginia Cavalry. 

214. Jno. Goodener _ Co. A, 24th Virginia Infantry. 

215. W. G. King..... Co. K, 28th Virginia Infantry. 

216. Robert Bibb Co. E, 4th Virginia Infantry. 

217. A. King ...- - Co. H, 55th North Carolina Inf. 

218. W. A. Sink. - Co. F, 15th North Carolina Inf. 

219. Obed Reep -- .-Co. K, 23d North Carolina Inf. 

220. Samuel Hill..... Co. F, 41st North Carolina Inf. 

221. Peter Yont -- Co. E, 57th North Carolina Inf. 

222. Robert Johnson. Co. I, 11th North Carolina Inf. 

223. Tobias Beaver... Co. C, 57th North Carolina Inf. 

224. Sergeant J. B. Ellen ....Co. D, 30th North Carolina Inf. 

225. Lieutenant Thomas Cowan. ....Co. B, 3d North Carolina Inf. 

226. J. N. Saxon ....Co. D, 9th Louisiana Infantry. 

227. H. W. Cannon Co. F, 3d Georgia Infantry. 

228. W. W. Wright.. Co. I, 19th Georgia Infantry. 

229. J. C. Greene Co. B, 4th Georgia Infantry. 

230. W. B. Jones .- Co. B, 9th Georgia Infantry. 

231. Samuel Hughes -... Co. F, 26th Georgia Infantry. 

232. J. F. Butler..... Co. B, 18th Georgia Infantrv, 

233. Wm. Snyder. -.-.. Co. D, 62d Georgia Infantry. 

234. W. J. McLendon Co. K, 23d Georgia Infantry. 

235. James Nail Co. K, 61st Georgia Infantry. 

236. B. Knowles Co. A, Georgia . 

237. J. A. Poer -Co. D. 4th Georgia Infantry. 

238. W. L. McClain. Co. A, 4th Georgia Infantry 

239. Corporal W. H. Dyess .Co. C ; 12th Georgia Infantry. 

240. Corporal C. W. Taylor Co. C, 60th Georgia Infantry. 

241. H. E. Lawhorne Page's Batt'n, Virginia Artillery. 

242. W. G. Parsons . ■ . 

243. G. Monroe , . 

244. J, P. Thomas Citizen. 

245. W. A. Heavener Citizen, prisoner. 

246. M. Meulin. Citizen, prisoner. 

247. J. L. T 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 41 

248. Unknown.,... , . 

249. H. S. Palmer... Co E, 42d Mississippi Infantry. 

250. M. V. Reese Co. H. 42d Mississippi Infantry. 

251. James Booth... Co. I, 11th Mississippi Infantry. 

252. J. G. SumralL Co. B, 13th Mississippi Infantry. 

253. J. D. Hubbard Co. G, 8th Florida Infantry. 

254. Franklin Furr Co. B, 14th Alabama Infantry. 

255. D. L. Carroll ._ ...Co. D, 5th Alabama Infantry. 

256. James Donohoo _ Co. C. 9th Alabama Infantry. 

257. J. S. Raney Co. I, 9th Alabama Infantry. 

258. D. Hennessy Co. I, 8th Alabama Infantry. 

259. Alex Corder. Co. I, 49th Virginia Infantry. 

260. H. T. Elam Co. A, 11th Virginia Infantry. 

261. G. W. Rice Co. C, 11th Virginia Infantry. 

262. H. R. Fones Co. C, 47th Virginia Infantry. 

263. G. Joyce Co. B, 6th Virginia Infantry. 

264. Sergeant B. F. Kirby ....Co C, 61st Virginia Infantry. 

Note. — In addition to the inscriptions above given, the letters "C. S. A " 
appear on each headstone. 

The graves are in the quadrants of the circle, arranged as 
radii, and the headstones will be in concentric circles. 

Outside the largest circle are to be Southern ornamental trees 
artistically placed, and the interior of the circle will have suitable 
small trees and shrubbery so placed as to artistically define the 

There are thirty-two varieties of trees to be used. 

The driveways are to be solidly built up, graded, graveled, 
rolled and drained. 

The carriage driveway extends from the main or broad ave- 
nues around the larger -circle and up the four straightways to 
.the smaller circle around the monument site. 

All the driveways are twenty feet wide. 

The plot is designed for 264 graves, but there is ample space 
for all future interments between the radii. 

Note.— See the final report, dated November 12, 1901. 


Memorandum.— November 12, 1901. 

This report originally contained the separate lists of 128 in 
the Soldiers' Home Cemetery and 136 in the older part of Ar- 
lington Cemetery; but, the work of reburial now having been 
completed, those separate lists are replaced by the following 
combined list : 

42 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 



i: >o ^ 


2 5 s » 

« 5h <3 ^ - 


44 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 






'C^-V f^~~~ ^O 

^\<^ O 


coNimEPATE seen ON 



United Confederate Veterans' Association. 





u/ '■- I 

Dt pot Q a Mk* Office 
Ma r /so/ 


46 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

urn j j 

Public Poster and Circular. 


Inviting proposals for removing remains of Confederate dead 
at Arlington and Soldiers' Home National Cemeteries, and 
reinterring them in the Arlington, Virginia, National 

Depot Quartermaster's Office. 

Washington, D. C, May 1, 1901. 

Sealed proposals, in duplicate, subject to the usual conditions, 
will be received at this office until 2 o'clock p. m., Friday, May 
10, 1901, for removing the remains of the Confederate dead 
irom the Arlington, Virginia, and Soldiers' Home, District of 
Columbia, National Cemeteries, and reinterring them in the* 
Arlington National Cemetery, in accordance with the specifica- 
tions hereto appended. 

The work is to be commenced immediately upon notification 
of the acceptance of proposal, and must be completed within 
thirty (30) days thereafter. 

Envelopes containing proposals should be marked "Proposals 
for removing Confederate dead," and be addressed to the 
Depot Quartermaster, Washington, D. C. 

T. E. True, 
Major and Quartermaster, 77. S. Army, 

4633 — 1901. Depot Quartermaster. 


The work to be done consists in the removal of such remains 
of Confederate dead as are now buried in the Arlington, Vir- 
ginia, and Soldiers' Home, District of Columbia, National Cem- 
eteries, and their reinterment in the Arlington National Cem- 
etery, in a plot to be designated hereafter, the number of re- 
mains to be thus removed being about 128 from the Soldiers' 
Home and about 136 from Arlington. 

Disinterments.— The graves to be excavated to their fuil 
original depth and width, and all remains found therein to be 
carefully deposited in boxes to be provided for that purpose. 
The work at each cemetery to be done under the supervision 
and to the satisfaction of the superintendent thereof. 

Boxing.— The remains from each grave to be boxed sepa- 
rately, in a box of suitable dimensions, made of good, sound, 
one-inch, rough pine lumber, provided with cover dressed one 
side, securely nailed, and properly labeled to insure identification 
of the remains at time of reinterment. 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 47 

Transportation. — The remains from Soldiers' Home, when 
thus boxed, to be transported in acceptable covered wagons to 
the Arlington National Cemetery. 

Reinterments. — The graves in Arlington for the reinterment 
of the remains will be dug where directed by the superintendent 
«jf the National Cemetery. They will not be less than four and 
one-half feet in depth, and of such length and width as may 
he required by the size of the box containing the remains to 
be interred therein. The remains will be reinten-ed immediately 
upon their delivery at Arlington, and the graves carefully re- 
filled and thoroughly tamped. 

Refilling Graves, Etc. — Upon completion of the work of ex- 
huming the remains, the graves are to be refilled and thoroughly 
lamped, and all rubbish removed. 

When the graves in the Arlington National Cemetery shall 
have been refilled and tamped, they are to be well sodded, and 
all surplus earth removed from the grounds. 

"White marble headstones will be supplied by the United States 
to mark each grave, and the work specified herein will includi 
the setting of the headstones. 

Any information desired will be furnished on application to 
the Depot Quartermaster. Washington, D. C. 

Proposals will be as follows : 

First. For removing and reinterring the remains from Sol- 
diers' Home, District of Columbia, National Cemetery. 

Second. For removing and reinterring the remains from 
graves in Arlington. 

Third. For setting headstones at the graves. 

Public Poster and Circular. 


Inviting proposals for furnishing headstones for graves of Con- 
federate dead in Arlington (Va.) National Cemetery. 

Depot Quartermaster's Office, 
Washington, D. C, May 10, 1901. 

Sealed proposals, in duplicate, subject to usual conditions, 
will be received here until 2 o'clock p. m., Monday ; May 20. 
1901, and then opened, for furnishing 264 (more or less) white 
marble headstones to mark the graves of the Confederate dead 
in the Arlington, Va., National Cemetery, in accordance with 
specifications therefor hereto appended. 

48 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

The right is reserved to reject or accept any or all proposals, 
cr any part thereof. 

Envelopes containing proposals should be marked "Proposals 
for Headstones," and be addressed to the Depot Quartermaster, 
Washington, D. C. 

T. E. True, 
Major and Quartermaster, 77. 8. Army, 

Depot Quartermaster. 


There will be required 264 headstones, more or less, to be o£ 
American white marble, in slabs not less than thirty-six inches 
long, ten inches wide, and a uniform thickness of four inches 
throughout, with bottoms square and at right angles to sides, 
of fine grain, good texture, and hard; of grade known to the 
trade as No. 1 ; the top of the stones to be slightly pointed, as 
per drawing, and the edges slightly rounded; that portion of 
each stone which will be above ground when set (eighteen inches 
from top) to be sand- rubbed; each stone to be inscribed with 
number of the grave, the name of the occupant (if known), his 
rank (if other than a private), and the name of the organiza- 
tion to which he belonged, all on one face. If the name is not 
(mown, then the word "Unknown" simply shall be inscribed. 
The figures and letters composing the inscription to be incised, 
one (1) inch in length and three-sixteenths (3/16) of an inch 
deep ; the letters and figures of the inscriptions to be accurately 
spaced and aligned, properly and tastefully arranged, and 
smoothly and carefully cut. Abbreviations may be made in the 
Christian or first name of the deceased and in his rank, as also 
in the name of his organization ; provided, that all such abbre- 
viations shall be made in accordance with the list of inscrip- 
tions to be furnished by this office. In all cases of abbreviation, 
find wherever required, proper punctuation shall be observed. In 
all cases the inscription of the name will be cut on the stone in 
a curve, as per drawing. The work on the stone to be neat and 
strictly workmanlike in all respects. 

All stones and workmanship to be subject to inspection and 
acceptance by an officer or agent of the United States. The ex- 
pense of handling the headstones while being thus inspected 
must be borne by the contractor. 

The stones, after inspection and acceptance by such officer 
or agent, if prepared at a place other than Washington, D. C. 
to be carefully and securely boxed or crated, separately, fully 
covering the inscription. The outside of boxes or crates to be 
planed and to be marked with name and address of consignee. 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 49 

The stones to be delivered, freight paid, at Washington, D. C, 
consigned to the Depot Quartermaster, within thirty days from 
date of notice of acceptance of proposal. 


The Resolutions Relating to the Care of the Confederate 
Dead, as Passed in the Reunion Convention of the 
United Confederate Veterans Held at Memphis, Tenn., 
May 28, 29. 30, 1901. 

The following resolution was submitted for the consideration 
of the Committee on Resolutions of the Convention by Samuel 
E. Lewis, M. D., the Commander of the Charles Broadway Rouss 
Camp, of Washington, D. C. (No. 1191, United Confederate Vet- 
erans), through Col. Hilary A. Herbert, the member of the 
committee from the District of Columbia, on Wednesday, the 
29th of May, 1901 : 

"Resolved, That we hereby extend our thanks to the Congress 
and to the President of the United States for the act of Con- 
gress, approved on the 6th day of June, 1900, for the reinter- 
ment in Arlington Cemetery of the Confederate dead now in 
the national cemeteries at Washington, D. C," 
which, having been favorably acted upon by the Committee 
< n Resolutions, and amended by the following : 

"That, whenever any State of the South, or any organized 
memorial association from any Southern State, shall ask for the 
dead of such State, we ask that such request be granted," 
the whole was unanimously adopted by the committee, and its 
chairman was directed to so inform the convention, and recom- 
mend its passage. 

At the same time that the above resolution and amendment 
were considered and adopted in the Committee on Resolutions, 
there was also held under consideration the following resolu- 
tion, offered by Gen. Stephen D. Lee: 

"Resolved, That we respectfully request that Congress take 
appropriate action looking to the care and preservation of the 
graves of Confederate dead now in the various cemeteries in 
the Northern States." 

These two resolutions, having been unanimously adopted by 
the committee, were reported by its chairman, Gen. Thomas W. 
Carwile, of South Carolina, to the assembled convention, and, 
having been read for the information of the convention by the 
Commander-in-Chief, Gen. John B. Gordon, and indorsed by 
Gen. Cabell, of Texas, and others, they were unanimously 
adopted with very great enthusiasm. 

V S0 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

Official Action of Charles Broadway Rouss Camp, U. C. V., 

June 15, 1901. 

"Whereas, Commander Samuel E. Lewis, chairman of the 
delegation to the Reunion Convention at Memphis, having re- 
ported as follows : 

y j /.:. 'On May 29th your chairman submitted for the considera- 
tion of the convention the following resolution : 

" ' " Resolved, That we hereby extend our thanks to the Con- 
gress and the President of the United States for the act of Con- 
gress, approved on the 6th day of June, 1900, for the reinter- 
ment in Arlington Cemetery of the Confederate dead now in the 
national cemeteries at Washington, D. C," 
which rasolution was amended as follows : 

" ' "That, whenever any State of the South, or any organized 
memorial association from any Southern State, shall ask for the 
dead of such State, we ask that such request be granted." ' 

"And the resolution, thus amended, was unanimously adopted 
by the convention with great enthusiasm ; be it 

"Resolved, That a copy of. said report be forwarded to Mr. 
George B. Cortelyon, the secretary to the President, for the 
information of the President; and, furthermore, that we testify 
our high appreciation of the most commendable attitude of the 
Government throughout, from the President to the most humble 
employee, since presenting our petition, June 5, 1899, and ex- 
press our grateful thanks for the same and for the beautiful and 
appropriate site and plan of reburial for the Confederate dead 
at Arlington. 

"A true copy. 
"Wm. Broun, 


' ' Executive Mansion. 
"Washington, June 18, 1901. 

"My Dear Sir — I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your 
'etter of the 15th instant, embodying a copy of resolutions re- 
cently adopted by your organization, and to state that its con- 
tents have been noted. 

"Very truly yours, 

"Geo. B. Cortelyou, 
"Secretary to the President. 
' ' Mr. William Broun, 
"Adjutant, etc., 

"1418 Fourteenth Street N. W., 

"Washington, D. C." 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 51 


59th Congress, SENATE. Report 

1st Session. No. 25. 


December 20, 1905. — Ordered to be printed. 

Mr. Foraker, from the Committee on Military Affairs, sub- 
mitted the following 


[To accompany S. 1234.] 

The Committee on Military Affairs, having had under consid- 
eration the bill (S. 1234) to provide for the appropriate mark- 
ing of the graves of the soldiers and sailors of the Confederate 
army and navy, and for other purposes, which has twice here- 
tofore passed the Senate unanimously, report the same favor- 
ably and recommend its passage for reasons set forth in the fol- 
lowing report (S. Rept. 2589, Second Session, Fifty-seventh Con- 
press) made on a similar measure during that Congress : 

[S. 6486, Fifty-seventh Congress, Second Session.] 

A Bill to provide for the appropriate marking of the graves of the sol- 
diers of the Confederate army and navy, and for other purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of War be, 
and he is hereby, authorized and directed to ascertain the locations and 
condition of all the graves of the soldiers of the Confede'ate army and 
navy in the war between the States, eighteen hundred and sixty-one to 
eighteen hundred and sixty-five, who died in Federal prisons and military 
hospitals in the North, and who were buried near their places of confine- 
ment; to acquire possession or control over all grounds where said prison 
dead are buried not now possessed, or under the control of, the United 
States Government; to cause to be prepared accurate register? in triplicate, 
one for the superintendent 's office in the cemetery, one for the Quarter- 
master-General 's Office, and one for the War Eecords Office, Confederate 
archives, of the places of burial, the number of the grave, the name, com- 
pany, regiment and State of each Confederate soldier who so died, by 
verification with the Confederate archives in the War Department at 
Washington, District of Columbia ; to cause to be erected over said graves 
white marble headstones similar to those recently placed over the graves 
ro the "Confederate section" in the National Cemetery at Arlington, 
"Virginia, similarly inscribed; to build proper fencing for the preservation 
of said burial grounds, and to care for said burial grounds in all proper 
respects not herein specifically mentioned. 

52 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

That for the carrying out of the objects set forth herein there be ap- 
propriated, out of the money in the treasury of the United States not other- 
wise appropriated, the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, or so much 
thereof as may be necessary. 

And the Secretary of War is hereby authorized and directed to appoint 
some competent person as commissioner to ascertain the location of such 
Confederate graves not heretofore located, and to compare the names of 
those already marked with the registers in the cemeteries, and correct the 
same when found necessary, as preliminary to the work of marking the 
graves with suitable headstones, and to fix the compensation of said com- 
missioner, who shall be allowed necessary traveling expenses. 

The committee recommend that the bill do pass with the fol- 
lowing amendments: 

On page 1, line 6, after the word "the," insert the words "late 

On page 1, line 6, after the word "war," strike out the words 
"between the States." 

On page 2, line 15, strike out the word "one" and insert in 
lieu thereof the word "two." 

The bill as amended will then read as follows : 

A Bill to provide for the appropriate marking of the graves of the sol- 
diers of the Confederate Army and Navy, and for other purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Eepresentatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of War be, 
and he is hereby, authorized and directed to ascertain the locations and 
condition of all the graves of the soldiers of the Confederate Army and 
Navy in the late civil war, eighteen hundred and sixty-one to eighteen 
hundred and sixty-five, who died in Federal prisons and military hospitals 
in the North, and who were buried near their places of confinement; to 
require possession or control over all grounds where said prison dead are 
buried mot now possessed, or under the control of, the United States 
Government; to cause to be prepared accurate registers in triplicate, one 
tor the superintendent 's office in the cemetery, one for tne Quartermaster- 
General 's Office, and one for the War Record's Office, Confederate archives, 
c.f the places of burial, the number of the grave, the name, company, 
^egiment and State of each Confederate soldier who so died, by verifica- 
tion with the Confederate archives in the War Department at Washing- 
ton, District of Columbia; to cause to be erected over said graves white 
marble headstones similar to those recently placed over the graves in the 
' ' Confederate section ' ' in the national cemetery at Arlington, Virginia, 
similarly inscribed; to build proper fencing for the preservation of said 
burial grounds, and to care for said burial grounds in all proper respects 
not herein specifically mentioned. 

That for the carrying out of the objects set forth herein there be appro- 
priated, out of the money in the Treasury of the United States not other- 
wise appropriated, the sum of two hundred thousand dollars, or so much 
thereof as may be necessary. 

A"nd the Secretary of War is hereby authorized and directed to appoint 
some competent person as commissioner to ascertain the location of such 
( onfederate graves not heretofore located, and to compare the names of 
those already marked with the registers in the cemeteries, and correct the 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 53 

same when found necessary, as \ reliminary to the work of marking the 
graves with suitable headstones, and to fix the compensation of said com- 
missioner, who shall be allowed necessary traveling expenses. 

These Confederate prisoners are buried in many different 
places. Their number is about 30,152. It is estimated that it 
will cost to carry this legislation into effect in the neighbor- 
hood of $200,000. 

The necessity for making the provision contemplated by th : s 
bill arises from the fact that there is no one in charge of these 
cemeteries. These, in many cases, are in a state of utter neg- 
lect, the inclosures being in a dilapidated condition and the head- 
boards of the graves having long since rotted away. 

All these facts are fully set forth in the exhibits hereto an- 
nexed from the War Department, and from data compiled by 
Dr. S. E. Lewis, late assistant surgeon, C. S. Army, and Com- 
mander of the Charles Broadway Rouss Camp No. 1191, United 
Confederate Veterans. 

War Department, 
Quartermaster-General, 's Office. 

"Washington, January 13, 1903. 

Sir — I have the honor to return herewith Senate Bill 6486, Fifty-seventh 
Congress, second session, appropriating the sum of $100,000, or so much 
thereof as may be necessary, "To provide for the appropriate marking cf 
the graves of the soldiers of the Confederate Army and Navy, and for 
other purposes, ' ' referred by direction of the chairman of the Committee on 
Military Affairs. United States Senate, for any information relative to 
the measure in possession of the War Department. 

In response thereto I respectfully report that, according to a report made 
February 6, 1869, by Bvt. Brig.-Gen. Alex. J. Perry, quartermaster, U. S. 
Army, there were buried, in eighty-nine localities throughout the country, 
3D,152 Confederate prisoners of war — viz.: Officers, 455; enlisted men, 
28,490; unknown, 726, and citizens, 481. 

Many of these having been buried in trenches (as in the case of the 
removal of the Confederate remains from Fort Delaware and Pea Patch 
Island, Pennsylvania, to the Finns Point, New Jersey, National Cemetery), 
it would be impracticable to identify individual graves, notwithstanding 
the fact that the names of the persons may be found of record. 

Approximately 9,300 Confederates were buried in national cemeteries. 

Were it possible to locate all such graves, the amount appropriated by 
the bill would be totally inadequate for the purposes stated, as at the 
present contract price for headstones, $2.13 each at the rdaee of manu- 
facture, 30,000 headstones would cost $63,900. to which should be added 
the cost of transportation, handling and setting, approximately $1.25 each 
(.$37,500), making a total of $101~400 for headstones, irrespective of the 
cost of purchase of ground, and for care, maintenance and fencing the 
same, and for compensation and traveling expenses of the commissioner 
provided for in the bill. 

From the foregoing it will appear that the sum named is not sufficient 
to carrv out the provisions of this bill; it will probably require about 

54 16th Annual, Eeport Secty. Monumental Committee. 

At the close of the civil war the Quartermaster's Department took up 
the matter of locating the graves of the dead Confederate prisoners of war, 
since which time some changes have been made by removals of remains to 
other places, etc. Attention is invited to House Eeport No. 45, Fortieth 
Congress, third session, page 775. 


M. I. Lubington, 

Quartermaster-General, U. S. Army. 
The Secretary op War. 

[Extract from Senate Document No. 93, second session, Forty-fifth Con- 
gress. Accompanying reports from the Quartermaster-General, Surgeon- 
General and Commissary-General of Subsistence, U. S. Army.] 

The following is a copy of a report compiled in the office of the Quarter- 
master-General, U. S. Army, by Bvt. Brig. -Gen. A. J. Perry, and forwarded 
to this office by the Quartermaster-General: 

Quartermaster-General 's Office. 

Washington, D. C, February 6, 1869. 

General — I have the honor to submit, with report, a communication of 
the honorable Secretary of War of the 5th of January, 1869, requesting 
information relative to deceased prisoners of war, prisons, etc., for the 
iise of the Congressional Committee on the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 
etc., and to inclose the following statements — viz.: 

1. List marked "A 1 ," showing the locality of the different Confederate 
prisons used for the confinement iof Union prisoners of war, as required 
in paragraph 15 of the inclosed letter of the committee ; also, showing the 
number of Union prisoners, known and unknown, officers, enlisted men 
and citizens who died and were buried at these prisons, as required in 
paragraphs 9 and 21 of the letter of the committee. 

From this list it will appear that the number of deceased Union pris- 
oners of war as reported is 36,401. They were originally buried in the 
sixty-eight localities mentioned in the list, but many of them have been 
removed from these places and are now resting in the various national 
cemeteries throughout the South. 

These data are obtained from the rolls of honor published by this office 
and from the annual reports for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1868, fur- 
rished by officers of the Quartermaster's Department. It is believed, how- 
ever, that the actual number of Union prisoners who suffered martyrdom 
in the rebel prisons far exceeds the number given above, as the records fur- 
nished this office are not complete. It is well known that nt many places, 
as, for instance, at Salisbury, N. C, and at Florence, S. C, etc, the bodies 
were buried in trenches, often two, three, sometimes even four, deep, so 
that the accurate number of bodies interred at these places cannot be 

2. List marked "B," showing localities of the different prisons used 
by the Federal authorities for the confinement of rebel prisoners of war, 
as required by paragraph 16 of the letter of the committee, with the number 
of deceased rebel prisoners, known and unknown, officers, enlisted men and 
citizens interred at these localities, as required by paragraph 22 of that 

The number of rebel prisoners of war reported to be buried at eighty- 
nine localities throughout the country is 31,152. 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 55 

This list has been prepared in part from copies 01 the mortuary records 
of prisoners obtained from the late office of the commissary-general of 
prisoners, and in part from reports received at this office from officers of 
the Quartermaster's Department. It is, therefore, not unlikely that there 
aie a good many' repetitions. 

There being no authority to publish in general orders the names of de- 
ceased rebel prisoners of war, the arrangement of the records and com- 
parison of the reports giving their names has been postponed until the 
publication of the names of Union soldiers who died in fefense of the 
country shall have been completed. With the present reduced clerical force 
in the cemeterial branch of this office, it would take so long a time to 
make a comparison of the different reports as to make it impracticable to 
ascertain within any reasonable period of time the desired information 
relative to the number of known and unknown rebel prisoners who died at 
the Federal prisons at the North. 

I am, General, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

Alex. J. Perry, 
Brevet Brigadier-General and Quartermaster, V . S. Army. 

Brevet Brig. -Gen. M. C. Meigs, 

Quartermaster-General, TJ. S. Army, Washington-, D. C. 


[Prepared by Samuel E. Lewis, M. D., late Assistant Surgeon, C. S. A., of 
Washington, D. C., Commander of the Charles Broadway Kouss Camp 
No. 1191, United Confederate Veterans, First Vice-President of the 
Association of Medical Officers of the Army and Navy of the Con- 

Washington, D. C, December 6, 1902. 
Dear Sir — I beg leave respectfully to transmit herewith for 
your consideration a paper prepared by me, prompted by the 
'-esolution of Gen. Stephen D. Lee, passed by the United Con- 
federate Veterans in session at Memphis, May 28-30. 1901, re- 
questing "that Congress take appropriate action looking to the 
rare and preservation of the graves of the Confederate dead 
row in the various cemeteries in the Northern States." This 
paper has been read by General Lee, and meets with his full ap- 
proval, and it is in compliance with his wish that I bring the 
matter to your attention and request your kind offices in se- 
curing the necessary congressional legislation as suggested by 
the draft of a bill for enactment embodied in the paper. 

Inclosed you will also please find a letter from Gen. Marcus J. 
Wright, transmitting copy of letter from General Lee bearing 
upon the subject. 

56 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

I also hand you copy of letter of the Secretary of War, George 
W. McCrary, to the Prasident of the United States Senate, June 
3, 1878, transmitting report of Quartermaster-General M. C. 
Meigs relating to purchase of Confederate burial grounds by 
the Government. 

May I say that I have been greatly encouraged to request your 
aid by your thoughtful action in caring for the graves of Con- 
federate dead at Camp Chase and Johnsons Island when you were 
the Governor of the State of Ohio. 
I have the honor to be. 

Your obedient servant, 

Samuel E. Lewis M. D., 

Hon. J. B. Foraker, 

United States Senate. 

Washington, D. C, December 5, 1902. 

My Dear Sib — I inclose you a letter from Gen. Stephen D. Lee to ac- 
company the paper prepared by you relating to ' ' the locations and condi- 
tion of the graves of the Confederate soldiers who died in Federal prisons 
2nd military hospitals and were buried near their places of confinement." 

I am very glad of this action of the United Confederate Veterans. There 
is nothing that the surviving Confederate soldiers and their families more 
desire than the proper care of the graves of those of their comrades who 
ffll in action or died from disease. The graves of those who are buried 
m the South receive proper attention, but those in the North are neglected. 
General Lee has expressed the wish that Senator Foraker, of Ohio, who is 
■■>. broad-minded and liberal man, be asked to take charge of the matter 
f.nd endeavor to secure the necessary legislation by Congress. 

I fully agree with him in this suggestion, and think it would be well 
for you to call on the Senator and lay the whole matter before him and 
ask him to take charge of it. 

Very truly yoms, 

Marcus J. Wright. 

Samuel E. Lewis, M. D., 

Washington, D. C. 

[Headquarters Army of Tennessee Department, United Confederate Vet- 
erans. Adjutant-General's Office. Stephen D. Lee, lieutenant-Gen- 
eral, Commanding; E. T. Sykes, Adjutant-General and Chief of Staff.] 

Columbus, Miss., December 9, 1901. 

My Dear General— I had the honor to introduce the resolution at Mem- 
phis, at our last reunion, requesting Congress to take appropriate action 
looking to the care and preservation of the graves of the Confederate dead 
now in the various cemeteries in the Northern States. The resolution was 
passed without a dissenting vote. 

I believe this was done in full appreciation of the noble and humane 
sentiments expressed by our late lamented President in his speech at At- 
lanta, Ga., December 14, 1898. There was no object so near his patriotic 
heart as that to obliterate sectional feeling incident to our unhappy civil 
strife. He seemed to take advantage of every incident in his administra- 
tion of public affairs to cause it to bear in the welding together of sec- 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 57 

tions of his country once estranged. Had he lived, he no doubt would 
have brought about his cherished project in causing the Government to 
share m the expense of the care and preservation of the graves of the Con- 
federate dead, whose valor, with tiiat of the Union dead, is now the valor 
of the American soldier— a sacred heritage of the American people 

I think that Mr. McKinley's speech at Atlanta, Ga., touched the South- 
ern heart more than any other act of any President, and the South mourned 
his death as sincerely as any part of our great Eepublic. 

I believe Congress could do no wiser act than to carry out the spirit 
and object of the resolution so unanimously passed by the large assembly 
o± surviving ex-Confederate soldiers at their great gathering in the City 
cf Memphis, Tenn., May 30, 1901. 

Yours truly, 

/-.„ tij- T „, Stephen D. Lee. 

Gen. Marcus J. Wright, 

Washington, B. C. 

[Senate Ex. Doc. No. 93. Forty-fifth Congress, Second Session.] 

War Department. 
Washington City, June 3, 1878. 
The Secretary of War has the honor to transmit to the United States 
Senate, for the information of the Committee on Military A'ffairs a com- 
munication from the Quartermaster-General, dated the 31st ultimo sub- 
mitting estimate of the cost of acquiring title to and inclosing lands in 
which Confederate prisoners of war are buried and of ejecting headstones 
over their graves. 

Geo. W. McCrary, 
m -r* Secretary of War. 

Ihe President of the United States Senate. 

War Department, 
Quartermaster-General 's Office. 

Washington, D. C, May 31, 1878. 
SiR-On the 14th instant ; I had the honor to report, in reference to the 
proposed sale to the War Department of a lot of ground near Columbus, 
Ohio on which were buried prisoners of war who died at Camp Cha<e 

fW l^ W T SU , bmitted w f s one t0 be c ^cided only by Congress, and 
that the War Department could only execute the laws Wn enacted 

,J »ri Se j? •! ■> oT ^ ° f the Committee on Military Affairs of the Sen- 
ate of the United States upon this subject, and I find that the committee 

of LT^Z fi tbe Umted StateS ' bein « Char § ed ™ th the sepulture 
of those ^ho died prisoners m its hands, is required to provide not only 
suitable place of sepulture, but to protect the title to their graves against 
all adverse claimants, so that the dead may not be disturbed; that the 
laws of humanity are not fulfilled by laying them in the earth without 
TZ^l tV-! st ! n | P ac \ from molestation, and that as the matter now 
stands, the United States being lessee, not owner in fee simple of the 
land no such security exists, and that, -should there be other deceased 
Confederate prisoners of war, who died under similar circumstances lying 
buned upon private lands, it is the duty of the Government to make reason- 
do res? ^ SeCUre t0 tbe na " 0W earth iQ wMch their remaiDS 

58 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

In furtherance of this object I have the honor to submit a list of places 
at which, according to information in this office, prisoners of war were 
buried by the United States authorities during the late struggle. It is 
extracted from House Document, Fortieth Congress, third session, Report 45, 
page 768. 

The number of prisoners dying in captivity is stated at nearly 27,000; 
the number of places at 110. On page 771 of the same document I find a 
list of Federal prisons, twenty in number. The greater number of those 
reported to have died in captivity were buried by the United States near 
the prisons; those who died in this city were buried at the national mili- 
tary cemeteries, others near the place of decease. 

The care of prisoners of war was laid upon a special officer of the War 
Department (the commissary-general of prisoners), and his report will 
uoubtless give fuller information than the records of this office supply. 

But, as the termination of the session of Congress approaches, it is 
proper to submit at least an approximate estimate of the quantity of land 
to be purchased, and the number of graves to be cared for, and of the 
cost of preserving and inclosing them. 

It is not possible at this time to make an exact estimate of the cost of 
purchasing those prison cemeteries not now owned by the United States, 
but the estimate below is as nearly correct as can now be made : 

For purchase of prison cemeteries used during the late war $10,000 

For inclosing the same 100,000 

For 27,000 stones and blocks to be placed at graves of deceased 

prisoners 94,500 

Total $204,500 

As no existing law authorizes the War Department to purchase land for 
this purpose, a special enactment will be necessary, which may probably be 
made most conveniently by an amendment extending the law of February 
22, 1867, relating to national military cemeteries, so as to embrace lands 
on which prisoners of war are buried. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

M. C. Meigs, 
Quartermaster-General, Brevet Major-General, JJ. S. Army. 

Detailed statement of the number of Confederate prisoners of war who 
died in the hands of the United States authorities during the rebellion 
of 1861-1865, etc. — Continued. 


Alexandria, Va. 

Alton, 111 

Annapolis, Md 

Army corps stations... 

Army of Potomac 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md 

Batesville, Ark 

Beaufort, N. C 

Beaufort, S C 

Bermuda Hundred, Va 
Bowling Green, Ky 

Number of 




































United Confederate Veterans' Association. 



Bridgeport, Ala . 

Camp Butler, 111 

Camp Chase, Ohio 

Camp Douglas, 111 

Camp Morton, Ind 

Camp Nelson, Ky _ 

Camp Randall, Wis. 

Chambersburg, Pa _... 

Charleston, S. C ~ 

Chattanooga, Tenn 

Chester, Pa... 

Cincinnati, Ohio (McLean Barracks).. 

City Point, Va 

Clarksburg, Va 

Cleveland, Ohio. 

Columbus, Ohio 

Corinth, Miss 

Covington, Ky 

Cumberland, Md.. .._ 

Cumberland Gap, Tenn 

Davids Island, New York Harbor 

Elmira, N. Y 

Fairfax Seminary, Va _ 

Farmington ; Miss 

Farmville, Va 

Fort Columbus, New York Harbor 

Fort Delaware, Del 

Fort Donelson, Tenn 

Fort La Fayette, New York Harbor.. 

Fort Leavenworth, Kan 

Fort McHenry, Md 

Fort Mifflin, Pa 

Fort Monroe, Va _ 

Fort Pickens, Fla. .... 

Fort Pulaski, Ga 

Fort Scott, Kan _ 

Fort Smith, Ark _ 

Fort Warren, Boston Harbor 

Fort Wood, New York Harbor 

Franklin, Tenn 

Frederick, Md ._ 

Gallipolis, Ohio ._ 

Gettysburg, Pa 

Goldsborough, N. C 

Harpers Ferry, Va 

Harrisburg, Pa _ 

Hart Island, New York Harbor.... 

Helena, Ark 

Hickman Bridge, Ky 

Hilton Head, S. C.._ 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Johnsons Island, Ohio.. 

Jordan Springs, Ky 

Kansas City, Mo 

Keokuk, Iowa 

Key West, Fla.. 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Number of 














2 317 






























































































































£j r 2 




60 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 


Number of 


Known Unknown 

La Grange, Tenn 

Lexington, Ky 

Little Rock, Ark 

Louisville, Ga 

Louisville, Ky 

McMinnville, Tenn 

Martinsburg, Va 

Memphis, Tenn. (post) 

Montgomery, Ala 

Morris Island, S. C 

Mound City, 111 

Murfreesborough, Tenn 

Nashville, Tenn. 

.New Albany, Ind 

Newbern, N. C 

New Creek, Va.. 

New Market, Tenn..... 

New Orleans, La __ 

Newport News, Va 

Paducah, Ky 

Petersburg, Va. 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburg, Pa 

Point Lookout, Md 

Portsmouth, Va. 

Portsmouth Grove, R. I 

Raleigh, N. C 

Richmond, Va 

Rock Island, 111 

St. Louis, Mo 

Savannah, Ga 

Ship Island, Miss 

Ste venson, Ala 

Tullahoma, Tenn. 

Unknown places 

Vicksburg, Miss 

Vining? Station, Ga 

Washington, D. C 

Wheeling, W. Va. (hospital) 

Willets Point, New York Harbor 

York, Pa , 

























































2,; 94 










































<st of United States Prisons Used to Confine Confederate Prisoners of War. 

Alton, 111. 

Camp Butler, 111. 

Camp Chase, Ohio 

Camp Douglas, 111. 

Camp Morton, Ind. 

Elmira, N. Y. 

Fort Delaware, Del. 

Fort McHenry, Md. 

Johnsons Island, Ohio. 

Louisville, Ky. 

Fort La Fayette, New York Harbor. 

Hart Island, New York Harbor. 

Newport News, Va. 

New Orleans, La. 

Old Capitol Prison, Washington, D. C. 

Point Lookout, Md. 

Rock Island, 111. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Ship Island, Miss. 

Fort Warren, Boston Harbor, Mass. 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 61 


At the reunion of the United Confederate Veterans, Memphis, 
May 28, 29, 30, 1901, in the session on the 29th there was unani- 
mously adopted with great enthusiasm the following resolution, 
submitted by Gen. Stephen D. Lee : 

Resolved, That we respectfully request that Congress take appropriate 
action looking to the care and preservation of the graves of the Confed- 
erate dead now in the various cemeteries in the Northern States. 

Prompted by the above action, it has been deemed advisable to 
collect such data as was possible without official aid for an in- 
telligent presentation of the facts relating to the location of the 
graves of the Confederate soldiers who died in Federal prisons 
ond military hospitals. 1861-1865, and their present condition, 
with the view to obtaining the necessary legislation providing for 
remedial measures. 

Without commenting upon the causes which led to the lament- 
able congestion of all military prisons and hospitals during the 
deplorable war period, it is sufficient to mention here the well- 
known fact, and that many of these valorous soldiers died and 
were buried near the places of their confinement. In compliance 
with a resolution in the House of Representatives, dated July 12, 
1866, directing the Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, to re- 
port the number of Union and rebel soldiers who died while held 
as prisoners of war, he reported on July 19, 1866 (See Appen- 
dix A), that it appeared by a report of the commissary-general 
of prisoners that there had been 26,436 deaths of rebel prisoners 
of war. 

The report of Major-General E. A. Hitchcock, commissary- 
general of prisoners, made to Secretary of War Edwin M. Stan- 
ton under date of July 18, 1866 (see Appendix B), states that, 
from the records of his office, "it appears that 26,436 deaths 
have been reported among the rebel prisoners of war"; and he 
also states in the same report : ' ' We have accurate reports of the 
deaths which occurred among rebel prisoners in the North." 
These reports from those so high in office must be accepted as 
being as nearly correct as it was possible to make at that date. 

On October 19, 1866, Major-General E. A. Hitchcock reported 
to Brevet Major-General E. D. Townsend, Assistant Adjutant- 

62 16th Annual Report Sectv. Monumental Committee. 

General, U. S. Army, "a list of stations from which reports of 
death and burials of rebel prisoners have been received at this 
office at periods during the secession rebellion." (See Appen- 
dix C.) 

At present there are eighty-three national cemeteries (see Ap- 
pendix D), in which are buried 9,300 Confederate soldier pris- 
oners of war. 

On February 17, 1899, Gen. Marcus J. Wright, of the Records 
and Pensions Office, War Department, reported the places in 
which Confederate dead are buried, so far as he was able to 
ascertain. (See Appendix E.) 

It appears that, prior to 1874, all graves in the national cem- 
eteries were marked by temporary headboards in about the 
same manner as recent interments are marked at this date. By 
Section 1, act of February 22, 1867 (General Orders No. 8, Ad- 
jutant-General Office, 1867), it is declared that each grave shall 
be marked with a small headstone or block, with the number of 
the grave inscribed thereon, corresponding to the number of the 
grave in a register. This act was amended June 8, 1872 (Gen- 
eral Orders No. 65, Adjutant-General's Office, 1872), requiring 
each grave to be marked with a small headstone, with the name 
of the soldier and the name of his State inscribed thereon, in 
addition to the number. And on June 10, 1872, an appropriation 
of $200,000 was made for the erection of headstones upon the 
graves of soldiers in the national cemeteries. -(General Orders 
No. 52, Adjutant-General's Office, 1872.) (See Appendix F.) 

By an act approved March 3, 1873 (General Orders No. 44, 
Adjutant-General's Office, 1873), the act of February 22, 1867, 
and the act amendatory thereof, approved June 8, 1872, it is 
required that said headstones shall be of durable stone, and of 
such design and weight as shall keep them in place when set; 
and the sum of $1,000,000 was appropriated for supplying the 
same. (See Appendix F.) 

Thus, by the acts of Congress mentioned there were special 
appropriations for headstones for the Union soldiers of 

The legislation noted above entirely related to the headstones 
of Union soldiers; but it is understood that, at a later date, 
many of the other graves in the national cemeteries classed as 
civilian (of which there were a very large number), such as 
quartermaster's employees, citizens, State prisoners, Confed- 
erate soldiers, and contrabands, were marked, not under special 
legislation, but out of the annual appropriation for cemeteries, 
by a thin white marble headstone, having inscribed the number 
of the grave and the name of the occupant, but no mark by 
which they might be otherwise classified or distinguished. Thus, 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 63 

ihe headstones on such of the graves of the Confederate soldiers 
in national cemeteries as were marked at all failed to distinguish 
them as soldiers (nor were they distinguished by location or 
grouping) or to show from whence they came; and that is their 
condition at this day, excepting those recently reburied and 
marked with new headstones in Arlington Cemetery under the 
act of Congress approved June 6, 1900. 

But the temporary headboards formerly marking the Confed- 
erate graves in the national cemeteries long ago rotted away, 
and, though some graves are now marked with the thin marble 
slabs mentioned, many have to-day no mark whatever, while a 
few have merely a number referring to a corresponding number 
in the cemetery register. 

Outside the national cemeteries there are probably 20,000 of 
these dead, uncared for by the Government in any manner, and 
but a few of them have had any care whatever other than that 
given by the kind people in the vicinity of a few of the burial 
grounds. The graves of very many are entirely obliterated, and, 
if their registers be also destroyed, as is sometimes the case, 
there remains no possible way to locate them ; and thus, in a 
few years, will it be with all the remaining graves uncared for 
ly the Government. 

In the growth of large cemeteries it becomes necessary from 
Time to time to make new and larger registers, which is cus- 
tomarily done by transcribing from the older registers. With 
every transcription clerical errors are likely to be made, and 
with each additional transcription new errors creep in and the 
older ones are increased and perpetuated ; so that, to secure such 
accuracy as is at all possible, it is necessary to resort to the 
muster rolls of the Confederate archives in the "War Department 
at Washington and any other sources from which it may be pos- 
sible to obtain information. 

Our lamented President William McKinley, at Atlanta, Ga., 
December 14, 1898, delivered a most patriotic address, which met 
with the heartfelt approval of the people throughout the entire 
country, and especially did he thereby greatly endear himself 
to the Southern people. It is fitting, in view of the object of this 
paper, that his remarks upon this subject should be given here 
in full: 

Sectional lines no longer mar the map of the United States. Sectional 
feeling no longer holds back the love we bear each other. Fraternity is 
the national anthem, sung by a chorus of forty-five States and our Terri- 
tories at home and beyond the seas. The Union is once more the common 
altar of our love and loyalty, our devotion and sacrifice. The old flag 
again waves over us in peace with new glories, which your sons and ours 
have this year added to its sacred folds. What cause we have for rejoicing, 
saddened only by the fact that so many of our brave men fell on field or 

64 16th Annual, Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

sickened and died from hardship and exposure, and others, returning, bring 
wounds and disease from which they will long suffer. The memory of the 
dead will be a precious legacy, and the disabled will be the nation's care. 
A nation which cares for its disabled soldiers, as we have always done, 
will never lack defenders. The national cemeteries for those who fell in 
battle all prove that the dead as well as the living have our love. What 
an array of silent sentinels we have, and with what loving care their graves 
are kept! Every soldier's grave made during our unfortunate civil war is 
a tribute to American valor. 

And while, when these graves were made, we differed widely about the 
future of this Government, these differences were long ago settled by the 
arbitrament of arms, * * * a?id the time has now come in the evolu- 
tion of sentiment and feeling, under the providence of God, when, in the 
spirit of fraternity, we should share with you in the care of the graves of 
the Confederate soldiers. 

The cordial feeling now happily existing between the North and South 
prompts this gracious act, and if it needed further justification it is found 
in the gallant loyalty to the Union and the flag so conspicuously shown in 
the year just passed by the sons and grandsons of these heroic dead. 

What a glorious future awaits us if, unitedly, wisely ana Dravely, we face 
the new problems now pressing upon us, determined to solve them for 
right and humanity. 

Having previously investigated the condition of the graves of 
the Confederal dead at Arlington, Va., and encouraged by Presi- 
dent McKinley's address, the Charles Broadway Rouss Camp 
cf United Confederate Veterans, at Washington, D. C, peti- 
tioned the President June 5, 1899, setting forth somewhat in 
detail the condition of the graves of the dead referred to in 
said cemetery, and requested remedial measures. This petition 
was received by the President in the most kindly manner, with 
an earnest expression by him that it was a matter in which he 
was deeply interested. The result was an enactment by Con- 
gress, approved June 6, 1900, above referred to, appropriating 
$2,500 for -the purpose of carrying out the remedial measures 
which had been recpiested. The order for the execution of the 
work was given by the Honorable Secretary of War, Mr. Elihu 
Root, April 25, 1901, and proceedings were immediately initiated 
in compliance therewith, and the work completely finished 
about October 1, 1901, in a manner eminently satisfactory and 
•reditable to all concerned. The act of Congress was duly ac- 
knowledged by the United Confederate Veterans at the annual 
reunion at Memphis on May 29, 1901, by the passage by the 
convention of the following resolution, which was adopted unani- 
mously with great enthusiasm : 

Resolved, That we hereby extend our thanks to the Congress and to the 

President of the United States for the act of Congress, approved on the 

6th day of June, 1900, for the reinterment in Arlington Cemetery of the 
Confederate dead now in the national cemeteries at Washington, D. C. 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 65 

In addition to the recognition by the United Confederate Vet- 
erans as shown by their resolution of thanks, there have been 
enthusiastic praises wherever the facts regarding this reburial 
have become fully known, and high appreciation by all of this 
generous tribute to the valor of American soldiers. 

But the reburial at Arlington was only an incident in carry- 
ing out the noble views of President McKinley ; and Gen. Stephen 
D. Lee, in submitting his resolution, heretofore given in full, 
to the convention at Memphis, felt, and thereby shewed, his ap- 
preciation of the sincerity of the President and the compre- 
hensiveness of his conception, the full fruition of which shall not 
have been accomplished till all that is possible be done in caring 
;or the graves and registers of all the remaining Confederate 
soldiers who died in Federal prisons and military hospitals and 
were buried near their places of confinement. 

There are a great many national cemeteries and other Gov- 
ernment burial grounds from which it has not been possible to 
( btain information ■ but it may be said in general that it is not 
improbable that Confederate prison dead are buried in all na- 
;ional cemeteries unless they have been removed since the end 
of the war between the States. Furthermore, it is well known 
that many of the prison dead are scattered throughout the North, 
not in national cemeteries or receiving the care of the Govern- 
ment, such as those at Madison, "Wis. ; Terre Haute. Ind. ; Alton, 
111.; Camp Chase, Ohio; Camp Douglas, 111.; Elmira, N. Y. ; 
Fort Warren, Boston, Mass. etc. (See Appendix C.) 

There are at this time eighty-three national cemeteries (see 
list of national cemeteries, Quartermaster-General's Office, War 
Department), and October 19, 1866, the commissary-general of 
prisoners, General Hitchcock, reported "eighty-one stations from 
which reports of deaths and burials of rebel prisoners have been 
received at this office at periods during the secession rebellion." 
Of these eighty-one stations, but twenty-one are now national 
cemeteries, leaving sixty other places where Confederate dead 
are buried. (See Appendix C.) 

There are known to be in existing national cemeteries 9,300 
Confederate dead, so that more than two-thirds of the Con- 
federate prison dead are buried in places other than national 
cemeteries, and presumably not under Government control of 
receiving the care of the Government. 

The unfortunate friction which occurred between the Federal 
and Confederate Governments regarding the carrying out of 
the cartels of exchange during the war unhappily resulted in 
the accumulation of prisoners on both sides, with consequent 
congestion, and the enormous number of deaths which occurred 
in the Federal prisons and hospitals reported by Secretary of 
War Edward M. Stanton ; and, therefore, it is but right that 

66 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

the United States Government should care for the graves of 
these Confederate prisoners, not alone those already in the na- 
tional cemeteries, but also those outside of them wherever they 
may be found; and their identification should be accomplished, 
if at all possible, through the Confederate archives in the War 
Department and such other sources of information as may be 
accessible, and proper records made of the same. 

