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Full text of "Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology"

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l^arbarli College l.tbrarD 

FROM THE BEqUBST OF 

JAMES WALKER, D.D., LL.D., 

(Class of x8x4) 

FORMER PRESIDENT OF HARVARD COLLEGE; 

# 

' Preference being given to works in the Intellectual 
and Moral Sciences." 



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PROCEEDINGS 



THE SOCIETY 



BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



JANUARY 



DECEMBER, 1906. 



VOL. XXVIII. THIRTY-SIXTH SESSION. 



PUBLISHED AT 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 
37, Grrat Russell Strext, London, W.C. 

1906. 



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'"Ml 



HARRISON AND SONS, 

PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HIS MAJBSTY, 

ST. martin's LANS, LONDON. 



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COUNCIL, 1906. 



PresidenL 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, D.D., &c., &c. 

Vice-Presidents, 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Salisbury. 

The Most Hon. The Marquess of Northampton. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Halsbury. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Walter Morrison. 

Alexander Peckover, LL.D., F.S.A. 

F. G. Hilton Price, Dir. S.A. 

W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

The Right Hon. General Lord Grenfell, K.C.B., &c., &c. 

The Right Rev. S. W. Allen, D.D. (R.C. Bishop of Shrewsbury). 

Rev. J. Marshall, M.A. 

Joseph Pollard. 



Council, 



Rev. Charles James Ball, M.A. 

Dr. M. Gaster. 

F. LI. Griffith, F.S. A. 

H. R. Hall, M.A. 

Sir H. H. Howorth, K.C.LE., 

F.R.S.,&c 
L. W. King, M.A. 
Rev. Albert Lawy, LL.D., &c. 
Prof. G. Maspero. 



Claude G. Montefiore. 
Prof. E. NaVille. 
Edward S. M. Perowne, F.S.A. 
Rev. W. T. Pilter. 
P. Scott-Moncrieff, B.A. 
R. Campbell Thompson, M.A. 
Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., 
F.R.S., &c. 



Honorary Treasurer — Jiernard T. Bosanquet. 

Secretary— ^zX\^x L. Nash, M.R.C.S. {Eng.\ F.S.A. 

Honorary Secretary for Foreign Correspondence — F. Lcggc. 

Honorary Librarian—^ 2ltex L. Nash, M.R.C.S. {Eng), F.S.A. 



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CONTENTS. 



Donations to the Library 2, 46, 90, 122, 158, 192, 240 

Election of Members 46, 90, 122, 158, 192, 240 

No. ccviiL January. 

The Councirs Report for 1 905 3-4 

The Hon. Emmeline Plunket. — The **Star of Stars" 

and"Dilgan" 6-13 

F. Legge.— A Note on '*The Early Monarchy of Egypt." 
{Plate) 14-16 

G. Legrain. — The Inscriptions in the Quarries of 
ElHosh. {z Plates) 17-26 

E. SiBREE, At. A. — Note on a Hittite Inscription (J. 11) ... 27, 28 
Prof. J. Lieblein. — Observations on the Ancient History 

of Egypt 29-32 

Margaret A. Murray. — The Astrological Character of 
the Egyptian Magical Wands, (2 Plates) 33-43 

No. ccix. February. 

The Hon. Emmeline Plunket.— The " Star of Stars " 

and " Dilgan " — {continued). {Plate) 47-53 

Seymour de Riccl — The Zouche Sahidic Exodus Frag- 
ment (Exodus xvi, 6 — xix, 11). From the Original 
Manuscript 54-67 

Percy E. Newberry. — To what Race did the Founders 

of Sais belong ? (2 Plates) 68-7 5 

R. Campbell Thompson, M.A. — The Folk-lore of 
Mossoul. 1 76-86 

F. Legge. — A New Carved Slate (fragmentary). {Plate) 87 



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CONTENTS. V 

PACK 



No. ccx. March. 

Prof. A. H. Sayce, D.D,^ &*c. — Unpublished Hittite 

Inscriptions in the Museum of Constantinople. (3 Plates) 91-95 
Edward R. Ayrton. — Discovery of the Tomb of Si-ptah 

in the Bibin el Molftk, Thebes. {2 Plates) 96 

R. Campbell Thompson, M,A, — The Folk-lore of 

Mossoul. I. — (continued), (2 Plates) 97-1 09 

E. J. PiLCHER. — Two Klabbalistic Planetary Charms. 

{2 Plates) 110-118 

P. Scott- MoNCRiEFF, B,A. — Note on Two Figures found 

near the South Temple at WM^ Haifa. {Plate) ... 1 1 8, 1 19 



No. ccxL May. 

Victor LoRET. — Le dieu Seth et le Roi S^thosis ... 123-132 

Prof. A. H. Sayce, D.D,, 6-^.— The Ivriz Texts ; The 

Ardistama Inscriptions ; Some Hittite Seals. (Plate).,. 133-137 
E. O. WiNSTEDT. — Some Munich Coptic Fragments. I. 137-142 
Prof. D. H. Muller. — The Hirayaritic Inscription from 

Jabal Jehaf. {Plate) 143-148 

Prof. F. C. Burkitt, J/.^.— The * Throne of Nimrod.' 

(2 Plates) 149-155 

The Rev. Dr. Colin Campbell. — Inscribed Slab with 

a portrait of Khuenaten. (Plate) 156 



No. ccxii. June. 

F. Legge. — Magic Ivories of the Middle Empire. III. 

{6 Plates) \.. 159-170 

Prof. A. H. Sayce, D.D.^ dr'c. — An Inscription of 

S-ankh-ka-Ra ; Karian and other Inscriptions. (2 Plates) 1 7 i-i 77 

Prof. Dr. E. Revillout. — The Burgh Papyrus. Tran- 
scribed, Translated, and Annotated 178-181 

W. L. Nash, F.S.A. — A Hebrew Amulet against Disease. 

{Plate) 182-184 



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VI CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

E. R. Ayrton. — The position of Tausert in the XlXth 

Dynasty. {Plate) 185,186 

E. SiBREE, M.A, — Note on the Boss of Tarljiutimme ... 187, 188 

Paul Pierret. — Le Nom du Pschent 189,190 

No. ccxiii. November. 

Prof. A. H. Sayce, D,D., 6-r.— The Chedor-laomer 
Tablets 193-200 

Dr. Valdemar Schmidt. — Two Statuettes of the Goddess 

Buto. {Plate) 201, 202 

Theophilus G. Pinches, LL,D, — The Babylonian Gods 

of War and their Legends ... ... ... ... 203-218 

R. Campbell Thompson, M,A, — An Assyrian Incanta- 
tion against Ghosts ... 219-227 

H. S. Cowper, F,S.A, — A Bronze Figure from Rakka 

{Plate) 228 

E. O. Winstedt. — Some Munich Coptic Fragments. II. 229-237 

No. ccxiv. December. 

Prof. A. H. Sayce, D.D., 6-^.— The Chedor-laomer 

Tablets — {continued) 241-251 

F. Legge. — The Tablets of Negadah and Abydos. 

(2 Plates) 252-263 

The Rev. F. A. Jones. — Pre-Sargonic Times. A Study 

in Chronology. {Plate) 264-267 

Prof. Dr. Valdemar Schmidt. — Note on a peculiar 

Pendant shown on Three Statues of Usertsen III. 

{Plate) 268,269 

Theophilus G. Pinches, LL,D. — The Babylonian Gods 

of War and their Legends ... ... ... ... 270-283 

E. J. Pilcher. — A Leaden Charm made under the 

influence of Saturn. {Plate) 284,285 

Title Page. 

Contents. 

Index. 



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LIST OF PLATES. 



The Early Monarchy of Egypt 

The Inscriptions in the quarries of El Hosh (3 Plates) ... 

The Astrological Character of the Egyptian Magical Wands 
(2 Plates) 

The " Star of Stars " and " Dilgan " 

The Founders of Sais (2 Plates) 

A New Carved Slate 

Hittite Inscriptions (3 Plates) 

Tomb of Si-ptah (2 Plates) 

Folk-lore of Mossoul (2 Plates) 

Kabbalistic Planetary Charms (2 Plates) 

Figures from Wady Haifa 

The Ivriz Texts 

Himyaritic Inscription from Jabal Jehaf 

The Throne of Nimrod (2 Plates) 

Inscribed Slab in Luxor Temple . . . 

Magic Ivories (6 P/a/!(?j) ... 160, 

Inscription of S-ankh-ka-Ra (2 Plates) 

Hebrew Amulet 

Carving in tomb of Tausert 

Statuette of Buto 

Bronze Figure from Rakka 

The Tablets of Negadah and Abydos (2 Plates) 

Pre-Sargonic Times 

Statue of Usertsen III 

Leaden Charm 



PACE 
16 

26 



40, 42 
52 

74 

87 
92, 94 

96 
102, 108 
112, 116 

118 

134 
144 

152* 154 

156 
162, 164 

172, 174 

182 

186 

202 

228 
252, 254 

264 

268 

284 



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VOL. XXVIII. J^ej^ttifJSlt^E^. Fart i. 



JL'N 11 190G ■ 
■ •.'- -■/ 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



-«*^- 



VOL. XXVIII. THIRTY-SIXTH SESSION. 

First Meeting y January lO/A, 1906. 



-«o^ 



CONTENTS. 

•^ PAGE 

The Council's Report for 1905 3, 4 

Thb Hon. Emmelinb Plunket.— The "Star of Stars" and 

"Dilgan" 6-13 

F. Lbggb.— A Note on "The Early Monarchy of Egypt." 

(Plate) 14-16 

G. Lbgrain. — The Inscriptions in the Quarries of £1 H6sh. 

(3 PlcUes) 17-26 

E. SiBRBB, M,A, — ^Note on a Hittite Inscription (J. 11) 27, 28 

Prof. J. Libblbin. — Observations on the Ancient History of 

Egypt 29-32 

Margaret A. Murray.-— The Astrological Character of the 

Egyptian Magical Wands. {^ Plates) 33-43 



published at 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

37, Great Russbll Street, London, W.C. 

1906. 



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SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY, 

37, Great Russell Street, London, W.C 



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.^ JUN 111906 "^ 
PROtE^mNVS 



OK 



THE SOCIETY 



OK 



BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



THIRTY-SIXTH SESSION, 1906. 



First {Anniversary) Meetings January lO///, 1906. 

W. H. RYLANDS, Esq., RS.A,, 
Vice-President^ 

IN THE CHAIR. 



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[No. CCVIII.] I A 

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Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 



The following gifts to the Library were announced, and 
thanks ordered to be returned to the Donor : — 

From F. Legge, Esq. — "Das Buch von den Zwei Wegen des 

seligen Toten." Part I. By H. 
Schack-Schackenburg. 
M „ " Religion of the Ancient Egyptians." By 

Prof. Steindorf. 



The Council's Report for the past year was read to the 
Meeting. 

• The Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the year 
ending December 31st, 1905, was presented and approved, 
and ordered to be printed and circulated among the Members. 

The List of the Council and Officers was submitted and 
approved. 

Thanks were returned to the Council and Officers for 
their services during the past year. 



The following Paper was read : — 

Miss M. A. Murray : " The Astrological character of the 
Egyptian Magic Wands." 

Thanks were returned for this communication. 



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i^ JUN 111906 )^j 

Jan. io] Tft^jj^P^ClL'S R^^R?^ [i9o6. 

THE COUNCIL'S REPORT 
FOR THE YEAR 1905. 



In presenting their Report at the beginning of the Society's 36th Session, 
the Council have to deplore the loss by death of many old and valued 
Members, among whom four appear to call for special mention* Of 
these, M. Jules Oppert was one of our few Honorary Members, having 
received that distinction at the founding of the Society in 1870. He was 
also the last survivor of the famous quartette, consisting of himself, 
Fox-Talbot, Hincks, and Rawlinson, who triumphantly vindicated the 
true method of reading cuneiform inscriptions, and thus raised Assyriology 
to the rank of a science. He was a frequent contributor to our 
Proceedings, and the Council feel that there is no need of any words from 
them to draw the^ attention of Members to the very serious loss that his 
death has caused both to this Society and to Oriental Archaeology 
generally. Another most distinguished Member has also gone from 
us in the person of Sir Charles Wilson. He, too, had been a Member 
from the beginning, and had served for some time on our Council, 
while the benefits he conferred on archaeology rendered by his explora- 
tions in Palestine and Sinai, and the careful survey of both countries 
which he published, all need as little recapitulation here as do his 
brilliant services to the State in other capacities than that of archaeologist 
Even nearer to us was the late Mr. F. D. Mocatta, who had been a Vice- 
President of the Society since the year 1889, had always contributed in 
the most generous manner to its funds, and showed his kindly interest in 
it by bequeathing to it at his death the legacy to be presently mentioned. 
Lastly, we have to lament the death of Mr. Thomas Christy, one of the 
founders of the Society, who was specially invited by Dr. Birch to take 
part in its government, on the ground that his business talents could be 
exercised to its advantage. How abundantly this turned out to be the 
case, both the Society and his colleagues on the Council know well. 

Owing to the deaths of these and other less distinguished but equally 
regretted Members, and to the resignations that must always occur in a 
Society of such long standing as our own, the Council can announce 
neither an increase nor a slight falling off in the number of Members 
and subscribing Libraries, which now stands at exactly the same figure 
namely, 410, as in January last. The net loss would have been much 
greater but for the gratifying fact that during the past year seventeen new 
Members have been elected. This compares favourably with the 
eleven Members elected in 1904, and affords proof that the Society 
is not losing ground either in popularity or usefulness. But the 

3 A 2 



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Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

Members must again be reminded that it is necessary for them to 
obtain recruits to fill up the gaps that death and resignation yearly make 
in our ranks, and that, with the increasing calls upon the income of the 
classes where we are most likely to find them, this is likely to be a 
greater difficulty in the future than it has proved in the past. The 
Council would therefore impress upon all Members the extreme im- 
portance of obtaining suitable candidates for election at as early a date 
as possible. 

The financial position of the Society has seldom been stron^'cr, and 
the Council are glad to be able to report that it continues to improve. 
Under the will of the late F. D. Mocatta, it has received a legacy of 
;£ioo, which has been invested in 2^ per cent. Consols, in the names of 
the Secretary, the Hon. Secretary for Foreign Correspondence, and the 
Treasurer. Together with the amounts already invested, this makes a 
Reserve Fund of £22f> 7s. 9^. stock producing income, and available 
for emergencies, such as the termination of the Society's lease of their 
present premises. 

The appeal for donations has brought in the sum of £77 13J. o</., and 
with the subscriptions paid in advance, and the proceeds of sales, has 
enabled the Society to discharge the debt of ;^ioo to the Secretary, with 
which it began the year 1905. It therefore begins the present year 
without any debt save that for the printing of the December Proceedings^ 
and with a balance of more than ;^ioo to its credit. As before, this 
result is due to the strenuous and unremitting exertions of the Secretary, 
and the Council hope that the Members will redouble their efforts to 
maintain the position that has been won with such difficulty. In 
particular the Donation Fund, which during the past year was con- 
tributed to by only fifteen Members out of a total of more than 400^ 
deserves more support from all the Members who can afford to contribute 
than it has up till now received. 

The Papers read before the Society which have appeared in the 
Proceedings continue, it is hoped, to maintain the high level of the 
Society's work. Omitting those by regular contributors, prominent 
among whom is our learned President, and whose names are familiar to 
the Members, the Council beg to draw attention to " The King Samou and 
the Enclosures of el-Kab," and " Inscriptions from Gebel Abu Gorib," 
by M. G. Legrain, and "A Kabbalistic Charm" by Mr. P. Scott- 
MoncriefF. Another most valuable contribution has been the " Himyaritic 
Inscriptions on Jabel Jehaf," by Lieut. Yule, R.E., giving an account of 
a hitherto unknown monument of great importance, a translation and 
commentary on which by Prof. D. H. Muller, of Vienna, will be shortly 
published in the Proceedings, In all these cases, the Council think that 
the Society may be congratulated upon the addition to its strength, of 
which such work is the best evidence. 



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Jan. 10] COUNCIL. [1906. 

The following Council and Officers for the current year 
were elected : — 

COUNCIL, 1906. 



PresicUni, 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, D.D., &c., &c. 

Vice-Presidents, 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Salisbury. 

The Most Hon. the Marquess of Northampton. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Halsbury. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Walter Morrison. 

Alexander Peckover, LL.D., F.S.A. 

F. G. Hilton Price, Dir. S.A. 

W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

The Right Hon. General Lord Grenfell, K.C.B., &c., &c. 

The Right Rev. S. W. Allen, D.D. (R.C. Bishop of Shrewsbury). 

Rev. J. Marshall, M.A. 

Joseph Pollard. 



Council, 



Rkv. Charles James Ball, M.A. 

Dr. M. Gaster. 

Y, Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. 

H. R. Hall, M.A. 

Sir H. H. Howorth, K.C.LE., 

F.R.S., &c. 
L. W. King, M.A. 
Rev. Albert Lowy, LL.D., &c. 
Prof. G. Maspero. 



Claude G. Montefiore. 
Prof. E. Naville. 
Edward S. M. Pbrownb, F.S.A. 
Rev. W. T. Pilter. 
P. Scott- Moncrieff, B.A. 
R. Campbell Thompson, B.A. 
Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., 
F.R.S., &c 



Honorary 7r^«j«/w— Bernard T. Bosanquet. 

Secretary— VfPii.T2.Vi L. Nash, M.R.C.S., F.S.A. 

Honorary Secretary for Foreign Correspondence — F. Lbggb. 



Honorary Librarian— Vf K\.lY.Yi L. Nash, M.R.C.S., F.S.A. 

5 



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Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHi«OLOGY. [1906* 



THE "STAR OF STARS" AND "DILGAN." 
By the Hon. Emmeline Plunket. 

"When on the first day of the month Nisan the star of stars 
" (or Dilgan) and the moon are parallel, that year is normal. When 
" on the third day of the month Nisan the star of stars and the 
" moon are parallel, that year is full." 

This translation of an Accadian tablet was contributed to the 
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Vol. XXXIX, 
p. 455) by Prof. Sayce and Mr. Bosanquet ; and in a very interesting 
dissertation on the text they explained how, by observing whether 
the " star of stars " set at the same time as the new moon on the 
4rst or not till the third day of Nisan, it was possible for Accadian 
astronomers to determine whether in the current year it would or 
would not be necessary to intercalate a thirteenth month in their 
soli-lunar calendar, in order to keep the year true to the length ot 
the sun's revolution through the stars. 

The writers tell us that "Dilgan," a star referred to in other 
cuneiform inscriptions, " is to be identified with the * star of stars ' 
" of the rule by a passage in an unpublished tablet which makes the 
" 'star of stars' equivalent to *the star Dilgan of Babylon,'"^ and 
they proposed to identify Dilgan with the bright conspicuous star 
Capella, in the constellation Auriga, 

Mr, Maunder has lately again called the attention of astronomers, 
in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (March, 
1904), and in the Journal of the British Astronomical Association 
(Vol. XIV, No, 6), to this Accadian tablet, 



^ Notices oj the R,A.S>^ XL, 120. 
6 

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Jan. 10] THE "STAR OF STARS" AND "DILGAN." [1906 

In these Papers he makes it very clear that two conflicting 
theories have been propounded by Assyriologists in regard to the 
Accadian calendar. The two theories are, firstly, that the Accadian 
year was equinoctial ; secondly, that the successive constellations of 
the zodiac were connected with the successive months of the year, 
Aries being the leading sign. 

Many years ago, in this Society's ProceedingSy I drew attention to 
the fact that these two theories conflicted with each other, and I con- 
tended that, as between their conflicting claimsi the evidence of the 
tablets appeared to be strongly in favour not of an ancient Accadian 
year counted from the vernal equinox, but of one counted from the 
entry of the sun into the constellation Aries. 

To this view Mr. Maunder is strongly opposed, and he quotes 
the tablet which heads this Paper as one which, if it has been 
rightly understood, must render the theory that in ancient times 
Aries led the year utterly untenable. 

He observes : " If Capella was Dilgan, the sun must have been 
" passing through the constellation Taurus during the whole of the 
" first month of the year, so that if any connection between the 
" signs of the zodiac and the months of the year was then recognised, 
" the Bull must have been regarded as the first sign, and the Ram 
" as the last." 

Now it must not be thought that these questions concerning the 
precedence of the Ram or of the Bull in ancient zodiacs are of 
merely astronomic or academic interest. It cannot with truth be 
denied that the answer to many historical and mythological problems 
are closely dependent on those given to such astronomic inquiries, 
and it is for this reason that I venture to bring before the notice of 
this Society the subject of the tablet translated by Prof. Sayce and 
Mr. Bosanquet, and their identifications of the " star of stars " with 
" Dilgan," and of " Dilgan " with " Capella." 

In this inquiry it will be best to deal first with one of these 
identifications exclusively, namely, that of Dilgan with Capella, and 
afterwards to discuss whether the " star of stars " can with certainty 
be equated either with Dilgan or with Capella. 

Mr. Maunder thus sums up the considerations which led 
Prof. Sayce and Mr. Bosanquet to recognise in Dilgan the star 
known to us as Capella. He says, ** They identified Dilgan the 
'* *star of stars' with Capella by means of a tablet in the Semitic 
** language, which reads : — 

7 



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Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

" * The appearance at the beginning of the year of the star Icu 
*' [Dilgan] . . . one observes.' 

" And again : — 

" *The star Icu in the month Nisan was seen.' 

" These they take, and no doubt correctly, as being observations 
" of the heliacal rising of Capella^ and they point out that it rose 
** heliacally at the time of the spring equinox about 2000 B.C., 
" and further that its heliacal rising took place before its heliacal 
" setting. These observations they join with the foregoing as 
" together furnishing the determination of the beginning of the 
" year." 

It will be seen, from this summing up, that the identification of 
Dilgan with Capella was based on two assumptions, namely : — 

First, that the heliacal rising of Dilgan (Capella) had been 
chosen by Accadian astronomers as a mark of the beginning of the 
year at about 2000 b.c. 

Secondly, that the year so marked by Dilgan (Capella) was one 
beginning at the spring equinox. 

When Prof. Sayce and Mr. Bosanqutt put forward their claim 
or the identification of Dilgan with Capella, both the above 
assumptions, though not actually capable of proof, were yet not 
unreasonable. 

The earliest known Accadian astronomic tablets were then 
attributed to a date of about 1600 B.C. To hold that the observa- 
tions recorded in them had been made some 400 years earlier must 
have been deemed a sufficiently hazardous supposition. Again, as 
history showed that at about the beginning of our era Nisan, the 
first month of the Babylonians and of the Jews, fell close to the 
spring equinox, the opinion that in past times these nations had 
counted their years as beginning at that season was very generally if 
not universally accepted. 

Now however that we know that many astronomical observations 
had been made and recorded long before 2000 b.c., it is impossible 
to restrict the age of the two references to the star Dilgan in the 
quoted tablets to that dale, and hence the argument for identifying 
Dilgan with Capella, even admitting the equinoctial theory for the 
Accadian year, is considerably weakened ; and it has further to be 
borne in mind that two conflicting theories on the subject do exist, 
and that it is not yet a proved fact, or one that can be treated as 
an axiom, that the Accadian year was equinoctial. 

8 



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Jan. io] THE ''STAR OF STARS" AND "DILGAN." [1906. 

As then there must still prevail much uncertainty regarding the 
identification of Dilgan with Capella, it will be worth our while to 
call to our aid in this inquiry some notices of Dilgan occurring in 
other Accadian tablets, which may enable us to determine in what part 
of the celestial sphere the star (or constellation) Dilgan was situated. 

The translating of ancient astronomical tablets has presented 
almost insurmountable obstacles to scholars ; for as Prof. Sayce 
observes : — 

" Their interpretation is for the most part difficult, since not only 
" are the terms obscure and removed from ordinary life, but a large 
** portion of the tablets is written ideographically. The astrological 
" information they contain had to be concealed from the uninitiated, 
*' and accordingly while the grammar is Semitic, the words are in 
" great measure Accadian. Sometimes, however, these are Assyrian ; 
" and the mixture of the two vocabularies considerably increases the 
** difficulty of decipherment, as it is often uncertain whether the 
" characters are to be read phonetically or not. Moreover, the 
" same ideograph is not unfrequently used in totally different senses ; 
** in fact we may say that whereas an ordinary Assyrian inscription 
" endeavours to make itself intelligible to the reader, these 
** astrological legends are intended to conceal their meaning as 
" much as possible." 

In the thirty years which have elapsed since Prof. Sayce wrote 
these lines some advance has been made towards the right 
understanding of cuneiform astronomical tablets. The advance has 
been slow ; but when we take into consideration the difficulties 
which had to be encountered at every step of the way, we can only 
congratulate ourselves on what has been accomplished by the 
scholars who have turned their attention to this arduous task. 

It is now possible to claim with certainty a knowledge of many 
Accadian technical terms which were still made use of in astronomic 
and astrologic documents by Babylonian writers in the first and 
second centuries B.C. The same claim can be made for our 
knowledge of the Accadian names for the seven planets, and of the 
first syllable, at least, of the twelve constellations of the zodiac. 
The Accadian names of a few extra-zodiacal stars and constellations 
have also been securely ascertained ; but for Dilgan, so far as 1 have 
been able to learn, no more certain identification has been proposed 
than that, as above stated, suggested by Prof. Sayce and 
Mr. Bosanquet. 

9 



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Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

By making use however of the knowledge that has been gained 
of the names of other stars and constellations, I think it will be 
possible to suggest an identification for Dilgan with a well known 
ancient constellation in the Grecian sphere. 

Recorded observations of the position of the planet Venus in 
different months of the year are to be met with in many ancient 
tablets. Prof. Sayce translates as follows a passage in which Dilgan 
is associated with the planet Venus in the month Sebat : — 

W.A.L 53 :— 

** 24. [In the month Chisluv] Venus is called the spark of Gula. 

" 25. In the month Tebet, Venus is the spark of the double ship, 

" 26. In the month Sebat, Dilgan of Babylon. 

" 27. A royal crown it gives (?) to Merodach. 

" 28. In the month Adar the spark of the Fish of Hea is Venus 
" (and also Mercury). 

" 29. In the month Adar on the third day (Venus) rises and 
" in Nisan " 

Fortunately for our inquiry concerning Dilgan, with which in 
this tablet the planet Venus is associated in the month Sebat, we 
can claim with almost certainty a knowledge of the names of the two 
constellations which in the tablet appear as marking the path of the 
planet in the two preceding months. Gula, it is scarcely possible to 
doubt, designated the zodiacal Aquarius ; and Uz, formerly 
translated ** the double ship," is now translated " Goat," and stands 
astronomically for the zodiacal Capricornus. 

The apparent path of the planet Venus is as a rule from west to 
east amongst the constellations ; but for about a fortnight before 
and a fortnight after inferior conjunction with the sun its path is 
from east to west. When therefore we read that " In the month 
Chisluv Venus is called the spark of Gula" (Aquarius), and that in 
the following month, Tebet, ** Venus is the spark of the double 
ship " (Capricornus), it is clear that at some time during those two 
months Venus was moving in a retrograde direction through the 
constellations, and that either at the end of Chisluv or the beginning 
of Tebet the planet was in inferior conjunction with the sun. 

The accompanying illustration represents what may have been 
the zig-zag path of Venus in a year, in which the longitude of the 

10 



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Jan. io] THE "STAR OF STARS" AND "DILGAN." [1906. 

planet coincided with that of the sun at a point on the echptic 
between the Babylonian constellations Gula and Uz, 

It is not by any means contended that the Babylonian con- 
stellations bore in every case exactly the same figures as those 
represented on the Grecian sphere — though there can be no doubt 
that in many instances a close resemblance did exist. The illustra- 
tion ^ points to the fact stated by Epping and Strassmaier, that for 
purposes of astronomical measurement "jedem Bilde genau 30° 
zugetheilt werden." 

As to the initial point of their zodiacal series, I have adopted 
that of the fixed Hindu sphere. The many considerations which 
have led me to the opinion that not only in India but amongst 
"the ancients " generally this was held to be the initial point of the 
ecliptic circle, I have dwelt upon in Ancient Calendars and Con- 
stellations. Epping suggests a point about 5° to the East of that here 
given for the 1° Aries. This difference, though enough to affect the 
answer given to many chronological problems, need not be taken 
into consideration in our present inquiry concerning the position of 
Dilgan in the Accadian sphere. 

As the Babylonian years were soli-lunar, the position of the sun 
on the first of a given lunar month might vary to the extent of about 
29° in relation to the constellations of the zodiac. I have supposed 
that the year in question followed one in which a thirteenth month 
had been intercalated, and that the first of Chisluv occurred when 
the sun had advanced about 20° through the Babylonian constella- 
tion of the Archer. 

During Chisluv, the path of Venus, as may be inferred from the 
tablet, was through the stars of Gula (Aquarius), and in the following 
month Tebet through the stars of Uz (Capricornus), therefore in the 
beginning of the month Sebat the planet would traverse some of 
the eastern degrees of Uz, and later in the same month would again 
enter into the constellation Gula. The tablet however associates Venus 
in the month Sebat not with Uz or with Gula, but with *' Dilgan," 
and this fact should lead us to the conclusion that Dilgan was a star 
or constellation not far from the point on the ecliptic where the 
constellations Capricornus and Aquarius meet. 

Now Capella-rthe star with which, as we have seen, it has been 
proposed to identify Dilgan — is distant by more than 95° of longitude 

'•* The Plate will appear with the concluding part of the Paper., 
II 



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Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

fiom this point. If therefore we place any reliance on the statement 
made in the tablet concerning the planet Venus in the month Sebat,^ 
we must dismiss the suggested identification of Dilgan with Capella, 
and we must seek for some star or constellation worthy of notice 
in or near to Capricornus and Aquarius which could have marked 
the path of Venus in Sebat, and which also should fulfil the astro- 
nomical requirements demanded of Dilgan in the other ancient 
tablets already quoted, namely : — 

" The appearance at the beginning of the year of the star Dilgan 
*• . . . one observes. *' 
And— 

" The star Dilgan in the month Nisan was seen.'* 
To find at 2000 b.c. a star or constellation in the vicinity of 
Capricornus and Aquarius whose appearance should announce the 
arrival of the sun at the equinoctial point (then very close to the 
Pleiades group), it would be necessary to fix upon some star or 
constellation in quadrature to the sun, which star rising at midnight 
might have called attention to the fact that the sun was at the 
equinoctial point. That Accadian astronomers should have thus 
elected to mark the beginning of the year, is a possible but some- 
what far-fetched supposition, and to the advocates of an equinoctial 
year— counted by methods first originated about 2000 B.C. — must 
be left the task of identifying Dilgan under such a supposition. 

^ Robert Browne, in Primitive Constellations^ Vol. II, p. 150, relers to a 
" Dilbat " (Venus) tablet as follows :— 

"The tablet 81.7.6, 102, for acquaintance with which I am indebted to 
" Mr. Pinches . . . gives, but singularly enough, not quite in their regular order, 
** the 12 months with 12 special stars . . . ." At a later page Mr. Browne gives 
a translation of the tablet. I quote from it the lines referring to Dilbat (Venus) 
in the months Chisluv, Tebet, Sebat, and Adar : — 

** 7. The Star Gir-anna = Dilbat in Kisluv." 

" 8. The star Uz = Dilbat in Tebet." 

" 9. The star Dilgan = Dilbat in Sebat." 

** 10. The star Kha (the Fish) = Dilbat in Adar." 

Gir-anna, not Gula, is here a.'^sociated with Venus in the month Chisluv y but 
for the following three months the path of the planet in both tablets is marked by 
the same stars or constellations. It has occurred to me that possibly Gir-anna 
may have been another Accadian name for the constellati n ** Gula," and if that 
were the case, we might assume that the two tablets described the path of the 
planet in one and the same year ; but be that as it may, we find Dilgan in both 
tablets marking the path of Venus in the month Sebat. The posit io 1 of Dilgan 
as in the vicinity of Uz is thus assured by the testimony of two independent 
witnesses. 



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Jan. io] THE "STAR OF STARS" AND "DILGAN." [1906. 

If on the other hand we adopt the theory of an Accadian sidereal 
year, dependent on the entry of the sun into the constellation Aries, 
we should not find any great difficulty in identifying Dilgan with a 
well known ancient constellation which could have been associated 
with Venus in the month Sebat, and which also by its heliacal 
rising might for Accadian and Babylonian astronomers have marked 
the arrival of the sun at the initial point of the zodiac. This con- 
stellation is the one known to us as Piscis Australis— the Southern 
Fish. 

It will be seen from the illustration that this constellation lies 
to the south and to the west of Aries, and that it underlies the 
constellations Aquarius and Capricornus. 

A little reflection will, I think, convince us of its suitability for 
identification with Dilgan. 

. I have claimed that the heliacal rising of the ** Southern Fish " 
might for Accadian and Babylonian astronomers have marked the 
arrival of the sun at the initial point of the zodiac. 

The late Mr. F. C. Penrose, in a paper published in the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society in 1893,* ^^^^s explains and discusses the 
meaning of the term " heliacal rising." He says, p. 43, "... . the 
" meaning of the term being that the star, when very slightly above 
" the horizon, should just be visible in the twilight, before being 
" extinguished by the dawn." 

And further, p. 44 : — 

"The conclusion I have come to is that (1) a first magnitude 
*' star in fair average weather in Greece or Italy could be seen when 
" rising heliacally at an altitude of 3°, the sun being 10° below 
" the horizon ; (2) that second magnitude stars should require an 
" altitude of 3° 30' with the sun 1 1° depressed, but that for a 
" third magnitude star the sun's depression should not be less than 



'3°. 



* *• On the Orientation of certain Greek Temples and the Dates of their Founda- 
tion derived from Astronomical Considerations, being a Supplement to a Paper on 
the same subject published in the Transactions of the Royal Society in 1893.' 



{To be continued,^ 

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Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 



"THE EARLY MONARCHY OF EGYPT." 

Note by Mr. F. Legge. 

Since Prof. Petrie's Paper on " The Early Monarchy of Egypt " 
was read before the Society, I have gone carefully over the evidence 
in the hope of discovering something that might lead me to alter the 
conclusions expressed by me in ** The Kings of Abydos " (jP.S.B.A.y 
1904, pp. 125-144). My search, however, has been fruitless, and 
Prof. Petrie seems to have ignored most of the points at issue 
between him and his critics. As, in my former paper, I gave, with 
such impartiality as I could, all the arguments adduced up to that 
date by Dr. Naville, Dr. Sethe, and Prof. Petrie himself, there is no 
need to recapitulate them here : but I may perhaps say that I do 
not read Dr. Sethe's paper in quite the same sense as he does, and 
that the former's doubting admission that the Horus- or hawk-name 
of Ka may have belonged to one of Menes' immediate predecessors 

(mag daher wirklich einem der letzten Vorgdnger des 

Menes^ die das oberdgyptische beherrsckUn, angehort haben) can hardly 
be given much weight against his frankly-expressed opinion that the 
whole theory of a dynasty before Menes was due to Prof. Petrie's 

finding names for which he had no room elsewhere ( ver- 

dankt dock die von Petrie aufgestellte Dynastie von Konigen vor Menes 
ihr Dasein im Grunde nur dem Umstande^ dass Petrie in der ersten 
Dynastie keinen Platz mehr fUr sie hatte), — However that may be, 
the real elenchus that Dr. Sethe, quite as much as Prof. Petrie, has 
to face is the identification of Aha with Menes. As I endeavoured 
to show in my former paper, this is the pivot on which turns the 
identification of all the kings — except Usaphais and Miebis — claimed 
for either the First or the Pre-Menite dynasty; and all arguments 
from style, position of objects and the like, whether valid or not, 
in the long-run start from this equation. It therefore seems useful 
to give here two arguments which have come into force since I 
wrote last year, and which seem to me to increase the probability 
that the hawk-name of Menes has yet to be discovered. 

14 



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Jan. lo] ••THE EARLY MONARCHY OF EGYPT." [1906. 

To the first of these arguments my attention was drawn by my 
friend, Dr. Naville. It will be remembered that the one document 
up to the present that bears signs inscribed near the name of Aha 
which the utmost ingenuity can torture into yielding a name like 
that of Menes, is the fragment of ivory discovered in the course of 
M. de Morgan's excavations at Negadah. This fragment, which I 
here reproduce (Fig. i of Plate), shows by the side of the hawk- 
crowned srekh of Aha, a sort of Norman arch formed of three 
parallel lines, under which appear the part of the royal protocol 
generally called the vulture-and-uraeus or nebti signs, and underneath 
them, a sign which first Dr. Borchardt and, following him, Dr. Sethe 
and Prof." Petrie, have declared to be the draughtboard sign reading 
Men^ and to be the archaic way of writing the name Menes. As 
Menes from the analogy of the names Usaphais and Miebis must 
have represented a cartouche-name, it follows that the arch here 
shown must, on this hypothesis, be a primitive form of the cartouche. 
Dr. Naville, on the other hand {L,P.A.M,^ I, p. 109), will have it to 

be not the cartouche but an early variant of the sign \\\ which 

denotes a building, and would make the whole group read menrubii 
**the royal pavilion." Hitherto this view, though probable enough, 
has lacked confirmation from precedents going back to very early 
times, such scenes as that shown in Fig. 2 of the Plate, which 
depicts the deceased person sitting in a pavilion and playing 
draughts^ being taken from a Book of the Dead of the New Empire. 1 
Now, however, M. Amelineau has published in his Nouvelles Fouilles 
d^Abydos^ 1897-1898 (Paris: Leroux, 1904), PI. XV, fig. 19, an ivory 
tablet coming from the tomb that he there calls Tomb 22 which in a 
general way resembles the famous fragment of Negadah. On the 
second register of this (see Fig. 3 of the Plate) there appears an arch 
corresponding to that on the last-named, with the exception that it 
is composed of two lines instead 9f three, under which appear only 
the two signs '^^z^ and o. If we may read these nebt^ the whole 
group might possibly mean something like "the queen's pavilion :" 

1 The sign \\\ occurs on the Palermo Stone, which may be attributed to 

the Vlth dynasty. It is there used in connection with the names of different 
"Halls," such as "the Hall of the divine thrones" and the like. Cf, Naville, 
Rec, de Trav.^ XXV, pp. 64 sqq, Schafer {Ein Bruchstiick AltdgypHscher 
AnnaUn) disputes this. 

IS 



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Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

but, in any case, it would require very strong faith to see in the arch 
any reference to the cartouche. The tablet, it should be noticed, 
appears from the srekh in the left-hand extremity of the upper 
register to have been made for the king whom Dr. Naville calls 
Schestiy but whom Dr. Petrie would- call Zer, and would identify 
with the king bearing in Manetho the cartouche-name of Atothis. 
The probability of the truth of Dr. Naville's interpretation of the 
so-called Menes tablet is now therefore at least twice as great as 
before. 

The other argument that I should like to impress upon the 
Society is the old one from silence, which seems to me to gather 
additional force every day. Aha was evidently a king ruling over a 
great part of Egypt, as is shown alike by the richness of his funereal 
equipage and by the fact that part of it appears at Negadah and the 
rest at Abydos. M. Am^lineau, M. de Morgan, Prof. Petrie, and 
Mr. Garstang have in turn unearthed monuments inscribed with his 
hawk-name, of which we now possess many hundreds as against the 
dozen or so that can be ascribed to well-authenticated names like 
Usaphais and Miebis. On the other hand, the cartouche-name 
which underlies that of Menes must have come down from very 
early times as that of the founder of the kingdom, since we find both 
Seti I and Rameses II beginning with it the lists of their predeces- 
sors which they engraved on the walls of the temple at Abydos. 
Hence it should have been as well known in the time of its bearer 
as that of William the Conqueror was in his ; yet among all the 
hundreds of examples that we now possess of Aha's inscriptions, not 
one gives any hint of the name of Menes except the fragment given 
in the Plate, to which a perfectly different and more plausible inter- 
pretation can be given. At first this argument had liltle weight 
because it might be said that the search for Aha's monuments was 
not completed ; but now, when all find-spots likely to contain his 
monuments have been ransacked, it seems to me to be almost 
conclusive. Dogmatism, notoriously unsafe in matters of science, 
is in Egyptology, peculiarly liable to disaster ; and it is, of course, 
quite possible that the earth may yet give up some inscription that 
will put the identity of Aha with Menes beyond a doubt. But until 
this happens, he will I think be rash who will put faith in any lists 
of the Menite dynasty which, like those of Dr. Sethe and Prof. 
Petrie, are founded on this equation. 

16 

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Proc» Soc. Bibl. Arch. ^ Jan. 1906. 







Fig. I. 

From AVt-. de Trai.^ XXI, 105, 1899. 



■Sfeatw 



1-^ ylrM Viijiyrii-*, T :;, 




t ail 



^\\t 



Fig. 3. 
From»Amelineau ; Nouvelles Fouilles (CAbydos^ 1897-98. Paris : LerouxT^igcM. i 

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Jan. io] INSCRIPTIONS IN THE QUARRIES OF EL h6sH. [i^^ 



THE INSCRIPTIONS IN THE QUARRIES 
OF EL h6SH. 

By G. Legrain. 

Among the inscriptions which I have collected in the course of 
my journeys through Egypt, more particularly those that I have 
found between Edfii and Gebel Silsileh, are nearly one hundred 
graffiti engraved in the quarries of El Hosh alone, and which for 
the most part have not hitherto been published. 

Various scientific observers, noticing that these graffiti are only 
met with in the quarries, and not on the rocks which border the 
river, have regarded them as '^ Sfeinmetzmarken,'* stone-workers* 
marks, and in some cases have seen in them the mark of the owner 
of the quarry, a sort of rebus which had no connection with any 
language or alphabet whatever. 

This opinion has seemed to me to be perhaps somewhat hasty, 
and Prof. Sayce, to whom I showed my copies, encouraged me to 
make a somewhat closer examination of these inscriptions than had 
hitherto been done. It may be that these researches will yield no 
results ; but in any case the Plates will serve the purpose of keeping 
together the complete collection of these curious inscriptions. 

For about twenty kilometres South of Edffl, on the West bank of 
the river, lies the country of Ramadi, the Northern extremity of 
which is marked by the Gebel Rashldi. At this point the mountain 
approaches the river, and past the mouth oif a large irrigation canal 
there is nothing but a narrow band of fertile earth to be found on 
the border of the Nile. The view of the country from the river is 
charming : palms, tamarisks, beans, lupins, and walled-in gardens 
everywhere meet the eye. Those natives of the country who 
travelled to the Sftdan after its re-conquest, brought back with 
them the culture of the millet, which has proved an abundant source 

17 B 



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Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

of wealth to this pretty country, formerly so poverty stricken. The 
village is perched on the mountain, fifty yards from the river, and is 
sufficiently well protected from the attacks of the robbers who some- 
times prowl about the river bank. It contains about fifty houses, 
built of sandstone, and roofed with dried dUrrah, The population 
approaches the Berberine type rather than that of the Arabs of the 
Said. 

The roofless quarries, which were worked in ancient times, lie 
to the North, between El Hosh and the little Khor el Ashurai. 
They are four in number, and we will distinguish them, starting 
from the North, by the letters A, B, C, D. The quarry A is by the 
inhabitants called el Maragha el ab'it^ and the quarry C el Hdsh abH^ 
Malar. These quarries being situated close to the river, working 
them was an easy matter; the stone moreover was excellent, and 
the Greek inscriptions found by A. C. Harris in 1857, show us that 
it was still in use in the eleventh year of Antoninus. 

Together with these inscriptions engraved on the unworked 
walls, we find other texts composed of peculiar characters, for the 
most part engraved in horizontal lines. These characters are some- 
times carefully sculptured in bas-reliefs sometimes also they have a 
double outline. The most beautiful example (Plate I, No. 16) is 
found in the centre of the West wall of quarry A. Carefully 
sculptured, it appears to be the ensign of the quarry, to indicate its 
name, or that of its proprietor. This mark or inscription is com- 
posed of two signs only — a harpoon and a circle crossed by a 
horizontal bar. Sometimes a single sign only is engraved, at others 
the engraver was more ambitious; thus, for example, No. 35 
(Plate I) contains no less than eleven characters; Nos. 12, 20, 
38, 44, have six characters each ; others again have five ; all which 
strike one as an assemblage of a large number of conventional signs 
for the simple purpose of a stone-worker's mark. 

In the collection of the inscriptions given on Plates I and II the 
Nos. 1-16, and No. 96, come from quarry A; Nos. 17-73 ^^om 
quarry B ; Nos. 74-95 from quarry C. The Greek text No. 98 
comes from quarry B, those which follow, from quarry C. 

I do not think that these inscriptions are very ancient : Greek 
letters are among the signs employed, and sometimes even are 
intermixed with the foreign characters, as, for example, the syllable 
riA in the inscription No. 88, which does not appear to be in any 
way a palimpsest. On the other hand, we find the typical harpoons 

18 



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Jan. lo] INSCRIPTIONS IN THE QUARRIES OF EL h6sH. [1906. 

engraved not far from the Greek texts (see Nos. 103, 104). No- 
where else, on any rock, can this contiguity of signs have any 
determinative value ; but it has some such value in the case of a 
quarry which is being worked, where, contrary to what has happened 
at Gebel Silsileh and Tfira, the " bench-marks " have been 
neglected. 

We will admit therefore, pending further information, that the 
Greek inscriptions and their neighbours are contemporaneous, and 
may be dated under the reign of Antoninus. 

Can we, and ought we to, believe that these signs, so numerous 
and so varied, had no meaning for those who engraved them? 
Such an idea appears to me impossible. If such were the case we 
miist also disregard, and declare to be meaningless, the Egyptian 

characters, the signs T, TTT> ^^^-j and even the cartouche 

( O j§ U J > which are found as marks on certain stones which 

come from Pharaonic quarries. My own opinion is that when we 
find any " quarry-mark " on a block of stone, it may, and even must, 
have a meaning, just as much as the hieroglyphic or hieratic signs 
engraved or painted in red in the Pharaonic quarries. These last 
are comprehensible now that we know the meaning of the hieroglyphs, 
but in former times they would have seemed as meaningless as the 
characters of El Hosh. 

The characters T nefer = " good " on the Pharaonic stones are 

not an invention of the quarry-master to indicate that the stone was 
good ; it was the sign and word belonging to the language of his 
country which expressed the quality he attributed to the stone taken 

from the quarry. The presence of these signs T does not lead to 

the conclusion that no hieroglyphic language or writing existed in 
which this sign and word were employed. The same reasoning is 
surely applicable to the inscriptions from El Hosh, which appear to 
be for the most part of remarkable length, if they are nothing more 
than the conventional marks of a more or less ignorant quarry-man. 
On Plate III I have arranged 77 of these signs — this is much for an 
unlettered stone-dresser, and for recalling on the walls of a quarry 
the quality of stones which are no longer there. 

If we regard the signs from El Hosh as indicating the name of 
the owner of the quarry, or his limit of working, we, in that case, 

19 B 2 

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Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906* 

ought to find the same sign, or group of signs, continually repeated. 
Our collection of the texts engraved in the three quarries (Plates I 
and II) shows that the engravers had other purposes than those 
which they seem to have sometimes expressed in a somewhat prolix 
manner, as for example in the inscription No. 35. But the mere 
fact of indicating a name is sufficient to raise these signs to the rank 
of characters having a conventional meaning : in this case we find 
ourselves in the presence of an unknown writing, and perhaps of a 
language that we have yet to learn. 

VVe have not a sufficient number of documents to allow of our 
venturing very far in this hypothesis, but we may make some remarks 
on the characters. 

The presence of signs singly or in groups of two or three would 
appear to indicate that most of them must be either syllabic or 
pictorial. Their great number would moreover go to show that we 
have not to do with a simple alphabet. Moreover, in certain 
instances we find Greek or Egyptian characters which seem to have 
been added to the clearly foreign signs, to aid or assure their vocali- 
zation, which is an indication of the primitive poverty of the wriiten 
system. The syllable HA may be the phonetic value of the circle 
crossed by a horizontal bar (No. 88). The direction of the almost 
hieroglyphic signs of the text No. 49 appears to indicate a reading 
from right to left. 

The whole signs may be divided into three groups : — 

(i) The primitive groups among which I put the circles, har- 
poons, keys, and some other geometrical signs. 

(2) The group with Greek letters added, among which I believe 

I have recognized the vowels A I O Y and the con- 
sonants B A A n. 

(3) The group oj pictorial signs, among which I recognize some 

hieroglyphic signs. 

On Plate III all the known signs are collected together. It is 
very probably incomplete, and we must look to the discovery of 
other inscriptions to enrich it. 

In the following Table I give in one column the reference Nos. 
of the signs on Plate III, and some notes on the signs ; in the other 
column will be found the reference Nos. of the Inscriptions, given on 
Plates I and II, in which each sign appears. 

20 



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Jan. 10] INSCRIPTIONS IN THE QUARRIES OF EL h6sH.. [1906. 



PlJiTE III. 
Signs. 

1. A curved oblique line . 

2. A vertical line, perhaps the Greek iota 

3. Perhaps the hieroglyphic sign JU /i»» 

4. Perhaps the sign Y hedj 

5. Harpoon? . . . . 
6 



9, 10. These two signs are very similar. 
Taking 25, which is more carefully 
carved than the others, as the type, I 
call all the signs from 9 to 26, Har- 
poons. No. 9 is found on the right of 
the Greek inscription 103. 



Plates I and II. 

Inscriptions. 

Nos. 

12, 60, 63, 96 
64, 83, 87 

33 
69 

91 

96 
I, 7, 20, 25, 33, 
35» 36, 38, 52, 
56, 57, 60, 62, 
63, 72, 86, 89, 
93» 94, 96 



" i3» M, 22 

12. Ift Inscription No. 67 ihis sign ap- 15, 17, 19, 29, 
proaches the form of an anchor. {See 31, 34, 35, 41, 
sign No. 92.) 46, 50, 62, 63, 

65, 67, 68, 70, 

71, 72, 73, 78, 
79, 82, 85, 86, 

92, 9<5 
13 24 

M 39 

15 3o» 37» 59 

16 3, 4, 5, 10, 53» 

58, 61, 81 

17 8, 42 

18 12 

19 64 

21 



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Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

Plates I and II. 
Plate III. Inscriptions. 

Signs. Nos. 

20 9, 18, 35, 44, 

45, 46, 48, 62, 

66, 73, 77, 78, 
80, 88, 92, 94 

21 16, 82 (?) 

22 23, 43, 47, 

52(?), 54 

23 6 

24. The second example of this sign does 21, 97 

not come from El Hosh. My copy 
was made from an engraving of it 
on a rock at Gebel Rashidi, some 
kilometres further North, and I know 
of other signs in the same neighbour- 
hood. 

25 28 

26 10 

27. Doubtful and ill defined ... 35 

31. I suggest the name "keys" for the 45, 47 

signs 31 to 41. 

32 i9» 33> 34 

33 35, 54, 65 

34 55 

35 8 

36 37 

37 43 

38 56 ' 

39 71 

40 44 

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Jan. 10] INSCRIPTIONS IN THE QUARRIES OF EL h6sH. [1906. 



Plate III. 
Signs. 



41. 
45- 



This sign, the most frequent of all, does 
not appear to be the Greek 0. The 
sign No. 82 must be its most perfect 
form, and the two inscriptions 82 and 
92, are similar. The inscription 88, 
seems to indicate the reading PI A or 
An, for this sign. 



46. Probably not the Greek ♦. 



47. Perhaps a compound of two different 
characters. 

48 

49 

50 

SI 

52. Perhaps the same as 45 

53. See the Egyptian hieroglyph ® 

23 



Plates I and II. 

Inscriptions. 

Nos. 

47 

I, 2, 8, 9, 12, 
15, 16, 17, 18, 
20, 21, 25, 26, 
29» 30, 3h 34, 
35, 36, 37, 38, 
39, 40, 42, 43, 

44, 48, 49, 50, 

52, 53, 54, 55, 

56, 57, 60, 61, 

62, 63, 66, 67, 

Ih 72, 74, 75, 

76(?), 77, 78, 

80, 81, 82, 83, 

85, 86, 87, 88, 

90, 91, 92, 94, 
96 

7, 10, II, 12, 

14, 19, 20, 22, 

45, 46, 47, 58, 
59, 65, 68, 70 

8 

87 
83 
83 
10 

76 
64 



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Jan. Xo] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

Plates I and II. 
Plate III. Inscriptions. 

Signs. Nos. 

56. This sign is found in other places 8, 20, 21, 22, 

besides £1 Hosh, for example at 29, 35, 38, 42, 

Naukratis, cf, Petrie, Naukratis I, 44, 52, 55, 66, 

PL XXXIV, fig. 397B, and also on 67, 68, 69, 74, 
rocks, and blocks of stone in the 
neighbourhood of El Hosh. 

57 40 

58 • 71 

59 85 

It appears to me that eight Greek letters 
can be recognized, to which may be 
added the sign No. 2 if we regard it as 
the Greek iota^ thus completing the 
series 'of the vowels A, I, O, Y, and 
the consonants B, A, A, FI. 

63. A, is found under the same form in the 36, 52, 88 

Greek inscriptions 99, 100, 10 1, 102, 
103, 104, 105, 106. 

64. B 35» 56 

65. A(?) 87 * 

66. A see the Greek inscriptions, as above . 35, 84, 86 

67. O (?) see the Greek inscriptions, as 8 (?), 10, 84, 

above. 86 (?) 

68. n 88 

69. Y see Nos. 98, 103, 104, 106 . . 84 

70. ♦ (?) 70 

Some signs are borrowed from hieroglyphs. 

74. §» her^ the face 95 

71;, -C2>- ariy the eye ..... 49 

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Jan. io] INSCRIPTIONS IN THE QUARRIES OF EL HdSH. [1906. 



Platr III. 
Signs. 

77, 79- y ««^>4 
80, 81. Q, 5 = 
86. S(?) . . 



shen 



87. f .... 

88. jlc = pycj 

89. -It- am (?) see sign No. 3 
91. § A . . . . 



Plates I and II. 

Inscriptions. 

Nos. 

50 
26, 47, 8a 
38 

39 
49, 62 

95 



Other signs apparently from different sources. 

73. A Dolphin 

78. A Foot 

82. This does not appear to be the sign 

@ No. 46. See sign No. 45. 

83, 84. Branches of a tree .... 

85. Arrow 

90. A Graeco-Syrian Altar .... 
92. Anchor ...... 



49 
34 



44, 45, 47 
CI, 9o(?) 

93 
27 



I h^ve left vacant spaces in the Plate of signs, as I am satisfied 
it is far from complete. It is most desirable that we should ascertain 
if similar Inscriptions do not exist elsewhere, and if so to add them to 
those which I have here grouped together. I myself know of some 
examples of the signs Nos. 8, 18, 20, 56 (Plate III), engraved on the 
rocks outside the quarries in the country around El Hosh, between 
Gebel Rashidi and Gebel Silsileh. It is by forming a sort of Corpus 
of the Inscriptions that we shall be the better enabled to arrive at 
the conclusion that these singular characters are probably not simply 

25 



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Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

Stone-workers' marks, but are real characters which have served 10 
transcribe a foreign language that the future may perhaps enable us 
to understand. 



Note by Prof. A. H. Savce. 

I have copied similar groups of characters, elsewhere in Upper 
Egypt, the following examples are from El-Kab. 

On an isolated rock quarried in the Vlth dynasty mine to the 

East of HilM, is an ankh and \J\ \ . 

In the Ptolemaic quarries behind Mahamfd are an Altar (Plate 
III, No. 90) : the branch (No. 83) : the ankk (No. 86) : and a 
character ^ which I have found elsewhere as well as in an 
inscription of the Middle Empire near Assuan. 



26 

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PLATE I. 



Proc, Soc. Bibl. Arch. ^ Jan. ^ 1906. 



XXI 



teenitor'^xen 



-n 



■ri 



Qt^^lCDoCP^ 



e^eiQ 



IE 



TF" 



TV 



16 






tee 



ent(D 



u. 



*i_ 



^^ 



ef0f 



T0I 



^£S — 



®J 



^i^e 



43_ 



s: 



i\ 



/ 



^^ 






ii__l5 



i4 



eJ ®^©i * 



^ttii^iet 



iff 



^ ji* 1*3 



Aer 



i»o 



iti 



JeJ EtltOTt©/ 



Be? 






T 



m^ 






^ 



e 



ib: 



+ At-©K ei 



\VB 



"llO\Ql\Je\Vrh\\o^ 



^Te'|;e|f|Ttlt'^Trf|on 



tezlltteorcDtxri^l'to 



INSCRIPTIONS FROM THE QUARRIES OF EL HOSIl. 



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PLATE II. 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch. ^ Jan., 1906. 






7r 



76 



+© 



e^l 









(^ le ^ e Q e It oA^ [f e« 



Qt?/if|ie0'^erQTrf|©T 



e r ri QT It" fetw^t^ 



96 



T 



97 



3g 



9? 



AnoAAu^Av^lOC 

MKXAMIKOC 



AnoAAUt^NlOC 



oQ: 



A/T oAaujw I oc" 



101 



i£5 



lIAAWtU/V/A/OCA1£COPH "^ L/AA/VTiOVwoc 

OA/|AOCeiCHAeeM€IC AnoAAu>cn€Tt ^/.xoyMiocI 
I0£ TO^^O^^\oA/^UCOPH|<cAPX/MKXAA'lK4^^ 

CHArAeuy 

lOij LlAANTa;A///V0C€K0fAM6N' 

A TOVC M€mAOYCAI0OVcr/ ;/ 
I nnXtuN /A€ICrHN^VAH^/!?: 

TOYKypioy AnoXX \j^r^C'.-- 



^ I ^ -k K/'^'- ^J'^- TO rJ O piJAOMrl C 
V^ATu;"^ >^'CA\tp^v.lKCK^ 

10? 



noyro kj>,i '^pk»^ 

VT 



• 06 



INSCRIPTIONS FROM THE QUARRIES OF EL HOSH. 



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PLATE III. 



Proc. Soc. Bibt. Arc h.^ Jan. ^ 1906. 



«* 
z' 


1 


+ 


1 


5 

4 


6 


7 

n 


6 


9 


10 


11 

1 


11 

1 


<5 


/ 


15 

I 


16 


17 


\' 


'9 
f 




^1 

t 




P 


JA 

I 


I" 


\ 


T 


«?« 


is 


50 


1 


M 


T 


r" 


35 




17 

J 


J" 


r 


i.0 




ki 


^5 


'I'l 


45 

e 


46 


47 


4g 

9 


i,5 


90 


51 

? 




53 

© 


5/r 


55 


5« 


f 


58 


S9 


(0 


61 


6J 


(5 

A 




i5 


6^ 

A 


<7 



£8 

n 


65 

Y 


70 




7/ 


7* 


73 


7* 


75 


76 


*" 


7« 




i" 


80 




^ 


1* 




y5 




'7 


88 


S5 

+ 




r 


?4 


95 


?4 


55- 


96 


^7 


» 


99 


KK 


(Ol 


102 


.03 


loA 



TABLE OF TTTK SIGNS WHICH OCCUR IN THE INSCRIPTIONS 

1 TO 97. 



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Jan. lo] NOTE ON A HITTITE INSCRIPTION (J. ii). [1906. 



NOTE ON A HITTITE INSCRIPTION (J. 11). 
By E. Sibree, M.A. 
The inscription known as J. 11 begins with the words 

%^ h (^ ODOO J k ^ 

123 4 56789 10 

No. 9 has long been recognized as the symbol for "country." 
M. Six has discovered that Nos. 3-6 represent the Hittite name of 
Carchemish, 7 being the determinative of place. May not 9 also 
be a determinative in the above instance ? If so, is it the deter- 
minative of 8 or 10? In cuneiform the determinative of place 
{airu) is affixed to a place-name, the determinative of country 
(mdtu) being prefixed to the name of a country, as in the following 
passage in the Sinjerli inscription of Esarhaddon (1. 14) : — 

<^ -t^T t^:? -+ E"!=TT <m ^ "-" ^T T- -n<T 

Sakkanak Bibili (DA) Sar (DP) §u-me - ri 

Governor (or High Priest) of Babylon^ king of Sumer 

If the Hittite arrangement of determinatives is the same as the 
Assyrian, then 9 will be the determinative prefix of 10 — the name 
of a country. It also follows that 8, which looks like a lamb's head, 
will be the symbol for "king"; cf, the Sumerian word umun, mean- 
ing both " sheep or lamb " and " king " (Jam) {vid. Ball, " Accadian 
Affinities," Trans, IX Congr. of Orientalists^ Vol. II, p. 693 ; 
Sayce, Assyrian Grammar, p. 29). Again, if 3-6 is the name of 
Carchemish, then i, 2, may be a word meaning "governor," or the 
like. Now, if we compare i, 2, with the hnear form of ^^ *"i^Ti 

viz., C3 \7 , prototype also of the Egyptian | V , we shall see that 

27 

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Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH^:OLOGY. [1906. 

2 bears some resemblance to the first symbol, while i may be 

compared with the abridged form V , of the second symbol. The 

transposition of the symbols m the Hittite is due probably to 
causes similar to those which occasioned the change in reading 
of >-i^fy ^::y zu-ab in Sumerian to t.t!\ *-^\ ab-zu in Assyrian. 
Again, the immediate prototype of the Hittite symbol No. 2 is 

possibly not the above Babylonian symbol, but rlT (= »-^yyy), 

"dagger," since both this symbol and the above had the same 
phonetic values, gir^ mer. If so, the Hittite symbol which re- 
sembles a dagger must be regarded as merely due to a confusion 
of signs which arose in the Babylonian prototype of the phrase. 
The word represented by i, 2, maybe rendered either "governor" 
or "high priest." 

We might then translate the opening words of J 11 as "Governor 
of the city of Carchemish, King of the land of . . " 



28 

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Jan. io] OBSERVATIONS ON ANCIENT HISTORY OF EGYPT. [1906. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE ANCIENT HISTORY OF 

EGYPT. 

By Prof. J. Lieblein. 

I long since expressed the opinion that the Egyptian civilization, 
as manifested in its most developed form on the monuments of the 
period of the pyramids, commenced in prehistoric times, probably 
several centuries, or rather some thousands of years, before Menes. 
It originated in that part of the Valley of the Nile which extends 
from Heliopolis in the North to the neighbourhood of Abydos on 
the South, that is to say, from 30° to 26^° of latitude. 

It is this district, containing the cities Heliopolis, Heracleopolis 
Magna, Hermopolis, and Panopolis, which is exclusively mentioned 
in the most ancient part of the Book of the Dead— Chapter XVII — 
which relates the history of the creation of the world. It is here 
that the Sun was the principal deity, Ra, Horus, Tum, and that 
Heliopolis, the place of his worship, was the holy city, the most 
ancient centre of Egyptian civilization. In short, it is here that 
lived the people who represented the Egyptians, properly so called, 
and whom we may designate the " Heliopolitan people." 

To the North of this district, in the swamp of the Delta, lived 
the Semitic immigrants from the adjacent Asia, with their deity 
Set-Typhon, who is doubtless to be identified with the Seth of the 
Bible (Gen. v, 3 ss.), and with the god Set of the Khetas, mentioned 
in the treaty between the Khetas and Rameses II. 

To the South, beyond This — Abydos and Negadah — lived a third 
people, immigrant perhaps from the Red Sea littoral, whose kings at 
the very commencement of historic times constructed the tombs at 
Negadah, and above all at Abydos. These immigrants, whom we 
may call the "Abydenian People," finally settled at Abydos, and 
when they had become accustomed to their new surroundings, and 
felt themselves strong enough to continue the conquest of the 
country, one of their kings, Menes, went northwards, subjugated the 

29 



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Jan. lo] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

Heliopolitan Egyptians and founded, for the first lime, the Egyptian 
Empire. Osiris of Abydos was his god, and as the god of a people 
shared the lot of his people, Osiris became at first the principal deity 
of the Empire. The worship of the solar god Horns was so firmly 
established among the most civilized Egyptians, that the necessity 
for a compromise was very soon felt. Osiris became the father, 
Horus the son. But later the worship of Horns took the ascendancy 
over that of Osiris, and as the moral sense became simultaneously 
developed, the relative position of the two gods became thus fixed : 
Osiris as the dead god became the supreme judge in the other 
world, while Horus as living god was king on earth. The Book of 
the Dead, Chapter XVH, 5 ss., expressly says : " I am yesterday 
and I know the morrow. Yesterday is Osiris, to-morrow is Ra, in 
that day on which he has killed the enemies of the Universal Lord, 
and on which he has given the royalty to his son Horus. In other 
words, it is the day on which we celebrate the finding of the coffin 
of Osiris." Again, 1. 69 ss, : " He to whom is given the royal crown 
and joy in Heracleopolis Magna, is Osiris. It is given to him to 
reign over the gods in that day on which the two countries (Upper 
and Lower Egypt) are established before the Universal Lord. He 
who is ordered to reign over the gods, is Horus, son of Osiris, who 
governs in the place of his father Osiris. The day of establishing 
the two countries, it is the union of the two countries (Upper and 
Lower Egypt) on the burial of Osiris." 

This, in my opinion, means, when Menes had finished the war 
by a decisive battle, and had united Upper and Lower Egypt 
under one rule, so Osiris had at the same time began to reign over 
the gods. He was "yesterday." But the morrow was Horus, who 
after the death of Osiris took the government in place of his father. 
All is clear and simple, without either ambiguity or mystery. 

The usual name of this god is " Osiris, Lord of Abydos," a name 
which indicates that he was in fact the local god of Abydos. As a 
dead god he is called " Khentament," he who is in Amentia the god 
of the dead. A third name of this god is " Osiris Lord of Mendes," 
a name, however, which does not indicate that his worship originated 
in Mendes ; on the contrary, we know that instead of being a primi- 
tive deity at Mendes, he was introduced there at a later time. For 
in the Book of the Dead, Chapter XVII, 42 j., we read, " I am a 
soul in its two twins. Osiris enters into Mendes, he finds the soul 
of Ra there; then they unite the one with the other and they 

30 



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Jan. lo] OBSERVATIONS ON ANCIENT HISTORY OF EGYPT. [1906. 

become his soul in his two twins : It is Horus, avenger of his father 
and Honis-Khont meriti. In other words : the soul in his two 
twins is the soul of Ra with the soul of Osiris." This is a perfectly 
clear and authentic statement to the effect that at a later epoch a 
new worship of Osiris was introduced into Mendes, to be united 
with the ancient worship of Ra. 

Menes has therefore, by his victory, not only united the two 
countries — the Abydenian and the Heliopolitan peoples — into a 
single empire, but he has also arranged a compromise between the 
worship of Ra and that of Osiris, which last has in course of time 
become changed into a worship of the dead. 

With regard to the third people, the Semites who had wandered 
to the North in the swamp of the Delta, they were not yet subjected 
to the new empire, but this probably took place under the last kings 
of the Ilnd dynasty. At least, we know from M. Amelineau's 
excavations at Abydos, a king Khasekhemui, last king of the 
Ilnd dynasty, or, as M. Maspero thinks, one of the kings of the 
Ilird dynasty, whose name ai)pears below two symbols which 
represent the gods Horus and Set. Prof. Petrie in his History 
(I, 28*, 5th ed.) writes as follows of the clay seaUngs of this king : 
" In every case the name is surmounted by both Set and Horus ; 
face to face where the name is of the full form ; both the same way 
where the shorter form is used." Again, on page 27* speaking of 
Khasekhem, whom he regards as the predecessor of Khasekhemui, 
but who was probably the same person, he writes: **The seated 
figures (of Khasekhem) are, one in slate and the other in hard 
limestone. Around the base of each figure is a row of slain 
enemies, and on the front is the inscription 'Northern enemies.* 

these can hardly be of the Nile valley, nor are they likely 

to be Sinaites, as such are not termed Northern." 

All this accords perfectly well with my views, long since 
expressed, on the most ancient history of Egypt.^ 

The "Northern enemies" were the Semites who dwelt in the 
Delta, and the " two tribes of Horus and Set worshippers " were the 
Egyptians represented by their god Horus, and the Semites repre- 
sented by their god Set. The war between the Egyptians and the 
Semites was long and fierce, but at last terminated, probably under 
the reign of Khasekhemui of either the Ilnd or Ilird dynasty. A 

' }. LlEBLBiN, Gammelagyptische Relig,, Kristiania, 1883, I, 81, ss. 

31 



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Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

compromise, analogous to that between Osiris and Horus, was made 
between Horus and Set, by which Set as god of the Semites obtained 
a place by the side of Horus. 

From the time of Khasekhemui, all Egypt, from the Medi- 
terranean to the First Cataract, with its inhabitants of different 
nationalities, was then united in one empire. At the commence- 
ment of this period several colonies had been founded. Southwards : 

(i) On-Denderah^ with the goddess Hathor ; here the names ot 
the town and goddess recall the Heliopolitan town and 
goddess. 

(2) On (Ont) Esna. 

(3) On of the South Hermonthis, 

The two last were probably Heliopolitan colonies ; at least their 
names recall the name of On-Heliopolis. 

(4) Nubi-Ombos (?), with its double worship of Set and Horus. 

As to the colonies in the North, we may be tempted to regard 
Sais as a colony of SiHt, The hieroglyphic names of these two 
towns closely resemble each other in some of their variants, and the 
two towns, Upper Sau and Lower Sau, named in the Book of the 
Dead, Chapter CXLH, 3 and 4, may very well be Siut and Sais. 

The high civilization, that the monuments of Snofru and of the 
other kings of the IVth dynasty attest, commenced in Middle Egypt 
thousands of years before the immigration of the Abydenian people 
in the South, and can certainly not have been developed in the 
short space of fifty or a hundred years that separated the rude 
Royal Tombs at Abydos from the fine monuments of Snofru's 
period at Memphis. 



32 

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Jan. io] EGYPTIAN MAGICAL WANDS. [1906. 



THE ASTROLOGICAL CHARACTER OF THE EGYPTIAN 
MAGICAL WANDS. 

By Margaret A. Murray. 

In looking over the very interesting drawings and photographs 
of magical ivory wands published by Mr. Legge in the May number 
of the Proceedings^ one is struck by two things : first, by the number ^ 
of figures having reference to birth, and, second, by the extraordinary 
number of signs having reference to astronomy. The combination 
of birth and astronomy points to only one conclusion, Horoscopes. 

The " science " of astrology is very ancient. Horoscopes of the 
kings of the XlXth and XXth dynasties still remain to us, and it is 
evident that these are not the first of their kind. The Egyptians, 
even in primitive times, had a fair knowledge of astronomy ; and as 
astrology always precedes the exact science, we may safely say that 
if the Egyptians, at some primitive period of which the date is lost, 
knew sufficient astronomy to reform their calendar and base it upon 
astronomical data, they also were able to cast a nativity from the 
stars and set down the result in conventional signs and figures. 

To take the signs of Birth first. These consist of three, Taurt, 
Bes, and Heqt. Taurt, goddess of birth and of magical, protection, 
and Bes, god of birth and of magic, are constantly represented 
over the doors of the royal birth-chapels in the temples ; and in 
representations of the birth of a monarch, Taurt and Bes are in 
conspicuous positions. It may be noted that Bes as god of birth is 
not quite the same as Bes in his other rdles of god of pleasure and 
of war. As god of birth, he wears no head-dress or other insignia, 

^ T\ic Jigure numbers given below refer to Mr. Legge's Paper on ** Magical 
Ivories " in the May number of the Proceedings of the current year ; plate numbers 
to the plates accompanying this Paper. 

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Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

and his hands are either empty, or more usually he holds a snake 
in each. Taurt the hippopotamus has always been identified as the 
goddess of birth, and these wands are made of hippopotamus ivory, 
an appropriate material if they are used for recording the date of 
birth and the prognostications to be derived from that date. The 
frog-goddess Heqt, wife of Khnum the creator, is also a birth- 
goddess, as is shown in the story of the birth of the kings of the 
Vth dynasty (Westcar Papyrus), where Heqt comes with Isis, 
Nephthys, Meskhent, and Khnum to assist at the birth. Taurt, Bes, 
or Heqt occur on all the wands, except No. 7, a few small fragments 
(and the one from the Hood Collection recently published). 

The astronomical signs are, as might be expected, more varied 
than those of birth, including, as they do, the signs of the Zodiac, 
the planets, and the dekan-stars. The signs required, if all the 
constellations and stars were represented, would be : — 

Signs of the Zodiac. 

Planets. 

Stars and constellations of the dekans. 

Deities of the dekans. 

Symbols of the dekades. 

Deities of the dekades. 

Besides signs which refer to other constellations. This number is 
far beyond those figured on the wands, on which there are, roughly, 
about sixty signs represented. 

Signs of the Zodiac. — The Egyptian signs of the Zodiac, as 
given at Denderah, are the same as our own, with the exception of 
Cancer, which is there given as a scarab. In the star maps of the 
Tombs of the Kings, the Scorpion is represented by the goddess 
Serq, showing that a constellation keeps its name, though the 
representation of it may change. The Zodiac of Esneh gives 
Gemini as a double-headed animal {Desc, de VEgypte^ I, pi. 87); 
we may therefore take the double-sphinx to be the sign Gemini, 
which in the Zodiac of Denderah is represented by the twin deities, 
Shu and Tefnut. Shu and Tefnut are often represented elsewhere 
as a double lion, and it is not difllicult to see in the lion with two 
human heads the double lion, which is the representation of Shu 
and Tefnut. Another proof that these are the signs of the Zodiac 
is given in fig. 2, where the figures of a scarab and a ram-headed 
man are divided off from the rest of the signs and from each other 

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Jan. lol feGYPTIAN MAGtCAL WANDS. [1906. 

by straight lines. In a well-drawn horoscope, the Houses are 
divided from each other by lines ; in a modern horoscope, each 
house is numbered, and the sign of the Zodiac to which it belongs is 
written above it by its astrological symbol, and wiihin the House is 
the astronomical symbol of any planet which happens to occur in 
that sign. In this early astrology the representation is more simple ; 
the House is given with only the sign of the Zodiac to which it 
belongs, in this instance Aries and Cancer. 

Here then are four out of the twelve signs of the Zodiac which 
appear on the wands : — 

Ram, or ram-headed god = Aries. 

Double-sphinx = Gemini. 

Scarab = Cancer. 

Goddess = Scorpio. 

Planets. — The planets are seven in number; Saturn, Jupiter, 
Mars, Sol, Venus, Mercury, and Luna, and, according to the ancient 
Greek usage, which has descended to our times, they each rule 
two Houses (;>., signs of the Zodiac), with the exception of Sol 
and Luna, which rule only one apiece. 

