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Full text of "Procopius, with an English translation by H.B. Dewing"

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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

EDITED BY 

T. E. PAGE, LITT.D., AND W. H. U. ROUSE, Lirr.D. 

V 



PROCOPIUS 

I 



PROCOPIUS 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
H. B. DEWING 



IN SIX VOLUMES 
I 

HISTORY OF THE WARS, BOOKS I AND II 





LONDON : WILLIAM HEINEMANN 
NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN CO. 

MCMX1V 



pfl 

53/fO 
fe 



V./ 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

HISTORY OF THE WARS 

BOOK I. THE PERSIAN WAR 1 

BOOK ii. THE PERSIAN WAR (continued) .... 259 



INTRODUCTION 

PROCOPIUS is known to posterity as the historian 
of the eventful reign of Justinian (527-565 A.D.), 
and the chronicler of the great deeds of the general 
Belisarius. He was born late in the fifth century 
in the city of Caesarea in Palestine. As to his 
education and early years we are not informed, but 
we know that he studied to fit himself for the legal 
profession. He came as a young man to Constanti- 
nople, and seems to have made his mark immediately. 
For as early as the year 527 he was appointed legal 
adviser and private secretary 1 to Belisarius, then a 
very young man who had been serving on the staff 
of the general Justinian, and had only recently 
been advanced to the office of general. Shortly 
after this Justinian was called by his uncle Justinus 
to share the throne of the Roman Empire, and four 
months later Justinus died, leaving Justinian sole 
emperor of the Romans. Thus the stage was set 
for the scenes which are presented in the pages of 
Procopius. His own activity continued till well nigh 

1 i>n0ou\os, Proc. Bell. I. xii. 24. He is elsewhere referred 
to as TrdpeSpos or in 



INTRODUCTION 

the end of Justinian's life, and he seems to have 
outlived his hero, Belisarius. 

During the eventful years of Belisarius' cam- 
paigning in Africa, in Italy, and in the East, 
Procopius was moving about with him and was an 
eye-witness of the events he describes in his writings. 
In 527 we find him in Mesopotamia ; in 533 he 
accompanied Belisarius to Africa ; and in 536 he 
journeyed with him to Italy. He was therefore 
quite correct in the assertion which he makes 
rather modestly in the introduction of his history, 
that he was better qualified than anyone else to 
write the history of that period. Besides his 
intimacy with Belisarius it should be added that his 
position gave him the further advantage of a certain 
standing at the imperial court in Constantinople, and 
brought him the acquaintance of many of the lead- 
ing men of his day. Thus we have the testimony of 
one intimately associated with the administration, 
and this, together with the importance of the events 
through which he lived, makes his record exceedingly 
interesting as well as historically important. One 
must admit that his position was not one to encourage 
impartiality in his presentation of facts, and that the 
imperial favour was not won by plain speaking ; 
nevertheless we have before us a man who could 
not obliterate himself enough to play the abject 
flatterer always, and he gives us the reverse, too, 
of his brilliant picture, as we shall see presently. 
Procopius' three works give us a fairly complete 



INTRODUCTION 

account of the reign of Justinian up till near the 
year 560 A.D., and he has done us the favour of 
setting forth three different points of view which 
vary so widely that posterity has sometimes found it 
difficult to reconcile them. His greatest work, as 
well as his earliest, is the History of the Wars, 
in eight books. The material is not arranged 
strictly according to chronological sequence, but so 
that the progress of events may be traced separately 
in each one of three wars. Thus the first two books 
are given over to the Persian wars, the next two 
contain the account of the war waged against the 
Vandals in Africa, the three following describe the 
struggle against the Goths in Italy. These seven 
books were published together first, and the eighth 
book was added later as a supplement to bring the 
history up to about the date of 554, being a general 
account of events in different parts of the empire. 
It is necessary to bear in mind that the wars 
described separately by Procopius overlapped one 
another in time, and that while the Romans were 
striving to hold back the Persian aggressor they were 
also maintaining armies in Africa and in Italy. In 
fact the Byzantine empire was making a supreme 
effort to re-establish the old boundaries, and to reclaim 
the territories lost to the barbarian nations. The 
emperor Justinian was fired by the ambition to 
make the Roman Empire once more a world power, 
and he drained every resource in his eagerness to 
make possible the fulfilment of this dream. It was 



INTRODUCTION 

a splendid effort, but it was doomed to failure ; the 
fallen edifice could not be permanently restored. 

The history is more general than the title would 
imply, and all the important events of the time are 
touched upon. So while we read much of the cam- 
paigns against the nations who were crowding back 
the boundaries of the old empire, we also hear of 
civic affairs such as the great Nika insurrection in 
Byzantium in 532 ; similarly a careful account is given 
of the pestilence of 540, and the care shown in de- 
scribing the nature of the disease shows plainly that 
the author must have had some acquaintance with 
the medical science of the time. 

After the seventh book of the History of the Wars 
Procopius wrote the Anecdota, or Secret History. 
Here he freed himself from all the restraints of 
respect or fear, and set down without scruple every- 
thing which he had been led to suppress or gloss 
over in the History through motives of policy. He 
attacks unmercifully the emperor and empress and 
even Belisarius and his wife Antonina, and displays 
to us one of the blackest pictures ever set down in 
writing. It is a record of wanton crime and shame- 
less debauchery, of intrigue and scandal both in 
public and in private life. It is plain that the thing 
is overdone, and the very extravagance of the 
calumny makes it impossible to be believed ; again 
and again we meet statements which, if not abso- 
lutely impossible, are at least highly improbable. 
Many of the events of the History are presented 



INTRODUCTION 

in an entirely new light ; we seem to hear one speak- 
ing out of the bitterness of his heart. It should be 
said, at the same time, that there are very few con- 
tradictions in statements of fact. The author has 
plainly singled out the empress Theodora as the 
principal victim of his venomous darts, and he gives 
an account of her early years which is both shocking 
and disgusting, but which, happily, we are not forced 
to regard as true. It goes without saying that such 
a work as this could not have been published during 
the lifetime of the author, and it appears that it was 
not given to the world until after the death of Jus- 
tinian in 565. 

Serious doubts have been entertained in times past 
as to the authenticity of the Anecdota, for at first 
sight it seems impossible that the man who wrote in 
the calm tone of the History and who indulged in 
the fulsome praise of the panegyric On the Buildings 
could have also written the bitter libels of the 
Anecdota. It has come to be seen, however, that 
this feeling is not supported by any unanswerable 
arguments, and it is now. believed to be highly 
probable at least, that the Anecdota is the work of 
Procopius. Its bitterness may be extreme and its 
calumnies exaggerated beyond all reason, but it must 
be regarded as prompted by a reaction against the 
hollow life of the Byzantine court. 

The third work is entitled On the Buildings, and is 
plainly an attempt to gain favour with the emperor. 
We can only guess as to what the immediate occasion 



INTRODUCTION 

was for its composition. It is plain, however, that 
the publication of the History could not have 
aroused the enthusiasm of Justinian ; there was 
no attempt in it to praise the emperor, and one 
might even read an unfavourable judgment between 
the lines. And it is not at all unlikely that he was 
moved to envy by the praises bestowed upon his 
general, Belisarius. At any rate the work On the 
Buildings is written in the empty style of the fawning 
flatterer. It is divided into six short books and 
contains an account of all the public buildings of 
Justinian's reign in every district of the empire. 
The subject was well chosen and the material ample, 
and Procopius lost no opportunity of lauding his 
sovereign to the skies. It is an excellent example 
of the florid panegyric style which was, unfortunately, 
in great favour with the literary world of his own as 
well as later Byzantine times. But in spite of its 
faults, this work is a record of the greatest importance 
for the study of the period, since it is a storehouse 
of information concerning the internal administration 
of the empire. 

The style of Procopius is in general clear and 
straightforward, and shows the mind of one who 
endeavours to speak the truth in simple language 
wherever he is not under constraint to avoid it. At 
the same time he is not ignorant of the arts of 
rhetoric, and especially in the speeches he is fond of 
introducing sounding phrases and sententious state- 
ments. He was a great admirer of the classical 



INTRODUCTION 

writers of prose, and their influence is everywhere 
apparent in his writing ; in particular he is much 
indebted to the historians Herodotus and Thucydides, 
and he borrows from them many expressions and 
turns of phrase. But the Greek which he writes is 
not the pure Attic, and we find many evidences of 
the influence of the contemporary spoken language. 

Procopius writes at times as a Christian, and at 
times as one imbued with the ideas of the ancient 
religion of Greece. Doubtless his study of the 
classical writers led him into this, perhaps un- 
consciously. At any rate it seems not to have been 
with him a matter in which even consistency was 
demanded. It was politic to espouse the religion of 
the state, but still he often allows himself to speak as 
if he were a contemporary of Thucydides. 

The text followed is that of Haury, issued in the 
Teubner series, 1905-1913. 



THE editio princepa of Procopius was published by David 
Hoeschel, Augsburg, 1607 ; the Secret History was not in- 
cluded, and only summaries of the six books of the work 
On the Buildings were given. The edition is not important 
except as being the first. 

The Secret History was printed for the first time separately 
with a Latin translation by Alemannus, Lyon, 1623. 

The first complete edition was that of Maltretus, Paris, 
1661-63, reprinted in Venice, 1729 ; the edition included a 
Latin translation of all the works, which was taken over 
into the edition of Procopius in the Corpus Scriptorum 
Historiae Byzantinae by Dindorf, Bonn, 1833-38. 

Two editions of recent years are to be mentioned : 
Domenico Comparetti, La, Giierra Gotica di Procopio di 
Cetarea ; testo Greco emendato sui manoscritti con tra- 
duxione Italiana., Rome, 1895-98 ; 3 vols. Jacobus Haury, 
Procopii Caesariensis Opera Omnia, Leipzig, 1905-13 ; 3 vols. 
(Bibl. Teub.). 

Among a number of works on Procopius or on special 
subjects connected with his writings the following may be 
mentioned : 

Felix Dahn : Procopius von Cdsarea, Berlin, 1865. 

Julius Jung : Geographisch-Historitches bei Procopius von 

Caesarea, Wiener Studien 5 (1883) 85-115. 
W. Gundlach : Quaestiones Procopianae, Progr. Hanau, 1861, 

also Dissert. Marburg, 1861. 
J. Haury : Procopiana, Progr. Augsburg, 1891. 
B. Pancenko : Ueber die Geheinif/eschichte des Prokop, 

Viz. Vrem. 2 (1895). 
J. Haury : Zur Beurteilung des Geschichtschreibers Procopius 

con Caesarea, Munich, 1896-97. 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

HISTORY OF THE WARS : 
BOOK I 

THE PERSIAN WAR 



VOL. I. 



IIPOKOniOY KAI2APEO2 
TIIEP TON HOAEMflN AOFOS 



Kaicrapevs rovs 7ro\e/jLov$ gvve- 
01)9 'lovo-riviavos 6 'Pw/jMiwv f3acn\v<; 
7T/9O9 ftapftdpovs BtijveyKe TOV9 re ectfou? KOI 
e<nrepiov<t, co? Trrj avTwv etcd(rrq> ^vvtjve^dr} <ye- 
vecrffai, co? /JLTJ epja vTrepf^ejedrj 6 fj,eya<; aiu>v 
\6yov eprjfAa ^eipaxTdfievo^ TTJ re ^01} avra 
KaraTrporjrai /cat TravraTraaiv e'^trr/Xa Orjrai, 
wvjrep rrjv ^vrj^v avTos wero fMeya TI eaecrdai 
KCU vvoicrov e? ra p,d\t,cna rot? re vvv oven KOI 
rot? 6? TO eTretra yevrja-o/jLevois, ei Trore ical 
avdw 6 %/ooi>09 69 ofioLav riva TOi>9 dvtfpcoTrovs 
2 dvdjKrjv SidOoiro. rot9 re yap iroXefirfaeLOvai teal 
aXX&)9 dywviovfievois OVTJCTIV rtva 
ota re ecrriv 77 r^9 e'//,<e/oqi) 

,ev OTTOI Trore 



TO. T9 /^tota9 ywvas e^atprjaev, avi(T<ro- 
/j,evrj 8e OTroiav TWO, reXevrrjv rot9 76 a>9 dpifrra 
/3ov\evofjbvoi<; l TO, Trapovra, t9 TO etro9, e^et. 
3 /cat ol avru) ^vvrjTricrraro irdvraiv fidXicrra 

1 /3ouAei>o/teco<s Dindorf : ftov\o/j.ft>ots MSS. 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 
HISTORY OF THE WARS : BOOK 1 

THE PERSIAN WAR 

I 

PROCOPIUS of Caesarea has written the history of 
the wars which Justinian, Emperor of the Romans, 
waged against the barbarians of the East and of the 
West, relating separately the events of each one, to 
the end that the long course of time may not over- 
whelm deeds of singular importance through lack of 
a record, and thus abandon them to oblivion and 
utterly obliterate them. The memory of these events 
he deemed would be a great thing and most helpful 
to men of the present time, and to future generations 
as well, in case time should ever again place men 
under a similar stress. For men who purpose to 
enter upon a war or are preparing themselves for 
any kind of struggle may derive some benefit from 
a narrative of a similar situation in history, inasmuch 
as this discloses the final result attained by men of 
an earlier day in a struggle of the same sort, and 
foreshadows, at least for those who are most prudent 
in planning, what outcome present events will 
probably have. Furthermore he had assurance that 



B 2 



PUOCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Svvarbs wv rdBe ^vyypd-^rat #ar' aXXo /JLCV ovBev, 
or i Be avrq> vfji/3ov\(p rjprjfjievoi BeXtcra/9t&) T& 
(rrparrjya) O"%e86v ri aTracrt frapayevecrdai rots 

4 TreTTpayfjievo^ %vviirecre- TrpeTreiv re JjyeiTO p 
pircf) fj,ev SeivorrjTa, Troirjrifcfj 8e /ju 

5 %v<yypa<f)7) 8e dXrfdeiav. ravrd rot ov&e 

ol e<; ayav eTriTrjSetwv ra fj,o%6r)pa a 
O, aX\a ra TTCLCTL %vvV%devT 
dtcpi/3o\o<yov/j.evo$ ^vveypd-tyaTO, etre ev etre TTT; 
a\\rj aurot? elpydcrQai ^vve/Srj. 

6 Kpet<7<rov Be ov8ev f) icr^vporepov TWV ev 

rot? TroXeyLtoi? rerv^rfKorcov TW 76 co? 



7 jreirpcLKTai yap ev TOVTOIS /iaXto-ra Trdvrtov <av 
dtcof) Ifffiev Bavf^acnd ola, rjv prf rt? TCOV raSe 

T& TraXatw ^povw ra Trpecrfieia 
KOI ra Kaff avrbv OVK d^ioirj Oavpaara 

8 oiecrdai. uxnrep ovv a/ieXet Toi9 pev vvv 

evioi tca\ovcri rof;6ra<>, 7%e- 
Be Kal acrTrtSttora-? /cat roiavra drra 
ovofiara rot? TraXatorarot? eOeXovai ve^eiv, rav- 
rrjv re rrjv dperrjv e? rovrov e\r)\vQevai rbv %po- 
i/oi/ rjKiGra otovrai, dra\ai7ro)p6v <ye KOL rrjs 
Tretpa? aTrwrdro) rrjv Trepl avrwv TroiovfMevot 

9 So^av. ov yap TI? TTtuTrore atirot? evvoia 
yeyovev on 8rj TOI? //,ev Trap' 'Oaijpa> ro^evovcriv, 
olcnrep Kal v(3pi%ea6ai aTro r?)9 Te%y?79 ovo/ta^o- 
/j,4voi<f %vv/3aivev, ov% ITTTTO? VTrijv, ov Bopv, OVK 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. i. 3-9 

he was especially competent to write the history of 
these events, if for no other reason, because it fell 
to his lot, when appointed adviser to the general 
Belisarius, to be an eye-witness of practically all the 
events to be described. It was his conviction that 
while cleverness is appropriate to rhetoric, and in- 
ventiveness to poetry, truth alone is appropriate to 
history. In accordance with this principle he has 
not concealed the failures of even his most intimate 
acquaintances, but has written down with complete 
accuracy everything which befell those concerned, 
whether it happened to be done well or ill by them. 
It will be evident that no more important or 
mightier deeds are to be found in history than those 
which have been enacted in these wars, provided 
one wishes to base his judgment on the truth. For 
in them more remarkable feats have been performed 
than in any other wars with which we are acquainted ; 
unless, indeed, any reader of this narrative should 
give the place of honour to antiquity, and consider 
contemporary achievements unworthy to be counted 
remarkable. There are those, for example, who 
call the soldiers of the present day "bowmen," while 
to those of the most ancient times they wish to 
attribute such lofty terms as "hand-to-hand fighters," 
" shield-men," and other names of that sort ; and they 
think that the valour of those times has by no means 
survived to the present, an opinion which is at once 
careless and wholly remote from actual experience 
of these matters. For the thought has never occurred 
to them that, as regards the Homeric bowmen who 
had the misfortune to be ridiculed by this term ' 
derived from their art, they were neither carried by 

1 Cf. Iliad xi. 385 To6ra, Ao>(8jT/)p, Kfpai ay\af, irapSfvoirlira, 
the only place where ro^rrjs occurs in Homer. 

5 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

is 'tjfivvev, OVK aX/Vo ovoev rov er&>yu,aT09 <frv- 
\aKrrjpiov fjv, d\\d rre^ol /j-ev 69 f^d^v rjecrav, 
cLTTOKeKpv^tOaL 8e avrols rjv dvay/caiov, eraipiov l 
rov K\e<yo[Avoi<; daTriSa rj 0^77X77 67ri rvp^a) 

10 rtvl Ktc\ifJLevoi<>, evOa ovre rpeTro/jievoi Siacra)- 
^errflai ovre (frevyovcn rots TroXeyittoi? eT 

oloi re r/crav, ov firjv ovSe djro rov e 
^la/J-d^ecrdaL, d\\d rt 2 K\errreiv e86/covv del 

11 ev rfi i>/z/3oA,77 yivo/j,evcov. dvev Se rovrcov 
ovrd)<f dra\ai7ra>p(o<; e^patvro rfj re^vrj, ware 

r& crfyerepw pa%u> rrjv vevpav eira TO 
d<f)iecrav tcaxfrov re KOL ovriSavov eiicorws 
yoyu.ei/oi9 eaopevov. roiavrrj [iev rt9 ovaa 

12 17 roeia (fraiverai rrporepov. ol oe ye ravvv 
rogorai 'iaat nev 9 fJ'd'^rjv reOwpaicicrfjAvot re fcal 
Kvr)/At$a<? evap/j,o<rd[jievot pe^pi 69 <yovv. ijprrjrai, 
oe avrol<? drrb /j,ev rrjs 8ej;ids 7r\evpa<> rd 

13 O.TTO Se T?}9 erepas TO %i(f>os. elal 8e 049 
Sopv TrpoaaTroKpefiarai teal {Spa^eta Tt9 ejrl rwv 

oia rd re 



TO rrpoawrrov /ca <rv> 3 av^eva 

14 imrevovrai Be a>9 apiara /cal Qeovros avrols 
009 rd^iara rov 'ircrrov rd r6a re ov ^aXe7T&>9 
evreiveiv oloi re elcriv e^>' e/cdrepa Kal Siai/covrds 

15 re (3d\\eiv rovs rro\ep,Lov^ ical (frevyovras. e\- 
fcerat 8e avrois Kara TO /jbercoTrov rj vevpd reap 1 
avrb p.d\iara r&v wrwv rb 8ei6v, rocravrr]<t 
aX^9 e/jb7ri7r\do-a rb /3e\os, ware rbv del rrapa- 
TriTrrovra Kreiveiv, ovre d(T7ricos 10-6)9 oi;Te Ow 

1 fralpov Maltretus, cod. e : f-rtpov VP. 

2 TI Maltretus : ru V, rb P. 

3 < rbv> Hoeschel. 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. i. 9-15 

horse nor protected by spear or shield. 1 In fact 
there was no protection at all for their bodies ; they 
entered battle on foot, and were compelled to conceal 
themselves, either singling out the shield of some 
comrade, 2 or seeking safety behind a tombstone on a 
mound, 3 from which position they could neither 
save themselves in case of rout, nor fall upon a flying 
foe. Least of all could they participate in a decisive 
struggle in the open, but they always seemed to be 
stealing something which belonged to the men who 
were engaged in the struggle. And apart from this 
they were so indifferent in their practice of archery that 
they drew the bowstring only to the breast, 4 so that 
the missile sent forth was naturally impotent and 
harmless to those whom it hit. 5 Such, it is evident, 
was the archery of the past. But the bowmen of 
the present time go into battle wearing corselets and 
fitted out with greaves which extend up to the knee. 
From the right side hang their arrows, from the other 
the sword. And there are some who have a spear 
also attached to them and, at the shoulders, a sort of 
small shield without a grip, such as to cover the 
region of the face and neck. t They are expert 
horsemen, and are able without difficulty to direct 
their bows to either side while riding at full speed, 
and to shoot an opponent whether in pursuit or 
in flight. They draw the bowstring along by the 
forehead about opposite the right ear, thereby 
charging the arrow with such an impetus as to kill 
whoever stands in the way, shield and corselet alike 

1 Cf. Iliad v. 192. 2 Cf. Iliad viii. 267 ; xi. 371. 
3 Cf. Iliad iv. 113. 4 Cf. Iliad iv. 123. 
6 Cf. Iliad xi. 390. 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

16 aTTotcpovecrffai n Bwapevov rfj<? pv/xr)?. eicri Be 
oi rovrcov ijtcicrra evdv/jiov/jievoi aeftovrai fj,ev teal 
rbv TraXaibv %povov, ovBev Be rats em- 
BtBoacri rr\eov, 1 aXXa rovrav ovBev KW- 
\vcrei ftr) ovjfl pAyicrrd re teal d^io\oycorara ev 

ot9 futepbv dvtodev ocra 'Pwpaiois 
il MrjBoi? .TToXe/ioOo-t rraOelv re teal 
Bpdcrai. 

II 

Toy (Biov 'ApfcdBio? 6 'Payfjuticov ftacri- 
ev Bi/favTtft) re\evrdv rjjji\.\ev (rjv ydp oi 
@6oooo"/09 OVTTCO rov nrdov a7ra\\ayei<i^, 
Birj7ropelro dfjupi re r& TraiBl teal rfj ftacrtXeLa, ev 

2 OeaOai, a/i^xw &>9 rjtcicrra ej(wv. eyivero ydp 
Tt9 avra> evvoia, 009, rjv pev KOIVWVOV nva eo- 
Bocrio) T^9 r)yepovia<? rropity)rai, auT09 av rbv 
iraiSa rbv avrov Sta^or/a'a/iei'09 rq> epy<o e'lrj, 
TToXe/jLiov avrw Bvva/j,iv rrjv ySacrtXetov rfepifBe- 

3 /3\r)fj,evov errayayu>v, TJV Be fiovov avrov eVt 

tcaracrrija-rjrai, TroXXol pev rijs ftacn- 
em, ft ar ever oven, rrjs rov vraf8o9 eprjfAias, 
o>9 TO et/co9, drro\avovre < s, erravacrrdvres Be TTOVCO 
ovBevl rvpavvijcrovcri, rbv &eoB6cnov BiacpOeipavres, 
eTret ovBeva ev l$vavri(p ^vyyevfj et^ev ocrns 

4 av avrui errirpoTros ecrj. 'Qvapiov ydp oi rbv 
Oeiov eTraptcecreiv ovBa/j,r) rffvjricre, rrovripfav rjBrj 

5 rwv 'lTaXta9 rcpaypdroov ovrcov. ovBev Be 
fjcrcrov /cal ra etc MtfBwv avrov ^vverdpaacre, 

1 ir\(ov Maltretus : ir\fova VP. 
8 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. i. is-ii. 5 

having no power to check its force. Still there 
are those who take into consideration none of these 
things, who reverence and worship the ancient times, 
and give no credit to modern improvements. But 
no such consideration will prevent the conclusion 
that most great and notable deeds have been 
performed in these wars. And the history of them 
will begin at some distance back, telling of the 
fortunes in war of the Romans and the Medes, their 
reverses and their successes. 

II 

WHEN the Roman Emperor Arcadius was at the 408 x.n. 
point of death in Byzantium, having a male child, Theo- 
dosius, who was still unweaned, he felt grave fears not 
only for him but for the government as well, not know- 
ing how he should provide wisely for both. For he 
perceived that, if he provided a partner in govern- 
ment for Theodosius, he would in fact be destroying 
his own son by bringing forward against him a foe 
clothed in the regal power ; while if he set him 
alone over the empire, many would try to mount the 
throne, taking advantage, as they might be expected 
to do, of the helplessness of the child. These men 
would rise against the government, and, after des- 
troying Theodosius, would make themselves tyrants 
without difficulty, since the boy had no kinsman in 
Byzantium to be his guardian. For Arcadius had 
no hope that the boy's uncle, Honorius, would 
succour him, inasmuch as the situation in Italy was 
already troublesome. And he was - equally dis- 
turbed by the attitude of the Medes, fearing lest 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

fj,rj ol ftdpftapoi OVTOL rrj? TOV avro- 
/caTdOeovTes faifcias av^Kecrra epya 

6 c Pa)fjt,aiov<; Bpdcrcocnv. 9 Tavrrjv 'Ap/caSto9 rrjv 
dfjirj^aviav eyu/7re7TT&>/c&>9, fcairrep ov yeyovo)? ei9 
TO, d\\a dy%ivov<s, /3ov~\,everai J3ov\rjv ^rt? ol TOV 
re rralSa KOI rrjv dp^rjv 8iacra}craa'6at evTrerws 
to-^vaev, e'lre Kowo\o r yricrd/j,6vo<> TWV \oyio)v ricriv, 
oloi TroXXol j3acn\et TrapeSpeveiv ela)0acriv, rj 

1 Oeias TIVOS eTTiTrvoias avr& <yevofj,evr)<t. Bca- 
Orjfcrjs <yap Siadels ypdjA/MZTa, SidSo%ov p,ev T?}? 
r)ye/jt,ovia$ dveiTre TOV TratBa, eiriTpoTrov Se 
KaT(TTi)a-aTO 'la-StyepSrjv TOV Hepa-wv 
to &r] TroXXa ev rat? Siadrffcais errecrKritye @eo- 
Bocriy rrjv {3acn\tav crffevei re KOL rrpovoiq 

8 ^vvStaarcocracr&ai. 'AyO/eaSto<? jj,ev wSe Ttjv re 
KOI TO. otKeta SioiKijcrd/jievos eTeX^evrrjo-ev 
yepSrjs 8e 6 Tlepfftov ^acriXevf, eTral TO 

TOVTO aireve^dev elBev, &v /cat TrpOTepov eVt Tpo- 
TTOV fj,eya\o(j)poarvvr} 8ia^6t}TO<f e? ra pakiaTa, 
dpeTrjv erreSei^aTO Oav/JLaTos re TroXkov teal \6yov 

9 d^iav. ra? yap 'ApKCt&iov eVroXa? ev dXoyia 
ovBe/jiia Troi'rja'd/jLevos elptjvrj re d(f>06v(a %p(i)fjLvo<$ 
Siayeyovev e9 'Pw/iatoy? TOV irdvTa %povov Kal 

10 eoSocrtep TTJV dp^rjv SiecrwcraTO. avTi/ca yovv 
TTypo? 'Pwfiaiwv Trjv /3ov\r)v <ypd/j,fj,aTa 
7rtr/J07ro9 re ovK aTrapvov^vo^ eoSocriou 
eivai tcdl 



9 e 

11 'Evret Be eo5o<rto9 i^ev dvijp re eyeyovei /cat 
rjKiKia^ Troppo) d<f)i/cTO, 'Icro'i'yepoijs Be voo~r)cras eg 
dvdp<i)7ra)v -r/<j)dvicrTO, errfjXde /J-ev 69 'Pto/j.ai(i)v Trjv 
<yfjv Qvapapdvrjs 6 Tlepaiov /3a<rtXei9 



10 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. ii. 5-11 

these barbarians should trample down the youthful 
emperor and do the Romans irreparable harm. 
When Arcadius was confronted with this difficult 
situation, though he had not shown himself sagacious 
in other matters, he devised a plan which was 
destined to preserve without trouble both his child 
and his throne, either as a result of conversation 
with certain of the learned men, such as are usually 
found in numbers among the advisers of a sovereign, 
or from some divine inspiration which came to him. 
For in drawing up the writings of his will, he desig- 
nated the child as his successor to the throne, but ap- 
pointed as guardian over him Isdigerdes, the Persian 
King, enjoining upon him earnestly in his will to pre- 
serve the empire for Theodosius by all his power and 
foresight. So Arcadius died, having thus arranged 
his private affairs as well as those of the empire. But 
Isdigerdes, the Persian King, when he saw this 
writing which was duly delivered to him, being even 
before a sovereign whose nobility of character had 
won for him the greatest renown, did then display a 
virtue at once amazing and remarkable. For, loyally 
observing the behests of Arcadius, he adopted and 
continued without interruption a policy of profound 
peace with the Romans, and thus preserved the 
empire for Theodosius. Indeed, he straightway 
dispatched a letter to the Roman senate, not de- 
clining the office of guardian of the Emperor Theo- 
dosius, and threatening war against any who should 
attempt to enter into a conspiracy against him. 

When Theodosius had grown to manhood and was 
in the prime of life, and Isdigerdes had been taken 
from the world by disease, Vararanes, the Persian 441 A.D. 
King, invaded the Roman domains with a mighty 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



ueyd\(i), eSpacre Se ovSev d%api, a\7C arrpaicros 

12 erravrfkdev els ra oltceia rporra) roiwSe. 'Ai/aro- 
\iov rov rijs e<o crrparrjybv eooer09 [6] ftacn- 
\evs rrpeaftevrrfv e? Ilepcra? [tovov avrov e 
Tre/A^a?' 09 67ret8r) ay^icrra eyeyovei TOV 
(rrparov, aTroOpaxTKei /j,ev rov LTTTTOV /JLOVOS, 7ref) 

13 Se (3a&i(i)v eirl Ovapapdvrjv rjec. Kai avTov Ova- 
papdvrjs I8a>v TWV irapovrwv aveTrvvOdvero oaris 
Trore 6 Trpo<Tta>v etrj. oi 8e rwv 'PwfjLaioJv elvai 

14 (TTparirybv 6(f>acrav. KaraTr\ayel^ ovv T&) 
ftd\,\ovTi TT)? Ti/j.fj? o ySacriXeu? avro 

rov LTTTTOV OTTtcra) arrrf\,avve, Kai oi areas o rwv 

15 Tlepcrwv Xea)? eiVeTo. yevoftevos Se ev yfj rfi 
oiiceia rov re Trpecrfievrrjv i>v <f)i\O(j)poa-vvr] iro\\f) 
eZSe, teal rrjv flpijvrjv vve%(i)prjcrev oyrco? uxnrep 
'AvaroXto? avrov e^pp^ev, e<f) w /jievrot, /nrjSerepoi 
ev xcopia) otetft) ev yeirovmv rot? rwv erepatv 
opioif ovri o^vpcofj-a vo>repov rt, epyd^ovrai. ov 
or) avrots e^etpyaa-^evov efcdrepot ra olfceia om] 






Ill 

8e varepov Tlepo&s 6 TIeparwv /3affi\v<; 
7T/909 TO Ovvvatv rwv y Ei(f>0a\irS)v edvos, ovcnrep 
\evKOv? ovoad^ovai, rro\ep,ov trepl 7^9 opicov Sie- 
fape, \6yov re d^iov arparov dyeipas err avrovf 
2 rjei. 'E^^aXtrat Be OVVVIKOV uev edvos elcri re 

12 1 nvrbs H : ovrea VP, OVTOS G. 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. ii. n-iii. 2 

army ; however he did no damage, but returned to 
his home without accomplishing anything. This 
came about in the following way. Anatolius, General 
of the East, had, as it happened, been sent by the 
Emperor Theodosius as ambassador to the Persians, 
alone and unaccompanied ; as he approached the 
Median army, solitary as he was, he leapt down from 
his horse, and advanced on foot toward Vararanes. 
And when Vararanes saw him, he enquired from those 
who were near who this man could be who was 
coming forward. And they replied that he was the 
general of the Romans. Thereupon the king was 
so dumbfounded by this excessive degree of respect 
that he himself wheeled his horse about and rode 
away, and the whole Persian host followed him. 
When he had reached his own territory, he received 
the envoy with great cordiality, and granted the 
treaty of peace on the terms which Anatolius desired 
of him ; one condition, however, he added, that 
neither party should construct any new fortification 
in his ovn territory in the neighbourhood of the 
boundary line between the two countries. When 
this treaty had been executed, both sovereigns then 
continued to administer the affairs of their respective 
countries as seemed best to them. 



Ill 

AT a, later time the Persian King Perozes became 
involved in a war concerning boundaries with the 
nation of the Ephthalitae Huns, who are called White 
Huns, gathered an imposing army, and marched 
against them. The Ephthalitae are of the stock of 
the Huns in fact as well as in name ; however they 

'3 



PROCOPUJS OF CAESAREA 

Kal ovoftd^ovrai, ov pevroi dva/Jiiyvvvrat, rf em- 
%d)pidovo-iv Ovvvwv rt<rlv wv ijfjueif t<rpv, errel 
ovre %(i)pav avrols ojjiopov e%ovcni> ovre TTIJ avr&v 
dy%io~Ta yKrjvrai, d\\d TrpoaoiKOvcri fiev Repeats 
7T/9O? fioppdv dve/jbov, ov 8r) TroXt? Topya) ovo^a 
7T/9O9 avrais TTOV rat? Ile/Jcrwj/ etr^artat? ecrriv, 
evravBa 8e Trepl 7775 opiwv Bia/jLd^e<r0ai vrpo? 

3 aXX^Xoy? elwdaaiv. ov <ydp voices eicrlv &airep 
ra aXXa Qvvviicd eQvrj, aXX' 67rt I )(u>pa<$ dyaOrj<; 

4 TWOS etc TraXaiov iSpvvTai. ravrd rot ov8e Tiva 
e<r/3o\rjv TrefroLrjvrat jnaTrore 69 'Pwftaiwv rrjv yrjv 
on fj,rj vv T& M.ijocav ffrpara). fj,6voi o Qvvvwv 
ovrot \evicoL re rd crut^ara KOI OVK d/j,op<f)oi ra? 

5 6'i|ret9 elcrlv. ov fjirjv ovre rrjv oiairav oftoiorpoTrov 
avrots e'xovcnv ovre 6i)piov ftlov rtvd yrrep etcelvoi, 



/cal 7ro\,ireiav evvo/j,ov e^ovres d\\rj\oi<s re 
T0t9 7reXa9 del opdax; Kal SiKaicos ^uyLt/SoXXovcrt, 
'Pwftaiwv re Kal Hepawv ovSev n TIGO-OV. ol 
fj,vroi evSai/jioves avrois (frfaovs eraipi^ovrai d-ftpi 
9 etKoatv, dv ovrw rv%oi, r\ rovrcov 7rXetou9, 
o'irrep avrois ^vfMTrorai pen 9 del yivovrai, rwv 
8e xprj/AdTfav ^re^ovcn irdvrwv, KOiv^ rivos 
e^oucrta9 aurot9 9 ravra overt}';. eTretSdv 8e r<a 
avrov<$ eratptcrafieva) re\evrf)o~ai vju,/3ai,r), rov- 
TOU9 Srj TOV9 dvopas ^wvras %vv avrtp 69 rov 
rd(j>ov ea-KO/jLi^ecrdai 1/0/1.09. 

'E/TTt rovrovs Tot/9 'E^>^aXtra9 r<j) Tlepo^i TTO- 
pevo/meva) ^vfjLirapfjv Trpecr/Sevrijs, 09 Brj 
Tr/009 ySacriXeft)9 Ztrfvcavos reap avrov 

ovopa. 'E^^aXtrat oe ooKrjcriv rrape- 



14 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. iii. 2-8 

do not mingle with any of the Huns known to 
us, for they occupy a land neither adjoining nor 
even very near to them ; but their territory lies 
immediately to the north of Persia ; indeed their 
city, called Gorgo, is located over against the Persian 
frontier, and is consequently the centre of frequent 
contests concerning boundary lines between the two 
peoples. For they are not nomads like the other 
Hunnic peoples, but for a long period have been 
established in a goodly land. As a result of this 
they have never made any incursion into the Roman 
territory except in company with the Median army. 
They are the only ones among the Huns who have 
white bodies and countenances which are not ugly. 
It is also true that their manner of living is unlike 
that of their kinsmen, nor do they live a savage life 
as they do ; but they are ruled by one king, and since 
they possess a lawful constitution, they observe right 
and justice in their dealings both with one another 
and with their neighbours, in no degree less than 
the Romans and the Persians. Moreover, the wealthy 
citizens are in the habit of attaching to themselves 
friends to the number of twenty or more, as the 
case may be, and these become permanently their 
banquet-companions, and have a share in all their 
property, enjoying some kind of a common right in 
this matter. Then, when the man who has gathered 
such a company together comes to die, it is the 
custom that all these men be borne alive into the 
tomb with him. 

Perozes, marching against these Ephthalitae, was 
accompanied by an ambassador, Eusebius by name, 
who, as it happened, had been sent to his court by 
the Emperor Zeno. Now the Ephthalitae made it 

15 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

rot9 7roXe/itot9 on, 8rj avrwv KaroippcoSrj- 
rrjv (j)oBov 69 (frvyrjv &pnr/vrai, rje<rav 
69 %&>/>oV nva ovrrep oprj drrorofia 
KVK\OVV, <rw)(yol<$ re teal df*,<f)i,\a<f)e(riv e? a^/av 
ev&pois. evro? Be iS)v opa>v irpo- 

d>9 TTOppfOTaTCO 0809 /JL6V Ti<? <f>aLVTO V 

evpeta 7rl irKelcnov Snjicovcra, e^oSov Be 
ovBafjbrj efyev, d\X' e? avrov fjidXicrra 

10 roy KVK\OV TWV opwv 6X7776. Ilepo^? yLtey ovv, 
86\ov Trai^To? dtypovTia'Tija'a*; OVK evvo&v re a>9 ey 
7^ d\\OTpia TTopevoiro, dveTTKr/ceTTTa) 1 ? eBico/ce. 

11 TWV Be Qvvvwv 0X1704 /ier Tii>e9 e^TrpoaOev <f>ev- 
yov, ol Be TrXettrrot ey rat9 Bvcr^topiaifi Bia\a- 
OovTes Kara VCOTOV eyevovro rov rwv 7ro\,fjt,ia>v 
(TTparov, OVTTCO re avrotf e^ovXovro evBr]\oi elvai, 
O7TW9 Brj r^9 eveBpa? Troppat %c0pij<ravre<> euros re 
rwv opwv 7rl rr\ela-rov yeyevrj/Aevoi fjitj/cen bnicrw 

12 dvaarrpe(piv oloi re waiv. oovrrep ol M^Sot al&do- 
fjievot (ijBr) yap KCLI n rov KtvBvvov vrrefyaivev} 
avrol fj,ev Beet r<a e/c Tlepo^ov rd rrapovra fffylcnv 
ev (TicoTrf) efyov, Eucre/3toz/ Be TroXXa eXnrdpovv 
Trapaivecriv 69 rov /SacrtXea Troir']cracr6ai /Aatcpdv 
aTroXeXet/A/iei'oi/ r&v olfceifov KCLKWV, /3ov\evecrdai 
/zdXXoy rj Opacrvveadai OVK ev Beovri, KOL Bia- 
(TKorrelcrOat, rjv Tt9 Trore nrj^avr) 69 cro)rrjpiav 

13 <f>epovo-a eirj. 6 Be Tiepo^rj 69 oifriv e\6a)v rv^rjv 
fjbev rrjv rrapovaav 009 rfKicrra dr>eKd\v^rev, dpd- 
/A^09 Be {jLvdorrouas \eovrd Trore rpdyw fya&Kev 
evrv%eiv BeBefJievo) re /cat ^Kfa/jLeva) eVt %a>pov 
rivb<? ov \iav yi^XoO, eVt Ooivr) Be avrov rov 
\eovra etfue/jLevov op/Mrjo-ai /j,ev a>9 dprcd<rovra, 
16 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. iii. 8-13 

appear to their enemy that they had turned to flight 
because they were wholly terrified by their attack, 
and they retired with all speed to a place which was 
shut in on every side by precipitous mountains, and 
abundantly screened by a close forest of wide-spread- 
ing trees. Now as one advanced between the moun- 
tains to a great distance, a broad way appeared in the 
valley, extending apparently to an indefinite distance, 
but at the end it had no outlet at all, but terminated 
in the very midst of the circle of mountains. So 
Perozes, with no thought at all of treachery, and 
forgetting that he was marching in a hostile country, 
continued the pursuit without the least caution. A 
small body of the Huns were in flight before him, 
while the greater part of their force, by concealing 
themselves in the rough country, got in the rear 
of the hostile army ; but as yet they desired not to 
be seen by them, in order that they might advance 
well into the trap and get as far as possible in among 
the mountains, and thus be no longer able to turn back. 
When the Medes began to realize all this (for they 
now began to have a glimmering of their peril), 
though they refrained from speaking of the situation 
themselves through fear of Perozes, yet they earn- 
estly entreated Eusebius to urge upon the king, who 
was completely ignorant of his own plight, that he 
should take counsel rather than make an untimely 
display of daring, and consider well whether there 
was any way of safety open to them. So he went 
before Perozes, but by no means revealed the 
calamity which Avas upon them ; instead he began 
with a fable, telling how a lion once happened upon 
a goat bound down and bleating on a mound of no 
very great height, and how the lion, bent upon 

17 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



iv Be e<? Kara>pv%a ftaOelav p,d\iara, o8ov 
KVK\oreprj e'X/ovcrav (rrevtjv re Kal ov rrerrepao'- 
aevrjv (6WoSoi> yap ovSa/4fj el%ev), rjv Brj ol rov 
rpdyov Kvpioi e^errirrjSes T%yr)crd[j,voi vrrepOev 
rfjs Karotpw^ps rov rpdyov redeiKaai ra> \eovri 

14 TroSoffTpd/Srjv ecro/jievov. raina Tlepo&s dfcovcras 

9 8e09 ff\de lllf) 7TOT6 M?}Sot eVl TTOVrjpO) TOO (T(f)- 

Tepa) rrjv Sifa^tv eVt TOU9 TroXe/itoi'9 TreTTOLyvrai. 
Kal Trpocro) n*\v ovfceri e^wpei, pevwv 8e avrov ra 

15 -rrapovra ev /3ov\f) eVotetro. Qvvvoi 8e ijSij eiro- 
fievot e/c TOV fj,(f>avov<; rov %(i)pov rrjv eicroSov ev 
<f>v\a/efi el^ov, 07ra>9 y^]K,kri ol TroXe/itot OTriao) 

16 arre\avveiv oloi re wcri. KOI ol Tlepo~at rare 8rj 
\a/i7T/j&)9 Tjadrj/Aevoi ov rjo~av KCIKOV ev o~up(f)0pa 
ejroiovvro rd rrapovra <r<f)icri, Sia(f>evi;e<rdai rov 

17 KivSwOV V \7Tl8l OvBefJUO, TO \017TOV e^OVT9. O 5e 

rwv 'E^)^aXtT<wi' /3acrtXei>9 rre^^ra^ rrapa Tlepotyv 
rwv ol krropevwv rivds, TroXXa pev avrq> Opda-ov? 
rrepi d\oyio~rov atveiSicrev, a<' ov 8r) avrov re Kal 
TO Hepcrwv 761*09 ocr/Aft) ovSevl Sia^Qeipeiev, ev- 
Scocreiv 8e Kal a>9 rrjv cra>rr)piav Ovvvovs avrol<; 
errrjyyeX\.ero, fjv ye avrov re Hepo&s rrpoo-Kwetv 
fiov\oiro, are SeaTrorrjv yeyevrjfj-evov, Kal opKovs 
TOU9 <T<f>icri Trarpiovs bjJLvvs rd ma-rd 80/77 /j,ijrrore 
Hepcras errl TO 'E<#a\TO)i> e6vo<$ crrparevcracrOai. 

18 ravra eVa Tlepotys ijKovcre, fjbdywv TO69 rrapovo'i 
Koivo\oyr)crd/jt,evo<i dvercvvddvero el rd eirayye\- 

19 \6p,eva 7T/309 rwv evavrlwv jroirjrea en;, ol 8e 
fidyoi drreKpivavro rd /Men d/jufrl TW opKut orct) ol 
^ov\ofjiiv(f eo~rlv avrov 8iotKijo-ao-dai, 1 9 

1 8toKTJ<ra<reai : Haury conjectures <Sftv>- SiotK-fjircurBai. 
18 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. iii. 13-19 

making a feast of the goat, rushed forward with 
intent to seize him, but fell into a trench exceedingly 
deep, in which was a circular path, narrow and end- 
less (for it had no outlet anywhere), which indeed 
the owners of the goat had constructed for this very 
purpose, and they had placed the goat above it to 
be a bait for the lion. When Perozes heard this, a 
fear came over him lest perchance the Medes had 
brought harm upon themselves by their pursuit of 
the enemy. He therefore advanced no further, but, 
remaining where he was, began to consider the 
situation. By this time the Huns were following 
him without any concealment, and were guarding 
the entrance of the place in order that their enemy 
might no longer be able to withdraw to the rear. 
Then at last the Persians saw clearly in what straits 
they were, and they felt that the situation was 
desperate ; for they had no hope that they would 
ever escape from the peril. Then the king of the 
Ephthalitae sent some of his followers to Perozes ; 
he upbraided him at length for his senseless fool- 
hardiness, by which he had wantonly destroyed 
both himself and the Persian people, but he an- 
nounced that even so the Huns would grant them 
deliverance, if Perozes should consent to prostrate 
himself before him as having proved himself master, 
and, taking the oaths traditional among the Persians, 
should give pledges that they would never again 
take the field against the nation of the Ephthalitae. 
When Perozes heard this, he held a consultation 
with the Magi who were present and enquired of 
them whether he must comply with the terms dic- 
tated by the enemy, i The Magi replied that, as to 
the oath, he should settle the matter according to 



c 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

20 TO erepov aofyiq rcepie\delv rov TTO\[JUOV. elvai- 
jap auTO?9 vofiov rds rov rj\iov dvaro\d<; rfpotr- 

21 tcvvelv fj/jLepa efcdcrrr). oerfo-eiv ovv avrbv rrjpij- 
cravra e*9 TO d/cpif3e<$ rov Kaipov ^vyyevecrdai fj,ev 
a/j,a rjfjbepa r& TO>V 'E^^aXtTwv ap%ovri, rerpa^- 
fj,evov Se TTOU 77/009 avia-^ovra rj\.iov Trpoaicvvelv 
ravrr} yap av e? TO eVetTa T??9 Trpdgeax; rrjv 

22 dri/jiiav (fjwyeiv Bvvatro. Hepo&s yu,ev ovv apfyl 
re T-f) elpijvy ra mcrTa eowKe tcai rov jroXefitov 
7rpo<TKVvr)(re KaOdrrep rwv /jLajcav r) vTrodijtcrj 
TraprfyyeXXev, d,Kpai(f>isei Se rravri r& 
<rrpar<a CTT' o'ltcov 



IV 

Be ov TroXXw ixrrepov dXoyijffas ra of 
ricracrdai Ovvvov? T//9 69 avrbv v 

2 r)6e\e. Trdvras ovv avrlica ex rcacr^ 7779 Hepcra? 
re teal fyu./z,a^of9 dyelpas erri TOi9 ^<f)da\ira<? 
rjye, rwv rraiowv eva fiev Ka/Sa^r 6vop,a /JLOVOV 
drro\irru)V (rijvifcavra yap r)/3r)K(0s eVf^e), Tot/9 Be 
Xot7rot9 arravras ercayopevos rpidicovra iid\icrra. 

3 'E<#a\mu Be avrov rrjv e(f>oBov yvovres %^o- 
fjievoi re ols Brj 7Ty009 rwv 7ro\fjii(ov r/rrdrrivro rov 
/SacrtXea etcdfci^ov, are 7rpo/j,evov M?;Sot9 Ta 

4 repay [utra. ical 09 avr&v vv yeXwri errvvOdvero 
rl rrore apa fftywv 7rpoepevo<; elrj, rrorepov rrjv yrjv 

5 r) rd orc\a rj d\\o ri rwv rrdvrwv %pi]/jidra)v. ol 
Be vTro\a/36vre<; OVK d\\o ovBev rf\i]v ye Brj on 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. iii. i 9 -iv. 5 

his own pleasure ; as for the rest, however, he should 
circumvent his enemy by craft. And they reminded 
him that it was the custom among the Persians to 
prostrate themselves before the rising sun each day ; 
he should, therefore, watch the time closely and 
meet the leader of the Ephthalitae at dawn, and then, 
turning toward the rising sun, make his obeisance. 
In this way, they explained, he would be able in 
the future to escape the ignominy of the deed. 
Perozes accordingly gave the pledges concerning 
the peace, and prostrated himself before his foe ex- 
actly as the Magi had suggested, and so, with the 
whole Median army intact, gladly retired homeward. 



IV 

NOT long after this, disregarding the oath he had 
sworn, he was eager to avenge himself upon the 
Huns for the insult done him. He therefore 
straightway gathered together from the whole land 
all the Persians and their allies, and led them 
against the Ephthalitae ; of all his sons he left 
behind him only one, Cabades by name, who, as it 
happened, was just past the age of boyhood ; all the 
others, about thirty in number, he took with him. 
The Ephthalitae, upon learning of his invasion, were 
aggrieved at the deception they had suffered at the 
hands of their enemy, and bitterly reproached their 
king as having abandoned them to the Medes. He, 
with a laugh, enquired of them what in the world of 
theirs he had abandoned, whether their land or their 
arms or any other part of their possessions. They 
thereupon retorted that he had abandoned nothing, 

21 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

rov tcaipbv efyaaav, ov ra\\a Trdvra rjprrjadat 
ivei. ol fj,ev ovv rols eTTiovcriv vTravrid^eiv 
Trpodv/ua T/^LOVV, 6 Be avrovs fj,ev ev 76 ro> 
Trapovri eK(t>\vev. ov yap TTCO cra</>e9 ri a/zc^i Trj 
e<f>68(i) Icr^vpi^eTO <ye<yovevat cr(j)icnv, evrei ol Tlep- 
aai 6Ti i> yrj rfj oitceia Tvy^dvovcriv ovre 
1 8e avrov eTrolet rdSe. ev T& TreSto) y 
Hepcrai 9 TO, 'E^i^aXtTWi/ rjdr) eaj3d\\6iv 
r rro\\r)V nva em TrXetcrroy aTTore^tav, rdfypov 
elpydaaro ftadeidv re KCU eijpovs IK.O,VU><S 
o\iryov Tiva ev /ietrw a,Kpai$vr\ %ci)po 

8 ocrov tirrrtov 6Sq> ejraptceiv Betca. ica\dp,ov<$ re rrj 
Ta<j)p(a vTrepOev eVt^ei? /ecu <yfjv eVi TOU<? /caXa/u-of? 
a-vvafAijcrd/jLevos, ravrrj e7rnro\rj<; etcpvijrev, Ovvvaiv 
re rw 6yu,tXft> e7r<TreX\ev, evreiSav evOevSe OTricrfo 
a,Tre\avveiv fj,e\\(acrL, Bid ^a>pov rov ^epcrov <? 

cr^a? ^vvayayovras a-^o\airepov<; levai, 
OTTW? ^ 9 T<Z ecr/ca/i/ieva e/iTrt- 

9 irroiev roi9 Be a\a9 aicpov o-vjfAeiov rov j3a<ri- 
\eiov direKpe/jiacrev 69 ot><? rov oprcov Tlepofys 
MfjLocre Trporepov, ov Brj d\oy^(Ta<; elra eVt Ovv- 

10 vovs ecrrpdrevcrev. eo>9 fjiev ovv ev <yfj rfj cr<f>erepa 
TOU9 7ro\e/itov9 rjicovev elvai, rjo-v%f) epevev, eirel 
Be avrovs 9 Top>ya> TTO\LV e/Aadev d(f>iKe(r8ai Trpbs 
r&v KaraaKOTTcov, rfnep ev rot9 ea"%drois Tlepcrwv 
opiois rvj^dvet ovcra, ev0ev8e re dird^h.a<yevra<^ oBy 
67Tt <r^>a? tjBrj levat, auro9 f^ev r> 7T\eiovi rov arpa- 
rov rfjs rd(f)pov evrbs e^etvev, o\i<yovs Be 7re/i'^ > a9 



22 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. iv. 5-10 

except, forsooth, the one opportunity on which, as it 
turned out, everything else depended. Now the 
Ephthalitae with all zeal demanded that they should 
go out to meet the invaders, but the king sought to 
restrain them at any rate for the moment. For he 
insisted that as yet they had received no definite 
information as to the invasion, for the Persians were 
still within their own boundaries. So, remaining 
where he was, he busied himself as follows. In 
the plain where the Persians were to make their 
irruption into the land of the Ephthalitae he marked 
off a tract of very great extent and made a deep 
trench of sufficient width ; but in the centre he 
left a small portion of ground intact, enough to serve 
as a way for ten horses. Over the trench he placed 
reeds, and upon the reeds he scattered earth, thereby 
concealing the true surface. He then directed the 
forces of the Huns that, when the time came to 
retire inside the trench, they should draw themselves 
together into a narrow column and pass rather slowly 
across this neck of land, taking care that they should 
not fall into the ditch. 1 And he hung from the top 
of the royal banner the salt over which Perozes had 
once sworn the oath which he had disregarded in 
taking the field against the Huns. Now as long as 
he heard that the enemy were in their own territory, 
he remained at rest ; but when he learned from his 
scouts that they had reached the city of Gorgo 
which lies on the extreme Persian frontier, and that 
departing thence they were now advancing against 
his army, remaining himself with the greater part of 
his troops inside the trench, he sent forward a small 

1 The trench crossed the plain in an approximately straight 
line. The army of the Ephthalitae were drawn up behind it, 
facing the advancing Persians, while a few of them went out 
beyond the trench to draw the attack of the Persians. 

23 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



evavriois ev ra> Tret 
airodev, ofyOevras Se povov elra dva 
orc'iaw, ev f^vrj^rj ra? avrov evro\d<; dfj,<f)l 
rfj Kar(apv%i e%ovras, rjvifca Srj avrfjs 

11 tfcoivTO. ol 8e Kara ravra eiroiovv, /cal e-rrel 

dyyoraTO) eyevovro, 69 0X170^9 cr<f)d<t 
i s 8ie/3r)(rav airavres KOI ra> a\\a> crrp 

12 dvefjiiyvvvTO. ol Se Tlepcrai ^vvelvat rrj<f eTri/3ov\r)<> 

Kara tepdro<; ev TreBiw \lav V 



9 re rrjv rd(j)pov epTreTTTco/cacriv arravres, ov% ol 

13 TT/Jcoroi [LOVOV, d\Xd teal offoi om&dev e'irrovro' 
are <ydp rrjv Sica^iv vv 6vfji& fjb'yd\.(p, KaOdrrep 
eppr)6ri, TTOIOV/ACVOI, &>9 ijKicrra rjcrdovro rov Katcov 

8r) vvrrv%r)Ke ro?9 'ep-rrpoaOev iovcriv, aXX,' 
VTrep aurov9 %i>v rot9 'irrrfoi^ re xal copacriv efi- 
rrerrraiKore^ etceivoix; re, a>9 TO e//co9, ercreivav Kal 

14 avrol ovSev ri rjcrcrov vv8ie(f)0dpi](rav. ev ot9 Kal 
Tlepofys rjv vv rraicrl ro?9 avrov aTraffi. Kal av- 
rov fie\\ovra 9 TO ftdpa6pov rovro ep.rrea'elo'Oai 
fyaaL rov re Seivov rja-0fjcr0ai Kal TO pdpyapov, o 

01 \evKorarov re Kal /j,eye0ov<; vrrepftoXf] evriaov 
e^ <WT09 rov Setfiov aTreKpeaaro, d<j>e\6vra pi^ai, 
OTTQ)<> Sr) atj Tt9 auTo orcicrco (fropoir), eVel d^iodea- 
rov vrrepfyv&s rjv, olov ovTrco Trporepov erepy T&> 
/3acri\i yeyovev, eyu,oi f^ev ov Triard Xeyovres. 

15 ov yap av evravda yevopevos rov KaKov d\\ov 
orovovv 69 <f>povri,8a rjXdev, aXX* ol/iat TO re ou9 
avrfp ev rovrta ^vyKeKotyffai r& TrdOei Kal TO 

16 fjidpyapov orcT] rrore d(f>avio-0r)vai. orrep o 'Pco- 
fAaicov /SacrtXei/9 TOT TrpiacrQat, 7rpo<? rwv 'E><f>0a- 
\irwv ev cnrovSfj Troirjcrduevos TjKMrra ic 

24 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. iv. ro-:6 

detachment with instructions to allow themselves to 
be seen at a distance by the enemy in the plain, and, 
when once they had been seen, to flee at full speed to 
the rear, keeping in mind his command concerning the 
trench as soon as they drew near to it. They did as 
directed, and, as they approached the trench, they drew 
themselves into a narrow column, and all passed over 
and joined the rest of the army. But the Persians, 
having no means of perceiving the stratagem, gave 
chase at full speed across a very level plain, possessed 
as they were by a spirit of fury against the enemy, 
and fell into the trench, every man of them, not alone 
the first but also those who followed in the rear. For 
since they entered into the pursuit with great fury, as I 
have said, they failed to notice the catastrophe which 
had befallen their leaders, but fell in on top of them 
with their horses and lances, so that, as was natural, 
they both destroyed them, and were themselves no 
less involved in ruin. Among them were Perozes 
and all his sons. And just as he was about to fall 
into this pit, they say that he realized the danger, 
and seized and threw from him the pearl which hung 
from his right ear, a gem of wonderful whiteness 
and greatly prized on account of its extraordinary 
size in order, no doubt, that no one might wear it 
after him ; for it was a thing exceedingly beautiful to 
look upon, such as no king before him had possessed. 
This story, however, seems to me untrustworthy, 
because a man who found himself in such peril 
would have thought of nothing else ; but I suppose 
that his ear was crushed in this disaster, and the 
pearl disappeared somewhere or other. This pearl 
the Roman Emperor then made every effort to buy 
from the Ephthalitae, but was utterly unsuccessful. 

25 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

ov yap avro evpecrdat ol ftdp/Sapoi el-ypv, Kairrep 
rrbvw TToXXw rrjv ^r^criv TTOirjcrdfAevoi. <j>ao-l 
'E</>#aX</ra? evpo/Aevovs avro vcrrepov rq> 



17 "Ocra Be dfA<f>l rq> papyapw rovra) TLepcrai 
\eyovo~iv elrrelv aiov to-a)9 yap av TO ical ov 

18 TravraTracriv a7riaro<f 6 \6yos Bo^eiev elvai. Xe- 
yovaiv ovv Hepcrat elvai pev ev TW tcrevl TO 
fj,dpyapov rovro ev 6a\dGcrr) r) ev Hepcrais etrrt, 
v^ea-dai Be rov Kreva Tijs Tavrrj r/iovos ov fro\\y 
aTTodev dvewyevat, re avrov a/j,<f)(i) ra OGTpa/ca, &v 
Brj Kara fjueaov TO pdpyapov ela-rijKei 6eap,a \6yov 
TToXXoO aiov. aXXo yap avr& etKacrOrjvat ovBa- 
[Arj ea-^ev ovre T&> /jueyeBei OVTC T&> Kd\\ei etc rov 

19 Travrbs %povov. icvva Be Qakaacriov vrrepfyva re 
teal Beiva><f aypiov epacrrrjv rov 0ed/j,aro$ rovrov 
yevopevov errecrdat tear" i^vo 1 ; avrw, ovre vvicra 
dvievra ovre r/fj,epav, a\Xa KOI rjvi/ca rpocf)ij<; 
7rijjie\eicrdat dvayKacrffeir), evravda /j,ev n Trepi- 
cncorrelaOai. rwv eBcoBi/jiwv, eupovra Be ri real 
dve\6fAVov eadieiv /j,ev ori rd^icrra, tcara\a- 
ftovra Be avri/ca Brj /j,d\a rov /creva dedfAaro*; 

20 avdis rov epwfJievov efjirrLrc\acrdai. /cat TTOTS rcov 
rwa ypnrecav <f>a<rl ra /j,ev Troiov/jueva efriBetv, 
arroBeikidaavra Be TO Orjpiov arroKvrja-ai rov 
tcivBvvov, 9 Te rov ftacriXea Tlepo^rjv arravra rov 

21 \6yov dveveyicelv. a Brj rq> flepo^rj aicovo~avri 
rroOov (fiacrl rov /j,apydpov yevecrdai f^eyav, TTO\- 
Xat? re arc avrov dcoTreiais rov acrTraXtea rovrov 

22 KOI ayadwv e\rrlcn,v errapai. ov Br) dvrireiveiv 
atrovfievw Becnrorr) OVK e^ovra \eyovcri rdBe rat 
TLepo^y elrrelv " *il Becnrora, rroOeiva fj.ev av- 
26 






HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. iv. 16-22 

For the barbarians were not able to find it although 
they sought it with great labour. However, they say 
that the Ephthalitae found it later and sold it to 
Cabades. 

The story of this pearl, as told by the Persians, is 
worth recounting, for perhaps to some it may not 
seem altogether incredible. For they say that it 
was lodged in its oyster in the sea which washes the 
Persian coast, and that the oyster was swimming not 
far from the shore ; both its valves were standing 
open and the pearl lay between them, a wonderful 
sight and notable, for no pearl in all history could be 
compared with it at all, either in size or in beauty. A 
shark, then, of enormous size and dreadful fierceness, 
fell in love with this sight and followed close upon 
it, leaving it neither day nor night ; even when he 
was compelled to take thought for food, he would 
only look about for something eatable where he was, 
and when he found some bit, he would snatch it 
up and eat it hurriedly ; then overtaking the oyster 
immediately, he would sate himself again with the 
sight he loved. At length a fisherman, they say, 
noticed what was passing, but in terror of the 
monster he recoiled from the danger ; however, he 
reported the whole matter to the king, Perozes. 
Now when Perozes heard his account, they say that 
a great longing for the pearl came over him, and he 
urged on this fisherman with many flatteries and 
hopes of reward. Unable to resist the importunities 
of the monarch, he is said to have addressed Perozes 
as follows : " My master, precious to a man is money, 

27 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESARKA 

prjiJLara, Trodeivorepa e 77 "^v^ij, rrdvrwv 

23 fievroi d^iatrara reKva. a>v 8rj rfj a-ropyfj dvayica- 
o~6el<> <f)vcret laws av T49 Kai rrdvra roXftrjcreiev. 
eyat roivvv rov re drjpiov aTTOTreipdcrecrdai KOI rov 

24 aapydpov ere Kvptov Q^aeaQai e\7ri8a e^w. KOI 
f)v fj>ev fcparr)(rco rov dywvos TOVTOV, ev&rjXov &><? 
ev rot? Ka\ovfjvoi<; 6X/3tot9 TO evOevSe rera^o/juti. 
ere re yap rcaa-iv dya&oi<s yite Sa>pr)crecrdai are 
/3a<n\ea)v ySacrtXea ovbev direiKo^, Kal e/iol arco- 
^prjcret,, Kdlrrep ovSev, av ovra) rv%ot, Ke/cofj,icrf^- 
vq>, TO Becnrorov evepyerrjv rov^ejLOv yeyevfjcrdai. 

25 el Se e/ie 8el rw dypio) rovra) d\5)vai, aov 8rj 
epyov ecrrat, 3) /SacriXev, rovs TratSa? TOU? efj,ov<; 

26 davdrov rov rrarpwov d[i,efyaa-0ai. ovrco yap 
eyw ftev KOI rere\evrrjKO}<; ev TO?? dvayKaiordrois 
e/x/ito-^o? ecro^ai, crv Be dperf)<; B6av drrol(rr) 
fjLei^co. ra TraiBia yap co<pe\a)V ev Tronja-eis e'/xe 
o<T7rep (rot rfjs evepyeaias rrjv ^dpiv ovBapfj 
eta-ofjiai. avrt] yap av evyvwfjLOcrvvrj a/ctySS^Xo? 
yevoiro /JLOVI) r) 69 T0t? drroOavovras 7rtBei^0ei(ra" 

27 rocravra eiTroov dTrr]\\dcra'ero. Kal eTrel e? rov 
'X&pov d(f)iKero 'iva Brj o re icrels vifyeadai Kal 6 
Kvcav avrat eWicrro errecrdai, evravOa erri rcerpas 
eKdOrjro rivos, KaipofyvKaKwv eif 7r<w9 epr^iov re ore 

28 TO fjbdpyapov rov epacrrov \d/3oi. ejreiBrj Be ra> 
Kvvl rd%i<rra r&v rivi 9 rrji> Qoivt]v ol eTrirrjBeiws 

eyovrwv evrervvrjKevai tvverrea-e Kal rcepl rovro 

s o\ " ' ^ v > v > 'A v 

otarpiprjv e%iv, arroXircatv em, rrjs aKrrjs o aA.iei/9 

TOU9 ol eTTi ravry Br) eTTOfAevovs rfj inrovpyia evdv 
rov Krevos <nrov8fj 7ro\\fj yet, Kal avrov ijBr) 
Xay8o/xei/09 eco yevecrOai Kara rdyos rjrreiyero. 

29 ov 8r) 6 KVWV alcrOofievos eftorjdei, evravOa. I8d)v 
28 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. iv. 22-29 

more precious still is his life, but most prized of all 
are his children ; and being naturally constrained by 
his love for them a man might perhaps dare any- 
thing. Now I intend to make trial of the monster, 
and hope to make thee master of the pearl. And if 
I succeed in this struggle, it is plain that henceforth I 
shall be ranked among those who are counted blessed. 
For it is not unlikely that thou, as King of Kings, 
wilt reward me with all good things ; and for me it 
will be sufficient, even if it so fall out that I gain no 
reward, to have shown myself a benefactor of my 
master. But if it must needs be that I become the 
prey of this monster, thy task indeed it will be, O 
King, to requite my children for their father's death. 
Thus even after my death I shall still be a wage- 
earner among those closest to me, and thou wilt win 
greater fame for thy goodness, for in helping my 
children thou wilt confer a boon upon me, who shall 
have no power to thank thee for the benefit 
because generosity is seen to be without alloy only 
when it is displayed towards the dead." With these 
words he departed. And when he came to the place 
where the oyster was accustomed to swim and the 
shark to follow, he seated himself there upon a rock, 
watching for an opportunity of catching the pearl 
alone without its admirer. As soon as it came about 
that the shark had happened upon something which 
would serve him for food, and was delaying over it, 
the fisherman left upon the beach those who were 
following him for this service, and made straight for 
the oyster with all his might ; already he had seized 
it and was hastening with all speed to get out of the 
water, when the shark noticed him and rushed to 
the rescue. The fisherman saw him coming, and, 

29 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



re avTov (TayrjvevTis, eet 

Tr?9 rjiovos ov paKpav e/ieXAe, TO pev 

rjKOVTKTev 69 Trjv yrjv SvvdfjLei rfj Trdcrr), auT09 8e 

30 aAou9 8t(f)0dpi] ov TroXXw vcrrepov. dve\6/JLevoi 
&e TO fidpyapov 01 7rl TT}? d/crr)? XeAe4/iyu,ei>ot r& 
re ftacrikel aTreKOfJucrav KOI TO, ^vveve^Oevra 

31 iravra eanjyyeihav. ra JJLCV ovv dfj.(f)l T& /j.apjd- 
po) rovro) rfjSe, yirep epp>]6rj, Tiepcrai gweveydfj- 
val <f)a<Tiv. eyo> Be enl TOV Trporepov \o<yov 



32 Oi/Tft) [lev Hepo&s re 8i(f>0dpij teal 
f) Tlepawv cn-pand. el <ydp rts OVK ey 
e? rrjv 8ict)pw%a erv^ev, 6&e VTTO rwv 

33 Tat9. X e P cr ^ T^yo^e. KOI air avrov 1/0/409 
Ile/ocrat? fir] TTOTC cr<^>a9 ev <yfi TroXe/zta 

Biwgiv Troielcrdai ru>a, rjv teal Kara tcpdros TOU9 

34 evavTLOVs crfyicn rpaTrijvai ^v^ait], oaoi /j,evroi 
Tlepo^Tj ov vcrTpaTvcravT<; ev %<w/5a T^ avrwv 
fMivav, ovTot &r) /3ao~i\ea a<f>t.o~i Ka/3dSr]v eiXov- 
ro TOV vewrarov Hepo^ov vlov, o<nrep TijviKavra 

35 irepirjv /AOVO?. TOTe Srj 'E</>$aXtTat9 fcar^icooi 9 
<f)6pov d7ra<y(i)<yr)v <yevovro Tiepcrai, ea>9 Kay8a779 
Trjv dp%r)V la-^vporaTa /cparwdfjievos <f)6pov av- 
Tot9 airofyepeiv TOV eTreTeiov OVKCTI rj^iov. rjpav 
8e Tlepo-wv ol /3dp/3apoi OVTOI eviavTovs Svo. 



1 MeTO. 8e K.af3d8r)<$ eVt TO fttaioTepov Trj 

d\\a TC veo)Tepa 69 TTJV 
KOI voftov eypcnjrev eTrl Koivd Tt9 yvvai^l 
Tlepcra*;' oirep TO 7T\ijdo<f ov8ajj,rj r)pe- 



3 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. iv. 29 -v. i 

when he was about to be overtaken not far from the 
beach, he hurled his booty with all his force upon 
the land, and was himself soon afterwards seized and 
destroyed. But the men who had been left upon 
the beach picked up the pearl, and, conveying it to 
the king, reported all that had happened. Such, 
then, is the story which the Persians relate, just as I 
have set it down, concerning this pearl. But I shall 
return to the previous narrative. 

Thus Perozes was destroyed and the whole Persian 484 A.D. 
army with him. For the few who by chance did not 
fall into the ditch found themselves at the mercy of 
the enemy. As a result of this experience a law was 
established among the Persians that, while marching 
in hostile territory, they should never engage in any 
persuit, even if it should happen that the enemy had 
been driven back by foi'ce. Thereupon those who 
had not marched with Perozes and had remained in 
their own land chose as their king Cabades, the 
youngest son of Perozes, who was then the only one 
surviving. At that time, then, the Persians became 
subject and tributary to the Ephthalitae, until 
Cabades had established his power most securely and 
no longer deemed it necessary to pay the annual 
tribute to them. And the time these barbarians 
ruled over the Persians was two years. 



V 

BUT as time went on Cabades became more high- 
handed in the administration of the government, and 
introduced innovations into the constitution, among 
which was a law which he promulgated providing 

3* 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

atce. Sio 8rj avrw eTravacrrdvres irape\vadv re 

2 T??9 dpxfjs KOL 8ij<ravre<> ev <f)v\a,tcfj el-^ov. fcal 
j3a<Ti\ea p-ev afyicn BXdcnyv rov Hepo^ov d8e\<f)bv 
i\ovro, e7rei8rj l 701/09 /j,ev ov&els en apprfV 
Hepofy, wcrirep eppr/ffr), e'X-eXetTrro, Hepa-ais 8e 
ov Oe/jii^ av&pa 9 rrjv f3aai\elav KaOicrraaOai 
iSiwrrjv 761/09, OTL fir) e^irfaov iravrivnaai yevovs 

3 rov /3acn\eiov oi/T09 - BXao-779 Be rrjv /3a(ri\eiav 
Trapa\aft(av TLepawv re roi/9 dpiarovs vi>e\ej; 
Kal ra dfjL(j)l r& KaySaS?; ev ftov\,f] eiroieiro' TOV 
yap avdpcoTrov aTroKTivvvvai OVK f)i{j3ov\ofAvois 

4 Tot9 7r\eiocriv. evda Brj 7ro\\al fiev \e-)(0 1 l (rav 
yvwfiat e^>' e/cdrepa (frepovcrai, irape\dmv 8e r&v 
Tt9 ev Tlepaais \o<yi/j,a)v, ovofia /j,ev Yovcrava- 
(TrdS'rjs, %avapdyyr)<; Se TO a^tcoyu-a (eirj S' av ev 
IIepcrai9 a-rparrjyo^ rovro 76), 7T/309 avrais TTOV 
rat9 eo-^artat? r^9 Hepcrcov 7779 rrjv 

ev %wpa ^ TOt9 'E<^^aX,trat9 0/40/309 e 
lidyatpav eTTi8ei^a<f y TWI> ovv^wv rd 
Tiepcrat elwOaaiv diroTefjiveadai^ /jbfjicos fiev ocrov 
8aKTv\ov dvftpos, 7ra^o9 8e ov&e rpirrjfMopiov 

5 8aKrv\ou e%ovcrav " Tavrt^v opdre" elire, " rnv 
fjid^aipav, fipaxeiav Travrdiracnv ovcrav avrrj 
pevrot epyov ev r& irapovri ejrireXeiv o'ia re earw, 
OTrep ev icrre 6\iya) varepov, & <f)i\,raroi TLepcrai, 
fjivpidSes Svo redcopaKLff^evwv dvSp&v e^epyd- 

6 ^ecrdai OVK av Svvatvro" 6 /jbev ravra etTre, Trapa- 
8r)\S)v f09, f)V /J,r) K.a{3dSrjv dveXaxrti', avri/ca 

7 TT pay [ten a Tlepcrats Trepicbv Trape^ei. ol 8e Kreivai 
dv8pa rov ftao-iXeiov diparos oi8' o\&>9 3 eyvwcrav, 



1 tweiS)i Dindorf : <?7rel 8e VP, f'irel G. 

2 a.iroTf[i.t>ffOai : airoKdirrciv G. 

s ou5" SA.COS V : ov$afj.a>s G, ov$6\tas P. 

3 2 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. v. 1-7 

that Persians should have communal intercourse with 
their women, a measure which by no means pleased 
the common people. Accordingly they rose against 486 A.D. 
him, removed him from the throne, and kept him in 
prison in chains. They then chose Biases, the brother 
of Perozes, to be their king, since, as has been said, 
no male offspring of Perozes was left, and it is not 
lawful among the Persians for any man by birth a 
common citizen to be set upon the throne, except in 
case the royal family be totally extinct. Biases, upon 
receiving the royal power, gathered together the 
nobles of the Persians and held a conference con- 
cerning Cabades ; for it was not the wish of the 
majority to put the man to death. After the ex- 
pression of many opinions on both sides there came 
forward a certain man of repute among the Persians, 
whose name was Gousanastades, and whose office 
that of " chanaranges " (which would be the Persian 
term for general) ; his official province lay on the very 
frontier of the Persian territory in a district which 
adjoins the land of the Ephthalitae. Holding up his 
knife, the kind with which the Persians were accus- 
tomed to trim their nails, of about the length of a 
man's finger, but not one-third as wide as a finger, 
he said : " You see this knife, how extremely small 
it is ; nevertheless it is able at the present time to 
accomplish a deed, which, be assured, my dear 
Persians, a little later two myriads of mail-clad men 
could not bring to pass." This he said hinting that, 
if they did not put Cabades to death, he would 
straightway make trouble for the Persians. But 
they were altogether unwilling to put to death a 
man of the royal blood, and decided to confine him 



33 

VOL. I. D 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

aXX' ev (f>povpi(i) /cadeip^ai OTrep T?}? AijOrjs tca\iv 

8 vevo/MKaa-iv. rjv yap Tt9 evravQa e/z/3X?7#el9 rv^rj, 
ov/cert, 6 I/6//.O9 e<pitj(rt p,vrj^t]v avrov elvai, aXXa 
0dvaro<> TO) a)vo/jLa/c6rt, 77 fyfiia ecrri' Bio Brj ical 
rrjv eTTcovvfAiav ravr^v Trpo? Tlepcrwv eXa^ev. 

9 anal; Se 77 rwv 'Ap/jieviwv ieropia <^r)<rl vopov 
TOV afjifyl rw Arj6r)<s (j)povpiq> Trapa\e\vcr6ai 
Svva/jLiv Tlepcrais rpoTrw roiwSe. 

10 TloXe/i09 Trore Tlepcrais re teal 'Apfj,evioi<; 
PVKTOS yeyovev els Bvo teal rpid/covra errj e-jn 
Haxovpiov fjiev Tlepcrwv /3aa~i\evovTO<>, 'Apftevicov 
Be 'Apad/cov 'Apcra/aSof dvBpos. TOVTO) re TW 
7roXe/i&) /jLijtcvvo/Jieixj) KeicaKUHfOai fjiev e? ayav 
dfj,<j>OTepov<; gwefirj /cal BiatyepovTO)*; 1 roi9 'A/9- 
11 iievlovs. arma-ria Be 7ro\\f) e? dXX^Xo^ exoftevot 
eTrt/crjpvKevecrdai, Trapa TOU? evavrlovs ovBerepoi 
el^ov. ev rouTft) Be Tlepcras rerv^Ke 7r6\e/jiov 
7T/9O9 aXXoi/9 /3a/o/8apoi9 rivas ov Troppw ^\p^evLu>v 

12 rpKr)fj,evov<; Bieveyfceiv. o'i re 'Ap/xevtoi ev cnrov&fi 
e^oi/T69 eiriBei^iv 9 Ilepcras rfc 9 aurou9 evvoias 
re /cal elprfwrjs jrottjcraa-dai, ea-/3a\eiv 69 rovrwv 
Brj rmv fiapfidpwv rrjv yfjv eyvaxrav, &-r]\(aaavrs 

13 rovro Trporepov Tlepaais. aTrpocrBoK^roi re avrol 
67rt7T6crovTe9 a^eBov ri airavra^ rjfitjBbv e/creivav. 
6 re Tla/covpios ro?9 TreTrpay/Aevois VTreprja-Beis, 
Tre/Jbtyas irapa rbv 'ApaaKrjv rwv 01 eTrir^Bet'wv 
nva? rd re Tricrrd ol rcapaar^o^vo^ rbv dvdpwrroi' 

14 /iereTre/i^aTO. Kol errel reap avrov 'A/?cra:?;9 d<pi- 
Kero, r^9 re aX\,rj<i avrbv <fyi\.ocf)poai>vris rj^iwae 

15 /cal are d8e\<f>bv ejrl rf) eery /cal opo'ia eV^e. /cal 
rore fjiev opicoi<; Beivordrois rov re 

2 A l Ka\ 8ia<t>fp6vT(iis : SicKpepdvrus 8e G. 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. v. 7-15 

in a castle which it is their habit to call the " Prison 
of Oblivion." For if anyone is cast into it, the law 
permits no mention of him to be made thereafter, 
but death is the penalty for the man who speaks his 
name ; for this reason it has received this title among 
the Persians. On one occasion, however, the History 
of the Armenians relates that the operation of the 
law regarding the Prison of Oblivion was suspended 
by the Persians in the following way. 

There was once a truceless war, lasting two and 
thirty years, between the Persians and the Armenians, 
when Pacurius was king of the Persians, and of 
the Armenians, Arsaces, of the line of the Arsacidae. 
And by the long continuance -of this war it came about 
that both sides suffered beyond measure, and especially 
the Armenians. But each nation was possessed by 
such great distrust of the other that neither of them 
could make overtures of peace to their opponents. 
In the meantime it happened that the Persians 
became engaged in a war with certain other barbarians 
who lived not far from the Armenians. Accordingly 
the Armenians, in their eagerness to make a display 
to the Persians of their goodwill and desire for peace, 
decided to invade the land of these barbarians, first 
revealing their plan to the Persians. Then they fell 
upon them unexpectedly and killed almost the whole 
population, old and young alike. Thereupon Pacurius, 
who was overjoyed at the deed, sent certain of his 
trusted friends to Arsaces, and giving him pledges 
of security, invited him to his presence.. And when 
Arsaces came to him he showed him every kind- 
ness, and treated him as a brother on an equal 
footing with himself. Then he bound him by the 
most solemn oaths, and he himself swore likewise, 

35 
D 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Kara\a/3ci)v Kal avrbs ovBev rt rJGcrov 6/i&>/u,o:&)9 
77 fjirjv evvovs re Kal ^v^a^ov^ Tlepo~a$ re TO 
\onrbv Kal 'Ap/j,eviov<; a\\r}\ois elvai, avrixa Brj 
avrov e? ra rrdrpia ijdrj d<f)i]Kev levai. 

16 Xpofft) Be ov TTO\\W verepov Si/3a\ov rov 
'ApaaKrjv rives <w? Brj Trpdypaai vemrepois ey^ei- 
pelv /3ov\oiro. olcnrep avarreiadels 6 TlaKOvpios 
avOis avrov fj,erTrfj,7rero, vTrenrotv ori 8rj avrw 
n Koivo\o<yeia-@at vrrep rwv o\wv eTTi/ieXe? etrj. 

17 Kal 09 ov&ev n fjLe\\^(ra<; e? 1 avrov rf\dev, a\Xoi/9 
re rwv ev 'Ap/meviots jjba^i^wrdrwv eTra^o^evo^ Kal 
JSaarcriKiov ocrirep avrw arparr] f y6s re Kal ^vfjiftov- 
Xo? r)v dv8pia<$ re yap Kal ^vveffeax; ejrl 7r\elcrrov 

18 oufrtKro. evdvs ovv 6 TlaKovptos a/j,(J>(i), rov re 'Ap- 
craKrjv Kal ISacraiKiov, TroXXa oveiSi^wv eKaKi^ev, 
el ra 6fAa>fjLO(rfj,eva 77X0777 /core ovrw 8rj raster a C9 
aTTocrraaiv iSotev. oi Be cnrripvovvTo re Kal aTru>- 
fj,vvov evBe^xearara prjBev crfylcriv avrois /3e/3ou- 

19 \eiHrOai roiovro. ra fjuev ovv Trpwra o HaKovpios 
aurovs ev drif^ia etyvkaacrfv, eireira Be rwv f^dywv 

20 dverrvvOdvero o ri ol Troirjrea 9 avrovs e'lr/. oi 
Be /j,d<yoi rwv pev dpvovpAvwv Kal ov BiappijBrjv 
e\ri\,e<yiJiev(i)V KarayivcoaKeiv ovSafirj eBiKaiovv, 
vTroffrJK'rjv Be avrw riva effipafav, O7ro)9 av 'Apo~d- 
^779 avro9 avriKpvs avrov Karrjyopeiv 

21 ^otro. TO yap r/}9 /3ao-i\iKr)$ o-Krjvrjs e' 
Ka\v7rreiv Ke\evov, rj/j,i<rv pev CK T7/9 
%(t)pa<;, ddre'pov Be fjfjiio-v etc rf)? 'A.p/j,evia<;. Kal 6 

22 /SacrtXeik Kara ravra erro'iei. rore Br) ol /j,dyoi 
rrjv o-Ktjvrjv o\t]v payetais rial Kara\a/36vres 

1 esVP: ^' G. 
36 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. v. 15-22 

that in very truth the Persians and Armenians should 
thenceforth be friends and allies to each other ; 
thereafter he straightway dismissed Arsaces to 
return to his own country. 

Not long after this certain persons slandered 
Arsaces, saying that he was purposing to undertake 
some seditious enterprise. Pacurius was persuaded 
by these men and again summoned him, intimating 
that he was anxious to confer with him on general 
matters. And he, without any hesitation at all, came 
to the king, taking with him several of the most 
wai-like among the Armenians, and among them 
Bassicius, who was at once his general and counsellor ; 
for he was both brave and sagacious to a remarkable 
degree. Straightway, then, Pacurius heaped reproach 
and abuse upon both Arsaces and Bassicius, because, 
disregarding the sworn compact, they had so speedily 
turned their thoughts toward secession. They, how- 
ever, denied the charge, and swore most insistently 
that no such thing had been considered by them. 
At first, therefore, Pacurius kept them under guard 
in disgrace, but after a time he enquired of the Magi 
what should be done with them. Now the Magi 
deemed it by no means just to condemn men who 
denied their guilt and had not been explicitly found 
guilty, but they suggested to him an artifice by which 
Arsaces himself might be compelled to become 
openly his own accuser. They bade him cover the 
floor of the royal tent with earth, one half from the 
land of Persia, and the other half from Armenia. 
This the king did as directed. Then the Magi, after 
putting the whole tent under a spell by means of 
some magic rites, bade the king take his walk there 



37 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Ke\evov rbv /SacrtXeo. vv rw 'Apcrd/cy Toi>9 rrepi- 
Trdrovs fvravda TroieiaOai, emica\ovvra roi9 re 

23 %vyKiuevoL<? Kal o(j,a)fj.ocr/jLevoi<> \vpr)vaa6ai. Betv 
Be Kal avrovs r& Bia\6ya) Trapayevecrdai. ovrco 
'yap av rwv \6ywv [idprvpes airdvrwv elev. avrlica 
r/ovv o Tla/covpios rbv ^Apad/crjv fJieraTrefju^dfjievo^ 
SmvXof? ev rfj cr/cr/vy i;i>v avry eTroielro, Trapovrcov 
(7(j)L(Tiv evravda TWV jjudywv, Kal dveTrvvOdvero TOV 

orov 77 eveva TO, 6[A<a/j,ocrfj,eva 77X0777- 
lepa-as re Kal 'Ap/iertoi'9 avOis rpi/3eiv 

24 dvr)KecrTOi<; #a#ot9 ey^eipoitj' o 8e 'Apo - a/c7;9, e&)9 
fjiev ev T&) %<w/ow ol \6yoi eyivovro ov Sr) o %ou9 
K 7^9 T^9 TLepcriSos 7reKiro, dTnjpvetTO re Kal 
op/cot9 rot9 &et,vordroi<> marov^evo^ avSpdrroSov 

2o lo"^vpi^ero elvai HaKovpiov mcrrov errei^rj 8e 
/j,eraj;v \eywv e9 T% crKijvfis TO peaov d<j)iKro, f (va 
Sr) Korrpov rrjs 'A/jyaevta9 erreftrjcrav, evravda OVK 
olSa orw dvayKaadels \6yovs fiev rovrovs eVt TO 
dpacrvrepov e^amvaiws fjieraftiftd^ei, drreiXwv 8e 
r& re TlaKovpira Kal TLepcrai? ovKeri dviei, aXXa 
rLcraadai avrovs eTrrjyyeXXero v/3pew<? rfjcrSe errei- 

26 Bav awT09 avrov rd^icrra Kvpios yevoiro. Kal 
ravra \eytav re Kal veaviev6fj,evo$ erroielTo rbv 
rreplrrarov o\ov, ea><> dvaa-rpe-^ras e<$ Korrpov av0i<? 
rr)v K 77^9 T7?9 Il6po-to9 d<pLKero. evravda yap 
Trd\iv warrep nva rrdXivwblav aBo)V iKerrjf re rjv 
Kal oiKrpovs nvas rw TiaKOVpiy rrpovfyepe \6yovs. 

27 evrei Be e9 %ovv avOis rbv l 'A.pp,eviwv rjXdev, e9 

aTre^wp^cre. KOI 7roXXa/a9 ovrco 
e</>' eKarepa eKpv^re rwv ol drrop- 

28 prfrwv ovBev. rare Br; ol /Jiev /j,dyoi Kareyvatcrav 

1 rbv Dindorf : rS>v MSS. 

38 






HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. v. 22-28 

in company with Arsaces, reproaching him meanwhile 
with having violated the sworn^ agreement. They 
said, further, that they too must be present at the 
conversation, for in this way there would be witnesses 
of all that was said. Accordingly Pacurius straight- 
way summoned Arsaces, and began to walk to and 
fro with him in the tent in the presence of the Magi ; 
he enquired of the man why he had disregarded his 
sworn promises, and was setting about to harass the 
Persians and Armenians once more with grievous 
troubles. Now as long as the conversation took 
place on the ground which was covered with the 
earth from the land of Persia, Arsaces continued to 
make denial, and, pledging himself with the most 
fearful oaths, insisted that he was a faithful subject 
of Pacurius. But when, in the midst of his speaking, 
he came to the centre of the tent where they stepped 
upon Armenian earth, then, compelled by some 
unknown power, he suddenly changed the tone of 
his words to one of defiance, and* from then on 
ceased not to threaten Pacurius and the Persians, 
announcing that he would have vengeance upon 
them for this insolence as soon as he should become 
his own master. These words of youthful folly he 
continued to utter as they walked all the way, 
until turning back, he came again to the earth 
from the Persian land. Thereupon, as if chanting a 
recantation, he was once more a suppliant, offering 
pitiable explanations to Pacurius. But when he 
came again to the Armenian earth, he returned to 
his threats. In this way he changed many times to 
one side and the other, and concealed none of his 
secrets. Then at length the Magi passed judgment 



39 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



rea rot>9 opicovs 

Kevai. Ha/covpios Be Baacrt/aoi; fjuev TO Beppa 
der/cov re avrb TreTro/^/xei'o? :a d^vpwv 
o\ov drfeKpefiacrev errl BevBpov rivbs 

29 v^lnjXov \lav. rbv /Aevroi 'Apa'drc'rjv (dTrotcreivat 
yap avSpa rov ftaaiX-eiov ai/iaro? 6Wa ovBafirj 
el^ev} ev TW T?}9 Aij6r)<? (frpovpia) Kadelp^e. 

30 ' X/ooj/o) Se varepov ra>v ri? 'Apfjbeviwv r& re 
'Apcrtitcr) ev rot? /iaXicrra eTTLTq^eLwv Kai ol TTI- 
(nroi^evwv l 9 ra Hep&wv r)6r\ IOVTI, Hepcrais e?rt 
ri edvos lovcrt ftap/Sapivov j-vvea-Tpdrevaev o? 8rj 
dvijp re dyaflbs ev rq> rcovw rovry, opwvros 
Haxovpiov ra iroLov^eva, yeyove Kal T^? viicr)*? 

31 alritoraros TLepcrais. 810 Brj avrov o Tla/covpios 

ri av /3ov\oiro alreiaOai r/^tov, lcr'%vpi.<rdfjbvo<i 

32 on 8r) ovBevbs TT/JO? avrov drv%ijcrei. 6 Be aXXo 

01 ovBev yevecrOai rj^Lov rj ware rov 'Apffdicrjv ev 

33 r)fj,epa /Ma OepaTrevaai rj ftov\oiro. rovro rov 
/SacrtXea rjvLdcre /j,ev e? ra fidXicrra, el \veiv 
v6fj.ov ovrw Brj 7ra\aibv dvaytcd^oiro, 2 oVtw? /jievroi 
Travrdiraa-iv dXrjdifyrai, ^vve^capet rrjv Berja-iv 

34 eTrire'X.fj yevea-Qat,. eTrel Be ySatrtXew? e7ray<yeL\av- 
T09 fye<yovev ev r& TT}? A ^^9 (frpovpitp, r/(nrdaaro 
fiev rbv 'Apcrdfcyv, a<j)fj,Q) Be dXXfaoiv jrept- 
/3a\6vre eOprjvrja-drrjv re r/Bvv riva Opfjvov Kal 



rrjv Trapovaav rv^rjv /iot9 art 
Bt,a\vetv ra9 avrov 



35 eo")(ev. ercel Be rwv oBvpfi&v 69 Kopov 

eTravcravro, e\ovcre p,ev o 'Apfjuevios rbv 'Apo~drcr)v 



1 eviffvo/j.fvcav : firia"jrw/j.evos V, tirtffirdfifvos P. 

2 avayicdfriTo G pr. m. : avayKafarat VG corr. , a 
rai P. 



40 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. v. 28-35 

against him as having violated the treaty and the 
oaths. Pacurius flayed Bassicius, and, making a bag 
of his skin, filled it with chaff and suspended it from 
a lofty tree. As for Arsaces, since Pacurius could by 
no means bring himself to kill a man of the royal 
blood, he confined him in the Prison of Oblivion. 

After a time, when the Persians were marching 
against a barbarian nation, they were accompanied by 
an Armenian who had been especially intimate with 
Arsaces and had followed him when he went into the 
Persian land. This man proved himself a capable 
warrior in this campaign, as Pacurius observed, and 
was the chief cause of the Persian victory. For this 
reason Pacurius begged him to make any request he 
wished, assuring him that he would be refused nothing 
by him. The Annenian asked for nothing else than 
that he might for one day pay homage to Arsaces in 
the way he might desire. Now it annoyed the king 
exceedingly, that he should be compelled to set aside 
a law so ancient ; however, in order to be wholly true 
to his word, he permitted that the request be granted. 
When the man found himself by the king's order in 
the Prison of Oblivion, he greeted Arsaces, and both 
men, embracing each other, joined their voices in a 
sweet lament, and, bewailing the hard fate that was 
upon them, were able only with difficulty to release 
each other from the embrace. Then, when they had 
sated themselves with weeping and ceased from 
tears, the Armenian bathed Arsaces, and completely 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



Kal raXXa OVK aTT^/ieX^/ieVtw? e'/f 007-1/7 ere, 

8e avrS> Trepidefievos TO fiaaiXeiov eirl crn/Saoo? 1 

36 dvK\ivev. evravdd re rot"? Trapovras 'Apcra/r>79 

37 /3aat\iK(i)<; eio~ria yirep elwOei ra Trporepa. ev 
ravrrj rfj Ooivy TroXXot /j,ev 7rl KV\IKI 2 \6<yot, 

o'iirep TOV \\pa-dfcr)v iKavws r/pe<ricov, 
a Se a\\a e? fiecrov rj\.6ev airep avT& ev 



r)v fj,r)/cvvofjivov re rov Trorov ^pi e? 



vvKra rfj 77/909 d\\r)\ov<s o//tXta v 

(rav, /ioXt? Se d\\ij\a)v d i rrdXK.a^/evre<; Sie\vdr)crav, 

38 tcaraj3/3pe r yfjbvoi rfj evTraOeia. rare &r) 
rov 'Apcrd/cr^v eljrelv a>? r)/j.epav rrjv 

reXecra? ev ravrr) re ^wyyevofjievos r& irodei- 
vordrw avO purrraiv cnravrcov, OVK av ert etcoiv <ye 

39 elvat vTroarair) ra <$>\avpa rov fti'ov, /ecu ravra 
elrrovra fia^aLpa eavrbvSia^eipia'aa-dai^ rjVTrep ev 
rfj Oo'ivrj e^eTrinjSe 1 ? KeK\o(f)0}<; erv%ev, ovrco re 

40 avrbv e^ avOpurjrwv dcj)avi(T0^vai. ra fj,ev ovv 
Kara rovrov Brj rov 'Apa-aKijv f) rwv ' 
(rvyypa<j)ri \eyet ravrrj, yTrep eppijdr), 

Kal rbv v6fj,ov rore dp.<^l rq> rf)<? 
\e\vcrdai. efiol Be oBevTrep e^eftrjv Ireov. 

VI 

1 KaQeipxOevra Be rbv KaftdSriv edepdirevev 77 
yvvrj effiovad * re Trap 1 avrbv Kal rd eTTirijBeia 
^ovcra' r)v 8rj 6 rfjs eipKrf)? dp^wv Treipdv 5 
' rfv yap rrjv o"^nv e? TO. ^aXiara evTrpeTrr^. 

1 fffi&dSos : iroffToSoj G. 2 rl KV\IKI : eiri(cuAi/ciot V. 

:1 SiaxfipiffcurQai VP corr. : Staxeip-fiffaffOai (>, xp^l ffaff ^ al P 
pr. m., SiaxpTlffaadai Hoeschel in marg. 

4 emovffa P : iirtovira VG. 5 treipav : tpav Theophylactus. 
42 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. v. 35-vi. i 

adorned his person, neglecting nothing, and, putting 
on him the royal robe, caused him to recline on a bed 
of rushes. Then Arsaces entertained those present 
with a royal banquet just as was formerly his custom. 
During this feast many speeches were made over the 
cups which greatly pleased Arsaces, and many 
incidents occurred which delighted his heart. The 
drinking was prolonged until nightfall, all feeling the 
keenest delight in their mutual intercourse ; at 
length they parted from each other with great 
reluctance, and separated throughly imbued with 
happiness. Then they tell how Arsaces said that 
after spending the sweetest day of his life, and 
enjoying the company of the man he had missed 
most of all, he would no longer willingly endure 
the miseries of life ; and with these words, they say, 
he dispatched himself with a knife which, as it 
happened, he had purposely stolen at the banquet, 
and thus departed from among men. Such then is 
the story concerning this Arsaces, related in the 
Armenian History just as I have told it, and it was 
on that occasion that the law regarding the Prison 
of Oblivion was set aside. But I must return to 
the point from which I have strayed. 

VI 

WHILE Cabades was in the prison he was cared for 
by his wife, who went in to him constantly and 
carried him supplies of food. Now the keeper of 
the prison began to make advances to hei', for she 
was exceedingly beautiful to look upon. And when 



43 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

2 ojrep eVel 6 Ka/3d8rj<; Trapa T% ywai/cbs 
eKe\ev(rv evBiBovai avrrjv T& avdpca-rro) 6 ri /3ov- 
\oiro ^prjcrOai, ovrw Br) rfj yvvatKi 9 evvrjv 
%vve\6wv 6 ToO (frpovpiov dp^wv rjpdadri re avrf)<; 

3 epwra egaicnov olov, KOI air avTov ^vve^capet 
Trapa rov avSpa ra? ei<roSofS Troielardai, OTTT? av 
avTTj ftov\on,evn elf], /cal avdis evOevSe ttTraXXatr- 
crecrOat, ovSevbs e/ATroSoav Icrra/jLevov. f)v 8e Ti9 
T<OV ev Tlepcrais ^oylfAayv SeocrT/9 ovofj,a, KaftdSy 

4 e9 ra fj,d\icrra ^1X09, 09 d/i^>i TO cfipovpiov rovro 
SiarpifirjV el^e, Kaipo<pv\aK(t)v el 7T&)9 avrbv evSo- 

5 06V 1 e%e\,ecr6ai. Svvtja-erai. Sid T T% "/vvaiKos ru> 
Ka/QaS?7 ecnjuaivev &>9 iTnrot re ol /cat av8pe<? ev 
Trapacrfcevf) Tvy^dvovcnv ovres TOV fypovpiov ov 

6 /Aa/cpav aTrodev, Srj'X.caa'as TI ^wpiov avry, Kal 
Trore Wfcrbs e7ri\a(3ovcr'rjs aveTreicre rrjv yvvaitca 

ev avrw TTJV olicelav Bovvai, ra 



avrov /jL i rre'^ofj,evr}v fj,rta eTrt r?9 epKTrjs avr 
1 avrov KaOrjardai, ovirep eicelvos Ka09]TO. OVTW fj,ev 
ovv Ka/9aS779 dirrj\\dcr(TTO e/c rov SeorfAwrrjpiov. 
KanSovres Be avrbv ol<} rj (f>v\atcr) avrrj erreKeiro 
rrjv yvvatrca VTreroTra&v elvar ravrd rot ovre 
Kto\veiv ovre aA,X&>9 avrbv evox\eiv eyvwcrav. 

8 a/ia re rj/J>epa rrjv yvvaiiea 69 TO Bo)fidriov ev 
rov dvBpbs iftarloK IBovre? Kal fWKpav a 

ftevoi rov d\r)dov<? u>uvro KaftdSrjv evravda elvai. 
rj re ^OK^CTL^ avrrj ev r)/j,epai<; avxyals rj/cfia^ev, 

9 eft)9 KaySa8^9 Troppo) TTOV rfjs 68ov eyeyovei. ra 
fiev ovv d/j,<f>l rfj yvvaifcl ^vveve^devra, errel 9 
</>W9 f] eVt/SofX?; ^X^e, Kal ovriva avrrjv rporrov 



1 tvSodev P : MevSfv ^ T G. 

2 T*. Se V : ri 8' G, avrfy Se T^ P. 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. vi. 2-9 

Cabades learned this from his wife, he bade her give 
herself over to the man -to treat as he wished. In 
this way the keeper of the prison came to be 
familiar with the woman, and he conceived for her 
an extraordinary love, and as a result permitted her 
to go in to her husband just as she wished, and to 
depart from there again without interference from 
anyone. Now there was a Persian notable, Seoses 
by name, a devoted friend of Cabades, who was con- 
stantly in the neighbourhood of this prison, watching 
his opportunity, in the hope that he might in some 
way be able to effect his deliverance. And he sent 
word to Cabades through his wife that he was 
keeping horses and men in readiness not far from 
the prison, and he indicated to him a certain spot. 
Then one day as night drew near Cabades persuaded 
his wife to give him her own garment, and, dressing 
herself in his clothes, to sit instead of him in the 
prison where he usually sat. In this way, therefore, 
Cabades made his escape from the prison. For 
although the guards who were on duty saw him, 
they supposed that it was the woman, and therefore 
decided not to hinder or otherwise annoy him. At 
daybreak they saw in the cell the woman in her 
husband's clothes, and were so completely deceived 
as to think that Cabades was there, and this belief 
prevailed during several days, until Cabades had 
advanced well on his way. As to the fate which 
befell the woman after the stratagem had come to 
light, and the manner in which they punished her, 



45 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

efc6\ao-av, e<? TO d/cpi/3e<> ovtc e^w elrrelv. ov yap 
ofJLo\oyovo-i Hepo-at a\\rj\oi<>' Bio Brj avra \eyeiv 



10 KaftdBr)? Be \adwv arravras vv ry Seotr?; 69 
Qijvvovs TOt/9 'E^^aXtra? a^iKero, /cal avry rr)v 
TratSa yvvalfca 6 j3acri\v<{ <ya/A6Tr)v SiBaxriv, ovrw 
re <TTpdTVfj,a \6yov TroXXoO a^iov are K^eaTr) 

11 67rt Ile/Jcra? ^uyeTre/i^re. TOVT<J) rq> arpara) TLep- 
(rai VTravrtd^eiv ov&afMi} rfdekov, a\\a aXXo? dX\rj 

12 e'<? <f>vyr)v wp/Arjvro. eVet Be 6 Ka/SaSr;? eV T?} 

a eyevero evOa o Tova-avacrTdBr]^ rrjv dp%r)i> 






dvBpa eicelvov, o? az/ auro) Hepawv 
rfj rj^epa e'<? o-^tj/ ^&)i/ vwovpyeiv 

13 /SouXotro. eiTTovrt re ol /Aere/ieXe^ 77877 roO 

, eVel voyu.09 avTOV la-r/ei, 09 ST) ov/t ea Ile/)- 
69 T0i9 dXA-OT/3tof9 Ta9 a^a9 
' ofr 77 Tt/iT; e/cacTTT; Kara yevos 

14 eSeiae yap /AT; Tt9 IKOCTO 9 avrov 7Tpoi)To$ 
TW %avapdyyy ov ^vyyevrjs wv, TOV re VO/JLOV 
dvayfcdr)Tai \veiv 07T(W9 auro9 d\r) 

15 raOra Se ot eV z/w e^ovrt gvveftr) Ti9 TU^ 
/nr; ror vo/jiov drtfjid^ovri d\r)6el elvai. 

<yap 7r/3ftJT09 'ASepyov8ovvj3dSrj<s e? UVTOV rj/cwv, 
veavias dvrjp, vyyevrj<; re &>v rw Tova-avacrrdSrj 

16 /cat SicKfrepovras ayaOos ra rro\e^La. 09 ST; 
SecrTTorrjv re rrpocrelire Ka/SaS^t' /cat /3acrtXea 
rrpoaeKvvrjae irpwrof, eBeiro re ol are BOV\O) o 

17 Tt j3ov\oiro yprjaOai. Ka/SdSrjs ovv ev rot9 
fiacriXeiois ovoevl irovw yevofAevos, eprj/Aov re 

46 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. vi. 9-17 

I am unable to speak with accuracy. For the 
Persian accounts do not agree with each other, and 
for this reason I omit the narration of them. 

Cabades, in company with Seoses, completely 
escaped detection, and reached the Ephthalitae Huns ; 
there the king gave him his daughter in marriage, 
and then, since Cabades was now his son-in-law, he 
put under his command a very formidable army for 
a campaign against the Persians. This army the 
Persians were quite unwilling to encounter, and they 
made haste to flee in every direction. And when 
Cabades reached the territory where Gousanastades 
exercised his authority, he stated to some of his 
friends that he would appoint as chanaranges the first 
man of the Persians who should on that day come 
into his presence and offer his services. But even as 
he said this, he repented his speech, for there came 
to his mind a law of the Persians which ordains that 
offices among the Persians shall not be conferred 
upon others than those to whom each particular 
honour belongs by right of birth. For he feared lest 
someone should come to him first who was not a 
kinsman of the present chanaranges, and that he 
would be compelled to set aside the law in order to 
keep his word. Even as he was considering this 
matter, chance brought it about that, without dis- 
honouring the law, he could still keep his word. 
For the first man who came to him happened to be 
Adergoudounbades, a young man who was a relative 
of Gousanastades and an especially capable warrior. 
He addressed Cabades as " Lord," and was the first 
to do obeisance to him as king, and besought him 
to use him as a slave for any service whatever. So 
Cabades made his way into the royal palace without 

47 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



rwv 

OTTO) Brj OTW Tv<f)\ov<> 01 Hepcrat Trotelv TOU? 
Kafcovpyovs el(*)dao~iv, e\aiov etyovres teal avro 
o>9 /jLaXicrra eov e? roi>9 o(pda\fjiov<; ovri fivovras 
67Ti%6o^Te9, r) Trepovrjv rtva aiSrfpdv TrvpaKTOVvres 
ravTT] re TWV o(f>6a\fj,(*)v TO, eVro? r %plov're<$ ) ical 
TO \onrbv ev <f)v\aKfj el-^ev ap^avra Hepcrwv 

18 eviavrovs ovo, KOI rov ftev TovcravacrTdSrjv 

rov 'A.$ep'yov8ovv/3d8'r)v avr avrov /care- 
evrt T^9 rov -^avapdyyov ap-xfis, rov oe 
dbpaaraodpav cra\dvr)v ev9vs dvetTre. 
&vvara(, Se rovro rov errl appals re ofiov tcai 

19 a~rparLo)rai<i airacriv e^earwra. ravrrjv 6 
rrjv dp%r)V rrpwros re KOL yu,6i/o? ev 

ea")(ev' ovre yap Trporepov ovre varepov nvi 
yeyove" rrjv re /3acri\eiav 6 Ka/SaS^? eteparvvaro 
/cal vv r& dcr(j)a\t $ie<f)v\aj;V. fy yap dy- 
s re teal Spacrrrfptos ovSevbs rjo-arov. 



VII 



varepov ^pr)^,ara ayar;? ra> 
<$>ei\ev, arrep eTrei drronv- 

vvvai ol oi/% oto? re rjv, 'hvaardaiov rov 'P&>- 
/jLaifov avroKpdropa rjrei, ravrd ol Baveiaat ra 
%p7]fjmra' 6 Be tcoivo\oyr)crd[j,vo<; rwv emrr$elu>v 
rio~lv eTTwOdvero ei ye ol ravra Troiyrea elf], 
2 olirep avrov TO o~v/j,/36\aiov iroielo~Qai OVK eiatv, 
d^vfji^opov yap dire^aivov elvai fteftaiorepav 

TO49 7ToXe/it049 ^prf yttttCT IV ol/ClOl<> 9 TOU9 'E^>^a- 

\ira<; rrjv (pi\iav rroirjo-aadai, 069 Br) 69 d\\rj- 
48 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. vi. t 7 -vii. 2 

any trouble, and, taking Biases destitute of de- 
fenders, he put out his eyes, using the method of 
blinding commonly employed by the Persians against 
malefactors, that is, either by heating olive oil and 
pouring it, while boiling fiercely, into the wide-open 
eyes, or by heating in the fire an iron needle, and 
with this pricking the eyeballs. Thereafter Biases 
was kept in confinement, having ruled over the 
Persians two years. Gousanastades was put to death 
and Adergoudounbades was established in his place 
in the office of chanaranges, while Seoses was imme- 
diately proclaimed " adrastadaran salanes," a title 
designating the one set in authority over all magis- 
trates and over the whole army. Seoses was the 
first and only man who held this office in Persia ; for 
it was conferred on no one before or after that time. 
And the kingdom was strengthened by. Cabades and 
guarded securely ; for in shrewdness and activity he 
was surpassed by none. 



VII. 

A LITTLE later Cabades was owing the king of the 
Ephthalitae a sum of money which he was not able 
to pay him, and he therefore requested the Roman 
emperor Anastasius to lend him this money. Where- 
upon Anastasius conferred with some of his friends 
and enquired of them whether this should be done ; 
and they would not permit him to make the loan. 
For, as they pointed out, it was inexpedient to make 
more secure by means of their money the friendship 
between their enemies and the Ephthalitae ; indeed 
it was better for the Romans to disturb their 

49 

VOL. I. K 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



Xof9 ^wyrcpoveiv on fidXicrra <r$icnv apeivov 
3 elvai. Bio Br) KaftdBi)? e alrias ovBefuas e<yv(0 
eVi 'P&>//.aiof9 (rrpareveo-dai. KOI rrpwra fiev 
avrdyye\o<> 'Apfj&viwv ~rfj X^P*? 7T?)X06, KO ^ 
avrfjf ra TroXXa e^ eTTtSpopf)*; \rjicr d/Jievos e? 
TTO\LV ev MecroTTora/Ata tcei/j-evriv ere rov 
v d<f)i/cTO, ^9 Brj ^etyu.<wj/09 &pa e9 Tro\iop- 
/caOicrraro. ' A/AiSijvol Be arrpanwro)V /j,ev, 
are e^ elpr/vr} /cat dyaOots Trpdy^aaiv, ov Trap- 
ovrcav afyicn, KCU aXX&)9 Se cnrapda'Kevoi Travrd- 
Traffiv ovres, o/i&)9 rot9 7roXe/Atot9 ft>9 tfrctcna 
jrpOG'Xtopelv r)0e\ov, d\\a rot9 re 
rfj ra\anro)pia Trapa So^av avrei^ov. 

*Hi> 8e Ti9 e^ 2<vpois dvrjp 8ircaio<>, 
ovofj,a, w ra e9 TO ^etoy 69 TO 



6Bw, TTO\\OI<J e^Trpocrdev 'xpovois avrov 
ev, 07ra)9 S^ dSeecrrepov ra 69 T^/V euo~e- 

6 /3etay /A\erav Bvvtjrai. KOI avrov oi ravrrj 
avflpwTTOi vTrovpyovvres rfj yvwfj,r] 8pv<f>dKroi<> ricrl 
7repie/3a\ov, ov vvr)/j,fji,evois p.evroi, d\\a %&)/>t9 
ire'Trtjjoa'iv d\\ij\a)v, &crre opdv re rovs Trpoa- 

7 toWa? Ka\ ^vyyivecrOai olov re elvai. KCU 

Tt avrw erefcrrfvavTo /3pa%v vrrepOev, ocrov 
re Kal vi<j)erov<> drroicpovecrdai,. evravda 
ovros [6] dvrjp etc rra\aiov tcadijaro, frmyei /^ev 
>9 rfKiara eiicwv, arcepp,acn Be ricrw 
ola-rrep ov tcaf? rjp,epav, aXXa ^povov 

8 TToXXoO criri^eaffai elcoffei. rovrov ovv rov 

5 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. vii. 2-8 

relations as much as possible. It was for this 
reason, and for no just cause, that Cabades decided 
to make an expedition against the Romans. First he 502 A .n. 
invaded the land of the Armenians, moving with 
such rapidity as to anticipate the news of his coming, 
and, after plundering the greater part of it in a rapid 
campaign, he unexpectedly arrived at the city of 
Amida, which is situated in Mesopotamia, and, 
although the season was winter, he invested the 
town. Now the citizens of Amida had no soldiers 
at hand, seeing that it was a time of peace and 
prosperity, and in other respects were utterly 
unprepared ; nevertheless they were quite unwilling 
to yield to the enemy, and shewed an unexpected 
fortitude in holding out against dangers and hard- 
ships. 

Now there was among the Syrians a certain just 
man, Jacobus by name, who had trained himself 
with exactitude in matters pertaining to religion. 
This man had confined himself many years before in 
a place called Endielon, a day's journey from Amida, 
in order that he might with more security devote 
himself to pious contemplation. The men of this 
place, assisting his purpose, had surrounded him 
with a kind of fencing, in which the stakes were not 
continuous, but set at intervals, so that those who 
approached could see and hold converse with him. 
And they had constructed for him a small roof over 
his head, sufficient to keep off the rain and snow. 
There this man had been sitting for a long time, 
never yielding either to heat or . cold, and sus- 
taining his life with certain seeds, which he was 
accustomed to eat, not indeed every day, but only 
at long intervals. Now some of the Ephthalitae 

5 1 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

'Id/cw/Sov raw rives 'E<#aXtTooi/ tcaradeovres ra 
exeivrj ^(apia eloov, teal ra ro^a cnrovBfj 7ro\\fj 
evreivdfj.evoi fidXXeiv ijBe\ov. Trdcri 8e 
at %eipe<> yeyovvlai ra roa evepyelv 
9 el%ov. o-rrep eVei ev TO> crrparoTreSft) 

p,evov e? K.a/3d8r)v rj\Qev, avroTrrijs yevevOai rod 
epyov 6 KaftdSrjs efBov\ero, ISwv re ev dap/Set 
/Ae^aXft) %i)v Hepcrwv rot? Trapovaiv e<yivero, /cat 
rov 'Idfcwftov \nrdpei d<f>eivai rot? /3ap/3dpoi<> 
TO yK\r]fjLa. 6 Se a^rjKe re Xoy&) evt /cal ra Setvd 

10 Tot9 dvdpoyjroi,^ eXekvvro. K.aj3dBr)<; fj,ev ovv 
alrelv rov dvSpa e/ceXevev o rt av avro> /9ou\o- 

eir), ^prj/juira olopevos avrov /j.eyd\a al- 
Kai n teal veavievcrd/jievos a>5 ouSevo? 

11 7T/309 avrov drw%ijcrei. 6 Be 01 TOU? dv0pa)7rov<{ 
eBelro "^api^e.aQ ai ocroi ev rq> TroXe/ift) rovrw 
Kara<j)vyovre<> Trap* avrov i/cwvrai. ravrrjv 
Ka,/3aS>/9 rrjv Serja'iv l eirireXf) eTToiei /cal ypd/J,- 
fiara eSiSov rr}? da^aXeia? eve%vpa, TroXXot 
yovv rravra^odev vppeovre<> evravOa eaco^ovro' 
Trepifiorjros yap r) TrpdEis eyevero. ravra aev 

v ? r >/ 

woe Trrj ecr^e. 

12 Ka/3a&79 8e v A/j,iSav TroXioptc&v tcpiov rrjv 
[trjxavrjv Travra^oae rov TrepiftoKov Trpocre^a'X.e. 
xal ' AfuSrjvol fj,ev rrjv epi^o\rjv del SOKOIS ricriv 
eyrcapo~iai<> dvecrre\\ov, 6 8e OVK dvfjKev, e<u9 

13 ravrrj dvd\a)rov elvai TO Tet^O9 eyi'O). 7roXXa/ct9 
yap fi/3a\(ibv Kade\elv n rov 7repi/36\cv rj' 2 
Karacreiffai iJKicrra ia"%vcrev, ovrws 

1 Sfijfftv VP : atrnffiv G. 2 *) : xal V. 

52 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, 1. vii. 8-13 

who were overrunning the country thereabout saw 
this Jacobus and with great eagerness drew their bows 
with intent to shoot at him. But the hands of every 
one of them became motionless and utterly unable to 
manage the bow. When this was noised about 
through the army and came to the ears of Cabades, 
he desired to see the thing with his own eyes ; and 
when he saw it, both he and the Persians who were 
with him were seized with great astonishment, and 
he entreated Jacobus to forgive the barbarians their 
crime. And he forgave them with a word, and the 
men were released from their distress. Cabades 
then bade the man ask for whatever he wished, 
supposing that he would ask for a great sum of 
money, and he also added with youthful recklessness 
that he would be refused nothing by him. But he 
requested Cabades to grant to him all the men who 
during that war should come to him as fugitives. 
This request Cabades granted, and gave him a written 
pledge of his personal safety. And great numbers 
of men, as might be expected, came flocking to him 
from all sides and found safety there ; for the deed 
became widely known. Thus, then, did these things 
take place. 

Cabades, in besieging Amida, brought against every 
part of the defences the engines known as rams ; but 
the townspeople constantly broke off the heads of 
the rams by means of timbers thrown across them. 1 
However, Cabades did not slacken his efforts until 
he realized that the wall could not be successfully 
assailed in this way. For, though he battered the wall 
many times, he was quite unable to break down any 
portion of the defence, or even to shake it ; so secure 

1 Cf. Thuc. ii. 76, 4. 

53 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



T0t9 $ei/Mi/Aevoi$ TO 7ra\aiov eipyacrro. 

14 TOVTOV 8e Ka/3a8?79 dirorv^av, \6<pov rivd 
%eipO7roir)TOv eVtret^i(T//.a rfj TroXet erroiei perpti) 
TroXXa) vrrepaipovra rov refyovs TO /u,r?o9, ot re 
TToXiopfeovpevoi eWo9 TO?) TrepiftoXov dp%d/j,evoi 
Karrapv^a pe^pi e? TOV \6<f)ov eiroiovv, KOI \ddpa 

evdev&e rov yovv etc&opovvres /ceva eVl Tr^iarov 

v , v A / j ' / v > A 

Ta evTo? TOV \o<pov eip^aaavro. ra /Aevroi e^To? 

e<j> ovjrep e<ye<y6vi cr^T^iaTO? efievev ovSevl ai- 

15 aQif]<Jiv Trape^o/jieva rov rcpacrao^kvov. TroXXol 
[lev ovv Tlepcrai wcrrrep err 1 dcr(f)a\ov<; dvaftal- 
vovres ev re ry dicpa e<yevovro KCU ftdXXeiv 
ei'ffevSe /card KOpv^rfV rovs ev ru> ?rept/3oX&) 
Sievoovvro. rov Se 6fjbL\ov Spojjiq> eTrippeovros 
eftTTecrwv o \6<f>o<; e/c rov al(j)Vt8iov cr^eSov ri 

16 aTrai/Ta? etcreive. KaySaS?;? 8e Tot? rcapovcnv 
aTTopovfjievof rrjv rrpoaebpeiav BidXveiv eyvto, /cal 
rw arparoTreBo) dva%a>peiv e? rrjv varepaiav 

17 eTrrfyyeiXe. rare 8rj ol 7ro\iopicovfj,evoi, are rov 
KivSvvov d(f>povrio~ri]o-avre<i, TroXXa TOV? /3ap- 
ySapof? 1 %vv ye\(t)ri drro rov rrepiftb\ov er(t)0aov. 

18 /cat rives eratpai dve\/cv(rao-ai /COCT/A&) ovSevl rrjv 
eo~0rjra KaySaSv; a < y^io~rd rrov e(rrr)K6ri eSei- 
KVVOV o&a rwv yvvaitcwv <yvfj,vd (fravrjvat, avSpdviv 

19 ov 0efj,i<t, orrep KariSovres ol fj.dyoi rw re /3a- 
ffiKel 9 o-^riv rj\6ov teal rrjv ava"^u>pr\cnv e/ca)\vov, 
v/ji(3d\eiv la"%vpi6fjivoi rq> jeyovon &>9 drravra 
Ka/Sa8?7 'Aui&rjvol rd re drroppr^ra ical Kpvjrro- 

OVK 69 naKpav 8ei%ovo~iv. ovra> pev TO 
arparoireSov avrov epeivev. 

1 rovs fiap&dpovs Maltretus : rov QapPdpov VP, TOV &a/3a- 
pov G. 

54 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. vii. 13-19 

had been the work of the builders who had con- 
structed it long before. Failing in this, Cabades 
raised an artificial hill to threaten the city, consider- 
ably overtopping the wall ; but the besieged, starting 
from the inside of their defences, made a tunnel 
extending under the hill, and from there stealthily 
carried out the earth, until they hollowed out a great 
part of the inside of the hill. However, the outside 
kept the form which it had at first assumed, and 
afforded no opportunity to anyone of discovering 
what was being done. Accordingly many Persians 
mounted it, thinking it safe, and stationed them- 
selves on the summit with the purpose of shooting 
down upon the heads of those inside the fortifications. 
But with the great mass of men crowding upon it 
with a rush, the hill suddenly fell in and killed 
almost all of them. Cabades, then, finding no 
remedy for the situation, decided to raise the siege, 
and he issued orders to the army to retreat on the 
morrow. Then indeed the besieged, as though they 
had no thought of their danger, began laughingly 
from the fortifications to jeer at the barbarians. 
Besides this some courtesans shamelessly drew up 
their clothing and displayed to Cabades, who was 
standing close by, those parts of a woman's body 
which it is not proper that men should see uncovered. 
This was plainly seen by the Magi, and they there- 
upon came before the king and tried to prevent the 
retreat, declaring as their interpretation of what had. 
happened that the citizens of Amida would shortly 
disclose to Cabades all their secret and hidden things. 
So the Persian army remained there. 



55 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

20 'H/ie/Jo/9 8e r&v ri<? Tlepawv oit 7ro\Xat9 vcrre- 
pov ay%icrra rwv vrvpywv nvb<? K{3o\r)v vrrovo- 
/jiov TTaXaiov el8ev ov vv ra> da-tydXel KKa\va- 
uevrjv, aXXa -^dXi^i a pi K pals re teal ov \iav 

21 ffvyyals. vvKTwp re /zovo9 evravda iJKtav Kal 
rrjs elcroBov aTTOTreipatrd/jievos evTO$ rov 
j3o\ov eyevero. a^ia 8e r)fj,epa rov iravra 
Ka{3d8r) dTnjyyeiXe. Kal 09 rfj eTTiyivo/Aevr) vvter 
K\ifjLaxa<i ev TrapaaKevfj TTOi^ardp^vos v 

ricrlv evravBa rj\6e. Kal ri<s avry Be^ia 

22 ve^Oi] rv%r] rpofro) roi&Se. rov Trvpyov, o<? 8rj 
rov vTTOvofAov dy^ordrta ervy^avev wv, <f)v\d<r- 
creiv ro!)v Xpio-riavwv 01 aax^poveararoi \a%ov, 
ova-rcep Ka\e2v fiova'xpvs vevojuicao-i. rovrovs 
eoprrjv rtva rq> dew l ayeiv eviavaiov e/ceivrj rfj 

23 r)fiepa rerv^Kev. eirei re 17 vv CTreyevero, 
arravres, are KOTTW fjLev 7ro\\q> 8ia rrjv Travij- 
yvpiv o/AiXija-avres, /JLO\\OV 8e rov eWia-/j,evov 
crtriav re /cal rrorov e<? Kopov e\0ovre<$, vrrvov 
riva riBvv re Kal rcpaov CKaOevBov Kal arc avrov 

24 to? iJKio-ra ra)v 7roiovfj,eva>v rfcrQavovro. Tlepaai 
yovv 8ia rov vrrovofiov evrb? rov TreptftoXov KMT 
0X1701^9 2 yevo/iievoi 9 rov rrvpyov dvejSatvov, Kal 
Toi9 /Aovaxoix} KaffevSovras ert evpovres, eKreivav 

25 aTravras, orrep eirel KaffaSr)? eyvw, ra<f K\l- 
aaKas ra> refyei, rovrov 8r) a<Y%io~ra rov Trvpyov 

26 Trpocrrjyev. r)fj.epa 8e fy rj&rj. Kal ratv 'A/xiSi;- 
vwv 01 V Trvpyo) r& e-^o^evw efyvXaaaov, aiaOb- 

27 fievoL rov KaKov, Kara rd%o<> e(Bor)6ovv evravOa. 
o)0io-a& re TTO\\& eirl Tr\el(rrov du<porepoi 9 

1 TW Oea> G : om. VP. 

' J xar' okiyovs P : Kara \6yovs VG. 

56 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. vii. 20-27 

Not many days later one of the Persians saw 
close by one of the towers the mouth of an old 
underground passage, which was insecurely con- 
cealed with some few small stones. In the night he 
came there alone, and, making trial of the entrance, 
got inside the circuit-wall ; then at daybreak he 
reported the whole matter to Cabades. The king 
himself on the following night came to the spot with 
a few men, bringing ladders which he had made 
ready. And he was favoured by a piece of good 
fortune ; for the defence of the very tower which 
happened to be nearest to the passage had fallen by 
lot to those of the Christians who are most careful 
in their observances, whom they call monks. These 
men, as chance would have it, were keeping some 
annual religious festival to God on that day. 
When night came on they all felt great weari- 
ness 1 on account of the festival, and, having sated 
themselves with food and drink beyond their wont, 
they fell into a sweet and gentle sleep, and were conse- 
quently quite unaware of what was going on. So the 
Persians made their way through the passage inside 
the fortifications, a few at a time, and, mounting the 
tower, they found the monks still sleeping and slew 
them to a man. When Cabades learned this, he 
brought his ladders up to the wall close by this tower. 
It was already day. And those of the townsmen who 
were keeping guard on the adjoining tower became 
aware of the disaster, and ran thither with all speed 
to give assistance. Then for a long time both sides 

1 Cf. Book VII. xxvi. 4. 

57 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

d\\ij\ov<; e^pwvro, KOI TO TT\OV tf&rj ' 
e^ovres rwv re dvafteftrjKorwv TroXXot"? etcTeivov 
Kal Tot/9 a7ro ra>v K\ifjLaKcov dvecrre\\ov, Kal rov 
direSiadai rov K'IV&VVOV ou [taicpdv TTOV eyevovro. 

28 aXXa KaftdSr)? auro<? rov dfcivdferjv <77racra/u,ei'O9 
/cal avra> del 8e8t(Tcr6/J,evo<; e? ra? \t/za:a<? 

OVK dvlel T0i9 Tlepcras, Qdvaros re rjv rj 

29 rot? evdevSe dvacrTpeffreiv To\.fj,wat. Bib Brj TT\I]- 
Oei TToXXw 01 Hepffat, /caOvTreprepoi rwv evavriwv 
yevopevoi evi/crjcrdv re auroti? rfj fJid^y Kal Kara 
Kpdros rj 7roXt9 ^Xto oySorjKoa'Tf) CLTTO r^9 7ro\top- 

30 Ktat rjfAepa. <f>6vo<; re ' A/juSijvaiv 7roXu9 eyeyovei, 
e&)9 cre\avvovrt 9 T^V 7ro\w Ka/3d8rj rwv ri<> 
' A/jLiBijvwv yepwv re Kal iepevs irpoa-eXOcav 1 eljrev 
a>9 ou @a(ri\iKbv TO (f>oveveiv rovs rfktoKoras eirj. 

31 Ka$a&79 //-ev ouy 6vfjiy eri e%6fj,evos aTreKpivaro, 

rt 7/o /iot 7ro\efAeiv eyvwre ;" 6 Se t7roXa- 
avriKa e(f>r), ""Ori Brj 6 ^eo9 ot>% rj/jierepa 
), aXXa o~^ apery Trapa&i&ovai (roi "Afjiibav 

32 TjtfeXe." rovrw r& \6ya) Kaftans ^a^i9 xreiveiv 
ovSeva TO XotTroi/ etacrei/, aXXa Ta T6 ypijftara 

Ylepa-as e/ceXeue Acat TOU9 Trepiovras ev 
Troielcrdai \oya>, Kal avrat e%e\ecr8ai 
ajravras avrwv TOU9 SOKI/JLOVS eTTecrre\\ev. 

33 'OXt7&) Se ixrrepov ^tXtof9 CTTI T^ <f>v\aK7) 
evravOa XITTWV ap%ovrd re avrols iri(jrr)(Tas 
T\(t)vr)v, avSpa Hepcrr)v, Kal rwv ' ' A.jjn,^>r]vwv dv- 
0pa)Trov<> rivds 0X1701^9 OiKrpovs, 01 Brj 9 T^V 
Biairav V7rrjperrj(7eiv Tlepaais epe\\ov, avrbs 
iravrl rq> aXX&> crrpara> rovs rf 

1 irpofftXeaii' P : eAflwi' VG. 
58 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. vii. 27-33 

struggled to crowd back the other, and already the 
townsmen were gaining the advantage, killing many 
of those who had mounted the wall, and throwing 
back the men on the ladders, and they came very 
near to averting the danger. But Cabades drew his 
sword and, terrifying the Persians constantly with it, 
rushed in person to the ladders and would not let 
them draw back, and death was the punishment for 
those who dared turn to leave. As a result of this 
the Persians by their numbers gained the upper 
hand and overcame their antagonists in the fight. 
So the city was captured by storm on the eightieth Jan. 11 
day after the beginning of the siege. There followed 503 A-D- 
a great massacre of the townspeople, until one of 
the citizens an old man and a priest approached 
Cabades as he was riding into the city, and said that 
it was not a kingly act to slaughter captives. Then 
Cabades, still moved with passion, replied : " But 
why did you decide to fight against me ? " And the 
old man answered quickly : " Because God willed to 
give Amida into thy hand not so much because of 
our decision as of thy valour." Cabades was pleased 
by this speech, and permitted no further slaughter, 
but he bade the Persians plunder the property and 
make slaves of the survivors, and he directed them to 
choose out for himself all the notables among them. 

A short time after this he departed, leaving there 
to garrison the place a thousand men under command 
of Glones, a Persian, and some few unfortunates 
among the citizens of Amida who were destined to 
minister as servants to the daily wants of the 
Persians ; he himself with all the remainder of the 
army and the captives marched away homeward. 



59 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

34 otrcov aTrfaavvev. e<? TOVTOVS Be rot/9 
TOV9 <f)i\av0pa>7ria e-^prjaaro {3a<ri\ei 
ypovov yap o\iyov 619 TO. oiKela 

35 tcev levai, ra> Be \oyw aTreBpacrav avrov, o re 
'P(i)fjuii(i)v /3a<rtXei'9 'Avacrrao-io? epya e? avrovs 
eTreSei^aro aperrjf aia' (f>6pov$ re yap TOV<? 
e7T6T6('ou9 9 err] eTTTO. v/j-7ravTas a^ij/ce rfj 
TroXet Aral avrovs KOivfj re /eat tta etcacrrov 

ricriv ayaOois e&wprjcraro, axrre avrol<f 
TO>V ^v/jiftefirjKOTtov 7ro\\7]V yevecrdai. a 
ravra fj&v %/oo^co T&> ixrrepa) eyevero. 

VIII 



1 Tore 8e ySacriXei'9 ^ 

arpaTevfia KCLTO, ra^o9 Siap/ces 
Se rjaav fiev Kara av^popiav 
6/cd(TTC0v, crTpaTyyol Be airaaiv ItfiecrTrJKea'av re<7- 
cra/?e9, 'Apeo/StySo9 re, 'O\vftpiov KijSea-Tijs, rov 
ev TT) eaTrepia (3efta(Ti\evKoro<s o\iyw -nporepov, 

2 rf)<> ect)a9 Be rare <TTpaTr)yb$ Tvy%avev &v KOI 
TWV ev TraXartft) rayfjudrtov ap-^yot; K.e\ep (ftd- 
yicrrpov 'Peo/iatot rrjv dp%r)V Ka\elv vevopiicacriv)' 
en n/t]v Kai ol ratv ev "Bv^avriy crrpariwT&v 
apxovres, TLarpifcios re 6 <&pv KO\ "TTrdnos 6 
/3acriXt>9 dBe\<piBov<>' OVTOI pev Teaaapes 1 arpa- 

3 rrjyol rjeav. ^vvijv Be avrols real 'lovo-rlvo?, 09 
Brj vcrrepov ' A.vacrTa<riov re\evrijeravro<; eftacrl- 
\evffe, teal TiarpiKio\o<i vv BiraXta^w r& 

1 Tfffffapts : S)j G. 
60 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. vii. 3 3 -viii. 3 

These captives were treated by Cabades with a 
generosity befitting a king ; for after a short time 
he released all of them to return to their homes, 
but he pretended that they had escaped from him 
by stealth ; l and the Roman Emperor, Anastasius, 
also shewed them honour worthy of their bravery, 
for he remitted to the city all the annual taxes for 
the space of seven years, and presented all of 
them as a body and each one of them separately 
with many good things, so that they came fully 
to forget the misfortunes which had befallen them. 
But this happened in later years. 



VIII 

AT that time the Emperor Anastasius, upon 
learning that Amida was being besieged, dispatched 
with all speed an army of sufficient strength. But 
in this army there were general officers in command 
of every symmory, 2 while the supreme command 
was divided between the following four generals : 
Areobindus, at that time General of the East, the 
son-in-law of Olyvrius, who had been Emperor in 
the West not long before ; Celer, commander of the 
palace troops (this officer the Romans are accus- 
tomed to call " magister" ) ; besides these still, there 
were the commanders of troops in Byzantium, 
Patricius, the Phrygian, and Hypatius, the nephew 
of the emperor ; these four, then, were the generals. 
With them also was associated Justinus, who at a 
later time became emperor upon the death of 
Anastasius, and Patriciolus with his son Vitalianus, 
1 Cf. Thuc. i. 128. a A division of no fixed number. 

