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PROCEEDINOS 



OF THE 



Natural Oas Association 
of America 



TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING 



HELD AT 



The Broadway Auditorium, Buffalo, New York 

May 15th, 1 6th and i?th, 191? 



Published by the Association 
Edited by the SecreUry. 



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J> 






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PROCEEDINGS 



OF THe 



Natural Gas Association 
of America 



TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING 



HELD AT 



The Broadway Auditorium, Buffalo, New York 

May 15th, 1 6th and i?th, 191? 




Published by the Association 
Edited by the SecreUry. 



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TMI r. J. HBCK FKINTING CO. 

COLUMSVI, OHIO 

1917 



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OFFICERS 

OP THE 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION 
OF AMERICA 1916-1917 



PRESIDENT 

Joseph F. Guffey Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

VICE PRESIDENT 

Glenn T. Braden Tulsa, Oklahoma. 



SECRETARY AND TREASURER 

Thomas C. Jones Delaware, Ohio. 



RESIDENT secretary 

David O. Holbrook Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 



DIRECTORS 

James B. Crawford Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

John R. Munce Little Rock, Arkansas. 

Kay C. Krick Columbus, Ohio. 

Austin G. Curtis Shreveport, Louisiana. 

Harry J. Hoover Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Vincent L. Elbert Saint Joseph, Missouri. 

Bert C. Oliphant Buffalo, New York. 

Alfred Hxjrlburt Kansas City, Missouri. 

James C. Dufheld London, Ontario. 

Ogden K. Shannon Fort Worth, Texas. 

Arthur Booth Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Fred P. Grosscup Charleston, W. Virginia. 

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CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Twelfth Annual Meeting — Members in Attendance 13 

Address of Welcome, Hon. Louis P. Fuhrmann 22 

Response to Address of Welcome, Mr. John M. Garard 25 

Report of the Board of Directors 29 

Report of Committee on New Members 31 

Election of New Members 32 

Report of the Secretary and Treasurer, Mr. T. C. Jones 45 

Report of the Auditing Committee 47 

Address of the President, Mr. Joseph F. Guffey 48 

Committee on President's Address 53 

Papers Presented — 

The Effect of Publicity on Business Relations, Mr. John W. 

Lansley 54 

Co-operation Between Buyer and Seller of Natural Gas Sup- 
plies, Mr. Larmour Adams 84 

Efficiency in the Operation of Gas Compressing Stations, Mr. 

Thomas B. Weymoutli 93 

Mixed Artificial and Natural Distribution in Cities, Mr. Alex- 
ander B. Macbeth Ill 

Rates, Mr. Leslie B. Denning 333 

Mobilizing of Industry for War, Mr. A. C. Bedford 366 

Deep Well Drilling, Mr. A. R. Gray 382 

Wrought Iron Pipe for Use in Natural Gas Field, Mr. James 

Aston 399 

Wrinkle Department 145 

Report of the Committee on Awards for the Wrinkle Department.. 321 

Report of the Committee on Conservation 323 

Report of the Committee Pledging Support to the President 378 

Report of the Committee on Uniform Accounting 379 

Report of the Committee on National Gas Safety Code 380 

Report of Joint National Committee on Electrolysis 418 

Report of Committee on Ways and Means 420 

Report of Committee on Memorials 422 

Report of Committee on President's Address 423 

Report of Committee on Time and Place of Next Meeting 424 

Report of Committee on Nominations 432 

Election of Officers 434 

Adjournment 436 

(3) 



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APPENDIX 



PAGE 

Officers of the Association, 1917-1918 439 

Past Presidents 440 

Past Annual Meetings - 440 

Standing Committees 441 

Directory of Membership — 

Honorary 445 

Active 445 

Summary of Classes of Membership 518 

Geographical Distribution 519 

Summary of Geograpihical Distribution 550 

The Association of Natural Gas Supply Men, Officers 1917-1918 

and Directory of Membership 551 



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WRINKLE DEPARTMENT 



Subject and Contributor. 

PAGB 

Editor, Mr. \V. Re. Brown, Columbus, Ohio; Assistant Editor, Mr. 

Alfred J. Diescher, Bartlesville, Oklahoma 145 

No. 1. Method of Thawing Out Service Lines Without Cutting 

Pavement, Mr. A. W. Gavin 146 

No. 2. Automobile Inner Tube to Stop Flow of Gas, Mr. W. 

W. Bruce 147 

No. 3. Changing Steam Boilers From Oil to Gas Without De- 
lay, Mr. J. T. Creighton 149 

No. 4. Combination Gas or Oil Burner, Mr. George Horsley, Jr. 149 
Xo. 5. Tubular Boiler Used as Natural Gas Separator, Mr. W. 

H. Sedberry 149 

No. 6. Prevent Passing of Un-registcred Gas by Tipping, Mr. 

G. C. Reed 152 

No. 7. Lock and Cap for Gate Valves, Mr. W. G. Hagan 153 

No. 8. To Prevent Long Maps From Trailing on the Floor, The 

East Ohio Gas Company 154 

No. J). Extension Stem for Gate Valve to Be Used in High 

Water, Mr. A. E. McKiearana 155 

No. 10. Tank for Cleaning and Straining Gasoline, Mr. Jas. 

McCarty 155 

No. 11. To Remove Heavy Boulders, Mr. James J. Cummins 156 

No. 12. Tool for Pulling Test Bar From Pavement Over Main 

Line, Mr. W. J. Gagen 157 

No. 13. Easy Way to Repair Leak, Mr. Ed. Canny 158 

No. 14. Notice Card. Mr. O. M. Baldwin 158 

No. 15. Repairing High Pressure Leaks, Mr. J. F. Palmer 159 

No. 16. To Prevent Tipping of Gas Meters, Mr. J. H. Stinson.. 161 
No. 17. Protection for Gas Gravity Tester, Mr. C. E. Brock.... 161 
No. 18. Combination Method of Using Natural Gas and Refuse 

of Wood Working Plants as Fuel for Power Plants, Mr. 

W. T. Roberts and Mr. C. W. Kramer 164 

No. 19. Device for Filling Meter Prover With Gas, Mr. J. R. 

Gilbert 164 

No. 20. To Ventilate Regulator Pit, Mr. J. H. Stinson 165 

Xo. 21. Warning Bell Attached to Prover, Mr. J. R. Gilbert 166 

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WRINKLE DEPARTMENT 



PAGE 

No. 22. Device to Prevent Reversing of Inlet and Outlet of 

Meter, Mr. G. C Reed 166 

Valve Reseating Tool, Mr. L. E. Snider 166 

Road Drag, Mr. H. O. Ballard 168 

Adjustable Meter Support, Mr. O. C. Hartsough 169 

Multiple Rate Cap for Testing Meters, Mr. E. C Weis- 

gerber 160 

Forms for Keeping Record and Tests and Location of 

Proportional Meters, Mr. C. W. Kramer 171 

Valve for Gas Bag Tube, Mr. Wm. Hagan 174 

Regulator Control, Mr. R. B. Lloyd 174 

Main Line Repair Sleeve, Mr. Len Ryan 175 

Rubber Gaskets for Meter Connections, Mr. E. A. Mc- 

Sherry 176 

Oil-Steam Burner for Boilers, Mr. E. Wilberding 176 

Mixer on Gasoline Engine to Burn Natural Gas, Mr. F. 

F. Doyle • 176 

Erect Signs to Show Location of Lines, Mr. H. P. Zies- 

chang 178 

Use Staple in Place of Tack, Mr. William Heazlett 179 

Baffle Tee Drip With Automatic Blow Off, Mr. R. B. 

Lloyd 180 

Measuring the Specific Gravity of a Small Sample of Gas, 

Mr. E. E. Lyder 180 

To Enlarge Capacity of Meters, Mr. J. R. Gilbert 182 

Tong for Compressing Rubber Coupling, Mr. E. H. Cy- 

phert 182 

Always Repeat Telephone Orders, Mr. James J. Cum- 

mings 182 

Drain for Meters, Mr. J. R. Gilbert 184 

Coupon Cutting Machine That Saves Time, Mr. F. W. 

Scovell 186 

Stopping Leaks on a Leaded Sleeve Joint, Mr. F. Dooling 186 

A Wrinkle Worth Trying, Mr. George B. Sipe 187 

Tool for Starting Meter Packing Nut, Mr. Wm. Taylor. 190 

Non-inflammable Gate Box, Mr. R. B. Lloyd 190 

Drip that Stops More Liquid, Mr. Elting Henderson 191 

Natural Equal to Artificial Gas in Brazing and Melting 

Gold, Mr. S. E. Hafer 191 

Method of Cleaning Mercury, Mr. Frederick P. Doyle.. 192 

Welded By-Pass Around Gate Valve, Mr. H. C. Hutchings 192 
Method of Cooling Water Jacket for a Gas Engine, 

Mr. Frederick P. Doyle 19S 



No. 


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51. 



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WRINKLE DEPARTMENT 



PAGE 

Printed Notices, Mr. V. A. Goble 198 

Locating Accounts for Meter Readers, Mr. Robert W. 

Goodnow 195 

Welded Swedge Nipple, Mr. John Fink 198 

Device for Carrying No. 1 and No. 2 Tobey Meters, Mr. 

A. H. Fricker 199 

Qean This Screen Without Tools, Mr. L. M. Merrill... 199 

Underreamer Fishing Tool, Mr. G. J. McKinley 201 

Method of Testing Gas for Gasoline 202 

Stopping a Sand-Hole Leak in a 16-inch Gate Flange, Mr. 

J. Sullivan 203 

A Dirt Trap, Mr. Chas. L. Bullock 204 

Meter House Heater, Mr. W. J. Hinchey 205 

Orifice Tester and Tables, Mr. E. O. Hickstein 205 

Device for Raising Meter Prover by Air, Mr. A. H. 

Fricker 211 

Method of Using Hot Flue Gases to Dry Brick, Messrs. 

W. T. Roberts and C. W. Kramer 212 

Method to Prevent Use of Un-Registered Gas by Tipping, 

Mr. G. C Reed 214 

Welding Tap Without Shutting Off Gas, Mr. L. B. Benson 214 
Method to Detect Whether Meter Has Been Tipped and 

Gas Not Registered, Mr. G. C. Reed 216 

Three-In-One Wrinkle That Helps Joplin, Missouri, Mr. 

B. J. Crahan 217 

Flash Light Batteries, Mr. A. H. Fricker 219 

Device for Testing Tops of Meters, Mr. J. R. Gilbert... 220 

Thermometer Holder, Mr. J. R. Gilbert 220 

Method of Repairing and Straightening Piston Sleeve, 

Mr. J. A. Remler 220 

Dipping Pot for Soldering Irons, Mr. J. R. Gilbert 223 

East Method of Replacing Rubbers in Low Pressure 

Regulators, Mr. C. R. Jones 223 

Gasometer in Connection With Regulator, Mr. Charles L. 

Bullock 224 

Safety-First Meter Shut-Off Wrench, Mr. V. O. Goble. . 225 

Valve Grinder for Tobey Meters, Mr. J. R. Gilbert 226 

Suggested Uses for Meter Order, Mr. Maurice J. Adams. 226 

To Qean Hard Paint From Meters, Mr. J. R. Gilbert... 230 

Meter Lead Wrench, Mr. V. A. Goble 230 

Mud Mixer, Mr. J. J. Schubert 231 

A Neat Combination Welded Vent, The East Ohio Gas 

Company / 231 



No. 


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80. 


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81. 


No. 


82. 



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WRINKLE DEPARTMENT 



PAGE 

Combination Socket and Gate Bolt Wrench, Mr. Ltn Ryan 234 
Welding Drill Stem by Oxy-Acetylene Process, Mr. H. 

O. Ballard 235 

Stuffing Box Wrench, Mr. Leo Svoboda 236 

Combined Revolution Counter and Recording Pressure 

Gauge, Mr. W. C. Baxter 236 

Strainer for Gas Mains, Mr. F. Dooling 237 

Welded Well Drip and Well Connection, Mr. D. E. 

Shader 238 

Method of Making a Handy Map Case, Mr. S. A. Mc- 

Cune 239 

To Prevent Tin Meters From Rusting, Mr. A. H. Fricker 241 

Meter House Heater, Mr. H. O. Ballard 241 

Weekly Report of Services and Meters by City Plant Dis- 
tricts, Mr. C. W. Kramer 243 

Main Line Drip, Mr. Ross M. Stuntz 243 

Orange Peel Bull Plug, Mr. Jolm Fink 246 

Ten-Inch Expansion Sleeve Made in Kansas, Mr. J. A. 

Remler 247 

Improved Regulator, Mr. G. T. Spettigue 247 

Combination Gas Gauge and Signal Bell, Mr. G. C. Tucker 250 

Method to Prevent Tipping of Meters, Mr. G. C. Reed.. 250 
Fire Extinguishing Gas Hood for Burning Gas Wells, 

Mr. H. O. Ballard 250 

Magnetic- Air-Whistle for Telephone Alarm, for Use in 

Gas Compressing Stations, Mr. W. E. Nestor 254 

Rubber Joint Leak Clamp, Mr. R. B. Lloyd 256 

To Drain Water From Line, Mr. Corwin Andrews 258 

Gas Burners That Permit Burning of Other Fuel, Mr. 

Edwin C Merrill 258 

No. 104. Hydrometer for Taking the Specific Gravity of Mud- 
Laden Fluid, Mr. J. R. Stewart 260 

No. 105. Leave Sections of Pavement to Prevent Cave-In, Mr. 

James J. Cummins 262 

Interior Fireplace Design, Mr. F. R. Hutchinson 262 

Paste Information on Meter, Mr, Thomas E. Balkin 264 

The Automatic Multiplying Device, Mr. H. G. Matheny. 265 

It Pays to Test Rock Pressure, Mr. David White 268 

Wrench for Taking Pipe Out of Ditch, Mr. James P. 

Strickler 269 

Mercury Differential Gauge, Mr. James P. Strickler 271 

Automatic Orifice Meter Control, Mr. T. H. Kerr 271 

Meter Gage Vise, Mr. J. H. Schalek 277 



No. 


83. 


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84. 


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Ill, 


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112. 


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113. 



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WRINKLE DEPARTMENT 



PAGE 

No. 114. One Man Can Remove Diaphragm Top. Mr. John W. 

Lehew 277 

No. 115. Standard Meter Setting, Mr. W. A. Ashley 277 

No. 116. Making a 15 Bank Adding Machine Into One of Six 

Banks, Mr. C. C Phillips 280 

No. 117. Moisture-Proof Container for Recording Gauge Charts, 

Mr. J. H. Schalek 281 

No. 118. Stamp Number of Feet of Pipe in Each Service, Mr. 

W. A. Ashley 282 

No. 119. Precaution Necessary in Cities Where Two Gas Com- 
panies Are in Opposition to One Another, Mr. W. B. 

Davies 283 

No. 120. Improved Disc For Gate Valves, Mr. H. P. Zieschang... 283 
No. 121. Table Showing the Accuracy of a Gas Meter on Very 

Light Pressures, Mr. W. B. Davies 284 

No. 122. Method of Detecting Leaking **Dead-Weight" Safety 

Valves While in Service, Mr. J. H. Schalek 286 

No. 123. Rule for Measuring Pipe When Piled, Mr. A. L. 

Schneider 287 

No. 124. This Swab Does the Work and Saves Money, Mr. A. E. 

Boyd 289 

No. 125. Temporary Method of Stopping Leaks, Mr. G. C. Roberts 290 
No. 126. Apparatus for the Accurate Determination of Specific 

Gravity of Gases, Mr. T. H. Kerr and Mr. E. F. Schmidt 291 
No. 127. A Method of Extinguishing Burning Gas Leaks on Main 

Lines, Mr. F. L. Kellogg 294 

No. 128. Apparatus to Determine Direction of Flow, Mr. J. H. 

Schalek 295 

No. 129. Use Spring in Place of Weight on Valves, Mr. T. J. 

Thatcher 296 

No. 130. Five Wrinkles for Operation Offices, Mr. John M. Cronin 297 

No. 131. A Portable Test Gauge, Mr. T. H. Kerr 298 

No. 132. By, Mr. A. G. Boyd 304 

No. 133. Conversion Chart, Mr. J. H. Schalek 305 

No. 134. "The Gas Circle," Mr. C. C. Phillips 306 

No. 135. Thermometer Comparison Chamber, Mr. J. H. Schalek. . 308 
No. 136. Method for Repairing Split Center Ring, Mr. H. P. 

Zieschang 309 

No. 137. Leak Detector for Gas Line in Casing, Mr. H. H. Har- 
rington 310 

No. 138. To Prevent Regulators From Freezing, Mr. John L. 

Neely 310 

No. 139. Controlling Two Sources of Gas Supply, Mr. John L. 

Neely 812 



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10 WRINKLE DEPARTMENT 



PAGE 

No. 140. A Home Made Gas Mask, Mr. H. H. Harrington 313 

No. 141. Adjustable Meter Prover Check, Mr. J. J. Buchanan.... 813 

No. 142. Outfil for Casing Meters, Mr. C. E. Pratt 315 

No. 143. Loyalty — The Essential Power of Man, Mr. G. R. 

Carpenter 316 

No. 144. Speed in Using Blotting; Paper, Mr. M. A. Rady 317 

No. 145. Flowometer and Gauge Arrangement Saves Time, Mr. C. 

E. Pratt 317 

Wrinkle No. 4-11-44, Mr. F. H. Walker 318 

Discussion by the Editor, Mr. W. Re. Brown 319 

Discussion by the Assistant Editor, Mr. Alfred J. Diescher 320 
Report of the Committee on Awards for the Wrinkle De- 
partment 321 



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LIST OF PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 



Subject and Speaker. 

The Effect of Publicity on Business Relations — page 

J. W. Lansley 54 

M. Saul 67 

J. F. Guffey 69, 70, 73, 77, 79 

H. J. Hoover 69 

F. W. Stone 70 

W. R. Brown 73, 76 

G. Yardley 76 

S. M. Douglass 77 

L. B. Denning 79 

Co-operation Between Buyer and Seller of Natural Gas Supplies — 

L. Adams 84 

J. F. Guffey 92 

Efficiency in the Operation of Gas Compressing Stations — 

T. B. Weymouth 93, 108 

E. D. Leiand 101 

J. F. Guffey 104, 106, 108, 109 

J. Glass 104 

L. C. Frohrieb 106 

Mixed Artificial and Natural Distribution in Cities — 

A. B. Macbeth Ill 

J. F. Guffey 133, 134, 138, 140, 142, 144 

W. Y. Cartwright 134 

M. B. Daly 134 

W. S. Blauvelt 134 

J. H. Maxon 139 

R. W. Gallagher 140 

F. P. Fisher 142 

Rates — 

L. B. Denning 333, 354, 360 

J. F. Guffey 339, 342, 348, 350, 364, 358, 360 

J. H. Maxon 340 

(11) 



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12 UST OF PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 



VAGE, 

R. H. Bartlett 342 

H. J. Hoover 348 

F. W. Stone 350 

M. B. Layton 354 

J. W. McMahon 358 

J. M. Garard 363 

Mobilizing of Industry for War — 

A. C. Bedford 366 

Deep Well Drilling — 

A. R. Gray 382 

J. F. Guffey 397, 398 

J. C McDowell 397 

Wrought Iron Pipe for Use in Natural Gas Field — 

J. Aston 399, 414 

J. F. Guffey 408, 414 

F. N. Speller 409 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING 



OF THE 



Natural Gas Association 
of America 

HELD 

MAY 15th, 16th and 17th, 1917 



PROCEEDINGS 



FIRST DAY — MORNING SESSION. 
Tuesday, May 15, 1917. 

The Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Natural Gas Associa- 
tion of America convened at The Broadway Auditorium, Buffalo, 
New York, at 10 o'clock, A. M., May 15th, 1917, with Joseph 
F. GufFey, of Pittsburgh, Pa., as President, and Thomas C. 
Jones of Delaware, Ohio, as Secretary. 

The following members reported their attendance: 



Abbott, C. G. 
Adams, C H. 
Adams, W. H. 
Adams, W. N. 
Adolph, Peter 
Aggeks, E. W. 
Alberty, p. a. 
Amey, L. C. 
Anderson, E. L. 
Angel, Joseph E. 
Armstrong, A. A. 
Arnold, W. H. 



Arras, W. H. 
Ashley, Walter A. 
Ayer, J. W. 
Bagley, W. H. 
Bahan, J. R. 
Baker, A. G. 
Baldwin, O. M. 
Ballard, A. N. 
Ballard, H. O. 
Barger, L. F. 
Barnes, R. B. 
Bartlett, E. O. 



(13) 



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14 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



Bartlett, J. C. 
Bartlett, R. H. 
Bartley, E. L. 
Bass, W. H. 
Beatty, D. 
Bell, Chas. D. 
Benner, George K. 
Benninger, H. H. 
Benninger, R. E. 
Berger, C. O. 
Berry, Dr. R. N. 
Berry, C. P. 
Berwald, p. M. 

BlELER, O. 
BiGELOW, L. S. 

Billingsley, J. E, 
Bishop, Harry W., Jr. 
Black, T. M. 
Blackall, T. p. 
Blake, E. F. 
BLauvett, W. S. 
Blewett, John T. 
Booth, Arthur 
Booth, George 
boothe, r. e. 
Borchard, C. E. 
Boyle, S. C. 
Braden, G. T. 
Braden, H. W. 
Bradford, F. J. 
Brady, M. A. 
Bradley, Harry 
Bradley, J. B. 
Bragdon, H. K. 
Brandel, S. F. 
Brennan, H. W. 
Brinham, a. L. 
Brink, G. R. 



Brink, R. W. 
Broder, W. J. 
Brooks, R. A. 
Brown, D. J. 
Brown, L. A. 
Brown, L. E. H. 
Brown, W. L. 
Brown, W. Re. 
Bruckner, O. L. 
Brunner, E. 
Bullock, Charles L. 
Bullock, George 
Bullock, W. E. 
Burkhalter, R. J. 
Burr, R. B. 
Burnett, Jerome 
BuRREss, George H. 

BURSON, H. W. 

Butler, C. L. 
Cain, W. J. 
Callahan, J. T. 
Campbell, Jos. T. 
Carey, W. C. 
Carpenter, Everett 
Carl, L. F. 
Carter, Clarence E. 
Cartwright, W. Y. 
Case, L. L. 
Casto, a. T. 
Clark, C. L. 
Clark, James 
Clarkson, R. L. 
Clawson, T, B. 
Cleary, J. D. 
Clemens, Hays H. 
Clifford, T. C. 
Clover, J. N. 
Clover, M. K. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



15 



Clover, S. C. 
Collins, Frank 
CoLLiNGs Hugh 
Collins, James 
Connors, E. F. 
Connors, J. P. 
Coolahan, p. J. 
Corrin, John B. 
Covey, A. F. 
Courtney, D. H. 
Coyle, Henry 
Craft, Chas. 
Crahan, B. J. 
Craig, W. P. 
Cramer, C. W. 
Cratty, James M. 
Crawford, G. W. 
Crawford, J. B. 
Creveling, Joe D, 
Cronin, John H. 
Crosby, G. A. 
Cross, Raymond 
Crossett, John 
Crowl, p. E. 
Crowley, P. J. 
cullinan, m. p. 
Cummings, C. W. 
Cummings, Con. 
Cummings, E. A. 
Cunningham, R. H. 
CusACK, Frank 
CUSACK, W. M. 

Cushing, J. W. 
Custer, Z. B. 
Daily, Eugene 
Daly, M. B. 
Davies, W. N. 
Davis, A. P. 



Davis, H. R. 
Davison, M. C. 
Deal, E. O. 
Deemer, F. C. 
Denton, D. T. 
DeWitt, B. C 

DiESCHER, A. J. 

Dimmick, W. H. 

DiTTMAN, C. E. 

Dittman, D. M. 
Ditto, Wm. A. 
Dixon, Phiup 
dooling, f. t. 
Donnelly, J. S. 
Donnelly, W. E. 
Donohue, T. C. 
Donovan, B. II. 
Doty, W. J. 
Dougherty, O. J. 
Douglass, S. M. 
Dowd, B. F. 
Downing, G. W. 
Dreher, Ray G. 
Dresser, Carl K. 
Drury, G. F. 
Dunn, T. A. 
Eagan, E. J. 
Eastland, S. H. 
Engle, T. W. 
Ernst, H. M. 
Evans, J. J. 
EwiNG, A. M. 
Fair, F. 

Fairchild, F. a. 
Falk, George E. 
Earner, J. W. 
Fay, Peter 
Felix, O. F. 



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lt> 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Fessler, T. a. 
FiNLEY, H. F. 

Fish, Harvey 
Fisher, F. P. 
FisLER, John 
Flanigan, J. T. 
Fleming, A. C. 
Fleming, George F. 
Flinn, T. W. H. 
Flint, R. B. 
Fogarty, John E. 
Foley, J. 
Foley, T. H. 
Fonner, J. H. 
Formax, H. a. 
Foster, J. E. 
Fralick, F. a. 
Fray, Sam 
Frazier, J. E, 
Freidenberg, D. 
French, F. A. 
Frevert, R. a. 
Frey, \Vm. B. 
Frohreib, L. C. 
Fuller, E. K. 
Fulsom, H. 
Fyfe, a. D. 
Fve, J. L. 
Gage, W. P. 
Gale, G. N. 
Gali.^\gher, C. E. 
Gallagher, R. W. 
Garard, Chas. 1 r. 
Garard, J. M. 
Gardner, C. W. 
Gassdorf, G. I. 
Gassett, a. L. 
Gates, C. B. 



Gavin, A. W. 
Geigel, F. G. 
Gericke, Oscar C. 
Gessel, B.. M. 

GiFFORD, B. J. 
Gill, F. 

GiLLOGLY, J. J. 
GiNDELE, A. H, 

Glass, John 
Glass, R. C. 
Gleason, C. W. 
GoBLE, Ben. F. 
GoFF, George S. 
Grace, C. H. 
Graham, Lyman L. 
Grant, C. E. 
Gray, Homer R. 
Gray, J. F. 
Greis, Henry N. 
Gribble, Wallace B. 
Guffey, J. F. 
GURNSEY, W. M. 

Hackstaff, J. D. 
Hackstaff, R. C. 
Hadley, F. L. 
Hadlev, W. R. 
Hagax, W. G, 
Hager. H. a. 
Hall, H. E. 
Hall, Henry G. 
Hall, J. J. 
Hall, T. A. 
Hammon, M. a. 
Hanks, J. G. 
Hanley, T. E. 
Hannon, D. W. 
Harney, Jr. H. 
Harrington, H. H. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



IT 



Hasris, G. S. 
Haktzell, a, C. 
Harwood, J. Arch. 
Hastings, A. L. 
Hastings, William 
Hawk, C. M. 
Hawkins, B. L. 
Hay, R. W. 
Healy, J. H. 
Heard, T. J. 
Heeter, C M. 
Heintz, Robt. 
Helm, C. L. 
Henderson, J. I. 
Henning, M. H. 
Henning, James C. 
Herring, A. W. 
Herron, F. W. 
Hickernell, George W. 
HiGGINS, W. C. 
Hill, Chas. E. 
Hill, D. M. 
Hinerman, G. L. 
Hoffman, H. R. 
Hogg, H. B. 
Holland, H. T. 
Holly, Wm. 
HOLTZ, W. H. 
Hoover, H. J. 
Hornor, Boyd E. 
HoRNOR, Lynn S. 
Horsley, George H. 
Hottinger, R. L. 
Hovis, W. A. 
Howard, J. V. 
Howard, W. C. 
Huff, Charles F. 
Hull, H. D. 
s 



Hunter, W. E. 
HURD, F. R. 
Hurlburt, A. 
Hutchinson, F. R. 
Hutchinson, W. P. 
Irwin, J. W. 
Irwin, R. W. 

ISHERWOOD, J. H. 

Ivory, E. D. 
Jacoby, H. L. 
Johnson, C. W. 
Johnson, Frank 
Johnson, Paul R. 
Johnson, Roswbll H. 
Jones, C. R. 
Jones, E. T. 
Jones, George H. 
Jones, T. C. 
Jones, T. J. 
Jordan, George E. 
Judge, W. J. 
Keenan, J. E. 
Kellogg, E. B. 
Kellogg, F. L. 
Kennedy, H. 
Kerr, A. N. 
Kerr, T. H. 
Kilpatrick, R. B. 
Kightlinger, a. D. 
King, James 
Kiesel, Charles 
Klise, John J. 
Knapp, F. H. 
Knight, W. H. 
Knowles, W. R. 
Kohl, W. G. 
Krausb, Chas. 
Krick, Kay C. 



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18 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Lackey, Frank 
Landis, H. K. 
Lakamp, J. H. 
Larkin, Leo. 
Larkin, W. H. 
Laughlin, J. P. 
Law, C H. 
Layton, Miles B. 
Leamon, Wm. G. 
Lee, T. M. 
LeFevre, Harry E. 
Lehman, I. L. 
Leight, Harry G. 
Leland, E. D. 
Leland, R. M. 
Leonard, W. A. 
Lepper, E. L. 
LeRoy, Frank O. 
Leslie, Fred C. 
Little, Perry A. 
Lindsay, Roy 
LOHR, G. C. 
LONGNECKER, W. C. 

LovELAND, Elmer 
LovERiDGE, Guy H. 
LowRY, F. M. 

LUEBECKER, PaUL 

LuTz, C. H. 
Lynch, J. D. 
Lytle, V. H. 
McCalmont, C. p. 
McCandless, H. E. 
McCandless, Harry M. 
McCann, G. E. 
McCarthy, F. R. 
McClellan, Arthur 
McClellan, J. Y. 
McClellan, Joseph 



McClintock, C. a. 
McCloy, W. L. 
McCluney, S. F. 

McCORMICK, E. J. 

McCormick, L. K. 
McCollough, G. W. 
McCrimmon, J. E. 
McDowell, C. O. 
McDowell, J. C. 
Mc Henry, M. A. 
McIntyre, M. 
McKee, George R. 
McKimmie, J. E. 
McKiNNEY, Charles B. 
McKnight, S. C. 
McMahon^ D. p. 
MaMahon, James W. 
McMahon, John 
Mc Mahon, John J. 
Mc MiLLAN, John. 
McNary, John B. 
McPherson, Edwin A. 
Magrew, B. a. 
Mahoney, John T. 
Mallory, L. E. 
Marckworth, W. C. 
Maroney, Joseph. 
Marquis, H. H. 
Marriott, W. J. 
Marston, Edgar. 
Martin, Edw. P. 
Martin, F. W. 
Martin, Henry. 
Martin, J. O. 
Mason, Alphonso. 
Mason, J. F. 
Matson, J. R. 
Maxon, J. H. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



19 



May, a. G. 
Merrill, Edwin C. 
Metz, Eugene 
Meyer, F. J. 
Mickley, M. a. 
Miller, D. F. 
Miller, Fred A. 
Miller, John A. W. 
Milne, E. D. S. 
Milne, W. E. 
MiNKEN, George 

MOELLER, W. 

Montgomery, J. H. 
Montgomery, M. D. 
Moore, Calvin T. 
Moore, Edgar M. 
Morgan, W. J. 
MowREY, John, 
munro, w. lorne. 
Murphy, S. F. 
Murray, M. J. 
Myles, Fred W. 
Nash, A. W. 
Near, C. J. 
Neely, Ira L. 
Neely, L. G. 
Nelson, H. E. 
Nestor, J. F. 
Newman, A. J. 
Newton, N. A. 
Norris, H. S. 
Norton, Charles L. 
Oakes, W. L. 
ODay, J. J. 
CLeary, Dennis. 
Oliphant, B. C. 
Ouphant, F. H. 
Oliver, C. E. 



Olmstead, J. F. 
O'Neill, Charles. 
Ostermaier, John. 
OsTRYE, Peter L. 
Painter, J. C. 
Palm, Charles J. 
Paris, Jr., A. J. 
Parks, R. N. 
Parr, A. T. 
Pattinson, R. L. 
Pearson, C. A. 
Penhale, J. W. 
Philips, D. H. 
Phillips, C. C. 
Philips, H. T. 
Porterfield, Harry. 
Pratt, Charles E 
Presho, a. a. 
Prill, H. M. 
Pryor, F. B. 
Quinlan, Thomas. 
Rae, a. B. 
Ralph, Charles A. 
Ramage, J. R. 
Ramsey, E. C. 
Rand, J. R. 
Redic, Sam. 
Reed, Ira B. 
Reed, J. A. 
ReeseR) E. B. 
Reeser, H, C. 
Reichel, C. D. 
Reiley, J. M. 
Remler, J. A. 
Reiser, Charles, L. 
Richards, W. H. 
Richie, J. A. 
Riley, George N. 



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NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Roberts, C. C. 
Roberts, M. J. 
Robertson^ D. S. 
Robertson, J. D. 
Robinson, Edwin. 
Roby, H. p. 
Rogers, W. J. 
ROONEY, E. S. 
ROTHERT, E, R. 

Rupp, Chas. H. 
Rush, Albert. 
Russell, C H. 
RussuM, R. C. 
Ryan, E. M. 
Ryan, J. L. 
Sabger, E. L. 
Sartorius, F. 
schalek, j. h. 
ScHATZEL, George P. 

SCHAFER, F. J. 
SCHELL, W. F. 

schlaudecker, e. m. 
schlosser, a. j. 
Schmidt, E. F. 
ScHMiTT, Frank. 

SCOVILLE, J. C 

Scratch, George. 
Sears, C. W. 
Sedberry, W. H. 
Seyffert, L. a. 
Shaffer, Hose. 
Shannon, O. K. 
Shattuck, J. R. 
Shaw, S. T. 
Shear, Robert. 
Shoub, J. F. 
Shulters, Hoyt V. 
Simmons, W. P. 



SiPE, Geo. B. 
Sipe, W. E. 
Skelly, H. L. 
Slack, Chas. W. 
Sloan, C. M. 
Sloan, C. T. 
Sloan, W. L. 
Smith, E. B. 
Smith, Frank D. 
Smith, Frank N. 
Smith, H. L. 
Snoke, Alpheus. 
South, W. H. 
Southwick, E. F. 
Spain, William H. 
Stafford, G. M. 
Stearns, J. W. 
Stephens, Thomas H. 
Sternburg, E. M. 
Stewart, S. B. 
Stitt, John C. 
Stringer, Harrisov. 
Stone, F. W. 
Stotler, R. M. 
Stroup, Lloyd. 
Stroup, John. 
Sullivan, J. H. 
Sullivan, P. D. 
Taylor, George E. 
Teegustram, Victor S. 
Terry, L. B. 
Texter, L. J. 
Thiel, Martin A. 
Thomas, F. H. 
Thomas, Howard V. 
Thompson, W. H. 
Thompson, W. P. 

TiBBENS, W. P. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



21 



TlLLITSON, F. H. 

Tomb, F. B. 
Tomer, Adam. 
Tonkin, J. B. 
Tonkin, T. J. Jr. 
Topp, A. A. 
Tracy, F. B. 
Treat, E. M. 
Tucker, D. H. 
Tucker, T. C. 
Tucker, G. C. 
Turner, Lyly. 
Tyng, Arthur. 
Vallely, J. F. 
\'ance, (]eo. B. 
\\)elkle, L. p. 
A\'alker, W. O. 
Wallace, H. A. 
Wallace, J. B. 
Walsh, D. C. 
Walsh, IM. W. 
Walton, J. D. 
Ward, R. 
Wardell, C. W. 
Watts, Harry P. 



Weir, Henry D. 
Welker, Geqrge E. 
Wellm-a-n^ "A. Miner 
Weymouth, Thomas R 
Wheeler, Edw. M. 
Whitcomb, E. C. 
Whitcomr, E. T. 
Wiggins, J. H. 
Williams, D. W. 
W^illiams, John B. 
Williams, John H. 

WiLLOUGHBY, H. 
WiLLSEY, J. H. 

Wilson^ Henry M. 
Wilson, W. E. 

WiTKOWSKI, F. D. 
Wittmer. Thomas 
wonderly, w. v. 
Wood, L. S. 
Wyer, Samuel S. 
York, Patrick 
Young, J. H. M. 
Young, W. T. 
Zimmerman, Charles W. 



President Guffey : Gentlemen, it gives me great pleasure 
to call to order the twelfth annual meeting of the Natural Gas 
Association of America. It gives me still greater pleasure to 
introduce as the first speaker at this convention the distinguished 
mayor of Buffalo, who will extend to this Association the wel- 
come of the city. I now have the pleasure of introducing Mayor 
Fuhrmann. (Applause). 

Hon. Louis P. Fuhrmann, Mayor of the City of Buffalo, then 
delivered the following: 



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Lons P. r\'iiRM.\\.\. 



ADDRKSS OF WELCOME. 



Mr. President and Gentlemen : 

1 am glad to come here this morning. I want to thank 
your Committee on Arrangements for their thought fuhiess in 
inviting me to participate in your proceedings on this occasion. 
It was kind and gracious of them to do so, and I want them to 
know^ that I appreciate it. I want to assure them and everyone 
of you that I am not here this morning to make an address upon 
any suhject whatsoever, for I reahze that you are gathered at 
this time for the exi)ress purpose of transacting important busi- 
ness and not to hsten to mere words from me that must neces- 
sarily be more or less remote from your main object. However, 
you have greatly honored Buffalo by your j^resence, and on behalf 
of five hundred thousand hospitable and patriotic Ruffalonians I 
extend to each and every one of you a sincere and generous 
welcome to this great and beautiful city. For Buffalo is a beau- 
tiful city, and Buffalo is a great city. It is a great city his- 

(22) 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 23 

torically. It is the home city of Millard Fillmore and of Grover 
Cleveland. It is the city which in 1812 was burned to ashes by 
British torches and a city which in less than a century has grown 
from ashes to a City Beautiful, and from a scattered hand-full 
of people to a mighty Cosmopolitan City of five hundred thousand 
souls. It is a great city industrially. It is a great city com- 
mercially. It is a great city racially. It is composed of almost 
all the races of the world. American, German, English, Irish, 
Italian, Polish and all the other bloods representative of the 
human race; and we are living here at peace with one another, 
and with feelings of good will for each other. We are tolerant 
and we are charitable, for we realize there is room enough for 
all of us and for hundreds of thousands more just like us as 
soon as we can attract them within our borders. 

For the City of Buffalo it may truly be said, once the 
American Flag goes up, all the other flags come down. (Ap- 
plause). Wherever the American Flag* is unfurled, on land or 
sea, — on this continent or in Europe, our hearts go with it, and 
our lives are willingly sacrificed in its defense. (Great applause). 
That is your spirit, and that is my spirit, and it is the spirit of 
five hundred thousand Buflfalonians, who are part and parcel of 
the one hundred million Americans who revere the names of 
George Washington, of Andrew Jackson, of U. S. Grant and of 
Robert E. Lee. (More applause). 

We are now engaged in the greatest of wars since the be- 
ginning of time. It is a war that will test and try our souls, as 
they have never been tested or tried before. Great sacrifices 
will have to be made by us. Some of us will have to go to the 
front. Some of us will have to make sacrifices of money. Some 
of us will have to help in the production of food and of munitions 
and of ships, but every last one of us must understand that we 
must do every la.st thing possible to make the United States and 
the Allied Nations victorious in this strife and in this struggle 
for the preservation of the ideals of free government on earth. 
(Long continued applause). 

As you journey throughout our city, you will find that we 
are second to no other city in respect to those things which go 
to make up the substantial and the objective features of life, and 



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24 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



it is such a city, gentlemen, that I bid you a hearty welcome to, 
not only today, but throughout your entire stay in our midst. 
( Prolonged applause) . 

President Guffey : It gives me great pleasure to introduce 
one of the former presidents of our Association, the Vice Presi- 
dent and General Manager of The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 
Mr. Garard, who will reply on behalf of the Association to the 
eloquent address of welcome by the distinguished Mayor of 
Buffalo. (Applause) . 

Mr. John M. Garard of Columbus, Ohio, then delivered the 
following: 



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John M. Garard. 

RESPONSE TO ADDRESS OF WELCOME. 

Mr. President, The Honorable Mayor of Buffalo, Ladies and 

Getitlemen (although I do not see any of the former), and 

Members of the Natural Gas Association of America : 

I hope I have not missed anybody — Mr. David O. Holbrook, 

the President of the Supply Men's Association, wrote me a letter 

in which he stated that the Honorable Joseph F. Guffey, as 

President of this Association, had requested me, as the "shining 

light" of the Association, to respond to His Honor's Address of 

Welcome. That was very nice of David ; but if David had said 

that the electric wires that run from Niagara struck this Mayor 

before they got to Buffalo, somebody else would have had my 

place. (Laughter). 

I must say that the Mayor's remarks are well timed, but in 
justice to myself I want to iterate that I forewarned him, in a 
manner as to what he should say. (More laughter). I told him 
that every thing he said in favor of the Natural Gas Association, 

(2.5) 



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26 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



and all the bouquets he threw towards them would be put upon 
our records in large, black-faced type, but as to anything else he 
said, I did not know whether it would be printed at all. So I 
think I am the one who urged him on to make a wonderful 
speech; and he certainly did himself proud. If any of you think 
it is an easy job to follow him, just come up here and I will 
yield my place to you in a minute. (More laughter and ap- 
plause). 

Now, I haven't anything to tell you. I haven't any speech. 
I am just simply here to say that we look upon this as the greatest 
meeting we have ever had. Excuse me, Brother Guffey, — that is 
taking some of the honors from Pittsburgh, but I believe it is 
true nevertheless. I can only say this, that we appreciate having 
the Honorable Mayor with us ; we appreciate his eloquent words 
of welcome and I can simply add that for all the nice things he 
has said to us, we will return them tenfold and say to him that 
we appreciate every thing Buffalo has promised us. I sometimes 
wonder whether we are not a little premature in responding to 
these addresses of welcome **right off the bat" ! Before the ink 
is dry on the recording secretary's paper, we rush in and pour 
out our gratitude for these generous words of hospitality, and yet 
we oftentimes do not know what is going to happen before we get 
out of town. I really think the proper thing to do would be to 
wait until we get home and then write back and tell the spokes- 
man of the City in which we gather, how much, if any, we have 
enjoyed our visit. T think it would be safer and you know the 
popular slogan nowadays is ''Safety First," (Renewed laughter 
and applause). 

Of course, thus far we have escaped. There has been no 
monkey-wrench thrown into the gears any place that I know of, 
or any diaphragm punctured or anything of that kind. But 1 
will tell you — you who were at Oklahoma City will remember we 
had a **badger fight" there. A gentleman from Buffalo was 
there. I am not going to mention any names, but he handled 
the crockery- ware. (Great laughter). I have even felt that he 
had something in store for us, and that some day, when oppor- 
tunity presented itself, we would be w^ell paid for it all. Now, 
T noticed yesterday, when I was out with him in an automobile, 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 27 



that every time we met a policeman, the policeman bowed to 
him very obsequiously and smiled, and I am free to admit that 
I did not like that a durned bit. (More laughter and applause). 
He seems to be just a little bit too close to these policemen. 
While I have the most implicit confidence in the Mayor, and I 
don't believe the Mayor is going to allow him to go too far, but 
after all, I will be pretty well satisfied when my satchel is packed 
and at the station. (Renewed applause and laughter). 

However, Gentlemen, seriously speaking, you have a lot of 
papers and reports to dispose of at you morning session, and 
my talk does not amount to anything. In conclusion, I wish to 
say to the Mayor, that we appreciate most sincerely your hearty 
welcome, and we thank you from the bottom of our hearts. 
(Applause). 



Mr. L. S. Bigelow, of Buflfalo, N. Y. : Mr. President — 
Mr. Garard: No! No! That won't go here! (Laughter). 
Mr. L. S. Bigelow: (continuing) : Mr. Guflfey just nodded 
to me which gives me the opportunity of answering Mr. Garard, 
notwithstanding his protestations. It has always been my practice 
to be the last to speak, in case I wished to speak at all, and I may 
say that I am very glad of this opportunity to defend myself. I 
want to tell you that no man in this room, — no man at the meeting 
in Oklahoma City, — no one of these Indians who were there in 
full costume and "feathers" enjoyed that badger fight more than 
the man who "pulled the badger." (Laughter). I pulled the 
badger. (Renewed laughter). Sitting over there is Fred Muel- 
ler, who led me on as he has led many and many a man to de- 
struction. (Continued laughter and applause). I want to say one 
thing more about the badger business. Mr. Garard spoke of the 
"crockery- ware." I do not speak of it as "crockery-ware." I 
speak of it as the "collar." In other words, gentlemen, among 
my relics at home today, I have the collar and the rope attached 
to the collar that was attached to the badger. Those of you who 
were there will recall that the floor of that ninth story of the Lee- 
Huckens Hotel — this is not an advertisement for the Lee- 
Huckens, — was a rough concrete floor and the badger broke 



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28 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

loose, but the collar remained intact, tied to the cord, and as I 
have said before, I have that cord and I have that collar among 
my most cherished relics at home today, and I shall preserve 
them for many years to show to my children and my children's 
children, and to tell to them the Natural Gas Association did me 
and made me lose all my friends out at Oklahoma City. (Con- 
tinued laughter and applause). 

Now, I want to say this, — as a citizen of Buffalo, and as a 
member oi ^ family that has lived in Buffalo since Buffalo had 
one house — my grandfather was in Buffalo when Buffalo had 
one house — and as a member of this community I want to tell 
you one other thing. Some of you may not know that this splen- 
did Auditorium you are occupying as an Exhibit Hall and this 
building you are occupying for a meeting place and will occupy 
tomorrow night for the beefsteak dinner on the next floor above 
is tendered to you comjilete, including light — because this is to be 
open at night, — building, light, heat, watchman's service and all, 
with the compliments of the City of Buffalo. Not one cent is 
being paid by any Association or individual. (Applause). 

Mr. J. W. McMahon, of Toledo, Ohio: Mr. President, T 
wish to present the following resolution (handing same to Sec- 
retary Jones). 

President (iuFFKv: The secretary will please read the 
resolution. 

Secretary Jones: (Reading) Resolved, That this Associa- 
tion extend most sincere appreciation to the City of Buffalo, to 
Commissioner Malone, to the Qiamber of Commerce, to the Iro- 
quois Natural Gas Company and to those who have assisted us 
most faithfully at the Auditorium. 

We appreciate exceedingly the use of this most adequate and 
sj)len(lid building and its equipment that has been provided with 
the compliments of the City of Buffalo, also the service that has 
been rendered individually and collectively. 

Mr. J. VV. McMahon : T move the adoption of the resolu- 
tion, Mr. President. 

Mr. J. M. Garard: I second the motion. 

The above motion, duly seconded, was then unanimously 
adopted. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



Mr. J. M. Garasd: Mr. President, I move you, that a vote 
of thanks by this Association be extended to Hon. Louis P. 
Fuhrmann, Mayor of the City of Buffalo, for his kindness in par- 
ticipating in our opening exercises and for the eloquent Address 
of Welcome delivered to us. 

Mr. Martin B. Daly : I second the motion. 

The above motion, duly seconded, was then unanimously 
adc^ted by a rising vote. 

President Guffey : Mr. Mayor, the vote is unanimous and 
we thank you very much. (Applause) . 

The next regular order of business is the Report of Board of 
Directors. 

Mr. T. C. Jones then read the following: 

REPORT OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

Buffalo, May 14, 191 7. 
To the Natural Gas Association : 

Gentlemen : Your Board of Directors beg leave to submit 
for your consideration the following recommendations and re- 
p<rt: 

Nominating Committee: John M. Garard, A. A. Arm- 
strong, Bert C. Oliphant. 

Committee on Next Place of Meeting : Kay C. Krick, Wil- 
liam B. Way, Ogden K. Shannon. 

Auditing Committee : Harry C. Reeser, John B. Tonkin, L. 

A. Scyffert. 

Committee on Memorials: Milt Saul, R. W. Gallagher, C 
W. Sears. 

Committee on Final Resolutions: William Y. Cartwright, 
Frederick W. Stone, John G. Pew. 

That the following be Released from Membership at their 
own request : C. G. Abbott, J. A. Adams, Hugh Anderson, J. B. 
Ardis, C. E. Baker, H. J. Bartley, H. P. Beans, D. J. Beckett, 
J. B. Black, J. C. Blair, W. Boice, J. Bossert, J. O. Bothel, W. 

B. Brendlinger, A. B. Burnett, F. G. Burson, O. W. Cashdollar, 



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30 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

J. E. Conley, A. F. Coulter, C. F. Covey, H. Cummings, M. J. 
Cuimnings, S. Davis, W. M. Davis, P. E. Dixon, J. P. Eagleson, 
H. T. Egbert, C L. Ford, W. W. Hall, C. L. Holman, N. Hunt, 
J. W. Hunter, W. S. Jewett, R. D. Jolliffe, N. J. Klug, C. Knep- 
shield, C. A. Lawrence, A. Leight, S. E. Leist, C. P. LeVier, W. 
H. Lockwood, L. Mathieu, H. B. Mayne, J. Y. McQelland, W. 
A. McCombs, G. W. McCuUough, C. McCutcheon, W. H. Mc- 
Fadden, W. F. McGhee, J. F. McKibben, A. G. McPeake, H. 
Moore, S. T. Murdock, F. C Murphy, C. O'Hara, L. O'Hara, C 
Owens, T. H. Patterson, A..S. Pfeifer, J. Phillips, T. P. Pinc- 
kard, P. Plantinga, D. M. Poe, G. B. Reeger, S. C. Ross, D. 
Sample, W. J. Schiffler, F. F. Schomstein, C. E. Seachrist, J. 
Seice, C. F. Shaffer, N. G. Sherwood, A. Shoop, C. W. Shulters, 
Z. H. Shuster, E. D. Sibley, E. Siess, M. C Smith, R. H. Smith, 
C. Stainbrook, O. Steele, H. Steinecker, W. E. Steinwedell, H. 
P. Taylor, N. J. Taylor, H. Tipper, G. J. Vallely, H. VanBlarcom, 
J. S. Welch, G. C Wells, R. H. West, R. L. Wilkes, T. B. Wilson, 

F. W. Wimer, B. Wise, D. A. Wolfe, J. Young, J. A. Fletcher, 

G. Fonner, P. I. Price and G. W. Zimmerman. 

That the following be dropped from Membership for Non- 
payment of dues : C. E. Bair, F. Barnes, J. H. Carter, R. Clark, 
J. W. Dana, R. D. Day, J. R. Doane, C. L. Freeland, T. L. Galvin, 
E. O. Hickstein, W. C. Higgins, W. T. Hinchey, E. M. Hinshaw, 
R. Hoover, J. C. Howe, W. Howe, J. H. Howard, L. Katona, B. 

E. LaDow, C. V. LaDow, W. G. Leet, W. Little, T. E. Lloyd, 
G. J. Newton, C. W. O'Donnell, T. Pinkston, J. S. Posgate, W. 

F. Potter. W. W. Rhea, G. Robinson, W. W. Strickler, F. L. 
Stuchell, R. O. Stull, J. C. Vance, E. S. Vincil, and F. H. Young. 

Respectfully submitted for the Board of Directors, 

Joseph F. Guffey, 
President. 

Thomas C Jones, 

Secretary. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 31 

President Guffey: Gentlemen, you have heard the re- 
port of the Board of Directors. What is the wish of the Asso- 
ciation with regard to it? 

Mr. J. W. McMahon: Mr. President, I move that the 
Report of the Board of Directors as submitted, be received, 
ordered placed on file and spread upon the minutes of the Asso- 
ciation. 

Mr. L. C. Bigelow : I second the motion, Mr. President. 

And thereupon the above motion, having been duly seconded, 
was carried, and the Report of the Board of Directors was re- 
ceived, filed and ordered spread upon the minutes of the Asso- 
ciation. 

President Guffey: I will change the order of business 
slightly as appears upon the printed program and next call for 
the Report of the Committee on New Members and Mr. Norris I 
believe is Chairman of that Committee. 

Mr. Henry S. Norris, Chairman of the Committee on New 
Members, then submitted verbally the following: 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NEW MEMBERS. 

Mr. President and Members of the Natural Gas Association of 

America: 

You have heard the eloquent Address of Welcome by our 
Honorable Mayor ; you have heard the witty and humorous Re- 
sponse by Mr. Garard ; you have heard what Mr. Bigelow has had 
to say with reference to Buffalo, and now, on behalf of the Iro- 
quois Natural Gas Company, one of the greatest Gas Companies 
in the country, we extend to each of you a hearty and sincere 
welcome, and a cordial invitation, while in Buffalo, to visit our 
plant. We have a beautiful new office building and also fine shops 
and up-to-date equipment and it would give us great pleasure to 
have each and all of you visit our plant and offices while here 
and feel assured that what we have to show you will well repay 
you for the time and trouble expended in such a visit. (Ap- 
plause). 

Mr. President; the Committee on New Members begs leave 
to report that it has placed in the hands of our Secretary a list 



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as NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

of applications for membership to the number of 262, and the 
Committee recommends the election of each applicant to mem- 
bership in this Association. 

Mr. John M. Garasd: I move that the Report of the Com- 
mittee on New Members be received, accepted and placed on file 
and that|the Secretary be directed to cast the ballot of the Asso- 
ciation for the election to membership in the Association of the 
applicants recommended in said report. 

Mr. Martin B. Daly : I second the motion. 

And thereupon said motion having been duly seconded, was 
unanimously adopted. 

Secretary Jones then cast the ballot of the Association for 
the election to membership of the applicants whose names were 
recommended by said Committee and said applicants were duly 
declared to be members of the Association and were invited to 
join in the discussions and participate in the proceedings. 

The list of applicants recommended and elected to member- 
ship in the Association is as follows : 

NEW MEMBERS. 

C. H. Adams, Field Foreman, United Natural Gas Company, 
Kane, Pennsylvania. 

Peter P. Adolf, Agent, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, Lan- 
caster, New York. 

E. W. Aggers, Contractor, F. A. Aggers & Son, Kane, Penn- 
sylvania. 

P. A. Alberty, Assistant Superintendent, Logan Gas Company, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

E. J. Anderson, Superintendent, Texas Gas Company, Mexia, 
Texas. 

C. B. Apple, 125 18 Clifton Blvd., Lakewood, Ohio. 

Thomas Armstrong, Inspector, Iroquois Natural -Gas Company, 
Buffalo, New York. 

J. P. Bahan, Clerk, The Texas Company, Natural Gas Depart- 
ment, Shreveport, La. 

O. M. Baldwin, Foreman, East Ohio Gas Company, Kent, Ohio. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



W. H. Bass, Foreman, Alden-Batavia Natural Gas Company, 
Alden, New York. 

B. R. Bay, Chief Engineer, The Medina Gas & Fuel Co., Mans- 

field, Ohio. 

N. H. Benninger, Superintendent, United Natural Gas Com- 
pany, South Oil City, Station R, Pennsylvania. 

R. E. Benninger, Chief Engineer, United Natural Gas Company, 
Hallton, Pennsylvania. 

C. O. Berg, Foreman, United Natural Gas Company, Reynolds- 

ville, Pennsylvania. 

Dr. R. N. Berry, Contractor, Dominion Natural Gas Company, 
Caledonia, Ontario. 

O. Bicler, Salesman, Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

T. P. Blackall, Regulator Inspector, Iroquois Natural Gas Com- 
pany, Buffalo, New York. 

B. F. Blake, Chief Engineer Treat Compr. Sta., The Ohio Fuel 

Supply Company, Homer, Ohio. 
Warren S. Blauvelt, Consulting Engineer, Steere Engineering 

Co., Detroit, Mich. 
John T. -Blewett, General Inspector, Iroquois Natural Gas Co., 

Buffalo, New York. 

C. E. Borchard, Accountant, Dominion Natural Gas Co., Ltd., 

Buffalo, New York. 
J. B. Bower, Manager, Central Pipe Line Co., Alymer, Ontario, 

Canada. 
Hugh T. Boyd, Chemist, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 

Homer, Ohio. 
E. R. Boyle, Manager, Oil City Derrick, Oil City, Pa. 
M. A. Brady, Foreman, Tri County Natural Gas Co., Caledonia, 

New York. 
H. K. Baldwin, Secretary to General Manager, Philadelphia 

Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 
S. F. Brandel, Foreman, Peoples Natural Gas Company, Garden- 

ville. New York. 
H. W. Brennan, Foreman, The Texas Company, Moran, Texas. 
A. L. Brinham, Clerk, Union Natural Gas Corp., Pittsburgh, 

Pennsylvania. 

3 



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34 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

R. A. Brooks, Secretary and Treasurer, The Medina Gas & Fuel 
Co., Mansfield, Ohio. 

L. E. H. Brown, Field Superintendent, Potter Gas Company, 
Roulette, Pennsylvania. 

L. H. Brown, Assistant Engineer, Iroquois Natural Gas Com- 
pany, Buffalo, New York. 

O. L. Bruckner, Agent, Logan Natural Gas & Fuel Company, 
Westerville, Ohio. 

E. Brunner, Engineer, Hope Eng. and Supply Company, Mt. 
Vernon, Ohio. 

George Bullock, Foreman, Southern Ontario Gas Company, Ltd., 
Rodney, Ontario, Canada. 

Jerome B. Burnett, Chief Oklahoma Division, Empire Gas & 
Fuel Co., Bartlesville, Oklahoma. 

Geo. H. Burress, Geologist, Empire Gas & Fuel Co., Bartlesville, 
Oklahoma. 

C. L. Butler, Accountant, Dominion Natural Gas Company, Ltd., 
Buffalo, New York. 

W. J. Cain, Division Foreman, East Ohio Gas Company, Cuya- 
hoga Falls, Ohio. 

Gordon M. Campbell, Commercial Department, Union Light, 
Heat & Power Co., Covington, Kentucky. 

W. C. Carey, Foreman Meter Repairs, Iroquois Natural Gas 
Co., Buffalo, New York. 

L. F. Carl, Agent, The Newark Natural Gas & Fuel Company, 
Newark, Ohio. 

L. L. Case, Local Agent, Ontario Gas Co., Holcomb, N. Y. 

Fred N. Chambers, Oil Producer, Chambers Oil Company, 214 
Chambers Bldg., Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

C. L. Clark, Foreman, Iroquois Natural Gas Co., Bradford, 
Pennsylvania. 

T. B. Qawson, Supt., Warren & Chaut. Gas Co., Warren, Penn- 
sylvania. 

J. D. Cleary, Agent, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, Angola, 
New York. 

J. N. Clover, President, The Iron Mountain Oil Company, Tulsa, 
Oklahoma. 

S. C. Qover, The Iron Mountain Oil Company, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 35 

Eugene F. Connors, Guffey Gasoline Company, Bradford, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Jos. P. Conners, Cashier, Iroquois Natural Gas Co., Buffalo, 
New York. 

P. J. Cookhan, Superintendent, Berea Pipe Line Company, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Frank Cosan, Land Department Clerk, Dominion Natural Gas 
Company, Buffalo, New York. 

D. A. Coste, Treasurer, Provincial Natural Gas & Fuel Com- 

pany, Niagara Falls, Ontario. 
James M. Cratty, Foreman Meter Department, Pennsylvania Gas 

Company, Jamestown, New York. 
Joe D. Creveling, Construction Engineer, Logan Natural Gas & 

Fuel Company, Coliunbus, Ohio. 
P. E. Crowl, Agent, Potter Gas Company, Galeton, Pennsylvania. 
Harry C. Culp, Salesman, Ingersoll Rand Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

E. A. Cummings, Assistant Treasurer, Moncton Tramways, Elec- 

tricity & Gas Co., Ltd., Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada. 

J. W. Gushing, Oil & Gas Producer, Sistersville, West Virginia. 

Eugene Dailey, Administration Department, Wichita Natural 
Gas Company, Bartlesville, Oklahoma. 

Harvey N. Dauler, President, Petroleum Products Company, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

W. B. Davies, Foreman, United Gas Companies, Ltd., St. Catha- 
rines, Ontario, Canada. 

T. O. Dial, The East Ohio Gas Company, Canton, Ohio. 

C. W. DeForest, Electrical Engineer, Union Gas & Electric Com- 

pany, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Dorr T. Denton, Division Superintendent, Iroquois Natural Gas 
Co., Buffalo, New York. 

B. C DeWitt, Lease Department, Southern Gas Company, Cor- 
pus Christi, Texas. 

D. M. Dittman, Foreman, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, Ham- 

burg, New York. 
G. C. Donahue, Pressure Department, East Ohio Gas Company, 
Qeveland, Ohio. 

F. T. Dooling, Machinist, East Ohio Gas Company, Qeveland, 

Ohio. 



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36 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

W. J. Doty, Leaser, South Shore Natural Gas & Fuel Company, 
Sheridan, New York. 

Bernard F. Dowd, Mach., Peoples Nat. Gas, Buffalo, New York. 

R. G. Dreher, Accountant, Dominion Natural Gas Co., Ltd., 
Buffalo, New York. 

Carl K. Dresser, Sec'y. & Treas., S. R. Dresser Mfg. Co., Brad- 
ford, Pennsylvania. 

George F. Drury, Oil Producer, J. W. Leonard Oil Company, 
Washington, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. T. A. Dunn, Field Superintendent, Potter Gas Company, 
Port Allegany, Pennsylvania. 

A. M. Ewing, Meter Department, Central States Gas Company, 
Vincennes, Indiana. 

Fenwick Ewing, Leasing Department, Medina Gas & Fuel Com- 
pany, Wooster, Ohio. 

F. A. Fairchild, Agent, United Natural Gas Company, Mead- 

ville, Pennsylvania. 

G. E. Falk, Cashier, South Shore Natural Gas & Fuel Company, 

Dunkirk, New York. 

Peter Fay, Field Superintendent, Potter Gas Company, Smeth- 
port, Pennsylvania. 

T. A. Fessler, Agent, Potter Gas Company, Elkland, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

John Fisler, Foreman, Akron Natural Gas Company, Akroa 
New York. 

Jas. T. Flanigan, Foreman, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 
Buffalo, New York. 

Geo. F. Fleming, Agent, United Natural Gas Company, Titus- 
ville, Pennsylvania. 

R. B. Flint, Meter Inspector, Potter Gas Company, Port Alle- 
gany, Pennsylvania. 

F. A. Fralic, Agent and Superintendent, Logan Natural Gas & 
Fuel, Galion, Ohio. 

F. A. French, Potter Gas Company, Port Allegany, Pennsylvania. 

Robert A. Frevert, Industrial Engineer, Dayton Gas Company, 
Dayton, Ohio. 

W. S. Frey, Agent, Logan Natural Gas & Fuel Company, Bu- 
cyrus, Ohio. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 87 

E. K. Fuller, Agent, East Aurora, New York, Iroquois Natural 

Gas Company. 

H. Fulsom, Foreman, Woodstock Gas Company, Woodstock, On- 
tario. 

A. D. Fyfe, Geologist, Empire Fuel and Gas Company, Bartles- 
ville, Oklahoma. 

Glen N. Gale, Superintendent, Glenwood Station, Southern On- 
tario Gas Co., Ltd., R. R. 4, Merlin, Ontaria, Canada. 

A. W. Gavin, Assistant City Superintendent, Iroquois Natural 

Gas Company, Buffalo, New York. 
Jay Geist, Supt's Qerk, United Fuel Gas Company, Spencer, 
West Virginia. 

B. M. Gessel, President, Anchor Oil Company, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 
Oscar C. Gericke, Chemical Engineer, East Ohio Gas Company, 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
Benjamin F. Goble, Foreman, United Natural Gas Company, 

Shinglehouse, Potter County, Pennsylvania. 
Wallace B. Gribble, Special Representative, Hope Natural Gas 

Company, Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

F. D. Grunder, Assistant General Sales Manager, Tube Depart- 

ment, Jones & Laughlin Steel Company, Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania. 

H. E. Hall, Accountant, Dominion Natural Gas Co., Ltd., Buf- 
falo, New York. 

Henry C. Hall, General Bookkeeper, Iroquois Natural Gas Com- 
pany, Buffalo, New York. 

T. A. Hall, Engineer, Dominion Natural Gas Co., Ltd., Hamilton, 
Ontario, Canada. 

M. E. Hammon, Foreman, South Shore Natural Gas & Fuel 
Company, Dunkirk, New York. 

Robert S. Hampton, Secretary-Treasurer, Central Ky. Nat. Gas 
Co., Titusville, Pennsylvania. 

T. L. Hanley, Superintendent, Hanley & Berd, Jackson Avenue, 
Bradford, Pennsylvania. 

D. W. Hannon, Div. Foreman, East Ohio Gas Company, Canton, 
Ohio. 

H. Harney, Jr., Inspector, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, Buf- 
falo, New York. 



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38 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

W. H. Harrington, Superintendent, Citizens Gras & Electric Co., 
Elyria, Ohio. 

Richard C. Hackstaff, Empire Pipe Line Company, Bartlesville, 
Oklahoma. 

A. L. Hastings, Field Foreman, Oklahoma Natural Gas Com- 
pany, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

C. M. Hawk, Chief Engineer, Logan Natural Gas & Fuel Com- 
pany, Sugar Grove, Ohio. 

Jas. C. Henning, Clerk, Manufacturers Su. Co., Kane, Pa. 

A. W. Herring, General Manager, The Commercial Oil & Gas 
Co., Ashtabula, Ohio. 

F. W. Herron, Secretary, Producers Gas Company, Olean, N. Y. 

Geo. W. Hickernell, United Natural Gas Co., DuBois, Pa. 

Ralph Hockstetter, Gunsberg-Forman Company, Buffalo, N. Y. 

W. H. Hodge, Publicity Manager, H. M. Byllesby & Company, 
. 208 South LaSalle St., Chicago, Illinois. 

H. R. Hoffman, Acting Chief Clerk, Iroquois Natural Gas Co., 
Buffalo, New York. 

H. T. Holland, Chief Engineer, Wheeler Compr. Sta., The North- 
western Ohio Natural Gas Company, Sugar Grove, Ohio. 

F. M. HoUiday, National Transit Company, Marwood, Pa. 

W. M. Holly, Field Supt., Potter Gas Co., Shinglehouse, Pa. 

J. N. Howard, Field Foreman, Medina Gas Co., Vienna, On- 
tario, Canada. 

W. E, Howard, Foreman, Brantford Gas Co., Ltd., Brantford, 
Ontario, Canada. 

W. E. Hunter, Vice President, Randall Gas Company, Morgan- 
town, West Virginia. 

Franklin R. Hurd, East Ohio Gas Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

R. W. Irwin, Agent, The Ohio Fuel Supply Co., Xenia, Ohio. 

J. H. Isherwood, Gasoline Operator, Potter Gas Co., Shingle- 
house, Pennsylvania. 

H. L. Jacoby, Foreman, Producers Gas Co., Olean, New York. 

C. W. Johnson, Asst. to Vice President, Hope Natural Gas Com- 
pany, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Frank Johnson, Fieldman, Iroquois Natural Gas Co., Hamburg, 
New York. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



Norwood Johnston, Superintendent, Carnegie Nat. Gas Co., Car- 
negie Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Paul R. Johnson, Gen. Manager, The Gas Pipe Line Corp., Inde- 
pendence, Kansas. 

E. T. Jones, Division Foreman, E. O. G. Co., Qeveland, Ohio. 

W. G. Kohl, Agent, Logan Nat. Gas & Fuel Co., Norwalk, Ohio. 

E. B. Kellogg, Superintendent, Alden-Batavia Natural Gas Co., 
Batavia, New York. 

A. N. Kerr, Gen. Supt., Riverside and Eastern Oil Cos., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

Chas. Kiessel, Foreman, East Ohio Gas Co., Niles, Ohio. 

L. C. Klein, Manager, West Park Office, Continental Supply 
Company, West Park, Ohio. 

C. W. Kramer, Chief Engineer, Arkansas Natural Gas Company, 
Little Rock, Arkansas. 

W. E. Larkham, Foreman, Calgary Gas Company, Calgary, Al- 
berta, Canada. 

James P. Laughlin, General Foreman, Street Department, The 
East Ohio Gas Co., Akron, Ohio. 

Wm. G. Leamon, Chemist, Medina Gas & Fuel, Wooster, Ohio. 

R. M. Leland, Asst. Supt. of Compressing Stations, Philadelphia 
Company, Pittsburgh, Penna. 

J. W. Leonard, Oil Producer, J. W. Leonard Oil Company, 
Washington, Pennsylvania. 

Frank O. LeRoy, Chief Clerk Chart Dept., Hope Natural Gas 
Co., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Frederick C. Leslie, Auditor, The Manufacturers Light & Heat 
Co., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Roy Lindsay, Foreman, Dominion Natural Gas Co., Ltd., Dunn- 
ville, Ontario, Canada. 

Perry A. Little, Producer, Natural Gas & Oil, Buffalo, N. Y. 

W. H. Lobaugh, Field Manager, Pavilion Nat. Gas Co., Pavilion, 
New York. 

Guy H. Loveridge, Chief Clerk, Land Department, Iroquois. 
Natural Gas Co., Buffalo, New York. 

Paul Luebecker, Compressing Station Dept., Mfgr. Light & 
Heat, Wheeling, W. Va. 



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40 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

Carl H. Lutz, Civil Engineer, Dominion Nat. Gas Co., Buffalo, 

New York. 
G. D. Lynch, Stock Man, Dominion Nat. Gas Co., Batavia, N. Y. 
G. E. McCann, Shop and Garage Foreman, Iroquois Natural 

Gas Co., Buffalo, New York. 
H. E. McCandless, Qinton Pipe Pulling Co., Qeveland, Ohio. 
Harry M. McCandless, Agent, Qarion Gas Co., Clarion, Pa. 
F. R. McCarthy, Superintendent, Oklahoma Nat. Gas Co., Tulsa, 

Oklahoma. 
C. A. McQintock, Div. Foreman, East Ohio Gas Company, St. 

Clairsville, Ohio. 
J. H. McCormick, Representative, H. Mueller Mfg. Company, 

Decatur, 111. 
L. M. McCormick, Foreman, East Ohio Gas Co., Warren, Ohio. 
S. F. McCluney, Chief Production Dept., Oklahoma Natural 

Gas Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma. 
C. O. McDowell, Supt., Kanawha Mfgrs. Gas Co., Charleston, 

West Virginia. 
J. E. McGrimmon, Leaser, Dominion Natural Gas Co., Ltd.. St. 

Thomas, Ontario, Canada. 
M. A. McHenry, Lease Supt., Medina Gas & Fuel Co., Wooster, 

Ohio. 
J. E. McKimmie, Purchasing Agent, Dominion Natural Gas Co., 

Ltd., Buffalo, New York. 

C. B. McKinney, V. P. & G. M., North Texas Gas Co., Denison, 

Texas. 

D. P. McMahon, Agent, Iroquois Natural Gas Co., Buffalo. N. Y. 
Edwin Allan Macpherson, E. A. Macpherson Co.. 301 Iroquois 

Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 
John T. Mahoney, President, Commercial Oil Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 
J. L. Maloney, Superintendent, Central Ohio Gas & Elec. Co., 

Wooster, Ohio. 
W, C. Marckworth, Pres. Mountain State Gas Co., Charleston, 

West Virginia. 
H. H. Marquis, Manager, Kane Supply Co., Kane, Pennsylvania. 
W. J. Marriott, Foreman, Dominion Natural Gas Co., Ltd., Gait, 

Ontario, Canada. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 41 

Edgar J. Marston, Treasiirer, Texas & Pacific Coal Co., 24 Broad 
St., New York City. 

Martin Henry, Oil Producer, J. W, Leonard Oil Company, 
Washington, Pennsylvania. 

D. F. Miller, Superintendent, Edgar M Moore & Co., Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 

J. A. W. Miller, Assistant Superintendent, Pittsburgh Plate 
Glass Company, Ford City, Pennsylvania. 

M. D. Montgomery, Foreman, IngersoU Gas Light Co., Ltd., 
Ingersoll, Ontario, Canada. 

Calvin T. Moore, Geologist, Henry L. Doherty & Co., Win- 
chester, Ky. 

M. J. Murray, Foreman, East Ohio Gas, Qeveland, Ohio. 

C. J. Near, Foreman, The Union Natural Gas Co., Essex, Ont. 

H. E. Nelson, Engineer, Manufacturers Gas Co., Erdice, Jeffer- 
son Co., Pennsylvania. 

Henry B. Nickerson, Secretary, American Steam Gauge & Valve 
Mfg. Co., Boston, Mass. 

F. H. Oliphant, Assistant Engineer, Iroquois Natural Gas Co., 
Buffalo, New York. 

George L. Olney, Supt. Bldg. Construction, The East Ohio Gas 
Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Jay C. Painter, Cashier, Oklahoma Natural Gas Co., Tulsa, Okla. 

Adrian T. Parr, Safety Inspector, Henry L. Doherty & Co., 
Wooster, Ohio. 

E. R. Perry, Cosden Oil & Gas Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

C. A. Pearson, Master Mechanic, United Natural Gas Company, 

Oil City, Pa. 

D. H. Phillips, Agent, Potter Gas Co., Port Allegany, Pa. 
A. A. Presho, Agent, Potter Gas Company, Westfield, Pa. 

H. M. Prill, Cashier, Warren & Chautauqua Gas Co., Warren, Pa. 
R. S. Pringle, Manager, Pringle Powder Co., Bradford, Pa. 

E. C. Ramsey, Eng. in charge of field pressure, Ohio Fuel Supply 

Company, Columbus, Ohio. 
Ira B. Reed, Assistant Secretary & Treasurer, Iroquois Natural 

Gas Company, Buffalo, New York. 
J. M. Reiley, In Charge of Display Room, Iroquois Natural Gas 

Co., Buffalo, New York. 



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42 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Chas. L. Reiser, Station Engineer, Iroquois Natural Gas Co., 

Collins Center, New York. 
J. A. Remler, Superintendent Compressor Sta., Independence, 

Kansas. 
J. A. Richie, Secretary-Treasurer, Dominion Natural Gas Co., 

Ltd., Buffalo, New York. 
M. J. Roberts, Meter Tester, Beaver Oil & Gas Co., Ltd., Kings- 

ville, Ontario, Canada. 
\V. A. Robertson, Field Man, Clear Creek Oil & Gas Co., Fort 

Smith, Arkansas. 
H. P. Roby. Asst. Secretary-Treasurer, Inter State Pipe Co., 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Raymond C. Rowan, Secretary to Vice President, The Union 

Gas & Electric Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Emil Rudert, Contractor, Saxonburg, Pennsylvania. 
Albert Rush, Contractor, Manufacturers Light & Heat Co., 

Waynesburg, Pennsylvania. 
C. H. Russell. Chief Sta. Engineer, United Natural Gas Com- 
pany, Mt. Jewett, Pa. 
R. C. Russum, Secy. & Treas., Quafaw Gas Co., Bartlesville, 

Oklahoma. 

E. M. Ryan, Chief Gas Ledger Bookkeeper, Iroquois Natural 

Gas Co., Buffalo, New York. 
J. L. Ryan, Agent, Iroquois Natural Gas Co., Salamanca, N. Y. 
C. L. Saeger, Foreman, East Ohio Gas Company, Barberton, O. 
R. N. Sargent, Works Manager, The Roseir & Hasslacher 

Chemical Co., St. Albans, West Virginia. 

F. Sartorius, Treasurer, United Natural Gas Co., Oil City, Pa. 
Jas. Scoville, Foreman, The East Ohio Gas Company, Akron, O. 
George Scratch, Foreman, Beaver Oil & Gas Co., Ltd., Kings- 

ville, Ontario, Canada. 
Joseph Seep, President, Central Ky, Nat. Gas Co., Oil City, Pa. 
F. Shafer, Superintendent, Southern California Gas Company, 

Los Angeles, California. 
Jay R. Shattuck, Chief Qerk, Chart Dept., Iroquois Natural 

Gas Company, Buffalo, New York. 
A. B. Shenker, Moving Contractor, Shenker & Shenker, West 

Park, Ohio. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 43 

C. L. Short, Superintendent, Boone Territory, Mountain State 
Gas Co., Peytona, West Virginia. 

Gias. W. Slach, Superintendent, The Attica Natural Gas Com- 
pany, Attica, New York. 

Butch Slagle, Oil and Gas Producer, Continental Supply Com- 
pany, West Park, Ohio. 

Ed. Shriver, Foreman, East Ohio Gas Company, Ravenna, Ohio. 

C. M. Sloan, Qerk, Shop, Iroquois Natural Gas Co., Buffalo, 
New York. 

C. T. Sloan, Assistant Engineer, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 
Orchard Park, New York. 

W. L. Sloan, Foreman Station Men, Iroquois Natural Gas Co., 
Buffalo, New York. 

Frank D. Smith, Agent, Springville, Iroquois Natural Gas Co., 
Springville, New York. 

C. B. Snider, Superintendent, Cahokia Gas & Oil Co., Edwards- 
ville, Illinois. 

E. F. Southwick, Credit Clerk, East Ohio Gas Company, Cleve- 

land, Ohio. 
C. H. Spencer, Shop Superintendent, Calgary Gas Company, 

Limited, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 
G. M. Stafford, Foreman, Pennsylvania Gas Co., Corry, Pa. 
G. A. Steams, Sawyer-Stearns-Streeter Drilling Corporation, 

Buffalo, New York. 

F. W. Steere, President, Steere Engineering Co., Detroit, Mich. 
E. M. Stephanus, Salesman, Broderick & Bascom Rope Co., St. 

Louis, Mo. 

Lloyd Stroup, Field Foreman, Dominion Gas Co., Marlin, On- 
tario, Canada. 

John Stroup, Foreman, Glenwood Natural Gas Co., Ltd., Port 
Alma, Ontario, Canada. 

Joseph E. Swendeman, Special Representative, Am. Steam 
Gauge & Valve Mfg. Co., Boston, Mass. 

George Taylor, Foreman, Alden-Batavia Natural Gas Co., Ba- 
tavia. New York. 

George E. Taylor, Assistant Engineer, Public Service Commis- 
sion of West Virginia, Charleston, W. Va. 

Victor S. Teegustram, Plumbing. Kane, Pennsylvania. 



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44 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

L. J. Texter, Foreman, Pairlion. New York. 

W. P. Thompson, 53 Kennedy St., Bradford, Pennsylvania. 

R. John Titzel, Gas Engineer, United Gas Electric Engineering 

Corporation, Birmingham, Alabama. 
John Tonkin, Vice-Prest. & Gen. Manager, Central Kentucky 

Nat. Gas Company, Oil City, Pa. 
T. J. Tonkin, Jr., Superintendent, Frankfort, Ky. Nat. Gas Co., 

Frankfort, Kentucky. 
A. A. Topp, Foreman, Central Repair Shop, The Ohio Fuel 

Supply Company, Mt. Vernon, Ohio. 

E. E. Torrance, Foreman, Frost Gas Co., Fredonia, New York. 
Calvert C. Tucker, Engineer, Dominion Natural Gas Co., Buf- 
falo, New York. 

Davis H. Tucker, Engineer, Southern Ontario Gas Co., Ltd., 

Merlin, Ontario, Canada. 
Arthur Tyng, Consulting Engineer, Iroquois Natural Gas Co., 

Buffalo, New York. 
J. F. Vallely, Agent, Iroquois Natural Gas Co., Cattaraugus, 

New York. 
Harry P. Watts, Field Clerk, Peoples Natural Gas Company, 

Brave, Greene County, Pennsylvania. 
Henry P. Wege, Oil Well, Refinery & Mill Supplies, Oil City, 

Pennsylvania. 
A. Miner Wellman, President, Tri-County Natural Gas Co., 

Caledonia, New York. 
J. H. Wiggins, Engineer, Indian Ty. 111. Oil & Gas Co., Bartles- 

ville, Oklahoma. 
D. W. Williams, Geologist, Dominion Natural Gas Co., Ltd., 

Buffalo, New York. 
W. A. Williams, Superintendent, Eastern Oil Co., Weston, West 

Virginia. 
J. A. Willsey, Asst. Superintendent, Ashtabula Gas Co., Ashta- 
bula, Ohio. 
W. E. Wilson, Agent, Pennsylvania Gas Co., Corry, Pa. 

F. D. Witkorski, Chief Inspector, Union Nat. Gas Co. of Canada. 

Ltd., Chatham, Ontario. 
L. S. Wood, Foreman, Pennsylvania Gas Co., Warren, Pa. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 46 

PREsroENT GuFFEY : We will now hear the Reports of the 
Secretary and Treasurer, the first being the regular report of 
the receipt and disbursement of the funds received from dues of 
members and so forth, and then the Report of the Voluntary 
Contributions we have had during the past year for the main- 
tenance of permanent headquarters. 

Mr. T. C. Jones then submitted the following: 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY AND TREASURER. 
To the Natural Gas Association of America : 

Gentlemen : I have the honor to present the Annual Re- 
port to the Secretary and Treasurer, for the year ending May 
I, 1917. 

MEMBERSHIP REPORT. 
Honorary Members — 

As per Membership Rolls, May 16, 1916 8 

Active Members — 

As per Membership Rolls, May 1, 1916 879 

Elected May 16, 1916.. 399 

Total 1,278 

Released from Membership, May 16, 1916 104 

Died during the year 6 

Total 110 

Total 1,168 

Total Membership this date 1 , 176 

FINANCIAL REPORT. 

Receipts. 

Balance, May 1, 1916 $3,227 14 

Dues 4,595 00 

Initiation Fees 1,990 00 

Books of Proceedings, sold 20 00 

Total $9,832 14 



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46 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

Expenditures. 

Printing and Stationery $2,540 37 

Stenographic Report, Eleventh Annual Meeting 178 41 

Clerical Assistance 59 75 

Salary, Secretary-Treasurer 1 ,000 00 

Wrinkle Department, Prizes 100 00 

Badges and Convention Hall Equipment 211 00 

Postage, Express and General Expenses 658 53 

Balance on Hand, Delaware Savings Bank 5,084 08 

Total $9,832 14 

Statement of Outstanding Accounts. 

42 Members Three Vers' Dues, @ $15.0<) $630 00 

59 Members Two Years' Dues. @ $10.00 590 00 

353 Members One Year's Dues , @ $5.00 1 ,765 00 

Total $2,985 00 

Respectfully submitted, 

T. C. Jones, 

Secretary-Treasurer, 

Mr. T. C. Jones then submitted the following: 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER, SPECIAL FUND NO. 2. 
To the Directors of The Natural Gass Association of America: 
Gentlemen : I have the honor to present the report of the 
Treasurer's Special Fund, for the maintenance of the Associa- 
tion's Pittsburgh Office from, July 27th, 1916, to May ist, 1917. 

Receipts $15,090 53 

Expenditures 8.808 47 

Balance on Hand $6,282 06 

Respectfully submitted , 

T. C. Jones , 

Treasurer. 

President Guffey: You have heard the Reports of the 
Secretary and Treasurer, gentlemen, which indicate at the present 
time that our Association is in pretty good condition, so far as 
finances are concerned. What is the wish of the meeting? I 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 47 

believe the usual course of business is to order the reports 
accepted, placed on file and spread upon the minutes. 

Mr. J. M. Garard: Mr. President, I move that the reports, 
as read by Secretary Jones, be accepted, placed on file and ordered 
spread upon the minutes. 

Mr. Paul Luebecker : I second the motion. 

And thereupon the above motion having been duly seconded 
and carried, said reports were accepted, ordered placed on file 
and spread upon the minutes. 

President Guffey: The next report is the report of the 
Auditing Committee, of which Mr. Reeser is Chairman. I will 
call upon Mr. Reeser for his report. 

Mr. H. C. Reeser then presented the following: 

REPORT OF THE AUDITING COMMITTEE. 

Buffalo, N. Y., May 15, 191 7. 
To The Natural Gas Association of America : 

"Gentlemen : Your Auditing Committee has checked the 
cash balance of May ist, 1916 and receipts and disbursements 
for this year as shown by the statement and bank book, and 
find that they correspond. The Special Fund account has also 
been checked to May ist, 1917, and we find the report to be 
correct. 

We respectfully suggest, however, that the system of ac- 
counting be changed so that a proper audit can be made of the 
receipts and delinquent accounts, as from the books submitted 
it can not be done, and also that all bills be approved by the 
President, Vice President or a committee authorized by the Asso- 
ciation, as under the present system no bills are approved. 

The indemnity bond of the Secretary-Treasurer has been 
examined and found correct. It expires on June 14th, 1917, and 
is for $3,000.00. In view of the larger volume of business now 
transacted, we would respectfully recommend that the bond be 
increased accordingly. H. C. Reeser, 

J. B. Tonkin, 
L. A. Sevffert, 
Committee. 



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48 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

President Guffey: Gentlemen, you have heard the re- 
port of the Auditing Committee. What is your pleasure? 

It was then moved by Mr. J. W. McMahon, and duly 
seconded by Mr. J. M. Garard that the Report of the Auditing 
Committee be received, placed on file and ordered spread upon 
the minutes. 

President Guffey: Mr. Braden will you kindly preside 
for a few moments ? 

Mr. Glenn T. Braden, Vice-President, then assumed the 
President's chair and said : 

Gentlemen, I will now call on the President for his Address, 

Mr. Joseph F. Guffey then delivered the following: 

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

JOSEPH F. guffey. 

To the Members of the Natural Gas Association of America : 

We are assembled today in our Twelfth Annual Convention 
to review the work of the year just completed, and, taking 
courage and inspiration from our past achievements, to plan as 
hopefully and wisely as may be for the future. 

As I read over the addresses of many of my predecessors 
in this office, it gave me pleasure to find that most of the hopes 
and few of the fears therein expressed have been realized. 

The past year has brought to us a fair measure of pros- 
perity, though we were called upon to meet the greatest demand 
in our history and under the most adverse conditions. 

We are entering upon a condition in the affairs of our 
nation more critical than has ever confronted any of those here 
present; and it behooves us to give careful and sane considera- 
tion to all our business problems. For years, the chief thought 
of every successful gas man has been along the lines of con- 
servation; but until now, no concerted national effort has been 
made by which all the resources of this great country of ours 
will be brought to the highest point of efficiency. Not only na- 
tional honor, but our individual welfare, is at stake and every 
man must work to see that his efforts bring forth the greatest 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 49 

results. Conservation must be more than a word. It must be 
a fact and, in order to bring about this greatly to be desired 
result, each and every member of the Association should put 
forth his every endeavor as an individual and as an executive 
to see that every possible form of waste is eliminated. 

We may be called upon by the Government to make sacrifices 
involving pecuniary losses and personal discomforts. One of 
our members now is actively engaged on the National Defense 
Board in work which will be of great benefit to our Govern- 
ment in the all important work of furnishing petroleum, lubri- 
cants and gasoline. 

We have offered the co-operation of our Association along 
any lines which would be of assistance to the Government in 
the way of increasing production, especially in the recovery of 
gasoline. I sincerely trust that you will not only give your hearty 
support to this action as an organization, but that each member 
will personally take up the offer and give it his individual en- 
dorsement. 

At the 1916 meeting of this Association, held in Pittsburg, 
the Ways and Means Committee recommended that permanent 
headquarters be established, to be devoted solely to the best in- 
terests of the natural gas industry ; and, further, that the Ways 
and Means G)mmittee be authorized to equitably classify and 
assess the various companies identified with the Association to 
the end that necessary funds be provided, and that the incoming 
President be empowered to appoint a Resident Secretary. This 
recommendation was unanimously adopted, and by virtue of the 
authority contained therein, permanent headquarters were estab- 
lished in rooms 904 and 905, of the Henry W. Oliver Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., and Mr. David O. Holbrook was placed in 
charge of the same as Resident Secretary. As yet, the Ways 
and Means Committee has not made a final recommendation as 
to the manner of raising the necessary funds to carry this plan 
into effect, but your Association is indebted to the following 
companies for their very generous financial support during the 
year, they having in the aggregate voluntarily contributed 
$15,000.00: 

4 



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50 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Union Natural Gas Corporation, 

Natural Gas Company of West Virginia, 

Philadelphia Company, 

American Natural Gas Company, 

Carnegie Natural Gas Company, 

Manufacturers Light & Heat Company, 

Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 

Fayette County Gas Company, 

East Ohio Gas Company, 

Peoples Natural Gas Company, 

Hope Natural Gas Company, 

Connecting Gas Company, 

Reserve Gas Company, 

Greensboro Gas Company, 

Henry L. Doherty & Company, 

Dawes Interests, 

Columbia Gas and Electric Ccunpany, 

United Fuel Gas Company, 

Osage & Oklahoma Gas Ccmipany 

Lone Star Gas Company, 

National Fuel Gas Company. 

This permanent office exists solely, as was recommended, 
for the advancement of the interests of the natural gas industry. 
With its resources, we are endeavoring to collect and make in- 
stantly available, to the members of the association and contribut- 
ing companies, an invaluable fund of statistics and information 
concerning all phases of the natural gas industry, including de- 
cisions rendered by public service commissions and the courts. 
Many of you have already taken advantage of your privilege to 
call upon the Resident Secretary for assistance in gathering facts 
in regard to rates, public service decisions, rules governing de- 
posits, readiness to serve charges, and many other questions 
which I might mention. 

Such an undertaking requires the hearty co-operation of 
every member of the Association, as the office is in reality a 
clearing house for information valuable alike to the members 
of our organization and the companies they represent. I trust 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 61 

you win bear in mind that it is only by using this office and 
asidng for information that it can be brought to its greatest 
efficien^. 

If we are to ccmtinue our permanent headquarters and carry 
out the plans of organization as now outlined, we should have 
an annual income of at least $25,000.00, and we hope the Ways 
and Means Committee are prepared to submit some practical 
plan whereby this sum will be assured. 

During the past year, your AssociaticMi has been able to 
render service in connection with proposed adverse legislation, 
both National and State. At the present time, no extreme or 
radical legislation is under consideration affecting the natural 
gas industry, as far as your officers are aware. 

These are da3rs when, by reason of the democratization of 
government, the business interest here, like the landed aris- 
tocracy on the other side, are tending to a fair division of profits. 
Education, now not only free but compulsory, is the great level- 
ing process of democracy, and it is because of this fact that 
efficiency has become the watchword in the natural gas business 
as well as in all other lines of endeavor. We must be efficient 
or give way to others who are. The members of this Associa- 
tion are connected with companies which are primarily public 
service corporations. The chief end of such ccMnpanies is not 
to return big earnings to their owners, but to render service to 
the people ; and all questions which affect the production, trans- 
portation and marketing of natural gas must be decided with 
this one consideration uppermost : How can our service to the 
public be maintained and improved ? 

Our Association is to be congratulated upon the fact that, 
with very few exceptions, the men appointed as members of 
the Public Service Commissions of the various states have been 
high class, broad minded citizens; and that the disposition of 
the Commissions has been first to ascertain the facts and then 
to do equity between the parties. While many questions are still 
unsettled, a good beginning has been made. 

As has already been stated, this Association has for one 
of its most important functions the assisting of its members by 
the tabulation of statistics and presentation of facts for use 



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62 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

before Public Service Commissions. The service feature, of 
which I have spoken, is sometimes lost sight of in rate cases 
before these authorities. It is an important consideration. The 
interest of the public in paying adequate rates is greater than 
that of the company in collecting them. A crippled company 
means crippled service. To be successful in the natural gas 
business, a company must have sufficient financial strength to 
enable it to make not only extensive explorations, but also exten- 
sions to its transportation system. Consumers will gladly pay 
much higher rates than those which now prevail if they can 
thereby prevent a natural gas shortage. A gas company's 
securities should be a safe and conservative investment Such 
companies should not be allowed by Public Service Commissions 
to supply the public with gas at rates which are too low to 
produce earnings sufficient for the amortization of their capital, 
a fair dividend returned on their investment, and additional 
earnings to justify them for the extra hazard of the business. 
Public Service Commissions should stabilize the securities of 
public utilities. 

We are deeply indebted and correspondingly grateful to 
the gentlemen who have so generously given their time and 
thought to the preparation of the papers to be presented to you 
during this Convention. We can easily applaud their reports; 
but we can show our appreciation of their work in no better 
way than by hearty participation in the discussions to follow, 
thus deriving the full benefit of their papers. 

I wish it distinctly understood that all statements contained 
in this brief address represent my personal views, alone and not 
the opinion of the Association. In this connection, I am going 
to suggest that the Association itself at this meeting, in so far 
as it may be practicable, determine the scope desired for future 
work. 

To have served this Association as its President is an honor 
and a privil^e, by me highly appreciated. My year is at its 
close. It has been a year ftdl of activity and full of promise. 
For the many courtesies and the cordial co-operation which I 
have received at the hands of the Officers and Members of the 
Association, I am deeply grateful, and, for the new acquaintances 
and warm friendships made, I am the richer. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 53 



In conclusion, let me assure you that when I turn over to 
my successor the gavel of authority, I shall do so, feeling, not 
only that this Association, by valuable services rendered, has 
earned the right to our earnest support, but also that it can and 
will, by its increasing helpfulness, be made an indispensible as- 
sistant to all men who follow the varying fortunes and fascinat- 
ing uncertainties of the natural gas industry. 

A hearty round of applause followed the reading of the 
above President's Address, after which Vice President Braden 
said: 

Gentlemen, you have heard the President's Address. What 
action do you wish to take? 

Mr. Martin B. Daly: Mr. Chairman: I am sure that 
every member has enjoyed the intelligent and instructive ad- 
dress of our worthy President and I know we all appreciate the 
energy and skill he has devoted to its preparation. No man is 
more able to give us instruction along the line he has spoken 
about. I move that the President's Address be referred to a 
Committee of three to be appointed by Vice President Braden, 
this Committee to report later as to what recommendations it 
may have to offer with reference thereto. 

Mr. Paul Luebecker: I second the motion. 

The above motion having been duly seconded was carried 
and \'ice President Braden then appointed the following: 

COMMITTEE ON PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

Martin B. Daly, of Cleveland, Ohio; 
J. \V. McMahon, of Toledo, Ohio ; 
O. K. Shannon, of Fort Worth, Texas. 

President Guffey then resumed the chair of the presiding 
officer, and said: 

Gentlemen, the first paper to be presented at this session 
is one by Mr. John W. Lansley, Secretary South Western Gas 
& Electric Company, Chicago, Illinois, on the subject "The Ef- 
fect of Publicity on Business Relations." I take great pleasure 
in presenting to you Mr. Lansley. 

Mr. John W. Lansley then read the following paper: 



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THE EFFECT OF FU15L1CITY OX HUSIXESS 
RELATIONS. 

By John W. Lansley 

The best evidence that "Publicity'* has made good in public 
utility service is found in the fact that it has become firmly estab- 
lished as an important subject for discussion at conventions 
of this character. Recognition of the power of publicity has 
come more slowly in the natural gas business than in some 
others, but it is here at last. There are few among us who still 
doubt the efficacy of judicious, truthful and well prepared ad- 
vertising. 

For a long time we clung tenaciously to the error that low 
prices w^ould do all the talking necessary to sell gas and hold 
the business in its rightful place in public esteem. With some 
surprise, we recently awoke to the discovery that the public does 
not always recognize a low price when it sees it, that people 
must be told things before they can be expected to believe them, 

(."in 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 55 

that they must know before they can have confidence, and that 
business relations without confidence are certain to be unsatis- 
factory if not unprofitable. 

Assuming that the primary general object of publicity in 
the natural gas business is to inspire confidence in the public 
mind, we have full economic justification for advertising ex- 
pense within reasonable bounds. The kind of business relations 
existing between natural gas companies and their customers 
measure the commercial value of the publicity department's work 
and the dimensions of the task to be performed. 

The natural gas company engaged in selling gas to the public 
is, first of all, amendable to state regulation as to its rates, char- 
acter of service, and often its financing operations. This regula- 
tion is the outgrowth of public opinion. To whatever extent it 
is just and fair or unjust and unfair, to exactly that same ex- 
tent the business has acquired or neglected to acquire the con- 
fidence of the public, its customers. 

Regulatory laws are often fairly and justly interpreted by 
Courts and Commissions, but inspection of the literal provisions 
of many of these laws points clearly to lack of confidence on 
the part of the public. Lack of public confidence results from 
lack of public knowledge, and lack of public knowledge is due 
to improper or neglected publicity. 

Attacks are made indiscriminately upon rates that are just 
and reasonable. Low prices are no more immune against chal 
lenge than high prices. These attacks come out of public igno 
ranee of the cost, hazard and difficulty of producing, transporting 
and distributing gas. The persons who institute them, being 
themselves ignorant of the business, as a rule, are merely the 
instruments or self-appointed champions of the popular will. 

Complaint of the character of service, usually the result of 
the company's inability to meet an overwhelming demand in win- 
ter, is the natural expression of people undergoing discomfort 
without fully understanding the conditions with which the com- 
panies are beset. 

Interference with necessary financing is the consequence of 
a mistaken notion that a capital stock or bond issue is a basic 



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50 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

element in determining what is a fair and reasonable price for 
the service rendered. 

These three classifications embody practically all the troubles 
that come under the head of Public Relations. If such troubles 
are due to lack of knowledge on the part of the public, it fol- 
lows that they can be minimized or reduced by proper publicity. 

The question of what is proper publicity for any particular 
company, or for the business at large, is purely speculative, ex- 
cept as experience may have disclosed the effects of certain ef- 
forts in specific instances. It is a problem that would have been 
worthy of the wisest consideration of a well advertised ancient 
ruler of renown. Solomon of old was not noted for keeping his 
affairs to himself, and yet a great many people have been led to 
believe that he knew his business. 

How to go about the work of publicity designed to inspire 
confidence and improve the business relations existing between 
natural gas companies and their millions of patrons is of great 
and ever-growing importance to producing, transporting and dis- 
tributing companies alike. It is a comparatively new and still 
somewhat strange field of labor for the financier, the miner, the 
engineer and the public utility expert. Experience costs money, 
and mistakes may be serious, if not fatal. The oldest hand tackles 
the job with least assurance. Every situation demands a differ- 
ent formula or a new plan, yet the continuous effect of all good 
publicity must be consistent and unvarying. 

Any deviation from the exact truth in advertising or can- 
vassing, any error in the logic or argument, any "break" that in- 
dicates ignorance of the business, is fatal or injurious to the ef- 
fort. It is necessary, therefore, to place this work in the hands 
of those who have the faculty of understanding human nature 
and the wisdom to be patient with it, who are familiar with the 
business and competent to judge how much or how little should 
be said on any subject to give it proper relative importance, who 
have had sufficient experience and training to enable them to 
write clearly and expressively. Literary frills will not be needed. 
It is the plain statement of fact and simple argument that carry 
most weight and are most likely to inspire confidence in the mind 
of the reader. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 57 

There are various vehicles for publicity, but experience has 
taught many of us that the daily newspaper is the best and most 
economical of all in view of the result to be obtained. Practically 
all the large public service corporations, from the railroads down, 
are now using advertising space in the daily papers freely to 
present their aims and claims to the public. 

That an increasing number of companies are pursuing this 
method to gain and hold public confidence, and that the amount 
of expenditures for this purpose is apparently growing, indicates 
that the effect of such publicity is worth the time and money 
spent upon it. 

Any fixed policy of publicity, such as determines the char- 
acter and cost of the work to be done, must be decided upon in 
advance according to the conditions that exist in the locality to 
be covered. Attempting to lay down permanent rules for ad- 
vertising would only invite failure. To try to prepare advertis- 
ing to fit different cities served by different companies under dif- 
ferent conditions would be as futile as for a lawyer to make the 
same plea to every jury in every case. 

If we believe that the effect of publicity is to improve our 
business relations with our customers, upon whom we depend 
for our revenues and who dictate the laws under which we must 
operate, then the proposition is important enough to merit our 
best attention in each particular case. No doubt, everyone 
present who has had experience with publicity in the public 
utility business could relate instances of beneficial results, but 
such instances are valuable chiefly as testimony in favor of the 
general policy and can seldom be used to the best advantage in 
other situations. 

The writer has had some experience in preparing publicity 
matter to meet or anticipate conditions arousing or likely to 
arouse public complaint. In every case the daily newspaper has 
been sufficient as a medium through which to reach the ear of 
the public. In every case it has been found advisable to discard 
the exact forms of previous undertakings, make a new diagnosis 
and write a different prescription ; as in medicine, much depends 
upon a true diagnosis. In every case the public has been found 
willing and anxious to hear the company's argument, though it 



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58 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



might be directly contrary to the public opinion previously held. 
In every case it has been possible to make a truthful, candid, 
convincing statement of the company's side without exposing 
any mysterious inner secrets of the business. In every case of 
publicity designed to improve our business relations, we have 
found the expenditure profitable, I make bold to assert, though 
this latter statement is but the opinion of one who may justly 
be termed a prejudiced witness. 