Brugsch says {Aegypiologiey p. 338) that Egyptian astrology 
recognised the same order, except that Jupiter and Mars change 
places, Jupiter ruling. Aries and Scorpio, Mars, Sagittarius and 
Pisces ; I am, however, inclined to think that the order was the 
same as the Greek. The Houses of the Exaltations of the planets 
appear, from the only indications left, to have been the same in 
Egypt as in modern times. To quote from a mnemonic 
rhyme, "The Moon is exalted in Taurus," and at Esneh and 
Denderah {Desc. de fE^ypte, I 79, and IV, pi. 20) the bull, which 
represents Taurus, cam'es on his back the disk of the moon. We 
may therefore conclude that, if astrology has hardly changed in the 
2000 years which have elapsed since the building of the Denderah 
temple until the present day, it is hardly likely to have changed 
even as much in the 2500 years which divide these ivory wands from 
the Denderah temple. 

The planets are represented at Denderah as hawks, distinguished 
from one another by the crowns which they wear, but their charac- 
teristics are so marked that in other places they are figured in other 
shapes. 

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Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 



Jupiter is, I believe, always a hawk, his name being ^y\/ 
Hor-up-sheia, which Brugsch {Ae^yptologie^ p. 336) says is the official 
name of Osiris as king. 

Saturn is called ^ f==^ ka pet^ "Bull of heaven," and is 

represented as a bull-headed man. 

Mars is called ^^^ Horakhti^ and is figured as a sun ©. In 

Graeco-Roman times he is called ^. r-irn Hor-desJur^ * * The red 

Horus"; in Greek, ^Eproai or 'Aprtfv, This planet is often considered 
to be feminine among the Egyptians, and called Ifor deshert 

The Sun as a planet is represented (Mariette, Denderah^ IV, 76) 
as a disk on legs walking upon the body of the sky-goddess Nut. 

Venus is identified with the Bennu-bird of Osiris, and in late 
times is called ] ^ /^ neier dua^ " The god of the Morning-star." 
Venus is always masculine in Egypt. 

Mercury has two names, I US^ or I U'^^^:^ Sebek the 

crocodile, and 1^ Set. Perhaps it would be more correct to say 

that Sebek is his own name, and Set the god to whom he is 
dedicated; but according to the Egyptian method he may be 
represented either as a crocodile or as the Set-animal. 

The Moon is commonly represented as the Sacred Eye, either 
alone or carried by the ape which is the emblem of the Moon-god 
Thoth. 

Dekans. — The Dekans and Dekades offer the chief difficulties ; 
the former may be represented by their own symbols, or under the 
forms of the gods which govern them ; and as there are 36 dekans, 
that makes 72 figures which can be used. Brugsch {Thes., p. 18) 
gives the names and symbols of 58 dekades, the number of snakes 
among the symbols being quite remarkable. The dekans denote 
dates, and therefore their importance in a horoscope would be 
second only to the Houses and the planets. 

Constellations. Among the constellations "which are behind 
Sothis" are ^^ ^^jH skethu, "the tortoise" and -*— -^^^ 
nesru, " Flame (?)." 

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Jan. io] EGYPTIAN MAGICAL WANDS. [1906. 

Taurt figures largely as a constellation in all Egyptian star-maps, 
but in the earlier ones invariably with a crocodile on her back; 
Taurt without the crocodile cannot be intended for the constellation. 

The constellation round the Pole is represented by a jackal, and 
this is striking when we remember that as a rule one end of the 
wands bears a jackal's head. The other end has a lion's head, in 
which I would see the sign Leo ; the two together representing the 
solstices, Summer and Winter, North and South. 

In applying this theory of their astrological use to the wands, I 
find that it is upheld in so many instances as to induce me to believe 
that it is the true solution. Although I cannot identify every sign, 
yet enough can be identified with the planets and the signs of the 
Zodiac to prove the fact of their astrological purpose, and the signs 
of biith on each one shows that it was birth-astrology. 

Fig. 3. In the Zodiac of Denderah we find Cancer represented 
as a beetle, in Zodiacs of the Tombs of the Kings Scorpio is always 
figured as a goddess, 1.^., as a woman, with her name Serq above her. 
These two constellations hold the same place on the different sides 
of the wand, and may therefore be considered as equally important. 
A true birth-horoscope should be counted from the time, not merely 
of birth, but of conception, which is evidently the case here, the 
distance between Scorpio and Cancer being nine months. The one 
horoscope modifies the other, when the future has to be read from 
the signs. The planets of the two Houses are Mars and Luna. 
Mars as the ruling planet is shown as a shining sun ; he also appears 
as the shining sun on the other side of the wand alongside the 
figures of his two houses, Scorpio and Aries. Luna as the Sacred 
Eye appears at the far right hand corner of the reverse side of the 
wand. Mercury under the form of Sebek the crocodile occurs three 
times, once on the reverse side, where the figure is fully drawn out 
and is placed above the Hawk and Sun (Jupiter and Mars), perhaps 
10 show a conjunction with those planets; twice on the obverse, 
where only the head is given. The positions of the heads are 
interesting; one is in the middle of the wand, the other in the 
right-hand corner. We know so little of ancient astrology that it is 
impossible to say whether they are placed in those positions to 
indicate their aspect to other planets or their direction to fixed stars 
or constellations; or whether Mercury like Mars is placed beside 
one of his houses, Gemini, represented by the double-headed 
sphinx. 

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Jan. lol SOCIEtY OF BIBLICAL AkCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

Fig. 4. Here I can only identify Luna as the Ape with the 
sacred Eye, and Mercury as Set ; and I would suggest that the Lion 
with the sacred Eye on his head and his knee is Sol, and that the 
fire-sign is the constellation Nesru. 

Fig. 16. First come three planets, Luna, Sol, and Saturn, perhaps 
a conjunction of the three ; the three signs at the opposite end of 
the wand appear to me to be the date — the House or sign of the 
Zodiac, the Hour, and the Dekan constellation. 

Fig. 19. Here are five figures between Taurt and the winged 
serpent, two of which can be identified as planets; I therefore 
presume that they are the five planets Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, Mercury 
and Venus. The first two figures are greatly damaged j the third. 
Mars, is a female figure, but in late inscriptions Mars is constantly 

spoken of as ^. ^ " the feminine Horus." The fourth is Set or 

Mercury ; the fifth is a hawk-headed man representing Venus, which 
among the Egyptians is essentially a masculine planet. The identi- 
fication of the hawk with Venus is shown at Denderah {Dcsc. de 
I'Egypte, IV, pL 20), where a human figure with two heads, a man's 
and a hawk's, represents the planet. 

In all astrology the ruling planet is looked upon as a protector. 
A strong planet, when in the ascendant or as Lord of Mid-heaven, 
will protect the "native" from ills and misfortunes innumerable, 
and when favourably aspected, the good influence of that planet on 
the fortunes of the •'native" is immensely increased. The ruling 
planet exercises a continual influence on the life of the "native," 
and, except when in a definitely bad aspect, the influence is always 
favourable and protective. This same idea of protection applies in 
a lesser degree to the other stars. 

The few inscriptions which remain upon the wands also point 
to this same idea of the protective influence of the stars. 

The purpose of these wands is V ^^y " Protection," and the 



dekan-stars are called ^ V ^^^^^ ^^> "stars of protection." 

(Brugsch, Thes.y p. 133.) One of the inscriptions of fig. 4 begins : 

11^ Q Q^^^ ^^^ ^'^^^ >''^ ^^^9 "words spoken by the 

fighter." In the tombs of the kings (Brugsch, Thes., p. 122) Set is 

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Jan. io] EGYPTIAN MAGICAL WANDS. [1906. 

called cy^ aha aa, '*The great fighter." Set is the same as 

the planet Mercury, and on this wand Set occupies a prominent 
place towards the middle of the obverse. In astrological language 
he would be the Lord on the Nativity, i.e, the chief or strongest 
planet in the horoscope, and would therefore be the star which 
exercised most influence on the "native." 

Fig. 9 gives k^ ___fl\ A "^^ ^^ medu ynuk kher uzat, 
which Mr. Hall translates, " I am the possessor of the eye," but 
taking kher in its literal sense of " under," this would read equally 
well, " I am under the Moon," ue, the Moon is my ruling planet. 

On some there is no inscription, but ^Q sa Ra^ " Protection of 

Ra." Here I take Ra to mean the sun, not as a planet, but as the 
ruler of the heavens, to whom all planets, stars and constellations are 
in subjection. 

No. 7. After the usual formula, the "protection of Ra" is 
invoked "S^^ °5^ § 80 A S J ha khered py Nehy mes 
Pert^ " around this child Nehy, born of Pert." Here the wand is 
definitely for a child, and from the word-sign S) , probably a young 

child. This is a clear proof that the wand was made for its owner 
early in life. 

The signs of wear which many of the wands show cannot be 
explained, I think, by their having been worn on the person. On 
most of them there is no means of attaching them securely ; besides, 
they are never shown on any figure of that period, whether painting, 
bas-relief, or statue. They are also never shown in any list or 
pictures of objects intended for the use of the dead; but this is 
easily accounted for if they are horoscopes, for at the death of the 
" native " the use of the horoscope comes to an end. I account for 
the signs of wear in this way : a horoscope when first drawn up is 
fairly simple, merely indicating in a general way the character and 
fortunes of the " native," and the stars which afford him protection ; 
if definite information is wanted as to, e.g.^ a journey, the character 
of a new acquaintance, an auspicious day for beginning any fresh 
work, etc., the horoscope is sent to an astrologer, who calculates 
from it the desired result. A simple horoscope like fig. 2 would 

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Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

require more additional calculation than an elaborate one like fig. 3, 
and therefore shows more signs of wear. 

The position and relative size of the figures appear to have some 
definite meaning. Lane, in his notes to the Arabian Nights, describes 
divination from the motion " or positions of birds or gazelles and other 
beasts of the chase. Thus what was termed a Sdneh, i.e., such an 
animal standing or passing with its right side towards the spectator, 
was esteemed among the Arabs of good omen ; and a Bdreh, or an 
animal of this kind with its left side towards the spectator, was held 
as inauspicious." On these wands several of the figures, e.g., the 
sun on legs, are represented sometimes turned to the left, sometimes 
to the right, which, if my theory is correct, would show respectively 
a bad or a good aspect of the planet or sign. 

The relative positions of the planetary signs to each other appear 
to show the Aspects : Conjunction, Sextile, Quartile, Trine, and 
Opposition. And the size of a planetary sign, e.g., the crocodile on 
fig- 3> which is very large in proportion to the other signs, indicates 
the Lord of the Nativity, or the chief planet of the horoscope. 

Fig. 2 (see Plate I). This is one of the simplest as well as one of 
the oldest of the wands. The Houses are clearly shown as square 
divisions, containing respectively the signs of Aries and Cancer. 
These are the Houses of Conception and Birth, the House of Birth 
being Aries, as it is in the principal place, in the middle of the wand. 
The planets are given on the obverse, and are represented as follows : 
Sol as a disk walking and with two uraei hanging from it ; Saturn 
as a bull-headed man holding a sceptre ; Luna as the Ape with the 
sacred Eye ; Mercury as a crocodile. 

I read the figures thus : (i) The figure of Taurt, which I take 
to be an astrological symbol, and may represent one of the " Signifi- 
cators " which signify the events about to happen to the " native." 
In modern astrology there are five significators, the Ascendant, 
the Mid-heaven, the Sun, the Moon, and the Part of Fortune. In 
early and less complicated astrology, the Sun and Moon would 
probably be looked upon merely as planets, reducing the Significators 
to three, which might be identified with the three birth-gods, Taurt, 
Heqt and Bes, though this I think hardly likely ; the Ascendant 
and Mid-heaven would be expressed by the position of the planet 
on the wand. The three divinities may, however, very well be the 
symbols for the Giver of Life, the Giver of Years, and the Lord of 
the Nativity, and on a birth horoscope these symbols would be 

40 



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PLATE I. 



Proi: Soi. Bibl. Arch. ^ Jan. ^ 1906. 




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Jan. io] EGYPTIAN MAGICAL WANDS. [1906. 

very appropriately expressed by figures of gods of birth. Of the 

three, the term Giver of Life appears to me most applicable to Taurt. 

On this wand, the unidentified planet, which I take to be Mars, 

must be the Lord of the Nativity (/.<?., the strongest planet in the 

horoscope), because being one of the leaders of the procession and 

next to the Sun, he is evidently in the Ascendant, and in conjunction 

with Sol. A Conjunction with the Sun, if it is Partil. />., exact, is 

called In corde solis, and is one of the most beneficent of aspects. 

Aries, one of the houses of Mars, is the House of Birth in this 

horoscope, and one of the Decanates or Faces of Mars is in Aries* 

All these combined, give Mars a greater number of dignities than 

the other planets, and therefore make him Lord of the Nativity ; a 

position which I take to be indicated by the Frog. Bes would 

then indicate the Giver of Years. (2 and 3) Sol and a planet 

unidentified, perhaps Mars, both moving towards the right. From 

their position, />., leading the way, we may conclude that they are 

in the Ascendant, Sol being the Giver of Life as indicated by his 

position next to Taurt. They are divided from the next planet by 

(4) the frog-sign, and are therefore placed closely together; a 

position which evidently represents a Conjunction. A conjunction 

of planets in the Ascendant is considered one of the most fortunate 

and important of all aspects, and would be emphasized in any 

horoscope, ancient or modern. The unidentified planet is the Lord 

of the Nativity. (5) The bull-headed man, which is the planet Saturn. 

From his position in the middle, and highest part, of the wand he 

is the Lord of Mid-heaven, and from his position next to Bes, he is 

the Giver of Years as well. Saturn stands alone, divided from Sol 

and Mars by the frog-sign, and from the following planets by Bes* 

Saturn in Mid-heaven is very important, and would exercise a very 

strong influence on the horoscope. (6) Bes with snakes. (7) Luna 

the Sacred Eye, followed by (8) Mercury the crocodile, from whom 

she is partly divided by (9) a snake. This indicates an aspect of 

the two planets with one another, but the interposition of the snake 

shows a distant aspect, perhaps Trine, or even Opposition ; though, 

as the figures face to the right, it is probably the auspicious aspect. 

Trine. This is another strong combination, from the fact that 

Cancer is the House of Conception, which gives more power to 

Luna. 

The reverse side of the wand offers more diflftculties, as I cannot 
identify many signs, (i) Taurt, probably purely astrological; (2) a 

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Jan. lo] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

lion, unidentified ; (3) a waved snake, perhaps the sign of a dekade ; 
(4) a cat on a «^^-basket, unidentified; (5) Aries in the House of 
Birth; (7) Cancer in the House of Conception; (8) a twisted 
snake, probably the same as an astronomical sign or constellation at 
Denderah ; (9) a panther, unidentified. 

To recapitulate : Cancer is the House of Conception, Aries the 
House of Birth, therefore Mars, the planet of Aries, is the ruling 
planet. Only the strongest planets and their aspects are given; 
Conjunction of Mars and Sol in the Ascendant; Saturn in Mid- 
heaven ; Luna and Mars in Trine {see Plates). 

That astrology was well-known in the Xllth Dynasty is shown 
by the inscriptions on the coffin of Emseht, published by M. Daressy 
{Annales du Service^ I, 8c). It begins with a seten dy hetep for 

O^^^^ jI rlji^^ "^^ Lo^^ ^^ Heaven, in all his places." 
[j]n®%^J| ^^^^ "Meskhu in the Northern heaven" (the 

Great Bear); ^ % "Nut"; 13^ c^^^^^^ "^^^^ ^" ^^^ 
Southern heaven " (Orion). These are evidently parallel passages : 
Ra, ruler of the starry host, and the chief constellation of the North ; 
Nut, the sky goddess, and the chief constellation of the South. The 
other constellations and stars are in pairs, the names jcined by the 
word 8''''^ "Together with;" 0^^"^^^ "The Southern 

Semd,'' and R ^^^^^"^^ "The Northern Semd:' M. Daressy 
says that these are planets, the Southern Semd being Jupiter, the 
Northern Semd Mercury. | \ ^ "The god traversing the sky" 

and ^ "The upper arm " (of Orion). " The god traversing the 
sky" is said by M. Daressy to be Saturn. "The upper arm" is a 
dekan. Then comes A Jj "Sirius" and ^^\^ "The Great 

Bear," a fixed star and a constellation. '^^^N " Akhy," and 

+ ^^-^'^^ " That which is behind Akhy," both dekans. ,^\ 1 

" Beginning of the thousands," and ^ T 1 " End of the 

thousands," both dekans, perhaps the Milky Way i rffh "^ ^^ " The 

42 



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PLATE II. 



Prot\ Soc. Bibl. Arch, ^ Jan. ^ 1906. 



IVORY WAND. B.M., 24425. 
Astrologically expressed. 




Saturn I7 Lord of Mid-heaven, 
Jupiter % 



conjunction 
Mars i 6 Q) 



The Sun 

Venus ? 

Mercury ^ 

The Moon ]) 



Trine 
A 



J "1 The position in the Horoscope 
5 J of 5 and ]) is conjectural. 

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Jan. io] EGYPTIAN MAGICAL WANDS. [1906. 

upper Khentet," and /^ "^ IL "The lower Khentet," both 

dekans. 

Thus the inscription contains the names of the ruler of the stars 
and the sky-goddess, the two chief constellations of the North and 
South, three planets, the most brilliant of the fixed stars, the most 
brilliant group of stars which are always visible, and seven dekans. 
This combination means nothing as it stands, but if we take the 
names as referring to the horoscope of Emseht, they at once have a 
definite meaning. Worship is paid to Ra and Nut as the rulers 
of the sky, and to Orion and the Great Bear as the respective rulers 
of the two parts of heaven. The dekans are used instead of the 
signs of the Zodiac, and express the Houses which were most 
fortunate to the " native," and the three planets were the most 
important in the horoscope. 

The "many protectors" referred to by the inscription on the 
wand belonging to Mr. Hood, and recently published by Mr. 
Legge (Proceedings, XXVII, p. 299), are the planets and other stars, 
which are symbolised by the figures on the wand. The phrase 

ti||||o r\ 

■¥• sa en dnkk may be translated " Protection for the life," 

a most appropriate expression for the horoscope of a new-born 
child. 



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Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHi«OLOGY. [1906. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held on 
Wednesday, February 14th, 1906, at 4.30 p.m., when the 
following Paper will be read : — 

R. Campbell Thompson, Esq., M,A.: "The Folklore 
of Mossoul." 



44 

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SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHM06T PUBUCATIOKS. 



A 

GENERAL INDEX 

TO THE 

"PROCEEDINGS." 



VOLS. XI— XX. 



(MEMBERS, 5b. 
\nON-MEMBEBS, 6b. 



NOW READY-PRICE 30s. 

(Posb^e, 4if.), 
A 

GENERAL INDEX 

TO THE NINE VOLUMES 

OF 

"TRANSACTIONS." 

The Bronze Ornaments of the Palace Gates from 

Balawat. 

[Shalmaneser II, B.C. 85^25.] 

Part V (the final part) with Introduction and descriptive letter-press, 
has now been issued to the Subscribers. 

A few complete copies of the book remain unsold and can be 
obtained on application to the Secretary. 

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Society of Biblical ARCHiEOLOGY. 

37, Great Russell Street, London, W.C. 



COUNCIL, 1906. 



President, 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, D.D., &c., &c. 

Vtce'IVesidenis. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Salisbury. 

The Most Hon. the Marquess of Northampton. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Halsbury. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Walter Morrison. 

Alexander Pbckovbr, LL.D., F.S.A. 

F. G. Hilton Price, Dir. S.A. 

W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

The Right Hon. General Lord Grenfell, K.C.B., &c., &c. 

The Right Rev. S. W. Allen, D.D. (R.C. Bishop of Shcwsbury). 

Rev. J. Marshall, M.A. 

Joseph Pollard. 



Council, 



Rev. Charles James Ball, M.A. 

Dr. M. Gaster. 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. 

H. R. Hall, M.A. 

Sir H. H. Howorth, K.C.LE., 

F.R.S., &c. 
L. W. King, M.A. 
Rev. Albert Lowy, LL.D., &c. 
Prof. G. Maspbro. 



Claude G. Montefiore. 
Prof. E. Naville. 
Edward S. M. Pbrowne, F.S.A. 
Rev. W. T. Filter. 
P. Scott-Moncribff, B.A. 
R. Campbell Thompson, B.A. 
Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., 
F.R.S., &c. 



Honorary TVvanir^— Bernard T. Bosanquet. 

S€cretarjh-^MJTV.K L. Nash, M.R.C.S., F.S.A. 

Honorary Steretary for Foreign Correspondence — F. *Leggb. 

Honorary Librarian—'^ KLT^^ L. Nash, M.R.C.S., F.S.A. 



HARRISON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN ORMNART TO HIS MAJBSTT. ST. 

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VOL. XXVI 1 1/ .- -. Part 2. 



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BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



-^'^- 



VOL. XXVIIL THIRTY-SIXTH SESSION. 

Second Meeting, February 14/A, 1906. 



-*o^- 



CONTENTS. 



PACE 



The Hon. Emmeline Plunket.— The "Star of Stars" and 
"Dilgan*'— (^^/7««iPdO {Plate) 47-53 

Seymour de Ricci.— The Zouche Sahidic Exodus Fragment 
(Exodos xvi, 6— xix, 11). From the Original Manuscript 54-^7 

Percy E. Newberry.— To what Race did the Founders of 
Sais belong? {2 Plates) 68-75 

R. Campbell Thompson, M,A.—TYit Fplklore of Mossoul. I. 76-86 

F. Leggb.— A New Carved Slate (fragmentary). {Plate) 87 



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't JUN 111905 Yi 




OF 



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OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



THIRTY-SIXTH SESSION, 1906- 



Second Meetingy February 14///, 1906. 
Sir H. H. HOWORTH, K.CLE., KR,S., 6-^., 



IN THE CHAIR. 



-9^S- 



[No. ccix.] 45 

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Feb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

The following gifts to the Library were announced, and 
thanks ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

J. Pollard, Esq.— "The History of Egypt." By Samuel Sharpe. 
„ " Modern Egypt and Thebes." By Sir Gardner 

Wilkinson, F.I^.S. 
F. Legge, Esq, — " Scarabs — an introduction to Egyptian Seals 

and Signet-rings." By Percy E. Newberry. 
The Royal Museum, Leyden. — '* Suten-xeft, the Royal Book." 



THE LIBRARY. 



BOOK-BINDING FUND. 

The following donations have been received : — 
January, 1906: — 

W. H. Rylands, Esq., F.S.A. {Fourth Donation) ;^2 2 o 
W. L. Nash, Esq., F,S.A. {Third Donation) ... ;^2 2 o 



The following Candidate for Membership was elected : — 
Rev. A. E. Sufferin, M,A.^ Weybridge. 



The following Paper was read : — 

R. Campbell Thompson, Esq., M,A.\ "The Folklore of 
Mossoul." 

Thanks were returned for this communication. 

46 

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Feb. 14] THE "STAR OF STARS" AND "DILGAN." [1906. 



THE "STAR OF STARS" AND "DILGAN/* 
By the Hon. Emmeltne Plunket. 



( Continued from page 13.) 



In the illustration (see Plate) I have adopted as an approximate 
limit of visibility a circle — having the sun as its centre — of 13°, and 
I have thus attempted to show the relation of the sun, at the initial 
point of the zodiac, in the horizon line of an observer in the latitude 
of Babylon, just as the whole constellation of the Southern Fish 
surmounted that line, at the dates in round numbers of 2000 and 
3000 B.C. I have also drawn the horizon line for Fomalhaut — the 
very conspicuous star of the first magnitude at the mouth of the 
Fish — and given its circle of visibility when the sun was 8° to the 
east of the initial point of the zodiac. 

According to Mr. Penrose's observations quoted above, the 
dotted circle of 13° given as the circle of visibility would suit for 
that star;* though for the fainter stars in the head of the Fish a 
wider circle ought to be allowed. I have, however, given the same 
extent to the circles in each case, as it is not indeed possible, not 
knowing what were the methods pursued, nor what were the powers 
of observation possessed by Accadian astronomers, to give more 
than a rough approximation to what they would have calculated 
as the limit of visibility of a star rising heliacally. 

Granting, however, these uncertainties of detail, it may be 
inferred from a study of the illustration that the Southern Fish rose 
heliacally when the sun attained to the initial point of the zodiac at 
a date nearer to 3000 than to 2000 b.c. 

" * To avoid a multiplicity of lines, the 3° for the altitude of the star and 10 
of depression for the sun have been combined in one circle. 

47 E 2 



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Feb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

In such a year as that represented in the illustration the 
constellation during the month Tebet would have been invisible, 
lost in the overpowering light of the sun, which in that month 
traversed parts of the constellations Aquarius and Capricomus. 
Early in the month Sebat the westernmost stars of the Southern 
Fish would begin to be visible just before sunrise ; but not till some 
date in Adar would the whole constellation rise visibly above the 
horizon line, the sun then having arrived at the initial point of the 
zodiac. 

It has been a comparison of the tablet which described the 
planet Venus as the spark of Dilgan in the month Sebat, with other 
tablets which referred to Dilgan as worthy of observation at the 
beginning of the year — it has been a comparison of these various 
tablets which has given, as it seems to me, a reasonable ground for 
suggesting that Dilgan was the Accadian name of the Southern Fish ; 
and it further seems to me possible to detect in the Venus tablet, at 
lines 28 and 29, a reference to the heliacal rising of the bright 
star Fomalhaut :— 

" 28. In the month Adar the spark of the Fish of Hea is Venus 
" (and also Mercury). 

" 29. In the month Adar on the 3rd day (Venus) rises, and 
" in Nisan . . . ." 

The Fish of Hea, in line 28, refers probably to the zodiacal 
constellation Pisces, to the westernmost degrees of which the 
planet attained at the close of the month, though as we do not 
yet know definitely by what names Accadian astronomers dis- 
tinguished from each other the many fish and marine monsters 
represented on the celestial sphere near to the constellation 
Aquarius, it is not possible to feel quite sure whether reference is 
not still here made, under another name than Dilgan, to the 
Southern Fish, near to which the path of the planet lay during the 
greater part of the month Adar. 

However that may be, it is to the words "and also Mercury, 
&c. . . . ," that I wish to direct attention. At the date when the 
above translation of the Venus tablet was made, the Accadian name 
of the planet Mercury had not been correctly ascertained ; the 
words "(and also Mercury)" are in brackets, and may be looked 
on as a provisional translation, and the same may be said of the 
word " (Venus) " in line 29. 

If instead of these suggested renderings we might think that the 

48 



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Feb. 14] THE "STAR OF STARS" AND "DILGAN." [1906. 

word translated "Mercury" really designated the star Fomalhaut, 
we might read the two lines as follows : — 

" 28. In the month Adar the spark of the Fish of Hea is Venus 
" . . . . Fomalhaut. 

" 29. In the month Adar on the third day rises . . . ." 

The appearance of Fomalhaut on the 3rd of Adar, after its long 
period of invisibility, would have been a noticeable phenomenon, 
whereas Venus had for more than a month been a glorious object 
in the eastern sky, and the planet for some months to come would 
still continue to appear, but with diminishing lustre, as a morning 
star. 

If the reference is to Fomalhaut, it would furnish us with a clue 
by which it might be approximately determined what was the latest 
date at which the observations recorded in the tablet could have 
been made. 

In such a year as that dealt with in the illustration, the month of 
Adar, it is assumed, had by intercalation in the preceding year been 
pushed forward to its furthest limit in the Accadian calendar ; yet 
even in such a year Fomalhaut could not have risen visibly on the 
3rd of Adar at a date much later than 3000 b.c. If, however, the 
conjunction of Venus recorded in the tablet took place, as possibly 
might have been the case, in a year when the months had not been 
pushed quite so far forward amongst the constellations, the observa- 
tion of the heliacal rising of Fomalhaut on the 3rd of Adar might 
have been made at a much higher date than 3000 b.c. 

The clue obtained therefore would give us the latest possible, 
but not the earliest possible date for the recorded observation.* 

Without laying much stress on these speculations concerning the 
rising of Fomalhaut on the 3rd of Adar, but returning to the main 
proposition here made, that Dilgan was the Accadian name of the 
constellation of the Southern Fish, and trusting to the strong 
probability that in very early ages, and still on into Babylonian 
times, the heliacal rising of its stars announced the approach of 
the calendrical new year, I am led to think that the legend of the 
•* Monstrous Cannes " handed down to us by Berosus, embodied not 
an historical but an astronomical myth, that it did not refer at all 
to the conquest or civilization of Babylonia by a race of men 

* It must, however, be pointed out that if the initial point of the zodiac 
proposed by Epping and Strassmaier is the correct one, the above suggested dates 
must be lowered by about 1000 years. 

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Feb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

arriving from the south in ships, but to the heliacal rising of Dilgan. 
Berosus tells us : — 

" There was originally at Babylon a multitude of men of foreign 
" race who had colonised Chaldea, and they lived without order 
" like animals. But in the first year there appeared from out the 
** Erythrean Sea where it borders upon Babylonia, an animal endowed 
" with reason, who was called Oannes. The whole body of the 
" animal was that of a fish, but under the fish's head he had another 
" head, and also feet below, growing out of his fish's tail, similar to those 
" of a man ; also human speech, and his image is preserved to this 
" day. This being used to spend the whole day amidst men, without 
'' taking any food, and he gave them an insight into letters, and 
" sciences, and every kind of art ; he taught them how to found 
" cities, to construct temples, to introduce laws and to measure land ; 
** he showed them how to sow seeds and gather in crops ; in short, 
*' he instructed them in every thing that softens manners and makes 
" up civilization, so that from that time no one has invented any 
** thing new. Then when the sun went down this monstrous Oannes 
" used to plunge back into the sea and spend the night in the midst 
" of the boundless waves, for he was amphibious." 

For dwellers in Babylonia, and especially for those at the mouth 
of the Euphrates, the constellation of the Southern Fish rose as it 
were out of the Erythrean Sea. Fomalhaut, by . far its most con- 
spicuous star, rose about 35° east of south. 

At the season when Fomalhaut rose heliacally it might well have 
been thought of as accompanying the sun, and therefore as " spend- 
*' ing the whole day amidst men." When the sun went down 
Fomalhaut did not indeed ** plunge back into the sea," but it was no 
longer above the horizon, and morning after morning for many days it 
would again and again rise out of the Erythrean Sea. But further, if 
the season marked by the appearance of Fomalhaut in the early 
dawn was that, as I have suggested, of the beginning of the 
Babylonian calendrical year, there is no diflSculty in understanding 
how so many beneficent acts were attributed to the divine '* being " 
who, rising out of the Erythrean Sea, heralded the advent of the most 
auspicious of all days, the first of the new year. 

This ancient Oannes legend has been handed down to us in a 
language foreign to the country in which it first took shape, and it 
may be that instead of the words " in the first year " we should read 
" on the first of the year," and so reading the passage we should, 

50 



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Feb. 14] THE "STAR OF STARS" AND "DILGAN." [1906. 

I think, easily recognize in the being who appeared on the first ot 
the year, and whose whole body was that of a fish, the constellation 
Dilgan, the Southern Fish. 

If now we adopt the opinion that Dilgan was the Southern Fish, 
we have still to inquire how this opinion must affect the answer to 
be given to the question of the identity of the " star of stars " with 
Dilgan or with Capella. 

And as to its equation with Dilgan the answer, either on the 
equinoctial or the zodiacal theory, must be in the negative. 

The star of stars "of the rule" was, as we have learned, to be 
observed setting together with the new moon at the beginning of the 
month Nisan, the first month of the year ; it must therefore have 
followed and not preceded the sun during that first month. 

According to the equinoctial theory the sun 2000 b.c. during 
the first month of the year traversed the constellation of the Bull, 
and according to the zodiacal theory the constellation of the Ram. 
But when the sun was in either of these constellations the setting of 
the Southern Fish could not have been observed, as it preceded and 
did not follow that of the sun. 

The first month of a year announced by the setting of the new 
moon together with the Southern Fish must have been a month 
during which the sun traversed parts of the constellations Sagittarius 
and Capricorn us, and one which in Babylonian times must have 
fallen in the late autumn. 

If therefore Dilgan was the Southern Fish, it could not have been 
the star of stars " of the rule ; " and we are thus brought face to face 
with a discrepancy between the evidence of the Venus tablet above 
considered, on which the identification of Dilgan with the Southern 
Fish was based, and with that of the unpublished tablet referred to 
by Prof. Sayce and Mr. Bosanquet, on which the identity of Dilgan 
with the " star of stars " was based. 

But it has been admitted, and it must still be admitted, that very 
many difficulties and apparent discrepancies are to be met with 
in the study of the obscure astronomical tablets. Further research 
on the part of Assyriologists will no doubt result in the reconciling 
of many such discrepancies ; meanwhile for those who hold that the 
Accadian calendar was zodiacal, there can be no doubt that the 
astronomical probabilities are in favour of the identification of 
Dilgan with the Southern Fish, and not of that of Dilgan with 
Capella. 

5t 



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Feb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

The claim for the identification of the star of stars with Capella, 
disencumbered of its equation with Dilgan, still remains, but can 
only be based on the assumptions that the Accadian year was 
equinoctial, and the date of the origin of " the rule " was not earlier 
than 2000 B.C 

But, as I have pointed out before, it is not possible to assume 
either of these propositions as axioms; and if the arguments in 
favour of Dilgan being the Southern Fish are accepted, the propo- 
sition that the Accadian year was equinoctial will appear scarcely 
tenable. 

With increased confidence therefore in the zodiacal as opposed 
to the equinoctial theory, I now venture fo suggest a quite different 
identification for the star of stars than that of Capella. 

In pursuance of this object we have to inquire: Is there any 
very conspicuous star, or group of stars, which might worthily have 
been chosen by Accadian astronomers to mark by its seleniacal 
setting the beginning of a year dependent on the sun's entrance into 
the constellation Aries ? The answer to this question lies at our 
very hand. 

There is, I think, In the heavens no star or asterism which more 
easily attracts the attention and admiration of even the most casual 
star-gazer than does the Pleiades group ; that — 

" .... swarm of fire-flies tangled in a silver braid." 

In all lands and in all literatures the "sweet influences of the 
Pleiades " have been sung. 

This group of stars not only at 2000 B.C., but during all the 
ages of Accadian and Babylonian history could have served, and, 
indeed, down to the present day might still serve, to determine, 
according to the method described in the tablet, the length of soli- 
lunar years whose beginning was fixed at the initial point of the 
Accadian zodiac. 

I have not been able to ascertain what are the cuneiform signs 
which stand in the tablet for the "star of stars," nor in what way^ 
those signs are transliterated ; but it has struck me that the name of 
the Pleiades, or rather of the brightest star in that group, the Pleiad, 
as it is given by Epping and Strassmaier in the Zeitschrift fur 
Assyriologie (1892), might bear a meaning not very dissimilar to 
that of the "star of stars." At pp. 224 and 225 a list is given 
of 33 important stars the positions of which have been definitely 

52 



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Soc. BibL Arch.^ February^ 1906. 




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Feb. 14] THE "STAR OF STARS" AND "DILGAN." [1906. 

ascertained The name of the Pleiad there appears as " Temennu 

On another page of the same paper (251) the writers draw atten- 
tion in a footnote to the fact that according to Jensen the sign 
^y may be transliterated as " Mulu " or ** Kakkabu," words which 
I often observe are elsewhere translated as star or stars. 

I am quite ignorant of cuneiform writing, Accadian or Assyrian, 
but what seems to me the strong astronomical probability that the 
Pleiades or the Pleiad was " the star of stars " of the rule, has led me 
to think, or at least to hope, that the name of the " star of stars " of 
the tablet may have been rendered in the Babylonian tablets studied 
by Epping and Strassmaier by the signs ^f ^y, and that those 
signs transliterated Te-te might bear the meaning of " star, star," 
" stars," or ** star of stars." 

If Assyriologists do not forbid these renderings of the Babylonian 
name of the Pleiad, and if it should be granted that the tablet quoted 
at the head of this paper contains an ancient Accadian observation 
of the simultaneous setting of that star and of the new moon of the 
month Nisan, then the case for an Accadian sidereal year as opposed 
to an Accadian equinoctial year must, I think, be considered as very 
firmly established, and thus a point of vantage will have been gained 
for the elucidation of many other astronomical, chronological, and 
mythological problems. 



53 

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Feb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHifSOLOGY. [1906. 



THE ZOUCHE SAHIDIC EXODUS FRAGMENT, 
(Exodus xvi, 6 — xix, 11), 

FROM THE Original Manuscript. 
By Seymour de Ricci. 

This article contains an exact copy of the first six leaves of MS. 
Zouche 109, belonging to Lord Zouche, and deposited on loan at 
the British Museum with the other Zouche MSS., also known as 
Curzon or Parham MSS.* 

The fragment consists of six consecutive leaves (31 x 25 
centimeters; writing 25 x 20), paged from 77 to 88 on the right- 
hand upper corner of the odd pages and on the left-hand upper 
corner of the even ones. I do not consider these numerals as being 
written in the same hand as the text. 

The body of the text is written in two columns of thirty-two 
lines, in a large circular uncial hand, I would ascribe to the VII th or 
Vlllth century a.d. There are no coloured initials nor ornaments 
of any kind, the initial letters being larger than the other ones : 
paragraphs are occasionally noted by projecting letters of ordinary' 
size. Punctuation is extensively used, and takes the form of a full- 
stop, half way up the height of the letters, and supplemented at times 
by an accent ^ which is also used by itself. Some vowels are 
distinguished by the two dots " others by a circumflex accent '*'. I 
have endeavoured in my copy to reproduce accurately all these signs 
exactly as they stand in the manuscript. 

A single leaf of the same MS., paged 134-35, measuring 28 x 22 J 
centimeters, and containing Exodus xxvi, 24-36, is preserved in 
the Vatican Library (Borgia 4). It proves conclusively that the 
Zouche leaves come from the Deir - Amba - Shenoudah (White 
Monastery), near Akhmtm. 

' The volume is very briefly described in Curzon*s Catalogue fof materials 
or writing . . . etc. (London, 1849, folio), p. 28, n. 4. The Exodus leaves are 
not mentioned by him. 

54 



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F«B. 14] THE ZOUCHE SAHIDIC EXODUS FRAGMENT. [1906. 

This text was first copied by Rev. H. Tattam, who merely noted 
it in his papers as a ** Sakidic fragment of the book of Exodus^ copied 
from an ancient fragment on vellum, Cairo, January 29M, 1839." 
Tattam's copy was copied in 1848 by the German Moritz Gotthilf 
Schwartze, who died soon after, and most of whose papers were 
given to Paul de Lagarde by Alexander von Humboldt. Schwartze's 
copy was published in 1880 by Adolf Erman, Bruchstikke der 
oberdgypHschen Ubersetzung des alten Testamentes, in the Nachrichten 
von der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften und der Georg- August s- 
Universitdt zu Gottingen, 1880, pp. 407-414 (see p. 402). 

It was reprinted in the first volume of Cardinal Ciasca's Sacrorum 
Bibliorum fragmenta Copio-Sahidica Musei Borgiani (Romae, 1885, 

4'), pp. 46-51- 

Erman did not know where the original MS. was, as Tattam's 
copy said nothing about the owner of these precious leaves. They 
were identified as being in MS. Zouche 109 by H. Hyvemat, in his 
excellent "Etudes sur les versions coptes dela Bible" {Revue biblique. 
Vol. V, 1896, p. 554, and VI, 1897, p. 59). 

Tattam's copy is not very accurate ; it gives neither the division 
into pages nor the division into lines. For such a valuable 
Scripture text * as the Zouche Exodus it was highly desirable to have 
a reliable edition. 

2 For these parts of Exodus (xvi, 6 — xix 11) it is the only evidence 
available, if we except a few verses (xvii, 1-7 and xix, i-ii) contained in a late 
liturgical MS. on paper (Borgia 99) and a few other verses (xvi, 27-36) in a 
Bibliothique NcUionaU MS. 



55 

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Feb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. (1906. 



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enijo^rre • 

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no^wqoiirio'iuco 

HTpcinxoeiG 
+iiHTrjrieeM 
AquniiATupoT 
eo'eoTcuu • 

A .. 

AVCUeONOeiKU 

^llATll^TooTe 
ercei • Anxonic 
PApccoTuene 



TIIKpiipUMAIM 
TCOTII6T6TM 



Kpupuuuoq 
eeoTiiepcni • 

AIJOIJCrOAIlOIJ 

Miu'epenoTM 



KpupUPAp^O 



56 



onAiieeoTue 

pOII^ • AAAAOeOTIJ 

eniiOTTe • 

ne^rAqAGHcriuu) 
TCHCIJIJA^plJ 
AApCOII • 2C6A^IC 

TiTCYiiArcorH 

THpCIJlliSHpe 

uniHA • 3ce+ne 
TijovoeiiieeoTii 
uneuToeBOA 
un^oeic' • Aqccu 
TUPApencrFij 



Kpupu • Aq 
UjA2C6AeiJcriAApaiii 

lillAepiJTCTIIA 

rainiTHpcIii 
li^HpeunTiiA 

AVKOTOVeepAl* 

6T6PHUOC • 

ACfOTCDIJ^nBOA 

licrmeooTU 
n^oeicepAieM 
0TKA00A6 
Aq."i A3cencri n^co 
eiciiiiAepiiucu 
TCHo'o(|xcoij 

UOC^fSAVcUITU 



eneKpupuiiM 

^MHpeuniHA • 

lyA^eiiuuATeK 

^CUUIJOC'^OU 

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THE ZOUCHE SAHIDIC EXODUS FRAGMENT. 



Feb. 14] 

OH 

HMAVIipOYee 
TeTMAOYtOUII 
26M<\q • ATCOU 
nMATWerOOTG 

ereriJAcem 
oeiKMTeTiiei 
ue2:eAMOKne 
n3f«oi<:n«Tij 
MOYTe • poY 
2>eAeAq^a)ne 
AceieepAiifCTi 
OT2HunHpe^ 

iXGeiOBCMTnA 
peUBOAH • 

gjTooTeAeAqjiico 
ne^epo+coTG 
MHreneciiTU 

nKUITHMTnJL 
peUDOAH • 
i^VCOeiCeHHTG 
6ICOTMK4\'CK| 

noK2ipuneoiji 
n^CixiV • ueeii 
ovBJiejyHTeq 
oYOB^Meeij 

OT3CAq?p..vV2l 

i^TMATAeepoq 
Mcrm^Hpnu 
niHA • nexe 
noYA'noTA'ij 
neT?iT OYcoq 



[1906. 



n: 



2^60TnenAi • 
ueYcooTiirAp 
AMxeorne • 
esAqMAYMcriuco 

cHCxenAino 
nooiKeMTAri:?cf> 

eiCTAAqilHTIJG 

OTOuq • RAino 

n:?iAxeeMTAnyo 
eiceoiiqeTOO 
TM • xeccooYee 

20VHIJ2HTq • 

neTHnenoTA^ 

nOTA^ • OVUJIC5TA 

neKATATiinBii 

»reTU+Y.XH • 

IIoTAnoTAUApoq 
ciooTeeeoTM 
WMeTOYHeimiiAq • 

^V6ip«A62lllAm 

criiJ^HpnuniHA • 
ATccooveeeoTij 
uiiAneeoTouii 
RAnKori • AYU)ii 
THpoY^rrqil 
nj^i • unoRAne 
eoropeoTo • 

ATCOnAnKOYIU 

nq^u>u)T • 

noYA' nOTA\\C|CtO 

oYeeeoTiJMueT 
Hnepoq • 



57 



Digitized by 



Google 



Feb. 14] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHi€OLOGY. 



[1906. 



Ile^cAqAeiJATMcri 
UCOTCHC^ • 3ceu 
nprpexAACCKiu 
enAZOTUZHTq 
:aAeTooTe'ATco 
unorciUTUM 

CAUIOTCHC • AAAA 

A. 

AeoeiuBKUJonA 
20TTj2HTq:aA 

2TOOTe • AqpBMT 
ATlOAqKMOC * 

^qMOTo*ceepAi6 

SCOOYMCriUtOT 
CHC • ATCOATCCO 

OT2UUoqe20VM 
eerooTe^ • rota" 
noTA'neTHnepoq • 

6q^AM2UOU'A6M 

crjnpH'Me:aAqBa)A'^ 

eDOA^ • AC:!ICO 

TT6Aeiunue2CO 
A*oriJ2ooT^ • AY<:ai 
oreeeoTUMMeT 
I i RTHporepooT 

eTKHB':aiCMATe 

novA'f iota" • 

AVDa)KAe620TtJ 
THpOTficriMApXCAJM 
MTCVUArtOPH" • 
AV3C00CUU10Y 

CHC • ne2i:AqAe 

HatTjCTI UCOTC HC"" 



oe 
2C6nATn6n:^A2i:6 

6iJTAn2i:oeiC2co 

oqxepACTencAB 

BATouneneuTOM 

eTOTAABunacoeic • 

neTeTiJATocrq 

TOO^ • iiexeTHA 

RACTqnACTq • 

AviuneTMApeoTO 

OpiOTMTHpqA 

AamIeApoq:^A 
eroore • ATKAAq 
Ae:aA2TooTe • 
KATAeeeMTAq 
ecoMerooTOT 

Tio'l UCOVCHC' AYCO 



UnqKMOC • OTAB 

uneqij'n^icone 
epAiiSeHTq • 

n62:AqAeMATMcri 
UCOTCHC'^CeOT 



58 



COUMHTMUnoOY 
nCABBATOMPAp 

unxoeicnenooY • 
ijTQTMAeeAeo 

OTOMAUeMTCCU 
^6 • COOTlIeO 

oreTeTiJACcoore 
iJHirije20TM • 

MTBTMAeeAeeOT 

OMAMEunueecA 
^MeooT^xencAB 



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Google 



Feb. 14] THE ZOUCHE SAHIDIC EXODUS FRAGMENT. 

n 
DAToune • xeu 
noTCiutjTepAiiJ 

2HTq • AG^CO 



[1906. 



n6Aeeunu62c<i 



iyqM2oovA2oei 
MeiunAiioc'eie 
BOAeciuoreriAT 
eeoTM^AYcou 
noreoeoTOM • 
TTe^fAqAeTlcrinxo 
ileiCMtJAepuuiUT 

CHCXejyATMAT 
MTeTIJOVU>i?JAM 

ecarrueuAeMTO 

AH • ATCOnAtJO 
UOCATeTMMAT 

epoq • n2C06iG 



rApAq+UHTMU 
neieOOTIICABBA 

TOM • exBenAi 
AqtMHTMunoeiK^ 

M200TCMAY • 

iunueecooYM 
eoovnoTA'noTA^ 
uuurmuApeq 
euooceuneqHi • 
unpTpeAAATU 

UUlOTMpnBOAU 

nequAeunue2 



CAjaqueOOT • ATCO 

AqcABBATir^eij 

O'lHAAOCeun U62 



CAjyC|H200Y • 
ATlUATUOTTee 

neqpAiJHcriij^H 



n 



peuriiiiA:\*6nuAiJ 
MA • MeqoAOM 
eeiJoTBpe^yiiT 
eqoToSHi • epe 
Teq+rieoNoe 
MOTArKpiciiJ 

A 

OTeBltO . 

6a:AqAeM€riu(o 
TCHc'xenAiiie 
n^AxeeuTA 
n2co6iG2oiTq6 

TOOTM • X6UOT2 
Un^^JIIJUAMMA^ • 

MTeTiieApeee 

poq6MeTM2CUJU • 
2:eKAC6T6MAVe 

noeiKQMTATe 
TMorouqepAi 
iiJnxAie^MTepe 

nXOeiGNTHTTM 

eBOAeunKA2M 
KHue • ne2i:Aq 
^Xgmctiucotghg^ 

TlMA?pMAApCOM^ 

neqcon' • xexi 
motctauaiiInotb • 
MTMOTxeepoq 

MOT^IUUAIJMA^ 

6quee • MPKcu 



59 



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Feb. 14] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



[1906. 



uuoqeepAiuncu 

TOeBOAUniJOT 

TO^eeApeeepoq 
:!iAM6TMreijeA' 
MeeeiJTAn^LO 
eiceiuiieToo 

TqUUCOTOHC • 

AAApiOIIA6KAAf| 

UnGUTOGBOAU 

nuMTpeoeApoe 
epoq • M:^Hpo 

!^6 U niHAAYOT 
COUUnUAIIIIAII 

2uoijpounG • 
^AiiTOTeie2pAii 
enuA^iJovcoe • 

AVOTCOUUnUAIJ 
IJA:aAIJTOYei 

eepAieroA^MTo 
<|>oiiiiKH • n:^i 
AeuenoTiJU 
UHTneun^^o 

UTIJiyi • ACTCU 

OTIJAeficriTGY 

MAPCOrHTHpC 

IJM^HpGUniHA 

GBOAiun^CAIGM 

OIUKATAIIGTHA 

pGUBOAHeiTU 

n:aA3CGijn3:oic^ 

A 

ATGIGepAIGepA 
<i)IAGIIJ • HAAOG 



AOUn(|eOGUOOT 
6CCO • ATIUATGA 

20 Yu cr I n A Aocu 

UCOrCIICGTXUJ 

UUOG^^GUAIJAIJ 

IJOYUOOYIXe 

KAG6IJGGCO 
IlGAAC|A6llA'ril 
CriUCOTGHCAe 
A2PCOTIJTGTM 
CAeOTUUOl . ATCO 

A 

GTBGOYTGTM 

n6ipAr,6un3Co 

GICnGTIJIJOY 
TG - An.\AOCAO 

A — 

GiBGunuoor 

2UnUAGTUUAT • 



60 



ATCOAqKpUpU 

McrinAAoceij 

nUA'GTUUAVG 
UU)TCHG'G7'3fCO 

— A 

UUOGJCGOVnG 

nAIGTpGKIJTM 

GBOA'etJKHUG 

GUOYOTT^UUOIJ 

uiiMGIJ^MpG 

uTjMGMTBIJOOrO 

eARGiBG • uurr 

Cl1GAGAqAI^*iK«» K 
GepAIGriJCOGIG 
GqXiOUIIOGA'G 

ornGtiJAAAq 



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Feb. 14] 
nB 



THE ZOUCHE SAHIDIC EXODUS FRAGMENT. 



[1906. 



unei.\Aoc eTiK6 
KOTineijcoei 
coueepoi • 
Il62CAqAeMcri n3L'o 



6ICMMA2pUUa) 
TCHC3COUOO 

:f!ie2AeHljnGi 
AAOC^ilraciAeMiji 
UAKeBOAiilue 
npecB'i'Tepoc 

UnAAOC • ATU) 

naepcoBnAiGM 
TAKpe^rneie 

A< 

pOUeHTq • 6K6 

3:iuuoqepAieiI 
TeKcrix'MrBcoK" 

eiC2HHT6A(3A 

Mok'tAeepATeA 
TeKeHepAiei^ 

TnCTpAMXtOpHB • 
ATCOeKOpCOeTM 

TnerpAMTeoT 

UOOT^OTOGBOA 

IJ2HTC • ilqcco^ii 

CTinAAOC • 

AqeipeAoeiMAiM 
criucoTCHc • unou 

TOeBOA'MM:aH 

peuniHA'AVCco 

THpOT • ATUIACj 

uoTTeenpAMU 

nUA6fuUAT3:6 



61 



nneipACuocATcu 
ncA20T • yaxT 
n6ipA¥,GLjn:so 
eiceT3ccouuoc 
2£6iJna:oeic^Jo 
onijenTM:\'ij 
uuoiJ • AqoiAe 
HcrinAUAAHKAq 
ui^o'uTinTPiA 
epAieiipA<|>iAaiij • 

' Iln^L AC| AoiJ (Fl U CO 
TCHC'SllA^piJ 

incoTcxocco 

TrilJAKMeOlipCO 

u6i4a:uuop6' • 

UrBCUKGnOAMlF 
CpUAAeOBOALUJ 
nAUAAHKlTpACTO • 
ATCOeiC2HHTe 
AHOK+A?OpAT^ 

ei^TAneunuA^ 

6T3:OCOGp6 

ncrepcuBuiiiJOT 
TefTiTAcrix • 
^qeipeAeMfniH 

COTCKATAOe 

euTAq^LOocMAq 

MCriUCOYCHC • 
AqBCUKeBOAAq 
CpUAA2'GBOAUtJ 
HAUAAHK • 
UcOTCHCAeATCO 



Digitized by 



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14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 




nr 


JUipiOM'UMlOpAY 


IJAepUUtOTCHC 


AeopATorexM 


xeceAiunAVerp 


TAneUHTAA • 


nuooreeiJOT 


AYco^yAcjauine 


xcoojuo • Hrxo 


6p:^AIJUCOVCIIc' 


OCGIJUAAXOli 


q m Maq<r lAoepAi 


iHcoTC3^'eeij 


jyAqo-uo-ouiicri 


orqiOTCUiBOA" • 


niiiA . ep^AiJ 


tllA:aaiTGOBOA^ 


UCUTCIICAOKA 


unpnueeveu 


ueqcTiiscenuciiT' 


nAUAAHK'eATne • 


:^Aqo*U€rouM€ri 


^TCOAqKlOTIJCri 


nAUAAHK* • UiTIX 


UCOTCHcijOT 


A6UU10TCHCAV 


erciACTiipioii' 


epo:aAT3:iAeiJ 


ijn:\*oeic'Aquov 


OTCUIJ6ATKAAq 


TeeneqpAMjce 


eApoqAqeuooG 


n^coeic'nenAUA' 


oepAiejcoifi . AA 


unioT' • xeepAi 


pU)MAOUIJ(Up 


eiJOTO'i^eceHrf 


MCTqieAueqcri2C 


nacoeicui^e 


OTA'ennicA'uuoq 


UMnAUAAHK^IIJ 


ATCOK«OTA>l n Al 


2i:cou^:f!iA3:cou • 


Ljuoq • AY:au> 


^qcdrruAetlcri 


neMOMiJcriTCUuco 


loeopnoTHHB 


TCHCeTTAacpHY 


uuAAi2Au'n:^ou 


^AniJAVunpH 


uucorcHG • 


eqMA2urrn • 


eecoBMiueMTA 


iHCovcAeAqcre 


n2C06IOAATU 


Tn'nAUAAHK'UM 


neqAAOcniHA • 


neq^VAocTHpq 


AnxoeiGPApij 


eMoreorrBM 


niHAeBOA2IJKH 


CHqe • nexAq 


U6 r Aq2CIA6 


'Aeiicrin^coeicij 


HGrrioeopn:!iou 



62 



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Feb. 14] THE ZOUCHE SAHIDIC 


EXODUS FRAGMENT. [1906. 


QA 




UU10TCHCMC6 


UTCpOK^UIJTGK 


<|>iopAeiueiLJtiui 


ceiuo'uundK 


rcHcutjijCA 


:aHpOCHATIJU 


TpeqKAACUM 


iiAq • AqeiAO 


neq^iipecMAT 


GiiOAilcriuaiT 


npAiJunoTA'u 


cHcoTcoure 


uoornerHp 


neq,'_*iouAqor 


CAuei\xtnuuoG 


CO^TMAq • ATU) 


2C6Gioiipuiicroi 


Aqtniepioq'AT 


AeiiloTKAeeu 


AcnAt,ei"jMev 


ncuiAMne • 


OpHT . AqXITOT 


ATionpAiJunuee 


eeoTiieTecKH 


ciJAr'naeAier^ep 


MH • UtOTCHC 


G^yamuijcxe 


2^eAq:saieneq 


niJOTTcunAei 


^^ouiiecoBMiu 


co-r'nonADOH 


euTAnacoeic 


eoc • ATcoAqror 


AATiLJ<|>ApAa)lJllJ ' 


2C06ieBOAeiJTCri2C 


MpUIJKHU66 


ri<|>ApACO • Aq2CI 


TB6niHA*uijnei 


Aencriioeopn^^ou 


C6THpq6MTAq 


uucorcHCMueq 


:9ion6uuooT 


^HpeuMTeq 


eiTe2IH • AYCO 


ceiu6e2pAi6T6 


2i:6An2coeic 


pHUoc • i^xuior 


TOYXOOTGBOA 


cHc'enuA'euTAq 


ilTTCri^U(|)ApACJU 


l^iunezpAmzH 


uMTcrirseMMpu 


TqoepAienro 


MKHue • Aqp 


oTunuoTTe • 


:^nHpeAeMcri 


AV2CinOT10AeU 


io'eopcepAVe 


ucoTCHcerxco 


^MAPAeOM 


uuocareeicneK 


TuporeuTA 


^souMHrerio 


n^COGICAATIJAT 


63 


Digitized bAJoOOle 



Feb. 14] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



[1906. 



acGAqTorxooT 

6BOA*iMT€ri2i:MM 



pUMKHUe • UM 

T€ri2cij<|>ApAU>np 
po^MKHue • 

n62i:aqAeMcrHO 
eop'acoqcuAUA 
ATMcrinxoeic^ 

X6AqTOY2CO'ij 

neqAAOCGBOA^ 



2ijTcri^iiMpu 

MKHUe • ATCO 

eBOA2MTcria:u 

<|>ApACO' • TeiJOY 

AieiuexeoTMocr 
nenuoYTenA 

pAMMOYTGTH 

poT • BTBenAr 

AqTCOOTtJeepAl 
62CU)OT • xqXt 

^eucriioeopM 
eeMGrAiA'tmeeu 
erciAeTAAOoY 
eepAiunuovTe • 

^qeiAeljcriAApiuM 
uijuenpecBT 

TOpOCTHpOY 

uniHAeoYUJU 

MOYOeiK^UM 

njiiouuucoY 
CHC^uneuTO 
eBOAunuoYTe • 



ne 

^YlOAC^lOlie 

uiJMCAneqpAG 

Te^AqeuoocM 

criuioYCHceKpi 

frJOUnAAOC • 

AYa)MeqA2epATq 
iJcrmAAocTHpq 

eUCOYCHCJCIM 
2TOOYej.*IApOY 

Ze • AquAYAeiJ 
CTiioeopeecuBMiu^ 
erqeipeiJuooY 
unAAOc • ne:sAC| 
A6MAq:ceoYne 

nAIMTOKeTK 

eipeutioqunAAoc • 

OTBeOYKeUOOC 
MTOKnAAOCAe 

AeepATqepoK 

yiM2TOOYe:!fA 

poYee • nescAq 
^LeMcriucuYCHc 
ijn6q:^ou2ce6 
•fiApenAAocei 
epATe^iMeu 
cAneAn'6BOA2i 
TunuoYTe • 

ep^AMOYAMTI 

AoriArap^cone 

— A. 

MAYMceei^^Apoi • 
^Ai+eAR en o ya' 
roya'tatcabooy 



64 



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Feb. 14] THE ZOUCHE SAHIDIC EXODUS FRAGMENT. 



[1906. 



eMoreecAeMB 
unuoTxe^uii 
neqMOUoc • 

n62i:AqA6M4\qiJ 
crin:^ouuuco 
vcHc'xeMrei 

iilOTCOOTTM • 
iwOTTAKO'KIJA 



TAKO MPTUejy 

qiMTOK'uMnei 

AAOCTHpq6TMIJ 

UAtC • nei^Axe 
eop»iijAK^ • Mr 
MA^^trucrouAiJ 

6AAqUATAAK • 

TeiJOTcrecioTU 
epoVxATci^oxiJe 

MAK^MTenWOY 

TejyconeTjiJ 
uak' • ^con6iJ 
TOKuneiAAOC 



MiJAepunuoTTe • 
MTsioepAmMer 
:^A2:eTjiJAepu 
nworre • Tip 

pUMTpeMATHIJ 

oreecAeMeu 
fiMOYTelijijneq 
Mouoc • Tjtta 
uooTeije2iooTe 
eroTMAUoo^^e 



2PAIM2HTOTUM 

ueeBHTeeTOT 

MAAAT • iTtOK 

AeijTcujTnijAK^ 
eBo.\2ijnAAOc 
ileeMpioueil 
^ccocopeiTpeq 
^aujaeunMOY 
TO • eeupcoue 
MAiKAiocer 



u0ct6utuijt 
2caci2hV • mFfa 
eoorepATOT 

6epAI62C100TiI 

am:^o^ • atcoiTam 

•ye'ATtoiJAMTAIOT • 

atcumamuht'm 

G6KpilJ6UnAAOC 
MMATMIU 

n:^A2ceA6MToq 

6T2COC6UCeij 



65 



TqepATKMKOTI 

AeiTeAn^ijcoKpi 

IJeUUOOT^ . AYCO 
CeMA+UTOM 

MAK P Mceqi 

MUU AK • 6:^CO 

neAeoK^AM 
eipeijn6i:^A 
xe'nMOYTeiJA 
+ijTO»JMAKnr 
u-ucroueA2epATK • 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 



14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 


iWconeiAAOCTH 


:»HpeuniHA?u 


pcjllHTe2paiG 


nKA2tJKHue • 


n6qUA2MOT6l 


epAieuneieoor 


PHMH • ATCOaq 


AreieepAiens^A 


CcOTUMCriUCOT 


eioMciMeepAi' 


CHG'UcAn^AX^ 


e2pAqiA6iiJ • 


uneq^ou'^q 


AYTCOOTMAee 


eipeiJM6MT<xq 


BOAeMepA<|>lAGIIJ • 


XOOTMAq • ATCU 


AveieepAienacAiG 


Af|G10TnM2eM 


MCI MA • Am HA 


pCUUeiJATMATOG^ 


oreeMAqunuA' 


6BOAeuniHATH 


eruuATuneu 


pq • AqKAeiCTAU 


TOeBOAUnTO 


UOOTezpMQXiO 


or • AqBCOKB 


OTMAM^ao'AYCO 


epAi ijcri ucoTCHC 


MAM^e • ATCOM 


eiuRTOOTU 


AIJTAIOY • AVIUM 


fiMorre • Aquor 


aijuht' • ATKpiue 


TeepoqiJcrinMov 


UnAAOCMMATMIU • 


Te'eBOA2unTo 


^AxeAGMiuer 


oreq^fcoiJiuoc • 


A^ocoMoreitje 


2^6MAIMeTKMA 


UUOOTMUAepU 


2COOTUnHIMIA 


ucoTCHc'Mer 


kiob' • MI'OYOM' 


coBKAeuerKpi 


eOT'eBOAMM^H 


lloflUOOT • 


pouniHA • xeM 


^(lAoovAeijcriuuj 


T10TMAT6TM 


vcHcuneq^ou' 


MAT • BMeMTAIAAT 


AfiBiuKeepAie 


illJpUMKHUe • 


iieqKAe • 


AT10AI2CIUUU)TIJ 


gjPAiAeeunuee 


MeeoepAi62k:M 


J^IOUTUeBOT^ 


eGMTMeMAeXOC • 


UrieiGBOAMM 


AeiCA?MTHTTM 



66 



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Fbb. 14] THE ZOUCHE SAHIDIC EXODUS FRAGMENT. 



[I90«. 



620TMepOI • 

TeMOTcreiwoY 
ccorijeTeTM 

:^<\IJCUITU6n<l 
2pOOY • MTeTM 

KH • T6TM<\:^UJ 

nGMamOTAAOG 

eqTOTHTGBOA 

iijijeeeMocTH 
poTncoirapne 
nKAeTHpq • 
ijiTioTMAeijTe 
TM^coneuAiijor 

UIJT6pO^ • UMOT 
UMTOTHHB • ATCU 

oreeeuoceq 

OTAAB • MAlUe 
IfelAXeeTKMAXO 

o Y MTi:a H pe u niHA 

A — 

AC|6IA6MGriUCOT 

CHc'AquoYTee 
uenpecBTTG 
pocunAAOC • 

AqK10MM6i:^AXe 
niJA2pATMAieM 
TAnMOTT620 

MoreTOOTq • 

AqOTCO»iBA6MCri 

nAAOCTHpqei 
OTCon^eq2^cou 

UOC2C62COBMIU^ 



eUTAn MOTTO 
2COOYTMMAAAY * 
MTMCCOTUepOOT • 
UcOTCHCA6Aq2i:a) 
MM:aA3CeTHpOT 



UnAAOCMMAepU 

nuoTTe • 
Ile^AqAeilcrinsfo 
eicMMAepuuu) 
YCHc^xeeiC2H 

HTe'AMOKtHHY 
"lApOKilJOT 
CTYAOCHKAO 
OA6 • 2CeKACG 

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Feb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 



TO WHAT RACE DID THE FOUNDERS OF SAIS 
BELONG? 

By Percy E. Newberry. 

Evidence has lately been accumulating to show that the inhabi- 
tants of the Delta in the earliest historical times differed to some 
extent in race and culture from those of Upper Egypt ; but we are 
still in the dark as to who these people really were. The object of 
the present paper is to draw attention to a very interesting fact 
regarding the dwellers in the North-western Delta which has as yet 
escaped the notice of archaeologists. 

Of the early history of Lower Egypt we know little beyond the 
merest outlines. That it was at a very early period divided up 
into a number of petty kingdoms, with a Chieftain at the head of 
each,^ is certain. At a later period these Chieftains were united 
under a common ruler, a king of Lower Egypt, who appears to 
have been originally a Chieftain of Sais,* and whose capital was Sais.^ 
The chief deity of this city was the goddess Neith, and the crown 
which she is generally represented as wearing is the same as that 
which was worn by the pre-Menite kings of the Delta.* How many 

* Newberry-Garstang, A SJiort History of Ancient Egypt ^ p. 17. 
^Newberry, "On the Horus-title of the Kings of Egypt," P,S.B.A.y 
Vol. XXVI, p. 298. 

' In the inscriptions of the XXVIth Dynasty there are often references to a 

temple of Osiris at Sais that bore the significant name ]\^ I, which means 



" the Residence of the King of Lower Egypt " — a name which Mr. Griffith 
(Petrie, Royal Tombsj I, p. 37) has observed may well preserve an important 
relic of history. 

^ On the Palermo stone the names of the kings of Lower Egypt are each 

determined by the sign ^ . 

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Fbb. 14] THE FOUNDERS OF SAIS. [1906. 

kings of Lower Egypt there may have been we do not know ; but 
the remains of the names of thirteen of them are found on the 
Palermo stone.^ These Delta people, if they did not themselves 
invent the system of hieroglyphic writing, at all events adopted and 
Egyptianized it. They were clever artists, especially in sculpture, 
and it seems probable that they were advanced in the science of 
astronomy, for to them the Upper Egyptians owed the introduction 
of the Calendar.* Their proficiency in writing and carving alone 
show how civilized these Delta people were ; 7 they were nevertheless 
conquered by a less cultured race, the Upper, or Dynastic, Egyptians, 
on whom they imposed their civilization. 

These Upper Egyptian conquerors were led by a king named 
Narmer. He appears to have married Hetep,^ a Saite princess, 
who brought with her to Upper Egypt a number of Saite attendants.® 
It is possible that she was the mother of Aha (Menes), the Founder 
of the Monarchy and the first king of United Egypt.^^ fhe name of 
this queen occurs on several small tablets found in a royal tomb at 



' Schafer, Etn Bnuhstuck aliagypHscher AnnaUn^ p. 14. The names are : — 

(I) pu, (2) Seka, (3) Kha-au, (4) Tau, (5) Thesh, (6) Neheb(?), (7) Uaz-an, 

(8) Mekha, (9) a ; of the remaining four names only the determinatives 

are preserved. 

• Breasted, History^ p. 32. 

' Newberry- Garstang. Short History^ pp. 18, 19. Sals was celebrated for its 
artists, and the Saite school of sculpture is, I believe, traceable right through the 
whole course of Egyptian history.* Sais was also famous for its learned doctors 
(see Ebers Papyrus^ p. 47). 

• I read the name of this queen Hetep ** Peace," " Contentment," a common 
^yptian name, rather than Neith-hetep ; the Neith-sign which usually accom- 
panies it I take to be the title " Chieftainess of the Saite nome " (see P,S,B.A.^ 
Vol. XXVI, p. 298). In the Brussels Museum there is actually an end of an 

ivory wand inscribed T3i«i£=a , "The Consort, Hetep," without the Neith-sign. 

' Like Gilukhipa, the foreign wife of Amenhetep III, in later times (see 
Newberry, Scarabs, PI. XXX). Petrie {Royal Tombs, II, p. 33) remarks: "It 
will be noticed that out of 70 [grave-]stones [of domestics] with signs from around 
[the tomb of] Zer, 16 have names compounded with Neith ; one may name Horns 
(No. 100), but no other deity is mentioned. This strongly shows that the 
domestics and harem of the king belonged to the Neith-worshipping Libyans, 
rather than to the Dynastic race which specially adored Hathor." Zer, it should 
be remarked, was the successor of Mena, and the stelae found around his tomb 
may well have belonged to the attendants (nearly all females) of Queen Hetep ; 
Petrie says that the toilet articles of Hetep were found in the graves of her 
servants. 

^ Newberry-Garstang, Short History, p. 19. 

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Feb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

Naqada and on many small objects discovered at Abydos. Accom- 
panying the name on some of the monuments^^ is the sign ^ , 
which here I read as a title, "Princess of Sais,"!* and on three 



of her toilet objects^* occurs the significant group T , " Consort 
of the Double Dominion." ^* This latter title was borne by Nefret, 
the queen of Senusret 11,^^ and by Hatshepsdt.^® 

Three or four generations later we find another king of the 
Upper Egyptian 1st Dynasty — Den — taking for his consort a 
princess named Mer-neith, "the beloved of Neith," who, to judge 
from her name, was also a daughter of the House of Sais. It is at 
this period that we find a remarkable advance in the culture of the 
Upper Egyptian people, due probably to the influence of this 
powerful and enlightened queen; and it is important to note that 
after this time and up to the end of the Old Kingdom, women of 
the highest rank, and even queens themselves, often took the title 
of Priestess of Neith.i7 

Now the question arises, To what people did these princesses of 
Sais and pre-Menite kings of the Delta belong ? 

That they were worshippers of Neith is certain. Neith was 
essentially a Delta goddess, and the seat of her cult was Sais.^® she 
is, however, generally regarded by Egyptologists as of foreign origin 

" Petrie, Royal Tombs, II, Pi. II, II and 12. 

^■-^ For the standard-sign of a province meaning " the Chieftain " of the province, 
see Lepsius, Denkmaler^ II, bl. 105. 

" Petrie, Royal Tombs^ II, PI. II, ii and 12, and end of an ivory wand 
found by Amelineau and now in the Brussels Museum. 

" Griffith, in Petiie's Royal Tombs, II, p. 48. The title ^ J (](| c^, "She 
who is united to Horus," is also well known as one of the titles of the queens of 
the Old Kingdom. 

** Petrie, Tanis^ II, PI. XI. No one who studies the two portraits of this 
queen found at Tanis, and now preserved in the Cairo Museum, can doubt that 
she does not belong to the Upper Egyptian (or Dynastic people), and it must be 
remembered that the successor of her husband, Senusret III (probably her son), 
is of an unmistakably foreign type. 

w Naville, Deir el Bahariy PI. XLVIII, p. 16. 

*' See Mar., MastabaSy pp. 90, 162, 201, 262, 326, 377, etc. ; Lepsius, Z>tf«/&., 
II, bl. 10, 15. , 

" Mallet, Le Culte de Neith, p. 83. 

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Feb. 14] THE FOUNDERS OF SAIS. [1906. 

— />., foreign to the Dynastic Upper Egyptians.^^ She is usually 
spoken of as of Libyan 20 origin, but there is in reality no more 
ground 21 for this statement than the fact that the people called 
Libyans {Temehu) wove her emblem into their garments at the time 
of the XlXth Dynasty : before that period she is not found especially 
associated with Libyans. Her name occurs on monuments belonging 
to the earliest period of Egyptian history ; 22 jt is constantly met with 
on the most primitive type of Egyptian cylinder-seal ; ^ some of the 
most ancient personal names, as we have seen, are compounded 
with it,2* and one of the earliest historical tablets bears a representa- 
tion of her shrine (PL I, figs. 4 and 5). 

The emblem of the goddess at the time of the 1st Dynasty and 

down to the IVth was (i) two crossed arrows, y\" , or (2) a slender 

shield, shaped somewhat like the figure 8, with two arrows across it.'^ 
(PI. I, figs. 6, 7.) 

During the IVth, Vth, and Vlth Dynasties the name of the goddess 
is written with the crossed arrows alone, or with a sign which may 
originally have been a rectangular shield (PL I, fig. 8) with crossed 
arrows, but which in the Vth, Vlth, and Xllth Dynasties certainly 
represented a shuttle 2« (PL I, figs. 9, 10). Later, the emblem of 
the Saite nome is the regular rounded-top shield^ (PL II, fig. 12) 



" In Ihe Pyramid Texts (Pep^ I, 696) Neith is named together with Set as 
though she were his wife. Thothmes III was taught by Set to shoot with the 
bow and arrow, and before him in the scene representing the King with his Divine 
Tutor is the emblem of Neith (Moret, du caracUre religimx^ etc., p. 105). 

* Mallett /.r., p. 84 ; Wiedemann, /Religion of the Ancient Egyptians ^ p. 140 ; 
Petrie, Naqada and Ballas, p. 64; Breasted, History^ pp. 31-32. 

** Maclver, Libyan Notesy pp. 69-70. 

^ Loret, "Quelques id^es sur la forme primitive de certaines religions ^gyp- 
tiennes," in Revtie igyptologique^ tome XI, p. 76, fig. 7 ; Breasted, History ^ p. 30. 

» Cf, Newberry, Scarabs, PL III, 2, 5, 7, and 10. 

« See Petrie, Royal Tombs, I, PL XXXI, 9-1 1, 20; PL XXXII, 14, 15; 
Heyal Tombs, II, PL XXVI, 51-57, 72-75, 97-99. 

® A reminiscence of this shield is/ound in the Neith-sign in the tomb of 
Hetep-her-es of the Vth Dynasty at Sakkara (Mar., Mast., p. 90; cf. Mallet, 
Le Culte de Neith, p. 178, and the figure in P,S,B,A., Vol. XXVI, page 298, 
fig. 8 of Plate). 

* Neith, besides being the Goddess of War, was the inventress of the art of 
weaving : she was the weaver who made the world of warp and woof {cf. Mallet, 
/.f., pp. 185-186, and Maspero, Dawn of Civilization, p. 128). 

'^ This form of shield is found as early as the time of Menes ; indeed, it occurs 
in his Horus-name, Q^ , Aha. 

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Feb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

of the people of Upper Egypt, with the crossed arrows. In the 
XVIIIth Dynasty the name of Neith is sometimes written with an 
oval shield (PI. II, fig. 11), which is found again in the XXVIth 
Dynasty (PL I, fig. 5) ; but from the XlXth Dynasty onwards the 
name of the goddess is generally written with the two forms of 
shuttle, xiD< or x==x. 

