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Cchaeological & Natural 
History Society. 

7EE1)INGS during im year i hyq 


^rchiseological W Natural History 





The Council of the Someraetshirr Archaological and Natural 
WMorii Society desire that it should be distinctly understood that 
although the volume of Procebdinos is published under their 
dinrtioVy they do not Iwld themselves in any way responsible for 
any statements or opinions expressed therein ; the authors of the 
several paiicrs and communications being alone responsible. 

'^ 232 ST " 005 ' 2022 



The thanks of the Society are due to Mr. W. H. Hamilton 
Rogers, F.S.A., for supplying the illustrations to his paper; to 
Professor Allen, for his excellent photographs ; to the Rev. E. 
H. Hates, for his map and drawings of Church Plate ; to the 
Rev. F. Hancock, f.s.a., for his contribution towards the ex- 
pense of the Church Plate illustrations, and to Mr. McMurtrie, 
tor the drawings of the prehistoric remains found at Radstock. 

F. w. w. 
Jnnuttrii^ 1900, 



Fifty Fikst Annual Meeting (Clevedon) 

Report of the Council ... 

Treasurer's Account ... 

Somerset Record Society 

President's Address 

Clevedon Court... 

Description of Clevedon Court 

Clevedon Parish Church 

Clevedon Hall ... 
Evening Meeting — Papers and Discussions 






Excursion — 

Yatton Church ... 
Congresbury Church .. 
Wrington Church 
Brockley Church 
Chelvey Church 
Nailsea Court ... 
Tickenham Church 



Excursion — 

Clapton-in-Gordano Church and Court 

Weston-in-Gordano Church 

Portishead Chiu^h 

Port bury Church 

Visit to Failand House 

Wraxall Church 
Treasure Closet, Deanery, Wells 
On the Coleridge Cottage, Clevedon 
Additions to the Society's Museum and Library 




Brook, of Somerset and Devon ; Barons of Cobham, in 

Kent — by W. H. Hamilton Rogers, F.S.A ... 1 

The Descent of the Manor of AUerton — by Prebendary 

V. oieman ... ... ■•• .*• ... ... ^o 

The Five-Hide-Unit in the Somerset Domesday — by 

the Rev. E. H. Bates, M.A. ... ... ... ... 51 

Notes on Ancient British and Romano-British Remains 
discovered in the Tyning and Kilmersdon Road 
Quarries, at Radstock — by J. McMurtrie, F.G.S.... 108 

An Inventory of Church Plate in Somerset (part iii) — 
by the Rev. E. H. Bates, M.A., and the Rev. F. 
Hancock, M.A., F.S.A., Prebendary of Wells ... 125 
Mudford and its Church — by John Batten ... ... 179 

Officers, Members, and Rules ... ... ... ... 193 

Yatton . . . 


. • • 

Part i 24 






ILLUSTRATIONS— r.>w/i//i/^//. 


(xeorge Brook, Lord C'obham, -Ob : 1558 ... Part li 1 

John Brook, Lord C.'obliam, and Marfjaret 

NeviU his wife ... ... ... ... „ 2 

Thomas Brook, Lord Cobham, and Dorothy 

Haydon his wife ... ... ... ... „ 3 

Thomas Brook, Lord Cobham, and Dorothy 

Haydon his wife ... ... ... ... „ 9 

Faith Brook, Cowling Church ... ... „ 8 

Johanna Weld, first wife of Sir Robert Brook „ 9 

George Brook, Lord Cobham, and Anne Bray 

lilo 1^ 111.' ... ... ... ... ... ,, L\J 

George Brook, Lord Cobham, and Anne Bray 

hig wife ... ... ... ... ... „ 10 

George Brook, Lord Cobham, and Anne Bray 

Ill9«*II.\^ ... ... ... ... ... •• 11 

John Brook, jNewington Church, Kent ... „ 12 

Sir Robert Brook and Elizabeth Culpeper, his 

second wife ... ... ... ... ... „ 13 

Alice Cobbe, Lady Norton, wife of John 

X3& Uv^lV ... ... ... ... ... 

Mary, wife of Edward Brook... 
Brook Family — Armorial Bearings ... 
Somerset Map — Five-Hide-Unit 
Remains from Tyning Quarry, Radstock 
Remains from Kihnersdon Road, Radstock ... 
Remains from Kilmersdon Road, Radstock . 
Church Plate — South Petherton Chalice and 


St. Decuman's ('halice 

Carhampton Chalice 

Treborough Chalice 

Nettlecombe Chalice and 

Paten, 1479 „ 168 





























THE fifty-first annual meeting of the Somerset Archaeo- 
logical and Natural History Society was held at 
Clevedon on Tuesday, July 25th, and the proceedings in their 
entirety lasted for three days, excursions being made to neigh- 
bouring churches, and many historic phices of interest were 
visited amid the charming scenerv with which the district 

The proceedings at Clevedon commenced with the annual 

meeting, held on Tuesday at noon, in the Public Hall. In the 

I absence of the President, Mr. E. J. Stanley, M.P., Mr. E. 

i B. Cely Thkvilian, one of the Vice-Presidents, took the 

ehair, and having read a letter from Mr. Stanley, regretting 

\ Wa inability to be present, he introduced the President for the 

I year, the Right Hon. Sir Edward Fry, P.C, of Failand 

House, North Somerset, late Lord Justice of Appeal. 

Vol. XLV (Third Serien, Vol. VJ, Part f. A 

2 Fifty-ifirst Annual Meeting. 


Lieiit.-Col. J. R. Bramble submitted the annual re 
follows : — 

"Your Committee beg to present their fifty-first 

"In the first place they have the satisfaction of anno 
tliat the Earl of Cork and Orrery, K.P., Lord Lieiitoi 
Somerset, has cordially accepted the invitation of your S 
to become its Patron. 

" Since our last report twenty-three new names hav« 
added to your list of members. On the other hand the 1 
deaths and resignations has been nine, leaving a net g 
fourteen members. The total number is 651, as asrain 
at the date of our last report. 

" The balance of your Society's (ieneral Account at tl 
of 1897 (your accounts being made up to the end of the 
was £76 16s. lOd. in favor of the Society, the liability 1 
(»()st of the volume for the year then expired not havinj 
taken into account. The balance at the close of the p 
account was £118 lis. lOd. in favor of the Societv. 

**Thc total cost of Volume XLIV (for 1898), inc 
l)rinting, illustrations and delivery, has been £ 104 los. 7(1 
cost to the Society was greatly reduced by the liberal 
Mr. W. II. Hamilton Rogers of the whole of the illustrati 
his i)apcr, by the President of the two pictures of the 
Doors,' and by the Rev. Preb. Buller of two views of 
Cuny church. Professor Allen was also good enou 
su])j)ly the excellent photographs from which most of th( 
trations were taken. The thanks of the Society are < 
each and every of these gentlemen. 

*'The total amount of the subscriptions to the Castle 
up to date, is £714 6s. 6d., including Colonel Pinney's leg 
£300. Your Committee have entered into a contract wit 
Fox for substantial repairs to the Castle Hall, includic 

^^^g Iici»>rl of the Cvimcil. A 

Bn^ out and <roinplete repair o£ the roof. This roof is 
Bm, liiat of good constniction, and the timbers thi-oughoiit 
■0. The eeilitig, however, was tti n bad eunditton. nnd por- 
K were hable to fall at atiy time. The work hat) also iocliided 
Btating the wiodows, the repair of floors, and the supply' o£ 
Mgq tiering and down pipes, Tlie fine portteo or two-storied 
^n IK being improved bv the removal of mmlern brickwork, 
B a high-pre);8iire heating apparatus is being gupplied, this 
Big necessary to protect yonr valuable collection from damp. 
BTbe roof over a portion of the Library and Museum, ad- 
Bing the Curator's house, "hieli was in a very bad state, is 
Bb« ilicimiighly reinstated, ineUiding new lead giittcnt, 
B* .Vs usual, during the carrying out of the work, the absolute 
Bwily of replacing unsound timbers and other additional 
B|k has been apparent, and further aid towards the cost will 

Vlt ia proposed that immediately on the completrou of the 
Biiri to the (jreat Uall, the (ieological and sonic other poi-- 
Inij of the Museum shall be added to the part of the Natural 
Hiftorj collection, which has been hitherto all that was cs- 
hilnlnl [here. Want of space, has, until now, prevented the 
[iruptr esliibition of much which was valuabli' and highly iu- 

"The Mayor and Corponition of Tauntr.n huve jiresented to 
lilt Society the nak framework of two of the almshouses, for- 
iiierlj standing in St. James" Street, called St. James' Alms- 
buses, which were taken down about two years since. They 
lull' been re-erected on the portion of the Castle Lawn, nearly 
upjwsile the Library, and form a very interesting example of 
tie ' half-timbered ' houses of the sixteenth century. 
"The Castle House, unfortunately, still remains void. 
"The Council have Ui report the gift by Mr. Harvey 
Pritlhain, of the Vicarage, West Harptree, of a. large voliune, 
containing a type-written copy (one of three) of hia ' Notes on 
tknncr^lshire Fonts,' tlie result of several years work. He 

4 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

proposes, at some future time, to deposit with us the measured 
drawings, to an uniform scale, of a)I such fonts. The cordial 
thanks of the Society are due to Mr. Pridham. 

" Several interesting additions have been made to the 

" Two volimies of the Somerset Bibliography, containing the 
county books, Bath excepted, are already printed, and the 
Bath volume is being actively proceeded with. 

"The Photographic Record Committee re})ort that their 
work continues to make progress, although not so rapidly as 
might have been expected, and they invite the co-operation of 
additional workers. 

" The number of visitors to the Museum in 1898 was 5082, 
a decrease of 154 as against 1897. 

"The Library is gradually increasing by purchase, gift? 
and exchange, but the funds available after payment of neces- 
sary annual outgoings do not admit of large expenditure v^ 
this direction, and it is on gifts from members and others tha^ 
we must to a great extent rely. 

" Your Committee have lately received a letter from the 
Town Clerk of Taunton enquiring whether they ' would b^ 
prepared to treat with the Taunton Town Council for the lay-' 
ing out and throwing open of the grounds of the Castle and- 
Museum to the public under terms and restrictions to be agreeA 

" Your Committee desire to have the views of the General 
Meeting of Subscribers upon the suggestion, and recommend 
that they be authorised to entertain the application, so far as 
the Castle grounds are concerned, subject to a satisfactory 
arrangement of terms and other details, and that your Com- 
mittee be emi)owered to negotiate and to carry into etFect any 
terms which may be mutually agreed u])on. 

" A third branch has, since your last meeting, been added 
to your Society, having its head-(juarters at Taunton. It is 
called the ' Taunton Conversazione and Field Club,* and is 

Report of the Council. 5 

ider the Presidency of your Treasurer, Mr. H. J. Badcock. 
he first meeting was held at the Castle Hall on April 6th, 
[id already they number more than fifty members. 
" Your C.*ommittee greatly regret to report the severe illness 
)f your Assistant Secretary and Curator, Mr. William Bidgood, 
who has filled with credit the position of Curator since he was 
appointed in 1862 — thirty-seven years — and to this the position 
of Assistant Secretary was added ten years later. His illness 
attacked him with great suddenness so lately as Wednesday, 
I2th inst., while engaged in preparation for this Meeting, where 
his absence will be greatly felt by those who have had experi- 
ence of his readiness and courtesy on former occasions. Your 
(.'omraittee have made temporary arrangements for the per- 
formance of his duties. 

"Since your last meeting your Committee are happy to report 
that you have suffered comparatively few losses by death, but the 
genial presence of the Rev. E. L. Penny, D.D., R.N., of Ply- 
mouth, will no longer add to the pleasure of our annual meetings, 
»t which he was for a long series of years a regular attendant. 
Dr. Pennv was one of the sons of a well-known former Head 
Ma>ter of Crewkerne School, and he took a great interest in all 
tiiat appertained to our Society and the county generally. 

*'The Kev. Prebendary Hook, Rector and Rural Dean of 
l^orlock, ha.s also died since oiu* last meeting. He was a member 
('f K)me ten years' standing, and as a Local Secretary, was an 
ex-<)lficio Member of Council. Although he seldom attended 
our annual meetings, he gave us every assistance in his power, 
^**|>ecially when we visitcnl his parish in 1889. Prebendary 
Hook wrote, and recently pu])lished, a 'History of Porlock,' 
^^hiuh must have been the result of a great deal of investigation 
^nd research.'* 

Mr. TkkviliaX, in proposing the ado])tion of the report, 
^X|)resse<l regret at the illness of Mr. Hidgood. He referred 
to the pniposal to utilise the Taunton Castle grounds, and 
^^^^\ that the idea of a conference between the Committee of 

6 Fifiy-Jirst Annual Meetinff. 

the Society and the Town Council of Taunton, in oi-der to laj 
out this ground, was a good one. 

Canon Chukch seconded the resolution, which was adopted. 

Colonel BuAMBLE presented the financial statement, in the 
absence of the Treasurer, Mr. H. J. Badcock. 

^xtamuti account. 

Tlie Treaaurer in Account with the Somersetshh'e Arc/utoloyiccU and Naturd 
HUtory Socltti/, from January Ui to December Sht, 1S9S. 






By Balance of former Account 

Members' Entrance Pe«t (58) ... 
Members' Sabscriptiont for 1898 

(5«0) 293 18 

Members* Sabicription« in arrear 

(19) 9 19 

Members* Subscriptions in ad- 

rance (22) 11 11 

Members' Subscriptions (Life) ... 10 10 

Non-Members' Excursion Ticketjk 12 2 

Museum Pees 26 

Sale of Publications 15 1 

8ale of Index Vol a me 19 G 

Balance of Conrersazionc ... S 9 

Balance of Exhibition U 11 

Donation, G. H. Kogers, Esq. ... 5 

„ H. H. P. Bouverie, Esq. 3 9 








£516 5 4 


1897, Dec. Slst £ *. i. 

To Expenses of Annual Meeting ... 13 16 1 

Reporters' Notes of Meetings ... S 10 6 

Stationery and Printing ... 2S 7 7 

Cases, Repairs, Ac 27 16 < 

Coal and Gas ;9 IS i 

Purchase of Books. &c 21 18 

Printing Vol. 43, *c 81 i • 

Cost of Illustrations 14 i 3 

Postap^e of Volume 9 5 4 

Printing and Binding Index ... 28 II 9 

Curator^s Salary 105 

Errand Boy 11 • 

Insurance ... 4 8* 

Hates and Taxes 13 19 

Subscriptions to Societies ... 8 18 

Carriage and Postage 8 18 7 

Sundries 1 15 6 

Subscription returned (paid in 

error) I 1 

Balance 118 11 10 


£516 5 * 



Sept. 29th, 1899. Examined and compared with the vouchers ) UOWARl) MAYNARD, 

and Bank Book, and found correct. ) ALEX. HAMMKn. 

^tiuixtoix Cagtle Eegtoratioix S^m\\i. 

Treasurer's Account from Ut January to Olst Dtceinber^ 189S. 



By Bents of Premises 

HenU of Castle Hall 

Messrs. Hancock, Rent of 3 lights 
Telephone Company Wayleare 

for Wires 1 

Sundry Subscriptions 371 18 

„ Legacy from the late Col. Pmney 300 




£ s. d. 

28 16 10 

40 16 

U 1 G 


£741 13 10 

1898, Dec. 3 1st 

To Balance of former Account 

„ Repairs to Property 

Rates and Taxea 

Sundry Expeupcs, Cattle Ilall, &c. 

tire Insurance 


Plsced on Deposit Acc»unt at 
Interest ... ... ..» ... 

Balance carried forward 


£ H. *' 

80 7 8 

36 14 i; 

9 4 11 

* ' i 


8 16 6 





£741 18 !• 



Sept. 99th, 1899. Examined and compared with the vouchers [ HOWARD MAYNARD, 

and Bank Book, and found correct. f ALEX. HaMMKTT. 

leeord Socifty, 7 

', proposed the adoption of the 
h-As most Mtisfactorj". To hear 
\ on the Castle account wan al- 

^onded the motion, which 

■e-«lection of the oftioers of the 
^Ip, H. {.'. A. Day, as a Difltrict 
netted very much the ilhiesa of 

turatof, and ppoke of the snccrcas- 
i for the Society by his; quiet 

Iby the Rev. D. L. Havwaku, 

projH)!'ed the election of twenty- 


>iiile(l, and the renohition nas 

UcocD ^cietp, 

(111. Scr. uf the Somerset Record 

I^pccting the work of the Society 
at was proposed to do. Ho was 
ot only wiped out the debt of the 
;e of aliout £35 or £40 with 
year they were anxious to con- 
astic Cartularies of the County," 
ish the Intely recovered one of 
ter was dated 69.i, which shewed 
of the oiliest in Enf^lami. They 
of thf •' Cartularies of Athehiey 
; of Bishops' Registers they had 
-1408, and the register of Itishop 
Bath and Wells, 1264—1267, and 
rk, and tlii> document has recently 

8 Fifiy-firat AuHHal Mertiuff. 

Wen found Ixiiind up with the York registere. So far ah i 
f^oeA, however, it would be a verr vahiablc addition to tbeii 
scattered records of the 13th century. They also had |)enniii' 
aion to ))ritit the Survey of Somerset, made in the rei^ of 
(*harles L and which had onlr been discovered about two 
years. Mr. Batten has found that the writer watt ThoA. Gerard, 
of Trent, and the date 1632. The vohmie wa8 now beinf^ 
trauMTilRHl for the |>ur]N>8e of ))eing issue<I next yenr, and he 
had no hesitation in saying that it would l)e exceedingly inte^ 
csting. It was a sort of combination of CoHinson*s History 
and Murray V HantUmok, but more accurate than either. Un- 
fortunately the survey dealt oidy with the South and Wwt of 
Soniei*spt. The suney made by Mr. Strachey 1736* still 
remains in matniscri))t, and if the owner's consent could be 
obtained, it would l>e well to ])rint, for a commencement, thit 
j>art which dealt with the other |H>rtions of the county. Three 
documents, hitherto (piite unknown, was not a 1)ad re(H)rd, and 
on that ground he aske<l for additional supi)ort for the Society. 
The Very Rev. the Dkax (if Wklls s]K)ke in support of 
the work done by the Reconl Siwriety, and among the volume? 
])ublishe<l by them, he said that Bishop Hobhouse's book o 
Churchwardens' ^Nc'coimts of five (*enturies ago, was an excee<l 
ingly interesting publication. 

C{)e presiDent's aDDre00. 

Sir Kdwaim) Fuv, who was eonliallv received, then d 
livered his Preslilential Address. He said, ** Von are all famili: 
witli the fact that the objects of this Society are twofold ; 
embraces Areha»ologv and Natund Historv. I am rather i 
clined to think that the latter department has been less favours 
in our researelies. The Soeietv has not done so much f< 
Natund History as for Arelueology. If we l(M)k back to tl 
volumes of the last few years, we s<»(», as the chief contribi 

1. Proc. xiv., ii. W. 

Thr Presidnit'a Ailiiresx. 9 

I Natural History, Mr. Murray's Flora of the county, 
I gives the localities of the flowering plants of the di*- 

i aud divides Sonier^t into ten districts, separated more 
s by natural conditions. Itut the work is confined almost 
ie flowering plants. It is much to be desired that work of 

pilar kind should be undertaken in reference to the crypto- 
j flora of the county. I may mention in this connectiou 
ilr. E. C Horrell, of Copleston Road, Denmark Hill, is 

jork on the subject of the Geographical Distribution of 
I in Great Britain, and that if any students of that 
1 of botany would communicate to bira the results of 

ilabours in this county, they would be helping forward a 

'liming from Natural History to the other branch of the 
:y"8 work, Archieology, I think that the most interesting 
(very in our own (;ounty of late years has been that made 
very remarkable British village in the inuaediate 
ty of Glastonbury, where for years past interesting in- 
t)gatiou!« have been carried on, which have brought to 
U^tB kind of settlement, I believe unique in the country, and 
ilio some of the moat beautifnl work of Celtic art found in 
Eb^ud. 1 have this morning received a letter from Mr. 
Bollfid, who directed the labours which have been carried on 
in tlie village, and he said it had occurred to him that during 
the meeting of the Society the question might be asked with 
respect to the lake village, and if the excavations were to be 
opened this year. Owing to professional work, he would not 
hf able to att«nd to the excavations now, but be hopes at some 
ftilure time to continue the explorations. We regret that he 
toiiiil not carry on the investigations this year, but we shall 
look furward to the completion of the investigations in future 

There is a subject which attracted the attention of the 
Sodrty some years ago, upon which I ehould like to say a ffw 
"(|^1>', — I menn the project of completing and publishing a 

ru XLl'fTkinlSrritJi, fol. Vj. Pari I. " 

10 Fifiy-first Annual Meeting. 

thorough and exhaustive history of the county of Somerset 
Forms were sent round to many members of the Society, 
suggesting that they should undertake particular districts or 
parishes, so that they should make a more complete work than 
that of Collinson. Collinson's work was that of a compan- 
tively yoimg man, and is, notwithstanding all \t% inacx^uracies 
and deficiencies, of great merit. We have the advantage of 
an Index to the work, for which we are indebted to our 
Honorary Secretary (the Rev. F. W. Weaver), and the Rev. 
E. H. Bates. In considering whether it were possible to und«> 
take a work of this sort, I consulted some friends in North- 
umberland, who are engaged in the great history of that 
county at the present time. That work will, it is com- 
puted, occupy twelve large quarto volumes, four of which have 
already been issued. Those four volumes have cost £4,725, so 
that the figure for the completion will be a large one. A 
guarantee fund was formed in the county, and they had to 
meet a deficiency of £1,500 in respect to the first four volumes. 
In Somersetshire, with rents as they are, and land depreciated, 
we should hardly be able to undertake such a work. I think, 
on the whole, that it had better not be attempted at present. 
We shall do better to encourage local enterprise lief ore ^^ 
attempt a great county history. It is a pleasure to know that 
there are agencies going forward which, if they continue, ^i" 
furnish materials when our successors shall undertake the great 
work. We must be content to play the part of David, and 
leave Solomon to put together the materials we may have col- 
lected in order to build the structure. First we have the 
Somersetshire Record Society. We have heard that soii^® 
peo])le are dissatisfied with what was published by that Society* 
I think that there is no cause for such a feeling. We mii^^ 
not expect that the publications will all l)e like the Waverl^^ 
Novels, and I hope there will be a large subscription for wh^ 
is iBSued, Then we have the " Somerset and Dorset Not^ 
and Queries," which contain much useful information : an^ 

The President* 8 Address. 11 

tljr, we have individual labourers in particular districts, 
ir friend, Mr. Master, has published interesting monographs 
I Backwell and Flax Bourton ; Mr. Wadmore has done the 
one for Barrow Giirney, and Mr. Byrchmore for Tickenham. 
t is understood that Prebendary Hancock is at work on 
linehead. Prebendary Coleman on Cheddar, and Mr. 
Jhadwyck-Healey on Porlock and four or five adjoining 
)arishes. These labours are worthy of im^l^tion, and if this 
and of work be spread over the country, we shall in time have 
:he materials for a thorough county history. 

" It is worthy of consideration whether a county history of 
luite a different kind to that to which I have referred might 
aot even now be undertaken with success. I mean one which 
should not merely consist of the sum of a number of parochial 
Wstories, but should deal with the county as a unit. If we 
look back to the history of this county, it furnishes many 
points of interest : we might begin with considering the traces 
)f Christianity during the Roman period, then how Christianity 
*aine at a later date to the West Saxons, not through Canter- 
bury and Augustine, but through Burgundy and Birinus. 
Then we look at the period of King Alfred, for we know that 
^'unerjietshire had its distinct part in the great wars of Alfred, 
'» the times which followed his flight to Athelney. Then, 
^ominfT down to a much later period, we arrive at Monmouth's 
^t'hellioii. Wc need not necessarily have a work of great mag- 
fiitude or research, but one which would bring together points 
*^ interest in the county as a county, and not deal with 
parochial matters. I commend that work to anyone who has 
'^'^ure and the necessary qualification. 

"1 have referred to the connection of King Alfred with our 
county. 1 am desirous that we should be on the alert, and 
^t^at Somersetshire should take its due part in the forthcom- 


•^^ celebration of the one thousandth year of his death. It 
^i^Mn Somerset that Alfred, in the period of his extreme need, 
^^^ refuge and found support. The flight to Athelney and 

IS Fifiy-Jirst Annual Meeting. 

his hiding there was a very interesting epoch in King Alfred's 
life, certainly it was a crisis in his military life. Was it a 
crisis in his moral life as well ? By some authentics Alfred's 
flight to Athelney has been regarded as a mere strategic more- 
ment. But there is a tradition, which finds support in Asser, 
as his work has come down to us, that Alfred fled because he 
was deserted by his friends and his Court — and that there WM 
something like a revolt of his people, due to his neglect of his 
royal duties soon after his accession to the throne. Possibly 
the vast reputation which Alfred's later career produced may 
have led some historians to slur over an event which was ex- 
tremely proba))le in a young man called to the throne, ftwl 
which scarcely reflects any dishonour on his character, whilst 
his recovery showed of what mettle he was. Alfred's depart- 
ure from Athelney was due very largely to the action of 
Somerset men who joined him in his march against the Danes. 
We are told that all the men of Somerset, the men of Dorset, 
and part of the men of Hampshire met together at Egberts 
stone, and marched from Athelney across the country, spend- 
ing a night at Iglea, — probably Clay Hill, and then they at- 
tacked the Danes on the encampment of the chalk hills nea' 
Westbury, Somerset also had its full share in another grea*^ 
cv(?nt of Alfred's life, for the peace with the Danes was mad^ 
at Wedmore. Then again, the monasteries of Banwell an^ 
Congresbury were given by Alfred to his friend and literarj 
associate, the Welsh monk, Asser. Thus we have in th< 
county of Somerset most interesting points of contact with th^ 
life of our great king. Such local associations we are, in mj 
opinion, bound to cherish. Let me remind you of thi 
characteristic and, as I think, the noble words of Dr. Johnson it 
his account of his visit to lona : ^ To abstract,' he said, 'the 
mind from all local emotion would be impossible, if it were en- 
deavoured, and would be foolish, if it were possible. What- 
ever draws us from the j)ower of our senses ; whatever makef 
the [Mist, the distant, or the future predominate over the 

devedon Court 13 

advances us in the dignity of thinking beings. Far 
Pom me and from my friends be such frigid philosophy, as 
mj conduct us indifFerent and unmoved over any ground 
iiluch has been dignified by wisdom, bravery, or virtue. That 
Ban is little to be envied, whose patriotism would not gain 
toice upon the plain of Marathon, or whose piety would not 
grow warmer among the ruins of lona.^ 

** Antiquarian pursuits then, if rightly followed, are not mere 
idle amusements of an idle hour : on the contrary they tend to 
remind us that we are citizens of no mean country : they help 
u to estimate rightly the grandeur of that inheritance which 
is ours as the heirs of all the ages: they not only adorn, but 
ibcy strengthen and elevate our lives. ' Abeunt Stiidia in 
Mores: " 

Mr. DuxcAN Skkine proposed a vote of thanks to Sir 
Edward Fry for his admirable and interesting address. He 
was glad that the address had been of so practical a character, 
for he thought that they sometimes attempted too much and 
sttained no result. 

The Rev. A. R. Caktwright seconded the resolution, 
which was carried with acclamation. 
" The meeting then terminated. 

CleDeDon Court. 

The company afterwards proceeded in brakes to Clevedon 
^oiurt, where they were kindly invited to luncheon by Sir 
Edmund and Lady Elton, in whose a})scnce Mr. Elton })re- 
Sir Edwaud Fky proposed the health of " The Host." 
Mr. Elton, in returning thanks, said he had just received 
^he news that he had been elected a member of the Society, 
*nd he begged to tliank them for having elected him. On 
^^alf of Sir Edmund and Lady Pilton, he wished to say that 
It afforded them the greatest pleasure to invite the members of 
^DG Society to their house on that occasion. 

14 Fifty-fi^^i Annual Meeting, 

The Rev. F. W. Weavek, on behalf of the Society, re- 
turned thanks to Mr. Elton for the cordial welcome he had 
ffiven them. 

Desaiptjon of Cleuetion Coutt 

Mr. Elti>x then proceeded to give a remarkably interesting 
address descriptive of the Court. He said : It is with con- 
siderable diflRdence that I rise to address you on this ancient 
and historic mansion ; selected as it has been by Thackeray « 
the fi>undatii>n of his •• C'astlewood/' and described as it has 
btHMi bv Rutter, in his ** Delineations of North-West Somer- 
set," as one of the most perfect examples of mediaeval domestic 
aix*hittvturt^ in En<rland. So manv abler heads than mine have 
dealt with it. I feel, therefore, I am quite unable to throw 
any fn^sh lijrht on the matter. However, as archseologists, I 
feel that you will be the last )>eople to expect to hear any new 
thin^. I therefore crave your indulgence if I but repeat what 
may be stale news to many of you. I shall not attempt in the 
l>resence of experts to give you in any way a technical or 
learned address, but, like Truthful James in the poem, " I will 
tell in simple language all 1 know,'' and I hope the result will 
not end in the building of '* churches of old red sandstone "or 
anything else. First of all, then, there is little doubt tha^ 
there was originally a house here as far back as the time of the 
Xorman Conquest. None of that now remains, but it is prob* 
able that from its foundations the most ancient parts of th^ 
present building arose. I direct your attention particularly t^ 
the room in which we are now seated. It forms the centra 
part of the earliest structure. The original date would b^ 
early fourteenth century or about the time of Edward II. I 
has, of course, been largely altered and added to in the Jaccr 
bean period, and, later still, in the Georgian, when the preseim 
(reiHng and the debased top to the fine Elizabethan window 
were added. If we divest the hall of all later additions, w^ 
shall find that it consists of a large and very high chamber, a^ 

Description of Clevedon Court, 15 

le four comers of which were turrets or newel staircases, 
Mree of which are still extant. The floor would have been of 
tone. The chamber would be lighted as far up as the present 
filing by mere slits in the walls, through which arrows, stones, 
)r possibly boiling lead might be discharged on the heads of 
over-curious and suspicious-looking strangers. In cold weather 
a fire would be lighted in the middle of the room, and the 
smoke would find its way out by two apei'tures in the roof at 
dther end. The two entrances to north and south, through 
Gothic archways of noble proportions, were each guarded by 
a portcullis let down from the rooms at each end of the min- 
rtrels' gallery. The grooves by which these descended may 
be examined at leisure. In fact, besides being the living 
room, it was a strong place whither the lord of the manor and 
all depending on him might resort in times of stress for tem- 
porary safety. A dais would extend across the end of the 
room, and all would dine here in common, the servants sitting 
below the salt. We will now remove with a wave of the hand 
the white ceiling which obscures our view. Above it we see 
a hi^h-pitched roof, and at either end two very beautiful 
windows belonging to the Early Decorated period, and above 
tbem the flues for the escape of the superfluous smoke that I 
have already alluded to. The blackening remains of soot are 
still clearly discernible about the tracery of the windows, and 
at either side are the unmistakable signs of the old hammer- 
Wam roof, which has long years back ceased to exist, having 
either fallen into such decay as to compel its removal, or — 
'Ireadful thought — having been ruthlessly destroyed when the 
iiischievous tide of architectural degradation reached its height 
under the House of Hanover. Out of the hall, on the eastern 
'^ide, hy a series of fourteenth-century doorways, which you 
"^ay have noticed on your right hand on entering, the kitchen 
and other offices were reached. Behind me, on my left, you 
^ill observe a fine Jacobean doorway of stone, placed there by 
the Wake family, descendants of Kingsley's hero, " Hereward 

16 Fifiy-^Ent Axmnnl Mertimg. 

the Wake/* wiio for nuuijr generations occupied the 
It has, I refnrct to saj, iq d^renerate dajs been painted 
grained to imitate oak. It :9eenis to appeal mutelr for 
iog, but it would be a hazanlou:? tas^k, and it would reqi 
age# of wear and tear* dust anti dirt, to retrieve the 
dignity of \\s> ancient origin were this done« and after aD it 
not i<nobbi»hly as^^iiming a higher position than it is enl 
to, but rather a lower, for being stone it is content 
take precedence as oak. S) we will leare it. On 
right you will see a fourteenth-century doorway, rettonlj 
after the disastrous fire which nearlr destroyed all the wnt 
wing of the house in 1882. Opposite you see a debased dodwj 
way, once its match, leading on to the Queen Anne stairctN. 
Above the old doorway I would direct your attention to tk 
two-light window of the Early Decorated period. On the 
other side of that window is by far the most interesting chff- 
acteristic of the house. I rememl^er my grandfather (Sr 
Arthur Elton), himself an ardent archaeologist, describing the 
" lady's bower," which proves that even archaeologists may be 
mistaken, for he lived to see the truth laid bare, though, altS) 
a terrible fire, which occasioned the discovery, led up to his on- 1 
timely death from sorrow and shock. The little room was no ? 
lady's )K)wcr, but neither more nor less than a tiny chapd, f 
deHoribe<l by some authorities as a hanging chapel, from its f 
position on the Krst storey. No tradition, no word, no sign, had 
es(*a|HHl its sealed lips for centuries. Here was a room ancicDt 
and oiik-panellcd, certainly used for generations as the boudoir 
of the ladv of the manor -this was all we knew. After tfe^ 
fire the panelling was being removed and some slight repai^^ 
execntrd (nuTeifully the flames had hardly reached tla^ 
chanilKT), when in the eastern wall a fine square \^nndow, witJ^ 
reticulat^nl triicery of the Early Decorated period was brougla*^ 
to light, carefully concealed within and without by masonry^- 
Beneath this the altar slab, smash wl off level with the wall ^ 
and on the right hand side of canopy of 


Description of Cievedan Court. 17 

llie same period, and the bowl broken off, had been covered in 
with the same diligent care. The whole has been restored to 
Ike likeness of its former beauty under the able hands of Mr. 
DtTis, city architect of Bath, whose name will ever be associ- 
ited to his honour with the restoration of the western wing of 
Ac house. The south window of the chapel, which has always 
been in situ, has been considered to be the finest example of 
square-headed window of the Early Decorated period in exis- 
tence. Out of the chapel winds precipitously a newel staircase 
on to the roof, from whence the curious may r)btain a view of 
tie windows alx)ve this hall to which I have referred. I must 
not omit to mention the solar, or lord's chamber, which is the 
room above the library, connected with the chapel by a small 
doorway cut through the thickness of the wall. The western 
wing of the house was largely built by the Wakes in the 
■ Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, but the presence of a 14th 
century doorway at the top of the Queen Anne staircase, and 
» decorated buttress of the same period between the drawing- 
^m and library, points to the former existence of buildings 
coeval with the hall. The whole of the interior of this part of 
the house was practically destroyed })y fire, including a beauti- 
W example of Jacobean mantelpiece with the Wake arms in 
the library, and one of the date of William and Mary in the 
drawing-room ; also some ancient stained glass bearing the 
^^ake knot and the fomily motto, " Wake and Pray," with the 
•late lo7(). Luckily the outside shell was robust enough to 
withstand the fiaraes, and it still stands with the self-same ivy 
and creepers aitectionately clinging to its dear old walls. The 
^est front was restored hj Sir Arthur some thirty years ago, 
^^ a former baronet, unfortunately possessed with the taste of 
^he period, had pulled down the old west front and had put up 
'^hat he conceived to be an improvement. I need not pain you 
"J dwelling on the fact that the improvement was in the style 
^^nimonly execrated as Strawberry Hill Gothic. It is now 


^^^h slight exceptions practically the same as it was just 

Vol. XLV (ThlrdStiirH, Vol. V), Part J . C 

18 Fifty "first Annual Meeting. 

iH'fore the fire. In passing into the Elizabethan wing j 
touched upon you will notice the enormous thickness of tin 
wall. When that part was being restored, Mr. Davis found 
that it was really a double wall, that is to say, when the huildei 
of the time adde<l to the house on that side he had not bored 
into the old wall to seek the support for his rafters and roofing 
but had built up an entirely new wall alongside the old one 
an example of labour and energy which the modem jerrj 
builder might well take note of, though I could not recommend 
him to carry it out in detail. It was probably this extraordi- 
nary wall as nuu'h as anything else which saved the whok 
house from Wing destroyed by the flames. I must now draw 
your attention to the eastern wing of the house, especially to 
the kitchen. This room has been a good deal pidled about and 
altcrcHl at different times, but mainly it belongs to the same 
date as the hall. It originally reached from the ground to the 
roof, an<l extended to twice its present breadth, but other 
rooms have since encroached on its space in both directions. 
The walls are of great thickness. On either side of the 
southern gable of the kitchen are two beautiful little pinnacles 
of curious design, one of which is still in fair preservation. The 
kitchen comnumicated through an open court yard, and thence 
by the 14th century arches, with the hall. The buildings 
between the kitchen and the hall were originally much lower 
than those wc now see, the upper storeys having probably been 
added by the Wakes. At the summit of the little gable, be- 
tween the porch-room over the front entrance and the kitcheOj 
you will notice a stone figure, supjmsed to be the bear and 
ragged staff of the King Maker. One has to be told this tc 
believe it, as it might as well be an old lady with an umbrell* 
from what we can see of it. However, there is method in oui 
madness, for in the reign of Henry VI Thomas Wake held tb< 
manor of Clevedon of Richard, Earl of Warwick. Behind the 
kitchen, at the extreme north-east corner of the house, ^ 
the remains of a scjuare tower which seems to l)elong to th< 

Deacn/itiim of ('Wi-f/iu, Court. I» 

it eentiiry period ; it has been mui-h altered, cut down, »nd 

in witli rooms. However, in iin iiiterestiiig picture, dating 

I QiieoD Anne, which hangs in the pSHsagc upstairs, the 

J »nd grounds arc shewn surrounded l>y liigh walls, em- 

Iiere and there, A part of them, with ud ivy-«lad 

P>ra$nre, still remain on the east side of the flower garden. 

walls do not, I think, date hack before the Jaeoheaii 

bod, for though east in a eoinewhat earlier mould they alto- 

■er lack the strength and ImldiieBs of medieval worlt. The 

Rl view of the house is generally recognised to be the finest, 

itt<i those who prefer to dwell on the rambling incongruities 

ofwilineienl pile 1 would leeommcnd the view obtained fi-om 

I ibe " Esmond Terrace,' which embanks itself picturesijuely 

Uiist the steep sides of the hill. From thence also one can 

inly make out the original conformation of the more ancient 

f of the building, somewhat in the shape of a capital U, 

n hall ronning the cross stroke. And as yoit continue to 

X may yon hear the echoes of that long forgotten day j — 

" When men were less incliiiGil lu say, 
Th&t tittle IB gold, and overlxy 
With toil their pleasure." 

I Before closing 1 would wish, as briefly as possible, to 
■Jauniiirate the dilTereut families who havh held the court and 
nwnitr of Clevedon, from the time of the De Clyvedons, who 
c»i>d this hall, to the present day. From the De Clyvedons it 
pftsod by marriage to Thomas Hogahaw, thence in the same 
nav III the Lovells, whom we find in possession iu the first 
jmtiit Henry IV, and again through their heiress, Agnes, to 
leWniies. lioger Wake was attainted of treason in the first 
iriif Henry VII, and forfeited all his rights ; he was, how- 
■, iHirdoned, and received restitution. Here we have the 
^nal counterpart of a rleed of recovei-y against Roger 
I 17 Henry VII. by wliich n large portion of the pro- 
as disentailed : the seal is that of the Court of 

20 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

Common Pleas: also several files of accounts of about 1630, 
and a survey of the manor in 1629, which I dif covered some 
time back in a cellar. They were in an old oak chest and 
wringing wet, yet the paper is as good, and the writing as 
clear as if it had been yrritten yesterday ; they are in beautiful 
preservation. The Wakes sold the property to their kinsman, 
Digby, Earl of Bristol, and from the executors of the third eaii 
of that name, in accordance with the directions in his will, it. 
passed by sale in the seventh year of good Queen Anne, to th^ 
then head of the Elton family. I have now come to an eocl 
of my remarks. Before bidding adieu to the old place, ho**-* 
ever, I may perhaps remind you, though possibly not y^\ 
exactly of archaeological interest, that hither have come in tK^ 
less remote past Hallani the historian, Arthur Hallam, th< 
hero of a pathetic and undying friendship ; Tennyson, who im. 
mortalized that friendshi]) in " In Memoriam " ; Coleridg-e, 
Thackeray, and many another literary giant of a bygone age. 
At the conclusion of the address Sir Edward Fry thanked 
Mr. Elton for the interesting description he had given them of 
the Court. The visitors then jn'occeded through the different 
rooms of the mansion, which arc marked throughout by the 
beauty of antiquity. In answer to a lady, who asked which 
was the bedroom in which Thackeray was accustomed to sleep, 
Mr. Elton informed her that the great novelist visited Clevedon 
Court so often that he probably slept in every room in the 
house, at one time and another. Before leaving, the party 
ascended the turrets to the roof, where a delightful view of the 
picturesque grounds of the Court was obtained. 

CleDetion IParisb Cbutci). 

The party next drove to the parish church of St. Andrew, 
where Mr. Edmund Buckle, hon. Diocesan Architect, com- 
menced the first of his descriptions of the churches. He first 
of all remarked upon the distance it was from the Clevedon 

ClevedoH Parish Church. 21 

Court House. In most parishes they found that the church 
mr die Court House, but here the Court House was rig^t at 
the other end of the parish. It was a verj interesting point, 
lai one which he thought might well be worked out by local 
sdueologists. The church was one which had its history 
lUnly written upon it. There was certainly there in Norman 
times a small church of cruciform shape, mith a central tower, 
\iA without aisles ; and the nare was very much smaller than 
tbe present one. The two Xorman arches remaining under the 
tower were remarkable for their oval shape, which gave them 
Noewhat the effect of pointed arches. It was quite obvious 
tlat the original church had no aisles, by the buttresses which 
remained in the nave, and from the position of the buttresses 
it could be seen how much narrower the nave of the Norman 
dorcli was than the present. The north transept still retained 
tlie Norman walls, but the chancel seemed to have been entirely 
rebuilt, though a large number of the Norman corbels have been 
preserved. The first great change in the plan of the church 
was the pulling down of the Norman nave in order to erect a 
larger nave, which took place probably in the 13th century. 
The new nave had no aisle anv more than the Norman nave 
had. It was quite clear that the object of the re-building was 
to obtain a larger space, for the north-west comer of the nave 
lias carried to the extreme limit available, and a wide splay cut 
off this angle externally to avoid interference with some object 
berond or with the boundary of the chiu-chyard, and the addi- 
tional width of the new nave was obtained mainlv on the .south 
side, and so the nave was thrown much out of the centre of the 
chancel. There was no clerestory, and although the width of 
the Early English nave was the same as now, the height was - 
very much less. The north transept was added at the same 
time as the nave. That, like the nave, was placed quite out of 
the centre of the arch leading to the tower, and for a similar 
reason — the desire for space and width. The eccentric |)osition 
of the nave prevented the transept from being widened to- 

22 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

wards the west, so all the additional width had here to be 
obtained on the east side, and the centre line was thrown & 
great deal to the east of the centre line of the tower. In spite 
of the great length of this transept there was only one small 
window in the east wall. After the completion of the nave 
and transept, the two tall arches looking towards this nave and 
transept were inserted in the tower, giving it a very lop-sided 
appearance. The next step in the growth of the church was 
the addition of the south aisle, which was of the Decorated 
period. The arcade should lie specially noticed on account of 
the peculiar way in which the arches spring from corbels 
instead of capitals. The rood has been in two different places, 
•lust over the Norman chancel arch, on the north side, could 
be seen an oj)ening, which must have led into the rood loft at 
one time ; but later on the rood loft was moved to a position 
west of the nave arch. With regard to the furniture of the 
church, the l)ench ends were noticeable from their having 
poppyheads — some were old and some new. Mr. liuckle re- 
ferred to the reading-<lesk, which contained four panels o 
Dutch carving, each with an inscription in the Dutch language 
Attention was called to the indications of a gallery in the |)orcV 
across the toj) of the south doorway, the purposes of whic 
were not known. It, however, seemed clear that it must hav 
been put there for some ritual pur])ose. They knew that i 
the middle ages the first part of the wedding service toe 
])lace at the i)orch, and this gallery may have been for tl 
musicians. At the conclusion of Mr. Buckle's description < 
the church, several of the party inspected the tomb of Arthi 
Hallam, who lies buried there. He was only in his twent; 
thiixl year when he died at Vienna, and his remains we: 
brought to Clevedon for interment. His father, as is wc 
known, was the celebrated historian of the Middle Ages, whi 
his mother was Julia Maria, daughter of Sir A. Elton, Barl 
of Clevedon Court. Tennyson's reference to his friend's la 
resting-place in his " In Memoriam," is well known. 


■ The Evening Meetiuff. 23 

■ Cea at Cleuetion I^all. 

■ After leaving the church, the party proceeded to Clevedon 
I Hall, the residence of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Hill, who had in- 
' vited the archajolcgists to tea. ilrs. Hill graciously received 

the giiest^ and she and Mr. Hill and their sons and daughters 
were assiduous in their attentions to the wants of the party, 
who afterwards inspected the beautiful conservatories and 
grounds of the mansion, spending a most enjoyable time there. 

€\iZ (2EDening ai^eeting. 

In the evening a meeting was held in the Public Hall, 
Clevedon, for the reading of papers and discussion thereon. 
Sir Edward Fry presided. 

A paper had been prepared by Mr. McMurtrie on "Ancient 
British or Roman Discoveries in the Quarries of Radstock," 
[ife Part II), but Mr. McMurtrie was unable to attend through 
illness, and the paper was read by the Rev. H. H. Wixwood. 
At the hall w^ere exhibited a number of specimens to show the 
nature of the deposits. 

At the conclusion of the paper, the Chairman said it was 
interesting to observe the remains of the pre-historic iron age, 
*n(l that the second remains, supposed to be later, contained 
^>i*oiize. He thanked Mr. Win wood for reading the paper. 

The Rev. E. H. Batks next read a learned paper on 
'"The Fivc-Hide-Unit in the Somerset Domesday," his re- 
'narks being illustrated by a printed chart {sec Part II). 

The Chairman said thev all knew that the investio:ation 
•^f liidage was one on which a great deal had been written, and 
'^^ which a great deal of light was still required, and the paper 
just read was a very interesting contrilnition to it. It con- 
^'Jiced them of one thing at least, that the difficulty of equal 
^^xation was not a modern one. Their thanks were due to 
^^' Hates for his interesting paper. 

24 Flfti/-f!rsl Aniuiuf Meetittg. 

The Kcv. F. W. Wkavkie proiJoswl h vote of thanks l.» the 
t'liairman, which wns husrtitj- acconlwl. Mr. Wiavtr i 
mentioned how deeply gratefiil ihey were to Mr. C. Tile^jl 
had kindly undertaken the duties of Mr. nhlgood u. 
absence. Had not Mr. Til«> so willingly ijireii his 
the meeting could not have taken plnr^. Thvr vwe- 
indebted to him for the n^^istance he wa$ rctidering. 

This condiided the first day's proceedings. 

%econD C>a)?'s Iptoceetiings. 

Favoured with n continnaoce of fine weather, the roe 
of the Soi'iety eommenced their excin-slnns on Weilnesdaf 
morning to the varionn churches and places of ititcrfst in tl* 
ncighlioiirliood. The party, numbering over eighty, sel out 
briikeH from Walton Park Hotel, the first slop pin g-plact- hemg 

l^atton Ct)urct). 

Mr. EiiMisi) BicKi.i-: safd thitichurch, like the one they sav 
at rievedon the previous day, was crnciform in plan, with the 
tower right in the centre, and with the tower piers very muMfei 
»o that the chancel was, to a large extern, blocked out From th» 
nave, very much as was the cnse at t'levednn. It seemed almcpit: 
certain that there must have been a Norman chtirch therti 
cuniparatively a small one, with a central tower, and as tk* 
church Iwcame changed and enlnrgeil, from tinn- lo time, ihft 
original Nonnan building left its inrtuence on nil the 
hIvc stages. There was nothing left in Vatton church vl 
they eould Actually trace back further than to tiie 
period— the first half of the I4th century — hut the plaiitt 
mussive pillars under the tower, and the low arches rlRiiig fn 
these pitlarfl, pointed pretty distinctly lo a Nommn church 
the same lorm. The lower pnrt of the tower was actually d 
the Decorated period, and that was the oldest part of tbil 
[ church, though the two transepts' were nearl; 

Vatton Church. 25 

the same date. Originally there was certainly no north aisle, 
for the tower had a buttress at the north-west comer, but 
during the Decorated period this aisle was added, a fragment 
o£ which still clings to the base of the tower pier. The nave 
at this time must have been small and low. The chancel was 
a pretty example of Early Perpendicular, which it was in- 
teresting to compare with the later Perpendicular so common 
in Somerset. The whole of the nave, clerestory, and aisles 
had been rebuilt in the richest manner of this latter style. He 
directed attention to a curious fact in connection with the 
windows in the aisle, that there was hardly an example of a 
window being in the middle between two vaulting shafts. 
That was characteristic of how these old churches were set 
out, as they rarely found windows exactly opposite one another. 
In a new church the windows were generally arranged 
symmetrically. The north chapel was an addition considerably 
later than the rest of the building, and was probably about the 
niiddle of the fifteenth century. He called attention to the 
'♦eautiful features in the mortuary chapel of Sir John Newton 
and his wife, Isabel de Cheddre. There was a magnificent mon- 
ument against the north wall, which was the important feature 
^f the chapel. Among the peculiar features of the monument 
^as a representation of the Annunciation. The date of Sir 
''ohn Newton's death was 1487, and it was almost certain that 
^ue chapel was built by him in his lifetime. The tracery of 
^h^* windows bore a striking resemblance to that in the Chain 
^ate at Wells, which was erected shortly after 1465. There 
^^s also, in the north transept, a figure in alabaster of the 
father of Sir John, Sir Richaixi Newton, serjeant and judge, 
•"^presented in his red gown with the Serjeant's coif on his 
"^ad, and a wallet by his side to contain the seal. The figure 
^^ his wife, elaborately dressed in mitre headdress and 
launches, appeared on the same tomb. In recesses, in this 
''^hsept, were also figures of a man and woman of the latter 
^^^^t of the thirteenth century. The rood loft seemed to have 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V ), Part /. d 

26 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

been curiously arranged, since the entrance to it was in the 
north-west corner of the north transept. One of the most in- 
teresting volumes of the Record Society contained a number 
of churchwardens' accounts, and among them were those o£ 
Yatton, in which was a mass of information about the building^- 
and repairing of the church. In 1445 the accounts com — 
menced, and at the time they were building a church-hous^ 
and doing work in the belfry. Directly after that, in 144r , 
occurred the first entry concerning the rood-screen. TL^ 
churchwardens went to Easton-in-Gordano to look at the roo<M_ 
screen there, and in the same year there was the mason's bi 
for erecting a pulpit and two altars. He (Mr. Buckle) di 
not think it was a pulpit as they understood the wot 
now, but the lower part of the rood-screen. That woul 
account for the two altars, as there were usually two altar 
against the rood-screen. In the same year they found 
carpenter engaged upon the rood-loft, which was variousl 
described as Alle^ Aler, and solarium. The work was giv 
to John Cross, the village carpenter, who had a shop 
Claverham, about a mile away, and this was an example c^ 
how capable the artisans of the country were in the old tim^ 
that the lower part of an elaborate screen should have bee^ 
entrusted to the village mason, and the upper part to th^ 
village carpenter. They had not a carver in the village, how- 
ever, so that the order for 69 images went to a foreigner- 
The cost of the figures was £3 10s. 4d., just over Is. Id. each. 
In 1457 there was an entry of £31 2s. 1 Id., as being the total 
amount of Cross, the carpenter's bill. The next item of 
interest was for white-washing the church, a frequent proceed- 
ing in mediaeval times. The entry ran pro dealbatione ecclesia. 
It was a common opinion that whitewashing was inartistic and 
modern. It might be inartistic but certainly was not modem. 
In 1482 there was a charge for the "closing between the 
church and the chancel," and he thought what was referred to 
might be the temporary screens put into the arches in order to 

Yallun C/nm-/'. 

IniM the KpwtoD chapel. In lj31 there wa?' mention of an 
Warn before the high altai-, which was the work of a local 
Knilh. with apparently a preat deal of decorative wnrlt about 
It. They might glean that ihe ahars were the high altar of 
Bt. Mary, and those of St. Jame», St. Nicholas, and St. 
I'itherine. There were also images of St. Sunday, St. Thomas, 
St. John, St. George, and a gigantic figure of St. Christopher 
piiiited on the wall. There was in the churchyai'd an entirely 
Bptralc chapel, respecting which, at the abolition of the 
eluutries, the inhabitants made humble suit that it might be 
tikendown and the stones u^d as "a sluice against the i-age 
of tk ifcn for the safeguard of the country." Dntside the 
diiinli Mr. Buckle drew attention to the delicate carving on 
liir front of the south purch, with a coat-of-arms apparently 
{orMuntucute or Sherborne. The window at the end of the 
toiilli transept was jilninly seen to be entirely different in 
clurecter to those in the nave. Mr. Buckle next sjwke of the 
loKiT with itw broken spire. The turret was in a rather pecu- 
Hir position. Moreover, it was not octagonal hut hexagonal; 
ifnnuused very much in the southern part of the county, at 
Crewlcpme and neighbourhood. It was a question whether the 
fpireof this church was ever completed. It might have been 
left niifinisbed, or perhaps it had to be taken down on account 
of sonie accident such as having been struck by lightning. 
He should think, judging by the churchwardens' accounts, 
that there could have been no possible question about want of 
fnmls for completing it, and he felt sure that at the end of the 
mediBval period there must have been a perfect spire. The 
•widcnl which reduced it to its pi-esent form probably oc- 
curred at a iatei- period, when there was no longer money 
wily obtninable foi- restoring it. The west front of the 
thiirch was probably, with the exception of Crewkerne, the 
fine*! in the county. That al Crewkerne was very similar, but 
ffiufli more elalwrate, and the hexagonal turrets were repeated 
lieri', fo that it seemed jirobable that the architect came fi-om the 

28 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

Crewkerne district. Mr. Buckle then accompanied the party 
round to the north side of the church and pointed out that, 
unlike many churches where the north side was meanly treated, 
this north side at Yatton was as well finished as any other 
part of the church, and that from the north-west part of the 
churchyard one could obtain a very good view of the entire 

Congcestiurp C{)urcb 

was next visited. Mr. Buckle said that this church presented 
the greatest contrast to Yatton church as regarded the general 
effect, yet there were several features in which it bore a con- 
siderable resemblance to it. Here they found an Early English 
nave and aisles, and the first thing which must strike one in 
coming into the church was the remarkable difference between 
the two arcades. The one on the south side had four black 
shafts around it with nothing to support, while the other one 
was a simple natural arcade. The arrangement now existing on 
the south side, of a round central pier carrying the arches flanked 
by black shafts which carried nothing, was excessively ugly, 
and in its present state (juite modern. Cei*tainly when the 
arcade was first built the shape of tbe pillar was as at present, for 
the bases were genuine Early English, and provided for all five 
shafts. But that pillar was intended to carry perfectly plain, 
heavy, square arches, resting on all the five shafts, instead of 
the present light molded arches. When (probably in the I4th 
centm-y) it was desired to lighten the appearance of the 
church, they took down the heavy square arch, but, like 
sensible people, they also took down the four shafts at the 
corners of each pier, and thus lightened the whole effect of the 
arcade. But when the time came for restoring the church, the 
ingenious restorer found from the bases of the pillars that four 
shafts had been there primarily, so he put up those four black 
shafts which presented such an extraordinarily foolish appear- 
ance. The north arcade was very different, probably a little 

Congresbury Church. 29 

hter in date, and was interesting as being as early an example 
as thej could find of the pier which became practically universal 
in Somerset in the Perpendicular period — a pier with four 
little attached shafts, one on each face. The tower arch, like 
those of the south arcade, was presumably Decorated, and he 
thought the bases of the chancel arch were of the same period. 
Then came the usual Perpendicular enlargement, and in that 
case it consisted of the raising of all the aisle walls and the in- 
sertion in them of large windows ; the raising of the nave 
walls and the addition of a clerestory of rather an unusual char- 
acter, consisting of a large number of small windows all close 
together— two windows in every bay. Some of the arrange- 
ments of the church were exceedingly interesting. The step 
on w^hich he was standing at the entrance to the chancel, 
seemed to have been intended as a seat. The base of the rood 
screen was a, stone wall, which had been richly ornamented, 
but was now much damaged. The side screen, however, which 
was of similar design, was beautifully frescoed ; tlie whole of 
the stone tracerv remained with stone buttresses at intervals. 
That low stone wall was intended to carry the ordinary oak 
screen over, but that upper ])art had been very much pulled 
•dlxuit, and had clearly been made up again at some subsequent 
]>eri(>d. How exactly that screen, the base of which stood 
tiiure, was brought forward to meet the stone corbels left stand- 
ing it was difficult to say. It looked as though there had been 
an elaborate piece of vaulting under the gallery, as at Dunster. 
The screen leading from the aisle into the chapel was again in 
two parts. The lower part of it was most interesting, for 
there was a seat attached to it, facing the altar that was in the 
chapel. Attention was called to the two corbels which carried 
the ends of the loft, on which were inscriptions not very easy 
t'> read. The most interesting Decorated work in the church 
consisted of the two square windows in the chancel and chapel, 
^"^^^igh, perhaps, their beauty was questionable, as they were 
^thcr bald-looking. Their date was of the 1 4th century. On 

30 Fifty^firsi Annual Meeting. 

the outside they would observe that it was another church witk 
a spire. Spires were distinctly uncommon in that county, 
there was a band of them which ran across the oountyy 
Kew^toke to Fn)me, and one of them, Croscombe spire, 
almost identical with this one. Here, as at Yatton, there waii 
chai)el in the churchyard, and in this case it was dedicated t^ 
8t. Michael. There were remains of two crosses, one In tkflfjj 
churchyard, and another just outside in the roadway. t 

The vicar of the {mrish, the Rev. R. H. Maixsell-Eyb^a 
l)eing away, the curate, the Rev. J. H. Craven, read a few- 
notes which had been prepared by the Wear. He called atten- 
tion to the registers, which were in a chest in the vestry, 
which dated from tlic year 1543. Parts of the vicarage, 
dated from 1 446, and the arms carved on the jwrch were those 
of the bishopric. Bishop Beckington's, and those of the 
Poultnev familv. What connection thev had with it he coiild 
not tell. The font was the oldest part l>eing early Norman. 
The stump of the yew tree in the churchyard was said to be 
St. Cougar's walking stick. The cross in the churchyard was 
erected as a memorial to Mr. Hardwick, who was attacked bv 
highwaymen and shot in several places, but delivered his 
assailants to justice. 

The next stopping-place was 

SiQrtngton Cburct)* 

Here Mr. lU;c klk first of all alluded to the tower. He 
said that it had attained great distinction as being that which 
Professor Freeman had described as the finest stjuare western 
tower of any parish church in this country (and therefore 
])robably in the world), not intended for a spire or lantern. 
But Mr. Buckle did not share Freeman's views, he thought 
the tower had l)een over-rated, but he agreed that it was a 
remarkably fine one. In order to do the tower justice, it must 
be looked upon as intended for a much smaller church. The 

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Chehey Church. 33 

east end than at the west end. Here, as at Yatton and 
iburj, the lower part of the roo<l screen was of stone, 
position of the rood loft was indicated on the arch imme- 
\j above. There was one stone missing. That stone stood 
DO doubt, as a corbel, and it was on the top of that stone 
It the gallery rested. He drew attention to the arrangement 
the two altar reredoses. The central part of the principal 
los was entirely modern, but was set in the frame of stone 
which was all old. On the top was a pretty cornice, the 
iter part of which was also old. On both sides of the reredos 
niches for figures, but there was nothing now left of the 
cnutmental work. Precisely the same arrangement was re- 
peated at the end of the chapel. There was the same square 
- Meess over the altar for the reredos. He also called attention 
^ to the corbels on each side of the chancel. These corbels sup- 
ported the ends of the Lenten veil, which completely shut out 
the east end of the church from view. At the west end of the 
aisle was a most magnificent Court i>ew of the Jacobean period. 
The oak had never been oiled, and so had turned to a soft 
whit«, as old oak did when left to itself. The roof was of the 
Perpendicular period, and part of it was new. The old rafters 
were nearly white. Here, again, the font was a Norman one. 
There was a little stained glass in the windows, including some 
coats of arms. The tower of the church was also like that at 
Brockley — a small west tower with no pretensions, and with 
just a diagonal buttress. There was a frame for an hour-glass 
by the pulpit, with the glass missing. The old seats were in- 
teresting, but they were a rough lot. 

Chelvey Court was next visited, and what remains of the 
fine old mansion, once the residence of the Tynte family, was 
inspected with considerable curiosity. The house was well 
worth seeing, especially the staircase, though care had to be 
exercised in visiting some of the spacious rooms, on account of 
the decaying condition of the flooring. Enquiries were made 
for the secret chamber, but this was believed to have been de- 

Vd. XL y ^Thirti Series, Vol. rj, Part f. R 

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Claptan-in-Gordano Church and Court, 35 

[e had very little doubt that the person whose duty it was to 

the sanctus bell stood on the rood-loft. 
The oldest entry in the parish register was 1538. The 

altar was put in in 1812. 
The party were afterwards driven into Clevedon, and this 
concluded the second day's proceedings. 

C{)irD Dap'0 proceeDtng0. 

The number of excursionists was not (juite so large on 
Thursday, the third day, about seventy leaWng Clevedon at 
9.30 a.m. in the brakes to complete the last day of the pro- 
gramme. The weather was again delightfully fine. The ^ first 
.stopping place was 

Clapton^tn^($orDano C{)urc{) anD Court. 

The Court House was first viewed from the exterior. 
The Rev. F. W. Weaver explained that the house was 
originally the scat of the Arthur family, and on the front door 
was a coat-of-arms of the Arthurs. In response to a request 
to give the derivation of the nave " In Gordano," Mr. Weaver 
repli(Kl that Bishop Hobliouse considered it was a regional 
name, indicating a particular region in that district. 

Mr. BiCKi.E, in describing the church, said that for the 

most part it was Early English. The north side was the most 

interesting position from whi(rh to see the church. Tlie tower 

was very early, it had got almost a Norman aj)])earancc on the 

outside. The screen leading into it was a fine massive piece 

of oak work, and had been recently brought there from 

Clapton Court. It was exceedingly rough though handsome, 

and in the middle was a coat-of-arms rei)resenting agricultural 

prcKlucts. The spandrils of the screen above the arch were 


^^ gentleman explained that this screen stood originally 
^^ ^hc manor house, and it was thought to be the latest 

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tf'ratvn-in-Gordanv Ckurrli. 


\'n«iftiUiig inside, Mr. Bilki.B said it was an exceedingly 
tli&nnin|; little <,-liurL'h, and besides the gallery already mcn- 
I' tinn«l, tliv whole building was one of the most attractive, to 
A mind, of those they had on their round that day. There 
ne feature about the structure which was not of any 
K^uUr beaiily, and that wna the cha])el which had been 
1 to it ou the east side of the tower, and which spoiled, to 
•e i!xlenl, the general view of the ehnreh as seen from tho 
a entnince gate. Parsing round the north oide, it gave cne 
bimprcssion of being a Norman church, but he had hunted 
Bnund Uie waUs with the greatest care, and he had been able 
I find no Norman masonry. Hut it must be a conservative 
Htilding of a Norman church, although all the walls were of 
ll Porpendicidar [>eriod. The nave of the church was > cry 
gbk finished throughout. The tower was EuHy English, 
ll century work, which was the only remains of the older 
Uiag, The nave was not parallel with the tower. The 
FT curious little stone pnl)>it wa» partially of the same date. 
Krliancel was a good deal later than the nave, but it was 
U>d on in an admirable manner, no as to give the idea that it 
l»pi«rt of the same design. The windows were very elabo- 
t, but they harmonised with those in the nave. There was in 
P niitline of the roof the same trefoil which they had seen at 
siD^too and Vattuii, which shewed that in this district there 
■ adccided revival lowanls the end of the IJth century of 
■ vlii I3th century trefoil. The tower of the L3th century 
1 got an arch on its eastern face, which shewed that there 
1 have been a chapel or apse on that side. When the 
icel was built, however, lliere was no chapel there, and 
ic, probably in (he 16th century, the chapel was addetl 
in irhnt might be called the mean modern manner. The screen 
iras a hit of patch work, and seemed t<» have been put together 
anyhow. The stalls in the chancel were of very great interest, 
t romt of the carmg was of a rough r'harn<-ter. Many of 
■te«U ill the nitvc were 'ild, and there was seen again the 

38 Fifi^-^rst Annual Jleetinff, 

unu!>ual featurv in the l>oppv heads. As a general rule the 
Somerset seats had S4[iiare tojis, not [Joppy heads. On the 
ri^ht-hand side of the church, facing the west, was a monur 
nient to Sir Richanl Pei\*ivaK which was elalx)rately painted. 
He dioil in 148:i. The monument was remarkable for having 
an insi*ription in French, at such a late date. There was a 
monument in this churchyanl with the modem inscription 
**R.l\ IUHV but Mr. Buckle thought that was a misleading 
date* Invause the cross on the top of the tomb was of consider- 
ably later date than that. Besides the narrow pulpit in the 
walK tluMV was alsi* a Jacobean pulpit. 

The Rev. F. \V. Wkavkr remarkeii that the manor house 
heri* usihI to be the princi|>al s<*at of the Percival family. 

The Rev. T. ii. BiKi>, the Rei»tor, afterwanls read an inter- 
esting |m|HM' on the chun.*h, as follows : 

" This chuix*lu although it has not nuich to boast of as re- 
ganls its si/e* may justly claim a place among the most inter- 
esting of the churches of this diix*ese. For there are few 
cluux'hes to Ih* fomul at the pn»sent day retaining so much of 
their «ncicnt titlinsrs as mav be found here, where the church 
presents ahuost the s;»ne ap}H*ii ranee as it nuist have done in 
the middle ages. 

Whether ihci-e was a church here previous to the Norman 
I'onquest is imcertain, but if not, one was built at that [)eriod, 
most i»ri»brtblv bv Ascelin, son of Roln-rt Percvvale, Lord of 
I very, who accompiuiied the Coiupienir in his ex[>etiition, and 
was rewarded with a grant of land at Quant(K*k and Cast 
llarptree. .Vsi»elin is mentiomHl in Domesilay book as i)Osses- 
sor of the Manor of Weston. 

The chuivh was either rebuilt or restortnl in the fifteenth 
ceutmv bv Sir Kichaiil PeiYvvale, who dii^^l 1483, and whose 
tomb remains on the north side of the nave. It has been 
thought from the appearance of the north wall, that the work 
then carried out consistinl principally of altering the windows 
to the present Periwndieular style, and raising the walls two or 

Weston-in-Gordano Church. 39 

three feet to admit of the addition of the tracerj. If this be 
fOy the church is practically the original building. 

The Norman font remains in situ^ together with the high 
akar, the pillars in front of which are, however, modern. In 
the porch should be noticed the choir gallery, immediately over 
the south entrance to the church, and approached by a flight 
of stone stairs in the wall. Some nine or ten other churches 
in this neighbourhood formerly possessed similar ones, but all, 
with the exception of this, have now disappeared. Its use was, 
doubtless, to accommodate the choir at certain functions. In 
the Sarum missal, which was the one in use in most of the 
province of Canterbury, it is ordered that during the procession 
on Palm Sunday, seven boys should sing, on the south side of 
the church, eminente loco^ the verses of the hymn, " All glory, 
laud and honour." This ''high place" seems to have been 
generally erected for the occasion, but in this church, and some 
others assumed a more permanent form. It may also have 
been used at the benediction of the fields at Rogatioii-tide, and 
Iierha|>s for the first part of the marriage service, which then 
l>egan at the church door, not, as now, at the choir gates. 

Returning to the nave, the bench ends, witli one or two ex- 
ceptions, are the original work — those at the west end being 
the tddest. In the south wall, adjoining the arch opening into 
the tower, is a curious thirteenth-century stone })ulpit. It is of 
simple construction, but interesting as an early s])ecinien of a 
fixed pulpit. ()pj)Osite to it is another pulpit of oak, of the 
time of James II. 

Originally the church contained four altars. In addition to 
the two still remaining, there was one on either side of the 
r«MHl-screen, at the east end of the nave. A bracket on the 
north side is all that remains of the altar which stood there, 
but the one on the south side was in situ at the time Rutter 
wrote his history (1829), and is thus described by him "At 
the east end of the nave is a stone oratory with a consecrated 
water-<lrain adjoining, westward of whi(!h is a curious reading- 

40 Fijfy -first Annual Meeting, 

If>ft of stone, approached by two .ste|)s." This, of course, re- 
fers to the pulpit already mentioned. The aumbry and pi^na 
belonging to this altar are still perfect, and the return screen 
separating the chapel from the nave was in existence some 
forty years ago. These return screens, on either side, explain 
the aWnce of doors to the rood-screen. This latter is of 
fifteenth-century work, and was, of course, surmounted by the 
rood loft, of which there are now no remains, except one of the 
corbels which supported it, and the stone stairs, cut in the 
tower wall, by which it was approached. 

In the choir, the ancient oak stalls with misereres (an un- 
usual feature in a village church) remain in good condition. 
They are of fourteenth-century design, and there were origi- 
nally four return stalls on either side the screen, but these 
have, with mistaken zeal, been removed to make room for a 
(*ouple of modern prayer desks. 

The chapel of St. Mary Magdalen, on the south side of the 
choir, 18 the most modern part of the church. There appears 
to l)e no recrord of its erection, but it is mentioned in the will 
of Sir tfames Perceval in 1536, wherein he directs that "his 
bod} be burie<l in the chapel of Mary Maudlyn in the church 
of Wcston-in-Gordano." Its south window, and the wall be- 
low it, were removed from the chancel to make the arch open- 
ing into it, the eastern wall being built of rubble, with a 
window above the altar, much inferior in design. At the west 
end of the chapel another arch opens into the tower. Some 
years since, in rebinlding the organ, the ancient slab of the 
altar of St. Mary Magdalen was found beneath the organ plat- 
form, and it was restored to its original position. 

Although the Percy vale family resided here for upwards of 
six centin-ies, their monuments are singularly few. It is ]K>ssi- 
ble that the havoc wrought by the Puritans during the Rebel- 
lion may account for the destni(»tion of some. The family 
were staunch Royalists, and their i)roperty suffered much dur- 
ing thoHc troublous times. The manor house and church were 

fVeston-m-Gordano Church, 41 

insaeked, and records, registers, painted glass and other orna- 
lents ruthlessly destroyed. The earliest remaining monument 
8 the altar tomb in the churchyard near the porch. It is to 
the memory of Richard Percyvale, a crusader, who, as re- 
corded by Lodge, died in the second year of king John, and 
W18 buried " in the church of Weston Gordeyn, under a mag- 
nificent monument of brass, gilt." There are two full-length 
croeses upon it, and sockets for six pillars, formerly supporting 
A canopy. Round the margin was the inscription, " Orate pro 
inima Ricardi Percyvale qui militavit in Terra Santa cum 
Re^Rycardo a.d. MCXC." 

It would seem that after being mutilated by the Puritans, 
the <»tonework, no longer any ornament to the church, was re- 
moved to its present position. A copy of the original inscrip- 
tion has recently been inserted on a metal plate, below the 

Another monument, fortimately in good preservation, is that 
on the north side of the nave, to the memory of Sir Richard 
PercTvale, the restorer of the church in fifteenth century. It is 
elaborately decorated in gold and colours, and has upon its 
t'anopy three shields, one bearing the arms of PcTcyvalc, im- 
paled witli those of Hampton, this Sir Richard having married 
Catherine, co-heiress of Richard Hampton, a gentleman of 
ilnscountv. The left-hand shield contains the arms of Ball- 
^>ve and Cheddar, and the third has the Percyvale arms, to- 
?etlior with another, unknown. Three angels below the 
cano|)v bear a scroll with this inscription : " Richard Percy- 
vale, ye I^ord have mercy,'' and on another scroll below, " For 
^nv bvttvr Passion bring: hvs soule to Thy salvacion." On 
"'^^ slal) of the tomb, in Norman French, remarkable at so late 
^ <late, " Cv gyste le corps de Rychardc Percy val le ([uel 
^"^Hirut Tan de l>oinet Jesus M.CCCC.LXXXni. Dieu ay 
/^'^'o de son ame." 
^)f Sir James, before mentioned, who was buried in the 
*H])el of St. Mary Magdalen, no monument remains. Whether 

To/. XLV (Third SeritH, Vol. V ), Part I. F 

42 Fifty-Jirst Annual Meeting, 

it was destroyed bj the Puritans, or whether he thouglit the • 
chapel, of which he was probably the founder, sutKcieni 
memorial, we can only conjecture. 

A few small headstones in the churchyard are the only other 
memorials of the family. The manor house, a stately build- 
ing of fourteenth century, was still standing, in a dilapidated 
condition, within living memory, but has now entirely disap- 
peared. The farm buildings, below the church, mark its site, 
and are probably largely constructed from its remains. 

The registers date only from 1684, the earlier ones, as I be- 
fore remarked, having been destroyed by the fanatical Puri- 
tans. The entries up to the beginning of the present century 
are very carelessly made, in many cases by an illiterate clerk, 
and many years have no entry at all. 

The list of the rectors dates back to 1314, and for the 
greater part of tlie last two centuries they seem to have been 
non-resident, the parish during that period having apparently 
always been held in plurality, and with praiseworthy imparti- 
ality it has been tacked on to every one of the adjoining 
parishes in turn, though they are all in different patronage. 

I omitted to say that the ancient sanctus bell remains in its 
turret above the chancel arch, and in the tower is a fine peal 
of bells, four of which are dated 1645. 

In the absence of the President, the Rev. F. W. Weaver 
thanked Mr. Bird for his papen 

Pocti^tieaD Ctiurcb 

was the next place en rontcj l)ut as time was short the party 
did not stay long here. Mr. Bi CKLE ]>ointed out the modem 
gallery in the porch which appeared to be only an alteration of 
the ancient gallery. The wall between the gallery and the 
church had been taken out and a pew made looking into the 
church. Attention was also directed to the staircase leading 
to the gallery. Mr. Uui^kle also alluded to the pinnacles on 

Pvrthury Church, 43 

tower, which he said were fine and distinctive, and like 

to be seen at Evercreech. There was little to be said 

iibout the inside of the church, though the columns were of 

fAflier a curioiis shape, and appeared to be an experiment. A 

cnrious feature of the church was the position of the pulpit, as 

fit WM approached by a staircase in the wall in a manner which 

boiked as if originally it had led to the rood-loft. The pulpit 

flood out from the wall, and was reached by a wooden bridge. 

After luncheon at the Portishead Hotel, the drive was re- 

nmed to 

l^octdurp Cl)urc{) 

there Mr. Blckle again took up the part of guide. He 
drew the attention of the visitors to the fact that the church 
wig entered by a Norman door. Outside the building were 
tko to be seen indieations of Norman pilasters on several 
comers, notably at the two comers at the east end of the chan- 
cel and both the corners of the aisle. All those corners were, 
if not Norman, very old. Everything pointed to the church 
Baring l>een a distinctly important one from an early date. 
One of the first things which struck one in entering tlie church 
was its great size, and the niagiiificent gangways helped to 
frivo dignity to the appearance of the church. There was 
Xomian work in the arch of the chancel, though the arch had 
been very much altered since it was first built, for the original 
Norman arch was very much smaller. It had been taken down 
and rebuilt probably some time in the thirteenth century. The 
arches and the nave were rather characteristic from the fact 
that they had no capitals. The two windows at the east end 
of the aisles were noteworthy, each containing ^\q^ lancets 
united under one arch. On the north side of the chancel there 
was an enonmous squint which reached the diinensions of a 
small chapel. .Tust beyond there was another chapel with a 
stcmo barrel vault. The sediJia in the chancel and in the south 
aisle were of Early English date. Before closing he must 

44 Fifty-first Annual Meeting, 

draw their attention to the magnificent yew trees in the chi 
yard. He had been told that the tradition in the place 
that the trees were the same age as the tower. 

(Kisit to jrailanD ^ou0e. 

A pleasant drive was then made to Failand House, where 
the members of the Society were kindly entertained to tea by 
the President (Sir Edward Fry) and Lady Fry. After tea 
there was a pleasant surprise in store, for the Misses Fry had 
trained some of the local school children to give an exhibition 
of old English pastimes. It was an excellent idea, and one 
well in keeping with the gathering, and it was much enjoyed by j 
those present. The games were played on the tennis lawn, and 
the children were in costume; decked with garlands of flowers \ 
they looked pretty, and went through their sports with evident 
enjoyment. There were other old-fashioned dances and a 
modern one with ribbons, and the whole concluded with a 
pageant march. The pleasure of the scene was enhanced by a 
programme of music, in which old-world tunes were intrwluced. 
One of the Misses Fry and a cousin interpreted the vocal 
parts admirably, and Miss Bulton, of (/levedon, accompanied 
with a violin. 

The sports represented ])v the Failand children were 
taken principally from the Rev. W. F. Galpin's " Ye olde 
Englishe Pastimes" (Novello and Co.). They were, as far 
as possible, reproductions of what used to take place, though, 
from all accounts, a good deal has always been left to the 
taste of the performers. Additional information was found 
in Chambers's " Book of Days " and Strutt's " Sports and Pas- 
times of the English People," and for the dresses the Ency- 
clopaedia of Costume was found useful, though in this respect 
it would have required too much elaboration to be strictly 
accurate. The music ranged in date from the thirteenth cen- 
tury — when the famous " Sumer is i cumcn in " is supposed to 

Visit to Failand House. 45 

kTc been written — to the seventeenth. The songs were 
iged for the occasion for two voices and a violin. The 
[{vograniine of music was as follows : 


Enter Milkmaida and dance the Hey ! Enter Foresters ! 
Enter Qoeen of the Kevels, carried by Shepherdesses, and attended by 

Shepherds representing the Seasons. 

Maypole Dance, interrupted by Morris Dancers representing Friar Tuck, 

the Hobby Horse, the Jester, and the Dragon. 

Foresters shoot at Popinjay. 

The Victor is crowned by the Queen. 

Shepherdesses and Milkmaids dance. 

Sellinger's Bound, or the end of the world. 

Ribbon Dance (modem). 

Maypole Dance. 

Pageant March. 

Exeunt Omnes. 


" Dargason" (temp. Henry VIII). 

•'Tucket for the Horns" (17th century). 

"The Hunt is up" (temp. Henry VIII). 

*' Summer is a-coming in " (cir. 1225). 

** Under the Greenwood Tree " (temp. Charles I). 

'* Come, Lasses and Lads " (temp. Charles II). 

•'Trip and go," >forris dance (temp. Elizabeth). 

**Now, Robin, lend to me thy bow " (before 1568). 

"Sellinger's Round " (temp. Edward III). 

•• Joan to the Maypole " (temp. Charles II). 

*' Hobby Horse Dance" (temp. Charles II). 

*• Pageant March " (I7th century). 

" Golden Slumbers " (1 7th century). 

At the conrhi:?ion, Mr. K. B. Celv-Tkeviliax, on behalf 
of the society, thanked Sir Edward Fry for his liospitality. 
lu the domain of archa;oh)gy, or in any other domain, between 
thin«i:s which were ])urely ephemeral and things which were 
of a ]nirely permanent character, they knew that they could 
not do better than place themselves under the guidance of a 
rreat jtidge. 

Sir Edwaijd Fry brieHy returned thanks, and said it had 
been a great pleasure to him to take part in the proceedings 
of the Society's gathering. 

46 Fifty-^first Annual J/ftfniy. 

The Kev. F. W. Weavek, on behalf of the society, abo ' 
thanked Sir Edmund and Ladj Elton for their ho:<pitalitjr, 
and Mr. Elton for hijs interesting paper on the history of 
Clevedon Court. He aliK) thanked Mr. and Mn». Charles 
Hill for entertaining them to tea at Clevedon Hall, aL<o Mr* 
Edmund Buckle for so kindly giving his time in describing 
the churches. The society were also indebted to the help 
rendered by the local conunittee, not forgetting tlie Hon. Sec., 
Mr. Day ; also thanks were due to the clergy for opening 
their churches, and to the owners and tenants of the houses 
they had visited. Last, though not least, their sincere 
thanks were due to Mr. Charles Tite, who very kindly came 
f Him Wales and undertook, at a moment's notice, to supply the 
place of Mr. Hidgood, in his unavoidable absence. 

One of the party also added Mr. Weaver's name to the list 
of those to be thanked for their services, and the resolution 
was carried unanimously. 

Mr. Weaver, in returning thanks, humorously remarked 
that he hoped it would be his last appearance on the scene as 
"excursion secretary.'' He, however, had undertaken the 
oflicc because Col. Bramble was not well. He should go back 
to Taunton and tell the conunittcc that they ought to under- 
take this duty in succession. 

CiGrarall Ctiuccb. 

A short visit was next made to Wraxall Church, which was 
described by tlie Rev. (i. S. Master, in the absence of Mr. 
Buckle. He said that he always looked upon the church and 
the one adjoinin^i: as bein^ the most beautiful instance that he 
knew of a restored clnu-ch in this (century. The church had 
been restored by the munificence of tlie Gibbs family, Mr. 
Antony Gibbs luiving restored Wraxall Church, and Mr. 
Martin Gibbs the churcli of Barrow Gurney. The work of 
restoration at Wraxall bad been carried out under the direction 
of Sir Arthur Blomfield. The chancel had been entirely re- 

Wraxall Church. 47 

knit, and the l)eaiitiful roof had been introduced, also the 

•creen, of which he (Mr. Master) knew no finer example of 

modem work in wood carving. The screen had been extended 

to the organ and the organ-gallery, and, in doing that, i)art of 

tbe old rood screen had been utilised together with the staircase. 

Tbe church was originally built about the middle of the fifteenth 

century, probably 1450, and it was a grand instance of a 

church of that date. The only portion of it now visible was 

the chancel arch. The porch was Early English, and the 

inner doorway was Norman in character. Beautiful stained 

glass had been introduced into the church by Mr. Kemp. The 

interior of the church was rather dark even on a very fine day, 

but this had been somewhat remedied by putting in some 

white glass in the east window, and other of the windows had 

had a large proportion of white glass placed in them with the 

same object. The restoration had only just been completed. 

There was a very fine tomb there of the Gordon family. 

The Rev. G. S. Master having been thanked for his 
description of the building, this completed the three days' pro- 
gramme. The return journey was then made, Clevedon being 
reached at al>oiit 8 o'clock, and thus the proceedings were 
brought to a close. 

€xxmmt Clofct, Deanetp, COeUs. 

DrfciK, dbe ivf^ir* ^/exv-nk^l «Vjoe-irork, June, 1899, at 
Dttu^rr. Ji liori«4kl4i] bidii^-pUfne was discciTered. On 
BOTtk. *-«• earvlcA firc«t of tbe deaoerr, i> the new building of^ 
beaa GaBtkorffe ^147±-fi*^ with ii^ fortified tower. The 
hduy^aedxifr hall, with it« flat mlin^?. had a grand guests 
chaabher oTer iu ttftm ^^ub-dirided into two >pacious bedrooms « 
awl the emfaattkd bead« of two fine liaj-window^ — carrjin^ 
Gmithrjffpe'^ gin». and Edwanl IV> Ra>e en Soleil — rise six 
feet ahore the <%ilin«r of the banqQeting hall. 

In mnoTii^ the derajed «tone-work that roofed in the fim 
Taoh of the southern bav window, richlv carved with Guik Ij 
thorpe*« badge:^ i gun and hand grenade ) an unsiLspected hiding. }^ 
pbM^ wa^ laid bare. The original entrance was twenty-one d 
inches i«r|uare, opening from the floor of the eai^tem half of the 1 
gjeat guest-chamber. Thi? entram-o had been closed, with Uth :^ 
and planter, at a com pant ivelT recent date, perhaps early last 
centurv. The floor line of the recess is one foot below the 
floor line of the bedroom, and the top of the aperture is eleven 
inches below the curve of the an*h (8ft. Tin. span) that supports 
the external roof. The floor of the recess is 4ft. lin. in width, 
large enough to have hidden, for a short time, a fugitive, even 
while Henry VII, on his march into the West against Perkin 
Warbeck, was entertained in the Banqueting Hall below, Sept. 
30, 1497. Probably the recess was usually a receptacle for 
plate, tapestry, and other valuables ; and, i)erhaps, no house of 
any im|X)rtauce, built before the end of the fifteenth century, 
was without some well-devised hiding-place. Dean Gunthorpe, 
as is well known, was not only a great scholar, who had studied 
Greek in Italy, but chaplain to Edward IV, Loi-d Keeper of 
the Privy Seal to Richard III, and in possession of other 
well-endowed Court appointments. He was an ardent Yorkist, 
like the Bishop, his co-temporary, Ricliard Stillington, of 
Bath and Wells; and his estate had to pay to Henry VII a 

50 l^^fiy-Jirst Anniinl Meeting. 

(4). This is confirmed by Miss F. Greville, niece of the 
Miss Frances Greville mentioned above. 

(5). But there is no jwrch to this house of ^*The Glen,** 
Not now; but Mrs. Squires, an old lady who lived there for 
over thirty years, assures me that it had a stone-and-stick porch, 
which was taken away in her day, and which was covered with 
honevsuckle and roses. 

If you would but take note of this just now it would help to 
stop the falsification of history on this small point. 


iion of the late Vicar of Clevedotu 

aDDitions to tbe ^ocieti^'s ^iweum atiD Lidcarp 

Duriny the Year 1899. 


Two Ten-pound Notes, Bridgwater and Somerset Bank. — 
From Mr. Albert Goodman. 

Cop J of Certificate of Burial of Humphrey Blake, 1679 ; 
extracts from Close Rolls, &c.— From Mr. .Fohn Kent. 

Painted beam from Naish Priory ; Casts of three Corbel 
Heads from Naish Priory. — From Mr. G. T. Chafyx-Gkovk. 

ConsUble's Staff, Tithing of East Street, 1619.— (Pur- 

Engravings of the Interior of Westminster Hall, showing 
the Diimerand Manner of Challenge ; Interior of Westminster 
Abbey at the Coronation ; Inside of St. Peter's, Westminster, 
before the Coronation. — From the Rev. D. .1. Princj. 

Protest against Church Rates, Taunton, 3rd month, 1842. — 
From Mr. Wm. Goodland. 

Chard Borough Extension Medal, 1892. Public House and 
Trade Checks : Taunton — Coffee Tavern, Co-operative Society, 
Saracen's Head, Cridland's Fleur-de-Lis Inn, Old Angel, 
Harris's Corn Cure. Bridgwater — Pitman's Three Crowns, 
E. Wippell's Bowling Room. Keynsham — White Hart. 
Bath — Fox and Hounds, Walcot Street. Watchet- Balmer's 
Bell Inn (2). Dunster — Luttrell Arms. Frome— King's Head, 
(t. Hillier. Wincanton — J. A. Bailey's Greyhound, 1857 ; J. 
Stay, Trooper Inn, 1846. Wells and Wookey Co-()i)erative. 
Nine Portraits of Somerset Worthies. — From Mr. C. Tite. 

A large Oil Painting of the Last Supper, which had been 
hanging in the Castle Hall for some years. — From Mr. F. C. 

Memoranda of the First Somerset Militia, 1763 — 1815 — 
\H2S, made by Lieut. W. H. Choriey.— From Mr. W. Jewkll. 

5'2 Fifty-Jtrai Annual Meeting. 

Photographs of the Cromlechs at L'Ancresse and De Hus^ j 
(fiiernsey. — From Mons. Gifkard Le Mesukiek. \ 

Two old Glass Bottles, I. M. Nicholson, 1717. -From Mr. 

Chuckram Travancore ; Somerset County Gazette^ No. 1, j 
Dec. 31st, 1836, April 1, 8, July 1, 1843; Somerset Countg 
Herald, Oct. 28, Dec. 2, 9, 1843; Jan. 20, 27, Feb. 17, Mardi 
2, 9, 30, April 13, 27, 1844 ; Spirit of the Times, or the SocW 
Reformer, March 27, 1847. — From Mr. H. Read. 

Model of a Formosan Boat. — From Master Felix Bkkk. 


Calendar of Bristol Deeds. — From Mr. J. W. Braikex> 


Transactiotis of the Wiseonstn Academy of Sciences, vol. xL 
— From the Academy. 

Collections for a Parochial History of BackwelL — From the 
Northern Branch. 

Slawf and its Analoyncs, 4 vols. — From Dr. Rix^EKS. 

Specimens of Ancient Sculpture and Painting now remaining 
in England, by Carter, 1887. — From Mr. C\ H. Samsox. 

Northamptonshire Naturalists^ Journal, Nos. 73 — 76. 

Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Henry VII, pt. 1. 
Somerset Carthusians, l)y Miss Thompson.— -From Rev. F. 
W. Wkavku. 

Hofrrn\s Maps of All (he Counties of England. — From Mr. 
F. ('. S.WDKUSOX. 

Notes and Queries, vols i to xi (severalmissing). — From Mr. 
Kim;ak Bennett. 

77/r (\tuntess of l^embrokcs Arcadia; Folio Bible, 1770. — 
From Mrs. QiANTot k. 

Ptf/mouth Institution^ Reports and Transactions, 1830, vol. i, 
18(11.2, l8()2-3, 18()3-4, 18()4.r>, vol. ii, pt. 1, 2; 1865-7, vol. iii, 
ptH. I, 2, 3; 1867-9, vol. iv, pts. 1, 2, 3; 1869-71, vol. v, pts. 
1,2, 1873-*').— From Mr. T, D. Pkankeho. 

Additions to the Library, 53 

Huli Scientific and Field Naturalists^ Club^ vol. i, no. 1, 1898. 
Chicago Academy of Sciences. Fortieth Annunl Report^ 1897. 
The l^leistocene Features and Deposits of the Chfctu/o Area. 
Menanr of Robert Hibbert^ by Murch. 
I. Essex Feet oj Fines. 

^ The Ancient Church Fonts of Somerset^ shown by description 
\mmd draft, — From Mr. Harvey Pridham. 

Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society Transactions^ 
ToL V, pt. 6. 

The Bishoprics and Lands of the Five Western Dioceses. — 
From the Rev. J. E. Risk. 

Choice English Lyrics set to Music ; Dainty Ditties^ or Old 
Nurseri/ Rhymes^ set to Music. — From Professor Allen. 
Sixtieth Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records. 
Guide to Queensland. 

Side Lii/ht upon Coal Formation. — From Mr. W. S. Grksley. 
The Bristol Royal Mail, by R. C. Tombs.— From Mr. E. J. 

Castle Cary Visitor, Jan. to Dec, 1899. — From Mr. 

Received from Societies in Correspondence for th(* J'Jxclifivfje of 


Roval Archaeological Institute of (ireat liritain and Ireland — 

Journal, nos. 220, 221, 222, 223. 
British Museum (Natural History) — List of Fossil Cephalo- 

poda ; the Genera and Species of B histoid in. 
British Archaeological Association — Journal, vol. iv, ])t. 4 ; vol. 

V, pts. 1, 2, 3. 
Society of Antiquaries of London — Proceedings, vol. xvii, no. 1. 
Soi'iety of Antiquaries of Scotland — Proceedings^ vol. xxxii, 

KovaJ Irish Academv — Transactions, vol. xxxi, ])t. 7 : Proceed- 

inys^ vol. v, nos. 2, 3. 
Sussex Archaeological Society — Collections, vol. xlii. 

" ♦ i'S-^1?-^ At: anal MerftHif, 

I* -^ >'. •»r«— m" AiCK BMrirf ri Irelimd — JomrnaL vol. ix, pte^j 

>-"^ .-'^•1.:- t: jr»-li > •!*J*CT — CoUtftiiiH*^ vol. xiv, |)t. 2. 

-j*?^''5^--r*- a*:-^ . it-*!iirt HfcC ct^ Societv — vol. xiii. 
V :>.:.:^ ^^i.^-ui^i.-^ Mil^ Historv Societv — Maga^ 
^•> I - * - I. szTJi, 11.^ fc : JfigvisitwHes Post Mortem^ pL 

" TT. ,711 Ijscirirr! a ui£ I*eT:a: 43d Cornwall Natural Hist- 

5i->i- :Lr.i ■-■ .ii-:-<r5>;Lirf Ar:-rji\.k^sical Societv— Traiiiac- 

■ I ^ • - \'tttrni»tff^ « >. TT* C4»nfrthtn * . voL x xx , pt 

• ^ --:^-. 

• '^i* 

^ -, ^ I:;:*. 1 1 . ^1 r*^ wi£ N iruTkl H isiOF V Socict T — 7'rOM- 
*■•'-» .. ->. TC**. 1, i.. ?■ ; i^jrudar of thr JifiHiments 

• .^ 

.'••^ -"-. ^ s - »:"^ r: >C CI ^.C-rlv — TruM*actwns^ vol. X, 

^ :. . -. 
' >5v -. •. • • •- > c :- S i.j::> — T-ci ss:T»-M*. vul. vii, pt. 3. 
'^ ^- - •.-•2 z*::..-^ tni Arohx-olc^cal Soi*ietv — 

*^ ' ^ . .: . i*^v4.". ^/<L-».fl,, vol. xiii. 

N» "^1 > : ^ L- • s- : • - A : T • : -s^-^i:: Field Club — vol. i x, no. 2. 

^ >. ^ .w V 5 ' 1 - y^.r—r. t^K Tv>L xvi, pt?. 2, 3, 4, o. 
\ ' ' /v ■ > *. '. y-'tc-'C fc. >, \v*L ^"iii, pt. ti : l^runsnr^ 

.>. - \ I r ; ^ ■'. t::. pt. 1. 
NX. \, >. ^^ Sa. ,:■ .•H^--:*is:w>. vol. 3. 

.V* V •» ^ * > >^> * , ' ". \ . !• "« . .>. X, \3I. 

^'xx, \ :' , V • vx .- .V « -.: ..:, :H>i>. l»i — 24: vol. x, 

Sx s ■ >^ X X * ■: V . ; s . . > ,■ ; N ;■ «* *-A > : - t-i'*i>-T yne — . i rch ao hgia 

^^ •■ 1 ■» y,. > . '♦ io. -: / r\:-.*« Rryist^r*, pt. 3. 
l'Uh\vu V J *.;^ ;;;**.', A': I !:;> /V-.-rv^frw*, voL iv. pt. 2. 

Additions to the Library, 55 

[Cambridge Antiquarian Society — Proceedings^ 1897, 1898 ; 

Archbishop Parker s MSS,; List of Members, 
Tliester Archaeological and Historical Society — Journal^ vol. 

▼i^ pt8. 1, 2. 3. 

rhoresby Society, Leeds — vol. ix, pt, 2 ; vol. x, pt. 1. 
rhe Reliquary and Illustrated Archajologist — vol. v, nos. 3, 4. 
xeolog^cal Institution of the University of Upsala, Sweden — 
Carl mm Linne^ pt. 7 ; Bulletin of the Geoloifical Institution^ 
vol. IV, pt. 1. 
.^anadian Institute — Proceedings^ no. 7, vol. ii, pt. 2. 
•I ova Scotian Institute — vol. ix. 

imithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S. — Report of the 
C\^. National Museum^ 1896 ; Some questions of Nomen- 
clature ; Preliminary Account of an Expedition to the 
Pueblo Ruins, 1896 ; Was Primitive Man a Modern 
Savage ; Bows and Arrows in Central Brazil ; Account of 
tbe work of the Service of Antiquities of Egypt. Bulletin^ 
no, 47, pts. 2, 3 ; Proceedings^ vol. xx ; Proceedings of the 
U.S. National Museum^ vol. xxi. Stone Implements from 
I^ake Michigan ; The Omaha Tribe ; The Unity of the 
Human Species; Archi^ological Field Work in Arizona; 
Kecent Research in Egypt ; Manageries of France ; the 
Law under which lies Productive Colouration ; Life History 
Studies of Animals ; On Soaring in Fliglit. 
Kssex Institute, Salem, Massachusetts, U.S. — Bulletin^ 1896-7-8. 
>Hew England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, U.S. — 
Register, no. 209, 210, 211, 212; Proceedings Annual 
Meeting^ Jan.^ 1899. 
Acarlemy of Natural Sciences, Philadel[)hia, U.S. — Proceed- 
ings, 1898. pt. .3 ; 1899, pt. 1. 
University of California, U.S. — Report of Agricultural Experi^ 
ment Stations, 1895-97 ; Conservation of Soil Moisture ; and 
several pamphlets on the University. 
Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles, Lausanne. — Bulletin, 
no. 130, 131. 

56 Fifty-firxt Annu*il Mectiuf^, 


Harleian Society — Registers of St, Mart iH-in'the- Fir Ids ; Regi$^ 

ters of St. Pauts Cathedral. 
Earl J English Text Society — Queen Elizabeth's Entflishings — 

Merlin^ pt. 4. 
Somerset Record Society — Feet of Fines, Edw. II to Edw. IIL 
Ray Society — Ixirrcs, vol viii. 

Sitmerset and Dorset Notes and Queries, nos. 45, 46, 47. 
Diocesan Histories — Bath and Wells. 
Life of John I^cke, by Lord King, 2 vols. 
Life of Judge Jeffreys, by Irving. 
English Dialect Dictionary, pts. 7, 8. 

Barker's Sermons, 2 vols. ; Twelve Sermons ; Catechism of the 
Kingdom of God, by Greiiber ; Mr. Grueber's reply on 
Schism ; Saul and the fHtch of Endor. 
Dobrett's Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, 1895. 
Kelly's Devonshire Directory, 1893. 
History of Taunton, Mass., 1893. 

J rr/itfij/w/iVi, vol. xvi, pt. 1 ; vol. xxiii; vol. xxxv,pt. 2 ; vol.49, 
pt. 2 ; vol. 50, pts. 1, 2 ; vol. 51, pts. 1,2; vol. 52, pt. 1. 
Index, vols. 1 — 50. 
Reil Letter Days of My Life, by Mi's, Andrew Crosse. 
British Mosses, by Sir Edward Fry. 
Supplement to Xotes of My Life. 
Dr. South wood Smith. 
Life of Bosina, Ladv Lvtton. 
Somersetshire Towers^ 14 parts. 
Life and Letters of Edward A. Freeman. 
Oxford Historical Society — Woods City of Oxford, vol. iii ; 

Old Plans of Oxford. 
History of Northumberland, vol. v. 
In dex Snxo n ic u m . 
Pahvontographicftl Society, vol. liii, 1899. 







"PA^r ii.—vA'PE^s, Ere. 




Fart IL 

THE additional notes comprised in this Faper^ allusive to 
the Brook family, are offered as supplementary to the 
account foimd in the preceding volume of Som. Arc. and Nat. 
Hist. Soc. Proceedings^ and are designed to render the notice 
of their history to some extent more complete. 

The following interesting confirmatory particulars relating to 
Brook, Cobham, Beauchamp, &c., are extracted from Coll. 
Topofj, et GeneaLj vol. vii, pp. 320-354, therein stated to be 
taken from " Charters^ Sfc,^ in the hand-writing 0/ Robert Glover^ 
Somerset Herald^ in a volume of the library of the College of 

' Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), PaH II. a 

2 Papers^ ^c. 

Arms^ marked Philifwt^ E. J,^ and were derived from the 
ment room at Cobham //a//," about 1574. These refer 
early possession of Olditch : — 

'*Brianusde Gomz (Goritz) DVs de Kingesdon, dedit, &c., Henri< 
Broke et Nicholea uxor snsc, &c., s. d. (Seal) 'S. Briani de Gomz.' 
vairt^ a bend lozengy, 

Henricns de Brok, de Holdyche, li Regis Edw. 

Elizabeth aus fait uxor Henrici de Broke, 7 Edw*d. Ill— 1334. 

Henrious Broke, relaxavit Thome Broke ne{k>ti buo et Conatanti; 
ejus, fto. Dat. ap. Holdyche, 8 Edw. 111—1335. 

Thomas Broke, et Constantia uxor eius, 9 Edw. Ill— 1336. 

Thomas de Broke, tenuit maner, de Broke juzta Yilchester in Com. 
14 Edw. Ill— 1341.*' 

The following to Henry de Cobham, the marriage of 1 

to Joan Beauchamp, his burial at Stoke-sub-Hamdoi 

inventory of his goods. It will be observed the date 

son's attendance at the funeral is of a vague nature, stu 

''anno 9 Edw. regis " ; if of Edwd. II, 1316 ; if of Edwc 

1336 ; and this would be nearer the correct date, for h« 

in 1339, which agrees with the year the inventory was 

and exhibited. 

'* Johannes de Cobham miles queritur versus Dn'mThomam fratrem a 
qua querela dicit c^uod cum Joh*es de Cobham leur sage auncestor, le qu 
assoile, perquisivit manerium de Chessebury, quod descendit D'no i 
patri eorum utpote h»ridi per successionem : Et postea idem H. accev 
Joh'e de Beauchamp pro nuptiis dicti I)*ne Johannis filii sui 40<) lib. 
oonditione quod nunquam disnereditaret d*cm J. lilium suum. Id non o 
diet. D*ns Thomas ita rem tractavit cum eorum patre anted'co q*d ille f 
d*om Thom. de advocatione eccl'sie pred*ce, &c. Tandem convenit inte 
prsBsentia Reginaldi de Cobham, Prions Roffens*, et aliis. 

Henricus de Cobham, miles, dVs de Chissebury, 6 Edward II — 1313. 

Joh*es de Cobham dedit D*ne Matilde de Columbariis et Henrico de ( 
filio suo maneria de Chissebyri, &c., s. d. (seal) arms of Cobham, dim 
impalinff a bend (Columbers). 

Henncus de Cobham, miles, D'ns de Cobham, dedit Joh'i de C. Hlio 
Johanne uxori ejus, pro sexcentis marcis argenti ille prse manibus 
manerium suum de Henton in Com. Wiltes, cum omn' pertin', «S:c 
Londini die Lunas in f. b. Mario) Mas. 8 Edward II — 1315. 

Joh*es de Cobham, miles, filius D*ni H. de Cobham, salut in D*n( 
univ. vestra me attomasse, &c., Will'm de Blanford ad capiend. (pi 
grant). Dat. ap. Stoke-subtus-Hamedon die Martis p'x. p. f. b. 
8 Edward 11-1315. 

D*ns Johe's de Cobham celebravit funus D*ni Henrici de Cobham apu* 
in Com. (Somerset) anno 9 Edw. regis. 

Henricus de Cobham sepelitur apud Merston Stoke in Com. Some 
Joh*es de Cobham iilius ejus aderat apud funus suum, cujus quidam 
expensa itinerando et redundo ad'co funere adhuc extant. 

Inyentiarum omniu' honor* D*ni Henrici de Cobham, mil. defur 
Assumpo'onis beat® Marin virginis anno D'ni millo cccn>o xxxixo. H 
iste habuit duos filios Joh'em et Thomam, milites, qui contraversarVit ] 
tamento patris sui. (1339). 


WyS U^^ 


The Brook Family. 3 

iBTentianun omnium bouomm D'ni Hen. de C. miL defancti die Aasompt. 
bi Mtfue Tirg. 1339, exhibit Ep*o RofTensi per Thonuun C. mil." 

These relate to John de Cobham, his tnarriage contract 
with Margaret Courtenay, and receipt for the payment, ^'pro le 
S9^urn '■ with her father subsequently. 

" Joh'es Cobham dat terras Johi filio suo et Margaret® filisB HugonU Comitis 
Oenm. 5 Edward III — 1332. (Seal) on a spread eagle two nhie/dSf 1 vaire (for 
JotB Beaochamp), 2 Cobham, vith label. 

ladentara facta 6 Edward III — 1333, inter D*m*n Hugonem de Conrtenay, 
CMDttem Devon et Joh'em de Cobham testatur quod Joh'es filius D*ni Joh'is 
aeopiet in uzorem Margaret filiam dicti Comites, &c. 

Hiigo de Courtenay Comes Devnnue fatetur se recipisse de Johanne de 
Cobeham miL filio D*ni Johis de C. de Kent, militls, o libras sex solidos pro le 
•ojoam de Margarete de Courtenay filia sua, 29 Edward III — 1356. 

Joh'es, D'nns de Cobham. habuit licent. fundare Collegium de Cobham — 

Thej!>e exhibit the marriage contract of Thomas Brook, and 
Johanna Bray broke, Lady of Cobham, with the seals of 
Cobham and Brook ; and a deed relating to the widowed 
Lady Johanna Brook, with her four sons (including Michael 
Brook}, concerning Kingeston, one of the oldest of their 
po«^ei*sions, and dat^d at Olditch. The seal to this document 
i>. specially interesting as displaying Lady tlohanna's arms, 
Erminr^ on a chief <fules^ three bucks head's affronte or^ impaled 
with Brook, her second husband. 

These anns are now assigned to Hannimj; and their appear- 
ance here makes it questionable if she did not belong to a 
family so named, and not Haanay^ or Ilanham^ imless all three 
are variants of the same name. The arms at present assigned 
to Ilanliam are altogether different. 

**lndentura facta inter Sir John Oldcafatell mil. D'n'ni de Cobham et 
Johannezn uxoris ejus ex una parte, et Thomam Broke, militem ex altera. 
Tefttatur quod Thomas filius et heres d'ci Thome Brooke accipet in uxorem 
Johannam tilium d'ce Johannse uxoris d'ci Joh'is O. D'ni de C. infra datum 
pr»iientiuni ad festum Pentecostes proximo venturum si Deus illis vitam 
concedit, &c. Dat. 20 Feb. 11 Henry IV — 1410. (Seal) **Sigillum Johannis 
OLrK;ASTELL D*NI DE CoBHAM." (Arms) quarterly, one and four, a ca^ile^ two 
and three Cobham, (supporters) two lions sejant affront^e, (crest) on a helmet and 
^cr^atk, a Saracen's head wearing a cap. 

Joanna Brooke relicta Thume Brooke mil. defuncti fecit attornatus ad 
deliberandum Kic'o Chedder, Thome Brooke, Thome Chedder et Michaeli 
Brooke tiliis meis seisinam in maner' de Kingeston. Dat. apud Holdyche 
5 Henry V, 1418. (Seal) Brook, impaling, Emiine^ on a chief, three bucks' 
heads caboshed, 

Michael Brooke, fil. Thomse et Johannse B., 1 1 Henry V, 1424. 

4 Papers^ 8fc, 

Deed dftted 12 Henrv YL 1434. (Seal 1) *Sioillum Thom^ Brook 
MiLiTis/ (mrms) on a chevron a lion rampant (Brook), (snpporten) two Ikm 
(orett) on a Julmet and wrtath a npread wiug. (Seal 2) * Sioillum Johanv 
Broke,* (arms) Brook, impaliog, Emune^ on a chi^, three stagt* heads eaboghe^ 

These notes to Johanna, Lady of Cobham, and Hemenha] 
and Hawberk, two of her husbands, and Hawberk's first wif- 

'* Rob*t8 Asheley et alii demiserunt maner. de Crethale in Ck>m. Essex. Job 
qaondam uxori Rob*ti Hemenhale mil. filiie Joh'is de la Poole, militis, 19 Ri« 
11, 1396. (Seal) * Sioillum D'ne Johanke Hemenhale.' (Arms) on a ft^ 
between two chevroneU, three eteallops (Hemenhale) impaliog, two bart wavff (D 
la Pole). 

Nicholaas Hawberk, miles, et Domina Matilda uxor ejus, 1 Henry IV, 139$ 

Nich. Hauberk, miles, dedit Uugoui Lutterell, &c., onmia bona et catell 
sua ubicumque fuerint inventa exceptus centum sol. argenti quod sibi reseraril 
Dat. apud CJouling, 6 Oct., 9 Henry IV, 1407. 

Hugo Lutterell, miles, &c., contirmaverunt D'n*ie Johannae, D*nie de Cobhan 
omnia bona et catella quaa habuerunt ex dono Nicholai Hauberk, niiliti 
9 Henry IV, 1407. (Seal) * Sioillum Nicholaus Haubkrk, militis.* (Arm 
cheeky, a chief per /eM nebul6e.** 

And these refer to John de Cobham, of Blackboroiigl 

" Joh'es Ck>bham de Blakeburgh, et Katerina uxor ejus 51 Edward III, 137i 
20 Richard II, 1396. Comub. Johannes CTobham de filakeburgb, miles, obi 
seisitus de reversioue manerii de Hilton cum pertin. et de redditu. lU soli< 
annuatim Castro de Launceston solvendo. Quod quidem manerium tenetur < 
Kege in cap. ut de Castro suo prsBdicto et de Ducato Comubiro per ser 
militare et per redd. 10 solid, per annum. Quodque Elizabetha soror die 
Johannis est hseres. (Seal) 'Sioillum Jouannis dk Cobkham.' (Arms) oh 
chevron f three spread eagles^ in dexter cltiff point an eatoile." 

These arms of Cobham of Blackborougli were ((iiartered b 
Hungerford, as descending from Elizabeth, daughter of tli 
first Jolin Cobham of that place, who married Sir Hug 
Peverell. Thej are fomid on the large escuteheon of tl 
splendid monument with their effigies, in the Chai)el j 
Farleigh Castle, of Sir Edward Hungerford, ob. 1648, and h 
wife Margaret Hallidaj, ob. 1672; and are, apparently, tl 
only trace of remembrance of the Cobhams of Blackboroug 


In Canon Jackson's Guide to Farleigh Ilunf/erford 1879^ tl 
following " courteous and gentle epistle, &c.," appears, (juott 

The Brook Family. 5 

the fine Cartulary of the Hnngerford Family^ in the 

of the Bt. Hon. Henry Hobhouse, of Hadspen, 

ftnton. An indenture bj which Thomas Chedder does 

iMge to Walter, Lord Hnngerford (ob. 1449) for his land 

tf Lideton near Wellow ; 21 Henry VI, 1441. 

"Ha Indentme made the Fest of Seinte Cotberd the Bimhoppe, the veare 

^ Bf^gning of SLing Htm the Sezt after the Coamieiite the 19th, 

VhiHth that Tbomaa Chedoer, Scirer (B^quirt) hath dooe Homage to 

Ukr Lord Hiuiflerfordir for the Londee and Tenements which the saide 

UHM holdeih of the taide Lord in Litleton. In witnees whereof to the 

piiia flf thia Indentnre as well the saide Lords as the forsaide Thomas enter- 

■■MiUy have set their seales the day and the yere above writen.'* 

"To tbe wofshipfoll noUe and my ryght gode and gracioos Lord the Loide 


Wmupfol Noble and my right sode Lord. I recomaonde me nnto your 

iJiMfDde Lordeshippe, besechyng uie same to have me excused of that I*com 

at to yoar P re s en ce atte this Tyme for the Doying of myne Homage : for 

tvki my Lord, God hath visited roe with snch Intirmite that I may not ryde 

vi^kost ridbt grete Ferdl of mice Hole (health) as I hope my Brother Fortesca 

*U hath sene myne Intirmite will pleynle enforme year gode Lordeidiippe : 

Vkarfoie I sends nnto yon by the Berer hereof an Eodentnre ensealed with 

tWSisle of mjrne Armys by which 1 have done unto you Homaoe. 

WonhipfaU noUe and my ryght gode Lord, I beseech Almighti God alwey 
Twr^ode and gracious spede. 
Wnts OB the Fest of Seinte Cutberde the Bisshoppe ; — 

TuoMAS Chkddkb." 

Thomas Chedder had no brother named Fortcscue, and the 
Canon surmises it may have been the L.C.tT. of the King's 
Bench, Sir John Fortescue, "who was connected with the 
neighbourhood of Wellow and Farley, by marriage (according 
to Lord Clermont) with the heiress of John James, of Norton 
^t Philip's." Thomas Chedder, then in ill health, appears to 
'lave died the following year, 1442-3. 

•SVr Edward Grey- -Viscount IJIslc, He carried the Rod 
^'ith the Dove at the coronation of Richard III- 7tli Julv, 
^'^HS. His first wife, Elizabeth Talbot, gi'andd a lighter of 
Thomas Chedder, died 8th September, 1487, and was ))uried 
^t Astley, Warwickshire; he died 17th July, 1492, and be- 
^l^eathed his body to be buried in the new chapel of Our 
Lady, begun by himself to be built in the College of Astley, 
^'liere the body of his late wife lay interred. The interesting 
|>air of effigies in Astley Church may represent them ; the 
Itnight, in full armour, with collar of S.S. ; the lady, with long 

: - - .' ..:-. v.; v : Sir Kober 
. •. L..- .• r 1 o: L, 1474-0. 
. . ^ . ..-: i' : 14'*'. Sh( 
..:..-. r •'•- '■ • . >:: Kohert — 
- :.;.---. V--- ::. _z • >r2:lv in- ' 
"...: '..- ■:.:-•■■ --. :-•: _■ :r. wore 
I :.. . -::.."! ::.:■ north 

.: .::,: . ■ ■ •- "--V- : iliat 
- • . ■• : V :. i-i : Tr.onu- 

• •.. .... a. ._^ ■ *■ •■•^ 

V _ ' "* • '. - . »: : i: :-: rf i:i -n of 

• r-« • . "i ^ ■ -"i WililU' 

- . > - 7: :..:.- >!:- :::. K.B.. t^f 

H -..Lr-.T*: E!;zar»i-th 

■ " *"• ^••" •: .-t". • »'»or, 

'*' * -. - -r K ^:* : ::.r « tarter, 

- - :- -■.•-: ■ J" ^.Lzi. 1 ■::' : Fir^t 

: ' - V ^ !• -I '■• ^ : - : .T Liarrer. 

-- * . ■ . ■-* - ' 7" r : I ahii^, 

■■•'-■ •' ■ :.: : : .'.■; :*■ :>:'. Is: tFiiiu^ 

-.:•.*• .-:--. :u" : rl.e Tower, 

' ■ "' ■ - - ' ■ - -•■■■. lu: ^.'.f:-. H-.rirv VIII, 

V • .; .■• . ..-. » . ... . . _; ....,; .^ r;l.d«e. he i$ »aid 

''"■'' • '^ ^ - -:i-. :••: NLi-h. :.^4l-2. ami wa.* 

inp jear. 

l'U!u-vi :h.rv. H > « : .. i- ,^ ^..^ - ^ ^., .. z....^ .^^ rrtvt^U 

Thr lirvuh Fa. 


Jah'i Dutllfy, Duke of Nurthnmberlaiul. Ho was tlie oldest 

n of Klizabeth Grey-Dudley, liy her first Iiiisliand, ami heir 

I lo the possessorship of Kingston Lisle, and tlie title, as 

I ({lecified on the patent, dependant thereon. Itnt before his 

I mother's death, whieh occurred about 1540. dnriTig; her life- 

n the 27th March, 1538, he disposed of the reversion of 

jior and estate of Kingston L'Isle, to William Hyde, 

feby on her deatli, when he became heir to the grantees of 

rik« Barony of L'Ule, he failed to comply with the conditions 

nl the grant, and the title so created became extinct, He was 

neciited on Toiver Hill, 22nd Anfjitst, 1553. 

CDe "iBrook Memorials 

I X ( iHJII \M I II I lU M, ETC. 

Auuot (ill there were seven descents of Brook after their 
mipntion to Cobham, of whom six were summoned as Barons, 
unlr three memorials exist to them in the church there, 
II all, except the last — Henry Brook-were interred. 
The oldest of these is the brass to Kir John Brook, fifth 
Huron of Cobham (grandson of Sir Thomas Brook, of Olditch, 
Tried Jonn de la Pole, Lady of Cobham), and his wife, 
Jliirgaret Nevill. wliich lies in the pavement of the chancel. 

He married first Eleanor, daughter of ■ Amlell or Anstie, 

ut Suffolk, who left no issue, aqd secondly Margaret, <laughter 
[I of Edward Nevill, Lord Abergavenny, j-oungest son of Ralph, 
^Ktt Earl of IVestmoreland, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter 
^Hd sole heir of Richard Beauchamp, Lord Bergavenny, 
^^■HEed Earl of Worcei'ter in 1420, who married Isabel 
^^■■peiicer, sister and sole heir of TCichard, eighth Baron 
^^hpencer and Baron Burghersh. This descent explains the 
^Tnpalement of the shields on the hraas, namely Cobham, 
impaling Nevill, Warren, Clare, Despencer, and Beauchamp, 
ioi(A u crescent fur difference. It is curious to note that the 

8 Papers^ Sfc. 

arms of Brook, proper, are not included. By her he appear^^ 
to have had eighteen children, as depicted at the foot of th^^ 
brass, eight sons, and ten daughters. The inscription as it ia^ 
now found reads thus : — 

Hie Jacent Johanes Broks Miles Ac Baro Baronie de CohKm "* 
et Domina Margareta vxor sua quondam filia nobilia viri 
Edwardi Xevill Huper D^ni de Burg'eny qui quidem JoKes obijt 
.... die mens^ .... A'o D'ni M^ r« . . . . ip\i vera 
/>ri/iiiii(i Margareta obijt vkimo die me*sis Septembris A*o d*ni 
3/0 r^ r; qmom* animabus propicietur Deiis : amen. 

Only the figure of the lady now remains, but that of Sir 
John was in existence in 15U7. The costume of Lady 
Margaret is very simple, gown with full sleeves guarded with 
fur, mantle with cordon, and pedimental head-dress. John 
Brook, Lord Cobham, died 9th March, 1511-12, but the date 
was never filled in upon the brass. Affixed to the central 
pinnacle is a square panel, whereon is a representation of the 
Trinity, the Father seated, with triple crown, and right hand 
raised in benediction, supports the SaWour on the Cross, 
which rests upon the orb of the Earth, and on the left arm of 
the cross is the Holy Spirit, sitting as a Dove, with partially 
extended wings ; in the central compartments of the canopies 
are shields, on one the instruments of the Passion, and on the 
other the Five Wounds. 

In Couling {hodie Cooling) Church, Kent, the parish in 
which Couling Castle, the original seat of the Cobhams, is 
situate, is the brass of Faith Brook, one of the ten daughters 
of the aforesaid John Brook, Lord Cobham (ob. 1512) which 
lies in the floor of the nave. The figure is of small size, and 
clad in pedimental head-dress, gown with fur cuffs, and orna- 
mental girdle. Below is the inscription : — 

Prat/ for ye sonic of Feytli Brooke late ye dowgfr of Syr 
John Brook lord of Cobham whiche Feyth decessed the xxj day of 
Septe'b^r ye ycr of o*r lord m.t^viij o" whose soule J^Ku hate 



Brooke \o<or Roberti Brooke TVIiLrTB 

qw. fvit primogennxfiliarvmhvmfrldi 
WeldT-Iiutis vixit annos triginta 


Thr Brook Fnmih/. 9 

The second memcu'ial in L'oMiRin (.'Liiroli lit also a brtiss (t)ie 
t uf the iseries), in tlie pavement of the chancel, and com- 
mviratcs Sir Thomas Brook (eldest son of Sir .fohn), sixtJi 
iron of t'o)ihani, his first wife, Dorothy HiiyJon, and their 
lirtwn children. He died 19th July, 1.529. 

The insci-iption is ;— 

Oriilr pro animii 'I'/iomr BriHikr militia <£iii dt Coblium iir 
"imtangHtni et fierrdix Richardi Braiivhampe mililin r/iii quidcni 
7hmii» eepH in vxiircm Dariilhea\filiitm Hniriei Hai/iinn militig 
rf hnbHrmnl exttit' inter cos srpte JtUot tt sex fiHan H p'd'ra 
DKrvlhfii obiji et p'd'aus Thomas Cepit in exorrm Dorothea' 
Stirthirell vidua i/uf obijt line rxitii et pinten Cepit in rxore' 

':abflha* Hart rl linbiiertint iihIIu cxitu inter eos ijui f/itidr 
Thmru lAift xix die JuUj A\i itni MCCCCCxxixti. 

He la in the elaborate armour of the period, wilh skirt of 
mil. and broad-toed sabbatons. a chain wilh dependant eross 

ipnded from the netk, an ornament found on manj eHigies 

3iit this date. The lady wears the pcdimeiital head-dress of 

It era. The children are in two groups below. Arms, four 
ihields it the comers, each charged alike with Brook, I'obhani, 
BraThroke, and De la Pole — Azure, a/ess between three leopardu 
iir^ ail annulet for difference^ being the bearings assignc<l 
to ilie younger branch of De la Pole ; those on the brass of 
XailrJolutnna ISray broke, as also on her mother's atChrishall, 
leiiif; the older blazon of the main stem, mure, twn bars 
atbulee or; in the porch at Chrishall both shields occur 
(eparately, dexter being the feitit and leopard* headu, sinister 
tiieW* nebulee. A Sir Henry Heydon, was made K.B, at 
ll» coronation of Henry VII, 30th October, 1485, his arms, 
^nrfcr/y. an/ent and r/ulet, a cross engrailed counlerc/ianffed. 
.JBons {Environs of London) in describing West- Wick ham, 
Cent, says : — 

"The inatiDr house, whiuh atsDiU ne&r the ohuruh. wot built by Sir Henry 
nrdoo, tctnp : Heliry V'll. In n window of the tiall ore tbe nnng of Heydoii 
i his wife, Anne. dKUghler nf Sir Godfrey Buileyno. Tbo uirisJi ohupoh. 
iicsted to St. John the Baptist, was re-bnilt by Sir Henry Heydon temp ; 
cry Vn. In the B4st window is the reprelentation of \ sLelBtoii in kneohug 

Fc/- XLV (ThirJ Strir; Vol. V). faH II. I- 

The Brook Family. 1 1 

lifort, Croyaer, and Dabemon. Beneath this is a large escntcheon, having 
sapportera, dexter, an antelope^ sinister a ffriffin ; with helmet and crest of 
\S§npasMant crowned^ a cognizance of Brook ; Delow, the motto, *Je mt fie 
DhnL* In thia escutcheon, the quarterings of Brook impale those of Bray, 
Iti shore. 

At the west end there are also two escutcheons, the upper Brook as before* 

ith the quarterings of Bray on an escutcheon of pretence. It is surrounded 

the Garter. Beneath is a large escutcheon of twenty-seven coats of arms* 

■iating of the quarterings of Brook and Bray, impaling the arms and 

[■■artenngs of Newton, the latter representing the second wife of Sir William 

filkook, son and heir of Lord Cobham, by whom this monument was erected. 

IX has snpporters, and the motto as before, the crest being that of the Aloor'n 

hmd," (lliese bearings of Newton have been before described). 

The children, in varied costumes, with tabards emblazoned 
irith their parents' arms, impaling their own alliances, kneel 
around, and have their names superscribed above them. They 
tre carefully described by Mr. Waller, who continues : — 

*'The inscription, in Latin, very long, and expressed in capital letters, is 
veil carried on the bevelled edge of the marble table on which the effigies lie, 
and is as follows : — 

Honoraivmmvs et ciarismmvM vir Oeorffivs Brohvs fvit dominvs Coh1uimv» 

n. oppidi Cohami powteMsione cognominatvH et idem laudatitwimvH aliqvot annU 

VaUiii prteftctvs in iUustrhmmv* Collegivm eooptatvs eqoUvm, Diin Otorfjii nee 

mivm. hanc pregtanivtaimam hahvit hunorvm et familce comendatiovem, f*ed etiam 

natera fvit optima et animo omni genere lavdis ornatiwimo dvx fvit in hello 

pnjttanttSMimvs et aapientistimvs in pace cownliarivs princiftibva in qvorvm 

iemporibvs vixit egregie prohatvn Cantiani* svin inter qvon habitavit eximie charvn 

diniqz toti reipvhlicfe jrropter honoi'v' nplendorem et virtutv' notutHimvs et 

dil^ctijuiimvs et hvec o'ia feei'vnt in ilto illuntriora qnoniavi et prnfeMumem 

fmv'jelii ifwicejyerat et defeimionem ac eandem ad extremv' vxqz npirilom conser- 

viril. I*te nohiliMMinirs rir couMtantiMiinvx Dti Mervrn et ornatmsimv patrife 

ruevthrr' ccni ad matvram Jsencctutem pervenl/ofet anno' ag^ni Mexage.simv secundv 

ft f'trhriji ardorihr^ confiagratix tcrtio calendas octobris ent niortvvH anno looS 

ftitu di'^crxHV lifteri qvoa }toxt ifc inrltotf et imprimis lavdat'jH reliqvit et amid ac 

nrcf'ijiQrii iota d&niqz rtJtpvbUca magnv' H ivxtv' doloretn accepervnt Ovlihelmva 

iiHt-m Brokvis eqvex appelatvtt ex autiqvie /amilicF cognoviinac'oe d'ns CobhamvH 

J'f'i'i (jfonjii ftatrix et hiprra henevolentitxiinVH hoc tnonvmentv' vi^tnoricp Oeorgil 

}>atr'u Mci chartMsijni d^dicavit anno 1561, et tUiznbetluf Regime tcrtio. 

ValT>> fctt domino fielix dominoqz marito alter erat Braivs Cohhavivs alter erat 
Araia fcit J'rvgi fcit et prosperivia mater pauperibvH larga prcebvit anna vianv. 
\il erat liac melivs nil fortunaiivs vna. Donee ei'at cliaro charior ilia viro 
fJtinivM hvnc annvn Maria- ev* /vnfii'e merxit iUa paH fato menne voiyenibre rvit 
*^<V 'icox vita doos concorde« semper habebat extinrtos eadem nv'c qvoqz buMta 

As mentioned in the inscription, the tomb Avas erected by 
Ws son and heir, William Brook, eighth Lord Cobham, to the 
ineinorv of his parents, 3 Elizabeth, 1561. Lord Cobham 
inade his will 31st March, 1552, and died 29th September, 
iJoHj aged sixty-one. 

/V3«rr#* irr. 

Or 9HB ti etaxst 16n»iL 

ini 5«MQ prpTioudT noticed), n ^hree 
i'kris^asK IXsk?. vC OcseritfaL Deroo, antL apparentlv, ^^f\^^' 
of tSi«r 5Vflt?^ /^C!fr. />«irf, aai Ckarks^ were of Teinpleo(^^^ ^ o 

dsey ^e^ iaiiiieDUal po^itions as LorO^^ lii 
tW Maacc. /*ifr^. ii* jJaiiBisininon was granted to ^^\] 
bffiHkier i karje!;^ l±ti J -ly, :^>jL Dmif. his nuncupative v^ ^ ) 
27ik Max, lA>x aL=4> zo tk bnxher C haries, 12th .luk, 1< 
Mmry^rrt^ his wii>w Ai»i ex^^uirix, renouncing. Th« 
hrothers a{7(v;ir to fcdiTe died in date Terr near each other, ai 
ill a wocUIt seft<e« uBpoefwned. Ckarlrs, the surTivor, vr 
dated 4«h AinrtL piwed Tth Maj, 1610, mentions his "kii 
maik^ Kiohaid Duke* of i>tterton, E^j. ^is cousin's son. wl 
manried Margarets daughter of Sir Arthur Bassett, of Urabe: 
Ieigh« oK 1641 «. with his si>ter, Elizabeth (wife of Huniphre^*^ 
Walrond, of Onerv St. Marr ►, and four hundred pounds fa '^ 
his funeral. There are no memorials to them in the church ^ 
but interesting evideiK*e of these descendants of Brook is foun^ 
in the Retfister at Twnplecombe : — 

*' 15S7.— i>ia>p Arviofe. Uie Mane and heir of Duke Brooke, Esqr.. w; 
barred liij Octol«er. 

KMKl— />iii« Brookf, Eft)ure. Lord of this Manor, departed this life a 
London, the 2Tth day of Maye, and was barxed at Cobham, in Kent, on x* 

1610. — Ckarie* Broobe^ Eaqnire, Lewd of this Manor, dyed and was biir>' 
5-k April!. 