It is easy to write interesting stories of fact about the 
natural gas business. There is no more romantic industry than 
the production of this God-given fuel from the depths of the 
earth. Then why not tell the public, tell them repeatedly until 
they are taught, about the drilling and maintenance of gas wells 
in the fields from which their supply is drawn? Do you sup- 
pose any gas consumer ever gives thought to the millions of 
dollars fruitlessly invested in dry holes and lease rentals 
throughout the world, or realizes that these fruitless endeavors 
measure the hazard of the producing business and are truly a 
part of the actual investment involved in natural gas service? 
If no one gives the natural gas business credit for this invest- 
ment — and you are hereby advised that no one does — whose 
fault is it? 

Among the greatest and most modern transportation 
agencies in the world are the pipe lines which carry natural gas 
from the wells to the cities served, sometimes many hundreds 
of miles distant. Then why not speak of the gigantic problems 
met in financing, constructing and maintaining such enterprises? 
How many gas consumers know that the size of a pipe line 
is limited by their own ability to pay, in the price of gas, a 
fair return upon the investment? How many know that com- 
pressors are necessary to transport gas and are not designed to 
pump air through the meters? As an amateur student of public 
opinion, the writer respectfully represents that public ignorance 
on these points and scores of others is abundant. 

The business of distributing natural gas to the people of 
those communities fortunate enough to be within the zone of 
its economical delivery is an exacting and complicated service. 
The margin of profit per cubic foot upon which the distributing 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 59 

company must operate is usually very small. It is only through 
heroic effort and extreme skill and efficiency that the average 
distributing company can earn a fair return. Then why not 
take our customers into our confidence and let them know what 
they are getting and how they are getting it ? 

That the public generally believes that natural gas has less 
heating power than artificial gas, that it believes that large con- 
sumers are favored at the expense of small consumers, that it 
often believes the company adulterates the gas, '*fixes" the 
meters, falsifies the bills — all this error and much more of 
a similar nature is an indictment against us for neglecting to 
look after our business relations in a proper manner. 

Blaming the public for being suspicious of those things 
about which it knows nothing is condemning good business sense. 
The consuming public is neither less honest nor more honest 
than the producing public. If popular opinion is unfair to 
natural gas companies, if municipal restrictions are unfair, if 
state regulatory laws are unfair, then all this unfairness must 
be due to lack of information, which is only another way of 
saying lack of publicity. If the effect of publicity is to induce 
fairness in trade between individuals, it is a vital element in 
business life, its cost a legitimate and necessary operating ex- 
pense, its neglect an evidence of poor management. 

Discussion of the minor details of publicity intended to im- 
prove the business relations of gas companies and the public 
and to promote confidence and harmony, would not lead us 
anywhere in a gathering such as this. It is doubtful whether 
such a discussion would accomplish anything in a convention 
composed entirely of advertising experts. The mediums most 
available, the amount of money to be appropriated for the pur- 
pose, when and how to prepare copy for advertisements, the 
space and type to be used — all must be decided for each com- 
pany according to the conditions with which it is confronted, 
and then left to the skill and judgment of the man who is given 
charge of the work. 

As there can be no set rules or fonnulas in publicity, any 
specified number of men may be depended upon to hold an 



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60 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



equal number of opinions regarding the details. The leading 
experts in the advertising world disagree radically upon the 
minor points of their profession. It is useless to follow fixed 
forms in publicity, as it would be in personal correspondence, 
and good publicity work cannot be done beyond sight, hearing 
and touch of the local consciousness to be reached. 

In important matters of finance, engineering and construc- 
tion, we trust the work to the man in charge and hold him re- 
sponsible. It should be so with publicity. The company's task, 
as in the selection of a superintendent, attorney or head of 
department, is to put the right man in charge. While we can- 
not make much progress in considering details of publicity, we 
can, however, give attention to certain general conditions, with 
a view to consistent eflfort to combat, correct and improve them. 
In this way, the continuous publicity work of local companies 
in their respective fields of service will be uniform, logical and 
cumulative in its eflFect, the final successful result being a 
changed universal opinion of the natural gas business as a 
whole. From this changed opinion the industry will have gained 
permanently a reasonable degree of public confidence, which 
is all we ask in our contests with Nature and our controversies 
with those we serve. 

Every natural gas company is aware of the extraordinary 
heat energy of its product, as compared with other fuels, its 
hygienic value, its non-poisonous characteristics and other vir- 
tues of practical application. Under this heading alone may be 
found subjects for scores of interesting, instructive and eflfec- 
tive advertisements, each of them capable of adding to the sum 
of public knowledge and strengthening public confidence in the 
merit of the gas itself. 

To some of you the serious constant reiteration of such 
self-evident facts may appear unnecessary and useless, but the 
masses of the public are no more familiar with these things 
than is the uneducated child familiar with the fact that two 
and two are four until it has been permanently hammered into 
him. It is the very simplicity of the things we desire the public 
to know that makes the .c^reatncss of our opportunity. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 61 

Of late, the light has been breaking in on the industry in 
the matter of prices at which natural gas is sold. Possibly, we 
are not, as yet, all of one mind on this subject, but facts can- 
not remain hidden forever, and some day, if not right now, we 
must admit that the selling price of natural gas always has been 
far below its true economic value in comparison with other 
f uek, that the companies have sacrificed mUlions of dollars in 
this ¥^y, for which the public has not always given even good 
will in return, and that in consequence of these low prices waste- 
ful use and earlier exhaustion of supply are inevitable. Many 
formerly productive natural gas fields, now only memories of 
glorious fuel saturnalias of the past, might still be engaged in 
the public service but for the tmeconomic low prices at which 
the gas was sold. 

If the industry itself is just coming to the point in its de- 
velopment where these facts are recognized and admitted, it 
is not strange that the consuming public exhibits no zeal in 
helping us establish higher and more equitable rates. 

Cut-throat competition and piratical enterprise in the early 
days of natural gas production laid upon the industry a handicap 
of absurdly low prices from which it has not yet emerged. 
Flamboyant promoters, preaching of inexhaustible supply and 
uncountable profits, convinced the public that any price that 
might be charged for natural gas was too high. They have 
rested from their labors, but tormenting evidences of their ac- 
tivity remain. The publicity man will have to do most of the 
heavy shoveling in clearing away the rubbish still left in the 
public mind. 

The true value of natural gas fuel, compared with the 
price; economic methods of use, compared with wasteful meth- 
ods ; the duty of the industry and the public to conserve, as far 
as possible, the known supply — all offer many fruitful topics 
for treatment in the public prints. The right price for gas is 
always a live subject and will get the attention of the public 
whenever it is mentioned. The natural gas industry sells a fuel 
richer in heating value at a price much lower than is usually 
charged for artificial gas, but the natural gas is not freed from 



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«2 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

complaint by reason thereof, and will not be, until full publicity 
on the point of price has been given. 

This industry, in the same manner as other public utilities, 
is harassed and impeded because of the mistaken popular idea 
that small consumers are over-charged in favor of large con- 
sumers. Politicians make much of this idea and it enters, in 
some form, into all questions of rate regulation. It is respon- 
sible for much ill feeling among consumers of gas and makes 
development work and satisfactory service more difficult. It 
is a part of the error which must be removed by publicity be- 
fore our business relations with our customers can be on a fair 
co-operative basis. 

There are many things to be said in an interesting way 
on this subject through carefully prepared advertising. The 
records of all natural gas companies are now kept in sudi detail 
that analysis of consumers' accounts is easily made. It will 
be found, without exception, that large numbers of small con- 
sumers receive service at less than cost and that larger con- 
sumers must make up this deficit and the return on the invest- 
ment. It is necessary that this fact be firmly impressed upon 
the public before equitable schedules of rates can become 
popular. 

The statement that the small consumer is a losing proposi- 
tion for a public utility company is generally received with in- 
credulity in any community, which is evidence of the widespread 
ignorance on this point and the need of persistent publicity. 
There is no reason to fear the publication of facts relating to 
this subject, when diplomatically presented. Popular knowledge 
as to the relative commercial status of small and large consum- 
ers will bring about much better relations between the public 
and the company, and is a sound basis on which to strive for 
more equitable or higher rates. Public opinion is pretty decent 
when it feels the big fellow is getting the worst of it 

In times of shortage due to extremely cold weather or ex- 
cessive demand from any cause, complaint of natural gas ser- 
vice is universal. Nothing so intensifies the feeling of antago- 
nism toward a public service corporation as physical discomfort, 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



and the relations between the company and its customers are 
seriously affected on such occasions. As we are well aware, 
combinations of circumstances sufficient to cause interrupted 
or impaired service will arise at intervals as long as natural 
gas exists. The best method of anticipating and meeting such 
situations is, therefore, clear. It is better to advise the public, 
through proper publicity, of the numerous forces that constantly 
put their service in peril than to induce or allow them to be- 
lieve the supply of gas is more than sufficient for every emer- 
gency and inexhaustible. 

The little added business that may be gained by over-assur- 
ance is no recompense for an angry community with frosted 
toes, believing they have been deceived or that the company is 
incompetent. The benefits of natural gas service are so great 
during the major portion of the year that they completely over- 
shadow the discomfort of a few days of interrupted service 
or the small expense of providing auxiliary equipment and fuel. 

A natural gas company should not hesitate to make this 
plain to all who use its service, and when it has done so it will 
find a great difference in the temper of its patrons. The simple 
fact that the supply of gas at the wells and the capacity of any 
pipe line are subject to the laws of Nature, while the possible 
demand for service is unlimited by any law, should be impressed 
upon every user of natural gas. 

When this is done, the complaint following interrupted 
service will not only be less serious, but personal discomfort 
and business disorganization will be greatly diminished. Pub- 
licity is the answer here, as everywhere in matters which affect 
the business relations between the company and the people. 

"Excessive profits" is a delicious phrase for the demagogue 
who mouths of millions in his attacks upon public service corpo- 
rations, and the bigness of the sums involved helps to carry 
conviction to the public mind. Anything to which the word 
million may be applied has few elements of popularity in this 
country of free speech and democratic ideals. Reduced to 
smaller units, of equal truth and importance, the large figures 



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64 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

of investment and income become more intelligible and less 
offensive. 

It is often advisable and necessary to speak publicly of the 
financial affairs of a natural gas company. In such publicity, 
it is well to present a few facts as to the size and extent of 
the property in use whenever the amount of the investment in 
dollars is mentioned. Gross income and earnings appear much 
less excessive to the public when the number of consumers is 
known and the small sum which each individual contributes is 
calculated. 

Unjust taxation becomes unpopular and indefensible when 
treated as a certain excess tax levied upon gas consumers for 
the support of the general public. Free service work, to which 
many companies devote attention for the purpose of improving 
business relations, does not produce the full results of which 
It is capable unless it is supported by proper publicity. 

It is impossible to enumerate here the many ways in which 
plain facts concerning the natural gas business can be presented 
to the public with beneficial effect, but experience tends to show 
that all truthful, candid, seriously undertaken publicity is good, 
that it improves the relations existing between company and con- 
stmier, whether such relations may previously have been satis- 
factory or otherwise. In doing so, it assists commercial develop- 
ment, makes larger sales possible and aids the company in pro- 
curing reasonable prices for its product. 

The term "Publicity," as applied to the natural gas business, 
is generally understood to mean the various forms of printed 
matter, newspapers, periodicals, booklets, circulars, etc., which 
it has been customary to make use of in advertising. In that 
aspect, the subject has been treated here, but there are other 
forms of effective publicity which should not be overlooked. 
Good service, polite demeanor on the part of officers and em- 
ployes, and making apparent by word and action the company's 
desire to treat the public fairly and give the most value possible 
for the money, will be found to help materially in establishing 
and maintaining the cordial relations we seek. Energetic and 
sincere participation in the general activities of community life 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 65 

is of great assistance to the manager of a distributing company. 
It identifies him publicly as a live one, interested in the affairs 
of the people, as well as his own, and goes far toward fixing 
the status of the company as a real and valuable citizen, ready 
to pull its share in the tug of war for common advancement. 

Managers, heads of departments and employes of all grades 
may discreetly take active part in the business and social life 
of their cities. Membership in conunercial associations, clubs 
and societies offers many opportunities to the public utility man 
for broadening and extending his usefulness and influence, pro- 
vided it is not pushed to such excess as to arouse the enmity 
and ill will of other leading citizens ambitious in fraternal and 
social circles. The personal ambition of a good gas manager is 
circumscribed by the gas business. As a career, it has no 
superior in variety and intellectual exercise. 

We have spoken of the necessity of local plans and policies 
in publicity because of the differences in conditions with which 
distributing companies are surrounded. Such handling of pub- 
licity undertakings is most effective, but it is possible to compile 
much general information relating to the industry at large and 
place it at the disposal of all companies for use in publicity 
campaigns. 

Statistics covering the extent and difficulties of natural gas 
production, transportation and distribution throughout the coun- 
try will be read with interest by the consuming public and fur- 
nish safe topics for publicity tmder all circumstances. 

An expert detailed survey of the industry that would show 
its possibilities of service from the known fields of production, 
the possibilities of transportation under peak load demand, and 
the possibilities of commercial development under proper and 
reasonable schedules of prices would be very helpful in guiding 
general publicity along lines of logical argument and practical 
accomplishment. Information of this nature could be so intel- 
ligently and persistently used that it would eventually give the 
entire gas-consuming public a truer idea of the real worth of 
natural gas to mankind. It would also develop a keener sense 



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66 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

of fairness to and confidence in the men who have discovered, 
harnessed, driven and delivered it to the homes and factories 
of the people. Incidentally, many of us would probably be in- 
structed and made more efficient as a result of our labors. 

The aim of publicity being to give correct information to 
the public, the foundation for it must be possession within the 
industry of correct information touching every point that has 
a bearing upon the character of the business relations it is de- 
sired to sustain. We have entered upon a period in public 
utility service that concedes the profitableness and necessity of 
co-operation between producer and consumer. Both must derive 
benefit from every legitimate transaction. Co-operation is im- 
possible without mutual understanding, and mutual understand- 
ing can only come by transference of knowledge within the 
industry to those on the outside. The agency is, of course, 
publicity. 

It is the duty of managers of gas companies to inform 
themselves upon every phase of popular misconception of the 
business. Their accountants, their engineers, their new-business 
chiefs can give them the facts, and their publicity department 
will know, or should know, how and when to make use of them. 

Publicity work cannot be done effectively in a half-hearted 
or insincere manner. The determination to make things right 
must exist before it can be demonstrated. A true story must 
be told many times before everyone will know it. 

Reputation is built upon publicity and varies as the pub- 
licity is good or bad. Publicity obtained without effort or ex- 
pense is generally bad. If the natural gas business is to occupy 
its proper place in public regard, it must prepare and pay for 
its own publicity. Disgruntled consumers and shyster politicians 
constitute a poor advertising force for a gas company. Truth- 
ful publicity intercepts the existence of the one and neutralizes 
the other. 

Our business relations with each other are founded upon 
such knowledge as we possess. When the average man is oxi- 
vinced that he is getting a square deal he is a pleasant fellow 
to trade with. Then the service he purchases is more valuable 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 67 

because more satisfactory to him, and his patronage is worth 
more to the one who receives it. 

DISCUSSION. 

After the applause had subsided, which followed the read- 
ing of the above paper, President Guff ey said : I am sure every 
member present joins me in thanking Mr. Lansley for the very 
able paper he has furnished to the membership of this Associa- 
tion. I think we can now show our appreciation of the same 
by a free and generous discussion of the ideas contained therein. 
The paper is now before you. It ought to receive a thorough 
discussion commensurate with the importance of the subject 
with which it treats. Is Mr. Milt Saul present? We would like 
to hear from him. 

Mr. Milt Saul: Mr. President and Gentlemen, I do not 
know that there is anything that can be added to the splendid 
paper prepared and just read by Mr. Lansley. The only sug- 
gestion probably, or the best suggestion I could make is that we 
all take that paper and study it very seriously and very care- 
fully. We all ought to give it our most careful and deliberate 
consideration. 

Throughout the gas industry — the manufacturing gas in- 
dustry as well as the natural gas industry there are a number 
of former newspaper men. I am one of them. We have noticed 
a number of times in the past few years the admirable papers 
that Mr. Lansley has prepared. It has been unanimous among 
the former newspaper men now engaged in this industry, that 
he always gives accurate advice on matters of publicity. It is 
a source of a great deal of satisfaction to those men to get the 
pt^)licity suggestions he makes. 

Now I mention the former newspaper men solely for the 
reason that they are experienced, — probably more experienced 
in publicity matters than the rest of us. 

There are two points in Mr. Lansley's paper that I would 
like very much to emphasize. He brought them out very ad- 
mirably. One of them is the importance of reiteration in mat- 
ters of publicity, and truthful publicity for the public. It can- 



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68 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

not be stated too often, nor too continuously, this matter of 
publicity that you wish the public to get and to appreciate. As 
an illustration, take the case of a political party, or a candidate 
for office. He wishes the public to be informed. You will find 
that for months in advance of the election the greatest amount 
of publicity and advertising will be expended in order to inform 
the public. The publicity managers of a political movement, 
they do not advertise once and then stop. They do not take a 
shot with one form of publicity only, but they keep it up con- 
tinuously for weeks and even then the public is not thoroughly 
informed at the close of the campaign. 

Now, in matters of a more technical nature, such as the 
natural gas business and matters pertaining to the use of gas 
in all of its various forms, it cannot be expected that the public 
will understand what its advantages are or what its economics 
are unless it is told repeatedly. So I would suggest in connec- 
tion with Mr. Lansley's paper that each company here and the 
representatives of each company here decide to put advertising 
and publicity on its pay roll as a definite item of regular expense 
and employ it as a definite working force as you would your 
auditors or your bookkeepers or your salesmen. 

Publicity is not a matter of secondary importance. It is of 
primary importance. You must inform the public and keep them 
informed as to your policy; as to the advantages of the article 
you have for sale; as to the service you offer the public in the 
use of the commodity you are furnishing. It is not a thing to 
be treated lightly as Mr. Lansley so admirably puts it. 

Now, there is just one other point I would like to call at- 
tention to. He has stated that the managers of companies can 
help in publicity matters by activities in various lines in the 
community. It was my good fortune once to be connected with 
a public utility company that tried out that policy. It insisted 
that its men join in the various civic movements; the Chamber 
of Commerce ; the different improvement associations ; the social 
clubs. Every movement of public interest had one of our men 
in it to represent the company ; and whatever campaign of pub- 
licity the company was waging at that time, was backed up by 
the personal publicity on the part of these representatives in 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



these prominent places, and connected with these popular move- 
ments. If the Company had any matter up before a Commission 
and was carrying advertising matter, — publicity matter in the 
newspapers, our own men were at points where the men of the 
community gathered, and when they discussed these things they 
were there to enlarge on them and to help educate the public in 
this way. They led the community to believe that what the 
Company was saying in the newspapers was true; was correct. 
They were there to explain, and it was not very long until this 
Company that I have in mind was the most popular institution 
in town. That was because of their campaign of publicity and 
the way they went about it. Its best men were representing it 
where other men gathered to discuss such matters and all of 
its matters were taUced of publicly in these places and the public 
got a good opinion of the Company and to this day that good 
opinion is maintained. Now I would suggest to take Mr. Lans- 
ley's paper, on account of its very fine, technical value, and 
study it and make up your minds to put the important item of 
advertising and publicity on your payroll and back it up by 
personal publicity throughout the community. I thank you 
(applause). 

President Guffey : We would now like to hear from Mr. 
Hoover of Cincinnati, Ohio. What have you to say on this 
subject ? 

Mr. H. J. Hoover: Mr. President and Gentlemen; some 
of us, whose particular work in the gas industry has been to 
deal with the public, have long recognized the importance of 
constant and efficient publicity. At nearly every meeting, we 
have had some paper and some discussion of this matter. Some 
of us have been pioneers in an effort to instill into the minds of 
the officials of these companies the necessity of honest publicity. 
I do not believe that anything can be added to or taken away 
from Mr. Lansle/s most excellent paper. I think it can be 
truthfully said that it is the most thoroughly prepared and the 
most carefully developed treatment of the subject of publicity 
that has ever been presented to a natural gas convention. I 
heartily endorse what Mr. Saul has said, that we take it home 
and study it and see that every official connected with the Com- 



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70 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

pany digest it thoroughly. It contains in every paragraph food 
for thought. It treats of a subject that should be acted upon 
and if acted upon, it will bring results and good results. I think 
that Mr. Saul has stated a very important matter, in a very con- 
cise way, when he said that publicity should be put upon every 
company's pay roll. The expense of publicity should be part 
of every gas company's expenditures, just the same as the salary 
or compensation of any employee should be a part and parcel 
of that expense. We may not be able to point to direct results, 
but we do know that it does bring results. Last winter we all 
experienced shortages of gas in our several communities. I be- 
lieve that anyone who came in contact with the public and ex- 
plained the conditions under which we were operating and the 
gigantic propositions we have to meet and the impossibility of 
rendering adequate service under existing conditions, after these 
explanations, could not help but be impressed by the advantages 
of honest publicity. After explaining our difficulties we were 
almost universally met by the statement from our patrons and 
customers "Why do you not tell that to the public?" "We 
understand it now, but why don't you tell it to the public?*' We 
should take the public into our confidence and when these mat- 
ters are explained to the public, we are sure it will have the 
effect of minimizing criticism (applause). 

President Guffey: If Mr. Frederick W. Stone, Manager 
Ashtabula Gas Company is present, we would like to hear from 
him. 

Mr. Frederick W. Stone : About all I can say, Mr. Presi- 
dent and gentlemen, is that I heartily coincide with the views 
as expressed in the paper just read and with the remarks that 
have been made by the gentleman who has just preceded me. 
When I heard Mr. Lansley read his most excellent paper, I 
was reminded of a remark I heard made at Cleveland three or 
four weeks ago with regard to a speech to which we had just 
listened. In going away from the place of meeting I heard one 
man make this concise and pointed remark: "Well, that fellow 
certainly knows his business ; he knows what he is talking about." 
As I say, when I heard Mr. Lansley read his paper, I felt the 
same way about it. It goes without saying that he knows his 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 71 

business and he knows what he is talking about. I suppose any 
one managing a gas company has been up against the proposition 
that when he has had trouble he feels that the newspapers jump 
oa to him. If there is a breakage in the line; if there is any 
shortage of gas or anything of that kind, the newspapers are 
usually anxious to tell the people about it, or at least to the gas 
manager it seems that they are apparently anxious to tell their 
readers all about it and the gas manager usually feels that the 
newspaper man gives the story undue prominence by its loca- 
tion in the paper. On the other hand, if your service has been 
good throughout the whole year, the newspapers do not say 
anything about it and when you go to the Editor and ask him 
to put in something praiseworthy about the gas company, he 
receives you with an indifference so that when you go away 
from him you are inclined to feel a little sore at him because 
he does not do as you want him to do. I think that is caused 
by the different viewpoint by which we consider the matter and 
it all turns on what, in the eyes of the newspaper man, is news 
and what is not news and upon what, in the mind of the gas 
manager, would be news from his standpoint. To the news- 
paper man, whatever is interesting, startling and strange, that 
will be read eagerly by the people, is regarded as news from the 
newspaper standpoint and that is the reason they print things 
that is possibly adverse to the gas company or give mention to 
some unusual occurrence in connection with the gas company's 
business. We must all remember that if we do things well, that 
is simply something that is expected of us and it is not news 
at all. Consequently the newspaper man will not print it or at 
least he will not print it free of charge. If the newspaper man 
will not print good news on behalf of the gas company free of 
charge, it seems to me it is up to the gas company to pay for 
it over their own name. If you are man enough to say any- 
thing, then be man enough to sign your name to it and to say 
that it is so and to stand back of it. That is the kind of work 
we have to do in connection with publicity work as far as gas 
companies are concerned. I know that some gas companies give 
too much importance to the cost of such publicity work. I am 
not one who would undertake to set any limit to which a gas 



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72 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

company should go or ought not go in the matter of paid pub- 
licity nor would I attempt to say that they should expend any 
stated amount in their publicity work. But it would be sort of 
an inspiration to some of us probably if we were to take into 
consideration and give due weight to this item of expenditure 
in the electric light business. The electrical interests last year 
averaged, by way of expenditure in paid publicity something 
like three per cent of gross receipts. That shows the faith they 
have in paid publicity. Of course, we could not afford to do 
anything of that kind. At least, we could not work ourselves 
up in our present state of lethargy to the belief that we could 
afford to do it. However, it will give us something to think 
about for it is a field of endeavor which we are going to have 
to take advantage of more and more in order to let the people 
know the advantages of the product we are offering for sale. 
We must not necessarily think of the cost and the cost only, 
but we must take into account on the other side of the ledger 
the results to be obtained. Of course you cannot always meas- 
ure the results of publicity. As stated before, you have to ham- 
mer and hammer and hammer before you can begin to notice 
results. I wonder if anyone here has ever changed the location 
of his office and has realized how long a time has to intervene 
before the public generally become aware of the change? For 
example, if they have changed the office of the company from 
Jones Street over to Brown Street, they will find that some 
people will continue to go to Jones Street for three or four years 
in order to pay their gas bills and that in spite of the fact that 
the change has been freely advertised. The people read an item 
of that kind and then forget it. If you do not tell it in a half 
a dozen different ways and as many different times, they will not 
remember it. This illustrates the necessity of keeping continually 
at it. Constant repetition of this campaign of publicity is neces- 
sary in order to obtain the best results for it keeps you before 
the public all the time and keeps you before them in the way 
that you want to be kept. 

Now there is another matter that I want to mention, al- 
though I do not know that I should take so much of your time. 
However, it is upon my mind. We sometimes think that news- 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 73 

paper advertising is not read. There was a time when I thought 
so and so two or three years ago — about two years ago now — 
I undertook to test the efficiency of newspaper advertising. I 
went down our customer's ledger and I picked out every tenth 
name until I had 500 names. Now those 500 names picked in that 
way would represent an average of the people in the community 
.because they were, as I say, one out of every 10 of our regular 
customers. I sent them a letter with a return envelope in it 
and a little form sheet for them to fill out. I asked them if 
they read the advertisements which were being put out by the 
gas company and if so, whether they thought they were any 
good, and also if they could offer any suggestions as to the future 
advertising by the company. Out of the 500 letters I got 231 
replies. That was nearly 50 per cent. Someone familiar with 
the work told me afterwards that that meant that at least two- 
thirds of the advertisements were read because there were lots 
of people that would get such a letter who would not answer it; 
who would lay it off to one side and think they would answer 
it after while, but they would not answer it at that particular 
time and probably it afterwards escaped their memory and it 
would not be answered at all. Therefore, I am convinced that 
newspaper advertisements are read more generally than we often 
times think they are read. I believe that is all I have to say, 
Mr. President, except to emphasize the fact that if we simply 
put an advertisement or a statement in the paper we will say 
once a year, or even once a month, it does not amount to any- 
thing because to get the full benefit from honest publicity, you 
have to keep at it constantly. It must be a regular campaign 
followed up methodically. I thank you (applause) . 

President Guffey: We would like to hear from Mr. 
Brown, New Business Manager, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company. 

Mr. W. Re. Brown: Mr. President and gentlemen; As 
Mr. Lansley has said, I really believe what is necessary today is 
not to discuss the details of publicity here but to try and enthuse 
the members of the association so that they will be made to be- 
lieve that publicity is as much a part of the gas business as gas 
itself. 

The Ohio Fuel Supply Company started a publicity campaign 



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74 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

some five years ago and I was selected to look after this depart- 
ment by the company. As a result of that campaign of publicity, 
we have issue a little paper called "The Gas Magazine". A 
number of you have seen copies of this Magazine in the conven- 
tion hall. We feel that has proved to be one of the best methods 
for publicity and for telling our side of the story to the public. 
Copies of that Magazine have been placed upon the scats in the 
hall today so that each member here present can examine the 
magazine and see the work we are undertaking to do. I do not 
know that there is anything further I want to say with reference 
to it. We think the magazine speaks for itself. I have been en- 
gaged, as I say, in this work of publicity for several years and if 
there is anything about it that any member here wishes to ask 
me, I will be glad to furnish what knowledge I may have gained 
from this experience. If anyone is desirous to know what suc- 
cess we have had with a publication of that kind, I will be very 
glad to answer any and all questions with reference to this all- 
important subject. 

Supplementing this most excellent and valuable paper by Mr. 
Lansley, which has been read to us today, I would like to read to 
you in this connection what Mr. George W. Perkins has said with 
reference to this matter. I believe everybody admits that he is 
one of the most successful business men in America. He has 
handled a number of big things and certainly, what he has to say 
on this subject should carry great weight with it. I believe if I 
read what Mr. Perkins has said about publicity, it will give us a 
lot more enthusiasm and courage to take up the work and push it 
persistenly and methodically. Last month, in an address before 
the Bureau of Advertising of the American Newspaper Pub- 
lishers' Association at its annual luncheon at the Waldorf-Astoria 
in New York, he said : 

"The more I see of advertising, the more I am for it. The institu- 
tions with which I have been connected during the past twenty-five 
years have spent millions of dollars to inform the people upon matters 
of importance concerning their affairs. 

"The more I have studied, worked with and seen the results of 
full, frank and complete publicity the more I have come to believe that 
it is almost a cure-all for many of our modern business ills. I believe 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 76 

that the reason why publicity in our day and generation can accomplish 
so much is primarily because of the intelligence and fair-mindedness of 
our people. I believe that all our people, as a whole, want or ask for 
is a fair, square deal. They do not expect managers of business con- 
cerns to be infallible; they know they are human and liable to make 
mistakes; but the people want to know how their business managers 
handle the affairs entrusted to them. 

"We Americans are not afraid of things simply because they are 
big, provided that they are big in the open, above-board; but we are 
afraid of large aggregates of secretive, blind-pool methods. And it is 
largely because of secretive, blind-pool methods that our people have 
been afraid of large aggregates of capital under what is known as cor- 
porate control. 

"So far as complete publicity has been practiced in our large in- 
dustrial corporations it has been equally successful. Is it not high time, 
therefore, that we gave more thought to, and applied in a more prac- 
tical way, the principles of publicity in our industrial and political af- 
fairs? I stand for and believe in publicity — full, frank and complete." 

Now, gentlemen, those are the words of a man who has been 
a successful business man engaged in big things. I believe if he 
were in this audience today and were to get up and give you a 
little advice on a financial matter by way of investments, a lot 
of you would slip out and go over to your broker's and invest a 
little money on that advice, thus showing in a practical way your 
estimate of the man. He says that the concerns with which he is 
connected have spent millions of dollars to put their companies 
in the proper light before the public. As I said before, we feel 
we have had success in the publications we have gotten out under 
the name of The Gas Magazine. It was started four years ago 
and we have been hammering away every month just to bring 
before the public the things that Mr. Lansley, in his paper, has 
advised us to tell the people. To be sure, we have tried to sugar- 
coat the dose so that the public would read it. We must remem- 
ber that the public is not interested in our business or in what 
we are doing so long as we are meeting the demands of the public 
with reference to service. Therefore, it is important that we 
make them interested when we are rendering good service. What- 
ever we have to tell them must be told in such a manner that they 
will read it and remember it. It must not be forced down like 
a dose of castor oil but it must be sugar-coated so that they will 



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7t) NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

want to take it and are imbibing it without knowing that it is a 
medicine. I do not know that there is anything further that I 
can say. In fact, I think it is a matter that needs no further dis- 
cussion after the comprehensive and lucid exposition of the sub- 
ject as made by Mr. Lansley. If, however, there is anything that 
any of you gentlemen would like to ask regarding what we have 
done along this line of publicity, I would be very glad to answer 
to the best of my ability. I thank you (applause). 

Mr. George Yardley : I would like to ask what particular 
form of advertising gives the best results? 

Mr. W. Re. Brown: I agree practically with everything 
that Mr. Lansley has said regarding newspaper advertising as a 
convenient and successful medium for reaching the public. That, 
I think, is one of the best methods of getting what you have to 
say before the public in the way you want it said. With refer- 
ence to the situation of the Ohio Fuel Supply, I may say there 
are a number of small towns in which we do business and prob- 
ably the greatest argument in favor of the Magazine method is 
the economy with which full, frank publicity can be employed 
so that the published matter gets into the hands of the con- 
sumer over this extended territory. In our case, we could not 
have gotten anything like the extent of publicity from ordinary 
newspaper advertising for the same cost we have had in pub- 
lishing and distributing "The Gas Magazine." However, I en- 
dorse everything that Mr. Lansley has said as to the merits of 
newspaper advertising. I can certify to that from my own ex- 
perience. 

Mr. George Yardley: How is this magazine distributed? 

Mr. W. Re. Brown : These magazines are mailed with the 
gas bill. We have two different methods of distribution. For a 
number of years they were distributed by the meter readers in 
the various towns in which we were furnishing gas. In this way 
our magazine was distributed from house to house to each patron 
in each town. Now, we are pursuing the method of mailing the 
magazine with the gas bill. 

If there is any other inquiry from any member present, I 
will be glad to furnish whatever information I can. I thank you 
(applause). 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 77 

President Guffey : We have with us this morning one of 
our most distinguished legal representatives and I am going to 
take the liberty of calling upon him to discuss this matter from 
his view point. I am sure we would all be glad to hear from 
Judge Douglas, General Counsel, Lx)gan Natural Gas & Fuel 
Company, Mansfield, Ohio. (Applause). 

Hon. S. M. Douglas : Mr. President, and members of The 
Natural Gas Association of America: It would certainly be 
presumptuous for me or anyone else who has not given this mat- 
ter special attention, in view of the long experience and the splen- 
did results that the author of this paper has given to us in the 
address just made by him, to attempt to add one thing to it be- 
cause it covers the entire situation in a most complete and com- 
prehensive way. As he has said — and indeed the key note of 
his paper was, although I did not have the pleasure of reading 
it before, — the kind of publicity should always be truthful pub- 
licity and then to keep hammering at it persistently and insistently 
so that the public is taught to appreciate the importance of the 
subject and the full and frank manner in which you present 
your side of the question. Those are things that we ought to 
remember. Truthful publicity and keeping at it and keeping at 
it. As was illustrated by Mr. Stone, people are more or less 
creatures of habit and if a thing is not upon their minds unless 
you keep telling them and telling them, they will forget it ; they 
will not appreciate the importance of it at first; they will keep 
thinking along old lines just like the patrons that he spoke of 
who continued to go to the office of the company on Jones Street, 
when, as a matter of fact, they knew, or ought to have known, 
that for a number of years the office had been removed to Brown 
Street, and the public had been duly advised of the change of 
location at the time it was made. 

Now publicity is important, — why? The right kind of 
publicity is important, — why? Because it ramifies every de- 
partment of the natural gas business. Take, for example, Mr. 
Denning and myself and all the attorneys who have to do with 
the natural gas business. We have to contend constantly against 
the prejudice that results from ignorance, from lack of informa- 
tion, from absence of honest publicity. That poisonous virus 



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78 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

creeps in and affects every jury and even unconsciously aflfects 
the court. It affects the witnesses, not only of the opposition 
but often times our own witnesses. If the information is the 
wrong kind and if it has not been corrected by honest publicity, 
it presents obstacles that are difficult to surmount. Therefore, 
it is highly essential even in our department of the natural gas 
business to see to it that correct information is given to the 
public. We must cultivate the brains of the people into a cor- 
rect view of the true situation. When we have that kind of 
truthful publicity that is not simply some gauzy sham or pre- 
tense but is honest, is frank, and is complete and when we have 
continued that campaign of honest publicity until the public is 
fully informed, then our work will be much easier. That is the 
only kind of publicity that pays. When you educate the brains 
of a community by correct public sentiment it gets rid of 
ignorance, it destroys prejudice, it brings enlightenment where 
formerly there was darkness. Truthful publicity means a square 
deal; honest publicity insures justice. You can rely on the 
public, if they are fully and completely informed, in doing 
the right thing. It is not only important — this matter of pub- 
licity from the standpoint of the operating department, but it 
is equally important, if not more important to the legal depart- 
ment which deals more directly with the public in matters that 
are controlled by public sentiment. If, on the other hand, you 
have a credulous public controlled by ignorance, there is not a 
single department, there is not a single feature connected with 
the natural gas business that is not up against a good, big, stiff 
proposition when we come before the public and ask for a 
square deal. We all know what adverse public sentiment is. 
However, I am glad to say that conditions have changed and 
mightily changed in the last few years. The people have gotten 
to understand that what we want and what we must have in 
order to continue in this business is only a square deal and it 
is just such papers as this, prepared and presented by Mr. Lans- 
ley, that assist us immeasurably in bringing public opinion around 
more equally to our point of view. Every line of it is replete 
with valuable suggestions. It is the best prepared article I have 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 79 

ever heard on this all-important topic. It is temperate. It is 
not radical. It is convincing and above all it tells the truth. 

In conclusion, the thing for us to do is to keep on hammer- 
ing along this line of truthful publicity. I thank you (applause). 

PREsroENT Guffey: We will be glad to hear from any 
other member on this subject. The paper is before you for dis- 
cussion. A full and frank discussion of the subject is invited. 
Do not hesitate. I will call on Mr. I>enning, General Counsel 
Ohio Fuel Supply Company. 

Mr. L. B. Denning: If I may be permitted a word Mr. 
Chairman and gentlemen ; I have not had an opportnuity to 
fully digest Mr. Lansley's paper, but in hearing it read I want to 
endorse practically every sentiment he has expressed. I want, 
however, to make this suggestion. I think we lay too much stress 
upon publicity and truthful publicity. To fully illustrate my 
meaning by a concrete case that comes to my mind, just before 
I left home I received a newspaper published in one of the 
smaller towns in which one of the companies I am connected 
with is doing business. A rate controversy is on down there and 
in this newspaper was a statement like this, that this particular 
company was buying gas in the field at six cents and asking the 
consumer to pay thirty cents. Now it may be said that that was 
truthful publicity, it was publicity, arid it was truthful pub- 
licity, but it was not helpful. It was not intelligent ad- 
vertising. To my mind, the function of a gas company is 
primarily that of salesmanship. We are producing and selling 
an article, — a commodity. We are rendering a service if you 
will. At the bottom, is the fact that we have a commodity which 
we produce and sell. I do not see any reason why the rules of 
ordinary business should not be applied to the conduct of the 
natural gas business in its relation to the public. If A and B 
produce a new soap or a new type of machine, the first thing they 
do is to study the market and they attempt to reach that portion 
of the public in whose minds they want to create a desire to buy 
that soap or that machine or that article. The gas company, 
however, cannot reach its patrons through personal touch and 
personal contact. Take the average town of five or six hundred 



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80 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

consumers, it is an impossibility for anyone or any number of 
the individuals engaged by the company in operating its business 
to know them all Take the manager who sits in his swivel 
chair at a desk and it is impossible for him to know personally 
the patrons who are to buy the articles he offers to sell. He can, 
however, reach them in an intelligent way through the public 
prints. That, of course, is publicity. To my mind after all it 
should be intelligent advertising. What we should bend our 
efforts toward is the matter of intelligent advertising. Now we 
all know or we should know what our costs are in doing business. 
We all know — and some of us painfully so — the increase in 
the price of everything we are compelled to buy. We also know 
or should know if we know our business, and I assume we do, 
that the service we are rendering to the patrons to whom we sell 
this commodity is remarkably cheap when viewed from the 
standpoint of the cost of its equivalent. The equivalent cannot 
be purchased for less than three to four times what we are 
charging for our commodity. To my mind I do not see any 
reason on earth why we should not let the public have this im- 
portant piece of information, and if necessary paid publicity 
should be the means of informing the public of this fact. I do 
not see any reason why we should not tell the public and tell them 
properly the value of our product measured from the standpoint 
of the cost of its equivalent. I see no reason why we should not 
bring that to the attention of the public at once. After all, what 
we want to do and the central idea of it all is to inform the 
minds of our patrons of the value and worth of our service and 
what it would cost them to get it in an equivalent service and to 
bring to their attention the fact that we are doing everything to 
render them good service in the production and sale of the com- 
modity which we are handling. Therefore, I say I believe after 
all what we really need is not publicity in the sense in which it is 
sometimes used. You may say it is merely a juggle of words. 
To my mind I do not think it is. There is a distinct difference in 
the meaning of the two terms, intelligent advertising and pub- 
licity. Intelligent advertising is a field which should be developed 
and developed rapidly by the natural gas companies. The public 
should be informed of the difficulties encountered in furnishing 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 81 



this commodity in their homes and places of business and ready 
to serve their demands. The comfort and convenience of that 
commodity should be brought to the public attention by judicious 
and intelligent advertising. The consumer should know what 
we are doing and why we are doing it and how we are doing it 
and who we are doing it for. Doing it first for ourselves and 
secondly for the consumer but that both sustain and must neces- 
sarily sustain a mutual relation; both must get benefit from it, 
for no trade is a good trade unless both sides are benefitted. 
(Applause). 

President Guffev: Any further questions on this paper? 
If not I am going to call on Mr. Holbrook, as President of the 
Association of Natural Gas Supply Men, who has some announce- 
ments to make. I will ask him to come forward so that every 
member can hear. 

Mr. David O. Holrrook: Gentlemen, as President of the 
Supply Men's Association, I want to impress upon you, if pos- 
sible, the absolute necessity of getting your tickets for the beef 
steak dinner at the earliest possible moment. The unusually and 
unexpectedly large attendance here will compel us to stop selling 
tickets when the capacity of the hall is taken. Last year in Pitts- 
burgh, many were disappointed because they could not get in. 
We have, as noted on the program, arranged for your entertain- 
ment on Wednesday evening in the room immediately above the 
convention all — a beef steak dinner — and the entertainment will 
be of such a character that those who miss it will be very, very 
sorry. When we have disposed of the number of tickets repre- 
senting the seating capacity of the banquet hall, it will be im- 
possible to get any more whether you come around and say you 
have lost yours or not. You cannot get them. So get your tickets 
as early as you possibly can. 

At two o'clock this afternoon, from immediately in front 
of this hall, special cars will be run for a trip to Niagara Falls 
and the Gorge Route. It is necessary that you have both the 
ticket which came with your badge and your badge in order to 
take advantage of this trip. We will return to Niagara Falls at 
about 5 o'clock and on Prospect Point the annual picture will be 
6 



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82 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

taken. So that if you care to be in the picture you better go on 
the trip. 

On Tuesday night — tonight, the exhibit hall will be open 
for the examination of exhibits by the members of the Associa- 
tion and by the public. The Iroquois Natural Gas Company has 
provided a band and a moving picture entertainment and have 
invited the public to come down and look over our exhibits. 
Coming back from Niagara Falls at 5 o'clock, arrangements have 
been made with the Street Car Company so that you can return 
on any of the regular cars leaving at your own pleasure and dis- 
cretion. It is not necessary to come straight through but you can 
spend an hour or two at the Falls if you care to. 

Now as Resident Secretary of the Natural Gas Association, 
I want to say a word or two in regard to the distribution of 
papers. After tomorrow a complete set of the papers can be ob- 
tained at the registration booth. The papers each day will be 
provided for the session of the Association in which the papers 
will be ready but if any of you care to have a complete set of 
them, after those in attendance have been taken care of, if you 
will call at the registration booth you can get them. I thank you. 

I overlooked a bet. A luncheon will be served each day 
in the exhibit hall. I think most of you discovered that fact 
yesterday. 

Presiding Guffey: Before calling on Mr. Adams for the 
final paper at the morning session, I desire to make an announce- 
ment. Tomorrow we have upon our program three papers. One 
on the subject of Rates, by Mr. Leslie B. Denning, President, 
Lone Star Gas Company, another on Mixed Artificial and 
Natural Distribution in Cities, by Mr. A. B. Macbeth, General 
Manager, Southern California Gas Company and the last paper 
is on the subject "Efficiency in the operation of gas compressing 
stations" by Mr. T. R. Weymouth, Chief Engineer United 
Natural Gas Company. 

It gives me great pleasure to say in addition to that we 
are going to be honored tomorrow by the presence of Mr. A. 
C. Bedford, President of the Hope Natural Gas Company, and 
President of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, who 
will speak to us on the subject of "Mobilizing Industry for War" 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 8:3 



(great applause). Mr. Bedford, as some of you, although per- 
haps not all of you, know, at the present time is Chairman of 
the sub-committee of the Council on^ National Defense which 
sub-committee has charge of all the oil, gas and petroleum mat- 
ters connected with the preparedness move and I am sure he 
will give us an address tomorrow that will be highly interesting 
and very instructive. 

Mr. J. M. Garard: Mr. President, I move you that i 
vote of thanks be tendered to Mr. John W. Lansley for his very 
valuable paper. 

Mr. Henry S. Norris: I take great pleasure in seconding 
the motion. 

The above motion having been duly seconded was then 
unanimously adopted. 

President Guffey : Gentlemen, it gives me great pleasure 
now to call upon Mr. Larmour Adams, Secretary of the Associa- 
tion of Natural Gas Supply Men, who will read a paper on the 
subject **Co-operation between Buyer and Seller of Natural Gas 
Supplies" as prepared by the Board of Directors of that Asso- 
ciation. 

Mr. I^rmour Adams, Secretary of the Association of 
Natural Gas Supply Men then read the following: 



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CO-OPERATIOX UKTWEEX IJUYER AXl) SELLER OF 
NATURAL (;AS SUPPLIES. 

PREPARED BY THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE ASSOCIATION OF 

NATURAL GAS SUPPLY MEN, AND READ BY 

LARMOUR ADAMS, SECRETARY. 

At every meeting of the Directors of the Association of 
Natural Gas Supply Men which has been held, suggestions 
have been made which would lead to a closer relationship be- 
tween the Natural Gas Association of America and the Supply 
Men's Association. Heretofore, the activities of the Supply 
Men's Association have been chiefly along lines of arranging for 
the exhibits held in connection with the meetings of the parent 
body. 

The Supply Men feel that they can extend the scope of 
tlieir usefulness to the parent association, and for this reason 
it was deemed advisable that the Board of Directors collectively 
prepare a paper for presentation at the Convention calling the 
attention of the members of the Natural Gas Association to 

(81) 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 86 

some few ways in which co-operation would be mutually bene- 
ficial. 

I, as Secretary of the Association of the Natural Gas 
Supply Men, have been selected to read this paper, which em- 
bodies the views of the Directors of the Association which I 
represent. 

We as manufacturers always welcome criticism, and we 
feel that the Gas Companies will also welcome criticism if it is 
of a constructive nature. We supply men realize the danger of 
making criticisms because we appreciate that some individuals 
may feel that they are being personally criticised. This is the 
furthest from our thoughts, as it is not the intention of the paper 
to deal with individuals, either sellers or buyers, but rather, to 
bring to the attention of those assembled some practices which 
have grown up in the gas business which should, for the benefit 
of both buyers and sellers, be discouraged if not eliminated. 

You gentlemen while selling a commodity for which you are 
being paid are really giving to the ultimate consumer more than 
a commodity, in that you are furnishing a service, and any in- 
terruption of service works more to your detriment than if you 
were engaged in any other line of business. A grocer, a butcher, 
a coal merchant, or a steel manufacturer can fall down on his 
deliveries, and nothing will be said or thought of it. If, how- 
ever, you fail to deliver gas to the consumer in the quantity 
which he thinks he should have, you are hauled before a Public 
Service Commission and made to explain. Interrupted service 
means not only local complaints which are disturbing to the local 
Manager, but very often a great expense must be incurred in 
order to make repairs in the very shortest possible time. Very 
often the necessity for these repairs could have been avoided if 
proper material had been purchased for the original installation. 
Too often, however, materials have been purchased on the basis 
of price alone. These materials answered their purpose for a 
time, but under heavy strain of increased pressure and unex- 
pected demand, they have failed, and as a consequence the Gas 
Company has been blamed for their failure to deliver gas at the 
time when it was most needed. 

Every gas man knows that it costs more in money to make 



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86 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

a repair than it does to make the original installation, and it is 
our purpose in presenting this paper to the members of this 
Association to ask for their co-operation in the purchase of the 
supplies best suited for the work required. No manufacturer 
can continue to make first-class goods without a profit. Every 
successful manufacturer knows his approximate cost. He is en- 
titled to a legitimate profit. His experience and good judgment 
lead him to believe that his device is superior to a lower priced 
article, and his natural desire is to uphold his quality, which can 
only be done by upholding his price. Constant loss in business 
soon drives him to meet competition, and here is one place where 
the old saying that "Competition is the life of trade" is a fallacy. 
In too many instances, competition is the death of trade, for 
competition in price without reference to quality is the surest 
means of ultimate dissatisfaction on the part of the consumer. 

The consideration of price rather than quality we fear exists 
to a greater extent than is generally known. The efficiency of 
a purchasing department is too often judged on the comparative 
cost of material rather than the efficiency of the material bought. 
In other words, if the purchasing agent can show that his dis- 
counts are greater than those of his predecessor, he feels that 
he is doing his work to a better advantage than his predecessor. 
This is not always the case, and too often the field expense in- 
curred through the use of the lower priced material eats up the 
saving eflFected in the purchase many times, to say nothing of 
the interruption in service and the loss of income. 

In some instances there is not sufficient co-operation be- 
tween the man buying natural gas supplies and the man using 
them. This is a bold statement on the part of the supply men, 
and a statement that will be criticised by many purchasing agents, 
but collectively we feel that this statement is well worth the 
serious consideration of the men here assembled. Is the pur- 
chase of supplies on which the very life and continued prosperity 
of your business depends in the hands of men who know why 
they are buying certain materials? Do they know the duty re- 
quired of the articles which they are purchasing? 

Too many purchasing agents of gas companies are so 
hampered with details and with the many perplexities of secur- 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 87 

ing deliveries, that they are unable to devote the attention neces- 
sary to proper consideration of the use to which the articles 
purchased will be put. This is not the fault of the buyer, be- 
cause every purchasing agent is ambitious to buy articles which 
will give satisfaction, but in many instances the necessity for at- 
tention to small details is such that they are kept constantly busy 
and cannot go into the important matters with the thoroughness 
and carefulness that they deserve. If the executives would in- 
sist that the purchasing agent so arrange his work that he could 
visit the warehouses and fields at stated intervals, it would, we 
feel, work out to the advantage of both the buyer and the seller, 
and have a tendency towards that co-operation which will lead 
to the consideration of quality as well as price in the purchasing 
of supplies. 

Every manufacturer has in his employ men who know 
thoroughly the articles which he is selling. The manufacturer's 
very existence depends upon his ability to secure repeat orders. 
This salesman is in touch with factory conditions, and often- 
times better qualified than the ordinary buyer to know what is 
best suited for the buyer's requirements. He will recommend 
an article which he knows will give satisfaction and be met with 
the remark, "No, your price is too high." The buyer does not 
know why the price is too high and probably does not know why 
the article suggested costs more than the one offered at a lower 
price. This condition ought not to prevail to the extent which 
it now does. 

Quality with a reasonable price is a combination most to be 
sought for, and the buyer who looks for price first, and makes 
quality the second consideration is not rendering full and proper 
service to the company from which he is drawing his salary. 
If an analysis of cost be made which will show the expense of re- 
placement in the field and this is submitted to the purchasing de- 
partment, it would very soon educate many of the buyers whose 
sole thought apparently is first cost. 

The Natural Gas Companies are selling service, and the 
more and oftener they call the attention of their customers to 
this fact, the sooner they will be able to obtain a reasonable 
price for their commodity. The manufacturer of supplies is 



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88 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

also selling a service, and in direct proportion to his ability and 
willingness to furnish this service, he is entitled to recompense. 

It is not always the largest manufacturer who can best serve 
the interest of the customer. The small manufacturer should 
not be handicapped because of his lack of size, but should be 
encouraged in every possible way, if his device is one of merit. 
He should not be discouraged by being made to sell his product 
at a price lower than that of the article now in use, if in the 
judgment of capable men, he has a device worthy of considera- 
tion. Too often the manufacturer is to blame for the price cut- 
ting evil, and this is especially true of the small struggling man- 
ufacturer who must make sales in order to meet payroll ex- 
penses, and who, with a device of merit is forced to sell it at 
factory cost, and then in order to meet his overhead expenses 
cheapen his quality in order to continue in business. The small 
manufacturer should be encouraged even to the extent of being 
paid a somewhat higher price, if the device is one of merit, for 
it is often only by the encouragement of manufacturers of this 
class that devices are developed, which ultimately result in great 
saving to the gas companies. If the manufacturer has spent 
long hours in thought and much money in developing an article 
which is superior to any other on the market, he is entitled to a 
legitimate return and fair profit in the price of the article de- 
veloped. In no other way can advancement be made. Co- 
operation between maker and user will work to the ultimate ad- 
vantage of both. If the user will explain exactly the services 
required of the article desired, the manufacturer can often- 
times, with a full knowledge of conditions under which the 
article is to be used, develop devices which will work for economy 
in operation. In this development work he will of necessity go 
to an expense on which he is entitled to a fair return. As the 
demand for this article increases, the price will, within certain 
limits, decrease, but unless the manufacturer can obtain a fair 
legitimate profit, it is not human to expect him to spend his time 
and his money to attempt to bring out improved devices. 

Supplies should be purchased on the same basis as other 
important features which enter into the success of a gas com- 
pany. No executive officer of a corporation could hold his posi- 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



tion if he would choose his assistants on the basis of price alone, 
and yet many good superintendents have had their efficiency 
lowered and their lives shortened because they are furnished 
with inefficient and short lived supplies. A good workman re- 
quires good tools. A field man wants and must have good ma- 
terials and if he is constantly furnished with cheap junk, he will 
soon lose interest in his work, and blame all his trouble, whether 
properly or not, on the fact that he cannot keep up his lines be- 
cause he is not being furnished with proper materials. 

While we supply men are seeking co-operation with buyers 
of our material, we feel that many times there should be greater 
co-operation in the different departments of the gas companies. 
Too often the manufacturer of a high grade and high priced 
article, who has constantly lost business in the office of the gas 
company, is discouraged when he asks for permission to visit the 
man who is actually using the article which he has for sale. This 
may be a necessary rule, but oftentimes the buyer is not fully 
informed as to existing conditions, and it would undoubtedly 
accrue to the benefit of the gas companies if the salesmen who 
are specialists in their line were given an opportunity to take 
up the question of the purchase with the actual user of his de- 
vice. 

While we as manufacturers suggest for your consideration 
the granting of permission in some cases to our representatives 
to call upon the actual users of our materials, there is another 
phase of this subject which is even more important along the 
lines of co-operation, and that is, having the men actually using 
the article visit the plant in which these articles are made. If 
the gas companies are encountering trouble along any line, the 
manufacturer of the device giving the trouble, or the manu- 
facturer of a similar device will be only too glad to welcome any 
representative of the gas company at the factory. Here the 
troubles of the operating man can be gone into with men trained 
in the manufacture, and oftentimes great mutual good can be 
accomplished. No manufacturer could possibly maintain an 
organization which would enable him to send out his best 
trained men to every place where trouble is occurring, or is apt 
to occur. The loss of time from the shop would be one im- 



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90 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

portant item, the matter of expense must be considered, and the 
possibilities of not finding the proper man on the job would 
oftentimes work to the disadvantage of both the manufacturer 
and the customer. If the gas companies would send men to the 
factory, the benefits derived not only in the clearing up of the 
special problem involved at the time, but the general educational 
value of such a visit would accrue to the benefit of the gas com- 
panies. It would be well, of course, to arrange for such a visit 
in advance so that no time would be wasted, and so that arrange- 
ments could be made to enable the visiting gas man to receive 
the attention which the manufacturer would be very glad to 
accord to him. The definite benefits of such visits have been 
demonstrated in many cases, and we trust that the gas companies 
will appreciate the value of educating their men along these lines. 

Some purchasing agents, realizing that quality does count 
for something, insist upon seeing samples of the goods offered. 
This is all right as far as it goes, but he sees too often only the 
surface and finish of the article. The real worth can only be 
determined by actual use. For this reason, if for no other, the 
standing of the manufacturer as well as the appearance of the 
product should be taken into account. 

The low first cost sometimes turns out to be a very high 
price when measured by results, or rather, by lack of results. 
It was E. C. Simmons, the founder and head of one of the 
greatest hardware firms in the United States who coined the 
slogan "Remembrance of quality remains long after the price 
is forgotten." This slogan undoubtedly should be indelibly im- 
pressed upon the memory of every salesman, and is well worth 
a prominent place on the wall of the office of every purchasing 
agent. Why organizations striving for efficiency will purchase 
goods on account of low price, leaving quality to faith or to 
chance, is beyond comprehension. The argument may be, and 
often is advanced, that it is good business to play one seller 
against another to secure lower prices for a standard article, and 
perhaps place an order with concerns carrying a limited stock, 
or possibly no stock at all, at a price just a little below the mar- 
ket. But is this good business? All concerns in business must 
make a profit, or soon go into the hands of the sheriff. Grant 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 91 

that a cut price seller does occasionally save you a little money 
on standard or trade marked goods. He must make up his lost 
profit either from you or from some one else, or else fail in busi- 
ness. Materials cannot be sold at cut rate prices continuously 
and to all buyers, and at the same time meet running expenses 
and earn a profit on the business. 

The value of the supplies purchased this year by natural 
gas and allied interests will exceed $150,000,000. Stop for a 
moment and consider that in the expenditure of this vast sum of 
money co-operation is absolutely necessary if this money is to 
be expended to the best possible advantage. The condition 
which we hope will eventually prevail cannot be brought about 
in a day or a year. It may be that it can never be brought about, 
but we believe that the more consideration the gas companies 
give to the important subject of the consideration of quality, the 
better will be the condition of both the manufacturer of supplies 
and the purchaser of them. 

Much more could be said on this important subject, but we 
do not wish to further impose upon your good nature or your 
time. We are indebted to Berton Braley, with whose poems 
many of you are no doubt familiar, for the way in which he has 
covered this subject in the following: 

When the prehistoric caveman lived and struggled, long ago, 

He was strong for independence as he wandered to and fro, 

If he had a neighbor handy he would tear him limb from limb, 

And the thought of social meetings never much appealed to him; 

Till one day a wiser caveman — sort of prophet, priest and scribe, 

Pointed out the simple merits of assembling in a tribe, 

"Let us work and fight as brothers, with our strength combined," he said 

"For we've got to get together if we want to get ahead." 

So the caveman took his counsel, which is ample reason why 
They were done with being cavemen as the centuries went by, 
For the tribe became a kingdom which in turn became a state. 
As men learned to know the meaning of the word "Co-operate" 
They co-operated badly — they don't do it well today — 
But at least it proved much better than the caveman's clumsy way, 
They were on the road to progress, and their leaders wisely said, 
"You have got to get together if you want to get ahead." 



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92 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Man is slow to learn his lesson, but we're learning bit by bit, 

That the way to grow and flourish is to use our strength and wit. 

Not to battle with each other, but to help each other on, 

That the paths may seem the smoother which we have to trudge upon; 

Though at times there is reversion to the days of fang and claw, 

We are slowly — aye, but surely — coming to the higher law, 

Then we'll cease to brawl and bicker and we'll work as one, instead, 

For we've got to get together if we want to get ahead. 

Those who work with brain or muscle, those who buy and those who sell 

If you hope to thrive and prosper in the world wherein you dwell, 

You must learn co-operation, you must cease to work alone. 

Why, the caveman stopped that nonsense, just the minute he was "shown" 

Join your forces, be united, for the word is truly said, 

You have got to get together if you want to get ahead. 

The reading of the above paper was followed by a hearty 
round of applause, after which President Guffey said: 

Gentlemen: I am sure we are all indebted to Mr. Adams 
and to the Association of Natural Gas Supply Men for the pre- 
paration of this very able and instructive paper. The discussion 
of it is now before the meeting. If anyone wishes to offer any 
suggestions in addition to the paper, or desires to discuss any 
feature contained in the paper, we will be glad to hear them at 
this time. If not, the meeting will stand adjourned until to- 
morrow morning at ten o'clock. 



And thereupon the Association adjourned until Wednesday, 
May i6th, 1917, at 10 o'clock, A. M. 

SECOND DAY — MORNING SESSION. 
Wednesday, May 16, 1917. 

President Guffey: Kindly be seated, gentlemen, so that 
the convention can proceed with its business. The first paper 
this morning will be "Efficiency in the Operation of Gas Com- 
pressing Stations", by Mr. T. R. Weymouth, Chief Engineer, 
Univd Nn^tiral Gas Company. 

Mr. T. R. Weymouth then read the following paper:: 



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EFFICIENCY IX THE OPERATION OF GAS COM- 
PRESSING STATIONS 

By Thomas B. Weymouth. 

In the early days of the natural gas business, when it became 
necessary to install compressing stations because of the decline 
in pressure of the producing field, the suddeness and magnitude 
of this pressure drop, coupled with the limited knowledge of the 
extent of the gas territory available, led to the general belief 
that therefore all equipment should be installed in a temporary 
fashion with the expenditure of as little money as possible. In 
spite of this belief, however, which should have indicated the 
necessity of installing apparatus permitting of the maximum of 
economy in operation, an examination of some of the old time 
gas pumping stations and their methods of operation reveals 
a prodigality which, in the light of our modern notions of 
efficiency and conservation of resources, seems wholly inexcus- 
able. The simple, non-condensing slide valve engine was used 
whereas the Corliss compound condensing engine was readily 

(03) 



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04 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

available, even if the gas engine was not at that early date 
thought to be in the state^f development to ^yar^ant the con- 
fidence now reposed in it. 

But it is in the method of operation that prevailed in some 
of the plants as installed ^where one can see an almost ludicrous 
waste. In one particular case a very large gas engine was in- 
stalled to drive two compressor cylinders designed to compress 
two-stage in a single unit from atmospheric pressure to 300 
pounds, the intermediate pressure to be about 60 pounds. It so 
happened that the pressure in the gas lines coming into the 
station from the field was about 125 pounds, and in order to 
meet the conditions for which the compressing outfit was de- 
signed, regulators were installed to reduce the field Hne pressure 
from 125 pounds to atmosphere, from which it was compressed 
to 60 pounds in the first stage of the machine and thence to 
300 pounds in the second stage. This method of operation was 
pursued until the young engineer of the plant, unknown to the 
superintendent, connected a by-pass from the field lines into the 
suction line of the second stage compressor cylinder, short cir- 
cuiting the regulators and permitting the gas to be compressed 
through a single stage from 125 pounds to 300 pounds, with a 
resultant fuel consumption less than half of that used originally, 
to say nothing of the saving in wear and tear on the machinery. 
It is interesting to note that when, some time later, the superin- 
tendent's secret agent duly reported the heresy of the engineer 
the latter was threatened with the loss of his position and or- 
dered immediately to restore the former condition of operation. 

Today, this practice is almost unknown, except in certain 
cases where it is necessary for short periods, to relieve the load 
temporarily on a unit that may be acting badly for one reason or 
another, but which cannot be shut down without crippling the 
service. 

As an indication of the loss or waste occasioned by this 
practice, it may be noted that in throttling from 5 pounds gauge 
to atmosphere it requires 27 horsepower more to compress every 
million cubic feet of gas per day to 100 pounds gauge than it 
would if smaller compressors were installed or additional clear- 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 95 



ance were introduced into the existing compressor cylinders in 
order to reduce their capacity sufficiently to permit them to com- 
press from the original 5 pounds suction pressure. This corre- 
sponds to an increase or useless consumption of fuel of 24 per 
cent. Thus, if this operation were carried on continuously for 
the whole year, the annual loss would be $473, based on 20 cent 
gas, which if capitalized at 10 per cent, would justify the expen- 
diture of $4730 for each million cubic feet capacity per day in 
supplying new cylinders or additions to the old ones. 

Present day compressing stations are far in advance of the 
old-time stations in the matter of instruments provided for the 
engineers to use in keeping their machinery properly tuned up. 
In the early days the engine indicator was never used in many 
stations, whereas today it is considered indispensable in plants 
of any importance. Without this instrument the engineer can 
merely guess at the setting of his valves and the timing of the 
ignition of his engines, and with these matters not properly at- 
tended to a considerable waste of fuel is not only possible but is 
quite probable to occur. 

Further than this, the station should be provided with proper 
gas measuring instruments on both main and fuel lines, prefer- 
ably of the rate reading type, such as orifice meters, which are 
extremely simple in construction and readily permit of the 
adaptation of their capacity to the requirements; by the installa- 
tion of a plate of the proper size. With such a device any change 
in condition is instantly reflected in the instrument readings and 
unusual or undesirable occurrences are quickly discovered and 
can be remedied at once. These meters also give a record of 
total deliveries and fuel consumption for the day, which, in con- 
junction with the suction and discharge pressure records and 
speed readings of the pumps furnish a means of ascertaining the 
power developed in the compressor cylinders and the fuel rate 
per compressor horse-power-hour. The engineer thus is put in 
possession of a full knowledge of the commercial efficiency of his 
main units and is enabled to discover and remedy any drop in 
efficiency. 

A word may not be out of place here with regard to the 



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96 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

method of rating compressor station operation. While to the 
directors of the company the matter of chief interest is the fuel 
consumed per unit of gas pumped and delivered, nevertheless 
to the operating engineer this figure, in itself, is of very little 
practical significance as it takes no account of the pressure range 
through which the compression takes place. It merely gives the 
total cost without furnishing any basis for comparison. The 
reason for this is that the fuel rate is dependent upon the com- 
pression range through which the gas is pumped, so that the only 
logical basis upon which to state this rate is the ix)wer devel- 
oped within the compressing cylinder, called compressor horse- 
power-hours. This standard gives some degree of uniformity 
in the results obtained from time to time from any given plant, 
thus furnishing an index of its operating condition, and at the 
same time it affords a means of comparison of different plants 
of similar character. 

Hand in hand with efficiency of operation is reliability of 
service, for if a station is efficiently operated it bespeaks an at- 
tention to details which necessarily also produces reliability. 
One of these details is represented by the practice of installing 
thermometers in the suction and discharge connections of the 
compressure. By experience the engineers become familiar with 
the temperatures that should prevail with specified pressure con- 
ditions, and any sudden increase in either temperature above the 
accustomed value indicates valve trouble which not only reduces 
the efficiency of the machine, but will eventually necessitate a 
shut-down, possibly at a time when it can least be permitted, with 
the added possibility of causing serious harm to the machinery. 
With the warning furnished by the thermometers, a suitable time 
may be selected for shut-down and the injury to the compressor 
prevented. 

A prolific source of waste in compressor stations is fre- 
quently found in the method, or lack of method, prevailing in the 
oiling system. In one case familiar to the author, when a new 
engineer was placed in charge of a pumping station he saved an 
amount of money considerably in excess of his salary within 
one month after he took charge, merely by giving proper atten- 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 97 

tion to oiling methods. A thorough study of this question is 
necessary in order to determine the right kind of oil to use as 
well as its proper rate of feed. It is also advisable to install 
some method for accounting for the oil consumed in order to 
prevent the formation of wasteful habits of handling it. This 
is properly a matter for the engineer of the plant to work out. 

Mention has already been made of the desirability of pro- 
viding indicators at compressing stations. In like manner it is 
the part of economy as well as a provision for dependability of 
service to see that engineers are supplied with plenty of good 
tools, for no man can be expected to keep his machinery in 
efficient and reliable operating condition without a sufficiency of 
tools to work with. It is also an excellent policy for the com- 
pany to subscribe to an engineering publication for the operators 
of the plant, and to encourage all of the men to read it regularly 
for they obtain many good ideas in this manner and develop an 
interest in their plant and a degree of education that is always 
reflected in an improved physical condition of the station. This 
station can be further stimulated by offering a prize each year to 
the plant showing the best results in cases where a company 
operates more than one. The company with which the author is 
connected has recently adopted practice of giving two prizes a 
year — one in the spring for the plant showing the smallest per- 
centage of time that the machinery was shut down while needed 
during the preceding year's run, and the other in the fall, for the 
plant showing the best physical condition as regards cleanliness 
and order and general upkeep. The incentive thus given the 
men for effective, conscientious work, and the appreciation of 
their efforts thus evidenced, have resulted in very marked im- 
provement in all of the company's stations. 

The interest of the operating engineers in the tangible re- 
sults of their efforts can be further increased by working out 
operating cost records on a horse-power basis and acquainting 
the men with the results each month, for it creates a friendly 
rivalry among them and they naturally take a pride in showing 
good records. By having the men work up a great part of the 
7 



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98 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

records themselves they soon acquire an accurate knowledge of 
the meaning of the figures produced. 

The discussion thus far has dealt with the effects of operating 
details upon the efficiency of compressing stations. It is impos- 
sible, however, to attain a high degree of efficiency of any plant 
unless it is properly designed. In the first place it is well to 
remember that the two heavy items of operating expense are fuel 
and labor, the size of the plant determining which of these will 
be the larger. It is desirable, therefore, that machinery be 
installed that will use fuel in the most economical manner, and 
that the plant be so designed as to require a minimum of oper- 
ating labor consistent with proper upkeep and reliability of serv- 
ice. For the elimination of every $i,ooo per year in labor cost 
it is economy to spend $8,000 in investment, and by judicious 
foresight many dollars can thus be saved. In one case in mind, 
a plant that originally required 24 men to operate was re- 
arranged, with the result that seven men later ran it with the 
same number of engines in operation. This necessitated the 
scrapping of two 1,000 horse-power engines but the results 
amply repaid the cost. This of course is an unusual case but 
well illustrates the principle involved. 

The desirability of keeping the engines in proper adjustment 
for the saving of fuel has already been discussed. There is a 
minimum fuel rate, however, below which it is impossible to go 
by any sort of care or adjustment, depending upon the type and 
make of prime mover installed. Inasmuch as the fuel rate 
usually amounts to from two to eight or ten percent of the gas 
pumped it is well to give careful attention to this matter in de- 
signing a plant. It is becoming of constantly increasing impor- 
tance, not only from the standpoint of efficiency, but also because 
of the rapidly decreasing ratio of supply to demand for natural 
gas, with the consequent necessity for conserving the supply as 
far as possible for the use of consumers rather than in the 
process of transporting it to market. 

Owing to the availability of gas for fuel in gas compressing 
stations, the adoption of large gas engine driven compressors has 
become quite general, with most satisfactory results, almost 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



entirely displacing steam except in localities where coal is readily 
accessible at a cheap price. Where the use of a natural gas is 
imperative for this work, every possible effort should be made 
to so equip compressing stations as to save the maximum of gas. 

One fruitful source of economy in this respect is to utilize 
the heat in the gas engine exhaust gases for various purposes 
about the plant. The extent of this waste heat may best be 
illustrated by an example. In the case of a i,ooo h. p. unit oper- 
ating at full load with an economy of 10,000 B. t. u. per horse- 
power-hour, the heat carried away from the engine in the 
exhaust gases will be about 2,500 B. t. u. per h. p. at a temper- 
ature of about 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Of this heat, it is 
possible to recover about 20 percent, or 500 B. t. u. per horse- 
power, — SL total of 500,000 B. t. u. for the unit. This is equiv- 
alent to almost 20 percent of the developed power of the engine, 
or 200 h. p. 

The heat thus recovered may be utilized in various ways. 
It provides an excellent means of heating the station buildings 
and has been used by the author for this purpose for several 
years, thus eliminating the old heating boilers with their attendant 
danger and waste of fuel. This has been accomplished in two 
ways, the first of which was to carry the exhaust pipes through 
a closed conduit, permitting the fresh cold air to pass over them 
and thus become heated before entering the building. The sec- 
ond method, and the one now altogether used, consists in passing 
the exhaust gases through a specially designed hot water heater 
placed close to the engine, the water thus heated being allowed 
to circulate through direct radiators placed on the pump house 
floor. 

Steam can be generated in this manner and utilized in va- 
rious ways about the plant, such as in driving auxiliaries, addi- 
tional gas compressors, or in absorption gasoline plants. The 
latter use is one of the most suitable, for the load variations of 
the gasoline plant follow closely those of the compressing sta- 
tion, thus producing a steady demand for the steam generated 
irrespective of seasons. If this method is pursued, the engine 



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100 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

jacket water can be utilized in the steam generator, thus recov- 
ering a portion of the heat ordinarily lost at this point. 

Another possible source of heat recovery lies in utilizing 
the heat developed by the compression of the gas. This is es- 
pecially applicable to small plants, as in the case of one built by 
the author, wherein the hot compressed gas is made to pass 
through a battery of two inch pipes in multiple, arranged 
vertically around the walls of the building. A by-pass was pro- 
vided by means of which in warm weather these pipes arc 
shunted, and, instead of going through them, the gas passes 
direct to a cooler before entering the main lines. This heating 
arrangement must be designed with sufficient cross sectional 
area in order not to introduce an excessive pressure drop, a 
precaution the importance of which has already been discussed. 

In steam operated plants, whether using gas or coal for fuel 
there is abundant opportunity for increasing the efficiency by 
the installation of heat saving devices. In one actual case, the 
addition of a few coils of pipe in the uptake of a number of 
return tubular boilers so that the feed water had to pass through 
them to the boiler, resulted in an increase of 12 degrees in the 
feed temperature and a fuel saving of one percent or 10,000 
cu. ft of gas per day, amounting to $400 for the year. The 
actual cost of the work did not exceed $200. The wisdom of the 
investment is self-evident. 

Attention has already been called to the waste of power 
resulting from throttling the suction gas before entering the 
compressors. The same remarks apply with equal force whether 
this throttling effect is produced by cramping a gate, using a 
regulator, or installing lines so small as to produce an equal pres- 
sure drop. Consequently it is necessary to so design the piping 
system that a proper balance will be struck between the cost of 
increasing pipe size and the power saved thereby through reduc- 
tion in pressure drop. The importance of this applies to dis- 
charge lines as well as to suction lines, but not in the same 
degree. 

In compressor station design and operation reliability of 
serviop jshould be the first consideration. For this reason ma- 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 101 

chinery of ample power should be installed. Having done this, 
the next thought should be efficiency, and if any of the hints 
outlined in this paper help to secure it, the object in writing it 
will have been realized. 

DISCUSSION. 

After the generous applause which followed the reading of 
the above paper had subsided President Guffey said : "Gentlemen, 
I am sure the members of the Association join me in thanking 
Mr. Weymouth for his very instructive paper. The paper is now 
before you for discussion. To those who participate in the dis- 
cussion I am going to ask you to come forward and stand on this 
small rostrum here so that whatever you may say can be easily 
heard throughout the hall. I will ask Mr. Edward D. Leland, 
superintendent of Compressing Stations, Philadelphia Gas Com- 
pany, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, to start the discussion. We all 
know his familiarity with the subject. 

Mr. Edward D. Leland: Mr. President and gentlemen; 
Mr. Weymouth, out of the fullness of his experience has offered 
many suggestions of interest, not only to the power plant operat- 
ing engineer, but also to gas engineers in general. In his account 
of a large gas engine station where the field pressure was reduced 
by regulators and then the station machinery made to compress 
the gas up to higher pressures again, he makes it very clear that 
installing engines of high thermal efficiency does not always result 
in the efficient operation of a gas compressing station. The case 
mentioned reminds me of a condition observed at a 2,000 H. P. 
station in West Virginia where, because the engines were without 
overload capacity, it was customary and necessary to throttle 
down the intake gas pressures in order to keep the machinery 
running. This reduced the delivery capacity of the compressors 
and wasted fuel in the performance of useless work. It was just 
another instance of high thermal efficiency but low station effi- 
ciency. 

As the main purpose in building and operating gas com- 
pressing stations is to enable a company to get the gas to market, 
the true measure of efficiency is the successful accomplishment of 



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102 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

this purpose at a reasonable expense. Failure of a compressing 
station to give this result is lack of efficiency, whether such failure 
is due to poor machinery design, faulty compressor valves, boiler 
tube failures, cracked power cylinders or pistons, ignition 
troubles, hot bearings, failure of the lighting system or auxiliary 
machinery, fires or gas explosions, or simply to carelessness or 
incompetence on the part of the station crew. 

I heartily agree with Mr. Weymouth in his idea that in the 
design and operation of compressing stations, reliability should 
be the first consideration. For as each day brings its own gas 
demand, the gas must be supplied the day it is wanted or the sale 
is lost. Therefore machinery that requires frequent shut down 
for adjustments, renewals or repairs is not suited to the needs of 
those companies whose gas is practically all handled by compres- 
sing stations. 

I note Mr. Weymouth's success in obtaining better service 
from station employes by giving prizes for reliable running or 
for excellence of plant condition, and also by working out operat- 
ing cost records on a horse power basis, and he is certainly right 
in his idea that increased efficiency in many operating details can 
only be brought about by the hearty co-operation of the station 
crew. But it is not always feasible to make actual comparisons 
between various stations, either as to cost of horse power de- 
veloped, the cost of gas pumped, or the excellence of the general 
upkeep. For example, in the 22 stations operated by the com- 
pany with which I am connected, there are installed condensing 
steam engines, two and four cycle gas engines. There is quite a 
difference in the sizes and number of units at the various plants 
and also in the intake and delivery gas pressures, as well as in the 
percentage of running time and in the load factors of the various 
engines. Also at some places we use coal for fuel and at others, 
gas. Therefore the different costs at the various stations per 
horse power hour developed is not always a fair indication of the 
comparative efficiency of operation. Our aim is to promote a 
spirit of emulation rather than a spirit of rivalry among our 
station engineers, and in order to do so we have encouraged the 
engineers to visit around among the other stations of the corn- 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 103 

pany.. Visits of this character have frequently been attended 
with the most pleasing results. 

Mr. Weymouth is right in mentioning fuel economy as one 
of the features that deserve consideration, and it is very probable 
that efficiency of combustion is more important than either the 
mechanical or volumetric efficiency, often so eloquently empha- 
sized by agents for compressing station machinery. The fact that 
most gas companies produce their own fuel, gives to the station 
fuel question many different angles. 

Where the intake pressure is below atmosphere, if gas is 
used for station fuel it must be taken from the amount delivered 
by the compressors. In such a case, by substituting coal or oil, 
there might be saved the difference between the cost of the pur- 
chased fuel and the market price of the extra gas sold. Similar 
considerations might apply to the fuel for compressing stations 
used for relaying gas. On the other hand, where the intake pres- 
sures are above atmosphere and the gas for station fuel is taken 
from a common gas pool which is being drawn upon by com- 
petitors, the purchase of coal or fuel oil might prove simply an 
expense for which there would be no compensating return, be- 
cause of inability to place on the market the extra gas not used. 

If by efficiency in the operation of gas compressing stations 
we mean the effectiveness of the plant in proportion to the money 
spent, much would depend upon the amount of the original invest- 
ment, and also the length of life of the station, as well as upon 
the operating and repair costs. For, while fuel, oil, and labor 
economies should receive due attention, the margin for saving in 
them is not very large where high grade machinery is properly 
installed and operated, and an expensive station which would be 
run but a few years might involve depreciation costs largely out- 
weighing all possible operating economies. So we should not 
allow our interest in fuel economy to lead us into wasting either 
money, labor or material, for the conservation of these factors 
is as important as the conservation of any other resource. 

I remember a station containing six i,ooo horse power en- 
gines which cost over $450,000.00 to build and which was aban- 
doned after about four years operation. 



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104 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Much depends upon the size and duration of the field and 
upon competitive conditions. I recall a station where several 
simple, non-condensing, slide valve engines were installed, while, 
in the same year, a competing company was erecting nearby a 
large Corliss cross-compound condensing engine. The simple 
engines were erected and in operation first and the field was 
practically exhausted before the larger and heavier engine was 
ready for service. In this instance the extreme plant depreciation 
resulted in a considerable loss to the one company in spite of 
their high class engine with its excellent thermal efficiency. On 
the other hand I know a Corliss engine plant that has been pump- 
ing gas almost continuously since 1904, has required very few re- 
pairs, and is still pumping a field that may last, at least, ten 
years longer. In this case the engine of higher thermal efficiency 
was unquestionably the wiser installation. 

Not only are conditions different in the various gas fields^ 
but each individual station also presents a problem of its own. 
We must consider the probable extent and duration of the field, 
prospective pressure conditions, possible overloads due to chang- 
ing line conditions, the quality and condition of the gas, the pe- 
culiar hazards in connection with handling natural gas, and the 
various details that are inherent in gas compressing stations. All 
of these are in addition to the questions to be dealt with in the 
ordinary power plant. 

It is quite evident that the design and construction of a gas 
compressing plant is not a problem that should be left to a ma- 
chinery agent or power plant engineer. But in order to obtain 
real efficiency, which includes reasonable first cost, reliable ser- 
vice and economical operation, we should be governed by the 
advice and judgment of the practical natural gas engineer. 
(Applause). 

President Guffey: We have with us this morning, Mr. 
John Glass, Chief Engineer, Carnegie Natural Gas Company, 
Waynesburg, Pennsylvania. We would be very much pleased 
to have Mr. Glass come forward if he will and give us the benefit 
of his experience and to discuss this very important subject. 

Mr. John Glass: Mr. President and Gentlemen: I have 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 105 

been very much interested in the paper and discussion of efficient 
operation of compressing stations, as for twenty years it has 
been my lot to build and operate gas compressing stations, and 
during all that time efficiency has been kept well in mind. 

We built one 19 years ago, which is giving us excellent ser- 
vice today. All this time the station has only been out of com- 
mission 35 minutes, which caused a shortage of gas to the con- 
sumer. This is reliability. 

This plant consists of a cross compound condensing engine 
with surface condensers. This plant has a fuel consumption of 
20.5 cu. ft. of gas per horse power hour. It speaks pretty well 
of a plant built 19 years ago. 

A great many here today will remember that at the Kansas 
City convention I referred to a series of tests of one of our 
plants consisting of two cross compound condensing Corliss en- 
gines using superheated steam with which a horse power was 
developed on 13.36 cu. ft. of gas, and while this result was 
pleasing our greatest object was to obtain reliable operation for 
we have to supply the Steel Mills with gas where any unexpected 
shut-down of the stations, and the consequent shut-down of a 
mill or cooling of a furnace is to them a very serious matter. 

It may also be of interest to the members of the Associa- 
tion to know that during the six years of practically continuous 
operation of this plant, our repair, maintenance and operating 
costs have been so satisfactory to us that we have deemed it ad- 
visable to install additional plants of this type. These additional 
installations, however, were not made without first carefully 
considering the cost of other types of stations. 

In our last installation we have also arranged to use coal 
instead of gas for fuel whenever such change would increase 
the efficiency of our plant. In our various installations there 
are many minor economies that have been worked out with the 
cooperation of our station engineers, and while these may be 
of interest to the station crew I do not feel that these items are 
of enough importance to warrant taking up the time of this 
Association in their discussion. 

About offering a prize to the operating force — I have al- 
ways been opposed to this method of getting results. If we 



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106 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

have a man that will not give us his best service after being 
educated to our requirements we look for another to take his 
place. 

We started to build a gas compressing plant a year ago, 
which will be ready for operation in thirty days. We built to 
use coal as fuel, installing stokers and other appliances, but be- 
fore we had gone very far with the construction coal advanced 
so in price, and you all know we have plenty of time to get the 
price of gas up, so it means to bum cheap gas until the price 
of coal drops. (Applause). 

PREsroENT GuFFEY ! We wouM now like to hear from Mr. 
Oiarles Craft, Chief Engineer, East Ohio Gas Company, West 
Park, Ohio, if he is in the room. Is Mr. Craft present? (No 
response) . 

Is Mr. H. A. Quay, General Foreman, Manufacturers Light 
& Heat Company present? Is so, we would like to hear from 
him? (No response). 

I will ask Mr. L. C. Frohrieb, Secretary Federal En- 
gineering Company, Pittsburgh, to come forward and discuss this 
subject. I see he is present. 

Mr. L. C. Frohrieb : Mr. President and Gentlemen of the 
Association : I do not think that the pioneers in gas compressing 
should be criticized too severely by Mr. Weymouth for install- 
ing simple slide valve engines at a time when it was customary 
to waste gas on every hand in enormous quantities as by burning 
flambeaus night and day, blowing wells continually in the air 
to astonish people by their roar, even setting fire to them for 
show purposes, selling gas on a contract basis p6r year at 
ridiculously low prices, regulating city pressure by wasting the 
surplus gas instead of shutting in the wells and numberless 
similar wasteful practices. Under these circumstances they 
should be commended for not wasting money as well as gas. 
Later however, as early as 1896, the installation of cross-com- 
pound condensing Corliss engines for compressors became good 
practice. 

Referring to Mr. Weymouth's idea that the chief interest 
of gas company directors is the fuel cost per unit of gas pumped, 
I find myself unable to believe that this is their attitude, as I 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 107 

have known many directors whose chief interest was the exces- 
sive repair cost of station machinery. Those directors who 
have the interest of their company at heart are chiefly concerned 
in the total cost of pumping gas and this includes interest and 
depreciation on original investment, operating costs, repairs and 
maintenance, loss due to shut-downs as well as fuel costs. 

I do not entirely approve of Mr. Weymouth's arrangement 
for utilizing the exhaust from his gas engine for heating pur- 
poses, unless he has an emergency boiler and steam heating sys- 
tem available, for in case of a breakdown or shut down the sta- 
tion will become cold and danger of a freeze-up would exist 
on account of the water in the jackets and piping in the station, 
but the greatest danger would be while making repairs the 
operators would be tempted to use a gas fire to keep themselv' 
warm enough to work if no other method of heating were 
available besides exhaust gases for heating. His proposed 
method of heating the station with the hot compressed discharge 
is so unsafe and at variance with good practice that it should 
not be used; instead of piping it around inside the station it 
should be piped outside as quickly as possible with a minimum 
number of fittings and joints. I do not see why Mr. Weymouth 
distinguishes between larger and smaller stations for this method 
of station heating unless he feels that when the probable trouble 
with It occurs he can spare the small station better than he could 
a large one. 

The idea, however, of utilizing the waste heat of the boiler 
flue gases is an excellent one and is one of the many heat-saving 
devices that have been adapted and that have been the means 
of bringing the modem steam plant up to its present high 
efficiency. 

Mr. Leland's reference to station efficiency being affected 
by faulty compressor valves reminds me of two stations which 
were out of commission practically all the winter on account of 
the failure of the compressor valves originally installed. 

In designing gas compressing stations with the purpose of 
obtaining and maintaining efficient operation it must be borne 
in mind that the operating conditions are widely diflFerent from 
those occurring in the ordinary power plant where the necessity 



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108 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

of taking care of a peak load of short duration gives a reserve 
unit available each day which affords regular opportunity for 
a shut-down for adjustments and tuning up, while in the case 
of a gas compressing station it may be absolutely necessary for 
all the machinery to run steadily 24 hours a day for weeks and 
months at a time. (Applause). 

President Guffey: Wc would be very much pleased to 
hear from any other gas engineer on the subject of "Efficiency 
in the Operation of Gas Compressing Stations" which we now 
have before us for discussion. The name of Mr. Ralph W. 
Hay, Assistant General Superintendent, Manufacturers Light 
and Heat Company, Pittsburgh, has been suggested. Is he 
present? (No response). 

Mr. T. R. Weymouth: Mr. President, I would like to 
have the opportunity of making a few remarks. 

President Guffey: Yes, Mr. Weymouth, we would be 
very glad to hear from you now. 

Mr. T. R. Weymouth : Mr. President and Gentlemen : 
There were one or two points brought out that I would like to 
say an additional word about. With reference to Mr. Leland's 
statement that it is not always safe to compare the stations on 
a horse power hour basis I did not mean to imply in the paper 
that stations of different characters or even stations of different 
sizes, of the same character, should always be compared with 
each other. What I wish to bring out is the fact that these 
figures furnish a more equitable basis of comparison of opera- 
tion of one particular station from month to month, and in many 
cases of comparison between stations of similar character and 
similar size. In other words it is much safer and more equitable 
to compare the operation of compressing stations on the horse 
power hour basis than upon the basis of the cost per unit of 
gas pumped. 

I also wish to emphasize Mr. Leland's suggestion as to the 
encouragement of visiting the different stations by engineers. 
That is a matter which we have followed out for some years 
but which I neglected to mention in the paper. However, it is 
a most excellent idea and I coincide with what Mr. Leland has 
said on this subject. Mr. Leland is also right in saying that 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 109 

each individual station must be designed and operated on its 
own feet, so to speak. That is, every individual case must be 
treated by itself, as no general rules can be laid down for the 
designing or even the operation of all compressing stations. 

I am glad to have Mr. Glass's figures with reference to the 
economies in the operation of steam stations for they reveal a 
very excellent operating condition. 

I would like to say with regard to the custom of offering 
prizes that we have found that all the men who work for us are 
very well pleased to receive proper recognition of the services and 
that is the idea we have in mind in offering these prizes. 

With reference to Mr. Frohrieb's criticism of the method 
suggested in the paper for heating pumping stations I would say 
in 1 8 stations operated by our company every one of them is 
heated in this manner and have been heated for about six to 
eight years in the same fashion without once having been stopped 
by the troubles that he is anticipating. Undoubtedly he has in 
mind the operation of a station having a single unit upon which he 
imagines we depend for the heating, and in such cases it is pos- 
sible to conceive of a condition where you would be without heat. 
In that case a small auxiliary boiler can be put in and as a matter 
of fact in one station we have been operating in this manner but 
we have never had to use the auxiliary boiler. Reliability and 
efficiency are the watchwords and the results we are striving for 
and there are many ways that this can be accomplished. I simply 
tried to outline the methods we have found most effective and 
most successful in our operations. I thank you. (Applause). 

President Guffey: We would be very much pleased to 
hear from any other member of the Association who desires to 
add to this very interesting and valuable discussion we have had 
so far. Is there any further discussion of this subject of "Effi- 
ciency in the Operation of Gas Compressing Stations"? If not, 
wc will pass on to the next paper which is entitled "Mixed Arti- 
ficial and Natural Distribution in Cities" by Mr. A. B. Macbeth, 
General Manager, Southern California Gas Company. Mr. Mac- 
beth was unable to be present but Mr. Shafer, General Superin- 
tendent, Southern California Gas Company, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, is here and will read the paper for him. 



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110 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

Will you kindly come forward, Mr. Shafer? 

Mr. Shafer: Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Con- 
vention, I hope you will be generous enough to excuse me in ap- 
pearing before you in my overcoat. Yesterday afternoon I saw 
the ice floes at Niagara and my teeth have been chattering ever 
since. 

Mr. Shafer then read for Mr. Macbeth the following paper : 



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MIXED ARTIFICIAL AXD NATURAL I)ISTRIP»UTIOX 

L\ CITIES. 

Bv Alkxander B. Macbeth. 

The problems arising out of the introduction of natural gas 
into Los Angeles and vicinity are so different from those in 
eastern cities, that it is necessary that I first explain what the 
gas situation is in our city of sunshine. 

The city of Los Angeles has a population of 556,000, and is 
surrounded by many smaller municipalities having a combined 
population of 194,000. 

The Midway Gas Company, which is a production and pipe- 
line company, delivers natural gas to Los Angeles through two 
lines, one twelve-inch line entering the city from the north, from 
Taft in Kern county, California, is iii miles long, with a deliv- 
ery capacity of about 20,000,000 cubic feet per day; and one 
eight-inch line, coming into the city from the south, sui)plies gas 
from the so-called Whittier-Fullerton field, twenty miles south- 

(111) 



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112 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

east of Los Angeles, and has a capacity of 10,000,000 cubic feet 
per day. 

All gas delivered by the Midway Gas Company is delivered 
to the Los Angeles Gas & Electric Corporation having 135,000 
consumers, and the Southern California Gas Company which has 
28,000 consumers of its own and supplies other companies 
having 27,000 consumers. The Los Angeles Gas & Electric cor- 
poration distributes a mixed gas containing 50% natural gas. 
The Southern California Gas Company which is under the same 
management as the Midway Gas Company (the natural gas com- 
pany) supplies all of its consumers in the city of Los Angeles 
with a mixture containing 50% natural gas, and to the remainder 
of its consumers some straight natural and some mixed gas, and 
in like manner, distributes to some of the companies it supplies 
straight natural gas, and to others a mixture of artificial and 
natural gas in proportions of fifty percent and these companies 
in turn distribute to their customers the gas supplied by the 
Southern California Gas Co. 

The maximum combined daily sendout of gas of all charac- 
ters to supply these 190,000 consumers, in the winter of 1916-17 
was 36,535,000. 

The climate of Los Angeles is very diflferent from that of 
almost any other city in the United States. The temperature 
seldom drops below forty degrees. The days are warm in the 
winter time and the nights are cool in the summer and the 
amount of fuel required for domestic use for heating purposes 
is very small. 

\>ry little gas is used for illuminating jnirposes, electricity 
supj)lied from hydro-electric plants being sold at very low rates, 
and gas for lighting has never been pushed. Gas is universally 
used for cooking and heating water in residences, but in hotels, 
apartments and large buildings, distillate, purchased at a very 
low price, is used to a large extent. While the amount of gas 
used in furnaces has increased somewhat since the introduction 
of high heat unit gas, a large amount of domestic heating is still 
done with distillate, coal, wood, carbon briquets which are the 
competing fuels. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 113 



The natural gas supplied by the Midway Gas Company is 
for the most part of two kinds. Below please note chemical 
analysis, gravity, and heat values, first of the natural gas from 
the Kern County Fields and then of that from the Whittier- 
Fullerton Fields: 

Kern County Fields Gas IVhitticr-Fullerton Fields Gas 

CO= 5.0% CO= 0% 

111 0.4 O 0.4 

O CH4 84.0 

CO GHo 15.6 

GHr. 14.9 Spec. Gr. .678 1208 BTU's 

CH* 79.0 

N 0.7 

Spec. Gr. .72 1120 BTU's 

Also note below the analysis of the artificial gas formerly 
distributed in Los Angeles before the introduction of natural 
gas, being an oil gas made by the single cylinder process. 

C0= 0.5 

111 4.1 

O 0.2 

CO 8.1 

H.. 46.4 

CH 37.6 

N 3.1 

Spec. Gr. .549 074 BTU's 

also an analysis of the artificial gas which at the present time is 
being mixed with the natural gas being distributed : 

C0= 4.6 

111 ....' 6 

O .7 

CO 13.6 

H, 53.2 

CH 26.1 

N 1.6 

Spec. Gr. .44 535 BTU's 



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114 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



Natural gas was first introduced and a mixed gas furnished 
to domestic consumers in Los Angeles in the latter part of 191 3. 
At that time, varying mixtures were furnished to consumers, but 
for the most part this mixture varied from 15% to 45% of 
natural gas. 

In the early part of 19 14, straight artificial gas was again 
furnished and continued until the first of August, 1914, at which 
time the companies commenced to distribute a mixture consisting 
of 50% natural and 50% artificial gas, which has practically 
been maintained since that time. This change from artificial gas 
to gases containing varying amounts of natural gas, up to ^0% 
was done without any inconvenience or complaint from con- 
sumers whatever. 

On account of the limited amount of natural gas to be 
obtained it has been deemed best to continue the fifty-fifty mix- 
ture up to this time and to sell the surplus gas for industrial 
purposes. This may be changed by the State Railroad Com- 
mission which now has the matter under advisement. 

It is most interesting to study the eflfect on the consumption 
of gas caused by the increase in heat units in the gas being dis- 
tributed and for this purpose I draw to your attention Table f 
and Chart **A". This table and chart show that the increase 
in BTU content of the gas has resulted in a decrease in volume 
or consumption almost in proportion to the increase in the heat- 
ing value of the gas: that in the beginning the demand of the 
average consumer expressed in heat units, was practically con- 
stant and that when gas of high heating value is supplied less 
will be required than when the consumer is furnished with gas 
of low heating value; that since the introduction of natural gas 
mixed with the manufactured gas, the WTU consumption has 
increased slightly, due to the fact that the gas has been put to 
some new uses. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



115 



TABLE 1. 
Consumption Per Active Meter Per Year. 

Cubic 

Years, Feet. B. T. U. 

1912 35,022 21,844,000 

1913 32,466 21,995,000 

1914 .' . 31,068 22,867,000 

1915 30,959 25,092,000 

For Months of June, 1914 and June, 1915 in Cubic Feet and B. T. U's. 

1914. 1915. 

June cu. ft 2795 2183 

June B. T. U 1,740,285 1,773,000 





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Comparing the year 191 5 with the year 1912 there has been 
a reduction in the rate of 15% and an increase in the BTU 
content of the gas of 30% resulting in each consumer receiving 
53% more heat per dollar in 191 5 than he received in 19 12. 
This decrease in rate has been accomplished by an increase in 
BTU consumption of only 15%. The table also shows the con- 



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116 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



sumption in cubic feet and BTU's for the month of June, 1914, 
compared with the month of June, 191 5. During 1914 we were 
distributing unmixed artificial gas and in 191 5 we were distrib- 
uting a mixture of 50% natural and 50% artificial. The 
resuhs are very striking. 

As a further comparison of the effect of the increase in 
these heat units, I call your attention to Table 2 Chart **B" 
showing the monthly consumption per meter in cubic feet and 
in BTU's for the years 1912 and 1915. This table and chart also 
show that the consumption in the month of September which is 
usually the month of the lowest consumption is in the year 191 5 
about 46% of the consumption in the month of January, whereas 
in eastern cities in the month of August which is the month of 
low consumption it is only 17% of the January consumption. 

TABLE 2. 

Comparative Consumption Per Active Meter in Cubic Fket and 

British Thermal Units — Years 1912 and 1915. 

City of Los Angeles. 



Month. 



1012. 



January 

February j 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July I 

August I 

September 

October | 

November 

December | 

Total 1 






:Uns ■ 

M278 j 

'J811 I 
2.V22 

22").'^ I 

240() I 
2880 

2:)78 ' 

28 i2 ' 

'XMvl ! 



1012. 






2,4()8.000 I 

2.10.'). 000 , 

1,078.000 I 

1,778,000 i 
1,:m4,O0o 

1.408,000 I 

1,477.000 I 

l,48."i.OOO ' 

i.()H2,ooo I 

1,880.000 

2.081.000 ' 

1.004.0<M) ' 



191." 



03 



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3120 
303() 
2.501 
2(549 
2183 
2001 
1820 
1781 
1008 
2.512 
3100 



191.1 






3. 175,000 
2,738.000 
2.4.53,000 
2,073,000 
2.151,000 
1,773,000 
1.650.000 
1.479,000 
1,454,000 
1,004.000 
2,030.000 
2,. 512. 000 



3.5022 



21.844,000 I 



.300.50 



2.5,092 000 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



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The rates charged in the city of Los Angeles have been as 
follows : 

Just previous to July, 1911 80 cents 

July, 1911, to July, 1912 75 cents 

July, 1912, to July, 1913 70 cents 

July, 1913, to date ^ cents 

The reason for comparing 19 12 to 191 5 is that 191 2 was the 
last full year that straight artificial gas was supplied, and 19 15 
was the first full year that the mixture of 50% natural and 50% 
artificial gas was served. 

I now call your attention to Table 3 and Chart "C" which 
show the consumption per active meter in a middle western city 
and in Los Angeles, together with the monthly mean atmospheric 
temperature for these two cities. The monthly mean minimum 
temperature means, of course the average of the minimum tem- 
perature each day. 



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118 



NATURAL GAS ASSOC! ATI OX OF AMERICA. 



TABLE 3. 

Comparative Monthly Mean Minimum Atmospheric Temperatures 

AND Gas Consumption Per Active Meter — Middle Western 

City and City of Los Angeles. 



Consumption Per 

Month Per 

Active Meter. 






Monthly Mean Mini- 
mum Atmospheric 
Temperatures. 




January . . 
February 
March . . . 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
December 



16,000 

15.600 

14,000 

11.000 

6,000 

5,000 

3,000 

3,000 

4.000 

6,000 

13,000 

14,000 



110.000 



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T^VELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



119 



OMmtMTTIC MONTHLV CONSUMPTION 
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This chart, I think, shows graphically how the gas require- 
ments in Los Angeles vary from those found in eastern cities. 

Now, as to the effect on the consumer of changing the 
quality of gas which he received from time to time in order to 
piece out the natural gas supply with artificial gas. 

From time to time, since natural gas first came to Los 
Angeles we have been compelled in certain districts in order to 
maintain pressure during an emergency to turn into a district 
ordinarily supplied with a mixture of 50% natural and 50% 
artificial gas, an tmmixed natural gas. The result of this during 
the winter of 1915-16 was not attended by any serious complaint 
from consumers. At that time our natural gas had a heating 
value of 1,120 BTU's and was gas received from Kern County 
Fields, an analysis of which is shown above. 