Now it is a remarkable fact that the 8-form of shield found on 
the pre-dynastic cylinder-seals, in the title of Queen Hetep (PI. I, 
fig- 3)» tablet of Aha (Menes) showing the shrine of Neith, on the 
stele of Mer-neith (PI. I, fig. 7), and in the sign of the Saite nome 
in the tomb of Methen (PI. I, fig. 6), should not have been used 
in hieroglyphs after the IVth Dynasty. It is replaced in the Vth 
Dynasty by the rectangular shield, and later by the common Upper 
Egyptian shield, rounded at the summit and square at the base, 
while in the XVIIIth Dynasty, and sometimes in the XXVIth, an 
oval form of shield is shown. 

This 8-form of shield which we find occurring in the earliest 
standard-signs of Neith is of considerable interest; it is the 
characteristic form that was used by the earliest historical inhabitants 
of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Mycenaean shields 28 (PL II, 
figs. 16-18) were of identically the same shape, and Prof. Ernest 
Gardner has described 20 some curious objects found among 
Mycenaean antiquities which '* have a symbolical meaning and are 
of a form which is derived from shields. They are to be regarded," 
he continues, " as conventional and abridged representations of an 
armed divinity. To call them Palladia is the simplest way of 
expressing this fact, whether it be true or not that those who made 
them identified this armed divinity with the goddess whom we know 
as Pallas Athene of later Greece." These Palladia are of two shapes : 
one is the 8-shaped ; the other is a form derived from it (see PL II, 
fig. 21), and is exactly like the shield used by the Hittites in the 
scene of the battle of Kadesh figured in the Temple of Rameses II 
at Thebes 20 (see PL II, fig. 22). On a monument from the Castle 
gateway at Zenjirli^^ (PI, II, fig 15), in Asia Minor, a Hittite warrior 

* Cf. Journal of Hellenic Studies ^ Vol. XIII, p. 215, fig. 24 ; Schuchardt, 
SckHetnanrC s Excavations^ pp. 229 and 277. 

^ Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. XIII, p. 24. 

^ The Boeotian shield is somewhat similar to this Hittite fonn. See ^M,S,^ 
XIII, p. 214. 

^ Messerschmidt, The Hittites, p. 33, fig. 3. 

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Feb. 14] THE FOUNDERS OF SAIS. [1906. 

carries a shield of the 8-form (PI. II, fig. 15). The so-called 
Amazonian shield of Pontus was shaped something like the 
figure of 8, and it is important to note that "in early art the 
Amazons are robed in Hittite costume. The dances they performed 
with shield and bow in honour of the goddess of war and love gave 
rise to the myths which saw in them a nation of women warriors. 
The Thermadora, on whose banks the poets place them, was in the 
neighbourhood of the Hittite monuments of Boghaz-Keui." The 
ancilia^ of the Salii (PL II, figs. 19, 20) was of the same form \^ 
an oblong shield, which would have been a complete oval but for a 
curved indentation on either side. 

We have now seen that the shield used by the early people of 
Sais, in the Western Delta, was (1) of a different form to that 
employed by the Upper Egyptians, and (2) that it was of identically 
the same shape as that used by the Mycenaeans, the so-called 
Hittites, and the aborigines of Latium. The question therefore 
naturally suggests itself. In what way were these inhabitants of 
the Western Delta related to the people of the North-eastern 
Mediterranean ? 

Inhabiting the Delta in very early times was a mysterious people 
called the Haau^ or " Fenmen," 3* foreigners to the Upper Egyptian 
Dynastic race, to whom it was expressly forbidden to communicate 
any of the magical protective formulae of the Book of the Dead.'*^ 
Whether these people were the same as the Ha-nebu of later times 
is not certain, but Neith in a late inscription** — of the time of 

Nectanebo — is called I '^i* t=t ^ " Mistress of the Mediterra- 

nean," and in this quality accorded to the king T 1 1 11 , "all 
foreign lands," and he in return dedicated to the temple of Neith a 



® Baumeister, Denknuy p. 1546. On the history of the Salii see Marquardt, 
Staatsvcrw,y III, pp. 427-438. 

** Ridgeway, Early Age of Greece^ p. 455. 

•* On the Ha€M or Ha-rubu see Hall, The Oldest Civilization of Greece^ 
pp. 158-160, and the same writer, ** Keftiu and the People of the Sea," printed in 
the AnmuU of the British School at Athens, No. VIII, 1901-1902. Hall takes 
these Fenmen to have been ignorant, uncultured people, but on this point I do 
not agree with him. 

^ It is important to note that Neith plays a very insignificant rdU in the Book 
of the Dead. 

^ Maspero, Musit du Caire^ PI. XLV, pp. 41-42. 

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Feb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1906. 

tenth of all the things which came from *Hk "^^^/^'w^^xjF^' 

^*the Great Green Sea of the Hau-nebu." Now Neith has been 
identified with the armed divinity we know as Pallas Athene of later 
Greece, and there is a tradition recorded by Plato ^^ that "the 
founder of Sais ^ was a goddess whom the Egyptians called Neith, 
the Greeks Athene; and its inhabitants," he further remarks, "are 
very much attached to the Athenians, to whom they consider them- 
selves in some way related." Later Greek writers describe Cecrops 
(a hero of Pelasgian race) as having emigrated into Greece with a 
band of colonists from Sais, and Diodorus says inconsistently in one 
passage that Sais sent a colony to Athens,^* and in another that Sais 
itself was founded by Athenians.*^ 

"^ Tinuuo (ed. Franc), p. 1043. 

^ It is curious that Manetho (according to Africanus) should mention that the 
first king of the XVth Dynasty of Shepherd Kings *' was named Saltes, and the 
Saite nome is called after him." The same andent historian says that the XVIth 
Dynasty was composed of thirty-two Hellenic Shepherd Kings. 

» I,28ff. 3- 

« V, 57, ff. 45. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 
PLATE I. 

1. Cylinder Seal. (Strasburg Institute of Archaeology.) 

2. „ „ (In the possession of the writer.) 

3. Chieftainess Hetep. 

4. The Shrine of Neith. (Tablet of Aha. Petrie, R.T., II, 

PL X, fig. 2.) 

5. „ „ (XXVIth Dynasty Stele. Bologna 
Museum.) 

6. Sign of Neith. (Tomb of Methen. Berlin Museum.) 

7. „ „ (Stele of Mer-Neith. Cairo Museum.) 

8. „ „ (Vth Dynasty Stele. MacGregor Collection.) 

9. „ ,, (Vth Dynasty Stele. Cairo Museum.) 
10. „ „ (Xllth Dynasty Stele. Cairo Museum.) 

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PLATE I. 



Proc, So€, Bibl, Arch.^ February ^ 1906. 



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PLATE 11. 



Pto<. Soc. BibL Arch.y February^ 1906. 






11 



12 



13 




15 






16 





20 




21 




22 



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Feb. 14] THE FOUNDERS OF SAIS. [1906. 



PLATE II. 

11. Sign of Neith. (XVIIIth Dynasty Stele, D^r el Bahari.) 

12. „ „ (Late Inscription. Cairo Museum.) 

13. Typical Upper Egyptian Shield. 

14. Shield of the N.W. Delta. 

15. Hittite Shield. (Zenjirli.) 

16. Mycenaean Shield. {J.H,S.<, XIII, 215, fig. 24.) 

17. „ „ (Cornish, p. 552, fig. 932.) 

18. „ „ (Cornish, figs. 1 51-154.) 

19. Shield of the Salii. (Cornish, p. 552, fig. 932.) 

20. „ „ (Cornish, p. 552, fig. 933.) 

21. Mycenaean Shield. 

22. Hittite Shield. 



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Feb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 



THE FOLKLORE OF MOSSOUL. 
By R. Campbell Thompson, M,A, 



While engaged on the excavations at Kouyunjik (Nineveh) during 
the years 1904-1905, which had been begun and carried on in 1903 
and the early part of 1904 by Mr. L. W. King, for the Trustees of 
the British Museum, I collected as many magical manuscripts as I 
could from the natives of Mossoul, and at the same time made 
notes on the folklore of the Arabs. Two MSS. that I bought through 
an old Hebrew haktm seem to be worth publishing, because although 
their spells may not be traditionally descended from the first inhabi- 
tants of Nineveh, yet they are still believed in, in the unspoilt and 
mediaeval town of Mossoul, where it is still possible to find 
Arab superstitions comparatively uncoloured by Western additions. 
The peculiar interest of the town of Mossoul is that it is built 
close to the site of Nineveh, and it might well be expected that the 
traditions of the modern inhabitants would retain something of the 
beliefs and superstitions of the ancient Assyrians. First, however, 
it must be remarked that, though many of the customs of the present 
people are descended from the former inhabitants, there is another 
element visible in the native grimoires and magic books which is to 
be referred more probably to an immigrant influence than to a local 
origin. 

It is almost unnecessary to preface this article by saying that 
devils of every kind are beheved in by all classes, and Shaydtin (the 
equivalent of "Satans") and Jinn are, as elsewhere in the East, 
rami)ant. According to an old Muslim magician, who came to me 
one day, ihtjinn are mild compared with the Shaydtin, for if one of 
the former enters a man, it can be expelled by exorcisms, but if it be 

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Feb. 14] THE FOLKLORE OF MOSSOUL. [1906. 

one of the latter, no power will avail. Demoniac possession is of 
course firmly believed in, a madman being majnun ("possessed by 
Jinn"), and giddiness and epilepsy are alike referred to the same 
powers of evil. I am indebted to the courtesy of M. Abdullah 
Michael, chemist of Mossoul, for the following traditional Arab 
cure for epilepsy. A shekh must come and lay a knife on the 
patient's head ; then, dates are brought and fumigated with 
incense, the magician meanwhile uttering various chants over 
them, and then, after spitting on them, he gives them to the 
patient to eat.^ 

Now if we examine the ancient Assyrian magic, we find very 
similar ideas prevailing. To the influence of the fl/z/zazw-demon 
(" Seizer ") jaundice was attributed, the cuneiform medical tablets 
describing it as follows : — 

" When a man's body is yellow, his face yellow and black, the 
root of his tongue black, ahhazu is its name : thou must bake great 
wild muSdimgurinna, he shall drink it in fermented drink. Then 
will the ahhazu that is in him be silent." ^ 

Of other diseases in Mossoul cases of dysentery, typhoid, and, of 
course, malaria are frequently met with, and an epidemic of cholera 
occasionally visits the city. Smallpox is comparatively rare, but 
ophthalmic troubles of various kinds and the Baghdad boil are 
common. These two latter have been there from the earliest times: 
we find an Assyrian receipt for some form of ophthalmia inscribed 
on one of the Royal Library tablets (W,A,L IV, 29*, 4 c, 10). 

" Incantation : — 

The wind blew in heaven and brought blindness to the eye 
of the man : from the distant heavens it blew and brought 
blindness to the eye of the man ; unto sick eyes it brought 
blindness. The eye of this man troubleth ; his eye is hurt (?); 
this man weepeth for himself continually. 



^ This use of the knife is, of course, only an instance of the power of iron in 
magic. My servant Mejfd told me that if a man falls down in a fit, or faint (I am 
not quite clear as to which he meant), he is supposed to have been struck on the 
head by the demon named Sdda, the equivalent of our Black Man. Giddiness is 
also attributed to the influence of a demon, which can be exj>elled by a shikh. 

^ Kiichler, Beitrdge zur Kenntnis dcr Assyrisch-Babylonischen Medizitty 
p. 61. 

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Feb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCIL*:OLOGY. [1906. 

" Nab(i hath seen the sickness of this man and (hath said) 
*Take pounded cassia, perform the Incantation of the Deep, 
bind up the eye of the sick man.' When Nab(!l toucheth 
the eye of the man with his pure hand, may the wind which 
hath afflicted the eye of the man, go forth from his eyes." 

An instance of the Baghdad boil occurs in an Assyrian astrolo- 
gical report to the king from a priest. " Concerning this evil of the 
skin, the king, my lord, hath not spoken from his heart. The sick- 
ness lasts a year ; people that are sick (therefrom) all recover." ^ 
Now the boil is popularly supposed to last a year. 

In many Oriental countries toothache is frequently supposed to 
be due to a worm. This has always been the case in Mesopotamia,* 
and I was assured by educated folk in Mossoul that if a man with 
toothache burnt the berries of a certain plant known as ambubiy and 
fumigated his open mouth with the smoke of them, the worm would 
drop out from the teeth. Through the kindness of a friend of mine, 
Pfere Makdo, a Chaldean priest of Mossoul, who obtained some of 
this plant from the hills, specimens of the berry were sent to me, 
and I am indebted to the courtesy of W. Botting Hemsley, Esq., 
F,jR.S,, of the Royal Gardens, at Kew, for identifying them. He 
tells me that it is the Withanfa somnifera {soianaceae\ a narcotic 
plant employed medicinally and otherwise by Eastern peoples, the 
cTpvxvo^ vwvuyriKo^ of Theophrastus and Dioscorides. But this 
theory of a worm in the tooth can be traced back to Assyrian times, 
and I append the incantation against toothache for comparison's 
sake: — 

" After Anu [had created the Heavens], 
The Heavens created [the Earth], 
The Earth created the Rivers, 
The Rivers created the Canals, 
The Canals created the Marshes, 
The Marshes created the Worm. 
Came the Worm (and) wept before the Sun-god, 
Before the god Ea came her tears : — 

* What wilt thou give me for my food. 
What wilt thou give me for my devouring ? ' 

• Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers^ No. 257. 

^ It is also the case in China ; see Coffin, Denial Annual, 

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Feb. 14] THE FOLKLORE OF MOSSOUL. [1906. 

* I will give thee dried bones, 
(And) scented . . . -wood.' 

* What are these dried bones to me, 
And scented . . . -wood ! 

Let me drink among the teeth, 

And set me on the gums ; 

That I may devour the blood of the teeth, 

And of the gums destroy their strength ; 

Then shall I hold the bolt of the door.' 

* Since thou hast said this, O Worm ! 

May Ea smite thee with the might of his fist.* 

Incantation of the Sick Mouth. 

Thou shouldst do the following : 
Mix beer, the plant sa-kil-bir, and oil together. 
Repeat thereon the incantation thrice, 
(And) put it on his tooth." ^ 

Of charms and amulets, of course, there is no end, many of them 
being, as usual, intended to ward off the Evil Eye. The blue beads 
plaited into the manes of valuable beasts are almost too well known 
to be worth mentioning. As an instance of the fixed belief in its 
power, nothing could persuade the sergeant of my escort between 
Aleppo and D^r from attributing a sprained wrist to the machinations 
of a woman who had overlooked him in Aleppo as he was shifting 
some sacks.^ 

My servant Mejid told me that if a man desired a charm (he did 
not specify the kind), he was to take a dead hoopoe (which are fairly 
common in the neighbourhood of Mossoul in summer), with a bit 
of inscribed paper tied to it, to a cemetery, and lay it near a grave 
at night. He must then read some book, while the demons gather 
round, without turning to look round. Should he look round during 

• Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia^ Vol. II, p. 160. 

* At Tak-i-Bustan, near Kermanshah, in Persia, I noticed a small boy wearing 
a necklet formed by a large silver ring with three pendent amulets. These latter 
were two hands and a crescent moon, and the resemblance of the whole ornament 
to the necklace worn by the Assyrian kings was most striking. The symbols 
strung round their necks represent the Sun, Moon, Venus, and the forked lightning 
of Adad, the Thunder-god, and I have little doubt that the hand, which the little 
Persian was wearing, is an indirect descendant of the last named, the similarity of 
form being most marked. 

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Feb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGV. [1906. 

his reading, the demons will have power to attack him. Another 
charm against fever, told me by a boy employed on the excavations 
named Shekho, who was by way of having a reputation as a magician, 
was one well known in the East, and has come down from Assyrian 
times. The shekh who is called in to cure the patient takes a 
thread of cotton (single, not plaited in three, as he explained when 
questioned), and ties seven knots in it, putting it on the patient's 
wrist. After seven or eight days, if the fever still continue, he must 
keep it on ; if it passes, then he may throw it away. He must then 
make bread and throw it to the dogs. This latter Shekho explained 
as a kind of thank-offering, but the root-idea is probably much 
deeper down. 

Now this charm was met with in Persia by 0*Donovan, who 
gives a full description of it in his Mem Oasis (ii, p. 319). The 
thread in his case was spun from camel's hair, folded three times 
upon itself, and re-spun. Seven knots were then tied in it, and it 
was to be worn on the patient's wrist; each day one of the knots 
being untied, and finally the thread was to be thrown into the 
river. 

This very charm is met with almost exactly similar in the 
Assyrian incantations against headache. The directions are : — 

** Take the hair of a virgin kid; let a wise- woman spin it on the 
** right side, and double it on the left; bind twice seven knots, and 
" perform the Incantation of Eridu, and bind the head of the sick 
" man, and bind the neck of the sick man, and bind his life, and 
" bind up his limbs ; and go round his couch, and cast the water of 
" the Incantation over him, that the headache may ascend to heaven 
" like the smoke of a peaceful homestead, that like the lees of water 
** poured out it may go down into the earth." ' 

A further use of the cord folded in three and knotted " twice 
seven times " is found in the same tablet, and in the same way it is 
to be tied on the head of the patient. 

A Muslim cure for headache in Mossoul was for a skikh to come 
and lay his hands on the patient's head, and then to drive a nail 
into the wall. Now this is simply the nailing down of the headache 
demon after he has been expelled by the laying on of hands, just as 
the soul of a murdered man can be prevented from haunting a 
house. I saw an instance of this latter when I was in Tripoli 

' Drills and Evil Spirits, Vol. II, XXXVIII. 
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Feb, 14] THE FOLKLORE OF MOSSOUL. [1906. 

(Barbary) in 1903. While I was waiting for my caravan to be made 
up for a journey round the inland districts, the proprietor of the 
little Italian hotel showed me a nail that had been driven into the 
paving of the porch-floor. A few years back a native had been 
murdered close to the door, and immediately the neighbouring 
Arabs thronged thither with hammer and nail, and thus secured the 
freedom of the little locanda from being haunted by the dead man's 
spirit. Some time after the proprietor attempted to remove the 
nail, but he was at once prevented, on the grounds that the ghost 
would thereby be released.® 

My servant Mejid also told me that an Indian had shown some- 
one how to obtain a charm in the following manner. He was to tie 
a piece of paper inscribed with some writing round a fowPs neck, and 
shoot at the fowl with a revolver from a short distance. If the fowl 
was killed, then the charm was of no avail, but if it escaped un- 
scathed, then he might wear the charm as proved and certain. 

The discovery of thieves is a favourite exercise of Arab magicians. 
One day my servant lost three mejidis (about nine shillings), and he 
found a Muslim that had knowledge of such things. This latter 
gave him a piece of paper inscribed with various invocations and 
cabalistic figures, and told him to leave it at the place where the 
money was lost. If the demons, who inhabit the air, had taken it to 
add to the enormous treasure in their charge, which every Arab 
believes to exist, they would return it at midnight ; if, however, it had 
been stolen by human hands, then would they write the name of the 
thief on the paper. 

Ordeal by fire is still in use, as in other parts of Arabia, and it 
was in this particular instance that it was suggested that a small boy 
suspected of having stolen the money should be taken to a sJiekh^ 
who would put a red-hot knife on the tip of the boy's tongue, and if 
it did not bum, he was innocent. I was incidentally assured that the 
sh^kh had knowledge of certain drugs that could be used to prevent 
the knife burning. 

It is unnecessary to add that among the Assyrians almost all 
diseases were due to demons, and were to be exorcised accordingly. 
The beliefs in Palestine at the beginning of our era with regard to 
epilepsy being demoniac possession are even more clearly indicated 
in the New Testament than in the Assyrian tradition. 

® Professor Sayce also mentions this in his "Cairene Folklore," /b/^A?r^, 1900, 
Vol. 11, p. 389. 

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Feb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

It is, I believe, a current belief also in Mossoul that a wizard 
who has continually had dealings with evil spirits may at last be 
overcome and killed by them; at least, the explanation given me 
by one of my diggers on the mound, when I failed to obtain a 
siance with one of his sorcerer-friends, was that the magician had 
not been seen for some time, and it was possible that the demons 
had got him. 

The following story was vouched for by my servants Mejid and 
YakAb, and I heard that it was also current in Baghdad when I was 
in that city. A certain woman died before the birth of her child, 
and it was only after she was buried that her child was bom. He 
grew up in the tomb for about ten years, and one day a man, digging 
into the grave, found the child alive. The boy was taken out, fed 
and clothed, and lived to a good old age. 

The well-known story of death by fright from imaginary ghosts 
was told me in the following form by Mejid : Within a short 
distance of the town was a house supposed to be haunted by evil 
spirits, and a certain man " dared " another to go by night and rap at 
the door, the belief being that the demon would spring out to seize 
what he might. Nothing daunted, the man set off and never 
returned; and when the neighbours sought him, they found him 
dead at the door of the haunted house, with his cloak caught on a 
nail. 

In all Semitic superstition there is a fixed belief in the ability ot 
demons to ally themselves in marriage with human beings. Accord- 
ing to Rabbinic tradition the female demon Lilith was Adam's 
second wife, and by her he had many children, half devil, half man. 
Similarly Liliths were supposed to ally themselves to men and bear 
supernatural children to them which, when the man was dying, 
would cluster round his death bed waiting to hail him as their father. 

This had its origin in the ancient Assyrian beliefs which are 
known to us from the incantation tablets, the Ardat lilt, which is 
practically equivalent to Lilith, having the power of allying herself to 
human beings. In a hymn to the Sun-god, among the possibilities 
of affliction the two following cases are recorded : — 

" The man whom an Ardat lilt hath wedded. 
The man with whom an Ardat lili hath had union." ^ 

• Devih and Evil Spints, Vol. I, p. XXVII. Cf. Tobit, vi, 14, "For a devil 
loveth her." 

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Feb. 14] THE FOLKLORE OF MOSSOUL. [1906. 

Another tablet states even more closely that the demon known 
as the Alt2 might be brought into being by such semi-supernatural 



means.^® 

Now this is believed in by the Arabs to the present day. 
Professor Sayce, in his article on "Cairene Folklore," ^^ mentions it : 
"About fifteen years ago there was a man in Cairo who was 
"unmarried, but had an invisible ^/««a as wife. One day, however, 
" he saw a woman and loved her, and two days later he died. It 
'• should be added that in Egypt, where early marriages are the rule, 
"bachelors who have reached the prime of life are believed to be 
" married to *afdrit or ginn,^^ 

I came across an instance of it at Mossoul. One night my men 
were discussing jinn and kindred subjects, and incidentally (and 
entirely spontaneously) one of them, Yakiib, told me that he knew a 
man in Mossoul who declared he was visited of nights by a spirit in 
the form of a beautiful woman who had borne him three children, 
and the man was so enchanted with this arrangement that he 
scorned an earthly marriage. 

The "censer," which so frequently occurs in the paraphernalia 
demanded by the Assyrian exorcisms, is still used in Arab priest- 
craft. A magician told me that if a man were sick of a fever, the 
s?iikh would come and " read " over him ; but if this were not 
enough to cure him, the sh^kh would bring a censer to fumigate him, 
by putting it at the patient's feet and letting him crouch over it. 

As to actual native medicines in use, certain herbs are of course 
in great demand. For a "weeping eye" I was told that -i*-^ S^ 
"red aloes" was used, and for "red eye" human milk. For a 
stomach-ache a man was to drink cinnamon, which grows near 
Mossoul ; and for a swelling, a lotion of oil and hawajawa^ a red 
plant which grows wild, was to be rubbed on, five days being the 
time it was supposed to take to cure the place. 

Of local traditions with regard to the various ancient sites there 
were many. The belief that Jonah is buried in the mosque on Nebi 
Yunus, the mound to the southwards of Kouyunjik, is of course well 
known. More curious, however, was a local belief that, as the 
smaller mound of Nebi Yunus contained Jonah, the larger mound 
of Kouyunjik contained the whale which swallowed him, and I believe 

w Devils and Evil SpiHt's, Vol. I, p. XXVL 
" Folklore, 1900, Vol. II, p. 388. 

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Fkb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

it was at one time supposed that we were hunting this whale in our 
diggings. Another reason popularly given for our excavations was 
that the English had learnt all their science, telegraphs and railways 
from the cuneiform tablets that Layard found, and that we wished to 
improve on this. Incidentally, while on the story of Jonah, it must be 
an inaccuracy to state that the city of Nineveh was a three-days* 
journey, as the one complete perimeter wall (excluding the outer 
eastern ramparts, which do not make the journey much longer) can 
be ridden round in less than an hour. There must be some tradi- 
tional virtue ^2 in the plain surrounding the mound of Nebi Yunus, 
which overlooks much flat land, for after the cholera had come to 
Mossoul in the autumn of 1904, an enormous crowd came out thither 
at dawn to pray that it might be averted. Unfortunately, not 
knowing anything about this until it was over, I did not see it, but 
the estimate given by my servant was that there were fifty thousand 
people of all denominations. Curiously enough, this epidemic 
ceased a few days afterwards. 

Jonah's virtue has descended on one of the properties of the 
mosque, and this is a large cauldron, contained in an adjoining 
chamber, which is credited with a supernatural inexhaustibility, from 
which the poor may be fed. This was working when I visited the 
mosque, and. its virtues were carefully pointed out to me by the old 
Said. 

One curious survival in the everyday utensils in Mossoul is the 
small copper vessel with a handle which is used by everyone for 
carrying food about. In every detail of shape it is the counterpart 
of that held by the winged griflSns on the Assyrian sculptures. 

Hypnotism is of course part of the magician's stock-in-trade. A 
shekh assured me that he would be able to show me the house-wall 
removed, or would havQ put before me to eat anything I liked, 
obviously by means of hypnotic suggestion. Inkpool-gazing (a 
variant of crystal-gazing) is a form of clairvoyance still in use. 
Water-, crystal- or ink-gazing has been from time immemorial an 
Eastern practice, and directions for its performance are to be found 
in Egyptian demotic and Grseco-Egyptian papyri, in Indian magic 

^2 This peculiar sanctity of sites is not necessarily confined to Muslim saints. 
While Mr. L. W. King and myself were collating the inscriptions at Behistun, 
we noticed a bush covered with small pieces of rags at the foot of the gorge 
beneath the great trilingual inscription of Darius, exactly as though the spot were 
as sacred as a sMkfCs tomb. 

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Feb. 14] THE FOLKLORE OF MOSSOUL. [1906. 

books, and even in the Arabic and Hebrew manuscripts that I 
picked up in Mossoul. 

My servant Mejid found a shekh who was capable of showing 
me the inkpool magic, and he came up to my hut on the mound of 
Kouyunjik one day in September. He was a spare and ascetic- 
looking man of about forty or forty-five, and when he came into the 
hut he began his preparations. First a corner of the floor at the 
door was swept, and he spread one of my blankets down on it and sat 
thereon in the sunshine, and at his suggestion Mejld brought a fire- 
shovel with hot coals on it; then we found a small boy of about eight 
or nine years of age, by name Dio, the son of one of my diggers, 
between whom and the magician there was little risk of collusion, 
and the shikh made him sit down near, and began drawing cabalistic 
figures in the boy's right hand. He then shut up the hand, and on 
the thumbnail spread a large patch of ordinary ink, which he 
moistened from time to time to keep it bright, the boy meanwhile 
staring at it intently. Holding the boy by the right wrist, the sMkh 
rapidly under his voice gabbled off some formulae, occasionally at 
the periods giving a short sharp tone to the last word. He began 
to throw some aromatic gum on the coal-pan; then he made his 
recitation aloud, and said to the boy, " Say, * Come, Shemha'U ' ! " 
" Say, 'Come, Berkin M" which (he boy did. I noticed that the boy 
put his thumb about four or five inches from his left eye, not using 
both eyes; but this was his usual custom, as he always had a 
remarkable squint. Presently he said "He's come." Then the 
shekh said " Say, * Set a chair for the king,' " and the boy repeated 
it, and then the sMkh asked me what I wanted. I said I wanted to 
know the thief who had stolen the three tnejidis from my servant. 
"Tell him to bring the thief," said the magician to Dlo. So the boy 
spoke to the demon in the ink, and the demon brought the likeness 
of the thief. "What is he like?" said the sMkh, and the boy 
answered, "Old, and with a white beard, from among the workmen." 

We left this for the moment, and passed on to another question. 
I asked for a relative of mine, and the demon brought his likeness. I 
asked how he was, and the small boy said, " He is well and laughing, 
and amin {i.e., a trustworthy person)." " What is he like ? " " He 
is an oldish man, his face red, with a red moustache and a beard ; 
his clothes are black." 

Now it was very difficult to get anything certain from the boy, 
and it was not until leading questions began that the red moustache 

85 H 



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Feb. 14] SOCIETy OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGV. [1906. 

changed to white, and the beard vanished. Certainly the person in 
question had no beard, nor was his moustache red. My last 
question whether he was asleep in bed or in the market produced a 
bad result. The boy asked the question of the image in his nail, 
whether he was in the market, on the understanding that it was to 
wave its hand for an affirmative answer, and at once it signified 
"yes." Now all this was taking place about four hours after 
sunrise in Mossoul, which is equivalent to an hour before dawn in 
London. 

The magician laid his hand on the boy's forehead, repeated some 
words, and blew in his face. D!o awoke as though out of sleep, 
stretched himself, and said he was tired, and then my servant carried 
him off to identify the thief of the first half of the siance. In five 
minutes he came back in high dudgeon, declaring that the boy had 
pitched on a doddering old greybeard who could not run ten yards, 
much less the distance necessary to have stolen the money. 

The boy sat down again, the same process was repeated, and I 
asked to know wheie I was to dig for "written stones" in the 
mound. So at the question the boy said the demon was beginning 
to dig in a certain place, and later on in the day he pointed it out 
to me, giving me, in his uncertainty, the choice of two places. I was 
curious to find out how he knew that Shemha'il was a demon, and 
he told me later that he had a red head and black body. 

Not even the most credulous of spiritualists would, I think, 
venture to bring forward this instance as a confirmation of clair- 
voyance, as it was not until leading questions were put that any 
result approaching correctness was arrived at. But it was an 
interesting survival of ancient Oriental magic. 



{To be continmd.) 



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Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch.^ February^ 1 906. 




CARVED SLATE IN THE COLLECTION OF THE 
REV. W. MACGREGOR. 



{From a Photograph.) 



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Feb. 14] A NEW CARVED SLATE. [1906 



A NEW CARVED SLATE 
(Fragmentary). 

By F. Legge. 

In the MacGregor Collection at Tamworth there is a fragment 
of yet another carved slate, which resembles in most essential 
particulars those already published by me in the Proceedings (see 
P,S,B,A,y 1900, pp. 125-139, 270, 271; and 1904, pp. 262, 263). 
When complete, it evidently resembled strongly the smaller of the 
two slates from Hieraconpolis, now in the Ashmolean Museum, and 
the fine slate from Damanhur, now in the Louvre. Like these two 
examples, the upper margin was formed of the bodies of two dogs 
heraldically ** supporting " the central disk, which formed the 
principal motive of the slate's decoration. The eyes of the 
remaining dog appear at one time to have been inlaid, like the 
eyes of all the animals in the Ashmolean slate. Judging, however, 
from the very small space left between the bodies of the dogs 
and the central disk, it is doubtful whether the slate contained 
any other decoration or inscription than that which now appears 
on it. Mr. MacGregor tells me that he has no record of its 
provenance, but that he thinks he remembers that it was said to 
have come from Upper Egypt. The work is poor, but the persistent 
use of hunting dogs as supporters leads one to wonder whether these 
animals might not represent the totem of one of the tribes of early 
invaders. In this case it might possibly be connected with the 
worship of the god Apuat, who, according to distinguished 
authority, is really a dog, and not, like his brother Anubis, a 
jackal. 



87 

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Feb. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held on 
Wednesday, March 14th, 1906, at 4.30 p.m., when the 
following Paper will be read : — 

E. J. Pilcher, Esq. : " On Kabbalistic Planetary Charms." 



88 

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SOGIETT OF BIBUGAL ARGHM06T PDBLIGATIO^ 



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The Bronze Oraameats of the Palace Gates from 

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Part V (the final part), with Introduction and descriptive letter-press, 
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Society of Biblical Archaeology. 

37, Great Russell Street, London, W.C. 



COUNCIL, 1906. 



President. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, D.D., &c., &c. 

Vice-Presidents. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Salisbury. 

The Most Hon. the Marquess of Northampton. 

The Right Hon. the Earl op Halsbury. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Walter Morrison. 

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The Right Rev. S. W. Allen, D.D. (R.C. Bishop of Shewsbury). 

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Sir H. H. Howorth, K.C.LE., 

F.R.S., &c. 
L. W. King, M.A. 
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VOL. XXVIII. . V ^ - Parts. 

I I ^ ^ ^ ^ ' ^ ^ ' I III I I II I — 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF, 

BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 

VOL. XXVIIL THIRTY-SIXTH SESSION. 
TAird Meetings March 14/A, 1906. 

% 

CONTENTS. 

PACE 

Prof. A. H. Saycb, i>./>.— Unpublished Hittite Inscriptions in 

the Museum at G>nstantinople. {'^Plates) 9l~9S 

Edward N. Ayrton. — Discovery of the Tomb of Si-ptah in the 

KbanelMolftk, Thebes, {z Plates) 96 

R. Campbell Thompson, ^.-4.— The Folklore of Mossoul. I 

{coniinued,) (2 Plates) 97-»09 

E. J. PiLCHER.— Two Kabbalistic Planetary Charms, (2 Plates) 110-118 
P. Scott- MONCRIEFF, B.A. — Note on Two Figures found near 

the South Temple at Wady Halfei. {Plate) 118,119 



PUBLISHED AT 

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^^OC0..L...;r^... 

JUN 11 1906 ' 




PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



THIRTY-SIXTH SESSION, 1906. 



Third Meetings March i^th^ 1906. 

W. H. RYLANDS, ESQ., F.S.A 
Vice-President^ 

IN THE CHAIR. 



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[No. ccx.] 89 



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Mar. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

The following gifts to the Library were announced, and 
thanks ordered to be returned to the Donors : 

F. Legge, Esq.— "The Egyptian Heaven and Hell." By 
Dr. E. A. Wallis Budge. 

Rev. A. B. Grimaldi, M,A. — "A Catalogue of Zodiacs and 
Planispheres, ancient and modem." 

From the Author, Dr. Oscar von Lemm. — " Iberica." 

J. Pollard, Esq. — " Precis du systeme Hi^roglyphique des anciens 
6gyptiens." Par ChampoUion Le Jeune. 



The following Candidate for Membership was elected : — 
Rev. Arthur H. Powell, The Vicarage, Bridgwater. 



The following Paper was read : — 

E. J. PiLCHER, Esq.: " On Kabbalistic Planetary Charms." 

Thanks were returned for this communication. 



90 



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Mar. 14] UNPUBLISHED HITTITE INSCRIPTIONS. [1906. 



UNPUBLISHED HITTITE INSCRIPTIONS IN THE 
MUSEUM AT CONSTANTINOPLE. 

By Prof. A. H. Sayce, D,D., &»€, 

His Excellency Hamdy Bey has been kind enough to allow me 
to publish the following three Hittite inscriptions which I copied 
last May in the Museum at Constantinople. Nos. I and III are 
published here for the first time ; a copy of No. II will be found in 
the Rccueil de Travaux relatifs a VArMologie egyptienney etc,^ XV, 
1-2, but owing to the conditions under which it was made it is of 
little use to the decipherer. The present copy therefore makes it 
available for study for the first time. 

No. I. (Plate I). The monument (No. 11 93 in the Museum 
Catalogue) is said to have been brought from Erzertim ; the upper, 
uninscribed part of it is broken off. The elaborate picture of 
a head with which it begins may represent anas "prince''; 
more probably it is the ideographic representation of the name of 
a king, since the suffix -sis in the proper name which follows is the 
patronymic. The usual am^ or amei " I (am) " is here written i-a-me. 
The lost character after md may be «; that which follows uan is 
the " word-divider." There was no character after /. The ideograph 
of plurality after the numeral IX was probably not pronounced ; in 
addition to its phonetic values {i)s and {mt)isy representing the 
ordinary plural in -j, the Arzawa tablets make it probable that it also 
had the value of (/)/, since by the side of the plural in -s there was a 
plural in -/. 

When lines i and 2 are compared, it will be seen that mi^-mH-i 
must signify "nine" and iu-a-w-i or tu-a-m-i "horses," since when 
the words are written a second time mUmiii is omitted before the 
numeral and iuawi is not accompanied by the ideograph of " horse." 

91 12 



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Mar. €4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

The word for "horseman" in M. XXI, 6, w.-uas, indicates that we 
must read tuaw-i and tua-uas, i.e. tuas. Consequently iua was the 
Hittite word for " horse," iuas for " horseman." Now the word for 
" chariot " was tua^ as is clear from the fact that both the character 
which depicts the body of a chariot (No. 45) and that which 
depicts the wheel (No. 86) were alike pronounced tua^ and both are 
accordingly used in writing the name Tua-na "chariot-land" — a name 
which reminds us of the chariot of Gordius, the sacred fetish of 
Gordium. It is impossible not to be struck by the identity of 
iua and tua with the names of the parents of the Egyptian queen 
Teie, the mother of "the Heretic king," more especially as Dr. . 
Elliot Smith pronounces the skulls of their mummies, discovered last 
spring at Thebes by Mr. Theodore M. Davis, to be non-Egyptian. 
The names would explain the burial of a chariot in their tomb, and 
may be compared with those of Hengist and Heorsa in English 
history. Hittite Sun-worship, which identified the Sun-god with the 
god of the state and carved his disk on the monuments, throws light 
on the foreign "Disk-worship" of Khu-n-Aten. That Iuas and Tuas 
were Hittite proper names we know from the native inscriptions. 
T(a)uas is found at Ivriz (see No. Ill below) and Tua-is or Tuaisis, 
" son of the chariot," occurs on a seal in the collection of M. de 
Clercq, where it is accompanied by the figure of a winged horse 
(Pegasus). Teuwatti or Tuates (in the Tel el-Amarna and Vannic 
texts) is "chariot-lord." In the Greek inscriptions of Cilicia we 
have Oova^ and Ooa^ as well as 'Ovas and *Oav together with the 
compounds "Ovaa^ "son of the horse," ^Ovappaai^ {t.e, luwasis) and 

The inscription reads: (i) id. Tarka-T>ZT,-katni-is-na-s . . -id.- 
. . 'Si'S i-a-me md[u?]-uan [div.] /«^-»»^-/-ix- (2) mis tu-iD.-a-w-i 
Div.-na (J)-md ix-w-tsi md-a-ui unun-iD-u-J-BET, div. kai-amma 
DIV. mis-t DIV. a-na-is ix-mis div. iu-a-w- (3) -DET.-«(a:j-DET. a-ma 
DIV. ??iaiu(J)'U nu-DET.-nu-DET, DIV. tua-u-uan div. uan-nas-u-su- 
uanBiw^w.-w-uuna-akasU'DET,; ". . of the district of Tarkamis, the 
son of . . am I ; the place of the nine horses, (and) of this place (?) 
of the Nine in the city (?) of the Sun-god the building I constructed, 
being prince of the city of the nine horses ; for the place of the 
chariot (?) I made strong a chariot of wood (and) troughs (?) of 
stone." 

"Tarkamis" is written Tarka-kamis "gate of Tarkus" but like 
Sandapi for Sanda-dapi is probably to be read Tarkamis. Cp. the 

92 



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PLATE I. Proc, Soc, Bibl. Arch., March, 1906. 




/f-rfll ,f. fC III (P y? 1?IC ILILIIUL 






Fig. I. 

erzerCm. 

Constantinople Museum, No. 1 193. 



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PLATE II. 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., March, 1906. 






















.c^>-- 



^^ 



^»n 









oa> — — 








.^ 



<>;j^\N?sN- 



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Mar. 14] UNPUBLISHED HITTITE INSCRIPTIONS. [1906. 

Thorgama of the Septuagint which seems preferable to the Togarmah 
of the Hebrew text. It was the district from which horses were 
brought to Syria (Ezek. xxvil, 14). Ashkenaz which is coupled 
with Togarmah in Genesis is a formation like Tarkhu-na-zi " son of 
the land of Tarkus" or Tarma-na-zi, the modern Turmannin, and 
hence must be identified with the Greek Askanios and Aska-dnos. 

Md'Uan is found in Ardistama A. 3. But perhaps we should 
read mu-uan; at Hamath m^ is explained by the ideograph of 
"mountainous country." In line 2 we could read md7vt\ i.e. miii, 
but the sense of the passage is obscure. Afis-i corresponds with the 
Arzawan ist pers. sing, in -/. The reduplicated nu-nu (ist pers. 
sing, like misi) shows that we must read nu-wa and not anu-wa in 
M. VII, I, 2, and so explains nu-mis (or nu-itl) M. XXXII, 2, 3. 
Uanna-suan "wooden" is written (det.) uan-nd-ui-a-su on the 
obelisk of Izgin where mi signifying "land" is given the value of na,^ 
The ideograph which follows uanna-su-an resembles that which I 
have translated "food" in M. I, 3. It denotes something which 
like the bowl was made of stone and was associated with horses. 
The ideograph which I have left untranslated in M. VII, I, 2, must 
represent a trough or tank with water flowing into it. (I cannot help 
suspecting that we ought to read in this latter passage id.-w4-mis 
ka-KAS-s-md i-us-i-ta " tanks for this chapel.") We must notice that 
'U is the suffix of the plural. 

No. II. (Plate II). From Palanga (No. 1215 in the Museum 
Catalogue). What remains of line i reads " The prince (a-na-ais-J) 
Musus (?) of the city of . . . and the land of . . . , I have built a 
gate of the city." The ideograph composing the name of the prince 
may be that which represents the syllable mus in M. XVI, i. The 
first character in the name of the city is the picture of a boat. The 

^ The land of Uan, west of Aleppo, is written Uanai in the geographical list 
of Thothmes III (No. 145), and while it is followed (No. 148) by Auniauqa or 
Unqi, it is preceded (No. 141) by its Semitic equivalent Bursu. Bursu is the 
Assyrian burasUy the Hebrew CJ^lia, generally identified with the Aleppo pine 
{piniis Halepensis)^ which must have been so characteristic of the original home 
of the Hittite as to have been **the tree" from which the adjective ** wooden" 
was derived. The name of the land of Uan survives in the Bannis of the 
Peutinger Table, 27 miles from Aleppo on the road to Hierapolis or Membij ; 
the name which follows, Thiltauri, 15 miles distant, is the Til-Turi of an 
Assyrian tablet (Harper's Letters^ 625). In the Antonine Itinerary Bannis has 
been corrupted into Bathnas. Here Thilaticomum, i.e, "the village of Tel-Atha," 
is placed immediately after Hierapolis. 

93 



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Mar. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

lost character before the ideograph of "gate" is "one'* (u). In 
line 2 we have {ua)nas kamissu ka-a-uk-ma-a mis-wa " of these gates 
the construction I built, being king of the city of Gam^r ; a stone 
column ..." For Garner, see Proceedings^ Nov. 1905, p. 198, 
where the inaccurate description of the first character of the name, 
derived from the faulty copy in the Recueil^ must be corrected. 

In line 2 we have : " a («) double-gate for the gods Sandes 
(San-dau-wi)^ Aramis (and) Ammi {Am-mi-i) belonging to this gate " 
{uana ka-me-isi). The form of the double-gate here explains the 
" caduceus " which is merely the cursive form of the double-gate as 
we see it in the equivalent of the name of (Kar-)kamis (M. XI, 3), 
where we should read Kamesua-uas. The double-gate was naturally 
the attribute of the city-god : hence it was assigned to both Apollo 
and Hermes as representatives of Asianic deities. The serpents 
associated in Greek art with the caduceus (which was assimilated to 
the pomegranate) belonged originally to Sandes. 

In line 4 we find aumes (unless it is part of the preceding word) 
which enters into the composition of the name of Aum-gal-as (or 
Aumenuas) and appears to signify "priest" in M. XXXI, A. Then 
follows kasu-ma iu-w.-su-is na-u-a-u (i.e. nau) "for the . . of the 
stone-towers." The ideograph is too much obliterated to be 
determined with certainty. The line ends "I have made strong 
(^v-nu-wa) the gate of the Sun-god ..." The 5th line, which is 
not separated from the fourth by a line of division, has been added 
to the inscription subsequently. The name of the Sun-god may 
occur in it. 

No. III. The lower part of the Tyana monument (M. XXXIII, A.) 
has been recovered, and the whole stela is now in the Constantinople 
Museum (No. 837 in the Catalogue). Inscriptions run down both 
sides and under the feet of the figure ; that on the left side is more 
than half broken away, and that under the feet may also be imperfect. 
The commencement of the inscription on the right side, moreover, 
is lost. On the left side (Plate III, fig. i) we have asi-si-nd-s {asinas) 
"of the land of the sacred stone," and the name of the Sun-god twice 
repeated ; also ua-na-ta which may possibly refer to the country of 
the Veneti. On the right side (Plate III, fig. 2) we have (i) . . 
iS'lsifyiu . . ; (2) the name of the Sun-god with the adjectival suffix 
'is-si-i in the oblique case ; (3) the table on which the sacrificial meal 
is represented in Hittite sculptures as being placed ; (4) gJui-lu-mes 
(for which see Proceedings^ Nov. 1905, p. 194, note 3); (5) "the city 

94 



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PLATE III. 

V/I'l 

#r 
ft 

jo 

i 



/V<?f. 5(7^. BihI. Arch.^ March^ 1906. 



'0 




%}b 




DC 






IC 



?1D -f- 



1'^ 





Fig. I. 



Fig. 2. 

TYANA. 
Constantinople Museum, No. 837. 



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Mar. 14] UNPUBLISHED HITTITE INSCRIPTIONS. [1906. 

of Tyana" (Tu-u-uan-uan-DET) — where the lock of hair must have 
the value tu or fe and explains a character of the same form followed 
by «, which is preceded by the ideograph of "house," in M. XI, 2, 
and has hitherto been supposed to be a misformed na — ; (6) iD,-ka- 
{m)is "protecting" or "consecrating," the position of the hand 
indicating either one or other act. Hence the translation of the 
whole text is " for the [priests] of the Sun-god a prince who provides 
food (or * the prince provides food,' if we are to read it instead of 
mis) for the communion-table; in the capital who protects (or *he 
protects ') the sacred column of Tyana." 

The passage is an important one for the history of religion, on 
account of its reference to the communion-table on which the 
sacrificial meal was served. The table was cross-legged, and the 
priest is represented in the sculptures as sitting opposite the deity 
and dressed in the same way, while on the table itself is a cup and 
flat cakes of wafer-bread which are six in number, the cup being 
placed in the middle (see Perrot and Chipiez, Hist de VArt dans 
VAntiquite^ IV). One of the best examples of it is on a monument 
from Mar'ash now in the Museum of Constantinople which records 
the name of Sandu-w-a-s (or Sandu-w-a-s-mi-s). Since nothing similar 
is met with in Assyria, Babylonia or Egypt we are now justified in 
tracing to a Hittite origin that communion of the worshipper of Mithras 
with his deity through bread and wine in which Justin Martyr saw the 
devil's perversion of the Christian Eucharist. The influence of Asia 
Minor upon early Christian thought and practice has been pointed 
out by Prof. Ramsay, and the Hittite reliefs in which the deity is 
seen partaking of the cup give a peculiar significance to the words : 
'* I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God 
shall come" (Luke xxii, 18). 

In inscription C (Plate III, fig. 3) at the base of the stela I have 

placed "^^ ^ too far from San-du, and the knife (su) and animal's 

head {na\ which are much alike on the stone, should exchange 

places. The text begins : ua det. San-du-me-s Tu- md-na-i, 

"This the Sandian for the people {manai) of Tyana . . " The 
character after Tua which has the value of na at Karabuma is, 
I think, a picture of a horse's bit. 



95 

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Mar. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 



DISCOVERY OF THE TOMB OF SI-PTAH 
IN THE BIBAN el MOLl^K, THEBES. 

By Edward N. Ayrton. 

The following account of the discovery of the tomb of Si-ptah 
is sent in fulfilment of my promise to Mr. Nash, made before I left 
for Egypt to undertake the superintendence of Mr. Davis' work in 
the Royal Valley at Thebes, that I would send him a note of any 
fresh discoveries of interest we might make. 

The position of the tomb, as will be seen from the sketch-map 
(Plate I), is opposite to that of Tausert, and in fact completes the 
family group of Sety II, Tausert, and Baii. There were at first no 
indications of the existence of a tomb in this position, the ground 
being quite level and unbroken. 

The plan of the tomb is evidently somewhat similar to that of 
Tausert's, the proportions however being larger. Two flights of 
steps, with the usual slope between them, lead down to the first 
entrance, from which three long corridors lead to a small square 
chamber, which opens into a large square hall, the roof of which is 
supported by four square columns. Through the centre of this hall 
runs a sloping passage leading into two more corridors at a much 
lower level. These corridors again open into a small chamber 
which may possibly lead into another large hall which should 
contain the remains of the burial, but has still to be excavated. 
The first two corridors, above referred to, are well inscribed, and we 
get a very beautiful portrait of the king. Unfortunately the tomb 
was left open for some time after being plundered, and the water 
entering has destroyed the stucco in the other chambers, and thus 
absolutely obliterated all trace of inscriptions on their walls. The 
roofs of the further chambers have also completely fallen in, and it 
will be some time before we can get to the end of the tomb. 

Fragments of a fine alabaster sarcophagus and one or two good 
ushabtis of the king have been found; and numerous hieratic 
ostraka and a good deal of pottery lay in the entrance of the tomb ; 
all these objects will of course be published later. The photograph 
(Plate II) gives a view of the entrance. 

96 



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PLATE I. 



Proc. Soc. Bibl Arch,, March, 1906. 



Bm 



Tausert ... 




Sety II ... 



2 -§ 



PQ 



H .2 



O 









I. 



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PLATE II. 



Proc Sot. Bihl. Arch.^ March, 1906. 




X 
< 



o 



o 

H 

X 
H 

O 









o^ 
s 



m 



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Mar- 14] THE FOLKLORE OF MOSSOUL. [1906. 



THE FOLKLORE OF MOSSOUL. 

I. 

By R. Campbell Thompson, B.A. 



( Continued from page 86.) 



The following is the text of the first of the two manuscripts. I 
am indebted to the Rev. G. Margoliouth, M.A.^ for many kind 
suggestions. 

MS. No. I. 

****** 

in nvnne^ ^d3 yji Tsd hv nioninni nioB'n i^« d «y d 

on : [Sec Plate] on 

DB^n nr n« -iidt ninnn b ^y ^iK^^i ^n b oy mriMT (2) 

:Dy "ID «'D «in u^r\ nr i.T* ^ frn 
nv^3 ^y imK niriDn inio:^ nnn d«i n^Wni ntryn im ^d^ (3) 

fiDTafe }«n3K p«^aK pttdk B*h pjt^: i:vi Din r\hv "iiKpi 

// // // II II 

iDsrn tni -isy^ n^n^tr iy iniK ^v^\ poiibn cj^p ^y 'd nanx^ (4) 

D'y : innxn k'^x in^« nne^^K' npK^ nr^xn i« 
tr'Dn nv ti^p hv niDD nv-iriK' no ^Dni inoi XK^on nn^vni^w 
noiB' i^^p rh ;*K ik'k Dam n^a-ii nxi ^vy h^dj ^k i^ 
lino lay npi ^nr^^ Dipn ^nn nDc^n Wy ^no iy ^k^idi 
ni«^D n«-ini ni^nn nns hv in^ni y^opn ^1n3 i^^ni D^^D^n 

:ny3 
97 



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Mar. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

nniK iinpi noi^ nn nv*n hv nina priK^n^ ^i3^ k^i ms i^vy^ (6) 
didS« d^w V^dki did^ Dib^K ^D^K ^D^K DB^n m p«n 

1DK Dt:'^ iDK^i wiB^n D^v y^DD HK^i nBHn niycr np M21\I^'? (V 
on iina^ rr-DiDTn iniK «^di D^3p: D^npa ppn mix nip: in«) 
i^« ninDi p-wn ^1nn oWn n« n^^ni nyv^ ^c' inK ntwi 
HKini D^D» 'J iny K^K^ -inpn ininpni ik^i nnn d^b'i niDK^n 

• . iD'3« 'DnD n^^ ^y naDn n^ 

niyK' oyo np hdik^ n^n^ i« rhyi^ nvni wik^ ^^ c»^ DM («) 
niB^ niyc^n Tin^ n^jni m ninsi i^ b^^e' n^ixn mm ne^i 
j'Ti ^i<j ^py irfi 'Dn Skib^ mnpn niivn nni« inpi d^dto 

p«n ^h^ny nn^y^ i^vny n^Dn ^B':K' p« np n^n^ rTM3\I^7 w 
ni^n^ nwB' nvn^ nvnn dki hwb' n^nn po^ bi d^dh imn 

13^^ »3 '« D1pD3 DH'-DK' nWC'^ N^l D^3V StT 131t^»a pXH n^tm 

3'y . . HK^B^n 3nD ik37 nr i«3^ nr 
DE^3 'DK^n i^K B't v^y -lOKni onnp 'td -isy npn riMStt^bao) 

pn n^nj noopi ninoi nivini nn'-Ki nx^pi nwc' i^^en n-ino 

nn*«) nptni n^na nt^jt^^ m hk nt )h:^^ eSb pai n^nn ^d 

3'y . . ^K31B' n^nn yht*n) yi5to k^d^di n^^o ncrp 

liir^B' nb^ nis^trni 'k p« np oncrn ino-c' na n^'t^n^di) 
"Dn [Sec Plate] E^TI HID^I inS^ ^K^DKI iniK DHiDnn niN^D 

N^tr nnn 'x> d^d npi ^nan r\r]^^ y^n -inpo nsy np i^vim 

nnn nn^^K'ni njiy inwi D^on oy nsyn tri^i nr nx nr ini 

D^^B'^ K^i BaD m^ ID neyn ^rn nt y\T\:^ orntr -iid«i ixar^ 

yv ''nowDi pnn inatr 
98 



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Mar. 14] THE FOLKLORE OF MOSSOUL. [1906. 

DH^^y Nipni nnon 'to nsy np D^po^ Dipoo i?"^ )h^ht:h M'y ") 
^»)p nBTB' i^jtOT Kipnir B^n r'^n neyn ^n^nn iidc^i niDK'n ^^k 

7V )niK inp^ n^iyo njTK'n cnn lin ns^nn ^y niriD M21tt>S(i4) 
hp W5n :i:in ^roi nio^K' ly XDnn^ «Si ^nj ^^in n n^nn i3J 
/. m nffSD^ liyb^ SpSn D^n'^a p^ rip lanp Tra fna irip It!p 
DniD ninan siki D^ono oninni nac^a n^^ np n^i«^ ninx liycw) 
r|Ki B^Kn^ir D^ynn Dipoa roon mn n^ni n^n '^^^h d»ctii n^n 
^KDnn ^S>d7i ^K^n ^R'^fB'n Kn^ nb""! B'^xn^ «inn nnt^n 
^^ffl ^Sn ^hSTi NfiSnn «n!5nn Krain Sfc< Sjs^^ ^R^^n ^«5Bn 

^t53S £i5a ^XJIB' ^y fc53n fc53n «31i 

DnDn pinoni enn Din Sy nioninn ib« nina wic'n n'^DnSa^) 
nDK'D ^y^mn ik nne^n ^jk' nh'h^ KiiK'n n^nn dhik piirni 
on /• [S€c Plate] B^h T r\v^2 

*n 51DD oyD D^B^i inxivD npi ^iSn no Dvy np in^on^ M'^ut) 
ay • • n'nn mix -inpi nn Dvy iinn bn d^k^i 

TDyn jD ini ^i^n pic^n Dvy np }nK^ i3do pjid^^ n^n^fij' na M'y(i8) 
inn iniN -lupi nit33 ^niK Dinoi m pjod Dy v^y pne^nc^ 
Di; : niK^D nx-in D^on rSy nay^c^Di d^dh nnn 

p^noi niDB»n i^« v^y ainai dhk n^^im ^e^ do nry fc^'^d^; 
^B* ^30 ifiN^ oe &p i^K "T^x t^'on ^n^3 nne b iisei D^on 

, O — O , I 

PK hv Drno n^B'^Str nyj^^n pe^-i Dvn ninD^ xaie^ ■P2fc^n^(20) 
^S53 ainan tctk i^fc< oy p«n piitk'^ ^^fc<^ ^nioK^n i^k i»d 
y^^K ^Runi bfcODK Ssno ^K^n^ ^x-anx ^SPynr ^«"»"5n^ 
ino^ 'D'n'D a*iKn nx nafc^ne^ i^ ^yoo Dnoiy d^dtj^ ^sobtk' 
D'y 'D vn fc^ini jk'^ inpn niotrn i^« -lup i« tn e^n hb^ 
i^« i^r niDKi n^Wn ^Sn'n1nnD xnay no D'n . TV2rhl2hm 
1BV nn non^D nie^ ni^ry^ d^!?d» n^i on-'^y pnn nioK^n 
7iR^ ^ ^smino^ ^eriix n"d ^erox ^Rv n^^ og^a -loxn 
itrpnB' DDniDT3 n^ ^«^fi^D htf^W ^^ ^^ !?«35n« ^«^5"aK 
on ay i^k oyr iny^ iy yvro 'D'a'D niD^^a Sc' fc^a-p '^^hd b 

99 

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Mar. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

)^K ninDi rhyo nop h^ naiy np non^ Dn« pD rrMat&'^czz) 
^"S^& ^«S^pB ^^spi i^pv fiyv rt) Si3K^ n^aS jni n^Sy nioB^n 
Sgr^D ^«<^o ^tra^K ron aa k:b« b3'd ^kttd "s^i ^t^niBB 
Dn^ju Di^cr n^n^ k^i on^rn nnnni n^^py nwK^ lannc^ ^d 
• • iD"3K D^yS pi «Dr p nn^Ni nwn nwp «^« n^nv^ vh) 
iiDvn n^K'pi 11DV D13 niDK^n i^« nina nji y: D^i«n Jnvn'jw 
DK^ liiya n^n* -iisvn ^S^ d« mK'n ^3D ^y nniK mai i^a-a 
ra ten fi5 m tyn m yr yrn yt dE'i c^n nn«n mo* nrn 
Dn . . biK p p p 'J '3 pf p: 0^2 nw nni«n ^ikk6 nin^ sns 
pop ne^r^ pim DipOD iK^anS ^k inion n^no dik N^vin^w 

iyi-iT Sr injn^i Dn« ini« db^ ^y uv fiS'5 ^y mix iinD*) 
'3n nitD -inr jDv ^n vn^ d^^i D*vn 'i ^y nina^ cnin^ k^w 
«v^i D^vnn b«^i panK pVpfc' p^^^K^xr^i i^k nn^n ':i nv^D b ^y 

D'y " DniD«n n^no 
inn D^-KT^ i^D ^:^yn jn ki^d^i n^n^ ^*yv «in xoe' pnnw 

o — o o — o 0—0 0—0 f 0—0 . 

«i! «^<? 3«? '«y ''W} 5lP 51R ?f^ 3?; «Xl': '3^: 5^5 N^^ u? 

D'y : HDUDi pnn «ini §1^ 

o — o 0—0 • . . 

1DV Kiv 5p« % fcTO D7N DK^n Dn7 fiB 7y niriD^ nnn^w 

• • lips KV^i K^nnn ^3«^i 
lyK' npn mnnn^ nvni ^''^^ ^'^^ ^^ n^y'^v^D nmDnac' nK^^(28) 
jnn) "QD13 oyoi n^^n nnno layi n n"«yipB^ Dim ne^n 
tTKHK^ Dipon naan n« n^ni nn tDinn iniK nicj^pi nann oniK 
j^BQx }^Di^« fBT3Vc iDKni K^n hv "inoan jni vnnn n^n^ 
Kni^« «ni^K ^iy^« ^3y^K ^iy^K ens inSii u'y Dih^K pdd« 
• . pDD *^3 «i3n nn«i Nyo^K xyo^x «yD^« nhi^k 
i36rn jni lEjy^ n^n^tr ny ini« Pinri pitDiWn tj^p ^y 3 nnn«^(») 

ninsni D^^n D^on lavnini cnn onn ^^d np innnD wik' "^IpJ^Soo) 
nOTB> ym v^^ oe^i m nv-w ^d nt^^-v n^Di nnsu v^y 
Dn : wiK'n n pier -ik'k nnn inpni » n^a 
inp 'D isyi nvpi npii D^iin t np d^k^^k 'n pn niK^-iD(»i) 
mK^n nvp idd cni Doipon onw pnn v^y Kipi D^v^n na^^pi 
pn nw ^nnnc' iddi •D3B^ ena pn notDpi npi^no nnin 



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Mar. 14] THE FOLKLORE OF MOSSOUL. [1906. 

13 Dne'n pi Dn«n pD nnamr io3) on^^u ^nn^ ID ne^n^n 

B«i ^y D^HDi DD-on nniK yavi idb^ -i^^^d nniv nc^ njib6 
yvD« hv) Tnhn Skdb^ Syi ir3b pD* n* ^yi pSoB^ mivn 
pD D^rai nn^^ii Swdc^ ^n hvy wVu piD^ S:n ^yi Unhn cjian 
6' Kvin ^y n^ro inKn nvoi ^nne' dhko n-py ^wfio d^^j-ih 
3 p^ hn bin op n^^n yvoxn) h ^kdb^ n^ Syi l po^ n- ^yi 
n^^y DiDTK^ ny ^kdb^ in p«3 ddik jiodi V ^ndb' ^j-i Syi 
PK nnn ik nax^o ^b^ k^^dd nnn nniK inn nn«i nnxn 
^y IK B^Mn ^y p^ocr DK^n onix potDnc' nyn iidni onnn 
kS IBO ^M nn nm 1^ n^n^ k^i ik^t ^r sna niv id ]2i^r\ 

3'y : n^^n k^i ova 
ino^n nan lOO iB^pa^c^ no ba in^api -iine^ ^unn np «'V(83) 
B^KH D^a iniK Knpi ^D«b 1^ jni na^ «in D^^i:mnn h)h2 
D^Diyn DnD^ 'tD ne^n p aae nn« ^idk 1^ iD«ni e^pao nnxB' 
aas oniB^ ^jk itD«ni db' inonen imn ^k ina^^m nnryn oini 
npi aas mo* p noi ^lannn nr Dnc^iB^ oE'a Das nio^ pe^ 
imapni anna nnt^i iiiKa nnx la^a oniK ainni D^ono ^^b^ 
: n'ya in^B^ a^ixn d^^b'^ k^i -inan r\t^ hv 
'D )DB^ ^y n^p iina Dni« ini iW u'hn ^d np iB^^^nn^ n^jw 
Dipoa n:pn yh^n) n^pn ^d Dinoi ti cjoa naina Dxri 'd 'a 
n KBin^ K^i n»o n^mi ^iB^Str )^ «a^i D^^ini oma: D^onc^ 
a'y : noiao) pna Kim njK^vvsr ny dk 
Knaani kodk Sk nxn n^^y ainai kdi^ na nvn np nM3't&'?(36) 
D^:ioD Dne^ nSan ^k^o yKo K^»n nnn ^a hKo n -lap ^d 
K^i nniK nKT k^b' fi3B ^y Dae a^S isanne^ oana nycr hv 
nniK K3B^i ^K^BTfc'i ^K^TTb ^R^BB^ ^K^3En ?T DFa noy nn^n^ 
^^reoS ^K^K ^K^BD D^a laayi Sinni loni iwdk nwjra 

. . 1D"3K 

nane^n iina ono d^i ioiB^n pne^tr Dipo r^vn joicr n>onS<'*> 
wnnB' py« ora roi nCf^i n^ oann^B' j^ro loKni li^e^ 
a'ytwicrn niiD^ DnD> n iinai b3B nx unnm 

lOI 



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Mar. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH-OOLOGY. [1906. 

115BK nyn^h in^i ♦^^.n ik D^on DnoM ppriD ':in nr O' nnn«^(37) 

• pnn «ini i-tj njin j^fi^n i^^m^Nn nrrn dB5k dssk ymn 

h^o^p Dg^ fsra T6TO htf^ny ^«^B^ Dg^ D-on pinoi 'd k^(») 

^y Dna ^k' n^n^ ^idi n^e^sji n^nn ne^pn hn^n ^Knnn ^«5^ 

B3& nnnK 

pmSn r'nm 5rK3 p^^ini hdk nm tid^ n^c^ nan ^y '3 v^m 

ti It II 
• •yv pnnD 

[See Plate} K^^i^p ^K -iK3 ^n pin«i DJ3 ^KD p«3pi ^B nn3K nnnK^(«) 

3y B3B D^^n B3B nnnfc^ wnn 

I3n^ K^B^ K^«n in)Ki nnn otrn i i^ i3n^ kS ne^ nvntr ^d(«) 

[See Plate] HiDninn ^^K B^H Pinb^Hi )^ 

[See Plate] 'K DV ^3 ^^'^^^ S3B HnHK ^P Bhfi 

rwnzh \T\\ D'D3 pino^ '^w Dipon ^nv B^p ^p nar Din o «^(44) 
HK^n nil fip: KB^p ^an«^ ihK ^p^ ^a« ^p^ ^^to ^e=np 'b^ti 
^nao ^a»pT iid iBon ^nt^vo 3'y pnn) noiao n'^ a'3n Dni« 

nioninn i^k nv f|Sp ^y o^ onxn Sy nomn ^^anV) pinB6(«) 

D'y [Sec Plate] -|K flSW B^l tn^ltTH ^P D^B^I 

'«i Dninva '«i ipnD '« oniK ^D«n on^pc^ 'a ^y '3 nmp^w 

(ends) ^y^ BPip^a '3* 'KH b BTl^K^ nyB'S 
Translation. 

' No. I. Another, — Write these names and seals on the palms ot 
thy hands and touch whomsoever thou wilt ; and these are they {see 
Plate I, fig. i). 

No. 2. For love with all livings and to have power over all spirits, — 
Call on this name J^u^iel, or write it and keep it on thy flesh ; and 
this is what thou shalt say : " Azor Azariah Lahabiel Hazan Y YY 
Yeho." This name is twenty-one (and) twenty-four (in value) 

102 



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PLATE I. 



Proc, Soc. BihL Arch,, March, 1906. 






Fig. I. 






■^-^jtgj/ 



•H-' 



Fig. 2. 







Fig. 3. 



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Mar. 14] THE FOLKLORE OF MOSSOUL. [1906. 

No. 3. For everything that thou dost, that thou mayst prosper 
{therein). — And if thou wishest to test it, thou shalt write it upon an 
egg and bind a thread upon it, and it shall not be burnt. And this 
is what thou shalt write: "Abirirun Abriun Abrian Abirmun unSe 
^dmaiah." 

No. 4. For love, — Write on parchment Haswatos^ and bum it 
until it becometh ashes, and put them in beer or whatever drink 
that man drinketh, and they {sic) shall love thee. 

No. 5. To prosper in business, and everything that thou wishest. — 
Write on gazelle parchment, and this is what thou shalt write : " Go 
to the ant, thou sluggard, consider her ways, and be wise : which bath 
no chief overseer, or ruler ; how long wilt thou sleep, O sluggard ? 
when wilt thou arise out of thy sleep ? " and take dust from an ant's 
hole and put it in the middle of the charm and hang it on the door 
of the workshop and thou shalt see marvels by God's help. 

No. 6. To bind a man so that he is afflicted with strangury. — 
Write on an egg which is a day old, and bury it in the earth. And 
this is what thou shalt write : " In the name of Almi Almi Almos 
Lmos and Apil Asayim Almos Litayim Itayim Tayim Ayim Pi, the 
member of N., son of N." And if thou wishest that the strangury 
should cease, take it out of the earth. 

No. 7. For an enemy. — Take new wax and make of it a figure of 
the enemy, and his name and the name of his mother, and then 
pierce it with a thorn in many holes and fill it with fine black glass, 
and make a box of wax and put the figure in the box and write these 
names and put (them) under its head ; and thou shalt bury it in a 
grave three days old,i and thou shalt see with regard to the enemy 
all that thou wouldst. And this is what thou shalt write : " Apapi 
AkpiS AkpiSin AthSamiS, I adjure you that just as fire continually 
devoureth the figures of N., son of N., on the altar, (so) it shall not 
be quenched in the heart of N., son of N." 

No. 8. If thou hast an enemy and thou wishest that he should 
brought to an end or become mad, take a little wax and make the 
likeness of the enemy which thou hast, and write this, and put in the 
middle of the wax ten needles and bury this image in a grave of 
Israel . . ., and this is what thou shalt write: "*Akel Gal Beren 
N., the son of N., Pelal Marag Aphras." 

1 The text here is difficult, and might be read D^D^ '3 l^V 
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Mar. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

No. 9, For extreme hate. — Take a stone which a dog hath bitten, 
and make it pass between them, and cast the stone into water ; and 
every day shall there be hatred. And if thou wishest that there 
should be extreme hatred, cast the stone into a dovecote, and they 
shall not be left together in one place, for one shall go one way and 
the other another for the greatness of the hate. 

No. 10. For hate, — Thou shalt take dust from seven graves, and 
say over it seven times these names: **In the name of Asniael, 
Yabmael, L*ael, Tesel, Lil, Nuriel, Usiel, Usenaniel — Ye angels, 
speedily shall ye bring down hatred and envy and enmity and con- 
tention and strife and great hostility between all the household and 
N., son of N., that they may hate each other with a great and strong 
hatred and bitter enmity of heart and soul henceforth and for ever." 
And thou shalt cast it into the house of thine enemy. 

No. II. To kill^ so that the devils shall smite him. — Take a stone 
and throw it to a dog which shall bite it, and on it write these names 
and throw it into the house of thine enemy, and thou shalt see 
wonders when they smite him, and it may be that he will be afraid 
and die. And this is what thou shalt write : (see Plate I, fig. 2). 

No. 12. Another, — Take dust from the grave of a murdered man 
who hath been slain with iron, and take water from three wells which 
cannot see each other, and knead the dust with the water and make 
it into a cake and throw it into the house of thine enemy, and say : 
"As this lord of the dust was slain, so may be slain N., the son of N., 
and he shall not complete his year." (Proved and certain.) 

No. 13. Another: to drive him forth so that he shall go from place 
to place, — Take dust from seven ovens and read over it these names, 
and pour the aforesaid dust into his house ; and this is what thou 
shalt read: "Taphtir Siztah Koti Kot Koph^itah Kab Teni*ah Sat 
Hatot Wiph Titah." And it shall be successful by the help of God. 

No. 14. For an enemy, — Write on a piece of new cloth at even- 
time and bury it on his roof and there shall come on him great 
sickness and he shall not be healed, till he die or the roof fall in. 
And this is what thou shalt write : "Kal Yabhah Katho Pedin Bidad 
Karbad Kah Perek Bihnam Haka Lsa*ah Lsa*ah." 

No. 15. Another for a foe, — Take the heart of a lamb and put 
needles (in it), and also shalt thou write in the heart's blood and put 

104 



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Mar. 14] THE FOLKLORE OF MOSSOUL. [1906. 

it on the hole of the heart, and this heart thou shalt hide in a place 
of evil, that it may rot, and that enemy may also rot and come to an 
end. And this is what thou shalt write : " HaSdiel Hahkiel Hamiel 
Harsel Hamamel Haluel Israel El Birketha Birketha Birketha Sick- 
ness, Sickness, Sickness, thou shalt come, thou shalt come, thou 
shalt come upon mine enemy, N., son of N." 

No. 16. To kill the enemy, — Write these seals on a new potsherd 
and wash (them) off in water, and sprinkle it in the house of the 
enemy on the second night of the week or the fourth of the week 
at the seventh hour. And this is what thou shalt write : (see Plate I, 
% 3)- 

No. 17. Another to kill him, — Take a hollow bone of a dead 
man and take of (thine enemy's) excrement and put a little " living '' 
silver, and put the whole into the bone aforementioned, and bury it 
in the enemy's house. 

No. 18. Another y that he should fall sick and be incontinent, — 
Take a hollow thigh-bone and put some of the dust whereon he hath 
made water with "living" silver, and seal it up carefully, and bury it 
in the river underneath the water, and as the water passeth over it 
thou shalt see wonders. 

No. 19. Another, — Make a plate of red copper and write on it 
these names, and wash (them) off in water and pour it out at the 
door of his house. And this is what thou shalt write : " Ir Izir Kit 
Tat Sathan Minni Y'md Ebel A§tan Bat A' Nitan Ya'anihu Amen." 

No. 20. To destroy an enemy, — Write on the first day at the third 
hour of the day upon a bit of limestone, these names \ and then let 
him burn the stone with these that thou shalt write : " Nemael 
Lahabiel Zeru'iel Ahabiel Yahariel Mariel Amiel Wahabiel Uriel 
Seraphiel, Seraphs that stand above him, that ye may destroy the 
enemy, N., son of N., to Maher-§alal-ha§-baz." Or bury these names 
in an old grave (and this is proved and certain). 

No. 21. For war, — . . . Take dust from under thy left foot and say 
over it these names and scatter it against them (the enemy) and they 
shall no more be able to make war ; and this is what thou shalt say : 
"In the name of Loki Yoel AntSel. (Another book) AntSel and 
Mehothiel Yoy Hia Abniel Ahamnel Yiol Wahi Yokiel MiSkathiel 
Yah — by your purity that ye may bind all kinds of fighting for 

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Mar. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

brigandage against N., son of N., henceforth and for ever, until the 
wrath pass. Amen, so may the will be." 

No. 22. For hatred between a man and his friend, — Take a cake 
of fine flour, and write these names upon it, and give it to a dog to 
eat ; and this is what thou shalt write : " §*aph §kas and Kaphiel 
Pekise Pelal Memufeel Welo Soel ; N., son of N., shall hate N., son 
of N., in the name of Ibiel Meriel Sephiel So, that ye may put hate and 
envy and strife between them and there shall not be peace between 
them nor love, but envy and hatred and enmity from this day for 
evermore." 

No. 23. That an enemy may be a fugitive and a wanderer. — Write 
these words in a bird's blood and bind (it) on the bird's foot and let 
it fly in the open fields. If the bird goes away, he shall be a fugitive 
and a wanderer, and if it come back, the enemy shall die. And 
this is what thou shalt write : "Za' Tiza' Zia' Haz Ta'z Hiz Puz Taphaz 
Piz; N., son of N., shall go down into Sheol at this hour, by the 
name of Gak Dik GG KKK." 