These three brothers were i*i>usins to the unfortunate Henry' 
Brook, last Lord Cobhani, and it appears that after his 
attainder, Duke Brook, whodieil in 1606, must have purchased 
in May, 1605, from King .lames, for £10,669, a considerable 
interest in the confiscated estate, and this accounts for his 
burial at Cobham. He left the residue of his property to his 
wife Margaret. From the large siun then paid, they appear 
to have i>0H8e88ed considerable wealth, as evidenced also by 
the amount ordered to be set aside by Charles, the surviving 
brother, for his funeral. 


The Brook Family. 13 

Thomas Brook, fourth son, his tabard on his father's tomb 

[tffplajs Brook, with a Jleur-de^lys argent for difference^ im- 

piling, quarterly^ 1 and 4, sabk^ three stags heads caboshed 

mrgent ; 2 and 3, a chevron gules between three cross-crossletSj 

[joUe, a crescent or^ for difference (Cavendish). (Waller). 

Is this the Thomas Brook mentioned bj Collins (as being the 

fourth son of Thomas, Lord Cobham) as ^^ of Wiltshire,'' who 

\ married Katherine, daughter of Sir William Cavendisli, ob. 

1562 (the ancestor of the Dukes of Devonshire) bj his first wife 

Anne, daughter of Edmund Bostock, of Wallcroft, Cheshire ? 

He appears to have been a man of infamous character, the 
^scapegrace of the family," and became a buccaneer of the 
worst class, with revolting cruelty, an instance of which, 
almost unparalleled in atrocity, is graphically described by 

John Brook was his third son, bom 22nd April, 1534, died 
25th September, 1594, and was buried in Newington Church, 
Kent. He served with distinction as a soldier in the Low 
Countries. His monument is on the south wall of the chancel, 
and a very fine one. Of alabaster, Ionic columns, handsome 
<lesign, and richly ornamented. He is represented kneeling 
liefore a prayer-desk with book on it, habited in armour, with 
great character in the features, all being of excellent work- 
manship. The inscription records : — 

** Hie nitw est Johannes Brook, armiger, tllvjUrissimi herois Domini Oeorgii 
Broot, Domini de Cobham, JUivs tertivs : qvi in pace apvd svon optima fama 
rixii, in jtraelio Beigieo faclvs peditv' eqvitvm^ Anglicorvm arehistrategvs contm 
Hvtpanon ftrrUier faeiicUvrrpre pvgnavit: tandem in patria vita pie df/vnetvs 
jiiactde in D'no ohdormivii vicesnimo qvinto die mensis Septembris A'no D*ni 

OtUidmvs et Oeoryivn Brook fratren, patrvo svo eharissimo monvmentvm 

Which may be read : — 

** Here is interred John Brook, Bsfjuire, third son of the most Uiustrious and 
distinguished Lord Otorge Brook, Lord of Cobham, who in peace lived among 
his veopie with the highest reputation ; and in the war in the Netherlands, was 
made leader both of the English infantry and cavalry against tJie Spaniards, he 
fought bravely and successfully : at length in his native land he ended his pious 
lije, and pMC^uUy fell asletp m the Lord, SSth September ^ 1394^ 

The brothers, WUliam and George Brook, have set up this monument to their 
dearest uncle*** 

14 Papers, kc. 

Arms -Itnxik, with annulet^ and eleven other quartering8, 
Coiiham. Braybroke, De la Pole, Peverel, Brave, Troughton, 
Xorhurr, Boteler, &c. Helmet with creast, oh a cap of wcrtw- 
tenauee a spread wiui^. 

He married AUce^ daughter of Kdtcard Cobbe^ £sq.^ and 
widow of Sir John Norton* of Xorthwood, Kent. She is also 
burie<l in the chancel, and on the floor ii$ her bras? memorial. 
She xa represented in embroidered petticoat, gown with 
de|iendant sleeves, ruff", and close cap, and has her hand on the 
head of the eldest of her two sons, who are i^tanding bv her 
side. Below is the inscription : — 

*' The Ladff NorUm once *ke mms, whose eorpe* U cotich^ here, 
J ohm Cohhafm*M iate and taring Wf/e, of the f^ommtiy o^ Kent, Esifr., 

Who in her tyfe did %eetl det^rmt to hare a future /am^. 
For thai she wom rnto the poore, a *jood and *jratlu$ dame^ 

With eharitie and modesty, and all the uufl^ oftjrace^ 
Actquanied so she was to gooit to tarry in thy place. 

She died ye daye o/Septrmb^, IS^K** 

tFohn Brook appears on his father*s tomb, his talmrd em- 
blazoned with Brook, imimling, Argent^ a chrvnm between three 
cocks tfules. (CouiiK). 

Henry BrtHtky m;venth son, was, says Mr. Waller : — 

*'perha|M the moct diatinguiihed of them all, born 5th February, 1537, a good 
fMtrt of hii life wm employed in diplomacy at varioui Courts as Ambassador, 
uit specially at those of France and Spain, where he proved himself an able 
public servant. He was knighted by the Queen at tne festivities of Kenil- 
worth in July, 1575, was Knight of the Shire for Kent 158G 9. married Anne, 
daughter of Sir Henry Sutton, Knt., and widow of Sir Walter Haddon, 
pnnci|>al Master of the Court of Requests, ob. 1571-2." 

He died in 1591, was described of Siitton-at-IIone, near 
Dartford, Kent, but no memorial or reference to him is found 
in the cimrcli there. His son was the Sir John Brook, to 
whom the |K»crage was restored in 1645. In the Reyister^ of 
Kast Barnet (Lvsons) is this entry : - 

**i>eoTffi Brookes alian Cobham, the son of Sir John Brookes aliatt Cobhani, 
Knt., and Frances, his wife, bom October 11th, and baptized 15th same 
month, 1636." 

Tliia was Sir elohn's only son by his second wife ; he pre- 
deceased his father, at whose death the revive<l title became 

I THE XXij™IWE OF IvLV AtJ DnI. 16oOj 

The Brook Family . 15 

Edtrard Brook was, apparently, the tenth and youngest of 
iiis sons. His widow, Mary Brook, is also buried in Newin^- 
ton Church. Who she was does not appear; no impalement 
appears on his tabard on his father^s tomb, and he was probably 
unmarried at tlie time of its erection. The brass to her 
memory represents her in plain costume, with nift" and close 
cap. The inscription records : — 

•• Here Itffth hvried the body of Mary Brooke alicu Cobbvm, widJo vnto 
Edward Brooke alia* Cothvm^ Ktiqvier, whoe departed this life the xxijUi daije of 
Jriy. Ana D'ni, 1600." 



Sir Robert Brooh^ of Cockfield Hall, Yoxford, was, according 

to Cotman (Suffolk Brasses )y 

**the ion of Robert Brooke, Citizen and Alderman of London, descending from 
a younger branch of the noble family of Cobham. He purchased the estate of 
the Hoptons at Yoxford and Blytheburgh, about 44 Elizabeth, 1602, built the 
fvcsent Cockfield Hall, 1613; Sheriff of Suffolk, 1614; M.P. for Dunwich, 


He married first, Johanna^ daughter of Sir Humphrey IVeld^ 

knighted 26th July, 1603, Lord Mayor of London, 1608, died 

29th November, 1610, by his wife Frances, daughter and heir 

of Nicholas Wheler, of Hollwell, in Hatfield, Co. Hertford. 

His grandson Humphrey, purchased of James, Lord Howard 

de Walden, and Earl of Suffolk, the Lullwortli and other 

estates in Dorset, 20th January, 164L He married Clara, 

daughter of Thomas, Lord Arundell of Wardour, died about 

1685, and was buried in Henry VII Chapel, in Westminster 

Abbey. (Hutch ins). 

She is buried in Yoxford Church, where there is her brass ; 
she is portrayed in Elizabethan costume, with large and 
elaborately embroidered farthingale. The inscription records : 

*' J/icjacet sepvlta Domina Johanna Brooke^ vxor Rohcrti Brooke^ Militis, 
qwf fvit priniogenita filiarvjn Hinnfridi Weld^ Militis, vixit annos triginta 
octo, tt ohiit xxij die Maij, A'no I^ni, 1618." 

Arms destroyed, but were those of Brook of Cobham, impaling — Azure, a 
ffss nebtilee, bettceett three crescents, ermine. (Weld). 

^* Papers, S^c. 

Secondly, he married Elizabeth, daughter of T 
( w//>7w, of Wigsale, Sussex. Bv her he had three 
fames, John, and Robert, and four daughters, Mary, Elh 
innr. and Martha. Their monument is in Yoxford CI 
hus inscril»ed : — 

'• Roltertiis Dtvoke Mihs Fortunis tpqwt ae vwribus Par Honori Hie € 
ncet. Cui prorinu accuhat sua Lectis$ima ct DU^^tissima Conjux Eli 
"ian Eicmpla Femina : Omnibus et Katum et Gratia dotibus OmaH 
TUfcnh, €i Judicio, supra Sfrum, Prudentia Singulari, PietaU admi 
\iipwunms Zacluiria Ccmjugis Effigies Ejcpressitna : Thoma Culp^ 
rignalr. In offto Sussrxienci Annigeri. Filia : Jacobi, Joannis, et 
Itidtm ut Pater Jfi7i7«> J/art^p, EUiabeVup, Anna*, Martha q' nu 
hnhini Maria sola Superstes Lugens curavit H<ec Apponenda Martnori 
ul: 10 An' Chr\ 1646—JEtat T4^Hnr, Jul: 22 An* Chr\ l&O—AS 

Metnaria Justi Benedicta. 

Arms— 1, Brook of Cobhun, im[>aliiig. Argent, a bend engraiUd 
.'ULPEPER). Crett. on a helmet — a cap o/ maintenance, tliereon a sprea 
•ect, charged icith the arms of Brook — being an antient cognizance of ] 

Brook. imiMding. .-1 frss dancette between three roses or roundels; t 
lief two mullets (St. Joux) impaling Brook ; 4, Brook impaling, Titre 
imiHiut : 5, Gules, a bend vair4 argent and azure, between two fleurs 
gent (Blois) impaling Brook." 

Sir Robert Brook, his son and heir, M.P. for Aldeb 
560-1, married Margaret, daughter of Sir Henrr Mild 
Wanstead, H<sex (ob. 1666), and was drowned ii 
hone in 1669, aged 33, s.p. Martha, his sister and uhi 
liress, married Sir William Blois, Knt., of Grundisl 
all, Sutfblk, to whom she brought Cockfield Hall. Hei 
r Charles, was created a baronet loth April, 1686. S 
riod at (Irundisburgh, and on the north wall of the eh; 
her monument thus described : — 

• Mural of marble, and inscribed :— 

Miirtha natn viinima lioberti Brook, Eg., Aur. filia V: A: 28^0 

irniH -Hlois impaling Hrook. Beneath are the figures of a man and ^ 
rliiiK at A faldstool facing each other, behind him four sons, behii 
•f I laughters, all kneeling. Below is 
(////. Hloi.s: jun : arm: conjugi dulcissima ac p^pctuum desidc 

• (' ' 

l\tlHh/raphrrtifiil Ucnral., vol. i, p. 5r^2)," 

ill- KohtTt HriKjk probably descended from one of tin 
s III" Sir Thomas Brook, and his wife, Joan de la 

II .Vth(^liiigt4>n churohyanl, Suftblk, is the gcnea 

Tht Brook Family/. 1 7 

of John Bnwky a descendant of Reginald Brook, of 
in that county, second son of Thomas Brook, and Joan 
Pde Braybroke, Lady of Cobham : — 

,U, (Hie gitus est)— Johannes filius Edwardi, filii Edwardi. Oeorgii, 

Gwrgii^ Edwardi^ RegimUdi Brooke Arm : de Asphall in hoc 

t-Puii natu secundi D'ni Thoma Brooke, Milttis, Baronis Cobham 

in tMqros Cantiano — Filii Thom4E, Thomce, Johannis Brooke, 

HfHi) Henriei^ Henriei, WUlelmi de la Brooke arm : de la Brooke Comit: 

^ ): Obeuntis anno xv Henriei III, Domini Manerii de la Brooke juxta 

wumoratus Johannes Brooke uxorem duxit Mariam filiam Georgii 

is Brmtdish in hoc viciniA ex qua Oeorgium et Penelopen liberos 

reliquit. Obiit, Hie, xx^ Novembris, A.D, — M.D.ccxxxiij ; Ilia, 

Jmnmrii- ~A.D. — M,D,ccxxxij. In memoriam inclytum majorum, et 

erga eharissimos parentes Oeorgius filius unicus et hcgres posuit. " 

Other memorials record the deaths of 

Brooke, 8th Dec, 1732: Mary, his wife, 13th March, 1733; George 
Brooke, their son, 3rd March, 1764: Rebecca Brooke, 28th October, 
}; Pmelope Brooke, wife of Rev. Nath, Rye, of Hepworth, Suffolk, 15th 
~ 1741. 

[Ski hfiHM in this Paper, m in the former one, have been engraved from 
■pecially taken and completed.] 

Cot)l)am S)aU, of tbe iBtookti. 

A REFEKEXC'R to the portioiis of the structure of Cobham 
Hall, existing as completed, or in process of erection at the 
date of the attainder of Henry Brook, and especially of the 
ornamental details, at present remaining, may be interesting. 
Of the main edifice, the north and south wings appear to have 
been the principal portions then existing. The large expansion 
and completion of this fine edifice as it now appears is due 
to its subsequent i)ossessors the Dukes of Lenox, and their 
iescendants and present owners the Earls of Darnley. 

An excellent detailed history and description of it is given 
)y Canon Scott-Robertson — in vol. xi Archceologia Cantiana^ 
)p. Ixv-xc — and from it we extract the following account of 
he ornamental portions that had their origin with the Brooks 
ow found therein. Of these — 

'*Tbe son them door of the south wing, dated 1584, which suggests that 
Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part 11. c 

18 Papers^ Sfc. 

Lord Cobham oommenced the work in that year, and another date 1587, and 
the initials W.C. and F.C. (Frances Mewton) upon the heads of the indn 
shooting, points to the completion of the roof of the sontb wing." 

But the most conspicuous remnant of the exterior of tic 
Hn)ok mansion as then existing appears to be the handsome 
doorway in the south face of the north wing. 

''In 1591. Lord Cobham obtained permission, under the sign-mannal of Kiif 
Henry IV of France, to transport, from the city of Caen, 200 tons of stone for 
buildmff. Much of this stone was devoted to tifie construction of this doonn^ 
which, beinfl designed to lead directly towards the chapel is inscribed :— 'Dio. 
Opr. Max. And in addition to the date 1594, bears the text, *Cuiitodi 
PIDBM TUUM INORKDIBN8* (ficcles., chap. v). In the spandrels of the azd 
appear on one side the twelve-quartered coat of William Brooke (Lord Cobhtm), 
and on the other side, within a lozenge-shaped shield, the coat of twelvs 
(luarterings, borne by his second wife, Frances Newton (of Harptree). In tbs 
second stage, we see the same shield of Lord Cobham sculptured on a large 
scale, with lion supporters, and the Cobham crest. The whole flanked by 
huge vases of flowers sculptured in stone." 

The principal reminiscences of Cobham within the mansion 
are throe tine mantelpieces, one of these is in the entrance 
hall, brought hither from the south wing. 

*' It is of coloured marble and reaches to the ceiling, dated 1587. The em- 
blaaon«Hl heraldic coat of William Brooke (Lord Cobham), with its twelve 
i|uart«riugt. its huge lion supporters, and its crest (a Saracen's head), are flne 
tfnauiplos of Klizabuthan work. * 

Tbo other two are in the picture gallery. 

**Th<« tirtt (or easternmost) of these is the more handsome of the two. Its 
lowvr stagv, containing the tireplace, is flanked on each side by two coloured 
inarblo oolunint with (.'orinthian caps. The two inner columns project con- 
sidvrablv in fnmt of the otheis. their shafts formed of black marnle, banded 
with otnors of light colours. The cornice above them supports the second 
iiUg«t, whioh tM Inildly carvetl. The arms of Henry (l^rd CobbAm), encircled 
\\y tho Unrtrr. mvupy its central space, which is flanked on each side by two 
diiiui tig\ir«Hi. iMuing frtuu small altars, ornamented with flowers, carved in bold 
iiili«if. IWtwiHtn imoh i>air of altars and flgures the space is carved with shields 
and wita)Hin«. Tho domi tigurt's support a large projecting, quarter-round 
imi-u(o0 of inarUlo. The date uiKtu this mantelpiece is 1599, which shows it 
was ri^otml by Henry Brook, the last and hapless Lord Cobham. Remember- 
ing thiN faot. It is v««ry remarkable to read the motto inscribed upon the marble, 

Tho siHHuul niantdpieoe, aUo of marble, reaches to the ceiling, but looks 
uior and tani<» in \Hnu|>ansini witii the In^ld and massive character of its feUow. 
Ilolh tlif» up|H«r and under stages are flanketl by pairs of Corinthian colnmns, 
■(<ul|>tui-«Ml in \lolioato vH^lourtnl marbles, but the otuumns are thin, and are all 
U|Hin thit saulo lov«4, noitlter d«t the cornices above them project as in the 
oihui' maulelpiiHHt. In tho up^H^r stage appears a sculptured representation of 
Ihw Kates with their human victim, who sits in the middle of the desisn. A 
nrarly vortioal sor\dl of marble on his right hand probably once oore a 
itr«u\»0 insoription, desi^rintive of him and his fate. One of the Fates ia seated 
aUivo. allot hi»r with the aistafl' is on his light hand, while the third appears on 
hU Uft'^ 


The Brook Family, 19 

This curious allegory, coupled with the significant inscription 
the other mantelpiece, seems to imply a presentiment of 
tfce dark fate that subsequently overwhelmed their erector ; 
tt aoy rate the coincidence is very striking. 

The sculpture on these chimney-pieces and on the fine porch 
appears to have been the work of a carver named JeUis (or 
Giles) de Whitt, but the work proceeded very irregularly, and 
steward, in 1601, thus writes to Lord Cobham — 

''Thai he ' must resolve what and how xnnche you are pleased to have doen 

If Giles de Whiti, either upon some newe chymney piece, or npon my Lo : 

lo^r lather's tomb, that the poore man, have some worcke, to get wherewithaU 

tenaintaine and susteyne himself.' It seems pretty clear that, at least, the 

flkimney-piece, dated 1599, mnst have been tne work of Giles de Whitt, and 

tbat he was afterwards engaged to make two others. It also seems probable 

that he had been brought over from the Low Countries expressly for the 

Gi>bham work, and if so all the sculpture about the house was done bv him. 

It is interesting to identify the sculptor to whose skill we owe the work that 

adorns this stately mansion." 

The "yo'r father's tomb" was probably one designed by 
Henry, Lord Cobham, to be erected to William, Lord Cobham, 
his father, but never carried out. 

jFrance? ^otoatD, toife of ^enrp, itom Cobbam. 


Hek first husband, Henry Fitzgerald, twelfth Earl of Kildare, 
died 31st July, 1597, aged 37, and by him she had two 
daughters, Bridget, wife of Nicholas, Viscount Barnewall, of 
Kingsland, and Elizabeth, wife of Lord Killeen, first Earl of 

** Lady Kildare seems to have been extremely unfortunate in her husbands. 
She appears to have suffered so much illtreatment from the Earl of Kildare, 
thAt Queen Elizabeth caused the Lord Deputy in Ireland to interfere with 
remonstrances, and to order him to send the lady to Eneland. She did not 
fare better when, as her second husband, she married Henry Brooke, Lord 
Cobham, who, at the age of thirty-three, had succeeded to his father's title 
and estates, in March, 1597, a few months before Lord Kildare's death. Soon 
after their marriafze. Lord Cobham was arrested on a charge of high treason. 

Whatever may have been the treatment received by Lady Kildare from her 
hasbands, all testimony seems to agree in charging her with cruel neglect of 
Lord Cobham in his misfortunes. Yet she obtained for herself the enjoyment 
of (nearly) all his vast possessions during her life. Immediately after Lord 


Piiper.i, g"c. 

Cobh«m'i krrMt, tbe King »iz«l tlie whole of bii MUt«>. In October. IH 
be granted to one of the Grooms of hii Privy Chamber, Uilei Ramfdrd, t 
caitody of Cobham Hall, iti deer-park, gardens, urchatda ic, and in the U 
fatiowing. tbe King granted ■ leue of tbe whole of tbe forfeited eitat«« 
Kent. Middlesex, ana Leiceate rehire, in trust for Lady Kildare for a huodr 
years, if she should live so long, dated l.^th May. 16V4. inclodiiig Ln 
Cabbam'e bouse in Black-friars, London. The King merved no rent for bil 
self, and sbe bad simply to pay tboee reserved renta. npon certaio Isiu 
which her huibind had been accaetomed to pay before his attainder. Yet 
would *«em she left him utterly unaaiisted during his iDipriaonment. wht 
extended over more than lifteen ytare, anil to subsist upon tbe royal boon! 
while she enjoyed his estates." * 

IJut some twenty venri afterward, and when Hpnrj Broo 

had for three years been laid in hin unknown ^ave, and h 

wife was still occupyin}; C'obham Hall, King Jainea 

" desired ber to eell her life ioteresl in Cohbani, to his cousin, the Duke 
Lenox, and ber owu couein, the Duchesa of Lenox, in onler that tbey mi 
obtain immediate posseuion. but she waa not eaaily pereuaded to do ao. I 
June. 1622, when tbe King was going to Kocbeilflr to inspect hia navy, ] 
■aid be would call at Cobbam Hall and dine with Lady Kildare. hoping thi 
be might then be able tn persuade lier to sell the (raveraion) of tbe pl»M ( 
roaaonable terma to tbe Duke and Ducheia. Probably the king sacoeed* 
although not at once. Within a year or two. however, it ia evident ahe mai 
some bargain with the Duke, and retired to a houae abe bad porchaaed i 
Deptford.^' flbUl.) 

Here, she made lier will, dated 20th .lime, 1628, and in 

this hard-hearted woman, who styles herself the "riffhl hmm 

tihlr Dame ffrances Counfet Dowager uf Kifdare," heg'iu^ wit 

this religious exordium — 

"I give and commeude my soule inti> the hands of Allmightte god n 
maker and Creator, and to bia deere sonne Jesua Christ my onelie Saviour as 
Redeemer, by the nierritts of whose most bitter death and poinefull paaaion 
faitbfullie trust and stedfastlie believe to be saved and to be partaker of 1 
most blessed and glorions rcturrecuion and with him for ever to live in ti 
Kingdoms of Heaven. And 1 will that my bodie shal be decentlie bnried 
tbe Chappell of the Cathedral! Church at \VeatniiDeler In the nigbt aeaM 
HI neigh tbe plaiM whereas tbe bodiee of Ffrancea late Countesae of Hartfol 
my late Auot (ber father's sister] lyetb buried as conveDioattie may be." 

From the liei/tster of BuriaU of the Ahbey, we learn — 
"1628. The L»dy Francoa, Countest of Kildare, wa« hnried in St. B*ll 
diot'a Chapel, July 1 1 ." 

Fitting and consistent se^piel ; the noble outcast in luB 
obscure sad unidentilied grave ; his wife — if she may be sO 
failed — sepulchred with the kings of the land. Ignored t& 
death as well as life, the last indignity lind now been otTered 
to liis memory. 

'Archtzvlouii' CatiiUiiia, vol. »i. pp. ^18' ID, by C 

11 W.A.S. 

The Brook Family. 21 

Cli^atietl) l6rook, HaDp Cecil. 


^jtos was the eldest daughter of William Brook, Lord 
^'CoUiam, ob. 1596-97, by his second wife, Frances Newton, 
; of Harptree, ob. 1592; and married Sir Robert Cecil, Knt., 
Prmcipal Secretary to Queen Elizabeth, aften^ard first Earl 
rf Salisbury ; was Lady of the Privy Chamber and of the 
Bed-Chamber to the Queen. She was sister to Henry Brook, 
tbe last Lord Cobham, and 

**« hia re-committal to the Tower in 1603, he amused himself with classical 
Mr making translations from Seneca, and dedicating them to Cecil, his 
Vntoer-in-law, with feeble hopes of release. But Cecil hated him, and was 
Mt sboYe bargaining for shares in the estates. So hope died within him, and 
It became as lost to the outer world." ( Waller.) 

After his death, which took place in 1619, and incredible as 
it may appear — 

"The King, too, enters his prison-house and seizes ' 1000 volumes of good 
^ki of all learning and languages,' which had been the solace of his im- 

By which it seems that not even death could appease the 
•mplacable revengeful meanness of this King toward his 

Lady Cecil left two children, William and Frances, and 
died after the birtli of a third, '' at Iter house In flie Strand^'' 
0" 24th tlanuary, 1596, to the great grief of her father, 
"^hich event seems to have hastened his own end, as he died 
the 6th March following, aged seventy-one." 

She was buried by the Queen's order in Westminster Abbey, 
*Q the Chapel of St. Nicholas, with great state ; her pall- 
bearers were interesting from their local derivation, being Sir 
"alter Raleigh, Sir Thomas Gorge, Sir George Carew, and 
^Jr Edward Dyer. There is a marble mommient to her 
ineniory, witli a long inscription in Latin and English. 

22 Paper*. Av. 

%vc COtUiam ISrook^ ibiigiit 

He waa the eldest of the three children of George Brook 
rbrother of Henrr Brook« the last Lord Cobham ). who was 
lieheaded at Winchester, 5th December. 1603. and. accordinjf 
to the will of hi^ great grandfather George, Lord Cobham, it 
the death of hi^ attainted uncle Henrr. wa^ heir both to tke 
title and elates, but under the cruel rule of James it will be 
seen what happened ; and, narrates Mr. Waller — 

" By the win oC G«orge. Locd Cobham. 1531 the otatcs woe so eUbontdy 
cntadled that the Crr*vn ooald only be cmtitfod to a life intCRit after tk 
attainder. This the King immcdiatelT aold to Dake Brooke for £10,669, 4tk 
Maj, I60i5L To UDdentand this tnasartina. we most recall that tlie im- 
wrdiatr heirs were the thzce jonng and friendless children of Geoige Brooke, 
cxemtcd at Winchester. Now the Crown had vsaallj waired the sbnlste 
claim br which the innocent were attaint in blood, and restored the heir, 
possibl J throogh the jealousy of Parliament. 

Bat King James knew nothing ci the prerogatiTe of mercy, so nobly taa^ 
by the great and then liring poet, the mercy which * is twice Messed, which 
bfeaseth him that gires and him that takes.'' He went in for his bond, hit 
pound of flesh. Tht infants, whoae innormce might have pleaded for them, 
were not thought of. It was some yean later, in 161Q, after he had done hii 
best to beggar them, that he restored them in blood. But it was bitter irooy 
that in this Act a strict danse was inserted, that William Brooke, tlie heir. 
w:fti sc^f to claim aay of the p r up ef t> of his father, nor of that of Henry, Lord 
Cobham. nor was he 'frifr to amuwu the title of Lord of Cobham without the 
KuK^'t especial grace, which was nerer accorded. 

Tbss^ the grvat feadal barony psssft away like an insubstantial dresio- 
\V»V«aj»» Prvx4e seems almost like a phantom on the scene, or as an HP** 
-'aa 1 jl now risxl4e« now elading the mental vision. A peer by the ]aw of tbe 
Uad. bet wiUi so title, by law entitled to large estates, yet not allowed ^ 
-'^•-^ tiezzL Scarcely one of his ancestors bat had not played a part in 1^ 
cvHt;itrT's i3ftorT. B^it shall we not record an act of hu in accordance wit»^ 
t^^w tVaiitaees ot his family * , 

Wu>.ar:: Brwke was knitted, and a small pttance was granted to him ( 7^ 
^'C li* Ur^ <tftat«s :o which he was the heir. He was married twice, tif^ 
1v* lV£:>*vke, o.a:£i:itcr of Henry Lennard, lirst Lord Dacre; secondly, ^ 
iVr3*^'.*c*. djki4:i:<r of Sa- Moj-setHiU, Bart , and by her had three danfihteT^ 
H V. ^Ar>3cv:. aad Franc**.* He represented Rochester in 1628. And no^ 
xvAr^l\-\<Mir. was the /oc^ accsmulatiDg cloud growing blacker and blacker^ 
awvi ws-cy ryuiiv to bcrst. linaat issues were at steke, which were to defii^ 
^*«r tV)XTv k^ssJrv. Kuu: Jaraes taoght kingcraft, and his son followed in h^ 

ulirt'* Vet V Sr lie tvus 

>^r \\ ^UvASt o^s«« ^ K^«> in s spirit similar to his ancestors with ]> " 
Xlvvi-.-c^ a2^*. :r. li* wcrvwioc of Richard IL and he died a soldier^s death a 
N^wNat- \ '» ;f4,v .-c frv^es wv:i:id* received in that battle, fighting on the sid^ 

^s5 tit>^ iSfcKvMtveci , ^ , . , , ..>,,- 

t^^tv tW« *-.iii :>* r^htful beir of Cobham lying dead upon the tield oi 

N^^Si.x |V< >;Krt»i?t j^KWv-or-ately falls as upon the last scene of a great 

»*'%>^^^ ^* ^*'*t *^ bskpciy'by wnt became extinct, and no more *than %i 

U\u^ ^^c ;Ai<v' fttwil U\ivc of ilu thixe last direct represcnta- 

^^^H riir Brook Famibi. 33 

^pnol Brook, and their disappearance from this ri(ihfly- 

^kned "great tragedy," which overwhehned them with its 

^Balanche of miBfortune. Of Henrj Brook, weak and untoi- 

^bate, led with all its terrore up to the very jaws of death. 

^Bere to experience n cat-like reprieve, Iml subsequently con- 

^■nnvd to be sorialiy dead, stripped of all his honours and 

^■ssessimis, dejiendant on his jailer for roeans of subsistence to 

^Hc ijiil the remaining fifteen years of his life of hopeless 

^■a]iiivity, disowned by his wife, and comparatively all others, 

Bynlil death entered the nhscurity of his prison-house, and 

^pe1eas«d him from his misery. C>f his brother. George 

^■Biwk, with existence summarily extin^iished in the prime of 

Bote, tarried in n blood -stainetl shroud from the scaDbld at 

BPinchesler, 5ih December, 1603. Of his, George's son, 

^■PilUiun Brook n (forded tlie wretched mockery of being 

^Pre$tored " literally '*in blood,'' and a small sustenance doled 

^Mt to him from the wreck of the family estates, but absolutely 

prohibited otherwise to assume the honours, or make any 

claim to the extensive possessions of his ancestors, to whom he 

wss the legal heir, except "by the king's especial grace," 

which was never accorded him ; and his life was ended, 

^ib«Cched in death upon the battlefield at Newbury, 20th 

^nepCember, 16-13, fighting for the return of that mercy ami 

^Budce, which in life had been so rigorously denied him. 

^M It \i interesting to enquire what hefe! the descendants of 

^Bbe royal oppressor of their race, and despoiler of their home. 

^pkcrilmtion sometimes appears to follow with halting step, 

' kill it rarely stops, and its ultimate approaeh is generally sure. 

li is nritlen " the iniquities of the father will be visited on the 

children imto the third and foui-th generation," and it is ia- 

rtruetive — although n matter of common knowledge — to 

fibterie how completely this declaration became fulfilled in 


King .lames himself, after narrowly escaping a violent death, 
pu«ed unscathed to his great account. If ot so his unfortunate 


/ypriA. Jr*r. 

Mon, who, nurtured in Uie kuardoo^ ^€^i<pxi$ioii> of irresponriUe 
king-cmft, perished oo the «eaffcM m> often set up for othen. 
Hill elder gnkndHfUf generouslj recalled to the nation*d mk, 
tneanlj revengefuL Hcentiou.s Jmd passiTelr cmeL left one of 
the least honoured names on the roll of its kings : while the 
younger, forgetful of his father's fate, unscrupulous and 
merciless (whose memorr linked with his blood-thirstr minion 
•leflferyH, lives with undring horror in these western parts) 
hated and deserted bj his subjects^ forsaken at last by his own 
kindred and deprived of his crown, fled for refuge to a foreign 
land ; and when at Rochester, on Simday, 23rd December, 
lOHH, he ** privately withdrew himself,^' and stepped on board 
" a small f rigot *^ that immediately set sail for Ambleteuse, in 
KrancMs tho foot of the last Stuart king had trod the English 
nhoro. And the same adverse fate followed him and his 
tloMOondant^ ; who, after futile attempts to recover their lost 
poMition, lapsed into the comparative indigence and obscurity 
of oxilo, und at tlu»ir deaths, this royal dynasty, of which they 
wrro tho \i\M direct male representatives, became as completely 
o\tih|jui*h«Hl as that of their victims, the knightly Brooks. 



1 010 

Clie Descent oC tfie apanoc of 9ilecton. 


I PROPOSE to set down in order the notes that I have 
collected on the manor and the " Libera Capella " 
of Alwarditone, niore familiarly known as Allerton. Dis- 
ting^uished from Stone Allerton, it has been designated in 
recent times Chapel Allerton, as possessing the " Capella " 
erected in the thirteenth century. In Domesday book it is 
^nritten Alwarditone or Aluuarditona, and this form undergoes 
many changes between the eleventh century and the present 
day. In the twelfth century it is found as Alwaretoiiy^ in the 
thirteenth, as Aleirortun^ Alvrinton and Alverinton^ and Alvar- 
ton^ ; in the fourteenth, Aiwertoji,^ Alwardtone^ ; a favourite 
form in later years was Alwerinyton^ and sometimes Alvingion^ 
a multiplicity of modes of spelling which is not a little con- 
fusing. But the prefix " Chapel " is not found on any map of 
Somerset until the year 1792,^ nor is it used in the leases of 
the manor granted by the Dean and Chapter of Wells until the 
year 1708. The origin of the place-name is perhaps to be found 
in the "ton'' or parcel of ground belonging to " Alward." Who 

1. Pipe Rulls, 16 Henry II. 

2. Kirby's Queat, Fo. 313, dors. 

3. Somerset Pleaa Memb. 12 and 19, 22. 

4. A.D. 1246. 

5. A.D. 1302. 

6. A.D. 1327. 

7. In a map printed for C. Dilly. 

Vol. XL I'f Third Serin, Vol. V ), Part 11 . d 

2fi Ptpen^kr. 

^&ii?> A.w^ri -vTfei wf» ^re no !iKatt« of knowing, but the 
iorvVjd ia tie ai;^&^:azi»cd at the time of the No 
C-jmt^iesc. ''Ai'vari and kb brother held Stocke.' 1 
iasher h^ :~ br sa«* lEme o£ King Edward.*^ There was 
AIL A2w:ik w3i> w:k» die S&xon owner of Temoc, now 
iUDb* rw: 3i£jf< -fetant from Alwarditone. The i 
Tcnufrin&it^ ^rei •" AlTtert." and hence " Alverton " 
Ajw>fr»a IS i:nt^ :c loe piaee^-nanie. 

Buck zhf^ Exroiecjafr IK?fa«sdaT and the Exon. Dome 
^Tv lie i^TTifT jf AZerson : rhe latter is of importanc 
lOii: X ia^Tfti ae ic-ctc as ro wh*> was the first Norman te 
ci :ae -n.t,n:c. asi h rfisiBerire:^ the canle belonging to 
!ioci. 3.C I*^!%^ *^-*^ ;ae ?erts a:>i villeins and cottagers. 

Tie ExxT^if^rjer I>--«K$daT is as follows : " Ralph hoi 
Wal^fr* A'w^ariirroe. UlnoJ held it in the time of 1 
EJw:iri i3ji pwied for fire hides* There are added 
K>i^^ wix'i :wr :Lar*s heM in the time of King Edwart 
tw,* r:at2.v*r!^ Tre arablr in all is ei^ht carucates. In deni 
arv r.irs^ r. i-s w:»:i:iai: ^-se vari land, and there are 1 
rk^c;^.> arj.i r\:;r s^rrv^fczts and nine rilleins and nine ootti 
>*::h :,*ur :v«;*.:^.>w Thrrv are fonv acres of meadow, 
:hrvx' K;;::>irt\i a. r^s cf lusiure. When he received it, il 
«\^rth eiiri:: jx^r/is^ liow one hundred shillings*'* 

Tho K\v r.. IV iTL^sviay has some variations : " Waltei 
\^o raanor whiv^h :s v*illr\i • Aiuuanlitona/ which Ulnod 
in tho da\ whtr. K:r^ Edward lived ami died, and gelde 
tixo huks. To :h:> arv advie\l two manors which two tl 
hoU in :ho :inu ot King E-iwanl equally (pariter), oi 
w honi hold one manor of live hides : the other another man 
one hide. The eleven hides have eight carucates of ar 
Kadulfus do I'ontiuilla holds these now of Walter for 

K Now K^xin^v Stoke. 

:t iCy^inV IX^OMaday Stndie*. it IS. 
4. Wdt^r a« IXrami. 

The Descent of the Manor of AUerton. 27 

■ttnor. Of these [eleven hides] B. [Balph] has nine hides 
ift demesne wanting half a virgate. There are three ploughs. 
iThe villeins hold two hides and half a virgate. Here B. 
'(Ralph] has nine villeins, nine cottagers, four serfs, four 
\ iBimals, thirteen hogs, forty acres of meadow, three hundred 
, teres of pasture, and is worth one hundred shillings a year. 
When Walter received it, it was worth eight pounds." 

The important point brought out by the Ex on. Domesday is 
tint the Balph mentioned in the Exchequer siwvey as the 
Homian sub-tenant under Walter de Douai, was Balph de 
CoDtivilla, the foster-brother of the king himself. 

Mr. Eyton's observation^ on this survey must be added to 
the above. He says : " This was a case of excessive hidation. 
The measured contents of the three manors here combined 
were only 1,300 acres— 960 -f- 40 -f- 300. This leaves only 
118 acres of profitable land to the gheld hide. What extent 
of moor and waste may have attached to the three manors 
does not appear ; nor does the present extent of the parish 
(1)169 acres) say much more than that the ancient manor land 
^as considerably and perhaps indefinitely greater." 

Ulnod, the owner of the manor before the Conquest, is a 
"ame raet with also as owner t.u.e. of He Brewers. He 
gelded for no more than five hides. Balph de Conteville, by 
two other manors being added, gelded for eleven hides, an 
estate of greater extent than any other in the hundred of 
Biinastane, as far as hidage went, greater even than the 
episcopal manor of Wednior, by one hide. Walter de Douai 
a/ias Walscinus de Diiaco, was the tenant in capite, of by far 
the larger part of the hundred : so that Mr. Eyton does not 
Wtate to say that " it would seem that the old hundred of 
^iniastane was formed chiefly with the object of concentrating 
^"e tenures of Walter, both those which he held in capite of the 
^^^^vn, and those which he held contiguously under Glaston- 

^* Somerset Domesday, i, 109. 

28 Papers^ Sfc. 

bur}' Abbey." * Bempstone hundred has still a portion of r 
hundred-stone, but it has long since been removed from il 
original site, a commanding position on the high ground c 
Allerton, which retains the name of Hundredstonefield, an 
had been appropriated by some former tenant of the farm, fo 
use as an "uppin-stock." It was not a monolith, as was thi 
of the hundred of Stone, but consisted apparently of three o 
more bli>cks of stone, placed one upon the other, the largest o 
which survives. Forty years ago the "old inhabitant" jwintet 
out two other stones as parts of the stnictui-e, but it woulc 
prolmWy l>o difficult now to recover them. It is matter oi 
rogrot that so venerable a monument of antiquity, reachinj 
b;iok jvrhaps to the time of Alfred, or to a still earlier period, 
•* the old and long continued trysting place of the hundred," 
should have lxM>n treated as of no account. 

Kadulfus do C'ontivilla then was the first sub-tenant of the 
manor, after the Conquest. In him we have the ancestor of 
il long lino of do C'ontovilles, who were lords of Allerton for a 
jvriivl ot* noarly three hundred years. In Richard de Conte- 
nUIo \^1»>4S\ whoso issue was an only daughter, the name died, 
so t,-^r ;is Allorton Manor was concerned. 

louioxillo I omit is villa — is a village situated in the de- 
(\^v;niou: of l\un\ and distant three-quarters of a mile froff 
\\w \i\y\y\\} tlowiug rivor Rislo, before it empties its water 
into \\w xxulo oxpanso of tho mouth of the Seine. It may ^ 
rtvj^vv\u'lu\l fivin Tout Audemer, the nearest town, or froi 
Uourto\;v. Tho inhabitants are for the most part occupied ^ 
.i*;r,ot\!t\iV;il innsuits. osiHvially in the cultivation of fruit trcC 
riu^ \ il^-iiiv lio> on gnMuid which slopes to the Seine, but 
jvaU K^r u »^ >i?u;Ut\l on tho top of a hill which rises out of 

lUt |vl,«iu\.* 

louuxir.o hA> i;s oluin^h dotlioateil to St. Maclou, parts c 

\ \\^ws-^\i^ SlUA^-*. JsNtt'.rrwU Vol. i, 109. 

VI ^\m iKwk mN^i«v*lMM\ I Aitt i«KWU**i to M. Jul«« Charlesson, the Britia 

The Descent of the Manor of Allerton, 29 

fhicli belong to the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and 
possesses a font of earlier date. 
From this brief description of the place which gave its name 
|lo the lords of Allerton, it is time to pass on to some account 
r:rf Ralph, and his connection with the Conqueror. 

For more than a hundred years before the Conquest there 
.. kd been an alliance between the family of de Conteville and 
I" the dukes of Normandy.^ But Ralph could claim the relation- 
; ihip of foster-brother to William, by the marriage of his father 
' Herluin, to Herleva, or Harletta, the tanner's daughter of 
Falaise, the mother of William. Balph was the son of Her- 
hin by his first marriage, and William now loaded not only 
his step-father with great honours, but also enriched with large 
! possessions, in Normandy and in England, his step-father's 
wns, Ralph, bom to him before his widowhood, and his half- 
brother Robert, Earl of Mortain, and Odo, the famous bishop 
of Bayeux. Although little is known of Ralph,^ beyond the 
tact of his being the eldest son of Herluin de Conteville, and 
that he accompanied William in the invasion of England ; it 
w stated that it was he who built the tower of the Basilica of 
the Priory of St. Vifjor, in Normandy, which was overthrown 


in the year 1579.' Herluin, his father, occupies a more con- 

-^picuous place in history. William of Jumieges speaks of 

him as '' Herluinus quidam probus miles."^ William of Mal- 

^esbury describes him as " vir mediocrium opum."*^ But for 

'^^ the interest in this "petit chevalier" is that he was the 

^^Under, in the year 1040, of the abbey of Grestain, within 

*^tne two or three miles of Conteville, an abbey which became 

'^o patron of the church of Norton-juxta-Hamedon, in this 

1. Anderson's History of House of Yvery ii, 88. 

2. Orderic iii, 246, *'C'e8t la seule mention de ce fils aine d'Herluin de 
Conteville que nous rencontrions dans Thistoire." Footnote in loco. 

3. Nobiliaire de Normandie, par. K. de Magny. 

4. Will. Gem., vii, 3. 

5. Gesta reg. Angl., ed. Hardy, vol. ii ; iii, S 277. 

^O Papers^ 4"c. 

couDty. and to which, just two hundred rears afterwards, ii 
the year before Bishop Jocelin's death, it was appropriated.' 

From Ralph's close connection with William it might faiiij 
lie supposed thai he held other estates in Somerset besideB 
Alwarditone. And such was the case. In the Himdred of 
Bem^>stone he held two vii^tes. in Hecui-wicca. alias £c^ 
wicke. a manor said to be obs<»lete,- and one ^*irgate in Hiwit 
1 Hewish-juxta-Highbridpe i. Iwth under Walter. In the ancient 
Hundred of Melel^ome (now Hurethome), he held one hide 
one vinrate in Adber. in Trent, also under Walter. Besides 
which ho held two estates, the modem names and situation 
of which have not been identified. Thev were in " Comtiina 
al C*ontune,'* and contained together five hides (4 x 1) 
still under Walter. Here in this double manor Halpl 
)H^^^essell 1 inter alia i one himdred and twenty sheep anj 
seventy gi»ats. a circumstance which certainly suggests tha 
the situation was on the Mendip HiUs. Collinson' identifie 
it with Compion Bishop, but after a thorough investigatioi 
into the probabilities Mr. Eyton feels it impossible to say wher 
it was,* 

But wo must rotum to Ralph and his nine hides in demesn 
at Alwanlitone. The physical features of the landscape i 
bn>avl outline cannot have been verv different then from wha 


they are now. Tho Memlip Hills were seen on the one side 
and tho roUon Hiil> and tho i^uaniocks on the other. Th 
Bristol I'hanr.ol oamo into tho viow in clear weather then a 
now. BrtM".: Knoll rose out of the level in the near distance 
Tho manorial lands, as wo liavo seen, were then as now parti; 
arable, j^^rtly moadow and pasture. But tho projH>rtions of th 
ono to tho other have Kon ontirtly altered. In 1086, th 
ploujjh land was more than twice us much as the grass land 

K laK AlK iii. fo. IS\ in dor». 

:*. M«> it not W uientitieil with North Wick or South Wick in Mark ? 

3. iii, «Vt^. 

The Descent of the Manor of AUerton. 31 

list now there is comparatively little of the former remain- a.d. 
g. AUerton moor was at that date a waste swamp, unenclosed, 
ameasured in the Sm'vey, and of no value. There were no 
Mds through it, no rhines to carry off the water, no drainage. 
Tlte main watercourse from the higher grounds was Rawlins' 
kae and the village street, on the one side, and Stone Allerton 
street on the other. Of the ancient cultivation there remain 
Ae traces, in the acre and half-acre strips of land in North- 
.. field. A manor house existed, not improbably on the same 
lite as the present one. Ralph's dependants were only twenty- 
tiro adults, the majority of whom would naturally dwell aroimd 
the manor house. " Poolhayes," — the park and the pond — in 
cloee proximity to the house, is another landmark of the 
earliest times. 

We have no record of the year in which Ralph died. 
Assuming that he was about the age of 35, at the battle of Sen- 
lac, he may have lived through the reign of William Rufus, 
and during the earlier years of Henry I, until 1108 or 1109. 
Nor is it known who was his immediate successor in the manor, 
but towards the end of the twelfth century we meet with Adam 
de Conteville, as lord of Alwarton. From A.D. 1169-70 1169 
(16 Henry II), his name occurs in the Pipe Rolls until 1175, 
as debtor to the crown of five marks for one knight's fee in 

'*Ada de Contevill deb v m p recto feodo 1 mil in Alware- 
ton." In 1170-71 the entry is headed^ " De plac Alan de 
Nevill Junioris," and so also in the two following jears.^ In 
1174-75, "De Aux ad Mar fil R ; " that is to say, "concern- 
ing the aid for the marriage of the king's son."^ 

A memorandum is added to the entry in 1 172-3, and follow- 
ing years " sz n pot inveri," " cannot be found." Adam had 
disappeared, and had not yet reappeared in 1175. 

1. Pipe Roll Soc., XV, 116. 

2. Id. xvi, 15. 

3. Id. xzu, 23. 

32 Papers^ ^c. 

In 8 Henry II Adam de Cunterille gare a fine to the kin; 
to have a writ of right to a knight^s fee in AlFOceston, that u 

The manor of Stringston came into the posaession of Adam 
de C'unteville (temp. Henry II), by his marriage with Amdii 
do Stringston, daughter and heiress of Ranulph de Strin^too, 
the owner and inhabitant of that township. Adam and Amelit 
had two sons, William and Hugh de Cunteville. WiDiam 
Mettled at Dodington, and took the name of Dodington, whick 
continued in his descendants ever after : Hugh inherited 

In the time of King John (1199-1216), William granted aU 
hirt lands in Dyche and Lymbury to John de Alfakeston.' 

A few years later, in the seventh year of Richard I, tVi 
" Feet of Fines " of that year has preserved the name ^ 
" Kicrhard, the son of Robert, of Aluerton." It occurs m ^ 
agr(»einent made between Ralph de St. Barbe and Richard, ^ 
to three*, virgates of land, with their appurtenances, in Alu^ 
ton. This (loeument has not been printed in the Somers-^ 
KcM'onl Society's volume, but it is to be found in the Pif 
Roll So(!it'ty's publication, and^ certainly deserves a place in oa. 
county history. It is j)articularly interesting for the purpos 
of this i)a|)cr, because it shows us how soon the sub-division a 
landed ('states hegan, and it supplies us with the name o 
Uol»ert as lord of tlu» manor, as the successor, most probably 
of Adam. 

7 HiciiAHu 1, 1196. 30 Jan. 

** This is the fiiuvl concord made in the court of the lord th( 

king, at Westminster, on Tuesday next after the conver 

sion of St. Paul, in the 7th year of king Richard, befor 

Hubert, Archbishoi) of Canterbury, Gilbert, Bishop o 

1. ('o/litiHon i, 2(54. Rot. pip., 8 Henry II. 

2. (*oilinMon iii, 518. 
li. Mom. i, 266. 

4. P. H. S., vol. xvii.p. 91-92. 

The Descent of the Manor of Allerton. 33 

Rochester, Ralph of Hereford, Richard, Archdeacon of a.d. 
Ely, Osbert Fitz Hervey, Richard de Hiet, Symonde 
Patishull, and others, the faithful of the lord the king, 
then there present, between Ralph de St. Barbe, claimant, 
and Richard de Cuinteuill, tenant, as to three virgates of 
land, with their appurtenances, in Aliierton, by a fine of 
a duel in arms, waged between them, that is to say, that 
the aforesaid Ralph acknowledged the whole of the 
aforesaid land to be the right, by inheritance, of the afore- 
said Richard, and quit-claimed it from himself and his 
heirs, to him and his heirs for ever, and for this acknow- 
ledgment and quit-claim the aforesaid Richard granted to 
the same Ralph, for his homage and service in Aluerton, 
one virgate of land, with its appurtenances, out of the 
aforesaid three virgates of land in Aluerton, that is to say, 
that one which Richard, the son of Robert, of Aluerton, 
held of him and his heirs, to be held by him and his heirs 
for the service of the twenty-fourth part of one knight's 
fee, for all the service which belongs to Richard himself. 
And besides the same Richard gave to the same Ralph 
two marks in money." 
Throe months after this, on May 11th, we have the first 1196 
'Jiention of Robert Tortesmains and his wife, in connection 
^^uh Allerton, in a plea taken at Westminster. It appears in 
the original in P. R. S., vol. 17, p. 127, and in English, in 
''Somerset Feet of Fines," No. 1. 

7 Richard I (a.d. 1196). 
' This is the final concord, made in the court of the lord the 
king, at Westminster, Saturday next after the feast of S. 
John Evangelist ante portam Latinam, in the seventh 
year of King Richard, before Hubert, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and Richard, Bishop of London, and Gilbert, 
Bishop of Rochester, and Richard Barr, Archdeacon of 
Ely, and Ralph, Archdeacon of Hereford, and Thomas de 
Husseburn, and Simon de PateshuU, and Osbert Fitz 

Vd. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V ), Part II. e 

S4 Papers, jnr. 

Ht*rvt*T. and Kicfaard de Hiet. jn^tices of tbe lord the king, 
and (ither^. tlic faiihf uL and barone of the lord the king, 
then there prescmt. Between Richard Parfet, claimant^ 
and Rc»bert Tortesmainf and Matilda, his wife, tenenta 
hj ihe same B(»bert, her hus^band, put in the place of the 
aforesaid Matilda, to gain or to lose in the aforesaid 
court, for half a rii^t*' of land, with its appurtenances, 
in Alurint^tn. when plea was brought between them in the 
aforesaid court : that is to sav. that the aforesaid Robert 
and MatDda acknowled^red the said half virgate of land, 
with the appurtenances, to be the right and inheritance of 
the said Richard, and thej quit-claimed the same for 
themselves and their heirs, to him and his heirs in perpet- 
uity, as his right and inheritance, and for this acknoir- 
ledgment. and quit-<*laim. and concord, the afo^e:^aid 
Richard gave to the aforesaid Robert and Matilda twenty 
shillings sterling." 
There are two documents of the third vear of King John, 
rf^Iating to Allerton which follow : The one l)elongs to the 
inorith of .fuiie. the other to October, 1201-2. The former i* 
Xo. 49 of " Somerrfet Fines," and is an agreement lx?twcen 
Ui<}iar(l de Cunteville and Roliert and Matilda Tortemain^- 
TlM*s<f nam(\s we have had alreadv : but two other names mix^*<* 


lip witli tin* estate now come l>efore us, viz. : those <'^ 

" VVilliain Turkir*^ and of "Richard Bulgun.'' This iiir^trii- 

iii<*nt reads as follows : 

"At Ivclccstre, Wednesday next after St. Barnabas, between 
Richard de (!untevile, claimant, and Rol)ert Tortemaiiis 
and Matilda his wife, tenents ; for three virgates of land 
ill Ahierinton; recognizance of mort ancestor was sum- 
inniied : Robert and Matilda acknowledged the land to be 
the right and inheritance of Richard; and for this con- 
cord Richard conceded all the said land to Robert and 
Matilda, to be held of him and his heirs for the life of 
I. Turku kM Ulewer, and Back well. t.r.e. 

The Drscrtit iftke Manor of Allrrtoii. 35 

^IntlMa iiv the service due to t!ie kiiijr. And after tlie 

decease of Matilda one vtrgatc uf the aforesaid land which 

William Turkii held aud one ferlinf^te which Kichard 

Bui^n held shall remain tu the said Bobert Tortemains 

and his heirs, to be held of Kii^hard and his hetr», doing 

therefor such service as belongs t« five fwlingates : for 

this Robert and Matilda gave Kichard three marcs in 

monev. And be it known that the residue of the three 

virj^tos other than the five ferlingates ought to come 

)iiu'k ^ain. And Richard de Cuntevile and his heirs 

freed Ridiert and his heirs after the decease of Matilda." 

The latter is fmm Somersetshire Fleas (S.R.S.). Roll 

^^>.11TI, Meml), I2d., in the Assize taken at Taunton. [n 

thiiMnntter Hugh de (irenton and his wife Sabina, with others 

'tfek against Robert Tortemaiiis one virgate of land with the 

■jijiurtenanoes, in Alverinton, as the right aud inheritance of 

Ruber!,' father of Sabina, Rohesia and Amabel, the firot being 

liie tfife of Hugh, the second, Rohesia, of Thomas le Border, 

tml llip third, Amabel, of William de Vauton or Walton." 

R*ibert came and demanded a view. So let him have a 

I. A dar is given him in the month after Michaelmas, at 

Weslini lister. In the meantime let the view be had. And be 

il known that the writ speaks of the same Robert, and of 

Henrv de CimteviUe who essoined himself ile malti reniendi 

iml that Roltert answered of his own free will without anv 


lu this tliii-d of KinfT John, Raljih l.ovell of the 
Baronr of Kary, representing Walter de Douai, was the over- 
lord of Richard de ConteviUe, and was succeeded bj llenrj- 
Lovell in 1207. He died in 1218, leaving a widow Christiana 
son and heir, Richard. Henr^ had settled on her in lien 
Cf her dower (inter alia), the services, reliefs, marriage, and 
wnrdship due of the manor of Alwarton, held of him 
*» of his honor of Kary by Richard de CounteviUe. In 
Thi* Bobert ii ■hewn to be one Robert Pakerel. 

36 PaperSj ^c. 


218-19 3 Henry III (1218-19), Christiana became the wife of Richard 
Cotel.' Accordingly, Richard and Christiana put in their 
claim at Ilchester in the same year for "the services, escheats, 
wards, reliefs, marriages and fees " of Richard de Counteville, 
in respect of " one knight's fee and two hides, and one virgate 
of land in Alwarton."^ Richard was a witness to the trans- 

1242 There is a writ of the grand assize for 26 Henry III,^ in 
which Andrew, son of William le Fraunceys, tenant, ap|)ears 
against Robert de Cuntevill concerning half a ferling of land 
with the appurtenances in Alleuuarton, and i)rays a recognition 
to be made which have the greater right in that land." 

Pleas of the crown at YhevelcestV on the quindene of 
S. Hilary before Roger de Thurkileby and his companions in 
the 27th year of the reign of King Henry, son of King John. 

1243 At this date one mode of bringing an offender to justice wa,< 
" the appeal " or private suit of the injured person.** And we 
have now a case to recoi*d of Richard de Cuntevill appealhuf 
Nicholas Eylward and Matilda his wife, of breach of the peace 
and robbery. Richard comes and sues against them.* Nicholas 
and Matilda do not come. They were attacked by Walter 
Emeri, Walter Tortemayns, and Richard de Alverington. 
Therefore, all are in mercy ; that is to say, they are at the 
arbitrament or discretion of the court for punishment. 

What would be tenned to-day a cross summons follows : 
" The same Nicholas Aylward appealed Richard de Cuntevill, 
David Costentin, Peter de Cuntevill, and many others of 
breach of the peace of our loixl the king. He does not 
come, and he had no pledges beyond the aforenamed. 
All the appealed (rome, and have not (!omj)romised, and are 

1. Anderaon'B History of House of Yvery I, 230. 

2. Somerset Feet of Fines, p. 33. 

3. Somersetshire Pleas, p. 122, memb. 13. 

4. Introd. to Somerset Pleas, xlviii. 

5. Pleas, p. 249, 250. 

The Descent of the Manor of AUerton. 37 

not guilty. Therefore all are quit, and Nicholas and his a.i>. 
pledges are in mercy/' 
It appears, as will be seen later on, that ill feeling existed 
between the Ejlward or Aylward family and the de Conteville 
funilj : and this little quarrel may have been the beginning of 
diflferences in time to come ; but we must not anticipate an 
eTent of the 14th centiu-y when we have not yet reached tlie 
middle of the 13th. 

In this year we have a notice of Robert, and of Nicholas de 1247 
Cuntevill. It occurs on the roll of the Eyre, of 31 and 32 of 
Henry III. They are summoned after non-appearance at 
Newport Pagnel, where the assize was held, in the matter of 
restoring to Muriel, formerly wife of Robert de Sancta Barba, 
chattels of hers to the value of £10, which they owe her.^ 

Richard de Cunteville, one of the jurors is fined half a mark 1254 
for default at assizes, at Lambeth, before Henry de Bracton, 
38 Henry III. 

Item. Ricardus de Cunteville tenet Alewortun de Hugone 1286 
Liovell, per servicium feodi unius militis, et idem Hugo de 
Itege in capite.^ 14 Edward I. 

Richard de Conteville held a knight's fee in the village of 1291 
Bagdripe, of Hugh, Lord Lovel, of Castle Cary (Lib. feod. 
19 Ed. IV 

He also held two knights' fees and a half in Cricket S. 
Thomas, of Sir Hugh Lovel, Knt.^ 

Both Hugh and Richard de Conteville are named as among 1301-2 
the possessors of land of most note in the time of Edward I.^ 

Sixteen years later the manor was still held by Richard, for 
in that year a cause was tried at York between Richard do 
Cuntevill, of Alwerton, and John, son of Isabella de Wyk, 

1. Somersetshire Pleas, p. 351, memb. 32d 

2. Kirhy'a Quest., S. R. S., vol 3, p. 8. 

3. (JolUntionm^^X. 

4. Id. iii, 116. 

5. Id. Introd. xxvii. 

38 Papers^ !fc, 

querents, and William de Burne, deforciant, for a messu: 
and a ferling and forty acres of land in Alwerton and O^ 
were. The fine proceeds : " Plea of covenant was summon 
Richard acknowledged the right of William ; for this Willij 
at the request of Kichard, granted the same to John to h( 
to John and the heirs of his body, of the chief-lords of tl 
fee. If it happen that J ohn shall die without heirs of his bo 
then the said tenement shall wholly remain to Agnes, daugh 
of Richard de Cuntevill and the heirs of her body, to hold 
the chief-lords of that fee. If it happen that Agnes die wi 
out heirs of her body, then the said tenement shall whc 
remain to Egelina, daughter of Richard, and her heirs, quit 
the other heirs of John and Richard, to hold of the chief-lo 
of the fee by the services belonging."^ 

It so happened that both iFohn de Wyk and Agnes 
Cunteville died without issue, and so the lands came into 
hands of Egelina, who married one .lohn Bole, of whom 
shall hear again in the year 1345 (19 Edward III). The ab< 
Richard, who appears to have died in 1303, was the father 
six children, two sons and four daughters. His heir ^ 
Baldwin. The four daughters were Isabella, Agnes, Margare 
and Egelina. Isabella had become the wife of - de Wy 
and was the mother of a John de Wyke. Egelina, as aires 
stated, was the wife of John le Bole. Margaretta marr 
Nathaniel Pecche. Agnes appears to have died unmarri 
Besides Baldwin there was a son, whose name was John. 

[The signature of Baldwin is found on a Wells chart 
A.D. 1307,^ and among witnesses, in A.D. 1339, to documer 
is Sir John de Wyke, knight.^] 

Hitherto no mention has been made either of that part 
the parish which is known as Ashton, or of the existence of 1 
mill, or of the church. But in the early years of the fo 

1 Feet of Fines. S.R.S., vol. 6, p. 320. 

2. Lib. Alb. i., Fo. 123. 

3. Wells Cath. MSS., No. 261. 

The Deseemt mftke Mamor 0/ AllertoH. 39 

itoentli centurr. in the Feet of Fines of 3rd and 11th Edward a.i>. 
til, we hare refermee made to them. A famiiv of considerable 
{■poitance in the coantj was that of the Langelondes, and a 
lime which occnrss in the after histonr of Allerton was Welsh. 
Aihton and Allerton are mentioned toother in the Tear 130S« 
a eonnection with these names. 

"At Westminster, in three weeks of Easter, between Nicholas 
de Langelonde, querent, and Robert le Walvs« of Wol- 
lavTgnton* and Isabelle, his wife, deforciants, for a 
messuage, forty acres of land, twelve acres of meadow 
and nine shillings rent, in Asshton and Alurinton. Robert 
and Isabelle acknowledged the right of Nicholas to hold 
of the chief lord hy the services due ; and they warranted. 
For this Nicholas gave Robert and Isabelle forty marcs 
of silver."^ 
Baldwin de Counteville, son of Richard who died circ. 1303, 1317-18 
WM lord of the manor of Allerton, in succession to his fiither. 
And io the Fine subjoined, of the 11th year of Edward II, is 
the first recorded notice of " a mill " and " the advowson of 
the church.'' A mill was one of the most necessary adjuncts 
to a manor house, and probably a mill has stoml on the site 
where the Allerton mill stands to-dav for more than 800 vears. 
In the reign of Edward VI the old mill was in ruins, and was 
rebuilt, as will be shewn under the vear 1549. From the 
manor house to the mill, and from the mill to the hundred 
^tone must in old times have been a frequent walk. 

There is reason to believe that the church, the advowson of 
which is referred to in this Fine was built in the early part of 
the thirteenth centurv. It has been said that the old font is 
Nonnan, but that is doubtful. There is no trace of Norman 
work in the fabric of the church, but there is an early thir- 
teenth centurv window in the south wall of the nave, to the 
west of the porch. And that a church existed in the year 

1. Som. Fines, S.R.8., vo!. xii, p. 16 

40 Papers^ ^c. 

A.i). 1247, as a "capella," appertinent to the church at Wedinore, 

can be shewn by documentary evidence. | 

U7-18 "At Westminster, in the octave of S. Michael, between ■ 

Baldewin de CounteviU, and Richard his son, querents by 
tTohn Clanship in their place ; and John le Kiche of Wed- 
mor, deforciant ; for a messuage, a mill, a canicate of land, 
and twenty-four shillings rent in Alewarton and the 
advowson of the church. John granted the tenement and 
advowson to Baldewin and Richard to hold to them and 
the heirs of the body of Richard begotten ; and if 
Richard die without such heirs, then after the decease of 
Baldewin the same to remain to John, the brother of 
Richard and the heirs of his body ; and if John die with- 
out such heirs then to Constantia the sister of John, the 
brother of Richard ; and if Constantia die without such 
heirs, then the whole shall remain to the right heirs of 
Baldewin. For this concord Baldewin and Richard gave 
John one hundred marcs of silver," 
1327 The Excheciuer Lay Subsidies, as they are termed, were a 

tax of ^\yth granted by Parliament to Edward III in the first 
year of his reign, of all movables which were in each man's 
j)Ossession on the preceding Feast of S. Michael and All 
Angels. The Rolls of Parliament give us the lists of those 
taxed in each hundred. The special object of the tax was to 
provide the king with money to defend the kingdom against 
invasion by the Scots.* The sum total of the assessment in 
the hundred of Bempstone was £17 lOs., whilst that of 
Alwardtone was three shillings. The highest sum receive<l 
from Alwardtone was xii<l- paid by Nicholas Kyle; four others 
paid vid' each, viz. : Peter Bygoyn, Elias Talpayn, Henry 
Wyne, and Henry Wylles. This is by far the smallest amount 
paid by any place in the hundred, and this fact leaves the im- 
pression on our minds that the Contevilles were certainly not 
resident at this time. It must, however, be remembered that 

1. cf. Preface to Vol. iii, S.R.S., p. zxvii, note. 


The Descent of tlie Manor of AUerton. 41 

the names under Alwardtone refer to the T jthing, and not to 
the parish. In the list of those paying in Bojdesham and 
Tomock (Biddisham and Tamock), John Contyvylle's name 
appears as one of the larger payers. 

With the name of .lohn de Conteville, two incidents con- 
nected with Alwarton come before us. The first is a petition 
of John, as " rector of the free chapel of Alwarton," to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury to restrain Bishop Ralph de Salopia, 
bishop of the diocese, from interference with him, on the 
ground that the Dean of Wells was his " ordinary," and not 
the bishop. The free chapel of Alwarton had now been stand- 
ing on its present site for more than a hundred years. Chap- 
lains or rectors had been presented to it by the lords of the 
manor. It was among the " pertinenciae " of the Church of 
Wedmore, and the Dean of Wells, as rector of Wedmore, 
exercised jurisdiction over it. 

In Bishop Ralph's register is the inhibition of the bishop 
from disturbing John in peaceable possession of his benefice. 
It explains how matters stood. 

"The Official of the Court of Canterbury to Bishop Ralph. 
'" The petition of #1 ohn de Conteville, rector of the free 
chapel of Alwarton, exhibited to us contained that, 
although the same John had possessed the said chapel, 
being notoriously exempt from your immediate juris- 
diction, and subject to the jurisdiction of the Dean of 
Wells, and on the part of the said John, fearing prejudice, 
it was appealed to the apostolic see. You, nevertheless, 
at the instance of John Alward^ priest^ ordered the said 
John to show his title to the said chapel, and as well by 
yourself as by John de Middelton, rector of Bledon, and 
Stephen Tripp, rector of West Cammel, your commissaries 
disturbed the said John de Counteville. Wherefore we 
inhibit you and your commissaries pending the matter of 
appeal in the Court of Canterbury, xviii Kal., May, 

A.D. 1338.1 
1. Fo. 174. 

J'o/. XL V (Third SeHei*, Vol. V), Part J I, f 

42 Papers^ ifc. 

Who this John A] ward, priest, the instigator of the bishop 
was, we cannot sar — there was one of this name who was Vicar 
of Timberscombe in 1336' — but, if he was a descendant of 
Nicholas Ajlward, A.D. 1243, this looks like a continuance of 
the animosity of the previous century. 

The second incident is a dismal one. It is recorded in the 
Liber Ruber,' that in the month of September, 1338, Cristine 
Cokes de Cokelake was charged with the crime of fornication 
with John de Countevyle the younger of Albartone ; and that 
she was sentenced to walk twice barefooted round the church 
of Banwell, a penance which may possibly have been performed 
in the presence of Bishop Ralph. 

In Somerset Fines, p. 229, vol. xii, there is reference to a 
messuage, and a ferling and forty acres of land in Alwerton 
and Overwere when John Bole and Egelina are deforciants, 
and Nicholas Frauneeys and John Queynt, querents. 

Richard de Conteville^ the son and heir of Baldewin and 
Margerie, was lord of Allerton in 20 Edward III, and with 
him the direct male line of the de Contevilles came to an end. 
This Richard had an only daughter, Elizabeth, who became 
the wife of Thomas de Gournay, son of Anselm de Goumay, 
Lord of Overwore, and by this marriage the two manors of 
Allerton and Overwore became united for a time in the one 
family of de Gournay. 

To Thomas and Elizabeth de Gournay was born an only 
daughter, Joan or Joanna. She married George de la More, 
or Bythemore, lord of Nailsay, with whose descendants the 
manor of Allerton remained for one hundred years. The 
family of Bythemore, alias de la More, alias Attemore, alias 
More of Nailsea, was an ancient and honourable one. It 
traced its descent from Ralph de Mora, who lived in the reign 
of Henry I. The name of Richard de Mora occurs in con- 
nection with Somerset in A.D. 1205. The immediate ances- 

1. Somerset Incumbents, p. 457. 
1>. Fo. 67. 

The Descent of the Manor of Allerton. 43 

tors of George were Stephen, his father, and Bartholomew, a.d. 
his grandfather. 

In the 14th year of Richard II, George and Joan Bythe- 1391 
more were party to a Fine in which the reversion of the manor 
of Overwere was limited to George, and to the heirs of him- 
idf and Joan after the death of Aleanor, then wife of Richard 
Power, and widow of Thomas de Gournay, who held the same 
in jointure. 

Another deed of the 7th Henry IV is a suit in which 1406 
William Howys and Philip Cliffield were plaintiffs, and George 
ind Joan Bythemore were defendants. The estate is de- 
wiribed as containing at this time 11 J hides of land together 
with the advowson of the church of Alwarton, and was 
limited to George and Joan for the term of their lives. 
Remainder to IVUliam, son of George, and Isabel, his wife, 
and the heirs of their bodies. 

William succeeded his father before the 7th year of Henry 1429 
VI. Among the Wells Cathedral MSS. is a charter (No. 
630), in which William More, of Naylsey, esqre., grants his 
manor of " Alverton " to Thomas Brown, Baldwin Brown, 
John Torell, tlohn Whytynge, and John More, of Brydconibe,* 
and the heirs of Baldwin. It was signed and sealed at 
''Alverton,'' on the Saturday after the Feast of S. Bartholo- 
mew the Apostle, in the 2oth year of Henry VI, and the 1447 
witnesses to the deed were Sir Walter Rodney, Knt., Thomas 
\V ake and Richard Arthur, esq res., William Gascoigne, mayor 
of Wells in that year, and M.P. for the city of Wells, Thomas 
Whytton, and many others. 

William Bythemore was a man of high standing in Somer- 
set, for when in the 7tli year of Henry VI an order was issued 1429 
from the crown to the sheriffs and justices of the different 
counties to select a certain number of men-at-arms from among 
the most ancient knights and gentlemen, of the respective 

1. For an interesting account of Brydcombe see S.A. and N.H. Soc. Pro- 
ceedings, xxvii pt. 1, 37, 38. 

44 P^eru^. 

comities, whoce ancestors had bcyme coats of anus from j., 
of antiqahj, to serve the king in their own persons, for 
defence of the reahn. this Wnham Bjthemore was among 
twenty men of Somerset who were chosen. 

William's first wife was Isabel .... who appears to havid 
died without issue. His second wife was Joan Warre, bf- 
whom he had a son and heir, John Bvthemore, lord of Nailsej^ 
Overwere and Alwarton. 

The notices of John extend over the years 1462-1481, a 
period almost corresponding with the reign of Edward IV« 
His wife was Alice Toky, alias Pedyll, of Bridgwater, and 
by her he had a son, William. 

Among the Wells Cathedral MSS. there is a charter, Na 
668, an abstract of which is griven in the report of the Historical 
MSS. Commission, p. 309. It does not bear immediately on 
the history of the manor of Allerton, but it does so indirectly, 
and may therefore find some notice here. Besides which it is 
a document of some interest in itself. It is an arbitration 
between John More, and a man of Mark, named Robert Deye, 
alias Robert Kykke, about lands in Wurcheston, Wynnesmere 
and Hurnham. The three arbitrators were men of great emi- 
nence. They were first, Humphrey, Lord Stafford of Soiith- 
wyke, who had fought on the Yorkist side at the battle of 
Towton, the year before, and was knighted by Edward IV on 
the field, and whose execution, at Bridgwater, by order of the 
same king, only seven^ years afterwards, is matter of history ; 
second, Nicholas Carent, Dean of Wells, the " nobilis ac facetus 
decanus," of Ferrandus, a distinguished visitor to Wells ;* third. 
Sir Richard Chok, then ilustice of the Common Pleas, and 
four years after this Lord Chief Justice of England. 

The award was given in favour of John More, "as kinsman 
and right heir of Baldewyne Countevyle, late lord of Alwarton, 
viz. : son of William, son of Johanna, daughter of Elizabeth, 

1. Diet, of Nat. Biog., vol. liii, p. 454. 

2. Corretpondence of BUhop Bekyngton, ii, 321. 

The Descent of the Manor of Allerton. 45 

^hter of Richard, son and heir of the said Baldewjne/' In 

minor points the document is also of interest. The names 

\tA the sons of the soil in 1462 are the names of the inhabitants 

E«f the district to-daj, after more than four hundred years. 

[They are Hjkkes, Gyllinge, Day, Roper, Adams, Chappell. 

Eren the unusual name of Kykke survives in the parish of 

Mark* Looking back, too, over the preceding century, and 

Ihe struggle for independence of the lord, on the part of the 

labourers, it is, perhaps, worthy of note that a release is given 

to these men as " labourer s^^ and to one of them as a " icener^* 

!>., wagoner. 

From this, and from the documents that follow, it is evident 
that the ancient lords were relaxing their hold on the land, and 
that a new system of farming was beginning to find place. 
The growth in the fifteenth century of a farming class, and 
the increase of leases, were facts that the landlords had to face. 
Loans of money to the landlords appear among the documents : 
for instance, John and William Bythemore, father and son, 
** of Alwarton," bind themselves for the sums of two hundred, 
and one hundred ]>ounds, to four men, three of whom were 

Through his marriage Avith Alice Toky, John Bythemore 
appears to have become associated in the business of his estate 
with men of standing in the neighbourhood of Bridgwater, like 
William Dodesham' and Thomas Tremavle.'^ In 1475 we find 
that he had made over to these the rents and services due to 
him from lands and tenements '*in Alwerton and Overwere." 
Walter and Johanna Sparke, and Thomas their sou, the 
tenants of John, accordingly engage to render the same to 
Dodesham and Tremayle. 

•fohn died in 1480, leaving his son William, then of the age 
of thirty-eight years,* as his successor. He is the last of the 

1. Wella MS8., 668, 669. 

2. Ol Cazmington. 

3. Well* MSS., No. 696. 

46 Papers J jpe. 

A.i>« BTthemores connected with the manor. He held it for eight ^ 
148S rear^ but in the third jear of Henry YII he obtained a ^ 

licen:^ from the Court of Common Pleas, to defeat the settle* j 
nient« and ed&ct a sale« thus conveying it away from himsdf : 
and his heir^. He claimed ^ the manor of Alwarton and the 
advowson of the church, also twenty messuages, six tofts, a 
doTe^HH and a milL six hundred acres of arable land, two hundred 
acf^ of meadow, two hundred of pastiu^, and a rent of twenty- 
foiu- shilKng^ in the manor.**^ 
1481 The Inquisitio pi.>st mortem of 20 Edward IV, makes John 

ByiheuKvr^^ to W possessed at his death of the following 
estates :* 

** JoheV More Armiger 

Alwarton manei^ et adroc Capell. 

{ I'astelcarv manei^ membi?) 

t >verwere maner^ 

Batelbourgh nianei^ 

NavleseT uianer 

Kdvn^T worth 

Bumhain . Septeni mess« 

Hurti>ne et ^ oimi divers 

LvtoUon terir^." 

14xSS l^i^o Thomas I'stewayte, ami a Richard Isham, the former 

o\nuuvti\l with Wells, ami the latter with Isle Brewers, were 
the juiivhast^rs : but four years after, they too obtained a 
U9l> liron>o tor the saK\ and the estate was conveyed to John 
(umthor|H\ I Van of WolK and the aforesaid* Thomas Uste- 
\v«\ to, Thon* is in the jn^ssession of the dean and chapter the 
dood of iviuinoiation of the manor, bv Thomasine the widow of 
Williiuu IUthomon\* Thus, after the lengthened ownership 
thnuiirh luon* than 400 years by the ConteWUes, Gournays, 
n\\\\ \\\ thonioiv?s an uninterrupteti lineal descent, Allerton, with 

1. AHtf^rs^xH^s Hou»« of Yvery. ii. 36, 

J, l.p.m. lH>. K*iw. IV . Niv 69. Vol. ir, 401. 

a. WWU i'mtheiiral MSS,. 727. 

The Descent of the Manor of AUerton. 47 


its manor, its windmill, and the advowson of the church passed 3H. VII., 

into the hands of the Dean and Chapter of Wells, through the 

gift of John Gnnthorpe. If the Dean and Chapter had not 

eommuted their estates with the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 

for a fixed income in 1866, they too would have held the estate 

for another 400 years. As it is, they were the owners for about 

370 years, and still retain the patronage of the rectory in their 

hands. It is not a little remarkable that for the long period 

of more than 800 years there should have been virtually one 

fiunil J, and one ecclesiastical body, lords of the manor. 

Dean Gimthorpe died in 1498, having appointed John 1498 
Ustewayte, and Richai*d Hatton, a canon of Wells, and 
chaplain to Henry VII, his executors. His death occurred in 
the spring, for, on the 9th of June, the sub-dean and chapter 
appoint Thomas Cornish and Thomas Gilbert, as seneschals 
and guardians of the deanery, vacant by the death of John 
Gunthorpe. The manor of Allerton, their new possession, 
comes at once to the front. Being now patrons of the benefice, 
they appoint Thomas Gilbert, "to the Free Chapel of Alberton, 
vacant by the death of William Stevens." Six months after 
this, "in mutual convocation assembled," thev "transacted the 
business connected with the manor of Alberton."^ It now 
ap|)eared that the purpose for which Dean Gunthorpc had 
granted the manor to the Chapter, was to su})port and find 
a mass to be celebrated daily at certain altars, in the Cathedral 
church, for the repose of his soul. It was resolved " to begin 
it, and to c(mtinue it dailv and for ever." It will be seen 
presently that the resolution was more easily made than carried 

But to keep to the documents in order of time, notice must 1501 
be taken in passing of a deed relating to an annual rent charge 
of six-shillings and eightpence on a property described as 
"Benam's Place within the Manor of Alwerton," and so desig- 
nated as the deed asserts " ab antique." It is a release of this 

1. Wells Cathedral, Reynolds, p. 197. 

48 Paper$^ ^c. 

A.D. rent charge from Thomas and Juliana Squery, William Trei 
body, junior, and Alice, his wife, and John and Johani 
Spereman. It had come to them from one William Boteler ( 
Westburr, and to him from four men who were feoffees of tl 
late William Bythemore, viz. : Thomas Overay, John C'ho 
Walter Parya, and John Bowie. And now it is conceded i 
Thomas Comysh, " Episcopus Tinensis," and his assign.^ fcj 
the remainder of a term of eighty years. The witnesses to tli» 
deed were men of repute in Wells and the neighourhood, viz. 
Sir John Rodney, John Poulet, William Vowell, Richarc 
Parker, and John Ustewavte. It is dated on the feast o 
S. Thomas the Apostle, in the 17th year of Henry VII. 

To return to the resolution of the Wells Chapter to carrj 
out the conditions of the late Dean's will. For some five year 
this was done. But thev were now involved in two difficulties 


1506 First, the estate had found its way into the Court of Chancen 
Second, Henry VII was pressing Gimthorpe's executors ft 
the repayment of the remainder of a " benevolence " of t^\■ 
hundred marks, forty only of which had l)een paid in tl 
Dean's lifetime. Thev Iiad to deal with both these matter 
There is a letter extant, from the Archdeacon of Wells (Beai 
mont) to the Chapter, of April 3rd, 1506, from London, 
which he says :^ " We have made serche in the Chancery f 
the ammortysment of A 1 vert on, and as yet we cannot find 
The vi clerks of the said Chaunceryc be so besyed in the Kin^ 
causes that they can attend no pore men yet. I assure you 1 
ther license Humfrey, my servant, hadd a sight of oon \)oV 
ab anno VI Henrici sexti, us([ue annum xviii ejusdem. "^ 
must pardon us thoughe we can make no |)erfite answere to y< 
at this tyme." 

On May 13th Philip Usthwaite was deputed to ride t 
London to see the executors of the late Dean about Albertor 
and on May 25th the newly-elected Dean (Cousyn) the Pre 
centor, and John Edmunds were ap])ointed to go to Londo: 
.... to see about the late Dean's gift of Alberton. Wha 
1. Lib. Rub., Fo. 126. 

The Drtrint of the Maiivr of AlUrUm. 49 

tesiilt of these journeys lo Loinltui nan iIoph nut ujipi'ur. 
lul the second difficulty was more troublesome than the 
U And it can be understood by the following letter from 
Chapter to Richard Hatton : 
ttiiet due recommendation ra it in that John Ugtwayte, co- 
eiiir. with you unto the right honourable Maister John 
Gunthorpe, whose sowle Goil pardon, sheweth unto us 
howe that the kJug's grace demandeth of you and hyni cc 
marks for the benyvolence accordyng as ye have written 
unto u3 afor tyme. And that ueyther ye nor he'can fynd 
remedy or discharge for the saine. Wheruppon he thynk- 
eth that the king's grace will have this money contented 
unto him, or ells that by your meanes ye may fall to some 
compromyse with the commissioners for the same. And 
by cause, as ye bothe aftirme, that ye have disposed the 
poods of the same Mr. Gunthorp, and have nut to content 
or to paye any suche snmes of money of his goods left or 
remaynyng in your hands, the said John Ustwayte with 
fjood roynde hath instantly moved us that we wold be 
contributorie unto the payment of the same by parte of 
suche lyvelode as the said Mr. Guiithrop gave and amor- 
tysed unto our churche. Maister doctor this it is. We 
knowe well and considre the good and faithfull mynde of I 

this honorable man departed, howe he purchased this lyve- 
lode, and theruppon for the helthe of his soule at his grete , 

labour and cost, aiu] by reason of a certeyn graunte made \ 

imto us by the king's grace, sufficiently amortc'sied the | 

same as we have to shewe by oiu- writyings. Neverthe- I 

lesse as the said John (Jslwayte hath amoved us, seyng j 

that ye have not of his goods to content the king's grace, 
hilt that ye must levy hit of suche lands as he left to his ' 

kynfolke and gave nnto us, we must for a season surcesse | 

of such suffrage as we dayly doo for hym. And so to take ' 

a portion yerly of his said lyvelode towards the payment 
of the same some. And the remanent to remayne for his 
nusse and obite. Sir. we trust, consideryng the grete 

\.JU,f (TMird Smti, Vol f^-PmUJ. g 

5^1 Papers^ 4y. 

mrnde and faTonr he hadde unto voii, remembryng also 
re be con of the brethren of our churche, that ve will 
take of the same Ijrelode, for the trme, as little as ye 
mar. And thas orderrng yourself we shalbe as gladde 
to folowe your mynde asi ye shal desire us. Praying you 
that ye will give credence to our brethren, berers herof, in 
that thcT shall move unto tou in our behalf to whom we 

m m 

gere full auctorite to conclude with you for this matter and 
other we have to do. And thus Jhesu have you in his 
blessM kepyng. At Wells, the xxxth day of May. By 
your loTying brethren. Deane and Chapitre of Wells. 
** To our wel-beloved brother Mr. Richard Hatton, Chapelayn 
to our sorereigne lord the king.^* 
Notwithstanding the difficulties with which the Dean and 
Chapter had to contend in securing the possession of their 
manor, the early part of the sixteenth century saw the system 
of leases and fines in operation, and tenants of ^^ the farm,'' 
paying an annual rent. 

In the 20th year of Henry VIII the farm was leased to 
Thomas Bowyer, of Tomock, and Mary, his wife, and Luce, 
their daughter, at a rental of £18. At the death of Thomas, 
Mary and Lucy continued as tenants, certainly down to the 
second year of Edward VI^ for at that date an indenture was 
made with John Mawdley, of Wells, a celebrated " clothier,''* 
for the rebuilding of the windmill, conditions iff favour of 
"Marye HiU and Luce, her daughtr, now farmers of the 
manor of AUerton," being inserted. *'Marye" had apparently 
"changed her name" fi-om Bower to Hill. The windmill has 
been mentioned in 1317-18 as part of the manorial jwssessions, 
and had been included in the holding of the farm. But being 
now in a niinous condition, it is leased as a separate property 
to a man who had capital at his command wherewith to re- 
build it. 

1. Leland in his Itinerary, ii, 69, 1540-42, Mys ** Mawdelyne wm a late a 
great clothiar, in Wellys, and so is now his sunne. " 

^int^Sinit in tbt ^ometset Domesnap. 


outset an explanation of the agglutinated expression, 
ire-hide-unit," is necessary. Every reader of Domes- 
S that in that mighty record four statements in par- 
e set down for each vill or holding, — the new owner 
Tftlue of the vill when he received it, and the late 
id the number of hides for which the vill paid Dane- 
fhe reign of King Edward the Confessor, 
with the last fact of the four that this essay is con- 
The statement about the geld is simple enough in 
[t was a species of land-tax instituted, likely enough. 
jlred the Unready, to obtain money to buy off the 
Or, if this is assuming too much, then an older pay- 
intimately connected by the English with the iiicur- 
their enemies, as to retain their memorv in its name 
as the days of Henry II, when the Danes were as 
be feared as the legions of Rome, 
^hat was the Hide, the unit of assessment on which the 
levied ? As the hide was undoubtedly an area! meas- 
ome purposes, it was only natural to answer the question 
)ivide the acreage of the vill by the number of hides at 
i was assessed, and the result will be the size of the 
lut as early as the days of Sir Edward Coke this 
was found unsatisfactorv, because no six results 
er the same ; and down to the time of Kemble, anti- 

52 Papers^ Ifc. 

quaries wearied themselves in trying to solve the puzzle as to 
the number of acres in a hide. 

At length Eyton in his preface to the Key to the Domesday 
of Dorset J 1878, referred to the hide as " a measure of qualities, 
conditions, and values,^' rather than a fixed area ; and con- 
sidered the hide, with its sub-divisions, the virgate and the 
femdel, to be " names merely borrowed from the vocabulary of 
other systems of areal mensiu*ation, or if from any single 
system involving these proportions, then from a system which 
was antiquated long before the Conquest." And he refers 
elsewhere to the '^ fallacy of the Domesday hide being an areal 
measure at all.'' Having cleared his mind of this fallacy, he 
unfortunately picked up another one — that the land for one 
plough, ''terra ad unam carucam," was always 120 acres. So 
Eyton must be set down as one who believed in an exact and 
universal area in the Domesday measures, merely substituting 
the " carucate " for the hide. 

Another view has now been set forth by Mr. J. H, Bound, 
of which I endeavour to give a precis from the essay in Feudal 
England^ 1895. In examining the Tnguisitio Comitatus Canta-^ 
briyiensisy which he calls the true key to the Domesday system, 
Mr. Round was struck bv the number of vills which wen 
assessed at five hides apiece. This fact is more or less obsciurec^^^ 
in Domesday, because the vills are arranged not locally bi^t-:_j^ 
personally, that is, in each county the vills are surveyed und^i^^j. 
the owner's name, so that vills held by two or more owners a^^^re 
widely separated. In the Inqnisitio the total number of hidi^ ^g 
in each vill is given before the survey of the aliquot 
and the hundreds of the county arranged in tabular 
showed that, in Cambridgeshire at least, neighbouring mancrzrDrg 
possessed of diverse acreage and an ever varying number of 
plough lands, might be all rated at the same number of hid^ ^ 
which are nearly always five or a multiple. The Domesdajr o{ 
other counties having been worked over with the same resi^^J^^ 
Mr. Round deduced the following statement : that the as&c^^!^ 


The Fivc-Hide'Uiiil in lite Sumcrscl Dtnliemlay, 


bt in hides bore no ratio to area or to value in a vill ; that 
lie assessment was not objective but subjective, that is, not 
bced rclatii-ely to area or to value, but so far as )x)geible ar- 
sMi^d that eai-h vill or jiart should have an assessment of five 
kides, a multiple, or a fraction of this figure. 

So the theory of the principle on which the hidagc was 

Arranged must be reversed. Instead of starting from a viH 

vsrefuUv assessed in hides according to the actual size or value, 

and so increasing through the hundreds up to a grand total for 

ihe coiuity, the exact opposite took place. So many hides 

being supposed by the Witenagemot to be in the county (the 

total being based on traditionary estimates), the county court 

liivideii llie sum among the hundreds, these having already lost 

uiy ODiiection with arithmetical ideaa : then the hundred 

coart settled the assessment on each vill or part, again relying 

on traditionary figures. 

At this point Mr. Round calls a halt, until " there can be for 
ihe whole hidated region of England a complete and trust- 
worthy analysis of assessment." 

Now Mr. Eyton's analysis of the Somerset Domesday' can 
J»e brought into action. By making use of the Exeter Domes- 
^Bjand the Geld Inquests bound up therein, he endeavoured 
■arrange the vills, whole and fragmentary, hitherto scattered 
pier the owners' names, in the hundreds to which they bc- 
id, and to identify them with modem places. Somehow 
■ other he oierlooked the coincidence of the hidage of so 
By villa being assessed in five-hide-units, although in more 
lan one instance he was evidently struck by it. 
Perhaps, after all, it has been for the best that Eyton con- 
fined his labours to identifications. Without his work much 
time must necessarily have been taken u|i in correcting the 
k<3catifieations of CoUinson ;' and even that accomplished, the 
ults would always have lain open to the suspicion of having 

Rtv. B. W. BgUm. " Domcwlay Studies in Somerset." 2 vols, 1880. 
Act. J. VoUinaon, " Uistory of Si>tn«rael," 3 vob., 1791. 

54 PaperSy Ifc, 

been subordinated to the needs of the theory. As it is, I have 
applied a theory adopted from independent study, to an analysis 
made without any reference to it ; for to use the catch-word 
of another controversy, Eyton " knew nothing " of the five- 
hide-unit theory, and the result is, I venture to think, a con- 
fii*mation alike of theory and analysis. 

• In the following tables Ey ton's analysis has been arranged 
according to Mr. Roimd's theory. For this purpose the 
county has been arranged in twelve districts, containing one or 
more hundreds apiece ; and each district has been sub-divided 
into blocks containing assessments of twenty hides, with a few 
double and triple instances. The reasons for producing two 
new sets of areas are these. 

I very soon found that though a large number of vills either 
Hovorally or re-unitedly contained five hides or a multiple, yet 
many did not fall under this rule. Then it gradually became 
clear that adjacent vills were combined to form units or 
nuiltiples : and after a good deal of calculating, it seemed that 
an ivggrogation of twenty hides, that is a quaternion of five- 
ludiMUiits, practically brought all the vills under the law of 
li>o irulos or a multiple. 

Tho two rules I laid down for my guidance in the matter 
woiv : [\) that the several vills making up the block must 
l»o adjaeent ; (2) that all the j>ortions of a divided vill must 
be in the same block. To this second rule there is onlv one 
e\eeption» Merriott in Oistriet X. The exceptions to the 
III'*! v\\\\\ {\\yn\is\\ nunv numerous, are nearly all due to the 
preneuee in the distriol of some one very large vill, whereby 
\\\v wiuuller \ in> werx^ out oti friMu the blocks to which they by 
lUilluuetu^ beKu\4*\\L Fhos^^ eveeptions \nl\ be discussed in 
llh» h^^te*" ou ej^eh district, 

V\w etU^H t\* ;uv,in4:x^ the whole oountv on the Procrustean 
\ ule ol h\ e^\t \ hule Mvvks, a*so u\l i:undentally to the discovery 
\\\ \^\'\\^\\\\ en^^^v either o*enoV» or tojx^jrraphical, in Eyton, 
\\s\\\ \^\ \\'\\w\\ \\\\\\^^\\^\\s VA I \^uH'>\:iiv, in addition to the one 

The Fiee^Hide^Unit in tlie Somerset Domesday. 55 

Already pointed out. In every instance I have been able to 
produce, either from Domesday itself or from other good 
anthority, evidence for each case, without which my claim 
would be rightly put out of court at once. 

I do not at present feel able to decide whether there is 
mfficient evidence to show that those blocks were in reality a 
portion of the scheme of assessment ; or, to use an architectural 
fimilitude, if they are to be regarded as the framing in a half- 
thnbered house, an integral part of the building ; or simply as 
a builder s scaffolding, to be removed as soon as the work is 
completed. In the latter case the vills will still remain in 
anits and multiples. 

With regard to the other new area, the district, the case is 
very different. In the process of building up the twenty-hide 
blocks, it was evident that to complete them it would be neces- 
sary to overleap the limits of single hundreds ; and again a 
survey of the whole county showed that the hundreds and free 
manors could be aggregated into districts containing 300 or 
200 hides apiece. The rule employed was that the district 
*%hould contain every vill locally situate within it, thus ex- 
cluding vills detached from the main bulk of the hundred 
within the district, but including the vills belonging to other 
hundreds. To this rule there is only one real exception, 
Whitox-Meade, which locality, situate in District III is 
reckoned under District IV. In, I think, two instances, vills 
on the borders of their hundred and district have been trans- 
ferred to the adjoining district. 

Although Group would be perhaj)s a more natural term for 
these aggregations of hundreds, I have chosen the term 
District to emphasize my belief that the present hundreds are 
divisions of the larger area, and not that the larger area was 
formed by grouping the hundreds together. But the real im- 
portance of the districts will be discussed after they have been 
j)a}»5*ed under review. 

The map is based on the index map of tlie Ordnance Survey, 


Papers^ ^. 

which gives the Iwundaries of the civil parishes after the 
changes of 1884. It is hardly necessary to remind readers 
dial the modem civil or ecclesiastical parish mav be composed 
of rills which temp. Domesday were absolutely distinct. But 
while I have often separated vills now grouped together, it has 
iK^t always been possible to alter the boundaries of the parish 
I indicated by dotted lines) ; and so these must be looked on 
as only approximately correct 

In ibo Tables, the first column contains the Domesdav viUs 
wnW the m^vleru names as identified by Eyton ; the second 
«%vumii tbo didVrent parts of divided vills ; the third column 
rijr tiiapr ai each vill. The hide was divided into four vii> 
^^f^ rtioi vinr*ie into four fertines or ferndels, and each fer- : 
;.tnf ;«4'«ntjuTMN: ^ven-And-half acres, of which 120 made up one 



.^.■*t V 'l: 

I,. • 



■ V IVcr.:> 

H. V. F. 

V, F. 4. 

. Tintinhull 
. Montacute 

Thome ...! 2 


;> 2 

I 2 

H. V. F. 

7 1 . 
9 . . 

3 1 

19 2 . 


— 2-i- 

5 . 

; 2 . 

I 6 . 

20 . 

The Fitt-HUe-Vnit in the Somerset Domesday. 57 

District I — cantinHed. 

«>te ... 
:ord ... 


j9 ... 



V. F. 

• • 

2 . 

• • 


:on PI. 


6 + 2 

« • • 

H. V. pJll. 

2 . . Adber 

3 . 

7ick ... I 

>n Bing. 

ford Or. 
3n Den. 

12 2 






I 7 
I 6 
! 7 


Marston ... 
Rimpton ••• 
. Whitcombe 

19 2 






. ICharlton H. 

19 3 


Goathill ... 
Milborne P. 
Ilchester ... 




Cheriton S. 
Cheriton N. 


5 + 2 


10 + 4 

8 + 5 

H. V. F, 



20 • . 

2 2 

15 . 

17 2 






13 . . 
. 3 . 
3 . . 

16 3 . 




Vol. XL V (Third SeritH, Vol. V), Part I L 


58 Papers^ ifc. 

District I is made up of the Domesday Hundreds of Mil- 
borne, Givelea, and Liet, now Horethorne, Stone and YeoTil, 
Houndsborough Barwick and Coker, and Tintinhull hundreds. 

In Milborne hundred, Ejton's identifications are taken as 
they stand, for reasons will be given in the notes on District II 
for believing that the duplicated entry of Charlton here and 
there is an error in Somerton hundred. 

In the other part of the group several changes will be neces- 
sary. The first alteration is in the items making up the ten- 
hide vill of Stoke-under-Ham. Eyton has two parts, but a 
third Stoke he identified with Birchenstoke i.e. Bichenstoke in 
Chew hundred. As the three fragments together made exactlj 
ten hides, I became suspicious of Eyton's view, and made a 
search for the evidence which should connect Bichenstoke with 
the family of Beauchamp, after whom it is supposed to have 
received part of its name ; but answer came there none. In 
fact this is one of the cases where Evton allowed himself to 
follow CoUinson's lead, without the independent enquiry which 
would have shown his error. In the exhaustive article on the 
family of de Beauchamp, by Mr. J. Batten,* Bichenstoke is 
never alluded to as in their possession, except in this Domes- 
day connexion, their holdings in the northern part of the 
county coming in with the marriage of tJohn de Beauchamp 
with Cecilia de Vivonia, c. 1270. Bichen is not an uncommon 
prefix : Bichen-stock in Wilts, identified by Canon W, H. 
Jones with Beechingstoke ; Bykennalre now BicknoUer m 
West Somerset ; and divers places in the Devonshire Domes- 
day. Bichenstoke belonged to the Barry family in the reigr 
of Edward I. 

"Achileia" is said to be Hurst in Martock, apparentl; 
because Domesday reckons it as part of that manor. But a 
it is well understood that a place might be said to be in sucl 
and such a manor, when, as a matter of geography, it wa 

1. Proceedings J Somerset Archaeological and Natural Histor}' Society, 36, 
ii, 20. 

The Fice-^Hide-Unit in the Somerset Domesdtiy. 59 

■everal miles away ; instead of supposing a change of name, 

•ome existing place, manor, tithing, farm, or even less should 

lie searched for to represent the Domesday vill. This seems 

to he Oakley in Chilthome Domer, which is mentioned as a 

leparate holding in a fine of 3 John ; three hides in Akeler 

uA Ciltone, see also Kirby's Quest, I have also brought into 

this hundred one of the few places which Eyton left undeter- 

minate, Eslide, a manor of Roger Arundel. It seems to be 

the same place as Ijyde, a tithing in Yeovil parish. In 

Kirby's Quest, Robert fil. Pagani holds Lude in Stone hun- 

\ dred of the king, and it is on record that he succeeded to many 

of Arundel's manors. 

One other identification must be touched upon. In the 
Gheld-Inquest there is a reference to an unnamed manor of 
two-and-threequarter hides held of the bishop of Sco. Laudo 
hy Osbem, which is in Yeovil hundred, but pays its Gild in 
Liet hundred (now Coker). There is no entry in Domesday 
which can be identified with this manor. There are two 
I parishes in this neighbourhood which are not given in Domes- 
day, though in existence by 1200, Barwick and Chilton Cantelo. 
Barwick was part of Stone hundred in the reign of Henry III ; 
though soon after its owner was enabled to hold them as a 
^parate himdred.' Barwick being on the frontier of Stone and 
Coker hundreds, seems to answer very well to the status of the 
Gheld Inquest Manor which was connected with both these 
hundreds ; and the silence of Domesday, though a very great, 
is not an insuperable bar, as at least one Somerset manor was 
omitted (see after Group IV) in the Survey. I have therefore 
resuscitated the anonymous manor as Barwick, 

In Block 13, Ilchester seems an exception to the rule that 
the component vills should be adjacent. The regal possessions 
in Ilchester were reckoned as a member of Milborne ; and this 
attachment was jirobably the reason why the hidagc of the two 
boroughs should be imited, 

1- J. Batten, Historical Notes ou South Somerset, pp. 3, 29. 

Br meu» ^^ ^Ji^^ ilter&.'rfoqs. f ir all <?f vUcli I bsTe been 
^1^ to liro^ fvrvari 4oqk e ridene e . die p«ater put of the 
^0PBfS a0T b^ arran^vfi acrC'rdxQ^ to the theory — fire hides, 
^JU^kHf <^ fnctif^A, An occananml oTeqplii* in one block, 
^^7iff eoonrt^ialaaced 'ot deficiencies in adjacent one» 4 andfi, 
5«L ^ i* <"'^ rirgace ?kort. In Uoclu 13. 13. 14 there is a more 
deficiemcy. amounting to two-and-half hides in No. 12, 
in No. 15, and one^-and-qoarter hides in No. 14, for 
I ti ffw h that thiB block was only intended to be eighteen hides, 
^ eoontcrbalance the twenty-two hides in the adjacent block, 
5a. 1')' ^^ explanation will be attempted afterwards, but at 
•ifeient it can only be noted that four hides and three quarters 
^gt want^Kl Uf make these three blocks conformable. 


Brewham ... 

SedlyncJi ... 



Yiiriifiolil ... 
Kilininf^ton . 
lViiH(«lwno(l . 

II. V. V, 


I'hwrltun M, 
Winriniton , 


Hollou ..J 

i ^ A 


a ♦ •.» 

If. V 








4. jH. V. F4 

Upton Noble! 

Bruton... {^lX\^,,^ 
Ansf ord . . 


Pitcombe ... 
Shept. Mont. 
Yrtrlington . 

H. V. F. 

10 . . 

3 . . 

2 3 1} 

5 . . 

20 3 1} 


Maperton ... 
. Blackfonl ...' 4 + 1 
. Toniptou P. i 

•WW 1312 
\\ oolston < , 

I ^ • • 

5 . . 
2 2 . 
7 . . 

19 2 . 


4 1 2 

20 I i 

Tke Fiwe-Hide-Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 61 

District II— continued. 

uny N. 
mxy S* 

t Bam. -j 


row N. . 
row S. • 

tie Cary . 

H. V, T, 


nngton . 
eathill ... 
Iford W. 
ton pt. . . . 
n. in Bar. 

b. S. Dav. 
ar^eston . 
cary ... 



3i + H 

2J + 2i 

H. V, 

12 . 
3 . 


20 . 

4 3 













20 . 


Qiieen Camel 

• • • 


Cary Fitzpn 
Lyt€8 Cary . 
Milton Pod. 

„ Mack. 

„ addita 
Lydford E. . 


V. Fj 

1 2 

1 . 

1 2 


Camel W . 

Yeo\'ilton ... 

8 + 2 


Long Sutton! 

Somerton ... 



Worth ?§ ... 

4 + 1+A 

H. V. V. 

5 . . 
15 . . 

20 . 





§ Oathe. 


3 3 


20 . 

10 . 

5 2 

1 . 

2 . 
1 2 

300 2 31 

It r ii>» ii—rhiri of Hnitoo (inr 

^ ^^j»r*- "v ic-iL «bft mmtm- t>. vat. iimeid. h txatams thn 
inaiiifif uft^sr «ji. ^ *atnMi jmppl 1: aiM* includes Milto 
^ «*d%«Ai«''. « If •?-. «cB««. l/^MMattB" •VMfr k Frume himdred. 

js«»0a £rTi«K.- - iftfanKBUiiBh tftaad. whli ill 
Jlismc . ••rvcMA. ~ ttivt amsndT pven reaeoi 

-^iL €' ALzsAi i BJu ipmi d . in tim bere. u> lliHon i 

«a& :'«^ Anmsaoe: itn^. tftt Mibiv of Mattbew d 

:^niudb&. siiM\ is Tfs ]kt#?'^ wtm l^^yK laid fimitlBd altc 

«• tiiA.^^tim <rr«KiK» Ii SdaKrum faundred Ertc 
ift£9Mii#Mf 4 Hi «r . aBTtr«x. i ttiimin 'C a^ Chaduvi Ada^ 
iK'titfet Uc MHT Qii3>irxvti n JdimfTK tmudn^d Si^ put < 
'^.'fAirfSfMi S\fwairinp'^ Tni- tt-ii a: "t^ hiQt*^ va^ vanted 
^ 4io>r iiuHDnsi. 7k nmki^\ lir iiriB«^ tr IlKiiBeediT i^r^ 

'3*A i!>v»iurwto; -..n»i t- #t^!-- tiau "ntr .t^mc. litriie« figure? ai 
i^9rf tiiK -i#» trfr^-'vti'.^ I'^rfing: r;Timair^c v-Ti lie iiistanc( 
^ 'lArt \cti»:!' tii'vrr.r.n. -i.- -ii* jT'.HC Lit. ut^ fvT Sonierto 

iuj0/jrit.^u *r^ £U*ftif.P: j^ 'Cfc.- t >r*njs'«*, Tuft ^ tarh;9ti id di-^put 
»** i^^: v» H/^.f.ik<i i* V^;#^ iH»i*T tine Court o 
M^/rHUti/^-. */^i »»^ -':i.'.*:'i a.: f t* -.jfi-^^. T^ 3i>ii-?f«uied mino 
oi ^ JwiHt/^ ^ H'.^-^rfr.y/fT^ r.*>£ - t Ko'-cr: Frir^refaW was rate* 
*i. Uzh L;/i/-». </, r.^^t tfj!^ *f>', :,a.r^* .f C harltoo were one-thir 
kitf^l rM//-iJiiffj«. N'/« :• t^ 'jjn^TTnaktorx of this division tha 
Ih r, hrfc(/lii:#i. i iZif^P). ^i«rrar»i d«r Cariiprille gave two parts < 
Ml/: riiliirc oi i harltofi to Iknlrnun-^v Abbev, and that his sc 
Uir.imi'i f/iiv#r r.// K<ijiUr,rt>i Abbev the reniaininff third wil 
rlit rhuK h, iiirltap.- aft^fr th*- ilivicl«.*<J jrarts of the inan(»r hj 

Ao n tvill hi' lur^ftrtttry to |M)irit out at interval, the fa 
lliiil b} far rbii ^it'uiiM |mrt of the vills in Somerset fit in 

The Five^Hide^Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 63 

twenty-hide blocks, tends to make it probable that in the very 
few instances to the contrary, the difficulty is rather due to 
the lapse of time and loss of evidence than to an actual dis- 
tgreement. An examination of block 13 will show how per- 
fectly the small vills and fragments combine together if this 
identification be allowed. An additional five hides here would 
upset the system, just as much as their absence would Dis- 
trict L 

Then what is the Domesday prototype of Charlton Adam ? 
The Charlton now left in the hundred, divided into two parts 
rated at three hides and a half, is identified by Eyton with 
West Charlton or Charlton Mackrell. Then there are three 
rills called Cari. One held by Roger Arundel, rated at three 
rirgates three fert.,^ is no doubt Cary Fitzpaine. Another 
Cari held by Humphrey the Chamberlain was rated at one- 
and-quarter hides, that is one quarter of five hides. As five 
hides composed one knight's fee, vide Pedes Finium, 3 John, 
No. 41, 5 John, No. 26, in Somerset Records^ vol. vi, pp. 17, 21 ; 
this Cari mav be assigned to Lvtes Carv, set down in Kirby's 
Quest as held by William de Lit for the fourth part of one 
bight's fee. Then there is the third Cari, rated at two hides, 
also held by Humphrey the Chamberlain. This was identified 
hv Eyton, but as we have seen superfluously, with a part of 
'\Vtes Cary. At the same time, Charlton Adam is apparently 
emitted in Domesday, unless it can be identified with this 
third Cari. 

Mr. Batten, in Historical Notes on South Somerset, p. 125, 
discusses the title of de Mandeville to Charlton Adam, but as 
thi« was only acquired in the reign of Henry 111, its earlier 
historv was not necessarv. In the Cartularv of Bruton Abbev 

^ f » « 

^*^. H, .9., viii,) are some early charters relating to Charlton 
'^dam, which seem to supply the missing link between Cari 
•^'ul Charlton. During the episcopate of bishop Robert, 1 142- 
* l66, John Fitzhamon presented the church of Charlton Adam 

1. Kytuo, by a slip, enters it as three hides three virgates. 

64 Papers^ Sec 

to the abbey, and the charter of confirmation by the b 
contains a clause that Roger, son of Odo, quitclaimed his 
to the advowson, concerning which he had begun a 
Well, in the Pipe Roll for 14 Hen. II, 1167-8, i.e. just ; 
the latest possible date of the confirmation charter, Rogc 
Viliers paid a fine of forty shillings, ''pro defectu," that i 
not putting in an appearance or abandoning some suit ab 
begun.^ This is a coincidence of some value. But Roge 
Viliers was the son-in-law and (in the person of his son) 
hoir of Helias de Orescuil, whom Eyton considered to be 
n^pivsentative of the (,'hamberlain (6V>m. Domesday^ i, 66, 
The weakest point in this chain of evidence is the presem 
Roger claiming in his own right as early as 1167. In the 
1)1hoo the Orosouil property was not divided between the re 
MontHtivosof the female coheirs until 1210 (Rot. Pip. 12 Jol 
luid even supposing that Charlton Adam ^^-ith apparently oi 
wtMik title had lKH»n the dot of Roger's wife, Alice de Ores 
thou hor name would have been mentioned with his in the* 
olium oIhuso, This last difficulty makes it probable that E 
>NaM fighting for his own hand. His claim may have 
Immsl upon nothing Unter than an exercise of the good 
rulo and simple phuu which in the troubled reign of Ste 
>\«>* a fa>t>urito moans of eonvevance, or he and Fitzhi 
\\\\\\ lia\o had a ri\val grant and fallen out in the divisii 
tho hi^mIa, a Noifun* of the father's lands may seem a cu 
piH'ludo to >\*H>iug the daughter, but such an introduction i 
ahof»vlhor unknown in nuvlorn times* 

III blook K Hivxxham will Iv foimd by itself. Eyton p 
\\\\\\ it a 001 tain ^^addita" of three \-irgate*, and a portii 
W itohaui ** abK'U.^ do Hiv^^ham, ' As these two portions i 
an into^ral jvart of bKvk 1 in l>is:riot 111, wherein Withj 
kitimlodt \ haxo trc^usfonxsl thorn ihither, without prejudi 
U> lliou n|)hlt\d hundr^s) tomjv IVnu^iay. 

In Kkvk iJ» \aintio)d and Kilmington are separated 

The Five^Hide^Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 65 

tlie other manors by an intervening piece of Wiltshire- 

Stourton ; and a smaller portion, Gasper, which used to belong 
Mmetimes to one county and sometimes to the other, until a 
Local Government Order put a stop to such vagaries. 

In block 4, Upton Noble is separated from Bruton by a part 
of Brewham. It will be found generally that these divided 
Uocks occur on the borders either of other districts or of the 
oountv itself. The one-and-one-fifth fertine was an ^'ablata 
de"^ Bruton in Redlynch, and the half hide lay in Kilmington, 
though a part of the royal manor of Bruton. One must notice 
that these two pieces, with the two fertines in Woolston, make 
up the superplus over three hundred hides, and that if they are 
omitted, the contiguous blocks, 4, 5, 6, are twenty-and-quarter, 
nineteen-and-half, and twenty-and-quarter hides respectively, 
or an average of twenty hides. With this result should be 
compared, in District I, the three adjacent blocks, 4, 6, 7, con- 
taining nineteen-and-half, nineteen-and-half, twenty-one hides. 
The two items in Bruton may be accounted for as becoming 
liable to hidation at a later period, but the two fertines in 
lif Colston are not so easily disposed of. 

In block 10 I have included two pieces of Barton St. David, 
^'hich are certainly not wanted with their namesake in block 11, 
and do just as certainly fit in where I have placed them. 
There is a geographical point where West Lydford meets a 
piece of Keinton, pushed up between itself and Barton St. 
David, and this may mark the position of the two hides. 

In block 13, East Lydford is included, although it is separ- 
ated from the block by Kenton Mandeville and Babcary. 
This seems to be its proper home, and it is curious that it still 
l)elongs to the hundred of Somerton, to which all the other 
constituent members of the block (with the exception of 
Milton Podymore) belong. Also it would be possible to pass 
from Lydford East to block 13, without trespassing into the 
parishes aforenamed, by keeping along the great Fosse road, 
which may have been looked upon as a bridge. The excess of 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol, V), Part 11, i 


Papers^ ^'c. 

the total number of hides in this district is quite minute, and 
as I said above, may be partly accounted for bj portions of 
exempt royal domains becoming the property of a subject and 
then hidated. 



Witham ... 
Brewham, in 
" Ufetone " . 
Marston Big. 
Keyford .. 



Cranmore ... 
Downhead . 
Whatley ... 





Berkeley ... 
Beckington . 

V. F, 


5 + 4 

5 + 5 

H. V. F. 

3 . . 

. 3 . 

1 . . 

1 1 . 

9 . . 

3 2 . 

. 2 . 

1 . . 











Laverton ... 

jH. V. F, 

I 9-hl 


Norton S.Ph 


H. V. F. 

10 . . 
10 . . 





Newt. S. Loe 


7J + 2i 

7 + 3 


Dunkerton . 
Carlingcott . 
Each wick ... 
"Evestia" . 
Camerton ... 






















Tk€ Fm-Hide-Umii m lib Somerset DomeuL^. 
DiBTBiCT III— emUmued. 


Km V» F« 

Lit'tai^ 2, 1|, 1| 



ngton • 

Id. Din. 


jngton . 

H. V. F. 

6 . . 

5 . . 

6 . • 
3 . . 

19 . 

Millescote ••• 


21 . 

12 . 

7 . 

19 . 




Ashwick ... 
Stratton ... 

Kilmersdon . 
Radstock ... 
Woodboro' . 

H. Y. V, 

H. v. F. 

14 8 . 




A • 


• . 


2 . 


. . 


. • 


2 . 


3 . 


. . 


3 . 


3 , 

Kstrict III, though as large as Nos. I and II, is peculiar 
^hat it consists of only one Domesday hundred, that of 
me. This is now divided into the hundreds of Frome, 
Uow, and Kilmersdon, besides certain liberties. Eyton^s 
es require but the smallest of corrections. Keyford 
ivert) is not two hides, but two virgates. " Caivel " is 
itified by him with another part of Keyford, but this would 
fit in with the theory of the five-hide-unit, and was in 
:her way objectionable. I have identified it with Choi well 
'ameley (see District V, 6), which is more likely from the 
aetics, and the vill fits in perfectly in its new home, 
he second manor in Nunnev is without a name in Domes- 
(Exeter and Exchequer). Eyton, by an examination of 

.-vr-":*- - — --T-- ■- ^. . . ^.a— L k nxtTiir f the abber nl 

T- r.*:z. ". - -.^rf -^- z-^- I. J—, uiii Ff'-riri. HuDgerfoid 

.^ .-.-:- * T-- z .- -^ .-..ii- "!- ' v .. '.5 ij:: ctmbinewith 

-^" - '-.- ir^. srz^ - £1- I~ V -:.- vr-'«i iii^-ie?! for 1084 

r ---■"_ - ■-:_ "^r^.i'-^ ~ J* 'Ti't : uriLr^i : Ennn gives 

■ ^-~: :. - ^zr. — r-. ^'jl^ - Kiirer ha> been 

■ "-^ "--_:. _ - '-=n "-^ ;." •^t~:»- ■ ii.": fcii»:--n: i* reduced 

- ~" . . -rf-T- r- n *:•• -rti I:i lies: ^%' tive-«nd- 

-— 1 ^ '--- ■-...* _r.. .::- z •:■- ~v : riiijor* mentioned 

' - '~ : -— -.z^ -:..- -It - v."! ■•► itATe"! laieron. 

..- ■ -^ -.;.:' lOL-.: ' - rr-r^r-ini. three vir- 

^- ■ ^ . :■ ' -': :: «' ".'..uv.. *•.»■: 'w:,: b i« noted as 

'C - .-■ " . ...:. ' ^ r. r--- T M.-.. rLiftriK which i? 

■^ - - - ..^:.. .^ . ::---■ ~- .: : ■- - •: : ur-irei. wa* at this 

: ' '. : .: :.*-.. I -i.:.:*;* ''Tr'.-.^ii :■: account for 

^ : - i.: - T^. ~ :. :•:- y i-.z *:- .'-rzi-.^ aiv added to- 

^ - -. - "^: . - ..— ^..-i: --^ : Xhr Exchequer 

- • ^ . ^ - ..-■.r ■ — ":"• : "^ :':..^zi a- three hide?. 

■ -^ - ■■■ V'.-:-r i. -Irx. HonMlie 

... T - ■:.-:■■ - .'. • r.: : "Kvostia'i? 

V : -:•■-: !• r.'.-sisy »: places it l>e- 

...•«- .- ' v A ::.r:-.r .:. :::e Hath I'hartu- 

V . X ^ T." ■ * ::.s'. 'M.T<>iiga," '/ 

" <k ... . « . 

■ •• . --*■ - * ;.:■ f : :s>: .-r. The riirhl Ixinl 

■ - W - • * K^ ■■.•- rfvion pari>h. now K 

: ■-..r :.y "«-.:h I-r.ckinglon ii 

*'*\\*'\ '. »'" "'..s '^ •"■ ■ ■" ■-•"■ : ■'^"'>^- "^" Kilmersdon, i" 

1"^. v...-:..»^. -\ .. : A- r:::.-iri- ii? church, whic 

^ ^ 

V* * 

• »» 

.,>? ^w. « \x--- '• t^ ' i"- . . TV.*> 'j'lK'k falling: short ' 

The Five-Hide^Unit in the Somerset Domesday, 


fte ideal number bj one hide, is exactly balanced by the 
twenty-one hides of the huge vill of Hemington, which touches 
iH the four vills. 

Blocks 12 and 13 also balance each other, but in the case of 
IS I must confess the rule of contiguity breaks down. This is 
is partly caused by the proximity of the two large vills of 
Hcmington and Mells. Elm is separated from Hardington by 
Buckland Dinham, while Mells intervenes between the latter 
ini Babington with Luckington. The two blocks could be 
I^Brranged into two contiguous combinations of thirty and 
ten hides apiece. 

In block 15, Radstock seems to want two hides and a quarter 
to make it a vill of ten hides, to make block 15 up to twenty 
hides, and to round District III into 300 hides. Of this again. 



Woodwick . 
Firford .. 
Monk. Com. 


Bathford ... 

H. V. P. 



Bath wick .. 

Tat wick .. 

B'ooIIeT .. 


3,2, U 

l + l 

H. V. F. 

1 . . 

2 2 . 

2 2 . 

9 . . 










H. V. F.H. V. F 

15-h5 20 . . 


Charlcombe . 
iWidcombe . 

Bath .. 


• . .1 








70 Papersy jfr. 

District IV contains only 115 hides, being the patriroonjof 
the religious establishment at Bath. An unusual wealth of 
charters enables the historian to trace their history back to the 
reign of Osric, king of the Hwicii, c. 676. He gave ooe 
hundred " manentes," which are adjacent to the city which ii 
called ^^ Hat Bathu/' to the abbess Uertana and the nunoeiy 
{Bath Cartulary^ S. R. S., vii, 7). By Domesday tweotj 
hides had been added, being the assessment on Bath itself, but 
on the other hand five hides had disappeared from the district 
By a process of exhaustion, these hides can be localised at 
either North Stoke or South Stoke. Either vill lias an Anglo- 
Saxon charter of dotation, mentioning the number of hides as \ 
five. Kemble marks both these charters as spurious, still, one 
of them must represent a genuine gift. As the position of 
South Stoke fits in the best with the twenty-hide block theory, 
the blocks are arranged accordingly, to the exclusion of North 
Stoke, which under the circumstances may originally have 
been the smaller (five hide) portion of Weston. This curtail- 
ment of the assessment by five hides, with the similar diminu- 
tions in Districts I and III, will be noticed later on. 

As reganls Freshford, the Rev. T. W. Whale' would identify 
it with Vexford, in Stoguinber, a situation more in accord with 
Its i)Osition in Domesday. But this test cannot be insisted on, 
and all other evidence, both that collected by Eyton and the 
new test of the five-hide-unit, retain it here. 

Block 1 is accordingly five hides short. Block 5 now pre- 
sents a somewhat disintegrated appearance, which is yet not 
incompatible with original symmetry. Kelston is cut off from 
the district by Weston, a complete block in itself. This 
manor is omitted in Domesday, though clearly referred to in 
the Geld Inquest. As Eyton says "it is an omission of the 
Great Record, a thing not lightly to be suspected, but never- 
theless a fact." But for this manifest default it would have 
been impossible to j)ostulate the omission of Barwick (Dis- 

1. Proceedings fiath Field Club, ix, no. 2, p. 136. 


UtHthe Somerset Domeiday. 71 

t I). Then Kelston is joined in the same block with 
irleombey LjDcombe, and Wittoxmead. The first two are 
ir divided hj Bath itself, and the last-mentioned vill is 
ally situate in Wellow parish in District III. The first 
Bcnlty may be got over by remembering that Bath was a 
fsl possession, and therefore not included in the hidation 
leme, until the time of Edith, wife of Edward the Confessor, 
lere are no charters to explain when Wittoxmead was added 
the original donation of king Osric. It is hardly likely to 
?e formed part of his gift, as it lay in territory beyond his 
ty, and one can only suggest that when some later royal 
nefactor (for Wellow was regal property) gave the vill, the 
iessment of one hide placed on it was compensated by a 
rresponding relief on the Charlcombe assessment. 


ford ... 
Dsham . 

H. V. F. 


H. V. P.[ 

4 . . 
50 . . 

5 . . 

59 . . 


t. Prior 
ksbury . 

6 . . 

3 .• . 

3 . . 

10 . . 

22 . . 

p. Dund. 
wood ... 

10 . . 

8 . . 

18 . . 


Chew Magna 



Timsbury ... 


High Littlet. 
Hallatrow ... 
Cameley ... 
Choi well ... 

H. V. F. 


'i 'K •> 

H. V. F. 
30 . . 

10 . . 





4 3 

9 . 

1 1 

'20 I 

■-' * 

a. "^ U: 

•• - !► 

, nltr 

H. V. F. H. V. rjr 
E. 5—5 10 . , 
W. 5-r5 10 . , 

C<illICw 31 STt. 


«. Jif'^^a 

■••1. _^ ^ -•*L •♦ 

. Total 

•i -1 

♦- 1- 1 





300 . 

DisizT :-: V rrrLiiif zht Hindr^s of Kernsliam, Chew, ^►^^ 
:i>e ^re^r^er ^tkr: :f Lrr»^c«z, jcihiiii^ ihe isolated vills ^' 
YAr:«:c izti Kbi^^oz. SeTTZf^ur. In the notes* on District:^ * 
A&i III »-:II r^r z "zz^l E^iT reiAiccis f>r remoring Birchensto^^ 
from :his Lui>ir^i a^i siding to i: Choi well. There is a di^ 
crepancT in the DcmrrsdaT rr.trr relatine to Hinton Blewet^* 
It iri said :•:» g-e'd f.r eight hides, but the different items of 
holdino-s odIt amoimt to seven hides, which Erton considers 
to }je the correct amount. I hare therefore entered it as a 
seven-hide vilL and this correction makes the total of the Dis- 
trict exactlv 3(X> hides. In the hundred of Chew, ETton 
enters Hawkewella Iv. l^f., and identifies it with Norton 
Hawkfield. This is an extraordinary blunder, caused by 
following Collinson. Hawkfield is simply a corruption of 
Ilautville, Latin, de Alta Villa, the family name of the holders 

The Five^Hide^Umi in ike Somerset Domeeday. 73 

ia the thirteenth century, just in the same way as the Make- 
virds gaTe their cognomen to the other portion of Norton ; the 
rSi haying been divided at some date subsequent to 1066. 
Hawkewella will be found in Hawk-well ; there are two places 
of this name in West Somerset, one in Dulvcrton, the other in 
Ctttcombe (see notes on District XII). Eyton did not pro- 
ceed further in the identification of Haia beyond the certainty 
tittt it was in Chewton hundred. I identify it with Hay 
Street in Stone Easton. The totals of the blocks look rather 
ngged at first sight, compared with the results in the earlier 
districts, as out of eleven, only four contain twenty hides 
cuctlj. But on the other hand it is very noticeable that the 
Sips balance ; the deficit in block 1 corresponding to the over- 
plus in block 8, while blocks 6, 7, 9, with a total of sixty hides, 
^eet on the confines of H in ton Camiely and Farringdon. In 
i^iock 7 Chilcompton is isolated from the other vills by 
Vinegar, reckoned to be in Wells, and Midsomer Norton with 
'^ detached member of Downside. These places, as well as 
^^ulton, are not mentioned in Domesday, and were included in 
^^her manors, apparently Wells and Chewton. 


^^tcombe .; 
J^ * member ' 

If. V. 



[)oiilting . . . 
I 'member' 
'harlton . . . 


E. Pennard 


A 'member' 

• • • 







II. V. F. 


II. V. F. 

20 . . 


• . 


• • 


• • 


2 . 


2 . 


2 , 


• • 


• • 


2 . 

Vol. XL V (Third Serien, Vol. V), Part U. 


Papersy tfc 

DisTUiCT VI — continued. 





Wpotton ... 

S. Mallet ... 

H. V. 

1 1 

F.H. V. F.' 

2 . .1 

' • • 

*f . . 

5 . . 

6 2. 

1 i 


21 2 . 

Westbury .. 


U. V. F 

.. 50 + 2 


> • 

'.H. V. 1 

52 . 
6 . 

58 . 

'^00 . 


District V I contains the hundreds of Wells Forum . aod 
Whitstone, with the vill of Baltonsborough, now in Glaston 
Twelve Hides. It does not include Downhead, an isolated 
manor of Whitstone. At the date of the Survey, Well* 
Forum was included under the spacious heading, ^^Tem 
Episcopi Gisonis." Whitstone hundred was, in Ey ton's words, 
^^ in a somewhat indefinite status.'' Domesday makes it to 
contain 120 hides with Downhead and Baltonsborough, whereas 
the Geld Inquest is only levied on 1 15 hides. As Downhead 
had in all probability a distinct inquest (now lost), there is 
only a difference of two hides between the two sets of figures, 
which is not so large a discrepancy as in many other hundreds. 
What is of more importance at present is that the total of 117 
hides added to the seventy -eight of Wells Forum is only 195, 
five hides short of a symmetrical result. 

An entry in Domesday will I think account for this short- 
coming. At the end of the list of the Glastonbury estates are 
a series of entries relating to lands which at this time had 
passed into the hands of others. Among the land-grabber's 
was the earl of Moretain, who held Stane, valued at £9, Stoca 
and Stoca, worth ^orty shillings, and Dregcota, also worth 
forty shillings. Eyton identifies Stone with Stone in East 
Pennard ; Stoca and Stoca with Stoke Lane ; and Dregcota 
with Draycott in Shepton Mallett. In no case is the hidagc 
of the vills given ; tlie only means of identification, other thai 
the owners' names, being their value. 

The Fice^Hide- Unit in the Somcraet Domesday. 75 

Now an examination of the table will show that no increase 
of hidage is required in the case of Doulting and Shepton 
MaUett. At the same time it appears that Drajcote in Lim- 
ington Moretain's property was valued at forty shillings ; also 
that an Estochet al. Stochet (late Beechenstoke) and Estochet 
(Stoke-under-Ham) are each worth forty shillings apiece. It 
does not seem too much to conclude that these statements are 
simply duplicate references to the same vills. With regard to 
Stone the conditions are reversed. The only other Stone in 
Domesday is the one in Stone Hundred, owned by Serlo de 
Burcy, and worth ten shillings. Other men and other value. 
The high value of the Stone of the Count of Moretain pre- 
supposes a fair hidage, and curiously enough, five hides in the 
adjacent vill of Ditcheat are rated as high as £12. So, all 
things considered, it does not seem too great a demand on the 
liability to err of Domesday, to suppose that here again is a 
case of omission. It is the third and last time that Domesday 
i^-ill be required to confess to a slip. The first, that of Kelston, 
was established by Mr. Eyton ; the second, that of Barwick, 
:^em5 borne out by the testimony of his witness, the Geld In- 
(juest ; and for the third there is the indirect evidence of 
Domesday itself. The risk involved in entering the ownership 
of a vill, disputed by the highest secular and spiritual persons 
ill the county, with king William as the final court of appeal 
ifi the background, may have caused such perturbation in the 
minds of the jurors, as to result in a temporary loss of memory 
in the case of Stone. The difficulty that then arises from the 
excess of the hidage in the Domesday entries over the figures 
of the Geld Incpiest, will be met by removing Baltonsborough 
back into Glaston Twelve Hides. Eyton remarks that the 
" dominicum '' of the abbot in Baltonsborough is necessary to 
complete the figures in the Geld Inquest ; but if Stone had 
passed from the abbot to Moretain between 1084 and 1()8(>, this 
objection would not apply, and the recent date of the transfer 
would account for the confused nature of the entries in 1086. 


tm!ptm<f ipSm 

AnodKr rerr mtercstn^ point ckcur kezc;. ^ Tlie Domes- 
day detsik of hidage amovmt to 120 hides for twestr-ooe 
iteno of estatte fmchxiizig Downiie^;* bat wlien Ikmiesday 
maaflgn dieae itenM into groapsw it ^vsppiies a toCal of ooIt 118 
hidea^'*^ Now rererae thii true ^^tatement. and h means thmt 
wfen the large tiQs in Whitistooe were broken ap bj sabin- 
feodadon^ two hides were added to the original assessment ; in 
Ditefaeat half a hide, in Pilton one hide and a halL The table 
•hows that these additioos destroT the sjmnietrT of the block- 
ST^em, but that at the :«ame time ther balanced a deficit in 
Welk. It seems verr plain that the bishop had contriTed to 
ahoffle the liabilities attaching to two hides on to his neighbour 
and rival, the abbot of Glastonbnrr and his tenants^ 


1. 'h. V 

Portbury ... 