During the years 1916-1917, however, the Southern Cali- 
fornia Gas Company obtained almost its entire supply of nat- 
ural gas from the Whittier-Fullerton Field which gas had a 



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120 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

heating value of 1,200 Bl U s at that tune, and when we at- 
tempted to turn this natural gas in to maintain the supply in a 
district formerly supplied with mixed gas, we did have consid- 
erable complaint. When this was done, it meant that a consid- 
erable part of the district for several hours of the day was 
supplied with natural gas of about 1,200 BTU's and the remain- 
ing part of the day was supplied with mixed gas varying from 
800 BTU's up, and the quality of gas was changed while the 
consumer was in the process of cooking meals. The nature of 
those complaints seems to have been when natural gas was on 
the district, of smoke and lamp black on the cooking utensils. 
When mixed gas was turned on the district, quite often the con- 
sumer complained of poor pressure, when as a matter of fact, 
the pressure was the same and the real cause was the reduction 
in the heating value. 

During the year 1914, unmixed manufactured gas was sub- 
stituted from time to time in some districts where straight 
natural gas had previously been served, and in other districts 
where a mixed gas had been served. It was found, that where 
pressures were maintained and the heat value of the manufac- 
tured gas was not allowed to go below 625 BTU's comparatively 
few complaints were received from the consumers, in spite of 
the fact that in some districts nothing but natural gas had pre- 
viously been served. 

We have found that where a stove is adjusted for mixed 
gas of 8co BTU's, and artificial gas of less than 550 BTU's 
is supplied that the stove will flash back and light in the mixers. 

In order to determine the effect on consumers' appliances of 
different mixtures of artificial and natural gas we conducted a 
set of experiments, a brief description of which follows: 

It was first necessary for us to be able to uniformly mix 
with our natural gas varying proportions of artificial gas, and to 
be able to maintain these mixtures during the experiments. For 
this purpose, we designed a mixing chamber consisting of a 12- 
inch pipe with baffler plate throughout its length. This is shown 
in drawing following, marked "Fig. i." "Fig. 2" shows how 
this mixer was connected up with the natural and artificial gas 
lines, gauges, gas appliances, etc. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



121 



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122 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



The natural gas being passed into this mixture was received 
direct from the high pressure natural gas mains, and the arti- 
ficial gas was compressed up to a pressure of about 35 pounds 
and the two gases after passing through the mixer were turned 
into the city mains. 

The amount of gas being passed through the mixer was 
approximately 25,000 cu. ft. per hour. This mixer was also 
tested out passing 18,000 up to 30,000 cu. ft. per hour, and on 
pressures varying from 5 pounds to 40 pounds, and it seemed 
to mix the gas perfectly. 

The meters used to measure the artificial and natural gas 
in the mixture were of the orifice type, which we use almost 
entirely for measuring high pressure gas throughout our system, 
and which we find to be most satisfactory. 

In order to prove the effectiveness of our apparatus as 
designed for mixing natural and artificial gas, the heat units of 
the two gases being mixed were first determined, and then sev- 
eral tests were run on the gas after it was mixed in different 
proportions, and in each case the heat units obtained from the 
mixed gas corresponded to the heat units of its component parts. 
This is shown in Table 4. 

TABLE 4. 



o 

:2: 



c 
U 



H 


^ 
' 


1 


5().3 


2 


51. () 


3 


79.2 


4 


67.5 


5 


59.8 


6 


45.4 



c 
U 



43.7 
48.4 
20.8 
32.5 
40.2 
54.0 



B. T. U. 



E 
o 
U 



788 
823 
592 
669 
767 
874 



u 



810 
826 
597 
678 
808 
899 



a 

E 

o 
U . 

o . 



' S. p. Gravity. 



1 

2.8 less 


0.3 less 


0.8 less 


1.3 less 


5.3 less 


2.8 less 



cu 

E 

o 
U 



.542 

.575 



.540 
.567 



E 

VM 
O 

O 

W 



.03 of 1 hi. 
1.3 higher. 



All tests were made with Hinman- Junkers calori-meters and 
the heat units reported are the gross heat units. Fig. 3 is a 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 123 

photograph showing the mixer, pipe systems, gauges, appliances, 
etc., used in the experiment and Fig. 4 is a side view showing in 
more detail the appliances used, including the arc lamps. 

The top burners of all the ranges used and two of the oven 
burners are shown in Fig. 5. Each top burner had an adjust- 
able air shutter and an adjustable gas orifice. The oven burners 
• of these ranges were made of cast iron with drilled holes. They 
differed only in the arrangement and in the location of the holes. 

The oven burner for No. i range extended from side to side 
under the center of the oven. A row of holes was drilled along 
each side at an angle of 45 degrees upward ; this is the upper 
oven burner in the illustration. 

On range No. 2 the oven burner extended from front to rear 
along the centre of the oven : it had a row of holes on each side 
at an angle of 45 degrees upward. 

No. 3 had a burner along each side under the oven extending 
from front to rear. Each burner had one row of holes drilled 
so that the flame would be thrown toward the centre at an angle 
of about 45 degrees upward. 

No. 4 had an oven burner in the form of two cast iron pipes 
one behind the other. Both had a row of holes drilled on each 
side so that the flame pointed 45 degrees downward. 

Burners No. 5 and 6 were for the same range, the oven 
burners for this range were in the form of two cast iron pipes, 
one behind the other, each with two rows of holes pointed 45 
degrees upward. 

The burners for the water heaters are shown in Fig. 6. No. 
I had an adjustable mixer but no adjustable gas orifice. The 
others had both an adjustable air mixer and an adjustable gas 
orifice. 

The Armour furnace burner which is of local design has an 
adjustable air shutter. It also has a very large mixing chamber. 
The burner of the other furnace shown in picture is a ring about 
18 inches in diameter made of Yi" pipe; the holes are drilled on 
the inside. It has an adjustable air shutter but no adjustable 
gas orifice, and is a very cheap affair. 

The Hawks radiator has an adjustable air shutter and an 



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124 NATl'RAL CAS ASSOCIATIOX Oh' AM URIC. I. 



I'm;. III.— Mixer and Pipe System. 



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TIVEU'TH ANNUAL MEETING, 125 






o 

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12(i SATl'RAL CAS ASSOC! ATIOX OP AMERICA. 



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TWELFTH ASSUAL MEETING. 127 



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128 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

adjustable gas orifice. The burner is a cast iron pipe with holes 
drilled in the upper side. The Detroit Jewel Heater has a double 
bumer made of cast iron, with holes drilled in the upper side. 
Balls of fire clay about 3" in diameter are laid above the l)urners. 
These act as bafflers and also retain the heat as well as aid 
combustion. 

The lights used were three mantle Humphrey and a four- 
mantle Welsbach, both indoor arcs. 

The tests on the above mentioned appliances were run for 
three different conditions as follows : 

first: The burners of all appliances were adjusted for a 
mixture of 

Artificial gas 50% 

Natural gas 50% 

The gas used was artificial of 674 IH'U's and natural of 
1,208 RTU's. The mixture was gradually changed by adding 
more of either gas. The object was to find how much the mix- 
ture could be changed before it was noted in the combustion. 

An observer was stationed to watch each burner and reix)rt 
the first change of fljune. These observers were reliable men 
representing three gas companies. As artificial gas was added, 
the first change in flame was noted at 70'/ artificial gas and 30% 
natural. This was for top burners No. 2 and No. 3. These, we 
might state, are not sold by gas ai)pliance companies but are sold 
by furniture companies when they furnish a house complete for 
$98.00. These Inirners are pressed sheet iron and have not suffi- 
cient o])en space on the inside. 

When a mixture of 80% artificial and 20[/( natural was 
reached, all observers had noted a change in flame. 

When the natural gas was increased, the first change was 
noted at about 68% natural and 32% artificial. In other words, 
it takes a change of from 18% to 30'/ eitlier way in the mixture 
before it can be noticed in combustion rather than a larger or 
smaller flame. The effect of a change in mixture will l)e taken 
up in other tests. 

Second: The burners on all appliances were adjusted for a 
50% artificial and 50% natural gas nn'xture. The gas was then 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



changed to a mixture of 0-10-20-30-75-90100% artificial and the 
eflFect of these changes of mixture was noted on the combustion 
of the different burners. The gas used was artificial 674 BTU's. 
Under this condition good combustion was obtained from all 
burners except the cheap one, which had a slightly yellow flame, 
and No. i water heater which had an orifice for artificial gas 
that was a little too large for this mixture. 
The mixture was then changed to 

Artificial 75% 

Natural 26% 

All burners burned with good but slightly reduced flame. 
The ring furnace burner mentioned above had a better flame 
than at the start. It is doubtless better flame than at the start. 
It is doubtless better for artificial gas. The No. i water heater 
also has a better but smaller flame than before. 

The mixture was then changed to 

Artificial 90% 

Natural 10% 

The above conditions applied but slightly more emphatic. 

The next test was 

Artificial 100% 

Natural 0% 

The burners were all burning with reduced flames. There was 
no tendency whatever to backfire. The flames were blue. 
The mixture was then changed to 

Artificial 26% 

Natural 76% 

In this practically all burners showed a higher flame than origin- 
ally for the fifty-fifty mixture. However, it was a good active 
flame with considerable yellow and only a slight tendency to 
float. 

The next was 

Artificial 0% 

Natural 100% 

9 



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130 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

The flame was much higher, more yellow and had more ten- 
dency to float but no difficulty was experienced. By closing the 
valve, thus reducing the flame, one might say that all burned 
with a fairly good flame. 

The lights used were both for artificial gas and could not 
be adjusted for natural. They burned well with artificial gas, 
the mantles were good and white, but with natural gas the man- 
tles were good and white at the bottom only. These tests were 
carried on in an engine room and the vibration bothered the 
lights considerably. 

Third: The burners on all appliances were adjusted for 
natural gas and the object was to note the effect on combustion 
as various percentages of artificial gas were added, and also 
to note the effect of a quick change to artificial gas of about 675 
BTU's, also for 600 BTU's and for 540 BTU's. The natural 
gas was the above mentioned 1208 BTU gas. 

With very few exceptions, the burners on all appliances 
were burning a good blue flame. These exceptions were the ring 
furnace burner and No. i water heater mentioned above, and 
top range burners Nos. 2 and 3. On these exceptions, the gas 
orifice could not be made sufficiently small for natural gas of this 
quality. While the combustion was good, it could have been 
improved upon, and did improve as artificial gas was added. 
The artificial gas used for the next two tests had 513 BTU's. 
With the burners all adjusted for natural gas as above, the mix- 
ture was then changed to 

Artificial 11% 

Natural 89% 

This gave a gas of 1131 BTU's. The change in combustion 
was so slight that it could be detected only by very close observa- 
tion. In general, the flame was slightly reduced. 
The mixture was then changed to 

Artificial 18% 

Natural 82% 

This gave a gas of 1082 BTU's. The flames were slightly de- 
creased with less yellow, but all were burning well. The artificial 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 131 

gas burners were burning slightly better and showed considera- 
ble improvement as more artificial gas was added. 

The artificial gas was then changed to 674 BTU's, and the 
mixture was 

Artificial 30% 

Natural 70% 

This gave a gas of 1048 BTU's. The flames all burned well but 
reduced to a greater degree. 
The next test was 

Artificial 52% 

Natural 48% 

This gave a gas of 929 BTU's. The result of this on the various 
appliances was in the same direction as the preceding, but more 
pronounced. 

The next was 

Artificial 75% 

Natural 25% 

This gave a gas of 722 BTU's, with similar results to the above. 
The flames all burned slightly lower. 
The n^xt was 

Artificial 100% 

Natural 0% 

The burners were all burning 674 BTU's artificial gas. The 
stoves were all burning low, but otherwise good, and showed no 
tendency to backfire. 

The next test was for 

Natural gas 1200 

Artificial gas 608 

The aim was to see if burners set for natural gas of 1200 BTU's 
would backfire on 600 BTU gas. The burners were all set for 
straight natural gas and a quick change was made to artificial 
gas, but there was no backfire. The burners were then turned 
off and all would light without difficulty. When this same test 



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132 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

was made with 540 BTU's gas, there was a tendency in many 
of the burners to backfire, especially burners marked No. 2 and 
No. 3 in Fig. V, and many of the oven burners backfired with 
the mixture. 

When we first began the introduction of natural gas, it was 
noticed that the admixture of natural gas with artificial materially 
increased the illuminating effect of the ordinary open flame 
burner, and in order to determine definitely what various propor- 
tions of natural gas would do to the illuminating power of the 
mixed gas when used in open flame burners, tests as per Table 
5 were very carefully made in the following manner: 

A five-foot Maryland meter prover was equipped with a 
double set of tin paddles revolving in opposite directions, some- 
what in imitation of an egg-beater, for the purpose of thoroughly 
mixing the two gases. The required quantity of natural gas 
was accurately measured in the prover and the necessary amount 
of artificial gas was added to it. 

To check all of the tests shown in the Table, the method 
of procedure was reversed, — that is, the artificial gas was first 
measured in the prover, and the natural gas followed. Heat 
units and candle power were taken for each variation of percent- 
age of natural gas, and the BTU as well as the candle power is 
an average of the ten readings. 

The candle power of the artificial gas at the time of these 
tests was 18.5 and that of the natural gas was 8.4 candles. It 
will be noticed that a general increase in illuminating power took 
place with the mixture of 5% natural up to the point when 35% 
natural was reached ; thereafter a drop took place down to 70% 
natural. From 70% to 95% no tests for BTU were taken and 
the candle power determination was made rather difficult by rea- 
son of the streakiness and flickerings of the flame. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



133 



TABLE 5. 
Effect of Mixxd Gases on Candle Power and Heat Units. 



O.ctf 










cS 


4-» U 

8 A 


<M St 


? o 


B. T. ITs. 


8r 


0-4 




0^ 


0-4 


i^ 




100 






18.5 


620 


• ■ • 


ioo 




8.4 


1055 


95 


5 


ioo 


19.1 


631 


90 


10 


100 


19.7 


658 


85 


15 


100 


20.2 


685 


80 


20 


100 


21.0 


701 


75 


25 


100 


21.1 


724 


70 


30 


100 


21.2 


753 


65 


35 


100 


21.5 


768 


60 


40 


100 . 


21.0 


791 


55 


45 


100 


20.0 


809 


50 


50 


100 


19.3 


839 


45 


55 


100 


18.2 


861 


40 


60 . 


100 


17.7 


878 


35 


65 


100 


17.3 


904 


30 


70 


100 


16.4 


917 


25 


75 


100 


15.3 


' 


20 


80 


100 


... 




15 


85 


100 


14.1 ' 




10 


90 


100 




- No test for B. T. U's. 


5 


95 


100 


1316 
11.2 




... 


... 


... 


9.1 


- 



Note: I wish to state that I have been greatly assisted in 
preparing this paper by Mr. F. J. Schafer and Mr. B. G. Wil- 
liams^ who are responsible for most of the work done in con- 
nection with it. 

DISCUSSION. 

President Guffey: On behalf of the Association I de- 
sire to thank Mr. Shafer for so kindly reading Mr. Macbeth's 
most valuable and interesting production to our gas literature. 
I am sure the Association and all the members present as well 
as those who are going to have the pleasure of reading and 
profiting by the paper will join me in extending to Mr. Macbeth 
a vote of thanks for the able paper, presented to us through 



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134 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Mr. Shafer. I would be very glad to entertain a motion to that 
effect now. 

Mr. W. Y. Cartwright: Mr. President, I move a hearty 
vote of thanks be extended to Mr. A. B. Macbeth for preparing 
and to Mr. F. Shafer for reading the very valuable and interest- 
ing production to which we have just listened. 

Mr. Martin B. Daly : I take great pleasure in seconding 
the above motion. 

The above motion having been seconded, was unanimously 
adopted. 

President Guffey: In the discussion of this paper this 
morning I am going to call on one of the youngest members of 
our Association who has only joined within the last month and 
who for the past four or five months has been giving considerable 
attention to this matter, having made a study of the situation 
for two of the natural gas companies in Western Pennsylvania. 
I want to introduce to you Mr. Warren S. Blauvelt, Consulting 
Engineer, Detroit, Michigan. 

Mr. Warren S. Blauvelt : Mr. President and Gentlemen : 
This paper is one which seems to me cannot fail to interest every 
man who is engaged in the gas business, whether artificial or 
natural. Men engaged in the artificial gas business in many 
localities are very much interested in the possibility of having to 
solve the same problems which Mr. Macbeth has solved so 
satisfactorily at Los Angeles, and everyone engaged in the gas 
business is interested in the solution of a similar problem but 
from another angle. We all recognize that ultimately the natural 
gas supply will fail and that there will probably be a necessity 
for mixing artificial gas with natural gas extending over a period 
of a good many years until finally practically all the city services 
will have the artificial gas. 

Mr. Macbeth tells of his results under conditions which 
were in many respects distinctly favorable. There are several 
district angles from which the problem can be considered. There 
is the technical problem ; there is the commercial problem ; there 
is the psychological and connected with that is the political prob- 
lem. The last three problems should have been comparatively 
easy for Mr. Macbeth as it was his good fortune to be in the 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 135 

position of improving the quality of the gas while reducing the 
price. As it will be impossible, so far as we can now see, to 
manufacture gas which can compete with natural gas, either in 
heating value or in price, it will be our problem to raise the 
price and reduce the heating value at the same time. 

Mr. Macbeth's problem, it seems to me, was a little bit like 
the problem confronting the future endeavors of a certain colored 
man who was very much in love with a dusky maiden. I pre- 
sume it would be proper to give her the name of Phoebe Snow 
while in Buffalo. He had been desirous for a long time of 
popping the question to her and after pondering over the matter 
for quite a while he screwed his courage up to the point of asking 
her. He says to himself "I am going to find out if Phoebe is 
going to take me." But he would look at her and she would 
look so beautiful and so far beyond anything to which he thought 
he could aspire that his courage would fail him and he would 
leave without having said a word about the subject that was 
uppermost in his mind. He got to thinking it over and thinking 
it over and finally he made up his mind that he could never pop 
the question to her in her presence, and so he thought he would 
try it over the telephone, and this was the conversation that is 
said to have taken place on his part: "Is this Miss Phoebe 
Snow ? Well, Tm a young colored man of good habits. I don't 
drink gnd I have got a good job and I am getting fifteen dollars 
a week and save my money and I have bought a nice little cottage 
and it is all paid for and I have some chickens and I have two 
pigs and the cottage is all furnished and I have some money in 
bank. What I want to know is will you be my wife?" She is 
reported to have said : "Certainly, certainly, sure I will, but who 
am this that is talking?" (Laughter). The problem that others 
have to solve is not quite so simple as that which Mr. Macbeth 
has had to solve. 

The most striking thing as we go over Mr. Macbeth's paper 
at the start is that with an increase of fifty-three per cent in the 
heat units supplied to the consumer for one dollar, there was 
an increased consumption of only 15 per cent. We all know 
that when the Tungsten lamp came in and replaced the carbon 
lamp, people generally demanded better lighting, but they con- 



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136 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

tinued to pay pretty nearly the same electric light bills and were 
glad to do so. 

The very slight increase in the sale of heat units leads one 
to question whether at Los Angeles the gas market had been 
saturated before they improved the quality and reduced the 
price, whether the new business department eased up a little bit, 
whether the possibilities of industrial development in Los Ange- 
les are very limited, or whether Los Angeles is very largely 
settled by Scotchmen. (Laughter). 

You remember about the Scotchman who was riding along 
in the train and a neighbor alongside of him reached his hands 
in his pocket and drew out his pipe and tobacco pouch and said 
to the Scotchman, "Will you let me have a match" and the 
Scotchman handed him out the match. The chance acquaintance 
put the match on the window sill and felt in his pouch for his 
tobacco and he says "Why, I am all out of tobacco." The 
Scotchman leans over toward the window sill and says, "Then 
ye nae be needin' the match." (Renewed laughter). Possibly 
the gas consuming public of Los Angeles decided when they 
got the better gas they might just as well save the "match" at 
the same time and so did not increase their consumption as would 
ordinarily be expected. 

Mr. Macbeth brings out very clearly the fact that there is 
no great difficulty in mixing various gases, and also — which is 
of very great importance — that there is a ix>ssibility of a very 
considerable variation in the calorific power of the mixture with- 
out causing the slightest inconvenience. In fact, it was impos- 
sible for any but the most highly trained observers to detect any 
difference whatsoever in the flame in the gas appliance when 
there was a change in the b. t. u.'s per cubic feet from 941 to 
831 b. t. u.'s and so far as difficulties from flashing back or any- 
thing of that kind were concerned, there could be very much 
greater variations without any marked difficulty or inconvenience. 
From these results it would not be safe to assume that it is ever 
going to be possible to satisfy consumers if we permit excessive 
variations in the calorific value of the gas delivered. It is going 
to be one of the big problems of the future, as it has been in 
the past with artificial gas distribution, to keep the variations in 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 137 

the quality of the gas delivered between very narrow limits. 
Wherever the problem of mixing gases comes in, the competent 
gas manager is going to try his best to keep the variations of 
heating power within reasonable limits and the success of the 
work will consist very largely in the ability to keep the variation 
within the narrowest limits. 

There is one thing that Mr. Macbeth did not bring out which 
I think is well worthy of some consideration and that is the im- 
portance of maintaining a uniform pressure. Mr. Macbeth did 
call attention to the fact that when the B. t. u.'s went off people 
thought it was the pressure that went off. The converse of that 
is worthy of consideration and that brings up the question as to 
the effect which the maintenance of good pressure at the con- 
sumer's burner has upon the efficient utilization of the calorific 
power of the gas. Oftentimes very low pressures result in a 
greater waste of gas than a moderate reduction in the calorific 
power of that gas. If you maintain the pressure and have a slight 
reduction in calorific power you will have a better pleased cus- 
tomer than if you maintain the calorific power of the gas, but 
fail to maintain the pressure at the burner. There is no question 
that the Public Utilities Commissions will eventually insist upon 
the maintenance of reasonable standards of pressure regulation 
and it behooves all forward looking men in the industry to get 
ready for it and to "beat them to it.*' There is one feature, to 
anyone coming into the natural gas business from the artificial 
gas business, that is very impressive and that is the ridiculously 
low prices, from the artificial gas man's point of view, which 
natural gas men have -been willing to accept for their product. 
This has unquestionably resulted in very great wastes of gas 
historians will denominate as almost criminal. 

One of the things which was brought out in the paper that 
is very striking is the very slight seasonal variation in gas de- 
livery at Los Angeles. In that land of sunshine there seems to 
be sunshine for the consumer, for the gas company, and for 
everybody else. Instead of having a variation as in eastern 
cities of from four to one or five to one, as in the case men- 
tioned, there is a variation of something like two to one. There 



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138 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

is possibly stiil a great deal of work to be done in Los Angeles, 
in the way of increasing the summer load with industrial work, 
but the field for that is not nearly as great as it is in eastern 
cities. I believe that there is going to be a great deal of work 
done in the immediate future in the building of throw-over 
plants which will be operated probably with some kind of arti- 
ficial gas in the winter time and with natural gas in the summer 
time, thus making it possible to utilize existing pipe lines and 
compressing stations at a higher average of efficiency through- 
out the year, equalizing the load and yet relieving the natural 
gas companies from the excessive winter peaks. I believe there 
are very few lines of work which look more promising.. How 
this work will be done, whether the individual consumer will 
install local plants or whether the gas companies themselves will 
install local plants at points of distribution merely to carry the 
winter load and arrange for a definite charge for the winter load 
with artificial gas and then a rate for natural gas during the 
summer time, the future alone can determine; but something of 
that sort seems to be plainly indicated as the proper economic 
answer to the best utilization of an existing investment together 
with the most economical supply of fuel to these industries. 
Having once been educated to use gas and to appreciate its very 
great advantages, consumers hesitate a long while before they 
will go over to solid fuel with its many disadvantages. The 
industry as a whole is certainly very greatly indebted to the 
author of this paper and his assistant, Mr. Shafer, for having 
gone into the matter so much in detail and given us so much 
that will help all of us in the solution of these problems which 
confront some of us now and which are bound to confront 
everybody in the natural gas business sooner or later. I thank 
you (Applause). 

President Guffey : We would like to hear from Mr. John 
H. Maxon, President and General Manager, The Central Indiana 
Gas Company, Muncie, Indiana. Mr. Maxon has had consid- 
erable experience in the artificial gas business. We would like 
for him to come forward if he will and discuss this all-important 
topic. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 139 

Mr. John H. Maxon: Mr. Chairman, I have attended a 
number of gas conventions recently and when men are unex- 
pectedly called on I have heard them get up and say "I don't 
believe I can add anything to the interesting and valuable re- 
marks which have already been made" and then launch out into 
an extended talk. I think probably it would be better to do 
what I will do right now and that is, when unexpectedly called 
on, to get up and say that I am interested in this important 
subject and I have something to say about it but I am going to 
be brief. 

I have had the pleasure of going over this Los Angeles 
territory in its entirety and, therefore, this paper has been of 
especial interest to me. I want to call attention particularly to 
the fact that in that territory there is probably being collected 
more money per million b. t. u.'s for natural gas than any other 
place in this cotmtry. It appears that the 190,000 consumers 
in Los Angeles proper are paying about $21.00 per annum for 
about 31,000 feet of 800 b. t. u. gas which means 25,000,000 
heat units and which brings 84 cents per million heat units. 
That is the Los Angeles operation. The interests I represent 
serve 42,000 consumers and thirty towns outside of Los Angeles 
and the service there is straight natural gas from both the 
Midway Company and the Whittier-FuUerton Field. The price 
per b. t. u. is about the same as for 800 b. t. u. gas. When 
the manufacture of oil gas was discontinued, the same prices 
were continued, namely, for the first 25,000 feet, about one 
dollar per thousand for about iioo b. t. u. gas. Then the rate 
was dropped to 30 cents and so in both cases in that district the 
price per million b. t. u.'s is nearly the same. 

The artificial gas business, serving about eight million con- 
sumers in the United States is delivering about 28,000 cubic 
feet per annum per consumer of 600 b. t. u. gas which means 
the delivery of about 17,000,000 b. t. u. gas per consumer per 
annum for $21.00 which means about $1.25 per million b. t. u.'s 
so you can see in the Los Angeles operation they are coming 
up nearer artificial gas practice per million b. t. u.'s. To bring 
out the comparison still further, it may be said in the State of 



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140 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Ohio that there are 800,000 natural gas domestic consumers who 
are paying about 28 cents per million b. t. u.'s. 

In regard to the mixing of gases it has been exceedingly 
interesting to hear what Mr. Blauvelt had to say. I will say 
that I have had some experience in a small way in that line of 
work and it has shown itself to be entirely practicable. I have 
operated one town for about two years with 700 b. t. u. gas 
made from about 40 percent natural gas and 60 percent blue 
water gas, with about one gallon of oil per thousand, making 
about 700 b. t. u. gas. The service has been eminently satis- 
factory and the rate averaged about 80 cents. Our company in 
Indiana has now practically perfected plans and will soon put 
into operation a mixed gas service in five towns with about 
11,000 domestic consumers, where the use of iioo b. t. u. gas 
is about 85,000 per annum per domestic consumer, with an 
average rate of 44 cents and an annual revenue of $37.30 per 
consumer. These same towns will receive service fifty-fifty. 
1 100 b. t. u. natural gas per 50 percent, and 50 percent 300 b. t. u. 
blue gas, making about 700 b. t. u. mixed gas, and the rate wc 
expect to establish is $1.00 for the first thousand; 75 cents net 
for the next four thousand; 50 cents for the next 95,000, and 
40 cents net for all over 100,000. We expect to sell 30,000 per 
annum of this 700 b. t. u. gas at an average of about 80 cents 
or $24.00 per annum per domestic consumer. I think that there 
are a great many places where natural gas may be in the future 
utilized as a component part of a very high grade manufactured 
or so-called artificial gas. I thank you. (Applause). 

President Guffey : We would now like to hear from Mr. 
R. W. Gallagher, Assistant General Manager, The East Ohio 
Gas Company, Cleveland, Ohio, if he is present, as we know 
his familiarity with this subject. 

Mr. R. W. Gallagher: Mr. Chairman, and Gentlemen: 
It is very nearly lunch time and I will be brief. Mr. Macbeth, 
Mr. Blauvelt and Mr. Maxon seem to have covered this situation 
very well, so that I haven't much to add. Mr. Blauvelt has 
gone into all the angles which will confront us in the future. 

There is only one thing that I might suggest, if you will 
permit me to take your time for a few minutes only, and that 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 141 

is the problems which arise in the distribution of gas. Most 
of us have a little different angle to contend with in the northern 
or central states where natural gas is being furnished than would 
arise, probably, in a territory located in southern California. 
That is, we do not have the regularity of temperature. The 
ordinary eight-room house in our district will use, when heating 
with gas, in the neighborhood of fifteen to eighteen hundred 
feet in twenty-four hours. Whereas, the increase in order to 
meet changed conditions of temperature from one day to another 
would be from three to four hundred feet, or even less, to the 
amount mentioned. 

Unfortunately a great many of the gas plants in the Ohio 
and Pennsylvania districts were built when the towns were 
smaller than they now are and, as there was some question about 
the ability to procure large amounts of gas in the future, the gas 
companies not having confidence in the future of the natural gas 
supply, as well as the possibilities of the communities, used 
smaller pipe than should, as we now see it, have been used. 
I think we are all familiar with these conditions. The result 
is, we have built up a large heating business, saturating the 
business along the lines to the extent that we find on cold days we 
have considerable difficulty supplying through these lines suf- 
ficient natural gas of i lOO b. t. u.'s to heat the houses properly, 
even when we have all the gas necessary. 

Now we come along to the point where we wish to put in 
gas lower in b. t. u.'s, and you must not forget that in doing so 
you have to carry more gas to that house to bring the same 
number of b. t. u.'s to your consumer. You should give this 
point serious consideration, as it is a problem which will have 
to be solved. Probably the only way that you can get away 
from this angle is to raise your prices to a point where you 
will cut out a great deal of that heating. And of course, as Mr. 
Blauvelt mentioned, when you start to raise your prices you 
have another serious angle confronting you. You are going to 
reduce your natural gas to a still lower b. t. u. gas which you 
are trying to sell for a higher price. Whereas, in the case of 
Mr. Macbeth, he was on the other side of the fence, selling a 
higher b. t. u. gas at practically the same price and giving the 



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142 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

people, consequently, better service. Now those are the two 
all-important questions. 

I think you should be very much interested also in another 
question which comes to my mind in this connection. The gas 
which was supplied in southern California was probably an oil 
gas or a mixed gas with a gravity ranging around .45 to .50. 
Whereas, your probably requirements, considered from an operat- 
ing standpoint in the districts where you have an abundance of 
coal, would be something in the nature of coke ovens, which will 
supply you with gas having a gravity of .35 to .37, and mixing 
this with your natural gas, has a gravity 6i .66. You will find 
that you cannot get the large percentages of mixed gas with a 
minimum of trouble in furnaces, that was worked out in the 
California case. 

I do not want to trespass further on your time. I simply 
wanted to give you these suggestions to think about because I 
don't like to see you go away thinking that all you have to do 
is to take the gas and put it in your lines and you will have no 
trouble in the future. I thank you. (Applause). 

President Guffey: We would be very much pleased to 
hear from any other member on this valuable and instructive 
paper by way of discussion or any other additional or further 
suggestions. 

Mr. Francis P. Fisher: Mr. President, I would like to 
say a word. 

President Guffey: Kindly come forward, if you will. 

Mr. Francis P. Fisher : I will not take your time to come 
forward but I simply want to say that there have been some 
features of the subject of mixing natural gas and manufactured 
gas as referred to by the author of this paper that vary from 
the experiences we have had in Kansas. In the various Kansas 
gas fields it has unfortunately developed that the natural gas 
found is not nearly so uniform in chemical composition and heat- 
ing value as the gas in most other producing Districts. The gas in 
different fields and even from different wells in the same field 
will have a wide variation of heating value. In some cases rang- 
ing from less than 100 b. t. u.'s per 1000 feet up to iioo b. t. u.'s 
per 1000 feet in the same field but from different sands. The 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 143 

question of utilization first became a commercial factor in 191 4 
when a field of this character, in which the gas ranged as low 
as 550 heat units, was turned into the main line where it mixed 
with gas which averaged about 950 heat units and causing various 
degrees of mixture to suddenly appear in the various cities fur- 
nished from the line. In extreme cases the gas went a little 
below 800 heat units but varied above and below an average of 
about 820. 

The fact that the gas from the new field was below standard 
had never been suspected until complaints from consumers 
brought to light the fact that something was seriously wrong. 
A difference of a little more than 100 heat units had an effect 
on the combustion a great deal more serious than that exper- 
ienced by Mr. Macbeth in the case which he referred to, varying 
from 600 to 1200 b. t. u.'s. It resulted in difficulties with burners 
and appliances and the consumers registered vigorous complaints 
and finally the controversy was thrown into the courts. It was 
taken from the Public Utilities Commission and there was more 
or less litigation extending over a period of two years out there. 
As nearly as I can see it the feature that was in Mr. Macbeth's 
favor as compared with the situation in Kansas is that this 
artificial gas, differing in its composition from natural gas ; that 
is, containing appreciable quantities of carbon monoxide and 
olefins both of which are quick burning gases of high flame 
temperature and high rate of flame propagation but low in heat 
units. Thus in replacing a certain amount of natural gas with 
gas of this character, the result would be a quicker, hotter flame 
or a fire in which a very similar result would be obtained by 
burning a larger quantity of gas to that obtained from pure 
natural gas. 

In the gas found in Kansas of lower heating value, this 
lower value is caused by the dilution of the natural gas with 
a certain amount of nitrogen. Natural gases are normally slow 
burning gases and the dilution with nitrogen tends to still further 
decrease the rate of flame propagation and make them slower 
burning than the natural gas so that the net result out there is 
that a difference of from 35 to 40 heat units, variation will be 
accompanied by a series of complaints from consumers who 



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144 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

encounter serious difficulties, whereas, Mr. Macbeth can get by 
with a variation of two to three hundred without any great incon- 
venience to the consumer. Therefore, I say this has become a 
commercial factor in Kansas and has brought about a movement 
which will eventually in that state, I believe, cause gas to be sold 
on the basis of heat units rather than by the cubic feet. This 
same difficulty may occur in other states and if so the quality 
of the mixture must be controlled with very narrow limits as 
suggested, for the burners and appliances are adjusted to natural 
gas of the kind we have previously been accustomed to employ 
and will not stand the wide variation in mixing natural gas with 
nitrogen dilution which from Mr. Macbeth's experience can be 
very safely used in mixed artificial gas. (Applause). 

President Guffey : We would be glad to hear from any 
other member. Mr. Weymouth, your name has been suggested. 
Do you care to add anything to the discussion ? 

Mr. T. R. Weymouth: Mr. President, I think I have 
nothing further to add. 

President Guffey: Does any other member wish to be 
heard? .If not, we will proceed with the regular order of busi- 
ness. I will next call upon Mr. W. Re Brown, New Business 
Manager, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, of Columbus, Ohio, who 
will now make his report for the Wrinkle Department. 



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\V. Re Brown, Ai.frkd J. Diesc her, 

fiditor. .Assistant Editor. 



WRINKLE DEPARTMKXT. 

Wrinkle No. 1. 

METHOD OF THAWING OUT SERVICE LINES W^ITHOUT 
CUTTING PAVEMENT. 

A. W. GAVIN, ASSISTANT CITY SUPERINTMNDKNT, IROQUOIS 
NATURAL GAS CO.. BUFFALO, N. V. 

The attached sketch suggests a method of thawing out a 
service pipe, frozen between stop-cock and main-line, without 
cutting piping or pavement. 

This is done, as shown in sketch, by removing core of 
stop-cock, inserting §" block tin tube and applying water; the 
water is driven back through core of stop-cock by the pressure 
of gas as the thawing progresses. 

10 (145) 



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146 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 




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TWELFTH ASNUAL MEETING. 



147 



Wrinkle No. 2. 
USE AUTOMOBILE TIRE INNER TUBE TO STOP FLOW OF 

GAS. 

LON JORDAN, OKLAHOMA FUEL SUPPLY CO., CLAREMORE, OKLA. 

W. W. BRUCE, SUPERINTENDENT OKLAHOMA FUEL SUPPLY CO., 

CHANDLER, OKLA. 

In repairing plant lines it frequently becomes necessary 
to cut out certain lines in order to repair others without inter- 



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148 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



fering with the general supply to any great extent. It recently 
became necessary for us to repair a certain six inch low pres- 
sure main, from which was connected two three inch lines, 
which in turn were connected and were being supplied from 
other distributing stations. In order to free the six inch line 
and continue service through the two three inch lines, a stopper 
was necessary to avoid cutting out the two lines and capping 
them temporarily. To do this we used for such stoppers the 
inner tube from an automobile. We had these cut to a length 
of about one foot, leaving the valve connection remain and had 
the ends vulcanized. By drilling a one-inch hole in the mains 
it was easy to make the insertion of the inner tube, after which 
lung pressure was sufficient to inflate them, the regular valve 
holding the pressure sufficient to accomplish the purpose. 
After repairs were completed it became a simple matter to 
withdraw the tubes and insert plug in the line. 

I submit a drawing and feel that you will clearly grasp 
the simplicity of the operation. Of course this would not apply 
to large lines for the reason the tubes would not be procurable 
but serves for the conditions enumerated. 




Wrinkle No. 3. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 149 

Wrinkle No. 3. 

CONVERTING OIL BURNING STEAM BOILERS TO NATURAL 

GAS FUEL, OR VICE VERSA, WITHOUT DELAY 

OR AFFECTING STEAM PRESSURE. 

J. T. CREIGHTON, SUPERINTENDENT GAS MANUFACTURE, LOS 

ANGELES GAS AND ELECTRIC CORPORATION, 

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA. 

The accompanying sketch ilkistrates a successful installa- 
tion for making a quick change of fuel in steam boilers. 

It will be noted that it is possible to use natural gas or 
oil for fuel — either independently or both at the same time, 
thus insuring a fire under boilers at all times. Old boiler tubes, 
swaged and cut, as per sketch, are used for burners. The roar- 
ing noise — an undesirable feature of burning natural gas under 
boilers — is entirely eliminated. 

The complete installation costs approximately 50 cents per 
boiler horse-power. 

Wrinkle No. 4. 
COMBINATION GAS OR OIL BURNER. 

GEO. IIORSLEV, JR.. THE EA.ST OHIO CAS CO., CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
(See (Irawinji^ on paj?c loO. ) 

Wrinkle No. 5. 

HORIZONTAL TUBULAR BOILER USED AS NATURAL GAS 

SEPARATOR. 

W. H. SEDBERRY, MARSHALL GAS COMPANY, MARSHALL, TEXAS. 

The accompanying sketch and photo of the installation of 
a horizontal tubular boiler placed in an upright position and 
used in an emergency by us as a separator with most excellent 
results. 

We were troubled with considerable oil and other matter 
getting into our low pressure lines this winter causing quite a 
lot of annoyance to our consumers. It was necessary to act 
quickly, and this 20 h. p. boiler being accessible, we imme- 
diately put our idea into operation. 

You can readily see that by taking the gas into the side 
through the dome, it strikes the flues which act as baffles and 
passing between the flues finds an outlet at the top; there 



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160 ^ NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



151 




Wrinkle No. 5. 



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1.V2 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



Wrinkle Xo. o. 

being an opening at the foundation creates a circulation of air 
through the flues which materially assists in condensation. 

This condenser has now been in use for three months and 
since its installation we have had no more trouble with liquids 
or oil in our (listri])iiting system. A blow off is attached at B. 

Wrinkle No. 6. 
METHOD TO PREVENT PASSING OF UN-REGISTERED GAS 

BY TIPPING. 

G. C. REKD, TKLKPHOXK FOKKMAN AND MKTER INSPECTOR, LONE 
STAR CAS COMPANY. FORT WORTH, TKXAS. 

A flat strip of metal fastened from post to post will prevent 
valve from oi)ening when meter is tipped, and meter will register 
accurately in any position. 



Wrinkle Xo. 1). 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 153 

Wrinkle No. 7. 

LOCK AND CAP FOR GATE VALVES. 

W. G. HAGAN. THE EAST OHIO GAS COMPANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

This method prevents any tampering with valves. 
This cap was used on an 8-inch gate valve and is made of 
6" pipe with a cover welded on top. Slots are cut in the sides 

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Wrinkle Xo. 7. 

to permit the key to extend through and between stuffing box 
and bolt. The key is made with a "T" head and has a hole at 
the other end to allow the ring of the |)ad-lock to pass through. 



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154 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Wrinkle No. 8. 
TO PREVENT LONG MAPS FROM TRAILING ON THE FLOOR. 
THE EAST OHIO GAS COMPANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Some very large maps, more than twelve feet long, made 
some arrangement necessary that would roll them up at the 
bottom to keep them off the floor, when a view of the top of 
the map was desired. 

The maps are arranged on the tin spring map rollers in the 
usual manner in the nest up at the ceiling. At the bottom of 
the map, we used a split cork pine cellar 2j" in diameter. In 
the left end of the roller, a pin is driven of i" diameter. This 
pin enters a hole in the brass bracket at the left end of the 
roller. This bracket is securely fastened to the wall and does 
not swing. At the right end of the roller, a brass cap was 
put on with a J" square hole in the end of same. The bracket 
at the right end of the roller swings in a circle and the square 
end of the crank shaft meshes into the square hole in the cap 
on the end of the roller. A latch that drops down on the arm 
of the bracket holds it in the proper place. The tension put 
on the spring of the tin roller up in the map nest is fully strong 
enough to unroll and raise the map when you wish to do so. A 
slight jerky motion of the crank of the bracket will set the 
dogs in the roller above just as easy as the present way of 
doing it by hand. 

The operator, standing near the swinging bracket, can 
easily stab the pin on the other end of the roller into the 
stationary bracket at the left end, on account of the light 
weight of the cork pine bottom roller, swing the right end 
bracket into place, drop the latch, and then turn the crank. 

This wrinkle solved a problem that had caused considerable 
damage to the bottom of the large maps from trailing on the 
floor when in use. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 156 

Wrinkle No. 9. 

EXTENSION STEM FOR GATE VALVE, TO BE USED IN CASE 
OF HIGH WATER IN OVERFLOW DISTRICT. 

A. E. MCKIEARNAN, LONE STAR GAS COMPANY. DAN TAYLOR, 
DALLAS GAS COMPANY. 

Corner posts are made of 8" junk pipe. Platform is built 
of wood. Extension stem is iron or steel, with a socket on the 



Wrinkle No. 9. 

bottom made to fit main valve stem, with wheel removed. Ex- 
tension stem is fastened below with a key, to keep anyone 
from removing it and is locked to corner post with a chain to 
keep anyone from closing or opening the valve. 

Wrinkle No. 10. 
TANK FOR CLEANING AND STRAINING GASOLINE. 

JAS. MCCARTY, THE EAST OHIO GAS CO., CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Gasoline used for washing the top part of tin meters gets 
very dirty. 

With this Wrinkle, gasoline is cleaned and strained, and 
used over again. 



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i:)(i NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



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GASOLINE STPAINEfS 

Wrinkle No. Kl 

Wrinkle No. 11. 
TO REMOVE HEAVY BOULDERS. 

JAMES J. CUMMINS. PRK.SSUKE DEPARTMENT, THE OHIO FUEL 
SUPPLY CO., COLUMllUS, OHIO. 

In running a trench, we often came against a large boulder 
and it must be removed or destroyed. 

A simple method is to loosen the soil from underneath the 
boulder, next slip a heavy ])lank under it. Then two or more 
men lift on each end of the plank and hoist the boulder to 
the surface. 

A boulder weighing from 500 to 600 pounds can easily 
and quickly be removed in this manner. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



157 




Wrinkle No. 12. 



Wrinkle No. 12. 

TOOL FOR PULLING TEST BAR FROM PAVEMENT OVER 
MAIN LINE. 

W. J. GAGEN, FORT WORTH GAS CO., FORT WORTH, TEXAS. 

This tool consists of a lever as shown. The lever is made 
from one inch by one and one-half inch steel and is fitted with 
a jaw made up of a pin on one side and a sharp toothed grip 
on the other. 




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Wrinkle Xo. 13. 



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158 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Wrinkle No. 13. 
EASY WAY TO REPAIR A LEAK. 

ED. CANNY, MAIN LINE MAN, KANSAS NATURAL GAS CO., 
COLUMBUS, KANSAS. 

Easy way to repair leaks on high or low pressure line 
and especially on pipe that is pitted and rusted. Take blind 
saddle made to fit pipe, some rope asbestos about one-quarter 
inch in diameter, roll in a tight circle until you have a pad a 
little larger than the leak to be repaired, then take some roof 
cement paint or asphaltum and cover the pad to fill seams with 
same. Then take another pad a little smaller than the first, use 
paint or asphaltum as before, stick second pad to center of the 
first, stick both to saddle and place over leak, tighten saddle 
and leak is repaired. 



Wrinkle No. 14. 
NOTICE CARD. 

O. M. BALDWIN, THE EAST OHIO GAS COMPANY, KENT, OHIO. 

This card is handed out at the time application is made 
for a meter. The applicant is instructed to read the card care- 
fully, so that there will be no delay about setting the meter 
when the gas man comes to do so. These instructions are printed 
on a card of suitable size. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



159 



BE SURE TO READ THIS. 

TO AVOID DELAY IN HAVING GAS TURNED ON 

KINDLY OBSERVE THE FOLLOWING 

DIRECTIONS. 

First — See that all gas appliances have solid connections: 
that is, use pipe instead of hose for connecting stoves, grates, 
etc. 

Second — Do not connect any gas appliance unless it has a 
proper flue connection. 

Third — Be sure that all openings in gas lines are plugged 
or capped. 

Fourth — Place an independent valve on riser to your gas 
range or heating stove. 

Fifth — Examine each opening where stove pipe connects to 
chimney to see that it is free of soot and other obstructions. 

The above directions are to insure safety and our employes 
are instructed not to set a meter unless these directions are 
complied with. 



Wrinkle No. 14. 



Wrinkle No. 15. 
METHOD OF REPAIRING HIGH PRESSURE LEAKS. 

J. F. PALMER, SUPERINTENDENT, ARKANSAS NATURAL GAS 
COMPANY, SIIREVEPORT, LOUISIANA. 

Occasionally there is found a leak in a fitting that is diffi- 
cult to repair by the ordinary method. The prints herewith 
illustrate a method that has been successfully used under high 
pressure. 

Cut off small "V" from around a collar leak, or coupling 
rubber. Insert in recess, fasten ends together by tying, then pour 
lead in the recess and calk. 



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160 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 




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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



161 



Wrinkle No. 16. 

TO PREVENT TIPPING OF METERS. 

J. H. STINSON, FORT WORTH GAS CO., FORT WORTH, TEXAS. 

Use a return bend on one side of meter instead of usual 



fittings. 




Wrinkle No. 16. 

Wrinkle No. 17. 
PROTECTION FOR GAS GRAVITY TESTER. 

C. E. BROCK^ DIVISION SUPERINTENDENT, EMPIRE GAS AND FUEL 
COMPANY^ BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

Our company has experienced great difficulty in keeping 
gravity tubes from breaking. By using a rubber band around 
the bottom of the gravity tube, it keeps the tube from coming 
in contact with the water tube and saves about 90% of the 
breakages. 



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NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



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Wrinkle No. 17. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



163 




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164 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Wrinkle No. 18. 

COMBINATION METHOD OF USING NATURAL GAS AND 

REFUSE OF WOOD WORKING PLANTS AS FUEL 

FOR POWER PLANTS. 

W. T. ROBERTS, C. W. KRAMER, ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, 

ARKANSAS NATURAL GAS COMPANY, 

LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS. 

This sketch shows the method employed in burning 
natural gas and refuse, consisting of saw dust, shavings, chips 
and small blocks, from wood working shops, as fuel in a power 
plant. The gas is supplied through a lo" low pressure header 
in the subject sketched, from which it goes through a one and 
a half inch pipe (li") reduced to one inch (i")- The gas 
flows to the mouth of the eight inch port in front of the boiler, 
from whence it is pulled with air into the furnace against a 
wall to "break up" and mix same completely for combustion. 

In this installation the refuse from the shops is conveyed 
a distance of five hundred feet to the boilers, by means of a 
blower system, having an 8 ounce suction, which delivers the 
refuse directly into the fire box, where it is completely consumed, 
very materially lowering the fuel cost. No ash remains to 
cause trouble, as it is reduced to powder form and goes out 
the stack. 

Wrinkle No. 19. 
DEVICE FOR FILLING METER PROVER WITH GAS. 

J. R. GILBERT, IOI2 ROIS HARC ST., FORT WORTH, TEXAS. 

This connection is used at large hose opening of prover, 
and by means of loosened street ell at (A), can be swung back 
out of the way when necessary to use the prover for large 
meters. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



165 



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Wrinkle No. 19. 



Wrinkle No. 20. 

TO VENTILATE REGULATOR PIT. 

J. H. STINSON, FORT WORTH GAS CO., FORT WORTH, TEXAS. 

Use two 4-inch pipes. Connect one at top of pit and use 
a cover over the top. Connect the other to the bottom of the 
pit and drill holes to let in air. 

(A) should extend a few feet above (B). 



t 




Wrinkle No. 20. 



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166 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Wrinkle No. 21. 

WARNING BELL ATTACHED TO PROVER 

J. R. GILBERT, IOI2 BOIS DARC ST., FORT WORTH, TEXAS. 

While running a slow check test on a meter the operator 
may give his attention to other matters and the bell will give 




Wrinkle No. 21. 

a warning when the test is nearly finished. The bell is attached 
to the prover with a movable band so as to allow setting for 
tests of various lengths. 

Wrinkle No. 22. 

DEVICE TO PREVENT REVERSING OF INLET AND OUTLET 

OF METER. 

G. C. REED, TELEPHONE FOREMAN AND METER INSPECTOR, LONE 
STAR GAS COMPANY, FORT WORTH, TEXAS. 

Place a check valve in the neck of the outlet on meter. If 
meter is in normal position, the flow of gas keeps this valve 
open. If meter is reversed to prevent the registering of gas, 
this check valve is closed by the pressure of the in-coming gas, 
thereby effectively cutting off the supply until meter is reversed 
in proper position. It would be almost impossible to detect the 
presence of this valve. 

Wrinkle No. 23. 

VALVE RESEATING TOOL. 

L. E. SNIDER, ENGINEER, ARKANSAS NATURAL GAS COMPANY. 

Tool for re-grinding or re-setting valve seats, in place. 
Especially adapted for use in large gas engines such as used in 
compressing stations. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 167 






I V I 

Wrinkle No. 23. 



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168 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Wrinkle No. 24. 
ROAD DRAG. 

H. O. BALLARD, SUPERINTENDENT PRODUCTION, WICHITA NATURAL 
GAS CO., BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

The above drawing shows a very efficient road drag where 
oil companies have to keep their private roads in condition. 




Wrinkle No. 24. 




This drag consists of 8 ft. of i6" or i8" pipe, ripped in half. 
By certain adjustments, this drag can be made to not only drag 
roads, but grade them as well. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 169 

Wrinkle No. 25. 
ADJUSTABLE METER SUPPORT. 

O. C. HARTSOUGH, THE EAST OHIO GAS CO., CANTON, OHIO. P. 
KENNEDY, THE EAST OHIO GAS CO., CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

This Meter Support is attached to the riser of the service 
and is set at any height desired. It gives more satisfaction than 
the old style meter spuds which were always liable to get loose. 



>i Bolt ,*'x ^* Band Iron 




^ 



Wrinkle No. 25. 

Wrinkle No. 26. 
MULTIPLE RATE CAP FOR TESTING METERS. 

E. C. WEISGERBER, SALES MANAGER, EQUITABLE METER CO., 
PITTSBURGH, PA. 

In testing meters it is always necessary to test them for 
the different rates of flow, namely, lo ft. per hour, 20 ft., and 
then upwards to the open flow test. Most companies who do 
this work have a different cap for each flow, and it is necessary 
to unscrew the one cap and place another, etc. In many cases 
the caps are lost, and all of this takes considerable time, but 
by making the multiple rate cap, as per above sketch all of 
these tests except the open flow test can be made through the 
cap, as per the above. 

The above illustration shows a standard 20 light meter nut 
in which a brass blank has been soldered, and this blank is 
drilled with holes which will pass the desired amount of gas 
at the desired prover pressure, namely, the above holes are of 
sufficient size to pass 10, 20, 61, 131 and 175 cu. ft. of gas or 



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170 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 




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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 171 

air at i^" pressure. These caps can also be made for 5 light, 
10 light and other sizes, and their use will greatly facilitate the 
testing of meters. 

A shutter is made, as per sketch, with an opening large 
enough to aUow the largest hole exposed. This shutter is held 
in place by a nut which turns on the screw which has been 
soldered to the cap proper, and the holes in the meter cap are 
placed so that the shutter can be turned in any direction, but 
the slot only allowing the desired hole for capacity to be open, 
thereby the gas or air must flow through the desired orifice. 



Wrinkle No. 27. 

FORMS FOR KEEPING RECORD OF TESTS AND LOCATION 
OF PROPORTIONAL METERS. 

C. W. KRAMER, ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, ARKANSAS NATURAL 
GAS COMPANY, LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS. 

Form No. 140- A is self-explanatory, and, after a meter 
has been tested in the field, the report is sent to the Meter De- 
partaient. The form is in duplicate, in book form, and duplicate 
copy is to be retained by the Field Inspector. These test records 
are filed according to their consecutive number. 

Form No. 629 is the Meter Department's record of the 
meters. The face of the card is used ^o show the make, size, 
capacity and location of meter. The reverse side is used to 
keep a record of the tests, and on it is entered the date of the 
test, the consecutive number of the test slip (Form 140-A), the 
condition — fast or slow — in which the meter was found and 
left, also the initials of the person who ran the test. 

The card is filed according to the district in which the meter 
IS located, and, in that sub-division, according to the serial num- 
ber of the meter. 



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172 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



r^RMNO. 140A-a*1-1T 

ARKANSAS NATURAL GAS CO. 
METER TEST REPORT. 

Date 



191. 



Location 

Make Size No Capacity 

Reading Before Aftee 

Barometer Temperature Gas Atmos. 

Gravity Inches Water 



flowometer test. 



Vol. Per 
Hour. 


Inspection 
Test. 


Final 
Test. 


OONDITtt)N. 


Cu. Ft. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 










MATERIAL USED. 
















































remarks. 








































































1 








; 

















Arkansas Natural Gas Co. 






1 

1 Inspector. 



Wrinkle No. 27, 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



173 



Fonn No. €29 





Meter 


Capacity. No. 




Gauge, No. Range. 




Location. 


Consumer. 


Date. 


Set Order. 


Rem. Order. 






















- 

































































































TEST RECORD. 








Date. 


No. 


Found. 


Left. 


By 


Date. 


No. 


Found. 


Left. 


By 
















































































































■ 














































































1 








. 








1 









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174 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



Wrinkle No, 28. 
VALVE FOR GAS BAG TUBE. 

WM. HAGAN, THE EAST OHIO GAS COMPANY^ CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

This wrinkle consists of attaching a bic}'cle tire valve to the 
tube of a rubber gas bag, and connecting same to a pump for 
inflation. 

Vblve from 
bicycle tire 

ISubber tube 

Wrinkle No. 28. 

Wrinkle No. 29. 
REGULATOR CONTROL. 

R. B. LLOYD, SUPERINTENDENT LINES, H. O. BALLARD, SUPERIN- 
TENDENT PRODUCTION, WICHITA NATURAL GAS CO., 
BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

This wrinkle consists of an old piece of working barrel 
with a solid cap on the bottom end and a reducer on the top 
end, with a f" piston rod extending from the regulator arm 
to the piston ring inside the barrel, with a Y' B)y-Pass extending 
from the bottom to within 5" of the top, with a common brass 
cock in the By-Pass. The barrel is filled with any kind of 
heavy oil. This is to keep a regulator from opening or closing 
too far when the regulator is inclined to stick. The By-Pass 
cock being closed to allow but a small amount of oil to pass. 
Should the regulator stick up and finally loosen, it will not allow 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 175 

the weights to drop fast, but to lower slowly. The same thing 
applies, should the regulator lever stick down. 

This works very effectively whenever there is an uneven 
flow through the regulators, like glass plants or close to an 
orifice meter. 



Wrinkle No. 29. 

Wrinkle No. 30. 
MAIN LINE REPAIR SLEEVE. 
LEN RYAN, BLACKWELL, OKLA. 

In case of a hole in a main line of plain end pipe, a good 
method of repair is to use an ordinary sleeve coupling with 



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176 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

followers and rubbers. Disconnect the line at the nearest joint 
and slip a sleeve with followers along the pipe until the sleeve 
covers the hole. Place rubbers and make up as an ordinary 
joint. This gives a repair as good as a new joint and is useful 
where a line can be shut out for repairs. 



Wrinkle No. 31. 
RUBBER GASKETS FOR METER CONNECTIONS. 

E. A. MCSHERRY, FORT WORTH GAS COMPANY. 

The use of rubber gaskets will eliminate leaks in connecting 
up meters. 

Wrinkle No. 32. 
OIL-STEAM BURNER FOR BOILERS. 

E. WILBERDING, ENGINEER, THE EAST OHIO GAS CO., 

CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

(See drawing on page 177.) 



Wrinkle No. 33. 

MIXER FOR USE ON SMALL GASOLINE ENGINE TO BURN 
NATURAL GAS. 

FREDRICK F. DOYLE, ASST. CHIEF ENGINEER, MIDWAY GAS CO., 

TAFT, CALIFORNIA. 

(See drawing on page 178.) 

The following sketch shows how a 2" Cross, three 2" 
Plugs and a 2" x i" Bushing were used to make a mixing 
chamber for natural gas and air which attached to an engine 
formerly run on gasoline and using a carburetor. A little 
machine work was required. The area of the air opening should 
be from 9 to 12 times the area of the area of the gas opening, 
depending upon the kind of gas used. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



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178 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



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6fl5 

MtXEJl FOfl SnBLL GflSOUNE ENGINE, TO 
QUR.N Nf^TUnflL 6/fS 

Wrinkle No. a3. 

Wrinkle No. 34. 

ERECT SIGNS TO SHOW LOCATION OF LINES. 

H. P. ZIESCIIANG, THE OHIO FUEL SUPPLY CO.. COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

In walking lines in a strange district it is very difficult to 
find the line especially where the land is plowed every year. 

I suggest, that when a line is constructed, that a board be 
nailed on the fence and painted white and the name of the 
line and property line painted in black. 

This would be helpful to any man working on the lines 
for repair work, etc. 



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TWELFTH ANXUAL MEETING. 179 



Wrinkle No. 35 
USE STAPLE IN PLACE OF TACK. 

WM. HEAZLETT, SHOP FOREMAN. PEOPLES NATURAL GAS CO., 
LATROBE, PA. 

The photo is of a little staple which I use for fastening 
rubber rings together when putting on split sleeves where lines 
are broken. I find they will hold against a very high pressure. 

The old way of using tacks is not very satisfactory as the 
pressure blows the tacks loose and the tacks do not make a good 



Wrinkle Xo. :i"'). 

job, but the staple holds the ends in a perfect circle as you 
will see in the photo, while tacks leave a loose end. The staple 
should be about two and one-half inches long and made of 
soft wire, with tongs long enough to go through the rubber 
and turn enough to make it impossible to pull out. 



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180 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Wrinkle No. 36. 

BAFFLE TEE DRIP WITH AUTOMATIC BLOW OFF. 

R. B. LLOYD, SUPERINTENDENT LINES, H. O. BALLARD, SUPERIN- 
TENDENT PRODUCTION, WICHITA NATURAL GAS CO., 
BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

This drip is made entirely of welded fittings. The weld- 
ing being done by the Oxy-Acetylene process. The automatic 
blow-oflF device consists merely of a stop cock with a float at- 
tached to it. The float being made of thoroughly dried pine wood 
covered with copper and thoroughly sealed. The 3" plug is 
for emergency use in case the automatic blow-off should get 
out of order. 




Wrinkle No. 36. 



Wrinkle No. 37. 

MEASURING THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF A SMALL SAMPLE 

OF GAS. 

E. E. LYDER, CHIEF CHEMIST, EMPIRE GAS & FUEL CO., 
BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

It is sometimes desirable to determine the specific gravity 
of small amounts of gas brought to the laboratory. 

This can be done on samples of 75 c. c. or more by use of 
the following device : 

A 50 c. c. pipette with a three-way stop cock sealed on 
top of it, as shown in the diagram, is inserted into a glass 
cylinder, which is kept nearly full of water. One of the leads 
to the stop cock is equipped with a platinum disk, sealed into 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



181 



With OHfiC9. 







^t^^Thmr^ncmmtmn 



Wrinkle No. 37. 

the glass. Through the disk is a small orifice for the discharge 
measurement. 

The device is connected to a gas analysis apparatus and 
the gas upon which the determination is to be made, is forced 
into the pipette. The stop cock is then turned to connect the 
pipette and orifice and time measurements are taken with a 
stop watch as the water displaces the gas past two given poins 
on the pipette. 

After running the sample of gas, air is run, and the 
densities compared by the time they pass a given orifice as in 
an ordinary specific gravity bottle. 



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182 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

Wrinkle No. 38. 
TO ENLARGE CAPACITY OF METERS. 

J. R. GILBERT, IOI2 BOIS DARC ST., FORT WORTH, TAXAS. 

Take off side tubes and file out the openings into the 
meters. File wherever possible and attach side pipes of brand 
known as "Texas Special". This will increase the capacity of 
small meters remarkably, especially three light meters. 

Wrinkle No. 39. 
TONG FOR COMPRESSING RUBBER COUPLING. 

E. H. CYPHERT, PIPE LINE FOREMAN, WICHITA PIPE LINE CO., 
BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

(See drawing on page 183.) 

This wrinkle consists of a bar of iron J" x 2" x 4' long and- 
one piece the same size, 18" long, bent to the shape of a common 
canthook. Whenever the rubbers will not allow the followers 
to go together so that the commonly used bolt is too short for 
threads to start; by hooking this device over the coupling and 
pulling the leaver, it will compress the rings so that taps may 
be easily started. 

Wrinkle No. 40. 

ALWAYS REPEAT TELEPHONE ORDERS. 

JAMES J. CUMMINS, PRESSURE DEPARTMENT, THE OHIO FUEL 
SUPPLY CO., COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

When it is necessary to give an order over the telephone^ 
be sure to make the party who receives the message repeat it 
back to you. 

This is important in any department of the business, but 
is particularly important in the matter of receiving field reports 
regarding pressure, etc., as this is mostly over long distance 
and a word or two misunderstood might make serious trouble. 

Repeating the message this way also may bring to mind 
something that has been forgotten. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 183 




rOA/6 n>li C0flPRES5tN6 RlfBBLR. 
COUPLING 

Wrinkle No. 39. 



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184 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Wrinkle No. 41. 

DRAIN FOR METERS. 

J. R. GILBERT, IOI2 BOIS DARC ST., FORT WORTH, TEXAS. 

Attach a small brass pipe to the under ring of the diaphragm 
and run under and around the leather to avoid rubbing. Attach 
small cocks on the outside and make all joints absolutely tight. 




Wrinkle No. 41. 

To drain the meter, open cocks and the gas pressure will soon 
force out the condensation. This device is useful especially 
on large meters. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



185 



yJrM^c/rgr /# Tktrft 




Plah 



TtBTM 




Wrinkle No. 42. 



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186 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Wrinkle No. 42. 

COUPON CUTTING MACHINE THAT SAVES TIME. 

F. W. SCOVELL^ CASHIER, JOPLIN GAS CO., JOPUN, MISSOURI. 

(See drawing on page 185.) 

The drawing herewith shows a coupon cutting machine 
attachment. 

The idea of the machine is to save time of sorting stubs 
into their thousands at the time same are receipted by setting 
dial to any number from one to eleven. All stubs from number 
one to one thousand will go into box number one; one thousand 
to two thousand In ,box number two, and so on up to and 
including ten thousand. Setting of dial only requires second 
of operator's time and each stub has gone to its proper box. 
At close of day's business half of the sorting is done, all the 
stubs are in their thousand order, face up and in neat order, 
thus effecting a saving of time according to number of stubs 
handled. If you should want to refer to any stub at any time 
during the day you can locate same instantly. 

This distributer can be attached to any coupon cutting 
machine in short time as all that is necessary is to shorten or 
lengthen dial shaft put in chute, cut hole in counter 2" square 
and fasten box to under side of counter. 

Size of box 18" square, wheel 16" diameter, wheel having 
eleven compartments. 

Wrinkle No. 43. 

STOPPING LEAKS ON A LEADED SLEEVE JOINT. 

F. DOOLING, THE EAST OHIO GAS CO., CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

(See drawing on page 187.) 

The difference in O. D. between cast iron and steel pipe 
make it necessary to use rubbers of different thickness. The 
flanges and "J" ^^^^ were home-made." 

This method has given satisfaction and is vouched for by 
Mr. Dooling. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



187 







^tc«l Hoop w«ld^d to Fian^ 

Wrinkle No. 43. 

Wrinkle No. 44. 
"A WRINKLE WORTH TRYING." 

GEO. B. SIPE, VICE PRES. AND GEN. MGR., LOUISIANA GAS CO., . 
SHREVEPORT, LOUISIANA. 

(See drawing on page 188.) 

The ordinary pilot used in jacking pipe under paving, across 
streets, and elsewhere does not provide against : 

(i). The pipe being deflected from a straight course by 
coming in contact with pebbles or other obstructions, 
nor 

(2). Having to leave a string of pipe in the ground, if 
any obstruction is encountered that necessitates be- 
ginning again, nor 

(3). Friction along the entire length of the line. 

By using a reducer and plug, making the pilot much larger 
than the pilot ordinarily used, overcomes all the difficulties 
enumerated above. 

The long pointed pilot is easily deflected from a straight 
course by a pebble. The blunt reducer and plug will push it 
aside. 



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188 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



M3tJ/^ 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 189 

Should an obstruction be encountered that cannot be passed 
or pushed aside, by digging down to and removing the reducer 
allows the removal of pipe. 

We have jacked eight inch pipe, by using such a pilot, a 
distance of two hundred feet without deflecting but a few inches; 
we have also jacked ten inch pipe successfully a distance of 
over forty to sixty feet under railroad tracks. Try it 



Shaft 

'Tool 
^J^Packing Nut 

Top of Meter >^ i , 

TOOL FOR HOLDING PACKING NUT 

Wrinkle No. 45. 




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im NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Wrinkle No. 45. 
TOOL FOR STARTING METER PACKING NUT. 

WM. TAYLOR, THE EAST OHIO GAS CO., CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
(See drawing on page 189.) 

This little tool is very handy for putting pressure on the 
packing nut in the top part of a tin meter, to overcome the 
resistance against the nut caused by the packing below. 

The worm is generally of such size that it is difficult to 
get nut started with the fingers. This tool overcomes this trouble. 

Wrinkle No. 46. 
NON-INFAMMABLE GATE BOX. 

R. H. LLOYD, SUPERINTENDENT LINES. WICHITA NATURAL GAS CO., 
BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

The above wrinkle consists of a piece of junk pipe welded 
on the top with a semi-clevice cut out of an old brake band 
with a slot cut in the pipe so as to allow the device to pass 
through the pipe under the stuffing box gland and extend through 



COMblN^TION 6/iT€ BOX f^ND 3E/iL 

Wrinkle No. 46. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



191 



the opposite side of the gate box, with a hole in the end of 
the device to allow a lock. By hanging the gate wheel in the 
semi-clevice on the opposite side from the lock, not only locks 
the wheel to the gate, but also locks the gate at the same time. 
This makes a gate box which is non-inflammable and much 
cheaper and more durable than the ordinary wooden box. 

Wrinkle No. 47. 
DRIP THAT STOPS MORE LIQUID. 

ELTING HENDERSON, STATION SUPERINTENDENT, MIDWAY GAS CO., 
TAFT, CALIFORNIA. 






JT/f 






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Wrinkle No. 47. 

The sketch of a drip for use on gas Hne explains itself. 

We find that this type of drip stops a larger percentage 
of the liquid in our gas lines than any other type we have 
ever used. 

Wrinkle No. 48. 

TEST WHICH PROVES NATURAL GAS TO BE THE EQUAL 

OF ARTIFICIAL GAS IN BRAZING AND 

MELTING GOLD. 

S. E. HAFER, THE EAST OHIO GAS COMPANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

A test showing that natural gas, filtered through cotton, is 
just as good as artificial gas for use by dentists for melting 
gold for all kinds of dental work, and brazing of all kinds. 

Take a piece of f " pipe, about one foot long, fill it with 
cotton and let natural gas pass through it. The result will be 
just as good, if not better, than with artificial gas. 



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192 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Wrinkle No. 49. 

METHOD OF CLEANING MERCURY. 

FREDERICK P. DOYLE, ASST. CHIEF ENGINEER, MIDWAY GAS CO., 

TAFT, CALIFORNIA. 

When adjusting an orifice meter gauge, used for measuring 
casinghead gas, it was found that some oil had been carried 
over from the main gas line to the chamber containing the 
mercury. In an attempt to clean the mercury by using water 
it separated into minute globules each apparently coated with 
a thin film of oil. After a few washings with gasoline the 
mercury was thoroughly separated from the oil and the globules 
immediately united to form one mass of clean mercury putting 
it in proper shape for use in the gauge and at the same time 
saving it. 

Wrinkle No. 50. 
WELDED BY-PASS AROUND GATE VALVE. 

H. C. IIUTCHINGS, CONSTRUCTION FOREMAN, WICIITA NATURAL 
GAS CO., BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

The ordinary gate valve By-Pass is so expensive that this 
wrinkle was devised. It merely consists of nipples screwed into 
both sides of any ordinary screw or flanged gate valve and by 
the use of the Oxy-Acetylene process, welding the By-Pass 
connections into both nipples and installing a side gate on each 
connection and completing the By-Pass around the gate. If 
desired, a blow off nipple with a gate on it can be welded into 
the Bv-Pass. 




Welded Gate By- Pass 
-for any 3/ze pipe 

Wrinkle No. 50. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 193 

Wrinkle No. 51. 
METHOD OF COOLING JACKET WATER FOR A GAS ENGINE. 

FREDERICK L. DOYLE, ASST. CHIEF ENGINEER, MIDWAY GAS CO., 

TAFT^ CALIFORNIA. 

(See drawing on page 194.) 

In localities where water for cooling purposes has to be 
purchased by the barrel and where it contains a large percentage 
of scale forming salts the cooling system as shown by the 
accompanying diagram can be used to advantage. 

The system is filled with distilled water or the purest water 
obtainable. The heated water from the gas engine flows into 
a tank from which it is pumped to cooling coils partly sub- 
mei^ed in the cooling pond and partly exposed to the action 
of water from sprays. From the coils it goes to the engine and 
through the cylinder jacket. 

If obtainable, salt water from a shallow water well can 
be used for circulating through the sprays and the cooling pond. 
There will be a slight evaporation of the water in the system 
but this method of cooling will not only greatly reduce the 
amount of good water used but will prevent the engine from 
being scaled up in a short time. 

If used in a gas compressing plant or a gasoline plant the 
coolit^ coils can be in the same tower with the coils through 
which the compressed gas circulates. Allow 25 B. T. U. per 
hour per square foot of area of cooler coils for cooling effect. 

Wrinkle No. 52. 

PRINTED NOTICES. 

v. A. GOBLE, THE EAST OHIO GAS CO., RAVENNA, OHIO. 

Printed notices informing the consumer of violations of 
Gas Company Rules: that is, hose connections, appliances with- 
out flue connections, etc. These notices to be handed out by 
meter readers, fitters and other employes, when they come in 
contact with any violations. 

Also a printed card from the Gas Company to inform 
plumbers, pipefitters and contractors, as to the correct size of 
pipe to run to the last outlet, and also the proper size of risers 
to the second or upper floors. 

13 



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194 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 1»5 

Wrinkle No. 53. 

LOCATING ACCOUNTS FOR METER READERS. 

ROBERT W. GOODNOW, ASSESSOR AND COLLECTOR^ WATER DEPART- 
MENT, KANSAS CITY, MO. 

The writer, while a member of the National Gas Association 
of America, is not directly connected with the gas proposition 
at the present time, but was Gas Inspector for the City of 
Kansas City for several years. His duties now are Assessing and 
Collecting Water Rates for the municipally owned water plant 
of Kansas City, Mo. 

A great many splendid ideas can be found in the Wrinkle 
Departaient reports which are applicable to Public Service cor- 
porations, such as Water and Gas, and I believe that the en- 
closed sketch of a system which we have adopted to locate our 
Accounts in our meter readers* Route Books and Meter Rate 
Ledgers, and while it is not entirely a new idea might be of 
assistance to some other City or Company, so we are enclosing 
a sketch of tfie same and a short explanation regarding its 
workings. 

Wish to state that the City adopted this plan about a year 
ago and we are finding it to be a much simpler and easier 
method of locating our accounts than our old method, which 
was done by giving an Account a Tap number and then a 
License number, locating the Account by the License number. 
A brief description of this Block System idea is as follows: 
We have taken a large map of the City of Kansas City and 
have numbered every city block: in large tracts of land have 
left spaces so that additional numbers can be added when the 
same are platted. 

We start in at one corner Off this City block and set up 
our Accounts by street number; the attached drawing being a 
copy of our service map for block No. 955: we read down 
one side of the block, then read the cross street number, then 
read backwards on the named street and back to the point of 
beginning, viz : 



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196 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 




: fi\^*i:v 



Wrinkle No. 63. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



197 



3015 Walnut St. 1006 E. 31st. ♦ 3034 Grand. 107 E. 30th St 
3017 Walnut St t 1012 E. 31st 3032 Grand. I 105 E. 30th St 

3021 Wahiut St then to 3030 Grand. 101 E. 30th St. 

3029 Walnut St ' 3028 Grand, 

then to 3024 Grand. 

3022 Grand. 

3020 Grand. 

3016 Grand. 

3012 Grand. 

then 

If at any time a new service is made anywhere in this 
block, the Meter Rate Ledger sheet and the Meter Readers' 
Route sheet is printed on the Addressograph and then put into 
the Route book and Ledger just where it belongs. The stencil 
on the Addressograph, Meter Readers' Route book and the 
Meter Rate Ledger are all set up in this same order. We 
believe this is better than any Account Number or Tap Number 
system of locating these Accounts. We certainly find it to be 
a great advantage in this City. 

In thickly settled districts within four City blocks, there 
are at times as many as 200 water meters, and sometimes even 
more gas meters. Kansas City has over 60,000 water services; 
43,000 approximately are metered services and 3,000 are made 
up of Public buildings. Flush Tank connections, Fire Protection 
services, vacant stores and houses, which leaves approximately 
14,000 live Flat Rate accounts, and these are houses of under 
8 rooms. The reason that we bring out the above is to explain 
that it is quite a problem to locate readily our Accounts. 

Sample of Addressograph Plate, 



Block No- 
Tap No- 



R. W. 600DN0W, 
MAIL TO CITY HALL. 



786 
59444 



633 SCHAEFBR AVE. , 



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198 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Wrinkle No. 54. 
WELDED SWEDGE NIPPLE. 

JOHN FINK, WAREHOUSE CLERK, EMPIRE GAS AND FUEL CO., 
BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

This wrinkle consists of a piece of scrap pipe, any desired 
length, which has been cut to the shape of an orange peel 
with the points of the lips cut off to fit any size pipe wished. 
After which, it is heated in a forge and the lips are bent into 
the size pipe desired to swedge to and welded together with the 
Oxy-Acetylene process. 



0RflN6E PEEL ^WEDGED NIPPLE 

Wrinkle No. 64. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 199 



Wrinkle No. 56. 

DEVICE FOR CARRYING NO. 1 AND NO. 2 TOBEY METERS. 

A. H. FRICKER, THE EAST OHIO GAS CO., YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO. 

This device for carrying Tobey Meters is very convenient; 
it takes a very strong grip on the meter and will prevent a lot of 
broken glasses. 



DEVICE FOE CABBYING TOBEY METEBS 

Wrinkle No. 65. 

Wrinkle No. 56. 

CLEAN THIS SCREEN WITHOUT TOOLS. 

L. M. MERRILL, KANSAS NATURAL GAS CO., JOPLIN, MO. 

I am enclosing herewith a sketch for a screen device, made 
by one of our employes. The cut and explanation herewith 



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200 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



^^ 



,2. 



xo 



'^ 



^ja»2 



^ '^ 




^^^' 



j: > 



Wrinkle No. 56. 

attached will probably give you all the information you would 
wish, but will state that the device is arranged that for clean- 
ing the screen in front of the regulator or pipe line necessitates 
no tools whatever, being put in with a side gate and the lever 
shown on the side will throw the screen in such a position that 
the gas itself will clean the screen. One other advantage in 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 201 

regard to the device is that it can be put inside of a building 
and a pipe run out of the building so as to carry the gas away 
from any danger when cleaning the screen and it does not 
necessitate shutting of the supply of gas at any time. I took 
notice of one of the wrinkles of last year a device for screens 
and I thought this much superior to it that you might want to 
use it as a wrinkle. 

Wrinkle No. 57. 
UNDERREAMER FISHING TOOL. 

C. J. MCKINLEY, FIELD SUPERINTENDENT, EMPIRE GAS AND FUEL 
CO., EL DORADO, KAN. 



'Su^ 



Casing Cofiar 



Cufoffa/f9mafe ffhf^rs 



7t>0L rOK riSMIM9 UnOEM RtAMER SllP3 

Wrinkle No. 57. 



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202 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



This tool consists of a joint of casing 4 or 5 ft. in length, 
any desired size, with the casing collar on top, to which a tool 
sub can be screwed. The bottom end is cut into fingers 18'' 
long, with 8" of each alternating finger cut off. The bottom 
of the extended fingers are cut in such a curve that when 
driven onto the bottom of the hole, they will curve to the center, 
forming a basket around the under reamer slip. This is also 
used effectively when pieces of bit are broken off. 

Wrinkle No. 58. 
METHOD OF TESTING GAS FOR GASOLINE. 
SUBMITTED WITHOUT NAME OF CONTRIBUTOR, 

Fill tank No. i with Claroline Oil and have connection at 
bottom of tank No. 2 just covered. 



1^ .. 




Wrinkle No. 58. 

Open all pet-cocks and blow in B until oil appears at A. 
Qose A and C and pour off excess oil in tank No. 2, leaving 
just enough to cover connection at bottom. Connect rubber 
tubing with gas to be tested. Open A, B and Q admitting gas 
on top of oil in tank No. i. When oil appears at B, close 
A and B. Now connect hand pump at B and put 25-pound 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 203 



pressure on top of oil in tank No. 2. Next close C, and agitate. 
Ndte reading of gage. 

Initial gage pressure + ^4- 7 

— % of gas not absorbed. 

Final gage pressure + i4-7 

Note. — Tanks are filled originally with Caroline Oil by removing 
pet cock B and filling tank No. 2 by means of funnel. 

Wrinkle No. 59. 
STOPPING A SAND-HOLE LEAK IN A 16-INCH GATE FLANGE. 

J. SULLIVAN, THE EAST OHIO GAS COMPANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 



3t&el 



Rubber 



CROSS SeCTIOri 
Wrinkle No. 69. 



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204 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



This interesting wrinkle was accomplished about four years 
ago. The leak developed from a sand hole on the flange of a 
i6'' gate. It was not feasible to remove the gate, so a steel 
plate was formed long enough to include two of the bolt holes 
on the face of the flange, and formed as shown on the cross 
section. The surface of the flange where a strip of soft rubber 
was placed, received a heavy coat of shellac. It has never re- 
quired any attention since it was put on. 

Wrinkle No. 60. 
A DIRT TRAP. 

CHAS. L, BULLOCK, SUPERINTENDENT DISTRIBUTION, 
BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

This dirt trap is being used with great success, being the 
first connection off of the main line. The screen is set at an 




Wrinkle No. 60. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 205 

angle of 45 degrees, and the gas coming in horizontally the dirt 
strikes this 45 degree screen and instead of passing through 
is deflected and drops to the bottom. The opening to remove 
the screen is a simple hand hole plate with one bolt. In changing 
the screen only one nut has to be removed, a blank is shoved 
in to replace the screen, the gas turned on for a second and 
instantly blows all of the dirt out of the bottom of the cleaner, 
then the blank is taken out, a new screen inserted, the nut 
screwed onto the bolt, which requires only a few seconds of 
time, when the service is again resumed. 

This little dirt catcher saves a great deal of meter and 
regulator cleaning, and pays for itself many times during a 
year's service. 

Wrinkle No. 61. 
METER HOUSE HEATER. 

W. J. HINCHEY, INSPECTOR, KANSAS NATURAL GAS CO., 
PITTSBURG, KANSAS. 

The drawing on page 206 shows a heater used for meter or 
regulator station. I believe the drawing needs no explanation. 

Wrinkle No. 62. 
ORIFICE TESTER AND TABLES. 

E. O. HICKSTEIN, BARNSDALL OIL COMPANY, BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 
(See drawing on page 207.) 

The sketch submitted shows an orifice tester of the type 
generally used in gauging the flow of gas from the casing-head 
of an oil well.^ 

Herewith are two tables to be used in connection with tester. 
While the design used is not original, the tables are the result 
of actual calibration of a tester against a five-foot meter prover. 
Tests were made by F. P. Zoch, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 
and the writer. 

A number of tables similar to the one herewith submitted 
are in circulation. It was on account of the fact that wide 
variations existed between the different tables that the calibra- 
tion tests on this instrument were made. 



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206 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 





o 



1 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



207 




^5 



c: 

9 



I 



J 
I 



Co 



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206 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 







I 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



207 







c: 

9 

.a 
I 






Co 



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208 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

The writer has also found the tester useful in the checking 
of meters and of the displacement of vacuum pumps. 

The tables are believed to be accurate within two per cent. 

An ordinary two-inch nipple of the proper length can be 
used. The writer prefers using a piece of an old steel working 
barrel, on account of its better appearance. The small plates 
with the orifices machined in are one-eighth inch in thickness, 
and had probably better be made of steel. The bevel on the 
orifice faces the outside, as shown on sketch. 

The complete outfit can be made by almost any machine 
shop at a cost of approximately ten dollars — a considerable 
saving. The orifices should be accurately machined to diameter. 

In using this type of tester it is well to note the following 
points : 

(i) The largest orifice that gives a readable pressure — 
say i" of water or over — should be used, thus avoid- 
ing back pressure. 

(2) It is necessary to allow sufficient time for the gas 
inside the casing to build up to a steady pressure. 

(3) A knowledge of the gravity of the gas is always re- 
quired for an accurate gauge. 

(4) The table is not to be used with testers of design 
other than shown. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



209 



CAPACITIES OF SMALL ORIFICES. 

For Testing Casing-Heao Gas Wells. 

(See Wrinkle No. 62.) 

Capacities given in cubic feet of 8 oz. Gas, (Gravity 1.00) per 
twenty-four hours. 

To correct to gravities other than 1.00, use correction factor given in 
Table. 



Inches 






SIZE OF ORIFICES 






Water 


r 


r 


i" 


r 


r * 


ir 


ir 


ir 


0.6 
0.6 
0.7 
0.8 
0.9 


980 
1,070 
1,160 
1,240 
1,310 


2,210 
2,420 
2,620 
2,790 
2,950 


3,950 
4,320 
4,670 
4,980 

6,270 


9,000 

9,870 

10,620 

11,360 

12,010 


16,360 
17,920 
19,360 
20,620 
21,840 


26,600 
29,050 
31,400 
33,550 
35,500 


40,900 
44,300 
48,400 
61,550 
54,600 


60,650 
66,550 
71,900 
76,650 
81,100 


1.0 
1.1 
1.2 
1.3 
1.4 


1,380 
1,450 
1,510 
1,570 
1,630 


3,110 
3,270 
3,410 
3,550 
3,690 


6,550 
6,840 
6,100 
6,340 
6,580 


12,690 
13,310 
13,890 
14,460 
14,990 


23,040 
24,200 
25,240 
26,300 
27,260 


37,450 
39,300 
41,000 
42,700 
44,300 


57,600 
60,500 
63,100 
65,750 
68,150 


86,700 
90,000 
93,900 
97,700 
101,000 


1.5 
1.6 
1.7 
1.8 
1.9 


1,690 
1,750 
1,810 
1,860 
1,910 


3,810 
3,940 
4,050 
4,170 
4,300 


6,810 
7,030 
7,250 
7,450 
7,660 


15,520 
16,020 
16,510 
17,000 
17,490 


28,220 
29,160 
30,060 
30,940 
31,780 


45,900 
47,400 
48,900 
50,300 
51,600 


70,560 
72,900 
75,150 
77,350 
79,450 


104,800 
108,000 
111,300 
114,600 
117,800 


2.0 
2.1 
2.2 
2.3 
2.4 


1,960 
2,010 
2,050 
2,100 
2,140 


4,410 
4,510 
4,620 
4,730 
4,830 


7,860 
8,060 
8,260 
8,450 
8,630 


17,970 
18,410 
18,820 
19,250 
19,640 


32,620 
33,420 
34,220 
35,000 
35,760 


53,000 
54,400 
55,600 
56,900 
58,100 


81,550 

83,550 

85,500 

87,500* 

89,400 


121,000 
123,950 
126,900 
129,850 
132,400 


2.5 
2.6 
2.7 
2.8 
2.9 


2,190 
2,230 
2,270 
2,310 
2,360 


4,930 
5,030 
5,120 
5,220 
5,310 


8,800 
o,9o0 
9,130 
9,310 
9,480 


20,040 
20,450 
20,850 
21,250 
21,600 


36,500 
37,200 
37,900 
38,600 
39,300 


59,200 
60,400 
61,500 
62,700 
63,800 


91,250 
93,000 
94,750 
96,500 
98,260 


135.200 
138,000 
140,600 
143,200 
146,800 


3.0 

3.25 

3.5 

3.75 

4.0 


2,400 
2,490 
2,590 
2,680 

2,770 


5,400 
5,610 
5,820 
6,030 
6,240 


9,660 
10,050 
10,400 
10.760 
11,120 


22,000 
22,850 
23,700 
24,550 
25,350 


40,000 
41,600 
43,200 
44,700 
46,200 


65,000 
67,500 
70,000 
72,500 
74,900 


100,000 
103,900 
107,800 
111,700 
115,200 


148,100 
154,100 
160.100 
166,900 
171.400 



14 



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210 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



CORRECTION FACTORS FOR GRAVITIES. 
To be Used with Table of Capacities of Small Orifices. 



Gravity. 


Multiplying 
Factor. 


Gravity, 


Multiplying 
Factor. 


.70 


1.195 


1.00 


1.000 


.71 


1.187 


1.01 


.995 


.72 


1.178 


1.02 


.990 


.73 


1.170 


1.03 


.985 


.74 


1.162 


1.04 


.961 


.75 


1.155 


1.05 


.976 


.76 


1.147 


1.06 


.971 


.77 


1.140 


1.07 


.967 


.78 


1.132 


1.08 


.962 


.79 


1.125 


1.09 


.958 


.80 


1.118 


1.10 


.954 


.81 


1.111 


1.11 


.949 


.82 


1.104 


1.12 


.945 


.83 


1.098 


1.13 


.941 


.84 


1.091 


1.14 


.937 


.85 


1.085 


1.15 


.933 


.86 


1.078 


1.16 


.929 


.87 


1.072 


1.17 


.925 


.88 


1.066 


1.18 


.921 


.89 


1.060 


1.19 


.917 


.90 


1.054 


1.20 


.913 


.91 


1.048 


1.21 


.909 


.92 


1.043 


1.22 


.905 


.93 1 


1.037 


1.23 


.902 


.94 


1.032 


1.24 


.896 


.95 


1.026 


1.25 


.895 


.96 


1.021 


1.26 


.891 


.97 


1.015 


1.27 


.887 


.98 


1.010 


1.28 , 


.884 


.99 


1.005 


1.29 


.881 






1.30 


.877 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 211 

Wrinkle No. 63. 
DEVICE FOR RAISING METER PROVER BY AIR. 

A. H. FRICKER, THE EAST OHIO GAS COMPANY, YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO. 

This arrangement saves time and labor, for the man using 
it can work prover much faster than pulling it up by hand. 
It is not expensive to make; the cylinder consists of 2" 



DCVICt FOB PULLING UP MCTCB PPOVCC 
Wrinkle No. 63. 

brass tubing, and piston is made of i^" lead pipe swedged out 
to fit the inside of the cylinder. The lead pipe is filled with 
lead and drilled through the center. This gives the piston 
enough weight to make the return for another pull. The piston 
rod is 5/16'' steel, polished to prevent friction in the stuffing 
box. The leather is of common 2'' cup leather, such as used 
in test pumps. 



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212 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

The valve is placed below the prover's bench, as shown on 
the air line and an extension rod to extend up through the bench 
with the handle on top of same. The valve is drilled through the 
side in such a manner that when opened the air enters the bottom 
of the cylinder and when closed, permits the air to escape through 
the drilled hole. 

A spiral spring is attached to the extension rod under the 
bench to shut valve off when handle is released; this spring pre- 
vents possible opening of valve by accident, unless the prover 
wishes to do so. 

The cylinder should be about lo" longer than the scale on 
the prover. A hole is drilled near the top of cylinder so that 
when piston is raised high enough to pull prover up to its limit, 
it will be above this relief hole, thus permitting the air to escape 
below the leather from the cylinder. 



Wrinkle No. 64. 
METHOD OF USING HOT FLUE GASES TO DRY BRICK. 

W. T. ROBERTS, C. W. CRAMER, ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, ARKAN- 
SAS NATURAL GAS COMPANY, LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS. 
(See drawing on page 213.) 

Four, 125 H. P., return flue, boilers have their breechings 
connected in one conduit, leading to the brick dry house. In 
conduit is placed a large fan which creates the necessary draft 
and forces the hot gases into the drying tunnels. This method 
is an efficient fuel saver. 

To Mr. W. W. Dickinson, Jr., of Little Rock, Arkansas, 
must be given the credit for the above installation. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



218 



^ 






1 










S-r'/AXJCziicr 












9 

i( Tunnel 




"5 Tunnti 




I: 


Tunnel 




^ 





o 



^ 



4 

? 




Dry t1ou90. 



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214 SATlliAL GAS ASSOCIATIOX OF AMERICA. 

Wrinkle No. 65. 

METHOD TO PREVENT USE OF UN-REGISTERED GAS BY 

TIPPING. 

G. C. REED, TELEPHONE FOREMAN AM) METER INSPECTOR, LONE 
STAR GAS COMPANY, FORT WORTH, TEXAS. 

Figure "A" shows post with slot in which valve stem works, 
as in present usage. 



Wrinkle No. Go. 

Figure *'R" shows post with circular hole instead of slot 
This hole would confine valve stem in such a manner that stem 
would have no upward and downward play if meter were tipped. 

Wrinkle No. 66. 

WELDING TAP WITHOUT SHUTTING OFF GAS. 

L. IL BENSON, BARTLESVILLE, OKLAHOMA. 

( Drawing on page 2ir».) 

A i'' or I.}" tap can be welded on a street main with the 
gas on by welding a coui)ling of the size pipe to be used onto the 
main, then tapping a hole through the coupling as shown in the 
cut, removing the tap and screwing in the plug until ready for 
the service connection. This saves a saddle and two street ells. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



215 



3 



o 



I 

5 






i 



s 



1 T^M^^C M^^CHtf^e 



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l« 



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210 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Wrinkle No. 67. 

METHOD TO DETECT WHETHER METER HAS BEEN TIPPED 
AND GAS NOT REGISTERED. 

G. C. REED, TELEPHONE FOREMAN AND METER INSPECTOR, LONE 
STAR GAS COMPANY, FORT WORTH, TEXAS. 

If a meter equipped with this device is tipped, the oil or 
colored liquid in the *'U" shaped compartment would spill onto 
dial and stain same. 






Wrinkle No. 67 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



217 



Wrinkle No. ^, 
THREE-IN-ONE WRINKLE THAT HELPS IN JOPLIN. 

B. J. CRAHAN, SUPT., JOPLIN GAS CO., JOPLIN, MISSOURI. 

We submit for your approval exhibits No. i, No. 2, and 
No. 3. 

Explanation as to Exhibit No. i. 

This is a gas ledger index made of blackboard cloth, size 
28''x28", which we find to be a great help to our ledger 
keepers. It increases rapidity in looking up accounts. 




Exhibit Xo. 1. 

Explanation as to Exhibit No. 2. 

No. 2 will give you the outline of method employed in hav- 
ing a rmall station made in number to correspond with the ledger 
numb'^r. This station number follows the ledger to the different 
desks so that during the discount period from the first to tenth 



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218 XATl'RAL GAS ASSOCIATIOS OF AMERICA. 



of the month the teller in waiting on the customer is able to tell 
from the index at a glance the number of the ledger, then the 
station is a guide to the desk where ledger is located which is a 
great time saver during the busy days of the month which all 
helps to relieve the congestion in our office during this period. 



Ex]iil)it Xo. 2. 

Explanation as to Kxiiiiht Xo. 3. 

This is a sorting box made of tin with twelve compartments 
which facilitates the sorting of coupons very materially and 
needs no explanation. 

Through assistance of the three simple devices the Joplin 
Gas Company have made a very material saving of time for the 
office employees during the busy days and as we make about 
90% of our collections during the first ten days of the month 
we would hardly be able to get along with the present office 
facilities should we discard the three devices herein listed. 

Permit me to say further that our ledgers are arranged in 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MLETISG. 219 



Exhibit No. 3. 

aiphal^etical order with reference to the streets running parallel 
one way and indexing in numerical order with the cross streets 
running parallel. 

Wrinkle No. 69. 

FLASH LIGHT BATTERIES. 

MR. A. H. FRICKKR, THE EAST OFIIO CAS CO., VOUNGSTOWN, OHIO. 

For a Five-Cell light, use a 5.3 \^olt bulb and when same 
commences to get dim, use a 3.8 \'olt bulb until battery is played 
out. For Three-Cell light, after bulb becomes dim, use the same 
size bulb as that used in a Two-Cell light. Use a little judgment 
as to the proper time to change bulbs to prevent breaking same. 

This amount will give double the ordinary amount of ser- 
vice from vour batteries. 



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220 



XATIRAL GAS ASSO'CIATIOX OF AMERICA. 



W'rinkle No. 70. 

« 

DEVICE FOR TESTING TOPS OF METERS. 

J. R. GILHERT, IOI2 ROIS DARC STREET, FT. WORTH, TEX.AS. 

This device consists of a by-pass through a lx)ttle of water 
and a hose and a funnel connection. To operate: punch small 
hole in the top of the meter to be tested and insert funnel (D) ; 
apply pressure, close main valve (A) and open by-pass valve (B) 
If the meter top leaks, bubbles will pass through bottle (C). 




Wrinkle No. 70. 

Wrinkle No. 71. 

THERMOMETER HOLDER, 

J. K. (;iLHKRT, I0I2 HOIS DARC STR,, FT. WORTH, TEXAS. 

(Drawing on page 221.) 

Reducer soldered to meter connection gives a useful device 
for holding the thermometer. This gives the correct temper- 
ature of the gas jxissing through the meter while a test is being 
run. 

Wrinkle No. 72. 

METHOD OF REPAIRING AND STRAIGHTENING PISTON 

SLEEVE. 

J. A. RKMLKH, KANSAS NATURAL (.AS CO., INDEPENDENCE, KANSAS. 

(Drawing on page 221.) 

We have on our (jas Kngines piston sleeves that slip over 
the i)iston rods and are si)ace(l between the piston heads. The 
longest of these are 13' iijj" and each engine has two of this 
length, for the i)urj)ose of water circulation to pass around piston 
and heads. The outside diameter comes in contact with metallic 
l)acking rings. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



221 



HeducT 
^gimn ConnecfiQiT\ 




THERMOflETtK HOLDER. 

Wrinkle No. 71. 



0f t»rTh 




C^mh^r' •A»t«^/7 S^ay^reu^d 



MerNOO or 3TMi6Hr£MN6 Pi3TON SLBCUe 
9L£tVg 3WUN6 ON L^TMC CENTEBS 

Wrinkle No. 72. 



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222 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

We have been having these steel castings made in the rough 
and we finish them. In the course of finishing we have found 
them to be badly spotted with sand holes. 

We roughed them down within Vie" ^^ finishing size and 
when we put the water test on found them leaking badly and 
we were at a loss to know what to do with them but decided 
to use an ascetylene welding machine. 

These sand spots are streaked and spongy and the blow 
torch would not do a satisfactory job of welding, so we chipped 
out as much of the sand as possible and welded it with a welding 
machine. One of these sleeves had over forty bad spots which 
were welded in and after completely welding it was foimd to be 
sprung %" out of true. The question came up how to straighten 
it and we had in mind the usual way which would have been 
much more expensive. 

In order to straighten this piston sleeve the sleeve was 
swung in the lathe with the cambered side up and the welding 
torch applied at the point of greatest deflection on the cambered 
side, not allowing the torch to remain long enough to melt the 
metal, but bringing it to a good red heat, working the torch back 
and forth around the sleeve for a distance of about four inches 
and just the width of the torch blaze. Then applying water to 
bring the sleeve to an even temperature. This same process 
was repeated on all cambered points and kinks until the sleeve 
was absolutely true. 

This process is directly opposite to pening and it is the 
severe, instantaneous heat on one particular spot. 

This is valuable information because it can be used in var- 
ious mechanical work and can be applied to any hollow piston 
rod or solid shafting. For instance, large diameter crank shafts 
that may be sprung can be brought back true by following this 
method. 

This will be found valuable to any concern having much 
machinery to operate, particularly, when having a machine shop 
in connection. However, the most skilled part of this process 
is a practical machinist who understands just where and how 
long to apply the torch. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



Wrinkle No. 78. 

DIPPING POT FOR SOLDERING IRONS. 

J. R. GILBERT, I0I2 BOIS DARC STR., FT. WORTH, TEXAS. 




DIPPING POT FOR. 
30LD£K.IN6 IR^OI^S 



Wrinkle No. 73. 

A short piece of eight-inch pipe with cap attached makes 
an indestructible dipping pot for soldering irons. 

Wrinkle No, 74. 

EASY METHOD OF REPLAQNG RUBBERS IN LOW PRESSURE 
REGULATORS. 

C. R. JONES, THE EAST OHIO GAS CO., CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

This Wrinkle is valuable for regulators of 6" and up, with 
side plate. It consists of an old regulator connecting stem with 
the thread at bottom valve nut sawed off. A slot is cut into 
stem at the position shown, a flat cross bar made to insert in 
slot and a wedge driven in to hold cross bar securely. This flat 
bar is notched and filed to such form at the ends, to permit them 
to mesh with the guide extensions. The top of regulator is 
removed in the usual manner, bottom valve nut removed, and 
regular stem taken out. 



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224 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



Turn lower valve over. Take hold of same on bottom with 
pipe wrench, allowing the wrench to brace against the side of 
hole to serve as a "back-up." Place stem into valve in such a 
manner that the notched bar will mesh with the guides, then 



I— t*H 



Wedge Keiy->^ 




i 



PBJ! ','' \WW^I!P'KR**'****^'i 





plot Croat Bar 

Wrinkle No. 74. 



tnd 



take hold of the stem at top with pipe wrench and turn same; 
thus removing guides, and allowing the replacement of the 
rubber. 

This Wrinkle has saved us considerable time in making 
these repairs. 

Wrinkle No. 75. 
GASOMETER IN CONNECTION WITH REGULATOR- 

CHAS. L. BULLOCK, SUPT. DISTRIBUTION, BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

In towns where a large amount of gas is used there has 
been more or less trouble, when the gas is discontinued for the 
night by consumers, which sticks the valve in the regulator to 
such an extent that when the big demand comes on in the morn- 
ing hours the consumers experience more or less low pressure, 
and the gauge at the gas office will show a drop in pressure at 
this time. In some instances it has been necessary for the gas 
man to go out and push down on the lever of the domestic reg- 
ulator. By setting this little device, which is a gasometer, put- 
ting about 100 pounds of weight on the gasometer, the instant 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



225 




Wrinkle No. 75. 

the pressure decreases the hundred pound weight will instantly 
open the valve, and makes the regulator more sensitive and stops 
the fluctuations of pressure in the domestic mains. 



Wrinkle No. 76. 
SAFETY-FIRST METER SHUT-OFF WRENCH. 