No. 24. To bring a man out of prison, or to bring him in from a 
distant place, — Let him make a charm and write it on gazelle parch- 
ment in the name of that man and let him put it on his arm. 

No. 25. Another for a prisoner. — Let him write on three eggs 
(and if they are two days old, better still), and write on each egg 
these three words : " Wi§k§ain SikSain Argin," and let him eat the 
eggs and he shall go forth from the prison. 

No. 26. This is what shall effect a man^s growing rich and being 
high in favour before king and princes. — And this is it : " Ayan Repha 
Selab Debi Ye*a Ye*ab Yezal Ketha* Mewab Tesai *Ai Keab Yea 
Yewa Keaa." And it is proved and certain. 

No. 27. For a prisoner. — Let him write on a piece of bread in 
the name of Agas Sega Segi Asaph Sepha Sephu and let the prisoner 
eat it and he shall go forth by God's help. 

No, 28. For a woman that hath been separated from her husband 
through enchantment, and wisheth to join him. — Thou shalt take a 
hair of the woman, and a thread which she hath bound on him,* and 

2 Or "it." 
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Mar. 14] THE FOLKLORE OF MOSSOUL. [1906. 

dust from beneath her feet, and a little coriander-seed, and thou shalt 
put them in a (piece of) cloth and bind it with the aforementioned 
thread and hang the cloth in a place under which the man is, and 
put the coriander-seed upon the man and thou shalt say : ** Anusin 
Anusin Atetin Atetin, do ye subdue and bring N., the son of N., 
swiftly, swiftly, swiftly, with speed, with speed, with speed, at once, 
at once, at once ;" and then shall she come without a doubt 

No. 29. For love, — Write on parchment Ha§wat6s, and bum it 
until it becometh ashes, and put it in beer or whatever drink that 
man drinketh and they (sic) will love thee. 

No. 30. To uproot an enemy from his dwelling. — Take a vessel of 
new pot and wash it in running water, and thou shalt write on it : 
(the verse beginning) " Brimstone and salt (and) burning all its land " 
and all (the rest) of it,^ "in the name Segehu Werega* Seheseth 
Geherah Ab," and thou shalt burn it in the house wherein the 
enemy dwelleth. 

No. 31. Separation between two men. — Take seven mustard-(seeds) 
and spices and nigella and dust from forty graves and eggshells 
and read over them and scatter them in their place. And this is what 
thou shall say : " Like the nigella in the fields, so shall contention 
and dispute increase between N., son of N., and N., son of N. ; 
and as the Lord (blessed be he) divided between the heaven and 
earth, so may He divide between them ; and as He divided between 
sea and land, so may He divide between them ; and as He divided 
between man and devils, so may He divide between them ; and the 
one shall not come back to the other for ever and ever." 

No. 32. For an enemy, — Make a figure on parchment in his 
name and dye it in saffron, and write upon the head of the figure 
Samardin, and upon the right hand PagaS, and upon the left Tibtaz, 
and on the middle of the body Tilhab, and upon the right foot 
Bilao, and upon the left foot Belobab, and write between the feet 
Sammael, Scorpio, Mars, Saturn ; and on the other side write on the 
head P, and on the right hand G, and upon the left hand L^ and 
on the middle of the body KT, and on the right foot K, and on the 
left foot W, and conceal it in the earth with the left hand until the 
enemy treadeth on it ; and then thou shalt put it under a work(man's) 



• Deut. xxix, 23. 

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Mar. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCFLEOLOGY. [1906. 

hammer or under a fuller's stone, and say at the time that thou 
buriest it : " in the name of &mnin " over the hammer or over the 
stone; "so shall N., the son of N., be smitten on his head and he 
shall have no peaceful rest in all his body, neither by day nor night." 

No. 33. Another, — Take a black cock and buy it at whatever 
price they shall ask from thee, and put it in the fowl-run by itself, and 
feed it and call it by the name of the man thou seekest, and thou 
shalt say to it : " Eat thou N., son of N. ; " thus shalt thou do for nine 
consecutive days, and on the tenth bring it to the river and kill it 
there, and thou shalt say : "I am killing N., the son of N., that N., 
the son of N., may die thus, in the name whereby this cock is killed, 
and N., son of N., may surely die." Then take two needles and put 
them in its heari, one lengthwise and the other breadthwise, and 
thou shalt bury it on the brink of the river, and the enemy shall 
not complete his year, by God's help. 

No. 34. Another^ to make him feeble, — Take of his urine and put 
it in a reed in his name, N., son of N., and put therein "living" 
silver, and close up the mouth of the reed, and cast the reed into a 
place where water is continually running, and diarrhoea shall come 
upon him, and he shall immediately fall sick and shall not recover 
until he taketh it out. And this is proved and certain. 

No. 35. For hatred, — Take an egg one day old and write upon it 
this name, and bury it in the grave of a man slain by iron. And 
this is what thou shalt write : " I adjure you. Angels of destruction 
which are set over the gates of Jehannum, that ye turn the heart of 
N., son of N., against N., daughter of N., that he shall not look at 
her, nor be joined to her, in the name of Jehovah, Haphkiel Saphkiel 
Suriel and Seraphiel, and he shall hate her as with the hatred of 
Amnon and Tamar, and cat and mouse, in the name of Samiel 
Aphiel Tamtiel." 

No. 36. To kill an enemy, — Watch the place where the enemy 
passeth water and put a needle in the middle of his urine, and thou 
shalt say : " I adjure you three, Aph, and Himah, and Sam, in the 
name of Argaman, that ye come and slay N., son of N.," and within 
four days the enemy will die. 

No. 37. For love. — Write this on three tablets and wash them in 
water or wiiie and give it to drink: "Atmaru Atmaru Kmarmadu 
Armadu AWphu Akiphu." 

ro8 



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PLATE II. 



Proc. Soc, Bib/. Arch, y March, 1906. 




Fig. I. 



\^m 




'^^\^^ 



,j\JU- 



!-< 



Fig:- 2. 



d^ji^ luasi ^iidduf^ 



Fig. 3- 



wcyB 




£ 



Fig. 4. 



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Mar. 14] THE FOLKLORE OF MOSSOUL. [1906. 

No. 38. Another, — Write these names on seven . . . and give 
them to eat to whomever thou wishest, and he shall come after thee : 
"Akmas Akmas Honah Haitunin Bi§umin Honah Gedu." And it 
is proved. 

No. 39. Another, — Write and wash off in water : " in the name of 
Aphiel and Haniel Maspaz Maspaz ; in the name of Kasmiel Pni*ael 
Hithriel Haniel. Ye shall bind the spirit and soul and all the being 
of N., the son of N., for love of N., daughter of N." 

No. 40. Another, — Write on a garment of hers, her name and 
the name of her mother, and burn in fire: **Berubin Beru^iin 
Berufein." 

No. 41. For love, — Write on dijakja^ . . . and burn it in a great 
fire : {see Plate II, fig. i) "Ye shall put love for N., son of N., into 
the heart of N., daughter of N." 

No. 42. Whoever wisheth for a woman and he (her father) will 
not give her to him, — Write in the name of the daughter and that 
man who will not give her to him, and thou shalt burn it in fire. 
These are the seals (see Plate II, fig. 2). 

No. 43. For love between a man and his wife, — Write these three 
seals on three olive leaves in the name of N., the son of N., for love 
of N., daughter of N., and he shall burn one each day (see Plate II, 
fig- 3). 

No. 44. Another, — Write in dove's blood on gazelle parchment 
on a hairy place, and wash it off in water and give it (to him) to 
drink. And this is what thou shalt write : ** Kursi Pa'ali Y'ki Ani 
Y'ki Atho Yithni Kalpba Nakdo;" and this shalt thou do with 
great attention. Proved and certain. 

(I found this in the book of my worthy ancestor, Migdal David.) 

No. 45. To crush and bring on deep sleep on a man, — Write on 
gazelle parchment these seals, and he shall put it on the table. And 
this is what thou shalt write : " Wath Nepher " (see Plate II, fig. 4). 

No. 46. For fever, — Write on three almonds and let him eat 
them, one in the morning and one at noon and one at the hour he 
shivers. On the first write Bikdas : and on ******* 



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Mar. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 



TWO KABBALISTIC PLANETARY CHARMS. 

By E. J. PiLCHER. 

Kabbalistic astrology conceived the Universe as consisting of 
ten concentric spheres, each sphere being under the influence of 
one of the Ten Sephiroth (or "Emanations" of the Absolute), 
arranged in the following manner, one within the other : — 

Jf- D'^'^i'^irr n^tt^M'l R&shUk ka-galgaUm = The primum mobile. 
Mazloth = The sphere of the Zodiac. 
ShabbathcU = The sphere of Saturn. 
Sedeq = The sphere of Jupiter. 
Madttn = The sphere of Mars. 
Sheniesh = The sphere of the Sun. 
Nogah — The sphere of Venus. 
Kokab = The sphere of Mercury. 
Lebanah = The sphere of the Moon. 
Cholom yesodoth — The mundane sphere. 

Each sphere had its own characteristics ; but the spheres of the 
Seven Planets were supposed to be of the greatest importance to 
mankind ; for each planet presided over a certain section of human 
affairs, and the man who wished to succeed in these affairs must 
know the mystic symbols of the governing planet, and the names 
and attributes of the operating genii. When, therefore, we meet 
with metal plates, or strips of parchment, bearing mysterious symbols 
and devices, and lists of more or less unintelligible names, they are 
usually to be explained as charms or talismans, intended to secure 
to the possessor the offices of the spirits, or the influence of the 
powers of the planetary spheres. These devices are of various 
kinds. There is the "Signature " or character appropriated to each 
planet — an arbitrary figure somewhat cruciform in outline. Also the 
" signatures " of the beneficent indwelling spirits, and the maleficent 

no 



2. 


ni'riD 


3- 


"•Nnntr 


4- 


pT2 


S- 


D"«n«o 


6. 


tt>Ott7 


7. 


nais 


8. 
9- 




10. 


iTniD"" o'rn 



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Mar. 14] TWO KABBALISTIC PLANETARY CHARMS. 



[1906. 



demons associated with the planetary spheres. But the most striking 
device is the " Magic Square ;" that is to say, a square figure formed 
by a series of numbers in mathematical proportion, so disposed in 
parallel and equal rows that the sum of the numbers in each row or 
line taken perpendicularly, horizontally or diagonally, is equal. 

The simplest of all the squares is that of Saturn. As Saturn 
presides over the Third Sphere, he has a Magic Square composed of 
three columns ; thus involving nine ciphers. The arithmetical sum 
obtained by adding up each column perpendicularly is fifteen ; and 
the same sum is obtained by adding up each row of ciphers horizon- 
tally, and by taking them diagonally from corner to corner ; thus : — 



4 


9 


2 


3 


5 


7 


8 


I 


6 



Furthermore, by taking the arithmetical sum 15, and multiplying 
it by the number of the sphere = 3, we get forty five as the product. 

The numbers in italics should be carefully noted, because the 
Kabbalist gives special mystic names to each of them, as well as to 
the numbers derived in the same way from the Magic Squares of the 
other planets. 

In the case of Saturn : — 

3 has the Mystic Name of Ab, 
15 „ „ „ lah. 



15X3 = 45 



Zazel.^ 



The two talismans which form the subject of this paper are con- 
structed upon Kabbalistic principles. They both contain blunders 
arising from the carelessness or ignorance of the engraver ; but these 
probably had no effect upon their magical virtues, or the estimation 
in which they were held by their possessors. Occultists are perfectly 
aware that practical magic is full of these blunders; but such 
difficulties are explained by the convenient theory that the word or 

^ The maimer of forming these mystic names is obvious to anyone acquainted 
with the numerical properties of the Hebrew letters. 

Ill 



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Mar. 14] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



[1906. 



the symbol per se has comparatively little value. It only attains its 
power when it becomes the medium of psychic force. 

The smaller of the two charms (see Plate I, figs, i, 2) is appro- 
priated to the planet Jupiter. It consists of a silver disk, an inch 
and a half in diameter, with a suspension loop. 

A talisman of Jupiter frequently bears in its centre a representa- 
tion of a "nobleman." The date and provenance of the present 
specimen is shown by the full length engraving of a Dutch burgo- 
master, attired in the costume worn at the latter end of the seven- 
teenth century. We may recognise the broad-brimmed hat, the 
flowing wig, the square-cut coat, and the high-heeled buckled shoes. 

He stands between the two halves of the quaternary square of 
the planet The true Magic Square should be as under : — 



4 


14 


15 I 


9 ! 7 

1 


6 12 


5 


II 10 8 


16 


2 


3 i 13 



The component numbers of which have the following Mystic 
Names : — 

4 Aba, 
4x4= 16 Hagiel. 

34 Elab: 
34 X 4 = 136 JohphieL 

The numbers that actually occur on the talisman will not add 
up. They, furthermore, have seven asterisks distributed among them 
for the purpose of mystifying the reader. 

Above the burgomaster is the " signature " of the indwelling spirit 
of Jupiter; while he tramples under his feet the "signature" of the 
corresponding demon. 

The letters M L I M are possibly the initials of the owner, but 
more probably the initials of the four Evangelists. 

Around the whole device is a circle containing the names of angels- 

The reverse of the talisman presents a circle with eight rays. In 
the circle are engraved three lines of pseudo-Hebrew characters. 

112 



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PLATE 1. 



Proc. Soc. BibL Arch., Manh, 1906. 





OBVERSE. 



2 
REVERSE. 




KABBALISTIC CHARMS. 
Belonging to W. L. Nash, Esq. 



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Mar. 14] TWO KABBALISTIC PLANETARY CHARMS. 



[1906. 



The rays bear the names of various angels ; and in the spandrels are 
groups of three, seven, and nine stars, interchanged with crosslets. 

Surrounding all is a border, containing the mystic names of the 
component numbers of the Magic Square. First is Agiel ; probably 
for the Angel of Jupiter, though the usual name of this functionary 
is SachieL Then comes the planetary cipher 4, followed by its 
Mystic Name Abab. This being the number of letters in the 
ineffable name rniT it is expressed in Kabbalistic style by Tetra- 
grammaton; followed by Hagiely Elab^ ^.nd /ohphiell for 16, 34 and 
136 respectively. 

These celestial names and transcendental cyphers, however, were 
intended to serve a low practical purpose ; for they were engraved 
upon this talisman with the object of securing mere temporal 
advantages. The Kabbalist assures us that : — 

"If this Magical Square be engraved upon a sheet of silver 
representing Jupiter in a powerful and dominant conjunction, then 
it will give riches, favour, love, peace, and harmony with mankind. 
It will reconcile enemies. It ^vill ensure honours, dignities, and 
government position." 

The larger charm (Plate I, figs. 3, 4) is a silver disk, two inches 
and an eighth in diameter. It is appropriated to the planet Venus. 
Venus being the regent of the Seventh Sphere, her Magic Square is, 
of course, septenary ; and is arranged as follows : — 



1 

22 47 


16 


41 10 

1 


35 


4 


5 ! 23 

1 


48 


17 


42 


II 


29 


i 
30 6 

1 


24 


49 


1.8 


36 


12 


13 


31 


7 


25 


43 


19 


37 


38 14 


32 


I 


26 


44 


20 


21 39 


8 


33 


2 


27 


45 


46 15 


40 


9 


34 


3 


28 



113 



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Mar. 14] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



[1906. 



The component numbers of this square are set out below, with 
their Mystic Names in italics and in Hebrew letters : — 

7 Ahea Kn« 

lY.!^ 49 Hagiel hM^^^T^ 

175 QAdemel 'rMDlp 

175 X 7 = 1225 Beni Seraphim D"»D'1tt^ ^32 

The charm before us exhibits the erudition of the engraver by 
setting out the planetary square in Hebrew characters. It has two 
blunders in it, both of them in the second column from the left. 
The second square from the top has J"^ for 33 ; and the second 
square from the bottom has plv for tOT • The correct table is 
this :— 



13 


Wi 


V 


ND 


s 


rh 


T 


n 


33 


no 


r 


30 


«"• 


133 


S 


1 


ns 


C5n 


rp 


^h 


SI 


r 


«S 


T 


rt3 


ao 


ci> 


h 


rh 


T 


^ 


M 


13 


■ra 


3 


«D 


taV 


n 


h 


3 


« 


no 


■>o 


m 


a 


to 


-h 


:i 


n3 



Above the Magic Square is fc^HW , the Mystic Name of seven. 
Below it is the well-known astronomical symbol of Venus ? . 
In the outer circle we again meet with the mystic MpfM on the 
right hand ; while, on the left, is WJin for Ilaj^'e[i] the Mystic 
Name of 49.^ On the top is engraved 1225, the product of multi- 
plying the arithmetical sum of the square by its planetary number. 
The Name (Qedemei), or the Number 175, might have been expected 
to figure at the bottom, but has been omitted for some reason. 

* A corresponding charm in the British Museum has the full word ?N^3n Hagitl. 

114 



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Mar. 14] TWO KABBALISTIC PLANETARY CHARMS. [1906. 

The reverse of the talisman gives us the ** Signature " of Venus ; 
below which is the " Signature " of the indwelling spirit of the planet, 
with the astronomical ? in the field. 

Kabbalistic lore tells us that : — 

"This Magic Square engraved upon a sheet of silver representing 
Venus in a lucky conjunction, procures harmony, terminates discords, 
and obtains female favours. It assists conception, prevents sterility, 
and gives conjugal strength. It delivers from sorcery, makes peace 
between husband and wife, and causes all kinds of animals to be 
produced in abundance. Placed in a dovecot, it causes the pigeons 
to multiply freely. It is good against melancholy sicknesses ; and is 
strengthening. Carried upon the person it makes travellers lucky." 

These two charms are interesting as memorials of the belief in 
magic, astrology and witchcraft, which characterized the seventeenth 
century. The belief was shared by the ablest and most learned 
men of the period. In fact it was learning (of a kind) that gave it 
its great influence. Johann Reuchlin in the sixteenth century, and 
Athanasius Kircher in the seventeenth, devoted much time and 
labour to expounding the abstruse teachings of the Kabbalah ; and 
they were eagerly followed by a crowd of lesser luminaries. The 
Kabbalah itself was at first a body of theosophic doctrine originated 
by the Jews of Spain in the thirteenth century on the lines of Neo- 
Platonism; but the mysticism of the early Kabbalists speedily 
developed a system of magic, that gradually absorbed all the half- 
forgotten fancies of Greek sorcery and astrology. Thus Kabbalism 
became the principal repertory of magical ideas ; and all the forms 
of modern occultism, whatever their names may be, have derived 
their material from the Kabbalah ; although the debt is not always 
acknowledged. 

The British Museum possesses seven of these planetary charms, 
exhibited in the Mediaeval Room, Table Case B. All of them 
except No. I appear to have been part of the Sloane Collection. 
They may be described as follows : — 
I. A silver disk, pierced. 

O^erse. — A magic square of four columns in Hebrew 
characters; above which is the word 3b^"?M • On the right 
side MIW. On the left side '^M^^DrP. At the base 7/. 
Below all'* 136." 

"5 



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Mar. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1906. 

Retferse,^ The ** signature " of Jupiter ; below which is 
the astronomical 1/ , and the " signature " of the indwelling 
spirit of the planet. On the right hand the words, ^'Confirmo 
O Deus potentissimusP^ 

II. A silver disk, pierced. 

Obverse, — A magic square of four columns, without any- 
dividing lines, above which are the words, ^^ Aba iohphiel 
Hisviadr On the right hand the " signature " of Jupiter. 
On the left " Sachieiy Below, the signatures of the spirit 
and demon of the planet. 

Reverse, — A nondescript winged figure, and the word 
" Gabrielir 

III. An octagonal plate, with suspension loop, cast in pewter. 

Obverse, — A magic square of four columns, in Hebrew 
characters, surmounted by the figure of a throned monarch. 
At sides and base are various emblems. 

ReiJerse. — Twelve lines of Hebrew. 

IV. A thick oval of reddish bronze, with suspension loop. [The 

rubric states that the talisman of Mars in a fortunate con- 
junction should be of iron. But a charm constructed under 
an unfortunate conjunction must be in "red brass." It 
will then have sundry maleficent properties, including the 
power of "striking terror into one^s enemies, and compelling 
them to submit."] 

Obverse. — A magic square of ?[vt columns, in Arabic 
numerals, surmounted with the symbol of Mars ^. 

Reverse, — A man in complete armour, of apparently 
sixteenth century date, brandishing a drawn sword above 
his head. Below him the ** signature " of Mars. Above, in 
a kind of heraldic chief, the symbol cJ . 

V. Square plate of silver, with suspension loop. 

Obverse. — A magic square of seven columns, in Arabic 
numerals; above which are the words Nihil Deo impassible. 
On the right hand, Quis sicut injortibus. Running round 
the bottom and left hand, O tetragramaton qui aperuisti 
vulvam RachelcB concepit filii. 

Reverse. — A clothed female figure seated on a throne, 
bearing in her right hand a feathered dart ; in her raised 

^ There is a precisely similar medal in the York Museum. 
116 



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PLATE 11. 



Proc. Soc. Btbi. Arch,, Marchy 1906. 





REVEKSE. 

KABBALISTIC MEDAL. 
Belonging lo W. L. Nash, Esq. 



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Mar. 14] TWO KABBALISTIC PLANETARY CHARMS. [1906. 

left hand a flower. Two birds on the back of the throne. 
To right, the symbol ? , a balance with the sign £S:, and the 
signature of the spirit of Venus. To left, the signature of 
Venus, a crouching bull, surmounted by 0, and the 
signature of the planetary demon. 

VI. An exactly similar plate in capper ; with the same devices. 

[According to the rubric, a talisman of Venus in a lucky 
conjunction should be in silver. Under an unlucky aspect, 
the charm should be in copper. It was then supposed to 
have a precisely opposite effect. The two plates in the 
Museum, therefore, are complementary ; and represent the 
planet in both its beneficent and its maleficent qualities.] 

VII. A silver disk, pierced. It bears an old label, reading, 
" Silver amulet or talisman made under the Joint influence 
of Venus and the Moon. Date XVI or XVII century:' 

Obverse, — Magic square of seven columns, in Hebrew 
characters. Above all 1225 and rnn''. On the right 
h^yn . On the left MHM . Below all MnM . 

Rruerse, — The "signature" of Venus; the signature pf 
the indwelling spirit, €h and ? . The following words are 
engraved in a spiral around these figures. ^^ Accipe mihi 
petitione O Domine keep me as apple of an eye hide me under 
the shadow of thy wings from all evel (sic) up Lord and help 
us for thou art my strong rock and my castle Amen:' 

To the above list I may add a description of a pewter medal 
with Talismanic inscriptions belonging to Mr. Nash (Plate II), 
bearing : 

Obi^erse, 

An interlaced star of eight points. In the spaces of the figure 
are the letters of the word Tetragramaton. Around the figure 
are the astronomical hieroglyphs of the seven planets, and a star with 
eight rays, thus : 

* O C ^? V c? ? ? 

Around all are " Words of Power," separated by Maltese crosses : 

qO^ adonay + sother 4- astisap + el -h on -h iesus + christus + hely + 

G + M + B-h 
117 

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Mar. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

Reverse, 

An interlaced star of five points, forming the '* seal of David." 
"Seals" of angels between the points. Surrounded by sixteen 
" seals " of angels ; making twenty-one ** seals " in all. 

In the surrounding circle are the words : — 

o 
S°o 2igla + tetragramaton + elion -h pantagaton + eloy + ananisapt + 

emanuel 

I wish also to draw attention to a very beautiful porcelain bowl 
and saucer exhibited by Mr. Nash. Both pieces have a magic 
square of sixteen spaces, surrounded by lines of an inscription 
in Arabic alternating with lines of an ornamental pattern. I can 
offer no further account of this object until the inscription has 
been translated. 



NOTE ON TWO FIGURES FOUND NEAR THE. 
SOUTH TEMPLE AT WADY HALFA. 

By p. Scott-Moncrieff, B,A, 

While excavating for the Sudan Government at the XVIIIth 
dynasty temple near Wady Haifa during the months of November 
and December last, I opened up a vaulted brick chamber which 
abutted on the old temenos wall. Its appearance is very much like 
that of the vaulted shrine of Taharka at Semneh opened in 1904 by 
Dr. Budge and Mr. J. W. Crowfoot, and for that reason the Haifa 
chamber may very probably owe its origin to the same king. In 
it, however, was found a strange miscellany of objects. The first 
figure illustrated [Plate, figs, i and 2], which stands 17^ inches high, 
was found with several Middle Empire grave-stelae, pots, and other 
fragments, at the bottom of the chamber, some 12 feet below the 

surface. It is the portrait of Sebek-em-heby ^§4 ^K\ [ { 1 , a scribe 



of the soldiers ; the brief inscription on the knees of the figure only 

118 



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Proc, Soc, Bibt, Arch.^ Match, 1906. 






Fig. I. Fig. 2. 

FIGURES FROM WADV ^ALFA. 
Found by P. Scott- Moncrieff, Esq. 

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Mar. 14] TWO FIGURES FOUND AT WADY HALF A. [1906. 

contains the name and office of the deceased, with the usual Suten 
(a hotep formula addressed to Ptah. As may be seen from the 
illustration, it is of fine workmanship, and executed in a style of 
great dignity and repose. The material is black basalt, and it clearly 
belongs to the Xlllth dynasty. 

The other figure [Plate, fig. 3] was found some time before the 
bottom of the chamber was reached, only about 3 feet from the 
surface : close by it were two fragments of ostraka, inscribed in cursive 
Meroitic. It is of soft limestone, and stands about t8 inches high. 
In spite of the rudeness of the workmanship and the primitive idol- 
like expression it bears, the object is surely meant for a copy of an 
Egyptian figure. The red is exactly the tint found on Egyptian 
work. The necklace and wig also seem to show an effort to copy 
an Egyptian model. Its date and origin, however, are difficult to 
guess, but it may possibly belong to the period of the later Nubian 
empire, about which so little is at present known. The existence of 
Meroitic ostraka close by would support this supposition. 

The presence of Middle Empire objects in a brick chamber 
which must be of much later date may perhaps be accounted for by 
the fact that they originally came from the Middle Empire brick 
temple a few hundred yards distant, and having perhaps been brought 
into the XVIIIth dynasty temple soon after it was built, they were 
afterwards, in unsettled times, thrown into the brick chamber. 
Their position, lying anyhow, seems to confirm this. All the objects 
are now in the Gordon College at Khartoum, and will eventually be 
placed in the museum shortly to be built there. 



119 

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Mak. 14) SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHitOLOGY. [1906. 



"THE STAR OF STARS" AND DILGAN. 

The author omitted to refer to the identification, by Mr. R. 
Brown, of the "Star of Stars" with the Pleiades (see ^^ Primitive 
Constellations^^ II, 209), an identification, however, which is based 
on different grounds to those adopted by the author of the Paper. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held on 
Wednesday, May 9th, 1906, at 4.30 p.m., when the 
following Paper will be read : — 

Dr. Pinches: ''The Babylonian Gods of War, 
and their Legends." 



120 



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SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHM06T PUBUCATIOMS. 



A 

GENERAL INDEX 

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NOW READY-PRICE 808. 

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The Bronze Ornaments of the Palace Gates from 

Balawai 

[Shalmaneser II, B.C 859-825.] 

Part V (the final part), with Introduction and descriptiye letter-press, 
has now been issued to the Subscribers. 

A few complete copies of the book remain unsold and can be 
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Society of Biblical Archaeology. 

37, Great Russell Street, London, W.C. 



council, 1906. 



President, 
Prof. A. H. Saycb, D.D., &c., «kc 

Vict'Prmdents. • 

Thk Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of Vork. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Salisbury. 

The Most Hon. the Marquess of Northampton. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Halsbury. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Walter Morrison. 

Alexander Pbckovkr, LL.D., F.S.A. 

F. G. Hilton Price, Dir. S.A. 

W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

The Right Hon. General Lord Grenfbll, K.CB., &c., &c. 

The Right Rev. S. W. Allen, D.D. (R.C. Bishop of Shrewsbury). 

Rev. J. Marshall, M.A. 

Joseph Pollard. 



Rev. Charles Jambs Ball, M.A. 

Dr. M. G aster. 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. 

H. R. Hall, M.A. 

Sir H. H. Howorth, K.C.LE., 

F.R.S., &c. 
L. W. King, M.A. 
Rev. Albkrt I.6wy, LL-D., &c. 
Prof. G. Maspero. 



CounciL 

Claude G. Montefiorb. 
Prof. E. Naville. 
Edward S. M. Pbrownb, F.S.A. 
Rev, W. T. Filter. 
P. Scott-Moncrieff, B.A. 
R. Campbell Thompson, B.A. 
Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., 
F.R.S., &c. 



Honorary Treasurer— ^^%\c^K^l> T. BosANQUE'i . 

5^tf«/ar^— Walter L. Nash, M.R.C.S., F.S.A. 

Honorary Secretary for Foreign Correspondence — F. Leggb. 

Honorary Librarian—^ KLTKH L. Nash, M.R.C.S., F.S.A. 



KAKRISON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HIS MAJBSTV. ST. MARTIN'S ^^"K. ^jQQq[^ 



VOL. XXVIII. Part 4. 

'; .!L"V n i;, ; 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



-^0^ 



VOL. XXVIII. THIRTY-SIXTH SESSION. 

Fourth Meeting, May gth^ 1906. 



CONTENTS. 

, PACE 

Victor Loret.— Le dieu Seth et le Roi S^th6sis 123-132 

Prof. A. H. Sayce. — ^The Ivriz Texts ; The Ardistama Inscrip- 
tions ; Some Hittite Seals {Plate) 133-137 

E. O. WiNSTEDT. — Some Munich Coptic Fragments. 1 137-142 

Prof. D. H, Mullex.— The Himyaritic Inscription from Jabal 

Jehaf. {Plate) 143-148 

Prof. F. C. Burkitt, A/.^.— The * Throne of Nimrod.' 

{2 Plates) 149-155 

The Rev. Dr. Colin Campbell.— Inscribed Slab with a 

portrait of Khuenaten. '{Plate) *. 156 

— — ^M^ 

published at 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

37, Great Russell Street, London, W,C. 

1906. 



No. CCXI. J^^^edbyV 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, 
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A few complete sets of the Transactions and Proceedings still remain on 
sale, which may be obtained on application to the Secretary, W. L. Nash, 
F.S.A., S7, Great Russell. Street, London, W.C. 



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J; JUN 111905 '^i 

OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY 



THIRTY-SIXTH SESSION, 1906. 



Fourth Meetings May gth, 1906. 
Rev. W. T. FILTER, M,A,, 



IN THE CHAIR. 



-#^- 



[No. ccxi.] 121 



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May 9] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

The following gifts to the Library were announced, and 
thanks ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author, Prof. Dr. A. Wiedemann. — "^Egyptische 

Grabreliefs aus der Grossherzoglichen Altertiimer-Sammlung, zu 

Karlsruhe." 
From the Author, Prof. Waldemar Schmidt. — "Choix de 

Monuments 6gyptiens." 
From the Author, Mon'. A. Baillet. — "Les Vases *Oucheb' et 

*Sochen.'" 
From the Publishers, Messrs. Putnam. — " Man's Responsibility," 

by T. G. Carson. 



THE LIBRARY. 



BOOK-BINDING FUND. 
The following donations have been received : — 
March, 1906 : — 

The Rev. W. T. Pilter ;£i o o 

The Hon. Miss E. Plunket £1 i o 



The following Candidate for Membership was elected : — 
C. Barclay Holland, Esq., 9, Beaumont Street, W. 



The following Paper was read ; — 

Dr. T. G. Pinches: **The Babylonian Gods of War, and 
their Legends." 

Thanks were returned for this communication. 



122 



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May 9] LE DIEU SETH ET LE ROI S6th6SIS. [1906. 



LE DIEU SETH ET LE ROI s6th6SIS. 
Par Victor Loret. 

Dans son trhs curieux ouvrage Aus ^gyptens Vorzeit} — 011 se 
rencontrent, k cotd d'assertions aventureuses et d^concertantes, un 
grand nombre d'apergus ingdnieux et originaux qu'il serait bon de ne 
pas laisser tomber dans Toubli, — F. I^uth a emis, au sujet du nom 

du roi tS 00 > une id^e qui n'a pas fait fortune et qui pourtant, si je 

ne me trompe, m^ritait un meilleur sort. A son avis, ce nom ne 
doit pas se lire Seti^ ce qui edt donn^ en grec une transcription 
*^€0i9^ mais bien Soutekhiy ou plutot Setoukhiy ce qui explique trfes 
naturellement la transcription man^thonienne ^0ujot9j dans laquelle 
le ® est rendu par un «. On constate, en effet, la m^me manifere de 
rendre le ® par un « dans la transcription 2o«)0i9, 2aw0/« du nom 

royal ©^ ^ . 

D'apr^s Lauth, on le voit, le signe lo rdpondrait ici, non pas k 

la forme lo du nom divin, mais bien k la forme 1 ^ IB , 

la plus frdquente d'ailleurs sous les Ramessides. Toute cette argu- 
mentation me parait fort rationnelle, et je m'^tonne qu'on ne Tait, 
dans la suite, jamais discutee, ni m^me signal^e. Or, il me semble 
que Topinion de Lauth est d'autant plus juste, que m^me le nom 

to, sur lequel repose pour to (1(1 la lecture Seh\ est loin de 

presenter une apparence correcte et originelle. 

On a, en effet, relev6 d^ja depuis longtemps, dans une copie du 
chapitre XVII du Zt'vre des marts peinte sur le sarcophage de 

Sebek4a (Moyen Empire), deux exemples de Torthographe ^ ^ 

pour le nom du dieu Seth.^ Cette orthographe est hors de toute 

' Berlin, in 8°, 1 88 1, pp. 292-293. 

* R. Lepsius, yEUeste Texte des TodtenJnuhs^ pi. xxxi, col. 27 et 28. 

123 L 2 



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May 9] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ACCH2EOLOGY. [1906. 

discussion, le meme signe *o»— «> se retrouvant, k deux colonnes 



d'intervalle, dans le mot bien connu 11'^^ (col. 26). II n'y 

a done pas lieu de chercher k voir dans ce signe quelque d^terminatif 

phon^tique du son , comme par exemple o— ou -«— «c. C'est 

bien du «»-«=»► qu'il s'agit ici^ et ce signe repr^sente un dement 
phon^tique du mot, soit le son ®, soit plutot la lettre cznzj. On a 
remarque, en efFet, dans plusieurs textes du Moyen Empire, des 

Equivalences comme O^fJ^, *»— ^[J,* oa^f]^, ou 
, , , ou encore I /www '^sS*, , I /vwwv '^sS*, 3 

I /VAAAAA 'y 

D'autre part, un autre sarcophage de meme epoque, celui de 
Mentou-hotep, presente au m^me chapitre XVII, au lieu de 

^ M, Torthographe '^njf.^ L^ encore on pourrait h^siter et 

chercher k voir dans ce signe Enza une variante du nniD des temps 
post^rieurs. En r^alite, il n'y a aucun motif d'hesitation. Ce signe 
se retrouve, sur le m^me sarcophage, et dans le m^me chapitre du 



Zivre des morts^ dans les mots (col. 11, 12, 30), ^^k. -^ 



(col. 12, 13), cz£rD']I|r (col. 21), (col. 35), Uc:=>N P 

(col. 35), ^^^ (col. 38). ^^^, ^ M- 43), etc. Le unm est 

done bien partout un » vv 1 et, les deux sarcophages appartenant k la 
meme Epoque, il est bien evident, puisque «»-«» et i=i3 se remplacent, 

que le signe **-^=», dans le nom j=^ ^ , est bien la lettre r"\n. 



^ Sur le sarcophage de | |^ ^Q (XII«* dyn.), r^cemment d^couvert k B^ni- 
Hassan par M. Garstang et public par M. Lacau {Ann. du Sirv. des Antiq,, t.v., 
pp. 246-249), on rencontre trois nouveaux exemples de la meme orthographe 
^Q_^ I (11, 6-7, 75 et 82). Le premier de ces trois exemples, qui appartient k un 
texte ddja connu par ailleurs, a pour variantes, aux pyramides de Saqqarah, 
>5:--J (Ounas, 69) et p ^^ (Pepi II, 330). 

■* K. Sethe, Das irgyptische Verbufn^ t. I, § 259. 
' R. LepSIUS, op. cit,y pi. II, col. 20. 

124 



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May 9] LE DIEU SETH ET LE ROI SJfcXHdSIS. [1906. 

Done, sous le Moyen Empire, le nom du dieu Seth ^tait 

^ Nf ^" ^ Jn > soit S-t-sch, En dtait-il de m$me aux dpoques 

imm^diatement voisines, soit ant^rieures, soit post^rieures ? — Nous 
allons voir que oui. 

Dans les textes des pyramides de Saqqarah, partout le nom du 
dieu, lorsqu'il n'est pas exprim^ au moyen du figuratif 5-=J> ^^^ 

^crit I , avec, comme dernier signe, un 1 1 qui pr^sente 

exactement la mdme forme que le 1 1 (= u^siS) d'autres mots dans 

les memes textes. Certes, le nom n'^tant pas suivi du ^^, d^ter- 

minatif ordinaire des noms divins, — ce qui s'explique d'ailleurs par 
Thostilit^ entre Seth et Horus, — on pourrait ^tre tentd de voir dans 

I ' un d^terminatif et de le consid^rer comme Tequivalent de cniD , 

d'autant plus que ce dernier signe offre parfois la forme allong^e 
C3i=3. Mais, aux pyramides de Saqqarah, les noms divins se pr^- 

sentent le plus sou vent sans d^terminatif, et [1 = S-t-sch sans 

d^terminatif n'est pas plus embarrassant que 8 , O, .^ , D , 

f]-<a>-, ^^J (T^tij ^7> 9I1 i43> 172), etc. J'admets que, 

matdriellement, sous TAncien Empire, le » — n de I pent etre 

aussi bien un □ qu'un t 1 . Mais, ce qui montre qu'il est bien un 

I 1 (cscd), et que le I des pyramides de Saqqarah est iden- 

tique au j=^_ ^ = ^ ^ du Moyen Empire, c'est que, encore 

sous le Nouvel Empire et post^rieurement meme au rfegne de 
S^thdsis, le nom du dieu Seth est toujours ^crit au moyen d'un 
CZISZ3 bien caract^ristique et completement distinct du □. 

Au Papyrus d'Ani, par exemple, le nom est ecrit ^ ^^ N| ^ ^' 
f^ ^ J Or, c^3 est, au meme papyrus, employ^ dans 
(pl. 19, § XV, 12) et P"^^''-^ est employ^ dans o TT (pl. 8, 



• Facsimile of the papyrtts of Ani^ London, British Museum, in-fol., 1894, 
pl. 8, § xvii, 67-68. 

' Ibid.^ pl. 8, § xvii, 69. 

125 



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May 9] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

§ xvii, 61-62), dans CJirn ^ (pi. 8, § xvii, 70), dans ^^^ D ^^ 

(pl. 19, hymne k Osiris, i), tandis que □, dans le mot □ 

(pl. 19, §xv, 11), a une forme absolument diffi^rente. 

Changer en S-t-sch un nom que tous, depuis ChampoUion, nous 
avons toujours lu Set^ ^tait chose trop grave pour que je ne me sois 
pas entour^, avant d'oser proposer cette nouvelle lecture, de toutes 
les precautions possibles. J*ai patiemment d^pouill^ en son entier, 
ligne par ligne, Tddition du Todtenbuch de Naville, dang laquelle se 
trouvent r^unies un grand nombre de variantes datant de la XVIII®, 
de la XIX* et de la XX* dynastie. Partout, k part d'insignifiantes 

exceptions,8 lors qu*il n'est pas ^crit >JL=J ^^ i ^ ^ wl » ^^ "^^"^ ^" 

dieu est dcrit ^ -^ , avec un i-r^— 1 qui pr^sente trois ou quatre 

formes diffifrentes, mais toujours identiques aux formes varite que 
rev^t le dscD dans des mots oil sa valeur alphab^tique est hors de 
toute discussion. Or, ces variations m^mes, concordant toujours 
exactement avec les variations du signe r-^w-n dans les autres mots, 
constituent pr^cisement un argument dont il est impossible de 
m^connaitre Timportance extreme. Par contre, dans ce m^me 
recueil, le nniD ne pr^sente jamais aucun rapport avec le troisibme 

signe du nom ^ ^ . 

M^me constatation dans la riche collection des textes de sar- 
cophages du Moyen Empire que public en ce moment M. Lacau 
dans divers ouvrages, et Tauteur lui-m^me n'a pu, au moins une fois, 
s*emp^cher d'attirer sp^cialement Tattention du lecteur sur ce fait 
que le r-rr-i du nom de Seth est absolument identique ^ la lettre 
csa d*autres mots.* 

Je n'enum^rerai pas, par crainte de prolixity, une quantity d'autres 
remarques analogues que j'ai relev^es un peu de tous cot^s. Je 
dirai seulement que toutes les notes que j'ai prises sur cette question 
m'ont unanimement et d^sesp^r^ment ramene a cette m^me conclu- 
sion, qu*au moins jusqu'^ la chute des Ramessides (j'ai jug^ inutile 
pour le moment de faire porter mon enqu^te au delk de cette ^poque) 
le nom du dieu Seth s'est toujours ecrit S-t-sch, 

^ M6me dans ces quelques cas exceptionnels, qui r^sultent de fautes d'inatten- 
tion ou de transcriptions maladroites, jamais je n'ai rencontr^ le d]. 
• Annales du Service des Antiquithy t. v., p. 231, n. 2. 

126 



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May 9] LE DIEU SETH ET LE ROI s6th6sIS. [i9o6r 

Ce fait nouveau, dont la r^alitd me paralt ind^niable, — et qu'en 
tout cas chacun pourra facilement controler et verifier, — est appele k 
Jeter quelque trouble dans des habitudes prises et dans des theories 
admises depuis longtemps. 11 nous sera difficile de continuer a 
parler du temple de S^ii k Abydos ; nous devrons dire Sitoukhi ou 
S^touschi^ ou plus commod^ment SethSsts, II nous faudra renoncer 
k voir dans le dieu Seth, du moins avant la XX® dynastie, le dieu de 

la terre ou du desert ^ , , par opposition k quelque Osiris 



niliaque ou k quelque Horus celeste. Enfin, nous devrons, nous 
conformant d'ailleurs k la transcription classique 2/)^, orthographier 
Seth et non plus Set le nom du dieu typhonien, afin de maintenir le 
souvenir de Tancienne aspir^e vjh^^, 

Quoi qu'il en soit, il est Evident que, du fait que le dieu Seth 
s'est appel^ S-t-sch pendant plus de vingt dynasties, d^coulent 
naturellement un grand nombre de remarques et d*observations, 
dont je veux signaler ici quelques-unes des plus importantes. 

I. — II est certain qu'^ un moment donn^ le nom du dieu Seth 

s'est orthographic . Quelle est Torigine de cette orthographe, 

et quel rapport prCsente-t-elle avec le nom 2y^? 

L'orthographe est trbs rCcente. Elle est surtout frCquente 

dans les textes ptolCmaiques. On la rencontre au Todtenbuch de 
Lepsius et dans les nombreux travaux de mythologie pour lesquels 
on a utilise ce tr^s malencontreux document. Cette circonstance 

fait que, Torthographe Ctant devenue classique, s'Ctant ancrCe 

en nous par la force de Thabitude, bien des Cditeurs d'inscriptions 
ont copiC et fait imprimer dans des cas oh Poriginal portait 

certainement ^ }^ Pour dCcouvrir TCpoque exacte du premier 
emploi certain de , il sera done prudent de revoir les originaux. 

'° M. Budge, qui fait imprimer ordinairement le nom || j^ ^ , m6me dans des 
textes de la XVIII* djTiastie, le fait imprimer correctement dans la phrase 
P f-^ ^ <=> Fm D P 11 (^>4^ Book of the Dead, Text, p. 496), tr^ certaine- 
ment parce que le voisinage des signes ' « et EIID lui a fait remarquer entre les 
deux une difference caract^ristique de forme. 

127 



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May 9] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHi*:OLOGY. [1906. 

£n tout cas, je n'ai jamais remarqu^ ce nom dans les textes ant^rieurs 
k la XX« dynastie. 

II semble naturel, k premifere vue, que la forme r^cente 

c^ nrmi 

derive d'une erreur de lecture du nom ^ . En examinant la 

question de plus prfes, il parait pourtant difficile qu'une telle erreur 
ait pu se produire dans un nom de divinity aussi r^pandu que celui 
du dieu Seth. Qu'un vieux mot, oublid pendant des si^cles, ait pu 
reparaitre un jour sous une forme fautive, rien de plus admissible. 
Mais, qu'un nom employ^ journellement ait pu se modifier brusque- 
ment pour des raisons ^pigraphiques, c'est la un fait qu'il me parait 
difficile d*admettre. 

Si Ton a pu, un jour, dcrire , c'est-^-dire S-fy le nom d'une 

divinite que tout le monde appelait S-t-sch^ c'est que le dieu Seth 
devait porter, outre son nom S-t-schy un autre nom, analogue k S-t, 
D^s lors, la confusion s'expliquerait. Et elle s'expliquerait encore 
mieux si le nom S-t-sch, pour telle ou telle raison, avait disparu de 
la langue ^ un moment donnd, ou plutot s'^tait modifi^ progressive- 
ment au point de ne plus pouvoir ^tre machinalement reconnu dans 

Or, ces deux particularit^s se pr^sentent. 



J- 



Le dieu Seth, en effet, dfes la XVIII® dynastie, porte tr^s souvent 
le nom ^^ i v^Wl ■ ^^ ^^^ ^^ parait etre un ethnique analogue 
k r^S\ ^ to , autre nom tr^s frequent du meme dieu. On sait que 
le dieu Seth ^tait consid^r^ comme natif de la ville de 111, 
dont le nom devait tr^s certainement se lire Sout.^^ Le nom 

Que les Egyptiens, qui donnaient k Seth le nom de Sou/i, aient pu, 
m^connaissant la valeur du groupe ^ , y voir un mot qu'ils 

pronongaient Souti\ rien de plus vraisemblable, surtout si Ton 



COT, dies (G. Maspero, £i. ^gypt-, t. I, p. 177, n. 3). 

128 



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May 9] LE DIEU SETH ET LE ROI SfiTH6SIS. [1906. 

considfere que Ton rencontre parfois, dans les textes rdcents, les 

orthographes interm^diaires I , I ^ et I ^ 

y nniD T -IT nniD t Jl omD 

Mais, pour que les Egyptiens pussent voir dans ^ -fl un nom 

Souti, il semble de toute Evidence qu'ils devaient en m^me temps 
avoir cess^ de donner k Seth le nom de S-t-sch, sans quoi ils auraient 

reconnu ce dernier nom dans ^ ^ . Or, cette seconde particu- 
larity me parait ^galement certaine. Le nom 1 ^ -^, si r^pandu 
en Egypte k partir des Ramessides, a dQ tres vite se confondre et 
s'identifier avec le vieux nom ^ ^, et m^me le remplacer com- 

plfetement. D'oti Texplication du double ph^nom^ne linguistique et 
^pigraphique : Soutkh^ d'une part, supplantant Soutsch definitivement 

banni de la langue ; , d'autre part, remplacant le mot ^ 



dans lequel, — ayant oubli^ le nom Soutsch^ — on ne pouvait voir 
qu'une orthographe archa'ique de 1 ^ ^ ^ . 

Enfin, je ne suppose pas que 2^^ pre'sente le moindre rapport 
avec = Souti}^ Je crois preferable d'y voir plutot une trans- 

cription de 1 vS ^ consider^ comme forme r^cente de ^ -^ . 

II faut remarquer, en effet, que 2/)^ se termine par un ^, et non par 
un T. Je sais bien que, dans Nj/ti9, le final r^pond k un ^^ , mais 
il n'en est pas moins vrai que, dans des noms comme ^kOvp^ N€0^v9, 
pour n'en citer que deux, le B rdpond ^ o + 8 • Certes, I '^ -^j , 
vocalist Sauth^ aurait d(i donner *2a'(? et non 2^^, mais on pourrait 
citer bien des noms vocalises en ou qui ont pris aux dpoques 

r^centes une vocalisation en /. Si j (I ^^. a pu devenir bh2C> 

si \\ ^^ a pu devenir M/j/, rien d'anormal k ce que Sauth 

/www JH S -Q n*\ ic\ 

ait pu devenir Saith (2?)^), tout comme ^^ J|V ^ ' Gaub^ est 
devenu Gaib (KijP), 

^^ Je crois me rappeler, mais je n'oserais affirmer que ma m^moire ne me 
trompe pas, avoir rencontre la forme v % cmD dans des textes d*^poque 
ptol^malque. 

129 



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May 9] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

Un fait assez significatif vient d*ailleurs corroborer cette mani^re 
de voir. On sait que les Etymologies donn^es dans le traits grec 
Sur Isis et Osiris sont g^ndralement correctes, sinon toujours au 
point de vue raythologique, du nioins au point de vue linguistique. 
Or (§§ 41, 49), le nom 2iy^ y est expliquE comme exprimant, en 
Egyptien, les id^es de confraindre, opprimer^ soumettre^ renverser 

(to KaTaBvvaff7€tfov xal Karafita^oticvoVf rijv apaarpo<P^v). Je ne vois 

gufere que les factitifs en [ 1 de c^> 8 "^^ , " etre bas," et ^^ , 

"etre renversE," qui aient pu inspirer cette Etymologie. D'ou la 
preuve formelle que le nom Egyptien transcrit 2jy^ comportait une 
aspir^e finale. Aucun radical ou , ^ ma connaissance, 

n'ambnerait h. la m§me signification. 

La transcription SefA est done la plus correcte que nous 

puissions donner du nom ^ ^ = 1 ^ JS . Elle a le double 
avantage de transcrire exactement le nom ^tj0, et de conserver 
Taspir^e finale du mot Egyptien. 

2. — On rencontre assez fr^quemment, dans les textes du Nouvel 

Empire qu'a publics Naville, une orthographe Q I ^ , dans 

laquelle un signe nouveau vient s'intercaler entre la partie phondtique 
et le d^terminatif du mot. Cette orthographe est m^me d'origine 
bien plus ancienne, car on la rencontre sou vent sur des sarcophages 
de la XIP dynastie.^'^ Ce signe nouveau repr^sente bien certaine- 
ment la queue bifurquEe, si particulifere, de Tanimal typhonien. II 
est m^me tr^s vraisemblable, Etant donnE le godt tr^s prononcE des 
Egyptiens pour les calembours mythologiques, qu*ils ont pu voir 

dans ^ quelque chose d'analogue ^ 1 >^ ^I^^*^J=5» "queue 
de I'animal typhonien." En tout cas, cette queue bifurquEe leur a 
paru caract^riser si spEcialement leur dieu S-t-sch que, dans les 
memes textes, le nom ^ I ^ est fr^quemment r^duit ^ I r^ > 

mot qu'il faut bien se garder de transcrire par j-L -^ . Cette 



^' P. Lacau, dans Annates du Service des Antiquii^s^ t. V, pp. 231-245. 
" IHd., pp. 231, 232, 234, 243, 244, 245. 



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May 9] LE DIEU SETH ET LE ROI S^THOSIS. [1906. 

queue typhonienne sert simple men t, par rinterm^diaire du jeu de 

mot (1 x'^'^'5^' ^rendrelenom^l^. 

3. — Enfin, une trfes importante question se pose, relativement 
k I'origine du dieu Seth. Les Egyptiens connaissent, dfes les temps 
les plus anciens de leur histoire, puisqu'on le trouve figur^ sur des 
objets provenant des tombes thinites d'Abydos, un dieu dont 
Tanimal sacr^ est un l^vrier d*un genre tout sp^cial.^^ Ce levrier a le 
museau trfes allong^, trfes fortement courb^, et la queue termin^e par 
une ^paisse touffe de polls. Ce dieu, dej^ ennemi d'Horus sous la 

premiere dynastie, porte dans la suite le nom de ^ ^ ou ^ ^ . 

Or, bien plus tard, les Hyqsos, puis ensuite les Hittites, intro- 
duisent en Egypte, comrae divinity nationale de leur pays, un dieu 

qui porte exactement le m^me nom, 1 ^ Jji , et qui a comme 

animal sacr^ le m^me levrier si caracteristique. 

Peut-il y avoir 1^ un simple effet du hasard ? Bien certainement 
non. Ou bien les Hyqsos et les Hittites ont emprunt^, Dieu sait 
comment, ce dieu aux Egyptiens et I'ont r^introduit plus tard en 
Egypte; ou bien, au contraire, ce sont eux qui Font T6y6\6 aux 
Egyptiens k Tdpoque thinite, et qui Font ramen^ avec eux chaque 
fois qu'ils ont eu Toccasion de rentrer en contact avec les Egyptiens. 
Par consequent, ou bien Seth est un vieux dieu ^gyptien qui eut la 
bonne fortune de plaire k des Strangers et de se naturaliser en Asie ; 
ou bien Seth est un vieux dieu asiatique qui s'acclimata de tr^s 
bonne heure en Egypte, lors d'une invasion, et qui, sur les rives du 
Nil, resta toujours plus ou moins le dieu ennemi. 



" E. Lef^BURE, Vanimal typhcnien^ dans Sphinx ^ t. II (1898), pp. 63-74. 
L'auteur rassemble dans cet int^ressant travail un certain nombre de documents 
d^montrant que I'animal sethien etait un chien, et plus sp^cialement un levrier, 
opinion que Brugsch avait d^ji ^mise, sans insister, dans son Dicticnnairc 
hi^oglyphiqtu, t. IV (1868), p. 1422. 

** II semble s'etre appele tout d'abord d'un nom d'animal, comme la plupart 



des divinit^s primitives, ^. 1 u t , c*est-a-dire, ** le levrier " (F. Petrib, 
Royal Tombs J t. II, pi. 22, no. 179), mot ^crit plus tard JMH (B^ni-Hassan), 



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May 9] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

Comment sortir de ce dilemme ? Je n'ai trouv^, pour ce faire, 
qu'un seul et unique moyen : ^tudier de trfes prbs les levriers 
d'Afrique et les levriers d'Asie, et voir auquel des deux groupes 
appartient le l^vrier de Seth* C'est 1^ une ^tude trbs compliqu^e, 
qu'on ne saurait exposer sans de nombreuses citations et d'abondantes 
figures, et que je compte publier avant qu'il soit longtemps. Je crois 
pourtant int^ressant d'en donner des maintenant la conclusion. 
Le l^vrier s^thien n'est ni un animal ^gyptien, ni un animal africain. 
C'est bien indiscutablement un l^vrier asialique, originaire du 
Taurus et du Caucase, c'est-k-dire pr^cisement des regions d'oii 
ont pu venir les Hyqsos et les Hittites, et par consequent, tout 
comme Horus, Seth est en Egypte un dieu d'importation ^trangere. 

En attendant la publication du travail de zoologie mythologique 
que je prepare sur cette question, j'espbre avoir au moins d^montr^, 

ce qui constitue un point de depart important, que ^ Jji, ^ r^ 

et 1 v\ -^ sont un seul et meme nom, s'appliquant k un seul 
et mfeme dieu. 



132 

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May 9] THE IVRIZ TEXTS. [1906. 



THE IVRIZ TEXTS. 

THE ARDISTAMA INSCRIPTIONS. 
SOME HITTITE SEALS. 

By Prof. A. H. Sayce, D,D. 

Casts of the Ivriz texts are now in the Ashmolean Museum, 
and I am therefore able to give correct copies of them at 
last. In A (Plate, fig. i) the only important correction is in the 
last line. The text reads : (i) wa-a DKi,;Sandun kai-s Taua-s kai-iva 
(2) Au-mrfiu-a-si'S a-tu Ta-ba-Ia-u- (3) j-ma Uan-tU'iiWT, (No. 16) 
-/rt, "This Sandes I T(a)uas making have made, being son of 
Aumenuas (or Aumgalas), king of the Tabal, in the land of the 
Veneti.'* It is possible that, after all, the king's name should be 
read, not Aumgalas, but Aumenuas, an adjectival derivative, like 
Karkamisiuas, from Omanos, whom Strabo (XI, 511, XV, 733) 
describes as a Cappadocian god associated with Anaitis or Artemis.^ 
For Tauas or Tuas "horseman," see above. 

B (Plate, fig. 2) is: {i)wa-a t-vsv-fnes Au-m- {2) nu-a-isi abakali 
da(u) (3) i-u-is-ua, "This carving (^r erecting), the sculpture of the 
high-priest the son of Aumenuas I have carved" (or "erected"). 
The last line shows that in the verb the ideograph (No. 65) was 
pronounced usu. Da or du or dau (No. 43, which is, however, not 
correctly drawn) represents a graving tool of a well-known type, not 
a vase. 

The whole of C (Plate, fig. 3) can be deciphered in the cast. 
It reads: wa-is-a da-u-uas i-vs\}-mes is-su^-ua iD.-«-^a-«a?-DET.-«4 ID.- 
nun-uk Au-m-nu-a-tsi a-isi-mH-ta a-isi-md-iu \kat-'\s atu-tu kai-amma 
unni^ " These sculptures carving (or erecting) I have carved (or 
erected), the place of the Sun-god of the land of the rock of . . ubana 
(?) in the high-place (or food-place) of the son of Aumenuas, [makjing 

^ Omanos would be itself a derivative from Aumes. 

* Su as on my seal, Proceedings^ Nov. 1905, p. 253. The older form of the 
character is found in one of the Carchemish fragments where we must read 
uaS'S-u, I have hitherto confounded it with the basket m (No. 19), but the 
handles rise on both sides like horns, which is not the case with m. 



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May 9] SOCIETY QF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

this high-place {or food-place) of the king and the monument of the 
god," or perhaps better, ** making this high-place (or food-place) for 
the king as a monument for the god." For the determinative of 
"rock," see Ardistama, I, 3. Since Ivriz was in the district of 
Kubis-tra, the Khubis-na of the Assyrian inscriptions, while the leg 
has sometimes the value of bi (see M. 11, 5),^ it is tempting to make 
the obliterated character ts^ reading the foot as ku^ but to my eyes 
the traces were those of na rather than is, Aisimd can hardly be 
anything else than isimd " high-place " ; on the other hand on the 
bowl (M. I, 3) " food-place " seems to be a-tsi-md-i-ua^ i.e. aisimiua. 
But the high-place was also a place where food was offered and 
eaten in honour of the gods and the dead. It will be noticed that 
Sandes is identified with the Sun-god of the rock ; the Hittite god of 
a locality was always also its Sun-god. 

The Ardistama Inscriptions. 

Since my copies of these were published in the Proceedings 
for January, 1905, I have been able to study enlarged photographs 
of them, which when compared with the squeezes necessitate 
numerous and important corrections in my copies, more especially 
in the first line of A. 

A, line i. After Ma-me-{m)is two characters are lost, then comes 
a bull's head, then the head of a bull on a pole. Na is more 
probably the numeral i. The boot after aM a-ra should be deleted; 
the character which follows nd is probably an arm, and it is followed 
by uan not amis. After md is the determinative of divinity, Aram-u^ 
nana (the tree), ««, and a lost character. The double-headed eagle 
does not exist : after amis we have simply a bull's head followed by 
me-uan. The head on a pole should be made to face the other way; 
a lost character which the traces show to have been amis preceded 
it. Hence the whole line should read: Ma'me-{m)is [Skats'] am-k 
ID. u{?) kaisima id. abii a-ra amis nd-aiu {?)-uan-md DET,-Aram-u- 
Uana-nd-[uan\ iD,-amis ama-me-uan-AUis kai-s atu [kai-ysimd [amis] 
DET .-Aram-me-uan AMis-mis-ta-amma am-a iT>,-md-md-uan, " Mames, 
the maker of the bull of the bull-fetish of the high-place of Aramis, 
the royal father of the city of the Natians (?), belonging to Aramis- 
Uan the guardian of the bull-city, who has made for the king the 

* My reading of baitt for the character rests on an error. 
134 



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Proc, Soc. BibL Arch., May, 1906. 



- £ d ^ ii^ ^B Sid 

/^ a|Q a^Q o^a ^ 






IJ^VV' Fig. 2. 



Fig. 1. 
IVRIZ. A. 



IVRIZ. B» 



V "> Vs n [h ci)<»^ ^^''V "^^ ''^*' ^ *p 

4^ (ft ^ Jra ^u r)m(^ i^ ^ tn 



Fig. 3. 

IVRIZ. C. 

THE IVRIZ TEXTS. 
(From Casts in the Ashmolcan Museum.) 



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May 9] THE IVRIZ TEXTS. [1906. 

high-place of the Aramis-fetish, the . . . of the city of Mamau" 
(perhaps identical with the city of Mamis). With the corrected 
reading the translation presents no difficulties. 

Line 2. After Ma-me-mis read \kai\s. The character before the 
ideograph of "king" is a. Instead of the head-fetish we should 
read the head (arcC) and ta\ nu and ka-i are right. Instead of 
. . uana . . aram . . me^ read [det.] aram-u-\uana\-na-a {?) (or /a). 
We are probably intended to read ara-nu-ta ka-i-KAi-m-a-uan-ta,^ 
Line 4. The character preceding the head {ara) is uan. 
Line 5. After the lacuna read ara-me-su (the knife) instead of 
ara-ara-me. 

In B line i, instead of uan-uan- . . -nd read kas-u-uan-na ara 
(the head). The next three characters are right ; so are uan and 
AMIS, but a should be me. 

In line 2, nd-m-a is right. Delete the first md in the name of 
the city Md^mdu, After md-uan amis we should probably read 
Ma-me-DKin-ni-uk Khatta-nd-m-a " the city of Mames in the land of 
the Hiltite." 

Line 3. After atu we have atu (No. 88) and m, which are 
drawn quite differently in the original. 

Line 4. Kai-uas is right. In the lacuna after kai-i-uas-i the 
characters are katu (the seated image of the goddess) and the deter- 
minative of " district." 

In C face A, line i, delete the cross. After md read / isi 

uas kat-t-md-AMiSf the determinative of divinity and uana (lyuan {?)- 
na{i). 

Line 2. We have a instead of a circle before nd. After the 
determinative of god is the human head on a pole, a lacuna, and then 
/^i^-[i]-«/ (7)-AMis. This is of course Aramis-ammeis **king of the 
city," but in face B i, 3, the u after aram implies that we should 
read atu-ammeis. 

Line 3. In the lacuna after am-a is an arm. The head at the 
end of the line is that of a calf {am). 

Line 4. amis is right. Insert before it . . -me. 

* The approximate translation of the line would accordingly be: *' Mames 
who has [made] the high- place of the king {[aram-'^a) in the high-place of Aramis, 
in building style {kaimduanda) in the land {a-amma-ta) of the sanctuary of the 
city of Aramu-Uan (i.^. Aram-Uan), the chief minister of Siu (Sawa) and Attys, 
dirk-bearer of Atu, attached to the queen of the rock (and) to the goddess-image, 
the kingly." 

135 



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May 9] 



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C1906. 



Line 5. At the end of the line is iir{?)-a'md "shrine" which 
was probably preceded by \md-katu\ ; cp. A, 6. 

Face B, line i. Read kas instead oi me. 

Line 2. The line begins with ua-s, Nu is right and is followed 
by uas ; cp. A, 2. The first uan is doubtful. 

Line 3. After kas-uan is amis a-na. 

Line 4. After the crown read nd instead of uan. Delete md : 
" of the god Uan the king of the city of Siu," i,e, of the god of the 
sacred dance (Siuwas). 

Line 5. A after uan is doubtful, and uan is either the arm or 
nd. For kai read uas, J/ should be the arm with a dagger. ^ 



HiTTiTE Seals. 

The Ashmolean Museum has acquired some more Hittite 
seals. Among them is one of semi-globular form, of white 
stone, and with transverse hole : upon it on the flat surface is the 
figure of a prince, standing and extending his arms. In front is 
written the name Sandu-uan^ Sanduan, of similar formation to 
Kuaruwan and signifying " belonging to Sandes." There is a border 
of rosettes. On the concave surface is Sandu-ana, The second 
character here is the arm (id. No. 2) which represents both ara-mis 
and ana-mis. On either side of the name is a sacred stone, the 
whole being enclosed in a rope pattern outside which is a border of 
rosettes and pyramids, with the sacred tree at the top. Sanduan 
would correspond with the Greek 'S.avcwv, Cp. Tarkon. 

* Notwithstanding the broken condition of the inscription on the trough what 
remains of it is worth giving : — 

A. B. 



, . . in the land of Siu a high-[place] 
[I have erected ?], a monument of 
the god Uan . . . 

, . . city of the prince of the city of 
Aramis-ammeis, of Kas . . . 

, . . [ruling] the royal land (Arinna), 
the city of the 9 courts, king of the 
city of the land of Kas, prince . . . 

, . . city of the three guardians . . . 



. . [guardian] of the city of Uan 
Atu-ammeis of Kas, [king] of the 
dance-[city] (Siu), guardian . , 



136 



. . [the high-place] of the city of 
Uan Atu-ammeis of Kas . . . 

. . formerly, the high-place of 
Aramis . . . 

, . guardian of the city of Uan 
Atu-ammeis of Kas, prince . . . 

. . the crown of the god Uan the 

king of the city of Siu . . . 

. . [ruling] the land of Kas, the 

royal land, the kingly one, the 

great. 



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May 9] SOME MUNICH COPTIC FRAGMENTS. [1906. 

Note. — An examination of the original of M. XI in the British 
Museum has made it clear that in line 2 Mr. Rylands was right in 



the form which he gave to the character underneath 



ikk 



(det. 17); it is not kAat and occurs again at the end of the line in 
the shape of two rods (?) tied together. It is also clear that the 
character follows, and does not precede, the first uan. Since 



has the phonetic value of w/2 attached to it in M. Ill, B. 2, 

we must read : Kar-ka-me-is-m-Hi-jy^T tnH-uan Kha-tu-a-uan-v^KV ua- 
uan-na i-uas-i-md atu-KTV-m-a suan-tu-u-?-mdy "this high-place, the 
temple of /« . . of brick, belonging to the Hittite land of Carchemish," 
giving the new character the value of kha. The name of the city 
at the commencement of the line will be Kka-atu-me^ the Khatuma 
of the Egyptian texts. In liTie 4 the character which follows Tarkais 
is uan, not na-, hence the line should be translated: "making the 
gate-place of this priestly land here for the god, making the building 
(kai-amma) of the temple of Tarkus {suan-anima Tar-ka-is-uari) for 
the dance of these dancing priests in this city as before." In line 5 
instead oi ni-m-a we should perhaps read Khatta-m-a "of the Hittite 
land." 



SOME MUNICH COPTIC FRAGMENTS. 

I. 

By E. O. Winstedt. 

In the Proceedings of this Society, XXV, p. 267, 1903, Mr. Crum 
published an article on "Coptic Texts relating to Dioscorus of 
Alexandria," taken from Des Rivieres' papers now at Munich. As, 
however, in some cases he omitted to print the Coptic text, I think 
it may be worth while to supply the deficiencies, adding at the same 
time one or two more fragments which would seem certainly to 
come from the same text. Mr. Crum did not appear to be aware 
that a few fragments of the original papyrus, written in a magnificent 

137 M 



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[1906. 



uncial of early dale, are also to be found at Munich in MS. Copt. 2. 
For example, No. XCVI, of which the text is here given, as Mr. Crura 
only gives a translation, exists in MS. as well as in the copies ; and 
part too of No. XCV. As the collection seems practically unknown 
and unworked, I add fragments of a few other texts of some interest 
from Des Rivieres' copies — part of the martyrdoms of Ignatius and of 
Peter and Paul, the beginning of a life of James the Persian, part 
of a letter of Chrysostom to Basil, and a few ostraca. Lamentably 
incomplete as they are, I think they are sufficient to show that 
anyone who has time to work at the collection might glean a few 
fragments, as Coptic texts go, comparatively worth gleaning. 
I give first the Dioscorus fragments. 

Copt 3, No. XCVI ; the original exists in Copt. 2. The top of 
a page is complete, but some lines are lost at the bottom : — 



nAceBHcneiJTA[qeni] 
CKonoc, eepcouH .... 

+AMAe6UATIt,6UIJ6[T] 

XI u uootkataaaa[t] 

TlcUOT • HKieTTA^e 

oeijawAAAT, MjyAjce, eq 

+OTBenAOrUAUM6IJ 
eiOTe, GTOTAAB, eiJT[OT] 
TATeuevpAIJ . UGTi* 
rApOTBeN6TILJU[A'r] 



Verso. 

[UATjlt^eOUTeUOT, M 

[tgt]ijoaocm3Caakh 

AtOUTAieWTACTAVe 

[^JrciccTsiTe, eeoTu • 

eriioTAMOTcoT'neM 

a^oeicicneTccuijiilcA 

TUMTOTAMATjaAXG 
epOC • ATCD+AIJAOe 

[uAJTit^eiTecoBijiuH 
[eBHjreiJiueiJTATnpA . 

3COOT . . 



* The letters in square brackets with dots are letters found in Des Rivieres* 
copies with dots under them, and not now visible on the papyrus. Des Rivieres 
seems to have used dots indifferently for uncertain letters and letters added by 
conjecture. 

a Verso, 1. i, [AMAe6UAT]lt,e. » ni, MS. ; HGI, Des R. 

* 2COOT or TOOV, Des R. Only the tops of letters are visible. To 
me they look more like 2COT. 

138 



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May 9] 



SOME MUNICH COPTIC FRAGMENTS. 



[1906. 



Copt. 3, XCVII :— 

Te, eT2ATn[OAIC6Tu] 

[lJA]T+CDnUUOC3L6 . . . 

. . . ArAAC, Te • TAIO 

weweioTe, ere .... 

njiiiTAio • • ije[iJicKo] 

nOCeMTATCCOOT[22TJTno] 
AlC, ijTUMTe . . . . B6 . . . 
UUOC • eAU6IJTA[cCO] 
ore, 66ct)6COC, TA2CP[HT] 
WeOTO • MAieUTA[KA] 

eAipoTunACGBHc, ue 

CTOpiOC, IJIIJM6IJTAT . 

ueeve, eweTqueeTe 
epooT • HweTu .... 
OM, T6IJOT : 

6TB6nAIKATAee -IJTAq 

xooc2Ki[n]ec2Ai[ijAnoc] 

TOAIKOM .... 



Verso. 

ne, nKApcu 

eneiAHAG, Arernou 

. . KATAee, eMTAICCOTU . 

ATjafpTpiJAono . 

AIMOTTeWTeTM . . 

AB6IA • eATGTMU . 

.... exGAwexe, eAi^aco. 

.... iijAAATUeCOBMBp 

pe^aiBeeeoTij, exni 

CTIC, MOpeOAOTOC • 6 

TBenAi+oTCDiy, expe 
TeTweiuejceeifiJwe 

TIJjaAHA'eTOTAAB, KAKI 

. . xeAuroTpcoueiJ 
peqpuoBG • AAAAeOUO 
AOriAWTniCTIC, GT 
AUAeTe'lJUOC 

liiJTexA .... 



I add here a fragment in the same writing which seems to be 
connected with the same subject, though I can find no parallel 
passage in the Bohairic and Syriac texts. Both the original and 



^ Recto, 1. 6, CCOjecO, Des R. 7, AlC or AlC and BG or BO, Des R. 
9, Des Rivieres TAAp . . . , but A might easily be confused with X. L. 16, 
WTAq] possibly GMTAq. Des Rivieres* copy is blurred. 

^ Verso, I. 4, ? AOPICUOC. 

139 M 2 



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[1906. 



Des Rivieres' copy exist, but I unfortunately omitted to note the 
number : — 



pue 



enejyAHA • Aqoree 
CA2MeeTpeTjaAHA' 

THpOT, UUUAq • MTe 

poTOTcoAe, erjyAHA 
ijce2^cDunei\uHij • 

THp0T2[l0]TC0n • Aq 

[oTcowjMpcDq'iJcriniMOcr 

[MAPlJoCeTUUAT, Aq 

?|fg^WTeqcuHurieT 
[uToJeBOATHpoT, eq 

[2^CDu]U0C2C6UA'ei0T6 

[exoTJAAB • noTcoja 
[unijjOTTene, erpen 

njTOUOCMAecOM 
MOTAT 

ejBOAeijij 

OUIJTij 

uoc • 3:en[Touoc] 

[rJAe]C0MnAC6BHC 

ATepiJqpciye 
AnpooTAeun 

6 • UIJAAAT, M 

Aoru[A] 
u 



Verso. 
pus- 
enwoTTenuoMOPe 
MHcnAOPocnejcceq 
ncoja, uuoq6ct)Tcic 

CMTeUMMCATUMT 
OTAIJATMilAXeepOC • 

AAAAU0T06I^MIU6 

TGTMATATen 

AXIC3CeAMAOe[UAeTCTM] 

20AOCeMTACCO[OT2] 

eTlXAAKHACOM 

AMA0eUAeTCT[M20A0C] 

IJAHOCTATHC 

AUAe6UAenTo[uocij] 
[AeJcDiinAceBHc 

AGTBO 
UAGUeT 
TIMGMTee 
[TUMTO]TAniATnOO[Me] 

eiOTCCDTue 

CICUMUTei 
+20T 

111 



140 



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May 9] 



SOME MUNICH COPTIC FRAGMENTS. 



[1906. 



The following fragments in the same handwriting seem to belong 
here, though they are too small and indistinct to translate. 

Copt. 2, 132^ = Copt. 3, XCV :— 



and 



UUIMUUO 

niCTicAe, u 

TOr^TOT 

Ter<t)rcic 

62COCOC 

reTco 
eciiMoeiu 

4\TCOnAnOC[TOAOC] 

nuoTTeo 



IJK6AAAT 
nCMTACO?^! 

OTOei:^ 

ovoeiiyT 

IJITI 

ocni 

UUOqATCU 
[<lM]Ae6U«\Tlt.6 

MG^^cune 
iije2iou6 



Lastly, Copt. 3, XCII, which Crum infers to be the end : — 



unH .... 
pocuen . . . [oe] 

OniCTOCnAl[AKO] 

Moc, euTAqe . . . 
. . . ewTneuT 



epouoc 

. . T. ATTAUOI 

. enuoTunAceBHC 

. 620TOU4\pKIAIJOC 
. 6IUA'6AT0 



A small part of this fragment still exists in Copt. 2. 



Translation. 