Clevedon ... 
KingHt. Sey. 

f:h. v. f. 4. 

12 . WraxaU 

8 . -addita'' 


7 + 3i 10 1 







5 2 . 
3 2 . 
5 2 2 
5 2 . 

20 . 2 

. ; Tickeuham 
. I Chelvey .. 
-, Midgehill . 
1 . ! Brocklev . 





F. H. V. F, 

20 . . 

21 . . 



1 . 


1 . 


• . 


• ■ 


• • 




• • 


• • 

1. Eytout i, 196. 

The Fice^Hide-Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 77 

DiSTKICT VII — continued. 


Long: Ashton 

H. V. F. 


Back well ... 

Barrow Gur. 

Wrington ... 

n. V. F. 
20 . . 





Winford ... 
Regilbury ... 
Butcombc ... 
Aid wick . . . 


H. V. F. 

10 + 1 
2, U, i 


V. F 


• • 


3 . 


. • 


• • 


2 . 


2 . 


3 . 

200 2 

District VII contains the hundreds of Hareclive (but not 
Bedininster), Portbury, the isolated portion of Chewton, 
Kenn, now in Winterstoke hundred, and Havyat Green, now 
in Wrington, but placed by Eyton after Collinson in Burring- 
ton. These vills are all to the north of the river Yeo, which 
I have taken as the southern boundary of the district. I have 
also brought into block 10 " Shepbwurda al. Scepeworde," for 
which Eyton could find no modern equivalent. No more can 
I at present, but its presence here is desiderated for several 
reasons. With its figure, half hide, block 10 exactly balances 
V>lock 2 ; and the district is brought up to a round figure, as 
the two fertines in Clevedon are a negligeable quantity. Then 
there are a number of small holdings in this block, one of 
which, in Ridgehill, was already held by an Englishman. 
Finally Shepbwurda must be somewhere in the county. 

Block 5 is broken up by the intervening mass of Wraxall, 
which apparently then included Nailsea, and forms block 4. 
Theee two blocks, however, mutually correct one another. 

Papers^ Str, 



Kewstc^e ... 

Pante^beda . 

H. V. r.H. V. F. I. 

9 I . Shipiutm . 

I 2 . Cheddar . 

6 2 . DrmTcot 

. 2 . Stoke Bod 

U-hl 2 2 . Weare 


H. V, 

20 1 




n-^ 6 

I . 8. 
6 2 . Clewer^ ... 
•> . . Alston Sutt. 
. Chap. Aller. 

20 3 . Edingworth 




. 9. 
- Brent 




V \*m{*t- His:- 


Weilmon? ... 

. Bodeslesja ... 

— Eaohwiok ... 

. Biimham ... 
. Huntspil ... 
- Al>tone 
. Brean 



::\» . 

F. H. V. fJ 

4 . 
2 1 f j 
. 1 

5 1 . 

6 . 
2 . 



19 3 tW, 



4 2.; 
11 . . I 

2 . . ; 
2 . . 



10 . . 

1 . 

. 13tV 

. 2 . 

4 . 

1 3 . 

1 . 

2 . 

20 2 3t'i 

,221 3 Oi\ 

Otx^.to: Vlll vvv:air> :>.^' hununi'ds of Winter?toke, Con- 
jiftx^^Uit \ . .-litvl V KxixUr v,v >» a:I iinittd under the first-named), 
IU*^w|v*^HK* ,\-*kx i vvciit^rtoii . A»l iKirr< v< Brent with Wring- 
MK a^hI Uuui>4»i't ^i*ft l\;ri:vK». Thv toial hidage amounts 

The Five^Hide^Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 79 

22lf hides, plus a fraction of a fertine, that is nearly two 
les more than a round number. As this is the only district 
:\ere the actual figures differ from the ideal by anything over 
mere fraction, it is worth while to try and see if it can be 
xplained. In the adjoining District IX, the total, if Eyton's 
igures be followed, comes to 200^ hides. But Eyton (i, 175) 
^ints out in his notes on Locheslei hundred that probably the 
separate entry relating to Stawell two-and-half hides is redun- 
dant ; and that the hidage of this rill, as of several others, had 
been already included in the thirty hides of Shapwick. If this 
be followed, then District IX will contain only 197 hides, 
2 vir., 2 fer., the deficiency almost exactly balancing the over- 
plus in District VIII, now under review. 

The system of equalizing blocks, which has been noted 
several times already, appears to have been also applied to the 
districts on occasion. 

From this surplusage it follows that the figures of the 

Hocks will present a ragged appearance. Block 1 contains 

Milton, one-and-half hides, which Eyton considered to be 

Milton Clevedon (see note on District II); also "Pantesheda.*' 

The situation of this small vill had been left indeterminate by 

Eyton, with the remark that it would probably be found near 

Banwell. His extraordinary acumen in this department is 

amply confirmed by an entry in the twelfth volume of the 

'Werset Kecord Society, p. 67, Pedes Finium, II Ed. II, 

^0. 28, " Ponteside juxta Bannewelle.'' I cannot, however, 

find any modern representative, unless it may be Puttingworth 

Karm, which is in an angle of the parish adjoining the other 

members of the block. Block 5 is made up of Ban well thirty 

hides ; and separated from it by the curiously shaped parish of 

Winscombe, Compton Bishop, ten hides. Eyton put down 

hrec vills of Compton as indeterminate in regard to their 

dentification, as they were all in the hands of lay owners 

emp. Domesday ; and concluded that the present parish of 

'ompton Bishop was then part of Ban well, as Churchill and 


Pmpers^ Ire. 

PuxtoD certainlT v^rp. But bj this time one expects to find 
twentj-liide blocks : mnd as there are ten hides wanting to 
complete this block, and a parish of Compton handy, the three 
vills of ComptoD aggregmting ten hides can be accommodatoi'; 
at ooce. Block 6 : Langford is now superseded a8 a pariilKi 
name by Burrii^toii. Block 10 a{^>ears to cover an enormooe 
area« bat at this time it was easily navigated ; Brean is isolated 
hx the intervening mass of Brent« IJock 9. 



H. V. 

F. H- 



II. V. F. 





• « • 




. Stretcholt . 

i + J 




Lodrefof^a . 



. Paulet 




— Walpole ... 






. Puriton 
— Pegrnes 





Crandon . . . 



Svdenham . 




• « • 



. Cossinerton . 




• • • 



. Bawdrip ... 





• • • 
% % * 




. Horsey 
. Bradnev ... 
— Bower 

i + i 








. Doneham ... 
— Ham 
















% « * 
% * * 






» » » 








. Huntworth .. 















1 k • 



. Durston 




• 1 



. Creech 





• » • 





The Five^Hide-Unit in the Somerset IJomesdaf/. 81 

DlSTKlCT IX — cont'mned. 

fonkton ... 
Iroomfield . 

H. V. F. 


Shurston ..., 

Melcombe ...i 
Hadworthy J 
Hunstile ...' 
HaUwell ..., 

! Blaxhold ...; 






































\% -continued. In. v. f. 
Lexworthy . 
Goathurst . . . 
Rex worthy . 
Durleigh . . . 
Wembdon . 
Chilton Trin.; \, J, \ 
Bridge water 


H. V. F 

. 3 

1 3 
. 1 
. 2 
. 2 

2 . 
1 1 

1 . 

. 1 



19 2 2 

197 2 2 

District IX contains the hundreds of Ringoltdeswea and 
Locheslei (now united as Whitley), North Petherton, and 
Andersfield, together with the independent manors of Monk- 
ton, Creech St. Michael, and Ham. It also includes Cossing- 
ton, which Eyton considered to be in Bempstone at this date. 
It was in Whitley 1242 a.d. {S. R. S., xi, p. 256). I have 
omitted Pury Furneaux, containing four hides or thereabouts, 
and placed it for the nonce in District XII, block 1 (see notes 
on that block). The total in this District is 197h., 2v., 2f. ; 
'>ut the deficiency in the four blocks on the western side 
adjoining District XII is only 1 virg. 2 fert., which is almost 
exactly balanced by the overplus of 1 virg. l^J fert. in that 

The deficit is therefore on the eastern side of the district. 
Now Ringoltdeswea hundred contains fifty-nine hides, one 
hide short ; and curiously enough block 4, containing Ham 
seventeen, Sowi twelve, and Shapwick thirty, works out at 
fifty-nine hides, also one hide short ; and this deficiency of 

To/. XL V (Third Seri^M, Vol. V), Fart 11, 

82 Papers^ Sfc. 

two hides practically balances the overplus of one-and-three- 
quarter hides in District VIII. This equation, however, de- 
pends on the omission of Stawell two-and-half hides. As I 
have already stated in the notes on District VIII, this entry 
is probably subsidiary to, and redundant of, the entry relating 
to the thirty hides of Shapwick. Its omission would reduce 
the total of Locheslei hundred from fifty hides and a half to 
forty-eight hides, as compared with forty-seven hides given in 
the Geld Inquest ; but too much stress must not be laid on 
this apparently satisfactory result. 

Blocks 2 and 3 are somewhat intermixed. It may be that 
Sedgmoor being a watery no-man's land at this time, the 
block containing Compton Dundon and Street could contain 
also Pedwell and Greinton, without encroaching on Walton. 
Block 4 simply contains the manors which it seems impossible 
otherwise to combine. The only point to be brought forward 
in its favour, perhaps, is that it exactly balances blocks 1-3. 
Block 5 contains a group of vills all situate, with the excep- 
tion of Ham, on the right bank of the Parret, below Bridg- 

As many of the vills are in the modern parish of Bridg- 
water, the map shows it as being in this block, although part 
with Chedzoy may have been reckoned in the five hides of 
Bridgwater. Eyton would identify Doneham with Dunball, 
but I think that Don were is more probable, but in either case 
it is in this block. In block 8, Hattewara may be identified 
with Hadworthy in North Petherton ; Hunstile is now a j)art 
of Goathurst. Idstock, another detached part of Chilton 
Trinity, will be found in District XII, under Cannington. 
Blaxhold, in Enmore, represents the Blachesalla of Domesday ; 
and Rexworthy, in Durleigh, is Rachedeworde, identified by 
Eyton with Radway Fitzpayn, in Cannington. For these two 
identifications the reader is indebted to a note in Somerset mid 
Dorset Notes and Queries, ii, 134. Cruce, Rima, and Ulver- 
onotona are still to seek ; the last is probably in Wembdon. 

The five-Hide- Unit in the Somertet Domesday. 


H. V. F, 

H. V. F. 


H. V. f 

H. V. F. 

Martock ... 

38 . . 


5 I . 

in Martock . 

2 . . 

Cudworth ... 

3 2 . 
3 . . 


40 . . 

Dowlish ... 

4, 3, n 

9 1 . 




Com p. Durv, 

1, . . 

! 1 I . 


Whatlej ... 
Leigh ... 

1 2 . 
1 . . 
3 . . 


' . Si . 


8 . . 

Stntton ... 

2 . 

Lit«Iande ... 

2 . . 

neerdos in 


3 . . 


< 1 . 

Km. S. Gil. 

2 . . 

Shept. Besu 

; 6 . . 

20 2 . 

Lopen ...I '^, 1? 1 

4 . . 


19 3 . 


20 . . 




13 . , 

Seavington .| 7, 3, 2 

12 . . 

MerriotI, pt 

7 . . 


8 . . 


2(t . . 

20 . . 



Jlerriott, pi 

5 . . 



10 . . 


Eastham .. 

2 . . 

T>in,.i.,gIon } ' .1 . . 



3 . . 

frickt-S.Th. , 6 . . 

20 . . 

Win:fham ... lil . - 

TciT.vr. .. 

200 1 . 

84 Papers^ &(v. 

District X contains the hundreds of Martock, South Pethei 
ton, Crewkerne, and Kingsbury East, excepting, howerei 
Kingsbury itself. It also includes Kingstone, politically h 
TintinhuU hundred, but locaUy here ; two hides in Martock 
placed by Eyton in Yeovil hundred, and Cricket Malerbe 
temp. Domesday and since in Abdick and Bulstonc. One of 
the manors called Dowlish is no doubt the prototype of West 
Dowlish adjoining Cricket, and like it now in Abdick and 
Bulstonc, but Eyton ranges them all in South Petherton. 
Still these two manors may have formed a small cantle trans- 
ferred from District X to XI. The total number of hides is 
200 plus one virgate, which counterbalances a deficiency of the 
same amount in the adjoining District I. Further, there are 
two small vills placed by Eyton in this district : " altera terra 
ablata de Martock," one hide and a half ; and " ablata de South 
Potherton," half hide. At first sight, these portions evidently 
bolong somewhere here, and they certainly counterbalance » 
(lofiiMoucv of two hides in District XI, block 4. But this 
hlook contains the parish of Buckland St. Mary ; and down 
to tlu8 oontury, Donunett tithing in this parish was reckoned 
part of South Pethortou ; and another tithing called Westr 
ot>ni bland was suppostnl to be in Martock ! This double 
iH»iniMdouoo mav well be allowed to correct the silence of 
l>ohH*silav, and to n^ph\co the ** ablata'' in their original 

riu^ro is not nuioh to add to this explanatory note. Notice 
\\\\\\ tho adjoining bUu^kji 4 and 5 correct each other's totals. 
\\\ lilook ti is inohuiiHl Whitostanton, which is isolated bv the 
lar^o luanor ot' Tombo St, Nicholas. Litelande is part of 
rhaixl. HKvks S and i> make up the hundred of Crewkerne? 
k\\\\{ \w\v \v\MU>, so far a> I oan stH\ the only case of placing 
pan-^ \^i \\w Nauu* \iU iu ditlVivui bWks to make up twenty 
hhlo"* a|^r\ \\ Ouo pait K»t Mcrriot: combines with Hinton St 
Uo\^^o, \s\\\\ \\w othoi t^u'i \\i:h :ho rx^st of the hundred. 



Fwe-Hide-Uitit in 

the Si'mrrti't IJomrsdui 


y ■ 

V i' 

II V ¥ 


V K 

20 . . 

Isle Abbots . 
lale Brewers 
Bradon ... 




2, I, 1, 1 


6 2 . 

» . . 
5 . . 

IS 2 2 
.1 1 . 
1 . 2 

19 2 . 

20 . . 

8 . . 
3 . . 
10 . . 



. 2 . 

21 . . 


I z 

1 + 1 


i! + i 

3 + 2 

. 1 . 

i 2 . 

a . . 

1 2 . 
1 2 . 

5 '. '. 


Ilminster . . . 


North Curry 


Taunton ... 
Sarapford ,-. 


Thorre Falc 
Chedd. FiU 
Tetton ... 
Noi-ton Fitz 
AUerfonl ... 

3i + 2i 

20 . . 


20 . . 

20 1 . 

.11 . 
;tt . 

10 . . 
5 . . 
2 2 . 
. 2 . 
1 2 . 

58 .1 . 
. 2 . 
2 . . 

61 I . 

19 2 . 

! — 


1 . . 
1 2 . 
7 . . 
5 . . 
5 . . 

. 'i ! 
. 2 

19 2 . 

19 . . 


Papers^ jfc. 

D18TUICT XI — continued. 


Stoke S. My. 
Thurlbeer . . . 


Bradford ... 

II. V. F. 

13 — contd. 








H. V. F. 

3 . . 

3 2 . 

3 2 . 

4 . . 

20 . . 

300 . 

District XI contains the hundreds of Abdiek and Bulestone, 
North Curry, and Taunton Dean, with the manors of Thurl- 
beer and Thome Falcon, now part of North Curry. An 
isolated part of Taunton Dean is, however, included in Dis^ 
trict XII. Eyton also includes in Taunton Dean a part a^ 
Sampford Arundel in Milverton hundred, being led thereto by 
the fact that pai*t of Sampford is locally situate in Pitminster 
(Coll., iii, 25). But it is rather doubtful if in such a case the 
part would be called Sampford also, as it is in Domesday. 
Three of the vills belonging to the earl of Chester in the 
county, are placed with a (juery by Eyton in Taunton Dean, 
and their hidagc fits in so well as to confirm his suggestion. 
But in only one other instance is even a single hide belonging 
to one district found in another ; and in this case, Whittox 
Meade, the circumstances are unusual (see notes on District IV). 
There is, however, no trace of a Sampford in the hundred ; so 
one is thrown back on the idea that the name of the place has 
been changed. The name of the earl of Chester's tenant, 
Maubank, is often found in the early records of the county, 
but seems to be connected rather with Williton Freemauors. 
The case will be noticed again. Blocks 1-9 present no un- 
usual features, as the two distinct vills in Buckland St. Mary 
have been treated of in the last District X. With regard to 
blocks 10-13, containing 120^ liides, the presence of the huge 

The Five^Hide^Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 87 

[?aunton, 58 j hides, causes a number of smaller villa to 
ted, and to form a fringe round it. Thus block 1 1 is 
. fringe on the eastern and northern sides of Taunton, 
hia vill I have placed the detached rills of Angersleigh 
mpf ord. The latter because I am not quite certain as 
real locality, and the former as it may originally have 
. member of Taunton. The two blocks, 10 and 11, make 
X)tal of 80j^ hides, the quarter combining with another 
e in block 3 to counterbalance a deficiency in block 4, 
A has been pointed out before in similar cases, these 
s adjoin one another. This is also the case with blocks 
md 7. 



















H. V. fJ 

5 . . 


1 — contd. 
Petherham . 





Stockl. Brist. 

55 55 

55 55 



V. r. 
1 . 
. 2 

H. V. P. 

4 3 3| 

5 1 2 


11 ... 


Iney . 



2 . 
2 . 
2 2 
2 . 

1 . 




1 . 
3 . 

• . 

nch ... 






20 1 1| 

)n ... 
ey ... 

pool . 
ma ... 



nore . 
igton . 
ham . 
k ... 














55 55 

Stogursey . . . 


Honibere ... 


2 . 

9 2 . 
iO 2 



2 . 
2 . 
2 . 

• • 

I V/ £t . 

20 . . 

Pm^trrt^ kr^ 

Df«^7ej5.1 XII — fUMaijmmeJL 






Fiddtngton . 4 

. 3 

• •M • 

HolficNrd ... 1 


Htringston . I 

Dyc&Alfox: 2 




M, V. 

f-H- V. 

r.3. H. 



. 1 


iQuantork EL 7 


. 3 


IT. 3 


• 1 

Perieftone . . 




Wcacombe . ] 


» m 


•Torvertoo . 1 


1 . 


Woolfton . . 


3 3 

.S O 


5 I 

20 I 

iBkrkiioUer . . 2 
li Xevum . 4 2 


blocks 1 — 5 


Bp». Lydimrd 


Ash Priors . 









• • 


2 . 


2 . 


• • 

! Crowcombe 
I Cantoca 







H. V. F 

10 2 

n 3 2 


199 3 0| 

9 3 
4 . 
3 1 

LvAS.Laur.; 2 + 2 i 4 


1 3 
. 3 



5 2 

The Five^Hide^Unit in the Somerset Domesday » 


District XII — continued. 

td. 11. 

V. F. 

H. V. 


9 — contd. ill. 



H. V. 


^na • . . 


2 . 

Bratton ...j . 




■ . 

Woot. Court. 



4 2 



\ Brett 


. . 

' Sordenuumef ord 


5 . 

let ... 

^•af^^m ^A%^mBAWW'>AA'^^A^#S ^«A 




3 . 





rd ... 


2 . 

Allarcott . . . 





2 . 






2 . 

5 1 


Lux borough 
Langham ... 





2 . 

19 3 


Bickham ... 



5 . 


3. Ral. 

20 . 


orthy . 


2 . 

5 . 


Sel worthy . 



3 . 





lish ... 


3 . 

iHolnicote ... 






2 . 

5 . 

Luccombe . . . 






leeve . 
oncott . 



1 . 

2 . 





5 I 




■ • • 


2 . 

5 1 

iCulbone ... 






5 I 

lish ... 



• • 

1 . 


Allerford ... 



rough . 


2 . 

Bossington . 



16 ... 1 

• • 

i Horner ... 1 


4 3 


Stoke Pen) . 









20 . 







4 9 


C utconibe ... 




*x £i 


impton.l I 

2 . 

Oaktrow ... 




er ' 

2 . 

Kstaweit ... 




ibe ... 1 

• • 





«n, J, i 


• • 





3. ... 




— — 

4 2 


luda ... 

2 . 

!■ i 


1 1 
1 1 

19 3 

lead ... 




k. w t/ 


• • • 


2 . 

Total 6-10 


100 2 


Vol. XLV (Third Series, Vol. V), Part IL 



Prnftrra^ |rr- 

Dl^TEKT Xn — r^mlmwfd. 

11. H. V. F. H. ^ 

k. F- 13. H. 

V, F.H. 

Kxford I 



„ ... . - «t 



♦• .... • A 

! Manwortiir . 


99 * 

« * 

Utagley 2 

jBathealioii . 


to < 

AlinHH'orthj . I 

Krttana .... . 2 

('iheardu ... I . 


Withj'iHKile . . 2 

Pre».BowTer 2 

3 . 

Anliway ... 

. 2 I 

Torels Pres. 1 

a . 

Ilawkridge . 

1 ., 

Milverton ... . 

1 1 


2 . .-, 

1 ' 


. 2 



ilPoleshill ... 1 

4 ( 

Winnfonl ... 

3 2 . 



99 , ^ . 


Wellisford...; 1 

. . 

Le^« ... 1 . 


Greenhara... 1 

. . 


Kittisford ... 



.^ 1 

. 1 

1 iJV villi • . • 

Quarmc } -t- J 

I 1 . 



• 1 


. 1 . 



3 .' 


. . 1 


2 2 

Stawlcy ... 


' 1 ' 


1 3 3i 

^ £i 

Ashbrittle . 

. i 


2 2 . 


Holland ... 

. I . 

19 1 


. 1 . 


. 1 U 



1 Of 




Bunnington . 



1 ,_ . 




Tho. S. Marg 


3 . 

% && 

- - 

Samp. A run. 


. 3 

4 ' 



Ilrom. Kfci« 


. . !;WcIlinfrton . 


MMaWton... . a a 


19 i 

Svwlvri'tHnU. 1 . • 





' >^U» 

. S :) . 

mmm « « • •' 



. 4 . . 

Total U-lo 

99 ' 





1 3 1 




- Total of 
i District. 




1 a 


The Fic^-Hiih- C'nit in the Si'iuemel Domesday. 

District XII, containing 300 hide^i, taketn in sn t 

re», stretching from the mouth of the Parret to i'^xmoor 

'orcst. Within these boiinde are the hnndrede of CatiiiingtoQ, 

"ith one vill of North I'etherton ; Milverton, Williton Frce- 

■anors, and Carhampton. Sheriffs Bronipton, Cutcombf and 

linehead, Brorapton Regis, and t'leeve were separate hundretU 

■t this period, now ahsorbed in the two ta^t-namcd. There aie 

*I»o parts of Kingebiiry West and Taunton Dean. Tlie hoM- 

ttiga are very small, this I>einp the only district in which the 

•tt^jdiviaion of the fertine is used to any extent. In addition 

to this element of uncertainty in arranging the blocks, thrre i^ 

the further difficulty that a considerable number of emnlt vill^ 

are iioidentified by Eyton, beyond being nssigned In a par- 

tii'iiliir himdred. 

From these two causes some of the results must lie looked 
upon fts tentative and perhaps provisional. Without unduly 
jTCwing details, the blocks do appear to have certain geo- 
fnphical limits which help towards their delimitations. t)f 
file first five blocka, containing 99h. 3v. 0|f., four of them 
ire iiCuate between the Parret and the summit of the Qnau- 
tocks, the fifth covering the north-west shoulder of that range. 
The next five blocks, lOOh. 2v. 2f.. occupy the northern 
section of the district from Quantuck to Devon ; and the last 
five. 99h. .^v. 3Jf., the southern section, the boundary line 
ninning for i>art of the way along the ridge of the Ilrendon 


In (he tabic I have arranged the small holdings in groiipa 
iif five hides each, within the blocks, to bring out as far as 
possible the features of the five-hide-unit arrangement. 

Block 1. Pury Fumeaux temp. Domesday was in Wemli- 
don. and therefore in North Petherton hundred. PiUoc, this 
is one of a group of six vilts belonging to Roger de Corcclle, 
.placed by Eyton {ii, 19) in Carhampton hundred, but with a 
mtggestiou that tliey might be in Cannington or North Pether- 
ton. He could not identify them tlien, but the proof positive 

llmt one of them (^Dodisham; i- b C &niiir;ir: .l, ini -iiii ibcn 
is a Bluokmore ( Blacrkaniora » in C ii!ii:::.r: -:. rni'.ie* me to 
transfer the other four to the same^. ^\ zr zr'^: ouitiit 
this frosh eviaenee is realk a witne*> lo Ev:-:/^ l:5:rfc:.niiflirr 
Aill in identifieation of Domesday D.iifhAm Id 
rjinninirton is mentioned in tlie In^i. P.M. • f WL-rT MicW 
ot iiourna> Stiwt, who died 20 Oct.. 14S:. =^ijri ,.{ lemy 
inoni> in Dodisham, Pegenesse, and Peiherhani : anl al^o Id 
:So «ill of Hiehard Miehell, proved 1.563-4, " Dudisham in 
i'A*.nuni::on."' HIaekmore is an old farmhou-ie in the >ime 
;v>.:-isV. /Vv., \liii, u 3S, and illustration). - Suiudima'rair 


v S^*.iv.c Farm. Idstoek Ochetoeha;, though desoribol bjr 

V , . ».v: ,«ix a jvui of Chilton Trinity in North Petherton 

v: v\;, > >o; down in the Proportion Roll, 1742. a? forming 

' :N\rt^ :u i'annington a separate tithing in Carmington 

' vv.w; 

* » • 

Hx^uiJvrt* is in Domesdav "' Hedernelxfria," left 

,^; . \ r^ti^n: see aoeoiuit bv Rev. W, H. P. (freswelL 

V "" ^ /: Siv^ke ronrey," Froc xliii, ii, 66, 

».vv \ * \^ .'.•.xi.i " i> one of the six returned vllls of 

s .^v . X v\ ';\^:ii :erra Olta and Holeome behmgedto 

>.\.:.vs of Stt^wev are reckoned bv Eviou 
X X .\. ^^x^ :.* Nerhor Stowey. lie thought that 
. N ■ » • ^x , ■ ,i yar: of Stookland Bristol. But this 
' V -* *x ,'"!\ ::vt' r^^sult of trying to make every 
' . . . • ^ * ^ ^^ v> x^: !Aud. a belief from which Evton 
.... X . K- • V * •>. " :'t\v. Now it is verv true that the 
» , , . , N V X .. .^ x_ ' vV*.:.*iiuHl very few acres (eighty- 
^x,. , \. ' ■ -. \ ."\' >-n;iIiOst in Somerset: Weston- 

■ ^ .K.. . •-. • .. .. ^ v.'k.:::^-:**,' acres to e verv hide, ami 

v .• ,. ^ '".i^c U'S;!i than UK) acres to each 

J .i, \ . \v ;* ^.•:^N^%,•*. r lakes the very probable 

,.K4 u X. v. .' >:.^^^e^ containing three vir- 

T/ip Five-Hide- Unit in tfi/f Somfmet Diimi^iiHin 


gitfs, which Dodn, an Englislt Tliane. Iield temp. Domesday, 
iiirfslly Dodington. The place does not appear in any of the 
(ulj lists of vills, r.if., Kirby, Nomina Villarum, Lay Subsidy, 
rtc: it is mentioned in an Assize Roll of Henry III : in 1335 
iav chapel of Dodington is described as being in the parish of 
KdliM Slowey;' the list of rectors and patrons in Weaver 
begins only in 1473 ; so Dodington certainly appears as a 
mllier Into creation of a separate parish. 

In block 5, I have entered Bicknoller aa the modern equiva- 
lent of " Alra," left iudeterminate by Eyton, Collinson de- 
liree tlie name from two British words signifying a " little 
■HDy." This is indeed a little treasure of ]»re-scientifie 
^^blogy. hilt not to be taken seriously at the present time. 
I^tot pretend to improve on it. but can only suggest that 
H there le ground for supposing that the first pari of Bicken- 
rtots in Chew hundred is a post-Domesday addition to the 
(iripnal name Stoke (see note on that place), that such may 
iWbsve happened here to distinguish Alra fi-om other vills 
"f the same name. Bicknoller is Bykenalre, 1327, Bykennalre, 
1284, Kirby's Qutnl, There are several places with this prse- 
nnraeii in the Devonshire Domesday. Newton, not identified 
i»j- Eyton. is in the modern parish of Bicknoller, together with 
Woolston. Torweston, though in Sampford Brett, is on the 
same side of the stream as the other places in this block. 
Perlestona is Pardlestone farm in Kilve. 

Dlock 7, Aili or Ailgi is placed by Eytou in Carbampton 
Hundred. He docs not notice ColUnsou's statement that it is 
the modern Vellow fiii, 546). "Cotford land in Aylly," does 
Wem a link with C'atford in Stognmber. t)n the other hand, 
that this manor and land of Aylley were held of Elizabeth 
Lady Audley, points to Aley in Over Stowey as the locality, 
for this was the territory of that family (Collinson, iii, 552). 
Ulvertona has not yet been identified, but is placed by Eyton 
in Williton hundred. 

1 Beg. Kadulpbi de 3alopuk, p, :^0. 

94 Papers^ jfc. 

Block 9. Bradeuda may be Broadwood in Ci 
behind Dunster park; and Menamaj be East and Westllj 
near Bratton, in Minchead. Eppsa, Donescombe, and 
maniford are still unidentified. The last-named was giTea 
William de Mohiin and Reginald his son, ue. before 1213, 
Cleeve abbey. Shortmanisford is mentioned with Di 
(block 2) in a fine of 40 Hen. Ill, no. 168. 

Block 10. Estaweit and the two Combes are not idcntified|' 
the last necessarily so in a land which is all Combes : but Est** 
weit may be Stowey in Cutcombe (old Stowey and Stowif 
farm). If these identifications be admitted, the symiiietijr 
of the four parts of this block is peculiar, the two parts netreit 
the sea being equal, and the two upland parts also being alib 
in a curious fraction. 

Block 11. Estana and Cibeurda, not hitherto identified, 
may be Stone and Chibbet in Exford. Eyton suggested tbii 
locality for Estana (ii, 20). Lega he placed in Carhamptoi 
hundred, but Leigh in Winsford would be adjacent to other 
holdings of de Moione. In the parish of Dulverton, on the 
borders of Devonshire, is Hawkwell, which I think is the 
Hawkwella of Domesday, placed by Eyton in Norton Hawk- 
field in District V. There is also a Hawkwell in Cutcombe, 
but the one in Dulverton seems to have been the more im- 
portant. In Domesday it belonged to two English thanes, so 
we get no help from that. Taunton Priory presented to the 
rectory of Havekewell in 1324 and 1327,^ but not later; and 
as Dulverton rectory also belonged to them, the two rectories 
may have been amalgamated. Among the taxpayers in Dul- 
verton manor, 1 Edw. Ill, is Richard de Hanckwelle, viiid. 

Block 13. " Maneui-da,'' not identified by Eyton further 
than being placed in this neighbourhood, is clearly Manworthy, 
as Maneworth is a separate vill in Kirby's Quest, 

In these twelve Districts will be found the whole of Somerset 
1. Reg. fiishop Drokeiuford, S. R. S., i, 229, 267. 

The Five^Hide^Unit in the Somerset Domesday, 95 

to the geld, with certain exceptions. The non-geldable 
ns are ex necessitate excluded. They may be divided 
wo classes, (I) the domains royal or ecclesiastical which 
never been assessed in hides ; (2) a very few places of 
1 it is recorded that though the hidage is known yet the 
was never levied. The second class are a small vill in 
ome Port, and another in Weame near Langport. 
le hidated portions which do not appear in the Districts are 
mnster hundred, six-and-half hides ; and in Frome 
Ired, Tellisford, five hides, and Farleigh (Hungerford), 
hide ; total, twelve hides. These places cannot be fitted 
any block of the Districts where they are situated, and 
' addition upsets the round figures to which the totals of 
districts closely approximate. Now, after bringing into 
every scrap of evidence available, in three Districts there 
i gape, of which at the time nothing could be made. In 
aict I, four-and-threequarter hides in blocks 12 and 
in District III, two-and-quarter hides in block 15 ; in 
nrict IV, five hides in block 1 ; total twelve hides. I 
eve myself that this coincidence represents an eif brt to keep 
siun total of the hidage in the county at the same figure, in 
e of the appearance of fresh areas liable to the geld. Bed- 
ster hundred may originally have been an exenij)t royal 
lain, of which certain portions having been granted out to 
jects, forthwith became liable to geld. It is not so easy to 
ount for the appearance of Tellisford and Farleigli. The 
Id-Inquest for the hundred of Frome gives 298 hides, and 
:on's table of the hundred recovered from Domesdav (!0ii- 
s 303i hides, that is an increase of five-and-half hides. So 
?allv looks as if in the interval between 1084 and 1080 
e two vills had been added to the hundred, j)erha])s even 
le county, and if anybody asks where from, one can only 
rest Wiltshire. This must remain unsettled until the Wilts 
lesday has been re-arranged in tables. Replacing the 
ing hides in the three Districts, the analysis presents those 
rkrtble figures : 

96 PoF^*j irc' 

H. V. r. H. V. F. 



. 299 



Dtstrict YII 

. '200 



. 300 





. 221 

3 OA 


. 300 



. 197 

2 2 i 

lY . 

. 120 



. 200 


V . 

. 300 



. 300 

VI . 

. 200 



. 300 

1 in 

2 OH 

It i» impossible to look at the total of each District, and 
avoid the conclusion, that whoever was responsible for fixing 
the figures, desired to have in Somerset a number of areas 
containing even hundreds, with, in two instances, an extra 
twentv hide block thrown in. 

Perhaps at this point one ought to stop, having before one*8 
mind Professor Maitland*s warning,* that " microscopic labour 
is apt to engender theories which break down the moment Uicy 
are carried outside the district in which thev had their origio ; 
V>ut as only a calculating machine coidd have gone through 
the work without producing something in the shape of a theory, 
1 now proceed to offer some suggestions concerning these 
results, and further to trj to hitch them on to any pegs in 
Anglo-Saxon history which seem able to give them a hold. 

First of all it must be settled when the figures were last 
arranged. For the benefit of those who have not Eytons 
analysis at hand, I must state that the totals of the hidage in 
(•a(!h hundred in the Geld Inquests of 1084, and the totals of 
the hundreds as arranged by Eyton from Domesday, seldom 
agree exactly. Of the 2940 hides, 208 hides are in hundreds 
whose Inquests have been lost, 434 hides are in hundreds where 
the figures of either return agree, and the remaining 2298 hides 
are in hundreds where the figures vary. As a rule the Domes- 
day figures are the higher, and the excess greater, than in the 
instances where the contrary results are found. 

1. " Domesday and Beyond, ' p. 407. Cambridge, 1897. 

The Fice^Hide-Unit in the Somerset Dvmesday. 97 

The difference in some of the hundreds is quite a negligeable 
lantity. In other cases the differences in adjoining hundreds 
sunterbalance each other. The Domesday figures of Hare- 
Vive show an excess of two-and-quarter hides, the Domesday 
iigures of Portbury show a decrease of two-and-quarter hides 
and two fertines. liulestone has an excess of one virgate, 
Abdick a decrease of the same amount. Williton Freemanors 
W an excess of 3h. Ov. 3f f., Carhampton has a deficiency of 
2h. 2v. If. The increase in the Domesday figures of Frome 
of five-and-half hides I have above considered to be due to an 
importation into the hundred. The large increase in Bruton 
hundred I have elsewhere* attributed to the inclusion of 
Queens Camel, which was in the Geld Inquest of 1084 treated 
for the nonce as " terra Regis," and so placed under a separate 
heading not now to be found. The excess of six-and-quarter 
tides in Givelea (Yeovil) hundred, is perhaps due to some en* 
tangleraent with Coker hundred, of which the Geld has been 
'Wt (see notes on District I). There is only one case which 
^m8 for the present to be beyond explanation. Chewton has 
*o excess of eight hides, Winterstoke 11 h. Iv. 2f., C'ongres- 
'^urv one hide, and C'heddar two fertines : a total of twenty- 
*0(l-half hides ; while Chew has a deficiency of one-and-half 
"ides. These hundreds are very much intermixed, and the 
^^^ result is an excess of nineteen hides. Ten hides of this 
^tal has l>een caused by the introduction of Coniptun (ten 
'lideg), which, though Eyton left unidentified, 1 consider to be 
-ompton Bishop (see notes on District VIII). Eyton was 
mzzled by the great difference in the figures of Chewton 
undred, and attributed the rise to an excess of zeal on the 
art of the Domesdav Commissioners. I venture to offer a 
fl!erent explanation. Yatton (twenty hides), i)laced by Eyton 
Chewton hundred, was undoubtedly at a period antecedent 
Domesday, and also afterwards as late as the reign of 
enry I II, a separate hundred. May it not be that it was 

1. ** Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries/' v, 346. 

Vol. XL rrrAird Series, FoL r J, Part I/. n 

9^ Pmfirr^ inr. 

aim ax tliis dioe. l4:•^4-<« «<-fante ; thoogli, its Inquest htvoy 
been kwt. a^ vas ohes the case with the smaUer arei^ i| 
has been included in C4ie of the hundreds among which it wai 
situate. If thi« <.-<^uli] be supposed probable, the totals of die 
DomesdaT figures and tho=e of the Geld Inquests, plus one for | 
Yatton, would balance. If it wa» rated on nineteen hides in- 
stead of twenty, its full hidage« its case would be exactly 
similar to Congresbury. an adjacent manor rated at twealf 
hidei^ but paying geld on nineteen hides. The rwnonJ Oi 
Yatton from Chew liundred wuuld result in a deficiency of 
twelve hide:?, as against an exct.5s of eleven hides in Winta? 
stoke. This could easily be got over if we can aoc^ 
Eyton's suggestion that at this j»eriod, as he indeed shows Ofer 
and over again, several manors were not in the hundreds 
where we afterwards find tliem. But which manor of Wintc^ 
stoke hundred wa.< at this period in Cheiii'ton I cannot setde. 

This confession of ignorance does not affect the re«iH 
that the Domesday figures differ from the Geld Inquest returns 
Now as it is from the Domesday figures that the table* 
have been constructed, and the svmmetrical results arrived af 
which would have l)een impossible with the earlier figures o 
the Geld Inquest of 1084, it would seem to follow that thi 
elaborate system was introduced in 1086, and not till then. 

Eyton certainly believed that the Domesday figures wef 
more modern than the Geld In([uest figures, but here I vaxkt 
differ from him. The very wording of the mighty retur 
shows that the Domesday Conunissioners were conducting 9 
enquiry after an older state of things and hidage than th* 
which was prevailing in their day. The assessment is alwa3 
set down as that prevailing in the time of king £dward, thi 
is before the Geld Ini^uests of 1084 ; and so I think thj 
where there is a return made of a vill that T.R.E. it paid on 
certain nunil)er of hides, hut that there arc really a larg< 
numher of hides there, the returns refer, not to a re-valuatic 
made then and there, but to the older assessment which ha 

Tke Five^Hide^Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 99 

been alleviated T.R.E. This conclusion of course makes a 
decrease of hidage from king Edward's days to 1084, and such 
m shrinkage is taught bj the history of the times. From the 
firet reference to the numl>er of hides in the Tribal List of 
too, down to the latest collection of Danegeld, temp. Henry II, 
there is apparent a continuous decline in the number of hides 
Kiblc to the levy. The disappearance of hides, a marked 
fetture of Edward's reign, was evidently checked under 
William's rule, for not the lighter rate of the last of the 
S&xons, but the earlier figures, are required to make the Inquest 
totals, yet a certain leakage there was. The rate of decline 
varies in different counties ; in Somerset it is very small, in 
Wilts very large. 
[ And may it not have been one of the objects of the Domes- 
day Survey to stop this leakage ? The royal commissioners, 
with the " stark " Conqueror in the background as the final 
court of appeal, might well compel the jurors to return the 
very uttermost fertine in their district, which custom may have 
allowed the native hundredors to pass over. The very small- 
nessof the difference, fifteen hundreds showing an increase of 
twenty-eight hides in Domesday over (xeld Inquest totals ; and 
six showing a decrease of eight hides, or a net difference of 
twenty hides in a total of 2298 hides (the figures of Givelea and 
Utton, Bruton, and Frome are not included) shows how care- 
fully the tax was collected, and perhaps the jealousy of the 
Conqueror, lest aught should escape the treasury : and wo 
Ww in the words of the chronicler, that he was given to 
avarice and greedily loved gain. 

So taking the evidence of Domesday itself, it seems ])rol)al)le 
that the figures of the hidage are older than the Conquest. 

Evton held in his Introductorv Essav on the Dorset Domes- 
'lay, that the assessment was made in the reign of Kthelred the 
Unready, of evil memory : being led thereto by the historical 
fact that the Danegeld was first j)aid in his reign. ^ In his own 

J- ••Chronicle," A.D. 991. 

wvrisw -• Wk«u in thse iij5 of king Etlielred (979-1016) tiic 
OL-aacr^ w^k* rsirr^^r^ 4nd >ubdirided for the purposes of equal \ 
::ix:jkrj.'o^ ra«f lid^ wu^f. ;itx^pteti a^ the basis of assessment 
Tburtx* ^.Vl,. w\; aiaj S? >un:« the hidage of most counties, and of 
IX'rs^ :um:a^ :a«; n«^« w;ki scrutinized and readjusted; then 
rfte JUfti< w\;nf noc 3i«»survd indeed, still less re-measured, bat 
wvcv <v.^ i^vai^ni ia*i ptfcnrt*lled as to bring one hide into &ir 
vvmt'ifcrLs^^n w-ta ±3:oc5i^*r. And here again the hide WrtuallT, 
afck^u^ aoc i^^j^it^i'j, dhSiHmfeed still more the seeming of an 

rsua: sc:i:etu^fr: >tt;aL> :i^ be self -contradictors. There is no 
ev^ual >i5v :n :ri^ >-l»w After his reign, nor equal value either.* 
Tr<cv 5:^ uo H.'>icctc:il trvtJeccr: that Ethelred, or his wise men 
eita^r^ vii: c vvuii hd^e m;ide a re^urrev of the countrv. 
TKa: :h^ :tsuu?er £ SL:dr:< :r. anT vill was not necessarily altered 
a: :h.:-< iA:^\ rr^s -.v^'r weLl brousrht out bv the Rev. C. S. 
Taylor. ^:oir .f Ivdkr.weiV who has utilized the evidence of 
Aii^v^'^NAvoc* oVjkTtvr^ :o show that when the subject of a 
oh^rt^T vurt Iv viec::iTi: with a IX>mesdav vilL the chances 
Ar\* :Hji: ::" ;.:i:*^ :Iv v^jirtcr rjjkv (ve himdreds of vears older 

»* • • 

thjin K:*-"^'ir^>i. :>.c ^;V> w V. r.jkve :he same mmiWr of hides. 

Now !'>.r\* Ar\- >::** ::* ;:.\:>:c:x>? :hn?e ancient lists of hides in 
Knc^,*rd. >**•...•> Ar\* i:vwv. a> the Coimtv Hidage, c. 1000; 
trie Burv^^A* HxLvc\* :<'tu:\ Edw;*ri.l :he Elder, c. 920 : and the 
rrtl^i H:aAi^\ 0- r.i\ Aov^riir.i: t.> the dirferent heading? 
umler \%:iur*. :!.^ •' u*> ^r^- c'-^t". The fir^t one, unfortunately, 
dvv> :u>: ino- ,^1;: S. tiv:r<<:, l>u: :he Chn>nicle gives, among 
:ho m.>i!i% !.:::■<' : \4:i> : K:htlr^\i :he Unreadv"> wise men, a 
ttsv-ai dt'\ivx\ \%!iiv' -^xrv.s :. ' viir ou: mv arrineement of the 
huiulr\\l> t!i i:r\at .i:<:r;o:> c-:!:A:r:r.i: i^.V to 3iK> hides apiece. 
The eiitrv is uuatr :',u \tiir 1"»'> a.o. " As the text of the 
mai»»nry of our a-::'r-. ri::t> >:ii*>i<, rvorv .VO ami ten hides were 

1. S«* •• Ap|.>endix/ 

2. Pn^IX*m«9day Hide ot GIoov.-«»ter»kinf : rntA-wrticw* of BHiAol un^ 
Oloac. Anrh. S*.v.. t»1. xvii. 

Thr Fitt^Hidr-U,, 

1 the Stinifrfrl Dmncsday, 

iHjaired to build Rnd equip a slup of war. One text I'eads, 

torn three hundred a ship and from ten a skiff," i.r. a smaller 

ttflsel. There ie an absence of subject to the figin-es, but if 

w might read in '* hides," as in roost texts, the first part of 

Ihia primeval levr ol' ship money 6ts in with the figm^s of the 

lirpr districts.' 

it to the districts containing 200, and in one case 220 hides, 

noticeable that thev are, with one exception, g^roupetl to- 

in the middle of the coiintj. If it be allowed that Bath 

District IV, was at this period in the county, then IV, 

V, VI would make a total of 620 hides, an assessment nf two 

trip ships and two little ones; and Districts VII, VIII. IX 

Koulil yield an wiually arminetrical result, Disiriit X is, 

h(i««rer, n neon form able, unless it may have been eombiueil 

«ith other districts in the neiphbourinp county of Dorset, As 

hrwaeiinal) effort to group the hmidre<lB in the western jMirl 

of Dorset went, it produced two districts of 200 hides apiece. 

It is of course quite likely that in a time of such universal 

ilislrfeta ami danger, provincial boimdaries may have been dia- 

feparded in favour of the efforts aforesaid, efforts which seemed 

w hopeless as those of a " hag-rod " dreamer to get rid of 

n'* nightmare. But this suggestion must await a fresh 

■"•Irsia of the Dorset Domesday. The city of Bath we know 

•*' no assessment of hidage in the gift of king Osric, 

'^s regards the extra twenty hides in District VIII, they 

"'^y also emphasize the fact that at the dat^ of Ihc original 

^^Ssment either Yatton (twenty hides), or Congresbury 

^^nty hides), had, like Bath, an immunity. But the figures 

^lie second authority to Vie quoted make this twenty hides of 
^er standing in the Geld-rate of Somerset. The document 

*led the Burghal Hidage gives a list of Burghs in southern 

.. Ranuaji. " Kound«tionB of England," i, 360, nnd n ■' For the mssm. 

^^nt of one ihip on tlireo huadreds, Mr. C. Plamincr Laa cnlled my attpntiuii 

^'i the disputed chwter of Eadgar, Cod. Dip. , vi, p. 240, wliere tliree hundreds 

^^pnr to be given ta t, uonnal 'acj'p-fylled." or " ecyp-enoiie. ' " Aud Frfe- 

**tait, " Norm. Conii.." i, W7, u- II. 

Ea^r^Biii. a»i sft^a- «arti ume tlie nmnbei 
•Tif k>i?r5- «D?i in*r«? scirtii^d V* rriioe to it. Professor 
Mftr&ko*! :w y*± rTcraierf :isi« Ei* «?r- at the htest, is tluit 
<4 ¥Aw%pi ii*t Eiitr- 1*>!-te5, •:«>?■ ir^inlnEd rear^ emrlier tluui 

ftmcit ; f-:r:zied fcr:c^^:<tf!i^ ^r* QC«d to say against what 
cf v ttj t<- «^o:rt>!*i Vy ike auTTwiwIif^ conntiT. Of 
Bnrsfe ic Sicktccc v<^ ba^e : To Wat<4ict t Weced), 513 ; to 
Axfcriise AvarTg^ , 4»«J: to Lji^ < Lenge), 100; to 
LABcpoct. $•:> : Zfj Banc. 37J>> : :<«aL 4^13 hidesw Now as in 
DoaMsdar Sir«D(;^t . .c> o:«iaiMd 2M0 hid<«. and Bath 120 
hide^ va« port vf Merm a: ilii« date. fS^ hide» must either 
denote a marreHpx^ r^iriiikase. «?r the presence of a disturlm^ 
ikiiu t in the eiHi<rr tf>^aL This element i^ I think, tD be 
foond in the figuze!^ refaiting to Bath. Professor Maithnd 
<pL 456; think« tha: ihe^e figures included the hidage of 
Gloucestershire. The r*.>cals of the hidage of that countj rarj 
in the old li«t5 ; if one may take the total of ^000. as given in 
one list, there are left 1 2»» hide> supporting Bath, which are to 
be looked for in S«.»mer*et, and the total for the countr burghs 
i< 2>*13 hide:^^. manrellouslT near the 2820 hides of Domesdar. 

Districts VII an*! VII 1, with 420 hides, mav have been 
allotted to the support of Ax bridge 400 hides. Districts I, Ih 
III, V, containing 12i^\ >tr^tch upwards to Bath, requiring 
that number. Langpiirt 6<»> may have been supported bj 
Districts VL IX, X, tJiXJ hides, though it actuallr is situated 
in District II ; and District IX contains Lenge. Districts 
XI and XII, 6O0 hides, may fairly well support Watchet 513 
and Leiig 100 = 613 hides. 

But the districts and the burghs do not sort well together, 
though the totals agree : and I think that we must appeal to 
the still earlier doi'ument for the conditions under which the 
ditftricts were formed and in actual service. 

This document is called the Tribal hidage list^ because the 
hides are arranged, not under counties as in the latest list, nor 

The Five^Hide^Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 103 

Older the fortified burghs, but under the names of Anglo- 
iixon kingdoms and tribes. It is generally considered by 
luthorities to have been drawn up about 700 a.d. 

Now the totals of the hides of each tribe are given in roimd 
munberSy of which the lowest unit is 300 hides, rising bj 
multiples to 600, 900, and 1200, after which number the 
ipires rise by thousands to an incredible point. One of the 
Boallest units of 300 hides is allotted to a place called Giila, 
which is the same as Gifle, the Anglo-Saxon form of Yeovil. 
The late Mr. Kerslake had already spotted this identification 
of Gjfla, and made use of his discover}^ to argue that this 
diitrict of Gifle, with its 300 hides, was a primitive " scir " or 
Aire, a |)ortion cut off from the British territory by the 
English victory at Pen, in 658, when Ken walk drove the 
Britons to the Parret. But I have already been able to re- 
unite the hundreds of Givela (Yeovil), Coker, and Milborne 
into one district (No. I) containing 300 hides, extending from 
Pen to the Parret, of which district Yeovil is the centre. If 
Jt be conceded that the scene of the battle was not Penselwuod, 
^n Norton Ferris hundred, but Poyntington, in Milborne 
uundred, then we should have in one well-defined district the 
^^ite of the battle, the whole of the area won by tlie conquerors, 
^"e chief town or burgh of the district; and last, and pcrhaj)s 
'or our present purposes most important of all, the number of 
"•(les at wliich the new community was assessed in the fiscal 
^frangements of the West Saxons' kingdom. 

Further tlian this point the figures and theories cannot be 
'^rried. As they stand I submit them to the criticism of all 
*'ho are interested in the liistory of the Anglo-Saxon nice. 

It mav seem incredible that an assessment made c. 700 a.d., 
Kould last down to 1066. But the writer of this j)a])cr is in 
(lis year of grace paying first fruits on an asscssnicut made in 

1. Weasex is entered in this list, so Giilo, as Professor Maitland has pointed 
»at to me, must be a reiteration ; but the totals of the larger areas are so 
mtrageoai, tlmt th« two sets of tigures cannot be treated on the same basis. 

104 Papers^ ifc^ 

1538, and land tax according to figures settled in the reign of 
William III. So the Enghsh maj well have continued to pay 
tax€^ on the old figures, until the arrival of the feudal ajstem 
with William I. It does seem that the double entries of values 
in Domesday pinnt to some indication on the Conqueror*8 part 
to introduce a new assessment. His troubles and death within 
two years would throw back the whole scheme of reform, for 
tho Conquen>r's bow was not the only part af his equipment 
which no other man possessed, so the reform was deferred until 
the reign of Henry II« when the Danegeld finally gave place 
to other svstems of taxation. 

It may he objectetl that having brought out the five-hide- 
unit I have made nothing of it. But the unit is so connected 
with t)uestions relating to tenure of land and military ser^nce. 
not only in England, but also on the Continent, that a discus- 
sion in a local siu-vey would be out of place. 


To make it still clearer that neither the hide nor the team- 
laml. " terra ad oanioam." was a tixeil area, I have arranged 
District 1 in tabular fonu, >howinsr for each civil parish the 
nunilvr of hidt^ lainl o;iruo;i:^^- of team lands, the value 
when each hoUlor reoeiveil hi> share of the spoil, and the 
modem aor\-airt\ Als^> in :wo viher i»l\mins the number of 
acres in each hi vie and i:s valv.e. 

Mr. Kouixr* resear\*hes ha\ e det:n::ely decided in the nega- 
tive :he anoien: prvn^lem as :.^ x^hether :he hide was ever in- 
leinied lo have a r.xtxi srva. Mr. Ky:or/s view that the team- 
lan^i was :r\v:s**v li'i' aor\- lUH-is J^e answervJ in the 
sanit WAV. In l*i\-fi>c?«L r Ma::":tni*s -wr. w.»nis t Domfsfiay 
axd Rrw^htU \< 4ol :. •* FiT Mr. Ey;or. :he team-land wn^ pre^ 





? > 



The Five^ Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 105 

asely 120 of our statute acres. The proof offered of this lies 

in a comparison of the figures given by Domesday, with the 

wperficial contents of modem parishes. What seems to us to 

liaTe been proved is that, if we start with the proposed equa- 

tioii, we shall rarely be brought into violent collision with 

Moertained facts, and that, when such a collision seems immi- 

Bent, it can almost always be prevented by the intervention of 

aome plausible hypothesis about shifted boundaries or neglected 

Hastes. More than this has not been done. Always at the 

cod of his toil the candid investigator admits that when he has 

added up all the figures that Domesday gives for arable, 

meadow, wood, and pasture, the land of the county is by no 

means exhausted. Then the residue must be set down as " un- 

r surveyed" or "unregistered," and guesses made as to its 

I whereabouts. Then, further, this method involves theories 

ibout lineal and 8ut)erficial measurements which are, in our 

( eres, precarious. 



Sutton Bingham . 5 

Corton Denham . 7 

Whitcombe ...: 5 

Norton-sub-Ham.i 5 

Thome Coffin ...i 3^ 

Perrott, North .; 10 

Sock Dennis ...i 5 

Stokeundr.-Ham 10 


• • • I 




Hound ston 

^losworth . . . 

^ harl. Horothorn J 15 

^Wggelborough .1 5 
























Acre* to | Value of one 
one hide. , hide. 

A ores.! I Acres. 












1910i 138 

;>76l 144 

1 5.") 




1 . 
1 12 
. 12 


18 4 

15 4 
14 . 

16 . 
4 . 


^V. XL V (Third Series, Vol, V), Pari IL 

Paper i, ffc. 
District I — cotttinued. 








B. d. 



£ ,. d 






5 '. 



> ■ 

Chinnock, West . 
Mid . 







1 . 





3 '. 



1 . 

Cheriton, North . 






. 16 

Chilthorn. Domer 




10 . 



. 18 







. 13 


S. Cheriton ... 




15 '. 

1 3 130 


. 16 

Sandford Orcaa . 






1 3 







. 17 







1 5 


Chinnock, E, ... 

7 7 


1 1360 


1 14 

Marston Alagna . 

7 1 7 



'■ 198 

1 14 










i 200 

. 13 






1 200 

1 4 

Hasel. Phicknett 






. 16 







1 . 




1 1114 


. 8 






I 3604 


1 3 








1 5 







1 7 







. 12- 







1 . 






. 13 


2 i 1 




. 7 ( 

Poyntington . . 

2JI 3 





1 . 



8 1 8 

2 1 2 






1 3 

Total .. 

296i 29.5 


19 ( 



1 1 

Tke Five-Hide^Unit in the SomerMet Dome$day. 107 

Yeovil had a little ^imperium in imperio" in its midst, 

"^twenty-two tenants holding in paragio/* but it is not likelj 

that their united territorj was so laige as to require a great 

deduction of acres, and a consequent diminution in the size of 

the hide. Henstridge had, in addition to its hides, eight caru- 

citei, which Mr. Eyton conndered to be the expression for 

hides no longer liable to the geld. On the other side, I have 

not included Barmck, of which nothing more is known than 

iti hidage ; nor the figures relating to Ilchester and Milbome 

Port, as they can only refer to small portions of the royal 

domiins. The team lands for Oakley are wanting. If its 

hidage be subtracted, the number of hides and team lands in 

the digtrict will be the same to a fracti<m. 

I also give the averages contained in the last two columns 
of the table for all the districts, with the warning that the 
figures are to be taken ^ subject to a final audit." 

in Vaheof Acmm Vslatfof 

ouehide. ooehid*. oaekide. oaehids. 

District I 193 110 District VII 282 18 1 

II 253 1 5 „ VIII 418 1 3 9 

„ III 233 16 4 „ IX 250 18 8 

^ IV 164 1 6 10 „ X 202 1 5 

V 248 1 10 „ XI 272 1 6 3 

^ VI 294 16 5 ,. XII 762 1 11 8 

For the Countv 310 1 1 4 

Bote» on ancient IRtitiisb anD Slomano ^IBriti^^ 






DURING the Autumn and Winter of 1897-8, the writer's 
attention was called to a remarkable series of remains 
which had been found by the workmen at the Tyning quarry, 
near the South-Eastern boundary of the parish of Badstock, 
and early in the present year it was his good fortune to make 
a farther discovery in a new quarry then being opened out in 
the Kilmersdon road, about a mile to the South-West of 
Tyning, the remains being of a still more varied and interest- 
ing character. 

Without making any pretension to special knowledge on 
the subject with which the paper deals, he would desire to 
bring under the notice of the members of this society, and 
to place on record in its proceedings, the facts connected with 
a discovery which may throw some light on the early history 
of the races which formerly inhabited the country around 


The scene of the first discovery was about half-a-mile to 
the East of Radstock Station, and in order to explain its 
geological position, the attention of the members is directed 

AWff •« Amtiemi Brkisk mmd RwmmmM BrUisk RewmimsL 109 

to m section of stimta nnmii^ North and South through 
TTnin^ Pit, which may be ooifc»davd a trpical sectioo of 
the strata met with od the stirface in this central area of the 
Somersetshire coal basin.' It shews in the upper part of the 
section the Inferior OoKte which occupies all the higher 
ground to the East of Badstock. 

Below this formation lies a series of Lias shales of consider- 
able thickness, with occasional lajers of coarse stone, the 
shales having been used extensirelT here and elsewhere in 
brick making, and next in descending order comes the Lias 
quarry, from which stone has been quarried for many years 
for local purposes. It may be briefly said that below the 
superficial covering, which will presently be referred to in 
detail, lies about 6 feet in thickness of the Lower Lias, fol- 
lowed by the Rhaetic White Lias and Black Marl which form 
the basemant beds in the Tyning quarry. Then follow, in the 
usual order, the Keuper Marb or New Red Sandstone, and 
the Coal Measures, but neither of these formations have any 
bearing on the subject of the present paper. 

It was in the ordinary course of quarrying operations in the 
Tyning quarry during the Autumn of 1897, that the workmen 
met with the first series of remains to which the attention of 
the Members will now be invited. It has already been pointed 
out that immediately above the regular beds of the Lias, there 
occurs here, as elsewhere in the Radstook district, a superficial 
deposit of varying thickness, known locally by the workmen as 
the " ruckle of the Lias," consisting of loose dt'bris, evidently 
derived from the Lias rocks in the immediate locality, which 
has been deposited in a brown clayey earth, probably when 
the land about here was last submerged. It contains irregular 
fragments of Lias, mostly thin and water worn, which have 
been deposited in a semi-stratified order, and in which frag- 
ments of Belemnites and other Liassic fossils are frequently 

1. Thia section ia not givmi. 


Paper I, |-c. 

Ill this particular quarry the thickness ol 
al>oiit 4 feet, and, accoitling tn their usual practice, the quarrj 
men were engaged in renioritig it in order to uncover the mlid 
beds of rock which lay beneath, when they suddenly 
upon a total change in the deposit which attracted their atten- 
tion. Instead of the ordinary Lias debris intermixed with 
brown clay or earth, they discovered what had evidently 
an ancient excavation of a very unusual character, the inlilling 
consisting of ordinary dark surface soil, int«nnixed mtii I 
variety of ancient remains which form the subject of A< 
present paper. 

The enlarged section of this part of the quarry will «■ 
plain the position of this excavation, which was rudely clrciilw 
in form, its dimensions being about 4 feet in depth by 4 
feet in diameter. Its aides were not walled round in any 
way, but there was no difficulty iu distinguishing it from 
the adjoining strata in which it had been excavated. It 
will be observed that it had only been carried down to tht) 
bottom of the Liassic debris, the bottom of the hole resting f"»0 
the solid beds of the Lias. It \» greatly to he regretted that 
the qiiarrymen did not cease operations as soon as they ni^t 
ivith these remains, and that the writer's attention was no* 
called to them at once, but they probably did not recognise tlrt 
importance of their discovery until some of the more striking 
objects were met with, so that some of the contents were sen' 
ously damaged and others probably lost. Sufficient, bowevai 
was preserved to show that the excavation and subsequent in 
filling were of a very ancient character, the contents of whid 
the writer will now endeavour to describe. 

Ancient Qjcmi.— Prominent nmougst the contents of the JH 
which has been described is the Quern now exhibited, whioi 
was found associated with the principal finds within a fen 
inches of the bottom of the pit. ( See Plate A, Figs. 1 an 
2.) It will be seen that only the upper half of the Quen 
has been found, diligent search having failed to disoorer 

Notes on Ancient British and Romano^British Remains. Ill 

other half ; bat its place has been supplied by an approxi- 
mate model in wood, based on examples which are to be seen 
in. the moBeimi at Glastonbury, where nearly twenty Querns, 
or parts of Querns, were found in the ancient British village 
d ia eov e red by Mr. Arthur Bulleid, to whom, and to his 
father, the writer is indebted for much useful information on 
the Bulgect* In the present instance the portion of the Quern 
found 18 a good example of its kind, comparing favourably 
with the specimens in Bath and Glastonbury, from which it 
differs in several respects to which attention will now be 

One of these distinctions is in the mode by which the handle 
was attached to the stone, which in most of the Querns the 
writer has seen was by means of a hole bored in an oblique di- 
rection in the upper half of the stone ; but it will be observed 
that in the example now submitted, the mode of attachment 
has been by means of a dove-tailed groove, extending from the 
rim of the stone to what I will venture to call the grain hopper 
in the centre, the handle fitting in, as shewn in the example 
whieh I have had made, which will, at all events, serve to ex- 
phdn the principle. It will be observed that the stone stands 
higher on the side containing the groove, no doubt to give the 
handle a better hold. One of the Glastonbury specimens is of 
this construction, but in that case the dove-tail does not extend 
through to the grain hopper, stopping short by an inch. 

It may here be remarked that this Quern appears to be al- 
most an exact counterpart in all respects of one found during 
the recent excavations at Silchester, a drawing and description 
of which appeared in the Illustrated London News of 17tli 
tJune, the only difference being that the Silchester specimen 
still retained its original wooden handle, notwithstanding the 
lapse of 2,000 years. 

These Querns arc supposed to have been fixed in shallow 
wooden boxes, into which the meal or Hour produced dropped 
on leaving the stones, but what kind of article was thus pro- 


Papert, ^r. 

duced, or what kind of f^vMn was chieflj trvated br svA I 
we can oulj- conjecture. 

Ill thiH, BB in the (ilastonbury exaiiijilc^, it is ditficul 
identify the geological formation from which the etona 
been obuined, which could only be Molve^l by breaking up 

In comparing the Qucm with a modern Indian exaa 
in the Hath nuiseun), the writer could not fail to be iniprti 
with the fact that the human intellect in much the same ia 
generations, and that the same primitive conditions In 
primitive contrivances in half civilised nations now, uh in 
ages long since paused away. 

Tkr Spindle U'horl.—'Vhe specimen found iu the Tji 
<]narry, and now exhibited, is a gotxl example of another « 
contrivance which wan in common use amongst c 
in the ancient British and Uomano-British age. (Srf I'Ul 
Fig. 3.) It was UAed in spinning yarn, a short rod fa 
fixed in the hole in the centre and held Jo one hand, i 
with the other the early craftsman or craftewoman made 
whorl spin round, giving the requisite twist to the yam. ! 
same remark which I have already made about the hand n 
ancient and modem, would appear to be ei|UHllT applia 
here, for the natives of Zamtiliar are said lo use a » 
similar contrivance to this day. the native women, with tl 
younger children slrapjied on their backm, deftly spinning tl 
yam from materials which are contained in a pouch an 

These spindle whorls seem to have been made from w 
ever came to hand, and are of all kinds of materials, some b 
made from the stones of the locality, some from pottery, 
others, according to Professor Boyd Dawkms, being of 1 
while in one example at Olnstonbury the primeval spinner 
made use of a small ammonite, thus constituting him 
herself one of the earliest collectors in that departmei 
geology with which we are so familiar in this district. 

Notes on Ancient British and Romano^ British Remains. 1 13 

In the specimen now exhibited the material is White Lias, 
which outcrops on the slopes of the adjoining ground. 

Black Pottery. — It is greatly to be regretted that this part 
A the find came into the writer's hands in a fragmentary con- 
dition. From the statements of the quarrymen the pottery 
was broken when discovered, and it probably received further 
damage during its removal from the pit, so that only three of 
the pieces found will join together ; but the specimens now 
submitted are sufficient to show the nature of the pottery, 
which is of a coarse description, indicating a very early date. 
It was probably hand made, and the clay from which it was 
formed has evidently been mixed with shells which Professor 
Uojd Dawkins pronounces to be recent, and amongst which he 
fecognises the cockle. 

What the shape or use of this particular article of pottery 
maj have been there is not sufficient to show, but it is possible 
that if it had been examined before it was disturbed, it might 
have been found to contain some evidence of burial by crema- 
tion. Those who have had the advantage of comparing them 
will doubtless observe that these fragments are very similar in 
their character to much that has been found in the ancient 
British village near Glastonbury. 

Flint, — No weapon of flint or other material was discovered 
in the course of the excavation, but one small fragment of flint 
was found, which looks like a splinter which might have been 
knocked off in making an implement. 

Burnt Pottery Earthy Stones and Charcoal, — All through 
the infilling there occurred fragments of pottery earth or clay 
burnt red, rocks of various kinds bearing marks of fire, some 
of which do not belong to the locality in which they are found, 
and interspersed throughout the mass were fragments of char- 
coal, specimens of all these being submitted for examination. 

Iron Nail, — The only metal found in the pit was a fragment 
of iron, thickly coated with rust, which may have been a nail ; 
but it is just possible it may have occurred near the surface, 

Vol. XLV (Third Series, Vol. VJ, Part II. r 

114 Papers^ ^c. 

and that it may not be of the same antiquity as the rest, al- 
though there would be nothing inconsistent in its being fouiid 
amongst such surroundings. 

Bones and Teeth. — The bones, which are not very numerous 
altogether, were found in a more or less fragmentary state, 
and were still further damaged by the finders, but in the 
opinion of Professor Boyd Dawkins, who has kindly examined 
them, some of them at least are the bones of Red Deer, and 
the teeth he has pronounced to be those of the Sheep or the 
Goat. Mr. Arthur Bulleid has also detected on some of them 
marks of haviug been gnawed by other animals. 

Snail Shells, — Interspersed throughout the infilling were in- 
numerable snail shells, mostly of one species, of which a few 
specimens are now submitted in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion, considering how fragile they are, their pure white colour 
shewing no marks of fire. Their presence throughout the in- 
filling is all the more striking by contrast with their total ab- 
sence from the adjoining strata, and their good preservation and 
white colour would go to prove, either that the burnt earth and 
rocks must have been exposed to fire before they were thrown 
into the pit, or that the snails must afterwards have found 
their way down amongst the loose materials forming the deposit 

It at first occurred to the writer whether they might have 
been the shells of snails which had been eaten by the early in- 
habitants who formed the pit, just as they are occasionally 
found within the precincts of ancient encampments, but he has 
since been informed that they are not edible snails, so that this 
idea must be put aside. It may be mentioned, on the authority 
of Mr. Llewellyn Jewitt, that similar shells have been found 
amongst the interments in the grave mounds of Derbyshire. 

Nos, 2 and 3 Pita. - Sliortly after the discovery of the first 
refuse pit, the contents of which have just been described, the 
writer was much gratified to learn that the quarrymen had 
met with two other refuse j)its of a similar character and in 
the same quarry. 

Notes OH Ancient British and Rom ano^ British Remains. 115 

One of these (called No. 2) was met with about 20 feet to 

North of the one referred to in the Paper, and was in the 

of an elbow, the total length excavated being 12 feet, by 

feet in width and 4 feet in depth. The other, which occurred 

)at 13 feet to the North-East of the No. 2 pit, was more 

the one first discovered, being rudely circular in form, 

its dimensions being 4 feet in diameter, by 3 feet 6 inches 

depth. The infilling of both consisted of much the same 

piiDiterial as has already been described, being surface mould 

liixed with fragments of charcoal and burnt earth and stones, 

together with various articles of ancient British age. 

These additional finds included, amongst other things, three 
Jftws of animals with the teeth attached, five loose teeth, one 
Wr's incisor, and a large number of bones more or less frag- 
mentary, some of them being of larger size than those first 
met with, and many of them liaving been rudely split longitu- 
dinally probably to obtain the marrow, but they have not been 
examined by an expert and it cannot yet be stated to what 
animals they belonged. 

The following specimens were of such special interest as to 
call for individual notice. 

Pottery. — About forty additional fragments of Pottery were 
found, embracing three different varieties of a coarse descrip- 
tion, some being black and others red, and some of the speci- 
mens having a projecting moulding, which may have been the 
upper edge or rim of an ancient British vessel. 

Triturating^ or Rubbing Stone. — This very interesting speci- 
men found in the No. 2 pit, measures 9 inches by 8 inches by 
6 inches in thickness, the material being millstone grit, which 
must have been obtained from the flank of the Mendips, near 
Vobster, as that is the nearest point where it is found in situ. 
(See Plate A, Fig. 4.) In a different part of the same pit 
the rubber belonging to this stone was also found, being an 
oval pebble resembling those found in the Chesil Beach, about 
three inches in length, and worn perfectly smooth, as it would 

116 Papers^ if c. 

naturally be, considering the purpose for which it was used. 
A slab of Lias was also found bearing marks of rubbing, bol 
not fashioned after the manner of the triturating stone, tod 
one or two smaller pebbles which may have been nsed either is 
rubl>ers or sling stones. 

Tooth. — One of the teeth, which has been pronounced to be 
a dog*s canine tooth, measures 1^ inches in length, and tk 
fang end presents an appearance of having been polished, but 
whether used as an ornament or an implement can only be siuv 

These interesting discoveries have not yet been fully ex- 
plored^ but they go to confirm the view expressed by Mr. 
RuUeid, of Glastonbury, that the pit first met with formed 
part of an ancient British village or settlement, and that 
more extended excavations would doubtless lead to freA 

Such being a summary of the principal contents of these pit»? 
it may now be considered by whom and in what age they were 
probably formed, and what purjxjse they were intended to 

In considering these questions the writer would offer no 
opinion of his own, but would rather express the views of 
Professor Bovd Dawkins and Mr. Arthur Rulleid whose 
opinions he has already quoted, and to whom he would take 
this opportunity of expressing his great obligation for much 
useful help in connection with the present paper. 

In the opinion of the former the whole gi'oup belongs to the 
Prehistoric Iron age, and may probably have belonged to a 
mining (or other) camp in connection with the Glastonbury 
lake village. He remarks that coarse pottery of the descrip- 
tion here met with occurs in Neolithic and Prehistoric Iron 
finds, and not in Roman accumulations, and that the Quern 
is in his opinion also of Prehistoric Iron age. 

Notes an Ancient British and Romano^Britisk Remains. 117 

Mr. Arthur BuUeid agrees with Professor Bovd Dawkini^ 

that the bones and teeth were those of sheep and deer. He 

layg he has little doubt that the pit discovered is one of the 

refuse holes so frequently found in or about Romano- British 

lettlements, that these pits range from four to ten feet deep, 

tnd when filled up were often made secoud use of for graves. 

He believes there must have been a habitation or a village not 

br distant, and that this interesting find mav be only the 

beginning of more important discoveries. 

The adjoining land having formerly been under cultivation. 
there was nothing on the surface to indicate the presence of 
these ])its, and there are no surface indications to aid in the 
search for others if such exist ; but, it may be mentioned, that 
I large number of similar pits were foimd by General Pitt 
Bi?er8 in his extensive excavations in Rushmore Park, as «et 
forth in his valuable books on excavatiims in Cranbome Chase. 
for a perusal of which the writer is indebted to the Rev. H. 
H. Winwood. 

In considering the probable age and history of these ancient 
remains from Tyningf quarry, it may be useful to refer to other 
antiquities which exist in the surrounding district, in order to 
8ee whether they may possibly throw light upon each other. 

For the benefit of those who may not be acquainted with the 
locality, it may be explained that the parish of Rad^tock i« 
bounded on the North-West for nearlv two miles of its lenjrth 

• FT 

hv the great Roman Road leading from Cirencester tliroiigh 

Bath to llehester. Near the North-Eastem end of the parish, 

And adjoining the Fosse Road, is a Barrow of large dimensions. 

believed to be of Roman age, and said to have been o\H'T\*A }t\ 

Skinner, of Camerton, who foifnd in the adjoining field tra^-e* 

of a Roman town, shewn on the earlier ordnance mafr^, which 

he sought to identify with Camidoduniun or Colche^^ter. TUf 

refuse pits which have now been described are situated at a 

distance of 1,200 yards as the crow flies, from thi?" Roman roa/1 

and Barrow, but as nothing of Roman age has been found at 


118 Papers^ ^c, 

Tyning there appears to be nothing to connect it with these 
relics of antiquity. 

In Wellow Parish, however, 3^ miles distant, there exists a 
large cellular grave mound of Celtic age, and it will be remem- 
bered that not far distant are the remains of the ancient 
Wansdyke. The relics found at Tyning, therefore, meagre 
as they are, may have been contemporary with these ancient 
remains as well as with the Glastonbury lake village, and they 
may form a link in the early history of this part of Somerset- 


It having become necessary to open a new quarry on the 
Radstock Estate, an excavation was commenced during the 
Autumn of last year in the upper corner of what is now known 
as the Jubilee field, near the southern boimdary of the parish, 
and adjoining the road leading to Kilmei'sdon. The parish of 
Radstock is intersected by six valleys which radiate from the 
centre of the town, and the field in question, which seems at 
one time to have been jiart of the Huish Common, forms a 
promontory at the junction of the Charlton and Haydon 
valleys, the new quarry being 1,320 yards to the South-West 
of the Tyning quarry already described. 

On the summit of this promontory, overlooking the two val- 
leys and the adjoining country, stands a tumulus of no great 
size, but unmistakable in its character, affording evidence of an 
ancient British or Roman settlement in the immediate locality. 

It has the appearance of having been opened, possibly by 
Skinner of Camerton, whom I have already alluded to, who 
devoted vc\\\v\\ time and research to the investigation of Roman 
antiquities in this locality ; but, if opened, no recoixi of its con- 
tents appears to have been kept. 

Skirting the lower side of this field, there are app^earances 
of earthworks, which are deserving of attention. So far 

^otes on Ancient British and Bomano^British Bemains, 1 1 9 

as the writer is aware, they have never been recognised as 
such, but they have every appearance of having formed part 
of some ancient fortification. There would seem to have been 
two lines of earthwork in the lower or North-East corner of 
the field, diminishing to one bank higher up, and although 
these earthworks correspond with the line of a cart track, 
which formerly crossed the Common towards Kilmersdon, be- 
fore the present road was made, they are evidently not mere 
road banks, but something of more ancient date. 

Another well defined line of earthwork, forming nearly a 
rig'ht angle with the first, lies on the North side of the tJubilee 
field, and just over the hedge which separates it from the ad- 
joining field. 

Xhe accompanying large scale diagram will explain the 

loc^ity in question, on which the quarry is marked A, the 

tumulus B, and the supposed fortification C and D respectively, 

iprhile another diagram, on a smaller scale, shows their relative 

position to the other objects of antiquity ab-eady mentioned.^ 

Xhe distance, as the crow flies, from this tiunulus to the much 

larger one at Woodborough being 1,936 yards, and from the 

Roman Road, forming the Northern boundary of Kadstock, 

1,166 yards. 

The geological structure of this new quarry is exactly simi- 
lar to that of Tyning, the solid beds of Lias being overlaid by 
a corresponding deposit of surface soil and Ijiassic debris, 
which are here about 6 feet in thickness. The earliest finds 
i in this second discovery consisted chiefly of pottery and bones, 
/ which were met with in the surface soil which is here of un- 
usual thickness ; but in proceeding with the excavation, the 
quarry men came upon a large refuse pit, rudely circular in 
form, measuring 6 feet in diameter at the top and 5 feet at the 
bottom by 6 feet in depth, being thus considerably larger than 
those previously met with in the Tyning quarry. 

1. 'J'be diagrams were exhibited at the meeting when this paper was read, 
but are not reproduced here. 

120 Papers^ Sfc. 

The infilling, in this instance, was much the same, consisting 
of black earth or mould, mixed with charcoal, burnt earth, and 
stones foreign to the locality, or altered by fire, the deposit 
being easily distinguished from the surrounding Liassic debris, 
and containing a great abundance of ancient remains. These 
inchided numerous bones of mammals, birds and fishes, a few 
fragments of what were probably flint implements, various iron 
and bronze articles, few in number, but the latter very perfect 
of their kind, and a great quantity of pottery of different pat- 
terns and descriptions. Time will not suflBce to describe these 
at any length, but the writer would now direct attention to a 
few of those most worthy of notice. 

Flints. — There has been a notable absence of flint imple- 
ments, both here and in the Tyning quarry, but the presence 
of flint at all at a point so far distant from the chalk for- 
mation is worthy of note, and some, if not all, of the frag- 
ments met with will probably be recognised as of human 

Bronze Implements, — Only three implements have yet been 
met with, and of these the most interesting is a pair of 
tweezers, which is quite perfect, showing little or no corrosion, 
after being buried, presumably, for upwards of 2,00() years. 
{See Plate B, Fig. 1.) It measures 2| inches in length, bv 
nearly ^ inches in breadth at the broadest end, and shows a 
distinct attempt at ornamentation, having a grooved hne along 
each margin, with two groups of small circular dots on each 

Next in importance is the half of a fibula, about 2 inches in 
length, which is almost a duplicate of one recently found at 
Silchester, a drawing of which appeared in the Illustrated 
London Nnvs of 17th June last, to which I have already called 
attention. {See Plate B, Fig. 4). 

The other articles are supposed to have been a pin and 
an ear-pick, Imt this is rather a matter of conjecture. {See 
Plate B, Figs. 2 and 3.) 



Friigniml of Samiiin. ivilli 

¥ifte» on Ancient British ami Rui. 

•>-Briti>h Rr,. 

I fmfilrmeiiU.^Ahout nine speciinena' of irnn have been 

L with, must of them ha^Hng the ap))carance nf nail^ nr pnrtit 

dls, but the piirpoBes for which some of the smaller artiulos 

•T have been used, it is really imiwesible to say. 

[ troH Orr.- In connection with these iron implements', it may 

) tnfntioneil that here as at the Tjniiig quarry, niidules of 

I ore have been found, which present a meteoric appear- 

, Ijtit vany be oulv ordinary hematite, and what purjiuue 

r served in the present instiincc, whether for the mnnufae- 

S of iron, or in coloring Monie of the pottery, it is impossible 

[ Ghitt. — Two email pieces of glass" have been met with, one 
liich presents an uppearnncc of antiquity, but even the 
specimen was found at a depth of four or live feet below 
t surface. 

I f^tttry. — This has been found in great abundance, jjartly in 
} surface soil, and especially in the refuse pit, but unfortii- 
mosl of it is in a very fragmentary condition, the 
matio-British domestics, like their modern representatives, 
; apparently been much addicted to smashing such neces- 
F articles of domestic use. A general examination of these 
* will show that they contain examples of a great 
Y distinct varieties of j^iottery, as welt as a large iinmher of 
kIs of every size and form. 

H iVare. — Conspicuous amongst them is the Saminn 
tf'artr, with its glossy deep red coloiing, resembling red sealing 
wax, which stands out from all the rest, and the writer is in- 
debted to Mrs. McMurtrie, for having joined together with in- 
finite patience, several complete, or almost complete vessels, the 
component parts of which were distributed in a heterogeneous 
manner throughout the covering of soil and in the refuse pit. 
Owing to nn incrustation adhering to the edges of the 
broken partM, they have uot gone very well togetlitr, but tht-v 

ii.i 2. Mooy a 

raplemeoti and [jivi: 

of glsB 

I BUbBequoutly 

IV. XLV (Third 6 

iM, \'ol. yj. Fart II. 

1 Aiiricnt Brithli auii Romaiio-firitUI, Rrwnhis. 123 

mltia/i Grey Fi'tteiy, thick, and of coarse mam if ac tun-. 
titffti liaff-riilurf/l Piittrry, of very coarsie texture and iiii- 

4i/c Reit ftitlrri/, uii example of the lini of ii lai-gt' vase of 
L uiitliiie. 
irkrr Red Piittrri/ : examples of the rim and bottom of a 
^Srilit/i Naiiii'iit I'lilteri/, a deep red-coloured fragment of a 
lel resembling Hivmian, and agreeing with General Pitt 
description of an imitation of Saniian made in 

tdry rxiimplrt of Riiiix iind Hitntlle! nf vi-ssels iif various 
, and ditt'eretit kinds of pottery, 
^ttndnf eiiimplm o/ Oniamrntrd futtery, whicli in all cases 
I of a %-ery simple character. 
^tlet*. A few baked iiellets, of wliich a few were met with 
Hng tbe excavation. 

Not being an expert, the writer liaa made no attempt to iden- 

f these examples with the pottery of any particular locality, 

t it may be observed that they agree very closely with many 

f those described in General Pitt Rivers' books on the 

Lno-British pottery found in the Cranboiune Chase, and 

Ut they are very similar to many of those found by Mr. 

rthiir Bulleid in tlie Lake Village at Glastonbury, except as 

;Brds the latter, it may be remarked that down to the time 

■en be read his paper before this Society in 1894, no single 

nent of Samian ware had been discovered there, while in 

b Kilmersdon lane qnarry it has been fairly abundant. 

^Bouex and Teet/i, Intermixed with the other remains al- 

V desciilwd, there have been found nearly 4()0 bones and 

etli of various kinds, many being rather fragmentary, but all 

E them in a good state of preservation. Amongst them the 

^Kmains of the following animals have beeo identified, viz. : 

the Horse, Cow, Sheep, Pig, Dog, Cat and Hetlgehog, as 

L veil as a number of bones belonging to birds and fishes. 

124 Papers^ S^c. 

So far as the examination has gone no trace of human 
mains has been met with, nor anj evidence of animals wl 
are now extinct. There are a few partly burned bones, 
they appear to be those of domestic animals, and to afford 
evidence of cremation. Some of the bones bear marks 
gnawing,, possibly by the dogs, whose teeth have been foui 
in the same deposit, and a large number seem to have baoi 
split open longitudinally to get out the marrow. 

Conclmiinf/ remarks, — In considering the probable age of the 
remains discovered in the Kilmersdon Road quarry, it would 
appear to the writer that they may possibly belong to a some- 
what later date than those previously discovered at Tyning 
quarry, which, as already pointed out, have been considered by 
Professor Boyd Dawkins to belong to the pre-historic Iroi 
age, and by Mr. Arthur Bulleid to have been contemporarj 
with the remains in the Glastonbury Lake Village. 

The total absence of Samian, and the very primitive charac- 
ter of the otluT pottery found at Tyning, would appear to give 
those remains an earlier date than the Kilmersdon Road deposit, 
where Samian and the finer kinds of pottery are plentiful, 
while the contents generally bear evidence of a more advanced 
civilisation. It is probable, therefore, that the Kilmersdon re- 
mains may have been contemporary with the Romano- British 
remains found by (Jeneral Pitt Rivers on Cranbourne Chase, 
with which they appear to agree very closely, but it is to be 
remarked, that down to the present time, no coin of any kind 
has been met with to aid in determining the age of these inter- 
esting relics of the past. 

an 3lnioentorp of Cinirct) Plate in ^merset. 

Part Iir 


REV. F. HANCOCK, M.A., F.8.A., 
Prebendary of WelU. 

IN compiling another portion of the Inventory, I have had 
the vahiable assistance of Prebendary Hancock for the 
Wiveliscombe District of Dunster Deanery. The descriptions 
of the plate were handed over to me to be reduced to ' common 
form,' while the Introductory notice and the notes on each ])arish. 
with certain exceptions in s([uare brackets, arc by him alone. 

A change of residence has compelled me to vary the original 
plan of taking each 4-rehdeaconry in turn. The Midsomer 
Norton district of the Frome Deanerv must be left over for 
the present. It was possible, however, to take the llchester 
district, thus completing that deanery. In the Archdea<*onry 
of Taunton the whole of the Crewkerne Deanery has been 
worked over, and one district of the Dunster Deanery. These 
four districts contain ninety ancient parishes, and nine modern 
parishes and chapelries, total ninety-nine. 

The most interesting and valuable item is the Nettlecombe 
chalice with its paten, the ohlest plate in England bearing a 
date-letter, whereby its age is exactly known. A full account 

* Part I, containing the complete Deaneries of Gary and Mertton appeared 
in voL zlii ; part II containing diatricta of Frome and Martock in vol. xliii. 

1 26 • Papers, ffc. 

will be found in the Introduction to the District and in the oo(e» 
on the [mrish. 

There i.s a large quantity of Elizabethan plate, exclusivelj 
cups and covers, it being found in fifty-five parishes. How 
valuable such plate is in every sense will be seen by this extract 
from a daily paper relating to a recent sale of silver plate. 
Among the lots sold were : ^' An Elizabethan cup engrave^ 
with scroll ornament, 1570, at ISG^r. per oz.j £42 Is. 6d.; ^ 
Early English chalice, engraved with crucifix, and a pIiQi 
paten, 1638, £22 Is. ; a Commonwealth chalice, on plain btJo. 
ster stem and round foot, 1656, at 96s. per oz., £43 5i, 
With these figures in evidence, I hope that it will not be 
thought presumptuous on my part to urge all custodians oimtk 
valuables to provide a safe resting place for them. A woodea 
cupboard even in a locked church is not a sufficient gotid 
either from thieves or fire. 

Twenty-five parishes were provided with plate by the ubiqui- 
tous I. P., whose handiwork exhibits as much uniformity as ii 
it had been turned out at a modern ateh'er. One cup comes 
from Dorchesti^r and another from Sherborne, while four were 
supplied by I. Ions, the well-known silver-smith of Exeter. 
The influence of the Exeter (;raft is also apparent in thederi^n 
of several cups which have no regular marks. These peculiari- 
ties are to be found in the lip and knop. The lip instead of 
following the outward curve of the bowl, is straightened u|>- 
wards for about half an inch, and this ring is sometimes 
concave in the middle. The knoj) is much thinner than in the 
London examples. 

Five euj)s of this pattern have the same marks ; the first is a 
circle containing the letters M.H. in a monogram ; the second, 
also a circle, contains a St. Andrew's cross with a pellet in each 
spandrel. The two marks were cut on one punch, as in the 
only instance when the second mark comes first, the mono- 
gram is upside down. Speculation as to its place of origin had 
better be postponed until the whole of the Archdeaconry has 

An Inventory of Church Plate, 127 

lined. Other cups of the Exeter type will be found 
irne, Curry Mallett, Ilton and Stocklinch Ottersay. 
600 interest with rare exceptions attaches rather to 
mt pieces of domestic plate now dedicated to religious 
There is a fine example of the Edmonds cup at 
unfortunately without its cover. At Treborough 
ampton are two very handsome cups (see illustration). 
:s on the latter cup are not known, and in the absence 
istinctive English mark, its place of origin must be 
onjecture, vide a note under Carhampton. There is 
iitiful little saucer, temp. Charles I, at Curry Rivel ; 
aving been already noted in this coimty at Charlton 
J. There are no chalice-shaped vessels in the area 
iew. The other pieces of this and the next century 
■ any particular interest except to their owners, 
his third instalment of the Inventory, nearly half the 
he Diocese has been examined ; and with a continu- 
le help and kindness hitherto shown to the workers, 
^es not seem so very far off. I should be very glad 
om anyone willing to undertake a deanery or district 
'thern part of the county. 

Medieval Plate. 

1479. Nettlecombe, chalice and paten. 
16th Century after the Reformation. 

9n Mackrell, cup and 


on Dundon, cup and 


!wers, cup. 

rd, cup and cover. 

am, cover ; cup, 1573. 

rlam, cup and cover. 

Episcopi, cup and cover. 

ocombe, cup and cover. 

vay. cup. 

aunbrooke, cup and cover. 

ad, cup and cover 

, cup. 

cup and cover. 

x>n Ralph, cup and cover. 

gton, cup and cover. 

El worthy, cup. 
Fitzhead, cup aod cover. 
Huish Champflower, cup and 

llchester, cup and cover. 
Kingsbury Epi. , cup and cover. 
Kingstonc, cup and cover. 
Limincton. cup and cover. 
Old Cleeve, cup and cover. 
Sampford Brett, cup and cover. 
Sbepton Heauchanip, cup and 

Skilgate, cup and cover. 
Somerton, cup and cover. 
South Petherton, cup and cover 
Stocklinch Magdalen, cup 

and cover. 


PaperSn ifc. 

Itm CBsrrrftT ArrcR tsb Roormatiosi — OMifMafedL 

Cjitott, cap. 

1574 Aftbill, cap 


15t2 llsiMter, cap mad oorer. 
Uodated, b«tt of tUi peribd. 

CvHaad. cap aad eorer. 
Carry Mallei, cap amd oorcr. 
DinatagtoB, cap mmd cover. 
Doojalt, cover. 
l*Wort. cap 
Kadmagtoa, cap 
Williioii, cap a&d ot^rer. 
YeoviUoa, cap and oorer. 


CharfltoB Adam, eip. 
DnijUai, cap aai' 

M. bseamaa't, cop. 
SeabowiQi^p, cap. 
dtocUiaeb Ottmay, cap a 

Withid Florey, cup u 

Withycoinbe, cop and oove 

1607 Crewkeme, cap and cover, 
1009 Crtwkerne, cap aad oorer. 

1610 Ilton, cap and cover. 

161 1 Ilminater. cap. 

1614 Treboroagfa, cap. 

1615 8to^inber. cap. 

1616 WhiteUekington. cap 

1620 Carry Mallet, ilagoa. 
1624 Eaal Lambrooke, palen. 
1628 Ikkeater, paten. 
I63U Aller, cap and cover. 

1633 Machelney, cap and cover. 
8t. Decoman't, paten. 

1634 Carhampton, cap. 
Curry ICivel, aaocer. 
Si. Decoman t, cap and pateo 

1635 Misterton, cop ana cover. 
Tolland, paten. 

1636 Tolland, paten. 


1637 Carry Rival, cap and oonr 

r nja ii^(|(toai cap. 
1630 Dooyatt, cap. 
1640 Old Cleere, paten. 
1654 Wiaaham, cap. 
1656 Cadworth, cap. 
IMI WhitMtanion, cap. 
1664 Low Ham, aervice. 
1669 Low Han, plate. 
1671 Leighland, cap 
1674 Cricket St. Tbomaa, plate. 
1679 WiUitoQ, plate. 
16S3 Crewkema, plate. 
1692 Carry Rivd, eap and wm. 

Somerton, aervice. 
1696 Fitzhead, paten. 
1698 Monkailver, paten. 
1700 Haiah Epi, paten. 

Yeovilton, plate. 

I7<*3 Broadway, salver. 

SUnrklinch Ottersay, paten. 
1708 Winaham. paten. 
1710 Aller, paten. 
171*2 White I.Ackingtou, paten. 
1713 Hatch Beaochamp, }>aten. 

Wiveliscombe, paten. 

1715 Seavin^n S. .\1ary, cup. 

1716 Monksilvcr, cup 

South Pethcrton. paten and 
17IH ('harlton Adam, paten. 
1720 Sampfonl Brett, paten 

1722 Northover, Malver. 

1723 Barrington, paten. 

1724 Harrington, flagon. 
Tuckington, paten. 
South Petherton, dish. 

1726 Stai)lc Fitzitaine, paten. 

1729 Po<lymore Milton, paten 

1730 Kingsbury Kpi., dish. 

1733 Stogumber, paten and Hagon. 

1736 Pitney, paten. 

1739 Lopen, eap and cover. 

1749 Kingsbury Epi , flagon. 

1752 Hatch Bciaachamp, cap. 

1757 Clatworthy, cap 

1760 He Brewers, cover. 

1767 Withycombe, flagon. 

1769 Ashill, salver. 

1774 South PethertoB, paten. 

1776 Sampford Brett, flagon. 

1779 Rodhaisk, cap and paten. 

1781 Long Sutton, cap and co? 

1782 Wiveliscombe. flagon. 
1787 Liming^n, paten. 

1790 Brompton Italph, aalver. 

1792 Chipstable, cup. 

1793 Hatch Beancnamp, eap 

1795 Huish Champflower, 

1797 Clatworthy, alms dish. 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 129 


cmth Petheftoo 

iter (crest), NorthoTer. 

nay, SMnplord Brett. 

t, Aiokland S. Mary. 

d. Sampford Brett. 


m, Stocklinck Otteruiy. 
mer, BackUuid 8. Mary. 

Roese, Somerton. 
ShermaD, Aller. 
Stawel, Low Ham. 
Strode, Barrington. 
VValehe, Carry Mallet. 

Aller, uoat of arms. 
Barrington, crest. 


This district contains seventeen ancient parishes and one 
rivate chapel, founded 1622. The district is rich in EHza- 
^than plate, there being twelve cups, four of which were 
fliade before 1572. Eight different makers are represented, 
including Orange of Sherborne and Stratford of Dorchester. 
With the sub-division of the Martock district, the deanery 
P<>88e«8e8, in thirty-six parishes, twenty-two Elizabethan cups, 
*n average which I fear will not be beaten. 

Allek. — The cup with cover is of the best pattern of the 
^arlj seventeenth century. Devoid of oruanrient, its beauty 
depends entirely on the proportion and workmanship. The 
^up stands G^in. high. The cover is without the flange usually 
^oimd in the preceding century ; on the button is the date 
^630. Marks (the same on lK)th pieces): 2 oflic. ; date-letter 
for 1630; maker's mark, in a plain shield, the initials R. S., 
^ith a pellet below. These initials, with the pellet enlarged 
into a heart, are often found on plate of this j)eriod. 

A plain paten on foot, diam. 6Jin. Marks : 2 Brit sterling ; 
date-letter for 1710; maker's mark, B A. in shaped punch, i.c 
Richard Bayley, ent. 1708. In the middle of the j)aten within 
mantling is a shield bearing : A lion ramp. betw. 3 oak leaves, 
imp., a cross moline, a crescent in dexter chief. Crest, a sea- 
lion crowned. The underside is inscribed : ' The gift of Tho : 
Sherman of London to the Parish (hureli of Aller in Sum- 
mersctt Shire 1710.' This gentleman's interest in Aller is not 
known (note by Prebendary Nicholson, rector of Aller). 

Vol. XLV (Third Serien, Vol, V), Pari II, r 

130 Papers, Sfc. 

A large plated flagon, ^ The gift of J. Cnmming, Ek^^ 
Tonbridge Wellfl, Easter 1895/ Another ancient flagon of 

Chaklton Adam.-- The Elizabethan cup has onlj am 
mark, a small star with five points, found on several other copi 
in this neighbourhood (see introduction). It is parcel gilt, the 
parts so treated being the bands of ornament ; and standi 7Jii. 
high. The bowl is almost V shaped, with one band of onuh 
ment ; there are bands of upright strokes above and below 
the stem which seems to have been broken and roughlj 
mended. On the foot is a belt of egg-and-dart ornament 

There is only one mark ; the date is probably about 1573. 
The cover is missing. 

A small paten on foot, diam. 5Jin. Marks : 2 Brit. 8t«^ 
ling; date-letter for 1718; maker's mark, B A. in shaprf 
punch, i.e. Richard Bayley. 

Pewter, a large flagon, and a bason, on the underside of 
which are the initials J. K. and E. C. 

CiiAKLToN Mackuej.l. — All the plate here has been 
given in re(;ent times, but a part is of the Elizabethan era and 
of very imusual design. This cup, silver gilt, stands ojin. 
high, diameter of bowl at lip 2Jin., and depth 3Jin. The bowl 
is mnch deeper in proportion to its diameter than is usual. A 
series of j)rojecting ribs, starting from the top of the stem, 
enclose; the lower part of the bowl ; they stop halfway up, and 
are flniahed oft' with a small ornamental flourish engraved on 
the howl itself. Above this is a broad band of hyphen 
strokes ; the lij) has also some slight engraving. The stem i;' 
uiuisually short, as the slope of the foot is carried up further 
than usual and terminates in a flange. On the spread of the 
foot is a belt of egg-and-dart ornament. Marks : 2 oftic. ; 
date-letter for 1570; maker's mark unfortunately almost gone, 
perhaps the bunch of gra])es given by Cn'pjts luider 1568. 
The cover gives no assistance, as it has no marks at all ; it is 
of the usual design and ornamentation. The cup is inscribed : 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 131 

he gift of the Revd. Wm. Thos. Parr Brymer, M.A. and 
A.S,, Rector of this Parish 1822.' It was the year of his 
^pointment, and he held the rectory for thirty years. The 
me donor also presented a duplicate of the cup and cover, 
ith two patens and a ilagon of the same design. These pieces 
ear the date-letter for 1855. There is also a large almsdish 
rith the date-letter for 1846. 

The set of pewter includes a cup (a ghastly object) of early 
ighteenth centiu*y design and a flagon. 

CoMPTOX DuNDOX. — An Elizabethan cup and cover by 
le same maker as the cups at Pilton and Batcombe, and, like 
lem, of an earlier date than usual. The cup stands 7Jin. 
igh. There is one band of ornament round the bowl ; this, 
* well as the other engraved ornament of the cup and bowl, is 
lit ; the knop has the hyphen strokes ; egg-and-dart will be 
3imd on the spread of the feet and on the cover. On the 
road button of the latter gilt is ' C. D., 1570.' Marks (same 
n lK)th pieces) : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1570 ; maker's mark, 
I. \V. in monogram. 

High Ham. — A handsome Elizabethan cup and cover of 
arly date. The cup stands 6|in. high ; it has one band of 
unning ornament gilt round the bowl ; the stem and foot are 
lain. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1570 ; maker's mark 
pparently the head of an animal. The cover is quite plain 
nd devoid of ornament ; the button is gilt and bears the date 
571. Marks: 2 offic; date-letter for 1571 ; maker's mark, 
mullet with fiery points, found elsewhere in the diocese. 

A modern paten with engraved brim ; inscribed on under 
le : ' The gift of Rachel, John, and floseph Travis, Easter 
11 \, Another paten, smaller and plainer, with the initials of 
e aforesaid donors, who were of Muchelney. 

Pewter, 2 flagons of different sizes, 2 plates, and a ' decent ' 
uson, in fact almost a complete set. 

HriSH Episcopi. — A large cup and cover of two different 
riods. The cup is H^in. high ; the V shaped bowl is en- 

1 32 Papers^ $-r. 

(*ir(*)(Kl with two ])aii(ls of the conventional Elizabethan en 
nient. but verv coarselv done ; the sftem and foot, on tlie e 
trarv, are well (lesijfiied and worke<l with the egg^mi* 
ornament. The bowl is inscrilxMl : John Collier; John 
of Hewish near Lan^{K)rt ; Churehwardens 1689. Thent 
nr) marks visilde. The cover is of the usual pattern ; on t^ 
button is the date 1.371. Marks: 2 oflic. ; date-Ietlv 1 
1;371 : maker's mark illeorible. The best way of aooomdi 
for the different styles is to suppose that at the latter date i 
Klizabcthan bowl had been so damaged as to require i 
tion, which was carrie<l out so conscientiously acs to reprodBi 
the older ornamentation, though to be liet rayed by the inftj 
rioritv of exetjution. ( For another case of reproduction i 
older work see under S. C'uthbert's, Wells, Proc. xliii, ii, 211 
TiuM-e is a clumsy cup at Curry Rivel, a neighbouring Tilhgi 
bearing the date IG92 and having only one mark, the maka^i 
which might have come from the same atelier. 

A |)at(;n on foot with goift'ered eJges, diameter 9in. Miib 
'1 ()Ili<*. IJrlt. stiM-liug : date-letter for 1700; maker's waA 
worn Jiway. It is ins<!ribed : Mr. John Mitchell, Vicar ; Join 
Witch, (fcorge Collier, Churchwardens. As John Mitchdli 
of Wadham Coll., Oxford, was not appointed until 1722, aai 
the two parishioners were churchwardens 1726-7-8,* this in-' 
scriptioii nnist have been added later. 

A modern <'halice, paten, flagon and cruet with sflfer 
mountings, (^ach ])iccc bearing the dedicatory inscription: Tc^ 
tlu^ glory of (fod : in memory of Major Gcnerall J. E» 
MiclH'll, {\\\,, of Iluish, 10 Sept., ISS.S. 

A pewtrr flagon. 

In liKSTKK. A fine specimen of I. P.'s work. The cup IB 
7 in. high ; there are two bauds of running ornament round 
bowl, and hy|)hcn-ban(ls on kuoj) and foot. These bands arc 
gilt. The rover is j)arcel gilt ; on the button 1574 and the 

1. Proc. xl, ii, 89. 

Ah Inventory of Church Plate. 133 


vitials E. G. Marks : 2 oflSc. ; date-letter for 1573 ; makerV 
wrk, I. P. 

A plain paten on foot, no marks visible. Inscribed : ^ The 
gnifte of Anne Summers 1628/ 

A modem chalice and paten wholly gilt ; inscribed : ' This 
dialice and paten are an offering to the Church of S. Marr 
Hijor Ilchester in loving memory of William Buckler Priest, 
lornearly 40 years Rector of this parish ; Jesu Mercy. Easter 
Dij A.D. 1898. 

Two cruets with silver mountings — * Presented to the church 
^ St Mary, Ilchester, by Arthur George Wichelo, Whitsun- 
<bj A.T). 1896.' 

Ei2r68DON. — The plate here is all modem. It consists of 
two cups parcel gilt and a broad paten on foot. Each piece 
ii inscribed : ' Kingsdon 1831.' A silver flagon, inscribed; 
* Presented to Kingsdon Church by Mrs. Neal, Jan. 1869." 
Laxgport. — A large cup and cover by R. Orange of 
r Sherborne (see introduction to pt. I). It is like the cup at 
Kenstridge, but the ornamentation at the intersections of the 
diets is merely a repetition of the patterns found between 
them ; it is 8^in. high. The button of the cover bears the 
date 1574. The only mark is that of the maker, a circle filled 
with dots. This is a rebus on his name, the marks represent- 
ing a sieve, which in Dorset is called a range, the circle stand- 
ing for the initial letter. 

There is also a modern service consisting of a cup (Victorian 
pattern), paten, dish and flagon ; on this last piece is a dedica- 
tory inscription : * This Sacramental Service was presented by 
Vincent Stuckey, Esq., to the Parish of Langport 1S39.' 
Pewter : a large flagon 13in. high. 

LiMiXGTON. — A handsome cup and cover by 1. P. The 
cup stands 7in. high. There are two bands of interlaced orna- 
ment round the bowl, and bands of hyphen strokes on knop 
and foot. It is inscribed : Limington. Marks : 2 ofKc. ; date- 
letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, I. P. The cover has been 

134 Papers^ Sfc, 

hardly used ; on the button is the date 1573 and the Hebrew 

There is also a plain paten on foot, Gj^in. in diameter. 
Marks : 3 offic. ; and date-letter for 1787. A raodem flagon 
made in 18()1. 

Lo\'G SrxTON. — A large cup and cover of the unintereiU 
ing period of George III. The cup is quite plain, of the eg^ 
cup type ; the paten is after an earlier pattern, and bears on 
the button, I. H., 1782. These initials have not jet beei 
identified. Marks: 2 offic; date-letter for 1781; maker^i 
mark worn away. A modem flagon made in 1887. 

Low Ham. — The ecclesiastical status of the church at Low 
Ham seems to be simply that of a private chapel to a vaniAii 
mansion house. It was endowed by Sir Edward Hext|-o( 
Netherham, by a deed, dated lOth June, 1622 (Proc. xl. i. 38)t 
In his will, dated 10th November, 1623, and proved lUh Maj, 
1624, he ^' is to be buried in the North Isle of the Chappie of 
Netherham, under a tomb which I have caused to be made 
there" (Brown, H^ilis II, 57). The tomb is to be seen in its 
right place {mirahile dicta) at this day, with the figures of Sir 
Edward and Dionis Ilext laid thereon. Collinson sajs 
(iii. 445) "an inscription in the east window of the present 
chapel records that it was founded at the sole ex pence of 
George Stawel, Esq., 2()th May, anno 20 (^ar. II., and coMe- 
crated a.d. 1669." The inscription is now fragmentary, and 
it is not possible to tell how far the copy is an accurate one. 
The first part of the inscription must certainly be wrong by 
the evidence given above, and 1 very much doubt if George 
Stawel did more than restore a ])iiilding, which from its nea^ 
ness to Langport, doubtless suffered much during the cifil 
war. The architecture, debased Gothic, is far more likely to 
belong to the period of Charles I than of his successor. 

The plate consists of a large and plain cup 8^in. high. 
Marks: 2 ofKc. ; date letter for 1664; maker's mark, T.R., 
under a crescent in a shield. The cup bears an inscription : 

An Inventory of Church Plaie. 135 

^Sacelli Low Ham in Comitatu Somerset ex dono Radolphi 
Stawel Armigeri 1665/' Arms : A cross lozengj, on a canton 
I muUett, for the cadency mark of the third son. A paten 
oa foot 6|in. wide, with same marks and inscription. A 
isrge flat-topped flagon with same marks and inscription, 
except that the donor's name is George, and the mullett is 

Sir John Stawel, of Cothelstone, married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter and heir of Sir Edward Hext, and in his will, proved 29th 
Slareh, 1661-2, made his son, George, executor and heir to all 
lis estate. On the monument in Cothelstone Church it is re- 
cofded that he left three sons to survive, John, George, and 
Balph, and here again it is the second son who raises the 
monument ^ patri carissimo.' The cadency mark on the cup 
and paten is a proof that Ralph had two elder brothers as late 
as 1664, or otherwise one would suppose that in spite of the 
inscription trohn had predeceased his father. It looks rather 
■s if the eldest son had become deranged. The second son, 
George, died childless in 1670, and was succeeded by Ralph, 
who was created loth January, 1682-3, Lord Stawel, of 

A plain flat dish with an engraved date 1669. The only 
mark is that of the maker, as on the other pieces. All the 
plate has been gilt by Sir Charles Wathen, late lord of the 

MucnELNEr. — A very handsome cup, with cover of the 
■arly part of the seventeenth century, but having the bowl 
ticircled with a band of the distinctive Elizabethan ornament. 
'he cup is 7|in. high. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1633 ; 
laker's mark R.S., with star and two pellets above, and one 
?Iow in shield. The cover is shallow with raised brim, and 
IS the same marks. Underneath the cup : ' I.B., R.B., 1633, 
bz. lldwt.' 

^V new chalice, paten, and flagon ; each piece is inscril)ed : 
1 honorern D.O.M. et in usum Ecclesiaj S.S. Petri et Pauli 

136 Papers^ 8fc. 

de Muchelnaje d.d. Gulielmus Long et Elizabetha uxor ejiu 
A.I). MDCCCLXXIIl.' The Long family have been owoen 
of the abl)ey for many years. 

NoRTiiovER. — The cup and salver are of plated metal, in- 
scribed : ' Presented to Ilchester Church by Mrs. Shorland, of 
Northover, January, 1849.' This contradictory statement h 
due to the fact that the donor intended these articles for Il- 
chester, but as they were firmly (though we trust politelv) 
declined, passed them on to Northover. 

Of silver, the parish possesses a salver with fluted edge^ 
6f in. across. It is inscribed : ' The gift of John Hody, Eaq, 
to his grandson, .lohn Hody Chichester.' Crest, a stork with 
an eel in its mouth (Chichester). Marks : 2 ofBc. ; date letter 
for 1722 ; maker's mark, a dog statant above the initials T.M. 
— Thomas Morse. 

In the church are several monuments to the families of 
Hody and Chichester. John Hody presented Edward 
Chichester to the rectory in 1713 ; the donee was the latter's 
son-in-law, and eventually succeeded to the property. 

PiTXEY LouTY. — A small Elizabethan cup by I.P., mimw 
its cover. It is of his usual design, with two belts of orna- 
ment round the bowl. Marks : 2 ottic. ; date letter for 1572; 
maker's mark, l.P. A small paten on feet, diam. o^m* 
Marks : 2 offic, : date letter for 1736; maker's mark B.C., in 
shaped punch. It is inscribed : ' The gift of Mrs. Lovell to 
the Church of Pitnev 1738/ No doubt some relation of tbe 
Rev. Edmund Lovell, appointed to the rectory 1724. A 
modern flagon inseril)ed : * Pitney Church restored and re- 
opened •Inly 21st, I87t5. Ilebr. xiii. 20.' 

PoDVMoUE Milton. — An Elizabethan cup, with the single 
mark of a five-pointed star ; also found at Keinton Mandeville 
(157.>), South Barrow (1,376), Charlton Adam (no date), 
Stowell (l.>74;, and Cliafleombe, the rover (lo74). The cup 
here is also not dated. The first four villaufcs are all close to- 
gether, and Stowell is not distant ; and the maker ina^ have 

Ah Inventory of Church Plate, 137 

ired at either Somerton or Castle Cary. He must have been 
I person of some ingenuity, as the mark occurs on three 
different types of bowl. This at Podymore has a V-shaped 
bowl with one band of ornament; there are belts of up- 
right strokes above and below the stem ; and egg-and-dart 
OD the foot. The cover is missing. The only mark is the 

A small paten on foot, diam. o^in. Inscribed on underside : 
^This paten was presented to the cliurch of Puddimore by the 
Venerable Archdeacon Law, in the month of July, 1828/ 
Harks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1729 ; maker's mark, K.B. in 
oblong punch — Richard Bayley. 

A glass cruet, with plated mountings, inscribed : ^ Podymore, 
1863. A thankoffering for mercies received.' 

SoMEKTOX. — A considerable amount of plate, principally 
from additions in the seventeenth century. 

An Elizabethan cup and cover by LP. The cup is 7|in. 
high ; there are two bands of ornament round bowl ; the egg- 
and-dart design is found on the spread of the foot, and on the 
cover. On the bottom is the date 1573. Marks : 2 oftic. ; 
date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, LP. 

At the close of the next century was added a set of extraor- 
dinary size and weight. The cup is lOin. high, and 5§in. 
■cross at the lip ; the stem is composed of annular mouldings ; 
at the foot of the stem is a flange covered with gadrooned 
ornament. The paten is 7|in. in diameter; the flagon is IHin. 
ligh, of tankard pattern ; and last, but certainly not least, 
here is the alms dish which is 1 Q^in. from side to side. All 
hese pieces have the sacred monogram within a rayed circle, 
nd bear the same marks : 2 oflfic. ; date-letter for 1692 ; 
taker's mark, R.L., above a fleur-de-lys, in a shield, probably 
^alph Leeke. 

There is also a primitive paten formed out of a circular 
Iver plate, turned up at the rim. Instead of the ordinary 
liDdrical foot, the paten is supported upon the representation 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part II. s 

138 Papers^ Sfc. 

of a bird's claw in silver. There are no marks or date, 
the paten is the couplet : ^' With pvrged sovles like fined si 
pvre receve that bread which shall for aye endvre." ' 
distich is also found at White Lackington, see post. Wi 
the inscription, which is engraved round the rim, are 
initials R.M., and a shield bearing : Per fesse arg. and m 
pale counterchanged, 3 herons' heads of the second. Tl 
are the arms of Rosse of Shepton Beauchamp ; a membei 
that family having married a daughter and co-heire of J 
Heyron, of Langport, and taken his wife's arms. The Wi 
claw is, of course, that of a heron, which was the badge orci 
of the Hevrons (ride Som. and Dors. N. and Q., vi, pt. 47, 
169). James Rosse, the head of the family in the Visital 
of 1623, describes himself as of Shepton and Somerton. 
had a daughter, Mary, who may have been the donor, as tl 
patens are generally of the latter part of the seventeenth c 

Yeoviltox. — A beautiful cup and cover by Lawre 
Stratford, of Dorchester, whose handy work has hitherto b 
represented in this diocese only by the cup at Weston Bai 
field. The cup is 6 Jin. high ; and has a band of nuui 
ornament of graceful design round the bowl with elaboi 
ornamentations at the intersections of the fillets. On 
spread of the foot is a band of egg-and-dart ornament. ' 
cover is quite plain ; on the button is the date 1574. The( 
mark is the triple one of the maker, a small cross, L. S 
monogram within circle, and a star of six points. 

A flat shallow dish, 8|in. across ; in the centre is the sac 
monogram within a rayed circle ; on the underside, ' Yeovil 
An : Dom : 1700.' The only mark is an oblong punch < 
taining two initials, the first G, the second rather doubi 
but if F, then it is the mark found at Bruton (1706) 

A large pewter flagon, ' Yeovilton,' and another of pi 
meUl, ' Yeovilton, 1872.' 

Au Inrnitor^ ,,f Church Plate. 139 



This District contains 2J ancient parishes and chaiKli-ies, 
1 four modern churclies and mission chapels. Elizabethao 
lie occurs in ten parishes, while five possess nothing earlier 
10 this century. In one parish, however, the absence of 
i;tbtD§r old is due to a burglary. 

C'HAFFt'OMHK. — Here there is an elegant cup by a provin- 
J maker whose initials were M. II. (see introduction). It 
tinils 6^in. high; the bowl is V shaped with the upright lip, 
irbiRli is a peculiarity of the Exeter pattern ; this vi encircled 
■ilh the twisted cable ornament. In addition to this there is 
■Bother band of ornament round the howl. The knop is 
■lender ; the cable pattern is repeattHl on the toot. Marks : 
Id, U. combined iti u monogram within a circle, and a cross 
irith pellets between the arms also in a circle. There are no 
lill-marks or date-letter. The cover is quite j)lain ; on the 
Ibutloo ii the date 1574 ; the only mark is a mullet with Ave 
puinte (v. notes on Uchester District). 

CUAKi). — Two cups, paten, salver, and ttngon all of modem 
d»te, the unnvoidahle necessity of this being explained by the 
JBscriplion on the flagon : ' The ancient Sacramental Vessels 
B Church of Chard sacrilegiously stolen .lanuary, 1842, 
Providentially recovered in a mutilated stute wire recast 
1 the present Holy UtensUg in May, 1842. W. li. White- 
I, M.A., vicar, John Welch and Robert Silvester, church- 


-A modern parish formed 


vlie plat« consists of a chalice and paten silver gilt. (Note 
■ Rev. C. K. Elringlon, vicar.) 

Someraet, 1573.' The cover is of the t 
button is the date 1573; the date-lette: 
previous year. 

Another cup with lower part of the b 
letter ia for the year 1800. It is insci 
the family of Cricket St. Thomas to the 1 
This inBcription is also found on the pa 
have the date-letter for 1 84 1 . 

A salver on three feet with the date-I< 
inscribed : ' Presented to the Parish o: 
Lord of the Manor, ,1. T. B. Notley, Es 
ham, July, 1842.' A monument in th( 
descent of this family for many geueratic 

There is also a pewter bowl at present 

Combe S. Nicholas. — The vessels he 
metal ; they are two cups, paten and flag 

CaEWKEKN't:. — The oldest cup and c( 
hall-mark. The ctip stands 9in. high ; 
shaped with two bands of ornament, th 
round the lip. The ornamentation consit 
of short curved lines ; this and the oth' 
are gilt On the foot is a band of egg 
Marks : ICxeter anriftnt.. an X witU a rrn 

^hiomer, in the Martock Deanery, there will he found some 
^Kce uf another Crewkeruc goldsmith family named Sweet. 
^Bl have not becni able to identify any provincial maikh in 
^H locality as belonging to either family, 
^^uiother eup and cover also parcel-gilt. The cup is 8in. 
^Bi, straight-sidetl, with the side, just at the brim, turning 
^Kigbt tip »o iis to form a ring round the howl ; on this ring 
^Bsgraved a band of the ii»ual Elizabethan ornament coarsely 
^Ke. The belt round the middle of the bowl encloses instead 
^fenament the lettering : R.W.C. WARDENS. The knop 
^H the hyphen ornament, and the foot a modification of the 
^K«iKl-<larL The cover is quite plain, the edge hatched and 
^K; the button is gilt inscribed : ' Crukeru lOU!),' There are 
^Imarks of any description. 

Ha large flat dish, dinm. lOgin. On it are dotted in the 

H|iaUR.F. Marks: 'l oflic. ; date letter for \m?<; maker's 

^Brk K.S. in ubloug punch. A tall silver Hagoii with an in- 

^K[)tion ou the foot: "Presented to the Parish C'hii 

^■ewkenie, by William Sparkes, Esqro,, Feby., 1B47." 

^■CuEWKBRiiii:, Christchukch. — A chapel of ease t 

■ff 1854; it possesses a chalice, paten, and tiagon, uf 

I nediiEval design with the date letter for 18.54. 

[ Ckewkkk>ik, Hkwish. — This mission chapel possesses an 

I electro-plate chalice and paten. (Note by Kev. R. V. Bonsey). 

Cricket Malbubie. — A chalice, paten, and Hagon of 

modeni medieval design, silver-gilt, with the date letter for 


C'bil-KKT S. Thomas, — Moat of the plate here is modern, 

■4tCOn8i3ts of a silver-gilt cup, with the date letter for 1«U8, 

KlKabed : " Presented by Viscount Bridport to the Church of 

fcricket S. Thomas, Somerset." The Hagon, with the date letter 

for 1h09, bears the same inscription. Alexander Hood, Viscount 

Bri<l[>ort, Senior Admiral of England, lies in the little church. 

His name and services would be far better known to his 

eountryinen, but that he had the fortune to be contemporary 

leh of 


142 Papers^ ^c. 

with Nelson. A small paten, with the date-letter for 18SS^ 

inscribed : "Church, Cricket S. Thomas, 1825," 

Of the ancient plate there only remains a broad salver, llin. 
across ; it is principally brim with a shallow depression in Ali 
centre. Marks : 2 offic. ; date letter for 1674 ; maker's maik^ 
W.G. with small object below in heartnahaped punch. OnAs : 
brim are the initials K.H., dotted in with flourishes. Marganli 
daughter and heir of John Preston, of Cricket S. Tlioiiii% 
had married, before 1648, John Hippisley of Stoneaston, anl 
in the will of Catherine Preston, proved in that year, li«r 
'grandchild, Margaret Hippisley and her daughter Catharine* 
are mentioned (Brown, Somerset Wills I 11^ 92). In 168S, 
Elizabeth Buckland in her will mentions Mrs. ('atherine \ 
Hippisley (Brown v. 73); so it may well be that this My \ 
spelt with a K was the donor. 

CuDWOUTH. — The only piece of silver plate here is aimsll 
cup of the baluster stem pattern. It stands 6in. high, and,ii 
is usual with this type in this period, has no ornament. Marb: 
2 offic. ; date-letter for 1656 ; maker's mark C.P. above a stir 
in shield. 

A flat dish of plated metal and a glass cruet. 

DiXNiX(iT()X. — A handsome cup and cover, parcel-gilt, bj 
the provincial maker, whose initials were M.H. (see introduc- 
tion). The cup is 7^in. high ; the lip of the bowl is turned up 
straight and decorated with interlaced cable ornament, which 
is also found on the foot and on the cover. Round the bowli« 
a band of conventional ornamentation. Marks : the only one« 
are the maker's, tlie initials M.H. combined in monogram, and 
a cross with pellets between the arms. On the button of the 
cover, which has the same marks, is the date 1574. A paten 
and (li«h of plated metal. 

DowLisii Wake. — The parish possesses only modem plate. 
A plain cu]), parcel gilt, with the date-letter for 1806. Another 
cup of similar design, and a salver supported on three feet 
Each piece has the date-letter for 1807, and a dedicatory io* 

Ah Inventory of Church Plate. 143 

iption : ^ Septimus CoUinson, D.D. 1809.'' The donor was 
I rector of the parish. 

East Lambrook. — A handsome cup and cover by LP. 
tie cup is GJin. high ; the bowl is straight-sided with two 
uids of ornament, which is also found on the foot; on the 
Dop the hyphen ornament, and at either end of the stem bands 
f small designs. Marks: 2 ofSc. ; date-letter for 1*572; 
Biker's mark T.P. The cover is of the usual pattern with a 
nod of ornament ; on the button is the date 1573. 

There is also a paten of later date and unusual design. It 
j 5)in. across, and has a shallow depression within a wide 
brim. The outer edge of the brim is alternately scalloped 
»ith projecting angles between. The brim itself is pierced 
nth oblong openings radiating from the centre. On the under- 
Me are dotted in * I.H. 1637.' Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter 
!or 1624 ; maker's mark nearly worn away. 

HixTON St. George. — Whatever plate of either public or 
mvate donation the parish possessed was got rid of in the 
'arly part of this century, and replaced by some typical speci- 
Dens. These comprise a large cup inscribed ' 1815 ; ' a paten 
nscribed ' Hinton St. George,' with date-letter for 1813, and 

plate of the same date inscribed, ' The gift of Thomas 
^eagley 1813, Hinton S. George.' The donor was steward to 
'ord Poulett. 

KrxosBi'RY Episcopi. — The parish has a good cup and 
>ver by I. P. The cup is 7f in. high ; the bowl has two 
indsof the usual ornament, hyphen marks on knop and upper 
rt of foot; egg-and-dart on the lower ])art. Marks: 2 
ic. ; date-letter for 1573; maker's mark, 1. P. The cover 
of the usnal shape with a band of ornament ; on the button 
the date 1573. The marks are the same Jis on the eup. 
A plain dish, diam. 9in. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 
30 ; maker's mark partly obliterated ; the initials, T. T. 
low a rose and crown = Thos. Tcfirle. 
A flagon of moderate size with round-topped lid. Marks : 

144 Papers^ ^c, 

2 offic. ; date-letter for 1 749 ; maker's mark, R. G. and T. C. 
in quadrate punch, being the trade mark of Gurney and Co., 
entered 1739. On the flagon is this inscription : "The gift of 
James (iould Gent, to the Parish Church of Kingsbury in the 
County of Somersett Whose Family lyes Enter'd in a Vault 
the South side of the Churchyard neare the Church 1749.*' 
Following these directions it was not difficult to discover the 
family vault and the high altar-tomb erected upon it. At one 
end is a shield bearing a lion rampant, the blazon being accord- 
ing to a monument in the church : per saltire or and azure, a 
lion rampant counterchanged. Crest, a demi-lion ramp. or. 
Two other sides of the tomb are covered over with pernicious 
ivy. On the south face : Here lyeth y© Body of James Gould 
late of London Gent, who acquired a handsome fortune with 
a Good Character. He gave fifty pounds to five poor widows 
of this parish, and y© like sume to five poor widdowes of 
Ilminster. A worthy example. He dy'd Feb. 25, 1750, aged 
51. Here also are interred I" & M^y two more of his children; 
Exeunt omnes. (This last paragraph has been added later.) 
Here lyeth inter'd the Body of Mrs. Mary Gould Wife of 
flames Gould citizen and Goldsmith of London, and daughter 

of Dampier of Blackford Gent. Who departed this 

Life ye 10 day of Feb. 17 . . in y« 54 year of her age. With 
her lieth five of her children William John Henry Mary and 
Mary Gould each under Two years of age." James Gould 
must have been a member of his Company by 1722 as he then 
entered his mark, his initials combined in a monogram. Cripp 

Kingston E. — This parish possesses a handsome cup and 
cover by the same maker as of that at Compton Dimdon (see 
above). The cu[) stands 7iin. high. The bowl is straight- 
sided with two bands of running ornament much resembling 
the handiwork of I. P. ; there is another band of ornament on 
the foot, and on the flat a band of egg-and-dart ornament. 
Marks: 2 oftic. ; date-letter for 1573; maker's mark, the 

An Inventory of Ckmrch Plate. 1 45 

iais H.W. in shaped punch. The coTer is a good match 
I the domed part encircled with a band of ornament ; on 
button, 1573 ; marks, same as on cop. 
ewter : a dish ; a bowl marked K S. 1772 ; and a large 
m inscribed ^ Kingstone 1633/ 

NOWLE S. Giles. — The pkte is all modem. It consists 
cup silver gilt, paten on foot, and salrer, with the date- 
r for 1840 ; also a flagon of the date 1848. The earlier 
is that of the rebuilding of the church. 
OPEN. — The parish possesses a cup and cover of the 
rgian period. The cup stands 7^in. high ; the bowl is 
e plain, and merges gradually into the stem, which is en- 
ed with a rudimentarr knop ; the foot is moulded. The 
r fits loosely on the cup ; the button is inscribed : " W. 
tns, churchwarden of Lopen, 1739.'* Marks on cup : 2 
; date-letter for 1738 ; maker's mark in oblong punch, the 
lis R.B. — Robert Brown. The cover has onlv the last 
: struck four times. 

ERRiOTT. — The communion plate is all modern of mediaeval 
•n. Chalice silver-gilt (date-letter for 1883) is inscribed : 
e Holy Vessels restored Xmas., 1883, Donald C'laxton, 
, B. B. Norton, H. G. Whitley, churchwardens. Two 
IS, one inscribed: "D. D., Joseph Cross, M.A., vicar 
erriott, 1836, Jan. 14.'' This has probably been trans- 
i from an earlier gift. Two glass cruets with silver 

large pewter flagon, tankard pattern, inscribed : " 1680, 
am Mills, Josias French, churchwardens." 
STEKTON'. — A cup and cover with the Exeter hall-mark, 
•-gilt. The cup stands 7^in. high, and greatly resembles 
atterns of the eighteenth century. The bowl is trumpet- 
ul and rounded at the base ; it has one band of a parody 
lament round the bowl ; the stem is long with a knop ; on 
pread of the foot is a modification of the egg-and-dart 
nent. The only mark is that of the Exeter mint, an X 

'ol. XL V (Third StritH, Vol. Vj, Part I J. t 


I>aprr>. ^c. 

I kIxivv in ft cmrip- On the buttoo oE tl 
mv ornHmcntal floiimh«s dotted id « 

with a cr< 
cover arc 

Tliorc nr(! aUii a pateu on a fmit, dish, and l^rge 
pinted metal. 