V. O. GOBLE, THE EAST OHIO GAS CO., RAVENNA, OHIO. 

Provide a wrench as shown, made of J4" iron. and give one 
to each consumer. This wrench to be kept at the meter at all 
times to shut off the gas in case of emergency. 



(^ 



■=:r-f 



)i K i* Btfnd Iron 



Ho^ 



METER SHUT.-OFF WRENCH 

Wrinkle No. 76. 



16 



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NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Wrinkle No. 77. 

VALVE GRINDER FOR TOBEY METERS. 

J. R. GILBERT, IOI2 BOIS DARC STR., FT. WORTH, TEXAS. 



Ciroutar 
M'rm Bros/? 




on Boardi 



Wrinkle No. 79. 



Wrinkle No. 77. 



A piece of board covered with emery cloth and revolved by 
a power attachment makes a cheap grinder for valves and valve 
seats of tobey meters. 

See also Wrinkle No. 79. 

Wrinkle No. 78. 

SUGGESTED USES FOR THE METER ORDER. 

MAURICE J. ADAMS, FORT WORTH GAS CO., FORT WORTH, TEXAS. 

When properly used, the original order to connect or dis- 
connect a meter may be made the basis for a number of oper- 
ations both in office and shop. This means a saving of a con- 
siderable amount of time lost in transcribing information con- 
tained on the order to other records. As records vary with 
different companies and systems differ according to whether 
number of consumers be many or few, no one outline can be 
given to cover all cases, but some definite routine should be 
worked out to fit individual needs along the line of the sugges- 
tions following. 

SUGGESTIVE OUTLINE. 

All orders should be numbered consecutively, should con- 
tain space for name, address and remarks. A column should be 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



provided on the left for meters connected and one on the right 
for meters disconnected, with ruling to show number, make, and 
size, as well as state of the meter. Lines at the bottom of the 
order should provide space for entering folio and line in con- 
sumer's ledger on which entry is made as well as folio in meter 
index in which meter location is recorded. Such a form would 
appear somewhat like this: 



BLANK GAS COMPANY 
BlankeviUe, 191... No. 13702 


Connect Mrter 
For 


Disconnect Meter 

For 

Street 


Street 

Deposit No Amt 


Connected Meter No 


Disconnected Meter No 

Kind 

State 

Date 


Kind 


State 


Date 




Fitter 


Fitter 


Entered Ledger, folio., line... 
Entered Meter Index, folio 


Entered Ledger, folio., line... 
Entered Meter Index, folio 



Wrinkle No. 78. 

After order is filled out from application at office, it should 
go to the operating department and be distributed to the various 
fitters according to sections of the city covered by them. After 
order is completed by the fitter it is returned to the shop. In 
case any shop records are kept, this would be the proper time 
to make the entries in them. If none are kept, the order is re- 
turned at once to the office. 



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228 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

Here the orders are distributed to the clerks having charge 
of the various consumers' ledgers. A street index to the ledgers 
will facilitate this distribution. Entries are then made in the 
ledgers and folio and line notations made on order in space pro- 
vided for that purpose. In case a disconnect order is entered 
for a person moving to some other address on the ledgers, the 
debit or credit balance remaining should be noted on the reverse 
thereof to be transferred to the new account later. 

In case an addressing machine and equipment are used the 
orders should then go to the clerk attending to that feature in 
order that new addresses may be set up and "dead" ones be 
discarded. 

The orders should then be arranged in order according to 
meter number and entered in the meter index. States at which 
meters are set should be carefully checked against the disconnect 
state at last address in order that any errors in reading the 
meters may be detected. Folio of meter index should be noted 
on the order in the space provided. 

After being entered in the meter index, the orders should be 
separated into three classes. Connect orders covering new con- 
sumers should be put in one division, disconnect orders covering 
consumers lost in a second, and both connects and disconnects 
covering persons changing meters from one address to another 
in a third. 

Where meter deposits are required, they should be written 
on the connect order from the application at the time the order 
is first issued. These connect orders should now be arranged in 
order according to folio and line of the ledgers and entered 
therein. In order that all deposits may be entered, it is well to 
keep a consecutive list of the deposit numbers and check each 
deposit off as it is entered. 

Connects and disconnects covering persons changing ad- 
dresses are then sorted according to the order number. This 
will bring the connect and disconnect for each party together 
and they should be paired off and fastened together with some 
temporary paper fastener. The debit or credit balances noted 
on the reverse side of the disconnect should then be entered in 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



a journal for that purpose crediting the account in full at the 
old address and debiting it at the new. This will cause all 
unpaid balances to show at the current address and insure 
prompt collection or "cut off" before a large bill becomes due. 
In case postings to the different consumers' ledgers are kept 
by separate totals, a columnar journal can be used to keep trans- 
fer debits and credits in like manner. 

These connects and disconnects can then be used to transfer 
the deposit numbers and amounts to the new addresses in like 
manner. The deposit can be ruled off at the old address and 
entered on the reverse side of the disconnect order and then 
checked off when entered at the new address. In case a number 
of deposits are transferred at one time, it is well to arrange the 
disconnects by folios and lines and rule all of them off the 
ledger (making notations on the back as directed) and then 
reverse all pairs so that the connect orders will appear on top 
when orders can again be assorted according to connect folios 
and lines and then all entries can be made at one time. 

As no further transactions are necessary on the discon- 
nects covering accounts lost, all three classes of orders are now 
ready for final assortment according to original numbers of the 
orders themselves and are then ready to be filed away for ref- 
erence and audit. 

Any system not containing all of the features listed above 
can omit any step at itis proper place and let the order pass on 
to the next step, and any having other features not mentioned 
should find the proper time for their execution and insert an 
additional step at that point. 

To insure the orderly flow of the orders through these steps, 
it is well to take a roomy drawer in some convenient desk and 
divide it into partitions, labeling them according to the different 
steps to be taken. As each clerk completes work taken from one 
division, he places those orders in the next division ready for 
another clerk. This shows how far any order has advanced at 
any time regardless of sickness or absence of any clerk and 
prevents omission of any step with any order. 



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230 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

The above suggestions have been put into practice and their 
worth proven. They can easily be modified to suit any number 
of consumers and can be easily installed at practically no ex- 
pense. The advantages of such a system are readily apparent 
and should be passed on to others at every opportunity — hence 
this brief description. 

Wrinkle No. 79. 

TO CLEAN HARD PAINT FROM METERS. 

J. R. GILBERT, IOI2 BOIS DARC STR., FT. WORTH, TEXAS. 

See Wrinkle No. yj for illustration. 

A circular wire brush revolved by power makes a useful 
device for cleaning hard paint from meters. 

Wrinkle No. 80. 
METER LEAD WRENCH. 

v. A. GOBLE, THE EAST OHIO GAS CO., RAVENNA, OHIO. 

This wrench prevents the damage done to brass couplings 
on meter leads caused by the usual method of using a pipe 
wrench. 





METER LEAD WRENCH 

Wrinkle No. 80. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 231 



Wrinkle No. 81. 

MUD MIXER. 

J. J. SCHUBERT, SUPT. MUDDING DEPT., EMPIRE GAS & FUEL CO... 

BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

(Drawing on page 232.) 

The laws of Oklahoma require the mudding of all Gas or 
Oil sands in wells either productive or nonproductive, when 
drilling to lower levels than the level in which the sands are 
encountered. This necessitates the saving and mixing of a shale 
mud free from lime or sand grits to protect the casing from 
freezing. 

The apparatus as shown in the accompanying drawing is 
made of 2" pipe and can be made to fit any size mud pit. I 
find it best to hold the highest pressure possible on the discharge 
line in order to have the mud discharge with a high velocity. 
The higher the velocity of the discharge mud, the more readily 
the mud-laden fluid will become properly mixed. The time 
required if good shale is used will not exceed one and one-half 
hours. 

If it is desirable to make a larger mixer, care must be taken 
not to get the total area of all the holes so much that pressure 
cannot be held on the discharge line. This can be overcome by 
using a 3" discharge line and decreasing the size holes. 

Wrinkle No. 82. 

A NEAT COMBINATION WELDED VENT. 

A Vent That Dispels the Certain Objection of Property Owners as to 

Having Too Many Unsightly Pipes Before Their Property. 

THE EAST OHIO GAS COMPANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
(See drawing on page 233.) 
This vent can be made up of different combinations, that is : 
Fresh air vent, 8" and foul air vent, 4" ; fresh air, 6", foul air> 
3"; fresh air vent, 4", foul air, 2". 

The fresh air vent is cut at the point where foul air vent 
enters, and a hole cut for the foul air vent; and then welded 
together after foul air vent is inserted. The foul air vent should! 
extend up three (3) feet above the top of the fresh air vent- 



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NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 




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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 233 



i tU 



— '^— 


^•V:^•.•^^C"W^:. ••;•:':-- — .^. 


v^v 


;«\V..-.-/<-.> . :•• • ••• • • •: '- -: '.. . • / 


^^ 




Foul Air 


^ ^ 




^^"^ 




f ^ 




^ .# 
^■i^'^ 


VAULT 


v\^' 




<^ 




# 




^-^^ 




■^^ 






Fresh Air _ 






Welded El 


<\\: : I "-.. . • /. •'. .' '. • ' '<': v" •• •' 




Wrinkle No. 89. 



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234 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Place a spider near the top of fresh air vent to hold foul air 
vent in place and cover both vents with galvanized iron. This 
vent will always remain plumb and rigid, thus preventing the 
unsightly feature of vents leaning in opposite directions. 

Wrinkle No. 83. 
COMBINATION SOCKET AND GATE BOLT WRENCH. 

LEN RYAN, BLACKWELL, OKLA. 

This wrench combines all of the tools necessary for operat- 
ing or repairing gate valves. The socket wrench (C) fits a 
2}4-inch square nut which is placed on the stem of the gate. 
The top end of (C) is finished square to take wrenches A and 
B for use as handles. The wrenches are locked by a nut on C. 



czc 



D 



£nd wrench ^ 
fit bonn€t bolts 



/ 

ItQch^rk to 
fit i6tlowiur* holts 




Wrinkle No. 88. 



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TWELFTH ASSUAL MEETING, 235 



A is an open end wrench which will fit the bonnet bolts, and B 
is a rachet wrench which will fit the follower bolts. One of 
these combinations left at each gate pit would prove a time and 
trouble saver in emergencies. 

Wrinkle No. 84. 

WELDING DRILL STEM BY OXY-ACETYLENE PROCESS. 

H. O. BALLARD^ SUPT. PRODUCTION, EMPIRE GAS & FUEL CO., 
BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

The accompanying drawing shows the method of preparing 
a drill stem for welding with the upper half of the stem welded. 
Cut both stem and box to a wedge shape, place same in the forge 
and pre-heat while welding, filling in with filler metals in excess 




/Y£LD OF Drill Stem 
Wrinkle No. 84. 

of the size of the stem by about 20%. After both sides are filled, 
the stem is put into the forge and brought nearly to a welding 
heat, after which it is laid on an anvil and drawn down to its 
normal size with sledges. 

To make a good strong weld, the stem should be welded in 
the forge, using coal oil or coke to pre-heat to a little hotter 
than a cherry red. To do this, we have had to develop an 
acetylene torch with water circulating around the torch which 
keeps the torch perfectly cool, no matter how intense the heat. 
This method of welding stems is quite a saving, not only in 
time, but also money over the method of taking the stem to the 
shop; especially on Wild Cat wells, where the well is some dis- 
tance from any repair shop. A box or pin can be welded by 
this process in three to four hours. 



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236 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

Wrinkle No. 85. 
STUFFING BOX WRENCH. 

LEO SVOBODA, THE EAST OHIO GAS CO., CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

This wrench has met all requirements as a suitable tool for 
the stuffing box on the flag staff of a tin meter. The concave 
feature at the jaws of the wrench permit a solid grip on the nut. 




Wrinkle No. 85. 



Wrinkle No. 86. 

COMBINED REVOLUTION COUNTER AND RECORDING 
PRESSURE GAUGE. 

W. C. BAXTER, METER DEPT., EMPIRE GAS & FUEL CO., 
BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

The accompanying sketch shows a method of connecting up 
a meter dial to an engine shaft and a pin on a recording pressure 
gauge. The driving pin on the meter dial is connected to the 
engine shaft and the one thousand foot hand is connected to the 
pen as shown. The pen makes a loop on the chart for every one 
thousand revolutions of the engine. This device is very useful 
on natural gas compressors, as it gives the revolutions of the 
engine and either the intake or discharge pressure on the same 
chart. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 237 



COnBINED EeVOLUTION COUNTEH 
MND HeCOItDlNe PB£33UIZE 6/IUGE 

Wrinkle No. 86. 

Wrinkle No. 87. 
STRAINER FOR GAS MAINS. 

F. DOOLING^ THE EAST OHIO GAS COMPANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
(Drawing on page 238.) 

In this case Mr. Dooling used an old gate valve body for a 
strainer by covering it with a blind flange and inserting a num- 
ber of removable screens. It works satisfactorily. 



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238 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



Blind Flange 



Rerpovabte 
Screens 



u/wMy w-f bid volve 

Wrinkle No. 87. 

Wrinkle No. 88. 
WELDED WELL DRIP AND WELL CONNECTION. 

D. E. SHADER, FIELD SUPT., EMPIRE GAS & FUEL CO., AUGUSTA, KAN. 

This drip and well connection is made up entirely by the 
Oxy-Acetylene process and is adopted by the Wichita Natural 
Gas. Co. as a standard type of well drip and connection in all 
its fields, and is giving entire satisfaction. 

The length of the reservoir depends entirely upon the con- 
dition of the well. Under ordinary circumstances, we use for 
the reservoir, one 20 ft. length of 6" or 8" pipe, according to the 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 239 

amount of fluid being handled. In fields where large amounts 
of water are to be handled, we use 40 ft. of reservoir. By using 
the welding process, this drip is inexpensive to build. In in- 
stalling this drip, it is flanged up to the outlet gate valve of the 
well connection. The blow off being of the syphon type or a 



WCLDCD OeiP AND WCLL CONNECTIONS 

Wrinkle No. 9». 

i" pipe inserted thru the top of the reservoir to within i" of 
the bottom of the reservoir pipe. The details of construction of 
this wrinkle are shown very clearly in the drawing. 

Wrinkle No. 89. 

METHOD OF MAKING A HANDY MAP CASE. 

S. A. MCCUNE, LAND AGENT, ARKANSAS NAGURAL GAS CO. 

(Drawing on page 240.) 
The one illustrated will hold 15 maps. 



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240 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



SecHon c^ MA' 





Einf f/ercf/o/x 




^ 



Ana^/ f/erc/yof9'' 



Wrinkle No. 89. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



241 



Wrinkle No. 90. 
TO PREVENT TIN METERS FROM RUSTING. 

A. H. FRICKER, THE EAST OHIO GAS COMPANY, YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO. 

It sometimes happens, regardless of company rules, that the 
meter setter will place a meter too far back against basement 
walls; thus causing same to rust. 



pe Strap 



METER BRACE 



Wrinkle No. 90. 

To prevent this, solder a metal strap on the back of meter, 
as shown. This prevents meter from being placed against the 
wall. 

Wrinkle No. 91. 
METER HOUSE HEATER. 

H. O. BALLARD, SUPT. PRODUCTION, WICHITA NATURAL GAS CO., 
BARTLESVILLE, OKLA, 

This wrinkle consists of six 8" or lo" pieces of scrap pipe 
welded into the shape of an "L" with one pipe collar close to 
16 



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242 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



the "L" which allows the screwing apart whenever transporting 
from one place to another. The vertical pipe or riser, should 
be of sufficient length to extend thru the roof of the meter or 
regulator house and the horizontal piece, long enough to extend 
two feet outside of the side of the building where it is reduced 
to 2", which can be extended to any distance from the building. 
The horizontal pipe is tapped with 54" tap, i ft. or 18" outside 




Wrinkle No. 91. 



of the building. Four inches ahead of this tap, there should be 
another Y^" hole with a plug in it. Whenever it is desired to 
light the fire, this J4" plug is removed and the gas turned on 
and lighted thru the hole where the plug was. After lighting, 
replace the plug, so that no leaking gas can be drawn into the 
hole. The heater gets its draft thru the 2" pipe which is some 
distance away from the meter or regulator. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 243 

Wrinkle No. 92. 

A WEEKLY REPORT OF SERVICES AND METERS BY CITY 
PLANT DISTRICTS. 

C. W. KRAMER^ ENGINEERING DEP^T. ARKANSAS NATURAL GAS 
COMPANY, LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS. 

(Copy of report shown on page 244.) 

This form is self-explanatory. The object of the report is 
to keep the meter department in close touch with the total 
ntmiber of meters owned by the company and their working 
condition. The report also gives a good index to the amount 
of work done in each plant, especially when the plants are sep- 
arated and at a distance from meter department. 

Wrinkle No. 93. 

MAIN LINE DRIP. 

ROSS M STUNTZ, ASST. SUPT. LINES, WICHITA NATURAL GAS CO., 
BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

(Drawing on page 245.) 

The main line drip has been used by the Wichita Natural 
Gas Co., and proven to be satisfactory. The entire drip is of 
welded construction. The welding all being done in the field 
by the Oxy-Acetylene process. A sufficient number of 2" tie- 
over pipes should be installed on the inlet end to have an area 
equal to the area of the main line. The same ai^lies to the num- 
ber of 3" pipes on the outlet end. Each side line as well as the 
main line has reservoirs underneath, which is necessary for the 
reason that one side of the main line may have a different dif- 
ferential to the other which would cause the fluid to flow back 
into the main line if not separated. 

In operating the drip, the gate valve on the main line is 
closed. The gas then passing from the main line into the side 
line$ thru- the 2" pipes, which baffles the gas against the side 
of the side lines, and then back thru the 3" on the outlet end. 



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244 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



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246 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

Wrinkle No. H. 
ORANGE PEEL BULL PLUG. 

JOHN FINK, WAREHOUSE CLERK, EMPIRE GAS & FUEL COMPANY, 
BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

This wrinkle was adopted by the Empire Gas & Fuel Co. 
where Bull Plugs are used, and consists of a piece of scrap pipe 



0R,fiN6E PEEL BULL PLU6 

Wrinkle No. 94. 

any desired length, cut on one end to the shape of an orange 
peel, which is heated in a forge and the points or lips are bent to 
the center and welded togeter, with a thread turned on opposite 
end. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 247 

Wrinkle No. 96. 

10-INCH EXPANSION SLEEVE MADE IN KANSAS. 

J. A. REMLER^ KANSAS NATURAL GAS CO.^ INDEPENDENCE^ KANSAS. 

The drawing on page 248 is of a ten-inch expansion sleeve of 
our own make which we have put in service on the discharge 
lines at Petrolia Station. 

We have experienced several blow-outs on the discharge 
lines at Petrolia Station where they enter the cooler due to ex- 
pansion in the cooler and this expansion sleeve has eliminated 
all of this trouble. 

This is not a new wrinkle, being just an expansion sleeve of 
our own make, the patterns for the casting being made at our 
plant, and may be of interest to the readers of this department. 

The expansion at the point where this sleeve is used is about 
three inches, and many times pulling the threads out of the 
flange, and sometimes breaking the flange or pulling the threads 
out of a valve connection. 

The stuffing box on this sleeve is packed with a high grade 
woven asbestos. 

Wrinkle No. 96. 

IMPROVED REGULATOR. 

G. T. SPETTIGUe/ oil CITY, PA. 

(See drawing on page 249.) 

A gasometer is the most sensitive gas regulator known for 
reducing natural gas from high pressure to low pressure for 
domestice service. 

A gasometer valve has no rubber seat to be cut by any 
sandy or oily substance in passage, nor will freezing affect it. 

One valve has been in use in Oil City since 1883 without 
repair. 

There are ten gasometers in Oil City which have been in 
use since 1883 and 1885 and have required no repairs after 
thirty-two years of continuous service. 



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248 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 




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250 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Wrinkle No. 97. 
COMBINATION GAS GAUGE AND SIGNAL BELL. 

G. C. TUCKER, THE EAST OHIO GAS CO., MASSILLON, OHIO. 
(Drawing on page 251.) 

This wrinkle was submitted by Mr. Tucker, who has used 
it for years, but it may be new to others. 

Solder a piece of No. 14 bare copper wire to end of goose- 
neck marked "A." Cut wire off so that when goose neck is in 
place and fastened to the "U" tube the wire will stop at a point 
just short of .2 below zero; this will equal 3 ounces. Then drill 
two Vi«" holes in the vent cap ; one on each side of the vent hole. 

Take two No. 18 insulated copper wires, clean insulation 
from No. 2 wire for 3^" and from No. 3 wire for i". Shove 
wires down through the Vie" holes until No. 2 wire is .8 above 
zero and No. 3 wire is about .8 below zero. Fasten these two 
wires in this position with a drop of sealing wax on each wire 
at "B". Run No. i wire from thumb nut of gauge to one of the 
binding posts on the electric bell. 

Scrape off the insulation and fasten No. 2 wire to No. i 
wire at any convenient point. Run No. 3 wire through the bat- 
tery and switch, as shown, to the other binding post on the bell. 

If pressure drops to 3 ounces or goes up to 13 ounces, this 
little joker is on the job to let you know all about it. 

Wrinkle No. 98. 

METHOD TO PREVENT TIPPING OF METER, THEREBY 
ELIMINATING USE OF UN-METERED GAS. 

G. C. REED, TELEPHONE FOREMAN AND METER INSPECTOR, LONE 
STAR GAS CO., FORT WORTH, TEXAS. 
• (Drawing only, see page 252.) 

Wrinkle No. 99. 
FIRE EXTINGUISHING GAS HOOD FOR BURNING GAS WELLS. 

H. O. BALLARD, SUPT. PRODUCTION, WICHITA NATURAL GAS CO., 
BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

The accompanying drawing shows a steel hood adopted by 
the Wichita Natural Gas Co. for extinguishing gas well fires. 
The wrinkle consists of a welded steel hood made out of 5^" 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 251 



Wrinkle No. 97. 



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252 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 






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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



253 



steel plate, 9 ft. high by 8 ft. at the mouth and 4>^ ft. wide, with 
a 16" gate flanged at the top and two 12" side gates about 3 ft. 
from the bottom extending from each side. Extending from the 
16" gate, a joint of 16" pipe is used, or more according to the 
size of the fire. The 12" side gates allow the laying of two 12" 
side lines from the hood to any distance desired, which allows 



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Wrinkle No. 99. 

the side gates to be open and the 16" gate on top of the hood 
dosed, which forces the gas and fire any distance desired from 
the well. 

After the gas is forced thru the 12" side gate, the 16" gate 
at the top 18 opened and the 12" side gates closed. After the 
hood is in position beside the well, it can be raised in 15 seconds 
with the aid of automibile trucks or teams. 



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254 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

The method of raising is by the use of two shear poles 20 
ft. high, welded in the shape of a triangle which raises the two 
front guy wires 20 ft. from the ground which gives an angle 
sufficient to make the raising of the hood very easy. In con- 
nection with the hood, we use two steel shields 8' x 20' mounted 
on wheels which can be wheeled into position around the burn- 
ing well and protect the men from the heat while doing any 
necessary work. 

Wrinkle No. 100. 

MAGNETIC-AIR-WHISTLE, FOR TELEPHONE ALARM, FOR 
USE IN GAS COMPRESSING STATIONS. 

W. E. NESTER^ ENGINEER THE MANUFACTURERS' LIGHT A HEAT CO., 
WAYNESBURG, PA. 

Considerable difficulty is at times experienced by the City 
Office and Pressure Stations in securing telephone connections 
with the Compressing Stations, on account of the noise in the 
engine room. 

Gongs are objectionable in the compressor building on 
account of the ever present danger from the spark which they 
make while ringing. Klaxon Horns, while an improvement over 
the gongs are not reliable, due to the commutator becoming 
rough from frequent use, or brushes sticking, failing to operate 
successfully. And while they are usually encased, they are not 
entirely gas proof. 

The accompanying sketch shows the general arrangement 
of a very dependable alarm which the writer constructed to over- 
come the objections of the Gong and Klaxon. 

Taking a discarded electro-magnet (i) that was formerly 
used for operating a revolution counter on the compressor en- 
gines, we mounted it on a piece of i" oak board 10" x 16" and 
directly below mounted a standard }i" whistle valve (6) one 
end of which was connected with the air supply used for start- 
ing the Compressor engines, the other being connected to a line 
running to a lyi" chime whistle (7) mounted on the gauge 
board. 

Lever (5) on the whistle valve, and arm (3) of the electro- 
magnet were connected by rod (4). 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



255 




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256 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Electrical connections were then made from the electro 
magnet (i) to the batteries (9) and telephone relay (8) current 
is taken from the storage batteries used for ignition on the 
Compressor Engines. 

When the telephone rings the relay closes the circuit be- 
tween the batteries and electro-magnet, magnetizing the iron 
core with the latter, causing the steel plate to be drawn in, and 
raising arm (3) which in turn lifts lever (5) and opens whistle 
valve (6) allowing air to pass from storage tank to •whistle. 

If carefully constructed this device will be found to be a 
very dependable alarm, as there are no adjustments to make 
after it is installed, no danger from electric spark, and the whis- 
tle responds almost instantly to each ring of the telephone bell. 

The chime whistle makes a pleasing sound that can be heard 
at any point in or near the station, regardless of the noise in the 
engine room, and there is no misunderstanding the number of 
rings on the phone, as the alarm is distinctly sounded at each 
ring of the bell. 

The Electro-magnet and whistle valve can be mounted at 
any convenient place, and the whistle placed on the gauge board 
if desired, but quicker response at the whistle will result if they 
are kept near each other, on account of the time intervening 
between the opening of the valve and air reaching the whistle. 

Wrinkle No. 101. 
RUBBER JOINT LEAK CLAMP. 

R. B. LLOYD, SUPT. LINES. H. O. BALLARD, SUPT. PRODUCTION, 
WICHITA NATURAL GAS CO., BARTLESVILLK, OKLA. 

Owing to the fact that the emergency sleeve commonly used 
for high pressure gas lines is so expensive and heavy to handle, 
this wrinkle was devised to take the place of the ordinary emer- 
gency sleeve. The clamp is of such light construction that one 
man can easily handle and repair a leak without extra labor. 
The material used consists of two sets of followers, either Day- 
ton or Dresser, which have been sawed in half with one set of 
followers turned out to the outside diameter of the center ring. 
The other set, the same size as the outside diameter of the pipe. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



257 




17 



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258 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

All rings are made to join together in the same manner as collar 
leak clamps are joined, asing rubber as with common coUar leak 
clamps. 

To install with pressure on the line, we use three two-jaw 
clamps which fit from outside to outside of the old coupling 
and allow the removing of the original coupling bolts and holds 
the followers in place while putting on the repair clamp. The 
clamp is put on with short bolts, extending from one inside fol- 
lower to the outside. When installed, leaving no truss bolts as 
used in the original coupling. 

Wrinkle No. 108. 
TO DRAIN WATER FROM LINE. 

CORWIN ANDREWS, AGENT, THE OHIO FUEL SUPPLY COMPANY, 
BALTIMORE, OHIO. 

The drawing shown is of an appliance used to drain water 
from the line. This is not original with me, but I have used it 

2" Line |S 

(^-^'aW ^IH^^ — -^xW ^ 

A Vs All thread nipple 
B.l-rx 3/5 bushing 
C 1-2x1" saddle 

Wrinkle No. 102. 

with considerable success. It can be screwed into top of service 
line and the gas pressure will lift the water through the }i 
all thread nipple. 

Wrinkle No. 103. 
GAS BURNERS THAT PERMIT BURNING OF OTHER FUEL, 

EDWIN C. MERRILL^ GAS ENGINEER, PITTSBURGH, PA. 

I am sending you for publication drawing of furnace used 
under steam boiler. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 259 









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260 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

This construction admits of refuse or wood being burned 
when gas is short, and if used as here shown does not destroy 
the economy of the fuels with excess of air thru the bars. 

The life of this equipment is about ten years as we have 
made renewals for parties who continue to use same after that 
length of time. 

It is sent you as a valuable asset to any gas company wish- 
ing to install equipment that will assist in holding a customer 
thru a shortage. 

Wrinkle No. 104. 

HYDROMETER FOR TAKING THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF 
MUD-LADE FLUID. 

J. R. STEWART, DOHERTY CADET, WICHITA NATURAL GAS CO., 
BARTLESVILLE, OKLA. 

The apparatus contains a calibrated brass tube and meas- 
uring cup as shown in the accompanying drawing. The measur- 
ing cup holds just enough water to make the hydrometer sink 
to the point marked i.oo on calibrated scale as shown on draw- 
ing when placed in a barrel of water; placing one and one-half 



Wrinkle No. 104. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



cups of water in, hydrometer will sink to the point marked 1.50 
dividing this distance into fifty equal parts gives gravity read- 
ings in i/ioo above i.oo. 



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Wrinkle No. 104. 

To take the specific gravity of mud-laden fluid place one 
cup of mud-laden fluid in hydrometer and where hydrometer 
sinks above i.oo will be the specific gravity of the mud-laden 
fluid. 



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262 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

The laws of Oklahoma, state that the proper mixture to be 
used in mudding off small oil and gas pays encountered while 
drilling and are not desirable to be shut in for immediate use 
should range from 15 to 25% mud and not less than 15% mud 
shall be used. 

I have some curves that show the percent mud correspond- 
ing to various gravities and with shale taken from the various 
fields. The accompanying curve is for the Garfield county field 
in Oklahoma. We find it much better to use from 40 to 60% 
mud instead of 15 to 25% mud as specified by the state of 
Oklahoma. 

Wrinkle No. 105. 

LEAVE SECTIONS OF PAVEMENT TO PREVENT CAVE-IN. 

JAMES J. CUMMINS, THE OHIO FUEL SUPPLY CO., COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

In digging a trench on paved streets or well packed macadam 
roads, it is a good practice to leave sections of the paving, or 




Wrinkle No. 105. 

macadam, every ten or twelve feet, as shown in the sketch. 

These sections need only be a foot or so wide and the 
earth may be removed beneath them. These little sections thus 
left help to prevent a cave-in and they also give the old road 
level when putting in the pavement patch, after the fill-in. 

Wrinkle No. 106. 
INTERIOR FIREPLACE DESIGN. 

F. R. HUTCHINSON, SALES MANAGER, THE GAS APPLIANCE COM- 
PANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Many complaints are reported to gas companies because of 
improper construction of fireplaces and flue outlets, causing 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



products of combustion to escape in rooms where grates or logs 
are used. 

Architects seldom, if ever, specify how fireplace interiors 
and flue outlets should be constructed. 



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One way of overcoming, at least in a measure, complaints 
of his kind would be to have fireplace interiors built as illustrated. 

First, depth should be about as indicated on drawing, with 
straight sides. 

Front of top, roof or ceiling should be lower than rear to 
provide a canopy shaped roof to retain and convey smoke or 



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264 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

products of combustion, where wood, coal or gas is employed, 
to flue outlet. 

Flue outlet made large, with damper for regulation to care 
for any fuel used. 

Opening leading to flue should be made at an angle as 
shown, so products of combustion can freely pass to chimney. 

Two sets of drawings made one illustrating flue above cen- 
ter of fireplace opening, the other at rear. 

I would suggest, and recommend, that the Association adopt 
this as a "standard fireplace interior" and have it printed in large 
quantities, sold to gas companies at cost and distributed by them 
without charge to every architect and builder in every city where 
natural gas is sold. 

Wrinkle No. 107. 

PASTE INFORMATION RIGHT ON METER. 

THOMAS E. BALKIN, IROQUOIS NATURAL GAS CO., BUFFALO, N. Y. 

Having often observed the number of consumers of natural 
gas who call at the office or write requesting a re-reading of 
their meter, which they believe has been read wrong for the 
monthly bill, and also, having noted how few of the users of 
natural gas know how to read a meter, I am prompted to offer 
the following "wrinkle", which I trust will meet with your 
approval. 

Shown herewith is a sheet of instructions on how to read 
a gas meter and how to determine whether or not the house 
piping is leaking. Why would it not be a good idea to paste 
a sheet similar to this in a conspicuous place on all the meters 
on a plant, so that a consumer attempting to read his meter 
would not be at a loss on how to read same and could readily 
verify the state of his monthly bill. At the same time if he 
felt that there was something wrong, he could make a test of 
his own house piping to determine whether or not same was 
leaking. 

This scheme, I figure, would work better than any circulars 
passed among the consumers with this information, since such 
circulars are mislaid or lost, and as a result the consumer is 
obliged to call at the office or write requesting a re-reading and 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



265 



a test of the house piping. In the scheme above mentioned, the 
instructions are always where they may be found, and I think 
the plan would do away with much extra work along this line. 

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READING THE METER. 

It is advisable that all gas consumers understand the reading of 
their gas meter. It affords a way to determine whether or not there 
is a leakage of gas in the pipes or fittings. The meter also is a means 
of verifying monthly gas statements. 

Dial "A" (as indicated by illustration above) reads "6," because 
it has not yet reached *7." Dial "B" reads "7" for a like reason, and 
dial "C reads **7." Put down these figures, namely 677, and add 
two ciphers, because the lowest, or "C dial, represents hundreds. Thus 
you have 67,700 cubic feet Subtract from this the figures of last 
month's reading, say 65,000, and you have what you must now pay for, 
2,700 cubic feet. It's very simple. Try it. 

To determine whether there are any gas leaks, turn off all the 
gas stoves, lights and other appliances in the building where gas is 
used, then watch the hand on the ten foot dial of the meter for half 
an hour. If the hand has moved at the end of this period, it would 
then indicate that gas was leaking. In such event, inspect all valves 
and fittings, and if a leak is found repair at once. Leaking gas is 
dangerous and expensive. 

Wrinkle No. 108. 
THE AUTOMATIC MULTIPLYING DEVICE. 

H. G. MATHENY, THE LOGAN NATURAL GAS & FUEL CO., 
LANCASTER, OHIO. 

This device is especially designed for figuring Pilot Tube 
extensions, or other work where we have a fixed multiplier. 
This simple device has been used very efficiently in the office of 



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266 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. • 267 

The Logan Natural Gas & Fuel Company, at Lancaster, Ohio, 
for several months. 

Figure I shows the device arranged for the co-efl&cient of 
a certain Pilot tube which is "34176" figuring the equivalent 
in cubic feet of 7,529,099 inches, which would require the fol- 
lowing problem by multiplication: 

7,529,099- 

34176 

By the means of this device we merely turn the rollers to where 
the marginal figures appearing represent the inches to be figured 
as follows: 

The I St roller (L. Fig. i) represents what i to 9 inches 
equal — in this instance "9" 

The 2nd roller (M. Fig. i) represents what 10 to 90 inches 
equal — in this instance "90" 

The 3rd roller (N. Fig. i) represents what 100 to 900 
inches equal — in this instance "o'* 

The 4th roller (O. Fig. i )■ represents what 1000 to 9000 
inches equal — in this instance "9000" 

The 5th roller (P. Fig. i) represents what loooo to 90000 
inches equal — in this instance "20000" 

The 6th roller (Q. Fig. i) represents what 100,000 to 
900,000 inches equal — in this instance "500,000" 

The 7th roller (R. Fig. i) represents what 1,000,000 to 
9,000,000 inches equal — in this instance "7,000,000" Then add. 

Material and Construction, 

A — I and 2 — End pieces — 2 boards i^"x3"x J4 thick. 
. B— Bottom piece i board 2j4" x 8j4" x %" thick. 

C— Side piece— I board I^"x8j^"xj4" thick, with %" 
holes bored through. 

D — Side piece — i board same size as "C" but with holes 
bored nearly through. 

E, F, etc.— Wood rollers 2— Ji" x ^" diameter (made of 
Ji" curtain poles.) 

K. (Fig. i) Tracking cloth — 3^x9", ruled for comas and 
decimal points, and strips cut out over each roller. 



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268 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

L — Strips of paper 2"x3'', ruled for comas and decimal 
points (See S. T. and V, Fig. i), also (See Fig. 3), also see 
"Roller Slips". 

M — Screw Eyes to hold rollers in place and to enable oper- 
ator to turn the rollers to desired position. 

Roller Slips. 

The paper for roller "E" should be made up as follows: 
Place figures i to 9, at even intervals, on the margin, leaving 
J4" space at the top for aid in gluing to roller. Opposite the 
figure I should the multiplier, opposite the 2 twice the multiplier, 
opposite the "3" three times the multiplier, etc., down to o (See 
Figure No. 3.) 

The paper slip for "F" should be the same, except to point 
off one less decimal, or add one cipher as the case may require, 
but keep the decimal point in a perpendicular line with "E." 

The remaining rollers are treated the same, pointing off one 
less decimal, or affixing one more cipher. Study the 9s appear- 
ing in figure i. 

Wrinkle No. 109. 

IT PAYS TO TEST THE ROCK PRESSURE. 

DAVID WHITE, HOPE NATURAL GAS COMPANY, SMITHVILLE, W. VA. 

I find that it pays to test the rock pressure of drilling wells. 
The following is a report of one well that I was in charge of 
for the Hope Natural Gas Co.: 

The 6^" casing was run in the Big Lime ; a very nice flow 
of gas was struck in the Thirty Foot sand with a rock pressure 
of 130 pounds. Drilling was continued, 5 3/16 casing run in 
the Garden Stray bringing the Thirty Foot gas between the 6^ 
and 5 3/16" casing, drilling was continued and another flow of 
gas was struck in the Gordon sand; i hour rock pressure 825 
pounds. The well was then drilled to the Fourth sand and an- 
other nice flow of gas was struck. Shutting the Gordon sand 
gas and the Fourth sand gas in the 5 3/16" casing the rock pres- 
sure did not exceed 90 pounds. Ran 3" tubing and set packer 
between Gordon and Fourth sand gas. The rock pressure of 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



the Fourth sand in the 3" tubing was only 90 pounds and the 
rock pressure of the Gordon sand in the 5 3/16" casing was 
875 pounds. 

Wrinkle No. 110. 

WRENCH FOR TAKING PIPE OUT OF DITCH. 

JAMES p. STRICKLER, COLUMBUS GAS & FUEL CO., COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

This is old to me, so much so that I hesitate about sending 
it, it may, however, be of some help to some of the boys who 
have not employed it. 

Use a piece of either 4 or 6 inch pipe about lo or 12 feet 
long, enough to cross your ditch and give you a good-bearing 
on both banks, two pair of pipe tongs and a good manilla rope 



Wrinkle No. 110. 



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270 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



MEHCURy DIFFEREHTIAL OAUCft 
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Wrinkle No. 111. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 271 

about lyi inches in diameter; make loop in one end and slip 
the r<q)e around the pipe; put the rope under the pipe in ditch 
and then roll around your pipe above ditch three or four times ; 
use three men, one each to man the tongs and one to hold the 
loose end of the rope. You can lift almost any size pipe out 
of the ditch with blocks of wood under your pipe sufficiently 
high enough so that you can put bart under the pipe above the 
ditch. This is a much quicker way to raise pipe than with a 
gin pole and horse and can be worked with much fewer men. 

Wrinkle No. 111. 
MERCURY DIFFERENTIAL GAUGE. 

JAMES P. STRICKLER, COLUMBUS GAS & FUEL CO., COLUMBUS, OHIO. 
(Drawing on page 270.) 
The above Mercury differential gauge is a home-made affair 
and can be made entirely out of pipe and pipe fittings, excepting 
the housings for shaft i6 and 23 referred to in drawing. This 
housing can be made out of any material, brass or iron, and 
is screwed to the one inch tee No. 14 in the drawing. Record- 
ing gauge can be attached by putting the whole instrument on a 
board and having a chart scale to suit the user. This gauge 
will give absolutely correct reading of the differential pressure 
and can be made any length the user may desire. 

Wrinkle No. 112. 

AUTOMATIC ORIFICE METER CONTROL. 

T. H. KERR, ENGINEER, THE OHIO FUEL SUPPLY CO., COLUMBUS, O. 

An Orifice Meter consists of a plate with a circular hole or 
orifice in the center, so placed in a pipe line that the fluid (gas, 
air, steam, oil, or water), to be measured must pass through it, 
with suitable instruments for indicating or recording the pres- 
sure through the orifice. 

An Orifice having a diameter of J4 of the pipe diameter 
or less offers considerable resistance to the flow of fluid, which 
is apparent by the drop in pressure between the two slides of the 
Orifice. This drop in pressure is called the differential pressure. 



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272 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

It may be measured in pounds, inches of mercury or inches of 
water pressure. In the natural gas industry it is almost univer- 
sally measured in inches of water. 

This differential pressure bears a known relation to the 
velocity of the flowing gas, hence from the measured differential 
pressure can be computed the velocity and quantity of the gas 
passing through the orifice. 

The relation of the velocity of flow through the orifice to 
the differential pressure is found in the law of falling bodies 
where the velocity of the falling body in feet per second «= 
V2gh, where g-« the acceleration due to gravity or 32.17 ft. 
per second and h ■= the height in feet from which the body fell. 
From this law it has been mathematically proven and demon- 
strated by experiment that for gas flowing through an orifice, 
or similar meter, the velocity in feet per second =— V2gx62.3xH 

where 12W 

62.3 «= weight per cu. ft. of water. 
H = differential pressure in inches of water. 
W = weight per cu ft. of gas. 



Wrinkle No. 112. (Fig. 3B.) 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 273 



Wrinkle No. 112. (Fig. 3A.) 

From the above reasoning it is evident that the velocity 
varies as the square root of the differential pressure or the 
differential pressure varies as the square of the velocity. 

Having a recording instrument of any fixed size for the 
purpose of recording the differential pressure it is desirable to 
limit the operation of the meter so that the record occupies but 
75% or even less of the available space. With instruments 
capable of recording pressures of o to lOO inches, which are 
commonly used, it is desirable to keep the record between lO and 
70 inches. This limiting of the record space directly affects the 
range of volume of the meter. 

Frequently where gas is measured for city consumption the 
range of flow varies from one to twelve with different sea- 
sons of the year. To affect such a measurement with orifice 
meters it is necessary to have a number of meters and provide 
means of turning them on and off in conformity with the 
changes of flow. This is ordinarily performed by attendants 
but to avoid this expense the differential relief valve described 

18 



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274 XATl'RAL CAS ASSOCIATIOX OI- AMERICA. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 275 

herewith was developed. A cut showing the detail section of the 
valve is shown in Fig. 3A. The general appearance is shown in 
Fig. 3-B. 

This valve is of the positive opening type controlled by gas 
pressure which is in turn controlled by the balancing of forces 
between a differential diaphragm and weighed lever. The 
motion from the weighted lever is transmitted to a pair of pilot 
valves, one of which admits gas to the main valve diaphragm 
opening the main valve. The other valve is an exhaust valve 
for the same chamber. 

The differential relief valve is placed in the line embodying 
the second or other additional meters and so connected with the 
first meter that it is controlled by the volume of gas flowing 
through it. viz. differential pressure. When the differential pres- 
sure on the first meter reaches a predetermined maximum, the 
weighted lever is unbalanced causing the inlet pilot valve to open. 
This admits pressure to the top of the main valve diapragm and 
opens the main valve. The second meter is thereby put into 
operation, and the increased orifice area decreases the differential 
pressure on the two meters. The two continue to operate until 
the volume increases to such an extent that the differential pres- 
sure again reaches the maximum. A third meter is turned on in 
the same manner as before. If, however, the volume should de- 
crease, the automatically controlled meters are shut off in reverse 
rotation, leaving the pilot meter only in service. 

Two charts. Figs i and 2 show a 24-hour record of a two- 
meter installation for such automatic control. It will be noted 
that the second meter shut off at 9:05 P. M. when the dif- 
ferential pressure decreased to 27". It was turned on again 
in the morning at 6:25 A. M. when the pilot differential pres- 
sure reached 61". Chart Fig. i shows meter record of pilot 
meter and Fig. 2 shows chart from the automatically controlled 
meter. Superimposed upon F'ig. i chart is a dotted line corre- 
spending to the record of Fig. 2. 



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27(5 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 




Wrinkle No. 113. 







Wrinkle No. 114. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 277 



Wrinkle No. 113. 

METER CAGE VISE. 

J. H. SCHALEK, MFRS. LIGHT & HEAT CO., PITTSBURGH, PA. 

(Drawing on page 276.) 

Some meter cages are made of so soft a material which 
allows the bearing to wear rapidly, making it impossible to re- 
place same in a properly repaired meter without rebushing same 
or substituting a new cage. To remove the cage the valve pin 
must also be taken out and it is often a problem for contortion- 
ists to effect this and keep cool. The vise as illustrated is 
easily made and will hold the cage in the proper position so that 
a few light taps on a punch will readily drive out the valve pin. 

Wrinkle No. 114. 

ONE MAN CAN REMOVE DIAPHRAGM TOP. 

JOHN W. LEHEW, THE OHIO FUEL SUPPLY CO., MT. VERNON, OHIO. 

(Drawing on page 276.) 
Make three bolt heads into hooks, for connecting chain 
tripod, so that diaphragm top can be removed by one man, and 
regulator can be repaired without injury to the steel stem. By 
using a chain hoist, )4 ton, making tripod long enough for all 
sized tops. 

Wrinkle No. 115. 
STANDARD METER SETTING. 

W. A. ASHLEY, SUPT. THE LOGAN NATURAL GAS & FUEL CO., 
CHILLICOTHE, OHIO. 

The object of this drawing is to make a standard for meter 
setting. A copy of which would be furnished to each fitter, 
who is doing this kind of work. By following the outlines spec- 
ified you can connect the following sizes of meters: 

3 — Light) 

5- " ) 
lo— " ) 

20— " ) 



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278 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OP AMERICA. 




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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



279 




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280 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



By reversing the risor from left to right you can set a 
Tobey or Westinghouse meter by making a few minor changes 
of fittings. 

This would be a great saving to the gas companies in labor 
and material and would be a help to the fitter as well as to the 
party who makes the inspection. 

Wrinkle No. 116. 

MAKING A 15 BANK ADDING MACHINE INTO ONE OF SIX 

BANKS. 

C. C. PHILLIPS, THE OHIO FUEL SUPPLY CO., COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

One of our adding machines is a 15-bank machine. The 
greater part of our straight addition is made up of numbers of 
five and six digits. To increase speed and decrease confusion, 
we have had a cover made for the first nine columns of this 
machine which can be put on or removed in a second and which 



Wrinkle No. 116. 

practically changes the bulky 15-bank machine to a small one 
of six columns. The cover is used as a shelf upon which the 
work is held while operating the machine, thus bringing the work 
close to the keyboard. When addition of larger numbers is 
desired, or when multiplying, the cover is set aside. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



281 



Wrinkle No. 117. 

MOISTURE-PROOF CONTAINER FOR RECORDING GAUGE 

CHARTS. 

J. H. SCHALER, MFRS. LIGHT & HEAT CO., PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Recording gauge charts should be kept dry. Moisture has 
a tendency to make the ink "crawl" and blur due to the swelling 
of the sizing and the capillary attraction of the ink in the mois- 
tened fibers of the paper. The container shown in drawing is a 




/1ofJTu/ra pRoor CcrtTAi/i£f^. 

Wrinkle No. 117. 

remedy for this trouble and may be constructed of i6-gauge 
sheet iron, terne or galvanized. A rubber gasket on the bottom 
edge and one under the wing nut will make this an ideal con- 
tainer for gauge charts for use in regulator pits or other places 
where water and moisture is excessive. 



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282 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Wrinkle No. 118. 

STAMP THE NUMBER OF FEET OF PIPE IN EACH SERVICE. 

W. A. ASHLEY, SUPT. THE LOGAN NATURAL GAS & FUEL CO., 

CHILLICOTHE, OHIO. 

This drawing shows a curb box top with a button made of 
brass attached thereto. On this button is stenciled the number 
of feet of pipe put in any given service. 




Wrinkle No. 118. 

The number of feet of pipe is placed on this button by the 
fitter when he cuts out the pipe for the service. 

The object of which enables you to find the exact location 
of the main line should you have an occasion to locate the same. 
It would also be a great benefit in locating fittings on intersec- 
tions of the different streets which is a great help in making an 
inventory of a plant. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



283 



Wrinkle No. 119. 

PRECAUTION NECESSARY IN CITIES WHERE TWO GAS 

COMPANIES ARE IN OPPOSITION TO 

ONE ANOTHER. 

W. B. DAVIES^ UNITED GAS CO., ST. CATHARINES, ONTARIO, CANADA. 

Sketch shows lay out of natural gas meter A and artificial 
meter B. On account of the low pressure of both during the 
cold weather, owner of building tried to use both simultaneously 
and found to his sorrow that the gas from the natural gas sys- 




Wrinkle No. 119. 

tem passed through the artificial meter and into the artificial 
line, a very liberal policy on the owner's part for his bill with 
the natural gas company had increased 200% greater than his 
usual monthly statement. 

Where such conditions exist, advise consumers not to oper- 
ate these two gases simultaneously. 

Wrinkle No. 120. 

•'IMPROVED DISC FOR GATE VALVES." 

H. P. ZIESCHANG, THE OHIO FUEL SUPPLY CO., COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

The cut shows a gate valve in which the disc '*A'* carries 
a rubber ring "B" held in place by a follower ring "C". The 
rubber ring is to be made from some of the compositions whi^-h 



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284 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



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Wrinkle No. 120. 



have been so successful as gaskets for pipe line couplers, such 
as Paranite C or Goodrich 19. The compressibility of this rub- 
ber will make it possible to obtain tight closing of the gate even 
under bad conditions of grit, etc. 

To prevent the sliding of the rubber ring over the seat face 
the wedge arrangement is to be of the type in which the closing 
movement is along the axis of the pipe. 

Wrinkle No. 121. 

TABLE SHOWING THE ACCURACY OF A GAS METER ON 
VERY LIGHT PRESSURES. 

W. B. DAVIES, UNITED GAS CO., ST. CATHARINES, ONTARIO, CANADA. 

I have seen many men in connection with local distribution 
offices who were absolutely ignorant and some rather skeptical 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



285 



regarding the accuracy of the gas meter on low pressure gas, 
consequently I have compiled this table showing the various 
pressures in inches of water and ounces, the percentage of error 
for these various pressures and the time for the meter to pass 
ID cu. ft. under these various pressures. 

The meter tested was a Sprague meter with i" outlet and 
the two tests consisted of one with full opening and the other 
with J4 opening. 

For a pressure of 0.3 ounce in both cases, the meter was 
1.52% slow and fast above this pressure with little deviation as 
to the actual percentage. 

The column showing the duration of time in minutes and 
seconds for 10 cu. ft. to pass through the meter is very inter- 
esting. 



Pressure 

Inch 

Water 



Pressure 
Oz. 



Quantity 
Meter 



Quantity 
Tank 



Per Cent 
Error 



Time to 

Pass 10 

Cu. Ft. Gas 



Outlet 1" Opening 



0.5" 


0.8 


10.00 cu. ft. 


9.85 cu. ft. 


+1.52 


6'— 30" 


1.25" 


0.73 


110.00 " 


10.08 " 


-0.79 


3'— 40" 


1.75" 


1.08 


110.00 " 


10.09 " 


-0.89 


2'-40" 


2.375" 


1.39 


10.00 " 


10.06 " 


-0.60 


2'— 20" 


2.875" 


1.69 


110.00 


10. 0<) " 


—0.60 


2'-05" 


3.375 


2.00 


110.00 


10.09 " 


—0.89 


r— .55" 


4.000 


2.30 


110.00 " 


10.09 " 


—0.89 


l'--45" 


5.200 


3.00 


10.00 " 


10.14 " 


—1.38 


1'— 35" 



Outlet }" Opening 



0.5" 


1 0.8 


I 
10.00 cu. 


1 

ft.l 9.85 cu. ft. 


4-1. .•>2 


9'— 05" 


1.25" 


0.73 


110.00 


* 110.08 


—0.79 


5'— 20" 


1.75" 


1.03 


10.00 


' 10.13 " 


—1.28 


4'-03'' 


2.375" 


1.39 


110.00 


' 10.14 " 


-1.38 


3'— 35" 


2.875 


1.69 


110.00 


' 110.16 " 


-1.57 


3'— 15" 


3.375 


2.00 


10.00 


' '10.15 


—1.48 


8'— 03" 


4.000 


2.30 


110.00 


* '10.18 


-1.28 


2'— 50" 


5.200 


3.00 


'10.00 

1 


' 110.16 " 

1 


—1.57 


2'— 30" 



Wrinkle No. 121. 



W. B. P. 



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286 



NATl'RAL GAS ASSOCIATIOX OF AMERICA. 



The information given in this table is absolutely essential 
to all employees of companies, who have the gas shortage con- 
dition confronting them during severe weather. 

Wrinkle No. 122. 

METHOD OF DETECTING LEAKING "DEAD-WEIGHT" 
SAFETY VALVES WHILE IN SERVICE. 

J. H. SCHALEK, MFRS. LIGHT & HEAT CO., PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Much gas is lost by leakage of dead weight safety valves 
and a method or means of knowing when these valves need 




Wrinkle No. 122. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 287 

regrinding is of great importance. Some reclaimed valves have 
been found leaking at the rate of ten cubic feet per hour. As 
shown in the drawing, the vent pipe has the added equipment of 
two nipples, one-quarter inch outlet tee, and a stop. When test- 
ing for leakage through the safety valve a 6" "U" gauge is 
screwed to the tee and the stop closed. Any leakage will then 
be indicated by the difference in the water levels of the "U" 
gauge. The cost of the extra fittings will be repaid in less than 
a year's time in gas saved. The regulator man, carrying with 
him a 6" gauge, can test a valve in about five minutes. 

Wrinkle No. 123, 

RULE FOR MEASURING PIPE WHEN PILED. 

A. L. SCHNEIDER, PITTSBURGH & WEST VIRGINIA GAS COMPANY, 
CLARKSBURG, W. VA. 

The photograph shows a steel folding rule for measuring 
casing, pipe or tubing, especially when piled where it would 
require two or three men to tear down and repile in order to 
get a correct measurement. With this rule one man can measure 
in half the time that it would take two or three men to do. 

It comprises six sections, each four feet two and a half 
inches long, rivited together so that when extended one section 
will overlap the other two and a half inches, permitting a bolt 
to be put through to keep the rule from folding when in use. 
They are fastened with the screw-driver wrench as seen in the 
picture. The end to go through the joint has a pin one inch 
long and a quarter of an inch thick riveted on, projecting on 
the blank side of the rule. When measuring casing the rule is 
put inside the joint, pin end forward and pushed through joint 
until the pin is out of the other end, then pulled back slightly 
until the pin stops against the end of the joint. 

Commencing at fifteen feet from the pin, the rule is grad- 
uated in half and inch lines marked with a file, then stamped 
with small figures at the inch marks and larger figures designat- 
ing the feet. This of course is on the upper side, the pin pro- 
jecting from the lower side. The wheel is to allow the end to 



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288 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATIOX OF AMERICA. 



Wrinkle No. 123. 

travel over the ground as it is withdrawn from the joint after 
being measured. 

Material required to make this rule: 

24 feet yi" X 1" Iron or Steel 

5 }i"xy2" Stove Bolts 

6 i4"x>S" Rivets 
2 >4"x2" Rivets 
I 'A^xf Wheel 

I Screwdriver-wrench. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



289 



Wrinkle No. 124. 
THIS SWAB DOES THE WORK AND SAVES MONEY. 

A. E. BOYD, DISTRICT SUPT. THE OHIO FUEL SUPPLY COMPANY, 
ASHLAND, OHIO. 

This sketch shows a new swab gotten up by us. Sketch 
shows swab in operation going down in tubing and also coming 
out. 

This is a simple arrangement made from >^" round iron 
about one foot long with an eye made in top end for wire line 
to fasten into. The lower end of iron is threaded for about 



THIS SHOWS 

SWAB 
boiNO OOWN 



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SWAB 
COMINO UP 



COMMON NUT 
,NUT WITH EYE 



12 



Wrinkle No. 124. 

three inches, with a common nut screwed on first, then we have 
another nut tapped out and made in the shape of an eye. A 
round piece of J4" leather and a piece of ^" belting is phiced 
between these nuts. The belting under and the leather on tO]) 
are shown in sketch. The eye nut on bottom serves two pur- 
poses ; the one purpose for attaching weight and the other is 
19 



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2JM) 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



when you want to place new rubbers and leathers, all that is 
necessary to do is unscrew it. 

We had a great deal of trouble in getting something to take 
the place of soft rope swabs which the well men insisted on 
using. They insisted they could not swab a light well with a 
common leather swab, but we found these swabs will clean a 
very light well and it is saving the company a lot of extra ex- 
pense by eliminating the fishing jobs w^hich were caused by 
using rope swabs, because they would get fast and the swab line 
would be broken causing a fishing job. We have not had a 
single bad job with these swabs as yet and are able to keep wells 
in better shape. 

s Wrinkle No. 125. 

TEMPORARY METHOD OF STOPPING LEAKS. 

C. C. ROBERT, SUPT. SOUTHERN ONT.ARIO CAS CO., ONTARIO, CANADA. 

Line walkers in making their rounds often discover small 
leaks, which they are unable to fix because of their inability to 
carry tools and fittings, consequently can prevent temporarily 
loss of gas by the following method until they return with 
necessary equipment. 




Wrinkle No. 125. 

A — represents the hole in pipe over which is placed a piece 
of rag or rubber. 

B — may be a piece of wire, rag, rope, wrapped around pipe 
and stick. 

D — a piece of wood or stick. 

C — a small rock. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



291 



By forcing rock ''C" towards point "A" under the stick the 
pressure at "A" can be made great enough to compress the rag 
over the hole sufficiently to prevent loss of gas. 

Wrinkle No. 126. 

APPARATUS FOR THE ACCURATE DETERMINATION OF 
SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF GASES. 

T. H. KERR^ ENGINEER, AND E. F. SCHMIDT, ASSISTANT ENGINEER, 
THE OHIO FUEL SUPPLY COMPANY, COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

Since the orifice meter has become so widely used for the 
measurement of high pressure natural gas, many different types 
of apparatus for the determination of specific gravity, embody- 
ing the principle of effusion have been placed on the market 
So many sources of error uncontrollable by human agencies hav< 
been encountered that, except under ideal laboratory condition, 
the most improved type of effusion apparatus has been founc 
very unreliable. 

At the instigation of several gas companies the Bureau of 
Standards at Washington, D. C, investigated all the types of 
specific gravity apparatus obtainable. Their investigations re- 
sulted in the abandoning of the effusion type and the adoption 
of a modified type of the weighing instrument. In the Techno- 
logic Paper of the Bureau of Standards, No. 69, entitled "A 




(Fig. 4)— Wrinkle No. 126. 



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2J)2 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATIOX OF AMERICA. 



Specific Gravity Balance for Gases/' the investigations and re- 
sults of the Bureau can be found. 



(FiK. 1 ) — WrinUlc No. 12(1 

We desired an instrument for either laboratory or field use 
and developed the one shown in Fig. i. It has the combined 
advantages of stability and lightness, weighing only fifteen 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



pounds complete with carrying case. It consists of a water 
jacketed balancing chamber, a metal balance beam, a U gauge 
filled with mercury for measuring pressures, a vacuum ptunp, 
drying tubes for drying the air, and a tripod on which the in- 
strument is mounted. In addition to the above a barometer is 
also necessary for the determination of absolute pressure. 

Much experimenting was done before the apparatus showti 
was finally produced. The balance chamber was cast in one 
piece of aluminum and screw caps which were provided with 
plate glass windows were fitted to either end, thus allowing 
ample light for observing the position of the beam. Most of 
the aluminum castings, however, proved to be porous and in 
order to make the balance chamber air tight, a piece of cold 
drawn steel tubing was fitted inside and machined so that with 
the end caps drawn up against soft rubber gaskets, an air tight 
joint was provided. Much experimenting was also done to make 
a substantial and sensitive balance beam which was finally con- 
structed as shown in Fig. 2. It consists of an air tight bulb 
(B) of spun brass, counter-weighted with adjustable balancing 
weighs (E). The bearing points (F) are also adjustable (G), 
allowing the center of gravity of the beam to be raised or low- 
ered, thus providing a control of the sensibility. The needle 
points rest on glass bearings which arrangement was adopted 
by the Bureau of Standards as being practically without fric- 
tion. The bearings are made so as to give the beam neither 
lateral or longitudinal motion, assuring a constant position dur- 
ing a determination of gravity. 

The method used in making a test is as follows : The beam 
is adjusted so that it will come to equilibrium in atmosphere 
with the counterweight end slightly below a horizontal plaiie 
through the bearing points. In this position a vacuum is re- 
quired to bring it to a level position which position is aflFected 
by bringing into alignment the cross hair mounted permanently 
on glass and the line on the end of the balance beam. The air 
that is allowed into the chamber when making this balance must 
be drawn through some drying agent assuring dry air. The 
vacuum reading is then observed on the U gauge. This should 



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2M NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

be repeated and checked. The balancing chamber is then 
purged of air and the gas allowed to fill it to a pressure sufficient 
to bring the beam to the same position of equilibrium again. 
The pressure is then observed on the U gauge. These pressures 
are then reduced to absolute pressure, knowing the barometric 
pressure at the time of making the test. The specific gravity 
of the gas is the quotient of the absolute air pressure divided 
by the absolute gas pressure. (Air being i ) . 
A typical case is given below. 

Barometric Pressure 755 mm. 

Balancing Pressures — 

Air —187 mm. 

Gas +126 mm. 

755 — 187 
Specific Gravity =^^^^j^ =.6447 

The development of this instrument has made the accurate 
determination of specific gravity more practical and has thus 
made it possible to measure high pressure natural gas to a de- 
gree of accuracy seldom heretofore attained. 

Wrinkle No. 127. 

K METHOD OF EXTINGUISHING BURNING GAS LEAKS ON 

MAIN LINES. 

FRANKLIN L. KELLOGG, FIELD FOREMAN, ONTARIO GAS COMPANY, 
HONEOYE FALLS, N. Y. 

When a leak in a buried gas line has been ignited and allowed 
to bum for some time, it will be noticed that wherever the flame 
issues from the ground, the ground and surrounding material 
will attain a very high temperature. By deluging this highly 
heated material with water, a cloud of steam will arise and 
smother the flame of burning gas. Where the pipe line is above 
ground, it is sometimes advisable to pile stones or other refrac- 
tory material about the flame and wait for same to heat, before 
applying the water, in order to have enough heated material to 
vaporize the same. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



295 



The size of the fire will determine the proper treatment. 
The writer has used the above method in several cases and has 
found it to be very simple and satisfactory. 

Wrinkle No. 128. 

APPARATUS TO DETERMINE DIRECTION OF FLOW. 

J. H. SCHALEK, MFRS. LIGHT & HEAT CO., PITTSBURGH, PA. 

In belted systems and where the main line is fed by wells 
situated in localities opposing each other, with reference to the 
main line, it is often desirable to know which way the gas is 
flowing. The principle of the apparatus is identical with that 
of the Pitot tube. The impact mouths should be placed as near 
the center of the main as possible. The impact mouth facing 



n^ 'U'fifU 








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^•••nj «^^«F>«A«^s »n l*m*. ^tffmm't' c»nn€cft^ f* ^*A»/«. 



Appar^ahfS ^ dtiir/ntft^. ^irtcfnt-n of flow. 



Wrinkle No. 128. 






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296 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

the direction of flow will show a greater depression in the liquid 
in its arm of the "U" gauge than the down stream impact mouth 
due to the fact that both the djmamic and static pressure is 
recorded while the down-stream mouth records only the static 
pressure and which is also lessened by suction where the speed 
of the gas is great. The greater the speed of flow the greater 
is the differential pressure. By reason of the sliding tubes it 
is possible to insert apparatus in a smaller hole than would 
otherwise be the case. 

Wrinkle No. 129. 
USE SPRING IN PLACE OF WEIGHT ON VALVES. 

T. J. THATCHER, NEW BUSINESS DEPARTMENT, THE OHIO FUEL 
SUPPLY CO., COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

The usual method for making a lever valve so that it will 
seat is to put a chunk of lead or other weight on the end of the 
valve arm. 




Wrinkle No. 129. 

We have found that a spring of good steel wire can be made 
and attached to a valve as shown in cut. Using a spring is a 
much surer way of making the valve seat, makes a neater ap- 
pearance and is particularly valuable when used with a ther- 
mostat on house heating jobs. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 297 

Wrinkle No. 130. 
FIVE WRINKLES FOR OPERATION OFFICES. 

JOHN M. CRONIN, COLUMBIA GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY, 
CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

The enclosed "Wrinkles" have been a quick and compre- 
hensive means, in our office, of having at hand information that 
is sought almost daily in all "operation offices." 

Wrinkle No. i — Operation Calendar. This calendar per- 
mits any one to determine the number of locations and the prog- 
ress in drilling, the total number of wells drilled, purchased, 
abandoned and repaired for any month. The report, of course, 
is made up to the last of each month. 

Wrinkle No. 2 — ^AU gauge reports are flashed from the 
field. As soon as these reports are received, the gauge in cubic 
feet is put upon the card and when the gauge slip is received 
the card is checked off. The use of this card is twofold in its 
purpose in as much as it is a check on the gauges taken of every 
well and it is something that you can get to in a hurry to ascer- 
tain the size of one or a group of wells recently completed. 

Wrinkle No. 3 — ^The large gas companies, as a rule, have 
well pockets into which are placed certain information required 
in the drilling of each well. To obviate the necessity of looking 
through your well pockets to see if you have received certain 
information, this card is used and when the information is re- 
ceived, it is checked off on the card and a glance across the card 
will show in a moment the information needed to complete the 
file. 

Wrinkle No. 4 — "Individual Well History." A card is 
given for each well upon the location of same and as weekly re- 
ports are received from the field, the information is recorded 
on the card. Upon the completion of the well the card is taken 
out of the card index and filed in the well pocket. 

Wrinkle No. 5 — "Defective Well Card." As soon as a well 
is reported defective a card is made up showing the original 
open flow, the original rock pressure and the defect. When re- 
pairs are begun on the well, record is kept as the weekly re- 



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NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 





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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 303 



ports are received. Upon completion of repairs the card is 
filed in the well pocket and becomes a part of the permanent 
record. By the use of this card we are constantly reminded of 
the defective wells and the defects. 

Wrinkle No. 131. 

A PORTABLE TEST GAUGE. 

T. H. KERR, ENCJNKER, THE OHIO FUEL SUPPLY CO. 

• The test gauge shown in the following cut represents an 
improvement both as to lightness of weight and durability over 



Wrinkle \o 131 



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:m 



XATl'RAL CAS ASSOCIATION OP AMERICA. 



the gauge made by the writer shown as Wrinkle No. 1 1 1 in the 
1916 Proceedings of the Association. It is also provided with 
screw caps making it possible to carry the gauge with the mer- 
cury contained in it. The leather carrying case is for conve- 
nience and a safeguard against breakage. 



Wrinkle No. 18-2. 

A. G. BOYD, DISTRICT SUPT. THE OHIO FUEL SUPPLY COMPANY, 
ASHL\ND, OHIO. 

When a well is left open at the top in the drive pipe and 
casing around the tubing it leaves a well in such shape that any 
one can drop rubbish, iron, etc., down inside of casing. This 
is very expensive to a company when they start to clean a well 
out on account of causing the tubing and packer to stick and 
often causing a pipe fishing job. A casing-head would be rather 
expensive for this purpose and we have tried packing rope 
around the tubing in top of casing, but we found this was not a 
success on account of it working down, then if there comes a 
time that we wish to "mud" a packer we are up against it. 




K-AMCHOR CLAflPS 
TEE 



CASINO COVER 



BOLT 

RIVETED ON 

LAP 



DRIVE PIPE 




Wrinkle Xo. IV2 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 305 

Now I have gotten up a new wrinkle which is very cheap 
and it answers the purpose well. It is a simple, funnel-shape 
arrangement made out of galvanized iron, large enough at the 
bottom to fit down around the drive pipe and reduced to about 
the size of the tubing to fit around the tubing under the tee. A 
lap runs up and down with a little lug riveted on each side of 
the lap. At the top and bottom a bolt runs through these to 
draw it up tight around the tubing and drive pipe. We find this 
simple arrangement is very satisfactory. See rough sketch. 

Wrinkle No. 133. 
CONVERSION CHART. 

J. H. SCHALEK, MFRS. LIGHT & HEAT CO., PITTSBURGH, PA. 

(Drawing on page 306.) 

By the aid of this chart much time and labor may be saved 
in estimating consumption per hour when rate per cubic foot is 
known or to determine the rate of flow per second when the rate 
of flow per hour is known. It is also useful in setting adjust- 
able orifices when testing factory meters by the prover method. 
Example: What is the rate of flow per hour when one cubic 
foot passes orifice in four seconds ? Solution : Find the figure 
four (4) in margin "Seconds per foot'', follow line to the diag- 
onal, follow the line at the intersection to the base "Feet per 
hour", which in this instance read 900 cubic feet. This chart is 
made on logarithmic ruled paper and it should be kept in mind 
that : 

Tenths of seconds per cu. ft. equals thousands of cu. ft per hour. 
Units of seconds per cu. ft. equals hundreds of cu. ft. per hour. 
Tens of seconds per cu. ft. equals tens of cu. ft. per hour. 
Hundreds of seconds per cu. ft. equals units of cu. ft. per hour. 



20 



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30G NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



^ ••,.»_ tO«Jk»««lC»C»HCI»O»»«€tT.0«. JiM6th^l*A ",', 

Wrinkle No. 13:3. 



Wrinkle No. I'M. 

•THE GAS CIRCLE." 

C. C. PHILLIPS, THE OHIO FUEL SUPPLY CO., COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

Being vitally interested in all phases of the natural gas 
industry, this department has formed an organization for the 
purpose of increasing our knowledge of this business. The 
members each contribute $3.00 a year to cover expense of sub- 
scriptions to various gas magazines, government bulletins and 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



307 




ATTENTION 
C. C. Phillipa €H\^ 




Acknowledge by insertinl 
O. K. efter YOUR NAME 
end PASS to the NEXT 
MAN. LAST MAM RE 

Tu; 




Wrinkle No. 134. 

other literature of interest in this connection. All expenditures 
are put to a vote of the members and must have the approval 
of the majority. When any article of interest is read by a mem- 
ber it is promptly brought to the attention of all members. To 
be sure all members receive each magazine, bulletin or clipping, 
etc., the organization has had slips printed like the enclosed and 
nothing is filed until it has been noted and O. K.d by all the 
members. 



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;v)H 



NATURAL CAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Wrinkle No. 135. 

THERMOMETKR COMPARISOX CHAMBER. 

J. H. SCHALEK, MFRS. LIGHT & HEAT CO., PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Although the thermometers used in proving house meters 
need not be of scientific accuracy, they should, however, register 
within a quarter of a degree of each other when immersed in a 




THERMQMElEfi COMPfiRlSON 
CHAMBER 

Wrinkle No. 1:3-5. 

fluid of uniform temperature. The chamber as shown in the 
drawing is a quart size fruit jar with holes cut in the cap for 
>'q" corks or rubber stopi)ers. Each stopper has a hole bored 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



309 



through it and small enough to grip the thermometers tightly. 
By filling the chamber with hot water and making a record of 
the thermometer readings at lo or 15-minute intervals the un- 
reliable thermometer can easily be found and rejected if the 
variation is in excess of that recommended above. 



Wrinkle No. 136. 

METHOD FOR REPAIRING SPLIT CENTER RING. 

H. P. ZIESCHANG, THE OHIO FUEL SUPPLY CO., COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

The expense of a sleeve could be done away with by using 
the clamp shown in these rough drawings. This clamp could 
be used when a center ring or a coupling is split. 

Lay a piece of J^'^ gasket rubber over the leak and cover it 
with a piece of J4" steel, made with two tips that will reach 
above the bolts, as shown in Fig. No. i. Then take two pieces 




Wrinkle No. 13(). 



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81(1 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



of band steel as shown in Fig. No. 2. The band to be put over 
the bolts on the coupling. Tighten on the sides, thus pulling 
down on the tips and this will stop the leak. 

This has proven successful with our company. 



Wrinkle No. 137. 

LEAK DETECTOR FOR GAS LINE IN CASING. 

H. H. HARRINGTON, CITIZENS' GAS & ELECTRIC CO., ELYRIA, OHIO. 

Tap casing at highest point, saddle and run ij4" line to 
parking in the clear, with riser and cap. By taking cap off can 
readily tell at any time if line is leaking in casing. 



CAP- 



IK' PIPE TO PARKING 
SADOLETRAP - 




CEMENT ^^^ — -— — ySa fc^CEMEN T 

' ^ CASTJNO __fef f^ » 

GAS LINE''"'^^^^^^^""""'^^^^"^^^^*'" ■" " "^OAii LINE 

Wrinkle No. 187. 



Wrinkle No. 138. 

TO PREVENT REGULATORS FROM FREEZING. 

JOHN L. NEELY, MANSFIELD, OHIO. 

The drawing shows a hot water heating system to prevent 
regulators from freezing. 

No. I is section of pipe attached to high pressure side of reg- 
ulator, and has water jacket welded on or attached by other 
means. 

No. 2 is a section of 2" pipe with gas burner underneath, 
used as a water heater. The coil can be used instead. 

No. 3 is an expansion tank to be kept filled with water. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



311 




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312 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 




Wrinkle No. 139. 

Wrinkle No. 139. 
CONTROLLING TWO SOURCES OF GAS SUPPLY. 

JOHN L. NEELY, MANSFIELD, OHIO. 

An oil sealed gasometer with two stop cocks or valves, con- 
trolling two sources of gas supply. Valve No. i controls an 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 313 



insufficient supply from privately owned gas well of higher pres- 
sure than company's mains. This valve is set by means of holes 
in toggle connection so that it will open one-eighth of an inch 
earlier than valve No. 2, which is connected to low pressure 
main. Thus all of pressure and volume is used from the high 
pressure source before the low pressure supply is automatically 
drawn from. This device also prevents back pressure accumu- 
lating on meter. 

Wrinkle No. 140. 

A HOME-MADE GAS MASK. 

H. H. HARRINGTON, CITIZENS' GAS & ELECTRIC CO., ELYRIA, OHIO. 

Procure wire-gauze false-face without eye holes at notion 
store. Sew light padding around inside of edges to fit face, 
solder a tin tube to top, attach strap with buckle to go around 




TUBE 



^STPAP AND BUCKLE 
....^PADDINe- 

Wrinkle No. 140. 

head to hold mask in place, attach tube to test pump. No gas 
will penetrate gauze and in case of fire the face, eyes and lungs 
are protected. 

Wrinkle No. 141. 

ADJUSTABLE METER PROVER CHECK. 

J. J. BUCHANAN, FOREMAN METER REPAIR DEPT. MANUFACTURERS* 
LIGHT & HEAT CO., PITTSBURGH, PA. 

I hand you herewith sketch and description of "wrinkle" 
adjustable meter prover check. 



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3U 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



The adjustable meter prover check is easily made and the 
material required will be readily found in any meter repair shop. 




» -y^^tfg 



e/. c/. Suchanort 

AtfKs. Lr%^Ht Co., grA, ^ 

Wrinkle No. 141. 

The important part or feature of the check is that the disc is 
readily adjustable to any flow required, it also has thermometer 
holder, and hose cock connection on side to register the drop 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 315 

pressure. We use them in our meter repair shop and have 
found it very convenient. 

Wrinkle No. 142. 
HERE'S OUTFIT FOR CASING METERS. 

CHARLES E. PRATT, FOREMAN METER SHOP, EQUITABLE GAS CO., 
PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Our outfit for gasing meters is shown in the photograph. 
It consists of I arch gauge, i small regulator, i hose line from 
gas line to meter, i nozzle for valve ports and i nozzle for burn- 
ing out. 

The small regulator is set to 3'' water pressure, by turning 
gas through the regulator into the meter and arch gauge, show- 



Wrinkle No. 14-2. 

ing 3" pressure, then cutting gas off from line, the arch gauge 
will indicate if there is a leak in channels or diaphragms. By 
pressing slightly on regulator stem pressure can be run up to 
line pressure. 

Higher pressure than 3" is needed in testing prepayment 
valves. In this wrinkle the small regulator takes the place of 
a gasometer and a number of weights. 



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:U() NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



Wrinkle No. 143. 

LOYALTY — THE ESSEXTL\L POWER OF MAN. 

G. R. CARPENTER, UNITED FUEL GAS CO., CHARLESTON, W. VA. 

The greatest qualification a man can have is that of loyalty, 
yet some men will drift from it. 

It requires real effort to organize a body of men to hold 
that principle of remaining loyal, and to have each man feel 
that he is not only an employe, but a part of the organization. 
Loyalty is nothing more than honesty. 

Many times to uncover this hidden quality it requires pa- 
tience and tenacity of purpose. A mass or body of men as a 
whole are slow to take up new ideas. The greatest building 
foice I find is self-interest. Men are like soil to be tilled. If 
taken care of with touch of improvement it well pays for your 
trouble, but if you fail to show that interest you lose in returns. 

Every man with ambition to advance should proceed on an 
honest and true foundation of his own merits, and to have that 
foremost in mind of which he aspires, and make steps for him- 
self. Truly he is to be benefited by ideas of bigger men, but he 
should not try to impersonate some one else, if so, his own judg- 
ment is of less value. 

A man should not be ashamed to own that he is in the 
wrong. There is great practical benefit in making a few mis- 
takes and being followed up by sharp criticism. The practice 
of persistent loyalty shows your associates or employes your 
most essential purpose. With these principles you impress them 
with your personal interest in their welfare. 

If you show interest and encourage better results, you can 
get them. Just as soon as men learn that you notice what they 
do as well as that which they do not do, you inspire ambition. 
Most men Hke a few words of praise. It is inspiring and gives 
them a strong mental vibration. It encourages them to take 
pains with their work. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 317 



Wrinkle No. 144. 

SPEED IN USING BLOTTING PAPER. 

M. A. RADY, THE LOGAN NAT. GAS. & FUEL CO., WELLINGTON, OHIO. 

In entering readings, consumption, etc., on gas bills the 
time consumed in handling a blotter can be cut in half by cutting 
a strip from the end of a blotter the width of a finger, with a 
rubber band fasten same over the end of the second finger of 
the writing hand and with ten minutes* practice work can be 
turned out with speed and ease. 

Though I have been using the above stunt for about five 
years, yet it may be new to some. 

Wrinkle No. 145. 

FLOWOMETER AND GAUGE ARRANGEMENT SAVES TIME. 

CHARLES E. PRATT, FOREMAN METER SHOP, EQUITAHLE GAS CO., 
PITTSBURGH, PA. 

This photograph shows a small flowometer with orifices 
ranging from 5 cu. ft. per hour to 320 cu. ft. per hour. Col- 
lectively we can get 635 cu. ft. per hour. 



Wrinkle No. 145. 



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318 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



From the flowometer there is a hose attached to Arch Gauge, 
on which is held i" water pressure. This arrangement when 
used for special shop tests or Public Service Tests saves time. 

By removing a plug fitted in a short piece of pipe surround- 
ing each orifice and setting Arch Gauge at i", you can get any 
volume from 5 cu. ft. per hour to 635 cu. ft. per hour, you 
do not have to use a stop watch. 

Wrinkle No. 4-11-44. 
F. H. WALKER, THE OHIO FUEL SUPPLY CO., PITTSBURGH. PA. 

Wrinkle, wrinkle, Magazine, 

It's a cinch it shall be seen. 

That, the dope we've just been reading. 

Will set our Think Tanks all a speeding. 

A Youth cometh unto an Old Man saying, "I pray thee 
kind sir, give unto me the Secret of Satisfaction." 

Behold I have been in Service unto a Gas Company for 
Three Hundred and Sixty-Five Days, and it seemeth unto me 
that in that time, surely the Authorities would see wherein they 
have an important Servant. 

But it seemeth to be contrawise, for lo, they pass me by and 
notice not the work of my hands, neither do they see the re- 
sults of my Thinking, and so I am in a measure disheartened. 

The Old Man looketh upon his supplicant with an amused 
countenance and forthwith declareth unto him the Wisdom 
which cometh from Experience. 

My son, he sayeth, arise and be of Good Cheer, for behold 
thy day cometh. 

In like manner the things which plague thy mind did trouble 
me in the days of my Past, but these things are but as rlings 
in a ladder — to be trampled upon — for behold the Road to 
Satisfaction slopeth upward, and the Path thereof being strewn 
with obstacles like unto Damardwurk. 

Mayhap thy Endeavors hath been observed, but it doth 
not seem Policy to slap thee upon thy back at every show of 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 319 

Common Sense, for if such were the case thou wouldst soon 
be afflicted of a Swelled Cranium. 

At times my son it hath seemed unto me as if I were not 
in the proper field of Endeavor, but the Coming Up in any 
Business is like unto the sowing of seeds as spoken of in the 
Scriptures. 

That which springeth forth quickly soon fadeth away for 
Lack of depth, but that which cometh forth in due Season, 
standeth the heat of the noontime Sun. 

All this meaneth that whosoever worketh diligently, and 
striveth for knowledge and gaineth for himself a perfect under- 
standing in the Ways of the Business, the same is capable of 
doing the tasks set before him in a manner which pleaseth his 
Employers. 

But whosoever maketh a Grandstand Play and putteth forth 
much Bluff the same is not able to stand the Test. 

So now my son, get thee hither unto thy place of employ- 
ment, do thy work to the best of thy knowledge and understand- 
ing, and strive at all times to perfect the workmanship of thy 
hands and the thoughts of thy brain, for I say unto thee that 
in due season thy reward shall come unto thee as surely as 
Tyrus Cobb will steal unto himself Twenty-five bases this com- 
ing season. 

Mr. W. Re Brown, Editor of the "Wrinkle Department," 
then said : Mr. President and Gentlemen : I know you are all 
hungry and the time for our noon recess has arrived, therefore, 
I will be brief. All together the live gas men of the country 
have contributed 145 Wrinkles this year and one called "4-11-44" 
whatever that means — for luck, I guess. 

A certain wise man — I think his name was Holbrook — I 
do not know whether any of you know him or not — sent a card 
around suggesting that the employers of the various gas com- 
panies look at the names of the men who contributed to the 
wrinkle department and he suggested the advisability of promo- 
tion to such contributors, adding that if you do grant such rec- 
ognition you will very rarely pick a lemon. 

The Association through the medium of the editors of the 



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320 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



wrinkle department called for volunteers. There is nothing 
much for me to say except that the men who contributed to 
tliese 145 wrinkles are the heroes who answered the call and I 
think the thanks of the Association are due to the individual 
contributors of wrinkles for the way they have responded to 
the call of the department for volunteers. 

I am just reminded that Mr. Diescher is Assistant Editor of 
the Wrinkle Department and I believe it is the custom for the 
Assistant to do the talking for the department. So I am going 
to ask him to say a few words. But before concluding I wish 
to express my personal appreciation of the word of Mr. Diescher 
himself, and also to each individual contributor and to the men 
who were instrumental in procuring this large number of ex- 
cellent wrinkles. Their work this year has been splendid. I 
also wish to thank the Natural Gas and Gasoline journals for 
their splendid cooperation so generously extended to us in the 
performance of our work. 

As I said last year these wrinkles should be sought from 
the men who are actually doing the work. They are the men 
who furnish the best contributions. Although some of these 
wrinkles may not be new- to all of the members of the Associa- 
tion, yet there is a valuable suggestion in every wrinkle; there 
is an improvement proposed and there is advancement noted, 
and that is what we want all the time in the natural gas business 
(applause). 

Prkstdent (iuFFEv: I will next call upon Mr. A. J. 
Diescher, Assistant Editor, Wrinkle Department, of Rartlesville, 
Oklahoma. 

Mr. A. J. Diescher. Assistant Editor of the Wrinkle De- 
])artnicnt, then said: Mr. President and fellow members of the 
Natural Gas Association of America: The gathering of wrin- 
kles for this department, it goes without saying, is quite a job. 
Mr. Stone told us a year or so ago the difficulties which he 
encountered in collecting these wrinkles and for that reason 
he wanted to have someone else take over the work. Mr. Brown 
was appointed as Chief Editor and I as Assistant Editor. We 
divided our work into the territory east of the Mississippi and 



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THE PRIZE WINNERS 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 821 



the territory west of the Mississippi. It never occurred to me 
the amount of work there is in gathering these wrinkles until I 
personally undertook to do it. Quite a few hundreds of letters 
were sent out. Many of those letters were never answered at 
all. Quite a number have brought good results. It looked for 
quite a while as though we were not going to get many wrinkles. 
This resulted in a greater effort on our part in an endeavor to 
stir up cooperation and assistance. If the wrinkle department 
is to grow and to have a greater number of wrinkles each year 
and to have good wrinkles, it takes the work of all of us. One 
point I want to emphasize is the cooperation between the man- 
agers and officers of the different companies toward getting 
their men to contribute these wrinkles. You must remember 
that wrinkles are not only for the benefit of those who see them 
in printed form and who read them and refer to them but it 
is also of great benefit to the men who contribute them, and of 
benefit to the companies whose men are contributing them. 
Now, I am sure that whoever has this work for the coming year 
will greatly appreciate the assistance of each and all the mem- 
bers of this Association in bringing in new wrinkles and I want 
to thank all those who have worked to bring about this most 
excellent result and all of those . who submitted wrinkles this 
year (applause). 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OX AWARDS FOR THE 
WRINKLE DEPARTMENT. 

After the meeting had adjourned, the following report was 
received by the Secretary: 

June 15, 1917. 
).BA^ Natural Gas Association of America: 

Your committee on award of prizes for the best wrinkles 
submitted to the 1917 meeting found it difficult to decide for 
what wrinkles prizes should be given on account of the large 
number and variety of wrinkles submitted. The following report 
is made up according to the best judgment of the committee. 
The prizes being given on the ground of originality and general 
usefulness of the wrinkle. 
21 



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322 SATURAL CAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

1st Prize, $25.00. 

R. B. Lloyd, Supt. Lines, Wichita Natural (las Co., Bartles- 
ville, Okla. 
Wrinkle Xo. 46. A X on- inflammable gate box. 

2nd Prize, $20.00. 

J. H. Schalek, Mfrs. Heat & Light Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Wrinkle Xo. 128. Apparatus to determine direction of flow. 

3rd Prize, $15.00. 

A. H. Fricker, The East Ohio (ias Co., Youngstovvn, Ohio. 
Wrinkle Xo. 69. Flash Light batteries. 

4th Prize, $10.00. 

H. O. Ballard, Supt. Production, W^ichtia Natural Gas Co., 
P>artlesville, Okla. 
Wrinkle Xo. 36. Baflle tee drip with automatic blow oflF. 

5th to loth Prizes inclusive, $5.00 each to 

(). M. l>aldvvin, The East Ohio Gas Co., Kent, Ohio. 
Wrinkle Xo. 14, Xotice Card. 

O. C. Hartsough, East Ohio Gas Co., Canton, Ohio. 

P. Keimedy, East Ohio Gas Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Jointly for Wrinkle Xo. 25. Adjustable Meter Support. 

A. I^^. Boyd, Supt., The Ohio Fuel Supply Co., Ashland, Ohio. 
Wrinkle Xo. 132, Casing Cover. 

W. E. Xestor, ICngr., Mfrs. Light & Heat Co.. Waynesburg, 
Pa. 
Wrinkle Xo. 100, Magnetic Air Whistle Telephone Alarm, for 

Compressing station. 

A. L. Schneider, Pittsburg & WY^st Virginia Gas Co., Clarks- 
burg, W. \'a. 
Wrinkle Xo. 123, Rule for measuring pipe when piled. 

J. j. P)Uchanan, Foreman Meter Repair Dept., Mfrs. Light 
& Heat Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Wrinkle Xo. 141, Adjustable Meter Prover Check. 

F. W. Stone, 
A. P. Davis, 
W. J. Broder. 
Committee of Awards for Wrinkle Depattmcnt, 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 323 

President Guffey: As Mr. Diescher has the floor, I am 
going to ask him at this time to read his report as Chairman of 
the Committee on Conservation. 

Mr. a. J. Diescher: The members of the Conservation 
Committee are located at various points throughout the country 
and it is very hard to get the Committee together. However, 
there is really nothing of any sufficient importance to justify a 
meeting during the past year. I have prepared in conjunction 
with the members of the Committee a report which I w'ill now 
submit. 

Mr. A. J. Diescher, Chairman of the Committee on Conser- 
vation, then submitted the following: 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON CONSERVATION. 

To the President and Members of the Natural Gas Association 

of America : 

Your Conservation Committee held no meetings during the 
past year. Letters were sent out to all members about the first 
of April, calling for reports on the Conservation situation in the 
various production districts of our country. Up to the time of 
submitting this report, reply was received from Dr. White setting 
forth the situation in West Virginia, which is quoted as follows : 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

Our Public Service Commission has, in practically every 
case brought to its consideration during the latter part of 1916, 
and up to the present in 19 17, permitted the gas companies to 
raise prices to something like a fair basis, as between producer 
and consumer, and several other applications for such raises are 
pending, and I have no doubt that some or all of them will be 
granted a moderate increase in price for this, the best fuel in 
the world. 

During the period of education, which has covered three or 
four years, our public men are beginning to realize that one of 
the best means of conservation of this precious fuel is that the 
users of the same should pay a fair price. A great waste still 
continues, especially from casing head gas in the numerous oil 



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324 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

wells, which probably amounts to 15,000, extending from Penn- 
sylvania on the north to Kentucky on the south, entirely across 
the state. In many regions where this casing head gas contains 
considerable ga^^oline, the waste in question is being greatly re- 
duced, but in others, very little has been done, so that probably 
150 to 200 million feet of casing gas is yet going into the air 
and accomplishing no useful service whatever. It is confidently 
hoped, however, that as these w^ells are one after the other 
harnessed into compressing stations for the recovery of gasoline 
that this large waste will be greatly decreased even during the 
present year, so that the outlook for a greater conservation of 
West \'irginia's wonderful resources in this splendid product is 
brighter than for many years even in the absence of any pro- 
tective legislation whatever." 

MID continp:nt field. 

In Oklahoma, two principal elements affecting conservation 
of sj)ccial imix)rtance, since the last report, at the Pittsburgh 
Convention, are: 

1. The progress being made in the mudding off of gas in 

oil operations. 

2. The great development of the casing head gasoline 

plants, and recovery of casing head gasoline at high 
pressures. 

MUDDING. 

Referring to the mudding process, as the most extensive 
use of this method of sealing natural gas in the sands is prac- 
ticed in the Mid Continent field, necessarily the reference thereto 
shall pertain more to the practice in that territory. 

During the past year the efforts of the Corporation Com- 
mission of Oklahoma, under whose supervision the conservation 
of Natural Gas and Oil rests, have been greatly handicapped in 
their efforts toward conservation by a controversy which arose 
on the part of the State Mine Inspector, as to who legally had 
jurisdiction over this charge. At the session of the State Legis- 
lature which recently convened, a bill was passed, creating an 
oil and gas department, under the Jurisdiction of the Corpora- 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 325 

tion Commission, thereby fully establishing the jurisdiction of 
the Commission, and greatly broadening the field and extent of 
the Conservation operations. 

According to newspaper reports, a meeting is called for 
May 26th, when the new rules and regulations pertaining to oil 
and gas conservation, are to be announced. 

It is now going on the third year since the Conservation 
Law was passed in the State of Oklahoma, and the mudding 
process adopted under the Commission regulations, during which 
time remarkable progress has been made in applying this method. 

Not only has this method been adopted by the Commission 
for the State of Oklahoma, but it is in effective use in the State 
of Kansas, where probably the greatest demonstration of its 
success has been accomplished, due to the control of large areas 
by single companies, who have made a determined effort to con- 
serve the gas. There is no question but that the life of the gas 
supply and the rock pressures in the Shamrock Pool of Okla- 
homa, or southern extension of the Cushing Pool, was greatly 
extended through the application of the Conservation regulations. 

This pool was developed by the oil operators applying con- 
servation methods without any serious handicap to their produc- 
tion of oil, and with a total elimination of blowing wells, which 
were so common in the Cushing field a few miles north. 

This field has had the combined supervision of the Okla- 
homa Corporation Commission Inspectors, and of the Bureau of 
Mines Inspectors. 

In the northern part of Oklahoma, the Blackwell pool, which 
so far has proven to be principally gas territory, has been drilled 
with many wells to 3300 to 3400 feet depth, with practically a 
total absence of any continuously blowing or open gas wells. 

Owing to the limited appropriation for carrying cm the 
Conservation work, and the great and scattered territories which 
the inspectors supervise, it was not possible to have resident 
inspectors for each field, resulting in a shameful neglect upon 
the part of many representative and nationally known oil operat- 
ors permitting their wells to be mudded off with water instead 
of mud fluid, being a makeshift and temporary attempt to seal 
off the gas until their casing could be carried beyond the gas 



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326 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

sands and oil sands reached, such attempts drowning out with 
water, not only are very bad from a conservation standpoint, but 
are very costly to the operator in many instances. 

The principle of sealing off the oil sand by the mud fluid 
method is to enseal a column of liquid between the outside of 
the casing and the surrounding earth formation, this column 
being of such specific gravity and weight as to more than counter- 
balance the rock pressure of the gas in the sand. As the rock 
pressure corresponds closely with the hydrostatic column from 
the sand to the surface of the ground, it follows that same fluid 
heavier than water must be used to give sufficient margin for 
safety of excess counterbalancing pressure, to prevent the gas 
from blowing out. This heavier fluid is obtained by using water 
containing about 25 per cent, by weight, of clay or mud, avoiding 
sand or grit. This should be of a specific gravity of about 1.33. 

If water is used without mud, or with too little mud, the 
solution remains thin and can permeate the porous sands and 
earth formations with which it comes in contact while standing 
behind the casing, and it is only a question of a short time until 
sufficient of this water is absorbed by the earth to reduce the 
height of the column and thus reduce the hydrostatic pressure 
to a point below the rock pressure of the gas, permitting the gas 
to escape from the sand and blow the water out from behind the 
casing. This is a very common occurrence, one operator having 
had four such blowouts from the same well before he had suf- 
ficient common sense to use a little more mud. 

There seems to be not so much of an antagonism as a lack 
of care on the part of the principal operators, which is causing 
this kind of sealing in of gas sands. It is to be hoped that with 
the broader scope given the Corporation Commission at this last 
session of the legislature, and the funds available for greater 
inspection, that such operators shall be punished for this careless 
condition. 

It is not to be understood that all operators are permitting 
such practice, as such is not the case. A number of the larger 
operators are conducting their operations in good faith, and are 
securing good results. 

Notwithstanding this condition, the amount of gas blown to 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 327 

the atmosphere in the Blackwell field is comparatively small, the 
greater loss being due to the flooding of shallow gas sands with 
water, and to the intercommunication between sands, due to the 
failure to mud off the wells. 

A few fines and a little more education on the part of some 
of the operators will almost eliminate this wasteful practice in 
the State of Oklahoma. 

In the State of Kansas, where there is no good conservation 
law, but where the operators are mostly voluntarily mudding 
their wells, remarkable results have been obtained. 

The principal oil and gas development in Kansas at this 
time, centers more about the Butler County fields, where there are 
some 600 or 700 oil wells drilled. In the Augusta field there 
are about 100 gas wells drilled to the 1500 foot depth, and over 
three hundred oil wells drilled or drilling, which have pene- 
trated and pass through this sand, the oil occurring under the gas 
deposit, and occupying practically the same area, so that prac- 
tically every oil well has passed through the gas sand. Notwith- 
standing this, there has been no abnormal decline in the rock 
pressure of the gas wells, and no gas was blown to the surface. 
There is no defective well in the field today, from which gas 
is escaping. This is as near a case of perfect conservation as 
could be desired in practice, and shows that the main element 
as to the feasibility of natural gas conservation in the deeper 
drilling for oil, is one of the attitude of the operator, whether 
he desires to effect conservation, or is indifferent thereto. 

It is hoped that the increased value of natural gas, to the 
oil operator, through the recovery of casing head or absorption 
gasoline, will cause him to view natural gas in a different light, 
and that he shall find it to his profit, as well as honor, to con- 
serve, and stop the waste of this product. 

In the Augusta field, gas wells have been drilled, mudded off 
at 1500 feet, an oil sand mudded off at 2000 feet depth, and the 
producing well finished at 2500 feet depth, while within 50 feet 
of such wells, other wells have been drilled, mudding off the 
1500 foot gas sand, and producing oil from the 2000 foot sand, 
while within the same radius, wells have been drilled to the 
1500 foot gas sand, taking the gas therefrom, and the mudding 



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328 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

in no instance interfered with any of the other wells. This 
could not be done with water, or thin mud fluid, as it would 
penetrate the sand to greater distances than 50 feet, instances 
being known where it has penetrated over 100 feet radius from 
a well. 

In the Eldorado field where there are over 450 oil wells 
drilled to 650 feet depth, there are at least 100 deep oil wells 
drilled through this shallow sand, mudding it off, and at least 
50 gas wells drilled, many of them passing through the shallow 
oil, securing the gas from several hundred feet below the oil, 
and in no instance has any trouble or injury occurred to pre- 
vent operating any of the sands desired — oil or gas, mudding off 
all sands excepting the one from which the particular production 
desired is had. 

Such demonstrations set an example as to the practice de- 
veloped since the conservation laws were passed, and when 
operators were testifying under oath, that they had tried the 
mudding process and that it would not work. 

The greatest part of the problem of the conservation of 
natural gas in the fields, has been solved and demonstrated on 
such an extensive scale that there is no excuse for its waste in 
any field in the country. 

Further, the use of mud fluid for sealing off water, and 
other sands, and for supporting the earth formations from cav- 
ing and "freezing" the casing; as so far demonstrated in prac- 
tice, offers a great field of endeavor toward reducing the amount 
and sizes of casing necessary to drill deeper as in the present 
practice. 

If this can be brought about, under the pressure of the 
great casing shortage which now occurs, and thus establish new 
practices of casing wells, getting away from the rut in which 
all operators work, due to frequent stepping down of casing 
sizes based upon the old practices, it will not only be a great 
blessing to the operators, and possibly bring deeper drilling 
within the scope of commercial operators, but such accomplish- 
ment would be far-reaching in giving the oil operators a greater 
incentive for being interested in the mudding process, and thereby 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



remove his indifference or antagonism to natural gas conser- 
vation. 

CASING HEAD GAS. 

The recovery of casing head gasoline from natural gas which 
occurs in contact with oil has been so extensively applied during 
the past year or two, as to bring about a problem in many sec- 
tions of our country, of the use of the tail gas from such plants. 
It is reported that in the state of Oklahoma, the Corporation 
Commission will not permit the wasting of such tail gas. The 
amount of gas so recovered is now growing to such a great ex- 
tent as to offer an excellent field for the natural gas pipe line 
companies to consider mains for collecting and conserving such 
gas for the market. Most extraction plants, especially com- 
pressor plants, compress the casing head gas to pressures as 
high as from lOO to 200 pounds, at once making it available 
for delivery to the natural gas pipe line systems. It is not neces- 
sary to greatly reduce the pressure of this gas as it leaves the 
gasoline plant. Often such gas is used for operating purposes 
on the leases, but in many instances there are large quantities 
of such gas available for market. 

Up to the present time there has been no great movement 
toward gathering such gas, by pipe line companies, but if the 
conservation is to be effected in its full commercial sense, this 
IS a field which justifies great attention from the natural gas 
operators. 

The adoption of an absorption system for treating natural 
gas in large volumes and at high or low pressures, for gasoline 
recovery, again offers a field for oil operators to recover a special 
income from such gas. 

Anything which can bring an added income to the oil oper- 
ator must necessarily interest him, whether it comes as a direct 
payment for the gasoline recovered, or as an increased price per 
thousand cubic feet for gas, is not so important as that it brings 
him a greater income to interest him in conservation and pro- 
tection of the source of that income. 

The matter of interesting the oil producers in the conserva- 
tion of natural gas, by making it profitable for him to do so, 



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330 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

is a phase of conservation which should not be overlooked by 
the natural gas operators and pipe line companies. 

As a sununary, the committee is pleased to report that con- 
servation of natural gas movement is more firmly established at 
the present time than in the past, and that great progress is 
being made in natural gas conservation ; that many of the retard- 
ing elements of older times are disappearing, and that with the 
added value of natural gas, both as a direct sales value, and as 
a gasoline recovery value, is centering great attention on this 
subject in the producing fields, and that it is the belief of this 
committee that much greater progress will be made in the early 
future, due to this concentrated attention and effort. 