The reburial at Arlington having been completed, there re- 
mains the greater work to be done of giving proper care to 
the remaining Confederate dead who died in Federal prisons 
and military hospitals. In the first place it is of the utmost 
importance that the locations of all be definitely ascertained, 
and, wherever found, if on ground not under the control of the 
United States Government, that proper measures be taken to 
effect such control. Having ascertained the locations and ac- 
quired the necessary control, new registers of all should be pre- 
pared and verified by the Confederate archives in the War De- 
partment at Washington, and new headstones erected like thos j 
recently placed on the graves in the new "Confederate section'' 
at Arlington, inscribed with the number of the grave, the name 
of the occupant, his company, regiment and State, and the let- 
ters "C. S. A."; and, finally, arrangements should be made for 
the care of all the burial grounds by necessary fencing and in 
all other proper respects. 

Allowing for the unreported deaths, it may well be assumed 
that the total number of these Confederate prison dead is not 
far from 28,000 (Part III, Medical and Surgical History of the 
Rebellion. 1888, reports that, according to the monthly reports 
on file in the Surgeon-General's Office, 30,716 rebel soldiers died 
in Northern prisons, p. 45) ; and that the present condition of 
their graves is by no means so good as was that of those at Ar- 
lington before the recent reburial must be conceded by all 

It has been ascertained at the Quartermaster-General's Office 
(unofficially) that white marble headstones like those recently 
placed over the graves in the new "Confederate section" at 
Arlington, similarly inncribed. can be delivered at national 
cemeteries at $2.50 each, ready for setting, thus making the 
cost 28,000 times $2.50, or $70,000. For the preparation of new 
registers there will be needed a considerable sum for clerical 
labor and material, etc., which may reasonably be estimated at 
$10,000 ; and, for the acquisition and care of burial grounds 
not yet under the control of the Government, the possible ad- 
vance in the prices of material and labor, etc., a further con- 
siderable expense will be necessary. Therefore, the total amount 
needed to satisfactorily accomplish this desirable work may be 
estimated at $100,000." 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 67 

The good results to accrue from the removal of a fruitful and 
persistent cause of friction and bitterness, and th* 4 honor thus 
done to valiant American soldiers, whose love of country led to 
their separation from home c>nd to death, and the honor the 
Government would confer on itself in carrying out the com- 
prehensive, noble and patriotic sentiment of President McKinley 
at Atlanta, Ga., would well repay the trouble and expense. 

To this end it is proposed to submit for the consideration of 
the Congress and the President the following bill for adoption : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Bepresentatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of War be, 
and he is hereby, authorized and directed to ascertain the locations and 
condition of all the graves of the soldiers of the Confederate Army and 
Navy in the war between the States, eighteen hundred and sixty-one to 
eighteen hundred and sixty-five, who died in Federal prisons and military 
hospitals in the North and were buried near their places of confinement ; 
to acquire possession or control over all grounds where said prison dead 
are buried not now possessed or under the control of the United States 
Government; to cause to be prepared accurate registers (in triplicate, one 
for the superintendent's office in the cemetery, one for the Quartermaster- 
General's Office, and one for the War Eecords Office, Confederate archives) 
of the places of burial, the number of the grave, the name, company, regi- 
ment and State of each Confederate soldier who so died, by verification 
with the Confederate archives in the War Department at Washington, Dis- 
trict of Columbia ; to cause to be erected over said graves white marble 
headstones like unto those recently placed over the graves in the ' ' Con- 
federate section ' ' in the national cemetery at Arlington, Virginia, simi- 
larly inscribed ; to build proper fencing for the preservation of said burial 
grounds; and to care for said burial grounds in all proper respects not 
herein specifically mentioned. 

That for the carrying out of the objects set forth herein there be appro- 
priated, out of the moneys in the Treasury of the United States not other- 
wise appropriated, the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, or so much 
thereof as may be necessary. And the Secretary of War is hereby author- 
ized and directed to appoint some competent person as commissioner to 
ascertain the location of Confederate graves not heretofore located, and 
to compare the names of those already marked with the registers in the 
cemeteries, and correct the same when found necessary, as preliminary to 
the work of marking the graves with suitable headstones; and to fix the 
compensation of said commissioner, who shall be allowed necessary travel- 
ing expenses. 

Respectfully submitted for the consideration of the Hon. J. B. 
Poraker, United States Senate. 

Samuel E. Lewis, M. D., 
Commander Charles Broadway Rouss Camp No. 1191, 

United Confederate Veterans. 
1418 Fourteenth Street N. W., 

Washington. D. C. December 6. 1902. 

S. Eep. 25, 59-1—2. 

68 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 



A. Secretary of War E. M. Stanton's Report, July 19, 1866 19 

B. Major-General E. A. Hitchcock's Report, July 18, 1866 19 

C. Major-General E. A. Hitchcock's Report, October 19, 1866 20 

D. The National Cemeteries 20 

E. Report of Gen. M. J. Wright, February 3, 1899 22 

P. Legislation — Acts of Congress Appropriating $1,200,000 for Head- 
stones for Union Soldiers ' Graves 24 

G. Act of Congress, Approved June 6, 1900, appropriating $2,500 for 

Reburial of Confederate Dead in Arlington 25 

War Department. 
Washington, D. C, July 19, 1866. 
Sir — In compliance with a resolution of the House of Representatives 
dated July 12th, directing the Secretary of War to report the number of 
Union and rebel soldiers who died while held as prisoners of war, I have 
the honor to state that it appears by a report of the commissary-general 
of prisoners, first, that 26,436 deaths of rebel prisoners of war are re- 
ported; second, that 22,576 Union soldiers are reported as having died in 
Southern prisons. 

The reports also show that 220,000 rebel prisoners were held in the North 
and about 126,940 Union prisoners in the South. 
Your obedient servant, 

Edwin m. Stanton, 
Secretary of War. 
Hon. Schuyler Colfax, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Reference: War of the Rebellion, Official Records of the Union and Con- 
federate Armies, Series II, Volume VIII, Prisoners of War, etc., serial 
No. 121, page 948. 


Office Commissary-General of Prisoners. 
Washington, D. C, July 18, 1866. 
Sir — In answer to the resolution of the House of Representatives of the 
12th instant, calling for a report of the number of deaths among Union 
soldiers while in Southern prisons, and also the deaths among rebel soldiers 
while held as prisoners of war, I have the honor to state that from the 
records of this office it appears that 26,436 deaths have been reported among 
the rebel prisoners of war, and 22,576 Union soldiers are reported as having 
died in Southern prisons. 


It should also be noticed that, while we have accurate reports of the 
deaths which occurred among rebel prisoners in the North, the reports from 
Southern prisons were exceedingly irregular. 

E. A. Hitchcock, 
Major-General, 77. S. Volunteers, 
Commissary-General of Prisoners. 

Reference: War of the Rebellion, Official Records of the Union and Con- 
federate Armies, Series II, Volume VIII, Prisoners of War, etc serial 
No. 121, page 946. 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 69 


Office Commissary-General of Prisoners. 
Washington, D. C, October 19, 1866. 
General, — * * * The following is a List of stations from which re- 
ports of deaths and burials of rebel prisoners have been received at this 
office at periods during the secession rebellion: Alton Military Prison, 111.; 
Alexandria, Va. ; Army Corps — Sixteenth, Seventeenth and Twentieth; 
Army of the Potomac; Annapolis, Md. ; Atlanta, Ga. ; Baltimore, Md. ; 
Beaufort, S. C; Bridgeport, Ala.; Bowling Green, Ky. ; Batesville, Ark.; 
Camp Chase, Ohio; Camp Douglas, 111.; Camp Butler, 111.; Camp Morton, 
Ind. ; Camp Nelson, Ky. ; Camp Bandall, Wis.; Chester, Pa.; Covington, 
Ky. ; Columbus, Ohio; Cumberland Gap, Tenn. ; Cleveland, Ohio; City Point, 
Va. ; Chambersburg, Pa.; Clarksburg, W. Va. ; Chattanooga. Tenn.; Cum- 
berland, Md. ; Charleston, S. C. ; Davids Island, New York Harbor; Elmira, 
N. Y. ; Fort Warren, Boston Harbor; Fort Lafayette, New York Harbor; 
Fort Delaware, Del.; Fort McHcnry, Md. ; Fort Pidaski, Ga, ; Fort Scott, 
Kans. ; Fort Columbus, New York Harbor; Fort Leavenworth, Kans. ; Fort 
Mifflin, Pa.; Fort Monroe, Va.; Fort Smith, Ark.; Fort Donelson, Tenn.; 
Fort Wood, New York Harbor; Franklin, Tenn.; Frederick, Md. ; Farmville, 
Va.; Gettysburg, Pa.; Gallipolis, Ohio; Harrisburg, Pa.; Hilton Head, 
S. C. ; Harts Island, New York Harbor; Johnsons Island, Ohio; Knoxville, 
Tenn.; Kansas City, Mo.; Key West, Fla. ; Louisville, Ky. ; Little Eock, 
Ark.; Lincoln General Hospital, District of Columbia ; Lexington, Ky. ; Mem- 
phis, Tenn. ; Murfreesboro, Tenn. ; Martinsburg , W. Va. ; Morehead City, 
N. C. ; McLean Barracks, Ohio; Neio Orleans, La.; Nashville, Tenn.; New- 
port News, Va. ; Newbern, N. O; New Creek, W. Va. ; Old Capitol Prison, 
District of Columbia; Paducah, Ky. ; Pittsburg, Pa.; Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Petersburg, Va. ; Point Lookout, Md. ; Ealeigh, N. C. ; Eock Island, 111.; 
Stevenson, Ala.; Ship Island, Miss.; St. Louis, Mo.; Savannah, Ga. ; Vicks- 
burg, Miss.; Wheeling, W. Va.; Willetts Point, N. Y. 


Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. A. Hitchcock, 
Major-General, V. S. Volunteers, 
Commissary-General of Prisoners. 
Bvt. Major-General E. D. Townsend, 

Assistant Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C. 

Eeference: War of the Eebellion, Official Eecords of the Union and 
Confederate Armies, Series II, Volume VIII, Prisoners of War, etc., serial 
No. 121, page 970. 

Note. — There appears to be no national cemeteries at the stations itali- 
cized. National cemeteries, 21 ; other than national cemeteries, 60. Total, 81. 


War Department, 
Quartermaster-General 's Office, 
Washington, D. O, July 1, 1901. 
List of National Cemeteries, Shoiving the Number of Interments in Each, 

June SO, 1901. 
[Those marked with an asterisk (*) also contain Confederate dead.] 

70 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

List of National Cemeteries, Showing the Number of Interments in Each, 
June 30, 1901 — Continued.. 

Name of cemetery 

Alexandria, La 

Alexandria, Va.* _ 

Anderson ville, Ga 

Annapolis, Md.* 

Antietam, Md 

Arlington, Va 

Balls Bluff.. Va 

Barrancas, Fla. . ...... 

Baton Rouge, La. 

Battle Ground, D. C 

Beaufort, S. C* 

Beverly, N. J 

Brownsville, Tex 

Camp Butler, 111.* 

Camp Nelson, Ky.* 

Cave Hill, Ky 

Chalmette, La 

Chattanooga. Tenn * 

City Point, Va *._ 

Cold Harbor, Va 

Corinth, Miss 

Crown Hill, Tnd 

Culpeper, Va. 

Custer Battlefield, Mont... 

Cypress Hills, N. Y.* 

Danville, Ky 

Danville, Va 

Fayetteville. Ark. 

Finns Point, N. J.* 

Florence, S. C 

Fort Donelson, Tenn.* 

Fort Gibson, Ind. T.. 

Fort Harrison, Va 

Fort Leavenworth, Kan.* 

Fort McPherson. Neb 

Fort Scott, Kan.*.. 

Fort Smith, Ark.* 

Fredericksburg, Va 

Gettysburg, Va.* 

Glendale, Va. 

Grafton, W. Va 

Hampton, Va.* 

Jefferson Barracks, Mo.*.. 

Jefferson City, Mo 

Keokuk, Iowa 

Knoxville, Tenn.* 

Lebanon, Ky 

Lexington. Ky 

Little Rock, Ark.* 

Loudon Park, Md 

Marietta, Ga 



































































































































United Confederate Veterans' Association. 


Name of cemetery 



Memphis, Tenn.* 

Mexico City, Mex 

Mill Springs, Ky 

Mobile, Ala 

Mound City, 111 _*. 

Nashville, Tenn.* 

Natchez, Miss 

New Albany, Ind 

Newbern, N. C* 

Philadelphia, Pa.* 

Poplar Grove, Va 

Port Hudson, La 

Quincy, 111 

Raleigh, N. C* 

Richmond, Va 

Rock Island, 111.* 

Salisbury, N. C... 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Francisco, Cal 

Santa Fe, N. Mex 

Seven Pines, Va 

Shiloh, Tenn 

Soldiers' Home, D. C. 

Springfield, Mo 

St. Augustine, Fla 

Staunton, Va 

Stones River, Tenn..... 

Vicksburg, Miss.*... 

Wilmington, N. C 

Winchester, Va 

Woodlawn, N. Y.* 

Yorktown. Va. 







































Note. — Of these interments about 9,300 are those of Confederates, being 
mainly in the national cemeteries at Camp Butler, Cypress Hills, Finns Point, 
Fort Smith, Hampton, Jefferson Barracks and Woodlawn. 

Note. — There are twenty-six national cemeteries which are known to 
contain 9,300 Confederate dead. 

72 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 


War. Department, War Eecords Office. 
Washington, February 3, 1899. 
Dear Sir — I have the honor to hand you a tabulated statement of loca- 
tion of Confederate cemeteries or graveyards in which Confederate soldiers 
are buried, with number of interments in each as far as has been ascertained. 
I beg to say that from the date I received the order to obtain this in- 
formation I have used all diligence and dispatch, but the report is by no 
means complete, and it will take several months to make such complete re- 
turns as are possible. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

Marcus J. Wright, 
Agent War Department. 
Hon. Jos. G. Cannon, 

Chairman of Appropriation Committee, House of Representatives. 

[Eeport of Gen. Marcus J. Wright, War Eecords Office, February 3, 1899.] 

Statement of Location of Confederate Cemeteries or Graveyards in Which 

Confederate Soldiers Are Buried, With Number of Interments 

in Each so Far as Has Been Ascertained. 



Kn °™ blown 





Florida — continued. 



„ . .,, 

Auburn City Cemetery 






a 10 


Fort Pulaski . 



Army Corps, Sixteenth, Seven- 




Camp Douglas, prisoners dead 

Government Smallpox Hospital- 
Interments, estimated from prison 








Soldiers' Home National Ceme- 

Mound City National Cemetery, 
military prisoners, interments... 

Rock Island, in Confederate ceme- 
tery at arsenal, interments 


Indianapolis, Greenlawn Cemetery 
Camp Morton 


Key West 








lai. nassee 



a All marked. 

b These from report of Gen. E. A. Hitchcock, commissary of prisoners, to Gen. E. D. Townsend, 
October 19, 1866. 

Statement of Location of Confederate Cemeteries or Graveyards in Which 
Confederate Soldiers Are Buried, With Number of 

Interments in Each, Etc. — Continued. 



Camp Nelson 








Lebanon -- 

Green River Bridge - 


Mount Sterling — 




New Orleans- 



Fort McHenry 

Frederick- ----: r- 

Point Lookout (Camp Delaware).. 

Baltimore -- ■■ 

London Park, in national ceme- 

Military prisoners dead (inter- 
ments unknown) 


Fort Warren. Boston Harbor.. 



Ship Island. 

St. Louis -- ■-"- 

-Jefferson Barracks National Ceme- 

Jefferson City National Cemetery. 
Kansas City •-•■ 

Woodlawn National (Elmira) Cem 

tery -—-:-- 

The military prisoners dead. 


Willetts Point _ 

Long Island 

In Cypress Hill Cemetery, 

military prisoners dead 

Harts Island- .......-•..---•■ 

Davids Island, New York Harbor 
Fort Lafayette, New York Harbor 
Fo.t Columbus, New York Har- 
bor ■•-■• --•- 

Fort Wood, New York Harbor 





Finns Point National Cemetery, 
in the Confederate cemetery,} 
the Fort Delaware prisoners; 
dead, interments reported ; 1,4,54 






Aversasboro, Harnett County 

Morehead City 




Goldsboro,, Willow Dale Ceme- 




Washington City Cemetery 

Howard's field, near Trinity 

Trinity Churchyard.. 

Methodist Churchyard 

Presbyterian Churchyard.— 

Episcopal Churchyard 


Statesville Old Presbyterian 
Church Graveyard 


In Confederate and city ceme- 

Johnsons Island (Lake Erie, near 

In Confederate cemetery, military 
prisoners dead 


Sandusky — 


McLean Barracks 


Mount Moriah Cemetery 

Philadelphia, National Cemetery, 
prisoners dead removed from 
Chester rural cemetery to the 
Odd Fellow Cemetery 

Gettysburg National Cemetery 

Fort Mifflin - 

Pittsburg, strangers ground in 
Allegheny Cemetery, military 
prisoners dead 







Hilton Head- 


Cumberland Gap 



Dover (Fort Donelson). 






Murfreesboro _ 







74 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

Statement of Location of Confederate Cemeteries or Graveyards in Which 

Confederate Soldiers Are Buried, With Number of 

Interments in Each, Etc. — Continued. 





Known kn U own 

tennesser — continued. 

Virginia — continued. 

Hollywood. Cemetery 



.. . 164 




Near Appomatox Court House 


Camp Randall 




Confederate burying plot or ceme- 
| tery 

Prisoners dead 


Meade Station Ninth Corps Ceme- 

Forrest Hill 


War Department, 

War Records Office, January 17, 1899, and February S, 1899. 

United Confederate Veterans' Association. 75 


Congressional Legislation Kelating to Headstones foe Marking the 
Graves oe Union Soldiers. 


Be it enacted, etc., That, in the arrangement of the national cemeteries 
established for the burial of deceased soldiers and sailors, the Secretary of 
War is hereby directed to have the same inclosed with a good and sub- 
stantial stone or iron fence, and to cause each grave to be marked with a 
small headstone, or block, with the number of the grave inscribed thereon 
corresponding with the number opposite to the name of the party in a 
register of burials to be kept at each cemetery and at the office of the 
Ouarterinaster-General, which shall set forth the name, rank, company, 
regiment and date of death of the officer or soldier; or, if unknown, it 
shall be so recorded. (Sec. 1, act of February 22, 1867; General Orders 
No. 8, Adjutant-General's Office, 1867.) 


Be it enacted, etc., That Section 1 of an act entitled ' ' An act to establish 
and to protect national cemeteries," approved February twenty-second, 
eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, be amended as follows: 

' ' The Secretary of War shall cause each grave to be marked with a small 
loadstone, with the name of the soldier and the name of his State inscribed 
tnereon, when the same are known, in addition to the number required to be 
inscribed by said section; and he shall, within ninety days from the passage 
of this act, advertise for sealed proposals of bids for the making and erec- 
tion of such headstones, which advertisements shall be made for sixty days 
successively in at least twenty newspapers of general circulation in the 
United States, and shall call for bids for the doing of said work in whole 
or in part; and upon the opening of such bids the Secretary of War shall, 
without delay, award the contracts for said work to the lowest responsible 
bidder or bidders in whole or in part; and said bidders shall give bond to 
bis satisfaction for the faithful completion of the work. ' ' (Approved June 
8, 1872; General Orders No. 65, Adjutant-General's Office, 1872.) 

Appropriated to provide for the erection of headstones upon the graves 
of soldiers in the national cemeteries, $200,000. (Act approved June 10, 
1872; General Orders No. 52, Adjutant-General's Office, 1872.) 


Unexpended balance continued and rendered available for its original 
purposes. (Act approved March 3, 1875; General Orders No. 24, Adjutant- 
General's Office, 1875.) 


The headstones required by an act entitled "An act to establish and 
protect national cemeteries, ' ' approved February twenty-second, eighteen 
hundred and sixty-seven, and the act amendatory thereof, approved June 
eighth, eighteen hundred and seventy-two, shall be of durable stone, and of 
such design and weight as shall keep them in place when aet ; and the con- 
tract for supplying the same shall be awarded by the Secretary of War, 
?fter sixty days' advertisement in ten newspapers of general circulation, 

76 16th Annual Report Secty. Monumental Committee. 

to some responsible person or persons whose samples and bids shall in the 
greatest measure combine the elements of durability, decency and cheap- 
ness; and the sum of one million dollars is hereby appropriated for said 
purpose out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated ; and 
the Secretary of War shall first determine for the various cemeteries the 
size and model for such headstones, and the standard of quality and color 
of the stone to be used, and bids shall be made and decided with reference 
thereto; and contracts may be made for separate quantities of such head- 
stones; and the contracts made under this act shall provide for furuishing 
and setting all the said headstones, and shall not in the aggregate exceed 
the sum hereby appropriated. (Act approved March 3, 1873; General 
Orders No. 44, Adjutant-General's Office, 1873.) 


[Public— No. 163, Page 47.J 

An Act making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of the Govern- 
ment for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and 
one, and for other purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress assembled, That the following sums are 
hereby appropriated for the object hereinafter expressed for the fiscal year 
ending June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and one — namely: 

Under the WAr Department. 

national cemeteries. 

To enable the Secretary of War to have reburied in some suitable spot 
in the national cemetery at Arlington, Virginia, and to place proper head- 
stones at their graves, the bodies of about one hundred and twenty-eight 
Confederate soldiers now buried in the National Soldiers ' Home, near 
Washington, District of Columbia, and the bodies of about one hundred 
and thirty-six Confederate soldiers now buried in the national cemetery at 
Arlington, Virginia, two thousand five hundred dollars, or so much thereof 
as may be necessary. 



Jfltmutmenteil (Hmnmittce 



Seventeenth Annual Reunion 



MAY 30 and 31, JUNE 1, 2 and 3, 1907 

STEPHEN D. LEE, General Commanding 

WM. E. MICKLE, Adjutant-General and Chief of Staff. 


J. G. Hauser, "The Legal Printer" 

620-622 Poydras Street 



United Confederate Veterans' Monumental 

Major- General Wm. E. Mickle, 

Adjutant-General and Chief of Staff, U. C. V.: 

Sir— While this initial work may be incomplete owing to 
the difficulties attending it in the inaugural gathering of these 
statistics, it is highly important and far-reaching as the annex 
to a truthful history of the war, its commemoration of the bril- 
liant achievements of the Southern citizen soldiery, and as a 
token of the undying love of their descendants for those who 
have passed and are rapidly disappearing beyond the shores 
of the "Silent River," not less of the enduring affection, of 
the self-sacrificing devotion and heroic patience of their wives, 
daughters and grandchildren for the thrice-sacred cause, and as 
a preservation of the hallowed memories of those who bore the 
immortal banner of the "Southern Cross." Of a verity: 

"The bravest are the tenderest; 
The loving are the daring." 

Thus lofty and inspiring is the work of preserving from 
the fingers of decay the names of the immortal dead, and rear- 
ing lofty monuments to their unparalleled deeds of bravery and 
heroism, that they may never perish from off the earth 

This has been, and is still, a work of deep and enduring love, 
a soul-offering to memory's most sacred treasures by their sons, 
daughters and grandchildren, to be transmitted as a precious 
heirloom to their descendants down the unborn centuries: and 
their monuments shall stand, the silent, yet eloquent, tribute 
of devotion of this Southland's most faithful, heroic, enthu- 
siastic women — a memorial signboard along the highway of time 
to the men in gray, to endure after the last survivor has 
answered the rollcall and is tenting on the camp ground of the 

4 Report of V. C. V. Monumental Committee. 

"Great Beyond"; nevermore among the bivouac of the heroic 
dead, but a living, beautiful, glorified soul, to ever keep green 
and unsullied those brilliant deeds that shall stand ever in- 
scribed on the leaves of a hallowed, chejrished and eternal 

There is always a world of pathos in these gatherings of the 
American Titans of the Nineteenth Century. As time sets its 
seal on their constantly-thinning ranks, there is a closer en- 
twining of their descendants around their aged forms. Song 
and story have immortalized them, impassioned oratory has 
crowned them with laurel wreaths of praise, beauty pays tribute 
to their daring and their valor with sweetest smile and the touch 
of her soft hands. Sentiment has poured forth from her inex- 
haustible urn the wealth of her treasures as a gift-offering to 
their devotion, their patriotism, their courage. A world has 
given tongue to its admiration for the blood-libation they have 
poured upon the altar of constitutional liberty for the preser- 
vation of the matchless gift bequeathed to them by their fore- 
fathers as the richest heritage on earth. 

These monuments, the inscribed marble headstones, are but the 
tokens of the compilation of facts that the historian shall garner 
as the truth of a mighty and tremendous struggle for American 
freedom. "With the shadows of silence gathering about the 
echoing footfalls of the last survivors of the great combat of 
the Sixties there comes the resplendent light of truth to illu- 
mine their pathway unto the portals that open into the "Great 
Beyond." To-day the same self-conscious, self-radiant spirit 
that animated the veteran's bosom in the bivouac, on the march, 
amid the battle's storm, and amid the throes of death's carnage, 
has remained with him amid the pursuits of peace. In these 
latter he has written a not less resplendent record. He has 
shown the world that, when he shook a continent with the 
volcanic upheaval of every higher trait of Anglo-Saxon endur- 
ance, suffering and dashing bravery in war, yet, blood- and fire- 
baptized as he was in being overwhelmed, still could he wrest 
greater victories amid the pursuits of peace. 

Gathering about their fast-waning years are the feats of un- 
flinching truth and justice. They are being perpetuated in 
marble and stone, iron and brass ; they are emblazoned in 
chiseled inscriptions on their silent mentors of a buried but 
still living past. Cherished with sacred reverence are the hal- 
lowed memories clustered about that past which has been made 
resplendent and immortal for all time to come; and well may 
the veteran sink to his final, calm repose, with joy in his heart 
and the light of peace in his soul, because he was an active 

Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30-June 3, 1907. 5 

factor in the grand and heaven-inspired mission of preserving 
constitutional liberty from being obliterated from among the 
nations of the earth, and as feeing the defender of its grandest 
and most sublime principles. 

Prominent factors in these tributes to the tender and in- 
effaceable memories linking the past, fraught with an un- 
paralleled heroism, with the living present, are the 'women of this 
Southland. Around the South 's womanhood cluster the richest 
and loftiest aspirations of its manhood, who kneel in worship 
and adoration at her shrine. These champions of renown 
encircle her fair form with the richest gifts of their lofty cour- 
age. She is the central temple of their love and fealty; devo- 
tion ever pays tribute to the glory that crowns with immortal 
radiance the sublimity of character of Southern womanhood. 

How the heart throbs with an inexpressible pride over the 
patriotism, heroism and self-sacrificing devotion of the Southern 
woman ! She was the loftiest expression of patient endurance 
and heart-inspired fealty in that mighty contest ; she is ever 
divine in her mission, and Godlike in the discharge of trying 

Oh, woman of this chivalrous Southland! How frail the 
power of language to portray the deep idolatry of the scarred 
remnants of the battling hosts to that creation of "earth's noblest 
thing— a perfected woman"! She it was then, as now, who 
stood as the guardian angel of the sacrifices placed upon the 
altar of her country, between childhood's fleeting days unto 
the full fruition of the richness and ripeness of womanhood, 
inciting to deeds of valor, endurance, patriotism and heroism 
such as the world never before had known, and exciting the 
highest admiration of the nations of earth. 

To-day the maidens fair who stand where the brook and waters 
meet, and the matrons, are handing down and transcribing the 
lofty records of an immortal and irrevocable past. Ever fore- 
most in perpetuating the deeds of men who made immortal his- 
tory, they are carving eternal inscription on the monument of 
earthly fame. This trust has been committed to worthy sons 
and daughters of those who wrote enduring deeds on the pages 
of passing events. 

The survivors of the mighty struggle of 1861-1865 know full 
well that they are committing the sacred trust for which they 
battled to the care and direction of their descendants, who are 
loyally worthy of the precious treasure given to their guardian- 
ship, i 

6 Report of V. C. V. Monumental Committee. 

Oh, cause so sacred and tender! Oh, banner of the Southern 
Cross, so treasured and loved ! Thy folds are made immortal by 
the South 's sons and daughters forever! 

''For, though conquered, they adore it; 

Love the cold dead hands that bore it; 

Weep for those who fell before it; 
Pardon those who trailed and tore it; 
And, Oh! wildly they deplore it, 
Now to furl and fold it." 

John J. Scott, M. D., 


Herewith I present for the consideration of the convention 
the report of the secretary, Comrade Samuel E. Lewis, M. D., of 
Washington, D. C, which has received the unanimous approval 
of our committee. 

Washington, D. C, May 29, 1907. 
Dr. J. J. Scott, 

Chairman Monumental Committee, U. C. V.: 

Dear Sir — In this the second annual report of the secretary, 
it is proper to state that the members to constitute the full com- 
mittee have not yet been appointed, only three new members 
having been added since the reunion at New Orleans last year. 
At this date the membership is as follows : Dr. John J. Scott, 
Shreveport. La., chairman; Dr. Samuel E. Lewis, Washington, 
D. C, secretary: F. L. Creech. Greenville, Ala.; T. W. Givens, 
Tampa, Fla. ; Val C. Giles, Austin, Texas ; and the new ap- 
pointees: C. T. Smith. Crexton, Va. ; James P. Coffin, Bates- 
ville, Ark., and L. M. Davis, Kock Hill, S. C. 

The establishment of the committee having been but recently 
begun, and being still incomplete, there has been no organiza- 
tion other than the naming of the chairman and the secretary, 
and. therefore, no plans have been formulated regarding the 
work of the committee. 

Prior to the New Orleans reunion. 1906. Comrade Dr. John 
J. Scott furnished the accompanying list of the locations (marked 
"A," appended) of Confederate monuments in the State of 
Louisiana, which was unfortunately overlooked in making out 
the first annual report. 

Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30-June 3, 1907. 7 

Since the first report of the committee at the New Orleans 
reunion, Comrade J. J. Scott has furnished an account of the 
unveiling of the monument at Shreveport, La., May, 1906; and 
lists of the officers and men constituting the roll of Bossier 
Cavalry, and those papers are attached hereto, together with 
an account of the unveiling of a handsome monument at Mar- 
shall, Texas, January 19, 1906, with a list of the officers and men 
of the Bass Grays, organized at Marshall, Texas, enlisted in the 
Confederate service in 1861, and afterwards known as Com- 
pany D of the Seventh Texas Infantry. 

Under the enactment of law by Congress, March 1 and 2, 
1906, approved by the President, March 9, 1906. and in ac- 
cordance with provision of the enactment, a commissioner was 
appointed by the Secretary of War to execute the provisions of 
the law. Up to this date there appears to have been no published 
report of the work executed under the law by the commissioner. 
The law is as follows: 

"An Act to provide for the appropriate marking of the graves 
of the soldiers and sailors of the Confederate Army and 
Navy who died in Northern prisons and were buried 
near the prisons where they died, and for other pur- 

"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives 
of the United States of America in Congress assembled. That 
the Secretary of "War be, and he is hereby, authorized and 
directed to ascertain the locations and condition of all the 
graves of the soldiers and sailors of the Confederate Army and 
Navy in the late Civil "War, eighteen hundred and sixty-one to 
eighteen hundred and sixty-five, who died in Federal prisons 
and military hospitals in the North and who were buried 
near their places of confinement; with power in his discretion 
to acquire possession or control over all grounds where said 
prison dead are buried not now possessed or under the control 
of the United States Government ; to cause to be prepared 
accurate registers in triplicate, one for the superintendent's 
office in the cemetery, one for the Quartermaster-General's Office, 
and one for the War Record's Office, Confederate archives, of 
the places of burial, the number of the grave, the name, com- 
pany, regiment, or vessel and State, of each Confederate soldier 
and sailor who so died, by verification with the Confederate 
archives in the War Department at Washington, District of 
Columbia; to cause to be erected over said graves white marble 
headstones similar to those recently placed over the graves in 
the Confederate section in the National Cemetery at Arlington, 

8 Report of V. C. V. Monumental Committee. 

Virginia, similarly inscribed; to build proper fencing for the 
preservation of said burial grounds, and to care for said burial 
grounds in all proper respects not herein specifically mentioned, 
the said work to be completed within two years, at the end of 
which a report of the same shall be made to Congress. 

' ' That for the carrying out of the objects set forth herein there 
be appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury of the United 
States not otherwise appropriated, the sum of two hundred 
thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary. 

"And the Secretary of War is hereby authorized and directed 
to appoint some competent person as commissioner to ascertain' 
the location of such Confederate graves not heretofore located, 
and to compare the names of those already marked with the 
registers in the cemeteries, and correct the same when found 
necessary, as preliminary to the work of marking the graves 
with suitable headstones, and to fix the compensation of said 
commissioner at the rate not to exceed two thousand five hundred 
dollars per annum, who shall be allowed necessary traveling 

"Approved, March 9, 1906." 

At the last reunion this committee reported to the Convention 
an important resolution relating to the adoption of a uniform 
gravestone, which was favorably received and unanimously 
adopted. On May 1, 1906, under General Orders No. 52, this 
resolution was formally promulgated from headquarters, but, 
unfortunately, it has not been brought to the attention of the 
Southern people by the newspapers and monthly publications 
since that time ; and, unless this shall be done, this urgent matter 
is likely to be overlooked and forgotten. 

Therefore, owing to its importance, it is here reproduced with 
the hope that it may be brought to the attention of the country 
in such manner as to insure its being kept in view : 

Headquarters United Confederate Veterans, 

New Orleans, La., May 1, 1906. 
General Orders 
No. 52. 
The General Commanding directs attention to the following 
resolutions, wdiich were adopted at the reunion held in the City 
of New Orleans on April 25, 26 and 27, 1906, viz. : 

"Whereas, The Confederate States of America marked its 
entire existence by its great effort to preserve to its people the 
right of local self-government; and, 

Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30-June 3, 1907. 9 

"Whereas, Throughout its life it was a military republic in 
active war, supported by its sons on the field of battle ; and, 

"Whereas, The loss of these patriotic soldiers during the war 
must ever be borne as the .chief sacrifice of the Southern people 
in the defense of its principles ; now, therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That the Association of United Confederate Vet- 
erans, in convention assembled, hereby recommend that in pre- 
paring headstones and monuments over the graves of Confed- 
erate soldiers, wherever their remains may have been, or may be 
laid, such headstones and monuments be each marked with the 
military description of the soldier by company and regiment, 
or otherwise, as the case may be, together with the letters C. S. A.] 
or the words 'Confederate States Army'; and be it further 

"Resolved, That, in so far as it may be possible without de- 
parting from the sentiment of the family of such soldier, the 
headstone, when such is used, is advised to be a plain, upright 
stone having parallel straight sides connected by a top composed 
of two upward sloping straight edges meeting centrally at a 
right angle." 

The General Commanding earnestly urges that the recommen- 
dations contained in the above may be complied with as far as 
possible, so that the graves of our departed heroes may be 
uniformly marked and may be recognized at a glance, thus call- 
ing particular attention to these sacred mounds of earth as the 
resting places of pure and lofty patriots. 
By command of 

Stephen D. Lee, 

>.„■., General Commanding. 

Official : • 

Wm. E. Mickle, 

Adjutant-General and Chief of Staff. 

i CO.A. 



As Suggested in the Foregoing Resolution. 

This cut is inserted here that all may understand what was designed in the resolu- 
tion adopted . 


Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30-June 3, 1907. 11 

Herewith appended I transmit four valuable reports, viz. . 

(1) (Marked "A.") Being a list of Confederate monuments 
and graves in the State of Louisiana, reported by Comrade J. J. 
Seott, of Shreveport, La., chairman of committee. 

(2) (Marked "B.") A list of monuments in the City of New 
Orleans, Louisiana, reported by Mrs. W. J. Behan, of New 
Orleans, La., President of the Confederated Southern Memorial 

(3) (Marked "C") A list of monuments in the State of 
Arkansas, reported by Comrade James P. Coffin, member of 
committee, of Batesville, Arkansas. 

(4) (Marked "D.") A list of the monuments in the State of 
Tennessee, compiled by John P. Hickman, Adjutant- General 
Tennessee Division, United Confederate Veterans, reported by 
General Geo. W. Gordon, commanding Tennessee Division, United 
Confederate Veterans. 

In concluding this report, the secretary begs leave, as he did 
in the first annual report, to bring to the attention of the com- 
mittee and the Southern people the "History of the Confederated 
Memorial Association of the South," in which is to be found 
much valuable information regarding their extensive and praise- 
worthy work not elsewhere obtainable. 

Samuel E. Lewis, M. D., 

Secretary Monumental Committee, 

United Confederate Veterans. 
Washington, D. C, May 28, 1907. 


Location of Confederate Monuments in the State of 

(List furnished by Dr. J. J. Scott.) 

New Orleans, La., in Greenwood Cemetery — Monument to the 
Confederate dead, erected by the Ladies' Confederate Memorial 
Association in 1874. 

New Orleans, La., Metairie Cemetery — Monument erected by 
the members of the Army of Northern Virginia to their fallen 
comrades. Dedicattd May 10, 1881. 

New Orleans, La., Metairie Cemetery — Monument erected by 
the Battalion Washington Artillery, of New Orleans, in memory 
of their fallen comrades. Dedicated February 22, 1880. 

New Orleans, La., at Lee Circle — Monument to the memory of 
General Robt. E. Lee, erected by the R. E. Lee Monument Asso- 
ciation. Dedicated February 22, 1884. 

12 Report of II. C. V. Monumental Committee. 

New Orleans, La., Metairie Cemetery— Monument (equestrian 
statue) to the memory of the fallen heroes of the Army of Ten- 
nessee. The equestrian statue represents General -Albert Sidney 
Johnston. Dedicated April 6, 1887. 

Monroe, La. — Confederate monument erected by the members 
of the Henry W. Allen Camp, U. C. V. This monument was 
destroyed by lightning, but will be rebuilt. 

St. Francisville, La.— Monument to the memory of the Con- 
federate dead. Date of dedication not known. 

La Fourche Crossing, La.— Monument to the Confederate 
dead. Was unveiled in 1904. 

Pointe Coupee Parish, La. — The cornerstone of a Confederate 
monument was laid in 1904. 

Mansfield, La. — There is a Confederate cemetery at this place, 
where the graves of the Confederate dead are marked with mar- 
ble headstones. 

Amite City, La. — The Camp Moore cemetery is here, where 
two hundred unknown Confederate graves are to be found. The 
cemetery was dedicated on June 3, 1905, and turned over to the 

Shreveport, La. — The contract for a handsome Confederate 
monument has been given out, and it is expected that it will be 
completed at an early date from this report. 

Baton Rouge, La.— Monument erected to the Confederate dead 
by the men and women of East and West Baton Rouge. Dedi- 
cated 1886. 

New Orleans, La., March 7, 1906. 


List op Monuments in the City of New Orleans. 

(Furnished by Mrs. W. J. Behan.) 

First. Confederate monument in Greenwood Cemetery erected 
by the Ladies' Benevolent Association, and dedicated on April 
10, 1874, to the memory of the "Unknown Dead." On the 
front is the following inscription: "In commemoration of 
the heroic virtues of the Confederate soldier, this monument is 
erected by the Ladies' Benevolent Association of Louisiana, 
1874." Carved out of pure white marble, the almost lifelike 
form of a Confederate soldier stands guard. On the sides of 
the pedestal upon which he stands are medallions, sculptured in 
relief, of Lee, Johnston, Polk and Stonewall Jackson. Beyond 
the marble steps and platform the mound is covered with green 
turf. On the side opposite the steps are vaults of masonry, to 

Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 13 

which have been transferred the remains of several hundred 
Confederate soldiers. The name "Ladies' Benevolent Associa- 
tion" was used because, at the time, Sheridan would not permit 
the word "Confederate" to be used. The association is that 
known to-day as the "Ladies' Confederate Memorial Associ- 
ation. ' ' The cost of the monument was $12,000. 

Second. The Washington Artillery Monument in Metairie 
Cemetery, erected by the members of that famous command, and 
unveiled February 22, 1880. The monument consists of a 
marble shaft upon a mound. Upon the summit of the shaft is 
an artilleryman with a sponge staff in his hand. On the base is 
inscribed the list of members who were killed or died in service, 
and a series of sixty battles, in which the five companies were 
engaged, forming a history unparalleled in the annals of war. 
Cost of monument, about $12,000. 

Third. Army of Northern Virginia Monument, erected by the 
veterans of the Army of Northern Virginia. This monument is 
situated in Metairie Cemetery. It rises fifty feet above the 
ground, or thirty-eight feet above the mound. Upon the top, 
in a thoughtful attitude, is Stonewall Jackson. The statue is 
eight feet nine inches in height. On one side of the die is the 
inscription: "From Manassas to Appomattox, 1861 to 1865." On 
the other: "Army of Northern Virginia, Louisiana Division." 
In the mound are fifty-seven vaults and four receptacles, wherein 
repose the remains of many Louisianians who served in Vir- 
ginia, or were killed during the war or have died since. The 
monument was dedicated and unveiled May 10, 1881, by Miss 
Julia Jackson, daughter of Stonewall Jackson. Mrs. Jackson was 
present also. A short time ago an inscription was added on 
their tomb, containing the lines from Swinton's eulogy of the 
Army of Northern Virginia. 

Fourth. The monument of the Army of Tennessee, erected 
by the Association of the Army of Tennessee, is situated in 
Metairie Cemetery. The equestrian statue of Gen. Albert Sid- 
ney Johnston is gracefully poised on a mound covered with green 
turf. The statue is of bronze, and stands on a base three, and 
one-half feet square. Johnston wears the uniform of a general. 
The attitude and finish of the equine figure are equally imposing. 
It is the type of a thoroughbred horse. It is said that Mr. Alex 
Doyle, while at work on this statue, had for a model a grandson 
of the famous Kentucky racer Lexington. Cost of the statue, 
$12,000 exclusive of mound and vaults in tomb, wherein are 
buried members of the Association of Army of Tennessee. Gen. 
G. T. Beauregard is buried in one of the vaults of this monu- 
ment. The monument was unveiled on April 6, 1887. 

14 Report of V. C. V. Monumental Committee. 

Fifth. The Robert E. Lee Monument, in Lee Circle, was 
erected by the Robert E. Lee Monumental Association. The 
column is of marble, rising from a terrace on the top of a green 
mound, and reached by stone steps. The statue is of bronze. 
The entire height is 106 feet 8 inches ; extent of granite basement, 
42 feet square ; height of statue, 15 feet ; diameter of column, 
10 feet; height of column, 60 feet. The monument was unveiled 
on February 22, 1884. 

Sixth. The Soldiers' Home tomb in Greenwood Cemetery, 
erected by the Board of Directors of the Soldiers' Home of 
Louisiana. Therein are buried the inmates of the Soldiers' Home. 

Seventh. The Markham Monument is situated in Metairie 
Cemetery, and was erected by the Markham Monument Associa- 
tion in memory of Rev. Thos. F. Markham, Chaplain-General of 
the Army of Tennessee. 

' (C.) 
Batesville, Ark., May 23, 1907. 
To Dr. John J. Scott, 

Chairman, Monument Committee, U. C. V. Association: 

Sir — Complying with the instructions contained in your letter 
of March 23, 1907, the undersigned begs leave to submit the fol- 
lowing report, embracing short sketches of the eleven monuments 
which have been erected in the State of Arkansas in memory 
of the men who wore the gray and the cause which they repre- 
sented. These sketches have been arranged in this report in the 
order of the dates of the erection and dedication of the several 
monuments, as follows : 

Confederate monument, Camden, Ark., dedicated Mav 29, 

Confederate monument, Clarksville, Ark., dedicated early in 

Monument to Gen. P. R. Cleburne, Helena, Ark., dedicated 
May 5, 1891. 

Confederate monument, Helena, Ark., dedicated May 25, 1892. 

Confederate monument, Fayetteville, Ark., dedicated June 
10, 1897. 

Confederate monument, Van Buren, Ark., dedicated October 
10, 1899. 

Confederate monument. Fort Smith, Ark., dedicated Septem- 
ber 10, 1903. 

Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30-June 3, 1907. 15 

Monument to Col. H. L. Grinstead, Camden, Ark., dedicated 
May 6, 1905. 

Confederate monument (State), Little Rock, Ark., dedicated 
June 3, 1905. 

Confederate monument, Camp Nelson, Lonoke County, Ark., 
dedicated October 4, 1906. 

Confederate monument, Batesville, Ark., dedicated May 1, 

Included in these sketches will be found data in regard to the 
graves of Confederate soldiers buried at Camden, Clarksville, 
Helena, Fayetteville and Camp Nelson, but time has not been 
sufficient to enable me to secure information along this line 
from other localities. It is within my personal knowledge, how- 
ever, that the graves of Confederate soldiers in the cemeteries 
in Little Rock and Fort Smith are being carefully looked after 
by the Daughters of the Confederacy at both those points. 

Photographs of most of the monuments embraced in the fore- 
going list are herewith submitted for the inspection of the com- 
mittee, when they will be deposited in the Arkansas room of the 
Confederate Museum in Richmond. 

It is with some degree of pride that the writer calls the espe- 
cial attention of the committee to the fact that the monument 
at Batesville, the place of his residence, is the only one in the 
State which in specific terms, in its inscription, recognizes the 
unswerving faithfulness and patriotism of the women of the 
war period. 

The undersigned takes especial pleasure in here recognizing 
the kindness of the writers of the several sketches, without whose 
assistance this report could not have been made. 

The Confederate Monument at Camden, Arkansas. 
(By Mrs. J. W. Meek.) 

The graves of the Confederate dead who were buried in Cam- 
den, Ark., were decorated during the month of May, 1885, un- 
der the auspices of a military company known as the "Camden 
Rifles." This occasion aroused so much enthusiasm that at its 
close a movement was inaugurated to erect a suitable shaft in 
memory of the honored dead. A subscription for that purpose 
was proposed at the time, and heartily responded to by the peo- 
ple. A committee, consisting of Mrs. A. A. Tufts, Mrs. P. L. 
Lee, Mrs. Robt. Puryear, Col. J. R, Young, Mr. C. D. Gee, Hon. 
W. F. Avera, with Dr. J. W. Meek as chairman, was appointed 
to take the work in charge. 

16 Report of U. C. V. Monumental Committee. 

The result was the erection of a beautiful monument on the 
29th day of May, 1886. This monument was purchased from 
the St. Johnsbury Marble and Granite Works, of Vermont, and 
was erected at a cost of over $700. It is of granite, a polished 
shaft of twenty-five feet, surmounted by the representation of a 
cannonball. This shaft rests upon a die, which in turn is sup- 
ported by a base of graduated squares of the same solid ma- 
terial. The inscription first seen on entering the inclosure is 
this: "1861—1865. In Memoriam." Beneath that, in large 
letters, are the words: "Our Confederate Dead." Upon the ob- 
verse side is the following quotation from the poet-priest, Father 
Ryan (a perfect epitaph for the cause) : 

"We care not whence they came, 
Dear is their lifeless clay. 
Whether unknown or known to fame ; 
Their cause and country still the same, 
They died— and wore the gray." 

"Erected May 29, 1886." 

The monument rests upon a symmetrical mound, inclosed by a 
heavy iron chain, and is thought to be the first monument 
erected to this cause west of the Mississippi River. 

Appropriate exercises were observed at the time of the un- 
veiling. Prayer was offered by Rev. J. McLaughlin ; an oration 
was delivered by Gov. Simon P. Hughes, and an appropriate 
recitation was given by Miss Ellen Puryear. The presentation 
of the monument to the city, through Mayor C. K. Sithen, was 
performed by Dr. J. W. Meek with an impressive address. Sa- 
lutes were fired from an historic cannon, and floral emblems and 
flags were gracefully arranged upon the monument. The Rev. 
E. M. Monroe pronounced the benediction, which closed these 
memorable exercises. 


(By Col. Jordan E. Cravens.) 

At the close of the War between the States there were about 
170 unknown dead Confederate soldiers buried in the cemetery 
at Clarksville, Ark., owned by the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, and, some time after, the board of trustees of that church 
undertook to lay off the ground containing these graves, and to 
provide for keeping them in order. These soldiers were pro- 

Seventeenth Be union, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 17 

miseuously buried in various parts of the ground, and they were 
taken up and reinterred in a plat of ground, square in form, 
and there was erected a little monument in the center of the 
plot. This monument is ten feet four inches in height. The 
base (of granite) is twenty-six by twenty-six inches square, and 
twenty inches in depth. The inscription thereon is as follows : 
"Sacred to the Memory of Our Confederate Dead, 1861—1865." 

This work was done by our citizens, before the organization of 
either the Camp of Confederate Veterans or the Chapter of the 
Daughters of the Confederacy, during the early part of the 
year 1891, probably in February or March of that year. Since 
the organization of the Daughters of the Confederacy they have 
caused a small, unlettered headstone of marble to be placed at 
the head of each grave, and have on hand money for curbing 
around the plat of ground. 

The board of trustees of the church, some years ago, turned 
over to the ladies of the town the management and control of 
the cemetery grounds without regard to their 'church member- 
ship, and that organization, known as "The Ladies' Cemetery 
Association," keeps them in perfect order, and it, in con- 
junction with the Daughters of the Confederacy, annually 
decorates the graves of the Confederate dead therein, and the 
decoration ceremonies are usually performed over the graves 
of the unknown Confederate dead above mentioned. 

Monument to the Memory of Major-General Patrick 

Ronayne Cleburne at Helena. Arkansas. 

(By Major Greenfield Quarles.) 