Skabdboi (iii.^The cup here ib a good cxampU 
workmanship, thuufrh. unforhmately, it has loM 
The cup i«tand« 7^iii. liigh ; the bowl is conical with 
upri|[ht moulding of the lip : there is one band (rf 
ornumenUtiun inclosed within putched lilletf^, whieb H 
thi'ungh open loxeiiges. ltand» of cgg-aiid-tlnrt 
be found alwvc and Ik-Iow stem, nnd on the foot. T| 
marks are the Exeuu- halUniark (.see under Miitl 
that of the maker IONS within ubiong pum-b. duha 
Kxeter, Kuumhed in tlie early part of the reign of Eliul 
Underneath is eeratched : .!n. T, Stevenn, isatt. 

There are also a »niall paten, dish, and flagun of i 
mo<lem Biibstitntc for ailver, whieh is to be hoped do not t\ 
sent the vanished cover. 

StCAvixoToN S. Mauv.— The cup le of 
deBigu, It stands Sjfin. high. The lower part of t]i« 
repousee, with tinted patterns tcrniinatnig in a belt of' 
with small engraved ornaments aUive. The upper 
circled wilh a projecting rib roiighlv designed ynth 
pattern. Between this rib and the belt of creBCCDta 
ueription : " Joseph and (iiles llutchens, church ' 
Seoington Marj, Anno Domini 1715." There are 
markis but two paim of marks neither very distinct ; tM 
\»t [wHiap», a full blown rose ; the necond defies even aguui 
The flutings, found also on the foot of the cup, are a very tfl- 
tinctive feature in the cuji at Evei'creech, prolmble date ftboot 
170tt. The stem is plain with an annular knop. The potCD ot 
the usual design on fool has the date-letter for l«.il ; this dlt« 
is also engraved on the under side. 

SEAVi.\o'iO-\ S. MiLHAKL. — The silver pUbe is all mod^ 

Ufi Popn 

with a crown above in a circle. Oo the balloo «Ciri 
L-over are some ornamental flourishes t)utt«il in trith t 

Tliere are ahii a patt-n on n fiiot, dish, anil lafgu fl 
plated metal. 

SkaikiRdI (;il. — Tlie cu)i here i» a good example of 1 
workmanship, though, unfortunately, it has loat it* I 
Th(! cup stands T^in. high ; the bowl is conical with d 
iipri^iht mouMiug of the lip ; there is one bi 
urnamenlalion inclosed within patched fillets, ^ 
through open lozenges. Uands of egg-and-dart fl 
be found above and below otern, and on the foot, 
marks are the Exeter hall-mark (see under MiHte 
that of the maker K^NS within oblong punch. .Fuho Im 
Exeter, flourished in the early part of the reign of EIiki 
Uri<lenu-ath is scratched : .In. T. Stevens, 1828. 

There are also a small paten, dish, and flagon of i 
motlern 8id>stitute for silver, which is to be hoped do not rcjip 
donl tbc vanished cover. 

Sk.vvixoton S- Maky. — The cup is of a nondei 
lU'oign. It stands 5Jin. high. The lower part of the l 
r*>pon»(V. with fluted patterns terminating in a belt of o 
with Mniull engraved ornaments above. The upper pi 
I'iii'lwi with a projecting rib roughly designed with t 
{MtttTU. Between this rib and the belt of creacenta is i 
Miri]itiou : " loseph and Giles Hutchens, church ww 
HiiuiuKtuH Mary, Anno Domini 1715." There are oo t 
markH, lint two (wirs of mnrks neither very distinct; ( 
In, |n'rhit|M, a full blown rose ; the second deties even ag 
The fliiliuK*, found also on the foot of the cup, h 
llui'live iHiliin' iu (he cup at Evercrecch, probable (l&teN 
ITlU). 'I'liii Htem is plain with an annular knop. The p 
■ III' untiiil ilexigu on fool husthe dnto-Icttcr for IH.11 ; 
i* Hlmt iin)(raviMl on I he under side, 

MMAVtxuTUN 8. MiiuARi..— The silver plate is al 

An Itirentori/ of Chnrrh Phile. 

MisUU of a Clip and jmten, with the date-letter for 1840. 
a sulver dated l»61. 

oiTll i*KTiii:i{Tax,--Tliis ancient town han a good deal 

iat(?resting plate. First of all there is a fine silver-gilt ciip 

1 cover hy I, P. (see illustration from a photograph kindly 

m by <i. S, Poole, Esq.) The cup stands 9Jin. high ; the 

rl id slightly trnmpet-ahaped ; there is one large and 

Hborate band of ornament, the inclosing bands interlacing 

gh a transverse fignre of eight. There is a good deal nf 

(Ted ornament on the other parts of the cup, and on the 

', which has the date \oTh on the bnttoii. Marks : 2 

; date letter for 1573 ; maker's mark I. P. 

A large tiat-topped Hagon, tankard-patteni. silver-gilt, 9(] 

;,beigbt, with large foot and handle. On the front of (1 

H: QttTijpiov Ayomj*. Marks ; 2 offic. of Brit, sterling ; 

■nOdem Exeter hall-mark, 3 castles in a shield ; date- 

n'for 1716 ; maker's mark. El in old English letters, nnder 

crown in a circle, probably KUton of Exeter. On the Hagon 

this inscription : " Ex dono Arturi Bury, A.M., Anno Dom. 

716." Under the foot ' South Petherton." 

A palen on foot, silver-gilt, GJin. aeroiis, witli the same 

iiarkB and inscription as on the tiagon. On the paten : Afiros 

anav. Another paten of the same shape and size, in- 

ibed: 'South Petherton 1774.' Marks: 2 offic. ; date- 

fttrr for 1774 ; maker's mark W.C. in oblong punch. 

Avery heavy dish, SJin. across, inscribed: 'The greatest 

if these is charity,' Marks: 2 offic; date-letter for 1724; 

iker's mark R.U, in oblong punch — Kichard Bayley. There 

■ ttlsoa dedicatory inscription: "The gift of Mrs. Klinabetli 

Foivne* to the Church of South Petherton 1724." In the 

a shield surroimded by mantling bearing : A horse bridli 
Cabell), imp. 2 chevrons (Aysh). Crest, a horse bridled. 
The following details concerning the donors are taken froi 
South Petherton in the ( >lden Time ' by Dr. Norria, revised 
lit., Itj82. 



148 Paprrty Jr. 

^* In the chancel of our church is a stone shib to the memorv 


of Arthur Burr, S.T.P., who died May Srd, 1713, at the Mge 
of 91. The donor of the plate above mentioned was probibl/ 
a son of the Dr. Burr, and we may presume it to hare been 
presented as a loving filial memento of a loving parent ? Tlitt 
Mrs. Fownes was a daughter of William Ajsh, the Kojalist j 
[of Hele in South Petherton]. She was twice married. Her j 
first husYmnd was Samuell Cabell, a Devonshire gentleinio 
who died in 1699. Her second husband was Richard Fownes, 
of Sta])leton, in Dorsetshire, who left her a widow in 1714. 
She herself died in 1724, the date on the almsdish, so that it 
was in all probability a legacy. The arms are those of Cabell 
impaling Aysh, and were doubtless copied in error from the 
shield on her first husband's monument in the north transept 
of our church." 

Tatwortii. — This is a new parish, and includes die 
southern ]X)rtion of C*hard parish. The church was opened Id 
1851. The plate consists of a chalice with date-letter for 
1856, a paten of the year following, both these pieces of silver, 
and a plated Hagon. [Communicated by the Rev. H. S.King, 

Wayford. — Here is a diminutive vet beautiful Elizabethan 
cup and cover. The cup is 5yyin. high ; the bowl is trumpet- 
shaped with one band of well designed ornament with upright 
sprays at the intersections. The stem is short with a plain 
knop ; on the foot is the egg and dart ornament. Marks: 
2 ottic. ; date-letter for 1570; maker's mark, the letters T.E. 
com})ined in a monogram ; this mark is found on plate in two 
Dorset parishes in this very year. The cover is quite plain, 
with the same marks. 

Two dishes of white metal, inscribed : Presented to Way- 
ford Church by Anne, Eliza, and Maria, daughters of its late 
rector, Richard Svmes Cox. June, 1858. 

A pewter flagon, inscribed : Gul. .Foh. Comper, D.D., -.Edi 
Wayfordiensi, 1871. 

f-^Chnrch Pint,-. 149 

Wmitk Stanton. — The only piece of silver here is a small 
i«9up (>{ the baluster stem pattern. It standi C|in. Iiigli. and m 
-|*erf i-<'i ly devoid of ni-nameiitation. Marks: 2 ofHc. ; dHte- 
fiir 165S; maker's mark, the initials U.N. with a mullet 
and beneath in a shield. On the bowl are the initials 
'.h., T.D.. Ifi59, dotted in. 

■A ^Ir88 cruet with silver mounting)). Pewter, a flagnn dish 
small ImjwI. Of modern plat«d metal, a flagon, paten, and 

ffissuAM. — An Elizabethan cup and cover, though not of 

same date, or by the same maker. The cup is a handsome 

iroen of 1,1*. 'a work. It is 6}in. high, with a deep bowl 

icircled with two bands of ornament. Marks : 2 oftic. ; 

yte-letter for 1.57.1 ; maker's mark, I, P. The cover is of the 

,1 pattern, with one hand of ornament ; on the button the 

1.573 is engraved. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1570 ; 

kers mark, the initials H.S. combined in a monogram with- 

ihield, probably Henry Suttoa. 

Another cup is of the baluster stem pattern with a broad 

shallow bowl. As itsual there is no ornament, for which 

lere would have been plenty of room, for il stands 7iin, high. 

the bowl is 4jin. across. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 

i ; maker's mark nearly worn away. It is inscribed : " A 

lift to the Church of Winaham." A plain paten on foot 6iin. 

089. with the Barac inscription as on the cup. Marks ; 2 

■• of Brit, sterling ; dale-letter for 17tl(* ; maker's mark, the 

titers B O. with a small ornament beneath in plain shield, 

irhaps a variation of John BiKldinglon's mark, which gener- 

!y has a mitre above the letters. 

A small flagon, taukanl pattern, with the Sacred Monogram 
dnini. Marks: 2 offic; date-letter for 1759; maker's 
lark almost obliterated. There is an inscription underneath : 
To the Revd. Geo. Ware, M.A., as presented to him for the 
of St. Stephen's Church, Winsham, by W. ^ A. Taylor, 
Icptember, IH59." 

150 Plapers, |rr. 


Tbt0 portion of the C'rewkeme Deimerj ocmtane 
four ancient parishes and one modem district, 
jdate will be found in fifteen parishes. 

Ash ILL. — This parish has a handsome Elizabethan cmp mi 
coTer, bj the provincial maker, whose initials were M.fl. (aM 
introduction). The cup stands 7|in. high ; the ei^raTedbnl 
are gilt. Round the lip, which follows the Exeter palte^^ii| 
belt of the twisted cable pattern ; round the middle of III 
bowl is a band of the conventional ornament ; the kDopisni|||{ 
thin. The cover has a band of the same ornament as on Ihlj 
bowl ; on the button is an elaborate Tudor rose enclosii^ liMj 
date 1574. Marks (found on both pieces) : (1) die initiak 
M.H. combined in a monogram within a circle, (2) a crM: 
with a pellet between the arms of the cross, also in a circle; 
no hall-marks or date-letter. 

A salver on three feet, diam. 8|in. Marks : 2 offic. ; dati^ 
letter for 1769 ; maker's mark I.K. in oblong punch, perhapi 
tieremiah King. In the centre is this inscription : " AshilL 
Ex done Thomae Alford A.M. & P.W. qui banc Patinam in 
usum hujusce Exclisiae pro animi ardore dedicavit Decembru 
25, 1769." In the church there is a monument to the memory 
of the donor, from which we learn that P.W. means prebend- 
ary of Wells. 

Bakkington. - An Elizabethan cup and cover by I.P.,aiid 
so exactly resembling his other pieces as not to require a de 
tailed description. On the button of the cover is the dati 
lo73. Marks (same on both pieces) : 2 offic. ; date-letter fo 
1573 ; maker's mark LP. 

A plain paten on foot, diam. 7^in., with moulded edge 
Marks: 2 oific. ; date-letter for 1723; maker's mark, th 
initials T.T., the rest of the mark is obliterated, but probabl 
that of Thomas Tearle. The paten is inscribed : " Hsec patell 
data fuit in usum sacrie ecclesiae per Anna. Strode 1723." I 

An liunilory nf Church Phle. 

^fientre of the paten ia a creet — on a wi-eath a wjvern or 

»D ram^. A ^niall Bagon on a wide-spreading foot. The 

irka are the same as on the paten, with the exception of the 

»te-]etter, which is for the year 1724. On the drum of the 

;on, surroiindod by mantling, is a shield bearing : Ermine, 

I a canton sa. a crescent arg. Crest, a demi-lion ramp. 

Inscription : " Ex dono Gulielmi Strode Arniigeri 

rclesia; de Harrington 1724." William Slrode was 

be fourth of that name in giiccessiou, and the third who lived 

piBarrington Court. His first wife, Anna, was the donor of 

le paten ; unfortunately her maiden name is not known, and 

8 borne hy too many families to supply a clue. He 

Buried, secondly, ilane Lnnghome, and ob. s.p. 1745, his will 

leing proved 25 Feb., 174fi. See the pedigree of the Strode 

mily in the Proc. xxx, ii 68, 69. 

Bekucriicombk.— A small cup and cover hy LP. The 

np is C^in. high ; the bowl has two belts of the usual conven- 

ponal ornament. Marks: *2 ofht:. ; date-letter for 1572; 

baker's mark I. P. The cover is of the ordinary pattern, 

rith a belt of ornament. On the button is the date 1.77.3, 

marks as on cup. 

An electro-plated flagon and a brass dish used as a paten. 

BicKEXUALL. — The vessels here are all electro - plate. 

liey include n cup and paten, another paten on foot, a plate, 

nd a tiagoii. Each piece i» luscribed : " Mtckcnhall, 1841," 

They are very good of their kind. 

UnOAl>wAY. — ^Another cup, minus the cover, by I.P., and 
almost a fac simile of the one last described, Marks : 2 otBc. ; 
pdate-letter for 1572 ; maker's mark I, P. 

small salver with elegantly worked edge, on three feet. 
^arks ; 2 oflic. of Hrit. sterling ; date-letter for 1 705 ; maker's 
lark P Y., below a rose and crown, ;>,, Henjamin Pyne. 
An electro-plated Hagon. 

BrcKLASD S. M.\KY. — A handsome modem mediteval 
Bliahce and paten, silver-gilt and jewcllud with appropriate 

' ^H^ 


Kjmer^ : Imou. Ik dtief two ea^lett dispbiTed, m 
y^vrnwes'. Thamm Fowma. of Stepktom 
I>K9«es.i& ko^ w5I pr7T«ii T^ y«yr. I<7«X ■emioot his dangidcr 
Bi!]a«^ cfae iBkfC '-^os 'Hie *i£ & ka^ ^buIt all mder age. Tins 
wiD E» prirnVfi in Bryvu's ^Mfefrscf 99Ws. scries ir, 98, aid 
the edifioG haTe «ii*ii tiu^ mfiii ■■!■!■ dau Roae Fowses 
IS SjorxL P«dsiff^HL. 10 Sept. 1701. Gilbert Kermer. 
:eh wa^ ife> 'i? jacc nB»ie vhile Rose vms stajii^ with 
iher. RKbard. w\mi Ittl married Elizibediy 
vidov o{ Samoell CabeC and dai^hter of William Ajsh, cif 
SoGth Pethert^?«i ^ee opxc^ oo that place above). Gilbert 
Kejmer inherited hi? pn>pertj at Bocklaiid from his remote 
ancestor. EDis Kermer. ':{ Pendomer. who married Mtrr, 
daughter and co-heires? of John Bevyiu of Lofton, ob., 1554. 
Gilbert died 21 Dec l"il. aged 69, so recorded bv CoUinflOO 
(I, 21 ;. who also set* down that Rr^?e Kymer, his widow (the 
donor of the flagon*, died on the 16th March, 1739-40, aged 
39, which is. of course, a palpable error. The entries in the 
register, furnished br the Rer. W. H. Lance, rector of Buck- 
land, show that the rest of the information may be relied on. 

CuKLAXi>.— The cup and cover are by the unknown pro- 
vincial silversmith whose initials were M.H. (see introduction). 
The cup is 6^iu. high ; round the lip of the bowl straightened 
up in the Exeter style is a band of interlaced fillets, the space 
l>etween lieing left plain ; there is another band of conventional 
ornament round the bowl, on the foot is a Imnd of interlaced 
'•«ble pattern. Marks : I, M.H., combined in monogram with- 

Ah Inventory of Church Plate, 1 53 

ia circle ; 2, a cross with pellets in the angles, also within 
circle. The same marks are found on the cover; this has a 
bind of interlaced cable pattern ; on the button is engraved an 
eUborate Tudor rose inclosing the date 1574. 

Curry Mallett. — The Elizabethan plate here, though 
not by the same maker, greatly resembles that at Curland. 
Like that, it no doubt comes from Exeter, as the maker's 
name, hitherto unknown, is given at full length, but the dis- 
tinctive mark of the Exeter mint is wanting. The cup is 6|in. 
lugh; the ornamentation and engraving are almost exactly 
thit on the cup at Curland. The only mark is the maker's 
name enclosed in two punches — I. NORTH. The cover has 
the same mark ; on the button encircling a rose is a fillet en- 
closing the date 1574. 

There is also a flagon, tankard pattern, with flat top, lOin. 

high. Marks: 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1620; maker's mark, 

I.H., with rose beneath, in shaped punch. On the drum there 

w dotted in a lozenge, bearing 6 mullets, 3, 2, 1 (Walsh). 

This single coat in a lozenge, azure and or, is to be seen on a 

flionument in Curry Mallett church. On the monument is a 

%ure of a kneeling woman with two smaller figures below. 

The inscription has vanished, and the registers not being in 

(•xistence before 1653, the only clue to the age of the momi- 

ment is the costume, which is that of the early seventeenth 

century. The head of the Walsh family lived at Ciithanger, 

in the adjoining parish of Fivehead. John Walshe, justice of 

the Common Pleas, by his will proved 5 June, 1572, left to his 

!ialf-brother, Thomas Walshe, of Stowey (a manor in Five- 

liead), certain lands in ' Stowey, Fyfet, Cory ^lallet and 

Wrantage.' In Brown's Somerset Wills ^ ser. iv, pp. 8, 9, 

n'ill be found wills of members of the Walshe family, resident 

it Fivehead, though of a rather later date than the flagon. 

CruHV RiVKL. -There is rather more variety in the plate 
sliest of this parish than is usual. The oldest pieces of the 
Lommunion vessels are a cup and cover of the early part of 

Vol, XLVf Third Series, Vol. rj. Part II. 


l.>4 Papers, Sfc. 

the seventeenth century. The cup is T^va. high with a ( 
bowl unadorned bv any engraring, and a moulded i 
Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1637 ; maker^s mark 
anchor between the initials D.G. in shield. The cover 
the usual pattern without the useful flange found on the ea 
pieces ; it has the same marks as the cup, but the date-lett 
two years earlier. Then there is another cup and cov< 
enormous proportions. The cup is 9§in. high ; the bowl i8 
across at lip, 5^in. in depth, and 4in. in diameter at the 
Round this capacious vessel are two bands of interlacing i 
which enclose wavy lines, evidently a reminiscence of 
Elizabethan ornamentation. There are some more patten 
in the middle space, which are also repeated on the stem 
foot. This part of the cup is also decorated with flat 1< 
applique round the bottom of the bowl and the stem. Or 
bowl is an inscription : " This was given By John Coat 
the use of the Parish of Curry Rivell Anno Dni. 1692." 
only mark is a punch with scalloped edge containing 
initials I. A., struck thrice. These initials in a punch of n 
the same shape are found on the paten-cover at Goatbill, 
Milbonie Port, probably made in 1711, but without any 
marks. The cover of the cup is of correspK)nding dimer 
and ornamentation without any marks at all. 

There is also here a beautiful little saucer or shallow 
It is o^in. in diameter ; the interior is divided by raised 
into compartments with punched patterns. The two ha 
are shaped like escallop shells. On the shield in the c( 
boss is the dedicatory inscription : " The guift of Alex. Jc 
1640." Marks ; 2 othc. ; date-letter for 1634 ; maker's 
illegible. Another of these beautiful and valuable exai 
of domestic plate of the pre-rebellion era is at Charlton 
grove in Hruton Deanery. 

Don Y ATT. -The oldest piece of plate here is the covei 
vanished Elizabethan cup. It is of the usual pattern, \> 
band of running ornament round brim ; on the button. 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 155 

Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for J 574 ; maker^s mark, I. P. A 
Ull and plain cup of the ordinary early seventeenth century 
pattern, but the foot has no mouldings or flange, and approxi- 
mates to the later flat-foot designs. Marks : 2 oflSc. ; date- 
letter for 1639; maker's mark, I.S. with pellet below in shaped 

A silver-gilt paten of mediaeval design with the dedicatory 
inscription: "Presented to Donyatt Church in memory of 
E.T.W. 1871." They are the initials of Edward Tristram, 
infant son of R. F. Woodward, Rector of Donyatt for about a 
year and a quarter previous to his death on 15th Oct., 1872. 
[Conunimicated by the Rev. A. B. C. Beechey, rector.] 

Dkayton. — This parish possesses a very fine example of 
the work of I. IONS, of Exeter, also found at Seaborough 
(see above). The cup stands 6Jin. high ; the bowl has the 
"ni or lip straightened upright in the distinctive Exeter 
Pattern; on the bowl is a band of ornament, with the inter- 
facing fillets hatched ; there are bands of upright lines above 
^'^d below the stem, and on the foot. The egg-and-dart orna- 
'^cot is also engraved on the foot. The knop, as usual, is 
^^^y thin. Marks (struck twice) : Exeter ancient, />., within 
^ circle a X crowned between two pellets ; maker's mark, 
within oblong punch, IONS on bowl; on foot, lONNS ; in 
either case without the initial I usually found before the sur- 
name. The cover is of the ordinary pattern with a Tudor 
^•086 on the button. Only marks, Exeter hall-mark and IONS. 
This maker's mark is found on plate within the period 1571-79. 
A modern paten of mediaeval .design, inscribed: "Deo 
Grratias. Dedicated to the service of God in the Church of 
S. Catherine Drayton, Septem})er 6th, 1891." The donor was 
Mrs. Mattei-son, formerly resident. 

FivEiiEAD. — An Elizabethan cup and cover by I. P. Both 
pieces exactly resemble the rest of his work. The cup is Gin. 
high. Marks : 2 ottic. ; date-letter for 1572 : maker's mark, 
l.P. On the button of the cover is the date 1573. 

156 Piitpenj Ipe, 

Of pewter there are two dishes mud cme Im0od, 
flagoD of some plated metaL 

Hambkidge. — A modem paridi formed out of CunrjRiTel 
in 1844, with the ancient anecnre parish of Eamdiin aid 
detached portions of other places throwii in. The originil Mt 
of vesseb are electro-plate, comprising a cop, two patem^ ilid 
a flagon. There are also a chalice and paten of white OMtil 
gilt, inscribed: ^In memory of Cliarles Stephen Graeber, ^ 
fiftT-one rears Vicar of St. James\ Hambridge, 1843-18]^.*' 
'Notes supplied bj the Rct. C. L. Maraon, Vicar.j 

Hatc fi Bealc H AMP. — A cop of the Georgian period, 7}ii. 
high, with an encircling rib roond the bowL on which is tk 
Sacred Monogram. Marks nearly obliterated; the dite- 
letter is for 1752. A large and plain paten on foot, 8in.icroK 
In the centre is the Sacred Monogram. Marks : 2 oflk. of 
Brit, steriing; date-letttf for 1713; maker*s mark, an tnchor 
between the letters P O — Thomas Port. Another cnp witk i 
coTer. on the button of which is the date 1 794. The cnp is 
ojin. high, with a irumpet-Ahaped bowl. On the foot i« 
ensrareil 'Hatch.* Marks: 3 olfic. : date-letter for 17M; 
makers inark It.B. in oblong punch. A silrer dish, 9in. 
acrcfcs^ with the date-letter for 1839. 

Ile Abb»»tts. — The vessels are of plated metal; thej 
in^mprise :i cu[\ paten, salver, and flagon. There are also two 
}vwter !?ai^>:l^ v^f dirf^ereiit measures, each initialled I. A. 

li.F. Bkk.\\ EU>. — Here there is an interesting Eliiabetiuui 
oup bj the s,n:ne maker as of the cup at North Perrott, It 
stainis TJin. hi*:-- ^ith a deep bowl. This has one band of 
orn,-^mou;cit:vM: jrilt w:th tiaK^rate spmvs below the inte^ 
stvtions v^f :he n/.-.ts. I'lyler the bowl and on the spread of 
the fvs*; i< a :xv;.>!ar itsrir-: t' Iii:k or chain ornament like 
that vMi the v ;;r a: \V^>>: \, '.inti-.x^k P^'c. xHv. iL 187). The 
kuop i< plain. Marks : - v^So. ; Jate-leiter for 1570; makers 
)UMvk« in a *ha{H\i shit \i a stairs head oaboshed. The corer 
in m^ioh latov; it is quitr I'tain without anr flai^. Marks: 

An Invnitory of Church Plef*^ 

; date-letter for 1760; maker's tiinrk Hlniosl effaced. 

, two plates. 

SLMiNSTiiK. — The EliKaliethan plate here is of an uQiisiial 

ign and date. The bowl of the cup (gilt within) is V 

id, and devoid of ornament, the stem and foot are of the 

»ler stem pattern, with the sloping foot without any 

to break the outline. The cup is 7^in. high. 

S! 2 oflie. ; date-letter for 1.59^ ; maker's mark almost 

, but perhaps a double-he ad eil eagle, a mark given in 

P. under 15!*7. The cover is domical in outline, with an 

Biborate spirelet on (he apex, instead of the usual flat button. 

« the same marks as the cu]j. 

I A broad paten on foot, SJiu. across, with plain dm. 

; i offic. : date-letter for 1633 ; maker's mark rather 

1, hut probably the initials l.M. and a pig passant below. 

Another paten and flagon of modern design, given by a for- 

aer Vicar. The fii'st piece ia inscribed ; Presented by J. H, 

UuleB Clerk A.M. Vicar of llrainster Easter 1848 : S. John 

i 35. On the flagon : "Presented by J. H. Mules Clerk 

LM, Vicar of Ilminster Eaater 1848 in memory nf .1. H. 

fules Clerk A.M. late Vicar of Ilmiuster and 40 years 

Master of the Endowed Cirammar School died July 4 1822 

•e«l 67. Sarah his wife died Mareli 12 1842 ageii 82. Sarah 

^■nne their daughter wife oE Robert Young died July 31 

' **25 aged 41. Mary Anne wife of J. H. Mules Clerk A.M. 

** •«! Oct. 23 1826 aged 36. Mary Anne Howard their dangh- 

*-^rdied May 5 18.^3 aged 16. John William their son died 

•* Illy Ig't 1847 aged 22." 

There is also a fine example of the Edmond's cup pattern. 

llD fortunately deprived of its steeple. These handsome enps. 

which examples have already been noted at Vartington, 

lugton and Odcombe, were in vogue diu-ing the reign of 

s 1. Though, of course, originally intended for domestic 

, in the course of time a considerable number have been 

idicated to the service of the Sanctuary. The general 

*-#•? Fltp^T9m ^^* 

of 4iirii a «mp vfll be hnft BBdervtood br 
air ^iu! :iliucnd«in of du* YarGofrtoti cop in fVvr. xliii, n 
T^ff I:miiiHsmr 'nip if» ^iivA^r ^ilt. awi 1 l|^iii. high ; the 
•cyiit 'if 'imaiiwntadfifli <?iiM<»lT n»€tiijbl«3* the ilhtttntiat 
«aE.P^ ;di •^iic^ p. .HKS. «>it the *IuelpL whidi fonw puij 
tae imaiiu^ncacifia *if the bowL are !«oiiie Teij taatafidl 
!ffiiir:.-4ie<* in >i«»cteffi work, whieh ^eem to include a moiiqgni 
rMic 'iniv 'jne lec&er K at the beeimune cmn be distimniiihe 
Tile «rv>v«;r iiaift ii>»>c tt» beaatifol crowning steeple. Marb: 
•»ifi«:. : •iac«>-Iet£er for l«{I1 : nuker's mark probably T tW 
WT in 4hiriii jEiv<>n in <AE.F. under 16i>7. 

iLrv'S. — Hen^ ii* an interestiiig cup of piorincial minuh 
tiiF^ •riiinoiiiaur Jacobean ami Elizabethan details. The cop 
•L^^«i|nK«i aixrr the Exeter pattern with the peculiar lip ii 
4aiail kii«>p. It <aiiii^ <\kil. hifrh, fullj gilt. The omameiit 
tioa uiirliifi*r^ a b»rit xA ^turraTitig work on the lip, and anod 
rjuiki the irentn? «if the bi>wl without the usual interlacing 
the encl'j^tn^ lilletif *i€ the flourishes appendant thereto. T 
n-innin^ 'Ir^isrn in«-I'j-ie:* representations of flowers and fn 
A: thr ^H,t:««ni an«i :«.'p «»t* '»t»:rm are band:* of rude quatrefoi 
Hvph*:ri* arir foun«i on tht; knop, runniDg ornament and t 
*-j;jr-arj»i-«iart on th»f f««»t. The cover ha:« a band of the sa 
•stvl*-. Th«'re ar»r no marks of anv kind., and the omamentat: 
though ♦.•la^i«irdte i** rudv in ext^cution. On the button of ' 
(Miver is the date MGlu - HVGE BRUM + THOM. 
HI( HKNS -*- . 'Cumjjare the cup at Withycombe.] 

There are al.s^i a nip and siilver of plated metal and a pe\^ 

1*1 ( hix(; TON. — A handsome cup of the Caroline i>er 
It is Tjin. hi^h, ha> a larp* Im)wI, stem with plain knop, 
moulded foot. No ornamentation of any kind. Marks 
offic. ; dat<*-letter for H)37 ; maker's mark, an anchor betw 
the initials D.(i. The howl is in8(*rihed : Humfrey Sydenh 
Keetor Ambrose Ilutchinjy, .John Hawkins, Wardens. ' 
re(?tor was the fifth son of Humphrey Sydenham of Coi 

^ An IiiBentonj of Church Platerf 

lAm in Stogumber hy Margaret, sister of Jolin Lord 

He was appointed rector in 1629, and was also rector 

leombe. His eloquence procured him the title of Silver- 

1 Sydenham, but his use of it in defence of Clnirch and 

bUsed him to be deprived of all his prefemients, and 

t incomniodig circnniventns ' he died in or about 1650, 

3 paten on foot, diam. 6Jin. Marks: 2 ottic. : date-letter 

h724 ; makers mark nearly worn away. 

Wo |>ewter plates, an electro-plated Hagun, and two glass 

pHEPTON Bealc'hamp. — ^A good Elizabethan cup and 

r by I.I'. The cup is Tin. high ; it has two bauds of con- 

tional ornament round the bowl, hyphens on knop, and 

9 of the first-named ornament on foot and cover. Marks: 

date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, LP. On the 

J of the cover is the date 1573. 

Sphere are also two modem chalices with patens silrcr-gilt, 

; larger chalice with the Birniingham date-letter for 1874 

1 designed by G. E. Street. The smaller chalice is in- 

tihed: "Inmemnriam. C. L." Caroline Lethbridge, mother 

I the Kev. A. Lethbridge, rector of the parish. A small 

pjver spoon with the date-letter for 1869, Electro, a salver. 

f Staples Fitzpaink. — The only piece of silver here is a 

i paten on foot. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1726 ; 

laker's mark, two initials in shaped punch, but so worn away 

i not to lie identified. The paten is inscribed : "The (iift of 

W. Hare, G. Potts to t" Parish Church of Staple Fitz Fain 


The other vessels are electro-plate; two cups and a Hjigon. 
Stocki.ixch Maoi'alkn. An Elizabethan cup and cover 
by I. P.. of his usual pattern. The cup stands 6fin. high ; 
there are two belts of ornament roinid the bowl, and hyphen 
belts on knop and foot. The cover a belt of ornament; 
on the button ' 157.1.' Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; 
maker's mark, l.P. 


i. ■' ■ 


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-i.-.-.-.r-:— ' Lire 

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.-•*.■,:. > rL^rave- 

An Ineentory of Church Plate, 161 

^^ purged soule like fined siluer pure Recejue the bread, 
doth for aye endure." 

k. plain paten on foot, 7^in. across. Marks: 2 offic. of 
t. sterling ; date-letter for 1712 ; maker's mark worn away. 




In this district there are 24 ancient parishes and 2 chapelries ; 
iizabethan plate will be found in no less than sixteen. 
The retired nature of portions of the Wiveliscorabe District 
ould lead us to expect that in its sequestered nooks we should 
ad interesting examples of Church plate. Nor woidd such 
Q expectation be disappointed. Out of the twentj-six 
ncient churches and chapels, sixteen possess pieces of Eliza- 
ethan plate ; and at Nettlecombe are to be found the two 
arliest pieces of dated English goldsmith's work known to 
xist. These pieces, a chalice and paten, with the date-letter 
3r 1479, were, it is recorded, confided to the care of ' Master 
ohn Trevelyan,' in 1549, and in the care of Master John 
*reveljan and his descendants, the plate has always remained, 
'his John Trevelyan's great-grandmother had brought to her 
usband the large estates of the Raleigh family in the West of 
ngland and Wales ; and it is possible that this wealthy lady 
ay have given the plate to the church which lay literally at 
r door. Notwithstanding the protection afforded to the plate 
the accident of the place in which it has been kept, it must 
ve been often in danger. Probably the influence of a man, 
ose relations were known to be powerful at Court, may have 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol, V), Part II. « 

n -r-^r*:^- na 

»-. • 

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T Cr 

■hick is 

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.---♦■- • . - - •■-^oUtf 

.. - 'i II . r rrm Iff 

. ■ .. . :-: ::.- .j:. i rnokin 

£.:.:.» '--iM- tii Jacobean 

-:'■■:-.! -^T f .• r. Buuh« 

:.- '• - ir-- :- r-.Tiin the 

-.. :.:•: -i-^: :: lo be soli 

■--— :"r.i: r!:^ aaiuiuariin 

' T - " ^hz.. IT : J* Jiarv. as 1'^ 

•Jhi Inventory of CIturch Plated 

; appears unlikely that plate of the character of these two 
i would have got into the hancli^ of the clergy and tlieir 
[ens, except through some ^tniilar channel to this. It acenis, 
[ore, possible to the writer that these etips may have 
purchased at this sale, and have been given to the 
KCtive churches by the purchasers or their representatives, 
the writer would put in ii plea for the preservation of the 
■ pewter vessels, still to be found occasionally, belonging to 
r country churt-hes. Some of the clergy and churchwardens 
|) would cherish their silver plate most jealously, pay little 
1 to their pewter vessels. And yet these veasela, ugly and 
My as they may appear to be, are full of interest and 
lory. Notices of the pewter vessels, so far as they are 
vill be found under the different parislies, 
IfluBcum at Taunton (.'astle would provide a aaff resting- 
e for thoae pewter pieces which are otherwise in danger of 
irishing from neglect. 
► Bii,KNc)LLt;i;, — The Elizabethan cup, unfortunately with- 
it it8 cover, is by the well-known Exeter goldsmith 1. lONS, 
also supplied the cupe at Drayton and Seaborougli. It 
inds TJin. high, and weighs lloz. av. A band of foliage, 
taventioually treatcfl, runs round the bowl, and is intersected 
f upright sprays of foliage in four places. t)n the stem is a 
^p ; round the foot a band of the egg-and-dart ornament, 
bkrks : [\) Exeter ancient ; (2) 1. IONS, in plain punches, 
r There is a plain paten on foot with a filleted e<lge ; diam., 
7Jin. ; weight, lloz. av. Marks: 2 offic. ; date-letter for 
1751 ; maker's mark, the initials I.M, above a tortoise. On 
the back of the paten is an inscriptiou : " Fanner John Sweet- 
vng and Henry Dobell Churchwardens,"' The 8weetyng 
itinily of Thorncombe were for a long i>eriod Lords of the 
Manor of Iticknoller. The name Dobdl, under the form of 
nbhie, is still a familiar West Somerset one. 
I There is a modern electro-plate alms dish. 
BitOMi'TOS Ralph.- The parish possesses an Klizabetban 

1 (i4 Paju-rx, S^r. 

Clip and cover by I. P., which ilo Dot differ fmm ^ 
work. The cup is "iiu. high, weight lOoz. nr, 
bell-shiipcd ; it has two bands of conventiuiial I 
found on the foot and the cover. Marks : 2 oflic. i 
for 1573 ; maker's nmrk. I. P. On the button of I 
the date ' 1573." 

There is also another paten or salver on three i 
7in. in diameter and weighs 9oz. av. Round the i 
sign of acanthus lenvee. Murks : 3 uffic. : 
1790; maker's nmrk, H.C. — Henry t'liawt 
verse is an inscription : ' S.H,, J. 13., (.'hurchwaniem 

There is a pitcher-shaped tliigon with !f^\%[ 
Shclheld plate. 

C'arhamptos, — Hereiaacup, once gilt, of singul 
It is Hill, high, and the bowl is SJin. across at the lip. 
bowl is exquisitely decorated with cherubs' heads, flow 
fruit, surrounded hj arabesques. The lip is ([uite plain, i 
bears the date 16.14. The bowl is connected with the k 
a slender stem strengthened with three brackets. The i 
is pear-shaped ; below, the stem swells out into a round deoot' 
ated with more arabesques, and the splared base below h ornt- 
mented with the egg-and-dart moulding. The cup weig^ 
lOoz, av. Marks : no official nor date-letter Ml) berries in i 
shaped shield ; (2) interlaced lines in ditto. [The ahaenc«<d i 
the Hall-marks, however, is no proof of foreign origin; ^^H 
while the foot and stem are very similar to other apeciBM^^H 
undoubted English work, the ornamentation of chcruba' llM^^ 
seems to point to an ecclesiastical rather than a domestic UIF. 
and only in countries which, like England, had discarded th( 
chalice-form for the cup would such a vessel be re()uir^. The 
date on the cup is that of the earlier part of the reign o( 
Charles I, and so this cup. like the plate at Marston Bigo! 
(Proc. xliv, ii. 16H), may be due to that monarch''! dusirfilo 
raise the artistic taste of the nation : E. H. B,] 
The paten is 8in, in diam., and weighs ISoz. ftv. 


1 66 Papers^ jpr. 

foot have the hyphen decoration. Mmrks : 2 oflBc. ; date-, 
letter for 1573*; maker's mark, only an I visible, but from the ; 
style, ornamentation, and the presence of two bauds od the 
bowl, there is no doubt that it is LP. The modem patoi hn 
the date-letter for 1863. There is also an electro-plated flagoi 
of Gothic design. 

FiTZiiEAD. — Here there is a beautiful Elizabethan cupeii 
cover in good condition, by a hitherto unknown maker. The 
cup stands 6iin. high. The bowl is bell-shaped ; it has OM 
band of foliage divided by four upright sprays ; and at tk 
base of the bowl is a band of vertical hatching. The stemhii 
a moulded knop. The foot has bands of hyphens and vertical 
hatchings ; this has l)een repaired. The cover has a band ot 
conventional foliage ; on the button is the date * 1574* 
Marks : 2 offie. ; date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, a nuui*! 
head within an oblong shield. Another paten on foot, witk 
gadrooned e<lges, 8 Jin. in diam. Marks : 2 oflSc. ; date- 
letter for 1696 ; maker's mark, R.T., over a cross between two 
dots, within a shaped shield. In the centre of the paten is an 
inscription : '* The gift of Mrs. Jane Cannon to the parish of 
Fitzhead 1710.' The family of Cannon held Fitzhead Court 
for a considerable time, and their arms are depicted on the 
ceiling of the dining roonn there. Collinson (ii, 492) record? 
several monuments in the church to their memory. 

An electro-plated almsdish and flagon. 

IIuisH Champflower. — This parish possesses a tiny 
Elizabethan cup and cover by LP. The cup is 5 Jin. highi 
and weighs 7oz. 4dwt. troy. There are two bands of orna- 
ment round the bowl ; the hyphen belt is found on the knop; 
and the foot has the egg-and-dart moulding round the edg^- 
The cover weighs 1 Joz. troy. It has a band of ornament, and 
the date 1.37.'5 on the button. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 
lo73; maker's mark, I.P. 

There is also a i)ieco of ])late which from the shape and 
appearance was probably a stand for a tea or coffee pot. ^^ 

'Ah Inernt-ry i.f CfnireA Miitr. I69« 

s be«ii filled nuiy ttiW be di^-orered. It will be Keo at 

e that the demgii wax made fur the place frorn the pectdiar 

e of the figiire, the anns being drawn up over the bead 

kdapt it to the form of the compartment. 

e paten is 43in. in diameter, with a narrow moulded edge 

% brim like an ordinary plate, within which ii; i^tink n six- 

d depression. The centre points from which the workman 

1 the lobes aie still visible, and the spandrcli- between 

< filled with a small radiating ornament as is usual 

B similar patens, wliieh are not unfrequently met with. In 

e centre is a still further depr&ision, in which has l>een in- 

d from the back a smalt silver plate, having in traDs|iarent 

ink in the metal, a representation of the vemiclc. or 

:e of our Saviour, surrounded by a cruciform nimbus. It, 

tunately, remains perfect. This central depression, with an 

1 plate of enamel is verj unusual, the siuTacc uf patens 

tally made as smooth as possible. The back of this 

£ is gilt and engraved with the sacred monogram in 

ikck letter of the fifteenth century" 

e hall-marks on each piece are ((uite distinct. They are : 
1). the leopard's head ; (2), the date-letter for 1479, a capital 
jomhardic B with double cusps ; the maker's mark, a dimi- 
I Heur-de-lys. The other official mark, the lion passant, 
s not found before 1545. 
Mr. Morgan then goes on to give this very interesting ex- 
tract from the chiirchwardens' accounts, or rather from a loose 
aheet of paper therein : " lie yt knowyng imto all men that we 
paryancra of Xyttylcombe have delivered unto Mester John 
Trevylyan Es(iuyer, on the xxvnj* day of .lanncryc yti the 
yere of the Rajne of Kynge Edwarde the Syxte, the secunde 
yerc of hys Rnyne (1548-9), one challes w' a paxe of aylver 
and a Pyxe of sylver gyltyde, and a Calopynne, w' iij bells 
of sylver gyltyde w'yn the same pyxe, at all tymes at the nedc 
to be had of the aforesaid Masf John Trevylyan Esqtiyre. 
—By me, John Trevelyan." 

fcl. Xir (Third Strit*, Voi. V),PoHll. n 

170 Papers^ $fc. 

The bells, the pyxe, and the calopynne (a hand-warmer) have 
disappeared. The chalice ih the one still in use ; and Mr. 
Morgan makes it clear that the pax is really the paten, and 
that there is either a simple error in description ; or that the 
paten having the vernicle represented on it, may have been 
used as a pax. 

The date makes the transfer very significant. The Parlia- 
ment which met in the autumn of 1547, 4th Nov., decreed .that 
all chantries, etc., with their belongings, should be at once 
suppressed, and their goods taken for his Majesty^s uae. A 
royal Commission issued on 13th Feb., 1547-8, appointed Com- 
missioners to do the work, and before the year had expired it 
had been done in Somerset. Nettlecombe lost the chantry of 
S. John Baptist, founded in the parish church by Sir Simon de 
Raleigh, 18 Hen. VI, 1440, together with the plate thereunto 
belonging. The parishioners being very doubtful what further 
acts of sacrilege might be intended, ingeniously contrived to be 
able to return ' No goods,' with a clear conscience, to any fur- 
ther Commissioners. Happily their scheme proved successful, 
all credit be to them for it. [For the information concerning 
the Chantries the writer is indebted to Mr. E. Green's 
" Somerset Chantries," Somerset Record Society Publications^ 
vol. II.— E. H. B.] 

Old C lee vk. -There is here an Elizabethan cup and 
cover by I. P. of his usual style. The cup is 8in. high ; the 
usual two bands of ornament run round the bowl ; the knop 
has the hyphen band, and the foot has a reeded edge. The 
cup weighs 8oz. av. The cover weighs 2oz. av. ; it has a band 
of ornament, and on the button, '1573.' Marks: 2 oific; 
date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, I. P. 

There is another paten, platter-shaped, 7 Jin. in diam., weight 
12oz. av. Marks: 2 oftic. ; date-letter for 1639; maker's 
mark, initials O.E. The paten is inscribed : " Deo Opt : et 
Max : et Eccliac veteris Cleeve obtulit Helena Bickham vidua 
in die feste Paschalis Ao. Dm. 1640." The Bickhams were a 

All fnventiin/ of Church 

icieiit West-Somerset family. Alfred Bj-ucombe of 
L Cleevo,L-lottiter, in hk will made IfilO, jiruveil lOlI.made 
\ wife Helini his executrix. Iter will naa (iroved in I64f) 
, Somrrset With, ii, 67, 68). 
Tiere are a plated paten and flagon, and a large i)ewter, 
Iklnrd pattern. Ijin. liigli, and "in. at-rosg the foot. 
^BAUPiNtiTDS. — There is here an Eliza)>ethan cup and 
The cup is fi^in. high; the bowl is bell-s!iaped, and 
Yt^f^ a band of foliage round the bowl. The knop and foot hare 
Vpht^n ornament. There are no marke. visible. The lip has 
n ronghlj repaired in two places, and a8 the marks are to 
B found there during this period, they may haie been obliler- 
d in the process. The cover has one band of ornament ; on 
}ie button the date ' 1574.' The marks are undecipherable. 
There are a modem patten and Hagon, each bearing the in- 
iptton : " Presented to the Parish of Haddington by the 
Uv^> .(olm tiayne Z^ years Rector. <Iames Willis Church- 
^mtrden l(S7i." 

Of pewter there are two plates ; on their brims are the 
IbitUla I.y. C.W. 1799=. John Yandle church wai-den. The 
IVindles or Vcandles are an old yeoman family of that dia- 
I trick Also a pewter bason and a flagon, the latter in- 
id : " Thomas Skinner Church Worden in the yeare 
f 1719." 

RoDifVISH. — This is an ancient chapelry attached to Car- 
njiton. It possesses a silver cup and paten. The cup le 
7)111, high, and weighs lOoz. av. The bowl is of a deep cup 
*, without decoration : the stem has a knop with filleted 
ornament ; the foot has a reeded edge. The paten is (i^in, in 
'limiieter; it is platter shaped, with a reeded edge. Marks 
I same on both pieces) : 2 offic. : date-letter for 1779 ; maker's 
mark, W.C, Each piece is inscribed : "The gift of Richard 
Eacott to Roilhuiah Chappie 1780." The Escotts of Escott 
were a familj of considerable position in Carhampton parish 
" many generations. For an account of this and other bene- 

. I- 


• ■ -' ( 


An Inventory of Church Plate, 173 

There is a modern flagon, handsomely engraved, and in- 
scribed : " To the glory of God and in memory of William, 
Hary Anne, and William Gimblett, Easter 1896. C. H. 
Heale, Vicar." The flagon has a stand inscribed : S. Decu- 
^tian's Somerset, C H. Heale, Vicar." There is also a stand 
br the cruets, weighing 6oz., with the same inscription. A 
carious plated bowl, with a plain, apparently silver, edge. 

Sampford Brett. — The cup with its cover are by the 
Elizabethan goldsmith, I. P. The cup is 6^in. high and weighs 
7oz. av. The bowl is bell-shaped and has the usual two bands 
of running ornament. The knop and the foot have the hyphen 
Ornament. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; maker's 
i)[iark, I. P. The cover has the same marks ; it weighs 2J^oz. 
^v. There is a band of conventional foliage ; on the button, 
^ 1573.' 

A paten on foot, diam. 7 Jin., weight 12oz. a v. Marks : 2 
oflSc. ; date-letter for 1720 ; maker's mark, I.C. within a heart- 
shaped shield = Joseph Clare. In the centre of the paten is a 
shield bearing : Three torteaux, a label (Courtenay) ; imp.. 
Three lozenges enn. (Giffbrd of Brightley) ; and this inscrip- 
tion : " The gift of Elizabeth Courtenay." The manor of 
Sampford Brett belonged for many generations to the house 
dF Courtenay. It eventually descended to the junior branch 
at MoUand Botreaux. John Courtenay, the last of the family, 
married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Giftbrd of Bright- 
ley. On his death in 1732, Sampford was divided between his 

A large flagon, tankard pattern, 10|in. high, weight 40oz. 
av. Marks: 2 ottic. ; date-letter for 1776; maker's mark, 
W.C, also found at Kodhuish. It bears a dedicatory inscrip- 
tion : " The gift of Anne Tanner to the Church of Sampford." 
SkilCjJATE. — This parish, like the last, has an Elizabethan 
cup and cover by I. P. The cup is 6^in, high, and weighs 8oz. 
av. The ornamentation on either piece does not differ from 
the usual pattern. On the button of the cover is the date 

174 Papers^ jfc. 

* lo7:>/ Marks : 2 offic. ; dale^letter for 1573 ; maker's mirk; 

There are ;; paten and flagon of electro-plate, another fbgoi 
of pewter, and two hlocktin plates with the initials H.H^ W.L 

Stogimeer. — The cup is silrer-gilt, 9in. high, weiglt 
15ioz. av. The bowl is 4in. in diam., bell-shaped, without 
decoration. The stem has a moulded knob. Round the mida^ 
side of the foot i:^ an inscription : " Dedicated unto God for 
his onlr holr servT$ in the Church of Stoffomer An. DOi 
1615." Marks : 2 otlic. : date-letter for 1615 ; maker 8 mill, 
a tleur-ile-lTs or rose spray within an indented shield. 

The [>aten is of the usual design on a foot 7|in. in diini, 
weight 9ioz. a v. It has a moulded edge and foot. Marb: 
2 otfic. : date-letter for 1733; makcr*s mark, R.B. in phis 
oblimg- Richard Baylej. On the paten is a lozenge, bearing: 
Three inoscutcheons and two mullets (Hay). A pretty story 
attaches to the appearance of the arms of the Scotch famiW 
of Hay at Sti^gumber. One hundred and sixty years ago or 
S4> the S4iiiire of Stogumber parish and owner of Hartrow 
manor there situuto was a very young man bearing the ancient 
West SomtTset name of Rich, and of great estate. He 
pliglite<l his troth to Miss Hay, the fair daughter of Preben- 
dary Hav, reot«ir of C'latworthv;* but, alas, died before the 
dav fixed for the winhling. By his will he left all he had to 
Miss Hay as an inscription on his monument in Stogumber 
church touchingly reconls. [Thomas Rich of Hartrow, Esq., 
died :i(> April, 1727, a«red 24 : Coll., iii, .)49.] She lived single 
ill the home which she had hoi>eil to have shared with him, 
speiidint; her yeai*s in works of charity. And one of her good 
dee<ls was the ^ift of this paten to the parish church. She 
also criwi- the flagon, a hujre vessel a foot high and weighing 
,>()oz. av. It is of the tankard pattern, and has the same coat 
of arms and marks as the paten. 

I. Jaroeii Hay. M. A., appointed 1707. died 1718 : Wtai'^, •• Incnmbents,'' 
p. 335. 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 175 

roL.L.ANi>. — An Elizabethan cup and cover by a maker 
loee mark has not hitherto been noted in the countj. The 
ip 18 B^in. high ; weight, 8oz. av. ; the bowl is 3^in. in 
ittmeter, of the usual shape, and decorated with one band of 
iliage divide*! by three upright sprays. The knop on the 
ban is plain. Round the foot is a decorative band of medal- 
4N1S joined by broad hyphens. Marks: 2 oflic. ; date-letter 
or 1573 ; maker s mark, A., first found in 1567. The cover 
reighs 3oz. ; it has the hyphen decoration ; on the button is 
.lie date M 574.' 

Another paten on a foot is 5j\n, diam., and weighs 4oz. It 
B qnite plain with a deep rim. Marks. : 2 offic. ; date-letter 
^or 1635 ; maker's mark, the initials D.G. within an anchor. 

Another paten, 5^in. in diameter, and weighing 4oz. av. It 
is a platter shape and quite plain. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter 
for 1636 ; maker's mark P.B., between two crescents. The 
paten is inscribed : " From Edward Crosse, Rector to the 
Church of Tolland, 1833." 

The above is a singularly fine collection of plate for such a 
;iny church. 

TuEBORorcH. — The handsome cup in use in this parish 
ippears to have been originally intended for domestic purposes, 
t is 8^*^in. high, and weighs lOJoz. av. The general design 
s that of the Edmonds cup, but on a smaller scale, and without 
he elaborate cover. The bowl is 3 Jin. in diameter, and re- 
embles a wine-glass in shape ; the lower part is decorated 
rith flowers and fruit in repousce work. Three ornamental 
^rackets strengthen the attachment of the stem and bowl. 
Vbout halfway down the stem is a broad flange, below which 
he stem gradually spreads out to form the foot, which is 
lecorated with the egg-and-dart moulding. Marks : 2 oflic. ; 
late-letter for 1614 ; maker's mark, imdecipherable. The cup 
■i inscribed : " The gift of Hugh Bennett, Rector of Tre- 
»orough, 1790." 

There are two patens and a flagon of Sheffield plate. 

176 Papers^ dec 

Upton. — There is a small Elizabethan cup here, unfcNtaa- 
ately minus it8 cover. The cup in Gin. high ; the bowl ii 
lightly bell-shaped, and has two bands of the custoiiitrjr 
decoration. The knop and the foot have belts of hrpIieiUL 
Marks : 2 otHe. ; date-4etter for 1573 ; maker's mark, LP. 

The paten and flagon are electro-plate ; of pewter, there are 
a pewter paten, with moulded edge, inscribed: ^1720, T.G^ 
K.M./* a large flagon and an alms dish. 

West Qiaxtoxhead (St. Audrie*). — The pUtc if 
modem. It consists of a chalice and paten, parcel-gilt, and a 
flagon of mediaeval design. 

WiLLiTox.-The Elizabethan cup and cover are from the 
Exeter maker* 1. IONS. The cup is 6^in. high ; the bowl is 
l»ell-;^ha[H\l with the distinctive lip ; there is one band of ona- 
mont divided by four upright spravs^ The stem has a moulded 
knop : the toot has a belt of peUets, and another of the egg- 
amt-<lart ornament. Marks : ( 1 ) Exeter ancient ; (2) I. 
K>NS. The j^ten ha* l>een broken: on the button is the 
date I *>74. K^rwoen some rough leaf pattern ornament. A 
j»Uto >>:«. ill diaitu. with a retried edge. Marks : 2 offic; 
vl;4ri^U::cr :or Ir>7v*: makers mark« L, with a serjient twined 
rvnuid •:. Tiie :v:\U :> ::i>*.*ribe*l : -The gift of Philippa 
*ic v. ::.4: : U of WillitoQ. lr>*M.'' It has the appear- 
\c i vitvx :: 1. Lue:?:io plate, presented hy the above 
: :'.>: v. ' .i:x'.. Th<: uamtr Harley stiU lingers 
:.^::. V>.r\ :- a v.vmplece set of electro-plate 
\': ^^.i- vr\x: ":.;•: bv the Rev. J. Heathcote, of 
W '.:>v V, '^'-t. Thnrv are Mxne j.»ewter vessels 
. :1^. V :..i:x . . ;: th-tv Are in the hands of a 

V N '^ V - ',:<: '■:; 4nd oover are t»f the 
. * V . . - ; ..:. \,cr-; :hr loul is 3iin. in 

•"I »•_ :r.:i':*i:c*i c\?Qie sha[)e« and 
X v, . y\ . : ;- iu::^rT:. Below i he Up is a 

'. ^ . , Vx V M i ^.- » ' c cx:>.i : < : w *;t; c iiie tSw Bands of 


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Ah IncenUtry oj Church Plate. 177 

ertical hatching are placed at the top and bottom of the stem, 
nd oti either side of the knop. On the foot is a baud of 
lyphen decoration, and below this a band of hollow lozenges 
snclosing pellets. Under the foot : " S. Mary Magdalen, 
Withiel Flory, renovated tlune, 1867. W. Martin Honnjbun, 
Incumbent."' The two marks are almost obliterated, but they 
appear to those of the maker hitherto unknown, who made 
plate for several parishes round Ilminster (see general intro- 
duction). The cover has a band of hyphens, and another baud 
of vertical hatching on the flange. On the button is a band 
of hatching within arabesques. The two marks are almost 
obliterated, but they are most probably the same as on the 

Of electro-plate there are a cup, two patens, and a flagon. 
Of pewter, two dishes, one inscribed : 'John Hancocke 
Churchwarden 1738 ' ; the other, ' Withiel Church.' Also an 
interesting old pewter flagon, lO^in. high, of tankard pattern. 
It is inscribed : ' Mr. John Wood of Wythell Church Warden 
1723.' The Woods were a family of some importance in this 
parish at the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th cen- 
tury, and a curious monument exists in the churchyard to a 
Mr. tlohn Wood, perhaps the father of the churchwarden, who 
died in 1691 (?) 

WlTHYCoMHE. -The cup and cover, though without marks 
or date, are probably late Elizabethan or Jacobean. The cup 
is 7^in. high, and weighs 9oz. The bowl is straight-sided, 
wider at the top than the bottom ; round it is a band of foliage 
with birds and flowers enclosed within fillets. This style of 
decoration points to a late date. The knop is plain, with a 
cable pattern on either side. On the foot is another wide band 
of foliage. [Compare the cup at Ilton], The cover weighs 
2joz. av., and is 4^in. in width. It has a deep band of con- 
ventional foliage. The trumpet-shaped stem of the button is 
decorated with [)unchcd work. 

The flagon is of the round-jug pattern, with a boldly-bowed 

Vol. X L V f Third Se^M Vol. V), Part [L z 

k » 

i^mf0fT§^ |nr- 

: 2 'j*c- : Jb a g4 e t8gr far !7<7 : mikcr^s 
W. W. Hm: tapm k m &g ft cd : * TW leift of the hte 
Rwrtrjr tlMt ft^erad Mr. SahbcI Ro^^ck lo the Chordi of 
WitliTCMDDt#e 17«>7.'' Hi* BonvBeBX i« in tbe dbnrrii: he 
dkd 2^ Jan. 17^ a|^ 7$. ^CoIliKaB. ii 4^£. A pbted 

Wi%'ELi«<;<>JfBE. — ^The Elizaibethaa cvp and oorer mre bj 
LP^ and retemble hi« other vork. The rap b 7|iii. high, ind 
weigfaii 1 loz. tror. There are the tvo iKiial faands of oma- 
meut round the bowL and other coorentional patterns romid 
the knop and foot. The corer weighs 3oz. troj : oo the but- 
ton M573/ Marks: 2 oflic. ; date-letter for 1573; makers 
mark, LP. 

An exact replica of this cup and cover was made and pre- 
sented in 1876. They are inscribed : ^ Presented to S. 
Andrcw'i* Church Wiveliscombe bj Larinia Sollj 1876." 
The donor was the daughter of Doctor SuIIt of this place, t 
physician of »r>me eminence. 

Another pat<fn on foot with gadrooned Ixjrders, 7 Jin. in 
widtli. Mark- : 2 Brit, sterling ; date-letter for 1713; maker's 
mark nrit s^try dear, f>€rha|>s V I. with a star between in plain 
piUKtli Kdward Vincent, and entered in ().E.P. under this 
very y(;ar. Tlie paten is ins<Til>ed : " The gift of Elizabeth 
Michfjll to tli(! (.'ommunion Table of Wiveliscombe 1713.'' 
Tliirt family were of ancient standing in West Somerset, and 
tlie lady's sister perhai)S or aunt married Philip Hancock of 
Lydeard S. Laurence in 1708. 

There is yet another paten, 8in. across. It bears the Exeter 
llall-mark and dat<*-letter for 17.59, but no maker's mark. 

The Ha^on is 13in. high, and weighs 34oz. troy. It is a 
very eh'gunt piece of plate of the Flaxman style of design, 
ewer-shuped with gadroon ornament. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
lettiT for I7H2 ; maker's mark, A. in square punch. 

siPuDforD anD its Cburcb* 


IT is now generally admitted that the Southern Counties, if 
not the more remote parts of England, were studded with 
parish churches long before the Norman Conquest, and that 
their omission from the Domesday survey is quite compatible 
i^'ith their existence, as they were not liable to the taxation, 
which it was the object of the survey to record. The com- 
panions of the Conqueror, however, who shared in the fruits of 
his victory, and their successors, must have been sadly at a loss 
how to dispose satisfactorily of the Church patronage which 
fell to their lot, and were, no doubt, besieged by hungry appli- 
cants for a slice of it. It is by no means clear what were 
the exact rights of ownership over an " ecclesia," conferred 
on the grantee of the manor to which it was appendant. 
From one point of view it may be supposed to extend only to 
the advowson or right of presentation ; but that implies some 
episcopal control, whereas there is no trace of any confirmation 
by the bishop in foundation charters of that early period, and 
tithes and portions of tithes were alienated in favour of religious 
houses at the sole will of the owner, without control either 
episcopal or otherwise. 

From another point of view, it may be asked, was the right 
personal to the lord as a manorial right, or did it pass to the 
tenant who held under him ; in the prior case (taking the 
Montacute foundation charter as an example) the grant by the 

18<) Papers, irr, 

lonl (the Karl of Morc*taiii) alooe was ^^iifEcieiit to give it 
valid itv. but in the latter, the coneiirreiiee of lx>th lord and 
tenant \\'jl> n*.'C*:-spary, the one as ovor-4ord and the other tf 
terre-tenant. On the whole it niav be s^urmi^ed whether it 
wa.^ not from motives of prudence a;^ well as pietv. whtch in- 
duced the Norman lords, under the advice, probablj, of their 
bishop>, to relieve themselves of the responsibilities entaikdoi 
th«:'m bv their spiritual possessions, and to transfer them to 
religious establishments of their own foundation, bv whom tlwr 
would, in their jud^ient, \ye perpetuallv and more wisely id- 

If there lie any ground for such a theory, it may hive 
influenced William, Earl of Moretain, in his f oimdation of tiM 
Priory of Montacute. His original endowment of it incloM 
no less than fourteen churches in Somersetshire and the ttdjoin- 
ing counties, that of Mudford being included as "^the manor, 
church, hundred and mill of Mcnliforde/' 

Bevond this foundation charter and the Koval charters coo- 
finning it, there is no mention of the church of Mudford in tte 
Montacute C'artiilarv, latelv printed bv the Somerset Record 
Society, until the episcopate of Roger, Bisliop of Bath and 
Wells ( 1244 to 1247), who confirmed, by Inspeximus, a charter 
of •' Theodoric, son of William," whereby with the consent of 
Beatrix his wife, and Henry and William his sons, he con- 
f(?rn'(l, as lord of the soil, the clnu'ch of Modiford on Joceline, 
the Prior and the Monks of Monta<»ute "' in pure and perpetual 
alms." The charter (N(>. 4S of the Wells (*athedral Charters, 
Hist. Coinni. Report, see appendix to this paper) is undated, 
but from other deeds in the Cartulary it appears that Joceline 
was Prior in 1187, and that Diirand, his successor, was in 
office in 1192. 

As th(; Priory had held the church more than UK) years 
under the Earl of Moretain's ^rant, this charter must have 
l)(»en only a confirmation by Theodoric, the then lord of the 
fee, and is an example of the caution of monasteries in fencing 

Mudford and its Church. 181 

?i title to their estates by procuring confirmatory grants from 
e actual and expectant heirs of the original donor. 
But in this instance, it may be that the Priory was influenced 
y the fact that they were about to dispose of their right to this 
Viurch, for by a co-temporary charter (No. 25 in the same col- 
iection), but scarcely legible from mutilation, it appears that 
Mark the Prior and the convent, in gratitude to tFocelin, 
Bishop of Bath, for appropriating to them the churches of 
Montacute and East Chinnock, granted the church of Modi- 
ford to that Bishop and his successors in perpetuity, saving 
ilwayg the tithes of their demesne comprising, amongst other 
lands, Bernarde'scrofte, Bimphegh, liimpehort, Estinlond, 
Blakepol, Middlefurlong, La Sulue, Tonfurlong, Ferncroft, 
Eldelond, Westinlond, La Breche, Two Meadows, Estmede 
»nd Northraede, and the mill held by the miller in villenage. 
The witnesses to this charter were Master William, Arch- 
deacon of Wells, Master Walter de St. Quintin, Lord 
(Dominus) Henry, parson of Tintenhull, Robert, Clerk of 
(^'vnnock, Robert de Aula and others. Given in the Chapter 
U Montacute on the feast of the Blessed M anno nono 

. ]. Notwithstanding that, upon the face of it tliis grant 

^as a pure piece of gratitude to the Hisho]) for his kindness to 
he convent, it may be questionable whether the whole affair 
as not a commercial transaction for exfjhanging the church 
I Mudford for the appropriation of the churches of Montacute 
id East Chinnock, for although such " chopping of churches " 
ould savour in modern times of simony, such an offence 
ould ])e overlooked if it had episcopal sanction. Religious 
nises were not very scrupulous in dealing with spiritualities, 
any instances can be found in which thev trafficked in churches 
id in the foundation of chantries, oratories, and such like ; 
id investigation wouhl reveal the fact that their prayers were 
»nerally purchased by tliose who sought to secure a perpetual 
nctuary for their souls. 
The cautious monks did not rely for their title to their 

182 Papers^ Sfc. 

demesne at Mudford upon the saving clause in the 
as that document would be in the hands of the Bishop^ 
they therefore took a new grant from the Bishop, dated 
the feast of St. Michael a.d. 1239. It is No. 182 in M 
Montacute Cartulary, and enables us to supply accurately tkj 
names of the demesne lands contained in the above mentioMi; 
mutilated charter. 

As already remarked the ostensible motive for the gnat of 
the Church of Mudford, was, no doubt, the appropriatioD to the 
Convent of the Churches of Montacute and East Chinnodi;i 
the advowsons of which they already possessed by the foundi- 
tion Charter of the Earl of Moretain. There is fortunatelj 
amongst the Charters in the Bodleian Library (No. 46),tl» 
original instrument of appropriation by Bishop Jocelin, ani 
as the transaction is so closely connected with the transfer of 
the Church of Mudford to the Bishop, a summary of its con- 
tents will not be out of place here. 

The Bishop who styles himself, or is described by the writer 
as " Salisbiiricnsis Episcopus," tells us (in a charter dated in 
the month of March, in the thirty-second year of his episcopate 
— which term is unusually varied in this instance to pontificate), 
that out of consideration for the poverty of the Cluniac house 
of Montacute, and the necessity for better provision for their 
exercising the duty of hospitality, and after taking counsel of 
practical men and those learned in the law, he had ordained that 
at the next vacancies the prior and convent might convert to 
their own uses the churches of Montacute and Chinnock, of 
which they had the patronage, subject to a proper endowment 
for a vicarage in each chur(;h, this being the only point on which 
he and his successors had a right to require. Accordingly the 
vicarage of Montacute was to consist of all the small tithes* 
(except those from the demesne lands of the prior and convent); 
also of all oblations and altar-offerings except those at the 
chapel of Hamedone and the castle chapel. A corrody of one 
monk was to be appropriated to it, and the monks were to give 

Mudjord and its Church, 183 

b to it the candles and wax offered at Candlemas, and the 
parings at the two first masses on Christmas Day and those 
p Good Friday, which they had been accustomed to receive. 
Eadeed, the vicar was to have all the offerings of the entire 
iipifiah, with the single exception of the com tithes. The 
Bfnunge that belonged to the parsonage, together with one half 
■E the yard between the wall of the old grange and the 
outer wall of a certain house, next to the gate, by which 
bfce parson's court was wont to be entered, were to become the 
property of the monks, but they were to make a sufficient fence 
Iwtween the grange and their yard and the court, which was to 
ImxMne the property of the vicar, nor was there to be any 
<^)ening in this fence in the direction of the vicar's house, 
which used to belong to the parsonage, but was now to be his. 
As a final condition, the monks were to assign to whomsoever 
should be vicar, all and every tithe from the whole of the land 
in the parish of Montacute, known by the name of ' la hyda.' 

As to the vicarage of the church of Chinnock, it was to con- 
sist of all the small tithes of the parish, except those from the 
demesne of the prior, of all the altar-offerings, of the hay 
tithes, of the whole demesne of the church there, and of all 
other offerings of the entire parish ; the monks, for their part, 
were to have nothing but the corn tithes, the granges which 
belonged to the parsonage, and the " churechsectum ; " they 
were to put up a sufficient fence to separate these granges 
from the vicar's manse, which had belonged to the parsonage, 
but was then to be the vicar's own. 

The vicars were thenceforward to serve the churches in 
person honestly and properly. They were to answer to the 
archdeacon and his successors for the " sinodals " and " cathe- 
di'aticum " (which the bishop now doubled in compensation for 
the archdeacon's rights), and for the archdeacon's procuration ; 
they were also to bear all charges on their churches, including 
all those due by custom to the bishop and archdeacon, except 
those relating to the repair and restoration of the chancels. 

\ . 

-nr.'-- r --tC "Ui-. -.-a?:ruct20B 
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. **:••.: J- ~_i^ r-i-T :-. liiigioitf 

^ :--:•- 1. :: : J? {■•rtioB 

-.-: - -:- : ^:ii .: MuJ- 

Z . k - 1 1 ^ _ 1 : :.ii befli 

■ :- !• Li i-'i I r.jpi^rf of 

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, 1.11 

t . Z Z'.\ ^rSZ :'*^"*' 

Mttd/ord and its Church. 185 

A merest, Item one close of arable called Shortlands, four 
Its, and one close of pasture called Milbreet, four acres 
1 one close of pasture called Little Adber, two acres, and 
ft other close of arable called Littlefield, two acres, and one 
He close of meadow or pasture called Pound's Close, con- 
imng, bj estimation, one acre Item the first share of one 
re of meadow Ijing in Tenenton meadow, within the manor 
Nether Adber Item two acres of meadow lying in Muddy- 
me Item the parsons to have the tenth cheese or tenth cock 
all manner of corn grown and cut within the parish of MuJ- 
rd yearly, and also the tenth cock of all grass there mown and 
ide yearly. That there belong unto the Vicarage one dwel- 
ig-house and other outhouses adjoining, with an orchard and 
ro gardens, and one little close of arable, one acre and half, 
em for Tithes due in the Manor of Nether Adber, the tenth 
mny of the old ancient rent, and likewise for two grist mills, 
Lem in the Manor of Old Sock in certain grounds there called 
[itchings. The Tithes due to the Vicar is four-pence for 
rery Beast Leaze which doth amount unto two-pence an 
ere or thereabouts. Item for every communicant at Easter, 
wo pence for his oft'erings. Item the vicar is to have yearly 
'f every of the inhabitants the tenth calf, the tenth lamb, and 
he tenth pig, and if any of the inhabitants hath but seven 
ahes, lambs, or pigs, yet, nevertheless, the vicar is to have 
>ne of them, paying to the inhabitant one penny and half 
•cnny (the said manor of Nether Adber, the grist mills and 
■J^unds called Hitching^ only excepted). Item, if anyone of 
le inhabitants hath but one or two or more calves, lambs, or 
'gs under seven, there is due to the vicar yearly an half penny 
piece for every seven of them if he do wean them. Item for 
dves sold if under seven, the tenth penny for every calf, 
-^m, if any inhabitant shall kill any of the calves in his house 
"dor the number of seven the vicar is to have the best shoulder, 
^'n, for every cow milked threepence, and for every heifer, 
'^ pence halfpenny. For every colt fallen there one penny, 

'o/. XL V (Third 6erMf«, Vol. V), Pari IL aa 


HUG if MUG wiieL ht '» w^smmtik:. ibe ^emxi jtemrr. Ftr 
Uenif • ur *&» j^>vii. 'dit^ xend. ^iHacf iir tnindlt;. Aud Iikfvae 
vsulI of ^b^ iiemi kdc iia^ ^teed. wkec it v u^cx: axid 
IttsL. iMsr^ i^ dm- it> xhf Tiear Tin- i«enLh of aiijr htn^. Ita% 
tL*- t-uut'i r.if iLifplef ur i»*akrK. ur anj cixiber «iidi Hkf- fnuii>ei«n 
iLud smdivrtsd. Ivaox. fur «b&tf}> k«|ii xl tikt paruk f«r «Ub 
r«ftr Kud t^iicvL. ixi»^ i^iiLk «i x^ 4t^eot• vc«aL and foreTej 
uyjSKtL'f d^4i«aizrixi£ izk iili«- pari^ aaid nm ^cinL ftr evvij 
tv^eirtT vL^ifp ilLreiepeiK*>e. ur fur xdutc' <«* le»> after ikit ntc 
luubL H* HQT fif iIh: iiiliiiliTtiiiiTf dc* biiT or brviEid reazir lar 
fr« e*^ oirt ':^ tli^ pkri*>L. iLiid afur MScLacsfamii' siiall bring thai 
ujEit/y tfy^ pkji^v. hzid xhe «aizH' cwf??- liMTe lamK tbere i» due to 
th« vicsLT for iL*- I'enTh of th^ ?«2De lamb^ l>m r«-ii puts, and 
th^ tbird ]«rt t>> be alio wed v> ih^ isbabitazit for tbe stnynfr 
aiud ft^^iiiijf of the said ewe§ out erf the fduish. Item, for erenr 
{jrard<r;j« on*: perjoy. lunu f<*r tlH- depaaTnrinsr of all maimer 
of cattk hy ^w:h a«^ dwell out of tbe paiisb such persons so 
d«fpa*?turirijr are to agree with the vicar for the tenth part. 
Arid lastly, for a mortuary due to the ricar. according to the 
I'tatutf'. Item, if any of the iDhab]^ant^ do breed any young 
catti': in th*r J>ari^h. aud •hall ^ell them before they come to 
the j/ail or ploujrh. there U due to tlie vicar for the depasturing 
of rtjch *;attle for •^} lon«' time a> they have been de}iasturedin 
the pariiih. 

Th«' Dean and Chapter ^rante<l out the Parsonage and the 
Deme-ine land- U,'Ionjrinpr to it. from time to time, on lease for 
liver until i\n* y«rar l^ll, when, for the purpose of redeeming 
tlie Land Tax ''ii their e>tates, thev sold the reversion in fee 
to their Leni^ee, Mr. Oliver II ay ward, reserving the Vicarage 
which thev .-till retain. 

Th'ir^ paper would lie incr^niplete without some account of 
'riieo<ir)ri(! the I)onr>r and the other owners of Mudford. 

Hy tin? IhtmitMlay survey, Mudford was divided into three 
manorH or lordsiiips : 

( I ;. The firwt, containing five hides, w as held by Warmund 

Mndford mid its Chvrch, 187 

mortgagee of Elward, and came afterwards into the pos- 
ession of the Priorv of Montaciite, but it is not recorded how 
ibey accjuired it. In Kirbi/s Quest (12 Edw. I), it is men- 
laoned as Mudford Monachorum, and in the description of it 
in the Im^. p.m. of Robert Cryche, one of the Priors (7 Edw. 
IV), of the land held by him in right of his church, it is said 
to comprise " The manor of Mudford, in which there are 200 
acres of arable, value per acre Id. ; 20 acres of meadow, value 
I2d. per acre ; 100 acres of hill land Id. ; one water mill 
13s. 5d. ; Rents of assize 12s.'' 

The estate continued in the possession of the Priory down to 
the dissolution of monasteries, and was granted by Hen. VIII 
to Richard Fermour, ancestor of the Earl of Pomf ret. ( Collins^ 
Peerage, by Bridges, iv, 199. Pat. Roll, 36 Hen. VIII, pt. 6). 
Under the name of Up-Mudford, which it still retains, it was 
sold to Matthew Ewens, one of the Barons of the Court of 
Exchequer, and passed by his will in 1598 to his nephew, John 
Ewens. He sold it 44 Eliz. to Robert Harbyn, Esq., the 
direct ancesntor of Vo\. Henry Harbin, of Newton Surmaville, 
the present owner. 

(2). The second manor (sometimes called Mundiford), cou- 
i^isting of four hides and half and a mill, was held by Dode- 
man of the Earl of Moretain. 

(.3). The third manor- -three hides with Stane, two hides held 
by Rainald under Serlo de Burci — is probably included in 
what is now the hamlet of Old Sock, which lies on the south- 
west side of the parish.^ 

CoUinson, in his History of Somerset (III., p. 221) says 
that the Domesday tenant of the second manor was Baldwin 
de Excestre, but this is an error, arising from the fact that in 
the Exchequer Domesday (as can be seen by the fac-simile 
])ublished by the Ordnance Survey) the scribe, for want of 
space to enter it in the colimm enumerating the Earl's lands, 

1. As to Staue, ^ft "Historic Notes of South Somerset/' p. 90, but I 
have not been able to trace the early descent of Old Sock. 

Iw Frrpers, Jrr. 

iifc^rt«ii it in a ^^maller hand in a racancr under the list of 
BaUwin'r Iaud«. C*oIIin:<on «e«fiiig this ami knowing that 
Baldwin was the aiicesti>r of the Courtf^naT^ (ami without 
referring to the Exoo Dome^iay where the error doe« nol 
occur ) conclikleii that the manor descended from him to that 
familv, whereas it came, at a much later period, from a diflerent 
«)urce, as we shall see. 

It was the Moretain Manor ( Sf*. 2 ) which was held hr the 
familT of Theodoric or Terricas, from which circmnstance it 
was called Mudtonl TerrT — a word distorted bv CoIIinson (or 
rather his local correspondent) into Miidford Street. 

There are no means, however, of tracing the desc^ent of the 
manor from DoJemaa. the Domesdar under-tenant to Theo- 
done, and it is verv ditKcult to identify the different memben 
of that family owing to the frequent recurrence of the same 
family name. We know, indeed, from the donor himself 
f Theodoric fitz William ; that he had a wife (Beatrix), and two 
sons /Henry and William). an:l there is some mention of the 
family in the life of Wulfric, the hermit of Haselbury. bv 
tlohn of Fonl, extracts from which are to l)e found in LelandV 
Cnlhcttiiifii fll. 447), yiz. : •• William filius Theodorici," 
lord of the Ville called Mudiford ; " Beatrix," his wife, aod 
" William, <on of William, son of William, son of Theodoric." 
In the Cottoiiian MS. (Faustina B iy.) there is another ex- 
tract from this life, which, in proof of Wulfric's supernatural 
|K>werH, n»latps a story, how that his friend, William fitz 
Tlifodoric, a knight of the ville called Mudiford, catching in 
his river there four large pike, sent three of them as a present 
to Wulfric, keeping one only for himself, and that on the 
messenger's arrival Wulfric said to him, " Your master has not 
divided correctly, take one hack to him and then there will Im? 
ecpial portions,'' thus shewing that he knew the knight had 
caught funr fish. The author goes on to say that William, 
son of this William, and Beatrix, his wife, testify (testifican- 
tur) their belief in the story. 

Mutfford and its Church, 1 89 

Wulfric died in 1154 (1 Hen. II), and we may presume that 

liis friend William fitz Theodorie was the person who in 116G 

held of William fitz William of Haselbury two knights' fees in 

Somerset and by the description of '' William fil Terriei de 

Otrehamton/' another in the same county of Philip de 

Columbers (Lib. Nig., i, 94-97). 

It will be noticed that Wulfric's life speaks of Beatrix the 
iwrife of William fitz Theodorie ; according to the Mudford 
charter the wife of Theodorie fitz William the Donor was also 
called Beatrix. The coincidence is curious, but there is nothing 
impossible in a man's wife and his mother having the same 

In 1176 Terricus de Mudford was fined for an offence 
against the Forest Laws (Pipe Roll Somt. and Dor., 22-23 
Hen. II), and in 1201 he was party to a fine for exchanging 
lands in Maxehill for part of the Marsh of Pedreham (Somt. 
Fines, 3 John, No. 70). This place was near the mouth of 
the River Parret in or near Otrehamton or Otterhampton, 
which afterwards belonged to the Romsey family, descendants 
of Theodorie. 

Of the two sons of the Donor, Henry appears to have been 
the eldest and to have succeeded his father as lord of ilud- 
ford. In Harl MS., No. 4120, there is an extract from a deed 
(sans Hate) whereby Henry de Mudford granted to Wm. 
Malet, lord of Enmore, two fardells of land in the ville of 
Mudford in free-marriage with Sarah, daughter of Raymond 
de Sully. This, I take it, was only his confirmation of the 
transaction as the superior lord of land in Mudford, held 
of him by Malet, and did not imply any further coiniection 
with either Malet or Sully. Accompanying it is a drawing of 
a seal charged with a rose and a fragment of the legend round 
it ... . "Modiford," and in Coll, Top, and Gen., v, 125, the 
arms of de Mudford are said to he arg. a chevron wavy between 
five roses, and to be quartered by the Stukeley family of 

190 Papers^ 8fc, 

Henrj must have died without issue, and his brother 
William also, for in 1263 there was litigation respecting Jandi 
in Mudford, which Dyonisia de Otterhampton held in dower 
under Scolastica, sister and heir of Henrj de Modeford^ 
husband of Dyonisia (Somerset Pleas. 27 Hen. Ill, No.2J^), 
Henry held at his death lands in Otterhampton as well u 
Mudford, and William de Eston had a grant of them from the 
Crown during the king's pleasure ( Charter Rolls, 18 John m 6). 
The manor of Mudford Terry may have passed by the raw- 
riage of this Scolastica with a Romesy, but at any rate, it pamed 
into the hands of that family as in Kirby*s Q^iest (12 Edw.I)^ 
it was held by Walter de Romesy and GeoflVey de Romesr of 
Alan de Plugenet, the suj)erior lord in right of his barony (rf 
Ilaselbury. The Romesys were the owners of the adjoining 
manors of Okeley and Chilthome, which they had purchased of 
Richard Fitz- William (Somt. Fines, 7 John, No. 18).* 

The hamlet of Hinton, which lies north of the river Yeo, 
seems at one time to have been treated a separate manor from 
Mudfonl Torrv, but afterwards the whole was known as ''the 
manors of Mudfonl and Hinton," and was in or before the rt'ign 
of Edw. I held bv the Norman family of Daunav or DeAlneto, 
an anoei'tor of wh<»ni " Sire De Aulnou *' was a leader in the 
Conqueror's army at the battle of Hastings (Wace, p. 213), 
and William de Alnoto held two knights fees in Devon 12 
Hon II i IMk Xh. II, 122). M Edw. I. Nicholas Dawnav 
had inhorittnl from William, his grandfather, the manor of 
Hynton juxta Mixlifonl (Assize Rolls, ol Edw. I, x f,), and 
from him dosrendt^l anotiier Nicholas, who was summoneil to 
Parliamont as a HanMi I Edw. Ill, and died 7 Edw. Ill, 
loavinir Sir .lohn Dawnav his oiilv son and heir. He was a 
remnuuHl warrior, and havinsr siarnalizetl himself at the battle 
ot* Tivov, was made bv his sovereign Kniorht Banneret on the 
battlotiold. lie diinl 20 E«lw. Ill, leaving issue, one daughter, 

I. S<mi« iividitioiial (virtioulan of the KoiuMey family will be found in ** Hii- 
Uh-icaI NoliciM of South Somenet" pp. 43, 44. 

Madford and its Church. 191 

iged 16, who became the wife of Sir Edward Courtenay, Kt., 

■on of Hugh 2ad Earl of Devon, and father of Edward the 

M Earl, commonly called the blind Earl, and by that means 

the Courtneys inherited the manor of Mudford and Hinton. 

This manor was one of those forfeited to the Crown on the 

attainder of Henry Earl of Devon in 1539, and was never 

restored to the Courtenay family. There is a survey of the 

manor temp. Phi), and Mary in the British Museum (Harl 

M8. 71), which is printed in Top. and Gen. I, 158. It was 

then still in the hands of the Crown, but before 30 Ely. it 

belonged to Sir Hugh Cholmley, Kt., and in the early part of 

the last century it was sold to Mr. John Old, of Yeovil, from 

'i^hom it descended to the present owner, Mr. Goodford, of 

Chilton Cantelo. 


*' Carta Rogeri Episcopi confirmationis [obliteration] super 
ecclesiam de Mudiford. 

Omnibus Christi fidelibus Roger Episcopus salutem. Novt 
universitas ve^^tra uos inspex [ ] Cartam Theodorici filii 

Willelmi de Mudiford super donatione Ecclesie de Mudiford 
([uam dilectis filiis nostris Josceline Priori et conventui Mon- 
tacuti pre contulisse dinoscitur cujus forma hiec est — Sciant 
universi fidele?? Quod ego Theodorie filius Willielmi concedente 
Beatrice uxore mea et Henrico atque Willielmo filiis meis et 
^eredibus concedentibus et similiter niecum doiuintibus dono 
3t quantum ad dominium fundi pertinet concedo ecclesiam de 
Mudiford Deo et Sanctis Apostolis ejus Petro et Paulo et 
nonachis de Montacuto in pura et perpetua elemosina et ab 
)riuie c(>nsuetudine laicali liberam cum omnibus pertiuentiis suis 

1 . Wells Cathedral Charter, No. 48. I am indebted to Canon Church for 
kindly collating this transcript and No. 25 with the originals. 


Paper$^ ffc. 

hftbendam et in perpettiam podi^idendain. Et quia volo Innj 
meam piiram et (lerpetuam elimosinam ratam fieri et Bmnm 
presentem cartam sig^llo meo confirmavi. (Seal.) Teit 
Heliari C*ai)ellan de Cinnock Robert presbiter de Stokei 
VVillielm C'a|>ellaii de Montacute Willielm Capellan de Ude- 
ciinibe David C*ler de Montacute Hugh fil Theodoric AJeian- 
der HI Viel Simon de Odecumbe Ualfrid de Cinnock Haaw 
fil Willielmi Bernard de Montacute Rol>ert de TinteMli 
Kichani de Mokalshain et u mltis aliis Nos autem devotioDem 
tnemorati Theo<loriei grato favore et assensu in Domino prose* 
quente ad instantiam et |>etitionem ejusdem T. [heodorid] 
banc 8ue donationin et eouce^sionis cartam 8upradicti« filiig 
nostrisi flos(*elino priori et conventui Moutacuti corrobommN 
et ([uicHiuid hujusdem Theodorici eis in ea contulit ant cot> 
ferre i)otuit pro^entis script! testimonio. Hujus testes BadolL 
Arclidiac* de Bathon Josceljn Capellan John de St Lna 
Williolm (^apellan Robert Capellan de Mertock Baldwin Cler 
de Stoke lioma de Dinan Radulf Chusuz (?) Henry Kari 
Cler. Kichani Cainerar. 



£Dffl[cet0, a9emt)et0 ann iaule0, 1899. 

^Patron : 


)Pre0ttient : 
RIQHT HON. SIR EDWARD FRY, p.c, d.c.l., ll.d., f.r.s., f.s.a., f.l.s. 

Ftce«)Pre0ttient0 : 



C. I. ELTON, Esq., q.o., f.s.a. SIR E. H. ELTON. Bart. 






W. A. SANFORD, Esq. 




9rru0tee0 : 

Henrv Jeffries Badcock, Esq. Henry Hobhouse, Esq., m.p. 

John Batten, Esq. Sir A. A. Hood, Bart., m.p. 

Jam«.s Forbes Chisuolm-Batten, Esq. ; George Fownes Luttrkll, Esq. 

Lieut. -Col. James Roger Bramble. i William Ayshford Sanford, Esq 
Charles I. Elton, Esq., q.c. Edward J. Stanley, Esq., m.p. 

A. J. GooDFORD, Esq. The Rt. Hon. The Earl Temple. 

(!rrea0UTeT : 


(Seneral £ectetarir0: 

To/. X L V ( Third Series, Vol. V), Part II. hb 



Siitcict QC &icil Sccictarfoi: 

Rev. Preb. BuHer» North Cwrr^ 
R E. Bftker, r.8.A., Wmikm-mper- 

Rev. E. H. Bftiea, liminMiar 
J(An Bfttten, r.8.A., yaovtf 
J. G. L. Balleid, GloMlonhwry 
J. O. Cash, If tiMoiilofi 
Rev. Ottnon Church, faa., IFetff 
Rev. Preb. Coleman, Cheddar 
Rev. J. J. Coletnan, Ufdcomhe 
G. A. Daniely Froma 
Wm. Dftubenj, Balh 
H. C. A. Day, Chvedon 
Sir R H. Elton, Burt, Chvedon 
C. H. Fox. WMingion 
Rev. Preb. Gale, Follcm 
Rev. PreK Grafton, CatiU Cory 
Rev. Preb. Hancock, Dnnsimr 

Rev, D. LI. Hayward, AitfM 
Rev. Preb. HeniDgfaam, RTiG 

mkiOid Cimm 
Rev. Canon Holmei^ ^«Mbry 
Rev. W. Hant 
W. M. KeUj, M.a 
Hugh Norri% Souik PeAerton 
Rev. B. Peaoocky Nwmgjf 
Edwin Bioper, London 
Rev. Gilbert E. Smith, Som 
Gea Sweetman, IFtneanlon 
CharleB Tite. 

Rev. H. G. Tomkina, Wtt^^^l 
Rev. P. «r. Weaver, J/tlftma 

don, i fa ier c reccA 
Rev. W.P. WiUiama, fFafoa-iiq 

W. li. Winterbotham, Bridgm 

Committee : 

lie v. Preb. Ask with 
Major Chiflholm-lUtten 
F. T. Elworthy 
A. Maynard 
Rev. D. J. Pring 
Rev. F. S. P. Sealu 

Rev. D. P. Alford 
Rev. Preb. Biiller 
C. IL Samson 
Rev. A. H. A. Smith 
J. E. W. Wakefield 

Rev. J. Worthington 

The Prenidenl, Vice-PrMuhntHj Trusle^^ Treasurer, General and Im 
Secretaries, are ex-oficio Memberg of the CommiUee^ 

asatat. Srr. ^ Curator: 

William Bitlgoo<l, Taunton Castle, 

Honorary and Corresjwndiny Members. 195 

xtittUi0 oC t^ l^igott Collettion of 9Dratotiigns* 

The Lord Lieutenant of the County. 

The Lord Bishop of the Diocese. 

The Members of Parliament for the County. 

The Chairman of Quarter Sessions. 

The Clerk of the Peace for the County. 

frentatibe ^vugut on t^t Slxbtiiet UotDtt Uru0t 

Col. William Long. 

funtatibt ^tuetet oti t^t 3|lc|ie0ter Uoton %vu0t 

A. J. GOODFORD, £8(j. 

I^otiorar^ anti CorredponHinff 9^embtv0, 

Sir H. W., M.D,, Regitia Professor of Aledicin^.j Oxford. 
J, Montague, Elsq., m.a., Chichele Professor of Modern I/is- 
y in the University of Oxford, and Captain, P.N, 
8, W. Boyd, Esq., F.R.S., f.s.a., f.g s., etc., Professor of 
^logy, Owens College, Manchester, Woodhurst, Fallowfield, 

lev. Preb. J., m.a. Oriel, Professor of Anglo-Saxon, Oxford, 
ainswick Rectory, Bath. 

Dr., Sec. Arcliceological and Natural History Society, 
Right Rev. Dr., Pisfiap of Oxford. 

Daniel, Esq., IiUD., Professor of English Language^ 
'onto, Canada. 

^deties in CottmrMMtOence, fdt tiie acdmie 

of Publications. 

Kojal Archicological Institute of Great Britain and Irekai 

British Association* 

British Museum. 

British Museum (Natural Historj). j 

British Archaeological Association. 

Societj of Anti(iuarie8 of London. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotbmd. 

Royal Irish Academy. 

Royal Society of Anticiuaries of Ireland. 

Uuildhall Library, London. 

Associated Architectural Societies of Northampton, etc 

Sussex Archicological Society. 

Suttblk Institute of Archteology and Natural History. 

Surrey Archajological Society. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society. 

Wiltshire Arrhieological and Natural History Society. 

London and Middlesex Arclueological Society. 

Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwall Natural Hii* 

tory Society. 
Kent Areliieolo^ieal Society. 

Bristol and (lloueestcrshire Archaeological Society. 
Powys Land Chib, Montfifomeryshii*e. 
Derl)y shire Arclueolo^ieal and Natural History Society. 
Shropshire Arclueolof|^ical and Natural History Society. 
Berkshire Arclneolo^ical and Architectural Society. . 
Hertfordshire Natural llistorv Society. 
Essex Archajolo^ical Society. 
Norfolk and Norwicli Archicological Society. 
Leicestershire Architccrtural and Arclueological Society. 
Royal Institution of Cornwall. 
Yorkshire Archaiologiiral Society. 

Corrcspondiny JSociefies, 197 

Architectural and Archaeological Society. 
iptonshire Naturalists' Society. 
Kfttural History and Antiquarian Field Clul>. 
* Association. 
^^laii Dublin Society. 
^^li&Ql Naturalists' Society, 
^'Varpool Literary and Philosophical Society, 
^VMhester Literary and Philosophical Society. 
Naturalists' Field Club. 
Field Club. 
.ety of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
[bridge Antiquarian Society. 

r Archaeological and Historical Society. 
n Antiquarian Club. 
iMnpishirc Field Club. 
*^*^ore»by Society, Leeds. 
* olk-Lore Society. 
*- OBtal Microscopic Society. 
"•^He Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist. 
"'^•Oyal Norwegian University, Christiana. 
^3-eological Institution of the University of Upsala, Sweden. 
Canadian Institute, 
^ova Scotian Institute. 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S. 
Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, U.S. 
United States Geological Survey, Washington, U.S. 
Essex Institute, Salem, Massachusetts, U.S. 
New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, U.S. 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Davenport, Iowa, U.S. 
Old Colony Historical Society, Taunton, Mass., U.S. 
Geological Department of the University of California, U.S. 
Academy of Natiu'al Sciences, Philadelphia, U.S. 
University of California, U.S. 

Soci^tc Vaiidoise des Sciences Naturelles, Lausanne. 
Societe Archcologiciuc de Bordeaux. 

59 55 55 

55 95 

List of Members for 1899. 199 

^5*ftett, Jonathan, Taunton 
js^ ^g^rrett, !Major, Moredon Honse^ North Curry 
"**'^«l8tow, J. Jackson, The Ijodgcy Weston-super-Mare 

"^•rtelot, Rev. R. Grosvenor, Corfe Castle^ Wareham^ 
^^Bartrum, J. S. 13, Gat/ Street, Bath 
•jQites, Rev. E. H. Pnchington Rectory^ Ilminster 

JBathurst, A. 2, New Square^ Lincoln s Inn, London 

JBAtten, Henry B. Aldtm, Yeocil 

IBatten, H. Cary G. Leigh Lodge, Abbots Leigh, Bristol 

Batten, Mrs. H. Cary G. 

Batten, John Beardmore „ 
^ Batten, H. Phelips, Hollands, Yeovil 
T Batten, John, f.s.a., Aldon, Yeovil, Trustee, v. p. 

Batten, Lieut.-Col. #1. Mount, Momington Ixidge, West 
Kensington, W. 

Bajnes, Rev. R. E., Vicarage, Clevedon 

Beames, J. 
^ Beavan, Miss, Taunton 

Beck, Rev. W. J. Sutton Montis, Sparkford 
*Beddoe, J., m.d., f.r.s.. The Chnntrg, Bradford^n-Avon 

Bell, J. H. 100, Ley land Road, Sonthport 

Bell, Rev. W. A. Char lynch, Bridgwater 
5 Bennett, Edgar, Hendford, Yeovil 

Bennett, Mrs. 2, Bradmore Road, Oxford 

Bennett, T. O. Bruton 

Bentlej, F. J. R., Woodlands, Wellington 

Bere, Charles, Milverton 
Berkeley, Rev. G. W., Butleigh 

Bernard, Rev. Canon, Wells 

Bicknell, A. S. Barcomhe House, Barcombe, Sussex 

Birkbeck, Rev. W. J. Weston-super-Mare (^deceased) 

Bisdee, Alfred, Hntton Court, Weston-super-Mare 
5 Blake, W. Bridge, South Petherton 

Blakiston, A. A. Glastonbury 

Blathwayt, Lieut.-Col. Linley, Eagle House, Batheuston 

Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter E. Dyrham, Chippenham 

Blathwayt, Rev. W. T. 
Bond, Rev. R. S. Thome, Yeovil 

Boodle, R. W. 20, Belgrave Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham 

Booker, Wm. Thomas, Wellington 

Boston Public Library, Boston, LLS, America 

Bothamley, Ven. Archdeacon, Richmond I^odge, Bath 
5 Bothamley, C. H. Otter wood, Beaconsjield Road, Weston- 

55 55 

200 Utf of Members frr 1899. 

Bourdillon, E. D. Binder House, WeUs 
Bouverie, H. H« P. Rrymore Honse, Bridgwater 
Bownes, Rev. James, Creech St, Michael 
Boys, Rev. H. A. NoHh Cadtnry Beetarf, Balk 

80 Braikcnridge, W. Jerdone, Clevedan, and 16, Jbyol C^ 
fBramble, Lieut.-Col., P.a.A. SeqfieU, fFestoH'^Ufehibn 
Trastee, General Secretary 
Bramble, Mii» Edith Marj, Seqfield, fyesten'-nfer'Mm 
Broadmead, W. B., Enmore Castle 
Broderip, Edmund, Cotsington Manor^ BriAfwater 

85 BrowD, David, 7, Wellington Terrace^ TatmUm 
Brown, F. W., Chardlewh Green, Chard 
Brown, G. Gordon, 5, Ureenhay Road, Liverpool 
Brown, John, Wadefird, Chard 
Brown, T. Loader, Chardleigh Green, Chard 

90 Brown, W. H. M. Sherborne 

Brownlow, Rt. Rev. Bishop, Bishop^ s House, PoA A 

Clifton, Bristol 
Bnitton, J. 7, Frinces Street, Yeoml 
Bryan, H. D. Grove Park Road, fVeston-^uper^Mwrt 
Buckle, Edmund, 23, Bedford Row, London, W.C, 

95 Buckle, Rev. Canon, Wells (deceased) 
Bull, Rev. Thos. Williamson, Paulton 
BuUeid, Arthur, k.s.a., Glastonbury 
tliullcid, tF. (t. L. Glastonbury 
Bulleld, G. Laurence, a.u.w.s., 57, Combe Park, Wi 

l(K)tBuller, Rev. Preh. W. E. North Curry 
Ihmnv, tJ. Brice, Bishop's Lydeard 
Burndjrc, VV, The Willows, Wellington 
Busli, John, 9, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Bush, K. C, 1, Winifred's Dale, Bath 

105 Bush, Rev. T. (\, Hornbhtton Rectory, Castle Gary, 
Bush, Thos, S. 20, Camden Crescent, Bath 
I^utler, W. B. TaitnUm 

Buttanshaw, Rev. Preb. tl. 22, *S7. James'* Square, I 
Caillard, His Honour Judge, Wingfield House, 

110 Capel, J. P. WestoU'Super-Mare 
Cartwri^ht, Rev. A. R. Clevedon 
Cartwright, Rev. H. A. Whitestaunton 
tCash, J. (). Wincanton 
('avlev. Rev. R. A. Stoirrll Rrctory, Sherborne 

115 (^haffey-Chaffey, Robert, AV/W Stoke 

List of Members for 1899. 201 

■S^liaflFey, Richard, Chard 

/©liafyn-Grove, G. Troyte, North Coker House^ Yeovil 
bdiapman, Arthur Allan, Taunton 
"^CWd, T. T. The Hawthorns, Clevedon 
^lieetham, F. H. Tetton, Kingston, Taunton 

biaholm-Batten, Major #1. F. Thornfalcon, Taunton, 
. Kiirch, Rev. Canon, f.s.a., Sub-Dean, JVells 
CJlark, Frank J. Street 
I Clark, W. S. Street 
Clarke, A. A. fVells 

Clarke, C. P. Taunton 

Clatworthj, Eland, Highland Villa, Taunton 

Clemow, C. E. Canon House, Taunton 
L Clerk, E. H. Burford, Shepton Mallet 
^ Clive, J. Ronald, Combe Florey 

Clothier, S. T. Street 

Coates, Capt. Herbert, Clevedon 
|Coleraan, Rev. Preb. James, 2, Vicar s Close, Wells 
I^TColeman, Rev. J. J. Holcombe Rectory, Bath 

Coles, Rev. V. S. S. Shepton Beauchamp 

Colfox, Wm. Westmead, near Bridport 

Collins, Rev. J. A. W. Newton St. Cyres, Exeter 

Colthurst, G. E. Northfield, Taunton 

Cooper, Rev. Sydney, Christ Church, Frome 
^tCork and Orrery, The Rt. Hon. The Earl of, k.p., 
Marston, Frome, Patron 

Comer, H. Taunton 

Comer, Samuel, 95, Forest Road West, Nottingham 

Corner, Edward, Hillside, Wellington 

Cornish, C. E., D.i). The Kt. Rev. Bishop of Grahamstown 
^5 Cornish, R. Cedar House, Axminster, Devon 

Cotching, W. G. Taunton 

Cottam, A. Basil, Bridgwater 

Cox, H. Williton 

Crawley-Boevey, Rev. R. L. Doynton Rectory, Bristol 
50 Crespi, A. J. H., M.U., Cooma, Poole Road, Wimhorne 

Cutler, Jonathan, Richmond House, Wellington 

Dampier-Bide, Thos. Wm. Kingston Manor, Yeovil 

Daniel, Rev. H. A. Manor House, Stockland Bristol, 

Daniel, Rev. Prebendary W. E. Horsington Rectory, 
)5t Daniel, G. A. Nunney Court, Frome 

Daubeny, W. A. Clevelands, near Dawlish 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol, V), Part II. cc 

202 LM of MemberM for 1899. 

tDauI)cny, W. 11, St, JameM* SqKare^ Baik 
Davteti, Hitchings, St^merton 
Da vies, J. Trevor, Newland Uouse^ Sherbomt 
160 Davifl, Major C. £. 55, Pulteney Street^ Bath 
Davis, Mrs. The Warren^ North Curry 
tDay, H. C. A. Oriel Ij^ge, Hlaltun^ Clettedon 
Denham, George, Taunton 
DenmaD, Tho8« Isaac, Veotfil 
165 Derham, Henrj, Sneyd I^rk^ Clifton^ Bristol 
Dcrham, Walter, 76, Tsaneaster Gate^ London^ W, 
Dickinson, K. E., m.p. Bath 
Dobree, S. The Briars, Ealing^ IV. 
Dob!H)n, Mrs. Oahwood, Bathwick Hill^ Bath 
170 Doggett, II. Greenfield, Sprint/hill^ Leighwpod^ CHjt$ii 
Dowell, Rev. A. G. Henstridye Vicarage^ Blandford 
Drajson, C\ D., Courtlands, Taunton 
Drayton, W. Monntlands, Taunton 
Duckworth, Rev. \V. A. Orehardleigh Park, From^ 
175 Diidcr, John, Tregednn, The Avenue^ Taunton 

Diidman, Miss C'atherine L. Pitney House, lMiigp€^Tt 
Dunn, William, Frame 
Dnpuirt, Rev. Preb. T. C\ Burnham 
Dyke, C\ P. Totteridge, Herts 
180 Dymond, Kev. II. N. Chaffcomhe, Chard 
Dyson, flno. Moorlands, Crewkeme 
Enston, Richanl, Taunton 

Ehorle, •!. F. Ebor Villa, 96, Pembroke Road, Clipt^ 
Eden, Mrs. The Grange, Kingston, Taunton 
185 Kd wards. Rev. A. Cr. Norton-sub- Hamdon, Ilmmt^^ 
t Edwards, Sir Geo. Wm. Sea Walls, Sneyd Park, Si 

Biskop, Bristol v.l». 
t Elton, C. I., g.c, f.s.a., Manor House, PVh\te$tah 
Trustee, v.r. 
Elton, Rev. George G. Wcllow Vicarage, Ramsey, H* 
t Elton, Sir E. II.. Bart.. Clenedon Court, v. p. 
190 Elton, W. Uenthfivld Hall, Taunton 

l*iltoii, Ambrose, Clevedon Court, and 17, Halsey Hit 
Cadogan Smut re ^ S,H\ 
1 1^1 worthy, F. l\ Foxdoirn, IVelUngton 
Ernst, Mrs. IVratcombe House, Evercreech, Bath 
Kadaile, ('. E. J. Cothehtone 
195 Esdaile, Gck). The Old Rrctorg, Platt-in-RuslwIme 
Ma ft Chester 
Esdaile, Rev. W. Sandford Orcns, Sherborne 
Evans, Sir tl.. K.c.n., I'.it.s., Nash Mills, Hemel Hemp 

List of Members for 1899. 203 

ans, W. H. Ford Abbey^ Chard 
ens, J. W. The Gables^ Walton Fark^ Cievedon 
ing, Mrs. Taunton 
lier, Samuel, Jfocelnnds, Taunton 
lier, W. H. Elmhurst^ North-^own, Taunton 
7:-Gerald, Major, J. P. fValton, Cievedon 
^g, Wm. M.B. Weston-super-Mare 
ley, R. Y. Elmwood^ Bridgwater 
^ter, E. A. South Hill^ King skcr swells Decon 
:siter, F. C Bridgwater 
►>vler, Kev. C. A, 

»wler, Wm. H. The Bank^ Taunton 
►wler, Gerald, 5, Haines Hill Terrace^ Taunton 
►A, C. H. Wellington 
•X, F. F. Yate House^ Chipping Sodbury 
X, Rev. J. C. Templecombe 
X, Sylvanus, Linden^ Wellington 
V croft, E. T. D. Hinton Charterhouse^ Bath 
nklin, H. Taunton 
me Literary Institute 

-. The Rt. Hon. Sir Edwd., p.c, d.c.l., f.s.a., k.u.^., 
<^-5 late Lord Justice of Appeal, Failand House ^ Failand^ 
^f^isiol^ President 

» E. A. 172, Edmund Street ^ Birmingham 
^ Mrs. „ „ 

> Francis J. Cricket St, Tlwmasj Chard 
c^, Rev. Preb. I. S. Cleere^ Yatton 
\nv\^ Wm. Horwoodj Wincanton 
>rge, Frank, Top Corner^ Fork Street^ Bristol 
orge, Rev. Philip Edward, Winifred Housc^ Bath 
orge, W. St. Wulfstan s^ Durdham Fk,^ Bristol (decesa^vd) 
bbs, Antony, Tyntesjield^ Wraxall^ Nailsco^ B.S.O. 
bbs, Hcnrv Martin, Burrow Courts Barrow Gurney, 

l>son, Rev. Prebendary, The Vicarage^ Leeds 
fford, J. Wm. Ooklands, Chard 

les, A. H. Churchill Court^ Churchill^ B.S.O.^ Somerset 
les, W. J. 10, Sydney Terrace^ Taunton 
Uett, A. Street 

Kldard, H. R. Villa Ventura^ Taunton 
)od, Thos., Bridgwater 

K>dford, A. J. Chilton Cantelo^ Ilchester, Trustee 
>od]and, Charles, Taunton 
)odland, Thos., Taunton 
)odman, Albert, The Acenuc^ Taunton 

2(U List of Members for 1899. 

240 Uoodman, Edwin, Varde Uouse^ Taunton 
Goodman, Alfred, Elm Grove^ Taunton 
ough, Wm. Langport 

rafton, Rev. Prebendary A. W. Castie Cary 
rant, I^adj, Logie EfphtnstonCy Pitcaple^ Aberdeeiukin 
rant, Rev. C Glastonbury 
rant, Capt. The Chantry^ Frome 

reen, E., f.s.a., Devonshire Club, St. James* Stred^ 
LondoUj S, H'^, 

reswell. Rev. W. H. P. Dodington 

i^ey, Geo. Duncan, ll.d. Bella Vista, fVeston^snper* 

in*ney. Rev. H. F. S. Stoke St. Gregory 
addon, CMias. Taunton 
ad won, Walter R., M.i>. Gloucester 

all, Henry, 19, Doughty Street, Mecklenburg h Square, 

all. Rev. H. F. Lcashrook, Dixton, Monmouth 
all, J. F. Shttrcombe, Dinder, Wells 
anilet. Rev. .1. Shcpton Beanchamp, Ihninstcr 
aniniet« W. .1. St, Bernard* s, Taunton 
animett, A. Taunton 

unoook. Rev. Preb. F., f.s.a. The Priory, Dunster 
arford, Wni. H. Old Bank, Bristol 
arford, Re\''. l*rebcndary, Marston Bigot, Frome 
arrod, H. H. Manor House^ Morebath, Tiverton 
arroL C\ D. „ ,, „ 

arvoy, tlolui, tliun*. Dviuwirk Street^ Clifton 
at<»hor, Robert, Melville Honse^ Middle Street, Taunton 
awkesbury, Tbo Kt. Hon. Loi-d, 2, Carlton House Ter- 
;•//(•<•, /'r/// MalU London^ S,U\ 
aywartl. He v. Doutjflas LI. Bruton 

oalo. Rev. C\ H. St. Deaiwuns, IVatrhct, Bridgwater 
ealev, C\ K. H. Chadwyrk, (^c. ll*J, liar ley Street, H\ 
and Xew l^lace^ Porloch 
oatbcote. Rev. S. .1. ll'iUiton 
eatlu'ote, (.'. D. Bridge Ilonse^ Porlock 
ellier, Kev. H. G. Nempnett Rectory, Chew Stoke, Bristol 
ellier, Mrj^. „ „ „ ,, 

elyar, Colonel, Poundisford Lodgc^ Taunton 
enlev, Colonel C\ H. Leigh House, Chard 
enry. Miss Frances, Brasted^ IValton-by-Clevedon 
erringhain. Rev. Preb. W. W. Old Cleeve 
ewlett, Mrs. Pre/tn\< Green. IVorle, I Test on-super- Ma re 
ickes, Rev. T. H. F. Drugcot 

245 ( 


250 t 

255 I 

2(>0 I 





2i!.> I 



270 1 

275 I 


List of Members for 1899. 205 

'^ Higgins, John, Pylle^ Shepton Mallet 
Hill, B. H. 

Hill, Chas., Cleoedon Hall^ Clevcdon (deceased) 
Hill, Sir Edward, K.c.n., M.P., Bookwood^ Llandaff^ and 

Hazel Munor^ Compton Martin^ Bristol 
Hill, W. J. C. Lantfport 
\b Hippisley, W. J. 15, New Street, PVelh 
tHobhouse, The Rt. Rev. Bishop, IVelh 
tHobhouse, H., M.r. Hadspen House, Castle Cary, Trustee, 
Hobhouse, Rt. Hon. Lord, k.c.s.i. 15, Briiton Street, 

lAmdon, fV, 
Hodgkinson, W. S. Glencot, Wells 
Holland, W. T. The Lions, Bridgiratcr 
tHolmes, Rev. Canon, Wookey, Wells 
Honnvwill, Rev. J. E. W. Leiyh^n^Mendip, Cohford, 
tHood, Sir Alexander Acland, Hart., 3i.i». St, Audriei>, 

Bridy water. Trustee 
tHook, Rev. Preb. W. Porlock (deceased). 
5 llorne. Rev. Ethell>ert, Downside Monastery, Bath 
Horner, J. F. Fortescue, Mells 
Hoskins, Ed. #1. 76, Jenny n Street, London, W, 
Hoskjns, H. W. North Per rot Manor, Crew kerne 
tHoskyns, Col. South Petherton, v.p. 
Houston^ H. S. Lindcnfels, Frame 

Hudd, A. E., F.s.A. 94, Pemhroltc Road, Clifton 
Hughes, Rev. F. L. Lydeard St. Lawrence 
Humphreys, A. L. 187, Piccadilly, I^ondon^ PV, 
tHunt, Rev. W. 24, Phillimore Gardens, Campdcn Hill, 
Kensinyton, IV, 
5 Hunt, Wni. Alfred, Pen, Yeovil 

Husbands, H. Wesseii, North Town House, Taunton 
tHyhon, The Rt. Hon. the Lord, Ammerdown Park, Rnd- 
stock, Bath, v.p. (deceased) 
Hyson, Rev. J. H. Yeovilton, Ilchestcr 
lies, A. R. Shutternc House, Taunton 
Impey, Miss E. C. Street 

Inman, H. B. Pine House, Bathcaston, Bath 
Innian, T. F. Kilkenny House, Bath 
Isgar, R. Wells 
Jacobs, M. Taunton 
5 James, W. H. Weston-super-Mare 
.Jane, Wm. Conr/resbury 
Jetteries, C. S. Sanforth, Hiyhdalc Roftd, Clevedon 

206 LUt of Members for 1899. 

JenniDgs, A. R. Taunton 
t Jex-Blake, The Very Rev. T. W., Dean of Well*, 
The Deanery^ H'ells^ v.P. 
320 Jex-Blake, Arthur John, Mar/dalen CoUetfe^ Oxford 

Johnson, Admiral, Haines hill, Taunton 

Johnston, Joseph Nicholson, Hesketh Housey Veiwil 

tlones, J. E. Northwood^ Rickmansttortk 

Jose, Rev. S. P. Churchill 
325 Jose, Mrs. ,, 

Joseph, H. W. B. PVoodlands House^ Holfurd^ Bridifwa 
t Kelly, W. M., m.d. Ferring^ H'orthinffj Sussex 

Kehvay, Wm. Langport 
tKennion, Rt. Rev. G. W., Lord Bishop of Bath s 
Wells, The^ Palace, Wells, v.P. 
330 Kettlewell, Wm. Harptree Court, East Harptree 

King, Austin Joseph, 13, Queen Square, Bath 

King, R. Moss, Ashcott Hill, Bridgwater 

Kinglake, Rev. F. C. West Monkton 

Kite, G. H. Taunton 
335 Knight, F. A. Wintrath^ Winsamihe, Weston^ a j^er-Mc 

Knight, R. Wellington 

Lance, Chas. E. Priory House, Taunton 

Lance, Rev. W. H. Buckland St. Mary, Chard 

Langdon, Rev. F. E. W. Parrocks Lodge^ Chard 
340 Langdon, Mrs. ,, „ 

Lawrence, Samuel. Fordc House, Taunton 

Law.son, Geo. 36, C raven Hill Gardens^ London 

Leir, Rev. L. Randolph M. Char/ton Musgrurc. Winrj- 

Long. W. L. 14. Church Sfrrrt. Bridgiratrr 
345 Lethbridge, Sir Wroth A., Bart. Sandhill J^ark. Bi.<h» 

[-.ewis, Archibald M. 3, Ujiptr Byron Place. Clitii'n 

Lewis, Jo?iah, Taunton 

Lewis, Murrav. Taunton 

Lewis, William. 12. \orth Gntr Street. Bath 
350 Liddon, Edward. M.i>. Tatinton 

Liddon, Rev. Henry John, Taunton 

Livett, H. W., M.D. Well.- 

Lock, John, Taunton 

Lock, William. Lewis Hot/.<e, Staple grove, Tannf^-H 
355 Long, C ol. Congre.shnry. Bri>tt'l 

Louch, .1. Langport 

Lovedav, J. G. Weirfield. 7'annton 

Love<lav, Mrs. 

Loviljond. (i. The Friars. Bridtf water 

Lut of Members for 1899. 207 

10 Lovibond, Mrs. The Granr/e^ Langport 

Ludlow, Walter, 61, Clarendon Street^ Leamhufton Sjut 
tLuttrell, G. F. Dunster Castle^ v. P. 

Lyte, Sir Henry Maxwell, k.c.b., f.s.a. 3, Port man 
Square^ Tendon ^ fV, 

Macdermott, Miss, 20, The Crescenfy Taunton 
5 Maedonald, J. A., m.d., Taunton 

Macmillan, W. Castle Cart/ 

Macmillan, A. S. The Avenue^ Yeovil 

Maggs, F. R. Princes Street^ Yeovil 

Major, Charles, fVembdon^ Bridt/water 
Malet, T. H. W. 23, Trafalgar St/ Uf ire, Chelsea, SJV. 

Mapletoii, Rev. H. M. Badgworth, H^eston-super-Mare 

Marshall, Wilfred (xeorge, Norton Manor, Taunton 

Marshall, James C. Stoke-on-Trent 

Marson, Mrs. Hambridge Vicarage, Curry Rivel 
o Mar wood, J. B. Eastcott, 86, Boston Road, Ilanwell, 

Marriott, H. M. Ileale House, Curry Rivel 

Master, Rev. G. S. Bourton Grange, Flax-Bourton, Bristol 

Mawer, A. Jefferay, Kelston, Weston-super-Mare 

May, Rev. W. D. 
OfMaynard, Alfred, Henley Lodge, Taunton 

Maynard, Howard „ 

McAuHffe, W. J. Taunton 

McConnell, Rev. C. .1. Pglle Rectory, Shepton Mallet 

Mead, Francis H., m.d. 1855, Fourth Street, San Diego, 
Ca I if urn ia, i \ S. A . 
.3 Meade, Francis, The Hill, Langport 

Meade-King, R. Liddon, m.d. Taunton 

Meade-King, Walter, 11, Baring Crescent, Heavitree, 

Meade-King, Miss May, IVnlford, Taunton 

Medley, Rev. ,1. B. Tyntesfeld, Bristol 
() Medlycott, Sir 1\. B., Bart. Yen, Milhornc Port 

Mellor, Right Hon. .1. W., m.1»., q.c. Culmhead, Taunton 

Meredith, J., m.d. IVellingtun 

Michell, Rev. A. T. Sheriff hales llcnrage, Neu^port, Salop 

Mildmay, Rev. A. St. John, Hazelgrovc Park^ Queen 
Camel, Bath 
15 1 Mitchell, F. (7/ rz/y/ (deceased) 

Mitchell, (i. W. 76, Beulah Hill, Upper Norwood, London 

Monday, A. J. Tanntun 

Moore, F. S. Castle Cory 

Morland, tlohn, Glastonbury 

208 List of Members for 1899. 

40() Mill litis, Mi's. The Glehe^ H^'eston-super-Mare 

Mullins, Miss „ „ 

Murray- A nderdon, H. E. //enlmir^ Tamiton^ and % 
Sloune Gardens^ London 

Nay lor, #1. R., C.s.i. Cadbury House^ Vuttvn 

Newell, Kev. l*reb. ('. F. Chiselborongh Rectory^ Stoke* 
405 Newell, Major H. L. „ „ ^ 

Newnham, C'apt. N. J. Blagdim Courts Bristol 

New York Public Library, Astor Library Bnild'mgi^ XY. 

Newton, F. M. Barton Grange^ Taunton 

Nicol, W. Herbert, Ponndisford Parity Taunton 
410 Nichols, James 

Nicholson, Rev. Preb. J. Y. Alter Bectory^ Langport 

Norman, Col. t'ompton, Taunton 

Norman, (j. 1 2, Brock Street, Bath 
tNorris, Hugh, South Petherton 
415 Odgers, Rev. J. E. 145, H^oodstoch Road, Oxford 

O'Donoghue, Henry O'Brien, Long Ashton 

Olivey, H. P. Albion House, Myhr, Penryn 

Ommanney, Rev. Preb. G. D. W. 29, Beaumont Strnt^ 
Oxford ! 

O'Neill, Rev. J. M. H^embdon, Bridgwater \ 

42()t Paget, The Rt. Hon. Sir Richard 'H., Bai-t., r.c. Craw. 
more IlalU Shej>ton Mallet, \ A\ 

Palmer, II. P. ll'ellington Terrace, Taunton 

Parsons, II. F., M.d. 4, Park Hill Rise, Croydon, Surrey 

Pass, A. (\ I/atrthornden, Clifton Down, Bristol 

Paul, A. I). Chard 
42.) Paul, R. W. :\, Arundel Street, Strand, London, W'.f. 

Paynter, tl. B. Jlmdford Manor House, Yeoril 
t Peacock, Rev. Vt. Uovkficld Nnnney, Frame 

l\'acc, A. Silrcr Craig, Weston-super-Mare 

Pcakc, Rev. Prel). (ieo. Kden, Vicarage, Brent Knoll 
430 Pcarcc, Edwin, Taunton 

Pearse, Rev. Heaucliani)) K. W. The Old Rectory, Aic\ 

Penny, Rev. E. L., I).l)., H.X. Coryton, Pentillie Em 
Ply otolith (deceased ) 

Penny, Rev. .lames Alpass, IVispington Mcarage, Hv\ 
cas tie, L in coin s h ire 

Peiuiv, T. Taunton 
435 Perceval, Cecil II. Spencer, Scrcrn House, Henbury, Brii 

Percival, Rev. S. 1^. Mrrrivtt \'icaragr, Crnckerne 

Perfect, Rev. H. T. Stanton Pnw 

List of Members for 1899. 209 

Perkins, A. E. Taunton 

Perry, Lieut.-Col. J. Cretckerne 
^ Perry, Rev. C. R., b.d. Mickfield Rectory^ Stowmarket 
*Petheriek, E. A., f.r.g.s. 85, Hopton Roadj Streathanty 
London^ S.fV, 

Phelips, W. R. Montacute Hoiise^ Montacute^ S. O., Som, 

Phillips, Rev. Theodore E. R. Hendford^ Yeovil 

Phillis, John, 31, High Street^ Shepton Mallet 
> Philp, Capt. Pendoggety Timshury^ Bath 

Pittman, J. Banks, Basing House^ Basinghall Street ^ 
London^ E,C. 

Pitt-Rivers, Lt.-Gen., f.r.s., f.s.a. Rushmore, Salisbury 

Plowman, Miss, Greenway^ North Curry 

Poole, H. R. South Petherton 
Poole, Rev. Robert Blake, Ilton Vicarage^ Ilminster 

Poole, Wm. Park Street^ Taunton 

Pooll, R. P. H. Batten, Road Manor^ Bath 

Pope, tlohn, Nowers^ fVellington 

Porch, J. A. Edgarley House^ Glastonbury 
'5 Portman, Hon. E. W. B. Hestercombe^ Taunton 
tPortman, The Rt. Hon. The Viscount, Bryanstone Ilousey 
Dorset y v. p. 

Potter, Wm. 12, The Crescent^ Taunton 

Powell, Septimus, The Hermitage^ fVeston^svpcr-Mare 

Prankerd, P. D. The Knoll, Sneyd Park, Bristol 
Price, R. E. Broomfield Hall, Bridgwater 

Prideaux, C. S., L.D.8., R.C.S. Eng. 51, High West Street, 

Prideaux, W. de C, l.d.s., k.c.s. Eng. Ermingtou, Dorchester 
tPring, Rev. Daniel J. Elmfield, Taunton 

Prior, R. C. A. m.d. Halse 
5 Quicke, Rev. C P. Ashbrittle 

Raban, Rev. R. C. W. Bishop s Hull 
•Ramsden, Sir tlohn Wm., Bart., Bulstrode, Gerrar(Cs 
Cross, Bucks, 6, Upper Brook Street, London, and 
By ram, Yorkshire 

Rawle, E. J. Camden Villa, Chislehnrst, Kent 

Raymond, Walter, Yeovil 
Reeves, A. Taunton 

Risk, Rev. .1. E. Stockleigh English, Crediton, Devon 

Richardson, Rev. A. BrisUngton 

Rigden, G. W. Cyprus Terrace, Taunton 

Risley, S. Norris 
5 Rixon, W. A. Alfoxton Park, Holford, Bridgwater 

Roberts, F. W. Northbrook Lodge, Taunton 

Vol. XL V (Third SerieM, Vol V ), Pari //. dd 

±10 iJsi of Member* for 1899. 

Robertsw KDkm. m.s.c^. Eng. SkiUiMfftom^ BedJ^risl 

Rocke. Mr». Ckaiice Hi% Glastombmry 

Rogen. G. H. 16. Park Street, Tammtom (deceased) 

4^» Rogersw The Worshipful ChanceUor T. EL YarBi 
Homsfn fflmeaMtom 
Rogers W. IL H. f.$.a. Beiieeue^ Polshe Road^ Exf 
Roope, Gerald, Bratrndenu^ Bishop's Hull 
Ro^, Rer. W. F. Hmttom. Westomsmper^Mare 
Ras?iter, G. F« m.b. H^estoH^mper-Jfare 

4-^5 Rowe, J. Brooking, F.S.a. Castle Barbican^ Phfn 
Rowley, W. L. P. Brazemose Colle^e^ Oxforti, and 

Roddoek. Miss Fanny M. ElmfieU^ CUredon 
Raegff, Lewi? H. f9'esibmry, Skrrborme, Dorset 
Rutier. Rer. J. H. Bmimster 
4i'^* >alm->n, Ven. Archdea4ron E. A. Brent KnoH, Hipk 

•Samson, C H. Tamfttom 

*>aiifonL W. A- Xymfkead Omrt. freiltH^oH, v. P. Ti 
Saiif«>rd, E. i". A. -. ^ 

Saiirrirrs. it. Jud. lAfdfard Uomse. Tauutou 
45*3 Salver, C- '. E. Hintou St. Gtoroe 

SvV-::, Rev. J. P. /I>y Hi»ms*. Tamnton 
>.-::, M. H. o. I^r^stioK-H Flacf Ufst, Bath 
•Sa.r, K^v. F. S. P. FitmiHster 
Sia.v, \V. H. Hfj'hrtfid //••kjK'. yorton Fitztra 
T -. •'. •. r. •- 
•«• St:.!-.. \V. Rae Mao-Phun. M.B. Ch.M. Yevrd 

>'. r::, V .^: :. Tr.v H;::. Henrv X. Mottnt Eitufu O 
>:\:tz. .r'r.::, /*- r i, />r:r* .v. Bath 
>:::!.:, F. 17, A'. '/y< (>-'>>' .\ ButS 

*Skri:u\ H. D. tV-r— . M: . -. Bith, v.i\ 
> ! A .: t , \V V :: I :: .*» :r. , .V . * v < (" f "f . TatiM ton 

Smtriu A. J. A' -r"'. >'•*■'-'•. Tan rvi* 

*Smit!u Kt V. iiir'vr: K, B:-t . >r. Djritl 
MC^ Smith, Wm., m.!\ /r^r, v;", A . r r*" 
Smith, %1. H. \V. A\i^,'.i:';, T:\*r*\ 

Usi of Memher* fmr 1899. 211 

Smith, W, Carleton 
tSmith, Rev, A. H. A. JTir ITmm^* ^"f 

Smith, Major, LAfng 
} Somers^ B. £. Meudip Lodge. Lamgford. Bristol 

Somerville, A. F. Dinder^ Wells 

SommerYille, K. G. RmisktoH Homsc. Tammtou 

Southall, H. The Craig. Roft 

Southam, Rev. J. H. TrmU 
5 Sparks, William, Crewrkerne 

Speke, W. Jordan*. Ilmiuster 

Spencer, Frederick, Pondsmeadj OakkiU. Bath 

Spencer, J. H. Corfe. Taunton 

Spicer, Northeote W. Chard 
^ Spiller, H. J. Taunton 
"SpiJJer, iliss. Sunny Bank. Bridgwater 
Sfandley, A. P. Rossall School^ Fleetwood 
Stanley, E. J., m.p. Quantock Lodge^ Bridgwater^ Trustee, 

^'^iiley, H. T. Quantock Lodge^ Bridgwater 

^^a IX way, Moses, Park Street ^ Taunton 

'^^Civens, A. Taunton 

^^ J)henson, Rev. Preb. J. H. Lympsham 

^^rrv. Rev. F., Chapel Cleeve 

^^vens, E. W. 4, Birch Grote^ Taunton 

^Oate, \Vm. Ashleigh^ Bumham 

^^^x-achey. Sir E., Bart. Sutton Courts Pen* ford. Bristol^ \,i\ 

"^tradling, Rev. W. J. L. ChiHon-super-Polden 

^tringfellow, A. II. The Chestnut*, Taunton 

Stuckey, Vincent, Hill Housej Langport 

Sully, Christopher W. fVembdon Road, Bridgwater 

SuUy, T. N. AcaloH House, Priory Road, Tyndale's Park. 