61 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



09 O7r\a dvrdpas ' Avacrracria) ftacn\ei ov 7roXX&) 
vffrepov ervpdwrjcre, teal ^apecryidvt]^ 
/j,ev yevos, 8ia(j)epovra)<i 8e dyaObs rd 
Kal Tooioiaickos re teal Becrcra?, YorOoi dvopes, 
TorOwv rwv OVK eTricnrofAevwv eu8e/?fc%o) e<? 
'Ira\iav e/c pdfcr)s iovn, lyevvaico re V7rep<pva)<> 
a/MJMi) Kal T>V Kara rbv TTO\^OV TrpayfAaTCDV 
ejJbTreipw, aXXoi re 7ro\\ol Kal dpicrroi eiTrovro. 

4 <rrpdrv/Mi yap roiovro (pa&iv ovre nrporepov 
ovre vcrrepov eirl Ilepcra? f Po)/iat'ot? ^varrjvai. 
ovrot, fjuivroi aTravres OVK e? ravrb dyriyepfAevoi 
ovSe (Trpdrevjjia ev Troirja-d/^evoi fjea-av, aXX' auro? 
eAcacrro? rot? /car' avrbv crrpanwrais e^rjyeiro 

5 eVl roi)9 TToXe/itou?. %o/3?7709 8e r^9 roO arpa- 
roTreSov 8a7rdvr)<; 'ATTICDV AtyvTrrios eard\r), dvrjp 
ev TrarpiKLois e7ri<j)avi]<; re Kal 8paa~rijpio<; 69 rd 
/jLaXiara, Kal avrbv /3ao"tXeu9 KOIVCOVOV rrjs ySacrt- 
Xeta9 ev ypd/^fjucrtv dveirrev, 07r&>9 ol e^ovcria elrf 
rd 9 rrjv ^airdvrjv y ySovXotro SioiKyjcracrdai. 

6 'O yu,er ovi/ crrparbs ovros ^povw re ^vve\eyovro 
Kal a"xo\.airepoi eTropevovro. Sib Sr) rovs /3ap- 
fidpow? ev yff rfj 'Pcafiaicav ov% evpov, eVel e% 
eViSpoyu.7}9 ol Tleptrai rrjv e<f)0&ov Troirjcrdftevoi 
avriKa Brj e9 rd Trdrpia Tjdij dve^utprjaav l vv 

7 Trdcrr} rrj \eia. rwv Se arparr^ywv ovSels 69 
7ro\topKiav rwv ev 'AfAL&p drro\e\eiiJ.p J evwv ev ru> 
Trapovri KadlcrracrOai rjde\' TroXXa <ydp ecrKOfMi- 
aaffdai cr^>a9 rd eyririjo'eia epadov aXX' e? rwv 
7ro\.efj,iwv rrjv %d>pav e'crySoXr/r TroirjaaaOai, ev 

8 (TTrovSfi el%ov. ov /j,r)v eVl roi/9 /3a/3/Sa/)ou9 

1 avex^p'noav : ?i\Qov V. 
62 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. viii. 3-8 

who raised an armed insurrection against the 
Emperor Anastasius not long afterwards and made 
himself tyrant ; also Pharesmanes, a native of Colchis, 
and a man of exceptional ability as a warrior, and 
the Goths Godidisklus and Bessas, who were among 
those Goths who had not followed Theoderic when 
he went from Thrace into Italy, both of them men 
of the noblest birth and experienced in matters 
pertaining to warfare ; many others, too, who were 
men of high station, joined this army. For such an 
army, they say, was never assembled by the Romans 
against the Persians either before or after that time. 
However, all these men did not assemble in one body, 
nor did they form a single army as they marched, 
but each commander by himself led his own division 
separately- against the enemy. And as manager of 
the finances of the army Apion, an Aegyptian, was 
sent, a man of eminence among the' patricians and 
extremely energetic ; and the emperor in a written 
statement declared, him partner in the royal power, 
in order that he might have authority to administer 
the finances as he wished. 

Now this army was mustered with considerable 
delay, and advanced with little speed. As a result 
of this they did not find the barbarians in the Roman 
territory ; for the Persians had made their attack 
suddenly, and had immediately withdi'awn with all 
their booty to their own land. Now no one of the 
generals desired for the present to undertake the 
siege of the garrison left in Amida, for they learned 
that they had carried in a large supply of provisions ; 
but they made haste to invade the land of the enemy. 
However they did not advance together against the 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



rjecrav, d\\d %<w/H9 d\\ij\a>v o-rparoTreBevo/j,voi 
eTropevovro. ravra Ka/3ao\;9 fiadcov (ay%i(rra 
yap TTOV ervy^avev aw) e? ra 'Pco/iatto^ opta Kara 

9 Ta%09 e\6(bv V7rr)vriaev. ovrcw ftevroi 'Po)/j,aloi 
TO) Travrl crrpary Ka/3aSi7y levcu e?r' avrovs 
epadov, a\\a TIepfffov u>ovro crrpdrevpa j3pa%v 

10 TL evravQa elvat,. ol /J,ev ovv d/j,<f)l *A.pe6j3iv&ov 
(rrparo7r68vaavTO ev ^wpLw 'Ap^d/jicov, ajre^ovri 
K-wva-TavTivr)*} TroXeeo? Svoiv ^fiepaiv 686v, OL Se 
dfjufrl Harpitciov real 'TTraTtov ev XQ>pi(j> 
O7re/j 'A/itS?;? TToXeo)? ov% rjcraov r) 
Kal Tpiafcoa-iovs (rraStou? a/Tre^et. KeXe/3 yap 
OVTTO) evravda d(t>iKTo. 



e-mevai (rfylcriv CTrvOeTO, d7ro\nr(bv TO 
v vv rot? e7ro/j,ei>oi<} airacriv 69 



12 7re\06vTS &e 0X170) varepov ol 7ro\/j,toi 

TO (TTaTOTreSov el\ov. 1 



re 2 Kara Ta%o9 eTr w/j-acw TO 



13 arpdrevpua rjeaav. ol Be dp,<^\ TLarpiKiov Kal 
'Tirdriov ']&(f>da\irai<> evrv%6vres oKraKoaiois ot 
rov Tlepawv crrparov ep,Trpocrdev yecrav, a")(eS6v ri 

14 airavra? eKreivav. ovSev be dpfyl TcS Kay8aS?7 at 
T^ Tlep&tov arparia 'jrerfva^kvoi, are veviKTjKores, 
dSeea-repov rrj Stairy e^pwvro. ra yovv OTrXa 
KaraOefjuevoi apia-rov o-tyia-iv f)TdifJUiov. -rjBr) yap 

15 T}9 rjpepa*; 6 /cat/909 evravda fjye. pva^ Be ris 
eppei ev rovrw rq> ^u>pu>, iva c Pa>/j,aioi ra icpea 

1 fl\ov P : avfl^nv VG. 

2 tvQev T V : ivOfvtif Tf G, tvOtvSe P. 
6 4 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. viii. 8-15 

barbarians but they encamped apart from one 
another as they proceeded. When Cabades learned 
this (for he happened to be close by), he came with 
all speed to the Roman frontier and confronted 
them. But the Romans had not yet learned that 
Cabades was moving against them with his whole 
force, and they supposed that some small Persian 
army was there. Accordingly the forces of Areobindus 
established their camp in a place called Arzamon, at 
a distance of two days' journey from the city of 
Constantina, and those of Patricius and Hypatius in 
a place called Siphrios, which is distant not less than 
three hundred and fifty stades from the city of 
Amida. As for Celer, he had not yet arrived. 

Areobindus, when he ascertained that Cabades was 
coming upon them with his whole army, abandoned 
his camp, and, in company with all his men, turned 
to flight and retired on the run to Constantina. 
And the enemy, coming up not long afterwards, 
captured the camp without a man in it and all the 
money it contained. From there they advanced 
swiftly against the other Roman army. Now the 
troops of Patricius and Hypatius had happened upon 
eight hundred Ephthalitae who were marching in 
advance of the Persian army, and they had killed 
practically all of them. Then, since they had 
learned nothing of Cabades and the Persian army, 
supposing that they had won the victory, they began 
to conduct themselves with less caution. At any 
rate they had stacked their arms and were preparing 
themselves a lunch ; for already the appropriate time 
of day was drawing near. Now a small stream 
flowed in this place and in it the Romans began to 

65 

VOL. I. F 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



16 rive? Be d-)(d6p,evoi ry Trviyei Kal \ovcr0ai rj^iovv, 
ravrrj re rapa^dev TO rov pvaKo<; vBtop 
e%cbpei. Ka/Jtto^ Be ra e9 TOU? 'E<#aXrra 
Trecrovra jj,a@a)v CTTI TOU? TroXe/Atoi;? Kara 

17 rjei' tcariBwv re (TvyKe^v/jLevov TO TOU 
vBa)p Kal %vn,fta\(bv TO 7rotovfjLVov eyv 
pacrtcevovs TOU? evavTiovs eivai, Kal Kara 

r' auToy? eXavvetv erceXevev. avrLxa re av- 
t? ecrri(i)fjievoi<f re Kal dvoTr\oi<; ovaiv eTrecrrij- 

18 crav. 'Pft)yu,aiot 8e OVK eveyKovres l rrjv e(f)o8ov t ? 9 
d\Kr)v /j,ev TO napdnav OVK e/3\7rov, efavyov Be 
o? e/cao-T09 Trr; eSu^aTO, Kal avrwv ol ftev Kara- 
Xa/jiflavofAevot, edvrjcrKOv, ol Be dvtovre? 6/9 TO 0/009 
o ravrrj dve%ei eppitrrovv avrovs Kara TO Kpij- 

19 fjLV&Bes %vv ^o/3w Kal Qopvftw TroXXai. o^e^ 8^ 
ovBeva (reawaOai fyacri, TlarpiKios Be Kal 'Trra- 
Ti09 Kar* ttyo%a9 T>}9 e<j>6Bov Bia^vyeiv i'a"%vcrav. 
eTreira Be Ka/SaS?;9, QVVVOJV TroXe/itwv 69 7?}i/ T^V 
avrov ecr/Se/SX^/coTwr, iravrl rq> arparut eV OIKOV 
dve^coprjcre, rcoKe^ov re fiaxpov ?rpo9 TO Wvos 

20 rovro 9 T% %<w/3a9 TO. 77/009 apKrov Biefapev. ev 
rovrw Be Kal TO aXXo crrpdrevfAa ( Po)fj,ai,u>v rf\.de, 
\6<yov fievroi aiov ovBev eBpavav, ori Brj avro- 
Kpdrcop rov TroXe/Ltou Karecrrtj ovBefo, aXX' to-oi 
?rpo9 aXX^Xoi^ ol ffrpartjyol ovres dvrecrrdrovv 
re aXX^X&w Ta?9 ryv(i)fjuii<; Kal yivecrdai ev rq> 

21 avry ovBa/^fj r)de\ov. KeXe/o Be vv Toi9 eTro- 
fj,evoif Nvfj,<f>iov rrorafjiov Biaftds ecrftoXijv riva e9 

22 rr)v 'Apavr)vr)v eTroujcraro. eari Be 6 TroTa/u-09 

1 OVK ivtyK&VTts G : OVK fxtvtyKi'OTfs V, o&x vitfvfyicdvrfs P. 

66 






HISTORY OF THE WARS. I. viii. 15-22 

wash the pieces of meat which they were about 
to eat ; some, too, distressed by the heat, were 
bathing themselves in the stream ; and in con- 
sequence the brook flowed 011 with a muddy current. 
But while Cabades, learning what had befallen the 
Kphthalitae, was advancing against the enemy with 
all speed, he noticed that the water of the brook 
was disturbed, and divining what was going on, 
he came to the conclusion that his opponents 
were unprepared, and gave orders to charge upon 
them immediately at full speed. Straightway, Aug., 
then, they fell upon them feasting and unarmed. 503 A - D - 
And the Romans did not withstand their onset, 
nor did they once think of resistance, but they 
began to flee as each one could ; and some of them 
were captured and slain, while others climbed 
the hill which rises there and threw themselves 
down the cliff in panic and much confusion. And 
they say that not a man escaped from there ; but 
Patricius and Hypatius had succeeded in getting 
away at the beginning of the onset. After this 
Cabades retired homeward with his whole army, since 
hostile Huns had made an invasion into his land, and 
with this people he waged a long war in the 
northerly portion of his realm. In the meantime 
the other Roman army also came, but they did no- 
thing worth recounting, because, it seems, no one was 
made c-ouunander-in-chief of the expedition; but all 
the generals were of equal rank, and consequently 
they were always opposing one another's opinions 
and were utterly unable to unite. However Celer, 
with his contingent, crossed the Nymphius River and 
made some sort of an invasion into Arzanene. This 



67 
F 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CARSAREA 

OUTO9 Ma/3Tty)07roXe&>9 /j,ev dy^ordro), 'AfjUBipi Be 
ocrov drro vraBiwv rpiafcoffiwv. ol 8rj \r/icr a ftevoi 
rd eiceivri ^wpLa erravfjXOov ov 7roXX&> vcrrepov. 
St o\iyov re r; emSpo/nr} avrrj eyevero. 



IX 

1 Mera Be 'ApeoftivBos /u-ey e? ftv^dvTtov a>9 
ea yLteraTre/ATTTO? r/\0ev, ol be Xonrol e? 

^efyuwi'o? w^a e9 7ro\iop/ciav 
. KOI ftLa fjuev e\elv TO ^wpiov, 
7roXA,a eyfce^eipr] /cores, ovtc icr%vcrav, \ifj.a) 8e 
rovTo Troieiv l/ieXXoi>' irdvra jap rovs TTO\I- 
2 opKOVjj,evovs ra eTrirrjSeia eTTtXeXotTrer. aXX' ol 
crrpaTrj<yol ovSev TreTrva-^evoi dfjL<f)l rwv 
rfj ctTTOpia, 7rei.8r) roi/9 arpaTKOTas rfj 
Kal T& xeifA&vi a^dofjievov^ edipatv, afj,a 8e KOI 
Tlepawv arpdrevfj.a UTT] cr<^>a9 TJJ;eiv OVK et9 yu,a- 
rcpav vTreroTra^ov, rpOTrw ora> Srj evBevSe d?raX- 

3 \dacrecr6ai ev airov^rj el%ov. ol re Tlepcrai, OVK 
e%oi>re9 rives av ev roi<roe rots Beivols yevoivro, 
rrjv fjiev drropLav ra>v dvay/caiwv e9 TO a/c/otySe9 
e/cpVTrrov, Bo/crjcriv Trape^ovres ct>9 rrdvrwv &(f)icri 
ro)v eTTirrjoeLcov d(f)0ovia e'lrj, es 8e rd olicela %vv 

4 ra> evTrpeirel Xojw dva^wpelv ijOe\ov. yivovrai 
ovv ev d/j,(j)orpois \6yoi, e</>' w or) Hepaai \irpas 
ftpva-iov %i\ia<; Xa/36iTe9 arc -oBwa overt, ' 

rqv TroXiv. efcdrepoi re aa-fievoi rd 

eTTireXfj erroiovv, rd re ^pij/jiara Xa/Swv o rov 

68 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. viii. 22 -ix. 4 

river is one very close to Martyropolis, about three 
hundred stades from Amida. So Celer's troops plun- 
dered the country thereabout and returned not long 
after, and the whole invasion was completed in a 
short time. 



IX 

AFTER this Areobindus went to Byzantium at the 
summons of the emperor, while the other generals 
reached Amida, and, in spite of the winter season, 
invested it. And although they made many attempts 
they were unable to carry the fortress by storm, but 
they were on the point of accomplishing their object 
by starvation ; for all the provisions of the besieged 
were exhausted. The generals, however, had ascer- 
tained nothing of the straits in which the enemy 
were ; but since they saw that their own troops were 
distressed by the labour of the siege and the wintry 
weather, and at the same time suspected that a 
Persian army would be coming upon them before 
long, they were eager to quit the place on any terms 
whatever. The Persians, on their part, not knowing 
what would become of them in such terrible straits, 
continued to conceal scrupulously their lack of the 
necessities of life, and made it appear that they had 
an abundance of all provisions, wishing to return to 
their homes with the reputation of honour. So a 
proposal was discussed between them, according to 
which the Persians were to deliver over the city to 
the Romans upon receipt of one thousand pounds of 
gold. Both parties then gladly executed the terms 
of the ntrreement, and tli son of Glones, upon 
receiving the money, delivered over Amida to the 

69 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



r\a>vov 1/109 "A/juSav 'Pto/wucw TrapeSw/ce. 
vrfs yap r/8?? erere\evrrj/cei rporrta rot,q>8e. 

OVTTO) fjLev o-rparo7reBevo~a/J,eva)v evravBa 'Pat- 
fjuaiwv, 'A/uS?79 e TroXeco? ovrwv ov fta/cpdv arro- 
0i>, TWV Tt9 aypoifcwv, oa-yep l elo&dei e? rrjv TTO\IV 
(TIQ>V \ddpa opvis re KOI aprovs KOL rwv a>paia)v 



T\(ibvr}v ol e? %etpa? TrapaBcoa-eiv %v 
SiaKoeiois vTrea-^ero, f)v TWOS a/iot/S?}? e'X,7Tt8a 

6 Xa/3ft>i> Trap' avrov eirj. 6 Se avrw ajravra ocra 
r)V /3ov\o/j,ev(a UTroo-^oyu/ei/o? eaeadat rov avQpw- 
TTOV aTreTre/u-^raTO. teal 09 rd re Ifidria Seivcos 
8iapptfj;a<; /cal Seba/cpvpeva) eoiKax; e9 rrjv TTO\IV 

7 elcrfi\8e. rrapd re rov T\<avr)v r)K.wv rds re 

rL\\wv, " 'E*rv<y%avov fiev, w Seo-Trora," 
arravrd <TOL etc rov %wpiov rdyaOa <fyepwv, 
Se (rrpariwrai 'Pw/iatot (/cal yap rrov 
e9 <ra> 2 ravrr) %<opta /car' 6\iyov 9 Trepuovres 
roi9 oltcrpoix; dypoifcov? (3tdovrai) 7r\rjyd<; re 
/mot ov (f)oprjra<f rrpoaerptyavro real Trdvra d<f>e\6- 
fjievoi ol \rjo-ral m^ovro, 0*9 Br) eic rra\aiov 
Tlepa-as re Seoievai /cal rovs yecopyovs ftid^ecrOai 

8 vofios. aXX,' 07TW9, & BearTTora, aavr& re Kal 
rjfuv Kal IIe/9crat9 dfivvr]^. r)v yap 69 T^9 7ro\e&>9 
TO, rrpod<rria KVvrjyenjcrcDV 1779, Oijpafjid aoi ov 
<j)av\ov ecrrai. tcara rrevre yap r) rerrapas ol 

( .t /cardparoi rrepuovres \(t)7roSvrov(riv" 6 fj,ev ravra 
etTrev. dvarceia-Oeis Be o FXcovrjs rov dvdpcorrov 
dv7rvv6dvero Trocroi^ Trore Ylepffas oierai ol 

10 9 rrjv rrpa^Lv iKavov<tJffecr6ai. 6 8e rrevn'iicovra 

1 offirfp Hauiy : &fftrep MSS. a <TO> Dindorf. 

7 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. ix. 4-10 

Romans. For Glones himself had already died in the 
following manner. 

When the Romans had not yet encamped before 
the city of Amida but were not far from its vicinity, 
a certain countryman, who was accustomed to enter 
the city secretly with fowls and loaves and many 
other delicacies, which he sold to this Glones at a 
great price, came before the general Patricius and 
promised to deliver into his hands Glones and two 
hundred Persians, if he should receive from him as- 
surance of some requital. And the general promised 
that he should have everything he desired, and thus 
dismissed the fellow. He then tore his garments in 
a dreadful manner, and, assuming the aspect of one 
who had been weeping, entered the city. And 
coming before Glones, and tearing his hair he said : 
" O Master, I happened to be bringing in for you all 
the good things from my village, when some Roman 
soldiers chanced upon me (for, as you know, they 
are constantly wandering about the country here in 
small bands and doing violence to the miserable 
country-folk), and they inflicted upon me blows not 
to be endured, and, taking away everything, they 
departed, the robbers, whose ancient custom it is > 
to fear the Persians and to beat the farmers. But 
do you, O Master, take thought to defend yourself 
and us and the Persians. For if you go hunting 
into the outskirts of the city, you will find rare 
game. For the accursed rascals go about by fours 
or fives to do their robbery." Thus he spoke. And 
Glones was persuaded, and enquired of the fellow 
about how, many Persians he thought would be 
sufficient for him to carry out the enterprise. He 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

/j,ev djroxpija-eiv ol /j,d\icrra e<f>r)' ov yap av 
avrG>v TrXeioeu Trore rj Kara Trevre 6S&) iovaiv 
evrv%oi,ev, rov 8e /j,ij&ev aTrpocrBoKtjrov a$iai 
ovSev ri xetpov /cal efcarbv 69 TO epyov 
ai- fjv 8e KOI TOVTWV StTrXacrtoi/?, TW 
jravrl afjieivov. y9Xa/3o9 yap dv0pa>7rq> e rov Tre- 

11 piovros OVK av yevoiro. FXaii/T/? yu,ei/ o&v tT 
StaKOffiovf aTToXe^a/x-ej/o? TO^ avOpwjrov 

12 e^rjyeio-dai eK6\evev. 6 Be a/jueivov 

clvai avrbv CTTI KaraaKorrrfj <rre\\ecr6ai irporepov, 
Kal r)v en ev %copLoi<> rol<t avroi? Trepuovras 
ISmv dirayyeLX,?), ovrco 8r) ev Seovrt 
rrjv eoSov Ileptra?. eft re ovv eiTreiv 
eBo^e r& T\(ovr} /cat avrov d(f>ievro<> eVreXXero. 

13 Trapd re rov <rrparr]ybv Tlarpirciov IJKWV airavra 
e<f>pa%' xal 09 r&v 8opv<f)6pa>v rfav avrov Svo 

14 Kal (rrparitoras XI\LOV<; %vv avrw eTre^-^rev. oi><t 
Sr) dfjL<hl KWfjirjv i\aa~dfjLCi)v <rra8iovs re<r<rapd- 
Kovra A.fiiSr)$ 8ie%ovo~av ev vairai^ re Kal ^wpioi^ 
vXwo'eo'iv eKpv^re, Kal avrov fteveiv ev ravrais 
Srj rat? eveSpais 7recrr\\ev, e9 re rrjv iroKiv 

15 S/9O/A&) e%<opei. Kal rw T\(avrj eroi/j,ov eiiriav TO 
dripapa elvat, avrw re Kal rots SiaKotriois e^-rjjij- 
<raro em rrjv rcov 7ro\e/jii(ov eve&pav. eTretSij re 

rov x&pov ov Trpo^o^i^ovref l *Pa>- 
Kd0r)vro, z Y\(owr)v re Kal ITe/ocra9 \a6atv 
eK re rrjs eveSpas rov<f c Pwyuatou9 
dvea-rrjcre Kal avrols rovs 7roXe/iiof9 e7re8etf;ev. 
ovanrep eireiM] eVl 0-^)09 iovra? KaretSov TIepcrai, 

1 o5 7rpoAox'C * /T6S Haul'}' : ov irpo\ox^fff0a'i VG, ovirfp 
f \\oxifrvrfs P. 

a licdOrivro \(T : ^/caflyji'To Ka.1 uinvv irpuffu fytvovro 1*. 

7 2 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. ix. 10-16 

said that about fifty would do, for 'they would never 
meet more than five of them going together ; how- 
ever, in order to forestall any unexpected circum- 
stance, it would do no harm to take with him even 
one hundred men ; and if he should double this 
number it would be still better from every point 
of view ; for no harm could come to a man from 
the larger number. Glones accordingly picked out 
two hundred horsemen, and bade the fellow lead 
the way for them. But he insisted that it was 
better for him to be sent first to spy out the ground, 
and, if he should bring back word that he had 
seen Romans -still going about in the same districts, 
that then the Persians should make their sally at the 
fitting moment. Accordingly, since he seemed to 
Glones to speak well, he was sent forward by his 
own order. Then he came before the general 
Patricius and explained everything ; and the general 
sent with him two of his own body-guard and a 
thousand soldiers. These he concealed about a 
village called Thilasamon, forty stades distant from 
Amida, among valleys and woody places, and in- 
structed them to remain there in this ambush ; he 
himself then proceeded to the city on the run, and 
telling Glones that the prey was ready, he led him 
and the two hundred horsemen upon the ambush 
of the enemy. And when they passed the spot 
where the Romans were lying in wait, without being- 
observed by Glones or any of the Persians, he roused 
the Romans from their ambuscade and pointed out 
to them the enemy. And when the Persians saw 
the men coming against them, they were astounded 



73 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



Kare7T\dyijcrdv re ra> aTTpoaSoKrjrw real 
'X a via rro\\f) efyovro. ovre yap orricrw arre\av- 
veiv oloi Te rjcrav, Kara vcarov ovrcov afyicri rwv 
evavriwv, ovre nrj erepwcre <f>evyeiv ev yfj iroXeuia 

17 ebvvavro. etc Be rwv rrapovrwv to? e9 fjud^tjv 
ra^dpevoi rou? embvras r^jivvovro, r& re rr\rj6ei 
rrapa rro\v eXacrcrovfievoi, rjacnjOrjcrdv re Kal %vi> 

18 Tc3 T\(0vr) arravres BiefiOdprja-av. orrep CTreiBrj 
6 rov FXcoi/of vi'o? e/JLaOe, 7repia\ r yijcra<i re Kal rw 

^ewv ori 8rj rm rrarpl a^vveiv OVK el%e, rov 
vewv eKavaev, dyiov dvSpos, iva &r) 6 

19 rXc>y?79 Kare\ve. Kairoi aXXvjv riva oiKO$o/jiiav 
ovre FXw^9 ovre Ka/3aS?79, ov fj,r)v ov6e TIepa-wv 
T9 a\Xo? ovre KaOe\eii> eyvw ovre r<w aX,Xw 
a<f>avieiv rpbrrw ev ye 'A^iSy rj ravrr)s eT09. 
eyca 8e errl rov rrpbrepov \ojov eTrdvei/jii. 

20 Qvrw JAW "AfiiSav 'Pw/naloi ra xpijfiara Sevres 
arre\a(3ov Bvo eviavrols varepov rj rrpos rwv 
Tro\efjiia)v ed\o). Kal errel ev ravrrj eyevovro, 77 
re avrwv o\tjcopia Kal Hepcrwv TO Kaprepbv rf)<> 

21 Siairrjs eyvaxrOr). airlwv yap ra>v evrav6a 
\e\ei./ji/jiev(ov TO fierpov Kal ffapftdpwv rwv e%e\rj- 
\v6brwv rov oui,\ov \oyicrduevoi, errra adXiara 
rjuepwv rjvpicTKOV Barrdvtjv ev rf) rrb\ei drro\e\ec- 
<f)6ai, Kairrep Y\(*)vov re Kal rov eKeivov rraio'ds 
evBeeo-repcas rj Kara rijv %peiav rro\\ov %p6vov 

22 evSiSovros ra atria Tlepffais. 'P&)/u,aiot9 yap 
Tot9 ev rfj TroXet, wcrrrep aoi 7rpo8e8rj\a)rai, %vv 

/j,eivacriv ovBev TO Trapdrrav %opr/yelv eyvw- 






74 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. ix. 16-22 

at the suddenness of the thing, and were in much 
distress what to do. For neither could they retire 
to the rear, since their opponents were behind them, 
nor were they able to flee anywhere else in a hostile 
land. But as well as they could under the cir- 
cumstances, they arrayed themselves for battle and 
tried to drive back their assailants ; but being at a 
great disadvantage in numbers they were vanquished, 
and all of them together with Glones were destroyed. 
Now when the son of Glones learned of this, being 
deeply grieved and at the same time furious with 
anger because he had not been able to defend his 
father, he fired the sanctuary of Symeon, a holy man, 
where Glones had his lodging. It must be said, 
however, that with the exception of this one building, 
neither Glones nor Cabades, nor indeed any other 
of the Persians, saw fit either to tear down or to 
destroy in any other way any building in Amida at any 
rate, or outside this city. But I shall return to the 
previous narrative. 

Tli us the Romans by giving the money recovered 
Amida two years after it had been captured by the 
enemy. And when they got into the city, their 
own negligence and the hardships under which the 
Persians had maintained themselves were discovered. 
For upon reckoning the amount of grain left there 
and the number of barbarians who had gone out, 
they found that rations for about seven days were 
left in the city, although Glones and his son had 
been for a long time doling out provisions to the 
Persians more sparingly than they were needed. 
For to the Romans who had remained with them in 
the city, as I have stated above, they had decided to 
dispense nothing at all from the time when their 

75 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAHKA 



crav, e orov oi TroXe/^ioi 9 rrjv 7ro\iopKiav Kare- 
arrjcrav, ot Br) e<? PpciHreis dijffeis ra Trpwra 
e\06vre$ rwv re ov de/Mrwv d^rdfjievoi Trdvrwv, 

23 elra reX^evrwvres Kal d\\rj\(ov eyevcravro. Bio 
Sij e^ijTraTTj/jievoi re Trpbs rcov ftapftdpwv ol crrpa- 
rrjyol ycrdovro fcal rols <rr par tear ais rijv d/cpa- 
criav mveiBi^ov, ori Srj d7rei0e<rrepov<; avrovs 
Trape^o^evoi vfyivi, Trapov &opva\<arov<; Ile/jcra? 
re TocrouTovs TO 'jr\r)6o^ Kal T\(ovov rov vlov avv 
rrj TroXet. e\eiv, ol 8e ra 'Pcafjaiwv %prjfAara e? 
TOV9 7roXe/ziou9 fjiereveytcovres alcr^09 re dveSrj- 
aavro peya Kal "A./j,iSav dpryvpwvrirov irpos 

24 Tlepcrayv e\aftov. vcrrepov Be Tlepaai, rov ?r/jo9 
Ovvvovs TroXe/iou crtyicrt fjLrjKVvo/jievov, 9 crTrovBas 
f Pft>yu,atoi9 ^vvLacnv, aiVep avrols 9 eTrra errj 
eyevovro, KeA,e/)09 re rov 'Pa>/j,aiov teal 'A<T7re- 
/3eSof rov Tlep&ov avras Troirjcra/Aevwv, e?r' OIKOV 
re d/jL<j>6repoi dva^wpricravref fauxf) ejtevov. 

25 ovra> jJiiv, wcnrep epprjOv), dpd(j.evo<; 6 'Patfuiiwv 
re Kal Tlepcrwv 7roA.e/zo9 e? roBe ere\evra. ra 

epwv 



X 

1 To KtXt(yy 0/009 6 Tavpos ajjvelfiei jj,ev ra 
Trpwra Ka7T7ra6o/ca9 re Kal 'Ap[i,eviovs Kal r&v 
Tlepcrap/J-evitov Ka\ov ptvwv rrjv jijv, ert /jievroi 
'A\/3avov<> re Kal "Iftripas, Kal ocra aXXa eOv>j 
avrovofjid re Kal Tlepffaif KarrJKoa ravrrj MKtjvrai. 

2 e^iKveirai yap 69 -%<i)pai> 7ro\\t')i>, Trpoiovn Be del 
ru opo9 rovro 0*9 peya n. ^pfjfjLa evpovs re Kal 
76 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. ix. 2 2-x. 2 

enemy began the siege ; and so these men at first 
resorted to unaccustomed foods and laid hold on 
every forbidden thing, and at the last they even 
tasted each other's blood. So the generals realized 
that they had been deceived by the barbarians, and 
they reproached the spldiers for their lack of self- 
control, because they had shown themselves wanting 
in obedience to them, when it was possible to capture 
as prisoners of war such a multitude of Persians and 
the son of Clones and the city itself, while they 
had in consequence attached to themselves signal 
disgrace by carrying Roman money to the enemy, 
and had taken Amida from the Persians by pur- 
chasing it with silver. After this the Persians, since r>oc .\.t>. 
their war with the Huns kept dragging on, entei'ed 
into a treaty with the Romans, which was arranged 
by them for seven years, and was made by the 
Roman Celer and the Persian Aspebedes ; both 
armies then retired homeward and remained at 
peace. Thus, then, as has been told, began the 
war of the Romans and the Persians, and to this end 
did it come. But I shall now turn to the narration 
of the events touching the Caspian Gates. 

X 

THE Taurus mountain range of Cilicia passes first 
Cappadocia and Armenia and the land of the so- 
called Persarmenians, then also Albania and Iberia 
and all the other countries in this region, both 
independent and subject to Persia. For it extends 
to a great distance, and as one proceeds along this 
range, it always spreads out to an extraordinary 

77 



PROCOPIUS OF CARS A RE A 

3 injrof9 BiijKei. vjrepftdvri, Be TOU? 'I/ity'pw opov? 
drparros ri<> ecrriv eV ffrevo^wpia 7ro\.\fj, errl 

4 <rraBiov<; rrevrrfKovra e^iKvov/jLevrj. avrr) Be rj 
drparrbf e? drrorofjiov nva Kal oX&>9 aftarov re- 
\evra %a>pov. BioBos jap ovBe/jiia TO \onrbv <f>ai- 
verai, TrKrjv ye ST) ori wcnrep TWO, %eipo7roir)Tov 
jrvXiBa evravda >} 0u<ri? e^evpev, r) KaaTria e'/c 

5 ira\aiov K\tj8r). TO Be evOevBe TreBla re 
iTTTT^XaTa teal vBdra>v TTO\\O!)V drrevv&i 

Kal X^P a iro\\r) /TTTTO/SOTO? Te Kol aXXct)? inrria. 
ov 8r) TO, Ovvvfov Wvf] cr^eBov n ajravra 'iBpvrai 

7 %/>* e? frjv ^Aaiwnv Birjtcovra \lfjLVifv. ovroi r\v 
fj-ev Bia T?)? 7TLXt'So9 ^9 apri e^vrjcrdrfv IWGIV e? Ta 
Tlepcrwv re KOI e Pa)fj,aia)v ijffr}, a,Kpai<f)veo-i re Tot? 
'imrois tacri /cat TrepioBy nvl ovBapf) -^pco/jievoi 
ovBe icprj/jivcbBea'iv evrv%6vres ^wpiois, ort, fir) TOI<? 
Trevrrjfcovra crraBiois etceiyots olcnrep et? TOU? 

8 'lyS^yotou? 0/30U9, wcrrrep epprjQr), Birj/covcriv. CTT' 
aXXa? Be rivas e6Bov<> ibvres rr6vu> re TroXXro 
Trapaiyivovrai Kal 'iTnrois ov/cert, %pf)cr0ai rols 
avrois e'xovre^. TrepioBovs re yap avrovs rrepi- 
tevai TroXXa? eTrdvayices Kal ravra<> Kprj/AvcoBeis. 

9 oTrep eireiBr) 6 3?i\'(,mrov 'AXe^avSpo? Karevoycre, 
7ruXa9 Te ev %(*>pu> ereKrtjvaro rw elprj/Aevta Kal 
<pv\aKrrjpiov Karearrjcraro. o Brj aXXoi re TroXXo/ 
7T/3oioi/TO9 ypovov ea^ov Kal 'A/i/3a^bi//c7;9, Ovvvos 
p-ev yevos, Pa>/iaioi9 Be Kal ' Xvaa raaiw /SatriXel 

10 0tXo9. CWTO9 'Ayu,/3a^oy^9, erretBr) e9 Te yfjpin; 
dtpiKro (3aOv Kal re\evrav e'yiieXXe, 7re/u.-^ra9 rrapa 
rov 'Avaardcriov, xpij/jwird ol Bodrjvai fjrec, e<f>' o> 
TO Te (pv\aKrr/piov Kal TrvXas Ta9 Kao~7rta9 ev- 

78 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. x. 2-10 

breadth and rises to an imposing height. And as 
one passes beyond the boundary of Iberia there 
is a sort of path in a very narrow passage, extending 
for a distance of fifty stades. This path terminates 
in a place cut off by cliffs and, as it seems, absolutely 
impossible to pass through. For from there no way 
out appears, except indeed a small gate set there by 
nature, just as if it had been made by the hand of 
man, which has been called from of old the Caspian 
Gates. From there on there are plains suitable for 
riding and extremely well watered, and extensive 
tracts used as pasture land for horses, and level 
besides. Here almost all the nations of the Huns 
are settled, extending as far as the Maeotic lake. 
Now if these Huns go through the gate which I have 
just mentioned into the land of the Persians and 
the Romans, they come with their horses fresh and 
without making any detour or encountering any 
precipitous places, except in those fifty stades over 
which, as has been said, they pass to the boundary 
of Iberia. If, however, they go by any other passes, 
they reach their destination with great difficulty, and 
can no longer use the same horses. For the detours 
which they are forced to make are many and steep 
besides. When this was observed by Alexander, the 
son of Philip, he constructed gates in the aforesaid 
place and established a fortress there. And this was 
held by many men in turn as time went on, and 
finally by Ambaxouces, a Hun by birth, but a friend " 
of the Romans and the Emperor Anastasius. Now 
when this Ambazouces had reached an advanced age 
and was near to death, he sent to Anastasius 
asking that money be given him, on condition 
that he hand over the fortress and the Caspian 

79 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



1 1 owcrei 'Pfo/JMLOif. ftacriXevs be 'Avao-racrto? (opdv 
yap dveTno-Kerrrws ovoev ovre rjiriararo ovre 
7/<ra/ii>o9 on ol err par tear a<$ evravOa 
dovvara fjv ev ^wptM epyjup re dyaOwv 
KOI ovSafAr) ev yeirovcov %OVTI edvos 
KarrjKoov, 'Xjdpiv /j,ev TM avBp(i)7ra) TT}? 
e? avrov evvoias iro\\r]V to/ioXoyet, TO Be epyov 
12 TOVTO ov&evl \6ya) irpoaiero. 'A/i/Safou^? fiev 
ovv ov 7roXX&> varepov ere\evra vocra), 
8e /3ia<rdfJ,vo<; TOVS avrov TratSa? r9 



'Aya<TTacrto9 re /3as"iXeu<?, eTrei&r) eyevovro avrw 
al 7T/909 KaySaS;j/ cnrov&ai, iro\iv eSetfiaro ev 
%fi)pi(t) Aa/ja? o-^ypdv re vTreptyvws teal \6yov 

14 a^iav, avrov /3acrtXea)9 eTrwvvjjLOv. aTre^ei Se avrt} 
7roXe<w9 /ier Nto-tyStSo? 0Ta5tou9 e/carov Svoiv Se- 
ovras, %w/3a<? 8e ^ ra 'Pco/Jiaiwv re Kal Tlepff&v 

!."> Siopi^ei oTft) /cat eiKOcri fjidXicrra. Tlepcrai 8e 
Kd)\viv rrjv oifcoSo/Jiiav (TTTOVOTJV e%ovre<; ou8a/i?} 
ta-^vov do")(o\ia rrf e<? TroXe/iov rov OVVVIKOV 

16 TTie^ofievoi. eTreiSij re avrov ra^tcrra Ka/JaSr/? 
/careXvcre, Trep^ra^ rrapa f P&)/zatot;9 rjridro TTO\IV 
avrovf olKooofj,TJcra<T0ai dy%io~rd TTOV rwv crfare- 
po)v opiwv, dTreipvjuevov rovro ev rot? Mr;Sot9 re 

17 /cat 'Pwftaiois vyicei pivots rd Trporepa. rare p,ev 
ovv 'Ai>a<TTacrto9 ra /zef aTretXcoi/, rd Se (j)i\iav re 
rrjv e9 avrov Trporeivofjievos Kal xpijjAacriv ov 
<f>av\oi<f Scopov/jievos, Trapaicpoveo-Qai re Kal rrjv 

18 air Lav ic\vetv r)de\e. Kal rroiXiv oe dX\,rjv ravrrj 
6/j.oiav ev 'Ap/jLeviois o /Sao'tXet'9 ouro9 dy^ordrto 



80 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. x. 10-18 

Gates to the Romans. But the Emperor Anastasius 
was incapable of doing anything without careful 
investigation, nor was it his custom to act thus ; 
reasoning, therefore, that it was impossible for him 
to support soldiers in a place which was destitute of 
all good things, and which had nowhere in the 
neighbourhood a nation subject to the Romans, he 
expressed deep gratitude to the man for his good-will 
toward him, but by no means accepted this pro- 
position. So Ambazouces died of disease not long 
afterwards, and Cabades overpowered his sons and 
took possession of the Gates. 

The Emperor Anastasius, after concluding the 
treaty with Cabades, built a city in a place called 
Daras, exceedingly strong and of real importance, 
bearing the name of the emperor himself. Now this 
place is distant from the city of Nisibis one hundred 
stades lacking two, and from the boundary line 
which divides the Romans from the Persians about 
twenty-eight. And the Persians, though eager to 
prevent the building, were quite unable to do so, 
being constrained by the war with the Huns in 
which they were engaged. But as soon as Cabades 
brought this to an end, he sent to the Romans and 
accused them of having built a city hard by the 
Persian frontier, though this had been forbidden in 
the agreement previously made between the Medes 
and the Romans. 1 At that time, therefore, the 
Emperor Anastasius desired, partly by threats, and 
partly by emphasizing his friendship with him and 
by bribing him with 110 mean sum of money, to 
deceive him and to remove the accusation. And 
another city also was built by this emperor, similar 
1 Cf. Book I. 15. 

81 

\0l. I. (i 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

TMV Tlepcrdpfjbevias opimv, rj K(0fj,rj fiev etc 
7ra\aiou ervyxavev ovo-a, 7roXe&)9 Be a^iw/za ^expi 
69 TO 6vofjt,a 7T/3O9 60&ocriov /3acrtXe&>9 Xa/3ot)cra 
19 CTrcovvfio*; ai/TOv eyeyovei. aXX' ' Ava<rTa<rto<; 
avrrjv o^vpcordra) TrepiftaXoDV 
rt, ^a-ffov r) Sia 

jap avrv T %wpa 76- 
<yovev 



XI 



1 'Avacrracriou 8e oXiyy vcrrepov re\VTij(rai>TO<t 
'lovarivo<; TTJV /Bacrikeiav TrapeXafiev, aTre\rj\a- 
fjievwv avrfjs TWV ' Avacrracriov ^vyyevwv airdvrwv, 
tcaiTrep TroXXoiy re /cal \iav eTri<f>ava>v ovrwv. 

2 rare 8rj /j,epifji,vd r<9 KaftdSij eyevero /JLIJ n Tlepaai 

69 TOV avTov OLKOV, eTreiSav rd^iaTa 
reKevrrj&r) TOV ftlov, eVei ov&e dvTi\o<yia<> 
e*9 rfav TraiScov riva Tra/jaTre/^rat rrjv dp^v 

3 e/u.eXXe. TW/V <ydp 01 TralScov TOV Trpea-ftvTaTov 
Kaocrrjv T->}9 /j,ev r)\iKia<f eve/ca 9 TJJV fiacrtXeiav 6 
PO/A09 efcdXei, d\\d K-a/SdSijv ovSapr) -tjpecrKev. 
ej3id%TO Be TIJV re <j>vcriv /cal ra vo/j,ifj.a r; TOV 

4 7raT/3O9 yvtojAr). Zdf^rjv 8e, 09 T BevTepeta e<j>epTO, 

Tolv 0^>6a\^,olv TOV TpOV KKKO/J,/J,eVOV KO)\V6V 

6 vo/iO9. Tep6<j)da\/j,ov yap r} aXXrj TIVI Xft)/3r; 
e'xpfj&vov ov OefJiis Hepcrais /3aai\ea KaQicfracrQai. 

5 Xoo-poT/z/ 8e, 09 avT& e/c Tr)<? 'AcrTre/Se^of d&e\(f>f)s 

vTreprfyd-Tra fj-ev 6 TraT^p, opwv 8e TTe/oaa? 



82 



HISTORY OF THE WARS. I. x. T 8-xi. 5 

to the first, in Armenia, hard by the boundaries of 
PcTsarmenia ; now in this place there had been a 
village from of old, but it had taken on the dignity 
of a city by the favour of the Emperor Theodosius 
even to the name, for it had come to be named after 
him. 1 But Anastasius surrounded it with a very sub- 
stantial wall, and thus gave offence to the Persians 
no less than by the other city ; for botli of them 
are strongholds menacing their country. 



XI 

AND when a little later Anastasius died, Justinus Aug. i, 
I'eceived the empire, forcing aside all the kinsmen u 
of Anastasius, although they were numerous and 
also very distinguished. Then indeed a sort of 
anxiety came over Cabades, lest the Persians should 
make some attempt to overthrow his house as soon 
as he should end his life; for it was certain that he 
would not pass on the kingdom to any one of his sons 
without opposition. For while the law called to the 
throne the eldest of his children Caoses by reason 
of his age, he was by no means pleasing to Cabades ; 
and the father's judgment did violence to the law of 
nature and of custom as well. And Zames, who was 
second in age, having had one of his eyes struck out, 
was prevented by the law. For it is not lawful for 
a one-eyed man or one having any other deformity 
to become king over the Persians. But Chosroes, 
who was born to him by the sister of Aspebedes, the 
father loved exceedingly ; seeing, however, that all 
the Persians, practically speaking, felt an extravagant 
' .Modern Erzerouni. 

33 
o 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESARRA 

<r%&6v ri elrcelv artavras redrjTroras rr)V 
dvbpeiav (r}v yap dyaffos rd 7roXe/ua) Kal rrjv 
dXXrjv dperrjv creftovras, eSeicre fj,r) Xocrporj 
erravaaravres epya dvrJKecrra e9 TO yevos Kal rrjv 
6 ftaaiXeiav epydcrwvrai. e$oev ovv avrw dpiarov 
elvai rov re rr6\ep,ov Kal Ta9 TO) TroXe/iou air'ias 



ro9 'lovcrTiVti) /3a<ri\ei yevoiro' ovrco yap oi 
fj,6v(o<; TO o-xypov eVi rfi dp%f] Siaataa-aaBat. 1 
~8ib Srj Trpeafteis re vrrep rovrwv Kal ypdfj,/j,ara e? 

7 T$vdvnov ^lovcrriva) /SaatXet eTre/ii/rei'. eS^Xof 8e 
i) ypatyr) rdSe" " Ov Sifcaia p.ev rrerrovOevai rrpos 
'Pcofjiaiwv rj/J,as Kal a WTO? olcrda, eya) 8e V/MV rd 
eyK\r)/jiara rrdvra dtfrelvai rravre\ws eyvatKa, 
eKeivo eiSee>9, a>9 ovroi av p,d\iara rwv avOpdnr&v 
vLK&ev, o'L ye, rrpoaovros avrois rov SiKaiov, elra 
eXacrcrov/j-evoi eKovres elvai r<av (f>i\(i)v rfa-a-wv- 

8 rat. *X,dpiv fj-evroi airovpai ae vrrep rovrcov nvd, 
r) av ov% r;/*a9 avrovs /MOVOV, d\Xd Kal TO eKarepov 
VTTijKOOv arrav 69 re TO %vyyeve<; crvvBeovcra Kal 
rrjv arc* avrov 009 TO et/co9 evvoiav, 9 Kopov 8ij 
TTOV rwv T?)9 eipijvrj? dyadwv Karacrnjcraa-dai 

9 iKavrj eitj. \eyco 8e O7T<W9 av Xo&porjv rov e/tov, 
09 yu,of T?}9 fBacriXeias BidSo^o^ ecrrai, elarroirfrov 
rral8a TroitJGaio" 

10 Tavra enel drreve^devra ^\ovcrrlvo<; j3a<rt\evs 
el8ev, auT09 re rrepL^aprf^ eyevero Kal 'Iov<rrtvt- 
ai/o9 o y3a(7t\ea>9 dSe\<j>i8ov<;, 09 8r) avrw Kal rrjv 

11 jSacriXeiav eK$ea(rdai e7rt'5o^o9 TJV. Kal Kara 
TapO9 69 rrjv rrpafyv r/Treiyea'dtjv rrjv 

1 Sictffwfffffdai Herwerden. 
84 






HISTORY OF THE WARS, 1. xi. 5-11 

admiration for the manliness of Zanies (for he was a 
capable warrior), and worshipped his other virtues, he 
feared lest they should rise against Chosroes and do 
irreparable harm to the family and to the kingdom. 
Therefore it seemed best to him to arrange with the 
Romans to put an end both to the war and the 
causes of war, on condition that Chosroes be made 
an adopted son of the Emperor Justinus ; for only 
in this way could he preserve stability in the govern- 
ment. Accordingly he sent envoys to treat of this 
matter and a letter to the Emperor Justinus in 
Byzantium. And the letter was written in this 
wise : " Unjust indeed has been the treatment which 
we have received at the hands of the Romans, as 
even you yourself know, but I have seen fit to 
abandon entirely all the charges against you, being 
assured of this, that the most truly victorious of all 
men would be those who, with justice on their side, 
are still willingly overcome and vanquished by their 
friends. However I ask of you a certain favour in 
return for this, which would bind together in kinship 
and in the good-will which would naturally spring 
from this relation not only ourselves but also all our 
subjects, and which would be calculated to bring us 
to a satiety of the blessings of peace. My proposal, 
then, is this, that you should make my son Chosroes, 
who will be my successor to the throne, your adopted 
son." 

When this message was brought to the Emperor 
Justinus, he himself was overjoyed and Justinian 
also, the nephew of the emperor, who indeed was 
expected to receive from him the empire. And 
they were making all haste to perform the act of 



eV 7pa//./Aa<7t deaQai fj yo/i09 'PwfAaiois, el //.r) 
n/9o#Xo9 eKG)\v(Tev, 09 ftacriXel rare TrapijBpeve 
rrjv rov Ka\ovjJ.evov KOiaiaraipo^ dp^rjv %a)v, 
dvrjp BiKaios re teal ^prj^aTwv 8m</>ai>&>9 dBcopo- 

12 raro9. Sto BTJ ovre VOJAOV riva evTTeT&S eypcupev 
ovre Tt, TWV tcadecnaiTwv tciveiv ijde~\,ev, 09 Kal 

13 Tore avraiputv \ee roid&e' " NewTe/oo/9 fj,ev 

TrpdjfAacriv ovre . eiw&a fcal 
rrdvrwv /LtaXtcrra, ev el&ats on ev 
TO ye a<r<a\e9 ovS 

14 BOKO) Be fjuoi, el Kal \iav. ri$ TJV irepl ravra 
Opa&vs, aTroKvrjcrai av 69 TijvBe TTJV rrpafyv Kal 

15 KaToppa>Br)crai TOV e avrf)<> crd\ov ou yap a\\o 
ovSev olftai ev ye T> rrapovn rj/MV ev j3ov\fj 
elvai rj 07r&)9 av ra 'Pajf^aicov Trpdy^ara Ilepcrat9 
evrfperfel TrapaSoL'rjfAev \6ya>, o'i ye OVK eyKpv<f>id- 

ovSe Tra/oaTreracr/Aacrt TKTL ^pcof^evoi, 

ofjLoXoyovvTes TO y3ouXef//,a, 
dveSrjv d(j)aipeiaBat TTJV fiacriXeiav r)/j,a<? d 

9 CLTcairj^ (fravepy TTJV d(f>e\eiav rrpo'L- 
\6yu> Be dvaiBet Trjv drcpayiMoavvr]v 
10 7rpof3e/3\r)/j,evoi,. KaiToi xpfjv CKaTepov v/j,wv 
Tavrrjv T&V ftapftdpcov ri]v rtelpav rcavri arro- 
KpovecrOai aOevei- are fiev, & j3a<ri\ev, O7rco9 
efys j3acri\v<t vfrraro^, ere Be, 
e, O7T&)9 av fj,r) cravry 69 TTJV /3aai\eiav 
17 ef^TToBcbv yei>oio. TCL fj,ev yap aXXa ff 
\oyov a>9 eVi rc\el<JTOv (refivoT^ 
f<ra)9 av TTOV Kal eyo/i//yea>9 T0t9 ?roXXot9 BCOITO, 
86 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, 1. xi. 11-17 

setting down in writing the adoption, as the law of 
the Romans prescribes and would have done so, 
had they not been prevented by Proclus, who was at 
that time a counsellor to the emperor, holding the 
office of quaestor, as it is called, a just man and one 
whom it was manifestly impossible to bribe ; for this 
reason he neither readily proposed any law, nor was 
he willing to disturb in any way the settled erder of 
things ; and he at that time also opposed the pro- 
position, speaking as follows : " To venture on novel 
projects is not my custom, and indeed I dread them 
more than any others ; for where there is innovation 
security is by no means preserved. And it seems to 
me that, even if one should be especially bold in 
this matter, he would feel reluctance to do the 
thing and would tremble at the storm which would 
arise from it ; for I believe that nothing else is 
before our consideration at the present time than 
the question how we may hand over the Roman 
empire to the Persians on a seemly pretext. For they 
make no concealment nor do they employ any 
blinds, but explicitly acknowledging their purpose 
they claim without more ado to rob us of our empire, 
seeking to veil the manifestness of their deceit under 
a show of simplicity, and hide a shameless intent 
behind a pretended unconcern. And yet both of you 
ought to repel this attempt of the barbarians with all 
your power ; thou, O Emperor, in order that thou 
mayst not be the last Emperor of the Romans, and 
thou, O General, that thou mayst not prove a 
stumbling block to thyself as regards coming to the 
throne. For other crafty devices which are com- 
monly concealed by a pretentious show of words 
might perhaps need an interpreter for the many, 

87 



PROCOPIUS OF CARSAREA 

avrtj 8e avriKpvs etc TrpooifAiwv evdvs rj irpeafteia 
rib 'Pw/jiaiwv /3acri\ei Xoa-poyv rovrov, oans 
18 TTore ecrTt, K\rjpovonov elarroielv /3ov\erai. ov- 
rwcrl yap JAOI rrepl rovrcov Sia\oyi^ecrde' 1 fyvaei 
T0t<? Traicrl ra rwv Trarepwv oc^eiXerai, o'i re vop-oi 
T&> &ia\\d(TcrovTi d\\ij\oi<; del ev iraaiv dvOpoo- 
iAa%6fj,evot evravOa ev re 'Pw/Aatot? /cat 
fiapftdpois ^vvlaai re KOI gvvo/j.o\oyovvres 
KVpiovf aTTCxftaiVovcri TOV? TratSa? elvai 
rov [TOU] Trarpbs /cXtjpov. two-re ra Trpwra 
e\0fji,evoi<; vfjitv iravra XeXet^erat ra \onrd 



19 n30r\O9 j,ev ro<ravra elire. SacrtXei"? Se 



fj,ev ro<ravra eire. 
6 y8acrt\ea)9 dSe\<j>i8ov<; rov$ re 
20 KOI TO TT pater eov ev ftov\fi eTroiovvro. ev TOUTW 
Se Kal aXXa Ka/SaS?;? ypd/^fiara irpos 'lov&rivov 
flacriXea Tre/i-^ra?, avSpas re avrbv crreTKai SOKI- 
/iot><? r)%lov, e^>' w T^I/ elprfvrjv TT/JO? avrbv 
0r}(TOvrai, Kal ypd^/MKri rov rpoirov 
KaO* ov dv avrw rrjv rov TrcuSo? 

21 6e<rOai ftovKopAvw eir). Kal rore Srj ITpoXo9 
eri /jid\\ov rj rrporepov rrjv Ilepcrwv trelpav 
SteySaXXe, //-eXetv re avrois tcr'^vp^ero OTT&J? 8^ 
TO 'Pwfiaicov Kpdros crfylcnv avrois &)? dox^aXe- 

22 crrara Trpoa7roir)cr(avrai. Kal yvdo^rjv d7re<paive 
rrjv fj^v elpijvrjv avroi<? avriKa Srj /iaXa Trepai- 
veadai, dvBpas 8e rovs TrpcoTOf? e'/c /SacrtXew? e?r' 



dSr} icaff o ri Set 2 rrjv eo-iroiijtriv 

e edd. : Sia\o-yietr6ai VPW, 



7Tt<ri G. 

2 5? P : 81; VG. 

88 ' 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xi. 17-22 

but this embassy openly and straight from the very 
first words means to make this Chosroes, whoever 
he is, the adopted heir of the Roman Emperor. 
For I would have you reason thus in this matter : by 
nature the possessions of fathers are due to their 
sons and while the laws among all men are always 
in conflict with each other by reason of their varying 
nature, in this matter both among the Romans and 
among all barbarians they are in agreement and 
harmony with each other, in that they declare sons 
to be masters of their fathers' inheritance. Take 
this first resolve if you choose : if you do you must 
agree to all its consequences." 

Thus spoke Proclus ; and the emperor and his 
nephew gave ear to his words and deliberated upon 
what should be done. In the meantime Cabades 
sent another letter also to the Emperor Justinus, 
asking him to send men of repute in order to establish 
peace with him, and to indicate by letter the manner 
in which it would be his desire to accomplish the 
adoption of his son. And then, indeed, still more 
than before Proclus decried the attempt of the 
Persians, and insisted that their concern was to make 
over to themselves as securely as possible the Roman 
power. And he proposed as his opinion that the peace 
should be concluded with them with all possible 
speed, and that the noblest men should be sent 
by the emperor for this purpose ; and that these men 
must answer plainly to Cabades, when he enquired 
in what manner the adoption of Chosroes should be 



89 



PROCOPJUS OF CAESAREA 



yevo~8ai, BiapprjBrjv drroicpivao~6ai on Set 1 &>9 
/3ap/3ap&) rrpocr^Kei, Brj\o)v - on, ov 
ol ftdpfiapoi TO t>9 7rat8a9 <e<?>7roiovvrai, 
23 O7r\(av crKevf). ovrco roivvv TOU9 

'IofcrTti>O9 ftacriXevs drrerre^^raro, avBpas roi/9 
tt/)tcrTOi9 etyecr6ai crfyiaiv OVK e9 /JLaKpav 
01 rd re d^l rf) ctptfvg Kal rip 

24 \ocrpor) &>9 api&ra SioiKrjo'ovrai. jpdfjbfjiacri re 
Ka/3d8i]v Kara ravro rjfjbetyaro. o~reX\.ovrai 
roivvv K fj,ev 'Pca/^aiwv "Trrdnos, 'Ai/atrTatrtou 
rov Trpcarjv /3eySacriXeu/c;oT09 dSe\<j)iSovs, TrarpiKio? 
re Kal dpyfyv rfjs ea> rrjv (rrparijyiBa e^fov, Kal 

6 StX/3az/o) 7rat9, ev re TrarpiKiois dvrjp 
:al Ka/3aS?7 e rcarepwv avrwv 3 yvca- 

25 pifAOS' K Hepa&v Se dvrjp Bwartoraros re Kal 

dSpao~ra8dpav o-d\dvr)S Be TO a^t&)/za, Kal Me- 
20 /3oS*79, rrjv rov fMayiarpov %G)V dp%rjv. 01 8rj 
9 'X&pov riva ^vviovres 09 yr/v rrjv PwfMiLcov 
re Kal Tlepcrcov Siopi^et, d\Xij\oi<? re v>yyiv6- 
/jievot 7rpao~o~ov OTTOX; rd re 8id<f)opa 8ia\vcrov(rt 

27 Kal rd d/j,<j>l rrj elprjvrj ev drjo-ovrat. Y]K Be 

V _'- ? ' ? TTQTajAov Fiyprjv, 09 8r) 7ToXeG)9 N< 

leyei Bvolv rj/mepaiv oBw fj,d\io~ra, OTTO)?, 
ra 9 rrjv elprjvrjv eKarepois SoKy ce>9 dpi- 

28 crra e%etv, avrbs 9 15vdvnov are\\ot,ro. TroXXot 
//.ev ouv /cat aXXot \oyoi Trpos d/j,<f)orepa)v vrrep 
rwv ev o~(f)io~i, 8ia<popa)v eXeyovro, Kal yi}v Be rrjv 

1 Sfi Haury : $)) MSS. - Sr/Awv on VG : Sri^ov6ri P\V. 
3 aurw)/ Haury : OUTW VGH, aurou P. 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xi. 22-28 

accomplished, that it must be of the sort befitting a 
barbarian, and his meaning was that the barbarians 
adopt sons, not by a document, but by arms and 
armour. 1 Accordingly the Emperor Justinus dis- 
missed the envoys, promising that men who were the 
noblest of the Romans would follow them not long 
afterwards, and that they would arrange a settlement 
regarding the peace and regarding Chosroes in the 
best possible way. He also answered Cabades by 
letter to the same effect. Accordingly there were 
sent from the Romans Hypatius, the nephew of 
Anastasius, the late emperor, a patrician who also 
held the office of General of the East, and Rufinus, 
the son of Silvanus, a man of note among the 
patricians and known to Cabades through their 
fathers ; from the Persians came one of great power 
and high authority, Seoses by name, whose title was 
adi-astadaran salanes, and Mebodes, who held the 
office of magister. These men came together at a 
certain spot which is on the boundary line between 
the land of the Romans and the Persians ; there they 
met and negotiated as to how they should do away 
with their differences and settle effectually the 
question of the peace. Chosroes also came to the 
Tigris River, which is distant from the city of Nisibis 
about two days' journey, in order that, when the 
details of the peace should seem to both parties to be 
as well arranged as possible, he might betake himself 
in person to Byzantium. Now many words were 
spoken on both sides touching the differences 
between them, and in particular Seoses made 
mention of the land of Colchis, which is now called 

1 i.e. " by force," 

91 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESARKA 



f) vvv Aafytcr) e7riKa\eirat 
TIepo-wv ttarrJKOov TO dveteaQev ovcrav ftiaaa- 

29 fj,evov<} \6yw ovBevl c Pft>/u,aioi"> e%eiv. ravra 
'Pw/uaiot atcovcravTes Beiva erroiovvro, el Kal 
Aa^iKrj 777309 Tlepffwv dvrtXeyono. eVel Be Kal 
rrjv eaTroirfcriv etyacrtcov 8eiv ^/eveadai XOCT^OT; 
OWT&)? watrep ftapfidpw Trpoai^Kei, OVK dveicra 

30 Ile/oo-at? eSo^ev elvai. eKarepoi ovv Bia\v0evre<? 
eV OIKOV dve^caprjaav, teal XOO-^OT;? a7T/oaTO9 
TT^OO? TOV Trarepa (nriwv ar^ero, 7repi(i)8vv6s re wv 
rot? ^v/JiTreaovai Kal 'Pwyu-atoy? eu^o/u-ei/o? T>}9 
9 avrov vftpews TicracrOai. 

31 Mera S 



?7, a>9 eeTrrrje^, ov o 
7T/3O9 TOU SecrTTOTOf, Toy Aa^iKrjf \6yov Trpodeirj, 
rrjv elpr)vr)v etcKpovwv "TTrario) re tcoivo\oyr}crd- 
fjievo^ Trporepov, 69 Brj y3acrtXet TW oixeiqt euvoitcws 
co9 rJKio-ra e%a)v rijv re elprfvyv Kal rijv Xocrpoou 
evjrolricriv epyw CTTtTeX?} ou ew?; yevecrBai, TroXXa 
Se al aXXa Karrjyopovvres oi %0pol rbv ^eocrrjv 
32 e9 BiKrjv eKakovv. TIepcrcav fiev ovv r; ftov\r) 



v. r re yap p^y ov 
avrois eTTieiKws rj^dovro Kal rq> rpojrai 
33 TOU dvBpbs yaXe7ra>9 el^ov. rjv yap 6 Seocr?79 
Xp7)fAdra)v JAW dowporaros Kal rov oucaiov eVt- 
fjL\rjrr}<; aKpifiecrraros, d\aoveias oe votra) e^o- 
ov&ev oyu.ot&)9 Tot9 aXXot9 dv6pa>7rois. 
e<; /j,ev yap elvai BOKCI To?9 Tlepawv ap- 
rovro ye- ev Be ry Seocr?; Kal avrol (povro 



92 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xi. 28-33 

Lazica, saying that it had been subject to the 
Persians from of old and that the Romans had taken 
it from them by violence and held it on no just 
grounds. When the Romans heard this, they were 
indignant to think that even Lazica should be 
disputed by the Persians. And when they in turn 
stated that the adoption of Chosroes must take place 
just as is proper for a barbarian, it seemed to the 
Persians unbearable. The two parties therefore 
separated and departed homeward, and Chosroes 
with nothing accomplished was off to his father, 
deeply injured at what had taken place and vowing 
vengeance on the Romans for their insult to him. 

After this Mebodes began to slander Seoses to 
Cabades, saying that he had proposed the discussion 
of Lazica purposely, although he had not been in- 
structed to do so by his master, thereby frustrating 
the peace, arid also that he had had words previously 
with Hypatius, who was by no means well-disposed 
toward his own sovereign and was trying to prevent 
the conclusion of peace and the adoption of Chosroes ; 
and many other accusations also were brought for- 
ward by the enemies of Seoses, and he was summoned 
to trial. Now the whole Persian council gathered 
to sit in judgment moved more by envy than by 
respect for the law. For they were thoroughly 
hostile to his office, which was unfamiliar to them, 
and also were embittered by the natural temper of 
the man. For while Seoses was a man quite im- 
possible to bribe, and a most exact respecter of 
justice, he was afflicted with a degree of arrogance 
not to be compared with that of any other. This 
quality, indeed, seems to be inbred in the Persian 
officials, but in Seoses even they thought that the 

93 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

e*9 rd f^dXiara TO TrdBos 

34 e\eyov Be ot Karrfyopoi ravrd re a-Trep /iot TrpoBe- 
BrjXwrai Kal Co? tjKicrra rw dvdpwrrw ^ 

eirj ev rut KaOecrrwri T/OOTTCO ftioreveiv 

35 crT\\eiv ra Tlepcrwv vofLifui. /caivd re yap 
avTov 8ai/j,6via crefteiv Kal TeXevrtjcraa-av 

rrjv yvvatfca Od^rai, aTreiprj/jievov rot? 

vofAOis <yfj KpvTrreiv Trore ra rwv vetcp&v cra)jjt,aTa. 

36 01 [lev ovv SiKaGTal ddvarov rov dvdputirov 
tcaTeyvwcrav, KaySaS?;? &e wairep /tev ^vva\yovvTt, 
are <f)i\a) rw ^eoay eat/cei, ej;\<T@ai Be avrov 

37 ovSafiij r)9e\ev. ov ^v ov8e ore avrov Si' opyrjs 

e^rfveyrcev, d\\a r& \6y<a TrapdXveiv rovs 



Hepawv VOJAOVS OVK eftov\ero, tcaiTrep 

ra> dv0pa)7r(p cxfreiXwv, errei ol Seocr^? airiwraros 

yeyove ffiwvai, re teal {3aai\ei eivai. ovrco /j,ev 6 



38 77 Be dp^r) e avrov dp^afj,evr] e9 avrov ere\ev- 
rijffev. ere/909 ydp rt9 dSpaaraSdpav aa\dvv)s 
ovBel<f yeyove. teal 'Pov(f)ivo<; Be "Tirdnov e'9 

39 /3ao~iXea SieySaXXe. Btb Brj avrov re 7rape\vo- 
T^9 dp%f)<; /3acrtXeu9, Kal rwv ol eTTirrjBeiwv nvds 
TriKporara alKio~d/nevov ovBev vyies ev ravrrj rrj 
BiaftoXf} TO rcapuTrav evpe, KaKov /jLevroi ovBev 
"Tirdriov aXXo elpydcraro. 

XII 

Be Ka^a8>79, icatrrep ev aTrovof) e%(oi> 
riva e9 rwv 'Ptofiaimv TroieicrOat rrjv yf/v, 
a"\yaev, errel avrq> evavritofjia roiovBe 

94 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xi. 



had developed to an altogether extraordinary 
decree. So his accusers said all those things which 
have been indicated above, and added to this that 
the man was by no means willing to. live in the 
established fashion or to uphold the institutions of 
the Persians. For he both reverenced strange 
divinities, and lately, when his wife had died, he 
had buried her, though it was forbidden by the laws 
of the Persians ever to hide in the earth the bodies 
of the dead. The judges therefore condemned the 
man to death, while Cabades, though seeming to be 
deeply moved with sympathy as a friend of Seoses, 
was by no means willing to rescue him. He did not, 
on the other hand, make it known that he was angry 
with him, but, as he said, he was not willing to undo 
the laws of the Persians, although he owed the man the 
price of his life, since Seoses was chiefly responsible 
both for the fact that he was alive and also that he 
was king. Thus, then, Seoses was condemned and 
was removed from among men. And the office 
which began with him ended also with him. For no 
other man has been made adrastadaran salanes. 
Rufinus also slandered Hypatius to the emperor. 
As a result of this the emperor reduced him from 
his office, and tortured most cruelly certain of his 
associates only to find out that this slander was 
absolutely unsound ; beyond this, however, he did 
Hypatius no harm. 

. XII 

IMMEDIATELY after this, Cabades, though eager to, 
make some kind of an invasion into the laud of the 
Romans, was utterly unable to do so on account of 

95 



PROCOPIUS OF CARSAREA 

2 $-vvr)Vxjdri yevecrdai. "Iftrjpes 01 ev rfj 'Acrt'a 
ol/covai 7rpo9 avrais TTQV Tat? Kao"7uai9 I'bpvvrai 
7Tv\ai<f, aXrrep aurot? eicrt TTpbs /3oppdv ave/j.ov. 
KOI avrwv ev dpicrrepa p,ev e^o/tewr) TT/JO? Ta9 
>]\iov BvafMa^ Aa&Kij ecrnv, ev 8e^ia 8e 

.3 dvicr^ovra ij\iov ra Itlepawv edvij. ovros o 
XpiffTiavoL re elcri /cat ra fo/u/x 
<f>v\d<rcrovo'i TavTiys TrdvTwv fj,d\i(TTa d 

&>V T^yLtet? 1<T/J,V, KaTIJKOOl fJLCVTOl e* TTaXatOl) TOU 

4 ne/xrwi/ /SacrtXew? rvy^dvovcriv cWe?. TOTS Se 
avTovs ij0\ Ka^aS?/? e? TO- vo^ifw, rf)<> avrov 
5o^>;? ftid&adat. ical avrwv T&> /3acri\.ei Tovp- 
yevp e7re<TTeXXe T Te aXXa Troielv $ Hepcrat 
vopi^ovai teal TOU9 vexpoix; rfj yfj &><? ij/cia-ra 
KpvTTTeiv, aXX' opvicri re pnrreiv teal Kvalv 

a arravras. Bto Srj Fovpyevrjs Trpoa-^capeiv 'lou- 
<TTtv&) /SacrtXet ijde\e rd re Triffrd r)%iov \aftelv 
a>9 ovTrore "Ifirjpas Karajrporjcrovrai Ile/ocrat? 

G c Pa)/tiatot. o 8e ravrd re avrq> vv 7rpo0v/j-ia 
v} eSi8ov Kal TLpoftov rov ' Avacrraffiov rov 
d8e\(f>iSovv, avbpa Trarpitctov, 

7ToXXot9 9 BoCTTTOyOOy 7T /J,-^rV , efi 

crrpdrevfj,a Ovvvwv xprj/ACtcriv dvcnreicras 
9 ^v^a^iav, ecrri 8e TroXt? 
r; Bocr7ro/ao9, eV dpicrrepa fj,ev 
rov }Lveivov Ka\ovfj,evov Trovrov, Xe/3- 
e 7roXeo)9, ^ 7^9 T^9 'Po)fjLaio)v ecr-^drtj 
ecrriv, 68q> Ste^oucra rjjjiepMV LKOCTM>. &v 8rj ra 

8 ev /*ecr&) arcavra Qvvvot e^ovcriv. oi Be BOCTTTO- 
ptrai avrovo/j.oi p,ev TO TraXaibv (aicovv, 'lovarriva) 

9 Se /Sao-tXet evay^o<i 7rpocr%(i)pu> e^vwaav. 

96 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xii. 1-9 

the following obstacle which happened to arise. 
The Iberians, who live in Asia, are settled in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the Caspian Gates, 
which lie to the north of them. Adjoining them 
on the left towards the west is Lazica, and on the 
right towards the east are the Persian peoples. 
This nation is Christian and they guard the rites of 
this faith more closely than any other men known 
to us, but they have been subjects of the Persian 
king, as it happens, from ancient times. And just 
then Cabades was desirous of forcing them to adopt 
the rites of his own religion. And he enjoined upon 
their king, Gourgenes, to do all things as the 
Persians are accustomed to do them, and in 
particular not under any circumstances to hide 
their dead in the earth, but to throw them 
all to the birds and dogs. For this reason, then, 
Gourgenes wished to go over to the Emperor Jus- 
tinus, and he asked that he might receive pledges 
that the Romans would never abandon the Iberians 
to the Persians. And the emperor gave him these 
pledges with great eagerness, and he sent Probus, 
the nephew of the late emperor Anastasius, a man 
of patrician rank, with a great sum of money to 
Bosporus, that he might win over with money an army 
of Huns and send them as allies to the Iberians. 
This Bosporus is a city by the sea, on the left as one 
sails into the so-called Euxine Sea, twenty days' 
journey distant from the city of Cherson, which is 
the limit of the Roman territory. Between these 
cities everything is held by the Huns. Now in 
ancient times the people of Bosporus were autono- 
mous, but lately they had decided to become subject 
to the Emperor Justinus. Probus, however, departed 

97 

VOL. I. H 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



8e IIpo/8o9 evdevSe dirpatcros dve^o^prjcre, Ilerpov 
(rrparrjybv crvv Ovvvois nalv e? Aa&rcrjv /3acrt- 
Xeu9 eTre/i-^re Tovpyevrj ocrrj 6ura/u9 gvfj,fj.a%i]- 

10 <rovra. ev rovrw Se KaySaSr;? err par ev pa \6jov 
TToXXou d^iov eVt re Yovpyewriv KOI "Iftripas 
e7re/ii/re al crrparijyov dvSpa TLepcnyv, ovapifyv 

11 /y.ev TO a^iwfJM, BOT^J/ Se oi/o/ia. o re Tovpyevrjs 
eXd&ffcav o^>^ei9 ^ (frepeiv rrjv Hep<ra>i' e<f>oSov, 
eirei ol ra ex 'PcofAaLwv ov% tfcava TJV, gvv ^ 

rot? \oyifjiOi<f CLTraaiv e? Aafyfcrjv <j)vye, 1 
re yvvatKa Kal TOU? TratSa? ^uv rot? 
eTrayo/JLevos, wv Srj Hepdvios 6 Trpecr/SuTaro? ^v. 

12 ev 8e rot? Aa&fcrjs opiots <yv6ftevoi epzvov, rat? 
re Bv<T%(i)piai<> (frpa^dpevoi rou? Tro\efuov<> v$>i- 

13 (rravro. Hepcrcu Se avrots eTrKnrof^evoi ov$v o 
ri teal \oyov af;iov eTrpao-aov, rov 



14 "EvretTa 8e 01 re "I/S^e? e? Bv^ai/rioy Trape- 
yevovro Kal II expo? e? /3a.(Ti\ea 

, /cat TO \onrbv ySao-tXey? Aa^ot9 ou 
rrjv 



15 rev/Jid re /ecu ^iprjvalov dp%ovra 7re/i^a9. 
ev Aaot9 8uo ev6i>s elcnovri etc 



'I/3r)pia<> opiwv, wv rj <f>v\atcr) TO49 eT 

Tra\cuov e7rt/ieX^9 ^, tcaiirep 

e'xpfj&vot.s, ejrel ovre cr?T09 evravda ovre olvos ovre 

16 aXXo Tt d<yadov yiverai. ov fj,rjv ovSe rt erepaydev 
ecrtcofii^ecrdai Sid rrjv crrevo^capiav olov re ecrriv, 

17 on pr) (frepovrtav avdpcorrow. eXu//.ot9 pevroi rialv 

1 tyvye edd. : (pevyet MSS. 
98 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xii. 9-17 

from there without accomplishing his mission, and 
the emperor sent Peter as general with some Huns 
to Lazica to fight with all their strength for 
Gourgenes. Meanwhile Cabades sent a very con- 
siderable army against Gourgenes and the Iberians, 
and as general a Persian bearing the title of " varizes," 
Boes by name. Then it was seen that Gourgenes 
was too weak to withstand the attack of the Persians, 
for the help from the Romans was insufficient, and 
with all the notables of the Iberians he fled to Lazica, 
taking with him his wife and children and also his 
brothers, of whom Peranius was the eldest. And 
when they had reached the boundaries of Lazica, they 
remained there, and, sheltering themselves by the 
roughness of the country, they took their stand against 
the enemy. And the Persians followed after them 
but did nothing deserving even of mention since the 
circumstance of the rough country was against them. 
Thereafter the Iberians presented themselves at 
Byzantium and Petrus came to the emperor at his 
summons ; and from then on the emperor demanded 
that he should assist the Lazi to guard their country, 
even against their will, and he sent an army and 
Eirerxaeus in command of it. Now there are two 
fortresses in Lazica l which one comes upon imme- 
diately upon entering their country from the 
boundaries of Iberia, and the defence of them had 
been from of old in charge of the natives, although 
they experienced great hardship in this matter ; for 
neither corn nor wine nor any other good thing is 
produced there. Nor indeed ' can anything be 
carried in from elsewhere on account of the narrow- 
ness of the paths, unless it be carried by men. 
1 Cf. Book VIII. xiii. 15. 

99 
H 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Ivravda ytyvoftevoi*; elQicruevov crfyicriv ol Aa^ol 

18 drro^ffv ier%vov. rovrovs e%avacrrr)cra<s evQevSe 
/3a<ri\ev<} TGI/? cf)povpov<}, crrpana>ra<t 'Pw/Jiaiovs 
K\evev 67Ti rfj <f>v\atef) rcov cfrpovpliov KaOi- 

19 crracrdai. ols 877 /car' ap-^a^ ftev GTTiTijSeia /ioXtf 
Aa^ol ecfrepov, vaTepov 8e ay-rot re TTyoo? T^I/ 
viTovp<ylav aireiTrov Kal 'Ptw/iatot ra (frpovpia 
ravTa e^e\nrov, o'L re Hepaai TTOVQ avra ovSevl 
ecr%ov. ravra p,ev ev Aa^ot? yeyove, 

20 'Pa)/j,aioi 8e, StTTa re al BeXfcraptou rjyov- 
fjulvcav crtyicriv, e? Tlepcrap/jieviav rrjv Tlepcr(t)v 
KarrjKoov ea-/3a\6vT<> ^(apav re 7roX\.r)V e\rji- 
cravro teal 'Apfiei'iwv 7ra/t7roXu 77X^^09 av8pa- 

21 TTo&iaavres tnre^cap'rjo'av. rovra) Se TCO avSpe 
veavia fj,ev Kal Trpwrov vTrrjvtfra ija-rrjv, 'loucrTf- 
viavov 8e err parity ov Sopu<f)6pa), 09 S^ %pov(p 
varepov vv 'lovcrrivy rq> 6eLu> rrjv j3acrt\ei,av 

erepa? Se eo-ySoX?}? 'P&)/iatof9 69 'A/o- 
<ye<yevr)jjLevi]s Napcrrj<i re Kal 'Aparto9 rrapa 

22 So^av VTravndcravres e? ^elpa^ rj\6ov. o'i ov 
TroXXft) ijarepov 69 'P&)yu,atou9 re avr6fj,o\oi 'IKOVTO 
Kal %vv BeXtcraptw 69 'IraXtai^ ear par ever av, rare 
uevroi Tot9 d/i^>i ^Llrrav re Kal BeXfcr dp tov %vu- 

23 /3a\6vres TO rc\eov ecr^ov. etVe/3aXe Se /cat 
ap,$>l rrciXiv Nicri/Siv aXXrj 'Pcoftaicov err par id, 179 
Ai/3eXa/9f09 eV @/)a/C7;9 rfp'Xev. o'i cfrevyovres 
evOvcopov rrjv dva%a)prjcrii> erfoirjcravro, Kalrrep 

24 ouSei>09 crcfricnv erre^iovros. 810 Brj Ai/3e\dpiov 
uev irapeXvcre rfjs dp%fj<; /3acrt\vs, Be\tcrdptov 
Se cip^ovra Kard\.6ya)v rfav ev Aa/oa9 Karecrrij- 
craro. rore Brj avrq> ^u/i/3ofXo9 ypedr) 

09 rd8e g 
100 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xii. 17-24 

However, the Lazi were able to live on a certain 
kind of millet which grows there, since they were 
accustomed to it. These garrisons the emperor 
removed from the place and commanded that Roman 
soldiers should be stationed there to guard the for- 
tresses. And at first the Lazi with difficulty brought 
in provisions for these soldiers, but later they gave 
up the service and the Romans abandoned these 
forts, whereupon the Persians with no trouble took 
possession of them. This then happened in Lazica. 

And the Romans, under the leadership of Sittas 
and Belisarius, made an inroad into Persarmenia, a 
territory subject to the Persians, where they plundered 
a large tract of country and then withdrew with a 
great multitude of Armenian captives. These two 
men were both youths and wearing their first beards, 1 
body-guards of the general Justinian, who later 
shared the empire with his uncle Justinus. But 
when a second inroad had been made by the Romans 
into Armenia, Narses and Aratius unexpectedly 
confronted them and engaged them in battle. These 
men not long after this came to the Romans as 
deserters, and made the expedition to Italy with 
Belisarius ; but on the present occasion they joined 
battle with the forces of Sittas and Belisarius and 
gained the advantage over them. An invasion was also 
made near the city of Nisibis by another Roman army 
under command of Libelarius of Thrace. This army 
retired abruptly in flight although no one came out 
against them. And because of this the emperor 
reduced Libelarius from his office and appointed 
Belisarius commander of the troops in Daras. It was 
at that time that Procopius, who wrote this history, 527 A.D. 
was chosen as his adviser. 

1 Cf . Iliad xxiv. 348 ; Odyssey x. 279. I o i 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

XIII 

Be ov TroXA.0) vcrrepov 'lova-rivo*? ftacri,- 
rbv dBe\<f>tBovv 'lovcrTiviavbv vv avr& dvei- 
7ra>v Te\evTr)(re, Kal air 1 avrov e> /JLOVOV 'lov&ri- 

2 viavbv TI ySacrtXeta r)\6ev. OVTO9 'lovffTiviavbs 

^e\iffdpiov Bei/j,acrdaL <f>povpiov 
>, o 77/009 auTOt9 ecrTi ro?9 Tlepcrwv 

3 ev dpicrrepa 69 Ntcrt/3ty iovri. o ^ev ovv 
7ro\\fj ra j3acriX,i Bo^avra emre\ff errolei, TO re 



4 fjpeTO. Tlepcrai e aTretTroj; yu-^ 

7repaiT6pa> /jurjBev, ov Xoyois piovov, a\ka KOL rot9 
epyois Siatca)\vral aTreikovvres OVK 9 ^aicpav 

5 e<reo-0ai. ravra eVet /8acriXei9 rjicovaev (ov yap 
oto9 re 97^ BeXt<7a/3<o9 IIep<Ta9 evdevSe TCO Trapovri 
arpaTw cnroKpovecrdai), aX\,rjv re arpariav eirijy- 
yeXXev aurocre tei'at /cat KOUT^T;^ re /cat Boy^v, 
o* TCOV ev Ai/3dva> crrpaTKOTWv rjp^ov rore. TOVTW 
Be dSe\<f)(b fjiev etc pafcri<; ijcrrrjv, vea> 8e afjufra) 
Kal ov vv Te5 dcr(f)a\.6i Tot9 7To\6/^fcot9 ei9 %etpa9 

6 lovre. ercdrepoi /juev ovv v\\6 i yevT<; erri T^ 
oiKo^o/jiiav ddpooi yecrai', 1 Ile/ocrat /lev avrrjv 
Travrl crdevei SiaKa>\vcrovTe<>, 'Pa>/j,atoi oe roi9 

7 refcraivofjievois eirafJivvovvTes. fj,d^r}<; Be tcap- 
Tepas yevo/Jievijs r)o-(rS)VTai 'Pca/juatoi, <f>6vos re 
avT&v 7roXi9 yeyove, Tivas Be Kal efayprjaav 01 

8 TroXe/wot. ev TOVTOI? r)v Kal Kovrfys- 01)9 Brj 
ol Tlepcrai aTravras 9 ra olfceia r)6r) aTrayayovres, 

T TOV ' aTravra %povov ev (nnr)\ai(a 
Kal TOV <f>povpiov TVJV oi,Ko8o/j.iav 

1 tfetrav Braun : $<rav MSS. 






HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xiii. 1-8 

XIII 

NOT long after this Justinus, who had declared Apr. i, 521 
his nephew Justinian emperor with him, died, and Aug. i, 52 
thus the empire came to Justinian alone. This 
Justinian commanded Belisarius to build a fortress 
in a place called Mindouos, which is over against 
the very boundary of Persia, on the left as one 
goes to Nisibis. He accordingly Avith great haste 
began to carry out the decision of the emperor, 
and the fort was already rising to a considerable 
height by reason of the great number of artisans. 
But the Persians forbade them to build any further, 
threatening that, not with words alone but also with 
deeds, they would at no distant time obstruct the 
work. When the emperor heard this, inasmuch as 
Belisarius was not able to beat off the Persians from 
the place with the army he had, he ordered another 
army to go thither, and also Coutzes and Bouzes, who 
at that time commanded the soldiers in Libanus. 1 
These two were brothers from Thrace, both young 
and inclined to be rash in engaging with the enemy. 
So both armies were gathered together and came 
in full force to the scene of the building operations, 
the Persians in order to hinder the work with all 
their power, and the Romans to defend the labourers. 
And a fierce battle took place in which the Romans 
were defeated, and there was a great slaughter of 
them, while some also were made captive by the 
enemy. Among these was Coutzes himself. All 
these captives the Persians led away to their own 
country, and, putting them in chains, confined them 
permanently in a cave ; as for the fort, since no 

1 Lebanon. 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



en a \JL\JV o^vov et9 
9 "TcrTepov 8e /3acrtXeu9 'lovariviavbs (rrparrjybv 
T?}9 e&> BeXt<ra/Jtoi/ Karaarrjcrdfjievo^, crrpareveiv 
eVt Ilepaa? etceXevev, 6 8e crrpaTidv \oyov 

10 TroXXoD diav dyeipas 69 Aayoa? rj\0e. KO.I 01 

^vvSiafcocr/jiijcrwv rbv cnparov e/c 
d<J3tKero, TO TOI) /jiayi<rTpou d^iwfia 
%(0v, 09 BtTaXiayoS Traprj&peve Trporepov rjvi/ca 

11 ftacri\el ^Avacrracria) 7roXe/ito9 ^v. /cat 'Pou- 
<f>lvov 8e TrpecrftevTrjv ^acrfXei'9 eTre^ev, ov 8rj ev 

rfj Trpbs ra> JZixfrpdrr) Trorafjuy fjueveiv, 
(njfjb^vr}, eeXefe. \6yoi yap ij8r) 
TroXXot a/i0oT6yoot9 dfjbfyl rf) elprfvr) eyivovro. 

12 atpvd) Se Tf? BeXfcra/3t&> re /cat 'Rpftoyevei djrtjy- 

Tlepcrai eaf3d\\eu> eTriSo^oi el<riv e9 
P(i)fj,aia)v, TroXti/ Aa/ja9 aiprjaetv ev 

13 (T7rov&fj %oi>T<i. oi & TavTa dtcovcravTes rd e9 
T^P TrapaTa^iv e^rjprvovTO wSe. TVJS Trv\rjs f) 
7roXe&>9 Ntcrt/3tSo9 xaravriKpu KeiTai ov fiaKpav 
djrodev, aXX' OCTOJ; \i6ov ^o\rji>, rd(f)pov ftaOeldv 
Tiva wpv^av, Ste^oSof9 7roXXa9 e^ovaav. OVK 
eV evQeias ^kvroi rj rd(f)pos ijBe opatpv/CTO, aXXa 

14 rporra) rotwSe. /card /juev TO ineaov ^pa^eld n<f 
eyeyovei evdeia, e<>' etcdrepa Be auT^9 opdal 
/cepaiat ireTToirjvTo Svo, e9 TC Ta Trepara raiv 
opdalv icepalaiv avdis rds rdtfipovs eVt 7rXet(TTOi/ 

15 evdeias e^rjyov. oi fiev ovv Tlepcrai OVK 9 /J,atcpdv 
o~Tpary TroXXw fj\6ov, ev re 'Ayu,/icoSto9 %a)^t&), 
7roXeo)9 Aa/)a9 ^erpu) ei/coai (naSitav aTre^ovri, 

16 eo-TaroTreSevcravTO airavres. a-ovre<s oe d\\oi 



104 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xiii. 8-16 

one defended it any longer, they razed what had 
been built to the ground. 

After this the Emperor Justinian appointed 
Belisarius General of the East and bade him make 
an expedition against the Persians. And he collected 
a very formidable army and came to Daras. Her- 
mogenes also came to him from the emperor to 
assist in setting the army in order, holding the 
office of magister ; this man was formerly counsellor 
to Vitalianus at the time when he was at war with 
the Emperor Anastasius. The emperor also sent 
Rufinus as ambassador, commanding him to remain 
in Hierapolis on the Euphrates River until he 
himself should give the word. For already much 
was being said on both sides concerning peace. 
Suddenly, however, someone reported to Belisarius 
and Hermogenes that the Persians were expected 
to invade the land of the Romans, being eager to 
capture the city of Daras. And when they heard 
this, they prepared for the battle as follows. Not July, 
far from the gate which lies opposite the city 
of Nisibis, about a stone's throw away, they dug 
a deep trench with many passages across it. Now 
this trench was not dug in a straight line, but in 
the following manner. In the middle there was 
a rather short portion straight, and at either end 
of this there were dug two cross trenches at right 
angles to the first ; and starting from the extremities 
of the two cross trenches, they continued two straight 
trenches in the original direction to a very great 
distance. Not long afterwards the Persians came 
with a great army, and all of them made camp in a 
place called Ammodios, at a distance of twenty 
stades from the city of Daras. Among the leaders 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

re Tjffav teal Utrvdgrjs teal Rapecr/iava*; erepo- 
</>#aX/x.o9. crrpartjybf Se et9 airacnv efyeicrrrjKei, 
Tlepcrrjs dvrjp, aippdvr)? fj,ev TO dta>/ia (ovrco yap 
rrjv dp%rjv KaXoixri Ile/ocrat), Hepor)<; 8e ovojj,a. 

17 09 Br) avritca rrapd Be\i(rdpiov Tre/A-^a? TO fta\a- 
velov ev TrapacrKevfj etceXeve Troieicrdai' \ovcrOai 
yap ol evravda rrj vcrrepaia f3ov\o/J,ev(i) elvai. 

18 Sib Srj 'Pto/iaiot ra 9 rrjv ^vpfidXrjV Kaprepc!)- 
rara e^rjprvovro, &>9 rj/J,epa TTJ 



19 "A/ta re r)\LO) dvi(r%ovTi rou? TroXe/itof? 7rl 
<j^)a9 Trpolovras opwvres erd^avro a)8e. evdeias 

ra e'cr^ara T^? dptcnepd<i ^ evepdev rjv T^9 
teepaias ^XP 1 ^ T v ^~o ( f> ov 09 ravrrj 
Bou^V;9 6t%e ^yv iTnrevcn 7roXXot9 /cat 

20 <&pas "Epov\O9 iw o/^oyevecri Tpiaicoaiow ev 
8eid Be avTwv rrjs rd<f)pov e/CT09 Kara rrjv 
ywvtav rjv rj re opdrf Kepaia /cat 77 evOevSe evdela 
7roiei, 2oui'ta9 re ty teal 'A.iydv, Maacrayerai 
761/09, %vv imrevcriv e^aoo"tot9, 07r&)9, ^J/ OL re 
d/jb(f>l Rovfyv /cat Qdpav rparrelev, avrol Tr\dyioi 
Kara rd%o<> lovres Kara vtorov re r&v TroXe/Ltttyi/ 
yivouevoi rot9 eKeivrj Po)yu,atot9 d/j.vveiv evTrerws 
Svvwvrai. eTrl ddrepa 8e rpoTra) r& avrq> ererd- 

21 'XCLTO' T?y9 fjiev ydp evdeias rd ea-^ara irrrrels TroX- 
Xot el%ov, fov 'Itodvvris re 6 NIKJJTOV r}p%e ical 
KyptXXo9 re /cat Ma/9/ceXXo9' %vvf)v Se avrols Kal 
Tepjj,avb<> Kal A<w/3o$eo9' 69 ycaviav 8e rrjv ev 

t^ erd^avro e^aKocrioi, <av St/i/u.a9 re Kal 



1 Roman formation. 

/%- 1 - 
Q = 

mi 

106 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xiii. 16-21 

of this army were Pityaxes and the one-eyed Bares- 
manas. But one general held command over them 
all, a Persian, whose title was "mirranes" (fpr thus 
the Persians designate this office), Perozes by name. 
This Perozes immediately sent to Belisarius bidding 
him make ready the bath : for he wished to 
bathe there on the following day. Accordingly the 
Romans made the most vigorous preparations for 
the encounter, with the expectation that they would 
fight on the succeeding day. 

At sunrise, seeing the enemy advancing against 
them, they arrayed themselves as follows. 1 The 
extremity of the left straight trench which 
joined the cross trench, as far as the hill which 
rises here, was held by Bouzes with a large force 
of horsemen and by Pharas the Erulian with three 
hundred of his nation. On the right of these, out- 
side the trench, at the angle formed by the cross 
trench and the straight section which extended from 
that point, were Sunicas and Aigan, Massagetae by 
birth, with six hundred horsemen, in order that, 
if those under Bouzes and Pharas should be driven 
back, they .might, by moving quickly on the flank, 
and getting in the rear of the enemy, be able easily 
to support the Romans at that point. On the other 
wing also they were arrayed in the same manner ; 
for the extremity of the straight trench was held 
by a large force of horsemen, who were commanded 
by John, son of Nicetas, and by Cyril and Marcellus ; 
with them also were Germanus and Dorotheus ; 
while at the angle on the right six hundred horse- 
men took their stand, commanded by Simmas and 

a a, trench, 
1. Bouzes and Pharas. 2. Sunicas and Aigan. 

3. John, Cyril, Marcellux, Germanus, and Dorotheus. 

4. Simmas and Asoan. 5. Belisarius and Hermogenes. 

107 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Acr/cav Maffo-ayerai r)p-)(ov, Yva, orcep eiprjrat, rotv 
dfi(f)l rbv 'I(t)dvvi]v rpeirofjievwv, av ovrw Tv%rj, 
avrol evdevBe e^avia-rd/jLevoi Kara vwrov r&v 

22 Tlepcrwv "wen. rravra^rj Be rrjs rd^pov 01 re rwv 
iTnrewv Kard\oyoi Kal 6 Tre^o? err paras tararo. wv 
8rj omcrdev ot re aptyl J$e\iadpiov Kai 'J^pfjiojevrjv 

23 Kara /necroL"? eicrrrjfcecrav. wSe fjiev 'P(a/j,aloi e? 
TrevraKKT^tXiov^ re teal 8i<T/j,vpiov$ gvviovres erd- 
avro, Tlepa-wv Se 6 crrparbs fivpidSes f^ev recr- 
<rape? irrrriwv re teal Tre^&v rjaav, <f>ej;f)<> 8e 
arcavres /j,era>7rr}8bv taravro, o>9 fiadvrarov rfjs 

24 0aXa77O9 TO perwrrov Troirjaofj-evoi. %povov fiev 
ovv 7roX,vv ndxrjs e? d\\iy\ov<> ovberepoi rjpx ov > 
aXXa 0avfj,dovcri, re rrjv 'Pwpaicav evKO(rp.iav 
Hepcrai ewiceaav teal o ri %prjcrovrat rot9 rrapov- 
criv drcopovfjievot,^. 

25 T?}9 Se rjfjiepa^ d/j,(f)i SeiA-T/z/ otyiav fiolpd Tt9 
r&v iTnrecov 01 /cepas TO &e%tbv el%ov, d 
crOevres rov d\\ov arparov, Tot9 dp 

26 re xal <&dpav e7rf)\0ov. ol 8e OTrtcrro Kara 
vTre^wpijcrav. Tlepaat Be avrovs OVK eSiw^av, 
a\\ avrov ep^evov, K\)KKu>aiv, dl/Acti; Trpos rwv 
7ro\e/j,ia)v rivd SeL(ravres. p.era &e 'Pco/jialoi fiev 
ol (f>v<y6vre<t K rov atyvioiov rrpbs avrovs u>p- 

27 /j,i)crav. ol Se ov% vrrocrrdvres rr]v (j>o8ov orriaa) 
drrr)\avvov 9 rrjv (j>d\ayya, Kal av&i<> oi Te a^\ 
Bou^z/ Kal Qdpav ev %d>pa rp oiKeiq erd^avro. 

28 ev rovry ry epyw TIepcrwv errra errecrov, &v orj 
ratv <ra)/j,drG)v Pw/uatot eKparrjaav, Kal TO \onrbv 

29 r)(Tvxa%ovres ev rdgei eKarepoi epevov. et9 Be 
dvrjp Hep<rr)<; veavlas, ay^Lo-ra rov 'PwfiaLWv 
crrparov rbv ITTTTOV eXdcras, 7rpovKa\elro arcavras 
1 08 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xiii. 2 [-29 

Ascan, Massagetae, in order that, as has been said, 
in case the forces of John should by any chance be 
driven back, they might move out from there and 
attack the rear of the Persians. Thus all along the 
trench stood the detachments of cavalry and the in- 
fantry. Arid behind these in the middle stood the 
forces of Belisarius and Hermogenes. Thus the 
Romans arrayed themselves, amounting to five-and- 
twenty thousand ; but the Persian army consisted of 
forty thousand horse and foot, and they all stood 
close together facing the front, so as to mate the 
front of the phalanx as deep as possible. Then for 
a long time neither side began battle with the other, 
but the Persians seemed to be wondering at the 
good order of the Romans, and appeared at a loss 
what to do under the circumstances. 

In the late afternoon a certain detachment of the 
horsemen who held the right wing, separating them- 
selves from the rest of the army, came against the 
forces of Bouzes and Pharas. And the Romans 
retired a short distance to the rear. The Persians, 
however, did not pursue them, but remained there, 
fearing, I suppose, some move to surround them on 
the part of the enemy. Then the Romans who had 
turned to flight suddenly rushed upon them. And 
the Persians did not withstand their onset and rode 
back to the phalanx, and again the forces of Bouzes 
and Pharas stationed themselves in their own 
position. In this skirmish seven of the Persians fell, 
and the Romans gained possession of their bodies ; 
thereafter both armies remained quietly, in position. 
But one Persian, a young man, riding up very close 
to the Roman army, began to challenge all of them, 

109 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

30 64 Tt9 ol /3oi/XotTo 69 xetpas ievai. Kal TWV /j,ev 
a\\cov vTTOcrrrjvai, TOV KivBvvov eVoX/ia ouSet9, 
'AySpeas &e 77^ 7^9 eV rot? Bovbf oiKeiois, ov 
o~TpaTi(t)Tr)s fj,ev ovSe n dcr/crjcras TWV Kara TOV 



31 rm e uayTtw ec^ecTT^/ftw?. to ai 

arpara) eiTrero, are ToO Bou^ou crftJ/iaT09 eV 
i>eift> 7rifj.\ovfjivo$, yevos Se Bu^a^Tio? ^v. OUTO? 

OTOVOVV 



eire^ievat. <f>0dcra<> Be TOV (Bdpfiapov 

Tl TrepiCTKOTTOVfAeVOV OTTt] 6pfJ,^(TTaL, TTapd fJiU^OV 

32 TOJ/ 8eibv T(f> SopaTi Traiei. 6 8e TrXiyyrjV dv- 
Spbs la")(ypov \iav OVK evey/cwv e TOU tTrTrou e? 
eSa^>o9 TriTTTei. Kal CLUTOV 'AvSpeas fut^aipa Tivl 
/3pa%eia wcrrrep lepelov VTCTIWS KifJ,evov eOvcre, 
Kpawyrj re V7rp<f>vr)<> l/c re rou TrepiftoXov KOI 

33 TOU 'Ptw/iatcov crTpaTOTreSov rjp6rj. Hepo~ai 8e T> 
yeyovoTi 7rpia\,<yrjcravTe$ eTepov els TTJV avTrjv 
Trpd^tv iTnrea tcaOrj/cav, dvSpeiov pev fcal fjieyeffovs 
<r<i>yu.aTO9 Trepi ev iJKOVTa, ov veaviav Se, dXXa /cat 

34 Tt^a9 T0)v ev Tp tce(})a\7) Tpi^&v TroXibv ovia. 09 
Br) Trapd TO T0)v -7ro\efJiiO)v o-TpaTevfjua eirKov, eVl 
7r\eicrTov Be Trjv /jidaTija (reiwv rj iraieiv TOV 
ITTTTOV eloodei, 'P&fiauov TOV /3ov\6fMevov e? /jLa^rjv 

35 e/caXet. ovBevbs Be ol 67rei;i6vTO<>, 'AvS/aea9 avdis 
CLTravTas \ado)v 69 pecrov r)\de, Kaijrep avTw 7T/909 

36 TOV 'J^p/Aoryevovs aTreiprj/jievov. dfjL(f)a> yovv rot9 
Bopacriv 69 aXXr;\oi9 BV/JUW TroXXo) e^o/^evoi 

teal ra re BopaTa 7049 Ocopa^iv epei- 



1 10 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I xiii. 29-36 

calling for whoever wished to do battle with him. 
And no one of the whole army dared face the 
danger, except a certain Andreas, one of the personal 
attendants of Bouzes, not a soldier nor one who had 
ever practised at all the business of war, but a trainer 
of youths in charge of a certain wrestling school in 
Byzantium. Through this it came about that he was 
following the army, for he cared for the person of 
Bouzes in the bath ; his birthplace was Byzantium. 
This man alone had the courage, without being 
ordered by Bouzes or anyone else, to go out of his 
own accord to meet the. man in single combat. And 
he caught the barbarian while still considering how 
he should deliver his attack, and hit him with his 
spear on the right breast. And the Persian did not 
bear the blow delivered by a man of such exceptional 
strength, and fell from his horse to the earth. Then 
Andreas with a small knife slew him like a sacrificial 
animal as he lay on his back, and a mighty shout was 
raised both from the city wall and from the Roman 
army. But the Persians were deeply vexed at the 
outcome and sent forth another horseman for the 
same purpose, a manly fellow and well favoured 
as to bodily size, but not a youth, for some 
of the hair on his head already shewed grey. This 
horseman came up along the hostile army, and, 
brandishing vehemently the whip with which he was 
accustomed to strike his horse, he summoned to 
battle whoever among the Romans was willing. And 
when no one went out against him, Andreas, without 
attracting the notice of anyone, once more came 
forth, although he had been forbidden to do so by 
Hermogenes. So both rushed madly upon each 
other with their spears, and the weapons, driven 

in 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

aOevra Seivws aTretcpova-dr] 01 re "TTTTOI e? ra<? 
/ce^>aXa? aXX^Xoi? avyfcpovcravTef eTrecrov re 

37 avrol KOI TOU? eVt/3aTa<? a7Te/3a\ov. TO> oe 
avSpe TOVTO) ay%io~Ta irr) ireaovTe d\\r)\oiv 
eavio~Tao~6ai o~7rov8f) Tro\\f} a/x^xw r/Treiye 
aA,X' o ftev THeparj^ TOVTO 8pav, are ol TOV 
dovs avTHrrarovvTo*}, OVK eu7reT(U9 el%ev 

Se TrpoTeprfcras (TOVTO yap avrw r) Kara rrjv 
TraX-aiarpav ytieXeri; eSLSov) rc3 re yovari, 
cndjjvov avrov erui/re /cat avdis et? TO e' 

38 TrecroWa e/cTeive. Kpawyrf re e/f TOV ret^oy? /rat 
TOI) 'P<o/j,aici)v (TTpaTov ov&ev TI ycraov, el /AT; /cat 

v, rjpffrj' /ecu ol fikv Hepcrai e? TO 'A/zyncoSto? 
SiaXvcravTes ave^coprjo-av, ol oe 
TraiaviaavTes eVro? TOV 7Tpi/36\ov eye- 

39 VOVTO. rjor] yap KOI ^vveaKOTa^ev. OVTW TC 
afjL<f>OTfpoi TTJV vvKTa KLvr)v ^vXiaavTO. 

XIV 

rj Be vo-Tepala Hepo-ais p,ev o-TpaTiwTai /j,vpioi 
- rj\.6ov, BeXt- 



ffdptos oe /cat 'Ep/jLoyevrjs 777)09 Mtppdvrjv eypa-^r 
Taoe, " TlpwTov dsyadbv Trjv eipijvrjv elvai <b/j,o\6yr)- 
Tai irapa TTCLVTWV avdp&irwv olf Tt /cat KCLTO, [TO] 

2 /Spa^u \oyio-fjLov fjt,T6<TTiv. U>Q-T ijv Ti? StaXfTr)? 
avTr/s yevoiTO, TO>V KCLKWV aiTicoTaTos av ov Tot? 
7reXa9 JJLOVOV, aXXa /cat ofwyeveai Tot9 avTov e'ir). 
O~T paTrjyo^ pev ovv apiaTos OUTO9 e/ceti/09 ecrTiv, 09 
S-^ e/c TroXe/AOU elprjvrjv SiaTideadai iKavb<; Tre<pvfce. 

3 o"u Se TCOV TrpaypaTcov ev K,a6eaTa>TU>v 'Pw/uatot? 
Te /cat IIe/3crat9 Tro\.ep,ov eTrdyeiv rjjuv alriav OVK 
112 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xiii. 3 6-xiv. 3 

against their corselets, were turned aside with 
mighty force, and the horses, striking together their 
heads, fell themselves and threw off their riders. 
And both the two men, falling very close to each 
other, made great haste to rise to their feet, but the 
Persian was not able to do this easily because his 
size was against him, while Andreas, anticipating 
him (for his practice in the wrestling school gave 
him this advantage), smote him as he was rising on 
his knee, and as he fell again to the ground 
dispatched him. Then a roar went up from the wall 
and from the Roman army as great, if not greater, 
than before ; and the Persians broke their phalanx 
and withdrew to Ammodios, while the Romans, 
raising the paean, went inside the fortifications ; for 
already it was growing dark. Thus both armies 
passed that night. 

XIV 

ON the following day ten thousand soldiers arrived 
who had been summoned by the Persians from the city 
of Nisibis, and Belisarius and Hermogenes wrote to 
the mirranes as follows : " The first blessing is peace, 
as is agreed by all men who have even a small share 
of reason. It follows that if any one should be a 
destroyer of it, he would be most responsible not 
only to those near him but also to his whole nation 
for the troubles which come. The best general, 
therefore, is that one who is able to bring about 
peace from war. But you, when affairs were well 
settled between the Romans and the Persians, have 
seen fit to bring upon us a war without cause, 

"3 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAHEA 



e^ovra eyva>Ka<;, Karrep eKarepov fjt,ev 
elprjvala /3ov\evo/j,evov, irpea/Sewv 8e rfapovrwv 
rjp,lv ev yeirovcov ijBrj, o't 77 ra Sidtyopa rfj 69 d\- 
6fjLi\.ia OVK els /juiKpav SidX.vcrova'iv, rjv //,?; 
avrj/cearov etc r^9 crf/$ e(f)6$ov j~vfA/3aivov ravTijv 
dvacrre\\eiv rrjv e\.7rtSa la^yarj. aXX' aTraye 
on rd^icrra TOV err par ov e? ra Tlepcrwv ijdr), ytt^Se 
rot? /j,e<yicrroi<; dyadois e/jLTro&cav 'laraao, p,r) Trore 
IIep<Tat9> <9 TO el/cos, et'^9 T<OV 

5 Seivwv atTto9." ravra eVei Mippavrj*; d- 

ra ypd/A/jbara elBev, d/j.ei/3erai a>Be, " 'ETrot^era av 
ra alrovfteva, rot? yeypafAfievois dvarreicrOeis, el 
p,r) 'Pa>fjLaiu>v i] Trtcrro\rf ervy%avev oixra, ot9 TO 
e7rayyeX\(T0ai Trpo^eipov e(rriv, epyw Se ra 
e7Ttre\eiv %a\7r(t)rar6v re teal 
eX7Tt8o9, aXX<9 re rjv teal op/cots rial 

6 KvpctXTrjre ra ^vy/ceifjieva. rj/Ael? fiev ovv 7T/JO9 rrjv 
Vfjterepav arreiirovres djrdr'rjv, ev o?rXot9 r/vayfcdcr- 
fieOa Trap" i//.a9 'tjxeiv, vfj-ei<; 8e, co (j)i\oi 'Pa>fj.aioi, 
fjiijSev aXXo TO \onrov oleade rj 7ro\e/j,ijrea ufuv e9 
Ile/)cra9 elvai. evravda yap rj/Jba^ r) reOvdvai rf 
fcarayrjpdcrKeiv $erj<Tei, eft>9 epy<o ra Sitcaia 
77//.a9 OrjaecrOe." rocravra fj^ev teal 6 

7 dvreypatyev. avOw 8e ol dptyl }$e\icrdpiov eypa^rav 
a)8e, " Ov rrdvra xpr/, w /3e\riare Mippdvr), ry 
d\a^oveLa ^api^eadai, ovSe Tot9 ?reXa9 ercufyepew 

8 oveiSr) ra fjLrjSa/Aodev rrpoarjKovra. 'Pov<f)ivov yap 
7rl rrpecr[Seia rj/covra OVK arrodev elvai ^yuet9 Te 
eiTTOjjiev vv rq> d\r)dei teal avrbs OVK 69 /j,aKpav 

9 eto-y. yXi^o/jLevotf &e vp^lv noXejjiiwv epya)v dvn- 

114 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xiv. 3-9 

although the counsels of each king are looking toward 
peace, and although our envoys are already present in 
the neighbourhood, who will at no distant time settle 
all the points of dispute in talking over the situation 
together, unless some irreparable harm coming from 
your invasion proves sufficient to frustrate for us this 
hope. But lead away as soon as possible your army 
to the land of the Persians, and do not stand in the 
way of the greatest blessings, lest at some time you 
be held responsible by the Persians, as is probable, 
for the disasters which will come to pass." When the 
mirranes saw this letter brought to him, he replied 
as follows : " I should have been persuaded by what 
you write, and should have done what you demand, 
were the letter not, as it happens, from Romans, 
for whom the making of promises is easy, but the 
fulfilment of the promises in deed most difficult and 
beyond hope, especially if you sanction the agree- 
ment by any oaths. We, therefore, despairing in 
view of your deception, have been compelled to come 
before you in arms, and as for you, my dear Romans, 
consider that from now on you will be obliged to do 
nothing else than make war against the Persians. 
For here we shall be compelled either to die or grow 
old until you accord to us justice in deed." Such 
was the reply which the mirranes wrote back. And 
again Belisarius and his generals wrote as follows : 
" O excellent mirranes, it is not fitting in all things to 
depend upon boasting, nor to lay upon one's neigh- 
bours reproaches which are justified on no grounds 
whatever. For we said with truth that Rufinus had 
come to act as an envoy and was not far away, and 
you yourself will know this at no remote time. But 
since you are eager for deeds of war, we shall array 



i 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

vv 6ea>, ov rj/j,iv ev ru> KivBvvw 
i lapev, r/yftevov ftev rfj 
d i rrpa i y/j,oo~vvy, d\aoveia Be rfj Tlepcrcov 
<ravra KOI ol<> eVt rrjv elprjvrjv TrpoKa\.ovp,evoi<i 

10 rjfuv elra avrtreiveiv eyvca/caTe. avma^o/jLeOa Be 
ra <y^pafi^eva Trap eKarepo)V O.TT' aicpwv crrjfjieicov 

11 e? rrjv %v fjiftoKrjV avatydfievoL," roaavra /j,ev rj 
ypatyr) eBrfXov. Mippdwrjs Be KOL av0i<> dfjiei^erai 
wBe, "QuSe r)/j,ei<i dvev dewv rwv rjfAerepwv e9 rov 
7ro\efjLOV KaQicrrdfAeda, %vv avrois Be Trap 1 yyu-a? 
tj^o/^ev, ovcnrep rfj vtrrepaia Ile/oua? e? Aa/oa? 

12 e<ry8ty9acrety e\7ri8a %a). d\\d JJLOI TO re /3aA,a- 
velov teal dpiaTov ev TrapcHTfcevf) rov Trepij36\ov 
evrbf ytveffdw" ravra ol dfj,(j)l Be\icrdpiov dva- 
\ei;d/J,evoi Trapecrfcevd^ovTO e? rrjv t;v/jL(3o\rfv. 

13 TT) Be eTTtyevofjievrf r)jj,epa Tlepffa? airawras jrepl 
rf\,tov dva,TO\d<; %wyica\e(Ta<; M.ippdvr)<? e~\,ee roi- 
dBe, " OVK dyvoa) pev cl)9 ov \6yoi<> ra)V rfjov/^evcav, 
aXX' apery re oiKLa KOI TTI ? d\\ij\ov<> alBot 

14 dapaelv ev rot? KtvBvvoi? eia>0acri TLepcrat. opwv 
Be i/u-a9 SiaXoyt^o/Aevovs TI BijTrore ov crvveidicrfAe- 
vov 'Pw/iatoi? Trporepov dvev Oopvftiov re real dra- 
^ta? ei9 pd^rfv levai, ol Be vv Koa^tf rivl 

<r<f>L<Tt Trpoa-ijKovri Hepa-as 
, rovBe eivetca Trapatveo-iv Troieiatfai rtva 
Hca, O7ra)9 fir) Boy OVK dX'rjdei %/o<w- 

15 /itevot9 vfuv a<l)d\r}vai, crvn/Sair). prj yap oleade 
c P<w/Aat'ou9 dfjivov<> rd TroXe/ita e/c rov 
<yev(T0ai pijBe dpeTfy TI rj 

116 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xiv. 9-15 

ourselves against you with the help of God, who will, 
we know, support us in the danger, being moved by 
the peaceful inclination of the Romans, but rebuking 
the boastfulness of the Persians and your decision to 
resist us when we invite you to peace. And we 
shall array ourselves against you, having prepared for 
the conflict by fastening the letters written by each of 
us on the top of our banners." Such was the message 
of this letter. And the mirranes again answered 
as follows : " Neither are we entering upon the war 
without our gods, and with their help we shall come 
before you, and I expect that on the morrow they 
will bring the Persians into Daras. But let the bath 
and lunch be in readiness for me within the fortifica- 
tions." When Belisarius and his generals read this, 
they prepared themselves for the conflict. 

On the succeeding day the mirranes called together 
all the Persians at about sunrise and spoke as follows : 
" I am not ignorant that it is not because of words of 
their leaders, but because of their individual bravery 
and their shame before each other that the Persians 
are accustomed to be courageous in the presence of 
dangers. But seeing you considering why in the 
world it is that, although the Romans have not been 
accustomed heretofore to go into battle without 
confusion and disorder, they recently awaited the 
advancing Persians with a kind of order which is by 
no means characteristic of them, for this reason I 
have decided to speak some words of exhortation to 
you, so that it may not come about that you be 
deceived by reason of holding an opinion which is 
not true. For I would not have you think that the 
Romans have suddenly become better warriors, or 
that they have acquired any more valour or ex- 

117 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

7r\eov, aXXa teal Bei\ov<j avrovs yeyovevat 
fid\\ov rj ra rcporepa ovres ervy^avov o'i ye 
ovTd) Tlepaas BeBiacriv were ovBe rd<f>pov %/H9 e? 

16 rr)V (f>d\ayya KaOieraaOai rerokfjujtcaa-iv. ovBe %vv 
ravrr) /u-a%?79 TWOS rjp^av, a\X' evret e? ^etpa? 
aurot? ov8afj,(0<; rfKjdopev, atrfJbevoL re KOI rcpeicrcrov 
eXTrtSo? ra Trpdy/juara (r^iai Ke^coprjKevai olofievoi 

17 CTTI, TO ret%05 e%a)pr)(Tav. Sio Srj aurot? ovSe vv- 
rerapd-)(0ai rerv^tjKev, OVTTW et? tcivSvvov iro\- 
fjuov e\6ovcTLV. rjv Be ye rj /Jid^rj etc ^eipo^ yewrjrai, 
oppwBia re avrovs real aTreipia l 7rept,\a/3ov(rai. 9 
aKoa^iav rrjv ervftfflij, a>9 TO elicos, Karacrrr)crov(Ti. 

18 ra fj,ev ovv rwv TroXe/itwv roiavrd ecrriv vjj,d<; Be, 
a) avBpes Hepa-ai, rov /3a(Ti\eci)v /Sao-iXea)9 ^ Kpt,ai<f 

19 etcrtTft). rjv yap fj,r) e7ra^t&)9 T^9 Hepcrwv dperfjs 
ev TOO Trapovri dv8paya6ioi(T0e, Ko\acri<? vfjucis OVK 

20 evtcXerjs Trepta-rrja-erai." ovrw pev Mippdvijs Trapa- 

t T0t9 7ro\e/itof9 TO arpdrev/j,a 
BeXto-a/)t09 Be teal '^p/Myevr}<i irpo rov Trepi- 
Trdvras 'Pwfiaiovs ayeipavres 7raptce\ev- 

21 cravro wBe, " C D9 fi>ev OVK etcrt navrdrracnv dvi/crjroi 
Tlepaat ovBe tcpeicrcrovs rj 6vr)(TKen> eTricrraade Bij 
TTOV, pd^r) TV} rrporepa crradfJL<a/jLevor a9 Be rfj re 
dvBpia feal cr&)yu,aT09 tcr^ut Trepiovfes avrwv, /j,6v(p 
rjrracrOe ra> Toi9 ap^ovcriv dTceide(Trepoi etvai, 

22 ovBels av dvreirroi,. orcep erfavopdovv rrovw ovBevl 
vfuv Tfdpecm. ra /j,ev yap rfj<; Tv^rj^ evavri(ajjbara 
(TTrovBf) eiTavopQovcrdai ovBa/J,(t)<; Tretyvtce, yvco/Mrj Be 

1 aireipla GP : airopla V. 

118 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xiv. 15-22 

perience, but that they have become more cowardly 
than they were previously ; at any rate they fear 
the Persians so much that they have not even dared 
to form their phalanx without a trench. And not 
even with this did they begin any fighting, but when 
we did not join battle with them at all, joyfully and 
considering that matters had gone better for them 
than they had hoped, they withdrew to the wall. 
For this reason too it happened that they were not 
thrown into confusion, for they had not yet come 
into the dangers of battle. But if the fighting comes 
to close quarters, fear will seize upon them, and this, 
together with their inexperience, will throw them, in 
all probability, into their customary disorder. Such, 
therefore, is the case with regard to the enemy ; but 
do you, O men of Persia, call to mind the judgment 
of the King of Kings. For if you do not play the 
part of brave men in the present engagement, in a 
manner worthy of the valour of the Persians, an 
inglorious punishment will fall upon you." With 
this exhortation the mirranes began to lead his army 
against the enemy. Likewise Belisarius and Her- 
mogenes gathered all the Romans before the forti- 
fications, and encouraged them with the following 
words : " You know assuredly that the Persians are 
not altogether invincible, nor too strong to be killed, 
having taken their measure in the previous battle ; 
and that, although superior to them in bravery and 
in strength of body, you were defeated only by 
reason of being rather heedless of your officers, no 
one can deny. This thing you now have the 
opportunity to set right with no trouble. For while 
the adversities of fortune are by no means such as to 



119 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

OiKeifDV tcarcwv paSi&>9 av avOpdoTrw tarpon 
23 yevoiro' ware TJV rotv 7rapayye\Xofjiev<ov KCIT- 
aKOveiv TI /3ov\o/jievoi<; v/j,lv, avriica 8rj dvaStfcrecrOe 
TO TOV TToXe/iou /c/c>aT09. ol yap OVK a\\(a TO rj 



24 a-tydXevres Be teal vvv T^? Toiain^ eXiriSos oyu,ot&)9 
rfj 7rpo\a/3ovcrr) %v/j,(3o\fj aTraXXd^ovcri. fcal TO 
7T\rj9o<> TWV 7ro\e^i(i)v, u) /AaXicrra Se^irrovrai, 

25 v/jias u-rrep(j)poveiv d^iov. TO yap ire^ov airav ov&ev 
a\\o rj o/ttXo9 ecrriv dypoixtov oltCTp&v, o'l e? rrjv 
Trapdra^iv eV aXXw ovSevl epxovrat r) Tet%o? Te 
Btopvrreiv KOI TOU<? Tedve&ra*; crtcvXeveiv teal 

26 TaXXa Tot? (rrpari(i)rai<i vTrrjperelv. Sio 8rj ovrXa 
/Mev 0*9 av Kal TOU? evavrlovs evo%\oiev ovSafjiij 
e%ovcri, TOU? Se Ovpeovs TOIOVTOVS TO peyedos TT/OO- 
{3e/3\ijvrai fiovov O7r&)9 avrol irpos TWV 7ro\e/u,i(i)v 

27 rjKKrra jSaXXwvrai. OVKOVV avSpes ayaOol ev ra>8e 
TO) KivSvvy 1 yevo/jievoi, OVK ev TW Trapovri JAOVOV 
IIe/0(Ta9 viKijcrere, d\\a Kal rrjs airovolas Ko\d- 
aere, a>9 /i^TTOTe av&i<> et9 yfjv rrjv 



28 Tavrrjv Be\f<7zy04o9 Te Kal ' 
Trapa'iveaiv Troirjcrd/jLevoi, e7rei,8rj Tlepaas 68a> lov- 
Ta9 eTTi <7<^a9 etSoy, T/joTTO) TO) TTporepo) Kara 

29 Ta^;o9 TOV9 a-TparicoTas Biera^av. Kal ol fidp- 

trap airrovs fjKovres /jbeTcoTnySov ecnriaav, 
ravras /j,evroi Tlep<Ta<; 6 Mippdvrj<; dvriovs 
oXe/ztot9, aXXa Toi9 ^/u,to-et9 ecrT^cre, TOU9 5e 

30 a\,Xof9 OTricrdev /Jieveiv eiacrev. o'l Srj rovs 

e^e\\ov dKf^fjre 

VG : iro\f(L(a P. 
120 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xiv. 22-30 

be set right by an effort, reason may easily become 
for a man a physician for the ills caused by himself. 
If therefore you are willing to give heed to the orders 
given, you will straightway win for yourselves the 
superiority in battle. For the Persians come against 
us basing their confidence on nothing else than our 
disorder. But this time also they will be disappointed 
in this hope, and will depart just as in the previous 
encounter. And as for the great numbers of the 
enemy, by which more than anything else they 
inspire fear, it is right for you to despise them. For 
their whole infantry is nothing more than a crowd of 
pitiable peasants who come into battle for no other 
purpose than to dig through walls and to despoil the 
slain and in general to serve the soldiers. For this 
reason they have no weapons at all with which they 
might trouble their opponents, and they only hold 
before themselves those enormous shields in order 
that they may not possibly be hit by the enemy. 
Therefore if you show yourselves brave men in this 
struggle, you will not only conquer the Persians for 
the present, but you will also punish them for their 
folly, so that they will never again make an expedition 
into the Roman territory." 

When Belisarius and Hermogenes had finished this 
exhortation, since they saw the Persians advancing 
against them, they hastily drew up the soldiers in the 
same manner as before. And the barbarians, coming 
up before them, took their stand facing the Romans. 
But the mirranes did not array all the Persians 
against the enemy, but only one half of them, while 
he allowed the others to remain behind. These 
were to take the places of the men who were fighting 



121 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

T049 evavriois, OTTW? del etc TrepirpoTrrjs 

31 fid%wvrai. [lovov Be rov r&v ddavdrwv 

\6%ov flavor) fjbeveiv, e&>9 avros crr}/jLiji>r), eiceXevev. 

32 avros re Kara p,eaov rov ^erdtrcov ra%d/j,evo<>, 
Hirvdgrjv pev rot9 ev Se^ia, ^apea-fiavav Be 
rot? e? TO dptcrrepov Kepas eTrecrTrjcrev. ovrco fjiev 
dfji^OTepot ereTa^aro. Oa/ja? Be BeXt crapim re KCU 

33 'Qpfjioyevei rrapavras elrrev, " OvBev JJML BOKW ev- 
ravOa %vv rot? 'EpovXois pevwv roi>9 7roXe/Atou9 
epydcraardai fjueja' r/v Be Kpvrrro/jievoi e9 TO icdrav- 
T69 rovro, elra, efreiBav ev rq> epy<a yevcovrai 

i, Bia rovBe rov \6(f>ov dvaftaivovres e TOU 
/card vcarov avr&v twfjiev omcrOev /3aX,- 
a dvrfKeara avrovs, o>9 TO 6to9, Bpd- 
o fjLev ravra elrce, KOI eirei rovs dpfyii 
T3e\iadpiov ripecr/ce, icard ravra erfoiei. 

34 Ma^?79 Be cixpi 69 rffjuepav /jLecrrju ovBerepot 

eTreiBrj Be rd^icrra rj p,ecr^^pia 7rapa>- 
, epyov ol ftdpftapoi efyovro, rovBe eivexa 9 
rovrov rrjs ripepas rov Kaipov rrjv ^v^o\r)V drco- 
i, on Brj avrol fiev cririow 9 BeL\ijv o-^riav 
i JMOVOV elcoOao-t, 'Pw^atoi Be rrpo r^ 
fj,ecrr)/j,@pia$, uxrre ovrrore wovro avrovs 6//,ot&>9 

35 dvde^eiv, r)v ireivtocriv eTudwvrai. rd /Aev ovv 
rrpwra ro^ev/Micriv e^pwino 69 a\A,7;A,ou9 eKarepot,, 
Kai nva rd /3e\r) ru> 7r\i]6ei dj(\vv ercl 7T\eicrroi> 
eTToiei, CK re dfji<borepa)v TroXXot ercnrrov, TroXXw 
Be <rv)(v6rpa ra rwv /3ap/3dpa>v /3e\ri e(f>epero. 

36 ev TrepirpoTrf) ydp del dK/jirjre? e/jbd^ovro, al- 

rov rroiov/j-evov TO?9 7roXe/itoi9 ft>9 ^Kiara 
i, ov ftevroi ovBe &>9 'Po/*atot TO eXaer- 



122 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xiv. 30-36 

and to fall upon their opponents with their vigour 
intact, so that all might fight in constant rotation. 
But the detachment of the so-called Immortals alone 
he ordered to remain at rest until he himself should 
give the signal. And he took his own station at the 
middle of the front, putting Pityaxes in command on 
the right wing, and Baresmanas on the left. In this 
manner, then, both armies were drawn up. Then 
Pharas came before Belisarius and Hermogenes, and 
said : " It does not seem to me that I shall do the 
enemy any great harm if I remain here with the 
Eruli ; but if we conceal ourselves on this slope, and 
then, when the Persians have begun the fight, if we 
climb up by this hill and suddenly come upon their 
rear, shooting from behind them, we shall in all 
probability do them the greatest harm." Thus he 
spoke, and, since it pleased Belisarius and his staff, 
he carried out this plan. 

But up to midday neither side began battle. As soon, 
however, as the noon hour was passed, the barbarians 
began the fight, having postponed the engagement 
to this time of the day for the reason that they are 
accustomed to partake of food only towards late after- 
noon, while the Romans have their meal before noon ; 
and for this reason they thought that the Romans 
would never hold out so well, if they assailed them 
while hungry. At first, then, both sides discharged 
arrows against each other, and the missiles by their 
great number made, as it were, a vast cloud ; and 
many men were falling on both sides, but the missiles 
of the barbarians flew much more thickly. For fresh 
men were always fighting in turn, affording to their 
enemy not the slightest opportunity to observe 
what was being done ; but even so the Romans did 

123 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

crov el)(ov. Trvevfj.a yap evdevBe errifyopov eV), 
TOW ftapftdpovs eTT Lirecrov ov \iav avrwv ra 

37 ro^ev/juara evepyelv eta. eVei Be aTravra exa- 
T6/30U9 ra /SeX?; tfSrj eViXeXoiTm, rot? re Bopacrtv 
6*9 aXX7/Xov9 e%pwvTO /cal r) //.%; ert fia\\ov etc 
%et/?o9 eyeyovei. 'Pwi^aiwv Se e/oa9 TO dpicrrepov 

38 //.aXtcrra efcapve. KaSicrrjvol yap, 01 ravrp 
%vv T&5 Hirvd^rj e/jbd^ovTO, TroXXot Tri/3e/3or)- 
0ijKOT<; e^air tvaiws erpe^fravro re rovs 7roXe/xiOf9 
al favyovcriv eyKeipevoi icr^vporara crv%vov$ 

39 eKTeivov. o Br) KaTi&ovre? ol %vv T&> ^OVVLKO, 
re fcal 'A.iydv, 8p6/j,a) 7ro\\<p TT' avrovs yecrav. 
irpwroi Be ol rptafcoanoi %vv rm Qdpa "Epov\oi 
ej~ vtyrjXov Kara vwrov rwv 7ro\efjLia>v yevofjbevoi, 
epya Oavfiacrrd 59 re rovs a\\ov<> teal TOU9 

40 TaBi(T'r)VOvs eTreSeifcvvvro. ot 8r) ejrel real rov<? 
a/i0l rov ^ovvi/cav TrXayiovs tfSr) dviovras TT' 

41 avrovs elBov, e9 <pvyrjv wp/j,r)vro. rfjs 8 



ol ravrrj 'Pwfjatoi, yeyove <f)6vos r<av /3apfldpa)v 

42 7ro\y9. fcal avr&v Kara teepas TO &eiov oi>% 
fja-crovs rj rpia"Xi\.LOi ev rovrw rot TTOVW aTreOavov, 
ol 8e XoiTTol 9 rrjv (j)d\ayya /ioXt9 /cara<f)vy6vres 

43 e<T(i)0r)(rav. 'Pw/jiatoi re ov/ceri eSiw/cov, aXX' ev 
ry Trapard^ei e/cdrepoi ecrrrja-av dvrioi a,XX?7Xot9. 
ravra jjuev ovv efyepero rfjSe. 

44 Mippdvijs Be aXXou9 re 7roXXoi9 ffal TOU9 
dOavdrovs \eyop,evov<^ airavras 69 ftepos TO api- 
rrrepov \d0pa eVe/Ai/rei/. ot>9 Br) /cariBovres 
BeXtcra^fo9 T6 /cal 'Eip/j,oyewtj<>, TOU9 d/j,(j)l Soi;- 
v'iKav re teal '\iyav ea/eocriof9 9 yoiviav rrjv ev 
Begia ete\evov levai, o5 Brj ol giiv T3 St/i/^a re 
124 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xiv. 36-44 

not have the worst of it. For a steady wind blew 
from their side against the barbarians, and checked 
to H considerable degree the force of their arrows. 
Then, after both sides had exhausted all their 
missiles, they began to use their spears against 
each other, and the battle had come still more to 
close quarters. On the Roman side the left wing 
was suffering especially. For the Cadiseni, who with 
Pityaxes were fighting at this point, rushing up 
suddenly in great numbers, routed their enemy, and, 
crowding hard upon the fugitives, were killing many 
of them. When this was observed by the men under 
Sunicas and Aigan, they charged against them at full 
speed. But first the three hundred Eruli under Pharas 
from the high ground got in the rear of the enemy 
and made a wonderful display of valorous deeds 
against all of them and especially the Cadiseni. And 
the Persians, seeing the forces of Sunicas too already 
coming up against them from the flank, turned to a 
hasty flight. And the rout became complete, for 
the Romans here joined forces with each other, and 
there was a great slaughter of the barbarians. On 
the Persian right wing not fewer than three thousand 
perished in this action, while the rest escaped with 
difficulty to the phalanx and were saved. And the 
Romans did not continue their pursuit, but both 
sides took their stand facing each other in line. 
Such was the course of these events. 

But the mirranes stealthily sent to the left a large 
body of troops and with them all the so-called 
Immortals. And when these were noticed by 
Belisarius and Hermogenes, they ordered the six 
hundred men under Sunicas and Aigan to go to 
the angle on the right, where the troops of Simmas 

125 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

teal 'Aetedv icrravro, KOI avrwv otriaOev rwv 

45 J$e\icrapia) erro/^evaiv TroXXow ecrrrjcrav. Tlepcrai 
fiev ovv oi /eepas TO dpicrrepov el")(ov Rapecrpavd 
i}yovfj,evov crtyicri vv rot? ddavdrois e'<? TO{><? /car' 
auTous 1 'Pwytiatot"? Bpofup ea-e/3aX\ov. 01 8e ov% 

46 t'TTOcrrafTe? rrjv (f>o8ov e? (fivyrjv wpfirjvTo. Tore 
8r) 01 re ev Trj <ya)vLa 'PtwyLtatoi tcai ocrot CIVTWV 

07TICT06V Tfffav, CTTTOvSr) 7TO\\fj 67Tt TOW? BtW- 

47 KOVTOK yearav. are Be rot? fiapftdpois eyfcdpcrioi 

Siei\ov avrwv Si%a TO (rrpdrev/j.a, teal 
/Jiev TrXe/cTTou? ev Seia el^ov, rivas Se teal 
e<ytcara\ei<j)6evTa<> ev dpicrrepa eTroiijcravro. ev 
TOi? teal rov rov Bapecr/iam TO crrjjjLeiov (frepovra 
^vveTreaev elvai, ov Srj 6 ^ovvitca? ra) Bopart 

48 eTreXdcov Traiei. rjStj re Tlepcrat oi ev Tot? TT/OOJ- 

BtwKovres, alcrOop^voL ov r/crav teateov, crrpe- 
re ra va>ra teal rrjv OLM^IV tcaraTrav- 
e?r' avrovs yecrav, teal TT' avrov a^'i- 

49 ySoXot 7T/JO9 T<WZ/ 7roXeyu.t&)i/ eyivovro. ^vvevres 
yap rfav *7roioi>fjt,evci)v oi (frevyovres dvecrrpe<f)ov 
avOis. oi re yovv aXXot Hepcrai teal 6 rwv 
aOavdrwv Xo^o9, tcte\t/4evov re TO 
IBovres teal e? TO e'Sa^>o? teadeifj,evov, enl 
eteeivr) 'P&)/xatof9 j;vv rut Hapecr/Aava 

50 'Po)fj,aioi Be VTTTjvria^ov. teal TT/OCOTO? * 

rov Bapea/j,avav eteretve re teal etc rov linrov 
TO eSa^>O9 eppitye. teal arc avrov e? Beo<f 
oi j3dp/3apot e/iTreTTT&j/coTe? d\terj<i pev ovKeri 
e/j>/ji,vr)VTO, dteocr/aia Be vroXX^ e^6fj,evoi e(f>evyov. 