It is the desire of the committee to again record the appre- 
ciation of the natural gas industry, of the efforts of the Okla- 
homa Corporation Commission, and the Bureau of Mines, and 
of their continued and effective efforts toward conserving this 
valuable resource for our people. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Israel C. White, 
Ernest L. Brundrett, 

William T. Griswold, 

Forrest M. Towl, 

Alfred J. Diescher, Chairman, 

President Guffey: The Association is certainly indebted 
to Mr. Diescher as Chairman of the Committee on Conservation 
for the very able and complete report which will be filed and 
ordered spread upon the minutes if there is no objection. I 
would suggest that a motion be made, extending to the Committee 
and particularly to its Chairman a vote of thanks for this most 
excellent report, and that the Committee be continued for the 
coming year. 

Mr. John M. Garard: Mr. President, I move you that a 
vote of thanks be tendered to the Editors of the Wrinkle De- 
partment for the able manner in which they have conducted 
their business and I would also like to add that, on account of 
their very great activity and the manner in which they have 
brought about the present result, that this committee be con- 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 331 

tinued for another year, if I am not exceeding my prerogative 
in making such a motion at this time. 

Mr. Martin B. Daly: I second the motion. 

And thereupon the above motion, having been duly sec- 
onded, was unanimously adopted. 

Mr. John M. Garard: I now move that a vote of thanks 
be extended to the Committee on Conservation aod especially to 
the Chairman thereof for the comprehensive and exhaustive 
report submitted by the Committee; that the report be received, 
filed and ordered spread upon the minutes of the Association 
and that the Committee on Conservation be rewarded for their 
excellent work by being continued for the coming year. 

Mr. W. Re Brown: I take pleasure in seconding this 
motion. 

The above motion, having been duly seconded, was then 
unanimously adopted. 

President Guffey : Before taking our noon recess I want 
to make this announcement. We were greatly disappointed this 
morning to receive a telegram from Mr. A. C. Bedford, stating 
that he had been detained in Washington last night by work 
connected with the National Council for Defense, but we are 
pleased to announce that he will arrive about one o'clock this 
afternoon in Buffalo and will make an address at the afternoon 
session of this Association sometime between two and three 
o'clock. I hope we will all be here because he is going to talk 
to us on a subject that is of interest to all of us. We will now 
take a recess until two o'clock this afternoon. 



And thereupon a recess was had until 2:00 P. M. of same 
day. 



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332 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



SECOND DAY — AFTERNOON SESSION. 
Wednesday, May i6, 1917. 

President Guffey: The convention will please come to 
order. The first paper this afternoon is one entitled "Rates" 
prepared by Mr. Leslie B. Denning, President of The Lx)ne Star 
Gas Company. I will now call upon Mr. Denning. 

Mr. Leslie B. Denning: Mr. President and members of 
The Natural Gas Association of America: The views that I 
have presented in this paper are not put forward as a positive 
solution of our troubles in regard to rates. They are more in 
the nature of suggestions; something to think about; something 
to talk about and in the general mix up of thought and talk 
and ideas, we may be able to reach a solution of the troubles 
that are bothering us. 

Mr. Leslie B. Denning then read the following paper : 



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RATES. 
By Leslie B. Denning. 

I do not propose to discuss **rates" in either a legal or tech- 
nical sense. Papers and reports heretofore read before this 
association have presented the legal and engineering phases 
necessary to establish proper rate of return in a given rate case 
before a commission or other rate regulating body. The views 
which I present will be directed merely towards achieving one 
end, that is, a higher average price per thousand cubic feet of 
gas output and increased net earnings in the profit and loss 
account at the end of the year. It does not always follow that 
an increase in rates means an increase in net earnings. 

I have in the past held the view that I did not know of a 
single gas man who was selling natural gas. I may now qualify 
that statement by saying that I know of but few who are actually 
selling gas, in my judgment, or perhaps it would be more accu- 
rate to say, who are using good salesmanship in disposing of 
their product. Salesmanship implies the creation in the mind of 

(:ra) 



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334 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

the purchaser of a desire to acquire your product at the price for 
which you are willing to part with it. Applying this definition 
it seems to me that I am not far wrong in the statement I have 
just made. It seems to me that in the majority of cases what 
we are doing is delivering to the customer the quantity of gas he 
wants, when he wants it, and at his price. Ordinarily, the price 
is that which the representatives of the buyers, the City Council 
or other legislative body has put upon it after we have made the 
best bargain we could. 

We are called public service corporations, and are told that 
since our function is that of supplying a necessity of the public, 
to-wit : light, heat and power, and further because we use public 
property for the purpose of laying therein our pipes and mains, 
we must submit to regulation by the public not only as to the 
price we may charge for our product, but in the general conduct 
of our business. In theory this proposition may be sound 
although to my mind there is no more reason for calling a nat- 
ural gas company a public service corporation than one who 
supplies bread, milk, or meat to the people. In practice, unfor- 
tunately too often the term public service is used synonymously 
with public slavery. Even the servant is entitled to a comfort- 
able and convenient place to work, to fair wages and an occa- 
sional Saturday afternoon off, while the public service corpora- 
tion must be constantly on the job without rest, and with no 
excuse for failure to perform, and quite often without proper 
compensation for the service rendered. 

Another factor which must be considered, is the manifest 
disinclination of regulating bodies to grant increases in the rates 
of public service corporations, even upon good showing that such 
increases are absolutely necessary to meet advancing costs of 
labor and materials. 

The problem of increasing the rates is manifestly, first, one 
of the capabilities and possibilities of the individual company 
under consideration. To determine these, the first step is a 
careful analysis of the company's business and prospects. A 
company with a large supply of gas would be in a vastly better 
position than one with a limited supply, given equal market 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 335 

opportunities, so that after all the first question is how much 
gas have we got to sell. The next questions are to whom, for 
what purpose and for what price will we sell it. 

All gas companies make a point of seeking what is ordi- 
narily called domestic business, that is lighting, cooking, heating 
and household purposes, and this business is supplied at the 
highest price at a fixed rate in force in the community, with 
here and there a sliding scale based upon quantity consumed. 

Ordinarily this price is about one third, sometimes less, of 
what the customer would have to pay for a commodity rendering 
equivalent service. To my mind this is an entirely wrong situa- 
tion. I see no reason why the consumer of natural gas should 
not pay something near the value of the service considered in 
its relation to competing commodities rendering equivalent 
service. 

We are met with the argument that the people should have 
the benefit of the resources of nature. I have even heard the 
argument that nature placed the gas in the ground, and that as 
man did not create it, therefore he who takes it from the ground 
and conveys it to market should only be paid the cost of the 
service he renders. I cannot see this argument possesses any 
merit. When the farmer plants wheat he afterwards reaps that 
which nature creates and ripens into a finished product, but so 
far I have not heard the argument advanced that the farmer 
should sell his wheat at cost plus six percent. I firmly believe 
we should strive to obtain that price for our product that it is 
really worth, and I believe such a policy will redound not only 
to the benefit of the companies in the business but to the direct 
benefit of the users of the product, because it will decrease the 
average consumption j>er meter, and will prolong the time the 
public may enjoy the benefits of natural gas. 

That the natural gas producer must in the future secure a 
higher average price for his product is a proposition which can- 
not be disputed. The constantly increasing cost of labor and 
materials, the diminishing supply of the product itself, the neces- 
sity of going farther away from the market to maintain a supply 
of gas, makes it absolutely imperative that the average price 



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336 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

per thousand be increased if the producer is to keep in business 
and the public is to have the benefit of his efforts. It is not an 
easy matter to secure an advance in the price of the product 
where the public have been educated to expect and demand a 
low price, particularly where the buyer has and exercises the 
right to fix the price he will pay. In almost every line of pri- 
vate endeavor the seller of the product makes the price he will 
sell for it. In the public utility field the buyers say what price 
they will pay for it, consequently it becomes absolutely necessary 
to convince the buyer who is fixing the price, either that the 
product is worth more money or that he will have to pay the 
price or do without it. 

How to accomplish this with the least friction and still 
retain the good will of the public is the problem. Several years 
experience with commission control has not made me enthusiastic 
over the results to be obtained from the commissions when 
seeking rate increases. The expense of preparation for the 
necessary hearings is usually very great, and the delays are usually 
such that it may well be that the net result will not be found to 
be very advantageous to the parties concerned. The engineer 
for one of the State Commissions recently made the statement 
that "It is an axiom that it is almost as expensive to win a rate 
case as to lose one." I have in mind one rate case wherein I 
believe the expense to the city, to the gas company, and the tax 
payers of the state has not been less than $25,000, and the com- 
pany is not one of the large companies at that. This case has 
been pending for over two years and the decision has not yet 
been given out. 

It is quite possible for a company to have a rate case forced 
upon it by one of the smaller communities, the resulting expense 
of which would more than exceed the total revenues derived 
from the town for several years. I do not say this in criticism 
of any commission or of any commission control, as I have 
always supported the idea of commission regulation: I merely 
desire to point out that in my judgment it is better to dispose of 
rate questions directly in the communities where they arise. I 
believe that we who have natural gas to sell have not given the 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 337 

attention that we should have to proper selling methods and the 
education of the public generally, to the benefits the public 
receives from natural gas and the value thereof. 

I estimate that at least ninety-five per cent of the gas sold 
for domestic purposes is sold to, used by, and paid for by 
women. The average man is perfectly content to turn over to 
the woman of the household full control and responsibility of 
the domestic establishment. Whether or not the women vote 
in any given community, they can and do wield an enormous 
influence in that community in regard to any economic question 
that affects their comfort and well-being. If any gas man doubts 
the statement that the great majority of his customers are women, 
let him take his stand any time at the cashier's window when gas 
bills are being paid, and I think he will very soon be convinced. 
The women know more about the comfort and convenience of 
gas in the house than men do. I have had women say to me, 
"Why, I would give up my telephone, my electric lights, and 
almost anything I have in the house before I would do without 
gas service." Time and again I have had customers say, "I 
would be willing to pay almost anything to keep natural gas." 

A striking illustration of the interest women take in natural 
gas came under my observation some time since. A certain 
company had been forced into a rate controversy with the polit- 
ical authorities whose sole aim and object, admittedly, was to 
compel a reduction in price, regardless of the eflfect such reduc- 
tion might have on the service. The company planned and car- 
ried into effect an advertising campaign using the daily papers 
for the purpose. The campaign was based upon the idea that 
the wcrnien would finally control the whole situation. The 
weather was warm and but little gas was being used. In order 
to get the women interested and bring the matter to their atten- 
ticm, the company published an advertisement offering a prize of 
five dollars in gold to each of the first five women who would 
send to the company's office a complete set of twelve consecutive 
months paid gas bills. It was estimated that not over fifty replies 
would be received, the real idea in the advertisement being to 
get the women to thinking and talking natural gas. The response 

82 



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338 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

was amazing. Within two hours after the advertisement ap- 
peared, the first five complete sets of paid bills were in the 
company's office. Altogether five hundred replies were received. 

Fifteen years experience and contact with the gas using 
public has taught me that the best asset a public utility company 
can have is the good will of its customers. In fact its value can 
hardly be estimated at too high a figure. Good will can only be 
secured and maintained by constant good service and fair deal- 
ing. 

I have borne at some length on this phase because I want 
to call attention to the fact that the good will of the community 
and the belief of our customers in our honesty and fair dealing 
will very often be the deciding factor in enabling us to settle 
rate controversies right where they spring up, without the ex- 
pense and delays incident to appeals to commissions or court 
proceedings. 

The domestic load is usually about six times as great in cold 
weather as in the summer. This compels the company to main- 
tain line and compressor capacity and gas supply for a peak load 
six times as great as the low domestic load. The result is that 
there is an excess of line and compressor capacity which ordi- 
narily cannot be used in the summer ; also an excess gas supply. 
If the domestic consumer could be educated to the point of pay- 
ing a price sufficiently high to enable the company to maintain 
this excess as a reserve for future use the problem would be 
simplified somewhat. Unfortunately we have not reached this 
ideal condition. Every company is compelled to tackle the prob- 
lem of how to dispose of this summer excess gas at the best 
price. My solution is, get on industrial consumers at a price as 
near the equivalent of competing fuels as can be obtained. In 
securing this business we will have to radically change our 
methods. The day is past when we can take a piece of pipe with 
little holes in it, call it a burner, and put it under a boiler and 
supply gas through it. Competitive conditions not only demand 
a change in the methods of installation and appliances used, but 
also in the character of the men who solicit and have charge 
of this class of business. Gone also is the day of the pipe fitters 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



and plumbers in the handling of high grade installations. The 
men we send after the business should be, so far as possible 
engineers trained in the laboratory, with at least a working 
knowledge of the laws of combustion; men who are able to go 
into an industrial plant and work out appliances and systems of 
applying natural gas in efficient ways to the problems of that 
particular industry. The companies who have recognized this 
condition and have acted accordingly are the ones who today 
are securing the highest prices for industrial gas. A manufac- 
turer recently made the statement in my presence that he figured 
the cost of the gas from his oil producer plant was equal to 
sixty-cent natural gas. Manifestly if industrial plants can and 
do pay forty and fifty cents per thousand for artificial gas with 
a B. T. U. content of 550, why should they not at least pay that, 
or more, for natural gas with a B. T. U. content almost double 
that of artificial gas ? 

As I said above, the problem of how to dispose of the 
product at the highest price must be solved by each company, 
due consideration being given to individual conditions, such as 
amount of supply, character and extent of market, etc. No hard 
and fast rule can be laid down to apply to all cases. Generally 
speaking I would say, first, let us study the possibilities of our 
own business carefully and in the light of scientific developments, 
second, educate ourselves to think of our business as a business 
selling a service rather than a commodity, third, let us educate 
the public as to the value of natural gas service, fourth, let us 
go after the industrial business using the best methods that the 
ingenuity and trained brains of the gas industry can devise. 

DISCUSSION. 

After the hearty round of applause had subsided following 
the reading of Mr. Denning's paper. President Guffey said: I 
am sure every member of the Association joins with me in 
thanking Mr. Denning for the very able and instructive paper 
he has just read. The meeting is now open for a general dis- 
cussion on the paper "Rates". To start the discussion I am 
going to ask Mr. J. H. Maxon, President and General Manager 



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340 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

of The Central Indiana Gas Company, Muncie, Indiana, to come 
forward and address us. 

Mr. John H. Maxon: Mr. President and Gentlemen: Mr. 
Denning insists that rates and charges should be established that 
will produce, for the Natural Gas Industry, a higher average 
price per thousand feet of gas delivered, and greater net earn- 
ings; and no fair minded man who is familiar with the present 
status of the natural gas industry will refuse to support this 
proposition. 

The true value of natural gas service may be said to be 
that amount which the user of the gas would have to pay for 
another service or commodity, which could produce for him the 
same results which the natural gas he uses does produce. This 
being true, then it may be said, that no persons, firms, or cor- 
porations in the United States are being more poorly or inad- 
equately compensated for the article, service, or commodity fur- 
nished to the public than are the natural gas companies. 

That an increase in rates (if we take this to mean an increase 
on the ^'straight rate" basis of the price per thousand feet) is 
not always followed by an increased net earning is certain. 

What is needed is an adjustment of rates and charges that 
will place the present unprofitable customer in the profit pro- 
ducing class; and the careful analysis of the sales of any gas 
utility will show that the unprofitable customers' names occupy 
the major number of the lines on our ledgers. 

In every gas distributing operation, there occurs a certain 
amount of operating expense that does not vary with the amount 
of gas being used. The cost of maintaining offices, clerical 
work, reading the meters and delivering the bills are among 
the items. A total of these charges, divided by the number of 
consumers will show the "consumer cost" which is outside of 
the cost or value of whatever gas is delivered ; and outside, also, 
of return and depreciation to the property involved in the de- 
livering of the gas. 

Analysis of operating costs of different gas utilities shows 
that the "consumer cost" amounts to a very large sum, ranging 
anywhere from $6.00 to $12.00 per year per consumer. Prob- 
ably no more fair or equitable method of adjusting rates and 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 341 

charges for natural gas service could be found than to make a 
fixed monthly charge against every consumer, outside of, and 
in addition to the charge for the gas furnished ; and, of course, 
the proper amount of such charge would vary in different 
operations. 

This method of charge to cover "consumer cost" has met 
with strong opposition, but, I believe the plan should be earnestly 
advocated by the gas interests, as it can easily be shown to be 
entirely justifiable, and is perhaps preferable to the plan of 
obtaining the same results by increasing the price per thousand 
on the initial deliveries of gas, or, by the use of a "minimum" 
charge, as the "consumer charge" in itself provides a minimum 
charge. With proper explanation, regulatory bodies may be 
convinced of the merit of this plan, and I am confident that the 
public mind will approve, after full and complete explanation 
has been given through judicious publicity. 

For the purpose of securing fair and equitable compensation, 
the present price per thousand cubic feet for natural gas need 
not be materially changed, provided, proper charges covering 
"consumer cost," readiness to serve expense, and demand 
charges covering the cost of providing for variable demand are 
added to the present schedules of rates. Considering the rate 
subject I think it would be very well if rates which might be 
termed prohibitive rates and used for the purpose of discourag- 
ing any class of service that brings break-down in our service 
or rates that will enable the companies to provide facilities to 
carry peak load business might be given sober and deliberate 
thought in an earnest effort to work out a proper solution of 
this complex situation. 

I believe that the natural gas interests should unite on 
some plan whereby a complete survey of the territory where 
natural gas is now delivered should be made, in order to deter- 
mine what prices are competitive with other service or com- 
modity that could be used to do the work now accomplished by 
natural gas; and that a strong co-operative effort should be 
made to convince the public that in its interest, and the interest 
of true conservation of a great natural resource, much higher 
charges for natural gas service are desirable. 



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W2 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

As Mr. Denning points out^ natural gas has always been 
marketed without attaching a value to the gas at its source. 
This also has been largely true of the marketing of coal, but 
recently our brethren in the coal business have begun to attach 
great values to coal at its source, and are making up for lost 
opportunities by leaps and bounds. 

In concluding my remarks on "Rates" let me say, that the 
natural gas man, whenever he thinks on this subject, should 
have the following incontrovertible fact fixed firmly in his mind : 
"No man knows how to manufacture a commercially practical 
gas that is, foot for foot, much more than one half as valuable 
as natural gas (applause). 

President Guffey: We would like to hear from Mr. R. 
H. Bartlett of the Oklahoma Natural Gas Company. 

Mr. R. H. Bartlett: Mr, President and gentlemen of this 
Convention: When the suggestion was made that I make a 
few remarks by way of discussion on this paper, I had two 
thoughts in my mind, one was why they asked me, and the other 
was what I would say. 

Now Mr. Denning's paper has brought up for discussion a 
subject that is of great interest to us all. Gas men generally 
have been waiting in the gas rate trenches for a good many 
years hoping for some decisive and concerted action with ref- 
erence to natural gas rates. Volumes have been written and 
many hours spent in discussing this all important subject. It is 
very pleasing to we Western gas men to see these big splendid 
gas organizations here in the East making some progress in the 
solution of this perplexing problem. I believe more progress 
has been made in the last two years on this subject than in the 
whole twenty years preceding. To my mind the reason for this 
is the businesslike way in which you are going at it. It is 
simply the application of science to a business problem. There 
is no question in my mind but what this subject is the paramount 
issue of the entire natural gas business today. 

Mr. Denning's paper is brief, — ^possibly because he was in the 
habit of writing "briefs". He has made many good points and his 
paper is interesting, but I have not had sufficient time to consider 
it carefully for discussion. When we begin to talk about rates 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 343 

at a Convention we are not only talking to the gas men, but 
we are talking to our consumers as well, and we are talking to 
our stockholders and to the utilities commissioners of all the 
states where natural gas is sold. It goes into the record and 
is spread broadcast. Now some of us who may be fortunate 
enough to be making a little money at our present rates don't 
want to say much about rates. Others who are not breaking 
even are anxious to have the subject brought up all the time and 
want to be discussing it with everybody to find out what they 
can do to remedy their condition. We all agree that we ought 
to have higher rates. Higher rates does what? It conserves 
gas. We must conserve the gas if we are going to stay in the 
business. Higher rates bring our stockholders a little better 
return. Probably all the interest that our stockholders have in 
the natural gas business is the dividend check they get every 
three months. Their ideas do not go much beyond that. In 
fact, I do not know whether there are very many large stock- 
holders belonging to this association or not. They ought to 
belong. They are the owners of these properties. They ought 
to be here helping out in the discussion and in the solution of 
these vital questions. 

The conservation theory is the most vital to the gas man. 
Without that we will all come to grief sooner or later. This 
subject IS a mighty broad subject. You can write volumes on it. 
You can talk all around and come right back where you started 
from and you find that you have not said much. 

One difficulty that comes to my mind is the fact that there 
are so many varied rates all over the country. The people do 
not understand that. One company may make money at twenty- 
five cents a thousand and another company may lose money at 
thirty-five cents a thousand. These commissioners get all this 
information that comes through this convention ; they get all the 
circular letters that the gas people send out; they get all the 
printed statements year after year; they compare them and I 
do not blame them for some of the opinions they form. It is a 
big propisition ; it is a complex proposition. You can talk for a 
week and you have only just begun to say something about rates. 
Now we all concede that they are too low. We all agree on that. 



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344 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

How did tfaey happen to get so low ? What did we do? Whose fault 
is it? It is not the people's fault that they are low. They were a 
little better traders than we were. That is all. I call to mind a 
little thing that occurred years ago. Of course we all know 
when we started in this gas business it was a flat rate system. 
We started to sell something without measuring it. We let 
them have all they wanted as long as they gave us a dollar per 
stove. That is why we are on the defensive for higher rates 
today. We did not have any way to satisfactorily measure it in 
those days. We let them have all they wanted ; bum it as they 
wished after opening doors and windows and we did not care 
what they did with it; they paid us a dollar a stove in the 
summer time and two dollars in the winter time. That illus- 
trates the ridiculousness of the proposition at the start. Eigh- 
teen dollars per year for gas to cook and heat with, for a whole 
family. 

What I was going to say was to refer to a little personal 
experience when I first started in the business some nineteen or 
twenty years ago. It was in a little town. Of course you will 
all recall who were engaged in the gas business in those early 
days that when it started in its infancy it started in the smaller 
towns first. We did not get into these big cities until we got 
more gas. People then didn't know what they had. The whole 
proposition was crude and they didn't know what to charge 
and so they started in on this flat rate system. A little incident 
comes to my mind in the little town where I worked in the gas 
business. Wood was very cheap. Farmers brought it into the 
little village. It didn't cost much and merchants would trade 
groceries or trade a bottle of medicine or dry goods for a load 
of wood. When gas came in and they started to pay a real 
dollar per month or two dollars per month and they stopped to 
consider whether it was not more expensive than the wood for 
fuel. Their bills ran up to eighteen or twenty dollars a year. 
Just think of it! They commenced to trade and dicker with 
the early gas men right from the start. Women began to trade. 
They came to the gas office and said, "I cannot afford to pay a 
dollar for this gas for a whole month. I can't afford to pay the 
increased price. It has been costing us fifty cents for our fuel. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 345 

Of course I like the gas and I am willing to pay a little more 
for it, but my husband is a druggist." That was the case in the 
particular instance I am bringing to my mind. ''And he makes 
liniment and furniture polish at two or three cents a bottle 
and when the farmer comes in he trades this for wood and our 
fuel bill don't cost us only a few dollars a year." Once in a 
while they slipped in a bottle of Peruna. In those days gas 
men were easy and they were anxious for business and they 
had more gas than they knew what to do with and they let that 
lady get by at fifty cents a month just to keep her still. She 
talked about it. Then similar arrangements had to be made 
with other customers. Then when the gas in the local field 
began to go down a little — we naturally turned our attention 
to higher rates. I don't know the history of this meter business, 
but the meter came in vogue and we started to sell by the meters 
and when we began to figure at the rate per thousand feet based 
against the flat rate system, we had to make the rate per thou- 
sand pretty low to keep the public off the back of our neck. That 
is my idea of how we got started on this low price basis. That 
is just a little reminiscence. It does not do any good now so 
far as this subject is concerned except to call our minds back 
to the way in which this matter got started wrong. However, I 
am taking up a lot of time without getting anywhere and that 
is about what I expected to do when I came up here. We got 
these meter rates in so low that in a very short time we were 
required to figure on a method for getting them up higher and 
we have been figuring along that line now for twenty years 
and we will keep on figuring until the public realizes the benefit 
and importance of higher gas rates, to the end that the natural 
gas may be conserved and the gas properties realize an adequate 
return on the investment. 

We boosted the rates a couple of cents in Bradford years 
ago. I remember the first experience I ever had in raising rates. 
We raised the rates I think from twenty-two to twenty-four 
cents or something like that. It was a two-cent raise as I re- 
member. We did not have the mayor and the council after us 
then. Politicians were not jumping on corporations at that time 
for political effect. After the rate was boosted two cents for 



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346 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

three or four months we would stand at the counter and argue 
with customers why they ought to pay a little more money for 
this same product they had been getting cheaper. After while 
we talked them out of it and discouraged them in continuing 
their opposition and the rest went along all right. That was 
the way the gas companies did when they first began to raise 
meter rates. The people then did not think of asking for an 
injunction or anything of that kind. It was not long, however, 
until they got into that field. Then we had the trouble with the 
local municipal organizations. Every time we attempted to raise 
the rate a cent or two cents a thousand we were called upon 
the carpet and then we had this same subject to hash over back 
and forth. Their minds were not open. We knew that on account 
of the uncertainty of the business we ought to have more money. 
Depreciation of property is more or less of an estimate and of 
course we know nothing about how long gas is going to last. 
There is absolutely no fixed rule for rates. There is no fixed 
rule in the matter of gas and gas supplies. There is no fixed 
rule as to the deterioration of pipe. In fact, the whole game is 
blind from start to finish. We will never know where we are 
coming out until we do get out. That is my idea of the gas 
business. 

Later one state after another created the public utility 
commissions which has occurred within the past few years. 
I do not know and I have not figured out in my own mind 
whether we are any better off with commissions now than we 
were when dealing with the individual or local municipal author- 
ities. It is a question. As a lot of commissioners read these 
remarks, I will "soft pedal" a little bit. There are a lot of good 
fellows on these commissions and they have taken hold of this 
subject and they have gone into it very deeply. That is par- 
ticularly true of Oklahoma. The difficulty with the conrniissicm 
proposition is just the same as it is with local organizations. 
About the time a man begins to learn a little bit about the gas 
business and becomes familiar with the gas properties in his 
district, he is out of office and another man comes in and he 
has to go over the same ground again. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 347 

Then another feature is the fact that the people generally 
and particularly our customers, in the past at least, have been 
a little more or less suspicious of public service corporations and, 
indeed, of all corporations in general. I will not attempt to say 
anything about why that is; but it has been so in the past. 
However, I am glad to say that it is getting better. The people 
are looking into these matters as they come up more and more 
and it makes no difference whether it is the gas business or what 
it is. They do not want to be talking on a subject unless they 
know something about it. They are not as crazy as I am 
(laughter and applause). 

There are one or two other matters that I had in mind, but 
1 do not want to take up so much time. In fact, I am very 
anxious to get away from here myself. This rate proposition 
and conservation proposition is a great problem in the gas busi- 
ness. I have had gas men say to me, "Bartlett, what are your 
rates out in Oklahoma?" Well, the average domestic rate is 
twenty-five cents and we sell boiler service down to ten cents. 
Those are the regular rates, although there are some lower than 
that. They say to me, "You fellows must be crazy. What is 
the matter with you?*' Well, now probably we are. No ques- 
tion about it I guess. A gas company may make a good earn- 
ing at twenty-five cents, as I said before, whereas another gas 
company will lose at a higher price, so that there is no way we 
can make a fixed rate for the commodity because the whole 
situation is different. There are so many different angles; so 
many varying conditions ; so much hazard as to supply ; so great 
uncertainty as to demand, that it is a problem about which there 
can be no fixed standard. You have to charge in each locality 
with reference to existing conditions in that locality. You have 
to figure it out separately. We are fast coming to a condition 
where we must raise all our rates in Oklahoma. But it seems 
to me we ought to work out some fundamental rule to go by so 
that we may be able to work together. There ought to be a 
committee — a standing committee of this organization to whom 
we could go when we get into rate trouble — and we would be 
there all the time, of course — to get advice and try to work out 



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348 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

a solution of this problem along similar lines and by similar 
methods. If we had a concentration of all our energies may be 
we could get somewhere. 

Now in Oklahoma we have the trouble that Mr. EHescher 
spoke about this morning, the waste of gas. The same thing 
obtained in these fields in the East years ago, but never as bad 
as it was in Oklahoma. The conditions out there were different. 
There were so many sands ; so many operators. Ten or twelve 
thousand operators, whereas a hand full back here. The ma- 
jority of them did not know anything about the gas business 
when they started drilling. They drilled right through gas sands 
and let the gas blow. We had a situation of trying to sell some- 
thing to the people that the producers in the field were blowing 
away. We had to stop the waste first before we could talk 
about rates and prices. I am glad to be able to say we have cut 
that waste down. We have had the co-operation of the state 
authorities and finally the Federal Government came in and 
assisted us in the work of conservation. A great percentage of 
the waste has been stopped. We will be in the gas business a 
great deal longer out there on that account. I guess, Mr. Pres- 
ident, I will not take any more of your time this afternoon. 
(Applause.) 

President Guffey : We would like to hear from Mr. H. J. 
Hoover, Commercial Manager Gas Department, The Union Gas 
& Electric Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, on this all-important 
question. 

Mr. H. J. Hoover: Mr. President, and gentlemen: Mr. 
Maxon covered several points in his discussion on the rate subject 
which I had in mind, but which are unnecessary to repeat be- 
cause they were very well presented by him. 

There is one thought that has occurred to my mind which 
might be well to consider at this time. Last winter we were 
probably all confronted with the solution of the complexing 
problem of an abnormal demand for gas, due to an abnormal 
condition. That abnormal condition may for the future become 
a normal condition of demand. I do not believe there has ever 
been any well defined decision by a public utilities commission 
or a rate making body as to how far the responsibility of the 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 349 

distributing company extends as to the question of adequate 
service for its patrons. Going back to the artificial days, the 
prime uses of gas were for lighting and cooking and some minor 
uses such as water heating and perhaps incidental heating. 
Natural gas has been so cheap and has been so good that people 
are demanding it for the displacement of other fuels and they 
have made a demand for it beyond the capacities largely of the 
distribution companies' plants and these companies are brought 
up to the point of making additional capital investment to supply 
more gas. It seems to me that the question might well be con- 
sidered of putting up to rate making bodies the determination 
of the function of a distributing company and how far its re- 
sponsibility may go. If a company which is now given the 
privilege of selling gas under certain conditions, when it has 
it to sell, at less than its franchise rates, it seems by the same 
method of reasoning that it might be privileged to sell gas above 
its franchise rates under certain abnormal conditions. In other 
words, if the average consumption for what are considered 
primary uses of gas could be fixed we will say at eight thousand 
or ten thousand cubic feet, or whatever the rate making bodies 
upon proper investigation would find it would cover, then to give 
to the gas companies the privilege during the peak months to 
sell gas if they have it to sell or if they are justified in making 
the capital investment to supply it, at a substantially higher rate 
than the franchise rate in supplying the average consiuner. That 
might be somewhat radical, but if it can be established it would 
be a move in the right direction. It was somewhat recognized 
in Ohio last year by the ccmimission during the gas shortage, that 
it had the right under its powers and for the purpose of taking 
care of a large majority of the public to discontinue the use of 
gas in large quantities to certain consumers. In our city they 
cut it down to the point of even asking the users of gas of one 
hundred thousand feet per month to get oflF the lines. If the 
G)mmission has the power, or assumes that power, — I doubt if 
it has ever been presented to the courts for settlement, but if it 
has that discretionary power, it seems to me it is reasonable to 
suppose it may fix a point in our business by which you are 
required to give adequate service three hundred and sixty-five 



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360 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

days in the year, but it will not mean that you will have to make 
additional investment to take care of the peak load of perhaps a 
few days or a few weeks. But if you are in a position to do 
it and can get contracts to justify you in doing it, it seems to 
me it should be the privilege of the gas company to do it. Now 
that is just a thought, but it has this advantage, that it would 
be popular with the people. If you can reasonably assure nine 
of your customers that they will have adequate service three 
hundred and sixty-five days in the year, if you can fix a price, 
even though it is higher than the franchise price to the tenth 
consumer that will prevent the interfering with the service of the 
nine consumers it will certainly be popular with the people and 
after all, rate making bodies will have to have the support of 
the gas buying public just the same as they will have to have 
the support of the people selling gas. I have discussed this with 
a few gas men and it has met their approbation. I believe it 
may be worked out. I am giving it to you for what it is worth. 
It is somewhat radical. Mr. Maxon has covered the other points 
and that is all I wish to say. (Applause). 

President Guffey : We would like to hear from Mr. Stone 
of The Ashtabula Gas Company if he is present. 

Mr. Frederick W. Stone : Mr. President and gentlemen ; 
the paper has been pretty well covered by the gentlemen who 
have preceded me and they have taken about all the "thunder" 
that I have, but there are one or two features that have not been 
touched upon — 

Voices : Louder please so we can hear you. 

Mr. Frederick W. Stone: Did somebody say louder? 

Voices: Yes; yes. 

Mr. Frederick W. Stone: All right. I was saying that 
one or two thoughts have occurred to me which have not been 
mentioned. One was that the public, of course, fixes the price. 
That is not a new thought, but in connection with it we have been 
so anxious to have the price fixed in a number of cases that we 
have agreed to fix the price for a longer term of years than 
seems advisable under present conditions. The ordinary term 
of years for a price fixing ordinance in Ohio is ten years, but 
it seems under existing conditions it would be just as well if 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 861 

the gas companies could work out a scheme by which they would 
agree to a price fixing ordinance for a period of five years. In 
five years you will probably need a much higher price than you 
are getting now and you will probably get it. 

Another thought that occurred to me, I might go even 
further than that and say I really believe as far as natural gas 
companies are concerned that they are just as well off if they 
did not have any contract at all with a municipality. If they 
have no franchise; if they are able to say "If you want the gas, 
all right; but if you don't want the gas at a good price and for 
such a price as the company regards as an adequate price, then 
we will just suspend business with you and get out. We would 
like to do business with you, but do not want to do it at too low 
a price." That is a pretty radical view to take of the situation ; 
but I really believe it might be a solution of some of the dif- 
ficulties we are laboring under at the present time. Mr. Den- 
ning has said that he thought one solution of the price problem 
was to sell gas for industrial purposes. I agree with him that 
that is one of the solutions but when you come to selling gas 
for a low price, for we will say boiler purposes, it always seemed 
to me it was almost like feeding hot house lettuce to a cow. 
That is about the size of it. You are wasting mighty good 
material in a very poor way and the better way would be to 
work out some sort of scheme whereby that gas could be con- 
served for the purpose for which it is best adapted. The purpose 
for which it is best adapted and the purpose for which the people 
want it is undoubtedly for domestic consumption. 

Mr. Hoover brought out a point along the same line that I 
want to refer to briefly. The point has been pretty well estab- 
lished that distributing companies are entitled to a readiness to 
serve charge because they have the meter and they have the 
men and they have the clerical force and all that sort of thing 
which they keep in readiness to serve the consumer regardless 
of the quantity of gas he uses. I will go a step further than 
that; while I am a distribution man and have nothing to do 
with the production end of the business, yet, on the other hand, 
I am rather inclined to think that the producing company is en- 
titled to a certain extent to a readiness to serve charge. If they 



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362 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

are expected to handle the peak load and to maintain a ten inch 
line when an eight inch line would be just as well under normal 
conditions, they are entitled to a readiness to serve charge to 
the consumer of the gas. It seems to me if we could inaugurate 
some plan of that kind along that line, we would not need to 
sell gas for industrial purposes at such ruinously low prices. 
We will be able to get enough revenue from our domestic con- 
sumption so as to be able to serve them all the time. 

The public fixes the price and in order to get a higher price 
from the public, you have to educate them to the higher price. 
You have to tell them something about what gas is worth in 
relation to other fuels. Someone said here this morning that 
they were very much surprised at the low prices at which natural 
gas men were willing to sell their product. There is no reason 
at all why we should sell natural gas for thirty or thirty-five or 
forty cents a thousand where artificial gas companies are getting 
from a dollar to a dollar and a half a thousand for exactly the 
same thing. The trouble is we have not had the nerve to ask 
what our commodity is worth. We have not advertised it enough. 
We have not told the people its advantages. There are two ways 
of educating the people. One is to educate them to the advan- 
tages and economies to be derived from its use and the other 
way^ is to educate them in regard to the cost and the hazards 
incident to the natural gas business. We have not done either 
one. A woman will go to the grocery stor« for oat meal or sugar 
or something of that kind and she will usually pay a much higher 
price for a package of the article than for the same goods in 
bulk and she will usually do it simply because she believes the 
package goods are not more economical, but more convenient to 
handle and possibly a little cleaner and maybe she thinks she 
will get a little better article, or she will telephone the grocer 
and have him deliver the goods to her home and pay a good 
stiff price, whereas if she would take her market basket and go 
down to market, she could buy the same article much cheaper, 
but she takes into consideration only the matter of convenience 
and will not go down to market where she could buy the article 
to the best advantage, but telephones to the grocery and gets the 
goods in that way because it is more convenient to her and she 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 353 

wants to save time and trouble. She has been educated that 
way. We have not educated the women that way in the use of 
the natural gas and half of them do not realize because they 
have not been told how convenient it is; how clean it is; how 
good natural gas is as a domestic fuel. 

Another feature of the business I desire to mention at this 
time. When you go before councilmen or before a commission 
or anything like that, when it comes to talking about the price 
of natural gas you have to talk figures and you have to have 
the figures before you in order to do it accurately. You know 
just as well as I do that two-thirds of the natural gas men do 
not know how much their business costs them. They do not 
know how much it costs to produce the natural gas. They do not 
know how much it costs to transport it. They do not know how 
much it costs to distribute it. They never make any analysis 
of their accounts. They have never taken into consideration all 
the factors which enter into the costs which go to make up the 
price of natural gas net to the distributor. They never take into 
consideration the intangible factor which goes to add to the cost 
of the article to the distributor. They do not take into con- 
sideration the overheads or the things that do not appear on the 
surface. As for example the matter of depreciation, original 
investment and various expenses constituting important intan- 
gible factors in figuring costs. They are the things that really 
cost and which we ought to work out in a systematic way so 
that when we are called upon to appear before rate making 
bodies we will have the accurate figures at hand showing total 
costs. I do not know why it is, but there is no business where 
we put the "soft pedal" on figures as we do in the natural gas 
business. For example take the matter of leakage. Ask the 
ordinary gas man if he suffers from leakage. He says yes, he 
had a little leakage, of course, but not very much. Well, what 
is it? He does not exactly know and he will hedge and fuss 
around. Go to the manager who operates many of our plants 
and ask him. He does not know very much about it. So that if 
you go to the manager for these facts you are not able to get 
very much out of him. I am just using that argument by way 
of illustration. We do not know what our leakage is. You can 

23 



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;r»4 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



state what the average figure for it is and consequently when 
you go to talk to rate making bodies about the cost of gas and 
you say to them that gas costs thirty cents with a ten percent 
leakage, making the actual cost at the meter thirty-three cents, 
you have no figures to back up your statement. It seems to me 
we ought to analyze our costs and really know just how we are 
doing business. I had another ix)int in that connection, but it 
has slipped my mind just now. However, I guess I have said 
enough anyway. I thank you very much. (Applause). 

President Guffey: We would like to hear from Mr. 
Miles B. Layton, Assistant Manager Manufacturers Light and 
Heat Company of Pittsburgh, on this important subject. 

Mr. IVIiles B. L.wton : Mr. President and gentlemen: on 
Saturday morning I found on my desk one of those persuasive 
letters from our friend, Mr. Holbrook, saying that enclosed was 
a printed copy of the paper written by our friend, Mr. Denning, 
and asking me to discuss it today. Not being able to get in touch 
with Mr. Denning, on my arrival here this morning I found that 
he was ill. Otherwise I might have had him change the title of 
this very interesting article which he has prepared for us and 
have had it read something like this and I feel confident if I had 
talked with him he would have heartily agreed with me: "Sug- 
gestions For Natural Gas Salesmen Which Will Bring About 
a Fair Rate and a Satisfied Consumer." 

^Ir. Leslie B. Denning: I heartily endorse that. That 
is the substance of the whole article. 

Mr. Miles B. Layton : I have had a varied experience in 
the sale of natural gas covering quite a number of years. It is 
an easy matter for a fellow to stand up here and tell you what 
you ought to do, but it is an entirely diflFerent proposition to 
do it yourself and get results. But at the same time, there is 
this one feature that has been wrong and has been staring us 
in the face all the years in which we have been selling natural 
gas. Rates are only estimates of actual values. We started in 
wrong. We had no conception of the value of natural gas when 
we started out. It had been blowing in the air free for years 
and ])eople passed it by as of no value. We discovered one day 
we conld nsc it and it would furnish heat bv its use. We then 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 356 

applied it. We started to use it. We had been using wood 
and coal. Wood in the early days was plentiful and coal was 
much cheaper than it is now. You all remember when we cut 
our wood with the little buck saw and didn't think much about 
the cost of our fuel, for in those days it was a very inconsider- 
able item of expense. We said, *'WeH, we will just substitute 
gas." Our wages were not very high and the value of replacing 
it with a fuel which cost no labor was very small and the result 
was that we started in on the wrong basis, never taking into 
consideration for one moment the actual value of natural gas for 
heating purposes and manufacturing purposes. Now we have 
suffered the sins of our forefathers all these years. We have 
had to come back in a begging attitude all the time. We have 
failed to say to the consumer that it is costing us more money 
to get it; the fields are becoming depleted. We all know this to 
be the fact. The fellow who is successful in getting an increased 
rate for gas from the consumer is the one who is in personal 
touch with the manufacturer or with the domestic consumer, 
even though it would be a lady. They are not the only ones who 
are willing to pay a fair price for natural gas. The moment that 
you can talk to them and tell them of the actual necessities; 
the conditions under which we are working; the failing supply; 
the increased demand ; the extension of pipe lines running over 
long distances and everything of that kind that comes in contact 
with it, that moment you have those consumers agreeing to pay 
that increased price. Now your inability to show him and show 
him conclusively that you are honest in what you are saying to 
him. that moment you will fail to get him willingly to concede 
you are entitled to a higher price ; but if you are able to tell him 
that there is this necessity ; that you should receive more money 
for your produce, from that moment that you can convince 
him that is true, then he is willing to pay a higher price for the 
conveniences and advantages he derives from the article you have 
for sale. That has been my experience for years. We only fail 
when we are endeavoring to get an increased price for natural gas ; 
when we suddenly spring upon an unsuspecting public, without 
giving them any idea of what is coming, like a stroke of light- 
ning out of a clear sky, the unheralded announcement that "to- 



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35(> NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

morrow morning," or "commencing with the first day of July, 
the rate for natural gas will be raised to thirty cents a thou- 
sand/' He immediately becomes *'peeved." That is good Eng- 
lish because it is a word we should use every day. He imme- 
diately becomes peeved at the thought that you would say to 
him arbitrarily that that was the price he will have to pay. 
Had we taken him into our confidence and said to him, "Now, 
we are thinking of raising our price on. natural gas the first of 
July for the reason of the increased cost and the diminished 
supply," and telling him frankly and freely all the other factors 
that enter into it, he immediately feels that that is something 
that he is going to be required to acquiesce in from the stand- 
point of even justice and he commences to think. He analyzes 
the situation with the result that when he finishes analyzing the 
situation, he is willing to pay the price. Without trespassing 
too much on your time, I will give you a few of my own exjie- 
riences. I hope they may be of help to you. I am not brushing 
oflF my own medals when I am telling you of these instances, but 
I am just telling you the plain facts because these are features 
of the business that each of you must face and must come in 
contact with and probably many of you have come in contact 
with more frequently than I. I have been brushing up on the 
rate question a good deal of late and endeavoring to boost 
prices for the most wonderful product that Nature or the 
Almighty has ever given to the human family, and that is nat- 
ural gas. In my researches I have found this to be true and I 
refer to a celebrated case which went on for a number of years. 
There was a complaint from a consumer who had been called 
upon and who was notified to pay an increase in rate. It ran 
along for some time — and here is just a little history which 
shows how important it is to come in personal contact and get 
in personal touch w-ith our consumers. A man who had utterly 
refused to do anything and all the influences which it was pos- 
sible to bring^ about had been employed to get him to withdraw his 
complaint, was called upon and after discussing it for some 
time he says, "What do you want me to do; you tell me there 
will he a shortage and that I must prepare for something else. 
I know that it is costing more money than it ever cost and I am 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 357 

not only willing to pay the price you have asked for it, but I 
am willing to pay an increased price, if necessary." Now why 
was that? Because he was led to realize the importance of an 
increased price if he expected to get the supply and he had 
implicit confidence in the statements that were made to him as 
to the necessity for the increase in price. Now I urge on all of 
you that we must take the general public into our confidence if 
we would have a satisfied consumer. First give him service. If 
you are not able to give him service which he is willing to 
pay for then explain to him the exact facts. Be honest with 
him. Do not hesitate and keep from him the facts ; but say to 
him there will be a shortage and that you better prepare to take 
care of yourself when these peak loads come on an extremely 
cold day. What will he do? He says he will be willing to pay 
for the service at the increased price because he feels that you 
are doing everything that you possibly can to get the gas for him. 
We started in wrong at the beginning. It is a good deal like 
the fellow who had his head hurt. He applied to the doctor 
to have his head bandaged. He says, "What is the matter with 
you?" "I had my head hurt." He put on the X-rays and 
looked it all over and he says, "There is only one thing for you 
to do." "What is it?" "Take your brain out and scrape it." 
Well, he says, "What do you mean?" "Why," he says, "That 
is all I can do for you ; it will take at least a couple of days." 
He says, "All right, it is doing me no good where it is now ; go 
ahead." The doctor replied, "Come back in a couple of days 
and I will have it ready for you." The fellow was gone for 
several weeks and he came back to the doctor's office and the 
doctor said, "Where have you been all this time ?" "Oh, I have 
been having a good time." The doctor says, "What have you 
been doing?" "Oh, I just went out and got in the natural gas 
business" (laughter and applause). 

I don't want to give you any fatherly advice, but I want to 
say to you, as members of this Association, take your gray 
matter with you when you discuss supply and demand of the 
commodity you have for sale. Be fortified with facts and 
figures so that you can make the public, the public utilities com- 
missioners, the manufacturer and the people of the community 



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a58 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

know what the facts are. Give them all the information you 
have as to the actual condition of the commodity which you are 
selling; that it is a hundred percent pure; that it is the real 
thing and the only real thing for accomplishing the purposes for 
which it is used and that you are giving them their full share 
and that it is costing you from time to time more money than 
you are receiving for it. Tell them that if they want to con- 
tinue in the service, they must pay you more money for it. It 
is not a question merely of advertising, but take a clean sheet 
of paper and figure out for them that you need so much money 
for development; yon need so much money for running ex- 
penses and extensions to pipe lines and that for all of these 
necessary expenses, in order to get the supply to meet the 
demand, you must have five cents more on the thousand cubic feet 
for your gas. Then after the public has been informed as to 
your necessities in order to supply the demand and make a rea- 
sonable profit, publish it the next morning in the newspapers 
that the price after July first will be five cents more. Do not 
be content with merely announcing that after a certain time the 
price will be raised five cents, but go further than that and be 
ready to tell them intelligently, honestly and frankly the reasons 
for the increase of price. I thank you very much (applause). 

President Guffey : We have heard from most every part 
of the United States on the question of rates except northwestern 
Ohio. I am sure we all want to hear from our friend, Mr, 
James W. McMahon, General Manager, The Northwestern Ohio 
Natural Gas Company, Toledo, Ohio. Mr. McMahon, will you 
come forward and say a few words on this subject? 

Mr. James W. McMahon: Mr. President, it is an unex- 
pected pleasure you have extended to me in giving me the 
opportunity to say something about rates and to comment on 
Mr. Denning's very excellent paper. There is just one item in 
his paper to which I would for a moment draw your attention 
and that is that portion thereof wherein he says there can be no 
hard and fast rule laid down for rates. That is true. Most of you 
are tied up by contract. Most of the companies are tied up by 
contract for several years. You cannot break the contract. You 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 369 

have to supply the gas if you can get it. Now that is an unfor- 
tunate condition to be placed in. 

The natural gas business as far as rates are concerned is in 
a chaotic condition. Take it for example in the city of Toledo. 
We have 4,600 families that pay us thirty-five cents per month 
for a year of twelve months. The overhead charge on our 
meters, including labor and other incidentals, is over sixty-five 
cents. In other words, we are giving -them a thousand feet of 
gas for domestic use and are presenting them thirty cents per 
month for the privilege of having them connected with our 
company (laughter and applause). We have 6,200 customers 
that pay us seventy cents per month; sixty-five cents for over- 
head and labor and we give them two thousand feet of gas at 
an average cost of two and a half cents per thousand that we 
are paying eighteen or twenty cents for down at the Ohio River. 
Now I don't know how you are going to get away from it. You 
say you will fix rates. You get up here and talk about fixing 
rates, but you must remember that the commission usually fixes 
the rates for us. We may say what we will about fixing rates ; 
but the commission will fix the rate for us. It seems to me that 
is the place where we must do our educating. The people buy g^as 
as cheap as they can. If you go to work and raise the price of 
gas generally, you have not stopped discrimination. The man that 
is getting his gas for thirty-five cents per thousand now and only 
using one thousand cubic feet per month for twelve months is 
riding free with the customers who are paying cost plus profit, 
and if you raise five cents per thousand, the discrimination still 
exists. I think about the only way to arrive at a solution of this 
rate problem is to have a readiness-to-serve charge of some kind 
or a sliding scale fixing the maximum price for the first one 
thousand feet or any part thereof and then a sliding scale on 
down so that each consumer will pay his proper proportion for the 
gas used. I do not see how you are going to get away from the 
discrimination if you do not do something like that and I do not 
believe any of you are going to get a great ways with rates at 
the present time. As far as I can find out, most of you are tied 
up for the next four or five years and I think at the expiration 



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360 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

of the term of the contract that you have with your various towns, 
natural gas will be so scarce that you will have to have an ade- 
quate rate if you sell it (applause). 

President Guffey: Is there any other member of the 
Association present who would like to be heard on this subject? 
We would be very glad to hear from you if you have anything 
to add by way of discussion or common on the all-important 
topic of rates. If not, we will proceed with the regular program. 

Mr. Leslie B. Denning: I would just like to say a few 
words in closing this discussion. 

President Guffey : I am sure we would all be very glad 
to hear from Mr. Denning. I should have called upon him to 
close the discussion on his paper. 

Mr. Leslie B. Denning: Mr. President and gentlemen: I 
have tried to point out in what I have said my belief in the ability 
and willingness of the public themselves to control the rate 
situation in the end. To illustrate what I mean I want to tell 
you a couple of instances that came under my observation and 
actual experience in the last year or two. In a certain city 
which will be nameless at the present time, the mayor was elected 
upon a campaign of reduction in the price of service of all 
utilities, including every class of utility in the city. He became 
very active. He selected to assist him in his work a certain so- 
called expert who had what might be called a national reputa- 
tion. The expert, however, happened to be called to another 
natural gas rate case that I had personal connection with and 
in that case he testified under oath that he had no knowledge, — 
that he had no experience whatsoever in the organization, man- 
agement, development or conduct of a natural gas property; 
that all the knowledge he had ever had, had been gained from 
reading books and talking with men in the business. In the 
particular city in which he began operating, the local newspapers 
— or at least one of them — ^gave him a very flattering send-off, 
spoke of his high standing and character and gave him a great 
deal of publicity, publishing a long list of cases with which he 
had been connected and showing how successful he was in his 
particular line. It was apparent from the outset that nothing 
could be gained by appealing to the fair-mindedness of the 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 361 

mayor or expecting any fair treatment from him because he had 
entered upon his campaign with the declared purpose of being 
re-elected upon the platform of a decrease in the price of ser- 
vice by public utilities and he was bent on carrying out his 
campaign promises. The mayor had announced on a certain 
day the town council would meet and would pass an ordinance 
decreasing the price. The mayor happened to leave town, and 
coming back on the morning of the day upon which he had 
fixed the time for the passage of the ordinance decreasing the 
price of gas he found appearing in every newspaper in the town, 
the Italian paper, the German paper, the Trades Union paper 
and every paper in the city in which space could be obtained, 
a page advertisement addressed to his expert in which a series 
of questions were put to him and his list of cases that had been 
published in the newspapers were taken up one by one and he 
was asked "Didn't you do so and so in that case? Didn't the 
commission or the court do so and so in this case? Did they 
not fix a higher rate in the other case? Did they not find a 
much higher valuation?" and so on all the way down the line 
and the advertisement wound up with a statement something 
like this, "If you were seriously injured and it became necessary 
to employ a surgeon to conduct a serious operation to save your 
life, whom would you employ? The best and most skilled sur- 
geon you could obtain or would you employ one who admittedly 
had gained all his knowledge and experience in that particular 
field of endeavor by reading books and talking with other sur- 
geons?" When that advertisement appeared you could have 
almost heard the laugh that went over the town. When the 
mayor came back he postponed the meeting of the council until 
the following month. That has been almost a year ago and 
there has not been a session of the town council in that city 
with reference to that subject since that time and the price has 
not been reduced in that town up to date. I am simply giving 
you that illustration showing the power of advertisement in 
reaching the general public. 

Another instance that occurred in practically the same cam- 
paign. It became necessary to give notice of the discontinuance 
of cheap boiler service, — and right here I want to say when I 



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3G2 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

speak of "industrial service/' I do not have in mind boiler serv- 
ice; but I have reference to that high grade business that can 
afford to pay higher prices rather than discontinue the use of 
natural gas and that is distinct from boiler service which is an- 
other matter altogether. So do not fix in your minds the idea that 
I am talking about industrial business when I am speaking of 
cheap boiler service because I am not. I know that you can not 
put that on the same basis as other kinds of service. In this 
particular instance we gave notice that boiler service would be 
discontinued on a certain day. There came considerable opposi- 
tion from the Chamber of Commerce. The Chamber of Com- 
merce being a very active factor in that city, they called a meet- 
ing and a goodly number of representative business men of that 
city attended the meeting. They proceeded at once to condemn 
the gas company in unmeasured terms. They were about to pass 
a resolution condemning the gas company for this so-called un- 
warranted action in turning off boiler service to the industries of 
the town. It occurred to them, however, that the gas company 
might have something to say by way of defense as to why it had 
taken this action and before passing the resolution they called 
upon me as the representative of the company to see if I cared to 
say anything. I told them I was very glad to be there, although 
I had not been invited and the company had not been notified of 
the meeting; that we had in our archives a beautifully engraved 
certificate of membership in their honorable body for which we 
had paid one hundred dollars per year for the privilege of being a 
member of the Chamber of Commerce and yet, notwithstanding 
the fact that we were a member of that body, with dues fully 
paid up, we had not only not been invited to be present, but the 
company had had no notice of this meeting. I said that I was 
very glad to be there and would assist them in any way I could in 
arriving at a correct understanding of the situation. I had taken 
the precautions to have with me the monthly statements of the gas 
company. I laid them down in a stack on top of the desk in front 
of me and said to them, "Gentlemen, here are the private, confi- 
dential statements of this company showing the actual costs of 
operation, including all expenses, and showing actual receipts 
from the operation of its business montli by month throughout the 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 363 

year and you can pick out any one month — I do not care which 
one you take — and if you do not believe I am telling the truth, 
you may send in any public certified accountant or any competent 
accountant in this city to examine our books to verify the truth- 
fulness and the accuracy and the correctness of these monthly 
statements and if you find anything misrepresented or anything 
not true, then you do not need to believe a word I say." Then 
I picked up one of the monthly statements at random and it hap- 
pened to be the month of May. I said to them, "Gentlemen, this 
statement of our business for the month of May shows that we 
sold in this city 231,000,000 cubic feet of boiler gas at an average 
price of so much and this same sheet shows that gas has cost us 
so much in excess of the price we sold it for. Now as a sound 
business proposition would any one of you business men have sold 
the commodity that you were handling on the same basis? I 
konw you would not. You could not afford to do it and hope to 
continue in business. We can not afford to do it and hope to con- 
tinue in business long. We want to be frank and fair minded and 
straight forward about this whole matter. We are perfectly willing 
to give you all the facts in relation to our business. We are per- 
fectly willing to show you our books and to convince you that we 
are telling the truth about what this gas costs us and what we get 
for it ; but from the standpoint of good business, we can not sell 
you that gas below cost and we do not propose to do it." So be- 
fore we got through we had hard work to keep them from passing 
a resolution condemning the mayor instead of us (applause). 

Mr. John M. Garard: Mr. President, I do not want all 
this to go by without this vast audience knowing where I stand. 
I am so utterly biased on this rate question that what I have to 
say won't do the outside public any good because the language I 
would use would not be fit to be recorded in the report of our 
* proceedings and the outside public would not know anything 
about it. But when I come to consider how we have been be- 
littled and how we have been sat upon by various consumers, both 
industrial and domestic, I really feel so insignificant that I lose 
all hope of ever being able to appear and obtain any credit at all, 
l>efore these various commissions. We are simply the laughing 
stock of everybody. There isn't any question about it. And 



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364 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



when we thought if we put gas up to sixteen cents, we would lose 
every customer we had and then wondered why we didn't make it 
thirty and when we put it at thirty, they said, **Well, we will 
take just about the same that we have been using,'' and then we 
were disappointed because we did not make it forty, but decided 
to split the difference and make it thirty-five, saying, hereafter 
any industrial consumer that wants to bum Ohio Fuel Supply gas 
will pay us thirty-five cents per thousand, even though our do- 
mestic rate may only be twenty-five cents in the town in which it 
is being consumed, we then realized what we had been up against. 
I am giving out that sweet morsel to take home with you and I 
hope you will all follow the example of the Ohio Fuel Supply 
Company (applause). 

President Guffey: Gentlemen, it now gives me great 
pleasure to introduce to you as the next speaker one of our active 
members who at the present time is pving his time and service 
so generously and so efficiently to the public, serving in the capac- 
ity of Chairman of the Petroleum Oil and Gas Committee of 
the National Council of Defense. He is also a representative of 
your Association as its member in the National Chamber of Com- 
merce. In addition to being President of the Hope Natural Gas 
Company, he is also President of the Standard Oil Company of 
New Jersey. He has kindly consented to address us this after- 
noon on Mobilizing Industries for War. I now introduce to you 
Mr. A. C. Bedford (great applause). 

Mr. a. C Bedford: Mr. President and Gentlemen: I feel 
somewhat embarrassed in speaking to you today, for the reason 
that although like you, I am, and I am proud to be a gas man, 
yet I know very well the limitations of my knowledge relative to 
the gas business and I could not pretend for a moment to try 
to address you on that subject alone. My apology for speaking 
at all must be the desire, if I can, to perhaps bring to you a 
little of the atmosphere in which I have been moving these last 
few weeks; to impress upon you if I can, as it has been im- 
pressed upon me, the serious condition with which as a coun- 
try we are face to face; to ask one and all of you one thing, 
which I know you will do, — ^and let me say here that I yield 
to no man in this country in my admiration and my respect. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 365 

for this man here, (pointing to large Poster of President Wilson, 
bearing the inscription "Stand by the President") who as our 
President uttered those memorable words and that marvelous 
message to Congress, when he put us into the war (applause), 
and I want to ask you in the words which are before you, to 
"Stand by the President" (great applause) ; for in standing by 
the President you stand by the country which we all love (long 
continued applause). 

Mr. A. C. Bedford then delivered the following address : 



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MOBILIZING OF INDUSTRY FOR WAR. 
By A. C. Bkdford. 

Modern warfare is no longer a mere contest between 
armies on the field. Even as late as the Spanish War we heard 
much of the im|X)rtance of **the man behind the gun." The 
man is still important, but the vital, the all-conclusive factor now 
is the machine behind the man. 

It is said that at the outbreak of the war in Europe, there 
were in Russia only forty cartridges available for each soldier. 
It is reported that whole armies would entrain for the front 
with only one rifle for every fi\G men. This was the kind of 
mobilization which Germany considered such a menace that she 
plunged the world into the most frightful of all human catas- 
trophes. 

This Russian mobilization was in truth a mobilization of 
her men; it was not a mobilization of the machine behind her 
men. 

Some one has said that in essence German men are not 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 367 

today fighting English or French men, but that German ma- 
chines are fighting English and French machines. Men group 
themselves around some terrific engine hidden from sight of their 
enemies. That engine is filled with explosive and hurled miles 
away against an invisible object supposed to be located at a 
certain place. There is no romance, no marching into action be- 
hind inspiring leaders, no playing of martial music — little, in- 
deed, more than a terrible, indescribable collision of machines. 

Hence while men continue to be important, and the power 
of men to continue to endure this onslaught upon civilization 
itself, will eventually determine the issue of the struggle, we 
find that the supreme problem of modern warfare is the mobiliza- 
tion of the machine behind the men. This means the mobiliza- 
tion of the whole economic power of a nation. 

The raw material for the machines must be turned out, the 
food must be produced to feed the workers in the factories as 
well as the soldiers in the trenches, the coal and oil must be 
provided to move the engines, the ships and the motor cars must 
be ready. These are but the more important elements of the 
situation. The fundamental fact in any warfare is that the 
economic resources of the whole peoples and nations are directed 
to out-staying and overwhelming the economic resources of an- 
other group of peoples and nations. 

If this were merely a war between the individual armies 
of the two groups of nations, it would be terrible, but relatively 
short-lived. It is because the entire industrial life of all these 
nations has become involved that the struggle has taken on a 
titanic character without precedent in history. This is funda- 
mentally why the length of the conflict is §o'"clifficult to forecast; 
and why its results will be of such far-reaching effect upon the 
domestic as well as the international relations of every nation 
in the world. 

The outbreak of the war found Germany alone of all the 
nations prepared for what was about to occur. Her machines 
were ready, and she had become the most efficient nation in the 
world. Other countries have had to learn during the war, and 
out of its terrible experiences what Germany had foreseen. 

The experience of England in meeting the problems thus 



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308 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

thrust upon her are most interesting to us because her economic 
life had been ordered more nearly upon the pattern of our own. 
England was taken almost completely unawares, and she had 
to act quickly. We have now had time to consider England^s 
experience, and we ought therefore to be able to avoid some of 
the steps England has had to take, steps which are destined to 
have a radical and far-reaching effect upon her future history. 

It would be impossible to go into the details of all England 
has done in mobilizing her industry for war. But let us see if 
we can get at the fundamental principles which have seemed 
to guide her main policies. If I may describe those policies in 
a phrase, it is in the statement that England has operated through 
an extraordinary development of government activity — a line 
of policy which the United States has so far (effectively) sought 
to avoid. 

For example, railroad service is, of course, vital to any 
mobilization either of men or industries. One of the very first 
acts of England at the beginning of the war was accordingly to 
take over into Government hands entire responsibility for the 
management and conduct of the railroads. The English govern- 
ment set up a committee of high railroad officers to carry on 
the work, but the government itself assumed responsibility for 
the finances of the companies, merely guaranteeing to each a 
continuance of the same net earnings which it has been receiving 
just prior to the war. The result has doubtless enabled the rail- 
roads to render a greatly increased service, but it has probably 
resulted in an enormously increased expense to the country. 

Our Government has proceeded upon a different theory. 
Instead of taking dvetithe railroads and assuming responsibility 
for them, it has asked the railroads themselves to organize them- 
selves into an effective trans-continental railroad system, aban- 
doning for the moment individual and competitive activities, and 
devoting themselves during the period of the war to rendering 
the utmost practicable service for the benefit not only of the 
Government but of the public at large. 

The essence of this plan is that the Government tells the 
railroads what it wants and the railroads themselves assume 
responsibility for rendering the service. This places the burden 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 369 

exactly where it ought to belong, and places a premium upon 
railroad efficiency and economy, instead of encouraging that 
wastefulness which would be inevitable if the Govermnent merely 
guaranteed minimum net earnings, as was done in England. 

And right here the question may very properly be raised: 
If, under the stress of war, acting under strict government super- 
vision and regulation, the railroads can, in cooperation, and with 
competition practically eliminated, give to the government and 
the public a greatly improved service, is it conceivable that after 
the war, the railroads should be forced to continue the wastes 
and losses due to the unnecessary competition practically forced 
by law prior to the war? 

England some time after the war began, took over her coal 
mines and placed them under Government operation. She is 
now taking over her shipping companies. She has also absorbed 
under Government management and control, a large number of 
industries and munition plants. 

Our country has proceeded quite differently in all such 
details. The President of the United States created an advisory 
committee of the Council of National Defense. The aim of that 
committee was to study the industrial resources of the country 
with a view to mobilizing them for the benefit of the Govern- 
ment in the event of war. 

In the great industries such as steel, coal, oil, copper and so 
on, the Council of National Defense invited leading producers 
to become members of sub-committees and to co-operate with the 
Government in securing adequate supplies at fair prices. The 
plan has up to the present succeeded admirably and will, I believe, 
continue to prove itself of great service to the Nation. 

I wish at this time to pay special tribute to Messrs. Raruch, 
Willard and Coffin, and others of this Council who have person- 
ally done excellent service — giving their entire time and atten- 
tion without compensation to the work of this Committee. 

Secretary Lane referred to the co-operative spirit already 
shown by the business men of the country in this mobilization of 
the resources of the United States. "It would surprise the na- 
tions of Europe how intense is the spirit of loyalty on the part of 
our business men and capitalists. They are at the very root and 

24 



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;^7() NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



foundation of the great industry — the war industry — that pre- 
sents itself on the other side of the water. Now, there are two 
ways of deaHng with a problem of this kind. One way is by the 
hearty co-operation of the men already engaged in the industry-. 
The other way is by compulsion. My experience in the Interstate 
-Commerce Commission led me to believe that the larger men in 
the railroad industry had quite as much vision as I had, and if I 
could show them the importance of an occasion they would try to 
meet it. So, instead of resorting to compulsion, instead of taking 
over mines and great operating plants, we are endeavoring to put 
you men at your best. This war is a challenge to us." 

Those are the words of Secretary Lane. How does that 
come down to us as gas men? It comes to my mirkl in two ways. 
It is patent that we are as interested in this as the coal men or the 
oil men or men engaged in other industries because an important 
part of the great industries of the country is the gas industry 
today and an important element is the production of natural gas. 
Natural gas is as im})Ortant as petroleum and coal in the mobiliza- 
tion of the industries for war. You know the part it plays. I 
do not have to tell you. Secondly, it is a question of natural gas 
itself as a fuel. You all know without me telling you the con- 
ditions in reference to coal as a fuel. The Coal Committee is hav- 
ing great difficulty in trying to meet the tremendous demand. 
You know how the industries of the country have used all the 
available supplies of coal, so that coal has to be supplemented by 
natural gas. Therefore, as natural gas men, you have two things 
to bear in mind. You may be asked — and you will be asked — 
those of you wlio manufacture gasoline, to bear your share of 
the burden. That burden carries with it the necessity of supply- 
ing the Allies with their needs and to supply our own fleet and 
our patrol fleets along our own coasts, as well as to supply our 
own motor vehicles. There will be 35,000 motor trucks used 
when our armies come into existence. You can readily see how 
that has to be taken care of, and the load will have to be dis- 
tributed through some such medium as I have already described, 
for the Government is trying to utilize to the best advantage the 
needs and necessities of those great products which we have to 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 371 



have in order to keep things moving and to accelerate the pace as 
it must be accelerated. 

Now, I would urge distributing interests, especially in the 
centers of large population, in so far as is possible, to deliver gas 
to their customers along normal and ordinary lines without cre- 
ating unnecessary panic, but to have in mind that when the war 
comes, your duty probably will be first to see that these great 
industries upon which war is dependent are supplied with an ade- 
quate supply of fuel. For example, the great steel industry needs 
fuel and it may be that you will have to divert some of your sup- 
plies of natural gas, — especially you w^ho live in the Middle West 
and the East, to the needs of those industries, and this must be 
of paramount importance, and, Mr. President, if it will not be 
out of line, I would suggest that this Convention might perhaps 
appoint a committee that could co-operate and behind which you 
could all stand, and into whose hands you would be willing to put 
the burden of working with the Government and working with its 
Committees so that when the time comes that you will be called 
upon there may be some medium through which you may act 
and with whom the authorized authorities at Washington may 
deal (applause). 

Under the plan every producer feels the patriotic obligation 
to do his best and to deal fairly by the Government. In addition 
to that he has opportunities still left to him to exercise his skill 
and productive capacity in improving results, rather than in 
merely lying down on the Government and letting his plant be- 
come a part of the bureacratic machine. We are fighting a war for 
democracy and it will be a thousand pities if in the stress of such 
a war we should put bureaucracy on the throne, and eliminate 
those opportunities for the play of individual initiative, enthusi- 
asm and efficiency which must always be the glory of a democracy 
(more applause). 

This war can, of course, have only one issue. The resources 
of the democratic nations of the world have been thrown into 
the seething cauldron of war with an inexorable determination to 
triumph over the governments of autocracy and despotism. It 
will be the duty of our people, as the President has so well said, 
to put into this struggle, every ounce of our ability and every 



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M'2 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



particle of our resources that may be necessary to secure a com- 
plete vindication of the principles for which we are struggling. 
But this war will also show us some great principles to apply to 
our domestic life. It will show us the necessity of co-operation. 
It will demonstrate to our people what can be accomplished by 
believing in men and by mobilizing our resources for the benefits 
of peace as well as for the necessities of war. 

But, my friends, we must look the facts squarely in the face. 
Do not let us deceive ourselves with any Short- War fallacy — 
any such theory will warp and misguide public sentiment — cost 
countless of human lives, prove German^s strongest ally and pro- 
long the war. I have been in somewhat close touch with those 
who know actual conditions and the best informed experts be- 
lieve today that the war is not nearly over. They believe its w^orst 
and most dangerous stages are yet to come. Barring possible 
collapse through hunger, Germany can go on for years. Barring 
possible failure to meet and overcome the submarine campaign, 
the Allies can go on for years — neither one, I believe, is likely 
to hapi)en. The only safe basis for this country to proceed upon 
is to assume that the United States alone is entering upon a war 
with (iermany. A war that will tax its full resources and full 
fighting strength. Once get that into your thoughts and con- 
viction and America will respond as one man for they will realize 
at once their own and their country's peril (long continued 
applause). 

This country is a long way from the battle fields of Europe 
and our people feel themselves apart from the conflict, but it will 
bring it home to you at once if you will imagine for a moment the 
removal of that mighty fleet which has stood as a protecting 
shield between this country and Germany since the war began. 
Imagine that that fleet can not be supplied with necessary fuel, 
both coal and oil. — that the submarine chasers could not get the 
needed supplies of gasoline and you can see at once the deadly 
peril this country would stand in. The entrance of the United 
States into the war comes at a most opportune moment for help- 
fulness. For thirty months tlie Allies have bled and suflfered, and 
the strain has told on them perhaps more than we realize or can 
ever imagine. France, fighting magnificently, is trenching on her 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 373 



last reserve of strength. Italy's help, while invaluable, is neg- 
ative. Russia, dazed by her revolution, is faced with a period of 
uncertainty and confusion — Great Britain bearing the main bur- 
den of the war, the guardian of the Alliance on the seas, — its 
banker, its chief arsenal and workshop and its main military prop 
— is drawing on the last million of her available man power, is 
harassed by the German submarine warfare and is conscious of 
the pressure of the titanic burden. What that burden is may be 
conceived in part if I mention just a few facts to illustrate the 
grand scale of preparation involved, facts that will indicate also 
the necessity of mobilizing industry in the United States for war. 
The original English army consisted of 150,000 men. England's 
present army is 5,000,000 men. In France 2,000,000 men. The 
remaining soldiers are divided into the armies of Salonica, Meso- 
potamia, Egypt, German East Africa, India. In addition to the 
5,000,000 men in arms, England has more than 3,000,000 men en- 
gaged in war industries. She has in reserve another million men^ 
but can ill spare any more men from the land, the collieries, or 
the factories, and that leads me to say here that in my judgment, 
producers of oil and gas, where it is needed for fuel for factory 
purposes should urge upon those men essential to the business 
that it is their business to remain at their posts^ such men as 
drillers and other experts, to keep up the production, etc. When 
men are called upon to respond, as they are going to be called 
upon, only those men should go who can be spared. Some men 
will be essential to the industry. In those industries, you know 
those men who are most essential. A man can do his patriotic 
duty by drilling a well when oil and gas is needed, as well as by 
bearing arms in the trenches. 

Nothing could more strikingly illustrate the essential nature 
of co-operation by all industries than the development of Eng- 
land's great industry of munitions. There are now nearly one 
hundred great Government plants which have been specially built 
to cope with war requirements. Working directly under the Min- 
istry of Munitions are 2,500,000 men and over 1,000,000 women. 
Women are engaged in more than five hundred munition proc- 
cesses. The production of guns and munitions has multiplied six- 
fold during the past year. At the beginning of the war, there 



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374 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

was a notable lack of shells. They did not understand how to go 
to war. They did not understand what it meant. Perhaps you 
will remember reading in the papers where General French sent 
back to England word that he had to have shells of high explosive 
power, and they sent back word to him, "No, you don't want 
them ; you want shrapnel." Then he sent back word that he had 
shrapnel but it was gone, and they sent back word to him, "If you 
had not wasted your shrapnel you would have had it now," not 
realizing what the conditions were, not realizing the tremendous 
responsibilities in the way of supplying munitions to the army and 
to the navy, not realizing the high explosives that were neces- 
sary to meet the modem engines which had been so highly de- 
veloped by Germany. The British have moved back and forth 
across the channel over 8,000,000 men, over 10,000,000 tons of 
explosives, over 50,000,000 gallons of gasoline and over 1,000,000 
sick and wounded. And all this without any losses due to enemy 
attacks. Marvelous achievement. (More applause). And with 
great reverence to the memory of the distinguished citizen who 
died in New York yesterday, and for whom all New York 
mourns today, I want to echo the words of Mr. Choate for us "to 
wake up ; let us be up and doing and not talking only.*' England's 
original navy was 150,000. Her present navy exceeds half a 
millron. In addition to naval requirements, England is obliged 
to supply all her troops, all her armies in distant parts with their 
equipment for war and the necessaries of life, and in addition to 
keep huge fleets busy with the transportation of coal and other 
essentials to her allies, notably France and Italy. This means an 
enormous sea force in addition to the regular naval force and the 
organization and control of this auxiliary navy is one of the great 
achievements of the war. These things we, too, must do and 
though the war has been in effect for thirty months, we are much 
less prepared than England and have an enormous task to per- 
form. Again I echo the recent words of Mr. Choate and say with 
him, "Wake up; let us be up and doing and not talking only." 
(Great applause). 

To the Allies, therefore, the entrance of these United States 
brings a stupenduous relief. It sets the seal of absolute certainty 
upon their work. It ranges a hundred million people behind 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 375 

them. A navy in daring, valor and efficiency second to none, 
great wealth and industrial organization of the first order. Peo- 
ple ask what can America do? Rather ask, what can America 
not do? (Great applause). Is it men, money, food, raw or 
finished material? We can supply them all and we will. (More 
applause). 

As to the purpose, — if you will bear with me a moment 
longer, I can do no better than to quote from that eloquent ad- 
dress made by the Mayor of New York at that great dinner given 
on last Friday night, May i ith. A dinner where perhaps never 
before such an array of notable men sat at the same table. There 
were two former Presidents of the United States, Col. Roosevelt 
and Mr. Taft. (Applause). There was a former Premier of 
Great Britain, Mr. Balfour, and a former President of France, 
Messieur Viviani, both of them leading figures in their respective 
countries. (Great applause). There was the Marshal of 
France, General Joffre (long continued applause) and the senior 
officer of the United States Army. There were the Admirals 
of the British, French and United States Navies ; the British and 
French Ambassadors; the Governor of the Bank of England, 
the Governor of the great State of New York, and a thousand 
other men of distinguished personalities, and famous records, 
representatives of the financial, literary, artistic, professional and 
business life of America, on behalf of whom the Mayor ad- 
dressed these distinguished guests in part as follows : 

"This is essentially our war. Democracy destroyed in 
Europe means democracy first threatened and then destroyed 
in the United States. At least we see it. America is now 
awake and New York, — New York that has never hung back 
or faltered in the hour of the Nation's peril, clasps hands with 
these our guests and Allies and says to them: *We are with 
you in this thing to the bitter end, lead where it may.' Our 
Hour of Trial is here. 

"What can we say to them? Their people have known priva- 
tions and the suflFerings of war. We have not. Democracy on 
this side of the Atlantic, protected by the British navy, defended 
by the valiant hosts of France at the battle of the Marne, secured 
by the armies of the Allies for two years and a half, has pur- 



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37(J NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

sued its prosperous and peaceful course unshaken by the terrors 
and the sufferings that have torn Europe. That day is past. 
The hour of our trial is at hand. It was not to be that American 
democracy should thrive and live at peace while European 
democracy fought and suffered to preserve to the world popular 
self-government. American democracy must now make its sacr- 
fice in the common cause of civilization and of justice, and it is 
well for the soul and spirit of our nation that this is so. 

''Gentlemen of England and of France, our President, speak- 
ing for every loyal citizen of the United States, has pledged to 
you the resources of the United States. Money, ships, munitions, 
food, — these things we give you freely and we esteem the giving 
but a light tax upon our unbounded wealth. It is not enough. 
There lacks the spiritual contribution of manhood, service and 
blood sacrifice. This, too, must be ours. Our duty will be done, 
our debt discharged, our destiny achieved only when the hosts 
of American democracy take their place beside the hosts of Eng- 
land and of France, resolved to fight and fight and still fight 
until victory rescues the world from autocracy and barbarism." 
(Long continued applause). 

But the country that will benefit most from America's in- 
tervention is America itself. Her entrance into the war restores 
to the United States her old prestige and to Americans a nation 
of which all may once more be proud. It removes the disastrous 
misunderstandings of American motives and American character 
that had begun to obtain in Europe and South America and 
Mexico. It imposes upon the United States gigantic tasks that 
will test to the uttermost the quality of her citizenship, the 
efficiency of her Administration, and of her industrial captains 
and the will power of her people. Let us, therefore, wage this 
war as though it were to last for another five years and our 
very existence as an independent nation was involved, and when 
victory comes, as come it will, we will be welcomed as an hon- 
ored member of the family of nations who will ever be honored 
for all time as those who preserved to the world the principles 
of civilization, of truth and of honor, and who helped to defeat 
that attack upon civilization by barbarism, a barbarism that com- 
bines the science of the laboratory with the savagery of the 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. ^ 377 

jungle, a barbarism that denies all those doctrines and principles 
which have been accepted after long years as the proof of human 
progress and the glory of mankind's advance. (Long continued 
applause). 

Mr. John M. Garard: Mr. President, I feel that a vote 
of thanks from this Association would be but a feeble effort on 
our part showing our appreciation of the splendid address just 
delivered by Mr. Bedford. I know that it has gone to the hearts 
of every member of the Association. It was a wonderfully in- 
structive and able address. I am not going to say it was a 
speech. It was way beyond that. 

I move you, Mr. President, that by a rising vote of thanks 
we tender to Mr. Bedford our expression of appreciation for 
the splendid address and the timely and patriotic suggestions 
contained therein; that the members of The Natural Gas Asso- 
ciation of America here and now pledge themselves to give to 
the Government all the assistance and co-operation in our power 
and that we hereby authorize Mr. Bedford to carry back to 
those from whom he came the message that The Natural Gas 
Association of America stands behind the President and behind 
the Government in the gigantic movements now going forward 
in support of universal democracy and for the betterment of 
the human race. (Applause.) 

Mr. Martin B. Daly : Mr. President, it gives me peculiar 
pleasure to second this motion. 

The above motion, having been duly seconded, was then 
unanimously adopted by a rising vote amid long continued ap- 
plause. 

Mr. L. B. Denning: Mr. President, I move that a com- 
mittee of three be appointed by the President of the Associa- 
tion to convey to the President of the United States a pledge 
from each member of this Association for the co-operation and 
support of the Association through its membership to the Gov- 
ernment at Washington in securing a successful termination of 
the present war and that the President of the Association be 
instructed to communicate the action of the Association of the 
President of the United States. 



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378 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

Mr. Leslie B. Denning: I heartily endorse the motion 
and take great pleasure in seconding it. 

And thereupon the above motion having been duly seconded 
was unanimously adopted. 

President Guffey: Gentlemen, unless there is some ob- 
jection I will appoint the following: 

COMMITTEE PLEDGING SUPPORT TO THE PRESI- 
DENT: L. B. Denning, C. J. Lockwood, George W. Crawford. 

And thereupon after a conference by the Committee, Mr. 
L. B. Denning on behalf of said Committee presented to the 
Association the following resolution and moved its adoption: 

'Resolved, That the Natural Gas Association of America, represent- 
ing the Natural Gas Industry of the United States of America, un- 
reservedly stands by the President im the present war crisis and pledges 
the co-operation and support of all its members to the Government to 
secure a successful termination of the war of democracy against au- 
tocracy, and that the President of this Association, Mr. Josei^ F. 
Guffey, be instructed to communicate the action of this Association to 
the President of the United States. 

L. B. Denning, 

S. J. LoCKWOOD, 

Geo. W. Crawford. 

The motion to adopt the above resolution was then duly 
seconded by Mr. George W. Crawford and unanimously adopted. 

Mr. W. Y. Cartwright: Mr. President, I move that a 
committee of five be appointed by the Chair in conformity to 
the suggestion contained in Mr. Bedford's address to assist in 
every way we can in carrying out our pledge of support and 
co-operation and to work with any committee or committees of 
the National Council of Defense and especially to work in har- 
mony with the sub-committee of which Mr. Bedford is chair- 
man in furthering the work and in helping perform the gigantic 
tasks which rest upon the sub-committee and upon the National 
Council of Defense. 

The above motion was duly seconded by Mr. John M. 
Garard and unanimously adopted. 

President Guffey: Gentlemen, with your permission I 
will announce that committee later. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 879 

The next order of business is the report of the Committee 
on Uniform Accounting of which Mr. H. C. Reeser is Chair- 
man. 

Mr. H. C. Reeser then submitted the following: 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM 
ACCOUNTING. 

To the Members of The Natural Gas Association of America: 
Gentlemen : Your Committee on Uniform Accounting b^ 
to report that they have adopted a tentative scheme of accounts 
for Natural Gas Companies which in their judgment covers 
practically all phases of accounting as applied to the Natural 
Gas industry. The scheme as adopted is the result of practically 
three years earnest work on the part of the Committee and will 
tend to standardize the accounts of companies adopting it. 

A full meeting of the Committee was held August 15th, 
1 916, with representatives of the Public Service Commission 
from the States of Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Vii^nia. The 
Committee's scheme was submitted to the gentlemen and was 
discussed at some length with them. They took our report and 
promised to give it prompt attention, it being the desire of our 
Committee that the representatives from these three States agree 
upon a uniform basis. Up to the present time, the Public Service 
Commission of these three States have been so busy that those 
in charge of our work have been unable to hold a meeting for 
further consideration of our tentative plan, but we are assured 
that a meeting will soon be held, and that they will either adopt 
our report as submitted or suggest some slight changes. Await- 
ing the decision of these gentlemen it was thought advisable not 
to have the report printed, as it is our desire, after three years 
work to present to the members of the Association a scheme of 
accounts which will meet the desires of at least three Public 
Service Commissions. 

Our tentative scheme as submitted covers the accounting in 
detail and possibly some of the smaller companies would not care 
to sub-divide their accounts as minutely as it is provided for in 
our scheme. General heads, however, could be followed to an 



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380 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

advantage by all companies, and we believe would work out to a 
mutual advantage of both the gas companies and the regulating 
bodies requiring reports. 

As soon as definite action can be secured from some of the 
Public Service Commissions, our report will be printed, and 
copies will be available through the office of the Resident Sec- 
retary. 

I wish to take this opportunity of acknowledging my appre- 
ciation of the assistance of the Gentlemen serving on the Com- 
mittee. 

H. C. Reeser, 

Chairman. 

Mr. John M. Garard: Mr. President, I move that the 
report of the Committee on Uniform Accounting as read by Mr. 
Reeser, its chairman, be accepted and placed on file and spread 
upon our minutes and that the Committee be continued for the 
ensuing year. 

Mr. Kay C. Krick: I second the motion. 

The above motion, having been duly seconded, was then 
unanimously adopted. 

President Guffey : I will next call upon Mr. S. S. Wyer 
for the report of the Committee on National Gas Safety Code. 

Mr. Samuel S. Wyer of Columbus. Ohio, then submitted the 
following: 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL GAS SAFETY 

CODE. 

To The Natural Gas Association of America: 

Gentlemen : As your representative on the Advisory En- 
gineering Committee that is advising with the United States 
Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C, in the preparation of a 
National Gas Safety Code, I submit the following as a summary 
of the year's work : 

The Bureau has been seriously handicapped for want of 
funds, and for this reason has been unable to carry on the work 
very much farther than was indicated in my last year's report. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 381 

Additional funds will soon be available, and it is the Bureau's 
expectation to do considerable work on the code this year. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Samuel S. Wyer. 

Mr. Samuel S. Wyer: I am able to emphasize the state- 
ment that was brought out in last year's report, namely, that as 
far as the code has gone it does not contain anything that any gas 
company need be afraid of and it will contain many things that 
will be of direct benefit to the industry. The present indications 
are that the code will be complete within the next eighteen 
months or two years. 

President Guffey : Gentlemen, you have heard the report. 
What is the wish of the convention? 

Mr. Kay C. Krick : I move that the report be accepted, 
placed on file and spread upon the minutes of the Association and 
that the work be continued by the Committee for the ensuing 
year. 

Mr. J. H. Maxon: I second the motion. 

The above motion having been duly seconded, was then 
unanimously adopted. 

President Guffey : I would like to call your attention to 
the fact that the beefsteak dinner will be held in the room above 
us this evening at six-thirty o'clock. 



On motion duly seconded and carried the meeting then 
adjourned until Thursday, May 17, 1917, at ten o'clock A. M. 



THIRD DAY — MORNING SESSION. 
Thursday, May 17, 191 7. 

President Guffey : Gentlemen, please come to order. The 
first paper this morning is on the subject of "Deep Well Drilling" 
by Mr. A. R. Gray, Assistant to General Superintendent, Peoples 
Natural Gas Company. Mr. Gray is unavoidably absent and Mr. 
F. L. Hadley, Superintendent of Lines, Peoples Natural (jas 
Company, has kindly consented to read the paper. 

Mr. F. L. Hadley then read the following paper : 



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DEEP WELL DRILLING. 
By a. R. Gray. 

The gradual exhaustion of oil and gas has stimulated an 
effort to secure deeper producing horizons in regions in which 
compressor stations and pipe lines have already been constructed. 

That drilling to great depth can be successfully carried 
on seems open to little doubt. In i860 when the search for 
oil and gas was actively begun in the Appalachian Basin, few, 
if any, wells were drilled as deep as 1,000 ft. In 1890 when 
development was at its height 3,000 ft. (was considered an 
unusual depth. By 1910 several holes had been drilled to a 
depth of more than 5,000 ft. and at the present time at least 
two (2) wells in the world have been drilled more than 7,000 
ft. deep. 

In 1898 the Forest Oil Co. drilled what at that time was 
the deepest well in the U. S. This well was drilled at West 
Elizabeth, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 12 miles southeast 
of Pittsburgh on the Wm. Bedell Farm. It was the intention to 

(382) 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



383 



drill to the corniferous Limestone, but owing to an accident the 
tools and i,ooo foot of cable, were left in the hole at 5,575 feet. 
Every effort was made to fish them out but without success; 
then an effort was made to dissolve the tools and cable with 
sulphuric acid, but after two years of effort the hole was finally 
abandoned. The following record of the Bedell well shows the 
formations, temperatures, casings, etc. 



Slate 40 to 

Bottom of 10" casing at 40 " 

Limestone 10 ** 

Shales 80 " 

Slate 105 " 

Sand 30 " 

SlatjE 40 to 

Coal (Bakerstown) 3 ** 

Slate 100 " 

Bottom of 8^" Csg. at 3()0 " 

Coal 2 " 

Slate 75 " 

Sand 40 " 

Shale 10 " 

Coal (L Freeport) 2 '' 

Slate 25 " 

Sand 65 " 

Shale 15 " 

Coal (M. Kittanning) 3 " 

Limestone 10 " 

Slate 30 " 

Limestone 15 " 

Slate 50 " 

Sand 35 " 

Slate 5 " 

Salt Sand 05 " 

Slate and shells 115 " 

Slate 30 " 

Red Rock 20 " 

Limestone (Big M't., etc.) 50 " 

Big Injun 310 " 

Bottom of ()^1" casing at 132h' " 

Slate and Shells 00 " 

Sand 15 " 

Slate 7 " 

Sand 5 " 



40 

50 

50 
130 
235 
265 
305 
308 
408 
360 
410 
485 

525 (Temperature hV Fahr.) 
535 
537 
562 
627 
642 
645 
65.5 
685 
700 
750 
7a5 
790 
88.5 
10(10 
1030 

lo:,o 

IKH) 
1410 
1320 
1470 
148.*) 
1402 
1407 



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:m 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Slate 18 

Sand, (Berea?) 50 

Slate and shells 60 

Limestone 10 

Slate and shells 100 

Sand (Gantz?) 25 

Slate and shells 20 

Limestone 10 

Slate 20 

Sand 15 

Slate and shells 45 

Sand 20 

Slate 5 

Sand ( "Thirty-foot") 40 

Slate 3 

Sand] [ 18 

Slate l"Stray"J 30 

Sand] [ 7 

Red Rock 3 

Sand, (Gordon, Third, elc.) 65 

Red Kock 5 

Sand (Fourth) 30 

Red Rock and shells 15 

Slate and shells 15 

Sand 5 

Slate 3 

Sand 18 

Redrock and shells 30 

Sand (Fifth or McDonald) 25 

Redrock and shells 35 

Slate 10 

Sand 5 

Slate and shells 25 

Sand ( Bayard ) 5 

Sand 10 

Redrock 25 

Slate and shells 75 

Sand (Elizabeth) 3 

Shells 200 

Slate 150 

Slate and shells 200 

Slate 100 

Limestone and shells 100 

Sand (Speechley?) 15 



to 



1515 
1565 
1625 
1635 
1735 
1760 
1780 
1790 
1810 
1825 
1870 
1890 
1895 
193.5 
1938 
1956 
1986 
19^3 
1996 
2061 
2066 
2096 
2111 
2126 
2131 
2134 
2152 
2182 
2207 
2242 
2252 
2257 
2282 
2287 

2297 
2322 
2397 
2400 
2600 
2750 
2950 
3^50 
3150 
3165 



(Temperature 64° Fahr.) 



(Gas, volume 25 lb. per 
min,) 



(Temperature 78° Fahr.) 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



385 



Slate 335 

Sand (Bradford) trace of oil 20 

Slate and shells 175 

Slate and shells 195 

Slate and shells 140 

Slate and shells 180 

Slate and shells 190 

Slate and shells 75 

Slate 23 

Shells 2 

Slate 32 

Shells 13 

Slate 25 

Limestone 20 

Slate 10 

Sand 30 

Slate 40 

Limestone 20 

Slate 20 

Shells as 

Slate 15 

Slate and shells 10 

Sand 20 

Slate 10 

Limestone 10 

Slate 20 

Shells 10 

Slate 20 

Limestone 15 

Slate 20 

Shells 10 

Slate 5 

Slate and shells 10 

Slate 15 

Shells 5 

Slate 30 

Shells 5 

Slate 45 

Limestone 10 

Slate 10 

Slate and shells 10 

Slate 20 

Limestone 10 

Slate 10 

Slate and shells 10 

25 



" 3500 

" 3520 

" 3695 

•* 3890 

" 4030 

" 4210 

" 4400 

" 4475 

" 4498 

" 4500 

" 4532 

" 4545 

" 4570 

" 4590 

" 4600 

to 4630 

" 4670 

" 4690 

" 4710 

" 4725 

" 4740 

" 4750 

" 4770 

" 4780 

*• 4790 

" 4810 

" 4820 

" 4840 

" 4855 

" 4875 

" 4885 

" 4890 

" 4900 

" 4915 

" 4020 

" 4950 

" 49.55 

'* 5000 

" 5010 (Temperature 120'' Fahr.) 

" 50-20 

•• 5030 

" 5050 

" 50G0 

" 5070 

" 5080 



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:m NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Slate 10 " 5095 

Slate and shells 5 " 5100 

Limestone 5 " 5085 

Slate 30 " 5130 

Limestone 10 " 5140 

Slate 20 " 6160 

Limestone 10 " 5170 

Slate 10 " 5180 

Limestone 50 " 5230 

Slate 30 " 5260 

Limestone 10 " 6270 

Slate 20 " 5290 

Limestone 5 " 5295 

Slate 25 " 5320 

Limestone 10 " 5330 

Slate 30 to 5360 

Limestone 5 " 5365 

Slate 15 " 5380 (Temperature 127° Fahr.) 

Limestone 10 " 5390 

Slate 20 " 5410 

Slate and shells 20 " 5430 

Slate 15 " 5445 

Limestone 5 " 5450 

Slate 20 " 5470 

Slate and shells 10 " 5480 

Slate 20 " 5500 

Slate 75 " 5575 (Bottom of 6^" hole.) 

Since the drilling of the Bedell well there have been at 
least a dozen wells drilled to a depth of from 4,000 to 5,500 ft 
in addition to which the Hope Natural Gas Company has twenty- 
five (25) deep wells located and drilling in West Virginia. It 
has completed eight (8) deep wells at an average depth of 
4,600 ft. below the Pittsburgh Coal. It also drilled one well 
to 6,390 ft. but unfortunately plugged the hole at that depth. 

There is a well being drilled at Valcano, West Virginia, in 
which this company has 4,000 ft. of 10'' hole. Unless production 
is found, the well may be a very deep hole when completed as 
the great depth of 10'' hole will give a good chance to continue. 
There is also a well drilling on the Goff farm near Clarksburg, 
West Virginia, in which there is already 6,500 feet of 8" hole. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 387 

The deepest well in the world at the present time was drilled 
to a depth of 7,349 feet at a location near Luchow, Germany. 

The next deepest well in the world and the deepest in 
the U. S. is being drilled by the Peoples Natural Gas Company 
on the R. A. Geary farm in Washington County, Pennsylvania, 
near McDonald. At the present time this well is 7,247 feet 
in depth and delayed by a fishing job. 

This well was commenced November 7, 191 1. The rig is 
of oak, 26 foot base and is 90 ft. high, double legged and the 
legs reinforced by having 6x6 oak timber run from base to 
crown block inside of legs. The Band Wheel is 13 ft. in 
diameter, with 7^" shaft, Bull Wheels 24 feet in diameter with 
6" Steel Gudgeons using three (3) Tug Ropes and 2-12" Brake 
Bands. The Sand Reel is 15 ft. long with 5" shaft and 43" 
Friction Pulley. 

The Engine used is a 14 x 14 Ajax 52 H. P. ; steam being 
furnished by 2 — 2$ H. P. Boilers. The belt was specially and 
is 105 feet by 16". 

The tools used were all standard. 

The Crown Pulley is a special wire line pulley 38" in 
diameter with 6'' Steel Gudgeons and weighs 700 pounds. 

Up to the present time there have been 10 cables and 3 
Sand Lines used. 

The first cable used was a i" Wire Line Cable 7,000 ft. long. 

The next seven (7) cables were 8,000 ft. long and on ac- 
count of the weight were built specially being tapered, i^", i^^ 
and f respectively, the taper being about 500 feet long. The 
last two (2) cables were 10,000 ft. long and were iY\ i\'\ i" 
and f taper being about 150 feet long. All of the cables ex- 
cept the first one were made to special order. 

The Sand Lines used were 9/16" x 8,000 ft. 

In drilling a 16" hole was started and at 232 ft. a string 
of 13" casing was put in. The 13'' hole was drilled to 1,050 
feet and a string of 10" casing put in, 10" hole drilled to 1969' 
and a string of 8j4" casing put in, 8J4" hole to 6,053' 2i"d a 
string of special 6" casing 6,053' weighing 68 tons put in, 5^" 
hole drilled to 7,247 ft. and a string of special 4>4" I. D. x 5K" 



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388 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

O. D. Casing weighing 62 tons put in. This string of casing 
had welded joints instead of collars, making it one continuous 
piece. 

There have been a large number of fishing jobs on this 
well. At one time there were three (3) strings of tools in 
the hole together. 

From 4,850 ft. to 6,060 ft. there were pockets of gas which 
blew the tools up in the hole and kinked the cable causing it 
to break. These were not serious fishing jobs as two or three 
days' work would usually clear the hole. The pockets of gas 
were formed at 4,850, 4,870, 5,900, 5,905, 5,910, 5,915, 6,060. 
The gas did not continue to flow, seeming to exhaust with the 
first puff. 

There was a string of tools and 4>4" bailer lost at 6,065. 

After a long, tedious fishing job it was decided to drill by 
them. This was done and the tools were cased off. Another 
string was struck at 6,925. After an unsuccessful effort to get 
these tools, the company again drilled by them and went to a 
depth of 7,181 when the first string slipped down catching the 
second string at the bottom of the hole. After a long fishing 
job the top string was fished out but the drillers were unable 
to get the bottom string. Again they drilled by them and 
cased them off. 

After putting in the last string of casing drilling was £^ain 
commenced. After making about 17 feet the casing collapsed 
catching the tools at the bottom of the hole. 

At present they are endeavoring to get casing and tools out. 

At a depth of 6,260 feet a large body of salt water was 
struck which filled up the hole 4,000 feet. The specific gravity 
of the water was 1.1085 ^^^ ^^ analysis shows as follows: 

PARTS PER 100,000. 

Alkalinity as calcium carbonate 5.60 

Calcium chloride 4,421.40 

Magnesium chloride 251.60 

Sodium chloride 5,018.20 

Sulphuric anhydride Trace 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



Iron Oxide Trace 

Sediment (rock powder) 294.00 

Total solids 9,921.80 

Total solids exclusive of pulverized rock sediment 9,696.70 

The record of the formation and temperatures following 
are of interest. 



R. A. GEARY WELL NO. 770. 

IW Below Coal. 

Top Bottom 

Formation. Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 

13" Casing 292 

Limestone 450 470 

Slate 470 596 

Freeport Coal 596 600 

Water 600 

Gas 760 

Salt Sand 734 950 

Gas 912 

Pencil Cave 950 958 

Big Lime 953 982 

10" Casing 953 

Big Injun Sand 982 1241 

Gas 1062 

Squaw Sand 1378 1392 

Gas 1379 

Sand 1610 1622 

Hundred Foot Sand 1794 1817 

Gas 1797 

Thirty Foot Sand 1910 1925 

Gas 1912 

Gordon Stray 1968 1971 

8%'* Casing 1969 •.... 

White Slate 1971 2990 

Limestone 2990 3210 

White Slate 3210 3440 

Reduced Hole 3440 

Limestone 3440 3460 

White Slate 3460 4100 

Sand and Lime 4100 4170 



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390 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Top Bottom 

Formation. Feet. Feet. 

White Slate 4170 4620 

Black Slate (Temp. 6160'~110' 

FahT.) 4520 4650 

White Slate (Temp. 522(y-.120^ 

Fahr.) 4560 

Black Slate 6200 

Black Shale 5320 

White Slate 6620 

Limestone (Supposed Guelph). .. 6600 

Black Lime (Supposed Niagara). 5680 

Black Slate (Temp, at eSOO^— 140- 

Fahr.) 5788 

Black Lime 6008 

Flint (Temp. atOOOC— 100^ Fahr.) 6023 

(rfay Sand 6046 

6^" Casing 

Water and (ks 6046 

Brown Sand 6200 

Water 6260 

White Sand 6260 

Brown Sand 6270 

Black Lime 6316 

Sand and Black Flint 63d5 

Black Lime 5406 

White Sand 6515 

Gas 

Water 

Black Limestone 6580 

Gray Limestone 6610 

Rock Salt 6700 

Lime and Sand 6706 

Rock Salt 6776 

Limestone 6785 

Rock Salt 6830 6870 

Lime and Sand 6840 6860 

Rock Salt 6860 6865 

Limestone 6865 6870 

Rock Salt 6870 6875 



Explosive (jas Flow at 
4850'.487y 



5320 
5520 
5660 
5680 

5788 Explosive Gas Flow at 
590Vn5905'-5910' 

6008 

6028 5916' 

6045 Explosive (ks Flow at 
6060" 



6063 

.... Temp, at 6095'— 156* 
Fahr. 