Clifton, Bristol 
Sully, J. Norman, Hocker Hill House, Chepstow 
Sully, (t. B. Belmont, Bumham 
Sumnierfield, William, St. George^* Villa, Taunton 
Surragc, E. J. Rocke, 1, Garden Court, Temple, London 
5weetman, (xeo. J^Vijicanton 

Fanner, Rev. T. C, Burlescombe Vicarage, Wellington 
TaiT, Francis John, Roseneath, f'Villsb ridge, near Bristol 
Taylor, Thomas, Taunton 
Taylor, Rev. A. D. Churchstanton 
Taylor, Rev. C S. Banwell, R.S,0., Somerset 
Taylor, Rev. J. H. lie Abbots 

Temple, Rt. Hon. Earl, Newton Hmtse, Bristol, Trustee 
Tliatcher, A. A. Midsomer Norton, Bath 

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List of Members for 1899. 213 

Webber, George, Taunton 

Welch, C. 21, Ellesher Gardens^ Richmond^ Surrey 

Wells, The Dean and Chapter 

Wells Theological College 
5 Were, F. Gratwicke Hall^ Barrow Gurnet/, Bristol 

West, Rev. W. H. 25, Pultcney Street, Bath 

Westlake, W. H. Taunton 

Whale, Rev. T. W. Weston, Bath 

Whistler, Rev. C. W., m.u.C.s. Stockland, Bridgwater 
O White, Saml. The Holt, Mountlands, Taunton 

Whitting, C. G. Glandore, Weston-super-Mare 

Wickenden, F. B. Tone House, Taunton 

Wickham, Rev. A. P. Martock 
tWilliams, Rev. Wadham Pigott, Weston-super-Mare 
.5 Williams, Thos. Webb, Flax-Bourton 

Wilkinson, Rev. Thos. Wellington Road, Taunton 

Wills, H. H. W. Barley Wood, Wrington 

Wills, Sir W. H., Bart., m.p. Coombe' Lodge, Blagdon, 
R,S,0., Somerset 

Wilson, Rev. W. C. Huntspill 
10 Willcocks, A. D. Taunton 

Winter, Major, 35, Silverdale Road, Sydenham 
tWinterbotham, W. L., m.b. Bridgwater 

Win wood. Rev. H. H. 11, Cavendish Crescent, Bath 

Winwood, T. H. R. Wellisford Manor, W^ellington 
15 Wood, F. A. Highfield, Chew Magna 

Wood, Rev. W. Berdmorc, Bicknoller Vicarage 

Woodforde, Rev. A. J. lAtcking, Weston-super-Mare 

Woodward, Miss J. L. The Knoll, Clcvedon 

Wooler, W. H. iresfon-super-3Iare 
JOfWortliington, Rev. J. Taunton 

Wright, W. H. K. Free Library, Plymouth 

Wjatt, J. W. Eastcourt, Wells, Somerset 

[embers are requested to inform ** The Secretaries, Taunton Castle," of any 
errors or omissions in the above list ; they are also requested to authorise 
their Bankers to pay their subscriptions annually to Stuckey's Banking 
Company, Taunton ; or to either of their branches ; or their respective 
London Agents, on account of the Treasurer. 

« J M 

f- JrSi 

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^^i& * 


Rules. 215 

Tin. — One (at least) of the Secretaries shall attend each Meeting, 
4 sImII keep a record of its proceedings. The property of the 
ijjblgr shall be held in Trust for the Members by twelve- Trustees, 
te dudl be chosen from the Members at any General Meeting. 
I Haiiiiscripts and Communications and other property of the 
oliify shall be under the charge of the Secretaries. 

IZ. — Aandidates for admission as Members shall be proposed by 
fV Kembers at any of the General or Committee Meetings, and 
lil election shall be determined by ballot at the next Committee or 
iMMnl Meeting; three-fourths of the Members present balloting 
JjpB ^eet The Rules of the Society shall be subscribed by every 
becoming a Member. 

.—Ladies shall be eligible as Membera of the Society without 
being proposed by two Members and approved by the majority 
the Meeting. 

. — Each Member shall pay Ten Shillings and Sixpence on 
non to the Society, and Ton Shillings and Sixpence as an 
mat subscription, which shall become due on the first of January 
i each year, and shall be paid in advance. 

Xn. — Donors of Ten Guineas or upwards shall be Members for 

XIII.— At General Meetings of the Society the Committee may 
•aonimend persons to be balloted for as Honorary and Corresponding 

XrV. — When an office shall become vacant, or any new appoint- 
aent shall be requisite, the Committee shall have power to fill up 
he same : such appointments shall remain in force only till the next 
General Meeting, when they shall be either confirmed or annulled. 

XV. — The Treasurer shall receive all Subscriptions and Donations 
nade to the Society, and shall pay all accounts passed by the Com- 
nittee; he shall keep a book of receipts and payments, which he 
ihall produce whenever the Committee shall require it ; the accounts 
ihall be audited previously to the Annivei^sary Meeting by two 
llembers of the Committee chosen for thnt purpose, and an abstract 
\l them shall be read at the Meeting. 

XVI. — No change shall be made in the laws of the Society except 
it a General or Special Meeting, at which twelve Members at least 
ihall be present Of the proposed change a month's notice shall 
)e given to the Secretaries, who shall communicate the same to each 
Member three weftks before the Meeting. 

XVII. — Papers read at Meetings of the Society, may (with the 
Author's consent and subject to the discretion of the Committee) be 
published in the Proceedings of the Society. 

XVIII. — No religious or political discussions shall be permitted at 
kf eetings of the Society. 


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Rules. 217 

8. — Eveiy Member who shall borrow any book out of the Library 
■hall be responsible to the Society for its safety and good condition 
from the time of its leaving the Library ; also if he borrow any book 
or manuscript within the Library, till it shall be returned by hiin. 
And in case of loss or damage, he shall replace the same or make it 
good ; or, if required by the Committee, shall furnish another copy of 
the entire work of which it may be part. 

9. — No manuscript, nor any drawing, nor any part of the Society's 
collection of prints or rubbings shall be lent out of the Library 
without a special order of the Committee, and a bond given for its 
safe return at such time as the Committee shall appoint. 

10. — The Committee shall prepare, and may from time to time add 
to or alter, a list of such works as shall not be lent out of the Library, 
on account of their rarity, value, or peculiar liability to damage ; or 
on account of their being works of reference often needed by 
Members personally using the Library, and a copy of such list for the 
time being shall be kept in the Library. 

1 1. — No book shall be lent out until one month after the acquisition 
of it for the Library. 

12. — Extracts from the manuscripts or printed books are allowed 
to be made freely, but in case of a transcript being desired of a whole 
manuscript or printed book, the consent of the Committee must be 
previously obtained. 

13. — Persons not being Members of the Society may be admitted 
for a |)eriod not exceeding one week, to consult printed books and 
manuscripts not of a private nature in the Society's Library, for any 
special pui^pose, on being introduced by a Member, either personally 
or by letter. 

14. — No book shall be lent to any person not being a Member of 
the Society without a special order of the Committee. 

15. — Before any Member can borrow a book from the Library, he 
must acknowledge that he consents to the printed Rules of the 
Society for the Government of the Library. 

*j,j''' Jt is requested that contributions to the Museum or Library be 
sent to the Curator, at the Taunton Castle. 

Mt$ for t^e lormation of focal granc^ Societies* 

1. — On the application of not less than Five Members of the 
Society the Council may authorise the formation of a Local Branch 
in any District, and may, if considered advisable, define a specific 
portion of the County as the District to such Branch. 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part II. ee 

218 Rules. 

2. — Societies alretdj in existence, may, on Application from the 
governing bodies, be affiliated as Branches. 

3. — All Members of the Parent Society shaJl be entitled to beootpe 
Members of any Branch. 

4. — A Branch Society may elect Local Associates not neoeBwily 
Members of the Parent Society. 

5. — Memliers of the Council of the Parent Society, being Memben 
of, and residing within the District assigned to any Branch, bIiaII be 
fo^offieio Members of the Ck>uncil of such Branch. 

6. — A Branch Society may fix the rates of Subscription for Men- 
bers and Associates, and make Rules and Bye- Laws for the govemoeDt 
of such Branch, subject in all cases to the approval of the CoiuMal of 
the Parent Society. 

7. — A Branch Society shall not be entitled to pledge the credit of 
the Parent Society in any manner whatsoever. 

8. — The authority given by the Council may at any time be witb- 
drawn by them, subject always to an appeal to a General Meeting. 

9. — Every Branch Society shall send its Publications and the Pto- 
gmmmeH of its Meetings to the Parent Society, and in return 
receive a free copy of the Parent Society's Proeemiingg. 

10. — If on any discovery being made of exceptional intenst a 
Branch Society shall elect to communicate it to the Parent SooBky 
before themselves making it a matter of discussion, the Parent Sodilj, 
if it adoptH it iw tho Rubj«»ct of a pa|x?r at one of its ordinary Meetingi, 
Hhall allow tho Branch Society to roak<^ use of any IlluHtratioDs tbt 
the Parent Society may prepan*. 

1 1. — Any Officer of a Branch Society, or any person recommended 
by the President, Vice-Pi-esident, Chairman or Secretary, or bjuij 
Two of th(» .Meml)erH of the ( -ouiicil of a Branch Society, Hhall on tbe 
production of j)ro|)er Vouchei*8 be allowed to use the Lihrarv* of tlif 
Society, bnt without the |)Ower of i-emoving books except by the 
expr(»K8 permission of the (-ouncil. 

VI. — Branch Societies shall be invited to furnish Keix)rt8 fron 
time to time to the Parent Society with regard to any subject or 
discovery which may be of interest 

December, 1891). 




Vol. I. TAUNTON, 1849-WELLS, 1850. 

Excursion — Hambdon Hill and Montacute. 

Roman Remains at Whatlej. 

Papers by Rev. F. Warre on Uphill Church, 
Ancient Earthworks at Norton and Glaston- 
bury Abbey. 

Wells Cathedral, by the Rev. D. M. Clerk. 

Can be supplied in sheets, with two col- 
oured plates only, at 5s. 


Out of print. Excursvm — Worle Camp, Kew Steps, 

Woodspring Priory, Banwell. 

Paper on the Perpendicular Style in the 
Churches of Somerset. Part I. By E. A. 

Somersetshire Fauna — Reptiles, by W. 

Vol. III. 1852. BATH. 

6/6 Perpendicular Style. Part II. By E. A. 


Farleigh Hungerford Castle, by Rev. J. 
E. Jackson. 

List of Somerset Fungi, by Rev. W. R. 

Vol. IV. 1853. YEOVIL. 

3/6 Excursion — Coker, Brympton, Hamdon 


On the Architecture of the neighbourhood 
of Yeovil, by E. A. Freeman. 

Taunton Castle and Woodspring Priory, 
by the Rev. F. Warre. 

'• 3 


Bncldand Priory, by Kev. T. Huffo. 
Inland Molluaca of Someraet, by Kev. A. 
M. Norman. 



Excursions — Mnchelney, Martock, South 
Petherton, Pitney, High Ham, Othery, Bur- 
lescombe, Greenham, Cothay, West Buck- 
land, Bradford, Nynehead. 

Cannington Priory, by Rev. T. Hugo. 

Dunstan at Glastonbury, by Rev. J. R. 

Bishop's Palace at Wells, by J. H. Parker. 


6 Excursions — Wookey, Brent Knoll, South 

Brent, Lympsham, Wedmore. 

Ecclesiastical Buildings in Wells, by J. H. 

Earl Harold and Bishop Giso, by Rev. J. 
R. Green. 

Bishop Savaric, by Canon Jackson. 

Barrow Priory, by Rev. T. Hugo. 


Excursions — Doulting, Pilton, Ditcheat, 
Evercreech, Maesbury Camp, Croscombe, 
Donyatt, Ford Abbey. Dowlish Wake. 

Roman Potter's Kiln, by Rev. H. M. 

Whitehall, Ilchester, by Rev. T. Hugo. 

The Middle and Upper Lias of South West 
of England, by C. Moore. 

XIV. 1867. BRISTOL. 

6 Excursions — Whitchurch, Stanton Drew, 

Sutton, the Avon Gorge. 

Rise of Bristol Trade, by Rev. W. Hunt. 

Civil War in Somerset, by E. Green. 

Catalogue of Feline Fossils in Taunton 
Museum, by W. A. Sanford. 

I.I.. XV. 





Vni.. XVII. 


Vol.. XX. 

Excursiitns — Bickiiuiler, C'rowcomlKf,Monll 

silver, Nettlecombe, Ditiister, Stoke t' , 

Biirrington, Winscombe, Cliri&ton, lUnw^ 
(.'liartcrs of Axbridge, hy Rbt, \V. HnuL 
Kodentia of Somerset Caves, \n- W. A,] 
San ford. 

Geolojjy of the Mendips, bv C. Moore. 



Escttrsiinit — North Cadbury, Com}iU» 
Pauncefoot, llaperton, Horsin^tou, Templfr 
combe, Stowell.MUbom Port, 

Cbiircli of Cfistle Cary, by Crdod Meadb 

The Maiets of St. Audries, by G. W, 

Liat of the Birds of Somerset, by C Snuttu 


Excursions — Montucute, Hamdou Hill. 
Norton, Brvmptoii, Nash Court, Coker Court 

Pendomer, by T. Bond. 

Dedications of Somerset C'luirchea, by W, 

1872. TAUNTON. 
.^■irMrsji'ns— Hestercombe, Bishop'^ Hull, 

West Monkton, Creech St. Michael, North 
Curry, Thorn Falcon. 

King [lie, by E. A. Freeman. 

Taunton Castle, by G. T. I'lark. 

St. Margaret's Hospital and liestercomb^ 
by Rev. T. Hugo. 



Excursions — Comptou Martin, Bykefold, 
East and West Harptrce, Chewton Mendt] 
Wookey Hole, Wookey ("hurch. 

Wells Cathedral, by .7. T. Irvine. 

Geology of Wells, by H. B. Woodward. 

Ethnology of Somerset, by Dr. Beddoe. 



fTarrHMwiM — Bradford Abbas, Clifton May< 
bank, Melbury, Vetminster, Poyntington, 
Sandford, Chilton Cautelo. 

►1.. XX — continued. 

King Ine. Part II. By E. A. Freeman. 
Ealdhelm, by Rev. W. Barnes. 
Trent, by John Batten. 
Cephalapoda Bed and Oolite Sands of 
Dorset and part of Somerset, by #1. Buckman. 

L. XXI. 


.. XXII. 

.. XXIII. 



L. XXV. 

1875. FROME. 

Excursions — Orchardleigh, Lullington, 
Norton St. Philip, Farleigh, Beckington, 
Longleat, Nunney, Marston. 

Battle of ^thandune, by Bishop Clifford. 

Odcomb, by T. Bond. 

Flora of East Somerset, by Dr. Parsons. 

1876. BATH. 

Excursions — Westwood, Bradford-on- 
Avon, Englishcombe, Newton, Keynsham. 

Roman Somerset, by Rev. H. M. Scarth. 

West Somerset Patois, by F. T. Elworthy. 

Bath Waters, by C'apt. Heriot and Mr. E. 
C. Batten. 

Nunney, by E. Green. 


Excursions — North Petherton, Lyng, 
Athelney, Othery, Middlezoy, C.'annington, 
Stoke Courcy, Dodingtou. 

Siege of Bridgwater, 1645, by E. Green. 

Stanton Drew, by C. W. Dymond. 

Churchwardens' Accounts (St. Michael, 
Bath), by Rev. C. B. Pearson. 

1878. BRUTON. 

Excursions — Withara, Milton Clevedon, 
Batcombe, Evercreech, Ditcheat, Stavordale, 

Roman Somerset, by Rev. Preb. Scarth. 

King's Marcli through Somerset, 1644, by 
E. Green. 

The name " Silver Street," by J. H. Pring. 

Fitz James family, by Rev. F. Brown. 

1879. TAUNTON. 

No excursions. 

The Geology of Devon and West Somer- 
set, by W. A. E. Ussher. 


Vol. XXV — continued. 

Siege of Taunton, 1644-5, by £. GreeB. 
Henry VII in Somerset, by E. Chit 


3/6 Excursions — Meare, Shapwick, SharphaSi 

West Pennard, West Bradley, Barton, Bnl- 

Glastonbury, by J. H. Parker. 

Flemish Weavers at Glastonbury, by E. 

Churchwardens' Accounts (Bath) concludel 

Vol. XXVII. 1881. CLEVEDON. 

3/6 Excursions — Yatton, Tickenham, WraxtU, 

Long Ashton, Backwell, Clapton, Portborj, 

Clevedon Court, by Sir Arthur Elton. 

Backwell Church, by Rev. E. Burbidge. 

Roman Coins at Taunton, by Dr. Pring. 

Vol. XXVIII. 1882. CHARD. 

8/6 Excursions — Combe St. Nicholas, White- 

staunton, Ford Abbey, Winsham, Cricket St. 

The Manor of Chard, by E. Green. 
Brett Family, by Rev. F. Brown. 
Meriet family, by B. W. Greenfield. 


3/6 Exrursiojis -(jRuldoTiy Hartrow, Brendoii, 

Hiiish, Brushford, Torr Steps, Dulverton. 

Somerset type of Chiu-ch, by B. E. Ferrey. 

Dulverton, by E. Green. 

Roman House at Whitestaunton, by C. I. 


3/6 Excursions — Doulting, Leigh-on-M endip, 

Mells, Kilmersdon, Holcombe, Radstock. 
Coi. Wm. Strode, bv E. Green. 
Fosse Road at Radstock, by J. McMurtrie. 
Prebend of Dinder, by Canon Church. 


3/6 Excursions — Churchill, Hutton, Wood- 

spring, Banwell. 

Wemberham, by Rev. Preb. Scarth. 

Manors of Churchill and Hutton, by Rev. 
E. Green. 

Somerset Epitaphs, by Rev. W. Hardtnan. 

XXXIl. 1886. YEOVIL. 

3/6 Excursions — Brympton, Hamdon Hill, 

Montacute, MartocK, Tintinhull, Limington, 

Manor of Yeovil, by E. Green. 

Gyfla, by T. Kerslake. 

Somerset Trade Tokens, by W. Bidgood. 


3/6 Excursions — Westbury-on-Trym, Henbury, 

Aust Clift; Thornbury. 

Wrington, by the Rev. Preb. Scarth. 
Limington, by John Batten. 
Leland in Somerset, by E. H. Bates. 

XXXIV. 1888. WELLS. 

3/6 Excursions — Rodney Stoke, Cheddar, 

Wookey, Pilton, Crosconibe. 

Wells Cathedral, by (.'anon Church and E. 
A. Freeman. 

Seals of the Bishops, by W. H. St. John 

Wells Palace, by E. Buckle. 

. XXXV. 1889. MIXEHEAD. 

5/- Excursions — Culbone, Porlock, Luccombe, 

Dunster, Clceve Abbey. 

Triassic Rocks of West Somerset, by W. 
A. E. Ussher. 

Benevolence granted to Charles II, by E. 

Cleeve Abbey, by E. Buckle. 


o/- Excursions — Ditcheat, H ornblotton, A Iford, 

Lytes Cary, West and Queen Camel, Cad- 
bury Castle, North and South Cadbury. 

Bv W.LLUM H. •.(. MA. W I 


L.c.i.nnu II 

&uMl-. Kst i 



fchaeological & Natural 
History Society. 

'}CEEZ)INGS Juring the year \ff^ 


^INTEQ Tor members only. 

^ Caimton; 

ivs.i.rc --r" 3act i *V.; 


tiK tbankn of the Suciety are due to the Ber. Prebmd&rr 
plemsD and Mr. W. U. Uamilton Kogers, F-.'^.a., for their 
i gift» of illustrations. Thi^re are uot many illnstraiioiu 
I thi^ Volume, as owing tu the repair and funtiebing of the 
Ereat Hall, the expenses of the Society have to be kept 
tthin limits. 

T. W. w. 

mber, 1900. 



Fifty-Skconi) Annual Meeting (Dulverton) 

Report of the Council ... 

Treasurer'n Account ... 

Election of Officers 

Photographic Record of the County 

Somerset Record Society 

Th(^ Statue to Blake at Bridgwater .. 

Th(» l^residential Address 

Brushford Church 

Conihe Manor ... 
Kveiiiiig Meeting l^ipers and Discussions 





Excursion — 
Torr Stej)s 
Exford Church 
Winsford Church 
Harlyneh IViory 



Sampton Quarries 


fiampton Church 


Bampton Mote ... 




Blundeirs School, Tiverton ... ... 


Tiverton Almshouses ... 


St. Peter's Church 


Tiverton Castle ... ... ... 


additions to the Society's Museum and Library 



The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks of 
West Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall — by W. A. E 
Ussher. fVith two maps 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants, 1530-1866— by 
Prebendary Coleman, M.A. ... 

Pedigree of Adrian Bower 

Brook, of Somerset and Devon ; Barons of Cobham, in 
Kent — by W. H. Hamilton Rogers, F.S.A. 

The Quantocks and their Place-Names — by Rev. W 
XI. £ . vxresweii ... ••> ... ... .. 

An Inventory of Church Plate in Somerset (part iv)— 
by the Rev. E. H. Bates, M.A., and the Rev. F 
Hancock, M.A., F.S.A., Prebendary of Wells 

Notes on the History of Winsford — by W. Dicker .. 

The Church of St. Mary, Marston Magna, Somerset- 
by C. E. Pouting, F.S.A. 

\j Divuary ... .. ... ... ... ... . 

Officers, Members, and Rules 









Geological Map of the Dulverton District — by 

W. A. E. Ussher ... Part i 25 

Geological Map of West Somerset, Devon, and 

East Cornwall- by W. A. E. Ussher ... Part ii 1 

Allerton Chapel, 1859 ... „ 99 

tlohn Brook, and Johanna Amerike, his wife. 

Bedcliffe Church, Bristol ... ... ... „ 111 

Ashton-Philips, or Lower Court, Long-Ashton, I 

Somerset ... ... ... ... ... „ 115 i 

Sir Thomas Wyatt— Ob : 1542 „ 119 

Richard Temple, Viscount Cobham — Ob: 1749 „ 121 





THE fifty-second annual meeting of the Somerset Archaeo- 
logical and Natural History Society was held at 
Dulverton on Tuesday, July 24th. 

The proceedings commenced with the annual meeting, held 
at 1 2 o'clock, in the Town Hall. 

The Rev. F. W. Weaver, F.S.A., Hon. Gen. Sec, read a 
letter, dated 6th July, from the Right Hon. Sir Edwaud Fry, 
the retiring President, stating that he was leaving for the 
North, and was afraid he would not be able to be present at 
the meeting. He, therefore, asked that his apologies might be 
presented to the members, and particularly to Sir C. T. D. 
AcLAXD, whom he was sorry not to be able to induct into the 
Presidential chair. In conclusion, he wished the Society a 
very pleasant meeting. Mr. Weaver then asked Sir Thomas 
AcLAND to take the chair. 

Ko/. XLVl (Third Series, Vol. FJJ, Fart /. K 

2 FiJiy^Second Annual Meeting. 

annual Bepott. 

Colonel Bramble, F.S.A., Hon. Gen. Sec., read the aDnutl 
report of the Council. 

" Your Committee beg to present their fifty-second aDniud 

" Since their last report nineteen new names have heen 
added to your list of members. The loss by deaths and reag- 
nations, up to date, has been twenty-four, thus leaving a net 
loss of five. The total number is now 622. 

" The balance of your Society's General Account at the end 
of 1898 (your accounts being made up to the end of the year) 
was £118 lis. lOd. in favor of the Society. The balance it 
the close of the present account fSist December, 1899) was 
£144 8s. Ud. in favor of the Society. In neither case was 
the liability for the cost of the volume for the year then ex- 
pired, or on the other hand, any unpaid subscriptions, taken 
into account. 

"The total cost of Volume XLV (for 1899), including 
printing illustrations and delivery, has been £120 lOs. 4d. 
The thanks of the Society are due to Mr. W. H. Hamilton 
Rogers, F.S.A., for supplying the illustrations to his paper; to 
Professor Allen for his excellent photographs ; to the Rev. E. 
H. Bates for his map and drawings of Church Plate ; to the 
Rev. Prebendary Hancock, F.S.A., for his contribution to- 
wards the expense of the Church Plate illustrations ; and to 
Mr. McMurtrie for the drawings of the Pre-Historic Remains 
found at Radstock. 

" The work of repair to the Great Hall has been now com- 
pleted, and the Geological and some other portions of the 
Museum are now in progress of arrangement therein. This is 
necessarily, however, a work of labour, and will occupy some 
little time. The improvement in your property is very appar- 
ent, and the value of your collection for the purpose of study 
and reference greatly enhanced. 

Report of the CounciL 3 

^' The cost of the work has necessarily been large ; the hal] 
measures 120 feet bj 31, and this is a considerable area with 
which to deal. The beams supporting the front of the rooms 
over the portico, which has now been restored to its original 
state as an open one, proved to be badly " sprung," and in some 
cases rotten. They had to be entirely replaced, the building 
being shored up for the purpose. 

" The subscriptions to the Restoration Fund from various 
sources, including Col. Pinney's legacy of £300, amount alto- 
gether to £714 6s. 6d. Expenditure and liabilities aggre- 
gating to £850, have, however, been incurred, leaving a sum of 
£140, or thereabouts, to be provided. Your Committee appeal 
to their members and others interested in the county for fur- 
ther contributions. 

^* The Castle House has been let on satisfactory terms, but 
the necessary cost of repairs to such extensive and old premises 
wiU prevent any clear additional income being derived during 
the current year. 

"The Council have to report the gift from the Rev. W. 
H. Lance of seventeen quarto volumes of " Reports of the 
Egypt Exploration Fund," and of seventy-three quarterly 
parts of the " Report of the Palestine Exploration Fund " ; 
from the Representatives of the late Canon Buckle of a large 
view of Weston-super-Mare about 1831, and of two smaller 
ones ; also from Mr. F. S. Wood of MS. excerj)ts from Chew 
Magna Wills with Index. An aiTangement has been entered 
into with the Dorset Field Club for an exchange of Proceedings, 

" The Photographic Record Committee have presented their 
report, which is annexed hereto. 

" It has been determined to subscribe for three years to the 
Geological Photographs Committee, who are issuing a series 
of photographs of Geological sections. 

" Frequent applications, which could not in many cases be 
conveniently granted, having been received by your Committee 
for leave to photograph various objects of interest in your co^- 

4 Fifty ^Second Annual Meeting. 

lections, it has been considered advisable to have such work 
done officially on behalf of the Society, and to supply copies 
to members at a reasonable cost. 

"The price list of the various volumes of the Proceedings \n 
stock has been revised by a Sub-Committee appointed for the 
purpose, and members have now a favorable opportunity of 
completing sets. The revised list was issued with the la^ 
volume. The sales since that time (thirteen months) hare 
amounted to £21 2s. 8d., some three times the average. 
Arrangements are also being made for the supply of copies of 
many of the illustrations apart from the volumes in which thej 
were originally issued. 

" The text of the third volume of Mr. Green's " Somerset 
Bibliography " is now in type, and directly the Introduction, 
which the compiler is now preparing, is ready, the work can 
be issued to the subscribers. 

" The number of visitors to your Museum during 1899 was. 
4978, a decrease of 104 as against 1898, but on the other hand, 
the receipts from this source (Members being admitted free), 
was £l 2s. 2d. in excess of those in 1898. 

" Since our meeting in July of last year, your Society has 
sustained several losses by death. 

" Two of your Vice-Presidents have died. Lord Hylton was 
President at your Frome Meeting in 1893. He was one of the 
now fast diminishing roll of Crimean Heroes, and as Mr. 
JoUiffe, took his part in the famous Charge of the Light 
Brigade at Balaclava. 

"Mr. (7. /. Elton^ Q^C, F,S\A,, was President at your 
Chard Meeting in 1882. He was distinguished for his know- 
ledge of the law of Real Proi)erty, and his general culture. 

" General Pitt-Rivers^ F,R,S,^ F,S.A,^ Inspector of Ancient 
Monuments. His knowledge of prehistoric Archaeology and 
his unsparing use of his great wealth, enabled him, in the posi- 
tion he held, to do an amount of service to the cause of archa> 
ology which can fall to the lot of very few. 

Finances. 5 

'^ Canon Buckle was loDg connected with the county and dio- 
cese, as well as with your Society, and his genial presence at 
your meetings will be missed by your members generally. His 
work was of a character not bringing him prominently before 
the public, but none the less was of a very valuable character. 

'^Mr. JE. H. Clerk was one of the Original Members of 
jour Society, and continued a member until his death — a 
period of half-a-century. Only nine of the original founders 
of your Society now, it is believed, survive. Mr. Charles Hill 
Was a member of some twenty years' standing, and only last 
year hospitably entertained the Society at his residence, 
Clevedon HalL 

" Mr. JE. D. Bourdillon, for many years an elected Member 
of your Committee, and Mr. F. Mitchell^ until his death Local 
Secretary for Chard, had each of them done good service to 
your Society. Mr. fVm. George was well known for his ac- 
quaintance with the local history of many parts of the county, 
particularly of the Dunster District, with which he was con- 
nected in his youth. He was a frequent attendant at our 
meetings, and contributed several articles to our magazine." 

Mr. F. T. El WORTHY, F.S.A., moved the adoption of the 

The Rev. E. H. Bates seconded. He said the great point 
about the report was the practical completion of the Castle 
Hall as a Museum. This was a point which was set before the 
Society from the beginning, twenty-five years ago, when they 
raised a sum of money to purchase the Castle. The opening 
lip of the roof, and the arrangement of the specimen cases, 
made it a room as good for the purpose as any in the forty 
counties of England. 

The report was adopted. 


The Rev. F. W. Weaver, in the absence of Mr. H. J. 
Badcock, the Treasurer, presented the financial statement as 
follows : — 

6 Fifly~!Second Annual Meeting. 

%ttamvtt'0 account 

The Treasurer in Account with the Somersetshire Arehaologieal ami Vakrd 
History Society, from January 1st to December Slst, 1899, 


1888, Det. Sltt £ 8. d. 

By Balance of former Account ... 118 11 10 
„ Members' Sabaeriptions for 1899 

(W4) 290 16 6 

„ M emben' Entranee Pecs (82) ... 16 16 
„ Members' SnbacripUoni in arrear 

(18) 9 9 

„ Members' Sohscriptions in ad- 
vance (27) U 3 

n Non-Members' Excnrsion Ticket 6 5 
n Donation from Mr. Stanley for 

Illustrations 1 16 6 

„ Donation fh>m Rer. Preb. Bnller 

for Uluetratloos 8 4 

„ Mosenm Admimion Pees ... 27 2 2 

„ Sale of Publications 12 16 9 

„ Sale of Index Volume 8 5 

£503 5 9 

By Balaooe brought down 144 8 11 


To Expenses of Aanoal Meetinf, 
TraTelliBK, ete. 
Reporters' Notes of Meetings ^ 



„ Repair*, Cases, etc ^ 
„ Stataonery. Printinf , etc. 
., Goal and Gas 

S M 
• » I 

11 II 

, — -"SI 

„ Purchase of Books, SpecimeM. etc MD f 
„ Printing and Biadiof Vol. 44 ...Mil 
„ Illustrations, Vol. 44 ... ... 27 I ' 

„ Postage, Vol. 44 10 4 

„ Photofrraphic Surrey HI * 

„ Curator's Salary (1 year to XnM., 
1899) ... 

„ Insurance ... 

„ Rates and Taxes 

„ Subscriptions to Soeieliet 
„ Postage. Carriage, etc .. 
„ Sundries ... ... .. 



£K» I I 



July 20tb, 1900. Examined and compared with the vouchers ) HOWARD SI AYNARD, 

and Bank Book, and fbund oorreet. ) ALEX. HAMMETT. 

Taunton Cattle Kegtoration JFunH- 

Balance Sheet of Income and 

1888, Dec 31st. £ ». d. 

By Balance of farmer Account ... 141 

Rents of Premises ... 49 


„ Messrs. Hancock, Rent of 3 lights u 

„ Telephone 0)mpany Wayleave . 
„ Sanary Subscriptions towards the 

Repairs Fund 33 





On deposit at Stucl^ey's Bank 


Expenditure for the year 1899, 



To Re-ereciing two old Almshouses 

„ Repairs to the Castle 

„ Sundry Repairs to Property 
„ Rates and Taxes 

II ^XttB ••• ••• ••• •■• •• 

„ Insurance ... ... ... 

.. 213 16 11 

£438 3 9 


Sundry Expenses 

£•. i 

51 5 I 


11 9 I 
9 « i 
8 11 
8 10 
2 8 S 


Balance as aboTe 

£438 8 9 

.. 213 15 11 

.. 286 4 1 


H. J. BADCOCK. Treasurer. 

July 80th, 1900. Examined and compared with the vouchers ) HOWARD M ATKARD, 

and Bank Book, and found correct. i ALEX. IIAMMI^TT. 

Mr. F. A. Wood proposed the adoption of the financial re- 
poi-t, and said that the favourable balance in hand was very 

The Rev. S. J. M. Price seconded, and it was adopted. 

Election of Officers. T 

(Election of t)fBsxx%. 

le Rev. J. E. Odgers proposed the re-election of the 
rs, with the addition of Sir Edward Frj to the list of 
Presidents, and of the Rev. H. A. Cartwright and Mr. 

Sydenham to that of the Hon. Local Secretaries. He 
ked that he did not know of anj Society of the sort that 
rer been more happy than their own in the diligence and 
icy of its officers. 

F. Were seconded the resolution, which was carried, 
ras stated that Mr. Periam, of Bampton, had presented 
mdred-and-twenty copies of a pamphlet on the history of 
)wn for the use of the members, and he was thanked for 

Pbotogtapbic EecotD of tfte Countp. 

one! Bramble read the report of the Photographic 
d of the County, which was signed by Mr. C. H. 

)me progress has been made in the collection of photo- 
5 of places of interest in the county, though it is still to 
2^retted that the work does not proceed more rapidly, 
hief difBculty is still the fact that comparatively few of 
interested in archaeology are also photographers, whilst 
Eew of the more numerous body of photographers take 
iterest in archaeology or even in history. Recently, how- 
3ome promises of valuable help have been obtained, and 
loped that prints will come in more rapidly. It ought, 
ps, to be stated that in all counties where photographic 
rs have been organized the same difficulties seem to be 

. list of the thirty-two prints already received is given 
. The mounting and cataloguing of them will be com- 
[ as soon as possible, and they will be placed in the 
ty's Museum in due course. 


21 sty 1900. Hon. Sec. to the Committee. 

8 Fifty- Second Annual Meeting. 


From Dr, F, J. Allen. 

Burrington Coombe ; Bishop's Lydeard Church Tower; 
Congresbury Vicarage Door ; Langford, Porch of an Old 
House ; Lydeard St. Lawrence Church Tower ; Ruishtoa 
Church Tower (2) ; Shepton Mallet Market Cross ; Staple 
Fitzpaine Church Tower ; Taunton St. Mary Church Tower; 
Rock Shelter, Sharcombe. 
From Mr, C, H, Bothamley, 

Cleeve Abbey, the Church ; East side of Cloister ; South 
side of Cloister ; West side of Cloister ; North side of Cloister; 
Chapter House entrance ; Chapter House ; Dormitory ; Monk's 
Day Room; Refectory from South; Refectory interior (2); 
East Room under Refectory ; General View from East 
Combe Florey Church ; Combe Florey Gatehouse, South 
front ; Combe Florey Gatehouse, North front. 
From Mr. C. D'Aeth. 

Cucklington Church Font ; Priestleigh, Old House ; Spar- 
grove House, Batcombe ; Spargrove Barn ; Stoke Trister 
Manor House. 

Somerset Eecotti ^octetp« 

The Rev. E. H. Bates, Secretary of the Somerset Record 
Society, made a report on the work of the Society. Referring 
to the non-appearance of the two volumes promised the previ- 
ous year, he said that Prebendary Holmes was now nearly 
ready with his volume, '^ The Registers of Bishop GifFord and 
Bishop Bowett," and the second vohime was to be a " Cartu- 
lary of Muchelney Abbey/' As there were Anglo-Saxon 
charters in it, it was thought advisable to have the services of 
an Anglo-Saxon expert. Owing to his having been busy, it 
had been delayed. In consequence of the second volume 
having been thus delayed, the " Cartulary of Athelney 
Abbey " would be produced in " Tlie Millenary of King 
Alfred." Winchester wanted to get up some kind of monu- 

Somerset Record Society, 9 

lent to King Alfred, but if a tangible monument were re- 
[uired, Somerset had as much right to one as Winchester, for 
ihe few relics which could honestly be said to have belonged to 
the King were found in Somerset, or were connected with it. 
For instance, King Alfred's jewel was found at North Newton, 
and it was now in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, although 
had their Society been in existence at the date of its discovery, 
it would no doubt have secured it. He thought the publica- 
tion of the " Athelney Cartulary " would form a good mem- 
orial of Alfred, as that great monarch was much more associ- 
ated with that abbey in his life than was Winchester in his 
death. The volume for 1900 will be the newly discovered 
" Survey of Somerset," by Thos. Gerard, written in the reign 
of Charles I. Next year the Record Society were going to 
bring out a volume of early wills. The Society was going to 
see how many of them they could get printed in order to make 
a volume. When he added that the Rev. F. W. Weaver was 
going to edit the volume, he thought he might say that it 
would be well worthy of the Society. 

Mr. F. T. Elworthy asked who was the Anglo-Saxon ex- 
pert mentioned, and Mr. Bates replied that it was Mr. 
Stevenson, of Exeter College, Oxford. 

Canon Church in moving the adoption of the report, said 
that he had been desired by Bishop Hobhouse to bring before 
the Society the fact of the insecurity of parish books, and the 
Bishop suggested that by some resolution they might do some- 
thing towards providing a little more security. " The Church- 
wardens' Accounts of Banwell," dating from 1516 to the end 
of Elizabeth's reign, which were seen by Bishop Hobhouse in 
1890, had disappeared when the fresh incumbent was inducted 
in 1896, and many similar losses had happened, and might 
easily recur. The Bishop suggested the passing of the follow- 
ing resolution : — " This Society hearing of the loss of the 
" Churchwardens' Accounts of Ban well," is anxious to impress 
on the minds of all incumbents and churchwardens in the dio- 

10 Fifty^Second Annual Meeting. 

cese the expediency of placing on the inventorj of dundi 
goods a list of all books and documentarj matter beloogbgu 
the church, and that all such property should be produced t 
the Easter vestry, and passed according to the 89th CanoD g{ 
1603, from the outgoing to the incoming church wardens, in dii 
presence of the vestry or the delegates thereof/' Cian 
Church proposed this as a resolution. 

The Rev. Prebendary Coleman seconded. 

The Rev. F. W. Weaver said directly he heard of this kw 
he did his best to secure the recovery of the books. He wnti 
to the late Archdeacon Salmon, who held an inquiry it Bib* 
well, but without successful results. Some of the aocooDli 
were printed in Rutter*s ^' Somerset.'* He believed in eDtin 
copy of the documents was made thirty or forty years agk 
He could not help hoping that the original documents wodl 
yet turn up. 

The Rev. C. H. Heale suggested that the Rural Dcsos 
should make an inspection of church documents at their viatar 
tions, and the Rev. S. M. •], Price thought the Archdescons 
should be asked to do the same. 

The President agreed that there was much need rf 
greater eare in the preservation of such documents. 

Mr. Elwoktiiy feared that the mischief had already been 
done, and that all they could do was to take care of the future. 

The resolution was carried, and the suggestions mentioned 
were added as riders. 

Cbe Statue to 15lake at IBriDgtaiatet. 

Dr. WiXTKRHOTiiAM made a statement with regard to the 
Hlake statue. At the Hridgwater Meeting, a paper was reid 
by Professor Montagu Burrows, who drew attention to the 
faet that Hlake had never ])een connnemorated. The result 
of the ])aj)or was that a certain amount of enthusiasm wm 
stirred u]), which cooled down for some time. In the following 
spring, a small but energetic band met together, and resolved 

The Presidential Address. 1 1 

^e an attempt to raise a statue. Thej entrusted the 
emission to Mr. Frederick Pomeroj, and the statue was 
in the Royal Academy. It was worthy of his hand, 
by of their acceptance, and worthy to commemorate the 
t man whose memory they wished to honour. The adorn- 
b of the pedestal was nearly completed, with two bas-re- 
giring scenes in his life, and these were really beautiful 
z. They had not sufficient money to finish the pedestal, 
as secretary of the memorial fund, he would be glad to re- 
J contributions. Dr. Winterbotham referred to the com- 
error of assigning Blake's birth to 1599 instead of 1598, 
k was the correct date. He also described the search 
t for a correct portrait of the great Admiral, and pre- 
A to the Society a large framed photograph taken from a 
•ing in the possession of the Rev. Raymond Pelly, of 
kt Malvern, who was a direct descendant of Sally Blake, 
^f the two daughters of Blake. 

be President thanked Dr. Winterbotham for his state- 
b, and for the vigour which he had imported to the pro- 
ings of those working with him, also for his gift of the 
rait for the Museum at Taunton. 

Cbe presiDenttal 9Dtire00. 

ir Thomas Acland then gave his Presidential address, 
said : — 

^ is impossible for any one so completely ignorant as I am 
1 of archaeology and of natural history, standing as I do 
•re an audience whose very presence in this room is an evi- 
te of a keen interest and, at least, of some knowledge of 
or the other of these subjects, not to feel how much he 
3 to the kind feeling of those who have conferred upon him 
honour which you have on this occasion conferred upon 
in asking me to become President of your Society for the 
ling year. 

12 Fiftjf^Seeond Annual Meeting, 

I believe the best return that I can attempt to rnJat 
your kindness is that I should endeavour briefly to i 
some of the interesting associations which duster toad 
beautiful district in which we are met, and to si^gsrt 
considerations and ideas in connexion with the plaeei 
you propose to visit. 

But before beginning to do this, I should Hke to n^ 
word of testimony to the value of societies such ss im^ 
to your wisdom in combining within your ken two 
which might seem to some persons so widely diwoAU 
Archeology and Natural History. 

I am convinced that as the spread of education goes q% 
we are increasingly able to foster and develop the posvi 
observation of the young people in our rural schooh, tb 
successful way in which we can achieve the result, so 
to themselves as well as so desirable from other pomtiof ii 
of attaching them to their rural homes and enabling tlsa 
lead lives there full of interest and stimulus, is ihat «e 
cultivate to the utmost in them, and, therefore, in order tili: 
able to do so, Jirst in our own selves, the power and tkeUk 
of taking an intelligent interest in the beauties and the i» 
ders of the world around us and close to us. You, the 
ber8 of this Society, have for your object the study of 
and the rcconling of them concerning in archseologj, Bonerf 
the most |)ormancnt and interesting of the works of miii,al 
concerning in natural history, what since the dajs of Ai 
Psalmist have been commonly called the Works of (jod,wW4 
are all alike, wonderful^ and all alike, good. 

And I think the spirit of gratitude and respect to oarbn* 
fathers, inculcated by the one study, and the spirit of reveresMi 
wonder, and love of truth inculcated by the other, are eidiif 
them well wrtrth cultivating, both for ourselves, and intkeii* 
terest of those among whom we have to live. 

To return to the object with which I set out, I wonte 
whether it has ever struck you that the two great moorlail 

The Presidential Address. 13 


Afltricts of the West, are to some extent in shape, the converse 
cf each other. Dartmoor may be compared to your hand, 
lahn downwards, the Tallejs and ridges diverging from the 
ceDtre, and Exmoor to your hand palm upwards, all the water 
crdlected by £xe and Barle, and issuing where those two rivers 
join, two miles below us. 

People tell us, and no doubt truly, that the old name of Exe 
was Isca — and far be it from me to dispute it. But that does 
Bot forbid my seeing some connection between the first syllable 
^ Extou, Exford, Exebridge and Exwick, and the first part 
of the names Aix la Chapelle and Aix les Bains. But I am 
^ a philologist, and the only thing I know to be a maxim 
^Qiong etymologists is that ^^ vowels matter nothing and conso- 
*>ants very little " when you are considering the derivation and 
leaning of words. 

I can give yon from my own experience a somewhat curious 
9lu8tration of the well-known coldness of the valley of the 
Saxe, which may be, I imagine, partly a consequence of the 
Coldness of its winter. Some years ago, two of my cousins, 
Col. Troyte, whom many of you may remember, of Huntsham, 
and his brother, who served in the ranks, and became in about 
two years an ofiicer of his regiment, who were both expert 
si^allers, arranged to heliograph from the top of Dunkerry to 
Hampton Down, and though the day was bright and cloudless 
and the air still, we found it absolutely impossible, t dough each 
saw the flash of the other, to signal at that height across the 
cold current of air going down the valley of the Exe, so great 
was the vibration caused by refraction due to the difference of 
temperature. I think these valleys must have been in old 
days exceedingly damp, if we consider the position of all the 
churches along the valleys, perched either, as at Winsford on 
the top of a knoll, or as at Exford and Exton, Dulverton, a 
long way up the hill. The canons at Barlynch, of course, 
kept close to the water for the sake of the trout and the eels 
to supply them with food on fast days. Besides, the bottom 

14 Fifty^Second Annual Meeting, 


must have been verj soft, or the great road from Tifota 
northwards would have gone along the straight vallej inflteill 
of up and down over all those hills between Baronsdown aiii 
Minehead, going, as it does, east of Exton and Cutcombe. 

I mentioned just now Barljnch Priorj. It may interest joi 
to hear what Collinson says about it : — 

king's brompton, barlynch. 

'^ In the time of Henry II this manor became the posseaoot 
of William de Say, a descendant of Picot de Say, hying ii 
the time of William the Conqueror, who upon the Uttle riwl 
Barle, on a spot called from it Barlinch, two miles southwiil 
from the church, founded a small priory of Black Canons to 
the honour of St. Nicholas, which Maud de Say, his daughtOi 
endowed with the rectory of Brompton Regis. This donatioii 
with various others by different benefactors, was ratified tnl 
confirmed by Henry III in the fourth year of his reign, tnl 
Edward III in the thirteenth year of his reign : and the po^ 
sessions of the prior and convent in 1444 were valued it 
£31 6s. 8d., and in 1534 at £98 14s. 9Jd. per annum. 

" John Norman, canon of this house, was elected Dec. 7th, 
1524, by Dr. Thomas Benet, commissary to Cardinal Wolsey, 
nine canons in the convent having by compromise devolved the 
election of a prior to him. In 1553 there remained in charge 
to pensioners of this monastery £3 in annuities. 

"30 Hen. VIII, the site of this priory, with the manors of 
Brompton-Bury and Warley, was granted to Sir John Wallop, 
ancestor of the present Earl of Portsmouth, whose descendant 
sold it to the family of Ball, of Devonshire, of whom it was 
purchased by Mr. Lucas, of Taunton. And now the manors 
of Brompton- Kegis and Brompton- Bury belong to Lady 

"On a brass plate in the wall of the chancel of Kingsbromp- 
ton church, among other memorials to several of the family of 
Dyke, is one of Joan Dyke, who died of the dropsy at the 
age of nineteen years, which you may find worth reading." 

The Presidential Address. 15 

I am told that the name means ^^ enclosure " on the Barle, 
it it is on the banks of Exe (not of Barle). Of course we 
C(^:ni8e the word Ljnch as common enough in this part of 
ngland. But, indeed, the names of places, and their con- 
station, afford one of the widest fields for guess work which 

open to human ingenuity. For instance, Winsford. In 
nagination it is delightful to picture to oneself Burrough 
Vood, replaced by vineyards, and the feet of the Winsford 
feasants as red with the juice of the grape as the chins of 
he children are now with the whortleberry juice. But he 
rould be a sanguine man, who knowing the climate of Wins- 
bid, started a wine business of any description in that neigh- 
H>i]rhood. I believe that on the south coast of Wales grapes 
rill ripen, but the climate of the higher valleys of the Exe is 
lot that of South Wales. 

More reasonable, I think, by way of derivation, is it to be- 
ieve that Brushford means Bridgeford — and that Room Hill, 
1 Exford parish, may be some trace of Roman invasion as 
as Stratford in my home parish of Selworthy. 

If I may venture to offer a word of advice to any who may 
ot know the district, it would be to urge them not to miss the 
)lendid drive over Winsford Hill and down to Tarr Steps, 
id if it should be a clear day they will not think they have 
asted time or strength if they take Wambarrows, the highest 
3int of Winsford Hill, on their return. The view from it is 
irdly to be surpassed in the West of England. Probably on 
le way you may catch glimpses of some of the herd of Exnioor 
)nies. Mr. Hancock, in his book on " Selworthy," tells some 
ories about that herd, for the correctness of which I can 
such, as having heard them first hand. But there is one 
Lther interesting bit of experience about them which you may 
ke to hear. For the last thirty years we have been in the 
ibit of taking about twenty of the best marcs, with their 
►als, down to the better climate and grass at Killer ton, where 
e young ones spend a year or so. And the result has been 

16 Fifty-Seamd Annual Meeting. 

two-fold. First of all ^ emoUit mores nee smh esse feroi,^ 
and secondlj the chests are widened, and as a direct reidt 
the shoulder rendered more sloping and the hmoems mare ip- 
right, and the action improved. But the quarters are estirdT 
another matter, and 1 am afraid man j of the tails come out » 
low down in 1900 as thej did in 1870. Experience his tai^ 
us that the original strain of blood is as good as any ctimb ve 
can devise, and that no cross will combine good qualities 
through two generations with anj certainty. 

It is to be hoped, though hardly to be expected, that yon 
may, also on your way, catch some glimpses of the most char- 
acteristic of our West Somerset institutions, the wild red deer. 
Professor RoUeston, of Oxford, assured me that the nonnil 
condition of the Exmoor deer, as indicated by bone and fibre, 
is far superior to that of the finest Scotch stags or hinds. It 
may interest you to hear that that grand old man, Mr. Biaset, 
to whom this district owes more, I believe, than it is the leaf! 
aware of, told me that when he first took up the hounds he 
killed eight stags and twenty hinds, and, in his last year I 
think it was, nearer twenty stags and eighty hinds. But 
proba})ly the master or secretary of the hunt has accurate 
statistics and may be able to correct what is only my recollec- 
tion of what Mr. Bisset told me. 

But speaking in this place, I cannot sit down without 
specially drawing your attention to the family of Sydenham, 
whose interesting seat, Combe, you are to visit this afternoon. 
According to Collinson, they spring from the lord of the 
manor of that name, originally called Sideham, from its posi- 
tion on the side of the river Parret, near Bridgwater, held by 
K()})ert (le Sydenham, in the time of King John. Collinson 
trac>es tlieir connexion with various well-known families, such 
as Hillary of Bathealton, John de Peekstone of Pixton, John 
Carru, Thomas Perceval, Sir Amias Paulet ; and places such 
as Combe Sydenham near Stogumber, Orchard Wyndham, 
M carton Collunipton. The Sanfords of Mynehead, the Wal- 

The Presidential Address. 17 

t>nds of Bradfield, the Williams's of Herringston in Dorset, 
Floyers of Dorset, and many others can claim connexion with 

I have been asked by Mr. Chadwyck-Healey to bring before 
you the following suggestion in connexion with the identifica- 
tion of Place-names, viz. : " That whenever anyone comes 
across an obsolete form of place-name in a charter or plea roll, 
or other ancient document, and the context supplies a clue to 
the locality, the name should be noted, with the reference to 
the document, and a concise statement of the contents, and 
that the whole should be sent to the Secretary of the Society 
at Taunton, with a view to publication in the journal, Mr. 
Chadwyck-Healey remarks that we shall never succeed in 
mastering the full meaning of Domesday until we can identify 
the places, and that generally our study of Early English his- 
tory would be much facilitated if we knew more than we do of 

I think you will agree with me that this is a valuable sug- 
gestion, and I hope that some measure may be adopted that 
may bring it about. 

I will now conclude by asking you to excuse the desultori- 
ness and incompleteness of these few remarks. I believe you 
will have very interesting excursions, and I am sure you will 
have the chance of acquiring from those who will in the differ- 
ent places address you, on their own special topics, such accu- 
rate and interesting information as will make you feel that 
your time has been well spent, and give them the satisfaction 
of knowing that their time and trouble has not been thrown 

The beauty and variety of the woods, and the interlacing of 
the hills as you lose the valleys among them, the luxuriance of 
the foliage, and the refreshing murmur of the streams, the 
sparkling stickles, and the deep reflections in the pools, and 
above all the glorious combination of heather and gorse, the 
plentiful variety of wild flowers and birds and animals which 

Vol, XL VI (Third Series, Vol, VJJ, Part I. ^ 

Brushford Church, 19 

lBtU9f)forii Cf)utct). 

After luncheon the party drove to Brushford for the pur- 
fKMe of visiting the church, and a halt was made en route to 
inspect a quarry. Mr. W. A. E. Ussher, F.G.S., described 
ibe structure of the quarry, and informed his hearers that the 
XOck was Upper Devonian, called the Pilton beds. The party 
then proceeded to Brushford Church, where they were re- 
cei?ed by the Rector, the Rev. Charles St. Barbe 
Stdbnham, who read the following Paper : — 

** When I last had the pleasure of welcoming your Society 
to Brushford Church, some seventeen years since, your Archi- 
tect, Mr. Ferry, gave the date of the church as Early Perpen- 
^cular, 1 see no reason to dissent from that opinion, unless, 
^deed, the Tower Arch, which has been opened since that 
^Isit^ points to an earlier date. 

Be that as it may, it is more than probable, I think, that 
^here was a 13th century church on the site of the present 
building. The font is clearly of that date, as also the parish 
^hest ; and the oak tree in the churchyard cannot be less than 
600 years old. 

The Font. Of Purbeck marble, square, roughly pannelled. 
The bowl and base are of the original stone, the central stem 
and shafts are new. The original supports had been missing, 
perhaps for centuries, and their place supplied with rough 
masonry. The font was restored about eight years since, and 
it is believed correctly, for we had the depression under the 
bowl, in which the old supports were fixed, to guide us. 

Parish Chest, Of oak formed out of the trunk of a single 
tree, quite devoid of ornament, banded with iron straps, lid 
slightly rounded. It has three keys, one for the Rector, and 
one for each Churchwarden. 

N.B. — I may remark here in passing, that the Synod of 
Exeter, 1287, required every parish to provide ' Cista ad 
libros et vestimenta.' 


Fifty 'Second Annual Meeting. 

Oak Tree in Churchyard. — Probably quite 600 jetR oU. 
From facts which have come to the writer's knowledge, die 
tree has been in a decaying state for the last 100 yean, and it 
is an accepted theory that an oak takes quite 300 jein li 
reach its full growth. The tree in question measures nxteei 
feet in circumference at three feet from the ground. 

The present Church. — The screen, as you will see, is tb 
chief object of interest, and, subject to correction, 1 wiD uifk 
it to the earlier half of the 15th century. It has been xnk 
mutilated and defaced, but enough remains to show wbl i 
splendid work of art it must have once been. A portion of it 
ap|>ear8 to have been once used to ornament the pulpit WW 
and by what hands it was placed here I am unable to ii|f; 
the Churchwardens' accounts not going back bejond the jet 
1 72H ; but my own impression is that it was an afterthoo|||^ 
and that it belonged originally to the neighbouring Priory rf 
Uarlyncb, and was brought here when the Priory wisdi^ 
solved and its property sold. At any rate it is a matter rf 
history that one of its hells is now in the tower of Dulvert* 
rlmrch, iind a window in the church of Withiel Florey, 

The ascent to the nxxl-loft was by a staircase in the Dortk 
wall of the nave, the orififinal archway being still in exi^'tenct 
Some of the steps remain embedded in the wall, but the to 
case itself has been destroyed, probably when the north nl 
was taken down and relniilt in 1733. This archwav fi 
brought to Ii*^ht a few years since when two new windows f« 
placed in the north wall, in lieu of a single square-heiW 
window which existed previously. 

The walls of the <'hancel were taken down and rebuilt i 
1872, but the roof and windows were allowed to remain. Itii 
thought that the oak roof under the present ceiling is iui 
fairly good state, in whi<-li <ase steps will be taken to resto! 
it at no distant date. 

IVie Nave. — The (mly part of t\w old roof surviving i?tlie 
moulded beam extending from the chancel to the tower iitk 

Brushford Church. 21 

(;he rest of the roof, under the plaster, is of modern date, 
of very rough workmanship. 

Vindows. — Of the four windows in the nave, three are' new ; 

four are of Early Perpendicular pattern. 

The Seats. — Between ten and eleven years ago it was found 

cessary to re-seat the entire nave. The carved pannelling 

the bench ends was brought from Highclere, the gift of the 

•te Earl of Carnarvon. As many of the old benches as it 

^as possible to retain in use were placed in the ground floor of 

•he tower. 

The Tower. — The stone work of the west window, like that 
of the east, has not been interfered with. Both are of Early 
Perpendicular design. The tower was rebuilt, and the tower 
arch re-opened between ten and eleven years since. Up to 
that date the arch was filled in with lath and plaster, and an 
unsightly gallery projected into the nave, almost blocking up 
the south window. It appears from the Churchwardens' 
accounts that in 1742 the tower was raised several feet, the 
bells re-cast and re-hung, and raised with the tower, a fifth 
bell being added. In course of time the frame-work became 
loose, and local talent tried to remedy the evil by dri^nng in 
wedges between the wood-work and the walls, the result being 
that wide cracks began to shew themselves in the fabric, and 
the whole structure was in danger of falling, so that it became 
necessary to take down and re-build a large portion of the 
west and south walls. This was effected as I said just now, 
between ten and eleven years since, under the supervision of 
Mr. Samson, Diocesan Architect, and the tower restored on 
the old lines, before the so-called improvements of 1742. 
There are some very quaint lines, copied from a tablet in the 
old tower, now inscribed on a brass plate inside the tower arch, 
entitled, " Rules, Orders and Regulations as established at the 
Belfry of Brushford, the 7th day of June, 1803, by the joint 
consent ol the Ringers and Robert Gooding, Churchwarden." 

Ammmml Mertimtf. 

' Jliu ^ri«fli -av ?«il& an ixk 

s • 


v'^:v\: :.* >c. N ♦:^»*i.i5>w \ >Ci:*fC2»?a: whri:** is^ borne out bv do 

Nvhoias ^Jc^ :b': r.*rr--ii >.i:^: c Sckoiar? as well a^ 
Si:*«TSv X2»: .;> >;crv<e?!t<fi« as i:: :he east winilow of t 

I w:'I ociv jfc^i.i tMr: "nrr :hn: I hiv^ a list of Rectors of t 
Par'js'r.. e\:rao:e»: rVft: tr-e W-\.> Ke^jtstrv. oofmnenomg^ fi 
the Tex*r li::^^ rvc^crer ^::ii ih-r =Azie> -^f the Patroos^ of 

Bu: 1 Am dfr^iid I hjive ierj.:zr*i v n Iv^o^er than I sh«: 
have done. AH* i I ^:'! now ^sk Mr. B i«*k> :«? »*i>rrect m^ wt 
he thinks 1 am wroo^. " 

Mr. EoMUXD BixaLE also sa:«i a few words. He 

Combe Manor, 23 

ted iHat it was a nice little country church, but putting 
ie tlie screen and font, there was nothing of a special char- 
er about it. The part of the countj that the Society was 
iting this year was about the poorest, with in winter a 
terly cold climate. In such a country it was not reasonable 

expect that there should have been any great wealth or 
pacity to spend largely on church decoration. But it should 

remembered that they were also a Natural History Society, 
d tbey were going through most gorgeous scenery, swarming 
tb birds and animals not common in other parts of the 

Tbe nave (like that at Hawkridge) was apparently built 
itbout any north window, as a protection from the cold ; and 
le oak doorways to the rood loft were noticeable as charac- 
sridtic of a country where timber was more plentiful than 
bone. The Purbeck marble font was Early English, and the 
»ak pulpit Perpendicular. 

Comtie 9^mtix. 

After leaving Brushford Church, the party next visited 
Combe House, on which we are glad to be able to give some 
notes by Rev. C. St. Barbe Sydenham : — 

" This interesting example of a 16th century Manor House, 
the seat of a branch of the old Somersetshire family of Syden- 
ham, is situated at the head of a picturesque ' combe ' or 
valley, a mile south of the little market town of Dulverton. 

The house and estate of Combe first came into possession of 
the Sydenhams, by the marriage, in 1482, of Edward, son of 
John Sydenham, of Badialton, with Joan, daughter and heiress 
of Walter Combe, of Combe. His grandson, John Sydenham, 
of Combe (9th of Elizabeth), purchased of William Babington, 
Esq., the Manor of Dulverton, with (livers lands, hereditaments, 
etc., in Dulverton and other places. 

The present house was probably built towards the close of 

Fijfy-Seeond AHnuai Meeti 

iga. M7 reuon for assigning 
in taking op th« floor of the entrance pon 
since, tvo metUU, stmck to commemorate 
Amutda. were found uadenieath, tt^ther v 
Elizabeth's reign. That there waB an olc 
DcariT on the sune site, there can be no do 
ie stiD ID ezistmce, and is used as servants' 

The man recent erection consists of a ce 
wings, fanning three sides of a square. 1 
appears to have been through a passage 
where the cross beams, over what were 01 
doorway-, are still to be seen. 

The second doorway opened into the ini 

In the construction of the bouse, oak timi 
posed, haf been latgely used. The stone 
building? is a species of shillett ruck, quarri 
clay Win|r laigely used instead of mortar. 

In th>^ later building a better sort of ston 

little to the north of Dulverton. w 

and sand. The stone for quoins and dressiri. 

be#n bnmght from a quarry near Hawkridg 

It seems wortli while to make some menti 
and silnr norkiiigs which existed here in tfa 
last cenlnry, ami which were carried on, wit 
cess, down to the year 17-i7, when they ceas 

Specimens of the ore were tested a. few 
laboratory in .lennyn Street, and were fomid 
lead wilh4'\)0f silver. 

The writer has, in his [wssession. a mas: 
stick mad? from this ore." 

AfVer viewing the house and grounds, the | 
returned to Dniverton. 

Torr Steps. 25 

(Stienmg Sieeting. 

The evening meeting was held in the Town Hall, and was 
^^^^ided over by the Rev, Preb. Buller, in the unavoidable 
^Vsence of the President. 

Mr. UsSHER delivered an interesting lecture on the "General 
^ieological Structure of the District" (see Part II). 

^econD Dap'0 PtoceeDings. 

k On Wednesday the excursions were continued, a large party 
■HPf members and visitors, numbering nearly one hundred alto- 
ffgether, leaving the " Red Lion Hotel " at 9.30 a.m., in car- 
f Tiages and brakes. 

Cott ^tep0. 

After a delightful drive of six miles, through most pictur- 
esque scenery, the first stop was made at the famous Torr 
Steps. This remarkable bridge is over the river Barle, which 
^- here separates the parishes of Dulverton and Hawk ridge. 
According to Mr. J. LI. W. Page's interesting book on 
•• Exmoor," the measurements of the stones are as follows : — 
The average length of slab is, perhaps, about seven feet ; the 
width, three feet six inches ; the longest being eight feet 
six inches by five feet wide. In the centre they are laid 
Biiigly ; towards the end the stones being narrower are placed 
side by side. The piers facing the current are protected by 
sloping stones about four feet in length. There is not an atom 
of cement in the structure. The name Torr, sometimes spelt 
Tarr, according to the suggestion of Mr. Langrishe, is derived 
from the Celtic tochar^ a '* causeway," modified first to taker 
and then to Torr. 

When the members were assembled at the steps, Mr. W. A. 
E. UssHER delivered a short address, in the course of which 
he said that after an examination of the rocks, he had not the 

M PiJtg-^Seemid Annnal MeHmg. 

dighteat heaiUiioii in cajiiig that thej did not cone bm[ 
diflUnce, as near there thej had the eame kind of lodL 
rock qnarried eariljr, and there thej had the natanl tnk^ 
out dreannK>» It was not possible -to giTO the dali rf 
stones. Of course there was the curioos legend vUd 
giTcn it the name of the Denl*s Bridge. He should Ebi 
arehaologist to give an opinion as to whether it vis s 
or Roman work. 

Mr. Wbavbb said that authorities seemed to agree tbii 
was pre-Boman. 

Mr. UssHBR : Then we will caU it 

The heat was great, and the waj steep, so tbe 
much appreciated the kindness of Mrs. Darby, of 
Farm, who took many of them in and ga^e them 
from thence thej proceeded to Winsford Hill, whnefliii 
scribed stone was inspected. 

The Bey. D. P. Alfobd, late Vicar of Tavisloek, 
there were three similar stones in the Ticarage gardes 
one of which was found in Tavistock, and the other twoiaij 
brought from the neighbouring village of Buckland )km 

Mr. Wkavbr said that the inscription on the stosei 
Winsford Hill bore in Roman characters the letters CAS^j 
TACl [N]EPUS "the nephew of Caratacus." Tliei. 
scription was reproduced in Vol. XXIX of the Socittj'l 

For the following quotation we are indebted to Mr. Didsi^ 
of Winsfoni, showing that the stone was a landmark in 1271 

*' Annals of Exinoor Forest," by E. J. Bawle, p. 31 
''Perambulation'* [1279]. "De Hemesbureghe permajinB 
viam usque Wamburegh us(|ue Langestone/^ 

*' From H<»rnes Barrow [an ancient mark probablj on Boos 
Hill] l>j the great way, as far as Wambarrow [a well-kooffB 
mark on the highest point of Winsford Hill], as far as Loif 
stone [an inscribed Roman stone standing beside the old \if^ 

Exford Church. 27 

r, about 120 yards from the guide post, where the road 
Tarr to Winsford intersects the high road on Winsford 
at Spire Cross.]" 
A visit was afterwards paid to the Devil's Punch Bowl, a 
distance away, and while looking at this vast depression, 
visitors had a good view of a fine specimen of the red deer, 
'^irtiich was distinctly seen at the bottom of the " Bowl." 

(SrfotD Cburct). 

After luncheon at the "White Horse Inn," the members 
%alked to Exford Church, where the Rector, the Rev. E. G. 
Pbirson, read the following paper :— 

** It is difficult for one who has hardly a smattering of arch- 
iiological knowledge to add anything of interest about this 
parish to the interesting notes contributed by my predecessor 
OD the occasion of the last visit of the Archaeological Society. 
Butt at all events, the Society has paid its visit to this church 
in the best of all weeks in the year, for this week is the octave 
of its Dedication Festival — the church being dedicated in the 
name of St. Mary Magdalene. Here at once is a somewhat 
curious fact. The church has not always been dedicated in 
her name. Its original dedication was ' St. Peter.' The 
change in the dedication took place at the time of the Refor- 
mation. One may well ask why St. Mary Magdalene was 
allowed to oust St. Peter. My belief is that the close connec- 
tion between the name of St. Peter and the See of Rome 
rendered his name in the sixteenth century somewhat unpopu- 
lar; while on the other hand the story of St. Mary Magdalene 
(who by-the-by was erroneously confused with the "woman 
in the city who was a sinner,") was thought to be a prominent 
illustration of the doctrine of free forgiveness, which then had 
special prominence. Hence, I fancy, the change in the dedi- 
cation. At all events, at the time of the Reformation, a 
special collect, epistle, and gospel were added to our Prayer 

■ -1(1* 1 - Twsitr" K 'w ^K 

Exford Church. 29 

rood ? I have long wished to he able to replace the head, 
want to do it in a way that will not excite the ire of the 
theological Society. I wonder if you think it would be 

rible to reproduce the original with sufficient exactness, and 
if you think it will be possible (and not altogether barbar- 
^ioi) to get the head cut from the old upping-stock ? 
' (3). Another question on which I should like to elicit 
jCfmiion is this. There is about half-a-mile from the church a 
aottage (once a small farmhouse) which bears the name of 
Plrescott. From this cottage, a lane which is probably as 
iyMsient as any lane in the parish — and we have lanes which 
were demonstrably in use 800 years ago, and one of which, at 
bftBt, bears a name that puts its date back indefinitely further 
— ^well, this particular lane from Prescott used to lead straight 
to the church. Though modem changes have partly diverted 
tluB track, yet its old course can easily be traced ; and curi- 
ously enough, just where it used to strike the churchyard, a 
few projecting stones still form a rough stile over the wall. 
Now, what I want to know is, if you think that the name of 
ifais cottage (which still contains a round-headed stone door- 
way, and a little square window let into the side of the big 
fire-place), shows that it was the original priest's cot or parson- 
age house of this parish. I like to think that my predecessors, 
before they came into permanent residence here, used to stop 
at that house when they had come over the moor, and " clean 
themselves " before going into church. In that case the cot- 
tage, or at least its name, must date a long way back, for there 
seem to have been clergy resident here from early in the 
twelfth century. 

Certainly these old lanes are of wonderful interest in this 
neighbourhood. They were used as convenient boundaries in 
the various perambulations of the forest of Exmoor, and the 
marks, mentioned in the course of these perambulations, which 
can almost all be identified to-day, all stand along the line of 
some still traceable and generally passable road or track. In 

30 Fifty^Second Annual Meeting, 

one case, however, a lane, used as a boundary of the forest «k 
the time of the second perambulation in the twelfth centmj, 
which was led by the Dean of Salisbury, must have been m % 
very different condition to what it is in now, unless the Dean 
was a better horseman than the present Rector of Exford. 

You will, of course, all remember how very eager the peopk 
and parsons of byegone days were to have their houses excluded 
from the forest. My house seems to have been lucky enmigli 
to stand just outside the boundaries, except during the aDlackj 
reign of King John. He swept into the forest all booMi 
lying west of a line from Dulverton to Minehead. But except 
during those few years my house stood either a couple of him- 
dred yards, or, later on, one and-a-half miles outside the 
forest boundaries. 

There is, I expect, a mass of interest for archfeologists m a 
neighbourhood like this, where changes take place so slowlj. 
Even my untrained eyes find plenty to interest them, and tlie 
spinning wheel and the pack saddle always demand a second 
glance. But if I am not mistaken, there is still more interest 
for the ear in the old stories that are told and the dialect that 
is still in use amongst us here." 

Mr. BucKi.E expressed the opinion that the top of the 
churchyard cross was of tabernacle work, and it probably repre- 
sented Christ on the Cross, with St. Mary and St. John stand- 
ing on either side. 

The Rector remarked that if, in the course of another 
thirty years, the Society visited Exford, the members must not 
be shocked if they found the cross restored to the form sug- 
gested by Mr. Buckle. 

Colonel Bramiu.e expressed the opinion that the cross be- 
longed to the 15th century period. It was the successor of the 
original cross, which was the meeting place for the people of 
the parish, and was there before the church was built. 

A (Mirioua old stone, known as an " Upping Stone," placed 
at the entrance to the churchyard, was afterwards inspected. 

Winsford Church. 31 

The Rector explained that it was placed there for the con- 
venience of women who attended the church, and enabled tliem 
to get on horseback after the service was over. 

SiOltnsfotD Cbutct). 

The next halt was made at Winsford, one of the most pic- 
luresque of Somersetshire villages, situated on the Exe, amidst 
woodland scenery of the most charming description. 

The Vicar, the Rev. Prebendary W. Paley Anderson, 
received the Society, and gave a description of the church. 
In welcoming them he said he feared there were not many an- 
tiquities of great interest to show them, except the beauties of 
the everlasting hills around them, and the valleys of the ever- 
flowing rivers. With regard to the church itself, he could not 
help contrasting its present state with that of forty-three years 
ago, when he first came to the parish. Then the west end was 
blocked up with a gallery, in which all kinds of music were 
discoursed without much harmony. The chancel screen was 
made up chiefly of the Royal Arms and the Ten Command- 
ments — good things in their places, and the Royal Arms were 
interesting, being Jacobean, but not suitable for a chancel 
screen. The church was fitted with square and high pews, in 
which the farmers used to sleep comfortably. The church, as 
they saw it now, had a peculiar interest, because its restoration 
was carried out by the late lamented architect, Mr. Sedding, or, 
he should say, according to his plans. That was his last work, 
and Mr. Sedding died in his house before the work was 
finished, in the spring of 1891. The whole of the roofs of the 
nave and the side aisle were renewed after the original design. 
Some of the principals were retained in the new roof. The 
church was re-seated with oak seats, and a new floor laid. He 
thought that the restoration would not come under the condem- 
nation which he lately saw quoted in The Spectator^ of a 
*' Neo-Gothic forgery, the tinsel of nineteenth century ecclesi- 

32 Fifty- Second Annual Meeting. 

ology." He particularly drew attentiou to the tracery of the 
glazing in the windows, all from the designs of Mr. Seddii^, 
and of exceptional beauty. It was not for him to point oat to 
more experienced archaeologists traces whicii were to be found 
of Norman, Early English, possibly even Decorated, or Perpen- 
dicular styles in this church. The hinges of the south door 
were noticeable as not belonging originally to the door, being 
too large. Indeed the door was not hung on them. ProbaUj 
they were brought there from some larger door at Barlyndi 
Priory. The niche in the porch seemed to show the wheel of 
St. Katharine, to whom a side altar was dedicated in the 
church. The porch was restored some years ago by Mr. Gilea, 
and the font re-set by Mr. E. G. Paley. The chancel wis 
done by the Rector, Sir Thomas Acland, at the same time is 
the church, the architect being Mr. Ash worth, of Exeter. In 
conclusion, the Rector said he could show them at the Vicarage 
a silver tankard of 1697, and some old books, very early 
editions of classical and other works. 

Mr. Buckle supplemented these remarks with some inter- 
esting particulars in regard to the architectural features of the 
church. He said it was of the Perpendicular period, with the 
remarkable feature that nave and aisles were covered by a 
single roof ; so far as he knew, there were only two other 
churches in the county designed on the same lines ; they were 
at Norton-sub-Hambdon and Cannington. This church in all 
its characteristics was emphatically a moorland church. There 
was a good deal of roughness about the whole of the work of 
the arcade, but it had been restored in a very pleasant way in 
keeping with the characteristics of the church. He called 
special attention to the windows, which it appeared had been 
introduced at different periods ; the earlier two-light windows 
were very much like those at Porlock Church. In fact the 
whole church reminded one very much of Porlock, although the 
latter had not got the same sort of roof. There were also two 
square-headed windows over the chancel arch, put there, he be- 

IVinsford Church. 33 

3ved, to light the roof, on account of there being no clerestory. 
'be position of the rood-loft was plainly marked. The west 
>wer was a fine example of the style of the western district of 
he county. It was very similar to the towers of Minehead 
ind St. Decuman's. It stood out with a grand massiveness. 
[ts buttresses were perfectly plain and square, set a little way 
Vom the angles of the tower, a plan largely adopted in that 
listrict and in Devonshire. Another feature of great interest 
was the font, a circular Norman one, very roughly carved into 
St series of arches. Somewhat similar fonts were to be found 
Eit Hawkridge and at Withy pool. There was a little mediaeval 
glass in the church. In the chancel was to be seen the begin- 
ning of a beam which might have formed the support of the 
Lenten Veil. 

Mr. William Dicker also read an interesting paper, 
which will be found in Part II. 

Many of the visitors paid a visit to the Vicarage, where 
Mr. Anderson showed them some rare and valuable books, of 
which the following is a list : — 


1. A Latin TranBlatioii of Xenophon ... ... 14457 

2. AriBtophanes, Aldus, folio ... 1498 

3. PlantuB, folio ... ... ... 1500 

4. Sophocles, Aldus, Editio Princeps ... ... 1502 

5. ''Institutio Christians Religionis." Auctore Alcuino 

(Joba Calvino) ... ... ... ... 1539 

6. Aschylas, Victorii ... ... .. ... 1557 

7. Lucian ... ... 1555 

8. Euripides, Stephanus ... 1602 

9. *Vox Piscis" (mentioned in Walton's "Angler," in 

connection with the '* Salmon Ring/' of which 

Mr. Anderson is the possessor) ... 1626 

10. Quarles' Emblems. Illustrated ... ... 1634 

11. Pliny's Letters. Elsevier ... ... 1653 

12. Terence, Minellii ... ... ••• •-. 1680 

13. Lucian ... ... ... ... ... 1687 

14. Newton's Principia. First Edition. (Rare and valuable) 1687 

15. Milton's •• ParadUe Lost," with ♦'Sculptures " 1707 

16. Belisaire ... ... ••• 1767 

17. Scott's " Lay of the Last Minstrel." A fine Quarto 

Edition ... ... ... • \9W 

Vol. XL VI (Third Serien, Vol. VI), Part I. 

8t) Fifty- Second Annual Meeting, 

15th century, when the Bourchiers were Loixis of BamptoD,th€ 
north wall was added, but whether there were chapels at the 
eastern and northern ends he could not say. A blocked win- 
dow in the north aisle seemed to indicate that some building 
existed there. The screen was now in its original position, but 
it was unfortunately mutilated at the end of the loth centurj. 
Hampton Church was restored a year or two ago. The roof 
was dilapidated, and the job looked almost hopeless, but most 
of the old timber had been put back. The quaiut stained 
window was probably inserted by John Bourchier, second Eari 
of Bath, 1540. In a vault where the organ now stood, was found 
a tomb containing several ridged coffins, but the workmen, un- 
fortunately, did not take the dates. The tomb was understood 
to be that of the first Earl of Bampton. There was also i 
monument to the Tristram family, who used to live at Du?ale. 
There were also tombs of the Lucases, who formerly lived at 
the Castle, and owned much property in the neighbourhood. 
The Bourchier knot could be seen on the screen, and also on 
the roof bosses. 

Mr. C. H. Samsox, of Taunton, gave some interesting in- 
formation as to the state of the church before the restoration 
took place. He said the south wall leaned two feet in one 
place, and eleven inches in an opposite direction in another. 
By means of oak corbels, however, the wall, which was solid, 
was still allowed to lean, whilst the roof was kept straight 
The roof was in a very bad state, propped up in all directions, 
but much of the old oak was used again. It had many excel- 
lent bosses also of oak. He did not know what they meant, 
but most of them were of foliage. The arcade fell over quite 
two feet, and crushed the timbers in the aisle. They man- 
aged, however, to lever it up straight when the roof was on. 
The well carved screen was found under the chancel arch, and 
was brought out exactly as found. Very little was done to the 

The visitors found plenty to admire in the church, and thej 

Bnmpton Mote, 37 

^ere especially stnick with a fine altar piece, the work and gift 
Df Mr. Cos way, the well-known miniature painter, who was 
resident at, and said to be, a native of Oakford, just on the 
other side of the river. On arriving outside the church, Mr. 
Buckle pointed to a piece of stone over one of the south 
windows, on which he said was a trade mark. There were num- 
1>er8 of them at Tiverton Church, which, he said, was built by 
woollen merchants. 

IBampton ^ote. 

A climb up rather a steep hill brought the party to the 
Mote, the main characteristics of which were described by 
Mr. J. T. Peri AM, who said that having from a remote period 
been the seat of the governing authority, it would l>e conveni- 
ent to mention various matters relating to the past history of 
Bampton. A description of the origin of the place would, it 
could not be doubted, take them very far back in the times of 
Dammonii. It was from the Saxon word mot, or gemot, a 
meeting, that this moimd, which was an artificial one, got its 
name of " the Mote," as the seat of the Hundred Mote or Court 
of Judicature. By the laws of King Edgar, the Burghmote 
or Court of the Borough was held thrice a year. Bampton 
was the burg or fortified place, and head manor of the hun- 
dred — the parish was still divided into Borough, p]ast, West, 
and Petton quarters, and the ancient office of portreeve was 
still in existence there. Risdon says : — " This place was never 
gelded, for it was the King's demesne," meaiiing that there was 
no overlord to intervene between the burgesses and the sover- 
eign. According to another writer, Bampton had originally 
been an ancient crown lordship, one of the four unhidated 
royal lordships in Devon ; Depeford was then held by two 
thanes, but the Conqueror had granted it to the Queen as part 
of her dower. Then some time before Domesday and the 
Geldroll, the King gave Bampton to Walter de Douay. From 
Walter's son, Robert de Baunton, the lordship passed through 

40 Fifty- Second Annual Meeting, 

wisdom, gained under my guidance, in the course of your trip 
to Tiverton." 

The Rev. Preb. Buller proposed a vote of thanb to 
Mr. Holland and Mr. Harrod for the generous way in which 
they had entertained those present that day. This was heartilj 
accorded, and the gentlemen named responded. 

The Rev. F. W. Weaver moved a combined vote of thanb 
to all those who had helped to make that meeting such a 
successful one. He first of all mentioned their President, Sir 
Thomas Acland, who gave them a very excellent address ob 
the first day. Their thanks were also due to Mrs. Chapman 
for permission to visit Combe House, the Rev. C. St. Barbe 
Sydenham, Rector of Bnishford, Rev. E. G. Peirson, Rector 
of Exford, and Rev. Preb. Anderson, Vicar of Winsford, for 
the hearty welcome given them. He considered that the drive 
they took to Exford and Winsford on the Wednesday would 
rank with any that the Society had ever had. Mr. Anderson 
very kindly received them, in spite of the fact that he was only 
recovering from a long illness. Mr. Dicker, the schoolmaster 
at Winsford, about six months ago discovered some Church- 
wardens' accounts belonging to the parish, and from those dry 
bones he had extracted a very interesting paper. Their 
thanks were also due to Mr. Periam, of Bampton, for the 
assistance he had rendered, and for the copies of his interest- 
ing pamphlet. Then they came to their hosts of that day, 
who had already been thanked, but he (Mr. Weaver) would 
like to have the ])rivilege of thanking them again for their 
kind hospitality. The meeting could not have been so success- 
ful as it had proved to be without the kind helj) of their old 
friend, Mr. Buckle, and also their old friend, Mr. Ussher, who 
had rejoined them. They also wished to thank their Looil 
Secretary, Mr. (1. F. Sydenham, of Dulverton, for the kind 
services he had given, and who, although a busy man. had 
rendered them a good deal of help. Last, but not least, they 

BlundelFs School^ Tiverton. 41 

lust not forget their old friend, Colonel Bramble, who had 
ery kindly given them the benefit of his presence. 

The vote was heartily accorded. 

Mr. Buckle said there was one person who had not been 
lentioned in the vote of thanks, and that was Mr. Weaver 
imself, to whom their best thanks were due for arranging the 
etails of that meeting. They were also indebted to Mr. 
(leaver for a very beneficial change in that year's programme, 
^hereby they had varied the objects of interest visited, and 
ad not, as in previous years, included so many churches in the 
ay's excursions. He knew that Colonel Bramble, who had 
een of the greatest assistance to Mr. Weaver in arranging 
fiat meeting, agreed with the change he had mentioned. 

The motion was cordially agreed to, and Mr. Weaver, in 
3sponding, said he would not deny that it was a difficult task 
) arrange an annual meeting of that character, but it was a 
latter for gratification that his efforts had been appreciated. 

lBIunDeU'0 Reboot, Citierton. 

After luncheon the members drove to Tiverton, where a 
isit was paid to Blundell's School. While assembled on the 
iwn in front of the School, the Rev. Doxald M. Owen 
;ave an address. He said that he was at school there at the 
.ge of ten, and stayed there till 1840. He distinctly recol- 
ected Frederick Temple, the present Arch])ish()p of Cantcr- 
)ury, who was both a boarder and a day boy, and whose family 
ived at that time at UfFculme. He remembered Temple win- 
ling the Blundell Scholarship, and which sent him to Halliol 
College, Oxford. Perhaps the most famous schooU)oy, (^on- 
emporary with him (Mr. Owen) was Blackmore, the author of 
' Lorna Doone," and with whom he corresponded to the end 
)f the famous novelist's life, (ireat changes had taken place 
n Blundell's School. It was founded, as they knew, by I*eter 
rilundell, a clothier of Tiverton, who began as a boy in a small 

42 Fifty-Second Annual Meeting, 

way, being the owner o£ one horse, with which he carried some 
serges to London. Wishing to bestow some of his wealth od 
his native town, Bhindell founded this school, at the sugges- 
tion of Chief Justice Popham, his adviser, the school dating 
from 1601, although Peter BlundelFs will was of a somewhat 
earlier date. Not content with building the noble Grammar 
School, as it was then and is now, BlundeU's nephew and clerk 
Chillcott founded a second school, which still flourished al 
Tiverton. Blundeirs School had varied fortunes, its ups md 
downs like other schools, up to the time when the boarders be- 
came the main body of the school. Originally meant for all, 
the school-green gradually became absorbed by the boarders, 
and was closed to day boys, which led to angry feeling in 
the town, ending in a law-suit, by which the boarders were de- 
clared to be no part of the original foundation, and the school 
was restored to what Peter Blundell founded it for, namely, a 
school for Tiverton and neighbourhood. But the result of 
that law-suit was a dead loss to the funds of the school of 
£7,000. There was also a heavy fall in numbers until a fresh 
application to the court was made, and the boarders were 
brought hack again. It was then, however, a very reduced 
school, and in latter years the playground was found to he too 
small for modern games. Consequently the governing body of 
the day, mainly assisted by Archbishop Temple's wise coiuiseL 
determined to sell the ground on which they were standing, 
and bought about fifteen acres of ground about a mile out of 
the town, and built a new school there. They transferred to 
it, they hoped, all the old traditions, and at present the school 
was flourishing, gaining some of the greatest honours of the 
present day, and contril)uting to all the branches of the learned 
and other professions l)oys who were doing honour to the name 
of the school. Their numbers had been as high as two hiin- 
dred-and-eighty, bnt flurtuating like all schools, were now two 
hundred-and-twenty. They kept up the old custom of speech 
day. The members of the Association would probably like to 

Blunidelts School^ Tiverton, 43 

low what changes had taken place inside Old Blundell's. 
he whole property had been bought by a wealthy brewer 
lir. Ford), who was also a philanthropic man, for he had 
ected, close to the old school, almshouses for his aged work- 
en. He had transformed the old school into five private 
selling-houses, without chan^ng very much the exterior 
chitecture of the building. The upper and lower school had 
roof of timber brought, as tradition asserts, from the wreck 

the Spanish Armada. Those curious about such matters 
Duld see how the dates coincided. At all events, when the 
of was re-modelled, one of the workmen showed him some 

the timber through which the holes had been bored, appar- 
itly for bolts used in ship building. Referring to famous 
^mastei*s, Mr. Owen named the Rev. Henry Saunders, 
tor of Dr. Temple ; Dr. Bolton ; and the Rev. Thomas 
^ood, his (Mr. Owen's) grandfather, to whose father mem- 
(rs doubtless noticed a memorial in Hampton Church. Mr. 
''ood, famed in his day alike as a polished scholar, a profound 
eologian, and a mighty hunter, was also a personal friend of 
8 Bishop, and was once riding in his Lordship's coach (then 
counted a great honour), on a visit to Old Blundeirs, when 
e Bishop noticing a Latin inscription over the doorway, 
ked Mr. Wood to translate it for him, as his eyesight was 
)t good. The old Vicar of Bampton promptly did so, as 
Hows : — 

'* Within these walls two mighty monarchs rule, 
One in the house the other in the school ; 

But see, my lord, a sad disaster 

He rules the boys but she the master." 

is married friends would, he hoped, all agree with him that 
at was a piece of ancient history never to be reproduced. 

In the entrance porch to the school was noticed the name of 
. D. Blackmore, carved on a bench. 

Mr. Owen was heartily thanked for his address. 

44 Fifty-Second Annual Meeting. 

Citietton aimsbouses. 

A visit was next paid to Greenway's Almshouses. Mr. 
Buckle briefly commented on the almshouses in Gold Street, 
which were comparatively modem, except part of the chapeL 
A curious feature was that one entrance, by stairs, served for 
all the houses. 

%t. peter'0 Cbutcb. 

St. Peter's Church at Tiverton was the next object of inte^ 
est inspected, the Rev. ¥j, S. Chalk, Curate, welcoming the visi- 
tors in the absence of the Rector, the Rev. Preb. Scott. 

Mr. Buckle gave a detailed description of the architectural 
features of the building, beginning with the south side of tbe 
exterior and the south porch. He said that the church was of 
a totally different character to anything the Society had seen 
before during that meeting. He had already mentioned the 
poverty of most of the churches they had visited during the 
previous two days, and had pointed out that it was hardly 
reasonable to expect that they would have elaborately carved 
work in the churches about Exmoor. But although Exmoor 
was in itself a poor district, he took it that all the hills around 
must have been covered with sheep ; and Tiverton was the 
great market for the sale of the wool. They knew all through 
Somerset that wherever they found much of the woollen trade, 
they invariably found an exceedingly rich church — a notable 
tower, or screen, or something or other which denoted the 
wealth of the town, or it might be only a village, where the 
merchants made their money. Here in Devon they found the 
same thing. Tiverton appeared to have been an exceedingly 
thriving town, dependent mainly upon the woollen trade ; and 
the merchants of Tiverton spent their money very freely for 
public obje(*.t8. The school they had just been to was an ex- 
ample of that, founded by a merchant who started from 

St. Peter's Church. 45 

- i?erton ; the almshouses (Greenway's) were another ; and 
tere were at least two other almshouses and one other school 
ounded by Tiverton merchants. The Greenway's Alms- 
houses they had passed were founded by the same man who 
^\x\\t the whole of that magnificent south side of St. Peter's 
-'hurch, on which they were now looking with admiration. 
C*he chapel, which stood out from the nave, and towered over 
he porch, was also due to that same John Green way, who 
nade his money at Tiverton about the year 1500. Mr. Buckle 
Proceeded to say that he had not been able to find out anything 
concerning the life of Greenway, and he believed that next to 
lothing was known about him. Mr. Buckle then described 
he beautiful work he had caused to be erected between the 
'ears 1515 and 1518, especially pointing out the magnificent 
arving over the south porch and round the entire parapet, for 
he most part emblems of Greenway's mercantile career. 
?hey would find that every buttress was decorated with a 
harmingly sculptured ship in full sail. The church was also 
emarkable for the number of trade marks carved about it, and 
here was such a similarity about these marks that the mer- 
hants of the day must have had difficulty sometimes in 
ientifying their own. The carving on Greenway's chapel 
Iso included a row of ships, represented as sailing on a sea of 
vaves ; and under the cornice was a remarkable series of 
mall figures, representing the leading incidents in the life of 
!^hrist. There were numerous coats of arms and monograms, 
tmong them — A chevron between 3 covered cups, on a chief 
? sheep* s heads erased for Gkeexway. Barry nebulee ; a chief 
marterly, mi the 1st and 4th a lion passant guar da nt, on the 2nd 
Lud 3rd two roses for the Mekchant Vexturehs of London. 
Three clouds radiated in base, each surmounted with a triple 
rown for the Dkapeks' Company. 

In the centre of the porch was a large achievement in honour 
►f Katherine of York, Countess of Devon, the great lady of 
he place, who at the time resided in Tiverton Castle. The 

46 Fifty- Second Annual Meeting, 

coat consisted of Couktenat and Kivers quarterly^ impaHnj 
quarterly, 1st France and England quarterly, 2nd and 3id 
Burgh, 4th Mortimer. It was surmounted by the Court- 
enay badge, and supported by St. George and a Woman. 

On the upper part of the porch was some elaborate sculp- 
ture, now almost perished. 

Proceeding inside the church, Mr. Buckle said there was 
no hint of Greenway on the north side. The work on that 
side was done by a merchant whose name began with an S,aQd 
that was all that was known about him. His trade mark 
initial appeared on some of the capitals. Like Greenway, this 
merchant thought it wise to introduce the Courtenay emblems 
into his work, and there again was the eagle with a bundle of 
sticks. The north aisle, from end to end, was practically 
modern work. It was much narrower within the last fifty 
years, when the outside wall, with its Norman doorway, was 
taken down and re-built. 

On the north aide of the chancel stood the Courtenay 
chapel, containing probably many magnificent monuments, but 
chapel and monuments were alike destroyed during the Civil 
War. The chancel arch retained however on its capitals the 
Courtenay arms, surrounded by the garter and the Courtenay 
badges of eagle and pig. 

In the Greenway chapel, the wagon roof in stone-work, 
covered with fan tracery, was to be noted together with the 
brass on the floor and the Renaissance door. The porch roof 
was also covered with Greenway badges, and the wall over the 
church door with richer sculpture of Greenway 's providing. 

Mr. Buckle concluded by drawing attention to two valu- 
able paintings in the church, one of St. Peter in prison, by 
Cos way, the celebrated miniature painter of the last century, 
and a native of Oakford, who, it was believed, presented the 
painting to the church ; and the other, representing the Visit 
of the Magi, by Gaspard de Crayer, a contemporary of Reu- 

Tiverton Castle. 47 

OS, whose style he imitated. The modem vestry contained a 
ge library of old books and docmnents. 
t Somerset House are preserved the Wills of John Grene- 
way of Tiverton, "died at London," proved in 1530 ; and 
of Joane Greneway of Tiverton, proved in 1539. Ed.] 

Citietton Ca0tle. 

The last place for inspection was Tiverton Castle, which the 
mbers next visited. The Rev. Donald Owen explained 
it the building dated from the year 1107. It came early 

the possession of the Courtenay family. Afterwards the 
nily broke up into different sections, and the property ulti- 
.tely got into other hands, until it came into the possession 

the ancestors of the present Lord Chancellor. They 
lit what was now called Giffard's Court. The property next 
jsed into the hands of a Mr. West, who intermarried with 
\ Carews, the Castle ultimately coming into their possession, 
i the late Baronet lived there. It now belonged to the 
isses Carew, of Haccombe, who held it in entail for the 
jsent Baronet. At present the building was occupied by the 
»at Irish family of Moore, two members of whom were at 
J front in South Africa. The family wished that every 
jility should be given the Society for viewing the grounds, 

1 Mr. Owen was asked to thank Miss Moore for her kind- 


Phis brought the excursions to a close, and the members 
«rwards had tea at the "Angel Hotel," and subsequently 
irueyed homewards. The general opinion was that this 
lual meeting was one of the most enjoyable that the Society 
J ever had. 

Additions to the Library, 49 


Tgeerpts from Wills — Chew Magna, Chew Stoke, Bishop's 
on, Norton Hautville, and Dundrj ; 5 vols., manuscript, 
Tndex. — From Mr. F. A. Wood. 

'icester Literary and Philosophical Society y vol. v, pt. 6. 
he First Bishop of Bath and Wells,— From the author, 
J . A. C. Vincent. 

^3/pt Exploration Fund. The Temple of Deir el Bahiri^ 

1, 2, 3, 4. Movnd of the Jeip^ and the City of Onias ; 

fuities of Tel el Yahudujeh. Bubastis, The Festival 

of Osorkcn II in the Great Temple of Bubastis. Ahnas 
edineh : The Tomb of Paheri. Deshaskeh, Two Hiero- 
hie Papirifrom Tunis. Dendereh, The Royal Tombs of 
^irst Dynasty. — From Rev. W. H. Lance. 
'chcBoloyical Survey of Egypt. Beni Ha.^san^ parts 1, 2, 
El Bershehy parts 1, 2. The Mastaba of Ptahhetep 
Akhethetep at Saqqareh. — From Rev. W. H. Lance. 
ilesfine Exploration Fund. Quarterly Statement^ January 

to October 1899 (January 1881, January 1884, October 
', January and April 1893, October 1897, January 1898, 
ing). — From Rev. W. H. Lance. 

cport of the British Association^ 1895-99. — From Dr. 

ilendar of Patent Rolls, Edward 1, 1301—1307. Calendar 
documents preserved in France, vol. i, A.i). 918 — 1206. — 
Q the Public Record Office. 

nr South African Empire, 2 vols., 1885 ; England and her 
rues, Imperial Federation, 1887 ; History of the Dominion 
anada, 1890; Geography of the Dominion of Canada and 
found land, 1891 ; Geography of Africa South of the 
besi, 1892 ; Outlines of British Colonization, 1893 ; The 
'sh Colonies and their Industries, 1896 ; The Growth and 
inistration of the British Colonies, 1837 — 1897 ; The 
fd States and their Industries^ 1899; Tennison and Our 
rial Heritage ; Appendices to GreswelTs British Coloniza" 

i. XLVI (Third SeriM, Vol. VIX Parti. d 

50 Fifty- Second Annual Meeting, 

tion^ 1893 ; A Legend of the Zitzikamtij 1881 ; MS. book con- 
taining list of Original Articles, Magazines, and contributionB 
to the Press, Advertisements, Press Notices, &c. — From the 
author, Rev. W. H. P. Greswell. 

Bristol Tokens of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. — 
From the author, Mr. J. E. Pritchahd. 

Leicester Literacy and Philosophical Society ^ vol. v, parts 5, 
7, and 8. 

Northamptonshire Natural History Society, Nos. 97, 98, 99. 

Museum Notes. — From the author, Mr. E. W. Swanton. 

Goo(fmans Taunton Directory, 1900. 

The Pleader s Guide, by J. Anstej, 1810. 

The Obelisk and Ceiwtaph on Clifton Down. — From the 
author. Dr. Beddoe. 

The Treat Family in England and America, — From the 
author, Mr. J. H. Tkeat. 

Stavordale Priory, Wincanton. Tenth Report of the Win- 
canton Field Clith, — From the author, Mr. Geo. Swehtmax. 

History of Crewkernc School. — From the author, Rev. R. 
G. Baktelot. 

On the Pclley Portrait of Blake. — From the author, Rev. J. 
E. Odgeks. 

Athelncy and other I\»ems, by Eliza Down ; Pleasant Trips 
out of Bristol. — From Mr. Slopek. 

The ''Old North-west " Genealogical Quarterly, vol. iii, Xo. 3. 

Excursion to Newton Abbot, Chudleigh, Dartmoor, and Tor- 
quay (Geologists Association). — From Mr. UsSHEU. 

An Old Indian Village. -Vrom the author, JoHAX Ar(;uST 

A Calendar of a Few Uncommon Volumes Relating to the 
County of Somerset in the Library of the collector, Ernest E. 
Baker. From Mr. E. E. Hakek. 

Sixty-first Annual Report of the Deputy Keeper of the 
Public Records. 

Additions to the Library, 51 

Index of Charters and Rolls in the British Museum, — From 
the Trustees. 

Repertorium Botanices SystematiccB^ 11 vols. — From Miss 

The Bradford Antiquary^ parts i to x. 

Received from Societies in Correspondence for the Exchange of . 


Royal Archajological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland — 

Journal^ nos. 224, 225, 226. 
British Museum (Natural History) — Catalogue of Fossil 

British Archseological Association — Journal^ vol. v, pt. 4 ; 

vol. vi, pts. 1, 2, 3. 
British Association — Report^ 1899. 

Society of Antiquaries of London — Proceedings^ vol. xvii, no. 2. 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland — Proceedings^ vol. xxxiii. 
Royal Irish Academy — Proceedings^ vol. v, nos. 4, 5. 
Ro^al Society of Antiquaries of Ireland — Journal^ vol. ix, 

pt. 4 ; vol. X, pts. 1, 2, 3. 
Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History -/^ro- 

ccedings, vol. x, pt. 2. 
Associat(?d Societies — Reports and Papers^ vol. xiv, pt. 2. 
Surrey Archaeological Society — Collections, vol. xv. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society — vol. 50. 
Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society — Maga- 

zinc, vol. xxxi, no. 93. 
liOndon and Middlesex Archteological Society — Facsimiles of 

three old prints — Transactions, vol. i, pt. 3. 
Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwall Natural His- 
tory Society — Report, vol. xiii, pt. 2. 
Powys Land Club — Montgomeryshire Collections, vol. xxxi, 

pt. 2. 

52 Fifty^ Second Annual Meeting. 

Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society— 

Journal^ vols, xxi, xxii. 
Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society — Tran- 
sactions^ vol. xii, pts. 1, 2. 
Hertfordshire Natural History Society — Transactionsj vol. x, 

no. 5. 
Essex Archaeological Society — Transactions^ vol. vii, pt. 4 ; 

vol. viii, pt. 1. Feet of Fines for Essex. 
Yorkshire Archaeological Society — Journal^ pts. 59, 60, 61. 
Geologists' Association — Proceedings^ vol. xvi, pts. 6, 7, 8, 9. 

List of Members. 
Royal Dublin Society — Proceedings^ vol. ix, pts. 1, 2; Tran- 
sactions^ vol. vii, pts. 2 — 7 ; Economic Proceedings^ vol. i, 

pts. 1,2; Index. 
Bristol Naturalists' Society — Proceedings^ vol. ix, pt. 1. 
Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society — Proceedings^ 

vol. liii. 
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society — Proceedings. 

vol. xliii, pts. 3, 4, o ; vol. xliv, pts. 1 — 5. 
Essex Field Ckib — Essex Naturalist^ vol. x, nos. 4 — 12. 
Hampshire Field Club, vol. iv, pt. 2. 
Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne — ArchcBologia 

yEIiana, pt. 54. 
Clifton Antiquarian Club — Proceedings^ vol. iv, pt. 3. 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society — The Manuscripts in the 

Library at Lambeth Palace, 
Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club, vol. xx. 
Chester Archaeological and Historical Society — Catalogue of 

Roman Inscribed and Sculptured Stones in the Grosvenor 

Thoresby Society, Leeds— vol. x, pt. 2. 
The Keliciuary and Illustrated Archaeologist — vol. vi, nos. 1, 

2, 3, 4. 
Canadian Institute — Proceedings^ no. 7, vol. ii, pt. 1 ; vol. vi, 

pts. 1, 2. 

Additiona to the Library, 53 

Nova Scotian Institute — vol. x, pt. 1. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S. — Report^ 1897 ; 

Year Book of the Department of Agriculture, 
Essex Institute, Salem, Massachusetts, U.S. — Bulletin^ vols. 

33, 34, 35, 36. 
New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, U.S. — 

Register, nos. 213, 214, 215, 216. 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, U.S. — Proceed- 

ingsy 1899, pts. 2, 3; 1900, pt. I, Forty-Eighth Annual 

Report of the Institute, 
University of California, U.S. — Register, 1898-99 ; and 

several pamphlets on Agriculture and Geology, 
Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles, Lausanne. — Bulletin, 

nos. 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137. 
Societe Archeologique de Bordeaux, tome xii, fas. 1, 2. 


Harleian Society — Visitation of Surrey, Musgrave^s Obituary, 

vols. 1, ii, iii ; Visitation of Kent. 
Early English Text Society — Nos. 22, 24 reprinted ; nos. 

114, 115, 116. 
Kay Society — British Annelids, pt. 2. 

Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries, nos. 48, 49, 60, 51. 
English Dialect Dictionary, pts. 9, 10. 
Somersetshire Towers, 6 parts. 
Oxford Historical Society — Oxford Topography ; IVood's Life 

and Times, 
Exeter Episcopal Registers — Grandison, vol. iii. 
British Land and Freshwater Shells. 

Annals of Bristol in the 17th, 18th, and 19th Centuries, 3 vols. 
A collection of Several Pieces of Mr. John Troche. 
Memoir of Robert Hibbert, Esq. 
The Royal Natural History, 6 vols. 
The Pipe Roll Society, vol. xxiv. 

54 Fifty" Second Annual Meeting, 

Horns of Honour. 

Rutley's Elements of Mineralogy. 

Quekett's Lectures on Histoloyy. 


The Strife of the Roses^ and Days of the Tudors in the West, 

Catalof/ue of Cambrian and Silurian Fossils in the Museum of 

Practical Geology, 
Catalogue of Cretaceous Fossils in the Museum of Practical 

Catalogue of Tertiary and Post^ Tertiary Fossils in the Museum 

of Practical Geology, 

■"■''-' ill 


B lr5« i III r 

aci ! II 1 10 Gill 

*;i . 








'PA%r iL—vAVE%s, Ere. 

Cbe Devonian, Carbonifetous, ann Beto Eeti laocfcs 
of Wiz%i Somerset, Detion, anti CorntaiaU. 

BY W. A. E. U88HER. 

(By permission of the Direcior-Oeneral of H. M, Geological Survey). 

The map accompany ing this Paper is on too small a scale to indicate the 
positions of the smaller New Red pebble bed patches precisely, and to dififer- 
entiate between Middle and Lower Cnlm in the St. Mellion outlier. Volcanic 
rocks haye been also omitted for the same reason. 


THERE are two different methods which may be applied 
in the endeavour to unravel the geological structure of 
complicated areas. 

The first, by a series of observations made during traverses 
across a district, furnishes the observer with a more or less 
numerous collection of facts, or apparent facts, which impress 
on his mind certain conclusions leading on reflection to more 

Vd. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI), Part 11. a 

2 Papers^ Sfr. 

or less rapid and brilliant generalization. This is pioneeriiig 
work in stratigraphy, the personal coefficient counts in it of 
course, but the nature of the district counts still more* 

Stratigraphical geology was built up in this way by William 
Smith, and the larger formations were established and sketched 
out by the great men who succeeded him. 

The second method is a far slower process, involving great 
labour : the storing away of multitudes of facts, seeing every- 
thing, and following the evidence as it accumulates, weaving 
it into as many different hypotheses as it seems susceptible ol, 
and allowing the progress of the work itself to point to tke 
most reliable conclusion. 

Stratigraphy, like every other branch of geology, has ex- 
panded enormously. The subdivision of formations, the 
discovery of structures undeciphered by the earlier workers, 
and the great advancement in palseontological research, whik 
it gives less scope for investigation in the first maoner, 
demands more and more of the exhaustive labour that 
characterizes the second. The geologist who traverses now 
over ground pioneered before is a free lance provided he does 
not hand down his ideas on a sketch map. The construction 
of a geological map, and more especially a government map, is 
a somewhat fearsome undertaking now-a-days, when there are 
so many eager amateurs on the look-out for sections which, if 
opened since the map was made may falsify it in places, or 
able to select the best time of year to visit districts which 
were mapped when crops and hedge-growths concealed the 
surface evidence. 

Geological literature has accumulated so enormously that 
the results of special stratigraphical researches to attract the 
reader ought to be stated in the clearest possible manner, and 
summed up so that the maximum amount of infonnation may 
be gleaned in the smallest possible compass. De la Beche's 
classic report on the geology of these counties is the exact 
opposite to this style of writing, and therefore perhaps seldom 

The Devonian^ Carhoniferousy and New Red Bocks. 3 

read thoroughly or consulted as a work of reference, for which 
it is in many respects ill-adapted. Yet J make bold to say, 
that the great value of this report is in the absence of con- 
ciseness, precision, and clear statement of opinion from its 
pages. From beginning to end it is a reflection of the 
evidence presented to the author during the investigations 
made by himself and co-workers in the geology of the south- 
western counties. His report contains much more detail than 
his maps, because the evidence at his disposal was too meagre 
and too conflicting to lend itself to precise statement, and to 
be focussed in geological boundary lines, and the time taken 
was too short to produce more than a sketch map of the 
geology of these counties, which, considering the extreme 
difficulty of the area and the fact that the lines were often 
inferred from isolated observations, is a masterly production. 
Now that the detailed geological maps are being brought out, 
Bmbracing my work in the New Red rocks, begun in 1871 
and completed in 1880, and part of the Culm area, and the 
South Devon Devonian mapped since the year 1887, I think 
it may be useful to clear the existing literature on these three 
formations, for which I am personally responsible, of errors 
which the progress of the work has demonstrated, and to point 
out the principal papers, so saving the reader the trouble of 
referring to pamphlets in which the same subjects are treated 
in a more crude or less detailed manner. 

The perversity of human nature often induces the chance 
reader to fix on some minor and local figure of description 
which were better suppressed than accentuated, and to ignore 
the many qualifications by which statements made from time 
to time are safeguarded. 

The late Corney Grain, describing the recitation craze at 
" At Homes," pictured the dismay of the hostess when the 
reciter pointed unwittingly at the one grease spot or oil stain 
in her otherwise immaculate carpet, which she had hoped 
would escape detection ; and so it may be that the one record 

4 Papers^ jfc. 

of early misoonceptioiis which ought, like othen of 
nature, to hare been consigned as fragmentsxy MSS. 
oblirion of the dust heap, is selected for perusal. 

As bearing on the allusion to the different metl 
stratigraphical iuTestigation, I may point out the ikd 
my cupboard as a warning. It is entitled, '*The D 
rocks between Plymouth and Looe," and appeared in 
Roy. GeoL Soc.^ Cam. This paper is the result of tli 
of the coast section, between the places mentioned, at 
when the resurvey of the Devonian rocks of South 
was not contemplated, and when my knowledge 
Devonian was confined to North Devon and West Sc 
The deductions based on the observations are ho 
wrong. I have spent ten years in mapping the D 
rocks, and it has taken me this length of time to appr 
to understanding the reading of this coast section : wh; 
so would take far too much space and time to relate, 
this Roction more than any other the reading of the strat 
of the Lower Devonian rocks of South Devon depends 

A summary of geological results was first incorpor 
the Director-(ieneral of the Geological Survey, in his 
reiM)rt for the year ending December Slst, 1892. T 
eontiniied down to the year ending December 31si 
when it was superseded by a less condensed Sumi 
Progress, in whieh the results furnished by the re 
officers were more nearly given in their own words, 
in conjunction with the papers referred to, reference 
made to these rej)orts, of which a list, together with \ 
important pa])crs, will be given under the heading 
several formations to which they refer (the text of th( 
in jjart at least being j)rinted in the paper), together 
titles of minor papers partly redundant because emb 
those specially selected as works of reference, partly 
interest. I will conclude this preface by a quotation 
introduction to the Summary of Progress for the y< 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous^ and New Red Rocks. 5 

in i^hich the Director-General thus refers to De la Beche's 
maps (on p. 5). 

'' The mapping which De la Beche began in the south- 
west of England was so rapidly executed by him, and the 
few assistants associated with him, that in a few years he had 
completed the geological investigation of the whole of Devon, 
Cornwall, aud West Somerset. By the year 1839 the maps 
of this region, embracing no fewer than fourteen of the 
Ordnance Sheets, on the scale of one inch to a mile, were 
published, geologically coloured. These maps were not executed 
with the detail and precision now attainable on the larger 
scale employed by the Survey. They were, however, much 
more minute than anything that had preceded them.'" 



A LINE drawn from Minehead southward to Paignton, roughly 
speaking, separates the Palaeozoic rocks on the west from the 
Secondary rocks on the east. The Palaeozoic rocks run ir- 
regularly, encroaching eastward of this line between Williton 
and the Tiverton Valley, and forming masses or inliers sur- 
rounded by the Secondary rocks, the largest of which consti- 
tutes the Quantocks. Smaller inliers occur to the east of the 
Quantocks ; at and near Westleigh ; south of Collumpton, 
notably in Spraydown, and the Torquay promontory. 

To the west of this line the Secondary rocks extend in the 
Tiverton Valley, and to a very much greater extent in the 
Crediton Valley ; besides these encroaching tongues there are 
outliers, or isolated masses on the Palaeozoic rocks, near Stood- 
leigh and Hatherleigh. 

The Palaeozoic rocks consist of the Devonian strata of the 
North Devon aud West Somerset type, and of the South 

6 Papers^ ^c. 

Devon and East Cornwall type, and the great central area of 
carboniferous rocks of Culm Measure type which rest on 
them. The Culm and Devonian boundary runs along a line 
from Barnstaple by Brushford to Kittisford on the north, and 
in the south it forms an exceedingly sinuous and irr^ular 
line from near Boscastle to Tavistock and Cox Tor on the 
west of Dartmoor, and from Chudleigh to Ashburton and 
Holne on the east of Dartmoor. 

Great masses of grit or sandstone rocks occur at intenrab 
throughout the Northern Devonian area, marking conditions 
indicative of shallow water deposition. There are no volcaoie 
rocks, and except at Holwell and Asholt limestones are scarce 
and impersistent. 

The Southern Devonian area, on the contrary, contains very 
much less arenaceous materials, and these are confined to the 
lower beds, whilst at certain horizons volcanic rocks abound, 
and there are great local masses of limestone to the east of 
the Tamar. 

Outliers of Culm Measures are, as far as I know, absent 
from the Northern Devonian area, and inliers of Devonian do 
not occur in the Culm. In the Southern area the case is 
quite the reverse. A considerable tract of Culm Measures 
forms an outlier with lesser detached fragments between Beer 
Alston and (iuethiock, there are also small outliers near 
Tamerton Folliott, Saltash (Wcarde Quay), and Eiford (near 
Plymouth). There are inliers or detached exposures of 
Devonian in tlic Culm area at Chudleigh, Ugbrooke Park and 
Oldchard Well, and between Ilsington and Bickingtou on the 
west of tlie Bovey Valley — probably also near Lidford. 

The Culm and Devonian rocks were subjected to great 
terrestrial movements, causing a contraction from south to 
north ; in yielding to these tlieir bedding planes were crumpled 
into an innumerable series of small curves or contortions with 
axes of plication running from east to west ; the contorted 
strata were further bent into a scries of imdulations or broad 

The DewmiaUj CarbamferouSy and New Red Rocks. 7 

Bballow banns and mounds or depressed ridges. The Culm 
Measures owe their central position to a broad shaUow basin 
or synclinal curre from beneath which the comparativelj 
shallow water Devonian rocks emerge on the north, and their 
deeper water representatives crop out on the south. 

The stresses to which thej were subjected affected the rocks 
verj differently, according to their composition, mode of associsr- 
tion, and general homogeniety. The thicker bedded grits were 
thrown into imdulations and beautiful normal and inverted 
anticlines and synclines, such as may be seen in the Upper 
Culm Measures by the Torridge, near Torrington, and in the 
Clovelly and Hartland coast, and in the Lower Devonian 
grits in the North Devon and West Somerset area, and at 
Staddon and Mount Edgecumbe in the southern area. Inter- 
bedded shales and thin grits were often so broken and dis- 
placed by small slides along the axes of overf olds as to present 
no clearly plicated appearance, of this there are many ex- 
amples in the Lower Devonian rocks of the southern area, and 
in places in the Culm rocks of the Exeter type. Hard thin 
bedded rocks, such as the chert beds of the Coddon Hill series 
in the Lower Culm are often broken and overthrust as in the 
case on Ramshom Down,^ where the appearances resemble 
false bedding, to which they were erroneously ascribed. Simi- 
lar structures are frequent in thin bedded limestones or grits. 
In the argillaceous rocks of the Culm a tendency to cleavage 
is not uncommon, although pronounced slaty structure is rare ; 
but in the Devonian it is very prevalent, as also fine secondary 
cleavage, and in places strain slip cleavage (Auswaschungs 
Klivage). In interlaminated shale and grit and interfilmed 
rocks, and in thinly laminated grits, which at certain horizons 
are locally frequent in the Lower Devonian of the southern 
area, cleavage has very rarely taken place, but the tendency 
to it is shown in the puckering of the planes into a series of 
minute contortions — described as gnarling. In the most 

1. The British Culm Measures, p. 134. 

Paprra, ^'e. 

southerly district of Devonshire, between the Start Point and 
Bolt Tail, the rocks currespond in tjpes to those in the Lower 
Devonian area on the north of them, hut thej have been eoD- 
vcrted into mica and quartz schists, and the giiarliiig contor- 
tion and strain slips are much more frequent Aud intense. 

In the Torquay promontory the rocks are shown to l>e 
excessively contorted, vertical junctions with zig-zag foldiuf 
being frequent. On the whole the Devonian rocks of North 
Devon and West Somerset are not nearly so tlinist, contorted 
and broken, and are much more regular in their distribuljun 
than those in the southern area. 

The irregularity in the boundary and distribution of the 
Cului and Devonian in the southern area has been ahetd; 
alluded to. This in-egularity and the differentiation in the 
oflfects of the terrestrial movements seems to have been very 
largely, if not entirely, due to the obstructive presence of llw 
granite masses among tliem during the movements. Thr 
apparent efi'ects of these masses o» the strikes of the Paliuoioie 
rocks has been already discussed in another place,' and the 
illustrative maps then published bring out many of the pointt 
in the above description. The movements ufiecting the 
Paleozoic rocks took place during the long interval which 
elapsed between the final deposition of the carboniferous rocks , 
and the formation of the earliest Secondary rocks, viz., tlw i 
New Red sandstone series. 

Not only were the Palaeozoic rocks folded and contorted, 
but during that lapse of time they were so extensively denuded 
that the whole series of the Culm Measures were removed from 
the anticlinals as ■well as in places, the Upper, Middle, and 
part of the Lower Devonian, to permit of the deposition of 
New Red rocks on the upturned edges of the Foreland 
at Porlock and Minehead, and of the Lower Devoaian 
at Paignton, Slapton, Thurlestone and Cawsaud. 

Taking the extreme discordance between the Pi 

I, The Britisti Culm Meuurea. Piirt II. 

The Devonian^ Carboniferotis, and New Red Rocks, 9 

rocks and the earliest deposits of the New Red sandstone 
series into account, and the unbroken sequence which that 
series presents from base to summit, although it is highly 
probable that the lower beds correspond to continental Upper 
Permian horizons, it seems to me, even if the base of the 
Bunt^r could be clearly proved, far better to group the rocks 
together, as De la Beche has done, under the old term, New 
Bed sandstone formation or series, than to use a term for the 
lower beds, which, in a general sense, would seem to group 
them with the Palaeozoic rocks from which they are as sharply 
marked off as possible, and to separate them from strata with 
which they are most intimately connected. 

The northerly attenuation of the New Red sandstone series 
and the successive conformable overlap of its lower members, 
and their disappearance on the margin of the Lower Devonian 
rocks near Williton, seems unquestionably to point to a 
greater development in the English Channel valley. Whether 
as I believe the New Red of the South Western counties was 
in pre-Keuper times an isolated basin, at least as far as the 
other English New Red areas are concerned or not, is a specu- 
lative question, as also the manner of its deposition, and into 
the consideration of these I do not propose to enter. 

In the lower beds of the New Red series basalts, andesites, 
etc., occur seemingly at different horizons. They form local 
clusters, each cluster representing fragments of a once con- 
tinuous sheet of lava emanating from a local source, but 
there is nothing whatever to warrant the supposition that 
the clusters are relics of a continuous volcanic horizon, al- 
though proximous clusters may have been in some cases once 
connected. These patches of lava contributed materials to 
the breccias which were subsequently accumulated, so that it 
is difficult to gauge their former extension from the fragments 
spared by denudation. 

The Olivine basalts of Dunchideock form the most southerly 
group, and lie almost directly on the Culm Measures. The 

10 Papers J ^c. 

horizon at which they would occur, had the series been pro- 
longed southward to the coast, is above the limestone boulda 
breccio-conglomerates of Watcombe and Petitor crags, which 
crop out from under the rubbly breccias with quartz porphyry 
boulders at the base of the cliff at Shaldon ; so that, either 
through concealment by conformable overlap, or through 
attenuation northward, about 500 feet of strata have dis- 
appeared between Watcombe and Dunchideock. 

The extreme irregularity of the boundary of the New Ked 
at its junction with the Culm Measures north of Exeter, and 
the presence of the Culm Inlier of Spraydown, indicate deposi- 
tion on a very uneven floor, whether fluviatile, fluvio lacustrine, 
or marine in its nature, it is probable that the scour of narrow 
channels would give rise to -a slower rate of accumulation in 
them than in the broader areas of deposit, so that it is 
extremely difficult to ascertain any definite sequence in the 
rocks in which the traps of the Killerton, Silverton, Crediton, 
and Tiverton districts occur. 

The most northerly patch of trap is met with at Coleford 
Lodge, in association with an outlier of Lower New Red 
which occurs on the high ground round Stoodley Beacon. 

On the north side of the Crediton valley and from thence 
along the Culm to the Tiverton valley the marginal deposits 
of the New Red are of a more or less earthy and gravelly 
nature and of local derivation, they mantle irregularly upward 
encroaching on the Culm summits, and on the north of the 
Crediton valley form a chain of outliers from Stoodley 
Beacon eastward to the vicinity of Westleigh. How far these 
gravels may have extended over the Palaeozoic area it is 
impossible to say, but it is legitimate to suggest that as 
torrential or fluviatile materials partly mixed with screes or 
weathered rubble they may have carried the drainage of the 
higher lands into the deeper areas of deposit ; thereby ac- 
counting for the occasional presence of fossiliferous Devonian 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 1 1 

fragments in the breccias.^ From Westleigh northward the 
Lower New Sed rocks exhibit as definite a sequence as the 
overlying members of the series, their boundary with the 
Devonian rocks up to their final disappearance through con- 
formable overlap being comparatively regular. 

By terrestrial movements in pre-cretaceous times the second- 
ary rocks were tilted eastward, with local differentiation in the 
direction of the uplift, according to the obstruction afforded by 
the trend of the Palseozoic masses. Thus the general dip is 
eastward, but off the area between Stogumber and Porlock it 
is northerly. These movements, acting from east to west, 
broke the New Red rocks into a series of faults, trending 
generally north and south, but with local differentiation and 
cross faulting. Examples of this are well shown in the geo- 
logical map and sections accompanying my paper published in 
1889.* Very excellent examples of faults, chiefly on the 
strike, are to be found affecting the junction of the Keuper 
sandstones and Budleigh pebble beds, and frequently cutting 
out the latter altogether between Uffculme and Ottery St. 

Between Wiveliscombe and Thorn St. Margarets, where my 
survey of the New Red sub-divisions began in 1871, faults 
prevented the recognition of the Lower Marl group as a defi- 
nite sub-division, until a visit to the south coast section, a year 
or so later, had shown me their true position, and entailed the 
re-survey of about 80 square miles. The New Red district 
of West Somerset was re-investigated three times before the 
very satisfactory rendering shown in the map above referred 
to was arrived at. 

In the Bridgewater area the faults affecting the New Red 
which are in this district of Keuper age, run chiefly from east 
to west, a differentiation due no doubt to the obstructive trend 

1. Vide, Paper by Rev. W. Dowaes, Trans. Devon Assoc, for 1881, 
pp. 293-297. 

2. Proc. Som. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. New Ser. Vol. 15. 1889. 

12 Papers^ Sfc. 

of the Mendips and Quantocks, which also accounts for tlie 
easterly and westerly strikes in the Bridgewater area and 
Polden Hills, etc.^ 



The actual re-survey of the Palasozoic rocks was not planned 
before the year 1888. Prior to that date, in mapping out the 
lower sub-divisions of the New Red, advantage was taken of 
the necessity of investigating tracts of Culm rocks in the 
search for New Red outliers to study their character atten- 
tively. In following the alluvia of the streams, and more 
especially of the Taw and Torridge valleys northward from 
Okehampton to Barnstaple, chains of connected observations 
furnished me with ample opportunities for studying the Culm 
rocks during the years 1877 and 1878. 

The mapping of such superficial deposits as were met with 
in the North Devon area afforded opportunities for the study 
of the coast section and traverses across the strike of the 
rocks up stream valleys a mile or two apart: I found the 
junctions tluis obtained were sufficient to map out, by con- 
necting them infcrentially, all the main sub-divisions. I had 
never felt satisfied with my previous attempts at solving the 
struetiire of the New Red rocks between Porlock and Cothel- 
stone, as the Devonian rocks on their borders being unexplored 
it was impossible to say how far the faults affecting them 
influenced the New Red rocks. 

This problem I was permitted to attack from Minehead in 
1879, and in a year's time had mapped the Quantocks and a 
considerable part of the area between the Stogumber valley, 
Dulverton, and Minehead. This w^ork was done on the old 
1-inch map, and although very much more detailed than any 

1. See Map II in Proc, Som. Arch, for 1891. VoL 36. 

The Devonian J Carboniferous^ and New Red Rocks, 13 

preyious or subsequent stratigraphical work in the area, falls 
rery far short of an exhaustive survey. 

The late A. Champernowne, who at that time had mapped 
a part of the Devonian rocks of South Devon in the Totnes 
and Torquay area, having in a previous visit to North Devon 
warmly adopted the views put forward by the late Prof. Jukes 
in 1866, accompanied me on a series of traverses in West 
Somerset. These resulted in a complete reversal of his views, 
and, with that openmindedness which characterized him, he 
joined me in writing a paper descriptive of our expedition. 
This paper "On the structure of the Palaeozoic districts of 
West Somerset " appeared in the Quarterly Journal Geological 
Society for August, 1879. Subsequent detailed examination of 
the ground having substantiated its general correctness, this 
paper, taken in connection with the following, which give the 
more detailed observations of the area described with the 
actual mapping, must be regarded as integral portions of the 
literature of the stratigraphy of the North Devon and West 
Somerset Devonian area. The papers referred to are, " On 
the geology of parts of Devon and West Somerset, north of 
South Molton and Dulverton," Proc, Som. Arch, for 1879; 
part ii of " The Triassic rocks of West Somerset and the 
Devonian rocks on their borders," Proc. Som. Arch, for 1889. 
A short general paper, "On the Paleozoic rocks of North 
Devon and West Somerset," which appeared in the Geological 
Magazine for October, 1881 (p. 441), may be taken as intro- 
ductory to the three mentioned above. 

After the CardiiF meeting of the British Association I went 
to Ilfracombe in order to visit the quarries in the Morte slates, 
in which the late Dr. Hicks had found fossils, and to see under 
his guidance the stratigraphical evidence on which his views 
were based, but in that respect I was disappointed, being 
shown nothing that I had not seen already. 

When the Barnstaple and Lynton railway was sufficiently 
advanced for inspection, in company with Mr. J. G. Hamling, 

14 Papers^ jpc. 

of Barnstaple, I examined the cuttings. The results 

in the "Summary of Progress" for that jear (1897) are ai 

follows : — 

" The rocks appear to follow each other in ascending suc- 
cession from north to south. The ^ Ljnton Beds/ as exposed 
in the railway-cuttings, consist of bluish-grey irregular slates, 
slaty limestone and even grits, with patches of decomposed 
brown material full of fossil casts. The embankment at Deu 
separates a cutting in Lynton beds from the Hangman seiiei, 
well exposed in adjacent cuttings on the south, both seiies 
giving the same dip near their junction. The ^HangniaB 
Series ' is exposed in cuttings at frequent intervals from tlie 
embankment at Dean to St. Helen's Church cutting. Parrs- 
combe. It consists of buff-brown, green, yellow, and occasion- 
ally red and purplish muds tones, sandstones, and grits. The 
mudstones contain in places fragments of shale, probably 
indicative of contemporaneous erosion, or of the deposit of 
mud in surface irregularities of the sediments underneath. At 
half-a-mile north of Parracombe red grits occur in this series, 
which strongly resemble the Cockington and other grits in the 
Lower Devonian series of south Devon, whilst in the green 
mudstones a great similarity can be traced to rocks on the 
Wembury coast south of Plymouth, and on the south Comi«li 
coast east of Downderry. 

The junction between the Hangman and Ilfracombe series is 
not exi)0sed in section. It seems to cross the line at about a 
quarter-of-a-mile south of St. Helen's Church, Parracombe. 