51 teal aurwv 'Pw/iatot tevteXcocfLV riva Troirjcrdfjievoi 
irevra>ci(T^i\.LOv<i jj,d\iara etereivav. ovrw re rd 

1 irpOiiTos GP : TrptaTov V. 
126 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xiv. 44-51 

and Ascan were stationed., and behind them they 
placed many of Belisarius' men. So the Persians 
who held the left wing under the leadership of 
Baresmanas, together with the Immortals, charged 
on the run upon the Romans opposite them, who 
failed to withstand the attack and beat a hasty 
retreat. Thereupon the Romans in the angle, 
and all who were behind them, advanced with 
great ardour against the pursuers. But inasmuch 
as they came upon the barbarians from the side, 
they cut their army into two parts, and the 
greater portion of them they had on their right, 
while some also who were left behind were 
placed on their left. Among these happened to be 
the standard bearer of Baresmanas, whom Sunicas 
charged and struck with his spear. And already 
the Persians who were leading the pursuit perceived 
in what straits they were, and, wheeling about, they 
stopped the pursuit and went against their assail- 
ants, and thus became exposed to the enemy on both 
sides. For those in flight before them understood 
what was happening and turned back again. The 
Persians, on their part, with the detachment of 
the Immortals, seeing the standard inclined and 
lowered to the earth, rushed all together against 
the Romans at that point with Baresmanas. There 
the Romans held their ground. And first Sunicas 
killed Baresmanas and threw him from his horse 
to the ground. As a result of this the barbarians 
were seized with great fear and thought no longer 
of resistance, but fled in utter confusion. And 
the Romans, having made a circle as it were around 
them, killed about five thousand. Thus both armies 



127 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Sa travrdTracriv eKivr/6r) etcdrepa, Hep&wv 

52 fjiev 69 vTraycoyrjv, 'Petf/zaicoz/ 8e es rrjv 8i<a^iv. ev 

rOVrW Tc5 TTQVW O(TOl Sr) TTC^ol V TO) TLepCTMV 

crrpaTevfjuni rjcrav, pl'^rav'Tes re roi"? Qvpeovs /cat 
KaTa\a/ji{3av6fAvoi tcbcrp.w ovSevl 77/309 TWV TTO- 
\jjiiwv efcreivovTO. 'Ptu/iattov fievrot rj 8ia)is 

53 Si o\i<yov lyevero. Be\icrdpio<? yap /ecu 'Ep/xo- 
761/779 Trepairepci) Ikvai ov8a/j,ij eiwv, Seia-avres p.r) 
TIVI dvay/cy TLepcrai virocnpafyevTes rpe^ojvrai 
at'TOi'9 ovBevl \6<ya> 8ta)Kovra<;, licavov re aurot9 
Kare<f)aivTO rrjv vifcrjv d/cpai(j)vrj Siacrcaa-acrdai. 

54 naicpov yap %pdvov 'Pw/jLaiwv ry ^d-^p IteeiVT) rfj 
rffjiepa ijcrcrr)6r]a-av Ilepcrafc. ovrco fjuev CLTT' d\\ij\(i)v 

55 exdrepot BiKpi6^crav. Hepaai 8e ovtceri p,d^v 
ex rov evdeos 69 f Pa>fUtiou<; Bievey/cetv r)de\ov. 
eyevovro ftevroi dfj^orepots rives e e7ri8po/j,f)S 
e(f>o8oi, ev at9 OVK eXacrcrov 'Pco/Miloi eayov. ra 
fj,ev ovv crrparoTreSa ev MecroTrora/ua rf)8e 
e<f>epero. 



XV 

9 Se a\Xo crrpdrev/j,a 69 'Ap/iei/tai/ rrjv 
tcarij/eoov eTre/A^e. TO 8e crrpdrevpa 
rovro TlepaapfievLwv re KCU ^ovvir&v r/crav, 01 &r) 
'AXa.i/ot9 elcriv oftopoi. Ovvvoi re avrois ol 



2 rarov e0vo<{. err parity o<> Se 

dvtjp, arcacriv etyeiariJKei. o'iirep eTreiSrj eoSo- 
<riovTTO\ew<i rpiwv rj/juepwv 6a> 8iel%ov, evcrrparo- 
7re8evcrdfj,evoi re ejtevov ev TlepaapfAeviwv rfj 

128 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xiv. 5i-xv. 2 

were all set in motion, the Persians in retreat, 
and the Romans in pursuit. In this part of the 
conflict all the foot-soldiers who were in the Persian 
army threw down their shields and were caught 
and wantonly killed by their enemy. However, 
the pursuit was not continued by the Romans over 
a great distance. For Belisarius and Hermogenes 
refused absolutely to let them go farther, fearing 
lest the Persians through some necessity should 
turn about and rout them while pursuing reck- 
lessly, and it seemed to them sufficient to preserve 
the victory unmarred. For on that day the Persians 
had been defeated in battle by the Romans, a thing 
which had not happened for a long time. Thus 
the two armies separated from each other. And the 
Persians were no longer willing to fight a pitched 
battle with the Romans. However, some sudden 
attacks were made on both sides, in which the 
Romans were not at a disadvantage. Such, then, 
was the fortune of the armies in Mesopotamia. 



XV 

AND Cabades sent another army into the part 
of Armenia which is subject to the Romans. This 
army was composed of Persarmenians and Sunitae, 
whose land adjoins that of the Alani. There were 
also Huns with them, of the stock called Sabiri, 
to the number of three thousand, a most warlike 
race. And Mermeroes, a Persian, had been made 
general of the whole force. When this army was 
three days' march from Theodosiopolis, they estab- 
lished their camp and, remaining in the land of 

129 

VOL. I. K 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

3 %&>pa KOI rd e? rr/v ecr/3o\r)v e^rjprvovro. ervy- 
%ave 8e 'Ap/ii>wi5 /jiev arparrjybs Awpodeos wv, 
dvrjp vvero<> re KOI TroXe^wv TroXX&ii/ efATretpos. 
SiTTO.9 8e dp^rjv p,ev rrjv crrparrjyiSa ev Bi- 
^avriw et%e, jravrl 8e ro3 ev 'Ap/j,evi,oi<> (nparu> 

4 e'0etcrT7;/ce4. ot Sr) crTpdrevfjia 7ro\e/j,ia>v yvovres 
ev Hepaap/jieviois dyeipeadai, bopvtyopovs Bvo 
evdvf eTre/jb-^rav e<^)' <a SiaaKOTnjo-avres aTracrav 
ar<f)i(Ti rS)v iroXefJiiwv rrjv Svva/jiiv eaayyeiXatcriv. 

5 a/ji,(j)a> re ev rc5 arparoTreSti) T&V ftapftdpwv ye- 
v6fj.evoi KOI ajravra e? TO a/e/ot/3e<? /caravorfcravTes 

6 aTrrjXXdcTGOVTO. o$(p re lovres e? ri roi)v eKeivrj 
%a>picov Qvvvois 7roXe/itot9 aTrpoa'SoKijroi x evrvy- 
Xavovcriv. vfi &v arepos /j,ev, Adyapis ovofMa, 
8e0el<? e^foyptjd'r), 6 Se Srj aXXo? <f)vyelv re icr^ycre 
KCU rot? CTT parrjyois rov rcdvra \6yov dTrr)yyet\ev, 

1 ol Be anew TO (rrpdrevpa e^OTrXicravref, ra>v 
TroXefjLtwv Tc3 crrparoTTeSw e'/c TOI) al<j>vi8iov eVe- 

8 (rrrjcrav. o'( re ftdpftapoi TCO drcpocrboKrirw /cara- 
7r\ayevre<; ov/cert, e? d\/cr)i> e/SXeTrov, aXX,' efavyov 
<5 e/cacrT05 rrt] eBvvaro. evravda 'PwfAaioi tcrei- 
vavres re crv^yov^ real TO crrparoTreSov \r)iad- 
fjuevoi avriica 8rj OTricra) dTrrfXavvov. 

9 M.epfj,epor)<i re v/j,7racrav dyeipas rrjv crrpartav 
ov TroXXo) vcrrepov e? yijv njv P&)//,ata)y e'cre- 
/3aXXe, teal Kara\afj,(3dvovcrt rovs TroXe/uoy? a/x<t 
2<dra\.av TroXty. ov S^ evarparoTreSevcrd/jievoi ev 

VWyOtO) 'O/CTay8?7 ^(TV^a^OV, OTTCp rij<f TToXetW? e^ T 

10 at Trevrrffcovra araSiovs aTre^et. StTTa? /xev ow 
^tXtof9 7rayay6/j,evo<; OTnaOev rwv rivo? \6(f>a>v 
eicpvTrrero, olot TroXXol SaTaXay T^J/ TTO\IV ev 

1 airpo(r8J/cTjTO( Haury : airpo(rSoKTjrois MSS. 
130 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xv. 2-10 

the Persarmenians, made their preparations for the 
invasion. Now the general of Armenia was, as it 
happened, Dorotheas, a man of discretion and ex- 
perienced in many wars. And Sittas held the 
office of general in Byzantium, and had authority 
over the whole army in Armenia. These two, then, 
upon learning that an army was being assembled 
in Persarmenia, straightway sent two body-guards 
with instructions to spy out the whole force of 
the enemy and. report to them. And both of these 
men got into the barbarian camp, and after noting 
everything accurately, they departed. And they 
were travelling toward some place in that region, 
when they happened unexpectedly upon hostile 
Huns. By them one of the two, Dagaris by name, 
was made captive and bound, while the other 
succeeded in escaping and reported everything to 
the generals. They then armed their whole force 
and made an unexpected assault upon the camp 
of their enemy ; and the barbarians, panic-stricken by 
the unexpected attack, never thought of resistance, 
but fled as best each one could. Thereupon the 
Romans, after killing a large number and plundering 
the camp, immediately marched back. 

Not long after this Mermeroes, having collected 
the whole army, invaded the Roman territory, and 
they came upon their enemy near the city of 
Satala. There they established themselves in camp 
and remained at rest in a place called Octava, 
which is fifty-six stades distant from the city. 
Sittas therefore led out a thousand men and con- 
cealed them behind one of the many hills which 
surround the plain in which the city of Satala 



K 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



KVK\OVCTI. 

aXXw arrpara) VTOS TO> TrepiftoXov e/ceXeve jj,eveiv, 
eirel ev rq> d//,aXo3 rov<? TroXe/uot^ v<f)L<TTao~6ai 
oloL re elvai ovSa/jirj WOVTO, ov% rjcrcrov rj rpiafj,v- 
piovs 6Wa9, avTol /j,6\i<; e9 TO fi/Aiav egiKvovftevoi. 

12 rf) Se Triovcrr) r//j,epa ol ftdpftapoi ay^icrTa rov 
7rpi/36\ov <yev6/jLVoi, Kv/cXwcriv avrov Troieicrdai 
riva ev cnrovSfj el^ov. acftva) 8e /cariSovres TOU? 

i Strrav e'^ v-fyrj\,ov tfSrj eV avrovs 
Kal avrwv ^VfifjuerpelcrGai TO 
%oi/T69, are rcovioprov &pa depovs TTO\\OV 
eytcei/JLevov, TroXXai re TrXetof? MOVTO elvai teal 
7-779 KVK\a)crca<; Kara ra^;o9 a</>e/iei/ot 9 oXiyov 

13 riva x&pov CIVTOVS ^vvayayeiv rjTreiyovro. <f>dd- 
o-avres Se 'PoojAatoi /cat Si6\6vr<? <r^>a9 avroix} 9 
%vfjb/j,opia<> Svo avaj^topovcnv etc TOV 7repi/36\ov 
7T0evTo, OTrep 7refBr) aTras elBev 6 'Pco/Aaicov 

os, effdpcrrjcrdv re Kal SpofMO TroXXw etc TOV 



14 GOV. /i(TOf9 Se avrovs /caracrrrjad/jLevoi els <f)v<yr)v 
erpe^rav. irkrjdei JJ^VTOL, Kxrirep epp^dtj, r&v TroXe- 
fjLiwv ol j3dp/3apoi vTrepaipovres eri avrel'xpv, r) re 

15 /ia%77 tcaprepa eyejovei teal K ^eipbf fy. dy- 
%t<TT/oo0ou9 Se T<Z9 Btw^eif 7roiovvro e9 aXX?fXoi;9 
eicdrepoi, eirel iTnreis aTravres rjcrav. evravda 
<f>\a)pevTio<; pa%, Kara\6yov ITTTTIKOV ap^wv, et? 
/4ecrou9 opprjcras rou9 TrdXep.lovs teal avrwv TO 

crrjfjieiov aptrd&as, eVf:Xti/a9 re avTo 



132 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xv. 10-15 

lies. Dorotheus with the rest ot the army he 
ordered to stay inside the fortifications, because 
they thought that they were by no means able 
to withstand the enemy on level ground, since 
their number was not fewer than thirty thousand, 
while their own forces scarcely amounted to half 
that number. On the following day the barbarians 
came up close to the fortifications and busily set 
about closing in the town. But suddenly, seeing 
the forces of Sittas who by now were coming down 
upon them from the high ground, and having no 
means of estimating their number, since owing to 
the summer season a great cloud of dust hung over 
them, they thought they were much more numerous 
than they were, and, hurriedly abandoning their plan 
of closing in the town, they hastened to mass their 
force into a small space. But the Romans anticipated 
the movement and, separating their own force into 
two detachments, they set upon them as they were 
retiring from the fortifications ; and when this was 
seen by the whole Roman army, they took courage, 
and with a great rush they poured out from the 
fortifications and advanced against their opponents. 
They thus put the Persians between their own 
troops, and turned them to flight. However, since 
the barbarians were greatly superior to their enemy 
in numbers, as has been said, they still offered re- 
sistance, and the battle had become a fierce fight 
at close quarters. And both sides kept making 
advances upon their opponents and retiring quickly, 
for they were all cavalry. Thereupon Florentius, 
a Thracian, commanding a detachment of horse, 
charged into the enemy's centre, and seizing 
the general's standard, forced it to the ground, and 

133 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



16 &>9 /j,d\iara, OTTICTW a,TTrf\.avve. KOI 
Kara\r)<f)deis re KOL tcpeovpyrjdels avrov e-Trecre, TT)? 
8e viicris f P&)yu,atoi9 alricbraros yeyovev. eVet ya/o 
TO (rrjfjLeiov ol ftdpftapoi ovKen eutpwv, e> a 

re 7ro\\r)v Kal oppco&iav e/jLTreTrrooKores v 

trdv re teal yevopevoi ev r& crrparoTreSw rjcrv^a^ov, 

17 TroXXou? ei/ Ti} /Jid^rj aTroySaXovre?. T^ re vo-re- 
paia 7r OIKOV airavres dve^fap^a-av ovSevbs 
cr(f)i(riv eTTio-TTOfjievov, e-nel fjbeya re ical \6yov 
TroXXoi) aiov etyaivero elvai r& 'Pwftaiwv <rrparS> 
ftapfidpavs rocrovrovs TO TrX^o? ev re rfj 

%(i>pa Ke2va TreTTovOevai ajrep po 
crOev elpiyrai, KOI e9 rrjv 7ro\/j.iav e 
cnrpdicrovs re teal ovrco 7T/J09 rwv 



18 TOT KOI YIepcrwv yu>pia, ev IIe/acrayo/iewot9 'Po>- 
aaioi etrvov, tbpovpiov re TO BwXov Kol TO Oapay- 

^ / ^^ r -rr7) $. > v ^ TT ' 

740^ KaXovftevov, otiev brj rov ^pvaov liepaai 

19 6pvcr<rovres y9a<rt\et (pepovcriv. ervyyavov 8e /cal 
o\L<y<j) Trporepov Karacrrpe^rd^evoL TO Tai>t/eoi' 
e0vos t 01 ev yy rfj 'Pw/Adiwv avrovofjuoi etc 7ra\aiov 
tSpwro' djrep avritca ovrtva eTrpd^drj rpoirov 
XeXe^erat. 

20 'E/c TW^ ' A.pnevia<f %a)pt(i)V l e? Ile/jcrap- 

lovri ev Be^ia fj,ev 6 Tavpos ecrnv, 9 Te 
v /cal ra e/ceivrj edvrj Biijiea>v, wcnrep [ioi 
) efjiTrpocrdev efprjrai, ev dptcrrepa Se tcardv- 
[lev eTTi Tr\elcrrov del Trpoiovcra 77 0809 yiverat, 
/cal oprj dirotcpeparai \iav artoro^a ve(j)e\ai<? re 

21 KOI %tocri KetcdXv/ui/Meva rov rcdvra altova, evdev 

1 \iapi<av VP : bpltav G. 
134 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xv. 15-21 

started to ride back. And though he himself was 
overtaken and fell there, hacked to pieces, he proved 
to be the chief cause of the victory for the Romans. 
For when the barbarians no longer saw the stand- 
ard, they were thrown into great confusion and 
terror, and retreating, got inside their camp, and 
remained quiet, having lost many men in the battle ; 
and on the following day they all returned home- 
ward with no one following them up, for it seemed 
to the Romans a great and very noteworthy thing 
that such a great multitude of barbarians in their 
own country had suffered those things which have 
just been narrated above, and that, after making 
an invasion into hostile territory, they should retire 
thus without accomplishing anything and defeated 
by a smaller force. 

At that time the Romans also acquired certain 
Persian strongholds in Persarmenia, both the fortress 
of Bolum and the fortress called Pharangium, which 
is the place where the Persians mine gold, which 
they take to the king. It happened also that a 
short time before this they had reduced to sub- 
jection the Tzanic nation, who had been settled 
from of old in Roman territory as an autonomous 
people ; and as to these things, the manner in which 
they were accomplished will be related here and now. 

As one goes from the land of Armenia into Pers- 
armenia the Taurus lies on the right, extending into 
Iberia and the peoples there, as has been said a little 
before this, 1 while on the left the road which con- 
tinues to descend for a great distance is overhung by 
exceedingly precipitous mountains, concealed forever 
by clouds and snow, from which the Phasis River 

1 Cf. Book I. x. 2. 

135 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

ei(i)v Trora/io? <&acns (freperai 69 777^ rrjv KoX- 
%ta. ravTij TO e dpxfjs ffdpftapoi, TO T^avixbv 
e0vo<$, ovbevbs KariJKOoi w/crjvro, %dvoi ev rot<? 
avut %p6voi<; KaXov/jievoi, X^crretaf? fiev xptofjievoi 
e? TOU? TrepioL/cov? 'Pwyaatof?, biairav Se crK\rjpav 
vTreptyvG)*; e%o^re9 Kal rot9 tywpiois ael aTro^Sivres' 
ov yap TI e? /3p(t)criv ai>Tois dyadbv f) 777 efape. 
22 Bib Sr) avrols %pvcriov Ta/crbv dva irav ero9 6 



23 \i]i(TOVTac ra eKeivrj ^wpia. 01 8e /cai op/cov<> 
TOU9 cr(f)iai Trarpiovs virep TOVTWV op,vvvTes KOI 
ra o/Ato/iocryu-eva eV d\oyia Troiovfjuevoi dTrpocrSoKr)- 
roi re e/i7rt7rToi>T69 e/c roO 7rt TrXetcrroi/ etcafcovp- 
yovv OVK 'Ayo/z,ewou9 ftovov, d\\a Kal roi9 avrwv 
e%o/j,evov<; 'PajyLtatof9 ytte^t 9 ddXacrcrav, Si' 
oXiyov re T^I/ e<f>o8ov TreTroiijfjievoi ev0vs CTT OIKOV 

24 a7re/co/itbi>TO. /cat 'Pa)fjLai(av icra)<> evrv^ovre^ 
arparu) rjcrawv-ro /J,ev rfj pd^r), d\(aai^oi Be irav- 
TaTraGiv OVK eyivovro %a)pia>v Icr^vL f*d%ij TOIVW 
6 Strra9 avroix; Trpb rovBe rov 7ro\e/j J ov viicrjaas, 
eTray&yd re 7ro\\d 9 avrovs etTrcov re Kal Trpd- 

25 ^a9, TTpoa'TTOiijcracrdai 7ra.i>TeX&>9 larvae, rrjv re 
yap Biairav erri TO rj/u-epwrepov fAera/3a\6vre<> 9 
Kara\6yov<; avrovs 'Pw/u-ai'/co^ ecreypd^fravTO, Kal 
TO XotTTOi/ l-uv TW aXXw ( P(i)fj,aiwv arpary eVt 
T0i>9 TroXe/Jiiovs e^Lacri. rr/v re &6j;av e-rrl TO eixre- 
fte&repov p,ere6evro, arcavres Xpianavol yeyevrj- 

ra fj,ev ovv dp^>\ rots T^dvois ravrrj my 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xv. 21-25 

issues and flows into the land of Colchis. In this 
place from the beginning lived barbarians, the 
Tzanic nation, subject to no one, called Sani in early 
times ; they made plundering expeditions among 
the Romans who lived round about, maintaining a most 
difficult existence, and always living upon what they 
stole ; for their land produced for them nothing 
good to eat. Wherefore also the Roman emperor sent 
them each year a fixed amount of gold, with the 
condition that they should never plunder the country 
thereabout. And the barbarians had sworn to observe 
this agreement with the oaths peculiar to their 
nation, and then, disregarding what they had sworn, 
they had been accustomed for a long time to make 
unexpected attacks and to injure not only the 
Armenians, but also the Romans who lived next to 
them as far as the sea ; then, after completing their 
inroad in a short space of time, they would immedi- 
ately betake themselves again to their homes. And 
whenever it so happened that they chanced upon a 
Roman army, they were always defeated in the 
battle, but they proved to be absolutely beyond 
capture owing to the strength of their fastnesses. 
In this way Sittas had defeated them in battle before 
this war ; and then by many manifestations of kind- 
ness in word and in deed he had been able to win 
them over completely. For they changed their 
manner of life to one of a more civilized sort, and 
enrolled themselves among the Roman troops, and 
from that time they have gone forth against the 
enemy with the rest of the Roman army. They also 
abandoned their own religion for a more righteous 
faith, and all of them became Christians. Such then 
was the history of the Tzani. 

137 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



26 "TTrepftdvri, Be ra avrwv opia (frdpayj; earl 
(SaOeld re /cat \lav fcpv)jj,v(b8rj<i, /4e%pt eV rd Kau- 
KCKTia opr) BirjfcovGa. evravda %a)pia re rro\vav- 
OpwTforard eari KOI a/LtueXo? re /cat rj dXkrj 

27 OTTtopa Siaptcws <j)verai. real fJ^XP 1 P^ v ^ T P i &>v 
rj/jiepwv oSbv yu-aXtcrra 'Pw/iatof? rj (f>dpay^ avrt] 
V7rore\r)<f rf7%ai/et ovcra, TO Se evOev&e ol TLep- 
<rapjji,evia)v opoi eK^e^ovrat,, ov >r) teal TO ToO 

ecrrw oTre Ka/9aSoi Sovros 



? ovofj,a. 
28 ouTO? 6 %v/j(i)vr)<?, eTreiBrj d/j,<j)oTepov<; e? TOI/ 



29 fjidrcov Trpo<r6$ov dirocrrepelv eyvw. 810 Srj avrov 
T KOI TO <&apd<yyiov 'Pwjjiaiois evBov? ovBeTepois 
TOV ex rov /jTd\\ov xpvaov cnrofyepew r/^iov. 

30 'Pw/u-atoi ftev <ydp ovSev evparrov, airo^priv 
G$iaiv r}<yovfAvoi d7ro\a)\evai T0t9 7ro\e/juoi<; rrjv 
ev6ev8e <f)opdv, Ile/ocrat Be ou% olot Te rjaav dtcov- 
ra)v 'Pa)/j,aict)v TOU9 ravrrj (aicrip,evovs dvria"rarov- 
0-779 T?79 Suo-^(pia9 ftid^ecrdai, 

31 'TTTO Be TOV9 avrov? ^povovs Na/3o-^9 Te at 
'ApaTtO9, o? BeXto-a/Jtw /cat StTTa er IIe/3crap- 
u,Via)v T77 ycopa aT' apva9 rovBe TOV 

' - ^ ' " " /3 ' 

9 %et/)a9 rfkvov, eocrTrep efjurpocraev 
\(orai, i;vv Trj fj,rjrpl auTo/aoXot 69 

o 



'i re aitrovs Bcopelrai 

32 o?rep eVeio?/ 'Io"aa/c?79, 6 vea>raro<f avrwv 
jiade, c P&)/Ltatot9 \ddpa 9 \o<yov<; 
auTOt9 TO <f>povpiov, aryyiGrd rrr) ov rwv 



138 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xv. 26-32 

Beyond the borders of this people there is a 
canon whose walls are both high and exceedingly 
steep, extending as far as the Caucasus mountains. 
In it are populous towns, and grapes and other fruits 
grow plentifully. And this canon for about the 
space of a three days' journey is tributary to the 
Romans, but from there begins the territory of 
Persarmenia ; and here is the gold-mine which, with 
the permission of Cabades, was worked by one of 
the natives, Symeon by name. When this Symeon 
saw that both nations were actively engaged in the 
war, he decided to deprive Cabades of the revenue. 
Therefore he gave over both himself and Pharan- 
gium to the Romans, but refused to deliver over to 
either one the gold of the mine. And as for the 
Romans, they did nothing, thinking it sufficient for 
them that the enemy had lost the income from 
there, and the Persians were not able against the 
will of the Romans to force the inhabitants of the 
place to terms, because they were baffled by the 
difficult country. 

At about the same time Narses and Aratius who 
at the beginning of this war, as I have stated above, 1 
had an encounter with Sittas and Belisarius in the 
land of the Persarmenians, came together with their 
mother as deserters to the Romans ; and the 
emperor's steward, Narses, received them (for he 
too happened to be a Persarmenian by birth), and 
he presented them with a large sum of money. 
When this came to the knowledge of Isaac, their 
youngest brother, he secretly opened negotiations 
with the Romans, and delivered over to them the 
fortress of Bolum, which lies very near the limits of 

1 Cf. Book I. xii. 21. 

139 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

33 eoSocrfovTroXe&x? opLwv, TrapeSwxe. crrparicoras 
ydp eyyvs TTIJ e7recrre\\e icpvTrrecrOai, OV9 8r) rat 
<f>povpia) vvKTtop eSefaro, piav avrols \adpa 
dvcucXivas 7rv\i8a' ovrai re teal avrbs e? Bu- 
rj\0ev. 



XVI 

ra irpd^^ara el^e. Tlep- 

crai Se TT/JO? J$e\icrapiov ev Aa/)a? rjcra-ijfjievoi rfj 
evdevSe ava^wpelv eyvwcrav, ew? 
? otyiv rrjv K.aftdSov ' rj\0ev, 
a)8e, " "ETre/i-^re /Lte, a> /SacrtXeO, o ao? 
9 /Jbefji-^nv Bueaiav /jie/jupofAevos, ori Srj 
Tlepaai air ouSeyu-ta? atrta? 9 77}^ rrjv avrov 

2 ev o?rXot9 r)\6ov. Kairoi ySacrtXet f*,e<yd\,ri) re 
teal eV roaov ^vveaews -tJKovri etc rro\ep,ov elpijvrjv 
TTpvravevcrai /j,d\\ov av rrperrot, rj r&v Trpay- 
Harcov ev /cadecrrforfov rapa^rjv ov Seov avry 

3 re KOI Tot9 7reXa9 rrpoarplfteadai. 0^9 &rj teal 
avro9 eue\7T49 wv evddSe dtyiy/jiai, O7r&)9 TO 
\oirrov dfj,<f>orepoi<> ra CK rrjs elprfv^ dyada 

4 6117." 'Pov(f)tvo<f fjiev rocravra elrce. 
8e dfj,ei/3erai coSe, " T fl iral StX/Sa^o 

9 Treipw, rcdvrwv e%67U- 
fj,d\icrra rapa^fj<} dirdcrr]<i alrt(Drdrov<; 

yeyovevai rovs 'Pa)fj,aiovs y/ia9. 7rvXa9 70/3 r9 
r)fj,el<; ecr^o/j,ev eVt TW IIe/3creoi' re at 
dya6<a, ^tacrd/jievot rov<; efceivij ftap- 
eirel ' Avacrrd<rio<; 6 'P(a/J,at,(av avro- 

Kpdroop, &>9 TTOU /cat auro9 olada, Trapov 

140 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xv. 32-xvi. 4 

Theodosiopolis. For he directed that soldiers should 
be concealed somewhere in the vicinity, and he 
received them into the fort by night, opening 
stealthily one small gate for them. Thus he too 
came to Byzantium. 



XVI 

THUS matters stood with the Romans. But the 
Persians, though defeated by Belisarius in the battle 
at Daras, refused even so to retire from there, until 
Rufinus, coming into the presence of Cabades, spoke 
as follows : " O King, I have been sent by thy 
brother, who reproaches thee with a just reproach, 
because the Persians for no righteous cause have 
come in arms into his land. But it would be more 
seemly for a king who is not only mighty, but also 
wise as thou art, to secure a peaceful conclusion of 
war, rather than, when affairs have been satisfactorily 
settled, io inflict upon himself and his people un- 
necessary confusion. Wherefore also I myself have 
come here with good hopes, in order that from 
now on both peoples may enjoy the blessings which 
come from peace." So spoke Rufinus. And Cabades 
replied as follows : " O son of Silvanus, by no means 
try to reverse the causes, understanding as you do 
best of all men that you Romans have been the 
chief cause of the whole confusion. For we have 
taken the Caspian Gates to the advantage of both 
Persians and Romans, after forcing out the barbarians 
there, since Anastasius, the Emperor of the Romans, 
as you yourself doubtless know, when the opportunity 
was offered him to buy them with money, was not 

141 



PROCOP1US OF CAESAREA 



<avei(T0ai, ovtc ij0e\v, 07T&>9 pr) arpd- 
rev/jia ei9 rrdvra rov alfava evravda e^cav XP 1 !' 
para p.e<yd\a vrrep d/j,<f)orep(t)v rrpotecrOai dvay- 

5 /cdfyrai. e etceivov re r/ftels crrparidv rocravryv 
TO rrXrjdos evravda Kara<7Tr)crd/jLvoi, KOI e? rov 
irapovra %povov etcrpeffrovre? SeScaKajjiev vpJiv TO 
76 Kara TOU? eiceivr) ftapftdpov? fiepos dSywrov 
rrjv yu>pav oifcetv, %vv 7roX\,f) dTrpayfiocrvvr) ra 

6 vfierepa avrwv e^ovatv. wcnrep Se ov% licavbv 
vfjJiv rovro ye, /ecu rrb\iv peydkrjv Adpas emrei- 
^toyia Ileyocrat? TreTTOLrjade, tcairrep SiappijSrjv ev 
rat? (nrovSais aTreiprj/^evov aairep 'AvaroXto? 
7T/)05 Ileyocra? edero' KOI art" avrov Svoiv arpa- 
roTreSoiv dvdy/cr) TTOVOIS re teal Sajrdvrj /ce/caKO)- 
a-dai ra Hepvwv Trpdyftara, rb /JLCV, OTTW? ft^ 
M.acr<ra<yerat rrjv dfKporepoiv <yfjv ayeiv re teal 
<j>epeiv aSe&)9 Svvwvrai, rb 8e, OTTW? av ra9 

7 vfjierepa<t 7riSpo/j,a<; dvacrre\\oi/j,ev. vrrep wv 
eva<y%os fj.efjL<pojj,eva)v TI^WV, Svotv re rb erepov 
dj;iovvrci)V reap v/j,a>v yiyvecrdai, rj e d^oripuiv 
rov 9 7rv\a<j r9 Ka<T7rta9 arparov crreXXecr&u, 
r) TroXiv Aapa9 fcara\V6(rdai, rS>v fiev \eyofjievcav 
rr)v [Addycrtv ov rrpoaleade, teaicy Be [j,elovi 
tcparvvacrOai rrjv 69 TLepcra 1 } eVt/SouX^i/ eyvcore, 
ei ri [ji/j,vij[Ae6a rf)<? ev M.iv8ovo$ olfco8ofjiia<>' KOI 
vvv 8e r Pa)/z,atof9 eXera fiev ra rrjs elpyjvrj?, alperd 
Se ra 07r\a, r) ra Sifcaia Trpbs rjfids ridef^evo^, rj 

8 a?r' evavria? avrwv lovaiv. ov <ydp ra orr\a 
KaraOrjaovcri rrporepov Tlepcrai, rrplv or; avrolf 

77 ra9 7ruXa9 SiKaucx; re real bpOws 
rj TTO\IV Art/)9 tcara\vcrovo~i" 



142 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xvi. 4-8 

willing to do so, in order that he might not be com- 
pelled to squander great sums of money in behalf of 
both nations by keeping an army there perpetually. 
And since that time we have stationed that great 
army there, and have supported it up to the present 
time, thereby giving you the privilege of inhabiting 
the land unplundered as far as concerns the bar- 
barians on that side, and of holding your own 
possessions with complete freedom from trouble. 
But as if this were not sufficient for you. you have also 
made a great city, Daras, as a stronghold against the 
Persians, although this was explicitly forbidden in the 
treaty which Anatolius arranged with the Persians ; 
and as a result of this it is necessary for the Persian 
state to be afflicted with the difficulties, and the 
expense of two armies, the one in order that the 
Massagetae may not be able fearlessly to plunder the 
land of both of us, and the other in order that we 
may check your inroads. When lately we made a 
protest regarding these matters and demanded that 
one of two things should be done by you, either that 
the army sent to the Caspian Gates should be sent 
by both of us, or that the city of Daras should be 
dismantled, you refused to understand what was 
said, but saw fit to strengthen your plot against the 
Persians by a greater injury, if we remember correctly 
the building of the fort in Miiidouos. 1 And even 
now the Romans may choose peace, or they may 
elect war, by either doing justice to us or going 
against our rights. For never will the Persians lay 
down their arms, until the Romans either help them 
in guarding the gates, as is just and right, or dis- 
mantle the city of Daras." With these words 
1 Cf. Book I. xiii. 2. 

'43 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



9 rocravra Kapao?;9 eircaov rov Trpeapevrrjv arre- 

%pijfjiard re irpos 'Pcouaiwv \afielv Kal T<*9 rov 
10 7ro\fAov KardX-vetv atrta9. arrep 'Pov$ivo<i 69 
P>vdvriov yJKcav fiaaiXei ij<y<yei\ev. ov 8r) ov 
\(j) vcrrepov Kal 'l&pfjiO'yevr)'; d(f)LKero, Kal 6 
'"" e\r)ye, Kal reraprov eVo9 ereXeura 'loi/- 
>& /SacrtXet rrjv avroKpdropa dp%r)v e^ovn. 



XVII 

1 f/ A/za 8e tfpi ap^opevw o-rpdrev/Aa Tlepcrwv 
r/yovfjievov eVeySaXei/ e? 'PaifMaiajv rrjv 
rjcrav Be Trevratcia-^iXiot, re Kal fAvpioi, 
diravre^. Kal avrols ' A.\a/jiovv8apo<; 6 



2 Kt]vS)v %(ov. avrrj re Ilepcrat? r) e(r/3oX?) ov 
KaOdrrep elcoOei eyevero- ov <ydp e9 TTJV Meao- 

av ecr/3a\\,ov wo"nep rd Trporepa, a\X' 
7rd\ai /u,ey KofjLfjayiivrjv, ravvv 8e /ca\ov- 
}Lv$>parri(Tiav, odev Srj ov rfdnrore Tlepaai 
rrpbrepov, oaa <ye 77^9 eiSevai, eirl 'Pto/xatow 

3 earpdrevaav. orov 8e eveKa M.eo~o7rora/jiia re 
rj ywpa eK~\,7J6rj Kal ol Tlepcrai T^9 69 ravrrjv 
(f)6oov drrea"xpvro epaw ep%ofj,ai. 

4 "O/009 ov \iav aTToropov ev 'Apfjieviois eo~ri, 

f^ev 8vo Kal recraapaKovra 



fioppdv dve/Jiov. Kal TTtjyal Svo e 
7TOTa/iou9 &vo Troiovaai avriKa 
5 Jj ev Sefta, 1} Se Brj ere pa Tiyprjv ovofia. rovrotv 

144 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xvi. 9 -xvii. 5 

Cabades dismissed the ambassador, dropping the 
hint that he was willing to take money from the 
Romans and have done with the causes of the war. . 
This was reported to the emperor by Rufinus when 
he came to Byzantium. Hermogenes also came 
thither not long afterwards, and the winter came 
to a close ; thus ended the fourth year of the reign osi A.U. 
of the Emperor Justinian. 

XVII 

AT the opening of spring a Persian army under 
the leadership of Azarethes invaded the Roman 
territory. They were fifteen thousand strong, all 
horsemen. With them was Alamoundaras, son of 
Saccice, with a very large body of Huns. But this * 
invasion was not made by the Persians in the 
customary manner ; for they did not invade 
Mesopotamia, as formerly, but the country called 
Commagene of old, but now Euphratesia, a point 
from which, as far as we know, the Persians never 
before conducted a campaign against the Romans. 
But why the land was called Mesopotamia and why 
the Persians refrained from making their attack at 
this point is what I now propose to relate. 

There is a mountain in Armenia which is not 
especially precipitous, two-and-forty stades removed 
from Theodosiopolis and lying toward the north from 
it. From this mountain issue two springs, forming 
immediately two rivers, the one on the right called 
the Euphrates, and the other the Tigris. One of 

MS 

VOL. I. L 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

arepos ftev, 6 Tiypr)?, ovre trepioSois Titrl 
/A6I/O9 ovre v8dra>v OTI fir) 6\ijcov ol 

6 fjievwv, evdv 'Ayu,i&?79 TroXeto? Kareicn. Kal 

6*9 TO, 7T/309 ftoppdv dvefwv Trpo'itov %&>pet e? TWV 
' kcrcrv picov Tr/v ^uipav. o Se 8rj ^vffrpdrijs <f)eperai 
fiev tear ayova? eVt riva y&pov 6\i<yov, ev&v<> Se 
Trpoltov afyavi&Tai, ou% vTroyeios fievroi yivo/jievos, 
d\\d TL ol vfj,/3aivov Qav^Aaiov olov' vTrep <ydp 

7 rov vSaros reX/ta eTrt, 7r\eicrTOv /3a0i> ylverai, 
firjicos fiev oaov eVt crraStof? Trevrr/KOVTa, evpos 
8e eiKOffi' /cal KaXd/jiwv <f>verai TTO\V TI ^pr}fia 

8 ev T& 7rrj\u) TOVTO). 69 TOCTOV Be crK\ripo<i T49 o 
^01)9 evravdd eartv ware rot9 VTVy%dvov(Tiv 
ovBev aA.A,o Sotcetv rj iJTreipov elvcu. CTT' avrq> 
ToLvvv vfjif3aivet, ovSev Se&ioras 7re^ou9 T /cat 

9 t7T7rea9 7ropevea-6ai. teal fir)v Kal afj,aai Trapi- 
aaiv evdevSe jro\\al ripepa eKa<nri, aXX' ovSev 



TO Trapjrav a-woven Kivev ri rj ee.e<y^eiv rov 
10 reX/iaT09. Kaiovai Se roiv; Ka\dp,ov^ ol eVf- 
-^(apioi dva TTOLV ero9, roO firj r9 oSoi'9 7rpo9 
avroitv e'lpjeadat, Kal vrore Tri/eu/zaro? evravda 
e^aicriov eTrnreaovros ^XP 1 ' ^ T ^ T< ^ z; pt^v 
TO TTU/J e^iKvelcrdat, rfTV^fe, Kal TO 
ey 'xwplw 6\iyq) <f)avrjvai' %povov 8e 6 
v0i$ ov TTO\\OV fu/i0uei9 aTreSw/ce TW 
TO a^j]jjM e</)' ovTrep TO Trporepov rjv. 
re 6 irora/jbo^ Trpoetcriv 69 T^V K.eXecrrjvrjv 
Ka\OVfihnp> "Xtopav, ov Srj TO ev Tai/pois TY)<$ 'ApTe- 
/u8o9 tepoi/ ^j^, evOev \eyovcri TTJV *A.<ya[j.ep,vovo<s 
'l<f)i<yeveiav %vv -re ^OpeaTrj Kal Hv\d8rj <J)vyeiv TO 
12 T?}9 'A/5Te/itSo9 dydXfMi <pepovcrav. 6 yap 
veu)$, 09 &r) Kal e<f e/jue ecrTiv ev 7ro\ec 
146 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xvii. 5-12 

these, the Tigris, descends, with no deviations and 
with no tributaries except small ones emptying into 
it, straight toward the city of Amida. And contin- 
uing into the country which lies to the north of this 
city it enters the land of Assyria. But the 
Euphrates at its beginning flows for a short distance, 
and is then immediately lost to sight as it goes on ; 
it does not, however, become subterranean, but a 
very strange thing happens. For the water is 
covered by a bog of great depth, extending about 
fifty stades in length and twenty in breadth ; and 
reeds grow in this mud in great abundance. But 
the earth there is of such a hard sort that it seems to 
those who chance upon it to be nothing else than 
solid ground, so that both pedestrians and horsemen 
travel over it without any fear. Nay more, even 
wagons pass over the place in great numbers every 
day, but they are wholly insufficient to shake the 
bog or to find a weak spot in it at any point. The 
natives burn the reeds every year, to prevent the 
roads being stopped up by them, and once, when an 
exceedingly violent wind struck the place, it came 
about that the fire reached the extremities of the 
roots, and the water appeared at a small opening ; 
but in a short time the ground closed again, and 
gave the spot the same appearance which it had had 
before. From there the river proceeds into the land 
called Celesene, where was the sanctuary of Artemis 
among the Taurians, from which they say Iphigenia, 
daughter of Agamemnon, fled with Orestes and 
Pylades, bearing the statue of Artemis. For the 
other temple which has existed even to my day in 
the city of Comana is not the one " Among the 

147 
L 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

6 ev Tavpois earlv. a\V O7ra>9 eyevero eya) 



13 'EiretS/; K Tavpatv 'Qpecrrr]? vv rfj doe\cj)fj 
diTiwv w'^ero, ^vveTTGcrev avrq> vocrijcrat TO craiyLta. 
Kal dp<f>l ry vbcrw Trvvdavo/juevo) %pija-ai TO /j,av- 
relov $aaiv ov Trporepov Xeu^^creti/ avrw TO 
tcatcov, Trplv rfj 'Apre/jit8t vaov 8et/xao-#cu eV X^PV 
roiovTO) olov 8r) TOV ev Tau/jot? ^v^aivei elvai, 
evravdd re aTTOKeipaadai rrjv avrov KOfjirjv /cat 

14 avrfj o/A&)vy^.&)9 /caXecrat rrjv 7ro\iv. Sib &r) 
'Qpea-rrjv TreptiovTa TCL e/ceivrj ^wpLa iv TLovro) 
<yeve(r&ai, tcartSelv re 0/909 o Brj evravOa CLTTO- 
rofiov air e/cpe para, eppei re evepdev Tjapa ras rov 

15 opovs ea^aTta? 7TOTa/i09 *Ipt9. vTroroTrijaavra 
ovv rov 'Qpearrrjv rore rovrov ol rov ^wpov 8rj- 
\ovv TO fuivreiov, iroXiv re evravOa \6yov d%iav 
xal rov rfj<i 'A/JTe/tu8o9 veow Sei/iaa-dai, rrjv re 
KOfivjv djrodpi^d^evov ofiwvv^ca^ avrfj tca\ecrai 
rrjv 7r6\tv rj Sr) Ko/iai/a teal e? e'/ie ovo/jid^erai. 

16 ToimBi> Te 'Opea-rrj egeipyao-pevwv ovSev ri y]oaov, 
el jjirf Kal /j,d\\ov, rrjv voaov aKfid^eiv. alaOo- 
/uLevov Be rov dvdpcojrov e9 OVK 67TtT7/Set&)9 TavTa 
T6> fiavreiqt Troioirj, arcavra avQi<s rrepuovra 8ta- 
<TK07reiardai Kal 'X<ap6v riva ev KaTnraSoKais ev- 

il peiv rq> ev Talipots rd fid\i(rra e^(f>epecrrarov. 
ovTrep Kal ejca 7roA.Xa/ct9 I8a)v r/<yd(r0r)v re 
vTrep<f>vG)<; Kal fwi eSoKovv ev Tavpois elvai. TO 
TC yap 0/309 TOUTO eKeivep aTe^ya>9 eoiKev,\ eVet 
Kavravda o Tavpos ecm, Kal 6 7TOTa//,o9 S/3O9 
18 rw ravrrj Rvtypdrr) eiKa^erai. 7ro\iv re ovv 
Ko^o^rjcraro evravOa 'Opecrrrjs Kal 
Bvo, rov erepov fiev rfj 'AprefjuSi, rov 8e 
148 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xvii. 12-18 

Taurians." But I shall explain how this temple 
came into being. 

When Orestes had departed in haste from the 
Taurians with his sister, it so happened that he 
contracted some disease. And when he made 
inquiry about the disease they say that the oracle 
responded that his trouble would not abate until he 
built a temple to Artemis in a spot such as the one 
among the Taurians, and there cut off his hair and 
named the city after it. So then Orestes, going 
about the country there, came to Pontus, and saw a 
mountain which rose steep and towering, while 
below along the extremities of the mountain flowed 
the river Iris. Orestes, therefore, supposing at that 
time that this was the place indicated to him by the 
oracle, built there a great city and the temple of 
Artemis, and, shearing off his hair, named after it 
the city which even up to the present time has been 
called Comana. The story goes on that after Orestes 
had done these things, the disease continued to be 
as violent as before, if not even more so. Then the 
man perceived that he was not satisfying the oracle 
by doing these things, and he again went about 
looking everywhere and found a certain spot in 
Cappadocia very closely resembling the one among 
the Taurians. I myself have often seen this place 
and admired it exceedingly, and have imagined that I 
was in the land of the Taurians. For this mountain 
resembles the other remarkably, since the Taurus is 
here also and the river Sarus is similar to the 
Euphrates there. So Orestes built in that place an 
imposing city and two temples, the one to Artemis 

149 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



d\\ov rfi dBe\<j)fj *\<$>i<yeveiq, ovs Br) Xpicrriavol 
lepd (r<f)i<Ti Trejroirjvrai, TT}? oiKoBofjiias ovBev TO 

19 irapaTTav fiera/3a\6vres. avrrj Kd\.eirat KOI vvv 
rj %pva"r) Ko/u,ai>a, rfjs ^Opecrrov KO/ATIS eVowu/zo? 
ov<ra, rjv Brj etceivov evravdd (fracriv dTrotceipd- 

20 /juevov SiCKfiwyelv TO dppaicrrrjfjLa. rives 8e \e- 
yovcriv avrov OVK a\\rjv riva vocrov rj rrjv fiavLav 
ravrrjv djro^vyeiv, fjTrep avrov ea-^ev eTretSr) rrjv 
fiijTepa rrjv eavrov efcreivev. eyon Be eTrl rov 
Trporepov \6<yov eTrdveifti. 

21 "E/c re <ydp TWV ev Tavpoi? ' ' Kpfjueviwv /cat 
%to/3a? rf)<; KeXeo-^v?}? 7rora/i09 Eu^>paT?;9 ev &e$;ia 
petav <ytjv re 7ro\\r]V Trepi/BdhXerai, teal Troraftwv 
ol d\\a>v re dva^i^vv^evwv Kal avrov ' Apaivov 
05 Brj GK rwv Tlepffap/j^evicov Ka\ovp,eva)v TroXu? 
<f>eperai, fieyas re, &>s TO et/co?, yeyevrjjjievos 9 
TOU9 ird\ai fjuev Aevicocrvpovs, vvv Se 'Ap/ttey/OL'9 
fittcpovs Ka\ovjj,evov<$ ^(opet, a>v Sr) 7roXt9 Trpcorrj 

22 M.e\irr)vr) \6yov TroXXoO d%la ecrrL TO Be evrev- 
6ev rd re Sa/iotraTa Trapappet teal rrjv 'lepaTroXiv 
Kal Trdvra rd exeivrj ^atpia pe^pi e9 rwv 'Ao-o"u- 
piwv rr)V yijv, ov Brj aX\.rj\oiv a/i^>&> TO) TrorafiO) 
dva/jiiyvv/Meva) e? ovo/j,a TO ToD Tiyprjros dTrorce- 

23 Kpivrai. %ft>/9a 701)^ ^ e ^a^ocrarwv etcrbs Eu- 
<j)pdrov TTOTa/ioO ecrTt TraXat //.ei/ Ko/Afjbayrjvr) 
e/cXijffr), ravvv Be rfp Trorapw e&riv eTrcovv/AOS. rj 
Be rovrov evros, rj Brj avrov re [tear) Kal Tlyprjros 
ecTTt, MecroTTOTa/ua, a>9 TO et/co9, ovofj,derai' polpa 
fiivroL avrf)<> ov rovrw povov r& ovopari, d\\d 

24 Kal aXXot9 rialv TriKa\elrai. rj re yap 
' 7roXeo)9 'Kpfievia irpos evicov 

T6 %vv T0t9 a/A^)' avrrjv 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xvii. 18-24 

and the other to his sister Iphigenia, which the 
Christians have made sanctuaries for themselves, 
without changing their structure at all. This is 
called even now Golden Comana, being named from 
the hair of Orestes, which they say he cut off there 
and thus escaped from his affliction. But some say 
that this disease from which he escaped was nothing 
else than that of madness which seized him after he 
had killed his own mother. But I shall return to 
the previous narrative. 

From Tauric Armenia and the land of Celesene the 
River Euphrates, flowing to the right of the Tigris, 
flows around an extensive territory, and since many 
rivers join it and among them the Arsinus, whose 
copious stream flows down from the land of the so- 
called Persarmenians, it becomes naturally a great 
river, and flows into the land of the people anciently 
called White Syrians but now known as the Lesser 
Armenians, whose first city, Melitene, is one of great 
importance. From there it flows past Samosata and 
Hierapob's and all the towns in that region as far as 
the land of Assyria, where the two rivers unite with 
each other into one stream which bears the name of 
the Tigris. The land which lies outside the 
River Euphrates, beginning with Samosata, was 
called in ancient times Commagene, but now it is 
named after the river. 1 But the land inside the river, 
that namely which is between it and the Tigris, is 
appropriately named Mesopotamia ; however, a 
portion of it is called not only by this name, but 
also by certain others. For the land as far as the 
city of Amida has come to be called Armenia by 
some, while Edessa together with the country 

1 " Euphrateaia " ; cf. section 2. 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



TOI) 'Oo"/ooov 1 eTTcavvfAos ecrriv, dv8po<s evravOa 
/3e/3affi\evKoro<; ev rot? dvw xpovots rjvi/ca Hep- 
25 crat? ot ravrrj avdpcoTroi ev(nrovSoi r/aav. Tiepcrat 
ovv e7rei8r) Trpos 'Payfiaicov Ni(Ti/3iv re rro\iv Kal 
a\\a arra. MecroTroTa/ua? ywp'ia e\a/3ov, rjvifca 



Trora/jiov ev oXtytopiq 

K rov e?ri 7rXet(TTOi/ avvBpov re KOI a 
epr)fji,ov ovaav, evravda Se TTOVU> ovSevl d 
are ev %ft>pa olxeia re Kal TroXeyata rfj 
aj^ordrco ovcry, evdevSe ra? ecr/3oA,a5 del eT 
ovvro. 

26 'Hvifca Se rjcrcriidels 6 Mippdvr)? rf) pay?) real 
Toy? TrXeto-rou? drcofta\<c>v ru> a\\a) arparS) 69 ra 
TIepcrwv ijdrj dfy'iKero, Troivijs erv%e TT/JO? fta<ri- 

27 Xea>9 Ka/SaSou Trt/c/oa?. KO^JJMV yap d(pei\ero 
avrov ov 8rj dvaBetcrffai, rwv ev rf) tce(f>aX.fj 
eltodei, K re %pvcrov Kal /^apydpwv 

dia>/j,a 8e rovro ev Hepa-ais peya jj,erd ye rrjv 

28 /3acrtXe&>9 ri/jbrfv. evravda yap ovre 8aKrv\iq> 
%pvcrw ovre %(i)vrj ovre Tfepovrj %pf)aOai ovre aXXeo 
orcaovv 0e/j,i<;, ori /j,rj IK /3a<rtXe&>9 d^icoBevri, 

29 Kal TO \OITTOV 6 Ka/Sa^7;9 ev /3ov\fj el^ev ovnva 
rpoTrov avro9 eTrl 'Pa)/j,aiovs arparevoi. Mippdvov 
yap <T(/)aXei'T09 o#T<M9 wcrrrep epprjdr), eV aXXw 

30 ovSevl TO dappeiv el%e. /cat ol ercl ir\elarov drco- 
pov/jLeva) 'AXayu,ovvSa/oo9 o rS)V ^apaKijvwv /Sacrt- 
Xei)9 Tcpo<re\d(0v elrrev " Ov irdvra, eo Sea-Trora, 

1 roC 'Ofrpdov Haury : re otrpSov VP, Tp6oi; G. 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xvii. 24-30 

around it is called Osroene, after Osroes, a man who 
was king in that place in former times, when the 
men of this country were in alliance with the 
Persians. After the time, therefore, when the 
Persians had taken from the Romans the city of 
Nisibis and certain other places in Mesopotamia, 
whenever they were about to make an expedition 
against the Romans, they disregarded the land 
outside the River Euphrates, which was for the most 
part unwatered and deserted by men, and gathered 
themselves here with no trouble, since they were in 
a land which was their own and which lay very 
close to the inhabited land of their enemy, and from 
here they always made their invasions. 

When the Mirranes, defeated in battle l and with 
the greater part of his men lost, came back to the 
Persian land with the remainder of his army, he 
received bitter punishment at the hands of King 
Cabades. For he took away from him a decoration 
which he was accustomed to bind upon the hair of 
his head, an ornament wrought of gold and pearls. 
Now this is a great dignity among the Persians, 
second only to the kingly honour. For there it is 
unlawful to wear a gold ring or girdle or brooch or 
anything else whatsoever, except a man be counted 
worthy to do so by the king. 

Thereafter Cabades began to consider in what 
manner he himself should make an expedition against 
the Romans. For after the mirranes had failed in the 
manner I have told, he felt confidence in no one else. 
While he was completely at a loss as to what he should 
do, Alamoundaras, the king of the Saracens, came 
before him and said : " Not everything, O Master, 

1 Ch. xiv. 28-54. 

153 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



eo~n TTicrreveiv r rv%rj ove rovs 
oiecrffcu Selv Karopdovv aTravra?. ov8e yap et/co? 
rovro ye ovSe a\A.o>9 dv0p(07retov, d\\d fcai dv/j,- 
(ftopos avrij fjLa\tcrra rot9 avrf] e^ofjievoif rj evvoid 

31 ecr-u. roi'9 yap airavra <r<f)icriv e\7ricravTa<; 
rdyada ecreadai cr(f)a\evTa<; Trore, av OVT<O TV%OI, 
T] eX7ri9 ov Seov ^yrjcraf^evr) rov TT pocnjfcovros /j,d\- 

32 \ov rjvLaae. Bio 8rj OVK %OVT<> del eirl rfj Tv%rj 
TO Oappelv avOpwTroi OVK etc rov evdeos 69 KivSvvov 

iffravrai, /cav rw iravri TWV 
Mcriv, aX\' aTrdrrj re KOI 
TICU Trepie\Jdelv rou9 evavriovs ev arwovBy eyovaiv. 

33 ot9 yap etc rov dvrnrdXov 6 /civSwo? CTTIV OVK ev 
^e/3atw TO, T% VIK^ %w/3et. vvv ovv fi^re o?9 
Mtppdwij? r/rvxrjo'ev ovrw 7repia>8vvo<;, w /SacrtXecov 
/SacriXeO, yivov, fMjre avOis dTTOTreipdtracrdai /3ov- 

34 \ov rfj<f TV'X'T)?. Me<ro7roTa/ita9 ydp KCU rfjs 
'Qcrporjvfjt; KO\JOV jjbivrjs ^o)pa<f, are r&v crwv opicov 
ay%icrra ovcrrjs, at re 7roXef9 o^vpooraraL etcrt 
Tracrwv fj,d\io~ra Kal crrparicorwv 7r\f}0o<; olov ov 
TTcoTrore -rrporepov ravvv e^ova-tv, eocrre rj/jitv 
avroae lover iv OVK ev r& da<^a\el ra rfj<> dycovias 
yevrfcrerai, ev pevroi ry %co/?a, rj e'/ero9 Ev(j)pdrov 
TrorafjLov rvy%dvei ovcra, Kal rfj ravrrj? e%o/jvr} 
^vpia ovre 7roXe&)9 6%up(Ofj,a ovre crrpdrevfia 

35 \6yov a^iov ecrn. ravra ydp 7ro\\dKi<> 7T/?09 ra>v 
eVt KaracrKOTrf) 9 ravras ecrra\f^evci)V ^apaKrjv&v 

36 rfKOV(ra. evda Brj Kal TroXii/ 'Avrio%eiav elvai 

i, 7r\ovrw re Kal peyeOet Kal iroXvavd pwrrla 
"jroXewv drraawv rwv ev rot9 ecJof9 
ovcrav TJ 8rj d(f>v\aKr6<> re Kal <rrpa- 

37 rtwrcav eprj/Aos ea-riv. ov ydp d\\ov ovSevbs rq> 

154 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xvii. 30-37 

should be entrusted to fortune, nor should one 
believe that all wars ought to be successful. For this 
is not likely and besides it is not in keeping with the 
course of human events, but this idea is most unfortu- 
nate for those who are possessed by it. For when men 
who expect that all the good things will come to them 
fail at any time, if it so happen, they are distressed 
more than is seemly by the very hope which wrongly 
led them on. Therefore, since men have not al- 
ways confidence in fortune, they do not enter into 
the danger of war in a straightforward way, even if 
they boast that they surpass the enemy in every 
respect, but by deception and divers devices they exert 
themselves to circumvent their opponents. For 
those who assume the risk of an even struggle have 
no assurance of victory. Now) therefore, O King of 
Kings, neither be thus distressed by the misfortune 
which has befallen Mirranes, nor desire again to 
make trial of fortune. For in Mesopotamia and the 
land of Osroene, as it is called, since it is very close 
to thy boundaries, the cities are very strong above all 
others, and now they contain a multitude of soldiers 
such as never before, so that if we go there the 
contest will not prove a safe one ; but in the land 
which lies outside the River Euphrates, and in Syria 
which adjoins it, there is neither a fortified city nor 
an army of any importance. For this I have often 
heard from the Saracens sent as spies to these parts. 
There too, they say, is the city of Antioch, in wealth 
and size and population the first of all the cities of 
the Eastern Roman Empire ; and this city is un- 
guarded and destitute of soldiers. For the people 

155 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

ravrrjs Brj/JUt) on pr) Travrjyvpecov re Kal 

fjie\i /cal T?)9 ev OedrpoLS del Ttpbs d\\ij\ovs 

38 <j)i\ovetKi:a<f. ware rjv etc rov aTrpoffBoKiyrov eV 
avrov<f IW/JLCV, rrjv re rr6\iv alprfcreiv rj^a^ e eTri- 
Bpofjufjs ovBev cnreiKos Kal /J,rj8evl evrv^ovra^ TTO\- 
piwv a-rpara) elra 7rave\deiv 69 ra Tlepcrwv rjdrj, 
OVTTO) TreTrvcrfjievtov TO, vfj,Trecr6vTa rwv ev Mecro- 

39 Trora/jLta crTpaTiwrwv. v8a,TO<> 8e v) a\\ov rov 

eTTtrtjBeicov dtropia^ ire.pi fjLtjSev tre eiVtra)' 
yap rw crrpara) e^tjyijcrof^ai oTrrj av Sorcy 
apicrra elvai." 

40 TaOra aovcra9 Ka/3a8>79 oure avrireiveiv oure 
aTTMTTeiv efyev. rjv yap 'AXa/iou^8apo9 

ro9 re ical rrjs Kara 7ro\e/j,ov epTreipias ev 
Tlepcrais re Tricrrbs 9 TO. //.aXtcrra Kal Sia<j>ep6v- 
T<9 Bpacrrrfpios, 09 ,Br) 69 TrevrijKovra eviavrwv 
Xpovov 69 yovv e\0eiv ra f P&)/u.cu&>i> eTroirjae irpdy- 

41 fjuira. ex yap rwv Alyvrrrov opicov dpf;dfj,evo<> 
Kal [AeXP L ^ Metro Trora/itai' \rji6fjievo<> rd etceivrj 
'Xwpia, rjye re Kal e<f>epev e^>ef 179 djravra, Kauwv 
re ra9 ev Trocrlv oiKoSo/uas Kal roi><> dv6pa>Trovs 
Kara 7roXXa9 del jj.vptdSa<> dv8paTroSia>v, Kal 
avrwv roi><> p,ev 7T\e[crrov<; aTTOKreivwv ovSevl 1 
\6ya>, Toi9 Be aXXof9 d7ro8iB6/j,evo<> xprj/jidratv 

42 /j,eyd\(0v. aTrrjvra Be ol rwv irdvrwv ouSet9. ov 
ydp Trore dveTnaKeiTrws eVotetTo rrjv e<f>oBov, aXX' 
o)Ttu9 efa7Tfi>at9 re Kal avrw 69 rd /j,d\icrra 
eTurrjBeiws, wcrre 6 pev ijBrj &>9 rd TroXXa. j~vv rfj 
Xeta jrdcrrj dmiav m^ero, ol Be a-rpanyyoi re Kal 
arpanwrat, irwddvea'dai re rd ^vprrecrovra Kal 

43 dyeipecrffai eii avrbv Tjp^ovro. f)v Be TTOV avrbv 
Kal Kara\a/3eiv rv%7) rtvl ecr^ov, aXX' eri d-napa- 

x 6 * ouScvl VG: ivi P. 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xvii. 37-43 

of this city care for nothing else than fetes and 
luxurious living, and their constant rivalries with each 
other in the theatres. Accordingly, if we go against 
them unexpectedly, it is not at all unlikely that we 
shall capture the city by a sudden attack, and that 
we shall return to the land of the Persians without 
having met any hostile army, and before the troops 
in Mesopotamia have learned what has happened. 
As for lack of water or of any kind of provisions, let 
no such thought occur to thee ; for I myself shall 
lead the army wherever it shall seem best." 

When Cabades heard this he could neither oppose 
nor distrust the plan. For Alamoundaras was most 
discreet and well experienced in matters of warfare, 
thoroughly faithful to the Persians, and unusually 
energetic, a man who for a space of fifty years 
forced the Roman state to bend the knee. For 
beginning from the boundaries of Aegypt and as far 
as Mesopotamia he plundered the whole country, 
pillaging one place after another, burning the build- 
ings in his track and making captives of the popula- 
tion by the tens of thousands on each raid, most of 
whom he killed without consideration, while he gave 
up the others for great sums of money. And he was 
confronted by no one at all. For he never made his 
inroad without looking about, but so suddenly did 
he move and so very opportunely for himself, that, 
as a rule, he was already off with all the plunder 
when the generals and the soldiers were beginning 
to learn what had happened and to gather themselves 
against him. If, indeed, by any chance, they were 
able to catch him, this barbarian would fall upon his 

157 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

crtcevoif re overt KOL ov vvrerayaevoi$ eTuirecriav 
Tot9 BicoKovcriv o jSdpftapos ouro9 erpeTre re Kal 
oie<f)0eipev ovBevl TTOVW, Kal Trore TOU? Bta)Kovra$ 
a-rpancora? vv rot9 dp%ovcriv e^wyp^crev arcav- 

44 ra9. Tifjiocrrparos Be rjv 6 'Pov<f)ivov d8e\(j)os KOL 
*\(advvr)<i o rov Aovicd 7rat9, 01)9 BTJ aTreSoro vcrre- 
pov, Tr\ovrov avrwv ov $>av\ov ovSe rov rv%6vra 

45 7repi/3a\\6/jivo<>. Kal TO %vp,rcav elirelv %aXe7rco- 
raro9 re Kal Beivoraros ovro9 dvrjp <yeyove 'Po)- 
/iatot9 7ToXe/iiO9 Trdvraiv fj,d\iara. airiov oe rjv 
on ' A.\a/jLovv8apo<> fjbev ftaaiXecos d^iw^a e^cov 
dirdvrcov 7x01/09 r&v ev Hepcrais ^apatcrjvwv ^/o^e, 
iravrL re ra) crrparw olo9 re TJV del rrjv etyooov 
TTOieicrOai OTTT] ftov\oiro rrjs 'Pa>fiai(av dp^r/?' 

46 ovoels Be ovre 'Pajfjuiicav crrpartairwv ap^wv, 01)9 
SovKa? Ka\o\jai,v, ovre ^apaKrjvwv rwv 'Pfu/iato49 

v rjyovfijievos, o'l (f>v\ap%oi eTriKd\.ovvrai, 
TOi9 eTTOyu.ei'049 'AXafAOwBdpo) dvrird^aadai 
/w9 efyev ev %<wpa yap eKaarrj rois 7roXe/uo9 

47 OVK d^io/jia^ot ererd^aro. Sib Brj ySacrtXeu9 'lou- 
crriviavbs <pv\at<> on 7r\ei(rrai<; 'ApeOav rov 
FaySaA-a Tratoa eTreerrjo-ev, 09 r<av ev 'A/)ay3tot9 
^.apafcrjvcov ~npx v > d^icofia ftacri\ea)<> avry jrepi- 
6e^.evo<i, ov jrporepov rovro ev ye 'Paifuiiots 

48 yeyovbs Trutirore. ' AXa/jiovvBapos jjuevroi ovBev n 
f)o~(Tov, el fir) Kal /j,d\\ov, rd 'Pwpiaiwv Trpdypara 
ecfrdeipev, 'ApeOa ev irdcrrj e<f>6Ba) re Kal dywvia r) 
drv^ovvros 609 p.d\iara rj KaraTrpoSi&ovros a>9 
rd^iara. ov yap TTW craves n d/i4 avrw 'icrp.ev. 
ravrr) re ^vve/Srj 'AXauovvSdpa), ovBevos ol dvn- 
ararovvros, eirl uijKicrrov rrjv etoav \iiiecr6ai 
rraaav, eirel Kal uaKpoftiwraros drexvws yeyove. 

158 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xvii. 43-48 

pursuers while still unprepared and not in battle 
array, and would rout and destroy them with no 
trouble ; and on one occasion he made prisoners of 
all the soldiers who were pursuing him together with 
their officers. These officers were Timostratus, the 
brother of Rufinus, and John, the son of Lucas, 
whom he gave up indeed later, thereby gaining for 
himself no mean or trivial wealth. And, in a word, 
this man proved himself the most difficult and 
dangerous enemy of all to the Romans. The reason 
was this, that Alamoundaras, holding the position of 
king, ruled alone over all the Saracens in Persia, and 
he was always able to make his inroad with the 
whole army wherever he wished in the Roman 
domain ; and neither any commander of Roman 
troops, whom they call "duces," nor any leader of 
the Saracens allied with the Romans, who are called 
" phylarchs," was strong enough with his men to 
array himself against Alamoundaras ; for the troops 
stationed in the different districts were not a match 
in battle for the enemy. For this reason the Emperor 531 A.D. 
Justinian put in command of as many clans as possible 
Arethas, the son of Gabalas, who ruled over the 
Saracens of Arabia, and bestowed upon him the 
dignity of king, a thing which among the Romans 
had never before been done. However Alamoundaras 
continued to injure the Romans just as much as be- 
fore, if not more, since Arethas was either extremely 
unfortunate in every inroad and every conflict, or else 
he turned traitor as quickly as he could. For as yet 
we know nothing certain about him. In this way it 
came about that Alamoundaras, with no one to stand 
against him, plundered the whole East for an exceed- 
ingly long time, for he lived to a very advanced age. 

*59 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



XVIII 

1 Tovrov ouv rare rod dvSpbs rfj VTroOijtcrj rj 
Ka/3aS?79 dvSpas Tre^ra/ctcr^iXtoi;? re fcal /j,vpiovs 

a7roXea/u.ei>o9 'A^apefrrjv avrols dv$pa Tlepcr^v 
eTrecrrrjcre 8ia(f)epovrci)<; dyadbv ra TroXe/^a, Kal 
<T(f)i(Tiv ' A\a/jLovv8apov rr)<s Tropeias er)yelcr8ai 

2 erce\,evev. ol 8e TOV ^iv(f)pdrr]v irorafjibv Siaftdv- 
T9 ev 'A(T(Tvpioi,<;, <yrjv re Tropevdevres nva eprjjtov 
avffpcaTrwv, a<j>vci) e? r&v K.o/ji/jui'y'rjvwv KaXovftevwv 

3 rr)v ^(apav Trapa S6%av ecre/3aXXov. avrrj re TrpcoTr) 
evdevSe Tlepcrwv ecr/Qo\^ 9 yfjv rrjv 'Pw^aiwv eje- 
vero, oaa y >7/ia9 drcof) r] rpoTra) T&) aXXw eTTtcrra- 
crdai, /cal Trdvras 'PwfMiLOVs TU> dTrp 

. a Srj eVet BeXicraywo9 efJUtOe, ra 
SirjTropeiTO, pera 8e ftorjdeiv Kara 
<yv6). <pv\afC7jv re avrdp/cr) ev TroXet 
Karacrrrja-dfAevos, 0770)9 pr) Ka/8a8?;9 re Kal 
crrpdrev/j,a r(ov rroXefjiicov aXXo evravOa lovres 
d$v\aK.ra TO rcapdirav evprjcrovai ra ejrl Mecro- 
Trora/jiias %(apia, avrbs rq> aXXeo crrparq* VTrrjv- 
ria^ev, Eivtypdrrjv re 7rora/j,bv 8ia/3dvre<> cnrovSf) 

5 TToXX?} TT/Jocra) e%(i)povv. 6 fjbev ovv 'PwfMiiwv 
crrparbs 69 $icrfJ,vpLOv<> /iaXfcrra 7T^bu9 re Kal 
t7T7rea9 vvyei, Kal avrwv "Icravpoi oif)^ r/cr&ov rj 

6 Sfcr^tXtoi rjaav. ap%pVT<i 8e ircnkwv pev aTravres 
rjcrav o't ra irporepa rr)V ev Aa/9a9 fjud'fflv rrpos re 
TTe/jcra9 Kal ^Aippavr]v SirfveyKav, rce^wv 8e rwv 
Ti9 8opv(f>6p(0v 'lovanviavov y5a<r(Xe&)9, IleT/oo9 

7 OVO/MZ. Tot9 fjievrot 'Icravpoi? Aoyylvos re Kal 
'ZreQavaKios e<f>ei(rrrJKecrav. evravda 8e Kal 'Ape- 

160 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xviii. 1-7 



XVIII 

THIS man's suggestion at that time therefore 
pleased Cabades, and he chose out fifteen thousand 
men, putting in command of them Azarethes, a 
Persian, who was an exceptionally able warrior, and 
he bade Alamoundaras lead the expedition. So they 
crossed the River Euphrates in Assyria, and, after 
passing over some uninhabited country, they suddenly 
and unexpectedly threw their forces into the land 
of the so-called Commagenae. This was the first 
invasion made by the Persians from this point into 
Roman soil, as far as we know from tradition or by 
any other means, and it paralyzed all the Romans with 
fear by its unexpectedness. And when this news 
came to the knowledge of Belisarius, at first he was 
at a loss, but afterwards he decided to go to the 
rescue with all speed. So he established a sufficient 
garrison in each city in order that Cabades with 
another hostile army might not come there and find 
the towns of Mesopotamia utterly unguarded, and 
himself with the rest of the army went to meet the 
invasion ; and crossing the River Euphrates they 
moved forward in great haste. Now the Roman 
army amounted to about twenty thousand foot and 
horse, and among them not less than two thousand 
were Isaurians. The commanders of cavalry were 
all the same ones who had previously fought the 
battle at Daras with Mirranes and the Persians, while 
the infantry were commanded by one of the body- 
guards of the Emperor Justinian, Peter by name. 
The Isaurians, however, were under the. command of 
Longinus and Stephanacius. Arethas also came 

161 

VOL. I. M 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



as avros vv T 

8 eVet re e? XaX/aSo. irokiv d 
TreSevcrdfj,voi avTOV efjuevov, eVei TOW? 

ev ywpito Yafiftov\wv elvai errvdovTO, Setca KCLI 

9 exarov crra8toi9 XaXtSo9 Sie^ovTi. b Srj yvovres 
' A\a/j,ovv8ap6<> re Kal 'A^apeQijs TOV re tcivftwov 

^cravre^, eTTiTrpocrdev ov/ceri e^atpovv, 
,' eV oi,'/cou avTiKa Brj aTro^copeiv eyvajcrav. 
i re yovv }Lv(f)pdTr)v 7roTafj,bv ev dpicrrepa 

e^O^T69 OTTLCTO) aTTrfkO-VVOV Kal 'PtO/LUUOW (TTparbf 

10 OTTicrdev eiTrero. > re T^> %<w/3&> oy 5^ ot fidpftapoi 
e? vvfcra ercda-Trjv rjv\ioi>TO, del 'Pa)/u-aiot T^ 

11 eTTLjivo/jievr) vvtcrl e^vov. J$e\i(rdpios yap egeTri- 

6B6v riva TrXetco 7ropeve<T0ai TO crrpdrev/jia 
eia, eVet ot oi'/c ^^ /3ov\Ofj,ev<u rot? TroXe- 
9 'xelpas levai, aXX' aTro^prjv mero crfyicri 

re ical ' AXapovvSapov 9 777^ 
a)V ecr/3e/3X7;/coTa9, etra evOevBe ovrco 8rj d 

12 prjKOTas, pTrpdfCTOVS et9 Ta oltceia KOf^l^effffat. Sib 
Srj a7ra^T9 avra> \ddpa e\oi8opovvro, a 

re /cat crrpaTiwrai, exd/cife fjLevroi, avTOV 69 o 



13 TeXet/T<wi>Te9 Se Ileyotrat /u-er ev rfj TOV Et>- 
(frpaTov rjlovi T]v\i(ravro rj Brj 7roXeo)9 KaXXtvt^of 
avrnrepas ecnLv. evffevSe ydp Sid ya>pa<; Trpbs 
ovSevbs dv0p(t>7T(i)v oucovpfarrfi iropevecrffai e/j,e\- 
\ov, ovro) re TT)<; 'Pw/jLaiwv 7^9 aTTahXaacreadai. 

14- ov ydp ert Sievoovvro levat, axnrep rd TT pore pa, 
r^9 rov TTOTa/AOv o^drj^ e^ofievoi. 'Pa)/jLaioi Se Sia- 
ev TroXei Zovpwv evdevSe re e 



15 69 rrjv d(f>oSov rot9 7roXe/itof9. eoprrj Se 77 Ilacr- 
162 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xviii. 7-15 

there to join them with the Saracen army. When 
they reached the city of Chalcis, they encamped 
and remained there, since they learned that the 
enemy were in a place called Gabboulon, one hundred 
and ten stades away from Chalcis. When this 
became known to Alamoundaras and Azarethes, they 
were terrified at the danger, and no longer continued 
their advance, but decided to retire homeward 
instantly. Accordingly they began to march back, 
with the River Euphrates on the left, while the 
Roman army was following in the rear. And in the 
spot where the Persians bivouacked each night the 
Romans always tarried on the following night. For 
Belisarius purposely refused to allow the army to 
make any longer march because he did not wish to 
come to an engagement with the enemy, but he 
considered that it was sufficient for them that the 
Persians and Alamoundaras, after invading the land 
of the Romans, should retire from it in such a fashion, 
betaking themselves to their own land without ac- 
complishing anything. And because ef this all 
secretly mocked him, both officers and soldiers, but 
not a man reproached him to his face. 

Finally the Persians made their bivouac on the 
bank of the Euphrates just opposite the city ol 
Callinicus. From there they were about to march 
through a country absolutely uninhabited by man, 
and thus to quit the land of the Romans ; for they 
purposed no Jonger to proceed as before, keeping to 
the bank of the river. The Romans had passed the 
night in the city of Sura, and, removing from there, 
they came upon the enemy just in the act of 
preparing for the departure. Now the feast of Easter 

163 
M 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CARS AREA 

ejreKeiro r)/j.epa eTTtyevrjcrofjievrj rfj ixrrepaiq, 
r)v &rj (reftovrai Xpiariavol rcaawv /nd\i(rra, 
rjfjbepa re rfj ravrrjs rrporepq cririfov re teal norov 
drre^o/iievoi ov Siij/Aepeveiv vevo/UKacri fiovov, a\\a 

16 Kal TTOppd) 7TOV Vr}GTGl<$ rdi)V VVKT&V IkvdL. TOT6 

ovv aTravras BeXtcra/3to9 opywvras errl TOU? TroXe- 

opwv, ravrr)<> re arfoarrfaau 

(ravra yap ol /cal ^pp,oyev 
apri evrl Trpecrfteia e /3acrtXe<w9 r)Ku>v) TOU? Trapa- 
<yevofj,evov<> arcavras yy/eaXecra9 e'Xefe rotate 

17 " Hot (f)epecrOe, avBpe<? 'Pa>/Aa?ot, r) ri rr err ov6 ores 
KivSvvov alpelardai vplv avrols OVK avajKatov 
(3ov\evea6e; fiiav elvaL VIKTJV aKL^8r]\ov oiovrai 
avdpcoTToi TO fAT)8ev Seivov 77/^09 rwv rfdKe^Lutv 
rraOetv, orcep rjiuv ev ye r> rrapovn 8e8a>KV rj re 

18 Tv%?7 real rj/jicov TO Kara rwv evavricav 8eo9. OVKOVV 
[^] arcbvacrQai rwv rcapovrwv dyadcov a/j&ivov rj 
irape\6ovra ravra fyrelv. Hepcrai yap 7roXXat9 
/jiev e\Trlaiv rjyfjievoi eirl f Pa)yUratoi/9 ecrrpdrevcrav, 
rrdvrwv Se ravvv eKTreTrrrorcores 69 (frvyrjv Mp/jbrjvrai. 

19 ware rjv ov% eKovra? avrovs /jraj3d\\e(T()ai fj,ev 
rrj<i e*9 rrjv vrraywyrjv yvut^f, e9 %et/3a9 8e levai 
rjfuv avrols dvayfcdcrcafMev, vevifcrjKores pev rc\eov 

20 TO rcapdrrav ovSev ei;o/*ev. rl yap dv ris rov ye 
(f)vyovrarpe7roi; cr(f)a\evre<; Se tcr&)9 rfjs re 
^ouo-7^9 crreprjao^Oa viicf]**, ov rrpos rwv 
d(f)aipe0evre<;, aXX' avrol ravrrjv rrpoefJievoi, /cal 
rfj /3acri\ea)<; yrj TO Tot9 rro\e/j,LOi$ e/ftceicrffai rwv 

164 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xviii. 15-20 

was near and would take place on the following day ; 
this feast is reverenced by the Christians above all 
others, and on the day before it they are accustomed 
to refrain from food and drink not only throughout 
the day, but '"for a large part of the night also they 
continue the fast. Then, therefore, Belisarius, 
seeing that all his men were passionately eager to 
go against the enemy, wished to persuade them to 
give up this idea (for this course had been counselled 
by Hermogenes also, who had come recently on an 
embassy from the emperor) ; he accordingly called 
together all who were present and spoke as follows : 
" O Romans, whither are you rushing ? and what has 
happened to you that you are purposing to choose for 
yourselves a danger which is not necessary ? Men 
believe that there is only one victory which is 
unalloyed, namely to suffer no harm at the hands of 
the enemy, and this very thing has been given us 
in the present instance by fortune and by the fear of 
us that overpowers our foes. Therefore it is better 
to enjoy the benefit of our present blessings than to 
seek them when they have passed. For the Persians, 
led on by many hopes, undertook an expedition 
against the Romans, and now, with everything lost, 
they have beaten a hasty retreat. So that if we 
compel them against their will to abandon their 
purpose of withdrawing and to come to battle with 
us, we shall win no advantage whatsoever if we are 
victorious, for why should one rout a fugitive ? 
while if we are unfortunate, as may happen, we shall 
both be deprived of the victory which we now have, 
not robbed of it by the enemy, but flinging it away 
ourselves, and also we shall abandon the land of 
the emperor to lie open hereafter to the attacks of 

165 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



21 d/j-vvoftevcov %&>/H9 TO \onrov SwaofAev. Kairoi KOI 
rovro evOvpeicrdai vfj,a<> a%iov, o>9 rwv dvayKaiwv, 
ov rwv av@aiperct)v KivSvvtov ^vvaipeaOai 6 $eo9 

22 del TOt9 dvOpwrrois (f>i\ei. %<w/M9 oe rovrwv rot? 



fjbev OVK e^ovaiv av OTTT; rpcnreiev 

crdai ov KOVcrioi<> vA3a'eTai, ruv 8e TTO\\O, ra 



e? rrjv vnor)v TTV%r)Kv evai' 
23 Tre^fj re yap /3a8iovre<i 7ro\\ol ijicovcrt Kal 



<yap 
\eyeiv w? rive? OVTTW teal vvv Trdpeiffi" BeXi<ra- 



fiev rocravra eirev. 

24 *O 8e ffrparbs e? avrbv v/3piov l ov crtyfj rtvi 
ovBe ev Trapa/Svcrrw, aAA,' avra> e ? 9 o-^riv vv 
tcpavyf) ijKovTes paXOaicov re Kal rijs irpoOv^ia^ 
8ia\vrrjv etedXovv, o Br) Kal rwv ap^ovrwv rives 
vv rot? crrpartwrats r)/j,dpravov, ravrrj TO evro\- 

25 fwv ev8eiKVV/AVOi. Kal avrwv rq> avaivyyvrw 
KaraTrXayels BeA,to"a/?tO9 avricrrpeifras rrjv jrapai- 
vecriv eyKe\evof^eva> re rjSrj eTrl rovs 7roXeyu,toi'9 
ecpKei Kal 8tard(rcrovri 9 rcapdra^iv, efyaaKe re 
09 OVK elSeir) p,ev avrwv rrjv 9 TO nd^ecrdai Trpo- 
dvpiav ra rcporepa, vvv 8e dapaelv re Kal ^vv 
e\,TTi,8i rfj d/jieivovi enl TOV9 7ro\efjiiov<; levai. 

26 Kal rrjv (j>d\ayya /j,er(O7rr)Sbv Troitjcrd/jLevos 8ie- 
rai;ev twSe. 69 Kepas fiev TO dpitrrepov 77/309 ry 
"jrorafiw Toi/9 7re^oi9 aTravras ea-rijaev, e? &e TO 
oegiov, y or) 6 %w/oo9 dvdvrrjs rjv, 'ApeQav re Kal 
Toi9 %vv avra) ^.apaKrjvovs aTravras, avrbs oe vv 
Tot9 iTnrevcri Kara fjiecrov eicrrijKei. ovra) fj,ev 

27 'PfOftaioi erd^avro. 'A.apedris 8e ITT el ^vviovras 
9 rrapdrafyv rovs Tro\e/jt,iov<> eloe, roidSe rrape- 

1 v&pifav Suidas : v&plfav MSS. 
1 66 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xviii. 20-27 

the enemy without defenders. Moreover this also is 
worth your consideration, that God is always ac- \ 
customed to succour men in dangers which are neces- ] 
sary, not in those which they choose for themselves. 
And apart from this it will come about that those 
who have nowhere to turn will play the part of 
brave men even against their will, while the obstacles 
which are to be met by us in entering the engage- 
ment are many ; for a large number of you have 
come on foot and all of us are fasting. I refrain 
from mentioning that some even now have not 
arrived." So spoke Belisarius. 

But the army began to insult him, not in silence 
nor with any concealment, but they came shouting 
into his presence, and called him weak and a de- 
stroyer of their zeal ; and even some of the officers 
joined with the soldiers in this offence, thus dis- 
playing the extent of their daring. And Belisarius, 
in astonishment at their shamelessness, changed his 
exhortation and now seemed to be urging them on 
against the enemy and drawing them up for battle, 
saying that he had not known before their eagerness 
to "fight, but that now he was of good courage and 
would go against the enemy with a better hope. 
He then formed the phalanx with a single front, 
disposing his men as follows : on the left wing by 
the river he stationed all the infantry, while on the 
right where the ground rose sharply he placed 
Arethas and all his Saracens ; he himself with the 
cavalry took his position in the centre. Thus the 
Romans arrayed themselves. And when Azarethes 
saw the enemy gathering in battle line, he exhorted 



167 



K\ev(raro " Hepcras fiev ovras tyia9 pr) oir^l rov 
ftiov rrjv dperrjv dvrdXkd^acrdai, 1 r\v ri<$ aipecriv 

28 d/j,<f)olv SI&OL?), ovSels av dvreiTroi. eym Be <j>r)fj,i 
ov?? av /3ovXo/Aez'Oi9 e</>' vfuv elvai rovroiv 

<r6ai rrjv (ilpeariv. ols pev <yap 
rov KivSvvov vv rfj drifj.ia fiiovv, ovSev, r\v ye 
(3ov\oivro, a-neiicos dvrl rwv j3e\Tia"Twv eXecrdai 
ra T^Sicrra, 0*9 Se TO Ovija'Keiv eTrdvayfces, rj %vv TTJ 

eVK\L(Z 7T/J09 TWV TrO\fJ,lO)V, 7} 7T/J09 TOV 

T09 e9 TTJV /c6\a(Tiv aio"xph)<> d<yofj,evoi<>, 
avoia /jb-rj Trpb TCOV aia"%io~Ta>v eXecrOai 

29 ore roivvv ravra ovrtos e^i, Trpocrtj/ceiv 
aTravras olpui, fjirj TOU9 7roXe/i,iot9 povov, d\\a 
/ecu SecrTTOTijv TOV vfj,erepov ev vw 

69 fJ'd'xrjv rtfvSe 

30 Too-avra /cat 

dvTL^ovv TOt9 evavriois TTJV (ftdXayya eari^ae, 
Hepcras pev ra ev 8e^ia e%ovTa<>, ^ap 
ra evfavv^ia. teal avriica fiev 9 %et/oa9 

31 rj\dov. r)v Se rj f^d^r) tcaprepd /j,d\,icrra. rd re 
yap ro^evfjiara etcarepwOev <rv)(ya ejrl 7r\eicrrov 
ySaXXo/zeva <f)6vov d^orepwv T~O\VV eTroiei, KCL'I 
rives ev /ierat^/ito) yivoftevoi epya e9 dXX?;Xoi'9 
e7re8ei/cvvvro dperijs a^ia, fiaXkov Se Hepcrai K 

32 rwv ro^evf^drcov TTO\\OI edvrjcrfcov. ra jj,ev yap 
avra>v ^\r) avxyorepa /u,ev are'xyws rjv, z eVet Tlep- 
<rai ro^orai re cr)(eB6v rl eltriv diravres teal TTO\V 
ddacrov rj <ol> aXXot, vfji7ravre<? dvdpwrcoi Troiel- 

33 crOai ra9 y8oXa9 etc8i8daKOvrai, etc 



1 a.i>Ta\\daff9ai VG : avraAAo|(r0a P. 
j6g 2 ^Haiiry: ffei MSS. 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xviii. 27-33 

his men with the following words : " Persians as you 
are, no one would deny that you would not give up 
your valour in exchange for life, if a choice of the 
two should be offered. But I say that not even if 
you should wish, is it within your power to make the 
choice between the two. For as for men who have the 
opportunity to escape from danger and live in dis- 
honour it is not at all unnatural that they should, if 
they wish, choose what is most pleasant instead of 
what is best ; but for men who are bound to die, 
either gloriously at the hands of the enemy or 
shamefully led to punishment by your Master, it is 
extreme folly not to choose what is better instead of 
what is most shameful. Now, therefore, when 
things stand thus, I consider that it befits you all to 
bear in mind not only the enemy but also your own 
Lord and so enter this battle." 

After Azarethes also had uttered these words ot 
exhortation, he stationed the phalanx opposite his 
opponents, assigning the Persians the right wing and 
the Saracens the left. Straightway both sides began 
the fight, and the battle was exceedingly fierce. 
For the arrows, shot from either side in very 
great numbers, caused great loss of life in both 
armies, while some placed themselves in the interval 
between the armies and made a display of valorous 
deeds against each other, and especially among the 
Persians they were falling by the arrows in great 
numbers. For while their missiles were incom- 
parably more frequent, since the Persians are almost 
all bowmen and they learn to make their shots much 
more rapidly than any other men, still the bows 
which sent the arrows were weak and not very 



169 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

re Kal ov \iav evrerafievwv j3a\\6p.eva 
t(r&>9 77 Kpdvei r) KCU dcnri&i evrv)(ovra 

'PojfJMLOV dv&pb? aTTKa,V\i%TO T KCU \V7TiV TOV 

34 rcpOGrrlirrovra ov8a/j,rj et^e. 'Pwpaicov 8e ra [re] 
To^evpara ftpa&vrepa fjuev e? aet ecrriv, are 8e etc 
roi^wv aK\r)p(av re VTrepdyav KCU Betvws eVrera- 
fjievwv y9aXXo/iei^a, Trpoadeir) 8e av n<? teal 717309 
avBpaJv lcr%vpoTep(i)V, TroXXw eri /j,a\\ov r) ol 
Tlepcrai 0*9 av evrv^oiev evTrerws aLvovrai, orr\ov 

35 ovSevbs efATToSwv avr&v yivo/jievov rfj pvf 
/j,ev ovv T7}9 97//,6yoa9 at Suo TTapw^Kea 
/cal T) fAd'X'r) en a.7^<w/iaXo9 fy. rore be 

cravres ocrot 8rj dpicrroi ev TW TIepcrwv arpaTev- 
fjuiri rj(rav, eo">j\avvov 69 TWV 7ro\efj,io)v TO Se^iov 
Kepa?, ov Srj 'A/3e#a9 re KOI ol ^apaKrjvol ererd- 

36 %aro. ol 8e OVTG> rrjv <f)d\a<y<ya 8ta\vcra^Te9 
8i^a eyevovro, cocrre at 86av aTnjveyKav ori 8r) 
Hepcrais ra r Pa>/j,aia>v Trpdj/jLara TrpovSoa-av. 

yap eTTiovras ov% vTrocnavre^ avTitca 9 

37 a-nav T69 W/J/A^VTO. ot 7oOi> Xlepcrat 8iappi 
ovTO) rrjv T&V evawrlwv Trapdra^iv, Kara vcorov 
evfivs T7}9 'Ptw/iateov tTTTrof eyevovro. 'Pw/u-atot Se 
KeKp,t]Kore^ r]8r] rfj re 6&q> Kal r(p rrovw rrjs fj,d^r}<; 
vtfcrreis re arravres 69 roSe 7779 rjfAepas 6We9, at 
7T/309 TCOI^ 7ro\efiicav eKarepwOev evo'xXov^evoi, 
ovKen dvret%ov, aXX' ot jmev TroXXot <f>evyovres 
dva Kpdros e$ rov rcorapov ra<; vijcrovs dy^icrrd 
TTOV ovaas e^cop-rjcrav, rti/69 Be Kal avrov [Aevovres 
epya davfiacrrd re Kal \6yov TroXXoi) a^ta rou9 

38 Tro\e/jiiov<f eipydcravro. ev rot9 teal 'Ao~Kav fjv, 09 
8rj 7ro\\ov<; jjiev Kreivas rwv ev TLepcrais SOKI/AWV, 
Kpeovpyr)0el<> 8e Kara /3pa%v /*6X,t9 errecre, \6yov 
170 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xviii. 33-38 

tightly strung, so that their missiles, hitting a corse- 
let, perhaps, or helmet or shield of a Roman war- 
rior, were broken off and had no power to hurt the 
man who was hit. The Roman bowmen are always 
slower indeed, but inasmuch as their bows are 
extremely stiff and very tightly strung, and one 
might add that they are handled by stronger men, 
they easily slay much greater numbers of those they 
hit than do the Persians, for no armour proves an 
obstacle to the force of their arrows. Now already 
two-thirds of the day had passed, and the battle was 
still even. Then by mutual agreement all the best 
of the Persian army advanced to attack the Roman 
right wing, where Arethas and the Saracens had 
been stationed. But they broke their formation and 
moved apart, so that they got the reputation of 
having betrayed the Romans to the Persians. For 
without awaiting the oncoming enemy they all 
straightway beat a hasty retreat. So the Persians 
in this way broke through the enemy's line and 
immediately got in the rear of the Roman cavalry. 
Thus the Romans, who were already exhausted both 
by the march and the labour of the battle, and 
besides this they were all fasting so far on in the 
day, now that they were assailed by the enemy on 
both sides, held out no longer, but the most of them 
in full flight made their way to the islands in the river 
which were close by, while some also remained there 
and performed deeds both amazing and remarkable 
against the enemy. Among these was Ascan who, 
after killing many of the notables among the Persians, 
was gradually hacked to pieces and finally fell, leaving 

171 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



avrov TTO\VV rofr 7roXe/uot9 drroX-nrcav, KCU i>v 
avrra aXXot OKTaicbcnoi avopes dyadol yevopevoi 
ev rw TTOVW rovrq> drcedavov, o'L re "Icravpoi vv 
Tot9 ap%ovcri a"^e8ov arcavres, ovBe oVXa avral- 

39 petv rot? 7roXe/ito9 roXyu-?;crai'Te9. aTreipiq yap 
rov epjov rovrov 7ro\\f) et%ovTO, eVet a/m TT}? 
yetopyias atye/jievoi e? rcivSvvov TroXeyaof KarecrTij- 

40 (ray, ayvwra atyia-i ra Trporepa ovra. 
fj,d\t,<TTa irdvrwv avrol evay%o<; e? rrjv 
dyvoia TroXe/iou opywvres BeXicrayot^t) Tore 
SeiXiav <avei8iov. ov /j,r)v ov8e "laavpoi 
aXX^ A.Vfcdove<i ol TrXetcrrot r)&av. 

41 BeXt(ra'yOi09 ^e fu^ 0X170^9 ricrlv ewravOa 

re&)9 fiev TOU9 ayu,</>t TOV 'Acr/caj/ dvre^ovra^ ecapa, 
KOI avrb<f vv TO49 irapovcn roi/9 jroXepiovs r)p,v- 

42 vaTO' eVet Se avrwv ol fj,v eTreaov, ol 8e 6' 7777 

e9 <pvyr)V wp/j,rjvro, Tore S?) :al avros i~i>v 
<f)vya>v 69 re5y ire^wv rrjv <f)d\ayya 
rj\,6ev, ot gvv TO> Tlerpo) ert e/jid^ovro, ov vroXXoi 
6Vre9, eVet /cat avrutv erv^ov (f)vy6vT<> ol TrXet- 

43 crrot. e^a S^ auro9 re roy LTTTTOV d<f>r)K teal 
Trdvras avro Bpdi> row e7rofj,evov<; eVeXeve, 7re^bi;9 
re ^uv ro?9 aXXot9 rou9 eTUovras dpvvacrdai,. 

44 Ile/ocrtSz/ 8e otrot T049 ipevyovcriv eiirovro, Si' 6\iyov 
TIJV &i<aiv Troifjcrdfjievoi, eu^i/9 eTravr/Kov, 69 re 



(74J/ wpjj,r)VTO. ol oe ra vdara 69 TOI/ 
rpetyavres, OTTO)? ^ 749 avrols 77/009 TCOV TroXe- 
/u<wi> uXo)(Ti9 yevoiro, e'/c T&5f rcapovrwv 701*9 

172 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xviii. 38-44 

to the enemy abundant reason to remember him. 
And with him eight hundred others perished after 
showing themselves brave men in this struggle, 
and almost all the Isaurians fell with their leaders, 
without even daring to lift their weapons against the 
enemy. For they were thoroughly inexperienced in 
this business, since they had recently left off farming 
and entered into the perils of warfare, which before 
that time were unknown to them. And yet just 
before these very men had been most furious of all 
for battle because of their ignorance of warfare, and 
were then reproaching Belisarius with cowardice. 
They were not in fact all Isaurians but the majority 
of them were Lycaones. 

Belisarius with some few men remained there, and 
as long as he saw Ascan and his men holding out, he 
also in company with those who .were with him held 
back the enemy ; but when some of Ascan's troops 
had fallen, and the others had turned to flee wher- 
ever they could, then at length he too fled with his 
men and came to the phalanx of infantry, who with 
Peter were still fighting, although not many in 
number now, since the most of them too had fled. 
There he himself gave up his horse and com- 
manded all his men to do the same thing and on 
foot with the others to fight off the oncoming 
enemy. And those of the Persians who were 
following the fugitives, after pursuing for only a 
short distance, straightway returned and rushed 
upon the infantiy and Belisarius with all the others. 
Then the Romans turned their backs to the river so 
that no movement to surround them might be exe- 
cuted by the enemy, and as best they could under 
the circumstances were defending themselves against 

173 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

45 eTTiovras r//jt,vvovro. avQis re rj //.a%7? Kaprepd 
yeyove, Kalrcep OVK e dvmrdXov rr)<s Bvvd/j,ea)<> 
ovaa. 7rebi re yap /cat \iav 0X1704 TT/JO? u/i- 
iraaav e/jid^ovro rrjv Tlepcrwv ITTJTOV. ov /juevroi 
avrovs 01 rro\e/jiioi ovre rpeTreaOai, ovre aA-Xw? 

46 ftid&a-Oai el^ffv. ev j^pw re yap a\Xij\oi<; e? 
6\i<yov del ^vvayofievoi teal &>? ia"%vporara 
dcnricrt (^pa^d^evoi, efta\\ov /j,d\\ov e? 
Tlepcras eTrirrjBeicos rj avrol 7Ty009 etceivwv e/9a\- 

47 \ovro. 7ro\\dtci<> re drreiTTOvre^ ol ftdpfiapoi eTr' 
auTot>9 ri\avvov, cl)9 uvrapdj~ovre<; re /cal Sia- 
\vcrovres rrjv jrapdra^iv, aXX' dirpaKroi ev6evSe 

48 OTTtcra) a5^49 dTTij\avvov. ol yap ITTTTOI avrols rw 
rwv dairL^wv Trardyq> d^Oop^voi dve%airiovro re 
/cal 69 rapa-)(r)V %vv rot9 eVt/3aTat9 icaOiaravro. 
Siayeyovaai re ovra)<f eicdrepoi e&)9 eyeyovei 7779 

49 rj/jbepa? o^re. vvicros 8e ijSij eTriXa/Sovcrr)? Hepcrai 
fiev 9 TO crrparoTre&ov dve^toprjcrav, BeXicray9fO9 
Be 6XaSo9 e7nrv%o)v %vv 0X17049 ricrlv es rov 
TTora/ioO r^y vfjcrov fcarrjpev, ov Brj teal ol aXXoi 

50 'PfOfjiaioi vr)%6fjvoi r}\0ov. rfj Be vcrrepaia 'Peo- 
fjuaioi fj,ev 6\fcdBa)v cr<picriv e/c Ma\\Lvlicov 7roXe&>9 
Trapayevo/uLevwv TroXXwy 9 avrrjv eKOfAicrOrjaav, 
Tlepcrai Be rovs vercpovs eaicvXevKores e?r' OIKOV 
aTtavres dve^dtprjaav. ov p,r)v rovs (rfyeripovs 
ve/cpovs ru>v Tro\e/ju,o)v e\dcrcrovs evpov. 

51 'Aa/je$779 Be, eirel %vv rw arparq> 9 Ileyocra9 
dtyitcero, icalirep ev rfj f^d^r) evr)/j,ep7j(ra<s, d%api- 
crrov KaySaSou /iaXtcrra erv%ev e}~ airia<; roiacrBe. 

52 i/6/iO9 earl Tlepcrai 1 ?, rjvitca enl r&v T!o\efuwv 
Tti/a.9 arparevecrOai /neXXcocrt, rov p,ev y8ao*tXea 

174 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xviii. 44-52 

their assailants. And again the battle became 
fierce, although the two sides were not evenly 
matched in strength ; for foot-soldiers, and a very 
few of them, were fighting against the whole Persian 
cavalry. Nevertheless the enemy were not able 
either to rout them or in any other way to overpower 
them. For standing shoulder to shoulder they kept 
themselves constantly massed in a small space, and 
they formed with their shields a rigid, unyielding- 
barricade, so that they shot at the Persians more 
conveniently than they were shot at by them. Many 
a time after giving up, the Persians would advance 
against them determined to break up and destroy 
their line, but they always retired again from the 
assault unsuccessful. For their horses, annoyed by 
the clashing of the shields, reared up and made 
confusion for themselves and their riders. Thus 
both sides continued the struggle until it had 
become late in the day. And when night had already 
come on, the Persians withdrew to their camp, and 
Belisarius accompanied by some few men found a 
freight-boat and crossed over to the island in the river, 
while the other Romans reached the same place by 
swimming. On the following day many freight- 
boats were brought to the Romans from the city of 
Callinicum and they were conveyed thither in them, 
and the Persians, after despoiling the dead, all 
departed homeward. However they did not find 
their own dead less numerous than the enemy's. 

,When Azarethes reached Persia with his army, 
although he had prospered in the battle, he found 
Cabades exceedingly ungrateful, for the following 
reason. It is a custom among the Persians that, 
when they are about to march against any of their 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

eVi dpovov TOV fiaatXeiov Kadrjadai, KO(j)ivov<f 8e 
ol TroXXoi/9 evTavdd Trrj elvai, KOI Trapeivai fj,ev 
rbv crTpaTrjiybv 09 8r) T> a-rpara) 7rl TOU<? 
evavTiovs e^rjyjja-ecrdaL eVt8oo9 eart, irapievai Se 
TO (TTpdrev/j.a rovro e? TOV /SacrtXew? TTJV o^nv 
KCLT avSpa eva, KOI avTutv eKacrTov /9e\09 ev e? 
TO? TapTras pnrTeiv, fjiTa 8e avras /j,ei> Ty 
/3acri\c0s (T<f)pa<yio'i, KaTacreo-rj/Macr/Aevas (f)v\a.T- 
To-dai,, eirei.o'av Be e? Ile/ocra? ziravioi TO crTpd- 
TVfj,a TOVTO, TCOV arpaTLfOTOiv 6/caaTov etc TWV 

53 appi%a>v ev avaipelaBai 1 ySeXo?. apidfAOVvTes ovv 
TCOV /3e\a)v oaa jrpbs T&V dvSpwv OVK avrfpijTat, 
ot9 eTri/ceiTai rj Tt/t^ CLVTIJ, dyyeXkovcri TW 
/3acri\et TO Trkijdo^ TWV OVK eirav^KovTwv o~Tpa- 

TIGOTWV, TCLVTr) T OCTOl ev TO) TToXeyLtft) TeT\VTJJ- 

54 Kctcnv ev8^\oi jlvovTai. OVTO) /jiev ovv Tlepcrat<f 6 

e'/c TraXaiov eyei. e-rrel Se 'A&pedrjs e? 
TO) /3acri\ei r)\0ev, dveTrvvff dveTO avTov 6 
S779 et TI %a)piov Trapaa-Trjcrdfievo^ 'Pw- 
etrel vv TO> 'A.\afJtovvS<ipq) to? 
KaTao-Tpe^ro/jievo 1 ? eirl r P&)yu,atof? 
o-TpaTevcreiev. 6 Se ' Aapedr)<; %a>piov pev e\elv 
ovSev <bacrK6, 'P<w/u,aiou9 8e Kal 13e~\.i<rdptov f^d^r) 

' ^ Q '$ \ f > V S- V ' 

5o vevifcrjKevai. t\.apaorj<; p,ev ovv Trapievai TO gvv 
T& *A.^ape8r) e/ceXeve cnpaTev^a, e/c TC TMV 
TapTTfOf /3eXo9 etcaaTos dvrjpeiTO flTrep eldoOei. 
56 iro\\S)v 8e d7ro\e\eifj,/J-ev(av /3e\a)v mveiSi^e TC 
TW 'A^apeOij 6 /SacrtXet'9 Trjv vifcrjv Kal ev Tot9 
TO \OITTOV t%e. TO, fj,ev ovv Tr/s 
69 TOVTO eTe\evra TW 



1 avaipelaQai Christ : atpntpf'iffBa.i MSS. 
176 






HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xviii. 52-56 

foes, the king sits on the royal throne, and many 
baskets are set there before him; and the general 
also is present who is expected to lead the army 
against the enemy ; then the army passes along 
before the king, one man at a time, and each of 
them throws one weapon into the baskets ; after this 
they are sealed with the king's seal and preserved ; 
and when this army returns to Persia, each one of 
the soldiers takes one weapon out of the baskets. 
A count is then made by those whose office it is to 
do so of all the weapons which have not been taken 
by the men, and they report to the king the number 
of the soldiers who have not returned, and in this 
way it becomes evident how many have perished in 
the war. Thus the law has stood from of old 
among the Persians. Now when Azarethes came 
into the presence of the king, Cabades enquired of 
him whether he came back with any Roman fortress 
won over to their side, for he had marched forth 
with Alamoundaras against the Romans, with the 
purpose of subduing Antioch. And Azarethes said 
that he had captured no fortress, but that he had 
conquered the Romans and Belisarius in battle. 
So Cabades bade the army of Azarethes pass by, and 
from the baskets each man took out a weapon just as 
was customary. But since many weapons were left, 
Cabades rebuked Azarethes for the victory and 
thereafter ranked him among the most unworthy 
So the victory had this conclusion for Azarethes. 



177 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



XIX 

t 

1 "l&vvoia Be Tore 'lovcrriviava) /3acri\ei jejovev 
AWioTrds re KOL 'O//,?7/oiTa9 eirl ra> Tlepcrwv Trovrjpa) 
eraipiaacrdai. OTTTJ Be rr)? 7779 ol avOpwnoi oiiSe 
y/crjvrat KCU icaO' o TI avrovs r P&)//mot9 %vvoicreiv 

2 /3aai\ev<> ij\7ncrev, epwv ep^ofjMi. ra TidX.ai(Tri- 
vijs opia 737)09 aviff^ovra ij\iov 9 daXaa-crav Trjv 

3 ^pvOpav /ca\ov/jievrjv St^/cet. avrrj Se r) OdXacrcra 
e^ 'Iv8(ov dp%Ofjivr} evTdvda re\evra rfjs ' Ptw/iauov 
dp%i'i<i. Kal 7rdXt9 AtXa9 /caXov/jievr) 77/009 Ty 
Tai/TT/9 rjiovi eariv, ev6a 77 OdXacrcra, axnrep pot 
eiprjrai, djro^yovcra Tropdfjios Tt9 69 ayav (rrevb? 
yiveTai. KOL avrbv evOevSe e(nr\eovri ev Seia /j,ev 
oprj ra AlyvTrrimv Trpbs VOTOV avejjiov rerpa/j./jieva 
ecrriv, eVt Bdrepa Be %&)/oa 6/977/409 dvdpwTrwv eVl 
7T~\,ei<TTOv BiijKei 7T/9O9 ftoppav avep,ov, ij re jrj avrrj 
rq> e<T7T\eoint kicarepwdev opart] yiverai, peypi e'9 
rrjv ^\u>rd^r)v Ka~\.ov/jievr)v vfjcrov, At'Xa 7roXe&)9 

4 o~ra8tou9 ov% r]crcrov 77 ^iXtoi/9 Bte^ovcrav. ev6a 
'E/S/oatot avrovo/jLOt, fjuev etc jraXatov (p/crjvro, 7rl 
rovrov Be 'lovariviavov fiaaiXevovros tcarijKooi 

5 'Pfoftaicov <yyevr)vrai. Tre\a<yo<> Be TO evQevBe f^eja 
eteBexerai. KCU yfjv /j,ev rrjv ev Be^ta ol ravrrj 
e(nr\eovre<> ovtceri opwaiv, es pAvroi rrjv evtavv^iov 

6 vv/crbs del eTTiyivofjievrjs opju^ovrcu. ev cr/corw <ydp 
vavri\\(T0ai ev ravry Brj rrj 0a\.dcra"r} dBvvard 
effriv, eTrel /3pd%ov<> avrrjv e^TT\eu>v eVi Tr\elcrrov 

7 %v/ji(3aivei elvai. op/j-oi Be elatv evravOa 
ov 'xepcrlv dvdpcoTrcov, d\\d rr) (frvcrei rcov 

178 



HISTORY OF THE WARS I. xix. 1-7 



XIX 

AT that time the idea occurred to the Emperor 
Justinian to ally with himself the Aethiopians and 
the Homeritae, in order to injure the Persians. I 
shall now first explain Avhat part of the earth these 
nations occupy, and then I shall point out in what 
manner the emperor hoped that they would be of 
help to the Romans. The boundaries of Palestine 
extend toward the east to the sea which is called the 
Red Sea. Now this- sea, beginning at India, comes 
to an end at this point in the Roman domain. . And 
there is a city called Aelas on its shore, where the 
sea comes to an end, as I have said, and becomes a 
very narrow gulf. And as one sails into the sea 
from there, the Egyptian mountains lie on the right, 
extending toward the south ; on the other side a 
country deserted by men extends northward to an 
indefinite distance ; and the land on both sides is 
visible as one sails in as far as the island called 
lotabe, not less than one thousand stades distant 
from the city of Aelas. On this island Hebrews 
had lived from of old in autonomy, but in the reign 
of this Justinian they have become subject to the 
Romans. From there on there comes a great open 
sea. And those who sail into this part of it no 
longer see the land on the right, but they always 
anchor along the left coast when night comes on. 
For it is impossible to navigate in the darkness on 
this sea, since it is everywhere full of shoals. But 
there are harbours there and great numbers of them, 
not made by the hand of man, but by the natural 
contour of the land, and for this reason it is not 

179 
N 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

TTTTOir]fJ,VOl, KOI OLTT dVTOV TO49 7r\OV(TlV OV 

6v ecrriv OTTTJ Traparv^oi opui^ecrdai. 
Tavrrjv Brj rrjv rjlova evdvf /J-ev opovs rovs 

8 lla\aicrrivr)<; virep/Savri ^apaicijvol %ovcriv, 01 

9 ev r& (fioiviK&vi eic TraXaiov iSpvvrai. ecrrt Se 6 
(f)otviKO)i> ev rfj fieGoyeia e? -^(apav Karareivwv 
7ro\\ijv, ev6a &rj a\\o TO Trapdjrav ovSev on fir) 

10 <f)OLVi/ce<> (fivovrai /ULOVOI. rovry T&> $>OIVLKWVI J3a- 
cri\a 'lov&Tiviavbv 'A/3o^ayoa/3o<? eSwprfcraTO, 6 
TWV efceivy ^apa/crjvtov ap^wv, teal avrbv ySaatXey? 
(j>v\ap%ov TWV ev Ti-aXaicrrivr^ ^aparcrjvcov /care- 

11 ffrijaaro. dSrjwrov re rr)v %a)pav 8ie(f)v\age rbv 
aTravra %povov, eTrel rot? re dp^ofj,evoi<i /3ap/3dpois 
xal ovSev TL rjcraov rot? TroXe/uoi? </)oy9e/oo9 re del 
'A/3o^ayoa/3o<? eSo^ev elvai KOI Siafapovrtos Spa- 

12 (rrijpios. ru> fjiev ovv Xoyy TOV (ftoivitcwva j3ct(n\v<; 
eyei, fierelvat, Se avrw rwv ravrrj ^wpiwv ouS' 

13 OTTfoariovv Sward eari. <yf) re yap 
7ravre\(t)<; epi)[j,o<> teal dre^vw<; avvSpos ev 
ovcra e? Se/ca rj^iepwv 68bv 8nj/cei, KOI avrbs Xoyou 
orovovv a^4O9 6 (froivticcov ov8afj,rj ecrriv, aXX* 
ovofia Scopov o re 'A/3o^apay9o9 eScoxe fjiovov teal 
^atrtXeu9 ev elSa)<; eXa/3e. rd /j,ev ovv dfj,<f>l ry 

14 <f)oiviKWVt ravrrj nrf e%ei. rovrcov 8e rwv dvBpca- 
TTCOV aXXot 2,apafcr)vol e%6/jvoi rr/v dicrrjv e^ovcriv, 
o'l &r) M.a8Brjvol Ka\ovvrai, 'Q^pirwv tcanj/cooi 

15 6We9. ol Be 'Ofj,r)pirai ovroi ev %&)/> rfj eTretceiva 
(pKrjvrat, 7T/J09 ry ri}<> ^aXacro-^9 rjiovi. vrcep re 
O.VTOU9 aXXa ^^17 TroXXa pe^pi 9 roi/9 dvOpw- 

16 7ro<f>d f yov<; %apaKT)vov<; ISpvcrQai (feacrt. /ie^' ovs 8rj 
rd yevt) rwv 'IvSwv ecrrtv. dXXa rovratv /J,ev Trepi 
\ej6ra) efcacrros W9 rcf] avrw /3ov\o[Av< ecrriv. 

1 80 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xix. 7-16 

difficult for mariners to find anchorage wherever 
they happen to be.. 

This coast l immediately beyond the boundaries of 
Palestine is held by Saracens, who have been settled 
from of old in the Palm Groves. These groves are 
in the interior, extending over a great tract of land, 
and there absolutely nothing else grows except palm 
trees. The Emperor Justinian had received these 
palm groves as a present from Abochorabus, the 
ruler of the Saracens there, and he was appointed by 
the emperor captain over the Saracens in Palestine. 
And he guarded the land from plunder constantly, 
for both to the barbarians over whom he ruled and 
no less to the enemy, Abochorabus always seemed a 
man to be feared and an exceptionally energetic 
fellow. Formally, therefore, the emperor holds the 
Palm Groves, but for him really to possess himself of 
any of the country there is utterly impossible. For 
a land completely destitute of human habitation and 
extremely dry lies between, extending to the dis- 
tance of a ten days' journey ; moreover the Palm 
Groves themselves are by no means worth anything, 
and Abochorabus only gave the form of a gift, and 
the emperor accepted it with full knowledge of the 
fact. So much then for the Palm Groves. Adjoin- 
ing this people there are other Saracens in possession 
of the coast, who are called Maddeni and who are 
subjects of the Homeritae. These Homeritae dwell 
in the land on the farther side of them on the shore 
of the sea. And beyond them many other nations 
are said to be settled as far as the man-eating 
Saracens. Beyond these are the nations of India. 
But regarding these matters let each one speak as 
he may wish. 

1 The coast described here is that of Arabia. 

181 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

17 'QfjLrjpirwv &e Karavritcpv ftdXicrra ev rfj dvri- 
Trepan r^rreipw AWioires olfcovcriv, o'l Av^co/Mrai 
TriKa\ovvrai, on 8rj avrois TO, f3acri\eid ecrriv 

18 ev TroXet Av^ca/jiiBi. /cal 6d\acrcra r) ev pecra) 
ecrriv dveftov ^erpico^ em<f>6pov eTrnreaovTO^ e? 
Trevre rip^epwv re Kai VVKTWV StaTrX-ow Sitftcei. 

19 ravrr) <yap KOI vvKroop vavriXXeo-Oai vevo^iKacrtv, 
eTrel /9pa%09 evravOa ovBafj,rj ecrriv avrrj ?r/3o? 
evicov rj 0d\acrcra ^pvdpa KeK\r)rai. ra jap 
TavTrjs e/CTo? K7r\eovTi a^pi e? rrjv rflova teal 

20 AlXav TTO\IV 'A/9a/8t/co? tdvo^acrrai *coX.7ro9. %&)/3a 
yap 77 evdevSe ci^pt TWV Fa^iy? TroXea)? oplwv 
'Apa/3ta TO ira\aiov a)vo/j,dero, 7rei teal ra 
/SatrtXeta ev rot? avco %p6voi<i ev Her/jat? rf) 

21 TroXet 6 reov 'Apdftwv j3acn\ev<; el%ev. 6 /nev ovv 
rwv 'O/jir)pir<tiv oppos ej; ov arraipovres elcoOacriv 

22 e? Al0ioTra<f rc\elv BofXtAca? ovo/j,derai. Sia- 
7r\evcravre<; Be del TO TreXayo? TOUTO tcaraipovcnv 
5 rwv 'ASov\tra>v rbv Xifteva. "ASouXt? Be r) 
TroXt? TOV fjiev \i/jLevo<; fjuerptp ei/cocri crraSicov 

i (rocrovrw yap Sieipyerai, TO [irj erciOaXdcr- 
elvai), TroXeo)? Se Ay^co/iiSo? 6S) rifMepwv 
BwSetca. 

23 IlXota fjievroi ocra ev re 'I^Soi? /cat ei/ ravrr) rf) 
6a\dacrr) ecrriv ov rpoTrco r& avrco cojrep al aXXat 

TreTToirjvrai. ovSe yap rc'icrcrr) ovSe aXXeo 
xpiovrai, ov fi)v ovSe criSrjpci) BiafATrepes 
lovrt e? aXX^Xa? at craviSes v/j,7rTTrjyacriv, aXXa 

24 /9oo^ot5 Ttcrl ^vvSeSevrai. a'triov oe ov% orrep 
01 TroXXoi otovrai, Trerpai rives evravOa ovcrai 
/cat rov criS'rjpov e<f> eavras e\rcovaai (refc/nrfpiov 
Be- Tat? yap 'Pwfuiicov vavalv e% AtXd TrXeouo-at? 

182 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xix. 17-24 

About opposite the Homeritae on the opposite 
mainland dwell the Aethiopians who are called 
Auxomitae, because their king resides in the city of 
Auxomis. And the expanse of sea which lies be- 
tween is crossed in a voyage of five days and nights, 
when a moderately favouring wind blows. For here 
they are accustomed to navigate by night also, since 
there are no shoals at all in these parts ; this portion 
of the sea has been called the Red Sea by some. For 
the sea which one traverses beyond this point as far 
as the shore and the city of Aelas has received the 
name of the Arabian Gulf, inasmuch as the country 
which extends from here to the limits of the city of 
Gaza used to be called in olden times Arabia, since 
the king of the Arabs had his palace in early times in 
the city of Petrae. Now the harbour of the Homeritae 
from which they are accustomed to put to sea for the 
voyage to Aethiopia is called Bulicas ; and at the end 
of the sail across the sea they always put in at the 
harbour of the Adulitae. But the city of Adulis is 
removed from the harbour a distance of twenty 
stades (for it lacks only so much of being on the sea), 
while from the city of Auxomis it is a journey of 
twelve days. 

All the boats which are found in India and on this 
sea are not made in the same manner as are other 
ships. For neither are they smeared with pitch, nor 
with any other substance, nor indeed are the planks 
fastened together by iron nails going through and 
through, but they are bound together with a kind of 
cording. The reason is not as most persons suppose, 
that there are certain rocks there which draw the iron 
to themselves (for witness the fact that when the 
Roman vessels sail from Aelas into this sea, although 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

9 6d\a(Tcrav rrjvoe, Kairrep (Tioijpq) TroXXa) 
afjievaLs, ovirore roiovrov %vvrjve%dr) rradelv], 
aXX' on ovre o-iorjpov ovre aXXo n rwv e9 ravra 

25 eTTirrjSeicov 'IvSol r) AWicnres e%ovcriv. ov prjv 
ovSe 7T/309 'Pco/Aaitov u>velcrdai TOVTWV TI oloi re 

26 elcnv, VOJJLW airaai, SiappijSrjv aTreiprjuevov. 6d- 
varos yap ra> a\6vri TI ty/ALa ecrrt. ra pev ovv 
afjifyl rfj 'Etpvdpa /ea\ov[Aevrj 6d\dcro"r) teal %<wpa 
) avrfjs e0' e/cdrepd earn Tavrrj irr] e%ei. 

27 'E 8e A.vct)f4i8o<> TToXeta? e? TO. e?r' AlyvTrrov 
opia r^9 'PwyLtato)^ dpxfjs, ov Brj 7roXt9 f) 'EXe- 
(fravTivr) Ka\,ovfj,vrj oltceirai, rpidicovTa 6809 rjf^e- 

28 pwv ear iv evfavw dvSpi. evravda eOvt] a\\a re 
7ro\\a 'iSpvrai Kai B\eyu,ue9 re KOI No/Sarat, 
Tro\vav0 pwrrorara yevrj. aXXa BXe/if9 /Jiev 
ravrr)<f Srj -7-779 %&)yoa9 9 ra fieaa (t>Ki]vrai, 
NoySarat Be ra d/j,d>l NetXoy jroraaov eyov&i. 

' S'V' ff > i \ ^ 

Trporepov oe ov ravra eyeyovei ra ea^ara rr]$ 
'Pwjjiaiwv dpxrjs, dXX' ejretceiva oaov ercra erepwv 

29 7ri7rpO(r6ev 6&bv rj/mepwv fjvlica 8e 6 'Pa)/jt,aia)v 
avrotcpdrwp A.ioK\r)riavb<> evravOa yevofievos 
Karev6r}(rev on 8r) rwv /j,ev etceivp ^wpiwv 6 <jf>opo9 
\6yov agio? co9 r/Kia-ra rjv, eVet arevrjv /iaXfcrTa 
rrjv yfjv evravda gv/jL/Saivei elvat (nerpai jap rov 
NetXou ov TroXXo) arcodev ui^Xal \iav dve^ovaai 
r^9 %</3a9 ra XotTTO e^oucrt), arpariwr&v oe 
Trdfj,7ro\v n 7r\fj6o<f evravda e/t Tra\aiov ISpvro, 
wvTrep rat9 SaTrdvacs VTrep<J)va)$ a%0ecr@at, avve- 
ftaive TO SrjfAoaiov, a/jt-a oe Kal No/Sarat a/Ji^tl 
TroXiv "Oacriv atK'rjf.Levot ra rcporepa r)<yov re teal 
efapov aTravra e9 del ra etcetvp ^wpia, rovrovs 
or) TOV9 ftap/3dpov<> dvetreicrev dvacrrijvai (Jiev et; 

184 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xix. 24-29 

they are fitted with much iron, no such thing has ever 
happened to them), but rather because the Indians 
and the Aethiopians possess neither iron nor any 
other thing suitable for such purposes. Furthermore, 
they are not even able to buy any of these things 
from the Romans since this is explicitly forbidden to 
all by law ; for death is the punishment for one who 
is caught. Such then is the description of the so- 
called Red Sea l and of the land which lies on either 
side of it. 

From the city of Auxomis to the Aegyptian 
boundaries of the Roman domain, where the city 
called Elephantine is situated, is a journey of thirty 
days for an unencumbered traveller. Within that 
space many nations are settled, and among them the 
Blemyes and the Nobatae, who are very large nations. 
But the Blemyes dwell in the central portion of the 
country, while the Nobatae possess the territory 
about the River Nile. Formerly this was not the 
limit of the Roman empire, but it lay beyond there 
as far as one would advance in a seven days' 
journey ; but the Roman Emperor Diocletian came 
there, and observed that the tribute from these places 
was of the smallest possible account, since the land is 
at that point extremely narrow (for rocks rise to an 
exceedingly great height at no great distance from 
the Nile and spread over the rest of the country), 
while a very large body of soldiers had been 
stationed there from of old, the maintenance of which 
was an excessive burden upon the public ; and at 
the same time the Nobatae who formerly dwelt about 
the city of Oasis used to plunder the whole region ; 
so he persuaded these barbarians to move from their 
1 Rather the "Arabian Gulf." 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

rjdwv rwv cr<j)Tpa)v, dfj,(f)l nora/MOV 8e 
ISpvcraadai, SatprjcraaOai, avrovs 0/^0X07770^9 rco- 
Xecrt re /j,eyd\ai<; teal xo>pa TroXX^ re KOI Bia- 
</>e/ooz>T&>9 dfteivovi rjffirep rd jrporepa M/crjvro. 

30 ovroo yap (aero avrovs re ov/ceri rd ye d/J^l rrjv 
"Qaaw evo^Xijcreiv ^wpLa KCU 777? 7-779 cr^tcrt BiBo- 
fj,evr)s /jraTroiovfj,evovs, are oiicelas ovcrr)<;, airo- 
/cpovcreaffai 1 BXe/ifa? re, 609 TO et/co9, teal ySa/o/3a- 

31 pot'9 TOW9 aXXoi9. ejret, re TOW No/3ara9 ravra 
ijpecrKe, rrjv re peravdaracnv avritca Srj fiaka jre- 
rroirjvro yrrep o A.iotc\ / r)riavb<; atyicriv eTrecrreXXe, 
KCU e Pa>/j,ai(i)v r9 re 7roXei9 teal %cbpav ^vfnracrav 
e'</>' etcdrepa rov rrorajjiov e'f 'EXe<^ai/Ttt'79 7roXe&)9 

32 ecr^ov. rore Sr) o ftacn\ev<s 01/709 avrois re real 
}$\fjbvcriv era^e SiSocrOai dva rcav ero9 prjrov ri 
Xpvcriov e<fi w /JbrjKeri yfjv rr)V 'Pwfjiaian/ \rjicra)V- 

33 rat. 6Ve/3 /cat 9 e/te K0/j,t6fjivoi ov&ev ri Yjcrcrov 
/caraffeovcrt ra eKeivrj %(opia. o/T<u9 apa ftap- 
ftdpovs arravras ovSepia /j,r)%avr) Sia&wcracrOai 
rrjv 9 'Pw/iatoi'9 Tricrriv ori /J.T) Seei rwv dfivvo- 

34 /jievwv Grpariwrwv. icairoi /cat vija-ov riva ev 
Tfora/jiSt NetXw dy^ca-rd TTIJ rfjs ' Et^e^avrivrj^ TTO- 
Xea>9 eupwv 6 /9acrtXet'9 ovro9 fbppvpiov re ravrrj 
Sei/jidfievos o%vp(orarov, KOIVOVS rivas evravfla 
V6G)9 re teal jBwjJLOV^ r Po>yu,auH9 re teal rovrois Srj 
/carecrnjcraro rois ftap/Sdpois, /cat lepeis e/cd&rcov 
ev ra> <f>povpi(j) rovry ISpvcraro, ev rw ySeySatot) rrjv 
<f>i\iav aurot9 ecrecrdai r& fj,ere%ei,v rwv iep&v 

35 crfjjia'iv oto//-ei'09. 8ib 8rj /cat < I ) tXa9 ercwvo^aae TO 
%o)piov. d^co 8e ravra rd edvr), oi re BXeyu.ye9 
KO.I bi No/9aTat, TOW Te aXXof9 Oeovs ovcnrep 

1 airoKpovfffffOai Braun : airoKpovtaOai MSS. 

186 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xix. 29-35 

own habitations, and to settle along the River Nile, 
promising to bestow upon them great cities and land 
both extensive and incomparably better than that 
which they had previously occupied. For in this 
way he thought that 'they would no longer harass 
the country about Oasis at least, and that they 
would possess themselves of the land given them, as 
being their own, and would probably beat off 
the Blemyes and the other barbarians. And since 
this pleased the Nobatae, they made the migration 
immediately, just as Diocletian directed them, and 
took possession of all the Roman cities and the land 
on both sides of the river beyond the city of 
Elephantine. Then it was that this emperor decreed 
that to them and to the Blemyes a fixed sum of gold 
should be given every year with the stipulation that 
they should no longer plunder the land of the 
Romans. And they receive this gold even up to my 
time, but none the less they overrun the country 
there. Thus it seems that with all barbarians there 
is no means of compelling them to keep faith with 
the Romans except through the fear of soldiers to 
hold them in check. And yet this emperor went 
so far as to select a certain island in the River Nile 
close to the city of Elephantine and there construct 
a very strong fortress in which he established cer- 
tain temples and altars for the Romans and these 
barbarians in common, and he settled priests of both 
nations in this fortress, thinking that the friendship 
between them would be secure by reason of their 
sharing the things sacred to them. And for this 
reason he named the place Philae. Now both these 
nations, the Blemyes and the Nobatae, believe in all 



187 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

f 'EXX?7z>e9 vo/j,iovcri Trdvras, KOI rrfv re *\criv rov 
re "Oaipiv (removal, Kal ov% rjKicrrd ye rov Hpia- 

36 TTOV. ol fjievroi BXe/u,ue9 KCU dvOpwrrov^ rw r)\i(p 
6vetv eiwdacri. ravra Be rd ev QiXais lepa OVTOI 
8rj ol ftdpflapot Kal 69 e/ze el^ov, a\\a 

37 avra 'loucrTiwaz/o? KaOe\eiv eyvo). Na.yo<T7}9 
Hepa-appevios 7^09, ov Trpovdev are 
KOT09 69 'P&)/iatov9 efjbvrfffOTjv, TGOV 

TLCOTWV ap%a)v TO. re lepa Kadet\e, /Sao-i\e&)9 ol 
eVa7yei'Xai>T09, /cat TO 1*9 i^ev lepeis ev (j>v\aKfj 
a-%, ra Be dyd\/j,ara 69 Bv^dvriov eTrep-^rev.- 
eycb Be errl rov irporepov \6yov eVa 



XX 

TOV9 xpovovs rov TroXe/ioi; rovBe C 
<r0eaio<; 6 r&v hiQiorcwv /3a<Ti\evs, X/HO"uaz/o9 re 
wv KOL 0^779 rrjcrBe a>9 fj,d\icrra e7n^\ovpevo<;, 
eireiBr) 'Qfjirjpiraiv rwv ev rf) dvrnrepas rjrceipw 
eyvco 7roXXou9 pev 'IoySatou9 6Wa9, TroXXoi/9 Be 
Bo^av rr)V 7ra\aidv creftovras fjv Br) fca\ovcnv 
' EX\.r}vi/crjv ol vvv dvdpcoTroi, e7ri/3ov\f) perpov 
OVK e^ovarj e'9 TOL9 eiceivp Xpio-riavovs %pfjcr0ai, 
aro\ov re vrjwv Kal (rrpdrevjAa dyeipas eV avrovs 
r)\6e, Kal pd^y vircijaas rov re /Saa^Xea Kal ra>v 
'OjMjpirwv 7roXXoy9 eKreivev, d\\ov re avrodi 
Xpicrriavbv /SacrtXea Karacrrrjcrd/jLevo';, 'O/J.rjpirrjv 
/jiev 761/09, ovofia Be y Eiari/jii<f>aiov, <f)6pov re avrat 
rafa9 PddLo^rL (f>epeiv dva rcav ero9, CTT' oficov 
2 dvey(a)pr](Te. rovrov rov AlBioTrcov arparov Bov\oi 
re TroXXoi Kal oaoi eTnrijBeiax} eV TO KaKovpyelv 

188 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xix. 3 5 -xx. 2 

the gods in which the Greeks believe, and they 
also reverence Isis and Osiris, and not least of all 
Priapus. But the Blemyes are accustomed also to 
sacrifice human beings to the sun. These sanctuaries 
in Philae were kept by these barbarians even up to 
my time, but the Emperor Justinian decided to tear 
them down. Accordingly Narses, a Persarmenian 
by birth, whom I have mentioned before as having 
deserted to the Romans, 1 being commander of the 
troops there, tore down the sanctuaries at the em- 
peror's order, and put the priests under guard and 
sent the statues to Byzantium. But I shall return to 
the previous narrative. 



XX 

AT about the time of this war Hellestheaeus, the 
king of the Aethiopians, who was a Christian and a 
most devoted adherent of this faith, discovered that 
a number of the Homeritae on the opposite main- 
land were oppressing the Christians there out- 
rageously ; many of these rascals were Jews, and 
many of them held in reverence the old faith which 
men of the present day call Hellenic. He there- 
fore collected a fleet of ships and an army and came 
against them, and he conquered them in battle and 
slew both the king and many of the Homeritae. 
He then set up in his stead a Christian king, a 
Homerite by birth, by name Esimiphaeus, and, after 
ordaining that he should pay a tribute to the 
Aethiopians every year, he returned to his home. 
In this Aethiopian army many slaves and all who 
were readily disposed to crime were quite unwilling 

1 Cf. ch. xv. 31. 

189 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



avrov 8e aTTO\ei,Tr6/Jvoi epevov 

'O/j,rjpiro)V %a)pa<f dyatfrj yap vrrep<f>va)<t ecrnv. 