6270 Taken in water at 

a270'— 156* Fahr. 
6316 
6895 
6406 
6516 
6580 

6530 
6610 
6700 
6708 
6776 
6785 
6830 6926 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 391 

Top Bottom 

Formation. Feet. Feet. 

Limestone 6876 689S 

Rock Salt 6895 6900 

Limestone 6910 6925 Tools 

Limestone and Sand 6925 7020 

Salt and Lime Shells 7020 7040 

Sand and Lime 7040 7247 

Another interesting feasure, in case gas is found at these 
depths is the enormous Rock Pressure which is likely to be 
encountered. On the basis of known pressures, the pressure 
should be over 3,000 pounds. 

The producing formation which the company is searching 
for in the deep hole is explained by Dr. I. C. White in his 
"Note on a very Deep Well near McDonald, Pennsylvania." 
Extracts from which follow. 

LOCATION AND DEPTH OF WELL. 

To Pennsylvania belongs the honor of the deepest boring 
in America. A well on the land of R. A. Geary, about 5 miles 
northwest from the town of McDonald, near the line between 
Allegheny and Washington counties, has now attained a depth 
of 6,052 feet. This hole is being drilled by "The Peoples Natural 
Gas Company," a fonner subsidiary of the Standard Oil Com- 
pany, of which Mr. John G. Pew, of Pittsburgh, is president 
and L. F. Barger general superintendent, and it is through their 
courtesy and that of Mr. J. B. Corrin, assistant superintendent 
of the Hope Natural Gas Company, that the writer was given 
access to the geologic data developed by the boring. Mr. Pew 
has chosen for the location of this deep well test the summit of 
the Condor dome, a structural feature in the rocks described in 
the Burgettstown-Carnegie Folio by E. W. Shaw and M. J. 
Munn, of the United States Geological Survey. On this dome 
the Pittsburgh coal attains an elevation of 1,180 feet above tide, 
the well mouth being at 1,050 feet, or 130 feet lower, thus be- 
ginning at exactly the same geologic horizon as the deep well 
(5,575 feet) drilled on the farm of William Bedell, 20 miles 
southeast of the Geary Well, near West Elizabeth, Allegheny 



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392 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

County, Pennsylvania, by the late W. J. Young, of the Forest 
Oil Company, the detailed log of which is published in volume 
I (A) of the West Virginia Geological Survey, pages 103-107, 
and which remains the deepest boring in the United States up 
to the latter part of 191 2, when it was surpassed by the one 
herein described and by another in West Virginia, which has 
now attained a slightly greater (5,595 feet) depth. 

PURPOSE OF THE WELL. 

The Condor dome of the Burgettstown quadrangle has 
already produced a large quantity of natural gas from the Potts- 
ville, Big Injun, "Hundred-foot," and Thirty-foot Sands, and 
Mr. Pew and his field superintendent, Mr. Barger, concluded 
that this region, from which the strata dip in every direction, 
would be a good location to make a test for any oil or gas 
bearing sands that might be found lowtr in the geologic column, 
hoping finally to reach the CLINTON and even the TRENTON 
LIMESTONE, the two great gas-bearing and petroliferous 
horizons of Ohio. The writer figures that the Qinton horizon 
should be struck in this well at about 7,000 feet and the Trenton 
at approximately 8,000 feet. 

METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION. 

A steel cable is in use, the derrick has double strength, and 
a latter engine and more boiler capacity have been provided 
than in drilling wells to the usual depths, so that Mr. Pew con- 
fidently expects to make the Geary well the deepest one in 
the world. Some trouble has been experienced by the caving 
of the walls in the soft shales above the Corniferous limestone, 
but when the temporary fishing job now on hand (a set of 
tools having been caught by the caving shales) is completed, 
the bore-hole will be lined with steel casing, so as to prevent 
any further trouble from caving. 

RESULTS OF TEMPERATURE DETERMINATION. 

As is well known. Prof. William Hallock, of Columbia 
University, made careful temperature tests on the West Eliza- 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 393 

beth or Bedell well down to a depth of 5,000 feet, where the 
temperature was 120.9** Fahrenheit^ and he also tested the 
Wheeling, West Virginia, deep well, finding a temperature of 
110.3° Fahrenheit at 4,500 feet, and the two wells agreed very 
closely in temperatures throughout at the same depths. Figured 
on the basis of increase from 4,500 feet to 5,000 feet in the 
Bedell well, a temperature of about 144° Fahrenheit should be 
found in the Geary well at 6,052 feet, its present depth, and 
this estimate is probably very nearly correct, since Mr. Pew 
reports that a temperature of 140® Fahrenheit was recorded 
at 5,800 feet in the Geary well, which is about what the West 
Elizabeth and Wheeling results indicate for that depth. 

DISCUSSION OF THE SECTION. 

The interval in the Geary well from the base of the Berea 
Grit (1,622 feet) to the top of the Corniferous limestone (6,008 
feet) is 4,386 feet, while on the south shore of Lake Erie, near 
Elyria, Ohio, 115 miles to the northwest, this same interval 
is only 800 feet. These intervening Devonian shales, however, 
increase rapidly in thickness southeastward, since at Akron, 
Ohio, only 35 miles from Elyria, they have a thickness of 1,862 
feet, an increase of 30 feet to the mile; while from Akron to 
the Geary well, a distance of 80 miles, this thickening (1,862 
feet to 4,386 feet), 2,524 feet, continues at only the slightly 
greater rate of 31^ feet to the mile. This southeastward thick- 
ening of 31^ feet to the mile from the region of Akron will 
furnish a convenient measuring rod for estimating the depth 
at which the Corniferous limestone may be found, and con- 
sequently the Clinton and Trenton petroliferous rocks below, 
over the present oil and gas fields of western Pennsylvania and 
West Virginia. According to the elder Orton, the top of the 
Corniferous limestone falls from 225 feet below tide at Elyria 
to 925 feet below at Akron, or at the rate of 20 feet to the 
mile, while from Akron to the McDonald region the descent 
is at the rate of 40.3 feet per mile, or double the rate to Akron, 
since the top of the Corniferous lies at 4,950 feet below tide 
in the Geary well. This rapid dip of the lower formations 
should lead to the accumulation of some oil and gas pools in 



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394 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

the porous zones of the Qinton and Trenton petroliferous ho- 
rizons along the interrupted or terrace structural belts of these 
horizons between Akron and McDonald; and since the Geary 
well is located on a well-marked dome in the surface rocks 
which has proven very prolific in all of the higher porous sand 
reservoirs, gas will most probably be found with very high 
rock pressures in the Qinton and Trenton horizons at this 
location, should the rocks in question have sufficient porosity to 
aflFord good reservoir capacity. 

It is interesting to note here the presence of a limestone 
(Selinsgrove) horizon as a portion of the Marcellus shade group, 
first described by the writer in Report G 7 of the Second 
Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, from the region of Selins- 
grove, on the Susquehanna River, in Northumberland County, 
as also the Corniferous limestone with its included flint nuggets, 
and the underlying Oriskany sandstone in which the well was 
drilling when the tools were temporarily lost. 

THE GAS AND ITS CONTROL. 

While passing through the black slates and shales of the 
Hamilton series above the Corniferous limestone several suc- 
cessive pockets of gas were encountered. These had such an 
enormous initial pressure that the escaping gas would blow 
the heavy tools several feet up in the hole, occasionally giving 
trouble from breaking of the wire cable, when they would 
drop back after the sudden flow of gas had passed, and whose 
approach to the surface could be heard in advance with an in- 
tense roaring noise. 

It will prove an interesting problem to confine and control 
any commercial deposits of natural gas that may be found in 
the Clinton horizon of this well at an approximate depth of 
7,000 feet, since if the rock pressure increases in the same 
proportion as is customary with depth, namely, about 45 pounds 
to the square inch for every 100 feet of depth, the gas pressure 
in the Qinton horizon should approximate 3,000 pounds, a 
figure with which the oil and gas engineers have had but little 
experience, since no natural gas pressures have yet been re- 
corded, in the Appalachian field at least, which exceeded 1,500 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 395 

pounds. As one means of dealing with an immense pressure, 
and one which appears entirely feasible, Mr. Barger of The 
Peoples Natural Gas Company, plans to let the gas feed into 
the porous sands whose gas has been largely drained from the 
upper portion of the boring, thus refilling these exhausted reser- 
voirs and finally restoring their original rock pressures, or even 
exceeding them, from which the gas can be led into the field 
lines under the customary rock pressures of these upper sands. 
In this event these higher sands would act in the same manner 
as a reducing or regulating valve does in stepping down high 
pressures to lower ones along the present transmission lines be- 
fore the gas reaches the point of consumption. 

FACILITIES OFFERED FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH. 

Mr. Johnson, of the United States Bureau of Standards, 
will have charge of and be given every facility for securing 
accurate temperature measurements of this deep well, and as 
the locality is in the undisturbed region when Dr. William 
Hallock has done such excellent pioneer work along this line, 
very interesting and valuable results may be expected, especially 
if the boring shall attain a depth of 8,000 feet or more, which 
Mr. Pew says it will, if money, machinery, and expert drillers 
can succeed in making a hole in the earth to that great depth. 
Too much praise cannot be given Messrs. Pew, Corrin, Barger, 
and others, connected with The Peoples Natural Gas Company 
for the public spirit they have shown in dedicating this expensive 
well to the interests of pure science. 

POSTSCRIPT. 

Under date of May 27, 191 3, Mr. L. F. Barger, general 
superintendent of The Peoples Natural Gas Company, has fur- 
nished additional data concerning this most interesting well. 
The drill had attained a depth of 6,052 feet on December 31, 
1912, when this paper was read at New Haven, and a set of 
drilling tools was then in the hole, caught by the caving shales 
above. The tools were finally recovered, and to prevent any 
recurrence of such troubles the 6f" casing was inserted at 



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396 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

6,053 ft., 8 feet in a brownish gray sand, which the writer 
tentatively identifies with the Oriskany. The record from the 
bottom of the Comiferous flint at 6,045 feet down to the present 
depth on May 27th, 191 3, is given as follows by Mr. Barger. 

Thickness Total 

Feet Feet. 

Sand (water and gas 6,060 feet) 155 6,200 

Brown Sand 60 6,260 

White Sand (salt water, 6,360 to 6,265 feet) 10 6,270 

Brown Sand to bottom 29 



The analysis of the water formed at 6,260 ft. looks as 
though we had here a case of fossil ocean water imprisoned since 
mid-Paleozoic time. An effort is being made to exhaust it by 
pumping, so that the well can be drilled to much greater depths 
in search of the Clinton or Medina petroliferous beds, and pos- 
sibly to the Trenton horizon, 1,000 feet lower. 

The immense quantity (239) feet of sandstone at the 
horizon of the Oriskany, which continues below the present 
depth, was unexpected at this locality, but is duplicated at the 
Lehigh River, in Carbon County, Pennsylvania, as described in 
the writer's Report on Pike and Monroe Counties, G6, of the 
Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, page 124, where 
the Stormville shales and sandstones at the top of the Lower 
Helderberg series appear to have coalesced with the Oriskany 
beds, thus forming one great mass of sandstone over 200 feet 
in thickness. Hence it is possible that this 239 feet of sand- 
stone may represent a portion of the Lower Helderberg rocks, 
since a regular sandstone bed, the Deckers Ferry sandstone of 
Monroe County, Pennsylvania, sometimes occurs well down to- 
ward the base of this group of rocks. 

Mr. Pew and Mr. Barger will make every effort that 
financial resources and drilling talent can supply to sink this 
well to a depth of 8,000 feet, thus making it the deepest well in 
the world and rendering available a knowledge of the thickness 
and character of the underlying Paleozoic beds of this inter- 
esting locality, so far removed from any exposure of these 
rocks, the nearest Oriskany outcrops being at Altoona, Pennsyl- 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 397 

vania, and Keyser, West Virginia, each of which is nearly loo 
miles distant and in the heart of the Allegheny Mountains. 

The great reduction in temperatures found at 6,000 feet 
is due to the sudden expansion of natural gas, a small flow 
of which under great pressure (probably 2,500 pounds or more 
to the square inch) was encountered near and below that horizon. 
The temperature of 156° Fahrenheit, recorded first at 6,095 f^^^ 
is, however, so much greater (156° to 140°), namely, 
16°, than that (140°) recorded at 5,800 feet that it probably 
was elevated a few degrees by the pounding of the drill on the 
hard sandstone, and this looks all the more probable, since the 
water found at 6,250 feet has only the same temperature (156°), 
which itself reveals a rapid increase in gradient below 5,800 
feet, or at the rate of i degree for every 29 feet. The results 
of other temperature measurements on this well at greater depths 
will prove of surpassing interest. 

DISCUSSION. 

President Guffey: We would be very much pleased to 
hear any remarks from any member of the Association on this 
important subject if any of you care to discuss it. 

Mr. J. C. McDowell: Mr. President, I wish to express 
my very high appreciation of the paper as prepared by Mr. 
Gray and read by Mr. Hadley. It is the most valuable com- 
pilation of statistics and information on this subject extant. 1 
am very glad to have it in this form and know that it is to go 
into the records of the proceedings of our Association. 

I have only one suggestion to make and I make that to Mr. 
Gray through Mr. Hadley, and that is this, if he would have 
their Geologist make a general geological section of Western 
Pennsylvania, as we are all familiar with it, and show just exactly 
where, on a plate in the back of this paper, this occurs in that 
geological section, it would be of great benefit to all of us. Any 
of us can dig it out who are at all familiar with the geology of 
that section of the country, but to the average man who reads 
this valuable paper it would be a great satisfaction to him if 
that were done. Therefore, if consistent and agreeable, I would 



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398 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

suggest that it be done and that it be inserted as an additicHial 
leaf. 

President Guffey : Mr. Hadley, will you attend to that ? 

Mr. F. L. Hadley : I will speak to Mr. Gray in regard to it. 

President Guffey: If there is no further discussion, we 
will proceed with the next paper entitled "Wrought Iron Pipe 
for Use in Natural Gas Field", by Mr. James Aston of the A. 
M. Byers Company. 

Mr. James Aston : In preparing this paper on "Wrought 
Iron Pipe for Use in the Natural Gas Industry," I refrained 
from speaking of the details of the manufacture of the pipe and 
also of the details of the process by which the materials are ob- 
tained. I endeavored to state the characteristics of the mate- 
rials which result from these processes and the adaptability of 
these materials — steel as contrasted with wrought iron — for 
service requirements in the gas industry. If we consider the 
various stages of the gas industry, the service requirements are 
probably more severe and more diversified in character than we 
find in any other particular industry. 

Mr. James Aston then read the following paper: 



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WROUGHT IRON PIPE FOR USE IN NATURAL GAS 

FIELD. 

By James Aston 

The recovery and distribution of natural gas is so dependent 
upon pipe that a paper dealing with the characteristics and 
adaptability of certain available products may not be out of 
place at this meeting. This is particularly true since in several 
places in which pipe is employed, there is variation in the nature 
of the service requirement, and a certain quality or characteristic 
which may be essential or desirable in one class of service 
may be entirely subordinated where other requirements are 
predominant. 

Welded pipe is of greatest importance by far. The details 
of manufacture of this product were so well treated in a paper 
presented before this association a few years ago, that it would 
appear to be unnecessary repetition to deal with this phase of 
the subject at the present time, since operating methods in 
forming and welding pipe are essentially common to both 
wrought iron and steel. Your association is primarily con- 

(390) 



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400 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

cerned with the suitability of the products for your conditions 
of service, and to this end you are more interested in the char- 
acteristics and properties of the material from which the pipe 
is made, than in the methods for its manufacture, or even in 
the details of processes by which the base material itself is 
obtained. 

Two classes of material are of importance in the manu- 
facture of welded pipe for natural gas service — steel and 
wrought iron. Both are the products of the refining of a 
more impure pig or cast iron. The fundamental chemical prin- 
ciples by which this purification is accomplished are the same 
in both cases, but details of operation and equipment differ in 
the two processes, so that steel is markedly different from 
wrought iron in both chemical and physical characteristics. The 
essential features are as follows: 

Steel, (a) Bessemer, The Bessemer process effects a 
rapid purification of a large charge of molten pig iron (15 tons 
in 15 minutes) by blowing air under high pressure through the 
bath of the metal. Of the impurities eliminated, carbon passes 
off as gas, while the other ingredients unite to form a fluid slag. 
The finished charge is poured from the furnace in a molten 
condition into molds, which form an ingot that is rolled into 
the skelp required for pipe manufacture. And because both 
steel and slag are molten, the latter is entirely separated by 
flotation, and none appears in the final product. 

Drawbacks of the Bessemer process are (i) lack of control 
and consequent irregularities of product, due to character of 
equipment and rapidity of operation; (2) failure to effect any 
elimination of sulphur and phosphorus; (3) manganese must 
be added to the finished charge to counteract otherwise detri- 
mental effects of the process ; (4) segregation, that is, irregular 
distribution and concentration into localized zones during 
solidification, of the comparatively large quantities of impurities 
which are present due to non-elimination or addition; (5) en- 
tire elimination of the slag. 

It is well recognized in engineering practice that Bessemer 
steel is the least reliable of all steels, and that the situation is 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 401 

growing worse, rather than better, with steady deterioration 
in the quality of ore and other raw materials of manufacture. 
For years, open hearth steel has been demanded for structural 
shapes, boiler plate, and the highest grades of steel; and of 
late years Bessemer steel rails are being steadily superseded by 
the open hearth product. Bessemer steel is the material entering 
into the manufacture of the bulk of merchant pipe and oil and 
gas country tubular goods. 

(b) Open Hearth, The Open Hearth process refines 
large heats (50 to 100 tons) in a period of 8 to 12 hours. The 
character of equipment and process admits of control during 
operations, and a higher degree of refining may be accomplished 
than in Bessemer working. However, many of the drawbacks 
of the Bessemer process are present, since the fluid condition 
of the finished charge results in elimination of all slag; al?o 
manganese additions are made to the heat, and there is the 
same opportunity for segregation. 

Wrought Iron. Good wrought iron is made by refining 
pig iron of proper grade in a puddling furnace. A small charge 
(560 lbs.) is first melted down, and then refined by suitable 
additions of iron oxide in the form of ore or roll scale. Com- 
plete and uniform refining is ensured by hand rabbling or stir- 
ring of the heat. The total time of a heat is i^ to 2 hours. 
As in steel making, carbon is eliminated as a gas, while the other 
constituents which are removed unite to form a slag of glassy 
character. As contrasted with steel making, however, the fur- 
nace temperature in puddling is so low that the iron is finished 
in a pasty, non-fluid condition, and in consequence is removed 
from the furnace as a spongy ball, throughout which there is 
uniformly disseminated a considerable portion of the slag. Part 
•of the slag is expelled by squeezing the ball of iron; but just as 
it is impossible to expel ail of the water from a sponge by pres- 
sure alone, so we cannot eliminate all of the slag from the pud- 
dle ball by squeezing, and there remains about i>4 percent (by 
weight) of the slag mechanically mixed with the highly refined 
iron. 

The puddle balls are rolled into bars (muck bars) which, 

26 



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402 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

in turn, are sheared to short lengths, built up into piles, and 
after heating to welding temperature, are rolled into finished 
skelp or plate. The repiling and rolling of the muck bar ensures 
uniformity in the skelp because of distributing the even slight 
differences which it is possible to have in the individual bars; 
also we realize the benefits of additional work put upon the 
metal, and accomplish a finer distribution of the slag through 
this additional reduction of sectional area during rolling. 

Well made wrought iron has the following characteristics : 

1. A high purity of base metal. 

2. Uniformity in chemical and physical character of the base metal. 

3. Absence of segregation because (a) there is a virtual absence of 
those impurities which segregate (b) the final stages of refining 
are carried out upon a non-fluid metal, while segregation can result 
only by concentration in a liquid during solidification. 

4. No additions of manganese or other elements are made to the re- 
fined metal 

5. There is a thorough and uniform distribution of slag throughout 
the metal. This is mechanically incorporated in the form of a 
multitude of minute threads or ribbons, which may be likened to 
a series of fine meshed screens, with the meshes no wider than 
1/500 to 1/1000 inch in both width and thickness of the skelp. In 
other words, there are from one-half million to one million of 
these filaments per square inch of section of the metal. 

Steel and wrought iron differ chemically and physically. 
All steel carries appreciable manganese, and in general is not so 
pure as to base metal as well puddled wrought iron. 

This difference is especially pronounced in comparing 
wrought iron and Bessemer steel, the most important metals 
entering into pipe manufacture. In addition, and of primary 
importance, no steel making process results in a product within 
which there is incorporated that slag which is so important a 
physical characteristic of well made wrought iron, and has such 
an important bearing upon those properties which fit it for 
specialized service. 

Typical chemical analyses and physical properties are as 
follows : 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



403 





Pipe 






Genuine Wrought 
Iron. 




Bessemer ] 
Steel. 


open Hea 
Pipe Stee 


Highest P 
Open H 
Material, 
got Iron. 




CO 


Carbon 


0.10 
0.05 
0.07 
0.11 
0.37 


0.10 
0.05 
0.04 
0.05 
0.35 


0.02 
0.01 
0.02 
0.01 
0.03 


0.03 
0.01 
0.03 
0.03 
0.01 




Silicon 


0.14 


Sulphur 




Phosphorus 

Manganese 


0.12 
0.02 







In order to show the high purity of the base metal of 
wrought iron, analysis of ingot iron is cited. This is special 
open hearth material of highest commercial purity, and does not 
enter into the manufacture of merchant pipe. 

It is well to bear in mind in any citation of chemical anal- 
yses of wrought iron, that it is a composite material consisting 
of two physically distinct constituents, slag and iron, and that 
the usual chemical analysis errs in giving only the total quanti- 
ties of the elements found, without regard to their position in 
iron or slag. 

The slag in wrought iron gives it a characteristic fibrous 
structure on fracture or by etching. The latter is illustrated in 
Fig. I. 



Fig. 1 — Wrought iron bar etched to develop fibrous structure. 

The microstructure of wrought iron in transverse and 
longitudinal directions is shown in Figs. 2 and 3. 

The strength and ductility of wrought iron are about 10 to 
15 percent less in the transverse direction, due to the nature of 
the slag incorporation. 



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404 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Wrought 
Pipe Steel. Iron. 

Tensile strength o.j.OOO lb. per sq. in 48.000 

Elastic Limit '^O.OOO lb. per sq. in 25,000 

Elongation in ^" 20% 12% 

The lesser strength and ductility of wrought iron in com- 
parison with steel is sometimes contended by the adherents of 
steel as being a disadvantage in iron. However, we must not 



Fig. 2 — Microphotograph of longitudinal section of wrought iron. 
Light areas are iron : dark areas are slag. 

forget that initial strength may suffer steady deterioration, due 
to corrosion or stresses in service, and we may sooner or later 
reach a point where the greater durability of the initially weaker 
material may enable it to give much prolonged service under 
strenuous conditions. Such conditions are prevalent in the use 
of pipes for gas service. 

The manufacture of wrought iron by the puddling process 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 405 

is of necessity more costly than steel making operations. Does 
the product have sufficient merit to warrant continuance of the 
practice? Wrought iron pipe has four cardinal features which 
stand out in comparison with the steel product. 

( I ) Better Welding — Efficiency of weld depends upon 
(effectiveness of union of iron to iron. During heating, the 
edges of the skelp tend to become coated with scale, which is 
quite gummy at welding temperatures, and does not squeeze out 



Fig. 3 — Microphotograph of transverse section of wrought iron. 
The dark streaks are slag. 

of the way. The blacksmith in welding steel uses borax as a 
flux, but such practice is obviously impracticable in making steel 
pipe. On the other hand, fluxes are not used by the blacksmith 
in welding wrought iron. It is self-fluxing because of the slag 
content. This explains why the weld in wrought iron pipe is 
more efficient than that in steel. Crushing tests recently made at 
the University of Pittsburgh showed only eight failures in the 
weld section in 136 pieces of lapweld wrought iron pipe of 



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406 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

various sizes and weights. In 128 instances, therefore, the weld 
was stronger than the body metal. With the increasing use of 
acetylene welders, the advantages of the high welding quality of 
wrought iron, become particularly emphasized. 

(2) Threading — The superior threading qualities of good 
wrought iron is a matter of note and is due to the fibrous char- 
acter of the material, which causes the chip to break or crumble, 
reducing friction and preventing the chip space from clogging. 
A clean, minutely accurate thread results, which is essential to a 
permanently strong, leak-proof joint. The same considerations 
probably account for the lesser tendency to galling of threads 
encountered when using wrought iron pipe. The advantages of 
wrought iron pipe in this respect are so well known as to need 
no comment, and are especially important in high pressure gas 
lines. 

(3) Resistance to Vibration — Figures for tensile strength, 
elastic limit and elongation are no criterion of endurance under 
vibratory stresses or repeated shocks. It is well established that 
steel stressed to only a fractional part of its ultimate tensile 
strength will fail if subjected to sufficient repetitions of the 
stress. The failure is said to be due to "crystallization'' or 
"fatigue". 

The fibrous nature of wrought iron enables it to withstand 
these shocks and vibrations very much better tHan steel does, 
in spite of the slightly higher initial strength of the latter. Steel 
resembles glass in its characteristics, and any minute fracture 
develops with vibration, expansion, shocks and other stresses, 
until complete rupture occurs. A crack in a pane of glass may 
be arrested by boring a hole in its path to obstruct its progress. 
The slag in wrought iron performs a similar function by arrest- 
ing the development of fissures, which would continue in steel 
without obstruction. 

Expressed in another way, the comparison between steel 
and wrought iron is analogous to a solid bar as contrasted with 
a stranded cable. Fracture in the solid bar may continue under 
repeated stresses until complete failure occurs; whereas, the 
cable may suflFer rupture of a strand without materially affecting 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 407 

the cable as a whole. The strands of the cable are independent 
units. Wrought iron consists of a multitude of independent iron 
fibres by reason of the associated slag filaments. 

Brake rods, brake levers, equalizers, hangers, air lines, and 
many other parts of locomotives and cars upon which safety of 
life and limb is vitally dependent, are specified of wrought iron 
according to standard practice upon the best railroads of the 
country; and wrought iron staybolts for locomotive boilers are 
required because they will best withstand the repeated stresses 
due to expansion and contraction. And this, in spite of the fact 
that no manufacturing difficulty prevents making steel for these 
purposes of vastly greater tensile strength than is possible in 
soft steel for pipe manufacture. 

(4) Resistance to Corrosion — It is sufficient to state that 
the electrolytic theory is now generally accepted. According to 
this theory, all corrosion proceeds by electrolytic action caused 
by small electrically conducting impurities within the metal itself, 
or related causes. 

It is well recognized that purity of the material, particularly 
as regards absence of sulphur and manganese, is one important 
factor in retarding corrosion and pitting. Why, therefore, 
should not Bessemer steel, most impure in this respect of all 
commercial steels, be particularly susceptible to attack? And 
why should not wrought iron, highly pure, be relatively more 
immune ? 

We are sometimes confronted with the argument that if 
impurities cause corrosion, why does not the large amount of 
slag in wrought iron cause it to corrode even more quickly than 
steel. The explanation is that slag, being a glassy substance, is 
a poor conductor of electric current and itself practically non- 
corrodible. 

But purity is only one factor in the solution of the corrosion 
problem and not the solution itself. For it is well established 
that physical conditions, such as strains in the metal, and par- 
ticularly the rust itself, play a most important role in accelerat- 
ing corrosion. Such being the case, it is only possible to retard 
the progress of the attack by obstructions from within the metal. 



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M^H NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Steel, no matter how pure, does not offer this resistance. 
Wrought iron, on the other hand, presents a myriad of slag 
filaments as a barrier to the progress of corrosion and pitting, 
the same as the graphite flakes in cast iron. 

Pipe service in the gas fields requires in its various 
phases all or part of the qualifications which have been enu- 
merated above. Line and distribution pipe requires good welds 
and good threads. Easy threading is particularly desirable when 
pipe has to be threaded in the field. 

External corrosion, due to the weather, where the pipe is 
above ground, or to the attack of water and soil conditions for 
buried pipe, must be met. 

Casing pipe should be particularly resistant to the severe 
corrosion which may be encountered in the water and soil con- 
ditions of the well. A weakly resistant material may soon lose 
its usefulness as a casing, and have no reclaim value because of 
this fault. 

Drill pipe must withstand most severe service. Maximum 
strength of weld, good threads and freedom from galling, and 
highest possible resistance to the severe strains, are essential 
characteristics. Wrought iron is making tremendous strides in 
this field, and is proving very satisfactory under conditions where 
steel drill pipe caused much trouble because of crystallization 
and accompanying fracture. 

First cost should not be the sole criterion in the selection of 
pipe. Unit cost of recovery and distribution is the vital con- 
sideration to the gas company. Relative length of service, 
therefore, assumes an importance greater than that of the initial 
cost. Well made wrought iron pipe of necessity costs more 
than steel pipe; it behooves the operator to carefully consider 
whether or not the qualifications which wrought iron possesses 
will ensure sufficiently extended service to warrant the extra 
initial outlay. 

DISCUSSION. 

President Guffev : I am sure every member of the As- 
sociation joins me in thanking Mr. Aston for the very able paper 
he has presented this morning. In opening the discussion of this 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 409 



subject, it might be well to hear first from the opposition and 
therefore, I am going to call on Mr. F. N. Speller, of the Na- 
tional Tube Company. 

I now have the pleasure of introducing to you Mr. Speller. 

^Ir. F. N. Speller: Mr. President and Gentlemen: This 
paper of Mr. Aston's is certainly comprehensive and lucid in 
the way he has summarized all the arguments and reasons in 
favor of wrought iron for the manufacture of pipe. There is 
one omission, however, which perhaps is somewhat significant 
and that is he fails to cite a list of cases where wrought iron 
has shown unusually long life. The reason for this may be 
that there is an equally large number or larger number of cases 
where it has shown unusual short life; and the same might be 
said of steel pipe. The fact of the matter is that the feature 
of durability is now much better understood than ever before and 
all observers seem to agree that it is not a simple problem but 
a subject involving many factors and many problems and nothing 
is to be gained, therefore, in reciting isolated instances of unusual 
durability either for one material or the other. 

In order to confine this discussion to a very reasonable time 
and to touch only on the high points of Mr. Aston's able paper, 
I have prepared a few notes which, with your permission, I 
will read. 

Mr. F. N. Speller then read the following: 

The material which goes into oil and gas pipe is too im- 
portant to be decided by a theoretical discussion of the function 
of cinder in wrought iron or the different physical char- 
acteristics of wrought iron compared with steel. In drilling 
operations where the material is sometimes stressed beyond the 
elastic limit, failures are to be expected occasionally and it is 
under actual working conditions of this kind that steel pipe has 
demonstrated its superiority. That this preference is not a ques- 
tion of price may be seen by the fact that drillers are willing to 
pay the same or even a higher price for steel lines. A some- 
what analogous case is the discarding of wrought iron for high 
pressure gas cylinders which were formerly made of welded 
pipe. These are now required to be made of seamless steel. 
The Interstate Commerce regulations also require ammonia 



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410 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



cylinders to be made of lapweld steel pipe. The large majority 
of high pressure oil and gas lines are of steel. The reason for 
this is that steel pipe will stand 40 to 50% more pressure than 
wrought iron pipe of the same dimensions, which means greater 
carrying capacity and safety. These few illustrations indicate 
that steel pipe is used almost exclusively where the maximum 
strength and high resistance is required, but as further evidence 
of the general trend, I quote below the production of iron and 
steel skelp from records of the American Iron and Steel Insti- 
tute from 1905 to 1915 in gross tons: 

PRODUCTION OF IRON AND STEEL SKELP IN THE UNITED STATES. 
Year. Iron. 

1905 452.797 

190G 391.517 

1907 444,5.% 

1908 297.049 

1909 370,151 

1910 350.578 

1911 322,397 

1912 327,012 

1913 312.746 

1914 264,340 

1915 262,198 

A recent canvass of 105 gas companies in New England as 
to their present practice with respect to gas service lines resulted 
as follows: 

Per cent 

Tliose using steel pipe exclusively 75 71 .42 

Those using steel and wrought iron 13 12.38 

Those using wrought iron exchisively •■.. 15 14.28 

Unknown 2 

During the past twelve years the leading producer of steel 
pipe has increased their oil and gas pipe production nearly 100%. 
At the present time it is well known that the deliver)' of steel 
pipe is much worse than on wrought iron and it is possible that 
for this reason there is at present more wrought iron being sold 
for this purpose than usual. 



Steel. 


Total. 


Per cent 


Per cent 






iron. 


steel. 


983,198 


1,435.995 


31.5 


68.5 


1,137,068 


1.528,585 


25.7 


74.3 


1,358,091 


1,802.627 


24.6 


75.4 


853,534 


1, J 50, 583 


25.8 


74.2 


1,663.230 


2.033.381 


18.2 


81.8 


1,477,616 


1,828,194 


19.2 


80.8 


1.658,276 


1.980.673 


16.3 


83.7 


2,119,804 


2.446.816 


13.3 


86.7 


2,189,218 


2,501,964 


12.5 


87.5 


1.718.091 


1.982.431 


13.3 


86.7 


2,037,266 


2,299.464 


11.4 


S^.ii 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 411 



These are the main facts which interest the practical opera- 
tor. However, there are several statements in this paper which 
are likely to leave an erroneous impression, the most important 
of which I will refer to briefly. Mr. Aston states that there is 
lack of control in making Bessemer steel compared with Open 
Hearth steel. Good pipe is made by either process but so far 
as regularity of composition is concerned the modern Bessemer 
process affords almost ideal control, even more so than the Open 
Hearth when run in conjunction with a properly balanced plant 
including all departments from Blast Furnace to Finishing Mills. 
As illustrative of this in the manufacture of steel for lapweld pipe 
the yearly variations between maximum and minimum carbon 
contents in heats of Open Hearth steel is .059? , for Bessemer 
steel .02%. Wrought Iron r.iade in small units by a large num- 
ber of operators, each a law^ unto himself is about as irregular 
a metallurgical product as we have. Some of the grosser ir- 
regularities are corrected as Mr. Aston points out, by repiling 
and re-rolling, but the pieces are never welded together entirely 
and this piling increases the chances of laminations and blisters 
in the finished material. 

Referring to the four principal advantages claimed for 
wrought iron : 

( I ) Welding: The claims as to better welding quality for 
wrought iron could be disproved by mill records, but the pur- 
chaser knows that the weld in steel pipe can be depended on 
and that steel pipe has in this respect special advantages and is 
generally used for autogeneous welding. 

Steel pipe is self-fluxing. From what Mr. Aston said, he 
might unintentionally have given you the idea it is not necessary 
to have flux with steel. The distinction between pipe steel and 
ordinary steel is simply this, that pipe steel is made specially so 
as to give it that fluxing quality. That is what distinguishes it 
as distinct from wire steel and plate steel and other forms of 
steel. It has even more advantages in this respect because the 
fluxing quality in pipe steel is more uniform than it ever can be 
in wrought iron pipe and the result is that we get much larger 
records in the welding of steel — or pipe made of steel than made 
of wrought iron. I can speak from practical experience on this 



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412 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



subject as we were at one time the largest makers of wrought 
iron pipe in the country and for many years made both wrought 
iron and steel in the same mill. You understand, of course, 
each piece of pipe stands on its own merits. It has to be tested 
independently and has to pass individual tests so that it is very 
easy to collect practical data on that particular point. There is 
nothing that is more firmly established than the fact that steel 
can be made of such uniform welding quality as to be much 
superior in that respect to wrought iron. 

(2) Threading: Wrought iron is said to thread easily be- 
cause the chips **break or crumble". The micro sections, (Figs. 
2 and 3) suggest trouble with stripped threads which is actually 
what experience teaches when the iron carrries an excessive 
amount of cinder. The samples sliown appear to have nearly 
20% cinder rather than i\ per cent, as claimed. Unfortunately 
for our friends the cinder theory cannot be made to solve both 
the corrosion and the threading trouble. In this case what is 
sauce for the goose is not sauce for the gander. Shops in the 
field are now equipped so as to cut a clean thread on steel pipe 
as easily as on wrought iron ; if not this can be easily remedied. 
There can surely be no question of the superior strength and 
reliability of the steel thread as the material is more homogene- 
ous and stronger. 

(3) Resistance to vibration is largely a matter of design of 
joint. The picture drawn by Mr. Aston of a wrought iron line 
continuing in service in a well with fissures extending partly 
through the metal is not very reassuring. The sharp root on the 
Briggs thread is probably responsible for many broken joints. 
A combined committee of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers and other engineering societies has recently recom- 
mended that the present pipe thread be flattened more like the 
U. S. Standard. 

(4) Corrosion: This is a coni])licated subject involving 
many factors, all of which must be considered in trying to explain 
the phenomena. The Author refers to the mechanical interfer- 
ence of cinder in wrought iron. While in some parts of the iron 
this undoubtedly is a factor he fails to point out that usually the 
cinder is irregularly distributed and more important still, the 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 413 

cinder has a strong galvanic action which sets up local currents 
from the iron to the cinder, resulting in accelerated corrosion. 
This reaction is true of all the oxides. Mr. Aston has pointed 
out that rust has that same action. So does magnetic oxide of 
which the cinder is mostly made up. 

The resultant of these and many other forces will determine 
the relative life of the pipe and I maintain this is too compli- 
cated a problem to be solved by other than tests in actual service 
where both materials are put in use together under identical 
conditions. There are many of such tests and experiences, all 
indicating that there is no practical difference in the long run 
between wrought iron and steel in this respect. l>ut even if there 
was some basis for this claim, the field lines can be easily protected 
in places where corrosion is anticipated, by a coating of pitch or 
cement concrete and made to last considerably longer at com- 
paratively small cost. The portion subject to corrosion is usually 
only a small proportion of the length of the line and if this is 
properly protected there is no reason why the life of the line 
cannot be prolonged to any desired extent. (Applause). 

I^RESiDENT GuFFEY : We would be pleased to hear from any 
other member by way of discussion on this paper or on this very 
interesting and important topic. 

Mr. S. S. Wyer: Mr. President, I would like to bring out 
two features as far as wrought iron pipe is concerned based on a 
large number of observations on a main line. It was found that 
as far as the corrosion was concerned where steel was used in the 
line, that it could, in nearly all cases be traced directly to mois- 
ture in the soil. That is, where the line was properly drained 
there was no corrosion. I am speaking now^ of the soil around 
the line. Where that soil w'as not properly drained, we invariably 
found corrosion. For that reason I believe that a great many 
line corrosion troubles would be solved if adequate provision were 
made to get the subsoil water away from the metal. That is. 
instead of merely laying the lines at any grade, when the line is 
laid originally make such arrangements as may be necessary to 
keep the Hne entirely free from subsoil water at all the low places. 
If that is done a large part of your line troubles from corrosion 
will be taken care of. 



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414 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

The second feature 1 want to call to your attention is that 
there is no distinction between wrought iron and steel as far as 
the rate of corrosion from electrolysis is concerned. Considerable 
money has been wasted by putting in high priced metal with the 
idea that the high priced metal would take care of the corrosion 
difficulties. Where you have stray currents on a line, whether 
that line is wrought iron or steel, the rate of corrosion will be 
substantially the same regardless of the fact as to whether the 
line is one or the other. (Applause). 

President Guffey : We would be pleased to hear from any 
other member in any further discussion of this subject. If no 
other member desires to discuss it at this time, I will ask Mr. 
Aston, do you wish to be heard again? 

Mr. James Aston: Mr. President and Gentlemen: You 
have no doubt heard of the two men w^ho were lined up at a 
bar in a western city and got into a discussion as to who wrote 
"Robinson Crusoe." The big fellow said it was William 
Shakespeare, while the little fellow said it was Sir Francis 
Bacon. The big fellow^ said this wasn't so and that he could 
prove it, while the little man told the big one he did not know 
what he was talking about, and proceeded to take off his coat 
to show him. After the fight had proceeded to the point where 
the big man had the little fellow down and was pummelling 
him, he put the question *''Who wrote Robinson Crusoe?" 
"William Shakespeare." said the little man. "Sure of it?" said 
the other. "Dead sure," said the little one, "I saw him do it." 

I suppose that is the only way Mr. Speller and I can ever 
settle this steel-wrought iron controversy, because it does not 
appear that we can get together on it through discussion on 
the platform. 

To discuss many of the points that Mr. Speller has raised 
would be merely to repeat statements made in my paper. Some, 
again, would require lengthy or technical argument, which I 
have no desire to inflict upon you. Rut there are a few^ points 
brought out in his discussion that I should like to touch upon 
briefly. 

First, with regard to specifying steel in certain high pressure 
lines. Mr. S])ellers reference is solely to static stress, and 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 415 

where the question of service deterioration is of secondary 
consideration. The instances of service and requirements are 
those to which steel is primarily adapted because of its high 
initial strength. We admit in the paper that wrought iron does 
not have the same initial strength. 

Mr. Speller, in referring to the fact that drillers are willing 
to pay the same and even a higher price for steel lines, un- 
doubtedly has in mind the so-called seamless upset steel pipe 
which is a specialty costing more than genuine wrought iron. 
It was put on the market on account of the unsatisfactory 
service given by ordinary welded steel pipe, on which it is a 
great improvement. We frankly recc^^nize its merits over ordi- 
nary steel pipe, but do not believe it is worth as much as 
wrought iron. We do not believe that anyone, after trying 
wrought iron drill pipe, will go back to seamless upset pipe 
at a higher or even at the same price. 

In practically all pipe service, wrought iron has strength 
to spare for the usual requirements; comparison of initial 
strength of wrought iron and steel is therefore immaterial. 
The feature that does enter into consideration, however, is the 
deterioration of one material as compared with the other in 
a given interval of time ; since the length of service is determined 
by relative durability of the two materials under vibratory 
stresses and corrosion conditions. 

As to production, we must of course admit that steel has 
forged ahead; and why shouldn't it? Steel is a tonnage product 
of general application; wrought iron is a specialty product with 
particular fields of utility. I do not know the figures, but there 
is a very large proportion of the tonnage of pipe used in which 
the tube feature proper, so far as the conveyance of material 
is concerned, does not enter into consideration. Why should 
you put the higher priced wrought iron into bedsteads, in- 
door railings, wheelbarrow handles, and the like? Again, we 
have a multitude of buyers who will purchase material of least 
cost even though they know it is not the best available for their 
service. Some from necessity; others from choice. We may 
buy a three dollar pair of shoes when a six dollar pair would 
be better; either because we do not have six dollars in our 



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416 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

pocket and we must have shoes, or because we are not con- 
vinced that the six dollar pair is any better for our use, or 
because somebody has told us that the three dollar pair is as. 
good as the six dollar shoes. 

Again you must not forget, gentlemen, that when the largest 
manufacturer of pipe in the country flops from one side of the 
fence to the other, it makes a hole in the wrought iron tonnage 
and puts the figure in the other column. 

Mr. Speller states that the tonnage in oil and gas country 
tubular goods of the leading steel pipe producer, has gone up 
ICO per cent in the last few years. You may be interested in 
learning that the output of the leading wrought iron pipe manu- 
facturer in pipe for oil and gas service has increased several 
hundred percent in this period. 

As to uniformity of product, steel is made in large tonnages 
and it is an accepted fact that the Bessemer process allows 
the least latitude in control and does not effect the elimination 
of impurities which are found in the ore and pig iron in in- 
creasing quantities day by day. This is the reason why works 
making the highest grades of steel have changed from the Bes- 
semer to the open hearth side in the past few years. 

On the other hand, while wrought iron is made in small lots 
and by hand, and there is no analysis of the product during 
the process of manufacture, the iron from the puddling furnace, 
so far as the base metal is concerned, is practically lOO per cent 
pure. It is virtually impossible to get far from this purity, since 
the working of the process automatically controls the chemical 
characteristics of the base metal in well puddled wrought iron. 

Mr. Speller referred to the irregular distribution of slag, 
and to the fact that it was not well distributed in all places. 
Bear in mind the extremely fine state of distribution which I 
stated ; not more than one-five hundredth to one-thousandth part 
of an inch apart in both width and depth of material. It would 
not be well made wrought iron if the distribution became very 
much coarser than that, or if such distribution varied much from 
uniformity. Repeated tests have shown well made wrought iron 
to have a uniform slag distribution of the character mentioned. 

One speaker states that steel pipe corrodes no more than 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 417 

wrought iron in well drained dry lines. This is true. You do 
not have corrosion if there is no moisture; for moisture is one 
of the essential factors. Those of you using pipe in the gas 
industry realize that you have no control over this feature. 
You may at times be able to provide some drainage; but when 
you sink a casing you cannot control the character or condition 
of the soil you are going through, or its moisture content. 
You have to put up with what is there; and in such event you 
had better choose the material which is best adapted to with- 
stand that which is there. 

When the electrolytic theory of corrosion is spoken of, or 
corrosion due to electrolytic action, do not get this confused in 
your minds with electrolysis due to stray currents. So far as 
resistance to external electrolysis is concerned, it is doubtful 
whether wrought iron is better than steel, since stray currents 
from street railways, etc., are induced by forces foreign to the 
pipe line, and when a given current leaves the pipe, it must 
carry into solution its quantitative equivalent in iron, whether 
this comes from steel or iron pipe. When we speak of corrosion 
going on according to the electrolytic theory, however, we refer 
to forces set up by the metal itself. The more impure the sub- 
stance* is, the greater is the electrolytic action which comes into 
play. In addition to greater purity, wrought iron possesses an 
advantage over steel by reason of the fact that we have within it 
the slag barriers which retard the progress of corrosion as the 
other causes come into play. (Applause.) 

President Guffey : Any further discussion of this paper ? 
Gentlemen, we make now completed the list of papers provided 
for this meeting and we will now proceed with the reports of 
committees. 

The first committee I will call upon for report is the Joint 
National Committee on Electrolysis. Mr. Forrest M. Towl is 
Chairman, and Samuel S. Wyer and Bert C. Oliphant are 
members. 

Mr. Bert C. Oliphant: Gentlemen: Mr. Wyer should 
really read this report as he had done practically all the work 
but he is so modest that he asked me to read it for him. 

Mr. Bert C. Oliphant then presented the following: 
27 



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418 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



REPORT OF JOINT NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON 
ELECTROLYSIS. 

The Natural Gas Association of America: 

Your Committee appointed to represent the Association in 
the Joint National Committe on Electrolysis reports the follow- 
ing as a summary for the year's work: 

The results of the Committee's work have been embodied in 
a bound printed report which may be obtained for $i.oo from 
the Secretary of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
29 West 39th Street, New York City. A copy of this report 
has been filed with the Resident Secretary at Permanent Head- 
quarters and a copy sent to the President and the Secretary. 

The general committee has appointed a sub-committee on 
which this Association has a representative to prepare an addi- 
tional report covering specific electrolysis remedial measures. 
This sub-committee expects to make considerable progress on 
this additional report this year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Samuel S. Wyer, 
Bert C. Oliphant, 
Forrest M. Towl, Chairman, 

President Guffey: What is the wish of the Association 
with reference to this report? Every member of the Associa- 
tion who is interested in this problem should secure a copy of 
the report of this joint committee. It is very interesting and 
very instructive. 

Mr. Kay C. Krick: I move that the report be received, 
placed on file and spread upon the minutes and that the Com- 
mittee be continued for another year. 

Mr. J. H. Maxon : I second the motion. 

The above motion having been duly seconded was then 
unanimously adopted. 

President Guffey: The next report is the report of the 
Committee on "Rates" of which Judge S. M. Douglas, of Mans- 
field, Ohio, is Chairman. The other members of that Commit- 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 419 

tee are Alfred Hurlburt, of Kansas City, Missouri, and Donald 
McDonald, of Louisville, Kentucky. I take pleasure in present- 
ing Judge Douglas, gentlemen. 

Hon. S. M. Douglas: Mr. President and Gentlemen: I 
dislike to be on a committee, especially as its chairman, when 
all the report we have to offer is that we are simply, — not "beat- 
ing time" but making progress. To go back to last year, we 
presented a report at the last meeting, the central idea of which 
was to eliminate the unprofitable consumer. We recommended 
a scale of rates which was adopted by the Association. The new 
things that have loomed up on the horizon of the Natural Gas 
Association were largely developed in that very excellent paper 
that we discussed yesterday afternoon on the question of mixing 
gases and for that reason I say that about all your committee 
can do at this time is to simply report that the Committee is 
making progress, but we have no definite report to present. 

President Guffey : The Chair will entertain a motion that 
the Committee be continued if that is the wish of the Association. 

Mr. J. C. McDowell : Mr. President, I move that the ver- 
bal report by the Chairman of the Committee be received and 
that the Committee be continued for another year. 

Mr. a. J. Diescher: I second the motion. 

The above motion, having been duly seconded, was then 
unanimously adopted. 

President Guffey : The next report, gentlemen, is the re- 
port of the Committee on Ways and Means. Mr. John M. 
Garard is Chairman, and the other members of the Committee 
are Martin B. Daly and John E. Gill. 

Mr. John M. Garard: Mr. President and Members of the 
Association : The object of this committee was to present Ways 
and Means of securing funds to take care of our financial affairs. 
We haye thought of a great many ways to do this. Finally we 
decided that the way suggested in our report was really the best 
method the Committee could devise. 

Mr. John M. Garard, as Chairman, then read the following : 



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420 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS. 
Buffalo, New York, May 17th, 191 7. 

To the Officers and Members of the Natural Gas Association of 

America. 

Gentlemen : Your Committee on Ways and Means, after 
a canvass of the different interests engaged in the business, in- 
cluding production, transportation and distribution, recommends 
that all companies be listed as members of this Association upon 
payment of the following named fees: — ^$25.00 per annum as 
membership fee. 

In addition to the above one-fiftieth of 1% tax on the gross 
revenue of each company for the support of the headquarters 
of the Association. It is the intent of the Committee making 
this recommendation, that the tax shall apply to the net gross 
receipts, that is, where one company is producing and selling to 
a distributing company, that the purchase price of the gas shall 
be deducted from the gross receipts and the tax paid on the 
balance. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. M. Garard, 
M. B. Daly, 

Committee. 

Mr. John M. Garard: You will note from the language 
of this report that the $25.00 per annum as membership fee 
refers to the little companies as well as to the big companies. 
It matters not what your assessment might be, but this is more 
in the way of a ready-to-serve change. (Laughter.) We thought 
that that would not injure the little fellow and we know it will 
not hurt the big fellows. You will note also that the report is 
signed by only two members of the Committee. Mr. Gill is not 
here, but he said he would concur in the report. 

President Guffey : Gentlemen, you have heard the report 
of this committee on Ways and Means. For the future of the 
Association I can merely say it is the most important report we 
have had at this meeting. We have plans outlined which re- 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 421 

quire, as I said in my original address, at least $25,000 to main- 
tain the permanent headquarters in the manner they should be 
maintained and to render the service we want to render to all 
companies and all members of the Association. If that plan is 
put into effect it will raise a little more than the $25,000 just 
mentioned. If every company joins in participating in member- 
ship, Mr. Garard informs me it will raise about $28,000.00. I 
sincerely hope the Association will adopt the report and approve 
that method of membership. I believe we need it and it will do 
the Association a lot of good. We have some rather far-reach- 
ing plans for the future by which we will be able to render a 
good deal more service to the companies and members than we 
have in the past. What is the wish of the Association with 
reference to the report? 

Mr. Kay C. Krick : I move the adoption of the report. 

The above motion, having been duly seconded, was then 
unanimously adopted. 

President Guffey: The next report is the report of the 
Committee on Memorials. Mr. Milt Saul is Chairman and Mr. 
R. W. Gallagher and Mr. C. W. Sears are members. 

Mr. Milt Saul then read the following: 



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REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON MEMORIALS. 

To the Members of the Natural Gas Association of 

America: 

Gentlemen : The solemn hour has arrived when 
we pause to reflect on the loss this Association has sus- 
tained during the past year through the Hand of Death. 
We see a list of departed brothers that is at once startling 
in proportion and yet distinguished for the names it 
contains. We mourn our loss yet, in contemplating the 
names of those who have Crossed the Bar since we met 
last year we cannot help but feel that each name repre- 
sents a full measure of this life's activities and a life 
work that is well done. 

It is the recommendation of your Committee that a 
page in the minutes of these proceedings be set aside to 
permanently record this Association's sincere sorrow at 
the loss sustained in the deaths of 

T. N. Barnsdall, W. J. Reilly, 

F. B. EnSLOW, G. X. WiTTMER, 

H. J. HoYT, Louis B. Fulton. 

And that the expression of this sentiment be for- 
warded by our Secretary in appropriate form to the 
families of our departed associates. 

Milt Saul^ 

R. W. Gallagher, 

C. W. Sears, 

Committee. 

President Guffey : You have heard the report of 
the Committee on Memorials. What is the desire of the 
Convention ? 

Mr. J. C. McDowell : I move, Mr. President, that 
the report be adopted by a rising vote. 

Mr. a. J. DiESCHER : I second the motion. 

And thereupon the above motion, having been duly 
seconded, was unanimously adopted by a rising vote. 

(422) 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 423 

President Guffey: The Secretary will see to it that the 
request contained in the report be carried out with reference to 
forwarding to the families of our departed associates an expres- 
sion of our sincere sorrow at the loss sustained by the death of 
the members referred to in the report. 

The next committee to hear from is the Committee on Presi- 
dent's Address, consisting of Martin B. Daly, J. W. McMahon, 
and O. K. Shannon. 

Mr. Martin B. Daly then presented the following: 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PRESIDENT'S 
ADDRESS. 

Buffalo, New York, May 17th, 19 17. 
To the Members of the Natural Gas Association of America: 

Gentlemen : The address of President Joseph F. Guffey, 
evidences careful, conservative thought along constructive lines' 
and the recommendations made should receive thoughtful con- 
sideration by the Natural Gas Industry generally. We suggest 
that special attention be given to the President's words on con- 
servation and the elimination of all waste by companies having 
public obligations and the exercise of the influence of this 
Association and its members on the producer, seller and 
user, who have none of the obligations assumed by the 
utility engaged in serving the people, so that the concerted action 
recommended may become a reality, not only locally but nation- 
ally. Special attention is called to the reference made to the duty 
of this organization in sustaining national honor, and to this end 
your committee especially calls to the attention of the members 
that the National Defense Board, constituted of the ablest minds 
of the country, has honored the Natural Gas Association by ap- 
pointing one of its members to take an active part. We suggest 
that the individual and united effort be concentrated in bringing 
to the Defense Board through the member of this Association all 
information that may contribute to the success of his work and 
will enable him to serve our country best. 

Your Committee unanimously recommends that the address 



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424 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

of the President be received, approved and spread upon the 

records. Respectfully submitted, 

M. B. Daly, 

James W. McMahon, 

O. K. Shannon, 

Committee. 

f 

Mr. T. C. Jones: Gentlemen, you have heard the report 

of the Committee on President's Address. What is your pleasure ? 

Mr. John M. Garard : I move that the report of the Com- 
mittee be adopted and placed upon the records. 

Mr. J. C. McDowell : I second the motion. 

The above motion, having been duly seconded, was then 
unanimously adopted. 

President Guffey : Your Chairman yesterday was author- 
ized to appoint a committee of five to represent the Natural 
Gas Association of. America and to work under the direction 
of and in harmony with the sub-committee of the National 
Council of Defense of which Mr. A. C. Bedford is Chairman. 
I will now state that I desire a little while longer to consider 
the personnel of that committee. I will attend to it, however, 
in a few days after consultation with some of the more active 
members of the Association. 

The next report is the report of the Committee on the time 
and place of next meeting. Mr. Kay C. Krick is Chairman 
and Mr. William B. Way and O. K. Shannon are members. 

Mr. W. B. Way then submitted the following: 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON TIME AND PLACE OF 
NEXT MEETING. 

Your Committee on Time and Place of Next Meeting rec- 
ommends that the meeting be held Tuesday, Wednesday, and 
Thursday of the third week in May, 1918, but believe it would 
be inadvisable to select the place of meeting now and recommend 
that this be decided upon by the Board of Directors of the 
Natural Gas Association at a later date, such date to be de- 
termined by them. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 426 

Your Committee would also recommend that provided suit- 
able exhibit hall, meeting room and hotel accommodations be 
assured, that your Board of Directors look with favor upon the 
application of Louisville, Kentucky. 

Wm. B. Way, 
O. K. Shannon, 
K. C. Krick. 

Mr. Wm. B. Way : Mr. Shannon asked me to add to this 
report that he has signed, the fact that he is in favor of selecting 
Louisville, Kentucky, now as the place of next meeting. 

Mr. Maurice W. Walsh, of the Louisville Gas & Electric 
Company, Louisville, Kentucky, then said: 

Mr. President, before any action is taken upon this report T 
would like to read a few telegrams welcoming the Association to 
Louisville, Kentucky, next year. 

Being a charter member of this Association, having attended 
every convention held by the Association, having had the pleas- 
ure of entertaining you gentlemen at one time at Oklahoma 
City, being familiar with the needs in entertaining the mem- 
bers of the Association, I desire to present to you briefly the 
advantages of Louisville, Kentucky, in that regard. I call to 
mind the first meeting that was had in the organization of this 
Association. The organization of this association was taken up 
in the town of Ottawa, Kansas, by three members, one of whom 
I believe has dropped out since, those three members being 
Mr. Becker, Mr. Sears and myself. The suggestion was made to 
Mr. Sears on account of his affiliation with the Kansas Natural 
and visiting different points in that locality that he speak to the 
gas men in particular in regard to forming such an Association. 
He did that in his travels and a meeting was called at the Midland 
Hotel which was attended by 13 gas men. Some of the members 
being superstitious in regard to the figure 13, a stranger was 
admitted and invited to partake of the dinner which was held 
there that day and at that meeting it was recommended that a 
meeting be called in the near future for the purpose of securing a 
charter and forming the Natural Gas Association of America. 
This was done a few months later at the Hotel Midland. The 



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426 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

preliminary call was signed by 25 members and since this time 
this Association has grown to the enormous membership which 
we have at the present time. I remember at that time the 
meeting of the supply men in displaying their goods was held in 
a store room approximately 60 feet in length by 20 feet in 
width. The gas men installed gas in there for the purpose of 
the better exhibiting their articles they had on display and after 
opening it up the room became so hot we all had to leave. 

At another time at Joplin, Missouri, our entertainment con- 
sisted of an open air theatre, a block away from the hotel. 

Being in a position to know, and knowing what this Asso- 
ciation needs in the way of convention halls, banquet rooms and 
exhibit halls for the supply men, I am here to inform you that 
we have at Louisville an Armory 260 feet by 270 feet which 
includes another large armory upstairs suitable for a meeting 
place. The armory is situated within a block of the two leading 
hotels of the city and in the heart of the city. Accommodations 
at the hotels I am assured by the Hotel Men's Association, 
will be ample to take care of all the needs of its members. I am 
assured that the armory will be at your disposal and that we will 
have all the accommodations necessary to take care of the large 
number of new members that will probably be in with us by 
this time next year. 

I wish to read to you a few telegrams. First, I will read 
the telegrams from Honorable John H. Buschemyer, Mayor of 
the City of Louisville: 

"Louisville desires honor of entertaining Natural Gas Association 
of America in next convention and I cordially and sincerely unite in in- 
vitation extended by our commercial organization." 

I next desire to read a telegram from the Board of Trade 
of the City of Louisville by William E. Morrow, its Secretary, 
which is as follows : 

"Board of Trade earnestly urges acceptance of invitation from con- 
vention league to Natural Gas Association to hold next meeting in 
Louisville." 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 427 

I next desire to read telegram from Louisville Convention 
and Publicity by C. C. Ousley, its secretary, as follows : 

"Commercial and Civic Organizations of Louisville unite in cordial 
invitation to Natural Gas Association of America to meet here next 
year. We will provide armory as exhibit hall with uninterrupted floor 
space 240 by 270 feet; will furnish hotel, convention hall seating eight 
hundred and hotel banquet hall seating 500, all within block and half 
of armory. Our hotel accommodations are adequate for largest con- 
ventions. Please inform delegates that the metropolis of the state 
famed for hospitality sincerely bids them come." 

I have another telegram from Otto Seelbach, President of 
the Louisville Hotel Association as follows : 

"Am elated at your prospect of landing convention in Louisville 
next year. Telegram of invitation from Convention League endorsed 
by all commercial organizations on the way. Our Hotel Association 
will do all in their power to make the convention a success and you 
can depend on our cooperation. The Seelbach seats eight hundred for 
conventions, or five hundred for banquet." 

Now gentlemen, I do hope before you adopt this report that 
you will vote unanimously to hold your next meeting next year 
in Louisville, Kentucky. We have all the accommodations nec- 
essary to take care of you. If I were not positive of this I would 
not come before you and ask your indulgence in this matter. 
I am certainly personally able to speak from experience as I have 
attended all of your previous meetings and I know that the 
accommodations for the Association as to meeting place, banquet 
hall and exhibit hall, together with hotel accommodations, will 
be ample and that if you so decide you will be cordially received 
and properly taken care of, and after experiencing the hos- 
pitality which we are ready to give you, you will be proud of 
your visit to Louisville. I thank you. (Great applause.) 

President Guffey : Any further discussion with reference 
to the report of the Committee? What is the wish of the con- 
vention with regard to the report of the committee? The com- 
mittee recommends briefly that the third week of May, 1918, be 
the time for the holding of our next annual meeting and the 
report also recommends providing a suitable exhibit hall, meeting 



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428 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

room and hotel accommodations be assured, your board of direc- 
tors look with favor upon the application of Louisville, Kentucky. 
The Committee, however, report that it believes it would be in- 
advisable to select a place of meeting now and recommends that 
this be decided upon by the Board of Directors at a later date. 

Mr. Maurice W. Walsh : Mr. President, I desire to make 
a motion that this convention decide at this time to meet next 
year in the city of Louisville and hold its next annual meet- 
ing there. 

Mr. O. K. Shannon : I second that motion, 

Mr. John M. Garard: Mr. President, I am heartily in 
favor of Louisville and would be glad to go but I am not right 
sure that it is the proper thing to accept an invitation from any 
city at this time. I am sure that Mr. Walsh knows what he is 
talking about in regard to accommodations. That part of it is 
not in question. But gentlemen, we are in war. He speaks of 
the Armory at Louisville. The armory may be occupied by other 
people at that time. I was about to move the adoption of the 
report but I am reminded that there is a motion already before 
the house. I think it would be very much better to leave this 
to our honorable Board of Directors for future action. I do 
not believe we should decide it today. 

Mr. William B. Way: Mr. President, I asked for the 
floor immediately upon the reading of the report for the purpose 
of making a request but the Chair did not see me and recognized 
Mr. Walsh. May I make that request still? 

President Guffey : Yes; you may make it. 

Mr. William B. Way: May I make a motion that will 
supersede Mr. Walsh's motion? 

President Guffey: That will be out of order. We will 
. have to vote on the question before the house. 

Mr. Martin B. Daly: Mr. President, I am not one of 
the officers of the Association and therefore will not probably 
be annoyed by a report of this kind, but it seems to me that the 
Committee has shifted the responsibility in making an indefinite 
report. I say that without any intent to criticise the Committee. 
If this report is adopted as it has been presented, the directors 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 429 

of the Association and the other officers of this organization 
will probably be flooded with communications for the next three 
or four months asking them to send delegations to various places 
and to investigate whether each particular place would be the 
proper and only place for our next meeting. The Directors have 
the power to revoke any acceptance at this time or at any other 
time throughout the year if they find it is not consistent or con- 
venient to accept. We are going to hold a convention next year. 
It may not be convenient and it may not be the proper thing 
for the supply men to make an exhibit because there may be 
difficulties in the way which do not exist at this time but the 
Natural Gas Association of America should by all means hold a 
meeting next year and the time to decide the place of that meet- 
ing, it seems to me, is here and now. (Great applause.) If 
we decide later that Louisville is not the place, the Board of 
Directors can revoke the acceptance and decide on some other 
place. I am sure that Mr. Walsh, representating as he does the 
gas interests of Louisville, will be glad to join with us if any 
such difficulty should arise in selecting a more proper or more 
convenient location for our next meeting. It seems to be about 
the only available place. Down there the armory is not occupied, 
as I understand it, during that season of the year. If there are 
any soldiers they are out in tents due to the climatic conditions 
existing in Kentucky. It seems to me this is about the only 
invitation before this convention that could be accepted. I know 
as to other places there is a degree of uncertainty as to whether 
the convention could be taken care of if it was decided to go 
there. I am in favor of accepting Louisville. (Great applause.) 

President Guffey: Any other remarks? 

Mr. John M. Garard: Mr. President, just to show you 
how quickly I can flop, I am heartily in accord with what Mr. 
Daly has said. (Great laughter and prolonged applause.) 

President Guffey : You also believe in passing the "buck*' 
to the Board of Directors. (Renewed laughter.) 

Mr. Krick, do you want to be heard as Chairman of the 
Committee ? 

Mr. Kay C. Krick: Mr. President and Members: Of 



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430 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

course the committee in presenting their report, has done so from 
a precautionary standpoint and the difficulties the committee had 
in mind have been largely covered by what Mr. Garard referred 
to. The Committee were all heartily in favor of Louisville and 
the Committee are also heartily in favor of a meeting next year. 
We felt, however, that it might be wise to leave the question 
open for further consideration. I am very glad to see, though, 
the matter taken up by the membership here. I would much 
prefer to have you decide it by your votes rather than to seek 
to have the action of the committee made final. I cheerfully 
join with Mr. Garard and Mr. Daly and the others in asking 
that you give Louisville consideration now and here, and decide 
it as you deem best. (Great applause.) 

Mr. J. C. McDowell: Mr. President, I am ordinarily dis- 
posed to stand by the report of a committee that is appointed to 
consider a matter but I do hope in this instance that this com- 
mittee will reconsider and recommend Louisville right now. 

Mr. Willl\m B. Way: Mr. President, our real object in 
making the report we did was as stated by Mr. Krick. We were 
all in favor of Louisville, and we were all in favor of holding 
a meeting, but this is a big affair. It takes a lot of work. It 
takes a lot of time which we supply men gladly give you. We 
want to do everything we can to entertain you and make each 
meeting of this Association better than the preceding meeting. 

We will go anywhere you want to go. If you want to go to 

well, even if you wanted to go to Columbus, we would go with 
you. (Great laughter.) 

Mr. John M. Garard of Columbus: Better wait until you 
are invited. (Renewed laughter and applause). 

Mr. William B. Way: But for a workman to do good 
work he must have good tools and we thought possibly we would 
get a chance between the time this report is made and the time 
when it would be necessary to fix the place of next meeting, 
to go down there and look over the situation to see what we 
had to work with ourselves. Not that it makes any difference 
to us a whole lot but it might have made a difference. Then 
also, the idea occurred to us that all the armories and all the 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 431 

large buildings might, at that time, be taken up by troops and 
provisions and artillery and such equipment as go to make up 
the well equipped and well provisioned army that is going to 
lead us on to victory. We brought that matter to Mr. Walsh's 
attention and he told us it was warm down there in May and 
the troops would be out of the armory. Well, it may be warm 
in May but we felt that the citizens of Louisville might possibly 
need all available space for store houses. That, of course, en- 
tered into it. Therefore, we think it would be good policy to 
defer it for a while. We want the meeting. We know it is good 
policy to have the meeting. We would not want to go on record 
as favoring anything else. We know it is bad policy to do any- 
thing but follow along President Wilson's idea, when he sug- 
gested that we all go along with our businesses, following out 
normal lines as far as possible. That is the course that we want 
to follow, but if this Association now wants to go to Louisville 
next year for its next place of meeting, I am with you. (Great 
applause) . 

President Guffey : Any further discussion ? As I under- 
stand the motion before the house is to amend the report of the 
Committee as to the place of our next meeting changing it from 
a recommendation in favor of Louisville so as to read that the 
place of our next meeting will be Louisville, Kentucky. That 
motion has been seconded. Are you ready for the question? 
All those in favor of meeting next year in the third week in 
May, 1918, at Louisville, Kentucky, will say "Aye". 

Voices; "Aye". 

President Guffey; Opposed "No." 

Voices: "No". 

President Guffey: The "Ayes" seem to have it. The 
"Ayes" do have it and it is so ordered. (More applause). 

We will now hear the report of the Nominating Committee, 
consisting of John M. Garard, Chairman ; A. A. Armstrong and 
Bert C. Oliphant are the other members of the Committee. 

Mr. John M. Garard then submitted the following verbal 
report : 



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432 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NOMINATIONS. 

Mr, Presidcfit, and Members of the Natural Gas Association of 
America: 

If I may, I would like to supplement the announcement of 
the various members we have selected for various offices with 
this statement. As you all know, Mr. Braden, of Tulsa, Okla- 
homa, was selected last year as the Vice-President. I want to 
say, however, that he told me personally he accepted it with 
the understanding that the meeting went the following year to 
Tulsa. He said if it did not go there he did not want the Vice- 
Presidency. He also said that Tulsa could not take care of the 
Convention; that the hotels were so full even with the present 
traveling public that it would be out of the question for them 
to offer any accommodations at all to the members of this Asso- 
ciation. Mr. Braden came before this Committee yesterday and 
said that on account of the Association not going west next year 
— which he knew it could not do — he withdrew as Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Association. In view of this fact, as there was no 
Vice-President and as our present President has had the matters 
in hand and as this is going to be one of the most important 
years in the history of the gas industry and especially of thi^ 
Association, we felt that it might not be good policy to trade 
officers just as this time. 

With that preliminary statement, I desire to submit to you 
the names of the following members of this Association to be 
placed in nomination for the various offices that are to be filled : 

For Presideptt: Joseph F. Guffey, of Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania. (Applause) . 

For Vice-President: Kay C. Krick, of Coltmibus, Ohio. 
(Applause) . 

And I want to say to you right here that we have no 
apologies to offer on account of him being a Coltmibus man, 
(Laughter and applause). 

For Secretary and Treasurer: Thomas C. Jones, of Dela- 
ware, Ohio. 

For Resident-Secretary: David Oliver Holbrook, of Pitts- 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



burgh, Pennsylvania; that is the only man I do not like to men- 
tion. (Renewed laughter and applause). 

For Directors: Andrew A. Armstrong, Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 
vania; James W. McMahon, Toledo, Ohio; Clifton W. Sears, 
of Mansfield, Ohio; John H. Maxon, Muncie, Indiana; Harry 
J. Hoover, Cincinnati, Ohio; Glenn T. Braden, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 
(Applause). 

For Editor Wrinkle Deportment: W. Re. Brown, Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 

For Assistant Editor, Wrinkle Department: Alfred J. 
Diescher, Bartlesville, Oklahoma. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. M. Garasd, 
B. C. Oliphant, 
A. A. Armstrong^ 

Committee. 

I thank you very much, gentlemen. I do not know whether 
your applause is an indication that we have done it well or 
whether it is for the members we have placed in nomination. 
(Renewed laughter and applause). 

President Guffey : Arc there any other nominations to be 
presented before the Convention ? 

Mr. Martin B. Daly: Mr. President, I would like to 
make one suggestion. I think the original title given the so- 
called Resident Secretary, was that of Conunercial Secretary. It 
seemse to me that is a more appropriate title than Resident 
Secretary. Resident Secretary does not mean anything to my 
mind. 

John M. Garard: I would be very glad to make that 
change on the record. I thank you very much, Mr. Daly. 

President Guffey : Note that change. What is the wish 
of the Convention as to the nominations ? Are there any further 
nominations ? 

Mr. Milt Saul: Mr. President, I move that the nomi- 
nations be closed. 

Mr. J. C. McDowell: I second the motion. 

28 



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434 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

The above motion, having been duly seconded, was then 
unanimously adopted. 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

Mr. Henry S. Norris: Mr. President, I move that the 
report of the Committee on Nominations, as amended, be adopted 
and that the Secretary be authorized and directed to cast a ballot 
of all the members present for the election to office of the mem- 
bers nominated for the respective positions as indicated by the 
report of the Committee. 

Mr. J. C. McDowell : I second the motion. 

The above motion, having been duly seconded, was then 
unanimously adopted. 

Mr. T. C. Jones : Gentlemen : Complying with the motion 
just adopted, it gives me a great deal of pleasure to cast the ballot 
of each member of the Association for the election of the nomi- 
nees to the various offices as referred to in the report of the 
Conunittee on Nominations. I do now cast the ballot accord- 
ingly. (Applause.) 

President Guffey: Gentlemen, I have a very important 
telegram 1 would like to read to you. Before reading it, how- 
ever, I want to thank each and every member of this Association 
for the honor conferred upon me and I can only assure you that 
I will do all in my power to make the meeting next year the 
most successful of the many successful meetings held by your 
Association. ( Applause. ) 

You will recall that yesterday afternoon a committee con- 
sisting of L. B. Denning, S. J. Lockwood tnd George W. Craw- 
ford was appointed to draft resolutions pledging our support and 
co-operation to the President of the United States in the present 
international crisis and instructing your President to communicate 
the action of this Association to the President of the United 
States. Complying with the terms of that resolution, the follow- 
ing telegram was forwarded under the seal of your President: 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 435 

"Buffalo N. Y., May 16, 1917. 
"His Excellency, 

"WooDRow Wilson, 

"President of the United States of America, Washington, D. C. 

"At a meeting of the members of the Natural Gas Association of 
America in Convention at Buffalo, N. Y., it was unanimously resolved, 
amid great enthusiasm, after hearing the patriotic address of Mr. A. C. 
Bedford, Chairman of the Committee on Petroleum, of the National 
Council of Defense, on 'Mobilizing Industry for War.' 

"That the Natural Gas Association of America, representing the 
Natural Gas Industry of the United States of America, unreservedly 
stands by the President in the present war crisis and pledges the co- 
operation and support of all its members to the Government to secure 
a successful termination of the war of democracy against autocracy, and 
that the President of this Association, Mr. Joseph F. Guffey, be in- 
structed to communicate the action of this Association to the President 
of the United States. 'Joseph F. Guffey, President Natural Gas 

Association of America," 

This morning I received the following reply : 

*'The White House, Washington, D. C, May 17. 
"Hon. Joseph F. Guffey, 

"President Natural Gas Association of America, 
"Buffalo, N. Y. 

"The President deeply appreciates the patriotic assurances which 
you give him in the name of The Natural Gas Association of America. 
He sends to you and to the Convention his warmest thanks. 

"JosEPB P. Tumulty, 

"Private Secretary." 

(Great applause.) 

Is there any further business to come before the meeting? 

Mr. Kay C. Krick : Mr. President, we were all very much 
impressed yesterday by that marvelous address from Mr. Bed- 
ford. It has been the general wish expressed by a number of 
the members that it could be reproduced by this Association in 
such numbers that the members of the Association could procure 
additional copies of it for the purpose of distributing it. Mr. 
Robinson, of the West Virginia Association, desires, as I under- 
stand, 3,ooo copies for the membership of his Association. I 
would like to make a motion before we adjourn that the Sec- 
retary be instructed to print say, io,ooo copies of that address 
for distribution for those who desire to distribute it. 



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436 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

President Guffey : I would suggest 10,000 copies or more, 
if necessary. 

Mr. Kay C. Krick : Yes, or more if necessary. 

Mr. Martin B. Daly : I second the motion. 

President Guffey : The motion is to authorize the Secre- 
tary to print 10,000 or more copies of the address as made by 
Mr. A. C. Bedford yesterday. Are there any remarks? 

Mr. Edwin Robinson, Secretary-Treasurer, West Virginia 
Natural Gas Association, Fairmont, West Virginia : Mr. Presi- 
dent, I would like to secure 3,000 copies for the Natural Gas 
Association of West Virginia and I would like to inquire whether 
that number is included in the 10,000 copies? 

President Guffey: Mr. Robinson, that is why I added 
the words "Or more if necessary." 

Mr. Edwin Robinson: If that is the intention, then that 
is all I desire to know. 

President Guffey: The motion before the house is a 
motion duly seconded for the Association to publish 10,000 or 
more copies of the address of Mr. A. C. Bedford, on the Mobiliza- 
tion of Industry for War, for distribution among the members 
of this Association and among the members of the various gas 
organizations or companies desiring such copies for distribution. 
Are you ready for the question? 

Voices : Question. 

The above motion having been duly seconded, was then 
unanimously adopted. 

President Guffey : Is there any further business to come 
before the meeting? I want to make this announcement. At 
the beginning of the year we had an enrolled membership of 
1 1 76; released from membership during the year, 142; new mem- 
bers, 262 ; making the total membership at this time 1296 (great 
applause). 

If there is no further business to come before the Associa- 
tion at this time, I will now entertain a motion to adjourn 
sine die. 



And thereupon, upon motion duly seconded and carried, the 
Twelfth Annual Meeting of The Natural Gas Association of 
America, adjourned sine die. 



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APPENDIX 

(437) 



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OFFICERS 

OF THE 

NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION 
OF AMERICA 1917-1918 



PRESIDENT. 

Joseph F. Guffey Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

VICE PRESIDENT. 

Kay C. Krick Columbus, Ohio 

VICE PRESIDENT. 

David O. Holbrook Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

SECRETARY AND TREASURER. 

Thomas C. Jones Delaware, Ohio 

DIRECTORS. 

Bert C. Oliphant, Buffalo, N. Y Term Expires 1918 

Alfred Hurlburt, Kansas City, Mo Term Expires 1918 

Arthur Booth, Pittsburgh, Pa Term Expires 1918 

Ogden K. Shannon, Fort Worth, Texas. . Term Expires 1918 

Fred P. Grosscup, Charleston, West Va. . . Term Expires 1918 

James C. Duffield, London, Ontario Term Expires 1918 

Andrew A. Armstrong, Pittsburgh, Pa. . . Term Expires 1919 

James W. McMahon, Toledo, Ohio Term Expires 1919 

Clifton W. Sears, Wooster, Ohio Term Expires 1919 

John H. Maxon, Muncie, Indiana Term Expires 1919 

Harry J. Hoover, Cincinnati, Ohio Term Expires 1919 

Glenn T. Braden, Tulsa, Oklahoma Term Expires 1919 

(439) 



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440 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

past presidents. 

♦Kerr M. Mitchell 1906-1907 

Jesse C. McDowell 1908-1909 

William H. McKenzie 1910 

John M. Garard 191 1 

Alexander B. Macbeth 1912 

Martin B. Daly 1913 

Ernest L. Brundrett 1914 

James T. Lynn 1915 

William Y. Cartwright 1916 

Joseph F. Guffey 1917 

PAST secretaries. 

Joseph H. Dunkel 1906-1908 

James F. Owens, (Elected for) 1909 



PAST annual meetings. 

Organization, Kansas City, Mo., Feb'y. 20, Feb'y. 27 and March 
20, 1906. 

First Kansas City, Mo., June 12 and 13, 1906 

Second Joplin, Mo., May 21, 22 and 23, 1907 

Third Kansas City, Mo., May 19, 20 and 21, 1908 

Fourth Columbus, Ohio, May 18, 19 and 20, 1909 

Fifth Oklahoma City, Okla., May 17, 18 and 19, 1910 

Sixth Pittsburgh, Pa., May 16, 17 and 18, 191 1 

Seventh Kansas City, Mo., May 21, 22 and 23, 1912 

Eighth Cleveland, Ohio, May 20, 21 and 22, 19 13 

Ninth Saint Louis, Mo., May 19, 20 and 21, 1914 

Tenth Cincinnati, Ohio, May 18, 19 and 20, 191 5 

Eleventh Pittsburgh, Pa., May 16, 17 and 18, 1916 

Twelfth Buffalo, X. Y., May 15, 16 and 17, 1917 



WRINKLE DEPARTMENT. 

W. Re. Brown, Editor Columbus, Ohio 

Alfred J. Diescher, Assistant 

Editor Bartlesville, Oklahoma 

* Deceased. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 441 

COMMITTEES, 1917-1918. 
advisory. 
William Y. Cartwright, 

Chairman . . .' Cincinnati, Ohio 

Jesse C. McDowell Pittsbui^gh, Pennsylvania 

William H. McKenzie Kansas City, Kansas 

John M. Garard Columbus, Ohio 

Alexander B. Macbeth Los Angeles, California 

Martin B. Daly Qeveland, Ohio 

Ernest L. Brundrett Kansas City, Missouri 

James T. Lynn Detroit, Michigan 



uniform accounting. 

H. C. Reeser, Chairman Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

V. A. Hays Independence, Kansas 

H. V. Shulters Qeveland, Ohio 

R. H. Bartlett Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

W. R. Hadley Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

C. W. Downing Cleveland, Ohio 

G. W. Ratcliffe Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

W. J. Judge New York, New York 

J. B. Tonkin Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

C. S. Mitchell Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

T. F. Wickham Cincinnati, Ohio 

G. C. Scott Columbus, Ohio 

L. A. Seyffert Charleston, West Virginia 



conservation. 
Alfred J. Diescher, Ch<nr- 

man Bartlesville, Oklahoma 

Israel C. White Morgantown, West Virginia 

Ernest L. Brundrett Kansas City, Missouri 

William T. Griswold Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Forrest M. Towl New York, New York 



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442 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

Maurice W. Walsh, Chairman. Louisville, Kentucky 

John R. Munce Little Rock, Arkansas 

Frank P. Fisher. BartlesviUe, Oklahoma 

George S. Shinnock Columbus, Ohio 

Ralph W. Hay Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 



sub-committee on national defense. 

Joseph F. Guffey, Chairman. . Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

John G. Pew, Vice Chairman. . Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

George W. Crawford Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Glenn T. Braden Tulsa, Oklahoma 

Jesse C. McDowell Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

William Y. Cartwright Cincinnati, Ohio 

finance. 

Kay C. Krick, Chairman Columbus, Ohio 

Andrew A. Armstrong Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

John H. Maxon Muncie, Indiana 

constitution and by-laws. 

Kay C. Krick, Chairman Columbus, Ohio 

Harry J. Hoover Cincinnati, Ohio 

Leslie B. Denning Columbus, Ohio 

JOINT national committee ON ELECTROLYSIS. 

Forrest M. Towl, Chairman New York, New York 

B. C. Oliphant Buffalo, New York 

S. S. Wyer Columbus, Ohio 

COMMITTEE OF AWARDS FOR WRINKLE DEPARTMENT. 

F. W. Stone, Chairman Ashtabula, Ohio 

A. P. Davis Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

W. J. Broder Columbus, Ohio 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 443 

UNITED STATES BUREAU OF STANDARDS, GAS SAFETY CODE 
CONFERENCE. 

Samuel S. Wyer, Representa- 
tive Columbus, Ohio 



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DIRECTORY OF MEMBERSHIP 

(The date with each name is that of election to membership.) 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Bailey, Edgar Henry Summerfleld May 19, 1908 

Professor of Chemistry, Unlyersity of Kansas, 1101 Ohio Street, 
Lawrence, Kansas. 

Bownocker, John Adame May 18, 1909 

State Geologist of Ohio, Ohio State University, 186 Fifteenth 
Avenne, Columbus, Ohio. 

QoMid, Charles Newton May 17, 1910 

Geological Etngineer, 1218-19 Colcord Building, Oklahoma City, 
Oklahoma. 

Harmon, Judson May 18, 1909 

Lawyer, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Haworth, Erasmus May 21, 1907 

Professor of Geology and Mining, Unlyersity of Kansas, Law- 
rence, Kansas. 

Sears, Clifton W February 27, 1906 

Vice President and General Manager, Central Ohio Gas ft Elec- 
tric ComiMmy, Wooster, Ohio. 

Sweetman, Michael M February 27, 1906 

Secretary, New York Oil ft Gas Company, 316 American Bank 
Building, Kansas City, Missouri. 

White, ieraei C May 16, 1911 

State Geologist of West Virginia, 141 WiUey Street, Morgan- 
town, West Virginia. 

ACTIVE MEMBERS. 

Ahbe, Walter, Jr May 16, 1916 

Chief Engineer, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 424 Sixth 
ATonue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Abbott, Dl E May 18, 1915 

Director, Huntington Deyelopment and Gas Company, 928 Third 
Avenue, Huntington, West Virginia. 

Abbott, E. D May 18, 1909 

Superintendent, The Springfield Gas Company, 221 North Foun- 
tain Avenue, Springfield, Ohio. 

Abeli, H. May 21. 1912 

SDgineer, American Light ft Ttaction Company, 120 Broadway, 
New York, New York. 

Adams, C. H May 15, 1917 

Field Foreman, United Natural Gas Company, Kane, R. F. D. 
No. 2, Pmnsylvania. 

(445) 



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446 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



Adamtp Larmour May 21, 1912 

Metric Metal Works, Tentb and Payne Avenues, BMe, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Adamtp W. H May 16, 1916 

Agent, Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Ck>mi»any, Ashland, Ohio. 

Adamtp William M May 16, 1916 

Agent, Cltlsens Gas ft Blectrlc Ck>mpany, 102 Bast Main Street, 
Elsrrla, Ohio. 

Adolf, Peter P May 16, 1917 

Agent, Lancaster, New York, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 
Lancaster, New York. 

Aggers, E. W May 15, 1917 

Contractor, F. A. Aggers ft Son, 145 Fraley Street, Kane, 
Pennsylvania. 

Albert/, P. A May 16, 1917 

Assistant Superintendent, The Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Com- 
pany, 34 Ruggery Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Alden, John Douglas May 21, 1912 

Assistant Superintendent, United Gas Improvement Company, 
83 Center Street, Waterbury, ConnecUcut 

Alexander, W. F May 18, 1916 

Natural Gas Insurance, Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

Allen, J. Foster May 18, 1909 

District Foreman, Sindair-Cudahy Pipe Line Company, P. O. 
Box 398, Drumrlght, Oklahoma. 

Allen, 8. 8., Jr May 21, 1907 

Assistant Secretary, Columbus Gas ft Fuel Company, 136 North 
Front Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Altlier, R. Q May 19, 1914 

Vice President, United Fuel Gas Company, 1422 Kanawha 
Street, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Amey, L. C May 19. 1914 

Chief Ekiglneer, Manufacturers Gas Qompany, Kane, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Anderson, E. J May 16, 1917 

Superintendent, Texas Gas Company, Mezla, Texas. 

Anderson, J. F May 16, 1916 

Field Foreman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, R. D. No. 
1, Mayport, Pennsylvania. 

Anderson, J. W May 18, 1916 

Agent, United Fuel Gas Company, Ventura Hotel, Ashland, 
Kentucky. 

Angle, J. E May 16, 1911 

Superintendent, Fayette County Gas Company, 302 South Pitts- 
burgh Street, Connellsvllle, Pennsylvania. 

Apple, C. B May 16, 1917 

12518 Clifton Boulevard, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Ardizzone, Joseph May 21, 1912 

President, The Ardizzone Company, 607-608 Bliss Building, 
Tulsa, Oklahoma. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 447 



Armttead, Daniel M May 21, 1912 

Stegineer, Sales Department, IngeraoU-Rand ComiMiny, Faimera 
Bank Building, Plttaburgh, PennsylTania. 

Armetrong, Andrew A May 18, 1909 

Aasistant G^ieral Manager, Union Natural Gas Corporation, 
1616 Union Bank Building, Pittsburgti, Pennaylyania. 

Armetrong, Thomas May 15, 1917 

Inspeotor, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 683 West Avenue^ 
Buffalo, New York. 

Arnold, W. H May 18, 1915 

Repreeentatiye, Pittsburgh Valye, Foundry and Construction 
Company, 1817 Tonapah Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Arras, Walter H May 16, 1916 

Chief Clerk, Purchasing Department, Philadelphia Company, 
436 Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Ashley, Walter A May 16, 1916 

Local Saperintendent, Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, 
Chillicothe, Ohio. 

Ashton, H. T May 18, 1916 

Assistant ESngineer, Ohio Cities Gas Company, 135 North Front 
Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Atkins, i. H May 16, 1916 

District Manager, Union Gas ft Electric Company, Fourth and 
Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Ayer, J. W May 19, 1914 

Sales Manager, Reznor Manufacturing Company, Reznor Street, 
Mercer, Pennsylvania. 

Baehr, William Alfred May 21, 1912 

Consulting Engineer, 122 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 
minois. 

Bagley, W. H May 18, 1915 

Agent, Osage ft Oklahoma Company, Pioneer Building, Tulsa, 
Oklahoma. 

Bahan, J. P May 16, 1917 

Clerk, The Texas Company, Natural Gas Department, 1708 
Fairfield Avenue, Shreveport, Louisiana. 

Baker, A. Q May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, Tri-County Natural Gas Company, Caledonia, 
New York. 

Baker, C. M May 18, 1916 

Chief E2ngineer, Petrolia Compressing Station, Lone Star Gas 
Company, Petrolia, Texas. 

Baker, W. N May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, R. F. D.. Miletus, West 
Virginia. 

Baldwin, O. M May 16. 1917 

F6reman, Eltst Ohio Gas Company, 436 East Main Street, Kent, 
Ohio. 

Ballard, A. M May 19, 1914 

C(niBtructing Engineer, Wayland Oil and Gas Company, 
Charleston, West Virginia. 

Ballard Charies R May 18, 1909 

Manufacturer, Ballard Patent Suction and Discharge Valves, 
Midway, Pennsylvania. 



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448 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



kllard, H. O May 1», 1914 

Superintendent of Production, Wichita Natural Gas Company, 
606 Bast Third Street, BarUesTiUe, Oklahoma. 

Bane, K. H May 18, 1915 

Reserve Gas Cknapany, Lock Box 123, Wilsonburg, West 
Virginia. 

Barger, Louis F May 20, 1913 

G^ieral Superintendent, Peoples Natural Gas Company, 424 
Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Barnes, George W June 12, 1906 

Bfagineer, William Penn Hotel, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Barnes, R. B May 16, 1911 

District Superintendent, United Natural Gas Company, Mill 
Street, BrookviUe, Pennsylvania. 

Barnsdall, T. N., 2nd May 19. 1914 

Treasurer, The Highland Gas Company, 7 Chambers Street, 
Bradford, Pennsylvania. 

Barr, James H May 18, 1916 

President, The National SSupply Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Toledo, Ohio. 

Barrett, M. F May 19, 1914 

President, The Cleveland Brass Manufacturing Company, 
4606-26 Hamilton Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Barrett, William E May 21, 1912 

Gas Engineer, J. G. White ft Company, Inc., 43-49 Exchange 
Place, New York, New York. 

Barrows, Oeorge 8 May 16, 1916 

Manager Gkts Heating Department, General Fire Extinguisher 
Company, 275 West Exchange Street, Providence, Rhode 
Island. 

Barrows, L. E May 18, 191B 

Ekiglneer, The Texas Company Natural Gas Department, Fort 
Worth, Texas. 

BMtry, James May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Arkansas Natural Gas Company, Prescott, Artcansas. 

Bartiett, E. O May 16. 1911 

Secretary-Treasurer, Moncton Tramways, Electricity ft Gas 
Company, Limited, 1013 Farmers' Bank Building, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

Bartiettp John C May 16, 1916 

Secretary and Tt^asurer, Oklahoma Natural Gas Company, 
Caney River Gas Company, ESnid NIatural Gaa Company, 
Assistant Secretary and Assistant Treasurer, Osage St 
Oklahoma Company, 1402 Union Bank Building, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 

BaHiett, R. H May 16, 1911 

Assistant to the President, Oklahoma Natural Gas Company, 
1402 Union Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylyania. 

Bartley, E. L May 18, 1909 

General Superintendent, American Natural Gas Company, Park 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylyania. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 449 



Bartloy, W. A May 16, 1916 

Distiict SQperixit0nd«iit, American Natural Gas GomiMm7» In- 
diana, Pennsylvania. 

Bartow, A. T May 18, 1915 

Distribution Engineer, Central Indiana Gas Company, Muncie, 
Indiana. 

Baas, W. H May 16, 1917 

Foreman, Alden-Batavla Natural Gas Company, Alden, New 
York. 

Batchelor, G. F May 19, 1914 

President, The Natural Gas Company of West Vii^nia, 323 
Fourth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Battin, Henry 8 May 21, 1912 

Assistant General Superintendent, United Gas Improvement 
Company, Broad and Arch Streets, Philadelphia^ Penn- 
sylvania. 

Bay, B. R May 16, 1917 

Chief Engineer, The Medina Gas ft Fuel Company, 139 Dickson 
Avenue, Mansfield, Ohio. 

Baxter, John May 21, 1912 

Superintendent, Tube Department, Republic Iron and Steel 
Company. Toungstown, Ohio. 

Bauer, C. J May 18, 1916 

Purchasing Agent, Union Gas ft EBectric Company, Fourth and 
Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Beach, Ralph A May 16, 1916 

Assistant to Superintendent, T. W. Phillips Gas ft Oil Company, 
120 Bast Cunningham Street, Butler, Pennsylvania. 

Beardaley, R. D May 16, 1916 

Assistant Treasurer, Hope Natural Gas Company, 424 Sixth 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Beaty, Elmer May 16, 1916 

Acting Superintendent, Manuftu^turers Gas Company, Bradford, 
Pennsylvania. 

Bedford, A. C May 16, 1916 

Vice President, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, of Pitta- 
burgh, President, Standard Oil C6mpany of New Jersey, 
26 Broadway, New York, New York. 

Bell, Charies D May 21, 1907 

Superintendent, Kansas Natural Gas Company, 113 Miners 
Bank Building, Joplln, Missouri. 

Banner, Qeorge K May 16, 1916 

President, Benner Drilling Tool Company, 6431-6433 Prain Ave- 
nue, East End, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Benninger, N. H May 16, 1917 

Superintendent, United Natural Gas Company, Station R, South 
Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

Benninger, R. E May 16, 1917 

Chief Engineer, United Natural Gas Company, Hallton, Penn- 
sylvania. 

B, C- O May 16, 1917 

Foremian, United Natural Gas C6mpany, Mabel Street, Rey- 
noldsviUe, Pennsylvania. 



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450 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



BorwBld^ P. M May 18, 1915 

General Manager, The City of Bradford Gas A Power Corpo- 
ration, Bradford, Pennsylvania. 

Berry, B. N May 15, 1917 

Contractor, Dominion Natural Gas Comx»any, Caledonia, On- 
tario, Omada. 

Bevarit R. L May 18, 1915 

Second Assistant Treasurer, Calgary Gaa Company, Limited. 
216 Sixth Avenue, West, Calgary, Albrnta, Canada. 

BIddlson, P. McDonald May 21, 1907 

Construction Engineer, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 62 West 
Gay Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Bleler, O May 16, 1917 

Salesman, Westlnghouse Electric A Manufacturing Company, 
1808 Union Bank Building, Pittsburgh, PennsylTanla. 

BIgelow, Lucius 8 May 21, 1907 

President, The Periodicals Publishing Company, Uttell Build- 
ing, 68 West Huron Street, Buffalo, New York. 

BIglerp G, K May 20, 1913 

City Plant Foreman, United Natural Gas Company, Franklin, 
Pennsylvania. 

Bllllngsley, J. E May 16, 1916 

Assistant Geologist, Philadelphia Company, 436 Sixth Avenue, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Bishop, H. W., Jr May 18, 1909 

Representative, La Belle Iron Works, Steubenville, Ohio. 

Black, Tom M May 16, 1916 

Assistant Secretary, T. W. Phillips Gas and Oil Company, But- 
ler, Pennsylvania. 

Blaokall, T. P May 16, 1917 

Regulator Inspector, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 1398 Mich- 
igan Avenue, Buffalo, New York. 

Blake, B. F May 16, 1917 

Chief Engineer, Tfeat Compressing Station, The Ohio Fuel 
Supply Company, Homer, Ohio. 

Blauvelt, Warren 8 May 16, 1917 

Consulting EZnglneer, Steere Ehigineering Company, Woodward 
and Horton Avenues, Detroit, Michigan. 

Blewett, John T May 16, 1917 

General Inspector, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 76 Gold 
Street, Buffalo, New York. 

Bllnn, Arthur M May 20, 1913 

Agent, Pennsylvania Gas Company, 1126-1128 Pearl Street, Brie, 
Pennsylvania. 

Blumi William May 16, 19K 

Superintendent, Sugar Grove Field, Logan Natural Gas & Fuel 
Company, Lancaster, Ohio. 

Bodfne, 8anrMjel Taylor May 17, 1910 

President, The United Gas Improvement Company, Broad and 
Arch Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Boocke, C. W May 16, 191$ 

District Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, Hastings, West 
Virginia. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 451 



Booth, Arthur May 17, 1910 

Vice PresidMLt, Burson Supply Gompany, 242-244 First Avenue, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylyaala. 

Booth, George P May 19, 1908 

General Superintendent, S. R. Dresser Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Bradford, F^meylTania. 

Booth, W. F May 20, 1913 

Manager, Little Rock Gas ft Fuel Company, 624 Louisiana 
Street, Uttle Rock, Arkansas. 

Boothe, R. E May 16, 1911 

President, R. B. Boothe Cordage Company, 260i Granyille SItreet, 
Newaik, Ohio. 

Borchard, C. E May 16, 1917 

Accountant, Dominion Natural Gae Company, Limited, 842 Ma- 
rine National Bank Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Bormann, Clarence B May 16, 1916 

Shiglneer, Cttmegie Natural Gaa Company, Farmington, West 
T^rginia. 

Bower, J. D May 15, 1917 

Manager, Central Pipe Line Company, Reymer, Ontario, Canada. 

BovMman, S. W May 18, 1916 

Oil and Gas Producer, Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

Boyd, A. E May 20, 1918 

Superintendent, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 141 Bast Fourth 
Street, Ashland, Ohio. 

Boyd, G. S May 18, 1916 

Chief Bhgineer, Mo<Nringsport Refining Company, Moorln^iport, 
Louisiana. 

Boyd, Hugh T May 15, 1917 

Chemist, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, Homer, Obio. 

Boyle, E. R May 15, 1917 

Manager, Oil CKy Derrick, 7 Center Street, Oil City, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Boyle, Patrick C May 20. 1918 

Preeident, The DMTlck Publiehing Company, 7 Center Street, 
Oil City, PemisylTanla. 

Braden, Eugene C May 16, 1916 

Contractor, Ardiszone Braden Company, 607 Bliss Building, 
Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Braden, Glenn T May 17, 1910 

President, Oklahoma Natural Gae Company, 214 Pioneer Build- 
ing, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Bra^n, H. W May 18, 1916 

Purchasing Agent, Dominion Natural Gas Company, 807 Bank 
<^ Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 

BradTord, Floyd J May 19, 1914 

l^ce Prsident, Parkersburg Rig and Reel Company, P. O. Box 
974, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Bradley, Harry May 20, 1918 

President, Bmpire Gas ft Fuel Company, Limited, 78 North 
Main Street, WellsTlllle, New York. 



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452 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



Brm4\9y, J. B May 18, 1915 

Secretary and Treasurer, Homell Gas Light Company, 96 Main 
Street, Homell, New Tork. 

Brady, M. A May 16, 1917 

FV)reman, Tri-Oounty Natural Oaa Company, Caledonia, New 
York. 

Bragdon, H. K May 16. 1917 

Secretary to General Manager, PhlladelpUa Company, 436 Sixth 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, PoinsylTania. 

Brandel, 8. F May 16, 1917 

Foreman, Peoples Natural Ckui Company, Qardenville, New 
York. 

Braun, C. J., Jr May 16, 1911 

Treasurer, Philadelphia Company, 436 Sixth ATenue, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

Brawley, Hugh P May 18, 1908 

Claim Agent, 361 Walnut Street, Meadville, Pennsylvania. 

Brazier, John B May 18, 1916 

Vice President and General Manager, Powhatan Brass A Iron 
Works, North Mildred Street and Belt Line Avenue, Han- 
son, JeflenKm County, West Virginia. 

Brenner, H, H May 21. 1912 

President, Pawhuska Oil and Gas Company, Pawhuska, 
Oklahoma. 

Brennan, H. W May 16, 1917 

Foreman, The Texas Company, Moran, Texas. 

Brewster, Henry May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, Weston, West Virginia. 

Bridges, J. M May 20, 1913 

Agent, United Natural Gas Company, Liberty Street, Franklin, 
Pennsylvania. 

Brlnham, A. L May 16, 1917 

Clerk, Union Natural Gas Corporation, 1929 F\>rbes Street, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Brink, George R May 18. 1909 

Assistant Secretary-Treasurer, Union Natural Gas Corporation, 
Union Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Brink, R. W May 16, 1916 

General Auditor, Hope Natural Gas Company, 26 Broadway, 
New York, New York. 