The Ilfracombe series consist^s of bluish and silvery slates, 
occasionally calcareous and with limestone beds (as in cutting 
south-east of Parracombe and in Lower Rowley cutting), and 
hard brownish grits which seem by their decomposition to have 
been in part slightly calcareous, as in the Rowley Cross cut- 
ting, in which also ([uartz veins occur along the divisional 
l)lanes. At Comer's Ground (Quarry, near Westland Pound, 
calcareous shales or slates, mostly decomposed, rest on some 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous^ and New Red Rocks, 15 

estone beds. In the Westland Pound cutting, where there 
kn appearance of faulting, indications are to be seen of the 
mer presence of calcareous lenticles or films, in which 
^anic structure may occasionally be detected; in one spot 
) rock is very similar to varieties in the South Hams dis- 
3t. From the Westland Pound cutting, southward, it is not 
jy to say where a line could be drawn between the Ilfra- 
nbe and Morte slates, or whether such a line could be 
>ved in the Westland Pound cutting. At half-a-mile south 

Westland Pound, the slates include hard siliceous brown 
nds, the gritty material in one place showing crushed plica- 
n on a small scale. Crinoid structure was recognised at one 
)t. From this part southward to Sprecott, the slates are 
3enish, hard, and more or less siliceous. In the Sprecott 
ttings very hard, greenish, slaty mudstones are exposed, and 
th here and near South Thome there are signs of small 

From the Sprecott cuttings to Button Wood pale greenish 
tes of the Morte type prevail. Although often showing 
irkings suggestive of small fossils, these strata only yielded 
cognisable traces of crinoids in two or three places. In 
neral characters they resemble most closely the pale greenish 
pper Devonian slates in some districts of South Devon. 
Unfortunately, the Button Wood Junction cutting leaves 
ich to be desired. Rubbly igneous rock of the Bittadon 
site type is exposed, the lower part of the section being con- 
iled by talus. North of the felsite the cleavage of the 
ivered Morte slate seems to dip south at 70°, whilst on the 
ith side dark purple slates, with occasional beds of grit, dip 
parently north at 50°, so that unless these appearances can 

accounted for by surface disturbances, such as root-intru- 
►n and the like, the felsite may mark a line of fault, sepa- 
ting the Morte and Pickwell series. The felsite is also 
posed in a quarry in Sloley's Wood, north of Smitha Park, 
e surface-evidence to south of it indicating Pickwell beds 

if ».* Til** 


-=— Hrri -mr' jj-Ls^ irn^ sat ar^^mzs^vfot 



s :-u '-'i-- I lukTL miT £"r- »iii£ jizihssiiiih;. ^i^w^ms ccbiotoob 

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■ \ 

..-~" V ~r V..* : uL-i 


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- -.-i.-;.*. :*-:■: 'I't ^ »t ' C-i .. ir.: rk hiS 

' -.^ 


■ \ 

:^- ::-t rlrrH'-?;: mcz. licc lo all 

■ : -:. s-i:-;:.-!^ :\r fc»^^3^ no 
. - • :.-:c -T»:":':r:>Tr.> 5ii:*wiDir the 

>• ■. '• 

:.»i. : w ":s.'.':rjw ^ j^ zz^'i Upper, 


The Devonian^ CarboHiferous, and New Red Rocks. 17 

idle and Lower Deyonian. In die Toiqaaj, Totnes and 
^ton ^bbot area, in spite of the numerous faults which cut 
:;he highly contorted strata, it was possible to do this owing 
he discovery of fossils by Mr. Lee and Mr. Champemowne, 

the extension of these discoveries to new localities ; more- 
r, the development of the limestones greatly facilitated the 
k, which was confirmed by a visit in 1888 from Messrs. 
sselet, Kayser, Holet, Freeh and Tschemyschew. Subse- 
ntly Prof. Gosselet, Dr. Kayscr, M. Freeh, Prof. R. Jones, 

H. Woodward, and the late Prof. A. H. Nicholson kindly 
sted me by bringing their expert knowledge to bear on the 
sils collected. 

L paper was communicated to the Geological Society, 
itled, " The Devonian Rocks of South Devon." Quarterly 
mal Geological Society ^ August, 1890, p. 487. As stated on 
:90 : ^^ The area to which this paper more particularly refers 

north of the river Dart and east of Dartmoor." As will be 
n (on p. 499) : This paper was not intended to be a final 
imimication as regards the relations of the components of 

Lower Devonian, even in respect to the Torquay and 
ignton area. There is no mention in it of the Dartmouth 
e series, which forms the southern part of the Kingswear 
montory. The relations of the Dartmouth slates had not 
n been worked out, and it was found impossible to dogma- 
t as to the sequence of the faulted Lower Devonian rocks 
the Torquay and Paignton area, until in the further pro- 
ss of the work sufficient evidence had been obtained. In 

above paper (p. 490), and in the Report of the Director 
neral for the year 1892 (p. 254), the Middle Devonian 
es are said to pass downward into the Lower Devonian by 
jrcalation of shales or slates and grits. This may locally 
the case, but later researches have shown that appearances 
intercalation may be produced by the repetition of sharp 
rations of grits at their junction with the slates, and, al- 
ngh it is quite possible that the uppermost Lower Devonian 

Vol. XL VI (Third SeritH, Vol. VI J, Part II. b 


papers, §■(■. 

with thoge of the Erme mouth, ReveUtoke, and Wm 
coaBt, and of the Portwrinkle and Downderry coael. I 
ever, with consistent perversity the Looe area gave eonfli 
evidence as regards the position of the fossiliferous Low 
which were said to be Gedinnien (that is, to belong to a 
series than had been recognized in the Lower Devoni 
South Devon), and that of the Dartmouth elate group. 
ferouB slateH and grits of Looe recalled to mj 
rocks in the l^lvmouth coast section, and rocks in llie c 
ingly difficult area arouud Kingsbridge, Slapton. and To 
luid even displayed certain aftinities to rocks io the Ti 
promontory. In the Torquay promontory the Darl 
slates are not represented, consequently the idectifica 
the fossilifcrous Looe beds there would prove them 
above the Dartmouth slates. 

As far as the Looe District is concerned, the coast ev 
rendere<l unsatisfactory by fault boundaries, favours t 
tlmt the Dartmouth slates or Polperro beds are the 
member of the Lower Devonian in the area east of I*( 

The inland evidence presents us with a mass of hat 
with Ptrritspis remains, associated with the characterif 
Rnd green Dartmouth slates on Bindown, dying out wi 
and with no apparent representation of the fossiliforov 
beds on the north of it, such as one might expect to fit 
it an ordinary anticline. This counter evidence might 
to fault; but as it is, taken in connection with t 
ascribed to the fauna, the sequence given further on d 
he regai'ded as an absolntc opinion, but simply as t 
explsnation to accord with all the strati graph leal fact 
disposal, and that entirely without prejudice la ao ' 
different complexion being imparted to the question Ig 
patffiontological researches in the area, which are sadij 

The mapping of the Looe district net^essitated the 
of a considerable part of the Lower Devonian ai 
enabled me to trace faulted boimdarics and bo 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous^ and New Red Rocks, 21 

possible the horizon of the Dartmouth slates. In the 
irse of this work the Torquay area was studied again with 
'her better results. 

The more detailed account of the survey of the Looe area 
pears in the Summary of Progress for the year 1899. 
During the progress of the Survey of the Middle and Upper 
evonian rocks many a paper might have been written on the 
»ults obtained from time to time by tracing volcanic horizons 
d the discovery of badly preserved fossils, which taken in 
nnection with stratigraphical facts and lithological charac- 
rs, were enough to establish the existence of definite hori- 
ns. But the statements which appeared in the Official 
eports and Summaries of progress were deemed sufficient. 
They are as follows : — Report of Director General of Geo^ 
jical Survey for the year ending December 31st, 1893, 
K 256-257 : " In the progress of the survey of the Devo- 
an rocks of South Devon, the Plymouth area has been 
ought into connexion with those of Newton Abbot and 
orquay, and the same sub - divisions have been found to 
>ld good in it as have been established further to the east, 
hus the presence of Upper Devonian rocks has been proved 
7 the discovery of the characteristic Entomides near Tor 
oint, on the west or Cornish side of Plymouth Sound, in a 
ries of slates which, developed on the north of the Plymouth 
imestone, correspond in lithological character to the Entomis- 
ites of Torquay and Newton Abbot. The igneous rocks, 

abundant in the eastern part of the Devonian area, have 
len traced westwards to Plymouth Sound. Those in the 
pper Devonian series seem to be, as at Newton Abbot, for 
e most part intrusive. The Ashprington volcanic series has 
;en traced continuously from the Totnes district, but in 
regular and greatly diminished thickness." 
Report of Director General of Geological Survey for year end- 
g Dec. 31st, 1894, pp. 270-271 : "The Middle Devonian group, 
; it is followed westwards, is found still to consist of slates 


-^ Z —i Trl Ji: 

1 •"l! ':4:ils fli 
ar: lir Ash- 


jH. -_— ^* rr. ^- Aa :^tl. ~^ ^JL 

i-^ Prioi, 
:i-:T naff 


1.- i ''iz- 

— -A 

:- .-- l: : f. 

-.zi- -r-T- TV. -_:.> E.S.L 

. :: .--' «-• : :>*»:: ::..! ?t: vice 

z T-: ::- .::. .1 iri^ii •rviitnoo. 
.- : ^ • %-• i*f :■":-■; ■■.;? thrrj?!!- 
.:«". z.:: >; '^ tier:; L urn wall. 

.r •. • :. .>-. -.--^•. for vearen<l- 

• • • 


>s :1- >;::hem j^arr of Dartmoor 
: jn-itr. :..^e:her with the sur- 
i 7 ::•. r. u? strata, and the eruptive 
T'.e Devonian rock* appear to 
:\:*:' n of the svstem, but tliough 

The Devonian^ Carhonifenms^ and New Bed Rocks. 23 

\j occupy a large part of the area, they have proved to be 
'ly unfossiliferous. Certain contemporaneous volcanic 

sks are probably to be referred to the Ashprington series. 

lestones and slates in the area surveyed represent the 

lie Devonian division, and have yielded Pleurodictyum at 

kverton. No Lower Devonian rocks appear to occur within 
area recently mapped." 

From Report of Director General of Geological Survey for 
ending Dec. 31 st, 1896, p. 51 : " The only member of the 
~Ctaflr engaged in mapping Devonian rocks is Mr. W. A, E. 
Uflfiher, who during the past year has been stationed in the 
extreme west of Devonshire and the borders of Cornwall. The 
oldest strata mapped by him are the Middle Devonian lime- 
stones of the Ashburton district. Certain schalsteins border- 
ing the Ashbiu*ton limestone may belong to the same sub- 
division, and perhaps also a plicated band of calcareous slates 
at Landulph on the Cornish side of the River Tamar. 

The Upper Devonian rocks surveyed last year are on the 
whole unfossiliferous, and as the grey, greenish, and red slates 
composing them are devoid of lithological landmarks, such 
fossils as have been found in them become of importance. 
Near Warren Point on the banks of the River Tamar north 
of St. Budeaux, the discovery of a few small Goniatites of the 
Biidesheim type points to the occurrence there of the lower 
horizons of the Upper Devonian groups, whilst higher strata 
are indicated by the presence of Styliola and of the 
characteristic Entomides on the shores of the River Tamar 
south of Warren Point, and on the Cornish bank near Weir 
Point. Entomides have also been found midway between St. 
Budeaux and Tamerton Foliot. 

Bands containing Spirifer disjunctus occur, on the shores of 
the Rivers Tamar and Tavy just north of the latitude of Beer 
Ferris, in slates precisely similar to those containing the same 
fossil at Druid and Holne Bridge in the Ashburton district. 
This spirifer-horxzon seems to represent the ' Petherwin Beds,' 

24 /'ripers. §■(■. 

From McaTj north wa ill lo Wiiitchurch Down no fossill 
except traces of crinoids, kd*! Aulopora (?) ia on^. spot, lun 
been ftiutid iii the slates. lu the neighbourhood of St. Biideaia 
masses of bedded tuft' and vesicular rock denote local volcaitisjii 
in the Upper Devonian period. 

Near Dousland and Walkhampton hard dark-grey or greai 
rocks occur, which may be partly of igneous origin and IxJong 
either to the Culm Measures or Devonian system. TheyiH 
possibly ail altered representative of the volcanic productt 
which appear to form an intermediate group in the Deighboiii> 
hood of Tavistock." 

In the Summaries of Progress for the years 1897 and ItjU 
the Devonian strata call for no further mention than is giTOi 
in the quotations in the nest chapter. 

The Liskeard area is referred to in the Summary for the 
yenr 1899: The strata which immediately succeed the Lomr 
Diivonian grits of St. Keyne consist of "slaty mudstoocs, 
often sphttiug prismatically and with cleavage planes that dip 
generally at low angles, the bedding being frcfjuently shows 
by vertically undulating suttire-like lines." Calcareous slat 
with slaty limestone, ate exposed in the cutting of the i 
line, south of Liskeard station, but no persistent calcareooi 
horizon can be traced. 

Purple and green Upper Devonian slates occur round 
Menhcniot, and have yielded the characteristic EHtomoHnuM 
near Doddycross and Padderbury. 

No boundary between Upper and Middle Devonian can I* 
drawn, and it is probable that these strata are displuvcd in tliC 
Liskeard district by the prolongation of the fault which c 
them o3' on the west against Lower Devonian rocks^ Boutin 
east of Menheniot station. Shalsteins and vesicular i^eom 
rocks occur on the east of Liskeard. The dicker Tn 
Serpentine is an Ophitic doleiite apparently intrusive. 

So far the strati graphical literature of the Nortbern tad 
Southern Devonian areas has been treated separately. I hav* 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous y and New Red Rocks. 25 

now to consider those papers which deal with the Devonian 
areas generally ; of these only two claim attention, viz. : " The 
Devonian Rocks of Great Britain," BriU Assoc. Tran. of Sec- 
tions for year 1889, and " The Devonian Rocks as described by 
De la Beche, interpreted in accordance with recent researches,'' 
Proc. Roy. Geol. Soc, Corn., Nov.,' 1890. It must be remem- 
bered that the actual materials at my disposal, when these 
papers were written, were, as far as the Southern Devonian 
area is concerned, derived from the actual survey of the Tor- 
quay, Newton Abbot and Totnes districts, and from observa- 
tions of the cuttings of the S.W.R. between Plymouth and 

The British Association paper gives a classification in which 
the country to the west of the Torquay and Totnes area, is 
treated separately under the heading of the Western area. 
As far as my actual survey enabled me to classify the rocks, 
the table is right, but beyond this, that is as regards the so- 
called Western area, it forms a good example of the hopeless 
confusion that is likely to result from basing any ideas as to 
structure and succession on traverses and disconnected obser- 
vations, even with an intimate knowledge of the representa- 
tives of the same strata in a contiguous area. In this classifi- 
cation the Dartmouth slates are put at the top of the Lower 
Devonian " (probably.)" Their true position has since been 
proved to be below the Meadfoot Beds. By a printer's error, 
or rather through the exigencies of space, the Meadfoot Beds 
are paralleled with the Gedinnien, instead of with the Coblen- 
zien (Untere Coblenz Stufe) as was intended. With these 
two corrections and the elimination of the Western area alto- 
gether, this classification may be taken in connection with the 
Geological Society paper on " The Devonian Rocks of South 
Devon," in which no general table of classification is given. 

In the second part of the paper on West Somerset, Proc. 
Som. Arch, for 1889, a general classification of the rock 
N. and S. Devon will be found. In this table by real 

26 Papers^ 8^, 

space, probably, the term " Gcdinnien " has been put a line 
above its proper position, and the query to the position of the 
Dartmouth slates may be done away with. 

To follow De la Beche's descriptions on the old one inck 
geological map is no light task: following his correlationi 
scattered through the chapter brings to light contradictions 
which are the inevitable outcome of an attempt to correlite 
faulted and contorted rocks from insuiBcient evidence over so 
wide an area. The paper based on his descriptions of tlie 
Devonian rocks brings out, I think, his tremendous powers of 
observation, far better than either the casual reading of his 
report or the study of his maps can do. That an individual, 
whose ignorance of the succession of the rocks of the arei 
west of Totnes has been shown to be profound, should by the 
careful perusal of chapter iii of De la Beche's report, be 
enabled to construct a geological map of Cornwall, giving the 
sub-divisions, which could in any way advance our knowledge 
of the Devonian and form a basis for future work, is a re- 
markable tril)ute to the skill and acumen of De la Beche's 
powers of observation. 

The fault shifting the Lower Devonian subdivisions from 
the latitude of Plymouth to that of Liskeard has since been 
proved on the ground by actual mapping, and that alone is 
sufficient to entitle the paper to a foremost place in the 
stratigraphical literature of the Devonian. The run of the 
subdivisions from the absence of sufficient observations is in 
many cases entirely wrong in the area to which I can speak 
from personal knowledge, but the correlations of the beds 
from the Dartmouth slates, i,e,^ Talland beds, upwards is in 
the main correct. The classifications given in part ii of the 
paper are a distinct advance on that pre^nously published 
(IS89), and in the correlation of the slates of Talland and those 
of Watergate Bay with the Dartmouth slates — one of the actual 
results of my survey of the Looe district — is foreshadowed, 
and further confirmed by Mr. Fox's discovery of Pteraspis at 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous^ and Neio Red Rocks. 27 

Watergate Bay.^ The contrast between the difficulties pre- 
sented by the North Devon Devonian area and that of South 
Devon and Cornwall is also clearly brought out. 

The problems left unsolved in Devonian stratigraphy may 
be summed up in the expression of the need I have always felt 
for definite pala^ontological evidence. Fossils are plentiful on 
certain horizons, but their distorted, fractured, and decomposed 
condition does not tempt the palaeontologist to desert the well- 
worn paths to quarries in rocks, whose position in the Devonian 
series is comparatively defined for areas where stratigraphy 
affltrds two or more equally plausible interpretations, a balance 
of evidence which the discovery of a recognizable fauna would 
overturn. A careful study of the Looe fauna, taken in con- 
nection with the red fossiliferous beds in the Plymouth coast 
section between Boveysand Bay and And urn Point, with the 
fossiliferous shales and grits of the Kingsbridge area at Ring- 
more Ohurchstow, Slapton, Beeson, Ford, and Tinsey Head, 
and of the Lincombe Hill, New Cut, and Smuggler's Cove 
beds of the Torquay promontory, is urgently needed. I select 
these localities from a host of others in which fossils occur, as 
but for the older date ascribed to the Looe fauna, I should be 
inclined to consider that the Looe beds were represented in 
them, and prove to be in the Coblenzien, either above or in the 
Meadfoot beds as a horizon locally distinguishable, in which 
case the Lower Devonian rocks represented in the districts 
east of Looe would consist of Upper and Lower Coblenzien 
and the Dartmouth slate series, the latter being the oldest sub- 

As far as the Start and Bolt rocks are concerned, they have 
been shown by the survey of the area to have originally con- 
sisted of sediments similar to those in the Devonian area, and 
of igneous rocks which were originally of basic origin. They 
do not appear to have undergone the stress of any terrestrial 
movements anterior to those experienced by the Devonian 

1. TraoB. Hoy. Geol. Soc., Coru. Vol. 12, part 5. 1900. 

28 Papers^ Sfc. 

rocks, although much more intensely distorted and folded. 
As far as a minute survey enabled me to judge, the bounduj 
between the altered and imaltered rocks was not a persistent 
stratigraphical line and betrayed no evidence of being due to 
faults or unconformability. In inclining to regard these rocb 
as metamorphosed Devonian sediments and diabases, I would 
rather accentuate than suppress the fact that the line of 
metamorphism which suggests the contrary view is very 
clearly marked. 

In the Report of the Director General for 1892, pp. 254-255, 
this area is referred to. I give the Report in extenso here, as 
it contains opinions which were modified by the subsequent 
progress of the work : " The Maps of Devon and Cornwall 
were the first on which the Geological Survey began its oper- 
ations. The region which they represent, besides the import- 
ance of its mineral industries, is one of great geological com- 
plication, which could not be properly worked out on maps of 
so small a scale as one inch to a mile, and so inaccurate in 
their topography. Moreover, at the time when these maps 
were made, geological science was far from being so well 
equipped as it now is for attacking such problems as are pre- 
sented by the rocks of the south-west of England. It has 
long been recognised, therefore, that a total re-survey of that 
region was needed ; but the state of progress of the survey of 
other parts of the country has hitherto prevented this work 
from being undertaken on an adequate scale. But as the 
eventual re-survey, which must sooner or later be carried out, 
will be greatly facilitated by an accurate determination of the 
stratigraphical horizons of the Devonian rocks, and a detailed 
mapping of these in some one district, Mr. Ussher has been 
employed in conducting these operations in the South of 
Devonshire. By a sedulous scrutiny of the ground he has 
been enabled to detect the presence of organic remains previ- 
ously unnoticed, and by their aid to distinguish and trace the 
three great divisions of the Devonian system over the district 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous^ and New Red Rocks. 29 

between Newton Abbot and Pljmouth. According to his 
observations, the following grouping may now be considered 
ma established both by palasontological and stratigraphical evi- 
dence : — 

1. — Upper Devonian. — Slates, lying on Goniatite lime- 
stone in the limestone areas, and with local volcanic 
2. — Middle Devonian. — Slates, limestones, and volcanic 
rocks. The Limestones are developed in a local or 
sporadic manner, and in the intermediate districts 
they are replaced by volcanic rocks (the Ashprington 
Series), while their basement beds are represented by 
occasional calcareous bands and lenticles in the slate 
bounding the volcanic series. 
3. — Lower Devonian. — Red and grey grits, sandstones, 
and shales, apparently passing upward into the 
Middle Devonian slates by the irregular intercalation 
of grits with slates. 
The strata have been so excessively folded, fractured, and 
cleaved that their true order of sequence is difficult to trace 
upon the ground. But the existence of certain well-marked 
groups of rock, characterised by special fossils, has enabled 
Mr. Ussher to trace a zone of Lower Devonian grit, extend- 
ing from Staddon Point, near Plymouth, to Sharkham Point, 
near Brixham, and to recognise certain belts of rock in the 
Middle Devonian group, closely resembling each other, to the 
north and south of that zone. One of the most interesting 
portions of this region includes its most southerly promontories 
from the Bolt Tail to the Start Point, where a series of mica- 
schists, quartz-schists, and other crystalline metamorphic rocks 
has long offered some difficult problems to geologists. Mr. 
Ussher has observed that among these rocks some green 
schists, probably altered diabases, present much resemblance 
to certain decomposed calcareous and volcanic matenals, 
locally forming the base of the 'Ashprington Series.' He 

30 Papers^ ^c. 

finds no signs of discordance or dislocation at tbe junction of 
the schists with the comparatively unaltered slates. Ue thiiib 
the varieties of mica-schist, to be comparable to the Deyooiu 
Slates and interlaminated grits and shales on the north, thoagli 
greatly more gnarled and plicated. He believes that the 
Lower Devonian grits form an anticlinal range, re-appearing 
between Beeson and the Thurlestone coast amongst a series of 
Middle Devonian slates, volcanic rocks, and passage-beds be- 
tween the Middle and Lower Devonian ; and he concludes 
that in all probability the green rocks, mica-schists and quarti- 
schists are really metamorphosed Devonian sedimentary and 
igneous rocks. 

During the progress of the field-work in South Devonshire, 
a large series of specimens, sent up by Mr. Ussher, has been 
sliced and subjected to microscopic investigation, by the petro- 
grapher to the Survey, Mr. J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S., who 
reports that the detailed examination of the rocks from the 
metamorphic area of South Devon has brought to light the 
fact that the previously published descriptions of the green 
varieties of rock were very imperfect. The specimens which 
have been least altered by surface-agencies consist essentially 
of hornblende, albite and epidote. In altered specimens horn- 
blende is more or less replaced by chlorite ; and when this is 
the case calcite is usually present. The hornblende is either 
uralitic or actinolitic in character, never compact. The felspar 
is water-clear, and usually without any trace of cleavage or 
twiuning. It has been definitely determined to be albite in 
one case, and from its uniform character in all the slides ex- 
amined there can be no doubt that this is the dominant if not 
the only species present. The association of albite with horn- 
blende, epidote, chlorite and calcite has been described by 
Lessen in his various papers relating to the modification of the 
diabases associated with Devonian rocks in the Hartz. 
(Quartz, which had previously been supposed to form an im- 
portant constituent of these rocks, appears to be comparatively 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous^ and New Red Rocks, 31 

esides studjiDg the rocks of the metamorphic area, Mr. 
11 has examined many others both of sedimentary and 
ous origin, from the Devonian and Cuhn areas; but the 
r points which in his opinion appear to be of sufficient im- 
ance to deserve mention in the present Report are (1) the 
ignition of quartz-albite veins and (2) the proof that cer- 

dolerites have been rendered schistose by dynamic action 
lOut the conversion of the augite into hornblende." 
ti the above grouping, as I have akeady mentioned, the 
itence of a passage series of slates and grits between 
die and Lower Devonian has not been proved. The 
vev Devonian consist of sandstones and hard grits (the 
idon series), with shales and slates, dark slates with hard 
3 and calcareous bands locally stained red (the Meadfoot 
es), and of variegated slates with hard grits (the Dart- 
ith series). The Beeson grits may be synclinals, and in 
case the opinion above given must have been qualified by 
1 phrases as ^' may or might possibly." I cannot without 
eontological evidence prove that Middle Devonian rocks 
ir in the Kingsbridge and Torcross district, so the correla- 

of the Ashprington series with the Hornblende epidote 
sts is not justified. 



TWEEN the years 1869 and 1871 I made my first acquaint- 
e with carboniferous rocks in the field, and from Yatton, 
isummer Norton, Frome, Cheddar, and Axbridge, mapped 
5t of the area covered by that formation from the Lower 
estone shales upward to the Coal Measures as far as in- 
ied in sheet 19 of the old series Geological Survey Map. 
after years in carrying on my work in the New Red P' " 

32 Papers, ^c. 

divisions I mapped the Cannington HmeBtone, the Westic 
aod Spraydown inliers, and in 1877 and 1878 carefullTBtw?! 
the Culm Measures along the river valleys from Oke-ham] 
to Bamstaple, No attempt was made to map out any sob- 
divisiona in the Culm Measures, or to follow the Lower Calm 
rocks along their niargin> the Culm area belnj? investigated 
officially solely for the purpose of ascertaining tJie presence m 
absence of New Red outliers, and of mapping the alluvik ind 
old gravels, etc., of the principal i-irers and their Iributiriei 
Between the years 1880 and 1887 I was engaged on Jiiransio 
rocks, Lias, Khcetic, and Keuper, in Lincolnshire, Worcest«» 
shire, and Warwickshire, nnd on drifts in Sussex. 

Fearing leat the results of my study of the Culm rocb 
might altogether be lost, I obtained leave to bring tfaem 
forwai-d at the meeting of the British Association in 18S'), 
and an abstract of the paper appeared in the Transactionii fnr 
that year. The paper was subsequently published in the 
Geological Miii/azinr in January, 1887. In the summer of 
1887 1 had an unexpected opportunity of renewing my a> 
quatntance with the Cidm rocks, in completing the parts of 
the old one-inch Geological Survey Map which had not bwn 
investigated since De la Beche's Survey ; Lower Culm rocks 
were then noted, but no attempt was made to draw a boundary 
for them. However, by the year 1892 I thought it advisablB 
to bring together the resulis I had obtained fi-om act 
survey, and so to amplify and extend the previous communti 
tions as to supersede them. This paper, entitled " The Bril 
Culm Measures," appeared in the Proceeding* of ihe Somei 
Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1892. It was divided into 
parts : the first, dealing with the literature stratigraphy 
extension of the Culm Measures in England and oa 
Continent; the second, discussing the probable causes of 
abnormal distribution of the Culm and older rocks of 
south-western counties in the areas surrounding the 
E X)evon and Cornwall, 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous ^ and New Red Rocks. 33 

be use of one or two unhappy phrases^ in the latter part 
be paper led to an entire misconception of its scope and 
ling, and to a display of hostility, for which I was for a 
time unable to account. 

nee the British Culm Measures was written, I have had 
le opportunities of tracing the rocks in the field io districts 

The pbnses to which I allude will be found on pp. 206 and 207 of the 
net Arch. Proceedings for 1892, and are italicized in the following qaota> 
: ** Whatever may 1>^ the derivation of the Palaeozoic rocks of Devon and 
vail, their extent and development points to the removal and redistribn- 
»f vezy great masses of pre-existing rocks, and as no rocks other than the 
tea seem to exhibit an nnconformably inlying position amongst them, 
Bristol to the Land's End, it is difficult to resist the suggestion that 
tea, or rocks capable of conversion to granite by in situ metamorphism, 

actually levied under contribution to supply part at least of the 

3 second passage referring to the a^ of the granite, taken in respect of 
:t>bable subterranean connection of the various masses, is as follows : — 
) second restriction, for reasons before stated, renders the post- 
niferous upheaval or eruption almost unthinkable, and would almost 
Bitate the genesis of granite (in its present form) in situ by the remelting qf 
•existent rock,** 

)aper was written by General MacMahon to combat what were supposed 
my views on the genesis of granite. 

3 then President opened the discussion by crediting me with a knowledge 
trology, which I regret to say I do not possess. Passing over divers hard 
B saia7 1 take this opportunity of thanking my friends, Messrs. Teall and 
s, for standing up and trying to point out that the drift of my observa- 
was quite misunderstood. 

)uld not defend myself for the simple reason that I was iterant of the 
belli. To me the General was simply tilting at a windmill, and trying 
facetious over the north and south movements. The sense of injustice is 
> rankle, so at last I wrote to Mr. Hudleston, and enquired what it was 
out. To my horror he told me that I was credited with the belief that 
>evon and Cornish granites might have resulted from the in situ meta- 
tiism of ancient rocks that were not granitoid, and might even have been 
fied rocks. 

ng through the Paper I saw that the phrases italicized would bear that 
>retation, from wmch, as it appears, the quotation from the late J. A. 
ps, on p. 206 (viz., the statement " that neither granites nor el vans could 
; from the rearrangement, by heat or otherwise, of the constituents either 
i or of any number of such slates " as are given in his table of analyses), 
lOt sufficiently safeguarded me. 
not believe, or ever did believe, that the theoretical pre -existent masses 

other than granite "of sorts." But in regrettable ignorance of the 
ies of the petrological mind, I put in the objectionable alternatives for 
>le disciples of metasoniatosis, that I might *' by all means gain some." 

friend, Mr. A. R. Hunt, with characteristic chivalry, came forward in 
ce of the oppressed, thereby demonstrating the absurdity of crediting a 
nrith ideas as to genesis of granite who confounds melting and fusion. He 
ht. Messrs. Teall and Watts were right. The General's paper was not 
3n as a contribution toward the solution of this simply stratigraphical 
lechanical problem, it was not meant to throw any light on it, and it 
t. The admirable paper ** On Rocks of igneous origin on Dartmoor,*' by 
one author, Q. J.G.S. for Aug., 1894, renders this the less regrettable. 

ol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI), Part II. c 

84 r Pai^rrs, fc. 

before nnkaown to me. To Mr. Fox I am imjcbted fap] 
of theee. Th*- nnnountTmcnt of his discoviMT of 
IB the Chert bctly of tW Cwldon Hill iiennt, &tlnK)di 
&» to the Lower Citim Mca«urfji *>peciallj, allKoi^ 
diworerj' does not fiicilitatc tbc autual mappinfE nftb 
diviutHU of the Culm rocke. In 1897, fur th« fint tis^j 
■ab-diTinon of tlie Culm was attempted on ^-inci) nupiil 
areft north of Tiverton. 

In ihia uea nnd in tlic Culm districts of Asliton vA'li 
ham, I fbondtliiit a line )M>tween the Lower Culm Ueuq^ 
which do not vonlnin ^ritx, nml tht^ nhales and jn'its aWttli 
ie comparktiTplj- vxv*y to trace, wliiUt no abeolute linttfj 
marestion o«i he druwn btttwren the different tjpuinl 
areas oompoKil of MhaK'x aiid gritn. 

Hence, althimgh tli^re are mime reafotiM for inrludingA 
and grits, Iix-hIIj, in the upper part of llie Ijuircr G 
[Gtmiatites, iti Mr. Vicary'x i-ollcetion, having been nliMi 
in the Bonhay Uond nectioii, between }St. D&vid'i »A 
Tliomns' StatinriK, Kxetur, am) iii gritt and shales iimr Ya 
Church], the Jnchision of the Exeter type in the Middle 
Measures is more desirable than in the Lower, in wluchi 
bracketed in the classification in the British Culm Men 
p. 115. 

Mr. Fox' lia» sliown that the terra grit is inappUctU 
any of the beds of the Coddon Hill sei-iefl. He hai 
pointed out thiil my ascnption of plication frnctiireft tol 
bedding in the ilhialration of the Ramshorn Down smA 
quite wrong. For both corrections I am his debtor. 

As regards Herr Dalmer's views as to the rehtive ip< 
the Wildenfels and Chemnitx Hainischen Culm 
British Culm Measui-rs) there is a serious error of tniiisi^] 

I. Meun. Pci nni) IlinHo. Qunrt. .Tonni. Geol. Km. for KoT,, 
Vol. fil, p. eiSuidp. 625. The Lownr Culm wan not •nb.dirididi 
1897. The Ramahom Down diitrict wu mapped on tba old t-iadk 
I have had no opportanity of reviling it in datail aa IiMba«a4sMrt 
&e., thii year, on G-inoh mapa. 

Thit Devonian, Carboniferovs, and New Red Rocks, 35 

mj the part of the sentence referred to should be "Herr 
Lmer considers the Wildenfels Cuhn older than the 
smnitz Hainischen." 

a the above respects " The British Culm Measures " needs 
ndation, otherwise it merely needs amplification as far as 
results of subsequent work given in oiBcial reports tend 
[m« solution of problems left unsolved in 1892. So that the 
^^wing notes may be regarded as a sequel to it. 

British Culm Measures. Part III. 

, — Extension of the Culm Measures. 2. — Sub-divisions of 
W^tnoer Culm. 3. — Altered Lower Culm Measures. 4. — Vol- 
tc rocks associated with Lower Culm Measures. 5. — Relations 
^Jie Middle and Lower Culm Measures. 


Stolon It was not until the year 1897 that the progress of 
rcoioii. the work allowed of the tracing out of the Culm 
Is discovered in 1888 in the S.W.R. cutting near Beer 
ston. On the Devon side of the Tamar south of Calstock, 
I on the Cornish side north of Calstock, and at Pentillie, they 
an outlying masses of shales and sandstones on the Upper 
^vonian slates, but in the district surrounding St. Mellion 
sy cover an area of from 8 to 9 square miles, extending from 
5 Tamar at Cothele and Halton Quay on the east, to 
endle Down and Hammett Down on the west. One of the 
Bt marked features in this tract is the conical flat-topped 
of Lower Culm rocks called Cadson Bury. The boun- 
les of the Culm with the Devonian are frequently faulted, 
i in many cases where the sinuous trend of the boundaries 
QQ8 to denote natural junctions, the direct superposition, or 
Parent superposition, of the sandstones and shales (locally 

36 Papers^ jpc. 

containing plant traces) on the Devonian, seems to soggest 
irregular fault boundaries or thrusts cutting out the Lower 
Culm rocks, which are in places tolerably well deydoped in 
their natural position. In parts of this complex tract, the 
Culm boundaries, with an apparently natural trend along the 
contours separate sandstones and shales from the Devonian in 
places, and chert beds or other hard monbers of the Lower 
Culm in places. I suggested an unconformable junction to 
account for these anomalies in the Smnmary of Progress for 
1897, but the further extension of the work does not quite 
bear out this explanation. The occurrence of Culm rocks in 
the vicinity of St. Cleer is possible, but it involves evidence 
which has not vet vielded satisfactory results, 
y,.,.^.^^ A small patch of black cherty Coddon Hill beds, 

^•"***" penetrated by filaments of quartz, and greatly dis- 
turbed, is exposed in a quarry on the sunmiit of the hill im- 
mediately south of Tamerton Foliott. This little outlier is 
probably based by a thrust fault, it hardly extends beyond the 
exposure, the surrounding slates are Upper Devonian, and have 
yielded in one s{X)t characteristic Entoms. South of Warleigh 
Barton and west of Tamerton Foliott, hard dark Lower Culm 
shales form a narrow outlier, resting on the Upper Devonian 
slates on the summit, and descending the wooded slope toward 
the creek in a south-easterlv direction. In Tor Wood thev 
appear to be bounded in part by decomposed volcanic rock, and 
mav also be faulted. These outliers are alK>ut two miles south 
of the latitude of the southernmost extension of the St. Mellion 
Culm Measures, and were mapped in 1896. 

wearde Soutli of Saltash, and opposite Bull Point, where 


tm«y. the Lynher joins the Tamar, there is a most in- 
teresting coast section of Devonian slates and volcanic rocks. 
InterlxKlded with the latter, but only visible in one place, 
five chains N. of Ilenn Point, are several hard dark chertv 


beds, with irregular corrugated surfaces. The little patch 
of rock in which this interesting jJienomenon is displayed. 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous^ and New Red Rocks. 37 

is bounded by V-shaped coalescent faults, hence its preser- 
v^ation is most probably due to the fracture and lowering of 
\ mass of higher beds subsequently removed by denudation. 
rhe presence of volcanic bombs or cinders and coarse tuffs in 
:he volcanic rocks, in which the vesicles show fluxion lines, 
justifies the belief that the centre of eruption was not far off. 
On nearing Wearde Quay we encounter hard, even bedded, 
jrey brownish weathered grits or sandstones, with shaly part- 
ngs, evidently an overlying series, a little further west these 
beds are found to rest on a hard igneous rock, exposed in a 
juarry by the coast. In the adjacent Railway Cutting they 
ire also exposed, and in one place may possibly overlie con- 
formably the uppermost beds of the Lower Culm ; this, how- 
ever, is not reliable, as the beds I took for Lower Culm were 
[lot well exposed. The hard sandstones, to a depth of over 
twenty feet, are very well shown in a quarry on the north side 
>f the railway, by the lane, on the map. In one part of it the 
ipper beds are rather coarse in grain and seem to contain 
Dccasional cherty fragments. They can be traced westward to 
Forder Lake, where they may be detected in one spot in the 
t'icinity of the greenstone quarry. I call these beds the 
Wearde sandstones. They occur on the north of St. Emey, 
From thence to the banks of the Lynher, near Poldrissick, and 
30uth of Bagmill. But from Bagmill to Forder Lake, al- 
though visible at Trehane, their continuity cannot be proved, 
md from the character of the surface evidence, it is impossible 
bo draw accurate boundaries, as they make no distinctive fea- 
ture, and occur in a tract in which Devonian slates and vol- 
3anic rocks are inextricably blended. For a long time I hesi- 
tated to regard the Wearde sandstones as Culm Measures, but 
thought they might possibly be indurated siliceous tuffs. The 
subsequent mapping of part of the Tavistock volcanic 
Devono-carboniferous rocks, and the assurance of Professor 
Watts that they may be regarded as true grits caused me to 
include them in the Middle Culm, and the occurrence of simi- 

38 Papers^ 8fc. 

lar sandstones in the St. Mellion and other Culm tracts has 
confirmed this view. 
^,^ , , Prior to the discovery of the Wearde rocks in 

Lflbrd and •^ 

crabtree 1394^ j^ capping Plymouth and its enviroos in 
Plymouth, ^gg^^ J cncouutered even bedded felspathic grits or 
sandstones with shale partings, which were in part beautifully 
interlaminated with sandy materials, these rocks occur on the 
south of Efford and east of Lower Compton. At Efford they 
are exposed in a quarry showing several folds, and appear to 
rest on dark shales or slates, which may be Culm or Devonian, 
there being no characters sufficiently definite to discriminate 
by. On the south the sandstones are bounded bj volcanic 
rock and Upper Devonian slates. Traced east and west their 
termination is as indefinite and unsatisfactory as that of the 
Wearde sandstones of St. Emey. These rocks must be classed 
with those of Wearde, and like them, are exactly comparable 
with grits and shales in the Beer Alston and St. MeUion 
Middle Culm Measures. They extend from the valley just 
south of Compton to the PI} m estuary south of Crabtree, a 
distance of about a mile-and-a-h^lf. The question of the 
southerly extension of the Culm within or on the margin of 
the aureole of metamorphism round the granites is so bound 
up with the constitution of the Lower Culm that it must be 
treated under that head. 


Northern ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ bctwecn Tivertou, Bm-le^combe and 
Outcrop. Dulverton, there is no evidence of any unconfonna- 
bility between the hard grits and shales of the Middle Culm 
Measures and the Lower Culm. The highest beds of the 
latter group are exposed in Duvale Quarry, south of Bampton 
Station, and consist of blackisli shales containing plant traces 
weathered white, and small Posidonomya. There is no means 
of proving the persistence of this type at the top of the series. 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous^ and New Bed Rocks, 39 

so I do not mention it specially in the following succession 
which appeared in the Summary of Progress for 1897. 

Middle Culm. — Sandstones and shales lying on grits and 

lAPwer Culm. — Limestones with mudstones and bands and 
lenticles of Chert, either replaced by or resting on 
hard shales with Chert (Coddon Hill series). Dark 
slates or shales. * 

The limestones are often so siliceous that they enclose chert 
segregations, they are often quite decomposed to a tough 
brown or orange brown friable residue. In the upper beds, 
traced from east to west, their occurrence is variable, but 
detailed mapping has not been carried far enough to demon- 
strate their persistence. 

In the Coddon Hill series the chert beds may occur in a 
group, or so irregularly that their presence or absence can 
only be proved by the knife test. As it is impossible to apply 
this test to all the beds in all the sections in which they occur, 
their inclusion under Phillips' term, " the Coddon Hill Beds," 
seems to me to be advisable. As the area aroimd Coddon 
Hill has not been mapped in detail, I do not profess to define 
the upper limit of the Coddon Hill beds. The dark slates or 
shales at the base of the group constitute the greatest difficulty 
in mapping it, as it is extremely difficult to obtain a defined 
boundary between them and the slates of the Upper Devonian 
(Pilton Beds). 

Southern ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ South Dcvon and Cornwall. 

oatcrop. wiiere the series is complete the sequence appears 
to be very much the same as that given above, but the lime- 
stones are apparently local and impersistent. 

In the tunnel at Perridge, on the Teign Valley Railway, 
now in course of construction, the top beds of the Lower 
Culm form an anticlinal ridge under the over-arching inter- 
calations of thin grit beds and broken shales of the Exeter 
type of the Middle Culm. They consist of dark mudstones, 
containing Goniatites occasionally, and in character resembling 

40 Papers^ f/r. 

'' the clift "" of the Somerset Coalfield. In {dices Oenip 
to be banded faintly by fine arenaceous materisL Tloioty 
rence, coupled with that at Baldoak, about two nilalil 
northward, ^ukI the GoniatiteM from Cocktree Moai^ui 
North Taw ton, (see The British Culm Messum, f II 
proves the superficial extension of the Culm Metamtel 
rather due to constant repetition by plication tbin to s 
great thlbkness. 

As in North Devon, there is no means of testing tk f 
sistence of an argillaceous topmost xone in the Lower Cds 
South Devon, and, moreover, the GomiatAes b Mr. Vloi 
collection, obtained many years ago from the shsks aal f 
of Bonhay Road, Exeter, and near Pinhoe Church, eoMlil 
a considerable diificulty, as I failed to find soj tneei 
Lower Culm in either place, and the Pinhoe Gmiiaike^i 
mens were embedded in grit in several cases* In the iil 
and Trusham district, where I have mapped out Ih 
Ixiundary, the sequence is as follows : — 

Middle Culm. — Shales and grits of the Exeter type. 
Lower Culm. ( I ) Hard and soft shales, occaflioDil ckri 
hands, and hard denHe mudstones, with occasioDilliQ 
linnds of pnlo grey siliceous limestone. PoMm^ 
found. The \V addon Barton beds and the CmmA 
spiralis hedrt, generally, Iwlong to this group. 

(2) More or less cherty siliceous rocks, loctUjU 
thirk bi'dded, dark cherts, intercalated in orrepiwi 
\\v^ the whole series. Local evidences of vulcuid 
at about this horizon, such as bands of tuff, etc 

('l(i) Very hard dark blue-grey bedded mndiMi 

with thread-like whitish banding at intervals. 

(\^) Dark shales or slates. 

I cannot be certain whether Upper Devonian doeflorii 

not occur between Ashton and Dartmoor, owing to thefl 

culty in distinguishing between Culm shales, which mjl 

slaty in places, and Devonian slates, which may loaSri 

dark coloured. In the western jwirts of the St. Mellioi* 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous^ and New Red Rocks. 41 

the Lower Culm beds are in unfaulted relation to the 

Idle Culm sandstones and shales, thej exhibit characters 

icicDtlj marked to distinguish them, but not to make out a 

lite sequence. In the upper beds, near Newton Ferrers 

iBhmse and elsewhere, dark blue-grey white-banded mudstones, 

^^mth a tendency to cleavage occur in them. Also clay stones, 

iteathering to a pale-green tint, resembling Upper Devonian 

lieds. No limestones or fossils have been found, although there 

me hard rather siliceous even-bedded mudstones which suggest 

the presence of the Posidonomya Becheri and Goniatites 

spiralis horizons. The more siliceous rocks with cherts seem 

to underlie these materials. 

Near Painter's Cross, Pillaton, etc., the Lower Culm, in 
spite of very imperfect representation, present distinctive 
characters, such as hard dark shales and chert beds. 

On the north side of Halton Quay, in the small space of 
two hundred yards. Middle Culm sandstones and shales, hard 
siliceous Coddon beds and slaty brownish mudstones, with 
numerous examples of Posidonomya Becheri are represented. 

For the occurrence of Radiolaria the reader is referred to 
the papers of Messrs. Fox and Hinde,^ in which numerous 
localities throughout the Culm areas are given. 

In spite of the variety in their types, it is well to remember 
that the Lower Culm rocks are throughout a dark colored, 
finely levigated argillaceous series, in which, through the 
occurrence of calcareous and siliceous organisms, or through 
some other differentiations in the character of the mud, hard 
bedded rocks of different types have resulted, hence in view of 
the extremely difficult character of the evidence, it is unsafe 
to infer from the absence of the calcareous fauna, or of devel- 
opments of Radiolarian Cherts, or of beds of marked litho- 
logical character, that such absences are indications of breaks 
in the series. Messrs. Fox and Hinde have proved that Radi- 
olaria are not confined to the actual cherts. 

1. Qaart Jonrn. Geol. Soc., Nov., 1896. IVana. R.G.8. Corn., 1896. 
Trans. Devon Assoc., 1896 and 1897. 

42 Papers^ Sfc. 

Coddon Hill beds occur at Holne, on AshburtoQ Tkm^ 
where thej contaiD pale coloured cherts, and in other places ii 
that district. Banded cherts and cherty rocks were akil 
noted at Ilsington in 1896. Masses of banded chert occur h! 
places in the Aahton and Trusham Lower Culm area, nil 
elsewhere. Thej form a natural introduction to the comidci* 
ation of the banded and porcellanized rocks of the Peak HI 
type. In fact, Mr. J. G. Hamling has shown me dark til 
pale banded flintj rocks in the Coddon Hill beds, on the N. 
side of Coddon Hill, which are identical with types of these 
hard rocks. 


Mr. Champernowne showed on his MS. maps a band of 
" porcellanized rocks '' not far from the granite boundary near 
Brent. In the official report for the year 1895, these roch 
are referred to in the following quotations : — " The banded 
siliceous rocks of Kingsbridge Road (Wrangaton) and Brent 
have their exact counterparts in varieties of the Lower Culm 
Cherts north of Ashburton. Again the dark altered rocks, 
containing chiastolite, on the borders of the granite near 
Brent and Ivybridge, closely resemble the dark shaly Lower 
Culm strata which cover an extensive area north of Ashbur- 
ton Down. It is worthy of note that the type of metamor- 
phism exhibited by these carboniferous rocks has not been ob- 
served among Devonian strata where they come in contact 
with the granite. . . . Intruded igneous rocks pierce the 
Culm Measures north of Brent." 

In the official report for 1894, the "hard porcellanized 
grits" on the south of Dartmoor are referred to. The term 
grit was then erroneously applied to them. In the vicinity of 
Brent these rocks contain scapolite. While engaged on the 
survey of the borders of Dartmoor in 1896, I found these 
hard banded rocks on the summit of Peak Hill, east of Dous- 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks, 43 

, and traced them on the borders of the granite, both 
e and at Walkhampton. In 1887, as stated in the Sum- 
y of Progress for that year, p. 106, I obtained evidence of 
occurrence of similar hard banded rock, near the granite 
Bodmin Moors, south of Altemun, and at Camelford, 
re it is broken up for road metal. It is quarried for a 
Jar purpose on the slope of Peak Hill and near Wranga- 
" The flinty shales " described by De la Beche, as occur- 
^ "at Helstone, near Camelford," are probably altered 
¥er Culm shales. 

^n the borders of Dartmoor, near Dunsford, masses of hard- 

ded rock occur on the margin of the granite, and at Water- 

» near Canonteign, Christow, and other places, varieties of 

Lower Culm beds may be recognized in the vicinity of 

granite. The hard-banded rocks, although easily recog- 

ible, differ in colour and arrangement of banding and in 

texture of the bands, and that this should be the case, 

TC the variously indurated mudstones and cherty rocks of 

Lower Culm, in certain localities associated with igneous 

cs, came within the periphery of the granite zone of meta- 

phism, is only natural. Four types of these rocks, from 

vicinity of Walkhampton and Doiisland, were submitted to 

Teall for examination. I quote the results from the 
;ial report for 1896, p. 52 : — 

One of these specimens (2762) (1) consists of two parts. 
; is evidently a sedimentary rock which has been cleaved 

subsequently indurated. It is compact and of a dull 
plish colour. The other portion is a dark green, fine- 
ned crystalline rock. Under the microscope the altered 
ment shows micro-flaser structure. Numerous lines of 
jue granules wind round elongated lenticles, which are 
iparatively free from these granules. Minute scales of 
citic mica and aggregates of typical contact-biotite form a 
e part of the rock. Brown, green, and blue tourmaline 
irs. There is also a sub-stratum of crypto-crystalline 


■ m 


•« _ 

rr. 5C: 

•"',- "» - • .- 

•■r=jr:. 1 

1 -T- i r-iii's: ^s-: r:«.!L : 

Y'l 7..: *^ - . :.-^ .: 

,.- . : ;ix:n;:- 

V ..■..-. 

- < "■ ■ V 

:.-■ Tr.:^in inn 

A : 

..: : .ir-i :■• the ovo a< :i 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous^ and New Red Rocks. 45 

S^cissose rock with patches and lenticles of brown garnet, 
eii examined with the microscope the greenish portion of 
Tock is seen to be a foliated aggregate of scapolite and 
^-green augite, with sphene as an important accessory con- 
uent. The foliation is defined not only by the arrangement 
tbe main constituents, but also by thin streaks of sphene- 
^Qules which traverse the large crystalline plates of scapolite 
thout interruption. The brown patches are aggregates of 
ossularia-garnet with which some of the pale-green pyroxene 
associated. This is a remarkable rock, which so far as Mr. 
eall is aware, has not been recognised amongst contact-pro- 
cts of Palaeozoic or later date. It occurs amongst the crys- 
line schists of Scotland in Forfarshire, Perthshire and 
ithness, interbanded with crystalline limestones, 
[t is very important that the original rock, of which this is 
J metamorphic product should, if possible, be discovered. 
a sediment it must have been calcareous. It may possibly 
re been igneous, but judging from what he knows of the 
ler occurrences, Mr. Teall thinks this improbable. He de- 
Bs the rock as a foliated sea polite-pyroxene rock. 
A. fourth specimen (2765) (4) appears to the naked eye as a 
*k foliated rock with irregular patches, lenticles and streaks 
brown garnet. When examined, microscopically, it is found 
be an aggregate of garnet and hornblende with some car- 
iiate, epidote, and green pyroxene. 

The hornblende shows a tendency to aggregate itself in 
■ts as in many greenstones which occur in the contact zone. 
r. Teall is inclined to regard this rock as an altered green- 
me, and he classes it as a foliated garnet hornblende rock." 
It must bfc borne in mind that the rocks above described^ 

. Mr. Teall has recently furnished me with the following brief description 
the Walkhampton rocks : — ** At Walkhampton the Lower Culm Measures 
e been much altered, and include biotite-hornfels with tourmaline, schistose 
loeite containing axinite, gamet-hornfels and a peculiar rock essentially 
iposed of pyroxene and scapolite, allied to the * gneum d wtmtrite. * of French 
hors. The minerals characteristic of contact action are tonrmaline, axinite, 
net and biotite. to which in all probability scapolite pyroxene and horn- 
ade mast be added.'' 

46 Papers^ 8fc. 

were taken from a district not far renaoved from the Ta?isUNk 
volcanic series, and near Brent there are both intmsiTe ni 
volcanic rocks — and the most ordinary tjrpe does not appear to 
have been included in the specimens sliced and examined. 

In the official report {op. cit. p. 51) I described the Imd 
dark-grey or green rocks near Dousland and WalkhampUm, u 
probably partly of igneous origin and belonging either to the 
Culm or Devonian. " They are possibly an altered representir 
tive of the volcanic products which appear to form an inter- 
mediate group in the neighbourhood of Tavistock." 

The Summary of Progress for 1898 contains the following 
passage, p. 96 : — " Since 1893 the occurrence of rocks of tkii 
nature near Brent, Wrangaton, Ivybridge, and Comwood, has 
been a source of perplexity owing to the apparent intercalar 
tion of inconstant bands among Upper Devonian slates in a 
railway-cutting south of Brent, and to the occurrence of a 
similar collocation in the upper part of a slate-quarry 2\ mike 
east of Tavistock. These appearances might be explained by 
contortion, but if, as there seems now to be little reason to 
doubt, the Peak Hill rocks are altered representatives of the 
volcanic series and basement Culm-Measures of Tavistock, the 
local association of bands of volcanic rock with fine calcareous 
matter in the uppermost part of the Upper Devonian slates 
need cause no surprize." 


On this subject the Brentor Memoir and GeoL Sac, paper 
by my friend, Mr. F. Rutley, occupy a position of the first 
importance. The volcanic rocks of the Tavistock area may, 
roughly 8[)eaking, be taken as contemporaneous with those of 
Wearde C^uay near Saltash, as suggested by Mr. Rutley in 
188()^ and with the evidences of contemporaneous vulcanicity 
in the Lower Culm districts of Ashton and Trusham. The 

1. Quart. Jouru. Geo). Soc., May, 1880, pp. 286 and 28a 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous^ and New Red Rocks. 47 

Uowing Is adapted from the Summary of Progress for 1898 : 
I the Tavistock area the Upper Devonian strata consist of 
iry unfossiliferous fine-grained, pale, greenish slates, with 
anes of schistositj often nearly horizontal, and very seldom 
jhly inclined. This tendency to horizontality in the 
bistosity is the nile in the area west of Dartmoor. It is also 
parent in the volcanic rocks and Culm-Measures, in which it 

due to the sharp irregularly zigzagged structure of the 
laller folds. The bedding may, therefore, be in reality fre- 
ently vertical in the limbs of the larger repeating folds. 
le relations of the Devonian slates to the volcanic rocks and 
ilm Measures are so disturbed by faults that no actual suc- 
ssion could be obtained in the area surveyed, and within the 
:^red zone near the granite it is seldom possible to draw 
ecise boundaries. The volcanic rocks consist of more or less 
tsicular shalsteins, the vesicles being often filled with calcite. 
ands of compact greenish limestone are locally associated in 
e volcanic materials, and may be impersistent calcareous 
tposits of Upper Devonian age formed during the lower and 
krlier emissions. Good examples of this association are 
sible by the River Tavy, on the south side of Abbey Bridge, 
avistock, and by the high road W.N. W. of Tavistock, at the 
trning to Langford. 

Such an association suggests an alteration product compar- 
j\e with No. 2764 in Mr. Teall's description. 

At and near Tavistock, for instance, in the road cuttings 
3ar the S.W.R. station, the blending of hard, dark, seme- 
mes cherty Lower Culm with the volcanic rocks is so 
ttimate as to suggest lenticular intercalation, but the effect 
lay be due to the intersection of zigzag plications. 

Cox Tor Moor exhibits masses of altered greenstone 
jpidiorite) and hard banded rocks of the Peak Hill types, 
id hard dark shaly beds. These rocks have been admirably 
escribed by General MacMahon (Quart. Journ. GeoL Soc. 

ol. 50. August, 1894. pp. 351-360), as also those of Sourton 

48 Papers^ Sfc. 

Down and Brenior. This paper forms an indispensable 
of the literature of the Culm. 

Through the presence of volcanic rocks it is impossil 
obtain anj sequence of the Lower Culm and their emi 
probably continued at more or less frequent intervals d 
their deposition, but had ceased before the formation o 
shales and sandstones of the Middle Culm. There an 
dences of the alteration of the latter near the granite oi 
Tor Moor. 

In the Ashton and Trusham Lower Culm districts the 
occasional evidences of fine volcanic interbanding, the ig 
rocks seem to be tuffs coming in generally at the h' 
specified in a previous section, and dolerites which may 
part interbedded. In view of the publication of the geol 
maps with the most recent investigations in the Ashto 
Trusham Culm districts it is unnecessary to enter into d 
It may, however, be pointed out that the evidences of cc 
poraneous vulcanicity in the Lower Culm are feeble 
compared with those of the Tavistock area, and they ( 
represent, as far as has been ascertained, the lower pa 
Upper Devonian emissions of the Tavistock area. As r< 
the Culm rocks of Wearde Quay, with the exception 
indurated mudstones or cherts locally preserved in interl 
relations with the volcanic series, and irregular appea 
suflfgcsting the association of rocks which may belong 
Lower Culm in the igneous rocks of the adjacent Ri 
Cutting, and at Forder Lake, and further west, there 
evidence to prove that vulcanicity took place durin 
Lower Culm, beyond the negative evidence furnished 1 
Weanle sandstones and those of Efford being present 
the Lower Cuhn rocks are ])ractically almost absent. A 
relates to the last section of tin; chapter it will be refer 
later on. 

The Devoniiin, Carbimiferous^ and New Red Rocks. 49 


The relations of the Exeter type of Culm Measures to the 
uidstODes and shales and conglomeratic sandstones of Ug- 
rooke Park being unknown when " The British Culm Mea- 
ires,'' vide p. 117, was written, constituted an obstacle to 
[assification, which has been since partially removed. The 
lin hard brown weathered grits, intercalated with broken and 
Eten splintery shales which characterize the Exeter Culm 
rpe, are very well shown in the cuttings of the Teign Valley 
txtension Railway, from Leigh Cross northward. In one 
>ot, near Leigh Cross, there are two small intrusions of de- 
>mposed igneous rock, probably dolerite, in them. At Per- 
due Tunnel, as before stated, they form an anticline over the 
ppermost horizon of the Lower Culm. As to their perfect 
>iiformability to the uppermost horizons of the Lower Culm 

entertain no doubt. This type changes imperceptibly at 
rst as we proceed southward from Leigh Cross and Ashton, 
1 places the lower beds are found to consist of shales, with 
ery occasional beds of sandstone of a more irregular charac- 
»r than is normal to the type ; near Huxbeare Barton the 
rits are coarser and more thick-bedded, and by degrees we 
nd the type presented by the road section on the south side 
f Bellamarsh Wood, not far from Chudleigh Station, where 
•regular masses of sandstone are associated with dark shales, 
r rather slaty mudstones, in a manner more consistent with 
be irregular beds of the Morchard type. These sandstones 
ecur in mass with shaly partings, or sparsely in dark shales 
r irregular shaly or slaty muds tone. They are occasionally 
onglomeratic. In "The British Culm Measures," pp. 140- 
41, some of the localities where the coarser materials are 
5und are specified : " In the conglomerates of Ugbrooke 
*ark and Rydon Ball small pebbles and subangular fragments 
f quartz are most abundant, but they also contain decomposed 
elspar (?) and dark cherty rock, suggesting the denu<^<^*^'*" ^^ 

Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI J, Pari 11. 

60 PaperSy tfc. 

the cherty beds of the basement Culm Measures.'* Mr. 
Somervail's discovery of granite in these conglomeratic bdi 
confirms the occurrence of felspar doubtfuUy mentioiiei it 
the above passage. 

From Chudleigh southward the Exeter type has more or 
less completely disappeared, and has been either cordonotUj 
overlapped or replaced by these dark shales and BandsUwei 
The shales are often banded with sandstones and the banded 
associations as well as banding in the simdstones themaelfei 
often show false bedding. The sandstones are generally mie- 
aceous, and so frequently mixed with f elspathic materiale titfl 
I have been tempted to describe them as approaching to ark* 

Here and there throughout their extension aU the abofc 
characters are observable. At Effbrd, near Plymouth, the ia- 
terbanding of sandstone and shale is well shown, and also it 
Wearde, where the occurrence of fragments of chert or haid 
mudstone in the coarser beds is worthy of note. 

The sandstones of Calstock, Beer Alston, and St. Mellioo 
display the same characteristics, and although the conglomar- 
atic sandstone is rather local, the beds vary from a compara- 
tively tine to a coarse grained rock, and I have occasionallj 
found fragments of shale, or rather hard dark rock, whick 
might denote contemporaneous erosion or derivation from sain 
jacent upper horizons of the Lower Culm. As the fossil- 
iferous upper horizons of the Lower Culm are developed ii 
the vicinity of the Ugbrooke Park beds, the denudation of 
the chert beds could only refer to cherty bands in the upptf 
beds of the Lower Culm and not to chert beds below thenL 
The most extreme case is perhaps that of Efford, neir 
Plymouth, where the sandstones and shales seem actually to 
rest on Upper Devonian, and at and near Wearde and St 
Erney where they seem to occur amongst slates and volcanic 
rocks of i)resumably Upper Devonian age. That there vn 
an irregular shoaling after or even in some places during tk 

The Devonian^ CarboHiferous, and New Bed Bocks, 51 

^imatiaa of the upper beds of the Lower Cuhn is hardlj 
luestionable, but whether such movements were sufficiently 
rregvlsf to allow of the local overlap of the Middle Culm 
tandstones upon Upper Devonian slates and volcanic rocks 
rithout any intervening representation of the deeper water 
LiOwer Culm beds, either through original impersistence or 
lubaequent denudation, is merely a suggestion, though perhaps 
Dore or less in accordance with the fact that in parts of the 
krea the deposition of the Lower Culm beds was preceded and 
subsequently partially interrupted by volcanic outbursts, whilst 
n contiguous areas no such interruptions took place. As it is 
l^erally the Lower Culm rocks that occiur in contiguity to 
Jie granite, the opportunities for studying the effects of 
contact alteration on the sandstones and shales of the Middle 
Culm are rather local, but in the vicinity of Foxworthy and 
near Cox Tor Moor they are presented. As I do not believe 
in the post-carboniferoiis Upheaval of the Granite, I must 
plead guilty to seeing no great difficulty in the suggestion of 
the source from which the felspathic sandstones of the Middle 
Culm might have been derived. 

That there must have been a general elevation of the sea 
bed either after or during the deposition of the Lower Culm 
rocks is certain ; that this elevation, through the local preva- 
lence of volcanic action preceding and during the deposition 
of the Lower Culm, should be very irregular and unequal is 
probable. That the Middle Culm sandstones were deposited 
ui shallow water is certain. For these reasons I think it is a 
difficult matter to generalize on the relations of the Lower and 
Middle Culm, as I believe over a large part of the area they 
are perfectly conformable, namely, in the northern districts 
and where the Exeter type prevails in the southern. 

The presence of fragments in the Middle Cidm rocks of 
the St. Mellion districts, Ugbrooke Park, and elsewhere, 
distinctly referable to the dark shaly and cherty beds of the 
Lower Culm, justifies the belief that even where the members 

52 Papers^ 8fc. 

of the Lower Culm are fairly represented a certain amoanttl- 
denudation had taken place. 

In regard to the Middle Culm rocks of Wearde and Efforf, 
either the Lower Culm were only very partially deposited 
through the elevation of the sea bed accompanied by vulcan- 
icity, or the Middle Culm are- largely made up of the triturated 
materials of the Lower Culm volcanic rocks, with such sedif 
ments as might have been associated with them, their positioo 
on Upper Devonian slates and volcanic rocks represents t 
considerable unconformability, in either case. 

The question naturally arises, is the Exeter type a lower 
part of the Middle Culm than the Ugbrooke, Wearde and 8l 
Mellion sandstones. On this subject see " British Culm Meir 
sures," pp. 140-145. 

In the Bonhay Koad section referred to, with illustration far 
"The British Culm Measures," (p. 138), the association at 
shales and grits is not nearly so distinctive as in the Tdgi 
Valley Extension Railway Cuttings, and is in part undistin^ 
uishable from other Middle Culm types ; in North Devon tke 
distinctive thin-bedded alternations are not sufficiently pro- 
nounced to be referred to as the Exeter type, so it would 
appear that the prevalence of that type is local. 

The discovery of Goniatites in the Bonhay Road section, 
between St. David's and St. Thomas' Station, and near Pin- 
hoe Church, has been already referred to. These disco veriei 
were made many years ago, but from an examination of die 
specimens in Mr. Vicary's collection, there seems every reason 
to conclude that the Goniatites were obtained in grits as well 
as shales. On recently revisiting both localities I failed to 
find proofs of the presence of Lower Cidm rocks, or of anj 
traces of Goniatites. Still their discovery must be taken as a 
sign of the local passage of the Middle Culm shales and grits 
into the Lower Culm, and as a distinct qualification to the 
statements that grits do not occur in the Lower Culm Mei- 
sures. The Goniatites, obtained by Mr. Vicary on Cocktrce 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous^ and New Red Rocks. 53 

[oor, near North Tawton, are of similar type to those ob- 
ined in Bonhaj Road, and probably to the small spherical 
»ecimens from Baldoak, near St. Mary Tedbom. 



N 1869, Mr. Whitaker, omitting details, gave the first correct 
action of the New Red rocks as exposed in the south coast, 
here they attain their maximum development ( Quart. Joum, 
reoL Sac. Vol. 25, p. 152). In this paper he rightly uses 
le term " New Red," instead of Triassic rocks. I have al- 
iady given reasons for the advisability of using this term for 
1 the Secondary rocks below the Rhoctic beds in the south- 
estem counties. In my papers, on the contrary, they are 
irmed Triassic rocks. This I freely admit is unjustifiable in 
iew of the great probability that the lowest sub-divisions in 
hich the trap rocks occur are contemporaneous with Upper 
ermian rocks in Germany. 

My first Paper on the New Red Sub-divisions appeared in 
le Geological Magazine^ Dec. II, Vol. ii, No. 4, April, 1875. 
b is a mere summary of results obtained in the prosecution of 
le Survey up to that time. There are, as far as I can see, 
iree errors in it. The first is contained in this sentence in 
le section dealing with : " 5. The Lower Sandstones and 
>reccias. Some varieties of the Breccia series so much 
3semble the gravels resting on the older rocks and frequently 
bscuring their junction with the Breccia, that, in the absence 
E good sections they are hardly distinguishable from them." 

Diuing the survey of these gravel districts a line was actually 
rawn to separate them from New Red, and it took a long 
me to convince me by the progress of the work that these 
ravels were not drifts, but actually the marginal depoaitn of 

54 Paper$^ 8fc. 

the Breccia, and that they doretail or pass horizontallj and 
very irregularly into it. 

This error was again perpetrated in the Paper in Qnrt, 
Jotim, GeoL Soc. for Nov., 1876, p. 392, in the passage b^in- 
ning — " To what extent the Triassic beds," etc. 

The next error is as regards the thicknesses of the sob- 
divisions, as applied to the south coast section, the thickness of 
the Lower sandstone is too little, the same estimate is repeated 
in the 1876 Paper, p. 392. Outside this particular, the thick- 
nesses given in the GeoL Mag, Paper may be taken as a mini- 
mum and those in the GeoL Soc. Paper as a maximum esti- 
mate, and considering the uncertainty occasioned by faults an 
even greater margin is quite permissible. 

The third error in the GeoL Mag, Paper is the misprint rf 
Langsant for Langstono in the footnote on last page* 

The paper of Nov., 1876, above referred to, includes every- 
thing in the GeoL Mag, Paper, and gives sections across the 
strike of the rocks in four places, thus affording a good 
general idea of their structure and lithological variation. 
This paper may be regarded as Part T of the stratigraphicii 
literature of the New Red Rocks. 

The subsequent discovery of the true position of the Wst- 
combe Clays was announced in the Ti'ans, Devon, Assoc, for 
1877, in a Paper " On the Age and Origin of the Watcombe 
Clay." This little Paper is an indispensable addition to Che 
1876 Paper. 

For many reasons the Paper " On the Triassic Rocks of 
West Somerset," etc., in Pror, Som. Arch. etc. for 1889, 
should be regarded as the sequel to the 1876 Paper or Part II. 
In the first place it deals with the most difficult tract in the 
New Red area, which formed the greatest obstacle to the com- 
pletion of the work, and in the second it gives a detailed insp 
beside illustrative sections. The difference between this and 
the 1876 Paper is the result of work completed^ compared 
with the results of work in progress. 

The Devonian^ CarboniferouSj and New Red Rocks. 55 

The Paper which I regard as next in order, and entitled to 
i considered as Part III of the 1876 Paper, appeared in the 
\uarL Jaum, GeoL Soc. for August, 1878, under the title 
On the Chronological Value of the Triassic Strata of the 
>uth Western Counties," pp. 459 — 470. This amplifies some 
meral deductions given at the close of the 1876 Paper, and 

in some respects an advance of it, for instance, on p. 468, 
le gravels which had previously been regarded as drift are 
^aced in their true position in the Lower New Red. The 
ill sequence of the Lower sub-divisions, with estimates of 
leir respective thicknesses, is given on p. 467. Perhaps the 
Mt point in this Paper is the treatment of the Fifth Proposi- 
on, pp. 461, 462 : " That from the presence of numerous 
'agments of igneous rocks (Quartz porphyries) in the base- 
lent beds of the South Devon Trias [New Red], and from 
le absence of any known rocks in the county to which they 
)Uld be readily referred it appears probable that the cliffs 
ad bed of the early Triassic sea [areas of deposition], were 
etrtly composed of igneous rocks of similar character to the 
)reign fragments. That any portions of such rocks left un- 
estroyed would be likely to occur (1) under the Triassic 
New Red] beds in the vicinity of Dartmoor, (2) concealed 
y the IVias [New Red] between Newton Abbot and Seaton, 
J) in the area now occupied by the English Channel." 

In this passage I have italicized certain expressions, adding 
le words in brackets which should be substituted for them, 
ine years after this paper was written, in mapping the Chud- 
igh area (1887), I discovered a small patch of quartz 
Drphyry identical in character with the boulders in the 
eignmouth, etc. Breccias. This little patch was observed in 
field south of the village of Christow, at the bottom of the 
tter P in the words Christow Pound on the old 1-inch map. 
1 the lapse of subsequent years, though always bearing it in 
lind, I was too much occupied to attach much significance to 
. This year, however, revision of Culm work for the inser- 


Papers, i^. 

tioi) of boundaries gave me the opportunitj of revisitnig 
spot and verifying the discovery as an iVi situ rock, 
colleague, Mr. Jukes Browne, with whom I was staring ti, 
time, on seeing the specimens immediately commented on tte 
identity of the rock with the quartz porphyry boulders intlie 
New Red of Teignmouth, and advised me to record 
specially. As bearing on the above-quoted proposition 1 d 
do so, For here we have a rock in the neigh boiirhood « 
Dartmoor which strongly confirms the notion that the Urfe 
blocks of quartz porphyry in the New Red of Ide, and 
Dunchideock, and at or near Ringmore, and in many atW 
places, which are too large for transport except by gravitaCioa 
or ice flotatioit, were in all jarobability fragments disint^nttJ 
from their parent intrusive bosses ahnost in situ, and to 
De la Beche', " may readily have formed portions of igneooi 
masses covered up by the red sandstone series." In refenii^ 
under the same headitig, to the destruction of parts of the tnpa 
and their incorporation in the overlying Breccias, I go m to 
aay " nor does it appear impossible that the eruption of qiurU 
porphyries may have been in some way connected with tlwtf 
appearances," On this iK>int also fresh evidence has beea 
brought to light. 

During the Survey of the Kingsbridge area in 1891, 
mapping the small outliers of Lower New Bed rocka at 
near TImrlestone Sands, I found that the larger one, neu 
Horswell House, was flanked at its termination by a patch dl 
igneous rock intrusive in altered Devonian rocks and expoaej 
in a quarry. In the centre and more deep^eated part of tlu 
quarry the rock presented the appearance of a quartz porphyry, 
whilst in the upper part it was found to be a mica A&dcsit&: 
Occurring at such a distance from known granite, and tn tbe' 
immediate vicinity of New Red rock, this phenomenon* is 
special intcrcijt. But it does not stand altogether alone. 

1. Report on the Genlogy of Cora,, etc., p. 217. 

3. The Director- General CKllod ■ttentioii to it in 18S1, aim vWl 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous^ and New Red Rocks. 57 

In the Lower Culm area, south of Ashbrittle, there are two 
r three rather small patches of igneous rock, evidently intru- 
ve. Mr. Teall considers them to be undoubtedly allied to 
le Exeter traps. Many miles south of this I lately discovered 

similar rock in the Lower Culm, near Doddiscombsleigh. 
Lt Hannaborough, if my memory serves, a somewhat similar 
)ck is intrusive in the Culm, between Hatherleigh and Oke- 
Eunpton. In all these cases the intrusive rocks occur not far 
•om the New Red rocks, and they were doubtless once 
)vered and concealed by them. I think, therefore, that it is 
ctremely probable, almost certain, that the igneous fragments 
I the Lower New Red, which cannot be explained by the des- 
uction of the former extension of the existing traps, may 
lasonably be referred to intrusive dykes, pipes, or necks, 
hich were connected with this Permian epoch of vulcanicity. 
.11 references to the New Red of the Midland Counties in 
lis Paper are taken from the Geological Survey Memoir of 
lat district, not being based on personal knowledge, but the 
mtention that below the Uppermost beds there is no basis 
)r correlation I still maintain. 

Mr. Vicary obtained good-sized weathered pebbles and sub- 
tigular fragments of Devonian limestone, resembling the 
3ralline limestone of Lummaton in the Breccias of the Credi- 
m valley at SoUon, near Exbourne, and at Westacot, near 
forth Tawton.^ 

As to the grouping of the New Red rocks, a short note en- 
tled, " Permian Hn Devonshire," appeared in the GeoL Mag.^ 
>ec. Ill, vol. ix, no. 336 p. 247, in June, 1892, and may be 
igarded as a supplement to the Paper last under consider- 

This note is, of course, as regards correlations tentative and 
rovisional. In the maps now being published, which show 
ly work in the New Red sub-divisions, the Index rightly 

1. One of these containing Stromatopora is about 6in. by 5in. by 3in. in 


58 Papers, jpc. 

brackets the sub-divisions as Trias and Permian, without ii 
eating a division between them, for unquestionablj sudi 
a separation must be regarded as verj unsatisfaetorj •! 

In a Paper " On the Triassic Rocks of Normandy," the re- 
sult of a careful perusal of a memoir on the Geologj of La 
Manche and Calvados, by the late M. Bonissent, I discuflMd 
the relations of the New Red of those Provinces, as far as I 
was able to investigate the few and partial exposures on tlia 
ground, and what I conceived to be their relations to tlia 
Devon and Somerset rocks during that period. 

The Paper appeared in the Quart. Journal Geol. Soc for 
May, 1879, pp. 245 — 267. It was accompanied by a map con- 
structed from M. Bonissent's descriptions, which, however, was 
not published. The Paper was subsequently translated ioto 
French by M. G. Lionnet, and appeared in the Memoirs of the 
Geological Society of Normandy, but the map was again 
omitted. As this map, tested by the French map of the 
region subsequently published, bears out in a remarkable 
degree the general accuracy of M. Bonissent's observations, 
its non-appearance has always been a source of regret to me. 
The views as to the age of the Normandy New Red Rocks, 
which I expressed, have not been endorsed by the French 
geologists, who are best qualified to form an opinion, still the 
Paper may be taken as a contribution toward the Stratigraphy 
of the New Red of the South Western Counties; and a 
short Paper entitled, " A Chapter on the Budleigh Pebbles,*' 
which appeared in Trans, Dev. Assoc, for 1877, may be in- 
cluded with it. 

In all the Papers (except in the Note on Permian), above 
cited, a great want will be found, namely, the absence of any 
connected or detailed description of the Trap rocks. I have, 
therefore, specially alluded to them in the general notes after 
the Preface to this Paper. As regards description, however, 
from Polwhele's time (1797) down to the present, they have 

The Devonian^ CarbaniJerouSj and New Red Rocks, 59 

*n so often referred to that this want may not be felt. It is 
ly natural to single out the Paper by Mr. Vicary,^ and the 
>re recent elaborate petrological researches of Mr. Bernard 
obson in Quart. Journ. Qeol. Soc. Vol. xlviii (1892), pp. 
>6— 507. 

It is unnecessary to allude here to the stratigraphy of the 
raps rocks, as this will be found treated more or less 
inutely in the memoirs accompanying the New 1-inch 
eological Maps. The Memoir on the Exeter sheet, 325, 
iving gone to press, descriptions of the major part of these 
usters of Trap patches will appear shortly, together with 
^rological notes. 

As regards the New Red rocks, with the exception of the 
aall parts of their area to be found south of Chudleigh, which 
ive been re-mapped in part on the 6-inch scale, in carrying 
1 the Survey of the Deroniau the work was done on the old 
inch ordnance maps, and completed in 1880. 

In conclusion, I would point out some lines of research 
hich might lead to good results in amplifying the work of the 
eological Survey, and clearing up those stratigraphical 
•oblems which yet remain to be solved. 

The area occupied by the Lower Marl series, extending 
)rthward from the coast between Exmouth and Straight 
oint to Whimple, cannot be too carefully investigated for 
e occurrence of sandstones in or under the Marls ; these are 
lown on the map wherever evidence of their occurrence was 
)tained, and their anomalous appearance may be due to 
ults which are very numerous on the coast, but cannot be 
aced far in this series inland. The coast evidence would 
ad one to infer that the sandstones of Straight Point [which 
e partly brecciated and contain calcareous (probably 
)lomitic) concretionary matter in one part] are above the 
'arls, with occasional intercalations of thick even-bedded 

1. "On the Feldspathio Traps of Devonshire.*' Trans. Dev. Assoc. 
art iv, p. 43. 1865. 

The Dewmian^ Carboniferous^ and New Red Rocks, 61 

tfiree main outstanding questions requiring positive settle- 
Qt may be summed up thus : — 

Devonian. Position of fossiliferous Looe beds with 

reference to Dartmouth slate series. 
Carboniferous. The exact relations of the Middle and 

Lower Culm in Volcanic areas. 
New Red. The relations of the Lower Marls and inter- 
calated Marls and Sandstones to the underlying 
Breccias and Sandstones. 



" On the Structure of the Palaeozoic Districts of West 
Somerset," by A. Champernowne and W. A. E. Ussher. 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. for Aug., 1879, pp. 532 — 548. 

" On the Geology of Parts of Devon and West Somerset, 
North of South Molton and Dulvertou." Proc. Som. 
Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1879. 

" The Triassic Rocks of West Somerset and the Devonian 
Rocks on their borders." Part II. Proc. Sora. Arch, 
and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1889. 

" On the Palaeozoic Rocks of North Devon and W. Som- 
erset." Geol. Mag. for October, 1881, p. 441, etc. 

Summary of Progress of the Geological Survey of the 
United Kingdom for 1897. Pp. 76—78. 

" The Devonian Rocks of South Devon." Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc. for Aug., 1890, p. 487. 

Report of the Director-General of the Geol. Sur. for 1892. 
Pp. 254, 255. 

iportant. * Unim portant. f Partly erroneous. { Condemned. 1 1 

62 Papers^ jfc. 


* Report of the Director-Gen. GeoL Sur. for 1893. Pp. 

256, 257. 

r Report of D.-G. Geol. Sur. for 1894. Pp. 270, 271. 
t Report of D.-G. Geol. Sur. for 1895. P. 7. 

* Report of D.-G. GeoL Sur. for 1896. P. 51. 

* Summarj of Progress of the Geol. Sur. of the United 

Kingdom for 1898. Pp. 95, 96. 

* Summarj of Progress of the Geol. Sur., etc., for 1899. 

X "The Devonian Rocks of Great Britain.'' Rep. Brit 
Assoc. Trans, of Sections for 1889. 

* " The Devonian Rocks as described by De la Beche, inter- 

preted in accordance with recent researches.'' Tram, 
Roy. Geol. Soc, Com., 1890. 

X " The Devonian of the Western Region and Geology of 
Tavistock." Trans. Dev. Assoc, for 1889, pp. 437— 

II " The Devonian Rocks between Plymouth and Looe/ 
Trans, Roy. Geol. Soc, Corn. 

II " On the Geology of S. Devon." Proc. Geologists' Assoc. 
Vol. 8, no. 8. 

important.* Unimportant. t Partly erroneous. t Condemned.! 


t " Tlic Culm Measures of Devonshire." British Assoc. Rep. 
Trans, of Sections, 1886. Published GeoL Mag. De- 
cade III. Vol. 4. No. 1, p. 10. Jan., 1887. 

* " The British Culm Measures." Proc. Somerset Arch, and 
Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 38. 1892. 

Most Important.* Redundant.t Faulty 4^ 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous ^ and New Red Rocks » 63 


^* On the probable natare and distribution of the Palaeozoic 
Strata beneath the Secondary Rocks, etc." Proc, Som. 
Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 36. 1891. Refers to 
Culm, pp. 12—18. 

"The Devonian of the Western Region and Geology of 
Tavistock.'' Partly wrong. Trans. Dev. Assoc, for 

Rep. of Director-Gen. GeoL Sur. for 1894. 

Extract: **The limits of alteration nsaally extend to about half-a-mile 
from the visible edge of the Soath margin of the Dartmoor granite. 
Iliough no apophyses from that rock have been met with in ground 
recently surveyed, there is distinct evidence that the general body of the 
granite does not plunge vertically downward from its exposed margin, 
bat stretches outward for some way, under a variable thickness of Culm 
Measures and Upper Devonian strata. Two inliers of it are to be seen 
at Hemerdon Ball. The aureole of metamorphism varies in breadth in 
such a way as to indicate that the granite probably approaches nearer the 
surface in some parts of the altered belt than in others." 

Rep. D.-G. GeoL Sur. for 189.5. P. 7. 

** In the prosecution of the revision of Devon and Cornwall, Mr. Ussher 
has been able to extend the area of Culm Measures much further south 
than they have hitherto been supposed to reach. He now believes that 
Calm rocks rise along the margin of the granite, or occur in faulted or 
folded contact with Upper Devooian slates near the eruptive mass as far 
south as Ivybridge, ana he thinks that they may even run on round the 
granite to near Bickley. The banded siliceous rocks of Kingsbridge Road 
(Wrangaton) and Brent have their exact counterparts in varieties of the 
Lower Culm cherts north of Ashburton. Again the dark altered rocks 
containing chiastolite on the borders of the granite near Brent and Ivy- 
bridge, closely resemble the dark shaly Lower Culm strata which cover 
an extensive area north of Ashburton Down. It is worthy of note that 
the type of metamorphism exhibited by these Carboniferous rocks has 
not been observed among Devonian strata where they come in contact 
with the granite. With the exception of a few small OoniatiteSt similar 
to those of Yen, near Barnstaple, which have been found at one spot near 
Ashburton Down, no fossils have been detected in the Culm Measures of 
the area now reported on. Intruded igneous rocks pierce the Culm Mea- 
sures north of Brent, and likewise the Upper Devonian strata of the 
Buckfastleigh and Ashburton area. The aureole of metamorphism 
around the southern end of the Dartmoor granite rarely exceeds a mile in 
width, while in some places it is hardly more than haif-a-mile." 

Rep. D.-G. Geol. Sur. for 1896. Quoted in Chapter III. 

Summary of Progress for 1897. Results given iu Chapter 

Summary of Progress for 1898. Results given in Chapter 

Most Important. * Redundant. f Faulty.} 

64 Papers^ §t. 


t '* On the Sub-divisions of the Triassic rocks between the 
coast of West Somerset and the south coast of Devon." 
Geol. Mag., Dec. II, Vol. II, No. 4, April, 1875. 

* " On the Triassic rocks of Somerset and Devon." Quari, 

Journ. Geol. Soc. for Nov., 1876, pp. 367—394. 

* " On the age and origin of the Watcombe Clay." Tranu 

Devon Assoc, for 1877. 

* "On the Triassic rocks of West Somerset," etc. Proc, 

Som. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 18S9. Part 1 of the 

* " On the Chronological Value of the Triassic strata in the 

South- Western Counties." Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. for 
Aug., 1878, pp. 454—470. 

* " Permian in Devonshire." Geol, Mag,, Dec. Ill, Vol. IX, 

No. 336, p. 247, June, 1892. 

" On the Triassic rocks of Normandj," etc. Quart, Journ. 
Geol. Soc. for May, 1879, p. 245, etc., and Mem. Soc. 
Geol. de Normandie. 

" A chapter on the Budleigh Pebbles." Trans. Dev. Assoc, 
for 1877. 

t "A Classification of the Triassic rocks of Devon," etc 
Trans. Devon Assoc, for 1877. 

II "On the Geology of Paignton." Trans. Dev. Assoc, for 


" The Geology of Dawlish." Trans, Dev. Assoc, for 1881. 

'' On the Mouth of the River Exe." Trans, Devon Assoc, 
for 1878. 

Moet Important.* Redundant. f Redundant and Faulty.^ Local || 

Ctie ^anot of ailerton anD its Cenants, 



AN outline of " The Descent of the Manor of AUerton " 
was attempted in the volume of the Proceedings of the 
Society for 1899. 

It was then shewn that the families of De Conteville, Gour- 
nay, and Bythemore held the Lordship of it, from the Conquest 
until it passed into the hands of John Gunthorpe, Dean of 
Wells (1472 — 1498). By him it was given to the Dean and 
Chapter,^ who retained it in their possession until the year 
1866. On the Commutation of their estates for a fixed annual 
payment, it was handed over to the Ecclesiastical Commission- 
ers, together with their other manors, and remains to this day 
with that body. In the present Paper it is proposed to shew 
who have been the Leaseholders for lives and who have been 
the Copyholders for lives, under the Dean and Chapter. And 
it will be seen that there was for many years a close connection 
with the Cathedral Church and the City of Wells through the 
Lessees. The same was the case through the rectors or chap- 
lains of the "libera capella," who, in the greater number of 
instances, were canons residentiary, or priest vicars, whof?e 
duties at Wells came first, and at Allerton second. A list of 
these, with the dates of their Institution will be given, with a 

1. 27th January, 1498. 
Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol, VI), Part IL e 

t£ £jic H^arj TIDL Ite liif «dk of 
5t ^»f j« :n Tiiii 
lUOE' omignfter, if TirvKsk 3c i^ pasiA of 
mar k£ iktmL jm^es rvzup * inr i^ jenlj 
p<«d mat Imwinl. wixmiej of F/nAnd"* 

Efftw4 liic 4^ oKiTCicded H» iashcr in 1517, mi ii j 
w KKmA T«sr «f kif t'^sx. x^ sbukt ■IwlaiW bdac lihn I 
nuKMR «r.«ftdhk«L m v^aliliT clcAtDtr, ■■■■»! Joka HmU 
<if VTflk. renscvi 3 fcr m ?«enB ciT £fnr jtar%^ apait fim 
WKuaur kMffie aai kai^w vzik the <«b^ect of rehiiiHmg HJ 

la the foortli jeir of Edvanl VL a sepante kolfilg 
thjrtT-tw*> irr*:r. na.T*: f-£iT descril^d as t went j-f our aeni 
^D«w a^f:r Ui>i !vfr.^ ir: two c^:»?•r^ inclosed in Aloton ktl 
tlj<; UfOur«r of J<:<hD H^*i;jrer of Hlackf<jnle, husbandmaa, i 
after iJutt in th*r t*:uure of Aime^ his irrfe ; '' and alflO **« 
acres of larid. tnc-^l'Xr. a:i<] pasture in Aluton,*" was rented 
OMft John Schephenle of Worsprrng, grazier ; the rent 
£33 Ok. 8d., to l>e paid in three instahnents: £20 Os. Od 
the audytt in the year looO, £10 Os. Od. at that of the ] 
15/>1, and £3 Gh. 8d. *'in name of a fyne or jncome'* in 
fmynient and " contentacion " of the said £33 Gs. 8d. 
term for which it was taken was fifty years; and the yei 
payment was nine shillings for the eight acres, and two 
four shillingH for the twenty-four acres, "to be paide at 
fefistcH of the byrthe of our Lonl (Jod, th annuncyacon of 
blyssid Lady the Virgin, the Natyvyte of Seinte John B 
tynt, and Seinte iMighell th archangell, by cvyne porcoi 

1. ChapUr AoU. K. Fo. 19. 

68 Papers, §-c. 

was to have half of all the estrayes witUo the manor for . 
own profit, and as nauch timber growing on the Maiior< 
should be needed for necessary " re|)aracons " to the Ms 
house, and as the Steward should assign. On his part, he en- 
gaged "to collfict and gather yearly twelve shillings of rente 
for one close of pasture, lat« in the tenure of John Gjlljng. 
and perquisites of Courts, fynes, heriota, when they shall fell, 
ivardes, murringes, and a moiete of estrayes within the Manor, 
and do everything appertaining to the ofSce of a BaylySe of 
the said Manor, and do suit twice a year." 

This tenant, WiUiam Hill the elder,' appears to have died 
between 1558 and 1565, for on January 28 of the formrrycir | 
(I Elizabeth) the holding known as Bradehurst, or Bradcn- 
hurst, thirty acres in extent, was leased to William Welsh, of | 
Loxton. Elizabeth his wife, and William Hill sen', bod of 
Roger Hill, but on April 2nd of the latter year, a new grant 
was made of the same to William Welsh of Alvington, Iiiw- 
baudman, Elizabeth his wife, and their son William', for tlw 
terra of their lives, and it is stated that these thirty acres biJ 
been in the tenure and occnpation of Roger Hill, geiit.. 
deceased. The pructice of appointing attornics living in the 
neighbourhood to give peaceable possession of the lands rental 
to the tenant now seems to begin ; in this instance thu men 
chosen were " our truatie and well-beloved John Swaine o( 
Streme in the ^ish of Overwere, and William Evans of 
Netherwere," and they are described as " our true and lawful 
attornies to enter in and uppon the said thirty acres pasture 
and in our name to take possession and seasin, and in our iiaine 
to deliver seasin and possession nnto the said William WeMi." 

Note.— Thera was a close connectioD between the fiuuiliia of Welch of 
Allorton, and the Schepherdes of Wiok S. Lawrence, whii:h kocounts for tin 
Utter famity iMNiuniiDo tenants iu Allerton under tbo D. and C. Clirutiaii. 
daaxhter of William Wotch, of Altorton, bocame the aeound wife i4 Jnb« 
Irisb, who by his first marriage hud two daughters, Alice and Mary. 
fonuor married Edmoud ShiplMril, tho latter John Shi]-panl, of Wed 
Lawreace. This is shewn in the Heralds Visitation of Somoraot, t$23, 

I. C. A. E. Fo. 109, 

The Manor of Alkrton and its Tenants. 69 


^Two documents, both dated July Ist, 1601, in the 43rd year 1601 
of Elizabeth, continue the history of the tenants of the Manor 
farm : one is the surrender of Edmund Bower, of Wells, who 
had purchased the remainder of the term granted to William 
Hill ; the other is a lease granted to one Robert Sherwell^ for 
the lives of Edmund Bower, Adrian Bower, gent., brother of 
the said Edmund, and Alice Bower, daughter of the said 
Adrian. The conditions of the tenancy and the amount of 
rent remained the same as before. The fine paid is only stated 
generally as " a competent sum of money." It was probably 
less than William Hill paid in 1556, as 15 years of his lease 
were still unexpired. Robert Sherwell was no doubt intro- 
duced, owing to his wife being a daughter of John Borde,^ 
who paid rent for the manor in 1563, after William Hill's 
death, and who was still living in 1591. Robert SherwelP 
held the farm for sixteen years, until his death in 1617. His 
widow, Mary, survived him ten years. John Borde was a 
Blackford man ; his daughter's burial at Wedmore, September 
15th, 1627, is entered thus : " Maria Sherwell, generosa, vidua 
et senex," though, if baptized in infancy, she fell short of 
three score years and ten by four years. The attornies for 
the D. and C. in this case were Richard Ivye, of Blackford, 
and Richard Counsell, of Mudsley, yeomen. 

The family of Bower of Wells was interested in the manor 
of AUerton for some one hundred and fifty years, 1530-1686. 
Walter Bower, a residentiary Canon, married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Adrian Hawthorne, Chancellor of Wells, the 
issue of which marriage was two sons, viz. : Edmund, and 
Adrian. At the end of the 16th century, Edmund (see above) 
was the lessee of the farm in succession to William Hill. 
Adrian is known as "of Alverton," and succeeded to his 

1. C. A. E. Fo. 171. 

2. See C. A. D. Fo. 107, for a notice of the manumission of Thos. Borde, 
Br., of Blackford, and his sons, Thomas and Richard, on February 10th, 1545, 
behig ••native." And, of. S. R. S. VoL iv, p. 252. 

3. Wedmore Chronicle. Vol. 2, No. 6, p. 313. 

70 Papers^ 8fc, 

brother's estates. He married Ann Dorrington, ( 
borne, Wilts, and by her had a family of four soi 
daughters, viz. : Edmund, Walter, Adrian and J 
(one of the three lives inserted in the lease of 16 
Sarah, and Eleanor. Ann Bower, the mother of t 
had an only sister,^ Cisely, who became the wife 
Bower, of Wells, a cousin of Adrian's. The bo 
two sisters were buried in S. Cuthbert's Church, 
small monument in the south aisle there was foi 
interesting inscription : " Neere unto y© piller lyetl 
of Cisely Bower, dau. and co-heire of John Dor 
Collingboume in Wiltshire, gentlem'n ; a loving ^ 
toe William Bower of y* citty, gent., by whom she< 
children which shee trayned upp in y® feare of ( 
was devoted to prayer and exprest good use th< 
was many times dead in the sight of the people, 1 
had mercy on her that shee lived many yeares af 
many good workes in helping y® poore, sick, 
wherein y® Lord l)lessed her hand. Shee remembei 
aged women at her death. Slie dyed on Whitsoi 
and was buried in the grave of her sister, Anne, 
Adrian Bower, gent., who dyed the first of Januii 
It would appear that Adrian Bower and his w 
in Allerton, for nearly a quarter of a century, fo 
more Registers bear witness to the fact. In 1601 
vant, Mary Keimy, died. In 1609, on Christmas 
buried a daughter, Elizabeth. In 1616, in the ea 
another daughter, Joanna. And in 1617, death h 
on another servant, Isabella Hodges. And no^ 
Adrian took his wife to be buried at Wells. E 
eldest son, was of age at the Visitation of Somers 
He had a son, Adrian, born in 1630, who occupic 

1. She is styled Mrs. Christian Bower in S. Cuthbert*fl 

2. Historical Notes of the Church of S. Cuthbert, by T. Serel, 




ir. llih. 




5 6 

The Manor of Allertan and its Tenants. 71 

towards the close of the 17th century, but who died at a. 11 
Wraxall, in 1 686, at the age of 56. There was formerly a grave- 
itODe to his memory in Wraxall Church with this inscription : 
"Here Lyeth the Body of Adryan Bower, Esqw., Late of 
Alverton, in the County of Somerset, Who Departed This 
Life y« 3d day of July, 1686 : Aged 56 years.'" This stone 
was not to be found on a recent visit to the church, and the 
inscription may therefore the more fitly find a place in these 

Edmund Bower of Wells was living in 1611 (9th James I), 161 
for in that year he made a surrender of the farm, and windmill, 
and a new agreement was entered into.^ 

In the 2nd Charles 1, his brother Adrian surrendered* 162 
" what he now holdeth and enjoyeth by virtue of a grant made ^^^' ^ 
to Edmund Bower late of Wells, gent., deceased," and had a 
new lease granted to him for the lives of his three sons, 
Edmund, Adrian, and John, then aged 25, 18, and 14 years, 
" and the life of the longest liver of them." A fine of £30 
was paid, and the rent remained as in past years. The attor- 
nies were William Bower of Wells, gent., and Tristram 
Towse, of the same, notary public. Adrian, the father, was 
appointed manor bailifil On his death in 1637, his son 16^ 
Edmund succeeded him, as appears by the following entry in 
a D. and C. account book. "July 19, 1637. Alverton Man- Oni 
nor. Reed, of Edm. Bower, gent., p. man Tristram Towse *^ 

for o*" lady day rent nine pounds ; " Dec. 7, 1637, more p' man 
Tristram Towse twenty fower pounds fifteen shillings and six- 
pence. Suma 33. 15. 6. Item. Wm. Welsh perobligacon 
fifty shillings £2 10 0. Sic onus £36 5 6." 

In 1642 the Civil War began, and every thing in Church 
and State was thrown into confusion. The last entry in the 
Chapter Acts is on January 28, 1644, and for the next twenty 
years no entries were made. 

1. C. A. R. Fo. 38. 

2. C. A. G. Fo. 48. 


sni idie« ^ IXan. Svlilm, 

A779insKtiiu •l^anrndft^r. Chuitor, Tret- 

fts. jiBt ^ ocker thlo al 

11 arr KljBttsdrsL ir C<&^:tft;e Ciiurtiior 

iiif Cn^^gMiii*^ a» I>£UkH^ of Cbmt 

n ~2M^ laBa^ rr TTBSG£e^ faZjeii C»:«i£ncu>rs, to seD 
nsiN«i9 if -msa. iir :ai! m&hc: if 

" II iwtf-* A snrv^y if ^^ j c^i^^tfsi of the Dean and 
n: 7rd[& r^ imrnfT ;c 'sbt llAak:<r of ABenoii vas 
n :ai» i&iiim^ it •J'iik Zi^h>z saiL »^ tkk is an officiil 
ammtr'sr ff nr ic^e xiuos. 5c ^ ii£nf sitoi m fuIL I am in- 
ci-ni^i. 1* :atr Sx7"!Siir>~ re 'ae Einf-jASKtKal CotDmisnon for 




i.' ' .r- :» '■> I!*-!— r —jur ioii :•:£"::£ ir li^ C-r^ntT of Somer- 
^ ^ .., - -;j->* r ~!f T* >5«:>5<>j : --i c liic V^elc-c^ni: to the late 
r».i.- u: L - :;i.^rr'- .:" iif . i:i:t>irkZ I. i-nrh of S. Andrews 

- V .» I ^i*-. :'«l:3~t Lirrt?*^ zl*£-* a^i i^ken bv us whose 
, . •, ^ . -. ....--;;•'- <Lrs?cn~:ei n tr»f ^•M.ri of June I'^o*). bv 

-^;»: " i lUiii.j-ii' a T "2^ £TXi:ei ^rrwisicd upon- an Act 

^ o - ZLT^roii i5c«ci'rievi in ParH^m^ for the 

a . . ^! !C ' r»;*iT'fs. IViZK* Az*! diapters. Canons, Preb- 

:'«-- : :■: CT:: i"ff':ff a^i'i liilt* :f az>l belonging to any 
: N.v. -:.. c ■. 'fC^:- C'l^ir:-! :c Cbappell within England 
t'« "''i-T-v ^Tv^:- ::■: :.i:i'i> i^^ seaie* of flSve or more of the 
•*-. ^- ►^ - -•-■ «^ \:: rji=>ed a2?i aroxiit^d. 

i XxrC 2/. :ftf^ 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 73 

knnnal Clear values and 

Etents improvements 

•erved. per annum. 

£ s. d. 

The Courts Baron ffines and amercia- 
ments of Courts, herr« of the copyhold 
tenants for lives, wayfes, estrays and all 
other profits and perquisites within the sA 
mannor to the Royalty thereof appertain- 
ing We estimate coibus annis at, ue, ^^com- 
muni bus" — ordinary years ... ..150 


Edw, Bower, All that capital mes- 
suage or mancon house lying and being 
in Allverton in the county of Somerset, 
consisting of a hall, a parlour, a kitchen, 
a larder, a buttery, a brewhouse with 
severall lodging roomes over them, all 
built wtJi stone and covered w*^ slate, a 
large barne, a court, and two fold yards, 
two stalls, a hayhouse, a stable, a granary, 
a cowhouse, a garden, and four orchards, 
with their appurtences^ containing by esti- 
macon ffour acres. And all that close of 
pasture, with the appurt", called Upper 
Elme Hay, containing by estimacon three 
roods, abutting upon the s<i house on the 
east part. All that close of meadow and 
pasture, with the appurt^, called Pull- 
hays, containing by estimacon ten acres, 
abutting upon a close of the same lands, 
called Eighteene acres on the south part. 
All that close of arable called Eighteen 
acres, with the appurtenSes, containing by 

£ 1 i 



•i: iz-»iii»-. "T^i -^i* i ^ctir^* . aZjfd Two 

Xr r i ~fmfr r luoii :a tif weft. Ail 

.^'HiT n ^•t j:-^-:«r f-fcji xi»:c. B^riini'* 
HH. ;• ttii-mmr rj -hgrrrihrTc coe acre. 

fsnmfc?:a f-iri^ k:r*e5v s.'r'anin^ upon 
iji.citf!: rrr'TTi: :aZ»=c Twielre acnes on 
":i»t taE«c Tur:* A 7. li^s ci:i$e of airmble 
n:!* lirf 4;:o;r:5 .-aZ-ed Twelve acr^rs. c«>ii- 
Tf- "'• T,o :t iscizabo:<i eisi.* acres abutting 
-j:">:c :y*t ^:irfe- Twelve *.^r>es oo the west 
rtkn* AH 'V*- cios^ of anUe with the 
-^rs^cBH caZkd Bempistoiu ooDtaining 

The Manor of AUerton and its Tenants, 75 

Clear yalaes and 


per annum. 

£ 0. d. 

by estimacon ten acres abutting upon 
Mr. Taverner's ten acres lying in AU- 
yerton East feiid on the west part. AH 
that parcel! of arable land with the 
appurtences lying in the East feild, con- 
taining by estimacon three acres abutting 
upon a meadow called Sweeting's close 
(in the tenure Edm^ Bower) on the east 
part. All that close of meadow with the 
appurts called Scotten's close, containing 
by estimacon two acres abutting upon the 
s^ three acres on the west part. All that 
parcell of arable with the appurtencos 
lying in the East feild, containing by esti- 
macon nine acres abutting upon the Parish 
of W eare on the north and an acre of land 
of — Lancaster Esq^e. on the south part. 
All that parcel of arrable with the appur- 
tence^ lying in the same feilde, containing 
by estimacon an acre and half abutting 
upon William Hatche's land on the north 
part. All that parcell of arable with the 
appurtence^ lying in the same feild, con- 
taining by estimacon three acres abutting 
upon the highway leading unto Wedmore 
from Axbridge on the east part, and all 
that close of arable wth the appurtenc©* 
lying in the East feild, containing by esti- 
macon ffour acres abutting upon Esq. 
Huxley's ground on the east part; and 
all that close of meadow with the appur- 
tencw called Crickmead, containing by 

ettmiAcoa 16 acres a 
orchard and backside o 
(iQ the tenure of Johi 
east part ; and all that 
appnrteno called Grei 
tainiog hy estimacoo 1 
opoQ the highway in t 
comon meadow called £ 
south part ; and all th 
the appuris called Litt 
taining bj estiinacon thr 
upon the highwaj on the 
of the 8<1 Mr. Bower'a f 
west part ; and all that ) 
appurteno» called Parke 
bj estimacon eight acre 
the widow Wall's groun 
the south part; and all 
turing or Common of I 
appurtan<» for 12 head 
in a Common meadow cal 
and all that close of w 

The Manor of Allertan and its Tenants. 77 

Clear vmlnes and 
L per annum. 

£ a. d. 

belonging or in any wise appertaining or 

at anytime heretofore taken, reputed or 

knowne as part, parcel!, or member there- 

8. of. 

fVm. Welsh, All those three closes of 
meadow and pasture, comonlj called 
Brodenhurst, situate, lying and being in 
Allverton in the county of Somerset, con- 
taining by estimacon thirty acres, abut- 
ting upon Baynham Moore on the south 
and the ground of Edmund Sheppard on 
the north part, w^ all and singular the 

J. appurts thereunto belonging ... 33 10 

Edmund Sheppard. All that one close 
of meadow and pasture, commonly called 
or known by the name of Broadness, 
situate, lying and being in the parish of 
Allverton in the county of Somerset, con- 
taining by estimacon 18 acres, abutting 
upon Baynham Moore on the south part. 
All that other close of meadow and pas- 
ture cofnonly called Broadness, contain- 
ing by estimacon twelve acres, abutting 
upon a drove leading to Lower Lcaze on 
the south and Cook's Leaze on the north 
part, and all that close of meadow and 
pasture called North Mead, containing 
by estimacon two acres, abutting upon a 
meadow called North Mead in the north 
part, with their and every of their appur- 

. teneuces ... ... ... 33 7 

78 PaperSy 8fe. 

Annua] GIbm' ybIbmii 

Rents improfWMiti 

per T ^yMw 


Herr. 1. Eliz. Bower. One tenement, contain- 

ing 15 acres of land and one rodd of land 
and three roods of meadow of old Auster ; 
as also one tenement, containing six acres 
of land and three acres of meadow and 
Redd. 20b. pasture of the same old Auster.^ ... 9 

Herr. I. Humphrey/ Marsh. Twelve acres of 
land, meadow, and pasture of old Auster, 
with the appurten<^ in the Parish of 
Redd. 12b. AUverton ... ... ... 13 13 

Herr. 1. ff^m. Hatch. One tenement, containing 

by estimacon sixteen acres and half of 
land, meadow, and pasture of old Auster, 
Redd. IOb. with the appurtenences ... ... 6 3 

Eliz. Sirayne. One tenement, contain- 
ing thirteen acres of land, and seven 
acres of meadow of old Auster with the 
appurtences^ and also six acres of meadow 
Herr. 1. and pasture in Broadness, and ffive acres 
of land in Bremble Croft, with the 
Redd. 208. appuilences. J 2 

Eliz, Stcayne. One tenement, contain- 

Herr. 1. ing ffourteen acres and-a-half of land and 

six acres and half of meadow and pasture 

of old Auster w^h the appurtencea^ and 

Redd. 168. 4d. one acre of land in Park land of Overland. 10 3 

John Dcane, One tenement, contain- 

1. *'In some mauore *antiqaam astruiu ' or aastrum (from O.F. astn 
fiearth) is where a fixed chimney or tire anciently hath been. AutterU 
menUf are lands to which in virtac of their having been the original ho 
steads rights of common were attached, and on which certain do 
devolved." N. and Q, 5th series, xi, 216. 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 79 

Qnal Clear Talaes and 

sots improvements 

TYod. per annnm. 

£ 8. d. 

err. ing thirteen acres and three yards of land, 
Goods, and three acres and one yard of meadow 
1. 88. and pasture, with the appurtencea ... 6 5 4 

Friscilla fVall. Two tenements, con- 

srr. taining 15 acres and 3 yards of arable 

Goods, land of old Auster, and ffour acres and 

three yards of meadow of the same old 

L lOs. Auster, with the appurts ... ... 6 10 

err. Adrian Bower, One tenement, contain- 

Gooda. ing eight acres of arable land and two 

acres of meadow of old Auster, with the 

appurtences, and ffour acres of pasture in 

Broadness, of Overlands, with the ap- 

1. lOs. purtences ... ... ... 10 3 4 

Marian Andrews. Seven acres of pas- 
Id. 78. ture of Overlands ... ... 4 13 

Wm. Welsh. One tenement, contain- 

ott 408. ing eight acres of land and meadow and 

two acres of meadow and pasture of old 

Auster, with the appurts, which two 

acres lye in a certain meadow called 

d. 48. Blackheale ... ... ...4160 

IT. 1. Jeremiah Davey als Ballon. One tene- 

ment, containing ten acres of land, 
meadow, and pasture of old Auster, with 
. 68. 8d. the appurts ... ... ... 4 2 6 

Edmd, Bower. Nine acres of pasture 
of Overlands lying in Broadness, and (five 
acres of pasture of Overlands lying in 
d. 148. Broadness, with the appurtcnce8 ... 13 6 

Edm^. Bmrer. One tenement, contain- 
ers ing by estimacon 33 acres and two roods 

80 Papers^ tfc. 

B/MrtB miprofVMiili 

Bmcu vod. pcranuL 

£ I. 

Bert Goods, of land, meadow, and pasture of old 

Auster. Seven acres of pasture in Giiire 

of Oyerlands, and two acres of meadow 

in Paddmead of Overlands, with their 

Redd. 29b. appurten^^^ ... ... ... 24 14 

Edmd, Bower, One tenement, contain- 
Herr. ing sixteen acres -of land and ffour acres 
BesiGooda. of meadow of old Auster, with the 
Redd. 10b. appurts ... ... ... 9 7 

John Bower. Twelye acres of meadow 
and pasture, with the appurts of Over- 
Redd. 12b. lands ... ... ... 9 8 

Edmd. Bower. Seven acres of meadow 
of Overland, whereof ffour acres lye in 
Shalldom and three acres in Parkmead, 
Redd. 78. with the appurtence« ... ... 6 13 

Gab, Ivy leaf e. ffour acres of meadow 
with the appurtences, called Stinteham 
Redd. 78. mead. ... ... ... 2 13 

John Taylor. One close of pasture of 
Overlands in Broadness, containing by 
Re<ld. 68. estimacon six acres, with the appurtences 4 7 


The lords of the s^ manner are to be at the charge of r 
work, viz., for cleansing, scouring, and ditching of UK) per 
in length in several rivcis and rines at 15 ffoot to the jk 
and repairing one sluice at ffawman Bridge, and likewig 
the charge of repairing two bridges, the one called Cullyr 

1. *' Allowance and duties paid annually out of a manor and Ian 
rent charges, annuities, *' &c. Baileifn Dictionary. 


» and the otlier fikvaHMi ESeauitb. jkL ifooza 

L may am^ coibo? aaai^ c» £k, 

:Te is to be paid c«i «f 3&if ^ousf^ mbl TPYifisr ic :&i( :?* 

3r of AllTerton to ike |iMr 4C av^ xonr nT V^sIb^ tou 

of £8 ia& 4d. 

• • 

at there is a Conn Bai q g* htii js 5* ficaat )iiii»f n 

rton, at j« wiU and plea$«Ke «f aie jntt. 

e tenants of the si maaBor az^ v^ ngoicmit laimr imc joil 

3e to the lords of the cov^ ai««^ 

le flfreeholders which hold of die ji£ SKmur ni iEaaLL7 or 

>f court and par to the hsd^ ^^hxj Mj&umiR- Ih|T j 

lat there are two Comoss bebacanr '» 'Ait ^ luamici :ai« 
^lled Bjnham Moote. the «cikBr Al>ennL Mmf!. joil 
Proves thereunto 
its within the sd 
, and that the lords of the «^ itiwr hav^ laie Mnsxs a: 
dng the sd comons^ 

le benefit of comons and onoc of pAsac<t ^t Taiscr i>^ 
nts belonging are oomprehended wisixB iht tu]i» :£ iii£s- 
active holds. 

lat there hare been usaaBj sruniad dETve eK^c^^ xzkil 
)r copyhold or old Anster teneoKHL. ani ev-«ry c^r^T fix 
3 lives apeice, and that the locds shall hare azii lakf ish: 
goods of every tenant of old Anster that the i«Qas3 -ii-tii 
d of for and in the name of a Hen* onles^s thej dii oahes-- 
compound wth the ad lords for the same, aoi that the 
w of every tent dying seized should enjoy the sd tescm^ 
ustom during her widowhood. 
\ie sd manner is bounded with Marie on the south. Wed- 

** A court which erery lofd of » maaor (iriio aBticntlj wre called 
ib) hath within his own preeinetB, in which admittanoeB, graote of I^iwIt, 
■re made to the copyholden ; surrendcn are accepted, kc" 

ol. XLVi (Third Seriet, Vol. Vl),ParilL 

82 Papers^ ^. 

A.D. moore on the south-east, Weare on the north, and Badgevo 
on the north-west. 

The advowson right of patronage noiacon or presentatioD 
the parish church of Allerton did belong to the lords of the 

The parsonage there is worth per ann. £40. 

The present inciunbent there is Mr. Mathewe Lawe. 

An abstract of the present rents, future improvementB, i 
all other profits of the sd mannor of Allverton. 
The Courts Baron, Herrt, and Royalties are per 

auu. .•• •.• ... ••• Xv 

The rent reserved by lease wt^^in the s^ mannor 

is per annum ... ... ... 18 

19 5 

The improvemt of the several leaseholds within 

the sd mannor is per annum ... ... 112 9 

The improvement of the copyholds for lives per 

ann. ... ... ... ... 158 

Sume total of future improvements pr ann. 270 9 

1650 From this Survey it appears that Edmund Bower was w 

the tenant of the farm and was occupying 130 acres of 111 
more or less, belonging to it, besides 80 acres which he h< 
as a Copyholder. This tenancy was in virtue of a Ic 
granted to him in 1641 for the lives of his two sons, Adr 
and Edmund, and of Edmund Towse. He does not seem 
have been disturbed, by the agents of the Parliament, in 
occupation, for there is proof that he was living at the ft 
in 1652, and his son Adrian in 1660. But we have no Clia] 
records to throw light on the period which intervened betw 
1649, when Charles I was executed, and England was decU 
a Commonwealth, and 1661, the year after the Bestoratioi 

The Maaar of dllertom and its Tenants. 83 

arles II. But, if the West Country dittj were known in 
sc parts, the Allerton men would doubtless have joined con 
ore in its jingle : — * 


Well bore a bole tbro* CmmweD's nose, 
And tbeie we'll pat a alriiif; ; 

We'll bang on np in middle of th' booae. 
For killing of Qiariea oar 

[n other respects the Survey must speak for itself : but it is 
natter of interest to observe that the sum of £8 13s. 4d.^ 
ftrged on the profits of the manor for the poor of Wells, is 
il paid yearly, and a portion of it helps to provide attend- 
ee and medicines for the sick, gratis. 

At the Restoration of Charles II, on May 29th, 1660, Dr. 
eyghton, a Canon of Wells, who had been with the King in 
lie for the last fifteen years, was appointed to the Deanery, 
lere are many visible memorials of him in the Cathedral 
lurch, of which the most conspicuous is the brass lectern in 
e nave, presented by him as a thank ofiering. No sooner 
IS he in office than the business of the Chapter manors en- 
ged his attention. Among them, that of the manor of 
llerton, of which Adrian Bower, born in 1630, was at that 
ne, the tenant. At the close of the year 1661, three matters 
business connected with Allerton, came before the Dean 
d Chapter. In two instances * copies ' of their tenancy had 
en lost " in the troublesome tymes," by the tenants, and they 
IV came to desire *a new copy,' which was not obtaiiu'd 
thout enquiry into the merits of the case. Adrian Bower 
1 lost his copy of twelve acres, for which a fine had l)een 
d in 1640, as he affirmed, but he had to hviu^ a witness, 
3 William Hatch of Allerton (who) "affirnietli confidently 
i is readie to take his oath that he saw tluj copy which is 
t." He also desired a new copy of the four acres in Slial- 

t. Notes and Queries. 6th s. xi, 129. 

I See Serels* St. Cathbert's Church, p. 107, for an incident connected 
th payment of this lam. 

n '^'Stt \miks: if ma&T &aS z v^ fvmai dat a 

ia Alkftai 

-ai^ mij OD^Buns if EteM^ Iwc^ kisc or ol cooqiiia 
3L ^K TfflfirTs Basm^ ios -df t^ Re^ndfioa. In 1€0, 
i»^!3fe laoKC K4UL dK seooos^ a poeecasion of tv 
A 3:v9C i£Kns3 ikf *mimJ er br ccrtti 
if "suuti: irain<«e^ sni jis^iinst sot gnnt dii 
if ^esL. Sneit laie PiiKibmih bad sbdiilw 
tagfiacs. fsZ sn j^9R k^ elmpscd. and in tkii 
TSOEs^Bi gnwiig TSif icBuixs luid takcQ plice 
HAL nrnnHBL I md zrih^ir Eule was known b? tk 
lAsais if :aif C iul ' JL <£ tsat s«Kses tliat had been tot- 
«ira-i in :ai* 'hbsttiL Aiscms ccfca- resolts of the EesUx^ 
"UL'tt irit 1 EnLOiiHi^t*! T«m r:Cl fric ih-e man*:>rial estates. Id 
aaEir:«'a *: rit* tjseiI i^ranirci "pr? ^::aticx5 operibos,' lA 
!i»t!iii^ii:r "Jtf rLziHsw lai 'rr: r^rpLraTi-r^^r'Qs pinfolJi," l>M^^ 
^aLTS z: -na nsEurc ? »3iL at h«n now appears, entitled, "ii 
i^ r^K^Lini rfx*^.' X i»: szikl iz&K:!::. In 13 Charles II «• 
A:r vifii Txfc«*fi "f:r a fr?»^ ai>l Tohmtarr pre:5ent to h^ 
>Li.*r-c-T. ▼--Ji 4 Tr:-!~.s' :h:i: -ifeis A-rt and the Snpplj hm 
rr-uT-i >iall x»:c '~«f in-^r: ii:::- eiampie for the time to come. 
'- TT,2i .-/ W a frf^ iZii 'r:lz=,ZArj pr^<«enr, but it was notbinf 
Hi.'"*: :c »:>&• '*-*-^ a ^Ax 'eT^^ on the nation for the paymffit 
c : !»r K^iTs :*r:cs.. I- ■>"'!^'^ a«^[»un: in 16f>9, no less a ^aHl 
•:l\ij i~yi ^^ ^i- i^ -izzer^i as ptiiid bv the Chapter for 

^\^ -A:c>~ :: :h«e t Lapeer were brought to a close io 

' ;^^ ^T :i-:f V -T-I Wat, re: ihej commence again in 16R 

>!,* >i :i«f i:^ ec:r^ is concerning land at Allerton called 

- JVw'-'li^'' li :^>> :: wa^ held bj Edmond Bower ; he wis 

The Manor of AUerton and its Tenants. 85 

now dead, and in the ordinary course of things, his sod a.d. 
Adrian would have succeeded to it. But it would seem that 
lie objected to the amount of the fine demanded. A lease of 
it was granted to John Selleck, one of the Canons, who 
appears to have passed it on to his sister. The fine was £%0 : 
the Chapter Clerk adding this note — '^ This was designed for 
Mr. Adrian Bower for threescore and ten pounds if he had 
accepted of it." It was not long in the hands of Joanna 
Selleck, for in the following year Adrian Bower bought her 
out at £80 and five shillings I 

To the Bowers succeeded as tenants of the farm the 1683 
Canningtons, for a period of some twenty years. The first 
man of the name was John Canington, of North Petherton ; 
but the family was represented also at Wells, with which city 
it had been connected for between two and three hundred 
years. In the years 1444 and 1471 a Cannington had been 
one of the churchwardens of St. Cuthbert's. And now, on 
April I3th, 1683 (35 Charles II) John surrendered the 
AUerton manor farm, of which he was legally seized by mean 
assignment, to the Dean and Chapter. A new lease was 
granted to him and his heirs for the lives of Anne Cannington, 
bis daughter, and of Thomas and John, sons of Robert 
Cannington, of Wells. The same rent as before, and the usual 
conditions were inserted. The attornies were Robert and 
John Pope, of Blackford. 

On the 2nd of October, 1690 (2 William and Mary) another 1690 
lease was granted to John Cannington, for the lives of 
Thomas and John, sons of Robert, late of Wells, and of Avis 
Holt, daughter of Francis Holt, gent., deceased, on same 
terms. In the margin of the indenture there is this memoran- 
dum : " Mr. Cannington promised the Chapter to be kind to 
Avis Holt." Within five years, there was a great change in 
the family. Mr. and Mrs. Cannington had died, as a 
memorial to the latter in the south transept of Wedmore 

C. A. P. 6. Manor Rolls, p. 380, cf. 1690. 

% ilaBK 

iir m J'. 

if i 

T & 

of MlMT 

▼ I 

-» •• 

s- hnc^ -BLIP* II ~ie mat if ik CjBai^:w^Si. !■ iM 

imr :aisr basfiff for tk 
r -smn^^ fir iSm 5itt of Atk kii 

z t:- l.-'-""^ ir TaJs, iin£ Tv-f3^ry Tf^ir? isxer, Hok 

: "! 'T*— ^iniu.v i^r -^rn > fi»f^!Ti*£ 4 t->:^^ obonl on 
:. r~! - "•-^ici n "^.r "Utt > inc&ir 3i»f?ii»:«r»z>l!i!iL ihit 

--: : - Ti-^Tit' I'l:^ iiLr: n "Lr^f . ^r^rccr rcroredisss ia 

. * — » 

* :c the last one kia- 
lie* of Paine an^ 

lA IM^ ^«r Walker, pt ii. 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 87 

Nidway, both of Welle, were the lessees of the farm. An 
Bsnce between the two families was contracted in the year 
V66, by the marriage of Robert Tudway with Mary, eldest 
bu^lliter of Rev. John Paine, the then lessee, afterwards 
^mnon and Snb-Dean of Wells. And with this alliance the 
OBoection of the Tudway family with Allerton began. 

On January 12th, 1705, John Paine, jr., of the city of 
¥elh, notary public, took the farm and windmill on a lease 
or the lives of himself. Avis Cannington of the Liberty of 
L Andrew, widow, and Robert Thorn.* Two deeds follow, 
Q^ in 1707, and another in 1708. The former constitutes 
fijhn Paine the younger, together with his tenant for the time 
^eing, game keepers to the Dean and Chapter, who give him 
nil power and authority to appoint one or more persons for 
he better preserving the game, and for seizing ^^any guns, 
letts or other engines for destroying the said game." He 
md his tenant may also take or kill by all lawful means wild 
luck and mallard, wigeon, teale, pheasant, partridge, hares, 
laid all other game that shall be found within the manor. 

The latter comes upon us as a surprise ; for it is a docu- 
ment authorizing two men of Burrington to dig or mine within 
the manor for lead ore, satisfying the tenants on whose ground 
they shall dig or mine, and paying to the Dean and Chapter 
a tenth part of all the ore they might raise. The probabili- 
ties of any success in such an enterprise must have been very 
remote. Professor Boyd Dawkins kindly confirms this con- 
clusion, and adds a note on the geology of the parish. He 
writes : ^^ The grant to the men of Burrington was of no use 
to them because there is no lead ore in those rocks. The 
rocks forming the surface in the parish occur in the following 
order (descending) — 6. Alluvium of marsh lands. 5. The 
lower triassic shales, clays, and limestones. 4. The white lias. 
3. The black clays and thin limestones with bone beds. 
2. The grey marls (all rhoctic). 1. The triassic red marls. 

1. Acts 1704, 1725. Id. Nov. 13. Id. April 6. 

of tint of 
ThtMk tndPei 

Hie wife WW! 

to the poor of 

tablet in tke 

c sifisgE? St :ai^ ^ j=3t«<tcciL AH lios i^ known of ber ii 

ra[iTa«!L at & :&%or ami s. ^^ s«^ 'i ■■ mw 

I'U itsr hatSL il ~ *^^ u aisiers z^ £xe oi kk soo Riclmd, 

K SHL n :3if iiiluw^w r^B:^ ^^ s<3* Jc^m. His bxha 

:aaBL Mssme " Jo&a Panie the elder d 


~»i^ ^a •J^'jon. ^vR^seoaL "t.Tn., As&i r«Beved the lease for tke 
rr^*!- ic iiiiK«i£» Frsoisis- los- ic-igeik'. a»l FraDces Paine his 

-v-jtf. H-! 'v-^ iL Hity •.•rifT?^ Eet 174^ aiw] became in 1773 
. 4»ii c ajtL >l:— r»t.ii :c ^iZ.^^ Hr ^jciiii'jed to be tk 

r-r-sr-r UIClL Xl-- Irr^Tl IL 1 t. Ht ZULTTIr^i in 1741, FrMCeS. 

^i»::^:^=r c "*" IIiikti .-:ij£±i»:i :•: W :*-!!:%. am after her death 
:i .^»... jfi->ct!: Ai 1.1-i? iiz:>e r.i> daiurbter Mtn 


r^rti*!:*: fi:r>*r=*i ~- ^:»:«fr^ T'ai'^^fcj :f Well$^ and when he 

'^'^r^ri !-.> ►T-isS: f.c "if likjC zizifi I- ITrsJ, i: was on ihe IWes 

. ! TI>^-♦I. Lir iiuri"^^H: itiTT, i3»2 Rrr-rri Tudwav, esq**- 

: " * V J :iLri?^I n-^ ^ l^tT-.tfC :c Mr. "" Si;>iw-aT " for the finn. 

7 !•: iiii.:« iT :»-«;i?«j. fc?- -i ^abZii? t:— iar, is a substantial dwell- 


.iiz i'"*~ -:C -»- '^»i :i :.T•.'•i7^k^i. wi'iii f^irrj-uudin^ not ven" 

i r. ^i ■ i^».>*f i-t-jv.'iT. :*fc iz. l-^J^X I* da:c> frvm 177^, in 

V T •: • " ra-*. ix -T'lZLiUurT l>a» "- lif IXtu: aod Canons did then 

r^ '• ::.»- ?•;:•; r: 7-^1*-*^. £.?»:« *-'.ctii out down as much 

:. »•• ti * s T^fCir^f 4: A'.'rfnc-r^ bcii tinder the Dean an»l 

' i .icc. i> *•- Li:i. :^i. :c — ^g *-^ hare occasion for, on ac- 

,* .^: : . : :».-'i.T;i: >.> b.'-:i?^ a: AJe-noo. 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants, 89 


On the death of Canon Paine, in 1774, Robert Tudway 1774 
renewed the lease of the farm, after which no change 
occurred until the year 1796, when the life of John Paine 1796 
Tndway was accepted by the Dean and Chapter in lieu of 
tliat of Robert Tudway, son to the lessee. In the first year 
of the 19th centiu*y, Robert being now dead, the farm passed 1801 
to Clement and Charles Tudway of Wells, esquires, for the 
Eres of Mary, widow of Robert, John Paine Tudway her son, 
and Edward Wright Band, Esqi^* The last named resided at 
Wookey Hole. 

Clement Tudway died (surviving Charles) in 181«5, at the 1815 
advanced age of 80, having been M.P. for Wells for 55 
years,^ and having served the office of Mayor of Wells ten 

The next notice to be recorded of any change is in 1824, 1824 
when John Paine Tudway, M.P., 1815 — 1830, the son of 
Robert, and father of the last member of the family who held 
the estate, succeeded. The lives on which he held it were 
those of himself, Edwd- W. Band, and Edmund Lovell, son of 
Joseph Lovell Lovell. He died in July, 1835, aged 60, and 
was succeeded by his son, Robert Charles Tudway, Esq^o-, 1836 
who held it for the lives of E. Band of Wookey, himself, and 
his brother Henry Tudway. 

[At this time, July 1st, 1824, Allerton windmill, with its 
dwelling house and premises, was again let to a separate 
tenant, viz., Thomas Wilkins of Chapel Allerton, for lives of 
John Paine Tudway, E. W. Band, and John Wilkins, aged 
four years, son of Samuel Wilkins of Chapel Allerton, miller. 
Paul Wilkins succeeded his father in 1836, and Edwin 
Wilkins at his father's death in 1867, continued the tenancy 
until his death in 1883.] 

The Rev. Henry G. Tudway, the last surviving " life," died 
in February, 1866 (aet. 39), and by his death the Manor of 
Allerton ' fell into hand,' and passed away from the family, 

1. He was the Father of the House of Commons. 

■ «M*i«plii**lM 

■ath nn. «kB li> «■ i 
h Hv (AA MM) *• tMM 

acmBNnv or Uian 

lUftlM. PaAMaa 


uol m2i 


Patt 144. PoD VMjrm . 

143. Six Acre* 

142. Four Acres . 

156. North Field . 

157. AUerUm Hill . 
145. South Twelre A 
Ufi. North TweWe A 

159. HoDdrad StoM 

147. Scottea'B Cloae 

160. NewTTDing . 

148. Qtubb . 

161. Quahb, or Pophi 

In 1869, when a mirrej » 
the farm was the same acreagi 
Uie entire maDor comprised 51 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 




John Paine, of Wells, notary pnblic. 


obfc. 1706. 

n.p. John Paine, jr. == Frances Healy (1705), 
obt. 1741 fet 60. obt. 1729 let 47. 

John = (1) Frances Goldfinch, (2) Hester ? 
born 1717, obt. 1774. obt 1763. obt. 1806(87). 

Canon and Snb-Dean 1773. 


and obt. 1743. b. 1745. 


b. 1749. 

Robert Tudway. 

b. 1751. 

b. 1763. 

John Paine Tudway, M.P. = Frances G. Palsford. 
b. 1775, obt. 1835. 

laria C. Miles = Robert Charles Tndway, M.P. Henry Gonld Tudway. 