XCVII. — " . . who were at (that city ?). I count it 

The bishops who assembled in the city of Those who 

assembled at Ephesus were far firmer, they who destroyed the 

141 



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May 9] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH-«OLOGY. [1906. 

unrighteous Nestorius and those that thought his thoughts or ... . 
again now. For this reason even as he said in the apostolic writing 



Ferso. — ". . But since they remember (?) according as I heard. . . 

they trembled stand fast. I (admitted ?) no new change 

in the orthodox faith. For this reason I wish that ye know through 
your holy prayers, even if ... I am a sinner, yet the confession of 
the faith, which .... grasps it ... " 



P. pue. — ". . to the prayer. He commanded them all to pray 
with him. When they had finished praying and all said *Amen' 
together, that great (saint opened?) his mouth and (lifted up) his 
voice in their (presence) saying : * Holy fathers, this is the will of 

God, that we . . . the book of Leon the (book) of Leon 

the unrighteous * " 

Verso. — "God the only-begotten, the word, Christ, he divided 
him into two natures after the ineffable unity. But at all times we 

will teach Say * Anathema on the Synod which assembled in 

Chalcedon, anathema on the apostate Synod, anathema on the book 
of Leon the unrighteous ' " 

Nos. XCVI and XCII are translated by Crum: XCV is too 
small to be worth attempting a translation. 



142 

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May 9] HIMYARITIC INSCRIPTION FROM JABAL JEHAF. [1906. 

THE HIMYARITIC INSCRIPTION FROM JABAL JEHAF. 

By Prof. D. H. MCller. 

I have been repeatedly asked by Mr. F. Legge to write an article 
on the inscription discovered by Lieut. G. U. Yule, and published 
in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, XXVII, 

P- 153-155, 1905- 

Various hindrances have hitherto prevented me from accom- 
plishing Mr. Legge's wish, but since he has lately repeated his 
request, I can no longer forbear complying with it. 

Lieut. Yule gives a short description of the locality, with a 
summarized map, a not particularly satisfactory photograph of the 
inscription, and an excellent facsimile of the same. I here give the 
inscription in Sabaean and Hebrew letters, exactly following the 
facsimile, as follows : — 

I hl1<i>[IIDIX)8 Nl'r-iiDOln-in 

S)4'H oX)n iim ynii 

4 )h8tHI?SniS)H' •^«n>.=rM2ilpn 

5 mD?'i*MSnn)h \^^r^^^\\^1^^ 

6 hnis)EDi»iisHisn «ttrSipt3Di]-Ti]i 

7 no<i>ix?mi<»>iii '^°'' ' ^"'=^"' I ° 

8 Iim<DiHI<»V)nh oipDiinniD 

Those who have hitherto occupied themselves with the interpre- 
tation of the inscription are : — 

1. Hartwig Derenbourg, in the Boletin de la Real Academia 
de la Historia, at Madrid (July-September, 1905). 

2. Joseph Hal^vy, in the Revue Simitique^ 1905, p. 368-371. 

3. Eduard Glaser, in a special publication, "Suwa* und al-*Uzza 
und die Altjemenischen Inschriften," p. 3-17- 

Dr. Glaser, as he announced, had already copied this inscription 
on the 24th August, 1888, but only now, since the publication of 
Lieut. Yule's, has he made his copy and his commentary public. 

143 



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May IJ SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

On comparing the Glaser transcription with Yule's facsimile they 
are seen to agree quite completely, even to the reading of irniS (for 
imiD) , as a comparison of the ^ in <D V "I fl fl ® ^^^^ '^^ fl 
in <D V ) n ft ^^^^y demonstrates. The English copy accordingly 
rejects no single point of the Glaser transcription. Therefore where 
^the readings of Derenbourg and Haldvy differ from the concordant 
i^eadings of Glaser and Yule, they are simply not to be regarded. 
Derenbpurg is certainly wrong in wishing to correct a stone 
inscription,' and a|l his attempts to alter the reading have failed in 
consequence. As to .the meaning of the inscription, in spite of the 
three commentaries, it still remains doubtful. The difficulty lies in 

the obscurity of the two words 7ltOt2 I H'ln of the first line, which 
Haldvy treats as a proper name, Glaser, on the other hand, as 
appellatives; further, in the meaning of the word >Z2, (preceding 
•^Mnil), which Hal^vy takes to be a verb ("he built"), Glaser a 

substantive, " the sons." Also with reference to the word n**3H, 
Haldvy and Glaser are of a different opinion. The first considers it 
a verb ("and here built"), and the last named an appellative. I 
give Glaser's translation, and subjoin Hal^vy's in a note, so far as 
his reading can be relied upon. 

1. The territory of the district of A- 

2. biratta* of Hirrdn 

3. and of his people, the lords of the lowlands 

4. of Hirran, the followers of Z>u-Ye/'ar, 

5. the Rabibites, the Hayyatites (extends) 

6. from this Inscription to the North point 

7. and the branches and the defile (breach) 

8. of its (of the district) borders S.W.N, el-ma- 

9. §rik (towards the East) ^ 

^ Glaser gives also a synonymous interpretation of the individual phrases, 
which I have left out. Halevy's translation reads : — 

1. TrtMtwlA 

2. brata* de ^larran 

3. ainsi que ses Bakil de Hwm et 

4. yarran a construit (le fort nomm^) Z?u-yat'ar 

5. Arbaban A^yatan 

0. depuis cette stele au nord 

7 a construit le s-'vn oriental. 

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May 9] HIMYARITIC INSCRIPTION FROM JABAL JEHAF. [1906. 

Line i. Glaser has guessed the meaning of the first two words 

71I0T3 I tT\r\ and though they are not guessed without some 
ingenuity the solution cannot be relied on with any certainty. 
Further, he has put the etymologically correct and incorrect side 
by side. 

The word fl'in niay very likely spring from ^f^ and certainly 
originates therefrom in Glaser 379, 3, inn^th I ^T^ I irTO*»'TO I ]1 
as, since in a similar place D'UTID appears, Mordtmann and 
yL\i\A.^Vi, Sab. Denkmdler, 31, 4, in^^^Dn I ^^ I DlhlD 1 p, 
" from the foundation to the roof." But niri cannot possibly be 
connected with the Assyrian ^urru^ iurratu and the Aram. b^Jll'^'^'tt^ > 
because phonetic laws are opposed to it. 

In the same way 7IIOD must not be compared with Arab. 11^^ 
The meaning of " the extent of the district," or such like expression, 
is consequently most uncertain ; but considering the obscurity of the 
inscription I think this hypothesis preliminarily in the mean time 
permissible. But much more probable, because etymologically 

confirmed, is the rendering of H'lri as "foundation" ; what meaning 
7110D bas in this connection (supposing it to be an appellative) I 
dare not even venture to conjecture. 

Line 2. I read with Haldvy, Abrata*, not Abiratta* (Glaser). 
Hirrin is nom. loci\ "the village near the N.N.W. of the inscription 
is to-day still called Di-Hirran " (Glaser). 

Line 3. nrr^::in, Hal^vy, "and his bakir\ Glaser, "and of his 
people" (tribe). According to Hamdani J.j^ means much the 
same as »-*4^ or ?-:M^ multitude, people. He says in Iklil : 
w4>jgvH aA^u JiLxIlU Glaser explains TOIHl as lowlands 
(perhaps *U^ ), which is very possible. Nevertheless Hal6vy's 
reading (which had also occurred to Glaser) pHI I DIHT is on no 
account to be set aside. Perhaps both these words form a parallel 
to D?Dnnn I Dinto = lA^^ J^. 

Lines 4 and 5. The Beni Ya/'ar, the Rabibites, the Hayitites 
(Glaser) appear to me to be correct. 

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May 9] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

Line 6. "From this inscription to the North" (Glaser and 
Haldvy) is fairly certain. 

Lines 7-9. The words p^)l^J2 I jID ! in'^l^ I ^O) I TV^y) are 
very difficult. I am inclined to think that they have no connection 
with the preceding DNti^^i but begin another sentence : "And the 
building (ajj^j) and the defile of his (of the 7110^) ^idr, swn of 
the east " (or according to Glaser, towards the east). 

In order to have an idea of the purport of the inscription we 
must here repeat the short description of the locality given by Lieut. 
Yule in its important points : — 

"From the Dthala plateau the mountain mass of Jabal Jehaf 
rises abruptly some 2,500 feet; one of the north-eastern spurs of this 
mountain terminates in three small peaks, which are easily identified 
by a white mosque half-way down the slope, which forms a conspicuous 
landmark. Cut on the side of a cliffy on the north side of the centre 
of one of these peaks, I found the Himyaritic inscription here 

shown There are traces of an old road to the top of 

this spur, with the foundation stones of one or two buildings, not 
sufficient to show what sort of dwellings they were. About four 
miles off is an old zigzag road up the Khureba Pass, which is said 
to be Himyaritic." 

From this description it follows that our inscription deals with 
the road cut through the mountain, and also makes reference to the 
building sites. 

Very important is the word "^SIOj upon which Glaser has brought 
forward what was necessary out of the dictionaries; but he is 

certainly not right in connecting it with the Hebrew word *^5"T, 
"passage for cattle," etc. This comparison must be rejected for 
phonetic and essential reasons. 

While Glaser in his most recent publication draws from Hamdini 
both what is suitable and unsuitable, and plays fast and loose with 
Hamdini's text, two places in the Gazirat and the Ik/it have escaped 
him which appear of some importance to our rock inscription. 

The quotation in Wt/ (Burgen and Schlosser, I, S. 8 and 26 [320 
and 378]), reads: — 

The founder {^^^\ ^JJ^j) of Ghomddn is 5>4^/», the son of Noah. 
He has begun the building and dug the well which still serves 

146 



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May 9] HIMYARITIC INSCRIPTION FROM JABAL JEHAF. [1906. 

as the drinking well of the Mosque of §an'a. After Noah's death 
the inhabited portion of the northern districts (JU^Jl u^jO ^^^ 
become desert, and Skem went south, exploring the countries, until 
he came to the first zone, and there found Yemen particularly 
adaptable for human dwelling places. After a long time, while 
he was roving through Yemen, he found in the plains of §an*i 
most excellent water. There he laid his building-m^a^wr^ (^^aJ ^ j^j) 

and afterwards built on the place oi \h^ foundations (^^^jAJi\ «_^«^) 
in the neighbourhood of the mountain pass of Ghomdan 
(j^ljk^ "j «_-^*^) west of the San*i plain, the angular column 

( JiaJl) which is still known in San*i (or as Sana). 

After the building was erected God sent a bird which seized the 
cord and flew off with it. Shem followed him to see where he would 
stop. The bird stopped on the hard ground of Na'im, on the slope 
of the mountain Nuqum. After Shem had followed him there, the 
bird flew farther, and dropped the cord on the stony ground (i^) 
of Ghomdan, where it remained lying. Shem knew that he was 
commanded to found a castle here, and he founded Ghomdin.^ 

ySb^ iO'^JLc j_*^j dj\ JC^ Ji ,£ *U^ *Ulc SJjJ^ fjj3 



Ja5j- j^\^ *'iJV j^^ tr^r* v^ *^^ '^ J*^. ^^^ laJ^\ 

• • . . *^JjJ\ ^j>-j J^-^f>J^ ^j^ ^j u^j^. ^ *^*-!^ j^ '^T^T^ 

The whole situation of San*a and Ghomdin forcibly recalls LieuL 
Yule's description of the locality. 

Looking at the passage and taking note of the overlined Arabic 
words, one finds in this account : — 

1. The word "foundation" (^^^^\ and (jjJ\), 

2. The word " north " ( JUaII). 

3. The word " pegging-out cord " (kxiSO* 

a The passage in GazSrat (p. 195) has the same rendering, but the word 
}^ r \ \ is explained somewhat more in detail : 

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May 9] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

4. The word "mountain pass " C^-^)' 

5. It speaks of Jklall , which appears to denote a building. 
Hamdini himself does not seem to have known the precise meaning 
of the word. 

6. The ** stony ground " (i^) is also mentioned. 

As we know that the old Yemenite archaeologists often got 
their knowledge from inscriptions which they in part misinterpreted,* 
I think it not at all impossible that the narrative in the Ik/ilj 
which is very ancient (j^ y^ ^), was constructed from our 
inscription, but, from local patriotism, was made to refer to those two 
renowned places, San'i and Ghomdin. 

Foundation (^^LjO ^^^ derive from our J1*^J1, and kxci- 
may be from our TtD*'nM . The equivalent of DMtZ^7 is Jl^*)\ , 
^ and^jsSff are taken from 3D and "^i:^, and ly^ can be 
connected with ^T^, 

A mere accidental clashing of locality and of the same expressions 
used seems to me to be excluded. If a present day Himyarist can 
mis-read 0(5>^ for ^(D|4, one may venture to believe that an 
old Yemenite archaeologist has, bona or mala fide^ read ^|^ for 
\<S>^ in order to bring the old inscription into connection with 
the Bible and the Koran, to prove a primitive foundation for San*i 
and Ghomdin. 

The history of our little text shows us that knowledge is not 
confined to any one individual, and that " four heads are better than 
one." 

* Compare my Siidarab, Studieny pp. 15-34, and Sab^ Denkni.^ p. 66. 



148 

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May 9] THE » THRONE OF NIMROD. [1906. 



THE 'THRONE OF NIMROD.' 
By Prof. F. C. Burkitt, M.A. 

Some months ago I came into correspondence with Mr. J. G. 
Shammass, a Protestant Missionary in Urfa, the ancient Edessa. 
I asked him, if possible, to get me a photograph of the ancient 
inscription on one of the two great Columns in the Citadel, 
which are locally known as the Throne of Nimrod. This Mr. 
Shammass succeeded in doing. He sent me last March a fair 
photograph of the Inscription, which is here reproduced (Plate I), 
together with a photograph of the Mosaics in the recently discovered 
Tomb. As these ancient monuments were very little known in 
England, I had intended to publish them in the F.S,B,A,y but in 
the interval has appeared Dr. Rendel Harris's book on The Cult of 
the Heavenly Twins (Cambridge, 1906), which contains a discussion 
of the Column Inscription and of the Mosaic, together with photo- 
graphic reproductions of them. This publication has naturally 
altered the form of what I have to say. Dr. Harris's pictures seem 
to be derived from the same negatives as the photographs sent me 
by Mr. Shammass. His reproduction of the Mosaic {Harris^ Plate IV) 
is very good, and it seemed unnecessary to give a representation 
of it here, especially as we agree in the decipherment of the funeral 
inscription except in the matter of the name of the maker of the 
Tomb, But the Column Inscription (Harris^ Plate III) is not so 
well executed, and we differ more seriously in the decipherment. 
Dr. Harris's half-tone block has been touched by the engraver to 
bring out the lettering. This is a usual practice among block- 
producers ; in view therefore of the importance of the Inscription, I 
give here (i) an entirely untouched reproduction of the sun-print 
sent me by Mr. Shammass, and (2) my own retouching of this 
reproduction, which shews what I think I see on the photograph. 
These difficulties are inevitable in photographs of incised inscrip- 
tions, for they are mainly visible by the shadows in the grooves ; 
and if the shadow falls so as to make, say, the horizontal lines of 

149 



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May 9] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHi^OLOGY. [1906. 

the letters fully defined, it will generally happen that the vertical 
lines shew very little shadow and become almost invisible. 

The Column Inscription was first made known by Badger 
{NestorianSy i 323) ; a very much better attempt at decipherment 
was made by Sachau, and published by him in Z,D,M.G, xxxvi 
153-157, but of course Dr. Harris's transcription (7w/«j, p. iii) 
supersedes the earlier publications. 

The colossal pillar on which the Inscription is traced is built 
up of 27 pairs of semicircular stones and crowned with a Corinthian 
capital, the whole being about 50 feet high. On the seventh and 
eighth courses the inscription is cut, and below it, as may be seen 
from the reproduction, "a large piece of the column has, with 
considerable skill, been cut out, and the triumphant * No God but 
God* has been written below the erasure . . . Where the stone 
has been cut away, there must have been something in the inscrip- 
tion or an objectionable carving which provoked the hostility of the 
Moslems" {Harris^ p. 107). No doubt it was the *Statue' mentioned 
in the Syriac inscription, which was probably a figure in high relief, 
like so many of the Palmyrene funeral monuments. 

The Cufic Inscription runs, according to Sachau, 

^LmJj J ^l4J <UU9 . . . 

(The overlined letters are very uncertain.) 

The last line implies that the defacement took place in the year 
308 A.H., i.e,^ 920 A.D., but though I can identify ^Ui 'eight,' and 
JuUj * hundred,' together with the 'and' between the numbers, I 
confess that I do not see in the photograph the letters juj, />., 
^4Jj which makes 300 instead of 100. Is it possible that the 
defacement took place in 108 a.h., i.e, 727 a.d. ? Of course it is 
unlikely that Dr. Sachau was wrong, and it may be that it is mere 
accident that the letters are illegible in the photograph. At the 
same time, we may notice that 108 a.h. is a very likely date for the 
defacement of the monument to have taken place, M. Duval, in 
his excellent History of Edessa (p. 255), points out that until the 

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May 9] 



THE 'THRONE OF NIMROD.' 



[1906. 



time of the Caliph Abd-el-Malik, who died in 705 a.d., the 
governors of the conquered provinces had been Christians. From 
this epoch the new era of direct and often fanatical Moslem rule has 
continued till the present day. 

I read the Syriac inscription thus : — 






■"-IJ 







i3 cu 

f^ ^^K* 



Collation with Dr. Harris's Transcription {Twins^ p. iii). 

kAK*] t?r, n^jjokAK* {F.CB)) KttokAK* Harris, 
eu] cA Harris. 3 is Harris. 



5. f«:\ji9K'o Harris. 
8. ^Auk] idK* Harris. 



iX^] nta + + + A Harris. 



Translation. 



I, Aphtoha 

N , son of 

Barsh[emash,] have made 
this column 
5 and ihe statue that is on it 

for Shalmath the Queen, daughter of 
Ma'nu the Viceroy, 

wife of , 

my Lady. 

This inscription raises questions which may be grouped under 
the heads of Palaeography, Grammar, and Interpretation. 

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MAY91 SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

Palctography. 

The character is a type of Estrangela, sensibly earlier than 
that of our earliest MSS., though not quite so archaic as the 
inscription of Amassams^ at Deir Ja*kub, published by Sachau 
{Z.D.M,G, xxxvi 145), or the coins of Wi'el, which must be dated 
163-165 A.D. The style of the coins, however, may be simply 
archaic, and so may furnish no clue to the date of this inscription. 
All the letters are represented, except t and p, if my reading of 
line I be correct. As in almost all ancient Syriac writing D (•) is 
not joined to the following letter. This is the case in the inscription 
with 3 (^) and ti^ («-) also, and what is more curious, this is 
also the case with i ( s ). It also appears that n ( ^ )> H ( " )» 
and 1 ( o ) do not allow of a ligature with the preceding as well as 
with the following letter, but to this the k^ in the first line forms 
an exception. It is worth notice that the first rc in i^^jsokAK* 
(line i) cuts through the division between the stones. On palseo- 
graphical grounds we could not place the inscription later than the 
3rd century a.d., and it is probably much earlier. The tall a in 
line 6 is particularly ancient in style. 

Grammar, 

MtO'^^^HM is to be vocalised adriattd. This word is an adaptation 
of avBptaura, which is found elsewhere in Syriac, e.g. 2 Chron. xiv3. 
The phrase QgAfti\iffm fie\.A^v9K'« r^e\j»f€ 'the column of the 
statue of Philip,' actually occurs in Budge's Alexander, 60*. In this 
inscription the n has been assimilated before the /, just as 'Otiti^T^M 
is read for "Ot^tt) ]1?2M in the inscription at Deir Ja'kub. 

The word following MlO^'^lb^ is T\ychv^, as is now acknow- 
ledged by Dr. Harris, though he differs as to the interpretation of 
these letters. I understand n2^ vj^l to mean, * which is upon 
it,' t.e, the statue which occupied the niche on the face of the 
column. The compound preposition ^.jm A.^ is given by Noldeke 
{Gram,, § 156, end), but it is said to be rarely met with. This is, 
of course, just the kind of point in which we might expect the 
language of the Inscription to differ from the literary practice of 
two centuries later. Dr. Harris connects m 1 *w\ %< with -^ *-■ ^ *^ 
* a young man,' and suggests that the word is a dual, and that the 
'Aiimi are the Dioscuri. This surely is a counsel of despair. It 



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PLATE 1. 



Proc Soc. Bibl. Arch.^ May^ 1906. 




THE COLUMN INSCRIPTION AT EDESSA. 
{Repi'oduced by mechanical process only, u<ithottt retouching, from a photograph.) 



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May 9] THE 'THRONE OF NIMROD.* [1906. 

does not account for the perfectly legible ai at the end, shewing 
that we are dealing with something that has the suffix of the third 
person singular, added to a noun or preposition in the singular. 
The word m if \ \9 cannot be a dual or a plural. In fact, there is 
nothing in the terms of the Inscription to tell of whom the lost 
figure was a representation, except that an avSpia^ must evidently 
be a figure in human shape. 

The word fc^l'HICJD, read here for the first time, is, I venture 
to think, quite certain. The tail of the second letter is broken 
away, but the other letters are quite plain. This puzzling word also 
occurs in the Syriac Theophania ii 19, and in the Bardesanian 
Hymn of ike Soul, line 48. In the Hymn it appears to be used 
interchangeably with r^-jk^t^, *the second in command,' as the 
title of the heir apparent to the throne. 

The derivation of i«i..a^i-\^^ is quite obscure, but its presence 
on the column clears up the difficulty felt by Sachau (p. 157) at the 
absence of w^ n \ .in 'king' after the name of Ma^u, father of 
Queen Shalmath. Possibly a coin published by Langlois, Numis- 
matique de rArminie^ Plate V, no. 12)1 may refer to this title. On 
one side of the coin is ABPAPOC Bi^CIA€YC; on the other, 
MANNOC n^lC. The bearded head does not seem appro- 
priate to a wa<9, so that perhaps the letters may be an abbreviation 
or adaptation of Pasgriba, if that be the pronunciation. It is clear 
from the Hymn that the word has only three syllables. 

Interpretation. 

A few words must be said in conclusion about the general 
interpretation of this interesting monument. As I have said, the 
Inscription itself tells us nothing about the cult in which the 
monument was used, and I venture to think we shall be unable to 
get much further until we have a good plan of the ruins, as well as 
photographs of their general appearance. I give here (Plate II) a 
view of the columns^ from a photograph by Father Raphael, of the 
Capucin Mission at Edessa, which shews the ruined walls of the 
Temple as well as the two pillars. We do not know for certain to 

^ Another example is given by Babelon, J^evue belgt de numisnuUique for 
1892, pi. xii, no. 8. * Le mot FIAIC est tout k fait insolite en numismatique, 
says M. Babelon, p. 521. 

153 N 



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May 9] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906, 

whom this Temple is dedicated. Fascinating as Dr. Harris's 
theories are, and probable as is his account of the genesis of the 
Legend of Judas Thomas the Twin, which is contained in the 
so-called Acts of Thomas, I do not think he has made it probable 
that these Columns, or the Inscription here edited, have anything to 
do with the Dioscuri. It is extremely likely that the Heavenly 
Twins were reverenced at Edessa, but I very much doubt whether 
their worship was connected with this building. 

The name of the writer of the Inscription, who also set up the 
Column and the Statue, presents a difficulty. It is evidently the 
same as that on the Mosaic edited by Dr. Harris, but it cannot be 
nLma^u^tTy as Dr. Harris reads. The penultimate letter is not 
very distinct, but its form is very different to the angular » of 
fT lA \qpw in line 4. Moreover, if it had been a », it would 
not have been joined to the final w. I am certain it is either 
jt (i.e., n), or jj (i.e., ^i). These letters are much alike in 
many Syriac scripts, but I think the evidence of the Mosaic makes 
it practically certain that it is rtL^ua^u^tr. For the name Aphtoha 
see S. A. Cook's Glossary of the Aramaic Inscriptions^ p. 24, s.v. 
nnOM . Curiously enough the nilDfc^ of the Nabataean Inscrip- 
tions (NoldekCy 9 ff.) was a sculptor or architect in stone ( M7DD )» 
but I leave the possible Dioscuric inferences to be drawn by those 
who have greater faith than I have. 

With this correction the inscription on the Mosaic reads (Harris^ 
p. 109) : 

"I, Aphtob^, son of Garmu, have made me this House of 
Eternity for myself, and for my sons, and for my heirs, for the days 
of Eternity." 

(In the fourth line Dr. Harris reads Vt^\ for hiJL^ »A, but 
the reading is certain.) 

It is a pity that the ancestry of Aphtolia in the Column Inscrip- 
tion has been so much damaged, but it does not seem as if we 
could interpolate into it * son of Garmu.* In the third line of the 
Column Inscription, after "^3, there comes a horizontal line. 
Now the only letter which begins with a horizontal line in this script 
is "C^, and that being so, considerations of space make it almost 

154 



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PLATE II. 



Prof. Soc. BibL Arch,^ May, 1906. 




GENERAL VIEW OF THE "THRONE OF NIMROD." 

{Shoioin^^ ihi' alii^nnunt of the Walls.) 



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May 9] THE * THRONE OF NIMROD.' [1906. 

necessary to read the name M^HT ^2. Barshemash was the 
name of one of the noble families of Edessa ; we read, for example, 
in the Doctrine of Addai 40-- of t ^m t.jo w »aca.»ia« i.e. Maryhab 
bar Barshemash, and the name occurs also on one of Sachau's 
inscriptions {Z.D,M.G, xxxvi 163). 

Unfortunately we cannot identify Queen Shalmath, as the name 
was borne by several personages. The Queen of Abgar Ukkslma in 
the Doctrine of Addai is also named Shalmath, but she was a 
daughter of one Meherdath {i.e. Mithridates), and this is a daughter 
of Ma*nu. The Queen was doubtless the wife of the King, but the 
8th line is too much cut away to enable us to tell whether, as is 
probable, it ran ^\:J^K^ naiMl JinDM, ie. *the wife of King 
Abgar.' What, however, the decipherment of the title Ml"''^a2D 
makes quite certain, is that the Column was raised under the auspices 
of the old native dynasty of the Abgars and Ma'nus of Edessa, 
though I must repeat that we do not yet know to what deity it was 
dedicated. 



^55 

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May 9] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 



INSCRIBED SLAB WITH A PORTRAIT 
OF KHUENATEN. 

By the Rev. Dr. Colin Campbell. 

The annexed Plate is from a photograph of a slab, which I found 
last winter lying in one of the Courts of the Temple of Luxor, 
representing Khuenaten, the heretic king of the XVIIIth dynasty, 
receiving from the Sun's rays, which end in hands, ankhs and User 
sceptres, emblems ot life and power. With it I found a number of 
small fragments inscribed with the king's name in cartouches. 

Similar slabs have been often illustrated, but the chief interest of 
this example lies in its being found in Luxor Temple. It seems 
probable that all the fragments must have been removed there from 
some other building — perhaps from the tomb at Thebes, which was 
opened by the late Mr. Villiers Stuart. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held on 
Wednesday, June 13th, 1906, at 4.30 p.m., when the 
following Paper will be read : — 

Prof. A. H. Sayce, B.D, : ** The Chedorlaomer Tablets." 



156 

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Proc. Soc. Bib I. Arch.^ May^ 1906. 




C4 

O 
X 

>-] 
c 



(14 

H 



c 






e 

•S 
u 



o 
o 

•s. 



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SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCMOLOGT POBLICATIOMS. 



A 

GENERAL INDEX 

TO THE 

"PROCEEDINGS." 



VOLS. XI— XX. 



(.NON-MEMBERS, Os. 



NOW READY-PRICE 30s. 

(Postage, 4rf.) 
A 

GENERAL INDEX 

TO THE NINE VOLUMES 
"TRANSACTIONS." 

The Bronze Ornaments of the Palace Gates from 

Balawat. 

[Shalmaneser II, B.C. 859-825.] 

Part V (the final part), with Introduction and descriptive letter-press, 
has now been issued to the Subscribers. 

A few complete copies of the book remain unsold and can be 
obtained on application to the Secretary. 

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Society of Biblical ARCHiEOLOGv. 

37, Great Russell Street, London, W.C. 



COUNCIL, 1906. 



President. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, D.D., &c., &c 

ViU'jPresiderUs. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Salisbury. 

The Most Hon. the Marquess of Northampton. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of H^lsbury. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Walter Morrison. 

Alexander Pbckover, LL.D., F.S.A. 

F. G. Hilton Price, Dir. S.A. 

W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

The Right Hon. General Lord Grenfell, K.C.B., &c., &c. 

The Right Rev. S. W. Allen, D.D. (R.C. Bishop of Shrewsbury). 

Rev. J. Marshall, M.A, 

Joseph Pollard. 



Council, 



Rev. Charles James Ball, M.A. 

Dr. M. Gaster. 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. 

H. R. Hall, M.A. 

Sir H. H. Howorth, K.C.LE., 

F.R.S., &c. 
L. W. King, M.A. 
Rev. Albert Lowy, LL.D., &c. 
Prof. G. Maspbro. 



Claude G. Montbfiore. 
Prof. E. Naville. 
Edward S. M. Perowne, F.S.A. 
Rev, W. T. Pilter. 

P. SCOTT-MONCRIEFF, B.A. 

R. Campbell Thompson, B.A. 
Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., 
F.R.S.. &c. 



Honorary Treasurer — Bernard T. Bosanquet. 

iV^r^Mry— Walter L. Nash, M.R.C.S., F.S.A. 

Honorary Secretary for Foreign Correspondence — ^F. Legge. 

Honorary Lidrarian—VfAVTEK L. Nash, M.R.CS., F.S.A. 



HAKRl;>ON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HIS MAJESTY, ST. MARTIK'S LANE. 



)gle 



^J- 



VOL. XXVIII. 



«*< 



■• ''" 



Part 5. 



55S 



.." JUL 3 3 1906 




OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



VOL. XXVIII. THIRTY-SIXTH SESSION. 
Ft/tA Meeting; June i^th, 1906. 

«c» 

CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

F. Legge.— Magic Ivories of the Middle Empire. III. {6 Plates) 159-170 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, D.D,y ^c. — An Inscription of S-ankh- 

ka-ra ; Karian and other Inscriptions. (2 Plates) 171-177 

Prof. Dr. E. Revillout. — The Burgh Papyrus. Transcribed, 

Translated, and Annotated 178-181 

W. L. Nash, F.S.A. — A Hebrew Amulet against Disease. 

(Plate) 182-184 

E. R. Ayrton.— The position of Tausert in the XlXth Dynasty. 

(Plate) 185, 186 

E. SiBRBE, Jl/.^.-— Note on the Boss of TarVutimme 187, 188 

Paul Pierret.-— Le Nom du Pschent 189,190 

^M» 

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i . JUL 131906 




PROCEEDINGS 



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THE SOCIETY 



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BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 



THIRTY-SIXTH SESSION, 1906. 



Fifth Meetings June ilth, 1906. 



Prof. A. H. SAYCE, D,D,, 



IN THE CHAIR. 



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[No. CCXII.] 



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June 13] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

The following gifts to the Library were announced, and 
thanks ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author, M. J. Baillet. — "La reunion de la famille 
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BOOK-BINDING FUND. 

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Prof. A. H. Sayce, Z>.Z>. : "The Chedorlaomer Tablets." 

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158 

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JuNB 13] MAGIC IVORIES OF THE MIDDLE EMPIRE. [1906. 



THE MAGIC IVORIES 
OF THE MIDDLE EMPIRE. 

By F. Legge. 

III. 

I am fortunately now in a position to complete, so far as can be 
done at the present time, the collection of these objects which was 
begun in the Proceedings of May and December last year. Although 
most of those about to be noticed were unknown to me in May last, 
some of them confirm in a striking manner the views that I then 
expressed as to the meaning of the figures and the use and date of 
the wands, and none I think will be found to conflict with them. 
I venture to think that this is in itself a proof that the views then 
expressed were correct, and that no other theory heretofore advanced 
concerning these objects has shown any claim to general acceptance. 



Description of the Plates} 
Plate I. No. 49. 

This, as will be seen, is the photographic reproduction of the 
wand in the " Edwards " Collection at University College, London, a 
sketch of which by Miss Murray appeared as No. 47 in the December 
Proceedings. It is always as well in these cases to have as exact 
a representation of the object as possible under one's eyes, but 
the photograph here does little except to emphasize the accuracy 
of Miss Murray's sketch. Attention may be drawn, however, to the 
holes showing where the two halves of the wand were formerly 
joined, and also to the fact that here, as in many other cases, the 
middle of the wand was much worn and the figures inscribed thereon 
were almost effaced before the fracture. This is in itself significant, 
as will afterwards be shown, of the manner in which these wands 

^ As before, the Nos. follow on those attached to the figures in the two earlier 
papers. 

159 O 2 



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June 13] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH^OLOGV. [1906. 

were used. I may also say that the name of Nehi which we find on 
wand No. 7 {P,S.B,A.y May, 1905, p. 139 and PL V), as that of the 
son of the " lady of the house Pert " for whom the present wand was 
made, is a name frequently met with on the seals of officials of the 
Xllth-XIVth Dynasties, and that it appears on a scarab in the 
Fitzwilliam Collection as that of a "Superintendent of the Interior 
of the £>^p" and on another in the Murch Collection as that of the 
" Great One of the Southern Tens." « 



Plate II. No. 50. 

This fragment I owe to the kindness of Prof. Wilhelm Spiegelberg, 
of Strasbourg, who tells me that he bought it at I^uxor, in the year 
1898, and that it was said by the vendor to have been found at 
Drah Abu'l Neggah, whence came, it will be remembered, wand 
No. 16 (P.S.B.A,, May, 1905, p. 143 and PI. IX).* On the same 
authority, it is dark brown in colour, and the work is poorly 
executed. The fragment that remains is the blunt end of the 
wand, and contains the usual procession beginning in this case with 
the hippopotamus-goddess, upright, and armed with a knife. She is 
followed by the figure I have called the Chimaera, the human head 
between the wings being but faintly indicated by a sort of rectangle 
with a hole for the eye, which is, however, reproduced in the 
hieroglyph of the seated woman on the reverse. This is followed 
by the sun-disk, mounted on two human legs each of which bears a 
knife at the foot, and encircled by a uraeus, whose head projects 
some way in front. Behind this, the forepart of a human-headed 
sphinx, crowned with the two plumes generally given to Amen-Ra, 
and also armed with a knife, is just visible. 

On the reverse is the inscription : — 

"Protection around the royal daughter Mentuhotep, life, health 
and power ! " 

2 Newberry, Scarabs (London, 1906), pp. 133 and 143, and Plates XIII and 
XVIL Cf, also "the Royal Clothier Neh^," p. 130 and PI. XII, and "the 
Scribe of the Army Neh^, born of the lady Kesen," p. 195 and PL XLIII. 

' Both Luxor and Drah Abu'l Neggah are, like Gurneh, in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Thebes. 

160 



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PLATE I. 



Proc, Sac, Bibh AnA,, /utte, 1906. 




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PLATE II. 



Proc. Soc, BibK Arck,, fuiie^ 1906. 




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June 13] MAGIC IVORIES OF THE MIDDLE EMPIRE, [igoS, 

It is not very likely that this was the queen Mentuhotep whose 
coffin and other funeral equipage were found some years ago,'* but 
the use of the same name for both the male and female members 
of the same family is curious, and can be paralleled by other instances 
on these wands. It also confines the date of the wand pretty closely 
to the time of the Xlth-XIIth Dynasty. 



Plate III. No. 5^- 

This beautiful wand comes from the Public Museum at Liverpool, 
no record of its provenance being obtainable. It is engraved on 
one side only, and is nearly perfect, only a small piece near the 
tip being missing, and having been replaced by cement. The 
procession goes as usual from the lion's mask to the jackal's head, 
both here very clearly shown, and begins with the figure of a cat 
passanty having a knife in her forepaw. Behind her comes the 
hippopotamus-goddess, leaning upon the sa sign, and armed with a 
knife, and then the lion, which we have seen named maheSy or "lion 
fascinateuT," 5 similarly equipped. The middle of the wand is 
occupied by the snake-necked panther, also armed with a knife, with 
a cresset or light displayed above his back, and followed by the 
tortoise s?i€tufi The procession is closed by the chimaera, followed 
by another cat, this time rampant, and armed with the knife displayed 
by all the animals except the chimaera. The figures are carefully 
executed, and the wand in excellent preservation. 



Plate III. No. 52. 

This fragment which, like the last, is engraved on one side only, 
comes from the collection of Prof. Spiegelberg, and has the same 
provenance as No. 50. Unlike the last-named, however, it is white 
in colour, and the style of the figures is too dissimilar for it to have 

* A.Z,, XXX, 46; XXXI, 23. 

» P,S.B,A,, December, 1905, p. 302. On the i^hole siilject of the «*lioii 
fascinatcur," Maspero, £t. de Myth,^ VoL II, pp. 4' 5 J^^'* ^^^ he consulted 
with advantage. 

• See last note and P.S.B.A,^ May, 1905, p. 149 and note 32, and references 
there given. 

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JCN« 13] • SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiBOLOGY. [1906^ 

been executed by the same hands as its fellow. The small piece 
that remains shows the chimaera figure with the head between the 
half open wings so far raised above the body as to be entirely 
separated from it, which perhaps confirms the suggestion that this 
was a symbolical or conventional way of portraying a mounted man. 
After this comes the snake-necked panther, the neck being not 
merely elongated, but waved in the manner which appears more 
clearly In Nos. 3 and 9 in Part I df this paper. Following him 
is a very long snake extended, and then the tortoise, after which 
nothing can be distinguished. 



Plate IV. No. 53. 

This fragment comes from the Ashmolean Museum, and was 
acquired in 1900, the place where it was found being said to be 
Abydos.7 It is engraved on one side only, and the figures are 
roughly cut. The most marked feature about it is a curious line 
below the figures, made up of a series of curves, or, perhaps, neb 
baskets, so as to present the form which heralds call " engrailed." 
The subject seems to be the usual procession of animals armed with 
knives, opening with a frog and closing with a lion ; but I can make 
nothing of the intermediate objects. 



Plate IV. No. S4- 

This, like the last, is now in the Ashmolean, though no record of 
its provenance is obtainable. It is in two parts, which have been 
joined in the middle, though it is by no means certain that they 
were originally continuous. On each side of the break is a figure 
of the hippopotamus-goddess, upright, and bearing a knife, the one 
on the right being followed by a seated lion, or perhaps a cyno- 
cephalus baboon, devouring a snake. The other figures have been 
too much defaced by the flaking of the ivory to be decipherable, 

' This of course may mean very little, as it is the practice of the native 
dealers in antiquities to label their goods with the name of any find-spot for 
the moment in vogue. The year when this and the next wand were acquired 
corresponds with the time when M. Amelineau's discoveries at Abydos were 
beginning to attract attention, and the native shops were full of objects described, 
with or without justification, as coming from his excavations. 

162 



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PLATE III. 



Proc, Soc. Bibl. Arch.^ /ufie, 1906. 




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PLATE IV. 



Proc. Soc. BibL Arc A., /utie, 1906. 




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June 13] MAGIC IVORIES OF THE MIDDLE EMPIRE. [1906. 

Plate V. No. 55. 

This is also in the Ashmolean, was purchased at the same time 
as No. 54, and is also said to have come from Abydos. It bears no 
figures, but shows the pains taken to. fashion the pointed end of the 
tusk into the form of a jackaPs head, and thereby confirms the 
opinion expressed in Part I of this paper, that this had a symbolical 
or ritual meaning. 

Plate V. No. 56. 

Also in the Ashmolean, and said to come from Abydos, though 
purchased a year after Nos. 53, 54 and 55. It is a small piece 
broken off from the extreme tip of the tusk, which terminates with 
an incised representation of the jackal's head, immediately after 
which is seen what appears to be a human leg and foot, and may 
possibly be a partly obliterated representation of the walking sun- 
disk just about to disappear in the West. Facing this is a lion 
couchant, armed with a knife, after which the wand is broken away. 

Plate V. No. 57. 

A small fragment of unknown provenance, also in the Ashmolean, 
and included in this paper for the sake of completeness. It shows 
the Anubis-term, with knife at foot, and the hind-quarters of some 
feline animal with the interlaced snakes stretching over the two, 

Plate V. No. 58. 

I have kept this and the two which follow to the last, in the hope 
that I might be able to get photographs of them. Unfortunately 
all my efforts have been unavailing, and I cannot give any infor- 
mation as to their present whereabouts.® They were all discovered 

^ That this should be so shows the haphazard method still pursued with 
reference to the distribution of the objects obtained by modem exploration in 
Egypt. Mr. Quibell, when he found them, was working for the Egyptian 
Research Account, and I therefore applied to Prof. Petrie in the first instance. 
He told me that so far as his recollection went, they had been presented to some 
Museum in America ; but although I have written to the curators of the Museums 
of New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, and Baltimore, I have received no 
answer from any of them except in the case of Chicago,* where Dr. Breasted 
informs me they certainly are not. Miss Murray, who was, I think. Secretary 
of the Research Account at the time, is also ignorant of their whereabouts. 

163 



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June 13] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1906. 

by Mr. Quibell at Thebes in a wooden box containing some 
broken papyri in Xllth century hieratic, in which, Mr. Newberry 
tells me, were contained magical receipts.' From this it may be 
judged that they formed part of the stock-in-trade of a professional 
magician, which confirms the conjecture that I have before put 
forward that Thebes was the hunting-ground of the workers in curious 
arts. No. 58 is a piece of the pointed end of the tusk which once 
terminated in the usual jackal's mask, the tips of the ears being 
alone left. Immediately after this comes a snake, curled as though 
about to spring, and facing a frog, who is followed by a seated cat. 
After this, we have a cresset and the Anubis-term, followed by the 
sun-disk walking, which in its turn is followed by the chimoera. 
The pose of the snake is peculiar, as is the spot in the centre of the 
sun-disk. 

Plate VI. No. 59. 

This is assumed by Mr. Quibell to be two fragments of the same 
wand, though if the reproduction in " The Rafnesseum " is accurate, 
it would appear that the more pointed end of the blunter half was 
too small to fit accurately in with the other. Immediately behind 
the jackal's mask, at the tip of the tusk, is the head of a long-eared 
animal with a crest of hair, which may be the Set animal, or perhaps 
the cow of wand No, i. Behind this, and back to back with it, is 
the cynocephalus, dancing. After the break, the outline of the 
knife-armed Anubis-term is just visible, and then the god Bes, in his 
usual full face attitude, holding a snake in each hand. Then comes 
the hippopotamus-goddess, upright, with knife in one hand, and 
resting the other on the sa sign, another figure of the god Bes as 
before, with perhaps a scourge in the left hand, and then the lion 
mahes with knife and sa sign, in the act of devouring a snake. Lastly, 
at the blunt end of the tusk, turned about to face the lion, is the 
snake-necked panther, with a three-headed serpent extended over it. 

Plate VI. No. 60. 

This, which is only slightly broken, shows at the tip cf the tusk 
the jackal's mask. Then comes the turtle SAetu^ and a bird of 

' Quibell, TA€ Ramesseumt London, 1898, p. 3. 
164 



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PLATE V. 



Proc. Soc, Bibh Arch,, Jutu, 1 906. 




Wands in the Ashmolean Museum. 
From Photographs, 




No. 57. 

Wand in the Ashmolean Museum. 
From a copy by Miss MutTay, 




No. 58. 

Wand from Thebes. 
From " The Ramesseum" by J. E. Quibell. 



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PLATE VI. 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch, ^ June ^ 1906. 







:§ 






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June 13] MAGIC IVORIES OF THE MIDDLE EMPIRE. [1906. 

curious form, which is probably intended for a vulture, bearing a 
scourge or flail as well as a knife. Then comes the chimaera, while 
the frog seated on the neb basket closes the procession. The two 
holes connected by a curved line at the end, are probably part of the 
lion's mask, either broken or rubbed away. 



Date of the Wands, 

I now return to the question of date, which was only briefly 
touched upon in Part I of this paper. All those which bear the 
names of the persons for whom they were made can be dated with 
reasonable exactitude, as with one exception they are all names 
belonging to known personages of the Middle Empire. Thus, to take 
them in their order, the name of Seneb or Senb, found on No. 3, 
appears also on a scarab in the Cairo Museum ^^ which seems to be 
the seal of an official describing himself as "the Instructor of the 
House of Life, Senb"; on another in the British Museum^^ made for 
" the ser hayt Senb " ; on another in the Berlin Museum, belonging 
to "the Attendant Senb";^^ on another in the Cairo Museum,^* 
belonging to " the Guardian of the Storehouse Senb " ; and on yet 
another in the Murch Collection, 1* made for the "Royal Sealer, 
Superintendent of the Prison Senb." All these scarabs are described 
by Mr. Newberry as belonging to officials of the Xllth-XIVth 
Dynasties, and it is therefore plain that the name must belong to 
this period. So, the " Snaa-ab, daughter of Senb-se-ma " for whom 
the wand No. 4 was made, bears the same name as the Ramenkhau 
or Snaa-ab, whom Prof. Petrie^^ believes to be a king of the Xlllth 
Dynasty, or the " ser hayt Senaab," whose scarab is in the British 
Museum, and as the " Great One of the Southern Tens Senaa-ab" on 
a scarab in the MacGregor Collection ;^® while her mother's name 
seems to be the same as that of the " Superintendent of the Seal 
Senb-su-ma " of the same period, of whose scarabs a long list might 
be given. ^7 i^ehi again, the appellative of the owner of wand No. 7, 

" Newberry, op, cit,, p. 135 and PI. XIII. 

" Op. ciL, p. 141 and PI. XVI. " Op. ciL, p. I42 and PI. XVI. 

" op, cii„ p. 197 and PI. XLIII. " Op. cit., p. 199 and PL XLIV. 

^* Petrie, History of Egypt, Vol. I, p. 227. 

^^ Newberry, op. cit,, p. 136 and PI. XIV. 

^' Op. at., p. 126 and PL XI. 

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JUNB 13] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

as has been mentioned above (note 2, sup^ is a name borne by several 
officials of the same period, while his name and that of his mother 
Pert has been found by Miss Murray under the circumstances 
mentioned in Part I of .this paper. The princess Ptah-neferu of 
wand No. 13 bears the same name, and may be the same person as 
Ptah-neferu, daughter of Amenemhat III, of the Xllth Dynasty, 
whose sarcophagus was found in her father's pyramid at Hawara.^® 
The name of the Mer-senb-s of wand No. 46 I have not yet identified, 
but that of her mother Nub-n-ab is sufficiently like that of Queen 
Nub-em-hat, of the Xlllth Dynasty, to leave little doubt that it may 
be assigned to the same period. As the name of Mentuhotep has 
been already dealt with above, this leaves only the Seb-kai of wand 
No. 14 to account for. His name, as mentioned in Part I of this 
paper, cannot be found in any king-list ; but the title ** Fair God" 
which precedes it, is said not to have been introduced until the 
IXth Dynasty, 1® and the name is likely to be that of some usurper 
or local chief during the troublous times of the Xlllth and XlVth 
Dynasties. The likeness of style of the wands which can thus 
be dated to those without names is sufficiently close in most cases 
to admit of our confidently attributing the greater part of these last 
to the Middle Empire.20 



The Meaning of the Figures, 

I will only add to my remarks under this head that the publica- 
tion of the Book of the Am-Tuat and the Book of the Gates by 
Dr. Budge has, to my mind, cleared up the mystery attaching to two 
of the figures on these wands, namely the double sphinx of wands 
Nos. 3, 7, and 18, and the double bull of Nos. i and 7. There can 
be, I think, now no doubt that the double sphinx typifies the "Land 
of Seker," perhaps the oldest of all the Egyptian gods of the dead, 
over which the Sun-god was supposed to pass during the fourth 
hour of the night. In Dr. Budge's version of the Book of Am- 



^" Budge, History of Egypt, Vol. Ill, p. 62. 

" Op, cit.. Vol. II, p. 167. 

^ The only ones about which it seems to me that there can be any real doubt 
are the two in relief in the British Museum (Nos. 2 and 27), which are certainly 
very different in style and perhaps in intention from the others. 

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June 13! MAGIC IVORIES OF THE MIDDLE EMPIRE. [1906. 

Tuat, he explains how this veritable " land of darkness " was there 
represented as "an elongated ellipse formed wholly of sand," and he 
continues, " This mysterious oval is supposed to rest upon the bodies 
of two man-headed lion sphinxes, set tail to tail ; of these, however, 
only the heads and fore quarters appear, one at each end of the 
ovaI."*i Moreover, this land of Seker was one "wherein lived 
monster serpents of terrifying aspect, some having two and some 
three heads, and some having wings." So terrible indeed were these 
beings that the Sun-god in the Book never enters the land of 
darkness at all, but passes over instead of through it in a specially 
constructed boat ; while of the scarab, figured on the wand, as in the 
Book, as immediately below it, it is said "Behold Klieperu who, 
immediately the boat of Ra is towed to the top of this circle, unites 
himself to the roads of the Tuat ; when this god standeth on the 
head of the goddess he speaketh words to Seker every day."2« No 
doubt the portrayal of the nightly triumph of the Sun-gods Ra and 
Kheper over Seker, the master of serpents, was thought to be very 
terrifying to all serpents who caught sight of it. Nor is the symbolism 
of the double bull less plain. In his version of the Book of the 
Gates, Dr. Budge tells us how, in the Third Division of the Under- 
world, or third hour of the night, the tow-rope of the Boat of the Sun 
" is fastened to the two ends of a very remarkable object, in the form 
of a long beam, each end of which terminates in a bull's head." He 
goes on to say that it is clear that the boat of Ra and the god 
himself were believed to pass through this object from one end to 
the other,^ and in the accompanying vignette a bull is seen standing 
upon each end of the bull-headed object, which is alluded to as the 
" Boat of the Earth," while the text says, " Praised be the soul 
[i.e.y Ra] which the Double Bull hath swallowed."^* As it is evident 
that both the Book of Am-Tuat and the Book of the Gates represent 
attempts to synthesize, and, so far as could be, to bring into harmony 
the different traditions of the Egyptians as to the Underworld, where 
the sun went during the night and where therefore man might 
expect to go after death, we can hardly refuse to believe that the 
double sphinx and the double bull here represent the "house of 



" Budge, TAe Egyptian Heaven and Hell, Vol. I, p. 93. 
=» Op. cii,. Vol. I. p. 89. 
» Op. cii.. Vol. II, p. 103. 
^ Op. cit.. Vol. II, p. 106. 
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June 13] SOCIETY OF LIHLICAL ARCIIiTiOLOGY. [1906. 

Hades " as it was figured by two different but not necessarily con- 
flicting traditions.25 



The Use of the Wands. 

While the additions that I have been able to make in Parts II 
and III of this paper to the objects collected in Part I confirm the 
views as to them expressed in Part I, I see nothing in them that 
would lead me in any way to alter my original theory that they were 
intended as phylacteries or magical " protections " against the bites 
of snakes and perhaps other misfortunes. The word "phylactery" 
((t>v\aicTl]pioi^) has of course precisely this meaning, but its Biblical 
association with the frontlets of the Jews seems to have misled some 
of my readers into supposing that it was necessarily something 
attached to or worn on the person. This is, of course, not the case, 
and in a mediaeval exorcism I find the magician commanding the 
spirits " by virtue of these phylacteries which I hold in my hand." 
Now, in magic, spirits of all kinds have always been supposed to 
dread a pointed weapon, as is shown (to quote no other instance) in 
the proceedings of Ulysses in the Xlth book of the Odyssey. And 
the serpent, from its silence, swiftness, and the mystericus character 
of the death which follows its bite, has always been considered by 
primitive folk as the favourite abode of spirits if not a spirit itself. 
Hence it is reasonable to suppose that the pointed end of the wand 
was supposed to be especially efficacious if directed against the 
serpents and other mysterious animals which it was intended to 
frighten. But to point it towards them, or towards the quarter in 
which they were supposed to be, it would be necessary to grasp the 
wand by the middle, and this I think may account for the signs of 
attrition that wands like No. 3 exhibit. That the wands were 
actually regarded by their makers as phylacteries or " protections " 
of some sort is, I think, sufficiently evident from the words of the 
inscriptions on wands Nos. 3, 4, 7, 9, 13, 15, 46, 47, and 50. 

I have to express my thanks to the Keepers of the " Edwards *' 

" It follows from thb that the conjecture expressed by me in Part I 
{P,S,B.A., May, 190$, p. 132, note 7), as to the great car\-ed slate of the British 
Museum and Louvre {P.S,B.A,, XXII, p. 131 and PL II), is well founded, and 
that the scene there depicted does represent the proto-dynastic invaders hunting 
the aborigines, under the form of animals, into the underworld, or perhaps into 
the caves and hollows of the earth. 

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June 13] MAGIC IVORIES OF THE MIDDLE EMPIRE. [1906. 

collection; of the Ashmolean Museum; of the Liverpool Public 
Museum; and to Professor Dr. Wilhelm Spiegelberg; for their 
kindness in allowing me photographs of the objects in their collec- 
tions, and to Dr. Wallis Budge and Mr. H. R. Hall for much kind 
help and assistance in reading the inscriptions and otherwise. 



As it is unlikely that any considerable number of these objects 
will be discovered in the future, I think I may refer, in conclusion, to 
the gallant attempt made by Miss Murray, in the January number 
of the Proceedings^ to show that these wands are not phylacteries 
but horoscopes. As I remarked at the reading of her paper, she 
seems to have gone astray in the matter, not from any want of 
Egyptological knowledge, but from lack of practical acquaintance 
with the "splendid imposture" of astrology — an ignorance for 
which she is rather to be praised than blamed. Having gone into her 
arguments fully at the Meeting where they were read, I may perhaps 
be excused if I here present my refutation of them only in a very 
brief and summary form, the length to which this paper has already 
run being an additional reason for not dealing with them more 
fully. My reasons for rejecting her proposed interpretation of the 
wands are therefore as follows : — 

(i) Bes, Heqt, and Taurt are only found in the "birth-chapels" 
of the Pharaoh as the representative of the Sun-god, 
and their appearance there is evidently due to the part 
supposed to be played by them in the natural phenomena 
of sun-rise. There is no reason for supposing that they 
were thought to play a similar part at the birth of private 
individuals such as most of those for whom these wands 
were made. 

(2) The language of the inscriptions on the wands themselves — 
one of which speaks of cutting off "the head of the enemy" 
— is quite inconsistent with the view that they were 
intended for horoscopes ; while it agrees perfectly with the 
theory that they were made for the protection of their 
owners against snake-bite and other misfortunes. 
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June 13] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

(3) The Egyptians, as the Palermo Stone and other monuments 

show, even before the Middle Empire, had a perfectly 
consistent method of indicating dates by the year of the 
reigning king. Yet these wands contain nothing that can 
by any ingenuity be twisted into the record of a date, 
which is the most important point in the construction of a 
horoscope. 

(4) I have worked backwards by the usual process the horoscope 

which Miss Murray has given in PI. II of her paper 
{P.S,B,A,y 1906, p. 42) as what she considers the astro- 
logical expression of wand No. 2. The only possible date 
at which the greater planets were in the position there 
ascribed to them seems to have been the 14th March, 
2765 B.C., which is a good deal earlier than that which the 
most generous chronology now in vogue gives for the 
beginning of the Middle Empire. While the Sun and 
Moon were then in the positions she attributes to them, 
I find that Mars was then in the last degrees of Aries, 
and Mercury and Saturn in the 15th and 5th degrees of 
Aquarius. While therefore Mars was a whole sign or the 
twelfth part of the circle further forward than the place 
she would give to him, Saturn was a sign and a sixth in 
front of and Mercury three signs behind their respective 
positions in her figure. It appears from this last that none 
of the planets could have been visible at the hour in 
question, which must have been a little after 6 a.m., and 
their positions must therefore have been ascertained, if 
at all, by calculation from tables. Assuming — and it 
seems a very large assumption — that the Egyptians of the 
3rd millennium b.c. were in possession of such tables, we 
must suppose Miss Murray's astrologer to have been so 
unskilful in their use as to assign to Saturn a place in 
the heavens that he was not to occupy for more than two 
years to come. 



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June 13] AN INSCRIPTION OF S-ANKH-KA-RA. [1906. 



AN INSCRIPTION OF S-ANKH-KA-RA. 
KARIAN AND OTHER INSCRIPTIONS. 

By Prof. A. H. Sayce, D.D,, &*c. 



Inscription of S-ankh-ka-ra. 

(Plate I.) 

While excavating last February at El-Hammim, on the western 
bank of the Nile at Gebel Silsila, I discovered a good many rock- 
inscriptions, including some Karian graffiti^ which are published in 
the accompanying plate. I found most of these last on a boulder 
of sandstone on the south side of the entrance to the Shatt es-Seba' 
Rigala, where they surrounded a deeply-incised inscription of a 
certain Ana or Ani, recording the name of S-ankh-ka-Ra Mentu- 
hetep of the Xlth dynasty. As is well-known, the Shatt or valley is 
full of inscriptions of this dynasty, one of them accompanying 
representations of Neb-hapu-Ra Mentu-hetep and Antef, which 
were discovered by Harris and are figured in Petrie's Season in Egypt 
(1887), Plate XVI. Graffiti which I found on the plateau abc*"* 
show that the valley was not a desert road, as has hitherto becK 
supposed, but that the Xlth dynasty officials and workmen came 
there in search of stone. As the hieroglyphic inscription is impor- 
tant, mentioning, as it does, " the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, 
S-ankh-ka-Ra, beloved of Horus, beloved of Sebek the lord of the 
Lake of Khar(u)," I give it here. It would seem that the lake was 
in the neighbourhood of Silsilis. The rude drawing of the donkey 
to the right of the inscription was made by the same hand as the 
hieroglyphic text. 

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June 13] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

Karian and other Inscriptions. 

I. 

(Plate I.) 

This Karian inscription is incised immediately above the inscrip- 
tion of Ana. When I first copied it I thought that the downstroke 
to the left of the second word belonged to the first letter of the 
word, which might therefore be a new form of m. But a second 
visit made it clear that such a supposition was unnecessary, and that 
the stroke really belongs to the character below it in the second line. 
Consequently the inscription reads : L-9-a-a-a Vu-u-v-s-^-a-1-y g-v- . . 
th-y-gh. Since we have L-3-r-o-n in Sayce, I, 7, it is possible that 
the third character is intended for r, not a. Vuvs^aly would 
represent the "Ovo-ffoiXXo? or ^"SaawXKo^ of Greek Karian inscriptions. 
Gh was a suffix ; we find it elsewhere, e.g., in vugh at Krya, duvugh 
{RS.B.A.y May, 1905, No. Ill) and thagh at Silsilis (F,S,B.A., 
May, 1895). Here it seems to denote the third or first person of 
the verb. 

IL 

(Plate I.) 

Me-s-n-a-w-y. The name of Mesnawo occurs in a large number 
of Karian graffitu We find it under the forms Mesnab^, Mesnbo, 
Mesnaby, Mesnawwu, Mesnawy, Mesnawwa(u), and Mesnawyii 
(genitive). Here a line is drawn after mes^ indicating that the 
name is a compound. Cp. the name MessSve. The inscription 
is written to the right of the hieroglyphic text. Since mes9ra-€k€thon 
seems to mean ** they wrote," the word mes would signify " to write." 

HI. 

(Plate I.) 

L-€-sh-w-wii-s(?)-6 d(?)-a-6 . . This inscription, which is also 
to the right of the hieroglyphic text, may have lost some letters 
between and ^(?). Instead of d the letter may be ^; it is too 
much obliterated for certainty. For sh see below, No. VIII 
(PL II). The sixth letter in the name is probably intended for ^; 
it can hardly be m. 

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PLATE I. 



Proc. Soc. Bihl. Arch., June, 1906. 








o 
S5 









< u 



No. IV. 



'■mi^kb 



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June 13] KARIAN AND OTHER INSCRIPTIONS. [1906. 

IV. 

(Plate I.) 

V-l-ss-b(?)-d-(?). A letter may be lost at the beginning of the 
name, and instead of ^.'we may read e. If we could read the third 
letter as gh we might compare the Greek Karian name *A\Kiht<Tai9. 
It is doubtful whether the following word . • 1-z- • . -^ is a continuation 
of the graffito, or an independent inscription. Both words are to the 
right of the hieroglyphic text 

V. 

(Plate II.) 

This reads ^-me-vu-h and is on a rock on the slope of the cliff 
about a quarter of a mile north of £1-Hamm4m, where I found 
a late Roman cemetery. No. VIII (PI. II) is on the same rock, as 
well as a "prehistoric" giraffe, the outlines of which have been 
hammered out by a flint, and are worn the colour of the rock. Over 
the giraffe an Xlth dynasty inscription has been cut, the characters of 
which still look fresh. There is also a Greek graffito . . A • • ANA. 

VI. 
(Plate II.) 

This is a large and deeply-incised inscription facing the river, 
on a boulder a few yards to the north of that on which No. V 
(PI. II) is cut. The letters are not those of the Karian alphabet, the 
m and b being formed differently, and were it not for the form of the 
s we might suppose it to be Lydian, since the m has the same shape 
as in the Lydian inscription found two miles to the south of it 
{F,S.B,A,, May, 1905, Plate I, i). The last letter but one must be 
a vowel, not th as in Karian. The name is enclosed in a sort of 
cartouche, so that the m which introduces it must represent "I (am)." 
The name reads P-n-o-b-l-o (?)-s with which I would compare the 
liavapXrifii^ of the Budrum inscription. 

VIL 

(Plate II.) 

This is on a broken tombstone from Memphis obtained in 1905 
by Mr. Seymour de Ricci, who has kindly allowed me to take a 

173 P 



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June 13] SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

copy of it. The stone has the form of a doorway, the inscription 
running round the three sides of it. It reads : . . . r (?)-a-l-a-dh (?)- 
^-[u] d-€-u-l-[a]-dh (?)-^-u a-o-v . . . The nouns ending in u are 
genitives. Cp. A-a-u-l-a-dh(?)-^, Sayce, IV, 26. 

VIIL 

(Plate II.) 

This is on another stela, doubtless from Memphis, bought at 
Giza in 1905 by M. Capart, who has been so good as to let me copy 
it. It reads : M-S-y-v-o-w-u-o R-a-v-ss-y-sh-a-a-w-wu-s Gh-o-v-^-ii. As 
there is a space between mey and Vowuo, mey must be a separate 
word probably meaning " I (am) " like m in No. VI (PL II). The last 
two words are " Ravssyshaawwus the son of Ghove " (or Ghova, since 
the genitive of Megula is Meguleii).^ Ravssyshaawwus, which is a 
compound of ra " son " (which appears as A/)- in Greek transcriptions 
of Karian names), shows that the two sibilants which I have identified 
in my alphabetic table (No. 24) are really distinct. The name may 
be compared with that of R-a-vu-ii-ss-d-g-a-v-S-ii or R-a-vu-(u)-ss-d-a 
(Sayce, IV, 24, 25) and the Greek 'Apvatrtr-iw, -JVus may be the 
same termination as -woz in Lowoz, Erviioz, Uwoz (Ovuz-he); cp. 
Lavus at Krya. 

IX. 

(Platen.) 

This is on the same rock as No. V. Both the alphabet and 
the language are unknown to me. The inscription may belong to 
the Late Roman period. 

X. 

(Plate II.) 

I have found these two Aramaic characters cut in three places 
on the rocks of a sandstone quarry at Assuan, due east of the 

^ We have U-y-gh-o-v-gh-o-v-6 in the Krya inscription {P.S,B.A., May, 1905) : 
cp. Ughiive, Ughove, Ueghua, Eghua, VSghuU, Uaghav, Vaghav, and the Greek 
* Oy aia. At Krya I think we ought to divide s-l-vu-gh-o (like sl-modo^ " to Apis," 
Sayce, II, 3) O-y-gh-o-v-gh-o-v-i l-a-vu-Sy comparing 'riyvyos, Lycian hghugha^ 
and the Phrygian aicci^ayo-XaFos. Since auvugh signifies **he has consecrated" 
and -ugh in Nepugh {P.S.B,A.y May, 1905, No. II) seems to be the suffix of a 
title, it is possible that the whole inscription should be translated : " Thogovus 
the priest (rei-avitgA), the son of Uroreulva, of (or to) the god Ogygos the 
minister." 5/-wail? may be "buU-god." 

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PLATE II. 



Proc. Soc. Bin. Arch., June, iqo6. 



^Akv\-i- 



No. V. 










> ^ 

t 



r\ 
Ch 



< 

O 

IT 



[^®i4^in 



W| 



No. VI. 



o 

e 






No. VIII. 



fA 






Ej^t<JEIP^ i:KEPi«^PKZT 



No. IX. 



A 



.y 



fell 



&p 



No. X. 



No. XL 



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June 13] . KARIAN AND OTHER INSCRIPTIQNS. [1906. 

famous " obelisk." They were intended to mark the ownership or 
destination of the stones of the quarry, and the Assuan papjn-i which 
I have been editing show that the word represented by them is ri'^n 
" house." One of the persons who figures in the papyri is Phia the 
"architect," and the quarry may have been selected by him. 

XL 

(Plate II.) 

These two inscriptions were on an early seal-cylinder found in 
Cyprus, of which Dr. Pierides took a sealing-wax impression which 
he gave to me, some thirty-five years afterwards, in December, 1880. 
The inscription to the right is Hittite, that to the left is in an 
unknown form of hieroglyphic writing which, however, somewhat 
resembles that of Krete. The "cartouche" with which it begins is 
met with on a seal-cylinder discovered by Dr. Schliemann at Troy. 

Note. 

Several of the vocalic values assigned to the Karian letters in 
the foregoing transcriptions differ from those given to them in my 
Alphabet of 1887. The latter were avowedly makeshifts, and with 
the increase of materials I have been able to approximate more 
closely to the actual values by the help partly of a comparison of 
variant forms of the same name, partly of identifications with Karian 
names in Greek inscriptions. Thus I-ii-1-o-vu-h-ss-o-i (Sayce, VI, i) 
is the genitive of the Budrum 'IXi'fiy^, U-z-6-gh-o-S (VI, 2) is 
'Offoyw{a)j Y-a-ss-a-9-v-^-ii (IV, 26) is 'laaaiov^ R-a-vu(also y)-u-sh- 
(d-S-a-v-ii) is *Apva(rG{i9\ M-a-v-a-o-e-n (II, 3) is Mo^ppov, M-a-g-s-a-ii 
is Mofov, Lycian Makhzza, Mi-z-a-a is McVo?, Lycian Mizu, U-y-gh- 
o-vgh-o-v-€ is *Q7v7os, Lycian Akhukha, L-3-r-(on) is A€p(ioit), 
L-o-l-^-gh-a is the singular of A6\€769. In variant forms of the same 
word a interchanges with a, e, and B (a), d with w,y with «, vu 
and (in suflSxes) p and corresponds with Greek v, i interchanges with 
e, u with Uy o and Greek o, u with ve, e^ ua^ va and vd^ b with eii and 
u corresponding with Greek e and o, p with «, wu^ and y and 
corresponds with Greek c In ra " son " for rav final v is lost. 

The nominative of the noun terminates sometimes in a consonant, 
fly dhy hy Zy Sy morc frequently in a vowel ay d, e, /, Oy d, iiyy. The genitive 
singular ends in «, as in MegulSii from nom. Megula, where a 

17s p 2 



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June 13] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

becomes e before iiy Thuvloii from Thovl, or Miiuii the nominative 
of which is found in the Greek Mvs.* By the side of feghuaii and 
Vaghuii, however, we find the abbreviated feghua, and ra Ss-gh-o, 
" son of Sgho," replaces Ss-gh-o-S-a-ii. In some stems -// follows a 
consonant without the intervening / and a ; thus we have Aovyoshii, 
Madsii, Ra-yg^thu, Uro-reulvii, Uvovu, Migaovu, VShii (cp. V^aii). 
A dative sing, ended in -o and -<>, The adjective followed the 
noun. Besides the suffix -h^ described in my Paper on the Karian 
Language and Inscriptions (1887), we find a suffix -(^*)« as in L9r-on 
"Lerian," and also a suffix -gh. Thus by the side of avnogh-hS 
"the dragoman" (II, 3) stands avanogh {P,S.B,A., May, 1905). 
The proper name AvnosS, Avnos (IV, 16, 17, 18) seems to belong 
to the same root. NSpugh is parallel with Lol^gha in P,S.B,A^ 
May, 1905 (No. II), and perhaps also in Sayce, I, 7 (Nathup-on), 
and Lol^gha, "Lelegian," may itself be an example of the same 
suffix. Another suffix is -t^sosy nsa, in Ss-9-gh-s-n-s-o-s (I, i), LSreiido- 
nsa (IV, 32), and the Budrum ^pa-vao^^ where the name of the 
locality may reappear in the names S-r-a-a-u-h-S (I, 5) and S^reaganS 
{P,S,B.A,y May, 1905). We find the suffix -sn in dhegysn — ^ 
''destroying" — , in an interesting 'bilingual* inscription on a bronze 
rat now in the Cairo Museum. It was first published by M. Daressy, 
in the Recueil de Travaux^ 6^r., XVII, p. 120, where, however, some 
of the Karian letters are incorrectly copied, and later by myself in 
F.S.B.A,, May, 1905, No. III. The hieroglyphic text reads : "(To) 
Atum the great god, giver of life (and) health, Sh-r-k-b-i-m-DEx. (of 
water)," i>., Sa-rikib-y^ma *'the sea-rover." The Karian text is : — 

R-a-v-y-1-S-o-n dh-^-g-y-s-n-re-a-gh-o 9-gh + n-o + re-o-gh^ a-u-vu-gh, 
which must signify "Ravyleon (cp. Pantaleon Hdt., I, 92) to the 
Rat-destroyer this rat has consecrated." Atum is here identified 
with Apollo Smintheus. 

The suffix 'he is attached to the genitive ending in a 'bilingual ' 
found by Daninos Pasha at Abukir and published by him in the 
Recueil de Travaux, XII, p. 214. The name in the hieroglyphics is 
Petenit Si-Karr, i,e.j Petenit, son of a Karian ; the Klarian inscription 
reads : Me-g-gh-a-sh A-th-D-v-S-ii-h-^. ^egghash is the Maghosh and 



" Unless, as seems more probable from the fact that it is preceded by a 
genitive, Ravmaii (IV, 35), muttii is merely a variant spelling of niauu 
** memorial." 

' By + I denote a minor mark of division of words in the originaL 

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June 13] KARIAN AND OTHER INSCRIPTIONS. [1906. 

Maghssh of Sayce, IV, 2, 3. I have given the Karian text in 
P,S,B,A.^ May, 1905, No. IV. Magas may have been an Atyad.* 

Agh and no are demonstratives {P.S.B,A,y Nov., 1894, No. I and 
May, 1905, and Sayce, I, 7), They are combined in 9gA-no above. 
Mey is probably " I " (above No. VIII). 

"I am" is possibly smt {RS.B.A., Nov., 1894, No. I). The 
third (or first ?) pers. S. of the verb seems to have terminated in 
"i^^f e.g., /Ay-gA (above No. I), duvugA, " has consecrated," and 
y-6-sh-v-o-s(^r m)-S th-a-gh y-o-d-a y-o-ss-v-gh {B.S.B.A., May, 1895, 
and May, 1905). But we have another third person in 2Vugozeih 
(Sayce, III) and wugozeth sava (II, 4), which perhaps signifies 
"owns the tomb." In the plural we have mesPra-ekefAon, "they 
have written" (?) (I, 7).. Ybdd may be the same word as vedii in 
II, 4, where the meaning may be : ue gha vedii " whose epitaph (is) 
here." Sava is the trova "tomb" of Stephanus Byz., and the 
compound savn-vozhed (or samm-vozhea) in II, 2, can scarcely signify 
anything else than " family tomb." In this case it is probable that 
ovuzhe in II, i, is merely a different spelling of vozhe and has the 
sense of " family." 

* For a Karian Mcyaf see Ramsay : Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia I, 
pp. 181-2, and q). //., XVI, 695. 



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June 13] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 



THE BURGH PAPYRUS. 

Transcribed, Translated, and Annotated 
By Prop. Dr. E. Revillout. 

This Hieratic Papyrus, already quoted by me, both in my 
Revue igyptologique and in my Prids de droit igyptien^ and the 
copy of which was obtained for me by my regretted friend 
Prof. Aug. Eisenlohr, has never yet been published. The first part 
of it is of special interest as showing us an ^^ Actio sacramenti^^ in 
criminal cases, analogous to that which was in use in Roman Civil 
Law (a solemn oath accompanied by the deposit of a sum of money, 
which was forfeited if the cause was lost). The rdle of the accuser, 
who is hot an accomplice, is shown more clearly than in the other 
analogous law-suits which have come down to us. 

Lastly, there is the question of a word which frequently occurs, 
and which seems to me to be evidently Greek — the word x"^'f«<>''> 
and that in the XXIst dynasty. Does it refer to the money called 
" Caique "1 at a later period? or to certain vases having the same 
name? What is certain is that the robbers took outens of silver, 
and that they deposited with a man, who was not one of the 
accused, outens of silver coins which the treasure also contained. 



cm 



^ The ^th part of the classic *' Drachma." It is true that at Bysance, etc., 
much more important " Caiques " were minted. 

17S 



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Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., fune^ 1906. 





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o 
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June 13] THE BURGH PAPYRUS. [^906. 



C3 



* The signs of the fractions are here similar to those of the demotic. 3 i y i* 
Many of the forms also need a transition of epoch, as in the XXIst dynasty. 

179 



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June 13] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

n^' — i^i' — 'T^^-r.i 



**Year 2, 4th month of Imu, day 23rd. On this day was made the 
examination of the gold and silver stolen from the sanctuary of 
Ra-user-ma-meri-Amen, money concerning which the divine 
Father Amen-mes, of the district of this sanctuary, has made a 
Report to the Pharaoh. The affair was placed in the hands of 
the prefect of the town JDja Ra-neb-nextu, of the steward of the 
treasure of the Pharaoh, steward of the granaries the Royal 
officer Ra-men-ma-nextu, and of the steward of the palace the 
Royal Officer Inua, to make their examination in the Royal 
dwelling of the " millions of years " of this sanctuary. They 
made their Report of 86 silver xa^«^ta being ascertained* to 

< (l ^ « ^.^ , " to draw," " to bring into the light." 