3 OUTO9 Xe<W<? XpOVU) OV 7TOXX< VCTrepOV %VV 

erepois rialv 'E<n/U(at&) TW ftacriXel iirava- 
crrdvre<f, avrov p.ev ev TIVI T&V e/ceivr) fypovpiwv 
Kaffetp^av, erepov 8e 'Ofj,r)pirai<; (3acri\ea icare- 

4 (TTij&avTO, "A/Bpapov ovojut,. 6 Se "A/9/9a/AO? ovro? 
XpKmavbs fjiev r^v, &ov\o<; Se 'Pa/uiLov ai/Spo? 
ev TroXet AlOwTrwv 'ASovXiSi eVi ry Kara dakaa- 

5 aav epyao-ia &iarpi{3r)V e^ovrot. a Srj 'E,\\ij- 

a6u>v Tiaacrdal re *A/3pafj,ov o/ioO rot9 
avr& eTravacrrdai rr/9 9 TOV 'Qaifj,i<f)aiov 
ev <nrov&f) e^cov, arpdrevfjid re Tpio"%i\ia)v 
dvBp&v Kal ap'xpvra rwv riva ^vyyevwv TUIV avrov 

6 err* avrovs eTrefityev. ovro? 6 crrparos ov/ceri 
e0e\ovre<; CTT' OIKOV eTraviei'at aXX' avrov ev %<w/Ja 
dyafff} i^eveiv, Kpvfya rov ap^ovros rq> 'Aftpd/jLO) 
69 ~\,6<yov$ rfkOov, 9 re v/j,l3o\r)v Karaaravre? 
rot? evavriots, eTreiSr) ev ra> epyy ejevovro, 
tcreivavre*; rov ap%ovra ra> re rwv TroXe/iitav 

7 arparw dvefjiiyvvvro teal avrov epevov. 6vp.& Se 
TTO\\& 'Ei\\t](T8eaio<i e%oyu.eyo9 Kal aXXo arpd- 
rev/j-a evr' avrovs erreptyev, o't 8rj rois d/j,<J)l rov 
"Aflpa/Mov 69 %ei/99 e\06vre<> napd rro\v re 
r/crcry()evres rfj pd^y err OIKOV ev6v<> dre^wp^aav. 
Setcra9 re TO \oirrbv 6 r&v AlOiorrwv J3aai\.evs 

8 errl rov "A/3pa/j.ov ovKeri eo~rpdreva-ev. 'EXXi;- 
aOealov 8e re\evrij(ravro<> <f>6povs "A/3/3a/xo9 co/zo- 
Xoyrjcre (frepeiv ra) ytier' avrov rrjv AiOiorrwv /3a(Ti- 
\elav rrapaX-aftovrt, ovrw re rrjv dp%r)v eKparv- 
va.ro. tlXXa ravra fiev %pov(i) ry varepw eyevero. 

190 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xx. 2-8 

to follow the king back, but were left behind and 
remained there because of their desire for the land 
of the Homeritae ; for it is an extremely goodly land. 
These fellows at a time not long after this, in 
company with certain others, rose against the king 
Esimiphaeus and put him in confinement in one of 
the fortresses there, and established another king 
over the Homeritae, Abramus by name. Now this 
Abramus was a Christian, but a slave of a Roman 
citizen who was engaged in the business of ship- 
ping in the city of Adulis in Aethiopia. When 
Hellestheaeus learned this, he was eager to punish 
Abramus together with those who had revolted with 
him for their injustice to Esimiphaeus, and he sent 
against them an army of three thousand men with 
one of his relatives as commander. This army, once 
there, was no longer willing to return home, but 
they wished to remain where they were in a goodly 
land, and so without the knowledge of their com- 
mander they opened negotiations with Abramus ; 
then when they came to an engagement with their 
opponents, just as the fighting began, they killed 
their commander and joined the ranks of the enemy, 
and so remained there. But Hellestheaeus was 
greatly moved with anger 'and sent still another 
army against them ; this force engaged with Abramus 
and his men, and, after suffering a severe defeat in 
the battle, straightway returned home. Thereafter 
the king of the Aethiopians became afraid, and sent 
no further expeditions against Abramus. After the 
death of Hellestheaeus, Abramus agreed to pay 
tribute to the king of the Aethiopians who succeeded 
him, and in this way he strengthened his rule. But 
this happened at a later time. 

191 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

9 Tore 8e 'lovcmviavos [o] /3a<7\,et9 ev fj,ev 
Alffio-^n pacriKevovros 'EXX^o-^eatou, 'Eo-t/iaiot> 
8e ev 'Ofjbrjpirais, Trpecrftevrrjv 'lov\iavov eTrepfyev, 
d^taiv a/j,cj)c0 'P&)/iaiO9 8ia TO Try? 80^779 ofioyva)- 
fjiov TLepcrais rroKepiOvcn ^vvdpacrOai, 07r&>9 AlOi- 
O7re9 fj,ev wvovpevoi re rrjv /^eTa^av ef; ' 
d7ro8i86fjivoi re avrqv 69 'PcofAaiovs, avrol 
/evpioi yevtovrai xpr)/jidra>v f^e r yd\,a)V, 'Pco/Aa 
Be rovro Troiijcrtocrt, fcepSaiveiv /jiovov, ore 8r) ovtceri 
dvayKacrdijcrovrai ra a-^erepa avrwv xptj/jiara 
69 Toi/9 7roA,e/uot/9 fjiereveytcelv (avrr) 8e ecrriv 1} 
fj,erat;a ej; ^9 elwQa.cn rrjv ecrdfjra epyd^ecdai rjv 
Trdkat /J,ev "EXX^^69 MrjSiKrjv etcd\ovv, ravvv Be 
crqpitcrjv ovofJid^ovcfLv), 'O/jujplrai 8e O7r<w9 Katcrot 1 
rbv <pvyd8a <f)i>\apyov MaSS^i/ofc Karacrrricra>vrai 
Kal crrparw fjt,eyd\a> avrwv re 'O/Jirjpirwv Kal 
^apaK'rjvwv ru>v hla&Srjv&v e(Tftd~kwcnv 69 rrjv 

10 Ileperwv yijv. (o Be Katcro9 ovros <yevov$ fj,ev r)V 
rov <fyv\ap%iKov teal Sta^epovra)^ dyados ra 
7ro\fita, roov 8e rtva 'E<TyLU<atou jfvyyevcov 
Krelvas 69 yf/v etyewyev rj 8rj epr)/j,o<> avBpu>rfwv 

11 Travrdrracriv ecrriv.} etcdrepos p,ev ovv rrjv alrt]- 
cnv v7rocr%6/jLvo<> emre\r) Troirjcretv rov 7rpecr{3ev- 
rrjv drrerrefjb'^raro, eSpacre 8e avroiv ra w^oKoyrf- 

12 fjieva ov8erepo<{. Tot9 T6 yap AWio-^n rrjv fj,eraav 
toveicrdai 7T/J09 rv 'IvB&v dbvvara r qv, eVei del ol 
Tlepacav epTropoi 77^009 avrol<$ TOt9 6'p/wot9 yivo/j,evoi 
ov 8rj ra jrpwra al rwv ^IvButv' vrjes /caraipovcriv, 
are ^(opav irpocroiKovvres rrjv o[J.opov, arcavra 
a)veicrdai ra <f>opria elcodacri, /cat T0i9 ' 

eSo^ev elvai ^copav d/ 



192 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, 1. xx. 9-12 

At that time, when Hellestheaeus was reigning 
over the Aethiopians, and Esimiphaeus over the 
Homeritae, the Emperor Justinian sent an am- 
bassador, Julianus, demanding that both nations on 
account of their community of religion should make 
common cause with the Romans in the war against 
the Persians ; for he purposed that the Aethiopians, 
by purchasing silk from India and selling it among 
the Romans, might themselves gain much money, 
while causing the Romans to profit in only one way, 
namely, that they be no longer compelled to pay 
over their money to their enemy. (This is the silk 
of which they are accustomed to make the garments 
which of old the Greeks called Medic, but which at 
the present time they name " seric " l ). As for the 
Homeritae, it was desired that they should establish 
Cai'sus, the fugitive, as captain over the Maddeni, 
and with a great army of their own people and of 
the Maddene Saracens make an invasion into the 
land of the Persians. This Cai'sus was by birth of 
the captain's rank and an exceptionally able warrior, 
but he had killed one of the relatives of Esimiphaeus 
and was a fugitive in a land which is utterly destitute 
of human habitation. So each king, promising to 
put this demand into effect, dismissed the am- 
bassador, but neither one of them did the things 
agreed upon by them. For it was impossible for 
the Aethiopians to buy silk from the Indians, for the 
Persian merchants always locate themselves at the 
very harbours where the Indian ships first put in, 
(since they inhabit, the adjoining country), and are 
accustomed to buy the whole cargoes ; and it seemed 
to the Homeritae a difficult thing to cross a country 
which was a desert and which extended so far that a 
1 In Latin serica, as coming from the Chinese (Seres). 

193 
VOL. I. O 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

re teal %povov TroXXov 68bv icarareivovaav eV 
13 dv0p(f)7rov$ TToXXcG fjia^ifjuorepov^ levai. d\\a teal 
"A/3/ca/i09 vcrrepov, ore 8rj rrjv dp%r)V &>9 dcr<f)d\,e- 
arara eteparvvaro, 7roXXa/a9 p,ev 'lovcrriviavat 
d)/jio\6yr)crev 9 yfjv T^V TlepaiBa e 



evdv? dTre^Mprjo'e. ra fj,ev ovv AWioTrwv re KOL 
ravrrj 'P<w/Aeuoi9 e^copijo-ev. 

XXI 

Se rore, eTreiSr) rd%icrra f) Trpbs 
rq> IZixfrpdrrj /ia%? eyevero, rcapa KaySaS^i/ eirl 
TrpecrlSeia TJKWV, eTrepaivev ovSev rfjs elptjvrjs 
jrepi 979 evexa rj\Bev, ercel avrbv olSaivovra en 
eVi c P&)yu-atoi'9 evpe' Sib Brj aTrpa/cro^ aver^wp^a^. 

2 teal T$\Krdpio<> f3a<7i\ei C9 TSv^dvnov /j,erd- 
7reyu,7TT09 rj\0e Trepiyprj/jLevos fjv elyev dp^ijv, e'^)' 

3 w 7rl BavStXoi'9 err parevaeie. SiTra9 8e, 'lov- 



crriviavq) /acrtet rovro eoy/jievov, a>9 
4 rrjv ea>av evravda rj\6e. KOL Tlepcrai avffis 



crrparw TTO\\W e9 Mea-OTrorafiiav, Xavapdyyov 
re teal 'Ao-TreySeSou teal Meppepoov 

, 6o-e/3a\ov. CTTei re avrois eroXpa 



, ov 8rj Bouf?;9 re teal Becrcra9 reray- 
6 fjievoi errl rfj <f>v\atcfj erv^ov, avrv) 8e teetrat 
fj,ev ev rf) 2,o(f>avr)vf) fca\ovfjbvr} ^(opa, ?roXe&)9 
'A//,tS?;9 retrcrapateovrd re teal Siatcocriois crraStois 
Sie^ovcra jrpbs floppav avepov 7rpb<? avry 8e 

194 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xx. i 2 -xxi. 6 

long time was required for the journey across it, and 
then to go against a people much more warlike than 
themselves. Later on Abramus too, when at length 
he had established his power most securely, promised 
the Emperor Justinian many times to invade the 
land of Persia, but only once began the journey and 
then straightway turned back. Such then were the 
relations which the Romans had with the Aethiopians 
and the Homeritae. 



XXI 

HERMOGENES, as soon as the battle on the Euphrates 
had taken place, came before Cabades to negotiate 
with him, but he accomplished nothing regarding 
the peace on account of which he had come, since 
he found him still swelling with rage against the 
Romans ; for this reason he returned unsuccessful. 
And Belisarius came to Byzantium at the summons 
of the emperor, having been removed from the office 
which he held, in order that he might march against 
the Vandals ; but Sittas, as had been decreed by the 
Emperor Justinian, went to the East in order to 
guard that portion of the empire. I And the Persians 
once more invaded Mesopotamia with a great army 
under command of Chanaranges and Aspebedes and 
Mermeroes. Since no one dared to engage with 
them, they made camp and began the siege of 
Martyropolis, where Bouzes and Bessas had been 
stationed in command of the garrison. This city 
lies in the land called Sophanene, two hundred and 
forty stades distant from the city of Amida toward 
the north ; it is just on the River Nymphius which 

195 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



ea~riv, 09 rrjv re ' 

7 yrfv teal Tlepcrwv Btopi^ei. ol p,ev ovv Tlepcrai rw 
7repi/36\< Trpocre(3a\\ov, ol Be Tco\iopfcovfj,evoi 
tear' dp%a<; /juev avrovs dvBpeicos v<f)icrravro, ov 

8 Bia TTO\\OV Be avde^eiv eTTiSo^oi rjcrav. o re <yap 
7rept/3oX,o9 eTTt/za^coTaro? r)V etc rov errl re\elcrrov 
teal 7ro\iopKLa Tlepcrwv pqcrra aXwcrtyLto?, aiiroi 
re ra eTTirrfBeta ov 8iapK(H)<; el%ov, ov fj^rjv ovBe 
WXavas ov8e ri a\\o a^io^pecov Kaff o ri a^v- 

9 vcovrai. Strra? Se teal 6 'Ptu/^atW aTparos e? 
%Q)pLov fjiev 'Arrap^a? rj\,dov, M.aprvporr6\ea)$ 
e/carbv (rraSiois Ste^ov, e? ra rrpoffa) 8e OVK 
er6\pa>v levai, a\V avrov evarparoTreBevo'dfjLevoi 

10 e/jvov. %vvf)v Be avrois KOI 'Eippoyevrjs avffts 
errl rrpecrftela e/c H$v%avriov rjKwv. ev rovrw Be 
roiovBe ri ^vvr)ve^0)j yevecrdai. 

11 KaTacro7rou9 CK rcakaiov ev re 'Pa)/zatot9 KOI 
Repeats Brjfioa-ta criri^eadcu voyu-o9, 01 Brj \ddpa 
levai Trapa TOW? TroXe/ifcoi/9 elwBaaiv OTTCD? jrepi- 
(TKOTnjcravre'? e? TO dfcpi/Ses ra irpaaao^va 

12 elra eiraviovres rot 1 ? ap'xpv&iv eo-ayyefacoa-i. rov- 
rwv TroXXot /j,ev evvoia, &><? TO et/eo?, xprjo-ffai 69 
TOW9 6/j,oyevei<; ev <nrovri e^ovfft, rives Be Kal 

13 T0t9 evavriois rcpotevrcu ra drcopp^ra. rore. 

OVV K TlepffWV KardfTKOTTOS T49 69 'P&)/AatOf9 

(7TaXet9 9 otyiv re 'lovffriviavw /9aatXet ijtccov, 
aXXa TC TroXXa e^elnev ev TOt9 /3ap{3dpoi<; rrpaa- 
&>9 yevos Macraayertav errl rq> f P&)- 
rrovrjpa) avrt/ca Brj /iaXa 69 ra Ilepcrwv 
e^Lacriv, evdevBe re 69 'Pw/Mziwv rrjv yrjv 

196 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxi. 6-13 

divides the land of the Romans and the Persians. 
So the Persians began to assail the fortifications, and, 
while the besieged at first withstood them manfully, 
it did not seem likely that they would hold out long. 
For the circuit-wall was quite easily assailable in 
most parts, and could be captured very easily by a 
Persian siege, and besides they did not have a 
sufficient supply of provisions, nor indeed had they 
engines of war nor anything else that was of any 
value for defending themselves. Meanwhile Sittas 
and the Roman army came to a place called Attachas, 
one hundred stades distant from Martyropolis, but 
they did not dare to advance further, but established 
their camp and remained there. Hermogenes also 
was with them, coming again as ambassador from 
Byzantium. At this point the following event took 
place. 

It has been customary from ancient times both 
among the Romans and the Persians to maintain 
spies at public expense ; these men are accustomed 
to go secretly among the enemy, in order that they 
may investigate accurately what is going on, and 
may then return and report to the rulers. Many of 
these men, as is natural, exert themselves to act in a 
spirit of loyalty to their nation, while some also 
betray their secrets to the enemy. At that time a 
certain spy who had been sent from the Persians to 
the Romans came into the presence of the Emperor 
Justinian and revealed many things which were 
taking place among the barbarians, and, in particular, 
that the nation of the Massagetae, in order to injure 
the Romans, were on the very point of going out 
into the land of Persia, and that from there they 
were prepared to march into the territory of the 

197 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

lovre? TW Tlepa-wv arparw eroiftoi el<rtv avapl- 

14 yvvcrdai- 6 Be ravra aKovcras, rrelpdv re r/S?/ 
TOU dvdpMTTOV a\,i)0eia<> Trepc e<? avrbv e%wv, 
Xptf/MKriv avrbv dBpots run 'xapiadfj&vos ireiQei 
69 re TO TIepcra)v crrpaTOTreBov levai b Srj Ma/oru/jo- 
TToXtra? eTToXtopfeei, ical rot? ravrrj ftapffdpois 
dyyel\ai ori Srj ol MacrGayeTai ovroi %pij/uLacriv 
dvcnreicrOevTes T&> 'Pwfjuaiwv (3aai\el jjieXXovcriv 

15 oaov OVTTO) CTT' avrovs rj^eiv. 6 Se Kara ravra 

i, 9 re TO rwv ftapftdpwv (rrparojre&ov dffriKo- 
rq> re Xavapdyyr) /cal TOt9 aXXot9 aTTijy- 
arpdrevfta Ovvvcov TroXe/itcoy a^ticriv OVK e9 

16 fia/cpdv 9 TOW 'P&)yLtatou9 d(f)i^(70ai. ol 8e 
eVet TauTa tftcova-av, /carat ppd>8r)o-dv re KOI eVt 
TOi9 Trapovcri 8ir)7ropovvro. 

17 'Ev rovra) 8e gvvefir) Trovrjpo)^ rq> KaftdSrj 
voarjcrai TO creo/ia, at Hep<roi)v eva rwv 1 ol ev 
Tot9 /iaXtcrra 7Tirr)8eiordra)V 2 aXecra9, Me/968^y 
ovopa, eKoivo\,oyeiro dfj,(f)L re r& Xoa-por) Kal rfj 
/SacriXeta, BeBievai re Tlepcras e<f>acr/te fir) ri rwv 
avry {3e/3ov\eviJLeva)V d\oyf)crai, ev <nrovor) e^ov- 

18 aw. 6 Be 01 T))9 7V&>yu-?79 TT)^ Stf\a)(Tiv ev ypd/j,- 
fuunv drro\iTrelv r)%iov, dapcrovvra &>9 ov JAIJ Trore 

19 avrrjv vTrepiSeiv ToX/i^uwo'i IIe/3craf. KaySa8?79 
//-ey oiV avriKpvs BieriOero /SacrtXea Xocrporjv 
IIe/3cra9 KadlaraaOai. TO 8e ypd/ji/4a 6 Me/9oSr;9 
ayT09 eypacfre, teal 6 Ka/3a&J79 avri/ca el; dvdpco- 

20 ?r&)V r)(f>dvicrro. /cal eTrel ra vop,ip,a trdvra errl 
ry rov /5acrtXe&)9 ra<f)f) eyeyovei, 6 /j,e 



198 



Haury : rbi/ MSS. 

Haury : ^TriTTjSejifraTOJ' MSS. 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxi. 13-20 

Romans, and unite with the Persian army. When 
the emperor heard this, having already a proof of 
the man's truthfulness to him, he presented him 
with a handsome sum of money and persuaded him 
to go to the Persian army which was besieging the 
Martyropolitans, and announce to the barbarians 
there that these Massagetae had been won over with 
money by the Roman emperor, and were about to 
come against them that very moment. The spy 
carried out these instructions, and coming to the 
army of the barbarians he announced to Chanaranges 
and the others that an army of Huns hostile to them 
would at no distant time come to the Romans. And 
when they heard this, they were seized with 
terror, and were at a loss how to deal with the 
situation. 

At this juncture it came about that Cabades 
became seriously ill, and he called to him one of the 
Persians who were in closest intimacy with him, 
Mebodes by name, and conversed with him con- 
cerning Chosroes and the kingdom, and said he 
feared the Persians would make a serious attempt to 
disregard some of the things which had been 
decided upon by him. But Mebodes asked him to 
leave the declaration of his purpose in writing, and 
bade him be confident that the Persians would never 
dare to disregard it. So Cabades set it down plainly 
that Chosroes should become king over the Persians. 
The document was written by Mebodes himself, and 
Cabades immediately passed from among men. And 
when everything had been performed as prescribed 
by law in the burial of the king, then Caoses, 



199 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



ra> vofiw 0apo~a)v eVe/SaVei^e r^9 ri/^rj^, 6 Be 
M 6/30^779 eKco\v, $GL<TKWV ovoeva %pfjvai avro- 
aarov 69 rrjv /3acri\iav levai, d\\d tyr)<f)(j) 

21 Tlepcrwv r&v \oylaa)v. teal 09 ejrerpeTre rai? 
dp%ai<i rrjv jrepl rov TT pay /AUTOS yvwo'iv, ov&ev 

22 cvdevSe eaeadai ol evavriw^a viroroTrd^cav. 
8e aTrawres ol Tlepcrdov ~\,6<yi/jioi e? rovro 

fjbvot eicdOriVTO, TO yu-ey 7/oa/a/ia 6 Me/So5?;9 

XOCT/OOT; 



Xocrpovjv dveiirov. 

23 OyT&) yttei/ 6 X 0(7/00779 T-^y dp%r)i> ecr^ev. ev 8e 

/ooTToXet StTTa9 TC /cat 'Eip/ji6yevr)$ d^l rfj 
SeifAaivovT<>, dfAvveiv yap /civSwevovcrrj 
e/in/raz; rivas 9 Toy9 7roX/itof9, 
o? TO69 arpa'njyoi*; e9 o'^rtj' eXdovres e\e^av roidSe 

24 " Ae\77#aTe v/ia9 avrovs /3a<TiXei re T&> Ile/ao-coi' 
at T0t9 T^9 66/0^779 dyadots /cat TroXtreia e/carepa 
fj,7ro8a)v ov Seov yivo/jievoi. Trpecrfteis yap e' 
/9a<rtXe&)9 (7Ta\fji6voi ravvv Trdpeicriv, e^>' cS jrapd 
rov TlepcroSv /SacrtX,ea lovres rd re 8id(f>opa oia- 
\vcrovo~i KOI Ta9 (TTrovSds jrpos avrov drjcrovrai" 
aX,X' a>9 TayjiGTa e^avtcrrdfjievoi Trjs 'Pa)/jLaia>v 
7779 vy%a)peiT Tot9 trpkafte.cn Trpdcra-eiv 77 e/ca- 

25 repots %vvoiaeiv /ieXXet. eroifjioi ydp eV/xev 

TOVTCOV avT&v teal 6fj,rjpov<; Stoovai 
SoKifwvs, 009 ^77 6/976) ou/c et9 uatcpav 
carat" 'Pwaaicov /j,ev ol Trpea/Seis rocr- 

26 a>Ta etTroy. ervy%ave oe teal dyye\o<> etc rwv 
ftacr Ckeiwv 69 avrovs r^Kutv, 09 ^77 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, 1. xxi. 20-26 

confident by reason of the law, tried to lay claim to 
the office, but Mebodes stood in his way, asserting 
that no one ought to assume the royal power by his 
own initiative but by vote of the Persian notables. 
So Caoses committed the decision in the matter to 
the magistrates, supposing that there would be no 
opposition to him from there. But when all the 
Persian notables had been gathered together for this 
purpose and were in session, Mebodes read the 
document and stated the purpose of Cabades 
regarding Chosroes, and all, calling to mind the 
virtue of Cabades, straightway declared Chosroes 
King of the Persians. 

Thus then Chosroes secured the power. But at 
Martyropolis, Sittas and Hermogenes were in fear 
concerning the city, since they were utterly unable 
to defend it in its peril, and they sent certain men to 
the enemy, who came before the generals and spoke 
as follows : " It has escaped your own notice that 
you are becoming wrongfully an obstacle to the king 
of the Persians and to the blessings of peace and to 
each state. For ambassadors sent from the emperor 
are even now present in order that they may go to 
the king of the Persians and there settle the 
differences and establish a treaty with him ; but do 
you as quickly as possible remove from the land of 
the Romans and permit the ambassadors to act in the 
manner which will be of advantage to both peoples. 
For we are ready also to give as hostages men of 
repute concerning these very things, to prove that 
they will be actually accomplished at no distant date." 
Such were the words of the ambassadors of the 
Romans. It happened also that a messenger came to 
them from the palace, who brought them word that 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



rrjtcevai pev Ka/3aS?7i> eo^yyeXXe, Xocrporjv 8e 
rov Ka/3ttSoy /3acriXea Karaarrjvai Tlepcrais, 

27 ravrr) re ra re pay para rjwprjadaL crtyiGt,. Kal 
arc* avrov rovs 'Pcofjuaiav \6yovs ol crrparyyol 

ijtcovcrav, are Kal rrjv Qvvvwv e<f)o8ov 
( Pa>/j,atoi /j,ev ovv ev o/jujpatv \6<ya> 
eboaav Maprivov re Kal rwv Sirra Sopv- 
eva, ^eveiaov ovo^ia- Tiepaat Be 8ia\v- 
rrjv TrpocreSpeiav evdvwpov rrjv ava^wpri- 

28 a iv eTTOiijaavTO. ol re Ofivvoi ov TTO\\W vcrrepov 
e<r/8aXo^Te9 et? yfjv rrjv 'Pa>jj,ai(0v, eTrel rov 
Hepatav (rrparov evravOa ov% evpov, St 6\iyov 
rrjv ejriSpoiJirjv Troirja-d/nevoi eV oitcov 



XXII 

Avri/ca 8e teal 'Povtyivos re Kal 'A\eav&po<> 



rea 

rj\6ov, Trapd re Tlepffwv rov ySacrtXea 

2 d<J)ifcovro 69 rcora^ov Tiyprjv. teal avrov? /j,ev 
Xo<7y3O779 ejreiBr) e'Se, TOV9 o/jujpovs d(f>rJKe. ridacr- 
crevovres Se X.ocrp6r)v ol Trpecr/Seis eTraycoyd re 
7TO\\a e\ej;av teal 'Poofiaicov o>9 rfKiara Trpecrftecri 

3 TrpeTTOvra. o?9 8rj xeiporjdrjs 6 Xo<7/9o?;9 yevo/jievo? 
rrjv fiev elpijvrjv jrepas oiitc e^ovaav Sexa teal etca- 
rbv Kevrrjvapiwv a)/j,o\6yei 7T/?09 avrovs drjcrea^Oai, 
<$) o> Brj 6 rwv ev MecroTrora/i/o crrpariwrwv 
ap'xwv /Jirjxeri ev Aayoa9 TO \onrov ely, aXX' ev 
Kcovaravrivr) rov arcavra ^povov Siayevoiro $7rep 
teal TO 7ra\aibv eWiaro' <fipovpia Se ra ev 



202 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxi. 2 6-xxii. 3 

Cabades had died and that Chosroes, son of Cabades, 
had become king over the Persians, and that in this 
way the situation had become unsettled. And as a 
result ot this the generals heard the words of the 
Romans gladly, since they feared also the attack of 
the Huns. The Romans therefore straightway gave 
as hostages Martinus and one of the body-guards of 
Sittas, Senecius by name ; so the Persians broke up 
the siege and made their departure promptly. And 
the Huns not long afterward invaded the land of the 
Romans, but since they did not find the Persian 
army there, they made their raid a short one, and 
then all departed homeward. 



XXII 

STRAIGHTWAY Rufinus and Alexander and Thomas 
came to act as ambassadors with Hermogenes, and 
they all came before the Persian king at the River 
Tigris. And when Chosroes saw them, he released 
the hostages. Then the ambassadors coaxed Chosroes, 
and spoke many beguiling words most unbecoming 
to Roman ambassadors. By this treatment Chosroes 
became tractable, and agreed to establish a peace 
with them that should be without end for the 
price of one hundred and ten s ' centenaria," on 
condition that the commander of troops in Meso- 
potamia should be no longer at Daras, but 
should spend all his time in Constantina, as was 
customary in former times ; but the fortresses in 

203 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

OVK e<j)r) dTroBatcreiv, Koiirtp avrbs TO re 

yiov real BeoXof TO <f>povpiov Bi/caiwv TT/JO? 'P&>- 

4 p,aiwv aTToKaftelv. e\Kei 8e \irpas TO Kevrrjvdptov 
e/carov, a<' ov 8rj KOI wvo^iacrrai. Kevrov jap TO, 

5 e/carbv Ka\ov(Ti '^wfjualoi. TOVTO Se ol SiSocrdai 
TO xpvcriov r)j;iov, a>9 [tyre TTO\IV Aapa9 'P&)yu.atot 
KaOeXeiv avajKa^wvrai ^irfre <f>v\aKrr)piov TOV ev 

6 7ryXat9 Kao-Trtcu? f^eraXa-^eiv Hepaais. ol /Aevroi 
7r^oeo-ySet9 Ta p,ev a\\a eTrrjvovv, ra & (ppovpia 
ev$i86vai OVK etyacrfcov oloi re elvai, r/v jjJr] (Baai- 

7 Xe&>9 a/i^)' airrofc irvdcovrai Trporepov. eBo^e 
roivvv 'Pov<f)lvov p,ev v-nep rovrwv 9 

rovs 
/cal %povo$ r/fjiepwv e/3oofj,iJKOvra 'Pov<f)iva> 

8 ^vvefcetro 9 rrjv a(f)iiv. evret Be 6 'Povtytvos 9 
Rv^avnov d<f>iK;6/jLVO<; /3a<ri\ei d.7rijyy\\.ev oaa 
Koa-por) dfj,<f)l rfj elprfvij Bo/coiivra elij, e/ce\evo-e 
/SacrtXei'9 Kara ravra cr<$)lcn rrjv eiprfvrjv %vv- 
iaraadai. 

9 'AAA,' ev rovrw <$>r)p-ri ris OVK d\r)6r)<; iJKOvaa 69 
ra Hepcrdov rjdr] /3a<Ti\ea 'Iov<rrt,viavbv 

'\'ov(f>lvov Kreivai. ol<? &r) 
re Kal 6v/M& TTO\\& r/8r) 
rq> iravrl crrparw eVt 'PatfAaiov? fjei. 'Pov<f)ivo$ 
8e ol fjiera^v eTravijKwv everv^e 7roX,e<i>9 NMTiftiSos 

10 ov /jiaKpay airodev. Sib Brj avroi re ev rrj Tro\ei 
ravrrj ejevovro Kal, eVet rrjv elpjjvijv fteftaiovv 
e/iteXXoi/, Ta xpijfiara ol Trpea-fieis evravda eVo- 

11 fii^ov. a\X' ^lovcrriviava) fiacri\ei ra Aa%iKr/<} 
(fipovpia 

204 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxii. 3-11 

Lazica he refused to give back, although he himself 
demanded that he should receive back from the 
Romans both Pharangium and the fortress of Bolum. 
(Now the " centenarium " weighs one hundred pounds, 
for which reason it is so called ; for the Romans call 
one hundred "centum"). He demanded that this 
gold be given him, in order that the Romans might 
not be compelled either to tear down the city of 
Daras or to share the garrison at the Caspian Gates 
with the Persians. 1 However the ambassadors, while 
approving the rest, said that, they were not able to 
concede the fortresses, unless they should first make 
enquiry of the emperor concerning them. It was 
decided, accordingly, that Rufinus should be sent 
concerning them to Byzantium, and that the others 
should wait until he should return. And it was 
arranged with Rufinus that seventy days' time 
be allowed until he should arrive. When Rufinus 
reached Byzantium and reported to the emperor 
what Chosroes' decision was concerning the peace, 
the emperor commanded that the peace be concluded 
by them on these terms. 

In the meantime, however, a report which was not 
true reached Persia saying that the Emperor Jus- 
tinian had become enraged and put Rufinus to death. 
Chosroes indeed was much perturbed by this, and, 
already filled with anger, he advanced against the 
Romans with his whole army. But Rufinus met him 
on the way as he was returning not far from the city 
of Nisibis. Therefore they proceeded to this city 
themselves, and, since they were about to establish 
the peace, the ambassadors began to convey the 
money thither. But the Emperor Justinian was 
already repenting that he had given up the strong- 
1 Cf. chap. xvi. 7. 

205 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

re dvri/cpvs arfo\e i yovra T049 rrpe(T/3ecnv eypatye 

12 fjbr)Sauo)<> avra rrpot'eaOai TlepaaLS. Sib Srj Xocrporjs 
T<Z9 (nrovSas OeaOai, ovtceri rjfyov, teal Tore 'Pov- 
<f)iv(p ewoid T*9 ejevero 009 ra^vrepa fj acr^aXe- 
crrepa /3ov\ev(rd/Mvo<t 69 yfjv rrjv Tlepadov ra 

13 xprffjiaTa, ecrKO/ALcreiev. avrifca jovv e? TO e8a<j)o<> 
tcadrjKe TO o-S/Aa, /cetyu-e^o? Te 'jrprjv^ XOCT^OT;!/ 
1/ceTeve rd re ^prf^ara crt^icn ^v^nk^^ai KCU /j,rj 
ejrl 'Pci)/tatoi/5 evOvs crrpareveiv, d\\a e? %povov 

14 Tt*>a erepov rbv iroKe/Jbov arrorideadai. Xoo-po^9 
Se avrbv evOevBe eiceXevev e^avicrracrOai, arc avra 
ol ravra 'xapielaOai vTroa")^6aevo^. o'L re yovv 
TrpecrySet? %i>v rols xptfpacriv 9 Aa/?a9 7j\6ov, teal 
6 Tlepewv crrparbs orriGw arrr)\avve. 

15 Kat TOTe /j,ev 'Povtyivov ol %vfj,7rpcr/3evral oY 
vrrotyias re avrol e9 ra udXivra ea"%ov /cal 69 
(3ao-t\ea 8ie/3a\\ov, rex/jMipo/jvoi on, STJ ol 
arcavra o Xo<r/JO?;9 ocra e%pr)ev avrov avaireL- 

16 crdels ^vve^caprjaev. eBpadre aevrot avrbv Sia 
ravra /3acrfXeu9 ovSev a^api. Xpovw Se ov TTO\\M 
vcrrepov e Pov<piv6<> re avrbs /cal 'JZpfAoyevrjs av6i<f 
rcapa XOCT/JOT/V eo'TeXXoi'To, e9 re ra<> cnrovBa^ 
avrifca aXX?7Xot9 ^vveftija-av, e'<' c5 efcdrepoi diro- 
Swcrovcriv ocra 8rj dfj,<f>6repoi ^wpia ev r&8e rq> 
7roXe/x.a) aXX?;Xou9 d(f>ei\ovro, teal /jurfKert crrpa- 
riwrwv Tt9 apxh V &dpas etrf rots re "l/Srjpcriv 
eBeBo/cro ev yvw/jbr) elvai rj /jievetv avrov ev Bu- 
avri(0, YI 9 cr<j)(ov rrjv irarpiSa eTravievai. rjcrav 
Be TroXXot fcal ol jjuevovres teal ol ercaviovres e9 

206 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxii. 11-16 

holds of Lazica, and he wrote a letter to the 
ambassadors expressly commanding them by no 
means to hand them over to the Persians. For this 
reason Chosroes no longer saw fit to make the treaty ; 
and then it came to the mind of Rufinus that he had 
counselled more speedily than safely in bringing the 
money into the land of Persia. Straightway, there- 
fore, he threw himself on the earth, and lying prone 
he entreated Chosroes to send the money back with 
them and not march immediately against the Romans, 
but to put off the war to some other time. And 
Chosroes bade him rise from the ground, promising 
that he would grant all these things. So the 
ambassadors with the money came to Daras and the 
Persian army marched back. 

Then indeed the fellow-ambassadors of Rufinus 
began to regard him with extreme suspicion them- 
selves, and they also denounced him to the emperor, 
basing their judgment on the fact that Chosroes had 
been persuaded to concede him everything which he 
asked of him. However, the emperor showed him 
no disfavour on account of this. At a time not long 
after this Rufinus himself and Hermogenes were 
again sent to the court of Chosroes, and they imme- 
diately came to agreement with each other con- 
cerning the treaty, subject to the condition that 
both sides should give back all the places which each 
nation had wrested from the other in that war, and 
that there should no longer be any military post in 
Daras ; as for the Iberians, it was agreed that the 
decision rested with them whether they should 
remain there in Byzantium or return to their own 
fatherland. And there were many who remained, 
and many also who returned to their ancestral 

207 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

17 ra Trdrpia 77^77. ovrw roivvv rijv re djrepavrov 
Ka\ovfj,ev)jv elpijvTjv ecnreicravro, GKTOV 77877 ero? 

18 T77V ftaaikeiav 'lovtrriviavov e%oi/ro9. Kal 'Pw- 

fjiev TO re Qapdyyiov /ecu BeoXoz/ TO <J)povpiov 
T0i9 XpriiUKTi Ileyocrat? eSoaav, Tiepaai 8e 
ra Aafyicf/s typovpia. 1 Kal Adyapiv Se 
aTT&oaav Tlepcrai, av^ avrov erepov 

19 KKOfAicr/J,VOi OVK afydvr) avSpa. ovros 6 Aayayot? 

TO) vcrrepw 7ro\\a/a9 Ovvvovs e? 7771^ rrjv 



crev. TJV jap 8ta(f>p6vra><f dyadbs ra 
Ta? /iev ovv 7T/J09 dXX77\ou9 cnrovBas T/JOTTO) rq> 
dfji(j)6repoi e/cparvvavro. 



XXIII 

8e /SacrtXet efcarepw ein^ovXrjv yevecrflai 
TT/JO? rwv V7rr)fc6a>v ovriva fj,evroi rpo- 
TTOV avri/ca 8rj\(ocr(o. Xoo"/30779 o Ka/SaSov ara- 
ATT09 Te 771^ rrjv Sidvoiav Kal vecorepcov Trpay/jidrwv 

2 epao-rrjs aroTros. Sib Srj auT09 re del eyu,7rA.e&>9 
rapaxfjs re Kal Bopvftwv eyivero Kal rojv ofJioLwv 

3 Tot9 aXX,ot9 aTracrtv air tear aros. d^dof^evoi ovv 
avrov rrf dp%fj' 2 ocroi ev TLepcrais Spaarrfpioi rjcrav, 
erepov <r<icrt /3a(ri\ea Karacrr^aaa'dai e/c T7^9 Ka- 

4 ySaSou ot/cta9 ev /3ov\fj ei%ov. Kal (r/v <yap avrols 

7TOXy9 Tt9 7TO^O9 T779 Zid/J,OV dp^S T)V Sr) 6 Z/O/409 

alrlq rrjs rov o<#aX/ioD \wj3'T)<;, wcnrep JJLOI ep- 
prjdr], K(f)\ve) \oyKrdfjievoi yvpia-Kov o~(j)Lcrtv aurols 
dfjietvov elvai K.a/3dSr)v fiev rov avrov TralSa Kal 

1 <t>povpta GPH : x M P^ a V. 
208 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxii. i6-xxiii. 4 

homes. Thus, then, they concluded the so-called 532 A.D. 
" endless peace," when the Emperor Justinian was 
already in the sixth year of his reign. And the 
Romans gave the Persians Pharangium and the 
fortress of Bolum together with the money, and the 
Persians gave the Romans the strongholds of 
Lazica. The Persians also returned Dagaris to the 
Romans, and received in return for him another man 
of no mean station. This Dagaris in later times 
often conquered the Huns in battle when they had 
invaded the land of the Romans, and drove them 
out ; for he was an exceptionally able warrior. 
Thus both sides in the manner described made secure 
the treaty between them. 



XXIII 

STRAIGHTWAY it came about that plots were formed 
against both rulers by their subjects ; and I shall 
now explain how this happened. Chosroes, the son 
of Cabades, was a man of an unruly turn of 
mind and strangely fond of innovations. For this 
reason he himself was always full of excitement 
and alarms, and he was an unfailing cause of similar 
feelings in all others. All, therefore, who were men 
of action among the Persians, in vexation at his 
administration, were purposing to establish over 
themselves another king from the house of Cabades. 
And since they longed earnestly for the rule of 
Zames, which was made impossible by the law by 
reason of the disfigurement of his eye, as has been 
stated, they found upon consideration that the best 
course for them was to establish in power his child 

209 

VOL. I. P 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



T&> rcrfTTW ofKovv/Juov 69 Tr)V apxrjv icaravrrjcra- 
crdai, 1 Zdjjurjv 8e, are r& 7rai8l ercLrporcov ovra, 
Sioifcelcrdai orcr) /3ov\oiro TO, Tlepcroav n pay par a. 

5 yevo/jievoi re jrapd rbv Zd/ji'rjv TO re /3ov\evfj.a 
e^rfvey/cav /cal Trpodvfua Tro\\fj yK\ev6fj&voi e? 

Trpd^iv evTJyov. teal eVel rov dvSpa ; /3ov\r) 
, e? Kaipbv ra> X 0072077 eTndrjaecrOai Sievo- 
/CTTV<TTO<; 8e TI ftovXrj fA6%pi e? rbv j3acri\a 

6 ye<yvrj[j,evr) rd rcpaaao/jieva Ste/cwXvcre. ZdftTjv re 
yap avrbv 6 Xocr/>o^9 KOI rovs avrov re /cal Zdpov 
d8e\<pov<f aTravras %vv yovco rcavrl dpcrevi e/creive, 
/cal TLepcrwv r&v So/ci/juav oaov<f rwv eTr' avr& 
(3e/3ov7^V/jva>v r) dp^ai rj f^eraka^elv rporcw Srj 
OTW rerv%rj/cev. ev rot9 /cat ' A.cr7re/3e8rjs r/v 6 TT}? 



/j,evroi rbv Zdfjiov vibv auTO9 
icreiveiv ov8a/j,f) el%ev. eri yap virb ^avapdyyij rq> 
1 ASepyov8ovv/3d8r] erpefyero. avrw 8e xavapdyyrj 
rbv 7ral8a rovrov ovrcep eOpetyaro e7recrre\\ 8ia- 
XprfcraffQai. ovre yap rq> dv8pl dma-reiv e8ifcaiov 

8 oirre aXXco? avrbv J3ideo-0ai etyev. 6 /JLCV ovv 
Xavapdyyrjs, eVet Ta? XOCT/JOOU evro\d<; iJKOvcre, 
7repia\yii<ra<; re /cat drroicXavaas rrjv avp,<f>opdv 
KOiVO\oyeiro ry yvvaitcl /cal Ka/3aSou rirdy ocra 
ol 6 /Sao'iXeL'9 ejricrreiXeie. 8aicpvcra(Ta 8e rj yvvrj 
teal rwv yovdrwv rov dv8pb<; 

9 re%vrj /A^SeyLua KaySa8r;z/ tcrelvai. 

ovv ev (7<j)icriv auTOt9 eXoyicravro Kpvrcrofjievov JJLCV 

&)9 dcr<f>a'\,ecrrara rbv Trai8a e/crpe<f)eiv, rw Se 

Xocryoo?; /card T^O9 cnj/jirjvat 609 ot 6 Ka/3aSj79 ef 

10 dv0p(07TQ)V d^avtcrdeirj. /cat r& re ftaaiXel Kara 

1 KaraiTT^rrocrflaj VV abler : Kara^r^fffffSai MRS. 
2IO 






HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxiii. 4-10 

Cabades, who bore the same name as his grandfather, 
while Zanies, as guardian of the child, should admin- 
ister the affairs of the Persians as he wished. So 
they went to Zames and disclosed their plan, and, 
urging him on with great enthusiasm, they en- 
deavoured to persuade him to undertake the thing. 
And since the plan pleased him, they were purposing 
to assail Chosroes at the fitting moment. But the 
plan was discovered and came to the knowledge of 
the king, and thus their proceedings were stopped. 
For Chosroes slew Zames himself and all his own 
brothers and those of Zames together with all their 
male offspring, and also all the Persian notables who 
had either begun or taken part in any way in the 
plot against him. Among these was Aspebedes, the 
brother of Chosroes' mother. 

Cabades, however, the son of Zames, he was quite 
unable to kill ; for he was still being reared under 
the chanaranges, Adergoudounbades. But he sent 
a message to the chanaranges, bidding him him- 
self kill the boy he had reared ; for he neither 
thought it well to show mistrust, nor yet had 
he power to compel him. The chanaranges, there- 
fore, upon hearing the commands of Chosroes, was 
exceedingly grieved and, lamenting the misfortune, 
he communicated to his wife and Cabades' nurse all 
that the king had commanded. Then the woman, 
bursting into tears and seizing the knees of her 
husband, entreated him by no means to kill Cabades. 
They therefore consulted together, and planned to 
bring up the child in the most secure concealment, 
and to send word in haste to Chosroes that Cabades 
had been put out of the world for him. And they 



211 
p 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

ravra e(?r)[j,aivov rov re KaftdSrjv OVTO><$ cnretcpv- 
^rav ware rovrov ye Trapefyovro ovSevl alaOrjcriv, 
ori urj Ovappdfip re ru> crfyerepw TraiSl KOI rwv 
oifeerwv evi, 09 Brj avrols Tricrroraros 69 ra /z.a- 

11 \icrra e&oev elvai. ejrel 8e Trpolovros TOV 
eV r)\ifciav 6 KaftdSr)? rj\0e, Seia-as 

fjL^ TO, TreTTpay/jAva e> ^>co9 djoiro, xprffjuard re rw 
K.a/3d8rj e&iSov Kal avrov aTraXX-ayevra e/ceXefe 
8iacr(i}^cr0ai orci) ol (ftevyovrt Bvvara eirj. rare 
/lev ovv Xotr/JoT/i/ re Kal roy? aAAot"? arcavras 
ravra 8ia7r7rpayfj,evo<; 6 %avapdy<yr)<; ekdvdave. 

12 Xpovw 8e va-repov 6 fjiev Xocrpo^? e? yrjv rrjv 
KoX^tSa arparw /ieyaXeo ecr/3a\\ev, co? pot ev 

13 TOt9 oiricrdev \6yois yeypd^lrerai. eiTTero 8e avrw 
6 rovrov 8rj rov ^avapdyyov vlbs Ovappdfj,ij^, 
aXXoi9 re r&v otKer&v eTrayo/jLevos Kal 09 avr& 
ra 9 roy Ka/9a&?7i> ^vvemardfjievos 
evravOa rq> {3a<ri\el QvappdfATjs ra 
Ka/3aS?7 arravra e(j>pae, xal rov oiKerrjv e'0' 

14 aTracriv ol op.o\oyovvra rrapeL^ero. ravra errel o 
Xocrpoi79 eyva), rw re 6vjAu> ijBr) vrrepfyvws efyero 
Kal oeivd eVotetro el 77/309 Bov\ov dvSpbs roiavra 
epya rrerrovOw^ eirj, OVK %a>v re 077(09 ol vrro^ei- 

15 ptov rov dvopa rroiolr), errevoei rdSe. rjv'iKa K 7^9 
r?79 KoX^tSo9 eTr' OIKOV dva^wpelv e/ieXXe, ypd- 



rovra) ori r) avr<a / 

/Mva erj rravr ra> crrparw e> yfjv rrjv 
ecrftd\\eiv, OVK ev jj,ia pkvroi rfjs %a>pas elcroSa), 
dXXa ^i^a Tfoi^cra^evw TO Hepcrwv o~rpdrev/j,a, 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxiii. 10-15 

sent word to the king to this effect, and concealed 
Cabades in such a way that the affair did not come 
to the notice of any one, except Varrames, their own 
child, and one of the servants who seemed to 
them to be in every way most trustworthy. But 
when, as time went on, Cabades came of age, the 
chanaranges began to fear lest what had been done 
should be brought to light ; he therefore gave Cabades 
money and bade him depart and save himself by flight 
wherever he could. At that time, then, Chosroes 
and all the others were in ignorance of the fact that 
the chanaranges had carried this thing through. 

At a later time Chosroes was making an invasion 
into the land of Colchis with a great army, as will 
be told in the following narrative. 1 And he was 
followed by the son of this same chanaranges, 
Varrames, who took with him a number of his 
servants, and among them the one who shared with 
him the knowledge of what had happened to Cabades ; 
while there Varrames told the king everything 
regarding Cabades, and he brought forward the 
servant agreeing with him in every particular. 
When Chosroes learned this he was forthwith ex- 
ceedingly angry, and he counted it a dreadful thing 
that he had suffered such things at the hand of a 
man who was his slave ; and since he had no other 
means of getting the man under his hand he devised 
the following plan. When he was about to return 
homeward from the land of Colchis, he wrote to this 
chanaranges that he had decided to invade the land 
of the Romans with his whole army, not, however, 
by a single inroad into the country, but making two. 
divisions of the Persian army, in order that the 

1 Cf. Book II. xvii. 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



OTTO)? o >T05 re xa e/cro? irora^ov 

16 eir\ TOU9 TroXe/itof ? 77 ecr/SoX?) carat. /ua fjiev ovv 
rfjs 0r par ids poipa e? T^V iroX.efiLav avrov, to? TO 

>/>./ /) f / C-\ > C> V ' " 

eitfo?, egiyyijcreavai, erepw be ovoevi evoioovai ra)i> 
avrov Sov\a)V laa r& /9a<TiXet ev ravrrj Brj rfj 
ri/if) e%eiv, orl pr) avrq> ^avapdyyrj rijs apGrrjS 

17 eveica. 8eiv roLvvv avrov p,ev ev ry airoTropeLa l 
Kara rd%o<} ol e? otyw eXOeiv, OTTW? avrq> KOIVO- 
\oytjcrdfjL6vos anavra 7ricrre\.\oi oaa ^vvoicretv 
rfj crrparia //.eXXot, TOU? Se vv avrSt orriaOe 

18 /ceXeveiv 68q) ievai. ravra eirei 6 ^avapdyyrjs 
aTreve^evra elSe, Trepi^aprj<; yeyovcos rfj e? 
avrov rov y3a<rtXe&)? ripr) patcpdv re aTroXeXeiyu,- 
/Aevos rwv ol/ceicov fca/cwv, avri/ca ra evrera\fj,eva 

19 eTrire\r) eVotet. ev oe rfj 68o> ravrrj avre^eiv ru> 

/j,fj ^X wv (% v y^P rt< * r ip wv o avrjp 
rov re %d\ivbv /ie^et? rov ITTTTOV 
icai ol TO ev ra> <Ttce\ei bareov eppd<yt]- 
Bib 8r) avrw eTrdvaytces rjv evravda depairevofjievG) 
r)crv%r) fj^veiv, e? T6 TO ^utpiov rovro rq> 

20 tf/covri e? o^frtv r)\6e. /cal avr& Xocrporjs % 
^vcrrpareveiv afylcriv ovra><> e^ovri rov 
dSvvara elvai, d\\a ^pfjvai avrov 9 ri r&v 
etceivr} <ppovpia)v Ibvra TT}? Trpbs r&v la- 

21 rpwv evrt/ieXeta? evravda rv%tv. ovrco /j,ev 6 
XOCT/JOT;? rrjv 67H r& davdrw rov dvOpunrov 
aTreTre/i^aTO, teal vv avrq> OTricrdev eiTrovro 
oiirep avrov ev rw (frpovplq* diro\lv e/ji\\ov, 
avSpa ev Hepcrai*; d^rrrjrov ffrpart]<ybv ovra re 

' Kai \ej6fjievov, offTrep ejrl ScaSetca eOvrj jSapft 

1 airoiropeia P : atroiropla V, airopla G, cf. II. X. 24. 
214 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxiii. 15-21 

attack might be made upon the enemy on both 
sides of the River Euphrates. Now one division 
of the army he himself, as was natural, would lead 
into the hostile land, while to no one else of his 
subjects would he grant the privilege of holding 
equal honour with the king in this matter, except to 
the chanaranges himself on account of his valour. 
It was necessary, therefore, that the chanaranges 
should come speedily to meet him as he returned, in 
order that he might confer with him and give him 
all the directions which would be of advantage to 
the army, and that he should bid his attendants 
travel behind him on the road. When the chana- 
ranges received this message, he was overjoyed at 
the honour shown him by the king, and in complete 
ignorance of his own evil plight, he immediately 
carried out the instructions. But in the course of 
this journey, since he was quite unable to sustain 
the toil of it (for he was a very old man), he relaxed 
his hold on the reins and fell off his horse, breaking 
the bone in his leg. It was therefore necessary for 
him to remain there quietly and be cared for, and 
the king came to that place and saw him. And 
Chosroes said to him that with his leg in such a 
plight it was not possible that he make the 
expedition with them, but that he must go to one of 
the fortresses in that region and receive treatment 
there from the physicians. Thus then Chosroes 
sent the man away on the road to death, and behind 
him followed the very men who were to destroy 
him in the fortress, a man who was in fact as well 
as in name an invincible general among the Persians, 
who had marched against twelve nations of barbarians 



215 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



crrparevcras aTcavra Ka/3d8r) 

22 craro. rov 8e 'ASepyovSovvftdSov 
d(f>avicr0evTOS, OvappdfArjs 6 7rat9 TO TOV %avapdy- 

23 <yov ata>//,a eo^e. %pbvw 8e ov TroXXw vcrrepov 
etre KaySfaS?;? avros, o TOV Zd/juov vlo<s, etre rt? 

TOV KaySaSou 



24 oi/rii' eyu^epecrraTO? 77^ 

ySa<riXei9 dfAffiiyvowv pev, are 5^ Ko/SaSou 
/3acri\ec0<; viaivov, %vv cf)i\o(f)po(Tvvr} 'jro'XXy ev 
eo-%e. ra yuev o5i> aya^t Ile/ocra? TOU? Xoapoy 



25 "TcrTepov Be teal TOV MefioSrjv 6 Xooy>o79 

e]~ atria? ToidcrSe. T&V TI 

, TrapovTi TO> Zaftepydvrj 

^v /caXeiv eTvy^ave 8e T& Me/3o?7 

8id(f)opo<> &v 09 77 Trap' avrbv 
d(j)iKo/j,evo<> evpicrfce p,ev crTpaTia)Ta<> TOW? avToi 
eTTOfjLevovs BieTrovTa, eXeye Se OTi $r) avTov a>9 

26 Ta%tcrTa o /3acrtA,ev9 fcd\o[rj. /cat o //.e^ avTL/ca 
fj,d\a, eTreiSdv TO, ev Trocrt SidfftjTai, 
a)jj,o\6yi, 6 8e T& 69 avTov e^ffei ^7/^6^ 

ye\\e X.ocrp6r) a>9 ov ySo^XotTO Me/3oS7;9 ev TW 
irapovTL r)iceiv, (frdcrfcwv o'L Tiva do"%o\iav elvai. 

27 0v/j,w TOLVVV 6 Xoo-/90?79 e%oyu-evo9, Q-TetXa9 TWV ot 
eTTOfJuevcw Tivd Trapa TOV TpiTroSa TOV M.e/36Br)v 
tce\evv levai. o TI Be TOVTO effTiv, avTi/ca 

28 BlJ\(t)(TQ). T/)t7TOU9 (TlSrjpOV? 7T/)O TWV ^a<Tl\6i(i)V 

eo-aet crTr)Kev. eTreiSdv ovv TIS TWV Tlepawv 
TrvOrjTai OTi 8rj ai>T& 6 /Sao^Xei;? ^aXe7r&)9 e%o^j 
TOVTW Se l OVTC TTT; 69 /e/jov fcaTcupvyelv Qk^i^ OVTC 

1 Se MSS. : Haury suggests S^, Christ brackets. 
216 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxiii. 21-28 

and subjected them all to King Cabades. After 
Adergoudounbades had been removed from the 
world, Varrames, his son, received the office of 
chanaranges. Not long after this either Cabades 
himself, the son of Zames, or someone else who was 
assuming the name of Cabades came to Byzantium ; 
certainly he resembled very closely in appearance 
Cabades, the king. And the Emperor Justinian, 
though in doubt concerning him, received him with 
great friendliness and honoured him as the grandson 
of Cabades. So then fared the Persians who rose 
against Chosroes. 

Later on Chosroes destroyed also Mebodes for the 
following reason. While the king was arranging a 
certain important matter, he directed Zaberganes 
who was present to call Mebodes. Now it happened 
that Zaberganes was on hostile terms with Mebodes. 
When he came to him, he found him marshalling the 
soldiers under his command, and he said that the 
king summoned him to come as quickly as possible. 
And Mebodes promised that he would follow directly 
as soon as he should have arranged the matter 
in hand ; but Zaberganes, moved by his hostility to 
him, reported to Chosroes that Mebodes did not wish 
to come at present, claiming to have some business 
or other. Chosroes, therefore, moved with anger, 
sent one of his attendants commanding Mebodes to 
go to the tripod. Now as to what this is I shall 
explain forthwith. An iron tripod stands always 
before the palace ; and whenever anyone of the 
Persians learns that the king is angry with him, it is 
not right for such a man to flee for refuge to a 



217 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



e evai, rrap rovrov 

rbv rpiiroBa rrjv /3acriA,e&>9 TrpoaBe^effOa 
rwv rrdvrwv ovBevbs (f)v\d(ra'eiv avrbv d 
29 evravOa o Me/SoBiys ev cr^fjiart olfcrpw 
7roAA.a9, e&>9 rt? avrov Xocrpoou 
\a/3(av e/creivev. 9 rovro re ainta ra 
9 Xocryoor/y 



XXIV 



avrovs 

K TOV 

rj fjieyicrr'T] re rcapa So^av eyevero teal 69 KCUCOV 
fieya r& re 8r)/j,q> KOL rfj /3ov\f) e'reXevT^cre T/JOTTW 

2 roiwSe. ol 8r//j,oi ev rro\ei efcdcrrr) 69 re Beveroi/9 
etc TraXaiov Kol Tlpaaivovs Siyprjvro, ov 770X1/9 
Be %povo9 e'^ ou rovrwv re roov ovo/jt,dra)V Kal roov 
fSdOpwv eve/cot 049 8rj deu>fjuevoi e^ecrrrjKacn, rd re 
Xpij/jLara Sarcavwai Kal ra crcoyaara at/cicr//,ot9 
Tn/cpordrois Trpotevrai teal ffvija-tceiv OVK arca- 

3 %iovcn Oavdrw alcr%i(Try fj,d%ovrai Be 77/909 TOW9 
avriKaOicrrafjuevovs, ovre elBores orov avrois 
evefca 6 KLvSvvos ecrriv, e^eTria-rdpevoi re &>9, fy 
KOI Trepiecrwvrai rwv Bvcr^evoiv rfj i^d^rj, \e\ei- 
^rerai avrois aTra^r/vat fiev avri/ca 69 TO $ecr/j,a)- 
rrfpiov, alKi^ofjievoi^ Be ra ecr^ara elra dnoi\a>- 

4 \evai. <f)verai fjt,ev ovv avrols TO 69 T0t9 7re\a9 
e%6o<? alrlav OVK e\pv, pevei, Be dreXevrrjrov 69 
rov rcdvra alwva, ovre tctfBei ovre ^vyyeveia ovre 

218 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxiii. 2 8-xxiv. 4 

sanctuary nor to go elsewhere, but he must seat him- 
self by this tripod and await the verdict of the king, 
while no one at all dares protect him. There 
Mebodes sat in pitiable plight for many days, until 
he was seized and put to death at the command of 
Chosroes. Such was the final outcome of his good 
deeds to Chosroes. 



XXIV 

AT this same time an insurrection broke out j a n. i, 
unexpectedly in Byzantium among the populace, 
and, contrary to expectation, it proved to be a very 
serious affair, and ended in great harm to the people 
and to the senate, as the following account will 
show. In every city the population has been 
divided for a long time past into the Blue and the 
Green factions ; but within comparatively recent 
times it has come about that, for the sake of these 
names and the seats which the rival factions occupy 
in watching the games, they spend their money and 
abandon their bodies to the most cruel tortures, and 
even do not think it unworthy to die a most shame- 
ful death. And they fight against their opponents 
knowing not for what end they imperil themselves, 
but knowing well that, even if they overcome their 
enemy in the fight, the conclusion of the matter for 
them will be to be carried off straightway to the 
prison, and finally, after suffering extreme torture, to 
be destroyed. So there grows up in them against 
their fellow men a hostility which has no cause, and 
at no time does it cease or disappear, for it gives 

219 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



elfcov, rjv KOI d8e\(pol r/ d\\o ri 
rowvrov ol e? rd ^pia/juara ravra Sidtyopoi elev. 

5 jjieXei re avrols OVTC Oeiwv ovre avQpwnelwv 
re pay par CDV rcapd TO ev rovrois vifcav, TJV re ri 
aae^ijfjua e? rbv deov v(f>' orovovv dpaprdvrjrai 
r]v re ol vofjioi KOI 77 7ro\ireia 77^009 roav oltceiwv 
rj rd)v 7ro\fjiia>v fttd^ayvrai, eirel /cal rS>v ejrirrj- 
Seiaiv cnravl^ovTes t'crw? tcdv rot9 dvayfcaiordrois 
d&iKOv/jievrjs avrois rvjs TrarpiSos, ov Trpocnroi- 
ovvrai, f)v <ye avrol? Keladcu TO /ie/oo9 ev KO\O) 
fjLe\\p- ovrw jap rovs avGracndoras /caXovcri. 

6 fjLera\ay%dvov(Ti 8e rov ayovs rovrov real <yvvai/ces 
ajrrofc, ov rots dvSpdcriv eTr6fj,evai JAOVOV, a\\a 
teal rovrois, av ovrca rv%oi, dvricrrarovcrai, tcai- 
irep ovre et9 ra Bear pa TO Trapdrrav lovcrai ovre 

alriut rjy/jbevai' ware OVK 



ri 670)76 TOUTO eireiv r v%s voaij/jia. ravra 
fjiev ovv Tat9 Te TroXecrt /cat STJJLO) etcdara) a)8e 



ra> /Aft) e()ei(TrrKi ev 

Tteo, rwv <rrao~icor(t)v riva? rrjv CTTI davdrw d 
v/j,(j)povi]cravre<> Be /cal (nrei(rdfjLevoi 77/309 d\\ij- 
Xoi9 e/cdrepoi rovs re dyoftevovs dprcd^ovcn teal 
69 TO SefffAwrijpiov avri/ca eajBavres d<f)id(Ttv 
ajravras oaoi crrdcrea)? rj erepov rov d\6vre<i 
8 dro7rr)/jiaro<; eSeSevro. real ol p,ev vrcifjperai,, ocroi 
rrj T?}9 7roXe&)9 dp%fj ejrovrai, e/creivovro ov8evl 
A.O7&), rStv 8e rco^irwv el ri icadapov r)v 69 rr)V 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxiv. 4-8 

place, neither to the ties of marriage nor of relation- 
ship nor of friendship, arid the case is the same even 
though those who differ with respect to these colours 
be brothers or any other kin. They care neither for 
things divine nor human in comparison with con- 
quering in these struggles ; and it matters not 
whether a sacrilege is committed by anyone at all 
against God, or whether the laws and the con- 
stitution are violated by friend or by foe ; nay 
even when they are perhaps ill supplied with 
the necessities of life, and when their fatherland 
is in the most pressing need and suffering un- 
justly, they pay no heed if only it is likely to 
go well with their "faction"; for so they name 
the bands of partisans. And even women join 
with them in this unholy strife, and they not 
only follow the men, but even resist them if oppor- 
tunity offers, although they neither go to the public 
exhibitions at all, nor are they impelled by any 
other cause ; so that I, for my part, am unable to 
call this anything except a disease of the soul. 
This, then, is pretty well how matters stand among 
the people of each and every city. 

But at this time the officers of the city administra- 
tion in Byzantium were leading away to death some 
of the rioters. But the members of the two factions, 
conspiring together and declaring a truce with each 
other, seized the prisoners and then straightway 
entered the prison and released all those who were 
in confinement there, whether they had been con- 
demned on a charge of stirring up sedition, or for 
any other unlawful act. And all the attendants in 
the service of the city government were killed indis- 
criminately ; meanwhile, all of the citizens who were 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



rjTreipov <pevyov, /cat rfj TroXet Trvp 
9 eTretyepero, a>9 Brj VTTO 7roX/uo9 yeyevrj/jLevrj. Kal 
TO tepbv rj %o<pia TO Te /3a\aveiov 6 Zev^nnro^ 
Kal rf)<> y8a<nXe&>9 av\f)<? rd eK rwv TT poirvXaiwv 
69 rbv "A/960J9 \ey6fjbevov oltcov KavQevra 
j, em rovrois re ayu<^>&) al f*,eyd\ai crroal 
dyopas dvrjKovcrai r) Kcovcrravrivov 
7rdt)VVfj,6<; ecrriv, ev8aifiova)V re dvOpca-nwv oiKiai 

10 vroXXat Kal ^prj^ara p,eyd\a, /3acriXei9 &e Kal r/ 
avvoLKOvaa Kal rS)v d-no ySoyX?}9 evioi KaOeip- 

jBoi\ov 8e d\\rj\ot<f eBiSocrav ol Srjfiot, TO viKa, 
Kal aTr' avrov 9 ToSe TOU %povov r) Kardaracris 
exeivt} Trpoaayopeverai. 

11 TOTC T^9 p,ev av\r)S eTrap^os Ia)dvvr)<; rjv o 
Ka7T7raSo#779, Tpiflovviavbs Be, IIa//.0fXo9 yevos, 
/SacuXet TrdpeBpos' KOiaicrrmpa rovrov Ka\ovcri 

12 'Pw/jiaioi. rovrotv arepos, 'la)dvvr)<>, \6ywv fjuev 
ra)v e\ev0epi(i)V Kal TraiSeias avrfKOO^ rjv. ov yap 
aXXo ovSev e9 ypa^fjiaricrrov (fioirwv epadev, ore 
jj,r) ypd/j,/j,ara, Kal ravra KaKa aco9 [ypdtyai]' l 
<ucre&>9 Be la"xyi Trdvrcw yeyove Bvvar<t>raro<> tav 

13 rjfjueis la/jiev. yvwval re yap rd Beovra iKavco- 
TaT09 rjv Kal \vcriv TOt9 aTropois evpetv. Trovrjpo- 
raro<f Be yeyovws dvOpanrwv dirdvrwv ry rfjs 
<pvcre(i)<f Bvvdfji 69 rovro eypr^ro, Kal ovre deov 
Xo7O9 o#T dv6pd>TTU>v avrov alBcos Ti9 ecryei, 
aXXa yStou9 Te avr> dvdptoTrwv TroXXeoy avroX- 
\vvai KepBovs eveKa Kal 7roXet9 6'Xa9 Kade\elv 7ri- 

1 [7pi^ot] bracketed by Herwerden, cf. Aristoph. Knights 
189. 

222 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxiv. 8-13 

sane-minded were fleeing to the opposite mainland, 
and fire was applied to the city as if it had fallen 
under the hand of an enemy. The sanctuary of 
Sophia and the baths of Zeuxippus, and the portion of 
the imperial residence from the propylaea as far as 
the so-called House of Ares were destroyed by fire, 
and besides these botli the great colonnades which 
extended as far as the market place which bears the 
name of Constantine, in addition to many houses of 
wealthy men and a vast amount of treasure. During 
this time the emperor and his consort with a few 
members of the senate shut themselves up in the 
palace and remained quietly there. Now the watch- 
word which the populace passed around to one 
another was Nika, 1 and the insurrection has been 
called by this name up to the present time. 

The praetorian prefect at that time was John the 
Cappadocian, and Tribunianus, a Pamphylian by < 
birth, was counsellor to the emperor ; this person 
the Roman call "quaestor." One of these two men, 
John, was entirely without the advantages of a liberal 
education ; for he learned nothing while attending 
the elementary school except his letters, and these, 
too, poorly enough ; but by his natural ability he 
became the most powerful man of whom we know. 
For he was most capable in deciding upon what was 
needful and in finding a solution for difficulties. But 
he became the basest of all men and employed his 
natural power to further his low designs ; neither con- 
sideration for God nor any shame before man entered 
into his mind, but to destroy the lives of many men 
for the sake of gain and to wreck whole cities was his 

1 i.e. "Conquer." 

223 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



14 yueX,e5 )v. %povov yovv 

Trepi/3a\6/jievo<;, e? KpanrdX.ijv rivd eK\e\dKriKev 
opov OVK e^ovcrav, a%pi p,ev e? rov rov dpicrrov 
Kaipbv \r)i6fjivo<> T5 rwv vTrrjKowv overlap, fiedrj 
Be TO \onrbv Kal (reo/mro? 6/97045 do-e\ye(Tiv 

15 r)<T^o\'T)fjbevo<; t KdT%6iv Se eavrbv ovbafjurj tcr^yev, 
d\\a rd re /3pct)/j,a'ra f^e^pi 65 TOV e/^erov ijcrdte 

TO, xpijfj,ara K\7TTeiv /juev r)v 5 del erot/iO5, 
8e Kal Scnravdv eroiporepo^. 'ItwawT/5 

16 fjiev ovv TOiof)T05 Tt5 rjv. Tpi/3ovviavbs 8e 0vcrea)5 
fiev 8vvd/ji e^prfro Kal TraiSeias es a/cpov d(f)i- 
KTO TCOV KOST aitTov ovSevbs fjcrcrov, e*5 Be <j)i\o- 
Xprj/jLaTiav Baifjujvitos effTrovBatca)? oto5 re rjv 
/eepBovs del rb Bixaiov aTroBiBocrOai, rS>v re v6(j,(i)v 
Tjfiepa eic rov ejrl Tr\icrrov exdcrrr} TOW p>ev 
dvrjpei, TOV5 Be eypa<pev, d7re/j,7ro\(t)v TOt5 Seo- 
yu,voi5 Kara rrjv %peiav eKarepov. 

17 f/ E&>5 /u.ey ovv o r/7iO5 VTtep rwv ev T0t5 
ftacriv ovofidrwv rov TroXefAOv Trpbs 
Bietyepov, ^6705 ovBels fjv a>v ovroi e'5 rrjv TTO\I- 
reiav rj/jidpravov' eVet Be gv^povrfa-avres, uxnrep 

65 rrjv ardcriv Karearrjaav, ex re rov 
vo5 dvd Trdtrav rrjv TTO\IV e'5 avrovs vftpi&v 
Trepuovres etyrovv erf)' w Kreivaxri. Bib Brj 
fiacri\ev<t eraipi^e<rdai rov Sfj/jiov eOeXwv a/u-rfxu 

18 T?}5 dp%fj<; ev rq> irapavr'iKa TrapeXvcre. Kal 
QajKav fiev, dvBpa TrarpiKiov, eTrap^ov rfjs av\r)$ 
Karearrjcraro, %vveru>rar6v re Kal rov BiKaiov 
eTri/jLeXeia-Oai iKavws irefyvKora' T$acri\ei8rjv Be 
rrjv rov KOiaiar capos dp%r)v eyeiv eKe\evev, CK re 

yvdtpt/iop ev rcarpiKiois ovra Kal 



224 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxiv. 13-18 

constant concern. So within a short time indeed 
he had acquired vast sums of money, and he flung 
himself completely into the sordid life of a drunken 
scoundrel ; for up to the time of lunch each day he 
would plunder the property of his subjects, and for 
the rest of the day occupy himself with drinking 
and with wanton deeds of lust. And he was utterly 
unable to control himself, for he ate food until he 
vomited, and he was always ready to steal money 
and more ready to bring it out and spend it. Such 
a man then was John. Tribunianus, on the other 
hand, both possessed natural ability and in edu- 
cational attainments was inferior to none of his 
contemporaries ; but he was extraordinarily fond of 
the pursuit of money and always ready to sell justice 
for gain ; therefore every day, as a rule, he was 
repealing some laws and proposing others, selling off 
to those who requested it either favour according to 
their need. 

Now as long as the people were waging this war with 
each other in behalf of the names of the colours, no 
attention was paid to the offences of these men against 
the constitution ; but when the factions came to a 
mutual understanding, as has been said, and so began 
the sedition, then openly throughout the whole city 
they began to abuse the two and went about seeking 
them to kill. Accordingly the emperor, wishing to 
win the people to his side, instantly dismissed both 
these men from office. And Phocas, a patrician, he 
appointed praetorian prefect, a man of the greatest 
discretion and fitted by nature to be a guardian of 
justice ; Basilides he commanded to fill the office of 
quaestor, a man known among the patricians for his 
agreeable qualities and a notable besides. However, 

225 

VOL. I. ' Q 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

19 BoKifjbov. ovBev fMevTOi r)0~crov r/ crrdcri^ eV 
rj/cfjua^e. Tre/^Trrrj Se ajro TT}? crrdcrecos 
Trepl &ei\r)v otyiav 'lovcrriviavbs f3a(Ti\ev<; ' 

re /cal Tlo/jLTTTjia) rois 'Avaaraaiov TOV fteftacri- 
Xeu/coTO9 dSeXtfriSofc oiKa&e a>9 Ta^icrra ejre- 
cfKijTrrev ievai, etre TL vetorepov Trpdaa'ecrOai TT/JO? 
avrcov 69 creo/ia TO oliceiov vTTOTOTrijcras eire /cat 

20 avrovs r) 7re7rp(OfAvr) e9 TOVTO rjyev. ol 8e, 
ejevero, Seterai'T9 fir) <r(f)a<; 6 S^/iO9 69 
/3a,(ri\iav ftid&iTO, efyacrav ov Si/caia 

el <r<f)(i)v TOV ySao-iXea Trap^aova-iv 69 roaovSe 

21 Kivbvvov ffKovra. ravra d/covcras 'lovcrnviavbs 
/3acri\ev<; en f^d\\ov 69 rrjv v 

teal avTOv? avrifca fid\a etcehevev a 

OVTCI) <yovv oitcaSe T&) avSpe rovrco e'/coyiu- 
/cai, T6&)9 pev vv eTir/^avev ovcra, ev- 

ravda r^crv'^a^errjv. 

22 Trj 8e varepaLa afta f]\lu> dviff'XpvTt, eKirvcrra 
69 TOV Sfjpov eyevero 009 d^orepay d7rr)\\ayiJTr)v 
rrjs eV TraXartp Siarpiftr)*;. erpe^ov ovv 67r' 
auTow9 6 Xe&>9 a?ra9, /SaatXea re "TTrdrtov dvrj- 
yopevov, Koi av-rov a>9 irapa\'r]'^6p.vov rd Trpdy- 

23 /iara 6*9 Trjv dyopdv rjyov. r) 8e 'TTrariov yvvrj 
Ma/Jia, vveT?j re ovcra Kal B6av eirl craxfipocrvvr} 

e~)(pvo~a, et%ero fjiev TOV dvSpbs /cal ov 
iei, e/3oa 8e 6\o\vyf) re xpo) p,evr) teal TO 49 
aTraaiv eytceXevofievr), 609 CLVTOV Trjv 

24 eVt OavaTto ol Srjftot, ayoiev. 
fjievTOi TOV 6/AtXov, avTij T6 ov 

TOV avBpa Kal avrbv 6 Xe&>9 OVTI e/covcriov e'9 Trjv 
KwvaravTivov dyopdv rjKOVTa eV Trjv j3aai\eiav 

1 tir' aurois PV : Kal s av-rbv G. 
226 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxiv. 18-24 

the insurrection continued no less violently under 
them. Now on the fifth day of the insurrection in 
the late afternoon the Emperor Justinian gave 
orders to Hypatius and Pompeius, nephews of the 
late emperor, Anastasius, to go home as quickly as 
possible, either because he suspected that some plot 
was being matured by them against his own person, 
or, it may be, because destiny brought them to this. 
But they feared that the people would force them to 
the throne (as in fact fell out), and they said that 
they would be doing wrong if they should abandon 
their sovereign when he found himself in such 
danger. When the Emperor Justinian heard this, 
he inclined still more to his suspicion, and he bade 
them quit the palace instantly. Thus, then, these 
two men betook themselves to their homes, and, 
as long as it was night, they remained there 
quietly. 

But on the following day at sunrise it became 
known to the people that both men had quit the 
palace where they had been staying. So the whole 
population ran to them, and they declared Hypatius 
emperor and prepared to lead him to the market- 
place to assume the power. But the wife of Hypatius, 
Mary, a discreet woman, who had the greatest re- 
putation for prudence, laid hold of her husband 
and would not let go, but cried out with loud 
lamentation and with entreaties to all her kinsmen 
that the people were leading him on the road to death. 
But since the throng overpowered her, she unwil- 
lingly released her husband, and he by no will of 
his own came to the Forum of Constantine, where 
they summoned him to the throne ; then since they 



227 
Q 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

etcakovv, Kal (ov yap fy avrols ovre 8id8i)/j,a ovre 
n aXXo a)v 8rj ftacriXea Trepi^aXX-eadai 
arperrrov rtva xpvcrovv em rfi K(j)a\f] 

25 j3acri\ea 'Pw/jLaiwv dveiTrov. 17877 oe Kal rotv e/c 

vvi6vra)V, ocroi OVK a7ro\ei(j)0evr^ eriry- 
rfj /3acriXe&>9 av\fi, TroXXat /j,ev 
co9 auro?9 Ireov dya>viov[Avoi<> 9 

26 riov 'flptyevift 8e, avrjp IK ftovXrjs, 

e TOidSe " Ta pev irapbvra ^pJiv, & avSpes 'Pto- 

dyfiara prj ov%l TroXe/AO) 8iaKpi6fjvat 
olov re. 7roXe/AO9 T Se Kal ftacriXeia 2 ra 
TCOZ^ ei/ dvdpatTrois airdvTwv co/ioXoY^rai elvat. 

27 TWV Se 8^ 7rpd%a>v at fj,yd\ai ov /3pa%vTr)Ti 
KcupQv Karopdovcrdai QeKovcriv, aXX' evjSovXia 
re \oyicr/ji()v Kal ir6voi<> crmfjidTcov, aTrep avdpto- 

28 Trot 9 %povov /j,r/Kos evBeiKvvvrai. r)V fj,v ovv 
errl TOV TroXe/uov 3 'loiftev, ejrl vpov p,ev oyu.^9 
TO 7rpdy/j,ara rjfuv cfrrjaerai., Trepl Be T&V o\wv 
ev ftpa^el SiaKivSvvevcrofjiev ypovw, r&v Se aTro- 
ftrfcrecrffai fjLe\\ovrcov eveKa rrfv rv%rji> rj TrpocrKV- 

29 vtjcro/jiev r) fjiefj^ro^eda 7ravT&)9. TO yap TWV 
irpayf^drwv o^vrara 69 TO T?)9 TU^??9 &>9 TO 
TroXXa Trepua-rarai Kpdros. rjv Be (T^oiXairepov 
TO Trapovra SiotKrjcrtojjLeffa, ovSe /3ov\o/j,evoi<; 
Trapeffrai 'fjpJiv 'lovcrnviavbv ev TraXaTtw Xo/Setv, 
aXX' dyaTnjffei a>9 rd^icrra r^v ri<f avrov ea>r) 

30 <f>vyelv. dp%r) yap TrepLoput^evri Karappelv e'lwOev, 
d7ro\i}yovcrr)<i avrf} T?}9 tcr^uo9 9 rfpApav eKd(TTr)v. 
ecrri roivvv rjfuv (Baai\eia erepa, TL\aKi\\iavai 
re Kal ra 'Et\evr)<; CTrwvvfta, 08 ev %p7) fiacri\a 



1 ir6\ffnos P : Wxejuov VG. 2 0a<rjAei'a P : ^offiA.efaj' VG. 
3 iro\f/J.iov GP : TrjAe^tov V. 

228 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxiv. 24-30 

had neither diadem nor anything else with which 
it is customary for a king to be clothed, they placed 
a golden necklace upon his head and proclaimed him 
Emperor of the Romans. By this time the members 
of the senate were assembling, as many of them as 
had not been left in the emperor's residence, and 
many expressed the opinion that they should go to 
the palace to fight. But Origenes, a man of the 
senate, came forward and spoke as follows : " Fellow 
Romans, it is impossible that the situation which is 
upon us be solved in any way except by war. Now 
war and royal power are agreed to be the greatest of 
all things in the world. But when action involves great 
issues, it refuses to be brought to a successful issue by 
the brief crisis of a moment, but this is accomplished 
only by wisdom of thought and energy of action, which 
men display for a length of time. Therefore if we 
should go out against the enemy, our cause will hang 
in the balance, and we shall be taking a risk which 
will decide everything in a brief space of time ; and, 
as regards the consequences of such action, we shall 
either fall down and worship Fortune or reproach her 
altogether. For those things whose issue is most 
quickly decided, fall, as a rule, under the sway of 
fortune. But if we handle the present situation 
more deliberately, not even if we wish shall we be 
able to take Justinian in the palace, but he will very 
speedily be thankful if he is allowed to flee ; for 
authority which is ignored always loses its power, 
since its strength ebbs away with each day. More- 
over we have other palaces, both Placillianae and the 
palace named from Helen, which this emperor should 



229 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

rovBe op/AWftevov rov re 7r6\e/JLOV Bieveyicelv teal 

31 TO. a\\a BioiKijcracrdai fj a/j,eivov ej;ei" 'tlpiyevr)? 
fjiev rocravra eiTrev. ol Be Brj a\Xoi, orrep </u\ei 
o/itX.09 rroielv, 6vrep6v re dvre\afi/3dvovro teal 
TO Trapavri/ca yovro %vp$opov elvai, teal 
rfKLara ye 'TTrario? (xpr/v ydp.ol yevecrOai 

T?}9 7Ti rov iTnroSpo/jiOv 6Sov lC\ 

rives Be <f)a<riv egeTrirrj&es avrov evravda tftceiv, 

ySacrtXet evvoltcws e%6vra. 

32 Oi Be d/j,(f>l rov ftacriXea ev /3ov\f) rjaav, TTO- 
repa [Aevovcriv avroi<> rj rat? vavalv 9 
rpeTrofj,evoi$ a/jueivov ecrrai. teal \6<yoi ftev 

33 e\,yovro e9 efcdrepa (frepovres. teal eoB(opa 
Be 77 ^ao-tX,t9 eXe^e rotdSe " To pev jvvai/ca ev 
dvBpd(7i fj,rj xpfjvai, ro\^av TJ ev T0i9 drcOKVovai 
veavievecrdai, rov jrapovra ol/j,ai xaipov tftcicrra 
efaivai Biaa-KOTreia-dai eire ravry eire d\\Tj TTT; 

34 vo/jLicrreov. ols <yap ra Trpdj/^ara e9 tcivSvvov 
rov /j,eyi(rrov rjKei, OVK a\\o ovBev elvai Bo/cel 

35 apia-rov rj ra ev TTO&IV co9 apiara deadai. 77701)- 
l^ai Be rrjv <f>vyr)V eywye, e'ircep rcore, teal vvv, 
rjv KOI rrjv croorrjpiav eTrdyijrai, d^vfj^opov elvai. 
dvdpcoTTti) fjiev ydp e? <^>&)9 rjfcovri TO pr) ov%l Kal 
vetcpy yevea'dai dSvvarov, TCO Be 

36 TO (frvydBi elvai OVK dvexrov. fj,rj yap av 

rijs d\ovpyi8o<; ravr-r)? %w/3i9, ^S" av rrjv rjpApav 
e/ceivrjv ftiwiyv, ev y p,e Be(nroivav ol vrv%6vres 
ov 7rpocrepov(Tiv. el fj,ev ovv crwi^ecrOai aoi j3ov- 
\o/j,V(0 eo-riv, & /SacrtXeO, ovBev rovro trpay^a. 

230 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxiv. 30-36 

make his headquarters and from there he should 
carry on the war and attend to the ordering of all 
other matters in the best possible way." So spoke 
Origenes. But the rest, as a crowd is accustomed to 
do, insisted more excitedly and thought that the 
present moment was opportune, and not least of all 
Hypatius (for it was fated that evil should befall him) 
bade them lead the way to the hippodrome. But 
some say that he came there purposely, being well- 
disposed toward the emperor. 

Now the emperor and his court were deliberating 
as to whether it would be better for them if they 
remained or if they took to flight in the ships. And 
many opinions were expressed favouring either 
course. And the Empress Theodora also spoke to 
the following effect : " As to the belief that a woman 
ought not to be daring amorig men or to assert 
herself boldly among those who are - holding back 
from fear, I consider that the present crisis most 
certainly does not permit us to discuss whether the 
matter should be regarded in this or in some other 
way. For in the case of those whose interests have 
come into the greatest danger nothing else seems 
best except to settle the <ssue immediately before 
them in the best possible way. My opinion then is 
that the present time, above all others, is inopportune 
for flight, even though it bring safety. For while 
it is impossible for a man who has seen the light 
not also to die, for one who has been an emperor 
it is unendurable to be a fugitive. May I never 
be separated from this purple, and may I not live 
that day on which those who meet me shall not 
address me as mistress. If, now, it is your wish to 
save yourself, O Emperor, there is no difficulty. For 

231 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



37 %prjfj,ara <ydp> l re TroAAa ecrriv r)/j,lv, teal &a- 
\a(Tcra pev eKeivv], Tr\ola 8e ravra. cr/eoVet f^evroi 
fjur) SiaawOevTi ^vp^aeTai croi r^icfra av rr}? 
crwrypias rbv QdvaTov dvTa\\da(T0ai. e/^e yap 
TIS teal 7ra\aib<f apecr/cei ^0709, t>9 icdXbv evrd- 

38 $iov rj /3aeri\eia ecrrt." roaavra rrjs /SacriXtSo? 
etTroucn;?, Odpcros re rot? Tracruv 2 eTreyevero KOI 
e? d\fcr)v rpaTropevoi ev {3ov\f) evoiovvro y av 
d/AvvecrQai Bwarol yevoivTO, r\v Tt9 e?r' avrovs 

39 TTO\eiJbrj(T(i)V 'lot. ol ^ev ovv o~rpari(t)rai, %V/JL- 
Travres, ol T6 aXX,oi teal ocroi dfj,<pl rrjv y3acrtA,ea)9 
av\rjv eTera^aro, ovre rco /3acrtXet evvo'iK&s etyov 
ovre e9 TO efMfraves epyov e%ecrdat rf6e\ov, d\\d 

40 TO /j,eX\,ov e/capaSo/covv OTTT) K'/3ij(TeTai. Trdcrav 
Se rrjv e\,7riSa ev BeXtcra/Jtft) T6 /cat MowSw o 
/3acrtXey9 efyev, wv drepof /j,ev, TSeXicrdpios, dpri 
K rov M-^StAsoO eTravr/Kcov TroXe/iOi/ T?;y Te d\\r}v 
Bepaireiav Svvarrfv T /cat \6yov d^lav eTrrfyero 
Kal Sopv(f)6po)v re et%e teal VTraaTTicrTWv ir\rjdo<; 
ev Te dycocri Kal Tot9 TOU 7ro\efjiov KtvSvvois 

41 T9 /i6\Ta9 TreTroirjfjievov. Moi)i'So9 Se, 'lXXi- 
piwv crTpaTTjybs aTroSeSeiyfAevos, Tv%rj Tivl %vve- 
Kvpqcre /3ap/3dpov<} 'EpouXoi9 eTrayayo/jievos /card 
Tiva %peiav e9 Hv^dvTiov yu,eTa7re/i7TT09 tf/ceiv. 

42 f T7TttTto9 yu-ey ovy eTreiSr) et9 Toy i7T7r68pofj,ov 
d(f>i/ceTO, dvaftaivei pev avTL/ca ov Sr) ftacriXea 
KaOicrTaffOai v6fj,o<t, /cddijTai 8e e9 TOI^ /3acri\iov 
dpovov, o6ev del /8acrtXei'9 elcodei rov re ITTTTIKOV 

43 Kal yvftviKov 6eda6at dya>va. e Be 
MowSo9 yLtev Sta, 77^X779 f^^i, ev6a 8rj 6 

O-TTO Tt?9 fcaOobov KVK\oTepov<? overt)? <avo/na<TTai. 

1 <7ap> Haury : om. MSS. 2 iraaiv GP : TropoCo'ii' V. 
232 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxiv. 37-43 

we have much money, and there is the sea, here the 
boats. However consider whether it will not come 
about after you have been saved that you would gladly 
exchange that safety for death. For as for myself, I 
approve a certain ancient saying that royalty is a good 
burial-shroud." When the queen had spoken thus, 
all were filled with boldness, and, turning their 
thoughts towards resistance, they began to consider 
how they might be able to defend themselves if any 
hostile force should come against them. Now the 
soldiers as a body, including those who were 
stationed about the emperor's court, were neither 
well disposed to the emperor nor willing openly to 
take an active part in fighting, but were waiting for 
what the future would bring forth. All the hopes of 
the emperor were centred upon Belisarius and 
Mundus, of whom the former, Belisarius, had 
recently retm-ned from the Persian war bringing 
with him a following which was both powerful and 
imposing, and in particular he had a great number of 
spearmen and guards who had received their training 
in battles and the perils of warfare. Mundus had 
been appointed general of the Illyrians, and by mere 
chance had happened to come under summons to 
Byzantium on some necessary errand, bringing with 
him Erulian barbarians. 

W T hen Hypatius reached the hippodrome, he went 
up immediately to where the emperor is accustomed 
to take his place and seated himself on the royal 
throne from which the emperor was always accus- 
tomed to view the equestrian and athletic contests. 
And from the palace Mundus went out through the 
gate which, from the circling descent, has been given 



233 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

44 BeXicra/jto? Be ra fj,ev irp&ra evOv avrov re 
"Tirariov teal Opovov rov ftacriXeiov dve/Baivev, 
ft>9 Be 9 TO TT\r)(riov o"/cr]/*a rf\,6ev ov Brj o-rparun- 
rwv (frpovpa IK Tra\aiov ecrrtv, eftoa rols <rrpa- 
Ti(orai<t ejKe\ev6/jiVO<i avotyvvvai ol rrjv Qvpav 

45 to? Ta^Kna OTTO)? eVt roy rvpavvov tot. BeBoj/j,e- 
vov Be Tot? crrpaTicarais fjtrjBerepm apvveiv e&)9 
avTwv arepof XafjLTTpws vitcq>r), &>? rj/cia-ra eTrat'eiv 

46 Boicovvres Bte/cpovcravTO. avao'Tp'^ra<; ovv BeXt- 
crdpios a)? ySacrtXea, Bie<p0dpdat la")(v pi^ero a-ffricri 

47 Ta Trpdyi^ara. veatrepi^etv jap e? avrbv TOI? 
crrpari(t)Ta<f o't TTJV TraXariov (frpovpav e%ovcriv. 
efceXevev ovv avrbv f3a<Ti\ev<> eTTt rrjv KaXovfievrjv 

48 Xa\Kr)v Kal ra evravOa 7rpo7rv\ata levat. 6 Be 
Brj yu-oX.49 Kal ovre KivBvvcov ovre TTOVWV fjieyaX-wv 
^&)/3i9 Bt epenricov re Kal ^wpicov i}[u<j)\eKr(i)v 

49 Bief;ia)v e? TO ITTTTIKOV dvaftaivei. Kal eTretSrj rrapa 
rrjv Bevereiov eyeyovei (rrodv, rj rov y8a<rtXea)9 
dpovov ev 8eia ecrriv, ej3ov\evcr f^ev eVi irpwrov 
avrbv "TTrdnov levai, ftpa^elas Be ovcrr)? evravOa 
7TfXtSo9 ?) a,7rKK\ia-r6 re Kal VTTO rwv evrbs 
"Trrarlov arpanwr&v e(f)v\d(r<rero, KarcoppcaSrja-e 
fly ol ev areva) Trovovpevy 6 S^ytto9 %vvemdep,evo<> 
avrov re Kal rovs eTropevovs airavras Bia<f)0eipav- 
T9 paov re Kal arrov(i>repov errl /3aat\ea %<w/3^- 

50 (Twai. \oyicr dfivo<? ovv do? ol 7rl rov Brj/jiov 
treov effriv, ot ev r& tTnroSpofiq) ea-riJKeaav, 
7r\r)dei, re dfierpoi Kal fiera Tro\\r)$ aKoa-filas WTT' 
d\\ij\a)v todovfjLevoi, CLTTO rov KoXeov TO ^1^09 

TO?9 re aXXot9 Kara ravra Troielv 



234 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxiv. 44-50 

the name of the Snail. Belisarius meanwhile began 
at first to go straight up toward Hypatius himself 
and the royal throne, and when he came to the 
adjoining structure where there has been a guard of 
soldiers from of old, he cried out to the soldiers 
commanding them to open the door for him as 
quickly as possible, in order that he might go against 
the tyrant. But since the soldiers had decided to 
support neither side, until one of them should be 
manifestly victorious, they pretended not to hear at 
all and thus put him off. So Belisarius returned to 
the emperor and declared that the day was lost for 
them, for the soldiers who guarded the palace were 
rebelling against him. The emperor therefore com- 
manded him to go to the so-called Bronze Gate and 
the propylaea there. So Belisarius, with difficulty and 
not without danger and. great exertion, made his 
way over ground covered by ruins and half-burned 
buildings, and ascended to the stadium. And 
when he had reached the Blue Colonnade which 
is on the right of the emperor's throne, he 
purposed to go against Hypatius himself first ; 
but since there was a .small door there which 
had been closed and was guarded by the soldiers 
of Hypatius who were inside, he feared lest while 
he was struggling in the narrow space the populace 
should fall upon him, and after destroying both 
himself and all his followers, should proceed with 
less trouble and difficulty against the emperor. 
Concluding, therefore, that he must go against the 
populace who had taken their stand in ,the hippo- 
drome a vast multitude crowding each other in 
great disorder he drew his sword from its sheath 
and, commanding the others to do likewise, with a 

235 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

eirayyeiKas, 8p6/ji<p re Kal Kpavyf) eV avrovs rjei. 

51 o 8e Sf)/jLOs, are 8rj ev 6yu,iX&> Kal OVK ev rd^ei 
la-rdfievoi, eTreiSrj <rrpari(ora<? el8ov reOwpaKia- 
ftevovs re teal 86^av 7ro\\r)v ercL re dv8pia 
KOI TToXe/ict)!/ ejATreipia eyovras, teal roi? 
i<f)e<Tiv ov8e/jiia (freiSoi Tratovras, 9 

52 a>pjj,'T)vro. tcpavyrjs Se TroXX^?, &>9 TO 
yefyevijuevr)*;, 7r\r)criov TTOV earrjicws Moi)i>&O9 
teal y8oiXo/ievo9 epjov e^ecrOai (TJV yap n<> ro\- 
fjLi)rr)<; KO\ 8pa<7rijpio<>\ dTropovfjLevof Se rj %prj(rerai 
TO69 Trapovatv, eTreiSrj ereK/jurfparo &>9 BXi<ra/0(O9 
ev TO) TTOVO) e'lrj, evdvs eirl TO iTnroSpo/jMOv 8ia rijs 

53 elcroSov ^ Ne/cpa Ka\eirai etcrySaXXet. TOTC &r) 
Karepa)6ev ol 'Tnariov crraaiwrai Kara Kpdros 

' TrX^crcro/iei/ot &ie<j)0eipovro. evret 8e r/ rpoTrrj 
Xa//.7Tyoa eyeyovei Kal <f>6vos r/v ijSij rov 8ijfj,ov 
?roXy9, ^opatSr)^ re Kal 'IoO(TTO9, 'lovcrnviavov 
y8a<7tXea)9 dvetyioi, ^eipa<; avrols ov8evbs dvrai- 
petv ToXyu,wyT09, KadelXbv re diro rov Opovov 
"TTrdriov Kal avrbv ecrayayovres /3acri\el a/j,a 

54 Ho/XTT'rjLQ) TrapeStoKav. OvrjcrKOVcri re rov 8ij/j,ov 
jrXeov rj rpia-fivpioi ev ravrrj rfj r)/j,epa. /3acri\ev<? 
8e avrov? ev (f>v\aKrj ^akerrfj eKe\evev elvai. 

55 evravda TlojATrijios pev eSaKpve re Kal ata eXeof 
e^deyyero' rjv yap Srj 6 dvrjp Trpayftdrwv re Kal 
KaKWV roiovrwv r)Kicrra e/j,7reipo<f 'T?raTt09 Se 
avrbv TroXXa ovei&ia-a? OVK ecprj ^prjvat rovs OVK 

56 ev 8f,KT) d7ro\ov/j,evov<; oSvpecrQai. dp%ijv re ydp 
vrco rov STJ/AOV aKovras /3ia(T0f)vai, Kal OVK eVi 
KCIKM rov y8a<rtXe&)9 vcrrepov 69 TO I7r7ro8p6jniov 
d(f>iKo-0ai. Kreivavre? 8e ol arpanwrat rfj 

236 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxiv. 50-56 

shout he advanced upon them at a run. But the 
populace, who were standing in a mass and not in 
order, at the sight of armoured soldiers who had a 
great reputation for bravery and experience in war, 
and seeing that they struck out with their swords 
unsparingly, beat a hasty retreat. Then a great out- 
cry arose, as was natural, and Mundus, who was 
standing not far away, was eager to join in the fight, 
for he was a daring and energetic fellow but he 
was at a loss as to what he should do under the 
circumstances ; when, however, he observed that 
Belisarius was in the struggle, he straightway made a 
sally into the hippodrome through the entrance 
which they call the Gate of Death. Then indeed 
from both sides the partisans of Hypatius were 
assailed with might and main and destroyed. When 
the rout had become complete and there had already 
been great slaughter of the populace, Boraedes and 
Justus, nephews of the Emperor Justinian, without 
anyone daring to lift a hand against them, dragged 
Hypatius down from the throne, and, leading him in, 
handed him over, together with Pompeius to the 
emperor. And there perished among the populace on 
that day more than thirty thousand. But the 
emperor commanded the two prisoners to be kept in 
severe confinement. Then, while Pompeius was 
weeping and uttering pitiable words (for the man 
was wholly inexperienced in such misfortunes), 
Hypatius reproached him at length and said that 
those who were about to die unjustly should not 
lament. For in the beginning they had been forced 
by the people against their will, and afterwards they 
had come to the hippodrome with no thought of 
harming the emperor. And the soldiers killed both 

237 



varepaia eicdrepov, e? OakaGcrav KadffKav ra 

57 (TotLiara. /3aai\.ev<i Be avrwv re ra yprjfiara 9 TO 

c. / > / > / \ "-v -v 

orj/jioa'iov avaypaTrra erroLrjaaro /cat a\\.wv r(av 
etc {3ov\rj<; aTravratv 01 8rj rqv ^VW^TJV %vv avrois 

58 eOevTO. 7retra /xevroi TO 9 re aXXot? a?racrt /cat 
T0t9 'TTrartou /cat Tlofjwrrjiov Traicrl rd re dia>- 

ol? irporepov expwvro aTreSw/ce /cat 
ocrois rwv eTriryBeiwv nvas OVK 

. 9 roSe /wev T$vavria) rj 
ere\evra. 



XXV 

/o9 Se /cat 'Icodvwrjs rrj<; 

irapcikvOevres xpovy vcrrepov <? ap^as ra9 avra 
2 Karearrjo-av a/j,(f)a). d\\a Tpiftovviavb? p.ev err) 
TroXXa e7rt/3tov9 T^ rt/i^ ere\evrr)a-e vocra), aXXo 
ouSev a>X a P i 7r / 30 ? ovSevb? TraQcav. r)v <yap aipvkos 
re /cat TaA,A,a 9Su9 /cat r9 <tA,oyo?7L4aTta9 TO 



7ri<TKicrai 
3 Trepiovcria. 'Iwdvvrjs 8e (rracri <yap a 

re 6-tota>9 /cat aXe7ro9 ^, TrXrd^ re 



Trpocrnirrrovcnv evreivofievos tea ra 
arra^CLTTavra \6<y<p ovSevl ^rjt^o/jievos;) Sercarov ero9 
rrjv dp%r)v e^wv rrjv SLKTJV op05)<$ /cat n/cata>9 rfjs 
9 T^/y Siairav rrapavo^Las ej;eri,(T rporrw roi&Se. 
4 eoB(opa r) y3acrtXt9 rf)(6ero avr& rravruiv 
/j,d\i(Tra. /cat 09 rfj <yvvaucl rrpo&KeKpovKtoS ot9 
r)/j,dprave, OwTreia p,ev avrrjv rj %dpiri /j,ere\0iv 
a>9 rjKtcrra eyvtt), 69 7ril3ovX,r)v Be avrfj e'/c TOT) 
e/z</> avov<i /cadiard/jLevo? 9 TO 

238 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxiv. 56-xxv. 4 

of them on the following day and threw their bodies 
into the sea. The emperor confiscated all their 
property for the public treasury, and also that of all 
the other members of the senate who had sided with 
them. Later, however, he restored to the children 
of Hypatius and Pompeius and to all others the titles 
which they had formerly held, and as much of their 
property as he had not happened to bestow upon his 
friends. This was the end of the insurrection in 
Byzantium. 



XXV 

TRIBUNIANUS and John were thus deprived of office, 
but at a later time they were both restored to the 
same positions. And Tribunianus lived on in office 
many years and died of disease, suffering no further 
harm from anyone. For he was a smooth fellow and 
agreeable in every way and well able by the excel- 
lence of his education to throw into the shade his 
affliction of avarice. But John was oppressive and 
severe alike with all men, inflicting blows upon those 
whom he met and plundering without respect 
absolutely all their money ; consequently in the 
tenth year of his office he rightly and justly atoned 
for his lawless conduct in the following manner. 

The Empress Theodora hated him above all 
others. And while he gave offence to the woman 
by the wrongs he committed, he was not of a mind to 
win her by flattery or by kindness in any way, but he 
openly set himself in opposition to her and kept 
slandering her to the emperor, neither blushing 

2 39 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Xef, OVT rrjv Tv%r)v epvOpuwv OVTC rrjv 
ai<T')(vvopVo$ rjvnep e<f avrrjv 6 /3acri\,ev<> e* 

5 %aicriav oiav. alcrdo/jievrj 8e r) /3aertXi9 TWV 
7roiovfJ,eva)v KTeivai /j,ev SievoeiTO TOV dvdpwTrov, 
fjirj^avfj Se ov8e/j>ia el^ev, eirei \6yov avrov 

6 'lovariviavos @a.(ri\v<; eVotetro TTO\VV. yvovs 
8e 'IfwayvT;? rrjv r?}? (SaaihiSos 69 avrov jvcaf^rjv 

7 ev Seiyuatrt /xeyaXot? eyivero. CTreiSdv re a>9 
tca0v8r)(r(i)v e? TOV KOiTwva tot, T(av Tiva fiap- 
ftapwv eTTicrr^aecrdai ol &>9 airoXovvra virunrrevev 
69 vv/cra efcdcTTijv, VTrepKVTntov re del etc TOV 
ScofjiaTiov KOI ra9 eto-6Sof9 Trepicr/coTrcov ai/Trvo? 
epeve, KaiTrep Tatpi(rd/4evo<> 8opv<f)6pa)v re /cai 
viraaTncTTwv %i\id&a<; 7ro\\d<f, ov yeyovbs virdp- 

8 xa>v Tivl TrpOTepov TOVTO ye. aXA-' CT 
a-fjievof afia ^pepa delwv re /cat d 
SeifjbaTwv aTrdvTwv, o\eOpos avdis Koivfj re KOI 
ISia TTCLCTL f Pt>yu,atO49 eyivcTo. Kol <j)ap/j,aKV(Ti 
fiev TO, 7ro\\d co/itXet, fiavTeiais 8e dcre/3e(Tiv 69 
del ^)<w/i6j^O9 r^y avTOtcpaTopa avT& TepaTevo- 
fievais dp%ijv, depo/SaTcov re KaTa<f>avr)<> r)V /ecu 

9 /A6T&)/D09 dpQels rai9 r^9 /3a<rtXeta9 e\,Tri<n. Trj<? 
fievTot, Trovrjpias CLVTW /cat T7}9 69 r^y SiaiTav 

10 Trapavofuas ov8ev ovTe eXcw<a oyre vTreX-^ye. tcai 
Tt9 avT& Oeov \6yo$ TO TtapaTcav OVK r)V, aXXa 
/cat et TTOU et9 te/ooy &>9 eu^o/ievo9 re ai Sfa- 
vvKTepevawv evTavda 101, ovSev 6/j,oico<i rot? 
Xpta-Tiavwv rjdeaiv eTrpaTTev, dXXa Tpi/Scoviov 
evBiSvcrKOfievos lepel rrpeTrov r-^9 7raXata9 80^779 
rjv vvv '^JX^rjvitcrjv ica\etv vevo/u/cacri, \6yovs 
ocri'oi/9 Tivd? ovcnrep 



va rrcrav Trjv VVKTO. e/eeivrjv, 07T<W9 o 



240 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxv. 4-10 

before her high station nor feeling shame because of 
the extraordinary love which the emperor felt for 
her. When the queen perceived what was being 
done, she purposed to slay the man, but in no way 
could she do this, since the Emperor Justinian set 
great store by him. | And when John learned of the 
purpose of the queen regarding him, he was greatly 
terrified. And whenever he went into his chamber 
to sleep, he expected every night that some one of 
the barbarians would fall upon him to slay him ; and 
he kept peeping out of the room and looking about 
the entrances and remained sleepless, although he 
had attached to himself many thousands of spearmen 
and guards, a thing which had been granted to no 
prefect before that time. But at daybreak, for- 
getting all his fears of things divine and human, he 
would become again a plague to all the Romans both 
in public and in private. And he conversed commonly 
with sorcerers, and constantly listened to profane 
oracles which portended for him the imperial office, 
so that he was plainly walking on air and lifted 
up by his hopes of the royal power. But in his 
rascality and the lawlessness of his conduct there 
was no moderation or abatement. And there was 
in him absolutely no regard for God, and even when 
he went to a sanctuary to pray and to pass the night, 
he did not do at all as the Christians are wont to do, 
but he clothed himself in a coarse garment appro- 
priate to a priest of the old faith which they are now 
accustomed to call Hellenic, and throughout that 
whole night mumble'd out some unholy words 
which he had practised, praying that the mind of 

241 

VOL. I. R 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



77 re /3a.<7tXe9 Stdvota en p.a\Xov V7ro%eipia e'lr) 
teal atrro9 /eateo)v yevoiro aTra0r)<; TT/OO? ^ 



11 'Ep rovrw Be BeXtcrap09 'IraXtay tearaa-rpe- 
i/ra//,ei>09 (BacriXei e? Bv^dvriov %vv 'Avrwvivr) rfj 
<yvvaiKi /xeraTre/ATTTO? fj\0ev, </>' w eVl 

12 (TTpareiHreie. teal rot? /iev aXXot? airaaiv 
re at \6yov TTO\\OV aio<;, tw? TO 
fjiovos 8e 'Itodvvrjs avra> ^aXeTrw? el^e 
eTrt/SovXfj e? avrbv et^ero, /car' aXXo /ie^ ovSev, 
ori Se avro9 yLtev TO e/c iravrwv e'%#O9 e^)' eavrov 
eT\.tce, BeXi(7ayOt09 Se Travrtov evSoKi/mw 

ervyev err' avr& re yevojMevijs TVJS 

eX7rtSo9 avdts eVt IIe/>o-a9 ea-rpdreva-e, rrjv 

13 jvvaitca ev Buaimo) aTroXtTrcoi'. 'Ammviva 8e 
77 BeXicraptoi; yuz/^ (^v 70^ i/eavcordrr} dv6pci)7ra)v 
aTravTWv /juj'^avdcrOai rd a/A^az/a) %a/)ietcr#at 
T^ /SatrtXtSt j3ov\ev(rapLevri eTrevoei roidSe. rjv 
TW '\wdvvr) ffvjdrrjp Eu<?7/ua, So^av /ACV eirl 
craMfrpocrvvr) 7ro\\r)V e^ofcra, vea Se KOfAiSf), teal 
CLTT avrov \iav euaX&)T09, ^ S^ o irarrjp 
ydjra, ejretSrj KOI fjuovrj^ avrijs eyejovei 

14 ravrrjv rj ' KvTcovlva ridacrcrevovcra 9 

TrpocTTroiijcracrBai re arc <frt\r)v 

cr^va-e teal TMV avrfj dTropptfrwv /j,era- 

15 SiSovai OVK aTrrj^iov. teai TTOTC avrfjs ol fjwvrjs ev 

T& SfOLUtrLO) Trapovcr'n*; oSvpeadai Tyya9 Ta9 ?ra- 

' / . > -T / ? fi ^ n > / > ' 

povcras eTrXatrcreTO, ort o?) r>eXicra/oiO9 evpvrepav 



jrporepov ovcra ervy^ave, /3acn\ei<? re Bopva\(t)- 
TOV9 8vo A;at TrXovToy TOcrovToy Ti fjM, e? Bu- 



242 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxv. 10-15 

the emperor might be still more under his control, 
and that he himself might be free from harm at the 
hands of all men. 

At this time Belisarius, after subjugating Italy, 
came to Byzantium at the summons of the emperor 
with his wife Antonina, in order to march against 
the Persians. 1 And while in the eyes of all others 
he was an honoured and distinguished person, as 
was natural, John alone was hostile to him and 
worked actively against him, for no other reason 
than that he drew the hatred of all to himself, while 
Belisarius enjoyed an unequalled popularity. And 
it was on him that the hope of the Romans centred as 
he marched once more against the Persians, leaving 
his wife in Byzantium. Now Antonina, the wife of 
Belisarius, (for she was the most capable person in 
the world to contrive the- impossible,) purposing to 
do a favour to the empress, devised the following 
plan, { John had a daughter, Euphemia, who had 
a great reputation for discretion, but a very young 
woman and for this reason very susceptible ; this 
girl was exceedingly loved by her father, for she was 
his only child. By treating this young woman kindly 
for several days Antonina succeeded most completely 
in winning her friendship, and she did not refuse to 
share her secrets with her. And on one occasion 
when she was present alone with her in her room 
she pretended to lament the fate which was upon 
her, saying that although Belisarius had made the 
Roman empire broader by a goodly measure than 
it had been before, and though he had brought two 
captive kings and so great an amount of wealth 

1 Book VI. xxx. 30. 

243 

R 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

dvriov dyaycov, d^apicrrov 'lovcrnviavov e 

TO. re a\Xa 009 ov Sitcaiav ovcrav rrjv no\irelav 

16 8ie/3a\\e. irepi'xaprjs 8e r& \6yq> yevopevr) 17 
Ev</>77/Ata (8eei yap rS> e/c TT}? /SacrtXtSo? teal avrrj 
rf] Trapovcrrj dp%f) ^^ero) " Kal rovSe fjuevTOi, w 
(jji^rdrr)," tyr), " uyu.649 airiot, ori Brj irapov V/MV 

17 rfj Svvdfj,i ov ftovKeaOe xpfjffdai" inr6\af3ovcra 8e 
77 'AvTtoviva "Ov <yap oloi re eapev, 3) dvyarep" 
eiTrev, " ev ffrparoTreBo) vewrepois eyxjeipelv Trpdy- 
/jLacriv, rjv pr) rov epyov %vveTrt\d/3a}vrai r^fuv rwv 
evSov rives' aXX' eirrep 6 cro? Trarrjp ij8e\e, pacrra 
av 69 rijvSe rrjv rrpd^iv /cadicrrd/j&voi oaa rjv rq> 

18 0ea> j3ov~\,o/j,evo) eirpdcrcroiJbev" dKovaacra ravra 
. Et>^>i7//,ta Trpo8vfA(i)<> [lev vrcea^ero emreX-rj ecre- 

adai, drrdX\ayeicra Be evBevSe TO 7Tpayjj,a erri rov 

19 Trarepa ev6v<> ijveyKe. teal 09 r> Xo<y&> ijcrOels 
(ravrijv yap ol 68bv e? re ra fjuivreta teal rrjv 
ftacrikelav vTrerorra^e (fiepeiv rrjv rrpafyv) evOvs 
fj,e\Xr)(Ti ovSe/jiia co/ioXoy^cre, npdcrae.iv re rrjv 
TratSa etce\evev 07r&)9 rfj varepala e9 \6yovs rfi 
' A.vru>vivr) avro9 %Vfjipi%r) /ecu ra ma-rd Soir). 

20 puOovaa Se ' A.vra)viva rrjv 'Ifodvvov yv<ap,r)v /cat 
&>9 drcwrdrw rov avBpwnov rrjs rov 
drfayayelv evvoias ede\ovcra, vvv fiev e<f}ij ol 
yeveada.1, avrov d^v^opov elvai, /J.TJ ris v 
/juera^v erciyevopiwr] SiaKa>\vcrai rd 

itcavr) eit)- /j,e\\eLV 8e avri/ca &rj ^d\a 9 rrjv eca 

21 rcapd ReXicrdpiov ereXkecrOai. eireiBdv ovv ex 
Rv^avriov drca\\ayelaa ev T&> irpoaareiw yevrjrai 
(o Sr) 'Pov(f)ivtaval fj,ev ovofid^erai, BeXttra/atou oe 
iSiov ervy%avev 6V), evravda rov 'Iwdvvrjv a>9 

244 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxv. 15-21 

to Byzantium, he found Justinian ungrateful ; and 
in other respects she slandered the government as 
not just. Now Euphemia was overjoyed by these 
words, for she too was hostile to the present 
administration by reason of her fear of the empress, 
and she said : " And yet, dearest friend, it is you 
and Belisarius who are to blame for this, seeing that, 
though you have opportunity, you are not willing to 
use your power." And Antonina replied quickly : " It 
is because we are not able, my daughter, to under- 
take revolutions in camp, unless some of those here 
at home join with us in the task. Now if your father 
were willing, we should most easily organize this 
project and accomplish whatever God wills." When 
Euphemia heard this, she promised eagerly that the 
suggestion would be carried out, and departing from 
there she immediately brought the matter before her 
father. And he was pleased by the message (for he 
inferred that this undertaking offered him a way 
to the fulfilment of his prophecies and to the royal 
power), and straightway without any hesitation he 
assented, and bade his child arrange that on the 
following day he himself should come to confer 
with Antonina and give pledges. When Antonina 
learned the mind of John, she wished to lead him 
as far as possible astray from the understanding of 
the truth, so she said that for the present it was 
inadvisable that he should meet her, for fear lest 
some suspicion should arise strong enough to prevent 
proceedings ; but she was intending straightway to 
depart for the East to join Belisarius. When, there- 
fore, she had quit Byzantium and had reached the 
suburb (the one called Rufinianae which was the 
private possession of Belisarius), there John should 

245 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

ov re teal rfpoirkfj^fovra rj/ceiv, Kal rovs 
re \6yov<? rrepl rwv o\a)v Tronj(racr6ai teal ra 
Tricrrd \a@eiv re /ecu Bovvai. ravra elnovcra ev 
re r& *\wdvvrj eijreiv e&oe Kal r/fj,epa ra/crrj eTrl 

22 rf] TT pallet, Bicoptcrro. r\ re /SacrtXt? rov rrdvra 
\6jov rcapa rr)<$ 'Avrcovivris aicoixraaa etr^vei /j,ev 
ra /3e/3ov\evfAva, eyKeXevofievrj 8e TroXXw eri 
fj,d\\ov e? rrjv Trpofivpiav evrjyev. 

23 'EiTreiSrf re r) tevpia Trapijv, aaTracra^ivrj fiev 77 
'Avrwviva rrjv /3ao-tXt8a e/c TT}? TroXeeo? airrj\\da- 
(rero, ev re 'Pov(f>tviavai<; eyevero, &>? ry va-repaia 
rfjs eTrl rrjv eta oSov dp^ofj,ei>rj, ov 8r) Kal 'Itoa^yr;? 

24 TO. ^wyKeifjieva Tnre\ea'a)V e? vvicra rfbjdev. i] &e 
/3acri\ls 8ia^d\\ovcra TT/JO? rov avrfy dvSpa ra 
TT/OO? rov 'Iwdvvov eTrl rfj rvpavviSi Trpacraofieva, 
Napo-fjv re rov evvov^ov fcal M.dp/ce\\ov rov rwv 
ev TrdXariq) <f>v\aKO)v ap%ovra e9 'Pov(f>iviava<f 
vv a~rpari(t)rai<; TroXXot? eTrefA-fyev, e^>' a> 8ie- 
pevvjjo'd/Mevoi ra Trpaffarofieva, r)v rov ^laxivvrjv 
7rpdyfjM<n vewrepois ej^eipovvra evptja-axri, /crei- 

25 vavres evQvs rov avdpwrrov en avr\ Covert, xal ol 
/j,ev eTrl TW e/?7&) rovrq> ecrre\\ovro. (fraai 8e 
/3acrtX.ea. rwv TTOiovfievcov alcrd6p.evov rwv nva 
'Imdvvr) eTTirrj&eicov Trap 1 avrov -jre/M^ai, arrepovvra 

26 avra> ^Ba/jiij rfj 'Avroyvivy evrv)(elv \d0pa. '!&>- 

Be V ^ a v r $ jeveadat #a/e&>9) rrjv 



vvfcra fiearfv rfj 'Avrcovivrj vve[Aij;ev aifuicrias TTOV 
rivos aj^KTra, 779 &r) o7ri<T0ev KaOiaaaa erv<y%ave 
TOU9 dfj,(f>l Napaffv re xal MdptceX\,ov, o?r&)9 rwv 
27 ~\<yofjLeva)V aKovcretav. evravOa 'Itadvvr)? 
d<f>v\dtcrtu cTTO/iart ra e9 rrjv 

246 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxv. 21-27 

come as if to salute her and to escort her forth on 
the journey, and they should confer regarding 
matters of state and give and receive their pledges. 
In saying this she seemed to John to speak well, 
and a certain olay was appointed to carry out the 
plan. And the empress, hearing the whole account 
from Antonina, expressed approval of what she had 
planned, and by her exhortations raised her en- 
thusiasm to a much higher pitch still. 

When the appointed day was at hand, Antonina 
bade the empress farewell and departed from the 
city, and she went to Rufinianae, as if to begin on the 
following day her journey to the East ; hither too 
came John at night in order to carry out the plan 
which had been agreed upon. Meanwhile the 
empress denounced to her husband the things which 
were being done by John to secure the tyranny, and 
she sent Narses, the eunuch, and Marcellus, the 
commander of the palace guards to Rufinianae with 
numerous soldiers, in order that they might in- 
vestigate what was going on, and, if th%y found 
John setting about a revolution, that they might kill 
the man forthwith and return. So these departed 
for this task. But they say that the emperor got 
information of what was being done and sent one of 
John's friends to him forbidding him on any condition 
to meet Antonina secretly. But John (since it was 
fated that he should fare ill), disregarding the 
emperor's warning, about midnight met Antonina, 
close by a certain wall behind which she had stationed 
Narses and Marcellus with their men that they 
might hear what was said. There, while John with 
'unguarded tongue was assenting to the plans for the 

247 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



re teal opKOts Betvordrois draa-xypi^ero, Na/oo-% 
Be avr& teal Ma/?eXXo9 etc rov al<J>viBtov erceffrrj- 

28 crav, dopvftov Be, &>9 TO ei#o9, yevo/j,evov ol rov 
^Icodvvov Bopv<f)6poi (dy^tcrra yap ret] ecrrrJKeo-av^ 

29 Trap avrbv avriKa eyevovro. teal avrwv Tt9 Mdp- 

OVK eto\w9 oaris jrore rv, ii 



ovra> re a)vvr)<> iavyev ;vv aurot? ca-^vcrev 9 

30 re rrjv rr6\iv Kara ra^ps d(f)iKero. Kal el fJbev 
ev0v<> e\0eiv rcapa J3acri,\ia eddpavjcrev, oipai av, 
ovBev enenovOei, 77/309 avrov. a%apr vvv Be /cara- 
<f>v<yoDV 9 TO iepov BeBcoxe rfj /3acri\iBi tear* e%ov- 
(riav rfj e9 avrov 7n/3ov\fj ^pfja-dai. 

31 TOT fjuev ovv e erfdp^wv IBitorrjs yevo^evo^ e9 
erepov evOevSe dvao~ras e#o/ucr#77, ojrep ev ry 
rrpoacrreia) Kvtytcov 7roXe&)9 iBpvrai, y Aprd/cr}v 
fca\ovcri Kvfyfcrfvol TO rrpodcrreiov. evravda 
16/060)9 ov ri eKov<Tio$ 7repi/3ef3\r)rat a"%r)/j,a, OVK 
emcTKOTTOV /jLevrot, aXX' ovrrep Ka\elv rr pea ftvre- 

32 pov vev9fJbiKacriv. o Be lepovpyeiv iJKicrra r)6e\ev, 
a>9 pr) rrore avra> e/ATroBiov eitj 69 T9 a/a%a9 avdis 
ievai' r&v jap e\7riBa>v fMeOiecrOai ovBa/^rj rj0e\e. 
ra Be %prjpara e'9 TO Brjpocriov dvdypaTrra evdvs 

33 yeyovev. &v Brj avrq> jtolpav /3acri\ev<> 7ro\\r)v 

34 r)<f)iei' eri yap rfj e'9 avrbv QeiBoi et%6TO. evravOa 
rfapffv r& 'Iwdvvy d<ppovri<Trrf<Tavri jj,ev KivBvvcov 
arrdvrwv, ^prj^ara Be rcepi^efSK^fjuevw pbeyd\a, 
ocra re avrbs ervy^ave Kpv^ra^ Kal ocra fiacr'iXews 
yvcofAij Trap avrw e/^eive, rpv(f)av re icarf e^ovcriav 
Kal rd Trapovra rjyetcrdai \oyia/j,a) cruxj^povt evBai- 

35 fjiova elvai. Bib Br) Kal rcdvres 'Pwf^aioi eTrl rw* 

248 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxv. 27-35 

attack and binding himself with the most dread oaths, 
Narses and Marcellus suddenly set upon him. But 
in the natural confusion which resulted the body- 
guards of John (for they stood close by) came 
immediately to his side. And one of them smote 
Marcellus with his sword, not knowing who he was, 
and thus John was enabled to escape with them, and 
reached the city with all speed. And if he had had 
the courage to go straightway before the emperor, I 
believe that he would have suffered no harm at his 
hand ; but as it was, he fled for refuge to the 
sanctuary, and gave the empress opportunity to 
work her will against him at her pleasure. 

Thus, then, from being prefect he became a private May, 541 
citizen, and rising from that sanctuary he was con- 
veyed to another, which is situated in the suburb of 
the city of Cyzicus called by the Cyzicenes Artace. 
There he donned the garb of a priest, much against 
his will, not a bishop's gown however, but that of a 
presbyter, as they are called. But he was quite 
unwilling to perform the office of a priest lest at 
some time it should be a hindrance to his entering 
again into office ; for he was by no means ready to 
relinquish his hopes. All his property was imme- 
diately confiscated to the public treasury, but a 
large proportion of this the emperor remitted to 
him, for he was still inclined to spare him. There 
it was possible for John to live, disregarding all 
dangers and enjoying great wealth, both that which 
he himself had concealed and that which by the 
decision of the emperor remained with him, and to 
indulge in luxury at his pleasure, and, if he had 
reasoned wisely, to consider his present lot a happy 
one. For this reason all the Romans were exceedingly 

249 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

dre.'xy&s rfxjdovro, on, Srj Trovrjporaros 
yeyovcbs oaiftovwv 1 aredvrwv, ftlov rcapa TTJV d%iav 

36 evSai/j,ov6(rrepov rj rtporepov e%oi. a\7C 6 $609, 
olfuti, OVK ijveyxev e*9 rovro rrjv rieiv 'Ifodvvy 

i, eirl peya re avra> rrjv rc6\a(Tiv 
eyivero Se c58e. 

37 *Hy Ti<? ev Kf^tw 6Tri(TK07ro<; Eycre/8to9 6Vo/m, 

Traai rot? evrvy^dvovcriv 'Icodvvov ov$V 
TOVTOV Kv&fcrjvol /9acriX 

38 e? BLKIJV /cd\.ovv. eVet Se ouSe^ tfvvov, 
avrovs Trepie^ovros Eyo-eyStou Tro\\f], 

veavicu rives ev rfj Kvtyicov dyopa tcreivov- 



39 (7iv. 



yeyovoos /iaXitrra, teal air* avrov rj rf)S 7ri/3ov\r)<> 

40 vTrotyia e9 avrov rf\.0e. crre\\ovrcu roivvv e 
y8otX?}9 dv&pes SiepevvrjcrofAevoi TO yu-tatr/aa rovro- 
01 8r) rov 'Icodvvrjv rrp&ra fj,ev ev ^ecr/jLwr'rjpiw 

, eTreira 8e dvSpa ercap^ov fiev Svvarov 
yevopevov, e9 Trarpitciov<; Be dvaypa<f>evra 
teal 69 ro!)v vTrdrwv dva/3e/3riKora rov 8i(f>pov, ov 
fjuel^ov elvai ovSev ev ye rfj 'Pw/jMiwv rro\ireia 
So/cei, ecrrrjadv re yvfj,vov, are \r)arr]v riva r) 
\a>7ro8vr'r)v, Kal aivovres Kara rov vwrov TTO\- 

41 Xa9 eirreiv ra fte$iu>p,eva rjvdytca^ov. Kal rov 
fjiev Ey<J6/3tou (f>6vov airios 'Icodvvrjs ov \iav 
e^e\ij\eyKro, ea!>/ci ^kvroi f) rov 6eov Si/cr) rroivas 

42 avrov rfjs oltcovjjievrjs 2 earrparrop.ev^. erceira oe 
ra %pij/j,ara rrdvra a<^>eXoyLte^Oi yvftvov es rrjv 
vavv ela-eftiftaaav, ipamov ev, Kal rovro rpa%i> 3 

1 Saifi6vu>v VP : a.v6punrwv G. 

2 o'tKovfiffris VGP corr : oiKovofulas P pr. m. 

3 rpaxv P : iraxv VG. 
250 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxv. 35-42 

vexed with the man, because, forsooth, after proving 
himself the basest of all demons, contrary to his 
deserts he was leading a life happier than before. 
But God, I think, did not suffer John's retribution to 
end thus, but prepared for him a greater punishment. 
And it fell out thus. 

There was in Cyzicus a certain bishop named 
Eusebius, a man harsh to all who came in his way, 
and no less so than John ; this man the Cyzicenes 
denounced to the emperor and summoned to justice. 
And since they accomplished nothing inasmuch as 
Eusebius circumvented them by his great power, 
certain youths agreed together and killed him in the 
market-place of Cyzicus. Now it happened that 
John had become especially hostile to Eusebius, and 
hence the suspicion of the plot fell upon him. 
Accordingly men were sent from the senate to 
investigate this act of pollution. And these men 
first confined John in a prison, and then this man 
who had been such a powerful prefect, and had been 
inscribed among the patricians and had mounted the 
seat of the consuls, than which nothing seems 
greater, at least in the Roman state, they made to 
stand naked like any robber or footpad, and thrash- 
ing him with many blows upon his back, compelled 
him to tell his past life. And while John had not 
been clearly convicted as guilty of the murder of 
Eusebius, it seemed that God's justice was exacting 
from him the penalties of the world. Thereafter 
they stripped him of all his goods and put him 
naked on board a ship, being wrapped in a single 
cloak, and that a very rough one purchased for 



251 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



rivwv, o'i re avrbv Tcaparce^Trovre^ OTTTJ av 77 vavs 
opfiicrOeir) etce\evov aprov r) oySoXou? etc rwv 

43 rfpocrrcLrcrovrwv alrelaOai. ovrw re rcrwyevwv 
Travra^odi T^9 Tropeias TT;? AlyvTrrov e? Trjv 
'Avrivoov Ko/j-i^erai. /cal rpirov rovro ero? avrov 

44 evravffa tcaQeipgavres rrjpova-tv. 6 Be, Kaijrep ev 

yeyovo&s Trddecriv, ov8e rrjv T^<> /Sacrt- 
riSa fjiedfj/cev, a\\a /cat 'A.\eavo'pe(t)v 
are ra> SrjfAocrLw %pvcriov o^etXovTa?, Sia- 

eyvo). 'Icadvvrjv fj,ev ovv rbv 
Serea eviavrois vcrrepov avrrj rwv 



XXVI 

1 Tore Be j3a<ri\ei><; a-rpanjyov re rfjs ea)a<? av0i<; 
Be\icrdpiov Kare<mjcraTO fcal e? Aiftvrjv Tre/i^a? 
TTJV %(opav ecr^ev, &cnrep ev rot? omcrdev \e\e- 

2 %erai Xo7Ot?. ojrep ezret e? re Xocrpoijv teal 
Tlepaas fj\6e, Selves ija"^aX\,ov, teal avrois rrjv 
elprjvrjv e? 'Pwyttatov? 7re7roirjfj,evois jJLere^e\ev 
ij8rj, on o~r) avrols rrjv Bvvafjiiv ejrl f^eya %a>piv 

3 rja-ffovro. Tre/xi/ra? re o Xo<rpor)$ e? j$vdvriov 
Trpecrfiew, ^vyyaipew re J Iov<TTiviavq> r& j3aai\el 
etpacr/ce, teal TO pepos \aftelv %vv fyeXwri Srjdev 
rwv etc Ai/3vr]<> \a<f>vpa)V rj^Lov, on Brj ovtc av 
Trore l$av&t\,(i)v r& rco\ep,(f> rcepieaeGOai icr^vcrev, 

4 el fjbrj avra> Hepcrai e<nreicravro . rare fiev ovv 
Xocrporjv 'lovcrnviavb? 

OVK e 



252 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxv. 42 -xxvi. 4 

some few obols ; and wherever the ship anchored, 
those who had him in charge commanded him to ask 
from those he met bread or obols. Thus begging 
everywhere along the way he was conveyed to the 
city of Antinous in Aegypt. And this is now the 
third year during which they have been guarding 
him there in confinement. As for John himself, 
although he has fallen into such troubles, he has 
not relinquished his hope of royal power, but he made 
up his mind to denounce certain Alexandrians as 
owing money to the public treasury. Thus then 
John the Cappadocian ten years afterward was 
overtaken by this punishment for his political 
career. 



XXVI 

AT that time the Emperor again designated 
Belisarius General of the East, and, sending him to 
Lybla, gained over the country, as will be told later 
on in my narrative. When this information came to 
Chosroes and the Persians, they were mightily vexed, 
and they already repented having made peace with 
the Romans, because they perceived that their 
power was extending greatly. And Chosroes sent 
envoys to Byzantium, and said that he rejoiced with 
the Emperor Justinian, and he asked with a laugh 
to receive his share of the spoils from Libya, on the 
ground that the emperor would never have been 
able to conquer in the war with the Vandals if the 
Persians had not been at peace with him. So then 
Justinian made a present of money to Chosroes, and 
not long afterwards dismissed the envoys. 

253 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Be 7r6\ei Aa/oa9 roiovBe n ^vvefiij 

Tt9 r/v evravda ev KardXoya) reraypevos 
ire^wv ot>TO9 ov% drcdvrwv ol 
crrparLwrwv, aXX' 6\iya>v rivwv, rvpavviBi 

6 /z.ez/O9 rrjv TTO\IV ecr^ev. ev re TraXaTiw 

wcnrep ev aKpOTr6\ei, TTJV rvpavvi&a eKpaTvvero 

7 rjpepa e/cda-Tr). fcal et prj IIe/o<Ta9 e%eo-^at elprjvr}^ 
e? TOV9 f P&)/iaiou9 rrjvtfcavra gwefir), 1 avrfKeaTa av 
evdevSe 'Paifjuaiois eyejovei tca/cd. vvv 8e TOVTO 
eKaiXvcre fyOdcraaa, wcrirep /MOI eppqdr), 77 %vfJ>- 

8 y3a<rt9. fjpepq Be aTrb rrjs rvpavviSos rerdprij 



re ToO r?79 7roX,e&)9 te/oeco9 teal 'Avacrracriou 

7TO\lT(t)V, 9 TO 7Ta\driOV fJb(Tr)fJ,- 

dve^aav, Kpv-fy-as e/cacrro<{ 
9 WTTO TW tyLtartft) ^KfriSiov. teal irpSira /MCV ev rfj 
fjLTav\<o dvpa T&v &opv<j)6pa)v evpovres 6Xt'you9 
Ttt'a9 evOvs e/creivav. eirena Be ical els rbv 
dvBpwva eaftdvTes rov rvpdvvov rjirTOvro' rtve? 
Be <f)a<riv ov rou9 err par Kara? avrb 7rpu>rov<? 
elpydcrOai, a\V avTwv ert fjLe\\6vro)v re ev rfj 
fj&Tav\<a KOI KaTroppajBrjKorcov TOV iciv&vvov, iwv 
riva d\\avro7ra)\(ii)v i>v avrols ovra ecrTrrjBfjcrai 
re i>v rfj KOTriBi teal ra> 'Iwdvvrj evrv%6vra 

10 djrpoffBoKTira)? Traicrai. KCU rbv ov Tr\i f ) r yevra 
pev /caipiav 77X777771^, vv Oopvfiy Be TTO\\U> 
<pev<yovra, e9 rovrovs Brj rovs err par tear as e'/i- 

11 treaelv d(f>v(D. ovra) re rov dvOpwTrov avrovs 

irvp fiev avri,Ka ra> ira\ariw v(f)d- 
tcavcrai, a>9 p,r) rt9 eX-7rt9 evdevBe diro- 
TOt9 rd vecorepa irpd^fuira Trpdcrcrovcriv, 

1 vvf/3ri VP : ffvvfirefftv G. 
254 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxvi. 5-11 

In the city of Daras the following event took 
place. There was a certain John there serving in 
a detachment of infantry ; this man, in conspiracy 
with some few of the soldiers, but not all, took 
possession of the city, essaying to make himself 
tyrant. Then he established himself in a palace a.s if 
in a citadel, and was strengthening his tyranny 
every day. And if it had not happened that the 
Persians were continuing to keep peace with the 
Romans, irreparable harm would have come from 
this affair to the Romans. But as it was, this was . 
prevented by the agreement which had already been 
reached, as I have said. On the fourth day of the 
tyranny some soldiers conspired together, and by 
the advice of Mamas, the priest of the city, and 
Anastasius, one of the notable citizens, they went up 
to the palace at high noon, each man hiding a small 
sword under his garment. And first at the door of the 
courtyard they found some few of the body-guards, 
whom they slew immediately. Then they entered 
the men's apartment and laid hold upon the tyrant ; 
but some say that the soldiers were not the first to 
do this, but that while they were still hesitating in 
the courtyard and trembling at the danger, a certain 
sausage-vendor who was with them rushed in with 
his cleaver and meeting John smote him unex- 
pectedly. But the blow which had been dealt him 
was not a fatal one, this account goes on to say, and 
he fled with a great outcry and suddenly fell among 
these very soldiers. Thus they laid hands upon the 
man and immediately set fire to the palace and 
burned it, in order that there might be left no hope 
from there for those making revolutions ; and John 



255 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

avrov 8e e? TO SecrfAwrr/piov aTrayayovras 8r/crai. 
12 teal avTwv nva 8eicravTa''fJt,r) ol crTpaTiwrai Trepi- 
eivai rbv rvpavvov yvovres Trpdy/uLara rfj 7r6\et 
av0i<> 7rapda%(i)VTai, Kreivai re rov 'Icodvvrjv fcal 
TOUTW Brj T<p rpoTTft) rrjv rapa^rjv jravo'ai. ra 
fj,ev ovv dfji(f)l ravrrj rf) rvpavviSi rfjSe 



256 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, I. xxvi. 11-12 

they led away to the prison and bound. And one of 
them, fearing lest the soldieVs, upon learning that 
the tyrant survived, might again make trouble for 
the city, killed John, and in this way stopped the 
confusion. Such, then, was the progress of events 
touching this tyranny. 