Tn May, 1869, the Phillips County Memorial Association was 
organized at Phillips Academy, fourteen miles west of Helena, 
Ark., with a branch organization at Helena. The object of the 
organization was to care for the Confederate dead and decorate 
Confederate graves at all times. The late Mrs. John T. Jones, 
of Lexa, Ark., was elected prasident, and Miss Mary Moore 
Lambert, vice-president. The association began at once to gather 
up the remains of hundreds of dead soldiers who were buried 
in haste at the Battle of Helena, July 4, 1863, and to reinter 
them at the present burial-ground, which is situated on a beau- 
tiful plateau upon a picturesque wooded hill three hundred feet 
above the majestic Mississippi. 

This acre of ground was donated by Messrs. Henry P. 
Coolidge, Henry C. Rightor and Albertis Wilkins. About 150 
Confederate soldiers are buried upon this acre of ground, among 

18 Report of V. C. V. Monumental Committee. 

the number being Major-General Patrick R. Cleburne, General 
Thomas C. Hindman and Col. Paul F. Anderson. 

In 1889 the association conceived the idea of raising a monu- 
ment to the Confederate dead. It was first thought that a main 
shaft would be built, and grouped around it would be monu- 
ments to distinguished officers who had gone into the Confed- 
erate service from Helena and Phillips County. This idea was 
afterwards abandoned, and it was determined to raise a separate 
shaft in memory of Gen. Patrick R. Cleburne. After several 
years of effort, the monument was finished and unveiled on 
Sunday, May 10, 1891, with appropriate exercises, chiefly of a 
religious character. Gen. George W. Gordon, of Memphis, Tenn., 
delivered the oration. 

The monument was designated "Cleburne Shaft," that it 
might not be confused with the Confederate monument which 
it was intended should be unveiled on the next Decoration Day. 
With the exception of the lowest portion of the base, it is built 
of the finest Carrara marble. The base is in three sections, the 
lowest being of limestone, three feet seven inches long, two feet 
in width and two feet nine inches high. The height of the whole 
is fifteen feet. A funeral urn crowns the shaft, with a wreath 
of roses festooned beneath it. On the west face of the pedestal, 
towards the avenue, is this inscription : ' ' Patrick Ronayne Cle- 
burne, Major-General, C. S. A. Born in County Cork, Ireland, 
March 17, 1828. Killed at the Battle of Franklin, November 
30, 1864. Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori. Shiloh. Cle- 
burne." On the south side is the figure of Erin's harp, wreathed 
in shamrocks, then: "Missionary Ridge, Richmond, Kentucky." 

"Rest thee, Cleburne, tears of sadness 
Flow from hearts thou'st nobly won; 
Memory ne'er will cease to cherish 
Deeds of glory thou hast done. ' ' 

On the east side, at the top, is a sunburst, and below the words : 
"Franklin. Ringgold Gap." On the north side are the Con- 
federate seal and the words: " Chickamausm. Shelton House." 

— o- 


(By Major Greenfield Quarles.) 

In May, 1869. the Phillips County Memorial Association was 
organized at Phillips Academy, and a branch society at Helena. 
The object in view was the care of the Confederate dead. Mrs. 

Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 19 

John T. Jones, of Lexa, Ark., was elected president, and Mrs. 
Mary Moore Lambert, of Helena, vice-president. The two asso- 
ciations were naturally one. In a brief time they had the means, 
and removed all the dead from around Helena, and the body of 
Gen. Patrick R. Cleburne from Tennessee to the present burial- 
ground, a plateau of wooded hillside, 300 feet above the majestic 
Mississippi, which now and then makes a pilgrimage to the foot 
of this historic hill in homage to the heroes. 

For twenty years those devoted women had visions of a lofty 
shaft to honor the soldiers buried there. Efforts were often made 
to kindle this sacred fire, but as often it smoldered in the ashes 
of indifference. At last, however, in the spring of 1889, a flame 
burst up, and this grand movement, making headway in the 
State of Arkansas, the secretary, Mrs. Win. T. Haskell, and Mrs. 
Robert Gordon, a director of the association, wrote to the corre- 
sponding secretary, who was summering in Tennessee, asking her, 
in view of the fact that various States were represented among 
the dead, to extend the appeal throughout the South. These 
letters were received by the same day's mail, and the appeal was 
made at once through the leading journals. Donations soon 
came in, the first two from Tennessee — tributes to Pat Cleburne 
and Paul Anderson— sent by Bushrod Johnson's command of 
Bedford County, and the Cedar Grays of Lebanon. Capt. James 
Lee, of Memphis, donated a handsome oil painting of Gen. Cle- 
burne to be disposed of. Pigs and blooded sheep were con- 
tributed, and these ladies doffed society trappings to drive bar- 
gains with the butcher. They put their shoulders to the wheel 
in any work that would bring in the shekels, and at last the 
triumphant day arrived. Just two years from the date of the 
aforementioned letters the contract for a Confederate memorial 
was signed with Muldoon, of Kentucky. 

Previous to this the president had appointed a monument com- 
mittee to select a design, consisting of Capt. J. C. Barlow, J. P. 
Moore, D. H. Crebs, J. W. Clopton, John J. Horner, C. R. 
Coolidge and Mrs. W. E. Moore. At a called meeting at the 
Pacific Hotel, June 4, 1891, it being stated that a few hundred 
dollars was wanting to 'Complete the monument fund, Major 
John J. Horner arose and said that, in order to be able to un- 
veil a shaft in May, 1892, the contract must be signed at once; 
that he was willing to be one of a few gentlemen to sign as 
surety. Without hesitation the following put their names to the 
paper: Messrs. J. J. Horner, J. C. Barlow, J. W. Clopton, 
C. R. Coolidge, S. Seelig and C. Lawson Moore. 

During the February preceding this, Mrs. Jones, the presi- 
dent, had been called from earth. Mrs. J. M. Hanks, vice- 
president, succeeded, and had efficiently carried on the work 

20 Report of V. C. V. Monumental Committee. 

with the aid of her associate officers, Mrs. Seelig, vice-president; 
Mrs. J. C. Barlow, treasurer; Mrs. Wta. T. Haskell, secretary, 
and Mrs. W. E. Moore, corresponding secretary; and the asso- 
ciation had been zealous in its interest. 

The Monument— With three sections of base ; the lowest is 
nine feet square. The monument, from base to apex, is thirty- 
seven feet in height. The four sides are ornamented with a 
plinth with a molded gable; the front gable having thirteen stars 
in basrelief, below which, in raised letters, is: "Confederate 
Memorial." Eight cannon, on dies, occupy the corners and the 
centers between. The monument is surmounted by the lifesize 
figure of a Confederate soldier, standing at "Rest on Arms" 
and facing the east, and stands on the top of one of the highest 
points of Crowley's Ridge, and in the center of the acre of 
ground used and known as the "Confederate Cemetery." There 
is a driveway all around the monument, and on all sides, out- 
side the driveway, are Confederate graves, marked with simple 
marble slabs. The Cleburne sbaft stands over Cleburne's grave 
in the same inclosure, on one of the avenues, just thirty feet 
from the larger monument. . 

The larger monument has on the east side, commencing from 
the top, the word "Shiloh." Just below that is the figure of a 
stack of flags, and then: "Chickamauga." Next, in monogram: 
"C. S. A." Then a mound of cannonballs and a cannon, and 
below that: "Our Confederate Dead." Still below: "This 
monument represents and embodies hero-worship at the shrine 
of patriotism and sacrifice ; devotion to the memory of the Lost 
Cause and honor to the soldiers, known and unknown, who rest 
in its shadow." Below that, thirteen stars, and still below: 
"Confederate Memorial." On the north side: "Atlanta, Perry - 
ville, C. S. A." (in monogram), cannonballs and cannon. On 
the west side: "Helena," a suspended sword, muskets crossed, 
surrounded by wreath. Below that: "Wilderness." Below that, 
in monogram: "C. S. A." Then cannonballs and cannon. Be- 
low that four crosses, one below the other. Below that: "Un- 
known Dead. ' ' Then follow these words : 

"Nameless dead, fameless dead, 

Yet they made the fame of others. 
This lofty shaft is witness mute 
Of the love we bear, beyond compute, 
For Southland's patriot brothers." 

On the south side: "Belmont, Murf reesboro. " In monogram: 
"C. S. A." Cannonballs and cannon. 

The monument was erected under the supervision of the Phil- 
lips County Memorial Association of Confederate Women. 

Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 21 

The Heroes at Helena — Among the gallant Confederate sol- 
diers who are buried at Helena are Gen. Thomas C. Hindman 
and Gen. Patrick R. Cleburne. They were warm friends in life 
and their graves are only a few feet apart. Cleburne fell on 
the battlefield, fighting for the land of his adoption. The thread 
of Hindman 's brilliant life was cut by the assassin's bullet. 
Near them also rest the mortal remains of Lieut.-Col. Paul F. 
Anderson, who during a large part of the war period com- 
manded the Fourth Regiment of Tennessee Cavalry, known in 
the Army of Tennessee as "Paul's People," and carved for him- 
self a name for faithfulness to duty, and skill and gallantry in 
its execution, second to no officer of equal rank in the Confed- 
erate Army, and who, after he had laid down his arms, located 
in Helena and easily won our affection and high regard. The 
grave of Gen. Cleburne is marked by a marble shaft, erected by 
the Phillips County Memorial Association, while that of Gen. 
Hindman is marked by a marble shaft, the tribute of his wife, 
and that of Col. Anderson by a plain marble slab. 

Col. "William E. Moore and Major John J. Horner, two dis- 
tinguished Confederates, slumber on the hill, both of whom were 
for many years prominently identified with the business inter- 
ests of Helena. 

The Confederate. Monument at Fayetteville, Arkansas. 

(By Mrs. J. D. Walker, Vice-President Southern Memorial 

The Southern Memorial Association of Fayetteville, Ark., was 
organized June 10, 1872, with thirty-eight earnest workers. 
Later, auxiliaries were formed at Prairie Grove, Cane Hill and 
Springdale, aiding materially in the work. 

By the untiring efforts of these devoted women, grounds for 
a cemetery, beautifully located on a hill east of town, were pur- 
chased and inclosed, and about 900 bodies, brave soldiers of Ar- 
kansas. Missouri. Louisiana and Texas, gathered from the way- 
side and from the battlefields of Prairie Grove and Pea Ridge, 
were interred therein. A fund for a stone wall, which later 
replaced the first temporary inclosure, was greatly augmented 
by dollar contributions from ex-Confederate soldiers. Shrubs 
and trees were planted, but a monument was a dream of the 
distant future. However, all their thoughts and energies were 
directed to that end. and in October, 1896, a monument was 
contracted for. Out of the many designs submitted the one 
selected was that presented by F. H. Venn, of Memphis, Tenn., 

22 Report of V. C. V. Monumental Committee. 

at a cost of $2,500. From that time on new interest was 
awakened, efforts redoubled, and in six months over $1,000 was 
raised by circulating little booklets for dime contributions, each 
booklet holding fifty dimes. This, added to what was already 
in our treasury, and increased by generous contributions from 
our auxiliary associations at Prairie Grove and Springdale, en- 
abled us to pay for our monument when completed, and left a 
surplus of several hundred dollars. 

On May 8, 1897, the cornerstone was laid with impressive 
ceremonies; and on June 10th, the twenty-fifth anniversary of 
our organization, our beautiful monument was unveiled by the 
president of the association, Mrs. Lizzie Pollard, to the admiring 
gaze of enthusiastic thousands. 

To properly describe the monument, the plan of the cemetery 
must be given first. It is octagon in shape, and divided into 
eight triangular sections, with the apex of each section resting 
at the base of the monument, which is the center of the grounds. 
Four of these sections are for graves, alternating with four for 
trees and ornamental shrubbery. One grave section is devoted 
separately to Missouri, one to Texas, one to Louisiana and one 
to Arkansas. 

The monument is of beautiful gray granite, surmounted by a 
statu e in copper bronze of a private soldier at parade rest. Near 
the base on each of the four sides is carved the name of the 
State whose grave section it fronts, and at the top of each are 
the seal and coat of arms for that State. 

The front, or east side, faces the Arkansas section, and is 
ornamented with the Confederate flag and the seal of the Con- 
federacy. The flag is beautifully carved in the granite, while 
the seal is of copper bronze. On the panel beneath is a bronze 
cypress wreath, encircling the words "Pro Patria." Under this 
the Confederate monogram upon crossed palms of bronze, and 
then comes the principal inscription: 

"These were men 
"Whom power could not corrupt, 
Whom death could not terrify, 
W%om defeat could not dishonor." 

This is a portion of the beautiful inscription on the Confed- 
erate monument at Charleston, S. C. Below the name of the 
State (Arkansas), in modest lettering: "Erected by the South- 
ern Memorial Association of Fayetteville, Arkansas." On the 
west base, facing the Texas section, is inscribed : "A Tribute 
From Southern Women." On the north and south bases are 
carved the names of the battlefields, "Pea Eidge and Prairie 

Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 23 

Grove." Military emblems in copper bronze ornament the 
monument, and cannon of granite guard the four corners of 
the base. A curbing of white stone, twenty feet square, filled 
in with white gravel, surrounds the monument, giving breadth 
to the base. 

This description does not do justice to this beautiful work of 
art. It must be seen to be appreciated. 

The bronze sentinel on the summit keeps watch and ward, not 
only over the victims of war, but other careworn veterans of 
that terrible conflict, dying since then, who have claimed a place 
beside their comrades in arms. 

The Southern Memorial Association gives to each a white 
marble marker, with name, rank and date inscribed. The 
cemetery comprises three acres, and a resting-place is offered any 
Southern soldier who desires it, so long as space remains. 

Our cemetery is among the few in the South dedicated solely 
to the Confederate dead. At the head of the Missouri section 
lies the gallant Gen. W. Y. Slack, killed at the Battle of Pea 
Ridge. Only a few commissioned officers are buried here ; mostly 
the self-effacing privates, the rank and file, to whose courage 
and patriotism no monument can do justice. 

Confederate Monument at Van Buren, Arkansas. 
(By Mrs. Phil D. Scott.) 

On March 19. 1896, the Mary Lee Chapter, United Daughters 
of the Confederacy, was organized for the purpose of honoring 
the memory and erecting a monument to the 450 Confederate 
soldiers buried in the Van Buren Cemetery. Among the num- 
ber were men from Arkansas, Texas. Missouri and the Indian Ter- 
ritory. Two years later, on the 24th of November. 1898, the 
cornerstone of > the monument was laid with impressive cere- 
monies, and the next year, on October 10, 1899, the beautiful 
work of art was unveiled to thousands of people who had gath- 
ered to take part with the members of the chapter in the suc- 
cessful completion of their labor of love. The honor of unveil- 
ing this monument had been voted to Miss Fannie Scott (Ar- 
kansas' Daughter) by the Mary Lee Chapter in acknowledg- 
ment of her enthusiastic and untiring efforts in raising the 
money for the erection of the monument, but she transferred the 
honor to Senator -Tames H. Berry, as one more worthy than 
herself to unveil its beauty to his comrades and the public. 

24 Report of U. C. V. Monumental Committee. 

The monument is twenty-one feet high and of the handsomest 
workmanship. The base and column are made of highly-pol- 
ished Georgia granite, surmounted by a lifesized figure made in 
Italy, and <earved from the finest Italian marble. It represents 
a Confederate scout standing in the attitude of listening, with 
his left hand raised as if to shade his eyes. He looks intently 
forward, his right hand grasping his musket. 

On the south side, and directly under the front of the figure, 
are two furled Confederate battleflags, above them appearing 
the words: "Furled, but not forgotten." Below the flags is the 
inscription: "1861. C. S, A. 1865. Erected by Mary Lee 
Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy." On the east 
die appears the following : ' ' Battles, Oak Hill, August 10. 1861 ; 
Elk Horn, March 6, 1862 ; Prairie Grove, December 7, 1862. 
Capt. S. Churchill Clark, Missouri Battery No. 2, killed at Elk 
Horn. March 6, 1862; aged twenty years." On tne north side 
of the monument the inscriptions are as follows: "The C. S. A. r 
February 22, 1862. Deo Vindice." 

"He wins most who honor saves. 
Success is not the test." 

"Fate denied them victory, hut crowned them with glorious 
immortality. ' ' 

On the west side of the monument are the names of the States 
in the following order: "Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Missouri, 
Indian Territory." 

Confederate Monument, Fort Smith, Arkansas. 
(By Judge John H. Kogers.) 

The monument faces the north, and is erected in the north 
corner of a block of ground 300 feet square, on which is con- 
structed a building known as the "Court House," for the Fort 
Smith district of Sebastian County. The monument is thirty- 
six 'feet eight inches high, and is built of marble from Carthage, 
Mo. The bases are all pith-faced, with tooled, margined drafts, 
eight bats to the inch. The bottom base is ten feet square and 
eighteen inches thick; the second base is seven feet eight inches 
square and fourteen inches thick ; the third base is six feet three 
inches square and twelve inches thick; the fourth base is five 
feet three inches square and eight and one-half inches thick, and 
the fifth base is four feet square and nine inches thick. The 

Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 25 

top of each base is beveled so as to correspond with the bottom 
of the base above it. On the top base is a plinth three feet 
eight inches square at the base and three feet ten inches high. 
On all four sides of this plinth are cut, in raised figures, thir- 
teen stars, arranged in a half-circle, with the points down, and 
underneath is a wreath carved in heavy relief three inches in 
depth, with sharp under-cut lines to give it a lifelike appear- 
ance. On the first plinth stands a cap, and above that a second 
plinth, on the north side of which is carved a heavy wreath, 
with the points upward, and in the wreath, in heavy relief, are 
carved two crossed swords. On the west side of the same plinth 
are two crossed Confederate flags, around which is a wreath the 
same as on the north side. On the east side is an anchor, with 
a wreath the same as on the other side. Above this plinth is 
another cap, and then a shaft two feet two indies at the base 
and six feet six inches high, on the top of wdiich is another 
plinth, on the north side of which is the inscription "Lest we 
forget, ' ' and above this another shaft six feet six inches high, 
and upon that is a cap w T ith a plinth two feet six inches square. 
Upon the top of this plinth stands a Confederate infantryman, 
facing the north, with gun in his right hand, the butt on the 
ground, a Confederate blanket rolled and tied around the left 
shoulder and down under the right arm, as the soldiers were 
accustomed to carry them, and over his right shoulder a haver- 
sack, and around his waist his belt, cartridge-box and cap-box. 
From the fifth base to the top the monument is fine sand-rubbed, 
and the hiarble is of a grayish color. On the north side is a 
plate, covering the depths of the second and third bases, three 
feet tw T o inches by two feet three inches in size, on which is the 
following inscription: "Erected by the Varina Jefferson Davis 
Chapter, Daughters of the Confederacy, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 
1903." On the fourth base is the following inscription: "Our 
Confederate Dead." On the fifth base is: "1861 to 1865." The 
figure of the Confederate soldier is eight feet six inches high. 

The monument is, in all respects, perfectly plain. It stands 
upon a high knoll, surrounded by a circular concrete walk, with 
three concrete approaches from the different walks in the court- 
yard. The grounds around the monument are nicely kept, and 
the borders of the knoll filled in with flowers. 

The monument was dedicated September 10, 1903, an oration 
being delivered by United States Senator James H. Berry, and 
the dedicatory address by the Hon. Joseph M. Hill, Chief Jus- 
tice of the State, a son of the late Confederate General D. H. 
Hill, giving a history of the monument, an extract from which 
follows in these words: 

26 Report of U. C. V. Monumental Committee. 

"On the 23rd of September, 1898, at the invitation of Miss 
Fannie Scott, of Van Buren, eight ladies met her and Mrs. Henry 
A. Mayer, then president of the Mary Lee Chapter of the Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy, Van Buren, at the residence of Mrs. 
James M. Sparks, and it was then resolved to organize a chap- 
ter of the Daughters of the Confederacy in Fort Smith, and 
on October 6, 1898, the Varina Jefferson Davis Chapter of the 
Daughters of the Confederacy was formally organized with a 
full corps of officers, thirty-one ladies participating in the or- 

"It is a sorrow, refreshed by this occasion, that Miss Fannie 
Scott, 'Arkansas' Daughter,' cannot see the fruition of the work 
of the chapter she was instrumental in organizing. Her love of 
the South was intense, and her devotion to the veterans of the 
Lost Cause sublime. If it is given to the souls of those who die 
in the Lord to revisit the earth, her gentle spirit is with us to- 
day as a benediction. 

"The object of the chapter was declared to be 'to search for 
and preserve the true history of the brave deeds of our South- 
ern men and women, and to see that it is taught to the rising 
generation ; to care for the graves of our Confederate heroes, 
and to see that the day set apart for decoration day be observed 
each year; to fulfill the duties of sacred charity towards Con- 
federate veterans and their descendants ; and to erect monuments 
to their dead.' 

"The most cherished purpose of this chapter, which has 
grown to 130 members, has been to erect a suitable monument 
to the Confederate dead ; and, as the original monument to Steen 
and Mcintosh was destroyed, it was thought most tit to erect it 
on that spot where so many of them lie, which endeared it to 
the hearts of this community by many sad associations, and 
there, standing over the dust of these dead, would be a monu- 
ment to all the Confederate dead. 

" 'We care not whence they came, 

Dear is their lifeless clay ; 
Whether unknown, or known to fame, 
Their cause and country still the same, 

They died — and wore the gray.' 

"This chapter accumulated by hard work of the ladies the 
sum of $936.64, which was made by giving teas, dances and sup- 
pers, attending booths at street fairs and various entertain- 
ments, in which they worked in unison and harmony to this 
common end. A committee, consisting of Mrs. John H. Rogers 
and Mrs. James M. Sparks, was appointed to solicit funds, and 

Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30-June 3, 1907. 27 

$1,106 was secured by solicitation and voluntary contribution. 
The sums ranged from ten cents to fifty dollars, and, whether 
the widow's mite or the rich man's dollars, each was given with 
full heart and ready hand, and all, except less than fifty dol- 
lars, was given from Fort Smith. One hundred and nine dollars 
and seventy-five cents was contributed through solicitation of 
Ben T. DuVal Camp, United Confederate Veterans, and that 
fund has been used to adorn and beautify the approaches to this 
monument. The names of all the donors to this fund are placed 
in the cornerstone of this monument. Some of the contributors 
to this fund are those not of Confederate sympathy, who gave 
from a broad liberality, desiring to honor valiant Americans. 

"In these ways a monument fund of $2,332.39 was raised. The 
Daughters of the Confederacy selected a committee of three 
veterans and three ladies to choose the design, contract for the 
monument and cause its erection. That committee consisted of 
Messrs. John H. Rogers, Charles A. Birnie and J. E. Reynolds, 
and Mrs. James M. Sparks, Mrs. W. J. Echols and Mrs. Sue 
Bonneville. The completion of this monument, with every dol- 
lar of its cost paid, finishes their work. It is not on the site 
contemplated, by reason of the intolerance of a Secretary of 
War, whose name should not be mentioned on a day dedicated 
to honoring American patriots. 

"In 'behalf of the Monument Committee, I deliver this monu- 
ment to the Daughters of the Confederacy. The Daughters of 
the Confederacy will keep its faith. The women of the South 
sent to the front father, husband, son and lover, and gave a 
smile with parting tears. For four years, with needle, spinning- 
wheel and loom, they furnished clothing to the soldiers in the 
front, and ofttimes, with hoe and plow, provided food for the 
home. They endured hardships and privations with the stoicism 
of the veteran ; their spirits never waned, and in the face of de- 
feat they sang to their foes the songs of the South. They never 
faltered and they never surrendered. Welcoming back their 
loved ones, they cheered their despondency, helped the maimed, 
and revered the memory of their dead next to their God. They 
taught their children with the prayers of childhood the story of 
'that storm-cradled nation that fell,' and made reverence of 
the Lost Cause a part of their religion. To their daughters this 
monument, with all of which it is emblematic, is handed as a 
sacred trust. They will teach posterity that we have one coun- 
try, one flag and one people, but that once there was another 
flag, now furled forever, and under its folds marched armies 
clad in gray, who added honor to American manhood and luster 
to American history, and they will point to this monument to 
emphasize the history of that other time, 'lest we forget.' " 

28 Report of U. C. V. Monumental Committee. 

Monument to Col. Hiram L. Grinstead at Camden, Arkansas. 
(By Mrs. J. W. Meek.) 

The Hiram L. Grinstead Chapter, U. D. C, of Camden, Ark., 
selected May 6, 1905, for the regular exercises of Memorial Day. 
This was also the occasion of the unveiling of a handsome monu- 
ment to the memory of the gallant Southern soldier for whom 
the chapter is named. W. K. Ramsey, of the local camp of 
United Confederate Veterans, was the master of ceremonies for 
the day. Addresses were made by Col. H. G. Bunn and Col. 
J. R. Thornton. The monument was unveiled with an appro- 
priate address by Mrs. J. T. Sifford, daughter of Col, T. D. 
Thomson, who succeeded Col. Grinstead when he fell in com- 
mand of his regiment. 

The monument is of the finest imported Italian marble, fur- 
nished by Morris Bros., of Memphis, Tenn. The design selected 
by this chapter represents a soldier's shield, skillfully carved 
upon the tablet, forming an appropriate background, from 
which a Confederate flag falls gracefully from its staff. 

The inscription upon the die, above the base, is as follows: 
"Col. Hdram L. Grinstead; born in Lexington, Ky., in 1829; 
fell at Jenkins Ferry, Ark., April 30, 1864." 

A handsome chain enclosure surrounds the burial lot, where 
are kept, by loving hands, the uplifted faces of blooming flowers. 

Confederate Monument at Little Rock, Arkansas. 
(By Col. V. Y. Cook, Elmo, Ark.) 

The movement for the erection of this monument started in 
1886 at a meeting in Little Rock of the Confederate Memorial 
Association, an association composed of women, and the first 
money contributed ($5) was by Mrs. J. J. Martin, of that city. 

In 1897 this fund had increased to $285, when Col. J. N. 
Smithee, then editor of the "Gazette," took the matter in hand, 
and added $1,140.55. In 1898 the Daughters of the Confederacy 
took the matter up at their State meeting, and urged everything 
possible to further the plan. The Confederate Veterans in 1899 
took cognizance of the efforts being made by the Daughters, and 
individual members came forward with subscriptions ranging 
from $1 to $100. United States Senator James H. Berry raised 
$500 among the Arkansas delegation in Congress. By 1903 

Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 29 

nearly $5,000 in subscriptions had been raised, which was loaned 
at interest. With this amount on hand, the Confederate Vet- 
erans and the Daughters of the Confederacy decided to ask the 
Legislature of 1903 to appropriate $5,000, and to erect a ten- 
thousand-dollar monument. A bill was introduced in the House 
by Hon. Eoy D. Campbell, of Pulaski County, and pushed 
through to enactment. This act specified that the $5,000 by it 
appropriated should be placed in the hands of the following 
committee to direct its disposal for the purpose of erecting the 
monument, to wit : Capt. John G. Fletcher, Col. V. Y. Cook, J. 
'B. Trulock, Gov. J. P. Eagle, Major J. T. W. Tillar, B. W. Green 
and Chas. P. Penzell. This committee was given authority, by 
the same act, to select five members of the Daughters of the Con- 
federacy to aid as honorary members. The following ladies were 
selected, to wit : Mesdames L. C. Hall, R. J. Polk, R. D. Partee, 
B. E. Benton and C. H. Williams. Mrs. J. R. Miller was later 
added to the committee. 

The design entitled "The Defense of the Flag," offered by 
F. W. Ruckstuhl, a noted sculptor, was decided upon, and the 
contract given to him for $10,000, to be completed within two 

The monument is thirty-five feet five inches high above the 
foundations. The first course of stone above the foundation is 
of Braddock's Quarry Arkansas granite, the balance is of French 
imported stone, called "Peuron Chauvigny, " from the center of 
France. The pedestal is really a double pedestal, one about five 
feet high, the other about twelve feet, the higher one being 
capped by Garland capstone. On the lower pedestal stands a 
bronze figure, nearly eight feet high, of a young Arkansas Con- 
federate soldier, grasping the end of a flagstaff, while the flag 
flutters back and about him. With feet firmly planted, he holds 
his ground in the midst of the din of battle. On his face is ex- 
pressed that profound devotion to the Southern cause and that 
indomitable courage which have immortalized the Confederate 
soldier.' The flag; is easily recognizable as the Confederate battle- 

On the highest pedestal is the figure of Fame alighting from 
the skies on a bronze glote, which serves as a finial, and is sur- 
rounded by a laurel wreath, with an acanthus leaf on each cor- 
ner. The figure carries a trumpet in the left hand, and in the 
right hand she holds over the soldier a laurel crown. 

On the base bearing the soldier is the following inscription : 
"The Confederate Soldiers of Arkansas. 1861-1865." On 
the left side of the high pedestal is inscribed: "Arkansas remem- 

30 Report of V. C. V. Monumental Committee. 

tiers the faithfulness of her sons, and commends their example 
to future generations." On the right side is inscribed: 

"Our furled banner wreathed with glory, 
And, though conquered, we adore it; 
Weep for those who fell before it ; 
Pardon those who trailed and tore it. ' ' 

On the rear of the lower base is a bronze copy of the great 
seal of the Confederate States of America. 

This monument was erected, and now stands, on the grounds 
of the new State Capitol building in Little Rock, and was dedi- 
cated June 3, 1905, with impressive ceremonies. The letter of 
the sculptor, Mr. F. W. Ruckstuhl, explaining the design and 
conception, was read by Charles Coffin, of Walnut Ridge. The 
principal address was delivered 'by Col. Asa S. Morgan, of Cam- 
den. The monument was formally delivered to the State of 
Arkansas in an address by the Hon. Roy D. Campbell, of Little 
Rock, and was received in a response by the Governor of the 

On the same occasion United States Senator James H. Berry, 
on behalf of the Arkansas Division, United Confederate Vet- 
erans, delivered into the custody of the Arkansas Division of 
the United Daughters of the Confederacy, in an appropriate ad- 
dress, the battleflags carried by certain Arkansas regiments dur- 
ing the War between the States, and captured <by the Union 
forces, and which had been recently returned to the State by 
the Secretary of War under a resolution of Congress approved 
by the President. The address was responded to, in acceptance 
of the trust, by Mrs. L. C. Hall, of Dardanelle, the president of 
the Arkansas Division of the Daughters of the Confederacy. 

Confederate Monument, Camp Nelson, Lonoke County, 


(By T. J. Young, Commander James Adams Camp No. 1036, 
United Confederate Veterans.) 

Soon after James Adams Camp No. 1036, United Confederate 
Veterans, was organized in 1897, the writer was informed that 
there were from four to five hundred Confederate soldiers buried 
in the vicinity of a large spring, near which Gen. Nelson's di- 

Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30- June 3, 1907. 31 

vision of Texas cavalry was camped at one time during the war, 
and during which time his command was scourged by an epi- 
demic, the victims having been buried in various places near their 
camp, the larger number being in the woods on the land owned by 
Comrade Gately, who willingly gave a deed to the ground, 
whereupon we entered upon the work of establishing a cemetery 
there. Failing to carry out our plans through contributions and 
collections, I went to work to get a bill through the Legislature, 
making an appropriation of public money to complete our plans. 
In this we were successful, the Legislature of 1905 having ap- 
propriated $1,000 for the purpose of establishing a Confederate 
cemetery at Camp Nelson, in Lonoke County, Arkansas, and 
naming T. J. Young, W. F. Gibson and Grandison Apple as 
trustees, under whose direction the work was to be done and 
the appropriation expended. We cleared the ground and in- 
closed it with a substantial wire fence, with iron posts; marked 
the graves with granite headstones, and erected a monument, 
which was dedicated and unveiled October 4, 1906, with appro- 
priate ceremonies. 

The monument was made of Batesville marble by F. S. Thomp- 
son, of the Batesville Marble Works, and weighed about twenty 
thousand pounds, being about twelve feet high. The foundation 
is six feet square, on which was placed the first base, which is 
four feet square, and on that the second base, which is three 
feet square, on which is the main shaft, two feet square, on 
which is the following inscription: "Camp Nelson Cemetery. 
In memory of Texas and Arkansas unknown Confederate sol- 
diers." On the front of the second base, in large letters, is the 
word "Confederates," and below, in smaller, but distinct, let- 
tering: "Act of the Legislature, May 11, 1905. T. J. Young, 
W. F. Gibson and Grandison Apple, Trustees." 

This cemetery is about four miles south of Austin, and three 
miles east of Cabot, both in Lonoke County, Arkansas. 

Confederate Monument, Batesville, Arkansas. 
(By James P. Coffin.) 

At their respective meetings in July, 1906, thy local camp of 
Confederate Veterans and chapter of the Daughters of the Con- 
federacy jointly undertook the erection of a Confederate monu- 
ment at Batesville. Ark., and each organization appointed a 

32 Report of U, C. V. Monumental Committee. 

committee of three (from the United Confederate Veterans, Rob- 
ert Neill, Stevadson A. Hail and James P. Coffin, and from the 
United Daughters of the Confederacy, Mrs. Laura C. Ewing, 
Mrs. Kate Hooper and Mrs. Emily S. Reed), to whom the whole, 
matter was intrusted. This committee, on August 31, 1906, 
adopted the design submitted by Mr. Otto Pfeiffer, of Bates- 
ville, Ark., and awarded the 'contract to him, stipulating that 
the monument should be erected at the northeast corner of the 
court-house yard, at the intersection of Main and Broad Streets, 
and that the material used should be Batesville marble from the 
Pfeiffer quarries, six miles north of the town, which gives its. 
name to the stone. The monument was completed, accepted and 
paid for in January, 1907. 

The design is that of a mediaeval war castle, built in three sec- 
tions, on a base twelve feet square, the lower section being six 
feet square, the second four feet six inches square, and the third 
three feet square, being, in all, twenty-three feet six inches in 
height. On the four faces or panels of the lower section are the 
following inscriptions, to wit : On the Main Street face : "In 
memory of the Sons of Independence County who served in the 
Confederate Army ; their mothers, wives, sisters and daughters, 
who, with patriotic devotion, remained steadfast to their cause 
during the war period, 1861-1865." On the Broad Street face 
are the names of the ten companies of cavalry, and on the op- 
posit? face those of the thirteen companies of infantry which 
entered the service of the Confederacy from Independence 
County, and on the remaining face, being that towards the 
court-house, appears this inscription : "Erected by Sidney 
Johnston Camp No. 863, United Confederate Veterans, Sidney 
Johnston Chapter No. 135, United Daughters of the Confederacy, 
and many friends, 1907." The panels of the second section are 
highly polished, but bear no inscriptions. On the third or upper 
section, on the two street faces, are the first and the last na- 
tional flags of the Confederacy, crossed but well defined, and 
underneath in raised letters: "C. S. A." 

The monument was dedicated on May 1, 1907, the principal 
address being delivered by Senator James H. Berry, the com- 
mander of the Arkansas Division, United Confederate Veterans. 
Gen. Robert G. Shaver, who commanded two Arkansas regi- 
ments during the war (and who, being the senior colonel, com- 
manded a brigade in the Battle of Shiloh), in each of Avhich 
were companies from Independence County, the names of which 
are on this monument, also delivered an address. About 200 
Confederate Veterans, together with a large number of the 
women of the war period and several hundred sons and daugh- 

Seventeenth Reunion, Richmond, May 30-June 3, 1907. 33 

ters of Confederate soldiers, coming from Independence, Jack- 
son, Woodruff, Izard, Stone and Sharp Counties, were present 
on this occasion. 

Kespectfully submitted, 

James P. Coffin, 
Committeeman From Arkansas. 


Memphis, Tenn., May 13, 1907. 

Gen. William E. Mickle, 

New Orleans, La.: 

Dear General— I have the honor to forward herewith a list 
of the monuments erected in Tennessee to the memory of her 
Confederate soldiers, and the places where erected. 

I regret that Col. Hickman's report to me does not show the 
cost of the monuments to our 12,000 heroes. It would require 
some time to get the information. Of course, there are many 
more cemeteries in the State than are mentioned in the report, 
but where there are no monuments as yet. I hope the report will 
be sufficient for your present purposes. Where the number of 
the dead is not given opposite the name of the place where the 
monument is erected, it means that the monument is generally 
to the memory of the Confederate soldiers who enlisted from 
that city or county. 

With many good wishes and highest regards, 

Your friend and comrade, 

Geo. W. Gordon, 
Commanding Tennessee Division, V. C. V. 

Nashville, Tenn., May 10, 1907. 

Geo. W. Gordon, 

Major-General Commanding Tennessee Division, U. C. V.:' 

Acting under orders from the General Headquarters, I hereby 
submit to you a list of the Confederate monuments and the Con- 
federate dead in Tennessee — the dead who were killed or died 


Report of U. C. V. Monumental Committer. 

during: the war. I have been nnable to secure the cost of the 
erection of the monuments : 



Chattanooga . 
Clarksville . . . 
Columbia .... 
Fort Donelson 
l^ayetteville . . 
Franklin .... 


Jackson ...... 



Lewisburg . . . 


Murfreesboro . 
Nashville .... 


Shelbyville . . . 



Tullahoma . . . 
Union City . . 






No. Dead. 















Oen. ¥m. B. Bate and others of the Second Tennessee Infan- 
try have erected a monument to that regiment, on the battlefield 
of Shiloh, at a cost of $2,000. 

The monument at Nashville cost $10,500 ; the circle in which 
the dead are buried $1,500, and the burying of the dead $4,750, 
making a total cost of $16,750. 

All of the above is respectfully submitted. 

Jno. P. Hickman, 
Adjutant-General Tennessee Division, U. C. V. 











by the 

United Confederate Veterans. 

Headquarters, United Confederate Veterans,) 
New Orleans, La., June 3, 1906. J 

General Orders) 
No. 56. ) 


Official Announcement. 

The Commander-in-Chief promulgates for the information and 
guidance of all persons, the following Resolution, and an Abridgment 
of the Report of the Committee on Flags, of this Organization. 


"Whereas, owing to incorrect representations in historical works, 
incorrect reproductions and representations by manufacturers of flags and 
badges, and in pictorial publications of all kinds ; to frequent inquiries 
in the press and the erroneous answers thereto ; and to general 
lack of exact information regarding the flags of the Confederate States 
of America, it has been deemed necessary that a committee of this 
Organization should be empowered to make diligent investigation and 
report their finding to this body assembled in convention, at Nashville, 
Tennessee, in 1904, and 

"Whereas, the Committee thus empowered has, this 16th day of June, 
1904, made full report of its labors, which report, upon careful examina- 
tion by the Committee on Resolutions, is found to be complete and 
exhaustive, and in all respects satisfactory ; therefore, be it 

'''Resolved, by this Association of United Confederate Veterans, in 
convention assembled at Nashville, Tennessee, 1904, that in order to give 
the impress of authority for the guidance of all persons, it is hereby 
declared to be the conclusive judgment of this Organization, that the 
Flags of the Confederate States of America were established by legisla- 
tion of the Congresses of the Confederate States, and otherwise, in the 
manner fully set forth in the accompanying report of the Committee 
on Flags of this Organization, and that said report is hereby adopted." 



Ge?ieral Comma?iding. 

{u.l-'vetSa,,,.} WM. E. MICKLE, 

Adjuta,7it Ge?ieral a?id Chief of Staff. 



(l) THE STARS AND BARS. (See Fig. ' 1.) 

The flag recommended by the "Committee on a Proper Flag for 

the Confederate States of America," appointed by the Provisional 

Congress, in its report of March 4th, 1861, is as follows: 

"That the Flag of the Confederate States of America shall consist 
of a red field with a white space extending horizontally through the 
center, and equal in width to one-third the width of the flag. The red 
spaces above and below to be of the same width as the white. The 
union blue extending down through the white space and stopping at 
the lower red space. In the center of the union a circle of white stars, 
corresponding in number with the vStates in the Confederacy." 

NO IE. — The union is square; the stars five pointed. The length of the flag 
one and a half times the zvidth. 

(2) THE BATTLE FLAG. (See Fig. 2.) 

The Battle Flag is square, having a Greek Cross (saltier) of blue, 
edged with white, with thirteen equal white five pointed stars ; upon a 
red field ; the whole bordered with white. There are three sizes : 
Infantry, 48 in. square; Artillery, 36 in. square; Cavalry, 30 in. square. 
The proportions for an Infantry Flag are: 48 in. by 48 in. (exclusive 
of the border); the blue arms of the cross, 7 x /> in. wide; the white 
edging to the cross % in. wide; the white border around the flag 
proper 1% in. wide. Total outside measurement, 51 inches. The stars 
are five pointed, inscribed within a circle of 6 in. diameter, and are of 
uniform size. There should be five eyelet holes in the hoist, next the 
pole. The Artillery and Cavalry Flags are correspondingly reduced in 
all proportions. 

(3) THE NATIONAL FLAG. (See Fig. 3.) established by Congress, 

May 1, 1863, is as follows: 

"The Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, That 
the Flag of the Confederate States shall be as follows : The field to be 
white, the length double the width of the flag, with the union (now 
used as the Battle Flag) to be a square of two-thirds the width of the 
flag, having the ground red ; thereon a broad saltier of blue, bordered 
with white, and emblazoned with white mullets or five pointed stars, 
corresponding in number to that of the Confederate States." 

(4) THE NATIONAL FLAG (See Fig. /.) established by Congress, 

March 4, 1865, is as follows : 

"The Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, That 
the Flag of the Confederate States shall be as follows : The width, two- 
thirds of its length, with the union (now used as the Battle Flag) to 
be in width three-fifths of the width of the flag, and so proportioned 
as to leave the length of the field on the side of the union twice the 
width of the field below it ; to have the ground red and a broad, blue 
saltier thereon, bordered with white and emblazoned with mullets or 
five pointed stars, corresponding in number to that of the Confederate 
States ; the field to be white except the outer half from the union to 
be a red bar extending the width of the flag." 

(a) THE STARS AND BARS; Previously described. {Fig. 1.) 

The ii3\v ivisign, Pennant, and Jack, by order of the Secretary of 
the Navy, May 26, 1S63, as follows : 

(a) THE NEW ENSIGN. (See Fig. 5.) 

'The new Ensign will be made according to the following directions, 
viz. : The field to be white, the length one and a half times the width of 
the flag, with the union (now used as the Battle Flag) to be square, of 
two-thirds of the width of the flag, having the ground red, thereon a 
broad saltier of blue, to the union as l:4f, bordered with white, to the 
union as 1:22, and emblazoned with white mullets, or five pointed 
stars, diameter of stars to union as 1:6-', corresponding in number to 
that of the Confederate States." 

(c) THE PENNANT. (See Fig. 6.) 

"A white ground, its size to be as 1:72, or its length seventy -two 
times its width at the head, and tapering to a point. 

"The union of the Pennant to be as follows : All red from the head 
for three times its width, with white border equal to half its width, 
then all blue in length equal to twelve times its width, to be emblazoned 
with stars, in number equal to those in the Ensign, with a white 
border equal to half the width, and then red three times the width, 
with the flv all white." 

(d) THE JACK. (See Fig. 7.) 

"To be the same as the union for the Ensign, except that its length 
shall 1)0 one and a half times its width." 

NOTE. — The stars on all flags are to be arranged as shown on the plate 

THE COMPLETE REPORT— approved by the United Confederate 

Veterans Convention, at Nashville, 1904, is signed by the Committee 

on Flags, as follows: 

SAMUEL E. LEWIS, M. D., of Washington, D. C. 

FRED. L. ROBERTSON, of Tallahassee, Fla. 
J. F. SHIPP, of Chattanooga, Tenn. 
J. TAYLOR ELLYSON, of Richmond, Va. 
A. C. TRIPPE, of Baltimore, Md. 


The Commander-in-Chief urges all Confederate Veterans, Sons of 
Confederate Veterans, Daughters of the Confederacy, the Confederated 
Southern Memorial Association, and other Confederate Memorial 
Asssciations, to exert their utmost influence in support of the 
Resolution and the Abridged Report, as above given, to the end that 
manufacturers of flags, designers, engravers, and others, may hereafter 
be required to conform therewith in all respects. 

By command of 


General Commanding. 
Official : 

Adjutant Ge?ieral and Chief of Staff. 


by the 
United Confederate Veterans. 

I foot 

Fig. 3 

J foot 

Fig 4 

J foot 


C=> %■? 

J foot 


'/ foot 


J foot 


A.Haen & C'v- ScUtvnorf. 






















r - ; 


Eighteenth Annual 


eeting i 






United Confederate Veterans 



Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, June 9th, 10th and 1 1th, 

1 908 

W. L. CABELL, Lieutenant-General Commanding: 
WM. E. MICKLE, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 

Press of Schumert & Warfield, Ltd., 414-418 Camp St.— N. O. 






w t 
























Eighteenth Annual Meeting 



United Confederate Veterans 




Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, June 9th, 10th and 11th, 


W. L. CABELL, Lieutenant-General Commanding: 
WM. E. MICKLE, Adjutant General and Chkf of Staff 



United Confederate Veterans 



Lieutenant General W. L. CABELL General Commanding, Dallas, Tex. 
Major General WM. E. MICKLE, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, 
New Orleans La. 


Lieutenant General C. IRVINE WALKER, Commander, Charleston, S. C. 
Brigadier General RICHARD B. DAVIS, Adjutant General and Chief of 
Staff, Petersburg, Va. 

South Carolina Division. 

Major General THOS. W. CARWILE, Commander. Edgefield. S. C. 

Colonel J. M. JORDAN, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Green- 
ville, S. C, 

Brigadier General ZIMMERMAN DAVIS, Commanding First Brigade, 
Charleston, S. C. 

Brigadier General B. H. TEAGUE, Commanding Second Brigade, 
Aiken, S. C. 

North Carolina Division. 

Major General JULIAN S. CARR, Commander, Durham, N. C. 

Colonel H. A. LONDON, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Titts- 
boro, N. C. 

Brigadier General P. C. CARLTON, Commanding First Brigade, States- 
ville, N. 0. 

Brigadier General W. L. LONDON, Commanding Second Brigade, Pitts- 
boro, N. C. 

Brigadier General JAS. I. METTS, Commanding Third Brigade, Wil- 
mington, n. c. 

Brigadier General JAS. M. RAY, Commanding Fourth Brigade, Ashe- 
ville, N. C. 

Virginia Division. 

Major General STITH BOLLING. Commander. Petersburg, Va. 

Colonel WM.. M. EVANS, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Peters- 
burg, Va. 

Brigadier General THOMAS W. SMITH, Commanding First Brigade, 
Suffolk. Va. 

Brigadier Genera] JAS. MAGILL, Commanding Second Brigade, Pu- 
laski, Va. 

Brigadier General R. D. FUNKHOUSER, Commanding Third Brigade, 
Maurertown, Va. 

Brigadier General JAMES BAUMGARDENER, Commanding Fourth 
Brigade, Staunton. Va. 

West Virginia Division. 

Major General ROBERT WHITE, Commander, Wheeling, W. Va. 

Colonel A. C. L. GATEWOOD, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, 
Linwood, W. Va. 

Brigadier General DAVID E. JOHNSTON, Commanding First Brigade, 
Bluefield, W. Va. 

Brigadier General S. S. GREEN, Commanding Second Brigade, Charles- 
ton, W. Va. 

Maryland Division. 

Major General A. C. TRIPPE. Commander, Baltimore. Md. 

Colonel DAVID S. BRISCOE, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, 

Baltimore, Md. 
Brigadier General OSWALD TIEGHMAN, Commanding First Brigade, 

Easton, Md. 
Brigadier General FRANK A. BOND, Commanding Second Brigade, 

Lumbertown, N. C. 


Lieutenant General CLEMENT A. EVANS, Commander. Atlanta, Ga. 
Brigadier General E. T. SYKES, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, 
Columbus, Miss. 

Louisiana Division. 

Major General T. W. CASTLEMAN, Commander, New Orleans. La. 

Colonel L. II. GARDNER, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, New 
Orleans, La. 

Tennessee Division. 

Major General GEO. W. GORDON, Commander. Memphis, Tenn. 

Colonel JOHN P. HICKMAN. Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

Brigadier General JOHN M. BROOKS, Commanding First Brigade, Knox- 
ville. Tenn. 

Brigadier General JOHN HUGH McDOWELL, Commanding Second 
Brigade, Union City, Tenn. 

Brigadier General CLAY STACKER, Commanding Third Brigade. Clarks- 
ville, Tenn. 

Florida Division. 

Major General W. L. WITTICH, Commander, Pensacola, Fla. 

Colonel ROBT. J. MAGILL, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Jack- 
sonville, Fla. 

Brigadier General SAMUEL PASCO, Commanding First Brigade, Monti- 
cello, Fla. 

Brigadier General S. C. BOYLESTON, Commanding Second Brigade, 
Jacksonville, Fla. 

Brigadier General B. N. MATHIS, Commanding Third Brigade, Plant 
City, Fla. 

Alabama Division. 

Major General GEO. P. HARRISON, Commander, Opelika, Ala. 

Colonel HARVEY E. JONES, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Mont- 
gomery, Ala. 

Brigadier General JNO. W. A. SANFORD, Commanding First Brigade, 
Montgomery, Ala. 

Brigadier General P. D. BOWLES, Commanding Second Brigade, Ever- 
green, Ala. 

Brigadier General J. N. THOMPSON, Commanding Third Brigade, Tus- 
cumbia, Ala. 

Brigadier General J. W. BUSH, Commanding Fourth Brigade, Birming- 
ham, Ala. 

Mississippi Division. 
Major General ROBT. LOWKY, Commander. Jackson, Miss. 
Colonel J. L. McCASKILL, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Brandon, 

Brigadier General W. A. MONTGOMERY, Commanding First Brigade, 

Edwards, Miss. 
Brigadier General J. 1'. CARTER, Commanding Second Brigade, McComb 

City, Miss. 
Brigadier General GEO. M. HELM, Commanding Third Brigade. Green- 
ville, Miss. 