1 8c 



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June 13] THE BURGH PAPYRUS. [1906, 

be missing,^ which have been stolen, and with regard to which 
the divine Father of the Fraternity* of the sanctuary made his 
Report (or his claim) to the Pharaoh, He (the Djd) said : 
' The man who caused them to be stolen has not been seen/ 
He (the divine Father) said : * It is the steward of the Treasury, 
Sutexmes, who had the place of steward of the lands, who has 
taken them. He has stolen 26 x^^'^'^*) ^^ steward of the 
Royal palace of the sanctuary. He cut off (took away) in 
silver i outen \ \, He stole them with the divine Father Ima, 
the priests and chief guardians of the sanctuary, Roanina, 
Emtexuu, Rames. They took (his accomplices) 60 xoKkicl. 
They cut off (took away) 3 outen \ of silver. Total 5 outen. 
There remains in silver 36 outen. They entrusted that to the 
guardian Uraa. They got the x«^«<« as profit. 

"He (the divine Father) was made to entreat (invoke) the 
name of the king. He was made to deposit the tenth part of 
an outen (one kati) in his dwelling. Then the Pharaoh made 
them apprehend the five criminals together, forthwith, in the 
sanctuary. He went to the sanctuary, the divine Father (the 
accuser) with the man (the accused) to say what had been 
stolen." 

The accuser referred to was roused by this first result ; for the 
rest of the papyrus, which I will give soon, relates that later on 
he made other analogous revelations. 



'^^•I^^^- 



• The word ** fraternity" is interesting. We find it again in the treaty between 
Rameses H and the Khetas, concluded with the object of establishing the peace 
{kotep) and brotherhood between the two empires. In the Babylonian contracts 
relating to a commercial society, the word corresponding to akhutu has the same 
meaning. That reminds one of a sort of corporation or syndicate of the servants 
of the sanctuary. But this would perhaps be a very rash conclusion. In the 
Ethiopian epoch the word '*my brother" is addressed by the priest in the 
marriage ceremony. (See my Corpus papyrorum Aigyptu) 



:8i 

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June 13] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. 



[1906. 



A HEBREW AMULET AGAINST DISEASE. 
By W. L. Nash, F.S.A. 

The words of this amulet or charm (see Plate), which 
belongs to Dr. Gaster, are written in the form of two interlaced 
triangles, the ("shield of David,") enclosed within a circle, with 
six other incomplete circles abutting on the sides of the triangles. 
The inscription takes so devious a path as it forms the various parts 
of the figure, that it is difficult to follow ; I have therefore given a 
sort of key-plan to assist the reader. 

The amulet is written on vellum, and intended to be carried on 
the person. Dr. Caster tells me that it is of the end of the i8th 
century, but is clearly a copy of a much older one- It was evidently 
written in the East by a Sephardic Rabbi or Kabbalist. 

In the following translation of the text of the amulet the 
numbers in the margin refer to the corresponding numbers in the 
key-plan. 

-May it please Thee, IHVH, my God and the God of my 
fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the 
God of Jacob, the great God, the mighty and fearful 
one, the God 

(2) Elyon, father of 

(3) mercies, 

(4) dwelling 

(5) between the Cherubim, 

(6) tabernacling 

(7) between the Living Creatures^ 

(8) and the Cherubim, 

(9) ruling over 

(10) those above 

(11) and having power 

(12) over those below, 

(13) that Thou shouldest command 

1 See Eiek. i, 5. 
X82 



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June 13] A HEBREW AMULET AGAINST DISEASE. .[i9o6,- 

(14) Thy angels 

(15) the holy ones, 

(16) and the pure, 

(17) who are set over 

(18) the affairs of 

(19) the sons of men, 

rthat they shall keep and deliver and protect the girl 
1.20; ^ Kresia, who was born of Esther, 

r bearer of this cameo (j^'^Cp) upon her, from every evil 
thing, and from all evil diseases, from pestilence, 

rand from plague, and from sword and hunger, from 
(22) < strange death and from croup, and from epileptic 

L fits — far be it 

{from us — and falling sickness, and from ghosts, and 
male and female destroyers (]'^T'tt^), male and female 
Lilin — far be they 
'from us — and frotn evil. eye; like Joseph the righteous, 

as it is written, ^' Joseph is a fruitful bough, 
reven a fruitful bough by a fountain," Frpm all may 
(25) < deliver her the Lord God of Israel, from now and for 
L ever. Amen. Selah. 



<"){' 



(.4){' 



Outer Square. 

(Commencing at the bottom right hand.) 

Behold, I send the angel SHAMRIEL before thee to keep thee 
in the way and to bring thee to the place which I have prepared 
for thee there. The angel of IHVH encampeth round about those 
that fear him, and delivereth them. Hear, O Israel : The Lord 
our God is one Lord. Blessed be the name of the glory of 
His kingdom for ever and ever. 

Inner Square. 

IHVH, El Shaddai of Hosts, help ; the king shall answer us 
when we call (upon him). 

And all the nations of the earth shall see that the name of the 
Lord is called upon thee ; and they shall be afraid of thee. 

IHVH, El Shaddai of Hosts is with us. The God of Jacob 
is our refuge, Selah. 

.183 



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June 13] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGV. [1906. 

IHVH, £1 Shaddai of Hosts — blessed is the man that trusteth in 
Thee. 

In the centre of the double triangle is the sacred name rTirP ; 
and between the angles is the word ^Tif Shaddai, repeated six 
times with the letters interchanged. Within the circles are words 
containing forty-eight letters, of which forty-two are the letters of 
one of the Names substituted for the " Ineffable Name " which 
might never be uttered.* They are the acrostics of a number of 
verses,* and the last six are the acrostic of a doxology already 
once fully written out in this charm. — See the last sentence of 
the translation of the Outer Square, above. — The figure containing 
the charm is surrounded by a double square of inscription, and 
across the corners of the inner square are written the names of 
the archangels Michael, Gabriel, Raphael and Uriel. Below these 
four names are the letters Aleph, Gimel, Lamed, and Aleph, which 
form the tetragrammaton AGLA.* 

I am indebted to the Rev. A. E. Suffrin, Dr. Caster, and 
Mr. E. J. Pilcher, for much assistance in preparing this account of 
the Amulet. 

' See Caster, " The Sword 0/ Moses,^^ London, 1896, page 10. 
' See Caster, The Book of Prayer according to the Custotn of the Spanish 
and Portuguese Jews, London, 1901. Vol. I, p. 11. 
* This word is really an acrpstic, as follows : — 



nn« 


Thou art 




Mighty 
for ever 


^3n« 


OLord. 



184 

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June 13] POSITION OF TAUSERT IN XIXth DYNASTY. [1906. 



THE POSITION OF TAUSERT IN THE XIXth DYNASTY. 
By E. R. Ayrton. 

Hitherto the supposition that Tausert was a daughter of Sety II 
and wife of Si-ptah has been generally accepted, a supposition which 
principally rests on the fact that in the tomb of Tausert the 
cartouches of Si-ptah have been cut over those of Sety II. 

It has therefore been thought that the tomb was commenced 
during the reign of Sety II and that Si-ptah, on his marriage with 
Tausert, placed his own cartouches there, and was buried in the same 
tomb as his wife. 

The tomb of Si-ptah has however been discovered in the valley 
of the Tombs of the Kings at Thebes. 

It is obvious that the tomb of Tausert was begun during the 
reign of Sety II, since on both walls of the first corridor we see this 
king making offerings to a deity, the queen standing behind him. 
These scenes belong to the first work of the tomb. Tausert is in all 
parts of the tomb given the titles of " Heiress, great royal wife, lady 
of the two lands, princess of the North and South." These titles 
show no signs of having been reworked, and as they occur on the 
entrance and in the very first scenes, they must belong to the first 
executed sculptures in the tomb ; that is to say, they were cut during 
the reign of Sety II. 

Tausert must therefore be the wife of Sety II ; had she been his 
daughter, the title of " great royal wife " would have been inserted 
later over the title of " royal daughter," &c., and this could not have 
been done in every case without some traces of the original work 
showing beneath. 

The names of Tausert and Si-ptah appear together on a scarab.^ 
This does not necessarily mean that she was his wife. As queen- 
mother she would probably have considerable influence at court. She 
may even have reigned alone for a short time before Si-ptah came 

* Fraser, Scarabs, 315. 

18s 



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June 13] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1905, 

to the throne, since on an ostrakon found in her temple at Thebes 
she is called " monarch of Upper and Lower Egypt.* 

In the (funerary) temple of Tausert there is no evidence of 
Si-ptah, and the objects found cannot have been contemporaneous 
since they are dissimilar. Prof. Petrie remarks (loc. cit^ p. 16), 
"the glazing of Si-ptah is poorer than that of Tausert, being dull 
pea-green instead of indigo-blue, . . the workmanship is rougher 
and more careless." A, scarab of Tausert was found in one of the 
foundation deposits of Si-ptah. 

The mother of Amenmeses was Takhat* On a statue of Sety II 
a queen Takhat is mentioned, and since there is no reason to the 
contrary., we may consider her to be the same person. 

This Takhat has no titles except those of " royal daughter, great 
royal wife," whereas Tausert has the full titles of the heiress of the 
kingdom ; and therefore Si-ptah would naturally have a prior right 
to the throne before Amenmeses. 

The illustration here given is from a photograph taken in the 
tomb of Tausert, and shows the substitution of cartouches very 
clearly.* 

All of this agrees very well with my view of the relationship 
between Tausert and Sety II. 

The history now seems to read as follows : — 

Sety II marries Tausert, who begins her tomb and temple at 
Thebes. On the death of Sety II Tausert reigns independently for 
•a short time. The throne is then usurped by Amenmeses. Later 
Bai heads an insurrection, and dethroning Amenmeses, puts Si-ptah, 
whom we must suppose to be the son of Tausert, on the throne. 

' Petrie, Six Temples^ xix, 2. 
• ^ Lepsius, Denk,^ iii, 202 f. 
* Lepsius {Dcnk,, iii, 201 B) published a copy of this scene. 



186 



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Proc, Soc, BibL Arch,y June^ 1906. 




Wall-carving in the tomb of Tausert, at Thebes. 



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June 13] 



NOTE ON THE BOSS OF TARKUTIMME. 



[1906. 



NOTE ON THE BOSS OF TARKUTIMME. 

By E. SiBREE, M.A. 

The apparent order of the symbols in this inscription is as 
follows : — 




1 


1 




2 


2 




3 




3 








4 


4 




5 


5 






6 


6 





Nos. I, 2 on the right are to be read first, as indicated by the 
direction of the animal's head ; Nos. 3, 4, on the other hand, are 
to be taken next, as shown by the oblique stroke in 3, which 
in other inscriptions stands behind the symbol to which it is 
attached. The fact that Nos. 3, 4 face the opposite way to 
Nos. I, 2, shows us that 3, 4 is a word distinct from i, 2, the 
latter being held to represent the name " Tarkutimme." No. 5 
is the symbol for "country." All the symbols behind the king 
face the same way. No. 3 is identical with the same symbol in 
J. ii, where it occurs in the name " Carchemish," and is thought 
to represent a sound containing the consonant " m." Now 3, 4 
occupy the position held by the sheep or lamb's head in J. ii, and 
the latter symbol we have assumed to have the value of mun or u-mun 
(Proceedings, XXVIII, 27, 1906). No. 3 therefore may represent the 
initial sound of mun, 4 representing a sound containing an **n." We 
might then read 3, 4 provisionally as mu-un = mun " king." The 

187 



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June 13] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

oblique stroke in 3 may perhaps be identical with the short perpendicu- 
lar stroke in Egyptian, cf, J 1 (pw) by the side of J {b\ hence 3 may 
be read mu by the side of || || which may perhaps be read m or me. 
No. 6 would represent the sound er or eri^ for the following reasons. 
Taking the cuneiform symbols from break to break, we may read 
them : — 

Me-e Tar-ku-u-tim-me SAR MAT Er or Eri 
/ {ani) Tar^utimme^ king of the land of Er 

if, as is probable, the cuneiform inscription and the hieroglyphic 
symbols are both in the Hittite language. Again, the cuneiform 
symbol ^^ff compared with J^fJ (^w), linear ^k would seem to 

imply a linear form ^ "tiara" by the side of |^ "city," both 
having a common phonetic value er^ cf. ^IJTEy tnir " tiara." 



x88 



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JuNB 13] LE NOM DU PSCHENT. [1906. 



LE NOM DU PSCHENT. 
Par Prof. Paul Pierret. 

L'orthographe normale du nom du Pschent est )u que 

rinscription de Rosette interprbte yjrx^vr en restituant Tarticle 
(J>, skhent), Dans la stfele de Tombos nous le voyons ^rit 

i ® ^S/ au lieu de ^ ® ^ (cf. Zeitschr, fur dgypt Sprache, 

1868, p. 103). Remarquons que le signe initial est le sistre, ce qui 
nous sollicite k examiner de pr^s la formation du nom du sistre en 
m^me temps que celle du nom du pschent.^ J'avais pens^ (ainsi 
que M. J. Baillet, dans son int^ressant m^moire public dans le 
Journal Asiatique de Septembre-Octobre, 1904, p. 316), que Ton 

devait rapprocher le mot skkent du thfeme verbal 1 O " embrasser, 

r^unir," puisque le pschent est la rSunion de la couronne blanche et 
de la couronne rouge, mais Torthographe sekhH ci-dessus repousse 
cette hypoth^se. Sekhti qui sert ici k dcrire le nom du pschent sert 

quelquefois aussi k ^crire le nom du sistre y % (Q^'il faut 

peut-^tre lire sekh-sekh en admettant que soit une notation de 
reduplication) ; sekhti^ dis-je, suppose un thfeme simple sek?i^ durcisse- 

^ Constatons en passant que y == o ^ ^^ avoir la valeur bilit^re lo en 
m^me temps que la valeur trilit^re I ® ^\ sans quoi 11 faudrait (ce que font 

certains savants) lire Sekhemit le nom y ^ de la d^esse l^ontoc^phale SekheU 

Or ^ la page 1 107 du Supplement de son Dictionnaire Brugsch enseigne qu'il faut 

JL ® 
lire sekh et non sekkemekk le groupe y «. . . 

189 Q 

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Junk 13] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1906. 

ment du th^me s que pr^sente la Stfele du Songe. De meme 

sekhti pschent serait un redoublement d'un thbme sekh durcissement 
de ^ , ic3E=iJ5> "chevelure, coiffure," le pschent ^tant la 
coiffure par excel lence.^ 



^ Le nom du Pschent sekhen k Denderah et dans Rosette ne serait qu'un 
d^veloppement par n du th^me sekh^ de meme que /^ est devenu 

7^ 






etc. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held on 
Wednesday, November 14th, 1906, at 4.30 p.m., when the 
following Paper will be read : — 

F. Legge, Esq.: "The Tablets of the First Egyptian 
Dynasty " 

190 



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SOGIETT OF BIBUGAL ARGHiSOLOGT PUBLICATIONS. 



A 

GENERAL INDEX 

/ 

TO THfE 

"PROCEEDINGS." 



VOLS. XI— XX. 



fMEMBBRB, 6s. 
INON-MBMBBRB, 6ik 



NOW READY-PRICE 30s. 

(Postage, 4<i) 
A 

GENERAL INDEX 

TO THE NINE VOLUMES 

OF 

"TRANSACTIONS." 

The Bronze Ornaments of the Palace Gates from 

Balawat. 

[Shalmaneser II, B.C 859-825.] 

Part V (the final part), with Introduction and descriptive letter-press, 
has now been issued to the Subscribers. 

A few complete copies of the book remain unsold and can be 
obtained on application to the Secretary. 



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Society of Biblical Archaeology. 

37, Great Russell Street, London, W.C 



council, i906. 



Frmdent, 
Prop. A. H. Saycb, D.D., &c., &c. 

The Most Rsv. His GftACS The Lord Archbishop op York. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop op Salisbury. 

The Most Hon. the Marquess of Northampton. 

The Right Hon. the Earl op Halsbury. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst op Hackney. 

Walter Morrison. 

Alexander Pbgkover, LL.D., F.S.A. 

F. G. Hilton Price, Dir. S.A. 

W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

The Right Hon, General Lord Grenfell, K.C.B., &c., &c. 

The Right Rev. S. W. Allen, D.D. (R.C. Bishop of Shrewsbury). 

Rev. J. Marshall, M.A. 

Joseph Pollard. 



Council* 
Rev. Charles James Ball, M.A. 
Dr. M. Gaster. 
F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. 
H. R. Hall, M.A. 
Sir H. H. Howorth, K.CLE., 

r.R.S., &c. 
L. W. King, M.A. 
Rev. Albert Lowy, LL.D., Jfcc, 
Prof. G. Maspero. 



Claude G. Montefiore. 
Prof. E. Naville. 
Edward S. M. Perownb, F.S.A. 
Rev, W. T. Piltbr. 
p. scott-moncribpf, b.a. 
R. Campbell Thompson, B.A. 
Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., 
F.R.S., &c. 



Hpnorary 7VvArMr/r— Bernard T. BosanOOBT. 

ikfr#to^7— Walter L. Nash, M.R.C.S. T.£»^.)> F.S.A. 

Honorary Secretary for Foreign Correspondenu^^. Lbggb. 

Honorary Librarian^"^ kltksl L. Nash, M.R.CS. {Et^,)^ F.S.A. 

HARRISON AND SONS, PRINTBRS IN ORDINARY TO HIS MAJESTY, ST. MARTIN'S LAKB. 



V 



VOL. XXVIII. ; . 

1,1 



•.• ■ r- * (■■<• 



Part 6, 



=xr=T 



.-'?..«> ^c ", 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OP 

BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 

VOL. XXVIII. THIRTY-SIXTH SESSION. 
Sixth Meetings November yth, 1906. 



-<o*- 



CONTENTS. 

FAOB 

Prof. A. H. Saycb, Z>.Z>.— The Chedor-laomer Tablets 193-200 

Dr. Valdbmar Schmidt. — ^Two Statuettes of the Goddess Buto. 

(Plate) ^ 201, 202 

Thbophilus G. Pinchbs, LL.D, — The Babylonian Gods of War 

and their Legends 203-218 

R. Campbell Thompson, M,A. — ^An Assyrian Incantation 

against Ghosts..., 219-227 

H. S. COWPBR, F.S.A.^A Bronze Figure from Rakka {Plate) 228 

E. O. WiNSTsm*.— Some Munich Coptic Fragments. II 229-237 



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19 06. 



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A few complete sets of the Transactions and Proceedings still remain on 
sale, which may be obtained on application to the Secretary, W. L. Nash, 
F.S.A.. 37, Great Russell Street. London, W.C. 



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PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



THIRTY-SIXTH SESSION, 1906. 



Sixth Meetings November Jth, 1906. 
Prof. A. H. SAYCE, D.D. {President), 



IN THE CHAIR. 



[No. ccxiii.] 191 R 

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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

The following gifts to the Library were announced, and 
thanks ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author, TAbb^ Leroy. — "Les Israelites en 6gypte — 
TExode." 

From the Author, J. J. Grinyer. — "Bible Chronology" and 
'* A Chronological Introduction to the New Testament." 

From the Author, Dr. M. Caster. — " Massoretisches im 
Samaritanischen." 

From W. L. Nash. — "Operations and Travels in Egypt and 
Nubia." By G. Belzoni. 

From Mrs. Honyman Gillespie's Trustees. — "The Arguments a 
priori for the Being and the Attributes of the Lord God." By 
the Late W. H. Gillespie. 

From the Author, the Rev. John Wright, Z>.Z>.— " Historic Bibles 
in America." 

From the Author, Prof. A. Wiedemann. — " Altagyptische Sagen 

und Marchen." 
„ „ „ „ „ " Die Zeichenkunst im 

alten Agypten." 

From the Publishers. — "Lectures on Babylonia and Palestine." 
By Dr. Stephen Langdon. 



Mr. E. R. Ayrton was elected a Member of the Society. 



The following Paper was read : — 

F. Legge, Esq. : "The Tablets of the First Egyptian Dynasty." 
Thanks were returned for this communication. 

192 

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Nov. 7] THE CHEDOR-LAOMER TABLETS. [1906. 



^^0 COLLEGf 

(^' NOV £4 1906 ':. 






THE CHEDOR-LAOMER TABLETS. 
By Prof. A. H. Sayce, D.D. 



Eleven years ago Dr. Pinches made an important discovery. 
He copied and deciphered certain tablets in the British Museum 
which referred to a destruction of Babylon and its temple in the 
early days of Babylonian history. He further pointed out that the 
destruction was said to have been brought about by an Elamite 
king, whose name could be read Kudur-laghgumar, and since two 
other princes, Tudghula and Eri-Aku, are associated with him in 
the story, we must see in the three princes, the Chedor-laomer, 
Tid*al and Arioch of the 14th chapter of Genesis. Unfortunately 
the reading of the name of the Elamite king proposed by Dr. Pinches 
could not be demonstrated, and still more unfortunately Dr. Scheil, 
about the same time, misread some letters of Khammurabi, in which 
he fancied he had found the name of Chedor-laomer. The result 
was that the non-Assyriological public confounded the discovery of 
Dr. Pinches with the error of Dr. Scheil, and was led to suppose 
that both stood on the same precarious footing. It is time that this 
mistake should be rectified, and since I can now show that the 
reading of the name of the Elamite king proposed by Dr. Pinches 
is really correct, while the progress of Assyriology has made it 
possible to give a better and more complete translation of the texts 
than was in his power in 1894, I purpose to lay before you a revised 
rendering of the latter, adding to it the necessary notes and historical 
inferences. The cuneiform texts will be found attached to 
Dr. Pinches' Paper: "Certain Inscriptions and Records referring 
to Babylonia and Elam" in the Transactions of the Victoria 
Institute, 1895-6, pp. 43-90. 

193 R 2 



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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

The texts, which come from the Spartali collection, are all of late 
date. This is clear from their language and style,^ and more 
especially from the rebus-like fashion in which the proper names 
are written. But at the back of them lies the old history of 
Babylonia. The Babylonians seem never to have adopted the 
historical novel which was such a favourite among the Egyptians ; 
in the place of it we find poems of a semi-religious character. It is 
some of these poems which are presented to us by the texts. 

Before translating the texts, however, it is necessary to deal with 
the royal names. These are three in number, to which perhaps a 
fourth, that of Khammu-rabi, should be added. Chief among 
them is the name of the king of Elam, "the wicked enemy," 
who wrought such havoc in Babylon. The name is written 

T J& © © ^T and T jgy jfey jfey jfey 5ifT, ku-ku-ku-mar 

and KU-KU-KU-KU-MAR. About the reading of the first two 
characters there is little question ; we find them used in proper 
names to express the Elamite word Ku-dur. What, however, is the 
value of the third ku, which is found also in a reduplicated form? 
Of one thing we may be sure; in a late neo-Babylonian text the 
thrice-repeated sign will be employed with three different values, 
and as the first is the most common one, ku^ while the second is 
the less common dur^ the value of the third will be one which is 
comparatively rare. It will be a value, moreover, which belongs to 
the character in both its single and its double form. 

Now Dr. Pinches has already pointed out a passage in which 
JEJ is stated to have had the value of lakh-kha. This is in a gloss 
attached by the Assyrian scribe to an official memorandum of 
Sennacherib's defeat of Merodach-baladan, where "the country of 
EME-Ku" or Sumer is said to have had the pronunciation of 
Eme-lakh-kha. That is to say, ku had among its other values that 
of lakh-kha. The memorandum is published in IF. A,/,, III, 4, 4, 
but ^yyy< lakh has been misprinted ^ffy^ ga, which has naturally 
prevented scholars who had not seen the original from understanding 
the gloss. 

The gloss is an important one, since eme-lakhkha was the name 
given by the native grammarians to the standard dialect of Sumer, 
in contradistinction to erne-sal^ the name of another dialect which 

^ Thus, Northern Babylonia is called Kar-Duniyas, a name which did not 
come into existence until after the rise of the Kassite dynasty. 

194 



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Nov. 7] THE CHEDOR-LAOMER TABLETS. [1906. 

was in a much more advanced stage of phonetic decay.^ As has 
long been recognised, erne-sal means "the woman's language," a 
name best explained by "the woman's dialects" which are met 
with in several parts of the linguistic world, as, for example, among 
the Eskimaux. But the meaning of eme-lakhkha has hitherto 
remained obscure. 

I can now, however, ^give an explanation of it. In 80, 7-19, 129 
we have E3» '^'W (^ET -^--TTT) Wf I ^ >■% D.P. zir- (or 
mus^ lakh = ziriakhkhu^ or muslakhkhu, "a snake-charmer," as 
was first observed by Dr. Bezold in 1889. Zir{u) was "snake" in 
Assyrian, but it may have been mus in Sumerian, since Dr. Pinches 
tells me that in W.A.I. II, 32, 1 3, where the Assyrian word for " snake- 
charmer" is again given under the form of ^Hfflf< Ef *"ET -^""""TTT *"TI» 
the second character is probably su.^ In this case we should have 
to read mus-su-la-akh-khu. If the printed text is right ]^ will be 
lakh^ with the reading zir-lakhlakkkhu (unless la-akh is to be 
regarded as merely indicating the pronunciation of Jg[). 

It follows that JEJ with the pronunciation of lakhkha had the 
signification of "enchanter" or "charmer." It was thus an ap- 
propriate title for a language which was mainly employed in the 
literary days of Babylonia for charms and incantations, and which 
was, in fact, quite specially the language of the magician. Parallel 
dialects, according to 81, 7-27, 130, were eme-sib eme-ses (?) | //- 
sa-an ni-iak-ki li'Sa-an \pa-si-si\^ "the language of the sacrificer 
(and) the language of the anointer.*' These would have been forms 
of Sumerian monotoned in particular keys, perhaps with a peculiar 
pronunciation of certain sounds and words. 

If the third ku in the name of Kudur-lakhkhamar had the value 
of lakh or lakhkha^ an explanation is afforded of the fact that in two 
instances it is duplicated in our texts. The ordinary representative 
of the syllable lakh was a duplicated du ; ku with the \'alue lakh 
was accordingly assimilated to du when the latter had the same 
value. That ku could be used with the value of du (from d7/r) 
may have assisted the process of assimilation. It should be added 

• That erne-sal was the dialect of Akkad, or northern Babylonia, where the 
Semites gained a footing at a much earlier date than in Sumer, follows from 
81. 7-27, 130. 6, 7: EME-KU NIN SUG-GA eme-[sal] : U-sa-an Su-me-ri 
iain-sil Ak-ka-[dt\ ** the language of Sumer is like that of Akkad." 

* Cf. Meissner, Assyriologhche Studien III, p. 2. 

^95 



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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

that KU-GiG is rendered "a maleficent charm" (fnuiarH maruts) 
in W.A.I. II, 27, 53, and that ku with the pronunciation us is 
given as the Sumerian equivalent oi dhtmu "decision" (Briinnow, 

10557)-^ 

The gradation in the rarity of use of the values ku^ dur and 
iakhkka, and the interchange of the duplicated with the single form 
of the character ku, make it clear that the name of the Elamite 
king is intended to be read Ku-dur-lakhkha-mar. This is an exact 
equivalent of the Hebrew Chedor-la*omer, the Elamite Kudur- 
Lagamer. What makes the equivalence the more striking is that 
the spelling of the name of the goddess Lagamar is incorrect, and 
represents a pronunciation which is neither Elamite nor Babylonian. 
Initial ga could become kha (i.e. gha) in Sumerian, but I do not 
remember any example in the older Babylonian inscriptions in 
which the guttural of Lagamar has undergone this change. The 
fact suggests a close connection between the Biblical texts and the 
Spartali tablets. It is significant that in A, Obv. 9, where Kudur- 
lakhkhamar is compared with Gurra la-gamil " the Plague-god, the 
pitiless," with a play on the similarity in sound between the two, 
the Assyrian correspondent of lakhkhamar is given as la-gamiL As 
is well known, the name of the Elamite deity Lagamar is derived 
from the Assyrian La-gamal. 

By the side of Kudur-lakhkhamar we have Eri-Aku and Tudkhula. 
Tudkhula (i.e. Tudghula, the exact equivalent of Tid*al) is written 
with the character khul{-a) which means "wicked": a similar 
graphic play is attempted in the name of Eri-Aku, which in one 
instance is written Eri-e-ku-a "the servant of fe-kua," the sanctuary 
of Bel-Merodach, and in another instance Eri-Ea-ku " the servant of 
Ea-ku." •' The identification of Eri-Aku with the Arioch of Genesis 
goes back to Rawlinson, George Smith, and Lenormant ; the name 
is of Elamite origin, like other Sumerian names found on the 
monuments of Susa, and the king was known to his Semitic 
subjects as Rim-Sin *'the wild-bull of Sin," in which the Sumerian 
eriy contracted into ri, has been assimilated to the first element 

•* Us seems to be a dialectal form of nwus which is stated to be the Sumerian 
pronunciation of ku when signifying "a (magical?) writing" (W.A.I. II, 48, 17). 

* E-kua also forms part of the name of the first postdiluvian king of Babylonia, 
according to Berossus. The name is Euekhoos, which must be Ewe(EN-ME)- 
E-kua **the priest of E-kua." Babylonian patriotism thus made the first 
postdiluvian king as well as the first antediluvian king a king of Babylon. 

196 



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Nov. 7] THE CHEDOR-LAOMER TABLETS. [1906. 

in the name of Rim-Anum, an earlier ruler of the principality of 
Emutbal.« 

Eri-Aku was king of Larsa, as the Biblical Arioch was of Ellasar^ 
and as he was the son of Kudur-Mabug the Elamite prince of 
Emutbal, and his overthrow at the hands of Khammu-rabi meant 
the overthrow of Elamite supremacy in Babylonia, he was probably 
closely related to the royal house of Elam. Tid*al is called " king 
of Goyyim" or "Nations" in Genesis, and since Kudur-lakhkhamar 
is stated to have " mustered the Umman-Manda " or " Nations " — 
of which the Hebrew Goyyim would be a natural rendering — we 
may infer that Tudkhula, the second vassal-ally of the Elamite 
monarch, was their king. In the cylinder inscription of Cyrus (1. 13) 
Quti or Kurdistan, the Gutium of the early Babylonian texts, is 
made equivalent to "the Manda hordes" who constituted the 
kingdom of Astyages. In the geography of the Babylonians they 
were the mountaineers immediately to the north of Elam. 

It is possible that the name of Khammu-[rabi] occurs in the 
mutihted commencement of Sp. III. 2. The passage is concerned 
with Babylon and its god Merodach, and Khammu . . . might 
naturally be completed as Khammu-rabi. Against this is the fact 
that the word is not preceded by the determinative of an individuaL 

I now proceed to a translation of the texts. 



A. Sp. 158 + Sp. II. 962. 
Obverse. 



I. [D.P. Elamu D.P. tsi-e-nu yu-nab-bil e-]gal-[l]a-su 

[The Elamite^ the wicked one^ destroyed] its [pa/]aee ; 

^ Unless Rim-Anum is another attempt of his Semitic subjects and scribes to 
naturalise the foreign name of the king. In W.A.I., v, 19, 43, sag-sal "slave" 
with the pronunciation of e-ru attached to it is given as the equivalent of the 
West-Semitic addu "slave." This is followed by the Akkadian la-dar (Sumcrian 
ia^ar) with its Semitic Babylonian equivalent ardu. Eri is the Akkadian repre- 
sentative oiardu in W.A.I., iv, 10, 356 and other passages; see Briinnow, 5858. 
The Hebrew spelling "|inK implies a form Erim-Aku, — m being pronounced w as 
in Evil-Merodach, Sivan, Kisleu, Marchesvan, etc., — and Erim would naturally 
become Rim. In t^^T 1^^ erim^ £^ ru had the value of rim, Aku or 
Agu seems to have been an Elamite deity. 

197 

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Tfov. 7] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/fiOLOGY. 



[1906. 



2. [ina Babili 
[in Babylon 

.3- [il-qi 
\he took 



3. 



10. 



is-lul sal-lat 

he carried away the spoil'\ 

bu-su-su 



6-]kur-ra 
of the temple; 



its goodSy 

4. [I-nu-um D.P. nakru 
[ When the enemy ^ 



yu-tab-ba-la-ma] 
and conveyed them] 

D.P. Elamu 
ei'en the Elamite^ 



£-lam-mat 
to Elam, 



is-lu-ul] 
spoiled] 



[Bel a-sib 
\Bel who sat 

[ki-makh-khi 
the tombs 

yu-kal-lam 
exposes 

[kal (?) yu-]me 
{Ain^day 



eli-su 
enthroned there 

sarrani (?) 
of the kings (?) 

D.P. Sam-si 
to the Sim, 

i^-ni-qa 
he pressed on 



yun-ni-is (?)] 
made pale] 



bu-su-su 
its goods J 

zi-mi-su-nu 
their faces ; 



D.P. nakru 
the enemy] 



a-na 
towards 



yu-na (?)]-ain-ma 
ruins and 



babi tsiri 
the Grand Gate ; 



dalat Istari i^-^ik 

the door of Is tar he tore down^ 

A-li-es 
like a storm demon^ 

kima D.P. Gur-ra la-ga-mil 
like Gurra the pitiless 



is-^ukh-ma it-ta-di 

he carried away and laid low 



i-ru-um-ma DCi-makh-is 

he entered also the Du-makh ; 



iz-ziz-ma ina Dd-makh i-na-adh- dhal 

he halted also in the Du-makh^ he beheld 



pi-su ipus-am-ma itti 

his mouth he opened and with 



ana 
to 



kal-la 
all 



qu-ra-di-e-su 
his warriors 



AMIL-TUR-MES 

the young men 

yu-sakh-midh 
he sent in haste 



13- 



14. 



su-ul-la-ah 
* Carry off 

sukh-kha-ah 
destroy 



sal-lat 
the spoil 



e-kur 
of the temple^ 



li-qa-a-ma 
lake 



u-tsur-ta-su 
its walls^ 



15. a-na iki su-[pa-lij is-ni-qa 
To the lo7v\er] canal pressed on 

198 



sup-ri-^a-a 
break thro^ 

D.P. [nakru 
the [enemy. 



e-kur 
the temple ; 

i-dib-bu-ub 
he spake ; 

ma-ag-ri-tum 
the message : 

bu-su-su 
its goods y 

sak-ki-e-su 
its shrine I ' 



D.P. Elamu] 
the Elamite\ 



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Nov. 7] 



THE CHEDOR-LAOMER TABLETS. 



[1906. 



16. i-bu-ut mal-ki [sa Babili] ma-khar-su 
he destroyed . the princes \of Babylon\ before him, 

17. [I-nu-um D.P.Bel izkur sakh-lu-uq-tu sa?] E-sar-ra 
[ When Bel decreed the destruction of\ E-sarra 

18. [u istu €-kur?] yur-rid se-du-us-su 
[and from the temple f] departed its guardian bull^ 

19. yu-^akh-khi [D.P. nakru u-tsur-ta-su] it-bal par-tsi-su 
destroyed [the enemy its wa//s], he abolished its laws^ 



20. i-ru-um-ma ana bit ad-gi-gi 

he entered into the house of the (divine) judge, 



ka-tim-tum 
the veil, 

21. a-na D.P. En-nun-dagal-la 
towards Merodach 

lim-ni-is 
wickedly ; 

22. ina pani-su 
before him 



ilani 
the god {Elohim) 



D.P. nakru 
the enemy 



il-la-bis 
was clothed 



is-sukh 
he removed 



is-ni-qa 
pressed on 



nu-u-ri 
with light, 



2^, kima bir-qa ib-riq-ma i-nu-us as-ru-ti 

like lightning he (the god) lightened and shook the shrine, 

24. Ip-lukh-ma D.P. nakru 
The enemy trembled 



25. yur-rid-ma 
while there enters 

i-qab-bi-su 
speaks unto him : 

26. [e-li?] man-di-[ma ki-]i 
[^ Go forward f\ at once since 

nOri 
with light, 

21, [kima bir-qa ib-riq-]ma 

[like lightning he has lightened^ and 

199 



uk-kis ra-man-su 




and halted. 




D.P. ni-sak-ka-su 


a-mat 


the priest of the god (and) 


the word 



ilani 
the god 



il-la-bis 
is clothed 



i-nu-us as-ru-ti 
shaken the shrines. 



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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906, 

28. [la tip-lukh sa] D.P. En-nun-dagal-la ^ukh-khi age-su 
[J^ear noH of] Merodach^ to remove the crown; 

29. [te-ru-um-ma ana] biti-su ti-iz-bat qat-^u 

\thou shalt enter] his temple thou shalt take his hand.^ 

30. [D.P. nakru D.P. Elamu] ul i-du-ur-ma ul ikh-^u-^u 
\The enemy ^ the Elamite^ feared not and cared not for 

na-pis-tum 
life; 

31. [ul iz-bat qata ? sa] D.P. En-nun-dagal-la ul yu-^akh-khi 
\he took not the hand? of] Merodach^ he rem&i^cd not 

age-su 
his crowfi. 

32. [su-u] D.P. Elamu D.P. tsi-e-nu iz-kur nis 

\_He,] the Elamite^ the wicked one^ proclaimed {it) .... 

33. [a-na] sa-na kat-te-e yu-sa-an-na-a na-pa-al-tum 

[to] other(s) the crier repeated {it) far and wide r 

34 ina DQ-makh lu a-sib a-h-il 

[since the god {?)] in the Du-makh still dwells y {still) abides 

ni-sak-ku 
the priest. 

{To be continued,) 



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Nov. 7] TWO STATUETTES OF THE GODDESS BUTO. 



[1906. 



TWO STATUETTES OF THE GODDESS BUTO. 
By Dr. Valdemar Schmidt. 

In the Museo Civico at Mantua, which is very rich in interesting 
statues of Roman times, there is a fragment of an Egyptian statue in 
black stone. Only the two feet and the lower part of a long dress 
remain with the plinth on which the figure stood. It must have 
been more than life size. One foot is placed very much in front of 
the other, as if moving forward quickly. 

This might indicate that the statue represented some warrior god, 
as Onuris (Anhur) who always wears the same long garment as the 
Egyptian goddesses and ladies, whereas in the case of female figures 
the feet are generally much nearer each other. 

However, it seems that the Mantua statue is not Anhur (Onuris), 
but most likely the goddess Buto, for on the plinth, near the feet, 
is the following hieroglyphic inscription : — 



, ^111 

/WN/V>A 



A 



Ml 



the well-known names of Rameses II "The Lord of the two 
Lands, Usr-ma-ra setp-n-ra^ the Lord of the Crowns, Ra-messu Mer- 
Amon^ (he), who gives Life " j and on the other side of the figure we 
read: "Buto, the Lady of the two Lands, loves (him, the king 
Rameses)." The statue therefore represented Buto. 

The exact pronunciation of the Egyptian name of the goddess 
called Buto by the Greeks is not known ; most likely it was something 
like Utit, Vutity Vuto^ etc. Some Egyptologists have proposed to 
read Vadjit^ but that is not a probable reading. 



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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

On Egyptian monuments this goddess is frequently mentioned as 
**the Lady of the North" or "the Goddess of the Northern part of 
the world," that is of Lower Egypt, another goddess, called Eileithyia 
by the Greeks and Lucina by the Romans, being " the Goddess of 
the South." 

Both goddesses are called "the two serpents," being indeed often 
represented as serpents, sometimes with wings. They often wear 
crowns, Buto the red crown of the North and Nekheb or Nekhabit^ as 
the Egyptian name of this other goddess is generally read (formerly 
called Suban^ Neben^ etc.), the white crown of the South. 

Buto was also figured as an Egyptian Lady in the usual long dress 
and with the red crown of the North on her head. She then 
resembles the goddess Neith at Sais, and indeed both are local, but 
very ancient, forms or varieties of the goddess Isis. Buto, like Isis, 
has a son Horus. Lanzone, in his Dhionario di Mitologia Egizia^ 
gives figures of Buto, but he gives no references to the monuments 
from which he copied them. Buto, like several other Egyptian 
goddesses, such as Sekhet (Sekhemt), Pasht, Tefnut, etc., is figured 
with the head of a Lioness. Lanzone gives no instance of Buto in 
this form, but in the recently opened Egyptian section of the 
Glyptothek at Copenhagen (formerly the private collection of 
Dr. Carl Jacobsen, of Valby, near Copenhagen), is an excellent 
bronze statuette of Buto. This statuette (A 281 and pp. 306-7 of 
the Danish Catalogue of 1899) is a splendid specimen of Saitic Art. 
It is 245 millimetres (9^ inches) high, and has never been published 
(see Plate). The right arm hangs straight down by the side ; 
the left arm is slightly curved and the hand holds an object, the 
nature of which it is not easy to determine. The Lioness'-head is 
ornamented with the round sun-disk and the uraeus, like the head of 
the goddess Sekhet (Sekhemt). 

A hieroglyphic inscription on the front of the plinth proves that 
the statuette represents Buto and not another goddess. We read on 
the base of the statuette : " So says Buto : give life and health to 
Hata^ who is in alliance with the goddess Buto, and who is son of 
Ooh and of the lady of the house Te-iikk-a-ma?, and also to 
Pen-ta-nekht}'" The last part of the inscription is very indistinct 
and difficult to read. The statuette was acquired in Cairo in 1892. 
It is probable that it was found in the ruins of Sais, where several 
thousand statuettes were discovered by the natives about twenty years 
ago. 

202 



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Proi'. Soc, BtbL Arch,^ Nov,^ i9o6. 




BRONZE FIGURE OF BUTO 
In the Copenhagen Glyptothek. 



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Nov. 7] THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR. [1906. 



THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR 
AND THEIR LEGENDS. 

By Theophilus G. Pinches, LL,D. 

For the sake of brevity I have adopted as the title of this Paper 
one which, though correct, would probably have been regarded 
by an ancient Babylonian as somewhat of a generalization. The 
text which supplied me with the data for this title — the now well- 
known tablet which furnished material for a definite statement with 
r^ard to the nature of Babylonian monotheism, such as it was — 
uses two different words to express the attributes of the two divinities 
of whom it is my intention to speak. As the inscriptions tell us, the 
god of war as such was Nergal, or Nerigal, ' the lord of the great 
region,' by which is probably meant * the land of the dead,' and he is 
described in the text to which I have referred as Marduk Sa qabli^ 
* Merodach of war,' apparently in the sense of the meeting of hostile 
forces {qabdlu), from which root muqtablu^ one of the Assyro- 
Babylonian words for * soldier,' comes. 

The other god of battle referred to in the list in which the gods 
are identified with Merodach is Zagaga, or, in the * dialect' of 
Sumerian, Zamama. He is not called, however, Marduk Sa qabli^ 
hut Marduk Sa tahazi^ with much the same meaning — for the sake 
of making a difference we may say * Merodach of battle.' What the 
precise distinction between these two words is, is uncertain, but may 
be found, perhaps, in the Sumero -Akkadian ideographs often used to 
express them. That by which tahazu was indicated was regarded, 
to all appearance, as being composed of »-]9f and ^J, * to make ' 
{ipeSu\ and * men ' or * soldiers ' (in the singular ^abu or ummanu). 
These, united, may possibly have been used for the expression 'to 
lead men,' like ep^su ia Sarruti, *to rule,' literally *to make royalty.^ 

203 



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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

In this case Zagaga would seem to have been conceived as the god 
of strategy. 

The original meaning of the character for qablu^ E2Lr» ^^'^ich 
is used in connection with Nergal, was possibly that expressed by 
the non-Semitic nisag^ meaning * that which is at the head,' hence 
the signification of aSaridu^ * chieftain/ which it has. The meeting- 
point of two opposing armies being their foremost ranks, it is there 
that the battle rages, hence, perhaps, the words applied to it by both 
Semites and non-Semites. As one cannot dogmatize in such a 
matter as this, I give the above merely as suggestions — for the 
present, however, they will suffice to indicate what, from the nature 
of the deities in question, would be expected, Nergal being god of 
death, and therefore of slaughter in the forefront of the battle, and 
Zagaga, god of all the accessories which belong to the carrying on of 
a military expedition or conducting operations in the field. 

It is somewhat strange that, in the inscription to which I have 
referred, the god *->{- tl^ET IdOf* whose name is generally read 
Ninip, which immediately precedes these two, is not described as a 
god of war or battle — a title which we meet with in other inscriptions 
— but as Marduk Sa dlli, * Merodach of strength,' as I provisionally 
translated it. But before discussing these deities' names at greater 
length, it would be well, perhaps, in order to avoid ambiguity, to say 
a few words upon the readings of the name hitherto commonly 
transcribed as Ninip (or Ninib) which will be used in this Paper, 
concerning which there has been much difference of opinion.^ 

The true reading would seem to have been suggested about two 
years ago by Dr. Fried. Hrozn;^, in his work, Sumerisch-Babylonische 
Mythen von dem Gotte Ninrag {Ninib), This he bases on the fact 
that the Arabic name of the planet Mars is ^J^, Mirrih (? for 
Mirrig = Nirrig\ in Mandaic a*»'^*»3, Nerigh, «^v->rJ or h^^'Is 
(Hrozn;^) in Syriac. That this name should have become confused 
with that of Nergal was only to be expected, and Hrozny points out 
that once, in fact, S^^'^'^^j Nergel^ i.e., Nergal, is found. It is need- 
less to say, that these statements are of considerable importance, 
especially when we bear in mind that *->{- t^ff JHff in one 

' The most common alternative reading is Adar, adopted on account of a 
termination added to it which suggested that the name ended in ;- — an assumption 
recognized by most Assyriologists as unsafe. 

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Nov. 7] THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR. [1906. 

instance is followed by the lengthening gi^ written with tfyy, and 
making the full form to be Ntrigi or Neregi, Certain dialectic 
forms occur, namely, Ulua and Ulaba^ which latter may also be 
read Uriha or Ureba, As u is known to be one of the late Sumerian 
words for * lord,' and to correspond in meaning with «/, * lord,' taking 
its place in the dialectic forms of divine names, Ureba, with the usual 
replacing of g by b, may be regarded as an excellent confirmation of 
the theory which Hrozny has advanced. I am, therefore, inclined to 
accept his reading, simply changing the vowels and dropping the 
second n, thus changing Ninrag to Nirig {Nerigh\ in accordance 
vAih the indications of the Arabic, Syriac, and Mandaic. 

Doubt still exists as to the Semitic pronunciation of the name of 
this god, but it is indicated within certain limits by some of the 
Aramaic dockets on trade documents found by the American 
explorers at NifTer. Naturally, in a method of writing in which the 
vowels are omitted — and all the Aramaic dockets are written thus — 
there is considerable doubt as to the way in which a word should be 
read, and this is mainly the reason of any uncertainty which may 
continue to exist. 

But besides this, there is doubt as to the reading of some of the 
letters, mainly the second and third, and scholars waver between 3 
and 1 in the first case, and T and "^ in the second. Prof. Johns 
has suggested UraStu as the reading, and later, AraStu and AraSiL 
Prof. Clay proposed provisionally HttMiW, Anuieth, Prof. Sayce 
has read In-ariSti. 

This last is based upon Prof. Hilprecht's reading, ntZ^liW, 
En-reseth, a reading with which I fully agree, but which I am 
inclined to vocalize as Anu-riSiu, * the primaeval lord,' or something 
similar. This I suggested in January, 1905,2 and the same thought 
independently struck Prof. Dynelly Prince, of New York. This 
being the case, Anu-riSiu would seem to be the most probable 
reading, and may be adopted until disproved by further research. 

We now return to the consideration of the nature of Nirig or 
6nu-re§tu as a deity of the Assyro-Babylonian pantheon. Jensen 
renders the word dllu, generally translated * strength,' as 'arable 
land,' which would make the deity the Babylonian god of agriculture 
— an exceedingly possible rendering. Another a//«, meaning * yoke,' 
* chain,' or * collar ' as badge of servitude, suggests the possibility that 

^ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, p. 206, footnote. 
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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

Nirig was the god of slavery. Another word, allufyippUy which has 
dllu as its first component, is generally regarded as meaning 'net,' 
such as the Roman gladiators of old used, and in this case, Nirig 
would be the god of the net with which the Babylonians of the 
earliest period captured their enemies, as is illustrated by the sculp- 
tures on the well-known stele of fe-anna-du, called by the French, 
who possess the greater part of the monument, the stHe des vautours^ 
or vulture-stele. The roots MdlUy * to be feeble, weak,' and itldlu^ 
* to rejoice,' are probably not those from which dllu can be derived 

The principal inscriptions referring to the attributes of Nirig are 
those published in the second volume of the Cuneiform Inscriptions 
of Western Asia^ plate 57, and the third volume of the same work, 
pkte 67, lines 63-68. These texts are too long to quote in full, but 
a few of the more important statements they contain may be of value 
in deciding the view which the Babylonians took of his nature. 

The text in the second volume of the Inscriptions^ plate 57, is a 
longish list of gods, unfortunately imperfect. In this the names of 
Nirig are the most numerous, occupying, as they do, the greater part 
of the second, third, and fourth columns. He is first described as 
the god of oracles, and, apparently in consequence of that, was 
identified with Nebo, the god of writing and literature. When named 
En-banda, which probably means *the lord of youthful strength,' he 
was the deity who accepted the command of the gods ; as Halhala 
he was the guardian of the decisions of father Bel, and as Me-mah^ 
*the sublime word,' he was the god who controlled the sublime 
commands, apparently of the gods. A different idea is contained in 
the name Kalumma^ />., * (the god of) the date,' which he bore, and 
to which the explanation (as yet a puzzle to Assyriologists) aniku 
anihu is appended. I conjecture that these words express his nature 
as nourisher and strengthener, or something of the kind. 

At this point in the list his attributes coincide largely .with those 
given on plate 67 of the third volume of the inscriptions. As 
A-kala-mah, * sublime strength,' he was Nirig, lord of might (emuki^ 
not dlli\ The text then proceeds : — 

UraS is Nirig of uddanc. 

Uru is Nirig of alii {Uru probably means 'farmer,' 'husband- 
man,' or something of the kind, which would justify Jensen's 
explanation). 

SarSarri is Nirig of naSpanti^ or overthrowing. 
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Nov. 7] THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR. [1906, 

Nunnir is Nirig of qabli^ or battle. 
TiSpak is Nirig of ramkutiy or lustration. 
SuSanabi is Nirig of qarradi^ or the heroes. 

The above is followed by the statement, that AStupinu or AStu- 
wanu is the name of Zagaga and Nirig in the language designated by 
the character Mar^ z.^., Amurru, * Amorite.' 

Besides the above, about fifty other names of Nirig are recorded 
by this important list. He was called Zizanu in the language 
designated by the character 5«, supposed to stand for Shuite ; liabi- 
maguza, apparently meaning * chief magian,' possibly in another 
dialect, and if this be correct, the second word would seem to be of 
Persian origin. In another language — ^perhaps Shuite again — he is 
called Laliu-rabe, in which the only thing certain is, that the second 
element is the common Semitic word for * great,' in a seemingly non- 
Babylonian form. Five names of Nirig in Elamite are then given : 
SimeSy Adaent, SuSinakj Dagbak^ and Assia, Of greater interest are 
the purely Sumero- Akkadian names which follow : Zi-Zida^ apparently 
meaning * everlasting life;' GiS-ku-pi^ *the ear;' Nin-uru^ probably 
* lord of agriculture ' (see the remarks upon dllu^ above) ; and Nin- 
GirsUy * lord of Girsu,' the well-known city of Gudea's dominion, in 
connection with which his title of Uru = Semitic dllu^ would seem 
to have been more especially used. In this part of the text he is 
again identified with Zagaga, the god of war in the tablet giving the 
deities identified with Merodach; but more interesting still is the 
statement in the final column of the tablet, that the star called 
Ti'Zagagaj *Zagaga's Eagle,' was also the god Nirig. 

In at least one way he seems to have been identified with Rimmon 

or Hadad, for, as I pointed out as long ago as 1883,* the group 

^ which is a representation of the wind-god coming 

■^ from the four cardinal points, has the pronimcia- 

*->{' -^>flf- -JJ^V tion of Mermer, and is explained as Utu-giSgallu^ 

^ perhaps *the southern sun' — in any case, this 

^ deity was identified with the god Nirig. Another 

of his names was indicated by the group >->^ rffi t^^T ^TT5¥=> 

Pa-pil'Sag^ which is the usual designation of the constellation of the 

Archer, perhaps as the deity (in this connection) which flashed like 

lightning — suggesting the possibility that a meteoric shower may have 

' Replaced by me^riy " opposition," in W.A.I, III, 67. 
* Proceedings for February 6th of that year, p. 73. 

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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY, [1906. 

come from the portion of the sky occupied by that constellation at 
the time when the name had its birth. It is noteworthy that the 
group »->f- >f- stands both for Nirig and for *iron/ supposed to 
have been known originally only in its meteoric form. 

It was not, however, my intention to enter at such length into 
the question of Nirig's names, but only to bring forward evidence 
that, in spite of the list identifying the gods with Merodach 
treating Nirig and Zagaga as if they were two manifestations of 
Merodach, and therefore originally two distinct gods, they had in 
reality been identified with each other by the scribes who compiled 
the originals of the lists of gods in AS§ur-bani-apli's library at some 
early date not at present ascertainable, but possibly going back to 
the dynasty of Hammurabi, or even earlier. 

Among the personal names of that period are Ubar-Nirigy * friend 
of Nirig,' and Ubar-Zagaga^ * friend of Zagaga;' Nirig-ellat-zUy * Nirig 
is his defence ; ' Nirig-uballit^ * Nirig has given life ; ' whilst Zagaga, 
the god' of war, is also mentioned in such compositions as Zagaga- 
manSum^ * Zagaga has given,' and Idin-Zagaga^ *Give, O Zagaga.' 
The god of agriculture (if we may so regard him) is, as defender of 
his worshipper, also god of war, and Zagaga, the god of war, is like 
the god of agriculture, the god who gives, hence their identity in 
Babylonian mythology. Nergal and Zagaga were both gods of war 
when that term could be applied to the defence of the land — Nergal 
was the god of war when the country was subject to its ravages. 

Concerning the name of Nergal, that is based upon well-known 
readings, and is probably to be analysed Ne-uru (or eri)-gal^ * prince 
of the great region,' that is, of the grave — we shall see later how this 
came about. At present, it may merely be noted, the most renowned 
place of his worship was Cuthah, as recorded in 2 Kings, xvii, 24 
3.nd 30. This site, as is now recognized, is the ruin which bears the 
name of Tel Ibrahim, not far from Babylon. In Cuthah there was 
a celebrated temple dedicated to him, known as A-meS-lam^ the god 
himself being called, similarly, MeS-lam-ta-ia, *he who came forth 
from the meS-lam^' possibly meaning *the fruit of the misu-tree.' 
Naturally, I can only put forward this interpretation as the expression 
of an opinion, but it may, by chance, turn out to be correct, and in 
that case, another interesting legend, at present unknown, may reward 
the diligent explorer in years to come. 

Like most other deities, Nergal had many names. In the great 
list of gods in the British Museum his names immediately follow 

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Nov. 7] THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR. [P906. 

those of Nirig or Anu-rSStu. In the first line of the paragraph 
devoted to him,^ we recognize that he was probably not called * lord 
of the great region' because he was king of Hades, but as god 
Sa qabriy * of the grave,' and therefore of the great army of the dead, 
who, as the Babylonians realized at a sufficiently early date, much 
exceed the living in number. In the second line of the paragraph, 
the ordinary ideograph expressing the name of this god is apparentiy 
analysed by the component parts being divided from each other 
{^>^ ^ ^TT)» and it is therefore probable that one of its readings 
was Ugur. When thus called he was god Sa hdaft\ *of the sword,' 
according to Jensen — the thing which throws down, destroys. But 
if we take another meaning of the root hdtu^ * to weigh ' (Meissner), 
he would be the god of weighing or inspecting — the judge as well as 
the keeper of the dead. His next name is »->f- -^^^ <J^ y][, 
HuS'ki-a^ as god Sa Sipti^ or Sibti^ * of the (chastening) staff,' in all 
probability. In the next line he appears as some kind of bird, 
»->^ >^ »-y<y ^^, MaS-muSenna, as Nergal Sa uxxt\ *of violent 
anger.' His next name is again defective, but may be Dunga simply 
("'Hh Klf^WII ^nT^)» apparently so called in the non-Semitic 
column as Nergal Sa riSaiiy * of joyful triumph (?),' or something of 
the kind. In the next three lines he appears as the god Nergal 
Sa dVi (tV%)y *of disease.' In the first of these the Sumero- Akkadian 
ideograph is lost, with the exception of the last character, the 
syllable -a. In the second of the three the first two characters, 
Su-ki' . . , are clear, and in the third he has the seemingly Semitic 
name of Laqubu or Laqupu, It is difficult to guess what this may 
mean, but perhaps the Arabic u-ftii5 , * to snatch away,' may contain a 
shadow of the meaning, in which case Nergal may have been called 
Laqupu^ as he who, by disease, carried off the inhabitants of the 
earth. His last name is written »->f- sifi, an ideograph which is 
employed for the god Nebo, but in what way he could be identified 
with him is not clear. In this case he is said to be Nergal as god 
Sa sHqi^ * of the street,' though the middle character is damaged, and 
the reading and rendering therefore doubtful. Perhaps the Babylonian 
streets had their dangers as ours have, but probably more from 
assassins than from the vehicles passing every moment. 

^ The lower part is unfortunately damaged by a crack which crosses four of 
the lines, either destroying the names, or rendering them defective. See fV,A.I, 
III, pi. 67, lines 69-71'.''. 

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Nov, 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

K. 5268 + K. 5373. 

THE CUTHEAN HYMN TO NERGAL. 

Transcription. 

I a. Ur-sag dingirrene im-tuk $a kalagga dumu Enlilla 
lb, LuMid qarradu ildni gaSru Sup^ mdr BH 

2a. D.P. Urra ur-sag dingirrene im-tuk ea kalagga dumu Enlilla 
2d. £>,F. NergcU luttaUd qarrad tldni gaSru $upi^ mdr BU 

3a. kiaggd, Enlilla sag-kalaga mal} ad&ni §u-garraga 
3^. naram BU aSaredu ftru mutir gimillu dbi-Su 

411. [mu]I}-tudda D.P. Nin-mal) nun gala dumu lugalani ^ tu-ni hu§ 

gidia 
4^. \ilit]iiD,P. Bilit tldni iarrat rabiti mdr Sarrt^ ia ana imuki-Su 

taklu 

5a. ^-gala [dingirjrene maSsu mab ur-sag gala dur-ma^ Enlilli 
5^. igi-galla tldni massu stru qarradu rabU tukulti Bel 

6a. D.P. Urra dingir ni-hu§ aria §u-nep-[sisi ?] 

6b. D.P. Nergal tlu izzi Sa^ pulufiii u raSubbaiu .... 

7a. dingir azagga D.P. Utu-qime me-lam*(?) [kala]g(?)-ga ne-gar .... 
lb. ilu illu Sa zimu-Su kima nUr D.P. SamaS 

Za. D.P. Urra gala en fia tim-naio(?) gala(?) 

Zb. D.P. Nergalbilu Itupii Sakin taJ^ii^ 

9a. dingir kalagga mu-bi galla l)ula dingir namtara . . . 
9^. \tlu ]'bu Sa ana zikri Sumi-Su galli u namiare ^^ . . . 

loa. [D.P. Ur]ra erim kalagga bul-gala 

10^. \D.P. N\ergal Sa aabi limnUtu dannu unab- 

• aearly S^> >^ T? jfS-. ' C^. 
' y , judging from the traces. 

* So also Macmillan, who has published this text in the Beitrage zur Assyriologie^ 
V, p. 582 seq. The inscription having now been issued, I withhold my copy* 
which I originally intended to give here. 

" Or ^H, en. 

. " mi^f^m^ apparently = ^Tij|:S^Hff<T. 

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Nov. 7] THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR. [1906. 

iia, . . . k]i-gala dagalla a-didi {)ul-gala dingirre[ne] .... 
11^ irsiti rapaSli kaStd Udnili[mnuli .... 

12a. [D.P. Me§-la]m-ta-^a en D.P. Anunnaki na Sid-du^^ .... 
12b, [D.P. Do. Be]/^^{r) D.P, Anunnaki Ml petH 

13a dingir azagga gana-bi igi-taba 

13^. [ tlti\ Hlu Sa ina kakkabi Ha-tna (?)- 



14^ na 

14^ 



Reverse, 
lb // . . 



aa. D.P. Urra H-gala tila zi ki-aga- 

2b, D.P, Nergal tlu munialku ia bulta irammu 

3a. uru-zu Amarada D.S. ig-giga dua §alai*-[su] 

3^. dlu-ka dl Marad Sa maruiti imf^U' 

4a. dingir Amarada D.S. dur4 uru-zu gini igi- 

4^. D,P Nergal ana dli'ka dl Marad kiniS nap'li^^{j!)' . . . 

sa. a mae namtila ig-gig-ga (?) 

'^b, a^ idSi drdu palih'ka^^ lu- 

6a, D.Pp. B^l-r^manni(?)i7 nam . . ^a §u(?) . . . . 

6b. D.Pp. [BSl-rSmannt{?) mtilu tagmila napi\Sti^^ , 



7 rab{?yi^^ D.P. Nergal dannu kalagga tldni 

8. Ki pt duppi gab-ri Gudua (Kutl) D.S. §atir-ma biri 



Here follows a blank space, which would accommodate three or 
four lines. 

"^Iiij^-il. "•''-'*' 

^' The character here is J^f , suggesting the completion »->f- fj *^TIJ J^f. 
" ^ty'^Y- " Traces only, which are possibly those of ^^^, 

^« The traces following this are "OgsSA^^^'" 



» -4 'mm- 

» '^^tT^ ^. perhaps T "S^TH ^wT If- ^. -^ m rait. 
Cf, obv., 12^. 



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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

K. 5268. 
Translation. 

1. Let me glorify the hero of the gods, the powerful^ the brilliant one^ 

the son of Bel ; 

2. Nergal^ let me glorify^ the hero of the gods, the powerful, the 

brilliant one, the son of Bel ; 

3. The beloved of Bely the supreme leader, the avenger of his father ; 

4. 27u offspring of the Lady of the gods^^ the great queen ^ ; the son of 

the king, who trusts in his might ; 

5. The clever one of the gods, the sublime oracle-priest, the great hero^ 

the trust of Bel 

6. Nergal,^ the powerful god, fear and terror \}fill his hand], 

7. Glorious god, whose figure [shineth with mighty splendour] like 

the light of the sun god, 

8. Nergal^ brilliant lord, causing the overthrow ^ 

9. \The mighty (?) god], who, for the renown of his name, the evU 

devils andfat\es overcometh], 
10. Nergal, who the evil and powerful foe overthro[weth] ; 
u. [JVergal], who the wide earth captureth, the [evil] gods [subdueth] 

12. \MeS-la]m'ta'ia, lord of the Anunnaki, who openeth ** 

13 the glorious god who among the stars of heav\en\ 

(Broken.) 

Reverse. 

I 

2. Nergal, powerful god, who loveth the saving of life .... 

3. Thy city Marad, which hath misfortune, [grant to her] thy favour, 

4. JVergal, tdpon thy city Marad look with favour . . . 

5. And as for me, the servant worshipping thee, [save thou] (my) life^ 

which by evil \is attacked}] 

6. Bel-rimanni death, preserve my li[fe] 

7. . . [to] the great [? lord] JVergal, the powerful one of the gods . . • 

8. Written and made clear according to the tablet, the copy of Cuthah. 

* Urra in the Sumerian line. ^ In Sumerian : Nin-ma^, 

^ Sum. : "princess." ** Sum. : "a great(?) overthrow." 

** This is from the Sumerian line, which is slightly more perfect. The 
Babylonian rendering differs, and has at the end " the lord opening ..." 

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Nov. 7] THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR. [1906. 

This is, naturally, only a kind of address to Nergal by. one of his 
special worshippers, and ends in the usual way, that is, with a prayer 
for mercy and favour both for himself and for the city of Marad, 
Nergal's abode. In the obverse of the inscription, however, we have 
the information that Nergal was regarded as the son of Bel and of 
the Lady of the gods. In this we may perhaps see the older Bel and 
his consort, but if so, the parentage of Nergal was in later days 
transferred from him to Bel-Merodach, whose consort was Zer-panitu"*, 
* the seed-creatress,* identified, in one of the lists, with Arum, who 
made the seed of mankind with Merodach, and was also identified 
with the Lady of the Gods. The third line, which calls Nergal the 
avenger of his father, seems to point to some legend concerning him 
which has still to be discovered. 

Another interesting question is presented by the reverse. As is 
well known, Cuthah was the principal city of NergaFs worship, the 
city which is mentioned in the colophon. In the body of the text, 
however, his city is referred to as Marad, suggesting that that city 
and Cuthah were one and the same place. As most of the cities of 
Babylonia bore more than one name, this would seem to be very 
probable, and may be settled by further research. The worshipper's 
name seems to have been B^l-rfimanni, either a priest of Nergal, or a 
little-known Babylonian king. 

One of the most interesting of the bilingual inscriptions concerning 
this god, however, is that published on plate 24 of the Cuneiform 
Inscriptions of Western Asia, Vol. IV. This is in the form of 
eulogistic phrases in which each line, it may be supposed, was first 
uttered by the priest, and then repeated by the people. Unfortu- 
nately, the ends of the lines are wanting in every case, so that a 
satisfactory rendering of the text is at present impossible : — 

12. Priest: Leader, whose face is bright, the shining mouth of the 
powerful fire-god \illuminateth him], 

14. People : Nergal, leader, whose face is bright, etc, 

1 5. Priest : The lusty son beloved of the heart of Bel, the great director 

\ofthe world], 

17. People : Nergal, lusty son, etc, 

18. Priest : Prince of the great gods, who \spreadetK\fear and awe, 

20. People : Nergal, prince, etc, 

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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiCOLOGY. [1906. 

21. Priest: Giant of the Anunnaki^ who \spreadeiK\ terrible awe 
\over all the lands]. 

23. People : Nergal is the giant, etc. 

24. Priest: Lord, supreme being, beloved of A-kura, the record of 

whose name [overcometh evil], 

26. People : Nergal is the supreme being, etc. 

27. Priest : High one among the great gods, who sceptre and decision 

[over the land holdetK\. 

29. People : Nergal is the high one, etc. 

30. Priest : Dragon supreme, pouring out venom over them [the hostile 

lands]. 

32. People : Nergal, dragon supreme, etc. 

33. Priest : His bright image (?) overshadoweth the powerful demons 

right and left. 

35. People : Nergal, his bright image, etc. 

36. Priest : Tlie long arm whose blow {disease) is invisible, the evil 

one with his arm [he smiteth], 

38. People : Nergal, the long arm, etc. 

39. Priest : Great god . . at tlie noise of whose feet the house of a 

man [is not disturbed}] 

41. People : Nergal, great god, etc. 

42. Priest : The lord who goeth about in the night, who . ... the 

women (?) who are by themselves Q) he 

44. People : Nergal, the lord who goeth about by night. 

45. Priest : The hero whose whip (?)..•. speaketh, the voice of 

allQ). . . 

47. People : Nergal, the hero whose whip, etc. 

48. Priest : Tlie single-hearted one (?) whose strength is mighty, like a 

dream by barriers he is not [restrained]. 

50. People : Nergal, the single-hearted one (?), etc. 

51. Priest: Hero, the foe of A-kura, the enemy of Dur-an-ki, thou 

[entrappest]. 

53. People : Nergal, hero, the foe, etc. 

54. Priest : The great furnace, the fierce fire-god^ whose attack [is 

irresistible], 
56. People : Nergal, the great lumace^ etc. 

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•Nov. 7] THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR. [1906. 

57. Priest: The storm-flood destroying the land of the disobedient^ 

[capturing"] the opponents (?) of the great gods. 
59. People : Nergal^ the stormflood destroying^ etc. 

Here this noteworthy but exceedingly unsatisfactory text breaks 
off, but we have in it a further view of the nature of this deity 
worshipped by the Babylonians and Assyrians. He was not only 
god of war, but also of disease and death, and in connection with 
this it is noteworthy that his arm was long {^a drrakdtu*") to strike the 
blow of disease, and his power invisible, as Mr. Campbell Thompson 
translates. If this rendering be correct, it would be a very good 
description of the insidious action of the god of disease and death, 
whose ways, for the ancient Babylonians, must have been past finding 
out It was in consequence of this that it could be truly said, that 
the fear and awe of him was spread over all the lands, and it is note- 
worthy that, as a god wishing the Babylonians well, he could not do 
them any injury — indeed, his name overcame evil, and opposed the 
powerful demons, who might do harm to their land, right and left. 
As, moreover, no just man could be injured by him, the implication 
in these lines seems to be, that any person smitten by disease must of 
necessity be evil, or must have committed some sin, as was the 
common belief in ancient times. 

Most entertaining of all, however, is the account of the way in 
which Nergal became the spouse of Ere§-ki-gal, and at the same time 
lord of the underworld, where that goddess from of old had her 
domain. This legend is contained on fragments from Tel-el-Amama, 
now in the British and Berlin Museums. An excellent translation 
has been published by Jensen, of which I have made use. 

First Fragment. 

' I. IVhen the gods made a feast, 

2. to their sister EreS-ki-gal 

3. they sent a messenger : 

4. * We can indeed descend to thee^ 

5. but thou canst not ascend to us — 

6. Send then, and someone shall receive thy food.' 

7. So EreS-ki'gal sent Namtaru, her messenger, 

' 8. and Namtaru mounted to the heavens sublime, 
9. entering t?u place where sat the gods. 
10. They then Namtar, 

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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

1 1. /Atf messenger of their eldest sister ; 

12. they assembled to his land, 

13. The supreme god 

14 his lady, 

15 they wept and lamented, 

(Illegible ends of three lines.) 

Second Fragment. 
(Remains of three lines.) 

4. (say) thus : * The god who stood not up before my messenger, 

5. bring him to my presence, that I may kill himJ 

6. Namtaru then went^ he talked with the gods — 

7. the gods answered him^ and talked with him of death : 

8. * Behold, the god who stood not up before thee, 

9. take him to the presence of thy mistress,* 

10. Namtaru then counted them, and a god behind was hiding, 

11. * Who is he, the god, who has not stood up before me f ' 
12 Namtar went, he had mercy (?) upon him, 

13 them and 

14 the god behind 

15. * where is he ? 

16 

17 her messenger, 

(Here the tablet is broken.) 

Uti'erse. 

1. * Take to Erei'ki'gal 

2. to the presence of Ea, his father 

3. and may she give me life (?).' * Fear not 

4. will I give thee — 7 and 7 \companions\ 

5. to go with thee — the god , , , , the god , , , the god , , , -ba^ 

the god Mutabriqu, 

6. the gods SarabdH, Rabisu, Tirid, Hutu, 

7. Benna, Sidana, Mikit, BH-katri, 

8. Umma, Liba 

9. shall go with thee,* Nergal then approached the gate 

10. of Ere$-ki-gal, He said to the watchman * Open thy gate 

1 1. loose the fastening; that I may enter — to the presence of thy mistress^ 

12. EreS'ki'gal, am I sent.' The watchman then went ; 

i^. he said to Namtaru, ^ A god stands at the entrance of the gate, 

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.Nov. 7] THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR. [1906. 

14* copu^ look at kimy and let him enter.* Namtdru went out^ 

15. {and) saw him, and . . . said 

16. to his mistress, ^ My lady, {it is) the god who, in the former 

17. months went, and would not stand up before me,* 

18. ^ Bring him in, let him come, let me kill him* 

19. Namtdru went out, he said to the god, ''Enter, my lord, 

20. into the house of thy sister, and thy going forth 

21 Nergal, may thy heart reioice. 

Reverse of the B.M, Fragment, 

1. [the god , , , , in the first, the god , , , , in the second], 

2. , . ,-bu in the third, Mutabrigu in the fourth, 

3. Sarabda in the fifth, Rabi^ in the sixth, Tirid 

4. in the seventh, Hutu in the eighth, Binnu 

5. in the ninthy Sidanu in the tenth, Mikit 

6. in the eleventh, BU-kabri in the twelfth, 

7. Ummu in the thirteenth, Ltbu in the fourteenth ♦ 

8. gate he plcued. He cut off her buduba (?) in the court, 

9. giving a command to Namtdru, his warrior : * The gates 

10. shall be opened — now will I rush upon you* 

11. Within the house he seized EriS-ki-gal, 

12. by her hair he dragged her dawn then from the throne 

13. to the ground, her head to cut off, 

14. * Slay me not, my brother, let me speak to thee,* 

15. When Nergal heard ?ier, loosing his hands, weeping she sobbed : 

16. * Be thou my husband and I thy wife, I will cause thee to take 

17. the kingdom in the wide earth. I will place the tablet 

18. of wisdom in thy hand, thou shall be lord, 

19. I will be lady.* Nergal heard this, her speech — 

20. he took her, kissing her, and wiping away her tears : 

21. * Whatever thou hast asked me for months bast 

22. now receives consent* 

Conjecturally the lacunae may be easily filled up. When 
Namtaru, Ere§-ki-gal's messenger, arrived on high to fetch his 
mistress's share of the feast, all the gods stood up before him, except 
one, and on his return he informed the Queen of Hades of the want 
of respect on the part of one of her brothers on high. The result 
was, that the messenger was sent back with the demand that the 
delinquent should be delivered up to her, that she might punish him 

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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/COLOGY. [1906. 

with death. The gods consented, but did not like parting with their 
companion, though they recognized the justice, from their point of 
view, of Ere§-ki-gal*s demand. Namtaru seems, therefore, to have 
been sent back with words of consent, and a statement that Nergal 
would follow afterwards. Appeal was apparently made to the god 
Ea (Ae) for counsel, the result being, that Nergal was promised 
twice seven companions, whose names are given, some of them being 
recognizable as personifications of the ills which sometimes afflict 
mankind : Mutabriqu, the thrower of lightning ; Rabisu, the lier in 
wait; Tirid, the driver; Benna, some kind of sickness; Umma, 
fever, etc. With these he goes down to the gate of Hades, and 
commands the watchman to op)en. Namtaru announces him, and 
Ere§-ki-gal directs that Nergal should be brought in, that she might 
kill him. The god of death, however, had other ideas, and posts his 
companions at the fourteen gates of Hades, so as to make sure, 
apparently, of a free passage to the interior. What it was that 
Nergal cut off in the courtyard of Hades is unknown — the word is 
doubtful, and research is at present powerless to reveal its correct 
form, or to enable one to judge what the object may be. An 

alternative translation would be, * He cut the (? two) which 

were in the court,' perhaps something which kept the gates closed, or 
which communicated with the interior, giving notice of the approach 
of an enemy. 