257 

VOL. I. S 



HISTORY OF THE WARS 
BOOK II 

THE PERSIAN WAR (Continued) 



s 2 



TIIEP TUN nOAEMHN AOFO2 
AETTEP02 



8e OV 7TO\\<0 IKTTepOV O XooyJO^ }J,ad(t)V 

l>9 /cal 'IraXtav BeX<ra/wo9 'Iovcrriviav<a (BacriXei 
7rpo<nroielv tfpgaro, OVKGTI KUTe^etv oto? re r)V 
rrjv Sidvoiav, a\\a cr/cij^retf eTTivoeiv r)de\ev OTTW? 
Srj \6ya) rivl evTrpeTrei ra? (nrovSas \va6iev. 

2 vTrep MV Koivo\o<yr)(rdfievo<> ' AXa^ovvBdpa) e'/ce- 

3 Xevey avrbv vfj,7ropiecrdai TroXe/iov atr/a?. o 
Se 'A/je^a eTrt/caXecra? OT^ CLVTOV jrepl 7% opiwv 
j3idoiro, e? %eipd<; re ai)Tu> ev <r7rov8ai<> 

/cal yijv rrjv 'Pojfjuiiotv ejrl ravrrj rfj crK 

4 Karadetv rjp^aro. e<paa~K re to? avros ov 

ra9 Ile/oa-eo^ re /cat 'PwyaatW crTrovSds, eVei avTov 

5 5 rayra? ov&erepoi ecreypd-^ravro. ical r)v Se 
ovTO)S. ov yap TIS TTMTTOTG ^apaKijvwv ^0709 
ey crTrovBat<i yeyovev, are vv%o/j,va>v rc5 Ile/jo-eoi' 

6 re /cat 'P&J/iateuz' ovo/Mari. avr-rj Se rj ^a>pa, r) 
Sr) 7T/309 etcarepwv rore ^apafcrjvcav dvreXeyero, 



VOTOV avep,ov TerpaTrrai, SevSpov 
260 



HISTORY OF THE WARS : BOOK II 
THE PERSIAN WAR (Continued} 

I 

NOT long after this Chosroes, upon learning that 
Belisarius had begun to win Italy also for the 
Emperor Justinian, was no longer able to restrain his 
thoughts but he wished to discover pretexts, in order 
that lie might break the treaty on some grounds 
which would seem plausible. And he conferred with 
Alamoundaras concerning this matter and commanded 
him to provide causes for war. So Alamoundaras 
brought against Arethas, the charge that he, Arethas, 
was doing him violence in a matter of boundary lines, 
and he entered into conflict with him in time of 
peace, and began to overrun the land of the Romans 
on this pretext. And he declared that, as for him, he 
was not breaking the treaty between the Persians and 
Romans, for neither one of them had included him in 
it. And this was true. For no mention of Saracens was 
ever made in treaties, on the ground that they were 
included under the names of Persians and Romans. 
Now this country which at that time was claimed by 
both tribes of Saracens l is called Strata, and extends 
to the south of the city of Palmyra ; nowhere does it 
produce a single tree or any of the useful growth of 

1 That is, the Saracens subject to the Romans and those 
subject to the Persians. 

261 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



ev Tot9 \TJLOK djadwv ovSa/Jif) (frepovcra (r)\io- 
/cau<7T09 yap VTrepcfrvws ecrrt), Trpofidratv 8e TLCTIV 
K rra\aiov dveiJievr vouiif. 'Aae#a9 J<ev ovv 



evai rv xpov, TO> re 
ov Sr) TT/JO? Trdvrwv avo)- 
Oev erv%e (^Tpdra jap 77 ecrrpw/jievr} 6809 "rfj 
A.ariv(ov Ka\irai <f>a)vf)} KOL [MipTvpiais TraXato- 

8 rdrcov avSpwv %pa)/j,evo<>. 'AXafjiovvSapos 8e (f)i\,o- 
veifcetv fjuev vTrep rov ovojMarot ijicicrra eSitcaiov, 
fii(T0ov<f 8e 01 rov evravda vofiov e/c rrdXaLov 
etyao-fce ro 1*9 ra 7rp6/3ara fceKrrjjievovs 8i86vai. 

9 Sib Brj /SacrtXeiW lovffnviavbs ^rparrjyifi) re 
TrarpiKiw dvSpl ical r&v /3acri\iK(t)v Oriaavpwv 
ap%ovri, aXX&>9 Be %vverw KCLL evirarpiSy, en 
/jievroi KOI 2ou//,yLtw rwv ev Ha\aio-rivr) arpartw- 
r&v rjyiia-apevw, rrjv rwv dvriX.e'yofAevwv ercerpe"^e 

10 Siatrav. 6 8e SoOyu,/iO9 'Iov\iavov aSeX^)O9 r}v, 
09 0X17^0 eiirrpoaOev 69 A.ldiorrd<? re KOI 'Q/j,rjpira<> 

11 7r pea /Severe. KOI avroiv arepos pev, 2ou///z.o9, 

Karatrpotecrdai rr)V %a)pav 
,rparr)yios 8e /Sa.(TtXeft)9 eSelro fir) ^tapa^ 
eve/ca /Bpa^eia^ re /cat 609 r]Kiara \6jov 
, aXXa dyovov re KOI dtcdpTrov rcavrdrraaiv 
, Tlepcrais TroXeyu-^o-etoucrt (TKrf^rei^ rov no- 
Xe/^ou %apie<rdar ySacrtXei'9 /^ev ovv 'lovcrriviavbs 
ravra ev jBovXf) erroieiro, /cal %povo<> 7roXi/9 ravrrj 
Sr) rfj Stair rj erpi(3rj. 

12 Xo<r/ao779 8e 6 TIepcrwv y8aTtXeu9 \e\vcr6ai Trpbs 
'lovcrriviavov T9 (nrovo'ds efyaaice, rroXXrjv eVt- 
fiov\r)v e9 olfcov rov avrov apri evSei^aftevov, 0^9 
Sr) eratpie<T0ai 'A\a/Aovv8apov ev (nrovSais eve- 

'262 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. i. 6-12 

corn-lands, for it is burned exceedingly dry by the 
sun, but from of old it has been devoted to the 
pasturage of some few flocks. Now Arethas main- 
tained that the place belonged to the Romans, 
proving his assertion by the name which has long 
been applied to it by all (for Strata signifies " a paved 
road " in the Latin tongue), and he also adduced the 
testimonies of men of the oldest times. Alamoundaras, 
however, was by no means inclined to quarrel 
concerning the name, but he claimed that tribute had 
been given him from of old for the pasturage there 
by the owners of the flocks. The Emperor Justinian 
therefore entrusted the settlement of the disputed 
points to Strategius, a patrician and administrator of 
the royal treasures, and besides a man of wisdom and 
of good ancestry, and with him Summus, who had 
commanded the troops in Palestine. This Summus 
was the brother of Julian, who not long before had 
served as envoy to the Aethiopians and Homeritae. 
And the one of them, Summus, insisted that the 
Romans ought not to surrender the country, but 
Strategius begged of the emperor that he should not 
do the Persians the favour of providing them with 
pretexts for the war which they already desired, for 
the sake of a small bit of land and one of absolutely 
no account, but altogether unproductive and un- 
suitable for crops. The Emperor Justinian, therefore, 
took the matter under consideration, and a long time 
was spent in the settlement of the question. 

But Chosroes, the King of the Persians, claimed 
that the treaty had been broken by Justinian, who 
had lately displayed great opposition to his house, 
in that he had attempted in time of peace to attach 
Alamoundaras to himself. For, as he said, Summus, 

263 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



13 



jap evcvyxps e' 7 SiO/Tj^ Brjflev 



TW Xo<y Trayo' avrbv rjKOvra eirayyeXiais avrbv 
7repie\0eiv fj,eyd\cav xprjfidrcov, t ? <' c5 rcpocryu>- 
prjcreL f P&>//.atO9, ypdfAfjiard re rcpotcf^ero a 8rj 
7T/905 ' AXa/jiovv8apov virep TOVTWV ' 
14 fiacrikevs eypatye. KCU TT/OO? Qvvvoov Se 

avrbv Tri(TTO\r)v irei^-^rat., ejKeXevo- 



re 9 



t rot? e/ceivrj 



ravra 



\vpjjvacrdaL. 



vve/3aivev, OVK 



II 



rovra> Se Ovimyis, 6 Tcot 1 oTa)^ r)<yov- 
TjBrj TW 7roA.e/iW KfcaKa}[j,evo<>, re pea /3ei<> 8vo 
1 avrbv erce^^rev, avarcelcrovras eVl f Pwyu,atof9 
(rrparevecrQai, ov I^orOovf /nevroi, 07r&)9 //,?7 icard- 
8r)\oi avrodev yivof^evoi ^vy^ecocn ra rcpacrcropeva, 
aX\.a Avyovpovs lepels, ^pij/j,aaiv 08/0019 e9 rav- 

2 rrjv rjy/jievovs rrjv Trpd^iv. wv drepos p.ev oa-jrep 
dfywrepos eSo^ev elvat, SoMfaiv re /cal ovo^ia 
eTTiffKOTTOv 7re/oi/3e/3X77/aei'09 ovSev avry TrpocrfJKOv, 
e9 rrjv Trpeafteiav Kadlararo, 6 8e 8r) erepos avrw 

3 vTTvjperwv eijrero. 6&q) re iovres e9 TO, erfl rrjs 
@/oa?79 %&)/3ta eraipi^ovrai riva evdevSe 2,vpa<t re 

1 tiirtiv GPW : \tjeiv V. 

264 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. i. i 2 -ii. 3 

who had recently gone to the Saracen ostensibly to 
arrange matters, had hoodwinked him by promises 
of large sums of money on condition that he should 
join the Romans, and he brought forward a letter 
which, he alleged, the Emperor Justinian had written 
to Alamoundaras concerning these things. He also 
declared that he had sent a letter to some of the 
Huns, in which he urged them to invade the land of 
the Persians and to do extensive damage to the 
country thereabout. This letter he asserted to have 
been put into his hands by the Huns themselves 
who had come before him. So then Chosroes, with 
these charges against the Romans, was purposing to 
break off the treaty. But as to whether he was 
speaking the truth in these matters, 1 am not able to 
say. 



II 

AT this point Vittigis, the leader of the Goths, 
already worsted in the war, sent two envoys to him 
to persuade him to march against the Romans ; but 
the men whom he sent were not Goths, in order 
that the real character of the embassy might not be 
at once obvious and so make negotiations useless, but 
Ligurian priests who were attracted to this enter- 
prise by rich gifts of money. One of these men, 
who seemed to be the more worthy, undertook the 
embassy assuming the pretended name of bishop 
which did not belong to him at all, while the other 
followed as his attendant. And when in the course 
of the journey they came to the land of Thrace, 
they attached to themselves a man from there to be 

265 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



/cal rrjs f EA,X?7i>i8o9 (frcavijs ep/nrjvea cr(f)icriv ecro- 
fjuevov, arcavrds re 'PcafjuaLovs \a66vres e9 rd 
Tlepcrojv tfdrj d(f)i/covro. are yap ev cnrovSais 
icaOecrrwres ov/c e9 TO d/cpi(3es ravrrj 1 e<f>v\acrcrov. 
Xocryaoof re 9 o-^riv e\06vre<> e\ei;av roidSe " Toi9 
/j,ev d\\ov<f aTravras, w ftacrikev, Trpecrfteis rwv 
avrols evetca ^vfj^opwv e/c rov errl rcXelarov V/JL- 
ftaivet, e9 rrjv Trpecrfteiav /cadicrracrdat, ^/ia? Se 
6 VorBtftv re teal 'IrdXiwrwv /3acri\V<? 
TOI? \6yovs vrrep rfjs 0-779 Troirja-ofjbevovs 
^ avrov vo/jii^e rcapovra croi ravvv 
rd8e. el Tt9 ere, &> /SaatXeO, v ve\cov 
<f)air) rrjv re arjv ySacriXetav xal Trdvras dvO pdorcovs 

6 'lovcrriviava) Trpoecrdai, opdws av eiTroi, 6 pev yap 
vecorepoTTotos re wv (f)V(rei /cal rwv ouS' OTTOHT- 
novv avrw TTpoa-rj/covrmv epwv, fieveiv re ov Svvd- 
/teyo9 ev Tot9 Ka9e(Tru><Ti, yrjv fiev arcaaav 
v\\a/3eiv eTredv/Aijaev, e/cdo'r'rjv Be dp%r)v Trepi- 

1 /SaXea-ffai ev cnrovSfj ecr^ev. elra (ovSe yap Tlep- 
<rai9 2 Kara /uLovas eyxeipeiv layvev ovSe Hepawv ol 
dvrHTrarovvrwv olo9 re r]V e?r' a\\ov<s levai} ere fj,ev 
r& r?79 66/977^779 rcaparrerda^arL e^aTrardv eyvw, 



8 rfj <rf) p%f) eraip^eaai. \$avi\wv fj,ev ovv 
tcade\a>v rrjv ftacriteiav /cal Mauyooucrioi/9 ara- 
crrpe-^rd/jievo^, Pordwv avrq> <^>tXta9 ovofjian 
e/CTTOocov icrra/uievaiv, %pijnard re /jbeyd\a /cal 

9 <T(o/j,ara Tro\\d enayo^evof; e<f> 77^9 ij/cei. evSrj- 
X,O9 Se ecrriv, r)v /cal Fordovs rcavrdrfacnv ee\eiv 
Svvijrai, co? gvv rjfuv re teal rot9 77^77 SeSov- 

1 rauTj} GPW : aurol V. 2 Sprats GW : vfp<ras VP. 

266 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. ii. 3-9 

an interpreter of the Syriac and the Greek tongues, 
and without being detected by any of the Romans, 
they reached the land of Persia. For inasmuch as 
they were at peace, they were not keeping a strict 
guard over that region. And coming before Chosroes 
they spoke as follows : " It is true, O King, that all 
other envoys undertake their task for the sake of 
advantages to themselves as a rule, but we have been 
sent by Vittigis, the king of the Goths and the 
Italians, in order to speak in behalf of thy kingdom; 
and consider that he is now present before thee 
speaking these words. If anyone should say, O 
King, putting all in a word, that thou hast given up 
thy kingdom and all men everywhere to Justinian, 
he would be speaking correctly. For since he is by 
nature a meddler and a lover of those things which in 
no way belong to him, and is not able to abide by 
the settled order of things, he has conceived the 
desire of seizing upon the whole earth, and has 
become eager to acquire for himself each and every 
state. ( Accordingly (since he was neither able alone 
to assail the Persians, nor with the Persians opposing 
him to proceed against the others), he decided to 
deceive thee with the pretence of peace, and by 
forcing the others to subjection to acquire mighty 
forces against thy state. Therefore, after having 
already destroyed the kingdom of the Vandals and 
subjugated the Moors, while the .Goths because of 
their friendship stood aside for him, he has come 
against us bringing vast sums of money and many 
men. Now it is evident that, if he is able also to 
crush the Goths utterly, he will with us and those 



267 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

eTrl Hep<ras crrparevcrei,, ovre TO 
<J)i\ia<; evvowv ovo/j,a oure n rwv o 

10 epvOpiwv. eo>9 ovv eri croi XetTreTat ri<f l cra>Tijpia<; 
eX7U9, /J'tjre ^a? ipy&trp /catcbv TrepatTepw 

at>T09 Trd@r)S, aXX' 6 pa /j,V ev rot? 
cra oX/yo varepov ^v/j,^^crerai 
Se a>9 'Ptu/xatot T^ cr^ ftaaikeia evvoi yu.ev 
ou at TTore etev, Swdfj^ei Be /cpeicrcrovs yevopevoi 
ovSev fA\\ijcrov(Ti TO e9 Hep&as e%^o9 evbeitcvv- 

11 a6at. ev Seovri roivvv rfj e^ovaia xprjcrai, /j,r) 
TravcrafjLevrjv eTrifyrija-r)*;. Xft)<^)/;cracra yap rj ro)i> 
tcaipwv dfc/jur) eTravievai otSa/xw9 Tretyv/cev. ayu-et- 
i/oi Se TrporeprjcravTa ev TW acr^aXet etvat ^ T<MI/ 
/caipwv vcrrepijfcora ra Travraw alcr^porara jrpbs 
TWV TTO\eplwv TraOeiv." 

12 TaOra eVel Xocryoo'?79 ijKOvaev, ev re ot Trapai- 
velv OviTTvis eBoe teal \veiv T9 <nrov8a<; ert, 



ev (nrov e^e. <)vq) yap 69 
vw ySacrtXea eyofjievos, Xoyi^ecrdai a>9 
e<yva> on 8rj 77^09 dvSpwv 'lovariviavq) 
SvcrfjAvwv /j,d\i(TTa ol \6yoi e<? avrov yevoivro. 

13 aXXa TW ftovXecrBai e<? TO Tretadrjvai auT 
ij\0ev. o 8rj teal e9 TO 1)9 ' KpfjuevLwv re KOI 
Xo7ov9 oXlyw varepov eSpacrev djrep /JLOI avri/ca 

14 yiiaXa XeXe^eTat. fcairoi rotavra 'lovcrriviavw 
TreKd\ovv eyK\rffj,aTa, aTrep av et/coT&)9 fiacriXei 
yevvaiw ey/coa/Aia etij, ori 6rj T^V ftacriXeiav Trjv 
aurov /j,eia> re Troiijcrai feat TroXXw 7rt(f)ave- 

15 (rrepav ev (nrovBp e%ot. TaOTa yap Kal K.vp(p 

1 TS VPW : TTJS G. 
268 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. ii. 9-15 

already enslaved march against the Persians, neither 
considering the name of friendship nor blushing 
before any of his sworn promises. While, therefore, 
some hope of safety is still left thee, do not do us 
any further wrong nor suffer it thyself, but see in 
our misfortunes what will a little later befall the 
Persians ; and consider that the Romans could never 
be well-disposed to thy kingdom, and that when they 
become more powerful, they will not hesitate at all 
to display their enmity toward the Persians. Use, 
therefore, this good chance while the time fits, lest 
thou seek for it after it has ceased. For when once 
the time of opportunity has passed, it is not its 
nature to return again. And it is better by antici- 
pating to be in security, than by delaying beyond 
the opportune time to suffer the most miserable fate 
possible at the hands of the enemy.'' 

When Chosroes heard this, it seemed to him that 
Vittigis advised well, and he was still more eager to 
break off the treaty. For, moved as he was by envy 
toward the Emperor Justinian, he neglected com- 
pletely to consider that the words were spoken to 
him by men who were bitter enemies of Justinian. 
But because he wished the thing he willingly con- 
sented to be persuaded. And he did the very same 
thing a little later in the case of the addresses of the 
Armenians and of the Lazi, which will be spoken 
of directly. And yet they were bringing as charges 
against Justinian the very things which would natur- 
ally be encomiums for a worthy monarch, namely 
that he was exerting himself to make his realm larger 
and much more splendid. For these accusations 
one might make also against Cyrus, the King of the 



269 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



rq> Hepcrwv ftacn\ei- KOL 
M.a/ceB6vi. d\\a <ydp (f)06va) TO Si/caiov 
eid)6e %vvoiKiecr0ai. Std ravra fiev 6 
\veiv Sievoeiro. 



Ill 



1 'Ei> Tovrw 5e /cat a\\o T 

%vve/3r). ^v/jLefovrjS etcelvos, 6 TO Qapdyyiov 'Pto- 
fjiaioLs evSovs, 'lovaTiviavbv /SacrtXea ireiOei, eri 
rov 7ro\e/jiov (IK/JLCL^OVTO^, /cai/iat? avTov Tiaiv 

2 dvSpwv 'A.pfivi(0v Scoprjcraa-Oat,. Kvpios re ro)v 
%a)pL(t)V <yev6/jvo$ Trpos TWV avra jrdXai 

3 p,evo)V ei; eTTi/3ov\fj<> OvrfcrKei. 

rov /ca/cov ol TOV <f)6vov avrovpyol l favyovatv e? 
Ta Tleptrwv rjdir). a8eX</>a> Be ijcrrijv Svo Tiepo^ov 
Te Ta/Ta dfcovcras T9 Te Koalas 
&iSwcri r& ^vfietovov d&e\<f)i8(f) KCU 

4 ap%ovra KareaTrjaaro ' Ap/j,evioi<f avrov. rovrov 
rov 'Afjba%d(nrr)v, rrpolovTOS rov %p6vov, '[ou- 
(rrivtavq) ftacrikei rwv ris ITT irijSeiwv &iefta\\6i>, 
'A/ca*ao9 ovofiUt, KaKovpyeiv re 9 *A.pp,evlovs teal 
PovXea-Oai Tiepcrais evoovyai eoSocriovTro\iv re 

5 /ecu a\\a drra rco\iapM,ra. ravra elrfiav yvwfArj 
/3acrtXe(W9 'A/cato9 rov ' h.^a^dcrrfrfv 86\o) e/cretve, 
/cat rr)V 'Appeviatv dp%r)v S6Wo9 ySacrt\ea)9 ecr^ev 

6 atT09. 7rovt)pbs 8e &v fyvaet e'(r%e /caO' o n ra 
rfjs ^1^779 Tf]Qf] ev$L$;oiro. yeyovev ovv 69 

1 avrovpyol VG : apx^yol P. 
270 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. ii. i 5 -iii. 6 

Persians, and Alexander, the Macedonian. But 
justice is never accustomed to dwell together with 
envy. For these reasons, then, Chosroes was 
purposing to break off the treaty. 



Ill 

AT this same time another event also occurred ; 
it was as follows. That Symeon who had given 
Pharangium into the hands of the Romans persuaded 
the Emperor Justinian, while the war was still at its 
height, to present him with certain villages of 
Armenia. And becoming master of these places, he 
was plotted against and murdered by those who had 
formerly possessed them. After this crime had 
been committed, the perpetrators of the murder fled 
into the land of Persia. They were two brothers, 
sons of Perozes. And when the Emperor heard 
this, he gave over the villages to Amazaspes, the 
nephew of Symeon, and appointed him ruler over 
the Armenians. This Amazaspes, as time went on, 
was denounced to the Emperor Justinian by one of 
his friends, Acacius by name, on the ground that he 
was abusing the Armenians and wished to give over 
to the Persians Theodosiopolis and 'certain other 
fortresses. After telling this, Acacius, by the 
emperor's will, slew Amazaspes treacherously, and 
himself secured the command over the Armenians by 
the gift of the emperor. And being base by nature, 
he gained the opportunity of displaying his inward 
character, and he proved to be the most cruel of all 



271 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

7 dp%ofj,evov<> &)//,6VaTO9 dvOpayjrwv arcdvrwv. rd re 
jap xpijpara eXyi^ero ov8evl \oyw /cal <f)6pov 
auTot9 djraywyrjv ovrcore ovcrav e<? /cevrijvdpia 
reaaapa eragev. 'Apftevioi Be (<pepeiv yap ov/cen 
avrov oloi re rjaav} Krelvovcrl re ^vpfypovrjcravres 
rov 'A./cd/ciov /cal e TO Qapdyyiov fcarat^evyovcri. 

8 Aio 8r) iLilrrav erf avrovs etc T&v^avrtov ftacn- 
Xe;9 eTrefji^lrev. evravda yap 6 StTra9 Sierpiftev, 
eTreiSr) 'PatfjLatoLf lyevovro al Trpbs Yiepcras cnrov- 

9 Sat. 69 8r) 69 'A/3/A6WOVS e\d(ov ra fjt,ev rrpwra 69 
rov 7roXe//.oy o/cvrjpoi)? fjei, nOaacreveiv [Aevroi Kal 
errl ra rcporepa r^Orf avnKaOicrrdvai rou9 dv6pa>- 
7rof9 r/Treiyero, ireidetv ySaovXea 

dfatvai avrois rrjv xatvrjv rov <f)6pov 

10 eVet 8e avrov y3acrt\eu9 r^9 /ieX 

ovei&i^cov e/cd/ct^ev, rjy/Aevos rat9 ' ABo\iov Siafto- 
Xat9 rov 'A.Ka/ciov TraiSos, evravda ^87} 6 Strra9 

11 rd e9 rrjv gv/ji/3o\r)V egqprvero. repair ov pev ovv 
vTrocr^ecrecrt TTO\\O)V ayad&v dvarreiOeiv re Kal 
eraipiecr0ai avrwv rivas eve%etpr)crev, 07r&)9 avr& 
pa(ov re /cal drcovwrepa rj e9 rovs Xoi7rou9 em- 
It /cpdrr)o~i$ yevoiro. /cai ol ro ra)v 'A.cnreriavwv 

/ca\ov/jiev(ov yevos, fieya re ov /cal rfO\vdvdpwjrov, 

13 Trpoa-^wpeiv r}6e\. Tre^^avref re Trapa rov 

ev ypd/jufuia-iv eBeovro 8t86vai rd retard 
on, 8rj, rjv ev rq> epyw rovs 6/j,oyevets 
^wo-iv 69 rr)v ra)/Maia>v rrapdra^iv, 
TravraTracriv dna6els f^eivcocri, 1 rd crtyerepa 

14 avrwv e^ovres. o 8e avroi<; d&fjievos re 
ev /3t/3XiStw tcaOdrrep eBeovro rd mcrrd 

KOI TO ypdfjbfj,a /caraffrjf^rjvdfievo^ e9 avrovs 

1 fuantft VP : fj.tlv(airit> G, /j,fvovffi Herwerden. 
272 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. iii. 6-14 

men toward his subjects. For he plundered their 
property without excuse and ordained that they 
should pay an unheard-of tax of four centenaria. 1 
But the Armenians, unable to bear him any longer, 
conspired together and slew Acacius and fled for 
refuge to Pharangium. 

Therefore the emperor sent Sittas against them 
from Byzantium. For Sittas had been delaying there 
since the time when the treaty was made with the 
Persians. So he came to Armenia, but at first he 
entered upon the war reluctantly and exerted him- 
self to calm the people and to restore the population 
to their former habitations, promising to persuade the 
emperor to remit to them the payment of the new 
tax. But since the emperor kept assailing him 
with frequent reproaches for his hesitation, led on by 
the slanders of Adolius, the son of Acacius, Sittas 
at last made his preparations for the conflict. First 
of all he attempted by means of promises of many 
good things to win over some of the Armenians 
by persuasion and to attach them to his cause, 
in order that the task of overpowering the others 
might be attended with less difficulty and toil. And 
the tribe called the Aspetiani, great in power and in 
numbers, was willing to join him. And they went 
to Sittas and begged him to give them pledges in 
writing that, if they abandoned their kinsmen in the 
battle and came to the Roman army, they should 
remain entirely free from harm, retaining their own 
possessions. Now Sittas was delighted and wrote 
to them in tablets, giving them pledges just as 
they desired of him ; he then sealed the writing 
1 Cf. Book I. xxii. 4. 

273 
VOL. I. T 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

15 e-Tre/n/re. dapawv re &>9 Si avrayv dfUL^rjrl rov 
TroXe/iOf Kparijcrei, r& iravrl arparq* 69 j(wpiov 
Qtvo%d\,dK(t)v rjei, evOa Toi>9 'Ap//,efiov9 ecrrpa- 

16 rorceoevadai i;vve/3aive. TVXfl ^ rTlVi ' 1 T0 
ftij3\iov e%o^T69 erepa lovres 6Sq> 'AcrTreTtavot? 

17 evTW%iv ov&afirj ia%vo-av. fwipa fievTot rov 

eoi' (rrparov 0X17049 Tifflv avraiv evrv- 
OVK et'SoT69 re TO, ^wytceifAeva, a>9 TTO- 

18 A,e/uo9 e^prfcravro. teal auro9 Strra9 eV crTrrj^aiy 
TTOV 7ratSa9 re avrwv Kal ryvvaifcas Xa/Seov 
e/creivev, rf TO 76701^09 ou vvii<i rj St' opyrjs 

vs 6%a>v, OTI ol KaOajrep vveK6iTO ov 



19 Ot oe Ov/jLW f)OV] e%6/jivoi vv rot9 a\\oi<> 
oLTcaaLv 009 69 iLccfflv erd^avro. are Be ev 
8vcr%ci)piai<> ^aXeTrafr re teal Kptj/uLva>8ea'iv e/ca- 
repoi 6VT69 ot> ev evt %<w/jw ef^d^ovro, a\Xa 
SiacrfceSavvvfAevot, ev re v7ra)peiai<; Kal (pdpay^i. 
rervynicev ovv rwv re 'Ap/ieyttoy 0X1701/9 riva<s 

\ s'/ - / r ' ^^y \ v 

feat 2<irrav rwv ejrofjievcov ov 7roAA,ou9 e^ovra 
d\\tj\a)v jrr) ay^icrra ievai, (frdpayyos crfyiai nvb$ 

20 ftera^y ovarjf. t7T7ret9 Se rjaav e/cdrepoi. 6 fjiev 
ovv !EtTTa9, oXi'ywv ol erciarto^kvwv^ ejrl rou9 
evavrlovs rrjv <f)dpayya SiaBds yj\avvev, 'Appevioi 
Se orflaw vTro^wpricravTes earrjaav, Kal 6 2trra9 

21 ovKeri eSicoKev aXX' avrov ep^vev. a<f)v<a 8e Tt9 
TOI) e Pa)fj,aia>v arparov, "EpofXo9 yevos, 8ia)j~iv 
CTTI TOU9 7roXeyu-tov9 TTeTTonrj^evo^ evffevSe re i;vv 
Bvfj,a) aTTe\avvwv, rcapa rovs dfupl rov ^irrav 
rjKdev. ervy^ave Be 6 ^irras e9 TO ea</>09 TO 
Bopv epeicrav o Brj 6 rov 'EpoyXou ITTTTOS eiri- 

1 ^n-KTJTOjUtVau' Hoeschel : 4irtffiriaff.ev<av VG, tTrfHnroptvuv P. 
274 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. iii. 14-21 

and sent it to them. Then, confident that by their 
help he would be victorious in the war without 
fighting, he went with his whole army to a place 
called Oenochalakon, where the Armenians had their 
camp. But by some chance those who carried the 
tablets went by another road and did not succeed 
at all in meeting the Aspetiani. Moreover a portion 
of the Roman army happened upon some few of 
them, and not knowing the agreement which had 
been made, treated them as enemies. And Sittas 
himself caught some of their women and children in 
a cave and slew them, either because he did not 
understand what had happened or because he was 
angry with the Aspetiani for not joining him as had 
been agreed. 

But they, being now possessed with anger, arrayed 
themselves for battle with all the rest. But since 
both armies were on exceedingly difficult ground 
where precipices abounded, they did not fight in one 
place, but scattered about among the ridges and 
ravines. So it happened that some few of the 
Armenians and Sittas with not many of his followers 
came close upon each other, with only a ravine lying 
between them. Both parties were horsemen. 
Then Sittas with a few men following him crossed 
the ravine and advanced against the enemy ; the 
Armenians, after withdrawing to the rear, stopped, 
and Sittas pursued no further but remained where 
he was. Suddenly someone from the Roman army, 
an Erulian by birth, who had been pursuing the 
enemy, returning impetuously from them came up to 
Sittas and his men. Now as it happened Sittas had 
planted his spear in the ground ; and the Erulian's 

275 

T 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

22 TTCO-OOV %vv 7ro\\fj pvfir} Kareage. rov re trrpa- 
rriyov rovro f)viao~ev 69 ra /jLd\io-ra, teal avrov 
rwv Ti9 ' Ap/jueviwv IBoav eyvw re KOI ^Lrrav avrov 
rots aXXof9 arcaaiv Icr^vpi^ero elvai. vve/3aive 
yap ol ev rf) fce<f>d\,fj Kpavos OVK elvai. Bio Sr) 
TOW? 7roXe/i/of9 OVK eXa^e i>v 6\iyois rio-lv 

23 evravda tfrcwv. Strra9 [lev ovv, errei ravra rov 

\e<yovro<{ rjicovo-e KOI TO Bopv, warrep 
ol arcoKavXiadev 9 TYJV yrjv erceiro, 
TO ^t^)O9 

24 evOvs V^Lpr)o-ev. ol 

CTT' avrov rj\avvov, /cat Tt9 avrov Kara\afta)v ev 
rf) tydpayyi %i<pei 69 a/cpav K(f)a\r)v erv^re 77X777^7 
eyfcapcriq. fcal TO fj,ev flpeypa o~\,ov a<^ei\ero, 

25 ToO oe 6o~reov 6 o~ioijpo<; ovoafArj rjtyaro. ical o 
/j,ev StTTa9 eri ^ia\\ov r) rrporepov irpoaw 
ij\avvev, ' A.praftdvt}s Se 'Iwdvvov reals ' Apcra/ciStj^ 
orfio~6ev 7rnreo~a)V real rralo-as r> Sopari etcreivev. 

26 ovrco re 6 2tTTa9 e' dvd pcojrwv rj<pdvicrro 
\6<yw, dva^Lcof rf)<> re dperrjs Kal rwv C 
7ro\e/Aiou9 aet rrerrpa<yp,eva)V, dvrjp TO Te aw^a 69 
ayav /caXo9 yeyovcos Kal dyado^ ra 7roXe/z.ta, 
err parr)<yo<> re apiaro? rwv Kad* avrov ovSevbs 

27 rjo-o-(i)v. rives &e (frao~i rbv ^irrav ov Trpbs rov 
'Apraftdvov drfo\(o\jevai, aXXa ^o\6fj,a)va, \lav 
ev 'Ap/j,viois d(j>avrj dvSpa, rbv avOpwrcov Sia^pij- 
a~ao-dai. 

28 TeXeuT?7o-ai'TO9 oe ^Lrra Bov^rjv /3ao-i\ev<; eVl 
Toi9 'Apfteviovs eKekevaev levar 09 eVet dy^iard 
TTOV eyevero, erce^^re 717309 avrovs /9ao-tXet Te 
Kara\\deiv ^App^eviovs V7roo"%6/j,evo<f arravras 
Kal vrcep rovrwv 69 Xo70i9 01 e\6elv dffiwv rwv 
276 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. iii. 21-28 

horse fell upon this with a great rush and shattered 
it. And the general was exceedingly annoyed by 
this, and one of the Armenians, seeing him, recog- 
nized him and declared to all the others that it was 
Sittas. For it happened that he had no helmet on 
his head. Thus it did not escape the enemy that he 
had come there with only a few men. Sittas, then, 
upon hearing the Armenian say this, since his spear, 
as has been said, lay broken in two on the ground, 
drew his sword and attempted immediately to re- 
cross the ravine. But the enemy advanced upon 
him with great eagerness, and a soldier overtaking 
him in the ravine struck him a glancing blow with 
his sword on the top of his head ; and he took off 
the whole scalp, but the steel did not injure the 
bone at all. And Sittas continued to press forward 
still more than before, but Artabanes, son of John 
of the Arsacidae, fell upon him from behind and 
with a thrust of his spear killed him. Thus Sittas 
was removed from the world after no notable fashion, 
in a manner unworthy of his valour and his con- 
tinual achievements against the enemy, a man who 
was extremely handsome in appearance and a capable 
warrior, and a general second to none of his contem- 
poraries. But some say that Sittas did not die at 
the hand of Artabanes, but that Solomon, a very 
insignificant man among the Armenians, destroyed 
him. 

After the death of Sittas the emperor commanded 
Bouzes to go against the Armenians ; and he, upon 
drawing near, sent to them promising to effect a 
reconciliation between the emperor and all the 
Armenians, and asking that some of their notables 
should come to confer with him on these matters. 

277 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

29 SoKifiwv nvds. 01 /J,ev ovv a\\oi ovre Tricrreveiv 
ra> Bov^rj el%ov ovre rovs \6<yov<; evSe^eadai 

avrov ijdeXov. rjv 8e ri$ avrut /j,d\icrra 
dvrjp 'ApcrarciSr)?, ^\u>dvvr]^ ovo/jba, 'Apra- 
@dvov TraTrjo, 09 8r) ra> Bou^ Tore are 
Qapa"f]<ya^ %vv re Bacrcra/CT; T&) /crjSecrrfj KOI 
6\iyoi<} ricrl nrap avrov r)\9ev o'i Srj ev 
yevo/Jievot re teal av\ia6evres evda r& 
rfj vcrrepala evrv%elv e/j,e\\ov, rjcrflovro e? KV- 
K\a>criv 7r/)O9 TGI) 'PwfMiLcov crrparov rjKovres. 

30 7ro\\d i*,ev ovv rov 'Iwdvvrjv Bacrcra/CT/9 o ya/j,{3pb<> 
\nrdpei Bpacr/jiov e^ecrdat,. eVet Se avrov TreiQeiv 
OVK el^e, jAovov evravda Kara\nrcav, %vv rot9 
aXXoi9 arracn \a6wv rou9 r Pft>yu,atov9 o8q> rfj avrfi 

31 OTricro) av6is drcriXavve. 60^^779 Te rov 'Iwdvvrjv 
HOVQV evpa>v e/creiver KOI drf avrov ovre riva 
e\7ri8a 69 'P(/iatou9 'Ayo/ievtot u/u,/3acre&>9 Trepi 
TO \OITTOV expvres ovre /SacrtXea r& TroXe/iw 
vTrepaipeiv oloi re 6We9 rcapa rov TLepawv ftacri- 
\ea rj\0ov, ^acrcrdfcov athicnv rfyov/jbevov, Spacrrt]- 

32 piov dvSpos. wv rore ol rcpwroi Xooyjo?; 69 o^riv 
e\,06vre<> e\eav roid&e " Eicrt /j,ev rjp,wv iro\\ol 
'Ap<raKi,8ai, a) Secnrora, etceivov 'Apcrd/cov O-TTO- 
701^01 09 &r) ovre 7779 TldpOcav {3a(Ti\eia<; d\\6- 
rpios ervy%avv &v, rjvitca VTTO HdpQois etcetro 
ra Hepa-wv TTpdypara, /cal /Sao-<Xei9 iruj>civfyi 

33 yeyove r)v icad' avrov ov8evb<; rja-ffov. irdpecrp^ev 
oe ravvv et9 v/jias airavres 8ov\oi re ical Spairerai 

ov% eKovanoi fjuevrot, aXX' rjvayica- 
/Jid\icrra, rq> /j,ev <^aivop,ev(o VTTO rfjs 
a/0^9, rS> 8e d\r]dei \6yy VTTO <rrj$, 

34 w (3acn\ev, 7^(0/^779 elirep o rrjv la"%vv TO 9 

-278 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. iii. 28-34 

Now the Armenians as a whole were unable to trust 
Bouzes nor were they willing to receive his proposals. 
But there was a certain man of the Arsacidae who 
was especially friendly with him, John by name, the 
father of Artabanes, and this man, trusting in Bouzes 
as his friend came to him with his son-in-law, 
Bassaces, and a few others ; but when these men 
had reached the spot where they were to meet 
Bouzes on the following day, and had made their 
bivouac there, they perceived that they had come 
into a place surrounded by the Roman army. 
Bassaces, the son-in-law, therefore earnestly en- 
treated John to fly. And since he was not able to 
persuade him, he left him there alone, and in 
company with all the others eluded the Romans, 
and went back again by the same road. And Bouzes 
found John alone and slew him ; and since after 
this the Armenians had no hope of ever reaching an 
agreement with the Romans, and since they were 
unable to prevail over the emperor in war, they 
came before the Persian king led by Bassaces, an 
energetic man. And the leading men among them 
came at that time into the presence of Chosroes and 
spoke as follows : " Many of us, O Master, are 
Arsacidae, descendants of that Arsaces who was not 
unrelated to the Parthian kings when the Persian 
realm lay under the hand of the Parthiahs, and who 
proved himself an illustrious king, inferior to none 
of his time. Now we have come to thee, and all 
of us have become slaves and fugitives, not, however, 
of our own will, but under most hard constraint, as it 
might seem by reason of the Roman power, but in 
truth, O King, by reason of thy decision, if, indeed, 
he who gives the strength to those who wish to 

279 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

dBiKelv /3ov\oiJ,evois BiBovs avros av <j>epoiro KOI 
rrjv alriav rwv epycov SiKaicos. elprjcrerai Be 
fMKpov avwdev C7r&>9 Srj aVacrt TrapaKd\ovdclv 

35 TO t? rcerfpayfjiivoL^ Bvvrjcreade. ' ApcraKT)? yap 6 
rwv Trpoyovwv rwv rjfierepwv /SacrtXeu? vcrrarot; 

rj<> rfj<> avrov eoSocrtft) TW 'Py- 
ainofcpdropi efcmv ye elvai, e'</>' w 8rj ajrav- 
ot Kara yevos avra> /j,eX\ovTS Trdvra TOV 
alo)va Trpocrrj/ceiv ra re aXXa (Siorevaovcri KCUT 
e^ovaiav KOI (fropov V7rore\i<{ ovSa/jurj ecrovrai. 

36 /cat Siecrfocrdfjieda rd gvyrceifAeva ew? u/xet? ravras 
TreTToirjaOe ra? Siaftorj'rovs (nrovSds, a? 8r] KOIVOV 
Tiva o\edpov Kakwv TIS, oio/^eda, OVK av u^idpTOL. 

37 <pL\a>v re ydp fcal 7ro\enia>v TO evrevdev d<f)pov- 
Tto-T^cra?, cnravra ^vve^ee re /cat gvverdpage rd 
dvdpwTreia 6 0*09, w /3acri\ev, rw \6ya) jjuev 0tX,O9, 

38 epyy Be ^va^evrj<^. orrep /cat avrbs OVK et9 paicpdv 
eicrrj, eireiBdv rd^icrra Toi9 ecnrepiovs 0109 T6 
TI Tfavrdrcaffi Karaarpe^raadai. rl ydp rwv 
nporepov drceLp^n.evwv OVK eirpa^ev; rj ri OVK 

39 eKivrjcre rcov ev Kadecrrwrwv; oi>% rj/jiiv fiev <f>6pov 

era^ev ov Trporepov ovcrav, KOI T^avou9 
fJblv avrovofJLOv^ ovras BeBovXwrai, 
ru> Be fiaaikel r&v dd\iwv Aa^wv dp^ovra 'Peo- 
Hatov eTrecrrrjae; Trpdy/^a ovre rjj (frvcrei rwv 
Trpay/jidrtov gv/A/Saivov ovre \6y<a paSiov epfj,r)- 

40 veveadai. ov ^oarroplrais fjiev Tot9 Ovvvwv Ka- 
rrjKooi? a-rparijyovs eire/ju^e /cat rrjv rco\tv rrpoa- 
eTroiijcraro ovBev avrw rrpoarfKOv, ofjiai^fMiav Be 
TreTTOLvjrai jrpos rd<; rwv kldioTrwv dp%d$, wv 
Kal dvr]KOOL TO rcapdrfav 'Pw/Jialoi ervy^avov 

41 ovres; aXXa /cat 'Ofjbtjpira^ re Kal 6d\acrcrav 
280 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. iii. 34-41 

do injustice should himself justly bear also the 
blame of their misdeeds. Now we shall begin 
our account from a little distance back in order that 
you may be able to follow the whole course of 
events. Arsaces, the last king of our ancestors, 
abdicated his throne willingly in favour of Theodosius, 
the Roman Emperor, on condition that all who should 
belong to his family through all time should live un- 
hampered in every respect, and in particular should 
in no case be subject to taxation. And we have 
preserved the agreement, until you, the Persians, 
made this much-vaunted treaty, which, as we think, 
one would not err in calling a sort of common 
destruction. For from that time, disregarding friend 
and foe, he who is in name thy friend, O King, but 
in fact thy enemy, has turned everything in the 
world upside down and wrought complete confusion. 
And this thou thyself shalt know at no distant time, 
as soon as he is able to subdue completely the people 
of the West. For what thing which was before for- 
bidden has he not done ? or what thing which was 
well established has he not disturbed ? Did he not 
ordain for us the payment of a tax which did not 
exist before, and has he not enslaved our neighbours, 
the Tzani, who were autonomous, and has he not 
set over the king of the wretched Lazi a Roman 
magistrate ? an act neither in keeping with the 
natural order of things nor very easy, to explain in 
words. Has he not sent generals to the men of 
Bosporus, the subjects of the Huns, and attached to 
himself the city which in no way belongs to him, 
and lias he not made a defensive alliance with the 
Aethiopian kingdoms, of which the Romans had 
never even heard ? More than this he has made the 

281 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

rrjv 'EipvOpdv TrepL^ej3\^rai> Kal rbv dtoiviKwva 

42 7rpo<m0ij(ri rfj *P(i)/j,ai(i>v dp%f). dfyiepev yap 
\eyeiv rd Aiftwav re teal '\ra\wv rcddr). rj yrj 
rov dvdpwjTov ov %&)^oet %vp,rcacra- fj,iKpov ecrriv 

43 avrw rcdvrwv o/ioO rwv avQptonwv Kpareiv. 6 
8e KOI rov alOepa rcepiaKorcei KOI roy? vrcep rov 
wfceavov Siepevvdrcu yu.u^ou9, aX\,r)v avrq> riva 

44 ol/cov/juevrjv 7T6pnroieicr0ai j3ov\6fAevo<>. rl ovv 
en, c5 ySacrtXeO, /^eXXet?; rl 8e rrjv KaKiara 
d7ro\ovfj,6vr]v elprjvrjv alcr^vvr}, OTTO)? &r)\a&tf o~e 
vardrrfv Troirjcrrjrcu /Bpuxriv rwv a\\a>v drrdvrwv; 

45 et /j,ev ecrri croi ^ov\ofjuevw fiadelv oTroto? rt? av 
'Hovcrriviavb 1 ? e9 TOU? avrw eiKovras <yevoiro, 
ejjvdev ffoi TO irapaSeiy/Aa Trap' rjfjiwv re avrwv 

46 ecrri Kal rwv rd\anrcapa)v Aa^wv el Se, OTTW? 
TTore eto)de rot9 re dyvcocn fcal ovS 1 onovv r/Si/cr)- 
KOCTI %pr]cr0ai, B<w6tXof9 re KOI YorOovs Kal 

47 M.avpovcriov<? BiaXoyi^ov. TO T6 Srj /ce<j)d\aiov 
OVTTCI) \e\e/crai. OVK ' AXajjavvSapov /JLCV ev 
cnrovSais rov crov, w fcpdricrre ftacriXev, 8ov\ov 
drrdrr) re 7repie\0eiv Kal /3acrt\eta9 drfoarfjaai 
rrjs 0-779 epjov TreTToi'rjrai,, Qvvvovs Se TOU9 ovSa- 
p,oOev avr& yvwplfJiov^ ercl TOt9 0-049 evayxos 

dai Trpdy/jiaaiv ev crTrovo'f} ecr^e; tcairoi 
drorrwrepa ravrrjs ov yeyovev eit rov 

48 Travrbs %povov. eTret&r) yap rjffdero, olfj,ai, et9 
Trepan avrqt bo~ov ovrcw d^>^eo~0ai rijv rwv ecrire- 
plwv Karaarpofyrjv, Toi9 66)01/9 ^Bf) p&re\0elv 



49 avrSt e? dyatva TO Tlepcrwv tcpdros. 77 p,ev ovv 
elpijvi) TO e/ceivov yu-e/309 ^rj aoi \e\vrai, /cal 
o-7roz>Sat9 ai>TO9 Trepas Tat9 drrepdvrois eiredriKe. 
282 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. iii. 41-49 

Homeritae his possession and the Red Sea, and he 
is adding the Palm Groves to the Roman dominion. 
We omit to speak of the fate of the Libyans and of 
the Italians. The whole earth is not large enough 
for the man ; it is too small a thing for him to con- 
quer all the world together. But he is even looking 
about the heavens and is searching the retreats 
beyond the ocean, wishing to gain for himself some 
other world. Why, therefore, O King, dost thou 
still delay ? Why dost thou respect that most 
accursed peace, in order forsooth that he may make 
thee the last morsel of all ? If it is thy wish to learn 
what kind of a man Justinian would shew himself 
toward those who yield to him, the example is to be 
sought near at hand from ourselves and from the 
wretched Lazi ; and if thou wishest to see how he 
is accustomed to treat those who are unknown to him 
and who have done him not the least wrong, con- 
sider the Vandals and the Goths and the Moors. 
But the chief thing has not yet been spoken. Has 
he not made efforts in time of peace to win over by 
deception thy slave, Alamoundaras, O most mighty 
King, and to detach him from thy kingdom, and has 
he not striven recently to attach to himself the Huns 
who are utterly unknown to him, in order to make 
trouble for thee ? And yet an act more strange 
than this has not been performed in all time. For 
since he perceived, as .1 think, that the overthrow of 
the western world would speedily be accomplished, 
he has already taken in hand to assail you of the 
East, since the Persian power alone has been left for 
him to grapple with. The peace, therefore, as far as 
concerns him, has already been broken for thee, and 
he himself has set an end to the endless peace. 

283 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

50 \vovcrt yap rrjv elprfvrjv ov% ot av ev 07rXot9 
yevotvro Trpwroi, aXX' 01 av 7ri/3ov\evovr<> ev 

51 arcovoals T0t9 ?reXa9 d\oiev. TO yap eyK\tjfj,a 
r& eyKe^eiprjKori, KUV dnrj TO tcaropOovv, rtk- 
TrpaKrai. orcij TTOT 8e o 7roXe//,o<> ^wprja-ei Travri 
TTOV SfjXov. ov yap ol Ta? alrias rq> 7roXe/i&) 
Trapaa-^ofjievoi, aXX' ol TOU<? 7rapa(T^ofjievov<? avras 
d/j,vv6fj,evoi, /cpareiv del rwv TTo\ep,ia)v etwOacriv. 

52 ov /uirjv ov8e ej; dvrnrd\ov rj/Jblv T"f)<> SvvdfAews 6 
dycov ea-rai. 'Pco/Aatoi? yap TWV re err par icor wv 
TrXetcTTOU? TT/OO? Tat? rfj<t ol/covfjievr]^ 
f;vfif3aivei elvai, teal Svolv ffrparrjyoiv, 
avrois apicrTOi rjaav, rbv erepov ftev 
Kreivavres r^KOfjuev, ^eX.tcrdptov oe OVTTOTG 
GTiviavbs TO \onrbv o^erai. ovirep e/cetvo<? 
yo)pij<ras fjLe/juevrjtee jrpbs Tat<? rj\iov 

53 auTO9 G'XWV TO 'iTaXcoi' icpdros. wa-re aoi eVl 
TGI)? TroXe/itou? IOVTI aTravrijcrei TMV jrdvTwv 
oySei?, e^et? 8e fcal ^//,a<? evvoia re, 609 TO eto?, 
/cal ^wpiwv e/jbTreipia TTO\\TJ TW cr& crrparm 

54 er)yovfj,evovs" Tavra ejrel Xocr^o?;? r/fcovcrev, 
ijcrdr) re KOI j;vyfca\ecra<; et ri ev Tlepcrais /caBapbv 
fjv 69 Trdvras e^rjvey/cev a re Ovirriyis eypatye 
teal ocra ol 'Apfj,evioi elrcov, d/j,<f>i re r& TrpaKrew 

55 fiovXrjv TrpovdijKev. evOa or) eXe^drjcrav fiev 
yvco/juai TroXXat e^>' etcdrepa (frepovcrai, TeXo9 Se 
7roXeyLt?yTea (T<])icriv aytta rjpi dp^opevM 7rl C P&>- 

56 /iatoi/9 eoo^ev elvai. rjv ydp rov eVou9 /ieTOTrct)- 
pov, rpirov /cal oetcarov eVo9 'lova-rivtavov /3a<rt- 

57 Xe<w9 T^V avrofcpdropa dp-\rjv e^ovro^. ov pevroi 
'PayfAaiol rovro vircoTrrevov, ovoe &rj Hepcra? Xy- 
aeiv Trore Ta? drcepdvrovs Ka\ovp,iva^ 

284 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. iii. 50-57 

For they break the peace, not who may be first in 
arms, but they who may be caught plotting against 
their neighbours in time of peace. For the crime 
has been committed by him who attempts it, even 
though success be lacking. Now as for the course 
which the war will follow, this is surely clear to 
everyone. For it is not those who furnish causes for 
war, but those who defend themselves against those 
who furnish them, who are accustomed always to 
conquer their enemies. Nay more, the contest will 
not be evenly matched for us even in point of 
strength. For, as it happens, the majority of the 
Roman soldiers are at the end of the world, and as 
for the two generals who were the best they had, we 
come here having slain the one, Sittas, and Belisarius 
will never again be seen by Justinian. For dis- 
regarding his master, he has remained in the West, 
holding the power of Italy himself. So that when 
thou goest against the enemy, no one at all will con- 
front thee, and thou wilt have us leading the army with 
good will, as is natural, and with a thorough know- 
ledge of the country." When Chosroes heard this 
he was pleased, and calling together all who were of 
noble blood among the Persians, he disclosed to all 
of them what Vittigis had written and what the 
Armenians had said, and laid before them the ques- 
tion as to what should be done. Then many opinions 
were expressed inclining to either side, but finally it 
was decided that they must open hostilities against 
the Romans at the beginning of spring. For it was 
the late autumn season, in the thirteenth year of the 539 A.D. 
reign of the Emperor Justinian. The Romans, how- 
ever, did not suspect this, nor did they think that 
the Persians would ever break the so-called endless 

285 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



Kairep offpoyv tcovcravTes ry re crtywv 
avrow /3acriXet ey/ca\eiv ot9 evtj/jieprjcrev ev rat? 
rj\iov Suo-yLiafc /cat ra eyK\ijf^ara eTTM^epeiv ravra 
&v dpri 



IV 

1 Tore /col 6 KOfir^T^ affrrjp etydvr), ra /j,V Trpcora 
ocrov evfjurfKr)*; avrjp fid\i(TTa, varepov 8e /cat 
TToXXo) fieifov. Kal avTov TO /iei/ Trepan 77/909 
Svoi'Ta ^Xtoy, 77 Se apXV TT/OO? dvicr^ovra TJV, 

2 airrS) Se ra> rj\iw o-jnadev enrero. 6 yu.ei' 7/> et 1 
alyotcepq) fjv, auro? Se ev TO^OTIJ. /cat avTov 01 
fjuev Tives e/caXovv i<f)iav, ori Brj eTri/AijKr)? re 77^ 
teal \lav oj;iav TTJV apyr^v elyjev, ol Be Trwyw- 
viav, r/fjbepas re TrXetou? rj TecraapaKOvra e<f)dvr). 

3 ot /j,ev ovv ravra crofol d\\ij\oi<; o>9 iJKia-ra 
o/jLoXoyovvres a\Xo9 aX\a TrpovXeyov Trpbs rovrov 
Brj rov acrre/009 ffrj/MaivecrOaf eya> Be ova <yeve(r6ai 
^vvrfveyjdri <ypd<$>(i)v BiBcopi e/cauTO) rot9 aTTOySe- 

4 ftrj/coa-t TeKftrjpiovcrOai 77 /SouXoiro. /j,e<ya pev 
evdvs (TTpaTevfjia QVVVIKOV, Bia/3dvre<> Trora/Aov 
"Icrrpov, v/j,7rdcrr) HZvpcoTrr) eTrecrKTj'frav, 76701/09 
fjiev 7roXXa/ci9 ^Brj, rocravra Be TO 77X77^09 /ca/ca 
77 TOtavTa TO fj,e<ye6o<> OVK eveytcbv TrtoTTOTe Tot9 
ravrr) dv9p(i)7rot,s. K KO\TTOV yap rov 'loviov 
01 ftdpftapoi ovrot aTravra efagfy eKrjiaavro 

e9 T Bvazm&>i> Trpoda-reta. teal <f)povpia 
Bvo ical TptaKOvra ev '!XXf/)tot9 el\ov, 7ro\iv 
Be rrjv Kacra-dvBpeiav Karear pe-^ravro fiia (rjv ol 
TrdXaiol 1 HoriBaiav etcdXovv, ocra ye 77/4(19 elBevai} 

286 1 waAcuot : Trdi>TS G. 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. iii. 57 -iv. 5 

peace, although they heard that Chosroes blamed 
their emperor for his successes in the West, arid that 
he preferred against him the charges which I have 
lately mentioned. 



IV 

AT that time also the comet appeared, at first 530 A.D. 
about as long as a tall man, but later much larger. 
And the end of it was toward the west and its 
beginning toward the east; and it followed behind 
the sun itself. For the sun was in Capricorn and 
it was in Sagittarius. And some called it "the 
swordfish " because it was of goodly length and 
very sharp at the point, and others called it " the 
bearded star " ; it was seen for more than forty days. 
Now those who were wise in these matters disagreed 
utterly with each other, and one announced that one 
thing, another that another thing was indicated by 
this star ; but I only write what took place and I 
leave to each one to judge by the outcome as he 
wishes. Straightway a mighty Hunnic army crossing 
the Danube River fell as a scourge upon all Europe, 
a thing which had happened many times before, 
but which had never brought such a multitude of 
woes nor such dreadful ones to the people of that 
land. For from the Ionian Gulf these barbarians 
plundered everything in order as far as the suburbs 
of Byzantium. And they captured thirty-two fort- 
resses in Illyricum, and they carried by storm the 
city of Cassandria (which the ancients called 
Potidaea, as far as we know), never having fought 

287 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

6 ov T6t;o/ia%77o-ai>Te9 rcporepov. Kal rd re 

lxjJWiXdyrwv re fivpid&as Svo/caiSefca 
1 eV OIKOV arravres dve^pija-av, 
ov&evbs afyiaiv evavriotf^aros dnavrr^aawo^. 

7 xpovy re rq> vcrrepto 7roAA.a/a9 evravOa <yevo- 

8 fjievoi dvij/cecrra 69 ' P&>/u,atou<? beiva eSpacrav. o'l Srj 
/col V ^eppovrjcrw T6i%oiJba'%rjcravTe$, ^Lacrd^voL 
re TOW? etc TOV Tet^of? dpvvopevovs teal &ia rov 
rfj<f 6a\dcrari<; podiov TOV TrepiftoXov VTrepftdvres 
o<? 7T/3O? /c6\Tr(f) ra> /jie\avi Ka\ov/.ievq> ecrriv, ovru> 
re ei/TO9 rwv /MiKp&v rei%(t)v yeyevtjf^evoi teal rot9 
ev ^eppovrjaut 'P&)yu-atot9 drrpocrSoKrjrot, emrre- 
crovres, etcreivdv re 7roX,Xoi)9 Kal rjvBpcnroSicrav 

9 (T)(e&ov UTravras. 6\i<yot 8e rives Kal Siaftdvres 
rov fj,eraj;v ^rjarov re Kal 'A/3uou nopOp,6v, \rji- 

re ra errl rr)$ 'Acrta^ ^capia Kal ai>0i<> 9 
uvaarptyavres, ^vv rw aXXw crrparS) 
Kal rcdcrr) rfj \ela en' OIKOV drceKOpicrOr 

10 ev erepa re elcr(3o\rj rovs re 'l\\vpiov<> 
ecrcraXoi'9 \rfLadfJievoL, reiX/ J/a X ^ v ^ 

prjaav ev %eppOTrv\ai?, rS)v Be ev rots repeat 
(jjpovpajv Kaprepwrara dfjLVVofj,ev(ov Siepevvco/Aevoi 
ra$ TreptoSovs rcapa 86^av rrjv drparcov evpov 

11 $) (fiepei 6t9 TO opos o ravrrj ave^a, ovrw re 
a"xeSov drravras "l&XXrjvas ir\r]V TleXoirovvr/critoV 

12 Siepyacrdfjievot drce^wpr^cfav. Tlepcrai 8e ov TroXXw 
vcrrepov rds crTrovSds \va-avres ep<ya e Pa>fj,aiov<f 
TOU9 eft'>ou9 elpydcravro ajrep eyu> avr'iKa 



13 Be\tcra^o9 [eVel] rwv T6r0a>v re Kal 'Ira- 
\ia)T(t)v ySacriXea Ovirrvyiv Ka6e\oov 

1 airayS/j.ei'ui Maltretus : twayA/j.ft>oi MSS. 
288 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. iv. 5-13 

against walls before. And taking with them the 
money and leading away one hundred and twenty 
thousand captives, they all retired homeward without 
encountering any opposition. In later times too they 
often came there and brought upon the Romans irre- 
parable calamity. This same people also assailed the 
wall of the Chersonesus, where they overpowered 
those who were defending themselves from the 
wall, and approaching through the surf of the sea, 
scaled the fortifications on the so-called Black Gulf ; 
thus they got within the long wall, and falling 
unexpectedly upon the Romans in the Chersonesus 
they slew many of them and made prisoners of 
almost all the survivors. Some few of them also 
crossed the strait between Sestus and Abydus, and 
after plundering the Asiatic country, they returned 
again to the Chersonesus, and with the rest of the 
army and all the booty betook themselves to their 
homes. In another invasion they plundered Illyricum 
and Thessaly and attempted to storm the wall at 
Thermopylae ; and since the guards on the walls 
defended them most valiantly, they sought out the 
ways around and unexpectedly found the path which 
leads up the mountain which rises there. 1 In this 
way they destroyed almost all the Greeks except 
the Peloponnesians, and then withdrew. And the 
Persians not long afterwards broke off the treaty 
and wrought such harm to the Romans of the East 
as I shall set forth immediately. 

Belisarius, after humbling Vittigis, the king of the 
Goths and Italians, brought him alive to Byzantium. 

1 The Huns placed a part of their force in the rear of the 
defenders of the pass, which lies between the sea and the 
mountains, sending them around by the same path, probably, 
as that used by Xerxes when he destroyed" Leonidas and his 
three hundred Spartans ; see Herod, vii. 216-218. g 

VOL. I. U 






PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



ijv r y/cv. O7r<9 Be 6 Hepcrcov arparos 
69 <yf)v rrjv 'Pat/jUiiwv e&eftdXev epwv ep^pp^ai. 

14 Tjv'iKa Xooyjoov rro\efj,r)crei,ovro$ 'lovariviavbs 
/3acn\ev<i fjcrdero, rcapaivealv re rcoielcfdaL Tiva 
teal T779 eyxeiptfa-eax; avrov drrayayetv jj0e\ev. 

15 ervfave 8e ri<{ 9 



, 09 teal rrjv ev Aa^a.9 evayxps <yevo/j,evT)v 

16 rvpavvi&a KaTa\e\vtcei. TOVTOV ovv rbv 'Ava- 
(TTao-iov jrapa ~Kocrp6r)v 'lovffTiviavbs eTre/A-^e 

17 7/Ottyu.yu.ara <ypa-^ra^' e&tf\ov Be f) <ypa<f>rj rdBe 
" "Svverwv fjuev av6po>TTu>v ecrrl Kal ot9 ra e9 TO 
delov i/cav(t)<t rjcrKijrai 7ro\e/juov <f)VOfj,evas airlas, 
aXXft>9 re teal 7T/jo9 avBpas ra fjudXiara <tXoi/9, 
ffffevei Travrl aTrorefivea-dai- d^vvercov Be fcal ra 
rov 6eov afyiaw aitrols pa<rra Trotovf^evwv TTO- 
\ejjiia fid^r]? re /ecu rapa%f}<> d<f)opfi,a<> ovBajAij 

18 ovcras e7rire%ydcr(}ai. elprfvijv fiev yap fcara\v- 
actGW e9 TroXefJiov ievai ovBev Trpdy/jid ecrnv, ejrel 
ra>v eTririjBevudroov rd Trovrjporara /cal rot9 rwv 
dv0pa>7rayv drifjiordrois ei>KO\a ridecrBai f) r&v 

19 Trpay/jidrfDV vevoju/ce fjjvais. rr6\e/jLov Be Kara 
yvcofjbrjv Bia0e/j,evois aiidis eirl rrjv elprjvrjv ^o)petv 

20 dvOpd)Troi<? l ol/j,ai ov paBiov elvai. Kairot av 
[lev yptZv ypd/j,/j,ara OVK eTrirrjBef yeypa/jufj.eva 
67rt/caXet9, ravrd re yv(i>/j,r) avrovofjuw ravvv 
ep/Arjveveiv ecrrcovBaKas, ov^ fJTrep 77/^6^9 Biavoij- 
6evres yeypd^a/jiev, aXX' ^ crot rd jBe/BovXevpeva 
Trire\elv OVK dvev rivbs rr a parr er da pharos e<f)ie- 

21 /ieVft) vvoi(Tiv BoKei. rffjuiv Be Trdpecrriv 'AXa- 

1 avSpdiirots Haury : avOpwirv MSS. 
290 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. iv. 13-21 

And I shall now proceed to tell how the army of the 
Persians invaded the land of the Romans. When 
the Emperor Justinian perceived that Chosroes was 
eager for war, he wished to offer him some counsel 
and to dissuade him from the undertaking. Now it 
happened that a certain man had come to Byzantium 
from the city of Daras, Anastasius hy name, well 
known for his sagacity ; he it was who had broken 
the tyranny which had been established recently 
in Daras. Justinian therefore wrote a letter and 
sent it by this Anastasius to Chosroes ; and the 
message of the letter was as follows : " It is the 
part of men of discretion and those by whom divine 
things are treated with due respect, when causes of 
war arise, and in particular against men who are in 
the truest sense friends, to exert all their power to 
put an end to them ; but. it belongs to foolish men 
and those who most lightly bring on themselves the 
enmity of Heaven to devise occasions for war and 
insurrection which have no real existence. Now 
to destroy peace and enter upon war is not a difficult 
matter, since the nature of things is such as to make 
the basest activities easy for the most dishonourable 
men. But when they have brought about war ac- 
cording to their intention, to return again to peace 
is for men, I think, not easy. And yet thou chargest 
me with writing letters which were not written with 
any dark purpose, and thou hast now made haste to 
interpret these with arbitrary judgment, not in the 
sense in which we conceived them when we wrote 
them, but in a way which will be of advantage to 
thee in thy eagerness to carry out thy plans not 
without some pretext. But for us it is possible to 



291 
u 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CABS A RE A 



BetKvvvai rov <rbv yfjv evayxps Kara- 
Bpa/ji6vra rrjv rj/jberepav epya ev crrrovBals Bia- 



dprrayds, dvOptorrwv <f)6vov$ re KOI dvBpcnro- 
8icr/j,ov<i Toaovrwv TO rc\fj9o^, vrrep wv ere OVK 

22 alndaOat rjf^d<i, aXX' diroXoyeiaBai Serjcrei. rd 
yap rotiv r^iK^Ko-rutv fytc^funa al Trpd^eis, 

at Sidvoiai, 8r)\ovai rot? ?reXa9. aXXa Koi 
roiovTtov ovroiv ?7/iet9 p,ev e^ecrdai Kal 
W9 T?7<? tpijvr)$ eyva>Ka/jiV, ere Be 7rd\.efir)aeLOVTa 
7rl 'Pto/tatoy? d/covo/iev dvcnrXaTreiv atrias 

23 ov8afi60ev rj/jitv 7rpoa-t]Kovcra<f. etVora)?- ot pev 
yap rd rcapovra TreptcrreXXeiv ev (nrov&fj e%ovres 
/cal &(f)6Spa eyfcet/jievas drcoaeiovrai ra? eVt rovs 
<f)CX.ov<; atVta.9, 01)9 Be 6 T^9 (j)i\,ias OVK dpea-tcet 
^eo-/A09, Kal ra9 OVK ovaas efyLevrai rfopL^eaOai 

24 cr^7^i|ret9. aXXa ravra /j,ev ovBe roi<t rv^ovaiv 
dv6pa>Tcoi<$, p'f) ri ye Brj j3ao~i\evcri, rrperreiv av 

25 86%eie. crv Be rovrwv d(f>ep,evos crKOfrei p,ev TO 
perpov rwv eKarepwffev Kara rov TroXe/xov drro- 
\ovfjLevwv Kal Tt9 av eirj rwv ^vfATreaovfievajv rrjv 
alriav (f>epecr@at 8t/eato9, \oyi^ov Be rovs opkovs, 
o&9 ^T) ofjLOcrd/j,v6<? l re Kal rd %pij/juira KOfiicrd- 
fievos, elra dri[idcra<> ov Beov rivals ncrlv r) 
(7o<j)iO'/ji,aa'i rrapayayeiv OVK av Bvvaw TO yap 
delov Kpeicrcrov rj e^aTrardcrOai TretyvKe Trpos 

26 jrdvrcav dvOpaiTrwv" ravra errel 6 Xocr/joT/9 
drrevevdevra elBev, ev u,ev ru> avriKa ovre ri 

7 

drceKpivaro ovre rov Avacrracriov 
aXX' avrov fjueveiv rjvdyKa^ev. 

1 Si] 6fi(tffdfj.tvos VG : Siofiioffd.fj.fvos P. 
292 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. iv. 21-26 - 

point out that thy Alamoundaras recently overran 
our land and performed outrageous deeds in time of 
peace, to wit, the capture of towns, the seizure of 
property, the massacre and enslavement of such a 
multitude of men, concerning which it will be thy 
duty not to blame us, but to defend thyself./ For 
the crimes of those who have done wrong are made 
manifest to their neighbours by their acts, not by 
their thoughts. But even with these things as they 
are, we have still decided to hold to peace, but we 
hear that thou in thy eagerness to make war upon 
the Romans art fabricating accusations which do not 
belong to us at all. Natural enough, this ; for while 
those who are eager to preserve the present order of 
things repel even those charges against their friends 
which are most pressing, those who are not satisfied 
with established friendships exert themselves to 
provide even pretexts which do not exist. But this 
would not seem to be becoming even to ordinary 
men, much less to kings. But leaving aside these 
things do thou consider the number of those who 
will be destroyed on both sides in the course of the 
war, and consider well who will justly bear the 
blame for those things which will come to pass, and 
ponder upon the oaths which thou didst take when 
thou didst carry away the money, and consider that 
if, after that, thou wrongly dishonour them by some 
tricks or sophistries, thou wouldst not be able to 
pervert them ; for Heaven is too mighty to be 
deceived by any man." When Chosroes saw this 
message, he neither made any immediate answer nor 
did he dismiss Anastasius, but he compelled him to 
remain there. 



293 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



Be 6 ftev %ei[Jict)v ijBrj vTre\rjye, rpirov 
Be teal Be/carov ero9 ere\evra 'lovcrriviavq) ftacn\l 
rrjv avroKpdropa dp%r)v e%ovri, Xocrpo?/? 6 
Ka/3aoi> e? <yffv rrfv 'Pwfuziwv djAa rjpi dp^o/ieva) 
arparw /aeyaXft) ecre/3aXe, rrjv re aTrepavTOv 
Ka\ovfj,evr)v elpijvrjv Xa/iTT/ow? eXvev. yei Be ov 
Kara rrjv fiea'rjv rwv Trora/Afov %(opav, aXXa rbv 

2 Eiv<j)pdrr}v ev Beia e%(0v. ecrri Be rov Trorafiov 
eVl 6 are pa 'Paifutiwv (frpovpiov ecr^arov o Kt/?- 
Krjcriov e7riKa\elrai, e%vpbv e? rd fj,d\icrra ov, 
GTrel 'Aftoppas fj,ev 7rora/i09 jjueyas evravffa ra? 
e/cySoXa? X WV r V ^vtypdrr) dvafj-iyvvrai, TO Be 
<J>povpiov rovro 717509 avrfj TTOV rf} ywvia tceirat 

3 TJV Brj rolv Trora/jLoiv f) /j,iis Troielrai. teal T6t%09 
Be aXXo /juatcpov l rov (ppovpiov e/crb<; ^(opav rrjv 
f^era^v Trora/toO e/carepov dTro\a/ji{3dvov rpiywvov 

4 evravda dfufrl TO KipKijo~iov 7rire\ei cr^yiia. Bib 
BTJ 6 Xoer/30779 o^Te (frpovpiov edeXwv ovrw Br) 
e^vpov dTTOTreipdcrOai oure BiaBaweiv tTora^ov 
^iHppdrrjv Biavoovfjievos, aXX' evrl Su/oou9 re /cal 
KtXfa9 levai, ovBev BiafjLe\\ijaa<f, eTriirpocrOev 
rbv crrparbv r}\avve, rpi&v re cr%eB6v ri 6Bbv 

eva)V<0 dvBpl irapd rov J?iv<f)pdrov rqv 
dvvcra<; 7roX Zijvo8ia eTrtrvy^dver r)v TJ 
Trore Bei/j,a/j,evr) rrjv eircovufuav rfj 7r6\ei, 

5 <9 TO et/co9, eBcoKev. fjv Be 77 ZiT)vo/3ia 'QBovddov 
yvvij, rwv eKeivrj ^apaxijvwv dp^ovros, o'l 'Po>- 

6 /iatO9 evcnrovBoi etc TraXaiov rjaav. OUTO9 [o] 

1 nciKpkv VP : jjuKpbv G. 
294 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. v. 1-6 



V 

WHEN the winter was already reaching its close, 540 A.D. 
and the thirteenth year of the reign of the Emperor 
Justinian was ending, Chosroes, son of Cabades, 
invaded the land of the Romans at the opening of 
spring with a mighty army, and openly broke the 
so-called endless peace. But he did not enter by 
the country between the rivers, but advanced with 
the Euphrates on his right. On the other side 
of the river stands the last Roman stronghold which 
is called Circesium, an exceedingly strong place, 
since the River Aborras, a large stream, has its mouth 
at this point and mingles with the Euphrates, and 
this fortress lies exactly in the angle which is made 
by the junction of the two rivers. And a long second 
wall outside the fortress cuts off the land between 
the two rivers, and completes the form of a triangle 
around Circesium. Chosroes, therefore, not wishing 
to make trial of so strong a fortress and not having 
in mind to cross the River Euphrates, but rather to go 
against the Syrians and Cilicians, without any hesita- 
tion led his army forward, and after advancing for 
what, to an unencumbered traveller, is about a three 
days' journey along the bank of the Euphrates, he 
came upon the city of Zenobia ; this place Zenobia 
had built in former times, and, as was natural, she 
gave her name to the city. Now Zenobia was the wife 
of Odonathus, the ruler of the Saracens of that region, 
who had been on terms of peace with the Romans 

2 95 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



dvecruocraro f Peo//,aiOi9 rrjv ecoav 
VTTO M^8ot9 jeyevrjfjLevrjv. a\\a ravra yu,ei> ev 

7 T0t9 dvco xpovois eyevero. Xo<rp6r)<; Be Tore 
ay^iard rrov rrjs Zrjvoftias ij/cfav, eTreiBrj TO 
-)(wpLov ovre dt;i6\oyov efiaOev elvat KOI rrjv 
^wpav tcarevo^crev doiK'rjrov re fcal rcdvrwv 
dyadwv epr)/j,ov ovcrav, Seicras /AIJ r/9 ol l %/9ovo9 
evravOa rpiftels Trpd^ecri fj,eyd\ais e?r' oi>$evl 
epyw e'/i7ro>09 elrj, dTre-jretpdaaro pev o/ioXoyta TO 
%a)piov e\6iv. ct>9 Se ovSev Trpov^copei, Trpocra) 
Kara rd^o<{ rov crrparov rjXavvev. 

8 'O86v re avOis roaavryv avvaas d<j)iKero e? 
TTO\IV ^iQvpwv 7T/9O9 Tw RiKJjpdTT) TTOTa/AW ovcrav, 

9 ^9 8r) dj^ordrco yevo/Jievos earrj. evravda 6e TO) 

vve/3r) e'(^)' ov 6 Xo<r/907;9 eKaOr^ro %/oe- 
re KOI rw TTO&I TO e'8a009 tcpoveiv. o 8rj 
01 fj,d<yot, | r i/i/3aXovT69 d^focreadat TO ^wpLov 

10 aTreffraivov. 6 Be GTparoTreSevcrdfjLevof} e?rt rov 
irepiftoXov co9 rei^ofj,a^(Tct)V TO crrpdrevf^a 

11 eTrrjyev. ervy^ave 8e ris ovopa ^ev 'A/?o-a779, 

'be 76^09, Teat 1 evravda arpariwrwv 
09 TOi/9 crrparia>ra<> 
dva/3i/3daa<;, evdevSe re 
/cal 7roXXou9 Twy 7ro\/j,ic0v 

12 /3A,7$et9 ere\evrT)(7e. /cat ITeyoo-at yu-ev TOTC 

' ^e) co9 av6i$ rfj vcrrepaia rei- 

eTrl TO araroTreSov 



'P(o/J,aioi Be djroyvovres, are rere\evrrjKoros cr 
rov dp%ovro<>, l/cerai Stevoovvro Hocrpoov <yeve- 
13 adar rfj ovv eTTiovcrr) rj^epa rov rrjs 
7ri(7KO7rov 8ti)cr6fj.ev6v re teal TO ^wpiov 

1 T(S ol V(T : TTCOS 6 P, 
296 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. v. 6-13 

from of old. This Odoriathus rescued for the Romans 
the Eastern Empire when it had come under the 
power of the Medes ; but this took place in former 
times. Chosroes then came near to Zenobia, but 
upon learning that the place was not important and 
observing that the land was untenanted and destitute 
of all good things, he feared lest any time spent by 
him there would be wasted on an affair of no con- 
sequence and would be a hindrance to great under- 
takings, and he attempfed to force the place to 
surrender. But meeting with no success, he hastened 
his march forward. 

After again accomplishing a journey of equal 
extent, he reached the city of Sura, which is on the 
River Euphrates, and stopped very close to it. There 
it happened that the horse on which Chosroes was 
riding neighed and stamped the ground with his 
foot. And the Magi considered the meaning of this 
incident and announced that the place would be 
captured. Chosroes then made camp and led his 
army against the fortifications to assail the wall. Now 
it happened that a certain Arsaces, an Armenian by 
birth, was commander of the soldiers in the town ; 
and he made the soldiers mount the parapets, and 
fighting from there most valiantly slew many of the 
enemy, but was himself struck by an arrow and died. 
And then, since it was late in the day, the Persians 
retired to their camp in order to assail the wall again 
on the following day; but the Romans were in despair 
since their leader was dead, and were purposing to 
make themselves suppliants of Chosroes. On the 
following day, therefore, they sent the bishop of the 
city to plead for them and to beg that the town be 



297 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



rav, 09 r)v vrcrjperwv rivas erra- 
70yu.ei>o<? opvis re (frepovras teal olvov teal feaOapovs 
aprovs, rrapa X.oapor)V d<pi/cero, e? Be TO eBa<j)0<; 
tcaOrjKev avrbv /cal BeBatcpv/jLevos iicereve (freiBecrOai 
oltcrpatv feal TroXeeo? 'Pw/iatoi? fiev 
, TIepcrais 8e ev ov&evl Xoyw ovre ra 
Trporepa jeyevrj^evr)'; ovre vcrrepov Trore eaofj,evr)<f 
\vrpa re ol TOU<? ^ovpijvovs Sd&creiv cr<f>(t)v re 
avrwv KOI 7roX,e&>9 ^cnrep ol/covcriv 

14 VTT<r%ro. Xocryoo?;? 8e 
el%ev, or i Brj avrw rrpwroi, 

'Poif^aiwv arrdvrwv ovre rfj TroXet eBe^avro e#e- 
\ovcrioi, d\\a KOI dvraipeiv ol 6VXa ToX/i^cravTe? 
TTO\VV nva Botcifji(ov \\epawv o/AiXov efcreivav. 

15 rrjv fjievroi opjrjv OVK e^rjveyxev, aAA,' VTTO rq> 
TrpocrcoTra) a/c/?t/3ft)9 etepv^rev, OTTW? rrjv tcoXacriv 
9 ^ovpr]vov^ 7roir)<rd/j,evos (froftepov re 'P&)yu,atot9 
avrbv teal a/j,a%6v riva KaracrrrjcTrjrai. ovrw 
<ydp ol Trpoa")((opr)aeiv ovSevl rcovw vrcerorca^e 

16 TOi9 ev rcoaiv del yevriGO/jievovs. Stb 8rj %vv re 
(f}i\,0(j)pocnjvr) rro\~\,fj rov erricncorcov e^avearrjae, 
KOI ra Swpa 8e^ayLtei'O9 Trapei^ero riva Sorcrjcriv 
el)9 d/ji(f)l Tot9 ^ovprjvwv \vrpoi$ avriica KOIVO- 
\oyrjcr 6 p,evos Tlepcrwv rot9 \o<yi/jLOi,<; ev rrjv Serjcriv 

17 Biaffrfcrerai. ovrw re %vv rot9 erropAvois rov 
eTTicrKOTTOv drrercefji'^raro ovBefjbiav rfjs T 
ai(T0r)(Tiv e%ovra, /cat ol rS)v ev Tlepcrais 

rivas n apart o [ire ovs ecro/JLevov^ Bfjdev rw 

18 ^vverre/ji'^rev. 01)9 Br) \d0pa (ce\eve p,ev levai 



avrq> a^pi 69 TO Ti^O9, Traprjyopovvras /ca 



298 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. v. 13-18 

spared ; so he took with him some of his attend- 
ants, who carried fowls and wine and clean loaves, 
and came before Chosroes ; there he threw himself 
on the ground, and with tears supplicated him to 
spare a pitiable population and a city altogether with- 
out honour in the eyes of the Romans, and one 
which in past times had never been of any account to 
the Persians, and which never would be such 
thereafter ; and he promised that the men of 
Sura would give him ransom worthy of themselves 
and the city which they inhabited. But Chosroes 
was angry with the townsmen ^because, being 
the first he had met of all the Romans, they 
had not willingly received him into their city, 
but even daring to raise their arms against him had 
slain a large number of Persian notables. However 
he did not disclose his anger, but carefully concealed 
it behind a smooth countenance, in order that by 
carrying out the punishment of the inhabitants of 
Sura he might make himself in tfie eyes of the 
Romans a fearful person and one not to be resisted. 
For by acting in this way he calculated that those 
who would from time to time come in his way would 
yield to him without trouble. Accordingly with 
great friendliness he caused the bishop to rise, and 
receiving the gifts, gave the impression, in a way, 
that he would immediately confer with the notables 
of the Persians concerning the ransom of the towns- 
men, and would settle their request favourably. 
Thus he dismissed the bishop and his following with- 
out any suspicion of the plot, and he sent with him 
certain of the men of note among the Persians, who 
were to be ostensibly an escort. These men he 
secretly commanded to go with him as far as the 

299 



PROCOP1US OF CAESAREA 

dyadats ercalpovras e\7ricriv, ware avrov 
teal rovs vv avrat a,7ravra<; ^alpovrds re KOL 

19 ovoev 8e8iora<f rots evSov cx^dijvat. eTreiSdv 8e 
ol 0uXa#e9 dvaic\ivavres rrjv TTfXiSa rp TroXet 
avrovs Se^effdai, yLteXXaxri, \iOov riva r) v\ov 
TOV re ov&ov KOI T?}? Ovpas //.eray ptyavres ou 

eTTirldeadaL, aXXa KOI avrovs rot? 
oi/Xo/iyoi9 ^povov 8rf riva efj,7roSa>v 
i' OVK et? naicpav jap avrols rov arparov 
eifrecrffcu. 

20 TaOra rot9 avSpdviv 6 XocryooT/? evrei- 
\dfjvo<> ev Trapaaxevfj rov crrparov eTrotelro, 
Spofjia) re ^wpelv ercl rrjv TroXtv orav avrbs 

21 (Trjfirjvr) etceXevev. eirel Be dj^tcrra rov Trepi- 
ftoXov eyevovro, ol JACV TLepcrat, rov erciaKorrov 
dcnracrdfjLevoi e/cro? ep,evov, ol 8e ^.ovprjvol rrepi- 
Xapr) jeyovora rov dvBpa opwvres vv rifjbfj re 
Tro\\f) TrpoTrefjiTTo/juevov 7T/J05 rwv Tro\e/jii(av, 
d<j)povricmjcravre<> 8uaK6\(ov djrdvrcov rijv re 
TTfXt'Sa o\r]v dveyyov KCU rov lepea %vv rot? 
eTTO/jievow tcporovvres re KCU, Tro\\d ev<f>r)fjiovvr<> 

22 eSe^avro. errei re arcavre^ etcrty eyevovro, rrjv 
* fiev jrvXiSa a>9 eTTidijcrovres ol <pv\aKe$ &0ovv, 

ol e Tlepcrai \idov 09 avrois rrapecTKevaaro ev 

23 ytieffft) epp'nrrovv, 01 re <f>v\aKe<? eri fj,d\\ov 
(adovvres re KCU /3iao/jievoi e^iKveicrdai rfj Trv\iSi 

24 9 rov ovSov ovSa/^rj icr^vov. ov yJr)v ovBe dvoi- 
yvvvai avrrjv avdis eroK^wv, errel irpos rwv rco\e- 
fuwv avrrjv e%ea0ai ff&dovro. rives be ov \idov, 
aXXa j~v\ov Tlepcras 69 rrjv Trv\i8a <f>acrlv e/i/3e- 

25 /3\rj(r8ai. OVTTW 8e ^ovprjvwv a"%e86v n rfjs 
7ri,/3ov\f}<; ^crOrj/Jbevdiv, Traprjv re r& rravrl o 
300 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. v. 18-25 

wall, encouraging him and cheering him with fair 
hopes, so that he and all those with him should be 
seen by those inside rejoicing and fearing nothing. 
But when the guards had set the gate open and were 
about to receive them into the city, they were to 
throw a stone or block of wood between the thres- 
hold and the gate and not allow them to shut it, but 
should themselves for a time stand in the way of 
those who wished to close it; for^not long afterwards 
the army would follow them. 

After giving these directions to the men Chosroes 
made ready the army, and commanded them to ad- 
vance upon the city on the run whenever he should 
give the signal. So when they came close to the 
fortifications, the Persians bade farewell to the bishop 
and remained outside, and the townsmen, seeing 
that the man was exceedingly happy and that he 
was being escorted in great honour by the enemy, 
forgetting all their difficulties opened the gate wide, 
and received the priest and his following with clap- 
ping of hands and much shouting. And when all 
got inside, the guards began to push the gate in 
order to close it, but the Persians flung down a 
stone, which they had provided, between it and the 
threshold. And the guards pushed and struggled 
still more, but were quite unable to get the gate 
back to the threshold. On the other hand they 
dared not open it again, since they perceived that 
it was held by the enemy. But some say that it was 
not a stone but a block of wood which the Persians 
threw into the gateway. When the townsmen had 
as yet scarcely realized the plot, Chosroes was at 

301 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Xooy)o?7<? o-rparw KOI rrjv 7rv\iBa 01 ftapftapoi 
jSiatrdfjievoi uverreraaav, Si* 6\iyov re Kara 

26 /e par os rj\fiy. ei>6v<> aev o&v tivua) o XO<T^OT;? 
e%6pevo<> ra? re oltcias eXrjicraro KCU rwv dv@pa>- 
TTCOV TToXXoy? fiev Kreivas, rovs Se \OITTOVS arrav- 
ra? eV dvSpaTr68a>v rcoirjad^evo^ Xo<ya> Trvpiro- 
X^cra? re vfj,7raa-av rrjv TTO\LV e? e'Sa^o? Kadel- 

27 \ev. ovra> re rbv l 'Avavrdcriov aTreTreya^ 
'lovariviavq) ftacriXei djrayyeXkeiv /ceXeucra? 
jrore jrj^'^ocrpoijv rbv Ka/3a8ov drco^nrtov eirj. 

28 Mera Se, etre (f>i\avdp(i)7ria eire 
e%6/J,VO<t, r/ yvvaitci ^api^o/jievos r 
BopvaX-mrov %e\(0v, Rv<j)r]/j,iav ovo^a, jwatica 
yafj,errjv eTroirjcraro, epwra e^aicriov avrijs epa- 
crffeiS (r)v yap rrjv 6-^riv evTrperc^ /iaXt crra) Spdv ri 

29 cvyadov o Xo<ryOo79 TOU? ^ovpijvovs e<yva). 7reyinjra<? 
ovv 69 ^ep<yiov7ro\iv, JTTJV 'Pa)fjLaia)V KariJKOov, i} 
2ep<yiov emfyavovs dyiov Tra>vvp,6<; ecrrt, TroXew? 
T^? aXoucr7?9 e^ Kol ei/cocri /cat etearbv crraSiof? 
8ie%ovcra, /cei/juevr) 8e ai/nZS irpos avepov vorov 
ev rq> ftapftapifcq) Ka\ovfj,evq> TreBia), KdvSiSov 
rbv ravry eTTicrtcoTrov /cevrrjvapioiv Bvolv Sia"%i- 
Xioi/9 re KOI /Avpiovs ovras atveicrdai rovs al%/Aa- 

30 XtwTOt"? efce\6Vv. 6 Be (^ptjf^ara yap ol OVK 
tyaa/cev elvai) rrjv Trpd^tv avriKpvs dveBvero. 
Bib 8r) avrbv 6 Xocr/jo^? r/^iov ev /StySXiSteo rrjv 
bfjLO\oyiav d<pevra rov Bcocreiv %pova> ra> varepw 
ra xprjpara ovro) Brj 6\iya)v ^prjadriov rcpiaadai, 

31 dvBpdTroBa roaavra TO rr\f)do^. KdvBiBos Be 
Kara ravra eiroiei, Kal TO /juev ^pvaiov <buo\6- 
yrjcrev eviavrov Bwcreiv, opKOvs Beivordrovs 

1 OUTO) re rbv PH : ovre rbv V, T&V Tt G. 
302 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. v. 25-31 

hand with his whole army, and the barbarians forced 
back and flung open the gate, which was soon 
carried by storm. Straightway, then, Chosroes, 
filled with wrath, plundered the houses and put to 
death great numbers of the population ; all the re- 
mainder he reduced to slavery, and setting fire to the 
whole city razed it to the ground. Then he dis- 
missed Anastasius, bidding him announce to the 
Emperor Justinian where in the world he had left 
Chosroes, son of Cabades. 

Afterwards either through motives of humanity 
or of avarice, or as granting a favour to a woman 
whom he had taken as a captive from the city, 
Euphemia by name, Chosroes decided to show some 
kindness to the inhabitants of Sura; for he had 
conceived for this woman an extraordinary love 
(for she was exceedingly beautiful to look upon), 
and had made her his wedded wife. He sent, 
accordingly, to Sergiopolis, a city subject to the 
Romans, named from Sergius, a famous saint, distant 
from the captured city one hundred and twenty-six 
stades and lying to the south of it in the so-called 
Barbarian Plain, and bade Candid us, the bishop of 
the city, purchase the captives, twelve thousand in 
number, for two centenaria. But the bishop, alleging 
that he had no money, refused absolutely to under- 
take the matter. Chosroes therefore requested him 
to set down in a document the agreement that he 
would give the money at a later time, and thus to 
purchase for a small sum such a multitude of slaves. 
Candidus did as directed, promising to give the 
money within a year, and swore the most dire oaths, 



33 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



/io/c&>9, ty/jiiav Be ol avrq> Bia>picr ravrrjv, rjv pr) 
BiBoir) %p6va) ra> %v<yKifj,ev(t) ra %prjfjiara, Bi- 
rr\dcna fiev avrd Baxreiv, avrov Be lepea fty/ceri 

32 elvai, are ra o^(>fjMap.eva r)\oyr}Kora. ravra 
KdvBiBos ev ypafjifjiareiO) <ypdtyas rovs ^.ovpr/vovs 

33 aTrayra? eXa/3ey. wv 0X170* pev rives Siefliwo-av, 
ol Be TT\icrroi dvre%eiv rf) ^v/jbTrecrovcrrj ra\at- 

v% oloL re 6Vre? oXiyw varepov Bie(f>0d- 
. ravra BiaTrerrpay/jievos Xoo-po^9 irpocro) 
TO arpdrevjjM. 



VI 



e&> rrjv crrparrjyiBa Bie\(av Bfya, Kal ra fj,ev 
i e? TTorapbv E,v(f)pdrr)v e? TO Be\icrapiov 
ovofjua 09 ^v^rcaaav rrjv dp%r)v ra 
rrporepa el^e, ra Be evOevBe ^XP 1 r ** )V 
opicov rq> BOW^T; emrpe-fyas, ov .. Brj and 
eTTifjieXecrdai rfjs ewas dp-%r)<$, ems BeXto-a/j^o? ef 

2 'iTaXta? erravriKoi, eice\eve. Bio 8rj o Boyf^? 
drcavra rov arparov CTropevov e%ft)y ra f^ev 
rrpwra ejrl rf/s lepaTroXea)*; 1 epevev eirel Be ra 
gv/jLTrecrovra ^ovpr)vols efiaOe, %vyKa\e<ra<i rovs 

3 '\eparfo\irwv Trpatrovs e\e%e roidBe " Ot9 p^ev e 
dvrnrd\ov rrjs Buvd/j,eco<$ TT/JO? rovs eTTiovras o 
dyovv ecrrtv, 69 %eipa<; T0i9 7roXe/u,tot9 e/c rov 
evBeos KaBlaraaQai ovBev drceiicos, 0*9 Be rwv 
evavTiwv TroXXft) rq> BiaXkacrcrovri KaraBeecrrepoi? 

1 'Ifpair6\ftas Dilldorf : iepas Tr6\ecas MSS. 

34 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. v. 3i-vi. 3 

specifying that he should" receive the following 
punishment if he should not give the money at the 
time agreed upon, that he should pay double the 
amount and should himself be no longer a priest, 
as one who had neglected his sworn promise. And 
after setting down these things in writing, Candidus 
received all the inhabitants of Sura. And some few 
among them survived, but the majority, unable to 
support the misery which had fallen to their lot, 
succumbed soon afterwards. After the settlement 
of this affair Chosroes led his army forward. 



VI 

IT had happened a little before this that the 
emperor had divided into two parts the military 
command of the East, leaving the portion as far as 
the River Euphrates under the control of Belisarius 
who formerly held the command of the whole, while 
the portion from there as far as the Persian boun- 
dary he entrusted to Bouzes, commanding him to 
take charge of the whole territory of the East until 
Belisarius should return from Italy. Bouzes there- 
fore at fii-st remained at Hierapolis, keeping his 
whole army with him ; but when he learned what 
had befallen Sura, he called together the first men 
of the Hierapolitans and spoke as follows : " When- 
ever men are confronted with a struggle against an 
assailant with whom they are evenly matched in 
strength, it is not at all unreasonable that they 
should engage in open conflict with the enemy ; 
but for those who are by comparison much inferior 



305 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



elvai, fjurj^a^alf rial TOW 7ro\e/uou9 
7repi\deiv [Aa\\ov ^vvoicrei rj IK rov e/j,(f)avov<> 
dvriracr(To/j,evoi<; 69 tcivBvvov rtva Trpovirrov levai. 

4 r)\l,KO$ JJL6V OVV ecrriV 6 XoCTpOOV (TT/jaT09 



a?ro 

pev ra eTrinjSeia 
ravra 1 e/c 

5 avTHTTarovvTos KOfjLt&crdai. TCIVTT) re rfjs 
opicias ^Kvvo^evr]^, ovSe dpicecreiv rov 

rat9 r&v 7ro\fjLicov eTTiftovKais olpai, ov 
eTTLfjua-^dtrarov TroXXa^ocre rerv^rjKev elvai, /cat 

6 rt c Po)yu,atot9 T^>^ dwrjfceartov ^vjji 
Se ye p,oip& ^ev rivi rov arparov TO 

<f)v\dci) [lev ret%09, ot 8e XoiTrot ra9 a/^ rrjv 
Tr6\iv vTTtopelas icardXdftwa-tv, evQevBe Karaffe- 
"oyre? TT^ /Ltei/ TO rwv evavriwv o-rparoTreSov, trr) 
Be TOU9 ra>v eTTirtjSeiwv eveica crreXXo/Lievovs, 
dvajKaffovcri Xocrpo^y avriKd Br) p,d\a \vaavra 
rr)v Trpoo-eSpeiav, rrjv dva-^coprjaiv oY 6\l,yov 
TroirjaacrOai, ovre T9 7r/>oo-y8oXa9 dSeearepov 
eirdyeiv rq> Trepif3o\(a 7ravre\a)<> e%ovra ovre n 
rwv dvay/caiwv arpara) roffovrq) Tropl^ea'dai" 

1 rocravra 6 Bou^V/9 etTrcoy \eyeiv fj,ev ra v/j.(f)opa 
eSoev, eTrpa^e Be rwv Beovrwv ovBev. a7roXe^a9 
yap el ri ev rip 'Pcapaifov arparw BoKi/jiov r)v, 

8 UTUWV (a^ero. Kal OTTOI irore yfjs ervy^avev ovre 
Tt9 rcav ev e lepa7r6\i ^w^a'iwv ovre 6 rwv 
TroXe/ucuv crrparos /juaBeiv icr^vae. ravra fj,ev ovv 
etyepero rfjBe. 

1 'diravra. P : airavras VG. 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. vi. 3-8 

to their opponents it will be more advantageous to 
circumvent their enemy by some kind of tricks than 
to array themselves openly against them and thus 
enter into foreseen danger. How great, now, the 
army of Chosroes is you are assuredly informed. 
And if, with this army, he wishes to capture us by 
siege, and if we carry on the fight from the wall, it 
is probable that, while our supplies will fail us, the 
Persians will secure all they need from our land, 
where there will be no one to oppose them. And if 
the siege is prolonged in this way, I believe too that 
the fortification wall will not withstand the assaults of 
the enemy, for in many places it is most susceptible 
to attack, and thus irreparable harm will come to the 
Romans. But if with a portion of the army we guard 
the wall of the city, while the rest of us occupy 
the heights about the city, we shall make attacks 
from there at times upon the camp of our antago- 
nists, and at times upon those who are sent out for 
the sake of provisions, and thus compel Chosroes to 
abandon the siege immediately and to make his 
retreat within a short time ; for he will not be at 
all able to direct his attack without fear against the 
fortifications, nor to provide any of the necessities 
for so great an army." So spoke Bouzes ; and in his 
words he seemed to set forth the advantageous 
course of action, but of what was necessary he did 
nothing. For he chose out all that portion of the 
Roman army which was of marked excellence and 
was off. And where in the world he was neither 
any of the Romans in Hierapolis, nor the hostile 
army was able to learn. Such, then, was the course 
of these events. 



37 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



9 Bao~i\ev<i Be 'IoucrTmavo9 rrvOofievos rrjv 
Tlepa&v e<poBov, TepfjLavbv fj,ev v@u<; rov dvetyibv 
rov avrov vv 6opvjB(f) 7roXX<w rptaKOcriovs eno- 
/j,evov<> e%ovra eVe/ii/re, crrparbv Be ol OVK e? 
10 /jbaKpav vTreo-^ero I JTO\VV eib-earOcu. e<> re 'Avrio- 
o Fejiavbs a)iou,evo9 Treir\,6e rov 



7replfBo\ov arravra KVK\W, KOI avrov e^ypa /j,ev 
ovra ra TroXXa rjvpicrfce (rd re <yap ev rw oyu-aXet 
'Opovrrjs irapappei v/j,7ravra rois errLov- 
ajropa epya^o/jievos, /ecu ra ev rq> dvdvrei 
pt)ij,v(t)8e<Tiv dve%6fieva eaftara rols 
cu9 ij/cicrra ^v), ev Se ry aicpa ^evo/Mevo^, 
8rj 'Qpo/cacridSa icakelv ol ravry avdpwnoi 
vevo plicae iv, 7ri/jia^(orarov tcarevorjaev bv rb icar 

11 avrrfv ret%09- Trerpa yap rvy%dvei ris evravOd 
irr) ovaa, evpovs fjuev eVl ir\elarov i/cavws e%ovcra, 
5i/ro9 Be 0X170) rov 7repi/36\ov 

12 K\evev ovv ^ rrjv irerpav 

fta6vv riva ftoOpov a^l rb ri%o<; epyd^eo-0ai, /j,ij 
r*9 evOevBe dvaftrjo-o/jievos eVt rbv rteplf3o~hov 101, 
rj TTvpyov /jieyav rtva Beifjiaftevovs evravOa rr)v ar? 
avrov oltcoBojAiav evdtyai r&> rf)<> 7roXe&>9 rei%ei. 

13 aXXa rot9 rwv oiKoBo/jLiwv dp%ireicro<Ti Troirjrea 
rovrutv eBotcei ovBerepa elvai. ovre yap ev Xpovw 
fipa'xei erfire\rj eaeadai ovr<t)s ey/ceifievr)^ rfjs rwv 
TroXe/iteuv e<p6Bov, dp^ofjuevoi re rov epyov rovrov 
Kal OVK e9 Trepas avrov e^iKvovfievoi OVK aXXo 
ovBev 77 Tot9 7roXe/Aiot9 evBei^ovrai ore*} rcore rov 

14 T6t%of9 cr<j)io~i TToXe/iT^rea e'tr). Vepfjuivbs Beravrrjf 
By rfjf evvoias <r^)aXet9, ra /j,ev jrp&ra crrparbv ex 
Bv^avriov KapaBoK&v eX.'jrLBa rivd e?r' avr& el%ev. 

15 67Tt Be %povov rptftevros (rv^vov ovre ns eK 
308 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. vi. 9-15 

But the Emperor Justinian, upon learning of the 
inroad of the Persians, immediately sent his nephew 
Germanus with three hundred followers in great 
disorder, promising that after no great time a numer- 
ous army would follow. And Germanus, upon reach- 
ing Antioch, went around the whole circuit of the 
wall ; and the greater part of it he found secure, 
for along that portion of it which lies on the level 
ground the River Orontes flows, making it every- 
where difficult of access, and the portion which 
is on higher ground rises upon steep hills and is 
quite inaccessible to the enemy ; but when he 
attained the highest point, which the men of that 
place are accustomed to call Orocasias, he noticed 
that the wall at that point was very easy to assail. 
For there happens to be in that place a rock, which 
spreads out to a very considerable width, and rises to 
a height only a little less than the fortifications. He 
therefore commanded that they should either cut off 
the rock by making a deep ditch along the wall, lest 
anyone should essay to mount from there upon the 
fortifications, or that they should build upon it a 
great tower and connect its structure with the wall 
of the city. But to the architects of public buildings 
it seemed that neither one of these things should be 
done. For, as they said, the work would not be 
completed in a short time with the attack of the 
enemy so imminent, while if they began this work 
and did not carry it to completion, they would do 
nothing else than show to the enemy at what point 
in the wall they should make their attack. Germanus, 
though disappointed in this plan, had some hope at 
first because he expected an army from Byzantium. 
But when, after considerable time had passed, no 

39 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

crrparbs d^i/cero ovre on d(j)i^erai e 
Soo9 r)v, e? Seo9 rj\6e fj,rj 6 Xo<rpoi]S 
j3acri\ea)s dve^rtbv evravda elvai,, Trpovpyiairepov 
aXXou orovovv 7roiija"r)rai 'A.vri6%eidv re KOI 
avrbv e^e\eiv, teal drf avrov rcav a\,\Q)v atrdvrcov 

16 d<j)e/j,evo<> Travrl r& crrpara) evr' avrrjv 101. ravra 
Kal 'AvTioxev&iv ev v& cloven /3ov\ijv re VTrep 
TOVTWV TreTTonjfievois ^v^opcoraTov x eSo^ev elvai 
^prffjuara Trpoepevois Xoo-poy tcwSwov rbv Trapov- 
ra 8t,a<j>vjelv. 

17 M.e<yav roivvv, rbv Be/oota? errLcrKorrov, dvBpa 
gvverov (emxtopid^cav yap avrols ervj^ave Tore) 
Xocrpoou ^te^a'oi^evov Tref^rrovcriv, 09 Br) IvdevBe 
crraXet? /caraX-apftdvei rbv M^Sw^ crrparbv 'lepa- 

18 TToXeft)? 2 ov /jbatcpdv arroOev. XOCT/JO^ re e9 o-^nv 
fjfccov 7ro\\d e\nrdpet dvdpcoirovs olfcreipat 01 
ovre ri 69 avrbv rffiaprov ovre rf) Tlepcrwv crrpa- 

19 rta oloi re dvri-reivetv elcri. reperreiv yap dv$pl fta- 
(TiXei rcdvrwv ijtciara rot9 vno^wpovcn /cat ovBafjifj 
eOe\ov<nv dvrirdcrcre(T0ai errep-^aiveiv re Kal /3id- 
^ecrdai, errel ovSe rwv vvv Sptopevrnv ftaaiKiKov 
n ovSe <yevvaiov avrw epya&deir), ori Srj ov rcapa- 
(r%6/jLvos r& 'Pa)fj,ai<ov (3acn\el /3ov\f]<> riva 
%povov, ware rj rrjv elprfvrjv /cparvvacrffai, orcr\ av 
e/carepa) Botcoir), r) rd e9 rov 7r6\efAOV eic avv- 

TO et/co9, e^aprveadai, dX,X' o{/T&>9 
Trt 'P&)/Aaioi;9 ev oTrXot? e\6ot, 
rov cr<f)erepov /3acrt\eft)9 erfiara^evov rd 



1 v/j.<f>opd>TaTot> VG : avayKai6rarov P. 

2 i'epa7T<i!Aa>s VG : Upas ir6\ews PH. 



310 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. vi. 15-19 

army arrived from the emperor nor was expected to 
arrive, he began to fear lest Chosroes, learning that 
the emperor's nephew was there, would consider it 
more important than any other thing to capture 
Antioch and himself, and for this reason would 
neglect everything else and come against the city 
with his whole army. The natives of Antioch also 
had these things in mind, and they held a council 
concerning them, at which it seemed most advisable 
to offer money to Chosroes and thus escape the 
present danger. 

Accordingly they sent Megas, the bishop of 
Beroea, a man of discretion who at that time 
happened to be tarrying among them, to beg for 
mercy from Chosroes ; and departing from there he 
came upon the Median army not far from Hiera- 
polis. And coming into the presence of Chosroes, he 
entreated him earnestly to have pity upon men who 
had committed no offence against him and who were 
not able to hold out against the Persian army. For 
it was becoming to a king least of all men to trample 
upon and do violence to those who retreated before 
him and were quite unwilling to array themselves 
against him ; for not one of the things which he was 
then doing was a kingly or honourable act, because, 
without affording any time for consideration to the 
Roman emperor, so that he might either make the 
peace secure as might seem well to both sovereigns, 
or make his preparations for war in accordance with 
a mutual agreement, as was to be expected, he had 
thus recklessly advanced in arms against the Romans, 
while their emperor did not as yet know what had 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

20 irapovra afyicri. ravra 6 XOCT/JO?;? aKovaas \6ya> 
%vverS) rbv rporcov pvBfjii^ecrBai VTTO afjiadias 
ovBa/j,w<? Icr'xyaev, dXA,' ert /j,a\\ov rrjv Bidvoiav 

21 rj Trporepov ripQt). 2tyx>U9 re ovv f)Tre'i\.r)ae /cara- 
(rrpe^racrdaL real KtXt;a.9 iravras, /cat ol TOV 
Me/ay eTrecrdai ^eX-eucra? e? T^V 'IepdTro\iv l eTrrjye 

22 TO crrpdrevfj,a. ov 8rj d<f>iKo/jiev6s re /ecu evcrTpa- 
T07reSeu<TayLteyo9, 7ret8r) TOV re Trepi/SoXov o^vpov 
ovra elSe Kal &r par tear wv epade <>v\aKrripiov 
8iaptc(ii)<; e%iv, %pr)p,ara row? 'lepcnroXir as fjrei, 

23 ITaOXov epprjvea Trap' avrovs TrefMifras. 6 Be Tlav- 
Xo? OUTO9 ereOpairro re ev yfj rf) 'P(t)fj,aia)v Kal 
et9 ypa/A/uLaricrrov Trapa ^Avno^evcriv e(f>oirr)crev, 
e\<yero Be Kal 'Pw/jiaios yevos TO e'^ dp^<i elvai. 

24 ol Be 



e9 TO 0/909 o ravry dve-xei, eTreira Be Kal rrjv 
yfjv dBywrov fyeiv eOe\ovre<;, wpoX.o'yrjaav dpyv- 
25 pov crraOfjia Bi<r%L\ia Baxreiv. rore Brj Mey9 
vjrep rwv eywv arrdvrcov Xocrp6r)v Itcerevcov 
ovKeri avlei, 9 avr& 6 Xoo-po;9 oi)fio\6jr)a- 
Betca re xpv&ov Kevrrjvdpca \rf^rcrdai Kal 7rd<rrj<; 



VII 

Ovrm fj>ev ovv eKeivrj rfj r^fjbipa o re 
evdevBe d7ra\\ayel<> rrjv eVt Tot9 
f)\avve Kal 6 Xocryo6?79 ra\vrpa \a(3u>v 9 



1 'lep&iro\iv Dindorf : lepiiv ir6\ii> VGP, 
oH. 

3 I2 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. vi. i 9 -vii. i 

come upon them. When Chosroes heard this, he was 
utterly unable by reason of his stupidity to order his 
mind with reason and discretion, but still more than 
before he was lifted up in spirit. He therefore 
threatened to destroy all the Syrians and Cilicians, 
and bidding Megas follow him, he led his army to 
Hierapolis. When he had come there and estab- 
lished his camp, since he saw that the fortifications 
were strong and learned that the city was well gar- 
risoned with soldiers, he demanded money from the 
Hierapolitans, sending to them Paulus as interpreter. 
This Paulus had been reared in Roman territory and 
had gone to an elementary school in Antioch, and 
besides he was said to be by birth of Roman extrac- 
tion. But in spite of everything the inhabitants 
were exceedingly fearful for the fortifications, which 
embraced a large tract of land as far as the hill 
which rises there, and besides they wished to pre- 
serve their land unplundered ; accordingly they 
agreed to give two thousand pounds of silver. Then 
indeed Megas entreated Chosroes in behalf of all 
the inhabitants of the East, and would not cease his 
entreaty, until Chosroes promised him that he would 
accept ten centenaria of gold and depart from the 
whole Roman empire. 



VII 

THUS, then, on that day Megas departed thence 
and went on the way to Antioch, while Chosroes after 
receiving the ransom was moving toward Beroea. 



3*3 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



2 rjei. Beyoota Be 'Avrto^eta? p,ev Kal ' 

fjuera^v Kelrai, Bvolv Be rjfiepwv o8q> ev^cova) dvBpl 

3 eKarepas Bie^ec. o /*ei> ouv Meya9 are ii> 6\iyoi<; 
rial 7ropevo/J,evo<; o^vrepov yei, 6 Be Tiepacov 
crTparbs fiolpav del rrjv rj/jLicreiav r% oSov ijvve. 

4 rerdprrj Be r^^epa o f^ev e<> 'AvTi6%eiav, ol 8e e? TO 

5 Beooia? Trpodareiov rfkOov. Kal ^pijfj,ara Xotr/jo?;? 
TOD? Bepoiaiovs TOV IIav\ov o-retXa? eu^y? eTrpar- 
rev, ov% oaa TT/JO? TWZ/ '\epaTro\nwv e'Xa/3e fiovov, 
d\\a teal Tovro)v Si7r\d<ria, eTrel roret^o? auroi? 1 

6 eTTipa^coTarov ov TroXXav?} elSe. Bepoialoi Be 
(dappelv yap eirl TO> 7repi/3o\q) ovBafifj el^ov^) %vv 
7rpo@vfj,ia fj,ev vTreBe^avro airawra Baxretv, BKT- 
%tXta ^e So^re? dpyvpov errata, ra Xenro/jieva 

7 SfSovai OVK (f>a<Tav oloi re elvai. eytcei/jievov re 
crtyicn Bia Tavra Xocrpoov, VVKTOS eTTiXa/Soucri;? e? 
TO (bpovpiov aTravres o ev rfj atcpoTroKei ecnl 
tcareffrvyov %vv TO?? [aXXot?] 2 (rrparicorai<f, 01 Brj 

8 evravda eVl (f)v\a/cf) ererd-^aro. rf) Be 
rjpepa eare\\ovTO p,ev 77/909 Xoapoov es T 
rives e'(^)' w T %pij/4ara \rj-fyovrai, ol ~B 

rft\ rov 7repi/36\ov yevopevoi /ce/cXeto-yLte^a? /j,ev ras 
7ri;Xa<? arcaaas evpov, dvdpcoTrcov Be ovBevl evrv%eiv 
%ovr<f rw ftacriXet ra rcapovra crfy'iaw ecDJyjeX- 

9 \ov. KOI 09 rq> refyei #X/yua#a9 eTuOevras drco- 
Treipd(r0ai rfjs dvoBov Ke\evev, ol Be Kara ravra 

10 ercolovv. ovBevos re cr^icriv dvricrrarovvros, evrbs 
rov 7repi/36\ov yevo/juevoi T9 /J<ev 7ruXa9 Kar' 

11 e^ovcriav dveyyov, e8e%ovro Be r^^o^ei^rov re 
crrparbv arfavra Kal Xoo-yoo^y avrov. dv/ju& re 



1 avrois VG : avTys PH. 

2 &\\ots VG : om. PH. 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. vii. i-n 

This city lies between Antioch and Hierapolis, at a 
distance from both of two days' journey for an unen- 
cumbered traveller. Now while Megas, who travelled 
with a small company, advanced very quickly, the 
Persian army was accomplishing only one half of the 
distance which he travelled each day. And so on the 
fourth day he reached Antioch, while the Persians 
came to the suburb of Beroea. And Chosroes imme- 
diately sent Paulus and demanded money of the 
Beroeans, not only as much as he had received from 
the Hierapolitans, but double the amount, since he 
saw that their wall in many places was very vulner- 
able. As for the Beroeans, l&ince they could by no 
means place confictenctfTh their fortifications, they 
gladly agreed to give all, but after giving two thousand 
pounds of silver, they said that they were not able 
to give the remainder. And since Chosroes pressed 
them on this account, on the following night all of 
them fled for refuge into the fortress which is on the 
acropolis together with the soldiers who had been 
stationed there to guard the place. And on the 
following day men were sent to the city by Chosroes 
in order to receive the money ; but on coming near 
the fortifications they found all the gates closed, and 
being unable to discover any man, they reported 
the situation to the king. And he commanded them 
to set ladders against the wall and to make trial 
of mounting it, and they did as directed. Then 
since no one opposed them, they got inside the 
fortifications and opened the gates at their leisure, 
and received into the city the whole army and 
Chosroes himself. By this time the king was furious 



315 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

s rrjv rro\iv oXj/you 
^ 



12 dvaftas errt TO (frpovptov ret^ofjua^etv eyva>. ev- 
ravOa oi fjuev 'Pcopaicov (rrpartwrat Kaprepws 
dfAVvdpevot rwv TroXe/itwy rtva<; e/creivov, ra> 8e 
Xocrpoy evrv'^pa /j,eja T& rwv Tro\iopfcov/jieva>v 
dgvveTO) yevecrOai vv/3rj, ot 8rj ov povoi e? TO 
(fjpovpiov TOVTO, d\\a %vv re Tot? LTTTTOI,? teal %(f>ois 
TOt9 aXXoi? /care^vyov, ravrrj Te rfj <Tfj,iKpo\oyia 

13 Kara(rrpaTrjyrj6VT^ e? fcivSvvov rftidov. /ita? yap 

evravffa ^177779, vntttov re teal rj/jMovwv fcal 
erepcov ov Seov avrrjv eKTrercwKortov, aTro- 
j TO v$a>p. Be/oouo9 pev ra 
wSe TTIJ el^ev. 

14 'O Be 

7etXa9 TG ocra ot 77/309 Xocrporjv ^vvetceiro, epya) 

15 ravra einre'kelv ov^apbr) eTreidev. ervyyave. yap 
'lovcrriviavbs /3acri\ev$ '\<advvr)v re rov 'Pov- 
<pivov KOL 'lov\iavbv rov rwv aTroppijrcov ypajA- 
fjMria 7ryoecry8et9 rcapa Xocrporjv (rreiXas. da-rjtcprjris 
fca\ovcrt TO dia>/j,a rovro 'Pco/iatot- a-^fcprjra yap 

16 Kakelv ra drcoppr^ra vevofiifcaa-iv. ot 8rj e9 'Avrio- 
%eiav d(j)iKOfjievot epevov. 'Iov\tavo9 re, rwv rcpea'- 
ftewv arepos, BtappijBrjv dnelTcev arcacn 

/j,r) StBovat Tot9 7roXe//.tot9, fj^rjSe T9 

(avelcrOai 7ro\6t9, aXXa teal rip Yepp,av&> 

rov dpvtepea 'Edipatittov, are T<W XOCTOOTI evSovvat 

,n ^ '% r > rr SJ" >' ' *"& A/T' 

17 TT)^ TTOMV ev cnrovor) e^ovra. oto brj Me7a9 
a7r/oa/CT09 dve^onprjaev. 'E0/oat/Ato9 Se, 6 T?}9 'Ay- 
Tto^fta9 eVt<r:o7ro9, 3eto-a9 T^V IIe/jo-ft)i/ e<f>o8ov 69 

18 KtXta9 rf\,0ev. ov Srj KOI Tepfjiavo<; d^i/cero ov 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. vii. 11-18 

with anger and he fired nearly the whole city. He 
then mounted the acropolis and decided to storm the 
fortress. There indeed the Roman soldiers while 
valiantly defending themselves slew some of the 
enemy ; but Chosroes was greatly favoured by 
fortune by reason of the folly of the besieged, who 
had not sought refuge in this fortress by themselves, 
but along with all their horses and other animals, 
and by this inconsiderate act they were placed at a 
great disadvantage and began to be in danger. For 
since there was only one spring there and the horses 
and mules and other animals drank from it when 
they should not have done so, it came about that the 
water was exhausted. Such, then, was the situation 
of the Beroeans. 

Megas, upon reaching Antioch and announcing 
the terms arranged by him with Chosroes, failed 
utterly to persuade them to carry out this agreement. 
For it happened that the Emperor Justinian had 
sent John, the son of Rufinus, and Julian, his private l 
secretary, as ambassadors to Chosroes. The person 
holding this office is styled " a secretis " by the 
Romans ; for secrets they are accustomed to call 
" secreta." These men had reached Antioch and were 
remaining there. Now Julian, one of the ambassa- 
dors, explicitly forbade everybody to give money to 
the enemy, or to purchase the cities of the emperor, 
and besides he denounced to Germanus the chief 
priest Ephraemius, as being eager to deliver over 
the city to Chosroes. For this reason Megas returned 
unsuccessful. But Ephraemius, the bishop of An- 
tioch, fearing the attack of the Persians, went into 
Cilicia. There too came Germanus not long after- 

1 " Secretary of secrets." 

317 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

7roXX&> v&repov, 0X1701/9 /j,ev nvas 
T0i>9 Be 7rXeio-TOU9 evravOa ed(ra<$. 

19 Me79 8e Kara rd%os 69 Hepoiav 

Svvos re Tot9 v/j,7recrov<Ti yevo/jievos rjridro 
X.ocrp6r/v elpydcrdai Be/3otaioi>9 dvocria epya, on 
or) avrbv /jiev 9 'Avri6%eiav 009 eVt rat9 aTrovbais 
<rri\ete, rwv 8e 7ro\irwv ov&ev TO rcapdrcav 
rfSiKTjKorfov rd re ^pri^ara ehrjicraro Kal rjvdy- 
tcacre o-<^>a9 avrovs ev rovrtp 8r) r& <f)povpiq> 
fcadelpjfai, ovrw re rrjv rfo\iv e/j,Tcprfcras 69 TO 

20 ea<o9 ov 8eov KadeTXe. Trpb? ravra 6 Xoo-^0^9 
aTretcptvaro a>Be " Tovrwv /j,evroi, & eraipe, avro<f 
atTt09, evrav6a dvayKacras rj^a^ Siarpi^rat' ov 
yap ev r& rerayfievy Kaipw, d\\a Kara TTO\V 

21 TO^TOU ye v(rrepr)cra<f ravvv d<j>ij;ai. rwv 8e crwv 
7TO\ira)V rr)V arorrlav ri av ris eVt rc\elcrrov, aJ 
ySeXTicrTe, fj,aKpo\oyoir); o'i ye raKrbv r^uv 
a)fj,o\oyr)K6re<> dpyvpiov 8(i>cretv vrcep rr)$ crfywv 
avrwv crwrrjpia^, ovrrw Kal vvv eTureXeiv oiovrai 

Seiv ra EvyKeiueva, aXX' dve&rjv ovru> ywpiov 
. /.. /j b / r - \ r 

io"%vi vapffricravres rcepiopwaiv ?)/ia9 609 jj,a\icrra 

r)vayKacr/j,evov<; e9 (f>povpiov rroXiopKiav, 009 0/XZ9 

22 SrJTrou, KaOiaraadat. 0^9 ye Sr) eyayye vv 8eol<? 
eXmSa ev&) 6\iya> vcrrepov rLcraadai, 1 Kal ITep- 

^A / /cj/ r \ -o - / 

arwv Tfov fioi ov oeov rrpo rovoe rov re^ovs 
drco\u)\oro)v rr)v Ko\acriv e9 TOU9 alriovs em- 

23 TeXecrefr." o pJev Xoo*/jo^9 ToaavTa elrrev, 6 
Meya9 oe dfieLj3eraL wSe " Et pAv, on, ftacriXevf; 
dv0pa)7roi<> oiKrpols re Kal dri/j,ordrois ravrd 

av Tt9, 



1 rtffaffdat MSS. : riffecrdai Herwerden. 

2 liriKa.\ei s Hoeschel : 3iriKa\f'i MSS. 
318 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. vii. 18-23 

wards, taking with him some few men but leaving 
the most of them in Antioch. 

Megas then came in haste to Beroea, and in vexa- 
tion at what had taken place, he charged Chosroes 
with having treated the Beroeans outrageously ; for 
while, as it seemed, he had sent him to Antioch to 
arrange the treaty, he had both plundered the pro- 
? perty of the citizens, though they had committed no 
'' wrong at all, and had compelled them to shut them- 
5 selves up in that fortress, and had then set fire to the 
} city and razed it to the ground in defiance of right. 

To this Chosroes replied as follows : " Verily, my 

* friend, you yourself are responsible for these things, 
1 in having compelled us to delay here ; for as it is, 
! you have arrived, not at the appointed time, but far 
\ behind it. And as for the strange conduct of your 
I fellow-citizens, my most excellent sir, why should one 
f make speeches of great length ? For after agreeing 

to give us a fixed amount of silver for their own 
safety, they even now do not think it necessary to 
fulfil the agreement, but placing such complete 
confidence in the strength of their position, they are 
disregarding us absolutely, while we are compelled 
to undertake the siege of a fortress, as you surely 
see. But for my part, I have hope that with the 
help of the gods I shall have vengeance upon them 
shortly, and execute upon the guilty the punishment 
for the Persians whom I have lost wrongfully before 
this wall." So spoke Chosroes, and Megas replied as 
follows : "If one should consider that as king thou art 
naking these charges against men who are in pitiable 
'"ynd most dishonoured plight, he would be compelled 
w thout a word of protest to agree with what thou 



319 



PROCOP1US OF CAESAREA 

dvTi\eyovra TO19 eiprjfAevois 6jJ,o\oyeiv ry jap 
e^ovcrLa rfj a\\r} KOI TO rat \6yco tcparelv (hrecrdai 

24 7recf)VKV' rjv Be TGI) ej;f) raXXa dTTOcreicrafj^vto rov 
d\r)6fj \6<yov e\ecrdai, ovBev av r/fjiiv, w ftaaiXev, 
SiKaia><; eiriKa\eiv e%ot9* OTTO)? Be aTravra d/covcry 

25 7rpau9. e<ya) pev yap, eTreiBrj airep 'A.VTio%V(riv 
eV^77e\\e9, BrjXaxrwv eVraX^j/, eySSoyu-ato? (roi 9 
o-^nv YJKWV (oy rt av yevecrffai Bvvairo dacrcrov;} 
ravTa croi e^eipyacr/jieva 69 TrarpiBa Trjv e/j,rjv evpov. 

26 ot 8e 77 TrdvTwv ijBr) TWV Ti^Lwrdrwv eKffrdvres, 
elra 69 TW Tre/ot ^^^9 dycova fcadia-ravrat fiovov, 
rcpelffcrovs, olftai, yeyevrjpevoi ij croi ri TO \onrov 

27 Twy xpij/jLarcov elcrtyepeiv. TO 7/j e/CTtvvvvai rt 
T(av ov 7rap6vra)v dvOp(i>Trw av ovBepia /jifj^avr) 

28 yevoiro. 7rd\ai Be TOt9 dvdpcojrois ev Te KOI 
/ca\w9 Bia>picrTai ra rwv 7rpay/j,dr(itv ovopara- ev 
0^9 at ToSe e&riv, dyvujjioa-vvr)*; Ke^wpiaOai 

29 dcrdeveiav. 17 yLte^ 7^/3 rpoTrov dtco\acria e9 TO 
dvrireiveiv %Q)povcra fjiicrelcrdat, co9 TO ei/co9, 
eiwOev, /) 8e T) T^9 virovpyias dBwdrw e9 ravro 
rovro eK(f>epo/j,evr) e\elcr0aL l/cavus TrefyvKev. 

30 eaaov roivvv ?)/ia9 airavra, & ftacriXev, K\rjpa)- 
aa/j,evov<> ra %eipicrTa TOVTO yovv 
Trapafivdtov, TO /i^ Bofcetv rwv 

31 ?7/Afcv avTovs alriovs l yevecrdai. teal 

croi ocra \a/3a>v e^et9 Biap/ceiv oiov, pr) rco r 

1 ainovs alriovs Haury : auTo?s airiots (alrlas H) MSS. 
320 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. vii. 23-31 

hast said ; for authority which is unlimited is bound 
by its very nature to carry with it also supremacy 
in argument ; but if one be permitted to shake off 
all else and to espouse the truth of the matter, thou 
wouldst have, O King, nothing with which justly to 
reproach us ; but mayst thou hear all mildly. First, 
as for me, since the time when I was sent to declare 
to the men of Antioch the message which thou didst 
send them, seven days have passed (and what could 
be done more quickly than this ?) and now coming 
into thy presence I find these things accomplished by 
thee against my fatherland ; but these men, having 
already lost all that is most valuable, thereafter have 
only one struggle to engage in that for life and 
have come, I think, so to be masters of the situation 
that they can no longer be compelled to pay thee 
any of the money. For to pay a thing which one 
does not possess could not be made possible for a 
man by any device. From of old indeed have the 
names of things been well and suitably distinguished 
by men , and among these distinctions is this, that 
want of power is separated from want of consider- 
ation. For when the latter by reason of intemperance 
of mind proceeds to resistance, it is accustomed to 
be detested, as is natural, but when the former, 
because of the impossibility of performing a service, 
is driven to the same point, it deserves to be pitied. 
Permit, therefore, O King, that, while we receive as 
our portion all the direst misfortunes, we may take 
with us this consolation at least, that we should not 
seem to have been ourselves responsible for the 
things which have befallen us. And as for money, 
consider that what thou hast taken into thy posses- 
sion is sufficient for thee, not weighing this by thy 

321 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



ravra aTa6/j,a>f*,evo<> d^trnfjuaTi, d\\d TTJV Be/oot- 

32 alwv GKOTTWV SvvajAiv. Trepatrepo) 8e 77/^9 ftid^ov 
/j,ij8ev, fjurj TTOTe So^ys 049 eytfexeipijfcas d8vvaTO<> 
eivai' TO 'yap V7repf3d\\ov del T& 
TeTi/JbijTar TO Be /J,T) rot? dSvvdrois 

33 Kpdncrrov. ravTa ftev ovv JMOL 

ev TO) Trapavri/ca vwep dvSpwv rwvSe. r)v Se 
ye rot? Ta\aiTT(0poi<; gvyyeve<T0ai Swarbs eirjv, 
e^oifjbi dv Ti teal d\\o T&V vvv p,e \\.r)d6ro)v 

34 etTretv." rocravra TOV Meyav ecTrovra 6 Xocr^o?;? 
9 Tr)V dicpoTroKiv d<pf)Kev levai. 09 BTJ evravffa 

teal rd v/j,7re<r6vTa dfA<pl rfj Trrjyfj 
ajravra, Se8aKpv/j,evo<> re trapd Xocrp6i]v 
d^iKero /ecu irptjirfyi et/A6vo9 ovSev /j,ev 
tcr^vpi^ero dTrd\e\el(f)6aL rwv Trdvroov 
/juova Se ol rwv dv0p(07ra>v i/cereve 

35 'X/apielcrdai. rd crca/juira. rat9 re TOV dvSpbs 6\o- 
fyvpaecriv o Xocrpo^9 r^yfjievos Trjv 8er)o~iv eTUT\fj 
eTroieiTO, /cal &io[u>crdp,evo<s aTrao-t TO 49 ev drcpo- 

36 TroXet TO- TriaTCL eSaifce. Repoiaioi 8e Trapd 
ToaovTOV KIV&VVOV e\66vT6<>, d7re\nrov re Trjv 
d/cpoTToXiv aTTadels /ca/cwv Kal dmovres 

37 o>9 e/ca<rT09 7777 

oKlyoi /jt,ev avTols Tives e'iirovTO, ol Be 

Trapd Xocrporjv ai>To^o\oi rf\6ov, TTI- 
OTI 8rj ra9 crvvTa^eis %povov /J-a/cpov 

afylai TO Sij/Mocriov a)(j)\, -/cat %vv avrw vaTepov 

69 ra Ylepcrwv ij 



322 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. vii. 31-37 

position, but with regard to the power of the 
Beroeans. But beyond this do not force us in any 
way, lest perchance thou shouldst seem unable to 
accomplish the thing to which thou hast set thy hand ; 
for excess is always punished by meeting obstacles 
that cannot be overcome, and. the best course is not 
to essay the impossible. Let this, then, be my de- 
fence for the moment in behalf of these men. But if 
I should be able to have converse with the .sufferers, 
I should have something else also to say which has 
now escaped me." So spoke Megas, and Chosroes 
permitted him to go into the acropolis. And when 
he had gone there and learned all that had happened 
concerning the spring, weeping he came again 
before Chosroes, and lying prone on the ground 
insisted that no money at all was left to the Beroeans, 
and entreated him to grant him only the lives of the 
men. Moved by the tearful entreaties of the man 
Chosroes fulfilled his request, and binding him- 
self by an oath, gave pledges to all on the acropolis. 
Then the Beroeans, after coming into such great 
danger, left the acropolis free from harm, and 
departing went each his own way. Among the 
soldiers some few followed them, but the majority 
came as willing deserters to Chosroes, putting forth 
as their grievance that the government owed them 
their pay for a long time ; and with him they later 
went into the land of Persia. 



3 2 3 
Y 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



VIII 

Be (KOI yap ol Meya? 
ovBafArj rcerceiKevai 'Aimo^ea.<? 