Broder, William J May 18, 1909 

Vice President and General Manager, The Logan Natural Gas 
& Fuel Company. 34 Ruggery Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Brooks, R. A May 16, 1917 

Secretary and Treasurer, The Medina Gas A Fuel Company, 
Wooster, Ohio. 

Brown, Cameron May 16, 1916 

Campaign Manager, General Gas Light Company, 44 West 
Broadway, New York, New York. 

Brown, D. J May 18, 1919 

Treasurer, Oil Well Supply Company, 213 Water Street, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 453 

Brown, E. R May 16, 1911 

General Manager, Lone Star Gas Ck>mpany, Ck>r8icana, Texas. 

Brown, Louis May 19, 1914 

President, (Ml Well Supply Company, 215 Water Street, PltU- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

Brown, L. E. H May 15, 1917 

Fi^d Superintendent, Potter Gas Company, Roulette, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Brown, L. H May 15, 1917 

Assistant E:ngineer, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 102 Eight- 
eenth Street, Buffalo, New York. 

Brown, William Laird May 16, 1916 

Representative, Helm ft Mcllhenny, 1339 Cherry Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania. 

Brown W. R May 18, 1915 

New Business Manager, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 97 
North Front Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Bruce, W. W May 21, 1912 

Superintendent, Oklahoma Fuel Supply Company, P. O. Box 
"L," Chandler, Oklahoma. 

Bruckner, O. L May 15, 1917 

Agent, Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, 11 West Walnut, 
Westerville, Ohio. 

Brunner, E May 15, 1917 

Engineer, Hope Ekigineering ft Supply Company, Mt. Vernon, 
Ohio. 

Brundrett, Ernest L May 21, 1907 

President, Kansas City Gas Company, 910 Grand Avenue, Kan- 
sas City, Missouri. 

Bryant, C. L May 18, 1915 

President, The Bryant Heater ft Manufacturing Company, 952 
East Seventy-second Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Buchanan, James I May 16, 1916 

President, Taylorstown Natural Gas Company, Terminal Office 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Buckley, W. H May 18. 1915 

First Engineer, Rogers Compressing Station, Arkansas Natural 
Gas Company, Lewis, Louisiana. 

Bulger, J. F May 16, 1916 

Shop Foreman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, Turtle 
Creek, Pennsylvania. 

Bullock, Charles L February 27, 1906 

Superintendent Distribution Ebipire Gas ft Fuel Company, 
Bartlesville, Oklahoma. 

Bullock, George May 15, 1917 

Foreman, Southern Ontario Gas Company, Limited, Rodney, 
Ontario, Canada. 

Burford, Ini 8 May 16, 1916 

Aiigent, United Fuel Gas Company, Inc., 114 North Third Street, 
fronton, Ohio. 

Burkhalter, R. J May 20, 1913 

Assistant Secretary and Treasurer, The Northwestern Ohio 
Natural Gas Company, 210-213 Huron Street, Tbledo, Ohio. 



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464 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Burnett, Jorom« B Maj 16» 1917 

Chief Oklahoma DiTlsion, ESmpire Oas & Fuel Gomiiany, 
BartlesTllle, Oklahoma. 

Bums, E. Q May 18. 1916 

Land Agent, Columbia Gcm & Blectric Company, 1668 Sixth 
Avenue, Huntington, West "^rginia. 

Bums, T. B May 16, 1916 

Shop Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, 1212 Julianna 
Street, Parkersburg, West Virginia. 

Bumslde, 8. E. W May 16, 1916 

Attorney, Hope Natural Gas Company, 424 Sixth Avenue, Pitta- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

Burr, R. B May 20, 1913 

Industrial Engineer, The Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, 
34 Ruggery Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Burrell, Qeorge A May 20, 1913 

Consulting Chemical Engineer, Benedum-Trees Building, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

Burress, George H May 16, 1917 

Geologist, Empire Gas ft Fuel Company, Bartleaville» Oklahoma. 

Burrltt, D. F May 18, 1915 

General Superintendent, National Gas, Electric Light ft Power 
Company, 1714 Ford Building, Detroit, Michigan. 

Burson, H. W May 16, 1916 

President, Colonial Supply Company, 414 First Avenue, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

Burtner, James C May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, Drilling Department, Medina Gas ft Fuel Com 
pany, Bast Liberty Street, Wooster, Wajme County, Ohio. 

Butler, C. L May 15, 1917 

Accountant, Dominion Natural Gas Company, Limited, 842 Ma- 
rine National Bank Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Cabot, Godfrey L May 19, 1914 

Proprietor, Plant at Cabot, Pennsylvania, 940 Old South Build- 
ing, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Cain, W. J May 15. 1917 

Division Foreman, East Ohio Gas Company, Cuyahoga Flails, 
Ohio. 

Calianan, J. T May 18, 1915 

President and Treasurer, Parkersburg Machine Company, Ju- 
liana Street, Parkersburg, West Virginia. 

Caffrey, Qeorge H May 19, 1914 

Manager, Abilene Gas ft Electric Company, 126 Cypress Street, 
Abilene, Texas. 

Campbell, Gordon M May 15, 1917 

Commercial Department, Unicm Light, Heat ft Power Company, 
Third Street and Court Avenue, Covington, Kentucky. 

Campbell, J. P May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, Littleton, West Virginia. 

Campbell, J. T May 16. 1916 

Agent, The Manufacturers Light ft Heat Company, New Castle, 
Pennsylvania. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 466 



Campbell, M. L May 16, 1916 

Plttsbnrgli and West Virginia Company, Salem, Weat Virginia. 

Cantrell, C. C May 17, 1910 

Vice President and Bfonager, Central Lls^t & Fuel Company, 
21 Bast Hobson Avenue, Sapulpa, Oklaboma. 

Cappeau, J. P^ Jr May 16, 1911 

Secretary and Treasurer, The Natural Gas Bnglne«ring Com- 
pany, 801 Machesney Building, 223 Fourth Avenue, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

Carey, Qail May 21, 1912 

Secretary, The Oamett Light ft Fu^ Company, 319 Oak Street, 
Ckimett, Kansas. 

Carey, W. C May 16. 1917 

Foreman Meter Repairs, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 37 Ada 
Place, Buffalo, New York. 

Carl, L. F May 16, 1917 

Agent, The Newark Natural Gas A Fuel Company, 58 West 
Main Street, Newark, Ohio. 

Carmody, M. B May 18, 1909 

Field Manager, South Western Gas ft BUectric Company, 1764 
Irving Place, Shreveport, Louisiana. 

Carpenter, Everett May 19, 1914 

Chief (Geologist, Continental Oil ft G€Ui Company, Bartlesville, 
Oklahoma. 

Carpenter, George R May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, United Fuel Gas Company, 1207 Blmwood Ave- 
nue, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Carson, W. B May 16, 1911 

Secretary, Philadelphia Company, 436 Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 

Carter, C. E May 18. 1915 

President, Mansfield Gas Light Company, 8 South Park Street, 
Mansfield, Ohio. 

Carter, Clarence E May 18, 1916 

Salesman, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 97 North Front 
Street, COlumbus, Ohio. 

Carter, David J May 18, 1916 

Attorney at Law, Carter and Sheets, 419-421 Goff Building, 
Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

Carter, O. M. May 16, 1916 

President, United Gas Iron Company, 528 Peoples Gas Building, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

Cartwright, T. R May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, United Fuel Gas Company, Clendmin, West 
Virginia. 

Cartwright, William Y May 21, 1912 

Vice President, Union Gas ft Electric Company, Fourth and 
Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Caaael, Howard N May 20, 1913 

Secretary-Treasurer and General Manager, Leflore County Gas 
ft Blectric Company, Poteau, Oklahoma. 



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456 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



CaM, L. L May 15, 1917 

Local Agent, Ontario Gas Company, Holcomb, New York. 

Casto, A. T. May 16, 1016 

SuperlntendMLt, Randall Gas Company, 190 Chancery Row, 
Morgantown, West Virginia. 

Cavenau, Charlea May 16, 1916 

Foreman Reserve Gas Company, Wilsonburg, West Virginia. 

Cavenagh, Frank May 17, 1910 

General Sales Agent, Pacific Meter Company, 732 Title Insui^ 
ance Building, Los Angeles, California. 

Chambers, Fred N ......... .May 15, 1917 

Oil Producer, Chambers Oil Company, 214 Chambers Building, 
Oil City, PenDBylvania. 

Chandler, L. F May 18, 1916 

Superintendent, Santa< Maria Gas ft Power Company, 203 West 
Main Street, Santa Maria, California. 

Chapiin, Wifliam C May 17, 1910 

Treasurer, The Chaplin-Fulton Mfg. Company, 34 Penn Avenue, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Chapman, W. B May 16, 1916 

Oil Producer, 74 Vandergrift Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Church, H. H ....May 19, 1914 

President and General Manager, The iUUbuck A Millersburg 
Oil & Gas Company, Millersburg, Ohio. 

Clagett, E. F ..May 18, 1915 

Engineer, The Columbus Gas & Fuel Company, 135 North Front 
Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Clapp, a N May 18. 1909 

Secretary-Treasurer and General Manager, Washington Gas & 
Electric Company, Washington C. H., Ohio. 

Clark, C. L May 15, 1917 

Foreman, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 95 Mechanic Street, 
Bradford, Pennsylvania. 

Clark, Earl A May 16, 1911 

Proportional and Domestic Service, Meter Testing, 217 A. W. 
5th, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Clark, Jamea ... .May 19, 1914 

Division Superintendent, Philadelphia Company, 17th and 
Wharton Streets, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Clark, J. 8 May 19, 1914 

Manager, Okmulgee Gas Company, 319 West Sixth Street, Ok- 
mulgee, Oklahoma. 

Clark, Robert E May 16, 1916 

Assistant Land Agent, Philadelphia Company, 435 Sixth Ave- 
nue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Clark, Walton May 21, 1907 

Second Vice-President, United Gas Improvement Company, 
Broad and Arch Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Clarkaon, R. J May 19, 1914 

Division Superintendent, Philadelphia Company of West Vir- 
ginia, Littleton, West Virginia. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 457 



Cla<W8on, W. B May 15, 1917 

Superintendent, Warren ft Chant Gas Company, 309 Poplar 
Street, Warren, Pennsylvania. 

Cleary, J. D May 15, 1917 

A^ent, Angola, New York. Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 
Angola, New York. 

Clifford, Thomas C May 16, 1911 

Sales Manager, Pittsburgh Meter Company, Bast Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 

Cllne, Walter B .May 21, 1912 

President, Los Angeles Gas ft Electric Corpoiutlon, 645 South 
Hill Street, Los Angeles, California. 

Clover, J. N May 15, 1917 

President, The Iron Mountain Oil Company, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Clover, M. K .May 18, 1915 

Manager, Berea Pipeline Company, 9 Front Street, Berea, Ohio. 

Clover, 8. C May 15, 1917 

Oil and Gas Department, The Iron Mountain Oil Company, 
Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Cluley, C. F. May 20, 1913 

Agent, The East Ohio Gas Company, Millersburg, Ohio. 

Cochran, Horace J May 18, 1915 

President and Manager, Maysville Gas Company, MaysviUe, 
Kentucky. 

Cohn, Charles M May 21, 1912 

Vice President, Cons. Gas EHectrlc Light ft Power Company, of 
Baltimore, 100 West Lexington Street, Baltimore, Mary- 
land. 

Cole, E. J May 16, 1911 

Purchasing Agent and Auditor, Arkansas Natural Gas Com- 
pany, State Bank Building, Little Rock, Arkansas. 

Cole, W. Q May 16, 1911 

Division Superintendent, H)quitable Gas Company, 435 Sixth 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Coleman, L. Q May 19, 1914 

Ehigineer, Henry L. Doherty ft Company, 60 Wall Street, New 
York, New York. 

Colllna, Frank May 18, 1915 

Vice President, National Supply Company, President, Toledo 
Pipe Threading Machine Company, Toledo, Ohio. 

Connelly, J. 8 June 12, 1906 

President, Port Arthur Gas ft Power Company, Port Arthur, 
Texas. 

Connors, Eugene F May 15, 1917 

President, Gufley Gasoline Company, Bradford, Pennsylvania. 

Connors, J. P. ....May 16, 1917 

Cashier, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 1106 Main Street, Buf- 
falo, New York. 

Cookham, P. J May 15, 1917 

Superintendent, Berea Pipe Line Company, 88 Furnace Street, 
Berea, Ohio. 



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458 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Coop«r, H. C May 10, 1913 

General Sup^ntendent, Hope Natural Gas Company, Clarka- 
burg, West Virginia. 

Corbett, M. A May 17, IMO 

Secretary, Ck>rbett-SteyenB Company, Huntington Bank Build- 
ing, Ccrfumbus, Ohio. 

Corbus, C. D .May JO, 1913 

Manager, Welsbacb Company, 429 Main Street, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

Corcoran, W. F May 21. 1907 

Contractor, James O. Corcoran Company, 416 House Building, 
Pittsburgh, PennsylTsnia. 

Cork, D. W May 18, 1916 

Oil and Gas Producer, Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

Corrin, John B May 20, 1918 

Vice President, The Hope Natural Gas Company, 424 Sixth 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, PennsylTania. 

Cosan, Frank May 15, 1917 

Land Department Clerk, Dominion Natural Gas Company, 842 
Marine Bank Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Costs, Dillon May 20, 1913 

Secretary, The Canadian Western Natural Gas, Light, Heat & 
Power Company, Limited, 216 Seventh Avenue, East, Cal- 
gary, Alberta, Canada. 

CosU, D. A May 15, 1917 

Treasurer, Provincial Natural Gas Company, Niagara FUls, 
Ontario, Canada. 

Costs, Eugene May 20, 1913 

President, The Canadian Western Natural Gas, Light, Heat & 
Power Company, Limited, 128 Seventh Avenue, Bast, Cal- 
gary, Alberta, Canada. 

Covsy, A. F May 18, 1916 

Superintendent, Dominion Natural Gas Company, 807 Bank of 
Hamilton Building, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 

Courtney, D. H May 18, 1915 

President, Randall Gas Company, 179 High, Morgantown, West 
Virginia. 

Cowham, H. I May 21, 1912 

Manager Land Department, Kasigan Oil, Gas & Power Com- 
pany, 116} ESast Main Street, Independence, Kansas. 

Cox, Frank May 18, 1916 

Secretary, Navajo Gas Company, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Coyle, Henry May 18, 1909 

Superintendent, Mains and Field, Logan Natural Gas A Fuel 
Company, 34 Ruggery Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Craft, Charles May 16, 1911 

Chief Engineer, East Ohio Gas Company, West Park, Ohio. 

Crahan, B. J ........May 17, 1910 

Superintendent, Joplin Gas Company, 318 Joplin Street, Joplin, 
Missouri. 

Craig, Albert B May 16, 1916 

Geologist, Greensboro Gas Company, 248 Fourth Avenue, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 459 



Craig, W. P May 30, 1913 

General Superintendent, United Natural Gas Company, 308 Sen- 
eca Street, (Ml City, Pennsylvania. 

Cratty, James M .May 16, 1917 

Foreman Meter Department, Pennsylvania Gas Company, 
Jamestown, New York. 

Crawford, A. A ....May 16, 1916 

General Superintendent, Manutacturers Gas Company, 87 Oomr 
gross Street, Bradford, Pennsylvania. 

Crawford, C. E May 16, 1911 

Director, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 2017 Farmers Bank Build- 
ing, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Crawford, C. J. May 16, 1916 

1028 Liberty Street, Franklin, Pennsylvania. 

Crawford, David B .May 16, 1911 

General Manager, Parkersburg Rig and Reel Company, 450 
Second Street, Parkersburg, West Virginia. 

Crawford, F. H . . . .May 16, 1911 

Chief E}nglneer, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 52 West Gay 
Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Crawford, Frederick W May 18, 1909 

President, United Fuel Gas Company, 52 West Gay Street, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Crawford, George W May 17, 1910 

President, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 2017 Farmers Bank 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Crawford, James B May 16, 1911 

President, United Natural Gas Company, 308 Seneca Street, OH 
City, Pennsylvania. 

Crawford, John M ; May 16, 1911 

President, Parkersburg Rig & Reel Company, Box 624, Parkers- 
burg, West Virginia. 

Crawford, J. W. R May 16, 1911 

61 Broadway, New York, New York. 

Crawford, R. A May 20, 1913 

Vice President and Manager, Oblong Gas Company, West Main 
Street, Palestine, Illinois. 

Crawford, Ronald B ...... May 20, 1913 

Superintendent, United Natural Gas Company, 116 Bissell Ave- 
nue, Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

Craveling, J. D May 15. 1917 

Consulting Engineer, Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, 34 
Ruggery Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Critchfleld, C, F May 16. 1916 

Special Inspector, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 52 West 
Gay Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Cronin, John M May 18, 1915 

Assistant Superintendent. Columbia Gas ft Electric Company, 
Fourth and Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Crosby, G. A May 16, 1916 

Surveyor, Land Department, Potter Gas Company, 1011 Farm- 
era Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 



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460 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



CroM, F. A May 20, 1918 

Chief Station Engineer, United Natural Gas Ck>miMuiy, Ten BCile 
Bottom, PennaylTaala. 

Croaa, Raymond May 1«, 1911 

T^ce President and General Manager, United Natural Gas 
Company, 808 Seneca Street, Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

Crossettt John May 1$, 1911 

Division Superintendent, Philadelphia Company, Arch Street, 
Klttannlng, Pennsylvania. 

Crowe, R. R May 19, 1914 

Agent, United Natural Gas Company, 76 Main Street, Bradford, 
Pennsylvania. 

Crowl, P. E ..May 15, 1917 

Agent, Potter Gas Company, Galeton, Pennsylvania. 

Crum, M. C May 16, 1916 

Agent, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, Monessen, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Culllnan, M. P May 20, 1913 

President, Border Gas Company, 1418 Chihuahua Street, La- 
redo, Texas. 

Gulp, Harry C May 15, 1917 

Salesman, IngersoU Rand Company, Williamson Building, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Cumlngs, C. E May 19, 1914 

President and General Manager, BSast Brady Gas ft Fuel Com- 
pany, Bfeist Brady, Pennsylvania. 

Cummlngs, Con May 21, 1912 

Contractor, 115 North Fourth Street, Independence, Kansas. 

Cummlngs, E. A May 15, 1917 

Assistant Treasurer, Moncton Tramways, BSectrlcity ft Gaa 
Company, Limited, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada. 

Cunnlnoh«m> J. C May 18, 1909 

General Superintendent, West Virginia and Maryland Gaa 
Company, 9^ South Centre Street, Cumberland, Maryland. 

Cunningham, R. H May 16, 1916 

Sales Bngineer, Ingersoll>Rand Company, 1226 Farmers Bank 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Curry, J. F ..May 16, 1911 

Superintendent, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 52 West Gay 
Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Curry, J. P. ...B4ay 20, 1913 

Agent, United Natural Gas Company, 16 Vine Street, Sharon, 
Pennsylvania. 

Curtis, Austin G May 19, 1908 

General Manager, Southwestern Gas ft Ellectric Company, 116 
Texas Street, Shreveport, Louisiana. 

Cusaek, W. M May 20, 1918 

lYeasurer, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 46 Church Street, 
Buffalo, New York. 

Cuahing, J. W .. May 15, 1917 

Oil and Gas Producer, SistersviUe, West Virginia. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 461 



CiMhIrHb Robert W May 19, 1914 

Field Superintendent, Natural Gas Company of Weat Virginia, 
Leetonia, Columbiana County, Ohio. 

Custer, 2. B May 19, 1908 

Vice Prefiident, Custer Coupling Company, 89 Foreman Street, 
Radford, PMinsylyania. 

Cypher, M. B May 1$, 1916 

Contractor and Producer, Marwood, Pennsylvania. 

Dailey, Eugene May 15, 1917 

Administration Department, Wichita Natural Qas Company, 
BartlesTille, Oklahoma. 

Dallow, J. C... May 18, 1909 

Representative, The National Supply Company, Lancaster, 
Ohio. 

Dally, A. B. Jr .May 18, 1909 

President and Manager, South Hills Oil and Qas Company, 1501 
Benedum Trees Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Dally, 0. A. Jr. May 20. 1918 

Manager, Reserve Natural Oas Company of Louisiana, P. O. Box 
191, Shreveport, Louisiana. 

Daly, Martin B May 18, 1909 

President and General Manager, The Bast Ohio Qm Company, 
East Ohio Gas Building, 1405 Bast Sixth Street, Cleveland, 
Ohio. 

Daugherty, O. J ....... .May 18. 1915 

Superintendent, La Belle Qas & Oil Company, 220 West Street, 
Steubenville, Ohio. 

Dauler, Harvey N May 15, 1917 

President, Petroleum Products Company, 39th Street, and B. A 
O. Ry., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Davlea, O. L May 18, 1915 

Agent, United Fuel Gas Company, 814 Fourth Avenue, Hunting- 
ton, West Virginia. 

Davlee, Btuart W May 16, 1916 

Cashier, The Calgary Gas Company, Limited, 215 Sixth Avenue, 
West Calgary, Allberta, Canada. 

Davles, W. B ..May 15, 1917 

Foreman, United Gas Companies, Limited, St. Catherines, On- 
tario, Canada. 

Davlea, William B ....May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, The United Gas Companies, Limited, 45 King 
Street, St. Catherines, Ontario, Canada. 

Davie, A. P ... .May 20, 1913 

Commercial Manager, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 424 
Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Davis, Herbert R May 21, 1907 

General Superintendent, Dominion Gas Company, Limited, Ma- 
rine National Bank Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Davis, Merrill N May 16, 1916 

Special Representative, The B. F. Goodrich CcHupany, Akron, 
Ohio. 



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462 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



Daw^s, B«man Q. . . . May 17. 1910 

President, Columbus Gas ft Fuel Company, 135 North Front 
Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Dawes, Henry M May 17, 1910 

President, Pulaski Qas Light Company (Little Rock, Arkansas), 
1616 Harris Trust Building, Chicago, Illinois. 

Deal, E. O. May 16, 1917 

The ESast Ohio Gas Company, 714 High Street, 8. W., Canton, 
Ohio. 

Dean, H. Alexander May 16, 1916 

President, EHk Natural Gkis Company, 223 Fourth ATenue, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

Deemer, F. C May 18, 1909 

Gas ft Oil Operator, 200 Jefferson Street, BrookTille, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

DeForest, C. W May 15, 1917 

Electrical ESnglneer, Union Gas ft Blectric Company, Fourth 
and Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Deianey, Joseph P May 20, 1913 

City Superintendent, The Union Gas ft Blectric Company, 
Fourth and Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Denning, Leslie B May 16, 1911 

General Counsel, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 60 Bbst Broad 
Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Denton, Dorr T . . .May 16, 1917 

Division Superintendent, Iroqu<^s Natural Gas Company, 46 
Clarendon, Buffalo, New York. 

Deverleks, Filmore C May 16, 1916 

Independent Producer, 261 Buena Vista Avenue, Clarksburg, 
West Virginia. 

DeWItt, D. C .May 16, 1917 

Lease Department, Southern Gas Company, Box 767, Corpus 
Christi, Texas. 

Dibbsns, W. J May 19, 1908 

Vice President and General Manager, Guthrie Gas Light, Fuel 
ft Improvement Company, 213 Blast Oklahoma Avenue, 
Guthrie, Oklahoma. 

Dlescher, Alfred J May 18, 1909 

Vice President and General Manager, Btnpire Gas ft Fuel Com- 
pany, Bmplre Building, BartlesviUe, Oklahoma. 

Dietrich, C. R May 16, 1916 

Agent, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, Turtle Creek, 
Pennsylvania. 

Dill, 8. J May 21, 1912 

President, Leavenworth, Kansas Light, Heat ft Power Com- 
pany, 40 Wall Street, New York, New Yortc 

DImIek, W. H May 20, 1913 

Agent, The ESast Ohio Gas Company, 202 West High Street, 
New Philadelphia, Ohio. 

Dlngman, L. R May 16, 1916 

District Foreman, Equitable Gas Company, 686 Corey Aventtei 
Braddock, Pennsylvania. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 4«8 

Dittman, C. E May 17, 1916 

Manager, Waynesburg Home Qas Company, Wayneaburg, 
Pennaylrania. 

DIttman, D. M May 15, 1917 

Foreman, Iroquois Natural Qas Company, Hamburg, New York. 

Ditto, William A May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, Bradford Gcm Company, Roulette, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Dixon, Philip May 18, 1909 

Superintendent, St. Marys Gas Company, St Marys, Pennsyl- 
Tania. 

Dodds, Caryl J June 12, 1906 

General Manager, Citizens light. Heat and Power Company, 5 
East Henry Street, Lawrence, Kansas. 

Doherty, Henry L February 27, 1906 

President, Cities Senrioe Company, 60 Wall Street, New York, 
New York. 

Doherty, James A .... .May 20, 1913 

Manager, Woodstock Gas Light Company, Woodstock, Ontario, 
Canada. 

Dolen, R. F May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Pittsburgh ft West Virginia Gas Company, 966 West 
Pike Street, Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

DooMng, F. T May 15, 1917 

Machinist, East Ohio Gas Company, 10501 Hathaway Avenue, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Donahue, Q. C May 15, 1917 

Pressure Department, East Ohio Gas Company, 9301 Columbia 
Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Donaldson, F. N .....May 16, 1911 

Owner, Donaldson Gas Company, Jewett, Ohio. 

Donnelly, William E .. ....May 16, 1916 

General Superintendent^ Northeastern Oil ft Gas Company, 17 
North Broadway, Geneva, Ohio. 

Donovan, B. H May 20, 1913 

Foreman, Pennsylvania Gas Company, 1021 French Street, Erie, 
Pennsylvania. 

Doty, W. J May 16, 1917 

Leaser, South Shore Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, Sheridan, 
New York. 

Doutfherty, F. O ..May 16, 1916 

Superintendent Gas Wells, William Harris Company, Wooster, 
Wayne County, Ohio. 

Douglass, 8llas M May 18, 1909 

General Counsel, Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, 22( 
South Park Street, Mansfield, Ohio. 

Douthirt, W. F May 21, 1907 

Fourth Vice President, United Gas Improvement Company, 
Broad and Arch Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Dowd, Bernard F May 15, 1917 

Manager, Peoples Natural Gas Company, 39 Argyle Park, Buf- 
falo, New Y<Mrk. 



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464 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



Downing, C. W May 20, 1913 

AsfliBtant Secretary and Treasurer, ESaat Ohio Gas Company, 
Bkst Sixth Street, Cleyeland, Ohio. 

Doyle, Frederiok F May 19, 1914 

Assistant Chief Engineer, Midway Gas Company, Box N, Taft, 
California. 

Dreher, R. a .May 15, 1917 

Accountant, Dominion Natural Gas Company, Limited, 842 Ma- 
rine National Bank Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Drelbelbie, H. H. .May 21, 1912 

DlTlslon Superintendent, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 69 
North Fourth Street, Zanesville, Ohio. 

Dresser, Carl K May 15, 1917 

Secretary and Treasurer, S. K. Dresser Mfg. Company, 64 
Boyleston Street, Bradford, Pennsylvania. 

Droppleman, W. J May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, McWhorter, West Vir- 
ginia. 

Drury, George F May 15,' 1917 

Oil Producer, J. W. Leonard Oil Company, North Main Street, 
Washington, Pennsylvania. 

Duffleld, C. 8 . . .May 16, 1916 

Purchasing Agent, United Fuel Gas Company, Quarrler Street, 
Charleston, West Virginia. 

Duffleld, James C May 20, 1913 

Managing Director, London City Gas Company, London, On- 
tario, Canada. 

Duncan, John May 16, 1911 

General Manager of Sales, Wheeling Steel & Iron Company, 
Wheeling, West Virginia. 

Dunham, Carl Cyrus May 16, 1916 

Meter Department, Pittsburgh & West Virginia Gas Company, 3 
Center Avenue, Weston, West Virginia. 

Dumm, T. A May 15, 1917 

Field Superintendent, Potter Gas Company, Port Allegany, 
Pennsylvania. 

Dusenberry, D. F May 16, 1916 

Gas Engineer, West Virginia Traction ft Electric, and City 
ft Suburban Gas Company, 298 Wiles Street, Morgantown, 
West Virginia. 

Eastland, 8. H ...... .May 16, 1916 

District Foreman, Philadelphia Company, 23rd and Main 
Streets, Sharpsburg, Pennsylvania. 

Edwards, William C May 16, 1916 

Vice President, Parker & Edwards Oil Company, Union Bank 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Egan, E. J May 16, 1916 

Agent, The Manufacturers light ft Heat Company, MUlbridge 
and Manton Streets, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Elliert, Vincent L ...May 19, 1914 

General Manager, St Joseph Gas Company, Eighth and Francis 
Streets, St. Joseph, Missouri. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 465 



Emmerling, Karl May 18, 1915 

Chemist, The Blast Ohio Gas Ck>mpany, 3105 Walton Avenue, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Engle, T. W May 19, 1914 

Division Superintendent, Pittsburi^ ft West Virginia Qas 
Company, 537 West Main Street, Grafton, West Virginia. 

Ernst, H. M .May 18, 1915 

President, Dempseytown Gas Company, Treet Company Build- 
ing, Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

Espach, Frank ......May 18. 1915 

Chief Inspector, Union Gas ft Mectric Company, Fourth and 
Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Evans, C. D May 16, 1911 

Division Superintendent, Philadelphia Company, 435 Sixth Ave- 
nue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Evans, J. J ..May 18, 1915 

Division Superintendent, Hope Natural Gas Company, Clarks- 
burg, West Virginia. 

Ewing, A. M .May 15, 1917 

Meter Department, Central Station Gas Company, 214 South 
5th, Vincennes, Indiana. 

EwIng Frederick May 15. 1917 

Leasing Superintendent, Medina Gas ft Fuel Company, The 
Columbus Natural Gas Company, Wooster, Ohio. 

EwIng, J. J May 16, 1916 

House Piper, Own business, 952 Fifth Avenue, Coraopolis, 
Pennsylvania. 

Fair, F ...May 18, 1915 

South Shore Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, 307 Central Avenue, 
Dunkirk, New York. 

Falrchlld, F. A May 15, 1917 

Agent, United Natural Gas Company, 901 Water Street, Mead- 
ville, Pennsylvania. 

Falk, F. I........... May 18, 1915 

Assistant Treasurer, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 2017 
Farmers Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Falk, G. E ........May 15, 1917 

Cashier, South Shore Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, 307 Cen- 
tral Avenue, Dunkirk, New York. 

Farner, J. W May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, Potter Gas Company, Port Allegany, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Fay, Peter. May 15. 1917 

Field Superintendent, Potter Gas Company, R. F. D. No. 2, 
Smethport, Pennsylvania. 

Felix, Otto F May 21, 1912 

Secretary and Treasurer, Equitable Meter Company, 422 First 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Fesslcr, T. A ..May 15, 1917 

Agent, Potter Gas Company, Elkland, Pennsylvania. 

30 



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466 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Field, Roy A May 18, 1915 

New Business Manager, National Gas, Electric Light ft Power 
Company, 1714 Ford Building, Detroit, Michigan. 

Filler, W. H May 20, 1913 

Secretary and Treasurer, Pennsylvania Gas Ck>mpany, 213 Sec- 
ond Avenue, Warren, Pennsylvania. 

FInley, H. F May 16, 1916 

Agent, Logan Natural Gas & Fuel Company, Mansfield, Ohio. 

Finney, Frank F May 17, 1910 

Superintendent of Gas Lines, Indian Territory Illuminating Oil 
Company, Bartlesville, Oklahoma. 

Fischer, George J .May 21, 1907 

Secretary and Manager, Modern Iron Works, Quincy, Illinois. 

Fith, Harry P .May 20, 1913 

General Foreman, The East Ohio Gas Company, 207 Regent 
Street, Youngstown, Ohio. 

Flaher, Francis P May 21. 1907 

Assistant General Manager, Wichita Natural Gas Company, 
Pioneer Telephone Building, Bartlesville, Oklahoma. 

Fisler, John May 15, 1917 

Foreman, Akron Natural Gas Company, Akron, New York. 

Flanlgan, J. T May 15, 1917 

Foreman, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 20 Weyand Street, 
Buffalo, New York. 

Fleming, Arthur C May 18, 1915 

Superintendent, Pennisylvania Fuel Supply Company, Broad 
Street, New Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 

Fleming, Claude M ....... . .May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, 202 Locust Street, Man- 
nington. West Virginia. 

Fleming, Curtia B May 16, 1916 

Producer Oil and Gas, P. O. Box 193, Fairmont, West Virginia. 

Fleming, George F May 15, 1917 

Agent, United Natural Gas Company, 120 West Spence Street, 
Titusville, Pennsylvania. 

Fllnn, T. W. H May 16, 1916 

Appliances, Flinn Appliance House, 607 West Main Street, 
I>eni8on, Texas. 

Flint, R. B May 15, 1917 

Meter Inspector, Potter Gas Company, Port Allegany, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Flocken, Alfred F May 16, 1916 

Bookkeeper, Union Gas ft Electric Company, Fourth and Plum 
Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Foley, John. May 18, 1915 

General Field Superintendent, Manufacturers Light and Heat 
Company, Canonshurg, Pennsylvania. 

Foley, T. B ...... .May 16, 1916 

Contractor, T. B. Foley, 410 Diamond Bank Building, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 467 



Foley, T. H May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, T. B. Foley, Contractor, 410 Diamond Bank 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Fonner, J. H May 16, 1916 

Shop Foreman and Agent, The Peoples Natural Oas Company, 
616 Midland Avenue, Midland, Pennsylvania. 

Ford, John C May 18, 1915 

District Superintendent, South Penn Oil Company, Union 
Trust Building, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Foreman, H. A May 16, 1911 

Vice President, E3astem Oil Company, 312 Fidelity Building, 
Buffalo, New York. 

Fopitall, Alfred E May 21, 1912 

Consulting ESngineer, Forstall and Robison, 84 William Street, 
New York, New York. 

Foster, H. V May 21, 1912 

President, Indian Territory Illuminating Oil and Gas Company, 
111 E^st Eighth Street, Bartlesville, Oklahoma. 

Foster, J. E May 20, 1913 

Agent, The East Ohio Gas Company, 107 North Erie Street, 
Massillon, Ohio. 

Foster, D. H May 18, 1915 

Secretary, Ohio Oil Association, 808 Harrison Building, Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 

Fox, E. C May 18, 1915 

Manager, The Gas Appliance Company, 713 Frankfort Avenue, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Fralner, J. E .May 18, 1916 

Sun Gas Company, Salem, West Virginia. 

Frallc, F. A May 15, 1917 

Agent and Superintendent, Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Com- 
pany, 139 West Main Street, Gallon, Ohio. 

Frantz, I. D . . .May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, Smithville, West Vir- 
ginia. 

Franz, W. E. May 18, 1916 

Street Foreman, Natural Gas Department, The Dayton Gas 
Company, 218 South Jefferson Street, Dayton, Ohio. 

Frazler, J. E May 18, 1916 

Superintendent, Charleston-Dunbar Natural Gas Company, 404 
Ruffner Avenue, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Freeman, W. W ..May 18, 1915 

President, Union Gas ft Electric Company, Fourth and Plum 
Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Frees, W. H May 16, 1916 

Rig Building, 661 Buckeye Street, Wooeter, Ohio. 

French, F. A May 15, 1917 

Agent, Potter Gas Company, Port Allegany, Pennsylvania. 

Freudenberger, Wm May 18, 1915 

President, Freudenberger Oil Company, 504 Charleston Na- 
tional Bank Building, Charleston, West Virginia. 



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468 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Frevert, Robert A May 15, 1917 

Industrl&l Engineer, Dasrton Oas Company, Dayton, Ohio. 

Frey, W. 8 May 15, 1917 

Agent, Logan Natural Oas ft Puel Company, 209 South San- 
dusky Avenue, Bucyrus, Ohio. 

Frledenberg, D May 18, 1909 

Auditor, Union Natural Oas Corporation, 84 Ruggery Building, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

FpohHeb, L. C May 16, 1911 

Secretary, Federal Engineering Company, 1116 House Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Fuller, E. K May 16, 1917 

Ag<vit, E^ast Aurora, New York, Iroquois Natural Oas Company, 
East Aurora, New York. 

Fulsom, H May 15, 1917 

Foreman, Woodstock Oas Company, 523 Dundas Street, Wood- 
stock, Ontario, Canada. 

Funk, F. O May 19, 1914 

Oil and Gas Operators. Cochran ft Funk, Eighth Street, 
Moundsvllle, West Virginia. 
Funk, W. T. ....... . .... .May 18, 1915 

Auditor, Oil and Gas Companies, Commercial Bank Building, 
Titusville, Pennsylvania. 

Fye, J. L May 16, 1911 

Division Superintendent, Philadelphia Company, 261 High 
Street, Waynesburg, Pennsylvania. 

Fyfe, A. D May 15, 1917 

Geologist, Eknpire Fuel ft Gas Company, Bartlesville, Okla- 
homa. 

Gage, W. P ....May 17, 1910 

Vice President and General Manager, Lone Star Gas Company, 
807-8-9-10 First National Bank Building, Fort Worth, Texas. 

Gager, H. A May 18, 1915 

The Natural Gas Company of West Virginia, 156 Elast Fifth 
Street, Salem, Ohio. 

Gale, Glen N May 15, 1917 

Superintendent Glenwood Station, Southern Ontario Gas Com- 
pany, Limited, R. R. No. 4, Merlin, Ontario, Canada. 

Gallagher, C. E May 20, 1913 

Agent, The East Ohio Gas Company, Youngstown, Ohio. 

Gallagher, R. W May 21, 1913 

Assistant General Manager, The East Ohio Gas Company, East 
Ohio Gas Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Garard, Charles H May 19. 1914 

Superintendent, Southern Ohio Division, The Ohio Fuel Supply 
Company, 124 North Pennsylvania Avenue, Wellston, Ohio. 

Garard, F. L .May 16, 1916 

Assistant Superintendent and Agent, Fayette County Gas Com- 
pany, 403 First National Bank Building, Uniontown, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Garard, John M May 18. 1909 

Vice President apd General Manager, The Ohio Fuel Supply 
Company, 52 West Gay Street, Columbus, Ohio. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 469 



Gardner, C. W ..... .May 16, 1916 

Engineering Department, The Bast Ohio Qas Ck>nipany, East 
Ohio Gas Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Garner, J. B May 16, 1916 

Chemical Engineer, Hope Natural Gas Company, 6624 Wood- 
mont Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Garrity, M. J ..... .May 16, 1916 

District Foreman, Equitable Gas Company, 9th Street, McKees- 
port, Pennsylvania. 

Gastdorf, G. I May 16, 1916 

Superintendent of Construction, The Huntington Development 
& Gas Company, 928 Third Avenue, Huntington, West Vir- 
ginia. 

Gateett, A. L .May 19, 1908 

President, Economy Stove Company, 2108 Superior Viaduct, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Gates, C. B ..May 20, 1913 

Chief Clerk, The East Ohio Gas Company, 1405 ESast Sixth 
Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Gates, John Jr May 16, 1911 

Attorney, Land Department, Philadelphia Company, 435 Sixth 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Gavin, A. W May 15, 1917 

Assistant City SViperintendent, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 
486 Lin wood Avenue, Buffalo, New York. 

Geary, D. J . . .May 16. 1911 

Sales Manager, Republic Iron & Steel Company, Republic 
Building, Youngstown, Ohio. 

Gelst, Jay May 15, 1917 

Superintendents Clerk, United Fuel Gas Company, Spencer, 
West Virginia. 

Gelet, J. F .... ........... .May 16, 1916 

Field Superintendent, United Fuel Gas Company, Ravenswood 
Pike, Spencer, West Virginia. 

Germer, E. G May 20, 1913 

President, Germer Stove Company, 16th and Parade Streets, 
E«rie, Pennsylvania. 

Gerlcke, Otear C May 15, 1917 

Chemical Engineer, Ebst Ohio Gas Company, 3182 West 14th 
Street, S. W., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Gessel, B. M May 15, 1917 

President, Anchor Oil Company, 1108 South Cheyenne, Tulsa, 
Oklahoma. 

Gibson, C. A May 19, 190g 

Kansas Natural Gas Company, P. O. Drawer 466, Independence, 
Kansas. 

Qibaon, W . C May 17, 1910 

Manager, Wichita Falls Gas Company, Kemp and Kell Building,^ 
Wichita Falls, Texas. 

Glegel, F. Q May 20, 191J 

General Foreman, The Northwestern Ohio Natural Gas Com- 
pany, 210-212 Huron Street, Toledo, Ohio. 



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470 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



QiffonI, B. J May 21, 1912 

Superintendent, Little Rock Ga« ft Fuel Company, 113 West 
Sixth Street, Uttle Rock, Arkansas. 

Gilbert, A. J May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Arkansas Natural Gae Ck>mpany, Malvern, Arkansas. 

Gill, John E . May 16, 1911 

President, Manufacturers Light ft Heat Company, 310 Colum- 
bia Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Gllmore, Frank M May 21, 1907 

Secretary-Manager, Mound Valley Natural Gas ft Oil Company, 
Mound Valley, Kansas. 

GIndele, Albert H May 18, 1915 

Industrial Gas Engineer, Toledo Railway ft Light Company, 
1120 Norwood Avenue, Toledo, Ohio. 

Given, E May 18, 1915 

Field Stiperintendent, The East Ohio Gas Company, 6110 
Franklin Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Glasgow, Arthur Graham May 21, 1912 

Chairman, Humphreys ft Glasgow, Limited, 36 and 38 Victoria 
Street, London, S. W., E3ngland. 

Glass John .....May 16, 1911 

Chief Engineer, Carnegie Natural Gas Company, 245 North 
Bridge Street, Waynesburg, Pennsylvania. 

Glass, Roy May 16, 1916 

Eloglneer, Carnegie Natural Gas Company, Hastings, West Vir- 
ginia. 

Gleason, C. W May 20, 1913 

Division Engineer, United Natural Gas Company, 507 North 
Street, Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

Goble, Benjamin F May 15, 1917 

Foreman, United Natural Gas Company, Shlnglehouee, Potter 
County, Pennsylvania. 

Golf, George 8 ..May 17, 1910 

General Manager, Crystal Gas Company, 26 East Market Street, 
Coming, New York. 

Goldsborough, J. R May 19, 1914 

Titusville, Supply Company, 1520 Farmers Bank Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Goodnow, Robert W May 21, 1912 

City Gas Inspector, City of Kansas City, City Hall, Kansas City, 
Missouri. 

Goodrich, H. B May 17, 1910 

Consulting Geologist, Ardmore, Oklahoma. 

Grace, Clarence H . . May 16, 1916 

Manager, Gas Journal Publishers, Limited, Hamilton, Ontario, 
Canada. 

Grafflt, W. H May 20, 1913 

Publisher (President) Gas Publishing Company (The Gas Rec- 
ord), 347 Monadnock Block, Chicago, Illinois. 

Graham, Lyman L May 20, 1913 

Secretary, United Natural Gas C:k>mpany, 206 Seneca Street, 
Oil City, Pennsylvania. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 471 



Qnimmsl, B. J May 18, 1916 

Purchasing Agent, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 46 Church 
Street, Buffalo, New York. 

Grant, C. E May 18, 1916 

Agent, Pennsylvania Fuel Supply Company, 416 Main Street, 
Emlenton, Pennsylvania. 

Gray, A. R May 16, 1916 

Assistant General Superintendent, The Peoples Natural Gas 
Company, 424 Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Gray, Homer R May 20, 1913 

Assistant Treasurer, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, Iroquois 
Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Gray, J. F May 20, 1913 

Chief Bbgineer, The Ektet Ohio Gas Company, 1406 Blast Sixth 
Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Great, W. 8 May 19, 1908 

District Superintendent, Welsbach Lighting Company of 
America, Peoples Gas Building, Chicago, Illinois. 

Greenawalt, E. J May 18, 1916 

Trunk Line Foreman, Columbia Gas ft Electric Company, 1206 
Jefferson Avenue, Huntington, West Virginia. 

Greit, Harry N May 21, 1912 

President, Atlantic Petroleum Corporation, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Gribble, Wallace B May 15, 1917 

Special Representative, Hope Natural Gas Company, Empire 
National Bank Building, Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

Qrlswold, Robert Q May 18, 1916 

Chief Technologist, Henry L. Doherty ft Company, 60 Wall 
Street, New York, New York. 

Griawold, William T May 16, 1911 

Geologist, Philadelphia Company, 435 Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 

Groble, J. C May 16, 1916 

Assistant Manager, Reynolds Gas Regulator Company, Ander- 
son, Indiana. 

Qrostcup, Fred Paul May 18, 1916 

President, Charleston-Dunbar Natural Gas Company, Charles- 
ton, West Virginia. 

Grosscup, Paul B May 18, 1916 

Vice President and General Manager, Charleston-Dunbar Natu- 
ral Gas Company, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Grunder, F. D May 16, 1917 

Assistant General Sales Manager, Tube Department, Jones ft 
Laughlin Steel Company, 412 Jones and Laughlin Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Quffey, Joseph F May 16, 1911 

General Manager, The Philadelphia Company, 436 Sixth Ave- 
nue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Qumaey, W. M ..May 18, 1909 

Superintendent, Crystal City Gas Company, 26 Bast Market 
Street, Corning, New York. 



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472 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Quitteau, W. 8 ........ . .May 18, 1915 

Sales Manager, Lloyd Construction Company, 860 Greenwood 
Avenue, Detroit, Michigan. 

Qwynn, E. F May 18, 1909 

President, Qwynn Gas Burner ft Engineering Company, 713 
Empire Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Hackataff, John D June 12, 1906 

General Manager, Empire Pipe Line Company, Bartlesville, 
Oklahoma. 

Hackataff, Richard G May 15, 1917 

Empire Pipe Line Company, Bartlesville, Oklahoma. 

Hadley, F. L May 16, 1911 

Superintendent of Linee, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 
424 Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Hadley, W. R .....May 19, 1908 

Secretary-Treasurer, The Union Natural Gas Corporation, 1608 
Union Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Hagen, O. C May 16, 1916 

General Manager, Drilling Department, Ohio Fuel Supply Com- 
pany, 76 Huffman Avenue, Columbus, Ohio. 

Hagan, W. C May 18, 1915 

Mechanical Engineer, The East Ohio Gas Company, 7918 Hough 
Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Hall, C. T May 16, 1911 

Oil and Gas Operator, Bula Oil Company, 74 Vandergrift Build- 
ing, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Hall, Henry C May 15, 1917 

General Bookkeeper, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 72 Char- 
lotte Avenue, Buffalo, New York. 

Hall, H. E May 15, 1917 

Accountant, Dominion Natural Gas Company, Limited, 842 Ma- 
rine Bank Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Hall, Herman H May 16, 1916 

Agent, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 52 West Gay Street, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Hall, Jeaae J May 16, 1916 

Accountant, Randall Gas Company, 190 Chancery Row, Morgan- 
town, West Virginia. 

Hall, T. A May 15, 1917 

Engineer, Dominion Natural Gas Company, Limited, Bank of 
Hamilton Building, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 

Hamilton, W. R May 18, 1915 

General Manager, Montebello Oil Company, 438 California 
Street, San Francisco, California. 

Hammen, M. E May 15, 1917 

Foreman, South Shore Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, 307 Cen- 
tral Avenue, Dunkirk, New York. 

Hampton, Robert S May 15, 1917 

President, Frankfort, Kentucky, Natural Gas Company, Titus- 
ville, Pennsylvania. 

Hanchett, F. C May 16, 1916 

Foreman, United Natural Gas Company, 329 West Walnut 
Street, TitusviUe, Pennsylvania. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 473 



Hanka, J. G May 20, 1913 

Superintendent, The East Ohio Gas Ck>mpany, 1405 East Sixth 
Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Hanley, T. L May 15, 1917 

Superintendent, Hanley ft Bird, Jackson Avenue, Bradford, 
Pennsylvania. 

Hann, Thomat D May 16, 1911 

General Manager, Greensboro Gas Company, Brownsville, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Hannan, Robert W May 16, 1911 

Oil and Gas Producer, 76-78 Vandergrift Building, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 

Hannon, D. W May 15, 1917 

Division Foreman, East Ohio Gas Company, 1007 Garfield Ave- 
nue, S. W., Canton, Ohio. 

Hare, A. S May 18, 1915 

Cashier, The Natural Gas Company of West Virginia, 1226 
Chaplin Street, Wheeling, West Virginia. 

Hare, C. Willing May 17, 1910 

Manager, New Business Department, The United Gas Improve- 
ment Company, Broad and Arch Streets, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. 

Harney, H., Jr May 15, 1917 

Inspector, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 83 Edna Place, Buf- 
falo, New York. 

Harrington, D. P May 19, 1914 

Assistant to General Stiperintendent, The Texas Company, Nat- 
ural Gas Department, P. O. Drawer 983, Fort Worth, Texas. 

Harrington, H. H May 15, 1917 

Superintendent, Citizens Gas & EHectric Company, 563 West 
Third Street, Elyria, Ohio. 

Harris, George 8 May 20, 1913 

Chief Bookkeeper, The Bast Ohio Gas Company, 1405 East 
Sixth Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Hartzeil, A. C May 19, 1908 

Treasurer, Greenville Natural Gas Company, Canal Street, 
Greenville, Pennsylvania. 

Harwood, J. Arch May 18, 1915 

Civil E«ngineer, The Natural Gas Company of West Virginia, 
41 Vine Street, Salem, Ohio. 

Hastings, A. L May 15, 1917 

Field Foreman, Oklahoma Natural Gas Company, Tulsa, 
Oklahoma. 

Hastings, John May 16, 1916 

FV>reman, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, Hamburg, New York. 

Haatinga, Wlllianfi May 20, 1913 

Division Superintendent, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 306 
Iroquois Building, BuftAlo, New York. 

Hatfield, J. 8 May 19, 1914 

Assistant Superintendent, Killbuck ft MlUersburg Oil ft Gas 
Company, MlUersburg, Ohio. 



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474 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Hawk, C. M May 15, 1017 

Chief Ehifi^lneer, Logan Natural Oaa ft Fuel Company, Sugar 
Oroye, Ohio. 

Hawkins, B. J May 16, 1916 

Auditor, Bastem Oil Company, 312 Fidelity Building, Buffalo, 
New York. 

Hay, Ralph W May 18, 1909 

Assistant Oeneral Superintendent and Purchasing Agent, The 
Manufacturers Light A Heat Company, 248 Fourth Avenue, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Haymaker, F. B May 18, 1915 

Treasurer, The Producers Gas Company, 816 Main Street, 
Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

Haymond, E. L May 18, 1915 

General Manager, Haymond Company, 103 South Mulberry 
Street, Muncie, Indiana. 

Hays, Victor May 21. 1907 

General Auditor, Kansas Natural Gas Company, Sixth and 
Maple Streets, Independence, Kansas. 

Hazeltine, Roy 8 May 16, 1916 

Assistant Chief Geologist, Continental Oil ft Gas Company, 
Box 578, Bartlesville, Oklahoma. 

Hazlett, F. S May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, West Union, West 
Virginia. 

Hazlett, Ira I May 16, 1916 

Secretary, Jackson Pike Oil ft Gas Company, New Lexington, 
Ohio. 

Healey, F. R May 18, 1915 

Superintendent, Electrical IMstribution, Union Gas ft Electric 
Company, Fourth and Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Healey, J. H May 16, 1916 

Assistant Treasurer, Potter Gas Company, Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Heard, T. J May 18, 1915 

Secretary and Treasurer, Reserve Natural Gas Company of 
Louisiana, 208 Ward Building, Shreveport, Louisiana. 

Heaaley, Harry May 16, 1911 

President, Oklahoma Fuel Supply Company, lli/^ Main Street, 
Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Heath, C. R May 19, 1908 

President, Middletown Gas Company, Middletown, Indiana. 

Heaslett, Frank May 16, 1916 

Shop Foreman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, BlairsviUe, 
Pennsylvania. 

Heazlett, William May 16, 1916 

Shop Foreman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, Latrobe. 
Pennsylvania. 

Heck, A. 8 May 18, 1915 

Manager, Goff and Heck, Spencer, West Virginia. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 475 



Heeter, C. M May 16, 191« 

PrMident, C. M. Heeter Sons ft Company, Inc., Duff City Qbb 
Company, North Lima Gas Company, 261 South McKane 
Street, Butler, Pennsylvania. 

Hegerty, F. P May 16, 1911 

Representative, Westinghouse Electric ft Manufacturing Com- 
pany, 1808 Union Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Heggem, A. G May 16, 1916 

Petroleum Bnglneer, Consulting, 512-613 Danlal Building, Tulsa, 
Oklahoma. 

Helm, Charles L May 20, 1913 

Agent, The Eiast Ohio Gas Company, 137 Public Square, Woos- 
ter, Ohio. 

Henderson, James Alexander Leo May 16, 1911 

Director and Technical Advisor, New Brunswick Gas ft Oil 
Fields Company, Limited, 3 LfOndon Wall Building. London, 
E3L C, Bbgland. 

Henderson, John I May 16, 1916 

B2ngineer, The Logan Natural Gas Company, 34 Buggery Build- 
ing, Columbus, Ohio. 

Hennessey, George F May 16, 1916 

United Fuel Gas Company, 1810 McClung Street, Charleston, 
West Virginia. 

Henning, J. A May 15. 1917 

Clerk, Manufacturers Gas Company, Kane, Pennsylvania. 

Henning, M. H. May 18, 1916 

Superintendent, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 424 Sixth 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Herr, J. P May 16, 1916 

Advertising Manager, Tulsa Daily World, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

HerHng, A. W May 15, 1917 

General Manager, The Commercial Oil ft Gas Company, 172 
Main Street, Ashtabula, Ohio. 

Herron, F. W May 15, 1917 

Secretary, Producers Gas Company, 300 First National Bank 
Building, Clean, New York. 

Heuperman, F. J May 18, 1915 

Engineer, Calgary Gas Company, Limited, 215 Sixth Avenue, 
West, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 

Heydrick, James May 16, 1916 

Box 596, Irvine, Kentucky. 

HIckernell, George W May 15, 1917 

Agent, Pennsylvania Gas Company, 213 Second Avenue, War- 
ren, Pennsylvania. 

Higgint, W. C May 20, 1913 

Manager, Contract Department, The East Ohio Gas Company, 
Bast Ohio Gas Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Hildabnind, J. 8 May 16, 1916 

Field Superintendent, South Hills Oil ft Gas Company, R. F. D. 
No. 1, Fair Haven, Pennsylvania. 

Hlldebrand, H. D May 19, 1914 

President, Hope Engineering ft Supply Company, 1319 Farmers 
Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 



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476 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Hill, Charles E May 18, 1915 

Superintendent, Alden-Batavia Natural Oas Ck>nipaBy, 71 Main 
Street, Batavla, New York. 

Hill, Dudley M May 16, 1916 

Assistant to Mechanical E2nglneer, Philadelphia Ck>mpany, 436 
Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Hill, J. B May 16, 1911 

Manager, Welsbach Company, 621 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 

Hill, W. W May 19, 1914 

Acting Chief Engineer, Quapaw Company, BarUesvllle, Okla* 
homa. 

Hilty, John May 16, 1916 

Shop Foreman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, Altoona, 
Pennsylvania. 

HInerman, G. L May 19, 1914 

Division Superintendent, Philadelphia Company of West Vir- 
ginia, Weston, West Virginia. 

HItchcocIc, Otto Q May 18, 1909 

Secretary and General Manager, Hays Manufacturing Company, 
Twelfth and Liberty Streets, Brie, Pennsylvania. 

Hockstetter, Ralph May 15, 1917 

Gas Producer, Gunsburg ft Forman, Fidelity Building, Buffalo, 
New York. 

Hoagland, H. C May 17, 1910 

General Manager, Muskogee Gas ft Electric Company, Mus- 
kogee, Oklahoma. 

Hodge, W. H May 15, 1917 

Publicity Manager, H. M. Blyyesby ft Company, 208 South La 
Salle Street, Chicago, Illinois. 

HofTman, H. R May 15, 1917 

Acting Chief Clerk, General OfDce, Iroquois Natural Gas Com- 
pany, 131 Monroe Street, Buffalo, New York. 

Hogg, Herman B May 18, 1915 

District Manager, National Supply Company, Parkersburg, 
West Virginia. 

Holbrook, David Oliver May 19, 1908 

Vice President, Natural Gas Association of America, 904-905 
Oliver Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Holbrook Lynn May 20, 1913 

Purchasing Agent, The United Natural Gas Company, 306 Sen- 
eca Street, Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

Holland, H. T May 16. 1917 

Chief Engineer, Wheeler Compressing Station, The North- 
western Ohio Natural Gas Company, Sugar Grove, Ohio. 

HolMday, F. M May 15, 1917 

National Transit Company, Marwood, Pennsylvania. 

Holly, W. M May 16, 1917 

Field Superintendent, Potter Gas Company, Shinglehouse, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Holmes, A. Q June 12, 1906 

Vice President and Manager, Pittsburgh Meter Company, P. O. 
Box 252, East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 477 



Holtz, W. H May 20, 1913 

Chief Clerk, General Office, The E^aet Ohio Oaa Company, 1447 
East Sixth Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Hoover, H. J May 20, 1913 

Commercial Manager, Oae Department, The Union Oas ft Elec- 
tric Company, Fourth and Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Hopp, Henry C May 16, 1911 

Manager, Malta ft McConnellsvllle Gae Company, Malta, Ohio. 

Horner, Boyd E May 16, 1911 

Oil and Gas Operator, Homer Building, Clarksburg, West 
Virginia. 

Horner, Lynn 8 May 16, 1911 

Superintendent, Washington Ga« Company, Homer Building, 
Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

Horeley, George H May 16, 1916 

Purchasing Agent, Hast Ohio Gas Company, 1290 West 103d 
Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Horton, F. J May 19, 1908 

General Manager, Portland Gas ft Pipe Line Company, 402 
South EHm Street, lola, Kansas. 

Hottinger, R. L May 18, 1909 

Meter Repairer, Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, 534 Sec- 
ond Street, Fremont, Ohio. 

Hottic, A. G May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, Arco Oil Company, South Street, Wooster, 
Wayne County, Ohio. 

Hovli, Park May 16, 1916 

Gas Well Driller and Inventor, Wooster, Ohio. 

Hovli, W. A May 16, 1916 

Foreman, United Natural Gas Company, Clermont, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Howard, G. E May 18. 1915 

Master Mechanic, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 52 West 
Gay Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Howard, J. W May 15. 1917 

Field Foreman, Medina Gas Company, Vienna. Ontario, Canada. 

Howard, W. E May 15, 1917 

Foreman, Brantford Gas Company, Limited, Brantford, Ontario, 
Canada. 

Howard, R. B May 16. 1916 

Agent, Hope Natural Gas Company, 17 Clarksburg Street. Man- 
nington. West Virginia. 

Hoytc, Walter 8 May 21. 1907 

First Vice President and General Manager, Wichita Natural 
Gas Company, Suite 727 Beacon Building, Wichita, Kansas. 

Huff, C. F May 20. 1913 

Superintendent, The Clarion Gas Company, Clarion, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Hughes, WIIMam K May 21, 1912 

Vice President, The Continental Supply Company, 918 Third 
National Bank Building, St. Louis, Missouri. 



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478 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Hull, H. D May 18, 1916 

Field Superintendent, Medina Gas & Fuel Company, Wooeter, 
Ohio. 

Humphreys, Alexander C May 21, 1912 

President, Stevens Institute of Technology, Buffalo Gas Com- 
pany, and Humphreys ft Miller, Inc., 166 Broadway, New 
York, New York. 

Hunter, Campbell M May 20, 1913 

Oil Mining Expert, Thomas & Hunter, 3 Lambard Street, Lon- 
don, H C, England. 

Hunter, W. E May 15, 1917 

Vice President, Randall Gas Company, Morgantown, West 
Virginia. 

Hurd, Franklin R May 16, 1917 

East Ohio Gas Company, 1442 East 109th Street, Cleveland, 
Ohio. 

Hurlburt, Alfred May 16, 1911 

Engineer, Kansas City Gas Company, 910 Grand Avenue, Kan- 
sas City, Missouri. 

Hutchinson, Frank May 20. 1913 

Sales Manager, The Gas Appliance Company, 713 Frankfort 
Avenue, West Cleveland, Ohio. 

HutohJnson, H. D May 16, 1911 

Contractor, 60 Lincoln Street, Unlontown, Pennsylvania. 

Hutchinson, J. E.. May 16, 1916 

Auditor, Lone Star Gas Company, Praetoriam Building, Dallas, 
Texas. 

Hutchinson, W. P May 18, 1915 

Vice President and Sales Manager, The Sprague Meter Com- 
pany, Bridgeport, Connecticut. 

Hutchison, E. H May 18, 1915 

Producer and Contractor, Harmony, Pennsylvania. 

Ikard, L. D May 16, 1916 

Field Foreman, Columbus Producing Company, Miami, West 
Virginia. 

Inghram, D. W May 16, 1916 

Field Foreman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, Burgetts- 
town, Pennsylvania. 

Irwin, J. W May 16, 1916 

Manager, Ohio Pipe ft Supply Company, West Park, Ohio. 

Irwin, R. W May 15, 1917 

Agent, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 120 South Detroit 
Street, Xenia, Ohio. 

Isherwood, J. H May 15, 1917 

Gasoline Operator, Potter Gas Company, Shinglehouse, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Ivory, E. D May 16, 1916 

Industrial Department, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 424 
Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Jackson, Frank Q May 20, 1913 

Chief Station Engineer, United Natural Gas Company, R. F. D. 
No. 1, Hallton, Elk County, Pennsylvania. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 479 



Jack»on, Q. H May 16. 1916 

Gas Department, Monongahela Valley Traction Company, Fair- 
mont, West Virginia. 

Jacobs, P. C May 16, 1911 

Superintendent, Ohio Gas Meter (Company, 2355 LAkeside Ave- 
nue, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Jacoby, H. L May 15, 1917 

Foreman, Producers Gas Company, Olean, New York. 

James, D. K May 20, 1913 

Sales Manager, American Railway Appliance Company, 105 
West Third Street, Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

James, Robert C May 17, 1910 

General Auditor, The United Gas Improvement Company, Broad 
and Arch Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Jarvlet, T. B May 19, 1908 

Secretary, Jarvies Burner, Heating ft Plumbing Company, 4022 
Belleview Avenue, Kansas City, Missouri. 

Jay, C. H May 16, 1916 

General Auditor, Ohio Cities Gas Company, 135 North Front 
Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Jay, D. C May 18, 1915 

Superintendent, Leasing Department, United Fuel Gas Com- 
pany, Quarrler Street, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Jenkins, Howard May 16, 1916 

Chief Engineer, Hope Natural Gas Company, Hardy Apart- 
ments, Mechanic Street, Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

Jimerson, Deo May 18, 1915 

Chief Engineer, Columbia Gas ft Electric Company, R. F. D. 
No. 1, Kenova, West Virginia. 

Johnson, C. W May 15. 1917 

Assistant to Vice President, Hope Natural Gas Company, 424 
Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Johnson, Frank May 15, 1917 

Fieldman, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, Hamburg, New York. 

Johnston, Norwood May 15, 1917 

Superintendent, Carnegie Natural Gas Company, Carnegie 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Johnson, Paul R May 15, 1917 

Genera] Manager, The Gas Pipe Line Corporation, 123 Main 
Street, Independence, Kansas. 

Johnson, Roswell H May 16, 1916 

Consulting Geologist, Johnson ft Huntley, 1039 Murrayhill Ave- 
nue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Johnson, Russell A May 20, 1913 

Purchasing Agent, Peoples Natural Gas Company, 424 Sixth 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Jones, Clement Ross May 16. 1916 

Consulting Engineer, Randall Gas Company, Morgantown, West 
Virginia. 

Jones, E. T May 15, 1917 

Division Foreman, East Ohio Gas Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 



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480 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Jonet, Goorge H May 20, 1913 

Comptroller, East Ohio Gas Company, 26 Broadway, New York, 
New York. 

Jonea, Hoyle May 18. 1916 

Manager of Sales, La Belle Iron Works, 605 R. A. Long Balld- 
Ing, Kansas City, Missouri. 

Jones, Hugh T May 21, 1912 

Jones Oas Company, 226 West Main Street, Chanute, Kansas. 

Jones, T. C June 12, 1906 

President, The Delaware Oas Company, 68 North Sandusky 
Street, Delaware, Ohio. 

Jones, Thomas J May 16. 1916 

Superintendent, Hope Natural Gas Company, 330 Locust Street, 
Mannington, West Virginia. 

Jones, T. J May 18. 1916 

Manager, The Columbus Gas ft Fuel Company, 135 North Front 
Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Jordan, E. W May 21, 1912 

Gas Ehiglneer, Bessemer Gas Engine Company, Grove City, 
Pennsylvania. 

Jordan, George E May 18, 1916 

Engineer, Louisiana Gas Company, Moorlngsport, Louisiana. 

Jordan, G. R May 18, 1916 

Civil Engineer, Southwestern Gas ft Electric Company. 116 
Texas Street, Shreveport, Louisiana. 

Judge, W. J May 20, 1913 

Vice President, National Fuel Gas Company, 26 Broadway, New 
York, New York. 

Kanitz, Jacques May 19, 1914 

Generaldirector. der Ungarischen Gasgluehlicht A G., VI., Vacxi- 
koruit 3, Budapest, Hungary. 

Kay, J. M May 16. 1916 

Field Superintendent, Glenshaw Natural Gas Company, Glen- 
Shaw, Pennsylvania. 

Keenan, J. E May 16, 1916 

District Foreman, Equitable Gas Company. 6306 Penn Avenue, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Kellogg, E. B May 15, 1917 

Superintendent. Alden-Batavia Natural Gas Company, Batavia, 
New York. 

Kellogg, Franklin L May 16, 1911 

Field Manager, Ontario Gas Company, Honeoye Falls, New 
York, 

Kellum, B. J June 12, 1906 

Manager, Western Department. Welsbach Company, 629 Wash- 
ington Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois. 

Kelly, J. W May 16, 1911 

Salesman, Jarecki Manufacturing Company, 311 First Avenue, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Kenney, A. E May 16, 1916 

President, Kenney Land & Oil Company, Box 564. Parkersburg, 
West Virginia. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 481 



Kmttfdv, J. J May U, 1911 

Cfeneral Manager of Sales, National Tube Gomiiany» Frick 
Building, Pittsburgh, "Pennsylyania. 

Kent, J. F May 18, 1918 

Preaident, Pelham Oil ft Gas Company, Huntington, West 
Virginia. 

Kerr, A. N May 16, 1917 

(General Superintendent, Riverside ft Western Oil Company, 
Benedum-Trees Building, Pitteburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Kerr, Peter M May 18, 1918 

Superintendent of Drilling, T. W. Phillips Oas ft Oil Company, 
613 Woodward Avenue, Kittanning, Pennsylvania. 

Kerr, T. H May 18, 1915 

Engineer, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 62 West Gay Street, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Ketohum, D. A May 18, 1916 

Assistant General Superintendent, United Fuel Gas Company, 
Quarrler SItreet, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Ketler, W. G May 16, 1918 

Agent, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 701 Center Street, 
Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania. 

KIdd, J. W May 16, 1916 

Chief Clerk, Hope Natural Gas Company, 477 Campbell Street, 
Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania. 

Kldner, R. L March 20, 1908 

Manager, Century Stove ft Manufacturing Company, 1223-26 
West Tenth Street, Kansas City, Missouri. 

Kleeel, Charies May 16, 1917 

Foreman, Elast Ohio Gas Company, 714 Bobbins Avenue, Nlles, 
Ohio. 

KIghtllnger, A. D May 16, 1917 

Field Foreman, The Manufacturers Light ft Heat Company, 
Washington, Pennsylvania. 

Kilpatriok, R. B May 18, 1916 

Superintendent, Windsor Gas Company, 202 Ouellette Avenue, 
Windsor, Ontario, Canada. 

KImmel, C. F May 18, 1916 

Division Superintendent, Manufacturers Gas Company, Martin 
Building, BrookviUe, Pennsylvania. 

KIneheloe, L. G May 18, 1918 

Foreman, Hope Natural Gkw Company, 319 St Clair Avenue, 
Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

Kino, E. J May 18, 1916 

Vice President, The Huntington Development ft Gas Company. 
928 Third Avenue, Huntington, West Virginia. 

King, J May 18, 1918 

Superintendent, Allegheny Heating Company, 803 Bard Street, 
North Side, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Kino, W. 8 May 18, 1918 

Field Foreman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, Mnrrays- 
ville, Pennsylvania. 

81 



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482 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Kingtiey, T. C May 16, 191« 

Oil Producer, Kingsley ft Burgess, Middleboume, West Virginia. 

KInley, George A May IS, 1916 

Stenographer, Hope Natural Gas Company, 1130 Ross Avenue, 
Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania. 

Kirk, F. W May 21. 1912 

Superintendent, Pipe Lines, Lone Star Oas Company, 807 First 
National Bank Building, Fort Worthy Texas. 

Kitchen, Jamse W May 20, 1913 

Assistant Secretary and Treasurer, Pennsylvania Gas Com- 
pany, 213 Second Street, Warren, Pennsylvania. 

Klein, L. C May 15, 1917 

Manager, West Park Office, Continental Supply Company, West 
Park, Ohio. 

Kline, Virgil P., Jp May 20, 1913 

Assistant to Superintendent, Peoples Natural Gas Company, 424 
Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Kllngensmlth, J. M Bfay 16, 1916 

Shop Foreman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 116 Haw- 
thorn Avenue, Greensburg, Pennsylvania. 

Kllse, John J May 16, 1916 

The Kllse, Dckstein, McCann Company, Lancaster, Ohio. 

Klumpp, John Bartleman May 19, 1908 

Inspecting Hbgineer, United Gas Improvement Company, Broad 
and Arch Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Knapp, Frank May 16, 1916 

General Manager, Pittsburgh Water Heater Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

Knapp, Isaac N May 21, 1912 

116 Ardmore Avenue, Ardmore, Pennsylvania. 

Knight, William H May 19, 1908 

General Manager, Cleveland Gas Meter Company, 2180 Bast 
Sixty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Knowles, W. R May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, Pressure Department, The East Ohio Gas 
Company, 10832 Greenlawn Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Kohl, W. G May 15, 1917 

Agent, Logan Natural Gas ft Puel Company, 10 Sbuth Pleasant 
Street, Norwalk, Ohio. 

Koontz, L. V May 18, 1916 

President, Koontz Oil ft Gas Company, Clendenin, West 
Virginia. 

Kramer, C. W. May 15, 1917 

Chief Engineer, Arkansas Natural Gas Company, State Bank 
Building, Little Rock, Arkansas. 

Krause, Charles May 20, 1913 

Inspector, The Union Gas ft EHectric Company, Fourth and 
Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Krebs, Oscar May 18, 1916 

Main Line Foreman, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 52 West Gay 
Street, Columbus, Ohio. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 488 



Krick, Kay C February 27, 1906 

Vice President, The Logan Natural Qaa ft Fuel Company, 34 
Ruggery Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Lackey, Frank May 18, 1916 

Superintendent, Crescent Oil ft Gas Company, Olenwillard, 
Pennsy yania. 

Ladd, George T May 16, 1911 

President, The Qeorge T. Ladd Company, 1620 Farmers Bank 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Lakamp, J. H May 20. 1913 

General Superintendent, Operating Department, Union Gas ft 
Blectric Company, Fourth and Plum Streets, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

Umbing, J. A May 18, 1909 

1023 Franklin Avenue, Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania. 

Landls, H. K May 16, 1916 

Managing ESditor, The Gas Age, 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New 
York, New York. 

Lansley, John W May 18, 1915 

Secretary, Southwestern Gas & Electric Company, 1615 Harris 
Trust Building, Chicago, Illinois. 

Larkham, W. E May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Calgary Gas Company, 2022 Center Street, North, 
Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 

Larkln, J. J May 17, 1910 

Larkin Brothers, Bartlesville, Oklahoma. 

Urkin, W. H May 18, 1909 

Manager, Larkin ft Company, Butler, Pennsylvania. 

Lathrop, Alanson P May 17. 1910 

President, American Light ft Traction Company, The Equitable 
Building, 120 Broadway, New York, New York. 

Laughlin, James P May 16, 1917 

General Foreman, Street Department, The East Ohio Gas Com- 
pany, 19 North High Street, Akron, Ohio. 

Lavell, Lon May 16. 1916 

Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, F^irview, West Virginia. 

Law, C. H May 16, 1911 

General Superintendent, Ridgway Light ft Heat Company, 16 
North Broad Street, Ridgway, Pennsylvania. 

Law, Robert, Jr May 16, 1911 

President, The Quapaw Gas Company, 1320 Farmers Bank 
Building, Pittsburgh, ^Pennsylvania. 

Uyton, Miles B May 16, 1911 

Assistant Manager, Manufacturers Light ft Heat Company, 312 
Columbia Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Leamy, Alan May 18, 1909 

Manager, Middle West Department, Welsbach Company, 116- 
122 East Chestnut Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Leamon. William G May 15, 1917 

Chemist, Medina Gas ft Fuel Company, Liberty and Market 
Streets, Wooster, Ohio. 



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484 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



LMrd, R. C May 18, 1915 

superintendent, United Fuel G«i Company, Kennlt, West 
Virginia. 

Leather*, J. H May 18, 1918 

Foreman, Equitable Qae Company, 808 Fuller Apartments, Do- 
nora, PenneylTania.. 

Lm, Thomas M May 80. 1913 

Superintendent, Trunk Lines, The Bast Ohio Gas Company, 
Canton, Ohio. 

LeFevre, Harry E May 17, 1910 

Contractor and Stockholder, American Natural Oas Company, 
Lexington Avenue and Fourth Street, Aspinwall, Pennsyl- 
yania. 

Lehman, I. L May 18, 1918 

Commercial Manager, The Dayton Oas Company, Dayton, Ohio. 

Leidlcker, F. H May 18, 1918 

Leidicker Tool Company, Marietta, Ohio. 

Leight, Harry Q May 18, 1918 

Foreman, Meter Repair Department, Logan Natural Oas 4b Fuel 
Company, Mansfield, Ohio. 

Leiandp Edward D May 18, 1911 

Superintendent, Compressing Stations, Philadelphia Company, 
436 Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Leiand, R. M May 15, 1917 

Assistant Superlntendoit of Compressing Stations, Philadelphia 
Company- Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Leonard, A. W May 19, 1908 

General Manager, Oklahoma Fuel Supply Company, Box 938, 
Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Leonard, Charles F May 20, 1913 

Gas iEkiglneer, Public Service Commission, Second District, 
Albany, New York. 

Leonard, John May 18, 1918 

Field Superintendent, Manufactures Gas Company, Kane, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Leonard, J. W May 15, 1917 

on Producer, J. W. Leonard Oil Company, 339 Baet Dean 
Street, Washington Pennsylvania. 

Levy, F. A May 19, 1914 

Vice President, Gulf Pipe Une Company, Schenley Hotel, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

Lepper, E. L May 16, 1918 

Agent, Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, East North Street, 
Fostoria, Ohio. 

LeRoy, Frank O May 16. 1917 

Chief Clerk Chart Department, Hope Natural Gas Company, 424 
Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Leslie, Frederick C May 15, 1917 

Auditor, The Manufacturers Light ft Heat Company, 248 Fourth 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Lewis, A. H BCay 20, 1913 

Agent, Fremont Gas, Blectrlc Light ft Power Co., Fremont, 
Ohio. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 486 



L«wi«» Phil May 16, 1911 

Foreman, The ESast Ohio Oaa Company, 240 North Second 
Street, Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. 

L«wl% T. L May 21, 1912 

ABflistant Manager of Sales,, A. M. Byers Company, 236 Water 
Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Light, George May 18, 1916 

Superintendent, Dayton Gas Company, 234 North St. Clair 
Street, Dayton, Ohio. 

Llille, Lewis May 21, 1907 

Third Vice President and Treasurer, The United Qas Improve- 
ment Company, Broad and Arch Streets, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. 

Lindsay, Robert J May 18, 1909 

Assistant Secretary-Treasurer, Hope Engineering ft Supply 
Company, 411 Pioneer Building, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Lindsay, Roy May 16, 1917 

Foreman, Dominion Natural Gas Company, Limited, Dunnville, 
Ontario, Canada. 

Lindsay, W. R May 16. 1916 

Assistant to Vice President, Oklahoma Petroleum ft Gasoline 
Company, Box 921, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Little, Perry A May 16, 1917 

Producer Natural Gas and Oil, White Building, Buffalo, New 
York. 

Lobaugh, W. H May 16, 1917 

Field Manager, Pavilion Natural Gas Company, Pavilion, New 
York. 

Lookhart, Robert May 16, 1916 

Ohio Fuel Oil Company, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Lobell, Henry O May 16, 1916 

Industrial Fuel Bnglneer, Henry L. Doherty ft Company, 60 
Wall Street, New York, New York. 

Logue, James J May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, Reserve Gas Company, 241 North River Ave- 
nue, Weston, West Virginia. 

Lohr, G. C May 18. 1916 

Agent, The Bast Ohio Gas Company, 37 Main Street, Warren, 
Ohio. 

Long, W. A May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Arkansas Natural Gas Company, Vivian, Louisiana. 

Longnecker, W. C .May 16, 1911 

Treasurer, Toledo Pipe Threading Machine Company, 1446 Sum- 
mit Street, Toledo, Ohio. 

Lord, R. 8 May 18, 1909 

Vice President and Treasurer. Hope Engineering ft Supply 
GompaiiTv Moont Vernon, Ohio. 

Louis, Frank I May 21, 1912 

District Manager, The National Supply Company of Kansas, 606 
South Blwood Avenue, Tutoa, Oklahoma. 

Leveland, Elmer May 18, 1909 

superintendent, Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, 611 San- 
dusky Avenue, Fremont, Ohio. 



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486 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Loverld9«, Ouy H May 16, 1917 

Cbief Clerk, Land Department, Iroquois Natural Gaa Oompany, 
33 Inwood Place, Buffalo, New York. 

Lowry, Frank M May 18, 1915 

President and General Manager, Dominion Natural Qas Com- 
pany, 842 Marine National Bank Building, Buffalo, New 
York. 

Luobecker, Paul May 16, 1917 

Compressing Station Department, ManufActurers light & Heat 
Company, 1417 Chaplin Street, Wheeling, West Virginia. 

Lupher, Preston W May 18, 1908 

Vice President, The Logan Natural Gas & Fuel Company, 34 
Ruggery Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Luther, George M May 16, 1916 

Foreman, The Manufacturers Light ft Heat Company, 802 Third 
Street, Moundsville, West Virginia. 

Lutz, Carl H May 15, 1917 

Civil Engineer, Dominion Natural Gas Company, 842 Marine 
National Bank Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Lynch, G. D May 15, 1917 

Stock Man, Dominion Natural Gas Company, 209 Washington 
Avenue, Batavla, New York. 

Lynn, James T May 21, 1907 

President, National Gas, Electric Light & Power Company, 1714 
Ford Building, Detroit, Michigan. 

Lyon, J. F May 16, 1916 

Meter Inspector, T. W. Phillips Gas and Oil Company, Butler, 
Pennsylvania. 

Lyon, M. P May 18, 1915 

Oil and Gas Broker, Hotel Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Lytle M. E May 16, 1911 

Superintendent, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 52 West Gay 
Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Lytle, V. H May 16. 1916 

Representative, American Manufacturing Company of Brooklyn, 
New York, Box 504, Marietta, Ohio. 

Macbeth, Alexander B May 21, 1907 

Vice President and General Manager, Southern California Gas 
Company, 805 Garland Building, Los Angeles, California. 

Magrew, B. A May 16, 1916 

Engineer, The Logan Natural Gas ft Fnel Company, 34 Rug- 
gery Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Mahan, G. F May 21, 1907 

Vice President, National Supply Company, of Kansas, Inde- 
pendence, Kansas. 

Mahoney, John T May 15, 1917 

President, Commercial Oil Company, 17 Main Street, Buffalo, 
New York. 

Mallory, L. E May 21, 1912 

Oil and Gas Business, L. Bl Mallory ft Son, Bradford, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Maloney, J. L May 15, 1917 

District Superintendent, Central Ohio Gas ft Electric Company, 
Box 390, Wooster, Ohio. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 487 



Manley, H. E May 20, 191S 

Clerk, Magnolia Petroleum ComxAny. 2806 Swiss Avenue, Dal- 
las, Texas. 

Manning, William E May 16, 1911 

General Manager of Sales, Youngstown Sheet 4b Tube Oompaay, 
StamlMiugh BuUding, Youngstown, Ohio. 

Mansfield, J. P. May 20, 1918 

Sliperlntendent, United Natural Gas CJompany, Van, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Marckworth, W. C May 15, 1917 

President and General Manager, Mountain State Gas Company, 
Union Trust Building, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Markley, Joseph C May 19, 1914 

Treasurer, Southwestern Gas ft Mectric Company, 111 West 
Monroe Street, Chicago, Illinois. 

Marple, M. R May 1«, 1919 

Storekeeper, ESquitable Gas Company, Twenty-third and Liberty 
Streets, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Marquis, H. H May 16, 1917 

Manager, Kane Supply Company, 17 Grooves Street, Kane, 
Pennsylvania. 

Marriott, W. J May 15, 1917 

Foreman, Dominion Natural Gas Company, Limited, Gait, On- 
tario, Canada. 

Marston, Edgar J May 15, 1917 

Treasurer, Texas ft Pacifle Coal Company, New York Office, 
24 Broad Street, New York, New York, Thurber, Texas. 

Martin. Edward P May 20, 1918 

Agent, The ISast Ohio Gas Company, 124 North Chestnut Street, 
Ravenna, Ohio. 

Martin, F. W May 10, 1910 

Agent, Hope Natural Gas Company, 710 Wells Street, Sisters- 
ville, West Virginia. 

Martin, Henry May 16, 1917 

Oil Producer, J. W. Leonard Oil Company, 28 South Wade Ave- 
nue, Washington, Pennsylvania. 

Martin, James May 20, 1913 

Superintendent, No. 2 Works, The East Ohio Gas Company, 
Bast Sixty-second Street and L. S. ft M. S. R. R., Cleveland, 
Ohio. 

Martin, J. O May 16. 1916 

Contracting Agent, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 424 
Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Martin, John May 20, 1918 

President, Midway Gas Company, 832 Pine Street, Room 411, 
San Francisco, California. 

Mascho, Charles W May 20, 1918 

Vice President, The National Supply Company, 136 Huron 
Street, Toledo, Ohio. 

Mason, Alphonso May 18, 1909 

Representative, Welsbach Company, Gkmcester City, Neiw 
Jersey. 



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488 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



Muon, C. F May 21, 1967 

Superintendent, The Western Distributing Company, Sedgrwick, 
Kansas. 

Mason, John F May 20, IWS 

Superintendent of IMstribution, United Natural Gas Company, 
308 Seneca Street, Oil City, Pennsylyania. 

Mason, Sidney May 17, 1»10 

President, Welsbach Company, 412 United Gas Improvement 
Building, Broad and Arch Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Matson, J. R May 20, 191S 

Agent, The East Ohio Gas Company, 213 ESast Grant Street, 
Dennlson, Ohio. 

Maxon, Harry R May 18, 1915 

Assistant to General Manager, Central Indiana Gas Company, 
Munde, Indiana. 

Maxon, John H May 18, 1909 

President and General Manager, The Central Indiana Gas Com- 
pany, 301 Bast Main Street, Munde, Indiana. 

May, A. G May 16, 1916 

217 Burris Street, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 

McAllister, L. P May 18, 1915 

Bngineer, Columbia Gas ft Electric Company, Branchland, West 
Virginia. 

McBHde, R. 8 May 16, 1916 

Associate Chemist, Bureau of Standards, Washington, District 
of Columbia. 

McCabe, John G May 16, 1916 

Shop Foreman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 1919 Forbes 
Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

McCalf, Edward P May 16, 1916 

Drilling Contractor, C. W. McCall ft Company, Second Street, 
Weston, West Virginia. 

McCalmont, C. P May 20, 1913 

Superintendent, Pennsylvania Gcui Company, 213 Second Street, 
Warren, Pennsylvania. 

McCandless, C. H May 20, 1913 

District Manager, United and Globe Rubber Manufacturing 
Companies, 914 Farmers Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Penn* 
sylvania. 

McCandless, H. E May 16, 1917 

Clinton Pipe Pulling Company, 1306 Bdward Street, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

MeCandless, Harry M May 15, 1917 

Agent, Clarion Gas Company, Clarion, Pennsylvania. 

McCann, G. E May 16, 1917 

Shop and Garage Foreman, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 486 
Massachusetts Avenue, Buffalo, New York. 

McCarthy, L. R May 16, 1917 

Superintendent, (Hclahoma Natural Gas Company, 1011 North 
Cheyenne Street, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 489 



MoClelian, Arthur, May 1«, 191« 

Superintendent of Construction, The Peoples Natural Qaa Com- 
pany, 108 Orchard Street, Woodlawn, Pennsylyania. 

McClollan, Joseph May 16, 1916 

Orifice Meter Department, The Peoples Natural Qas Company, 
424 Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

McClellan, W. C May 16, 1916 

Shop Foreman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, Race Street, 
Manor, Pennsylvania. 

McClintoek, C. A May 16, 1917 

Division Fbreman, The Ektst Ohio Qas Company, St, Clairsville, 
Ohio. 

McClintoek, J. T May 18, 1915 

President, Huntington Development ft Qas Company, 928 Third 
Avenue, Huntington, West Virginia. 

McCloskey, James P May 17, 1910 

Superintendent, Columbia Qas ft Blectric Company, Tenth 
Street and Third Avenue, Huntington, West Virginia. 

McCloy, 8. D May 16, 1916 

Contractor, Any Company, 323 Ridge Avenue, Cannonsburg, Penn- 
sylvania. 

MeCloy, W. L May 16, 1911 

General Superintendent, Philadelphia Company, 435 Sixth Ave- 
nue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

McCluney, 8. F May 15, 1917 

Chief Production Department, Oklahoma Natural Qas Company, 
531 North Cheyenne Street, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

McConnell, H. H May 16, 1916 

Secretary and Treasurer, Pennsylvania Qas Company, 213 Sec- 
ond Avenue, Warren, Pennsylvania. 

McCord, J. W May 18, 1909 

Secretary and General Manager, Clintonlan Fuel ft Oil Company, 
511 National Bank ot Commerce Building, Columbus, Ohio, 

McCormIck, Edward P May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 37 Church Street, 
Buffalo, New York. 

McCormick, J. H May 15, 1917 

Representative, H. H. Mueller Manufacturing Company, Deca- 
tur, Illinois. 

McCormick, L. M May 15. 1917 

Foreman, The East Ohio Gas Company, 37 Main Street, Warren, 
Ohio. 

McCrea, R. A May 16, 1911 

Construction Engineer, Pittsburgh Valve, Foundry ft Construc- 
tion Company, Box 1016, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

McCrimmon, J. E May 15, 1917 

Leaser, Dominion Natural Qas Company, Limited, St. Thomas, 
Ontario, Canada. 

McCune, D. B May 15, 1917 

Agent, The Natural Qas Company of West Virginia, 34 Garfield 
Avenue, Salem, Ohio. 



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490 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



MeCune, 8. A May 21, 1912 

Field Superintendent, Arkansas Natural Qas Company, Box 94, 
Shreyepoit, Louisiana. 

McDermott, J. H May 18, 1915 

Vice President, Pentrass Natural Gas Ck>mpany, Morgantown, 
West Virginia. 

McDonald, Donald May 20, 19U 

Vice President and General Manager, Louisville Gas & Electric 
Company,, 311 West Cbestnut Street, Louisyille, Kentucky. 

McDowell, C. O May 15, 1917 

Superintendent, Kanawha Manufacturers QtM Company, 502 
Shrewsbury Street, Charleston, West Virginia. 

McDowell, Jesse Clark February 27, 1906 

President, Dominion Natural Gas Company, 1320 Farmers Bank 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

McGllvary, H. J May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Pittsburgh ft West Virginia Gas Company, 150 High 
Street, Weston, West Virginia. 

McHenry, M. A May 16, 1917 

Lease Superintendent, Medina Gas ft Fuel Company, Wooster, 
Ohio. 

Mclntyre, M May 16, 1916 

President and General Manager, Gowanda Natural Gas Com- 
pany, 28 Main Street, Gowanda, New York. 

McKay, C. R May 18, 1915 

Manager, Electrical Department, Union Gas ft Electric Com- 
pany, Fourth and Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Mcllhenny, John D May 17. 1910 

President, Gas Company of Montgomery County (Norrlstown, 
Pa.), 1339 Cherry Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

MeKee, George R May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Consolidated Gas Company, 436 Sixth Avenue, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

McKee, William May 17, 1910 

Secretary, The Chaplin-Fulton Manufacturing Company, 23-24 
Penn Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

McKenzle, William Hunter February 27, 1906 

General Manager, Wyandotte County Gas Company, Sixth and 
Main Avenue, Kansas City, Kansas. 

McKlmmie, J. E May 16, 1917 

Purchasing Agent, Dominion Natural Gas Company, Limited, 
842 Marine National Bank Building, Buffalo, New York. 

McKlnney, C. B May 16, 1917 

Vice President and General Manager, North Texas Gas Com- 
pany, 406 Gandy Street, Denlson, Texas. 

McKnIght, 8. C May 20, 1913 

Agent, The East Ohio Gas Company, Barberton, Ohio. 

McMahon, D. P May 16, 1917 

Agent, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 37 Keneflck Avenue, Buf- 
falo, New York. 

McMahon, John May 20, 1918 

Collector, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 69 Dash Avenue, Buf- 
falo, New York. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 491 



McMahon, John P May 18, 1915 

Attorney, The Northwestern Ohio Gas Company, Spitzer Build- 
ing, Toledo, Ohio. 

McMahon, J. F May 20, 1913 

Manager, Valley Natural Gas Ck>mpany, P. O. Box W, Bakers- 
field, California. 

McMahon, John J. May 20, 1913 

Superintendent Main Lines, The East Ohio Gas Company, Can- 
ton, Ohio. 

McMahon, Jamea W May 18, 1909 

General Manager, The Northwestern Ohio Natural Gas Com- 
pany, 210-212 Huron Street, Toledo, Ohio. 

McMasters, W. C May 16, 1916 

Clerk, Pittsburgh, and West Virginia Gas Company, Clarksburg, 
West Virginia. 

McMillan, John May 20, 1913 

Superintendent, The Portsmouth Gas Company, 802 ChlUicothe 
Street, Portsmouth, Ohio. 

McMillln, Emerw>n May 17, 1910 

Chairman, Board of Directors, The American Ldght & Traction 
Company, 120 Broadway, New York, New York. 

McMunn, J. 8 May 16, 1916 

District Foreman, Equitable Gas Company, 108 Oakmont Ave- 
nue, Oakmont, Pennsylvania. 

McNally, J. I May 18, 1915 

Electrolysis Expert, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 424 
Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

McNary, John B May 18, 1915 

Manager, Canadian Meter Company, 88-90 Caroline Street, Hamil- 
ton, Ontario, Canada. 

McNary, J. F May 19, 1914 

Division Superintendent, Philadelphia Company of West Vir- 
ginia, Union Bank Building, Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

McNary, L. J May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Reserve Gas Company, 343 North River Avenue, 
Weston, West Virginia. 

McPherson, Edwin Allan May 15, 1917 

302 Iroquois Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Meals, 8. W May 16, 1911 

Division Superintendent, Carnegie Natural Gas Company, 320 
Eighth Street, Moundsville, West Virginia. 

Mead, Carl D May 16, 1916 

Secretary-Treasurer, THie Cadiz Gas Company, 114 North Main 
Street, Cadiz, Ohio. 

Machesney, C. A May 16, 1916 

Engineer, Equitablle Gas Company, 436 Sixth Avenue, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

Meredith, George B ....May 16, 1916 

Foreman. Hope Natural Gas Company, Smithfleld, West Vir- 
ginia. 



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NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



Mellon, Porter D May 20» 191S 

Engineer, Calgary Qas Comikanjr, Limited, 215 Sixth Arenue, 
West Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 

Merket, Joaeph May 18, 1916 

Superintendent, The Texas Company, Natural Gtes Department, 
Box 298, Moran, Texas. 

Merrill, Edwin C ......May 21, 1912 

Manufacturer, 2916 Smallman Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylyania. 
Mettlerp Lee B........ ........June 12, 190« 

Representative, American Water Heater Company, 217 Title 
Guaranty Building, St. Louis, Missouri. 

Metz, Eugene Jr .June 12, 1906 

Representative, Metric Metal Works, 1003 Commerce Building, 
Kansas City, Missouri. 

Meyerp Frank J May 16, 1916 

Superintendent Gas Department, Oklahoma Gas ft Electric 
Company, 12 North Broadway, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. 

Michel, F. M May 16. 1916 

Foreman, United Natural Gas Company, 119 West Weber Ave- 
nue, DuBois, Pennsylvania. 

MIckley, M. A . . .May 18. 1909 

Agent, The Marlon Gtes Company, 238 East Center Street, Ma- 
rion, Ohio. 

Miller, Alien 8 May 21, 1912 

Vice President, Humphreys ft Miller, Inc., 166 Broadway, New 
York, New York. 

Miller, B. L May 18, 1915 

United Natural Gas Company, Tldioute, Pennsylvania. 

Miller, Carroll May 21, 1912 

General Manager, Western United Gas ft Electric Company, 
36 Lincoln Way, Aurora, HUnois. 

Miller, D. F May 16, 1917 

Superintendent, EMgar M. Moore ft Company, 709 Farmers 
Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Miller, E. 8 May 21, 1912 

Superintendent Gas Department, Kansas Gas ft Electric Com* 
pany, 239 South Main Street, Wichita, Kansas. 

Miller, Fred A .May 19, 1909 

President and General Manager, S. R. Dresser Mfg. Company, 
64 Boyeston Street, Bradford, Pennsylvania. 

Miller, H. Q ..May 18, 1916 

Agent, The Granville Fuel ft Light Company, P. O. Box 473, 
Granville, Ohio. 

Miller, J. A. W . . ..... .May 16, 1917 

Assistant Superintendent, Pittsburgh, Plate Glass Company, 
Ford City, PennsylTaala. 

Miller, L. L.. .....May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Fayette County Gas Company, Walnut Street, Unloii- 
town, Pennsylvania. 

Miller, R. R May 16, 1916 

Chief Clerk, Allegheny Heating Company, 603 West Diamond 
Street, North Side, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



Miller, WililMii A ..May 18. 1909 

ISngliieer, National Chamber Oven ComxAny, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Milne, D. 8 May 18, 1916 

Manager, Central Indiana Ohm Company, Adams and Fifth 
Streets, Marlon, Indiana. 

Milne, W. E May 18, 1915 

Manager, Gainesville Qas 4b Blectric Company, 12 South Rusk 
Street, Gainesville, Texas. 

Miner, Fred W ......May 18, 1909 

Representative, The National Supply Company, 1306 Union 
Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Mitchell, C. 8 .May 16, 1911 

Controller, Philadelphia Company, 435 Sixth Avenue, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

MItoheli, J. Wylle. ... May 18, 1916 

Superintendent of Distribution, St Joseph Gas Company, 802 
Francis Street, St Joseph, Missouri. 

Moeller, William, Jr May 19, 1908 

Chief ESnglneer, Midway Gas Company, P. O. Box N, Taft, Cali- 
fornia. 

Montgoniery, J. H May 18, 1915 

The Natural Gas Company of West Virginia, 96 Garfield Ave- 
nue, Salem, Ohio. 

Montgomery, M. D May 16, 1917 

Foreman, Ingersoll Gas Light Company, Liimlted, IngersoU, On- 
tario, Canada. 

Moore, Calvin T .May 16, 1917 

Geologist, Henry L. Doherty & Company, Box 35, Winchester, 
Kentucky. 

Moore, Edgar M May 18, 1916 

Edgar M. Moore & Company, 809-810 Farmers Bank Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Moore, Lee C May 16, 1911 

President, Lee C. Moore ft Company, 313 Sixth Avenue, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

Moran, P. A .May 16, 1916 

District Foreman, ESqultable Gas Company, 17th and Wharton 
Streets, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Morgan, W. J May 16, 1911 

Agent, East Ohio Gas Company, 404 Tuscarawas Street, West 
Canton, Ohio. 

Morris, Henry C May 17, 1910 

General Manager, The Dallas Gas Company, 1716 Commerce 
Street, Dallas, Texas. 

Morse, Nathan L. ....... ...May 16, 1916 

Purchasing Agent, Southern California Gas Company, 740 Sbuth 
Broadway, Los Angeles, California. 

Mowry, John May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, Clay Street, Clarksburg, 
West Ybiilnla. 

Mueller, Fred B June 12, 1906 

Vice President, H. Mueller Manufacturing Company, Decatur, 
Illinois. 



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494 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Mulkln, P. L May 20, 1913 

Agent, United Natural Oas Company, Oil City, PennsylTania. 

Muncer John Ruseail . . .May 16, 1911 

Vice President and General Manager, Arkansas Natural Qas 
Company, 1115 State Bank Building, Little Rock, Arkansas. 

Munro, Robert June 12, 190S 

Vice President and General Manager, Century Store and Manu- 
facturing Company, Dupont Place and Park Arenue, Johns- 
town, Pennsylyania. 

Munro, W. Lome May 16, 1916 

Auditor, Dominion Natural Gas Company, Main Street, Buffalo, 
New York. 

Murray, John J........... May 16, 1911 

Superintendent City Diyision, Equitable Gas Company, 436 
Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Murray, M. J May 16, 1917 

Foreman, Bast Ohio Gas Company, 603 East 127th Street, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Murphy, 8. F ....... .May 16, 1916 

Foreman, United Natural Gas Company, Halsey, Mt. Jewett 
P. O., Pennsylvania. 

Murtaugh, James May 16, 1916 

Field Superintendent, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 760 East 
Main Street, Lancaster, Ohio. 

Myers, E. E May 16, 1916 

Agent, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, New Kensington, 
Pennsylvania. 

Nash, John J .May 18, 1915 

General Manager, Huntington Development ft Gas Company, 
1428 Seventh Avenue, Huntington, West Virginia. 

Nash, Raymond J.... May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Huntington Development ft Gas Company, 928 Third 
Avenue, Huntington, West Virginia. 

Near, C. J. May 15, 1917 

Foreman, The Union Natural Gas Company, Essex, Ontario, 
Canada. 

Near, W. W. . . . . . . . May 19, 1914 

President, Page-Hersey Iron, Tube ft Land Company, Limited, 
6603 Dominion Bank Building, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

Neely, ira L. ...... . .May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, The Medina Gas ft Fuel Company, Wooster, 
Obio. 

Neely, Lemon G. May 18, 1909 

President, The Berea Pipe Line Company, Saint Marys, Ohio. 

Nelson, H. E ........May 16, 1917 

ESngineer, Manufacturers Gas Company, Erdice, Jefferson 
County, Pennsylvania. 

Nestor, J. F. May 16, 1916 

Chief Engineer, Manufacturers Light ft Heat Company, 1417 
Chaplin Street, Wheeling, West Vii^nia. 

Nestor, W. E. . . . .May 20, 1913 

Bbgineer, Manufacturers Light ft Heat Company, Waynesburg, 
Pennsylvania. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 496 



NewhouM^ B. Frank May 16, 1916 

S'ervioe Clerk, Union Oaa & Blectiic Company, Southwest Cor- 
nor Fourth and Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Newman, A. J May 16, 1916 

General Auditor, Union Natural €his Corporation, Union Bank 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Newton, M. A May 16, 1916 

Industrial Engineer, Logan Natural Gas & Fuel Company, 34 
Buggery Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Newton, Nelson A .May 18, 1915 

E^ffidency E3nglneer, The Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, 
34 Buggery Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Nlckerson, Henry B. . . . .May 15, 1917 

Secretary, American Steam Gauge ft Valve Mfg. Company, 208- 
220 Camden Street (Mall Address, Box 128, Back Bay P. 
O. Boston, Massachusetts), Boston, Massachusetts. 

NIcoM, Thomas. ....... .May 19, 1914 

Treasurer, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 424 Sixth Ave- 
nue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Nicholson, French .... ..... .May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, Bridgeport, West Vir- 
ginia. 

Nole, E. P ... .May 16, 1916 

Field Foreman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, Belle Ver- 
non, Pennsylvania. 
Norrls, Henry 8. ...... . . . .May 20, 1913 

Secretary, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, Iroquois Building, 
Buffalo, New York. 

Norrls, Rollln .May 21. 1907 

Superintendent of Works, United Gas Improvement Company, 
Broad and Arch Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Northcott, G. A. ......... . May 18, 1915 

Treasurer, Huntington, Development ft Gas Company, 928 Third 
Avenue, Huntington. West Virginia. 