Nergal is then represented as giving a command to his warrior — 
probably in prospective — the spirit of fate, Namtaru, saying, * Let the 
gates be opened,' and having rushed in, instead of being himself 
killed by Ere§-ki-gal, he seized her by the hair, with the intention of 
serving her as she would have served him. Her proposal that they 
should wed, instead of his cutting her head off, is made in the same 
words as I§tar used to the hero Gilgame§ with different result 
Nergal, however, at once accepts, and the words which he uses after 
kissing her and wiping away her tears, suggest that all this comedy 
was part of the courtship, and that she had already sent to him in 
the realms above, asking for various things, which Nergal had not 
felt inclined to grant, hence her demand for him to be delivered to 
her for immediate execution as a punishment for not standing up in 
the presence of her messenger. If the words be righdy understood, 
he at the end grants her all her desires. 

(To de contintted,) 
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Nov. 7] ASSYRIAN INCANTATION AGAINST GHOSTS.. [1906. 



AN ASSYRIAN INCANTATION AGAINST GHOSTS. 
By R. Campbell Thompson, M.A, 

The following is a transliteration and translation of my copy 
of the Assyrian Tablet K. 2175, published in Part XXIII of 
Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets,^ ^/r., plates 15,^ The 
contents are new, and describe the methods of laying a ghost which 
has appeared. As usual, long formulae containing the descriptions 
of all possible apparitions are prescribed, in order that the wizard 
may show that he knows the name of the haunting spirit. **A 
brother's ghost, or a twin, or one unnamed, or with none to pay it 
rites, or one slain by the sword, or one that hath died by fault of 
god, or sin of king " (Col. I, //. 6-8), or " the ghost of one unburied, 
or of a brother, or anything evil"^ (//. 22-23). The most interesting 
part is the actual charm. Two different kinds of thread or hair are 
to be spun together and knotted seven times, and the ends are to be 
sprinkled with a mixture of cedar oil, the man's spittle, leavened 
dough, earth from an old grave, earth (or dust) from the roots 
of some thorny plant, dust from an ant-hole, and one or two 
other ingredients of which the translation is doubtful. The man's 
temples are to be bound with this, after the due incantation has 
been repeated, and it is apparently to be twisted tighter until a 
change of colour in his face occurs, but this last, however, is a little 
doubtful. It is not curious to find the same materials for spells 
foimd in Semitic charms of a later date, many of these, notably dust 
from old graves, and earth from an ant-heap , occurring in quite 
modem Oriental grimoires. 

To complete the charm, two little figures, probably of clay or 
some plastic material, are to be made, one to represent the living 
man, and the other the dead man whose ghost is now roaming 

^ For this phrase, compare Meissner, RUtuiUafeln^ p. 152, No. 45, /. 9, but it 
is also possible to translate it here *' or of an evil brother or sister." 

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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

on earth.2 The magician is then to dig a grave and bury the latter 
in it, while the former he is to wash in pure water and lay in the sun ; 
the head of the man himself, together with his whole body, is to be 
washed in oil, and a spell repeated three times. 

There is another incantation to be used when the ghost of the 
dead man has been recognized, and his name is known. A small 
clay figure of the dead man is to be made, and inscribed on the 
left side with his name ; this is to be placed in a gazelle's horn (as 
a coffin), a hole is to be dug in the shadow of a caper or thorn bush, 
and it is then to be buried there. 

OBVERSE. 
COL. I. 



. . di §a ki ba(?) imiammaru (ru) 

lu ekimmu §a ina a-ra-an ili u Se-rit §arri [imdit] 

*?»dalat bibi-ia li-tir irat-ka ina ka- 

ZI AN.NA KAN.PA ZI KI.A KAN.[PA] 

AN.ZA.GAR IGI.LA Sl.NE.IN.DU.RU GABA-ZU 
KAN.NI.LA 



Siptu . Ekimmu GAR.SAG.NAM.MA U§.U§-an-ni ur-ra u 
mu§i(?) . . pu(?)-lu{)(?)-tu . . . lu ekimmu a-^u-u 

lu-u ekimmu ma-§u-u lu-u ekimmu §a §u-ma la na-bu-u lu-u 
ekimmu §a pa-ki-da la i-§u-u 

lu-u ekimmu §a . . . . lu-u ekimmu §a ina '^^kakki di-ki lu-u 
ekimmu §a ina a-ra-an ili u §e-rit §arri imiit 

su an-na-a lim-bur-ma ia-a-Si li-maS-gi-ra-an-ni 

10. [INIM . INIM . MA BAD . ME§] IGI . ME§ 

tippuS §uiti VII GAR.DU.DU GAR.KU.§E.[SA.A] 

ri-te supur alpi simi 
KU.§E.SA.A GAR.§E.§I§ ana pani tanadi §iptu an-ni-tu III-Su 

tamanu (nu) .... tanaVy (ki) 

Siptu,. NiSeP^ mi-ta-tum am-me-ni tannammaru itti-ia §a aliniP*- 

§i-na tilinipi . . . -§i-na iz-me-e-tum 
ana-ku ul al-lak ana K^iti*^* bu-^ur ekimmi at-tu-nu am-me-ni 

. , P*-ka ar-ki-ia tum-me-tu-nu 

' The figure of the dead man is then, as far as can be made out from a broken 
line in the text, to have a dirty libation poured on it, while that of the living 
receives one of pure water ; but this is doubtful. 

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Nov. 7] ASSYRIAN INCANTATION AGAINST GHOSTS. [1906. 

15. H°A-ba-tu a§§at Sarri ""AUatu aSSat §am »«NIN.KURUN.AN.NA 
^dup§arratu §a iliniP* §a l^a-an dup-pa-§a *^°"ukn(l ^^""samtu 

' INIM . INIM . MA BAD . ME§ IGI . ME§ 

tippuS Suiti .... ana erib »^"§ain§i bat-te ana lib karan alpi a-^ji 
tibut(ut)(?) KU.SE.SA. A GAR.§E.§I§ tanadi (di) 

KAB KUR m^-§u-nu-ti tainaljas(as) §iptu III-§u 

tamanu (nu) m^-Su-nu-ti ana bdiri 

taballal GAR.NA GI.BIL.LA tu§-ba-'-§u 

ao. [5iptu . "«§am§u] muS-te-Sir el(ita(ta)pi ^ §apmta(ta)[pi] pa-tir 

ka-si-e at-ta-ma 
[ekimmu GAR.SAG] . NAM.MA U§.U§-an-ni pa- 

. . . pu-lulj-tu ar-ta-na-a§-§u-u 
[lu-u] utukku lim-nu lu-[u]alii lim-nu lu-u ekimmu 

lim-nu 
[lu-u ekimmu] la kib-ru [lu-u] ekimmu Sa afei u mimma 

lim-nu 

lu-u ekimmu §a ina seri na-du-ma 

25 a-§u pi-kid-su 

[INIM . INIM . MA BAD . ME§] IGI . ME§ 

-rat A. BAR in-na-a§-§u-u 

MAH IM.RI.A-§u tu§-ta-na-al-§u-nu-ti 

DIM.MAGE E.NE 

30 [HE].EN.§I.IN.GIN.NA 

[UTUG.HUL A.LA.HUL] BAR.KU HE.IM.TA.GUB 

[INIM . INIM .MA BAD . ME§] IGI . ME§ 

[§iptu . "»«i«C?)]SA(?)GAZ.ZA lj:ata"-§u limsi u HAR.GIM* 
takabbi *^"§am§u ekimmu limnu §a at-ta tidi-ma 

ana-ku la idi u la itihhi la i-lj:ar-ri-ba la inakar(?) . . a-lak-ta-Su 
purus (us) takabbi-ma 
35. supur alpi simi KU.§E.§I§ ana libbi tanadi (di) ina ^"™«»elpiti 
di§-§i-ni§(?)tamabas(as) tanakki(ki)-ma mitiitiP^ ipparrasuP^ 

giptu . DINGIR.BABBAR LUGAL GIDIM.GIDIM.E.NE. 
GE : GIDIM IM.§U TU.UL.RU.A 

' " Like a . . . " The phrase seems to mean " clearly," and occurs elsewhere 
with kada (see C. T., Part XXIII, pi. 1, 1. 12). 

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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

GU.§I.NE.IN.GAB.RU IGI.LA.E : GU.§I.NE.IN.GAB.RU 

ME.EN 
DINGIR.BABBAR DINGIR.ZA.GAR DINGIR.MA.HIR.- 

DA LA.E GI.A NU.IGI.E ME.EN DINGIR.ZA.GAR 

DINGIR.MA.HIR.DA 
GAR.ZAG §U BAL.BAL.E.NE ME.EN : TU DINGIR.EN. 

KI DAR ZU.AB DAR ZU.AB.GE 
40. EN.GAL DINGIR.BABBAR KI.BI HE.EN.BAL.E : MU. 

PAD.DA DINGIR.RLE.NE 
DINGIR.ZA.GAR DINGIR.MA.HIR.DA.RLA : DINGIR. 

NIN.KLGAL DINGIR.NIN.A.ZU.GE 
NAM.MU.UN.DA.AN.BUR.RI DINGIR.NE.URUGAL 

DUR.GU.BI HE.NE.IN.SAR.SAR 

INIM.INIM.MA enuma amelu mitu itti ameli balti ana limutti 
innaromar ana parasi-im(?)-ma la innammar . . 

tippuS §uiti sipA'^pusikki ^ipatuKAN.MKDA e§teni§(niS) titimmi 

VII kisri takasar 
45. Saman erini ru*uti (?) ameli KU.§E.§I§ epir kimafebi labiri p! 

pu-lu-uk-ki ""aSagi (?) 
epir i§di balti epir zir-ba-bi e§teni§(ni§) taballal ki-is-ri tasalla^ 

e-ma taksur §ipti tamani ina SAG.KI [ameli takasar] 
ki-a-am tu-kin-nu-§u* a-di simi pa-an pi-si-e pi-zu-u pa-an si-rip 

simi i§-§ak-[kan] 
ekimmu §a itti-ia innammar a-a i-tu-ram-ma ina ma-sa-rat 

iimi (?) 

Sum-ma tidi-§u §uma-§u takasar(ar)-§um-ma ina mu§i lu ina kal 

<ime 



Col. II. 



salam ameli mtci ana 

ana pani-§u taSakkan (an) salam ameli bal^i 

salam ameli balti ina karpat m^ (?) . . tanakki (ki) salam ame 
miti ina karpat la 



Read thus with Col. II, I. 23. 
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Nov. 7] ASSYRIAN INCANTATION AGAINST GHOSTS. [1906. 

5. salam ameli mtti kimatb^ tanakar-ma te-[kib]-bir-§u : ZI PAD. 

DE E TU UT MA'SU ." ". . . 

salam ameli balfi ina mt elKidpi timissi [ina] pani *i*>§am§i tar-sa 

ili ameli marsi zumri-§u kakka(li-[§u] §amni 

tu-ra-|}u-su III-§u[takabbi]ur-ru-u ka-si sil-lu sal-lu ana biti-Su 
SuteSur 



Siptu. 'i^'SamSu §ar Sam^ u irsiti daian elilta(ta)pi u §apliita(ta) 

bel ameli mtti mur-te-du-u ameli bal^i 
^i"§am§u mitiitipi §a i§-Sak-nu-nim-ma innammaru (ru) lu ekim 

abi-ia u ummi-ia lu ekim ahi-ia 

10. u al)aii-ia an-nam lim-feu-ru-ma ia-a-Si li-ma§-§i-ru-nin-ni 

■ — ■ 1 

tippu§ §iiiti ina §e-rim ina Simetan . . ki-sir m^ elKiti tasallal) pani 

y»§am§i GAR.NA RIG.LI taSakkan (an) bi-ri§ tanakki (ki) 

§inat imiri ina supur alpi . . . [ekimmu] §a itti ameli innammar 

III-§u tanakki(ki)-ma ameli mitiltiP^ ipparrasuP^ 

Enmna amelu mttu itti ameli bal^i innammaru [salmi] 

§a titti tippuS (u§) §uma-§u ina naglabi Sumeli-§u taSafar 

ana lib l^ran sabiti ta§akkan-§u-ma pani-§u 

[ina]silli »?"balti lu ina silli ^§"a§agi 
15. biiri tanal^r-ma te-kib-bir-Su takabbi 

(Remainder too mutilated for insertion.) 

Obverse. 
Col. I. 



[ WJiether thou art a ghost thai\ 



Or a ghost that [hath died] by fault of god^ or sin of king .... 

May the door of my portal turn thee back 

By Heaven be thou exorcised! By Earth be thou exordsed / .... 
5. May Zagar, that appearethQ\ go in front (and) [turn] thee 
back 



Incantation. The ghost that hath .... and hath attacked 
me^ by day and nightij) [casteth ?] fear(^) [upon me]; 
whether it be the ghost of a brother, 

Or a twin-ghost, or a ghost without a name, or a ghost with none 
to care for it, 

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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

Or a ghost which , , , , ^ or a ghost slain by the sword^ or a 

ghost that hath died by fault of god or sin of king^ 
may it accept thisy and leave me free 1 

10. \Prayerfor the dead] appearing. 

Thou shall do this: Put before (thee) seven small loaves of bread 
ofroast^ corn^ ^the hoof of a dark-coloured ox 

Flour of roast corn^ a lump of leaven^ Thou shall repeat this 
incantation three times and pour libation. 

Incantation, O ye dead folk^ whose cities are heaps of earthy 

whose .... are sorrowful^ why have ye appeared unto me f 
I will not come to Kuthdl Ye are the first-bom of ghosts ; why 

do ye cast your enchantments upon me ? 
15. O Abatu,^ hinges wife! O Allatu^ king's wife! O Nin-kurun- 

anna, scribe of the gods, whose pen is of lapis and samtu- 

stone ! 

Prayer for the dead appearing 

Thou shall do this : — About the hour of sunset thou sJialt put a 
mixture{?) of the flour of roast corn {and) the lump of leaven 
into the horn of another ox, 

.... Thou shall beat up the liquid tliereof; thou shall repeat 
this incantation three times ; the liquid thereof into a hole 

.... thou shall pour ; then, bring a torch {and) censer to him^, 

20. [Incantation. O Sun-god] that ruleth what is above and below^ 
that releaseth those in bondage^ 

\t}u ghost] that hath . . . and attacked me, I am over- 
whelmed with fear, 

wluther it be an evil spirit, or an evil demon, or an evil 

ghost, 

or a gliost of one unburied, or the ghost of a 

brother, or anything eviP 

or a ghost 07 one that lieth {unburied) in the 

desert, 

5 On KU.SE.SA.A and GAR.SE.SiS, see Meissner, RtiuaUqfeln. 
GAR. SE.SiS is there translated *" bitter" meal,' but it evidently is meant in 
this text to be used as leaven, the words suggesting bread that has gone sour. 

• Anatu? 

' Or perhaps read afei u afeati lim-nu ^^ of an evil brother or sister." 

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Nov. 7] ASSYRIAN INCANTATION AGAINST GHOSTS. [1906. 

25 [/«A? the kindly hands f] of his [god'\ commend him I 

[Prayer for the dead] appearing 

of lead are brought 

his fear lay them 

go forth 

30 may they go 

[May the evil Spirit, the evil Demon\ stand aside I 
[Prayer for the dead] appearing 

[Incantation^ Let the slaughtererif) cleanse his hands ; clearlyQ) 

shall thou^ say : — " O Sun-god^ the evil ghost which thou 

knowest 
I know not; let it not approach nor draw nigh nor attack (f) 

me ; do thou block its way " shall thou say. 
Place the leavened dough in the hoof of the dark-coloured ox, and 

beat up thicklyQ) with a reed^. Pour out the libation, and 

the dead will be stayed. 

Incantation : O Sun-god, king of spirits 

(LL 37-39 uncertain). 
40. O great lord Sun, break forth upon the land I Invoke the gods I 
Zagar with Ma^ir . . , Allqtu, Ninazu I 
The , , . of Nergal, let it not be loosed, but let it be bound! 

Prayer for when a dead man appeareth unto a living man for 
evil, to turn him back that he appear not, 

Thau shall do this : Spin a pusikku-/>^r^a^ (?) and a kanmeda- 
thread (?) together, and tie seven knots in it, 
45. Thou shall mix together oil of cedar ^ spittle^^ of the man, the 
leavened dough, earth from an old grave, a tortoise^ s^^Q) 
mouth (?), a thorn (?), 

B Or perhaps the third person all through this section. 

» Elpitu, cf. Late Hebrew MByPT. 

1® RtCutu, The characters are US.GU " blood [or similar) of the mouth," but 
they also form in conjunction the character ^^2^, ue,, US in GU, which has 
the value ru^utu, 

^ Pulukku is the equivalent of Cancer in the Assyrian Zodiac (see Jensen, 
Kosmologie, p. 311) but there is no crab represented in the zodiacal signs on the 
Babylonian boundary stones, as Jensen {Kosmologie, p. 65) points out The 
equivalent is probably, according to the same authority, the tortoise, which appears 
to take the place of Cancer in these representations, but the translation here 
seems to be untrustworthy. 

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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

Earth from the roots of the caper^^ earth of ants^^ : thou shali 

sprinkle the knots with this where thou hast tied them. Hum 

shalt repeat this incantation^ [(^^^) ^^^ '^] ^« ^^ temples^^ 

[of the man]. 
Thus shalt thou tighten it^ until the darkening of the white part of 

the face and the whitening of the dark-coloured part of the 

face takes place. 
' O ghost that hath appeared unto me^ return not again^ and in 

the watch 

If thou knowest its name^ thou canst bind it^ and by night or 

every day (?) ' 



Col. II. 



a figure (image) of the dead man 

Thou shalt lay it before him: a figure of the living man 

Over a figure of the living man with a cup of [pure] water {?) 

thou shalt pour a libation ; on the figure of the dead man 

with a cup of [impure (?) water {J) thou shalt pour a libation] 
5. {For) the figure of the dead man thou shalt dig a grave and bury 

it; . . . 
Hum shalt wash the figure of the living man in pure water (and) 

lay it out before the sun^ the god of the sick man ; his body^ 

[his] head . . . in oil 

^ On hctltu^ see my Devils and Evil Spirits^ I, p. 137. It is possibly the 
equivalent of the Syriac \ <^ , radix capparis spinosa. 

" Zirbabu. The most probable rendering is " ant." It is the name of a small 
animal or insect, with a synonym lamattu. '*20 Landmeilen Schlangen mid 
Skorpionen (GIR.TAB) ia ki-nia zir-ba-bi main ugaru welche gleich z. das Feld 
erfullten " (Delitzsch, HandwSrterbuchy p. 264). Lamattu ( = lamantu) is to be 

compared with the Hebrew i^/^^ 9 the Arabic JlL«J 9 by metathesis of th« 
/, m, It-letters, sufficiently frequent in the Semitic languages [cf. H^t^T'^' 

A , y C ^ 

K'klMtit') XJw«.U* Compare also the use of '*the dust of an ant'shole'* 

in the Hebrew charm No. 5 in the " Folklore of Mossoul," P.S.B.A.^ March 14, 
1906. 

" For SAG.KI cf. Devils and EvU Spirits, II, 81, 83. 

226 



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Nov. 7] ASSYRIAN INCANTATION AGAINST GHOSTS. [1906. 

Thou shalt wash all over ; three times thou shalt say ^^ Light . . 
direct to his house^^^^ 

Incantation : O Sun-god^ king of heaven and earth. Judge of what 

is above and below, lord of the dead, ruler of the living, 
O Sun-god, the dead who httve arisen and appeared, whether the 
ghost of my father, or of my mother, or the ghost of my 
brother 
10. Or of my sister, let them accept this and leave me free / 

Thou shalt do this: in the morning in the twilight thou shalt 
. sprinkle the knots with pure water ; thou shalt lay a censer 

{burning) buraSu {-wood or gum) before the Sun-god, and 

make plentiful libation 
Thou shalt pour as libation three times ctsses' urine in the hoof of 

the ox [for (?)] the ghost that hath appeared unto the man, 

and the dead will be stayed. 

When a dead man appeareth unto a living man . . . thou shalt 
make \a figure^ of clay, and write his name on the left side 
with a stylus. 

Thou shalt put it in a gazelle^ s horn and its face 

and in the shade of a caper-bush or in the shade of a thorn- 
bush, 

15. Thou shalt dig a hole and thou shalt bury it, 

thou shalt say, 

(Remainder too mutilated for publication.) 
"* The sense and reading of this are obscure. 



227 

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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 



A BRONZE FIGURE FROM RAKKA. 
By H. S. Cowper, KS,A, 

This little bronze figure I purchased last winter from K}^cas, the 
Cairo dealer, who told me it came from, and was probably found at, 
Rakka on the Euphrates. 

The figure stands 4y^ inches high, and is of crude design and 
unusual style. The head bears a high cap, encircled with horns, 
indicating Babylonian influence, although the figure is evidently not 
Babylonian. The face is long, the nose prominent and pointed ; and 
the eyes, nostrils, and ear-holes are formed by circular holes, 
apparently bored, the eye-holes being in one, and passing behind the 
nose. The cheeks bulge out, the artist's intention probably being to 
represent high cheek bones, while the mouth is a mere lipless line. 
The hair falls on the shoulders, where it has a projecting outward 
twist, which suggests a w^ig, and rather resembles the treatment of 
the hair in the stela of a Hittite king from Birejik now in the 
British Museum. 

The rest of the figure is even ruder than the face. From the 
neck downwards it is nearly flat, though there is a little modelling 
about the neck and chest, with nothing to indicate that a female is 
represented. The arms are raised from the elbow, but the hands are 
broken off". The hips are represented by a slight lateral projection 
and a transverse groove on front and back, and from here downwards 
the legs are undivided and shapeless. The feet, however, are 
indicated separately. 

The bronze seems to represent a man in a long robe — perhaps 
a priest with offerings. When I bought it I thought it a barbarous 
figure, shewing influence of Babylonian art, but Professor Sayce has 
called my attention to the so-called Hittite Bronzes, figured by 
Perrot and Chipiez and others. The locality it comes from (Rakka 
is 150 English miles N.E. of Hamah, and 100 miles S.E. of Jerabis), 
the peculiar treatment of the eyes, the prominent features, and clean 
shaved face, combine to give it some title to be classed among those 
bronzes, and to be considered a remarkable example. 

228 



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Proc, Soc, Bihh Archly Nov.y 1906. 



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Nov. 7] 



SOME MUNICH COPTIC FRAGMENTS. 



[1906. 



SOME MUNICH COPTIC FRAGMENTS. 

11. 

By E. O. Winstedt. 

{For Part I see page 137.) 

IGNATIUS. 

Copt. 2, 113 = Copt. 3, LXV. The handwriting seems the same 
as that of the Dioscorus MS. 



Recto. 
[tct A]ei HT[oTn]eTeia 
[:yerAp]neeT[peij]ncoTM 
[ijcAne]TCOTn[ATCDneT]TcrAi 

HTA[MOTAe]uiJAAAT[co]fn 

eTLiijTerceBHC : 
n6XAqMcriTpAiAiJOC2C6ecD 
coKGUTeqxice • mtotm 

2COOCUJiq2^6CCOTUUCA 
nATTOKpATCOp • ATUJlTr 

ereKATAnAoruAMTCTr 
KAHTOC • nexAqilcri 

IPMATIOCXeAMOK+peOTe 

eHTqunAoruAunMorre 
eT2ctDuuocxeilijeT^a> 



Verso. 
e2CMMe[q^A^ • ne2CAq] 
TjcriiriJA[Tio]cxee[iceijiu] 
eT[MAi!i]a3neuu[oieTBe] 
[oouo]AoriAeeoT[ijenxc] 
ic • ceccooTeiiA[iee]oTijiki 

2eMBeKHTeeTO[T]AAB • il 

eicePApuneioToei^Te 
MOTceuniaAAMuneo 
oTeTMAcrcoATiepoiJiJoe 
excHe : nexAqiJcri 
TpAiAMocxenpcDue • +co 

epOKAOinOMUATAAKMT 

eipeiJijeTOToreecAeMe 
uuooTMAK • e^cuneu 



1. 2 r., the M of ncOTM can hardly be the beginning of MCA, and seems 
to be a slip of the copyist. 1 4 r., I am not sure if there is room for oTAe. 



229 



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Nov. 7] 

"R.Y.CTO-^ccntinued, 

neMAKiJo*ieeuKeMOTTe 

MBAAAI • ATCUXeneTMJ^A] 
OrCD^UeeiJUOTT[6M] 

:£iuuo • ceMAeoT[q] 

M+M ACCDTU A[m MCATCrrJ 

KAHTOcuTinp[poeqoTe2] 

CAeM6UAI6nApAU[0U0C] 

[nMo]uocrApLiniJo[VTeJ 

[2CCO]lJUOC • 2CeiJM[eKXI20] 
[ijJOTATMACTHC • [aYCDOM] 
[M]MeKCLmTOO[TKUM] 
[OTU]HHiaee2CIJOTK[AKIA] 

[n6xjAqucriTpAi[AMOc] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1906. 



Verso — continued. 
UOU • tlJAXP<BMAKMee^ 
[K]eBACAMO[c]eTeOOTeMAI . 

[nexjAqMO-iirMATiocxeMiu] 
[neTijJi]nop2CMeTJirAnH 
[uniJOT]Te • oTOAi+icre 

[HOTACDXe] • iHOY^KOHOTC^^ 

[atm]oc • HOTCH<|)e • +nei 
[eeiAe]ouxeoTAeuM[cuMe] 

[OTAeu]MUOTIJA:yTe[u 

Tc]ijTiiTjTeTce[BHcl 
[eiTA3cpH]TexiJTO'ouu[nxc] 

n62CAqiJCriT[pAIAIJOC] 

e2ceeij 



The last line of verso I give from Des Rivieres' copy, in which 
all the letters are marked as uncertain. The traces of the tops of 
letters which are still visible seem from my copy to fit just as well 
with Kueer, which would agree with the Bohairic version 2ce 

OKueri ecrpo epoi. 

1. 21 r., riApAMOUOC, Des Rivieres probably from conjecture as it should 
be the verb. 



230 



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Nov. 7] SOME MUNICH COPTIC FRAGMENTS. [1906. 

Copt 2, No. 89 = Copt. 3, No. LXVI :— 

Recto. Verso. 



[HKOjpATq • UTo[qno6iK] 
[MTU]MTATUOTne • ATIO 

[oTcJcbneuncoiJe^Aeuee • 

[ATjcOAMOKJlMrnCOqTHpT 

[AT]ci>Ainp^nAMeeTeTH 
[pqebJoAMUAepAq • otbg 

[nAlt]KATA(t>pOIJeiMMeK 
[BACAUlJCTHpiGM • ATCOt 

[TecToeBjoAiJueKTAeio 



[euweKUTCTH] 
pioM . 2ceKAceiMA[i!icone] 

ijOTOeiKeqTBBHT[ • mai] 

AeMTepeqccofijep[oq] 
McriTpAiAMoc • Aqp[iynH] 
peeuATe • Arconex[Aq3:e] 
oTMOorTeeTno[uoiJHij] 
MeTnicTe'reen[xc • miu] 

euileeAAHUHe[lJBApBApOG] 



LXV (cf, Lightfoot, Ap. Faik., II, 2,876 foil.)— «* (they are) con- 
demned. For we ought to pursue (?) what is good, (and) not what 
is damnable. Nothing is better than godliness. Lacerate his back, 
saying to him, obey the emperor and sacrifice according to the 
decree of the senate.' Ignatius said : * I fear the decree of God 
which saith, "thou shalt have none other gods but me," and "he 
that worshippeth strange gods shall be put to death." I will not 
obey the senate and the king when he bids me transgress : for the 
law of God saith, "thou shalt not accept the person of a ruler," and 
(again) "thou shalt not consort with numbers for evil." Trajan 
said : * (Pour vinegar mixed with salt) 

( Verso) upon his (wounds).' Ignatius said : * (All the) sufferings 
(which shall) happen to me (for) the confession of Jesus (Christ) 
gather for me holy rewards: "for the sufferings of the present 
season are not worthy of the honour which shall be revealed to us " 

Recto, 1. I, HKO, Des Rivieres probably wrongly ; the letters are now lost. 
0T02 eieHA, Boh. L 5, ueOTe = ueere, probably a mistake in my copy. 
L 8, UTCTHpiOM, Des Rivieres. 

Verso, 1. I, I could not read the slight traces of letters that remain, and 
so give Des Rivieres' reading though it cannot be right; ^ITeUMeUMA^C^I 

MMAieHpiOM, Boh. I. 4, Opoq, Des R. ; probably opOOT. 

231 



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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

even as it is written.' Trajan said: 'Spare thyself, fellow, hence- 
forth, and do that which is bidden thee ; if not, I will employ 
worse tortures than these.' Ignatius said : * Who (shall) separate us 
from the love of God ? Shall tribulation, (or distress,) or famine, or 
peril, or the sword ? I am persuaded that neither (life) nor death 
shall be able to (part me) from godliness, (being) confident in the 
power of Christ.' Trajan said : * . . . 

LXVL — * I go my way to him : he is the bread of immortality 
and the draught of eternal life. And I am wholly his, and I yearn 
for him in my mind. Therefore I despise thy tortures (?), and I 
reject thy honours. 

( Verso) thy beasts (?) that I may become pure bread.' But 
Trajan, when he heard these things, was greatly astonished, and 
said : * Great is the endurance of those who believe on (Christ, 
What) Greek or '" 



PETER AND PAUL. 



These fragments appear to be from a different MS. to the 
Dioscorus fragments. Des Rivieres copies the four columns of 
CL and again of CLII abreast ; and this, coupled with the narrow- 
ness of the columns, makes it probable that each page had two 
columns, not one, as the Dioscorus fragments. If so, CLI was only 
a fragment of a page. The fourth column of CLII corresponds 
clearly enough with the Greek Martyrium Petri et Pauli, § 50 
(Lipsius Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, Vol. I, p. 162), and the 
preceding three columns to ^47-49, though not so exactly. CL 
refers to an attempt to bribe Nero and the baptism of one Dionysius, 
neither of which events are recorded in the Greek martyrium. 
Whether CL belongs to the same text at all it is difficult to say, as 
it is so mutilated as to defy translation. It appears to be dealing 
with a sinner and a gate, neither of which can I find mentioned 
in the Greek version. However, as the Coptic version seems not 
to correspond exactly with the Greek, and Des Rivieres states that 
this fragment is in the same handwriting, it is better to add it. 
Nothing similar occurs in the fragments published by Von Lemm, 
Guidi, and Jacoby. 

232 



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Nov. 7] SOME MUNICH COPTIC FRAGMENTS, 

Copt. 3, CLII :— 
Col. I. 



[1906. 



01 . 

.... ouAee 
epenwoTTe 

MJipOTM . . . 
UUAIT . . . U 

neuTA . . CAT 

coin62CAq 

ucriMHpcou 

trOA • 2COBUIU 
eOOOTMOTK 

ue • xezuoT 

TeXUHPAp 

eceooTeK 
eipeMMAi 

ATCD6AKAA 

pAt^eunAAG 
ncuoceiTM 
eAeuecoB • 
ecocTeeTLi 

TpAepAHIC 
TOCeUGK 

eBHTG • ne 

2CAqijaineT 

poc2C6nppo 

.... BHT . . 



Col. II. 
CO 



CA 

MG 

oe 

Mil 

e 

P 

e 

MO 

o 

uu 

nu • [ncco] 
THp[icii3cc] 
uu[nnuA] 

eXOTAAB 

ne2CAqiJAq 

RATAOCXe 
AIJOKeCOt 

eoLioAorei 
uTiuAqu 
iJAi • xetlii 
oTXAiiaoon 

eiJO-OAAATei 

Aco . . . ne . . 

M 

ne 



Col, I, I. 7, tO-or 01, Des R. 11. 16-17, undoubtedly GAKneipAt^e. 
Col. II, 1. I, CO or Ce, Des R. 1. 4, MO or MO, Des R. 1. 6, MH or MM, 
Des R. 11. 24-5, ATCO GIACDAOM (?). 

233 



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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. 

Copt. 3, CLII :— 



[1906. 



Col. L 

ncco 

[THpuMjpuiue 

[THpOT • ] • CI 

uciiMAone 
2CAq2i:eAMOK 
[ne • TjTeJfijco 

[0TIJU]U0l 

[neTpoc]uiJ 
[nATAOcne]ij 

[TAC|IJT]eTII 

[enioT]uie 

[poqJiJAiacD 

ne[Aij]MH'm 

neaLAquo*! 

nexpocxe 

TeiJOTAq 

^coneiJAi 

Mcrine+eni 

BTLieiepoq • 

neaLAqiTcri 

RATAOGXeA 

MOKeconet 

npOCTOKBI 

[epoqlAiAiTq 

[nexAqJucn 

[ciuion]x6 



Col, II. 

TMMOOTT 

eBOAeuTn 

pA . . . Te+MA 
BCDKeepAl 

neuAepM 

flAeiCOT • 
MHpCDMAe 

n62CAqace 

MA^IieeOTM 

croueTpe 
MAi^cone • 
neaLAquo*! 

ClUCDUnUA 

roc2ceKe 
AereerpeY 

TAUIOMOT 

nrprocM 

^eeiJnKAu 

nocuuAp 

TIOC • AYCil 

tuAAAeee 
pAieaLioqiJ 
cexiTMcri 
MAArreAoc 



eepAi 



Col. II, 1. 4-5. The sense requires 6epAI GTne, though Des R. docs not 
mark any lost letters here. 

234 

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Nov, 7] 



SOME MUNICH COPTIC FRAGMENTS. 



[1906. 



Copt. 3, CLI :— 




Col. I. 


Col. XL 


. . A 


2AA 


Cl>^ 


TeU . . . RAT 


enee . . e • hu 


AocenA 


erepeuH 


PAKAA6LI 


pCDMMKAAei 


iJoqeTpeq 


MATeTBH 


BxnrirjB 


Hfqeane 


uuoquq 


XC • ATCO 


AAqMX 


eunrper 


piCTIAMOC 


tueuA 


ATCOMTepe 


^HMXPH 


nAYAOCBAFl 


UAMMBTU 


Tll^eiJAlO 


nKcoTeil 


MTCIOCMq 


MHpCDMnp 


. . . n^corq 


po • AqKA 




ATeBOAU 




Col. 1, 1. 3, Des R. gives an 


alternative Rie . . eAICD. 


Copt. 3, CL:— 
Col. I. 


Col. II. 


MUUJIMU 


AM 


T . . MUAO 


ecu 


.. .e...^CD 


AT2 


ne2a>a)q 


COK 


orpeqpwo 


ernAp . . . 


eene 


UHTG .... 


^AunuieeT 


XOMTA . . . 



Col. I, L 4, ZiO or ZU, Des R. U. 5-6, doubtless poqpMOBO. 
23s 



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Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. 

Col. II— continued. 
XOMTA . . . 
AMOK .... 

XTZ 

ptu 

M 



[1906. 



Col. I — continued, 

^sfopneunr 

AH:^Ap6 

nec+crco 
cuMijeq 

IJOB6TAe6M6 
TOTAAB • MCe 

e 



Col. 1, 1. 10, Des R. ^ves as variants for C and CT, O and 6. 



Col. III. 



. OK 

pn 

. A 
. MTA 

. nec 

. IJTO 
. . HA 

. . tu 

. . KU 
. AAT 

luuiq 

. IIKA 
. BOT 

.Liq 

. 6M 



Col. IV. 

MM 

MOT 

6M6M . . AK . 
MIUM. . OOT 
MT . . 262 . . 
2CCUCUKAe . . . 
MApATHp . . 
AIKAIOGTMH 
BCUKOeOTM 
TGMOTeATM 
n . . AH . . T 
OTHTM . . GA 

ncuq 

MT 

. . U 



Col. Ill, 1. 3, A or M, Des. R. 1. 12, M or U, Des R. 
Col. IV, I. II, n or T, Des R. ; probably OTAH 
236 



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Nov. 7] SOME MUNICH COPTIC FRAGMENTS. [1906. 

CLII.— " Nero said : * Do not lie. Everything that 

is evil is thine. By evil art you do these things, and you tempt 
my judgment through many things, that I may not disbelieve in 

your works.' Peter said : * King the Saviour (Jesus 

Christ ?) and the Holy (Spirit ?).' Paul said to him : * I, too, agree 
^th him in this, that there is no salvation in lies 

" . . the Saviour of (?) (all?) men. But Simon said : * I (am he?). 
Ye know (?) me, (Peter) and (Paul. That which ?) ye desire does 
not happen to you.' Said Peter : ' Now what I desire has happened 
to me.' Paul said: *I, too, have done(?) that which I expect' 
Said Simon : * Take me away from the . . and I will go up to heaven 
to my father.* Nero said : * How is it possible for these things to 
happen ? ' Said Simon Magus : ' Bid them build a wooden tower in 
the Campus Martius ; and I will ascend into it, and my angels will 
take me up ... .' " 

CLI. — " .... that with which Nero charges them for (?) Christ. 
And when much money had been given to those round Nero, he let 
them go 

" . . Paul to exhort him to baptize him and make him a Christian. 
And when Paul baptized Dionysius " 



237 

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Nov. 7] SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906, 



} 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held on 
Wednesday, December 12th, 1906, at 4.30 p.m., when the 
following Paper will be read : — 

The Rev. C. J. Ball, il/:^.—" Assyrian Notes." 



238 

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SOGlfiTT OF BI6UGAL.ARGHM06Y PUBLICATIONS. 



A 

GENERAL INDEX 

TO THE 

"PROCEEDINGS." 



VOLS. XI— XX. 



™«,«« r MEMBERS, 5b. 
PRICE A 

\ NON-MEMBERS, 6s. 



NOW READY-PRICE 30s. 

(Postage, ^) 
A 

GENERAL INDEX 

TO THE NINE VOLUMES 

OF 

"TRANSACTIONS." 

The Bronze Ornaments of the Palace Gates from 

Balawat 

[Shalmaneser II, B.C. 859-825.] 

Part V (the final part), with Introduction and descriptive letter-press, 
has now been issued to the Subscribers. 

A few complete copies of the book remain unsold and can be 
obtained on application to the Secretary. 



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% 

Society of Biblical ARCHiEOLOGv. 

37, Grbat Russell Street, London, W.C 



COUNCIL, 1906. 



President, 
Prof. A. H. Saycx, D.D., &&, &c. 

Vic$'Fi^isidefas. 

Thb Most Rev. His Gracb The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Salisbury. 

The Most Hon. the Marquess of Northampton. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Halsbury. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Walter Morrison. 

Alexander Peckovbr, LL.D., F.S.A. 

F. G. Hilton Price, Dir. S.A. 

W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

The Right Hon. General Lord Grenfell, K.C.B., &c., &c 

The Right Rev. S. W. Allen, D.D. (R.C. Bishop of Shrewvbaxy)* 

Rev. J. Marshall^ M.A. 

Joseph Pollard. 

Council, 

Claude G. Montbfiore. 
Prof. E. Navillb. 



Rev. Charles Jambs Ball, M.A. 

Dr. M. Gastbr. 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. 

H. R. Hall, M.A. 

Sir H. H. Howorth, K.C.LE., 

F.R.S., &C. 
L. W. King, M.A. 
Rev. Albkrt Lowy, LL.D., &c. 
Prof. G. Maspbro. 



Edward S. M. Pbrowne, F.S.i 
Rev. W. T. Pilter. 
P. Scott-Moncribff, B.A. 
R. Campbell Thompion, M.A. 
Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., 
F.R.S., &c 



Honorary TVmxiirtfr— Bernard T. Bosanqubt. ^ 
5«f»rfl>y— Walter L. Nash, M.R.C.S. (Eng,)^ F.S.A. 
Honorary SecrHary for Foreign Correspondence — F. Lbgge. 
Honorary LUfrarian^Y^Kum L. Nash, M.R.CS. (Bng,)^ F.S.A. 



MASKISOM AMD SONS, PRXNTBRS IN ORDINARY TO HIS MAJESTY, ST. MARTIN'S LANIL 

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VOL. XXVIII. f Part 7. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OP 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



VOL. XXVIII. THIRTY-SIXTH SESSION. 
Seventh Meetings December i2tk, 1906. 

<Q» 

CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Prof. A. H. Sayce, Z>.i?.— The Chedor-laomcr Tablets (contd.) 241-251 
F. Legge.— The Tablets of Negadah and Abydos. (2 PUUes) ... 252-263 
The Rev. F. A. Jones.— Pre-Sargonic Times. A Study in 

Chronology. {Plate) 264-267 

Prof. Dr. Valdemar Schmidt.— Note on a peculiar Pendant 

shown on Three Statues of Usertsen III. {Plate) 268, 269 

Theophilus G. Pinches, ZZ.Z>.— The Babylonian Gods of War 

and their Legends 270-283 

£• J. Pilcher. — A Leaden Charm made under the influence of 

Saturn. {Plate) 284, 285 

Contents. 
Index. 



PUBLISHED AT 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

37, Great Russell Street, London^ W.C. 
19 06. 



No. ccxiv. 



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TRANSACTIONS. 


































To 


To Non. 










Tc 




To Nod 










Member*. 


Memben. 










Members. 


Membc 


IS. 










S, 


ti. 


S, 


rf: 










J. 


d. 


s. 


a. 


Vol. 


I, 


Part 


I . 


. 10 


6 .. 


. 12 


v6 1 


Vol 


. VI, 


Part 


2 


.. 10 


6 


... 12 


6 


1) 


I, 


>* 


2 . 


.. 10 


6 .. 


. 12 


6 


1) 


tvii. 


II 


X 


.. 7 


6 


... 10 


6 


«i 


11. 


>t 


I . 


.. 8 


o .. 


. lO 


6 


>9 


VII, 


II 


2 


.. lO 


6 


... 12 


6 


III 


II, 


If 


2 . 


.. 8 


o .. 


. 10 


6 


• 1 


VII, 


II 


3 


.. 10 


6 


... 12 


6 


>i 


•III, 


>l 


I . 


.. I6 


o .. 


. 21 





II 


VIII, 


II 


I 


... 10 


6 


... 12 


6 


It 


JV, 


»» 


I . 


.. lO 


6 .. 


. 12 


6 


II 


VIII, 


II 


2 


... 10 


6 


... 12 


6 


ft 


IV, 


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* Vol. Ill can only be sold wilh complete sets, 
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PROCEEDINGS. 



General Index 
Vol. XXVI, 
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„ XXVII, 
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„ XXVII, 
., XXVII, 
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„ XXVIII, 
„ XXVIII, 
„ XXVIII, 
„ XXVIII, 



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A few complete sets of the Transactions and Proceedings still remain on 
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PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



THIRTY-SIXTH SESSION, 1906. 



Seventh Meetings December 12/A, 1906. 
Sir H. H. HOWORTH, K.C.LE.^ 



IN THE CHAIR. 



[No. ccxiv.] 239 IT 

/Google 



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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 



The following gifts to the Library were announced, and 
thanks ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author, Prof. E. Naville. — "La Religion des Anciens 
6gyptiens." 

From the Author, Prof. Dr. A. Wiedemann. — "Agyptische 
Religion." 



Mr. E. J. Williams, Fort North, Texas, 
Mr. G. Haller, 18, Park Village West, 

were elected Members of the Society. 



The following Paper was read : — 

Rev. C. J. Ball, M.A.\ "Assyrian Notes." 
Thanks were returned for this communication. 



240 



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Dec. 12] 



THE CHEDOR-LAOMER TABLETS. 



[1906. 



THE CHEDOR-LAOMER TABLETS. 
By Prof. A. H. Sayce, D.D. 



{Continued from p. 200.) 

Translation of the texts — continued. 

A. Sp. 158 -I- Sp. II. 962. 
Reverse. 



I. I-nu-um 
When 



ra-bi-tsu 
the Accuser 



su-lum i-dib-[bu-ub 
welcomed 



ana D.P. nakra] 
\the enemy] 



yur-rid se-du-us-su sa d-sar-ra [bit kissat 

there departed the guardian-buU of E'Sarra\the temple of the host 



ilani 
of the gods], 



3. D.P. nakru 
the enemy, 



D.P. Elam-u 
the Elamite, 



yur-ri-ikh 
hurried on 



lim-ni-e-tum 
mischief. 



4. u Bel ana e-ki7 yu-sak-pi-du li-mun-tum 

and Bel against Babylon planned exnl. 



5. I-nu-um 
Whtn 



la sa-ma 
there was no 



mi-sa-ri 
righteousness. 



iz-ziz-zu-ma 
there came 



a-khi-tum 
the foreign foeman ; 

' We may perhaps infer from Cuneiform Texts, XII, 47, 24, that E-KI vras 
pronounced agii, 

241 U 2 



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Dec, 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

6. sa ^-sar-ra bit kis-sat ilani yur-rid 

of E'Sarra^ the temple of the host ofthegods^ there departed 

se-du-us-su 
the guardian-bull; 

7. D.P. nakru D.P. Elam-u il-te-ki bu-su-su 
the enemy ^ the Elamite^ seized its goods ; 

8. Bel a-sib e-li-su ir-ta-si [ki-]mil-ti 
Bel who sat enthroned upon it had displeasure. 

9. I-nu-um sa-bu-ru-u is-ta-nu lim-nam-su-nu 

When the mages repeated their enchantments^ 

10. D.P. Gul-lum u im-khul-lum yu-pa-a^-si-dhi (?) [lim ?]-nj-su-iin 

Gullu and the evil wind {worked f) their evil {f) ; 

11. yur-ri-du-ma ilani-su-nu yu-ri-du-ma na-qab-bi-is 
there departed their gods, they departed like a torrent ; 

12. me-khi-e saru lim-nu il-ma-a sa-ma-mi-is 
the stormy even the evil wind^ encircled the heavens ; 

13. D.P. A-num pa-ti-iq-su-nu ir-ta-si ki-mil-tum 

Anu their creator hcul displeasure ; 

14. yun-ni-is zi-mi-su-nu yu-na-a-ma man-za^ai^u 
he made pale their faceSy he made desolate his abode^ 

15. [sa] ni-ib-khi ^-an-na yu-^akh-khi utsurta-su 
\of^ the sanctuary of E-anna he destroyed the walls^ 

16. [sa is-da-]a ^-sar-ra i-nu-us ki-gal-la 
[of the foundation's of E-sarra he shook the platform. 

17. [I-nu-um Bel] iz-kur sakh-lu-uq-tum 

[When Bel' decreed destruction 

18. [u abu sa ilani] ir-ta-si ki-mil-tum 
[and the father of the gods' had displeasure^ 

19. ikh-pu-un mat Bel) [D.P. umman] Man-da kharran 
there ravaged the land of Bel the Manda^hordes' on the road 

Su-me-ri-is 
to Sumer. 

242 



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DBC. 12] 



THE CHEDOR-LAOMER TABLETS. 



[1906. 



20. k'U D.P. Ku-dur-lakhkha-mar [e-]pis lim-ni-e-tum 
lVAo{ts) Chedor-laamer who has wrought the mischief 1 

21. id-kam-ma D.P. umman Ma-an-[da ikh-pu-]un 
He has gathered together the hordes of the Man\da ; he has ravag^ed 

mat Bel 

the land of Bel; 



22. yu-na-am-ma-am-ma X 
he has laid in ruin 10 

a-khi-su-nu 
their side. 



[alini is-kun pa-Jna ina 

[cities; he has tahen the] lead at 



23. I-nu-um sa ^-zi-da [iz-ziz-zu sakh-lu-uq-]ta-su 

When of E-zida \was determined the destruct^ion^ 

m 

24. u D.P. Nabu pa-qid kis-sat yur-ri-[id ana ma-khar-]su 
and NebOy the marshal of armies^ depart\ed to meet] him^ 

25. sap-lis ana Ti-amti-Ki is-ku-[un pa-ni-su] 
down towards the Coastland he {Nebo)^ set [his face,] 

26. ana I-bi-D.P. Tu-tu sa ki-rib Ti-amti ikh-mudh 
To Ibi-Tutu who (was) in the Coastland he hastened 

D.P. Utu^iitu 
southward; 



27, 



i-bir-ma 
he passed through 

la-su-bat-^u 
a seat which was not hiSy 



Ti-amti-Ki 
the Coastlandy 



28. 



sa ^-zi-da 
{while) of E-ziday 

^k-ki-e-su 
its shrine. 



bit ki-nim 
his own true temple. 



ir-ma-a 
he set up {there) 



su-khur-ru-ur 
was brohen dawn 



^ Or perhaps, Chedor-Uomer. In this case in 1. 26 we should translate 
"against Ibi-Tutu," and in 1. 28 kinini will be merely the standing epithet *'the 
well-built " temple. But the next paragraph is against this interpretation. 



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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

29. [D.P. nakni D.P.]Elam-u yu-se-sir tsi-in-di-su, 
[2^ enemy,] even the Elamite, setforu>ard his steeds^ 

30. sap-lis ana Bad-i^i-a-ab-ba is-ku-nu pa-ni-su 
down towards Borsippa • he had set his face, 

31. yur-ri-[da-am-]ma kharran da-um-mat-tu kharran 

he marched by the road of the western sunset, the road 

me-es-ki-is 
to Mas ; 

32. D.P. tsi-e-nu D.P. Elamu yu-nab-bil e-ma-akh-su 
the wicked one, the Eiamite^ destroyed its palace ; 

33. D.P. rubuti [sa Akkadi u Su-me-]ri i-na-ri ina kak-ki 

the princes \of Akkad and Sume^ he subdued with the sword ; 

34. sa ^-kuriti ka-la-su-nu [is-]lul sal-lat-^u-un 
of the temples ^ all of them, he carried away the spoil, 

35. [bu-]su-su-nu [il-]qi-e-ma yu-tab-ba-la E-lam-mat 

their goods h^to]ok and conveyed to Elam ; 

36 mal-ku i-bu-ut mal-ki-su 

(he) a prince destroyed its princes ; 

37. [qab-la u ta-kha-za ?] im-lu-u-ma ma-a-tum 
\with war and battle f\ he filled also the land. 



B. Sp. IL 987. 

I. [ ? Babylon, the city of Merodach, was troubled •] 

2 D.P. Marduk sar] ilani [i- gu-ug ?] 

[Merodach king] of the gods [was wroth f], 

3. [rabu u tsikhru] ina ali ikh-ta-at ur-ra [u musi] 
[Old and young] in the city feared day [and night]. 

4. [bit UT-]uNU-Ki mar-ka^ sam-e sa ana 
[The temple of L]aria, the bond of heaven which (looks) to 

ir-bit SA-ru ik-[su-du] 

the four winds, they captured. 
244 



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Dec. 12] THE CHEDOR-LAOMER TABLETS. [1906. 

5. [i]-sim-su-nu-tum ^ar-tam 

He {MerodacH) assigned to them (the foe) the judgment-halli^) 

sa ina din-tir-ki al ta-na-[at-ti-su] 

which {is) in Babylon^ the city of \his\ majesty^ 

6. i-sim-su-nu-tum nam-kur su-ut e-ki tsa-khar u 
he assigned to them the possessions of Babylon small and 

ra-[ba. ab-bi-um] 
great [The elders'\ 

7. ina niil-ki-su-nu ki-nim ana D.P. Ku-dur-lakhkha-mar 
in their trusty counsel to Chedor-laomer 

sar mat £-la-[mat] 

king of the land of Elam 

8. yu-kan-nu-u rid-di ga-na sa eli-su-nu dha-a-bi 
gave trusty advice. So that which unto them seemed good 

[e-pus-ma] 
\he performed^ and] 

9. ina E-Ki al Kar-D.P. Dun-ya-as, sarru-tam 
in Babylon, the city of Kar-DuniyaSy the sovereignty 

ip-pu-us [eli-su-nu] 
he assumed [over them] ; 

10. ina DIN-TIR-KI^ al sar ilani D.P. Marduk 

in Babylon^ the aty of the hing of the gods, Merodach, 

id-du-u gis-[gu-za-su] 
he set \his throne], 

11. ^u-kul-lum u kalbi bit-khab-ba-a-tam i-ma-ag-ga-[ru] 

The herd and the dogs the desecrated temple fregueni 

[u ina-su] 
\and in it] 

' The Semitic rendering of the name, subat baladhi " seat of life," implies 
that it was pronounced Tir-din. The name of the later Teredon may have been 
taken from it, unless this is Iddar&tu as Professor Hommel suggests. 

245 



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Dec. 12] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. 



[1906. 



12. ikh-tar-ku ki-i-nu a-ri-bi mut-tab-ri-su i-ra-mu 

they grind the teeth perpetually. The raven winged builds 

[qin-na-su ina-su] 
\hi5 nest therein] ; 



13. i-naq-qar 
croaketh 



a-ri-bi tsir-khu tab-bi-ik mar-tum 

the raven, shrieking {and) pouring out gall ; 



ner-pad-da i-ma-ag-ga-ar 
the bone loveth 



D.P. NIN- 

the Lady 



[ina kir-bi-su] 
[within it"] 

14. kalbu ka-^i-i^ 
the dog who crunches 

[digga-na ina-su] 
\of Death ; in //] 

15. i-naq-qar tsir-khussu D.P. khab-ba-a-tum ta-bi-ik [im-tamj 

hisses the snake, the evil one, who pours out \jpoison\. 



16. i-u sar mat £-la-mat 
Who (is) the king of E lam 

e-^ag-gil yu-[^h-khi] 

of E-Saggil has [destroyed], 

17. [sa] D.P. mare e-ki 
[which] the sons of Babylon 

i-[dhib-bi (?)] 
\was goodQ)]! 

18. [an-na]-a-tum sa tas-dhu-ru, 



19. 



sa Gis nun-nu 

who the carved work (?) 



is-ku-nu-ma sip-ni-su-nu 
made, and their work 



um-ma ana-ku sami 
This (is) what thou hast written that : * / (am) a king, 

mar sarri .... 

the son of a king . . . . ' 

[i-]u mar marat sarri sa ina gis-gu-za 

Who (is) the son of the daughter of a king who on the throne 



sarru-tam 
of kingship 



yu-si-bu . . . 
will sit . , . ? 
246 



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Dec. 12] THE CHEDOR-LAOMER TABLETS. [1906. 

20. [su-u D.P.] Dhur-makh-AN-M£ mar sa D.P. Eri-e-ku-a 
[He is] Sar-ildni the son of Eri-Aku 

sa sal-lat Bar-[sip is-lu-ul] 

who the spoil of Bor\sippa has carried away], 

21. [ina] D.P. ku^si sarru-tam yu-si-ib-raa ina ma-khar 

[on] the throne of kingship he has sat and in front 

di-i-ku-[su il-lik] 
of [his] warriors [has marched], 

22. [i-]nu sarni lil-lik sa ultu yu-nm da-ru-u-tu 
Now let the king march who from days everlasting 

kun-[nu ana sArru-tam] 

has been destined for sovereignty], 

23. [sa] in-nam-bi bil e-ki ul i-kan-nu 
[who] has been proclaimed lord of Babylon ; shall not endure 

ip-se-[it D.P. nakri] 
the work [of the enemy]. 

24. [ina] arakh Ki^ilimi u arakh su-kul-na ina e-ki 
[/«] the months Kisleu and Tammuz in Babylon 

in-ni-ip-pu-[us . . . ] 
were performed [the ceremonies] : 

25. [ip-]se-e abil kali ^-pi-in-nu mata 
witchcraft the son of the mage who destroys the land, 

kala-[sa ip-pu-us] 

even the whole [of it, practised] ; 

26. [ui^ ab-]bi-um ina mil-ki-su-nu ki-nu-um [ana 
[and the] elders in their trusty counsel [to 

Ku-dur-lakkha-mar (?) rid-di] 
Chedor-laomer (J) advice] 

27. [yu-kan]-nu abil kali ku-um a-bu-su 

[give]: the son of the mage in the place of his father 

[kun-nu-u ?] 
[was appointed}]: 



^^ Or perhaps D.P. 
247 



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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1906. 

28. [D.P. AKH-]siB-MES I amta yu-se-its-bi-[tu] 

[the ano]iniers one maid caused to be taken 



C. Sp. Ill, 2. 
Obverse. 



I ip-se-tu-su la . . . 

his work does not [continue (?)] 

2 tsu Kha-am-mu-[ra-bi (?)] 

Khammu'[rabi Q)] 

3 ilani nab-nit [a-bi-su(?)] 

of the godSy the creation [of his father (^y] 

4 yu-mu ina [tsi-it] D.P. Samsi mu-nam-mir 

during the day at the rising of the sun who illumities 

ad-[na-a-ti] 
man[kin(I\ 

5 bil bil6 D.P. Marduk ina kun-nu 

the lord of lords ^ Merodach^ in the faithfulness 

lib-bi-su 
of his heart 

6 ma-al-ku la za-nin 

the prince who nourishes not 

7. [es-re-e-ta-su] D.P. pa yu-sam-kit D.P. Dhur-makh-AN-ME 
[his sanctuary\ Nebo causes to be slain, Sar-ilani 

ablu sa D.P. Eri-D.P. fe-a-ku 
son^ of Eri-Aku 

8. [Bar-si-ip dan-]na-a-tam is-lul me eli e-ki 
[Borsippa^ the strong\hold spoiled^ the waters over Babylon 

u e-sag-gil 
and E-Saggil 

248 



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Dec. 12] THE CHEDOR-LAOMER TABLETS. [1906. 

9. [yus-te-bil D.P. Dhur-makh-AN-M£ mari-su ina kakki 
[/le ktflow. As for Sar-ilani'\ his son with the weapon 

qat^-su kima as-lu yu-la-bi-ikh-su 
of his hands like a lamb slaughtered hiniy 

10. [ina eli-sa (?)] ana isati ik-bu(?)-si D.P. s^ba u 
\because that'\ to the fire he cast Q) the old and 

mara ina kakki 

youn^ ; with the sword 

11. [D.P. mard E-K[ ra]b u tsikhra ik-ki-i^ 
[the sons of Babylon^ gr\eat and smally he cut ofi 

D.P. Tu-ud-khul-a mar D.P. Gazza . . . 
Tid^al the son of Gazza . . , 

12. [Sip-par (?) dan-na-]a-tam is-lul me eli e-ki 
[Sippara (?)^^ the stronghold spoiled^ the waters over Babylon 

u ^-^ag-gil 

and E-Saggil 

13. [yus-te-bil D.P. Tu-ud-khul-a] mari-su ina kakki 
[he let flow. As for Tid^at\ his son with the weapon 

qati-su mukh-kha-su im-qut 

of his hands upon him fell^ 

14. [ina eli-sa ? ku^^a] be-lu-u-ti-su a-na pa-an bit 
[because that the seai\ of his dominion before the temple 

An-nu-nit [is-kun] 
of Anunit [he set up]. 



Reverse. 

I. [sarru sa] E-lam-mat al Akh-kha(?) e-lis 

[The king of] Elam the city ofAkhkhaQ) above 

mat Rab-ba-a-tum is-lul 

the district 0/ the capital spoiled; 

" OrAgade, Akkad(?). 
249 



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Dbc. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

2. [mat Me-es ?-] ku a-bu-ba-nis is-kun ma-kha-zu 
[the land of Mas f] in ruins he laid ; the cities 

mat Akkadi gab-bi Bar-si-[ip] 
of Akkady the whoU of Borsippa^ 

3. [ka-lis] ik-lu D.P. Ku-dur-lakhkha-mar mari-su ina 
\uiterly\ he destroyed. As for Chedor-laomer^ his son with 

padhri parzilli sibbi-su lib-ba-su il-ta-[qib] 
the dirk of iron of his girdle his heart pierced 

4. [ina sep]i D.P. nakri-su il-ki-ma ab-ah 

. \atthefeet'\ of his foe, Wcls brought low thus the thought 

sarrani a-nu-tu bil6 ar-[ni] 
of the kings y these wicked ones^ 

5. [&r]-ru-tu ka-mu-tu sa sar ilani D.P. Marduk 
evil-doers^ prisoners of the king of the gods^ Merodach. 

i-gu-ug-su-nu 
He WCLS wroth with them ; 

6. [ma-la-at] mar-tsa-a-tum i- rat-^u-nu ar-rat u-tsur-ta 
\was filled] with affliction their breast ; the curse of a ban 

ina [eli-su-nu] 
(pas) up [on them], 

7. [ga-na(?) i-]tur-ru ana na-me-« gis-te (?)-ME-ni zir 
[So Q)] will return to the desert the plants ^ the seed 

mat-^u-nu ana sarra bel i-ni[-si] 

of their land. To the king^ the lord of the weak^ 

8. [ir-su(?) mu-]di-e lib-bi ilani 
[the wise one Q), wh6\ knows the hearts of the gods ^ 

rim-nu-u D.P. Marduk ana zi-kir sumi-su 

the merciful one^ Merodach^ for the renown of his name 

9. [ina ki-rib e-]ki u ^-^ag-gil ni-bu 

[in Baby\lon and E-Saggil it is proclaimed : 

ana as-ri-su li-tur 

* May (his heart) be turned again (to us) / 
250 



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Dec. 12] THE CHEDOR-LAOMER TABLETS. [1906. 

10. [na-khu sa lib-]bi-ka liskun an-na-a sami 

[J^esf to] thy heart may he establish I ' This may the king, 

bel i-nis(i) lik-[bi] 

the lord oftheweak^ pronounce I 

11. [li-i^-^u-ukh] limutti-su lib-ba-su ilani 
\May he remove] his plague I His heart may the gods 

ab[^-su] 
[his] fathers 

12. [lu-sap-si-khu] btl khi-dhu la i-[su] 

\j>acijy] I The sinner shall not exist, 

{To be continued,) 



251 

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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 



THE TABLETS OF NEGADAH AND ABYDOS. 

By F. Legge. 

The tablets which I propose to describe here are the small 
inscribed pieces of ivory or wood found in the course of M. de 
Morgan's excavations at Negadah and those of M. Am^lineau 
and (later) of Prof. Petrie at Abydos. They are mostly indsed, 
with the exception of one or two. which bear an inscription in ink, 
and can be referred with great certainty' to the earliest, dynasties of 
Manetho. All have been published before and the original memoirs 
from which the reproductions in* tlje>i>lates are copied will be found 
imder each figure. They are all of very small size, riev^ exceeding 
2 or 3 inches square, and their one common feature is the round 
hole appearing in the right-hand top comer of each. From this I 
draw the conclusion that they were intended to be stmng on a string 
or pin or otherwise filed for reference, and that they were thus, in 
the strictest sense of the words, records. As will be seen later, it is 
contended by me that the events which they were meant to record 
were the royal gifts to temples or other religious foundations on the 
occasion of certain festivals. The tablets have already been 
discussed and different theories have been put forth concerning them 
by M. Maspero, Dr. Naville, Mr. Griffith, M. Georges Foucart, 
M. Moret and Prof. Petrie,^ and I wish to acknowledge here my 
indebtedness to the works of all these writers in case I should 
fail firom lack of space to give due acknowledgment to each in the 
course of the discussion. 

^ See Maspero, Revue CrUique^ 1898- 1 906, passim; Naville, Recueil de 
TrcnmuXy t. XXI, XXIV, and XXV, and Za Religion des Ancietts ^gyptiens^ 
Paris, 1906 ; Griffith, Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty, Vols. I and II ; Foucart, 
Comptes Rendus de VAcadimie des Inscriptions ^ 190 1 and 1905, and Sphinx^ 
Vols. IV and V ; Moret, Le Rituel du Culte Divin Jourftalier, and Le Caractlre 
Religieux de la Royauti Pharaonique^ Paris, 1902 ; Petrie, Royal Totnbs^ Vols, 
quoted, &c. 

252 



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PLATE I. 



Prac. Soc. Bibl. Arch., Dec, 1906. 




Fig. I. 
From AVr. ,ie Trccv,, XXI, 105, 1899. 




Fig. 2. 
From a photograph by Mr. Garsiang. 



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Dec. 12] THE TABLETS OF NEGADAH AND ABYDOS. [1906, 

The Tablet of Negadah, Plates I and II. 
Description of the Tablet, 

This, which is the most important of the series, inasmuch as it 
gives us, if I am right in my conclusions, the clue to the interpretation 
of all the rest, was found in several fragments of which the largest have 
been joined together and form the part shown in PI. I, Fig. i. These 
were discovered by M. de Morgan at Negadah in 1897 in the great 
building which is often, although erroneously, called from this 
fragment, the "tomb of Menes." In 1894, Mr. John Garstang 
working on the same site was fortunate enough to discover the 
missing fragment shown on PI. I, Fig. 2, together with the fragment of 
a somewhat smaller tablet bearing, as he thinks, the same inscription. 
With the help of this, he has been able to reconstruct the tablet 
as he thinks it must have appeared when whole, and this reconstruc- 
tion appears in PL II, Fig. i.^ Only the extreme right-hand bottom 
comer in this has had to be drawn from the imagination, and I 
think an examination of the different figures will convince most 
persons that this addition is justified. Mr. Garstang has, however, 
omitted the figures in the opposite corner to this, which appear 
in the drawing of M. de Morgan's find made by M. J^quier and 
published in the 2nd volume of M. de Morgan's Recherches sur 
ies Origines de PJ^gypie {Paris, 1897), where it appears as Fig. 549 
(p. 167). I have therefore found it necessary to make a second 
restoration which will be found in PI. II, Fig. 2. It is this last which 
will be referred to in the following remarks. 

The tablet appears to have been originally divided horizontally into 
three registers, * which I will take in their order. The upper register 

^ I have to thank Mr. Garstang for having most kindly sent me the photo- 
graphs and drawing from which Fig. 2 of PI. I and Figs, i and 2 of PI. II were 
made. 

' This appears quite plainly in Mr. Garstang's smaller tablet. But it should 
be noted that the line between the top and middle register does not appear 
to have been continued to the left-hand or dexter side of the tablet in Fig. i. 
This may possibly be due to the weathering of the ivory, which was evidently in a 
worse condition when photographed for Dr. Naville's paper in the Recueil (t. XXI, 
p. 105) than when copied by M. J^uier at its first discovery. The point will be 
referred to when we come to discuss the figures in the left-hand top comer or 
dexter canton. 



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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 

represents, immediately under the hole bored for the purpose of 
placing the tablet on the file, an arched construction enclosed in a 
border composed of three parallel lines and containing within it the 

well-known vulture and uraeus or nebti group ^^ , which in later 

times always formed part of the royal protocol. Below this appears 
a sign which has been read by Dr. Borchardt and Dr. Sethe as the 
draught-board or nun sign diiiitb, and which forms the sole ground for 
their assumption that the king whose hawk name follows was 
Manetho's Menes. It will be remembered, however, by everybody 
that Dr. Naville has given many cogent reasons against this reading 
which gather additional weight from the fact that no confirmation 
has been given to Dr. Borchardt's theory by the many other tablets and 
jar-sealings of the same reign that have since come to light I prefer 
then for the present to read, as does Dr. Naville,* the whole of this 
group of signs as nunnebti or " the funerary pavilion of the king,*' while 
awaiting the publication in which Mr. Garstang proposes to show 
that the sign under the nebti is not Ciiiii, but some other hieroglyph.^ 
Immediately after this pavilion comes a sr^kh or hawk-crowned 
rectangle containing above the usual fa9ade or false door the sign 
QA , " Aha " or " the fighter " which appears on the hundred or so of 
other monuments belonging to this king. This is followed by the 
sacred bark containing the usual cabin or deck-house, and from its 
high prow is suspended the most usual sign of the Sed festival.* 
Above this soars the hawk riding a harpoon which we have seen on 
the great carved slate of Hieraconpolis {F,S,B,A, XXII, PI. I).^ 
Behind this again come two seated or couchant figures of animals 
which Mr. J^quier seems to have thought hawk-headed sphinxes, but 
which appear more like the crouching or bound calf portrayed in the 
hieroglyph (S^ of which we have many instances in these tablets. 
Underneath these are two ^ ^ which here seem to be used as 
numerals. In the event of my view that the dividing-line is not 

* Recueil de Travatix^ t. XXI, p. 112. 

* XZ. Bd. 42 (190S), p. 64. . 

* For this, which I would suggest is the ordinary palm-leaf sign of the year, 1 1 
with a great many transverse notches added, and a cartouche and atef crown at 
the foot, see Naville, Festival Hall of Osarkon, PI. xvii, figs. 1 1, 12. Cf, Lepsius, 
Denkm., IV, 57^. 

7 As will be seen later, this group appears under one form or another in every 
one of these tablets. Cf, also the "Palermo Stone" {Reateil de Travattx, 
t. XXV, PI. i). 

254 



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PLATE II. 



Pro<. Sec. Bid/. Arch., Dec., 1 906. 






r iMi ir 



Tfnn 






i^J3EiIlJsi^-^^^' 



/'- 



f^^JkJi- 



D 



^^ 



Mil 

I ' ! * * -^ 

1 7"; .' . 



^ 



Fig. I. 
From a drawing by Mr. Garstang. 




/= r^ u w\ "^/t> 







Fig. 2. 

After a drawing by M. Jequier in M. de Morgan's Recherches sur hs Origines 
de rtgypte. Vol. II, p. 167, Fig. 549. 



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Dec. 12] THE TABLETS OF NEGADAH AND ABYDOS. [1906. 

carried to the left edge of the tablet being accepted, it seems likely 
that these groups of signs are a kind of overflow from the middle 
register, in which there was apparently no room for them. 

In the middle register itself appears the principal scene that the 
tablet was doubtless made to commemorate. The central group shows 
a man dressed in a wig and a singularly abbreviated tunic,® engaged in 
stirring with a stick something in a vase or jar supported by a ring stand 
about three feet high. On the other side of the vase is the figure of 
a man bent over as if to look into its contents with one hand out- 
stretched towards it and resting on its rim, while the other is raised 
as if in astonishment or adoration. Behind him comes a sort of pro- 
cession led by a man dressed in a long kilt and leaning on a stick, and 
followed by three personages emerging from an enclosure or hall 
surmounted by the cheker sign. Over the three personages of the 
procession who remain within the hall are a row of five dots or 
circles which, again, are probably intended for numerals. Above the 
leader, and in what according to Egyptian ideas of perspective would 
be the background, is another man also dressed in a kilt in the attitude 
of bowing. Behind him, in the part which is missing from the larger 
of the two examples of this tablet, is written a group of three signs 

placed vertically which seem to read 1 ^^ <^^ . Above the 

head of the figure in the wig are the two signs "^ and <:i> 
placed vertically, the lower one being followed by what Mr. Garstang 
thinks is a third sign. I should be more inclined to read these signs 
as ^mF and §» , but it should be noted that they do not appear 

on the larger tablet, the place which they would there occupy to 
correspond with the other being broken away. From their distinctness 
on the smaller tablet, moreover, there is some possibility of these, as 

well as the other group 1 ^^ k^ , having been added by a later 

hand. Behind the figure with the wig are ranged, first three seated 

figures which should probably be taken as the usual ideogram -J) 

for "god," while underneath these three come an ox bound £3^, a 

** This very brief tunic or kilt, barely reaching to the knee, and clii^ing to the 
figure, is well marked in the representation of Pepi I at the quarries of Wady 
Hammamdt. See Lepsius, Defikm,^ II, p. 115, or Moret, Royauti Phai-aonique^ 
p. 263, Cf, also the very short kilt in the great slate of Hieraconpolis, ubi cit, 

255 X 



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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 

trussed goose ^^, and a third animal, evidently a dead bird of 
some sort. Each of these animals has before it the billet | , which 
signifies a numeral. Below these again are a jar with the usual 
conical clay seal and another jar without a seal, both bearing lines 
which seem to point to an external covering of basket-work, while 
behind them is what appears to be the sign for water, not here given 
as /vyvwv, but in the chequered form in which it appears under the 
sacred bark, and on the top of it a ring or ball, which is probably 
the round cake always seen on the table of offerings.* 

The lower register contains a group of four men probably all dressed 
like their leader in a long kilt, but with their arms bound to the body 
and not swinging loose as with the personages in the middle raster. 
Facing them is a horizontal line of hieroglyphs which should read 

^ jg^ f — * vj^^ X ^^ ^^* Garstang has noticed, there has been 

an erasure in both tablets under the sign nct^*-. 

TAe Meaning of the Scenes. 

This becomes fairly plain when we once picture to ourselves the 
ceremonies celebrated at the Sed and other festivals of the kings 
of Egypt. As M. Moret shows with great clearness in his most in- 
structive book {La Royautt Pharaonique\ the Sed and perhaps most 
of the other festivals were periodical contracts in which the god 
renewed, for a stated time and in exchange for certain gifts, the 
divine power granted to the king on his coronation. That they were 
as often celebrated for the dead as for the living seems plain from 
thei nstances there given (see especially p. 269 et seq^ where they 
are repeated not only for dead kings but for Osiris himself. They 
are also peculiarly associated with the foundation of a temple or other 
sacred building and would be singularly appropriate to the 
foundation of a funerary chapel such as we consider to have be^n the 
building at Negadah where the tablet was found.^° That the scene 
here depicted belongs to a religious ceremony seems plain from the 

occurrence in the upper register of the group g ^. >inS which 

• See Naville, Deir el-Bal^ri I, PI. xvi. It should be noted that here, as 
elsewhere, the lower shelf (so to speak) of the table is occupied with water-pots. 
•^ See Naville, Recucil de Travaux, t. XXIV, p. 109 sqq, 

256 



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Dec. 12] THE TABLETS OF NEGADAH AND ABYDOS. [1906. 

occurs so frequently on the Palermo Stone. This, which Dr. Naville 
reads Sches Hor^ is admitted to denote a festival, and if the object 
dangling from the beak of the galley is really the Sed symbol, there 
can be little doubt that it is some ceremony of the ^d^ festival which is 
here depicted.^^ Now at this festival the king is represented as passing 
from one chamber to the other where he performs certain symbolical 
acts. Thus in one he is represented as seated in a double pavilion, in 
one compartment of which he wears the Crown of the North and in 
the other that of the South, and is exhibited to the adoration of the 
people at the top of a staircase. In another scene he is depicted as 
slaking out the ground for the proposed construction in company 
with the scribe-goddess Safkhit, digging the foundation lines with a 
hoe, and scattering sand in the trench thus formed to make them 
more distinct. In yet another he steps out the ground dedicated 
either alone or in company with the Apis bull, and in another he 
shoots four arrows or releases from a cage four birds which fly 
towards the four quarters of the world. But he is also represented as 
moulding bricks to be placed at the four angles of the building, and 
this is what he is apparently here depicted as doing.^^ In Brugsch's 
Worterbuch (Vol. VII, p. 1095), indeed, is given a scene much 
resembling that here shown, in which one man is depicted as 
pounding something in a mortar placed on the ground while another 
stands by with raised pestle ready to take his share in the operation. 
This, apparently, has induced Prof. Petrie to suggest that a similas 
group shown on another tablet (R.T, I, Pi. xiii, 5) shows "a man 
pounding " (pp, city v, p. 21). But the only thing that would be likely 
to be pounded in this way is corn, to which Brugsch's scene evidently 
refers, and the vessel or clay jar in a ring stand would be singularly 
ill-adapted for such a purpose, being at once certain \o break from blows 
applied to the inside and liable to tip over. It seems to me therefore 
much more likely that the king is here not pounding but mixing the 
clay and water necessary for the making of the foundation bricks, while 

" Dr. Schafer, Ein Brtuhstuck Altdgyptischer Atmalen, Berlin, 1902, trans- 
lates the group the *' Adoration of Horus," which would make little difference 
as to the meaning of the scene, although it would introduce some repetition into 
the actual reading of the tablet. 