2 Travrl ra> (rr parti) eV avrovs fjei. 'Aimo^eaw Be 
rives fiev evOevOe vv rots Xptj/jLacriv eavacrrdvre<t 
etyewyov a>? eacrT09 TTI; eBvvaro, ravro Be TOVTO 
Bievoovvro KOI ol \onrol j~vp,Travres, el 

ol TWV ev Aiftdvo) (TTpariwTwv 

re real MoXaT^?;?, %vv 
dvBpdcriv e\7ricri re avrovs emppcitcravref Bie/cca- 

3 \vcrav. ov Brj ov TroXXw varepov teal TO TIepcrwv 
arpdrevfjia rj\6ev. evravdd re Bie(TKtjv7}fj,evoi 
ecrrparojreBevcravro arcavres TT/JO? re 'Opovry r> 

4 TTora/^ft) teal avrov ov 7ro\\a> arcodev. ^.oaporj^ 
re TLavXov Trapa rbv TrepiftoXov arei\a<f rov<t 
'Ai'Tto^ea9 ^prjfiara yrei, Betca %pvcrov /cevrrj- 
vapiwv arcalOwyricreaOal evBevBe, 1 vBf)\6<; re r)v 
Kal rovrow eXdacro) CTTI rfj dva^tapijcrei 'X.rj-^o- 

5 /jievos. Kal rore /Aev rjicovres rcapa rov X.o<rp6r)v 
ol rfpecrfteis, etTroyre? re a/i<i rf) Biakvcrei T*}? 
eiprjvr)S TroXXa, Kal Trpos eKeivov ciKOvaavres 

6 dve%(t)pr)(Tav. rfj Be ercLOvar) r)/j,epa rwv 'Avrio- 
^ewv o Bfj/jios (etcrl yap ov KarecnrovBaa^evoi, 
aXXa <ye\oioi<; re Kal draia i/cavws eyovrai} 
TroXXa e? rov Xocrpoijv vftpi^ov re drco rwv 

7 erfd\^ewv Kal vv yeXcori aK6ap,<f> eru>6a^ov Kal 
TLav\ov rov irepifioXov eyyvs rjKOvra rrapaivovvrd 

1 Haury suggests tvdtvtif <6fj.o\oy<ai . 
324 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. viii. 1-7 



VIIJ 

THEN Chosroes (since Megassaid that he had by no 
means persuaded the inhabitants of Antioch to 
bring him the money) went with his whole army 
against them. Some of the population of Antioch 
thereupon departed from there with their money 
and fled as each one could. And all the rest likewise 
were purposing to do the same thing, and would 
have done so had not the commanders of the troops 
in Lebanon, Theoctistus and Molatzes, who arrived 
in the meantime with six thousand' men, fortified 
them with hope and thus prevented their departure. 
Not long after this the Persian army also came. 
There they all pitched their tents and made camp 
fronting on the River Orontes and not very far 
from the stream. Chosroes then sent Paulus up 
beside the fortifications and demanded money from 
the men of Antioch, saying that for ten centenaria l 
of gold he would depart from there, and it was ob- 
vious that he would accept even less than this for 
his withdrawal. And on that day their ambassadors 
went before Chosroes, and after speaking at length 
concerning the breaking of the peace and hearing 
much from him, they retired. But on the morrow 
the populace of Antioch (for they ai-e not seriously 
disposed, but are always engaged in jesting and 
disorderly performance) heaped, insults upon Chos- 
roes from the battlements and taunted him with 
unseemly laughter ; and when Paulus came near 
the fortifications and exhorted them to purchase 
freedom for themselves and the city for a small 

1 Of. Book I. xxii. 4. 

325 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



re %pr)fj,dra>v o\iywv cr<f)d<? re avrovs Kal rr)v 
TToKiv onvelcrOai, 6\iyov eBerjaav ro^evcravres 
Kreivai, el prj Trpo'iBaiv e<^v\d^aro. Bib Brj 



8 Tfj ovv varepaiq eTrayaycov arcavras Tie per as 
7Tt TO ret^o? aXXoi"? pev a\\rj 7rpocr{3d\\eiv rov 
TTorafiov eK\6vev, avrbs Be rovs rc\ei(?rovs re 
teal dpiarovs e^wv Kara rrjv a/cpav 7rpocre/3aXXe. 
ravry 'yap, w? JJLOL ep^TrpoaOev epprjdrj, eVtyLta%(Ta- 

9 TO? o 7rept/3oX,09 f)v. evravOa 'Pcopatoi (arevordrri 
yap 77 ol/coBo/jiia ervy^avev ovcra e<p' f)<> icrrd- 

TToKe/Jbelv e/^eXXov) eirevorjcrav rdBe. BOKOVS 
6? d\\rj\ov<; vv8eovres /Jiera^v rcov 
e/cpe/Awv, ovrco re 7ro\\a) evpvrepas 
Brj ravras ras ^copa<; ercolovv, orrcos eri TrXetou? 
evOevBe d/juvvecrdai rovs rei^o/jLa^ovvra^ oloi re 

10 waiv. ol fj,ev ovv Tiepcrai la^vporara e 
Travra^odev ra ro%evpM,ra crv%va enef 

11 re Kal Kara rrjv rijs a/cyoa? VTrep/3o\r)V. ol Be 
'P&)yuatot TIIIVVOVTO Bvvd/j,ei Trdcrrj, ov arrparifarai 
fjidvov, d\\a Kal rov BIJ/AOV evro\/LLoraroi veavlai 

12 rro\\oi. eBoKovv Be ol rei^ofjLa^ovvre^ evravOa 
69 rrjv fjud'xyv IK rov dvrnrdXov rot9 ?roXe//.tot9 
Kadicrracrdai. 77 yap Trerpa, evpeid ri$ Kal v^rrj\rj 
ovcra KCLI warrep dvnrerayfjbevrj rw 7rept/3oXft) 
KaOdrrep e'0' 6fia\ov elvai rrjv vfj,/3o\rjv erroiei. 

13 Kal el jjiev Tt9 eOdpayae rov 'Pco/juifov crrparov 
%vv rptaKoaiois e^w re yevecrdai rov 7repi/36\ov 
xal rrjv Trerpav eKeivrjv rr pore psoras Kara\aftelv 
evBevBe <re> rou9 einovras df^vvacrdat, OVK av 

326 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. viii. 7-13 

sum of money, they very nearly killed him with 
shots from their bows, and would have done so 
if he had riot seen their purpose in time and 
guarded against it. On account of this Chosroes, 
boiling with anger, decided to storm the wall. 

On the following day, accordingly, he led up all 
the Persians against the wall and commanded a 
portion of the army to make assaults at different 
points along the river, and he himself with the most 
of the men and best troops directed an attack 
against the height. For at this place, as has been 
stated by me above, the wall of fortification was most 
vulnerable. Thereupon the Romans, since the 
structure on which they were to stand when fighting 
was very narrow, devised the following remedy. 
Binding together long timbers they suspended them 
between the towers, and in this way they made 
these spaces much broader, in order that still more 
men might be able to ward off the assailants from 
there. So the Persians, pressing on most vigorously 
from all sides, were sending their arrows thickly 
everywhere, and especially along the crest of the hill. 
Meanwhile the Romans were fighting them back 
with all their strength, not soldiers alone, but also 
many of the most courageous youths of the populace. 
But it appeared that those who were attacking the 
wall there were engaged in a battle on even terms 
with their enemy. For the rock which was broad 
and high and, as it were, drawn up against the 
fortifications caused the conflict to be just as if on 
level ground. And if anyone of the Roman army 
had had the courage to get outside the fortifications 
with three hundred men and to anticipate the enemy 
in seizing this rock and to ward off the assailants 

327 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

7TOT6, ot/iat, jrpbs rwv 7roXe//.ta>i/ e9 KivBvvov riva 

14 j_ 7r_oXty r>\9ev. ov yap el^ov 66ev 6pfjL(t)/j,evot 
T6t%o /Jia^olev ol ftdpfiapot, Kara K0pv<f>rjv etc re 
T79 rrerpas /cat airo rov refyovs /3aXXo/Ltei>ot' vvv 
Se (/cat fyap eSet 'Ai/rio^ea? TOUT&) TO> M^Swy 
(TTparw a7ro\.ecr0ai) ovSevl TOVTO 9 evvoiav f)\6e. 

15 TWP yLiev oyy IIe/3cra)i', are XocrpooL' Trapovros 
(T^iai teal Kpavyfj ej/ceXevo/jievov /jLeyakrj, inrep 

/3iaofj,vwv teal ov8eva rot9 eVai/rtot9 
Kaipbv wcrre 8tacr/co7retcr^at 17 

o^evfidrcov (3o\d<>, 

TI fid\\ov 7r\ri6ei re TroXXw /cat Oopvftw d/jivvo- 
pevayv, OVK eveyKOVcrai. TO a^#o9 at a%oivoi als at 
Soicol ^vv8e8earo, Sieppdyijcrav etc rov al<f>vi$iov 
real %vv rat9 Soot9 aTravres oaoi aurat9 e<f>ecrrr)- 
fce&av 69 TO eSa<^09 e^eirecrov Trardyw TroXXw. 

16 ov 8^ alo-06/u.evoi Kal aXXot f Pa)//,ata)^ ot e/c 
TTVpywv rwv fyo/jievwv efid^ovro, teal 

yu-ev TO 7670^09 oi>Sa/J,rj e%ovre<t 

17 ravry TO Tet^O9 ol6jj,evoi e'9 fyvyrjv a>pfj,r)vro. rov 
pev ovv Stjfjuov veaviai TroXXot 6Vot Ta rrporepa 
7T/909 76 aXXTyXoi/9 aracrid^eiv ev T0t9 imroopo- 
yittot9 elcodeaav, ejreiSr) aTro ToO rrepif36\ov icare- 
/3r]o~av, ov^a^fi etyevyov, nXX' avrov e^evov, ol 8e 
(rrpariwrai %vv re ^eoKriarw Kal MoXaT^ ev6vs 
errl rovs Imrovs dvadopovres 01 &rj evravdd Tnj 
jrapeo-Kevao-fjievoi ervy^avov, eirl rds rrv\a<s arcr]- 
\avvov, ^ov^rfv avTOts em6pv\ovvre<i %vv o~rparu> 

, e6e\ew re Kara rd%os Sejfao-Qai fj.ev avrovs 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. viii. 13-17 

from there, never, 1 believe, would the city have 
come into any danger from the enemy. For the 
barbarians had no point from which they could have 
conducted their assault, for they would be exposed 
to missiles from above both from the rock and from 
the wall ; but as it was (for it was fated that Antioch 
be destroyed by this army of the Medes), this idea 
occurred to no one. So then while the Persians were 
fighting beyond their power, since Chosroes was 
present with them and urging them on with a 
mighty cry, giving their opponents not a moment in 
which to look about or guard against the missiles 
discharged from their bows, and while the Romans, 
in great numbers and with much shouting, were 
defending themselves still more vigorously, the 
ropes with which the beams had been bound 
together, failing to support the weight, suddenly 
broke asunder and the timbers together with all 
those who had taken their stand on them fell to the 
ground with a mighty crash. When this was heard 
by other Romans also, who were fighting from the 
adjoining towers, being utterly unable to comprehend 
what had happened, but supposing that the wall 
at this point had been destroyed, they beat a hasty 
retreat. Now many young men of the populace 
who in former times had been accustomed to engage 
in factional strife with each other in the hippodromes 
descended into the city from the fortification wall, 
but they refused to flee and remained where they 
were, while the soldiers with Theoctistus and 
Molatzes straightway leaped upon the horses which 
happened to be ready there and rode away to the 
gates, telling the others a <tale to the effect that 
Bouzes had come with an army and they wished to 

3 2 9 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

ry TroXet, %vv aurot? Se rou9 7roA.e/*iou9 dfjivvacrOai. 

18 evravOa rwv 'Ai/Tto^e&>i> TroXXot /*ei> av&pes, 
yvvaitces Se rraaai vv rot? 7rat8tot9 errt ra< 

8p6fJ,u> 7roAA,&> fieaav elra Trpo? reov 'LTTTTWV 
are et crrevo^copia 7roX,X^ eTrnrrov. 

19 ot Se aTpaTiWTai TWV ev Trocrlv ovSevb? TO irapd- 
irav (fieibo/jLevoi, eri /AoXXov rj Trporepov virepOev 
TWV KeifJbevwv cnravres rjXavvov, yeyove re <f)6vo<> 
evravda 7ro\,v<$ aXXco? re /cat Kara ra? 
aura?. 

20 Ot Se Tlepcrai, ovSevbs crtyicriv 

tfXi/taAra? eTudevres ejrl TO Tet%o? ovSevl TTOVW 
dveftaivov. ev re Tat? e7raX,eo-t aT<z 

%p6vov rtva Karaftaivetv 
, d\\a Siacr/coTrovfievots re /cat diropov- 
ewicecrav, eyLtot yuei/ ^o/cet, Trpo\o^L^ea'dai 
Ta? 8va"%a>pia<? eveSpais ricrl T&W TroXep^iwv VTTO- 

21 TO7rd%ovT6<>. . ra yap ei^T09 TOV TrepiftoXov avro 
T>}9 a/cpas 6v0vs fcariovTi \\OLTTOV~\ doifcrjTos %o)pa 
eTri TrXeto'Toi' ecrTt. Trerpai re \iav tn^Xat 

22 dve%ovcriv evravOa /cat TOTTOI KprjftvwSeis. evioi 
8e (fracri Xocrpoov ryvai/Ar) yeyovevai rr)v yLteXXr/o'ty 

23 IIepcrat9. ejreiBr) <yap rrjv re 8va"%a)pt,av /carevorja-e 
/cat TOt9 crrpari(ara<> (f)ev<yovras elSev, eSetcre /AT; 

e/c T^9 vTraywyfjs dvacrr petyavres 
tyicri Trapdcr^covrai, fj,ir68toi re 
i, av ovra> rv%oi, TTO\IV e\,elv dp^auav re 
/cat \6yov d^iav /cat Trpcarrjv PtyLtatot9 ovaav 
rwv Kara rijv eo) Tracrwv 7ro\ea)v, ir\ovrw re /cat 
/cat 7ro\vavd pwma /cat /caXXet /cat T^ 



33 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. viii. 17-23 

receive them quickly into the city, and with them to 
ward off the enemy. Thereupon many of the men of 
Antioch and all the women with their children made 
a great rush toward the gates ; but since they were 
crowded by the horses, being in very narrow 
quarters, they began to fall down. The soldiers, 
however, sparing absolutely no one of those before 
them, all kept riding over the fallen still more 
fiercely than before, and a great many were killed 
there, especially about the gates themselves. 

But the Persians, with no one opposing them, set 
ladders against the wall and mounted with no 
difficulty. And quickly reaching the battlements, 
for a time they were by no means willing to descend, 
but they seemed like men looking about them and 
at a loss what to do, because, as it seems to me, 
they supposed that the rough ground was beset 
with some ambuscades of the enemy. For the land 
inside the fortifications which one traverses imme- 
diately upon descending from the height is an 
uninhabited tract extending for a great distance and 
there are found there rocks which rise to a very great 
height, and steep places. But some say that it 
was by the will of Chosroes that the Persians hesi- 
tated. For when he observed the difficulty of the 
ground and saw the soldiers fleeing, he feared lest by 
reason of some necessity they should turn back from 
their retreat and make trouble for the Persians, and 
thus become an obstacle, as might well happen, in 
the way of his capturing a city which was both 
ancient and of great importance and the first of all 
the cities which the Romans had throughout the 
East both in wealth and in size and in population 
arid in beauty and in prosperity of every kind. 

33 1 



PROCOP1US OF CAESAREA 

24 aXXr/ evoai/AOvia. ov Bij, Trepi eXda&ovos raXXa 
rroiovfAevos arravra, r)9e\e rois Pw/jtaiwv &rpa- 
riwrais /caipbv evoiBovai, ware KCUT e^ovcriav rfj 
(f>vyf) %p?)cr6ai. Bib Br) /ecu rat? %e/3crt rot? 
(freuyovcn Tlepaai, crrj^aivovre^ evetceXevovTo <$>ev- 

25 yeiv 009 rd^icrra, ol /j,ev ovv ffrpariMTai r Pa>- 
fj,ai(av %vv rot? [aXXoi?] ap%overiv djriovres 
m^ovro airavres Sia 77^X779 r) CTTI Adffrvrjv ayei TO 

26 TWV 'Ai/Tio^ecoy Trpodcrreiov ravr^ jap /j,6wr)S, 
TMV aXXwv KareiX.ij/Jtfj.evaiv, aTrecr^ovro Tiepcrar 
rov Be SijfAov 0X1704 rives %vv rot9 crrparicoTat^ 

27 Sie(j)vyov, eTrel 8e Hepcrai airavra^ TOVS 'Pu>- 
fjiaiwv <TTyoaTtce)Ta9 elSov Trpocra) ^coprja'avra^, 
KarafidvTes O.TTO rrj<t a/cpas ev f^ecrr) TroXei 

28 ejevovro. evravda 8e avrots TWV ^AvTio^ewv 
veavlai vroXXol e? %etyoa9 e\06vres ra Trpwra 
KaOvTreprepoi e8o^av ry v/ji,(3o\fj elvat. rjcrav 8e 
avT&v rive^ fjuev oTrXtreu, ol &e TrXetcrrot jv/j^vol 

29 teal \idayv /9oXa?9 ^paifMevoi /j,6vai<t. uxra^evoi Se 
Toy9 TroXe/Atoi'9 eTraidvi^ov re KCU 'iov<rriviavbv 
/3acn\a fca\\iviKOv, are veviKijtcore 1 ?, dvefcpayov. 

30 'Ev rovrw Be XocryOo?79 ev Trvpyw rw Kara rrjv 
atcpav Kadrjiievos rov? irpeaf3eis e6e\wv ri elrrelv 
fjiererce/ji^aro. /cal avrbv rcov T49 dp^ovroov, 6 
Zafiepydvrjs, olojJievos ^v^lBdffewi Trepi /3ov\eadai 
TOt9 Trpecrftecriv 9 Xo70f9 levai, 9 o-^riv re r& 

31 /SacrtXet /card rd%o<; rj\.6e KO\ eXe^ev a>8e " Ov^l 
ravrd l pot So/eels, w Secnrora, 'Pw/jLaiois o/t0l 
rfj rovratv aMrtjpLa yivcacr/ceiv. ol /juev yap /cal 
rrpo rwv KivSvvwv vftpifavcriv 9 rrjv ftaai- 
\eiav rrjv crrjv /cal ijcrarj/jievoi roX//,<y<n' re ra 

1 ravra Maltretus : ravra MSS. 
33 2 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. viii. 23-31 

Hence it was that, considering everything else of 
less account, he wished to allow the Roman soldiers 
freely to avail themselves of the chance for flight. 
For this reason too the Persians also made signs to 
the fugitives with their hands, urging them to flee as 
quickly as possible. So the soldiers of the Romans 
together with their commanders took a hasty de- 
parture, all of them, through the gate which leads to 
Daphne, the suburb of Antioch ; for from this gate 
alone the Pei'sians kept away while the others were 
seized ; and of the populace some few escaped with 
the soldiers. Then when the Persians saw that all 
the Roman soldiers had gone on, they descended 
from the height and got into the middle of the city. 
There, however, many of the young men of Antioch 
engaged in battle with them, and at first they 
seemed to have the upper hand in the conflict. 
Some of them were in heavy armour, but the 
majority were unarmed and using only stones as 
missiles. And pushing back the enemy they raised . 
the paean, and with shouts proclaimed the Emperor J 
Justinian triumphant, as if they had won the victory. 
At this point Chosroes, seated on the tower which 
is on the height, summoned the ambassadors, 
wishing to say something. And one of his officers, 
Zaberganes, thinking that he wished to have words 
with the ambassadors concerning a settlement, 
came quickly before the king and spoke as follows : 
"Thou dost not seem to me, O Master, to think 
in the same way as do the Romans concerning the 
safety of these men. For they both before 
fighting offer insults to thy kingdom, and when 
they are defeated dare the impossible and do the 



333 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

KOI bpuxri TOU<? Ile^cra? dvrjKecrra epya, 
axnrep SeSiores //.?; ris avrois irapa aol <f)i\av- 
Opwrcias ~\e\el^rerai \6<yo$' CTV Be rovs re 
<TG>o~0ai OVK dfyovvras eXeeiv /3ov\ei, Kol faiSe- 

32 crOai rmv ovBa/ju-ij ede\6vTwv eeTrovBafcas. ol Be 

avTes ev a\ovcrr) 7r6\et TOU? veviKrjKoras 
ricrl Siatydeipovcn, Kal-nep airdvTWV 

33 aurot9 TrdXat 7re(j>evj6r(ov err par tear wv." Tavra 
6 Xocr90^9 d/covcras, rwv dia-rwv TTO\\OV<; e?r' 



avrovs eTrefjiev, ot OVK e<? ^aicpav 

34 ovSev vfi,/3r)vai <f)\avpov d7nj<yye\\ov. tfSr) yap 
'A^Tio^ea? Hepaai ftiacrd/jievoi 7r\rf0ei eTpetyavro, 
/ecu yeyove fyovos evravOa TTO\V<>. ol yap Tlepcrai 
ovSe/Aids ri\ifcia<> (freioo/jLevoi TOU9 ev Troalv 

35 aTravra? rjftijSbv e/creivov. Tore <pao~l yvvalicas 
rwv <ev> *AvTio%evffiv e7ri(f>av(t)v ovo yeveaOai 
[Lev et;ci) rov Trepi/36\ov, al&Oo/jievas Se &>? VTTO 
rot? TroXe/itof? yevrja-ovTai (Travra'^oae yap ijBr) 

Kadewpwvro] Spopw /nev irapa [TOV] 
'QpovTiyv e\0eiv, (f>o(3ov/jiva$ Be fitf n 
TO <rw/Aa vftpiawcri Hepcrai, rat9 re /ca- 
\VTTTpais eyKaX-v^afJievcL^ ra TrpocrtoTra /cal e? TO 
TOV TTOTa/toO pev/jia epirecrovcras dfyaviadrivai. 
Trdcra rca/cov TOVS 'Ai/Tto^ea? loea eo-%ev. 



IX 

1 'Ei>TaC#a o Xoaporjs Tofr Trpeo-ftecrtv 

roidSe " OVK ea) rov d\rj6ov<> rov rraXaibv \6yov 
elvai, on Srj OVK aKpai(f)vrj rdyada 6 deos, 



334 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. viii. 3 i-ix. i 

Persians irreparable harm, as if fearing lest some 
reason for shewing them humanity should be 
left in thee ; but thou art wishing to pity those 
who do not ask to be saved, and hast shewn 
zeal to spare those who by no means wish it. 
Meanwhile these men have set an ambush in a 
captured city and are destroying the victors by 
means of snares, although all the soldiers have long 
since fled from them." When Chosroes heard this, 
he sent a large number of the best troops against 
them, and these not long afterwards returned 
and announced that nothing untoward had come 
to pass. For already the Persians had forced back 
the citizens by their numbers and turned them to 
flight, and a great slaughter took place there. For 
the Persians did not spare persons of any age and were 
slaying all whom they met, old and young alike. At 
that time they say that two women of those who 
were illustrious in Antioch got outside the fortifica- 
tions, but perceiving that they would fall into the 
hands of the enemy (for they were already plainly 
seen going about everywhere), went running to the 
River Orontes, and, fearing lest the Persians should do 
them some insult, they covered their faces with their 
veils and threw themselves into the river's current 
and were carried out of sight. Thus the inhabitants of 
Antioch were visited with every form of misfortune. 



IX 

THEN Chosroes spoke to the ambassadors as 
follows : " Not far from the truth, I think, is the 
ancient saying that God does not give blessings 

335 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



Kepavvvwv avra rots KaKots era rots 

2 dvdpaiTTOts 7rape%erai. KOL Bt avrb ovBe TO ye\dv 
CLK~Kavarov e^Ofjbev, TrapaTreTrrjye Be ns del rots 
yu,ey evrv%rjfj,a(ri avfj,<j)Opd, rats Be yBovats \virr), 
OVK ewcrai nva ryvvjcrias TTOTC T?}? 

3 evr)/j,epia<f aTrovacrOai. TTO\LV yap 
\oj(ordTT)v e? ra /iaXtcrra \eyofjbevrjv re /ecu 
ovaav ev yfj rfj 'Pfopaiwv, aTrovcarara ^ev eXetv 
io"%vcra, TOV deov avTOO"%e&ido'a 

4 opare BTJTTOV, Trjv v'iKt]v. (frovov pevroi avO 
opwvri fj,oi rocrovTcov TO 77X77^09, affuvri re 
fteftcnrncrfMevov TO rpoTraiov, ovSe/jbia rfjs curb 1 

5 T?}9 7TyOtt^e&)9 r)Sovi)<> yeyovev a'lcrdrjcris. KCU 
ot TaXatTrtoyoot 'Aimo^efc atrioi, 01 ye 

t,ev ov% oloL re yeyovaffi IIe/9cra9 
i, Trpbs 8e veviKrjfcoras 'tjSr} /cal avrofioel 
bvra<s dpdaei Oavarwvres dXoyicrry 

6 ^vyofjut^elv eyvwaav. irdvres [lev ovv oi Hepcrwv 
SoKifAOi 7ro\\a evox^ovvres aayrjvevcrai re fte rrjv 
Tr6\iv rj^iovv teal ^vprcavras Siacfrdeipai TOU9 r)\(o- 
Koras, eyci) Be rovs fyevyovras e/ceXevov els rrjv 
VTraywyijv en /j,a\\ov opfjiav, 0770)9 on, 
<T(ooivro. TO yap eTre/jL/Baiveiv T0t9 

7 oatov" roaavra fiev b ^Koapbrj^ reparevopevos re 
Koi SiaOpvirrbiievos Tot9 Trpeafteaw eiTrev, OVK 
e\aOe /j,evrot avrovs orov evexa rbv Kaipbv 
(frevyovcri rots 'Pcopaiois evSoirj. 

8 'Hi/ yap Seivoraros dvdpcoTrcov airdvrcov ra 
/jiev OVK ovra eiirelv, ra Be aXr}6ij 

1 Tijs airb aflfert Dindorf MS. a : -rb oirb VG, 7<s avb P. 
336 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. ix. 1-8 

unmixed, but He mingles them with troubles and 
then bestows them upon men. And for this reason we 
do not even have laughter without tears, but there 
is always attached to our successes some misfortune, 
and to our pleasures pain, not permitting anyone 
to enjoy in its purity such good fortune as is 
granted. For this city, which is of altogether pre- 
eminent importance in fact as well as in name in the 
land of the Romans I have indeed succeeded in 
capturing with the least exertion, since God has 
provided the victory all at once for us, as you doubt- 
less see. But when 1 behold the massacre of such 
a multitude of men, and the victory thus drenched 
with blood, there arises in me no sense of the 
delight that should follow my achievement. And 
for this the wretched men of Antioch are to blame, 
for when the Persians were storming the wall they 
did not prove able to keep them back, and then 
when they had already triumphed and had captured 
the city at the first cry these men. with un- 
reasoned daring sought to die fighting against them 
in close combat. So while all the notables of the 
Persians were harassing me unceasingly with their 
demand that I should drag the city as with a net and 
destroy all the captives, I was commanding the 
fugitives to press on still more in their flight, in 
order that they might save themselves as quickly as 
possible. For to trample upon captives is not holy." 
Such high-sounding and airy words did Chosroes speak 
to the ambassadors, but nevertheless it did not escape 
them why he gave time to the Romans in their flight. 
For he was the cleverest of all men at saying that 
which was not, and in concealing the truth, and in 



337 

VOL. I. Z 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Kal MV avrbf e^rjfjLciprave rds alrias rot? 
/j,evoi<> eTreveyKeiv eri Be 6fAO\oyr/crai, pev 
airavra teal opKa> rrjv bfM)\o<yiav 
\lav Be r(H)v vaos avrw vKei^evcov re Kal 



fjuev eveKev enl nav ayo$ Kadeivai rrjv 
'rjv CLOKVOS, rq> Be rcpoawTrw 
rrjv ev\d/3eiav dr%V(o<; ejjbTreipos, c 
9 re r) \6yo) rrjv rrpafyv. 09 2 Kal 
Trporepov ovBev TO rrapaTrav rfBiK^KO-, 
re 7repie\,6(av Kal rporcut o.7roA,ecra9 rG> 

jvvaiKa Kocr/j,iav re Kal OVK d<f)avrj d\i- 
rrjs 7roXeo)9 elBev K ^etyoo9 ftev rf)<; 
dpicrrepas rrpos rov rwv ftapfidpwv e\KOfj,evr]v 
ftia, TraiBiov Be orrep avry apri rov 

d7ra\\a i yev dtfreivai /j,ev ov 
e\Kovcrav Be Oarepa %6 
et9 TO e8a0o9, ercei ol ^vvrpe^eiv ov% olov re r)v 
rovrov Brj rbv ftiaiov Bpopov, rbv OIKCIOV Kav- 

10 ravda evBeBeiKrai rporrov. fyaal yap avrbv <rre- 
vd^avra BfjOev r& \6yy, BoKrj&iv re <9 etrj 
Be8aKpv/J,evo<; 7rape%6/Mevov TOt9 TOTC rrapovaiv 
a\Xoi9 Te Kal hvaaraa'iai rw TrpecrBevrrj, ev- 

t < / 

^acrOai rov Oeov naaaQai rov rwv yeyovorwv 

11 KaKwv atriov. 'lovcrriviavbv Be rbv 
avroKpdropa Trapa&rjKovv r)6e\ev, 

12 6Vt Brj avrb<f alnwraros drcdvrwv elrj. rocravrp 

(frvcrews dronia Xocrpor)? (3acri\ev<; re 

i P : atpixfai V, t\0ew G. 2 t>s P : us VG. 

3 <^v> Haury : om. MSS. 

338 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. ix. 8-12 

attributing the blame for the wrongs which he com- 
mitted to those who suffered the wrong ; besides 
he was ready to agree to everything and to pledge 
the agreement with an oath, and much more ready 
to forget completely the things lately agreed to 
and sworn to by him, and for the sake of money 
to debase his soul without reluctance to every act of 
pollution a past master at feigning piety in his 
countenance, and absolving himself in words from * 
the responsibility of the act. This man well dis- 
played his own peculiar character on a certain 
occasion at Sura ; for after he had hoodwinked the 
inhabitants of the city by a trick and had destroyed 
them in the manner which I have described, al- 
though they had previously done him no wrong at 
all, he saw, while the city was being captured, a 
comely woman and one not of lowly station being ^ 
dragged by her left hand with great violence by one 
of the barbarians ; and the child, which she had only 
lately weaned, she was unwilling to let go, but was 
dragging it with her other hand, fallen, as it was, to the 
ground since it was not able to keep pace with that 
violent running. And they say that he uttered a 
pretended groan, and making it appear to all who / 
were present at that time including Anastasius the I 
ambassador that he was all in tears, he prayed God I. 
to exact vengeance from the man who was guilty of II 
the troubles which had come to pass. Now Justinian, II 
the Emperor of the Romans, was the one whom he I/ 
wished to have understood, though he knew well// 
that he himself was most responsible for everything.jf 
Endowed with such a singular nature Chosroes both* 



339 
z 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Tlepcr&v yeyove (Zdfj^ov rov o<f)da\/j,bv rov Bai- 
fwvtov rrrjpwcravros, ocrrrep ru> %pova) rd rcpwrela 
9 rrjv ftacriXeiav e(j>epero p,erd ^ye rov Kaocnyv, 
ovirep ovSevl \6<yy ejticrei K.a/3d8r)<>^ KCU TTOVW 
ovSevl r&v ol eTravaaravrcov e/cpdrrjae, Kaicd re 
13 'Pto/iaiof? ocr a eftov\evaev evTterws e&pacre. /3ou- 
\OfjLevrj yap nva /j,eyav del TTOLCIV i) rv^r) Trpdcrffei 
affrJKOVcrt %povoi<; ra &6i;avra, ov&evb<> rfi 
rf)<> /3ovX?/cr6&)9 dvriararovvros, ovre TO 
rov dvSpbs SiacTKOTrov/jievr] d^iw/jia ovre OTTW? 
fir) yevrjrai rt rwv ov Seovrwv Xoyi^o/Mewr), ov&e 
ori (SXacrtyrjfMrja'ova'iv e? avrrjv Sid ravra TroXXot, 
TO yeyovbs avrfj jrapd rrjv diav rov rrjs %dpiro<> 
rerv^rjfcoro^ %\evdovres, ov&e d\\o rwv rrdvrwv 
ov&ev ev vS> 7roiovfj,evtj, r/v TO 86^av avry rrepal- 
voiro fiovov. d\\d ravra fjuev OTTI) rq> 0eu> 



14 Xoo'^o?;? Be TO jjuev o~rpdrevfj,a rwv 

TGI/? rrepiovra? faypelv real avSparroSi^eiv efce\eve 
teal rd xprjfMara rrdvra \ijiecr8ai, avrbs 8e vv 
Tot? Trpecr/Secriv 9 TO lepov drro rr)$ dtcpas 

15 Kareftaivev, orrep KK\r}criav Ka\ovaiv. evravda 
Ketfj,ij\ia %pvcrov re /cal dpyvpov roaavra TO 
77X7)^09 o Xocr^o779 evpev, ware rrjs Xeta9 aXXo 
ovSev ori yu.^ rd Ki/jLr)\ia ravra A,a/3aw 7r\ovrov 

16 ri fjbeyedos TTept,/3e/3\ri{Aevo<i dmatv oj-^ero. Kal 
fjidp/jbapd re TroXXa KOI Qavpaard ev6ev8e d(f)e\a)v 
ea) rov rrepi/3o~\,ov eKe\eve /carariffecrffai, O7r&)9 

17 teal ravra 69 Ta Tlepcrwv rfdr/ KOfjbicrcavrai. ravra 

rrjv Tro\iv 



34 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. ix. 12-17 

became King of the Persians (for ill fortune had 
deprived Zames of his eye, he who in point of years 
had first right to the kingdom, at any rate after 
Caoses, whom Cabades for no good reason hated), 
and with no difficulty he conquered those who 
revolted against him, and all the harm which he 
purposed to do the Romans he accomplished easily. 
For every time when Fortune wishes to make a man 
great, she does at the fitting times those things 
which she has decided upon, with no one standing 
against the force of her will ; and she neither 
regards the man's station, nor purposes to prevent 
the occurrence of things which ought not to be, nor 
does she give heed that many will blaspheme against 
her because of these things, mocking scornfully at 
that which has been done by her contrary to the 
deserts of the man who receives her favour ; nor 
does she take into consideration anything else at all, 
if only she accomplish the thing which has been 
decided upon by her. But as for these matters, 
let them be as God wishes. 

Chosroes commanded the army to capture and 
enslave the survivors of the population of Antioch, 
and to plunder all the property, while he himself 
with the ambassadors descended from the height to 
the sanctuary which they call a church. There 
Chosroes found stores of gold and silver so great in 
amount that, though he took no other part of the 
booty except these stores, he departed possessed of 
enormous wealth. And he took down from there 
many wonderful marbles and ordered them to be 
deposited outside the fortifications, in order that they 
might convey these too to the land of Persia. When 
he had finished these things, he gave orders to the 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

eTreo'reA.Xe. 1 Kal avrov 01 

eBeovro rfjs eKK\r)crLas arckyeaQai fj,6vrjs, 179 rd 
18 \vrpa KCKO /JUG /jievos BiapKws eir}. 6 Be rovro 
Toi9 Trpecrfteo'i uy;e%&>/9?7/<;a>9 TaXXa fcaieiv e/ce- 
Xeue Trdvra, 0X1701/9 re rivas avroffi 



ov Kal Trporepov Siea-Ktjvrjf^evoi Tvy%avov. 



X 

1 TOVTOV rov TrdOovs Ypovw rivl Trporepov repa<; 
< a \ > sj f. , - A ' r / > ^ t / r 

o creo9 evbeit;afj,6vo<; TO 49 T^J?7 WKrifjievo^ ecrrifi'rjve 

rd eao/j^eva. TWV <ydp crrparia>ra)i>, o'lirep evravOa 
CK 7ra\atov iSpvvrai, rd arnjuela Trporepov ecrroyra 
?Ty009 Svovrd TTOV rbv rf\.iov, CLTTO ravropdrov 
(rrpa<f)vra 7T/oo9 dvLa^ovra 
rd^iv re av6is eTravrjfcov rrjv Trporepav 

2 d^fra/jievov. ravra 01 crrpariwrai d\\ot<f re TTO\- 

icrrd Trr) Trapovcri Kal r& XP r J r yV T % 
(rrparoTreoov Scnrdvr)*; eBet^av, eri rwv o"ij- 
KpaSaivopevcov- rjv 8e ovros dvrjp, Ta- 
6vop>a, weT09 /Jid\icrra, etc Mo^rovea-rLa<; 

3 6p/j,(0/j,evo<>. aXX' ovS 1 &>9 eyvaxrav oi TO repas 
rovro IBovres co9 Brj etc /3acriXea)9 rov ecnrepiov 
ejrl rbv ewov TO TOU %(opiov d^i^erai /cpdros, 
07rft)9 Srj\aBr) Siaffrwyeiv yLtr^Se/i.ta firj%avfj Svvcovrat 
ovcrrfep eBei ravra djrep ^vvijve^dr) nraOelv. 

4 'E^ft) Be tXfyyift) 7ra$09 rocrovrov ypdcfjatv re 
Kal 7rapaTTe/ji.7r(ov 69 pvtf/jirjv r& 

1 eneffTf\\e VP : ttcf\eve Gr. 
342 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. ix. i 7 -x. 4 

Persians to burn the whole city. And the ambassa- 
dors begged him to withhold his hand only from the 
church, for which he had carried away ransom in 
abundance. This he granted to the ambassadors, but 
gave orders to burn everything else ; then, leaving 
there a few men who were to fire the city, he 
himself with all the rest retired to the camp where 
they had previously set up their tents. 



A SHORT time before this calamity God displayed a 
sign to the inhabitants of that city, by which He 
indicated the things which were to be. For the 
standards of the soldiers who had been stationed 
there for a long time had been standing previously 
toward the west, but of their own accord they turned 
and stood toward the east, and then returned again 
to their former position untouched by anyone. This 
the soldiers showed to many who were near at hand 
and among them the manager of finances in the camp, 
while the standards were still trembling. This man, 
Tatianus by name, was an especially discreet person, 
a native of Mopsuestia. But even so those wno saw 
this sign did not recognize that the mastery of the 
place would pass from the western to the eastern 
king, in order, evidently, that escape might be 
utterly impossible for those who were bound to 
suffer those things which came to pass. 

But I become dizzy as I write of such a great 
calamity and transmit it to future times, and I am 



343 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Kal OVK e^ft) elBcvai TI re ore. dpa {3ov\ofj,evq) 
rq> OeG) elrf Trpdypara fj,ev dvSpbs rj %<apiov rov 
erraipeiv ei9 tn^o9, avBif 8e pnrreiv re avra Kal 
d(f}avieiv e ouSe/ua9 rjpiv <paivofj,vr)<; alrias. 
5 atTft) yap ov 0e/J,is eiTrelv /jurj ov%l aTravra Kara 
\6yov del yijvecrdai, 09 Brj KCU Avri6%eiav rare 
vrrearr) e9 TO e'8a</)09 TTyoo? dvSpbs dvofftcordrov 
Karate po/^evrjv l&eiv, ^9 TO re aXXo9 teal TO e9 
airavra fieja\07r penes ov8e vvv dfroKpvrcrecrdai 



ovv 

jiovif], 7rov(i) re fcal rcpovoia TIep(rwv~bl<; 
1 TO epyov eTrefceiro rovro. ekeifydrjvav Se Kal 
d/ji<f)l TO \ey6ftevov Y^eparalov olitiai rcoKkai, OVK 
K Trpovoias dvOpwrrwv rivos, aXX' ercel exeivro 

7TOV 7T/>09 6<T%aTOi9 T^9_JTOXe&)9, 6TyOa9 ttUTat9 

ou8e/ua9 rivos olKoSo/j,ia<$ ^vvaTrrofjievrj 1 ?, TO Trvp 

8 <e9> l avras e^iKvelcrdai ov^a/nr/ icr^vcrev. eve- 
Trprjcrdv re Kal ra eT09 rov rrepif36\ov ol 
ftdpfiapoi, 7r\r)v rov lepov orrep 'Iov\iav& dvel- 
rai d<yi<o, Kal rwv oiKi&v a't 8rj dpufii TO lepov 

9 rovro rwyxavovaiv ovcrai. rov<> yap 7rpecr/3ei$ 
evravOa KaraXvaai ^vverrecre, rov fj,evroi jrepi- 
/3oXou" navrdrraaLv dTrecr^ovro Ileyocrat. 

10 '0X170) Be varepov fJKovres av&i<? Trapa rov 
yLoaporjv ol 7r/9eo-/3ei9 e\eav wBe, " Et fj,rj 7T/309 
Trapovra ere, &> ftaai\ev, ol \6yoi eyivovro, OVK 
av Trore (oo/jieOa Xocrporjv rbv Ka(3d8ov 69 7771^ 
rrjv 'PcofiaLwv ev 077X0^9 rjKeiv, urifjudaavra p,ev 
TOU9 ^>iofiwfiocrp.evov^ aoi evayyos opKovs, b rwv 
ev dvdpunrois djrdvrwv vararov re Kal 6%vp(t)- 

1 <^j> Haury : eV Maltretus, om. MSS. 
344 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, IT. x. 4-10 

unable to understand why indeed it should be 
the will of God to exalt on high the fortunes of a man 
or of a place, and then to cast them down and 
destroy them for no cause which appears to us. For 
it is wrong to say that with Him all things are not 
always done with reason, though he then endured to 
see Antioch brought down to the ground at the 
hands of a most unholy man, a city whose beauty 
and grandeur in every respect could not even so be 
utterly concealed. 

So, then, after the city had been destroyed, the 
church was left solitary, thanks to the activity and 
foresight of the Persians to whom this work was as- 
signed. And there were also left about the so-called 
Cerataeum many houses, not because of the foresight 
of any man, but, since they were situated at the 
extremity of the city, and not connected with any 
other building, the fire failed entirely to reach them. 
The barbarians burned also the parts outside the 
fortifications, except the sanctuary which is dedicated 
to St. Julianus and the houses which stand about 
this sanctuary. For it happened that the ambas- 
sadors had taken up their lodgings there. As for 
the fortifications, the Persians left them wholly 
untouched. 

A little later the ambassadors again came to 
Chosroes and spoke as follows : " If our words were 
not addressed to thee in thy presence, O King, we 
should never believe that Chosroes, the son of 
Cabades, had come into the land of the Romans in 
arms, dishonouring the oaths which have recently 
been sworn by thee for such pledges are regarded 
as the last and most firm security of all things among 



345 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



rarov elvai So/cei TT}? e9 aXX^Xoi^ Trtcrrea)? re /cat 

Se T 



T0t9 a TT^ ev 
e/ift) KctKOTT payiav OVK ev TO> acr<aXet /Sto- 

11 Tevovaiv. ov yap aXXo ovBev TO TOIOVTOV eiTroi, 
rt? az/ et^at ^ T<WV avQp(i)Tra>v rrjv SiaiTav e? T^ 

12 TWV Qf]pl<v /JiTa/3e^\'rja-dai. ev <yap 

crOai TO TroXeyu-ety aTrepavra 
, 1 TroXeyu.09 8e o Trepas OVK 



13 Tt Se /cal ySouXoyu,ei/09 7Tyo09 TW crop a$e\<f)bv 
0X176) Trporepov <ye<ypa$>as a>9 avrb? e'itj TOV XeXu- 
o"#a Ta9 cnrovSas atViO9; ^ SrjXov ort 6/j,o\oya)v 
fca/cov TL 7rayu./i7e#e9 elvai T^y TOV aTrovSwv 

14 \vcriv; el ftev ovv etceivos ovSev rjfjbaprev, ov 
Statft)9 ravvv e^' ?7/i,a9 ^et9' et Se Ti TOIOVTOV 
T' a8e\<f>a) 2 TW o"&) elpydcrQai v/j,/3aivei, a-XXa /cat 
crot fteXP 1 TVTOV ye /cat /AT) jrepaiTepa) 8ia- 
TceTcpd')(du> TO ejK\7)/jLa, OTTW; auT09 

elvai So/c^9. 3 o ^ayo ev Tot9 a/cot 

15 OUTO9 av e'v T0t9 a/xetvocrt vifcwr) t/cat&)9. Karoi 

dfjueOa 'Iovo~Tiviavbv ySacrtXea f^rjSe- 
T?}9 elprjvr)*; aii evavrias e\rj\v6evaL, /cat 

jj,rj TOiavTa ep'ydaao'Oai f P&)yttatOf9 
/ca/ca, e'^ 5v IIe/9cra^9 yttev ovrjcrts ov&/J,ia eaTai, 
(TV Se TOVTO KepSavei? povov, dvij/cea-Ta epja 
TOU9 a/OTt o"ot crTTeicrafievovs ov Seov elp<ydo-0ai." 
oi pev 7rpeo"/3e^9 roaavra elrrov. 

16 Xocryoo779 Se TavTa a/coucra9 Icfyvpl^eTO /juev Ta9 

7T/009 'loi/o'TivtavoO /3acrtXeft)9 



1 Trdvrcos VGP corr. : ir&vTas P pr. m. 
346 3 5o/cfjj Dindorf :' 8o/ms MSS. ' 

OT" 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. x. 10-16 

men to guarantee mutual trust and truthfulness 
and breaking the treaty, though hope in treaties is 
the only thing left to those who are living in in- 
security because of the evil deeds of war. For one 
might say of such a state of affairs that it is nothing 
else than the transformation of the habits of men 
into those of beasts. For in a time when* no treaties 
at all are made, there will remain certainly war with- 
out end, and war which has no end is always calcu- 
lated to estrange from their proper nature those who 
engage in it. ( With what intent, moreover, didst 
thou write to thy brother not long ago that he him- 
self was responsible for the breaking of the treaty ? 
Was it not obviously with the admission that the 
breaking of treaties is an exceedingly great evil ? If 
therefore he has done no wrong, thou art not acting 
justly now in coming against us ; but if it happen 
that thy brother has done any such thing, yet let thy 
complaint have its fulfilment thus far, and go no 
farther, that thou mayst show thyself superior. For 
he who submits to be worsted in evil things would in 
better things justly be victorious. And yet we know 
well that the Emperor Justinian has never gone con- 
trary to the treaty, and we entreat thee not to do 
the Romans such harm, from which there will be no 
advantage to the Persians, and thou wilt gain only 
this, that thou wilt have wrongfully wrought deeds 
of irreparable harm upon those who have recently 
made peace with thee." So spoke the ambassadors. 
And Chosroes, upon hearing this, insisted that 
the treaty had been broken by the Emperor 



347 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

KOI ra<? atria? fcare\eyev aGirep e/ceivos rrape- 
cr^ero, rds /j,ev rCvas /cat \6yov dgias, ra? 8e 
<pav\as re Kai ovSevl \6y<0 
fjtd\icrra Se avrov T9 Tricrro\d<; rov 
alriwrdras rj^Lov BeiKvvvai irpos re ' A\a/jiovv8apov 
Kai Ovvvovs avrw yeypafji/jLeva^, KaQareeppoi evrois 

17 efjircpoaOev \o<yoi<$ eppTJdr). avSpa pkvroi e Pa)/Aaiov 
9 T^y Ileyocrwv 777^ 6cr/3/3\'r)Kvai rj 7ro\e/jita epja 

18 ev&ei^affflai ovre \e<yeiv el^ev ovre beitcvvvai. ol 
fjievroi 7rpecr/9et9 TT?; /Aev ra-9 alrias OVK 9 'Ioi- 
crriviavov dvetyepov, aXX' 9 T&ii' VTrovpyrjKorwv 
rivds, TTT) Se co9 ou% oyra) yeyovorcav erre\afji- 

19 ftdvovro rwv elpTj^evatv. reXo9 Se ^prj^iara jjiev ol 
7ro\\d 6 Xocrpo7;9 rj^iov Si&ovai 'Potato U9, ?ra/3- 

, T^vet Se f^r) rd %pr)fj,ara ev rq> rcapavriKa /AOVOV 
7rape%o/jievov$ rrjv eiprjvrjv ede\eiv e*9 rov rcdvra 

20 alwva icparvvacrdai. rrjv <ydp eVt %pr)/j,a<ri yivo- 
/jLevrjv dvOpcoTTOis <pi\,iav dvakiaKO^evoi^ eic rov 

21 eVl 7r\ei(rrov %vv&airavdadai rot9 %/)7?//.aat. Setv 
roivvv 'P(i)/j,aiov<? ratcrov ri (frepeiv errereiov Ileyo- 
crat9. " Ovro) <ydp avrol^T e^trj, " rrjv elptjvrjv 
Tlepcrai /3e/3aiov e^ovcri, ra9 re Kacr7rta9 avrol 
<$>v\dcro~ovre<; niikas Kai ovtcen avrots d^do/jievoi 
Sid TfoXiv Aapa9, vrrep wv en/jLicrdoi Kai avrol e*9 

22 aet eaovrai? " OVKOVV," ol rcpecrfteis efyaaav, 
" t7TOTeXet9 Tlepcrai ftovXovrat 'Pwfjbaiov? e*9 

23 (f)6pov dTraywyrjv e%eiv." " OVK, d\\d crrpa- 
ri(0ra<i ot/cetoi9," o Xo<rpo7;9 elrrev, " e^ovcri TO 
\onrov IIe/3cra9 'Pw/iatot, ^iaBov r^9 vrrovpyias 
avrols %oprj<yovvre<> prjrov eVet teal Ovvvwv rial 

1 lujUTreTrAeyjueVas H. 
348 



HISTORY OF THE WARS,. II. x. 16-23 

Justinian ; and he enumerated the causes of war 
which the Emperor afforded, some of them of real 
importance and others idle and fabricated without 
any i*eason ; most of all he wished to show that 
the letters wi-itten by him to Alamoundaras and the 
Huns were the chief cause of the war, just as I 
have stated above. 1 But as for any Roman who 
had invaded the land of Persia, or who had made 
a display of warlike deeds, he was unable either 
to mention or to point out such a one. The 
ambassadors, however, referred the charges in part 
not to Justinian but to certain of those who had 
served him, while in the case of others they took 
exception to what he had said on the ground that 
the things had not taken place as stated. Finally 
Chosroes made the demand that the Romans give 
him a large sum of money, but he warned them 
not to hope to establish peace for all time by giving 
money at that moment only. For friendship, he 
said, which is made by men on terms of money is 
generall)' spent as fast as the money is used up. It 
was necessary, therefore, that the Romans should 
pay some definite annual sum to the Persians. " For 
thus," he said, "the Persians will keep the peace 
secure for them, guarding the Caspian Gates them- 
selves and no longer feeling resentment at them 
on account of the city of Daras, in return for which 
the Persians themselves will be in their pay forever." 
" So," said the ambassadors, " the Persians desire to | 
have the Romans subject and tributary to themselves." 
" No," said Chosroes, " but the Romans will have 
the Persians as their own soldiers for the future, 
dispensing to them a fixed payment for their service ; i 

1 Cf. Book II. i. 13 ; iii. 47. 

349 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



/cat apaKTjvois ercereiov ^opr^yeire ftpvaov, ov 
(f)6pov avrois U7roTeXet9 ovres, aXX' 6V &)9 a&r)u>- 
rov <yr)V rrjv v/jierepav (f)v\da)criv 69 TOV Trdvra 
24 alwva" roiavra Xocrpo?79 re KOI ol 
TroXXa TTyoo? aXXr/Xoi'9 SiaXexOevTes, 
vcrrepov e<^>' c5 Xocrporfv ev p,ev r 
Kevrrjvdpia Trevrij/cov.ra Trpbs '^w^aLutv \a/36vra, 
Trevre & dXX,(i)v fyepopievov ejreTeiov e? TOV Trdvra 
alwva Saaf^ov, fj,r)8ev avrovs epydcracrdai, irepai- 
repa> KCLK.QV, aXX' avrbv pev O/A^OU? e?rl ravrrj rfj 
6fjLO\o<yia Trapa rtov TT pea /3ea>v Ke.K,o^ia^kvov rrjv 



cnroTTOpeav l Travr TO) cnpaT e? TO. Trrpia 



, evravda & Trpeapeis Trapa /9acrtXe&)9 
' \ovariviavov crTeXXo//.e^oi? r9 ap^il rfj 
TO \OLTTOV 0ecr0ai. * 



XI 



1 Tore 6 Xo<r/5o'j;9 e9 %e\evKeiav, TroXiv eTTtOa- 
\aacriav, 'Aimo^eta9 rpid/covra KOI e/caTov 
crraSiois Sie^ovcrav rj\,6ev, evravOd re 'Pcy/iatfov 
ovSeva ovre evpobv z ovre \v^/rjvdfjievo^ aTreXovcraro 
fj,ev etc 3 r^9 #aXacr<r?79 T&) vSari /J,6vo<>, 0vcra<$ re 
rq> r)\i(f> ical olancnv aXXo^9 e/SouXero, TroXXa re 

2 eTTiffeidcras orclaw aTrr)\avvev. e9 re TO err par 6- 
TreSov d^tiKOfj^evo^, ^rfiQv^iav 01 e<f)acrKe riva etvai 
rrjv^A.Tra/jieoyv TTO\.IV ev yeirovwv ovcrav OVK aXXov 

3 TOf eve/ca rj laropias dedcracrdai. ^vveva)povv re 



rovro o 



1 airoTropeiav VG : airoiropiav P, airopiav H. 
2 evpuiv : Haury suggests alpSiv. 3 e/c VH : om. G, li/ re P. 

35 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. x. 2 3 -xi. 3 

for you give an annual payment of gold to some 
of the Huns and to the Saracens, not as tributary 
subjects to them, but in order that they may guard 
your land unplundered for all time." After Chosroes 
and the ambassadors had spoken thus at length 
with each other, they at last came to terms, agreeing 
that Chosroes should forthwith take from the 
Romans fifty centenaria, 1 and that, receiving a 
tribute of five more centenaria annually for all time, 
he should do them no further harm, but taking 
with him hostages from the ambassadors to pledge 
the keeping of the agreement, should make his 
departure with the whole army to his native land, 
and that there ambassadors sent from the Emperor 
Justinian should arrange on a firm basis for the 
future the compact regarding the peace. 



XI 

THEN Chosroes went to Seleucia, a city on the sea, 
one hundred and thirty stades distant from Antioch ; 
and there he neither met nor harmed a single 
Roman, and he bathed himself alone in the sea- 
water, and after sacrificing to the sun and such 
other divinities as he wished, and calling upon the 
gods -many times, he went back. And when he 
came to the camp, he said that he had a desire to 
see the city of Apamea which was in the vicinity for 
no other reason than that of his interest in the place. 
And the ambassadors unwillingly granted this also, 
but only on condition that after seeing the city 
1 Cf. Book I. xxii. 4. 

35 i 



PROCOP1US OF CAESAREA 

avrov deacrd/ievov re rrfv TCO\LV Kal dpyvpov 
%t\ias KOfjuicrdfievov evOevBe \irpas, ovBev ri aXXo 

4 \vfj,r)vd[Aevov d7re\avviv O7rto~&). ev>rj\o<$ Be fyv 
6 Xocrporjs Tot9 re 7rpecr@(7i Kal Trdcri rot? aXXot9 
on Br) e*9 rr)V 'ATrdfietav rovBe eve/ca crreXX-oiro 
fjuovov, 07r&)9 &ij TWOS crtfT^eo)? ovK dio\6 r yov 
Xay8oyLtefO9 a\)Tr)v re KOI rrjv etceivrj %copav 
\ijLcrrjrai. Tore /juev ovv 9 &.d<$>wr)V dvefir), TO 

5 'Avr^oveta9 Trpodcrreiov. evOa Sn TO re aXcro9 ev 

a ^ 'C ' ' y \ - 'S ' 

oav/j,ari p.e'yaKw eTroiijcraro KCU T9 TWV voarwv 

6 7T?7<ya9' d^w yap d^iodeara eVtetco9 ecrTA. at 
Ovaas Tat9 vv^ai^ diriwv W^CTO, aXXo //.ez^ ouSey 
\v/j,r]vd/jLevo<i, TOV Be dp^ayyeXou Mt^a^X TO 
/e/9oy Kavaa^ vv erepais ncrlv olKiais e aiVta9 

7 roidcrSe. Hepcrr)? dvrjp ITTTTW o^ov^evo^, ev re 



69 %(t)pov Kpijp,va>i>i /j,() rov 
Tprjrbv rj\de j;vv erepois ruriv, ov 8rj rov 
ye\ov M.i^ar}\ veco9 e&riv, }^vdpi,8o<; epyov. 

8 OUT09 dvrjp rwv rtva 'Avrioftewv veaviav rce^ov re 
Kal fAovov KpvrcrojJievov evravda l&cov 1 e&icoice rwv 
erepwv ^copif. r}v Be KpeoTT(o\rj<? 6 veavias, 

9 'Aet/ia%o9 ovo/j,a. 09 eireiBrj Kard\.ap,ftdveadai 
e/^eXXey, err tar panels etc rov al(f)vi8iov \LOw rov 
SKOKOVTCI ySaXXei, eTrirvy^dvei re rov /jbercaTrov 9 
rrjv Trapd TO 0^9 /jujviyya. KCU, o fj,ev 69 TO eSa<^)09 
evOvs eTrecrev, 6 Be avrov rov d/civd/c^v cnra- 

10 crdfjievos tcreivei rov dvBpa. (Ttcv\ev(Tas re avrov 
KOTT e^ovcriav rd re ore Xa Kal rov %pvcrov drcavra 
Kal el n aXXo ervy^avev d/mTre^of^evos, ercL re rov 

11 ITTTTOV dvaOopwv 7rp6o-o) rjKavvev. elre Be 

1 ISiiiv VGP corr. : tvpkv P pr. m. - 
352 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xi. 3-11 

and taking away with him from there one thousand 
pounds of silver, he should, without inflicting any 
further injury, march back. But it was evident to 
the ambassadors and to all the others that Chosroes 
was setting out for Apamea with this sole 
purpose, that he might lay hold upon some pretext 
of no importance and plunder both the city and the 
land thereabout. Accordingly he first went up to 
Daphne, the suburb of Antioch, where he expressed 
great wonder at the grove and at the fountains of 
water ; for both of these are very well worth 
seeing. And after sacrificing to the nymphs he 
departed, doing no further damage than burning the 
sanctuary of the archangel Michael together with 
certain other buildings, for the following reason. A 
Persian gentleman of high repute in the army of the 
Persians and well known to Chosroes, the king, while 
riding on horseback came in company with some 
others to a precipitous place near the so-called 
Tretum, where is a temple of the archangel Michael, 
the work of Evaris. This man, seeing one of the 
young men of Antioch on foot and alone concealing 
himself there, separated from the others and pur- 
sued him. Now the young man was a butcher, 
Aeimachus by name. When he was about to be 
overtaken, he turned about unexpectedly and threw 
a stone at his pursuer which hit him on the forehead 
and penetrated to the membrane by the ear. And 
the rider fell immediately to the ground, whereupon 
the youth drew out his sword and slew him. Then 
at his leisure he stripped him of his weapons and 
all his gold and whatever else he had on his person, 
and leaping upon his horse rode on. And whether 

353 

VOL. I. A A 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

eire ywpiwv e^freipia ^prja-afMevof, \a6elv re TOU? 
7roXe/Afcoi9 Kal Bia<f>v<yeiv jravreXws lla-^vcre. 

12 ravra 6 X.oo-p6ij<; pa0a>v teal rois fu//,7recr overt 
Trepid^yrfa-as, rwv ol eTro/Juevoov nvds Kavcrai rov 
rov dp^ayyeXov vecov ov Trpocrdev 

13 e/ce\evev. ol Be rovrov eicelvov elvai 
%vv rat? a/Jtfi avrbv oltcoSo/jiiats 

re TreTroirjcrdai ra? Xocr/joof evTO\a$ 
ravra fj,ev or) ovrws ecr^e. 

14 Xoo-po7;<? 8e Travrl r& (Trpara) rrjv 
fj^iav fjet. ecrTi 8e %v\ov Tr^^vaiov ev 

TOV crravpov /A6/009 ev <p rov Xpicrrbv ev 'lepo- 
ffo\v/jioi<f Trore rrjv Kokacnv ovri d/cov(Tiov VTTO- 
crrrjvai 6fj,o\oyeirai, Kara Brj rov Tra\aibv %povov 

15 evravOa jrpbs ^vpov dvBpbs KOfiicrBev \d6pa. /cat 
auro ol Trakai avdpatTroi (frvXa/crrjpiov j^eya afy'icn 
re aurot? KO\ ry vroX-et Triarevovres effecrOai OIJKIJV 
avrov %v\ivr]v riva TTeTroirj/nevoi Kareffevro, rjv 
&rj %pvaw re TroAA,^) KOI \i0ois evri/j,oi<? KO- 
cr/jur)crav, Kal rpicrl /juev iepevcri TrapeSocrav, efi 
<a vv Trdffy do~<$>a\eia (j)V\d^ov(Tiv, e^dyovres oe 
dva Trdv ero? TravSrjfjiel ev vj/Mepa TrpocrKvvovcri 

16 fud. Tore ovv 6 rwv ' ' Kira^ewv \e<o<;, eireiBr) 
rov M.tfo'wv crrparbv errt <j</>a9 7rv0ovro levat, 
ev Beet fjLeyd\a> eyevovro. Xocrporiv Be dtcov- 
ovres a>9 rJKi<rra d\r)6i%eadai Kal irapa w/iav 
rov T7}9 7roX,e&)9 dpfaepea yevopevoi eBeovro 
TO rov ffravpov %v\ov eTriBeigai atyiaiv, O7r&)9 
avrb varara TrpoaKW^aavre^ re\evrri<Twat,v. 

17 o Be Kara ravra ejroiei. rore Brj Bea/^a ^vvrj- 

354 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xi. 11-17 

by the favour of fortune or by his knowledge of the 
country, he succeeded completely in eluding the 
Persians and making good his escape. When 
Chosroes learned this, he was deeply grieved at 
what had happened, and commanded some of his 
followers to burn the sanctuary of the archangel 
Michael which I have mentioned above. And 
they, thinking that the sanctuary at Daphne was 
the one in question, burned it with the buildings 
about it, and they supposed that the commands of 
Chosroes had been executed. Such, then, was the 
course of these events. 

But Chosroes with his whole army proceeded on 
the way to Apamea. Now there is a piece of wood 
one cubit in length in Apamea, a portion of the cross 
on which the Christ in Jerusalem once endured the 
punishment not unwillingly, asds generally agreed, 
and which in ancient times had been conveyed there 
secretly by a man of Syria. And the men of olden 
times, believing that it would be a great protection 
both for themselves and for the city, made for it a 
sort of wooden chest and deposited it there ; and they 
adorned this chest with much gold and with precious 
stones and they entrusted it to three priests who 
were to guard it in all security ; and they bring it 
forth every year and the whole population worship 
it during one day. Now at that time the people of 
Apamea, upon learning that the army of the Medes 
was coming against them, began to be in great fear. 
And when they heard that Chosroes was absolutely 
untruthful, they came to Thomas, the chief priest of 
the city, and begged him to show them the wood of 
the cross, in order that after worshipping it for the last 
time they might die. And he did as they requested. 

355 

A A 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

\6yov re KOI Trtcrretu? Kpelacrov ev- 
ravda yeveadai. TO /m,ev yap %v\ov o lepevs 
<f>epa>v e8ei/cvvev, vrrepOev &e avrov crekas rrvpos 
e7T<f>epero real TO /car' avrov rfjs 6po(j>ij<t yu,epo9 

18 <f>a>rl TroXXft) vrrep TO elwdos Kare\d^rcero. /3aSi- 
6vro<; re rov tepe&)9 Travra^fj rov vea) 

TO o-eXa?, <f>v\d(rcrov ael rrjv vrrep avrov 

19 opo(f)r]<; %a>pav. 6 pev ovv rwv ' Krc 

VTTO rfjs rov Qav^aro^ rjSovfjs edap,f3elro re teal 
eyeyrfdet /cal eK\atev, tf&r) re arravres vrrep T?}? 

20 a-wr^piat TO Oapcrelv el%ov. 6 Be @eo//,a9, ejreiSrj 
TrepirjXOe rov vecov arravra, KaraOefAevos ev rfj 
6r)Kr) TO ToO aravpov %v\ov e/caX-vtye, /cal TO 
o~e'X,a9 e/c rov al<f>vt,Biov errz'jravro. fiadcov Se rov 
TMV 7ro\efjiia>v crrparov ay%io-rd rcov TT}<? TroXew? 
rjKeiv, <nrovSfj TroXX^ rcapa rov Xoaporjv a^i/cero. 

21 real 09 <67rel> l averrvvddvero rov iepews el /9ou- 
~\,ofj,evoi<$ Tot9 ' A-rrapevcnv ett] drro rov Trepifto\ov 
dvrird^aaOai rq> M.rjSa>v crrparw, drreicpivaro 
@&)/ua9 ovbev TOt9 avOpwrrow roiovro 9 evvoiav 

22 iJKeiv. " OVKOVV " e<pr) 6 Xoa-porjs " Se^aade yu.e 
rfi Trokei vv oXiyotf rial 7racrat9 dvarrercra- 

23 jjievais ra?9 TruXcw." o lepevs elrrev " 'E?r' a^To 
yap Sr; 7rapaKa\e(ra)v rovro d(J)iy/j,ai" 6 /lev ovv 
crT/)aT09 arras ecrrparoTreSeva-avro &ieo-Kijvr)/j,evoi 
TT/OO 2 ToO 7repi/3oXou, 

24 'O oe Xoo-/307;9 av8pas rwv ev Tlepa-ais dpiarwv 
oiatcocriovs drrdXe^diAevos e<? rrjv rro\iv elcrrj\aav. 
erfel oe yeyovev eicra) TTV\WV, erreX-dOero etcdiv ye 
elvat rwv avrS> re /cal T0t9 rcpecrftecn %vy/ceifj,ev(i)v, 
/cal rov en'iGKorcov etceXeve Sovvai ov %iXia \iovov 

1 < irel > Haury. 2 irpb Maltretus MS. e : irpta P. 
356 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xi. 17-24 

Then indeed it befell that a sight surpassing both 
description and belief was there seen. For while the 
priest was carrying the wood and shewing it, above 
him followed a flame of fire, and the portion of the 
roof over him was illuminated with a great and un- 
accustomed light. And while the priest was moving 
through every part of the temple, the flame continued 
to advance with him, keeping constantly the place 
above him in the roof. So the people of Aparnea, 
under the spell of joy at the miracle, were wondering 
and rejoicing and weeping, and already all felt 
confidence concerning their safety. And Thomas, 
after going about the whole temple, laid the wood 
of the cross in the chest and covered it, and 
suddenly the light had ceased. Then upon learning 
that the army of the enemy had come close to the 
city, he went in great haste to Chosroes. And when 
the king enquired of the priest whether it was the 
will of the citizens of Apamea to marshal themselves 
on the wall against the army of the Medes, the 
priest replied that no such thing had entered the 
minds of the men. " Therefore," said Chosroes, 
" receive me into the city accompanied by a few 
men with all the gates opened wide." And the priest 
said " Yes, for I have come here to invite thee to do 
this very thing." So the whole army pitched their 
tents and made camp before the fortifications. 

Then Chosroes chose out two hundred of the best 
of the Persians and entered the city. But when he 
had got inside the gates, he forgot willingly enough 
what had been agreed upon between himself and 
the ambassadors, and he commanded the bishop to 
give not only one thousand pounds of silver nor 



357 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

dpyvpov crraOjJia ovBe rovroov Betca7r\dcria ) d\\d 
<teal> ra Kei/jirj~\,ia oaa Brj evravQa erv^e Kei/jieva, 
%pvcra re /ecu dpyvpd ^v/jiTravra, n&yd\a vrrep- 

25 <uw9 ovra. olfiai B' av avrov real .rrjv 7^6\iv 
6\rjv dvBparroBicracrBai re teal \rjicracr6ai ovrc av 
aTTO/cvrjcrai, el fj,rj TI delov avrbv efe rov efM(j)avovs 

26 &ieKu>\vaev. OVTOX; avrov -ij re (^C^o^p^fiaria 
e^eTr^rjcrcre /cal ecrrpefav avrov rrjv Sidvoiav rj rr)? 

27 o77<? eTTiOvpia. Xeo9 yap ol /J*ya rovs rwv 
iroKewv dvSpaTToSicrfAovs wero elvat, ovSev TO 
rrapdrrav rroiov^evo<; el cnrov&d*; re tcai %vv6riK,a<; 
r)\oyr]KOi)S ra roiavra 9 rovs 'Pft)yu,atot9 epyd^erat. 

28 ravrvjv re Xocr/ooou &r[\(i)crei rrjv yvcajjiijv a re 
dfj^l TToXw Aa/?a9 ev ravrrj 8r) eve^eiprjcre rfj 

dirorropeia, ev rcdcrr) d\oyia Troirjcrdfjievos ra 
%vy/ceifiva, teal a "K.aXkivitetjo'iovs 0X170) vcrrepov 
ev (nrovSals eSpacrev, arcep [AOL ev rot9 omcrOe 
\e\e%erai \6yois. aXV 6 #eo9, a>crarep eipyrai, 

29 'Arrd/jieiav Steaaxraro. eTrel Se ra teein^ia 6 
Xo<ryoo?79 v/jiTravra el\e teal avrov pedvovra rjSrj 
rfj r&v xpTjfJsdrcov dfydoviq o @&)/ia9 elSe, TO TOU 
crravpov v\ov %vv rfj QrJKTj effeveytecav dveatye re 
rrjv Otj/erjv teal TO v\ov evBeitevv/jievos "*H te pa- 
rterre /SacrjXeO" <j)r) " ravrd JJLOI d7ro\eX,trrrai 

30 fJiova ete rcdvrwv ^ptjf^drcov. Orf/erjv f^ev ovv rijvSe 

re yap KeKaXkamcrrai teal \L6oLS evri- 
6vos ov&els \aftovra ere vv TOt9 a\\oi<> 
ajracriv e^eiv, rovrl Be TO v\ov, crconjpiov re r)/Aiv 
teal rifjiiov ecrn, rovro, ltcereva> ere teal Seo/j,ai, 809 
fjioi" o fj,ev lepevs rocravra elrce. vve%(t)pei. Be 
Xocrp6?79 teal rrjv Berjcriv e7ure\f) erroiei, 

31 MeTa Be <f>i\ortfjiia Tro\\fj %poi)fjLevo<; rov re 
BrjfjLOv 9 TO i7nroBp6/j,iov dvaftaiveiv efce\V teal 

-358 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xi. 24-31 

even ten times that amount, but whatsoever 
treasures were stored there, being all of gold 
and silver and of marvellous great size. And I 
believe that he would not have shrunk from enslav- 
ing and plundering the whole city, unless some 
divine providence had manifestly prevented him ; 
to such a degree did avarice overpower him and the 
desire of fame turn his mind. For he thought the 
enslavement of the cities a great glory for himself, 
considering it absolutely nothing that disregarding 
treaties and compacts he was performing such deeds 
against the Romans. This attitude of Chosroes will 
be revealed by what he undertook to do concerning 
the city of Daras during his withdrawal at this same 
time, when he treated his agreements with absolute 
disregard, and also by what he did to the citizens of 
Callinicus a little later in time of peace, as will be 
told by me in the following narrative. 1 But God, 
as has been said, preserved Apamea. Now when 
Chosroes had seized all the treasures, and Thomas 
saw that he was already intoxicated with the 
abundance of the wealth, then bringing out the 
wood of the cross with the chest, he opened the 
chest and displaying the wood said : " O most mighty 
King, these alone are left me out of all the treasures. 
Now as for this chest (since it is adorned with gold 
and precious stones), we do not begrudge thy taking 
it and keeping it with all the rest, but this wood 
here, it is our salvation and precious to us, this, I 
beg and entreat thee, give to me." So spoke the 
priest. And Chosroes yielded and fulfilled the 
request. 

Afterwards, being filled with a desire for popular 
applause, he commanded that the populace should 

1 Cf. Book II. xxi. 30-32. 359 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



rd elwdbra 

32 ov Sr) teal ai/ro9 dva/3ds dearrjs ryevecrflai TWV 

V o~7rov8f) eTTOieiTO. errel Be r/fcrj/coei 
rrporepov 'lovariviavov /3ct(Ti\ea %/?a>//,aTO9 
rov Be^erou, o Srj Kvdveov ecrnv, e/croTrw? epdv, 
cun evavria^ avr& /cdvravda levai y8ouXo/ievo9 

33 r)0e\6 r& Trpaaiva) Trjv VLKVJV dp/jioa-ai. ol /mev ovv 
r}vio^oi O.TTO /3d\,{3i8(t)v dp!;d/Aevoi ep<yov efyovro, 
Tv^r) 3e Tt9 TW TO, Bei^era evBtSvcrKOfievy eyevero 

34 7rape\d(ravTi eTciTrpocrdev ievai. etVero Be avra> 
/card ra-9 aura,? df^arpo^idf 6 TO 7rpd(rivov a/i?re- 

35 ^oyLtei/09 xpw/Aa. oirep e^eTrirrjBe^ 6 Xocryoo?;? ye- 
jovevai oto/x.eyo9, r/<yavdtcTei re /cat ti> aTreiXf) 
dvefioa rov Kaieapa TrpOTeprjaai TWV d\\wv ov 
8eov, fce\.ev re TOt9 Trporepov? iovras 
eTre^effdat, OTTO)? TO \onrbv KaroTriaOev 
diywvi&vrar OTrep eTreiSr) ouT&)9 eVeTr/oa/CTo wcnrep 
eetj/09 etceXeve, vtfcdv OVTQ)<; o TC Xoo-porjs teal 

36 /ze/?09 TO Trpdo-tvov e&ogev. evravOa ra)v T49 'A?ra- 
/ie&)y Xoo-yoo?; e9 o-^rtf ijtcwv rjndro TIepcrrjv dvSpa 
9 TT/I; oiKiav TTJV avrov dvaftavra rrjv TraiSa 

37 ovcrav irapOevov ftid^ecrQai. 6 8e ravra dfcovcras 
teal rq> dv/jiw ^ewv d<yecr6ai, rov avopa etce\ve. 
/cal eirel rcapr)v ijSr), dvaa'KO\OTTia'Brjvai avrov 

38 ev TW ffrparoTreSq) eTrecrTcXXe. yvovs 8e 6 of)/j,o<> 
Travrl a6&vei dve/cpayov egai&iov olov, rrpbs 
T^9 rov /3acrtX,e&)9 o/?7^9 Toy dvOpwnov e^airov- 
/jvoi. XocTyoor/9 Se a)yu.oXo777cre /j,ev avrois rov 
dvSpa d^rjaeiv, \d6pa Be dveaKO\bm(Tv ov rro\- 
\w varepov. ravra /j,ev ovv rfjSe Starr err pay p,evo<> 
rravrl rw crrparw orrio'O) drcrf\avvev. 



360 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xi. 31-38 

go up into the hippodrome and that the charioteers 
should hold their accustomed contests. And he 
himself went up there also, eager to be a spectator 
of the performances. And since he had heard long 
before that the Emperor Justinian was extraordinarily 
fond of the Venetus 1 colour, which is blue, wishing to 
go against him there also, he was desirous of bringing 
about victory for the green. So the charioteers, 
starting from the barriers, began the contest, and by 
some chance he who was clad in the blue happened 
to pass his rival and take the lead. And he was 
followed in the same tracks by the wearer of the 
green colour. And Chosroes, thinking that this had 
been done purposely, was angry, and he cried out 
with a threat that the Caesar had wrongfully sur- 
passed the others, and he commanded that the 
horses which were running in front should be held 
up, in order that from then on they might contend 
in the rear ; and when this had been done just as he 
commanded, then Chosroes and the green faction 
were accounted victorious. At that time one of the 
citizens of Apamea came before Chosroes and accused 
a Persian of entering his house and violating his 
maiden daughter. Upon hearing this, Chosroes, 
boiling with anger, commanded that the man should 
be brought. And when he came before him, he 
directed that he should be impaled in the camp. And 
when the people learned this, they raised a mighty 
shout as loud as they could, demanding that the 
man be saved from the king's anger. And Chosroes 
promised that he would release the man to them, but 
he secretly impaled him not long afterwards. So 
after these things had been thus accomplished, he 
departed and marched back with the whole army. 

1 This term was applied to the "Blue Faction" in 
Byzantium and elsewhere. 

361 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

XII 

Be 9 Xa\KiBa^7ro\iv cufritcero, Be/jota? 
7roXe&>9 rerpacri teal oyBorj/covra crraBiois Bie- 
^ovaav, avdts e? \r)6rjv riva rwv ^vytceifAevwv 
r)\6e, (TrparoTreBevcrdfAevos re rov 7repij36\ov ov 
/jua/cpav airoOev, eTre/i-^e Tlav\ov a7rei\^crovra 
XaX/aSeOcrt TroXiopfciajrrjy iroktv alprjaeiv, el ^ 
vr)v re ffwrrjpiav wviov icrrjaovrai ra \vrpa 
Si86vres KOI rovs crrparia)ra<> ocrou? evravOa 

elvai vv rw rjjenovi efc&oiev ff(j)io'i. 

Be e? Seo9 j^eya 77/909 etcarepov /5a- 
erA,e&>9 eyu.7r7TT&)/coTe9 crrpariairas fj-ev cnr^^ocfav 
a>9 rjKiara Tn&rjfj,eiv crcfricn, Ka'nrep aXXou9 Te 
KCU 'ASova^ov rov rwv crrpartwrwv ap%ovra 
tcpv^lravres ev oi/cicrKOis ricriv, O7T&)9 pr) rot9 
7roXe/uo49 ev8r)\oi &crf %pvaov Be /cevrrjvdpia 
Bvo ffv\\e];avres fji6\i<t, eVet TTO\IV ov \iav 
evBaifjiova WKOW, r& re Xocrpo^ faaypia Bovres 
rr)v re TTO\,IV teal &<f)as avrovs Biecratcravro. 

3 'RvffevBe ov/cert 6 Xocr/30?79 e/SouXero rrjv cnro- 
Ttopeiav yjrep e\rj\vOei TroirjcracrOaL, aXV T&vtypd- 
rrjv re Trorafjiov Bia/Bfjvai /cal ^prj^ara on, TrXei- 

4 (rra e/c Mecro7roTa/ita9 \r)iecrdai. yetyvpav ovv 

d/j,(f>l 'O/3/3dvr)s TO %ci)p[ov, ojrep rov ev 
(j)povpiov recrerapdtcovra araBiovs 
avro9 re Biefir) KCU -rravrl rut crrparw 
a>9 rdyiara Biafiaiveiv eTre<Tre\\ev, vTrenroav pev 
rrjv <ye<f)vpav rpirrj rf^epa Xuerecr&u, rafa9 Be 

5 KOA, rov rfy r)/j,epa<; rcatpov. teal end Trapfjv 



362 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xii. 1-5 

XII 

AND when he came to the city of Chalcis, eighty- 
four stades distant from the city of Beroea, he again 
seemed to forget the things which had been agreed 
upon, and encamping not far from the fortifications 
he sent Paulus to threaten the inhabitants of 
Chalcis, saying that he would take the city by siege, 
unless they shjould purchase their safety by giving 
ransom, and should give up to the Persians all the 
soldiers who were there together with their leader. 
And the citizens of Chalcis were seized with great 
fear of both sovereigns, and they swore that, as for 
soldiers, there were absolutely none of them in the 
city, although they had hidden Adonachus, the com- 
mander of the soldiers, and others as well in some 
houses, in order that they might not be seen by 
the enemy ; and with difficulty they collected two 
centenaria 1 of gold, for the city they inhabited was 
not very prosperous, and they gave them to Chosroes 
as the price of their lives and thus saved both 
the city and themselves. 

From there on Chosroes did not wish to continue the 
return journey by the road he had come, but to cross 
the River Euphrates and gather by plunder as much 
money as possible from Mesopotamia. He therefore 
constructed a bridge at the place called Obbane, 
which is forty stades distant from the fortress in 
Barbalissum ; then he himself went across and gave 
orders to the whole army to cross as quickly as 
possible, adding that he would break up the bridge 
on the third day, and he appointed also the time of 
the day. And when the appointed day was come, it 

1 Cf. Book I. xxii. 4. 

3 6 3 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 
/cvpia, rivds /xev rov crrparov 



fj,r Tfw 8ia/3dvra$ ^vveftaivev, 6 Be ov8' oriovv 
vTTO^oyicrdfjievos errefju-^re TOV<? rrjv <ye<f)vpav ota- 

6 \vcrovras. o'i re drro\enr6fjievoi, a>9 e/cacTTo? 
Trr) e&vvaro, et9 TO. rcdrpta ijdrj dveftawov. 

Tore Srj <f)i\on/J,ia Tt? X.ocrpovjV iari\6e TTO\LV 

7 "ESecrcraz' e^eXetv. evf)<ye jap avrov e? rovro Xpt- 
crrtavwv \6yos KCU eSa/cvev avrov. rrjv Sidvoiav, 
ori 8rj dvd\(arov avrrjv lo")(y pi^ovro elvai e 

8 atrta? roidcrBe. A.vyapo<> rjv ris ev rot9 dvco 
%povois 'E8ecrcr'?79 ron-dp^s (ovrw ydp rov<; /card 
Wvo<$ ySao"iXet9 rrjvi/cavra efcdXovv}. 6 8e Avya- 
po9 o5ro9 ^vvercararos eyejovei r&v /car' avrov 
dv0p(i)7ra)V dndvrwv, teal ar? avrov ftacriXei 

9 Avyovcrra) 69 ra yLtaXtcrra <^>tXo9. evo-Trovoos <ydp 
'PwfjLatois elvai fSov\op,evos 69 'Pco^rjv re d(pitcero, 
teal TW Avyovcrra) e9 X,o70U9 rfKWv ovrw Brj 
avrov rr/s ^vvecrews ru> rrepiovri e^e7r\r)^ev &o~re 
ov/ceri avrov /Aedieadai Avyovcrros rrjs %vvovcria<> 
efiovXero, a\X' fjv re avrov rrjs o/itXta9 evOvs 
SidTrvpos epacrrrj^, teal erretSdv evrv^ot, aTraX- 

10 \dcraecr6ai avrov ov$a/J.rj ^eXe. xpovos ovv 
avr& ev ravrr) 8rj crvxybs rfj drrooij/Aia erpiftrj. 
Kai Trore e$ r^Qt] irdrpia e&eXcov levai rceldew 
re rov Av<yovo~rov /MeOeivat, avrov a>9 rfKiara e^cov, 

11 ejrevoei rd8e. eardkr] pev a>9 Kvvr)<yerrfcra)v e9 
rd ejrl 'Pw/i779 ycopur u,e\rr]v >ydp nepl ravra 

r~ i f A, r y r- / i r ^ 

Kareo~7rovoa<Tijievr)v riva erv>y%avev e^cov. rcepuu>v 
8e %oi)pav TroXX^v ffv^vd rwv etceivr) OripLwv 
(t)vra effrjpa, KOI %ow e/c rfj<^ 77^9 ^vvafwja-dfAevo*; 
e<f)epev e/c ^w/ja9 e/cdarr)^- ovrw re eTravrj/cev et9 

3 6 4 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xii. 5-11 

happened that some of the army were left who had 
not yet crossed, but without the least consideration 
for them he sent the men to break up the bridge. 
And those who were left behind returned to their 
native land as each one could. 

Then a sort of ambition came over Chosroes to 
capture the city of Edessa. For he was led on to 
this by a saying of the Christians, and it kept 
irritating his mind, because they maintained that it 
could not be taken, for the following reason. There 
was a certain Augarus in early times, toparch of 
Edessa (for thus the kings of the different nations 
were called then). Now this Augarus was the 
most clever of all men of his time, and as a result 
of this was an especial friend of the Emperor 
Augustus. For, desiring to make a treaty with the 
Romans, he came to Rome ; and when he conversed 
with Augustus, he so astonished him by the abun- 
dance of his wisdom that Augustus wished never more 
to give up his company ; for he was an ardent lover 
of his conversation, and whenever he met him, he 
was quite unwilling to depart from him. A long 
time, therefore, was consumed by him in this visit. 
And one day when he was desirous of returning to 
his native land and was utterly unable to persuade 
Augustus to let him go, he devised the following 
plan. He first went out to hunt in the country 
about Rome ; for it happened that he had taken 
considerable interest in the practice of this sport. 
And going about over a large tract of country, he 
captured alive many of the animals of that region, 
and he gathered up and took with him from each 
part of the country some earth from the land ; thus 
he returned to Rome bringing both the earth and 

365 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

12 'Pco/j,rjv, rov re 'Xpvv /cat TO, Ovjpia e^a>v. o f^ev 
ovv A.vyovcrros 69 rov iTnroSpofAOv dvaflds eicd- 

yrcep ela>Bei, Avyapos oe ol e9 o-^nv YIKOOV 
re yfjv Kal ra Qt]pia ejreSei^e, Kara\eyo)V 
IK 7rota9 Trore ^(i)pa<? % re <yij eKaari) Kal rwv 

13 drjpiwv riva Trore e'ltj. eTretra rrjv ^ev <yf)v a\\rjv 
a\\p rov iTrTroSpofjuiov e/ce\eve QiaQai, irdvra 
8e 69 ravrb ra 6r)pia t^vvayayovras elra d 

14 01 uev ovv vTrrjperat kara ravra eTroiovv. ra 
drfpia %&)yOt9 d\\rj\o)v <yev6[j,eva 9 e/ceivijv 

r?)v yfjv r) 8rj e/c T?}9 %a)pa<t odev e'farjTrro erv>y%a- 

15 vev ovcra. teal 6 /j,ev Av<yovcrros eirl 7T\eicrrov 
ra 7roiov/j,eva e? TO d/tpiftes e^Xevre, teal edavf^a^e 
<ye ori Brj rot9 &)O9 77 <f)vcri$ aStSaT09 ovcra 
TroBeivrjv TTOietrat rrjv rcdrpiov yrjv. Avyapos 
8e avrov rwv yovdrwv e/c rov alfyv&lov Xa/So- 

16 //.ez/09, "'E/ie 8e," etTre, " riva Trore yvfoprjv e^eiv, 
w SecTTrora, oiei, GO yvvrj re eo~ri teal Traioia teal 
/3ao~i\eia /3pa%ela /j,ev, aXX' ev yfj rfj Trarpwa; " 

17 KOI 09 TO> d\rfOel rov \6<yov rjO'CT'^Oei^ re KOI 
(Siacrdels dmevai re ^vve^copet ovri eKovcrios Kal 

18 Trpocrairelcrdai eKeXevev orov av oeijrai. eirel 
Se rovrov Avyapos erv)(ev, A.vyovcrrov eSeiro 
I7nro8p6fjii6v ol oei^aaOat ev TrdXet 'E^eacr?;. o 
8e ^vve^copei Kal rovro. ovra) /juev K ' 

19 dTra\\ayels Avyapos e9 "Roeero~av f)\6 
avrov ol TroiXlrai dveTrvvOdvovro el ri 
dyaBov cr^icriv eK ftaaCkeuis Avyovcrrov 

o Se arfOKpivd^evo<^ 'ESecro^z'ofc eveyKeiv e(j)rj 
\vrfr]v re d^rjp,iov Kal %apav aKepof), rrjv rov 
iTrTroSpofALOv Trapa&r[\,wv rv^rjv. 

20 Xyooz/G) 8e varepov Troppw TTOV rf\iKia<^ A.vyapo<? 
366 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xii. 11-20 

the animals. Then Augustus went up into the 
hippodrome and seated himself as was his wont, and 
Augarus came before him and displayed the earth 
and the animals, telling over from what district each 
portion of earth was and what animals they were. 
Then he gave orders to put the earth in different 
parts of the hippodrome, and to gather all the animals 
into one place and then to release them. So the 
attendants did as he directed. And the animals, 
separating from each other, went each to that portion 
of earth which was from the district in which it itself 
had been taken. And Augustus looked upon the per- 
formance carefully for a very long time, and he was 
wondering that nature untaught makes animals miss 
their native land. Then Augarus, suddenly laying 
hold upon his knees, said : " But as for me, O Master, 
what thoughts dost thou think I have, who possess a 
wife and children and a kingdom, small indeed, but in 
the land of my fathers ? " And the emperor, overcome 
and compelled by the truth of his saying, granted 
not at all willingly that he should go away, and bade 
him ask besides whatever he wished. And when 
Augarus had secured this, he begged of Augustus to 
build him a hippodrome in the city of Edessa. And 
he granted also this. Thus then Augarus departed 
from Rome and came to Edessa. And the citizens 
enquired of him whether he had come bringing any 
good thing for them from the Emperor Augustus. 
And he answering said he had brought to the 
inhabitants of Edessa pain without loss and pleasure 
without gain, hinting at the fortune of the hippo- 
drome. 

At a later time when Augarus was well advanced 

3 6 7 



vocrw rroBdypas ^a\7rfjs TWOS 
rats yovv oBvvais d^dof^evos Kal rfj evOevBe 
ia CTTI rovs larpovs TO rrpdyf^a fyyev, etc 
re yfjs %vve\eye rovs rrepl ravra croQovs 

21 aTravras- S)v Br) varepov (pv <ydp ol aiceaiv rtva rou 
fcafcov e^evpelv la")(yov} aTrecrrrj re KCU es dfj,r)%a- 

22 viav e/jLTceffOiv rv%as rd<> jrapovcras wSvpero. VTTO 
Be rov xpovov etceivov 'Irjcrovs 6 rov 6eov jrals ev 
crca/ACcri wv rols ev TlaXcucrrlvr) dvdputrcois d)/j,i\ei, 
rq> re fj,r)8ev TO rcapdrcav dfjiaprelv rcdnrore, d\\d 
teal ra d^^ava e^epyd^ecrdai Biatyavws evSeitcvv- 

23 fievos ort Brj rov 6eov reals &'>9 akr}6ws eiy ve- 
tcpovs re yap Ka\wv e^avLcrrrj warcep e VTTVOV teal 
Trvjpois rovs o(f)6d\,iwvs ovra) re%deio~iv dvewye, 
ffa)fiar6s re 6\ov \evfcas e/cddrjpe Kal rroBwv 
Trrfpayaiv e\vae, Kal oaa aXXa larpols Trddr] 

24 dviara owo/Aacrfjieva eari. ravra d7ra i yye\\6vr(t)v 

T(ov ex TldXaicrrLVijs e$ rrjv "E^ecraav 
rwv dicovcras, eOdp&rjcre re Kal <ypdp,- 
rcpos rov 'Irjcrovv ypdtyas eBetro avrov 
d7ra\\d(Tcre(r0ai jj,ev rrjs 'lo-voaias Kal rwv evravOa 
dyvco[j,6v(i)v dv0p(0Tra>v, avrq> Be TO \onrov ^V/JL- 

25 ftioreveiv. ejrel ravra o Xpicrrbs aTreve^Oevra 
elBev, avreypatye jrpbs rov Avyapov, &>9 fj,ev OVK 
d<pi^erat avriicpvs drroXeywv, 1 rrjv Be vjietav ra> 

26 ypdfju/jbart v7roa"%6/jLevos. (fiacrl Be Kal rovro avrov 
eTTenrelv, 9 ovBe r/ TTO\IS irore ftapftdpois d\co- 
CT4/AO9 ecrrai. rovro rfjs eTncrroXfjs TO d/cpore\.ev- 
nov ol fjuev eKeivov rov ^povov rrjv icrropiav 
f~vy<ypd'^ravres ovBa/j,rj eyvwcrav ov yap ovv ovBe 
TTTJ avrov eTre/jLvrjcrQijcrav 'ESecrcrr/fot Be avrb vv 

1 a.Tro\fycav Scaliger : airo\evcav P, airoveixav Dindorf. 
368 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xii. 20-26 

in years, he was seized with an exceedingly violent 
attack of gout. And being distressed by the pains 
and his inability to move in consequence of them, he 
carried the matter to the physicians, and from the 
whole land he gathered all who were skilled in these 
matters. But later he abandoned these men (for 
they did not succeed in discovering any cure for the 
trouble), and finding himself helpless, he bewailed 
the fate which was upon him. But about that time 
Jesus, the Son of God, was in the body and moving 
among the men of Palestine, showing manifestly by 
the fact that he never sinned at all, and also by his 
performing even things impossible, that he was the 
Son of God in very truth ; for he called the dead 
and raised them up as if from sleep, and opened 
the eyes of men who had been born blind, and 
cleansed those whose whole bodies were covered 
with leprosy, and released those whose feet were 
maimed, and he cured all the other diseases which 
are called by the physicians incurable. When these 
things were reported to Augarus by those who 
travelled from Palestine to Edessa, he took courage 
and wrote a letter to Jesus, begging him to depart 
from Judaea and the senseless people there, and to 
spend his life with him from that time forward. 
When the Christ saw this message, he wrote in reply 
to Augarus, saying distinctly that he would not come, 
but promising him health in the letter. And they 
say that he added this also that never would the 
city be liable to capture by the barbarians. This 
final portion of the letter was entirely unknown to 
those who wrote the history of that time ; for they 
did not even make mention of it anywhere ; but the 

3 6 9 

VOL. I. B B 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



ry 7TicrTO\fj evpecr6ai (f>aariv, coo-re a/ieXet KCU 
dvdypaTTTOv ovra) rr/v eTTicrroXrjv dvr* aXXou rov 
(frvXa/crypiov ev ra?9 rr)$ ,jroAg&>? TreTroirjvrai 

27 7ruXai9. jejove ^ev ovv VTTO M?;Sot9 ^povw rtvl 
vcrrepov, ov% a\ovcra pevTOi, aXXa rpOTra) ToiwSe. 

28 erreiSr) TO ypd/jif^a TOV X/jtcrToO Avyapos 
KCIKWV fJL6V 6\iy(i) vcrrepov dTraOrjs yeyove, 
Se rf) vyieia e7ri/3iovs %povov re\VTr}crv 
8e BieBe^aro rrjv ftacriKelav rwv avrov 
dvo<Ti(t)TaTO$ y<yovG)<? airdvrwv dvOpwTrwv, aXXa 
re TroXXa e? TOU? dpyo/juevovs e^tjfMapre /cat rrjv 
etc '^atfjbaiwv Se8ia>9 ncriv Trpocre^coptjcrev etcovcrios 

29 IIe/3crat9. xpovw re TroXXw 'ESecrcr^vot vcrrepov 
dve\6vre<> rwv ftapftdpcov row9 <r<j)icriv ev8?)/j,ovv- 
Ta9 (fipovpovs eveSocrav '^wfjiaioisrrjv rroKiv. * * * 
avra> TrpocrTTOielcrdai 67ri/ieXe9 e'crrt, reK/j,aip6fMevo<> 
049 ey T0t9 /car' e/ie %povois yeyovev, drrep ev TO 49 

30 Kddrjicovcri Xo7Ot9 Br)\a)cra). tcai /iot TTOTC evvota 
yeyovev a>9 et //.^ raOra a7re/3 eppriOr] o Xpicrros 
eypatyev, aXX' O'TJ 9 rovro 80^9 avdpwrcoi 
rpvdov, <f)V\dj;cu Sid rovro dvdXatrov effeXet rrjv 
7r6\iy, el>9 fJbrjTTore avrois 7T\dvij<> rivd crKfj^rtv 

. ravra pev ovv OTTV) rw 6e& <j)i\ov, ravrrj 
re Koi Xeyeo-#&>. 

Xoo-/3o?7 8e Tore Trpovpyov Sid ravra eSo^ev 
elvai "ESecro-av ee~\.eiv. /cat eTret e9 Qdrvrjv 
d(f)iKTO, 7TO\Lap,a pev jSpa'xy teal \6yov ov&evb? 
agiov, fjiiipas Be 68w 'E5eo-o-^9 Bie^ov, evravda 
rr)V vvfcra efceivrjv ijvXicraTO, opOpov Be 
Travrl r& err par & eVt rrjv "EiBecrcrav 



37 




HISTORY- OF THE WARS, II. xii. 26-31 

men of Edessa say that they found it with the letter, 
so that they have even caused the letter to be 
inscribed in this form on the gates of the city 
instead of any other defence. The city did in fact 
come under the Medes a short time afterwards, not 
by capture however, but in the following manner. 
A short time after Augarus received the letter of 
the Christ, he became free from suffering, and after 
living on in health for a long time, he came to his 
end. But that one of his sons who succeeded to 
the kingdom showed himself the most unholy of all 
men, and besides committing many other wrongs 
against his subjects, he voluntarily went over to the 
Persians, fearing the vengeance which was to come 
from the Romans. But long after this the citizens 
of Edessa destroyed the barbarian guards who were 
dwelling with them, and gave the city into the 
hands of the Romans. * * * l he is eager to 
attach it to his cause, judging by what has happened 
in my time, which I shall present in the appropriate 
place. And the thought once occurred to me that, 
if the Christ did not write this thing just as I have 
told it, still, since men have come to believe in it, ' 
He wishes to guard the city uncaptured for this 
reason, that He may never give them any pretext 
for error. As for these things, then, let them 
be as God wills, and so let them be told. 

For this reason it seemed to Chosroes at that 
time a matter of moment to capture Edessa. And 
when he came to Batne, a small stronghold of no 
importance, one day's journey distant from Edessa, 
he bivouacked there for that night, but at early 
dawn he was on the march to Edessa with his whole 
1 Nine MS. lines are missing at this point. 

371 

B B 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

32 rjXavve. /cal avrois %vve/3r) 7r\dvr) 

TVJ vcrrepaia 69 rbv avrbv av\i^ecrdai 

33 OTrep avrois \eyovai /cal Sk j;v/ji{3f)vai. poXis Be 
ayx,icrra 'E8ecro-779 yevof^evo) XooyjoT; pev/jiaros 
(fracriv e9 TO TrpocrcoTrov eTrnrecrovTOS eTrijpdai rrjv 
yvddov. 810 8r) rfj<i fjiev TroXew? a 

ovSa/jurj rjde\e, T[av~\,ov Se 

34 (nvovs Tei. ol 8e 



rai, obfjioXoyrjcrai' 8vo ^pvcrov Kevrrjvdpta Swcreiv. 
eXaySe /cal Steer cocrcno TO, 



XIII 

1 Tore /cal <ypdfA/j,ara Xotr/aoj; /3acrtXeu9 'low- 
(TTiviavbs eypatyev, 67rne\ecreiv op,o\o<ywv rd re 
avra) fcal rofr Trpea-ftecriv d/ju^l rfj elpijvrj v<y- 

2 Keip^va. aTrep eVet o Xocryoo7/9 direveyOevra 

TC> / '/ >j \ 

eioe, rov9 T o/47;/90u9 a<p?]fce /c 
rrjv atyoSov, 1 rov<; re ^Avrio 

3 diroSiSoa-Oai arravras tfOeXev. onep 'EiSea-<Tr)vol 
7rei8r) epadov, TrpoOvpiav eireSeigavro aKofjs 
/cpei(T(TG). ov yap r/v ov&els 09 ov ra \vrpa ev 
r& lepG) (j>epa)v vjrep rovrwv Br] r<ov al%pa\(i)TO)v 

4 Kara \6yov rfjs overlap KareOero. elarl 8e 0^9 ical 
fjiaXkov r) Kara \6<yov ravra CTT pdcraero. ai re 
yap eralpai rbv Kocrpov d(f)e\ovcrai, 6'<ro9 aura*9 
ev r& ffco/jiart rjv, evravOa eppiirrovv, /cal ei ra> 
yeatpyqy errL7T\wv r) dpyvpiov cnravi^ovri ovos r) 

1 &<)>o5ov P : 0o5of H. 
372 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xii. 3 i-xiii. 4 

army. But it fell out that they lost their way 
and wandered about, and on the following night 
bivouacked in the same place ; and they say that 
this happened to them a second time also. When 
with difficulty Chosroes reached the neighbourhood 
of Edessa, they say that suppuration set in in his 
face and his jaw became swollen. For this reason 
he was quite unwilling to make an attempt on the 
city, but he sent Paulus and demanded money from 
the citizens. And they said that they had ab- 
solutely no fear concerning the city, but in order 
that he might not damage the country they agreed 
to give two centenaria of gold. And Chosroes took 
the money and kept the agreement. 



XIII 

AT that time also the Emperor Justinian wrote 
a letter to Chosroes, promising to carry out the 
agreement which had been made by him and the 
ambassadors regarding the peace. 1 When this 
message was received by Chosroes, he released the 
hostages and made preparations for his departure, 
and he wished to sell off all the captives from 
Antioch. And when the citizens of Edessa learned 
of this, they displayed an unheard-of zeal. For there 
was not a person who did not bring ransom for the 
captives and deposit it in the sanctuary according to 
the measure of his possessions. And there were some 
who even exceeded their proportionate amount in so 
doing. For the harlots took off all the adornment 
which they wore on their persons, and threw it 
down there, and any farmer who was in want 

1 Cf. Book II. x. 24. 

373 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Trpo/Sdriov fjv, rovro Brj 9 TO lepov cnrovBf) 

5 Tro\\f) fyyev. dOpoi^erai p,ev ovv %pvcrov re fcal 
dpyvpov teal d\\a>v ^prj/jidrfav 7rdfj,7ro\v 7rA//y#o<?, 

6 BeBorat Be VTrep \vrpwv ovBev. Bou?79 yap 
evravda irapo>v erv^ev, 09 8iaK(o\vo~ai rrjv jrpd^iv 
vTrecrrrj, /cepSos ol eaecrOai peya ri evOev&e /capa- 
8o/cwv. 810 Srj 6 X.ocrp6i]<> rou? at^ynaXeoTou? 

7 aTravra? eTrayofAevos Trpocra) e^copei. Kapprjvol 
Be dTTijvraiv %ptf/j,aTa 7ro\\a Trporeivofjievof 6 
8e oft Trpoarjiceiv etyacrtcev, OTI Br) ol TrKelaroi ov 
Xpicmavoi, d\\a 86^r)<; TT}? 7rd\,aias Tvy%dvovcriv 
6vre<f. 

8 Kal yt/rfv teal T^wvcrTavriviewv %pij/jiaTa Bi- 
86vTQ)v eSe^aro, Kaiirep (frdcr/ccav ol etc irarepwv 
irpocrrj/ceiv rrjv TroXiv. eTreiBrj yap Ka/3a5r;9 

et\v, "EiBecfffdv re /ecu KcovtrTavrivav 
)0e\V. aXV 'ESeo'cr^? /j,ev dy%ov yevo- 
rwv fjidycav dvcTrwddvero ei ol aXcocrtyito? r) 
ecrrai, Bei^af rf) Belief, %et/?t TO %a>piov 

10 auTofc. ol Be avr& rri^^rro^-iv d\(aarecr6ai ov- 
BefAid /jirj-^avfj e\eyov, reKfuupof^vot ori Brj TYJV 
Be^iav avrfj %etyoa Trporeivas, ov% aXcocreco? Tavrrj 
ovBe d\\ov OTOVOVV ^a/VeTroO l;vfj,/3o\ov, d\\d 

11 crwrripias BiBoiij. /cat 09 TauTa dicovcras, ejrei- 
Oero re teal eTrrjyev ejrl ILwvcrravrivav TO crrpd- 

12 rev/jia. evravOa Be afyiKQ/Juevos evcrrparoTreBeve- 
aQai Travrl r& trrparq) &>9 rro\iof>Kr]aMv lire- 
is crre\\ev. rjv Be T.a)vcrravrivr)<? lepevs rore 

Ba,^)aSoTO9, dvrjp Bitcaios re Kai rS> 6e$> e? TO. yu,a- 
\icrra d)tXo9, feed air avrov evepyovcrav 9 o rt, /3ov- 

*L >\\>\>/ ?\\ I 

AoiTO aet rrjv ev^rjv eywv ov Kai TO Trpoawnov 
lBa>v av T49 ev6v<i eiitacrev ori Brj ra> 6ew evBe\e- 

374 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xiii. 4-13 

of plate or of money, but who had an ass or a sheep, 
brought this to the sanctuary with great zeal. So 
there was collected an exceedingly great amount 
of gold and silver and money in other forms, but 
not a bit of it was given for ransom. For Bouzes hap- 
pened to be present there, and he took in hand to 
prevent the transaction, expecting that this would 
bring him some great gain. Therefore Chosroes ,- 
moved forward, taking with him all the captives. j 
And the citizens of Carrhae met him holding out 
to him great sums of money ; but he said that it 
did not belong to him because the most of them are 
not Christians but are of the old faith. 

But when, likewise, the citizens of Constantina 
offered money, he accepted it, although he asserted 
that the city belonged to him from his fathers. For 
at the time when Cabades took Amida, he wished 503 A.D. 
also to capture Odessa and Constantina. But when 
he came near to Edessa he enquired of the Magi 
whether it would be possible for him to capture the 
city, pointing out the place to them with his right 
hand. But they said that the city would not be 
captured by him by any device, judging by the fact 
that in stretching out his right, hand to it he was - 
not giving thereby the sign of capture or of any 
other grievous thing, but of salvation. And when 
Cabades heard_this,_he was convinced and led his 
army on to Constantina. And upon arriving there, 
he issued orders to the whole army to encamp for a 
siege. Now the priest of Constantina was at that 
time Baradotus, a just man and especially beloved of 
God, and his prayers for this reason were always 
effectual for whatever he wished ; and even seeing 
his face one would have straightway surmised that 

375 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

14 %e(rrara /ceftapKr/jievos 6 dvrjp eirj. ovros 6 
Ba/?aoTO9 rrjvi/cavra Trapa rbv Ka/3aS?7i> e\,da>v 
olvov re ijvey/ce /ecu la"%d&a<> /cal yu-eXi KOI /ca- 
dapovs aprovs, /cal avrov eSeiro pr) drroTreipacrdai 
7roXea)9 r) ovre \6yov d^ia ecrrl teal Trpbs 
'Pcoyu-aieoy aTnjf^eXrjrai \iav, ovre crrparKor&v 
<f>povpav e^ovaa ovre a\\o ri <f)v\atcTripiov, 
a\\a Tou? oiKr)Topa<$ fj,6vov<>, avflpamovs oltc- 

15 T/JOV9. o ftev Tavra elire- KaySa^r;? ^e avr& 

re TTO^IV xapiei&Qai a)/j,o\6yr)o'e KOI rot? 
&a>pijcraro avrov arracriv ocra ol r& 
eBa) 9 rrjv rco\LOpKiav r^roL^aaro, fjbe<yd- 
Xot? v7rep<f)V(t)<> ovcrw ovrto re arcrfO^dcrcrero etc 
7779 r?79 rwfjialwv. 8ib 8r) 6 Xocr^oo^ e/c rca- 
repa>v ol TTpocn^Keiv r)%lov rrjv rco\i,v. 

16 '9 Aa/?a9 re dtyiKo/jievos 9 Tro\topfciav Kadi- 
crraro. evBodev Se 'Pco/aateu ic'al Maprlvos 6 
crrpar'rjyos (/cat jap evravda wv rv%e) ra 9 dvri- 

17 ffracriv e^rjprvovro. 8vo 8e ^^roXf9 retreat rcepi- 
j3e/3\i>jrai, a>v TO /jiev evrbs /Meya re /cal d^iodearov 
aT6^i>&>9 eariv (e9 vi/ro9 7p Sitf/eei Trvpyos ^ev 
e/cacrro9 TToSwv e/carov, TO oe aXXo Tet^;o9 e^- 
tcovra), TO Se e'/CT09 7roA,X&> //.ei/ e\affcrov crvpfiaivei 
elvai, aXXa)9 Se e^vpov re /cal \6yov TroXXov aiov 

18 eo"Ti. TO Se fJLera^v ^wpLov evpos ovj^ rjaaov r) 
TfevrrjKovra e^ei TTO&WV evravda elcoBaai Aa- 
prjvol TOV9 Te y8oa9 /cat TaXXa i&>a 

19 cr<pi(Tiv ey/ceifAevwv e'yu./3a\\ecr^at. T /i 
Trpwra 6 Xoo-yoo?/9 7rpoa-^o\rjv 7rot77o*a/ievo9 
7T/3O9 earrepav rov Trepi/SciXov rr\ri6ei re 



20 everrprjcrev. evrbs fjuevroi yeveffOai ouSet9 
376 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, Il.-.xiii. 13-20 

this man was most completely acceptable to God. 
This Baradotus came then to Cabades bearing wine 
and dried figs and honey and unblemished loaves, 
and entreated, him not to make an attempt on a city 
which was not of any importance and which was very 
much neglected by the Romans, having neither a 
garrison of soldiers nor any other defence, but only 
the inhabitants, who were pitiable folk. Thus spoke 
the priest ; and Cabades promised that he would grant 
him the city freely, and he presented him with all 
the food-supplies which had been prepared by him 
for the army in anticipation of the siege, an 
exceedingly great quantity ; and thus he departed 
from the land of the Romans. For this reason it 
was that Chosroes claimed that the city belonged to 
him from his fathers. 

And when he reached Daras, he began a siege ; 
but within the city the Romans and Martinus, their 
general (for it happened that _he was there), made 
their preparations for resistance. Now the city is 
surrounded by two walls, the inner one of which 
is of great size and a truly wonderful thing to 
look upon (for each tower reaches to a height 
of a hundred feet, and the rest of the wall to sixty), 
while the outer wall is much smaller, but in other 
respects strong and one to be reckoned with 
seriously. And the space between has a breadth 
of not less than fifty feet ; in that place the citizens 
of Daras are accustomed to put their cattle and 
other animals when an enemy assails them. At 
first then Chosroes made an assault on the forti- 
fications toward the west, and forcing back his 
opponents by overwhelming numbers of missiles, 
he set fire to the gates of the small wall. However 

377 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

ftapftdpwv eroXuvjcrev. erceira Be 
Troieicrdai \dOpa e<? ra rrpbs ecu Trp 7roXe&>9 eyvw. 
ravrrj yap aovov bpvcrcreaOai rj yfj oia re eariv, 
eTret ra aXXa rov Trepi(36\ov errl- rcerpas rot? 

21 8ei/j,afj,voi<> TreTroirjrai,. ol jovv Ylepcrai O/TTO TT}? 
rd(f>pov dpd/j,evoi wpvacrov. 175 8rj (BaOelas 

varis, ovre Kadewpwvro Trpo? twv TroXe- 
ovre avrois riva ai(T0rjcnv rov rroiov/jievov 

22 rcapel'xpvro. tfor) pev ovv V7re8v<rav rd depe\ia 
rov e'ro9 Tet%ou9, e/ieXXov 8e teal Kara rrjv 
fiera^v %a)pav etcarepov 7rpi/36\ov yivopevoi 
0X1760 vcrrepov KOI TO peya Tet^O9 dfjietyavres 
rrjv iroXiv Kara Kpdros eXelv, aXX' (pv yap 
avrqv eSei Tlepcrais d\(ovai) 6^9 e/c rov Xoo-yooot> 
arparoTreSov dfj,(f)l rjfjbipav fj,ea"r)v dy^icrrd 
m] rov 7T6pt/36\ov JJLOVOS d^ifcero, etre dvOpw- 
7TO9 wv etre ri aXXo dvQpcoTrov tcpelacrov, 
Bo^av re rots bpwcn rrapelyero on, Brj rd /3e\r) 
%v\\eyoi drcep etc rov rei%ov<; 'Paaaioi oXt/yco 
irporepov erri rou9 evo^Xovvras ftapftdpovs d^rj- 

23 Kav. ravrd re rrotwv /cat rrjv dtnriBa rcpofie- 
ySXr;/ievo9 e'yoecr^eXeti/ re rovs ev rat9 eVaX^ecrt 
/cal %vv ye\(ori rcodd^eiv eBo/cei. elra (frpdcras 
avrois rov rcdvra \6yov eyprjyopevai rcdvras 
/ce\eve /cat ct>9 evi /iaXtcrra rrjs o-(orrjpia < ; eTrtyu-e- 

24 \ela0ai. /cal 6 uev ravra (Trjurjvas dma>v (p^ero, 
'Pcopaioi Be rd ev ue<T(0 refyovs eicarepov Oopvftw 

25 TroXXco fcal rapa%y e/ceXevov aicdrrreiv. fcal 
Hepcrai ^kvroi OVK eiBores rd Trpaaa-oaeva ovBev 

26 n rjffaov epyov efyovro. ratv pev ovv ftapftdpwv 
bpdi']V riva evepdev Troiov/jievwv 6Bbv CTTI TO T^9 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xiii. 20-26 

no one of the barbarians dared to get inside. Next 
he decided to make a tunnel secretly at the eastern 
side of the city. For at this point alone can the 
earth be dug, since the other parts of the forti- 
fications were set upon rock by the builders. So 
the Persians began to dig, beginning from their 
trench. And since this was very deep, they were 
neither observed by the enemy nor did they afford 
them any means of discovering what was being 
done. So they had already gone under the 
foundations ^of the outer wall, and were about to 
reach the space between the two walls and soon 
after to pass also the great wall and take the city 
by force ; but since it was not fated to be captured 
by the Persians, someone from the camp of Chos- 
roes came alone about midday close to the forti- 
fications, whether a man or something else greater 
than man, and he made it appear to those who saw 
him that he was collecting the weapons which the 
Romans had a little before discharged from the 
wall agamst the barbarians who were assailing them. 
And while doing this and holding his shield before 
him, he seemed to be bantering those who were 
on the parapet and taunting them with laughter. 
Then he told them of everything and commanded 
them all to be on the watch and to take all possible 
care for their safety. After revealing these things 
he was off, while the Romans with much shouting 
and confusion were ordering men to dig the ground 
between the two walls. The Persians, on the other 
hand, not knowing what was being done, were 
pushing on the work no less than before. So while 
the Persians were making a straight way under- 
ground to the wall of the city, the Romans by the 

379 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



7ro\ft)9 Tet^o9, Twv Be 'PcofjLaidJV [re] l eo8a)pov 
yvM^rj, eVl cro(f)La TJ7 Ka\ovfJ>evy fJiri^avLKfi \oyiov 
dvBpos, eyKapcriav re rrjv Sia)pv%a epya^opevcov 
Kal ftddovs ifcavo)? e%ovcrav, ^vveftij Tlepcras 
/cara /jiecrov roiv 7repi/3o\,oiv ryeyevrj/Mevovs e/c rov 
al<j)vi$iov efiTrecreiv e? rrjv 'Pcofuiicov Karat pv^a. 

27 teal avrwv rovs ^ev Trpcorovs 'Pwf^aloi exreivav, 
ol Be oTTurdev (frvyovres Kara rayps 9 TO crrparo- 
TreSov SiecrcaQrjcrav. SKOKCIV yap avrovs ev CTKOTO) 

28 *Pa>/Aaioi ovBa/jifj eyvwcrav. ravrr^ ovv Tr)<? 

Tretpa? o Xoapo??? dTrorvvcbv \eiv re rrw TTO\LV 

r ~ x ,. x ,?. <V , / 

fj,rj'%avr] TO hoiirov ovoepia eXincras, TOi? 

Kovfj,evoi<> e? Xo7Of9 rf\,6e, ^iXid re 
dpjvpov araB^a e? Ta Hepawv 

29 ravra eirel ySacrtXeu? 'lovcmviavbs epaOev, 
ra 

Xocrpoj; 

ravra jj,ev ev rf) Trptorrj Xocrpoou 

TO 
ere\evra. 



'O 



XIV 



7roX/ ev 'Ao-o-uptot9 



o8<, 'Avrto^eidv re rrjv Xoerpoof avrrjv 
Kal ^Avno^ecov rovs al%fj,a\a)rov<> 
evravda vvq>Ki(rev arravras, 049 3^ fta\avelov 
re Kal iTnroSpo/Aiov Kare<TKevae Kal rats aX\.ai<? 
2 rpvtyats dvei<r0ai eiroiei. rovs re yap f)vio')(ovs 

1 [re] bracketed by Dindorf. 2 x^PV Maltretus : x^po MS. 
380 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xiii. 2 6-xiv. 2 

advice of Theodorus, a man learned in the science 
called mechanics, were constructing their trench 
in a cross-wise direction and making it of sufficient 
depth, so that when the Persians had reached the 
middle point between the two circuit-walls they 
suddenly broke into the trench of the Romans. 
And the first of them the Romans killed, while 
those in the rear by fleeing at top speed into the 
camp saved themselves. For the Romans decided 
by no means to pursue them in the dark. So 
Chosroes, failing in this attempt and having no 
hope that he would take the city by any device 
thereafter, opened negotiations with the besieged, 
and carrying away a thousand pounds of silver he 
retired into the land of Persia. When this came 
to the knowledge of the Emperor Justinian, he was 
no longer willing to carry the agreement into effect, 
charging Chosroes with having attempted to capture 
the city of Daras during a truce. Such were the 
fortunes of the Romans during the first invasion 
of Chosroes ; and the summer drew to its close. 



XIV 

Now Chosroes built a city in Assyria in a place one 
day's journey distant from the city of Ctesiphon, and 
he named it the Antioch of Chosroes and settled there 
all the captives from Antioch, constructing for them a 
bath and a hippodrome and providing that they should 
have free enjoyment of their other luxuries besides. 
For he brought with him charioteers and musicians 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 
teal TOU9 rwv fj,ovcriKWv Hpymv re^viras ex re 



<? Ka rwv 

3 vv avrw rjyev. ert p^evroi /ecu 8r)/ji,ocria 
Tot>9 'AvTto^ea9 rovrovs eTTi/jbeXecrrepws ?} Kara 
at^/xaA.<wTot>9 eairi^ev 69 irdvra rbv %povov, KOI 
/3acrtX,tou9 Ka\6i(rdai rj^iov, ware rwv dp%6vr(ov 

4 ovSevl V7ro%ei,piovs elvai rj jBaGi\.el JAOVO). el 8e 
Tt9 /cal rwv a\\o)i> 'Pco/uiaicov Spairerr}^ yeyovot)? 
69 'A.vrio%eiav rrjv Xocrpooi' Sia<pwyeiv 

Kal Tt9 avrbv l ^vyyevrj rwv ravrr) 
eicd\ecrev, ovKeri ef)v rat KeKrrj/jueva) rbv 
\wrov rovrov aTrdyeiv, ouS' r/v Tt9 rwv \iav ev 
TLepcrais SoKipwv 6 rbv dvOpwrrov e 



5 ^Avrto^eva-i /juevroi rb %vfj,(3av ercl 'Avacrraffiov 
/3acri\evovros repas 69 rovro aTrofidv ere\evrij(T. 
rore <yap dvefiov ffK\ijpov &d(j)vr) rw Trpoaa-reiw 
IK rov al(f)viBiov eimreaovro^, rwv Kwjrapiacrwv 
at ravry vtyr)\al dre^vw^ r/crav e/c pt^wv rwv 
ea^drwv dvar 'pan 'eta at et9 rrjv <yrjv errecrov, aartep 

6 o vbpsOS eKrepvecrdai ov8af^7J eta. oXiyw pev ovv 
varepov, rjVLKa 'lovcrrivos 'Pwpaiwv rjpx e > crt ~ 
o-yu-09 T49 eTTvyevo/Aevos e^aicrios \lav rr^v re 7ro\tv 
Karecreicre rcaaav Kal rwv oiKO&ojjirip.drwv ra re 
rr\elcrra Kal /caXXwra 9 TO eSatpo^ evQvs r)ve<yKe, 
Kal \eyovrai, rore rpiaKovra pvpidSes ^Avrto^ewv 

1 d7ro\w\evai. ev ravrrj Be rfj d\waei v/j,Tracra 
. ^..7ro^9j wcnrep /j,oi epprjdr], 8ie<f)@aprai. rb jj,ev 

ovv ' Kvno^ewv rrddo^ rfjSe e^wpTjae. 
8 BeXi<rayOto9 &e ftaaikel e? T$vdvriov ej; 'IraXta9 

/iTa7T6/i7rT09 rj\,6e, Kal avrbv Sia^eipdcravra ev 

1 aiirbv Hoeschel : aiircav P. 
382 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xiv. 2-8 

both from Antioch and from the other Roman cities. 
Besides this he always provisioned these citizens of 
Antioch at public expense more carefully than in the 
fashion of captives, and he required that they be called 
king's subjects, so as to be subordinate to no one of the 
magistrates, but to the king alone. And if any one 
else too who was a Roman in slavery ran away and 
succeeded in escaping to the Antioch of Chosroes, 
and if he was called a kinsman by any one of those 
who lived there, it was no longer possible for the 
owner of this captive to take him away, not even if 
he who had enslaved the man happened to be a 
person of especial note among the Persians. 

Thus, then, the portent which had come to the 
citizens of Antioch in the reign of Anastasius reached 
this final fulfilment for them. For at that time a 
violent wind suddenly fell upon the suburb of 
Daphne, and some of the cypresses which were 
there of extraordinary height were overturned 
from the extremities of their roots and fell to 
the earth trees which the law forbade absolutely 
to be cut down. Accordingly, a little later, when 526A.D. 
Justinus was ruling over the Romans, the place 
was visited by an exceedingly violent earthquake, 
which shook down the whole city and straightway 
brought to the ground the most and the finest of the 
buildings, and it is said that at that time three 
hundred thousand of the population of Antioch 
perished. And finally in this capture the whole city, 
as has been said, was destroyed. Such, then, was 
the calamity which befell the men of Antioch. 

And Belisarius came to Byzantium from Italy, 
summoned by the emperor ; and after he had spent 

383 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

arpaTijybv eVt re X.ocrp6r)v fcal 
rjpi ap^ofjuevai fiacriXevs eTre/jutye 
re TOW e 'IraX,ta9 %vv ai)T(f> rjKOvras, wv or) eva 
Ba\epiavbv rjyeiffdai rwv ev 'A/oyu^vio^ Kara\6ya)v 

9 e/ceXeve. M.apTivo<f yap erv^ev ev0v<> et? rrjv 
eaiav crraXet?, KOI Sta rovro XCKT/SOT;? avrov, 

10 to? Trpo&e&rjKwTai, e'<? Aapa? euyoe. rwv 8e TorOcov 

iev ev T$vavTi(t) eeivev, ol 8e \oi7rol 



avv eitrapio) ecrrp- 

11 revcrav. rore TMV OviTTiyiSos 7Tpe<rj3ea>v are/oo? 
fjuev, ocnrep rov eVw/coTrov 

ev rot? ile/jcrwy ffOeai, OvrjCTKei, o 8e 8rj er 

12 avrov e/j,eivev. ocms Be avrols 
ave^dtprfa-ev e? 'PwfJLaiwv rrjv <yf)v, /cal avrov 
'Icodvvrjs, 09 rwy ev MecroTrorayLtta 

rip%6v, d/j,<f)l ra K.wvcrravrLvr)^ opia 

eV re r^y TTO\IV elcrayaycov ev Sea /j,a>rr) pirn icad- 

elp^ev, ocnrep ol evravda ajravra ava-rrvvda- 

13 vo/j,va> TO, TreTrpay/jieva e^rjveyfce. ravra pev 
ovv rfjSe e^mpTjcre. BeXtcra/oto? Se %vv rot9 eT 

KdTa ra^o9 ^ef, TrpOTepijcrai, ev 
r/o/y Ti^a 6 Xocr^oT/9 
crerai e9 'Paftaimv rrjv yfjv. 



XV 



(rrparv r/ye, awv avrov e7rayo/jt,eva)v e atria9 

2 TOiacrSe. Aa^ot ra /iez/ Trpwra yfjv TTJV Ko\%tSa 

a>Kovv, 'Pcofiaicov Kanjfcooi 6We9, OL pevTOi e? 

(f)6pov aTraycoyijv, ovSe TI aXXo e7rayye\\ov<Tiv 

384 



HISTORY OF TH^ W>\^ II. xiv. 8-xv. 2 

the winter in Byzantium, the emperor sent him as 
general against Chosroes and the Persians at the 541 A.D. 
opening of spring, together with the officers who had 
come with him from Italy, one of whom, Valerianus, 
he commanded to lead the troops in Armenia. For 
Martinus had been sent immediately to the East, 
and for this reason Chosroes found him at Daras, as 
has been stated above. And among the Goths, 
Vittigis remained in Byzantium, but all the rest 
marched with Belisarius against Chosroes. At that 
time one of the envoys of Vittigis, he who was 
assuming the name of bishop, died in the land of 
Persia, and the other one remained there. And the 
man who followed them as interpreter withdrew to 
the land of the Romans, and John, who was com- 
manding the troops in Mesopotamia, arrested him 
near the boundaries of Constantina, and bringing him 
into the city confined him in a prison ; there the man 
in answer to his enquiries related everything which 
had been done. Such, then, was the course of these 
events. And Belisarius and his followers went in 
haste, since he was eager to anticipate Chosroes' 
making any second invasion into the land of the 
Romans. 



XV 

BUT in the meantime Chosroes was leading his 
army against Colchis, where the Lazi were calling 
him in for the following reason. The Lazi at 
first dwelt in the land of Colchis as subjects of the 
Romans, but not to the extent of paying them 

385 

VOL. I. C C 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

avrois eTratcovovres, 7T\tjv ye 8rj ori e7Ti8av 
avrois 6 /3ao-tXet>9 reXevrtfcreie, u/i/3oXa rf)<> 
upXW r V 8ia8e^Ofjieva) rrjv /3acri\eiav 6 'P 
8 /QacrtXew eVe/iTre. ra 8e rrj? ^coyoa? opia 
Tot9 dpfto/jievois 9 TO a/c/3i/Se9 8i<f)v\a(ra' 
8?; /A}) Ovvvoi TroKepiot, ei; opovs rov Kav/cdaov, 
6fj,6pov cr<picriv OVTO9, Sia Aa^/c?}? jropevopevoi 

4 ecrfiaXXaxriv e? 7^1; T^V 'Po)//.atcyy. e$v\acraov 
8e ovre avrol %ptffj,ara r) crrpariav TT^O? 'Pa>fj.aicov 
8e%6fjievoi ovre f Pw/iatot9 7777 ^v&TparevovTes, ITT' 
fjbTTOpia 8e rf) Kara ddXaffcrav TT/JO? 'Pcofiaiovs 

5 del TOU? ey rrovTw w/c^/ie^ou? epya^ojjievoi. avrol 
fjiev yap ovre a\a<> ovre crtrov ovre a\\o ri dyaOov 

i, &eppei<> Be teal ftvpcra? KOI dvSpaTroSa 
ra crfyicrw eTTirijSeia efcofML^ovro. 
8e ra d^l Tovpyevei rw '\/3r)pwv (3acri\ei 
i ^vveireaev, wcrTrep fioi ev rofr e^TrpoaOev 
eppt]6ri, o~rpari(orai 'Pcoftaiwv e7rt%G)- 
Aafot? tfp^avro, ols or) ol J3dp/3apoi ovroi 
, KOI Trdvrwv id\icrra Tierpa) ra) crrpa- 
d^eiv rot9 evrv<y%dvov(Tiv evTrerax; 

7 fyovri. 6 8e Herpos ovros wp/jirjro jj,ev e% 
Kp%avv)vris, ri e/cT09 Nu/ux/noy rrora/jiov eari, 
Tlepcrwv KarrjKOO^ CK 7ra\aiov ovcra, 77009 'loucrrt- 
vov 8e /3ao~iXe&)9 en 7rat9 &>v r)v8pa7r68tcrro, r)v'iKa 
'lovo-rivos fiera rrjv J Afj,i8tj<i a\a>crt,v vv r& 
KeXe/?O9 crrpary e'creySaXXev 9 rrjv TIepcrwv yijv. 
<f>i\av0pa>Tria 8e TroXX?} ^pw/Jbevov rov Ke/crrj/Aevov 

8 69 avrov 9 ypa/j,jj,aricrrov e^otr^o-e. /cat ra fA,ev 
rcpwra 'lovcrrivov ypafAfAarevs yeyovev, eVet 8e 
'AvacrracrLOV rereXevrrjtcoros 'lovcrrivos rrjv fiaffi- 



386 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xv. 2-8 

tribute or obeying their commands in any respect, 
except that, whenever their king died, the Roman 
emperor would send emblems of the office to him 
who was about to succeed to the throne. And he, 
together with his subjects, guarded strictly the 
boundaries of the land in order that hostile Huns 
might not proceed from the Caucasus mountains, which 
adjoin their territory, through Lazica and invade the 
land of the Romans. And they kept guard without 
receiving money or troops from the Romans and 
without ever joining the Roman armies, but they 
were always engaged in commerce by sea with the 
Romans who live on the Black Sea. For they them- 
selves have neither salt nor grain nor any other 
good thing, but by furnishing skins and hides and 
slaves they secured the supplies which they needed. 
But when the events came to pass in which 
Gourgenes, the king of the Iberians, was concerned, 
as has been told in the preceding narrative, 1 Roman 
soldiers began to be quartered among the Lazi ; and 
these barbarians were annoyed by the soldiers, and 
most of all by Peter, the general, a man who was prone 
to treat insolently those who came into contact with 
him. This Peter was a native of Arzanene, which is 
beyond the River Nymphius, a district subject to the 
Persians from of old, but while still a child he had 
been captured and enslaved by the Emperor Justinus 
at the time when Justinus, after the taking of Amida, 
was invading the land of the Persians with Celer's 
army. 2 And since his owner showed him great kind- 
ness, he attended the school of a grammatist. And 
at first he became secretary to Justinus, but when, 
after the death of Anastasius, Justinus took over the 
1 Cf. Book I. xii. 4 ff. 2 Cf. Book I. viii. 21-22. 

387 
cc 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



\elav 7rape\,a/3e 'Pco/juaifov, 6 TLerpos 

yeyovcos 69 re ^iXo^ptj^ariav etirep ns aA,\09 

%(OKl\ KOI dj3e\repia 7TO\\7) 9 



9 "Tffrepov 8e /SacrtXeu9 'lovcrriviavbs aXXoi/9 Te 
e? Aafyfcrjv ap%ovra<> eTTep^re teal *Ia>dvvrjv ov 
e/cdXovv, av&pa eg atyavwv fj,ev KO! dSo^wv 
yeyovora, 9 crrparrjyiav Se dvafteftrjKOTa 
KCVT a\\o ovSev rj on TrovrjporaTOS re TJV dvdpd)- 
TTCOV aTrdvroov teal Tropovs xptjjuidTaw dSifCOVS l 
ifcava>TaTO<> e^evpetv. 09 Srj aTravra ecr<})r)\e re 
teal ffvverdpage ra 'Pw/^aimv re KOI A.awv Trpdy- 

10 para. OVTO9 /eat /3a<7tXea 'lovariviavov TTO\IV 
dveTreicrev 7ri0d\acrcriav, TLerpav OVO/ACI, ev Aa^ot9 

i' evravOd re axrTrep ev d/cpOTroXei KaOij- 
e re KOI e^epe ra Aa^wv irpdyfjiara. 

11 TOU9 re yap a\a9 Kai oaa a\\a (fiopria Aa^ot9 
dvaytcaia eSotcei elvai, ovtceri <f)epeiv e? yrjv rrjv 

Tot9 e/jLTTopois egrjv, r) d\\odi evOevBe 
' ev Her pa 2 gv&rrjcrd/Aevos TO 8rj 
fjLOvoTT(i)\iov atro9 KdrrrjKos re KCU, 
^9 Trepl ravra epyacria? errLardr^ 
eyiyvero, arcavra wvovfAevos re real d-rroStSo/jievo*; 
KoX%of9, ov^ yTrep eWicrro, d\\ J yTrep egijv. 

12 a/ta 8e /cat aXX&>9 ot /3dpf3apoi ij^dovro em- 

ywpidtovri, aurot9 OVK et<o#o9 rrporepov r& 'Pto- 
A T b ~ * fv > / , / r ^ f / * ,/ 

fj.aia)v crrparw. a OT) ovtceri fpepeiv otot re ovres 

Tlepcrais re KOI XOO^OT; Trpoa^wpelv eyvwcrav, 



1 aSlnovs VGP corr. : aSirewv P pr. no. 

2 Uerpa Hoeschel : irfVpajr MSS. 



388 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xv. 8-12 

Roman empire, Peter was made a general, and he 
degenerated into a slave of avarice, if anyone ever 
did, and showed himself very fatuous in his treat- 
ment of all. 

And later the Emperor Justinian sent different 
officers to Lazica, and among them John, whom 
they called Tzibus, a man of obscure and ignoble 
descent, but who had climbed to the office of 
general by virtue of no other thing than that he 
was the most accomplished villain in the world and 
most successful in discovering unlawful sources of 
revenue. This man unsettled and threw into 
confusion all the relations of the Romans and the 
Lazi. He also persuaded the Emperor Justinian 
to build a city on the sea in Lazica, Petra by name ; 
and there he sat as in a citadel and plundered the 
property of the Lazi. For the salt, and all other 
cargoes which were considered necessary for the 
Lazi, it was no longer possible for the merchants 
to bring into the land of Colchis, nor could they 
purchase them elsewhere by sending for them, but he 
set up in Petra the so-called " monopoly " and him- 
self became a retail dealer and overseer of all the 
handling of these things, buying everything and 
selling it to the Colchiaiis, not at the customary 
rates, but as dearly as possible. At the same time, 
even apart from this, the barbarians were annoyed 
by the Roman army quartered upon them, a thing 
which had not been customary previously. Ac- 
cordingly, since they were ,no longer able to endure 
these things, they decided to attach themselves to 
the Persians and Chosroes, and immediately they 



389 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



TT pe<T /Sets re avri/ca rovs ravra 
13 fcpv<f>a 'Pcofjiaiwv Trap avrovs eTre/jbtyav. o?9 8rj 
eipijro rd retard Trpbs XOCT/JOOU \a/3ov<nv on, ye 
ovTrore Aabt>9 atcovras efcowcrei 'P&>/iatot9, ovrco 
8r) avrbv %vv T& Hepcrwv crr/jarw e? rrjv 



14 ' A.(f)iKopevot TOLVVV e? TLepcras ol 7r/oecr/3et9 teal 
XOCT/JOT; \ddpa e? otyiv eX^oi/re? e\ej;av roidSe 
" Et rivas real aXXof? etc rov TTOVTO^ %p6vov TWV 
fj,ev oiKeicov airoaTavra^ ovnva Srj rpbirov, dv- 
bpdffi, 8e TO Trapdnav dyvwai 7roocr/ee%&>/>77oTa<? 
ov Seov avOis ev 7roiov<ra 17 rv^ij a>9 fjid\i<na 
d<rfjLevovs eVl TOU9 Trplv eTravtjyayev eTriryS 
TOIOVTOVS 8tj rivas KOI A.aov<;, w /^eyia"re 

15 \ev, vofu^e elvai. KoX^oi yap Hepcrai*; 
fia'xpi, TO dveicadev ovres Trd\\d re elpydaavro 
avrovs dyaOd /cal avrol erradov wv 8rj ev ypd/j,- 



fj,acn /j,vrjfjbea Troa /it9 re e^ofiev KCLV rots 
/3a&i\eioi<i TGI? crot9 e9 TO rrapov 8iao-(0erai. 