Georgia Division. 
Major General JOHN W. CLARK. Commander. Augusta. Ga. 
Colonel JAS. L. FLEMING, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, 

Augusta, Ga. 
Brigadier General LOFIS G. YOUNG, Commanding South Georgia 

Brigade, Savannah, Ga. 
Brigadier General J. W. ^YILCON. Commanding East Georgia Brigade, 

Macon, Ga. 
Brigadier General J. GID MORRIS, Commanding North Georgia Brigade, 

Mari^cra. Ga. 
Brigadier General JAMES E. DeYAFGHN. Commanding West Georgia 

Brigade, Montezuma. Ga. 

Kentucky Division. 
Major Genera] BENNETT II. YOUNG, Commander, Louisville. Ky. 

Colonel W. A. MILTON, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. Louis- 
ville. Ky. 

Brigadier General JAMES R. ROGERS, Commanding First Brigade, 
Paris, Ky. 

Brigadier General W. J. STONE. Commanding Second Brigade. Kut- 
tawa. Ky. 

Brigadier (General I). THORNTON. Commanding Third Brigade. Louis- 
ville. Ky. 

Brigadier General V. V. JOHNSON. Commanding Fourth Brigade. Lex- 
ington, Ky. 


Major General K. M. VAN ZANDT, Commander, Fort Worth. Tex. 
Brigadier General A. T. WATTS. Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, 
Beaumont, Tex. 

Texas Division. 

Brigadier General W. B. BERRY. Commander, Rrookstone. Tex. 

Brigadier General J. T. JARRARD. Commanding First Brigade, Hunts- 
ville. Tex. 

Brigadier General T. L. LARGEN, Commanding Second Brigade, San 
Antonio, Tex. 

Brigadier General F. T. ROCHE, Commanding Third Brigade, George- 
town, Tex. 

Brigadier General JAS. A. CUMMINS, Commanding Fifth Brigade, 
Bowie, Tex. 

Indian Territory Division. 
Major General DAN'L M. HAILEY. Commander. McAJester, Okla. 
Colonel R. R. COLEMAN, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. McAlester, 

Brigadier General JAS. IIARGIS. Commanding Chickasaw Brigade. Ada, 

Brigadier General JOHN M. HALL. Commanding Choctaw Brigade, 

Caddo. Okla. 

Brigadier General CHAS. M. McCLELLAN, Commanding Cherokee 

Brigade. Clarimore, Okla. 
Brigadier General WM. E. GENTRY, Commanding Creek Brigade, 

Checotah, Okla. 

Missouri Division. 

Major General Z. II. LOWDERMI CK. Commander. Joplin. Mo. 
Colonel JOHN C. MOORE, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Jop- 
lin, Mo. 
Brigadier General O. H. P. CATRON, Commanding Eastern Brigade, 

West Piains, Mo. 
Brigadier General W. P. GIBSON, Commanding Western Brigade, War- 

rensbnrg, Mo. 

Arkansas Division. 
Major General JAMES H. BERRY, Commander, Pine Bluff, Ark. 
Colonel W. M. WATKINS, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Sweet 

Home, Ark. 
Brigadier General JONATHAN KELLOGG, Commanding First Brigade, 

Little Rock, Ark. 
Brigadier General JOHN R. THORNTON. Commanding Second Brigade, 

Camden, Ark. 
Brigadier General R. R. POE, Commanding Third Brigade, Clinton. Ark. 
Brigadier General JOHN G. McKEAN, Commanding Fourth Brigade, 

Locksburg. Ark. 

Oklahoma Division. 

Major General JOHN THREADGILL. Commander, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Colonel WM. M. CROSS, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Oklahoma 
City, Okla. 

Brigadier General G. W. R. CHINN. Commanding First Brigade, Okla- 
homa City. Okla. 

Brigadier General T. B. HOGG, Commanding Second Brigade, Shawnee, 

Brigadier General WM. TAYLOR, Commanding Third Brigade. Altus, 

Northwest Division. 

Major General PAUL A. FUSZ, Commander, rhilipsburg, Mont. 

Colonel WILLIAM RAY, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Philips- 
burg, Mont. 

Brigadier General WM. F. KIRBY. Commanding Montana Brigade, Boze- 
man, Mont. 

Pacific Division. 

Major General WM. C. HARRISON, M. D., Commander, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Colonel LOUIS TIEMANN, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 

Brigadier General S. S. BIRCHFIELD, Commanding New Mexico Brigade, 
Deming. N. M. 

Brigadier General YICTOR MONTGOMERY, Commanding California 
Brigade, Santa Anna, Cal. 

Official : 

Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 


Possibly the best idea of the conditions existing in the city 
of Birmingham can be obtained from the columns of the local 
press, and the following selections are made : — 

The Age-Herald. 

The soldiers of the Confederacy could hardly have answered 
the first summons for war with any more agility than they have 
gathered for their annual reunion in Birmingham. Dressed 
in their new gray uniforms, with the badges of their rank, they 
have come in numberless crowds. 

Beginning early yesterday morning and continuing until 
the last train this morning a living stream poured in through 
the terminals. It is estimated that fully 8,000 veterans will 
arrive before to-night. 

With as little friction as possible they are being carried to 
the division headquarters in the courthouse, where they register, 
and are then directed to the city hall. Here the homes are 
assigned and boys sent with each veteran to find his place of 

The hotels are scenes of brilliant uniforms, generals and 
famous men of the war times, mingling and renewing acquaint- 
ances. Many touching incidents occur when the old men meet, 
sometimes embrace and cry over each other. Many an old 
couple walked the streets last night holding hands and discussing 
the intervening incidents of their lives. 

At the Hotel Hillman Adjutant General Mickle has estab- 
lished his headquarters and is completing his arrangements as 
adjutant. Acting Commander-in-Chief W. L. Cabell also has 
his headquarters in this building, as well as Commander Apper- 
son, of the Sons, Lieutenant General Clement Evans, the whole 
Missouri division and numerous others. Former Governor 
Lowr}', of Mississippi, is a familiar character in the lobby. He 
expressed great regret at the death of General Lee, and paid 
many tributes to the character and power of the late leader. 

The Terminal and the Louisville and Nashville stations 
resounded with one continuous hurrah yesterday until late 
last night. It was one unceasing stream of passengers pouring 
from the trains in the terminals and the huzzahs that greeted 

8 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 19U8. 

them never grew hoarse or weak. As each band of proud and 
gray-haired warriors trod through the area-way the immense 
throng which crowded the station all day and night Jilted a 
mighty shout and gave them a welcome which has never been 
excelled in any town. 

One train would not be unloaded of its human freight 
before another one would roll up and add another great branch 
to the flowing stream of humanity. The passengers ranged all 
the way from the infant in arms to the old fighter hardly able 
to walk, perhaps coming to his last reunion, but still game and 
ready to fight again, if necessary. 

They came from all directions of the sunny South — from 
Texas, Arkansas, Virginia, Kentucky, the Carolina^, Louisiana, 
and the sister States. Many of them came in regimental rank, 
their appearance in this fashion causing an added shout of 
welcome wherever they went about the town. 

The vanguard of the army in grav has spread its tents at 
Fairview. The old veterans are rapidly taking their places at 
Hotel Gordon and by night the entire army will be encamped. 
Yesterday afternoon every train that came to this city brought 
jts load of Confederate veterans. Some of them went to the 
hotels in the city and some to private families but by far the 
greater number repaired to the fair grounds, where all was 
in readiness to receive them. As fast as they arrived they were 
assigned to beds and made to feel at home. 

Yesterday afternoon the fair grounds looked like another 
country. When you go in the gates you feel as if you had sud- 
denly gone back to the old days before and during the war. 
From every available place on the buildings large Confederate 
flags were sailing. Even old Vulcan held aloft in his right hand 
a magnificent Confederate flag that waved in the breeze as it 
did in the days of the long ago, when its folds first kissed the 
breezes at the battle of Mauassas. Arm in arm the old veterans 
were walking about the grounds, again reviewing their deeds 
in the great war and stopping here and there to greet a newly 
arrived comrade. On some of the tanned and rugged cheeks an 
occasional tear dropped as they thought of some of the old 
soldiers who had gone to answer the last roll call. 

In the main building, where the beds were laid, groups 
of the veterans were gathered together in spots to discuss the 
happenings of former days, when the stalwart sons of the South- 
land flocked beneath the "stars and bars!" Now and then an 
amusing anecdote was told that made the old lips break into 




10 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

smiles and then someone told of a lost comrade which changed 
the smiles to tears. 

Near the entrance to the grounds an old gray-haired man 
was standing surrounded by a crowd of his fellows. He held 
in his hand a banjo upon which he played several of the stirring 
tunes of the war time, and sometimes he sang such songs as 
"Dixie,' 1 "The Bonny Blue Flag," and "Maryland, My Mary- 
land." The other veterans would join in the chorus and some- 
times give a "rebel yell," like those which at one time sent 
chills of terror through the Union ranks. 

The managers of the hotel have prepared a special place for 
the old darkies, remnants of the faithful bodyguards that will 
come. One old negro was there yesterday. He had borne a 
musket through the war beside his master. On his coat he wore 
a cross of honor, a testimonial of his fidelity and faith. In 
addition to this he wore a souvenir badge from nearly every 
reunion that the Confederates have had. 

Although the main part of the great army has not yet 
arrived, there are men here from every section of the South 
from Virginia to Texas, and when the others come they will 
have friends and comrades to greet them. 

The first of the series of private entertainments that will 
make the week so brilliant socially was the reception yesterday 
in compliment to General Clement A. Evans and his daughter, 
Miss Sara Lee Evans, sponsor for the South; Mrs. Benjamin 
Kidd and Mrs. Harry Lee Koenig entertaining nearly 300 
guests from 4 to 5 o'clock at Mrs. Kidd's home on Highland 

The magnificent white marble mansion was elaborately 
decorated. A large Confederate flag hung above the marble 
balcony and made a striking decoration against the white marble 
entrance. The interior decorations were also in striking con- 
trast with the white wood work of the reception hall 
and drawing-room and the white and mahogany stair- 
way. The white columns in the reception hall were en- 
twined with red, white and blue, and fan-shaped decorations 
were used to complete the frieze which was decorated with flags 
and American eagles. These colors draped the chandeliers and 
formed a star, at each point of which was suspended smaller 
flags. Plaited draperies in the red and white colors hung over 
the windows and flags were suspended above all the doorways. 
In the drawing-room the white-pillared consol at the far end of 
the drawing-room was entwined with the Confederate colors 

Introduction. 11 

and the long mirror reflected the entire flag-draped interior. 
The woodwork on the stairway was draped with bunting and 
from the logia above, which forms the den, an orchestra pre- 
sented a patriotic programme. 

In the dining-room where the ices and cakes were served 
the table was beautifully decorated with sweet peas, the red 
and white predominating. From the massive chandelier was 
suspended a shower bouquet formed of sweet peas and white 
tulle, the tulle extending to the corners of the table and caught 
at intervals with crimson sweet peas and scarlet satin ribbon. 
Spun candy in these colors were used on the bon-bon table and 
miniature flags ornamented the individual cakes. Punch was 
served in the library, where the decorations were patriotic and 
beautiful, nasturtiums used there as well as in the drawing- 


The organization of the United Confederate Veterans has 
given rise to other organizations, and these junior organizations 
will keep fresh the memory of the men who fought so bravely 
and with such splendid spirit for their convictions. The last 
shot of the war was fired forty -three years ago, and the junior 
organizations are indeed needed to keep alive the heroic spirit 
of the sixties and to commemorate the valiant men who fought 
for the South in those days. Let no one think that reunions 
will pass away with the veterans of this war. There will be 
reunions as long as the spirit of liberty and the spirit of the 
brave remain in the Southern breast. 

This city welcomes to-day the sons and daughters of the 
Confederacy, but its chief welcome is for the various soldiers 
who fought in the war between the sections. Scarcely one of 
the men who carried a musket in that struggle is below three 
score years to-day. They come to us grizzled and time-bent 
with uncertain steps, but there is not an eye that sees them 
that does not love and reverence them for what they did and 
for what they stood for in the days that tried men's souls. 

The man whose hair is gray and thin, whose step is halting — 
what does he represent? He stood first and foremost for the 
sovereignty of the State. He interpreted the Federal Constitu- 
tion literally, seeking no excuse whatever for minimizing the 
reserved rights of his own political entity. And when his State 
spoke he responded patriotically and unflinchingly to the bitter 
end. The cause for which he fought was lost, and centralization 
has become the accepted programme, but the further it is carried 

12 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham , Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

the plainer does it appear that the cause for which the Confed- 
erate soldier fought was written in the Constitution in the inter- 
est of true liberty. 

Success or non-success does not. however, enter into the case 
to-day. The united republic stands, and all are absolutely true 
to it. But the people of the South cannot forget and will not 
try to forget while a single veteran lives what the men of 
forty-odd years ago fought for. In these piping days of peace 
little do some of us recall the stress and strain of the days when 
came the call to arms to repel invasion and to maintain the 
rights of the State. All responded then, and wars may come 
and go. but not one of them has or will furnish examples of 
deeper patriotism or more permeating allegiance to a cause 
than did those gallant soldiers back in the sixties. We owe to 
the surviving veterans this lesson of devotion to State and home, 
and the younger and succeeding generations will cherish that 
lesson it) the end of time. To the surviving patriots of to-day 
we owe all love and veneration. They are an inspiration for the 
future, and so long as any of them live they will be honored and 
cared for in reunions and in the States they fought for. 

The lesson of each reunion should be renewed devotion to 
the right in whatever form it may appear. The sword decided 
that the country should remain one, and in that one country 
questions involving right and wrong are continually corning up. 
Let us gather from the old soldiers a feeling of patriotism and 
loving kindness that will enable us to meet the issues that con- 
front us from time to time. But first of all let us welcome to 
this city during the days of the reunion I he veterans striving at 
every turn to make their stay with us pleasant and even mem- 
orable. Our first duty is to the veterans w T ho came to us four- 
teen years ago and whom we cannot reasonably expect to enter- 
tain again fourteen years hence. Let us honor them to-day, 
lest they mav not come this way again. 

To the United Confederate Veterans and to the vast throng 
of other visitors who come to attend the reunion Birmingham 
extends a joyous Southern welcome. Fourteen years ago this 
city had the honor of entertaining the veterans. At the former 
reunion the crowd was large, but it will be even larger this 
week. Death is ever thinning the ranks ol the brave men who 
served in the war, and thousands wdio were here in 1894 have 
passed across the river. The dead will be missed and lamented, 
but taking their places in the reunion column are thousands of 
sons and daughters of the Confederacy, cherishing the memory 

Introdiiction. 13 

of departed heroes and keeping alive the best traditions of the 
Southland. The war is more than forty years behind ns. The 
scars have healed. Sectional bitterness has gone and been for- 
gotten. But deeds of self-sacrifice and valor will be recounted 
with an uplift for the young that will make for honor and truth 
and love of country. The spirit of the reunion will manifest 
itself in peace and comradeship and all tokens of good will. 
Birmingham greets a great crowd, indeed, but its citizens are 
eager to show their hospitality on this memorable occasion. 
Thrice welcome, one and all. 

The first climax of the Birmingham reunion came yesterday 
afternoon, after the handshaking at Capital Park, when all the. 
bands united and marched through the streets sending up the 
great melody of the Confederacy. 

One hundred and fifty men playing on as many musical 
instruments, marching as one body, playing with all their souls, 
made such a triumph of "Dixie," a triumph for the very power 
of song the equal of which was never known to Birmingham. 

In the front was Memoli's band, on the right, and on the 
left front was the Boys' Industrial band, thirty-three pieces, the 
biggest and perhaps one of the most effective bands in the 

Then followed the Missouri, the Texas Kid Band, and the 
special concert band. 

As they passed out of Capital Park the veterans, with heads 
bared, gave the rebel yell resounding to the mountains. Passing 
down Twentieth street the sidewalks packed on each side, the 
grand music could not drown out the yells and "Hoorays!" 
while great throngs fell behind the marching host of sound and 
continually kept up the cheering. 

Every minute some gray-haired veteran would fling his 
hat into the air and hug the nearest man to him. On one corner 
a peg-leg veteran took up the whole space to dance a jig in his 
happiness. Everyone went mad, and while some may have been 
thirsty, some hungry, some worried, all forgot their troubles 
and paid the highest tribute ever paid to the grandest patriotic 
music that ever swelled a human heart. 

No wonder, however that the veterans went wild. Had 
they not just enjoyed a love feast that sent the blood bounding 
through their old bodies and added years to their lives? 

Long before 4 o'clock, the hour set for the handshaking, 
which happens to be the most unique idea prepared by the 
entertainment committee, thousands of old veterans had gath- 

14 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

ered in Capital Park. Around the shaft to the honor of their 
dead the living comrades stood, laughed at the sight of one 
man, cried from mere joy at the sight of another, slapped each 
other on the back and shook those hands until out of sheer- 
exhaustion they had to stop. 

Generals greeted privates, all were friends. For more than 
an hour this continued, while the bands in various parts of the 
park played various appropriate selections. Then when all the 
enthusiasm in meeting old trench line comrades had been aroused 
the joint band struck up "Dixie" and marched through the 
streets of Birmingham. 

Gathered beneath the stars and bars the tattered columns 
that wore the gray have pitched their tents at Fairview. Vet- 
erans from every section of the Southland could be seen yes- 
terday afternoon walking around the grounds or sitting on 
the benches in the buildings talking to their comrades. Many 
touching scenes occurred at the meeting of long separated 

The two buildings where the beds are laid were almost full 
to their capacity. The crowds have exceeded the expectations 
of the most sanguine and more room was needed before the sun- 
set of yesterday. The estimated number of veterans encamped 
at Hotel Gordon exceeds the 3,000 mark. 

Yesterday at dinner time about 5,000 men gathered about 
the tables. The mess hall will hold about 1,800 at one time, 
and as fast as one group finished eating another was on hand 
to take its place. The cooks worked from early morn until late 
at night preparing viands for the vast throng that they catered 
to. However, their efforts did not go without reward, for 
many of the veterans said that they had been to a great number 
of reunions, but had never attended one where they were better 
fed. Major Gorff's "Birmingham stew" made a great hit. The 
call for coffee was also immense, all of which is a great com- 
pliment to the management. 

The meal hours are so arranged that only two different 
menus are served each day. Breakfast begins at 6:30 o'clock and 
continues until 10 :30. On account of the fact that most of the 
veterans will be in town at noon, no lunch is served. Dinner 
begins at 1 :30 and continues until 8 o'clock, so no one need fear 
that he will be late to his meals and miss them. 

A good many of the negro veterans have arrived, and a 
special place has been set aside for them. Most of these served 
as bodyguards during the war. but a few of them were enlisted 






16 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

soldiers who bore their muskets beside their masters. They are 
being well cared for and treated as their faithfulness deserves. 

Last night the veterans who stay at the fair grounds and 
also those that are in town were given a treat in the form of 
a magnificent fireworks display. Pain's fireworks have a na- 
tional reputation, and it need not be said that the "vets" thor- 
oughly enjoyed the exhibition. One of the features of the dis- 
play was the beautiful skyrockets. Some of those that were sent 
up burst into myriads of gorgeously colored sparks that formed 
into some appropriate figure as they approached the earth. 

The soldiers are remaining in good health, only one man 
being ill. He had been in bad health for some time and had 
not recovered when he left home. He suffered a slight relapse 
yesterday and decided to return to his home to-day. 

Governor and Mrs. Braxton Bragg Comer gave a reception 
and garden party last night at their handsome residence on 
the South Highlands to the visiting women of the Confederate 
Memorial Association of the South. Several hundred guests 
were present, this distinguished gathering including, besides 
the many prominent and patriotic women from all sections of 
the South, Confederate soldiers of the highest rank, veterans of 
distinction, ranking officers of the Sons of Veterans, the staffs 
of generals and the staff of Governor Comer, while visiting 
sponsors and maids, together with a brilliant gathering of Birm- 
ham society, composed a company seldom equalled in the social 
annals of the South. 

Governor Comer and Mrs. Comer, the latter wearing a 
reception gown of chiffon embroidered in silver and purple 
orchids, received the brilliant assemblage with characteristic 

Receiving with them was their young daughter, Miss Eva 
Comer, the sponsor for the South of the Sons of A 7 eterans. She 
wore a ball gown of white embroidered chiffon. 

Assisting in receiving were the members of Governor 
Comer's staff in full dress uniform, and the ladies making up 
the official party. 

Besides these was a large receiving party, including dis- 
tinguished visitors, as well as many Birmingham people, among 
them being General and Mrs. John W. Apperson. Adjutant 
General Forrest and Mrs. Forrest, General and Mrs. William E. 
Mickle and Miss Mickle, General Cabell, M|r. and Mrs. Charles 
G. Brown, General and Mrs. Rufus N. Rhodes, Mrs. Behan, 
Major and Mrs. Frank Y. Anderson, Colonel and Mrs. T. G. 

Introduction. 17 

Bush, Miss Williams, Mr. and Mrs. W. D. Nesbitt, Mr. and 
Mrs. W. S. Lovell, Mayor George B. Ward, Mr. Hill Ferguson, 
Mr. Robert Johnston, Jr., Mr. Hugh Martin, General and Mrs. 
R. D. Johnson, Senator and Mrs. Bankhead, Senator 
and Mrs. Johnston, Mr. and Mrs. E. W. Barrett, Mr. 
and Mrs. George Cruikshank, Mr. and Mrs. E. 
T. Taliaferro, Mr. and Mrs. John W. Tomlinson. General and 
Mrs. E. W. Rucker, General and Mrs. Frederick Ferguson, Miss 
Annie Walker, Miss Lyons of Mobile, Colonel and Mrs. T. 0. 
Smith, Colonel and Mrs. R. H. Pearson, Captain and Mrs. Frank 
S. White, Mr. and Mrs. Nathan L. Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Hugh 
Morrow, Mr. and Mrs. M. V. Joseph, Mr. and Mrs. William 
H. Kettig. Captain and Mrs. W. C. Ward, Mr. and Mrs. J. A. 
Rountree, Mfc". and Mrs. Robert Jemison, Jr.. Colonel and Mrs. 
S. W. John, Mr. and Mrs. John L. Kaul, Lieutenant Governor 
Henry B. Gray and Mrs. Gray, Mr. and Mrs. Frank H. Lathrop, 
Br. and Mrs. Samuel Xabors. Judge and Mrs. S. D. Weakley, 
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Croekard, Dr. and Mrs. Thomas M. Owen, 
Mrs. Virginia Clay-Clopton. Mrs. Ragan. Mrs. Stonewall Jack- 
son. Miss Evans, the sponsor for the South, and her maids 
of honor. Miss Nora Leach and Miss Elizabeth Jones, maids 
of honor to the sponsor for the Sons of Veterans. 

The reception hours were from 8:30 to 10 o'clock and at 
tie.' close of the reception the spon^rs and maids, with their 
escorts, went to the Southern Club lor the ball given in their 

The Comer residence was superbly decorated. The hand- 
some State flags were sent especially for this occasion from 
the capital. A magnificent flag floated from the observatory 
window, while a Confederate flag hung above the entrance 
to the veranda. Bunting and flags were used lavishly through- 
out the house, making a wonderfully beautiful interior as a 
setting for the uniformed officers of the Confederacy, the 
gold lace and braid of staff officers, the laces and jewels of 
beautiful women. 

But while the mansion itself was ablaze with light and 
draped with flags and Confederate insignia, the lovely gardens 
and the verandas were lighted with hundreds of Japanese lan- 
terns. The scene on the terraces Avas most picturesque. From 
the balcony came the continuous melody of patriotic airs, in- 
cluding Dixie, and the gardens and verandas were thronged 
with guests. Iced beverages were served in the summer house on 
the western terrace. Coffee was served in the dining-room 
and the ices were served on the veranda as well as on the ter- 


18 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., Ju?ie 9-11, 1908. 

The first of the series of balls in compliment to the visiting 
sponsors and maids was given at the Southern Club last evening, 
the guests driving to the club from Grovernor and Mrs. Comer's 
reception. No more beautiful and brilliant ball in the social 
history of the club has ever been given there, nor have the 
decorations ever been as handsome. 

The guests were greeted with flags draping the club bal- 
conies, while in the club house the colors of the Confederacy 
made a dazzlingly beautiful background for a ball in which many 
elements of picturesque color entered, from the Confederate 
gray of a uniformed soldier to the gorgeous bouquets of ballroom 

Hundreds of guests took part in the ball, which was opened 
by Miss Evans, the sponsor for the South, and Adjutant General 
and Chief of Staff William E. Mickle. Mr. John T. Yeatman, 
whose accomplishments as a cotillon leader have been demon- 
strated in many large balls, directed the grand march. While 
not attempting any intricate figures, owing to the large number 
of guests, he successfully managed this large and beautiful ball. 

The entire clubhouse was decorated with bunting and flags. 
The main corridors were flag-draped and the wide stairway 
at the far end of the reception hall, brilliant with dazzling color, 
formed a promenade of beauty, as between flag-decked walls 
and pilasters a procession at once historic and notable passed in 
from the club entrance and again passed out to patriotic airs. 

The most elaborate of the decorative effects were seen in 
the large living-room and the ballroom. The French windows 
were a mass of color with long draperies, over the wide door- 
ways were hung Confederate flags, from the chandeliers bunting 
formed a brilliant canopy of stars and stripes, which bright- 
ened with myriads of lights, made a striking and beautiful scene. 

The club balconies opening from the ballroom and the 
living-room were filled with guests who took advantage of the 
al fresco features of the ball. Light refreshments were served 
on the balconies and the perfect night, with a Southern moon 
shining as it does nowhere else in the world, made the outdoor 
features charming, with the brilliant ball within the clubhouse 
and a fete champetre without on moonlit balconies. 

Marching beneath the hot rays of a June sun, the gray- 
haired warriors of the South stepped to the tune of "Dixie" 
with the same lively stride, the same brave purpose, faces frank 
and happy, as in the days of their triumphs on the battlefield. 

Introduction. 19 

The grand parade which passed through the streets of 
Birmingham yesterday may be said to have been the most in- 
spiring scene ever witnessed in Birmingham. It drew the largest 
crowd that ever packed her streets and, according to the vet- 
erans themselves, was the most magnificent they have ever held. 

Fully 8,000 Veterans took part in the parade while thousands 
were unable to take the long walk. It was witnessed by more 
than 200,000 people. The parade began promptly at 11 o'clock 
and the rear guard left the starting point at exactly noon, while 
its whole length was an even twenty-five blocks. 

From the dear old commander-in-chief, Clement A. Evans, 
who led his army forth, sitting upon a black steed and spreading 
all around him the influence of his radiant face, to the black old 
negro who carried the chicken in his arms, every veteran real- 
ized the warm place which he occupies in the heart of the young 

They were given an ovation that kings never knew; not the 
honor of fear, but the outburst of love. The crowd pressed 
them close in every street and as they cheered each step it seemed 
as though the next moment they would rush out and hug the 
last one of them. 

As one of their banners proclaimed: "Fate denied them 
of victory, but crowned them with love and glory.' 1 

And while from street, sidewalk, office building and house- 
top the hundreds of thousands crowded and shouted their praises 
to the sky, the hearts of the veterans bounded back under the 
influence of martial music to their younger clays and as they 
waved their hats in answer they danced and cut such capers as 
would have done credit to much younger men. They were, in- 
deed, happy. 

Their gray-bearded faces, dropping perspiration, shone 
with the joy of youth. They bantered each other as of old, 
and every minute some group would burst out with an old 
song like ' ' My Maryland. ' ' 

And when for a few minutes they passed in the shade and 
removed their hats the numerous bald spots seemed to reflect 
the rays of their genial natures. Yet, it was not without forti- 
tude that they marched the two miles. One old crippled fellow 
dropped out near the last, and when taken into a nearby house 
said : 

' ' There were so few left in my company, and I was walking 
by our one-armed color-bearer. He said : John, stick by me as 
long as you can, and I did my best, but it was too hot." How- 
ever, along the line the ladies offered them water and cared 
for them amply. 

20 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11 , 1908. 

One old man was handed a glass of water by a kind lady, 
and when he had accepted it he declared: "When I get old 
enough I 'm earning back here to get married. ' ' He appeared to 
be about 80 years of age. At the reviewing stand in front of 
Capitol Park the enthusiasm reached its highest pitch. General 
Commander-in-Chief Clement A. Evans, with his staff; Gov- 
ernor Comer, with his staff, and General Lonis S. Clarke, with 
his staff, formed the reviewing line. 

General Evans sat in his saddle erect with bared head, and 
as each company would pass he smiled as only he knows how, 
waived his Confederate hat and made the old Southern bow. 
Throwing their hats in. the air, the privates went into ecstacies 
and the generals, losing their decorum, let out whoops in reply 
to the yells of the hundreds in the reviewing stand. 

The News. 

Great throngs of veterans who wore the gray and visitors 
are in the city and arriving on every train for the eighteenth 
annual Confederate reunion. 

The decorations of the reunion city were favorably com- 
mented upon by Lieutenant General Clement A. Evans, com- 
manding the Army of Tennessee Department, as he sat in his 
room at the Hotel Hillman Monday morning greeting old com- 
rades. Though the general was reserved in his praise, his eve 
kindled with delight as he saw the holiday garb of Nineteenth and 
Twentieth Streets and of the buildings around his hotel. 

Other generals, Robertson, of Florida; Gordon, of Tennes- 
see; White, of West Virginia; Fusz, from the Northwest, and 
Tyler, of Forrest's Corps, who are part of the advance guard, 
are enthusiastic over the visible preparations which Birmingham 
has made for their reception. 

General Evans estimates the attendance of veterans be- 
tween 3,000 and 10,000. General Robertson is positive that 
8,000 will be here. 

"We do not know just how many will come, because the 
ranks have been decimated by death during the past year, but 
1 -believe that there will be 7,000," said General Evans. 

"The boys are getting more anxious to be present at each 
succeeding reunion, for fear that it will be their last." 

Down on the parlor floor of the Hillman General Fred 
Robertson was calling General Mfrckle "Billie." (That is how 
he was called when he was a private in the army of Virginia. 
and he loves the sound.) 

22 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

Adjutant General AVilliam E. Miekle Avas dressed in his 
gray uniform. He was busied in preparing for the exercises 
of Tuesday at the Hippodrome. 

"I have not been out to see the decorations," said General 
Miekle. "I have been busy in here all the morning. I expect 
a large representation of the veterans. 

"A reunion of Confederates is different from any other 
event. It is a meeting of brothers, of comrades. When we have 
a reunion it is for our people, for ourselves. 

"I saw two veterans watching the eyclorama of Gettysburg 
and the tears streamed down their faces as they pointed out 
each spot that they had known, the locality of their command, 
the very trees where 'Bill' and 'John' and 'Jim' had fallen. 
That is the reason we come together to remind ourselves of the 
times that we spent together in the defense of our country. 

"A gentleman who had seen both reunions of the Grand 
Army of the Republic and the United Confederate Veterans 
stood in the crowds at Richmond last year and yelled and waved 
with the best Southerners. He was from the North. 

" 'I tell yon. General Miekle,' " he said, "there is nothing 
equal to this. Here is the true spirit of comradeship. These men 
are and must have been in earnest ! 

"Our organization is without politics, without jockeying 
for office," said General Evans. "No one can say who will be 
the next commander. 

"I secured the address which General Lee had prepared 
from his son at the time of the funeral. I at once saw that it 
is a remarkable document and that it is fitting that it should 
be read upon this occasion. The person to read it will be decided 
at a conference to-day. Some one who is able to read it clearly 
will be named." 

General W. L. Cabell, acting commander-in-chief of the 
United Confederate Veterans, will arrive in Birmingham at 
7 :30 o'clock Monday, coming over on a special train of the Queen 
and Crescent. 

The streets are already thronged with the rank and file. 
Gray-bearded men, wearing the Southern memorial crosses, old 
gray uniforms, badges of honorable distinction, gathered at many 
a reunion, move slowly along with the holiday look in their faces, 
clapping a surprised comrade on the back here and pausing to 
look at a picture or relic in some of the shop windows. They 
are more than pleased with the decorations. They gathered 
at the information bureau in the city hall, in the lobbies of 
the hoteh, at the Commercial Club, at the courthouse. They 
are trying to satisfy each other with talk about the things that 

In troduction . 2 3 

have happened, the time that has passed since the last reunion. 
They are getting reacquainted. 

■a. jfc jfc jfe jfr jfc jfc 

The first day of the eighteenth reunion of the United Con- 
federate Veterans is passing into history without a discordant 
feature to mar the great occasion. 

Long before the bustle of daily life had put Birmingham's 
own citizens on the streets hundreds of the aged soldiers were 
traversing the thoroughfares and taking in the sights. By 8 
o'cloek Tuesday morning thousands had poured out of their 
temporary quarters in various parts of the city and thronged 
the streets over the entire business section. 

Around the courthouse and city hall, an almost impassable 
throng gathered early and remained all the morning, even after 
the exercises at the Hippodrome and the several other exercises 
had called in thousands. 

All of the temporary quarters provided for the visitors 
were soon reaching the limit of their capacity, and additional 
places were secured. Cots and beds will be placed in the Young 
Men's Christian Association building, the Athletic Club and a 
number of other buildings. In spite of the fast increasing mul- 
titude of veterans it is thought that all will receive care and 

The incoming trains at both stations brought a steady 
stream of humanity from the outside, and several sections of 
all the important lines are still unloading literal trainloads of 

The beautiful weather has made possible the most auspicious 
opening, and the indications are that the crowds will continue 
to swell until the multitude in Thursday's parade will break 
the records. 

The many features planned by committees of local citizens 
and veterans are passing off according to the programme and 
not a minute of the time of the old warriors is hanging on their 

Realizing that the tattered hosts had rallied here in larger 
numbers than expected the committee of the Commercial Club 
in charge of the finances made a "double quick" canvass of 
the city ere the sun was many hours old Tuesday. 

Generous hearts and liberal purses responded to the relief 
call and an additional $10,000 was quickly subscribed. This 
sum will be expended in caring for the veterans. 

The chairman of the executive committee was at Camp 
Gordon, at Fairview early. He was immensely pleased at the 
way the visitors were being cared for. 

24 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham^ Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

"There were 2,500 already encamped at 6 o'clock and they 
were coming in on every car," he said. 

"I talked to the old soldiers," he added, "anl found them 
enthusiastic in regard to the reception that had b ;en tendered 


The invitation which Birmingham extended th? Confederate 
veterans last year to come to this city for the next reunion was 
so heartily responded to that the attendance up to noon to-day 
had excelled even the expectations of the committee of arrange- 
ments, and from a standpoint of numbers, as well as in other 
ways, this reunion promises to be one of the most successful 
ever held in the history of the organization. The men who wore 
the gray were peerless in courage, self-sacrifica and devotion 
to duty; they admire pluck ami self-reliance. They showed 
their appreciation of the stalwart new city of tha South by 
honoring it with their presence for the second time, and Birm- 
ingham is manifesting its appreciation of their noble deeds by 
honoring them in a hundred ways. 

The people of Birmingham are extending an enthusiastic 
welcome to the Daughters of the Confederacy and their friends 
assembled here to do honor to the splendid heroism and the 
glorious spirit which characterized the Confederata soldiers and 
sailors. They are all thrice welcome, and it is a privilege to the 
people of this young city throbbing with hope and industry 
to contribute to their comfort and pleasure. 

The immense attendance upon the reunion threatened to 
tax the hospitality of the city. The committees in charge had 
worked day and night to take care of the visitors. The citizens 
had contributed generously of their time and money to provide 
for the big gathering. Early to-day it was seen that additional 
efforts were needed. Twenty-five leading citizens met and in 
a few minutes had raised $10,000 over and above the fund which 
had already been contributed to take care of the visitors. 

It looked as if the veterans and their friends were making 
special efforts to honor the memory of their deceased commander- 
in-chief by carrying out the wishes he would have expressed 
had he been spared to take part in the reunion— that it should 
be one of the greatest yet held. And it will be. Every part of 
the South and Southwest is represented. The spirit of the 
South is manifest everywhere, and the hospitality of this sturdy 

Introduction . 2 5 

young Southern city finds full expression at the hands of its 
men, women and children. 

Birmingham g Tas p S the hand of the Confederate veteran 
with a sincere feeling of admiration. He represents the highest 
type of courage and manhood. His deeds of heroism and endur- 
ance commanded the respect and the plaudits of the civilized 
world. He fought for the principles which were dear to his 
heart with a resoluteness of purpose, an indomitable courage, 
never surpassed in the history of the nations. His patriotism 
was as firm as his individual effort was sturdy. He knew not 
how to shirk a duty, but faced death with unfaltering step and 
with a determination to do or die for a cause deep-rooted in his 
heart, The spirit of heroism and patience which marked the 
deeds of the men who wore the gray is the spirit of force of 
character, of manhood, upon which rest the achievements of 
the Confederate veterans' posterity. Young men and young 
Avomen of the South possess a priceless heritage in the deeds 
of their fathers, and it is with a feeling of pride that they point 
t;o these deeds as an example of the highest virtue, a guiding 
influence through the journey of life, an ennobling lesson of 
duty well performed, an inspiration to higher ideals and purer 

All honor to the Confederate veteran. He contributed more 
generously than any other to the glory of a proud and self- 
reliant people. He made history for America. He left an in- 
fluence for good which cannot be obliterated by the ravages of 
time. He was the embodiment of patriotism, of self-sacrifice, of 
unswerving devotion to duty. Birmingham welcomes the griz- 
zled soldiers of '61 to '65, and feels for each and every one of 
them a deep and tender affection. May they live to enjoy many 
more reunions, and may time deal gently with them all 

What higher tribute could be paid to the men who bore the 
brunt of the struggle "of a storm-cradled nation that fell" 
than the closing stanza of that exquisite little poem written on 
the back of a Confederate note after the surrender of General 

"But our boys thought little of price or pay, 
Or the bills that were over due; 

They knew if it bought them their bread to-day 
'Twas the best their poor country could do. 

Then keep it ; it tells our history o 'er, 
From the birth of the dream to its last ; 

Modest, and born of the angel, Hope, 
Like our hope of success, it passed." 

26 Eighteenth Reunion., Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

Amid the strains of music made by many bands, the blast of 
trumpets, the waving of flags and bunting and the yells char- 
acteristic of the days of long ago, the survivors of the Con- 
federate army marched through the streets of Birmingham 
Thursday morning. It was estimated that something like 10,000 
veterans, sons of veterans, sponsors, members of the National 
Guard and others took part in the parade. No less than 60,000 
persons thronged the line of march and cheered as the inspiring 
pageant passed through the principal streets. 

The weather was ideal and the parade moved promptly at 
11 o'clock. Near the head rode Governor Comer and Lieutenant 
Governor Gray. The new commander-in-chief, General Clement 
A. Evans and his staff headed the veteran mounted column and 
he was given an ovation all along the line of march. 

There were many features in connection with the parade, 
which started promptly at 11 o'clock from the corner of Sixth 
Avenue and Nineteenth Street. While nearly every company 
of the Confederacy was represented by some battle-scarred vet- 
eran, few of the companies were intact, the places in the line 
of march being designated by the various camps to which they 
belong at the present time. Bullet-riddled flags and mementos 
were waved in the air, however, and brought home to the old 
soldiers in a living way the days of old and reminded the younger 
generation of the possibilities of life. 

Although the great majority of veterans rode their steeds like 
they did in the days when they followed Lee, Jackson, Johnston, 
Forrest and all the rest of the great leaders. Those on foot 
also showed remarkable energy and they stepped to the tune of 
the music just like they did when the orders were given in the 
memorable days to charge upon the opposing troops. 

While the veterans occupied the conspicuous part in the 
parade, the escort column and the sons made a splendid showing. 
There were pretty sponsors from every State to lend beauty 
to the occasion and the parade in its entirety was pronounced 
one of the most successful ever gotten up in honor of the men 
of the gray. 

The parade was participated in by all the Confederate vet- 
eran organizations, Sons of Veterans, United Daughters, local 
and visiting military companies, Governor Comer and his staff, 
Mayor Ward and many of the aldermen, the chief of police 
and a cordon of police, sponsors from the various brigades and 
camps and others. 

At the head of the column, after Marshal McCrossin, rode 
George H. Bodeker, chief of police and a number of officers on 
horseback. Then came a cordon of police on foot. It was the 

Introduction. 27 

original intention to have the police on horseback, but scarcity 
of horses prevented this. It was said that the committee on 
horses lacked 200, nearly every available horse in Birmingham 
being in use. 

The executive committee of the Confederate reunion cam' 1 
next, riding in a carriage. This is the committee that worked 
out the plans of the eighteenth reunion and made it one of the 
most successful in the history of the South. 

Governor Braxton Bragg Comer and Lieutenant Governor 
Henry B. Gray rode horseback and both were kept busy lifting 
their hats to the cheering multitude. General Louis V. Clark 
and his staff followed the chief executive of the State. He was 
surrounded by his staff on horses. 

Then came the escort column of the National Guard, some- 
thing like a dozen companies being in line. Among them were 
Companies A. G and K, of the First Battalion; Companies B, D 
and I, of the Second Battalion: the Montgomery Blues; Battery 
D, of Birmingham; Troop D cavalry and Troop cavalry, of 
Chattanooga. Company D, of the Second Battalion, came from 
Anniston and Company I from Oxford. 

Marching with the National Guard were the Howard College 
Cadets, St. Anthony Cadets and several bands, including Mem- 
oli's, which headed the escort column. Other bands taking part 
were the Auburn boys. East Lake Industrial School, Cape 
Gireaucleau, Mo.; Tyler, Tex.; Carbon Hill. Breax Hill, La, 
The fife and drum corps, of Memphis, also made a big hit. 
It was largely through the work o? this organization that Mem- 
phis captured the next reunion from Atlanta. 

As General Evans and his staff passed through the streets 
it was an occasion for shouting all along the route of the parade. 
With bared head the venerable soldier bowed his acknowledg- 
ment of the tribute paid him and not infrequently he was forced 
to lean forward on his horse and shake hands with some old 
soldier who rushed up to greet him. Incidents of this kind 
occurred from the time the parade began until it ended and 
such scenes inspired the thousands who looked on. 

The sponsor of the South and her maids rode in a carriage 
just behind General Evans and they presented a pretty picture. 
Forrest's Cavalry acted as an escort to General Evans. 

Old flags, banners, photographs, camp flags, emblems and 
many other things were in evidence to such an ex rent that the 
present day was forgotten entirely by the veterans and they 
lived over again the olden, glorious days of the long ago. 

Conspicuous in the throng Avas a number of former shaves. 
Marching in line with "ole Massa" they were cheered throughout 

28 Eighteenth Reunion. Birmingham., Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

the march. One aged darkey received an ovation as ho passed 
down the lines carrying a tremendous banner on which was 
inscribed: "Aged 78. Served four years for the Confederacy. 
Governor Comer ain't gin me no pension yet." Another ven- 
erable colored man walked arm in arm with a white comrade 
who of frequent intervals fanned him with one of the old-style 
"turkey tails," plucked from the conventional Thanksgiving 
bird. The number of colored heroes marching in the procession 
elicited much comment. 

Decidedly the grandest and most interesting parade ever 
given in Birmingham, and perhaps in the South, was the re- 
union parade Thursday. The people along the line of march 
cheered until their throats were hoarse. The veterans, sponsors, 
National Guard and others in the parade moved along uncon- 
scious of the fact that they were being admired. 

Very few people fell during the parade, despite the fact 
that the sun was hot and the weather a little close. 

Buckets and barrels of ice water along the line proved of 
good cheer and many of the veterans accepted offering of the 
same. In front of the Birmingham News office the pressroom 
boys had a big cooler of ice water and with dippers supplied the 
veterans and others in the parade with a drink. Many of the 
sponsors accepted of the offer and were refreshed. 

The number of shot-riddled battle flags that were carried 
is hard to estimate. Nearly every regiment and every division 
had one of these relics on display. In many instances the flag 
had been shot almost completely away and but a slight remnant, 
just enough to identify it, was left. Some of thes? flags were 
borne by men who were barely able to keep step from physical 
weakness. One aged veteran was noticed holding his hand on 
the staff of his old colors, although a stronger and younger 
man assumed the burden of carrying the heavy pennant- 
Scores of aged women marched with their husbands and 
received from the throngs the tribute always deserved by South- 
ern mothers. Some of them were so infirm from age that they 
were barely able to continue the march, and the spirit of heroism 
which they displayed in attempting it recalled the deeds of 
Southern women in the trying days of the Civil War. 

Soldiers with both hands shot away, many with one leg 
gone and some with both arms and limbs missing, marched with 
the proud step of the Southern veteran. In the cavalry rode 

30 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

an aged hero who was destitute of either arm. A wooden peg 
served as a place on which to hang his bridle. 

The sponsors were a notable feature of the parade. The 
beauty of young Southern womanhood was never more strik- 
ingly displayed on any occasion. Dressed in becoming white 
costumes, smiling and bowing to the applause they received 
they were admired as much as the aged men who wore the gray 


The closing day of the great Confederate reunion was one 
of the most interesting of them all. The parade was one of the 
largest of any that have marked the reunions since the organ- 
ization was formed. It was a source of inspiration to the sons 
and daughters, grandsons and granddaughters of the brave men 
who covered themselves with glory in the sixties. The veterans 
were cheered to the echo all along the line, and expressions of 
honor and reverence were showered upon them on all sides. 

It is generally conceded that the Birmingham reunion of 
1908 has been one of the most successful ever held. It was 
notable in point of attendance, in the hospitality tendered the 
veterans and visitors, in the arrangements made for entertaining 
them and in the enjoyment of the thousands who will return 
to their homes singing the praises of this sturdy, progressive 
young city that established itself as a great center of industry 
and culture, and became an inspiring influence to the entire 
South for its splendid achievements in three decades. 

Birmingham feels honored at the presence of the heroes of 
a hundred battlefields, and the people of Birmingham have been 
helped by the lessons which the wearers of the gray have revived 
during the week. It has been a rare pleasure to have the sur- 
vivors of the noble army of the Confederacy mingle among 
our people and to make friends with them. 

The Birmingham News voices the sentiments of the people 
of this sturdy and resourceful young Southern city, as well as 
the people of this prosperous and progressive State in wishing 
the veterans a safe and pleasant journey to their homes and 
many more years of health and happiness. 

May a good and merciful Father shower His blessings 
upon the surviving heroes of the Lost Cause, and may their 
splendid example of courage, self-sacrifice and devotion to duty 
continue to serve as an inspiration to higher and better things 

Introduction. 31 

for the sons and daughters of the Confederacy and to the chil- 
dren of men throughout this broad and beautiful land of love 
and liberty. 


The election of General Clement A. Evans as commander- 
in-chief of the United Confederate Veterans, to succeed the 
late lamented Stephen D. Lee, gives widespread satisfaction 
among the veterans. General Evans is exceedingly popular 
among the men who wore the gray. He was a brave soldier and 
distinguished himself for meritorious service in some of the 
hardest-fought battles of the war. He has always shown sincere 
interest in the welfare of the survivors of the Lost Cause, and 
has given freely of his time and efforts in their behalf. General 
Evans has been a conspicuous figure at all the reunions since 
the organization was formed, and his counsel and aid have been 
annually sought by the leaders of the cause. 

It is a high honor to be chosen leader of the United Con- 
federate Veterans, and one of which any man might justly feel 
proud. In electing General Evans the veterans expressed their 
confidence in his capacity for leadership as well as their respect 
and admiration for a good man with a good record. He is 
splendidly ecpiipped for the honors and duties of the high posi- 
tion, and he assumes command with the sympathy and co-opera- 
tion of the entire body of veterans. 

The Ledger. 

General Clement A. Evans and Miss Sarah Lee Evans, 
of Atlanta, arrived in Birmingham at noon Sunday over the 
Southern Railway. General Evans was at his headquarters in 
the Hillman Hotel Sunday afternoon, and after his arrival 
became current his rooms were besieged with callers. 

General Evans, in speaking to a Ledger representative, said : 
"I have never experienced such enthusiasm at a reunion 
before and I certainly look forward to the opening here Tuesday 
with a great deal of pleasure. I have always wished the reunion 
to be in Birmingham, and I think most of the old soldiers wish 
to come here also. I am sure from the outlook that this reunion 
will be the most successful in the history of the United Con- 
federate Veterans, as I have been in close touch with the com- 
mittee and am thoroughly acquainted with all the details and 

32 Eighteenth Reunion. Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

arrangements being made. The reports that I have received 
indicate that the largest attendance in the history of the organ- 
ization will be present here, and I certainly think so from what 
I can learn. 

"At this time the death of General Lee is particularly sad, 
and while we all are bowed down with grief, I think his passing 
away will call to mind that we are all nearing the great beyond, 
and this fact alone will draw many of the old guard here that 
were not anticipating attending. General Lee was one of the 
most able men in the Confederacy, and I am sure his place will 
be difficult to fill. 

"My name has been frequently mentioned for the great 
honor of commander-in-chief of the fast passing hosts of the 
great struggle, but I wish to say that the matter will be alone 
in the hands of the delegates, who will doubtless act wisely 
in the matter. I am very grateful, indeed, that several of the 
papers, especially in my own State, have done me the honor 
to even mention my name in connection with the office of com- 
mander, and whether the veterans so honor me or not, I'll always 
relish the possibility of my commanding such a body of soldiers. 
The Confederate veterans are banded, together like brothers, and 
the bare mention of politics for the office would not b? coun- 
tenanced by any of us. We have Ions: as'o eliminated such a 
thing and soliciting votes will not be thought of. 