Having now traced the line of the Leaseholders of the 
anor Farm from 1530 to 1866, we will follow the fortunes of 
me of the separate holdings within the manor. Two stand 
it to view above the others, each a holding of some thirty 
res, and as such they may have come down from early times, 

the half virgates of feudal tenure. The one is the thirty- 
ro acres in Broadness, the other the thirty acres in Braden- 
irst. The former was in the tenancy of John Hodges of 
[ackford until 1550. In that year, John Schepherde of 
''orspring, grazier, took it for fifty years ; and the family of 
lepherd continued to hold it until the beginning of the 18th 
ntury. Edmund was the tenant in 1650, having taken it on 
Else in 1639 for the lives of his three sons, Edmund, 

92 Papers^ 8fc. 

1652 William, and Richard. In 1652, Edmund, senr-, granted it 

for the use of Richard during his life, and after his death, of 

1664 his heirs for the residue of the unexpired term. In 1664, 

Richard desired to exchange his own and his brother Edmund's 

1688 lives, William being dead, and to put in a new life. In 1688, 

Richard, of Worle, took it for three lives, and in 1695 his son 

Dennis did the same. 

1741 In 1741 the estate passed to Mr. Paine, together with the 

1766 farm, the lease being renewed in 1763 and in 1766. In 1774 

1774 the tenant was Elizabeth Frances Paine of Wella, spinster. 

1795 In 1795 it passed from her to the Rev. Richard Chaple 

Whalley, to whom she had been married, and who was now 

left a widower by her death. He was the fourth son of the 

Rev. John Whalley, D.D., by Mary, daughter of Rct. 

Francis Squire, Chancellor of Wells, so that he was cloedj 

connected, both by parentage and marriage, with the Web 

Chapter. There is a memorial, much obliterated, to Mi& 

Whalley in the east cloister of the Cathedral. 

1825 In 1825, a lease of the thirty-two acres was granted to 

William Lewis of Axbridge, fellmonger, and Rebecca Arnold, 

widow of .lolm Arnold, late of Port Isaac in the county of 

Cornwall, officer of excise, formerly Rebecca Maggs, spinster, 

for the lives of Thomas Wickham of Horsington, clerk, aged 

about 50, Richard Thomas Whalley of Yeovilton, clerk, aged 

about 40, and Clement Lewis, son of William Lewis, aged fife. 

The families of Whalley and Wickham were closely connected 

by marriage. »James Wickham of Frome, sol** t married Mary, 

daughter of Dr. John Whalley. 

The other holding was known as " Bradenhurst," and was 

thirty acres in extent. In the earlier part of this paper it his 

been shewn that the first lessee on record was Roger Hill, 

1558 who was succeeded in 1558 by William Welsh of Loxt(Hi, 

Elizabeth his wife, and William Hill, s^.t son of Roger HilL 

1565 In 1565 William Welsh of Alvington renewed the lease for 

himself, his wife Elizabeth, and their son William. 

The Mmmmr mf AMfw^m mmi ^ Tii ■iffi « 

October 3id (28 EEmketli a Imw ^iT ?^ 31* jnw 
fJL to WiUijan Wel^ fc«!iMiwi mI E&Bdiifi^ jAfi 
sdmn Wdslu the da u^htqa^ fw vbe mvi «f i^inr ^wmtriK 
mt the former rent^ with a previii» tftm S V3fiaK W«kii 
i luiTe a son, then on pa jibha W ham ^iT am iinRifg&> a 
eaae should be giantcd* aal the Baar 4t libt ^mm wucadi 
» lease with one of the daaphiBR.^ 

Jan. Srd, 6 Charles I« aa liinanwn wsi^ andke kcmem 
>ean and Chapter and WiKus Wdsh «£ AjiWifat,. ^i^m^ 
In oonsideratioo of the .■■win W W. W. ^{ di^ 39 
, which April 3id (14 Jaws I4 KIT kal Vna sssfliol 
le Dean and Chapter to Edward Sniih aff W«&l itpmiik. 
^he Uves of W. W^ Martha fak thea wiik sai I>nme 
laughter, and which 00 the feDowiap jch aff tVaaker kai 
i granted by Edward Smith to WiSaa WeUh. tW iMaer. 
Ajment of a fine of £20^ has a aew lessee gi asfird i» 

attomies were John Wrentmore of Ax laalg e;. 
mas Corp of Allerton.' 

he Welsh family continoed to hold it laitfl after the Psr- 
entary Survey, for at that time, 1650, a VTiDBm Wckh. I 
ably the grandson of the first man, was the lessee. After 
Robert Pope of Bbu^kford held it, mitfl l^U when he snr- 1 
^red it, and Robert Yeasc^mibe of BladcEoid, reaana. 
d it for the lives of himself, his scm Robert, and Richard 
Bord of Langford, son of R. R^ late of Mark, deceased. 
lied in 1695, and in 1696, his son Robert renewed for the 

of himself and his daughters, Joan and Mary, both under 

years of age. In 1728, it would appear they had both 1 
ried, and their brother had become the tenant, for a new 
3 is ^^ranted to Robert Yeascombe of Bristol, for the lives 
bimself, Joane Smith, John Smith cleric, and Mary 
3pen, sister to Robert Yeascombe. In 1759, the lease is 1 
wed by him, and again in 1773. In 1786 Thomas Clark 1 

C. A. F. Fo. 89. 
C. A. G. 83. 


94 Papers^ ^. 

A.D. of Ingsbatch, in the parish of Inglishcombe, geDtlemio, wai 
the tenant for the lives of Robert Yescombe, now or lite at 
the city of Bristol, gentleman, Edwd. B. Yescombe, nqihev, 
and John Hanbury Williams of Colebrook, in the comitj at 

1807 Monmouth, aged about 34. In 1807 he put in a new life, ui 

1827 appears to have held it until 1827, when it passed to Edvail 
Reeve for the lives of Thomas Day, aged 41, Elizabeth, irifa 
of Edward Reeve, aged 34, and Joseph Edward Reeve Us 
nephew. Although the holding was 30 acres by estimatioD, it 
was now shewn to be only 22a. 3r. 34p. by admeasurement 

1 833 On 1 1 th of May, William Tiley, of Cross, leased the property 

under the modern description of Nos. 177, 178, 179, 180^ 
Broadenhurst, 9a. Ir. 7p. Broadenhurst, 5a. Ir. 30p. Brosd- 
enhurst, 9a. Or. 39p., and Hoar Field, la. Ir. 19p., for lives of 
Maria Tiley, his daughter, aged about 10 years, Clement 
Lewis, aged about 18 years, and James Inman Allford, iged 
about 17 years. 

It would occupy far too much space to give the renewals of 
leases of the many separate holdings that now existed, during 
the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries; but 
some entries during this period are of particular interest In 
1G87, the Dean and Chapter passed a decree that "in consideri- 
tion of the perversenesse and unkindnesse of severall of ibe 
tenants of the Church they shall be and are at liberty to grant 
reversions and estates by copy for more than six lives, and 
without the coiiscut of the tenant in possession, as the Chapter 
have heretofore done according to their discretion." There 
soon followed numerous applications for reversions. And now, 
when a lease was surrendered, and new lives put in, an additional 
covenant was inserted, that "the rent shall be paid clear without 
any deduction for taxes." Demands by the tenants for a 
reduction in tlieir rents do not apj>ear to have been favourably 
received by the lords. In a document of 1712, three virgates 
of land are described as "lying in le upper field prope le 
windmill ubi domus molendiuarii nunc ocdificatur,'' — a queer 

Tke Mammr 0f AUa^tmrnrnd ^ Ti 

e of KngKah mud 

z the erection of tlie 

bhis tune mnion^ tlie 

mud Chmpter were tlioie of G-nnr, O 

idH, Jennett^ Jolm BtdwptvkoL in 1717^ 8B«r £t v ^f 

€ ihe pniisk), Denne» and Wi 

arviving in the memories of ike 

;e Wnrman, of Arfiton. Bni 

sir holdings. It mnsl be cnoif^ •» givr 

BTen acres of meadow in ADenon a» 

ton, yeoman, for fires of mil, 


enement and lands in ABertcn aa 

of self, son William, and O 

ioTon acres of pastnre in C 

of meadow in Paddmeade of Omlind, Iniiiji 
>bert Browning for fiTes of adIC. 
!r, wife of William MiDcr, of 
Tour acres araUe to WiDiaai Ifitrh 
iam his son, and Maij his dai^ghtcr.' 
lisnds caUed 'Powells' to WilEam GooM ivEi« 
L his wife, and Charles Hmdaore.* 

Liands in A to Thomas MiDaid, of Vole, isr Jtvet vS mm^ 
B his wife, and Samuel Bledey. kr nivnl mil* 
Three acres called 'Pill ' to John Bronu «f A. jwul.^ 
iix acres to James Dorston, of llaik. tar fiivi i£ xdL 

and son." 

The same to same for fires of self and two bhhl* 
The same to same for fires of adf. «on G«w^^ wauC 
hter Joanna." 

^ix acres called ' PowelFs' to Wilfiam Harioa. W lljn, 
ives of Charles Hmrdacre, of Bbckfotd. hLvanr ; Jas«^ 
ag, wife of John Gilling, of Marie, jeoman ; and J^Am^ 


■cc ""ill liMl md two 

s Hin. m JU ti 
a: WoEiHL fee. aai 9» JaBO. 
-n S^i-aapi F-bbel ^ -if J^in Fen; of 1, 

^* ?'ff«f*^ s J'* ma ^joQns. nt HjkIl 


TkassoLi s» Oeui^ Dibssob, of 
iir xine^ jf G«L Dvrstiau Jotm 
m£ Etcwi SasikficU Hawkms." 

7Mix rr 7iirTss! Ill JLioiL pftr: :f B^^a^ Moor, cod- 

LjiiT ^^ iimik-icsir^iiHnn rw: j»rr?* iir«f« r»l5 azid twentT 

jc :li^t^--!1 ^jj^Turiia."*^ ii»f«ica:iu?i^ ▼iii li* Ccnnnissiooers 
T^iiin^i »mi 4,7r*MiiD*i :n. iai£ -j * rersfczi A^ of Pjirliamaii 
: r :: idiur x^i*i %.Ift — -^r . uii tnirL«:s2:£ ^ers^iz: moors, ciHft- 
rA «-^ ji!\£ ▼■fc?c:f .lio*^ -7^«? *^* "r«:^ ir li-e pMish of C 

*^ .r*^ n. ?i»i»::^cani* luI •^far. ia. zhn c^I'Tz^it of Somerset, 
^:. - -<:~ iLi: u»£ i»'cc:?*i *: lie I>ftL:i 4zii CLapt^r, lord? of 

:*• S4 •: :T;>a» * iJ'^ :'Vi»ir^ :z ii»* ^nl :f BTMrn Moor DroTe- 
^>i r X c^ 4^£ ?•*: v^ f 1-kK^ 15 £rfc2.^ :o Jojm Polloi fori 

w" * 7't^.^ »i.'.^> ra.-»*i 'pTi. loii rr-: Aor>?s in ' Wigmeai' 

»v r-\ • l'^ iT >: r'-j^un :z K-«riiir£ Miljkri. S2id since of John 
x» • u •- ** '^1 ?rr: vT^ :c 5»r2s^:r* v^irrier. for Utcs of sdt 

;H\^ "*'N:*\»i Jk•':^r^ r/ Sx-iiT":! F«tr. 

The Mmmmr ^ Mbw^m mmi ^ Timma^ ^ 

^owell's ' to John GilKBpr IMi^^ 

■e six meres on wliikii m iwTniii^ Ws' Ikw «tic ngt xr lid 

m I>iintoii, of SoaA Brml. i^ped 41^^ 

«relTe meres in Gvrer of Oiifi^—i, mni xmi* MOft^ i£ j1>^19* 

»w in Pmrk memd of OtcxIiibL Mnnnane soMir -coK^ieiiiL 

U>beri Browning, dece mj cdL to J«kn Gschbl «f Kmrriniu. il 

■t pah of S. Ciithbtttu jcoBma.^ 

D8e{di Wmtts m{^MHntcd giflnNnii «f JLOamon mai ^Skit- 


'^mrioos Imnds in ADerton to WSnon K Jmjrik . of S 
res c^ Ann Cox, jue Ann WmtiK. Jwnryh Wjom^. j^pefi II. 
fohn Hembr7,mged 11. Oae tewsBeBa. cnsaniv i^ar^oeEL 
9 mnd seTen meres of memdov.. old I ■wriri . ss jKa«^ cE 
■re in Brodoiharst, fire meres in B^OBUe CjtbCl iioir 
%> sixteen perches in Binhmm Moor.^ 

Powell's ' sixteen meres mho^ faj imIbiii^^ lis£7 

L House mnd gmrden. No. 132 om tW Imf^ an^L 
iL One close of memdow emikd Blmck HedL iiinr merK^ 

thirtjr-six perches, Xo. IS £tmoL 
iiL One close cmlled '^FophmnK Grmv^^ «Be mgwt t^xi 

perches. No. 135 ditto, 
iv. One close cmlled ^Gould's Tjasag.* <mt twA 

thirty-two perches^ No. 137. 
y. One piece of memdow in BinhiB'^ Mooc mS xc> 
Thomms Gilling of Mmrk. 
Pitt' three meres, more or less, to Joseph C<KHib$ «f ^ 

>n Cross, yeoman, for lives of GecRge, IIimhV mad Luke 
nbs. Bent of 5/- mnd heriot of 6/8 oo demth of Geoige. 
Dah, or Luke." 

Late Fear's,' one mere two roods mnd twenty perches, to lf^2S 
iam Parfitt, for lives of nephews mnd niece.'' 
That piece of pasture land, commonly known ms Town. ^ 

5 or Broadenhurst, containing by memsnre four meres, mortf 
88 (No. 139), to Edward Beeve, for lives of James Hatch 
, James Escott, and EUen Escott.*' 

ol, XLVlfTMrd Series, Vol. VI}, Part 11. g 

"• Hatch's PoUjr," tlirtc wire* Iwo tw«U tweiily^nnnJ 
(No. 124), fonairly Thirtnan Ilkli-li's tifUmai 1^ 
C'U[i()\ u(i<* GcM. CUjipB, vctHDUt, tu Uie niii (itoiiil^ 
for Uw ot Jmmet Hmtcit of Unntsjnll, cottlniiKi |J|^)| 
CUpp (5>. and Geotgt! Cbpp (31." 


A " (.'apclla " aUaclicd to the murar. of which the all 
beluof^ to tile lonl, faa« alTOMl.T )>ecn ehenn Ui h>i(t 
exutoDce in 1317, but one window, with k namnr ^ 
deep BpUy, west of the porch, points to t dttc m& 
ihta for the lir»t buikiini; of th« edifice. Thi« tgmi 
entrr in the " Libc^r Ruber.' in A.h. 1247, rcftrringto 
then atanclin);. AU that remains of this is the tboi 
window, and pcrluipe the old font. It was a Bmall i 
conBistinF; uf a nave lighted with narrow lancet 
The head of the urigiiial doorway waa utilized by tl 
the fiftecDtb ceiiturr for the bead of the eait wiad 
the chaiK'el appears to have been built, probaltl)' in 6 
William Uythemore. To this date belongs the cope, 
in the Couutjr MuMuin at TaunUin, and full^ det 
Mr. •'. (-'. Buckley, of Hraga*, in the /Vix-m/in^ 
and N. II. Society, xvii, pagt.- .^I. It wa» found by t 
writer in \mn at the bottom of an old ohettt. It mi 
harv l>ceti the ^ft of Deiin Uuiithorp Ui the ebm 
him may be owing the building of the chancel. 1 
IdStt arc carvol on Uie large Koutb window of the 
fix tlic date of a conitidvmble rrmudelliiig of the 
Kdiniind Bower, the son of Adrian, wn» nt the fai 
bmther John had recently taken hi" di^jree at Oift 
were, tbercfurc, men on tlie Mpot, ea|Hi)>le of carry 
work, besides the rector, Matthew Law. 


W'BKw j«Ks a^ % jBone scred tt» tW BMiBorT of 

HiasR Lvcsk :;fae Boij of PncOh WaD, widow. 
W«t B^aere Boiaid AitX ^ JcsBaarr Ano 16^. 
Way ^TnAw tc Heere wmi Gaae ob ae. ss I am dow so 

-^ SsK* Lv^a dbe m^ of Jofca Hart of this PansL 
Wio idsarasd ^^-iwignio^ tht 21. Abbo IXnd. 1677." 
■^ Taj icuB&sC T^m £xz2n^ ckis on ne. Etch as I am Soe 


JLiucusr 3iieiiinraiL ^ sae Wall £aiiiOT wa^ thi$ : 

' '>* . H:;tfr^ l^Hci li-f B»>£t cf Jotn WalL the Sodd of 

A!vL J.1.1 • 1-. lit; hx^if^ZiH: .f Edwani Wall, was Buri^ 

V'lv --. vi£> i*:ji i >c.a«f. rtr: ir«:=: crrnnWinor, to the merot^rr 

X ia.iT^^^c :c '•»ilaji Kazob, 'r. s^r SurveT 1650 u who 

t'>c> :.*r*oi Atc-. 1 tl:^ 1?»:c^ iai x' Edmimd Haiclu the soud 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 




[Iktroddctort Notb. — A comparison of the accompanying list with that 
in ** Somerset Incumbents" will shew that seven of the rectors between 1414 
and 1482, as there given, are here omitted. These seven were not rectors of 
Allerton, but of the Free Chapel of Alston Sutton, in Weare. Of the rectors 
of Allerton before the end of century xv (1498) little or nothing is known.] 

Data of Ap- 

Name of Rector. 

How Yacated. 



June 29 

Thomas Gilbert, D.D. 

By death 
of W. Stevens 

and Chapter 

Lib. ruber 69 

No entry 

Roger Churche 



Jan. 22 

John Rdmunds, Canon 

By resignation 
of R. C. 

Dean and 

„ 156 dors 


James Gylbert 


Dec. 22 

Robert Ffanner 

death of J. G. 


Acts E, fo. 99 

Mar. 23 

John Evered 

death of R. F. 


.. F, fo. 7 

No entry 

William Famham 


„ F, fo. 31 

Deo. 16 

Richard Boyfield 

By resigna- 
tion of W. F. 


„ F, fo. 31 

July 2 

John Farrant 


death of R. B. 


„ F, fa 147 

Oct. 26 

Thomas Steevens 

By resigna- 
tion of J. F. 


„ F, fo. 210 

July 5 

Hugh Philipps 

By resigna- 
tion of T. S. 


„ F, fo. 216 

July 1 

Matthew Law 

death of H. P. 


fo. 10 

July 1 

Ralph Bathurst 

(leath of M. L. 



July 30 

Thomas Da vies 

By resigna- 
tion of R. B. 


on fly-leaf 

1. For further information as to these entries see Somerset and Dorset 
Notes and Queries, vi, 73. 

The Mamar mf AUtrNm ^mi iu TfmirmU. MS 

''^r Churcke^ canon resideatiarr of W^fisc «oi W Aviwarr 
'ood to hare been ^ a gnnt plaraiKt in li^- ^Biicysw^ 4f 
i and elsewhere.^ In 1504 Vicar <tf X, C«mr, H^ 
led AUerton, brfore loO^ Renor 4if RaftciiiV aai 
n, 1515 — 1524. A friend ot WOKmb Wariuaa. Aiv^ 
p of Canterburj, wko was Pigccalgg of Wdb fit^ I49S 
02.* Two letters are extant a» to the mtxt aiMJanliai «f» 
ton, one frcMn tlie Archbishop to the I>em aai C 
»ther, the re^y. Warham desired lo kavY the 

: his letter runs — ^ I ptom js ie tov I fhaD aoBe ta 
er of j^ aune Tertnouse, wdl learned, 
h 1 donbte not shall please God 
*' The Chapter coorteonslT decfiaed to acc«de to the 
t in these terms — ^ pleasethe ror said ^race %o knove that 
>ng tyme used and so yet contynoed any he tfcc Wii^ 
be grefte of the said ChafHtTe be ^tcb when kit vxMkd 
>n of the actuel Residenciaries of this Chmrhe if any wiD 
tpte hit. Wherfore we humbly dtsar yor good grace «e 

observe and kepe this olde usuge.*^ 

7hn Edmunds^ canon residentiary and seneschaL^ In 1507 1508 
or of Mells. On March 26th, 1510, he defirered to the 
ipter one pair of vestmaits of white damaA with ai^ek 
the altar of Mr. John Gunthorpe, late Dean, accot diu g to 

ames Gylberty M.A^ Prebendary of Cod worth and Canon 1536 
identiary of Wells, the last of the {M^e-Refonnation rectors. 
low of Merton Collie, Oxford, 1507. ALA^ 1511. Vicar 
East Ham, Essex, 1511. Rector of Kingsdon, Somt^ 
1. Rector of Christopher-le-Stocka, Lcmdon, 1536. Rector 
^Uerton, 1536.« 

Le Neve*8 FastL I. 171. 
Liber Ruber. Fo. 155. 
Id. Fo. 156mdor8. 
Reynolds^ p. 232. 
Alamni Oxon. 

104 Papers^ 8fc, 


1556 Robert Ff miner not Flaner as in " Somerset Incumbenta,'' 

the first of the post-Reformation rectors.^ In 1561 he leased 
the rectory (the Chapter consenting) to Richard Godwyne, of 
Wells, for a term of 60 years ! The lessee agreed to pay 
Ffanner and his successors £6 13s. 4d. yearly, in two parts, to 
cause the cure of the benefice to be well and sufficiently served 
by one able priest or minister from tyrae to tyme, to be allowed 
by the Ordinary of the Diocese ; and to sufficiently repair the 
chancel, mansion house, dove house and bam, and all other 
buildings belonging to the benefice, '^and them sufficiently 
repay red in the end of their sayd terme to leve and yeHe 
upp.'^^ The C'hapter ratified this agreement ^' quantum in 
nobis est." 

1572 John Evered^ B,A. Was vicar of Weare for three months 

in 1576—77, and died before Jan. 25th, 1577.* 

1578 Richard Boyfeild. AUerton was held by William Famham 

for a short time, after tl. Evered, but nothing is known of him. 
Boyfeild was the " curatus " de Allerton for sixteen years ; he 
was buried at Wedmore on June 27th, 1594 •* his name sur- 
vived for nearly one hundred years, for in 1659 a Richard 
Boyfeild was married in Wedmore church to Joane Reeve. 

1594 John Farranf, a Vicar Choral of Wells. 

1607 Thomas Stecvens. " Clericus." 

1611 //////A Philipps, "Rector sive capellanus rectoriae aive 

capellaj.'' There is sufficient proof of his being resident. He 
buried a son, Thomas, at Wedmore, on October 18th, 1615 
(the entry running " Thomas filius Hugonis Philipps de AUer- 
ton,") and Dorothy, his wife, on March 5th, 1617, and on 
February 14th, 1621, he himself was laid to rest there. 

1622 Matthew Laxo^ M,A, The Chapter -Acts of this year record 

his appointment to Allerton, but it is given in " Somerset In- 

1. Chapter Acta. E , fo. 99. 

2. Chapter Acts. E., fo. 137. 

3. ** Somerset Incumbents," p. 205. 

4. ** Wedmore Elegister of Burials." 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 105 

cumbents" as 1636, and a reference to Rymer's "Fcedera,'*^ a.d. 
shews that on May 28th, 1636, the Crown claimed the right of 
presentation, ^^ adnostram presentationem "' ^' per lapsum tern- 
poris sive per pravitatem Simoniae hac vice spectantem." He 
was vicar of Wedmore 1627 — 1647, and was resident. The 
sad story of his domestic troubles in 1645 — no less than five 
deaths occurring at the Vicarage within three months — is 
given in the Wedmore Chronicle^ and need not be repeated 
here. What happened to him, on his leaving Wedmore, we 
know not, but he was still rector of Allerton in 1650. 

Ralph Bathurst? Dean of Wells 1670. President of 1672 
Trinity College, Oxford, who rebuilt the CoUege Chapel, etc. 
At the outbreak of the Civil War he studied medicine, took 
the degree of M .D., and practised as a physician at Oxford. 
He was a strong Royalist ; of his thirteen brothers, six lost 
their lives in the service of Charles I. In 1663 he became 
Chaplain to Charles II. In his will he says : '^ I have not 
made it the labour of my life to live great or dye wealthy, but 
have studiously avoided that vanity, and sore travel, to bereave 
my soul of good by heaping up riches, not knowing who shall 
gather them." 

Thomas Davies, A Welshman, matriculated at S. Edmund 1679 
Hall, Oxford, July 1661, aged 17, B.A. 1665, M.A. 1670, is 
probably to be identified with this rector. Ordained priest by 
Bishop Piers 1666, he was appointed Vicar of Wedmore by 
Dean Bathurst in 1672, and appears to have served Allerton 
for the* Dean, until 1679, when he became rector, on the 
Dean's resignation of the benefice. There is no Chapter Act 
recording his presentation, but on the fly-leaf of the Acts of 
1666 — 1682, is a memo., signed "Tho. Davies," to the follow- 
ing effect : 

" I Thomas Davis now to be collated to y« Rectory or pish 

1. XX. 134. 

2. I. 245-6. 

3. Diet. Nat. Biog. III. 409, 411. 

1.^. ranrrft >c AQcrtft^s ik Al tquja in the Diocess of Ratke ud 
Wt»iLf h'M T^MVBCarilr. a»i ex animo sahscribe to y« 3 irticW 
!BiHicr>tt>ti ami <««tAiiK»i IB tlie ZMk CftnuD of t« Canooa and 
C-:«e»chicx>ttf Ec?e{«suk of this Scalme and to all things there- 

He hei^i the Prebe»hd Stall of Wedmore the 2iid. He 
^aeii as the ciT^nratiTelT earij age of 43 on December I2th, 
1<»>7. as Wi^tiaioce. a»i ira» honed within the charch oo tke 
1-Sch. A BMflMmal slab in the Chancel has this inscriptioo: 

" H. S. I. Tlwittas Dariesw A.M^ Vicarije Wedmoren. noo 
BcniK« qnam Elccleaje Anglicans jariam assertor Strennitf 
hojii* turn etiam isdiB Allertooensid Perannos xviL Pastor 
Fide&w (>betinatae Integritati^ ille Vir et Priacae Fidei Caltor. 
tJbijt priiie M Decemk mdclxxxvii."' 

1$>7 Fnrmcis Crtdt^ck, of Hemington, Somerset^ and Lincoln 

C'oflcge, Oxford. B.A. 1678. I hi his appointment to Allertoo 
he <ul]iseribeii to the 39 Articles before Bishop Ken. Rector 
of Axbridge 16>2-<9. Die»l at the age of 33 years, and wis 
buried at S. Cuthbert's. Wtrlls. Norember 27th. 1689.* Preb- 
eii«3arT of l"om}>e the **th. 

\ft^9 Thvir* IS B'-'i'k^fuieu, s-.^Q of Thomas Brickenden. rector of 

C orti^n Dinbani, an«l Canon of Wells, who presented him ti> 
Allertoii. He wa> also rector of Rimpton 1090 — 1719, where 
he live;! and diet!. A >tone in the centre of the floor of the 
chancel «»f Rimpton Church commemorates him, and his wife 
Dorothy. She die<l at the early age of 21 in 1697 ; he, at the 
affi* of >9 in 1719.^ 

1719 Klilridqe Arts, >on of William Aris, of the city of Oxfoni : 

matrirulatoil at Christ Church, Oxford, in 1677, Clerk of 
Macrilalen College iOsO— 16S0. B.A. 1681, M.A. 1684. Rec- 
tor of UiKlnev Stoke, 1088-89. Vicar Choral of Wells, 1689 : 
succeeded Cradock as Prebendary of Combe the 8th : Vicar 

1. Sec alBo *• Wedmore Chronicle/* I. 253. 

2. Axbridge Register, but not found at S. Cnthbert's. 

3. Teste, the late Kev. M. Hawtrey, rector. 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 107 

of Cheddar, 1689—1729; Rector of Allerton, 1719—1729. a.d. 
Four of his children were baptized in Wells Cathedral Church, 
the eldest of whom became a Solicitor at Axbridge. He 
resided for the most part at Cheddar, where he died on Decem- 
ber 3l8t, 1729, aged 70 years.^ 

John Tottenham^ M,A,j son of Edward Tottenham, of Bat- 1729 
combe, near Njland. Bom in 1696, and baptized in Cheddar 
Church ; when six years old, he lost his father. Matriculated 
at Balliol College, Oxford («t 14), 1711. B.A. 1714. M.A. 
from Lincoln College, 1717. Prebendary of Holcombe, 1725. 
Rector of Allerton, and Vicar of Cheddar, 1729. Died, 
aged 44 years, in May 1740, and was buried at Cheddar.* 

George Carde^ son of George Carde, of Burnham, gent. 1740 
Matriculated at Hart Hall, Oxford, 1734, aet 20. Rector of 
Allerton for seven months, and then became Vicar of Cheddar, 
where he lived, and died, and was buried in 1 747. 

fVilliam Hudleston^ M.A.y of the ancient family of this name 1740 
in Cumberland, son of Lawson Hudleston, and bom in 1716. 
His mother was Helena Harington, of Kclston, of which 
parish his father was rector 1710, and afterwards Canon of 
Wells, Archdeacon of Bath, and Vicar of S. Cuthbcrt's, 
WeUs. Our rector was also Vicar of S. Cuthbert's, Vicar of 
S. Brent, and Prebendary, first of Easton, and then of Combe 
the 14th. His wife was Mary, eldest daughter of John Bur- 
land, of Wells. He was great grandson of Andrew Hudle- 
ston, of Hutton John, the elder brother of Father Hudleston, 
who received the confession of Charles II, and gave him the 
last rites of the Roman Communion on his death bed. He 
died March 1st, 1766, aged 49, and was buried at Kclston. 

Edmund Lovell^ D,C.L.^ son of Edmund Lovell, clericus, of 1767 
Shepton Malet. Matric. at Merton College, Oxford, 1757. 
B.A. 1760. M.A. 1763. D.C.L. 1768. Rector of Allerton 
and Prebendary of Taunton, 1767. Vicar of S. Cuthbert's, 

1. Cheddar Burial Register. 

2. (Cheddar Barial Register. 

108 Paper 8 J Sfc. 

A.D. and Archdeacon of Bath, 1786. Died July I8th, 1798, a^ 
58. Burial in Cathedral Register. 

1798 William Hunt. Resident at Bath in 1800, from which city 

he wrote and invited a parishioner at AUerton to call on him, 
and take what a bachelor's house could afford. He emplojed 
Rev. John Boak, a well-known clergyman in the neighbour- 
hood, to serve Allerton for him at £25 a year. 

1801 Samuel James. Resided at Radstock, and engaged BeT. 

W. Phelps at £30 a year to do his duty. Mr. Phelps lived at 
Wells, and wrote a " Historv of Somerset." 

1814 Peter Lewis Parfitt^ M.A.y son of Edward and Ann Parfitt, 

of Wells. Bom in 1778. Matriculated at Balliol College, 
Oxford, 1795. B.A. 1799. M.A. 1802. Priest Vicar of 
Wells Cathedral, 1801. Rector of Allerton, 1814, until his 
death in December, 1857. Resided in Wells, and had the f(d- 
lowing curates— C. J. Cobley, 1816—1828. W. G. Heath- 
man, 1829-30. O. S. Han-ison, 1830. W. Irving, 1831. A. 
N. Buckeridge, 1835-37. H. Carrow, 183/-8. Geo. Talbot, 
1839-40. W. Richards, 1843. C. Cox, 1845. N. Spicer, 
1847-48. E. P. Green, 1849-51. H. H. Olver, 1852-58. A 
memorial stone to him is in the south cloister of the Cathedral 
Church. Succeeded in 1858 by the writer of this Paper. 




Part III. 

A DESCENT of Brook proceeding from a younger son 
of the main stem of this family, appears to have been 
first located at Bristol, and subsequently at Long-Ashton, 
Barrow-Gumey, and Glastonbury, in Somerset. The follow- 
ing account of them is not offered as complete, but it is believed 
the principal particulars are included. 

Its founder was Hugh Brook^ third son of Sir Thomas 
Brook^ Junr., of Olditch and Weycroft in Devon, by his wife 
Joan de la Pole-Braybroke^ Lady of Cobham, where he had 
settled on his marriage with the heiress of that name and place, 
and where he died in 1429. 

IBtoob, of IBtistol 

Hugh Brook, who according to the Visitation^ Somerset, 
1623, married Petronel , of whom no further par- 
ticulars are recorded. He appears to have left a son Thomas. 

Thomas Brook, — not named in the Somerset Visitation^ — 
but according to Dr. N orris, the late Vicar of Rcdcliit'e, in his 
account of that church (1882). 

" Thomas Canynges, the last Burviving grandson of the wealthy and munifi- 
cent William Canynges, inherited an estate at Wells from his mother, and sold 
hia grandfather's house in Reddiffe Street. In 1500 it seems to have become 
the residence of Thomas Brook, the father of John Brook, whose gravestone, 
inlaid with brass, is in Redcliffe church." 

110 Papers^ ifc. 

Who he married is not recorded, but in the Gloucestershire 
Visitation^ a Thomas Brooke is mentioned as having married 
Anne^ daughter of Sir Thomas Spert, of Stjbonheath, Middle- 
sex, Comptroller of the Ships to Henry VIII. Ljsons in 
the Environs of London^ Part II, thus refers to him : — 

"On the south wall of Stepney church is the monument of Sir Thooui 
Spert, Comptroller of the Navy in the reign of Henry VIII, the Pounder tad 
first Master of the Corporation of the Tnnity Houae, 1541 ; and that it wis 
erected by them in 1622." 

He appears to have left two sons, William^ apparently the 
eldest, died s.p. A William Brooke married Agnes, daughter 
of John Wynter and Alicia his wife, daughter and heir of 
William Tirrey, and she married secondly Dr. Thomas Wilson, 
Secretary to Queen Elizabeth. The younger was John. 

John Bkook, second son, was a person of considerable 
position, Serjeant-at-Law to Henry VIII, and Justice of 
Assize to that King for the western parts of England. He 
also held the office of Chief Steward to the Monastery of 
Glastonbury, which must have occurred diuing the rule of 
Abbot Richard Beere, who presided there from Jan. 1492-3, 
to his death 20th Jan., 1524. 

He married Johanna, only daughter and heiress of 
Richard Ameuikk, of Ashton-Phillips (or Lower Court), in 
Long-Ashton, a manor of which he purchased " one moiety in 
1491 from Thomas Withyford, and the other half from Hum- 
phrey Seymour in 1503, thus being proprietor of the whole. 
This property John Brook probably possessed jure uxoris, auJ 
resided on it; he was married in 1494. They left three sons, 
Thomas, eldest and heir, — Arthur^ and David, and oue daugh- 
ter Lucia, who married Nicholas Tooze, son and heir of •lobn 
Tooze of Taunton, and his wife Johanna, daughter of John 
Combes. Arms of Tooze, — Sabh, two swords in saltire artjent,, 
hilts or, points downwards, within a bordnre of the second. 

He was interested in the management of Redcliffe Church, 
and, continues Dr. Norris : 

ill >1 

The Brook Family. Ill 

'*An antient docnment in the vestry of Redoliffe Cbarch is, — *A hook of 

^iccompte of John Brooke and others, procurators of the church,* containinff 

charges for obits said in Canynfies Chantries. This book is much scribbled 

over by Chatterton, teaching himself to counterfeit the fifteenth century 


He died 25th Dec., 1522, and was interred together with his 
wife, on the north side of the chancel of Bedcliffe Church, 
heueath a flat stone whereon is inlet their effigies in brass, with 
inscription ; and originally also four shields, one of which only 

He is in forensic costume, with coif, tippet and hood, and 
long gown with full sleeves. His wife wears a pedimental 
head-dress with flowing lappets, close-fitting gown with fur 
cuffs, an embroidered girdle with enriched fastening, from 
which depends by a chain an ornamented pomander. Both 
have their hands raised in prayer. 

Beneath them is this inscription : — 

Hie iacet Corpus venerabilis viri Joh^is Brook quondam serneni* 
ad legem I llnstrissimi principis felicis memorie Rcyis Henrici 
octaui et Justiciam eiusdem Regis ad assisas in p^tlh^s Occident^ 
alibis Anglie ac Capitalis Senescalli illius honorahilis Domns et 
Monastarii Bcate Marie de Glasconia in Qnn Som^cett qui 
quidem Jolies obiit xxv^ die Mensis Decembris anno d'ni Mille- 
simo quingentesimo xxijo et iuxta ed^m Requiescit Jolianna 
vxor eius vna Jiliam et heredu Richardi Amerihe quor aiaVs 
p^picietur deus Amen. 

Which may be read : 

Here lies the body of the venerable man John Brook, formerly a Serjeant at 
Law of the most ilmstrions prince of happy memory King Henry thu eighth, 
and a Justice of Assize of the same King in the western parts of England, and 
Chief Steward of that honourable House and Monastery of the Blessed Mary 
at Qlastoubory in the County of Somerset ; which said John died the 25th day 
of the mouth of December, 1522, — and next to him rests Johanna his wife, 
only dau^ter and heiress of Richard Amerike, on whose souls may Qod have 
mercy, — Amen. 

The arms on the remaining shield arc greatly denuded, and 
two of the quarters, those assigned to Braybroke, unfinished, 
simply marked out, as if the engraver was uncertain of his 
work, and subsequently hatched over one of them ; the liear- 


Papers, Sec. 

ingg of Itrook also are nearly ubliterated. But siiffirJcnt n- 
inaina to identify them with careful scrutiny, and may lie tiiw 

Per pate, dexter paly of two, — I. On a e/ierron, thrr* lim 
rampant, i» the dexter chief, a crescent _fiir difference, (CiiBHJll 
of Kont). 2. On a chevron, a lion rampant crowned, ( ItnoiiK, 
the cniwn an augmentation after their migration lo I'obhun) 
impaling sinister, cjuarterly of four, 1. Cobham with crMrm/, 
— 2 and 3, seven muscles, 3, 3 and 1. (Bkaybuoke). t ! 

Of Thomas and Arthtir, the eldest and second sons, preaentlj. 

Silt David ok Davy Brook, third sou of John Brook. 
Serjeant-at-Law, He appears to have followed his father'i 
profession of the law, and to have risen to considerable emJ- 
neuce herein, being described as Lord Chief Baron of llw 
Exchequer, was knighted at, or immediately after the Connie 
tion of Queen Mary in 1553, and bore for bis arma, — G»ttt, 
on a chevron argent, a lion rampant sable, ducally cruicned or,t 
crescent yiZure, on another of the third, for difference, treat,— 
A Blachamoor's head proper, wreathed argent and saUi- 

In the Visitation, Somerset l(i23, he is stated to have c 
rieil Katherinb, "sister" of John Bridges, Lord ChAndoi 
and that he died s.p. In the Visitation, Qloticesterslure, ti 
lady is recorded to have married Leonard Poole of that com 
who died 30th Sep.— 30 Henry VIII, 1539, (by Collins o 
Nichiird), and if so Sir David must have been her aecuod I 

She was the third daughter of Sir Giles Bruges or Bri 
of Coberly, eo. Glonuenter, knighted by Henry VII, 
"dubbed at Blackheath feild on St. Botolph's day," — iK 
June, 1497, — Sheriff of Gloucestershire 1600, and died 1611 

This brother, Sir John Bridges, appears to have berai a h 
soldior and flexible courtier, in the reigns of Henry Vfl 
Edward VI, and (^ueen Wary, and his career gives on i 

The Bro0i Fmmufy, 

>^^er Court, which was profaaUr bnih la- RS^aard 
>1linson observes : — 

■* It was formeriy a rtrj 
^ept an east wing for the 
inscotted and the edges of the 
^pel, twentj-ivo feet hgr tea_B 
naizia in ite 

atk wall ia a niehe for My 
cade o^er the 

* » J 

The house or mansoD of AdiUA-PfailEpfi. o? L/:'«'*:r C-'.wrL 
lilt as presumed bj Bichaid AaMrrke — ahLcr^^ex i^- am^ «r 
i.te remain to attest it — and which ^sbM/jatt^T- •P^aaauf: Hue 
isidence of his daughter and h«ire» Josjuma, whit mt 
asband John Brook, and their deaecndanOif. La!*t. ^^'^i: v>^ 
etached Chapel, been ahnoet eotireljr nimh ajstd zi^j>sn.j^:^^ 
ly the aid of a recent careful impwtifMx. vhr. wj^xi:'/kt,r.Ty^ 
hotx)graph, we are enabled to giTe a ieij^j^ a^»v.v*. ^ji-j 
lew of the building as it now appears, aui ti^ uut^'n y/rC/f/u; 
hat at present remain. 

•« On the right of the dvdHmt hoaat is a kw ymtuA ^^^trwwf v/r«rv£ v4a 
ry, which rone vp the ^fcle, aad ilolhia a eifaririi ^«taeMC '.lut^ x^r.^^ 

walled-np two>liat wiadew cm the aotlh ekfe. Sacxaqf tatt oK ^f Uii^ i^AM, 
he label and heads being still in the wait Tbt caee «-.a«ic/v jg !.>< v> 'j%-*^ 
ide, bat inside an the leoMine of a mee yaym^tjtaJMt vjuir*<v, 'a «m wn-fin 
B a two-li|dit wiadew, sistrhhig the north, aad vufio. 4A/.as WL^ee*, ^aa t^'Adir- 
atila wonld be, this has beoi lainul iaft> a 6f^jrw%j >ac^i^ aW* » f jstk «m»c 
rhe niche, idiich is ap p awt lj a trae usaaa, k Hbsk 4a«ft vf *ui^. 7 m a.'Uv 
^ described by ColKnann has Tsaishwi TW 1*0/ -m :s, -jn^xtu •r.cvl.tu'A. <trT«nr 
mfter being fwwifiimsil aa a tie-htaai aersst, i^jikAfA u^i ^.^prt*/ 'r.rr^. 
rhe interior is now nssd aa a Inaihtr rvjm. Osu^ le^ ,ry ^;ax^ \y v^ Ua 
;op covers the bell-eot^ aad is tw dense t* a^akft «xrt ai.7 vt-^m 'a Ua «s«ie 
-idge. Apparentlj vliat hMiks hfce aa rrj-^yver^^ bsSS/^tei wt ^^^ v,-%«, ua 
;op of the Chapel door, is the ^siaginir *A aa sr^ tr^ il:u lut «>•«.>:. /.^ jsc vM 
lave stretched awaj to the wtat, aad ^ 

, thcsi jinimiAj tarut^ stic>*i;i V^/ tCA «^r«th. 

Da the east^ or other aide of the hooee;, is a jp>a^ dfy^nr^j. *£A U^, fau^uM *A 
lome Uter sanare-headed tmA laheOcd viadr/v«, 'f^st tL^t t*^ 'A tbM m^ Jiiaa 
Deen senerally reboilt. Appareaitly the b#»M vet nv>elft#j. 4j>i Umt^ ar^ 'y^' 
iideri9>le remains of fish-ponds, Ac'* I 

Of "BaROtD'^utnei?. 

Abthib Bro^ik, second »on of •/<rAii Ifrwfh^ S^rr^^autHtt- 
Law. In him the male nucce^^ion of th^; family wa«t con- 
tinued ; but who he married, or any furth«^r f#articulan 

1. By the kindneai of P. Were, Eeri., awl th« phrH/igraph by Mr. C. K. 

116 Papers, ^c. 

respecting him, are uot available. He appears, however, to 
Lave left a son, Edward, 

Edwahd BiiooK, his son, is described as being "ol 
Barrow-Gurney," and to have married Florenrr, the daogtittli 
of , , . . Brandbridf/r, Tliey left foiir sons, Arthur, Thorn 
Edward, auil Hni/h : as stated io the Viiitatiim, confirmed, 
the will of their nephew Edward, proved 2iid Pebnn 
1636-7, There are several entries in the Barrow-Gnr 
Rtt/ixUr, between 1607-1663, to fainilieg named Thonua a 
Brooke, and Brocke, but they do not appear to be conaeetl 
with this descent of Brook. 

Artuuh Bkook, eldest son of Edipard, aforesaid. He i 
described as having died s.p. 

Of <2DtQ$tonburp. 

Thomas Brook, second son. He is mentioned as 
Glastonbury Abbey, 1 61i3," to have married Rebecca, daughH 
and co-heir of John IVtke, of Ninehead ; and to have left a 
and two daughters, who, at that date 1623, were respectiw|i 
Arthur, aged six; Elizabeth, five; and Mary, three yi 
The three are also mentioned in their cousin Edward's will 

Edward Bkook, third son. He is also mentioned by 
nephew Edward, in his wilt, and is recorded to have died E.p. Tl 

HufMi BitooK, fourth sou, also of Glastonbrny ; he raarriwf 
Doriithy, daughter of Edward Preston of that place, was dead 
before 1636, and his wife married secondly Mr. John Stro 
In the Vi.iit.atum he is described as then having three childr; 
Edward, aged ten, Joan, aged twelve, and Jatie, aged thir 
but in Edward's will two other sons, Silvanui and ThomattVrt 
mentioned, and two further daughters, one Durufhy, who ap- 
parently married Edward Dam's, and another unnamod to 
William Court ulias Paris. Jane, the eldest daughter, mu 
Jiihti Gaylnrii, oi Lovington, Somerset. Joan was wife | 
Miitthrir Shrpp'ird, of Calne, vintner. 


The Brook Family. 117 

Edward Brook, eldest son, appears to have succeeded his 
father, and to have died young, aged about twenty-three, and 
unmarried in 1636-7. The following particulars of his will 
are taken from the Rev. F. Brown's Extracts : — 

"Edward Brooke, of Glaston, Somerset, gent., will dated 5th July, 1636, 
moved 2nd Febroary, 1636-7. My mother, Dorothy Stroade (daughter of 
£!dward Preston, of Glastonbury) ; my uncle, Thomas Brooke, gent. ; my 
father, Uugh Brooke, of Glaston, gent., deceased; my sister, Jane, wife of 
John Gaylard, of Lovington, Somerset, yeoman; my sister, Joan, wife of 
Matthew Sheppard, of Calne, Wilts, vintner (who proved the will) ; my 
brothers, Silvanus, Thomas, and Edward Davies; my brother, Will. Court 
alku Paris ; my sister, Dorothy Davies ; my father-in-law (step-father), Mr. 
John Strode, twenty shillings for a rins; my uncles, Edward and Thomas 
Brooke, of Glaston ; my cousins, Elizaoeth and Mary Brooke, and Arthur 

The arms of this descent of Brook, as given in the 
Visitation of Somerset for 1 623, consist of nine quarterings : 
1, Gules^ on a chevron argent^ a lion rampant sable^ crowned or 
on a crescent^ a mullet for difference (Brook), of Olditch and 
Weycroft, the crown being an augmentation, added apparently 
after they had migrated to Cobhara ; 2, Gules^ on a chevron or, 
three lions rampant sable (CoBHAM, Barons of Cobham) ; 3, 
Ermine, on a chevron gules, three buck*s heads cabossed or 
(Hanning), this evidently represents the alliance of the first 
Sir Thomas Brook, and Johanna Hanning, widow of Thomas 
Chedder, on her seal the buclCs heads are in a chief; 4, 
Ermine, seven mascles conjoined, 5. 2. 1, (^sic) (Bray broke) 
should be 3. 3. 1., the second Sir Thomas Brook married 
Johanna Braybroke-Cobham, Lady of Cobham ; 5, Gules, a 
chevron dancetfee, between twelve cross-crosslets or; 6, Barry 
nebulee of six argent and gules (Bassett) ; 7, Azure, a fess 
dancettee between three garbs or ; 8, Azure, two bars nebulee or 
(De la Pole) ; 9, Gules, a fess argent between six cross- 
crosslets or (Peverell). 

Bom a0 to otfier neBcenliants of IBrook. 

Margaret Brook, the widow of Duke Brook, of Temple- 
combe, ob. 1606, and buried at Cobham ; she appears to have 
been a Berkley, and deceased 1641-2. Her will is dated 30th 

118 J'aperi, tfc 

Jan., 1641, ana provod 7tli Feb., 1641-2. In it she mtatif 
"my Qepkew, Michael Berkley; Maurice, youngest son of i 
brother, Kobcrt Berkley ; my niece, Penelope Wanrfoi^ 
eldest daughter of Sir William Brook." 

These further particulars relating to them are exi 
from " The fate of Henry Brwke, tenth Loril CobkiOM," bj L 
O. Waller, Esq., in the An.haoht/ia of the Soerety if .■ 
i/uaries, Vol. xlvi, 1881, relative to their aeqiiisition of t 
of the forfeited estates of their cousin, the haplesa Hi 

Tciuauider in the usati n 

of a 

BeL if e 

a (William), the 
Brooke, who wu executed kt Wincheetcr — ■ poor friendleu child of 
agt, DUftble to kasert his own rights livfore the law, Bod deierted by tli<a« &M> 
to him in bluod, whose duty it waa to aid him. 

Iliig tr«D«actioii wu ealeTed into with Duke Brooki , 
Lord (Henry) Cubhun, and next in succeuion, if George Brooke's chiUiM 
were debarred by attaint of bluod. This appears from the answer by thi kia| 
to >■ TAr HHmhle Prtilion nf Duke Broohc. of Templr CoTitbr, Ra., and in oM 
tidiratiiM nf £i^SS9 m Mi Mag. 1605. and £3,160 on 81k Nooember. iSliS. M 
£3,3S0 on tht ilA Mag, 1G06, Ay llu taid Dubr Brooke paid, re fframl, M,' 
Then followa a recital of tbe manon. Ac, making in all ninety-ooa itena. Si 
here we lind the kin^, in two years alter the attamder, is proi^ediiig to rcalM 
on the eatfttes leiied. 

The recipient did not li*e Inng in poaaesaion of the property tfaua ar>qnui^ 
but died without issue 27th Mav, i6><6 (buried at Cobham, lOtb Jnne fall<'«> 
ing) only tweuty-tbree days aner the time tixed for his lust payment. 
25th October, ie<l7. Charles Brook, hia brother, had a renewal of thii gntf 
from the king, but on what temis does not ^pear. Wbilat the property wM 
in his hands, he wu-tod with several manors to Ceoil, then I^rl of Salisbury. 
for £fi,O0O. as well as to uther& Be died Sth AprQ, 1610 (and was tuiricd r' 
Temple Combe)." 

Ill iJie meantime " the unfortunate prisoner, Henry Bruol 

was living out thoee who were enjoying and scatt«riDg hi 

estates." And it was in this year of IfilO, that "th» 

tion of blood" took place, of the still young childrea 

George Brook, his brother, was accorded, but shorn of 

claim to the estates or title. " Btit." continues Mr. Wallw 

" It must BDtely be iiuestionable if the king bad a right ki act aaido Uie viU I 
lieorge. Lord Coblum, for it is clearly shewn by the iDstnitnenta drawn Bp h 
the lawyers respecting the sale of property by John Etroohe (af(«rwsrd) - -*^ 

SIAS WVATT— OB: 1542. 

The Brook Family. 1 1 9 

ord Cobham hy patent, to the Onke of Lenox and Richmond, that they con- 
dered the will and entail in force, notwithstanding the attainder, as it is 
>nstantly recited, and the death of all who conld daun dnly proved. 
It seems probable that James, with the connivance of Cecil, who bought 
>nie of the estates of Charles Brooke, used or abused the law, and threw such 
bctacles in the way of the rightful heir, as rendered any process against the 
rown hopeless." 

Margaret Brook, the joungest daughter of William 
Jrook, Lord Cobham, K.G., ob. 1596, was, according to 
jysons, {Environs^ Stepney^ baptized there, and gives this 
ntry from the Register : 

* *■ Margaret Brooke, the daughter of Sir William Brooke, Lord Cobham, bap- 
aed 8th June, 1664*" 

She was sister to the ill-fated Henrj Brook ; and ancestress 
►f Sir Richard Temple, created Viscount Cobham. 

Elizabeth Brook, Lady Wyatt, one of the daughters 
>f Thomas Brook, Lord Cobham, ob. 1529, married Sir 
Thomas Wyatt, the elder, the well-known poet, who died near 
Jherbome. Hutchins says : — 

'* Being sent by the King (Henry VIII) to Falmouth to conduct liJontmor- 
nc3% the imperiiu embassador, to London, from an excess of zeal to please the 
Cing. he made more expedition than was necessary, riding hard in a very hot 
eason, and died of a violent fever here, and was buried m the great church, 
541, aged 38." 

He was conveyed to his friend. Sir John Horsey's house, at 
!!^lifton-Maubank, close by, where he died, and who after- 
wards laid him in the vault prepared for himself in the Abbey 
I^hurch, where he subsequently found a resting place beside 
lim. The Register records : — 

** 11 MeMis Octobria 1542,— S4 Re : Hen. 8,—Sepultus eat D'tu Thomaa Wyet 
niles D'ni Regis ConsUiariua vir Venerabilia," 

But no memorial or inscription exists to record his burial 
here, a strange reproach to the history of English literature. 

Brook — Stourton. Jokn^ eighth Baron Stourton, mar- 
ried in 1580 Elizabeth, daughter of William Brook, lAtrd 
Cobham, K.G., ob. 1596-7, by his second wife, Frances 
Vewton, of East Ilarptree, and sister of Henry Brook, the last 
mfortunate Baron Cobham. 

120 I'ltprm, Icr. 

He was the eon of Charles, seventh Bamn Stotirton. bj \u$ 
wife Anne, daughter of Edward Stanley, Karl of Dcrbt, 

"with the help of four of his own servuita committrai b foal mnrdcT 
penon DAmeit UartgiU uiil hia bou, burying tbeir bodJe« fifty feet ilecp m tti 
«arth, thinking thereby to pTcvont thr diecovery ; but afterwirdi it cominf ta 
liizht, he had senteoce of death pwaed on hini. whioh he Huffem] kt SilitbuT. 
ifth Much. 1557, by (as it is said) an halter of silk, id reipect of hi* quidr. 
Hii tomb is in tbe nave of Salisbury Cathedral " 

He^Lord John^was restored in blood by Act of PsHia* 
ment, 18 Elizabeth, 1575, and acted as one of the peers « 
the trial of Marj, Queen of Scots. He died 13th Oclobw, 
1588, without issue, appointed bis body to be buried in thi 
chapel of the church at Stourtou ; and was succeeded by htj 
brother and heir, Edward. The date of Lady Stourtou's deatll 
does not appear. 

Thomas Brook, the fourth son of Georpe Brook, Lorf, K.G., ob. 1558, whose lawless career has been prevv 
ously alluded to, the cruel incident recorded of hira in bis 
duct as a buccaneer is thus described by Froude, in his Hiitarj 
of Enr/fand :^ 

■' Tbe Boua of Lord Cobbnin of Cowling I'aatlc. who hail Hrat distingutabcd 
thetnaolvea in Wyatt's rabBllioii. had grown up tHer the ^pe of their bnyhiioA 
irroKu'^r lanlcse ProtoeljuiU ; and one of them, Thomas (Brook) Cobbut. «• 
at this time (I56.^| roving the eeas, halt-pirate, half knight-errant of the R«f<«- 
nistiuii, doing battle on hia own account with the encmisa of the truth. wlifH- 
ever the aervioe of God, was likely to be repaid with plunder. He WM o« " 
a tboUHUnd whom Elizabetb v»a forced (or deceney'a aoke to diavlaiin and 
deron in proclutiatiuns, and whom ahc naa as powerleas. a< she was urohaUr 
uDwilliog to interfere witb in practice. What Cobham waa, and what fali klM 
were, may he seen in the atory about to be told. 

A Spanish ship was freighted iu Flaudera for Bilbao ; the cargo was valiwilit 
SO, 000 ducats, and there were un board alio forty priaoners coiidemnvd, aa tb* 
Spauiah accounta aay 'for heavy nfiences worthy of cbaatiaement,' who w" 
goinu to Spain to serve in the gnlleya. Young Cobbam, cruiaing in the Cham 
cau^t sight of the vessel, ohaaed her down into the Ray of Biacay. Iired i 
her. killed her captain'a brother and a number of men, and then boarding wktK 
all reaiataDCQ hod ceased, aewed up tbe captain himself, and the sDrvivon ' ''~~ 

crew in their own aaite. and ftnne them overboard. The fat« of the pr 

ia nut relate<l ; it seems they perished with the rest. The ihip woa acultledt 
aud Cobham m.'ido off with booty, which the English themaelves admi" " *" 
be worth 50,00(1 ducats, to his pirate's neat in the south of Ireland, K„ 
drowned bodies, with the mainsail for tbeir winding aheot. were washed op M 
the Spanish ahorca. 'cruelty without examplr, of which but to h« 
enoueh to break the heart.' 

Cobham waa tried for pirooy the next year at the indignnnt reiimatioa I 
Spiiiii. He refused to plead to hia indictment, and the dreadful a»iitence 1^ 

7: 1-1^ ^V-<-^vCc. . : ir. antzent familv in Devon, presumed 

:u.-: :.r.v:«i :ir:ir r^nie from the manor of Wesicotcn 

-itr's\ : Matt.-mL n^ar ilarnstaple, married thisbeirei 

u» ^uii£ A ^a^mjj :c .vivc. asoectlv dcaeendcd. the king'iaeniiiii 
wii .^LttcnA^ r:r !:;» T-'^'aiy proves*, vhich broaght him to tk 

• . \t. 

11 -cr^ f >Lj^ f ittirT IV 42.1 Y ; res ibe ladj being fair and of BoUe ipint 
-x- i:w -14 7a^-ad«fL ii.-^- :c Ivri Occe . A&d baTingLu^ge pnnnrnifmi froB kff 
wx^.^TSC-.r» V«f '.^T^tiCL-ii. ^2*i. fr-:ai i*r :r«^ch«r. danghter and heir of Quatff' 
uoiji. lac .-ciifr iBctM&'n. r9iL*LT<fc %: ci:iL;in;.e the honour of her naae, ul | 
:^xi:r: i.'c«3 :r; -«i^i :'/ X^isz^-'Ot* mmcs. c«fore marriage, that her iflBc n- 
ii:n-3i>?i«f jUi.-o-ii. >« rA^«i JT siie =.&&e cc Lcsseltoo- Upon thia mani^Mr. 
* j*r.\ as *::i.wi i: "•"*^T.i.'-eT ^ ja^i wrned the c£ce of Eicheator to Henry H 

-'s-. 4L^-a L^ix^r "vo-v:! i< intfti >^t-_=;{ ::cr ic<i« and as many dan^feen." Be 
^ » *iio.-:'e-;':»i :/ j_» ji.imK jco. Scr ^Tbcesj* Lvtselton. KJB., the tMnuA 
.»¥• .- sj.: ;:.♦!■; . lacof :c "Hh S'j:^'* Fee's:!!. 'who died 23nl August M- 
fii: to.'.\r;Mi^ ^* "•" i,jc.vcj. "Lit ?^^:rftr'-'v hissorian. this change of saae 
i^fi'x;*! ti.-t T- 'Li*i ^-litAS fca » !<:? :f Lrtselwa. the three other jougv 
i^'i» "%-?*: r." ^Ru Ta^i- r^^ibfr « rasr.'nysx*. Gnido. Edmund, and NicboK 
lat: "* a; --Zt lai^ir li tiiese i< irtscr::** '* "■n.f*I: so deccend. 

•'V - '-^-T'TtLuT- >ir "^1- c:j» Lx-T^iT:** ?N»rs.. M.P. for co Worcester, cic. 
- .IT— .-. ''ti '. » ' fs .*i.-ss:iiz. »a«r :£ >:r Richar*i Temple. But.. o( ^itev- 
.r>rj:x'«: s«.< >lz: uti 5ift:->a S^'cujji. &s<l f^e Az^i her heirs male, were enuli- 
Tuxu atf*.* ii'- ji "iisiAij-iuc ^ ii:>:ee n^iesw Tbey bad eight children: of the 
Aii^ .*^. r^^ "ii^i iiii««c &3C 2<Lr iriM iifvifral isp^.^rtant ministerial offices, ke 
-~'. r^^'i-S:-: .*a^2^ui-:c.i: .i r>iT"a. -jt F»K::A=*nt. and married, first. Licy 
.•.»-■ J. r^■■ i - i^-2 >' rrc*;*ii. V*: . .c FiHetih. in that c#>nnty. He « 
.^. fc!.' . J. /'•».••/ -: '*' -.-^v^. li*th Nov.. IToT. ^ii^' 

i\!': . ■'■. -^ . -Vko *.-.-.•«• !•:■■. ':;• •:* *- ri.', who Jyia^ with '-t 

sfr ■- -" ' ^ . ""■ :.:. vf.rx^ -XT.-^ ^V. " a- Heiry Lvttehon. iii*:i 

■■•>.: :.*■■*:. :^\ t^j.^-: -is.-: .z -.z zz-i i\-.'.':zL\\:: Scrvis.>e ; he trlsoj^ 

> . v ■•. -1^*: -■'. ..t:-'. *: :"• " *. 'r^ ih- rrrle :' 5cr-.>w W-r^fr^.'''. 

■..«-. ".t;.-^ : j : s^rz.^z.'i :: Ti.-ciA* Wc*to>te. who air- 

-■.'.••. • .. -^ . TC.' -. -c .'i ' -iz Ai^ '.".H. i* was s.-tatfri a peer'*: 

■•■.■.. ": Si- ■: '::.: ■.•-.i 1 i'-^^. ' -•'•:■■».■"':'. . which h*! «■ 

^ ■ ' :* '"■• ■■ V* :• . L'i\i '.-tii S<:r . IS > Ai :htr iicAth •■: 

:: . •. ": ,: :■. ■ '■.*.. .:-?:.. *.: V:c;-:I^-I'.T:ei":..c. zz-t «^n;i>ii'i »:ster i£ n 

... X • « I -- ,w * '.. „ ..— , 'I ■ «~ *■»■> ■" ' ' N. 

. . a. . . .. .1 . . « ■- . ^> - «•. . ^ ^^.%* ^. ^^_ .C^r ^^ * ■ k ^^ 

• *■■■ 1----. -." - !""*l^ ■* ** ■*."•:.«. -n.^-T^^"**!"' 

The Broitk Family. 123 

of the house in the days of their Lancastrian successor, 
**KjTige Harry the VI," wedded the Lady of Cobham in 
Kent, sole heiress to the title and possessions of the Barony of 
that name, which had descended to her through many genera- 
tioBfl, and was one of the most antient and important in East 
Anglia. Their descendants, the Cobham-Brooks, through 
raccessive summonses to Parliament by the York and Tudor 
sorereigus, as peers of the realm, occupied from their official 
functions and honours, a position in the first rank of social 
influence among the hereditary nobility, which continued com- 
paratiTely unaffected by the varying phases of national affairs, 
until the first Stuart king remorselessly extinguished them, 
title and possessions. Revived by the second Stuart king in 
the person of a descendant of a younger son of the fourth 
Baron, an empty title shorn of all that gave it dignity and 
influence, it flickered a few years, and at the death of its first, 
unfortunate, and only possessor, again expired ; and at his de- 
cease, the name of Brook in connection with the Barony, as 
its original inheritor, completely disappeared. Seventy years 
afterward, by the first Georgian king, the abeyant title was 
once more revived, — ^to be again re-conferred and enhanced — 
in the person of a remote descendant bearing another name, 
deriving from a distaff of the main house, sister to the last im- 
fortunate Baron, and this re-creation, only by its liberal re- 
mainders to female heirs, survives to the present. 

It is a singular coincidence that after so much vicissitude, 
the title should have returned to the descendant of a gentle- 
man, who, although his family patronymic was supplanted on 
their union by that of his heiress wife, came from Devon, the 
county from which the Brooks also migrated on marriage with 
the heiress of Cobham, but not in their case, with the extinc- 
tion of their name. 

The Westcotes continued to descend from Guido, the second 
son of Thomas Westcote and Elizabeth Lyttelton, and of 
them was Thomas Westcote, who, "following the Court in the 

' "x lum ii. * ^M^iH ^nrof«, 'm 

€f)z Ciuantock0 ano tbeir piace^Jl^ames. 


THE etymology of the Place-name, Quantock, anciently 
written Cantok, is an .interesting but rather elusive 
study. Some have derived it from " Gwantog," i.e., full of 
openings or combes. Some have regarded " Cant-ioc " as a 
diminutive, meaning '^ little headlands ; " Dr. Pring in his 
*^ Briton and Roman on the site of Taunton/' has suggested 
" Cuan," Gaelic for hill, and " Toich," country, i>., the hill 
country : some have playfully mentioned the old " Quantum 
ab hoc," but no one, as far as I know, seems to have thought 
that Cantok, like Caer Caradoc, may have been named from a 
person. Crantock in Cornwall, and also in Cardigan is named 
from Carantacus, and this Saint, a contemporary of King 
Arthur, is connected with Carhampton according to Leland. 
At any rate, Carantacus was known under the Quantocks, 
and, if we desire to speculate, there is no reason why that 
well-known stone on Winsford Hill should not commemorate 

To come to more solid facts and documents, perhaps the ear- 
liest mention of Cantok is in the composite word Cantucudu, z.^ ., 
Cantok Wood, in Centwine's famous West Monkton Charter, 
when he gave twenty-three mansiones to Glastonbury " in loco 
juxta silvam'famosam quae dicitur Cantucudu." This is dated 
A.D. 682, and the light it gives us is interesting. The fame of 

:::ff />?VT». Jnr. 


'M St^jK iniiK-. ii^' irnTH fic* IvveJT in oar local aunk 
Tie Jn&e Pnceswr FrManas )lft^ a aoie mboot Ceni vioeV Cos- 
Dnfis. * 1l iirci. C-enrviiK^ %iixaw j«vife<3 tike BiidsiL 
iir -aif Vfifc Sfcxciu i^ 9m cous vess ci zbt month of tk 
rf!: . . . A ^Hn C«Brv]iK~5 rinax ^ade like F ^wh oia»- 
f if Vukduic^ . . . Hpit fir vest i&«imdb]>imst«r«Patlod; 
I Di nrc IE-LCS9F K- ^ST . . . 2B tio^ csBnieB I coacnTe dux 
xiK Vcs SfxmiK wot -an sxe? ctf B d id g i imK r uid Watdiet; 
snr ^rv m&T. I ixiixk. T^excairt v< pcsont C^amrbie a& fofriaf tk 
'aif LycifcrL. and Qrl»j ng liie W«^ up tiie raDeT vhere. 
c&T^ C nrivcviiBiilt 'v^a^ £Tr«B /bj Gji^ i for tlie repoK 
{if ^iK tsiul ic ^jrMviB.* Tkv iUMf kf BftT kftve ^ivcB rise to 
7ii« nsnif T'lLaitftfi ir ** Wae^as $«k.^ liie pta^ of the wadA 
9^ ^ Bnaso. wsK cm&Bfi W i^ Saxods. rBiuBg jmt mder 
5u^^tfirrau:T HiL lan iKser fca ai liie <4d siBe for tlie higfeit 
7»iiiic fC tiif ^^i2Ui»»r^ W* iZ faiT'ir ■:•! Cooqoest Fani ii 
'^-^j f^fcTi Z-T ♦:>:*. 'Tl TifcTjfi. mi: lirhre i? k ie#i fTill koowB a«ik 
• .-rrx: F*t«L :c ?»iT^»*.' ir Cr w?:cL^r lAriii. irher>e the coo- 
-;•:•:.: up : c:':S x Sk^.ttc- ^i£ r^misi niiri: ii-re f>uffliu i$ thf 
: '-tiytc :..'-^br*i 5:^r^ ':e«r»-e*-i: Wilie: Wtci** : HiD ui 
i'» .*.s:»:*: i. n x^'t firf.' :■: Willi: .a Waeia?-T««n : ■ ini 

' :i.>. y'aj.'^j-riiji*:^ Ti.Li: T. zl^ fjir: z'*.kz i-.w^iri* Bnendoc 

!.:>: y.v:.' • r ::>^ "*•"*- -j^is >::»"0 ibtir £r.v.iz>d > tcjTrr Than aroixnfl 

:•: •»: .• ..::-• ~; z.1k z^i^sz %Zii ?*:»zii :: lie QisAutcck*^ It 

% ^> ,i: :,••: ri*.T::a. fi>i* :iLr ib^ Skx.>Q«w ier^fore, fii^ 

¥-1^ .!.:* jii*iJi..T:£ )4:iik:T:c* *3i >ir«ciiz5e north ovcf 
:N-»%n.:.ti »*:»i a^' '-^ ^-^-- -—J -'* c:H:> of A:fi>h Aod Oie 
S . V , » . 7 In r.ito ■ iJ':cr ,va: "*>f c--:::r ?*:»fi>erf v«ci w»5 pn>habh 
V •» 1^: s^ .:»-: :.v v r»:»£^s. fr:ci K-2:i:*> Cl£. It L^dktarf Fans ia 
>- » .:..T , i i v.i»r:>j^ *,z ?^Iao:cL^e Hill to C^i-eisioiu Bae- 

Tlie Quantockg and their Place-Names. 127 

borough, Triscombe Stone, Crowcombe Combe Gate, and so 
on down to Stapol Plain, West Quantoekshead to Doniford 
and Watchet. This is a very old route, said to be partly indi- 
cated on old Crowcombe Estate maps, and is exactly what we 
should expect to find. From Wecet and Porlock the Waelas 
would be driven across the Severn Sea to South Wales, or, 
further down, towards Exmoor, North Devon, and the Cornish 

It is worth while to note the course of two invasions upon 
the Quantock country and West Somerset, the one spiritual 
and the other military. Keltic Christianity, coming from South 
Wales, as we gather from S. Dubritius of Porlock, S. Colum- 
ban (mentioned by Leland, at the extreme west of Somerset, 
and also figuring at Cheddar),^ S. Carantacus at Carhampton, 
(Camtoun being shortly written for Carantokes Towne, accord- 
ing to Leland),^ S. Decumanus, and many others, made itself 
felt first along the coast of the Severn sea. The church dedi- 
cations of North Somerset point to a Keltic fringe. The 
Severn sea was a natural highway for the Sailor Saints, and 
Gildas, himself a sailor on the Severn sea, has said in his 
Hist. Brit., 31 : " Transmigrare maria terrasque spatiosas 
transmeare non tam piget Britannos sacerdotes quam delectat." 
(c. A.D. 560). 

But the Saxons would seem to have approached West 
Somerset from exactly the opposite direction, and to have fol- 
lowed the Roman lines of communication from the south, and 
along the Mendips, until the Uxellae aestuarium was reached. 
Nor was the Mendip height the sole highway at the disposal 
of the Saxon foe, for indeed the ridges of the Poldens and 
of the Quantocks, no less than the Mendips, furnished a simi- 
lar natural line of communication or " dorsum " to the Severn 
waters as the conquerors pushed their way down further west. 
The unalterable features of the land themselves suggest this 

2. Somerset Record Society. Vol. i, pp. 22, 194. 

3. Som. Arch. Proceedings, vol. xxxiii, pt. ii, p. 97. 

128 Papers^ 8fc. 

kind of progress, in Roman, as well as in Saxon times, the 
valleys themselves being of little use, from a strategic point ol 
view, unless held in connection with the ridges above UieoL 
History and the researches of archaeology confirm this primi 
facie supposition, gathered from geography. The Severn ter- 
minus of ancient Mendip lies at Brean-down and the fortreiB 
of Worlebury Camp. Roman remains have been found at 
Portus de Radeclive, RedclifF or Reckly, about two-and-aJulf 
miles from A xebridge, a Portus in the ancient ** Hundred of 
Banwell."* The terminus of the Poldens was the old " Burgh 
de Capite Montis," «>., the Doneham of Domesday, abo 
called Cheldelmunt,^ the Downend near Dunball Station. A 
primitive Castrum would appear to have existed here, and the 
Portus might have been Bridgwater itself. There are signs, 
however, of a road to Stretcholt in Paulet to Black Rock on 
the Parrot. The terminus of the Quantock ridges would have 
been Doniford and Wecet. 

But we seem to know Wecet, and further west, Porlock, in 
history more as Saxon than as Roman ports. In tracing the 
dim outlines of the Saxon Conquest from the south, the Qiian- 
tocks are certainly no less interesting than the Mcndips or 
Poldens. In the Danish campaigns of King Alfred, these 
hills, as furnishing a base to Atlielney Island, have an interest 
second to none. They provided by far the quickest and 
safest retreat to the Sabrina amnis from Petherton Park, one 
of the old Royal Forests, and along their whole length their 
combes furnished admirable refuges for the " men of Somer- 
set,'' who, as Ethelwerd, the chronicler, tells us, alone assisted 
him, together with " the servants who made use of the King's 

In the Charter of Aethelwulf, a.d. 854, giving the boun- 
daries of the Manor of Taunton Dean, a large southern jwr- 

4. Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries, Dec., 1898. 

5. Somerset Record Society. The Plaoita. 

G. Jubilee Edition of King Alfred's Works. Vol. 1, p. 70. 

TTie Quantocks and their Place^Names. 129 

don of the Quantocks is included^ Some of the Quantock 
place-names are interesting. From Lydeard S. Lawrence the 
boundary runs " ad occidentalem partem vallis quae Truscombe 
nominatur/' then eastwards to Rugan or Bugan Beorh, i.e.^ 
Bagborough. Thence along a horse-path over the hills to 
Aescholtes (Aisholt) — thence past piscis fontem (Vish-pool) or 
Bish-pool, and " sic ad Elwylle," Thence across Quantock 
ridge again, somewhere near or along Buncombe to Kingston, 
Hestercombe, Sidbrook and Bathpool. By this boundary 
some important Quantock parishes, from Triscombe, south- 
wards, fall under the famous Manor of Taunton Dean, with all 
its old world customs and privileges. The manor became the 
property of the Bishops of Winchester. 

The mention of Cantuctune, or the ton of Cantok in King 
Alfred's will (871—885) is very interesting. "The Land at 
Cantuctune " is mentioned together with Carumtune (Car- 
hampton), Bumhamme, Wedmor and Cheddar, and, together 
with other estates, is left in the most formal way, as private 
property, to the eldest son, Eadweard, who succeeded King 
Alfred. It is also inherited property, which adds a little to its 
interest, and throws the title further back. Williton, Car- 
hampton, Cannington, Andredesfeld, are all Royal Hundreds, 
and represent a goodly block of land in which Cantok or 
Quantock is a main geographical feature. The Saxonisation 
of this part of West Somerset had been going on gradually — 
not quickly — since Centwine and Ina's days. Taunton, or 
the Ton on the T&n (the coloured river) — in allusion to its 
tawny waters in flood — had sprung up, and many another 
Saxon Ton, but where was Cantucton ? Had it arisen in some 
portion of that famosa silva of Cantucudu ? Was it on the 
west or on the east side of the long ridge of Cantok ? Was 
it the same as Cannington ? The West Saxon kingdom was 
developing itself in many ways along the Severn sea. Wecet 
or Wttchet was of growing importance, and was actually the 

7. Som. Arch. Proceedings, vol. xviii, p. 79. 

Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol, VI), Pari IL 

130 Papers^ Sfc. 

place of a Royal mint, the Saxon kings holding in their own 
hands and as their Dominicum, much of the surrounding knd. 
From the top of Quautock the five Rojal Forests of Somenet 
were within view, also '^ sacred Pedridan/' and the preeincti of 
immortal Glastonbury, whose round tor so visible from 
and land, exercised a wonderful centripetal power. It 
not, perhaps, without a purpose that the Saxon kings hdd 
Burnham on one side of the Parret and Cannington on tke 
other in their own hands, guarding the entrance to tins hoif 
land already of ancient renown. The private possessions of 
the West Saxon kings were known to all, and at the settiig 
forth of King Alfred's will, there are present the ArchhidMp 
and " all the West-Saxon witan's witness."® 

To turn to Domesday, the only Cantoche there given b • 
vill in or near Crowcombe parish, adjoining Lydeard S. Ltv- 
rence. CoUinson^ says that this was the vill which took ill 
name from the Quantock Hills. But there is Little Qntntoek 
Farm in Crowcombe parish, on the west side of the ridge rf 
Quautock, and Quantock Farm in Over Stowey parish, on the 
east side of the ridge, about half-a-mile from one another. 
The one place might have been confused with the other. The 
Domcs^day Cantoche is the proi)erty of Alured de Hisptni»» 
who has so many Quantock places, e.y., Spaxton, Xeth€^ 
Stowey, PlanesHeld, Radlet, Merridge, Stringston, Alfoxton, 
Dytcli, and others. But there is a Little Quantock also i« 
Eninore. In the Incjuis. p.m. 13 Ric. II (No. 103), Willitw 
Taillour has '* Lytel Cantok in paroch. de Enmore.*' This 
" little (Juiuitock '' would be a long distance from the Crow- 
combe *' little (Quantock." There is also a Quantock Faro 
about one mile from Monkton, and in the Exchecjuer Lav Suh- 
sidles under '" Monketon et Hammc," occurs the name Jurdioa 
de Cantok. 

In Enniore there is still a place called Quantock Bam. » 

8. Jubilee Kdition of King Alfred's Works. Vol. 1, p. 399, 
y. Vol. iii, p. 513. 

The Quantocks and their Place^Names. 131 

die west side of Enmore Park, there is also a Quantock Wood 
close bj, also a Quantock Mead, and a Higher and Lower 
Quantock Close adjoining Blakesolc or Blackesala. In 
Brown's Somerset fTi//^, Thomas Mallet of Enmore, Oct. 15th, 
1580, gives to his son, John Mallet, amongst other bequests, 
^ Quantock in Spaxton." In a MS. book, amongst the Spax- 
ton documents, there is an arrangement for church seats, in 
which a place is reserved for ^' Quantock Farm, part of the do- 
main of Enmore." In the Chartulary of deeds of the Hylle 
family {temp. Hen. IV), Thomas Fitchet grants to Master 
Robert Cros or Crosse, Rector of Spaxton, all his lands in 
Spaxton, Lillington, Moreland . . . together with certain ser- 
vices in Cantok and Durburgh." 

It is hard, indeed, to localise Cantok or Cantoche as a defi- 
nite place. It may be at West Monkton, or Spaxton, or 
Crowcombe, and is singularly elusive. Mr. Eyton would put 
it in the Williton Hundred at or near Crowcombe, i.^., at 
Little Quantock Farm, the west side of the Quantocks, the 
place above alluded to. 

In the Exon. Domesday we have mentioned as separate 
places (I) Cantoca, belonging to Alured de Hispania, and evi- 
dently the same as the Cantoche already mentioned, (2) Can-- 
toctona^ a mansio regis. Here, apparently, is the Cantuctune 
of King Alfred's Will, appearing in the Exon. Domesday. It 
looks as if exact identification should follow now. But Can- 
toctona is almost as elusive as Cantok or Cantoche. It seems 
to be convertible with Candeton or Cannington, although it is 
difficult to understand how the " oc " or ock, so essentially a 
part of Quantock can drop from it. 

In a Charter dated I7th July, 1204, King John gave to the 
Canons of Taunton the pasture of KingeshuU from Wulfeld- 
sont to Hunteneswell in free, pure and perpetual alms.^^ In 
the Rotuli Chartarum of King John, it is worded, " Pasturam 
et galnetum de Kingeshill a Wffoldessate usque Hunteneswell 

10. Som. Aroh. Proceedings, vol. ix, pt ii, p. 9. 

132 Papers^ Sfc. 

. . . ecclesise apostolorum Petri et Paul! de Tanton . . . qine 
solebat redd ere ad firmam meam de Somertun sedecim denarios." 
In the Testa de Neville (Henry III), it is thus described 
under Hundred de Andreaffeid, '^Canonia de Tanton tenet 
unam pasturam super Cantok de dono J. Re^ in puna 
eleem : quas vocatur Kingeshill et solebat reddere per amnm 
ad scaccarium apud London xvi denarios/' 

Kingshill and Priors Down are still Place-names on the 
Quantocks, and lie in the parish of Broomfield, to the east of 
Buncombe Hill. In an Inquis. p.m., 2 Henry V, Elizabetk 
uxor W. de Monte Acuto has amongst other properties Brom- 
field juxta Cantok. 

It seems as if there was a good deal of Royal property on 
the Quantocks, judging from this gift of King John, and thil 
it was connected with the Royal firma of Somerton, a town so 
full of ancient Saxon associations. Indeed, we are justified in 
supposing that before Norman times, and before the Peth«rion 
Forest perambulation, Cantok was part of a Royal Forest 
The fact is noted in the Rotuli Hundredorum (temp, Edw. I), 
in the following passage. *' Item dicunt quod quatuor villani 
ad Castellum in hund. de Andredsfcld fuerunt de dominico 
dom. Regis pertinenti ad Sumton qui singulis annis solebtnt 
reddere apud Sumton xj s et vicecomites ilium redditum siW 
appropriaverunt jam xxx annis elapsis ad firmam illam sine wt^ 
rento et solebat illc locus esse Porcheria d'ni R. antiquitus dun 
Canntok fuit foresta." The Castellum is Roborough Castle 
in Broomfield parish, close to Enmore.*^ 

The anticpiity of Roborough Castle stands revealed, ani 
apparently it must be distinguished from the Rowboroughs. 
localised by the Rev. F. Warre on Bagborough hill, popularly 
called Willsncck, and not far off from Broomfield. " On the 
top of Bagborough hill arc several cairns," writes Mr. Warre, 
" commonly called Rowboroughs, which most likely mark the 
place where the slain were buried. A few years ago a Romai 

11. Somerset Record Society. Vol. 3, p. 162. 

Tlie Quantocks and their Place^Names. 133 

ioin was found near these cairns/' Allusion to this find is 
Dade by Prebendary Scarth in a paper on "Roman Somer- 
let.'*" As far as I can discover this Quantock Place-name 
las dropped out of use, but it seems to be extremely ancient. 
[t is possible to trace it in the gift of Edward the Elder, King 
Ufred's son, of Lydeard (Bishop's Lydeard) to Asser, Bishop 
f Sherborne, in 904. Lydeard is given, together with Buck- 
ind and Wellington. 

** Dis synt da land gemaero to Lidgerd (Lydiard). Aerest 
D linlegh of linlegge upp on strem to Tostanford of Cottan- 
>rda (Cotford) uppon strem to gosford of gosford uppon strem 
> Stanforda of stanforda on fasingafeld of fasingafeld on 
^ttapuldre, of pyttapuldre onaest of aeste adimeonfled to re- 
lanclife of readanclife to rupanbeorge (Rowbergh) of rugan- 
eorge to ludanpylle of ludanpylle to fricanfenne of frican- 
mne uppon to gattibricge of gattibricge to uppon an slaed 
Slades) to holanpege of holanpege uppon slaed to bacgan- 
eorge (Bagborough) of bacganbeorge to pynestane of dam 
»ne to rupanbeorge (Rowbergh) of dam beorge to cpichem- 
amme, of dam hamme to collslade of colislade (Coleslade) 
dune on strem to horspadesforde of dam forda uppon strem to 
xenagete, of dam gete to motlege of motlege on siderocestorre 
Sidroc's Tor or hill ?) of siderocestorre to frecandorne (a 
tiom bush) of frecandorne on suoccanmere of suoccanmere on 
bangedelfe (stone quarry) on hreod alras (reed alders) of hreod 
Iron on tideford of dam forda adune on strem to cunecanford 
King's ford) of cunecanford on cincgesgete (Kings gate) of 
incgesget on suran apuldran (sour apple trees) of suran apul- 
ran od hit cymp est on linlege. 

Roughly speaking this boundary would appear to begin near 
Jotford, at the western extremity of Bishop's Lydeard, and 
rork round the Quantocks. The present parish includes 
jydeard Hill, just abutting on the Bagborough hill and com- 
lon above Aisholt. Lydeard is a very curiously shaped 

12. Som. Arch. Prooeedings, voL xxiv, pt. ii, p. 18. 

134 Papers^ Sfc, 

parish, and stretches right over the Quantock ridges till it 
meets Spaxton and Merridge. It is certainly one of the mort 
interesting of all the Quantock parishes, if onlj on accomit of 
its connection with the Saxon Kings, and Asser, the biogn- 
pher of King Alfred. It is a little curious that a Sidroc^s 
Tor should be mentioned in this Quantock document, and the 
very name, which seems now to have been lost, tantalise the 
imagination if we may connect this Sidroc with the Sidroc of 
the Saxon chroniclers. King's ford and King's gate denote 
the regal association of Lydiard, and this gift of Edward the 
Elder is, from a Quantock point of view, second only in illte^ 
est to the Charter of Aethelwulf (854), King Alfred's father, 
which enlarged the boundaries of the Manor of Taunton Dean. 
Later on in Saxon history, after 1053, Gytha, the mother of 
Harold, and wife of Godwin, gave Crowcombe, in which liei 
Cantok (Little Quantock) to the Church of S. Swithm at 
Winchester, in expiation of the crimes of Earl Godwin. Thii 
would be presumably Royal property, part of the Saxon Doid- 
inicum in the Cantok country, inherited from King Alfred, 
and, further back, from his predecessors. Gytha's endowment 
was nullified at the Conquest, and Crowcombe was given to 
Earl of Morton. 

We must also remember that in a Charter of privileges 
granted by King Edward — Alfred's son — to the Monastery at 
Taunton in 904, there arc x Manentes at Crauuancumbe. 
Further, ihero is a (confirmation by King Edgar to Winche:?ter 
of land at Crowcombe, Banwell and Sherborne (Schealdebur- 
nam), and in 978 there was a confirmation of King Edward';? 
Cliarter at a Witcnagemot at Cheddar of x Manentes at 
Crowcombe, xx at Cumbtun, xx at Shirborne, and xx at Ban- 
well. (Hirch's Cartnlarium Saxonicum). It may be noted 
that Bishop Asser, the Bishop of Sherborne, was closely con- 
nected with Banwell and Congresbury, King Alfred having 
given him two monasteries there. But all these Quantock 
gifts and charters, whether to the Taunton Priory, to the 

The Quantocks and their Ptace-Names, 135 

^liiirch of S. Swithin, to Asser, point to the reality of Cantok, 
'f Cantoctona, as a Koyal property in Saxon times. 

The Place-names, Bagborough and Bowebergh, turn up 
kg;ain in a Wells Concord between Bishop John and John de 
lAembury, of West baggebergh, about a waste piece of land 
m Cantok, claimed by the former as belonging to Bishop's 
[l«ydiard, by the other as belonging to Bagborough. The date 
M 1314, and an extract from it is interesting, as giving certain 
bdstoric place-names. 

''The boundaries are from the east corner of Robert de 
Calewe's croft under Cantok; eastward along the fossatum 
called Boledich ; eastward to the secunda bunda called la 
Fennslo: thence north (a little west of) to the third bunda 
called Alferode (Alfreds Koad ?) ; eastward to the fourth 
Imnda called la Kedewell ; eastward to the fifth bunda called 
Coleslade, which is the outside (forinseca) bound between 
West-baggebergh and Assheholte manors. The men of Bag- 
borough may not exercise common rights eastward of Coles- 
lade. The bounds across the mountain to Est-baggebergh, 
iprithin which they have rights, are from Coleslade south to the 
second bunda called Oxenham : direct south to the third called 
la Bowebergh ; through the middle of the bunda : thence 
direct south to the fourth called Bulgonescros, and so to Est 
bag^ebergh to Robert de Calewe's croft."^^ Mr. Hugo in his 
paper on " Hestercombe," in the Som. Arch. Proceedings^ vol. 
xviii, p. 148, observes : " I have a fine contemporary copy of 
diis Concord, which I purchased at the sale of the celebrated 
Surrenden collection." The Quantock Place-names are inter- 
esting, especially if we compare them with those of the 
Lydeard document of 904 — four hundred years previously. 
The Bacganbeorge of King Edward's gift is the Baggebergh 
of the Concord of 1314, only there is the further definition of 
Est and West Baggebergh. Coleslade appears to be the same, 
and to this day there is a bit of the Quantocks called The 

la Report of MSS. Wells Cathedral, pp. 84-5. 

136 Papers^ Sfc, 

Slades^ lying o" ^^^ boundary of Bagborough and Aisholt 
parishes, and in the Week Ty thing of Stoke Conrcy ptridi, 
i.e,^ in Over Stowey parish. Rupanbeorge, of King Edward*s 
gift to Asser, is surely the Rowebergh of the 1314 Concord, 
and the Rowboroughs of the Rev, F. Warre, and it is a pitj 
that this name should ever be allowed to die out on the Qmn- 
tocks. The Oxenagete of King Edward's gift may be near 
the Oxenham of the 1314 Concord. About Alferode (Alfred's 
Road?), we may surely conjecture that it was named after 
King Alfred. At least it is a conjecture that has a degree of 
plausibility about it, for, judging from the wording of the Con- 
cord, it would be somewhere along Cantok ridge near Big- 
borough. This road led, according to old maps, from Bun- 
combe and Bagborough, as already noticed, right down to tlie 
ancient port of Wecet or Watchet, where there was a Saxon 
mint in old days, as a coin of Edward the Elder, to be seen in 
Taunton Museum, proves. Moreover, here was a strategic 
road along Cantok that connected Petherton and Athelney on 
the south, with tlie Severn sea on the north, that sea that be- 
came a refuge to the Saxons, who, when the Danes harried 
the land, were driven from their Somersetshire homes, in that 
fateful year 878. As Huntingdon, the chronicler, has ex- 
pressed it, "' Part, therefore, of the people fled beyond the :»ea, 
part followed King Alfred, who hid himself, with a few men, 
in the marshes, and part submitted to the enemy." Is it too 
much to believe that King Alfred, brought to ])ay in West 
Somerset, resolved to defend these Royal Hundreds of Anders- 
feild, Cannington (or Cantuctunc ?) Carhampton and Williton, 
by the side of the Severn sea, to the last, using Athelney a> 
his fort ? Here was part of the old Saxon dominicum, and it 
was worth fighting for. The land itself, and that ^' sorrowfiil 
wilderness of waters," helped his Fabian tactics, and patient 
courage won the day. 

That there was a Herepat or War path we gather from a 
12th century Charter, quoted in the documents belonging to 

The Qiiantocks and their Place-Names, 1 37 

the alien Priory of Stoke Coiircy at Eton College." It nins 
as follows : " Grant by Hugh de Bonville to the Church of S. 
Andrew of Stoke Courcy for the sustentation of the monks, 
and in augmentation of former gifts, of part of his wood and 
pasture in Cantok, on the west side of the wood which he had 
given to the Church of S. Peter of Over Stowey (de Superior! 
Staw), extending from the bounds which John Channel had 
placed in the said wood, between the great road of Sol mere on 
the lower part, and the great road called Staw Herepat on the 
upper part, to the head of Ramescuba (Ramscombe)/' This 
Herepat can be easily identified on the Quantocks, and is what 
is known generally as the Stowey Road, running from Crow- 
combe Combe Gate to Over Stowey, striking across the old 
road to Doniford, outside Crowcombe Park, at right angles. 
This wood on Cantok was part of the property belonging to 
W. de Falaise and the de Courcy family at Stoke Courcy, and 
was a Domesday additamentum. Collinson says that these 
Over Stowey woods were " a chace of the de Courcy family," 
a statement he may have gathered from the learned antiquary, 
Mr. Palmer, of Fairfield. 

There arc many other Place-names on the Quantock Hills, 
which, if not of so great an historical interest as those already 
given, are, nevertheless, worth mentioning. There is S. 
David's Well, near Quantock Farm in Over Stowey parish, a 
Keltic dedication, also S. Peter's Well, close to Over Stowey 
Church, which gives us a clue to the dedication of the Church.^* 
There is Seven Wells Combe, with some magic in the number 
seven, reminding us of the Seven Sisters of the Yeo (Collin- 
son, iii, 203), and of Barnwell in Northamptonshire, where 
there were seven wells in which weakly children were dipped. ^^ 
There is S. Agnes' Well at Cothelston, S. John's Well at Hol- 
ford. There was the famous Hunteneswell of King John's 

14. Som. Arch. Proceedings, vol. xliii. 

15. See also Wtawr'a Wells Wills, p. 116. 

16. Hopt*8 Holy Wells, p. 99. 

138 Papers^ 8fc, 

1204 Charter, which may possibly be Holwell, celebrated for 
the experiments of Philosopher Crosse ; there is Jeffrey's 
Well, a boundary in Ramscombe, at the top of Dyer's Mead ; 
there is Lady's Fountain in Kilve Common, called surely after 
the Virgin Mary, itself a boundary now, and giving t 
name to Ladies Combe. There is a Witches Well in Paries- 
ton lane in Kilve parish, just below Parleston Common. It 
might be possible to localise the ealuuylle or Aldwell and the 
acuuylle or Oakwell of the West Monkton Charter, also the 
Piscis fontem (Vishpool or Bishpool?) of the Aethelimlf 
document, the latter being close to Aisholt. There is a Blind- 
well in Stowey, and a well famous for it43 healing influences od 
the eyes near Quantock Barn in Enmore Park. 

The word Castle is kept in connection with Douseborongh 
or Danesborough Castle, under which old folk say that the be- 
lieving ear can hear sounds of music as of a full band of music; 
also in Stowey Castle, under which giants and ogres Uve (so 
the old gossips say), putting out their hands to frighten chil- 
dren ; also in Ruborough Castle in Broomfield, which has tales 
of its own. I cannot find that the Danes or Denes, as the old 
men call them, have left many Place-names behind them. 
They might have left their name to Danesborough, but there 
arc so many possible derivations for this word, ^.^., Dinas, 
Dane, or Dawns, i,e., beacon borough. Perhaps the Quantocb 
or Cantiictune, as King Alfred's domain, was not hospitable 
enough to them to allow of their staying long. 

The word " Ball," meaning, I suppose, a rounded hill or emi- 
nence between the combes, turns up in Lord's Ball, the south 
side of Kamscombe, and Friarn Ball at the entrance to SeTcn 
Wells Combe, and Broomball or Brimball in East Quantox- 
head. On Exmoor there are many " balls," such as Cloutsham 
Ball. The word " Down " appears in Fleury or Flory Down, 
and Priors Down, in Over Stowey and Broomfield respectively. 
Bugan Beorh, which seems to be the old way of spelling Bag- 
borough, may be the " Beacon Burgh." What is known as 

The Quantocks and their Place-Names, 139 

Fire-beacon hill now, is the hill above Crowcombe Park, above 
Little Quantock, and not Hurley Beacon as the map states. 
Tor is used in connection with Cothelston hill, I believe, but 
Cothelston itself would seem to mean the ton of Cotele, a 
family known formerly in West Somerset. The word ridge or 
edge is found in Herridge combe. East Quantoxhead ; in Hol- 
ford edge, in Ladies edge, in Shervidge Wood, adjoining Kil- 
ton Common ; Hawkridge, at the bottom of Aisholt ; Mer- 
ridge, in Spaxton parish, below Buncombe ; Swinage (Swine 
Edge) in Kilve. 

The word Cleeve or Clift, for a hanging side, is found in 
Wilvey Cleeve in Stringston parish, near Alfoxton ; also in the 
Clift near Quantock Farm, Over Stowey. There is a redupli- 
cation of Quantock Place-names on the Brendon and Exmoor 
hills, e.g.^ Stowey Water in Cutcombe, and Stowey on the (Quan- 
tocks, Ramscombe on the Quantooks, and Ranscoml>c in WcK>t- 
ton Courtney, Luxboro Farm in the Aisholt Valley, Luxbor- 
ough Parish on the Brendons, and so on. This class of Place- 
name seems to be Keltic rather than Saxon. The word 
"Drift," meaning "a flock or herd of animals,'' survives on 
the Quantocks, so does the old Forest word, Meare, meaning 
boundary. The old " Bunda,'' or dry-wall banks, arc quite a 
feature on the Quantocks, and from the very look of them it 
is possible to distinguish them from modem inferior eflorts. 
The object of planting beeches on the lx)uiidary fences seeniH 
to be to get the python-like roots of the Ijeech to binri it all in 
one mass, as with knotted ropes, which it efTectually does. On 
the open ridges and slades of the Quantocks, signs of cultiva- 
tion and of ridge and furrow ploughing can often be seen. 
The banks dividing these cultivat^^d pat^^hes were of a sli^lit 
character, not like the parish l>oundary hanks, as th(;y were 
not required for long. After cultivation the (Quantock amble 
went back to heather. Here and there charcoal pits meet the 
eye in secluded parts, signs of an industry no longer carrieil on. 

There is also a Bincombe as well as Buncomlx;, the former 

140 Papers^ Sfc. 

in Holford, meaning the head of a combe, and evidently a 
Keltic word. Five Lords Bench or tump is a romid roound 
above Five Lords Wood, and Bincombe, where five lords of 
the manor are supposed to have met. Just about here the 
boundaries of Dodington, Holford, Durborough (the hamlet 
above mentioned, partly in Holford and partly in Stoke 
Courcy), Over Stowey, and Stringston Hill commons meet 
It is just below Little Douseborough. The slopes of Dous- 
borough are partitioned in a curious way. The top or Douse- 
borough Ring is in Stringston parish; below, on the N(Hrth 
Holford, lies a strip called Curril Common, and then comes 
Woodlands Hill or Kilton Common, and further to the east 
Dodington and Buckingham Plantation. On the south side of 
Douseborough, come the boundaries of the Stowey Customs, 
a large tract of heathy hill, 488a. 3r. 22p., which has never 
been rated, and from which the Stowey parishioners have 
gathered wood from time inunemorial. On the Tithe map 
these Customs appear as Nos. 551, 555^ 556, 561. Part of the 
Customs is called locally Longsides Customs. At the higher 
end, and towards the head of Ramseombe, is an old name, 
Horthoriie, />., a boundary thorn. At the upper end of Ram:*- 
combe is Ramseombe Customs, a portion which the Stowey 
people say should never have been inclosed. Opposite to 
Ramseombe Customs, and parted by the stream along which 
an old l)oundary wall is distinctly to be seen for a long dis- 
tance, is Lonls Customs. Kilve parish has more " open Com- 
mons," which have never been rated, than any other Quantock 
parish, the total area being 731a. 2r. 2p. The Kilve Hill 
Woods, which are rated, are 164a. Or. Op. In Kilve parish 
lies Longstone, a well-known boundary between East Quan- 
toxhead and Kilve: Great Hill and Hareknaps (370 acres); 
Sonierton Hill and Somerton Wood. If we can connect 
Somerton with the Royal Saxon '• Firma" at Somerton, in the 
same way that we can certainly connect Roborough Castle, 
Kingshill and Priors Down in the Broomfield part of Quan- 

The Quantocks and their Place-Names. 141 

tock, then we have a Quantock Place-name of the greatest 
interest in Kilve parish, especially if we connect it with Swin- 
age or Swine ridge, linking it with a Koyal Porcheria. 

It may he noticed that in addition to the Stowey Customs, 
there is a piece of land called Custom or Newspring, of 
29a. Or. Op. (No. 157 in the Holford Tithe Map). But when- 
ever and wherever it occurs, the word is worth noticing. 
There are some more gruesome names on the Quantocks which 
may carry a story of their own. There is ''Dead Woman's 
Ditch," a hank that runs across the Over Stowey Customs 
and in the direction of Jeffrev's Well : in the Combe below 
there is " Dead Boy," a small hollow running up to the green 
path that leads to Halsway, lying in Kilve Common. Perhaps 
one of these names suggested to William Wordsworth, when 
he lived at Alfoxton, the Ballad of « The Thorn " or " Ruth," 
who is certainly a Quantock character. In Durborough Com- 
mon, lying above Dodington, and in Holford parish, was Wal- 
ford's Gibbet, the subject of an unpublished poem of W. 
Wordsworth. Not long ago the wooden posts of the grim relic 
where the murderer, Walford, hung for a year and a day, was 
ploughed up, and the exact site of the gibbet and cage re- 

There does not seem to be much indication of Quantock min- 
ing at any rate in ancient times. The copper mines at Doding- 
ton and at Stowey are well known, but they are of comparative 
recent date. There are no local phrases or Place-names indi- 
cating mines on the Quantocks. The old people would npeak 
of " Moynes," which is, we believe, an old way. Frobisher, 
the great Elizabethan navigator, writes about ''moines." (Sec 
Hakluyt's Frobisher). The wealth of the Cantok land lay in 
its acorns, mace for swine, and |)asture for shec]), and its tim- 
ber, both small and great. The " worts," too, have been con- 
sidered a harvest for the poor man, t^) be c(*lebrat(!d by the 
Quantock Revels, from time immemorial up U) living memory. 
The villagers say, "Are you going to ' Wort-hill?' " meaning 
lip on the Quantocks. 

Quantoeks and their Piace-Names. 1 43 

!ijrs with the utmost zeal and alacrity, and 
,n,od sport The Place-name " Hart hill/' in 
V Woods on Quantock, also " Yellow Stags/' 
piuiy be far-away reminders of these days. The 
lilting were kept up on the Qiiantocks hy Canli- 
■ Henry Vlth reign, when he came to Halsway, 
..Irish, as we are reminded by the late Rev. F. 
rhe Rector of Bishop's Lydeard, and a mem- 
fit Quantock family, which, together with the 
I to a collateral descent from the Stradliiigs of 
Ivlward Stradling married Joan, the daughter 
■ ), might be expected to know.^^ 
Jiiantock parishes, more or less lying upon the 
or close under them, nine lay in the Uoyal 
Iliton, viz., Nether Stowey, Dodiiigton, Kilton, 
uantoxhead, West Quantoxhead, Bicknoller, 
'wcombe; four in the Royal Hundred of Can- 
isholt, Spaxton, Over Stowey and Stringston ; 
' al Hundred of Andersfield, viz., Broomfield, 
<ir8t ; two in Taunton Dean Himdred, viz., 
Cothelston. Of the rcmainhig two, Bisho])'s 
Kingsbury West Hundred, and Hoi ford in 
1. It is noty therefore, unreasonable to con- 
XB portion of the Vetus Dominicum of the 
XB and Princes lay within the area of these 
'jrment of acknowledgments from such places 
ior*s Down, Kingshill in Broomfield, to the 
Somerton, points, surely, to the ancestry of 
1 the Andersfield Hundred, West Bower, the 
of ^i^fTane Seymour, was Royal proi>- 
^Parcel of the Duchy of Lancas- 
|nfl| held in Durleigh by 

ry VII, is "North 

I. Vol. 2, p. 242. 

142 Papers^ Sfc. 

From the above notices, and from the evidence of Place- 
names, we may reconstruct, in some measure, the history o( 
this regional tract of country known as Cantok or the Qaao- 
tocks. If we take the valley of the Parret as a boundary of 
Dumnonia, the Quantocks would have lain within this ancieot 
kingdom. Here and there were earth-works and primitirc 
Belgic fortresses, such as we may still trace at such places is 
Boborough Castle or Stowey Castle, probably utilised by the 
Saxon conqueror. Far back in the ages it was a deeplj- 
wooded tract, as we infer from the expression, " famosa silTi," 
in Centwine's West Monkton Charter. Tn the days of the 
Saxon Kings it would appear to have been a Royal Forest 
" Dum Canntok foresta fuit," is the explanatory note of that 
compiler of the Rotuli Hundredorum already quoted. The 
hunting of the forest was probably done from Taunton, King 
Ina's town. In that Charter of privileges granted by King 
Edward to the Monastery at Taunton, a.d. 904, there was an 
obligation to provide the King with pastus unius noctis^ also to 
entertain the hunting retinue, and to feed the dogs, and to 
take them on to "Curig vel Willettun." This arrangement wa:» 
an old-standing one with the Monastery, and existed before 
A.D. 904. To quote the exact words: "Erat namque antes 
in illo supra dicto monasterio pastus unius noctis regi et viii 
canum et unius Canicularis pastus, et pastus novem noctium 
accipitrariis regis et quicquid rex vellet inde ducere usque ad 
Curig vel Willettun cum plaustris et equis et si ad venae de 
aliis regionibus advenirent debebant ducatum habere ad aliam 
regalem villam quae proxima fuisset in illorum via," etc., etc. 
This pastus was in force, therefore, in King Alfred's day, and 
we may picture this (^uantock hunting and hawking procession 
setting out from Taunton, sweeping the ridges of the Quan- 
tocks, and putting up at Williton, on their way, doubtless, to 
the next reyalis villa of the sporting Saxon Kings on Exmoor 
or at Porlock. The old monks of Taunton, who had to speed 
the party on their way, no doubt entered into all the minutiae 

The Quantocks and their Place-Names, 143 

of the proceedings with the utmost zeal and alacrity, and 
helped to find good sport The Place-name " Hart hill," in 
the Over Stowey Woods on Quantock, also " Yellow Stags," 
near Halsway, may he far-away reminders of these days. The 
traditions of hunting were kept up on the Quantocks by Cardi- 
nal Beaufort in Henry VI^ reign, when he came to Halsway, 
in Stogumber parish, as we are reminded by the late Rev. F. 
Warre, who, as the Rector of Bishop's Lydeard, and a mem- 
ber of an ancient Quantock family, which, together with the 
Pophams, owned to a collateral descent from the Stradlings of 
Halsway (Sir Edward Stradling married Joan, the daughter 
of the Cardinal), might be expected to know." 

Of twenty Quantock parishes, more or less lying upon the 
Quantock hills or close under them, nine lay in the Royal 
Hundred of Williton, viz.. Nether Stowey, Dodington, Kilton, 
Kilve, East Quantoxhead, West Quantoxhead, Bicknoller, 
Stogumber, Crowcombe; four in the Royal Hundred of Can- 
nington, viz., Aisholt, Spaxton, Over Stowey and Stringston ; 
three in the Royal Hundred of Andersfield, viz., Broomfield, 
Enmore, Goathurst ; two in Taunton Dean Himdred, viz., 
Bagborough and Cothelston. Of the remaining two. Bishop's 
Lydeard lay in Kingsbury West Hundred, and Holford in 
Whitley Hundred. It is not, therefore, unreasonable to con- 
clude that a large portion of the Vetus Dominicum of the 
West Saxon Kings and Princes lay within the area of these 
parishes. The payment of acknowledgments from such places 
as Roborough, Prior's Down, Kingshill in Broomfield, to the 
Royal Firma of Somerton, points, surely, to the ancestry of 
the properties. In the Andersfield Hundred, West Bower, the 
reputed birth-place of Lady Jane Seymour, was Royal proi>- 
erty. Durleigh, close by, was Parcel of the Duchy of Lancas- 
ter.^' Amongst lands and tenements held in Durleigh by 
John, son of Walter Mychell, 8 Henry VII, is "North 

17. 8om. Arch. Proceedings, vol. v, p. 12. 

18. Somerset Record Society. Somerset Chantries. Vol. 2, p. 242. 

144 Papers, |pr. 

Bowre. woTik £10, held of the Kincr, as of the Honor of Trow- 
fanurire, parrel of the Duchy of Lancaster, by Knight S»- 
vice, and soil of the Court of the said Duchv held at Durky.'' 


IXi*(^ Tkoi the stime fact of the Vet us Dominicum appear in the 
«3ax«9Dcst of Humphrey Blake, who in Charles Ts reign, hdd 
Plainsfieid or Planesfield ** as of the manor of Hampton Court 
by Koisht's Senricer" ^^ Or does it not appear even more ooo- 
sfiocooiQsly in the descent of the Tything of Week or Wick, 
partly in CH-er Stowey and partly in Stoke Courey, held hj 
the Queen as we learn from Kirby*s QaesU together with the 
Hundred of Canningicwu - de dono r^s ? " Do not we tnoe 
hes^ membra of that lonlly Dominicum shadowed in King 
Alfred's Will r From EKxnesiaT we know that Harold held 
Stowey on the east side of the Quantocks, and Capton in 
St^^rumber on the west side. If we look to the West of Eng- 
kwid rather than lo the parts around Winchester and Salisburr 
fvtf- the aftfvi of Wesst Saxon power, there is reason for it, and 
wf nsaT be allowed to ffire credit to Asser's statement, *' Occi- 
:T■^.:A':^ :viT^ Saxo^.:;? >em|vr Orientali principalior est." 

We ire: n^.-re Mirht >till from the historr of the earlr Saxon 

C~::r:i ::: Wes: S.»mer>et and in the neigh lx)urh<.x>d of tk 

Q::A:::x*i>. By ihe endowments of the pious Saxon k\up 

s::*.: i-rir^.^s, r*e^!n:::!:i: with Cent wine, the Quantock country 

c"i:::- e\vles:ss:ii^^l intluenoes. In the West Monkton 

C:-.vr:':r, ss 'w^ have s<n?n, Glastonburv was favoureii. and h\ 

V r:v.e :: :hr Charter of Aeihelwulf in 8.34, the boundarii-s of 

::>: Msr.or of Taunton, the possession of the ancient See of 

W:::v'r.t:>:<T, ar.J one of the createst soiu-oes of its wealth, wero 

iTT-v-ii'v t ii.Ar^rl. Gviha, wife of iiixlwin, srave CrowcomW 

:o :he Chiiroh o: S, Swiihin, taken away at the Conquest from 

the Ch::rv*h ar.J iriven to Robert, Earl of Morton, half- 

': n.ther o:' William the Conquen">r, but part of it returninir 

ai::^::;, later on, it may be noticed, by the gift of Godfrey do 

Cniiioumlv to the nuns at Studlev in Oxfordshire. 

19. Exohev^aer Bill jukI Answter. ChA&. I, Somerset. No. 169. 

The Quant flcks and their Place-Names, 145 

There was also the well-known gift of Lydeard to Asser, 
Bifihop of Sherborne, and Bishop's Lydeard has remained with 
;he Church ever since. Athelney was represented on the 
C^uantocks by the little chapel of Adscombe in Over Stowey 
parish, if we so conclude from the entry in Kirby's Quest,^ 
Perhaps Durborough, where there used to be a chapel and a 
iprig of the Holy thorn, the latter within living memory, 
must be regarded as a Quantock possession of Glastonbury, 
the gift of Elflem (Collinson ii, p. 243), both Durborough and 
Durborough Common lying within the parish of Holford, and 
adjoining Dodington on the north-east slopes of these hills. 

The Norman kings and nobles added to these Saxon gifts. 
King John in 1204 endowed the Taunton Priory with part of 
his Cantok dominicum ; the lords of Stoke Courcy Castle 
and the successors of the Falaise family give pasture, woods 
find privileges to the Church of S. Peter at Over Stowey, and 
to the monks of the alien Priory of Stoke Courcy.*^ In 1219 
the master and brothers of the Hospital of St. John hold one 
third of a virgate of land and 300 acres of wood in Over 
Stowey on the Quantocks.^ Holford Church and Rectory, by 
the gift of the Norman lords of Stoke (Courcy), the Falaise 
family, were attached to the alien Priory of Stoke (Courcy), 
being subsequently devoted to the purposes of Eton College, 
in whose possession they still remain. Kilton Church and 
Vicarage formed part of the many " advocationes " of the 
Bath Priory, with its cell at Dunster. Bicknoller fell largely 
under the influence of the Dean and Chapter of Wells, the 
patronage of the Church still lying with them, as a Capella 
dependens upon Stogumber. 

It is the Severn sea which after all enhances the charms of 
the Quantock country, and gives it its deep historical interest. 
Yonder tawny flood that rushes twice a day up the Parret 

20. Somerset Record Society. VoL 3, p. 17. 

21. Som. Arch. Proceedings, vol. xliii, p. 81. 

22. Feet of Fines. Hen. HI. A.D. 1219. 

Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI), Pari II. fe 

146 Papers^ Sfc. 

mouth, and looks in the distance almost like a lake bounded bv 
Brean Down, has carried on its breast the exploring merchaDt, 
the adventurous privateer, and the evangelising sailor stint 
The sestuarium Uxellse was known to Phoenician, Bomao, 
Briton, Saxon, Dane and Norman. The Mor EsjUog or Mor 
Havren is the ancient British name for the Severn sea, Mor 
Havren, " a nomine puellae," as Giraldus Cambrensis tells us. 
When in a boat in Bridgwater Bay how conspicuous is the 
geographical landmark of Ynys Witrin or (rlaston^s Isle I thit 
smooth and green mound which lies under heaven with m 
many holy and hallowing memories. What a central spot it 
makes in the classic land of Somerset I and indeed in the 
whole kingdom of ancient Wessex ! Yonder in the midst of 
the hurrying flood of Sahrina amnis lies Echin, ^^adjaceos 
Angliae,'' the Steep Holm, upon which Gildas sojoomed. 
Close by is Konnett or Ronech, the Saxon Bradanreolic,'' and 
the Danish Flat Holms, "proximior Walliae," whither S. 
Cadoc went. The very wealth of synonyms tell the storj of 
the flow of nations backwards and forwards, and recal the 
associations of this ancient region where " Seaward Quantock 
stands as Neptune he controlled," to use Michael Drajtou's 

One of the handmaids of Archaeology is Geography. The 
broad features of sea, river and moor lying below the Quan- 
tocks suggest the course of History. Yonder, along the tidal 
Pedridan, the flat-bottomed ships could rest safely and easilv 
on the soft beds of ooze and slime and be careened at low 
water : yonder at Cannington there rises a round hill which 
could serve as a fortress, probably the Cynwit of the Saxon 
Chroniclers ; further up the waste of waters (to carry our 
imagination back), there were refuges, " eyots,'' islands, 
covered with alder wood, and guarded by quaking morass. 
The key to the land was at the Parrett mouth, and through 
this shifting refluent portal the way to South Wales, the 

23. Bosworth Smith's A.S. Dictionary. 

The Quantocks and their Place^Names, 147 

country of the Silures, the Usk (Isca) and Caer-leon, to Mon- 
mouth, and the '^ nobilem Danubise s jivam *' or the Danicam 
sylvam of old Giraldus Cambrensis (Itin. Camb. Ch. V), where 
the Danes hid in Alfred's time. Between the two shores was 
constant and busy intercourse. It is certainly curious that 
Ilugo de Neville of Stoke Courcy Castle should have asked 
the King** in 1225 for six oaks from the Forest of Dene (the 
Danes wood of Giraldus Cambrensis) for repairing his houses 
at Stoke Courcy. It shows a port, possibly at Stoverd or 
Stolford, and quick sea communication between Wales and the 
Parrett mouth. This port the Danes themselves might have 
used before the battle of Cynwit. 

What more grateful flood than that of Sabrina amnis, open 
to the pulse of the Atlantic, and still throbbing with busy 
life I Old Gildas, the lonely anchorite, so the story goes, of 
the Steep Holms wrote thus, " Britain is enriched by the 
mouths of two noble rivers, the Thames and the Severn, as it 
were two arms, by which foreign luxuries were of old im- 
ported." With show of reason we might place the Severn 
sea, the waterway to Ireland and to Armorica, above the river 
Thames, in the romantic shaping of our annals. Even the 
realm of Rex Arturus, shadowy elsewhere, seems to have a 
local habitation and a name along the shores of the Severn 
sea, whether at Caer-Leon or at Glastonbury. Inland, is there 
any part of Britain more replete with Saxon life or with a 
better title to be the real " Vetus Dominicum " of Saxonia 
than Somerton the erstwhile capital of Somerset, of which the 
ancient Burgh of Ilchester was a membrum,** with its Royal 
appanages stretching out on this side and on that ? 

The poet Wordsworth has celebrated in his " Ecclesiastical 
Sonnets," the hill of the proto-martyr, S. Alban. 

" Whose flowery platform seemB to rise 
'* By nature decked for holiest sacrifloe." 

24. Rotuli a. Litt VoL ii, p. 62. 

25. Rotali Hundred. Vol. ii. p. 128. 

148 Papers^ ^c. 

But the green mound of Glaston's Isle is full of greater 
memories than S. Alban's Mount. Should any Cathedral or 
Abbey Church in our land boast of its ancestry, a Church of 
Glastonbury can reply with truth, Vetustior I Around this 
ancient island, British, Saxon and Norman Christianity throve 
with one continuous growth, and Glastonbury, for all time, 
must be the sacred ^' Delos '' of our land and the Mecca of our 
factions. To use the late Professor Freeman^s words, who, 
more than anyone else, struck the leading notes of our local 
history, " Here at Glastonbury we can muse, and muse with- 
out let or hindrance on the greatest memorials of the great age 
which made the English kingdom."^ 

26. Sorn. Arch. Proceedings, vol. xxvi, p. 39. 

9n 3ln)oemotp of Cbutcfi l^Iate m Somerset. 

Part IV. 


Prebendary of Wells. 

WITH the continued assistance of Prebendary Hancock 
(would that I could write continuous), three more 
Deaneries have been added to the Inventory. They comprise 
the District of Dunster, thus completing that Deanery, and 
the complete Deanery of Taunton, which has the sub-division 
of Wellington. There are sixty-five ancient parishes, and 
seven modem (including one church in Wellington with no 
district assigned to it) ; total, seventy-two. 

Out of sixty-four ancient parishes (I have not been able to 
examine the plate at Stawley), thirty-one retain Elizabethan 
cups. This high average is only reached by the inclusion of 
the Dunster district which possesses fourteen of these early 
cups. In the Taunton Deanery there are far too many 
parishes which possess nothing earlier than the nineteenth 
century. It would appear that as in the case of the Frome 
Deanery, mentioned in part ii^ the vicinity of a large town has 
led to the exchange of old things for new, with the usual dis- 
astrous results. 

Eighteen of these cups were made by I.P. Six were sup- 


lilO Papert, |%. 

plwi bj lou irf Exatar. TIm IookI or pronndal nu 
to in the Intiodnetion to pari lu, M.H. in mono^ 
8. Andrew*! oron, ia fonnd on cups ftt BiomploD 
Bauhtoo, There were foar exmnxfltm in the 
Dewmy (I, II) ; lo that if this imrk dwold Dot 
Derooihire, or <Hil7' in the nortl»-enct put of di 
wmj hiAj be Ktnniwd that it is the mark of s 
rendent at Taonton. 

tbit InroitorT' for tlus year has not added a sit 
of the Taonton mark proper, a ton Ijring mentis a 
fonnd on a paten at Wootton Coartaej', dated 167 
qwong, one of whiok ii in the Taunton Castle Mi 
maker's initials were IJ).* Mid he se«nB to haT<!> 1 
from 1673 to 1691, but exam^Jee of the mark arc 
brtween. The Elizabethan onp at Otter&vd, of 
date 1599, ia bj Eston, of Exeter. At Ezton ai 
ace evpt of Uw Exeter pattern, with marks oot hi 

There are two Krenteentb-oentury chalices 
dangn and mano&ctiire presented to the ehui 
Andrew and St, Jsmee, Taunton. The IMorr»- 
for 1899 had for frontispiece a beautiful lUustr 
Spanish chalice of the same period, belong 
Cathedral. In part i of the Inventory (toI. xliii 
mistakcDly entered both chalice and paten as mo 
description only applies to the paten, and shoi 

At Selworthy there is a paten of the same pe 
foreign origin. At Orchard Portman will be foum 
pieces which follow no regular pattern, and seem 
the Restoration period. 

Lastly, I desire to thank all clergy and layme: 
answered my letters of enquiry, or in other and mi 
helped my work. Why three individuals should I 
to do either one or the other is a problem whit 
Dundreary said, " No fellah can understand." 

Ah Immdmy pJ Ckmrrk Platte 


Sll i ekh ih CnrrrKT 

1571 Timbencombe, cap and oi 

1572 Cntoombe, cop ana oorcr. 
Withypoole, cop. 

1573 Camw Flofvy, cop and 
Corf e, cap aod eorer. 
Cf6echy copi 
Calbone, cop and oofcr. 
DalvertoQ, cop and ooro-. 
Donster. cop and oorcr. 
Hawkridffe, copi 
Kittiafora, cop and ecircr. 
Langford &, cop and oorcr. 

Rnnnington, bop and corvr. 
Staplesrove, cop and cover. 
StcMLe St. Gregory, cop. 
Stoke Pero, cop and cover. 
Thorn FaalooD, cop and oorer. 

S ciE^ T X nng CCVTTBT. 








Biahop's Ljdeaid, cop with 

Mindiead, cop. 
Wootton Coortnej, flacon. 
Tannton St. Maiy IL, copa 

with coven. 
Lydeaid St. Lawrenoe, paten. 
Winsford, p^ten. 
Brompton R^gia, paten. 
Exton, paten. 
Wilton, cop. 

Taonton St. Mary M., flagona. 
Taunton St. Jaa., cop with 

Pitminater, cop. 
Bagboroogh, set of venela. 
Orchard Portman, set of 


1MB Eradfctd. cop and cover. 
1674 liinfiifari. paten. 
1676 An gmk4g h. plate. 

Tharn Stw Margaret, cop. 
1676 Wootton Coortney, paten. 
1661 Nync^ead, flagon. 

Orchard Portman. saocer. 
1683 Ashbrittle, flagon. 
1686 Btthop's Boll, spoon. 

Kingston, cop. 
1690 WeUington H. Trinity, plaU>. 
1695 Ezford, paten. 
1699 Bishop's Hull, paten and HstfiM). 

Taonton St. Mary M., lUms 
? Selworthy, cup (c IGIO). 






Minehead, flagon. 

Kittisford, flagon. 

Sampford Aron. , cop and cover. 

Donster, paten. 

Cheddon Fitzpaine, cop and 

Norton R t z wa rr en, paten and 

Kingston, flagon. 
West Monkton, service. 
Ashbrittle, saucer. 
Kingston, paten. 
Minehead, cup and paten. 
Taunton St. «lamee, plate. 
Halse, service. 

Sampford Aruml., (tatvu. 
Staplegrove, ])atcn. 

1725 Hawkridgo, (vaton. 
Pitminster, patiMi. 
Withypoolo, patvn. 

1726 Ashbrittlo, {niUmi. 
Combo Floroy, sorvioo. 

1727 Brushford, tlagon. 
Combo Floroy, paton. 
Porlook, dish. 

1728 Pitminstor, tlagon. 

1729 Staplegrovo, naton liml tlA^ttn. 
1731 Nynehoatl, salvur. 

Trull, Hagon. 
1734 Nynohead, paton. 



■triwafcOmiiy, Mb«r. 




ii«W • — - 





17M I ~ 

fiBBiwa MAwvwAonnm. 



FkrMMD. Bfab^ HbU. 
Fawd, BUop^ Han. 
riiMM. Cbwihi flwy. 


J«pp. Uuwford BndvillB. 
Kellet, Wot B^wfaorDOcb. 
Koightl;, ?iyn*himl. 
M'Mtn, AahbriUle. 

j» wwtOiJ nC|.i 

&w)k. fHab!tt.Gnn 
"ntmlaB Towm, 9t. lb] 
Trerm^ advorlbr. 
Vannadt. Biibaf^Bd 
Wmtta. UBCforiBiM 
Bwbop'a HnlLfhUl 




ItKOMPTiiN RK(ii8. — Though not dated the cup 
arc of the Elizabethan period, and are kept in a ' 
roHer covered with stamped leather. The cap it 
niicl wci^hn lOjoz. av. The bowl i» beU-shaped 
narrow bniid of cross hatching below the li^ uid 1 
a hand uf the cuatomarj- omamentatton. On t 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 153 

other band, and another of lozenges enclosing dots. Marks : 
), a circle enclosing a St. Andrew's cross, with a pellet in 
ch spandrel ; (2), a circle containing the letters M H in a 
onogram. (For this mark see introduction). It is found on 
ips dated 1574, and is no doubt of that period. The cover 

of the usual pattern, 4^in. in diam., weight 2|oz. av. 
ound the brim is a band of ornament, and on the button a 
udor rose. 

There is also a paten on a foot ofin. across. There are no 
arks visible. On the brim : ' For the parish of Kings- 
rimpton in Devon. Wardens: Antony Webber and John 
xeenslade. Anno 1635.' The geographical mistake in the 
bove inscription is curious. An alms dish 6^in. across on 
uree feet. It has a shell-decorated border, and a deep band 
* foliage round the plate. In the centre is a crest : A 
»cock in its pride. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1767 ; 
le initials E.G. in plain punch— Ebenezer Coker. 

A modem plated flagon, inscribed : * Kings Brompton 
hurch, 1877.' A fine pewter flagon loin, high, with double 
>wed handle. It is inscribed: 'Jno. Joyce and Edwd. 
nison. Churchwardens of Kings Brumpton, 1730.' 

Brush FORD. — A plain cup of the Commonwealth period. 
t is 5j^in. high, quite plain; the bowl is of a goblet shape; 
le stem is long and moulded ; the foot has a moulded edge, 
larks: 2 offic; date-letter for 1653; the maker's mark is 
artly obliterated ; it is probably R.N., a mark found at 
lymouth in 1660. 

The paten is 5^in. in diam., of the ordinary pattern on a 
X)t. The only mark is a square punch enclosing a small 
bject resembling a staple with pellets on the points ; this is 
truck three times. Patens with these irregular marks are 
ot uncommon in the latter part of the seventeenth century. 

There is a handsome flagon, tankard pattern, 12 inches 
igh. It has a bowed handle with elaborate thumbpiece. 
larks: 2 offic; Exeter modern; date-letter for 1727; 



V— '-% 

An Inventory of Church Plate, ] 55 

7he Dulyerton Church plate was stolen at this date, and 
cup and paten were bought to replace them. Sometime 
rtterwards, bj a luckj accident, the old cup and cover were 
h^ttorered at Exeter. The modem flagon was also purchased 
» the same time as the cup and paten. 

DuNSTEB. — The parish still preserres its Elizabethan cup 
E^ corer, though now relegated to the Mission Chapel at 
Obombe. It is 7§in. high ; and possesses all the character- 
Kliea of the work of I.P. : the bands of foliage divided at 
^ar points round the bowl ; hyphen belt on knop and foot, 
tid egg and dart moulding on foot. Marks : 2 oflSc. ; date- 
atter for 1573 ; I.P. The cover is of the usual pattern ; and 
ims 1573 on the button. 

A large paten on foot, lO^in. across; rim being boldly 
played and moulded. Marks : 2 oilic. of Brit, sterl. ; date- 
stter for 1711; maker's mark, 6. A., with three pellets and 
rown above ; within circle — William Gamble. The paten is 
ascribed : 'James Wilkins, sen., Henry Slocombe, church- 
rardens 1714.' 

There is also a handsome modem set, consisting of a chalice, 
laien, and flagon, silver-gilt, of the present reign. 

A pewter plate, inscribed : ' F. Bradley, T. Staddon, church- 
wardens 1713.' 

Though not exactly coming under the head of church plate, 
me may be allowed to note a brass chandelier of fifteen lights 
langing in the church inscribed : * Gauen by the late Jone 
Brewer ten pounds twowards this Branch. John Hossom, 
Benj. Escott, Churchwardens, 1740.' 

ExFOKD. — The cup and cover are of the plain type which 
came in after the Restoration. The cup is 7]^in. high, with 
bell-shaped bowl devoid of decoration. The stem has a rudi- 
mentary annulated knop ; the foot is plainly moulded. Marks: 
2 oflSc. ; date-letter for 1695 ; maker's mark, H. S., in mono- 
gram. The cover matches the cup, and has the same marks. 

There are also some electro-plated vessels. 

I»- rrrs- =• r : 

3» js- c J 

An Inventory of Church Plate, 157 

ridge 1726,' Marks : 2 offic. ; Exeter modem ; date-letter for 
1725 ; maker's mark, P.E. in oval — Philip Elston. 

LuccoMBE. — The plate here is all modern. It consists of 
a cup and two patens of the year 1843 ; and two silver-gilt 
and glass cruets with the date-letters for 1816 and 1885 

MiNEHEAD. — The older of the two cups is 9Jin. high and 
flilTer-^lt. The bowl is very deep in proportion to its diameter ; 
bat otherwise it resembles the plain Jacobean cups, being 
deyoid of any ornamentation. It is inscribed : ^ James Downe 
and John Bond, Churchwardens, Parish of Mynehead 1624.' 
Marks : 2 ofBc. ; date-letter for 1624 ; maker's mark, an F. 
or S. within a wreath. The second cup is 11 in. high, and 
weighs 30oz. This length is principally stem, which is decor- 
ated with divers mouldings and knops ; the bowl is bell-shaped 
4|in. in diameter ; the foot is broad and flat. It is inscribed : 
*F. Whitworth Esq. 1731.' The donor also gave the second 
paten ; it is platter-shaped with a wide brim ornamented with 
a band of foliage. Both cup and paten are of foreign origin 
and silver-gilt. 

The older paten is 7in. in diameter, and weighs 8oz. av. A 
reeded band runs round the edge. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1674 ; maker's mark, the initials R.D. It is in- 
scribed : ' This was given for the use of the Church of Myne- 
head by Thomas Hensley Gent : Anno : Dom : 1674.' 