16 %/3ov&) 8e varepov TOt9 rjperepois Trpoyovois 
rervj(i)Kev eire Trap 1 V/MWV d/j^Xrjdeicriv eire d\\ov 
rov evetca (pv yap e^of^ev ri cra<^)e9 rrepl rovrwv 

17 elSevai) 'PwjAaiois evcnrovbois yevecrffai. teal vvv 
i7/Lt?9 re teal 6 A.afyfcr)<> /3acri\ev<> SiSo^ev 

r}/j,a<> re avrovs teal yrjv rrjv r/fterepav o n 

18 aOe %pf)crOai. SeofjieOa Se vpwv ovraxrl 
crQai Trepl r/fAwv el fiev ovSev 737)09 ' 
rrercovdbres Beivov, aXX' dyvcafwcrvvrj 
Ke.'XwpriK.anGv et9 v/Aa9, rrfvSe rjfjiwv evOvs drro- 
<reia-a(T0e rrjv iKereiav, ovSe vfitv re ore 

1 tira'yaytffOai Haury : irapayayeffdai VG, airayaytffOai P. 
390 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xv. 12-18 

sent to them envoys who were to arrange this 
without the knowledge of the Romans. These men 
had been instructed that they should take pledges 
from Chosroes that he would never give up the Lazi 
against their will to the Romans, and that with this 
understanding they should bring him with the 
Persian army into the land. 

Accordingly the envoys went to the Persians, and 
coming secretly before Chosroes they said : " If any 
people in all time have revolted from their own 
friends in any manner whatsoever and attached 
themselves wrongfully to men utterly unknown to 
them, and after that by the kindness of fortune 
have been brought back once more with greatest 
rejoicing to those who were formerly their own, 
consider, O Most mighty King, that such as these 
are the Lazi. For the Colchians in ancient times, 
as allies of the Persians, rendered them many good 
services and were themselves treated in like manner ; 
and of these things there are many records in books, 
some of which we have, while others are preserved 
in thy palace up to the present time. But at a later 
time it came about that our ancestors, whether 
neglected by you or for some other reason (for we 
are unable to ascertain anything certain about this 
matter), became allies of the Romans. And now 
we and the king of Lazica give to the Persians both 
ourselves and our land to treat in any way you may 
desire. And we beg of you to think thus concerning 
us : if, on the one hand, we have suffered nothing 
outrageous at the hands of the Romans, but have 
been prompted by foolish motives in coming to you, 
reject this prayer of ours straightway, considering 



39 i 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 
(reaOai KoX%oy9 olo/nevoi ((/uA.ta.9 yap Bia\e- 

\V/JL6Vr)S 6 TyOO7TO9 T?}9 /J^T* KiVr]V 7T/J09 6X6/30^9 

19 KadtcrTa/jLevr]^ e\ey%o<> yiyveTai}' el Be \6yw ftev 
(f)L\oi 'Pw/jiaiwv, epyw Be dvBpdiroBa yeyovoTes 
Tricrrd, epya ireTrovOa^ev TT/JO? TWV e<^>' r]/j,lv re- 
rvpavvrjKorcov dvocna, Be^acrde pev rjfjias rovs 

yows , Krijcracrde Be 8ov\ov<> ols 
e^prjcrde, [AKrijaaTe Be rvpavviSa TriKpav 
fjfuv ev yeirovcov eyrjyep^evijv, T-^9 Sifcaio- 
avwrjs a^ia irpdcraovres $)v Trepi<rTe\\iv del 

20 Trdrpiov Hepaai^. ov'yap 6 jjuySev auro? dBitcwv 
SiKaios, el /j,r) Kal roy? v$> erepwv dSi/covfjievovs 

21 e%(ov ev e^ovaia pvecrdai 7re(f)VKv. evict, Be 
elirelv a>v TTO\pr]Ka<Ti,v ol /ccndpaToi f P&)yu,atot 
/cad' r]fjbS)v afyov. ra> pev yap rj/juerepw /3a<Ti\,et 
TO cr^ijfMa JJLOVOV rr)<> ySacriXeta? dTro\nr6vTe<t, 
avTol rrjv e^ovcriav evrl rwv epywv dffrrjprjvTai, 
/cal KadrjTai, ftacriXevs ev VTrrjperov /jwipa, TOV 

22 einraTTOvra crrparrfybv BeBia)?- crrparid<? Be rjfJLiv 
eTrecrrrja-av 7r\f)6o<>, ov% OTTCO? rrjv %(apav CITTO 

evo'X\ovvro)V <f)povprj(TOVcnv l (ov yap ovBe T49 
fJia^ TT\r)V ye Brj e Pa>/j,aia>v r)V(t)'%\.'r)- 
r&>9 ^/ia9 wffirep ev Becr/^ojr^pia) 
tcvpioi TWV rjfJLerepaiv yevijcrovrai. 

23 \oyi(rdfjvoi Be crvvTO/AooTepav Troiijaacrffai rrjv 
TWV r)[J,lv v7rap%6vTwv dfyaipecriv, opa, w 

24 69 oTroiav Tiva evvoiav rf\6ov TWV e 
a ftev TrepiTTa Trap 1 e/cet^oi9 eivai 
dvay/cd^ovcriv ov% ercovTas wvelffdai Aa^bt9, oaa 

1 (f>povp-hffovffii> VG : fypovpT\ff(affiv P. 
392 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xv. 18-24 

that with you likewise the Colchians will never be 
trustworthy (for when a friendship has been dissolved, 
a second friendship formed with others becomes, 
owing to its character, a matter of reproach) ; but if 
we have been in name friends of the Romans, but in 
fact their loyal slaves, and have suffered impious 
treatment at the hands of those who have tyrannized 
over us, receive us, your former allies, and acquire 
as slaves those whom you used to treat as friends, 
and show your hatred of a cruel tyranny which 
has risen thus on our borders, by acting worthily of 
that justice which it has always been the tradition 
of the Persians to defend. For the man who him- 
self does no wrong is not just, unless he is also 
accustomed to rescue those who are wronged by 
others when he has it in his power. But it is worth 
while to tell a few of the things which the accursed 
Romans have dared to do against us. In the first 
place they have left our king only the form of royal 
power, while they themselves have appropriated the 
actual authority, and he sits a king in the position 
of a servant, fearing the general who issues the 
orders ; and they have put upon us a multitude of 
soldiery, not in order to guard the land against those 
who harass us (for not one of our neighbours except, 
indeed, the Romans has disturbed us), but in order 
that they may confine us as in a prison and make 
themselves masters of our possessions. And pur- 
posing to make more speedy the robbery of what 
we have, behold, O King, what sort of a design 
they have formed ; the supplies which are in excess 
among them they compel the Lazi to buy against 
their will, while those things which are most useful 



393 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



Be avrols xprjcri/jLcbraTa <pepeiv 

ol'Be 1 d%iovo~i Bfjdev rq> \6<ya> Trap' rjfiwv npiaaQai, 

Ttyi?}9 eKarepcoOi <yv(ofjLrj rwv rcparovvrwv 6pio- 

25 fjLevrjs. ovrw re %vv T0*9 dvay/caiois drcav d<f>ai- 
povvrai TO %pv(riov ^/ia9, ovo/jian ftev ra> TT}? 
efnropias evirpeTrei %p(0/jievoi, epyw Be rj/jias tu? 
evi /MaXicrra /3ia6fj,evoi. e(j)ecrrr]Ke re rj/j^iv ap%a>v 
/cavr^Xo?, rrjv . r)fj,erepav arroplav epyaaiav riva 

26 rf] T% dpxrjs e^ovffia TreTrotrjfjLevos. r/ fj,ev ovv 
rf)<> aTToaracreuts atria roiavrtj rt? ov<ra TO 
8i/caiov e^' eavrijf e^er ocra Be vfuv avrols 
^vfj,(f)opa ecrrai Be^o/jievoi^ rrjv A.aa>v Ber/eriv 

27 avri/ca epov/Jiev. rfj Hepa-wv dpxfj ftaaiXeiav 
dp^atordrrjv TrpocrBrjcrere, H^KVVO^&VOV re CLTT 
avrrjs e^ere TO rrj<; f]<ye[wvla<; dj-iw/jLa, pereivai 
Be T?}? 'P(0fjMia>v 0a\d(T(Trj<f vfuv Bid rr)S rjfierepas 

d)pa^, ev fj vrXota aoi, w /3acri\ev, 
fiarbv ovBevl TTOVW TO ev Bvfavriw 
ecrrat. p,era%v <ydp evavriw^a ovBev 

28 effri. rtpoaQeif] S' dv ns a>9 Kal \r)iecr0ai rovs 
6/jLopovs f3ap/3dpov$ rrjv 'PfU/iattwv yrjv dvd rcdv 

29 eVo<? e(f> vfilv Keicrerai. opecri ydp Tot? Kaf- 
Kaaiois e7riTei%icr/j,a f^e^pi rovBe yeyovevai rrjv 
A.a(ii)v %(0pav Trdvrws TTOV Kal V/JLL<; ^vverri- 

30 araaOe. qyovftevov roivvv rov Bitcaiov, rcpouov- 
TO? Be rov ^v/jL(j)epovro<;, TO /AT) ov^l TOU9 T^oyovs 
7rpocrea'8ai z ovBe/j,id<> dv euySoiXta9 oi6fj,e0a elvai." 
roaavra JJLCV ol 7rpeo~/3ei<> elrcov. 

31 Xocrpw;9 Be To?9 \6yois ycrOels dpvveiv re 



394 



: ol 5e VG corr. P, ouSe G pr. m. 
fffOat Maltretus : irpoeff6ai MSS, 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xv. 24-31 

to them among the products of Lazica these fellows 
demand to buy, as they put it, from us, the price 
being determined in both cases by the judgment 
of the stronger party. And thus they are robbing 
us of all our gold as well as of the necessities of life, 
using the fair name of trade, but in fact oppressing 
us as thoroughly as they possibly can. And there 
has been set over us as ruler a huckster who has 
made our destitution a kind of business by virtue 
of the authority of his office. The cause of our 
revolt, therefore, being of this sort, has justice on 
its side ; but the advantage which you yourselves 
will gain if you receive the request of the Lazi 
we shall forthwith tell. To the realm of Persia 
you will add a most ancient kingdom, and as a result 
of this you will have the power of your sway ex- 
tended, and it will come about that you will have a 
part in the sea of the Romans through our land, 
and after thou hast built ships in this sea, O King, it 
will be possible for thee with no .trouble to set foot 
in the palace in Byzantium. For there is no obstacle 
between. And one might add that the plundering 
of the land of the Romans every year by the bar- 
barians along the boundary will be under our control . 
For surely you also are acquainted with the fact that 
up till now the land of the Lazi has been a bulwark 
against the Caucasus mountains. So with justice 
leading the way, and advantage added thereto, we 
consider that not to receive our words with favour 
would be wholly contrary to good judgment." So 
spoke the envoys. 

And Chosroes, delighted by their words, promised 



395 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



Aabt9 a)fJ,o\6yr](Te Kal rmv Trpea-ftewv erfvvQdvero 
ei ol crrparfp fjueyd\a) e*9 yijv rrjv KoX^tBa Ikvai 

32 8vvara eir). TTO\\O)V jap aTrayyeXhovrav e<f>a- 
aKev d/cijKoevai ra rrporepa SvcroSov eViet/cw? 
teal dvSpl ev(i)V(t> TTJV %(t)pav elvai, Kpij/j,va>Sr) 
fe vTrepifivws ovcrav KCU SevSpois crv)(vot<f re Kal 

33 d/ji(f)i,\a(f>ea-iv enl f^afcporarov (rvve^o^evrjv. ol 
Be ol lo-yvpi^ovro jravrl TW TLepcrwv arparw TTJV 
e/ceivr) 1 o8bv evTrerrj ea-ecrBai, refAvowi pev ra 
SevSpa, e? Be TWV /cprj/jivwv ra9 Bv(T%a)pLa<> avra 

34 e/j,{3aX\,op,evoi,<;. KCU avrol a)fjM\6'yovv ri)<; re 
68ov 7776/^.01/69 Kal rov epyov rovrov Tlepcrais 

35 eaeadai TrpoTrovoi. ravrrj 6 ~Ko<rp6ii<; eTrrjpjjievos 
rfj vTrodrjtcr) ffrparidv re TroXX.rjv tfyeipe Kal ra 
9 rrjv e$oSov egrjprvero, ovre TO (3ov\ev/jia 9 

egeveyKtov, rr\r]v je Sr) ols ra ajropp^ra 
ai fAovois ela)0ei, Kal rot9 7rpe(7/3ecriv 
OTTO)? ra Trpacraofj^eva /j,r)8evl <f)pd- 
crcocriv, aXX' 9 'I/Srjpiav r& Xoyoy ecrre\\ero, <W9 
ra rfjBe /caTa<TT7;croyLtei/O9 7rpdjfj,ara' edvos yap 
OVVVIKOV evravOd irr] eTuo-Kijtyai rfj Tlepawv 



XVI 

rovra) 8e yevouevos BeA,tcrap>9 ev Mecro- 

IQ \ \ W / 

rfavra^ouev rov arparov ijyeipe, KCLI 
9 ra Tlepcrwv ^Qt] ircl KaraaKOTrfj erreiArrev. 
2 avro<f 8e TO 49 7roXe/-aot9 evravOa vjravridcrai 



: iKflviiv VG. 
396 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xv. 3 i-xvi. 2 

to protect the Lazi, and enquired of the envoys 
whether it was possible for him to enter the land of 
Colchis with a large army. For he said that 
previously he had heard many persons report that 
the land was exceedingly hard to traverse even for 
an unimpeded traveller, being extremely rugged and 
covered very extensively by thick forests of wide- 
spreading trees. But the envoys stoutly maintained 
to him that the way through the country would be 
easy for the whole Persian army, if they cut the 
trees and threw them into the places which were 
made difficult by precipices. And they promised 
that they themselves would be guides of the route, 
and would take the lead in this work for the 
Persians. Encouraged by this suggestion, Chosroes 
gathered a great army and made his preparations for 
the inroad, not disclosing the plan to the Persians 
except those alone to whom he was accustomed to 
communicate his secrets, and commanding the 
envoys to tell no one what was being done ; and he 
pretended that he was setting out into Iberia, in 
order to settle matters there ; for a Hunnic tribe, he 
kept saying in explanation, had assailed the Persian 
domain at that point. 



XVI 

AT this time Belisariushad arrived in Mesopotamia 
and was gathering his army from every quarter, and 
he also kept sending men into the land of Persia to 
act as spies. And wishing himself to encounter the 



397 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



(3ov\6/jLVO<>, ijv rtva eaftoXrjv e? 'Pw^aiuiv rrjv 
yijv avdis frotija'wvrai, SieiTre re avrov /ecu 
8tic6o'fjiet rov<f ar par tear as, yvfivovs re /cal 
dvo7T\ov<; eirt 7r\eicrrov ovras, 

3 TO Hepa&v ovopa. ol pev ovv 
7ravr)KOVTe<$ ovSefjiiav r&v Tro 

ev T$ TrapovTt e<T/3o\r)V ecrecr6ai" 7ro\fu>v yap 

4 Ovvvitcov aa^oKLav Xoo-po?; erepwffi elvat. BeXt- 
ffdpios 8e ravra d/covcras Travrl T& crrparw 
avri/ca eVySaXXety e? rwv 7ro\fj,ia)v TIJV yijv 

5 r)6eKe. tcai ol 'A/ae^a? re %vv TTO\\& arparw 
^,apaicriv)v rffrjde teal ySao^Xeu? ypd^ara ypatyas 
<TJ3d\\eiv Kara rd%o<> e? rrjv Tro\ep,iwv e?rt- 

6 (TreXXe yrjv. j-vyfcaXeffas ovv arravras rovs 
ap%ovra<; ev Aa/ja? e\ee roidSe 



povs olSa, ffvvtf'yayov re ev r& Trapovri, 
V7ro/j,vijcra<; l T) rrapaivealv rtva 



rr)v v/ierepav jvfafjLtjv eTrl rovs TroXe/uoi"? o 
(ov yap \6yov SeivOai u/ia9 rov e? evro\fiiav 
evdyovros olfiai), aXX' OTTCO? v/j,/3ov\,ijv riva 
ev ye rj/jiiv avrois Troivjffdfievoi eXw/ze^a /j,a\\ov 
ajrep av Sofcfj (3e\ricrrd re real apurra TO 49 

7 /3aovXea)9 7rpdy/j,acriv elvai. TroXe/xo? yap ev- 
/3ov\ia jrdvrwv fj,d\i(rra fcaropdov<T0ai <^tXet. 
8ei 8e TOU? 9 /3ov\rjv KaQio-ra/jLevovs alSovs re 
xal (froftov rcavrdrraffiv e\ev0epav TroieiffOai rrjv 

8 yvcofjLtjv. o re yap $0/809, del rovs avr& Trept- 
7r67TT&)oTa9 K7r\ijo-(Tc0v, ovtc ea rrjv Sidvoiav 
eXecrdai ra Kpeicraw, rj re al8a)<f emcncid^ovGa 
TOt9 86%acriv elvai diielvocnv tTrl ri]v evavriav 

1 virofJiviiffas VP : vwoKricras G. 
398 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xvi. 2-8 

enemy there, if they should again make an incursion 
into the land of the Romans, he was organizing on 
the spot and equipping the soldiers, who were for 
the most part without either arms or armour, and in 
terror of the name of the Persians. Now the spies 
returned and declared that for the present there 
would be no invasion of the enemy ; for Chosroes 
was occupied elsewhere with a war against the Huns. 
And Belisarius, upon learning this, wished to invade 
the land of the enemy immediately with his whole 
army. Arethas also came to him* with a large force 
of Saracens, and besides the emperor wrote a letter 
instructing him to invade the enemy's country with 
all speed. He therefore called together all the 
officers in Daras and spoke as follows : " I know that 
all of you, my fellow officers, are experienced in 
many wars, and I have brought you together at the 
present time, not in order to stir up your minds 
against the enemy by addressing to you any re- 
minder or exhortation (for I think that you need no 
speech that prompts to daring), but in order that 
we may deliberate together among ourselves, and 
choose rather the course which may seem fairest and 
best for the cause of the emperor. For war is wont 
to succeed by reason of careful planning more than 
by anything else. Now it is necessary that those 
wh'o gather for deliberation should make their minds 
entirely free from modesty and from fear. For 
fear, by paralyzing those who have fallen into it, 
does not allow the reason to choose the nobler 
part, and modesty obscures what has been seen to 
be the better course and leads investigation the 



399 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

9 tc<j)pei rrjv yvwcriv. ei n roivvv rj ftaaiXel r& 
fjie<yd\(i) rj efjiol /3ef3ov\evcr0ai vTrep ra>v napovrwv 

10 SoKei, fiijSev v/io.9 rovro elcriro). o jj,ev yap 
/jiarcpdv TTOV aTTO\\i^evos T&V TrpacrcrofMevwv, 

11 OVK %ei TO t9 Kaipois apjAocrai Ta9 Trpdifew tocrre 






12 (rovra ep<y^ecrai, T049 avrov 7rp i y/j,ao'iv. e/u-e 
8e avdpcoTrov re ovra teal %pova> pa/cpu) etc TWV 
e(nrepi(i)v evravda eXdovra pr) ou%l Bia\a0eiv ri 

13 TWV SeovTtov dSvvaTov. wcrre ovSev Trjv eprjv 
yvto/unjv alSeaQevras t>/ia9 Trpoa-ijtcei SiappijSijv 
elireiv ocra av j;vvot,creiv rjfjiiv re avrols teal 

14 /9acri\et ytteXX^. 1 TO /J,ev ovv e dp%f)<} evBdSe 

<M ^vvdpxovres, a>9 SiatccoXvaovres rov 
v ecr/3o\r)v riva 69 rrjv rj/jierepav TTOIIJ- 
, vvv 8e, rwv 7rpayfj,dra)v f)p2v afieivov 57 
/car' eX,7rtSa9 Ke^cop^Korcov, rcdpean Trepl rrjs 

15 etceivov (3ov\evecr0ai. 2 e^)' &> &rj ^vveiXey/uievovs 
u/Lta9 Si/catov, olfj,ai, ovSev VTroari\afj,evov<> elrrelv 
airep av apicrrd re Sotcfj /cat vfjL(f)op(orara 
etcdcrra) elvai." 

16 BeX.icrayoto9 //> rocravra elne. IIeT|009 Se teal 
Bou?79 e^rjyeicrdai r> crrpara> ovS 

eTTt T^V 7ro\e/.tiav e/ceXevov. a)v 8r) rfj 

17 eirrovro evffvs 6 f;v\\o<yo<} areas. 

fj.evroi KOI eoTicrTO9, ol rwv ev At/Saveo crrpa- 
ria>rwv ap^ovres, ravra /j,ev rols a\Xot9 dfj,(f)l ry 
(?l3o~\,fj /3ov~\ecr0at Kal avrol etyacrav, SeBievai 8e 

1 fjif\7>.r) Dindorf : fj.4\\fi MSS. 
- ftov\evf<rdai P : /JouAe<rBai VG. 
3 /teAA^erai'TO Braun, fie^ffovra P. 
400 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xvi. 8-17 

opposite way. If, therefore, it seems to you that 
any purpose has been formed either by our mighty 
emperor or by me concerning the present situation, 
let no thought of this enter your minds. For, as for 
him, he is altogether ignorant of what is being done, 
and is therefore unable to adapt his moves to oppor- 
tune moments ; there is therefore no fear but that in 
going contrary to him we shall do that which will 
be of advantage to his cause. And as for me, since 
I am human, and have come here from the West 
after a long interval, it is impossible that some of the 
necessary things should not escape me. So it be- 
hoves you, without any too modest regard for my 
opinion, to say outright whatever is going to be of 
advantage for ourselves and for the emperor. Now 
in the beginning, fellow officers, we came here in 
order to prevent the enemy from making any in- 
vasion into our land, but at the present time, since 
things have gone better for us than we had hoped, it 
is possible for us to make his land the subject of our 
deliberation. And now that you have been gathered 
together for this purpose, it is fair, I think, that you 
should tell without any concealment what seems to 
each one best and most advantageous." Thus spoke 
Belisarius. 

And Peter and Bouzes urged him to lead the army 
without any hesitation against the enemy's country. 
And their opinion was followed immediately by the 
whole council. Rhecithancus, however, and Theoc- 
tistus, the commanders of the troops in Lebanon, 
said that, while they too had the same wish as the 
others concerning the invasion, they feared that if 



401 

VOL. I. D D 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

av e'/cXeXoiTTOTcov rd re eVt <l>otz>t/c?;9 icdi 
^co/aia, /car' e^ovcriav p,ev J A.\ap 
ravra X^i^ra*, pa(n\evs oe o~(a9 ot 0/071)9 
are ou <pv\davra<> dSywrov rrjv yj&pav ^9 ?7/ 
/cat &' ayro <rvvei<r/3d\\eiv r& aXXw arparw 
18 ovSa/j,TJ rj6e\ov. BeXi<m/oi09 8e T&> dvSpe rovrw 
a>9 r)Kiffra d\rjOrj oie&Qai e\eye. rov yap 
tcatpov rpOTrds depivd? elvai. ravr^ 8e 77)9 
co/oa9 8vo /taXtcrra f^rjva<i dvd0t]jj,a rq> 
6eS> ^apafcrjvovs 69 aet <f>epovra<? ev ravrrj etri- 
8po/jif) rivi ovTTore xpr/ffOai 69 7*71' d\\orpiav 

afj,<j)a> d<pi]creiv, 6/ceXeve /cat avrovs 



Tft) aA,A,&) crrparta errecrvai. oeMcrapLos pev ovv 
ra 69 T^y ecrfioXrjv cnrov&ri 7ro\\fj e^tjprvero. 



XVII 

/cat o MrfScov (rrparos, eTretSr) rrjv 
dp,eL"^ravre<i ev rois rf)<; Aafyfeijs 0/010*9 
rwv re pea ftewv afyiatv r/yov/Aevtov, eyevovro, rd 
SevSpa ovSevos dvricrrarovvros Kr/j,vovre<>, aT 

evravffa crvyvd re /cat Seivws du,<bi\a<i>ri re tea, 

< , ^ \ > ' '$ 

vyrrjXa ev ywpiois Kpr]/jiv<aoecriv ovra rcavra- 

rcavw aftarov rfj crrparia rrjv %co/jaj/ eTro 
ravrd re 69 Ta9 Sfo-%&)/3ta9 epplrrrovv /cat oXeos 
2 evTrerrj rrjv 68ov aTreipyd^ovro. d(j>iKOfjiVOi<f rt. 
avrois 9 fj,ea"r)v KoX^tSa (ov 8r) 'rd re d 

teal '\dcrova 01 Troitjral yeyevfjcrda, 
s, 6 Aa^cov /3acri 



402 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xvi. i 7 -xvii. 2 

they abandoned the country of Phoenicia and Syria, 
Alamoundaras would plunder it at his leisure, and 
that the emperor would be angry with them because 
they had not guarded and kept unplundered the ter- 
ritory under their command, and for this reason they 
were quite unwilling to join the rest of the army in the 
invasion. But Belisarius said that the opinion of 
these two men was not in the least degree true ; for 
it was the season of the vernal equinox, and at this 
season the Saracens always dedicated about two 
months to their god, and during this time never 
undertook any inroad into the land of others. 
Agreeing, therefore, to release both of them with 
their followers within sixty days, he commanded 
them also to follow with the rest of the army. So 
Belisarius was making his preparation for the 
invasion with great zeal. 



XVII 

BUT Chosroes and the Median army, after crossing 
Iberia, reached the territory of Lazica under the 
leadership of the envoys ; there with no one to with- 
stand them they began to cut down the trees which 
grow thickly over that very mountainous region, 
rising to a great height, and spreading out their 
branches remarkably, so that they made the country 
absolutely impassable for the army ; and these they 
threw into the rough places, and thus rendered the 
road altogether easy. And when they arrived in the 
centre of Colchis (the place where the tales of the 
poets say that the adventure of Medea and Jason 
took place), Goubazes, the king of the Lazi, came 

403 
D D 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

v9, irpoffeicvv'tja-ev are oecnror^v Xocrpoyv rov 
KajSdoov, avrov re ol vv rot? ySacriXeiot? /cat 
Aafytcrjv evSiSovs arcaaav. 

3 "E(7T4 oe Tlerpa TroXts^eTrt^aXaaaia ev KoX%ot9, 
jrpbs T&> Eve/i>&) Ka\ovjj,evw novrw, rjv Srj 
<f)av\6v ri 'Xwpiov ra re pore pa oixrav 'loucrrt- 
viavos /SacriXeuv r> re 7repi{36\<p teal rfj aX\rj 
Karafr/cevfj ej(ypdv re KOI aA,Xa>5 eTrupavf} fcare- 

4 o-njcraro. evravda TO 'Pco^aicov arpdrev/jM elvai 
vv ra> '\wdvvrj /jiadow 6 Xocr/90^5 arparidv re 
Kal a-rparrjyov 'Avia/3e8rjv a>? avroftoel ege- 

5 Xowra? l en' avrovs eVe/ii/re. <yvov<f Se 'Ia>dvvi)<; 
rrjv fyoSov ovre rov 7rept/36\ov riva e^tu yevea-Qai 
ovre drro rfav eTrdX^ewv (fravrjvat, rot? TroXe/uot? 
fce\evcrev, d\\a rtav eo7r\icra<; TO trrpdrevfia 
rf\r]O'Lov TTOV rwv TTV\MV ecrrrjcrev, CTriffreiXas 
<riyfj e^eadai, firjre rj'xov pyre (frwvrjv d<f)ievra<> 

6 rivd. 01 yovv Tlepcrai ay^iard rrov rov frept- 
y9o\ot yevo/jtevoi, eirel ovSev <r</>urt rro\ep,iov ovre 
tcadewparo ovr r/Kovero, epr)/j,ov dvopwv elvai rrjv 
rro\.tv, e Po)fiai(ov avrrjv eic\e\oirror(i)v, evojJLi^ov. 

1 Sto $rj en /j,aX\,ov dfjL(pl rov rrepifto\ov rj\6ov, 
ft>5 AcX//ia/ca? evOvs, are ovSevbs dfivvofievov, 

8 emdrjGovres. 7ro\e/j,i6v re ovSev ovre OOCOPTC? 
oi;Te dfcovovres, rrefi"<^avre<t irapa Xoapojjv ra 

9 rcapovra <r<f>io~iv eorjXovv. Kal 05 TO fiev rrXelarov 
rov arparov Tre/ii/ra? 7ravTa%60ev drroTreipacrdaL 
rov 7repi{36\ov erceXeve, Kptw re rfj p,r)yavfi dp,$l 
ras TruXa? yprjcrdai ra>v nvi dp^ovrcov eVe- 
o~re\\ev, ev oe r& \6<j)a) Ka0r)/j,evo<; 09 8r) rrj 

1 ^|e \ovvrcts P : Haury conjectures |O 

k^ 
404 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xvii. 2-9 

and did obeisance to Chosroes, the son of Cabades, 
as Lord, putting himself together with his palace and 
all Lazica into his hand. 

Now there is a coast city named Petra in Colchis, 
on the sea which is called the Euxine, which in 
former times had been a place of no importance, but 
which the Emperor Justinian had rendered strong 
and otherwise conspicuous by means of the circuit- 
wall arid other buildings which he erected. When 
Chosroes ascertained that the Roman army was in 
that place with John, he sent an army and a general, 
Aniabedes, against them in order to capture the 
place at the first onset. But John, upon learning of 
their approach, gave orders that no one should go 
outside the fortifications nor allow himself to be seen 
from the parapet by the enemy, and he armed the 
whole army and stationed them in the vicinity of the 
gates, commanding them to keep silence and not 
allow the least sound of any kind to escape from 
them. So the Persians came close to the forti- 
fications, and since nothing of the enemy was either 
seen or heard by them they thought that the 
Romans had abandoned the city and left it destitute 
of men. For this reason they closed in still more 
around the fortifications, so as to set up ladders 
immediately, since no one was defending the wall. 
And neither seeing nor hearing anything of the 
enemy, they sent to Chosroes and explained the 
situation. And he sent the greater part of the 
army, commanding them to make an attempt upon the 
fortifications from all sides, and he directed one of 
the officers to make use of the engine known as a 
ram around the gate, while he himself, seated on ' 



405 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

TroXet &>5 dy%ordra) eTTiKeirai, Oearrjs rwv jrpaa- 

10 (Topevcov eyivero. avriKa be 'Pco/umot ra? re 
7rt;Xa9 dveK\ivov etc rov al<j>viBiov KOI drrpoo-^o- 
Ktjrot, emrreo~6vre<i rrXeicrrovs rwv TroXe/utwr Bie- 
<f)0eipav, fcal fjt,d\io~ra roi><> d/juj)l rov icpiov reray- 
fievovs- ol Be \oi7rol /zoXt? %i>v TCO 

11 SicKJtvyovTes ecrcbdijcrav. 6vfji& re o 
e%o/^evo9 'AviafteSrjv dveo-tcoXoTTKrev, are tcara- 
crrparr)ryr]6evra 777305 rov '\wdwov, Ka7rrj\ov re 

12 Kal aTToXeyu-ou TO rrapdrrav dvSpos. rtz/e? Se OVK 
'AviafteBrjv, d\\& rov ap%ovra 05 8r) e<pei(mJKei 
rot? ,rov xpibv evepyovcriv, dvacnco\O7na'drjvai 

13 (f>a(Tiv. avros Se apa<s rravrl r& crrpary a^f^iard 
re rov Tlerpas rrepij3o\,ov d<f>i/cero Kal crrparo- 

14 TreSeva-dftevos e? iro\iop/ciav KaOitrraro. ry 8e 
vcrrepaia /cvtcXtp rrepuwv rov rrepifto\ov, errei ov 
\lav d^iofjufxpv avrbv vTrdarrrevo'ev elvat, rei^o- 

eyvw. TO re crrpdrevpa o\ov evravda 
epyov efyero, Kal rogeveiv arravras errl 

15 T? eVaXfet? e'/ceXefe. 'Pwpaioi Be dfAVVofievoi 
ral<{ re w^avcus Kal rtaaiv e%pG>vro ro^ev/^acri. 
rd. [lev ovv rrpwra Tlepcrai, Kairrep avyya KojAiSf) 
/3aXXoz/T9, 6\iya re f P<o/u,atot>5 e\vrrovv Kal 
TroXXa 7T/305 Keivo)V, are a<^>' ir^rr]\ov /3aXXoyLt^of, 

16 KaKa eTraa-^ov. erreura 8e (Kal <ydp e8et Tlerpav 
. XooyjoT; aXw^at) ftXrjdels 'Icodwij? rv^rj nvl 9 

rov rpdyfrfKov OvrfffKei, Kal arc avrov oi aXXot 
'Pco/jiaioi 9 oX-iyaipiav arrdvrwv Karecrrrja-av. 

17 TOT fjbev ovv oi j3dp/3apoi 9 TO o-rparorre&ov 
ave'x&p'rjo-av' JjSr) yap KOI %vveaKora%e' rfj Be 
vo-repaia Sia>pv%a ercl rov 7repi/3o\ov errevoovv 
Tpo7r&) roitpBe. 

406 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xvii. 9-17 

the hill which lies very close to the city, became a 
spectator of the operations. And straightway the 
Romans opened the gates all of a sudden, and 
unexpectedly fell upon and slew great numbers of 
the enemy, and especially those stationed about the 
ram ; the rest with difficulty made their escape 
together with the general and were saved. And 
Chosroes, filled with rage, impaled Aniabedes, since 
he had been outgeneralled by John, a tradesman 
and an altogether uiiwarlike man. But some say 
that not Aniabedes, but the officer commanding the 
men who were working the ram was impaled. And 
he himself broke camp with the whole army, and 
coming close to the fortifications of Petra, made 
camp and began a siege. On the following day he 
went' completely around the fortifications, and since 
he suspected that they could not support a very 
strong attack, he decided to storm the wall. And 
bringing up the whole army there, he opened the 
action, commanding all to shoot with their bows 
against the parapet. The Romans, meanwhile, in 
defending themselves, made use of their engines ot 
war and all their bows. At first, then, the Persians 
did the Romans little harm, although they were 
shooting their arrows thick and fast, while at 
the same time they suffered severely at the hands 
of the Romans, since they were being shot at from 
an elevation. But later on (since it was fated that 
Petra be captured by Chosroes), John by some r 
chance was shot in the neck and died, and as a 
result of this the other Romans ceased to care for 
anything. Then indeed the barbarians withdrew to 
their camp ; for it was already growing dark ; but 
on the following day they planned to assail the 
fortifications by an excavation, as follows. 

407 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

18 Her pa rj TroXtg Trr) jjt,ev etc 0a\dacrr)<; 

ecrTj, TTT) oe K rrerpwv aTTOTo/jicov, a'i ravrrj 
Travra^oOev dve^ovaiv </>' ov 8rj KCU rrjv Trpocnj- 

19 jopiav e'Xa^e ravrrjv. [iLav 8e eicroSov ev TW 
6/j,a\t e%6t, ical ravrrjv ov \Lav evpetav /cprjpvol 
jap av-rf)<; efi eKarepa egaiffiot djroKpefjiavTai. 

20 evravtfa Trpoopw/jievoi ra Trporepa ol rrjv 7ro\iv 
Seifjid/jLevoi prj (rtyicri TO Kivr) TOV 7repi/36\ov 
p,epo<; eTrifjia^ov etij, Tety?; /j,aicpa Trapa TOV Kprjfj,- 
vbv e/cdrepov T^9 eiaooov eVi TrXetcrroy TreTrot- 

21 Tjvrai. TOVTWV re rwv rei^wv e/carepwdi rfvp<yovs 
ere/crrfvavro Svo, OL% finep elcodei, d\\a rporcw 

22 erepa). teevbv yap TO ev /iecr^) T^ 
/ \a>pLov ov8afj,r) elacrav, XX' oXof? e/c 7779 
69 f/-Jro9 fteya rovs Trvpyovs \i6ois Tra/jL/jLeye 
d\\rj\a)v e^o/ieyoi9 elpydcravro, OTTCO^ 8r) KOIW rj 
prj'Xavfi a\\r) eo9 rfKLcrra tcaracreioivro. ra /j,ev 
ovv Tlerpas rov TrepiftoXov ravrrj rrr) 

23 Tlepcrai Se \d6pa e? rrjv yrjv /carmpv^a 
crdiJuevoi evepdev Oarepov rcov jrvpyatv eyevovro, 
Twy re \L6a)v evOevSe TTO\\OVS etctyopovvre 

9 rrjv e/ceivtov eriOevro %copav, airep 

24 vcrrepov ercavcrav. ij re ' <j}\b Kara (Spa^i) alpo- 
fj*vr), SieOpv^fre /J-ev rrjv rwv \idcov Ivyyv, ciXov Se 
rov TTvpyov Karaaelaacra e/c rov aubviBiov e? 

25 TO e'Sa^)09 Ka6el\ev avr'iKa. 'P<w/iatot 8e o'l ev r& 
Trvpyo) r/crav roaovrov rwv rfoiovpkvwv y&dovro 
Trporepov, oaov avrw [Arj ^v^rfeaelv 69 TO e8a(f)o<?, 
d\\a (frvyovres evrbs rov rrjs 7roXe&>9 rcepi^o\ov 

26 yeveadai. rfapffv re ijSr) Tot9 TroXepioi^ ev rw 
o/iaXet rei^o/jLa^ovffi TTOVW [ev] ov&evl l 



1 [tv] bracketed by Braun : 'Haury suggests 
cf. v. Hi. 29. 

408 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xvii. 18-26 

The city of Petra is on one side inaccessible on 
account of the sea, and on the other on account 
of the sheer cliffs which rise there on every hand ; 
indeed it is from this circumstance that the city 
has received the name it bears. And it has only 
one approach on the level ground, and that not 
very broad ; for exceedingly high cliffs overhang it 
on either side. At that point those who formerly 
built the city provided that that portion of the wall 
should not be open to attack by making long walls 
which ran along beside either cliff and guarded the 
approach for a great distance. And they built two 
towers, one in each of these walls, not following the 
customary plan, but as follows. They refused to 
allow the space in the middle of the structure to be 
empty, but constructed the entire towers from the 
ground up to a great height of very large stones 
which fitted together, in order that they might 
never be shaken down by a ram or any other engine. 
Such, then, are the fortifications of Petra. But the 
Persians secretly made a tunnel into the earth and 
got under one of the two towers, and from there 
carried out many of the stones and in their place put 
wood, which a little later they burned. And the 
flame, rising little by little, weakened the stones, 
and all of a sudden shook the whole tower violently 
and straightway brought it down to the ground. 
And the Romans who were on the tower perceived 
what was being done in sufficient time so that they 
did not fall with it to the ground, but they fled and 
got inside the city wall. And now it was possible 
for the enemy to storm the wall from the level, 
and thus with no trouble to take the city by force. 



409 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

27 Kara tcpdros eXelv. Bio Brj Karwp 
'Pwfjiaioi TOt9 ftapftdpois 9 Xo70f9 rj\0ov, KOI ra 
Tricrra vjrep re rwv ato/jbdrwv fcal rwv xprj/jidrajv 
7T/009 Xoffpoov Xa/3oWe9, cr^a? re avrovs teal rrjv 
TTO\,IV 6fw\oyia 7rape&o<rav. ovrco pev Herpav 

28 Xocryooi;? el\e. teal TO, p,ev 'Iwdvvov 
\iav d8pa evpcov auro? e'Xa/3e, rwv 8e 
ouSei/09 ovre avro? ovre ris TWV Tlepcrwv 

'Pw/iatot ra atyerepa avrwv e^ovre^ r& 
J/ (rrparw dvefj,i<yvvvro. 



XVIII 

1 'Ei> rouTft) Se BeXtcra^to9 re real 6 
arparos, ovSev ri ireTrvcrp,.voi <av ravry eirpda- 
crero, ocr/io) TroXXw e Aa/?a9 TrpT^i^ ^""t 

2 Nto't/Sii' rjeicrav. eTrei&r) 8e rvjs 68ov tcara pecrov 
eyevovro, BeXtcra^)iO9 yu-ev ev Se^ia TO crrpdrev/jua 
fjyev, ov 8rj Trrjyat, re vSdrcov Siap/ceis rjcrav fcal 
TreSiov ajracriv evcrrparoTreSevaacrOai iKavG)? X OV * 

3 evravdd re (rrparoTre&ov /c\eve Troieicrdai oaov 
airo crraSicw Svo teal recrGapdicovra 

4 TToXeto?. 01 Se a\\oi ^v^-rravT^ ev 
fieyafca) eTrotovvro, on 8r) ovtc a<Y%i(rrd rrt] e6e\,oi 
rov TrepiftciXov crrparoTreSevecrffai, rive<? 

5 rfKiard ol eTrecrOai ijde\ov. 8ib 8rj 
rotv d6vrct)v rot9 dj,(> y avrbv ovaiv 



jiev ovtc rv ovopevfa 9 arcavras oaa 
e^evey/ceiv. \6yos yap sv crrparoTreSa) 
7rept<f)ep6fJvo<; ovtc olSe rrjpeiv ra aTropptjra, eirel 
tcara /3pa%v rrpoltav /ie%pt teal 9 TOU9 7roXe/tiof9 



410 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xvii. 2 6-xviii. 5 

The Romans, therefore, in terror, opened negoti- 
ations with the barbarians, and receiving from 
Chosroes pledges concerning their lives and their 
property, they surrendered to him both themselves 
and the city. Thus Chosroes captured Petra. And 541 A.D. 
finding the treasures of John, which were extremely 
rich, he took them himself, but besides this neither 
he himself nor anyone else of the Persians touched 
anything, and the Romans, retaining their own 
possessions, mingled with the Median army. 



XVIII 

MEANTIME Belisarius and the Roman army, having 
learned nothing of what was being done there, 
were going in excellent order from the city of 
Daras toward Nisibis. And when they had reached 
the middle of their journey, Belisarius led the army 
to the right where there were abundant springs of 
water and level ground sufficient for all to camp 
upon. And there he gave orders to make a camp 
at about forty-two stades from the city of Nisibis. 
But all the others marvelled greatly that he did not 
wish to camp close to the fortifications, and some 
were quite unwilling to follow him. Belisarius 
therefore addressed those of the officers who were 
about him thus : " It was not my wish to disclose to 
all what I am thinking. For talk carried about 
through a camp cannot keep secrets, for it advances 
little by little until it is carried out even to the 

411 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

6 K<f)eprai. opwv Be rovs re TTO\\OV<> vpwv draia 
rcoXkf) eifcovras ical avrbv etcacrrov avrotcpdropa 
rov TfO\fj,ov ede\ovra elvai, \ea) ravvv ev V/MV 
oaa xpfjv criwrrav, efceivo pevroi rrporepov vrrei- 
rc(av, &>9 TTO\\WV ev ffTparia yvca/jLrj avTOvopa) 
yevea-dai TI TMV Seovrcov dBvvarov. 
Toivvv Xocrpoijv e<' erepovs lovra fiap- 
o><> ij/cicTTa <j)V\aKr)<> TWOS avTap/covs 
%o)/3i9 Trjv olKeiav airoXiTreiv <yr t v, aXX&>9 Te KOI 
TijvSe Tj]v TTO\IV, rj TT/JCOTT; re rvy^dvei ovaa /cat 

8 7ra<T779 r^9 eiceivov 7^9 7rpo{3e/3\'r)fj,V'r}. ev rj 
err pandoras ev olSa ori TOCTOVTOVS re TO 

KOI TOIOVTOVS T7)V dpTT)V KaTCTT1]a'a 

itcavovs elvai rat9 Trap r)/j,u>v e(j)68oi<> 
crr^a-ecrdat. /cat TO TrapdSeijfMa eyyvOev 

9 Na/3e8?;v yap (Trparrjybv rovroi<; eTrecrrrjcrev, 09 
8r) fj^rd ye rbv Xocrporjv avrbv 86%r} re /cat rq> 

aXXw dfycb/jiari, rcpwros ev Tlepcrais elvai So/eel. 

10 ov 70)76 oljjbai KOI anoTreipdcreadai, 1 T?}9 rjfterepas 
&vvdjjt,ea><> /cat rriv Trdpooov rffiiv ov&evl aXXo> 
rpoTTO) rj /-ta%?7 rivl Trpos TI^WV rjcrcnjOevra ev8a>- 

11 ffeiv. el /jiev ovv aj^icrrd TTOV T^9 7C.OX6W9 17 
fuyit/ifoX,?; eir), OVK e/c rov dvrnrd\ov rj/juv re /cat 

12 Tlepaais 6 dywv ecrrai. avrol jap etc rov e%vpov 
f.7T^i6vre<i evtifAepijcravres re, av ovra) rv^rj, errl 
rr\elcrrov Oapprjcrovcriv erfi.6rj(reo'0aL, /cat rja-crr)- 
devres evrferws 8ta<pev^ovrai rrjv rffterepav eTriOecriv. 

13 Si oiXiyov jap r^uv 77 8ia>j;i<; ecrrai /cat rg_7ro\ei 
evdevSe ovBev yevrfcrerai /3\a/3o9, fjv T0t9 rei%o- 
lMV)(pvcriv dvdKcorov ovaav arpanwrwv avrfj<; 

14 dfivvo^evwv opare SSjTrov. rjv Se ye rwv 

1 airoireipAfffffOai Dindorf : cnroireipdffaarOai MSS. 
412 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xviii. 5-14 

enemy. But seeing that the majority of you are 
allowing yourselves to act in a most disorderly 
manner, and that each one wishes to be himself 
supreme commander in the war, I shall now say 
among you things about which one ought to keep 
silence, mentioning, however, this first, that when 
many in an army follow independent judgments it is 
impossible that anything needful be done. Now I 
think that Chosroes, in going against other bar- 
barians, has by no means left his own land without 
sufficient protection, and in particular this city which 
is of the first rank and is set as a defence to 
his whole land. In this city I know well that he 
has stationed soldiers in such number and of such 
valour as to be sufficient to stand in the way of our 
assaults. And the proof of this you have near at 
hand. For he put in command of these men the 
general Nabedes, who, after Chosroes himself at least, 
seems to be first among the Persians in glory and 
in every other sort of honour. This man, I believe, 
will both make trial of our strength and will permit 
of our passing by on no other condition than that 
he be defeated by us in battle. If, therefore, the 
conflict should be close by the city, the struggle 
will not be even for us and the Persians. For they, 
coming out from their stronghold against us, in case 
of success, should it so happen, will feel unlimited 
confidence in assailing us, and in case of defeat they 
will easily escape from our attack. For we shall only 
be able to pursue them a short distance, and from 
this no harm will come to the city, which you surely 
see cannot be captured by storming the wall when 
soldiers are defending it. But if the enemy engage 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

evTavda rjpJiv e<? %eipa<t IOVTWV tcpaTrjawftev, rrjv 
iTToXiv %\iv TroXkrjv riva, w ^vvdp^ovTes, eXTTiSa 

15 epa>. (pevyovcri <ydp rol<> evavTiois TTO\VV riva 

rj avafju^Bevre^; eicraj irvKwv, &>9 TO et/co9, 
0a, rj Trporepijaavre^ avrovs fj&v 
6^>' erepa<f TWOS ava<^Kacrofjbev TTpd(f)dai re /cal 
Bicupwyeiv ^<wpa?, rjplv 8e avrots 
dfjLWO/jievwv %ft)yot9 evd\(orov 

16 TaOra BeXtaa/Jtof elTrovros ol /nev a\\oi 

re? eTreiffomo re /cal vv avr& a"Tparo7re8ev- 
epevov. Il^T/3o? 8e iwdwrjv eraipi- 
f, 09 rwv ev M6<TO7roTa/i.ia KaraXojcov 
fiolpav ov <f>av\r)v Tivd rod (rrpcnov efyev, 

OVK dirodev TOV TrepiftoKov, a\\' OGOV aTro 

17 (TTaBicov Sexa \0o)v r/a-v^rj epeve. BeXtcra/oio? 
Be TOW TC %vv avT& t9 et9 irapaTdfyv effTrjae teal 

T049 dfA(>l TOV HeTpOV e7Te(TT\\V O>9 7Tl 



T 

009 ot j3dp/3apoi rrepl 
(T(f)io~iv, ercelvo 8r)\ovoTt ev v& e%ovre9, ort Srj 
avrol [lev Tpo<f)rj<> 9 BeiX-rjv oifriav 
18 ela>daa-t, 'Pa)fj,aioi 8e d/ 

trapto9 pev ravra Tcaprjvei" ol 8e j~i>v TW TleTpta ev 
ovoevl 1 Ta9 erroX^9 TroiradjievoL djt, re 



w ^96fievoi (eo~Ti yap TO 
auY/ia>Se9) Ta re oTrXa KaTeOevTO teal 
T>V iro\e/jLLcov dffrpovTia-Tija-avTe*; (TIKVOV? ev- 
. TavOd Tff] (ftvofjievovs Kocr/jLh) ov8evl 
19 KaTrjffdiov. OTrep /caTi8o)v 6 NaySeS?79 
w e7rf)<yev eV avTovs TO Hepawv 



1 ov$fi>l <\6ycf> Herwerden, ovStv} it6ap.<f Suidas and 
Scholiast. 

414 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xviii. 14-19 

with us here and we conquer them, I have great 
hopes, fellow officers, of capturing the city. For 
while our antagonists are fleeing a long way, we 
shall either mingle with them and rush inside the 
gates with them, as is probable, or we shall 
anticipate them and compel them to turn and escape 
to some other place, and thus render Nisibis without 
its defenders easy of capture for us." 

When Belisarius had said this, all the others 
except Peter were convinced, and they made camp 
and remained with him. He, however, associating 
with himself John, who commanded the troops in 
Mesopotamia and had no small part of the army, 
came up to a position not far removed from the 
fortifications, about ten stades away, and remained 
quietly there. But Belisarius marshalled the men 
who were with him as if for combat, and sent word to 
Peter and his men also to hold themselves in array 
for battle, until he himself should give the signal ; 
and he said that he knew well that the barbarians 
would attack them about midday, remembering, as 
they surely would, that while they themselves are 
accustomed to partake of food in the late afternoon, 
the Romans do so about midday. So Belisarius 
gave this warning ; but Peter and his men dis- 
regarded his commands, and about midday, being 
distressed by the sun (for the place is exceedingly 
dry and hot), they stacked their arms, and with 
never a thought of the enemy began to go about in 
disorderly fashion and eat gourds which grew there. 
And when this was observed by Nabedes, he led the 
Persian army running at full speed against them. 



415 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

20 'P(Ofj,aioi oe (ov yap e\a6ov avrovs etc rov rcepi- 
@6\ov efybvres ol ftdpftapoi, errel Kadewpwvro 
Xa/47r/99 are ev TreSiw vrcriw lovres} irapa re 
J$e\i<rdpiov eirep.rrov, dpvveiv o-(f>i<ri rrapaKd- 
XoiWe?, teal avrol ra fj,ev oir\a ave\ofjievoi,, 

21 aKoer/jiia 8e KOI dopvftw e^of^evot vTrrjvria^ov. ol 
Be dfjufrl BeXifraptov, OVTCW rrapa cr<^>a9 rov 
dyye\ov dtyitcofjievov yvovre? Sia rov /covioprov 

22 rrjv Ile/ocrcof e<j)o$ov, e(Bor)6ovv Spofia). ejreXdovres 
re TLepcrat 'Pa)/J,aiov<; ov^ vrroardvras rrjv (}>oSov 
rrovw ovSevl e? <f)vyrjv erpetyav, erficrrropevoi, oe 
rrevrr)KOvrd re Sie<f)0ipav teal TO rov Tlerpov 

23 cnjfjLeiov dprrdaavres ea"%ov. areavrds re civ ev 
ravrp or) rf) Bi<a^ei eicreivav e? ovoeftiav d\Krjv 
opwvras, el ^ BeXtcra/ato? re KCU o vv avrw 

24 crrparos Kara\aft(av oiefcoaiXvcre. jrpcarovs yap 
drrdvruiv %vv Sopaai fj,aKpot<? re /cal (7v^vol<? 
TorOovs emovras Hepcrai ov^ V7rofjt,eivavre<; e? 

25 <f)vyr)v wp^rjvro. emcrrro^evoL re 'Pco/jiaioi j~vv 
Fordois rrevrr^KOvra /cal etcarov e/creivav. 01? 
6\iyov yap rrjs oia>e(as yevofj,vr)<f ol \onrol Kara 

26 ra^o? ez/ro? rov rrepi{36\ov eyevovro. rore //,ez> 
ovv 'Pto/jLaioi ^vjJirravre^ e? TO BeXtcraptou crrparo- 
Treoov aTre^caprjcrav, ol oe Tlepcrai rfj erfiyivofjievr) 
f)fj,epa ev rrvpyw rivl earrjcrav dvrl rporraiov TO 
Herpov <rrj[j,eiov, aXXafTa? 1 Te avrov drroKpefJid- 
<ravre<i rot? TroXe/uot? gvv ye\cori errerwda^ov, 
erre^ievai fievroi ovtcert eVoX/Awy, aXXa rrjv 7r6\iv 
ev rw do~<j)a\ei oie^vXacrcrov? 

1 dAXacTcb Suidas : a\dvr<i V, a\\avr<i G. 



416 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xviii. 20-26 

And the Romans, since they did not fail to observe 
that the Persians were coming out of the forti- 
fications (for they were seen clearly because moving 
over a level plain), sent to Belisarius urging him to 
support them, and they themselves snatched up 
their arms, and in disorder and confusion confronted 
their foe. But Belisarius and his men, even before 
the messenger had reached them, discovered by the 
dust the attack of the Persians, and went to the 
rescue on the run. And when the Persians came 
up, the Romans did not withstand their onset, but 
were routed without any difficulty, and the Persians, 
following close upon them, killed fifty men, and 
seized and kept the standard of Peter. And they 
would have slain them all in this pursuit, for the 
Romans had 110 thought of resistance, if Belisarius 
and the army with him had not come upon them 
and prevented it. For as the Goths, first of all, 
came upon them with long spears in close array, 
the Persians did not await their attack but beat 
a hasty retreat. And the Romans together with 
the Goths followed them up and slew a hundred 
and fifty men. For the pursuit was only of short 
duration, and the others quickly got inside the 
fortifications. Then indeed all the Romans withdrew 
to the camp of Belisarius, and the Persians on the 
following day set up on a tower instead of a trophy 
the standard of Peter, and hanging sausages from it 
they taunted the enemy with laughter ; however, 
they no longer dared to come out against them, but 
they guarded the city securely. 



417 

VOL. I. E E 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



XIX 

1 BeA.to-a/Jto9 re Nietfliv opwv e^ypav v 
ov<rav, e\7ri8a avrrjs ovSe 

Trepi, Trpoffo) levai r/irei'yero OTTO)? rt, 

2 Tot9 7roXe//,iot9 \vfjLrjvr}rai. apas roivvv Travrl 
(TTpara) eTTLTrpoaBev yet. avvcravres re 

68bv (frpovpia) everv^ov o ^icravpdvwv /caXovcri 

3 Tlepcrai. evravOa Tr\f)66<> re olKrjropcov r^v /cat 
tTTTret? OKTatcoGioi Tlp(TO)v qpio"roi 

ol? avrjp Sot/i09, BX7;(T^a/i>7 

4 'Pajfjiaioi 8e aj^icrrd TTTJ rov <f>povplov crrparo- 
7r&Vcrd/jLevoi e? 7ro\iopfciav Kadiaravro, Trpocr- 
j3o\rfv re TW 7rept/3oA,a> Troirjcrd/jievoi dTretcpov- 

5 (rOrjcrav, 7ro\\ov<f rfj payr) d7ro(3a\,6vTe<t. TO re 
7ap ret^o? 9 ayai' e^vpov Tvy%ai>V ov /ecu ol 
ftdpftapoi Kaprepforara evdevSe rovs eTuovras 
rjfjivvovTO. Btb 8rj rou9 ap^ovraf aTtavras %v<yKd- 

6 Xecra.9 BeXtcra/oto9 eXe^e rotaSe "'E/i7re/3ta TTO- 
\e/j,a)V Tro\\wv, avSpes ap^ovres, SeSwfcev rj/juv ev 
T0t9 Twy TrpcvyfAdroiv CLTT 6/00/9 irpoopdv re ra 
^vjAftrjcrofAeva Kal Svvaroif elvai irpo TWV Beivwv 

7 k\ea6ai ra Kpei(T<ru>. eTriaracrOe roivvv rfr]\iKOv 
ecrrl KCLKOV (rrpdrVfj.a 69 7^^ 7ro\e[j,iav, TTO\- 
\a)V fiev o%vpa)/juira>v, TTO\\MV Se jMa^Lfjiwv 
ev rovrois dvSpwv oma-dev arro\e\.eipi^e.vo)v i 

8 7ropeve<r6ai. onep /cat rjfuv ev ye rw jrap- 
ovrt rerv^Kev. zrti'npoaQev yap lovaiv rjfjLtv 
evdevSe re /cat IK Ntcrt/8t8o9 TroXew? eiropevoi 
\ddpa TWV 7ro\efj,iQ)v rii'es ev ^wpiois, a>9 TO 

418 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xix. 1-8 



XIX 

AND Belisarius, seeing that Nisibis was exceedingly 
strong, and having no hope regarding its capture, 
was eager to go forward, in order that he might do 
the enemy some damage by a sudden inroad. 
Accordingly he broke camp and moved forward 
with the whole army. And after accomplishing a 
day's journey, they came upon a fortress which the 
Persians call Sisauranon. There were in that place 
besides the numerous population eight hundred 
horsemen, the best of the Persians, who were 
keeping guard under command of a man of note, 
Bleschames by name. And the Romans made camp 
close by the fortress and began a siege, but, upon 
making an assault upon the fortifications, they 
were beaten back, losing many men in the fight. 
For the wall happened to be extremely strong, and 
the barbarians defended it against their assailants 
with the greatest vigour. Belisarius therefore called 
together all the officers and spoke as follows : 
" Experience in many wars, fellow officers, has made 
it possible for us in difficult situations to foresee 
what will come to pass, and has made us capable 
of avoiding disaster by choosing the better course. 
You understand, therefore, how great a mistake it 
is for an army to proceed into a hostile land, when 
many strongholds and many fighting men in them 
have been left in the rear. Now exactly this has 
happened to us in the present case. For if we 
continue our advance, some of the enemy from this 
place as well as from the city of Nisibis will follow 
us secretly and will, in all probability, handle us 

419 
E E 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

et/co9, Katcovpyrfcrova-iv 7rnr)Bei(i)<> avrois TT/JO? 
9 eveBpav 7} KCU d\\r)v riva 7ri(3ov\r)v e^ovcnv. rjv 
Be 7T/7 ical aXXo9 aTravrijcrr} (rrparbs et? re /^d^rjv 
KaQicrrwvrai,, Trpbs e/carepovs pev r^pfiv dvdy/cv) 
rerd%ea6ai, TrddoifAev ' av ovroa 77/909 avrwv ra 
dvrJKecrra' ew yap \eyetv tu? teal TnaiaavTZS ev rfj 
%VfjL/3o\f), av ovro) TV%OI, Trdvo8ov 
10 rrjv yfjv ov$efj,ia fjM]%avfj TO \onrbv 
roLvvv d\oyicrra) <nrov8f) 
avrovs o-KV\evKor 
K<p TO, 'Pwfiaifov Trpy/^ara 

fjiev yap dfiadr)*; 69 o\e6pov <f>epei, fMe\\rjcrif Be 
<T(f)(f>pa)V 9 TO trw^eiv del TOU9 avrfj 
T(f>VKv. r)/j,i$ p,ev ovv evravO 
^e\iv Treipca^eda TO <f>p,Qyp.Lov roBe, 
Be %vv T0i9 eiropAvot^ 69 Ta C 

12 %(0pia ffre\\ecrd(o. ^apaKtjvol yap 
fj,ev elcnv dBvvaroi (fivcrei,, 9 Be TO 

13 Trdvrwv f^dXicrra Be^ioi. avveia (Ba\ovcn Be avrots 
ical CTTpaTiwrai TWV ^a^ifj^wv rives, OTTWS avroi 
Te, fArjBevbs /lev evavTKOfAaros crtfria-i (fravevros, ra 
dvijKeo'ra rovs Trpocnreffovras epydcrwvTai, rjv Be 
TL d7ravTr)<rr) 7ro\fj,iov, 6L>7reT&)9 dva^wpovvre^; et9 

14 ?}/ia9 (T<0oivTo. KOI rj/jielf e^e\.6vre<f, rjv 0ebs 
6e\r), TO <f>povpiov, ovrco Brj Travrl r& crrparw 
Tiyprjv Trora/Jibi' Bta/3aiva)iev, ov BeBiOTes /j,ev 
TOi9 OTTiaOev KaKovpyijcrovTas, ev Be elBoTes OTTTJ 
TTOTC Tot9 'Acro"f/)io<9 TO, TTpdyfjLara e%et." 

15 Tat/Ta eiTTGDV BeXfcryoiO9 ev re \eyeiv ctTracriv 
eBo^e Kal TO ftovXevfia evffvs e7rere\ei. 'Apedav 
re %vv T0t9 eTTOfjievois eVl 'Acro"i;pia9 t/ceXevev 

1 \_etp'] bracketed by Haury. 
420 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xix. 8-15 

roughly in places which are for them conveniently 
adapted for an ambuscade or some other sort of attack. 
And if, by any chance, a second army confronts us 
and opens battle, it will be necessary for us to array 
ourselves against both, and we should thus suffer 
irreparable harm at their hands. And in saying 
this I do not mention the fact that if we fail in 
the engagement, should it so happen, we shall after 
that have absolutely no way of return left to the 
land of the Romans. Let us not therefore by reason 
of most ill-considered haste seem to have been our 
own despoilers, nor by our eagerness for strife do 
harm to the cause of the Romans. For stupid 
daring leads to destruction, but discreet hesitation 
is well adapted always to save those who adopt such 
a course. Let us therefore establish ourselves here 
and endeavour to capture this fortress, and let 
Arethas with his forces be sent into the country 
of Assyria. For the Saracens are by nature unable 
to storm a wall, but the cleverest of all men at 
plundering. And some of the soldiers who are good 
fighters will join them in the invasion, so that, if no 
opposition presents itself to them, they may over- 
whelm those who fall in their way, and if any 
hostile force encounters them, they may be saved 
easily by retiring to us. And after we have captured 
the fortress, if God wills, then with the whole army 
let us cross the River Tigris, without having to fear 
mischief from anyone in our rear, and knowing well 
how matters stand with the Assyrians." 

These words of Belisarius seemed to all well 
spoken, and he straightway put the plan into ex- 
ecution. Accordingly he commanded Arethas with 



421 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

ievat tcai avrois crrpari(oras oiatcoffiovs re KCU 
, wv &r) ol Tr\eicrroi rwv 
rS)V ctvTov f)(jav, 8opv<p6povs avrois 
eTTicrr rjcras ovo, Tpaiavov re /cat 'Icodvvrjv rov 
<t>ayav KoXov^ievov, /*<&> dyadov? ra 7ro\e/jua. 

16 KCU auroi? p,ev 'Apeda TretOo pivots airavra 7rpd(7- 
(reiv eTretrreXXey, 'ApeOav 8e ajravra /ce\V ra 
ev Trocrl \r)icrd/4vov ovra> re e? TO arparoTreSov 
ercavrjKOvra aTrayyeXXeiv afyicnv orcold rcore 
8vvd/j,(0s Trepi rot? 'Affffvpiois ra re pay par a eitj. 

17 ot fjuev ovv d/ji(f>l rov ' Apedav Tiyptjv rcora/jiov 

18 8ia/3dvres ev ' Aaavpiois eyevovro, ov 8rj ^capav 
re dyaOrjv eupovres teal fj,afcpov %povov d&rjwrov, 
ravrrjv re dtyvXatcrov ovcrav, e eTT 
~\,i)icrd/jievoi rwv eicelvr) ^wpLwv ^p 

19 rfpiefBd\\ovro. rore oe BeXtcra^fo? rwv 
Hepcrwv %v\\al3(it)v , ev&eiv rot? ev 

20 ra eTTinj&eia Travre\<o<> e^a6ev. ov 'yap, warcep 
ev Aapa? re /cat Ni<ri/3i8i jroAfi^> *v SyjAOffltp ra? 
eTreretoy? rpotyas cnrorL6ecr6ai vevop,ltca(Tiv, d\\a 
Tro\efjLL(i)v arparov arfpoa^oicrfTOv crtyicriv erfi- 
TTCGovros eaKO^icfdyuevoi n r&v dvaytcaiwv OVK 

21 (f)0r)crav. afyvu) oe TroXXaw eV TO (fipovpiov 
tcaratfrvyovrwv, rwv etnr^eiwv rf) drropia, a>9 

22 TO eto9, eTTie^ovro. a 8rj BeXfo"ayot09 yvovs 
* Teoopyiov erce^-^rev, avSpa %vver<ararov re /cal 

ra>v aTroppijrtov avr<a Koivcovovvra, aTroT 
cro/jievov rwv [eV] l ravrrj dvdpiarcwv, el 

23 6fAO\o<yia nvl Bvvairo TO %wj)lov e\elv. 

Se Trapaiveaiv re TroirjcrdfMevo^ teal TroXXa 

1 [tv] bracketed by Herwerden. 

422 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xix. 15-23 

his troops to advance into Assyria, and with them he 
sent twelve hundred soldiers, the most of whom 
were from among his own guard, putting two 
guardsmen in command of them, Trajan and John 
who was called the Glutton, both capable warriors^. 
These men he directed to obey Arethas in everything 
they did, and he commanded Arethas to pillage all 
that lay before him and then return to the camp 
and report how matters stood with the Assyrians 
with regard to military strength. So Arethas and 
his men crossed the River Tigris and entered 
Agyria. There they found a goodly land and one 
which had been free from plunder for a long time, 
and undefended besides ; and moving rapidly they 
pillaged many of the places there and secured a great 
amount of rich plunder. And at that time Belisarius 
captured some of the Persians and learned from 
them that those who were inside the fortress were 
altogether out of provisions. For they do not 
observe the custom which is followed in the cities of 
Daras and Nisibis, where they put away the annual 
food-supply in public store-houses, and now that a 
hostile army had fallen upon them unexpectedly they 
had not anticipated the event by carrying in any of 
the necessities of life. And since a great number of 
persons had taken refuge suddenly in the fortress, 
they were naturally hard pressed by the want of 
provisions. When Belisarius learned this, he sent 
George, a man of the greatest discretion with whom 
he shared his secrets, to test the men of the. place, in 
the hope that he might be able to arrange some 
terms of surrender and thus take the place. And 
George succeeded, after addressing to them many 



423 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

eTraywya eljrcav, eireicre ra TTicrra Xa- 
djj*f)l rf} (TfOTijpia <7<a? re avrovs /cat 

24 TO <j>povpiov evBovvai 'Pa>/iatot9. ovrw BeXt- 
crdpios TO %icravpdi>(t)v e\a)V rovs fjikv OiKijropas 
airawras, Xpicrnavovs re /ecu 'Pco/urnou? TO dve- 
KaOev OVTCLS, ddwovs dtyrjtce, TOVS Be ITepcra? 
i>v rq> BX^cr^a/i?; e Bv^dvriov eTre/M^re, /cat 
Toy ToO ^>poypiov 7T6pi^o\ov 9 e'Sa^o? /cadeiXe.' 

25 /3acrt\eu9 re ov TroXXw vcrrepov TOUTOU? T TOU? 
Ilepcra? /cat TOJ BX^cr^ayLtT;!' e? 
TroXe/i^crofTa? e7re/Ai/re. Ta yae 
^icravpdvwv ^povpj^a) x ravry 

26 'Ayoe$a9 3e, oetcra9 /i^/ T^y \eiav 
dfyaipedeiv), ov/ceri dvacrr pefyeiv e9 TO 

27 r)6e\e. 7reyLf^a9 ow TOOV ot eTropevwv nvds eVt 
fcarcHTKOTrfj SfjOev T&> Xo7&), e/ceXeue \ddpa ft>9 
Ta^tcTTa 7ravijKOvra<f crTj^jvai afyiaiv ori 8r) 

7TOXy9 Tt9 7ToXe/i/&)l/ (TTyOaT09 a/i</>l TOO 

28 T^/V SidjSa&iv eirj. 8tb 8rj Tpaiavw Te /cal ' 
Trapgvei erepa lovaiv 68cS Trav>JKiv e? 

29 T^V 7^v. Trapd fj,ev ovv J$e\iadpiov ov/cen 
e%ovTes Be 7rora/j,bv JZixfrpdriiv ev Beta OVTW 
Brj e9 @6o8ocrtoy7roXty T^V 77/309 TW 'Aftoppa 

30 TTorafJbw IKOVTO. BeXtcra/9t09 Se /cat d 'Pcofiaimv 
erTparbs ovBev Trepl TOV arpaTevfJuaro^ TOVTOV 
TTvdo/jLevoi ^cr^aXXov, 69 re Seo9 /cat inro-^riav 
ovre (f)oprjrijv riva ovre perpiav e/jwriTrTovre*;, 

31 xpovov -T6 (rtyicriv ev ravrrj Brj rrj Trpoa-eBpeia 
rpiftevros avxyov ^vve^t] 7roXXot9 TWV arpa- 

at 8ucr/coXa) evravda d\wvaf au- 



yoyo MeuoTTOTa/ita 77 

1 (ppovplr? VP : 

424 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xix. 23-31 

words of exhortation and of kindly invitation, in 
persuading them to take pledges for their safety and 
to deliver themselves and the fortress to the Romans. 
Thus Belisarius captured Sisauranon, and the in- 
habitants, all of whom were Christians and of 
Roman origin, he released unscathed, but the 
Persians he sent with Bleschames to Byzantium, and 
razed the fortification wall of the fortress to the 
ground. And the emperor not long afterwards sent 
these Persians and Bleschames to Italy to fight against 
the Goths. Such, then, was the course of events 
which had to do with the fortress of Sisauranon. 

But Arethas, fearing lest he should be despoiled 
of his booty by the Romans, was now unwilling to 
return to the camp. So he sent some of his followers 
ostensibly for the purpose of reconnoitring, but 
secretly commanding them to return as quickly as 
possible and announce to the army that a large 
hostile force was at the crossing of the river. For 
this reason, then, he advised Trajan and John to 
return by another route to the land of the Romans. 
So they did not come again to Belisarius, but keeping 
the River Euphrates on the right they finally arrived 
at the Theodosiopolis which is near the River Abor- 
rhas. But Belisarius and the Roman army, hearing 
nothing concerning this force, were disturbed, 
and they were filled with fear and an intolerable 
and exaggerated suspicion. And since much time 
had been consumed by them in this siege, it came 
about that many of the soldiers were taken there 
with a troublesome fever ; for the portion of 
Mesopotamia which is subject to the Persians is 



425 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



32 vTrepQvws eanv. ovTrep eis 6e9 

KOI SiatyepOVrW 01 e/C 

^capita t7CT07r&>9 lav^fjifa 

Trviyrjpals wpa 6epovs Siairav e%ovre<t, evo 

ouT<9 cocrre r)/jLi0vrjre<? TO rpirrjfjiopiov rov crrpa- 

33 TOV efceivro. airas /j,ev ovv o (rrpaTOf evOevSe 
re aTTO\\dcrcrecr6ai KOA, 6Vi Ta^icrra e'<? rr)v ol/ceiav 
yfjv 7ravr)/t6iv ev (nrovSfj el%ov, /j,d\icrra Be 
airdwTwv oi TWV ev A.i/3dv<0 1 KardX-oycav dp^ov- 

T69, 'Pefcidayyos re KOL Qeo/cricrros, opwvres on, 
8rj KCU o %p6vo<; TO ^apaK-rjvcav avaBv]^a jrapw- 

34 ^rcev ij$rj. BeXtcrayotw yovv crv)(yd Trpocriovres 
eSeovro cr^a? avri/ca d^elvai, fiaprvpofievot 019 

rd re eVt Ai/Sdvov KCU 
/cddrjvrat avrov ov&evl 

35 Ato &rj BeXto - tt/?to9 aTravras v<yfcd\,ecras TOV9 

36 dp^ovras /3ov\r)v Trpovflijtcev. ov Sr) dva<rras 
7T/OWTO9 'Itwaw/79 o N ifcrjrov vlo<; e\e^e roidBe 
" "Apivre BeXtcrayOte, crrparrjiybv jjuev ovre rrjv rv- 
XTJV ovre rrjv dperrjv etc rov Travrbs %povov yeyevfj- 

37 (T0ai roiovrov ol^ai 0*09 avrbs el. 8oi;a re avrrj 
ov 'Ptyytiattov K/cpdrrjK /JLOVOV, d\\d ical /3ap{3d- 

38 pa>v drrdvrwv. ravrrjv fievroi fleftaiorara &ia<j)v- 

rrjv evK\etav, ijv ye %wvra<; 77^9 t9 
rrjv yrjv SiacrtocracrOai Svvarbs 61779' 009 
vvv ye rj^lv rd rfjs \TTLO'O<; ourc ev ica\S> Keirai. 
ovrwcrl yap pot Trepl rov&e rov crrparov crtcoTrei. 

39 2,apafcr)vol pev /cat oi rwv crrparKorwv fj,a%ifj,a>ra- 
rot Tiyprjv Trorafibv Siaftdvres, r)p,epav OVK ol8a 
oTToarrfv 2 avu> 9 rovro rv^r)<; d<f>t,tcovro ware 

1 AiBdvef P : 0c\iffapica VG. 

2 6ird<TT7jv Haury : tfirws rV MSS. 

426 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xix. 31-39 

extremely dry and hot. And the Romans were not 
accustomed to this and especially those who came 
from Thrace ; and since they were living their daily 
life in a place where the heat was excessive and in 
stuffy huts in the summer season, they became so ill 
that the third part of the army were lying half-dead. 
The whole army, therefore, was eager to depart from 
there and return as quickly as possible to their own 
land, and most of all the commanders of the troops 
in Lebanon, Rhecithancus and Theoctistus, who saw 
that the time which was the sacred season of the 
Saracens had in fact already passed. They came, 
indeed, frequently to Belisarius and entreated him to 
release them immediately, protesting that they had 
given over to Alamoundaras the country of Lebanon 
and Syria, and were sitting there for no good reason. 
Belisarius therefore called together all the officers 
and opened a discussion. Then John, the son of 
Nicetas, rose first and spoke as follows : " Most 
excellent Belisarius, I consider that in all time there 
has never been a general such as you are either in 
fortune or in valour. And this reputation has come 
to prevail not alone among the Romans, but also 
among all barbarians. This fair name, however, you 
will preserve most securely, if you should be able to 
take us back alive to the land of the Romans ; for 
now indeed the hopes which we may have are not 
bright. For I would have you look thus at the 
situation of this army. The Saracens and the most 
efficient soldiers of the army crossed the River 
Tigris, and one day, 1 know not how long since, they 
found themselves in such a plight that they have 



427 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



ovoe ayye\ov Tre/ntyai riva Trap" 77/40.9 ia"xycrav 
'PeKiOayyos re Kal eoKriaro<; drcorcopevaovrai, 
ft>9 opa? SrjTrovOev, avriica orj pd\a rbv 'AXa/u-of v- 
odpov err par bv ev <&oivii /u,ecroi9 elvai oloftevoi, 
ajovrd re Kal (j)epovra ^v/jiTravra ra efceivrj %(i)pia. 

40 TWV 8e \enro/jievc0v ol vocrovvres elcri roaovroi TO 
7r~\,r)0o<> mare TOV? OepaTrevcrovrds re Kal KO- 
jjLiovvras e? 'Pwfj-aiwv rrjv yrjv eXacrcrou? av- 

41 rwv Trapa TTO\V rov apiO/JLOV etvai. rovroov 
Be roiovrwv ovrwv, ijv n ^v/A/Sairj 7ro\efJ,iov r) 
avrov fj,evov(riv rf orrLaa) lovcrtv r)pZv arravrfjcraL, 
ou8' av Tt? a.7ra77tXat rot? ev Aa/ja? 'Pw/tatoi? 

42 Svvairo TO ^vfMTrecrbv TrdOos. TO jap eirlrcpocrOe 
Trrj levai ov8e Xoyo) ol^ai 8vvarbv elvai. e&)9 ovv 
en \eirrerat, Tt9 eX,7rt<r, ra e'<? rrjv eTrdvoSov /3ov- 

43 \evecr0al l re /cal Trpdarcretv ^vvot(rei. rots yap 
e? KivBvvov aXX&>9 Te Kal roiovrov KadefrrrjKocri 
fjbr) rrjv crwr^piav SiacrKOTrelffdai, d\\a rrjv e? 

44 Toy? rro\epiov 9 emfSov\r)v TroXXrj avoia." rocrav- 
ra 'Iwdvvr)*; re elTre Kal OL \onrol Trdvres eTrrjve- 
(rav, e? T 66pvfBov Kadicrrdpevoi rrjv dva^caprjcriv 

45 Kara rd%os Troieicrdai r)%lovv. Sib 8r) BeXt<jap<O9 
rcporepov Toi/9 vocrovvras ev roi$ viro^vyiois evde- 

46 fj,evo<>, VTTTJyev brciaw TO arrpdrevp,a. eTreiBr) re 
rd^icrra ev <yf) rf] 'Pm/Aaiwv ejevovro, aTravra fj,ev 
ra TO) ' KpeOa elp'yaap.eva eyva), &LKT)V /j,evroi 
\a/3eiv ov8e/jLt,av Trap' avrov 'la^yaev, evret ol 9 
o-^riv ovKeri rj\6ev. r) p,ev ovv 

69 rovro ereXevra. 

47 XOCT/OOT; 8e Herpav e\6vn 

69 yfjv rrjv HepaiSa r/yye\\ero Kal rj d/j,<f>l TTO\IV 

1 &ov\\>eff6a.i P : j8o^A(T0oi VG. 
428 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xix. 39-47 

not even succeeded in sending a messenger to us, and 
Rhecithancus and Theoctistus will depart, as you see 
surely, believing that the army of Alamoundaras is 
almost at this very moment in the midst of Phoenicia, 
pillaging the whole country there. And among 
those who are left the sick are so numerous that 
those who will care for them and convey them to the 
land of the Romans are fewer in number than they 
are by a great deal. Under these circumstances, if 
it should fall out that any hostile force should 
come upon us, either while remaining here or while 
going back, not a man would be able to carry back 
word to the Romans in Daras of the calamity which 
had befallen us. For as for going forward, I consider 
it impossible even to be spoken of. While, there- 
fore, some hope is still left, it will be of advantage 
both to make plans for the return and to put the 
plans into action. For when men have come into 
danger and especially such danger as this, it is 
downright folly for them to devote their thoughts 
not to safety, but to opposition to the enemy." So 
spoke John, and all the others expressed approval, 
and becoming disorderly, they demanded that the 
retreat be made with all speed. Accordingly 
Belisarius laid the sick in the carts and let them lead 
the way, while he led the army behind them. And 
as soon as they got into the land of the Romans, lie 
learned everything which had been done by Arethas, 
but he did not succeed in inflicting any punishment 
upon him, for he never came into his sight again. So 
ended the invasion of the Romans. 

And after Chosroes had taken Petra, it was an- 
nounced to him that Belisarius had invaded the 



429 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



?7, (f>povpiov re rov 
aXft>ert9, KOL ocra Tiyprjv rrorap^ov Siaftav TO i>v 

48 TO) 'A/3e$a crrpdrev/j,a errpacrcrev. avrirca re 
(f>v\aKr)V ev rfj Tlerpa KaTacrrr}adfievo<i, %vv rw 
aXXo a-rparo) KOL 'Patjuiicov rot? a\ovcnv e? ra 

49 Hepcrwv Tjdr] aTrrj\avve. ravra /J,ev ev rfj Sevrepa 
Xocr^ooy ecrftoXf) j*vvr)ve%8r) yevecrOai. BeXtcra- 
pios Be /9acrtXet 69 J5vdi>riov yLterttTre/iTTTO? e\6utv 



XX 

1 "A./j,a Se rjpi dp^o/Jbevw Xotrpo?;? 6 Ka/3aSof TO 
rpirov (rrpar& /Ae^aXw e<? 7^^ T^y 'Pw/iateo;/ 
6<Tj8aXXe, Trora/nov Ev^paT^i/ eV Sefta e^wv. 

2 Ktti>8t8o9 Se, o ^ep^iouTroXea)? [epevs, eTreiSr) rov 

crrparov ay^iard rrov rjicetv trrvOero, 
ept Te ot avrat KOI ry^rro\ei, ercel %pova> 
ra> ^vytceifjieva) Xocrpo?? Ta d>/j,o\O'yr)iJ,eva a>? fJKicrra 
ev TW TCOV 7roXe/tt&)i/ crrparoTreSai 
Traprjreiro Xocrpoyv fir) ol Sia ravra 
e%eiv. xpr/fuira /j,ev yap ovSeTrcbirore 
avr& yeyovevai, KOI Sia rovro dp^rjv ov8e ffefiov- 
\rjcr0ai l ^,ovpr)vov<? pvea-ffai, /SacrtXea Se 'lovcrn- 
viavbv inrep rovrwv rro\\a Ifcerevcras dvovr/ros 
4 avrov yeyevrja-dai. Xoo-/ao779 Be avrov ev <pv\aKrj 
e<r^e, Kal TO o-aiyu-a TTiKporara at/ct^o/tevo9 Bi- 

1 0f0ov\r)tr6ai VGP : ^e0ov\fvff6ai H. 

43 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xix. 47-** 4 

Persian territory, and the engagement near the 
city of Nisibis was reported, as also the capture 
of the fortress of Sisauranon, and all that the army 
of Arethas had done after crossing the River Tigris. 
Straightway, then, he established a garrison in Petra, 
and with the rest of the army and those of the 
Romans who had been captured he marched away 
into the land of Persia. Such, then, were the events 
which took place in the second invasion of Chosroes. 
And Belisarius went to Byzantium at the summons of 
the emperor, and passed the winter there. 



XX 

AT the opening of spring Chosroes, the son of 542 A.D. 
Cabades, for the third time began an invasion into 
the land of the Romans with a mighty army, keep- 
ing the River Euphrates on the right. And 
Candidus, the priest of Sergiopolis, upon learning 
that the MediaYi army had come near there, began 
to be afraid both for himself and for the city, since 
he had by no means carried out at the appointed 
time the agreement which he had made 1 ; accordingly 
he went into the camp of the enemy and entreated 
Chosroes not to be angry with him because of this. 
For as for money, he had never had any, and for 
this reason he had not even wished in the first place 
to deliver the inhabitants of Sura, and though he 
had supplicated the Emperor Justinian many times 
on their behalf, he had failed to receive any help 
from him. But Chosroes put him under guard, and, 
torturing him most cruelly, claimed the right to 
1 Cf. chap. v. 31. 

43 1 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

7T\dcria [ra] -^pij/juara, yrrep ^vvetceiro, Trpdrreiv 

5 rj^Lov. 6 Be avrbv e? ^epjiovTroXlv rivas Itcereve 
rrkn^ai ra /cet/u-^Xta ^v^iravra rov evravda lepov 

6 \rj-^rofj,evov<i. teal Trel Kara ravra 6 Xocr^o?;? 

rwv ol errofjuevav nva? 6 KdvSi8o<t %vv 
eTrei^^rev. ol ftev ovv 2,epyiov7ro\iTCU 
Trapa Xocr/?ooi crraXe^Ta? yrj vroXet Be^d- 
fj,voi TCOV Keijjirj\.i(i)v 7ro\\a eBoaav, aXXo ovSev 

8 a(j)icriv aTro\e\el<f)6ai la"%vpi6fAevoi. XotrpoT;? 
8e ravrd ol aTro^pfjv ovoaftr) e<f>r), aA,X' erepa 

9 rovTtov TrXettu \a(3elv eSi/caiov. Tre/mei roivvv 
Tivas Tfo /ji>ev \6<y(> SiepewrjcrofAevovs e? TO aicpi- 
/3e? ra rfjs TroXew? ^pr^fjuara, epyw Be rrjv iro\iv 

10 Kade^ovra^. /ecu eVet ovrc eBei 'S. 
Tlepcrais dXwvai, rcov Ti? ^apafcrjvwv 
{lev, rcLTTo/jievos Be VTTO 'A\a/j,ovvBdp<p, 

ovn/j,a, WKTWp Trapa TT)S 7rpA,ea)9 TO Tet^o? ijtcwv 
real rbv Trdvra \6yov a'yyetXa?, eKe\eve Ilepcra? 

11 rr) TroXet fjirjBa/j-ij Be^affdat. oi/fto T6 ot Trapd 
Xocr/oooi/ crra\evr<f aTrpa/cToi e? avrbv eiravfi\6ov, 
fcal 09 TW ^uyu,w ea)v rr)Vjro\.tv egeXelv Bievoeiro. 

12 GTpdrev/jua ovv e? e^aKicr^i\t,ov^ (rrei\a<? e/ceXevev 
e? Te iro\iopiciav tcaQicrracrOai, /cat 7rpoo-0o\d<f 

13 TW Tre/JtySoXw Troir/o-aerdai. teal ol ftev evravda 
<yevo/J,evoi ep<yov efyovro, lp<yiov7ro\LTai Be tcap- 
T/>ft>9 /zey Ta irpwra rjpvvovTO, eireira <Be> l 
aTretTrovres re teal Karwpput^KO're^ TOV /civBvvov 
e{3ov\evovro rol<f 7roX.e//,toi9 T^V r jro\iv evBovvai. 

14 (nparKoras <yap ov 7r\eov 77 BiaKocriovs e-^ovre^ 
erv^ov. d\\d "Ayu,yS/)09, av@i<t Trapa rbv Trepi- 

1 < 5 > Haury. 
43 2 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xx. 4-14 

exact from him double the amount of money, just as 
had been agreed. And Candidus entreated him 
to send.men to Sergiopolis to take all the treasures 
of the sanctuary there. And when Chosroes 
followed this suggestion, Candidus sent some of his 
followers with them. So the inhabitants of Ser- 
giopolis, receiving into the city the men sent by 
Chosroes, gave them many of the treasures, declaring 
that nothing else was left them. But Chosroes said 
that these were by no means sufficient for him, 
and demanded that he should receive others still 
more than these. Accordingly he sent men, 
ostensibly to search out with all diligence the wealth 
of the city, but in reality to take possession of 
the city. But since it was fated that Sergiopolis 
should not be taken by the Persians, one of the 
Saracens, who, though a Christian, was serving 
under Alamoundaras, Ambrus by name, came by 
night along the wall of the city, and reporting to 
them the whole plan, bade them by no means receive 
the Persians into the city. Thus those who were 
sent by Chosroes returned to him unsuccessful, 
and he, boiling with anger, began to make plans to 
capture the city. He accordingly sent an army of 
six thousand, commanding them to begin a siege and 
to make assaults upon the fortifications. And this 
army came there and commenced active operations, 
and the citizens of Sergiopolis at first defended 
themselves vigorously, but later they gave up, and 
in terror at the danger, they were purposing to 
give over the city to the enemy. For, as it 
happened, they had not more than two hundred 
soldiers. But Ambrus, 'again coming along by the 



433 

VOL. I. F F 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

(3o\ov 69 vv/cra tf/cwv, Bvolv l rj/Aepaiv rrjv TTO- 
\iopKLai 1 8ia\v(reiv TLep<ras e(f)ao-Ke, rov v&aro? 

15 avTOvs rravrdrcao-iv e7ri\nr6vro<?. Bio Brj avrol 
[Lev 69 Xo7Oi9 T0t9 7roXe/i/ot9 ovSajifj rj\dov, ol 
Be fidpftapoi Bi-^rei %6fjievoi e^avear^crdv re 
teal Trapa Xocrporjv CL$>IKOVTO, KdvSiSov fj-evToi 

16 Xo<r/o6^9 ovKeri d<pf)K. xpfjv yap, ol/jiai, avrov 
ra o^w^oa^kva rf^oyrj/cora lepea fJH]Keri, elvai. 
ravra pJev ovv rf)8e e^caprjcrev. 

17 'E?ret Be et9 rrjv J^.o^a'y^vfav yatpav o Xocrpo?;9 
d(j)iKeTO, TJV KaX-ovaiv }^v<f>parr}cnav, 9 \eiav ftev 
rj ^wpiov rov a\waiv TpeTreadaL ovBa/jLff 'r)de\ev, 

CTrel ra ev TTOCTI pevpi 9 2vooi9 ra /j,ev ee\a)i>, 

\ $ \ -\ ' > " " 

ra oe ap<yvpo\.oyr)cra<i rrporepov erv^ev, wcnrep 

18 ev T0t9 eprrpocrOev ^070^9 &eSrj\a>rai. yva)fj,7)i> 
Be el%ev evdv TidXaiarivrj^ ayeiv ro crrpdrev^a, 
07T&>9 rd re a\\a teal ra ev 'lepocroXvpois /cei- 
fjLr)\ta rrdvra \r)ia"r)rai. %(0pav yap ravrqv dja- 
6r)V re Sia<j)p6vr(t)S /cal 7ro\v%pvcra)V 

19 elvai dicof) et%e. 'Pw/iato* Be drravres, 

re ical crrpariwrai, rot9 p,ev TroXe/uo^ VTravrid- 
%eiv rj rfj rrapoBw e/jbiroBcov icrraadai rporrw 
ovBevl Bievoovvro, rd Be o^vpcapara Kara\a- 
/3ovT9 ci)9 e/cacrrof rjBvvaro, aTro^pijv utovro 
ravrd re &iafyv\dcraei,i> /cal avrol cr<wecr#cu. 

20 Pvou9 Be rrjv Hep&wv etfroBov 'lovcmviavbs 
/3ao-tXey9 Be\tadpiov avdis err avrovs eTrep-frev. 
6 Be i7T7rot9 TOt9 Brj/Aoaiois 6^ovfj.evo<{, ov? Brj 
/3epe8ov$ Ka\elv vevo/j-tKaariv, lire ov arpdrev/j-a 
vv avrw e^wv, rd%ei TroXXw 69 ^v<^pari]aiav 
d(j)iKero, 'IoOo-ro9 Be, 6 /9aovXe9 dve^ios, ev 

1 Svttv MSS. 
434 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xx. 14-20 

fortifications at night, said that within two days 
the Persians would raise the siege since their water 
supply had failed them absolutely, j For this reason 
they did not by any means open negotiations with 
the enemy, and the barbarians, suffering with thirst, 
removed from there and came to Chosroes. However, 
Chosroes never released Candidus. For it was 
necessary, I suppose, that since he had disregarded 
his sworn agreement, he should be a priest no 
longer. Such, then, was the course of these events. 

But when Chosroes arrived at the land of the 
Commagenae which they call F.uphratesia, he had 
no desire to turn to plundering or to the capture 
of any stronghold, since he had previously taken 
everything before him as far as Syria, partly by 
capture and partly by exacting money, as has been 
set forth in the preceding narrative. Arid his purpose 
was to lead the army straight for Palestine, in order 
that he might plunder all their treasures and es- 
pecially those in Jerusalem. For he had it from 
hearsay that this was an especially goodly land 
and peopled by wealthy inhabitants. And all the 
Romans, both officers and soldiers, were far from 
entertaining any thought of confronting the enemy or 
of standing in the way of their passage, but manning 
their strongholds as each one could, they thought it 
sufficient to preserve them and save themselves. 

The Emperor Justinian, upon learning of the in- 
road of the Persians, again sent Belisarius against 
them. And he came with great speed to Euphra- 
tesia since he had no army with him, riding on the 
government post-horses, which they are accustomed 
to call " veredi," while Justus, the nephew of the 



435 
F F 2 



vv re ra> Boi/?? teal erepois ri<rl 

21 tcara<f>v<ya>v erv%ev. o't Srj J$e\icrdpi,ov ov fta/cpdv 
airoOev rj/ceiv dtcovcravres fypd/jupara TT/OO<? avrbv 

22 eypaffrov e&rj\ov 8e r) ypatyrj rd&e " Kat vvv 

Xoo-po???, wffTrep oladd TTOV Kal atT09, eVi 
r Pft)/iatou9 effTpdrevae, a-rparbv fjuev TroXXw ir\ei- 
ova r) Trporepov ayoov, OTTIJ TTOTC 5e levai l Sta- 

VOOVfAVO<> OV7TO) ei>8r)\OS 0)V, 7T\1]V 76 8rj OTl 

avrbv dy^icrrd irrf dfcovo/jiev elvai, %a)pi(i) fj,ev 
ov&evl \vfj,rjvd{j,evov, 68<p 8e del eTriTrpocrdev 

23 lovra. aXA,' rjKG Trap' ^a? ort rd^icrra, eiirep 
olo? re eZ \a6elv TO rwv TroXefJiiwv arparoTreBov, 
OTTO)? 8r) o-a>9 re auro9 /SacriXet e'er?; /cat 'lepd- 

24 Tro\iv 2 77/^6^ ^u/i^>uXa^?79." Toaavra /nev r) <ypa<f)r) 
eSrj\ov. BeXtcra|OiO9 8e oy eTraiveaas ra iye- 
jpapf^eva 69 Rvpwrbv TO %(opiov dtyitceTO, o 

25 7T/J09 Eti^paTT; 7roTa/j,q> (mv. evflev&e re rcepi- 
TrefjiTrwv 7ravra%6cr rbv arparov ryyeipe teal avrov 
TO arparoTreSov /carea-njaaro, dp^ovrds re Toy9 
eV r Iepa7roXei rj/jLeiftero rolaSe, "JEt /*e^ t ; <^>' erepovs 
dvOpo)7T(ov 3 rivds, aXX' ou 'Pw/Aatwy fcarrj/coovs 
6 XocrpoT79 xwpei, ev re real &>9 dv<f)a\.ecrrara 

26 v/Atz^ /3e/3ov\evrat ravra- 0^9 7ap Trdpea-riv 
fl<rv)(fj /jbevovcriv aTrrjXX.d'xffai KCIKWV, iro\\r) 
avoid 9 /civ&vvov OVK dvay/caiov r'tva levai- 
el 8e vvv evflevSe d7ra\\ayel$ 6 (Bdoftapos ovros 
erepa rivl eTTKr/fij-frei, /3aai\ea)<> lova-rtviavov 
X<*>pa, teal ravry &ia<j)ep6vr(0<; /j,ev dya0fj, <ppov- 
pdv Se ov8a/j,t] (rrpancorwv e-^ovcrr), ev tare ort 

1 teVai P : om. VG. 2 'lepaTroA^ Dindorf : itpav iroXiv MSS. 

3 a.v6p<air<av VG : ovflpcoirous P. 

43 6 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xx. 20-26 

emperor, together with Bouzes and certain others, 
was in Hierapolis where he had fled for refuge. 
And when these men heard that Belisarius was com- 
ing and was not far away, they wrote a letter to him 
which ran as follows : " Once more Chosroes, as you 
yourself doubtless know, has taken the field against 
the Romans, bringing a much greater army than 
formerly ; and where he is purposing to go is not yet 
evident, except indeed that we hear he is very near, 
and that he has injured no place, but is always mov- 
ing ahead. But come to us as quickly as possible, if 
indeed you are able to escape detection by the army 
of the enemy, in order that you yourself may be 
safe for the emperor, and that you may join us in 
guarding Hierapolis." Such was the message of the 
letter. But Belisarius, not approving the advice 
given, came to the place called Europum, which is 
on the River Euphrates. From there he sent about 
in all directions and began to gather his army, and 
there he established his camp ; and the officers in 
Hierapolis he answered with the following words : 
" If, now, Chosroes is proceeding against any other 
peoples, and not against subjects of the Romans, 
this plan of yours is well considered and insures the 
greatest possible degree of safety ; for it is great 
folly for those who have the opportunity of remain- 
ing quiet and being rid of trouble to enter into any 
unnecessary danger ; but if, immediately after de- 
parting from here, this barbarian is going to fall 
upon some other territory of the Emperor Justinian, 
and that an exceptionally good one, but without 
any guard of soldiers, be assured that to perish 



437 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

TO gvv rfj dpeTrj tt7roXa>Xemf rov o-ecrwcrdai 

27 a/j.ayr)Ti rw Travrl apeivov. ov yap av crwrripia 
rovro ye, aXXa TTpoBoaia Sifcaiws Kakolro. aXX' 
rjfcere ori rdy^iara e<? rbv EV/WTTOJ/, ov Brj crv\- 
Xe^a? TO crrpdrev^a o\ov ocra av 6 #eo<? StSw 

28 eXiriSa e%&> TOU? iro\ep,iov<> pyd<7a<r6ai." ravra 

t ajreve^devra ol apyovres elBov, eOapprjo'dv 

V'T'* v *->'~v' V ' 

Kai Lovarov fjiev !;vv 0X17045 TKTIV avrov 
ft u> TTJV 'lepdjroXiv 1 (J3v\dovcri v, 2 ol Se 
\onrol TO> aXXft) crrparw e? EU/CXUTTOZ/ rj\0ov. 



XXI 

' }$\l(TdplOV TTOVTl TO) ' 

crrpara) earparoTreBevcrdai ev E 
/x.ei' \avveiv ovtcevi eyvci), rwv 8e ftaai- 
\ifca)i> ypap,^areu>v eva, 'AftavSdvrjv ovofia, 86- 
%av CTTI gweaei 7ro\\r)v eyjovTa, Trapa Be\i<rdpiov 
e7T6yu,i|re, Toy arpanyyov OTTO to? TTOTS elv] KaTaa/ce- 
W Be \6<y<a fj^p,^roiJ.evov OTL Brj /3ao-t\ei>5 
rov<f Trpecrfteis e? Tlepcras rJKicrra 
e<f>' o5 Ta d/j,<f)i rfj elprjvrj Kara TO 
%vyKi/j,eva 'jrpvravevauxrLv. oTrep paOow BeXt- 
2 crdptos eTToiei roidSe. a^TO? /tev e^aKia / y^i\iov<; 
aTroXefa/zevo? avSpas ev/jujfceis TC /cal ra crai/Mira 
/caXoy? fjidXicrra, /j,atcpdv TTOV aTroOev rov crrpa- 
TOTreBov to? Kvinjyerrjcrwv ecndXrj, ^loyevrjv Be TOV 
Bopvtyopov teal *A.B6\iov TOV 'A.Ka/ciov, dvBpa 



1 'lfp<iiro\iv Dindorf : lepariK^v VG, Ifpav ir6\iv P. 

2 <j>v\dovffiv P : <^>uAa{co<rji' VG. 

3 ir4fi.^etev edd. : ir^^/eij' MSS. 



438 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xx. 2 6-xxi. 2 

valorously is better in every way than to be saved 
without a fight. For this would justly be called not 
salvation but treason. But come as quickly as 
possible to Europum, where, after collecting the 
whole army, I hope to deal with the enemy as God 
permits." And when the officers saw this message, 
they took courage, and leaving there Justus with 
some few men in order to guard Hierapolis, all 
the others with the rest of the army came to 
Europum. 



XXI 

BUT Chosroes, upon learning that Belisarius with 
the whole Roman army had encamped at Europum, 
decided not to continue his advance, but sent one 
of the royal secretaries, Abandanes by name, a man 
who enjoyed a great reputation for discretion, to 
Belisarius, in order to find out by inspection what 
sort of a general he might be, but ostensibly to 
make a protest because the Emperor Justinian had 
not sent the ambassadors' to the Persians at all in 
order that they might settle the arrangements for 
the peace as had been agreed. When Belisarius 
learned this, he did as follows. He himself picked 
out six hundred men of goodly stature and especially 
fine physique, and set out to hunt at a considerable 
distance from the camp. Then he commanded 
Diogenes, the guardsman, and Adolius, the son of 



439 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

'Ap/j,eviov <yevo<>, /3acrt\e2 fjiev del ev iraXario) ra 
9 rrjv rjcrv^Lav VTrvjperovvra (criXevnapiovs 'P(o- 
p,aioi Ka\oixriv 049 rj rifjbi] avrtj eTrifcetrai), rare 
Be ' Apfj,evia>v rivwv dp^ovra, rov rrora^bv 
Biafidvras l vv iTTTrevcri %i\ioi<> irepnevai rrjv 
eKeivr) r/iova e/ceXeue, So/crjo-iv del Trape^ofjievov^ 
rot? 7roXe///tot9 ft>9, rfv edeXuxrt, rbv ^v^pdrrjv 
eVt ra <T(perepa avrwv 6&<p levai, ov 
eVtTpe-v/rofcrt. 2 KCU ol pep Kara ravra 
eTroiovv. 

BeXto-a/9tO9 Se, ejrel rov rrpea'Bevrrjv dy^iard 
Trrj eTreirvcrTO elvai, /ca\v^r}v etc Tra^eiwv rivwv 
rrj^d/jievo<f, r)v Brj TrarrvXewva rca\eiv 
, eKdBrjro eicei, axnrep ev %a>pia> eprfdatj 
7rapa8tj\a)v OTI Brj ovBefjiia TrapaaKevfj evravda 3 

4 rjtcoi. T0i9 Be crrpaTiwras Biera^ev wSe. 
/caXuy8r/9 e<^>' eKarepa paKe<; re KOL 
r/aav, r6rdoi Be /ier' avrovs, KOI TOVTWV 
"EpofXot, yu,e^' 01)9 HavBfaoi re ical M.av paver 101 

5 r/aav. rov re ireBiov enl rc\el<jrov Birjicov. ov 
<ydp ecrrforef 7rl %(i)pas del r^9 avrfjs epvov, 
aXXa Biecrrrjicores re arc' dX\^\a)v teal Trepnrdrovs 
iroiovf^evoi 7rapep r yo}<f re, icai (09 ij/ctcrra tcare- 
aTTOvBacr/j,ev(i)<; 9 rbv Xocrpoov rrpea^evrr^v 

6 e0\TTov. et^e Be avrwv ovBels ovre ^Xa/tySa 4 
ovre a\\r)v evrw/itSa rtvd, aXXa %ir(i)va<> fiev 
\ivovs /cal dva^vpLBas dfjuire^o^evoi,, elra Bie^wcr- 

7 /jievoi eftdBi&v. elye Be rrjv rov LTTTTOV fjidcrrtya 
ifcacrrof, OTT\OV Be rq> [lev i'<o9 i]v, rat Be 

1 Sia^oj'Tos Maltretus : Sia&dvra MSS. 

- 4iriTpf\f/ov(Ti Haury : firtffTp(4iovffi MSS. 

3 tvravda Theophanes : ev ravrri MSS. 

1 x^ a M"8o Dindorf : x^"^8a MSS. 
440 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxi. 2-7 

Acacius, to cross the river with a thousand horsemen 
and to move about the bank there, always making it 
appear to the enemy that if they wished to cross the 
Euphrates and proceed to their own land, they 
would never permit them to do so. This Adolius 
was an Armenian by birth, and he always served 
the emperor while in the palace as privy counsellor 
(those who enjoy this honour are called by the 
Romans " silentiarii "), but at that time he was com- 
mander of some Armenians. And these men did as 
directed. 

Now when Belisarius .had ascertained that the 
envoy was close at hand, he set up a tent of some 
heavy cloth, of the sort which is commonly called a 
"pavilion," and seated himself there as one might in 
a desolate place, seeking thus to indicate that he had 
come without any equipment. Arid he arranged the 
soldiers as follows. On either side of the tent were 
Thracians and Illyrians, with Goths beyond them, and 
next to these Eruli, and finally Vandals and Moors. 
And their line extended for a great distance over the 
plain. For they did not remain standing always in 
the same place, but stood apart from one another and 
kept walking about, looking carelessly and without 
the least interest upon the envoy of Chosroes. And 
not one of them had a cloak or any other outer gar- 
ment to cover the shoulders, but they were saunter- 
ing about clad in linen tunics and trousers, and 
outside these their girdles. And each one had his 
horse-whip, but for weapons one had a sword, 



441 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

8 7reXe:u9, rm 8e ro^a yv/juvd. 8oKr)(riv re rrap- 
efyovro arravres on 8ij d(f)povno-rij<ravr<? rwv 

9 aX\,a>v drrdvrwv fcvvriyerijcreiv rjTrelyovro. 6 fjuev 
ovv ' A/Sav&dvrjs BeXt<7a/9i< e? oijnv rj/cwv Seivd 
TTOielo~6ai TOV ySacrtXea Xocrporjv e(f>r), OTI Sr) KaOa 
%vvffiro Trpo-repov ov TTe/A^ete Trap 1 avrbv TOU? 
7Ty06(T/S6fc9 o Kaicrap (OVTOJ yap rov 'Pw/Aaiwv 
/3acrtXea /caXovcri Hepaat) icai air avrov 6 Xocr- 
po7/9 ^vdyKacrro 69 7^ T^ 'PatfjMLcov ev O7rXoi9 

10 rjKGiv. BeXtcra/oto? Se ovre KCtToppcoSijcras, are Trrj 
ayxuTTa <TTpaT07re8ev/j.ev(0v ftapfidpwv TOGOVTWV 
TO 77X^^09, OVTG TW Xo7ft) 69 Tapa^rjv nva Ka- 
TacrTa9, aXXa yeX-wvri re KCU dvei/Aevy TO> 

ayttetySerat " Ou ravrrj" \e<ywv " y TW 
oT; ravvv eipyaarai vevopbiarai Tot9 dvdpd)- 

11 Trot? T<Z Trpdyf^ara. ol /j,ev yap aXXot, ^v Tt 
avTiXe7otTO cr^iffi re ical rwv ?reXa9 Ttat, Trpea- 
jSevovcn /mev 9 avrovs rrporepov, eTreiSdv 8e TMV 
fj^erplwv f^r) rv^wa-iv, ovrca 8r) TroXe/iO) eV avrovs 

12 laffiv. 6 8e yevo/Aevos ev fiecroi^ 'Pcof^aiot^, elra 
TOU9 vTrep rrj<f eipijvrjs irporeiverai \6yovs." 6 fi,ev 
rovavra etTratv rov Trpecrfievrrjv dTrerre^-^raro. 

13 *O Se Trapa ^ocrporfv yevofievos rrapyvei ol on 

14 rd%i(rra dTra\\dacreo~6ai.. crrpart]y& re yap 
evrv%eiv e<f)r] dvSpeiordro) re fcal gvverfordrtt) 
dv0p(i>7TO)V drrdvrwv KOI arpari(0rai<> oiovs aXXoi/9 
auT09 ov TTtoTTore elSev, wv &rj rrjv evtcofffjiiav Oav- 
pd<reie /j,d\i(Tra irdvrwv, elval re OVK ei; dvrnrdXov 
rov KIV&VVOV avrat re icai BeXtcraptw rrjv dywviav, 

442 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxi. 7-14 

another an axe, another an uncovered bow. And all 
gave the impression that they were eager to be off * 
on the hunt with never a thought of anything else. 
So Abandanes came into the presence of Belisarius 
and said that the king Chosroes was indignant 
because the agreement previously made had not 
been kept, in that the envoys had not been sent to 
him by Caesar (for thus the Persians call the emperor 
of the Romans), and as a result of this Chosroes h*ad 
been compelled to come into the land of the Romans 
in arms. But Belisarius was not terrified by the 
thought that such a multitude of barbarians were 
encamped close by, nor did he experience any 
confusion because of the words of the man, but with 
a laughing, care-free countenance he made answer, 
saying : " This course which Chosroes has followed 
on the present occasion is not in keeping with the 
way men usually act. For other men, in case a dis- 
pute should arise between themselves and any of 
their neighbours, first carry on negotiations with 
them, and whenever they do not receive reasonable 
satisfaction, then finally go against them in war. But 
he first comes into the midst of the Romans, and then 
begins to offer suggestions concerning peace." With 
such words as these he dismissed the ambassador. 

And when Abandanes came to Chosroes, he ad- 
vised him to take his departure with all possible 
speed. For he said he had met a general who in 
manliness and sagacity surpassed all other men, and 
soldiers such as he at least had never seen, whose 
orderly conduct had roused in him the greatest 
admiration. And he added that the contest was not 
on an even footing as regards risk for him and for 
Belisarius, for there was this difference, that if he 

443 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

8ia(f)epetv 8e, on vitctja-as /j,ev avrbs rov K.ai(rapo<t 
viKrjaei 8ov\ov, rfcrcnjdel^ 8e, av ovrw rv%oi, peya 
ri atcr^o? rfi re /3acri\ia Tropicrerai teal rw Tlep- 
crwv yevei, teal 'Pcopaiot ftev vevitcrj^evoi pa8i(t)$ av 
ev re 6%vpa)/j,acri ical 777 rf) avrwv l 8iacr(t)oivTO, 
avrwv 8e, r\v ye n evavria>/j.a ^v/jifiaur}, ov& av 

15 ayyeXo? 8ia<f)vyoi e? TVJV Tlep&wv ^copav. ravrr) 
6 Xocr^oo?;? avaTretcrOels rfj VTrodrffcrj avaarpe^fiv 
fj-ev 69 ra Tiepawv rjOrj /3ov\ero, d/j,r)%avia Se 

16 Tro\\fj et^ero. njv re <yap 8id/3acriv rov Trorayu-oO 
TTpos TMV 7ro\efiio)v (f)V\d(Taea0ai wero KOI o8a> 
rf} avrfj, epr)/jM) avd pdaTrwv TravTaTracriv ovcry, 
airier <a aircXavveiv ov^ oios re rjv, eirel atravra 
<T</)a9 TCL e-TTinfieia TJ8rj em\e\oi'Trei 2 arrep TO jrpo- 
repov %vv avrols e^ovre<; 9 yrjv rrjv 'Po)fMiiu>v 

17 ecre^aXov. reXo? 8e 7ro\\a \oyia a/j,evw ^p-- 
(fropcorarov ol eSoev elvai /J^d'^rj 8taKtv8vvevcravri 
e? yrjv re rrjv avrnrepas ijtceiv KOL 8ta ^a>/)a? 
iracriv ev6r)vovcrrj<; ro?9 ayaOols rrjv rropelav TTOIIJ- 

18 (TaaOai. BeXt<ra/)fO9 8e ev ftev rj7Ti(rraro (9 ouS' 
av 8eica f^vpid8e<f dvSpwv rr/v 8id/3aa-iv Xocrpo?; 
dva%airieiv Trore itcaval elev (o re yap 7roTa//.09 
rro'XXa'xf} r&v ravrr) ^copicav vaval 8ia/3aro<> wv 
e-Trl irXeltrrov rvy^dvei,, KOI fcpei&crov TJV aX,X&>9 
TO Tlepawv arpdrevfjia 77 rrpos TroXe/uwz/ 6\iya>v 
nvwv Tr}9 8ia(3d(Ta)<? dTrofceK\eicr(}ai'^) rol<t 8e 



Aioyevrjv re teal 'ASoXtoy crvv Tot9 

Ta nrpoitra rrepuevai 3 rrjv eiceivr) dtcrrjv, 
07rt9 8rj 9 rapa^rjv d<$>a(ria nvl rov ftdpftapov 

1 avrwv V : auTotj G, avriev preferred by Christ. 

2 firi\e\olirei Dindorf cod. a : b.iro\t\oiirei MSS. 

3 irtpiifi>ai Haury : irpottvai MS., cf. II. xxi. 2. 

444 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxi. 14-18 

conquered,' he himself would conquer the slave of 
Caesar, but if he by any chance were defeated, lie 
would bring great disgrace upon his kingdom and 
upon the race of the Persians ; and again the 
Romans, if conquered, could easily save themselves 
in strongholds and in their own land, while if the 
Persians should meet with any reverse, not even a 
messenger would escape to the land of the Persians. 
Chosroes was convinced by this admonition and 
wished to turn back to his own country, but he found 
himself in a very perplexing situation. For he 
supposed that the crossing of the river was being 
guarded by the enemy, and he was unable to march 
back by the same road, which was entirely destitute 
of human habitation, since the supplies which they 
had at the first when they invaded the land of the 
Romans had already entirely failed them. At last 
after long consideration it seemed to him most 
advantageous to risk a battle and get to the opposite 
side, and to make the journey through a land 
abounding in all good things. Now Belisarius knew 
well that not even a hundred thousand men would 
ever be sufficient to check the crossing of Chosroes. 
For the river at many places along there can be 
crossed in boats very easily, and even apart from this 
the Persian army was too strong to be excluded 
from the crossing by an enemy numerically insig- 
nificant. But he had at first commanded the troops 
of- Diogenes and Adolius, together with the thou- 
sand horsemen, to move about the bank at that point 
in order to confuse the barbarian by a feeling of 
helplessness. But after frightening this same bar- 



445 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

19 Karacrrija-ovrai. 1 ovrrep BeBid/j,evo<;, wcrrrep fioi 
eppi]9r), eBeicre fjuj ri avra> ef^TroBtcrpa etrj arca\- 

20 \dacrea-0ai etc rrjt 'Pcojjiaiwv 7*79. \6yov re ol 
TroXXoO aiov e<f)aivero elvai ee\dcrai evOevBe rov 
Xocr^ooof arparov, ov&efAia KivBvvev(Tavri 

7T/OO9 /jivpidSas ftapftdpcov 7roXA,a9 gitv 
rat9 Xi'av re 6\iyoi<> ovai KOL aTe%y<w<> 

rov MijScov (rrparov. 816 8rj e/ceXeve Ato- 
re KOI 'ASoXiov ^o~v^ij /Aeveiv.^ 

21 O <yovv Xo<r/30779 <ye<f>vpav avv 
TTT/^a/u-e^o?, TrorafAov l&vtypdrrjv e/f rov 

22 Bie^fj rravrl rw arparw. Ilepcreu? yap rrovw ovSevl 
oiafiaroi elcri rrora^ol arravres, errel avrois 68& 
lov<riv dyieicrrpoeiBf) o-iorfpia ev Trapao-fcevf) ecrriv, 
0*9 Sr) %v\a /JMicpa e? a\\r)\a evap/j.6ovres 
<ye<f)vpav avroa%e8idovcriv etc rov Trapavritca omj 

23 av a<f)io-t /3ov~\.O[ji,evoi<> etrj. errel 8e rd%icrra 76- 
yovev ev rfj avmripas r^rrelpw, rrejj/^rat rrapa 

rov 



o-rparov rrjv avapt^o-iv eao-fce, rrpoa- 
oe%ecrdai oe rovs reap avrwv TT peer fteis , 01)9 cn^iVf 

24 rfapeaea-Qai OVK e9 /j-axpav aiov elvai. BeXt- 
ffdpios 'Be rravrl Kol avros ry 'PtofjLaiwv arpary 
rov Rixfrpdrrjv nora^ov Biaftas rrapa Xoo~p6r)v 

25 ev@v<} erre/jL-^-ev. ol, errel reap avrov l/covro, TroXXa 
77)9 dva%(opr/ae(i)s ereaivecravres, rcpeafteis 9 av- 
rov rj^eiv rrapa /Ba&iXews avri/ca Brj yu-aXa vrre- 
a^ovro, ol Brj ra d/j,<f>l rfj elpr)vr) ^vy/ceifMeva rrpo- 

26 repov epya eVfreX?) rrpbs avrov Oijeovrat. rj 

1 Karaffr-fiffovrat Hoeschel : Karaffr^awvrat MS. 
446 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxi. 18-26 

barian, as I have said, Belisarius feared lest there 
should be some obstacle in the way of his departing 
from the land of the Romans. For it seemed to him 
a most significant achievement to have driven away 
from there the army of Chosroes, without risking 
any battle against so many myriads of barbarians 
with soldiers who were very few in number and who 
were in abject terror of the Median army. For this 
reason he commanded Diogenes and Adolius to 
remain quiet. 

Chosroes, accordingly, constructed a bridge with 
great celerity and crossed the River Euphrates 
suddenly with his whole army. For the Persians are 
able to cross all rivers without the slightest difficulty 
because when they are on the march they have in 
readiness hook-shaped irons with which they fasten 
together long timbers, and with the help of these 
they improvise a bridge on the spur of the moment 
wherever they may desire. And as soon as he had 
reached the land on the opposite side, he sent to 
Belisarius and said that he, for his part, had bestowed 
a favour upon the Romans in the withdrawal of the 
Median army, and that he was expecting the envoys 
from them, who ought to present themselves to him 
at no distant time. Then Belisarius also with the 
whole Roman army crossed the River Euphrates and 
immediately sent to Chosroes. And when the 
messengers came into his presence, they commended 
him highly for his withdrawal and promised that 
envoys would come to him promptly from the 
emperor, who would arrange with him that the terms 
which had previously been agreed upon concerning 
the peace should be put into effect. And they asked 



447 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



re 8ia 'Pwpalwv are <j>i\a)V avry rfj rropeia XP*1~ 
crdai. o 8e teal ravra t/TreSe^eTO emre\eaeiv, e'i 
rivd ol 8olev r>v 8o/cifji(i)v ev of^tjpwv Xoyo> em 
raury rfj 6/ioXoyia, efi u> ra j;vytcei/j,eva rcpd^ov- 

27 o~tv. 1 ol p,ev ovv rrpecrfteis rrapa Pje\tcrdptov 
erravrftcovre^ rovs Xo<r/3oou Xoyou? drcrfyyeXXov, o 
Be els rrjv v E,8ecrcrav d<f)iK6fji6vo<; 'Icodvvriv rov 
BacriXeiov Tral8a, yevei re teal TrXotrra) rrdvrwv 
rwv 'EiBecrffijVWv 8ia<f>avecrrarov, oprjpov rw Xocr- 

28 porj ovrt eKovcriov ev6vs eTre/ii^e. 'Pw/jialoi 8e BeXi- 
(rdpiov ev eu^^/itat? el^ov, p.a\Xov re (rfacriv o 
dvrjp ev rovrut 6v8oKi/j,f)crat ry epyy e8oK6t r) ore 
Pe\i/juepa 8opvd\u>rov rj rov Ovimyiv e? Buai>- 

29 rtov ijveyicev. r\v yap d>9 akrfdSy^ \6yov teal eVai- 
vov TroXXoG aiov, Tre<j)o/3ri/j,evQ)v /JLCV tcdv rot? 

TI tcpV7rroLivo)v Poifjuaiwv aTrcivrwv, 
8e crrpary //.eyaXw ev fieay yeyovoros 

riffl 8p6fJ,(a b%el etc ^v^avriov fiera^v tftcovra aTr' 
evavrias rov Hepcrwv /3ao-iXea)5 arparorre&evcra- 
(T0ai, Xoa-porjv 8e etc rov d7rpocr8oKr)rov, YJ rrjv 
r) rrjv dperrjv rov dv8pbs 8ei(ravra rj KOI 
e^arcarir)9evra o~ofyiap,a(nv, zrcircpoadev 
^wprffrai, aXXa r&) fjiev epyy cfrvyelv, \oya> 
8e rfjs eiprjvris efyieaOat,. 

30 - 'Ev rovro) 8e X.ocrp6r)S a\.oyijcra<> ra co/ioXoy?;- 
fieva Ka\\ivitcov 7r6~\.ivov8evb<; TO rfapdtrav d/j,v- 
vofjivov etXe. ravrrjf yap rov Trepifio\ov opwvres 
' ^(ofjialot, aaBpov re teal evd\,wrov rcavrdrcaaiv 

1 irpdovffit' VP : trpa^uatv GW. 
44 8 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxi. 26-30 

of him that he treat the Romans as his friends in 
his journey through their land. This too he agreed 
to carry out, if they should give him some one of 
their notable men as a hostage to make this compact 
binding, in order that they might carry out their 
agreement. So the envoys returned to Belisarius 
and reported the words of Chosroes, and he came to 
Edessa and chose John, the son of Basilius, the 
most illustrious of all the inhabitants of Edessa in 
birth and in wealth, and straightway sent him, much 
against his will, as a hostage to Chosroes. And the 
Romans were loud in their praises of Belisarius and he 
seemed to have achieved greater glory in their eyes 
by this affair than when he brought Gelimer or 
Vittigis captive to Byzantium. For in reality it 
was an achievement of great importance and one 
deserving great praise, that, at a time when all 
the Romans were panic-stricken with fear and were 
hiding themselves in their defences, and Chos- 
roes with a mighty army had come into the midst 
of the Roman domain, a general with only a 
few men, coming in hot haste from Byzantium just 
at that moment, should have set his camp over 
against that of the Persian king, and that Chosroes 
unexpectedly, either through fear of fortune or of the 
valour of the man or even because deceived by some 
tricks, should no longer continue his advance, but 
should in reality take to flight, though pretending to 
be seeking peace. 

But in the meantime Chosroes, disregarding the 
agreement, took the city of Callinicus which was 
entirely without defenders. For the Romans, seeing 
that the wall of this city was altogether unsound 



449 

VOL. I. G G 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



ovra, fjiolpav avrov del Kadaipovvres riva, vea rtvl 

31 dveveovvro olfco8ofj,ia. Tore yovv fj,epos ri avrov 

Kade\ovres, ovrrw oe TO \ei7r 6/mevov rovro Bet- 



errvOovro elvai, rwv %pr)/jidra)v vTre^ayayovres ra 
rL/j,i(t)rara, 01 p,ev evSaipoves avrijs l rwv olKTjropu>v 
9 erepa arra o^vpco/jiara arre^utprfaav, ol Be 

32 \oi7rol arparicarwv %&)/3i9 avrov e/jueivav. KOI 
ryecdpywv 7rd/A7ro\v n %pr)fjia evravda ^vveiXe^ffat 
(Tvveftr). ov<$ 8rj 6 XOCT/JOT;? dv&paTToSi(ras arcav 

33 e? e'a(/>09 KadelKev. 0X170) re vcrrepov rov Ofir]- 
pov ^\wavvt]v 8et;dfivos, aire^^p^aev 69 ra Trdrpia 

34 ij@r). 'Apfj,Vioi, re ol r<a Xocr^o?; 7T/Jocr/ce%&)/o?;oTe9, 
ra Tricrra 7rpo9 '-P&fjUu&v \a(36vres, vv ra> Bacr- 
ffaKrj 9 Rv^dvriov rfKdov. ravra pev ev rfj rpLrrj 
Xocrpooy ecr/3o\f) c Pft>/xatot9 yevecrQat ^weftr], /cat 
o Be\crapto9 /QacriXet 69 Rv^dvriov fj,erd7re/ji7rros 
rjXQev, e'0' w 69 'IraXtay avdis 2 (rra\ijcrerai, 7rovr)- 
p&v rfOTf] TravraTracri rwv eKeivrj 

ovrcov. 



XXII 

'TTTO 8e 701/9 %povovs rovrov? Xot//.o9 yeyovev, 
% ov Srj arcavra 6\i<yov e&erjcre ra dvdpcoTreta 
ej;irr)\a elvai. anaai fjiev ovv rofc ef ovpavov 
eTTicrKrjTrrovcnv tcr&)9 av /cal \eyoiro Tt9 I/TT' 
dvSpwv ro\fjt,r)ra)v alriov ^0709, ola 7ro\\a (f)i- 
\ovcriv ol ravra Seivol ama? reparevecrflai ov- 
Kara\,r)Trra<$ ovcras, <f)vcrio\oyia<; 



uTTjs P : aurois VG. 



2 avBis VG : cMlts P. 



45 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxi. 3 o-xxii. i 

and easy of capture, were tearing down portions of 
it in turn and restoring them with new construc- 
tion. Now just at that time they had torn down 
one section of it and had not yet built in this 
interval ; when, therefore, they -leai'iied that the 
enemy were close at hand, they carried out the most \ 
precious of their treasures, and the wealthy in- / 
habitants withdrew to other strongholds, while the 
rest without soldiers remained where they were. 
And it happened that great numbers of farmers had 
gathered there. These Chosroes enslaved and razed 
everything to the ground. A little later, upon 
receiving the hostage, John, he retired to his own 
country. And the Armenians who had submitted 
to Chosroes received pledges from the Romans and 
came with Bassaces to Byzantium. Such was the 
fortune of the Romans in the third invasion of 
Chosroes. And Belisarius came to Byzantium at 
the summons of the emperor, in order to be sent 
again to Italy, since the situation there was already 
full of difficulties for the Romans. 



XXII 

DURING these times there was a pestilence, by 5*2 A.D. 
which the whole human race came near to being 
annihilated. Now in the case of all other scourges 
sent from Heaven some explanation of a cause 
might be given by daring men, such as the many 
theories' propounded by those who are clever in 
these matters ; for they love to conjure up causes 
which are absolutely incomprehensible to man, and 

45 1 

G O 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

re dvan\d(T(Teiv vTrepopiovs, e^emcrrdfjievoi /JLCV 
&>9 \eyovcnv ovBev vyies, drro^pffv Be rjyovuevot 
<r<f)i(Ti,v, ijv ye r&v evrvy^avovrwv rivds T< \6ya) 

2 et;a7rarrj(Tavre<> Treicraxri. rovrut fJievrot rat /catcy 
irpofyacrlv rtva 77 \oyw elTreiv 77 Siavoiq \oyi- 
cracrOai f^rj^avtj rt? ovSefjbia ecrrL, irXijv ye Brj 

3 oaa e? TOV deov dvct(f)epe(r8at. ov yap eVt fjiepovs 
Trj<; 7779 ovSe dv6 pcoTrcav rial yeyovev ov8e riva 
utpav rov erovf O"%ev, odev av Kal crofyiafjiara 
airias evpecrdai 8vvara eciy, d\\d rrepi,eftd\\ero 
fjiev rqv yrjv ^v^rraaav, /Stoi9 Se dvdp(t>rr<0v 
arcavras eySXa-^re, Kalrrep d\~\,ij\a>v e? rovvavriov 
Trapa TTO\V Bia\\d<rcrovra<}, oure (pvcre(t)s rivos 

4 ovre r)\iKia<> fyeia-d^evov. elre yap ^wpiwv evoi- 
Kijcrei eire vo/j,w Siairr)*;, f) <ycre&>9 rporrw, rj 
emrrjSevfjLaaiv, 77 aXX&> orw dvdpunrutv avOpwrroi 
Sia<f)epov(riv, ev ravrrj 8r) fJ>6vrj rfj vocrw TO 

5 SiaXXdcrcrov ovSev wvrjcrev. eTrecTKij^e Se roi9 
pev a>pa Oepovs, roi9 Se %ei/j,()vi, rofc 8e Kara 
Toi9 aXXou9 Kaipovs. Xeyerco fiev ovv 0)9 TTT; 
etcaffros rrepl avrtov yivwaicei /cal ao<f)i,(rrr}<? Kal 
fierea)po\6yo<f, eya> 8e odev re ijp^aro 77 vocros 
tf8e Kal T/JOTT&) Brj ortp rovs dvdpa>rrovs Bie<pdetpev 
epfav 



e% Klyvrrrloav 01 <0Kijvrat ev 
yevo/jievr) Be BL%a TTT) fj,ev errl re 
'A.\eavBpeia<; Kal rrjs aXXrjs Alyinrrov e^foprjcre, 
vrr) Be eTrl TIa\ai(rrivov<; TOW A.iyv7rrioi<s ouopow? 
?i\6ev, evrevOev re Kare\a/3e rrjv yrjv crv/jLTracrav, 
6Ba> re del rrpoloixra Kal xpovoi? {3aBiovcra 
7 rot9 KadrjKOvaiv. errl prjrols yap eBoKei 

452 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxii. 1-7 

to fabricate outlandish theories of natural philosophy, 
knowing well that they are saying nothing sound, 
but considering it sufficient for them, if they com- 
pletely deceive by their argument some of those 
whom they meet and persuade them to their view. 
But for this calamity it is quite impossible either 
to express in words or to conceive in thought any 
explanation, except indeed to refer it to God. For 
it did not come in a part of the world nor upon 
certain men, nor did it confine itself to any season of 
the year, so that from such circumstances it might 
be possible to find subtle explanations of a cause, 
but it embraced the entire world, and blighted the 
lives of all men, though differing from one another 
in the most marked degree, respecting neither 
sex nor age. For much as men differ with regard 
to places in which they live, or in the law of their 
daily life, or in natural bent, or in active pursuits, or 
in whatever else man differs from man, in the case 
of this disease alone the difference availed naught. 
And it attacked some in the summer season, others 
in the winter, and still others at the other times of 
the year. Now let each one express his own 
judgment concerning the matter, both sophist and 
astrologer, but as for me, I shall proceed to tell 
where this disease originated and the manner in 
which it destroyed men. 

It started from the Aegyptians who dwell in 
Pelusium. Then it divided and moved in one direc- 
tion towards Alexandria and the rest of Aegypt, and 
in the other direction it came to Palestine on the 
borders of Aegypt ; and from there it spread over the 
whole world, always moving forward and travelling 
at times favourable to it. For it seemed to move by 

453 



PROCOPIUS OF CARS AREA 

Kal %povov Tdfcrbv V %&>/> e/cdcrTr) Biarpiflrjv 
e%eiv, 9 ovBevas fj,ev dv6p(i)7ra>v Trapepyw; Tq> 
<f)d6p(t) l xpwfjuevr), crKeBavvvpewr] Be e<' etcdrepa 
l^e^pt e? T9 T?}9 oiKOVfjievrjs eo"%aTid<;, &(nrep 
BeBoiKvla firf Tt9 avrr/v rrj<; 7% 8ta\ddot //,u^o9. 
8 OVTC yap vrj(r6v nva rj (nrrfkaiov -tj dicpwpeiav 
6\LTTTo dv0p(t)7rov<; ol/crjTOpa? eyovarav rjv Be 
TTOV nva Kal irapfaacre %ct)pav, tj fj,rj -^ravcracra 
TWV Tavrrj avB punrwv r) dfj,a)cr<ye7ra><; avrwv a-^ra- 
v(j) TO> vcrrepa) av0i<$ evravOa 
rwv JJLZV irepioitccov, ol<? 8rj Tri/cporara 
Trporepov, OLSa/xw9 ^^aro, T?)9 Be 
ov Trporepov aTrecmj ea>9 TO 
opdoixt Kal BiKaiax; TWV 

Kal rot9 dp^> avrrjv 

TW TrpOTepw Bce<f)0dpdai, rerv-^TjKev. dpa- 
Se del IK r^9 7rapa\ia<f r) vocros r/Se, ovrw 
9 rrjv /Aeaoyeiov dveflaive %a>pav. BevTepw 
Be eret 9 ISv^avrtov fj,eaovvTO<s rov fjpos d(f>iKTO, 

10 evda Kal e/j,ol eTTtBrj/Jietv TrjviKavra vve{3r). eyi- 
veTo Be &Be. (fada-para Batftovwv TroXXot? 9 
Trdcrav dvOpdtTrov IBeav a>(f>6r], ocrot re avTOis 

, TraiecrOat SOVTO 77/009 TOI) evrv- 
OTrrj 7raparv%oi rov <7<w/naT09, 
re TO <f)da/u,a TOVTO edtprnv Kal ry vocrw 

11 avTiKa r)\iaKovTO. Kar J dp%a<; fjiev ovv ol 
TrapaTreTTTWKOTes wnoTpk'neaQai avrd eTretpwvro, 
TWV re ovofjbdratv d7TO(rrofjiari^ovT<; ra Beiorara 
Kal TO. aXXa, e^o&iov/JLevoi, (09 eKaaros TTTJ eBv- 
i'aro, fjvvov pevToi, TO TrapaTrav ovBev, ejrel KCLV 
Tot9 iepols 01 TrXetcTTOt KaTafyevyovres Bi(pdei- 

1 <p06pu P : <pQ6v<a VG. '' oirep Haury : Sxrvep MSS. 
454 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxii. 7-11 

fixed arrangement, and to tarry for a specified time 
in each country, casting its blight slightingly upon 
none, but spreading in either direction right out to 
the ends of the world, as if fearing lest some corner 
of the earth might escape it. For it left neither 
island nor cave nor mountain ridge which had human 
inhabitants ; and if it had passed by any land, either 
not affecting the men there or touching them in 
indifferent fashion, still at a later time it came back ; 
then those who dwelt round about this land, whom 
formerly it had 'afflicted most sorely, it did not touch 
at all, but it did not remove from the place in ques- 
tion until it had given up its just and proper tale of 
dead, so as to correspond .exactly to the number 
destroyed at the earlier time among those who dwelt 
round about. And this disease always took its start 
from the coast, and from there went up to the 
interior. And in the second year it reached Byzantium 
in the middle of spring, where it happened that I was 
staying at that time. And it came as follows. / Appari- 
tions of supernatural beings in human guise of every 
description were seen by many persons, and those 
who encountered them thought that they were struck 
by the man they had met in this or that part of the 
body, as it happened, and immediately upon seeing 
this apparition they were seized also by the disease. . 
Now at first those who met these creatures tried to 
turn them aside by uttering the holiest of names and 
exorcising them in other ways as well as each one 
could, but they accomplished absolutely nothing, for 
even in the sanctuaries where the most of them fled 



455 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

12 povro. vtrrepov Be ovBe rot? <tXot9 KaXovcriv 
eTraKoveiv rj^Lovv, aXXa Ka6eipt;avre<; avrov? ev 
TOt9 Ba)fji,arioi<;, cm Brj OVK ercaiOLev irpocre- 
TTOLovvro, KttLTrep dpao~<70fJtV(i)V avrois rwv 6vp)V, 
BetjAaivovres Brj\ovori p,r) SaifAovwv rt? o 

13 eirj. rial Be ov^ OVTWS 6 Xot/zo? 