"When the news of the deatb of General Lee was brought 
to me I thought it meet and proper for General Cabell to be 
acting commander-in-chief, inasmuch as he was a lieutenant 
general prior to my election, and [ am now glad such a course 
was pursued. He is a good officer and a gentleman, and would 
make an excellent commander. AVhile we both rank as lieutenant 
generals he is my senior in actual rank. I wish all the wearers 
of the gray to have a good time in Birmingham. Our ranks 
are fast becoming thin and each passing year sees th-3 work of 
the hand of Providence. We will all answer the last roll call 
in a few short years and report to the High Commander of all. 

"M(.v* department (the Army of Tennessee) will maintain 
headquarters in the Hillman Hotel, and I would be glad to see 
as many of the old guard as possible." 

General Evans looks exceedingly well and has a wonderful 
amount of vigor. His memory is as bright as if he were not 
carrying the weight of seventy-five years, and he talked with a 
smooth, even tone that is scarcely found in men of his age. His 
eyes are snappy and look at one with an intensity of interest that 
would become a man of thirty years his junior. 

In troduction . 3 3 

Everything is in fine working order at Camp John B. 
Gordon for the veterans, and as fast as they arrived Monday and 
Tuesday they were assigned to their places and all appear to 
be well pleased with the accommodations furnished them by 
the committee having in charge this work. The hotel is one 
long line of cots on which have been placed the best beds pro- 
curable, and everything is a model of completeness and comfort. 
The first floor of the exhibition hall is lined with cots with 
mattresses, while the second floor has no cots. The beds are 
on the floor and serve two men, while the first beds are single. 
The hotel is supplied with long wash basins and towels, where 
the veterans can bathe. The hotel is in charge of a competent 
corps of physicians who are keenly watching the physical con- 
dition of the guests of Birmingham. 

The entire grounds are under the supervision of Major 
George Gorff. He is an old hand at commissary work, and has 
left nothing incomplete looking to the proper care of the visitors, 
stating to a representative of the Ledger that he would accommo- 
date possibly 2,000 veterans. The building with its sleeping 
capacity can accommodate over 4,000. The hotel is cool, clean 
and well supplied. 

The kitchen and dining-room are under the grandstand and 
are the acme of cleanliness and comfort. The tables extend 
the entire length of the building, and will seat at one time 2,000 
men. The dining-room is equipped with basins, towels and a 
resting-room, where the tired ones may stay as long as they 
choose. The kitchen connects directly with the dining-room 
and is in charge of a well-known negro cook, John Dunlap. The 
cooks number eight negroes, and they will supply the veterans 
with the most appetizing dishes in the city. The kitchen has 
eight stoves and in addition a large barbecue pit, where the 
hams are boiled and the soup and stews are made. 

Everything is complete, everything is ready; every one is 
being made to feel perfectly at ease. All the attendants are 
enthused over the idea of entertaining the veterans, and nothing 
will be lacking to insure the guests a good time. 

The meals are served from 6 to 10 o'clock A. M., which will 
constitute breakfast. On account of the fact that practically 
few will be on the grounds at noon no lunch will be served. The 
dinner hours are from 1:30 to 8 o'clock P. M., and this will 
enable those who are detained in the city to get their meals with- 
out being especially prompt. 

Monday saw the first of the grizzled heroes arrive and by 
midnight Monday night the crowds had been augmented to sev- 
eral hundreds. The visitors were from every State composing 

34 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

the Confederacy, and though tired out in some instances from 
their trip, they all appeared to be interested in the efforts to 
please them, and were loud in expressing the praise they felt 
towards the committee for the reception tendered them. 

Tuesday saw the first meal served and several hundred 
men partook of the breakfast. The camp, which is at the State 
fair grounds, may be reached by the Ensley, North Bessemer and 
Fair Grounds cars. 

Attired in their war-like clothes of gray, with a step for 
the time as firm as when they entered the service of their own 
Southland and with eyes beaming with love for the lost but 
not forgotten cause, the Confederate hordes have captured 
Birmingham, ' ' lock, stock and barrel. ' ' 

Amid the most inspiring scenes ever witnessed in Birming- 
ham the survivors of the army, once the flower of the South, 
moved down on Birmingham Monday night. 

The majority of the veterans arrived between 3 o'clock P. M. 
and 12 o'clock midnight. During these hours the Terminal and 
the Louisville and Nashville stations were literally overrun with 
veterans and other visitors. 

A large crowd had gathered at the Terminal Station and 
as the veterans alighted from their trains they were greeted with 
one continual ovation. The main corridor of the Terminal Sta- 
tion leading from the train sheds was thrown open for the first 
time to the public Monday afternoon. 

At 6 o'clock, when the special trains commenced arriving 
from the west, the crowds gathered and, lining up for several 
hundred feet on each side of the exit, the veterans were given 
round after round of cheers as they marched from the trains to 
the street cars. 

Early in the evening the special trains from the west com- 
menced to arrive. When the first Texas soldiers alighted from 
the train this was a signal for the cheering to start. "Hurrah 
for the Texas veterans!" was the cry that went up. The yell 
was taken up and the noise was almost deafening as the Texas 
warriors marched out through the Terminal. 

The Texas veterans attending the reunion are estimated 
at an even 1,000. Following the Texans were hundreds of 
veterans from Oklahoma and Arkansas. 

When the famous Dick Dowling Camp, United Confederate 
Veterans, of Houston, Tex., arrived at the Terminal Station Mon- 
day evening the cheering throng almost went wild with enthus- 
iasm. There were, over 100 members of the camp who alighted 

Bi f9 

■BBS > '«T-rte«sJPf MMn 


flf-fl BUI 

r 'c?. - j 

A ■ 

Bbb_, ,_n? *i 

.V '-^ 


la ? 

!»». ,<■ ^p*/ ■*&**£■ ^i^Y 

P- 0mi'4Hf*i&t » JL 

^sJPJpi ^7*UrJ*#.^« JUL jk w 

■ •■4rHf 

dSr * #* i3C- * ,5 §2JF; ' 

W *BP zxJ'jf J^-I^Wl r\9 


& m&Urf ^* 



■ ■ '- E 

*■*/*?** - i«*^l BP 

^J si ..'•: *1 

^^^«*« J^H 

I ' ■ IT ~' v 5*Bl 

doi U<*4r - '&*&? J i 

1 J-*"*;*.'*^ 

■ ' 9if^9^t^ 

i^ #^" 

»'*• .1 

tv. wifta -^tsar 

^*^ — - ■- --i 

! — _ • -!is>^ 

> vZjv*S<.#S- mho - -„^ _— ■ j ^ «w 


' tf-.*p 

K iV 1 •r^-^« jh r^k^^^v^IBML 

*i3p**L ^ if •!«».• ■<5"33nxr"Bp /\wT 


KgjT' j^^BfeA />* ; ay ' ™ 


** ". Jr 

vIv'^^Bf -^v'«58[ 1L Jfe 

1 V'-JI 

4 jt -"J^k ,WN 


'•' ^ -VJhWLv JW* 

. V'TtKJL'V^ 

Vi^ ./fstX -rtlP /V7X V M^. 

• r «!l"^,% V" 

23B£Xf»-i^^lfcy nkJHftw ^ 

9ff^>JMn^ l^tsflMBflBll 

? ''WH 

iv v«iMj y -. wBkvS9 

5*<^^f h m§*mxj: 

Wr ■ItJfcHJ 

■»= >^flftiHP-3 ■ je^uBO mi 


^^u *^y ^ 



36 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

from the special train. They carried a banner on which was in- 
scribed the following words: "Dick Dowling Camp, 197, U. C. 
V., Houston, Tex., 43 defeated 15,000 at Sabine Pass, September 
8, 1863." 

General Cabell arrived between 9 and 10 o 'clock on a special 
train from Dallas. He was accompanied by General Van Zandt, 
acting lieutenant general commanding the Trans-Mississippi 
Department. General Van Zandt succeeded General Cabell, 
who, on the death of General Lee, was promoted to commander- 
in-chief of the Confederate forces. General Roberts, senior 
brigade general of the Texas Division, becomes major general, 
commanding the Texas Division. 

General Cabell has headquarters at the Hotel Hillman. 
The Texas headquarters are at the Hotel Morris. 


The reunion has been a reunion. Men have met and have 
mingled and have recalled the days of the war. They have 
heard the bands play the old war tunes and they have seen 
the Confederate flags float in the breezes, and they have seen 
once more the Confederate gray worn by men who made it 
not only famous, but glorious. There are men here in the very 
coats they wore in the war, some of them have even the holes 
pierced by bullets that shed the wearer's blood. 

Indeed it has been a reunion. The great commanders have 
been here, the generals, brigadier generals and colonels, cap- 
tains and majors and lieutenants, who earned their titles in 
such a war as the world may not see again. These veterans were 
not bounty men, nor hirelings, but the volunteers who fought 
without pay or the thought of it. 

There cannot be many more great reunions, for the veterans 
are getting too old to attend them. The generals are nearly all 
feeble. Many of the officers and privates are getting old, and 
the meeting places are not all so accessible as Birmingham, whose 
railroads reach all the South. So this is probably the last general 
reunion. It is a great one, and there are thousands of the very 
flower of the Confederate armies here. Men are here who 
fought under the great leaders on every battlefield, and men 
who filled many positions of honor. They have done honor to 

The selection of General Clement A. Evans, of Atlanta, for 
the office of Commander-in-Chief of the Confederate Veterans 

hitrodnction. 37 

was, on the whole, very pleasantly received, the veterans say- 
ing that his record in the war, his personality, his private life 
and his devotion to the cause of the association, made him quali- 
fied in every way for the honor accorded him on the floor of 
the convention hall "Wednesday. General Evans has a winning 
personality and a quick mentality and is an ardent worshiper 
of the cause so dear to every Southerner. 

When approached at his apartments in the Hillman "Wednes- 
day evening after the election he was surrounded by a large 
number of his staff officers and was holding an impromptu 
levee. He said to a representative of The Ledger: "I am pro- 
foundly grateful to my comrades for the great honor they have 
thrust upon me in electing me to the position of commander of 
the veterans, and I shall in every way endeavor to carry out 
the aspirations of the association and the cause by which we 
are drawn together shall be uppermost in my mind at all times. 
I am sensible of the great honor and will in every way try to 
demonstrate my appreciation. I will devote my entire time to 
the work in the coming year and hope to see all the old veterans 
at the reunion to be held in Memphis next vear. 

' ' I say ' God bless all the veterans, ' and may He in his in- 
finite mercy and overwhelming love spare them all for another 
love feast like the one now closing. I must say to the people 
of Birmingham that we all feel their marvelous hospitality and 
shall always keep in memory, their goodness to us and the many 
kindnesses shown us. To the press of Birminghom I am espe- 
cially grateful for their many kindnesses shown all the veterans 
and myself." 

The crowning social event of the reunion week, which has 
been so full of brilliant features, was the grand final ball which 
took place at the Hippodrome last evening. 

The Hippodrome had been selected for this event on account 
of its capacity, having the largest floor space with accompanying 
spectators gallery in the city. 

In spite, however, of the great size of the building the com- 
mittee was much embarrassed in responding to the great de- 
mand for tickets, endeavoring to give out as many as possible, 
and at the same time to reserve sufficient floor space for the 
grand march and following dances. Almost 3,500 invitation 
cards were issued, and it is estimated that at least ten thou- 
sand had to be refused. 

Too much cannot be said of the elegance and dignity which 
marked the occasion, and the grand march which was partici- 

38 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

pated in by representatives of the society set from sixteen to 
sixty years, and from all parts of the country, numbered in 
all more than five hundred people, was managed with the great- 
est grace and ease. 

This march, which was directed by Mr. John T. Yeatman, 
was led by the two most distinguished visitors to the reunion. Miss 
Virginia Clay-Clopton, that still regally beautiful belle of the 
50 's, and General Clement A. Evans, the Commander-in-chief 
of the United Confederate Veterans. 

After the grand march, which immediately followed the 
Southern Cross drill, the ball was opened for the general dance 
which was carried out according to the formal program, hun- 
dreds of dancers being on the floor at the sam.' time. 

The Southern Cross drill, which Avas called exactly nt 9 
o'clock, presented a scene of picturesque and dignified beauty 
and elegance, difficult to reproduce in description. 

The drill, which has all of the stately dignity of the old- 
time minuet, was danced by veterans of the Civil War, who had 
for their partners a group of beautiful young girls, and was 
directed by Captain W. L. McLean, under whose guidance the 
"figures were carried out with military precision. Captain 
McLean, of Memphis, Lieutenant Dugan, of South Carolina, 
together with a number of other prisoners of war, devised and 
executed the beautiful and intricate figures of this drill during 
their enforced stay at that dreary place, Johnson's Island, dur- 
ing the 60 's. 

The veterans who took part in the drill were in full dress 
uniforms, while the partners wore diaphonous white dresses, 
made dancing length, ornamented across the bosom with a blue 
Southern Cross, on which were the eleven stars of the Confed- 
erate battle flag, emblazoned in silver ; the requisite touch of 
red was given by the high-heeled slippers and silk stockings. The 
drill was carried on to patriotic airs played by the band in the 
minuet movement, with a special figure now and then to a 
few bars of Dixie, which required a different movement. Dur- 
ing the drill the cross figure in panel form was introduced the 
full Southern Cross, in which stood at attention every partici- 

A delightful feature of the ball, and one which excited 
great interest was the arrangement made by the committee 
for the veterans to take part in various dances, which were con : 
sidered especially theirs. They were provided with dance cards, 
which were filled out with the names of their fair partners, 
as if this ball was being danced fifty years ago. These special 
marches followed the grand march, the escorts of the sponsors 

Introduction . 3 9 

and maids relinquishing their partners to veterans for two 
dances, after which the veterans retired to the spectators' bal- 
cony and the ball continued. 

Another feature which was intended especially for the 
entertainment of the veterans, but which was equally enjoyed 
by every guest present, was the darkening of the ballroom in 
order to exhibit stereopticon pictures, which were accompanied 
by a number of Southern songs, exquisitely rendered by the 
members of the Confederate choir. 

Among the views shown were portraits of General Robert 
E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, General Joseph E. Johnston, Gen- 
eral Albert Sidney Johnston, President Davis, General Stephen 
D. Lee, Admiral Semmes, and other Southern heroes. Between 
each of the portraits the words to many of the Southern songs 
were shown, among them "My Old Kentucky Home," "Way 
Down Upon the S'wanee Eibber, " "Dixie," "The Sweet Sunny 
South," "All quiet Along the Potomac," "Maryland, My Mary- 
land," and others, in many of which the entire audience joined. 
It is needless to say that during this part of the entertainment 
there "was not a dry eye" in the house. So impressive indeed 
was the occasion that many of the older ones to whom the "war 
time" is still a vivid and painful memory, sobbed aloud. 

The effervescent gayety of the Southern spirit, so rebound- 
ing and buoyant, was soon again exhibited, when the brilliant 
lights were turned on, the band broke forth with gay strains 
of music and the dance was again called. 

The hosts on the occasion were the Sons of Veterans of Bir- 
mingham, and most gracefully and graciously did they perform 
their office, reflecting honor on their home city. They are to be 
congratulated on the magnificent success of the occasion, and 
the graceful dignity which was carried out in every detail. 

The guests present were a representative gathering of the 
dignity, beauty, grace and chivalry of the Old and New South, 
taken from three generations of the same blood. Oh ! the sight 
was a glorious one ! Beautiful old women of ante-bellum days, 
graced the occasion with their dignified presence, gallant old 
men who have nearly finished the battle of life were there; and 
with them were their stately daughters and worthy sons, their 
beautiful granddaughters and noble grandsons, all mingling in 
this function which was designed to do honor to the past, 
to grace the present, and to point the future. 

With steps which may have been feeble and tottering, but 
which were unfaltering and unafraid, the survivors of the Con- 

40 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

federate army, the most glorious in the world's pages of his- 
tory, marched through the streets of Birmingham Thursday. 
With heads erect and proud and with eyes blazing with the 
enthusiasm of a righteous cause the defenders of the South- 
land were to-day honored by Birmingham and its thousands of 
reunion visitors. 

Tho ,]av \w. t' .<• hottest of the summer to date. The mor- 
ning blossomed fair. At 9 o'clock, however, the thermometer 
commenced to rise and by 10 it had reached a new record for 
the summer. Scarcely a breeze was stirring, and with the 
sun's hot rays pouring upon them the veterans commenced their 
march through the streets of Birmingham. The line of march 
was formed on Sixth Avenue. At the First Methodist Church 
was the first point where the procession came into full for- 

Promptly at 11 o'clock the parade was started. Lieuten- 
ant Haygood of the police force, yelled to the large crowds 
here to clear the way. The mayor and board of aldermen, who 
were to have joined the procession, did not answer present, and 
Capt. E. J. McCrossin. the assistant grand marshal, gave the 
order for the march to start. A platoon of Birmingham police 
in full uniform headed the procession. Next came Capt. McCros- 
sin and his staff. These were followed by Governor B. B. 
Comer and Lieutenant Governor Henry B. Gray, who rode 
side by side at the head of the governor's staff. 

Philip Memoli's bpnd followed. Next were several com- 
panies of the Alabama National Guards. 

The veterans followed the state militia. General Clement 
A. Evans, the Commander-in-chief, rode at the head of the Con- 
federate army. The General, with his long, flowing gray hair, 
attired in his war uniform of gray and his black leggings, pre- 
sented a picturesque appearance. He was mounted on a large 
black horse. The Commander-in-Chief was escorted by the staff 
of General Lee, the late Commander-in-chief. 

The conspicuous part taken in the long procession by the 
younger men formed a feature that was very generally re- 
marked. Almost every section and division had its quota 
of Sons of Veterans and others who were paying tribute to 
the bravery of gallant sires and friends who fought for the 

Right at the head of the column, just behind the governor's 
glittering staff, came the local military companies. The Wood- 
lawn Rifles, commanded by Capt. J. B. Scully, came first. Just 
behind came the Jefferson Volunteers, Capt. R. L. Gregory; 

42 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9 -11, 1908. 

the Birmingham Rifles, Maj. L. C. Brown; Troop D, Cavalry, 
Capt. M. ML Stewart, and Battery D, Captain Dorrance. Major 
Carl Seals and Lieutenant Colonel Hughes B. Kennedy played 
a conspicuous part in their management of the guardsmen. The 
men were all in glittering new equipment, just received by the 
state, and even the mules drawing the guns and caissons were 
in new harness. The Chattanooga company also made an ex- 
cellent showing in the procession. 

General John W. Apperson, Commander-in-chief of the 
Sons of Confederate Veterans, Adjutant N. B. Forrest, Jr., the 
sponsors and maids for the Sons, and others of the younger 
contingent were conspicuously in evidence. 

General Evans' staff included Adjutant General W. E. 
Miekle, Brigadier General J. F. Shipp, Brigadier General B. H. 
Young, Brigadier General Fred L. Robertson, Brigadier Gen- 
eral H. W. Graber, Colonel J. R. Crowe, Colonel John H. 
Bankhead, Colonel James T. Harrison and Colonel William B. 

It is estimated that there were 10,000 veterans in the 
parade. It took the procession over two hours to pass. The 
line of march extended for perhaps four miles. On account 
of the excessive heat the steps of the old soldiers were neces- 
sarily slow. 

From the time the parade formed until the entire march 
had been completed the soldiers proceeded through a throng 
of enthusiastic and wildly yelling people. The streets along 
the line of march were crowded and jammed. All traffic was 
stopped between the hours of 11 and 1 in Birmingham. Not a 
car moved down-town. The only spaces reserved on the streets 
and avenues of the city were the interstices through which the 
old soldiers marched in their parade. 

"While the shouting and the cheers were one continual and 
uninterrupted ovation all along the route, at times the en- 
thusiasm reached a high pitch. The men and the women yelled 
themselves hoarse in their efforts to give an ovation to the 
Confederate Veterans. At times pretty girls would break 
through the crowds and rush out and throw their arms around 
the necks of the old soldiers. People along the route frequently 
ran out and gave the tired soldiers ice water. Everything pos- 
sible was done to make the march of the veterans a pleasant and 
comfortable one. 

In the line of march Alabama was perhaps better repre- 
sented than the other states numerically. Fully 1,000 old Ala- 
bama soldiers marched under the Alabama division flag. Every 

Introduction. 43 

member of Camp Hardee who was able to leave his home took 
part in the parade. 

United States Senator Joseph F. Johnston, attired in his 
suit of gray and wearing an army regulation hat, marched in 
the ranks with the other veterans. Captain J. F. McLaughlin, 
the Commander of Camp Hardee, was at the head of the 

For hours the parade was passing through the streets, and 
during all that time there was almost one long cheer. The 
thoughtfulness of many merchants and citizens who put out 
drinking water along the line of march was well rewarded in 
many places, the tired veterans stopping time and again to 

Notwithstanding the difficulty experienced in securing horses, 
the committee, headed by Dr. Byron Dozier, had done its work 
thoroughly, and a notable display of horseflesh was the result. 
Most of the animals ridden were noticeable for their fine condi- 
tion, and several veterans and others who have been attending 
renuions for years, assert that the number of mounted men was 
the largest of recent record. 

On every hand there was heard praise of Birmingham and 
of the way she has cared for her visitors. Cheers of all sorts 
would go up from the marching men. Such shouts as "Three 
cheers for Birmingham!" "Three cheers for the newspaper!" 
' ' Three cheers for Camp Gordon ! ' ' and even once a shout of 
"Bully for dry Birmingham!" went up. 

Business men forgot their affairs and citizens forgot their 
business. Rich and poor alike jostled in the crowd while they 
strained their eyes for glimpses of the passing throng. The 
five- thousand- dollar Paris motor rubbed wheels with the ox 
cart from the far rural sections, and occupants of both stood 
on tip-toe to see the wondrous sight. 

Mr. R. S. Munger, one of the best known men of Birming- 
ham, was standing during the parade near a crowd of gentle- 
men congregated around an old negro. The negro was relating 
the fact that he carried General Jackson to a place of safety 
when Jackson was accidentally shot at Chancellorsville. Mr. 
Munger became interested and asked the old darky where he 
was stopping. The reply was that he had no place. Mr. Mun- 
ger placed him on a car and recpiested the conductor, when the 
cars resumed service, to put him off at his (Mr. Munger 's) 

44 Eighteenth Relation, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

The eighteenth reunion of the United Confederate Vet- 
erans has passed into history. "With the grand ball at the 
Hippodrome Thursday night the epoch-making event was con- 

The remnants of the great Confederate army have de- 
parted for their homes. They returned to their homes with a 
"good taste" in their mouths and with a warm feeling in their 
hearts towards Birmingham. They leave behind them memories 
of the most pleasant occasion in the history of Birmingham and 
an increased love and affection for them and the cause for 
which they so bravely and valiantly fought. 

It is the unanimous verdict that Birmingham established a 
new record for hospitality. 

"They tell us that warm Southern hospitality is on the 
wane," said General Sidney Johnson, of Tyler, Texas, one of 
the bravest leaders who fought under General Forrest. "We 
had heard that Birmingham was a northern city in its ways 
and customs, but after our entertainment here we can all de- 
clare that Southern hospitality still exists and that in Birming- 
ham it has a living incarnation." 

Birmingham's success as a host cannot be questioned when 
an Atlantan gave expression to this statement : 

"Atlanta was eager for the next reunion. "We fought hard 
for that honor, but somehow, if we had won, 1 would have felt 
some apprehension lest Atlanta might not have kept up with 
the pace set by Birmingham during the present reunion." 

Said a citizen of Memphis, the place selected for the next 
reunion : "Of course we shall do our very best to make the 
next reunion the greatest in the history of the organization. 
Personally, I shall feel very glad indeed, if we can do as well 
by the event as did Birmingham." 

Many of the veterans left for their homes Thursday night. 
Two special trains were run out over the Queen and Crescent. 
On one of these General Cabell and several hundred Texans 
returned. Several hundred Texans will stop over at Vicksburg 
Friday to visit the National Cemetery at that place. 


General Cabell, of the Trans-Mississippi department, said : 
"Birmingham is certainly a great city. It has acquitted itself 
with great credit. Out in Dallas we will in the next few days 
entertain the grand lodge of Elks. We expect over 100,000 visi- 
tors and I can only hope that we will do as well by the Elks 
as Birmingham has done by the Confederates." 

In troduction . 4 5 


General Clement A. Evans, the newly elect Commander- 
in-chief of the Confederates, accompanied by a large party of 
Georgians, left over an early train Friday morning for his home 
in Atlanta. ' ' This has been a glorious reunion, ' ' said General 
Evans, "and I return to my home greatly strengthened. Too 
much cannot be said in praise of Birmingham and the manner 
in which the people of this city have entertained the conven- 
tion. Nothing has been left undone which could have beeen done 
to make the occasion a success. I trust that the 
Lord may spare us all for the reunion next year. The parade 
was one of the most impressive that I have ever witnessed. The 
reunion has been a reunion in deed and in truth." 


"I confess that I was much troubled and very anxious as 
to the outcome of the reunion, fearing that the 'Magic City' 
would fall short of what was expected of her, but I am grat- 
ified to say that she has come up to her obligations in a most 
commendable way. The whole state of Alabama may feel proud 
of the manner in which she as acquitted herself. 


General Charles Scott, of Mississippi, a prominent political 
leader of that State and at one time representative in Congress, 
accompanied by several Mississippians. left Thursday night 
over the Frisco for his home. ' ' The good people of Birmingham 
have certainly won us over by the kindly and gracious treat- 
ment during our reunion. We have been made to feel that 
personal hospitality still lives. Everyone has been consid- 
erate. We have enjoyed every moment of our stay in your 
splendid city." 


Said former Lieutenant Governor Wells Thompson, of 
Texas, who with Mrs. Thompson left Thursday night for Hunts- 
ville to visit relatives, for a few days before re- 
turning home. "To tell how much I think of your 
city I will say that if I had the money I would buy 
it. I was born in Alabama and have always felt proud of the 
State of my birth, but I return to Texas feeling more pleased 
than ever before with Birmingham and Alabama." 

46 Eighteenth Reunion , Birmingham, Ala., June 9 -11, 1908. 


General A. S. Tate, who was overcome by heat during the 
march Thursday morning, is still very ill at his home in West 
End. General Tyler, of Kentucky, the commander of the 
Forrest Cavalry, did not leave for his home Friday morning. 
He remained over in Birmingham on account of Colonel Tate's 
illness. General Tyler spent the greater part of Friday at the 
bedside of Colonel Tate. The many friends of Colonel Tate 
hope that he will soon recover his usual good health.. One 
sad feature in connection with the illness of Colonel Tate is 
that a few weeks ago his wife died. One of her last requests 
was that Colonel Tate take part in the Confederate reunion and 
participate in the parades. 

General Tyler states that the reunion was a great success. 


After one of the most successful of the eighteen reunions 
the LTnited Confederate Veterans have closed their meeting at 
Birmingham. The Ledger congratulates the veterans on the 
success of their meeting and takes the occasion to compliment 
the city of Birmingham for the handsome manner in which 
it has entertained the strangers within her gates. 

The veterans have expressed themselves as delighted with 
their reception and entertainment and we have seen that it was. 
good. Birmingham was proud to have the veterans here and 
she made the city beautiful for them and she has shown her 
pleasure in having them. 

The Confederate Veterans have shown themselves gen- 
tlemen and of their conduct during this reunion there could 
not be the remotest criticism. Not one of them has failed 
to meet the highest standard of the visitors. 

The reunion has been a success, a great success. Birming- 
ham is happy over it; the whole South is happy over it. It 
has been one of the happiest of the reunions. The Ledger 
hopes that the future reunions will be as complete, as large and 
as successful as this has been. 

It will be a long time before Birmingham can have the 
veterans again, but she does hope to have them at least once 
more. She likes them. 




of the; 

United Confederate Veterans 

HF,i*D AT 


Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, June 9th, 10th and 11th, 1908 

FIRST DAY'S PROCEEDINGS Tuesday, June 9th, 1908. 

The Hippodrome presented a scene never to be forgotten. 
A great stage, with raised seats in the rear, was surrounded 
with beautiful flags and bunting, appropriately setting off a 
picture of sixty uniformed and pretty women composing the 
Confederate choirs, as well as 300 sweet faced little children in 

The music presented by these two bands, assisted by the 
official reunion band, was the most attractive feature of the 
session. With Miss Alice Fallon leading, and the children em- 
phasizing each repetition of "Dixie Land,"' with waiving Con- 
federate flags, the veterans wildly cheering, the effect of the 
music was wonderful. 

The choirs sang "Should Old Acquaintance Be Forgot," 
"Hurrah for the Bonnie Blue Flag," and several others with 
fine musical ability. 

At 10 o'clock sharp General Harrison called the meeting 
to order. After some confusion in seating delegates from Texas 
the great hosts of the Confederacy turned to the God who ruled 
the destiny of their war, and Dr. J. William Jones, the chaplain 
general of the organization, offered the following invocation : 

First Day's Proceedings. 49 


"Oh! God, our help in ages past, our hope for years to 
come. God of Israel, God of the centuries, God of our fore- 
fathers, God of Jefferson Davis and Sidney Johnston and 
Robert E. Lee, and Stonewall Jackson, God of the Southern 
Confederacy, God of our common country, our God ! 

"We bring Thee to-day the adoration of humbly grateful 
hearts as we gather in our annual reunion. We thank Thee 
that Thou didst shield our heads in the leaden and iron hail of 
battle, while so many of our comrades fell on our right hand 
and our left, or died in the hospital, or the loathsome far off 

"We thank Thee, that while our beloved comrades have been 
'stepping out of ranks' so constantly since the days of war, 
so many of them during the past year, we are here to-day to 
greet each other once more before we, too, shall 'cross the river.' 

"We thank Thee, 0! God, that all through the centuries, 
whenever men were needed Thou hast brought them forth. And 
we thank Thee, especially, that in our 'great struggle for con- 
stitutional freedom' Thou didst give us leaders worthy of our 
noble cause, and men of the rank and file worthy to follow 
these leaders to an immortality of fame. 

"We thank Thee God that Thou has spared so many 
of these to show by their honest toil, their patient endurance, 
their able leadership, and their tactful skill, that "peace hath 
her victories no less renowned than war." 

"We thank Thee that so many of these have been Chris- 
tian men, and we pray Thee that all among the living may 
become 'soldiers of the cross,' and be prepared to meet their 
Christian leaders, and comrades in that great Reunion, where 
the parting hand is never taken and 'war's rude alarms' are 
never heard. 

"We thank Thee, too, for the noble women of our South- 
land, who were ministering angels in the dark days of war, 
and who in the darker days since have gladdened our homes, 
cheered our hearts, and by their self-sacrificing labors have 
perpetuated the hallowed memories of a glorious past. And 
as w r e raise our Ebenezer to-day to say: 'Hitherto hath the 
Lord helped us,' so we would humbly ask Thy continued favor 
and blessing upon us. 

"God bless our association, its commander and all of its 
officers and members, that all of our business may be done 
'decently and in order' and that there may go out from here 
hallowed influences to bless our Southland, and the whole of 
our common countrv. 

50 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

"God bless the vast crowd gathered in this city, that noth- 
ing may occur to mar the happiness of this great occasion. 

"God bless our comrades who in distant homes to-day, 
absent in body are present in spirit, with us, and especially 
that the poor, the needy, the sick among them may have loving 
hearts and friendly hands to minister to them, and a Father's 
care ever over them. 

"May heaven's choicest blessings rest upon our homes, and 
the homes of all our old comrades. 

"God bless His servant, the president of this great country, 
that he may have wisdom, grace and strength to do justice to 
every section of our land, and all in authority under him. 

"May a loving Father send fruitful seasons, plenteous, 
harvest and great business prosperity to our land, but above 
all, may He make of us 'a people whose God is the living God.' 
Hear us Lord! Answer us! Bless us! Save us! We ask it 
all in the name and for the sake of Christ our dear Redeemer. 


After a number by the children's chorus General Harrison 
deliver A the opening address. He said: 

"Comrades — "We have gathered in annual reunion to once 
more renew the ties of the battlefield and to keep alive 
the traditions of which every true Confederate soldier is justly 

"We are conscious of no dishonor in our record. We 
fought for our homes and our loved ones; shame on any man 
who would not do likewise. We know we were right. We did 
our duty, and it is our duty to the end to preserve undiminished 
the treasures of our devoted patriotism, our unshaken faith 
and our unalterable belief in the sacredness and justness of 
our cause. 

"We have, under varied conditions, always maintained 
our self-respect; let us continue to do so to the end. 

"We were tested in the greatest clash of arms known to 
history. Some of us were with Lee, some with Johnston, some 
with Beauregard and some in the Trans-Mississippi Depart- 
ment. We fought until about one-half of our army was under 
the sod. History furnishes no other such record. We can 
recall, with pride, the patriotism and pure motives that inspired 
us, and how we fought over almost every foot of Southern 
soil, in over 2,000 great battles. We can also recall the humilia- 
tion and suffering to which we were subjected after the war, 

Mayor Ward's Address. 51 

by a forced submission to carpet-bag and scallawag rule. But 
we bore it all with patience and dignity until, with divine ap- 
proval, we regained control of our own local governments and 
now, once more, are in the house of our fathers, and again honor 
the flag of our reunited country. 

"As the official head of the Alabama Division, United Con- 
federate Veterans, I greet you; with a joyful heart and open arms 
I bid you welcome here to-day. This great city, whose guests we 
are, is proud to have you here. All Alabama rejoices to know 
that you are with us to-day. We are all glad to see you. 

"Make yourselves comfortable, take the best seats you find, 
put your feet on the mantlepiece and spit in the fireplace if 
you want to do so. Be at home. You are in Dixie land." 

Announcement of address by Governor Comer was made, 
but as he was not present, the mayor of Birmingham was called 


Mayor George B. Ward was introduced. In a short but 
pointed talk he made the visitors more than welcome. He said: 

"Mr. Commander and Veterans: Once again has this city 
gathered together the brave survivors of the most glorious war 
in all history. As we greet you staunch defenders of the Con- 
federacy our hearts run over with love and tenderness, and we 
send word to all the world that we are proud to be your host. 

"Birmingham, the youngest and strongest daughter of our 
beloved Southland, is ever anxious to proclaim and show its loy- 
alty to her glorious traditions and to her illustrious men. 

"This city was not a part of the South in those stormy 
days of war, but it is a part of it now, and proudly do we join 
in the preservation of all that is precious to the hearts and 
minds of the Southern people. 

"Mr* Commander, there is something peculiar about the 
South. It is not our laws, it is not our institutions, nor yet 
our material wealth alone that makes the South stand forth 
magnificent and unique among all the peoples of the earth. 

"It is the spirit of chivalry, the purity of race, the power 
of noble men — ever ready to respond to her call, it matters not 
whether it be to walk worthily in the paths of peace or prove 
thunderbolts on the fields of war. 

"Mr. Commander, though peace, gentle peace, now rests 
down upon us in plentifulness and prosperity, yet we should 
•ever strive to keep burning in the souls of the generations as 

52 Eighteenth Reunion. Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

they come and go that same indomitable spirit which inspired 
the Southern man and Southern woman in the terrible struggles 
of the sixties. 

"And now on behalf of the people of Birmingham to these 
old heroes, I can only say, we would magnify your deeds if 
we could; that being beyond the power of man, we can only 
cherish and tell them over and over again as best we can. We 
would reward and attend you as befits the heroes that you are, 
if we could; that being possible to angel hands alone, we can 
only give you ail we have, our hearts and homes, oar love and 
care, and say God bless the day that gives us the privilege of 
proving that Birmingham is yours." 


General Harrison. 

We need a larger and better gavel. Colonel Reed, of South 
Carolina has presented to General Mickle a gavel made of a 
part of the oak under which General Green hitched his horse 
at the battle of Guilford Courthouse in 1862. and with this I 
call you again to order; and Governor Comer having arrived, 
I now have the pleasure to present to you, comrades, his Excel- 
lency, B. B. Comer, Governor of Alabama, who will now address 



"Soldiers of the South, I welcome you to Birmingham. 
I welcome you to Alabama. Our young city, born since the war, 
is unbattle-scarred ; this valley and mountain has never known 
strife, the noise of battle shout, the boom of cannon or crack 
of rifle has never made wounds or disturbed the course of our 
serenity. Business strife, business competition, and the fire and 
smoke around about us has been that of mercantile, factory and 

"While many of our citizens have shared with you the 
rigors of war, the pains of wounds and the death of life, many, 
except for story, know nothing of that great strife in which 
you earned the well-deserved name of 'heroes.' The worship 
of the brave is only commensurated with that of the enduring; 
these two great qualifications you exemplified in the most 
remarkable degree, and it is these, the latter not less than the 
former, which makes this great engathering, this great meeting 
The campfire has been prepared, at the bivouac you can recite 



54 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

over again in the most living manner those events in your lives, 
those events which, except from your memory, would become 
simple chronicles of the times: pages of history for all time, it 
is true, and yet unlit by the sparkle of the individuality which 
your recital wdl give. 

''Birmingham, unscathed by war, yet full of symathy, ex- 
tends to you that intenseness of welcome, that sincerity of 
love and affection, that intense desire that while in our midst 
you shall have the very best and enjoy the very most, and in 
the name of this, tha largest city of Alabama, I welcome you. 
The mayor will later give you the keys to the city, and while he, 
too, is unscarred by war or marriage, yet I have no doubt he can 
well tell you the love story as unquestionably he is old enough 
to be well practiced in the whisperings of the beautiful things 
of life and the carrying of sentiment from heart to heart. 

"My office as chief executive is at the capital city, Mont- 
gomery. In the capitol we have a room devoted to archives 
and history, most of it to the preservation of Alabama's part 
in the great civic strife. . In those archives we carry as a treas- 
ure a Confederate battle flag, with the original staff gone, evi- 
dently shot away, the staff being replaced by a limb torn from 
a tree and the silken folds of the bars and stars tied thereto and 
floating unscathed as carried aloft in the crush of battle. We 
have there samples of 10,000 pikes, ordered made by the State, 
which pike consists of a long blade attached to a long wooden 
staff, ordered made by the State to arm the first troops; we 
also have samples of primeval muskets, guns and mortars, show- 
ing to what extremity the Confederacy was placed for firearms 
until they were adequately supplied by the Federal troops; in 
fact, so well recognized was this source of supply that one 
soldier in surrendering at Appomattox handed over his gun to 
the Federal commander with the statement that he was simply 
returning it, as the cause for which he borrowed it no longer 

"Four times a day I go in and out through th3 portico of 
our capitol, and in between two great columns, erected to stand 
forever, is placed a metal star; that star marks and names the 
spot on which your president and our president, Mr. Jefferson 
"Davis, stood when he took the oath of office and promised to 
st."""d by and stand with you in the righteous fight for local 
seii'-governnnnt. It was from that spot that he delivered his 
inauguration address, and it was from that spot that the first 
and only president of the Southern Confederacy declared the 
eternal principles of local self-government. 

Governor Comer's Address. 55 

"I was younger than the age necessary to stand the rigors 
of war, yet older than the war, and while daily witnessing this 
hallowed spot of your birth, I want to assure you that the spirit 
which caught you also caught me, and I believe the fire which 
kindles the love of State and country will live ; it is the Prom- 
ethean spark stolen from heaven — matches will flare and go 
out, furnaces can be banked and will ashen and die. but the 
flames which light the soul, which make the emotions glow, 
which send the power of resolve, which excite the daring do, can 
never die. 

"The white man, seldom in restraint, never a slave, striving 
always for the utmost freedom and for the best, has on these 
accounts been God's agent to make and maintain the highest 
state of liberty and civilization. Endowed with limitless am- 
bition, untethered by time or tide, ignorant and unrestricted 
by deed and demarcation lines, with a heart full of the rightness 
of things, he climbs the ladder of time, always upward, never 
downward, going not only to the extent of physical structure, 
but on out into open space, on and on — the one thing next to 
Diety, which is infinite and forever. 

"Napoleon had his Waterloo, that meant an end to his 
physical conquests, to his ambitious greed for empire, but the 
code Napoleon, which meant liberty to the poor, restraint of 
the oppressor, and the cross of Napoleon, that great medal of 
honor, similar to the cross which you wear to-day, meaning 
reward to the brave. Those two never have and never can have 
a Waterloo. You had your Gettysburg, which was the Waterloo 
to secession, but soldiers of the South, soldiers of the great 
bronze cross, the Mason and Dixon line of civic rights and just 
demands for local self-government, was not conquered, it was 
not surrendered at Appomattox, and that line, while no longer 
defined as East and West, no longer looked to as between North 
and South, is found dividing — and will forever divide — the 
rights of man from the wrongs of man, the oppressor from the 
oppressed. The oppressor may be called grand duke, may be 
called czars, may be called captains of finance and industry, 
there is nothing in the name, there is everything in the fact, 
and the great white race of America will see that this dividing 
line lives forever and forever. The white man has never yet 
tolerated the seizing of the constitution which he has made by 
creatures which he has made, no matter wdiat called, and that 
constitution used to oppress and tax them. The great spirit of 
Lee and Jackson, Johnston and Stuart, and those thousands of 
brave men that lead you and went with you to the last, no 

56 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

matter in what land they iioav dwell, no matter in what land 
yon may dwell, the white man's spirit of eternal endurance will 
be with you and yours. The vestal virgins of liberty and of 
man's humanity and infinity are there and will always be 
there to keep that living fire aglow. 

"A few days ago at Jackson, Ala.. I pulled off my hat 
before the monument erected to Major Pelham by the General 
Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. It is of 
white marble, representing Major Pelham as standing erect, 
dressed in the Confederate uniform, his sword buckled around 
him. It is said to be a good likeness. It is a youthful face, 
almost girlish, finely chiseled, clean-cut, statue showing slender, 
though shapely, build, scarce 23 years old, and yet this embodi- 
ment of youthful manhood was the leader of Lee's artillery, and 
when the news of his death wound was brought to Lee, it wrung 
from him, the old general himself, the exclamation, "The Gallant 
Pelham." Think of such words as those from such a man as 
an inscription on your tombstone, on my tombstone : I commend 
it to you. inscribe it in your hearts, in the hearts of your chil- 
dren, to last forever. 

"The Daughters of the Confederacy did themselves, your- 
selves and their country lasting honor and glory, the old county 
of Calhoun and the old town of Jacksonville. Both Calhoun and 
Jackson are embodiments of patriotic self-government. The 
location is near Pelham 's birthplace, and was erected by South- 
ern womanhood as a monument of what a Southern boy had to 
offer, in defense of his State and his people. 

"To the right on the capitol hill at Montgomery, in full 
view from my office window, stands the Confederate monu- 
ment of the State, and as I stand and gaze at it, and walk around 
and look at it, as I read the inscription on it, as a boy remem- 
bering your sufferings and bravery, and a man realize fully 
what you sacrificed and accomplished, then I am proud indeed 
that 1 was born of you and born with you. 

"It is true that you had your Appomattox, it is true that 
you had your Gettysburg, it is equally as true that you had 
your first and second Manassas, it is equally as trua that you 
had your Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, the Wliderness, the 
Crater at Petersburg, and still true that you had your Chicka- 
mauga, and so I could go on, but I will be content to commend 
these stories and glories to you and around your camp fires, 
around your memories, around the memories of those who suc- 
ceed you, may they cling and twine and grow, for certainly in 

Governor Comer's Address. 57 

the words of Horace you can truly say, "Exegi Monumentum 
aere perenius regalique situ pyrunidum altius." 

"It is true, as I say, that Napoleon had his Waterloo, yet 
to-day's history says that the fair land of Franc?, the farmers 
thereof, are the freest, happiest and richest in the world. They 
conquered the Waterloo, and it is easy to predict that the great 
landscape of time will witness the undiminished beauties of the 
lilies of France and the beauties of the tri-coior. Napoleon was 
brought back from St. Helena to the most triumphal burial ever 
given man. It is true that the South had its Gettysburg, but 
you old soldiers, scattered throughout the Southland, have con- 
quered Gettysburg. Every monument on that historic field, 
and I am told there are hundreds of them, no matter in whose 
name erected, mark forever your glories ; and I wish to say 
to you that the pension list of the Federal army is the highest 
record of your bravery and efficiency. I said the highest, it is 
surpassed only by one, and that is the condition of the South 
to-day. While you marched away from Gettysburg and Appo- 
mattox in the utmost depression and came back to homes of the 
utmost poverty, and paid war taxes bevonl compare, you main- 
tained the conquering spirit of a white man. you carried that 
spirit wherever you went, and it is the power of this nation 
to-day, no matter what part of it you live in. It is the glory 
of not only the Southland, but of the entire nation. 

"I have traveled these broad States over, and no matter 

how far North, how far East, how far West, your old war song, 

'In Dixie Land I Will Take My Stand, to Live and Die in 

Dixie,' no matter where or under what conditions played or 

sung, excites the emotions and stirs the heart to a shout. 

"There have been forty-three years sine' Appomattox — 
the South has been physically restored. To accomplish this you 
have had to wear the overalls of the farm, factory and business. 
Too little time has been given to education and to political 
economy. The nation which knew and grew in your political 
power and influence before I860 has missed you. and there is 
abroad in the land to-day a dangerous disease — I will call it 
that of the dollar, the tainted dollar — this disease has always 
blighted the people's rule and safety and made centralized gov- 
ernment both possible and dangerous. It well becomes you as 
of old to encourage the manufacture of that serum of pure 
politics, pure patriotism, pure love of country, which will inoc- 
ulate the body politic and bring it back to sound and safe con- 
ditions. This great task is before the people to-day. You have 

58 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

sown the seed and we pray that a sufficiency fell in fertile 
ground to furnish harvest sufficient for our great nation. 

"You are here in our midst, we welcome you. My home 
is on the south hills, every door is open to you. Our State is 
all around about you, I offer you the keys of same. If anyone 
dare laj^ ruthless hands on you, send for me. This State is 
yours, accept to the fullest its joy and gladness. 

"I will burden you with a message of love, as each of you 
cross over the river and meet the dauntless Stephen D. Lee, tell 
him that we love him still in Dixie." 

The Governor was frequently interrupted by great ap- 


General J. W. Bush, of Camp Hardee, welcomed the vet- 
erans on behalf of the local veterans. He said : 

"Others have told you of the beauties of this great city and 
wonderful district, and its manifold resources. It is my pleasing 
duty to extend to you from, the Confederate Veterans of Alabama 
a warm-hearted, cordial welcome. We are glad that you have come 
by the thousands, and the tens of thousands. We greet you with 
open hearts overflowing with love and veneration ; and in saying 
this I speak not only for the Veterans, but for the Sons and 
Daughters and for all the brave and generous people of Birm- 
ingham ; whether they are here from the North or the South, 
the East or the West, Europe, Asia or Africa. 

"Here we are all united in our hearts and hands in extend- 
ing to you the freedom and hospitality of this city of magic 
growth. We honor you for your grav hair, your bent forms, for 
your feeble strength and tottering footsteps. We honor you for 
the grand and glorious achievements and heroic deeds, which 
challenge the admiration of the world. 

"You present a unique figure in the world's history— 
you have lived under the flag of two nations — you are the rem- 
nant representatives of a nation, whose boundaries are marked 
with bayonets. It flashed into the family of nations like a 
meteor; it vanished from the family of nations like a sword 
returned to its scabbard. 

"Its birth was registered and its epitaph was written in 
the blood of the brave. It was born, it lived and died amid the 
roll of drums, the blast of bugles, the rattle of musketry and 
the thunder of cannon. 

60 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11 , 1908. 

"Its constitution was dissolved in the flames of war; its 
flag fell to rise no more; its institutions perished. When the 
sun arose upon Appomattox, there was a new heaven and 
a new earth ; the old South lay dead in its majesty. It lay 
then in the bygone years under cypress trees and the ivy vine, 
with a broken shaft upon its tomb. 

"The forty-third year since Appomattox brings with it the 
full leaf and flowers; the grass again grows green above the 
dust of our fallen comrades. The vines and the roses twine 
once more about their groves and their tombs ; the 
red trumpet flower, the white lily, and the blue 
morning glories point their bugles toward heaven, as if to sound 
a reveille to our immortal dead. Another summer with its sun- 
shine and shadow, its cares and pleasures, its laughter and its 
tears, its sowing season and its harvesting time, its cradle songs 
and its funeral hymns, now lies between us and that dismal 
day at Appomattox, when the star of Southern hope went down, 
and the Bonnie Blue Flag was furled in war forever. 

"You comrades, many of you, were there, and proudly 
wore the torn and tattered grav, and you are not ashamed to 
wear it now. You vividly recall the awful sensations of grief 
and sorrow. That was a bright, beautiful, sunshiny morning; 
the clear blue sky was never bluer ; far away on the western hor- 
izon you could see the deep blue line of the lofty, majestic and 
picturesque Blue Ridge Mountains, with its peaks of otter. The 
landscape in the bright sunshine was beautiful; all nature 
seemed in harmony, perfection and loveliness, but no poetic 
songster or brilliant orator, nor distinguished artist could paint, 
portray, depict or describe the look of utter despair and help- 
lessness upon the saddened faces of the brave and gallant men 
who were there with the noble Lee. 

"A comrade said to me lately, 'when veterans talk about 
the war they make themselves out heroes'; well, that is all right, 
they were all h°roes, whether they ever fired a gun. drove a 
wagon or cooked a slapjack, they were heroes; they were there, 
doing what they could for their country's cause. While you are 
here, tell all the war yarns yon wish, and take your time about it; 
tell all the little incidents, both direct and collateral; hold your 
auditor's attention spellbound, but don't bor< 5 him; see that 
the Sons and Daughters wind up the yarns and store them 
away as traditions. 