Northup, Charles 8 May 17, 1915 

Attorney, The Northwestern Ohio Natural Gas Company, Spit- 
zer Building, Toledo, Ohio. 

Norton, Charles I . . .May 20, 1913 

Manager, George C. Moon Company, Inc., 486 The Arcade, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Nutt, E. Burt May 16, 1916 

Auditor, Blast Ohio Gas Company, East Ohio Gas Building, 1405 
East Sixth Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Cakes, W. L May 20, 1913 

Chief Teller, The Bast Ohio Gas Company, 1405 Bast Sixth 
Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Oberfell, George G .May 16, 1916 

Chemist, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, Homer, Ohio. 

O'Brien, Thomas F. . . . May 16, 1916 

Agent, United Fuel Gas Company, Church Street, Spencer, West 
Virginia. 



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496 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



O'Brian, T. F May 19, 1»14 

Superintendent, The Texas Comi»any, Natural Gas Department, 
Drawer 44, Shrereport, Louisiana. 

O'Brien, WiiHam May 19, 1914 

President, O'Brien Steel Construction Company, Washington, 
Pennsylranla. 

O'Conner T. M May 20 1918 

Foreman, The Btot Ohio Gas Company, 6411 Central Arenue, 
Clereland, Ohio. 

O'Day, John J May 16, 1916 

Agent, The Manufacturers Light & Heat Company, Coraopolis, 
Pennsylvania. 

Odenkirk, H. B May 16, 1916 

Developer of Oil and Gas, Bast Liberty Street, Wooster, Ohio. 

O'Donnell, John L May 19, 1908 

The Hanna Oil Company, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

O'Leary, Dennis May 20, 1913 

Chief Ekigineer, Pennsylvania Gas Company, Lodlow, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Oliphant, Bert C May 21. 1912 

President, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 37 Church Street, 
Buffalo, New York. 

Ollphant, F. H May 15, 1917 

Assistant Ekigineer, Iroquois Natural Ckis Company, 812 Auburn 
Avenue, Buffalo, New York. 

Olmstead, J. F May 16, 1916 

Superintendent of Distribution, Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Com- 
pany, 34 Buggery Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Oliver, C. E May 20, 1918 

Chief, Pressure Department, United Natural Gas Company, 206 
Seneca Street, Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

OIney, George L 6 May 15, 1917 

Superintendent Building Construction, The Bast Ohio Gas Com- 
pany, 1405 Ekist Sixth Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

O'Neill, Charles May 21, 1907 

Superintendent of Distribution, Webb City ft Cartervllle Gas 
Company, Carthage Gas Company, Webb City, Missouri. 

Ossenbeck, Fred J May 21, 1912 

Secretary-Treasurer, The Ardizzone Company, 507-508 Bliss 
Building, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Ostermaier, John May 16, 1916 

District Foreman, Equitable Gas Company, 23rd Street and 
Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Ostrye, Peter L May 16. 1916 

Superintendent, Meter Department, East Ohio Gas Company, 
Hendon Avenue, West Park, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Painter, Jay C May 15, 1917 

Cashier, Oklahoma Natural Gas Company, Pioneer Building. 
Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Palm, C. J May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, Lease Department, Logan Natural Gas Com- 
pany, 34 Buggery Building, Columbus, Ohio. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 4»7 



Palm«r, J. F liay IG, 1916 

General Superintendent, Arkanaas Natural Qas Company, 2746 
Fairfield Avenue, Shreveport, Louisiana. 

Palmer, W. M May 18, 1916 

District Superintendent, Caddo Division, Southwestern Gas ft 
Electric Company, 116 Texas Street, Shreveport, Louisiana. 

Paris, A. J. Jr May 16, 1916 

Treasurer and General Manager, Felt Gas Compressing Com- 
pany, Bradford, Pennsylvania. 

Parker, John F June 12, 1906 

Sales Manager, Bkslipse Gas Stove Company, 707 South Main 
Street, Rockford, Illinois. 

Parks, R. N May 18, 1916 

Gasoline and Meter Bnglneer, United Fuel Gas Company, Quar- 
rier Street, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Parr, Adrian T May 16. 1917 

Safety Inspector, Henry L. Doherty ft Company, 428 North 
Bever Street, Wooster, Ohio. 

Patterson, A. B May 19, 1914 

Manager, New York Belting Packing Company, 420 First Ave- 
nue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Patterson, William M May 18, 1909 

In Charge of Pipe Department, Frick Lindsay Company, 109 
Wood Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Pattlnson, R. L May 19, 1914 

President, Medina Natural Gas Company, 29 Fifth Street, Chat- 
ham, Ontario, Canada. 

Payne, A. I May 21, 1912 

Consulting Gas Ehigineer, P. O. Box 671, Calgary, Alberta, 
Canada. 

Payne, Christy May 18, 1916 

Attorney and Secretary, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 424 
Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Payne, Francis H May 20, 1913 

Manager, Metric Metal Works, Post Ol&ce Box 710, Brie, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Pearson, C. A May 16, 1917 

Master Mechanic, United Natural Gas Company, Oil City, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Pearson, H. B May 19, 1914 

General Superintendent, The Canadian Western Natural Gas, 
light, Heat ft Power Company, Limited, 216 Sixth Avenue, 
West, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 

Peddicord, T. B May 19, 19X5 

Foreman, Pittsburgh ft West Virginia Gas Company, S82 Broad- 
dus Avenue, Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

Penhale, J. W May 18, 1916 

Superintendent, United Fuel Gas Company, Quarrier Street, 
Charleston, West Virginia. 

Perdue, J. L. May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, Compressing Department, United Fuel Gas 
Company, Charleston, West Virginia. 



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4»8 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



P«rry, E. R May 15, 1917 

Cosden Oil & Gas Company, Tulsa, Oklaboma. 

Perry, J. 8 May 16, 1916 

Oas Produoer, Brighton Hotel, Washington, D. C. 

Pew, James G May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, The Peoples Natural Oas Ck>mpany, 424 Sixth 
Arenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Pew, John Q May 20, 1913 

President, The Peoples Natural Oas Company, 424 Sixth Ave- 
nue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Phillips, C. C May 18, 1916 

Chief Clerk, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 52 West Oay Street, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Phillips, D. H May 15, 1917 

Agent, Potter Gas Company, Port Allegheny, Pennsylvania. 

Phillips, Henry T May 16, 1916 

Oas Magazine, Service Publishing Company, 179 East Long 
Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Pick, Earle May 16, 1916 

Agent, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 448 Walnut Avenue, 
Greensburg, Pennsylvania. 

Plagenz, George W May 18, 1916 

Secretary to Secretary-Treasurer, The Bast Ohio Gas Company, 
1405 Bast Sixth Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Poole, C. J May 16, 1916 

Agent, Fayette County Gas Company, 302 South Pittsburgh 
Street, Connellsville, Pennsylvania. 

Pope, Worden May 16, 1916 

EIngineer, Henry L. Doherty ft Company, 60 Wall Street, New 
York, New York. 

Porterfleld, Harry May 16 1916 

Shop F\>reman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 707 Center 
Street, Wllkinsburg, Pennsylvania. 

Porterfleld, R. M May 16, 1916 

Inspector, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 52 West Gay Street, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Powers, Nicholas May 16. 1916 

Oil and Gas Well Contractor, Powers Brothers, Fairmont, West 
Virginia. 

Pratt, Charles E May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Bquitable Gas Company, 435 Sixth Avenue, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

Pratt, Edward Q May 21, 1912 

Consulting and Managing Gas Engineer, 122 South Michigan 
Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 

Preeho, A. A May 16, 1917 

Agent, Potter Gas Company, Westfleld, Pennsylvania. 

President May 18, 1916 

Direccion General Explotadon del Petroleo de Comodore 
Rivadava, 278 Balcarce, Buenos Aires, Argentine. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 499 



Preston, 8. C May 16, 1916 

Chief Engineer, The Peoples Natural Gas Ck>mpany, 424 Sixth 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Price, W. W May 18, 1909 

President, Dayton Pipe Coupling Company, E3dmun Street, Day- 
ton, Ohio. 

Prior, Charles J May 20, 1913 

Assistant to Manager, Metric Metal Works, 339 East 7th Street, 
Erie, Pennsylvania. 

Prill, H. M May 15, 1917 

Cashier, Warren ft Chautauqua Gas Company, 235 Pennsylvania 
Avenue, West, Warren, Pennsylvania. 

Prlngle, R. 8 May 15, 1917 

Manager, Pringle Powder Company, 139 Main Street, Bradford, 
Pennsylvania. 

Pryor, F. B May 16, 1911 

Secretary, Fairmont Gas and Light Company, Jefferson Street, 
Fftirmont, West Virginia. 

Purdy, J. 8. L May 19, 1914 

General Manager, The Pavillion Natural Gas Company, 68 Main 
Street, LeRoy, New York. 

Pyzel, E. D May 17, 1910 

Gas Engineer, Heerengracht 141-145, Amsterdam, Holland. 

Quay, H. A May 18, 1915 

District Manager, Manufacturers Light ft Heat Company, Co- 
lumbia Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Quinlan, P. J May 16, 1916 

Shop Foreman, The River Gas Company, 228 Third Street Ma- 
rietta, Ohio. 

Quinlln, Ambrose J May 20, 1913 

General Foreman, The Bast Ohio Gas Company, 1405 East 
Sixth Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Rae, A. B May 20, 1913 

Foreman, The East Ohio Gas Company, 4706 Lorain Avenue, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Ralph, Charles A May 18, 1915 

Ralph Brothers, Aspinwall, Pennsylvania. 

Ratston, William 8 May 18, 1909 

Vice-President, Chaplin-Fulton Manufacturing Company, 34 
Penn Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Ramage, J. R May 16, 1916 

Gas Salesman, Louisville Gas ft Electric Company, 311 West 
Chestnut Street, Louisville, Kentucky. 

Ramsey, E. C May 15, 1917 

Ihigineer in Charge of Field Pressure, Ohio Fuel Supply Com- 
pany, 52 West Gay Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Randolph, Ernest May 19, 1914 

Oil and Gas Operator, 510 Goff Building, Clarksburg, West Vir- 
ginia. 

Randolph, M. D May 16, 1916 

Manager, Arkansas Natural Gas Company, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. 



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500 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Rankin, Harvey May 1«, 191« 

Head Leaaeman, The Peoplea Natural Gas Ck>mpany, 424 Sixth 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennaylyanla. 

RatcIlM, George L May 16, 191€ 

Agent, Hie Peoples Natural Gas Company, Woodlawn, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Ralcllffe, Qeorge W May 21, 1912 

Treasurer, Manufacturers light & Heat Company, 248 Fourth 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Reekard, G. H May is, 1216 

Purchasing Agent, The Miller Supply Company, Huntington, 
West Virginia. 

RedlCp 8amuel May 16, 1911 

Representative, Spang & Company, Butler, Pennsylvania. 

Reed, Charles G May 16, 1916 

Construction Engineer, Hope Natural Gas Company, Despard 
Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

Reed, F. L May 16, 1916 

Agent, The River Gas Company, 324 Fourth Street, Marietta, 
Ohio. 

Reed, Ira B May 15, 1917 

Assistant Secretary and Treasurer, Iroquois Natural Gas Com- 
pany, 214 Hoyt Street, Buffalo, New York. 

Reed, J. A May 16, 1911 

Assistant General Superintendent, Philadelphia Company, 436 
Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Reed, James H May 16, 1916 

President, Philadelphia Company, 436 Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 

Reed, J. H. Jr May 16, 1911 

General Purchasing Agent, Philadelphia, 4S5 Sixth Avenue, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Reed, N. W May 16, 1916 

Agent, Clarion Gas Company, 613 Main Street, Clarion, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Reel, W. G May 16, 1916 

Contractor, Oil and Gas Wells, Kenycm Avenue, West View, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Reeser, E. B May 20, 1918 

General Manager, Potter Gas Company, Farmers Bank Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Reeser, F. B May 18, 1915 

The Miami Valley Gas & Fuel Company, Plqua, Ohio. 

Reeaer, Harry C May 17, 1910 

Assistant to the President, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 2017 
Farmers Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Reeser, J. W May 19, 1914 

General Superintendent, United Fuel Gas Company, 617 Sixth 
Street, Huntington, West Virginia. 

Reichel, C. D May 20, 1913 

Information and Complaint Clerk, The Union Gas ft Blectric 
Company, Fourth and Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 501 



Reichert, Win May 16, 1916 

Shop Foreman, The Peoples Natural Oas Company, Wilklns- 
burg, Pennsylvania. 

Relley, D. M May 16, 1917 

Charge of Display Room, Iroquois Natural Qas Company, 548 
North Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, New York. 

Reiser, Charles L May 16, 1917 

Station Bmgineer, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, Collins Cen- 
ter, New York. 

Remler, J. E May 15, 1917 

Superintendent, Compressor Station, Kansas Gas Company, In- 
dependence, Kansas. 

Renick, J. D .' May 16, 1916 

Inspector, Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, 34 Ruggery 
Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Reul, William H May 20, 1913 

Superintendent Fitting Department, The Union Gas & Electric 
Company, Fourth and Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Reynolds, H. C May 17, 1910 

Sole Owner, Reynolds Gas Regulator Company, 1019 Delaware 
Street, Anderson, Indiana. 

Rich, A. R May 18, 1915 

Superintendent, The Ohio Cities Gas Company, West Virginia 
Division, Dawes, Kanawha County, West Virginia. 

Rich, Edward B May 16, 1911 

President, University Oil Company, P. O. Box 628, Parkersburg, 
West Virginia. 

Rich, Fred 8 May 18, 1915 

President, Crude Oil Company, Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

Richards, W. H May 16. 1916 

Treasurer, Potter Gas Company, Port Allegheny, Pennsylvania. 

Richie, J. A May 16, 1917 

Secretary-Treasurer, Dominion Natural Gas Company, Limited, 
842 Marine Bank Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Richter, William F May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Fayette County Gas Company, Painter Street, South 
McConnellsviUe, Pennsylvania. 

Riddle, Qeorge B May 18, 1916 

Superintendent, The Natural Gas Company of West Virginia, 
1226 Chaplin Street, Wheeling, West Virginia. 

RIdgway, J. L May 16, 1916 

Field Foreman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, Brave, 
Pennsylvania. 

Rlgg% D. B May 18, 1916 

Foreman, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 736 Fountain Square, 
Zanesville, Ohio. 

RIggs, Ross May 19, 1914 

Field Foreman, Northeastern Oil ft Gas Company, R. D. No. 1, 
Jefferson, Ohio. 

RIley, Qeorge N May 16, 1911 

Bkiglneer, National Tube Company, Frick Building, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 



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602 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Ripley, L. O May 21, 1912 

Vice President and General Manager, Kansas Oas ft Electric 
Company, 237-239 South Main Street, Wichita, Kansas. 

Roberts, C. C May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, Southern Ontario Gas Company, 41 Queen 
Street, St. Thomas, Ontario, Canada. 

RoberU, M. J May 15, 1917 

Meter Tester, Beaver Oil & Gas Company, Limited, KingsYille, 
Ontario, Canada. 

Roberts, W. T May 16, 1916 

Inspector, Arkansas Natural Gas Company, Little Rock, Ai^ 
kansas. 

Robertson, D May 16, 1916 

Treasurer, Pittsburgh Oil ft Gas Company, 1005 Farmers Bank 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Robertson, D. 8 May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, Jantha Light ft Fuel Company, Greenville, Ohio. 

Robertson, John D May 21, 1912 

Owner and Producer, Jacksonville, Illinois. 

Robertson, W. A May 15, 1917 

Field Man, Clear Creek Oil ft Gas Company, 400 Garrison Ave- 
nue, Ft. Smith, Arkansas. 

Robinson, Edwin May 18, 1915 

Secretary-Treasurer, West Virginia Natural Gas Association, 
Jacobs Building, Fairmont, West Virginia. 

Roblneon, E. Jr May 20, 1913 

Superintendent Slipplies, Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 52 West 
Gay Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Robinson, L. E May 21, 1912 

General Manager, The Robinson Packer and Machine Company, 
141 Spruce Street, Coffeyville, Kansas. 

Roby, H. P , . . .May 15, 1917 

Assistant Secretary-Treasurer, Interstate Pipe Company, 1523 
Oliver Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Rockwell, C. O May 20, 1913 

Superintendent, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 207 East Bur- 
gess Street, Mt. Vernon, Ohio. 

Rodgers, Edward H May 19, 1908 

President, Standard Meter Company, 3112 North 17th Street, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Rogers, Homer R May 18, 1909 

Agent, The Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, Tiffin, Ohio. 

Rogers, W. J May 16, 1916 

General Solicitor, Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, 34 Rug- 
gery Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Romano, M May 16, 1916 

Labor Supplied for Gas Companies, 119 Shetland Avenue, B. E.. 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylrania. 

Rooney, E. 8 May 18, 1909 

District Sales Agent, The Toungstown Sheet ft Tube Company, 
1626 Oliver Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 508 



RoMp W. J May 20, 1913 

Manager, AUlance Oaa ft Power ComvBJOj, Alliance, Ohio. 

Rothert, E. R May 18, 1916 

Solicitor, Union Gas ft Electric Comi>any, Fourth and Plum 
Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Rowan, Raymond C May 15, 1917 

Secretary to Vice President, The Union Gas ft SSectric Com- 
pany, Fourth and Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Rowland, Wiliard J May 16, 1911 

President, Creek County Gas Company, 1913 First National 
Banlc Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Rudert, Emil May 16, 1917 

Contractor, Sazonburg, Pennsylvania. 

Rumbaugh, G. N May 16, 1916 

229 South Poplar Street, Wichita, Kansas. 

Rupp, C. H May 18, 1916 

Assistant Treasurer, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 424 
Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Rush, Albert May 15, 1917 

Contractor, Manufacturers Light ft Heat Company, Waynes- 
burg, Pennsylvania. 

Russell, C. H , May 15, 1917 

Chief Station Engineer, United Gas Company, R. F. D. No. 1, 
Mt Jewett, Pennsylvania. 

Russell, 0. W May 18, 1915 

Superintendent, Ardmore City Gas Company, 220 West Main 
Street, Ardmore, Oklahoma. 

Russum, R. C May 15, 1917 

Secretary-Treasurer, Quapaw Gas Company, 1st National Banlc 
Building, BartlesviUe, Oklahoma. 

Rutz, A. O .May 16, 1916 

General Manager, Milwaukee Gas Specialty Company, 13c3 Sec- 
ond Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

Ryan, E. M May 16, 1917 

Chief Gas Ledger Bookkeeper, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 
185 Hamburg Street, Buffalo, New York. 

Ryan, J. L May 16, 1917 

Agent, Salamanca, New York, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 
SUamanca, New York. 

Ryan, W. Q May 16, 1916 

Oil and Gas Producer, 322 Wellington Street, Chatham, On- 
tario, Canada. 

Sackett, Edward May 16, 1916 

Meter Engineer, United Fuel Gas Company, Quarrier Street, 
Charleston, West Virginia. 

Saeoer, E. L May 16, 1917 

Foreman, East Ohio Gas Company, Barberton, Ohio. 

Sands, Louis I May 18, 1909 

Vice President, The Oil Well Supply Company, 215 Water 
Street, Pittsbure^^ Pennsylvania. 

Sarohet, A. C May 16, 1911 

Agent, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 142 North 9th Street, 
Cambridge, Ohio. 



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504 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 



Sargent, R. N May 15, 1»17 

Works Manager, The Rx>e88ler ft Hasalacher Chemical Ck>m- 
pany, St Albans, West Virginia. 

Sartorius, F May 16. 1917 

Treasurer, United Natural Gas Company, 308 Seneca Street, 
Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

••ul, Mlit May 18, 1915 

Editor, Gas Record, Monadnock Block, Chicago, Illinois. 

de Saulles, C. A. H May 19, 1908 

American Smelting and Refining Company, 165 Broadway, 
New York, New York. 

Schaffer, Hoae May 16, 1916 

Foreman, The Manufacturers Light ft Heat Company, Wash- 
ington, Pennsylvania. 

Schaiek, John H May 16, 1916 

Meter Tester and Repairman, Manufacturers Light ft Meat 
Company, Millbridge and Manton Streets, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 

Sohail, Henry D May 17, 1910 

Assistant to Vice-President, Detroit Stove Works, 1320^0 Jef- 
ferson Avenue, Detroit, Michigan. 

Schatzal, G. P May 16, 1916 

Agent, Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, 114 West Front 
Street, Flndlay, Ohio. 

Schauer, Frank F May 21, 1912 

Assistant Engineer, Kansas City, Gas Company, 910 Grand Ave- 
nue, Kansas City, Missouri. 

Scheil, Qeorge W May 17, 1910 

Mayerstown, Lob. County, Pennsylvania. 

Schell, W. F May 18, 1916 

Mechanical Engineer, Philadelphia Company, 436 Sixth Avenue, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Schlaudecker, E. M May 20, 1913 

Agent, Pennsylvania Gas Company, 312-314 Cherry Street, 
Jamestown, New York. 

Schlosaer, A. J Bfay 16, 1916 

Chief Engineer, Station Department, Potter Gas Company, Box 
237, Shlnglehouse, Pennsylvania. 

Schmidt, Elmer F May 18. 1915 

Assistant Engineer, The Ohio F^iel Supply Company, 52 West 
Gay Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Schneider, M. C May 19, 1914 

Assistant to General Superintendent, Philadelphia Company, 
436 Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Schwarm, C. A May 21, 1907 

General Manager, Corpus Christ! Gas Company, Corpus Chrisiti, 
Texas. 

Scott, G. C May 18. 1909 

Secretary-Treasurer, The Columbus Gas ft Fuel Company, 135 
North Front Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Scott, John Milton May 18, 1909 

Secretary and Treasurer, Kansas City Gas Company, 910' Grand 
Avenue, Kansas City, Missouri. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 505 



Scott, W. H. May 16, 1911 

Teller, The North-western Ohio Natural Gas Company, 210- 
212 Huron Street, Toledo, Ohio. 

9covllie, James May 15, 1917 

Foreman, The Ektst Ohio Gas Company, 19-21 North High 
Street, Akron, Ohio. 

Scratch, Qeorge May 16, 1917 

Foreman, Beaver Oil ft Gas Company, Limited, Klngsvllle, On- 
tario, Canada. 

Searle, Robert Meredith May 21, 1912 

Vice-President, Rochester Railway & Light Company, 34 Clin- 
ton Avenue, North, Rochester, New York. 

Secrest, M. F May 16, 1916 

Fbreman, Arkansas Natural Gas Company, Hope, Arkansas. 

Sedberry, W. H May 16, 1911 

Manager, Marshall Gas Company and Louisiana-Texas Natural 
Gas Company, Rusk and Bolivar Streets, Marshall, Texas. 

Seeger, Robert May 21, 1907 

District Manager, Welsbach Street Lighting Company of 
America, 704 Laclede Gas Building, Saint Louis, Missouri. 

Seep, Joseph May 15, 1917 

President, Central Kentucky National Gas Company, Oil City, 
Pennsylvania. 

Seibel, John May 16. 1911 

Night Watchman, Logan Natural Gas & Fuel Company, 612 
North Cory Street, Flndlay, Ohio. 

Seyffert, L. A May 20 , 1913 

Treasurer, United Fuel Gas Company, Box 1256, Charleston, 
West Virginia. 

Shade, R. S May 19, 1914 

Assistant Superintendent Main Lines and Distribution, Kansas 
Naturarl Gas Company, 201 . Second Street, Independence, 
Kansas. 

Shafer, F May 15, 1917 

Superintendent, Southern California Gas Company, Garland 
Building, Los Angeles, California. 

Shaffer, D. C May 18, 1916 

Superintendent Distribution, Union Light, Heat ft Power Com- 
pany, Court and Park Place, Covington, Kentucky. 

Shannon, Ogden K May 17, 1910 

Manager, The Fort Worth Gas Company, Eleventh and Throck- 
morton Street, Fort Worth, Texas. 

Shattuck, Jay R May 15, 1917 

Chief Clerk, Chart Department, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 
205 Carolina Street, Buffalo, New York. 

Shaw, S. T May 16, 1916 

Agent, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 343 Main Street, 
Latrobe, Pennsylvania. 

Shay, J. W May 16, 1916 

President, Greensboro Gas Company, 248 Fourth Avenue, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

Shear, Robert May 16, 1911 

Secretary, Home Gas Company, Mt. Morris, Pennsylvania. 



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506 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



8lM«t% William L May 16, 1916 

Clerk, Pittsburgh ft West Virginia Ckts Ck>mpan7, 608 West Cen- 
ter Street, Weston, West Virginia. 

Shenker, A. B Hay 15, 1917 

MoTing Contractor, Shenker & Shenker, West Park, Ohio. 

Sheppard, John C May 16, 1911 

Superintendent, Chaplin-Fulton Manufacturing Company, 28*34 
Penn Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Shepard, W. H May 19, 1908 

Treasurer and Manager, Coffesrville Gas & Fuel Company, 112 
West Eighth Street, Coffeyville, Kansas. 

Sherlock, Amy (Miss) May 20, 1913 

Assistant Secretary, Union Gas & Electric Company, Fourth 
and Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Shiebler, Marvin May 17, 1910 

Consulting Gas Engineer, 80 Broadway, New York, New York. 

Shinnick, Qeorge 8 May 16, 1916 

Commercial Manager, Columbus Gas ft Fuel Company, 135 
North Front Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

8*»ort, C. L May 16, 1917 

Superintendent, Boone Territory, Mountain State Gas Company, 
P. O. Box "P," Peytona, West Virginia. 

Shoub, John F May 20, 1913 

Secretary, The Delaware Gas Company, 68 North Sandusky 
Street, Delaware, Ohio. 

Shpiver, Ed May 15. 1917 

Foreman, East Ohio Gas Company, 127 North Chestnut Street, 
Ravenna, Ohio. 

Shulters, Hoyt V May 21, 1912 

Secretary and Treasurer, The East Ohio Gas Company, 1405 
Skist Sixth Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Sllliman, L. R May 16, 1916 

District Foreman, Equitable Gas Company, Tarentum, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

8llva, Albert May 18, 1915 

Secretary-Treasurer, The Union Light, Heat ft Power Company, 
Covington, Kentucky. 

Simmons, L. M May 20, 1913 

Agent, United Natural Gas Company, Du Bois, Pennsylvania. 

Simmons, W. P May 16, 1916 

Agent, The Manufacturers Light & Heat Company, 61 East 
Wheeling Street, Washington, Pennsylvania. 

Simpson, J. M May 18, 1915 

Assistant Purchasing Agent, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 
2017 Farmers Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Sinclair, E. W May 21, 1907 

President, Exchange National Bank, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Singleton, Bert May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, 310 Dancer Street, 
Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

Sipe, Qeorge B May 19, 1908 

Vice President and General Manager, Louisiana Gas Company, 
Levy Building, Shreveport, Louisiana. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 507 



8lpe, William Everett May 16, 1911 

Manager, Atlanta Oaa Company, Atlanta, Texas. 

Slverilng, J. L May 16, 1916 

Field Foreman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, Elderton, 
Pennsylvania. 

Slack, Charles W May 15, 1917 

Superintendent, The Attica Natural Gas Company, Attica, New 
York. 

Sladen, H. 8 May 16, 1911 

Wichita Manager, Kansas Gas ft EAectric Company, 237 South 
Main Street, Wichita, Kansas. 

Sloan, C. M May 15, 1917 

Clerk, Shop, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 108 Eighteenth 
Street, Buffalo, New York. 

Sloan, C. T May 15, 1917 

Assistant Engineer, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, Quaker 
Street, Orchard Park, New York. 

Sloan, F. M May 16, 1916 

Operator, Murraysville, Pennsylvania. 

Sloan, J. A May 16, 1916 

Shop Foreman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, Portage. 
Pennsylvania. 

Sloan, W. L May 15, 1917 

Foreman, Station Men, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 81 
Buffom Street, Buffalo, New York. 

Sloane, P. C May 16, 1916 

Agent, United Fuel Gas Company, Quarrier Street, Charleston, 
West Virginia. 

Slogle, B May 15. 1917 

Oil and Gas Producer, Care Continental Supply Company, West 
Park, Ohio. 

Smies, George H May 20, 1913 

Chief Clerk, The Union Gas & Electric Company, Fourth and 
Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Smith, A. C May 16, 1916 

Operator, 507 Virginia Street, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Smith, Elmer A.... May 16, 1916 

Auditor, American Natural Gas Company, 1511 Park Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pennslyvanla. 

Smith, Ernest B May 18, 1909 

Manager, The Coshocton Gas Company, Bachert Building, Co- 
shocton, Ohio. 

Smith, Edward May 18, 1915 

Chief Clerk, Well Accounting Department, The East Ohio Gas 
Company, 1513 lincoln Avenue, Lakewood, Ohio. 

Smithy Frank D May 15, 1917 

Agent, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, Sprlngvllle, New York. 

Smith, H. L :...... May 16, 1916 

Auditor, Carnegie Natural Gas Company, 922 Carnegie Building, 
Plttshurgh, Pennsylvania. 

Smith, H. L May 16, 1916 

District Foreman, Equitable Gas Company, 147 East Fifth Ave- 
nue, Homestead, Pennsylvania. 



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508 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Smith, Frank N. May 18, 1915 

Pattern Superintendent, S. R. Dresser Mfg. Ck>mi>any, 17 Davis 
Street, Bradford, Pennsylrania. 

Smith, W. T .May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Hope Natural Qaa Company, 304 Clarksburg Street, 
Mannington, West Virginia. 

Snoke, Alpheus May 18, 1915 

Field Superintendent, The Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, 
900 Mechanic Street, Utica, Ohio. 

Snider, C .May 18, 1915 

Superintendent, Cahokia Oas ft Oil Company, 252 North Main 
Street, E>dwardsyille, Illinois. 

Snyder, H. L May 21, 1912 

Room 503 Goff Building, Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

Snyder, Robert M, Jr March 20, 1906 

President, New York Oil and Gas Company, Director, Kansas 
Natural Gas Company; Director, Caney Gas Company, 316 
American Bank Building, Kansas City, Missouri. 

Snyder, S. W. May 16, 1916 

Foreman, United Natural Gas Company, 14 River Street, 
. Sharon, Pennsylvania. 

Soper, R. G ....... .May 16, 1911 

Secretary, The Dallas Gas Company, 2016 Jackson Street, Dal- 
las, Texas. 

South, W. H .May 18, 1915 

Secretary, Treasurer, General Manager, Randall Gas Company, 
P. O. Box 554, Morgantown, West Virginia. 

Southwick, E. F. .May 16, 1917 

Credit Clerk, E3ast Ohio Gas Company, 7021 Quimby Avenue, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Spain, W. H May 16, 1911 

District Representative, Oil Well Supply Company, 215 Water 
Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Spencer, C. H .... .... .May 15, 1917 

Shop Superintendent, Calgary Gas Company,- Limited, 215 Sixth 
Avenue, West, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 

Splcer, B. F . . May 16, 1916 

Agent, Logan Natural Gas ft Fuel Company, Bucyrus, Ohio. 

Sprague, H. H May 17, 1910 

President, si>rague Meter Company, 206 Water Street, Bridge- 
port, Connecticut. 

Sprenkle, W. A May 16, 1916 

Secretary-Tk^easurer, Natural Gas Company of West Virginia, 
323 Fourth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Stafford, 0. M ... .May 15, 1917 

Foreman, Pennsylvania Gas Company, 202 East Washington 
Street, Corey, Pennsylvania. 

Staniek, A. E May 16, 1916 

Chief Clerk, Contracting Department, Philadelphia Company, 
435 Sixth Street, Pltteburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Stearns, Q. A May 15, 1917 

Sawyer-Steams-Streeter Drilling Corporation, 401 Iroquois 
Building, Buffalo, New York. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 509 



Steams, JavMs W May 20, 1918 

Division Superintendent, Iroquois Natural Gas Ck>mpany, 401 
Iroquois Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Steenberoon, C. L May 19, 1914 

Manager, Paris Qas A Electric Company, Paris, Kentucky. 

Steere, F. W May 16, 1917 

President, Steere Engineering Company, Woodward and Hor- 
ton Avenue, Detroit, Michigan. 

Stein, F. v.. May 16, 1916 

Foreman, United Natural Gas Company, 670 Arch Street, Mead- 
vllle, Pennsylvania. 

Stemburg, F. M. . . . May 19, 1914 

Field Foreman, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, B^fans Street, 
Hamburg, New York. 

Stephanus, E. M May 15, 1917 

Salesman, Broderick & Bascom Rope Company, 805 North Main 
Street, St. Louis, Missouri. 

Stephens, T. H May 16, 1916 

Agent, The Manufocturers Light ft Heat Company, East Liver- 
pool, Ohio. 

Stemtt, Louis E ...May 16, 1916 

Manager, Smithport Gas Company, Smithport, Pennsylvania. 

Stewart, S. B .May 17, 1910 

General Contracting Agent, Philadelphia Company, 436 Sixth 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Stewart, William May 16, 1916 

General Foreman, Allegheny Heating Company, 603 Burd Street, 
North Side, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Stitt, John C May 16, 1916 

Field Foreman, Carnegie Natural Gas Company, West Union, 
West Virginia. 

Stokes, D. J. Jr. May 16, 1916 

Field Superintendent, The Natural Gas Company of West Vir- 
ginia, Harveys, Greene County, Pennsylvania. 

Stone, Frederick W .May 21, 1907 

Manager, Ashtabula Gas Company, 6 Progress Street, Ashta- 
bula, Ohio. 

Storey, Verne W May 18, 1916 

Vice President and Manager, Dixie Gas ft Water Company, Box 
121, Oil City, Louisiana. 

Stotler, R. M May 19, 1908 

District Manager, Pittsburgh Meter Company, 606 Victor Build- 
ing, Kansas City, Missouri. 

Steut, Wllber ... .May 16, 1916 

Assistant Geologist, Geological Survey of Ohio, 40 Sast Lane 
Avenue, Columbus, Ohio. 

Streiber, Theo. ... May 20, 1918 

Superintendent of Contracts, Sun Vapor ft Gas Street Light 
Company, 1000 South Market Street, Canton, Ohio. 

Strickler, James P May 21, 1907 

Superintendent Distribution, Columbus Gas ft Fuel Company, 
136 North Front Street, Columbus, Ohio. 



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510 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Stringer, Harrison May 18, 1916 

Superintendent, Dominion Natural Gas Company, Simcoe, On- 
tario, Canada. 

Strong, Murray May 16, 191« 

Foreman, Arkanaas Natural Gas Company, Arkadelphia, Ar- 
kanaas. 

Stroup, Lloyd May 16. 1917 

Field Foreman, Dominion Gas Company, Merlin, Ontario, 
Canada. 

Stroiip, John May 16, 1917 

Foreman, Glenwood Natural Gas Company, Limited, Port Alma, 
Ontario, Canada. 

Stuart, George J May 16. 1911 

Chief Engineer, Pittsburgh Valve Foundry & Construction Com- 
pany Twenty-sixth Street and A. V., R. R., Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 

Sullivan, J. H .... .May 20, 1913 

Superintendent, Street Department, The Bast Ohio Gas Com- 
pany, East 62nd, North of St. Clair, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Sullivan, P. D May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, 37 Church Street, 
Buffalo, New York. 

Sullivan, T. O ....May 16. 1911 

General Manager, Manufacturers Light & Heat Company, 314 
Columbia Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Sutton, A. I . . May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, R. F. D., St. Marys, West 
Virginia. 

Swan, George J .... .May 18, 1909 

Superintendent, Consumers Light, Heat & Power Company, 214 
East First Street, Topeka, Kansas. 

Swartz, J. K May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, Salem, West Virginia. 

Sweetman, W. D ...May 16, 1911 

Superintendent, Peoples Gas Light & Coke Company, 1241 
Dinisian Street, Chicago, Illinois. 

Sykes, J. D .May 16, 1911 

Superintendent, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 62 West Gay 
Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Swendeman, Joseph E. May 16, 1917 

Special Representative, American Steam Gauge & Valve Mfg. 
Company, 266 West Newton Street, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Tanner, J. Roy May 16, 1911 

General Manager, Pittsburgh Valve, Foimdry ft Construction 
Company, P. O. Box 1016, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Taylor, E. R .May 18, 1916 

Secretary and Treasurer, Fayette Light & Fuel Company, Fay- 
ette, Alabama. 

Taylor, George May 16, 1917 

Foreman, Alden-Batavia Natural Gas Company, Batavia, New 
York. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 611 

Taylor, Qeorgo E May 15. 1917 

Assistant Eanglneer, Public Service Commission of West Vir- 
ginia, State House, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Taylor, J. W May 16, 191« 

Foreman, Reserve Gas Company, 226 Bennet, Weston, West Vir- 
ginia. 

Teague, O. C May 21, 1912 

President, The UUca Oas, Oil ft Mining, Utlca, Ohio. 

Teegustram, Victor S May 15, 1917 

Plumbing, 141 Fraley Street, Kane, Pennsylvania. 

Tarry, L. B May 16, 1911 

Agent, The Hast Ohio Gas Company, 12-21 North High Street, 
Akron, Ohio. 

Texter, L. J May 15, 1917 

Foreman, Alden-Batavia Natural Gas Company, Pavilion, New 
York. 

Thatcher, J. H May 21, 1912 

Manager, Mansfield Gas Company, Jefferson Street, Mansfield, 
Louisiana. 

Thief, Martin A .May 18, 1915 

Chief Engineer, Etogine Department, The C. ft G. Cooper Com- 
pany, 118 East Liamartine Street, Mt. Vernon, Ohio. 

Thomas, Edgar May 20, 1913 

Gas Engineer, Hope Ehigineerlng Company, 826 Farmers Bank 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Thomas, Fred H........ May 16, 1916 

Sales Engineer, The C. ft G. Cooper Company, Mt. Vernon, Ohio. 

Thomas, Howard V. May 16, 1911 

Vice President, West Virginia ft Maryland Gas Company, 312 
Fidelity Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Thompson, Paul May 17, 1910 

Fifth Vice-President, The United Gas Improvement Company, 
Broad and Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Thompaon, William H May 16, 1911 

Attorney, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 930 Williamson 
Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Thompson, W. P May 15, 1917 

55 Kennedy Street, Bradford, Pennsylvania. 

Thomson, L. S. May 18, 1915 

Salesman, La Belle Iron Works, SteubenviUe, Ohio. 

Tibbens, W. P. ........ . May 20, 1913 

Shop Foreman, The East Ohio Gas Company, 10611 Garfield 
Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Tlllotaon, F. H May 20, 1918 

City Foreman, The Pennsylvania Gas Company, 116 Broadhead 
Avenue, Jamestown, New York. 

Tims, H. a. May 18, 1913 

Treasurer, The Canadian Western Natural Gas, Light, Heat ft 
Power Company, Limited, 216 Sixth Avenue, West, Calgary, 
Alberta, Canada. 



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512 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



TIppettp W. H Mtty 19, 1908 

Secretanr-TreaBurer, Creek County Comiumy, Box 126, Cu8hiii€» 
Oklahoma. 

TItiel, J. C May 1«, 1916 

General Manager, Glenshaw Neutral Gas Company, Glenshaw, 
Pennsylvania. 

Tlt«al, R. John. . ...... May 15, 1917 

Gas Engineer, United Gas BAectric Corporation, 2100 First Ave- 
nue, Birmingham, Alabama. 

Tomb, Frank B ICay 18, 1915 

Superintendent Land Department, Southern Ontario Gas Com- 
pany, Limited, 301 Central Avenue, London, Ontario, Canada. 

Tomer, Adam ICay 16, 1916 

Shop Foreman, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 1919 
Forbes Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Tonkin, John B May 21, 1912 

Vice President, The Reserve Gas Company, 424 Sixth Avenue, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Tonkin, John May 15, 1917 

Vice President and General Manager, Central Kentucky Nat- 
ural Gas Company, Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

Tonkin, T. J., Jr May 15, 1917 

Superintendent, Frankfort, Kentucky, Natural Gas Company, 
Frankfort, Kentucky. 

Tonkin, Wade H May 16, 1916 

Agent, Hope Natural Gas Company, 250 West Tenth Street, 
Parkersburg, West Virginia. 

Topp, A. A May 15, 1917 

Foreman, Central Repair Shop, The Ohio Fuel Supply Com- 
pany, Mt Vernon, Ohio. 

Torrance, C. E May 16, 1916 

Agent, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, Altoona, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Torranee, E. E May 15, 1917 

Foreman, Frost Gas Company, Fredonia, New Tork. 

Torrance, J. M May 16, 1916 

Agent, The Peoples Natural Gas Company, 28 North Walnut 
Street, Blairsville, Pennsylvania. 

Towl, Forrest M May 21, 1912 

President, Southern Pipe Line Company, 26 Broadway, New 
York, New York. 

Tracy, F. B May 16. 1916 

Manager Muncie Division, Central Indiana Gas Company, 301 
East Main Street, Muncie, Indiana. 

Tracey, Frank D May 16, 1911 

Purchasing Agent, West Virginia & Maryland Gas Company, 
312 Fidelity Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Treat, Ellis M May 16, 1911 

1912 Union Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Trees, J. C May 16, 1911 

President, Afkansas Natural Gas Company, Benedum-Trees 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 513 



Treieaven, L. Q May 21. 1907 

Secretary and Manager, Consumers Light, Heat ft Power Com- 
pany, 824 Kansas Avenue, Topeka, Kansas. 

Troutman, P. A May 16, 1916 

IMvlBion Superintendent, Carnegie Natural Qas Company, Sher- 
man and Sixth Streets, Waynesburg, Pennsylvania. 

Tucker, Calvert C May 16, 1917 

Engineer, Dominion Natural Oas Company, 842 Marine National 
Bank Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Tucker, Davis H May 15, 1917 

Engineer, Southern Ontario Oas Company, Limited, R. R. No. 4, 
Merlin, Ontario, Canada. 

Tucker, Q. C May 16, 1916 

Foreman, The East Ohio Oas Company, 1101 Second Street, 
Massillon, Ohio. 

Turner, Lyie May 20, 1913 

Credits and Collections, The Bast Ohio Oas Company, Bast 
Ohio Oas Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Tyng, Arthur May 16, 1917 

Consulting Engineer, Iroquois Natural Oas Company, 709 Iro- 
quois Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Underwood, R. L May 16, 1916 

Manager and Assistant Secretary and Treasurer, Herring Oil 
& Oas Company, North Side Ellis, Orossbeck, Texas. 

Vallely, J. F May 16, 1917 

Agent, Cattaraugus, New York, Iroquois Natural Oas Company, 
Cattaraugus, New York. 

Vance, Qeorge B May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, Drilling Department, Randall Oas Company, 
Mapletown, Pennsylvania. 

Vandergrlft, T. T May 16, 1916 

Field Superintendent, Preston Oil Company, Lancaster, Ohio. 

Van8ickel, Walter 8 May 17, 1910 

Oeneral Manager, Southwestern Oeneral Oas Company, 616 No. 
"A" Street, Fort Smith, Arkansas. 

Voelkle, L. P May 18, 1916 

Chief Clerk, The Bast Ohio Oas Company, Youngstown, Ohio. 

Wadsworth, W. A May 18, 1916 

District Manager, Union Oas A Electric Company, Fourth and 
Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Walker, W. O May 16, 1916 

Secretary-Treasurer, Frankfort (Kentucky) Natural Oas Com- 
pany, 206 Seneca Street, Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

Wall, W. A May 18, 1916 

Auditor, Southwestern Oas ft Electric Company, Caddo Division, 
Shreveport, Louisiana. 

Wallace, H. A May 18, 1916 

Oeneral Manager, United Fuel Oas Company, 919 Quarrier 
Street, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Wallace, J. B May 18, 1916 

Superintendent, Logan Natural Oas ft Fuel Company, 134 Col- 
lege Avenue, Ashland, Ohio. 



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514 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



WaUh, D. C May 20. 1913 

General Foreman, The Bftat Ohio Gas Ck>mpany, 400 Tnacarawas 
Avenue, Canton, Ohio. 

Walah, John H Mayy 20, 1913 

Superintendent, Iroquois Natural Gas Company, Church and 
FYanklln Streets, Buffalo, New York. 

Walsh, Maurice W February 27. 1906 

Superintendent. Distribution and Construction. The Louisville 
Gas ft Electric Company. 311 West Chestnut Street. Louis- 
ville, Kentucky. 

Walters, C. K May 16, 1916 

District Foreman. Equitable Gas Company. Chestnut and Lydla 
Streets. Carnegie. Pennsylvania. 

Walton, J. D May 18. 1916 

General Inspector, 315 Trenton Avenue. UhrlchsviUe. Ohio. 

Wanamaker, George B May 20. 1913 

General Manager, The Highland Development Company. Lock 
Box 56. Wooster, Ohio. 

Ward, C. F May 16. 1916 

Foreman Construction Department, Ohio Fuel Supply Company. 
Homer. Ohio. 

Ward, R. W May 20. 1913 

Foreman. United Natural Gas Company, Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

Warden, Charles W May 20, 1913 

Welsbach Company, Gloucester, New Jersey. 

Waring, C. H May 21, 1912 

Superintendent. The Wyandotte County Gas Company. 600 liln- 
nesota Avenue. Kansas City. Kansas. 

Watson, W. E May 21, 1912 

Assistant General Manager of Sales, The Youngstown Sheet 
and Tube Company, Toungstown. Ohio. 

Watts, Albert E May 21, 1912 

Oil and Gas Producer. 1401 South Carson Street. Tulsa, 
Oklahoma. 

Watts, Harry P May 15, 1917 

Field Clerk. Peoples Natural Gas Company. Brave. Greene 
County. Pennsylvania. 

Way, William B May 18, 1909 

IMstrlct Manager. The Ludlow Valve Manufacturing Company, 
2008 First National Bank Building, Pittsburgh. Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Wearing, Qeorge E May 16, 1916 

Vice President and General Manager. The Elk Natural Gas 
Company. Second National Bank Building, Clarion, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Weaver, 8. D May 16. 1916 

Agent. Manufacturers Gas Company. Bradford. Pennsylvania. 

Webber, Daniel S May 20. 1913 

Superintendent Lease Department. The Ohio Fuel Supply Com- 
pany, 52 West Gay Street. Columbus. Ohio. 

Wage, Henry P May 16, 1917 

Oil Well. Refinery and Mill Supplies, Henry P. Wege. 24 Horn 
Avenue. Oil City. Pennsylvania. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 615 



Wair, James B May 18, 1915 

Secretary-Treasurer, Falling Rock Cannel Coal Company, Na- 
tional City Bank Building, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Weltenberger, L. L May 18, 1915 

Industrial Engineer, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 97 North 
Front Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Welch, William M February 27, 1906 

Qas Bngineer, United States Bureau of Mines, 506 Custom- 
house, San Francisco, California. 

Welker, Qeorge E May 20, 1913 

Chief ETngineer, Iroquois Natural Qas Company, 311 Iroquois 
Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Wellman, A. Miner May 15, 1917 

President, Tri-County Natural Gas Company, Caledonia, New 
York. 

Wells, U D May 18, 1915 

District Superintendent, Caddo Division, Southwestern Gas ft 
Electric Company, Vivian, Louisiana. 

Wentzel, H. W May 16, 1916 

Assistant Storekeeper, Equitable Gas Company, Twenty-third 
and Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Werner, E. M May 20, 1913 

New Business Department, The ETast Ohio Gas Company, 1406 
East Sixth Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

West, Grant May 20, 1913 

Chief Station Engineer, United Natural Gas Company, Sigel, 
Pennsylvania. 

Westcott, Henry P May 21, 1907 

Bngineer, Metric Metal Works, 1004 West Twenty-sixth Street, 
E)rie, Pennsylvania. 

Weymouth, T. R May 16, 1911 

Chief ESngineer, United Natural Gas Company, 308 S'eneca 
Street, Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

Wheeler, Edward M May 21, 1912 

Treasurer, West Virginia Central Gas Company, 312 Fidelity 
Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Wheelhouse, Sidney H May 18, 1915 

Manager Gas Furnace Department, Columbus Heating ft Ven- 
tilating Company, 425-435 West Town Street, Columbus, 
Ohio. 

Whitcomb, E. C May 19, 1914 

Chief Engineer, Manufacturers Gas Company, Brookville, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Whitcomb, E. P May 18, 1909 

President and General Manager, The Union Natural Gas Cor- 
poration, Union Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

White, David May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Hope Natural Gas Company, SmithviUe, West 
Virginia. 

WhJte, T. J May 16, 1916 

Field Foreman, Carnegie Natural Gas Company, Hundred, West 
Virginia. 



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616 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Whitehead, L. K June 12, 1906 

Superintendent, Qas Department, Southwestern Oas A Electric 
Company, 116 East Broad Street, Texarkana, Arkansas- 
Texas. 

Wickham, T. F May 20. 1913 

Secretary-Treasurer, The' Union Gas A Electric Company, 
Fourth and Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Wickett, Gordon, D May 18, 1915 

Secretary, Windsor Qas Company, Umited, 66 Ouellette Ayenue, 
Windsor, Ontario, Canada. 

Wiggins, J. H May 15, 1917 

ESngineer, Indian Territory, Illinois Oil & Qas Company, Box 
1042 BartlesviUe, Oklahoma. 

Wlkoff, J. B May 16, 1911 

Treasurer, The Ohio Fuel Supply Company, 2107 Farmers Bank 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Wllkinaon, A. L May 18, 1916 

Treasurer, National Qas, Electric Light ft Power Company, 1714 
Ford Building, Detroit, Michigan. 

Williams, D. W May 15, 1917 

Qeologist, Dominion Natural Qas Company, Limited, 842 Marine 
National Bank Building, Buffalo, New York. 

Williams, John B May 16, 1911 

Secretary-Treasurer, The Samia Qas ft Electric Company, Lim- 
ited, 217 North Front Street, Samia, Ontario, Canada. 

Williams, John H May 16. 1916 

Superintendent, Hope Natural Qas Company, Despard Street, 
Clarksburg, West Virginia. 

Williams, R. J May 20, 1913 

Chief Engineer, United Natural Qas Company, Kane, R. R. 
No. 2, Pennsylvania. 

Williams, W. A May 15, 1917 

Sliperintendent, Eastern Oil Company, Weston, West Virginia. 

Williams, W. A May 20, 1913 

Assistant to Qeneral Manager, Empire Qas ft Fuel Company, 
Bartlesville, Oklahoma. 

Williamson, E. W May 16, 1916 

DlTision Superintendent, Hope Natural Qas Company, 1726 
Saint Marys Avenue, Parkersburg, West Virginia. 

Wllloughby, Horace May 18, 1909 

Assistant Manager, Scioto Valley Supply Company, Third and 
Long Streets, Columbus, Ohio. 

Willsey, J. H May 16, 1917 

Assistant Superintendent, Ashtabula Qas Company, 6 Progress 
Street, Ashtabula, Ohio. 

Wilson, A. M May 16, 1911 

Room 330, Robinson Building, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Wilson, Henry M May 16. 1911 

District Agent, Pittsburgh Valve, Foundry ft Construction Com- 
pany, 1308 Rockefeller Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Wilson, J. C May 21, 1912 

Engineer, Cutler-Hammer Manufacturing Company, Twelfth 
Street and Saint Paul Avenue, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 517 



Wilton, J. W May 18, 1915 

Manager, Knapp Oil & Gas Company, Weston, West Virginia. 

Wilson, W. E May 15, 1917 

Agent, Pennsylvania Oas Company,, 100 West Main Street, 
Corry, Pennsylvania. 

Wlngapd, Guy H May 16, 1916 

Foreman, Manufacturers Oas Company, Marlin Building, Brook- 
ville, Pennsylvania. 

WIttkorskI, F. D May 15, 1917 

Chief Inspector, Union Natural Gas Company of Canada, Lim- 
ited, 95 Wellington Street, Chatham, Ontario, Canada. 

Wittmer, Georoe, Jr May 16, 1911 

Assistant General Manager, American Natural Gas Company, 
1511 Park Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Wlttmer, Henry May 18, 1909 

Secretary, American Natural Gas Company, 407 Park Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

WlUmer, Thomas May 17, 1910 

Division Superintendent, American Natural Oas Company, 1013 
Sheridan Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Wolfe, W. W May 19, 1914 

Assistant Secretary, United Fuel Oas Company, 1590 Quarrier 
Street, Charleston, West Virginia. 

Wonderly, W. V May 16, 1916 

Superintendent, Compression Plants, Logan Natural Gas A Fuel 
Company, 34 Buggery Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Wood, L. L May 15, 1917 

Foreman, Pennsylvania Oas Company, 205 Blast Fifth Avenue, 
Warren, Pennsylvania. 

Wood, W. L., Jr May 17, 1910 

General Manager, Southwestern Gas & Electric Company, 116 
East Broad Street, Texarkana, Arkansas. 

Woodivvortii^ R. B May 16, 1911 

Engineer, Carnegie Steel Company, 427 Carnegie Building, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

Wrenn, J. W May 20, 1913 

Assistant General Manager, Economic Gas Company, 314 West 
Third Street, Los Angeles, California. 

Wyer, Samuel 8 May 21, 1912 

Consulting Engineer, Hartman Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Yardley, George May 20, 1913 

Secretary to the General Manager, United Natural Gas Com- 
pany, 206 Seneca Street, Oil City, Pennsylvania. 

Yorke, Patrick May 16, 1911 

Manager, Yorke Derrick Company, 199 North Main Street, 
Washington, Pennsylvania. 

Young, James M. H February 27, 1906 

Manager, City Gas Company, 215 Dundar Street, London, On- 
tario, Canada. 

Young, W. H May 16, 1916 

Purchasing Agent, South Hills Oil ft Gas Company, 223 Fourth 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 



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518 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



Young, William T May 20. 1918 

Mechanical Enc^eer, United Natural Gaa Company, 618 North 
Street, OH City, Pennsylvania. 

Zelgler, R. A May 20, 1913 

Auditor, Central Indiana Qaa Company, 301-3 Eaat Main Street, 
Muncle, Indiana. 

Zailer, S. E May 20, 1913 

General Foreman, The East Ohio Qas Company, 322 Wooster 
Avenue, Canal Dover, Ohio. 

Zimmerman, C. W May 16, 1916 

Chief Clerk, Philadelphia Company, 436 Sixth Avenue, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

ZItzewltz, W. R May 19, 1908 

Secretary-Treasurer, National Machine Works, Sheffield and 
North Avenues, Chicago, Illinois. 

SUMMARY OF CLASSES OF MEMBERSHIP. 

Honorary Members 8 

Active Members 1,288 

Total 1,296 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 



Alabama. 

Birmingham R. John Titzel 

Fayette E. R. Taylor 

Arlcanaas. 

Arkadelphia Murray Strong 

Fort Smith W. A. Robertson 

Walter S. VanSicUt 

Hope M. F. Secrcst 

Little Rock W. F. Booth 

E. J. Cole 

B. J. Gifford 

C. W. Kramer 
John Russell Mtmcc 
W. T. Roberts 

Malvern A. J. Gilbert 

Pine BluflF M. D. Randolph 

Prescott James Barry 

Texarkana L. K. Whitehead 

W. L. Wood, Jr. 

California. 

Bakersfield J. F. McMahon 

Los Angeles Frank Cavena^^ 

Walter B. Cline 
Alexander B. Macbe^ 
Nathan L. Morse 

F. Shafer 

J. W. Wrenn 
San Francisco W. R. Hamilton 

John Martin 

William M. Wekh 

Santa Maria L. F. Chandler 

Taft Frederick F. Doyle 

Wflliam Moeller, Jr. 

Connacttcut. 

Bridgeport W. P. Hutchinson 

H. H. Sprague 
Waterbury John Douglass Alden 

(619) 



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520 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 



District of Columbia. 

Washington R. S. McBride 

J. S. Perry 

Illinois. 

Aurora Carroll Miller 

Chicago William Alfred Baehr 

O. M. Carter 
Henry M. Dawes 
W. H. Graffis 
W. S. Grear 
W. H. Hodge 
. * B. J. Kellum 

John W. Lansley 
Joseph C. Markley 
Edward G. Pratt 
I Milt. Saul 

W. D. Sweetman 
W. R. Zitzewitz 

Decatur J. H. McCormick 

Fred B. Mueller 

Edwardsville C. Snider 

Jacksonville *.... John D. Robertson 

Quincy George J. Fischer 

Palestine R. A. Crawford 

Rockford John F. Parker 

Indiana. 

Anderson J. C. Groble 

H. C. Reynolds 

Marion D. S. Milne 

Middletown C. R. Heath 

Muncie A. T. Bartow 

E. L. Haymond 
Harry R. Maxon 
John H. Maxon 

F. B. Tracy 
R. A. Ziegler 

Vincenncs A. M. Ewing 

Kansas. 

Chanute Hugh T. Jones 

Coffeyvillc L. E. Robinson 

W. H. Shepard 
Garnett Gail Carey 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



KanMt — Ck>ncluded 

Independence H. I. Cowhan 

Con. Cumings 
C. A. Gibson 
Victor Hays 
Paul R. Johnson 
G. F. Mahan 
J. E. Remler 
R. Shade 

lola F. J. Horton 

Kansas City Wm. Hunter McKenzie 

C. H. Waring 
Lawrence E. H. S, Bailey 

Caryl J. Dodds 
Erasmus Haworth 

Mound Valley F. M. Gilmore 

Sedgwick C. F. Mason 

Topeka George J. Swan 

L. G. Treleaven 

Wichita W. S. Hoyte 

E. S. Miller 
L. O. Ripley 
G. N. Rumbaugh 
H. S. Sladen 

Kentucky. 

Ashland J. W. Anderson 

Covington Gordon M. Campbell 

D. C. ShaflFer 
Albert Silva 

Frankfort ; T. J. Tonkin, Jr. 

Irvine James C. Heydrick 

Louisville Donald McDonald 

J. R. Ramage 
Maurice W. Walsh 

Marysville Horace J. Cochran 

Paris C. L. Steenbergen 

Winchester ^.-' Calvin T. Moore 

Louisiana. 

Lewis W. H. Buckley 

Mansfield J. H. Thatcher 

Mooringsport G. S. Boyd 

George E. Jordan 
Oil City Verne W. Storey 



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522 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Louisiana — Concluded 

Shreveport J. P. Bahan 

M. B. Carmody 
Austin G. Curtis 
C A. Dally, Jr. 
T. J. Kurd 
G. R. Jordan 
S. A. McCune 
T. F. O'Brien 
J. R Palmer 
W. M. Palmer 
George B. Sipe 
W. A. Wall 

Vivian W. A. Long 

L. D. WeUs 

Maryland. 

Baltimore Charles M. Cc^n 

Cumberland J. C. Cunningham 

Maaaachuaattt. 

Boston Godfrey L. Cabot 

Henry B. Nickerson 
Josep4i Swendeman 

Mlehlgan. 

Detroit Warren S. Blauvdt 

D. F. Burritt 
Roy A. Field 
W. S. Guitteau 
James T. Lynn 
Henry D. Sdiall 
F. W. Steere 

A. L. Wilkinson 

Mlaaourl. 

Joplin Charles D. Bell 

B. J. Crahan 
Kansas Qty E. L. Brundrett 

R. W. Goodnow 
Alfred Hurlburt 
T. B. Jarvics 
Hoyle Jones 
R. L. Kidner 
Eugene Metz, Jr. 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



MiMOiiri — Concluded 

Kansas City Frank F. Schauer 

J. M. Scott 
Robert M. Syndcr, Jr. 
R. M. Stotler 
M. M. Sweetman 

St Joseph Vincent I. Elbert 

J. Wylic MitcheU 

St. Louis William K. Hughes 

Lee B. Mettier 
Robert Seegar 
£. M. Stephanus 

Webb City Charles O'Neill 

New Jersey. 

Glouster City Alphonso Mason 

Charles W. Wardell 

New York. 

Albany Charles F. Leonard 

Alden W. H. Baas 

Akron John Fisher 

Angola J. D. Qeary 

Attica Charles W. Slack 

Batavia Charles E. Hill 

£. B. Kellogg 
G. D. Lynch 
George Taylor 

Buffalo Thomas Armstrong 

Lucius Seymour Bigelow 

T. P. Blackall 

John T. Blewett 

C. E. Borchard 

L. H. Brown 

C. L. Butler 

W. C Carey 

J. P. Conners 

Frank Cosan 

W. M. Cusack 

Hert)ert R. Davis 

Dorr T. Denton 

Bernard F. Dowd 

R. G. Dreher 

J. T. Flanigan 

H A. Forman 



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524 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

N«w York — Oontlnaed 

Buffalo A. W. Gavin 

B. J. Grammel 
Homer R. Gray 
Henry C. Hall 
H. E. Hall 
H. Harney, Jr. 
William Hastings 
B. J. Hawkins 
Ralph Hockstetter 
H. R. Hoffman 
Perry A. Little 
Guy Loveridge 
Frank M. Lowrey 
Carl H. Lutz 
John T. Mahoney 
G. £. McCann 
Edward P. McG>rmick 
J. E. McKimmie 
D. P. McMahon 
John McMahon 
Edwin Allan McPherson 
W. Lome Munro 
Henry S. Norris 

B. C. Oliphant 

F. H. Oliphant 
Ira R Reed 

D. M. Reilly 
J. A. Ritchie 

E. M. Ryan 

J. R. Shattuck 

C. M. Sloan 
W. L. Sloan 

G. A. Stearns 
James W. Steams 
P. D. Sullivan 
Howard V. Thomas 
Frank D. Tracey 

C. C. Tucker 
Arthur Tyng 
John H. Walsh 
George E. Welker 
Edward M. Wheeler 

D. W. Williams 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



Now York — Ck>iitixiued 

Caledonia A. G. Baker 

M. A. Brady 

A. Miner Wellman 

Cattaraugus J. F. Vallely 

Collins Center Charles L. Reiser 

Coming George F. Goff 

W. M. Gumsey 

Dunkirk F. Fair 

G. E. Falk 

M. £. Hammon 

East Aurora E. K. Fuller 

Fredonia E. E. Torrance 

Gardenville S. F. Brandell 

Gowanda M. Mclntyre 

Hamburg D. M. Dittman 

John Hastings 
Frank Johnson 
F. M. Stemburg 

Holcomb L. L. Case 

Honeoye Falls Franklin L. Kellogg 

Homell J. B. Bradley 

Jamestown James M. Cratty 

E. M. Schlaudecker 

F. H. Tillotson 

Lancaster Peter P. Adolf 

LeRoy J. S. L. Purdy 

New York H. C. Abell 

William E. Barrett 

A. C. Bedford 

R. W. Brink 

Cameron Brown 

L. G. Coleman 

J. W. R. Crawford 

S. J. Dill 

Henry L. Doherty 

A. E. Forstall 

Robert G. Griswold 

Alexander C. Humphreys 

George H. Jones 

W. J. Judge 

H. K. Landis 

Alanson P. Lathrop 

Henry O. Loebell 

E. J. Marston 



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526 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Now York — Ckincluded 

New York Emerson McMillin 

Alten S. Miller 
Worden Pope 

C. A. H. de SauUes 
Marvin Shiebler 
Forrest M. Towl 

Olean F. W. Herron 

H. L. Jacoby 

Orchard Park C. T. Sloan 

Pavilion W. H. Lobaugh 

L. J. Texter 

Rochester R. M. Searle 

Salamanca J. L. Ryan 

Sheridan W. J. Doty 

Springville Frank D. Smith 

Wellsville Harry Bradley 

Ohio. 

Akron Merrill N. Davis 

James P. McLaughlin 
James Scoville 
L, B. Terry 

Alliance W. J. Rose 

Ashland W. H. Adams 

A. E. Boyd 

J. B. Wallace 
Ashtabula A. W. Herring 

F. W. Stone 

J. H. Willsey 
Barberton S. C. McKnight 

E. L. Saeger 
Berea M. K. Clover 

P. J. Cookham 
Bucyrus W. S. Frey 

B. F. Spencer 

Cadiz Carl D. Mead 

Cambridge A. C. Sarchet 

Canal Dover S. E. Zellar 

Canton E. O. Deal 

D. W. Hammon 
T. M. Lee 

John J. McMahon 
W. J. Morgan 
Theo. Streibcr 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 527 



Ohio — Ckintinued 

Canton D. C. Walsh 

Chillicothe Walter A. Ashley 

Cincinnati I. H. Atkins 

C. J. Bauer 
William Y. Cartwright 
C. D. Corbus 
John M. Cronin 
C. W. DeForest 
Joseph P. Delaney 
Frank Espach 
Alfred F. Flocken 
W. W. Freeman 
Judson Harmon 
F. R. Healy 
H. J. Hoover 
Charles Krause 
J. H. Lakamp 
C. R. McKay 
William A. Miller 
Frank B. Newhouse 
C. D. Reichel 
W. H. Reul 

E. R. Rothert 
R. C. Rowan 

Amy Sherlock (Miss) 
George H. Smies 
W. A Wadsworth 
T. F. Wickham 

Qeveland C. B. Apple 

M. F. Barrett 
C. L. Bryant 
Harry C. Culp 
Martin B. Daly 

F. T. Dooling 

G. C. Donahue 
C. W. Downing 
Carl Emmerling 
E. C. Fox 

R. W. Gallagher 
C. W. Gardner 
A. L. Gassett 
C. B. Gates 
Oscar C. Gericke 
E. Given 



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528 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Ohio — Oonttnued 

Cleveland J. F. Gray 

W. C Hagan 
J. G. Hanks 
George S. Harris 
W. C. Higgins 
W. H. Holtz 
George H. Horsley 
Franklin R. Hurd 
Frank R. Hutchinson 
P. C. Jacobs 
R T. Jones 
William H. Knight 
W. R. Knowles 
James Martin 
H. £. McCandless 
M. J. Murray 
Gias. L. Norton 
E, Burt Nutt 
W. L. Oakes 
T. M. O'Conner 
George L. Olney 
Peter S. Ostrye 
George W. Plagenz 
Ambrose Quinlan 
A. B. Rae 
Hoyt V. Shulters 
£. F. Southwick 
J. H. Sullivan 
William H. Thompson 
W. P. Tibbens 
Lyle Turner 
E. M. Werner 
Henry M. Wilson 

Columbus P. A. Alberty 

S. S. Allen, Jr. 
H. T. Ashton 
P. M. Biddison 
John Adams Bownocker 
Wm. J. Broder 
W. Re. Brown 
R. B. Bun- 
Clarence E. Carter 
E. F. Qagett 
M. A. Corbett 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



Ohio — Continued 

Columbus Henry Coyle 

F. H. Crawford 



34 



Frederick W. Crawford 
J. D. Creveling 
C F. Critchfield 
J. F. Curry 
Beman G. Dawes 
Leslie B. Denning 
D. H. Foster 

D. F. Freudenbcrg 
John M. Gerard 
O. C. Hagen 
Herman H. Hall 
John I. Henderson 
G. E. Howard 

C. H. Jay 
T. J. Jones 
T. H. Kerr 
Oscar Krebs 
Kay C. Krick 
Alan Leamy 
Preston W. Lupher 
M. E. Lytle 

B. A. Magrew 
J. W. McCord 
M. A. Newton 
Nelson A. Newton 
J. F. Olmstead 

C. J. Palm 
C. C. Phillips 
Henry T. Phillips 
R. M. Porterfield 

E. C. Ramsey 
J. D. Rcnick 

E. Robinson, Jr. 
W. J. Rogers 
Elmer F. Schmidt 
G. C. Scott 
George S. Shinnick 
Wilber Stout 
James P. Strickler 
J. D. Sykes 
Daniel S. Webber 
L. L. Weisenbcrger 



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530 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Ohio — Contlnaed 

Columbus Sidney Wheelhousc 

Horace Willoughby 
W. V. Wonderley 
Samuel S. Wyer 

Coshocton £. B. Smith 

Cuyahoga Falls W. J. Cain 

Phil. Lewis 

Dayton W. E. Franz 

P. A. Frevert 
J. L. Lehman 
George Light 
W. W. Price 

Delaware T. C. Jones 

John F. Shoub 

Denison J. R. Matson 

East Liverpool T. H. Stephens 

Elyria William M. Adams 

H. H. Harrington 

Findlay G. P. Schatzel 

John Seibel 

Fostoria E. L. Lepper 

Fremont R. L. Hottinger 

A. H. Lewis 
Elmer Loveland 

Galion F. E. Fralic 

Geneva William E. Donnelly 

Granville H. G. Miller 

Greenville D. S. Robertson 

Homer B. F. Blake 

Hugh T. Boyd 
George G. Oberfell 
C. F. Ward 

Ironton Ira S. Burford 

Jefferson Ross Riggs 

Jewett F. N. Donaldson 

Kent O. M. Baldwin 

Lancaster William Blum 

J. C. Dallow 
John J. Klise 
James Murtaugh 
T. T. Vandergrift 

Lakewood Edward Smith 

Leetonia Robert W. Gushing 

Malta H. C. Hopp 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 531 



Ohio — Continued 

Mansfield B. R. Bay 

C. E. Carter 
S. M. Douglass 
Harry G. Lcight 
H. F. Finley 

Marietta F. H. Leidccker 

V. H. Lytle 
P. J. Quinlan 

F. L. Reed 

Marion M. A. Mickley 

Massiilon J. A. Foster 

G. C. Tucker 
Millersburg H. H. Church 

C. F. Cluley 
J. S. Hatfield 

Mt. Vernon E. Brunner 

R. G. Lord 
C. O. Rockwell 
Martin A. Thiel 
Fred Thomas 
A. A. Topp 

Newark R. E. Boothe 

L. F. Carl 

New Lexington Ira L Hazlett 

New Philadelphia W. H. Dimick 

Niles Charles Kieser 

Norwalk W. G. Kohl 

Piqua F. B. Reeser 

Portsmouth John McMillan 

Ravenna E. P. Martin 

Ed. Shriver 

St. Clairsville C. A. McClintock 

St. Marys Lemon G. Ncely 

Salem H. A. Gager 

J. Arch. Harwood 

C. B. McCune 

J. H. Montgomery 

Springfield E. D. Abbott 

Steubenville H. W. Bishop, Jr. . 

O. J. Daugherty 
L. S. Thomson 

Sugar Grove CM. Hawk 

H. T. Holland 
Tiffin H. R. Rogers 



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532 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

Ohio — Continued 

Toledo James H. Barr 

R. J. Burkhalter 
Frank Collins 
F. G. Giegel 
Albert H. Gindele 
W. C. Longnecker 
Charles Mascho 
John P. McMahon 
James W. McMahon 
Charles S. Northup 
W. H. Scott 

Uhrichsville J. D. Walton 

Utica Alphcus Snoke 

O. C. Teague 

Warren G. C. Lohr 

L. M. McCormick 

Washington C. H G. N. Clapp 

Wcllston Charles H. Garard 

Westerville O. L. Bruckner 

West Park Charles Craft 

J. W. Irwin 
L. C. Klein 

A. B. Shenker 

B. Slogle 
Wooster R. A. Brooks 

James C. Bilrtner 
F. D. Dougherty 
Frederick Ewing 
W. H. Frees 
Charles L. Helm 
A. G. Hottle 
Park Hovis 
H. D. Hull 
William G. Leamon 
J. L. Maloney 
M. A. McHenry 
Ira L. Neely 
H. B. Odenkirk 
Adrian T. Parr 
Clifton W. Sears 
George B. Wanamaker 

Xenia R. W. Irwin 

Youngstown John Baxter 

Harry P. Fish 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 538 

Ohio — Concluded 

Youngstown C. E. Gallagher 

D. J. Geary 
William E. Manning 
L. P. Voelke 
W. E. Watson 

Zanesville H. H. Dreibelbis 

D. B. Riggs 

Oklahoma. 

Ardraore H. B. Goodrich 

G. W. Russell 

Bartlesville H. O. Ballard 

Charles L. Bullock 
Jerome B. Burnett 
George H. Burriss 
Everett Carpenter 
Eugene Dai ley 
Albert J. Diescher 
Frank F. Finney 
F. P. Fisher 
H. V. Foster 
A. D. Fyfe 
John D. HacksUff 
Richard C. HackstaiT 
Roy S. Hazeltine 
W. W. Hill 
J. J. Larkin 
R. C. Russum 
J. H. Wiggins 
W. A. Williams 

Chandler W. W. Bruce 

Gushing W. H. Tippett 

Drumright J. F. Allen 

Guthrie W. J. Dibbens 

Muskogee H. C. Hoagland 

Oklahoma City Charles N. Gould 

Frank J. Meyer 

Okmulgee J. S. Clark 

Pawhuska H. H. Brenner 

Poteau Howard N. Cassel 

Sapulpa C. C. Cantrell 

Tulsa Joseph Ardizzone 

W. H. Bagley 
Eugene C. Braden 



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534 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Oklahoma — Concluded 

Tulsa Glenn T. Braden 

Floyd J. Bradford 
Earle A. Qark 
J. N. Clover 
S. C. Clover 

B. M. Gesscl 
Harry N. Greis 
A. L. Hastings 
Harry Heasley 
A. G. Heggem 
J. P. Herr 

A. W. Leonard 
Robert J. Lindsay 
W. R. Lindsay 
Frank I. Louis 
M. P. Lyon 
L. R. McCarthy 
S. F. McQuney 
John L. O'Donnell 
Fred J. Ossenbeck 
Jay C. Painter 
E. R. Perry 
E. W. Sinclair 
A. E. Watts 
A. M. Wilson 

Ponnoylvanla. 

Altoona John Hilty 

C. E. Torrance 

Ardmore Isaac N. Knapp 

Aspinwall Harry E. LeFevrc 

Charles A. Ralph 

Belle Vernon E. P. Noll 

Blairsville Frank Heazlett 

J. M. Torrance 

Braddock L. R. Dingman 

Bradford T. N. Bamsdall» 2nd 

Elmer Beatty 
P. M. Berwald 
George P. Booth 
C. U Qark 
Eugene F. Conners 
A. A. Crawford 
R. R. Crowe 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 635 



Pennsylvania — Continued. 

Bradford Z. B. Custer 

Carl K. Dresser 
T. L. Hanlcy 
L. E. Mallory 
Fred A. Miller 
A. J. Paris 
R. S. Pringle 
Frank N. Smith 
W. P. Thompson 
S. D. Weaver 

Brave J. L. Ridgway 

Harry P. Watts 

Brookville R. B. Barnes 

F. C. Deemcr 
C. F. Kimmel 
E. C Whitcomb 
Guy H. Wingard 

Brownsville Thomas D. Hann 

Burgettstown D. W. Inghram 

Butler Ralph A. Beach 

Tom M. Black 
C. M. Heetcr 
W. H. Larkin 
J. F. Lyon 
Samuel Redic 

Canonsburg John Foley 

S. D. McCk>y 

Carnegie C. L. Walters 

Clarion C. F. Huff 

Harry M. McCandless 
N. W. Reed 
George K Wearing 

Clermont W. A. Hovis 

Connellsville J. E. Angle 

C. J. Poole 

Coraopolis J, J. Ewing 

John J. CDay 

Corry G. M. Stafford 

W. R Wilson 

Donora J. H. Leathers 

DuBois F. M. Michel 

L. M. Simmons 

East Brady C E. Cumings 

East Pittsburgh Thomas C. Gifford 



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536 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Pennsylvania — Continued. 

East Pittsburgh A. G. Holmes 

Elderton J. L. Siverling 

Elkland T. A. Fessler 

Emlenton C. E. Grant 

Erdice H. E. Nelson 

Erie Larmour Adams 

Arthur M. Blinn 

B. H. Donovan 
E. G. Germer 
Otto G. Hitchcock 
Francis H. Payne 
Charles J. Prior 
Henry P. Westcott 

Fair Haven J. S. Hildabrand 

Franklin J. A. Miller 

Ford City G. K. Bigler 

J. M. Bridges 

C. J. Crawford 

Galeton P. E. Crowl 

Glenshaw J. M. Kay 

J. C. Titzel 

Glenwillard Frank Lackey 

Greensburg J. M. Klingensmith 

Earle Pick 

Greenville A. C. Hartzell 

Grove City E. W. Jordan 

Hallton R. E. Benninger 

Frank G. Jackson 

Harmony E. H. Hutchison 

Harveys D. J. Stokes, Jr. 

Homestead H. L. Smith 

Indiana W. A. Bartley 

Johnstown Robert Munro 

Kane C. H. Adams 

E. W. Aggers 
L. C. Amey 
. J. A. Henning 
John Leonard 
H. H. Marquis 
Victor S. Teegustram 
R. J. Williams 

Kittanning John Crossett 

Peter M. Kerr 
Latrobe William Heazlctt 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 687 

Pennsylvania — Continued. 

Latrobc S. T. Shaw 

Ludlow Dennis O'Leary 

McKeesport M. J. Garrity 

Manor W. C. McClellan 

Marwood M. B. Cypher 

F. M. Holliday 

Mapleton George B. Vance 

Maycrstown George W. Schell 

Mayport J. F. Anderson 

Meadville Hugh P. Brawley 

F. A. Fairchild 

F. V. Stein 

Mercer J. W. Ayer 

Midland J. H. Fonner 

Midway Charles R. Ballard 

Monessen M. C. Crum 

Mt. Jewett S. F. Murphy 

C. H. Russell 

Mt. Morris Robert Shear 

Murraysville W. S. King 

F. M Sloan 

New Bethlehem Arthur C. Fleming 

New Castle J. T. Campbell 

New Kensington A. E. Myers 

Oakmont J. S. McMunn 

Oil City N. H. Benninger 

E. R. Boyle 
Patrick C. Boyle 
Fred N. Chambers 
W. P. Craig 
James B. Crawford 
Ronald B. Crawford 
Raymond Cross 

H. M. Ernst 

C. W. Gleason 
Lyman L. Graham 
Lynn Holbrook 

D. K. James 
John F. Mason 
P. L. Mulkin 
C. E. Oliver 

C. A. Pearson 
Fred S. Rich 

F. Sartorius 



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538 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

Pennsylvania — Continued. 

Oil City Joseph Seep 

John Tonkin 
W. O. Walker 
R. W. Ward 
Henry P. Wegc 
T. P. Weymouth 
George Yardley 
William T. Young 

Philadelphia Harry S. Battin 

Samuel T. Bodine 
William Laird Brown 
Walton Clark 
W. F. Douthirt 
C. Willing Hare 
Robert C. James 
John Bartleman Klumpp 
Lewis Lillie 
Sidney Mason 
John D. Mcllhenny 
Rollin Norris 
Edward H. Rogers 
Paul Thompson 

Pittsburgh Walter Abbe, Jr. 

Daniel Armstead 
Andrew A. Armstrong 
W. H. Arnold 
Walter H. Arras 
L. F. Barger 
George W. Barnes 
E. O. Bartlett 
John C. Bartlett 
R. H. Bartlett 
E. L. Bartley 
G. F. Batchelor 
R. D. Beardsley 
George K. Benner 
O. Bieler 
J. E. Billingsley 
Arthur Boothe 
H. K Bragdon 

C. J. Braun, Jr. 
A. L. Brinham 
George R. Brink 

D. J. Brown 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



Pennsylvania — Continued. 

Pittsburgh Louis Brown 

James I. Buchanan 

S. E. W. Burnside 

George A. Burrell 

H. W. Burson 

J. B. Cappeau 

W. B. Carson 

W. C. Chaplin 

W. B. Chapman 

James Clark 

Robert E. Clark 

W. G. Cole 

W. F. Corcoran 

John B. Corrin 

Albert B. Craig 

C E. Crawford 

G. W. Crawford 

G. A. Crosby 

R. H. Cunningham 

A. B. Dally, Jr. 

Harvey N. Dauler 

A. P. Davis 

H. Alexander Dean 

William C. Edwards 

K J. Egan 

C. D. Evans 

F. I. Falk 

Otto F. Felix 

T. B. Foley 

T. H. Foley 

L. C Frohrieb 

J. B. Gamer 

John Gates, Jr. 

John E. Gill 

J. R. Goldsborough 

A. R. Gray 

William T. Griswold 

F. D. Grunder 

Joseph F. Guffey 

E. F. Gwynn 

F. L. Hadlcy 
W. R. Hadley 
C. T. Hall 
Robert W. Hannan 



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540 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

Pennsylvania — Continued. 

Pittsburgh Ralph \V. Hay 

J. H. Healy 

F. P. Hegerty 

M. H. Kenning 

H. D. Hildabrand 

Dudley M. Hill 

J. B. Hill 

David O. Holbrook 

E. D. Ivory 

C. W. Johnson 
Norwood Johnston 
Roswell H. Johnson 
Russell A. Johnson 
J. E. Keenan 
J. W. Kelly 
J. J. Kennedy 
A. N. Kerr 
J. King 
Virgil P. Kline 
Frank Knapp 
George T. Ladd 
Robert Law, Jr. 
Miles B. Layton 
Edward D. Leland 
R. M. Leland 

F. A. Levy 
Frank O. LeRoy 
F. C. Leslie 

T. L. Lewis 
M. R. Marple 
J. O. Martin 
John G. McCabe 
C. H. McCandless 
Joseph McGellan 
W. L. McQoy 
R. A. McCrea 
Jesse Clark McDowell 
George R. McKee 
William McKee 
J. L McNally 

C. A. Machesney 
Edwin C. Merrill 

D. F. Miller 
R R. Miller 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 641 

Pennsylvania — Continued. 

Pittsburgh Fred W. Miner 

C S. Mitchell 
E. M. Moore 
Lee C. Moore 
P. A. Moran 
John J. Murray 
A. J. Newman 
Thomas NicoU 
John Ostermaier 
A. B. Patterson 
William M. Patterson 
Christy Payne 
James G. Pew 
John G. Pew 
Charles E. Pratt 
S. C. Preston 
H. A. Quay 
William S. Ralston 
Harvey Rankin 
George W. Ratcliffe 
J. A. Reed 
James H. Reed 
J. H. Reed, Jr. 
W. G. Reel 
E. B. Reeser 
Harry C. Reeser 
George N. Riley 

D. Robertson 
H. P. Roby 
M. Romano 

E. S. Rooney 
Willard J. Rowland 
C. H. Rupp 

Louis L Sands 
John H. Schalck 
W. F. Schell 
M. C. Schneider 
J. W. Shay 
John C. Sheppard 
J. M. Simpson 
Elmer Smith 
H. L. Smith 
W. H. Spain 
W. A. Sprenkle 



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542 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Pennsylvania — Continued. 

Pittsburgh A. E. Staniek 

S. B. Stewart 
William Stewart 
George J. Stuart 
T. O. Sullivan 
J. Roy Tanner 
Edgar Thomas 
Adam Tomer 
John B. Tonkin 
E. M. Treat 
J. C. Trees 
William B. Way 
H. W. Wentzell 

E. P. Whitcomb 
J. B. Wikoff 
George Wittmer, Jr. 
Henry Wittmer 
Thomas Wittmer 

R. B. Woodworth 
W. H. Young 

C. W. Zimmerman 
Portage J. A. Sloan 

Port Allegany T. A. Dumm 

J. W. Earner 
A. B. Flint 

F. A. French 

D. H. Phillips 
W. H. Richards 

Reynoldsvillc CO. Berg 

Ridgway C. H. Law 

Roulette L. E. H. Brown 

William A. Ditto 

St, Marys Philip Dixon 

Saxonburg Emil Rudert 

Sharon J. P. Curry 

S. W. Snyder 

Sharpsburg S. H. Eastland 

Shinglehouse S. F. Goble 

W. M. Holly 
J. H. Isherwood 
A. J. Swarm 

Sigel Grant West 

Smethport Peter Fay 

Louis E. Sterrett 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 543 



Pennsylvania — Continued. 

South McConnellsvillc William F. Richter 

Tarentum L. R. Silliman 

Ten Mile Bottom F. A. Cross 

Tidioute B. L. Miller 

Titusville George F. Fleming 

W. T. Funk 
Robert S. Hampton 
F. C. Hanchett 

Turtle Creek J. F. Bulger 

C. R. Dietrich 

Uniontown F. L. Garard 

H. D. Hutchinson 
L. L. Miller 

Van J. P. Mansfield 

Warren W. B. Clawson 

W. H. Filler 
George W. Hickernell 
James W. Kitchen 
C. P. McCalmont 
H. H. McConnell 
H. M. Prill 
L. L. Wood 

Washington George F. Drury 

A. D. Kightlinger 
J. W. Leonard 
Henry Martin 
William O'Brien 
Hose Schaffer 
W. P. Simmons 
Patrick Yorke 

Waynesburg C. E. Dittman 

J. L. Fye 
John Glass 
W. E. Nestor 
Albert Rush 
P. A. Troutman 

Westfield A. A. Presho 

Wilkinsburg W. G. Ketler 

J. W. Kidd 
George A. Kinley 
J. A. Lambing 
Harry Porterfield 
William Reichert 



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544 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

Pennsylvania — Concluded 

Woodlawn Arthur McClellan 

George L. Ratcliffe 

Rhode Island. 

Providence George S. Barrows 

Texas. 

Abilene George H. Caff rey 

Atlanta W. R Sipe 

Corpus Christ! D. C. DeWitt 

C. A. Schwarm 

Corsicana E. R. Brown 

Dallas J. E. Hutchinson 

H. E. Manley 
H. C. Morris 
R. G. Soper 
Denison T. W. H. Flinn 

C. B. McKinney 
Fort Worth L. E. Barrows 

W. P. Gage 

D. P. Harrington 
F. W. Kirk 

O. K. Shannon 

Gainesville W. L Milne 

Grossbeck R. L. Underwood 

Laredo M. P. Cullinan 

Marshall W. H. Sedberry 

Mexia E. J. Anderson 

Moran H. W. Brennan 

Joseph Merket 

Petrolia CM. Baker 

Port Arthur J. S. Connelly 

Wichita Falls W. C. Gibson 

West Virginia. 

Branchland L. P. McAllister 

Bridgeport French Nicholscn 

Charleston R. G. Altizer 

A. M. Ballard 
George R. Carpenter 
Frank Cox 
C. S. Duffield 
John C. Ford 
J. E. Frazier 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 646 



WMt Vlrsinla — CoAttniied 

Giarleston William Frradenberger 

F. P. Grosscnp 
Paul B. Groascap 
Geo. F. Henneascy 
D. C Jay 
D. A. Ketchum 
Robert Lockfaarl 
W. C Marckworth 

C. O. McDowell 
R. N. Parks 

J. W. Penhale 
J. L Perdue 
Edward Sadcett 
L. A. Seyffert 
P. C. Sloane 
A. C. Smith 
George £. Taylor 
H. A. Wallace 
James B. Weir 
W. W. Wolfe 

Oarksburg W. F. Alexander 

S. W. Bowman 
David J. Carter 
H. C. Cooper 

D. W. Cork 
Filmore C. Devericks 
R. F. Dolen 

J. J. Evans 
Wallace B. Gribble 
F. B. Haymaker 
Boyd £. Homer 
Lynn S. Homer 
Howard Jenkins 
L. G. Kincheloe 
W. C. McMasters 
J. F. McNary 
John Mowery 
T. B. Peddicord 
Emest Randolph 
Charles C. Reed 
Bert Singleton 
H. L. Snyder 
John H. Williams 
Qendcnin T. R. Cartwright 

♦35 



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&46 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 

West Virolnia — Ckmttnaed 

QoKtoim L. V. Koontz 

Dawes A. R. Rich 

Fairmottt Curtis B. Fleming 

G. H. Jackson 
Nicholas Powers 

F. B. Pryor 
Edwin Robinson 

Fainrlsw Lon Lavell 

Farminglwi C. B. Bormann 

Grafton T. W. Angle 

Hastings C W. Brooks 

Roy Glass 

Hundred T.J.White 

Huntington D. E. Abbott 

E. G. Bums 
O. L. Davies 

G. I. Gassdorf 
E. J. Greenwalt 
J. F. Kent 

E. J. King 
J. T. McQintock 
James P. McCloskey 
John J. Nash 
Raymond J. Nash 
G. A. Northcott 
G. H. Reckard 
J. W. Reeser 

Kenova Deo Jimerson 

Kermit R. C. Leard 

Littleton J. P. Campbell 

R. J. Qarkson 

McWhorter W. J. Droppleman 

Mannmgton ^ Gaude M. Fleming 

R. B. Howard 
Thomas J. Jones 
W. T. Smith 

Miami L. D. Ikard 

Middlebennie T. C. Kingsley 

Miletus W. N. Baker 

Morgantowft A. T. Casto 

D. H. Courtney 
D. T. Dttsenberry 
Jesse J. Hall 
W. E. Hunter 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 647 

WMt Viroifiia^ Continued 

Morgantown Clement Ross Jones 

J. H. McDermott 
W. H. South 
Israel C White 

Moundsvillc F. O. Funk 

George M. Luther 
S. W. Meals 

Parkersburg T. B. Burns 

J. T. Callanan 
David B. Crawford 
John M. Crawford 
i Herman B. Hogg 

I A. £. Kenney 

Edward B. Rich 
Wade H. Tonkin 
! £. W. WiUiamson 

j Peytona C. L. Short 

Ransom John B. Brarier 

St. Albans R. N. Sargent 

St Marys A. 1. Sutton 

Salem M. L. Campbell 

J. E. Franier 
J. K. Swartz 
Sistersyille J. W. Cushing 

F. W. Martin 

Smithfield George B. Meredith 

Smithville I. D. FranU 

David White 

Spencer Jay Geist 

J. F. Geist 
A. S. Heck 
T. F. O'Brian 

Weston Henry Brewster 

C. C. Dunham 

G. L. Hinemian 
James J. Logue 
Edward P. McCan 
J. H. McGilvary 
L. McNary, Jr. 
William L. Sheets 
J. W. Taylor 
W. A. WillUms 
J. W. Wilson 

West Union F. S. Hazlett 



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548 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OP AMERICA, 

Wt0l Vlr«lnl« — Ooneliided 

West Union John C. Stitt 

Wbeelmg J(^ Duncan 

A. S. Hare 
Paul Luebedcer 
J. F. Nestor 
George B. Riddk 

Wilsonburg K. H. Bane 

Charles Caveneau 

WlMonaln. 

Milwaukee A. O. Rutz 

J, C Wflson 



CANADA. 

AJbMta. 

Calgary R. L. Bevan 

Dillon Coste 
Eugene Coste 
Stuart W. Davies 
F. J. Heuperman 
W. £. Larkham 
Porter D. Mellon 
A. I. Payne 
H. B. Pearson 
C H. Spencer 
H. S. Tims 

Hwi Brunswick. 
Moncton • £. A. Cmnmings 

Ontario. 

Brantf ord W. E. Howard 

Caledonia B. N. Berry 

Chatham R. L. Pattinson 

W. G. Ryan 
F. D. Wittorski 

DunvUle Roy Lindsay 

Essex C. J. Near 

Gah W.J.Marriott 

Hamilton H. W. Braden 

A. F. Covey 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 549 

Ontario — Concluded 

Hamilton Clarence H. Grace 

T. A. Hall 

A. G. May 

John B. McNary 

Ingersoll M. D. Montgomery 

Kingsville M. J. Roberts 

George Scratch 
London James C. Duffield 

Frank B. Tomb 

James M. H. Young 
Merlin Glenn N. Gale 

Lloyd Stroup 

David H. Tucker 

Niagara Falls D. A. Coste 

Port Alma John Stroup 

Reymer J. B. Bower 

Rodney George Bullock 

St Catherines W. B. Davies 

William B. Davies 
St Thomas J. E. McCrimmon 

C. C. Roberts 

Samia John B. Williams 

Simcoe Harrison Stringer 

Toronto W. W. Near 

Vienna J. W. Howard 

Windsor R. B. Kilpatrick 

Gordon D. Wickett 
Woodstock James A. Doherty 

H. Fulsom 

ENGLAND. 

London Arthur Graham Glasgow 

James A. L. Henderson 
Campbell M. Hunter 



HOLLAND. 

Amsterdam E. D. Pyzel 

HUNGARY. 
Budapest Jacques Kanitz 



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550 



NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OP AMERICA. 



SOUTH AMERICA. 
Aroentine. 

Buenos Aires President, General 

Explotacion del Petroleo de Ck>modore Riyadaya. 



SUMMARY OP GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 



Alabama ^ 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut 

District of Columbia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Missouri 

New Jersey 



2 New York 

16 Ohio 

18 Oklahoma 

8 Pennsylvania 

2 Rhode Island 

21 Texas 

11 West Virginia 

27 Wisconsin 

12 Calgary, Canada 

19 New Brunswick, Canada... 

2 Ontario, Canada 

8 England 

8 Holland 

21 Hungary 

2 Argentine, South America. 



Total 



129 



414 

1 

. 26 

149 

2 

11 

1 

39 

3 

1 

1 

1 

1296 



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THE ASSOaATION OF NATURAL 
GAS SUPPLY MEN 



OFFICERS 1917-1918. 



PrMident 
David O. Holbrook Natural Gas Association, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Vice President 
William B. Way Ludlow Valve Mfg. Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Treaeurer 

Thomas C Clifford Pittsburgh Meter Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Secretary 

Larmour Adams Metric Metal Works, Erie, Pa. 

Directors 

W. K. Hughes Continental Supply Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

W. B. Patterson Frick & Lindsay Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

R. A. McKinney Manhattan Rubber Mfg. Company, Passaic, N. J. 

F. R. Hutchinson Gas Appliance Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

F. W. Miner National Supply Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Wm. McKee Chaplin-Fulton Mfg. Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

L. F. Hamilton National Tube Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

D. O. Holbrook Natural Gas Association, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

T. C. Clifford Pittsburgh Meter Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Larmour Adams Metric Metal Works, Erie, Pa. 

O. F. Felix Equitable Meter Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

W. B. Glover Oil Well Supply Con^Mmy, - Pittsburgh, Pa. 

B. T. Bechtel Mark Mfg. Company, Chicago, 111. 

W. B. Way Ludlow Valve Mfg. Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

E. S. Rooney Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

(551) 



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DIRECTORY OF MEMBERSHIP 



Ajax Iron Works Corry, Pa. 

Allegheny Steel Co Pittsbuiighf Pa. 

Anchor Packing Co Pittsburgh, Pa, 

Bessemer Gas Engine Co Grove City, Pa. 

Borden Company Warren, Ohio 

Bristol Co., The Waterhury, Conn. 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co St Louis, Mo. 

Bryant Heater & Mfg. Co Qeveland, Ohio 

Builders Iron Foundry Providence, R. I. 

Byers, A. M. Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Carnegie Steel Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Chaplin-Fulton Mfg. Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Cincinnati Rubber Mfg. Co Cincinnati, Ohio 

Clark & Norton Mfg. Co Wellsville, N. Y. 

Qeveland Gas Meter Co Cleveland, Ohio 

Colona Mfg. Co Pittsburgh, Pa.. . 

Columbia Gas Stove Co Huntington, W. Va. 

Columbian Rope Co Auburn, N. Y. 

Columbus Hjeating & V^tilating Co Columbus, Ohio 

Continental Supply Co St. Louis, Mo. 

Cooper, C. & G. Co Mt. Vernon, Ohio 

Crandall Pettee Co New York City 

Davis-Boumonville Co Jersey City, N, J. 

Dayton Pipe Coupling Co Dayton, Ohio 

Davison, N. C, Gas Burner & Welding Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Draeger Oxygen Apparatus Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Dresser, S. R., Mfg. Co Bradford, Pa. 

Equitable Meter Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Erie Trailer Mfg. Co Erie, Pa. 

Estate Stove Co Hamilton, Ohio 

Fitler, Edwin H. Co Philadelphia, Pa. 

Foxboro Co., The Foxboro, Mass. 

Franklin Co., The Canton, Ohio 

Frick & Lindsay Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Fuel Oil Journal Houston, Texas 

(55«) 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 663 

Garlock Packing Co Palmyra, N. Y. 

Gas Age, The New York City 

Gas Appliance Co • • Qeveland, Ohio 

Gas Record Chicago, 111. 

General Fire Extinguisher Co Providence, R. I. 

Germer Stove Co Erie, Pa. 

Goodrich, B. F. Co Akron, Ohio 

Graves Supply Co Cincinnati, Ohio 

Gwynn Gas Burner & Eng. Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Hammon Coupler Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Haymond Co Muncie, Ind. 

Hays Mfg. Co Erie, Pa. 

Hazard Mfg. Co Chicago, 111. 

Heeter, C. M. Sons & Co., Inc Butler, Pa. 

Hewitt Rubber Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Hooven, Owens, Rentschler Co Hamilton, Ohio 

Hope Engineering & Supply Co Pittsburgh, Pa, 

Ideal Heating Co., The Columbus, Ohio 

IngersoU-Rand Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

International Hale Gas Mixer Mfg. Co Detroit, Mich. 

Jarecki Mfg. Co Erie, Pa. 

Jiffy Water Heater Co St. Louis, Mo. 

Jones & Laughlin Steel Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

LaBelle Iron Works Steubcnville, O. 

La ttimer- Stevens Co., The Columbus, O. 

Leschen, A. ft Sons Rope Co. St. Louis, Mo. 

Lezius Automatic Draft Regulator Co Qeveland, O. 

Lucey Mfg. Corporation Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Ludlow Valve Mfg. Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Macomber & Whyte Rope Co Kenosha, Wb. 

Manhattan Rubber Mfg. Co Passaic, N. J. 

Mark Mfg. Co Chicago, 111. 

Maxon Premix Burner Co Muncie, Ind. 

Meek Oven Mfg. Co Newburyport, Mass. 

Metric Metal Works Erie, Pa. 

Minneapolis Heat Regulator Co Minneapolis, Minn. 

Modern Iron Works Quincy, 111. 

Modem Safety Gas Iron Co Philadelphia, Pa. 

Moon Mfg. Co., The Chicago, 111. 

Moore, Lee C. & Co., Inc Pittsburgh, Pa. 



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554 NATURAL GAS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

Moser Mfg. G> Kane, Pa. 

Mueller, H. Mfg. Co Decatur, 111. 

Nathan Mfg. Co New York City 

National Supply Co Pittsburgh, Pa 

National Transit Pump & Machine Co Oil City, Pa. 

National Tube Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Natural Gas Journal ..Buffalo, N. Y. 

New Bedford Cordage Co New York City 

New York Belting & Packing Co. New York City 

Nye, A. T. & Son Co. Marietta, O. 

Oil & Gas Journal Tulsa, Okla. 

Oil City Boiler Works , . . .Oil City, Pa. 

Oil Well Supply Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Oxweld Acetylene Co Chicago, 111. 

Parkcrsburg Machine Co Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Parkersburg Rig & Reel Co Parkersburg, W. Va, 

Peerless Heater Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Pennsylvania Furnace & Stove Co Warren, Pa. 

Pittsburg Meter Co E. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Pittsburgh Reinforced Brazing & Mach. Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Pittsburgh Valve & Fittings Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Pittsburgh Valve, Foundry & Const Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Pittsburgh Water Heater Co ..Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Plymouth Cordage Co N. Plymouth, Mass. 

Pratt & Cady Co., Inc New York City 

Pritchard Supply Co Mannington, W. Va. 

Reid, Jos. Gas Engine Co Oil City, Pa. 

Reliable Stove Co Cleveland, O. 

Republic Iron & Steel Co Youngstown, O. 

Revere Rubber Co Chelsea, Mass. 

Reznor Mfg. Co Mercer, Pa. 

Riesenman Mfg. Co., Ltd Franklin, Pa. 

Robinson, J. R & Co Oil City, Pa. 

Robinson Packer & Machine Co. Coffeyville, Kan. 

Roebling, John A. Sons Co Trenton, N. J. 

Rossendale-Reddaway Belting & Hose Co Newark, N. J. 

Ruud Mfg. Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Sanitary Co. of America Linfield, Pa. 

Schaeffer & Budenberg Mfg. Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Scientific Heater Co The Qeveland, O 



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TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. 555 

Sclas Co Canton, O. 

Solar Light Co New York City 

South Chester Tube Co Chester, Pa. 

Spang, Chalfant & Co Pittsburgh, Pa, 

Sprague Meter Co — Bridgeport, Conn. 

Strause Gas Iron Co Philadelphia, Pa. 

Superior Gas Engine Co Springfield, O. 

Tate- Jones & Co., Inc Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Taylor, W. P. Co BuflFalo, N. Y. 

Toledo Pipe Threading Machine Co Toledo, O. 

Troop Mfg. Co Pittsburg, Pa. 

United Seal Co Columbus, O 

Utica Valve & Fixture Co Utica, N. Y. 

Welsbach Co Gloucester City, N. J. 

Westinghouse Machine Co Pittsburs^, Pa. 

Wheeling Steel & Iron Co Wheeling, W. Va. 

Wolfe, Linden W Oil City, Pa. 

Worthington Pump & Machinery Corp Buffalo, N. Y. 

Wright Wire Co Worcester, Mass. 

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co Youngstown, O. 



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