The flagon is of the tankard pattern ; 1 1 in. high ; weight, 
39oz. av. ; with bowed handle and moulded base. Inscribed : 
* Peter Godwin and James Savounit Churchwardens 1705.' 
Marks : 2 offic, Brit, sterl. ; date-letter for 1705 ; maker's 
mark, L.O. in shield, with a key above. The mark of Nath. 
Lock entr. 1698. 

Oabe. — A small Elizabethan cup and cover by I.P. The 
cup is 5f in. high ; the bowl has the usual two bands of orna- 
mentation ; the knop and the foot have bands of hyphens. 
The cover has a band of foliage round the button enclosing 

tike^rteMSTS.' Marin (oUitontod m ooter) : 
kttor lor 1S7S ; mkar** muk, LP. 

A Modan paiCB b 4^b. aonMi, plstteMihaiw 
twin, ott loot Ib tho eeatn ia the Smeni iU 
ft fflo«7. Uarki: S afliie.; d ate l etter f„r t 
naric, A.F. It is iDMnbed : * Tke gift of .luht 
Baetor and Patroa of the Church tA On.' Tl 
diaaed the mivonrnm oi NieholM Snow about i 
after he haiwe raotor. He vaa toeoMdal h? 
man, pandirthet' of the late BorelkL Xlk aim 
ffiam., with needed edge, ia inaeribed : 'Thejaint 
OHTerBeotorandPiUnMiaiid W. Snow la) .l.i 
of the PiMMh of Ore 1814.' Marks : 3 cCc; A 

The flagOB ia 7iB. bi^ of a phua nprigfat pitu 
t o w atda the tc^ It haa a pierced thaibpieci 
haodleb Marin: 9 offio.; dat»4etter ba Vi 

POBLOOK. — In the abeenoe of an; waAs it i 
decide upon the exact age of the cup. It i« i^ 
weighs l4oz. ar. The bowl is 4^ii]. across, bell 
out decoration or inscription. The knop on the 
■ted with a band of cable pattern, while the fo 
and-dart omainent. The cover is also devoid 
the button is the Sacred Monogram. It ie prt 
stem and foot belong to the original Eliznliet 
the bowl having been damaged has been replao 

A plain disb, CJin. across ; weight, 8^z. bv. 
side : ' Purlock 1730.' Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
maker's mark partly worn away : a set of fo 
R.T. visible, in four-lobed punch. 

A paten and two silvei^mounted cruets of m 

Sblwokthy.— The cup is unfortunately wi 
It is S^in. high, and weighs ISJoz. av. The bt 
with a band of flowers and fruit within a di 

An Inventory of Church Plate, 159 

JK>p has a band of cable ornament, and the foot is encircled 
/ith the egg-and-dart moulding round edge. Marks : old 
liZeier mark ; ' I I ' within three pellets. These two marks 
ije struck twice. There are cups with similar variations on 
Jm orthodox pattern at Norton-s.-Hamdon 1601, Ilton 1610, 
Riinpton 1637 ; and the Sel worthy cup is probably of the 
iMBie period. 

The paten is ^^\n. across, and weighs lO^oz. av. There is a 
band of arabesques in the centre of the platter, and outside 
this a band of conventional foliage in four panels ; round the 
edge there is a fillet moulding. There are three marks : (1) 
lion ramp, crowned; (2), A crowned; (3), bunch of grapes. 
The late Sir W. Franks considered the paten to be a piece of 
Dutch domestic plate of the early part of the seventeenth 

The flagon is 12in. high, of the jug pattern with cover and 
lip; the bowed handle has the leaf ornamentation. Marks: 
2offic. ; date-letter for 1760; maker^s mark, W.C. Inscrip- 
tion on under side of flagon: ^Ex dono Johann: Dom : 
Arundell Anno Domini 1761. In Usu Ecclesise Selworthy- 
ensis.' On the bowl is a shield bearing quarterly ; 1 and 4, 
Sa, 6 martlets close 3, 2, 1 arg. (Arundell) ; 2 and 3, Sa. 3 
chevronels arg. (Trerice). Supporters : 2 panthers or spotted 
ramp, regardant incensed. Above the shield is a baron^s 
coronet. The third and last Lord Arundel died childless in 
1768, when the great estate of Trerice, which included the 
manors of Luccombe and Selworthy, passed to the grandfather 
of the present Sir C. T. D. Acland, Bart. ; vide "History of 
Selworthy," by the present writer, p. 204 seq. 

Stoke Pbro. — The plate, as everything else in Stoke 
Pero, is on a diminutive scale. The cup is only 4|in. high, 
and weighs 6^oz. av. Like all I.P.'s work, it has two bands 
of conventional ornament round bowl ; the stem however has 
no knop ; the foot is decorated with the hyphen design. 
Marks: 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573; maker's mark, I. P. 

An Inventory/ of Church Plate, 161 

The foot has the egg-and-dart ornament. The cover is of 
ike usual shape. On the button is a Tudor rose, surrounded 
bj * Wynsford 1574.' The only mark on the cover is very 
nnall and obscure, but it seems to be the letter H within a 
louble circle, the inner one being either pellets or cable 

The second paten is lO^in. across, weight 19oz. It has a 
leep rim; and in the centre of the dish is a circle with 
Boriated border. Marks: 2 ofKc. ; date-letter for 1633; 
maker's mark, I.M. above a pig passant, found on other plate 
in the diocese. On the under side in dotted letters, ^The 
guifte of Thomsine Widlake bought by Roger Widlake 1633.' 

WiTiiYPoOLE. — A little cup by LP. It is 5Jin. high ; the 
bowl is bell-shaped and decorated with the two customary 
bands. The knop is simply moulded ; the foot has a band of 
hyphens within fillets. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1572 ; 


The paten is 5^in. across, on a foot with moulded rim. In 
the centre : 'Eccles. de Withypoole, 1726.' Marks : 2 offic. ; 
Exeter modern; date-letter for 1725; the mark of Philip 

A flagon of Sheffield plate. 

WooTTOX Courtney. — The cup and cover are by LP., 
and 80 like his other work as not to require any detailed 
account. The cup is 6^in, high, and weighs BJoz. av. On 
the button of the cover is the date 1573. Marks : 2 offic. ; 
date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, LP. 

A paten 6^in. across, weight 6^oz. It is of the usual 
pattern, on a foot ; the only ornamentation consists of three 
incised lines on the brim. It bears the inscription : 'Ex dono 
Christianse Batt de Wotton Courteney 1676.' There are two 
marks: the maker's initials, T.D. above a fleur-de-lys in 
shaped punch ; the second, within a circle a barrel or tun 
lying across a T. This second mark is generally taken as a 
rebus on the name of Taunton, which may very probably have 

Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI), Fori 11. V 

«^ * 1 J»** 

y •Hs. MS B Ufc . wta S 

kFainpv 9rTi:u— 1^ « 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 163 

* Ex dono Marias Bnine viduse/ A )>aten, on foot, 8 J in. across, 
with the same marks as the flagon. In the centre is a lozenge 
bearing: a chevron and in chief 3 mullets (Fowel); imp., a 
orofls moline (Brune). Inscription: ^Ex dono BridgetUe 
Fowell vidua^.* A deep plate, 8|in. in diameter, with the 
iame arms and inscription as on the paten, but with the date- 
letter for 1844. This is probably an exchange for some older 
piece. On a tablet in the church is this inscription : ^ To the 
]MOU8 memory of Mrs. Mary Brune, daughter of Sir George 
F«rewel, of Bishop's Hull in the county of Somerset knt., 
relict of Charles Brune, of Athelhampstone in the county of 
Dorset, esq. ; mother of Mrs. Bridget Fowel her daughter 
aud only child, who in testimony of her inviolable duty, and 
affection to her most tender and indulgent parent, hath erected 
and dedicated this marble. She was a person of excellent 
endowments both of body and mind ; but those could not 
exempt her from the common fate ; for she departed this life 
the first of April, anno aetatis suae 80, et Domini 1697.' 

There is another plate of the same design and age as that 
last described, inscribed: 'Ex dono Hannae Vanzandt viduae.' 
On a lozenge : A tau between, a roundle in chief and base, on 
the dexter a mullet, on the sinister a lion ramp, supporting the 
tau ; imp., a chevron between three roses. 

A spoon 7|in. long with circular bowl and flat handle, which 
at the end is divided by two clefts into three points, the 
middle one being slightly turned up. The only mark is a 
fleur-de-lys surmounted by a cross within an oval punch, struck 
thrice* This is a well-known mark in the middle of the 
seventeenth century, though its place of origin has not yet 
been found. The particular pattern was in fashion from the 
Restoration to the end of Queen Anne's reign. On the back 
of the bowl are dotted in the initials A P. 1686. S S. ; the 
second S partially obliterating an I. Over the doorway of an 

old house in the village is a stone bearing the initials A.I. ; 


164 Fapr>-». Sfe. 

but Uie Rev. R, C. W. U«b«n %'icar of llie imridi, i 
kindly iw&rohed tite registers, hu nnt lioun ahlf to | 
satisf»vU>rv (HtucaUttation uf oauies agrvetn^ with l); 
initials. They arv prol«blj' doioe metnbcrs uf the £i 
IVrriii of TJwru Falcuo, resident here iliiHog tin 
Mtvvred by tbe ilat«». S.S. is a puzzler, m it van h 
•ilver DpoMu I 

Cheddii\ PiTZPAtxe. — Allbuugh the cnariu I 
hnvo iKren obliterated, Uie p«Ueru indicate* tbc ea^ 
the eigliUii'nlh i-euturv, so it is probably (rocrat WTth li 
1712. Tlie <;u|i \» Vin. high ; plain bovrl with Saei« 
grain within raynl circle, ruJiiueiitary knop, aiKlmaiili 
Th« ymlen on fmit in 6Jin. across, c|uite plain. Maria 
of ilrit. sterling; date-letter for 17i:f ; maker's mar 
worn away. It is inacribeil : ' Kx donu Kra : Wan 
Erclesiie Reetoris Anno 1712.* He was prc«cnt«d to tl 
in 170(1. A plate with the date-letter for 1843; in 
'Ex dono Km, Wture Huju:" Eodesin; Reetorin An* 
This second F.W. viw, nppointn] tn I8(M) and wad nj 
in 1H54 by the Kcv. S. H. Unwin, who survived until 
thi! two inciimbcncips nuarly covering the century. I 
tlngon with the date-lftU?r for 185.S. 

C'oRKE. — An Elizabethan mip and cover by J.P. 
uftniil doxign. The cup 't» ii^in. high; on the button o 
cover ' 1574.' Marks, aanic ou both piece«: 2 oilic,' 
letter for 1573: I.i*. A plain plate 7giii. acron; *( 
tJOK. 17dwt. Marks: 2 othe. ; dale-letl4>r for IT681DI 
mark, W.I. in oblong punch. A silver flagon of d 
ecclesiastical pattern. 

Crkecii St, MicHABi..--Another Elizabelhaii onpt!] 
without its cover. It is 7jin. high. Round the boDls 
bandij of running omameDt ; and bands of lozcngv* situ 
with dots, hyphens, and egg-and-darl design are wnil 
the other portion)). Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter fiir 



An Inventory of Church Plate, 165 

A plain salver or dish 7in. across. Marks : 2 oflSc. ; date- 
letter for 1762; maker's mark partly worn away, 2 initials R 
and another in plain oblong. Another smaller salver 5fin. 
•cross, with band of ornamentation round the brim. Marks : 
8 offic. ; and date-letter for 1791. 

Kingston. — A large and clumsy cup, with the date-letter 
obliterated, but most probably of the latter part of the seven- 
teeoth century. It stands 7^in. high ; and is quite plain. 
Marks : 2 offic. ; maker's mark, T.T. under a crescent in plain 
shield ; this is rather worn and is perhaps really the same as 
the mark on the cup at Low Ham, dated 1664, which has the 
initials T.R. under a crescent in a plain shield. The two cups 
are identical in pattern. The paten is 7^in. across, on foot. 
Marks : 2 offic. ; date-lettep for 1721 ; maker's mark, I.C. in 
heart-shaped shield — Joseph Clare. It is inscribed : ' Ex 
dono Margaret Bampfylde. The donor was the daughter and 
eventually sole heiress of Sir Francis Warre of Hestercombe 
Bart., and husband of John Bampfylde M.P., ob. 1750. A 
plate with boss in centre engraved with the Sacred Monogram. 
Inscribed: 'Kingston 1738.' Marks: 2 offic; date-letter 
for 1739; maker's mark worn away. A large flagon, I If in. 
to top of domed lid, tankard pattern with widely bowed handle 
and spreading foot. Marks : 2 offic. of Brit, sterling ; date- 
letter for 1716 ; maker's mark L O with key above — Nathaniel 
Lock, but instead of a fleur-de-lys below the letters, in this 
mark there is only a small pellet or dot. A large pewter 

North Curry. — The plate here is all modern. It consists 
of two cups, two plates, and a flagon of an ordinary pattern. 
Inscribed : ' Presented by Mrs. Mary Scott of Morden to the 
parish of North Curry 1831.' They bear the Sheffield date- 
letter for 1830. There are also two pewter flagons. 

Norton Fitzwarken. — The cup and cover, silver-gilt, 
are of the early Georgian period. The cup is 8Jin. high, with 
a deep bowl, tall slender stem encircled by annular knop, and 


moolddt look Tke mail eortor km a bnttoa lilhiiM 
dMNri ilML Ifaxks (MUDe on bolk): S olBe.; ilifnldittfc 
1740; OMker*! BMtfky B.P. in iecqpi kftften wilUiihfj 
ponek Bttthir older b n pnlen abo «lv€rfilt| 7|^nM 
qmle plain. Marks : S oflic of Brit, atariiiig; ^itilrfjiti 
1719 ; OMker^a matk, C O in aliidd with pdek ihMt| 
bakm— Bobert Coop^ enl. 1697. In tlie eoiln 0E %$\ 
within mantling is a skieid bearing: Three Uom mi^i 
and one. Underneath: * James Prowse JSmp. Ann 
17IS.* A large flagoB» tankard pattern, 
to lip ; diam. of loot 7^1. Same marks and iBmr^^i 
the paten. 

A nhrer salrer on three feet with ornamented e%e, 
the dAte4ett«r for 1810. There is also a 019 
intended origtnallj for domestic use with the 
1827, bearing the insmption: <The hmnUe but eodUj 
of C. Corfield to the Chnreh ol Norton FitsmmiJ^ 

Orchard Portman. — There is here a large en^i 

tnimpet-shaped stem, of the pattern usuallj found li 

latter part of the geventeenth century. It is perfectly {I 

I 7^in. high. Marks: 2 offic. : date-letter for 1646; mi^ 

mark, the initials W .T. below two pellets in plain pimclu 

the bowl within a wreath are the Portman arms, a flei 

I js. The cover is quite plain without flange ; it has the 

marks as the cup, and on the broad button the u 

Portman. A large flagon of the tankard pattern, wi 

same marks, except the maker's, which is not easy U 

out ; it resembles a six-pointed star with pellets on th 

lower rays. There is also a curious little shallow sauo 

across, set on a stem formed of three silver wires tw 

form stem and foot. The only mark is I C above a ] 

H shaped shield. There is no mark exactly like this in 

( ' the nearest approach being a shaped shield bearing tl 

'ift initials above a mullet noted in 1681, which is a ver 



168 Papers, 8fc. 

Ri'iSHTON. — This parish possesses an Elizabethan cup and 
cover by the hitherto unknown maker, whose mark was 
noticed in the introduction to part Hi {Proc, 45, ii^. The cup 
is T^in. high ; the bowl is V shaped ; under the lip are two 
fillets enclosing a convex-shaped band of hyphen ornament; 
below this in the usual place is another band of continuous 
foliage within hatched fillets. Above and below stem are 
bands of upright strokes ; the knop is plain with projecting 
rib; round the foot are bands of foliage and ^g-and-dart 
ornament. Marks : (1), M H combined in a monogram; (2), 
within a circle a St. Andrew's cross, with a pellet in each 
spandrel. This pair of marks is struck twice, first on the 
lip, and secondly under the foot. 

The cover is of the usual shape with one band of leaf orna- 
ment ; on the button is the date 1574. The marks, though no 
doubt the same as on the cup, are almost worn away. 

A salver on three feet, Tin. in diameter, bearing on the 
upper side the initials S.B., I.K., and on the underside K.P. 
1802. Marks: 3 offic. ; and date-letter for 1795. A flapfon 
and salver of plated metal. 

Sr A PL KG ROVE. — Tlic Elizabethan cup with cover is bv LP. 
and resembles his other work. The cup is TJin. high. The 
bowl is deep in proportion to its diameter ; it is ornamentetl 
with two bands of engraved design, also found on the foot and 
cover ; on the knop is the hyphen ornament. Marks (same 
on both pieces) : Two offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; I. P. The 
cover is of the ordinary pattern : on the button ' 1574.' 

A plain paten, on foot, 5|in. diameter ; engraved ' Staple- 
grove 1723.' Marks : 2 ofHc. ; date-letter for 1723 ; maker's 
mark, I.C. in heart-shaped j)uiu!h — Joseph Clare. 

A larger paten, diani. 7iin. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter 
for 1729; maker's mark, K.B. in plain oblong punch. Dedi- 
catory inscription : * Ex dono Sara^ Cridland vid. in perpetuuro 
Usuin Mensa; Sacra? de Staplegrove Anno Dom. 1728.* 
Within this surrounded by flourishes is a shield bearing: 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 169 

erm., on a chief 3 cinquefoils. Crest : dragon's head issuant 
out of a tower. The same donor presented a tall flagon of 
the tankard pattern, 9|in. to lip ; domed lid and bowed handle. 
Same marks, dedicatory inscription, and heraldry as on paten. 

Stoke St. Gregory. — The Elizabethan cup is a good 
specimen of I.P.'s handiwork. It is parcel-gilt, and 8in. high; 
the bowl is deep with two bands of ornament ; the knop has 
hyphens, and the foot the egg-and-dart decoration ; these 
portions and the extremities of the stem, are gilt. Marks : 2 
oflSc. ; date-letter for 1573 ; l.P. The cover has disappeared. 

There is also a nice little salver with gadrooned rim, on 
three feet. Gin. across. Marks : 2 offic. : date-letter for 1 734 ; 
maker's mark, I.C. in plain oblong punch. Its weight is 6oz. 
19dwt. The salver is inscribed: Stoke Saint Gregory 1804. 
W. B., W. S., churchwardens (William Brewer, William 
Sawtell). In the centre of the salver is a shield bearing : A 
two-headed eagle, a mullet in chief for difference (Speke); 
imp., two single fetter-locks in chief, and a double one in base 

George Speke, of Whitelackington, married Mary, daughter 
of Sir Robert Pye, and had a numerous family. The sixth 
son, William, was of Shepton Beauchamp, and by Margaret 
Bond had issue George, of Curry Rivel. He married 
Jennings, daughter of James Anderton, and died c. 1774. 
The lines denoting the "barry" of the Speke arms seem to 
have been worn down. The mullet, the difference for a third 
son, may have been borne by William after the untimely death 
of three elder brothers. [For this identification I am indebted 
to F. Were, Esq., of Gratwicke Hall, Barrow Gurney]. 

A cup, paten, salver, and flagon, of plated metal ; ' presented 
by Mrs. Sarah Gould of Moredon House North Curry 1844.' 

A large pewter tankard, somewhat the worse for wear. 

Stoke St. Mauy. — The plate here is all modern. It con- 
sists of a chalice and paten of mediaeval design, sv 

170 Papers, 8fC. 

A few years ago the writer was shown a pateu of the nsutl 
design with the date-letter for 1726, bearing the iDScription: 
*Thi8 belongs to the Parish Church of Stoke St. Mary, 1737. 
Wm. Burridge, Robert Philpott, churchwardens.' As there 
is no other Stoke St. Mary recorded in England in Crockfoid, 
and in 1791 Stoke House belonged to William Doble Bnr- 
ridge, this piece is no doubt part of the old plate, not rallied 
so much by its late as by its new owner, at present £7 lOs. 

Taunton St. Mary Magdalene. — The commonioB 
plate of this parish is, it must be confessed, more remarkabk 
for quantity than beauty. 

A large silver-gilt cup with cover. The cup is 8}in. high, 
and weighs 20oz. 15dwt. The bowl is quite plain, straight- 
sided ; the stem trumpet-shaped with a hollow collar or flange 
close up under the bowl ; the foot is slightly moulded. 
Marks : 2 otHc. ; date-letter for 1639 ; maker's mark, LT. 
with pellet below in shaped shield. It is inscribed : ^ Deo et 
ecclesise sacrum. Robertus Hill Londinensis olim hojvi 
parochiae alumnus, dedit banc calicem, pia; memoriae ergo. 
October 4o 1630. Burgus et villa do Taunton.' Also the 
arms of the town, a castle on a shield. 

The cover is of the ordinary pattern ; on the button within 
a rayed circle is the Sacred Monogram. Weight, 8oz. lOdwt 
Same marks as on cup. 

There is a fellew cup with cover ; the weight of the cnp 
being 20oz. lOdwt. ; and of the cover 9oz. The inscriptioOf 
etc., arc repeated, but the date is given as 25d Oct. 1639. 
The donor, Robert Hill, of Holljland, Taunton, with hii 
cousin, William Hill of Poundisford, signed the familj 
pedigree in the Heralds' Visitation of 1623. The reason for 
two different dates is not very apparent. 

A large flat-topped flagon, 13in. high ; diameter of foot, TJm.; 
weight, 77oz. Idwt. Marks: 2 oflic. ; date-letter for 1639; 
maker's mark, D.W. with star below in heart-shaped ahidi i 
Under the foot is a fleur-de-lys between the initials (jt.F^ arf ] 

~.4„ hifruiory i>/ Chirck Plttt^.' ' 

I ioecrtptioii : ' Nfivember tlie 20th 1639. The giiifte of 
9 Grace Portman to tho parrish of Taunton Magdalen, to 
i naed at the Communion for ever,' The donor was the 
Igbter of Sir John Portman of Orchard Portraan. 

Bilver-pilt ftagons of the jng-patterii ; weight, 43oz. 

rt., and 44oz. llhiwt., otherwise exactly alike, and very 

Marks : 2 oHio. ; date-letter for 1639 ; maker's mark, 

, combined in a monogram ; this ia found continnoiisly 

1609. Each Hagon ia inscribed : ' Eccliec parochial! Site 

Magdalen.i! dc Taunton, ibi natua, cducatu^ Gutl 

, S.T.P, Coll. Wadhami Oxon. anper Gnardiauua, in 

i ejus ufius donavit 1639,' William Smyth was warden 

1 College from 1617 to 16.15 ; afterwards rector of 

dington and prebendary of Worcester ; he died in 16.58 

■ whose grave (in Sj)eechley Church near Worcester) is 

r marble stone ' with an inscription given by Wood at 

\gth. His portrait is in the College HaU (Jackson's HU- 

< of Wadham Culhfff, 1693, p. 69). 

I In 1699 a silver almsdish was purchased. It is lO^iu. across 

Bth raised brim, weight 16oz. 2dwt. Marks: 2 oflic. of Brit. 

terling; date-letter for 1699; maker's mark, Ti between two 

in plain shield — Robert Timbrell. The plate ia in- 

ribed ; ' Patinam banc publico snmptu obtulenmt hujusce 

clesife guardiani, in festo Paschse, Anno Domini 1699." Also 

: arms of Taunton as on the earliest plate, and ' Chrlsto et 

icIeaiBB sacra. Hurgus rt villa de Taunton.' 

pair of salvers with gadrooned edges on foot; 7in. in 
meter; weight, 9oz. 1 Idwt. and 9oz. I3dwt, Marks: '2 
ic. ; date-letter for 1773 ; maker's mark, K.R. in plain 
h — ^Richaril Rew. They are inwribed : 'Taunton, Saint 
■ary Magdalen, communion plate, 1774.' 
[ Of more modern appearance are two silver-gilt cups of early 
Victorian pattern, with the date-letter for \S5'2, 
. And later still, a handsome and valuable gift consisting of 
pro parcel-gilt and jewelled chalices and patens, and a Hagou, 

1 7a l*apfr„, ^. 

jiftrc^'l-Kilt. boirine ttic datc-letWr for Irt71. Tliey i 
<.f!ril«-<l : 'Tlio Rift of John MarHhall. of Uclmont, w 
(liiin-li of S. Mary MaplAlen Taunton. KasUr 1872.' 

It will be nolk-ed that the oldest plate sunirtil tlie ter 
!(i4>fn^fi and other inridcnta of the Civit War, in which Tu 
bad moro than its fair share. When the Duke nf On 
)>c}fan the march from iirixham which landed htm at W~ 
hall, tho church authorities made up their mindo to he in 
sale side, for in the churcnwanJenji' accounts nndcr 12tii , 
IfiHS. occurs this mm : ' Paid Hillaril (tht- parish 
huryttiir the church plate, two Mhillinj^ aiid sixpence.' [K 
)H>iiiti>d out hy Prebendary A^lcwith, vicar of thp paii^] 

Tai XT.>\ St. .Iamks.— Tho handsome Elizabethan 
and cover is by IONS of Kxett*r. The cup, parcd-g 
7fin. higlL It hafi the ditttiticti?e Kxvtcr lip : mund tb( 
is a liand of ruuninf; ornament (inclosed within hatched ri 
intersecting at three points ; thcr upright xpraya of ore 
do not rise at these points of inlerxcction, aa is ustall 
^as(^ but midway betwoun them. There ore belt« of e^ 
(iarl d<^»ign nlwvc and Wlow the stem, and on foot Tht 
is very tliin. The only murks arc Exoter ancient, i 
IONS, in two punches. The cover is of the < 
pattern ; the button has a Tudor rtwc but no date. 
most probably 1374. 

Another cup ami cover is of the substantial , 
|>attcrn, but with reminiRccnoos of the earlier style o 
bowl and the cover. Thf cup is S^in. high. Marks: 2 
date-letter for 1839; maker's mark, an anchor l»ctw«w 
initials D G in plain shield ; this is a very common 
The cover has a broad flat brim without a flange; a 
Tudor rose is engravtNi in the middle of the plate, and ai 
on the button ; same marks as on enp. 

A large plate \-2 inches across, perfectly plain. Mat 
■iffic; date-letter for 1721; maker's mark, O.S. in a 
inmch— Gabriel Sleath. The plate ia inscribed : ' 

cut, I 


1 J« 

^An Inocntiirtf nf Church Plate.* 

E*«risli in Tauntou.' Undemetith : 'The gift of Thomas 
Odell and Elizabeth Odell his sister A.D. 172I.' Another 
plate of the same plainness H^in. across. Marks: 2 ottic. ; 
j-letter for 17H7; maker's mark, R.B. in plain punch — 
■■flfobert Brown ent. 1736. Inscribed: 'St. James Parish in 
^^^nioton ; tiVM-thirds of this plate was the gift uf Mrs, EUza- 
^^Kh OdeU 17:}:; 

There is also a handsome chalice of foreign design and 
tnanufncture. It is most probably Dutch or German earlj- 
sevent«euth centm-j work. It is 9Jin. high ; the small bowl is 
set in an outer case of repouss^ work with cherub's heads, 
finishi^d above with a circle of fleur-^e-ljs ; the tall stem is 
ttrided by two knops ; the sloping foot and base are also 
Klusee. There are no markij visible. On the under side of 
^ foot is the name uf a former owner : ' Ian : Romatowski : 
Round the lip of the bowl runs an inscriptioD : 
tU8 chalice was bequeathed by the Rev. Thomas Hugo, late 
r of West Hackney, for the use of the Congregation of 
flie Parish Church of S. .lames's Taunton 1877.' For a short 
biographical notice of the donor see the prefatory matter to 
■ History of Alhelney Abbey, printed in Pmc. xliii, ii, 94. 
L flagon, electro-plated. 
Iauston S. AxDiiKW (Rowbarton). — This is a modern 
ish. The plate consists of two modern chalices and pat«ns, 
rcei-gilt, with the date-letter for 1880. A small silver box 
mented with figures and other designs ; it bears the 
Kflield date-letter for 1892, and an inscription: 'To the 
kory of God and in memory of the Diamond Jubilee Week 
■ There is also a very handsome silver-gilt chalice of foreign 

tgn, Ufiu. high. There are no marks or inscription. 
ITaustus St. Johs'3. — A modern parish formed in 1864. 
lere are two chalices and patens, parcel^^ilt, of good modern 
iclesiastical pattern, with the date-letter for 1862. Another 
hand^ume chalice, silver-gilt and jewelled, with two paleus, 

174 Papers, Sfc. 

silver-gilt, and three glass cruets with silver-gilt mountings. 
A member of the congregation has latelj presented a valoaUe 
silver-gilt ciborium of a pre-reformation pattern. 

Taunton, Holt Trinity. — ^This parish was formed in 
1842. The plate then presented has been since exchanged tar 
another pattern. There are two chalices with patens, parcd- 
gilt, bearing the date-letter for 1887. In 1893 two glass 
cruets with silver mountings were added. A small spoon of 
some base metal seems to be somewhat of a curiosity. 

Thornfaulcon. — The communion plate is by LP., and of 
his usual design. The cup is 6^in. high ; round the bowl are 
two bands of running ornament; bands of hyphens on knop 
and foot. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; maker^s 
mark, I.P. The cover is of the usual pattern with a band of 
running ornament round rim ; on the button ^ 1573 ' ; same 
marks as on cup. 

The pewter vessels seem to have been designed to supple- 
ment the above. They consist of a small paten on tall foot ; 
a long flagon of the tankard pattern ; and a smaller tankard 
or drinking cup with a lid and handle, marked ' T.F. 1722.* 

In the church chest is preserved a stout leather 'cistula' or 
case, which may have been supplied for the safe keeping of 
the silver vessels, now more safely kept in a box. 

Thtrlbeare. — The plate here is all modern. It consists of 
a chalice and paten of media3val design, inscribed: 'Tkurl- 
beare, 1872.' There is also a plated flagon. 

TuuLL. — There are two cups, silver-gilt, of an ordioarj 
pattern, with the date-letter for 1811. They are inscribed: 
* William Blake, John Stephens, Churchwardens, 1847.' A 
salver, with moulded brim, was purchased at the same period. 
It is inscribed with the same names and the date 1848, which 
is that of its manufacture. 

The only piece of old plate left to the parish is a flagon of 
the tankard pattern, lOin. hi<rh to top of domed cover, with* 
bowed handle and ^preiuling foot. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 175 

letter for 1731 ; maker's mark, E.V. within circle, probably 
Edward Vincent. It is inscribed : ' The parish of Trull, 
Anno Dom. 1731/ 

A large and massive alms dish with the Sheffield hall-mark 

and date-letter, inscribed : ' Given to Trull church in loving 

memory of Lieut.-Colonel Alexander Ewing, A.P.D., and .of 

his wife Juliana Horatia Ewing, both sometime of this parish. 

By their nephews and godsons W.M.S., N.O.S., A.J.S.S.— T., 

Christmas, 1896.' In the central depression are three shields : 

I ; Erm. a chevron gu., on a chief engr. of the second a rose 

betw. 2 martlets (Smith of Barnes Hall). II ; Per fesse sa. 

and arg., on a chief a demi-lion affronte charged with a 

crescent ; in base two bones in saltire or betw. four fleur-de- 

lys (Gatty). Ill; Quarterly: 1 and 4, No. II; 2 and 3, 

Arg. sem^e of peUets ; on a bend betw. two cotises sem(^ of 

pellets a midlet betw. two crescents (Scott). Mrs. Ewing was 

the authoress who, under the name of '^ Aunt Judy," delighted 

^Derations of children both young and old. A plated salver 

on three feet, inscribed : ' Robert Cordwent and John Snook 

churchwardens Trull 1822.' 

Wkst Hatch. — The vessels here are only electro-plate. 
They consist of a cup, paten, and flagon c. 1860. There is 
also a curious old pewter tankard with flat lid, marked 1. 8., 
1778, C.W. 

West Monktox. — This parish possesses a weighty set of 
vessels of Brit, sterling, all of the same date and by the Hanie 
maker, but provided from two diff*erent sounies. 

The cup is 7|in. high. It has a deep bowl devoid of orna- 
mentation, a thick stem encircled by a knop, and a moulded 
foot. The cover is flat with a plain button. Marks (same on 
both pieces): 2 offic. Brit, sterling; date-letter for 1716; 
maker's mark, L O below a key in shield — Nathaniel Lock. 
On each piece is a shield bearing six annulets ** " i • on "^ 
canton a fleur-de-lys, on the honour point a cr 
inscription : * The gift of Richard Musgrave 



176 Baperg^fft. 

ton Esq* for tlie use of the Cimimiiiikm Table of Ait 
1717/ In die chnieh is the monmnent of die donoi^iil 
wiU is giTen in Bmwm^ Som. Wilb III, tf ; oa fi §: 
pedigree of the familj. He died 17th Ang^ 1717. hi 
mw the eeoond ton of Bidiard Maagrare, of Hetdeoodh^ 
preaenee of the creaoent ia ex^buned ; and the eiMaiii 
ita chmrge, ma j haTe been intended to differenoe Ae fa| 
anna from Uiat of Uie MoagraTe'a in Cnmberkad, bat ili 
not aj^pear in hia shield on a Commnnion oi^ p e m i e t 
Halee in 1784 (aee poet in Wellii^^ton Deanerj). 

A broad paten on foot, diam. 8|in. It ia qnite plnml 
moulded edge. It has the aame marks aa the ci^ aadii 
aeribed : ' The oommunion plate of the Paridi at 1 
Monekton: Timothj Lockett Chmtdiwardfai 1717/ 
weighty and handaome flagon of the jog pattern, with alt 
oorer ; round the body of the joic ia a fNrojecting fib. i 
marka and inacnq[>tion aa on the paten. 

A plated cnp of the Vict(Mrian ora. 

Wilton. — The parish possesses a plain cup with aba 
stem. It is quite plain, though the interior of the cu 
been gilded. Height 7^in. Marks : 2 offic. ; date4eU 
1636; nnaker's mark worn away. Dedicatory inscripti 
foot : ' Ex dono M. Jenkjns.' A replica of this cup, ai 
salvers bearing the date-letter for 1831. A modem e 
plate flagon. 


Ash BRITTLE. — As this parish is on the extreme ho\ 
the county adjoining Devonshire ; it is not surprising 1 
early plate comes from Exeter. The cup is 7in. high, 
gilt. The lip is slightly concave ; the bowl has a sinj 
of running ornamentation, with upright sprays at tl 
intersections. The knop is flattened. The stem a 
have bands of upright strokes and egg-and-dart or 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 177 

3nlj marks are Exeter ancient and I. IONS, in two 
les. The cover is to match, with the same marks. On 
utton is a very conventional flower, but no date ; yet 
pieces are no doubt of the year 1574, as in dated 
pies by the same maker. 

large flat-topped flagon, lOfin. high ; tankard pattern, 
bowed handle and wide-spreading foot. Marks : 2 oflSc. ; 
etter for 1683 ; maker's mark, E.G. between 2 stars, in 
d punch. On the front of the drum within mantling is 
jnge, bearing : Erm. on « chief, 3 lozenges (Cheeke) ; 
two bars engr. betw. 9 martlets 3, 3, 3 (Moore). In- 
ion : * Ex dono Rachel Cheeke. George son of Phillip 
Jachel Cheeke, was borne in the yeare 1677.' About 
late the Cheeke family had large possessions in Ash- 

flat saucer-like vessel, 7in. across, the edge turned up, 
., and scoUopped. Marks : 2 oflSc. of Brit, sterling ; 
r's mark, perhaps C O (but very worn) in plain punch ; 
letter for 1717. Inscribed : * Ashbrittle Parish.' A plain 
on foot, 7in. in diameter, Marks : 2 oflic. ; Exeter 
m; date-letter for 1726; maker's mark, in plain shield, 
below a label of three points. Inscription : ^ In gloriam 
Bcclesiae de Ashbrittle Hoc D.D.D. Susanna TymeweU 

H Priors. — The only vessel of silver here is a Georgian 
)f the usual pattern, quite plain, 9|in. high. Marks : 2 
; date-letter rather worn, but probably that for 1737 ; 
r's mark, in plain oblong punch, R.B. — Richard Bayley. 
small cup and salver, plated, inscribed : ^ The gift of the 
Nicholas Spencer to the Altar of Ash Priors Church 
' A glass cruet with silver mountings, presented by 
Proctor Baker. 

.THE ALTON. — The plate, consisting of a chalice, paten, 
1, and spoon of modem mediaBval design, was given at the 
of the rebuilding of the church in 1854. The paten is 

i, XL VI (Third Series, Vol, VI J, Pari II. m 

178 Papers y Sfc, 

inscribed : ' The gift of Frances widow of Alexander Webber 
1854/ Thus the parish was deprived of its antiquities at one 
fell swoop. 

Bishop's Lydeard. — The oldest cup with its cover, is of 
the intermediate period between the Elizabethan and Jacobean 
styles. The cup is 9|in. high and follows the Jacobean model 
The ornamentation is, however, of the earlier period. It in- 
cludes a belt of hyphens round lip ; one band of running orna- 
ment enclosed within intersecting fillets roimd the bowl ; the 
knop is plain ; the foot is decorated with two very neat varia- 
tions of the egg-and-dart design. The weight of the cup is 
21 oz. Marks: 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1617; maker's mark, 
A.B. combined in a monogram in shaped punch (first noted in 
1602). The cover is of the later pattern, with broad brim, 
and without flange. Same marks. On the button : * H.P., 
I.e., 1617; Chvch wardens.' 

An enormous Georgian cup 12y\|in. high, quite plain except 
for the Sacred Monogram on the bowl. It has been turned 
into a flagon by the addition of a spout to the lip. Marks : i 
oflBc. ; date-letter for 1753; maker's mark, W.G. in shaped 
punch — William Grundy ent. 1743. Underneath the foot are 
the initials P., I.E., the first above the other two. Accom- 
panying this cup is a paten T^m. across, quite plain ; with the 
same marks as the cup. 

A flat plate 7in. across; weight 5oz. IGdwt. The only 
mark is a plain heraldic shield, containing a T with a circle 
attached on the sinister side of the stem, above a martlet 
between two stars. 

There is also a modern chalice, parcel-gilt, inscribed : ' To 
the glory of God, In memory of E. J. Esdaile, Esq., of 
Cothelstone, who died Feb. 14, 1881' Given to S. Marr's 
Church, Bishop's Lydeard by 160 of the poor of that parish 
and some others.' 

Bkadford. — The cup is of the large squareish form found 
after the Restoration. It is 7^in. high ; the bowl is trumpet- 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 179 

shaped and quite plain ; just below the base of the bowl is a 
flange encircling the stem instead of the more usual knop ; 
the foot is broad and flat. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 
1662; maker's mark, N.W. above a star in shaped punch, 
found 1646-1660. The bowl is inscribed: 'Bought, the. 
10 . of . March . in . the . jear . 1662 . for . the . parish . of . 
Bradford . b j . us . John . Trefusis . and . William . Troth . 
Church . wardens.' The cover has a broad brim and no 
flange ; same marks as on cup. 

A plated salver and flagon. 

Combe Floret. — The Elizabethan cup with cover is by 
I.P., and is of his plainer pattern. The cup is 6^in. high ; 
the bowl has two bands of conventional ornament ; the knop 
and foot have the hyphen ornament. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1573 ; I. P. The cover has a belt of hyphens round 
brim ; on the button is the date ' 1574 ' ; same marks as on 

In the eighteenth century the parish received a valuable 
gift of plate. A cup and cover of the early Georgian period ; 
the cup is 7^in. high : quite plain except for the Sacred 
Monogram on bowl and cover. The stem is thick, with a 
rudimentary knop. Marks: 2 offic; date-letter for 1726; 
maker's mark, F. in shield — William Fawdery. The weight 
of the cup is 12oz. 7dwt., and the cover 4oz. 12dwt. On each 
piece is an heraldic lozenge, bearing : A chevron betw. 3 
mullets (Francis) ; imp., three lions ramp (Prowse). A large 
paten on foot 9^in. across, quite plain. It bears the same 
arms and marks as the cup, except that the date-letter is one 
year later. A plate 8^in. across, weight lloz. 2dwt. ; same 
marks and arms as on cup. A heavy flagon, jug-pattern, S^in. 
high to lip ; weight, 38oz. 1 7dwt. Same marks and arms as 
on cup. A knife in sheath, both plated ; each marked with a 
crest : On a wreath a tree leaved and fructed (Francis). 

William Francis of Combe Florey married P' "" 
daughter of John Prowse of Norton Fitzwarren, 


1 80 Paper*, 4rc. 

wa* iimved 12th .IhI.t. 1"20. li_v .l<Jin FruicisfAnisn », 
HiK willow wao tbe donor. 

(.■tiTHEi-HTctxK.— The eiip. purccl^ilt, is of thit or 
|iHtU'm (if the earlj- Viotorian «ru ; it has the ilal&Jet 
1843. Tht' only old piece is a Mnall i»aleu oo foot; 
ai^roM ; wiright, 7oz, IVdwt. i Sa*T«l Monogram in 
The iiiark^ are too obliterated fur identification, but tl 
I)rohahly of the BritaJinia sterling. Th*»re U also a 
lankanl pattern, 9in- tall to lip. with spreading fwt j 
oriianit^nted. On the drum is the Swrcd Monognim. 
are no marks visible. 

Hai.kk. — The old plate here is n Jfift. It iuoludm i 
the earl_v (ieorgian period, Sin. Iiigli : with Sacreil Mo 
within raj'cd cirele on bowl. Mark)> : 'J ofNt.'. ; daUvle 
172.3: niaker'n mark much worn, perhap;' F in plain 
On the cup IN a shield, bearing : Az. (i amnilet^ or, 3, 
creM'ent fnr difTerence. Inscripttoa : * The gift of 
Muflgrave of West Monckton Esq', for the use of t) 
munion Table of the Parish of Halse in the Co 
Somerset Anno Dom : 1724." The same marks, ar 
inscription are on tlie cover of the cup, paten, and II 
the hot-watur-jiig pattern. ( See some account of thi 
under West Monkton in Taimton District). 

A Kmall plated cup: "The pift of the Revd. > 
Spencer Vicar to the Altar of HaUe Church, 1K.'J2.' 

IIkathkibld, — The modem cup is of somewhat \ 
design. It is 7in. high ; the upper part of ihe I 
trumpet-sha[)ed, with a band of engraved ornament ; ih 
part is convex, the foot hexagonal. Marks : .1 otfic 
date-letter for 1 8:11. The cup liears an inscription : '1 
of the Rev'. Thos. M. Cornish Rector of Heathfield, I 

A salver on three feet, with a band of engraved cm 
encirchng an inscription : ' Presented to the Parish of ] 
field 25 Dec. 1841 hy Elizabeth and Mary Cornish, 
marks are almost illegible ; one seems to be a harp a\ 

An Inventory of Church Platr, 181 

which is the Dublin mark ; see Oake post. There arc monu- 
ments to the donors in the church. 

HiLLFARRANCE. — The cup and paten are electro-plate. 
There is also a silver salver with the date-letter for 1896. 

KiTTiSFORD. — This parish possesses a small Elizabethan 
cup and cover by I.P. The cup is 6f in. high ; two bands of 
ornament round bowl ; hyphen ornament on knop and foot. 
Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, I.P. 
The cover is of the usual pattern; and has on the button 
* 1574.' 

There is also a small flagon, tankard pattern, 7in. to top of 
lip ; with carved handle and large thumbpiece. Marks : 2 
offic. of Brit, sterling; date-letter for 1705; maker's mark, 
not very clear. It is inscribed : * Donum Bridgette Ellesden 
ad Dei Gloriam Anno Domini 1705.' A plain flat plate, 
diam. 7^in. ; with the date-letter for 1814. Of the other 
marks, either the leopard's head or that of the sovereign is 
missing. * Kittisford 1815.' A pewter plate, * K. 1740.' 

Laxgford Budville. — Like the preceding parish, the 
oldest pieces are by I.P. The cup is 6^in. high, and is in all 
respects like the Kittisfbrd cup. On the button, of the cover 
is ' 1573.' Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; I.P. 

A large dish with wide brim. The marks are i)ra<;ti(;ally 
obliterated, but the leopard's head Hcems U) be that of the 
earlier part of the reign of Charles II, i.<?., >>efore 1678. Thin Ih 
confirmed by the peculiar stiff character of thct inantlitig Hur- 
rounding the shield in the centre. The shield bcfarn : Arg. 2 
bars gu., in chief 3 escallopps (Clarke) ; On an ineKciiU!h<;ori 
of pretence ; quarterly, 1 and 4, a chevron gu. betw. 3 rnart^ 
lets (Jepp); 2 and 3, Three arrowM [K;iritM downwardn, in chief 
3 moor's heads erased (Watt«;. Edward ('Iwrke, of ('hipley, 
who died in 1710, married Mary, only daughU^r and \mT of 
Samuel Jepp (ob. 160^)) of iiniUm i'ouri, in ('hew Magna^ ' 
whom he had a numerouy* iwtue/ She (Vhvi\ at ('hifilejr 
January, 1705, and wai^ biiriis^I at (/h#rw Ma^m im 

182 Papers^ Sfc. 

day of February following. Her memorial slab is (or was) in 
the floor of the church. The quartered coat is certainly 
Wattes, but I have not been able to find any connexion 
between the Jepps and the latter family, either of Greinton or 
Cucklington. {Brown, Som. Wills III, 34, iv, 107; Coll. 
II, 99). 

A cup, paten on foot, and flagon of tankard pattern, with 
the date-letter for 1848. Inscribed : * Laus Deo non sine 
memoria, E.A.S. 1866.' A small paten, electro-plate. 

Lydeard St. Lawrence. — There is here an Elizabethan 
cup by the Exeter maker IONS, unfortunately without its 
cover. It is 6|in. high ; the bowl has the distinctive Exeter 
lip, and one band of ornament within interlacing fillets without 
sprays at the intersections. There are bands of upright 
strokes above and below the stem and on foot, which has also 
the egg-and-dart ornament. Marks: Exeter ancient: I. 
IONS in two plain punches. There is no date engraved on 
the cup, but it is probably that of his other pieces, about 1574. 

The paten is 7in. across, quite plain, on foot ; slightly con- 
cave with upright rim. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 
1633 ; maker's mark, l.M. above a pig passant. Another cup 
is of the Georgian pattern. Tin. high. Marks : 2 otfic. ; date- 
letter for 1767 ; maker's mark, E.A. in plain punch. Under 
the foot is a dedicatory inscription : ' The gift of the Revd. 
Mr. Fitch, Rector 1768.' 

There are also a cup and salver, plated, inscribed : * The 
gift of the Revd. Chas. Russell A.M. Rector of Lydeard?. 
Lawrence Deer. 1817.' 

MiLVKinoN. — The plate here is all modern. There are 
two cups, parcel-gilt, of the egg-cup pattern. Marks: -^ 
offic. ; date-letter for 1785 ; maker's mark, L.H. in script 
letters in oblong punch. They are inscribed : ' Samuel 
Edwards de Bristolia Armiger in sacros Usiis Ecclesis 
Milvertcmensi hanc Calicem donavit A.S. 1787.' 

There are also two chalices, silver-gilt, with patens, of 

An Inventory/ of Church Plate, 183 

unusually good mediaeval design ; and a flagon, also silver-gilt, 
bearing the date-letter for 1849. 

Nynehbad. — The parish possesses a cup and cover by 
IONS of Exeter. The cup is of the usual pattern, with a 
single band of ornament round bowl. The marks are two in 
number : (1), Exeter ancient ; (2), I. IONS, in two punches. 
On the button of the cover is the date ' 1574.' 

The flagon is of the rarer period of the seventeenth century, 
tankard pattern, and is a fine specimen of the period. It is 
9 inches high, with a flat lid. Marks : 2 oflSc. ; date-letter 
for 1681 ; maker's mark, O.S. in shaped punch ; this is found 
in 1671. On the drum, surrounded by stiff mantling, is a 
shield, bearing : Quarterly, 1 and 4, three bars wavy ; 2 and 3, 
a chevron betw. 3 martlets (Sanford) ; imp., quarterly, 1 and 4, 
ermine ; 2 and 3, paley of six f Knightley). 

A salver, with gadrooned brim, on three feet. It is in- 
scribed : * Nynehead 1 824.' Marks : 2 oflic. ; date-letter for 
1731 ; maker's mark, T E below a crown — Thomas England. 

A plain paten on foot, diam. 6|in. Marks : 2 otfic. ; date- 
letter for 1734; maker's mark, R.B. in plain oblong. In the 
centre of the paten is a lozenge, bearing : Sanford impaling 
Clarke (see under Langford Budville). William Sanford 
married Anne, daughter of Edward Clarke, of Chipley. He 
died 27th Dec, 1718, aged 33, and his widow placed a monu- 
ment in the church to his memory ( Coll. Ill, 268). 

There is also a beautiful and valuable modern set of vessels 
given by Miss Nash, sister-in-law of the Rev. W. H. Walrond, 
Vicar of Nynehead, 1866-1884. The pieces are a chalice, 
paten, and cruet, of a foreign design. 

Oake. — The cup is of the egg-cup pattern, parcel-gilt, and 
quite plain, 6 Jin. high. Marks : 2 oflic. ; date-letter for 1782 ; 
maker's mark, in plain upright oblong, I.S., I.B. Inscription: 
* Oake Church 1846.' 

A very nice salver, diam. o^in., fac-simile to the one at 
Heathfield, and probably connected with the donors. The 

184 Papers^ Sfc. 

marks are : Crowned harp ; Hibemia seated ; date-letter for 
1805 ; maker's mark rather worn, perhaps I.S. in plain punch, 
found in this very year. 

Of pewter there are a small platter, a bason, and a flagon 
(E.H. on thumb-piece). 

In addition to these articles, still in possession of the parish; 
when the Society visited Wellington in 1892 (vol. 38, ii, 72), 
Mrs. G. Stone exhibited 'two silver beakers from Oake 
church, inscribed : G. Farthing clericus, Gulmo. Slocombe 
Eectori de Oake, in com. Som. D.D. 1782.' And by Mr. 
Prideaux : ' Hour-glass and old oak Communion chair from 
Oake church.' Is it too much to hope for that in a more 
reverend age these articles may return to their rightful resting- 
place ? 

RuNNiNGTON. — Everything in this parish, including the 
plate chest, is on a diminutive scale. It contains a cup and 
cover by I.P. The cup is d^^in. high ; the bowl has two 
bands of ornament ; hyphen belt on knop, foot, and cover. 
On the button is the date ' 1574.' Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1573; I.P. 

Sampford Arundel. — A small cup and cover. The cup 
has somewhat the shape of a dice-box, a pattern also found at 
Lufton, Sutton Bingham, and Bp. Ken's preserved at Fromc 
S. tlohn's. It is Gin. high. Marks : 2 offic. of Brit, storl. ; 
date-letter for 1706 ; maker's mark, P. A. in shaped punch-- 
Thomas Parr, On the bowl is dotted in: 'C + B, Sampford 
1707.' These are probably the initials of Christopher Barker, 
liigh-sherifF, 1724. His M.I. is preserved in Collinsoits ac- 
count of the parish (III 27); he died 15th Aug., 1729. The 
cover has the same marks and inscription. 

Another paten, diam. 5Jin., quite plain, on foot. Marks : 
2 offic; date-letter for 1723; maker's mark worn down. 
Dotted in on under side: .J.G.E., 1723; the middle letter 
above the other two. A flagon electro-plate. 

An Inventory/ of Church Plate. 185 

Stawley. — I regret to say that I have not been able to 
see the plate in this parish, nor to learn anything about it. 

Thorne S. Margaret. — Like many other parishes in this 
part of the county, it obtained its earliest plate from Exeter. 
The cup much resembles that at Ashbrittle, minus the gilding. 
It is 6^in. high ; the band round the bowl has no inter- 
sections or upright sprays. On the button of the cover is the 
date 1574. Marks : Exeter ancient; and I. IONS. 

The parish also possesses a cup of the baluster-stem pattern, 
of a later date than any that I have previously seen. It is 
6f in. high, quite plain. Marks : 2 ofHc. ; date-letter rather 
worn down, probably that for 1676 ; maker's mark only part 
visible. The cup is inscribed : ' To do good and to distribute, 
forget not, for with such sacrifices God is pleased. Given to 
Thome Church by Mr. Clement Andrewes 1733.' 

A flagon, electro-plated; 'Thorne St. Margaret 1855.' A 
plated salver ; ' In usum sacrum Eccli® Thome St» Margt» 
in agro Somersetensis Edvardus Webber Minister Johannes 
Hitchcock Guardianus mdcccxxvi.' 

Wellington (S. John's). — In 1764 the Vestry ordered 
that a ' New Sett of Conununion Plate, consisting of one 
Flaggon, One Cup and Cover, and one plate be bought.'4 In 
consequence there is no plate older than the * Sett ' then ob- 
tained ; they are all still in existence, the flagon being a very 
fine specimen of its kind. They all have the same marks : 2 
oflSc. ; date-letter for 1763 ; maker's mark, I.M. in plain 
oblong punch — Jacob Marshe, ent. 1744. The cup is in- 
scribed : * Wellington Church I.B., I.F. '; the paten, ST.B., 
J.F. '; the plate, 'Jas. Baron Esq., Jno. Forward, Wars. 

In 1 824, a ' new cup for communion, like the old one, was 
bought.' It has the modern Exeter mark, and the date-letter 
for 1823. 

Wellington, Trinity Chapel. — This church was built 
in 1831, and was furnished with plate of that date. There 

ms!t Tm\ ciQiEu o^.. mfl fbipTSL of tiie suDe p^t^yy n ^s tlie 
T«itfBi^ ic tdtt Purkdii Clmrc^ Ther mD bemr tiie SheSdd 
iaJi-flaijiL. and laie dsaE^4fisa«r far 1^3Ct. Tbere is also a «md1 
fpuuL wisL periivaoed l«nrL beaoDg the daiieJettier for 1801 ; 
aJ«^ iM: Ika jiaiiiain ; «ar€reB^*«' head z maker's isark. C3^ 

Tlicre k aibc* a T^enr corioiB old difik, diam. IO^iol, with 
troM tvixiL Tlik k ocnrcred widi m mmimg: deiagn of birds, 
ahcnaiang: witL «praj^ of foliage and flowers. Tke centnl 
part haj^ a wrcaiL of ^«ig^ and flowexis od a grannlmted ground 
eockiong a §lik^ forrcmfded hj the stiS mantfingf peculiar to 
the Ret^jraxkd period. MaiiLf : 2 oflk:. ; date-letter nearly 
worn avar. nK»gt profaablj thai for 1690 ; maker's mark, E.V. 
in monogram Itelov a crown in shaped shiekL found in 1683. 
Tbe 6>hield is Uazoned : Erm a chevron ; impu three swords 
in pale, the middle one reTersed. ( Proctor). Crest : A cabit 
arm, in armour, holding a short sta£ 

This dijfh was presented by the Rev. W. Proctor ThonuuN 
vicar of the pari?li. for an almsdish to complete the ?et. 
(Not-e bv the K^-v. W. \V. Pulmaru present vicar;. 

Wkllin<.t»»\. All Saixts. — A mcKieni parish, formed in 
l^i^K The plate i* all modem after ancient models. The 
chalice, small paten, and flagon were presented by Miss S. M. 
El worthy. A large paten has since been added. ( Communi- 
cate^] by the Kev. K. L. Lang, vicar;. 

\Vf>T Bam5okml(,h. — The oldest plate consists of a cup 
with cover, «ilver-gilt, of the Jacobean pattern, large and 
hciavy. The cup is 8 gin. high, and devoid of ornamentation, 
but the foot is well moulded. Marks : 2 oflSc. ; date-letter 
for 1041 ; maker's mark, an anchor between the initials D.G. 
On the bowl surrounded by mantling is a shield, l)earing : 
Two bars charged with six martlets between three billets, two 
in <!hief and one in base. Crest : a demi-maiden crined. In- 
Hcrijition : * Ex dono Edw. Kellett Sacr. Theo. Doct. Rect. de 
IJagborougli A no Dni 1641.' The cover is broad and shallow, 

An Inventory of Church Plate, 1 87 

with the same marks. The donor also gave the large flagon 
of the tankard pattern. It is lO^in. high, with a flat lid and 
spreading foot. The marks are the same as on the cup with 
the exception of the maker's, which is a plain shield contain- 
ing the letters R.S. ahove a heart. It is engraved with the 
same arms and inscription. 

Edwai-d Kellet was presented to the rectory in 1 608, which 
he held with the adjacent parish of Crowcombe, presented 
1615. He was a great sufferer in the Kebellion, and died 
before the Restoration. 

There are also two plates with ornamented edges. One 
weighs 12oz. 15dwt. Marks: 2 ottic. ; date-letter for 1778; 
maker's mark, in upright oblong R G., W.S., R.S. The other 
plate weighs 12oz. 8dwt. ; marks : 2 oflSc. ; date-letter for 
1780; maker's mark, G.W. in plain punch. They are in- 
scribed : * To the Parish Church of West Bagborough in the 
County of Somerset, and for the sole use of collecting the 
Sacramental Alms, this dish was given by James Smith A.M. 
Rector thereof Anno Dom. 1779.' 

West Bucklaxd. — A plain substantial cup of the 
Georgian period, 8iin. high. The bowl is encircled by a pro- 
jecting rib, and decorated with rayed circle enclosing Sacred 
Monogram. Marks: 3 offic. ; date-letter for 1806; maker's 
mark not visible. A plain salver, diam. 7f in., with Sacred 
Monogram in centre. Marks : 3 offic. ; date-letter for 1802. 
A flagon of modern ecclesiastical pattern. 

Jl^ote0 on tbe l^istorp of mitiBtotn. 


WINSFOED Rivers and Winsford Bosing were the 
names of the principal manors given in an old lease 
dated 1756. Collinson states that in 1272 John de Ripariis 
held the hamlet of Wyneford of Amicia, Countess of Lisle, 
by the payment of one knight's fee.^ The perambulation of 
the Royal Forest of Exmoor, 1298, includes the " Villa de 
Wyneforde, cum boscis, brueris et aliis pertinentiis, quam 
Ricardus de Ripariis et Stephanus Beumunde tenent."* (Wins- 
ford Bosing, perhaps, taking its name from Beumunde). In 
the " Nomina Villarum " of 1316, the Lords of the Manor are 
Ricardus de Ryvers and Johannes de Acton. In the time of 
Fitz Joceline, Bishop of Bath and Wells, Alicia Roges gave 
to the church of St. Andrew at Wells, the church at Wins- 
ford, with all its appurtenances. According to Diigdale, 
William dc Regny gave to the Priory of Barlynch, a ferling of 
land in the manor of North Wynesforde, and the advowson of 
the church of that vill ; while sometime before 1268, by » 
gift of 200 marks from Hugo de Romenall, Treasurer at 
Wells, the Prior and Canons of Barlynch purchased a rent of 
100 shillings a year, and half a virgate of land in Winsforf? 
together with the advowson of the church. There appear to 
have been conflicting claims to the church and land of Wins- 

1. Collinson, Vol. iii, p. 555. 

2. Royal Forest of Exmoor. Rawle, 

Notes on the History of Winsford. 189 

ford, which were settled by the transference of all asserted 
rights to the Priory, Hugo de Romenall making peace by sup- 
plying to the Prior of Barlynch the means of compensating 
the authorities at Wells for the loss of the church.^ In 1280 
the Priory endowed the vicarage with the whole tithe of wool, 
lambs, chickens, calves, pigs, ducklings, cheese, butter, flax, 
honey, and all other small tithes, and oblations and dues per- 
taining to the altar offerings of the church, with the mortu- 
aries, and the tithe of all grist corn existing in the parish, and 
the whole tithe of hay, except the tithes coming from the 
Rector's domain. Also that the " Vicar, for the time being, 
shall have that field which lies between the house of the Rec- 
tor of the church and the water of the Exe, as it is enclosed, 
together with the house of the Chaplain, which is situated in 
the same field, and the long cattle-shed which is situated out- 
side the aforesaid field, together with the pasture for all his 
animals in the common pasture. But the small tithes of the 
parishioners, from the animals belonging to the Prior and 
Convent of Berlich, being kept, or grazing in the parish, the 
Vicar shall not receive." The Vicar agreed to pay the sum 
of ten shillings yearly to the Priory on the Feast of the Cir- 
cumcision, and to bear all the ordinary burdens, but for (extra- 
ordinary burdens the Priory agreed to bear two-thirds, tin? 
Vicar the remaining one-third.* 

In the taxation of Pope Nicholas IV, the church was taxed 
at 12 marks, the vicarage at 8 marks. 

Pension of the Prior of Berliz 10 shillings. 

In 1453 the Priory, "considering that the income of the vicar- 
age consisted chiefly of the tithes of lambs, calves and otlmr 
animals, and that there was not sufficient allotment of hind for 
their bringing up, decreed that the vicarage should be (^ridowiul 
with the glebe lands, and also the whole tithe of hay proi'ntMl 
ing from the tenement of the Rector, the Vicar, lor liiiMHitjf 

1. Proceedings Som. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Society. Vol. kkvIII. 

2. Wells MBS. 

190 Papers^ Sfc. 

and his successors, agreeing to pay the annual rent of 20 shil- 
lings to the Priory, and also to provide, at his own cost, two 
suitable processional wax candles, which ought to bum only at 
the time of procession as had hitherto been the custom."* The 
church was perhaps rebuilt about the middle of the fifteenth 
century, the glebe being added at the same time. 

John Chester, Prior of Barlynch, became Vicar in 1483, on 
the death of John Stampe, retaining the office of Prior till his 
death,* thus keeping both the rectory and vicarage in the hands 
of the Priory. At the dissolution the rectory was valued at 
£9 lOs. Od. Collinson states that it was granted to the Earl 
of Hertford, In 1594, on the death of John Wyndeet, Vicar, 
by a copyist's error, the vicarage was called a rectory, and F. 
Gates was presented to the rectory by Robert Grace de 
Sutton, Clerk, of the County of Nottingham, the nomination 
being allowed by Sir Adrian Stokes and Lady Frances Suffolk. 
F. Gates was cited to Wells to show cause why Charles Chad- 
wick should not be presented to the vicarage by Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge.^ 

The advowson of the vicarage was presented to Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge, in 1589, by William Neale, Esquire, 
Auditor to the Treasury, and Alderman of the City of Lon- 
don. Charles Chadwick being the first Vicar appointed bj 
the College. 

The name of Mr. Thomas Dyke occurs in a poor rate of 
1651, as rated for the Sheaf tithe. Sir Thomas AclaiA 
seventh Baronet, married Miss Elizabeth Dyke, only daughter 
of Dr. Dyke, of Tetton, and the name of " Squire Ackland' 
appears in 1 748, he having succeeded to the lands and part of 
the rectorial tithes belonging to Dr. Dyke. 

The church was dedicated to St. Peter before the Reforma- 
tion, as shewn by several Winsford Wills, but it became 

1. Wells MSS. 

2. Archers Religions Houses of Somerset. 

3. Somerset Incumbents, p. 466. 

Notes on the History of Winsford. 191 

changed to St. Mary Magdalene. The Sunday after St. 
Peter's Day is still known as Revel Sunday. 

According to the Wills there were nine stores in the church, 
viz. : St. Peter, B.V.M., High Cross, the Dead Light, St. 
James, St. Katherine, St. Anthony, Blessed Mary of Pity, 
and St. David.^ 

In 1654, according to an old deed, the roof the south side of 
the church was relaid with lead by Joseph Williams, of Barn- 
staple, who undertook to cast and lay up the lead and keep it 
in repair, at his own cost, for a period of twenty years, for the 
sum of £12 6s. 9d. 

During the eighteenth, and early part of the nineteenth cen- 
turies, the church was constantly in the hands of carpenters 
and masons for repairs. During the years 1804-5-6, the sum 
of over £368 was spent on the church, chiefly on the roof, 
which was then ceiled and plastered. In 1813 a new screen 
was erected, the Commandments and Coat of Arms being fixed 
above the screen, at the entrance of the chancel. These were 
removed by the late Sir T. D. Acland and the present Vicar 
in 1858, when the south porch was rebuilt. There is no evi- 
dence when the old screen was removed. During the years 
1800 to 1834, no less than £1465 17s. 6d. was spent on the 
church, all of which was raised by rate in the parish. In 
1890-1 the church was restored by the late Mr. Sedding, and 
a local contractor, at a cost of £1200. 

It may not be out of place to remark that these sums were 
spent on the church when the yearly charges on the parish 
were very heavy. The poor rate was seldom less than £400 a 
year, sometimes above £500 and £600, and the highway rate 
often exceeded £50. The large sums spent on the church 
showed the zeal of the parishioners for the House of God, for 
while the church rate, when made, was compulsory, yet no 
sums were expended by the Wardens, except the ordinary and 
regular charges, but what were ordered and sanctioned by the 

1. WelkWilU. 

192 Papers^ Sfc. 

majority of the ratepayers at Vestry meetings caUed for the 
purpose. At the end of each year the accounts were audited, 
and signed by two magistrates. The average yearly expendi- 
ture on the poor, for the years 1800 to 1834, was £473 28. 6d., 
on the church £43 2s. 3^d., on the highways £56 158. 9d., a 
total average expenditure of £573, all raised by rate in the 

The bells were re-hung, and a new treble bell, bearing the 
inscription, " Pro Deo et Eegina," erected in 1897 at a cost of 
£150. They had previously been re-cast and re-hung in 
1764-5 by Thomas Bilbie, of Cullompton, at a cost of £105. 

The organ was erected in 1860. It was presented to the 
parish by the Rev. D. Twopeny, Vicar of Stockbury, Kent 

The Coat of Arms bears the inscription I. R. Ano Dni 

"I advertise thee to observe the mouth of ye King, and 
that for ye word of ye oathe of God." Ecclesiastes viii, 2, 

" Ciurse not the King, noe not in thy thought, neither curse 
ye riche in thie bedchamber, for the fowle of heaven shall 
carj ye voice, and that which hath wings shall declare the 
matter.'' Eccles. x, 20. 

The oak pulpit is tiaeobean, as are also the communion rails. 
In the east window of the chancel there is some pre-refonna- 
tion stained glass. It consists of a iigiu*e of the Virgin and 
child. Underneath is a Latin inscription in old English 
characters, which formed part of a longer inscription, but one 
portion of the glass seems to have l>een inverted. The begin- 
ning is '' Ore p aiabs dni," the latter part looks like '* Vicariis 

or Vicaruis huius," neither of which make good Latin. Thej 
are probably put in out of place, and require more of the 

Notes on the History of Winsford. 193 

Driginal inscription for their interpretation, " hujus," most 
likely, was foUowed by " Ecclesise." The general purport of 
the inscription would appear to be an invitation to pray for the 
K)uls of the Vicars of this church. 

A description of the church plate I must leave to the abler 
[lands of Prebendary Hancock. The silver paten bears the 
inscription : " The gift of Thomsin Widlake, bought by Roger 
Widlake, 1633." 

In the Wardens' accounts for 1598, Thamosen Widlake was 
chosen Warden for the north side of the parish, and one item 
in the same accounts is : " Their is due to Roger Widlake 
from the pryshe xxs. vijd." An old parchment deed in my 
possession, dated 1597, sets forth the purchase hy lease of the 
tenement of West How in the parish of Ex ton, but adjoining 
the village of Winsford, by George Widlake, for the benefit 
of his two daughters, Thamosen and Jane Widlake. The 
parish registers of baptisms, marriages, and burials commence 
with the year 1660. They contain little more than the bare 
entries. In 1665, the plague, or some other sickness, must 
have visited Winsford with some severity, as there were 
thirty-two burials in that year, fourteen being in April, and 
several in May. 

The old church accounts commence with the year 1550, and 
continue regularly till 1576, then 1594 to 1599. Overseer 
Etccounts, 1651 to 1654,. then regularly since 1714. In the 
older accounts, a body known as " The four men " were elected 
annually to assist the Wardens in the management of the 
church stock. They rendered their accounts in December. 
In 1595 they were known as " The eight men," four from the 
north side, and four from the south side. The older accounts 
contain few entries of great interest, being little more than 
moneys received and expended. It is remarkable that they 
contain but one reference to the change of religion in Mary's 
reign : " 1558 — Except the tabernakell which is not yet 
allowed for." A Vicar, yEgidius Hillyng, was appointed in 

Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI), Pari 11. n 

194 Papers^ Sfc, 

Mary's reign. He was deprived in 1560, because, at the 
Rojal Visitation, and subsequently for a year, he absented 
himself from his benefice. In 1662. Joseph Chad wick, Vicar, 
was deprived for refusing to subscribe to the Book of Commoo 

The accounts of the Teithingmen for 1596 are interesting; 

"Their is in the Hande of Bartholomewe Harroode, one 
teithinge muskett performed. 

Ite) One curatt performed lackinge a pike. 

It8 Their is in the hande of William Norman the bodje 

of one costlett lacking a gourgett to the same. 
Itel Their is in the hande of Robert Pearse one costlett 

It8 One muskett with his flaxe, twichboxe, moll and rest. 
It8 Their is in the hande of William Norman one sheef 

of arrowes. 
It8 Their is in the hande of Willia! Bradford, fermer, 

one payer of Almett Ryvete. 

The brass tablet erected in the church is to the memory of 


the Lyddon family of Edbrooke, a farm near the Exe, about 
half-a-mile from the village. The first mention of Lyddon in 
Winsford is in 1561, when among the " dettes owed to the 
p — sshe " we find Nicolis Liddou iijs. iiijd. A deed in rov 
possession, dated January 7th, 167f, sets forth the purchase 
of Edbrooke (also called Brooke Sandford Tenement), on a 
99 years lease from Ferdinando Gorges of Eye, co. Hereford, 
the son of Thomas Gorges, Esq., of Heavitree, Devon, by 
William Liddon. In 1680 the freehold was purchased by hij' 
son, Robert Liddon. The said William Liddon contributed 
two shillings to the Benevolence granted to Charles II in 1662. 
The will of Thomas Gorges, dated 1665, mentioiKS his 
" demesne of Edbrooke, a little manor in the parish of Wins- 

1. Somerset Incumbents. 

Noies on the History of fVinsfonL 195 

ford, which I purchased of mj honoured nephew, John San- 
ford, of Ninehead, Somerset."* 

The Sanfords resided at Winsford for many generations ; 
they came originally in the time of Edward I. The Lyddons 
owned and occupied Edbrooke till 1894, when it was sold. 

Since 1664, a space of 236 years, there have been seven 
Vicars of Winsford, an average of over thirty-three years. 

1. Somenet Wills. Vol. vi. 

€bt Cbutcb oc %u C|9atp, C|9at0ton a^apa, 



THE Church consists of chancel ; nave with north porch ; 
a chapel on the north of the nave, and a western tower. 
It possesses features of very unusual interest, and of many 
periods which it is easy to follow ; for, although the Church 
underwent a " restoration " in 1828, the work was confined to 
the erection of galleries and pews and the addition of colour- 
wash to the walls, so that the fabric happily remains as it was 
before, and it has suffered less from the 17th century fanati- 
cism than most churches. 

That a Church existed on this site before the Norman Con- 
quest is proved by the existence of two small pre-Norman 
stone window heads, which were rebuilt into the 14th century 
east wall of the nave over the chancel ceiling. 

As in the majority of cases, the earliest complete feature in 
the Church is the font, which is a fine Norman one of the 
earliest half of the 12th century. It has a circular basin, 
2ft. Sin. diameter, with scallop moulding round its sides, and it 
stands on its original stem and base. There is no part remain- 
ing of the structure of the Church in which this originally 
stood — (it is quite possible that the font was set up in the 
previously existing Saxon church), but fragments of coeval 
work are built into the tower turret and the north wall of the 
chancel, and the part of the east wall below the window sill 

The Church of St, Mary^ Marston Matjna. 197 

date from about 1170 ; in the north wall of the sanctuary is a 
sinall coeval window — square outside, but with wide splay in- 
side, carried round as a slightly pointed arch. Part of this 
Wall has herring-bone masonry, and it is somewhat curious that 
this is an isolated piece, with ordinary random work below and 
around it. This is not of itself an indication of very early 
Work, as it is found as late as the middle of the 13th century. 
This wall possesses one unfortunate characteristic of Norman 
^ork — a defective foundation, and it is doubtless due to this 
weakness in other parts of the Church that there is not more 
of it left. The wall leans outward very considerably, and, al- 
though there is evidence that this was the case in the 1 5th 
century, there is also ample evidence that the movement is still 
in progress. 

The east window of the chancel is a triple lancet, which was 
apparently inserted in the Norman wall, but the upper part of 
this wall having been rebuilt during the present century the 
window was then reset. 

The Norman Church probably consisted of nave and chancel 
only, and the walling was of random masonry, besides the 
north wall there is a small piece of the work of this period re- 
maining under the S.W. window of the chancel, where the sill 
of an earlier window than the present one still exists ; but 
with these exceptions the Church was entirely rebuilt at about 
1360 (the chancel slightly before the nave), in the style known 
as " Decorated," which then prevailed ; the masonry is of 
coursed rubble, and the distinction is easily seen in the south 
wall of the chancel. This 14th century work remains intact, 
excepting where disturbed for later insertions. There is a 
three-light square-headed window in the south wall of the 
sanctuary, and a priest's door westward of it. The nave (un- 
like the chancel) has a plinth course on the south, and three 
buttresses — each with two set-oifs, the plinth continued round 
them, also two three-light pointed windows, with inside curtain 
arches ; a similar window exists in the north wall. In posi- 

198 Papers^ 8fc, 

tions unusually near the west end are the north and south 
doorways of the nave, these, like the windows, have the wave- 
mould and cavetti, but it is noteworthy that nowhere in the 
Church, excepting at the west window of the tower, is there a 
label mould to any arch. The chancel arch dates from this 
period of rebuilding, and consists of two orders — the outer a 
small chamfer, and the inner a wave-mould, on both arch and 
jambs, stopped on high plinth-base on the latter. The corbel 
trussed-rafter roof remains over the chancel, but in a most 
dilapidated condition. 

The south porch was erected soon after the nave, but of 
meaner construction, local stone having been used for all, ex- 
cepting the arch of the outer doorway, which latter is enriched 
by two orders of " wave-mould ; " a modem window has been 
inserted in the east wall. 

The tower is a fine one of three stages, with moulded base 
and splayed plinth ; the stair-turret is carried up at the S.E. 
angle, entered from the inside by a pointed doorway, retaining 
its original 14th century door, and there are diagonal buttresses 
at the other angles. The lower stage has a western doorway, 
with mouldings dying out above the base, and a three-light 
pointed window over it, possessing the only label mould in the 
Church ; this has good terminals carved with the eight-petal 
rose, and a further one over its apse. The archway opening 
into the nave is of very lofty proportions, and nearly the full 
internal width of the tower, two orders of sunk-chamfer on 
arch and jambs with moulded impost. The middle stage has a 
scjuare opening, on the south side only. The upper stage has 
a two-light window in each face of somewhat peculiar type of 
tracery, the central eye being solid and carved with a 1>osij. 
This is sumiounted by a cornice and embattled parapet with 
gargoyles at the angles -the parapet is built of rubble work 
and has a rose carved on the central battlement of each face. 

The great works of the loth century in this Church were 
the erection of the north chapel, with the archway between it 

The Church of St. Mary^ Marston Miujna. 199 

and the nave ; the erection of the rood screen and loft (now 
missing), with stair-turret to approach the latter, and the in- 
sertion of the two western windows in the chancel. The 
chapel is, I believe, in some respects unique^ it embraces a 
chapel, a porch giving access to it, and to the nave, and having 
a kind of loft over it, forming a western-gallery, approached 
by a stone stair-turret from the porch ; it once had an oak 
parapet, which has been made up into pews for the chapel. 
Beneath the front of the gaUery is an open screen of oak, 
forming the division between the chapel and the porch ; this 
has a small central doorway, and it supports the original floor- 
beams of the gallery. The doorway in the screen has been 
widened, and the whole screen much altered, but its design is 
easily followed. The steps of the turret are considerably 
worn, showing that this feature has been much used, although 
the turret is now closed, and access to the modern gallery is 
otherwise obtained. The entire structure consists of three 
bays, divided by buttresses with two set-offs, and having 
diagonal ones at the angles, two bays are occupied by the 
chapel, and the third by the porch and gallery ; each bay of 
the chapel has a pointed three-light window, and there is a 
similar one in the cast end flanked on the north side internally 
by a very rich and well preserved niche, with corbel side 
pinnacles, good groined canopy with crockets and finials and 
carved cornice. In the west wall is a two-light window 
placed out of the centre to admit of the turret, and carried up 
to light both the porch and gallery, the floor beam running 
across it. The porch has a north doorway — a four-centred 
one in order to bring it beneath the gallery floor, the 14th cen- 
tury inner doorway was not disturbed in making the addition. 
A stone bench is carried along inside the north wall, but it has 
been cut away for the modern stairs. The arch between the 
chapel and nave has two orders of the wave-mould ; attached 
shafts on the jambs, with carved caps, but without bases, the 
shafts stop on a deep plain plinth. A base mould with 

200 Papers. 

splajed plinth is carried round the outside of the chapel ; and 
it is surmounted bj a good phdn pan^t witii gargoyies at the 
angles. The roof is modern and poor and onworUij. Alto- 
gether this annexe is a charming feature, and gives a spedal 
character to the Church. ^ 

The rood screen was evidentlj erected when the diapd wis 
built, for the wall between the latter and the rood loSt staI^ 
turret, which projects on the north side of the nave, has the 
same base mould continued through — ^in this case the 14th oea- 
tury window here must have been reset. The doorways of tk 
turret have been built up. 

The two-light square headed window near the west end «f 
the north wall of the chancel was inserted at about the ame 
time, and the parts of walling around it rebuilt to the T^tieaL 
A pointed window was, at the siune time, inserted in the sooib 
W.S opposite. 

There are fragments of old glass in the east window of the 
chancel — two angels and an inscription. In the nordi wiodow 
of the nave are later pieces : a King, with nimbus, wearing an 
ermine robe and carrying a sword ; and the chalice and wafer. 
In the window opposite are coeval pieces : two lilies, probably 
indicating the dedication of the altar, which doubtless stood on 
the south side of the chancel arch. This is indicated by there 
being a step across the nave some eight feet from the end, and 
by a small square-headed window which was erected in the 
south wall to give light to this altar after it had been darkened 
by the erection of the rood loft over. 

It is worthy of note that the floor of nave and chancel slope 
upwards towards the east, following the natural lie of the site. 

The nave roof was evidently reconstructeJl about a century 
ago, and old timbers reused for it, the lead bears the inscrip- 

J. Young 

C. Warden 


The Church of St. Mary^ Maraton Magna, 201 

The pulpit 18 a good one of early Georgian type, with 
sounding board, but mounted on a very unsuitable base. 
Parts of the nave seating, near the east end, are Jacobean, 
and the remainder of the Georgian period ; all the ends are of 
oak, and should be reused in any rearrangement of the Church. 
The seats are at present uncomfortable to sit in, and impossible 
for kneeling. 

In 1828 a gallery was erected across the west end of the 
nave, entirely blocking up the tower arch, and thus depriving 
the Church of the effect of one of its finest features ; access 
to this was gained by cutting a doorway through the north 
wall of the nave to connect it with the ancient chapel gallery, 
and a new wooden staircase put to approach the latter. A 
window was at the same time formed in the south wail to light 
the gallery. Another gallery was erected across the chapel 
arch, running east to west, and projecting into the chapel, 
where a separate staircase was put to give access to it — the 
chapel is thus ruined by these two mean staircases and the 
gallery, while its pews are most incongruous and inconvenient, 
one select one being five feet high. The pews in the chancel 
were probably set up at about the same time, and are equally 
unfit and unseemly. 

The south wall of the nave is damp owing to the ground 
outside being above the floor, and the deal dado with which it 
has been covered is getting rotten. The whole of the interior 
of the Church is covered with colour wash, which extends over 
plastered surfaces and wrouglit stonework alike, quite conceal- 
ing the beauty of the mouldings. The ceilings are of modern 
lath and plaster. The floors of the nave are, on the whole, 
good, but the pavings of the chancel and under the tower are 
rough and poor, and the wooden step in the former is unsuit- 

3lobn TBatten, JF*®*9. 

ON November 8th, 1900, a very respected member, Mr. 
John Batten, of Aldon, Yeovil, F.S.A., died at the ripe 
age of 85. He joined our Society at its commencement in 
1 850, and it is a matter for remark that up to his decease no 
less than three generations were at the same time members- 
Mr. Batten, his three sons (and a daughter-in-law), and a 
grandson. He ably filled the oflSce^ of President at the 
Meeting at Yeovil in 1886, and was up to the time of his 
decease a V.P., and one of the Trustees of the Society's 
property. He was also a J.P. and D.L. for Somerset. Many 
valuable papers from his pen, displaying special and extensive 
erudition, appear in our volumes. Mr. Batten's last appear- 
ance at our Annual Meetings was at Sherborne in 1896, when 
those who heard his paper (vol. xlii, pt. ii, p. 1) read in the 
open air in the cliurcliyard of Poyntington, upon the Descent 
of that Manor, will not readily forget his vigorous and 
'• smart " appearance, and manner, and his clear enunciation, 
which would have done credit to a man 20 years his junior. 

Perhaps the most valuable of his works is the " Historical 
and Topogra})hical Collections relating to the Early History 
of Parts of South Somerset," which was published in 1894. 

It contains notices of Barwick, Chilton Cantelo, Sutton 
Bingham, Brympton, Houndston, Preston, East and West 
Coker, Hardington, Mandevillc, and Limington, and is full of 
original research, and on that account it is a real help to an 
accurate knowledge of the history of the county. 

His death will leave a blank in the pubhc life of the 
district, which cannot fail to make itself felt. 

J. R. B. 

Obituary. 203 

George 9ttepn0f)am Cllastet. 

THE late Rev. George Streynsham Master, of the Grange, 
Flax Bourton, who joined the Society in 1870, and was 
for some years and up to the time of his decease Chairman of 
its Northern Branch, died on November 8th, 1900, in his 
78th year, and was buried at Flax Bourton, Mr. Master was 
the eldest son of the Ven. Robert Mosley Master, Archdeacon 
of Manchester and Rector of Crosley, Lancashire. He was 
educated at Eton and Brazenose College, graduating B.A. in 
1845, and proceeding M.A. in 1848. He was P.C. of Welsh- 
Hampton, Salop, 1847—1859, and V. of Twickenham 1859— 
1865. His last preferment was the Rectory of West Dean, 
Wilts, which he held for upwards of twenty years (1865 — 
1886). His wife and only son pre-deceased him. 

Mr. Master was much interested in antiquarian pursuits, 
and an active member of several societies, in connection with 
which he had done most useful work. Since his settlement at 
Flax Bourton, in 1885, he had greatly interested himself in 
the valuable series of Parochial Histories which are being 
issued by the Northern branch, some of which are from his 
own pen, and all owe much to his information and collabora- 
tion. The current volume — Wraxall — was passing through 
the press at the time of his death, and within a few days he 
had corrected the proofs. 

Mr. Master was emphatically " a gentleman of the old 
school," and his apt manner of illustrating subjects, courtesy, 
and hospitality, greatly endeared him to the members of the 
Branch and neighbours generally. His loss will be severely 

J. R. B. 



S)fian, t p aubiih ano RnUs, i900. 


SIR C T. D. ACLAND, Bakt. 


SIR K H. ELTOK. Hakt. 
THE RIGHT H05. SIR EDWARD FRY, p.c. dx.i.. ix.i>., p.e.&, p.a.A.,r.L& 






W. A. SAXFORD, Esg. 





HE-VRT JtFFRlES BAD«.tX~K. Es*}- SiB A. A. H«X)D, Bart., m.p. 

James Forrb? ChisHolm-Battex. Esq. George Fownes Lc-ttrkll, Es<j. 

LiEUT.-<.'"L. James< Roger Bramble. Wiluam Ayshford San ford, Es4i 

-A. J. G'X'DFORD, Eag. Edward J. Stanley, Esg., m.p. 

Henry Hobhouse, Es^., m.p. The Rt. Hon. The Earl Temple. 

(Trrasurrr : 

(Smnal Secxetarus: 

LIEUT. -COL J. R- BRAMBLE, F.8.A. REV. F. W. WEAVER, m.a . f.s.a 




19t0tttct or Eocal ^ecretattes : 

Rev. Preb. BuUer, West Mankion 

£. E. Baker, f.s.a., Weatan-s.-Mare 

Rev. E. H. Bates, llmiruter 

J. G. L. Bulleid, Glastonbury 

Rev. H. A. Cartwright, Chard 

J. O. Cash, WincanUm 

Rev. Canon Church, F.S.A., WdU 

Rev. Preb. Coleman, Wdh 

Rev. J. J. Coleman, Holcombe 

G. A. Daniel, Frome 

Wm. Daubeny, Batfi 

H. C. A. Day, Clevedo7i 

Sir £. H. Elton, Bart., Clf^edon 

C. H. Fox, Wellington 

Rev. Preb. Gale, Yatton 

Rev. Preb. Grafton, Castle Cory 

Rev. Preb. Hancock, F.S.A., Dunster 
Rev. D. LI. Hay ward, BrtUon 
Rev. Preb. Herringham, WiUiton 

and Old Cleeve 
Rev. Canon Holmes, Woohiy 
Rev. W. Hunt, London 
Hugh Norris, South Petherton 
Rev. E. Peacock, Nunney 
Edwin Sloper, London 
Rev. Gilbert E. Smith, Somerton 
G. F. Sydenham, Dulverton 
Charles Tite, l^aunton 
Rev.H. G. Tom kins, Weston-s.-Mare 
Rev. F. W. Weaver, f.s.a., Milton 
Rev. W .P. Williams, Weston-s,-Mare 
W. L. Winterbotham, Bridgwater 

iSommtttee : 

Rev. Preb. Ask with 
Lt.-Col. Chisholm-Batten 
F. T. El worthy, F.8.A. 
A. Maynard 
Kev. D. J. Pring 
Rev. F. S. P. Scale 

Rev. D. P. Alford 
Rev. Preb. Buller 
C. H. Samson 
Rev. A. H. A. Smith 
J. E. W. Wakefield 
Rev. J. Worthington 

The President^ Vice-Presidents, Trustees, Treasurer, General and Local 
Secretaries, are ex-officio Members of the Committee. 

900t0t. Sbtt. ^ (SCurator: 

William Bidgood, Taujiton Castle. 

31^ Honorary and Correspondifit/ Members. 

Crustrrs of tt|r )pigott CoIIrctton of Brabiings, 


Tbe Lord LieotenHnt of the County. 

Tbe Lord Bishop of the Diocese. 

Tbe Members (^ Parliament for the County. 

Tbe Chairman of Quarter Sessions. 

The Clerk of the Peace for the County. 

Bi p rc braut ibr Cntsttr on tt)r axliriligr Eoton JKm 

CoL William Long. 

Bfpnsmtatibr Cntsttr on tt)r Bdjcstrr Eoton €xm 

A. J. GooDFORn, Esq. 

Ifeonorara anlj CorrrsponlJ ing jHrmbrrs. 

B;irTVw^ >Ioc:a^^l^* Esq., m.a., Chicheie Pro/essor of Motlern i 
xir^ ft* M ''xiv^frsit^ or' Ox/ord^ and Captain^ R.S. 

l^wiiia;^ W. Bowl Esq. r.R-S.. f.s. a., f.g s., etc.. Professor 
^'■fwi\.y?. O^c^fJts Coil^^ }iaHch4f^ter, Woodhunst, Fallowfi< 

ijUrV. Kev. Pr^b, J., ma. Oriel, Pnifes*or or A H(/lo-Saxi>n, Oxf\ 
S^r^fciiswvk Keotorr, Bath. 

llcv«i. IV^ ^•. ArcMoiot/ical and yaiund //Utun/ Sod 

ScuLbois^ fcvi^: Kev. Dr., BuA^>p or Oxford, 

Wi'jjec. IWiieL Esq.. ILU, Profif*for of l^nyiish Langu< 

Societies in Corre$pontience, for tf)e (!^rct)ange 

Of Put)lication0. 

Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. — 
20, Hanover Square, London, W. 

British Association. — H. C. Stewardson, Esq., Burlington 
House, London, W. 

British Museum. — The Superintendent, Copyright Office, 
B.M,, W.C. 

British Museiun (Natural History). — Cromwell Road, S. Ken- 
sington, London. 

Public Record Office. — The Deputy Keeper, Chancery Lane, 

British Archaeological Association. — 32, Sackville Street, 
Piccadilly, London, W. 

Society of Antiquaries of London. — Burlington House, Picca- 
dilly, London, W. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. — National Museum of 
Antiquities, Queen Street, Edinburgh. 

Royal Irish Academy. — Dublin, Ireland. 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. — Robert Cockrane, 
Esq., c/o University Press, Trinity College, Dublin. 

Guildhall Library, London. 

Associated Architectural Societies of Northampton, etc. — 
Rev. G. T. Harvey, Lincoln. 

Sussex Archaeological Society. — Musemn, Lewes. 

Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History. — Bury 
St. Edmunds. 

Surrey Archaeological Society. — Castle Arch, Guildford. 

d)^ Cm f» trntm^iimtii Smtiftie*, 

LdDfaMir* SBii dhtfhfr^ Hi^t-Hc SocietT. — R. D. Radcli 

E^(. R1151I LiiichaTaML. Lotiait Street* LirerpooL 
WH^attER AncfUEtvo:-ci«!«I Aoi XAtarml Historr Societv 

I>mi2rxi joii Mtt&fifcggx Arctiae»>tjei*^ Society. — London lo 

PTj^EkHzczi l!b«c:ss^:*iL uvi E^vtjci Ami Cctrnwrnll Natural I 
lorj S«>!«tT. — PI}rBboath. 

K^ Arcbeolocval Soeiecj. — Mosemii, Maidstone. 

Bcsscoi and GIooe«$seT?liire Anrhxological Society. — 
BeQi>«^ Eass^te, GhMxcester. 

Powj-* Laoi Chxh. HontgomerTshiie. — T. Simpson Joi 

Edq^ GvB^roe. WeUkpooL 
I>Hi>T?iure Arcbacologioal and Natural Historv Societi 

A. C. Co3u E=a^ MiU Hill. DerbT. 

Shiop^iire Arr}uei:J^<^ical and Natural History Societi 
F. Goysr, EU*|., I>:-«p^>Ie, Shrewsburr. 

Hertforifci~ NAror^kl Hi^torv S.XMerv. — W. R. Carter, E 
R'-ifh-rT Hall R<:<i>l. Waitonl Herts. 

Essex Archje»>l«>fficai Societv. — Museum, The Castle, ( 

Lricesre rehire Architectural and Archaeiilogical Sooieti 
Th^ Hon. Sec c o Clark and Satchell. 5, Gallowi 
Gate, L»::»?ester. 

Riival Institution of Cornwall. — Truro, Cornwall. 


Yorkshire Archaeological Societv. — The Hon. Librarian, 

Park Street. Leeds, 
Bucking'ham Architectural and Archaeological Soi*iet]i 

Museum, Avlesburv. 

Northamptonshire Naturalists' Society. — H. W. Dixon, E 

East Park Parade, Northampton. 
Bath Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club. — \V. 

Barlow, Esq., Royal Literary Institution, Bath. 

Corresponding Societies. 209 

Geologists' Association. — Uuiversity College, London. 

Royal Dublin Society. — Dublin, Ireland. 

Bristol Naturalists' Society. — C. King Rudge, Esq., Ashgrove 
House, 145, Whiteladies Road, Redland, Bristol. 

Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society. — Liverpool. 

Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. — Manchester. 

Essex Field Club. — The Passmore-Edwards Museum, Rom- 
ford Road, Stratford, Essex. 

Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne. — Newcastle-on- 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. — T. D. Atkinson, Esq., Hon. 
Sec, St. Mary's Passage, Cambridge. 

Chester Archaeological and Historical Society. — J. E. Ewen, 
Esq., Grosvenor Museum, Chester. 

Clifton Antiquarian Club. — A. E. Hudd, Esq., 94, Pembroke 
Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Hampshire Field Club.— Rev. G. W. Minns, The Cliif, Wes- 
ton, near Southampton. 

Thoresby Society, Leeds. — S. Denison, Esq., 32, Clarendon 
Road, Leeds. 

The Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist. — The Editor, 
c/o Messrs. Bemrose and Sons, 23, Old Bailey, London. 

Royal Norwegian University. — Christiana, Norway. 

Geological Institution of the University of Upsala. — Royal 
University Library, Upsala, Sweden. 

Canadian Institute. — 58, Richmond Street East, Toronto, 

Nova Scotian Institute. — Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S. — America. 

Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, U.S. — America. 

United States National Museum, Washington, U.S. — America. 

Essex Institute, Salem, Massachusetts, U.S. — America. 

Vol, XL VI (Third Sertes, Vol. VI), Pari 11, o 

, ll I 1 1 . .HL. IE . lUUIdlEk, . ■'^. 

.£.3-3>->Mtc<i:i*' t»^ 2.t:rtfaan 

Hist o( a&emtierg for 1900. 

Those marked * are Life Members. 
Those marked t are Members of the General Committee. 

Abbot, H. N., Clifton, Bristol 

Acland, Sir C. T. D., Bart., Killerton Park, Exeter, 

Adams, W., Taunton 

Adlam, William, ¥.^.\., Manor House, Chew Mayna, Bristol 
5 Aldworth, Mmor Robert, West Coker, Yeouil 
t Alford, Rev. I). P., 9, Hovelands, Taunton 
Alford, H. J., M.D., Taunton 
Alford, Rev. Martin 

Allen, F. J.. M.i)., Beech Lawn, Link Common, Malvern 
10 Allen, Miss, The Avenue, Taunton 
Allhusen, Wilton, Pinhay, Lyme Regis 
Altham, Mrs., Timhercomhc, Aisholt, Bridgwater 
Andrew, T. H., White Croft, Williton 
Arnold, Rev. W., Burrowbridge, Bridgwater 
15 Ashworth-Hallet, Mrs. L. S., Claverton Lodge, Bathwick 
Hill, Bath 
t Ask with. Rev. Preb., Taunton 
Atchley, Rev. H. G. S., Ilminstcr 
Atkins, tT. M., Wells 

Austen, Rev. E. G., Berrow Vicarage, Burnham, Bridg- 
20 Aveline, H. T. S., Cotford, Norton Fitzwarren, Taunton 
Aveline, Wm. Talbot, 15, Kennington Terrace, Kenningt on 

Park, London, S,E, 
Badeock, Daniel, Kilve Court, Bridgwater 
tBadcock, H. J., Pit minster, Taunton, Trustee, Treasurer 
Bagehot, Mrs. Walter, Herd^s Hill, Lam/port 
25 Bailey, Rev. J. D., Thornfalcon 

Bailward, T. H. M., Manor House, Horsington 
t Baker, E. E., f.s.a., Weston-super-Mare 
Baker, W. Proctor, Sandhill Park, Taunton 
Baker, Rev. S. O., Campbell House, Clevedon 
30 Baker, W. T., Bridgwater 

Baldwin, Rev. A. B., Middle Chinnock Rectory, Uminster 
Barnard, Miss Constance E., The LJherty, Wells 

^ILK, rMnwt, ObrMdbai 

SO "rMri", r 

Beck, Ber. W. J^ SWta Jfaafit, j>«ri>rW 
*Beddo^ J^ ILlk, r.M^ Tke OuiMtry. Brm^nl-m-Jm 

BeB, J. tt, 100, JijhBrf aiMf. .S>«M/wrf 

Bdl, BcT. W. A^ C&cr^eA, Br^wmUr 
55 Bennett, EAg*r, HendJ^ Yranl 

Bennen, Mr&, 2. Bmdmart Road, Orford 

Bennett. T. O.. Bntm 

Bentler, F. .1. R^ WpodlamdM, SFeBngton 

60 BenunL Rev. Cinon, fFtUt 

Bickoeli, A. S., Barcotmbe Homir, Barcombe, S*stn 
Biggs, W. B^ Barry Lodge, fFestoH~$mper-iHare 
Biedee, Alfred, HmltoH Court, WettoK-aitper^Mare 
Blake, W^ Bridge, Howtk Petkerimt 

63 BlakistoD, A. A., Gliutonbury 

Blathwart, Lieut-Col. Linley, Eagle Hotise, Batkeattm 
Blathwayt, Rev, Wrnter E., Durham, Chippenham 
Blathwayt, Rev. W'. T. „ „ 

Bond, Rev. R. S., Thome, VeoeH 

70 Boodle, R. W., 20, Belgrare Road, EdgbaitoH, Birmingham 
Booker, Wm. Thomas, fVeilingtoH 
Boston Public Library, Button, U.S. America 
Bothamley, Ven. Archdeacon, Richmond Lodge, Bath 
Bothamley, C. H., Otterwood, Beaeonifield Road, fVetton- 

75 Bourdillon, E. D., Binder House, WeU$ (deceased) 

List of Members for 1900. 213 

Bouverie, H. H. P., Brymore House^ Brid^ater 

Bownes, Rev. tlames, Creech St. Michael 

Bojs, Rev. H. A., Nrn-th CaMnry Rectory, Bath 

Braikenridge, W. Jerdone, Clevedon, and 16, Royal Cres- 
cent^ Bath 
Of Bramble, Lieut.-Col., f.s.a., Seqfield, Westonsuper-Marey 
Trustee, General Secretarv 

Bramble, Miss Edith Marr, Seqfield^ fVeston-^ttper-Mare 

Broadmead, W. B., Enmore Castle 

Broderip, Edmund, Cossington Manor, Bridgwater 

Brown, David, 7, IVeUinytoH Terrace, Taunton 
5 Brown, F. W., Chardleigh Green, Chard 

Brown, G. Gordon, 5, Greenhay Road, Liverpool 

Brown, John, ff'adefvrd. Chard 

Brown, T. Loader, Chardleigh Green, Chard 

Brownlow, Rt. Rev. Bishop, Bishop's House, Park Place, 
Clifton, BHstol 
Brutton, J., 7, Princes Street, Veocil 

Brjan, H. D., Croome Cottage, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 

Buckle, Edmund, 23, Bedford Row, London, H\C 

Bull, Rev. Thos. Williamson, Pauhon 

Bulleid, Arthur, f.s.a., Midsomer Norton, Bath 
5t Bulleid, J. G. L., Glastonbury 

Bulleid, G. Laurence, a.R.w.s., 57, Combe Park, Weston, 
tBuller, Rev. Preb. W. E., West Monkton 

Burr, Mrs., The Rectory, Uphill, Weston-super-Mare 

Burridge, W., The Willows, Wellington 
O Bush, John, 9, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Bush, R. C, 1, Winifred's Dale, Bath 

Bush, Rev. T. C, HombUttton Rectory, Castle Cary, Bath 

Bush, Thos. S., 20, Camden Crescent, Bath 

Butler, W. B., Tannton 
>5 Capel, J. P., Weston-super-Mare 

Cart Wright, Rev. A. R., Clevedon 
t Cart Wright, Rev. H. A., W hitestaunton 
tCash, J. O., Wincanton 

Cajlej, Rev. R. A., Stowell Rectory, Sherborne 
Chaffey-Chaffev, Robert, East Stoke, Ilminster (deceased) 

Chaf jn-Grove, G. Trojte, f.s.a., North Coker House, Yeovil 

Chapman, Arthur Allan, Taunton 

Chard, T. T., The Hawthorns, Clevedon 

Cheetham, F. H., Tetton, Kingston, Tonnton 
l5tChisholm-Batten, Lieut.-Col. J. F., Thomfalcun. Taunton, 

214 List of Members for 1900. 

tChiirch, Rev. Canon, f.s.a., Sub-Dean, fVelis 
Clark, Frank J., Street 
Clark, W. S., Street 
Clarke, A. A., fVells 
120 Clarke, C. P., Taunton 

Clatworthy, Eland, Fairlawn^ TruU^ Taunton 
Clemow, C E., Canon Housc^ Taunton 
Clerk, E. H., Burford^ Shepton Mallet (deceased) 
Clive, tJ. Ronald, Combe Florey 
125 Clothier, S. T., Street 

Coates, Capt. Herbert, Clevedon 
tCoIeman, Rev. Preb. James, 2, Vicar s Close^ Wells 
tColeman, Rev. J. J., Holcombe Rectory^ Bath 
Coles, Rev. V. S. S., Shepton Beauchamp 
130 Coif ox, Wm., fVestmeadj near Bridport 

Collins, Rev. J. A. W., Newton St. Cyres^ Exeter 
Colthurst, G. E., Nortlifield^ Taunton 
tCork and Orrery, The Rt. Hon. The Earl of, k.p., 
Marston^ Frome^ Patron 
Corner, H., Taunton 
135 Comer, Samuel, 95, Forest Road IVest^ Nottingham 
Corner, Edward, Hillside^ Wellington 
Cornish, R., Cedar House^ Axminster^ Devon 
Cotchiiig, W. (jr., Taunton 
Cottani, A. Basil, Bridq water 
140 Cox, H., IViUiton 

Crespi, A. J. H., M.D., Coomn^ Poole Road^ Wimbvruc 
Cutler, J ( math an, Richmond J louse, IVellington 
Danipier-Bide, Thos. Wm., Kim/ston Manor, Yeoril 
Daiii(;l, Rev. H. A., Manor House, Stockland Bristo 
145 Daniel, Rev. Piel)endary W. E., Ilorsington Recttnt 
fDanicl, (i. A., Nunneg Court, Frome 

Daubenv, W. A., Clerelands^ near Dawlisli 
tDau])cny, W., 11, iSY. James' Square, Bath 
Da vies, llitchings, Somerton 
150 Davies, .1. Trevor, New land House, Sherborne 
Davis, Mrs., 71ie War re n, North Curry 
tDay, II. C. A., Oriel Lodge, Walton, Clevedon 
Denliam, (xeorge, Taunton 
Deninau, Thos. Isaae, Yeovil 
155 Derhain, Ileury, Snei/d Park, Clifton, Bristol 

Derham, Walter, 76, Lancaster Gate, London, W, 
Dickinson, R. E.. m.p., Bath 

List of Members for 1900. 215 

Dobree, S., The Briars^ Ealincf^ IV. 

Dobson, Mrs., Oakwood, Bathwick Hilly Bath 
Dodd, Rev. J. A., Winscombe Vicarage^ fVeston-s.-Mare 

Doggett, H. Greenfield, Springhill^ Leiyhwood^ Clifton 

Dowell, Rev. A. G., Henstridge Vicarage^ Blandford 

Drayson, C D., Courtlands^ Taunton 

Drayton, W., Mount lands ^ Taunton 
5 Duckworth, Rev. W. A., Orchardleigh Parky Frome 

Duder, John, Tregedna^ The Avenue ^ Taunton 

Dudman, Miss Catherine L., Pitney House^ Langport 

Dunn, William, Frome 

Dupuis, Rev. Preb. T. C, Burnham 
Dyke, C. P., Totteridge^ Herts 

Dymond, Rev. H. N., Chaffcombe^ Chard 

Dyne, Rev. W. T., Vicarage^ Evercreech^ Bath 

Dyson, John, Moorlands^ Crewkeme 

Eberle, J. F., Ebor Villas 96, Pembroke Road^ Clifton 
5 Eden, Mrs., 7^ he Grange^ Kingston, Taunton 

Edwards, Rev. A. G., Norton-sub-Hamdon, Ilminster 
fElton, C. 1., Q.C., F.8.A., Manor House, fVhitestaunton, 

Trustee, v.p. (deceased) 
tElton, Sir E. H., Bart, Clevedon Court, v.p. 

Elton, W., Heathfield Hall, Taunton 
Elton, Ambrose, Clevedon Court, and 17, Halsey Street, 
Cadoyan Square, S, fV. 
fElworthy, F. T., f.s.a., Foxdown, fVellinyton 

Ernst, Mrs., IVestcombe House, Evercreech, Bath 

Esdaile, C E. J., Cothelestone 

Esdaile, Geo., The Old Rectory, Platt-in-Rusholme, 
5 Esdaile, Rev. W., Park V^iew, Barley Manor, Rinywood 

Evans, Sir J., k.c.b., f.r.s., Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead 

Evans, W. H., Ford Abbey, Chard (deceased) 

Evens, J. W., Gable End^ PValton Park, Clevedon 

Ewing, Mrs., Taunton 
►0 Fisher, Samuel, Hovelands, Taunton 

Fisher, W. H., Elmhurst, North-town, Taunton 

Fligg, Wm., M.B., fVeston-super-Mare 

Foley, R. Y., Elmwood, Bridywater 

Foster, E. A., South Hill, Kinyskerswell, Devon 
•5 Foster, F. C, Bridywater 

Fowler, Rev. C. A. 

Fowler, Wm. H., The Bank, Taunton 

Fowler, Gerald, 5, Haines Hill Terrace, Taunton 
tFox, C. H., fVellinyton 


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List of Members for 1900. 217 

Hall, Rev. H. F., Leasbrook, Dixton^ Monmouth 
Hall, J. F., Sharcombe, Dinder^ Wells 
Hamlet, Rev. J., Shepton Beauchamp^ Ilminster 
Hammet, W. J., 5^ BernardCs^ Taunton 
:5 Hammet, A., Taunton 
fHancock, Rev. Preb F., f.s.a., The Priory^ Dunster 
Harford, Wm. H., Oldown House ^ Tockington^ R.S.O.^ 

Harrod, H. H., Manor House^ Morehath^ Tiverton 
Harrod, C. D., „ „ „ 

50 Harvey, John, Junr., Denmark Street^ Clifton 

Hatcher, Robert, Melville House ^ Middle Street^ Taunton 
*Hawke8bury, The Rt. Hon. Lord, 2, Carlton House Ter^ 

race^ Pall Mall^ London^ S. W. 
t Hay ward, Rev. Douglas LI., Bruton 
Heale, Rev. C H., 67. Decuman s^ Watchety Bridgwater 
55 Healey, C. E. H. Chadwyck, Q.c, f.s.a., 119, Harlcy 
Street, fV,, and New Place, Porlock 
Heatheote, Rev. S. J., Williton 
Heatheote, C. D., Bridge House, Porlock 
Hellier, Rev. H. G., Nempnett Rectory, Cheiv Stoke, Bristol 
Hellier, Mrs. „ „ „ „ 

60 Helyar, Colonel, Poundisford Lodge, Taunton (deceased) 
Henley, Colonel C. H., Leigh House, Chard 
Henry, Miss Frances, Brasted, Walton-hy-Clevedon 
tHerringham, Rev. Preb. W. W., Old Cleeve 
Hewlett, Mrs., Preans Green, Mjorle, Weston-super-Mare 
55 Hickes, Rev. T. H. F., DraycoT 
Higgins, John, Pylle, Shepton Mallet 
Hill, B. H. 
Hill, Sir Edward, k.c.b., Rookwood, Llandaff, and Hazel 

Manor, Compton Martin, Bristol 
Hill, W. J. C, Langport 
70 Hill, Spencer, Castle House, Taunton 
Hippisley, W. J., 15, Neio Street, Wells 
tHobhouse, The Rt. Rev. Bishop, Wells, v. P. 
tHobhouse, H., m.p., Hadspcn House, Castle Cary, Trustee, 
Hobhouse, Rt. Hon. Lord, K.C.S.l., 15, Bruton Street, 
I^ondon, W, 
75 Hodgkinson, W. S., Glencot, Wells 
tHolmes, Rev. Canon, Wells 

Honnywill, Rev. J. E. W., Leigh-on-Mendip, Cole ford, Bath 
tHood, Sir Alexander Acland, Bart., m.p., St. Audries, 
Bridgwater, Trustee 

tl8 Zuf «/ Members far 1900. 

Uorne, Be¥.£tlielbert» Ihwueide Mmuuteiy^ Bath 
880 Horner, J. F. Forteecoe, Mells 

Hoddii% Ed. J., 76, Jermyn Sireei^ Landem^ W. 

Hofikyna, H. W^ Nmik Perrmt Mamar^CrewImm 
tHotkyiM, CoL, Semik Fetherian^ v.P. 

Hourton, H. 8^ LmdeHfeU, Frame 
S86 Hiidd, A. £L, f^a^ 94, Pembroke Raad^ Clffien 

Hngliai, Ber. F» L., Lfdeard 5lf. Lawremce 

Humplyrqrt, A. L^ 187, FieeadUfy^ Lemdom^ fF, 
' Hunt, Bsv. W^ 24, FkilUtmm Gardeme^ QmqMkfi Hill, 

Hut, Wm. Alfred, Fem^ Yeeml 
S90 Huabtfids, EL Weesen, NoHk Town Homee^ 7amilM 
VLyVum^ The RU Hon. the Lord, Ammerdomm Fwrh, itnf- 

Hyton, BeT. J. B., Knymftini, Ikhes$er 
Hm, a. B^ Skniteme Hauge^ TamUm^ 
liiq^y, Wm £. C«, SifrM< 
205 Inman, H. &, /%m ifiNm, Baikeasitm^ Batk 
hunftn, T. F^ KUkem^ ibiue, JSkilA 
lignr, &, WeUs 
Jaoobi, M^ ToMn^oii 
Jamei, W. HL, fFeeifm'Super^Mare 
300 James, £• Haughton, Springfield^ Chard 
Jane, Wm., Congresbury 

Jeiferies, C. S., Sanforth^ Highdale Ra€ui^ Clevedon 
Jennings, A. R., Tiaerton 

t Jex-Blake, The Very Rev. T. W., f.s.a., Dean of Wells, 
The Deanery^ fVeils^ V.P. 
305 Jex-BIake, Arthur John, Magdalen College^ Oxford 
Johnson, Admiral, Haines Hilly Taunton 
tlohnston, Joseph Nicholson, Hesketh House^ Yeovil 
tlones, J. E., East Cliffy Exton^ Topskam 
Jose, Rev. S. P., Churchill 
310 Jose, Mrs. „ 

Joseph, H. W. B., Woodlands Honse^ Holford, Bridgwater 
t Kelly, W. M., M.D., Ferring^ Worthing^ Sttssex 

Kelway, Wm., Brooklandsj Hnish Episcopiy Langport 
fKennion, Rt. Rev. G. W., Lord Bishop of Bath 
Wells, The Palace, Wells, V.P. 
315 Kettle well, Wm., Harptree Court. East Harptree 

King, Austin Joseph, f.s.a., 13, Queen Square, Bath 
King, R. Moss, Ashcott Hill, Bridgwater 
Kinglake, Rev. F. C, West Monkton (deceased) 
Kite, G. H., Taunton 

List of Members for 1900. 219 

320 Knight, F. A., fVintrath^ fVin'scombe, fVeston-stipcr-Mare 

Knight, R., Heilington 

Lance, Rev. W. H., Buckland St. Mary^ Chard 

Langdon, Rev. F. E. W., Parrocks Lodye^ Chard 

Langdon, Mrs. „ „ „ 

325 Lawrence, Samuel, Forde House^ Taunton 

Lawson, Geo., 36, Craven Hill Gardens^ London 

Lean, J., Shepton Beauchamp^ Ilminster 

Lean, Mrs. „ „ „ 

Leir, Rev. L. Randolph M., Charlton Musgrove^ fVincantoti 
330 Leng, W. L., 14, Church Street^ Bridgwater 

Lewis, Archibald M., 3, Upper Byron Piace, Clifton 

Lewis, Josiah, Taunton 

Lewis, Murray, Taunton 

Lewis, William, 12, Northyate Street^ Bath 
335 Liddon, Edward, m.d., Taunton 

Liddon, Rev. Henry John, Taunton 

Livett, H. W., M.D., IVells 

Lloyd, Wm. Henry, Ilache Courts Taunton 

Lock, John, Taunton 
340 Lock, William, Lewis House^ Stapieyrove^ Taunton 

Long, Col., Conyresbury^ Bristol 

Louch, J., Lanyport 

Loveday, J. G., fVeir/ieldj Taunton 

Loveday, Mrs. ,^ „ 

345 Lovibond, G., Eastcroft^ Bridywater 

Lovibond, Mrs., The Granye^ T^nyport 

Ludlow, Walter, 61, Clarendon Street, Leaminyton Spa 
tLuttrell, G. F., Dunster Castle, V.P. 

Lyte, Sir Henry Maxwell, k.c.b., f.s.a., 3, Portman 
Square, London, fV. 
350 Macdermott, Miss, 20, 7'he Crescent, Taunton 

Macdonald, J. A., m.d., Taunton 

Macmillan, W., Castle Cary 

Macmillan, A. S., The Avenue, Yeovil 

Maggs, F. R., Princes Street, Yeovil 
355 Major, Charles, Wembdon, Bridgwater 

Malet, T. H. W., 23, Trafalydr Square, Chelsea, S. IV. 

Mapleton, Rev. H. M., Bady worth, fVeston-super-Mare 

Marshall, Wilfred George, Norton Manor, Taunton 

Marshall, James C, Stoke-on-Trent 
360 Marson, Mrs., Hambridye Vicaraye, Curry Rivel 

Marwood, J. B., Eastcott, 86, Boston Road, Hanwell, 

Master, Rev. G. S., Bourton Granye,Flfix-Bourton (deceased) 


•2-iO r.iMi ./ ytrmUrt for 19U0. 

M.y, R<v. W. I). 

tMavniint, Alfred, Uruliy lAniiff, Tatnlvn {AukomA) 

365 M«\nftrd, Howard „ 

Mr'AuUffe, W. J^ Tanntun 

Mi-CoHiieU. Rev. <\ .1^ t'ylU /trcf^ry, Skfpl,,^ Notln 
Mt^ade, Francis, Tlt^ Util, LuHtipori 
Mcadi-Kiniz, R. Liddon. u.l>., Tatintim 

:iTil Mi?ffliU>-KinR. WalUr. 1 1, BariHti Crrtr^Hf, HmrilTrf,£aSn 
Mfjiilo-Kitis. Mi-* Mnv. ffalfirfi, Tauutou 
M.^-iUv, Kiv. .1. ».. T^nlrtfifld, Jtrt*loi I 

Mfdiv'.-ntl, Sir K. 11., hart., IVn, Mil&i,rH* h,rt \ 

Mt>ll<ir, Ri^il Hon. .). W., M.f., (j.<:., (V/wAma, jn<«ii.i 

Michel). Rev. A. T., A'At^x^a yicaniyr, yntjHfl, Sabf 
MildmaT, Hcv. A. St. .Tohn. //a:rtt/ntif I'lrk, (j«rn 

CamV/, Biilh 
MiU-hvll. G. W.. 76. U^Hlah HUl, Cpf^r A'unr,^ L«^» 
Mcindav, A, ■]., Tauutan 
3WI MtK.rf,'F. S., r^r/p Cafy 
Murlaiid, .lohii, Glaafiiiiburi/ 
Mulliiia, Mrs., 'J'fie (iUbr, H'rttvn-tHper-Marr 
Mulline. MiM 
Murray-Anderdon, H. K., Henhde, Taunlnii, and i'. 

Sloaar Gnrdent, LvattuH 
^t<o Narlor, J. H., <..t(.l., Vndbnry lionte, i'altoit 

NiWcll. Hev. IVI). L". F.. Chitflb«ro«f,h RfrU.iy. A^n^ 

Newoll, Major H. I-. 

Kcwtihani, t!uiit. N. .1., Bta^dau Ctmrt, lirinlal 
New Vork I'tiolip Library. /ifr H. F. Subvene and Urown, 

4, Tnifalqur St/aarf, lA»uton, W. (.'. 
rtiHl Newton, F, M„ Bartim (iraiu/f, TanntuN 

Nicol, W. Herbert, Pounditfwd Park, Tnunt^u 
NicliolMin, Rev. Preb. .1. Y'., AUrr Brrtory, Langft 
Ndmiott. Col- t'ompton, TaUHlon 
Norman, G., Vi, Brock Strrft, Bath 
S9fltNorria, Hugli, South Pfthrrton 

Odjrers, Rev. .1. E., 145, H'tHxltluck Hi:„l, Oxfi.rd 
O'Donoghue, Henry O'Brien, Long Athtun 
(Hivej-.Tl. P., AlbioH Bouse. Myh'.r, Bcnryn 
Onimanney. Rev. Fn-b, G. D. W., 29, Beaumont t 

4IM) O'Neill, Rev. .1. M., M'rmlxLm, Bridtiwatn- 

tPagel, Tbe Rt. Hon. Sir Richurd H., Bart., I'.c. 

mure Hall, Skepton Malhtt V.I'. 


List of Members for 1900. 221 

Palmer, H. P., fVe/Ihigton Terrace^ Taunton 

Parsons, H. F., m.d., 4, Park Hill Rise, Croydtm^ Surrey 

Pass, A. C, HatPthornden, Clifton Down, Bristol 
5 Paul, A. D., Chard 

Paul, R. W., F.S.A., 3, Arundel St., Strand, lAtndon, W.C. 

Pajnter, J. B., Hendford Manor House, Yeovil 
t Peacock, Rev. E., Rockjield, Nunney, Frome 

Peace, A., Penlen, Bridy water 
Peake, Rev. Preb. Geo. Eden, Vicarage, Brent Knoll 

Pearce, Edwin, Taunton 

Pearse, Rev. Beauchamp K. W., The Old Rectory, Ascot, 
Staines (deceased) 

Penny, Rev. James Alpass, Wispington Vicarage, Horn- 
castle, Lincolnshire 

Penny, T., Taunton 
5 Perceval, Cecil H. Spencer, Longwitton Hall, Morpeth 

Percival, Rev. S. E., Merriott Vicarage, Crewkerne 

Perfect, Rev. H. T., Stanton Drew 

Periam, John, The Bank, Bampton 

Perkins, A. E., Taunton 
Perry, Lieut.-Col. J., Crewkerne 

Perry, Rev. C. R., B.l>., Mickfield Rectory, Stowmarket 
*Petherick, E. A., f.k.o.s., 85, Hoptmi Road, Streatham, 
London, S.H\ 

Phelips, W. R., Montacute House, Montacute, S.O., Som. 

Phillis, John, 31, High Street, Shepton Mallet 
5 Philp, Capt., 7, Royal Terrace, fVeston-super-Mare 

Pittman, J. Banks, Basing House, Basinghall Street, 
I^ondon, E.C, 

Pitt-Rivers, Lt.-Gen., f.r.s., f.s.a., Rushmore, Salisbury 

Plowman, Miss, Greenway, North Curry 

Poole, Rev. Robert Blake, Ilton Vicarage, Ilminster 
Poole, Wm., Park Street, Taunton 

Pooll, R. P. H. Batten, Road Manor, Bath 

Pope, John, Nowers, fVellington 

Porch, fJ. A., Edgar ley House, Glastonbury 

Portman, Hon« E. W. B., Hestercombe, Taunton 
otPortman, The Rt. Hon. The Vi?icount, Bryanstone House, 
Dorset, v.p. 

Powell, SeptimiL«, The Hentiitage, ff'eston^super-Mar^ 

Prankerd, P. D., Th^ KnolL Sn^yd Park, Bristol 

Price, Rev. Salisbury J. M., Di^core House, Bmton, Bath 

Prideaux, C. S., L.i>.>.. K.r .S. EXr»*, 51, High ^Vest Street, 

220 List of Members for 1900. 

May, Rev. W. D. 
tMaynard, Alfred, Henley lAtdge^ Taunton (deceased) 
365 Maynard, Howard „ „ 

McAuliffe, W. J., Taunton 

McConnell, Rev. C. J., Fylle Rectory, Shcpton Mallet 

Meade, Francis, The Hill, Langport 

Meade-King, R. Liddon, m.d., Taunton 
370 Meade-King, Walter, 11, Baring Crescent, Heavitree, Exeter 

Meade-King, Miss May, fValford, Taunton 

Medley, Rev. J. B., Tyntesjield, Bristol 

Medlyeott, Sir E. B., Bart., Ven, Milhorne Port 

Mellor, Right Hon. •!. W., m.p., q.c, Culmhead, Taunton 
375 Meredith, J., m.d., Wellington 

Michell, Rev. A. T., Sheriff hales Vicarage, Newport, Sahip 

Mildmay, Rev. A. St. John, Hazelgrove Park, Queen 
Camel, Bath 

Mitchell, G. W., 76, Beulah Hill, Upper Norwood, I^ndon 

Monday, A. J., Taunton 
380 Moore, F. S., Castle Cary 

Morland, John, Glastonbury 

MuUins, Mrs., The Glebe, Weston-super-Mare 

Mullins, Miss „ „ 

Murray-Anderdon, H. E., Henlade, Taunton, and 27, 
Sloane Gardens^ London 
385 Naylor, J. K., c.s.i., Cadbury House, Yatton 

Newell, Rev. Preb. C\ F., Chiselborough Rectory, Stoke- 
under- Ham 

Newell, Major H. L. „ „ ,, 

Newnham, Capt. N. .1., Blagdon Court, Bristol 

New York Public Library, ]frr B. F. Stevens and Browiu 
4, Trafalgar Stjuarc, London, W,C, 
390 Newton, F. M., Barton Grange, Taunton 

Nicol, W. Herbert, Poundisford Park, Taunton 

Nicholson, Rev. Preb. ♦!. Y., Allcr Rectory, Langport 

Norman, Col. Compton, Taunton 

Norman, G., 12, Brock Street, Bat/t 
395tNorris, Hugh, South Pctherton 

Odgers, Rev. J. E., 145, IVoodstock Road, Oxford 

O'Doiioghue, Henry O'Brien, Long Ashton 

Olivcy, H. P., Albion House, Mylur, Pcnrgn 

Ommanney, Rev. Preb. (1. D. W., 29, Beaumont Street, 
400 O'Neiil, Rev. J. M., Wcmbdon, Bridgwater 

tPaget, The Rt. Hon. Sir Ricliard H., Bart., p.c, Cran- 
more Hall, Shepton Mallet, \.v. 

Liit of Members for 1900. 223 

Shore, Capt. The Hon. Henry N., Mount Elton^ Clevedon 

Short, John, Provis^ Batcomhe^ Bath (deceased) 

Shum, F., F.S.A., 17, Norfolk Crescent^ Bath 

Sibley, J. P., Highclere House^ Taunton 
80 Skinner, Stephen, M.B., Tranent Lawn, Clevedon 
tSkrine, H. D., Claverton Manor , Buth^ v. P. 

Skrine, H. M., Warleigh Manor ^ Bath 

Slade, Wyndham, Monty s Courts Taunton 
tSloper, E., Dashwotnl House^ Broad Street^ London 
85 Sly, E. B., Glastonbury 

Smith, A. J., North Street^ Taunton 

Smith, F. Buchanan, Haines Hill^ Taunton 
tSmith, Rev. Preb. Gilbert E., Barton St. David 

Smith, Wm., M.D., IVeyhill^ Andover 
90 Smith, tl. H. W., Roseneath^ Taunton 

Smith, W. Carleton 
tSmith, Rev. A. H. A., The Vicarage^ I^y^^9 

Smith, Major, Lyny 

Snell, F. J., 36, St. Peter Street, Tiverton 
95 Somers, B. E., Mendip Lodge^ Langford^ Bristol 

Somerville, A. F., Dinder, H^ells 

Sommerville, R. Gr., Ruishton House^ Taunton 

Southall, H., The Craig^ Ross 

Southam, Rev. J. H., Trull 
00 Sparks, William, Crewkeme 

Speke, W., Jordans^ Ilminster 

Spencer, Frederick, Ponds mead^ Oakhill^ Bath 

Spencer, J. H., Corfe^ Taunton 

Spicer, Northcote W., Chard 
05 Spiller, H. J., Hatfield^ Taunton 

Spiller, Miss, Sunny Bank^ Bridgwater 

Standley, A. P., Rossall School, Fleetwood 
tStanley, E. J., m.p., Qnantock Lodge, Bridgwater, Trustee, 

•Stanley, H. T., Qnantock Lodge, Bridgwater (deceased) 
10 Stan way, Moses, Park Street, Taunton 

Steevens, A., Taunton 

Stephenson, Rev. Preb. #1. H., Lynipsham 

S terry. Rev. F., Chapel Clceve 

Stevens, E. W., 4, Birch Grove, Taunton 
15 Stoate, Wm., Ashlcigh, Bnrnhnm 

tStrachey, Sir E., Bart., Sutton Court, Pensford, Bristol, v.p. 

Stradling, Rev. W. J. L., Chilton-sKper-Polden 

Street, Rev. tlames, Ilminster 

Stringfellow, A. H., The Chestnuts, Taunton 


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List of Members for 1900. 225 

Valentine, E. W., Somerton 

Vaudry, Mrs., ffestfield^ Uphill^ fVeston-super-Mare 

Vaughan, Rev. E. T., IVellington 

Vickery, A. J., 16, Bridge Street^ Taunton 
5 Vile, J. G., fVilton Lodge^ Taunton 

Villar, Mrs. W. J., Tauntjield^ Taunton 

Wadmore, Rev. J. A. W., Barrow Gnmey^ Bristol 

Wainwright, Charles R., Summer leaze^ Shepton Mallet 

Wait, H. W. K., Woitdborough House^ Stoke Bishop^ Bristol 
Ot Wakefield, J. E. W., Taunton 

Waldegrave, Rt. Hon. Earl, Chewton Priory^ Bath 

Waldron, Clement, Lhuidaff^ S. Wales 

Walter, W. W., Stoke-sub-Hamdon 

Warry, G. D., q.c, Shapwick 
5 Warry, Henry Cockeram, The Cedars^ Freston Road, 

Watts, B. H., 13, Queen Square^ Bath 

Weaver, Chas., Uplands^ St. Johns Road^ Clifton 
fWeaver, Rev. F. W., f.s.a., MUton Clevedon^ Evercreech, 
General Secretary 

Welby, Col., m.p., 26, Sloane Courts Lower Sloane Street, 
London^ S,fV. 
Welch, C, 21, Ellesker Gardens^ Richmond, Surrey 

Wells, The Dean and Chapter of 

Wells Theological College 

Were, F., Gratwicke Hall, Barrow Gurney, Bristol 

West, Rev. W. H., 25, Fulteney Street, Bath 
5 Westlake, W. H., Taunton 

Whale, Rev. T. W., Weston, Bath 

Whistler, Rev. C. W., M.K.c.S., Stockland, Bridgwater 

White, Saml., The Holt, Alount lands, Taunton 

Whitting, C. G., Glandore, Weston-super-Mare 
'0 Wickenden, F. B., Tone House, Taunton 

Wickham, Rev. A. P., Martock 
t Williams, Rev. Wadham Pigott, 1} eston-super-Marc 

Williams, Thos. Webb, Elax-Bourton 

Wilkinson, Rev. Thos., Wellington Road, Taunton 
5 Wills, H. H. W., Barley Wood, Wrington 

Wills, Sir W. H., Bart., Coombe Lodge, Blagdon^ R.S.O., 

Wilson, Rev. W. C, Huntspill 

Willcocks, A. D., Taunton 

Winchester, Charles Blake, Southwell Lodge, Trull 
O Winter, Major, 35, Silverdale Road, Sydenham 
t Winter botham, W. L., m.b., Bridgwater 

Vol. XL y I (Third Series, Vol VI), Pari I L p 

226 List of Members for 1900. 

Winwood, Rev. H. H., 11, Cavendish Crescent^ Bath 

Winwood, T. H. R., Wellisford Manor, fVellingttm 

Wood, F. A., Highfield, Chew Magna 
605 Wood, Rev. W. Berdmore, Bicknoller Vicarage 

Woodforde, Rev. A. J., Locking, Weston-super-Mare 

Woodward, Miss J. L., The Knoll, Clevedon 

Wooler, W. H., Weston-super-Mare 
tWorthington, Rev, J., Taunton 
610 Wright, W. H. K., Free Library, Plymouth 

Wyatt, J. W., Eastcourt, Wells^ Somerset 

Members are requested to inform **Tlie Secretaries, Taunton Castle,'' of any 
errors or omissions in the above list ; they are also reqnested to aotboass 
their Bankers to pay their subscriptions annually to 8tookey*a Banking 
Company, Taunton ; or to either of their branches ; or their rsspeetive 
London Agents, on account of the Treasurer. 


'PHIS Society shall be denominated "The Somersetshire 


object shall be the cultivation of, and collecting information on. 
Archaeology and Natural History in their var