"Tell about the battle of Sharpsburg in this way: General 
Lee had 41,000 men and 191 guns; McClelland had 87,161 men 
and 275 guns; Lee fell back across South Mountain and ihe 

General Bush's Welcome. 61 

Antietam River, and established his line on the Hagerstown 
Pike Road. His position was at the Boulder. Near the center 
of the left was the Dunkard Church, and the right looked over 
a ford on the Antietam. McClellan threw forward two army 
corps, one commanded by Joe Hooker, and the other by Mans- 
field, just above the north of General Jackson's left, whose di- 
visions were concealed in the woods, clearly exposing his inten- 
tion to attack and revealing the point of attack. 

"Along the ridge to the west, which parts the Antietam 
from the Potomac, and about a mile distant runs the Hagers- 
town Pike. Sharpsburg lies on the reverse slope of the ridge, 
extending in the direction of the Potomac. General Jackson had 
thrown back two of his divisions at right angles with the Con- 
federate line for a counter stroke. Before sunrise the desultory 
fire of the pickets had deepened into the rattle of musketry and 
roar of cannon. The attack was made at the Dunkard Church, 
with that courage, dash and energy which had won for Hooker 
the sobriquet of "Fighting Joe," and the troops he commanded 
had already proved their mettle on many a field. His corps was 
12,500 strong; they moved in massed column, as if they were on 
dress parade, stepping to the tune of martial music. On they 
came and there stood the immortal Jackson, with his brave and 
well-trained, seasoned soldiers, whose aim was so unerring that 
this splendid corps was hurled back in disorder. 

"Hooker said, 'Never had he seen a bloodier or more dismal 
battlefield.' Lawton's division, being reinforced at a critical 
moment, held back Meade's corps, and by a counter stroke, 
forced him back on his guns. 

"Gibbons, fighting fiercely at the Miller House, brought 
up a battery in close support of his line, and pressed heavily 
on West "Wood until the Confederate skirmishers crept through 
the corn and shot down the horses and gunners. 

"Stark led the Stonewall brigade into the open field. The 
battle swayed backward and forward under the clouds of smoke. 
The crash of musketry, reverberating through the woods, 
drowned the roar of cannon, and though hundreds and thou- 
sands were shot down at close range neither Federal nor Con- 
federate flinched. Hooker sent in a fresh brigade and Patrick 
reinforced, Gibbons passed swiftly to the front, capturing two 
of our colors, but Stark with the old Stonewall brigade charged 
the enemy's right and doubled it back. Doubleday's division 
was struck fiercely in front and flank, reeled back in confusion 
at the M>iller House, and though the gallant Stark was killed 
the Confederates regained the lost ground. General Stuart 
carried into action at a critical moment the battery commanded 

62 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

by the gallant boy soldier, Major John Pelham, who for ac- 
curacy of firing his guns could not be excelled, and he poured 
a galling fire in the right wing of Hooker's corps which was re- 
pulsed all along the line. The heroic remnant of the valley 
regiment still held fast to the limestone ledges, and they were 
reinforced by Early's division and Hood's division, composed 
of about 3,000. Sumner's corps of 18,000 fresh troops were 
put in, and crossed at Pry's bridge, in so imposing an array that 
even our officers and men watched their movements with ad- 

"Terrible was the shock with which they rushed into the 
fight, but with all their formidable array, General Robert E. Lee 
still held the reins of battle. He knew General Jackson's fa- 
miliarity with Napoleon's great key, he knew that General Jack- 
son carried in his haversack Napoleon's maxims, so it was that 
Jackson gained a position to make his famous counter stroke in 
flank and rear. He ordered McLaws to drive back the enemy 
and turn his right. Anderson's brigade supported, and Semmes' 
brigade, and Early's division were rushed forward, and Sedge- 
wick's division of 6,000 men was at the mercy of Jackson, in less 
time than it takes to tell it the ground was strewn with the 
dead and wounded and the whole Federal army was in flight. 
The Federal attack recoiled first from Jackson and then from 
Longstreet, swinging around to the right at Burnside's bridge. 

"A mass column of 12,000 fresh troops, led by Burnside. 
crossed at Burnside's bridge; Longstreet 's tired and worn-out 
men were falling back inch by inch, Gordon, our Gordon, with 
the blood dripping from the tips of his fingers, was holding 
his men in line and fighting like a lion at bay, Stephen D. Lee, 
our Stephen D. Lee, at this time, when disaster seemed imminent, 
grouped his batteries on the center of this advancing column. 

"General Robert E. Lee rushed reinforcements from left 
to right, and that great fighter, A. P. Hill, coming up from 
Harper's Ferry with 3,000 men, without waiting for orders, 
struck Burnside's column in flank and rear, putting Burnside 
to flight, and thus ended the greatest battle of the war. 

"When the roar of battle was over, in the still silence of 
the night General Lee sat on his horse on the road to the Po- 
tomac, and as general after general rode up, he asked, 'How is 
it on your part of the line?' Each told the same sad tale;? 
those who were not killed or wounded were exhausted. The 
enemy was overwhelming, and there was nothing to do but 
retreat across the Potomac, even Jackson had no other course to 

General Rhodes' 1 Welcome. 63 

"Hood, that undaunted soldier came next, and was filled 
with emotion and exclaimed he had no men left, 'Great God,' 
exclaimed General Lee with excitement, 'Where is the splendid 
division you had this morning?' 'They are lying on the field 
where you sent them, dead or wounded.' 

"Then there was an appalling silence. General Lee, rising 
erect in his stirrups, said: 'Gentlemen, we will not cross the 
Potomac to-night; if McClellan wants to fight, I will give him 
battle to-morrow. ' 

"Tell of the battle of Shiloh, where fell the Peerless Albert 
Sidney Johnston; tell of the battle of Franklin, where Hood 
exclaimed to a courier: "Go, give my love to General Pat 
Cleburne, tell him to take the battery in the Locust grove,' and 
that blazing comet of the West lay dying upon the enemies' 
works; to another courier: 'Go give my love to Stephen D. 
Lee, and tell him I say take the battery in Locust Grove. ' 

"Our Lee sent back this message: 'Give my love to Gen- 
eral Hood, and tell him by the eternal gods, the battery in the 
Locust Grove shall be taken.' 

"Tell about General N. Bedford Forrest, the Wizard of 
the Saddle; the Couer de Leon of the South, Joe Wheeler, the 
hero of San Juan. 

"During the fight from the tree top he exclaimed: 'They 
fly, they fly.' 'Who fly?' was asked. 'The Yankees,' was the 
answer; just an old habit. 

"Tell about Jeb Stuart, the plumed knight, everywhere in 
the thickest of the fight, like Henry of Navarre. ' ' 

"Dixie" — By Miss Mary Addie Harrison and children's 

General Harrison. 

Next upon the program it becomes my pleasure to intro- 
duce to you Hon. Rufus N. Rhodes. He is the son of a veterap, 
a glorious veteran — he is the son of Rufus N. Rhodes. 


Perhaps the talk which was farthest heard in the hall, and 
best appreciated was that of Rufus N. Rhodes in behalf of the 
Sons. Here are his words : 

"Survivors of the Army and Navy of the Confederate States 
of America : 

64 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, A/a., June 9-11, 1908. 

"Only a great people can have a great civil war. Only 
a noble people can have a noble reconciliation. My father was 
a Mississippian ; I am an American. The war settled that. 

"The trouble grew out of honest differences of opinion, 
North and South, as to the proper construction of the Federal 
Constitution. The men of the South believed and insisted that 
they held to the right construction — that a sovereign State 
which had voluntarily entered the Union could voluntarily with- 
draw from it. For that conviction and contention nearly all 
of them sacrificed their comfort, health and property and tens 
of thousands of them sacrificed their lives. 'A mere sentiment,' 
it has been said; aye, verily, but sentiment has always swayed 
and always will sway the most enlightened, the purest and the 
freest. Real sentiment, of all potentialities, has best enriched 
and most ennobled mankind. 

"It is sentiment that sanctifies the flag, for which men gladly 
die. It is sentiment that hallows traditions, consecrates the 
home, creates heroes, and enrolls their illustrious names among 
the immortals. It is sentiment that spontaneously and univer- 
sally grants honor and homage to the Confederate veteran. All 
the world loves a brave man. 

"The war was an irrepressible conflict, terribly uneven in 
the numbers of men and wealth of resources at the command of 
the antagonists ; the North was enormously more populous, 
powerful and rich. As the struggle progressed the men and 
means of the South diminished, hope languished and died, but 
patriotism lived on. After four desperate valor-bejeweled years 
of anguish and hardship, of triumphs and defeats, the South 
was overpowered, utterly bankrupted in everything but spirit. 
The spirit of the South — it was and is the spirit of George 
Washington and Andrew Jackson, of Jefferson Davis and Rob- 
ert E. Lee, which not only with dauntless courage faces peril 
and death, but with consummate patience endures privations, 
and diligently labors and humbly waits on God's providence — 
the spirit of the South was never extinguished. 

"In 1865 the South, with unconquerable eye, glared into 
the cold, grim visage of the most appalling disaster of all the 
centuries, and the South did not quail. 

"Were your sufferings, battle-scarred warriors of the South, 
and your perils and sacrifices and the precious deaths of your 
intrepid immortal comrades all in vain? No, no, no. 'The 
blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church.' The never- 
fading, everlasting heritage of glory, bequeathed by you to your 
children and grandchildren to remotest generations, in ever 
widening circles of ennobling influence for the uplifting of the 

Mrs. Broum's Welcome. 65 

human race to the loftiest plane of consecration to duty and 
righteousness at all hazards, is the sublimest contribution vouch- 
safed to mortal men, save only when Christ died upon the cross. 

"Your faith, oh veterans of the South, your teachings, your 
patience, your endurance, your courage, your devotion to high 
standards in war and peace, the example, Sons of Confederates, 
of our fathers, must ever be the loudest call and strongest in- 
spiration to heroism, self-sacrifice and duty to every worthy 
child of time. 

"How weak are words to welcome such as you, heroes of the 
'Lost Cause.' In this young giant of a city, mainly constructed 
by your descendants, and whose stakes were not driven for sev- 
eral years after the echoes of your cannons' roar had vanished 
from the air, you must know how welcome you are here. You 
are more than welcome. The citizens of Birmingham, as one 
man, pray for your comfort, pleasure and peace ; for your con- 
tinued health, strength and happiness. God bless you. God 
bountifully bless every one of you, who ever drew a blade, 
or fired a shot, or suffered a sacrifice, at the bidding of an 
officer in gray or at the prompting of your own indomitable 
Southern heart." 

"Bonnie Blue Flag" — by choir. 

General Harrison : 

I ask your special silence. You have heard the men ; I now 
have the honor to present to you the President of the Alabama 
Division of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, Mrs. 
Charles G. Brown. 



Mrs. Charles G. Brown, president of the Alabama Daugh- 
ters, with a clear voice, expressed, as she said, the words of a 
loving heart and a full soul in welcoming Alabama's guests. 

She spoke as follows : 

"The Daughters of the Confederacy cannot, like the dis- 
tinguished gentlemen preceding me, in eloquent words and ora- 
torical climaxes express their welcome ; theirs must be not of 
the brilliant fancy, but the simple, tender words of the loving 
heart ; not of the lordly mind, but of the full soul. And, also, 
our voice of welcome must have the tremor of sorrow, and the 
light of our eyes must be dimmed and chastened by tears over 

66 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

the graves of this year's dead heroes. Alabama's Morgan and 
Pettus and Falkner ; Mississippi 's noble Lee, Tennessee 's Bates, 
and the equally beloved and honored faithful subaltern officer, 
and the patient, grandly heroic private soldier. And, oh, we had 
so much hoped to look again upon the grand, sweet face of your 
commander, the last lieutenant general of our Confederacy, loyal 
citizen, learned scholar, consummate leader, true patriot, and 
humble, devout, loving christian gentleman of the olden South, 
dying at the post of chivalric duty, spending the precious rem- 
nant of his life in honoring the dead of our erstwhile foemen. 

"The hearts of the Daughters of the Confederacy are full 
of tenderest love for our worn and weary, but un conquered 
private soldiers, as with aged tottering limbs, gray uplifted heads 
and dim yet fearless eyes, they pass slowly down the western 
hills, and gaze upon the setting sun and the light and shadow 
of the mysterious sea of eternity. Our souls verily yearn to 
remove every thorn, hard stone and jagged rock from their 
pathway, and with tender and gentle ministering and sweet 
sympathy soothe and relieve the anguished hearts of the widows 
and orphans of our dead heroes. We thank our heavenly Father 
that so many have been spared to partake of this second reunion 
in this greatest, strongest young city of Alabama, and our South- 
land. It is our deepest desire and sincerest hope tint for the 
time your halcyon youth days will come back again as you 
recount to each other the scenes, the joys, the love and the 
glories of your grand old past. With full loving hearts and 
souls the Daughters of the Confederacy bid you welcome, most 
glad, happy and grateful hundred fold welcome. 

"And when the last summons calls may you ene and all 
pass to the Eternal Reunion Camp Land. 

"Away and far from the Night-land, 
When sorrows o'ershadowed thy way 

To the splendors and skies of the Light Land. 
Where reigneth Eternity's Day. 

To the cloudless and shadowless Bright-land 
Whose sun never passeth away. 

APPLAUSE! Three cheers for the women of Alabama! 
"'Way Down Upon the Suwanee River" — by Children's 

Chairman J. M. Wilzen of the preparation committee then 
took charge of the meeting, declaring Birmingham's inten- 
tion and willingness to tender true Southern hospitality, and 
then turned the gavel over to General Cabell, acting Commander- 


68 Eighteenth Relation, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

As he did so, the band broke out with '"Dixie," and a bouquet 
of flowers was passed up to the stand. The General, speaking 
with a quivering voice, made an earnest appeal to his com- 
rades. He said: 


"Governor, Mr. Mayor, Comrades and My Fellow Citizens: 

It is my official privilege to respond on behalf of my com- 
rades to this magnificent welcome and tender of hospitality 
by this young and progressive city in the great state of Ala- 
bama. What greater tribute could I pay those glorious men 
and women, than to say that their hospitality is worthy of the 
great state of Alabama, whose noble sons and daughters are 
to be found in every state and territory of this great South- 
land of ours? Her noble sons in this struggle for constitu- 
tional liberty were to be found always at the front, and the 
graves of the brave sons of Alabama are to be found on every 
battlefield from Gettysburg to the Gulf of Mexico, and from 
the Atlantic to the western part of Kansas. Wherever the 
flag of the Confederacy — wherever her battle flag waved, you 
will find Alabamians — you will find them now in every 
Southern and Western States, making good citizens, and in 
many of our Southern and Western States and Territories fill- 
ing the most important offices in the gift of their people. How 
then could you expect a warmer welcome than this noble Ala- 
bamian could give you? How can I find words to express to 
Birmingham the response of grateful hearts to this royal re- 
ception ? 

"What means this great gathering of what is left of the 
great column of gray that could be seen in the smoke of bat- 
tle, following the plumes of Davis, Lee, Beauregard, the two 
Johnstons, Gordon, Stephen D. Lee, Wbeeler, Longstreet, A. P. 
Hill, Price, Marmeduke, Shelby, Early, Hood, Forrest and Stone- 
wall Jackson, as well as other great leaders? Why are they here? 
What have they come for? They are not here for self-interest; 
they are not here for gain. They are to meet their old com- 
rades, who stood shoulder to shoulder with them on more than 
a hundred battlefields. They are here to take their old com- 
rades by the hand, renew old acquaintances, and to rejoice with 
each other in the glories of the past, and also to mingle their 
tears for the absence of those who have crossed the river to 
the great beyond. 

General Cabell's Address. 69 

"Now, my old comrades, while we are enjoying all of the 
pleasures incident to the renewal of old friendships, let us 
pause a moment. Let memory go back to those days when noth- 
ing was to be heard but the roar of cannon and* the rattle of 
musketry ; yes, let your memories go back and if possible recall 
the comrades who answered the first bugle call and stood by 
your side; yes. call the roll, call the roll. Do they answer? 
Can you tell where they are ? No one answers, but' the spirit 
of the brave men will whisper to you and tell you that 'I am 
sleeping on the battlefield in my unmarked grave, wrapped 
in my old gray blanket,' at Gettysburg, at Sharpsburg at 
Fredericksburg, at the Wilderness, Cold Harbor, Seven Pines, 
Malvern Hill, Petersburg, all through North and South Caro- 
lina, Tennessee, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Lou- 
isiana, Texas. Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas and to the Rocky 
Mountains. No stone marks the grave of these brave men. 
No monuments. But each soldier when dying could say, I 
have erected a monument in the hearts of tlie Southern people 
more durable than bronze or stone, that neither the storm of 
hate nor oppression can ever destroy or cause to crumble. 

"My old comrades, my heart is sad and full of sorrow A 
few weeks ago, I had expected another, and not myself, would 
speak to you to-day and greet you, but the reaper death, with 
its sharp and cruel scythe, entered the harvest field where the 
young and the old with timbal and harp, with song and dance, 
with glad hearts, getting ready to gather the golden grain' 
cut down one of our noblest and best. Our great commander' 
General Stephen D. Lee, is dead. He was cut clown, cut down 
as he was preparing to enjoy all the pleasures of this golden har- 
vest. Oh, death, why could you not have found another and 
left him to meet with his old comrades on this happy occasion I 
He has fallen asleep in the arms of his Saviour. No sound can 
awaken him. 'The cock's shrill clarion nor the echoing horn 
cannot awaken him to glory again.' Although dead, he still 
hveth. He lives in the hearts and affections of the Southern 
people. His name and fame will live in the hearts and memo- 
ries of the Southern people as long as they admire courage, 
true patriotism and fidelity to principle. Yes! until time is no 
more. Let us both, old and young, cherish his memory. Let 
the young look to him as the exemplar, as the guiding star 
through life. Let the old instill into their songs the bright- 
ness of his good deeds and urge them to follow his example. 

"My old comrades, I greet you with a sad heart, but with 
a heart full of love and affection. Noble sons of these brave 

70 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala. , June 9-11, 1908. 

old gray-headed men, I greet you with a heart full of love and 
affection. I appeal to you, noble sons, by the memory of your 
brave fathers and brothers who died on the battlefield, in pri- 
son or from wounds, organize. I appeal to you by the memories 
of the sufferings and hardships borne by the noble women of the 
South — your mothers and sisters, who with tears streaming down 
their cheeks, will tell you with pride of the heroism of the hus- 
band and brothers, to organize. I appeal to you in the 
name of all that is dear to our past history, be ready to take 
the place of the old gray-headed men, the heroes of more than 
a hundred battles. Be ready. 

"Noble Daughters of the Confederacy, I greet you with a 
heart full of love, admiration and affection. Continue your 
glorious mission. Beautiful young women of our Southland, 
proud daughters of the noblest women that ever lived in any 
country or in any age, I greet you with the heart of an old 
Confederate soldier full of love and pride, and I urge you 
to continue your good work and encourage your brothers and 
other young men to remain steadfast and true to the memories 
of the past. I heard that grand old soldier, General Bernard E. 
Bee, a son of glorious old South Carolina, at the battle of Bull 
Run say to his men, 'Stand steady boys, stand steady,' when 
the Federal bullets were flying thick and fast. 

" 'Remember the Alamo,' was the battle cry of the Texans 
at the battle of San Jacinto. Then let the battle cry of the 
young men and women of the South be, 'Remember the hero- 
ism of our fathers. Remember the loyalty, patriotism and suf- 
fering of our mothers.' 

"City of Birmingham, glorious Alabama, in behalf of my 
old comrades, I lay at your feet the thanks of grateful hearts." 

' ' Dixie ' ' — by the band. Loud applause ! 

General Cabell: 

In obedience to the constitution and by-laws of the greatest 
organization that this country has ever known, I declare this 
convention ready and open for work. 

The following committees were then announced : 


Alabama — J. B. Francis, of Birmingham. 

Arkansas — General Asa Morgan, of Camden. 

Florida — Lieutenant Colonel G. S. Hardee, of Rockledge. 

Announcement of Committees. 71 

Georgia — General Louis G. Young, of Savannah. 

Indian Territory — Gen. John L. Gait, of Ardmore. 

Louisiana — Gen. A. Estopinal. 

Mississippi — William Buchanan. 

North Carolina — Col. Henry A. London, of Pittsboro. 

Northwest — Lieut. Col. L. C. Garrigus. 

Oklahoma — Gen. William Taylor, of Altus. 

Pacific— P. H. Wash, of Fresno, Cal. 

South Carolina — Col. David Cardwell. 

Tennessee — Gen. John H. McDowell, of Union City. 

Kentucky — Thos. H. Hayes. 

Texas — Milton Park. 

Virginia — Col. Frank S. Robertson, of Abingdon. 

West Virginia — J. Mehan, of Parkersburg. 


Alabama — C. A. Lanier, of Montgomery. 

Arkansas — Colonel Charles Coffin, of Batesville. 

Florida — General Francis P. Fleming, of Jacksonville. 

Georgia — Cloonel L. L. Middlebrook. 

Indian Territory — General R. B. Coleman, of North McAl- 


Louisiana — General A. B. Booth. 

Maryland — Colonel Samuel E. Lewis, M.D., of Washington. 

Mississippi — Major H. Clay Sharkey, of Jackson. 

North Carolina — General James I. Metts. of Wilmington. 

Northwest — General Paul A. Fusz, of Philipsburg, Mont. 

Oklahoma — Colonel William M. Cross, of Oklahoma City. 

Pacific — Lieutenant Colonel J. T. Evans, of Roswell, N. M. 

South Carolina — General William E. James. 

Tennessee — Colonel John P. Hickman, of Nashville. 

Texas— J. D. Shaw. 

Virginia — Colonel Taylor Stratton, of Richmond. 

West Virginia — D. Huddleson. 

The convention then adjourned to the afternoon at 3:30 
o 'clock. 

72 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 
FIRST DAYS PROCEEDINGS, Tuesday, June 9th, 1908. 


General W. L. Cabell called the meeting to order at 3 :30 

The singing of the Confederate choirs was the cause of more 
enthusiasm than had yet appeared in the reunion. Mrs. J. Griff 
Edwards of Portsmouth, general commanding the choirs, sang 
the words to "Dixie," composed by Dr. W. B. Wharton of Eu- 
faula. Mrs. John Cathey, brigadier general director of the 
choirs, sang "Gwine Back to Dixie," and Mrs. S. W. Harris 
sang "My Maryland." "The Old North State" chorus was the 
last number. Mrs. A. E. Owen, Jr., was the pianist. 

Colonel Russell's oration follows: 


"Commander and Comrades: 

' ' It is with the greatest diffidence and misgiving that I under- 
take to perform the duties assigned to me by our late Com- 
mander-in-chief, so as to meet your expectations. I recognize 
my unfitness for the porformance of these sacred duties, and 
when General Lee invited me to be the orator on this occasion, 
I frankly wrote him that it was impossible for a variety of 
reasons, and positively declined to speak to you at this re- 
union. General Lee then wrote me a very earnest letter urg- 
ing me to reconsider. It was so earnest and full of affection 
that I could not gracefully further refuse to do as he wished. 
After reading his letter I wired him that I had reconsidered 
and would accept the appointment. He then wrote me the 
following letter : 

'Columbus, Miss., March 14th, 1908. 
"Colonel E. L. Russell: 

'My Dear Comrade — I have your telegram of March 13, 
saying that at my earnest personal request you had reconsid- 
ered your declination to deliver the oration before the vet- 
erans at Birmingham and would deliver the address. 

'I write to thank you, for I had my heart set on your do- 
ing this last military duty for me, and did not feel like fail- 
ing. "With kindest wishes for you and Mrs. Russell, I am sin- 
cerely your comrade and friend, 

(Signed) 'STEPHEN D. LEE.' 

Oration by Colonel E. L. Russell. 73 

"It is useless to say to you that I value this letter above 
gems and diamonds. General Lee was acquainted with my re- 
cord as a Confederate soldier. He knew that I was appointed 
color bearer of a Mississippi regiment by General Jake Sharp, 
who lived in the same city with General Lee, Columbus, Miss. 

"I have read you General Lee's letter in order that you 
might look upon my shortcomings with forbearance and indul- 
gence. Whether I come up to the standard of past orations or 
not, I shall always feel happy that I accepted the last request 
of the matchless and fearless soldier, our worthy commander, 
General Lee. The death of our brilliant Commander compelled 
me to change my entire speech to be made on this occasion. 
My close personal relations with General Lee for the past thirty 
years have been such that I feel it my duty to speak to you about 
my knowledge of his character, not only as a soldier, but as a 
Christian citizen. In his conduct and intercourse with his fel- 
low men, his comrades and the young men of the country, his 
example in support of the Christian religion was as peerless as 
that of General Robert E. Lee. We have every reason not only 
to admire the character of General Stephen D. Lee as a soldier, 
but such was his character of both soldier and citizen as to 
excite the admiration and pride of every Southern man and 

"Comrades, we meet surrounded by a pall of gloom and 
sorrow. Only a few days ago our incomparable Commander was 
in full health, heroically and patriotically discharging the im- 
portant duties that had been confided to his trust by the Presi- 
dent of the United States. 

"General Lee lived at Columbus, Miss., a point on the Mobile 
and Ohio Railroad; hence this gave me the opportunity of see- 
ing much of him during the past thirty years, and such has 
been my occupation that it has brought me into personal con- 
tact with a great many of the leading men of this country 
during the period of time above mentioned — soldiers and states- 
men and business men of large affairs — and I can truthfully 
state that in my opinion, General Stephen D. Lee was the most 
conscientious man, both as a soldier and as a citizen, that I 
ever saw. Often have we sat and talked over the campaigns and 
battles that we fought. He was a Lieutenant General, com- 
manding a corps, and I was a private, until appointed color 
bearer of a Mississippi regiment, which under the act of the 
Confederate Congress caused me to rank as a first lieutenant. 

"The first time I ever saw General Lee was near Atlanta, 
two or three days after the bloody battle of what is nown as 

74 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., Jtine 9-11, 1908. 

the ' '22nd of July, 1864.' This battle was fought east 
of Atlanta, and it was during this engagement that General 
McPherson, who commanded the left wing of Sherman's army, 
was killed. You will recall that President Davis removed Gen- 
eral Joseph E. Johnston and appointed General John B. Hood 
as his successor to take command of the army. General Hood 
had been our corps commander, and on his promotion General 
Stephen D. Lee, as a lieutenant general, was appointed to take 
command of our corps, which was Hood's old corps. He ap- 
pealed to our patriotism and referred with pride to the record 
that the troops composing the corps had made during the war. 
On the night of the 27th of July, 1864, he marched Hindman's 
division of the corps through Atlanta to a point on the extreme 
wing of Hood's army. My recollection is that it was about 
eight miles southwest of the city of Atlanta. On the morning 
of the 28th of July, Hindman's division, to which I belonged, 
under the direction of General Lee, assaulted the right wing of 
Sherman's army. After two hours of fierce and bloody fight- 
ing, we, having failed to drive the enemy from his position, 
were withdrawn to the top of a ridge from the point where 
we had started. General Lee then reformed us and supplied us 
with ammunition, and then ordered us to renew the assault, 
but to move further to our left and the enemy's right. In this 
assault we succeeded in turning the enemy's right and were 
pressing them back, when we came suddenly into contact with 
an entirely fresh corps of the enemy's troops. We were not in 
condition to fight fresh troops, for the reason that we had been 
fighting for five or six hours, and the day was one of the hot- 
test I ever experienced. We were without any water, and on 
account of the -thirst and heat, our tongues were swollen so as 
to protrude from our mouths. I can see before me now as plain 
as on that da> the fresh corps of troops pressing down upon 
us with their magnificent silk flags, emblazoned with great golden 
eagles. They outflanked us, and, of course, gradually drove us 
back to the ridge from which we had originally started. On 
reaching this position we were so exhausted and broken to 
pieces as to be unable to hold the ridge against fresh troops. 
General Lee had foreseen from the time we struck the fresh 
troojps what would be the result, and had immediately collected 
and concentrated about 60 half-pound brass Napoleon guns, 
and had them planted on a ridge so that as soon as we passed 
behind them he could open fire upon the confident advancing 
column of the enemy. We took position on the side of a ridge 
behind the artillery, where we were comparatively out of dan- 

First National Bank. 

76 Eighteenth Reunio?i, Birmingham, Ala., June9-ll, 1908. 

ger. General Lee was on his horse with his sword drawn, hold- 
ing it in the air, and riding back and forth from one end of this 
great battery of artillery to the other. He was directing the 
fire of the guns and encouraging his men. The gunners fell 
thick and fast, but their places were filled immediately, and I 
do not believe there is a case in history where artillery was more 
successfully and courageously employed to drive back a vic- 
torious army. General Lee looked like the god of war. I can 
see his face now, positively radiant, as he had these guns to 
mow down the enemy and check the assault. I expected to see 
him fall at every minute, but the God of Battles protected 
him and spared his life to his country and countrymen. This 
unequal contest continued for an hour, when he finally succeeded 
in breakinf the enemy's ranks and driving them from the field 
with his artillery. 

' ' The next time I saw General Lee in battle was on the field 
at Jonesboro. You are all familiar with that terrible and bloody 
assault that he made upon Logan's corps. 

"When we struck the enemy's breastworks, with the guns 
under the logs not more that a foot apart, they opened fire upon 
us and our troops went down like grain before a scythe. Never 
did I witness such destruction of life, and those that were left 
were within forty feet of the breastworks and stood there stub- 
bornly, and fought while being shot down without the prospect 
of accomplishing anything. Again General Lee collected sev- 
enty-five or one hundred pieces of artillery and prevented Logan 
from capturing the railroad to Augusta. 

"I served under General Lee the balance of the war and 
saw a great deal of him. He was one of the soldiers that re- 
fused to take intoxicants. At that time he was as true a speci- 
men of the follower of the meek and lowly Saviour as was to 
be found throughout our country. 

"Of course, you will take proper action to express the af- 
fection and admiration that you and every Confederate soldier 
entertain for General Stephen D. Lee. 

"Our country has sustained a great loss. He was a useful 
man, full of intense love of old Confederates and his people 
with whom he lived. There never was a time since the war but 
what he was perfectly willing to give his life to redeem them 
from the horrors of reconstruction. Peace to his ashes. 

"Now, comrades, I will devote a few moments to speaking 
of the Confederate soldier. It is unnecessary to consume time 
in discussing the question whether or not the South was justi- 
fied in appealing to arms to secure the constitutional rights that 

Oration by Co/one/ E. L. Russell. 77 

our fathers had coined out of their sacrifices, hardships and 
own blood for our benefit. The world now concedes that they 
were perfectly justified in going to war. The Abolition party, 
led by the Hon. William H. Seward, had years before the 
Southern States indulged in secession, announced what he was 
pleased to call 'the higher law.' He and his followers con- 
tended that there was a law higher than the constitution, higher 
that the acts of Congress, and that these higher laws had to 
take the place of the constitution, which had for their pur- 
pose the taking from the South the property which represented 
the sweat and toil of the Southern people for two hundred 
years, and which was jealously guarded by the provisions of the 
Constitution of the United States. Of course, the announce- 
ment of the higher law was to all intents and purposes revolu- 
tionary, and when this party had secured control of the govern- 
ment it was perfectly natural for the Southern people to as- 
sume that the higher law would be put into operation, and 
that it would displace all of our constitutional rights and thus 
deprive us of legitimate and legal property. 

"This left the South the option of following one of two 

"First — The Southern people had the right to remain in the 
Union, and draw their swords in preservation of its honor and 
of its constitution and laws. 

"Second — They had the right, which had been reserved by 
each state, to withdraw from the Union. They chose the latter 
course. Whether this was wise or not, it is now not necessary 
to discuss. 

"The Southern army was composed of citizens that had en- 
joyed a peculiar civilization. It was altogether dissimilar in its 
customs and practices from the civilization of our Northern 
neighbors. They were a commercial people and a sea-faring 
people, and consequently had different environments, politi- 
cally and socially, from the Southern people. The Southern 
people were an agricultural people. They lived at home. They 
were trained to ride wild horses, use fire arms in the chase, 
and to lead an outdoor life that tended to make them absolutely 
independent, and rather disposed to be arbitrary. Now when 
the war was precipitated between the states, these Southern 
men volunteered, and the Southern army was composed of just 
such a class of citizens. They never had been in the habit of 
observing any self-restraint, or having any power above them 
to restrain them from doing what they thought was honorable 
and legitimate. They volunteered, made up their own messes. 

78 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

and never was any army that had more intelligent discipline 
than the Southern army. These men promptly and cheerfully 
submitted to every hardship in the camp, on the march and on 
the battlefield. The esprit de corps and morale of the Southern 
army was equal to any that had ever been organized, and 
another singular feature connected with the Southern army 
was that these men were allowed to elect their own field officers, 
lieutenants, captains, majors, lieutenant colonels and colonels 
of the regiments, and I challenge history to furnish a parallel 
where the field officers of any army were superior to those of 
the Confederate army, although elected by the free ballot of 
the soldiers themselves. These officers understood their men. 
They never rsorted to cruel and brutal methods to control them. 
It was not necessary. Their hearts were in the cause, and life 
to them was not considered when the question of duty was in- 
volved. The record of the Confederate soldier is equal to that 
of any to be found in history. He fought battles that will be 
the wonder of mankind as long as the world lasts, and that under 
adverse circumstances, hunger, lack of clothing, and with 
inferior equipment, except where they took it from the enemy. 

"Comrades, you have the right to be proud of your career 
as soldiers. The young men and the young women of the 
South have the right to have their hearts thrill with pride and 
admiration when the Confederate soldier is even mentioned. 

"Our comrades lie upon the hillsides of Gettysburg, amid 
the branches and briars of the wilderness. Comrades, the flow- 
ers that bloom in the spring on the beautiful plains of Perryville 
among the rocks and cedar brakes around Murfreesboro, on the 
rugged hillsides of Chickamauga, or on the banks of the rippling 
waters of Harper's Creek, are crimsoned with the blood of our 

"And now, comrades, a word of tribute to our Southern 
women, God bless them ! Our Southern girls who had been ac- 
customed to wearing imported bonnets and dresses were reduced 
to the extremity of having to go to their mothers' looms to 
weave for themselves homespun cloth, out of which to fashion 
their garments, and then go to their fathers' oat fields to gather 
straw and with their own deft fingers weave themselves oat- 
straw bonnets. 

"You have seen them thus appareled, and I know that you 
will agree with me in saying that they looked as sweet, as beau- 
tiful, as refined and cultured as any queen that ever sat upon 
a throne. 

"During a banquet given to Admiral Luce and his officers 
in this city some years ago, I said to Admiral Luce, who at that 

Judge Wright's Address. 79 

time commanded the North Atlantic squadron, 'Admiral, our 
young' women had to wear homespun dresses and oat-straw bon- 
nets, but when I looked into their clear, beautiful blue or black 
eyes, I felt a strange sentiment come over me, perhaps you have 
felt it, admiral?' 'Oh, yes, I have felt it, and I want to feel 
it again,' he said. I said, 'Admiral, I have come to the con- 
clusion that the character of the dress or the bonnet does not 
have anything to do with causing these strange but pleasing 
sensations.'. He replied, 'None in the world, Russell, none 
in the world.' 

"In conclusion, comrades, we are to be congratulated in 
having a reunited country. The passions and prejudices engen- 
dered by the war, as far as the soldiers are concerned on both 
sides, have disappeared. We have one country and one flag, 
and none are more loyal in the support of that flag than the 
ex-Confederate soldier. 

''When you cross the river, comrades, you will rest in the 
shade en the other side, and will again in the spirit land be 
comrades of General Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson and 
Stephen D. Lee, and our other comrades that have gone before." 


Seng — By Confederate Choirs of America. 

General Cabell then introduced Judge A. 0. Wright, of 
Florida, who spoke on "The Confederate Navy. " 

During the conrs° of his .talk a very pathetic incident oc- 
curred. He was mentioning the names of the Confederate war- 
ships and as the word "Chiekamauga" paused on his lips, Tom 
Costa, a sailor, jumped to his feet crying, "I was on the Chiek- 
amauga!!" and with tears in his eyes he told of the actions in 
which his ship participated, occupying the floor for about five 


Judge Wright's address is as follows: 

"There can be no more fitting exordium to any address on 
the subject of the Confederate States Navy than by paying a 
tribute to the man whose untiring zeal, ripe experience and 
noble self-sacrifice made possible its brilliant record upon the 
seas. That man was Captain James Dunwoody Bulloch, of 
Georgia, an uncle of President Roosevelt. During his tweiity- 
two years of service as an officer in the United States navy 
he had the somewhat remarkable fortune to serve in every rank, 

80 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11 , 1908. 

from midshipman to lieutenant commanding', and one every 
class of vessel from a ten-gun schooner to and eighty-gun ship 
of the line. During the latter part of that service he, acting 
under special orders from the Navy Department superintended 
the construction of two ships for mail service, and on its 
completion, commanded one of them, the Bienville, running from 
New York to New Orleans. 

"When the war came he was among the first to resign, and 
cast his fortunes with the South. It was his ambition to com- 
mand a cruiser at sea. His varied experiences were deemed by 
our secretary of the navy to fit him for the special duties which 
were assigned him, that of naval agent abroad. He undertook 
the work with the understanding that among the first cruisers 
that he fitted out should be commanded by him, but when 
he applied for one, Mr. Mallory insisted that no other individual 
could be found with the experience, training and judgment 
shown by Captain Bulloch in this work, and persuaded him to 
stay at his post of naval agent. Later, when the Birkenhead 
rams were ready for sea, he renewed his request, reminding 
Secretary Mallory of his promise that he should have a sea 
command, but he was again prevailed on to sacrifice his per- 
sonal ambition to the good of the cause, and he remained in 
England, fitting out cruisers until the war closed. 

"Had his ambition been gratified by a command at sea it 
is safe to say that the name of Bulloch would have added 
lustre to the glory of our navy, along with those of Semmes, of 
the Alabama; Maffitt, of the Florida; Maury, of the Georgia; 
Read, of the Tacony; Waddell, of the Shenandoah, and others. 

"When the powers of the earth conceded belligerent rights 
to the Confederate States at the beginning of the Civil War, 
they declared in effect by that act that every man-of-war sent 
forth by that government for the destruction of its enemy's 
commerce, whether fitted out in its home ports, or abroad, 
even though it be at sea, if commanded by its officers, was 
entitled to every belligerent right which was by the same act 
conceded to, or then possessed, by the federal government. And 
the law of nations was strictly enforced by them in that par- 
ticular. The Federal cruisers enjoyed no privilege in any for- 
eign port during the war not accorded to the Confederate 
cruisers. The same restrictions prevailed against both alike. 
This being the case, all the twaddle about the pirate Semmes 
and others is an insult to the world, and an injustice to the 
truth of history. 

' ' The fact that no one was tried for piracy, when the Federal 
government owned the courts and had possession of the men 

Judge Wright's Address. 81 

who were said to be pirates is ample proof that such a charge 
could not be sustained. Possibly, owing to the bad feeling 
between the North and the South during and shortly after the 
war, such a charge might have been sustained so far as the lower 
courts were concerned, but there existed the sacred right of 
appeal to that grand tribunal, the Supreme Court of the United 
States, and had such a trial taken place, every constitutional 
lawyer in the land knew that on appeal to that court the charge 
could not be sustained, and the defendant would have been dis- 
charged. And had this been done, it would have put the Federal 
government in an unpleasant predicament. Oh, no, my com- 
rades, we were not pirates, and no one knew this better than 
the very men who were hurling such epithets. 

' ' Did you know, my comrades, that a number of officers w T ho 
resigned from the Federal navy at the beginning of the war 
to join ours, are yet branded as deserters? Just think of it. 
The highest patriotism that a man can display is to give up all 
for duty. And that is what these men did. As they had been 
taught from the beginning of their lives, their first duty was 
due to their own sovereign States, and they were not deserters. 
We of the Confederate navy call upon you comrades of the 
United Confederate Veterans to aid us in having this foul 
stigma removed from the record opposite their names. 

"Just contemplate for a moment the grandeur of that act 
of each one of these men. After spending the best years of 
his life in the Federal navy, when old age is coming on and he 
feels that he has earned a rest for the balance of his life, when 
he is about to reap the benefits of a life-time service for his 
country, which are ease, comfort and luxury for his declining 
years, he receives a summons from his sovereign State to come 
to her defense. Does he hestitate? Although flattering offers 
of preferment are held out to him as an inducement to remain 
in the old service, he obeys the summons. As soon as he can 
be relieved of the duty under which he labors he resigns and 
hastens to serve his State. He realizes that he is entering upon 
a forlorn hope, but he sacrifices all on the altar of duty. The 
history of the Confederacy is one of sacrifices, but when the 
record is made up. and the page of history opened that contains 
it, the old naval officer's name will be high upon the list. 

"And the sacrifice made by the younger officers are also 
entitled to consideration. They were just entering upon a 
career of honor, with a life opening up before them that prom- 
ised to be a glorious one. Had they remained in the old service 
their brightest dreams might have been realized. But at the 
call of duty thev too surrendered all their high ambitions to 

82 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

serve their State. Being yet young when the war closed they 
were enabled to cope with adverse fortune, and we find many 
of them taking high rank in the world of finance, of literature, 
and of business. 

"But the oldsters could not so easily adapt themselves to 
circumstances. The close of the war found many of them without 
homer., iriends or money. I have in mind one case, which is 
a fair sample of others. Commodore George N. Hollins stood 
near the head of the United States navy when the war began. 
He had received the highest dignities his country could confer 
upon him. His bravery and diplomacy had won for him a 
splendid record in the annals of that service. He gave up all 
this and entered the Confederate navy, and served with great 
distinction through the war. After its close he was a ruined 
man, and found it difficult to earn a bare livelihood. Finally 
his friends secured him a position in one of the petty courts 
of Baltimore, and this man who had received distinguished 
honors at the hands of kings and princes, ended his days as the 
crier of that court on a bare pittance of $40 a month. 

"Our naval officers contributed much to the revolution in 
naval warfare. They made the first iron-clad, the Merrimac; 
they made the first ram; Captain John M. Brooke invented the 
first built-up gun, now recognized as the only gun ; they in- 
vented the first submarine torpedo, and the first submarine 
torpedo boat, and fifty vessels were sunk by them during the 
war; Captain Beverly Kennon invented the disappearing gun. 
These are but a few of the improvements developed by our naval 

"In organization our domestic navy, our officers had but 
little to do with, but they did the best they could with the 
materials at hand. They knocked together a fleet out of nothing 
in nearly every Southern seaport. Any old steamboat, just so 
it would float, was made to do duty as a man of war. From 
the beginning to the end of the Avar our navy in numbers never 
equaled, including officers and men, a respectable brigade, and 
they were scattered all over creation, and many so situated that 
they were powerless to render satisfactory service to the cause, 
while the enemy had 128,000 enlisted sailors and 2000 vessels 
during the war. 

"What our navy did at home, let our rivers and harbors 
answer. Time will not permit even a hasty glance at the daring 
deeds, and I must confine myself to a bare mention of a few, 
with the remark that many are omitted equally as brilliant as 
any here mentioned. Take the work of Franklin Buchanan and 
Catesby Jones in Hampton Roads, where the Merrimac changed 
the entire method of naval warfare. Brave Littlepage served 

Chamber of Commerce. 

84 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

with distinction in that campaign, and I single him out, not 
that he deserves any more honor than a hundred others, but he 
has done much to preserve the records of those deeds, and is 
still at work upon them, holding an appointment under the 
United States navy for that purpose,, rebel that he is. Alter- 
nately take the splendid work of Tucker and others in James 
River; the dash of the Ram Arkansas under Isaac M. Brown 
from the Yazoo into the Mississippi, first through the iron clads 
of Porter, then through the frigates of Farragut, carrying 
death and desrtuction in her wake ; and Buchanan again at 
Mobile, where single handed the Tennessee fought the entire 
Federal fleet, with not sufficient speed to maintain steeringway. 
Had she the engines of the Hartford, and had her steeling gear 
not been shot away, Farragut 's famous victory in Mobile Bay 
might have had a different ending. Take Tatnall, with his two 
little tugs at Port Royal. I was on one of them, and know 
what I am talking about, where they went out and attacked the 
assembled Federal fleet just before the battle; take the attack 
upon the New Ironsides off Charleston harbor, where Captain 
Glassell and Engineer J. H! Tomb rammed her sides with the 
torpedo boat David. The explosion of the torpedo flooded the 
boat and put out its fires, and they saved themselves by jumping 
overboard. Glassell was captured, but Tomb swam out to the 
David, bailed her out, started her fires again and returned to 
Charleston. Take the desperate assault of John Taylor Wood 
and party in small boats on the Underwriter at Newbern. where 
the firing from other vessels and from the shore was so hot 
that it was death to remain, and death to fly, and where they 
held her until she had almost burned to the water's edge; take 
the attack by Hollins' little boats at the mouth of the Mississippi, 
where he drove the Federal fleet out of the Mississippi River. 

"Take Mitchell's brilliant though ineffectual defense of 
New Orleans, where Kennon's boat, the Moore, sank the Varuna, 
where Warley in the ram Mannassas rammed everything in reach, 
and was finally set on fire by a shell, and was scuttled by him, 
all hands saving themselves by jumping overboard: where linger 
and Read fought the McRae until every gun was dismounted, 
and at the break of day, her decks covered with dead and dying, 
she was still flying the Confederate flag. Take the record made 
by our navy boys in the campaign from Cairo to the mouth of 
the Mississippi, one of the most brilliant of the whole war, and 
so on until the end. I could enumerate scores of others, but 
time speeds me. Doubtless there are sitting before me hundreds 
of old soldiers who saw one or more of these stirring events. 

"And our navy was no less glorious abroad. As I have al- 
ready said, our country is indebted to Captain Bulloch for the 

Judge Wright's Address. 85 

effective manner in which we were served with cruisers, for 
immediately upon his resignation, he went to Europe, arriving 
there in the Spring of 1861. with full power from the secretary 
of the navy, and with a full purse, the proceeds of our cotton 
crop, and at once proceeded to have the cruisers built and fitted 
out. We had another agent in Europe, Commander Matthew F. 
Maury, he who has taught our children all about that wonderful 
river in the ocean, known as the Gulf Stream, he bought and 
fitted out the Georgia, and commanded her. With that excep- 
tion Bulloch sent out every Confederate war vessel that left 
England. All this was done under great difficulties, for the 
Federal government had detectives on his track, and it required 
all his ingenuity to elude them. 

"The South did not bring on the war. We were simply 
defending ourselves when attacked, except in the instances 
where we took the forts that were within our territory. Aside 
from the death of the soldiers engaged, whose places were easily 
filled, for the enemy had the whole of Europe and the balance 
of creation to recruit from, and aside from the fact that an 
uncomfortable debt was piling up, which was enriching his 
people, and aside from the fact that some of his people had 
to submit to occasional discomforts, one would hardly have 
known that there was any war. Being fought in the South, it 
was in the nature of a foreign war. 

"But when Antietam and Gettysburg had been fought, he 
realized that it was close at hand. But the humane policy of 
General Lee in forbidding his troops from foraging upon the 
land invaded, carried no destruction financially to the enemy. 
Therefore it was left for our navy to strike him in a vital spot, 
and we did it when we destroyed his commerce with our cruisers. 
When the war began the United States carried over one-half 
the commerce of the world in domestic bottoms. After forty- 
three years even most of her commerce is carried in foreign 
bottoms. Our criusers in four years swept it from the face of 
the ocean. 

"Permit me to pause just here to declare that I am not 
exulting. I am an American citizen, and am proud of my 
country. I am simply enumerating some of the things done 
by the Confederate navy at a time when you and T were not 
members of the American family in good standing. 

"The sails of our cruisers whitened every known sea, carry- 
ing destruction in their wake. It Avas said at one time that the 
Alabama could be tracked by the fire of her burning vessels. 
Our first cruiser was the Sumter. She was fitted out in New 
Orleans, and under command of Captain Semmes she left that 
port in June, 1861. She cruised in the West Indies until De- 

86 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

cember, when she went to the other side, and picked up a few 
vessels off the coast of Spain. Altogether she captured sixteen 
prizes. In January, 1862, she was shut in at Gibralter, and as 
she was in bad condition, with no opportunity of being repaired, 
the ports of the world being closed against her, she was aban- 
doned, and Captain Semmes transferred his flag to the Alabama. 

' ' The escape of the Alabama was due to the wonderful strat- 
egy of Captain Bulloch. She had been constructed under his 
supervision, and when completed was to go on a trial trip. At 
that time she was known as the '290.' A party of gentlemen 
went on her as guests, and when she was well out to sea they 
were transferred to a steam tug that happened to be in the 
neighborhood, and carried back to town, while the '290' dis- 
appeared in the offing. She went to a spot near the Azores, 
where another ship met her with Captain Semmes, officers and 
crew, also armament, and in a short time he ran the Confederate 
flag to her masthead and, as the man-of-war Alabama, started 
on her memorble cruise. 

"Although she did not sail from a Confederate port, she did 
the next best thing, for she sailed as close to the Confederacy 
as she could, and then went up the coast as far as Maine, then 
turned and went into the West Indies, thence to Venezuela, 
where she coaled. Then turning her prow north again, she 
dashed into the gulf to head off the Banks expedition that was 
descending on the Texas coast. Missing it, she approached Gal- 
veston Harbor. She was seen by the blockader Hatteras, and 
ran away, pursued by the latter, and as soon as she had gone 
out of reach of help she turned to and sunk the Hatteras, taking 
all hands on board as prisoners, but got rid of them as soon as 
possible, and went on her way, capturing and burning as she 
went. Business being dull in the North Atlantic, she sailed away 
and brought up at Cape Town, on the southern extremity of 
Africa. Here, right under the noses and in full sight of the 
citizens of that staid old English town, she captured the ship 
Sea Bride. As the shore line is much higher than the water line, 
although the capture was witnessed by every man, woman and 
child in town, and although it looked as if the capture was 
made within bounds, it was discovered that she was out of 
bounds, and the capture held good. After leaving Cape Town 
the Alabama sailed as far east as Bengal Bay, along the east 
coast of Africa, capturing and burning as she went. Returning, 
she retraced her track, and in June, 1864, fetched up in Cher- 
bourg Harbor, France, in very bad shape, her crew tired out, 
and her bottom sadly in need of a dry docking. 