1' All the above ceremonies are described at length in Moret's Royauti 
Pharcuntique^ where references to the monuments are given. They are also 
admirably summarized by Dr. Naville in his ColUge de Frame Lectures now 
published under the title La Religion des Atuiefis ^gyptiens (Paris, 1906). See 
especially p. 234 et seq, 

257 X 2 



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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGV. [1906. 

the figure opposite him stands ready to carry them into position as soon 
as made. The presence of the jars and the water table behind him 
may be connected with this and the man in the back ground who 
appears to be bowing is according to M. Moret the figure of a man 
modelling in clay (-^.P., 154, note). As for the provisions in the 
middle register, we know that at one part of the Sed ceremonies the 
king passed through chambers in which tables of offerings were laid 
out in presence of the statues of the gods and which were expressly 

called fT\ ^ "'"^^^^^ "eating-halls." Perhaps the billet || in 

front of each dead animal signifies that one such table was set for 
each statue, but this is very doubtful, and it is more probable that 
it refers to some numeral as yet unknown to us. On the other side 
of the principal group the three men coming from the chamber 

surmounted by the cheker ornament y are doubtless the rekhiiou 

or peers of the conquering race whose presence was obligatory at 

these ceremonies. I should like to see in the , as Mr. Garstang 

suggests in his A,Z, article, the spear heads which appear in the 
scene on the Hieraconpolis ^* mace as supporting the canopy over 
the double pavilion ; but I am not sure that the finials shown on 
the mace are really spear heads (the ivory being much eaten away at 
this point), and in later times at any rate the symbolism of this seems 
to have been completely lost.^^ It seems therefore more likely that 
they must be considered as representing flames and that this was the 
"chamber of fire," from which the king passed on setting out for the 
Sed ceremonies.^^ The circles over the heads of the rekhitou 
probably refer, as I have suggested, to their numbers, here denoted 
by some system ol* numeration not yet known to us. 

Before leaving the middle register, it is necessary to say some- 
thing about the two hieroglyphic phrases or groups there found, 
which, as I have suggested, may have been added by a later hand, 
and on the smaller example of the tablet only. The first of these, 

^' Moret, RoyauU Pharaonique^ p. 247. 

" Quibell, Hieraconpolis y I, PI. xxvi, 6, and Moret, Royauti Phctrcumiqut^ 
p. 240. 

" See, however, Pepi I at Wady Hammam&t {ubi cit. ) where the supports oi 
the pavilion are still spears. 

^' See scene from Gayet's LouxoTy given in Moret, Royauti Pharaonique^ 
p. 338, fig. 68. 

258 



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Dec. 12] THE TABLETS OF NEGADAH AND ABYDOS. [1906. 

which Mr. Garstang would read with some reserve, 1^^ i c^ 
might well be taken for an archaic and abbreviated form of the 

1o^ "the king himself," i7 so often met with in these 

ceremonies as a rubric denoting that the particular act must be done 
by the king, who was theoretically, and as being himself a god, the 
only person who could venture to perform them. As a matter of 
practice, however, it was impossible for the king to visit all the 
temples in Egypt where such festivals as the Sed were celebrated, 
and it was therefore necessary for him to delegate his powers for the 
occasion to the high priest of the temple in question who acted in 
his name.^8 This would account for the personage in the wig in our 
tablet, who seems to represent the king, not wearing either the atef or 
the tchesert crown. As Negadah was not even a principal town, 
and was quite out of the ordinary track of royal progresses, it is most 
probable that the performance of these rites in any temple there 

would hok thus delegated. In like manner the legend ^^^ 

appearing over the head of the priest, which we may perhaps read 

^ ^ " chief of the South," would be perfectly appropriate. 

The meaning of the two upper registers is then plain, and it will 
hardly be disputed that the four figures in the lower register with 
bound arms represent prisoners. There only remains, then, to con- 
sider the horizontal line of hieroglyphs above-mentioned, which 
sufficiently resemble those on all the other tablets yet found at 
Negadah or Abydos to convince us that it is some phrase of 
common form, or, in other words, a formula. These other tablets 
will be reproduced and discussed in later parts of this Paper. In 
the meantime, the variants of the formula in the Negadah tablet 
which they present appear to work out thus ^' : — 



^7 Mariette, Abydos^ I, Pis. 44, 45, 470, 47^, and 53. Cj, Moret, Royaut^ 
Pharaofiique^ p. 120. If we like to imagine the determinative L. J, it may 
mean, as Baron von Bissing suggests in another case {V Anthropologies t. IX, 
pp. 351-252 (1898)), the royal storehouse. 

i> Compare the ^xwf fi€un\€vs at Athens. 

^ The references given in the margin to Royal Tombs ^ I and II, and Abydos^ I« 
are to the admirably clear hand copies provided by Prof. Petrie. Reproductions 
of the actual objects will be given later. 

259 



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DfC. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

(^) -^ 2* % Tt ^ "^ ^•^•' "• ^'- '^' ^^ *• 

(4 -.S 1 ra O (®'8ns doubtful) J?. 7:, I, PI. xiv, fig. 10. 

(</) .^ s.sr^ p -i^ ^ (*« l''^^) ^•^•' I' ^'- ''"'• ^'g- "• 

W ] c|i Zl ^ ^ ^ ] I (order doubtful) 

* ^ Ji.T., I, PI. XV, fig. 16. 

(/) ,1; :^ — ^5 ie.r., i, pi. xv, fig. is. 



u 

(-i) ^ O ) (order doubtful) H.T., I, Pl. xvii, fig. 28. 
U) I -® Igfl ' Qa ^*''"' ■■ PL ri, II. 

Amdineau, iV. /^ cPAbydos, t III, i, PL xv, fig. 19. 



These are all that can be made out with any certainty, and although 
some of these signs can be recognized on other tablets of the period, 
they are too fragmentary for any argument to be drawn from them. 
Nor can very much be drawn from the order of the signs, which 
has evidently been varied by the writers to suit the exigencies of 
each particular case; but it is evident that the presence of the 
demi-lion ^,,-^ is invariable, in the one instance in which it is miss- 
ing, the part being broken away where it would naturally have beert 

260 



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Dec. 12] THE TABLETS OF NEGADAH AND ABYDOS. [1906. 

found. Next to this comes the group C^j. g==^/^, which appears 

in five out of the ten Abydos inscriptions just given in addition to the 
Negadah tablet, the three signs composing it being always in close 
enough juxtaposition to make it clear that their relative situation is 
not accidental. Another group which occurs with equal frequency 
is the sign which I have read n-ptt*- (khet\ Which appears in 
every case but one in company with one or more <2 (shad), This 
last is evidently a numeral denoting probably, as in later times, too, 

while the w {tef) sign found in at least three places is probably the 

ordinal number meaning " first." The only other sign on which' 
I would lay much stress is the vase Q, which occurs in one shape 
or another in seven of the above inscriptions, and on three of them 
occurs twice. 

Th€ Meaning of the Formula. 

The reading of this formula presents several difficulties not met 
with in later inscriptions. Mr. Griffith admits that there. is here 
no evidence of the employment of determinatives,^^ and although 
he thinks that the case is different with regard to phonetic comple- 
ments, the two instances that he quotes ^i hardly bear out his 
contention. It has also been suggested, that in the primitive 
writing of such inscriptions as the present, the signs have no 
phonetic value, and that each sign represents a word, either by its 
pictorial signification or by some convention which we cannot 
always trace. Hence we can only guess at their meaning, and until, 
some consensus of opinion be obtained, one guess is likely to be as 
valuable as another. Hence our best guide must be what we think 
from external reasons to be the general sense of the formula, and in 

^ Royal Tovibs, I, p. 34. 

'^ These are : (i) the employment of the sign O as the phonetic complement 

of ^ in the word suten. But if my reading of the phrase J. ^y here given 

is correct, this is not the case with this tablet, and the instance on which he relies 
is taken from the inscriptions of Qa,, who is certainly not earlier than the end of 
the 1st Dynasty, and should probably be assigned to the Ilnd. (2) The use of 
the same sign O as part of the IW^ or suten bat title. But this also does not 
appear in the earlier inscriptions, while the sign 4 is often found on them 
with apparently the meaning of suten and without any complement 

261 



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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. L1906, 

this case there is good ground for thinking that this must be a 
donation. On the departure of the king (or his representative) from 
the "eating-hall," says M. Moret, "le roi fait connaitre aux dieux les 
fondations dc bien mcubles et immeubles, les dotations du personnel 
sacerdotal .... en reconnaissance des honneurs divins de la fete 
Sed et des souhaits dont on Ta combl^." Moreover, since the very 
small size of the tablet forbids the belief that it was intended as a 
memorial of the ceremony or as a model for future use, the inscription 
of the donation was probably its chief raison d'etre. We are con- 
firmed in this view by the fact that such things as jars, Q, and 
pieces of wood, ^^^^-^^ seem indicated by the signs in each case 
accompanied by numerals. 

With these hints we seem to be able to make a guess — I do 
not pretend to anything more — at the meaning of the signs m 
which the formula is expressed. The sign ^. which, I shall 
contend, should always be placed first in the different readings 
of the formula, seems to be generally used in early times in the 
sense of beginning or commencement or the first part of any- 
thing. Hence it would be very appropriate to the foundation of 
a temple or chapel, and in this sense I propose to read it The 

group ^s^t=3y^ which follows, Mr. Griffith would read with 



the last as , „j3^ H ^y> which he translates as "who takes the 

throne of Horus." But this, besides giving no particular sense in 
itself, does not seem to agree with the context, either here or in the 
variants, and it is to be noted that, in the variants I have called 

(^) (/) te") (^) and (/•), the group ^*==*cd *^ dropped, which 
would render Mr. Griffith's reading of the first sign impossible. 
I propose therefore, while accepting Horus as the equivalent of 

^. to give to the ^ the meaning of "temple," or "sacred 

building" which it often takes later, and to read »== as the primi- 
tive form of what was afterwards 5^, with the sense of "bringing," 
or even "giving." The sentence would then read, "At the foundation, 
the Horus (/>., the king) gave to the temple." What it was he gave 
is sufficiently showTi by the khet sign ^o'^^, which we may take in its 
more primitive sense of "wood," while the erased sign underneath 
it may be restored to accord with (a) as one, or with variants {p) {d) 
(e) and (/) as two measures. The amount of the measure cannot, of 

262 



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Dec. 12] THE TABLETS OF NEGADAH AND ABYDOS. [1906- 

•course, be stated with any accuracy, but if the later significance of 
the © be considered, it may be held to mean one or two hundred 
beams, planks, or other quantities of wood. In like manner the 

«ign which follows, if it be really T, may mean, as later, 1000, and as 

the bears under it the sign of the plural, it must be taken as 
signifyihg a thousand jars of some liquid. Was this bitumen, which 
^eems to have been much used in the construction of these edifices, 
or clay for bricks, or even water, very likely to be precious on the 
edge of the desert? And were the four captives seen before the 
inscription included in the donation, slaves given to the temple for 
sacrifice or otherwise, or merely the carriers of the king's bounty ? 
As they do not appear later, this last question will remain un- 
4inswered. 

Summary. 

On the whole, then, my suggestion is that the tablet should be 
read thus : — 

First Register. — At the Sed festival of the Horus Aha in his 
pavilion of repose (/.tf., after his death). 

Second Raster. — [Rudric.] The acts done by the king him- 
self (/.^., by the priest who plays his part). The chief of 
the South mixes the clay for the bricks of the foundation 
before the Rekhiiou and passes through the eating-hall, 
where tables of offerings of meat, wine, and the like are 
set before three statues of the gods. 

Third Register. — At the foundation, the Horns gave to the 
temple (or had brought by his slaves) two hundred 
measures of wood and a thousand measures of water (and 
in the alternative four captives). 

I by no means venture to assert that this reading is the only one 
possible or even likely, but I hope to be able to show later that it can 
be made to accord with the inscriptions on the other tablets of the 
:3ame age. 

{To be continued,) 
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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHifiOLOGY. [1906- 



PRE-SARGONIC TIMES. 
A STUDY IN CHRONOLOGY. 

By THE Rev. F. A. Jones. 

The excavations at Nuffar furnish a very remarkable consecutive 
record of a long period of time. The sectional diagram of this on 
p. 549 of Prof. HiLPRECHT*s Exploraitofis in Bible Lands is of unique 
interest, giving as it does in condensed form so much valuable data 
by which to judge the history. The lists of Babylonian and Egyptian 
Kings in the Catalogues of the British Museum also furnish very full 
information of the same character, and do not exceed the estimate of 
at most 5000 R.c. for the earliest archaeological remains. 

The points in the sectional diagram referred to above, reproduced 
with Prof. Hilprecht's kind permission (see Plate), which may be 
said to be identified with unquestioned accuracy are the Parthian 
Era, 200 B.C., and Assurbanipal, 650 b.c. The interval shows 4^ feet 
deposit, or one foot per century. 

It would be absurd to attempt to gauge time with any accuracy 
by the depth of deposit of this kind, which must have varied greatly 
with the conditions. Times of peace would remain largely without 
record ; times of disturbance or of building activity might suddenly 
account for several feet. Still, as this argument has been used to 
prove the earliest remains at Nuffer 8000 b.c., it may be examined. 

From Assurbanipal, 650 b.c., to Nardm Sin, 3750 b.c. (according 
to the received reckoning), we have 14^ feet to represent 3100 years. 
And if the date given by Prof. Hilprecht (p. 417) for Kadashman 
Turgu, 1400 B.C., and that of 2500 b.c. for Ur Ninib are right, we 
have 2 feet deposit for 750 years, 2^ feet for 11 00 years, and then 
10 feet for 1250 years, without appropriating a date for Ur Gur. This 
sufficiently proves the irregularity. The interval of 8 feet between 
Ur Gur and Narim Sin stands in the British Museum List for 1250 
years, but is not bridged over by a single known name. If Eri Arku, 
2300 B.C., and Khammurabi, 2200 b.c, were, as we now have good 

264 



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Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch,, Dec, 1906. 




RuiTHiAn BuikOincs 



rc»;rift<»T>ori «r Bmithiam fpRTWCaa 



Dtg>yy A -6 PL •» P*g toi fica_ 



Waqashmah • Tuwcu 



P f IM- 



P *' ^ <fV^ 



Two /«yer9 qf 



^v«i - ^A«»j_ VsyeL. 






PRC - dAncOHIC 



LowtsT unn rourtp vHOLg J 
nucnchT „ SCAL tnPRfsaiQN ^ 
Vmcw 3oiL 



WATtR L^VCL- 



Section of the Stage-Tower and the Adjoining Southeast Court 
Restored and designed by Hilprecht, diaivn hy Fisher 

A'B-P-L. Ashurbanaf>al. N-S. Naram-Sin. U-G. Ur-Cur. P Pave- 
ment . ■§. Baked Buck. = . Paiement of two lay en of bncks. Measure 
ments given in feet. 

From Prof. Hilprecht's Explorations in Bible Lands, 1903. 



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Dec. 12] PRE-SARGONIC TIMES. [1906. 

reason to believe, contemporary with Abraham, 2000 b.c. is about as 
early as they can reasonably be placed. 

The Elamite invasion, according to Berossus, was quite' 200 years 
before the Babylonian dynasty to which Khammurabi is appropriated, 
and Rawlinson in Herodotus (I. 423) argues by four lines of proof 
that this took place about 2231 b.c. If so, the invasion after 
Ur Gur, so graphically depicted by Prof. Hilprecht (pp. 379-81 
and 513), was probably a later one, in support of which view further 
evidence might be adduced. 

In my short pamphlet on " The Inscription of Nabonidus " I have 
stated reasons for a different understanding of the 3200 years to 
Narim Sin, which would bring that king say 2300 B.C., and make 
him the immediate predecessor of Ur Gur. 

Professor Sayce in his paper on " The Astronomy and Astrology 
of the Babylonians" {S,B,A. Trans., Ill, p. 237), before the discovery 
of this inscription, referring to the record of the equinox being then 
in Aries, gave 2540 B.C. as the "extreme limit of the antiquity of the 
ancient Babylonian Calendar " of Sargon I by the precession of the 
equinoxes. 

The view I have contended for has the merit, at all events, of 
agreeing with the Chronology of Berossus, so explained, with the 
Hebrew, Hindu, and Chinese classics, and, as shown above, with the 
date of Sargon I as calculated by the precession of the equinoxes. 

If it is even approximately correct, it involves that the deluge 
testified to by these authorities took place within 100 years of 
Sargon I, which raises points of considerable interest, as in that 
case a great deal at least of the pre-Sargonic remains must be 
antediluvian. Is that possible ? 

All the authorities agree in describing that 100 years, or there- 
abouts, following the deluge, as being a time of petty kings, and 
Prof. Hilprecht seems to confirm this by the testimony of the 
monuments (pp. 254 and 383). But what of the Flood? 

Professor Sayce, to whom the suggestion was made, very kindly 
replied, and pointed out the grave difficulty involved in the supposi- 
tion that the crude bricks of the pre-Sargonic period could have 
survived a deluge which lasted, according to the Hebrew account, for 
twelve months. But the crude bricks referred to in this connexion 
are said by Prof. Hilprecht to be made of clay, not of mud as 
in Egypt. Such bricks would speedily be re-converted into clay. 
It must be, however, remembered that clay is not exactly mud. 

265 



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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. Ci9c^- 

Puddled clay will resist the flow of water very effectually, and it 
seems not impossible that the first few layers of bricks permeated 
with water might serve this purpose, even if the 4 feet difference of 
the two plain levels indicated in the diagram did not also indicate 
an alluvial deposit brought up by the first rush of water, which mi^ht 
serve the same purpose and protect the buildings which it covered. 

In this connection it is interesting to note the quantity of worked 
clay found at Nuffar, that is, clay that had been abready made into 
bricks but had disintegrated — Why not by the Deluge? XJr Gur 
found this material so abundant that he covered Naram Sin's pave- 
ment with it 8 feet in depth. As there are two layers of it with 
articles imbedded, it was evidently laid in the position in which it 
is found (p. 387). Prof Hilprecht further tells us where such 
material could be found, and it is specially interesting to read of 
an ancient wall which thus formed a source of supply (pp. 493 and 
499), and especially because when the pit was examined from which 
such clay had been taken, a pre-Sargonic gateway was found imme- 
diately beneath, pro\ing that the cause of the destruction of that 
wall at all events was subsequent to the pre-Sargonic period, though 
the earlier remains survived it. 

It must not be imagined, however, that the pre-Sargonic buildings 
were constructed necessarily of unprotected crude bricks. On p, 373 
Prof. Hilprecht argues specially against any such assumption con- 
cerning later structures. Besides which, there is testimony to baked 
brick and sometimes bitumen having been used for the protection or 
construction of at least some of the pre-Sargonic work. It was so at 
Nuffar (p. 398), where well-baked bricks are described as forming 
the arch of the most ancient drain. Also at Telloh (p. 240-1) the 
earlier structure is imbedded in baked bricks laid in bitumen, though, 
as this is ascribed to Ur Nina, it may possibly be too late to apply. 
The description given on pp. 173-4 of the oldest work at Muqayyar, 
"sun-dried bricks in the centre, with a thick coating of massive^ 
partially burnt bricks of a red colour with layers of reeds between 
them, the whole, to the thickness of 10 feet, being cased with a wall 
of inscribed kiln-burnt bricks," suggests at least a structure that 
might even survive the flood, especially as it is said (p. 176) that this 
dates to the pre-Saigonic period. 

Another possible confirmation is found in Prof. Hilprecht*s 
explanation of the peculiar L-shaped structure and the reason for 
building it (p. 45 1) ; while the evident care taken in Nar4m Sin*s 

266 



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Dec. 12] 



PRE-SARGONIC TIMES. 



[1906. 



day of relics of the pre-Sargonic age, the civilization of which was 
so highly advanced, is at least consistent with the view suggested. 

At all events, so much attention is just now being given to 
remains of this period, that it will soon probably be easy either to 
prove or to disprove the possibility of a deluge having occurred 
since the earliest buildings on this very probable site for antediluvian 
remains. 



Accepted Dates. 






B.C. 


y Parthian 

V 

V Assurbanipal 

V 

V Kadashman Turgu 


200 
650 


1400 


< Ur Ninib 


2500 


V Ur Gur 

V 

Naram Sin 


2500 

3750 


a is known lor certain, the rest estimated. 



Calculation on the Accepted 
Dates. 



c 
d 



feet. 
4i 



2 

2i 



4i 
8 



10 



d 

d + c + d I4i 



years. 
450 



750 

HOC 

or, 

IIOO 

1250 

or, 

1250 



per century, 
1 2*0 inches. 



3100 



32 » 
272 „ 

4*9 .. 
769 „ 

96 „ 
5 *6inches. 



Suggested Revision of Naram 
Sin's Date. 



feet 
4i 



years. 
450 



per century* 
12 inches* 



d + c + d I4i 1600 10*87 inches* 



267 



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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1906. 



NOTE ON A PECULIAR PENDANT SHOWN ON THREE 
STATUES OF USERTSEN IH. 

By Prof. Dr. Valdemar Schmidt. 

The British Museum received last year from the Egypt Explora- 
tion Fund, three excellent statues found at Der el Bahari by Prof. 
Naville and Mr. H. R. Hall during the excavations made by them 
on behalf of the Fund. The statues, Nos. 684, 685, 686, represent 
the XHth dynasty king, usually called Usertesen^ or Userisen\ and 
lately, by some Egyptologists, Senusert^ and Sesostris III, 

All three statues, which are partly mutilated, the lower part of 
the arms and legs being missing, have on the breast as a pendant, 
an ornament which, though not hitherto quite unknown, is seldom 
met with. 

The pendant in question was recognised, some years ago, by Dr. 
H. Schafer, of the Berlin Museum, as a knot tied with a linen band. 
It was considered in Old Egypt an amulet of magic power, and 
therefore often worn. This pendant is not the only form of magic 
knot used by the Ancient Egyptians. There are many other forms 
which have been studied quite recently by Baron Dr. Fr. W. von 
BissiNG in a very interesting article, " Aegyptische Knotenamulette," 
printed in a volume dedicated to the late Dr. Hermann Usener on 
the occasion of his 70th birthday. This volume was published in 
1905 as an Appendix to Vol. VIII of Archiv fiir Religiotiswissen- 
schaft. 

The pendant in question is seen on the breast of a bronze bust 
in the Eg>'ptian museum of the "Palais du Cinquantenaire " at 
Brussels, and also on the breast of the upper part of a granite 
statuette of an Egyptian king in the Glyptothek Ny Carlsberg at 
Copenhagen (marked A. 1, see Plate). This figure seems to have 
been seated, but the lower part has disappeared ; what remains of it 
is 12^ inches high. As it bears no inscription it is difficult to assign 
a date to it. It was bought in Cairo in 1892, and, according to the 

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Proc. Soc. Bibl, Anh.y Dec, 1906. 




GRANITE STATUE 
IN THE COPENHAGEN GLYPTOTHEK. 



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Dec. 12] NOTE ON A PECULIAR PENDANT. [1906. 

dealer, it was found at Memphis near the spot where the well- 
known statuettes of old kings in the Cairo Museum were found (at 
Mitrahinne). It might possibly, therefore, date from the Old Empire. 
A comparison of this statue with those from D^r el Bahari clearly shows 
that the former represents Usertesen III. In the Berlin Museum is 
the upper part of a granite statuette of a king (No. 11 348), which is 
similar in character, but without the pendant on the breast. This 
statuette is also uninscribed, but is, in the Catalogue, attributed to 
the Middle Empire. 



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Dfx. 12] SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL ARCHifiOLOGV. [1906* 



THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR 
AND THEIR LEGENDS. 

By Theophilus G. Pinches, LL,D. 

{Continued from f, 218.) 

The legends of the god Nirig or fenu-reStu are two in number^ 
both bilingual, and of the nature of hymns in his praise. The first is 
entitled Ana-gim gima^ 'Formed like Ami,* and the second, Lugcde 
ud melama-bi nirgaly * The king, when his princely splendour.' Both 
these have been excellently published and translated by Dr. Fried, 
Hrozn^, who, as has already been remarked, makes some excellent 
suggestions as to the true reading of the name of this god. 

The shorter legend is inscribed on four tablets, very neatly written^ 
and provided with ruled borders to give them a finish. None of them 
are complete. 

The first is of the nature of a hymn in praise of the god, 
describing him as being in the form of Anu and Bel, as the giant of 
the Anunnaki, who is clothed with awesome fearfulness, and as the 
son of Bel. In his anger he destroys the gods of the hostile 
lands, etc. 

The second tablet is in a better condition, though still incomplete, 
being the lower part of the obverse and the upper part of the reverse. 
It began by describing the god as riding in a chariot of lapis-lazuli — 
that stone whose beauty had early captivated the Babylonians, so that 
they regarded it as being the most suitable material for the things 
needed by a god or hero. After a gap, we learn that Anu gave to 
Nirig, as a gift, terrible magnificence in the midst of heaven, whereof 
the dreadful news was received by the namru (translated * whale ' by 
Hrozny) in the ocean, and it was said that the Anunnaki, the great 
gods, did not on that account attack him. 

* The (royal) lord like a stormflood rushed past — 
Nirig^ destroyer of the defence of the hostile land^ rushed like a storm- 
flood past. 

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Dec. 12] THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR. [1906. 

Like a storm he thundered in the foundation of heaven^ 

Setting his course^ by the command of Bel ^ to A-kur — 

A hero of the gods^ overthrowing the land — 

To the city Nippur^ unapproachable from afar, 

Nusku^ the sublime messenger of Bel ^ went to meet him in Jk-kur^ 

Greeting lord Nirig with ''peace * .• 25 

* Lord?^ thou art hero^ thou art perfect^ thine intention is thine otvn — 

Nirigy thou art Juro^ thou art perfect^ thine intention is thine own^ 

The fear of thy splendour has covered BeVs house like a garment. 

As to thy chariot^ at the sound of its thundering^ 

In thy course tremble heaven and earth — 

At the raising of thine arm a shadow extends. 

The Anunnakij the great gods^ tremble even to the horizon. 

Terrify not thy father in his dwelling-place — 

Terrify not Bel in his dwelling-place. 

Make not the Anunnaki tremble in the seat of UbSukenaku, 

Let thy father give thee a gift for thine heroic arm. 

Let Bel give thee a gift for thine heroic arm,* 

Mighty king Anu, chief of the gods, 

Befs prince ; ^ the living creatures of A-kur, 

O hero of the mountains, who slay est. 

Send then not one single god \? to destroy them] — 

[Hero of the mountains], who slay est, 

Send them [not one single ' 

I 

The third tablet is a similar fragment, containing the middle 
portion of the text — the lower part of the obverse and the upper part 
of the reverse. It seems to begin by referring to some beings, 
divine or human, who, like birds, would retire behind their defences, 



» Lit. : " He speaks to Lord Nirig * Peace.'" 

* In the Sumero- Akkadian version " My king." 

" In Sumero- Akkadian ^JTT J*", translated, in the Semitic line (according 
to Hrozn/) by EJpJ ^f ^l^^ which he transcribes *»*•*' ia iutari, **sceptre- 
be^er," here as a title of Bel, whose name follows. Instead of £2fj^ ^T ^> 
I thought I saw, on the original, ^Iff^ ^ ^9 u-ma-as, construct of umaiu, 
"prince," "hero," or something similar— a synonym oUdtu, one of the meanings 
of ^TT when pronounced mes, I regard the second character as being part of 
^y, but all three are doubtful. The Babylonians called Ochos (Artaxerzes III.) 
Umasu (see the Proceeding, Vol. VI, 202 ff) — is this a variant of the word ? 

27T Y 



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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiCOLOGY. £1906. 

seemingly at Nirig's approach. 'Who can make head,' he says, 

* against my fearful magnificence, which is mighty like Anu ? ' 

* lam iordf the pointed mountains have taken refuge at the horizon — 
The mountain of limestone^ chalcedony^ and lapis-lazuli fills my hand. 
The Anunnc^i have rushed like wild swine into the clefts ; 

In the mountains I wreaked vengeance for my heroic arm. 

In my right hand I bear aloft §ar-ur ; 

In my left I bear aloft Sar-gaza. 

I bear aloft Udkaninnu, the weapon of my Anuship ; 

I bear aloft the hero^ the destroyer of the mountains, my Udbanuila ; 

/ bear aloft the weapon which eateth the corpses like a dragon — 

the mir-siliga 
I bear aloft the destroyer of the mountains, the heavy weapon of Anu, 
I bear aloft the subduer of the mountains ^ the fish whose fins are seven. 
I bear aloft the wild cow of battle, a snare for the hostile land. 
I bear aloft the cutter of necks, the sword, the dagger of my Anuship . 
I bear aloft that from which no mountain hath escaped, the battle-net, 
I bear aloft the helper of heroes, the long bow, as arm of battle, 
I bear aloft the girdle which fitteth a man, the bow of the stormflood, 
I bear aloft the conqueror of the house of a hostile land, the bow and 

the shield, 
I bear aloft the stormflood of battle, GI§-KU-sag-ninn<i (i.e., the 

weapon with fifty heads). 
I bear aloft that ivhich, like the great serpent, hath seven heads, 

dealing death, Gi§-ga-sag-imina. 
I bear aloft that whose face, like the serpent-dragon of the sea,putteih 

to flight the enemy, the over thrower of the fierce battle, the strong 

one in heaven and earth, GI§-KU-sag-ia (i.e., the weapon with 

five heads). 
I bear aloft him who, like the day, sendeth forth light, Kura-§u-ur-ur.^ 
I bear aloft the consolidator of fuaven and earth, Erim-a-bi-nu-tuga. 
/ bear aloft the weapon whose fearful splendour [overthroweth] the 

land, in my right hand greatly used, standing forth for admira- 
tion in gold and lapis-lazuli, Igi-kim-tila. 
/ bear aloft the weapon which, like the Fire-god, consumeth the hostile 

land, GI§-KU-sag-ninn<i (i.e., the weapon with fifty heads). 

Here the text breaks off, but in all probability it continued, with 
references to other wonderful weapons and devices for overthrowing 

* " He who maketh the mountain to tremble.*' 
272 



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Dec. 123 THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR. [1906. 

the enemies of the gods, of himself, and of Babylonia, especially the 
city where the seat of his worship was. I have translated it in full in 
order to show how fertile was the fancy of the Babylonians in such 
things. It is worthy of note, that in the Sumero-Akkadian lines there 
is a slight variation from the Semitic text, namely, the addition of 
the word mu, *my,' after the names of the emblems and weapons 
enumerated : Gii-ku-sag-ninnti-mu, ^my weapon with fifty heads,' etc. 

The fiftal tablet of this series is contained on three pieces, all 
more or less fragmentary. The text is fairly well preserved, and 
though the pieces do not join, two of them are duplicates, so that 
a portion of the inscription receives completions which we should not 
otherwise possess. 

Where the tablet opens, Nirig is to all appearance still describing 
his own glories: he is the king who, like Anu, has the day in his 
power ; the mighty one, Bel's stormflood, who is not met with in the 
mountains. 

^ Lord Nirig am I^at the invocation of my name shall how dawn 
The supreme powers^ the hrilliance of the labu, w?unn Bel in his 

strength hath begotten. 
Since Anu, the mightiest of the gods — 
King Anu in his great strength I saw, even /, 
Have I been the weapon destroying the lofty mountains which is used 

for royal dignity,^ 
The mighty power of battle, the living creature oflStar, am I; 
The hero, wlio by the decision of £a {or Aa\ goeth to the fierce fight, 

am L — 
Let my dominion to the boundary of heaven and earth shine forth. 
The mighty one of the gods am I, with splendour let me be clothed. 
Beloved city, house of Nippur, may thine hecul^ [be high] like heaven, 
O my city. In the city of my brothers let [me be] chiefs 
O my temple. In the temple of my brothers [let me be chiefs 
. , . my city is the well of water 

^ Nam-lugal-la dHm-me»eH, The ma after dum, which Hrocn/ gives in 
Italics, has been erased by the scribe. 

^ The word for head was J^^^y traces of which, and not of t ^^^Y ^ are 
clear on the broken edge. 

" Not g ^^T , but quite clearly ^^Q^, followed by another character. 
The group may have been »^Q^ £T*"» i^'g^^ = oi^ridu and gugallu, '< eldest,*' 
"chief." 

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DEC. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1906. 

Here comes a gap, followed by some imperfect lines, and then 
the text continues : — 

The hero's brilliant [words], 

JVirig's gracious [speech], 

Nin-kar-nunna heard. 

To lord Nirig stepped she then and spoke to him a prayer : — 

* Lord, in thy city, which thou lovest, may thine heart take rest^ 
Lord Nirig, in thy city, which thou lot^est, may thine heart take rest. 
In the temple of Nippur, thy city which thou lovest, may thine heart 

take rest. 
When ^'Su-me-du, the seat of thine hearfs delight, with joy t/um 

enterest. 
To thy consort, the handmaid Nin-Nibri^ 
What is in thine heart tell her, what is in thy mind tell her^ 
Tell her the gracious words of the king for remote days^ 
(She) who {as) the offspring of the prince was brought forth, 

Nin-kar-nunna, 
Then from the mouth of a victim ^^ 
Amidst offerings^ sprinkled water of healing. 
When he had spoken in fullness .... 
His command for future days [? he set firm, and] 
Went (?) to A'Su-me-du in glory (?).** 
The heart of Nirig was pleased — 

* Lord Nirig looked upon her with favour — 
Upon his consort, the handmaid Nin-Nibri. 

He told her what was in his hearty he told her what was in his tnind^ 

He told her the gracious words of the king for remote (days). 

The hero, whose heroism shineth forth, 

Nirig, the son of Bel — 

His supremacy from the house of Belfilleth the earth. 

The lord, destroyer of the mountains, who hath no rivcU, 

^ Hroni^ : *' aus dem Munde des Ausgiessens.*' Niqtl means not only 
"libation," but also " sacrifice," "victim." 

» ^yyy ^ H-IUL >flf-<T t^yj, lH^^i kat-n-e. The Sumero- Akkadian, 
however, has '^f ^TTrT» '^"A** "that which is pregnant," as the equivalent of 
kairCf hence Hrozn^Ts suggestion that the meaning is vuiva. Perhaps the idea 
of " bringing forth " has developed into that of " offering as a gift." 

^ The traces seem to be those of ^J &]f]f^» iu-pii, an adverbial foim from 
SupA, " to beam forth.^^ Hrozn^ suggests a form of this root, and my revision 
confirms his restoration of the non-Semitic version. 

274 

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Dec 12] . THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR. [1906. 

Hath fiercely let loose his sublime battle — 

The hero in his strength rusheth past, 

O Nirigj sublime son of A-kur^ 

Prince 0/ the father thy begetter^ thy glory is supreme. 

Here comes the colophon : 

Tablet IV of ^Formed like Anu^ to its conclusion. 

Palace of AHur-bani-apli^ king of the worlds king of Assyria, 

To all appearance this text is merely for the purpose of showing 
how Nirig became one of the gods of £-kur in Nippur, along with 
his father Bel. The part in which he is requested not to disturb his 
father Bel in fe-kur with the noise of his chariot is curious, not to say 
amusing. Was it because of the noise he made that he was admitted 
as one of the gods of Nippur ? In any case, it is not to be wondered 
at that a deity with so many dreadful weapons and terrifying things 
was looked upon as one of the gods of war, and honoured accordingly^ 
As will have been noticed, Nin-Nibri or BUit Nippuri was regarded 
as his consort, from whom, if the text be understood aright, Nirig had 
apparently become estranged, and was reconciled to her by the 
intervention of his attendant, Nin-kar-nunna. 

One point in the enumeration of Nirig's many weapons and divine 
emblems is noteworthy, namely, the reference to the bow of the 
stormflood, giS-ban a-ma-gur, Semitic qaStu (dbubi). This suggests 
some connection with the rainbow, symbolized, in the story of the 
flood, by means of Istar's sacred necklace. The reference to the 
stormflood of battle points to another symbolical use of the term, in 
which an invading army is likened to a destroying inundation. The 
description of Nirig as the mighty one, BeFs stormflood, who is not 
met with in the mountains, calls to mind the explanation of their 
defeat given by the Syrians, on the ground that the Israelites' god 
was a god of the hills, on which accQunt the latter was the stronger 
of the two.3° Nirig was a god of this kind ; he could not be met 
(/>., resisted) in the mountains, and it may be that, as he was, before 
the entry of the Israelites, the god of one of the districts near 
Jerusalem, if not of Jerusalem itself, the Syrians identified the God 
of the Hebrews with him. The result of the encounter in the plaiA 
was disastrous to the Syrians, who, it will be remembered, were 



" I Kings, XX, 23. 
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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. 1^906. 

defeated by the Israelites at Aphek. As Babylonia itself consisted of 
an immense plain, the inhabitants would, in all probability, if asked, 
have denied that Nirig, their war-god of the hills, could not have 
aided them in the defence of their fatherland, in one of the chief of 
whose cities he had his seat. 

We now come to the kst of the interesting legends, or texts of 
that nature, on my list This is the legend entitled * The king, when 
his glorious splendour (streamed over the land' — or something 
similar). The first fragment in order, according to Hroznj's publi- 
cation, speaks of the Tigris, and mentions the time when the Idiglat 
(= Hiddekel, its early Semitic name) 'was troubled, dammed up, 
disturbed, and weakened,' a statement which recalls the fact that the 
sister-stream, the Euphrates, was treated in the same way by Cyrus 
when he captured Babylon (according to the Greek historians). 
Both Herodotus and the Babylonian inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar 
testify that the Babylonians had for a long time been nervous on that 
score, and the inhabitants of cities on the Tigris would seem to have 
had the same feeling with regard to the stream which then, as now, 
was the life of the city through which it flowed. The next tablet 
is apparently wanting, but the colophon of this fragment, which gives 
the first line, refers to some deity who * came forth from fl-gir (the 
temple of the sword) and went to battle.' 

What the gap may be between this and the next is not known, 
but as the tablet which follows is given as the eleventh of the series, 
the amount wanting must be considerable. 

This section refers to Nirig and the stones used in making statues, 
bas-reliefs, and seals, whose fates he decided. The first referred to is 
the dolerite, and this portion contains a distinct reference to the 
statues in that material in £-ninnu, the temple of Laga^ the unnamed 
king referred to being either Gudea or one of his dynasty. Notwith- 
standing that this passage is exceedingly mutilated, I give such a 
translation as is at present possible, on account of its historical 
interest : — 

• Tlhe lord stood by the dolerite — 

Like a reed in the mountain [? alone he stood] — 
Nirig^ the lord^ the son of Bel^ decided its fate: 

* Dolerite^ who in my battle [? remainedst inactive]^ 
Like heavy smoke [which doth not move], 

Thou raisedst not thine arm [to help me] — 

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% 

Dec. 12] THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR. [1906. 

In the rebellions the lord alone [thou leftest\ 

^Nirig^ lordy son of Bel^ who is like unto [thee?] . . . 

J^rom the lofty mountain may it . , . 

From the mountain of Makkan may it [he drought}]. 

Thou [cuttestf] the copper^ which is strong^ like skin J 

*I am lordyfor my heroic arm [art thou] greatly [suited,] 

The king who setteth his name that it may live to remote days^ 

Who carveth his image for future times^ 

In £-ninntiy the temple which is full of delight^ 

May he ^et] thee at the place of water-drinking i)^ , . , as an 

adornment,^ 
The lord [assumed the form] of the stone^ 
[He entered] the body of the stone tablet Q). 
Nirigy the lord^ the son of Bel^ pronounced a curse : 

* As it were a stone (am) I 

Stone^ which in my battle [refusedst] to take part^ 

ThoUy in thine acts^ mayest thou lie dawn like a swine. 

Be thrown down^ and be not used for work — end in becoming small: 

May he who knoweth thee return thee to the waterJ 

The (kingly) lord stood by the dXzJUvL'Stone^ 

Nirigy the lordy the son of Bely decided its fate: 

* [^] ^^^ ^^^ ^^ enemy of the understanding man, mayest thou for 

fear of me fall down. 



/Reverse. 

In hostile land as in (this) land mayest thou proclaim my name. 

In thy well-being thou shall not be reduced — 

May thy greatness hinder belittling. 

May my command work good in thy body. 

In the clash if weapons, hero, whom thou killest, gloriously end ; 

In the great court, the plain (of burial) mayest thou found; 

May the land favourably regard thee and cause thee to be an honour^ 

The lord stood by the * mountain-stone^ 

For its power he speaketh, 

Nirig, the son of Bel, decideth its fate : 

* Glorious hero, the beaming of the light of whose eye is directed on 

(alt) sides — 
^Mountain-stone,^ who in the hostile land a mighty cry hast caused^ 
Victoriously my hand did not seize it — 

277 



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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHvEOLOGV. r«9o6- 

IVith the unworthy have I not thrown it. 

At the feet of thy people thou shalt not be poured out. 

Let the command of the sun-god be thy command — 

Guide thou the lands like a judge. 

The wise one, he who knoweth e^jery thing. 

Let him treasure thee like gold, 

O hero, whom I have grasped, I lay not dotvn to rest until I gave thee 

life. 
Now, by the fates of Nirig, 
It is said: ^ There are days in the land, the mountain-ston^ lives J 

Let it be thus. 

Naturally, if my supposition that the portion referring to dolerite 
was written as it here stands in consequence of the statues of that 
material which were set up at LagaS (the stone is expressly stated by 
Gudea, as here, to have come from Makkan) be correct, that circum- 
stance has a certain amount of importance, as it would fix the date of 
the composition of the legend as being not earlier than 2700 years 
RC, or thereabouts. More material is required before this can be 
stated as a fact — ^at present it can only be given as a note-worthy 
probability. 

From the brilliance of the * mountain-stone,' it is not improbable 
that it was the name, or one of the names, of the diamond. Like 
the diamond, * the light of its eye ' is said to have been directed on 
all sides. The stone in question was apparently regarded as similar 
to the sun-god in the possession of a command, and it imitated him 
also in its guidance of the lands like a judge, apparently because its 
rays, like those of the great orb of day, penetrated everywhere. How 
precious it was in the eyes of Nirig, who conceived it, may be judged 
from the fact that he is said not to have rested until he had brought 
it into existence. By Nirig's fates, according to the inscription, it 
was said that there were days in the land because the * mountain- 
stone ' lived, implying that its brightness imitated that of the sun, the 
orb of day. The word * mountain-stone ' reminds us that the greatest 
diamond of modern times is known by the Persian name of Koh-i-NQr, 
* the mountain of Light,' but the Babylonian name may have origi- 
nated in a different way. The Sumero-Akkadian name is za ka (or, 
enimaYgina, *the stone of the faithful sa>'ing.' This may have a 
bearing upon the name of one of the earliest viceroys of LagaS,« 
Urti'ka (or, enimaYgina, whose name might then mean, instead of 

278 



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Dec, 12] THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR. [1906. 

*City of the faithful saying,' * Diamond-city,* or, *(He of the) 
Diamond-city.' 

The twelfth tablet is preserved only in a small fragment, belonging 
to the Royal Museum of Berlin, which originally formed a part of the 
library of tablets kept at Borsippa, the modern Birs-Nimroud. It 
is published by Abel and Winckler in their Keilschrifttexte^ p. 50 f. 
See also Hommel's Sutnerische LesestUcke^ pp. 122-125. It has the 
beginning and the end of the section with which it was inscribed : — 

* The hero stood by the alabaster^ 

JVirigy the lord^ the son of Bely decided for it the fate : 

* Alabaster^ whose body is brilliant like the day — 
Purified silver, O hero, which for the palace is culorned. 
Thy hand alone hath not held. 

In thy mountain mayest thou lie on the ground. 
With the weapon have I not smitten thee — let my potver enter — 

* The gracious place ^^ let thy name be called, 

Mayest thou be the adviser of the Anunnaki, the great gods. 
Alabaster, be thou placed as a decoration in the temple of the great 

gods: 
The hero stood by the algamiSu^" stone, and looked at it in displeasure. 
Tlie lord speaketh angrily a word in the land — 
Nirig, the son of Bel, cur set h it: 

* As thou wast a hindrance to my course^ 
Going in front among the shieldbearers,^ 

For whatever may be thy working, raise the head. 

Let its name be called * AlgamiSu, the offering of the storm, in its 

rising: ^^ 
The lord^^ stood by the Ayx^^-stone, 
Speaking to the bulalu, the grey stone, and the lapis-lazuli. 

(The remainder of the obverse is lost, as well as the upper part of 
the reverse.) 



" Probably a play upon the granting of grace by Nirig to the stone, as 
su^^ested by Hrocn:f. 

^ Hebrew B^^JJ^K* "crystal." {^omm^. Proceedings, 1893, p. 293.) 

J* Kiikattt, a doubtffll word. 

" This would seem to point to a meteoric stone — meteoric haematite or iron- 
stone. 

^ The Sumero- Akkadian version has ** My king." 

279 



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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1906, 

Ra)erse. 

The lands in • . . • 

The lord^ stood by the surru-stone, and \looked at it in displeasure"]. 
The lord speaketh angrily a word to the land — 
Nirig, the lord^ the son of Bel ^ curseth it : 

* Woe^ sumi*^ 0/ the sun-god . • 

To him who seeketh thee the horn may he win from thee^ and be thou 

added to the precious things ; 
For thy being ignoble thou settest thyself (^), 
As a helmet {or a garment) is cut to shape^ may a man make thee 

diminish ; 
May the coppersmith be set upon thee^ and crush (?) thee with a pestle. 
The hero who brought thy body Qit,,, flesh) from an opponent — 
The smithy whose work one calleth beautiful — 
May he kill thee like death, and grind thee like a mill^ {?): " 

Here this tablet comes to an end. The first line of the next 
tablet, given in the catchline, is : 

* The hero stood by the immsinsi-stone.' 

In the above, I have rendered giS-nu-gal by 'alabaster,' following 
Hrozn^. Formerly I thought I had evidence that giS-nu-gal was 

* white limestone,' which the Babylonians may have regarded as being 
quite as good as alabaster for decorative purposes. With regard to 
the gir-gU'gal = Semitic Babylonian surru, as it was a stone which was 
to be destroyed and crushed, corundum, or something similar, would 
probably be nearer the mark, especially as na gir-gu-gal may be 
translated " the stone of the great etching point." 

Three more fragments remain, and are exceedingly imperfect 
The pronouncement of the fates of the stones by the god Nirig 
continues, however, throughout them all. It is needless to say, that 
this series is of considerable value, not only for the legend of the 
blessing and cursing of the stones which it contains, but also for the 

^ Compare Hebrew y^, "flint" (Hommel, Sumer, LesesUy 123, footnote), 
and "rt^, "rock." Hrozn:^ translates "chalcedony." 

^ The original has the Babylonian form of J^^ Jk^ , which, it may be 
noted, seems to have nothing to do with "Sj^^?- (compare W.A.I. II, 30, *jo-^Ze 

with <^3lT ""-H »-^T ^"^ i° 1™ 78^). 

280 



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Dec. 12] THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR. [1906. 

descriptions of those stones, and the references to their fates, implying 
their uses, and sometimes the method of their working. The com- 
pletion of the series will be of the utmost importance, not only 
philologically, but also from an antiquarian point of view. 

As an appendix to the texts already described and translated, I 
give here a rendering of one which Hrozny does not regard as be- 
longing to the series entitled *The king, when his sublime glory 
(? enlightened the land),' but which, nevertheless, may have been 
added to it. Nothwithstanding its larger form, I used to regard this 
tablet as belonging to the first legend, in consequence of the elegant 
style in which it was written — the beauty of the series referring to 
Nirig found at Nineveh being noteworthy. 



Obverse, 

1. ^ Towering high 

2. The might of the labbu, the great serpent^ becoming greats ^ in- 

creasing in the mountains. 

3. Nirig^ the royal son^ whom Bel caused to be greater than lie 

himself is ^ — 

4. Hero^ whose net overthroweth the enemy — 

5. Nirig^ thy fearful shadow is stretched out over the country, 

6. Angrily^ to spoil the land of the enemy ^ he collecteth his army. 

7. Nirigy the roycd son, whose father he had caused to bow down the 

face to him from afar, 

8. When he sat upon the throne in the royal chamber^^^ when he 

raised on high his splendour, 

9. When he sat joyfully and widely in the festival instituted for him, 

10. When he contended with Anu and Bel, when he made the wine^ 

11. When Bau offered a prayer for him to the king^ 

12. When Nirig, the lord, the son of Bel, decided the fate, 

13. Then the lord's weapon — his ear \set\ in the mountain — 

14. &ur-ur, to lord Nirig spoke : 

15. ^ Lord, high resting-place in all the land, 

16. Nirig, thy command is not changed 

« I read here >-^ JfcJ V ^ i,> mukiaUaiiu. 
^ Or, < Whom Bel himself caused to be great.' 

2ftl 



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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. li9o6^ 

Reverse, 

1. Lord Ann made the earth 

2. To Nirig^ the fearless hero^ the asakku (demon of fever ?) \fame not 

near], 

3. The child who sat not to the nurse^ \escheiving\ the strength of 

milk^ 

4. The lord not knowing the progeny of the father^ he who shattereth 

the mountains^ 

5. The mighty hero^ in whose face there is no shanUy 

6. Nirig^ the manly one, exalted^ who rejoiceth in his appearance^ 

7. The warrior who is like a steer ^ I will stand by hi^ side. 

8. The lord who is gracious to his city^ complaisant to his mother^ 

9. Rode upon a mountain, scattered seed, 

10. Unanimously proclaimed the plants his name to their kingdom^ 

1 1. Raising his horns among them like a great wild ox, 

12. The sd'Stone, the a§aridu-j/<?«^, the dolerite, the uz-stone^ the 

* mountain-Stone,^ ^^ 

13. The hero — alabaster their hero— plundered the cities for them, 

14. In the mountain the poison-tooth cometh forth, and it trembleth, 

15. His arm bo7ve/h down its city on high to the ground, 

(The remainder is wanting.) 

We have much to learn ere we shall understand this strange 
inscription, with its reference to Nirig's infancy, to his graciousness, 
and to his being regarded as a king among the plants, whose originator 
he seems to have been. Here, too, he is again mentioned in con- 
nection with various stones, one of them being described as the 
poison-tooth {Simii kuVi) coming forth on the mountain. I'his, of 
course, is only thus designated on account of its shape — it was 
possibly more or less like a serpent's fang, as is the inscribed stone 
found by Sir Edward Durand in the island of Bahrein, which was 
evidently a sacred object. In this connection it is possible that 
Nirig was regarded as the god of meteors and shooting stars, as 
is suggested on p. 208. That he was one of the gods of storms> 
especially when accompanied by thunder, is suggested not only by 
the ideograph practically identifying him with Rimmon quoted on 
p. 207, but also by the reference to the thundering of his chariot, and 

^ See page 278. 
282 



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Dec 12] THE BABYLONIAN GODS OF WAR. [1906. 

the terror caused to the earth and to the gods — even to his father 
Bel — by the raising of his arm, as is stated in the translation on p. 271. 

Equally important and interesting, also, are the parallels which 
may be made between this last text and the story of Merodach, as 
related in the Babylonian account of the Creation. Like Nirig, Bel 
may be said to have caused Merodach to be greater than he himself 
was (p. 281, line 3) ; it was the net of Merodach which overthrew the 
Dragon of Chaos (cp. line 4) ; and after the victory Merodach, like 
Nirig, was made king of the gods m the royal chamber (line 8), took 
part in the festival instituted for him (compare line 9), competed 
successfully with Anu and Ea (or Aa) in the matter of the overthrow 
of the Dragon of Chaos (line 10); though it would seem that 
Merodach, at the festival instituted for him, did not himself make 
the drink which was used, as is here related of Nirig. Merodach, 
too, was appointed the decider of fate for all the world (as it is 
apparently to be understood), and not, as the wording here (in 
line 12) presupposes, on one occasion, or for a limited time. The 
parallelisms in this portion of the legends of Nirig seem to be 
sufficiently in accord with those in the story of Merodach to make it 
probable that the two deities were in some way related and identified 
— and, in fact, we know that all the principal deities were identified 
with Merodach during at least a portion of the Semitic period, 
perhaps reaching as far back as the time of Hammurabi. 

There are many imperfections in the above remarks upon the 
Babylonian gods of War, but defective though this paper may be, it 
will doubtless prove to be of interest, and may even contain some- 
thing new. In any case, I have fulfilled the task which I had set 
myself, namely, that of placing before the learned world of this 
country some account of what is being done with our tablets by the 
Assyriologists of the continent and of America. For the legends con- 
cerning Nirig, I am much indebted to Dr. Fried. Hrozny's Sumerische- 
babylonische Mytfien von dem Gotfe Ninrag {Ntnib\ whose excellent 
edition I have frequently quoted in this paper. Whether my de- 
partures from his renderings are always for the best or not, time alone 
can decide. 



283 

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Dec, 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1906. 



A LEADEN CHARM 
MADE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF SATURN. 

By E. J. PiLCHER, 

This Charm, which belongs to Mr. Nash, is a leaden disk, 2| ins. 
in diameter, and about j- in. thick. It was dug up in a Cornish 
garden some years ago, having apparently been deposited there for 
magical purposes- When found it still bore traces of a red pigment 
with which it had been coated before burial; but this had not 
prevented extensive oxidation. 

The disk bears on both sides various symbols connected with the 
planet Saturn. According to the Kabbalists, the emblems of Saturn, 
engraved on a leaden plate under a fortunate aspect of the planet 
would render the owner confident and powerful, and ensure him 
worldly success. But in an unlucky aspect it would have the 
opposite effect : it would cause the ruin of buildings, blight crops, and 
cause dissensions. The ancient astrologers looked upon the 
influence of Saturn as uniformly bad. Kabbalism, in accordance 
with its fundamental principles, attributed good, as well as bad, 
influences to the planet ; but even then the bad aspects were vastly- 
more frequent than the good ones ; so that a talisman of Saturn is 
more likely to be unlucky than otherwise. In the present instance 
the inference is that the amulet was intended to be malevolent ; and 
the leaden disk was secretly buried for the purpose of bringing ill- 
luck to a neighbour. 

Obverse. 

As the planet Saturn dominates the third sphere of the Universe,^ 
the names, symbols, &c., upon this disk are arranged in groups of 
three ; and the Magical Square is placed in a triangle. 



» P.S,B,A., vol. XXVIII, p. no. 
284 



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Proc. Soc, BibL ArcA., Dec, 1906. 







h 



c ' /Hn j4. \ 



A ,1 f 






OBVERSE. 











\ 



bi'^m 






uin^VDlTn fi^iu; ' 



REVERSE. 

LEADEN CHARM 
In Mr. W. L. Nash's Collection. 



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Dec. 12] A LEADEN CHARM. [1906. 

In the angles of the triangle are the words Sb^ ITT and TV 
{Ab Hod and JcJC). The letters of these, taken in their numerical 
values, add up to 3, 9 and 15 respectively. That is to say, the 
characteristic numbers of the Square, which is composed of three 
columns, involving nine ciphers, and containing the sum of fifteen in 
every direction. 

On the sides of the triangle are the names of three of the 
principal Angels of the planet, viz., Uriel, Maimon, and Abumalith. 

Beneath all is the astronomical symbol of the planet \ . 

Reverse. 

The reverse of the medal presents three "Signatures." The first 
is that of Saturn, accompanied by his Hebrew name Shabbathai. 
The second is the Signature of the planetary Demon, Zazel. The 
third is that of the Indwelling Spirit, Agiel. 

Below the Signatures are three words from Exod. xvi, 25, rQtt^ 
mn*''? DVn " Sabbath is the day of the Lord " ; thus introducing 
Saturn's Day, and also the Word of Power rtirp. 

At the base of all we have *' Adonai f? Agla" ; or the planetary 
symbol between two Words of Power. 

This talisman, therefore, was intended to contain within itself all 
the most powerful influences of the planet Saturn, as registered by the 
characteristic words and symbols ; and, consequently, it was made of 
lead — the Saturnine metal. 



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Dec. 12] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. Ei9<^- 



The Anniversary Meeting of the Society will be held 
on Wednesday, January 9th, 1907, at 4.30 p.m,, whea the 
following Paper will be read : — 

Miss M. A. Murray.— "St. Menas of Alexandria.'* 

JVifA Lantern-slide Illustrations, 



286 



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INDEX. 



" Abab," the mystic name of the cipher 4 ... 

Abydos, the people of. 

Amulet, a Hebrew, against disease 

Ardistama Inscriptions, the 

Assyrian incantation against Ghosts, an 



Vol. Pagb. 
... XXVIII. 113 

... XXVIII. 29 

... XXVIII. 182 

... XXVIII. 134 

... XXVIII. 219 



B. 

Babylonian gods of war, the ; and their legends XXVIII. 203, 270 

Baghdad boil, the, mentioned in an Assyrian Astrological Report XXVIII. 78 

Bilingual inscription relating to Nergal 

** Bow of the storm-flood," one of the god Nirig*s weapons * 

Burgh Papyrus, the 

Buto, goddess, two statuettes of 

„ fragment of a statue of, in the Museo Civico at Mantua 

„ sometimes figured wearing the red Crown of the North 

,, an ancient, local, form of Isis 

, , sometimes with head of a Lioness 

,, figure of, in the Copenhagen Glyptothek 

„ frequently called ** Lady of the North " 

,, and Nekheb called ** the two serpents " 



XXVIII. 


213 


XXVIII. 


275 


XXVIII. 


178 


XXVIII. 


201 


XXVIII. 


201 


XXVIII. 


202 


XXVIII. 


202 


XXVIII. 


202 


XXVIII. 


202 


XXVIII. 


202 


XXVIII. 


202 



c. 

Charm, a leaden, made under the influence of Saturn XXVIII. 284 

Chedor-laomer Tablets, the XXVIII. 193,241 

„ ,, „ translation of the text XXVIII. 197,241 

Chedor-laomer of the Tablets is the king of Elam mentioned in 

Genesis xiv, I XXVIII. 

Child born after the mother's death and burial XXVIIL 

Coptic fragments, at Munich, I XXVIII. 

„ 11 XXVIIL 

Z 



193 

82 

229 



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288 SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. ^ 

Vol. Pagb. * 
Crossed arrows, /C > an emblem of Neith from the Ist to the 

IVth dynasty XXVIII. 71 

Cutha, city, seat of worship of Nergal XXVIII. 213 

Cuthean Hymn to Nergal XXVIII. 210 

D. 

Delta, the inhabitants of, different from those of Upper Egypt ... XXVIII. 68 

,, the people of, conquered by Narmer, king of Upper Egypt XXVIII. 69 

„ pre-Menite kings of, worshippers of Neith XXVIII. 70 

Demons, marriage of, with human beings XXVIII. 82 

Den, Ist dynasty king of Upper Egypt, marries Mer-Neith ... XXVIII. 70 

Diseases always due to Demons, in Assyrian belief XXVIII. 81 



Egypt, Lower, originally divided into a number of petty king- 
doms under chieftains XXVIII. 68 

Egyptian Ancient History, observations on XXVIII. 29 

Egyptian Civilization, prehistoric origin of XXVIII. 29 

„ ,, originated in district between Heliopolis 

and Abydos XXVIII. 29 

Egyptian magic wands. Astrological character of XXVIII. 33 

El-Hammam, inscription of S-aiikh-ka-Ra from XXVIII. 171 

El-H6sh, Inscriptions in the quarries of XXVIII. 17 

„ ,, (ireek letters among the signs of XXVIII. 18 

,, ,, probably of the time of Antoninus XXVIII. 19 

,, ,, the signs, characters not arbitrary marks ... XXVIII. 20 

,, ,, division of, into groups XXVIII. 20 

„ ,, note on, by Prof. Sayce XXVIII. 20 

Eraelakhkha, the name given to the standard dialect of Sumer ... XXVIII. 194 

Emc-sal, the name of a dialect of Sumer XXVIII. 194 

„ means *' the woman's dialect" XXVIII. 195 

Epilepsy, an Arab cure for XXVIII . 77 

EreS-ki-gal, goddess of the Babylonian underworld ... XXVIII. 215 

,, her espousal with Nergal ... XXVIII. 215 

Eri-Aku, of the Chedor-laomer Tablets, is the Arioch, king of 

Ellasar, mentioned in Genesis, xiv, i ... ... XXVIII. 193 

ErzerCim, Hittite inscription from XXVIII. 91 

Eye diseases, Arab remedies for ... ... ... XXVIII. 83 



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INDEX. 



F. 



Fever, an Arab cure for 

Figures found near the South Temple at VVidJ Haifa 

Fire, ordeal by, in Arabia 

Folk-lore, the, of Mossoul, I 



Ghosts, an Assyrian incantation against 
Greyhound, a form of, sacred to the god 
depicted on objects from Abydos 



i 



H. 



Haau, or ** Fen-men," inhabitants of the Delta in very early times XXVIII. 

Ha-nebu, the same as the Haau? 

Headache, Assyrian incantations against 

Heliopolitan people, the 

Hetep, a Saite princess, marries Narmer 

,, ,, perhaps mother of Aha (Menes) 

,, her name on tablets found at Naqada 

„ ,, accompanied by the sign j^7 "Princess of Sais," 





289 


Vol. 


Pack. 


XXVIII. 79, 80 


... xxvin. 


118 


... XXVIII. 


81 


xxvin. 76,97 


... XXVIII. 


219 


» 

... XXVHI. 


131 


les XXVIII. 


73 


... XXVIII. 


73 


... XXVIII. 


80 


... XXVIII. 


29 


... XXVIII. 


69 


... XXVIII. 


69 


... XXVIII. 


69 



and by the sign 



' Consort of the Double Dominion " XXVIII. 70 



Himyaritic inscription, the, from Jabal Jehaf 

Hittite inscription (J. 1 1 ), note on 

„ inscriptions in the Constantinople Museum 
„ seals in the Ashmolean Museum 

Hyksos and Hittites, the, their national deity the god 



Ivriz texts, the... 



J- 



Jaundice attributed to the ' * a^^azu *' demon 

Jonah believed to be buried in the mosque on Nebi-Vonus 



K. 



Kabbalistic planetary charms 
Karian and other inscriptions., 



... XXVIII. 


143 


... XXVIII. 


27 


... XXVIII. 


91 


... XXVIII. 


136 


g ^ XXVIII. 


131 


... XXVIII. 


133 


... XXVIII. 


77 


... XXVIII. 


83 


... XXVIII. 


no 


... XXVIII. 


172 



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290 SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 

Vol. Paok- 
M. 

Magic ivories, the, of the Middle Empire, III XXVIII. 159 

„ date of XXVIII. 165 

„ „ meaning of the figures on XXVIII. 166 

Magicsquares XXVIII. iii 

Marriage of demons with human beings XXVIII. 82 

Mcr-Neith, marries Den, king of Upper Egypt XXVIII- 70 

Mesnawo, name found in Karian inscriptions XXVIII. 172 

'* Mistress of the Mediterranean," Neith so called in an inscription 

of the time of Nectanebo XXVIII. 7Z 

Monarchy, the early, of Egypt (Note by Mr. Legge) XXVIII. 14 

N. 

Narmer, king of Upper Egypt, conquers the Delta XXVIII. 69 

„ marries Hetep, a Saite princess XXVIII. 69 

Negadah, Tablet of XXVIII. 253 

„ discovered by M. de Morgan in 1897 XXVIII. 253 

,, missing fragment of, found by Mr. Garstang ... XXVIII. 253 

,, description of XXVIII. 254 

,, meaning of the scenes on XXVIII. 256 

,, variants of the formula on XXVIII. 260 

,, meaning of the formula on XXVIII. 261 

,, summary of the reading of XXVIII. 263 

Neith, the chief deity of Sais XXVIII. 68 

,, represented wearing the same crown as that worn by the 

pre-Menite kings of the Delta . . .' XXVIII. 68 

„ a Delta goddess XXVIIL 70 

,, usually described as of Libyan origin XXVI II, 71 

„ her name on monuments of the earliest period XXVIII. 71 

„ her emblem from 1st to IVth dynasty was yC* ^^ ^'^ 

8-shaped shield -XXVIII. 71 

,, her emblems in the IVth, Vth and Vlth dynasties ... XXVIII. 71 
,, her name, from the XlXth dynasty, written with two 

forms of shuttle, :CZ>: or x=:x XXVIII. 72 

,, foundress of Sais, a Greek tradition XXVIII. 74 

„ identified with Pallas Athene XXVIII. 74 

Nekheb, the Egyptian goddess, called by the Greeks Eileithyia . . . XXVIII. 202 

„ „ called by the Romans Lucina ... XXVIII. 202 



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INDEX. 



291 



Nergal, Babylonian God of War ... 

t, bilingual inscription relating to 

Nimrod, throne of, Syriac inscription on 

,, „ ,, translation of 

}> >» » palaeography of 

n „ >, grammar of 

„ „ V9 interpretation of 

Nirig or Enu-refitu, an Assy ro- Babylonian deity 

„ . ,, hymn in praise of 

„ „ four tablets relating to 

** Northern enemies," mentioned on a figure of Khasekhem, are 
probably the Semites of the Delta 

O. 

Ophthalmia, an Assyrian receipt for cure of 

Osiris, the great god of Abydos 

„ at first the principal deity of the Egyptian Empire 
Osiris and Horus, relative position of ... - 



Palanga, H ittite Inscription from 

Pendant, a peculiar, on a statue of Usertsen III 

Planetary Charms in the B.M., list of 

Planets, " Signatures " of the 

** Priestess of Neith," a title borne by women of high rank 

•Pre-Sargonic Times 

Pschent, the name of the 



Rakka, a bronze figure from 

Ra, the principal deity of Heliopolis 



R. 



S. 



Vol. 


Page. 


XXVIII. 


203 


XXVIIL 


213 


XXVIII. 


151 


XXVIII. 


151 


XXVIII. 


152 


XXVIII. 


152 


XXVIII. 


153 


XXVIII. 


205 


XXVIII. 


270 


XXVIII. 


270 



XXVIII. 32 



S-ankh-ka-Ra, inscription of 

Sahidic Exodus fragment, thf*, in the Zouche collection 
Sais, to what race did the people of, belong ? 

„ Neith the chief deity of 

„ a chieftain of, becomes king of Lower Egypt 

„ princesses of, worshippers of Neith 

,, founded by Neith, a Greek tradition 



XXVIII. 


77 


XXVIII. 


30 


XXVIII. 


30 


XXVIII. 


31 


XXVIII. 


93 


XXVIII. 


268 


XXVIII. 


"5 


XXVIII. 


no 


XXVIII. 


70 


XXVIII. 


264 


XXVIII. 


189 


XXVIII. 


228 


XXVIII. 


29 


XXVIII. 


171 


XXVIII. 


54 


XXVIII. 


68 


XXVIII. 


68 


XXVIII. 


68 


XXVIII. 


70 


XXVIII. 


74 



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292 SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. 

Vol. Page. 
Saite nome, emblem of, after Xllth dynasty, is the round-top 

shield with crossed arrows XXVIII. 71 

Sebek-em-heb ^^^ ^y fTj , "a scribe of the soldiers," 

figure of, found at Wid^ Haifa XXVIII. 118 

Semitic immigrants in the Delta of Egypt XXVIII. 29 

Sephiroth, the ten, or " Emanations of the Absolute " XXVIII. no 

Set, the god, his name written ^ .grj on the sarcophagus ol 

Mentuhotep XXVIII. 124 



i 



on the sarcophagus of 



Sebek-aa XXVIII. 123 

Saqqarah pyramids XXVIII. 125 

Papyrus of Ani XXVIII. 1 25 

,♦ ,, „ in some Ptolemaic texts... XXVIII. 127 

ckDnni 

„ not a god of the land or desert XXVIII. 127 

„ from the XVIIIth dynasty often written 1 ^ "^ J) - XXVIIL 128 

„ regarded as a native of the town of Sout XXVIII. 128 

Sell, should be read Soutekhi, or Setoukhi XXVIII. 123 

Seth, le Dieu, et le Roi Sethosis XXVIIL 123 

2^^, the Greek transcription of 1 >K ^ ^ XXVIIL 129 



Set-Typhon, the god of the Asiatic immigrants in the Delta ... XXVIIL 29 

Shield, the 8-form of, not found after the IVth dynasty XXVIIL 72 

,, ,, the characteristic form used by the earliest 

historical inhabitants of the Eastern 

Mediterranean XXVIIL 72 

,, ,, carried by a Hittite warrior, carved on the 

castle gateway at Zenjirli XXVIIL 72 



^and I 



Signs, the "jfci and T found in connection with the name 

of Hetep, wife of Narmer XXVIIL 70 

Si-ptah, discovery of the tomb of XXVIIL 96 



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INDEX. 



293 



Slate, a new carved 

Soutekhi, or Setoukhi, the correct reading of Seti. 
" Star of Stars " the, and " Dilgan " 



Vol. Page. 
... XXVIII. 87 
... XXVIII. 123 
... XXVIII. 6, 47 



Tablets, the, of Negadah and A bydos 

Takbat, mother of Amenmeses 

„ a queen mentioned on a statue of Sety II 

Talismanic medal, a, of pewter 

Tarkutimme, note on the " boss "of 

Tausert, the position of in the XlXth dynasty 

„ in her lomb described as " Heiress, Royal "Wife," etc. 

„ wife of Sety II 

,, the tomb of, begun during the reign of Sety II ... 

Tausert and Si-ptah, their names on a scarab 

Tetragrammaton, the Kabbalistic expression of the four letters 

the ineffable name niiT 

** Throne of Nimrod" 

Toothache, in the East attributed to a worm in the tooth 
Tudghula, of the Chedorlaomer Tablets is the " Tidal King 

Nations" mentioned in Genesis xiv, i 

Tyana, Hittite Inscription from 



... XXVIII. 


252 


... XXVIII. 


186 


... XXVIII. 


186 


... XXVIII. 


"7 


... XXVIII. 


187 


... XXVIII. 


185 


... XXVIII. 


185 


... XXVIII. 


185 


... XXVIII. 


185 


... XXVIII. 


185 


of 




... XXVIII. 


"3 


... XXVIII. 


149 


... XXVIII. 


78 


of 




... XXVIII. 


193 


... XXVIII. 


94 



w. 



WSd^ Ilalfa, figures found at 



.. XXVIII. 118 



^gaga> Babylonian War God 



... XXVIII. 203 



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294 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. 



LIST OF AUTHORS. 



Ayrton, E. K 

Burkitt, Prof. F. C, M,A, 
Campbell Thompson, R., Af,A, 
Colin-Campbell, Rev. Dr. 

Cowper, H. S., F,S,A 

Jones, Rev, F. A. 

Legge, F 

Legrain, G. 

Lieblein, Prof, J 

Loret, Victor 

MuUer, Dr. D. H 

Murray, Miss M. A 

Nash, W. L., RS.A 

Newberry, Percy E 

Pierret, Prof. Paul 

Pilcher, E. J 

Pinches, T. G., L.L.D. 

Plunket, Hon. Miss E 

Revillout, Prof. Dr. E , 

Ricci, S. de 

Sayce, Prof. A. H., D.D, 

Schmidt, Dr. Valdemar 

Scott-Moncrieff, P., B.A. 

Sibree, E., M.A. 

Winstedt, E. O 



PAGE 

96, 185 

149 

76, 97, 219 

156 

228 

264 

14, 87, i59» 252 

17 

29 

«23 

143 

33 

182 

68 

189 

no, 284 

203, 270 

6, 47 

178 

54 

91, 133. I7i» 193, 241 

201, 268 

118 

27, 1S7 

137, 229 



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SOCIETY OF BIBUGAL ARGHmOGT PUBLICATIONS. 



A 

GENERAL INDEX 

TO THE 

"PROCEEDINGS." 



VOLS. XI— XX. 



,^,^^ (MEMBERS, 5s. 
PRICE -I 

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NOW READY-PRICE 30s. 

(Postage, 4^) 
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Tbe Bronze Ornaments of the Palace Gates from 

Balawat 

[Shalmaneser II, B.C. 85C>:-82S.] 

Part V (the final l)art), with Introduction and descriptive letter-press, 
has now been issued to the Subscribers. 

A few complete copies of the book remain unsold and can be 
obtained on application to the Secretary. 



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Society of Biblical ARCHiEOLOGY. 

37, Great Russell Street, London, W.C- 



COUNCIL, 1906. 



President, 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, D.D., &c., &c 

Vue^PresidenSs, 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Right Rev., the Lord Bishop op Salisbury. 

The Most Hon. the Marquess of Northampton. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Halsbury. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Walter Morrison. 

Alexander Peckover, LL.D., F.S.A. 

F. G. Hilton Price, Dir. S.A. 

W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

The Right Hon. General Ix>rd Grbnfell, K.C.B., &c., &c. 

The Right Rev. S. W. Allen, D.D. (R.C. Bishop of Shrewsbury). 

Rev. J. Marshall, M.A. 

Joseph Pollard. 



Coutuil. 

Rev. Charles Jambs Ball, M.A. 

Dr. M. Gaster. 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. 

H. R. Hall, M.A. 

Sir H. H. Howorth, K.C.LE., 

F.R.S., &c. 
L. W. Kino, M.A. 
Rev. Albkkt Lowy, LL.D., &c. 
Prof. G. Maspbro. 



Clauds G. Montefiorb. 
Prof. £. Navillb. 
Edward S. M. Pbrownb, F.S.A. 
Rev, W. T. Filter. 

P. SCOTT-MONCRIEFF, B.A. 

R. Campbell Thompson, M.A. 
Edward B. Tylor, LL.D.» 
F.R.S., &c. 



Honorary Ireasurer — Bernard T. Bosanqubt. 

5^tr«/tfrr— Walter L. Nash, M.R.C.S. {Eng,), F.S.A. 

Honora$y Stcretary for Foreign Correspondence — F. Lbggb, 

Honorary Lidrarian^VfALTJLVi L. Nash, M.R.C.S. {Bhig'.)^ F.S.A. 



HARRISON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN OROINART TO HIS MAJBSTV, ST. M Affix's XJUTB. 

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