"Here she met the Kearsarge. Captain Winslow sent in 
word that he wished to see Semmes outside, and if he would 

Judge Wright's Address. 87 

just step outside he would have some dealings with him. The 
brave old sailor, realizing that the end was near for his good 
ship, that burnable merchantment were getting scarce, and that 
it would be just as well to end it all right there, acceped the 
challenge, and on the nineteenth of June, a bright and beautiful 
sabbath day, when all nature was wrapt in repose, and the good 
people of that quaint old French city were about to engage in 
their devotions, the Alabama steamed out the harbor to her doom. 
Near her was the Deerhound, an English yacht, owned by John 
Lancaster, who, with his family, was on board. They went out 
to see the fight. The Alabama was no match for the Kearsarge. 
Much controversy has been heard as to the relative merits of 
the two vessels. There is however, no controversy over the fact 
that the Alabama did her best, and after an hour's hard fight- 
ing went to the bottom, all hands saving' themselves by jumping 
into the sea. Captain Winslow, of the Kearsarge, asked Mr. 
Lancaster to aid in saving them from a watery grave, and pretty 
soon small boats from both vessels were reselling those in the 
water. Lieutenant Arthur Sinclair relates an amusing account 
of his rescue. He and a sailor were among the last to leap into 
the sea. They were soon picked up by one of the Kearsarge 's 
boats and stowed in the bow. By peeping they saw a boat from 
the Deerhound rescuing men nearby, so they managed to fall 
overboard again unobserved and swimming toward the Deer- 
hound's boat, were again rescued from a watery grave, and car- 
ried on board that vessel. Most of them were taken to the Kear- 
sarge, but about thirty, including Captain Semmes and many 
of his officers, w r ere picked up and carried to the Deerhound. 
When the work of rescue was finished, Lancaster steamed away 
to England, leaving Captain Winslow. who was signaling in vain 
for him to bring back those prisoners of war. He paid no atten- 
tion to the signals, however, and landed his pick-ups in England. 
This incident became the subject of international correspond- 
ence, but' nothing came of it. and the officers and men rescued 
by the Deerhound were never bothered on account of it. Sin- 
clair evidently preferred being carried to England as a free man, 
rather than to America as a prisoner. 

' ' Shortly after Captain Semmes returned to the South, and 
was commissioned an admiral and placed in command of the 
James River squadron, below Richmond. On the fall of that city, 
he burned his fleet, and. failing to reach Lee, pushed on to Dan- 
ville, and later, joined Johnston at Greensboro, and surrendered 
with his army. Just before this happened two incidents oc- 
curred, and as they both were within my observation I ask per- 
mission to relate them. One was when he met General Johnston. 
He asked the general if he could secure the protection of a pa- 

88 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

role, and the same rights as any other who should surrender with 
him. General Johnston replied in the affirmative, asking why 
he entertained any doubt. 

' ' ' Because, ' ' replied Admiral Semmes, ' ' there is a reward of 
$50,000 for this old head of mine, whether on or off my shoul- 
ders, and I understand it has been standing as an ad in the New 
York Herald for several months ; and if there is any doubt about 
it, I would prefer to move on and take my chance of making my 
escape.' General Johnston assured him that in the agreement 
between himself and General Sherman the admiral would be 
safe in surrendering, and he did so. The other incident oc- 
curred a few days prior to this, when news was brought into our 
camp that President Lincoln had been assassinated. He at once 
called us all together, and made a little talk in which he ex- 
pressed his great horror of it, and denounced Booth in unmeas- 
ured terms. He said that it was one of the worst calamities that 
could possibly happen to the South. 

"After the surrender he returned to his Alabama home, in 
Mobile, and not many months afterward was arrested and carried 
to Fortress Monoe, and incarcerated with President Davis, 
charged with complicity in the assassination he had so vehe- 
mently denounced. Later he was released and returned home 
again, and ended his days there in 1877. 

"The Florida was in command of Captain Maffit. She made 
a brilliant cruise and was the only one of the cruisers fitted out 
by Bulloch to visit the Confederacy. She steamed into Mobile 
Bay, running by the blockaders in great shape. Just as she 
ran in Captain Maffitt, who was very ill with yellow fever, was 
brought on deck and took command. She could not reply to the 
guns of the blockading squadron, for they were not mounted. 
In fact she was not fully prepared until it was done after her 
arrival in Mobile. 

"After being thoroughly equipped, the Florida escaped to 
sea, and from January to October, 1863, she cruised from Maine 
to Brazil, making about forty captures. One, the brig Clarence, 
was converted into a man of war, and Lieutenant Read and a 
crew were put in command, at sea. A six pounder was her arm- 
ament. In October the Florida, after making a cletour to Tener- 
iffe, went into Bahia, Brazil; and trusting to the protection af- 
forded a belligerent by the laws of nations, dropped anchor for 
a short rest. During the night the Wachusett, of the Federal 
navy, seized the unsuspecting vessel, and carried her to Norfolk. 
Rather than return her to Brazil she was accidentally (?) run 
into and sunk. This is one act of the Federal government that 
cannot in my judgment be defended. 

Judge Wright's Address. 89 

"And the brig Clarence, now the Confederate man of war, 
with her six pounder, went on her mission of destruction. Her 
captain, C. W. Read, was one of the most unique characters 
developed in the navy by the war. As she was too slow to cap- 
ture anything, seeing a smart bark, made signals of distress, and 
the bark drew near. Before he knew it her captain was brought 
on board the Clarence, and his ship made a prize. As she was a 
faster vessel than the Clarence, Read swapped ships, transferred 
his one gun and all the other panoply of glorious war, fired 
the Clarence, and started on a fresh cruise with a brand new 
man of war, now the cruiser Tacony. While coasting the New 
England States, he captured fifteen ships, among them the 
schooner Archer. Now the Archer was swifter than the Tacony, 
so he swapped again, made the Archer his man of war, and 
burned the Tacony. Posing as an innocent merchantman, he 
sailed into Portland, Me., and after dark cut out the revenue 
cutter Caleb Gushing, and at daylight next morning carried her 
to sea. The wind dying down, they were becalmed, and while 
thus drifting, an expedition, fitted out by the authorities of 
Portland on learning of the capture, consisting of several steam- 
ers, troops, etc., gave chase and captured both vessels, and Read's 
career as a man of war's man came to an untimely end. Had 
this not happened 1 am confident that be would have continued 
to swap until he had a Read fleet, capable of attacking any small 

"I would like to say a word about our other cruisers, and 
the splendid records they made, but time speeds me. I can only 
name them. Among them were the Olustee, Nashville, Talla- 
hassee, Chickamauga and the Shenandoah. A word about the 
Shenandoah, and I am done. This ship, like the Alabama, was 
commissioned at sea, near Funchal. She had a gallant roster and 
muster jroll. Her captain was James Iredell Waddell, and 
among her officers now living I will mention Lieutenant William 
C. Whittle, John Grimball and Dabney M. Scales. It is the 
latter that I wish to introduce to you, because he is with us 
to-day, with the boys from Memphis. I hope you will all shake 
him by the hand. He is mentioned especially because he was 
my predecessor in command of the Naval Confederate Veterans, 
and as grand a fellow as ever trod a quarter deck. The Shen- 
andoah did her brilliant work in the Pacific, first off the coast 
of Australia, and later, after the war was over, in the Arctics, 
destroying the late enemy's whalers. She captured and de- 
stroyed nearly forty vessels, until a copy of the New York Herald 
taken from one of his captures, apprised Captain AVaddell that 
the war was over. Then he quit burning ships, and turned his 
vessel's prow toward England. After a run of over 15,000 

90 ^Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham^ Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

miles, he arrived at Liverpool, without encountering a single 
enemy. Seven months after the war closed he delivered the 
Shenandoah to the British government. 

"In conclusion, let me appeal to you, my comrades, to see 
to it that we discharge the sacred duty we owe to history. Let 
us transmit to posterity the facts as they actually occurred about 
the Avar. Let us ever remember the sacrifices and sufferings 
of our dead comrades, to see that justice is done to their mem- 
ories, those grand old heroes who followed Lee, Jackson, Bu- 
chanan, Hollins and other great leaders to do and to die, for 
what they knew to be their rights. 

"We owe it to them and to ourselves that this imperishable 
record shall record and relate the truth of their cause, and of 
their heroism, the satisfaction of duty well done, the abiding 
sense that though all else was swallowed up by relentless fate, 
honor remains, and yields a noble inspiration to every American 
to emulate the pure, unselfish patriotism of our heroes, heroes 
of the Confederate army, and heroes of the Confederate navy." 

General Bolivar Buckner made a motion to turn over to the 
convention the matter of the birthplace of Jefferson Davis, and 
that the consideration of that question be made a special order 
for Wednesday morning, June 10, at 10 o'clock. 


Colonel John P. Hickman: Resolution of Florida Division. 
This resolution is offered in the interest of harmony, to keep 
down whatever friction may exist in this association. 

"Resolved, That the division commanders be designated and 
are hereby appointed a committee to nominate the executive 
officers of the United Confederate Veterans for the ensuing term, 
and submit its report to this association to-morrow." 

I move the adoption of the resolution, Mr. President. 

General Park: This motion, as made by the comrade on my 
left, does not meet, I think, the approbation of the Confederate 
soldier. We feel that each individual soldier, each individual 
camp, should have a right to express its preference for whom 

it desired to have as the commander-'n-chief of our organization. 
We do not feel that the camps comprising this organization de- 
sire to delegate that power to anybody to name who they shall 
be. We think nominations should be made, and I oppose the 
adoption of any such resolution. 

Colonel Hickman : Mr. President, so far as I am individually 
concerned, the gentlemen in this hall know that I have this 
Association very much at heart. I went from Nashville, Tenn., 

A Skyscraper. 

92 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

to New Orleans in July, 1890, and was one of the men to form 
this association. Certainly, I would do nothing and would 
be far from doing anything that would injure in any way an 
organization that I helped to form, and I therefore call for 
the question, and insist on the adoption of this resolution. 

General Boiling: I think the men, the old soldiers, who 
elected our commanders during the time men's souls were tried, 
are the men to decide who shall be the commanders in the 
future. They elected the lamented Gordon, they elected the 
lamented Lee, and they could not have made better selections. 
And I say that the old soldiers shall go on, and make these nomi- 
nations as they have before. 

General Young: Will these men who have made officers 
before the war. and since the war, have a voice and make these 
nominations? My friends, it is too late now, when these old 
soldiers, many of them whose forms are bent by the weight of 
years, and whose locks are silvered by time, should be called 
upon here to make a new departure. Let us go on as we have 
done. We have one of the grandest organizations that ever 
existed, and these old men have elected the commanders, and I 
say, for God and Heaven's sake, let them go on and elect them 
again as it has been done. 

General Coleman: As an individual soldier, I want to say 
this is not the time to try and centralize this organization in a 
few commanders of brigades or divisions; this is a time when 
we are passing away, and only a few of us are left. Let every 
soldier vote individually as he pleases upon a question of his 
commander ; and I rise here, and move that the resolution, as 
introduced by our friend Hickman of Tennessee, be tabled. 

General Hickman: Mr. President, 1 withdraw the motion 
in the interest of harmony. 

The convention then adjourned to Wednesday morning at 
10 o'clock. 


The convention was called to order promptly at 10 o'clock 
by General W. L. Cabell, who was hoarse and could hardly speak 
above a whisper. The invocation was made by Dr. Parks, of 
Georgia, as follows : 

"Almighty God, our Heavenly Father, we would at all 
times and in all places acknowledge Thy rule over us, our obli- 
gation to Thee. We meet this morning in Thy presence, by Thy 
good providence. We thank Thee that amidst all the years past 

Second Day's Proceedhigs. 93 

our lives have been spared, whilst many of our comrades fell in 
the struggle of battle, upon our right' and upon our left and 
many languished and died in the hospitals, and many fell out 
of the ranks in the long, weary march never to march any 
more. We thank Thee, our gracious Heavenly Father that 
we have been spared to this glad hour, and that we are per- 
mitted to meet and mingle together, shake the hand of friend- 
ship and recount conflicts of the past. We pray Thy blessing 
upon us at this hour; we pray Thy richest blessing upon our 
commander who opens the exercises this morning. Thank God 
for his long and useful life, and the blessings of God be upon all 
the officers of this Reunion, and may the souls and lives of all 
these veterans be precious in Thy sight. We pray Thy bless- 
ings upon us throughout the remainder of the journey of life. 
We know. Lord, that we are approaching the end of life's day' 
Oh, grant, we pray Thee, that there may be no clouds in the 
sunset of life with us, keep us faithful to the last ; may Thy grace 
grow richly in the heart of each one of these Thy aged serv- 
ants, these Thy comrades. Oh, God, fill every heart with Thy 
love, and guide us all along the remainder of the march of life, 
and at last and finally, oh Lord, grant that we may all strike 
hands m the land of eternal victory, and unto the Father and 
Son and Holy Ghost be everlasting praises. Amen!" 
America ' ' — sung by choir. 

"Dixie"— by the band. 

(Loud applause.) 

General Bolivar Buckner: "Mr. President, Comrades of the 

Confederate States' Army 1 come before vou to-day in the 

discharge of a duty imposed upon me by the organization known 
as the Jefferson Davis Home Association of Kentucky. It has 
been the custom of all nations to commemorate in some fitting 
way the deeds of their distinguishe:! men. In Kentucky we have 
the birthplace of two men most prominent in the recent conflict 
between the sections— Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis 
The people of the North have seen fit to decorate the birthplace 
of Abraham Lincoln, and most of the citizens of Kentucky feel 
that the birthplace of Jefferson Davis is equally entitled to 
commemoration ; therefore, at a meeting of the Confederates of 
the Orphan Brigade of Kentucky in last September, they adopted 
a resolution for the purpose of forming an organization to ac- 
quire and improve as much, as might be necessary, the birth- 
place of Jefferson Davis, in Carrollton. Christian County In 
accordance with that resolution, a charter was formed and an 
organization was effected, but it was a provisional organization 

94 Eighteenth Reunion., Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

We want every citizen, every Southern citizen, to have an equal 
interest with ourselves in the commemoration of this birthplace 
of our President ; therefore, in the original articles of incor- 
poration it was provided — 'The directors of this association 
shall be chosen under the authority of the organization known 
as The United Confederate Veterans, but until they act in 
the premises, the persons named in this act of incorporation, 
and such other persons as they may name, not exceeding twenty- 
five (25) members altogether, shall constitute the Provisional 
Governing Body of this organization.' Our organization was 
thus provisional, simply to act until the United Confederates in 
their Association here should take charge. 

"Now, we had a meeting of the directors of this association 
in Louisville on the 4th of this month. We passed the follow- 
ing resolution: 'Resolved at the last meeting held June 4th, 
1908, this resolution was unanimously adopted — 'Whereas, by an 
article of the acts of incorporation, this organization is provi- 
sional, therefore resolved that the President be and is hereby 
authorized to make a tender of the whole to the United Confed- 
erate Veterans at their coming Reunion at Birmingham, Ala., 
June 9th, 10th and 11th. ' ■ 

' ' In accordance with that offer, Mr. President, I now tender 
to you, the United Confederate Veterans, this organization 
which we have perfected, and which we would aid you in every 
proper way as one State of the South, to commemorate. I now 
turn it over to the United Confederate Veterans for such ac- 
tions as they deem proper." 

General Young: "Mr. Commander and Comrades — You 
have heard the resolutions proposed by General Buckner in re- 
gard to preserving the birthplace of Jefferson Davis in Todd 
County, Kentucky. Large sums of money have been raised for 
the purpose of taking care of the home of Abraham Lincoln, 
and under the leadership of General Buckner it was 
deemed wise to make some provision to properly care for and 
mark the birthplace of Jefferson Davis, one of the greatest heroes 
and statesmen the world has ever known. An organization was 
formed under the laws of the State of Kentucky. The State 
of Kentucky, without a dissenting vote in its Legislature, voted 
$2,500 as a nucleus with which to begin this work, and the 
men of Kentucky are here now to turn this organization over 
to this Association, believing that you will undertake this work. 
It is the work of every soul that is touched with the glorious 
memories of our great struggle to make our Southland free, 
and we come and offer it to you. If you want it, it is yours ; if 
you do not take it, then single-handed and alone, Kentucky will 

Sec o?i d Day's Proceedings. 95 

undertake to fittingly mark the birthplace of Jefferson Davis. 
I therefore move, Mr. Commander, that these papers be referred 
to a committee consisting of fifteen (15), of which the Com- 
mander-in-chief shall be chairman, and the other fourteen (14) 
members to be named by him, with full power to consider this 
whole question, and take such action in the name of the Associa- 
tion as they think wise and proper. If I can meet with a sec- 
ond, Sir, I make that motion." 

(Motion duly seconded and adopted.) 

Secretary Hillary Herbert : "Comrades, I appear before you 
this morning representing the executive committee of the Ar- 
lington Confederate Monument Association at Washington City. 
It is proposed to locate at Arlington, in the National Cemetery, 
in the Confederate section, there in sight of Washington City, 
a monument to the Confederate dead. That work — the work of 
raising funds — is already under way. We have contributed, 
and now in bank, something over $5,000. As Chairman of the 
Executive Committee of that Association, I recently sent out 
an appeal to every Confederate camp in the whole United 
States, asking a contribution of only fifty cents per head for 
each Confederate soldier in the camp. We have already had 
some responses. That appeal has only lately gone forth. One 
of the very first responses to that was from the Twenty-third 
New Jersey, a Union regiment that fought at Salem Church 
against Early's Brigade. That Twenty-third New Jersey on 
the 3d day of May, 1907, erected a monument at Salem Church. 
On one side of that monument was a suitable inscription to the 
dead of that Union regiment ; on the other side was this in- 
scription : ' To the brave Alabama boys who w T ere our oppo- 
nents on this field, and whose memory we honor, this tablet 
is dedicated.' (Applause.) Comrades, there has never been 
in all the history of civil wars any act by any organization, any 
military organization, as generous as this was; and they recog- 
nized, as every organization throughout the North recognized, 
not only that it is all right, but that it is our duty to the dead 
comrades to put up a monument to them there at Arlington in 
sight of the Capitol of the United States. It was the Congress 
of the United States that set aside that Confederate section, 
and ord?red interred in it all the dead whose bodies had been 
scattered around previously in the various cemeteries in the 
District of Columbia. Comrades, there are 251 dead Confederates 
sleeping there, and every one of them was a private, or at least 
an enlisted man. 

This monument appeals to me because it is, in the first 
place, to be a monument to the valor and the sacrifices of the 

96 Eighteenth Reunion. Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

private Confederate soldier. (Applause.) It is true, my 
friends and comrades, that we had the pick of the whole army, 
so far as officers were concerned ; it is true that the Federals 
had no generals that could compare with Lee, Stonewall Jack- 
son, and others I could mention, and that much credit is due to 
the many gallant officers we had ; but, my comrades, it was the 
private soldier, the man at the gun, who represented the spirit 
of the Confederacy, and who did that fighting, who made that 
record that lifted to the stars the memory of Lee and Stonewall 
Jackson and Johnston and all our great generals, (applause), 
and it is to these privates there — they represented eleven States 
— it is to these privates there in the home of Lee that we want 
you to contribute — not a cent now, but when you go home and 
you meet there, state to the commanders of your camps this 
appeal ; when you go home I ask you to have your camps called 
together, have that appeal read to them, and see that every 
man contributes his mite of fifty cents, so that the Confederate 
soldiers themselves may have the honor and the glorious recol- 
lection of having contributed to this monument to be erected at 
the home of Lee to the private Confederate soldier. Therefore, 
I won't detain you longer. I want to say, though, I have got 
responses, not only from this Union regiment, but the next 
response that I got was from the Missouri camp at Jefferson 
City, and you will remember that Missouri wasn't formally a 
Confederate State, but that the few Confederate survivors who 
are there are true to the memories of the Confederacy, and they 
sent their fifty cents apiece promptly. One of the next con- 
tributions that came was from Oklahoma, this new, great State 
in the West, and that camp in Ocula, Oklahoma, sent its fifty 
cents. Now, when you get home, see that every comrade con- 
tributes his fifty cents. Some of them, perhaps, are not able, 
but in every camp where there is one or two or three men that 
are not able, there are others who are able, and should be willing 
and anxious to contribute the fifty cents that represents their 
more unfortunate member. And now, Comrades, T detain you 
no longer, but I offer this resolution — 'Resolved, That this 
convention heartily indorses the appeal lately made by the Ex- 
ecutive Committee of the Arlington Confederate Monument 
Association, requesting each Confederate Camp' — I will get (Gen- 
eral Park to read the resolution, he is a younger man than 
I am." 

(I, n< ral Park: "That is what he thinks. 'Besolved, That this 
convention heartily indorses the appeal lately sent out by the 
Executive Committee of the Arlington Confederate Monument 

Second Day's Proceedings. 97 

Association, requesting each Confederate Camp to contribute 
fifty cents for each of its members to the erection of a Con- 
federate Monument in the Confederate section of the National 
Cemetery at Arlington, the home of Robert E. Lee. Every Con- 
federate soldier should contribute his quota to this monument, 
which from its position in sight of the National Capital, will be 
the most conspicuous of all the memorials erected in honor of our 
dead comrades.' " 

The resolution was adopted. 

General Bennet H. Young: 

' ' ' Who bade us go with smiling tears, 
"Who scorned the renegade, 
Who, silencing their trembling fears, 
Watched, wept, then cheered and prayed ; 
Who nursed our wounds with tender care, 
And then, when all was lost, 
Who lifted us from our despair, 
And counted not the cost? 

The women of the South. ' 

' ' They have built more monument, they have done more to 
perpetuate the memories of Confederate soldiers, than all the 
soldiers have done themselves, and our glory, our honor, our 
recognition has been maintained and preserved by our glorious 
women. I present to you now one of the greatest women the 
South ever produced, Mrs. Cornelia Branch Stone, the President 
of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. God bless them." 

(Loud applause.) "Dixie" by the band. 

Mrs. C. B. Stone: "Comrades and Veterans of the Confed- 
erate States — I come to you to-day to bring a greeting from 
the great organization of the Daughters of the Confederacy, 
numbering now nearly fifty thousand women, organized to take 
care of the memories for which you stand. To-day you stand 
in history greater than in the days when you stood on the field 
of battle ; you stand for a principle inborn in the heart of every 
man who is worthy of the name of man, every brave and hon- 
orable, courageous man — the principle of individual rights and 
constitutional liberty. I come to bring to you our love, our 
honor and our reverence for everything that you have done, 
and that you stand for, and we pledge ourselves to keep alive 
all that you have done, and all that it means to us and to our 
great country. I thank you so much for your support, and I 
do hope that you will indorse the measure put before you this 

98 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala. , Jtcne 9-11, 1908. 

morning by Colonel Herbert to put a monument in Arlington 
Park, and show that we will do as much as the Government of 
the United States have done for those men that sleep there. I 
thank you much." 

General Young, of Kentucky: "Mr. Commander, I now 
move that we now give the Rebel Yell. ' ' 

Rebel Yell is given. 

(Loud applause.) 

The Committee on Credentials then presented their report, 
as follows, which was adopted: 

To the U. C. V. Convention assembled in the City of Birming- 
ham, Ala. 
Comrades : 

The Committee on Credentials respectfully reports that the 
several divisions of United Confederate Veterans are entitled to 
the following number of delegates to this convention : 

Alabama, 64 Camps, 214 Delegates. 

Arkansas, 48 Camps, 128 Delegates. 

Florida, 36 Camps, 98 Delegates. 

Georgia, 81 Camps, 260 Delegates. 

Indian Territory, 18 Camps, 45 Delegates. 

Kentucky, 43 Camps, 113 Delegates. 

Louisiana, 41 Camps, 119 Delegates. 

Maryland, 5 Camps, 20 Delegates. 

Mississippi, 63 Camps, 176 Delegates. 

Missouri, 28 Camps, 78 Delegates. 

North Carolina, 41 Camps, 131 Delegates. 

Northwest, 14 Camps, 28 Delegates. 

Oklahoma, 11 Camps, 28 Delegates. 

Pacific, 5 Camps, 14 Delegates. 

South Carolina, 50 Camps, 138 Delegates. 

Tennessee, 43 Camps, 144 Delegates. 

Texas, 137 Camps, 425 Delegates. 

Virginia, 45 Camps, 171 Delegates. 

West Virginia, 7 Camps, 20 Delegates. 

Total number of Camps, 780; and total number of Dele- 
gates, 2,350. 

There were two contesting delegations from Stonewall Jack- 
son Camp No. 878, of Charleston, W. Va. ; and after hearing 

100 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

both delegations, your Committee recommends that both dele- 
gations be allowed seats in this convention, and the two delega- 
tions together be entitled to give the vote of their camp, and 
that the matter of contest be referred back to the Camp for 

For the Committee : 

II. A. LONDON, of North Carolina, 

ALBERT ESTOPINAL, of Louisiana, 

Details of parade on June 11th, explained by General 
Geo. P. Harrison, Chief Marshal. 

General Cabell: "I want to present to you the oldest living 
Confederate General. I am sorry my voice is weak, but I want 
General Young to present to you General Buckner, of Ken- 

General Young: "Comrades — Lieutenant Generals are get- 
ting very scarce. There are only two left. We have the glori- 
ous memories of our Confederate Generals like Gordon and For- 
rest, and their associates, who have passed away, and there 
are only two left. We treasure and love them with a great, 
immeasurable love, for what they were and what they stood for^ 
and I have the honor of presenting to you General Simon Boli- 
var Buckner, one of the two living Confederate Generals." 

(Loud applause.) 

General Buckner: "My Comrades — Accept my earnest 
thanks for the warm reception you have given to me. I perhaps 
will be the next to cross the River, but if I do, I think I will find 
myself in good company ; and there we will await the coming of 
these noble veterans, each one of whom is entitled to a place in 
the Capital of Fame and of Honor. I thank you. I bid you- 
farewell until we meet again, and wish you every prosperity 
that your own hearts may desire." 


G< neral Young :" Comrades — I am sorry that General Cabell 
did not tell me a fact when I presented General Buckner. Gen- 
eral Buckner was General . Cabell 's instructor at West Point, 
and he loves him with a great love, and he regrets that the 
condition of his voice is such that he cannot express to you_ 
that love and admiration for his old instructor." 

Report of Committee on Resolutions. 101 

The Committee on Kesolutions, through General A. B. Booth, 
recommended for favorable action resolutions as follows : 


"Whereas, it has pleased the great and good God to take 
from us our beloved Commander, General Stephen D. Lee, we 
humbly submit to His divine providence. Therefore be it 

"Resolved, That in the death of General Stephen D. Lee, 
the Confederate survivors have lost a great commander, and 
every Confederate veteran a good and true friend, the State of 
Mississippi a great educator, the country a noble citizen, the 
world a good and true man. 

."He was as brave as any who illustrated the South 's chiv- 
alry, and he has left to his native land a priceless legacy of 
devotion to duty. 

"We thank God for the lives of such men. His example 
and unselfish performance of duty will inspire our young men to 
nobler lives, and encourage them to to walk in the paths of 
rectitude and virtue. 

"Be it further resolved, That a copy of these resolutions 
be spread upon the minutes of this convention." 

On motion of General Walker this resolution was adopted 
by a rising vote, the entire body rising as one man. 


"Be it resolved, That it is with the tenderest regard for 
the noble women of our Southland that this convention respect- 
fully recommends that hereafter no women be appointed upon 
the staff of department, division or brigade commanders." 



(Offered in the Tennessee Division by General George W. Gor- 
don, and by the Division submitted to this convention) : 

"Whereas, There has been and still is a ready recognition 
throughout the Southern States of the faithful and praise- 
worthy, the peaceful and lawful course and conduct of the slaves 
toward their then owners and their many unprotected families, 
during our interstate war, 1861 to 1865; and 

"Whereas, We deem it just and due to the good faith and 
good name of said slaves, as also to their former owners and to 

102 Eighteenth Reunion. Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

history, that this highly instructive and most significant fact 
be formally promulgated and perpetuated; therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That it is the sense of the delegates and 
representatives of the United Confederate Veterans that a stately 
and durable monument should be erected at some central and 
appropriate site in the South to the quietude and praiseworthi- 
ness, and to the fidelity and allegiance of the slaves to their 
masters and their families during the great interstate war of 
1861 to 1865." 

The committee recommended that no action be taken on 
the other matters submitted to them, which was concurred in. 


Colonel J. Taylor Ellyson presented the Report of the Con- 
federate Memorial Association, as follows, which was ordered 
published in the minutes : 

"To the Confederate Veterans: 

"In presenting our annual report we are again called on 
to lament the death of one of our members. 

"Colonel T. S. Kennan, of Mexico, Mo., died in March last. 
A gallant and patriotic Confederate soldier and of late years 
an able and successful lawyer; he was one of the most intelli- 
gent and efficient members of our board, and we deeply deplore 
the loss of this Christian gentleman. But his death only brings 
us another illustration of the potent fact that old Confederates 
are rapidly stepping out of the ranks, and joining the great 
majority on the other side of the river. 

"In presenting this report we have to regret that we have 
not made the progress we had hoped in completing our plans, 
and erecting our building. 

' ' At our last meeting the Executive Committee of the Board 
were given full power to act, and were instructed to go forward 
and secure a suitable site, get plans, and proceed as soon as 
possible with the erection of our memorial hall. 

"The Executive Committee had a meeting in Richmond soon 
afterwards, and on a full consideration, unanimously resolved 
that Monroe Park, in the center of the city of Richmond, was 
the most suitable site that could be selected for the purpose. 
They appointed a local sub-committee of two, and instructed 

Report of Confederate Memorial Association. 103 

them to go forward in securing a site and erecting the building. 
This committee petitioned the city of Richmond to give us a 
site in Monroe Park. The council referred the matter to its 
committee on grounds and buildings, and this committee, from 
a combination of circumstances, allowed the matter to sleep for 
some months. Our committee finally got a hearing before 
them, and from expressions of individual members, we were 
satisfied that the report would be favorably heard. They de- 
cided, however, to refer the matter to a sub-committee, and 
this last committee, after waiting some two months, reported 
against giving us the site in Monroe Park. The full commit- 
tee adopted their report, and it was confirmed by the Board 
of Aldermen, and our petition rejected. 

"The chairman of the committee on grounds and build- 
ings, however, promptly introduced a resolution into the Board 
of Aldermen, giving us as a site, on Marshal Street, between 
Eighth and Ninth. It is a good location, and our committee 
decided to acept that if it could be granted. The matter is now 
before the Council, and we are hoping for favorable action. 

"This involves further delay which we very much depre- 
cate. We could, of course, buy a site at once, but that would 
involve an expenditure of twenty-five thousand dollars or more, 
which we cannot spare from our building fund. 

"We deem it best, therefore, to wait for favorable action 
on the part of the City Council. The delay, however, is not an 
unmitigated evil, as the price of building material and labor is 
cheaper than it has been, and is likely to be still less. 

"Soon after our last report, Mr. Peter Eouss paid, as h? 
promised, the balance of his father's subscription of $100,000, 
which, with $100,000 we raised, gave us over $200,000 in bank to 
the credit of our treasurer. This money is safely deposited, and 
is bearing interest, and our treasurer reports that he now has 
to his credit $203,759.94. 

"We greatly need a larger amount of money, and earnestly 
appeal to our friends to contribute it. Let camps of veterans, 
and sons of veterans and chapters of Daughters of the Confed- 
eracy and Confederated Memorial Association, and individuals, 
make liberal contributions to swell our fund. 

"We need to gather into our memorial building a large 
library of American history with all pamphlets and manuscripts 
which can shed the least light upon any period of the history 
of our common country, and especially the history of our 
Confederacy proper, in their great struggle for constitutional 
freedom, and we ought to have in charge of the library some 

104 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11 , 1908. 

one competent to point the seeker after historic truth to the 
authorities he needs. 

"We need, also, to collect for our 'Hall of Fame' statues 
and portraits of our leading Confederates. This most important 
matter can be greatly facilitated hy the donation of suitable 
books and pamphlets and statues and portraits. One gentleman 
has already donated his most valuable library of historical 
books, and a very large number of pamphlets and newspapers 
which throw great light on our history, and it is hoped that 
others will follow his example. And why cannot each one of 
the Confederate States select the man whom they would most 
delight to honor, and place in our 'Hall of Fame' his statue? 
Individuals or camps might donate books, portraits or statues, 
and thus largely contribute to the value of our collection. 

"Our secretary has been very busy during the past year in 
carrying out one of the main objects of our association in dis- 
cussing great events of our history with our own people and 
with gentlemen on the other side, and he has made some notable 
success in convincing some of our former enemies of the truth 
of our contentions on important points of history. After a 
lengthy correspondence with a prominent writer in Ohio in 
reference to the treatment of prisoners, this gentleman was 
brought to see the truth, and to acknowledge that in this matter 
the Confederates were far more sinned against than sinning, 
and that Federal prisoners in Southern prisons fared better 
than Confederates in Federal prisons, while the suffering on 
both sides might have been largely avoided but for the refusal 
of the Federal authorities to exchange prisoners. 

' ' We are more convinced than ever of the value of our work, 
and shall prosecute it in future with renewed diligence and zeal. 

"By order of the Board. 


' ' President. 


106 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham , Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

General Clement A. Evans: ''My Comrades — I have in my 
hand the annual address prepared for you by the Historical 
Committee. You have been listening to many very favorable 
reports and many most interesting addresses, and the time is 
close by when we must keep that one hour sacredly devoted to 
the memories of our dead. It would require me thirty minutes 
to deliver this message to you from the Historical Committee, 
and if it will please you, I suggest that it be put in the hands 
of the Adjutant General, and made a part of these proceed- 
ings, and that it be published in The Veteran. It will be pub- 
lished in three papers of this city. I ask leave to print." 

It was moved and seconded to receive the report and 
print in the minutes. It is as follows : 

' ' This asembly is representative of that part of the country 
commonly called the South, It stands, as a body, for the true 
citizenry of a powerful section of the United States. The peo- 
ple thus represented have views of true civic virtues, and of the 
true social status, and the distinct responsibilities of the Ameri- 
can people which are shared by the greater number of our 
countrymen everywhere. It cannot be suspected without a 
shudder that their ideas and ideals are scorned by a majority 
of the people of the Union. In fact, this truly grand gathering 
represents the intelligence and the energies, the traditions and 
the history, the intense patriotism and the exaltd hopes of a 
chivalric people whose ancestors were leaders of great promi- 
nence in the founding of our constitutional republic. 

"The special work chosen by the great soldiers' organization 
here in annual session is purely patriotic, peacemaking, bene- 
ficial to the whole country and valuable to posterity forever. 
Its principal objects are to preserve comradeship ; to establish 
justice and purity in all literature, especially in history; to 
abolish sectional discord; to promote genuine and generous 
courtesies among the people, whose fathers nearly half a century 
ago strove for the mastery with bloody severity four years 
upon many historical battle fields. 

' ' In proper furtherance of, these grand designs, heroism is 
being commemorated by durable monuments, as well as 
by every other token that can inspire men with the true heroic 

Report of the Historical Committee. 107 

spirit and the love of truth which make a people free indeed; 
and it must be further stated that among this cluster of starry 
guides to national glory, it has become necessary to place their 
insistence that the reasonable claims of the South for 
better recognition should be allowed; that its local 
problems should be more fairly considered, and that it should 
be unhindered in its efforts to maintain, under existing em- 
barrassments, the social and racial integrity of all that people 
who developed and civilized North America, and established the 
democratic republican government which we enjoy. 

"The people of the South have made history which teaches 
moral and civic virtues by example, and they are and should be 
greatly concerned in the true narration of their deeds and the 
fair statements of their motives. In beginning to discharge this 
duty as to their own recent history, the Southern people were 
startled by the discovery that the youth of the country were threat- 
ened with a perpetuation of sectional strife through the evil influ- 
ences of sectional literature. History books were complacently 
presented for adoption by school boards, although infested with 
sectional unfairness. Statements were printed in such books 
which were but half truths, while truths were so adulterated 
with errors as to be no longer true and pure, while paragraphs 
were cunningly constructed so as to carry concealed the deadly 
dagger of misrepresentation. It was evident that duty demanded 
resistance to this corruption of literature pretending to be 
historical truth; and it is gratifying to know that the efforts to 
strike down the pernicious evil has been rewarded by consid- 
erable success, but the strict exclusion of all unfair' publica- 
tions must be vigorously enforced, and the books themselves 
must be consigned to the flames of patriotic indignation. 

"Souhern authorship is winning high appreciation by the 
public. The South is rich enough in talents, experience and other 
wealth to enter the field of literature, where the greater success 
awaits only the greater endeavor to achieve it. Glaring wrongs 
can be best remedied by the Southern writers doing their part in 
the literature reformation. If the youth of the South shall not 
hereafter know the splendid history of their own section and 
the true value of Southern history, that privation will be the 
fault of their fathers. The fact is lamentable that the passing 
of forty years has been required to satisfy the public mind 
that broad generosity and not a narrow animosity should be 
the pervading spirit of American literature— that praise and 
not obloquy, fair play and not foul play, should distinguish 
signally and specially the permanent narration of that mighty 

108 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

struggle between the sections, which closed without the loss of 
even one essential principle that lessened the rights and duties 
of our people, our states and our general government. 

"The Southern people of 1865 did not linger long at the 
tomb of the Confederacy. Their brave soldiers garlanded the 
ideal sepulchre with their own chivalric glory, and committed the 
Confederate movement to the memory of what it was, and what 
its defenders did to sustain it. The South would not live in 
the past alone. Its people gazed a while sadly on the rich and 
radiant glow of the setting sun, but they firmly faced the 
duties of the coming day. The severity of the new conditions 
were appalling, but in battling bravely with their obstacles 
this heavily burdened gallant people are achieving well deserved 
success. Out of the extreme desolation the hopeful Southern 
citizenry arose majestically by their own splendid achieve- 
ments without capital except a credit good as gold, and a land 
that responded to the enterprise of its owners. They had a 
genius for honesty in business and fidelity to the laws of true 
trade which so directed their financing that they have never in 
all history produced a financial panic. Their energy is clasp- 
ing with its glad hand the present opportunities, and with hon- 
orable thrift they will preserve their prosperity. 

"Behold this Sunny South! See how it beams in varied 
beauty ; how it exults in its temperate climate ; how it teems 
with products that meet the wants of the world ! Glance at its 
stretches of prosperous domain from Maryland to Arizona, 
from St. Louis to Charleston, from Louisville to New Orleans ! 

"It embraces seventeen extensive states, more than one-third 
of the Union ; nearly as many as all the great West contains ; 
and twice as many as the thrifty East. Count its twenty-four 
millions of people, nearly one-third of the population of the 
United States. Think of its marvelous natural resources. Hear 
with gladdened hearts the music of its mills and mines, its com- 
merce and its workshops everywhere ! Listen to the voices of its 
rivers and waterfalls, its fields and forests singing in harmoni- 
ous chorus the praises of the Sunny South. 

"There are conditions existing at times, in special situa- 
tions, which produce problems for people to solve, and in our 
country there are varieties of local problems which can be solved 
only by local wisdom. But our form of government is better 
adapted to settle such problems in the interests of all the people 
than any other government on earth. In our union the responsi- 
bilities for good government are shared among the people, the 

Report of the Historical Committee. 109 

states and general government in such a manner that each of 
these powers has sufficient authority to do the duties required, 
and, therefore, when special local problems arise, the task of 
solving them presses first upon the locality most concerned. 

'"The Southern States have their own problems which they 
desire to solve for the common good. It is true also that there 
are other questions not exclusively Southern in which the peo- 
ple of the South are concerned equally with all citizens — 
such, for instance, as the general questions of the just rela- 
tions between the states, and between any state and the general 
government, but even this general question was made a local 
problem of the Southern States, and became acutely sectional in 
the years between 1850 and 1861, when the circumstances that 
African slavery had become an institution was used to create a 
dangerous Southern situation. After many unsuccessful expedi- 
ents, the states in the South fled for refuge to Secession, and 
that being denied, they were forced to fight, and having failed 
in that, they surrendered without any settlement by negotiations 
or war. Hence the old disturbing presence in our country of 
a people of African descent became more serious than ever be- 
cause the problem was loaded from 1865 with new and insup- 
portable conditions. These negro people in the Southern States 
were merely turned loose with nothing but the power to vote and 
hold office without qualifications. They were not offered homes 
anywhere except in the South, and they fell as a load on the 
Southern people. But the South assumed the burden, and the 
assertion is here made that no body of people in any age of 
the world has treated this negro race with real kindness except 
the people of the Southern States. All nations have enslaved 
them, and not one has trained them into that physical, intelligent, 
moral manhood which is the indisputable qualification of a val- 
uable population. The Southern States have over six 
millions of this race to care for, and the Southern people are 
qualified to execute the trust justly, benevolently, and for the 
general welfare. It is, therefore, insisted that the hindering, 
intermeddling with the purposes to righteously solve this prob- 
lem shall cease ; for whatever the motive may be, such interfer- 
ence has been misdirected, hurtful and often open to suspicion, 
as being accompanied with insincerity, selfishness or ignorance 
of Southern conditions. 

' ' The mere argument on certain debatable questions of great 
importance has been exhausted. These issues have been ably 
discussed in conventions like this for many years with clearness, 
truthfulness and power by the most eminent men of the country. 

110 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., J7i?ie 9-11, 1908. 

None of them need further discussion at this hour before this 
well informed assembly. The South rests its reasons and its 
acts in the effort of the states to form a separate government 
on the law and the testimony with absolute confidence in the 
justice of its cause. The Southern people stand upon the 
firm basis of their sound and solid character, upon the princi- 
ples of constitutional law, civic right, and moral duty, which 
ruled their actions. With profound satisfaction they contem- 
plate their history from the first settlement in Virginia, centuries 
ago, and their immense contribution since then to the greatness 
of our country. With the purest spirit of patriotism they are 
yet devoting their energies to the moral, the educational, the 
industrial and the financial uplift of all the people to those lofty 
civic conditions which alone truly exalt a nation. 

' ' This attitude of the South thus firmly taken on questions 
formerly debatable even by war, permits in present conditions 
the fair concession on all sides that 'points of view' may be 
considered, and honest difference of opinion may be indulged 
in; provided, neither side will do the other any harm. The re- 
mark has been prominently made in praise of the soldiery of 
the Confederate and Union armies that 'each fought for the 
right as he saw the right.' This favorite fraternal phrase may 
be accepted to mean that honesty in opinion as well as valor in 
action may be found on both sides. Take as illustration : That one 
man could see from his one point of view that the saving of the 
Union is his supreme obligation, while the other saw clearly 
that saving the Constitution was his supreme duty, but each may 
now see that there is an honest way to keep both the Union and 
the Constitution in perfect safety, and it may now be urged inci- 
dentally that as the Union is safe from danger of secession, let 
us save the Constitution from the dangers of perversion. 

"It will profit our statesmen and all other students of our 
government if they will fully consider the estimate placed by 
the citizens of the United States on the present value of the 
Union in close connection with the intense devotion of the people 
to the Constitution also as the protector of their personal liber- 
ties, and the savior of the powers and dignities of their respective 
states from a possible ruthless ravage. These two potent, popular 
estimates of the Constitution and the Union are consistent and 
co-operative . They are the indissoluble components of good 
government, and both are sentiments very dear to the American 

"We remember the power of the masterful Union sentiment 
when the appeal was made to save the imperiled life of the 

112 Eighteenth Reunion. Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

Union, even by war. It was a feeling inherited from our an- 
cestors of the American Revolution, and had been at various 
times displayed throughout the South and in the North when 
threats of secession were made several times by Northern states- 
men. Our fathers felt that in forming this Union they had gained 
a true government of United States, which would abide forever. 
They were thrilled by the patriotic sensation that safety was se- 
cured for all rights, and defense was provided against all wrougs. 
This has been in all our country's history a power- 
ful sentiment, and it is that same love of country which still 
warms the soul of the true citizen when he sees the Union truly 
illustrated by the fill exercise of all powers, delegated and re- 
served so as to, serve every section, to protect the interests of 
every citizen, to save every right and thus achieve a" durable 
magnificent greatness. 

"But there is another element in the enthusiasm of our sires 
and their sons, which is the twin brother to the Union sentiment. 
What is that other twin constituent which was laid in the cradle 
of our government ? What .is that crowning glory of our coun- 
try which distinguishes it even as the glory at the sun is 
greater than the glory of the stars? It is the ecpially masterful 
popular sentiment concerning the value of that sacred instru- 
ment which was ordained and established as the 'Constitution 
of the United States of America.' 

"Let us follow that popular sentiment for the Constitution 
to its source, as we have followed the feeling for the Union. 
For more than a century the Colonial States had held their 
few liberties by the uncertain tenure of royal charters and 
edicts, but these failing, they fought for independence, and 
having won it, they undertook to act together without the com- 
pact of a written constitution. But the plan produced such har- 
assing discords and perils that a constitutional government of 
the United States became clearly the imperative need. The 
problem before these Colonial States in this situation was such 
as no other people had ever solved. The joining together of 
separate state sovereignties so as to create an indissoluble 
union of them as such in perfect equality, retaining sovereignty 
in the states, preserving fundamental sovereignty in the peo- 
ple, while conferring sovereign powers upon a general govern- 
ment, was a problem indeed not even dreamed of in all politi- 
cal philosophy. But the complex problem was solved by the 
minds and even more by the patriotic hearts of those great 
Americans of our Revolution, who were the wisest as w T ell as 
the truest statesmen in the world. 

Report of the Historical Committee . 113 

"It was no easy task. They had anxieties and fears which 
no history has fully portrayed. They were in the crucible them- 
selves when they moulded that constitution into form, and their 
finished work deserves a sentiment of reverence like that which 
is felt for the decalogue givn by Moses to be the law of the 

"In the keeping of that constitution there is great reward. 
If sacredly observed it will be the perpetual fountain of civic 
blessings, because the states will be the everlasting springs which 
shell keep that fountain full, and the people will thus have their 
liberties secured as permanently as the stars are fixed..'in the 
firmament of heaven. 

"Within the range of the true patriots' present view there 
are four ideals of equal worth. They are the state, the consti- 
tution, the Union, and the general welfare of all the people. 
Consider these four great entities as they arise in order of time, 
sequence, and relations. They are the people, the States, the 
Constitution, the Union. Out of these our government arose 
in its remarkable form. As such it was dedicated to liberty; 
as such it is devoted to maintain equality, and as such it is or- 
ganized to promote fraternity. We will, therefore, take the 
sentiments which were laid in the cradle of our government, and 
make their unity the basis of our amity, their concord the as- 
surance of our liberties, their united reign the protection of 
our country from every foe. These principles ruling the hearts 
of the people will make our land the leader of the world by 
the blessing of Almighty God. 

'"The present conditions in our Southern country make 
wholly unnecessary any declaration that our people are not ask- 
ing for special privileges, but are insisting justly on fairer rec- 
ognition as a great part of the Union. They believe exclusion of 
any section from an equal sharing in either the service or bene- 
fits of our general government for any policy whatever, is not 
a practice which considerate patriots can commend. It is made 
apparent to them that their section has been assigned the posi- 
tion of the minority in the government, because of the brave 
fight they made nearly fifty years ago 'for the right as they 
saw the right.' But a general conviction is growing stronger 
that the service of the government would be promoted if South- 
ern talents and patriotism were called to greater use in both the 
home and the foreign national service. No good reasons can be 
given why very scant numbers of the citizens of the Southern 
States are in the thousands of official positions required for the 

114 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

service of our government in foreign lands; and it is known 
that embarrassing conditions occur at home because Southern 
statesmen are not frankly called into the councils of the govern- 

' ' The Confederate soldiers who survive to represent the splen- 
did armies of the Confederacy do not take an apologetic attitude, 
and no brave hearted men against whom they fought long ago 
expect them to become craven now. Their minds and memory 
are stored with the niches of most memorable events ; they are 
galleries adorned with trophies of victories; Halls of Fame where 
the durable glory of their principles are preserved; Urns like- 
wise, where 'the ashes of Hopes' are cherished. Thy made 
a grat history, and they will have it fairly written. They had 
problems in their struggle against forces vastly superior to their 
own ; and another problem in the restoration of their states 
against the evil policies which opposed their patriotism ; and 
still another in the recovery from the desolations wrought by 
war under conditions worse than war, which threatened their 
social, political, racial and financial ruin. They and their 
children have wrestled nobly with the troubles of prob- 
lems, and they will as nobly solve them in the true service of 
Our Country without the surrender of a truth or a stain on 
their honor." 

"Bonnie Blue Flag," "Maryland, My Maryland,'' and 
"Dixie'"— By the band. 


The selection of the next city in which to hold the reunion 
of 1909 was then announced as in order. 

Colonel Wright, General "West and General Middlebrook 
spoke in no measured terms for Atlanta ; while the claims of 
Memphis were earnestly and enthusiastically advocated by 
General George W. Gordon, Mr. Jerome Hill, Colonel J. Taylor 
Stratton ; but before a vote could be taken the hour for Memorial 
Services arrived. 

Chaplain General J. William Jones occupied the chair. 

"Nearer, My God, to Thee" was sung by the audience and 
choir, all taking part. 

Rev. Dr. Jones — "I am sure that our comrades approve gen- 
erally of the order passed by this convention some years ago 
that we should have every year at 12 o'clock on the second day 
a memorial service in honor of our illustrious dead. 

Memorial Exercises. 115 

"'During the past year we have lost some of our illustrious 
men — Pettus and Morgan, of this State, that grand man Bishop 
Capers, of South Carolina, who was brigadier general in the 
Western army, and more recently our illustrious commander, 
Stephen D. Lee, one of the greatest generals the Confederacy 
had and one of the noblest men we ever knew, a high-toned 
Christian gentleman, whom none knew but to love. And we 
are to-day to have this service in commemoration of these men 
who have gone before. Let us first invoke God's blessing upon 
the service. Let us pray. 

"We thank Thee, Oh God, that Thou hast put it into the 
hearts of the veterans to have this memorial service amid the 
bustle and confusion, to have a memorial to our illustrious dead. 
We thank Thee that we had such men worthy to live and ready 
to die, and we thank Thee that Ave have the privilege of spending 
a season in thinking of them, the great men of the Confederacy- 
Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee and Sidney Johnston and 
Stonewall Jackson and Hood and Beauregard, and the rest of 
the men whom we have lost. We thank Thee for those men, and 
we would pay tribute to them. We moan especially those 
who have died during the past year. We pray that the comforts 
of the gospel may be given to their families, that their illustrious 
example may be lessons for us, that we may follow them, even 
as they followed Christ. We ask Thee that Thou will look upon 
us and bless us in this service, that Thou wilt be with the one 
that shall speak to us and that Thou wilt be with the service, 
make it a solemn and impressive one. We ask it for Christ's 
sake, Amen." 

General W. A. Montgomery, of Edwards, Miss., com- 
mander of the First Brigade, Mississippi Division, and a warm 
personal friend of General Stephen D. Lee, had been selected 
to prepare appropriate resolutions on his death. He spoke as 
follows : 

"Comamnder, Comrades, Ladies and Gentlemen: Death of 
our loved ones at any time is sad, but in the face of the fact 
that day by day the gray line of Confederate Veterans is being 
thinned out by the scythe of time, and we know that ere long 
that every one of us will have answered to the last roll call of 
earth, we drop a tear upon the graves of those who fall, and 
hearts ofj.ove go out in tenderest sympathy for those who sur- 

"To-day the climax is reached as we mourn for him who 
but for that summons would have presided over this gathering. 

"Stephen D. Lee is no more in life. He has crossed over the 
river and rests under the shade of the tree with Stonewall 
Jaekson. and around them are srathered that glorious galaxy of 

116 Eightee>ith Reunion, Birinin°hcun, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

Christian Confederate soldiers, who have passed over before, and 
whose deeds have made them immortal in Confederate memories. 
But his life and character will live so long as men love the great 
and good of earth, so long as heroes are admired, and patriots 
honored. His life work stands out prominent for all that goes 
to make up a well rounded character. Whether we see him 
leading his charging battalions where none but heroes dare to 
go, and the shriek of the shell and whistle of minnies tell that 
death is claiming the bravest and best, or whether we see him in 
Anglo-Saxon caucuses of a defeated people devising means in 
their extremity to preserve the integrity of a race who glory 
in the blood that coursed their veins and were proud of the 
mighty deeds of their ancestry, whether sitting in the legislative 
halls of his State, making laws for the government of a people, or 
directum' the youth of the land in her classic halls to higher 
and nobler living, whether standing in the public gathering 
invoking the blessing of God upon the people and country, or 
kneeling around the family altar asking the direction of Prov- 
idence for himself and his own loved ones, his impress has been 
left, and his country has been blessed and the world bettered by 
his having lived. 

"May I not therefore before presenting the resolutions that 
I have prepared by order of the general that assumed command 
of this organization in his stead, say a few words of the life of 
our dead chieftain. Born in Charleston, S. C, in September, 
1833. He was educated at West Point Military Academy, where 
he graduated in the class of 1854, served the United States gov- 
ernment faithfully on the frontier and in her petty wars, he 
resigned his commission as lieutenant and tendered his services 
to his native State when peaceable secession seemed impossible. 

"As a Confederate soldier we see him first at Fort Sumter, 
bearing the demand of General Beauregard for Major Anderson 
to surrender that fort. The demand refused, soon he bears the 
first gun of that war for State rights and constitutional liberty. 
As the scene changes we see South Carolina's son on Virginia's 
fields in command of the batteries in Hampton's famous legion 
defending the Southland from the armed invasion of the North. 
Promoted to major of artillery in November, 1861, to lieutenant 
colonel the same year, he took part and won distinction in the 
Yorktown campaign and Seven Pines and in the seven days' 
fight around Richmond along the Chickahominy. He showed 
to his commander that he was a born artillerist and as he dragged 
horses and men through the mud and water, marching and 
counter-marching with Magruder, so as to keep up constantly 
the artillery fire upon the enemy and hold them south of the 

118 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., Ju?ie 9-11, 1908. 

Chickahominy, and his daring- maneuvers at Savage Station 
and Malvern Hill, placed him in the line of promotion, which he 
received soon afterward. At Sharpsburg he won renewed dis- 
tinction, as he had done at second Manassas with his boy bat- 
talion of artillery, where with his magnificent service at the 
very nick of time, brought from Mr. Davis the declaration: 'I 
have reason to believe that he served to turn the tide of battle, 
and consummate a victory.' He always said that it was his 
'gallant boys of the batteries that placed the wreath around 
his stars.' It was at Sharpsburg he was moved to tears as he 
rode up in the heat of the fight to what he called his boy battery 
from Richmond, Va., under Captain W. W. Parker and found 
thirty of them -either dead or wounded around their guns and 
the remnant obeying the commands of their officers as gallantly 
as if on dress parade. After the battle of Sharpsburg Mr. Davis 
asked General Robert E. Lee to select his most efficient and 
accomplished artillery officer for duty on the Mississippi, and 
Colonel S. D. Lee was ordered to report to Richmond, where on 
November 6, 1862, he was commissioned as brigadier general, and 
assigned to command at Vicksburg. 

"On the 29th of December following the battle of 
Chickasaw Bayou was fought, and S. D. Lee, commanded the 
troops that received the assault of Sherman, whose army, ac- 
cording to official reports, consisted of 32,000 men, besides the 
whole Federal naval squadron of the Mississippi, being at the 
mouth of the Yazoo River. Lee, with 2,700 men, drove him 
back after he, Sherman, sustained a loss according to official 
returns of 1,652 men. At Champion Hill on the sixteenth of 
May, 1863, he was conspicuous for his gallantry in attempting to 
rally the Confederate forces after the repulse of General Steven- 
son \s division, and where three horses paid the penalty of his 
personal daring. It was on this field that I first met him. 
After the fall of Vicksburg, he was soon exchanged and pro- 
moted to Major General, and placed in command of all the 
cavalry of the department in August. 1863. Whilst in this 
position. I made many reports to him as a scout, and on the 
famous raid of General Sherman to Meridian in the winter of 
186-1 I became intimately associated with and learned to love 
him, and there commenced an admiration for him which grew 
stronger and stronger as years passed, until the day of his death. 
We see him at Ezra Church on July 28, 1864. when the tide of 
battle seemed to turn against him, ride to the color-bearer of a 
South Carolina regiment and taking thp flag from him, sought 
to advance it himself, when our distinguished comrade here. 
General Walker, said to him: 'General Lee. T am the lieutenant 

Memorial Exercises. 119 

colonel of this regiment, give me that flag, tell me where you 
want it planted, and it shall be done.' August 12 at Jonesboro 
he won new laurels. We see him again at Nashville, holding 
Overton Hill till the left and center of our army is driven back. 
And again the next day, the day of the retreat, we see him se- 
verely wounded in the foot as he meets charge after charge of 
"Wilson's calvary. Surrendering when the army of Johnston 
capitulated as the commander of a corps, his military career 
is ended. His chieftain, Mr. Davis, said of him, 'he was a 
great and good soldier ' ; but great as he was in war, he was 
greater still in peace. I served a session with him in the Mis- 
sissippi Senate, before he took charge of the State Agricultural 
and Mechanical College. His wise council and splendid serv- 
ices as a citizen has done much in helping us in our defeat, to 
rise above the calumny of our enemies, and stand before the 
world in peace as we had stood in war, the greatest citizen sol- 
diery who ever trod the earth, the greatest people who ever 
suffered defeat. I saw him on the 22nd of May before 
he died on the 28th, standing upon the historic field of 
Yicksburg in front of the remnant of the Iowa regiment that 
assaulted and crossed the breastworks of which Lee had com- 
mand forty-five years before, make the grandest speech of his 
life, sending conviction to those men that he was a true and 
patriotic American citizen, loyal to his country and proud of her 
achievents, but bade them remember that he and his comrades 
fought for constitutional government, as it had been taught 
them by their fathers and were defending homes and American 
liberty, and that a united country would learn that she was 
not the loser by the sacrifices we had made. We loved him in 
life, and are true to his memory in death ; as he commanded the 
respect of a nation, who placed her flags at half mast on the day 
of his funeral, so he commands our regard; therefore be it re- 
solved : 

"First — That this organization of United Confederate Vet- 
erans, do hereby express to the world and to each other our 
regard for him by rising with bowed and uncovered heads; we 
feel deeply our loss; the South has ben deprived of a knightly 
defender, the whole country a patriotic citizen, and Mississippi 
an adopted son of whom she was justly proud. 

"Second — We declare our love for him as a Christian gen- 
tleman and citizen, whose life and character we hold out to the 
generations who are to follow us as worthy of emulation. He 
was a man without guile, true to every duty that devolved upon 
him, and filling the psalmist description of a citizen of Zion. 
'Lord, who shall abide in Thy tabernacle? Who shall dwell in 

120 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

Thy holy hill? He that walketh uprightly and worketh right- 
eousness, and speaketh the truth in his heart. He that back- 
biteth not with his tongue, nor doeth evil to his neighbor,' etc. 

"Third — We admired him as a soldier worthy of the cause 
for which he fought and bled, and one of our comrades whose 
rise to distinction entitles him to be honored by the true soldiers 
of our country for all the years that are to come ; the embodiment 
of chivalry, as knightly as any soldier who followed the banner 
of Charlemagne, or planted the Roman Eagle on conquered tur- 
ret on tower; whose courteous manner to every foe, challenged 
the admiration of his enemies. 

"Fourth — We cherish his memory, so full of love for his 
fellow men, fired with so much zeal for the uplifting of the 
youth of our land; so tender in manner towards his loved ones, 
beloved by them and by us, we tender our deepest sympathies 
to his family, with the cheering comfort of having so glorious 
a heritage as to the descendants of Stephen D. Lee. 

"Fifth — That the adjutant general be requested to commun- 
icate these resolutions to the camps, and send a copy to his son. 
I move their adoption by rising vote." 

It was moved and seconded that the resolutions be adopted 
by a rising vote. The vast audience rose to their feet in mute 
tribute to the dead commander whom they loved so well. Many 
eyes were filled with tears. 

After the adoption of the resolutions, the Rev. J. A. Dun- 
can, pastor of the First Methodist Church, of Birmingham, 
made a short address. He developed several beautiful thoughts 
concerning the Confederate dead. The services were closed 
with an appropriate hymn sung by the Confederate choir and a 

When the memorial service was concluded at 12 :30 a motion 
was made to adjourn until 3 P. M. This deferred the selection 
of the next meeting place until that time. 

Selectio?i of Next Meeting Place. 121 

SECOND DAY'S PROCEEDINGS, Wednesday, June 10. 


The convention was called to order by Lieutenant General 
Cabell, at 3 o'clock. 

The delegates were at once directed to prepare their ballots 
and on roll call the result was announced as follows : 

Division — Atlanta. Memphis. 

• Alabama 214 

Arkansas 32 96 

Florida 98 

Georgia 260 

Indian Territory 45 

Kentucky 113 

Louisiana 119 

Maryland 20 

Mississippi 176 

Missouri 78 

North Carolina 131 

Northwest 28 

Oklahoma 28 

South Carolina 138 

Tennessee , 144 

Texas 425 

Virginia 171 

"West Virginia 20 

Totals 1,034 1,302 

When the result was announced, the wildest confusion pre- 

Delegate after delegate stood up and strongly protested 
against the manner in which the vote was cast. Eoll call was 
demanded and some of the delegates threatened to leave the hall. 
After quiet was finally restored there was another vote, which 
resulted in 1,196 for Memphis and 1,120 for Atlanta. Even this 
vote did not seem to satisfy, and there was further discussion. 
The Texas vote figured largely, and some of the delegates wanted 
to go to Atlanta. On a casting of the ballots, though, Memphis 
was declared the winner. The following was the official vote: 

122 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9 -11, 1908. 

Division— No. votes. Atlanta. Memphis 

Alabama 214 214 

Arkansas 128 ... 128 

Florida 98 98 

Georgia 260 260 

Kentucky 113 113 

Indian Territory ... 45 ... 45 

Louisiana 119 . . . 119 

Mississippi 176 ... 176 

Missouri 78 ... 78 

North Carolina .... 131 131 

Northwest 28 28 

Oklahoma 28 ... 28 

South Carolina 138 138 

Tennessee 144 4 140 

Texas 425 ... 425 

Virginia 171 114 57 

West Virginia 20 20 

Totals 2,316 1,120 1,196 

When quiet had been restored a committee from the Sons 
was announced to bring greetings. Mr. Harry L. Seay was 
presented and spoke thus : 

"Commander-in-Chief, Ladies and Gentlemen — We come 
to-day to fulfil a duty of love. We are here to extend you greet- 
ings that flow from the heart with the spontaniety of truth. 
We stand here as Sons of you old veterans, bone of your bone, 
flesh of your flesh — the reincarnation of the builders and de- 
fenders of the old South, and we want to tell you that in the 
light of all that is before us, with the history of your efforts 
preceding the war, of your struggles during that bloody period, 
and your herculean efforts since the clouds have rolled away, 
that you were right in all you did and our chiefest regret is that 
it was not permitted us to share your trials with you. 

"There has not been in the history of the world an army 
that could compare with that of the Confederacy that went 
forth, poorly clothed and equipped, to contend against over- 
whelming odds and for the first three years of fighting won 
nearly every battle, and only succumbed when overcome by the 
mere force of numbers. That you fought for principle is 
attested by the fact that you served without pay, that you were 
imbued with patriotism is proven by the fact that you endured 
hunger and cold, danger and death, with the hope of no reward 
except to see right and justice prevail. That you were pos- 

124 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham , Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

sessed of valor is shown in the victories you won over tremendous 
odds. And, old veterans, there are two monuments erected by 
the government itself that will always point to your zeal and 
the accuracy of your aim. One of these is the national cem- 
eteries, and the other is the ever-increasing pension rolls. 

"Justice, my friends, is sometimes tardy, but it is always sure, 
and the world will yet give you your proper place in history. 
The truth of your contentions, the soundness of your position 
is admitted to-day by a majority of both North and South. So 
the cause you fought for is not a 'lost cause,' but is one of 
the livest issues of the day. Never let any man so refer to it 
without challenging his statement. It makes my blood boil 
and carries my anger to the roots of my hair to hear it, out of 
poetic license or for oratorical effect, referred to as 'The Lost 
Cause. ' 

"The great principle underlying the cause of that war was 
"States' Eights." Some for reasons of their own may tell you 
that it was slavery, but you know and I know that slavery was 
a mere incident and was brought into it by the fact that it was 
on that subject that rights of the States were trampled under 
foot, and the Constitution of the United States was overridden. 
The emancipation of the slaves was not even thought of seri- 
ously until after the war had been in full blast for many months, 
and the proclamation was issued, not out of interest in humanity, 
but purely and simply as a war measure. It was hoped that 
the turning loose of the negroes would drive the Southern sol- 
diers from the army to protect their homes, and they gave no 
thought to the shackles of the slaves. Had slavery been the 
cause of that conflict, and had the proclamation of emancipation 
been issued prior to the beginning of hostilities, the name of 
Abraham Lincoln would occupy a higher place in history. Lost 
is the cause, you say? When there has not been a session of 
Congress in fifty years that did not have to deal with it. Lost, 
when the Supreme Court of the United States during that period 
has scarcely held a term that has escaped the necessity of passing 
on some phase of that great question? Lost, when it has been 
discussed in Cabinet meetings and has been before State Leg- 
islatures time and time again ? Lost, do they tell you, when 
within the last month the governors of the States of this Union 
met in Washington under the shadow of the capitol dome, and 
there in convention assembled protested against the continued 
encroachment of the Federal government on the rights of the 
States, and endeavored to formulate some plan by which the 
complete annihilation of States' rights might be avoided? 

Greetings from the United Sons of Confederate Veterans. 125 

' ' No, your cause is not lost, nor is the influence of your work 
and character forgotten. It lives in your sons to-day. As your 
fathers had the leading role in the making of this country, as 
you did your part in upholding the institutions handed down 
by them, so will your sons, guided by the influence of your 
careers, take their place in the future development of the land, 
and will achieve results worthy of the offspring of such noble 
sires. The South has never shirked her duty to her country, and 
never will. It is the home of patriotism, the cradle of bravery. 
It has always been the first to heed her country's calls, and her 
soldiers have always gone to the front. Realizing the valor of 
you men, having tried you by the tests that try men's souls, 
the country when it has needed men who can be relied on to do 
their duty and do it well, has turned either to you or to your 
sons. When it required a man willing to sacrifice his life in 
the service of his country in an effort to bottle the Spanish 
fleet in the harbor of Santiago it called Richmond Pearson Hob- 
son, a son of Alabama, a son of the South. When that same 
fleet emerged from the harbor in an effort to escape, it was 
Admiral Schley, a son of Maryland, another son of the South, 
that gave them battle and converted the proud men of war of 
Spain into useless piles of junk and scattered their worthless 
hulls along the coast of Cuba. When the land forces had almost 
failed in their movement against the Spaniards at Santiago, 
after a portion of the Rough Riders had been ambushed, when 
El Caney seemed about to become a disaster, after the genius 
of Shafter had failed, they placed the forces in the hands of 
one of your old leaders, and the Spaniards were routed, and the 
day was saved by General Joe Wheeler. An amusing incident is 
told of that gallant old warrior on that occasion. It is said that 
when he assumed command of that army, and took his place at 
the head of the advancing columns, a bright light glowed in his 
eyes, a 'flush overcame the ashen hue of age'; he seemed to 
live in other days ; he looked as he did on the many battlefields 
of the South, and when all was in readiness for the charge, the 
old general rose in his stirrups, waved his sword above his head, 
and shouted, 'Charge 'em, boys; we must drive those damn 
Yankees into the gulf.' When the war was over and the Angel 
of Peace had checked the movements of these contending forces, 
and the nation needed a soldier and a statesman combined to 
guard her interests and guide her destiny in Cuba, she sent to 
that important post a son of Virginia— General Fitzhugh Lee, a 
member of the grandest family that this country has ever pro- 

126 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., Ju?ie 9-11, 1908. 

"So, my friends, you can see that the South has taken a 
prominent part in the history of this land. History has already 
been just to some of your members, and we propose to see that 
it is truthful concerning all. They may write so that you may 
be deprived of a portion of your glory. You may at times be 
misrepresented, but there is no hand so evil that it can write and 
reflect on your honor, nor can history be so contorted as to cast 
a slur on your patriotism and bravery. We are proud of our 
Southern States, and are prouder still of you, and it is and shall 
continue to be our duty to see that all the facts concerning both 
are related, giving full credit where credit is due. What a land 
and what a history ! This is indeed a glorious land that heaven 
has given and you have preserved for us. It can feed the world 
and clothe all humanity. It lies on the right hand of the seat 
of government, and furnishes the material that keeps the wheels 
of progress turning. It is land once red with the blood of its 
own sons and wet with the tears of its women, now revelling in 
that joy and contentment that always follows peace and plenty. 
The race of people on its soil are specimens of God's noblest 
handiwork, a people in whose veins flows the select blood of all 
nations, a people continually invigorated by the pure blood of 
the best classes of all the world. Of its history it is useless for 
me to speak. You already know it. If it had no other it would 
be rich in the chronicles of your deeds. You have a history more 
glorious than that of the old guard of Napoleon, a history whose 
keynote was sounded by the first gun at Fort Sumter, a history 
of perfect faith in the justness of your cause, a history of con- 
stant effort of the day and sublime confidence in the future, a 
history of bravery, of self-sacrifice and of suffering, a history 
of battles won, a history of defeat and surrender, a history of 
ruined and pillaged homes, of want and penury, and of hardships 
greater than those of war, a history of the struggle against 
carpet-bag rule and negro domination, a history of rejuvenation, 
of successes in peace more glorious than victories in war, in all 
of which you rose to the occasion and acquitted yourselves in 
each instance with increasing honor. Yours is a history that 
all future ages will applaud. Yours is a history that has not 
one single blot upon it. Yours is a history that your sons and 
daughters are proud of. Yours is a history that should fill your 
old hearts with joy for it will give you a name that future gen- 
erations will delight to honor. This history you have made and 
we here and now, as we extend to you our greetings, promise you 
with a sincerity commensurate with our love and veneration that 
it shall be truthfully written." (Tremendous applause.) 

Selection of Officers. 127 

A committee of three, composed of General A. B. Borth, 
General J. W. A. Sanford and General B. B. Paddock, were 
appointed to return greetings of the veterans in conformity with 
the following. 

"Eesolved, That a committee of three be appointed to 
acknowledge the greetings of the United Sons of Confederate 
Veterans, and to extend to them the blessings of their fathers 
in the work in which they are engaged." 

The Confederate choirs then sang "My Maryland," and to 
the loud enchore Mrs. J. Grief Edwards sang "Dixie." As 
she finished the veterans crowded around. Many of them kissed 
her hands as they lifted her to her seat amid the yells of thou- 

General C. Irvine Walker then took charge of the meeting. 

General W. L. Cabell arose and said, "I am ready to lay 
before you my commission. I am ready to serve you in any 
capacity. I tender you the right to vote for whom you please. 
I have been a pure Confederate and I will enter into no con- 

"I tender you now my heart full of affection, I hold nothing 
against any man. I withdraw my name," he said with a voice 
scarcely heard. To this the veterans cried : " No ! No ! " and he 
answered : " I will do anything that the Confederates ask. ' ' 

General Bennett H. Young, of Kenteky : 

"My Commander and Comrades — Thank God that in that 
mighty struggle of four years for the independence of the South- 
land, and for the great principle of self-government, through 
more than 2,000 battles, there is glory enough to crown all with 
laurels of herpism, and to inscribe 600,000 names of the men 
who wore the gray on the brightest scroll of fame. 

"There were so many who exhibited unsurpassed courage, 
so many who gave costliest offerings for liberty and truth, that 
the praise of one detracts nothing from the common glory, but 
only adds merited commendation to the general fund of renown. 
In the very inception of that great war there was a young lawyer 
in the State Senate of Georgia, who by his position in the halls 
of legislation was exempt from military duty. 

"But high above all personal consideration, the call of his 
country, endeared by an immeasurable love, thrilled his pa- 
triotic heart, and casting aside all thoughts of self, he volunteered 
as a private, and with a musket on his shoulder marched away 
to meet and face all that patriotic duty required at his hands. 

128 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., Jjine 9-11, 1908. 

"First made major, then colonel, then brigadier general, 
leaving his own State to face the ravages of the advancing army, 
on the soil of Virginia. 

"With his fellow Georgians he engaged with the army of 
Northern Virginia in its death grapple with hosts, who sought to 
capture the capital of the Confederacy. 

"In leading his gallant Georgians five times he fell wounded. 
He climbed up rugged heights of Gettysburg, and with his life's 
blood traced upon its pitiless rocks his contribution to the splen- 
dor and glory of Southern manhood. 

"At Monocacy and the terrible conflicts at the battle of the 
"Wilderness, again he gave highest proof of his splendid chiv- 
alry, and watered the plains over which those struggles were 
pressed with his blood — and succeeded Jno. B. Gordon in com- 
mand of his brave and gallant division. 

' ' He took a prominent part in wrestling his beloved com- 
monwealth from the horrible throes of reconstruction. 

"His eloquent pen, his fervid imagination, and his cultured 
genius have played an important part in defending and perpet- 
uating the glory of Confederate valor. 

' ' He was the first commander of the first Confederate camp 
in Georgia, president of the Confederate Veterans' Association. 

' ' For twelve years this splendid soldier, this brilliant writer, 
this enthusiastic veteran, was commander of the Georgia Division. 
When amid tears and sobs we laid our beloved John B. Gordon 
to rest in the bosom of the State he had loved and served so 
well, and Stephen D. Lee, the commander of the Army of Ten- 
nessee was called to higher place, this comrade now marched 
one position higher, and became lieutenant general of the Ten- 
nessee Department. 

"And now again death has bereft us, and the place of 
commander of the association is vacant — and for the position, 
voicing the wishes of thousands of my comrades, I nominate 
a man love for whom is as wide as the bounds of the South — 
General Clement A. Evans, of Georgia." 

General A. J. West, of Georgia, declared that General Cabell 
in his speech for harmony had performed the greatest act of 
his life. He said a resolution should be passed expressing thanks 
to General Cabell for his action and retiring him with the title 
of commander-in-chief. He seconded the nomination of Evans. 

General Withers of Missouri told of the record of General 
Cabell and declared that by right and justice that officer should 
have the leadership of the organization. He spoke of his un- 
swerving devotion to the cause and said age was no argument, 

Selection of Officers. 129 

that if he were lying on his death bed to-day he ought to be 
honored first because of his right. 

"Do justice and don't let old Cabell die of a broken heart," 
he said, as he made the nomination. 

Dr. Morton, of Missouri, protested in strong words against 
the ' ' most gracious declination I ever heard. ' ' Pointing to Cabell 
he said: "I want that man to die with the harness on him." 
This was followed by loud cheering. 

B. T. Walshe, of New Orleans, arose to officially second the 
nomination of General Cabell. 

"By all that is fair he should be commander-in-chief." 

Judge Richardson, of Alabama, said that Cabell has but a 
few years to live; and moved that General Cabell be declared 
unanimously elected by acclamation. 

Immediately the confusion of voting began with this result : 

Division — Evans. Cabell. 

Alabama 214 

Arkansas 128 

Florida 98 

Georgia 260 

Indian Territory 45 

Kentucky 113 

Louisiana 93 26 

Mississippi 76 100 

Missouri 78 

North Carolina 130 1 

Northwest 28 

Oklahoma 28 

South Carolina 138 

Tennessee 90 54 

Texas 9 416 

Virginia 171 

West Virginia 10 10 

Totals 1,231 1,085 

General Evans was escorted to the stand, and he expressed 
in a few simple words his love for General Cabell and all the 
veterans. Then proceeded the election of department com- 

Generals C. Irvine Walker and W. L. Cabell were quickly 
elected to the commands of their respective departments, that 
of Northern Virginia and Trans-Mississippi. 

130 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

General Bennett H. Young nominated George W. Gordon, 
of Tennessee, to succeed General Evans in charge of the Depart- 
ment of Tennessee. General George P, Harrison, of Alabama, 
was also nominated. 

The election was ordered which resulted in the selection of 
General George W. Gordon. 


General Bennett H. Young, representing the finance com- 
mittee, advanced to the front of the stage, holding in his hand 
a magnificent badge, and spoke as follows: 


"I have been honored by a few comrades in the pleasant 
duty of presenting to our beloved adjutant general a souvenir 
badge., expressive of the regard, esteem and appreciation in 
which he is held by his associates. 

"General Mickle came into office at a critical period in the 
life of the United Confederate Veterans' Association. Death 
had wrought sad havoc in the ranks of the association, with no 
bond but one of sentiment, held together only by the mutual 
love and affection of men who had behind them naught but 
the recollections of unparalleled courage, heroic self-denial, 
superb heroism and immeasurable consecration to the cause of 
a dead nation. When those who had led and guided the asso- 
ciation to a splendid success fell, it was difficult in the shock 
of the loss of some of its great leaders, to see how the work 
could still be carried on, and the association, with only ties of 
sympathy and sentiment, be maintained along the magnificent 
lines which had characterized its past. 

"After all, every thoughtful man will quickly understand 
that this marvelous combination is the work of a single man and 
a. single mind. The commanding general has but little to do 
with the real life and the real work of the association. Fifteen 
hundred camps, 50,000 members scattered over sixteen States, 
requires not only a business, but a sentimental center, and this 
center must, in the very nature of the case, be the adjutant 

Presentation to General Win. E. Mickle. 131 

""When our beloved adjutant general, George Moorman died, 
and the many Southern soldiers realized that his life's work 
was done, they mournfully and anxiously inquired where will 
his successor be found. No soldier of the South had more lov- 
able qualities than General Moorman. Kind, considerate, gentle, 
loving, helpful, tactful, with a heart that held it the highest of 
all duties to serve his beloved comrades, he had really been the 
true source, not only of the life, but the power of the associa- 

"General John B. Gordon came to the reunions. His inde- 
scribable magnetism, his unsurpassed eloquence his wonderful 
control of men, always demonstrated that he was the greatest 
relic of the Avar after General Lee died; but reunions preserved, 
they did not make the association, and m the adjutant general's 
office was the real work which gave the Southern soldiers their 
power and control in the States which once recognized the Con- 

"We all know now that to General Moorman came visions of 
the future, that he heard the voices calling long before he 
answered death's summons, and to William E. Mickle he opened 
his heart, gave him a full insight into his plans and hopes., and 
in so far as possible prepared him for the duties of his successor. 
And so when the great break came, when the shock of Moorman's 
death had touched every Southern heart, all were glad that his 
mantle fell upon the man of his ehoice, and that by training 
and by devotion General Mickle was ready and able to take 
up the burden where General Moorman laid it down. In addi- 
tion to General Mickle 's special training, he had all the qualities 
of a refined, cultured. Southern gentleman. The South had 
no more loyal son. AVhen a mere lad lie had stood for its rights, 
and upon its battlefields shed his youthful blood to make good 
the right of the Confederacy to live. He had something, too, 
that was akin to genius. He possessed a capacity to master 
details, and this, with all his wonderful, lovable qualities, Gen- 
eral Mjoorman did not possess. The new adjutant general intro- 
duced business methods into the business management of the 
association. Debts had accumulated, but accounts and loans 
were quickly paid. Strong financial life was infused into the 
monied affairs of the great association, order came out of dis- 
order, and quickly the association lived within its income, its 
resources were increased. No longer deficits harried its leaders, 
and it was free from claims and worry. All this General Mickle 
has done. It was not necessary to parade this in print. Those 
who came in touch with the inner life of the association recog- 
nized that a master hand and a brave loyal heart stood for the 

132 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

business workings. This splendid result came as a great blessing 
to the association. Its power, its influence was not decreased 
thereby, but its rigid business methods won, as they deserved, 
the commendation of all its members. 

' ' God bless our dead, their names are precious to our hearts. 
God help and guide our living while they bear the burdens 
that the work of the association brings. 

"General Mickle has won the gratitude, the esteem and the 
appreciation of all his associates, and they have caused this 

*GoH Badge Presented to Gen. Mickle. 

splendid badge to be made as a slight evidence of their apprecia- 
tion of his magnificent services to the association, and they bid 
me present it to the adjutant general with the hope and prayer 
that the Heavenly Commander will long spare his useful and 

*lt was designed at first to give this Badge at Christmas, 1907; but it was 
subsequently decided to defer to the Birmingham Reunion. 

General Mickle's Reply. 133 

devoted life, and give him strength to continue his superb service 
while the association contains enough survivors to keep it intact, 
and still" able to discharge its duties to our people and the holy- 
cause it represents." 


Accepting the badge, General Mickle spoke as follows: 
"General Young and Comrades — I realize how imperfect is 
language when I attempt to make known the pleasure I feel at 
the presentation of this beautiful evidence of love and confi- 
dence. General Stonewall Jackson was such a warrior, and his 
character in that regard so much talked of, that the tender side 
of his nature is overlooked, and it is forgotten that he was a 
fond lover. He frequently said that the Spanish language 
was made for lovers, and in writing to his wife in subsequent 
years he delighted to address her in that language as expressive of 
endearing tenderness. All linguists familiar with the ponderous 
periods of Tacitus recognize that no other tongue is so remark- 
able for its conciseness and grandeur of expression as that of 
Ancient Rome. Now, if I were gifted with the power to blend 
into a harmonious whole this language of love and this power of 
expresion, I should be able to give some faint idea of the feeling 
of pride and satisfaction I have in accepting this handsome 
badge. Its intrinsic value is great, but not on that account do 
I prize it, but because it is a mark of approval given to my 
work by those in a position to know what I have done. 

"It was but natural that General Young in presenting this 
badge should attribute to me all the credit for the prosperous 
condition in which our order stands to-day. for obviously he 
could not allude to the part he himself has taken in bringing 
about this happy state of affairs. The eminent position he has 
attained as a lawyer and the pre-eminent success that has at- 
tended his efforts in every sphere of work that has engaged 
his attention enable us to give that credit to his utterances which 
are their due. 

But why should he ignore the chairman of the Finance 
Committee ? * General Montgomery is not a man of enormous 
statue, but there never was a period in his life that he did not 
make his presence felt in anything in which he took part, and 
this is true of the financial affairs of our association. His work 
in the committee is such as was his behavior, a beardless boy. m 
the war. In a campaign which took place in a section 

134 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

of country not so very distant from this very place, a 
brigade of Federals was greatly annoyed by a company 
of Confederates, which the commander was never able to cap- 
ture, for the company would strike first on one flank and then 
on the other, and then "dodge." Finally the general captured 
the entire command and was astonished and mortified to find 
his formidable enemy was nothing more than a few boys formed 
into a company. He sent for the commander. 

"When 'Little Bill Montgomery' was presented as the 
captain. 'Are you the captain of this company that has been 
giving me so much trouble?' said the irate general. 'I have a 
great mind to take you across my knee, give you a good spank- 
ing and send you home to your mother.' But lie didn't! and 
Montgomery remained a prisoner till the close of the war. 

' ' But if General Montgomery is small of statue the secretary 
of the committee is stout enough to be seen, and Fred L. Robert- 
son has a heart bigger than his person. No man is more familiar 
with all the inner workings of this great organization, or has 
more ability to do what is .best. He leads in all he undertakes, 
and loves the cause of the United Confederate Veterans with 
peculiar devotion. 

"Why pass over General Jos. F. Shipp? No one ever labored 
for any cause with more earnestness or with better success than 
our quartermaster general. He manifested his affection for the 
cause in attending the gathering in New Orleans, to found this 
grand federation, when it was never dreamed of by the great 
body of our members. He has done his share of work and has 
continued without faltering or wavering till this good day. He 
merits his share of credit. 

' ' Then there are Fusz and Hickman and Lewis and Fall and 
Newman and Sanguinetti, and Ellyson, not one of whom has been 
a laggard in laboring for the best interests of this glorious 'so- 
cial, literary, historical and benevolent' organization. Their un- 
wearying efforts should have had due recognition. 

"In every collection of men, however small, and banded to- 
gether to do a certain work, there always stands out one man 
'taller by a head than all the rest.' In the few who surrounded 
our Lord when He was upon earth, we find the impetuous 
Peter and the sneaking Judas, each of whom has received much 
notice; but the one among them all who claims our admiration 
and love is the devoted John, he who was nearest to His Master, 
and loved Him with peculiar fondness. And, my friends, we 
have just such a character on our Finance Committee ; one whose 

General Mickle's Reply. 135 

delight is in bringing about peace and harmony, and who de- 
rives more pleasure from making 'brethren to dwell together 
in unity' than from any other source ; and great as are the 
powers of the other members of the Finance Committee indi- 
vidually, and still greater combined, I do not know but that we 
could more profitably dispense with all rather than part with 
the sacred influence and wonderful power of the member from 
Arkansas, my beloved friend, General V. Y. Cook. 

"But, my friends, General Young has passed in silence an- 
other great name, he whom we have just laid to rest, our be- 
loved Stephen D. Lee. I had intended to say much of this ad- 
mirable man and distinguished soldier, but his lovely traits 
have been so ably touched on by others, that I forbear. Only 
one personal matter. 

"I have been intimately associated with General Lee from 
the birth of this organization ; and though we have served to- 
gether on committees time after time, I thought him reserved 
and unapproachable; but when he inherited me as Adjutant 
General from the great Gordon. I got close to him, and realized 
his constant friendship and devoted affection. When we were 
in Atlanta, attending General Gordon's funeral, I went at the 
conclusion of the exercises to bid him good-bye. He threw his 
arms around me, and bursting into tears, exclaimed: "Oh, 
Mickle ! what a burden rests on your shoulders, and on mine. 
God help us!" From that day to his death our devotion to 
each other grew stronger and tenderer. 

"When the presentation of this badge was first taken up, he 
of course, was consulted, and took the liveliest interest in it, and 
was carried away as with the enthusiasm of a school-boy, and like 
the boy, he was anxious 'to tell' all about it. Knowing how 
proud I would feel at this action on the part of my friends, 
he found it impossible to keep the secret; and just before he 
died, he wrote me a loving letter, in which he said that he and 
my friends of the Finance Committee were going to give me 
a handsome badge, but that I must not 'give him away'; add- 
ing that it was given me 'because we all love you so much and 
are so proud of your work.' Could anything be sweeter, nobler, 
or call for deeper devotion than I gave this devoted friend 
and brother? When Stephen D. Lee died I lost the best friend 
I had in the world. 

"General Young, I am proud of this badge, proud because it 
comes from friends who know me, and appreciate my work, and 

136 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

proud because it reminds me that I was a soldier in the Con- 
federate Army. I went into the army of my own free will, when 
possibly I could have remained at home if I had desired. For 
this I have no apologies to make to any human being, nor any 
regrets to express. I may have failed in my duties as a citizen ; 
I may have come short of my obligations as the head of a fam- 
ily; I have not lived up to the recpiirements of my church, but 
there is not one action of my brief career as a private in the 
Confederate Army that I would change if I could. I lived up to 
the full demands of the service, never skulking, never shirking. 
I was proud when I went into the army, proud when I was in 
it, proud when I was shot down at the front, proud till the 
present moment, and will be proud till I am called away. Then, 
when the cares of life have passed, I want to be laid to rest in 
the bosom of this beautiful Southland, where the Southern briars 
shall meet in loving embrace above me, and our Southern breezes 
shall sigh and moan in the Southern pines about, in whose 
branches our Southern birds shall warble their lovely Southern 
songs. Then, I shall sleep the sweeter in my last resting place, if 
I know that there stands at my head a plain gray head-stone, 
with the simple but beautiful inscription: 

"c. s. A. 

"a private 

''of the 

"a. n. v. 

"who did his full duty." 

General Mickle was frequently interrupted with bursts of 
hearty applause; and at the conclusion of his remarks, was 
warmly congratulated by crowds. 

The convention then adjourned to meet in Memphis in 1909. 
Official : 

Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 



THE YEAR 1907. 




Following is the address which the late General Stephen 
D. Lee had prepared, and was to have delivered to the Confed- 
erate Veterans during the reunion this week. He could not have 
left a grander record than these last utterances. The address 
reads : 

" It is now fourteen years since the Confederate Veterans en- 
joyed the hospitality of this magic city. We remember gratefully 
the courtesy of our former unsurpassed welcome, but to-day we 
are ready to believe that Birmingham can surpass itself. Then 
there was with us the incomparable Gordon, soldier, statesman 
and orator, who, along with the valorous Longstreet and the gal- 
lant Wheeler, were Alabama's Paladins in the armies of the 
Confederacy.' It was from Alabama that Yancey's voice, like 
a silver trumpet, called the South to arms, with an eloquence 
more potent than Clan-Alpines' fiery cross. Alabama was the 
cradle of the Confedercy. Here was installed the provisional 
government of the new nation, and here her illustrious chief 
took the oath of office, which no man but himself should ever 
take. And from Alabama came the great admiral who floated 
the stars and bars upon every sea, and single-handed swept a 
nation 's commerce from the waves. 

"Since the Avar I have heard many addresses to the Con- 
federate Veterans. Our orators have been rich in arguments to 
demonstrate the correctness of the States' rights views and the 
soundness of the interpretation of the constitution held by 
Southern statesmen. They have displayed the firm historic 
basis of our political faith. They have spoken in comforting 
words of unexpected beneficent results of the war, of the preser- 
vation of the rights of the States in the Union, of the discipline 
of adversity which prepared us to meet the terrible race problem 
with unflinching courage, indefatigable patience and united 
strength. They have taught us that the Lost Cause was not 
wholly lost, that the best fruits of the great conflict came to 
the South, when the master was freed from the slave, and the 
old icebergs of sectional hate were set adrift in the warm gulf- 
stream of a new national patriotism. 

140 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

' ' Nevertheless, it has not seemed the whole truth to me that 
the Confederate soldier went into battle to vindicate a con- 
stitutional argument. He went to war because he loved his 
people ; because his country was invaded ; because his heart 
was throbbing for his hearthstones. Here was the land which 
gave him birth. Here was his childhood's home. Here were 
the graves of his dead. Here was the church spire where he 
had learned it was not all of life to live, or all of death to die. 
No hostile foot should ever tread this consecrated ground except 
over his dead body. It was the prospect of invasion that made 
the border States with bleeding hearts tiy to cast their lot with 
the Confederacy. He who could have expected a Lee to do 
battle against Virginia, or a Hampton to draw his sword against 
South Carolina, has never learned the language of the human 
heart. Nothing but the most devoted love of country could ever 
have sustained the Confederate soldier in his unequal strug- 

' ' Neither do I consider it necessary to find a reward for the 
Confederate soldier in unexpected good results of the great 
conflict. The reward of noble actions lies in the capacity to 
do them. The Confederate soldier who fought with unflinch- 
ing courage had the reward of being a brave man. He who 
loved his country had the reward of being a true patriot. He 
who faced the cannon's mouth for those he loved dearer than 
life had the reward of being a hero. He who was faithful unto 
death had the reward of a stainless honor. What other course 
could a Southerner have taken ! 

"Behind him were the great traditions of his English race — 
there were Hastings and Cressy and Agincourt, there were Nase- 
by, Blenheim and Quebec, there w r ere King's Mountain and 
Valley Forge. In his veins flowed the blood of a thousand 
years of chivalry. He could face the line of fire, but not the 
shame of standing back. 

" 'All merit comes 

From facing the unequal ; 
All glory comes from daring to begin. 
Fame loves the State 

That, reckless of the sequel, 
Fights long and well, whether it lose or win.' 

" ' If it might be imagined, ' said Seneca, ' that the Almighty 
should take off his thought from the care of his whole work, 
what more glorious spectacle could He reflect upon than a valiant 
man struggling with adverse fortune?' 

General Stephen D. Lee' 's Address. 141 

"Not long ago I read from an Egnlish review these words: 
'When all is done that man could do and all is done in vain, 
the human heart goes out to the weaker side — to the soldiers 
who fought on, ragged and starving, to the bitter, inevitable 
end, to the leaders who would never admit that hope was lost, 
and to the noble women of the South who gave of their bravest 
and their best without a murmur.' 

" 'States are not great, except as men shall make them; 
Men are not great, except they do and dare.' 

"These men fell bleeding and with broken swords before 
the altar of their country. I imagine that the Knights of the 
Holy Grail never sought other reward than just to serve. The 
Confederate soldier was the flower of noble and heroic cour- 
age. Duty laid her kiss upon his brow, and love of country 
folded him in her arms. He enriched the world in honor. He 
added to the spiritual riches of mankind. The memory of his 
deeds is the treasure of his people, incorruptible, undefiled and 
that fadeth not away. No noble action is ever lost, no brave 
deed shall ever pass away. They are written upon the ever- 
lasting pages of the universe, they are inscribed upon the heart 
of God. The mountains and hills shall be made low, and there 
shall be no more sea, but nothing of moral worth shall perish. 
Upon the coral of lives such as these, God's islands lift 

" 'Their fronded palms in air.' 

"But if religion were superstition, and faith were folly — 
if death ends all, and icy night awaits the world — these men 
lived the only life fit to be lived. 

"To those who keep alive in loyal hearts the memory of 
the Confederate dead, I would say, those men chose the noblest 
part. This is the best life offers any man, to strive for the 
highest, the greatest, the bravest that he knows. Is it not bet- 
ter to achieve these things, even at the cost of life itself, than 
to purchase length of days by mean and sordid living, by 
cowardice or craft, by surrender of the fine ideals of manhood 
in base compliance to dishonor? In the heart of every man 
the Everlasting has made answer. If the cause was lost the men 
were not. Looking beyond the little span of human life, into 
the white light of eternity, what better could we have wished 
for the Confederate soldier than to have played his part as he 
did? He has left heroic memories that chasten and purify the 

142 Ge?ieral Stephen D. Lee's Address. 

hearts of all who shall come after him. He has lifted life above 
the low level of the common-place into the realms of precious 
and immutable things, into the great spiritual realities which 
abide above all change, beyond the reach of years. 

' ' The story of the dying Sidney, who gave his glass of water 
to a wounded soldier, saying, 'Thy necessity is greater than 
mine, ' is one of the fine memories of the English race. I would 
that the pen of Milton or Gibbon were mine that I might place 
beside it the story of Pat Cleburne at Franklin, as he drew off 
his boots to place them on the bleeding feet of a comrade and 
then rode on to lead the fatal charge. He fell upon the breast- 
works, saying : ' I 'm killed, boys, but fight it out ! ' 

" 'Far out on the crest of the battle 

Up, up toward the death — 
' ' To die for one 's country is sweet ! ' ' he remembered ; 

And then, out of breath. 
Met the shock and the pain and the terror 

Unflinching, " and knew 
In one instant's unbearable brightness, 

It was true ! It was true ! 

"Of him also it might have been written: 

" 'Right in the van on the red rampart's slippery swell, 
With hearts that beat a charge, he fell 

Forward, as fits a man. 
But the high soul burns on to light men's feet 
Where death for noble ends makes dying sweet.' 

' ' The old masterful type of Southern statesmen passed away 
with slavery. Whatever may be said of that institution, it 
trained men for leadership and government. The constant 
presence of the bondman wrought in the master a love of free- 
dom and a sense of honor that will never be surpassed. Wonder- 
ful men those old Southerners were ; great in counsel, great in 
battle, but greater than all in the integrity which felt dishonor 
like a wound. They would have fallen upon the sordid plun- 
derers, which in later times have infested public life, like Elijah 
upon the prophets of Baal. I cherish the hope that our South- 
ern blood will produce the type again — that with renewed pros- 
perity we will again introduce into public life a class of men 
able and willing to devote themselves with pure and unwaver- 
ing fidelity to the public service, and free from the all-absorb- 

General Stephen D. Lee's Address. 


ing struggle for bread, which has been the portion of South- 
ern men for so many years. May it be the lot of our children 
to perform the duty of freemen in a republic, with as willing 
hearts as ours, but at no such fearful cost, 

' ' The reason why I have this hope that the old time South- 
erner shall live once more is because the Southern boys love 
and cherish the deeds of their ancestors. They do not forget. 
The ideals of the fathers are real to the sons. The homage 
these young men pay to us old Confederates is sweet to our 
declining years, but sweetest of all, because it bespeaks a love 
for the dreams which we cherished, and a willingness to die 
for them if need be. 

U. S. Post Cffke. 

"The story is told of Bertrand du Guesclin. the national hero 
of France, that just before his death he succeeded in the re- 
duction of a fortress. The commander refused to surrender to 
any but du Guesclin himself. So the body of the great leader 
was laid upon his bier, and the stern defender gave his fortress 
keys into the hands of the dead. There have been brave sol- 
diers and pure statesmen since the days of the sixties; brave 
sailors too, as none better than Alabama knows; but the keys 

144 Eighteenth Reunion, Birmingham, Ala., June 9-11, 1908. 

of our Southern hearts were laid long ago in the hands of Robert 
E. Lee and Jefferson Davis. 

"These two great souls before they passed from us gave us 
the same counsel. They advised us to accept loyally the re- 
sults of the war, and to devote ourselves to the upbuilding of 
our wasted country. That counsel was accepted. The Confed- 
erate soldier has given to the government at Washington the same 
faithful support which he gave to the government at Richmond. 
His patriotism has expanded its boundaries without losing its 
quality. He yields to no man in his love of the whole country, 
and his devotion to her cause. In the war with Spain he gave 
proof that his sword was not asleep. It is all his country wher- 
ever the flag floats, which his ancestors filled with stars. That 
he has rebuilt the prosperity of the South ; that he has re- 
stored the commercial majesty of this glorious land; this great 
city is witness. The brain of a Confederate soldier conceived 
it, and the hands of Confederate soldiers have been busy in its 
work. They served their country in peace as in war. They 
point their children to the busy, happy, prosperous land, beau- 
tiful as the dawn, strong in developing resources, rich in prom- 
ise of all that makes a state, and say, 'Behold our greatest 
victory. ' 

" 'They loved their land 

With love far brought 

From out the storied past, and used 

Within present, but transferred 

Through future time by power of thought. 1 

"We old soldiers are sitting in the twilight of life waiting for 
the evening detail; waiting for the shining angel, 

" 'With things like chevrons on his wings.' 

"We are the stragglers in the great march. The victory is 
already won, and our comrades expect our coming to share the 
glory of their triumph. In the little time left us before we re- 
port to our great Commander, let us quit ourselves like men. 
When the pale sergeant comes we shall listen for voices in the 
upper air saying, 'Welcome comrade! Do they love us still in 
Dixie?' "