' o-^nv oveipov IBovres raurb rovro ?rpo9 rov 
Trdcr^etv eSofcovv, rj \6yov aicoveiv 
atylcnv on Brj e*9 TWV 

14 rov dpidjjbov dvdypaTTTOi elev. rot? Se 
ovre inrap ovre ovap alaOoiMevois rov 

15 elra rfi vocrw ^vvefir) d\(ovai. f)\iaKovro Be 
rpoTTO) roimBe. eTrvpea-aov a<f)va), ol pev e VTTVOV 
eyrjjepfMevoi,, ol Be Trepnrdrov? iroiov/jievoi, ol Be 

16 aXXo o n Brj irpdacrovre^. /cat TO fjiev aw^a 
ovre n Bitf\\ao~o~ r?}? Trporepas %poid<t ovre 
0ep/jLov rjv, are nvperov emrcecrovros, ov 
ovBe (f)\6<yct)cri, 

e fca 



TJV ware p,r)re rot9 VO<TOVO~IV avros fj^rjre arpw 
17 a-TTTO/ie^a) BOKIJCTIV KivBvvov Trape^ea'dat. ov <ydp 
ovv ovBe Tt9 re\evrdv ra>v TrepnreTrraiKorwv arc 1 
avrov eBo^ev. ri/jiepa Be rot9 /j,ev rfj avrfj, rot9 
Be rf} eTTiyevofAevr), erepoi<; Be ov ?roXXat9 vcrrepov 
ftouft<av eTrfjpro, OVK evravOa povov, evda Kal 
TO ToO crwyu,aTO9 fiopiov, o Brj rov rjrpov evepdev 

1 &XP' S effirtpas VP : &XP 1 ^ s 

45 6 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxii. 11-17 

for refuge they were dying constantly. But later on ' 
they were unwilling even to give heed to their friends 
when they called to them, and they shut themselves up 
in their rooms and pretended that they did not hear, 
although their doors were being beaten down, fearing, 
obviously, that he who was calling was one of those 
demons. But in the case of some the pestilence did 
not come on in this way, but they saw a vision in a 
dream and seemed to suffer the very same thing at 
the hands of the creature who stood over them, or 
else to hear a voice foretelling to them that they were 
written down in the number of those who were to 
die. But with the majority it came about that they 
were seized by the disease without becoming aware 
of what was coming either through a waking vision 
or a dream. And they were taken in the following 
manner. They had a sudden fever, some when just 
roused from sleep, others while walking about, and 
others while otherwise engaged, without any regard 
to what they were doing. And the body showed no 
change from its previous colour, nor was it hot as 
might be expected when attacked by a fever, nor 
indeed did any inflammation set in, but the fever was 
of such a languid sort from its commencement and 
up till evening that neither to the sick themselves , 
nor to a physician who touched them would it afford 
any suspicion of danger, 'it was natural, therefore, 
that not one of those who had contracted the disease 
expected to die from it.J But on the same day in 
some cases, in others on the following day, and in 
the rest not many days later, a bubonic swelling 
developed ; and this took place not only in the 
particular part of the body which is called "boubon," l 

1 I.e. " groin." 

457 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



a r)<; 
eWo9, evicts Be Kal Trapa ra wra teal OTTOV rrore 



18 Ta /jiev ovv a%pi rovBe Tracriv o/iotw? cr^eBov ri 
Tot9 rfj vocrq) aXLcrKopAvoi,^ vve{3aii>' ra $e 
evffevSe ovtc e^a) el-neiv Trorepov ev r& 8ia\\d(T- 
CTOVTI rwv a-fo/jLarcov Kal 77 8ia<f)opa TU>V ^V/JLTTI- 
TTTOVTW eyivero, rj OTTT) TTOTC ftov\o/j,evw eirj 

19 TW rrjv voa-ov eirayayovri. CTreyLvero yap rot? 
/*ev* Ko>fj,a ftaOv, rot? Be Trapafypoavvr] of eta, 
e/cdrepoi re ra rrpos rrjv voaov emr^eiw^ e^ovra 
erfaa-)(ov' 019 f*>ev yap TO icG)p,a eTre/cetro, rrdvrwv 
eTuXeXyirfjievoi rS)v elwObrwv cr<f)i(rtv e<? del tcadev- 

20 Seiv eSo/covv. teal el fj,ev ris avrwv eVt/ieXoiro, 
fjiera^v r]aQiov, rives Be /cal d7rr)fj,e\i}/jbevoi drropiq 

21 rpo(f>rj<f evdvs edvrjcrKov. 01 /j,evroi ru> r^9 rcapa- 
(ppocrvvrjs dXovres KaK& dypvirvia re Kal <f>av- 
racria Tro\\fj efyovro, Kal nvas vTroirrevovres 
eTTievat <T(f)icri,v cl)? Br) drfo\ovvra<$, e? rapa^rfv 
re tcadicrravro Kal dvaftowvres e^aicriov olov 

22 e? (f)vyr)v wp/^rjvro. oi re avrovs Oeparrevovres 
KafJidrft) drfav&ra) e%6/jivoi ra dviJKeara 69 del 

23 erfaa-'xpv. Bcb Br) arravres avrovs ov-% r)(r<rov 
rj TOU9 Trovovftevow; utKri^ovro, ov% on rq> \oiaa) 
eTTie^ovro eK rov TTpoaievai (ovre yap larpw ovre 
IBiforr] n$ra\a')(elv roij /caicov rovBe rwv vo- 
<rovvra)v rj rwv rereXevrrjKortov arf-ro^kvw vve- 

,ev del Kal rov<{ ovBev cr(f)i(n 
rj 6drrrovres 77 6epa7revovres ravrrj 
1 Iff-ri VP : $iv G. 2 fj-itpuv MSS. : /j.fpuv Hoeschel. 
458 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxii. 17-23 

that is, below the abdomen, but also inside the arm- 
pit, and in some cases also beside the ears, and at 
different points on the thighs. s 

Up to this point, then, everything went in about 
the same way with all who had taken the disease. 
But from then on very marked differences developed ; 
and I am unable to say whether the cause of this 
diversity of symptoms was to be found in the differ- 
ence in bodies, or in the fact that it followed the 
wish of Him who brought the disease into the world. 
For there ensued with some a deep coma, with others 
a violent delirium, and in either case they suffered 
the characteristic symptoms of the disease. For 
those who were under the spell of the coma forgot 
all those who were familiar to them and seemed to 
be sleeping constantly. And if anyone cared for 
them, they would eat without waking, but some also 
were neglected, and these would die directly through 
lack of sustenance. But those who were seized with 
delirium suffered from insomnia and were victims of a 
distorted imagination ; for they suspected that men 
were coming upon them to destroy them, and they 
would become excited and rush off in flight, crying 
out at the top of their voices. And those who were 
attending them were in a state of constant exhaustion 
and had a most difficult time of it throughout. For 
this reason everybody pitied them no less than the 
sufferers, not because they were threatened by the 
pestilence in going near it (for neither physicians 
nor other persons were found to contract this malady 
through contact with the sick or with the dead, for 
many who were constantly engaged either in burying 
or in attending those in no way connected with them 



459 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Sr) rfi inrovpyifi Trapd 86^av dvrei%ov, 7ro\\ol 
Be T?}9 vcxrov aTrpOffracriaTws avrois 
ev0v<$ edvr}(TKOv), d\\' ori ra\anrcopi,a 

24 ei%ovro. etc re yap rwv crrpw^drwv 

Kdi KaXtvo'ov/Aevovs e? TO e'6a<o9 dvriKaOLcrrwv 
av6is, teal piTTTeiv afyas CIVTOVS e/c TWV olKf}/j,dra)v 
e<f)i6fjL6vov<; wOovvres re Kol av6i\Kovre<> e/3id- 

25 %ovro. vBwp re ot? Traparv^oi, efJLTreaelv r)6e\ov, 
ov $r) 1 ov% oaov rov Trorov 2 eTndvfiia (e? yap 3 
OaXacrcrav ol TroXXot Mp/juiyvro^, d\\ a'irt-ov r/v 

26 /j,d\iara r) r&v <f)pevS)v voaos. TroXv? 8e aurot? 
KOI Trepl ra9 ^Q/Jcoo-et? eyevero TTOVOS. ov yap 
evirerws Trpoaievro ravras. TroXXot re airopla 
rov OepaTrevovros 8ie<f)ddprjcrav, r) \tfjba> jne^o- 

27 ftevoi, r) d<f>' v^rrjKov KaOievres TO crwyt^a. ocroi<? 
8e ovre Kwpa ovre Trapa<f>pocrvvr] eveTrecre, rovrois 
Brj o re /3ov/3a>v eo-^atceXt^e teal avrol 

28 oSvvais ovtceri dvre^ovre^ Wvr]crKov. 
piaxreie 8' dv Tt9 /cat Tot9 d\\oi<; aTracrt Kara 
ravra ^v^-rjvai, aXX' eVet eV auTofc 009 rjKicrra 
r)<rav, ^vvelvai rf)<; 6Svvr)<> ovBafj,^ etyov, rov 
7rd0ov<> avrols rov dfi<j)l T? (frpevas irapaipov- 
/jievov rrjv ai<jdr)o~w. 

29 'A.7ropovfjbvoi yovv rwv rives larpwv rfj rwv 
^Vfji7ri7rr6vro)v dyvoia TO Te rf/s vocrov tce<f)d\aiov 
ev Tot9 /3ov/3a)(Tiv dTTOKercpiaOai olofj^evoi, Biepev- 
vacrdai ru>v rereXevrrj/corwv ra crco/jara eyvaxrav. 
xal SieXovres rwv fiovfiavow rivds, avOpaicos 
beivov ri ^prjpa fj,7re(f>VKo<? evpov. 

1 ov STI Hoeschel : ou Se VG, ou 8/ P, vSan conjectured by 
Christ, aiiry by Haury. 2 irorov P : irora/j.ov VG . 

3 yap Hoeschel : yovv MSS. 

460 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxii. 23-29 

held out in the performance of this service beyond 
all expectation, while with many others the disease 
came on without warning and they died straightway) ; 
but they pitied them because of the great hardships 
which they were undergoing. For when the patients 
fell from their beds and lay rolling upon the floor, 
they kept putting them back in place, and when 
they were struggling to rush headlong out of their 
houses, they would force them back by shoving and 
pulling against them. And when water chanced to 
be near, they wished to fall into it, not so much 
because of a desire for drink (for the most of them 
rushed into the sea), but the cause was to be found 
chiefly in the diseased state of their minds. They 
had also great difficulty in the matter of eating, for 
they could not easily take food. And many perished 
through lack of any man to care for them, for they 
were either overcome by hunger, or threw themselves 
down from a height. And in those cases where neither 
coma nor delirium came on, the bubonic swelling 
became mortified and the sufferer, no longer able 
to endure the pain, died. And one would suppose 
that in all cases the same thing would have been 
true, but since they were not at all in their senses, 
some were quite unable to feel the pain ; for owing 
to the troubled condition of their minds they lost all 
sense of feeling. 

Now some of the physicians who were at a loss 
because the symptoms were not understood, suppos- 
ing that the disease centred in the bubonic swell- 
ings, decided to investigate the bodies of the dead. 
And upon opening some of the swellings, they found 
a strange sort of carbuncle that had grown inside 
them. 

461 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

30 "Ei0vr)crKOV Be ol p,ev avriica, ol Be 
7roXXat9 vcTTepov, Ticrl re <j)\vKraivai<> /j,e\aivai<> 
O(TOV (fra/cov fj,eye8o<} e^tjvdei TO <r<w//,a, o'i ovBe 
/juiav eireftiwv ?jp,epav, aXX' ev6va>pbv airavres 

31 edvrjcrKOV. 7ro\\ov$ 8e KCLI ri<$ auTO/w.aro9 at- 
/iaro? eTTiyivofAevos eyu-ero? evdvs 8ie^pi](Taro. 

32 efceivo pevroi airo^vaaQai e%w, 005 TWV la-rpwv 
ol BoKificararoi TTO\\OV<; /Jiev reffv^ea-dai trpof)- 
yopevov, e>2 &rj /ca/cwv airaOel^ oXiyw vcrTepov 
irapa 86%av eyivovro, iroXkovs Se ori awOricyovrai 
lcr%vpiovTO, 01 8rj SicKfiOaptfcreadai e/ieXXoy av- 

33 TiKa Si) yttaXa. ovra><; alria TIS rjv l ov8e/J,ia ev 
ravrr] Ty vcxra) 69 dvdpwTrov Xoyicryu-oz/ <j>epovcra- 
Trdcri yap rt? d\6yi<TTO<? aTrofSaais em 7rXet(7TO^ 
e(f>ep6To, teal ra \ovrpa TOVS ftev wv^cre, rov<{ 

34 8e ov&ev ri rjcrcrov KaTeftXatyev. apeKovfJievoi 
re TroXXot edvrjaKOV, TroXXot Be irapa \6yov 
(T(I)OVTO. KOI Trd\iv av ra r^ 

exdrepa rot9 %/o&>/iei'ot9 evwpei- /cat TO 

eiTreiv ovSe/jiia /jbrj^avr) dvuputirw 6*9 rrjv 

eevpr]TO, ovre Trpo^vKa^a^kvw jj,rj jr 

ovre rov tca/cov eTrtTrecroj/TO? TrepiyeveaOai, aXXa 

ical TO TraOelv inrpo^daiaTov rjv Kal TO Trepieivai 

avroparov. 

35 Kat yvvai^l Be ocrat eKvovv TrpoinrTos eyivero 
TTJ voaw dXi<TKOfj,6vai<; 6 Odvaros. at pJev yap 
dp,f3\i(TKovcrai, eQwrjcrrcov, at Be TiKTOvcrai vv 

36 auTOt9 evOvs Tot9 TiKTO/J,evois e^Oeipowro. T/oet9 
fievToi \%ov$ \eyovcri TWV rraiBwv a<f)i(riv cnro- 

1 rts ?iv Maltretus : nalv MSS. 
462 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxii. 30-36 

Death came in some cases immediately, in others 
after many days ; and with some the body broke out 
with black pustules about as large as a lentil and these 
did not survive even one day, but all succumbed 
immediately. With many also a vomiting of blood 
ensued without visible cause and straightway brought 
death. Moreover I am able to declare this, that the 
most illustrious physicians predicted that many would 
die, who unexpectedly escaped entirely from suffer- 
ing shortly afterwards, and that they declared that 
many would be saved, who were destined to be 
carried off almost immediately. So it was that in 
this disease there was no cause which came within 
the province of human reasoning ; for in all cases the 
issue tended to be something unaccountable. For 
example, while some were helped by bathing, others 
were harmed in no less degree. And of those who 
received no care many died, but others, contrary to 
reason, were saved. And again, methods of treat- 
ment showed different results with different patients. 
Indeed the whole matter may be stated thus, that 
no device was discovered by man to save himself, so 
that either by taking precautions he should not 
suffer, or that when the malady had assailed him 
he should get the better of it ; -but suffering came 
without warning and recovery was due to no external 
cause. 

And in the case of women who were pregnant 
death could be certainly foreseen if they were taken 
with the disease. For some died through mis- 
carriage, but others perished immediately at the 
time of birth with the infants they bore. How- 
ever, they say that three women in confinement 



463 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



\ofjievwv Trepiyeveo-Oai, teal /j,id<f rjBrj ev rw roKera) 
rerfydai re Kal Trepielvai ru> Trai- 



37 r/ O<ro9 /Mev ovv fjuei^wv re 6 ftov/Bwv rjpero KOI 
9 TTVOV fupiKro, rovrois Br) Trepielvai TT;? vocrov 
aTraXXao-cro/ievot? %vve/3aivev, eVet Sr/\ov ori 
avrolf 77 atcf^rj e? rovro e\.e\(O(f)i]Kei rov avffpafcos, 
yiHopicrftd re rr)<? vyeia? rovro ex rov enl ir\ei- 
crrov eyivero' 0*9 Se 6 fBovj3u>v eVt rff^ TTporepa? 
tSea? 8ifjiiv, rovrots 7rpieio~r)]Kei ra tcaKa wv 

38 apri epvrjadriv. rial Be avr&v Kal rov fAijpov 
aTro^ripavOrjvai vve/3r), e(f> ov 6 ftovftwv eirapdels 

39 i>9 r/KKTra /j,7rvos yeyovev, aXXoi? re OVK err 
atcepaia) rfj jXtacro-p Trepiyevea-dai, 

aXX' fj rpav\iov(riv, r) //,oXt<? re KOI 



XXIII 



1 'H fiev ovv voo-os ev Bf^aj/Ttw e? reo-crapa? 

2 oirj\0e fj,r)va<>, iJK/j,a(Te Be ev rptcrl fi,a\.icrra. KOI 
Kar* ap%a<; /j.ev edvrjcrKov rwv elwOorwv 0X176) 
TrXetot*?, elra en, /jbd\\ov TO KCLKOV rjpero, //.era 
Se e? Trevra.Kicr'XiXiovs ^/j,epa e/cdarrj e^itcvetro 
TO rwv veicpaiv fterpov, Kal av 7rd\iv e? fjivpiovs 

3 re xal rovratv eri TrXetou? fj\0e. ra ftev ovv 
Trpwra rfj<; ra<f)f)<; avros e/cacrro? eVe/ieXeiTo 
ra>v Kara rrjv oiKiav veKpa>v, 01)9 Brj Kal 69 
aXXoTyota9 OrJKas eppLTrrovv rj \avddvovre<? rj 
/3ia6fj,evof etreira Be rrdvra ev cnracri, uvera- 

4 pd^dr). BovXoi re ydp ep,eivav BeaTrortov e 

464 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxii. 3 6-xxiii. 4 

survived though their children perished, and that 
one woman died at the very time of child-birth but 
that the child was born and survived. 

Now in tliose cases where the swelling rose to 
an unusual size and a discharge of pus had set in, 
it came about that they escaped from the disease 
and survived, for clearly the acute condition of the 
carbuncle had found relief in this direction, and this 
proved to be in general an indication of returning 
health ; but in cases where the swelling preserved 
its former appearance there ensued those troubles 
which I have just mentioned. And with some of 
them it came about that the thigh was withered, in 
which case, though the swelling was there, it did not 
develop the least suppuration. With others who 
survived the tongue did not remain unaffected, and 
they lived on either lisping or speaking incoherently 
and with difficulty. 



XXIII 

Now the disease in Byzantium ran a course of four 
months, and its greatest virulence lasted about three. 
And at first the deaths were a little more than the 
normal, then the mortality rose still higher, and after- 
wards the tale of dead reached five thousand each 
day, and again it even came to ten thousand and 
still more than that./ Now in the beginning each 
man attended to the burial of the dead of his own 
house, and these they threw even into the tombs 
of others, either escaping detection or using violence ; 
but afterwards confusion and disorder everywhere 
became complete. For slaves remained destitute of 

465 

VOL. I. H H 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

dvBpe<f re rd rrporepa \iav 6vSa.ifj.oves T% rwv 
oltcerwv VTrovpytas rj votrovvrutv r) rere\evrr)/eor(i)v 
effrepijvro, Tro\\ai re oltciai rravrditaaiv eprj/noi 

5 dvdpcorrcov eyevovro. Bib or) ^weftr/ rt&l rwv 
fyvaypifi-wv TTJ airopiq r)jj,epas 7ro\\a$ drd<f)oi$ 
elvai. 

"E? re ySacrfXea 77 rov Trpdy/jLaros Trpovota, 

6 a>9 TO el/cos, rf\.6e. crr/aaTicora? ovv e/c TraXartou 
Kal ^prjfjuiTa vet/i-a? e68copov eiceXeve TOV epyov 
TOVTOV '7rifjLe\ei(T0at, 09 Sr) aTTOKpicrecri rat9 
y8acrtXt/cai9 (f)icrr^Ki, del rat ftacri\ei TO,? rwv 
ifcer&v Se?;<rei9 d<yye\\a)V, crrj/jLaivwv re av6is 
o<ra av avrfi) ftovXopevw eirj. pefapevSdpiov rfj 
AariV(t)i> (fxavfj rrjv ri/J.r)V ravrrjv /ca\oi)(Ti r P<w- 

7 fjiaioi.. ot9 fjiev ovv OVTTW l TTCLvrdrraarLV 69 eptj- 
fiiav e/jirfeirrwKora rd Kara rrjv olic'iav ervy^avev, 
avrol ercacrrot rds r&v TrpoarjKovrtov ercoiovvro 

8 ra(j>d<j. 6080)^09 oe rd re /3aai\eco<? Si&ovs 
^prjfiara KOI rd ol/ceia rrpocravaX-icrKtov TOU9 

9 d7Difj,e\r)fJivovs rwv vetcpwv eOarrrev. errel Be 
ra9 dr)K,a<s drfdcras a't rrpbrepov rjcrav e/j,7ri- 
irKaaQai rwv veicpwv erv%ev, 01 Be opvcrcrovre 1 ? 
drcavra e(f>efj<s rd d[j,<f>l rrjv TTO\LV ^capia, 
evravdd re rov<? Ovr/cricovra^ rcarariflefjievot, 609 
eacrro9 rrrj eovvaro, d7rr)\\dacrovro, eTreira oe 
ol r9 Kar(t)pv%a<? ravras Troiovfjuevoi 77/309 rwv 
dTTodvr/cncovrwv TO /j,erpov ov/ceri dvre%ovre<>, 
9 TOt9 TTVpyov? rov irepiftoXov dve/Saivov 09 

10 ev Sv/cat9 ecrrr rds re 6po<f)d<$ Trepte\6vre<{ 
evravda eppifrrovi' rd aw^ara ovSevl Kocr/J,a), 

1 oKvoi Maltretus : eltrov V, om. (1. 
466 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxiii. 4-10 

masters, and men who in former times were very 
prosperous were deprived of the service of their 
domestics who were either sick or dead, and many 
houses became completely destitute of human in- 
habitants. For this reason it came about that some 
of the notable t men of the city because of the 
universal destitution remained unburied for many 
days. 

And it fell to the lot of the emperor, as was 
natural, to make provision for the trouble. He there- 
fore detailed soldiers from the palace and distributed 
money, commanding Theodorus to take charge ot 
this work ; this man held the position of announcer 
of imperial messages, always announcing to the 
emperor the petitions of his clients, and declaring 
to them in turn whatever his wish was. In the 
Latin' tongue the Romans designate this office by 
the term "referendarius." So those who had not as 
yet fallen into complete destitution in their domestic 
affairs attended individually to the burial of those 
connected with them. But Theodorus, by giving 
out the emperor's money and by making further 
expenditures from his own purse, kept burying the 
bodies which were not cared for. And when it came 
about that all the tombs which had existed pre- 
viously were filled with the dead, then they dug 
up all the places about the city one after the 
other, laid the dead there, each one as he could, 
and departed ; but later on those who were making 
these trenches, no longer able to keep up with 
the number of the dying, mounted the towers 
of the fortifications in Sycae, 1 and tearing off the 
roofs threw the bodied in there in complete disorder ; 
1 Modern Galata. 

4<?7 

H H 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Kal ^vvvrjaavres, &>9 TTT; eKacrra) Traperv^ev, 
//,7T\7/crtt/xeyot re rwv veicpwv to? elrrelv airavras, 

11 elra rat? opotyais av6t,<s eKd\vrcrov. KOI aTT* 
auroO .TTvevpa 8vcra)Se<; 69 T^P rro\iv lov eri 
JJM\\OV e\,vTrei rou9 ravrrj avdpdtyrovs, aXXtu? re 
-j^y /cat az/e/io? rt? eiceWev eirifyopos eTrnrveiHreie. 

12 lilavra re inrepax^Oij rare ra rrepl TO? ra<f>a<t 
vo/jiifut. ovre yap TrapaTre/mTrofjievoi y vevofiiffrai 
ol veicpol eKO^L^ovro ovre Kara^ra\\6/jLevot yrrep 
ei(t>dei, a\\' ifcavov TJV, el <pepa)v rt? eirl ratv 
&/JL03V rwv Tere\vrrj/c6rci)V riva e? re TT}? TroXew? 
ra 7ri0a\,dcra'ia eXdcbv eppttyev, ov 8rj rat? 
a-Karoi^ ef*,/3a\\6fjLvoi cra)pr}8oi> e/jL\\ov, 07777 

13 TTdparv^oi KOfii^ecrOai. rare teal rov Srjfjwv ocroi 
crracriwrai irporepov rjcrav, e^6ov<; rov e? a\.\ij- 
Xot9 d(f>e/j,evot, rfjs re o<na9 rwv rereXevnjKorcov 
KOivfj erre^e\ovro Kal tfrepovres avrol rovs ov 

14 irpocriJKOvras crtftlcn vexpovf edarrrov. d\\a KOI 
oaoi rrpdyfjuicri ra irporepa rcapiardfAevoL alcr- 
^pot9 re Kal rrovrfpols e%aipov, o'lSe rrjv e? rrjv 
Stairav drro<reicrdp,evoi Trapavo/Jilav rrjv evaefteiav 
a/c/3iy9ft)9 TJCTKOVV, ov rijv aw^poavvrfv /iera/za- 
dovres ov8e rfc dperfjs epaaral rivet; e/c rov 

15 ai(f>vi8iov yeyevrj/jievor eirel rot9 dvd poorrois ocra 
eiMrrerrriye <pv<rei rj %povov /uLarcpov Si8acrKa\ia 
paa-ra &rj ovrco fteraftdXXecrOai dSvvard ecrnv, 
on /J-r) Beiov rn>b<t dyadov emrrvevaavros' aXXa 
46% 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxiii. 10-15 

and they piled them up just as each one happened 
to fall, and filled practically all the towers with 
corpses, and then covered them again with their 
roofs. As a result of this an evil stench pervaded 
the city and distressed the inhabitants still more, 
and especially whenever the wind blew fresh from 
that quarter. 

At that time all the customaiy rites of burial were 
overlooked. For the dead were not carried out 
escorted by a procession in the customary manner, 
nor were the usual chants sung over them, but it was 
sufficient if one carried on his shoulders the body of 
one of the dead to the parts of the city which 
bordered on the sea and flung him down ; and there 
the corpses would be thrown upon skiffs in a heap, 
to be conveyed wherever it might chance. At 
that time, too, those of the population who had 
formerly been members of the factions laid aside 
their mutual enmity and in common they attended 
to the burial rites of the dead, and they carried 
with their own hands the bodies of those who were 
no connections of theirs and buried them. | Nay, 
more, those who in times past used to take delight 
in devoting themselves to pursuits both shameful 
and base, shook off the unrighteousness of their 
daily lives and practised the duties of religion with 
diligence, not so much because they had learned 
wisdom at last nor because they had become all of 
a sudden lovers of virtue, as it were for when 
qualities have become fixed in men by nature or by 
the training of a long period of time, it is impossible 
for them to lay them aside thus lightly, except, 
indeed, some divine influence for good has breathed 
upon them but then all, so to speak, being 

469 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Tore o>9 eiTreiv arravres Kara7re7r\r)y/jivoi pev 
TOi9 vfjL7ri7TTOVcri, re@vr)%ea6ai Be avri/ca Brj 
/j,d\a olofjievoL, dvdyfcy, &>? TO etro9, Trdcrr) rrjv 

16 eineiKeiav eVt /caipov p,erep,dvdavov. ravrd rot, 
eireiSr) rd%icrra T^? vocrov dTra\\ayevre<} e'crco- 
Orjcrav ev re TO> dcr<f)a\i yeyevijcrdai ijB'rj vTrero- 
Tracrav, are rov /cafcov ^TT' aXXou? avd PWTTCOV 

e^wprjicoro^, dj^Lo-rpo^ov avQis r^9 jv(i>- 
rrjv /j,ra/3o\r)v eVt ra %et/jeo TreTroirj/jievoi, 
fui\\ov TI irporepov rrjv rcov eTrirrj&evfjLdrwv 
aroirLav evBeiicvvvrat,, crfyas avrovs ^d\iara rfj 
re Trovrjpia real rfj d\\rj Trapavo/ua veviKr)Kore<f 
eTrel KOI aTTicr^vptcrdf^evof av rt? ov ra ^revSfj 
eiTTOi ct>9 17 voffos ^Se eire rv%r) rivl eire irpovoia 
9 TO . d/cpi(3e<; dTToXe^a/jLevr) rovs Trovrjpordrovs 
dtfrrjicev. d\\a ravra pev rq> varepw aTroBe- 
Seitcrat, %p6va). 

17 TOTC Be d<yopdovrd rtva ovtc evTrere? eBorcei 
elvat ev <ye J$vavriti) IBeiv, aXX' otVot rcaOij/Aevoi 
aTravres ocrois vve/3aive TO o-w/xa eppwcrdai, 
rj TOU9 voo-ovvras eOepdirevov, rj rou9 TereXei;- 

18 rrjteoras eOprjvovv. rjv 8e Tt9 xai jrpolovri, 
rivl evrv%eiv Icr^vaev, oBe r&v nva veicpwv 
e<f>epev. epyacria re vfj,7racra tfpyei, teal ra<? 
re^vaf oi reyvlrai fj,edrjfcav airdcras, epya re 

19 aXXa ocra Brj etcacrroi ev %epcrlv el%ov. ev 
7ro\ei <yovv dyaOois airacnv are^vS)^ evdrf- 
vovarj Xt/i09 Tt9 dfcpi/3r)<; eTrefcw/jia^ev. dprov 
dfie\ei TJ aXXo ortovv Biapicws e%eiv -%a\7r6v re 
eBoKet Kal \6yov TTO\\OV a^cov elvai' WCTTC /cat 
r&v vocrovvrwv ricrlv awpov i;vfj,/3f]vai Borceiv 
aTTOpia rwv dvay/caiwv rrjv rov /3tov Karacrrpo- 

470 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxiii. 15-19 

thoroughly terrified by the things which were 
happening, and supposing that they would die 
immediately, did, as was natural, learn respectability 
for a season by sheer necessity. Therefore as soon 
as they were rid of the disease and were saved, and 
already supposed that they were in security, since 
the curse had moved on to other peoples, then they 
turned sharply about and reverted once more to 
their baseness of heart, and now, more than before, 
they make a display of the inconsistency of their 
conduct, altogether surpassing themselves in villainy 
and in lawlessness of every sort. For one could 
insist emphatically without falsehood that this 
disease, whether by chance or by some providence, 
chose out with exactitude the worst men and let 
them go free. But these things were displayed to 
the world in later times. 

During that time it seemed no easy thing to see 
any man in the streets of Byzantium, but all who had 
the good fortune to be in health were sitting in their 
houses, either attending the sick or mourning the 
dead. Arid if one did succeed in meeting a man 
going out, he was carrying one of the dead. And 
work of every description ceased, and all the trades 
were abandoned by the artisans, and all other work 
as well, such as each had in hand. Indeed in a 
city which was simply abounding in all good 
things starvation almost absolute was running riot. 
Certainly it seemed a difficult and very notable thing 
to have a sufficiency of bread or of anything else ; 
so that with some of the sick it appeared that the 
end of life came about sooner than it should have 
come by reason of the lack of the necessities of life. 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

20 fajv. Kal TO ^vfMTrav elrrelv, %\a/j,vSa OVK TJV 
evSi&vcrKOfjLevov nva ev Bu^azma) TO rrapdrrav 
ISetv, aX,X&>9 re rjviica /3acrtXet vocrijcrai %vve/3r) 
(ical avr> jap ^vvercecre ftovftwva eTrfjpdai), 

,' ev vroXet fiacrikeiav e%ova">j ^v/j,7rda-rj^ TT}? 
"ap^rj<f l/j,dria ev ISiatTWV \6jco airavre^ 

21 afj.Tre^o/jLevoi r)(TV%ri e/j,vov. ra nev ovv dfttyl 

\oi/ji> ev re rfj a\\rj Pwfjiaiwv yfj tcai ev 
) ravrrj irr) ecr^ev. eTreo'/crj'^re Se /cat e? 
rrjv Hepawv yrjv teal e? ftapftdpovs TOU? 



XXIV 

Se 6 Xoo-^oo?;? e 'Acravpiwv e? 
*A.oapptydwov ijtcwv TT/JO? ftoppav avepov, 
evdev Sievoetro 9 r^y 'Pw/^aiatv dp%r)v Bid 

2 Tleparapfievitov ecrftdXKeiv. TO /Jieya Trvpelov ev- 
ravdd (TTIV, o aeftovTai TLepcrat Oewv /j,d\t(rra. 
ov 8rj TO Trvp da-fieaTov (frvXdaa-ovres fidjoi rd 
re d\\a e? TO dtcpiftes e^ocriovvrai /cat /juavreLM 
e? rfav TrpajfAarcov rd /AeyKrra %pwvrai. rovro 
ecrri TO irvp orrep 'Etcrrlav e/cdXovv re Kal ecre- 

3 /Soi/TO ev Tot9 dvw %p6voi<; 'PwyLtatot. evravda 

fc9 Tt9 e/c Bu^'az'Ttof rcapd Xocrporjv dTnjy- 
Kwvaravrtavov re /cat 'Zepyiov 7r/3eV/3et9 
9 avrbv eVt T^ ^v^dcrei avriica 8r) /iaXa 

4 d(j)i^ecr0ai. rjarrfv Se ro> dvSpe rovray prjrope 
re d/j,<pQ) Kal vvera) 69 Ta yttaXtcrra, K.o)V<rrav- 



472 



HISTORY- OF THE WARS, II. xxiii. ig-xxiv. 4 

And, to put all in a word, it was not possible to see 
a single man in Byzantium clad in the chlamys, 1 and 
especially when the emperor became ill (for he too 
had a swelling of the groin), but in a city which held 
dominion over the whole Roman empire every man 
was wearing clothes befitting private station and 
remaining quietly at home. Such was the course of 
the pestilence in the Roman empire at large as well- 
as in Byzantium. And it fell also upon the land 
of the Persians and visited all the other barbarians 
besides. 



XXIV 

Now it happened that Chosroes had come from 543 A.D. 
Assyria to a place toward the north called Adar- 
biganon, from which he was planning to make an 
invasion into the Roman domain through Persar- 
menia. In that place is the great sanctuary of 
fire, which the Persians reverence above all other 
gods. There the fire is guarded unquenched by 
the Magi, and they perform carefully a great 
number of sacred rites, and in particular they 
consult an oracle on those matters which are of 
the greatest importance. This is the fire which 
the Romans worshipped under the name of Hestia 2 
in ancient times. There someone who had been 
sent from Byzantium to Chosroes announced that 
Constantianus and Sergius would come before him 
directly as envoys to arrange the treaty. Now 
these two men were both trained speakers and 
exceedingly clever ; Constantianus was an Illyrian 

1 The official dress. ~ Vesta. 

473 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



os /j,ev 'IAA,f/H09 761/09, 'Sepyios Be ef ' 

5 7ToXe&>9, rj ev MecroTrora/xta rvy^dvei ovaa. 01)9 
77 6 Xoo-/J0^9 Trpoaro'exo/J.evos rjav^rj epevev. ev 
Se T?? Tropeia ravrrj KcovaravTiavov vocrrjcravros 
teal xpovov TpifievTOf av^vov, rov \oipov eT 

6 xjrai Ilpcrat9 %vveirecre. Sib Brj Na/3e&?79 
/cavTCt ev Hepcrapfiieviois rrjv crrparrjjiSa 
ap^rjv TOV ev Aou/Q<09 rwv Xpicrnavwv iepea 
/3acr\e&>9 e7ra<yyei\ai>TO$ irapa RdXepiavbv rbv 
ev 'A/)yu,ew'oi9 crrparijybv eTre^^ev, alriacrofj.evov 
re TTJV TO)V Trpecrftewv ftpaSvTtJTa /cat 'P<y/iat'ou9 

' 9 r^y elpijvrjv op^rfffovra 7rpo6vfj,ia rf] irdcrrj. 

7 Kdl 09 ^yi/ TO) dSe\(f>q) e9 ' Apfteviovs TJKWV, r& 
re BaXe/jtavol) evTV^oov, auro9 re 'Pw/zatot? are 



ftacriXea Xoa-porjv TrelOecrdai ael 9 ftov\r]V 
Tracrav axne rjv 'Pc0/j,ai(0v 01 7rpecr/9et9 69 TO. 
Ilepo-wi' r;^ ui> avTw e\6c0<riv, OVK dv ri avrols 
e/iTToStcr/ia el'?; TOU rrjv elprjv^v OTTI] l 

8 Siadrjaecrdai. 6 /j,ev ovv lepei/s Tocravra 
o 8k TOV iepecos a8e\<f>b<> Ba\,6piav& 

\dOpa Xocrporjv ev /AeyaXois elvat /caot9 e(f>a<TKe' 
TOV re yap ol TralSa rvpavviBi eTTiOejJ^vov ejrava- 
(TTrjvat, teal avrbv 6/j,ov %vv iravrl ro3 Ilepo-aJv 
trrparS) rfj vocra) aXwvai- Sib Srj KOI 'P(0/J.aioi<; 

9 ravvv e9 rrjv ^vpftaaiv edeXeiv levai. Tavra 
7rel BaAfiyotayo? rjicovcre, rbv fjt,ev eTria KOTJ ov ev6v<? 
a.TreTre/z.'^raTO, TOU? 7rpecr/3et9 OVK elf paicpav 
V7rocr%6iji,evo<? Trapa Xocrporiv d(j)i^ecrdai, avrbs 
Be row A.07OV9 9 /SacrtXea. 'lovcmviavbv ovcnrep 

10 rj/crjKoei avrfvey/cev. ot9 Sr} 6 /3acn\evs avTt/ca 

1 8ir7j Maltretus : uirov MSS. 
474 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxiv. 4-10 

by birth, and Sergius was from the city of Edessa 
in Mesopotamia. And Chosroes remained quiet 
expecting these men. But in the course of the 
journey thither Constantianus became ill and much 
time was consumed ; in the meantime it came 
about that the pestilence fell upon the Persians. 
For this reason Nabedes, who at that time held the 
office of general in Persarmenia, sent the priest of 
the Christians in Dubios by direction of the king 
to Valerianus, the general in Armenia, in order to 
reproach the envoys for their tardiness and to urge 
the Romans with all zeal toward peace. And he 
came with his brother to Armenia, and, meeting 
Valerianus, declared that he himself, as a Christian, 
was favourably disposed toward the Romans, and 
that the king Chosroes always followed his advice 
in every matter ; so that if the ambassadors would 
come with him to the land of Persia, there would be 
nothing to prevent them from arranging the peace 
as they wished. fFhus then spoke the priest ; but 
the brother of the priest met Valerianus secretly 
and said that Chosroes was in great straits : for 
his son had risen against him in an attempt to set 
up a tyranny, and he himself together with the 
whole Persian army had been taken with the 
plague ; and this was the reason why he wished 
just now to settle the agreement with the Romans. 
When Valerianus heard this, he straightway dis- 
missed the bishop, promising that the envoys would 
come to Chosroes at no distant time, but he himself 
reported the words which he had heard to the 
Emperor Justinian. This led the emperor im- 



475 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

avrw re Kal ^Aaprlvw teal Tot9 aXXot9 
dp%ovcriv on rd^iara eaf3d\\iv 6i'<? rrjv TroXe- 
fj,iav eVecrTeXXev. ev l jap olSev &>9 avrols TWV 
11 7ro\e/Ma)v ovBel<? e/j,7ro8a>v crrijcrerai. eVeXeve be 
v\\e<yevTa<; 69 ravro a.7ravra<? ovra> rr/v ecr{3o\r)i> 
eVt Tlepcrap/Aeviovs Tronjaaaffai. ravra ejrel d-Tre- 
ve^Oevra ol ap^ovres TO, ypd/jLfw,ra elSov, 
6/iou rot? e7ro/Avot9 2 j;vveppeov e? ra e-Trt ' 



12 "H^?; Se o Xocrpo-^? 6\iy<a Trporepov TO ' 
/3iydv(oi> Seei T&> e'/c r^9 yo(rou aTroXtTrcoy e? 
'A<rcrvpiav iravr\ r& (rrpar 
S OVTTO) evSeSrjirKei TO TOV 



ffvv Tot? d/i</)' avrbv Kara\6- 
70^9, *a* ot Na/JO"?}? ^vverdrrero 'Apfneviovs re 

13 /cat 'E/ooyA.a)!' rivds %vv avra> e^wv. Ma/9Ttz>09 
8e o T^? e&) crTyO<ZT77'yo<? ^yy T 'IXSt^ept /cat 
eoKTia-TO) e9 KiOapifav TO <}>povpiov d(f)irc6/u.evo$ 
evravdd TG 7rij^df^evo<i TO a-rparoTreBov avrov 

Si%6i Be (i)eoSocrtoi>7ro'Xe<o9 oSw rerTapcov 
TO (frpovpiov TOVTO- iva Kal IIeT/909 OVA: 
/j,afcpav %vv re 

14 ap^ovaiv rj\.6ev. rj<yelro Be rwv ravrr} 

6 

v 7ro/j,evoi<; 69 



I o"aa/c?79 o Napffov ao\d>o$, OtX^yLtoi/u 06 /cat 

fjY)pO$ qVV E/5OfXot9 T0t9 ffd)icril' 7rO[AVOl$ 69 Ttt 

eVt Xopfyavijvf)*; %&>pt'a rfKdov, TOV Mapnvov 
15 (TTparoTreBov ov TroXXw airodev. 'IoOcrT09 T6 o 
yoao"tX6ft)9 ave^lrio^ /cat Il6p<x^to9 /cat I&>ai'i''7^9 o 
NIKIJTOV ?rai9 fi/i' T6 Aoyu>z'6Z'T4oX&) /cat iwavvrj TO) 

1 eS Haury : ou MSS. 

2 eiro/xeVois Dindorf : tffofievois MSS. 



476 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxiv. 10-15 

mediately to send word to him and to Martinus and 
the other commanders to invade the enemy's territory 
as quickly as possible. For he knew well that no 
one of the enemy would stand in their way. And 
he commanded them to gather all in one place and 
so make their invasion into Persarmenia. When 
the commanders received these letters, all of them 
together with their followers began to gather into 
the land of Armenia. "7 

And already Chosroes had abandoned Adarbiganon 
a little before through fear of the plague and was off 
with his whole army into Assyria, where the pesti- 
lence had not as yet become epidemic. Valerianus 
accordingly encamped close by Theodosiopolis with 
the troops under him ; and with him was arrayed 
Narses, who had with him Armenians and some of 
the Eruli. And Martinus, the General of the East,, 
together with Ildiger and Theoctistus, reached the 
fortress of Citharizon, and fixing his camp there, 
remained on the spot. This fortress is separated 
from Theodosiopolis by a journey of four days. There 
too Peter came not long afterwards together with 
Adolius and some other commanders. Now the 
troops in this region were commanded by Isaac, 
the brother of Narses. And Philemouth and Beros 
with the Eruli who were under them came into 
the territory of Chorzianene, not far from the 
camp of Martinus. And Justus, the emperor's 
nephew, and Peranius and John, the son of Nicetas, 
together with Domentiolus and John, who was 



477 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

<>aya rrjv eTriK\,r)cnv ecrrparoTreBeva-avro irpbs ry 
Qtawv Ka\ovfjbev(a (^povpia> t orcep dy^iard Trrj rwv 

16 MapTt>/307roXeo)9 opicov effriv. ovrco fj,ev ovv 
ea-rparoTreBevcravro ol 'Pw/iaitwi; ap^ovres $;vv 
Toi9 eTTOfjuevois, gvvyet Se 6 arrpaTos aira? e? 

17 /Aviovs. ovroi cnravres ovre e? TUVTO 



aav, ov fj,rjv ovre aot? 6? 
TrefATrovTes Be Trap 1 aXX^Xoi"? ol crrpaT'ij'yol 
(7(j)L(Tiv eTTO/jievwv rivas vTrep rrj<i ecr/SoX^? CTTVV- 
18 Odvovro. a(f>vco 8e Herpos, ovSevi 
vv TO4? a/A' avrov 



r 
<&i\rjiui,ov0 re teal B^po?, ol rfav ' 

19 rjjov/jievoi, evdvs eiTrovro. eVet re raura 
d/j,(j)l Maprtvov KOI BaXepiavov epadov, rfj eafto^g 

20 Kara ra^o? %pa)VTO. airavre^ oe d\\?j\ois oXiyw 

"w 5 / > -if -\vr' 

VGTepov ave/jiiyvvvTO ev rrj TroXe/ata, TTA^I/ loi;- 
CTTOU re /cat rwi' ^uv avrw, o't &rj /jiaicpdv re arco- 
dev, oxrirep eppijdr), ea-rparoTreSevpevoi rov a\\ov 
(rrparov, Kal %povw vcrrepov rrjv IK&IVWV ecr/SoX^y 
yvovres, KOI avrol p,ev o-e/3a\\ov 009 rd%i<rra e? 
rrji' Kar" avrovs TroXe/itai/, dvaftiyvvcrdai Be rot9 

21 ^vvdp^ovaiv ovbaftrj ea-^ov. ol ^kvroi aXXot fy/i- 
Travres erropevovro evdv Aou^tO9, ovre \r)i%6fj,evoi 
ovre re aXXo a%apt rrpdvaovres 69 



XXV 

1 "EcrTi 8e TO Aov/9to9 %<wpa T49 ra re aXXa dyadrj 
KOI depcov re fcal vBdrcov evefyav riva 8iapKW$ ej^ov- 
aa, (^eoSoa"tou7roXe&)9 Be 6B& fj/Aepcav ofcrw 8ie%ei. 
478 



HISTORY OF THE WARS II. xxiv. i 5 -xxv. i 

called the Glutton, made camp near the place called 
Phison, which is close by the boundaries of Martyro- 
polis. Thus then were encamped the Roman com- 
manders with their troops ; and the whole army 
amounted to thirty thousand men. Now all these 
troops were neither gathered into one place, nor 
indeed was there any general meeting for con- 
ference. But the generals sent to each other some 
of their followers and began to make enquiries con- 
cerning the invasion. Suddenly, however, Peter, 
without communicating with anyone, and without 
any careful consideration, invaded the hostile land 
with his troops. And when on the following day 
this was found out by Philemouth and Beros, the 
leaders of the Eruli, they straightway followed. 
And when this in turn came to the knowledge, of 
Martinus and Valerianus and their men, they quickly 
joined in the invasion. And all of them a little later 
united with each other in the enemy's territory, 
with the exception of Justus and his men, who, as I 
have said, had encamped far away from the rest 
of the army, and learned later of their invasion ; 
then, indeed, they also invaded the territory of the 
enemy as quickly as possible at the point where they 
were, but failed altogether to unite with the other 
commanders. As for the others, they proceeded 
in a body straight for Doubios, neither plundering 
nor damaging in any other way the land of the 
Persians. 

XXV 

Now Doubios is a land excellent in every respect, 
and especially blessed with a healthy climate and 
abundance of good water ; and from Theodosiopolis 

479 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

2 Kal TreBia ftev evravda iTnnjXard ecrn, tc&fjiai Be 

l rro\vavdpu>rroraroi (ptcrjvrai dy^ordrw 
fcal TroAAoi efjurropoi /car' epyacriav ev 

3 ravrais ol/covcriv. e/c re yap 'IvBwv Kal rwv 
7r\rja io%(t) pwv *\ftripwv Trdvrwv re a>? eltrelv 

ev Tlepa-ai? eOvwv fcal 'Pa)/iat&>i> TLVWV TO 
eaKO/ju^o/jtevot evravOa dXX.rj\oi 

4 rov re TO)V Xpicmavwv lepea Ka6o\iicbv /ca\ov(Tt 
Trj ' EI\\IJV(I)V (fxovfj, OTI 8rj e^ecrrfj/cev el? wv 

5 airao-i rot? ravry %fw/3toi?. Aou/Sto? Se airoQev 
ocrov ecKOcn KOI eKarov ara^iwv ev 8eia IOVTI etc 
'PfOfuiiayv rr)<; 7% 0/005 earl BiHTftarov re ical 
aX.A.a>9 Kpij/jivotiSes, fcal fcco/jbt} TI$ v Sva^copia 

6 (TTevoTarr] Keifievrj, ^A.yjXoyv ovofjuz. ov Srj 6 
Na/3eS?79, eTretSr) Ta^icrra TWV iroXe/jLiovv rr/v 
etyoSov eyvci), Travrl TOO (nparw aTro^wprjcras 

7 %&)/Jtoi/ re lo")(yl Oapcnjo-as /cadeip^ev ainov. Kal 
r) [AV ^KtofjL-r) e? rov opovs ra ecr^ara Keirai, 
(f>povptov~$e e%vpbv rfj Kco/jirj ravrr) 6fji(t)vv/j,ov ev 

8 r& Kpr)fj,v(t)8ei earLv. o yovv Na^SeS?;? \Wois pev 
Kal afj,dai<? T9 errl rrjv KtofjUjv a7ro(f>pda<> 
etVo^oi/9 8v&7rp6o'O&ov eri /j,d\\ov elpydcraro rav- 

9 rr)V. erfLrrpocrOe 8e rdtypov rivd opv^a<; evravOa 
TO arpdrevpa earrjcre, re po\o%ia a? oliclcrKovs 
rivds 7ra\aioi><; eveSpais rre^wv. 9 rerpaKicr- 

Se avSpas drrav gvvgei TO Ylepo-wv <rrpd- 



10 Tavra JJLCV ovv errpdcrcrero rfjSe. ( Pu>fJ,alot Be 
dfaKofAevoi 69 x&pov r)/ji,epas 68q> \\ i yy\.a)v Bie- 
'Xpvra, r>v nva rroXefjiiwv eVt KaracrKOTrfj lovra 

480 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxv. 2-10 

it is removed a journey of eight days. In that region 
there are plains suitable for riding, and many very 
populous villages are situated in very close proximity 
to one another, and numerous merchants conduct 
their business in them. For from India and the 
neighbouring regions of Iberia and from practically 
all the nations of Persia and some of those under 
Roman sway they bring in merchandise and carry on 
their dealings with each other there. And the priest 
of the Christians is called " Catholicos " in the Greek 
tongue, because he presides alone over the whole 
region. Now at a distance of about one hundred 
and twenty stades from Doubios on the right as 
one travels from the land of the Romans, there is a 
mountain difficult of ascent and moreover precipitous, 
and a village crowded into .very narrow space by the 
rough country about, Angloh by name. Thither 
Nabedes withdrew with his whole army as soon as 
he learned of the inroad of the enemy, and, confident 
in his strength of position, he shut himself in. Now 
the village lies at the extremity of the mountain, 
and there is a strong fortress bearing the same name as 
this village on the steep mountain side. So Nabedes 
with stones and carts blocked up the entrances into 
the village and thus made it still more difficult of 
access. And in front of it he dug a sort of trench 
and stationed the army there, having filled some 
old cabins with ambuscades of infantrymen. Alto- 
gether the Persian army amounted to four thousand 
men. 

While these things were being done in this way, 
the Romans reached a place one day's journey 
distant from Anglon, and capturing one of the 
enemy who was going out as a spy they enquired 

481 

VOL. I. T I 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

of T69 errvvddvovro OTTIJ Trove ravvv 6 
elr). teal 09 diiaK^a>prjKevai rov dvBpa e 'Ay- 

11 r y\a)v rravrl ru> MrjBwv crrpara) etya&Kev. o Brj 6 
Nayotr^? dicovcras BeLva erroielro, KOI rot? %vvdp- 

12 %ovcn rrjv fjL6\\r)(riv oveiSi^cov e\oi8opeiro. ravro 
&e TOVTO teal a\\oi eiroLovv, e? d\\ij\ov<> l vftpi^ov- 

T9, KOi TO \017TOV /X.a^? T6 Kal KtV&VVOV d(j)pOV- 

TK7Ttjcrai>Tes \r)iecr0ai ra etceivr) %a)pia ev crTrovSfj 

13 7TOiovvTO. apavres TOIVVV da-rpanj'yrjroi re Kal 
araKTOi 2 Koo-fMj) ovSevl eTri-npocrOev yecrav, ovre TI 
%ovT<; crv/ji.f3o\ov ev a-(f)i<Tiv avrois, yirep ev rot? 
Totourot? dywa-iv eWicnaL, ovre Trrj SiaKeKpipevoi 

14 ev rd^ei. rot? jap crKevo<j>6poi<; ol crrpariwrat 
dva/jLtyvvfievoi ejropevovTO a>9 7rl dpTrayrjv eroi- 

15 fjLoraTtjv lovres XprjfjLaTtov fj,eyd\a)v. evret 6e 'A^- 
y\MV dy%ov eyevovro, Trefjurovcri KaracrKOTrovs, 01 
&r] avrois 7ravi6vTe<> dTrijyyeXX.ov rrjv rwv TTO\- 

16 jjiiwv Trapdra^iv. ol Be a-rpaTrjyol r5> a 
TW KaraTrXayevTes dvaarpetyeiv JJLCV %vv 
roaovra) TO TrXijffos ala")(p6v re Kal avavBpov 
oXa>? WOVTO elvai, rdj;avT<> Be a>9 CK ra)v jrapov- 
ro)v et? ra rpla re\,r) TO (rrpdrevfjba evdv rwv 

17 7ro\e/ito)r e^copovv. IleT/oo? fiev ovv Kepa<; TO 
Be^iov el^e, BaXe/jtayo? Be TO evwvv/Aov, et9 Be TO 
/j,ecrov ol d/j,(f)l Maprivov erdaaovro. <yev6^ievoL Be 
ayfticrrd ret) rwv zvavrlwv r/crvxa^ov, rrjv rdiv 

18 crvv dKoa/ua <f)v\dff<TovT<>. ainov Be TJV ij re 

KprjfjLvtoBijs v7rep(f)V(t)<; ovcra teal TO e% 

P : &\\ovs VG. 2 &TO.KTOI GP : &KOtr/jLoi V. 
482 






HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxv. 10-18 

where in the world Nabedes was then. And he 
asserted that the man had retired from Anglon with 
the whole Median army. And when Narses heard 
this, he was indignant, and he heaped reproaches 
and abuse upon his fellow-commanders for their 
hesitation. And others, too, began to do the very same 
thing, casting insults upon one another ; and from 
then on, giving up all thought of battle and danger, 
they were eager to plunder the country thereabout. 
The troops broke camp, accordingly, and without 
the guidance of generals and without observing any 
definite formation, they moved forward in complete 
confusion ; for neither had they any countersign 
among themselves, as is customary in such perilous 
situations, nor were they arranged in their proper 
divisions. For the soldiers marched forward, mixed 
in with the baggage train, as if going to the ready 
plunder of great wealth. But when they came 
near to Anglon, they sent out spies who returned 
to them announcing the array of the enemy. And 
the generals were thunder-struck by the unexpected- 
ness of it, but they considered it altogether disgrace- 
ful and unmanly to turn back with an army of such 
great size, and so they disposed the army in its three 
divisions, as well as the circumstances permitted, 
and advanced straight toward the enemy. Now 
Peter held the right wing and Valerianus the left, 
while Martinus and his men arrayed themselves in v 
the centre. And when they came close to thei- 
opponents, they halted, preserving their formation, 
but not without disorder. The cause for this was 
to be found in the difficulty of the ground, which 
was very badly broken up, and in the fact that they 

483 
i i 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



VTToyvov 8iara%0vra<; e? 

19 eVt fievrot, /cat ol ftdpftapoi a-cfra? avrovs e? 6\iyov 
^vvayayovres ^av^r) eftevov, TrepicrKOTrovuevoi 
rS>v evavria>v rrjv Bvvauiv, Trpoetpij^evov avrols 
717)09 Na/3e8ov xeipwv /Jiev &)? ^Kiara ap%eiv, rjv 
Be Trr] eTricrroJTp-wcriv ol irdXefJiioi, Kara TO Svvarov 
cr(j)icriv a/jivvacrdai. 

20 IlyowTO? Se Na/?cr^9 %vv re rot? 'EpovX.ot? /cat 
f Po)yu.a.tft)y rot? errofJievoLS 9 %eipas rot? 7roXe/itot9 
rf\,6ev, wOio-^JLOV re yevo/juevov erpe^raro rovs /car' 

21 avrov Hep&as. (frevyovres re ol fidpfiapoi 69 TO 
<f>povpiov avefiaivov SpofJ-w, evOa &r) a\\ij\ovs 

22 ep7a avrj/ceara ev rfj crrevo'%a)pia elpyd^ovro. /cat 
TOTe Na/)o - ?}9 Te at>TO9 Tot9 a/z(^' avrov eyfce\ev- 
(rdfievos TTO\\& en /Md\\ov rolf 7roXe/uot9 evetceiro, 

23 /cat 'PeoyLtatwi/ ot XotTrot epyov elyovro. e^e\66vre<f 
Be etc rov al(f>viSiov e/c rwv Kara rovs crrevcoTrovs 



ol rrpo\o'\i^ovre^, wcnrep epprjdr), rS>v re 
nvas /creivovcuv, aTrpocrBoKriroi erfLire- 
crovres, /cat Napo-ijv Kara Kopprj^ avrov Traiovcri. 

24 /cat avrov 'Itraa/c?;9 6 aSeX^)09 Kaipiav rvrrevra 
VTre^rfyaye r&v ^a^ofjievwv. 09 BTJ 6\Lyu> vcrrepov 
ere\evrr)crev, dvrjp dyadof ev r& rrovw rovrw 

25 yevo/jievos. rapa^rj^ 8e, &>9 TO eto9, evdevBe nd\- 

69 Toy 'Pa)/j,aiQ)v crrparov euTrecrovcrris, arcav 6 
7ra<f)r)K TOt9 evavrioif TO Ilepcrft)!' 

26 crrpdrev/aa. ol Be /3d\\ovre<? ev T0t9 o~revo)7roi<j 
9 Tro\e/j,Lc0v 7ra/i7roXu rr\r)9o<$ rto\kovs re d\\ov<; 
eu7reTW9 exreivov /cat Siafyepovrws 'EpouXoi;9, o? 
^vr T&) Na/jcr^ Ta irpGtra TOt9 evavriots e 

484 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxv. 18-26 

were entering battle in a formation arranged on 
the spur of the moment. And up to this time the 
barbarians, who had gathered themselves into a 
small space, were remaining quiet, considering the 
strength of their antagonists, since the order had been 
given them by Nabedes not under any circumstances 
to begin the fighting, but if the enemy should assail 
them, to defend themselves with all their might. 

And first Narses with the Eruli and those of the 
Romans who were under him, engaged with the 
enemy, and after a hard hand-to-hand struggle, he 
routed the Persians who were before him. And 
the barbarians in flight ascended on the run to 
the fortress, and in so doing they inflicted terrible 
injury upon one another in the narrow way. And 
then Narses urged his men forward and pressed 
still harder upon the enemy, and the rest of the 
Romans joined in the action. But all of a sudden 
the men who were in ambush, as has been said, 1 
came out from the cabins along the narrow alleys, 
and killed some of the Eruli, falling unexpectedly 
upon them, and they struck Narses himself a blow 
on the temple. And his brother Isaac carried him 
out from among the fighting men, mortally wounded. 
And he died shortly afterwards, having proved him- 
self a brave man in this engagement. Then, as was 
to be expected, great confusion fell upon the Roman 
army, and Nabedes let out the whole Persian force 
upon his opponents. Arid the Persians, shooting 
into great masses of the enemy in the narrow 
alleys, killed a large number without difficulty, and 
particularly of the Eruli who had at the first fallen 
upon the enemy with Narses and were fighting for 

1 Cf . section 9 above. 

485 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



T9 d(j>V\aKTOl K TOV 7T 

2~l ovre yap Kpdvo<$ ovre dd&paKa ovre aXXo ri (f)v\aK- 
rrjpiov "JEpovXot ejfovcrtv, art /AT) dcnriBa Kal rpi- 
f3a>viov dBpov, o Brj Bie^cocr/Mevoi e? TOV dywva 

28 KaBiaravTai. 1 Bov\ot fJ,VTOi"E>pov\ot Kal acrTrtSo? 
^<wyoi? 9 fjui^v 2 'xwpovaiv, eirei^av Be av&pes ev 
7roX.eyu.ft) dyaOol yevwvrat, ovrw Sr) d(nriSas av- 
rot? e(f>idaiv ol BecrTTOTat 7rpo/3d\\6cr0ai ev rat9 
uyu./3oXat9. Ta p,ev TWV 'EpovXwv ravrrj irrj e%et. 

29 'P(i)fjLaioi Be OVK eveyKovres TOU? 7roXe/itoi/9 dvd 
tcpdros airavres e<pevyov, ovre d\tcf)<; fiefivrj/j,evot 
ovre rivd al8a> rj d\\o ri ev VM dyadbv e%ovres. 

30 Hepo~ai Be avrovs VTrorrrevovres OVK 69 (f>vyrjv 
dvaio")(yvrov ovrco rerpdfydai, aXX' eveBpais rt,<rlv 



avr<$ elra dveo~rpe(f)ov, ov ro\/j,o)vre<f ev rat 

31 o/xaXei o\iyot Trpof 7roXXoL>9 Biafj,d^ecr6ai. 'Pw- 
fiaioi fj,evroi, teal Biatyepovrws ol a-rparrjyol rfdv- 
T9, Bioj^iv eirl <7(/>a9 del Troielcrdai TOU9 7roXe/itoi;9 
olbfjuevoi, e<j>evyov eri //.aXXov, ovSeva dvievres 
Kaipov, Oeovai ftev rots ITTTTOIS e<yKe\ev6{ivoi 
fjudcrnyi Kal Kpavyrj, rov<; Be OwpaKas Kal ra 
aXXa oVXa pnrrovvres (nrovBy re Kal Qopvftw e> 

32 e'Sa^)O9. ov yap dvrird^aa'Bai Kara\afA/3dvovcrtv 
avrovs eddpcrovv Ylepcrais, aXX* ev /j,6vot<i rot9 ru>v 
'Irtrcwv Trocrl rd<; rf)$ Gwrypias e\7riBa<; el%ov Kal, 
TO ^vfirrav elrrelv, roiavrij yeyovev 7} <f>vyrj ware. 
TMV tTnrwv cr^eBov n atToi9 oySet9 Biefiico, aXX' 
vjviKa rov Bpo/^ov eTravcravro, rreaovres evOvs 

33 Bie^ffdpijcrav. Kal irddos rovro aeya f P&)//.at049 

1 Ka9iffravrat G : KdOiffTavro VP. 

2 nixW VP : rbv ayuva G. 

486 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxv. 26-33 

the most part without protection. For the Eruli have ( 
neither helmet nor corselet nor any other protective 
armour, except a shield and a thick jacket, which 
they gird about them before they enter a struggle. 
And indeed the Erulian slaves go into battle without 
even a shield, and when they prove themselves 
brave men in war, then their masters permit them 
to protect themselves in battle with shields. Such 
is the custom of the Eruli. 

And the Romans did not withstand the enemy and 
all of them fled as fast as they could, never once 
thinking of resistance and heedless of shame or of 
any other worthy motive. But the Persians, sus- 
pecting that they had not turned thus to a shameless 
flight, but that they were making use of some 
ambuscades against them, pursued them as far as the 
rough ground extended and then turned back, not 
daring to fight a decisive battle on level ground, a 
few against maiiy. The Romans, however, and espe- 
cially all the generals, supposing that the enemy 
were continuing the pursuit without pause, kept 
fleeing still faster, wasting not a moment ; and they 
were urging on their horses as they ran with whip 
and voice, and throwing their corselets and other 
accoutrements in haste and confusion to the ground. 
For they had not the courage to array themselves 
against the Persians if they overtook them, but they 
placed all hope of safety in their horses' feet, 
and, in short, the flight became such that scarcely 
any one of their horses survived, but when they 
stopped running, they straightway fell down and 
expired. And this proved a disaster for the Romans 



487 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

olov ovrcore rrporepov yeyove. TroXXot re jap 
avrwv eOavov Kal 7rXetot><> en VTTO rot? TroXe/uot? 

34 eyevovro. oVXo. re avrwv ol TroXe/itoi KOI VTTO- 
vyia e\a/3ov roaavra TO ir\r)6os, ware 7T\ovcrtca- 
repa So/ceiv /c rovrov <yevea6ai rod epyov ra 

35 Tlepcrwv repay par a. 'ASoXto? Se Bia (frpovpiov ev 
ravrrj 8ij rrj vrcaywyfj Trapioov ev TlepcrapfAeviois 
Ket^evov \L6(p re rrjv tce(j)a\r]V TT/JO? rov rwv 
ravrrj (fucifji^evwv TrX^^et? avrov Sie(f)6dprj, 01 re 
(}p,(f)l rov 'lovarov teal Hepdviov ecrySaXo^re? 69 ra 
7rl Tapavvcov ^wpia KOI 6\iya arra 



XXVI 



1 T&> 8e eTTiyivofjievw erei 

reraprov e'<? yrjv rrjv 'Pa)^.ai(ov eVe/^aXXey, eVt T^y 

2 MecroTTOTa/iiai' TO crrpdrev/jia aycov. avrrj Se f] 
<7/3oX?7 TW Xocrpoj; TOWT&) ou 7T/J09 'lovarriviavov 
rov 'Pa>/J,aiQ)v (3acri\ea rrerfoirjrai, ov JJLTJV ovBe CTT' 
d\\(ov dvdp(i)7ro)v ovSeva, on, fj,rj CTTI rov Oeov 

3 ovTrep Xpicrriavol creftovrai fjiovov. ejreior) yap ev 
rf] Trpforrj e0o8ft> 'ESecrcrr;? arcorv)((t)V dve^w 
TroXX?; ris eyeyovei avr& re Kal pdyois, are 

rov r>v Xpio-riavwv 0eov rja-a-rjfAevois 

4 r)v Srj Traprjyopwv 6 X.ocrp6r)s ev Tot? 
'ESecr^^o^ fj,ev dvSparrooielv riTrefarjcrev a 

e? Ta Ylepcrwv rjdij, rrjv 8e TTO\IV yu,7;X6/3oToi/ 

5 KaraarrjcrecrOai. rravrl yovv rw arparG* dy%ov 

488 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxv. 33-xxvi. 5 

so great as to exceed anything that had ever befallen 
them previously. For great numbers of them 
perished and still more fell into the hands of the 
enemy. And their weapons and draught animals 
which were taken by the enemy amounted to such 
an imposing number that Persia seemed as a result 
of this affair to have become richer. And Adolius, 
while passing through a fortified place during this 
retreat it was situated in Persarmenia was struck 
on the head by a stone thrown by one of the 
inhabitants of the town, and died there. ' As for the 
forces of Justus and Peranius, they invaded the 
country about Taraunon, and after gathering some 
little plunder, immediately returned. 



XXVI 

AND in the following year, Chosroes, the son of 544 A.D. 
Cabades, for the fourth time invaded the land of the 
Romans, leading his army towards Mesopotamia. 
Now this invasion was made by this Chosroes not 
against Justinian, the Emperor of the Romans, nor 
indeed against any other man, but only against the 
God whom the Christians reverence. For when in 
the first invasion he retired, after failing to capture 
Edessa, 1 both he and the Magi, since they had been 
worsted by the God of the Christians, fell into a great 
dejection. Wherefore Chosroes, seeking to allay it, 
uttered a threat in the palace that he would make slaves 
of all the inhabitants of Edessa and bring them to the 
land of Persia, and would turn the city into a pasture 
for sheepj Accordingly when he had approached the 

1 Cf. Book II. xii. 31-34. 

489 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

yevo/Jievos, Ovvvwv rwv ol e7rofj,eva)v 
rivds eVt rbv rfjs vroXea)? rrepi{Bo\ov erfe^-^rev 09 
Brj rov i7T7roBp6fj,ov Kadvrrepdev ecrriv, d\\o /j,ev 
ovBev tcafcovpyrjcrovTas, rcpoftara Be dpTrao~opevovs 
drrep ol 7rot/iej>9 TTO\\a evravdd irrj Trapa TO 
Tet^tcr/ua (nrjaavre^ erv^ov, ^wpiov re la"%vi 
Oapaovvtes, OTt Stj avavres VTrepfyvS)? 7)V, Kal 

OV7TOT6 TO\fJUJCreiV TOl/9 7ToXe/ilOU9 OLOjJ,VOl OVTO) 

6 irr) ay^icrTa TOV rei^ou9 levai. ol p,ev ovv ftdp- 
/Sapoi TU>V Trpo/3dro)V iJTrrovro ijBrj, ol 8e 7roifJ,eve<} 

7 rcaprepcorara [d/jLvvoftevot] &ieKa)\vov. Hepff&v re 
Tot9 Ovvvois eirifteftorjOrjtcoTwv l 7ro\\a)V, d<ye\rjv 
Hv evdevSe d<p\e<r8ai riva ol ftdpffapoi la-^va-av, 
f Pa)fjLaia>v Se o"TpariwrS)V re Kal rwv airo rov 

etc 



yeyovev, r) e yer) avrfj,aro<f 9 TOU9 

8 7roi/j,eva<; eTravfj/cev avOis. rcav re ri$ Qvvvwv rcpo 
rfav a\.\a>v /ia^o/iet09 /J,d\icrra rrdvrwv r)va)')(\.ei 

9 'Pwf^aiovf. teal Tt9 avrov dypotKo*; e? 70^1* TO 
Se^tov <r<f)ev86i>r) eTrirv^wv /SaXXet, 6 Be Trprjvrjs 
diro rov LTTTTOV 9 TO e'Sa^)O9 evdixf ercecrev, o Brj 

10 'Pwfjuiiovs eri fid\\ov erceppUKrev. rj re /ia%*7 
TTpwl dpajj,evr) ere\evra 69 [Ae(rr)v rjftepav, ev y 

11 e/cdrepoi TO irXeov e%etv oibp.evoi SieXvOqcrav. teal 
'Pwftatoi p,ev ez/TO9 Toy irepi,(3okov eyevovro, ol Be 
ftdpfiapot ttTTo cnaBiwv Tj}9 7roXe&)9 errrd Bie- 
a-KTjvrjp.evoi eo-rparone^evo-avro drravres. 

12 ToTe o Xocrpo?;9 e'lre riva otyiv ovelpov elBev ij 
T9 avrqt evvoia yeyovev, &>9 9 ey^etpjjffaf rjv fir} 

1 liei&t&oT}8riK&roiv VP : firi&f/3r)K6T<av (jr. 

49 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxvi. 5-12 

city of Edessa with his whole army, he sent some of 
the Huns who were following him against that 
portion of the fortifications of the city which is above 
the hippodrome, with the purpose of doing no further 
injury than seizing the flocks which the shepherds 
had stationed there along the wall in great numbers : 
for they were confident in the strength of the place, 
since it was exceedingly steep, and supposed that the 
enemy would never dare to come so very close to the 
wall. So the barbarians were already laying hold of 
the sheep, and the shepherds were trying most 
valiantly to prevent them. And when a great 
number of Persians had come to the assistance of 
the Huns, the barbarians succeeded in detaching 
something of a flock from there, but Roman soldiers 
and some of the populace made a sally upon the 
enemy and the battle became a hand-to-hand 
struggle ; meanwhile the flock of its own accord 
returned again to the shepherds. Now one of the 
Huns who was fighting before the others was making 
more trouble for the Romans than all the rest. And 
some rustic made a good shot and hit him on the 
right knee with a sling, and he immediately fell 
headlong from his horse to the ground, which thing 
heartened the Romans still more. And the battle 
which had begun early in the morning ended at 
midday, and both sides withdrew from the engage- 
ment thinking that they had the advantage. So the 
Romans went inside the fortifications, while the 
barbarians pitched their tents and made camp in a 
body about seven stades from the city. 

Then Chosroes either saw some vision or else the 
thought occurred to him that if, after making two 



491 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



Svvarbs eit] "ESecrcray efeXety, TroXX?^ ol 

13 riva 7repij3d\.e<rdai %vp,ftr)crerai. Stb Br) TroXXeoz/ 
^prffidrcov drroSocrdai rr/v dva^mprjaiv 

14 crrjvois eyva>. ry yovv em<yivop.evr) rjnep 
epfiijvevs jrapa TO ret%09 tf/ccov e^aa/ce ' 
%pr)vai irapa Xocrpo^i/ ara\rjvai TWV SOKL/AWV 

15 Tivafi. ol 8e Kara ra^o? recrcrapa? a7ro\^dfj,evot 

16 TWV ev afylcTLV avrot? eirifyavwv e7Tfj,i}rav. ot? 8^ 
69 TO M.tf8(0v d<j)itcofievoi<> arpaTOTreSov evrv)(u>v 

/SacrtXe&)9 6 Zaftepydvrjs avretXafc re TTO\- 
e8i^dfjivo<i dveTrwddveTO avrwv OTTOTepa 
aipeTMTepa Tvy%dvi ovra, TTOTepov ra 69 

17 rrjv elpr)vr)v, rj TO, 9 rov TroXe/ioy ayovra. rwv 8e 
rrjv elprjinjv e\ecrdai av Trpb T&V KivSvvwv 6/j,o- 
\oyovvrci)v, " OVKOUV" e(f>rj 6 ZaftepydvrjS, " <avei- 
cr6ai y/ia9 ravrrjv dvdy/cr) xprffjudrcav TroXXcoy." 

18 oi Te 7rpecr/3et9 e<pacrav ' Tocravra 8u>(Tiv ocra 
7rapea"%ovTO Trporepov, rjvifca rrjv 'Avrio^eiav 

19 e^eXcbz/ e?r' avrovf rfkOe. KOI o Zaftepydvrjs 
avrovs i>v ye\coTi dire'TTe^.'^ra'TO, e^>' c5 ei/SeXe^e- 
(TTaTa ^ov\evcrd[Jievoi d/Ji(f)l TTJ GWTrjpia ovra) Brj 

20 avdts Trap avrovs eXdcocriv. 6\iyw Te vcrrepov 
(jTa7re[ityd/jievo<; avroix; 6 Xoapov)?, eTretSr) Trap 
avTov iKovjo, /eaTeXefe p,ev ocra TC Trporepov /cat 
ovnva rpoTrov e^rjvSpaTroSicre 'Pa>/jLaio)v %wpia, 
r)Trei\'t]are 8e ra Setvorepa 'Ee<rcr?7i>ot9 7rpo9 Ilep- 
<r)V eaeadai, el fir) TrdvTa cr(f)icri ra -^pij^ara 
8oiV ocra rov rrepiftoXov evrbs e^ovcnv ovrca yap 
fji6v(i)<? evdevSe d7rd\,\ayijo'ea'dai rov arparov 

21 e<f)acrK. ravra ol TTpecrftets dfcovcravre<f 

492 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxvi. 12-21 

attempts, he should not be able to capture Edessa, 
he would thereby cover himself with much disgrace. 
Accordingly he decided to sell his withdrawal to the 
citizens of Edessa for a great sum of money. On the 
following day, therefore, Paulus the interpreter carne 
along by the wall and said that some of the Roman 
notables should be sent to Chosroes. And they with 
all speed chose out four of their illustrious men and 
sent them. When these men reached the Median 
camp, they were met according to the king's order 
by Zaberganes, who first terrified them with many 
threats and then enquired of them which course was 
the more desirable for them, whether that leading to 
peace, or that leading to war. And when the envoys 
agreed that they would choose peace rather than the 
dangers of war, Zaberganes replied : " Therefore it 
is necessary for you to purchase this for a great sum 
of money." And the envoys said that they would 
give as much as they had provided before, when he 
came against them after capturing Antioch. And 
Zaberganes dismissed them with laughter, telling 
them to deliberate most carefully concerning their 
safety and then to come again to the Persians. And 
a little later Chosroes summoned them, and when 
they came before him, he recounted how many 
Roman towns he had previously enslaved and in 
what manner he had accomplished it ; then he 
threatened that the inhabitants of Edessa would 
receive more direful treatment at the hands of the 
Persians, unless they should give them all the 
wealth which they had inside the fortifications ; for 
only on this condition, he said, would the army 
depart. When the envoys heard this, they agreed 

493 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

\6yovv [lev Trapa Xcxrpoou rrjv elprfvrjv wvijcrecrdai, 
ffv ye cr<f)icri fj,rj ra dBvvara 7rayyeL\eie' rov Be 
KivBvvov TO irepas ovBevl rwv rrdvrwv e<f)acrav rrpo 

22 T?}9 dywvias ev8rj\ov elvai. 7r6\fj.ov yap TO?? avrov 
8ia<f>epov(riv 67rt rot? ofio\o<yovfjLevoi<> ov ^ TTOTC 
elvai. Tore /JLCV ovv j;vv opyfi o Xotr/aory? rov<f 
Trpecr/Seis efce\uev on Tar^icna dTraXXdcrcrecrdcu. 

23 'H/tepo. 8e a-Tro T^? TrpcxreSpeias 078077 \6<j)ov 
7ravaaTr)(Tai ^eipOTroiijTOV r& TT}? TroXew? Trepi- 
ySoXw ySofXoyu,evo9, eTrel ra SevBpa e/ere/icbz/ avrois 
<f>v\\ois TroXXa e ^wpicov eyyvs Trrj ovrwv trpo 
rov ret^ot/? ey TerpaywvQ) ^vvedrjfcev, ov 8r) yQe\O9 
e'/c T?79 7roXe&)9 e^iKveta-Oai dSvvara rjv, %ouv re 

irepQev rwv oevSpcov vv- 
ri %pfifj,a \ldo)v 7re/3a\X.v, OVK 



, eicelvov /JLOVOV 7rif^e\ov/jievo<f, 07r&)9 

24 6 Xo<o9 OTi rd^iara e9 f5i^o9 /ieya ejraipoiro. KOI 
v\a /jLafcpa TOV re ^;oO /tat rwi' \L6wv /iera^u e9 
aet 6/A/3aXXoyu-e^o9 evSea-fjuov eTroiei'ro TOV epyov, 

25 O7TW9 /i?) v^rr)\ov yev6/J,evov dcrdeves itj. TleTpof 
Be 6 'Pcofjuiicav o~Tparr)yo<> (evravOa yap %vv Map- 
Tfci/w /cat Tlepaviw ervy^avev <av} TO 1)9 Ta>Ta 
epyao/j,evov<; dvaa-Te\\et,v e0e\cov Qvvvatv TWV ol 

26 eTTOftevcov rivas eV avTovs eTrefM^Jrev. ol Be TTO\- 
Xoi9 e/c ToO ai<f>viBiov 7re\06vre<; dvei\ov, ical 
TrdvTcov fjidXia-ra TWV Tt9 Bopv(f>6pcov, 'ApyrjK 

27 ovofjua' fiovos yap eTrra KOI eiieoaiv efcreive. TWV 
/jLevroi f3ap/3dpo)V fyvXaicrjv dfepiftrj TO \OITTOV 
TTOiov/jievcov, OVK6TI eTre^ievai rives CTT' avrovt 

28 0"%ov. 1 eTrel Be irpolovres evros )8eXof9 ot 



494 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxvi. 21-28 

that they would purchase peace from Chosroes, if 
only he would not prescribe impossible conditions 
for them : but the outcome of a conflict, they said, 
was plainly seen by no one at all before the struggle. 
For there was' never a war whose outcome might be 
taken for granted by those who waged it. There- 
upon Chosroes in anger commanded the envoys to be 
gone with all speed. 

On the eighth day of the siege he formed the 
design of erecting an artificial hill against the 
circuit wall of the city ; accordingly he cut down 
trees in great numbers from the adjacent districts 
and, without removing the leaves, laid them together 
in a square before the wall, at a point which no 
missile from the city could reach ; then he heaped 
an immense amount of earth right upon the trees 
and above that threw on a great quantity of stones, 
not such as are suitable for building, but cut at 
random, and only calculated to raise the hill as 
quickly as possible to a great height. And he kept 
laying on long timbers in the midst of the earth and 
the stones, and made them serve to bind the 
structure together, in order that as it became high it 
should not be weak. But Peter, the Roman general 
(for he happened to be there with Martinus and 
Peranius), wishing to check the men who were 
engaged in this work, sent some of the Huns who 
were under his command against them. And they, 
by making a sudden attack, killed a great number ; 
and one of the guardsmen, Argek' by name, surpassed 
all others, for he alone killed twenty-seven. From 
that time on, however, the barbarians kept a careful 
guard, and there was no further opportunity for 
anyone to go out against them. But when the 

495 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



rov epyov rovrov eyevovro, Kaprepwrara 
dfivvofievoi drro rov 7repi/36\ov 'Pto/iatot ra9 re 
crfavSovas 67r' avrovs KOI rd ro%a evrjpyovv. 810 

29 8r) ol ftdpftapot eirevoovv race. 

K rpayeiwv rpi^wv, a Sr) tcaXovcri, 
Tra^oy? re Kai ftrjicovs Stap/Cft)? e%ovra, dprrjcrav- 
T69 e v\(i)V piaicpwv cTTLTT pocrdev del TrjV ay(TTav 
epya^o/jievcov eriOevro (ovro) yap TO TTOIOV/JI>OV TTJ 

30 Aarivwv (fxovf) eKd\ovv ( Pa>/j,aioi}. evravda yap ov- 
re 7rvp(f)6poi olcrrol ovre ra d\\a ySeXr; e^iKvela-dat 
el^ov, aXX' avTov eVt, TWV 7rpoKa\vf^pdrcov enro- 

ll Kpovofteva ^v/j,7ravra epeve. /cal Tore 'Pco/zatoi e<? 
einrerrrwKores rovs Trpeo-fteis rrapa 
crvv dopvjSw rro\Xq> errefJbTTov real Sre- 
<f>avov avv avrois, ev 76 rot9 tear avrbv larpols 
\6yiov, 09 8rj Ka/SaSiyy rov Tiepo^ov voaovvrd 
TTore iaa-dpevos Kvpio<; ^prfp.drwv fteydXcov 7T/3O9 

32 avrov yeyovev. 69 ?;, eTrei Trupa Xoapoijv %vv 
T0t9 aXXo^9 eyevero, e\e^ev woe, " Bacrt\eco9 T^Z/ 
<$>i\av6pu>rrlav dya6ov yvaipia^a rrdvres e/c rca- 

33 XatoO vevo^iiKacfLv. ovtcovv, a> tcpdnare ftaaiXev, 
(povovs GOI Kai /^a^a.9 epya^ofievw teal iroXecav 
dvSpa7ro8icr/j,ou<; rwv /jiev a\,\a>v tcra)9 ovopdrwv 
TTapecrrat 1 rv%eiv, TO 8e dya6q> elvai 8o/ceiv ov 

34 firjTcore carat, fcairot rracrwv ye r/Kicrra xpr)v rfj 
'ESe(To~'r)V(t)v TroXei rrapa o~ov ri ^v^ijvat <j)\av- 

35 pov. evrevOev ydp eycaye a>pfj,rjfj,ai, o&Trep ere ru>v 
ecrofjievcov ov&ev TrpoeiSa)*; e^edpe^d re Kai rS> 

1 Trapfffrai Hoeschel : tra.paffTa.vai V, irapfffTavat GP. 
496 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxvi. 28-35 

artisans engaged in this work, as they moved 
forward, came within range of missiles, then the 
Romans offered a most vigorous resistance from the 
city wall, using both their slings and their bows 
against them. Wherefore the barbarians devised the 
following plan. They provided screens of goat's hair 
cloth, of the kind which are called Cilician, making 
them of adequate thickness and height, and attached 
them to long pieces of wood which they always set 
before those who were working on the " agesta " l (for 
thus the Romans used to call in the Latin tongue the 
thing which they were making). Behind this neither 
ignited arrows nor any other weapon could reach 
the workmen, but all of them were thrown back 
by the screens and stopped there. And then the 
Romans, falling into a great fear, sent the envoys to 
Chosroes in great trepidation, and with them 
Stephanus, a physician of marked learning among 
those of his time at any rate, who also had once 
cured Cabades, the son of Perozes, when ill, and 
had been made master of great wealth by him. He, 
therefore, coming into the presence of Chosroes with 
the others, spoke as follows : " It has been agreed 
by all from of old that kindness is the mark of a 
good king. Therefore, most mighty King, while 
busying thyself with murders and battles and 
the enslavement of cities it will perhaps be possible 
for thee to win the other names, but thou wilt never 
by any means have the reputation of being "good." 
And yet least of all cities should Edessa suffer any 
adversity at thy hand. For there was I born, who, 
without any foreknowledge of what was coming to 
pass, fostered thee from childhood and counselled 
1 Lai in agger, "mound." 

497 

VOL. I. K K 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Trarpl r& era) %v/Jt,/3ov\os yeyova)?, e<' a> ere TT}? 
apxfjs 8idBo%ov Karaarrjcrerai, crol fjiev T/}? Hep- 
cr&v /3acrfXeia9 alncoraros yeyova, rfj Be jrarpioi 

36 rwv rrapovrwv fca/cwv. ol yap avdpWTroi ra TroXXa 
ra)V drv^iifjidrwv ercf)icriv avrols IK TOV e-rrl TrXet- 

37 crrov rwv %vn,ftr)crop,ev(dv Trpocnpiftovrai,. aXV ei 
Ti? ere T^? Toiavrrj^ evep<yecri,a<> elcrep^erat uvjjftij, 
[MjSev T^yua? epyderrj Trepairepco KCLKOV, TavTrfv Bi- 
&ov<> [idi rrjv ajioiprfv, e rj<> croi, & /3acri\ev, TO fir) 
Bo/cetv o}/j,ordr(a elvai j;v/j,/3)j(reTai" Sre^avo? 

38 fjiev TocravTa etTre. Xocr^o?;? Se ov TrpoTepov <nrd\- 
\ay^crecrdat anfjioXoyei evdevbe, el fjurj Tlerpov re 
KOI Tlepdviov avra) Trapa&olev 'P(o/j.aioi, ori Sij ol, 
SoOXot 76 6We? l Trarp&oi, rero\/jbrjKacriv dvTnd- 

39 ^acrOai. TOVTO Be rjv fjir) Spav 'PwfJ,aioi<> ev r)8ovrj 
ecr-riv, d\\a Svoiv CIVTOVS eTrdi'cvyKes e\ecrOai TO 
erepov, rj TrevraKocria Kevrrjvdpia ^pvcrov erfylcn 
SiBovai, rj Be^acrdai rfj 7ro\et TOJV ol eTrtrrjBeicov 
Tivd<$, 01 ra ^pijfj,ara Biepevvrjcrd/j^voi aTravra 
rov /j,ev %pvo~6v re KOI apyvpov, ocrov Srj evravda 
^vfi/Saivet elvai, Ko^iltovre^ e? avrbv rji;ovcri, 

40 TaXXa Be TOU9 K,vpiov<$ edcrovcriv %eiv. ravra fjiev 
6 Xocrpo?79 drfeppi^rev, "EBecraav egeXeiv rcovw 
ovBevl e\.TTiBa e%a)v. ol Be rrpeaj3eis (drravra yap 
afyicriv dBvvara eSo^ev elvai ocra e/celvos dTrrjy- 
ye\\e} Biarcopovpievoi re /cal \Lav der%d\\ovre<; 

41 e-TTi rrjv 7ro\iv eftdBi^ov. erfel re evrbs rov rrepi- 
ySoXou yevopevoi rd rrapd Xocrpoov drcrjyye^kov, 
dopvfiov re /cal Oprjvcov fuLQ)u& e/i7rXe<M9 eyevero. 

42 'H /j,ev ovv rov \6cf)ov Karaencevrj errl re vtyos 
TJpero fj-eya teal crrrovBfi 7ro\\f) errirrpocrOev yet. 

1 ye uvres VGP : yeyov6res H. 
49 8 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxvi. 35-42 

thy father to appoint thee his successor in the king- 
dom, so that to thee I have proved the chief cause of 
the kingship of Persia, but to my fatherland of her 
present woes. For men, as a general thing, bring 
down upon their own heads the most of the mis- 
fortunes which are going to befall them. But if any 
remembrance of such benefaction comes to thy mind, 
do us no further injury, and grant me this requital, 
by which, O King, thou wilt escape the reputation of 
being most cruel." Such were the words of Stephanus. 
But Chosroes declared that he would not depart from 
there until the Romans should deliver to him Peter and 
Peranius, seeing that, being his hereditary slaves, they 
had dared to array themselves against him. And if it 
was not their pleasure to do this, the Romans must 
choose one of two alternatives, either to give the 
Persians five hundred centenaria of gold, or to receive 
into the city some of his associates who would search 
out all the money, both gold and silver, as much as 
was there, and bring it to him, allowing everything 
else to remain in the possession of the present 
owners. Such then were the words which Chosroes 
hurled forth, being in hopes of capturing Edessa 
with no trouble. And the ambassadors (since all the 
conditions which he had announced to them seemed 
impossible), in despair and great vexation, proceeded 
to the city. And when they had come inside the 
city-wall, they reported the message from Chosroes, 
and the whole city was filled with tumult and 
lamentation. 

Now the artificial hill was rising to a great height 
and was being pushed forward with much haste. 



499 

K K 2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Se OVK fyovTes o TI KOL Spdcrovcri, 1 Trd\iv 

43 Toi/9 7rpecr/3e9 Tcapd Xocrporjv aTrecrTeXXoz'. oirrep 
eTreiSr) ev T& TCOV TrdXe/Mwv o-TpaTOTreSa) eyevovTo, 
Trepi T6 T>V avTWV Serjao/jLevoi efyacrKov ijtceiv, 
\6yov fiev ovS* OTTWCTTIOVV rrpos He/ocrwi/ TW%OV, 
v/3pei Se KOI 0opv{3(p TroXXw evdevBe e^e\avvo^evoi 

44 69 TJJV TTO\IV e%(t)pOVV. TO, fJ,V OVV TTpMTa 'P(i>- 

fjLoloi TO KaTa TOV ~\,6<j)ov T6t%o9 eTepa eveveipovv 
olKo8ofj,ia Tivl vTrepftaX-eadai' &>9 8e KCLL TavTrjs TO 
' Tiepacov epyov TroXXw /cadurrepTepov eyiveTO rjSr), 
T?}9 fj,ev olKoSofALCts dTreo'Trjcrav, ^AapTlvov 8e 
Treldovcri TO, dfj,(f)l Tr) ^v^daei TpoTrw Srj OTW 
8ov\OLTO 8ioi!cn(ra(T0cu. KOI 09 dyyiaTa TOV TMV 

/ / Cx / 

7ro\eji,i(i)v (TTpaToireoov <yevo/J,evo$ TWV TICTIV ev 

45 IIep0vu9 dp^ovTcov 9 Xo7Of9 rjKdev. 01 8e TOV 
MaoTt^Of e^ciTraT&VTes elprjvcua ^ev tr(pS)v TOV 
/3acrtXea {3ov\eo~0ai e<paa-av, avTov Se 009 iJKicrTa 
olov Te elvai TOV 'PcojAaicov avTOKpaTopa TreiOeiv 
T?}9 7T/309 Xo&porjv 0iXoi/6t/cta9 d<f>e/j,evov Trjv 

46 elprjvrjv rroTe 7rpo9 avTov O^o-ecrdar eVet /cat 

^oy, ovTcep T?I Te Svvdf^ei KCU To3 at<w//.aT 
\ T\/r ' " >cv>*\i/ 

,u MapTt^ou Tcpov^eLv ovo av CIVTOS avTenroi, 

fiev evayxos TOV Hepo-cov /Sao-iXea, 6'vTa 
877 TTOV ei/ /Aeo"0f9 'Pft)yuatoi9, evdevSe aTraXXacr- 
crecrOai 69 Ta Ilepcr&iv ^17, vfroo-^o^evov 7rpe / cry8et9 
TC TT a/o avTov OVK et9 fjiaKpav eK Bv^avTiov 
d<f>i%ecrdai teal Trjv elp^v^v ev TW /Se/9at&) KpctTvva- 
adai,, Trpd^ai Se TWV <a/MO\oyrj/ji,evo)v ovSev, 
dSvvaTOV yeyovoTd TTJV 'lovaTiviavov /Sa<7tXeo)9 



1 8po<rou<ri VGP : Spdffcoffiv H. 
500 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxvi. 42-46 

And the Romans, being at a loss what to do, again 
sent off the envoys to Chosroes. And when they 
had arrived in the enemy's camp, and said that they 
had come to make entreaty concerning the same 
things, they did not even gain a hearing of any kind 
from the Persians, but they were insulted and driven 
out from there with a great tumult, and so returned 
to the city. At first, then, the Romans tried to over- 
top the wall opposite the hill by means of another 
structure. But since the Persian work was already 
rising far above even this, they stopped their 
building and persuaded Martinus to make the ar- 
rangements for a settlement in whatever way he 
wished. He then came up close to the enemy's 
camp and began to converse with some of the 
Persian commanders. But they, completely deceiv- 
ing Martinus, said that their king was desirous of 
peace, but that he was utterly unable to persuade 
the Roman Emperor to have done with his strife 
with Chosroes and to establish peace with him at 
last. And they mentioned as evidence of this the 
fact that Belisarius, who in power and dignity was 
far superior to Martinus, as even he himself would 
not deny, had recently persuaded the king of the 
Persians, when he was in the midst of Roman terri- 
tory, to withdraw from there into Persia, promising 
that envoys from Byzantium would come to him at 
no distant time and establish peace securely, but 
that he had done none of the things agreed upon, 
since he had found himself unable to overcome the 
determination of the Emperor Justinian. 






PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



XXVII 



rovra) Be 'Pw/zatot erroiovv roidBe. Biw- 
K TT}? 7ro\erw9 evepOev rwv rro\ep,ia>v rov 
^epyaadpevoi eKe\evov rovs opvcrcrovras 
fieOieaOai rov epyov rovrov, eeo9 vrco rov 
\6d>ov yevwvrai picrov. ravrrj yap Kavaai TO 

2 %<w/i,a rovro Bievoovvro. Trpolovcr^ Be rrj<? 

Kara rov \6(f>ov p,d\icrra pe'crov 
T49 69 r&v Tlepacav TOt>9 virepdev ecrr&ras 

3 rf\,6ev. al<T@6/jivoi re rov TTOLov^evov KOI avrol 
avwOev dp^dfjLevoi <f> exdrepa rov fiicrov wpvo-crov, 

\dj3oiev TOW9 eicelvr) Kaxovpyovvras *P ra- 
ft Brf yvovres 'Pwyotatoi rovrov fj,ev 
'ovv Trl rov Kevwdevra ^wpov l 
?, K Be aKpov %(t)fAaros KarwOev, o 
7rpo9 TCO refyei ervy%avev ov, v\a re xal \i9ov<$ 
/cal 'Xpvv K(f>opr)cravT<; Kaddrrep OIKIUKOV cr^fifjua 
elpyd(ravro, Trpepva re BevSpwv rwv paara 
Kaioftevcov r)pd evravda eae/3a\\ov, eXaiy re 
Karafteftpeypiva rq> eK KeBpov TreTroirj/jLevp Kal 

5 Oeiw re Kal dcr(f)d\ro) Tro\\fj. Kal 01 /Jiev ravra 
ev TrapacrKevf} el%ov, ol Be Hepcrwv ap^ovres 
7TO\\dKi<; evrv^6vre<i Maprivw roiavra [lev old 
irep fjLOi ecprjrat Bie^e^drjcrav, BoKtjcriv rrape^o- 
[AGVOi co9 TOi>9 dfj,(J)l rfj elprjvr) evBe^ovrai \6yov$. 

6 eVtl Be 6 \6<f)o<? avrols erereXearo tfBrj, Kal 
Tr\t]a lafav fiev ra> 7re/o</3oXft) T^9 7roX6&)9, v^rei Be 

* X&pov VP : TAirov G. 
502 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxvii. 1-6 



XXVII 

IN the meantime the Romans were busying them- 
selves as follows : They made a tunnel from the city 
underneath the enemy's embankment, commanding 
the diggers not to leave this work until they should 
get under the middle of the hill. By this means 
they were planning to burn the embankment. But 
as the tunnel advanced to about the middle of the 
hill, a sound of blows, as it were, came to the ears of 
those Persians who were standing above. And per- 
ceiving what was being done, they too began from 
above and dug on both sides of the middle, so that 
they might catch the Romans who were doing the 
damage there. But the Romans found it out and 
abandoned this attempt, throwing earth into the 
place which had been hollowed out, and then began 
to work on the lower part of the embankment at the 
end which was next to the wall, and by taking out 
timbers and stones and earth they made an open 
space just like a chamber ; then they threw in there 
dry trunks of trees of the kind which burn most 
easily, and saturated them with oil of cedar and added 
quantities of sulphur and bitumen. So, then, they 
were keeping these things in readiness; and mean- 
while the Persian commanders in frequent meetings 
with Martinus were carrying on convei'sations with 
him in the same strain as the one I have mentioned, 
making it appear that they would receive proposals 
in regard to peace. But when at last their hill had 
been completed, and had been raised to a great ele- 
vation, approaching the circuit-wall of the city and 



503 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

avrbv TroXXoi) vrrepalpwv errl /aeja errrfpro, 
Maprlvov ftev drrerreiM^avro 8iapp^8r)i> drrei- 
rrjv %v ft/Baa" iv, epjov Be e%ecr$ai TO \oi7rbv 



1 Ato Brj ( P(0/j,ctiOi rwv 8ei>Bpa>v ra Trpe^va 
etcavaav ajrep e? TOVTO fjroi/jiaa-To. rov Se 
HOtpav fj,ev rov ^(B/zaro? riva Kavaavros, OVTTQ) 
8e 8ia Travrbs e^iKvetadat la"%vcravTos, TO. 
Be8a7ravfj<r0ai iravra erv^ev. del <yap 
9 rrjv &id)pv%a %v\a erepa, ovbeva dvievres 

8 /caipov. ijSr) Be TOV irvpbs aTrav evepyovvros TO 
^eo/ia, KaTTVos Tt<? inrepOev r navrci'^r\ rov \6(f)ov 
<f>aiveTo vvKTOtp, 'Pwfjiaioi re OVTTW ede\ovre<$ 
alcrQriGiv rov Troiov/juevov Ilepcrat? Trape^eiv 

9 eTrevoovv rdSe. dvOpaKWV re ical Trvpbs d<yyela 

ravrd re KOL 



ocrrovs rov ^co/iaTO9 Travra-^ocre avyya 

a or) 01 Hepa-ai, ocroi <f>v\a/cr)v evravOa el%ov, 

7rda"fl (nrovBf) Trepuovres ea-(3evvvov real arc* avrov 

10 <f>vecr0ai rbv Kajrvbv (povro. Trpoiovros Be rov 
tcaKov 7r\ij0ei /jiev TroXXw eftorfdovv oi ftdp- 
fiapoi, (8aXXo^T69 Be avrov<? drrb rov rrepi- 

11 /3oXou 'Pci)fj,aloi 7roXXou9 CKrcivav. ov Brj Kal 
Xo<r/oo79 d/j,<f)l rf\,iov dvaro\a<; r/\de, Kal ol TO 
i jr\el(rrov rov crrparov ewrero, e9 Te rbv \6<j)ov 
dvafta? 7r/aci)TO9 eXa/9e ToO Ka/cov aiaOrjcnv. 

12 evepOev jap drre^varo rov Karrvov TO airiov 
elvai, OVK a<$> wv ecrijKovri^ov ol 7ro\ef^ioi, jSorjdeiv 

13 Te Kara rd%o$ e/ceXeue TO crrpdrevfta 6\ov. Kal 
'Pwfiaioi Oapaovvre? 69 avrovs v(3piov, ru>v Be 
ftapftdpwv ol fjiev rive? %oOi>, ol Be Kal vBwp eTTi- 

54 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxvii. 6-13 

rising far above it in height, then they sent Martinus 
away, definitely refusing to arrange the treaty, and 
they intended from then on to devote themselves to 
active warfare. 

Accordingly the Romans straightway set fire to the 
tree -trunks which had been prepared for this pur- 
pose. But when the fire had burned only a certain 
portion of the embankment, and had not yet been 
able to penetrate through the whole mass, the wood 
was already entirely exhausted. But they kept 
throwing fresh wood into the pit, not slackening 
their efforts for a moment. And when the fire was 
already active throughout the whole embankment, 
some smoke appeared at night rising from every 
part of the hill, and the Romans, who were not yet 
willing to let the Persians know what was being 
done, resorted to the following device : They filled 
small pots with coals and fire and threw these and 
also ignited arrows in great numbers to all parts of 
the embankment. And the Persians who were 
keeping guard there, began to go about in great 
haste and extinguish these, and they supposed that 
the smoke arose from them. But since the trouble 
increased, the barbarians rushed up to help in great 
numbers, and the Romans, shooting them from the 
wall, killed many. And Chosroes too came there 
about sunrise, followed by the greater part of the 
army, and, upon mounting the hill, he first perceived 
what the trouble was. For he disclosed the fact 
that the cause of the smoke was underneath, not in 
the missiles which the enemy were hurling, and he 
ordered the whole army to come to the rescue with 
all speed. And the Romans, taking courage, began 
to insult them, while the barbarians were at work, 

55 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



/3aXXoZ>T9 T; KCLTTVOS 8l(f)aiv6TO, 

rov Beivov rj\rfi^ov, dvveiv l /jievroi ovBev ovBa/jbij 

14 el%ov. rj re yap 6 %o09 em^nrjOeif], ravrrj fj,ev o 
KCLTTVOS, &>9 TO ei/eo9, a^ecTreXXeTO, erepa>6i Be OVK 
ei? [Aarcpav dveSiSoro, avrbv rov Trvpbs KOI 
Pid^eaOai TTJV eo&ov OTrrj SVVCIITO dvaytcd^ovTOS' 
TO re vSa)p rj /j,d\icrra eincr /crftyeie, TroXXw eri 

Trjv re do-(j>a\rov KOI TO Oelov evepyelv 
eTTfc re rrjv ev rcocrlv v\r)v aKfid^eiv eTroiet, 
TO TTVp eirl rd rrpoaw del evrjyev, enel rov 
evrb<s ovSa/^rj rocrovrov e^ifcvelcrdai rov 
vSaros efyev ocrov rw V7rep(3d\\ovri Karacrftea-ai 2 

15 rrjv (f)\6ya olov re elvai. 6 Se icarrvos d/Mf)l 8ei\rjv 
6-frtav roaovros eyivero ware real rots Kapprjvotf 
/col aXXoi? rial TroXXw erreKeiva Q}KI)/J,VOI<; 

16 6^877X09 elvai. Tlepawv 8e KOI ' 
vrrepOev dva^e^Korwv rov 

Kal aidicr/jiov evravOa ^virrdvros, evifcwv 'P<y- 

17 paioi. rore teal 17 (f>\b^ Xa/x7rpco9 eK^odelffa 
vrrep TO %w / tta efyalvero, Tlepcrat 8e TOU pev epyov 
rovrov arckcryovro. 

18 "Rferr) Be drco ravrr)<? r/pepa, opOpov 
fwipa rtvl rov 7repifto\ov \d6pa 

-\/ V ftlfrl_s\J/ 9 I 

AcXt//,a/ca9 e%ovre<;, ov or) TO (ppovpiov errwvo^a- 

19 crrai. r&v Be <f)v~\,ciKr)v evravda e^ovrwv 'Peo- 
fiuiiwv rrpaov rtva KaOevBovrcw vrrvov, are rf)<s 
vvtcros TTpo? Trepan lova-iys, rja-v^TJ rds /cXt/ia:a9 

20 TO) refyei epela-avres dveftaivov r)8t}. rwv Be 

1 avvtiv Maltretus : avvaeiv MSS. 

2 Ka,Taff/3e<rai Haury : /coTotriraffot V, /caToiraCffOj Dindorf. 

506 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxvii. 13-20 

some throwing on earth, and others water, where the 
smoke appeared, hoping thus to get the better of the 
trouble ; however, they were absolutely unable to 
accomplish anything. For where the earth was 
thrown on, the smoke, as was natural, was checked 
at that place, but not long afterwards it rose from 
another place, since the fire compelled it to force 
its way out wherever it could. And where the 
water fell most plentifully it only succeeded in 
making the bitumen and the sulphur much more 
active, and caused them to exert their full force 
upon the wood near by ; and it constantly drove the 
fire forward, since the water could not penetrate 
inside the embankment in a quantity at all sufficient 
to extinguish the flame by its abundance. And in 
the late afternoon the smoke became so great in 
volume that ' it was visible to the inhabitants of 
Carrhae and to some others who dwelt far beyond 
them. And since a great number of Persians and of 
Romans had gone up on top of the embankment, a 
fight took place and a hand-to-hand struggle to drive 
each other off, and the Romans were victorious. Then 
even the flames rose and appeared clearly above 
the embankment, and the Persians abandoned this 
undertaking. 

On the sixth day after this, at early dawn, they 
made an assault secretly upon a certain part of the 
circuit- wall with ladders, at the point which is called 
the Fort. And since the Romans who were keeping 
guard there were sleeping a quiet, peaceful sleep, as 
the night was drawing to its close, they silently set 
the ladders against the wall and were already 
ascending. But one of the rustics alone among the 



57 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Tt9 dypoiKwv //,6Vo9 eyprpyopa)? ev 'Pco/Aaioi? arfacriv 

6TV%V, 0? 8r) gltV ftof) T KOI OopV/ 

21 aTravras ijyeipe. KCU /ia^5 /caprepd? 
rjVG&vrai Hep<rai, 9 re TO o-rparoTrebov dve%(apr)- 
aav, avrov XiTro^re? ra5 KXifia/cas, acnrep /car 1 

22 e^ovaiav 'Pco/jualoi avei\/cov. XOCT/JO?;? 8e a/i<^t 
fjfiepav /j,a-r)v fro\\rjv nva rov arparov poipav 
7rl rr}V /j,e<yd\ / rjv KdXovftevrjv Trv\rjv to? ret^o- 

23 fjt,a^(7ovra<? eTrefA^frev. ot? Srj ^W/JLOLOI vTravrid- 
erai/re? ou crrpaTiwrat ftovov, a\\a fcal ajpoi/coi 
Kol rov Stffjiov rives teal f^d^rj viicijcravTes Trapa 

24 TTO\V Toi/9 ftappdpovs TpeijravTO. eri re Tiepacov 
Bio)KOfjLVO)V Tlav\os epprjvevs Trapa Xo<rpoou TIKWV 
e? /xecrof? 'Ptuyu-atou? diriiyyeXke 'PeKivdpiov ejrl 
Tr) elprjvr) etc Bviaimov ijtceiv, ovra> re dfufiorepoi 

25 8ie\v0r)(rav. rjSr) 8e rial irporepov rjfjLepais 6 
'Pe/eivdpio? e<; TO rwv (SapfBdpwv a-TparojreSov 

26 d<f)ifcro. d\\d rovro 9 'Pwpaiovs &>9 f)Ki(rra 
e^ijvejKav Tlepa-ai, KapaSorcovvres 8rj\ov6ri rrjv 
9 TO Tet%09 eml3ov\r)V, 07T&)9, rjv /j,ev avrb e%e\elv 
Svvwvrai, prjSa/^r] 69 Ta5 (nrov&as jrapavo/jieiv 
bo^waiv, fjffcrr]6evres Se, OTrep eyevero, ra 69 rrjv 
vfji/3a<Tiv, 'Pcofiaiwv 7rpoKa\ov/j,ev(i)v 77/309 avrds, 

27 dtjaovrai. eirel Se'Petcivdpios eyevero elaw TTV\MV, 
Hepcrai /Jiev r)j;LOVv rov$ rrjv eipr)vr)v SioiKrjaro/jie- 
vovs Trapd Xo&porjv avrifca 8r) fj,d\a levai, 'P&j- 
fjialot. Be crra\ijcre(Tdai Trpefffleis r)/j,epai<; rpicrlv 
vcrrepov e<j)acrav ravvv yap crfyiai /ca&>9 TOU 
<7ft>/z,aTO? Maprivov rov Grparriyov e-^eiv. 

28 EZz/at re vTroroTrdfav oy^ vyid rov \6yov 
Xocr^6i;9 ra 69 rrjv 7rapdraj;iv efyprvero. KOI 

508 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxvii. 20-28 

Romans happened to be awake, and he with a shout 
and a great noise began to rouse them all. And a 
hard struggle ensued in which the Persians were 
worsted, and they retired to their camp, leaving the 
ladders where they were ; these the Romans drew 
up at their leisure. But Chosroes about midday sent 
a large part of the army against the so-called Great 
Gate in order to storm the wall. And the Romans 
went out and confronted them, not only soldiers, but 
even rustics and some of the populace, and they 
conquered the barbarians in' battle decisively and 
turned them to flight. And while the Persians were 
still being pursued, Paulus, the interpreter, came 
from Chosroes, and going into the midst of the 
Romans, he reported that Rhecinarius had come 
from Byzantium to arrange the peace ; and thus the 
two armies separated. Now it was already some 
days since Rhecinarius had arrived at the camp of 
the barbarians. But the Persians had by no means 
disclosed this fact to the Romans, plainly awaiting 
the outcome of the attempts upon the wall which 
they had planned, in order that, if they should be 
able to capture it, they might seem in no way to 
be violating the treaty, while if defeated, as actually 
happened, they might 'draw up the treaty at the 
invitation of the Romans. And when Rhecinarius 
had gone inside the gates, the Persians demanded that 
those who were to arrange the peace should come to 
Chosroes without any delay, but the Romans said 
that envoys would be sent three days later ; for 
that just at the moment their general, Martinus, was 
unwell. 

And Chosroes, suspecting that the reason was not 
a sound one, prepared for battle. And at that time 

59 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

Tore p,ev rrKivOwv rrdfjirfo\v TL %pfifj,a eirl TO 
e7T6/3aXe, Bvoiv 1 8e vtrrepov rj^epaiv rravrl r& 
crrparq) a><? reL^ofjia^aroiv errl rov TT}? 7roXe&>9 

29 TrepiftoXov rj\6ev. ev re Trv\rj eicdcrrrj-rwv nvas 

teal pepos n rov ffrparev/j,aros icara- 
arrav re ro ret^o? ravrrj rrepL^a\u)v 

30 /c\i/ia:a9 re avrw Kal prfxavas 7rpoa"fjjev. om- 
aOev Be rov<; "ZapaKijvoix; arravras %vv rwv Ylep- 
crwv riaiv era^ev, OVK e</>' c5 TW irepift6\a> 

aX\' OTTO)? aXiaveoyu.efj?? rf)<; 
avrol rou? (j>evyovra<> a-ayrjveva-avre^ 

31 \dj3a)cri, roiavrrj /juev yvaifAr) ro arpdrev/jia 6 
Xoayjo?;? ovrw 8ieral~e. TT}? Be /z,a^9 rrpwl 
dp^a/jiV>j<f Kar dp%a<? /j,ev ra Tlepcr&v /cadvTrep- 

32 repa rjv. rro\\ol yap TT/JO? \iav 0X170^9 e'/xa^ovro, 
eTret TCOV 'Vw/jiaiwv ol TrXeicrTOi dvijfcooi re rwv 
iroi,ovp,evu>v KCU airapdcrKevoL rravrdrraaiv rjaav. 

33 Trpoiovar)*; 8e rfj<f u/i/3oX7}<? dopvftwv re KOI 
rapaxf)*; e/u-TrXew? rj vroXt? ejivero, Kal ^vprravres 
rjBrj aurat? yvvai^l Kal TraiBapLois eVt TO Tet^o? 

34 aveftaivov. ol pev ovv ev ?;Xtta ^uv Tot? crrpanco- 
Tat? Kaprepcorara rov<? rro\ep,iov<s r)p,vvovro, KOI 
r&v d<ypoiKQ)v TroXXot e? TOU? /Sapftdpovs ep<ya 

35 Oavfjiacrra erre&eiKVVvro. TratSe? 8e /cat yvvaiKe? 
%vv TOt9 jej^paKOfft \l6ovs re Tot9 /ia%o//.ei/ot9 

36 ^vveX-eyov Kal ra\\a virovpyovv. rives Se Kal 
\ef3r)ra$ e\aiov TroXXoL'9 e/jLTrXtja-d/jLevoi rrvpL re 
avrovs rcavrayr] rov Tt^ou9 69 StapKr) Oep/jujvav- 
T69 xpovov Kal %eov virepdyav ro e\aiov rrepip- 

1 Svo'iv Maltretus : Sveri/ MSS. 

510 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxvii. 28-36 

he only threw a great mass of bricks upon the 
embankment ; but two days later he came against 
the fortifications of the city with the whole army to 
storm the wall. And at every gate he stationed some 
of the commanders and a part of the army, encircling 
the whole wall in this way, and he brought up 
ladders and war-engines against it. And in the rear 
he placed all the Saracens with some of the Persians, 
not in order to assault the wall, but in order that, 
when the city was captured, they might gather in 
the fugitives and catch them as in a drag-net. Such, 
then, was the purpose of Chosroes in arranging the 
army in this way. And the fighting began early in 
the morning, and at first the Persians had the advan- 
tage. For they were in great numbers and fighting 
against avery small force, since the most of the Romans 
had not heard what was going on and were utterly 
unprepared. But as the conflict advanced the city 
became full of confusion and tumult, and the whole 
population, even women and little children, were 
going up on to the wall. Now those -who were of 
military age together with the soldiers were repell- 
ing the enemy most vigorously, and many of the 
rustics made a remarkable show of valorous deeds 
against the barbarians. Meanwhile the women and 
children, and the aged also, were gathering stones 
for the fighters and assisting them in other ways. 
Some also filled numerous basins with olive-oil, and 
after heating them over fire a sufficient time every- 
where alone the wall, they sprinkled the oil, while 
boiling fiercely, upon the enemy who were assailing 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

pavrvjpiois ria-lv e-m^eovref ert /jui\\ov rovs TroXe- 
/u'of9 x TOV9 TW 7re/j//3oXft> Trpooibvras e\inrovv. 

37 ^Brj [Jtev ovv drrenrbvres ol TLepcrai rd 6V Xa 
eppt,7TTovv, raj re /3a<jiXe e'<? otyiv eX#oi>T69 

TOV 7TOVOV dvT6%lV OVK6TI efJMZCTKOV OlOi T 

38 6vfJ,q> Se TTO\,\& 6 Xoa-por]? e^o^evof Kal 



39 evrj'yev. ol Be tcpavyrj teal Oopvftw TroXXw TOU? re 
TTVpyovs real ra? aXXa<? /xr^^aj/a? T& ret-^ei Trpoff- 
f)<yov KCU ra? /cXtyna/ca? eTreTidevro, co? rrjv 7ro\iv 

40 auro/3oet e^aipija-ovres. ra>v Se 'Ymfialtav avxyd 
re /3aXXoi/T<wi> ;at TTO,VTI crOevet d/j,vvo/j,eva)v, rpe- 
Trovrai fjuev Kara Kpdros ol /3dp/3apoi, dva^capovvra 
8e rbv Xocrpor/y era}0a^ov 'Pa)/j,aioi, e? 

41 %tav TrapaKaXovvre 1 ?. /J,6vo<? 8e 'Afap 

a? SoiW? fca\ov/ji,6va<? j~i>v rot? e 

, ov &rj Tpnrvpyiav icaXovcri TOV ycopov. 

42 Twi/ Se ravrr} 'Paipaicov OVK ovrcov afyiaiv dto- 

, aXXa Kal TT/OO? ra<? TT/JOcrySoXa? dTrenrbvTwv, 
TO e/cro<? Tet^o?, o 5^/ Ka\ovai irpoTei^icrfut, 
SteXovre? ot fidpftapoi lavypbraTa rot? 
e TOI) fjLeyd\ov 7repi/36\ov d/j,vvo/Avois evetceivro, 
re crTparicoTais ?roXXot9 
to-fv eVe^X^e f^d^rj re 

43 viicrjaas e'|?;Xacre. at 77 Tet^ofia^ia Trpwl dp^a- 
fievr) ere\evra ei9 oei\v]v 6-^riav, d^orepoL re T^V 
vvxra eieeivrjv t'ja-v^rj e/Aevov, Tlepa-ai fj,ev Trepi re 



Be \iOovs re %v\\eyovr6S 9 ra9 evraX- 
/cat ra\Xa ev Trapaa/cevfj rfj irdcrrj 



1 ITJ fi.a.\\ot> rovs -jro\efj.iovs Haurj' : firl TOI/S vo\e/j.tovs 

MSS. 



512 



HISTORY OF THK WARS, IF. xxvii. 36-43 

the wall, using a sort of whisk for the purpose, and 
in this way harassed them still more. The Persians, 
therefore, soon gave up and began to throw down 
their arms, and coming before the king, said that 
they were no longer able to hold out in the struggle. 
But Chosroes, in a passion of anger, drove them all 
on with threats and urged them forward against the 
enemy. And the soldiers with much shouting and 
tumult brought up the tow r ers and the other engines 
of war to the wall and set the ladders against it, in 
order to capture the city with one grand rush. But 
since the Romans were hurling great numbers of 
missiles and exei'ting all their strength to drive them 
off', the barbarians were turned back by force ; and as 
Chosroes withdrew, the Romans taunted him, inviting 
him to come and storm the wall. Only Azarethes 
at the so-called Soiniaii Gate was still fighting with 
his men, at the place which they call Tripurgia. 1 
And since the Romans at this point were not' a 
match for them, but were giving way before their 
assaults, already the outer wall, which they call an 
outwork, had been torn down by the barbarians in 
many places, and they were pressing most vigorously 
upon those who were defending themselves from the 
great circuit-wall ; but at last Peranius with a large 
number of soldiers and some of the citizens went 
out against them and defeated them in battle and 
drove them off'. And the assault which had begun 
early in the morning ended in the late afternoon, 
and both sides remained quiet that night, the 
Persians fearing for their defences and for them- 
selves, and the Romans gathering stones and taking 
them to the parapets and putting everything else in 
1 " Three Towers. " 

513 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



o>5 ry vcrrepaa 

44 T6i%05 rrpo<r/3a\ov(Tiv* ypepa pev ovv rfj TTIJI- 
vo/4evr) r&v ftap/Sdpcov ovSels errl rov rrepiftoXov 
rjKde, rfj Se /^er' Itceivijv p.olpa /xev rov crrparov 

u eyice\6vofAevov rat? Ba/oX.aoO ica\ov- 
TruXat? eireffKr^^rev, vTravrt,acrdvru>v Se 
iwv avrois ijcrcrijdria-dv re rrapa TTO\V rfj 
f^d^r) teal &' 6\iyov e? TO arparorrebov dve^mptj- 

45 tray, /cat TOTe TIaOA.05 o ne/jo-wj/ epprjvevs rrapa 
TO Tet%o? r)Ka>v ^aprlvov e/cdXei, e'<' w Ta e? T^ 

40 ^vfjiftacriv SioiKijcrrfrai. ovrw re Maprivov TO?? 



/cat rrevre tcevrrjvdpia TT/OO? 
Xocrpo?;? \a/3a>v ev ypdfjLfj,aaiv avroi? rrjv 0/10X0- 
7ta^ aTreXtTre ToO /j,r)8ev 'Pw/iatot? Trepairepa) \V/JLIJ- 
vaaOai, rd re ^apa/ccofiara rrdvra /j,7rpi)(ra<> eV 
ot/cov dve^prjae rravrl r& crrpar&. 

XXVIII 

1 'TTTO TOI' xpovov rovrov 'Pty/tatwv TeTeXefT?;- 
/ca<7t crrparr)<yol 8vo, 'loOcrTo? Te o /SatrtXew? az/e- 
^rto? /cat Ileyoaj/fo? o "lyS^p, 'loOcrTO? yu.ei' y6(r&) 
Sia<f>0apei<;, Hepav'iM 8e (rvve/3r) ev fcvvijyeffim rov 

2 ITTTTOV e/CTreTTTOJ/coTt 3 Siappayfjvai. Sib Srj avf av- 
r&v y8a<rtXey? erepovs Karaarrjcrdfjievos eVe/ii/re 
Ma/oeXXov TC, TOV d$e\<f)iSovv rov avrov dprt 
<yveid<TKovra, teal K.wva'ravnavov, 05 8rj 0X170) 



lirl V : f;v ^rl G. 2 irpo<r0d\uffiv G. 

tcireimaxoTi MaltretllS : ^iri7rfirTOK-({Ti MSS. 



514 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxvii. 43 -xxviii. 2 

complete readiness, so as to fight against the enemy 
on the morrow when they should attack the wall. 
Now on the succeeding day not one of the barbar- 
ians came against the fortifications ; but on the day 
after that a portion of the army, urged on by Chos- 
roes, made an assault upon the so-called Gate of 
Barlaus ; but the Romans sallied forth and confronted 
them, and the Persians were decidedly beaten in the' 
engagement, and after a short time retired to the 
camp. And then Paulus, the interpreter of the 
Persians, came along by the wall and called for 
Martinus, in order that he might make the arrange- 
ments for the truce. Thus Martinus came to 
conference with the commanders of the Persians, and 
they concluded an agreement, by which Chosroes 
received five centenaria from the inhabitants of 
Edessa, and left them, in writing, the promise not 
to inflict any further injury upon the Romans ; then, 
after setting fire to all his defences, he returned 
homeward with his whole army. 



XXVIII 

AT about this time two generals of the Romans 
died, Justus, the nephew of the emperor, and Pe- 
ranius, the Iberian, of whom the former succumbed 
to disease, while Peranius fell from his horse in 
hunting and suffered a fatal rupture. The emperor 
therefore appointed others in their places, dispatching 
Marcellus, his own nephew who was just arriving at 
the age of manhood, and Constantianus, who a little 



L L -1 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

rrporepov a/Mi ^epyiw rcapa Xocryooj/v TT pea ftevwv 

3 ecrraXtj. erreira Be 'lovariviavbs fiaaiXeix; rrpea- 
/3et<? jrapa XocrpoTjv errl rfj v/jt,/3do-i K.a}vcrrav- 

4 riavov re ical "Zepytov errefji'^rev. ol Be avrbv 
Kara\a/J,/3dvovcnv ev 'Acrcrvpiois, ov or) TroXtcr/iara 
Bvo ^e\evfceid re teal }.Trjo-i<f)(ov eart, MaeSo^&)7^ 
avra &ei/uia/jLev(i>v 01 yaera rbv <&i\i7nrov 'A\e- 
%av8pov Tlepcrwv re r)p%av real TWV rainy eOvMV. 

5 afj,(f)(t) Be ravra Tiyprjs Trora/io? Biopi^ei' ov yap 

6 a\\r]v %a)pav fjrav e^ovo-iv. evravOa evrv^ov- 
T69 Xo<r/9077 ol Trpefffteis r/^iovv fj,ev ra errl rfjs 
A.aiKr)<> xcopia 'Pco/iatot? aTroSovvai, fteftaiorara 
Be TT/cio? avrovs ra dfj,(f)l rfj elptjvrj tcparvvacrdai. 

7 Xotr/jo?;? Be ov paBiov avrovs effraancev elvai 
aXX^Xot? vfji(3r)vai, r)v ///; riva eKe^eipiav de/^evoi 
Trporepov ovrto re dBeecrrepov del e? d\\ij\ov$ 
fyoirwvres rd re Bidtyopa Bia\v(Tovcn Kal ra rfy 

8 elprjvrjs ev rq> aa^dKel TO \oirrbv 8rf(TOvrai. Ypn- 
vai Be vrrep rf)<? del eKe^eipiaf %pijfAard re ol 
rbv 'Payfjiaifov avrotcpdropa Bovvai /cat, riva Tpi- 
ftovvov ovojjia larpbv rrepsfyai, e<fi c5 ol vvoiarpi- 

9 a|ret raicrov riva %povov. ervy^ave yap 6 larpbs 
OVTO? vocrov re avrbv drrdX\,d^a^ ^aXeTTrj^ Trpo- 
repov /cal arc 1 avrov (>i\o$ re real TroQeivbs e? ra 

10 ytiaXicrra wv. ravra errel /SacrtXeu? 'lovo-riviavbs 
ijfcovo~, rov re Tpiftovvov /cal ra ^pr)p,ara evflvs 

11 e7re/ii/re ^vviovra e? tfevrtjvdpia eitcoo-iv. ovrw re 
al aTTOvBal yeyovaai 'Pw/juaLOis re /cal Tlepo-ai$ e? 
evtavrovs rrevre, Be/carov re /cal evarov eVo<? 
'lovanviavov /9ao-<Xe&)9 rrjv avro/cpdropa dp%r)v 



12 'Q\iya) be vcrrepov 'Apedas re Kal *A\afJ,ovv- 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxviii. 2-12 

earlier had been sent as an envoy with Sergius to 
Chosroes. Then the Emperor Justinian sent Con- 
stantianus and Sergius a second time to Chosroes to 
arrange the truce. And they overtook him in 
Assyria, at the place where there are two towns, 
Seleucia and Ctesiphon, built by the Macedonians 
who after Alexander, the son of Philip, ruled over 
the Persians and the other nations there. These two 
towns are separated by the Tigris River only, for 
they have nothing else between them. There the 
envoys met Chosroes, and they demanded that he 
should give back to the Romans the country of 
La/,ica, and establish peace with them on a thor- 
oughly secure basis, f But Chosroes said that it was 
not easy for them to come to terms with each other, 
unless they should first declare an armistice, and then 
should continue to go back and forth to each other 
without so much fear and settle their differences and 
make a peace which should be on a secure basis for 
the future. And it was necessary, he said, that in re- 
turn for this continued armistice the Roman Emperor 
should give him money and should also send a certain 
physician, Tribunus by name, in order to spend some 
specified time with him. For it happened that this 
physician at a former time had rid him of a severe 
disease, and as a result of this he was especially 
beloved and greatly missed by him. When the 
Emperor Justinian heard this, he immediately sent . 
both Tribunus and the money, amounting to twenty" 
centenaria. In this way the treaty was made be- 
tween the Romans and the Persians for five years, 
in the nineteenth year of the reign of the Emperor 
Justinian./ 

And a little later Arethas and Alanioundaras, the 

517 



PROCOP1US OF CAESAREA 

Sapos, ol rwv %apaKV)v&v ap^ovres, 7ro\e/ioz> trpbs 
d\\rj\ov$ Kara /j,6vas Siefapov, ovre ' 

13 ovre Tlepff&v d/jbvvovrwv <r(f>icrt. /ecu ' 
/305 fj,ev era rwv 'Ape$a rcal^wv 1 ITTTTOU? 
emBpo/jLf)<i e\cav rfj 'A.<j)po$iTrj evdix; edvae, KOI d-rr' 
avrov eyvwa-Orj ov KaraTrpoteaOai, ra ' 

14 Trpdyftara ITe/jtrat? 'ApeQav. //.era Se 

fjiev e? fj,d%r)v ercdrepoi jravrl ra> (npaT&, micwcri 
Se /card tcpaTOS ol ^vv TW 'ApeOa, rpe-^rd/Mevoi re 
TOI/? TroXe/ztoy? TroXXou? eiCTeivav. Koi trap 



e\elv, ov /JLCVTOI ye el\e. rd 
ovv ^apatcrjvwv ravrrj TTT; el%ev. 

15 Xotr/ooT^? Se, 6 Tlepcrwv /SacrtXey?, 
76707/6 T^V Ke%eipiav v& So\epw Trp 

, e^>' w 8^ avrovs Bid TTJV elpijwrjv 
a^o)v dvtftcea-Tov TI 

1C) rpira) yap rrjs e6^et/)ta9 evtavrw 
TOidoe.' rjcrnjv V He/Jcrat? aSeAxjbot Svo, 
re fcdi 'I(r8iyovcrvas, ttp^a? fiev Trepifi 
evravda /Jbeyicrras Kal aXXco? Xoyiff^S) rrovqpordrw 
Hepcrwv drrdvrwv Kal 86%av eVl rfj Seivorrjn Kal 

17 KaKorpoTria 7ro\\r)v e^ovre. /3ov\eva-dfjbevos ovv 
rro\,iv Aa/?a9 Kara\a/3eiv ej; eTriSpo/Af/s Kal Aai/c?79 
ej;oiKi<rat 2 KoX%ot9 arravras, Ilepcra9 Se a^r' 
avrutv oiKijropas icaracrrrjcraadai, ra> dvBpe 
rovrw 69 d/jifpfo rd epya vTrrjperijcrovras e'tXero' 

IS epfjwiiov ydp Kal \6yov TTO\\OV afyov etfraivero 
elvai yrjv rrjv KoX^/Sa crcfrerepicrafjievct) ev rm 

1 iraiStav Maltretus : iratSo MSS. 
3 t^otnlffai Justice : efoj/aVas H. 

518 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxviii. 12-18 

rulers of the Saracens, waged a war against each 
other by themselves, unaided either by the Romans 
or the Persians. And Alamoundaras captured one 
of the sons of Arethas in a sudden raid while he was 
pasturing horses, and straightway sacrificed him to 
Aphrodite ; and from this it was known that Arethas 
was not betraying the Romans to the Persians. 
Later they both came together in battle with their 
whole armies, and the forces of Arethas were over- 
whelmingly victorious, and turning their enemy to 
flight, they killed many of them. And Arethas came 
within a little of capturing alive two of the sons of 
Alamoundaras ; however, he did not actually succeed. 
Such, then, was the course of events among the 
Saracens. 

But it became clear that Chosroes, the Persian 
king, had made the truce with the Romans with 
treacherous intent, in order that he might find 
them remiss on account of the peace and inflict 
upon them some grave injury. For in the third 
year of the truce he devised the following schemes. 
There were in Persia two brothers, Phabrizus and v 
Isdigousnas, both holding most important offices 
there and at the same time reckoned to be the basest 
of all the Persians, and having a great reputation 
for their cleverness and evil ways. Accordingly, 
since Chosroes had formed the purpose of capturing 
the city of Daras by a sudden stroke, and to move 
all the Colchians out of Lazica and establish in their 
place Persian settlers, he selected these two men to 
assist him in both undertakings. For it seemed to 
him that it would be a lucky stroke and a really im- 
portant achievement to win for himself the land of 



519 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

rfjs Krijcreax; c^ew, ^vpfyopov \oyt- 
rfj Tlepcrwv dp%fj Kara TroAAa ecrea-Qai, 

19 roOro ye. TJJV re yap 'I/Srjpiav ev r& aacfraXei 69 
TO eTretra egeiv, OVK av en e%6vTa>v 'Ifttfpcov e<fi 
ov<mva<t avd pwirwv aTToaravres aatOijcrovTai' 

20 CTreiSrj yap ol rovrcov 8r) T^oytf^coraroi TWV /3ap- 
ftdpwv 6/jiov Tovpyevp TW j3acri\t e? aTrocrracnv 
elBov, w<T7rep /JLOL ev rot? efnrpoaOe Xoyot? eppi'jdv], 
ovre ftaatXea afylcn, KaTacrjijaeadat TO evdevSe 
^vve^tapovv Hep&ai ovre avroyvw/AOvovvres Tlep- 
crwv KUT)JKooi "\ftr)pes rjcrav, dXX,' viratyta re teal 

21 airiarla e? a\\rf\ovs 7ro\\fj ei%ovro. evor)\oi re 
'I/37/?e9 r)crav Svcravaa-^erovvre 1 ? re la^yporara 
KOI vewrepiovvres ov vroXXo) vcrrepov, ijv rivos 

22 Trore icaipov \aj3eadai Svvarol elev. Kal TT/JO? 
Ovvvwv rwv Aa^LKrj TT po(TOiKU>v dSyforov pev rrjv 
TIepo-wv dp%r)v e? del ecrecrOai, paov Be Kal 
dTrovcorepov avrovs rfj 'Pw/Miiajv dp%f) 7n- 
Tre/jL^eiv, rjviKa av avr& /3ov\o/j,evw eir)- ov yap 
a\\o ovSev rot? ev Ko-u/cacrw olfcovfri ftapftdpoi? rj 

23 67rtTefc%io-/ia Aafyicrjv elvai. fjt,d\i(rra Be rrdvrwv 
icara rovro i~vvoicreiv 7rpo<> l Aafyfcr 

rf^TTL^e Tlepcraif, on, Brj eg avrr)S 
Bvvijffovrai ovBevl rrovw KaraOeovres Kal 
vavffl ra eVt rov Rvgeivov Ka\,ovfj,evov TTOVTOV 
^wpLa KaTTTraSo/ta? fj,ev Kal TOU? avrwv e%o- 
/juevov*; FaXara? Kal TSidvvovs Trapao-rrffrecrOai, e% 
eVtS/ao/i?}? Be Bv^avriovs aiptf<reiv, ovBevos <T$l<Tiv 

24 dvrHrrarovvros. rovrwv fiev BJJ evexa Trpoa-TToiei- 
aOdi Xo0Y>a79 Aa^tKrjv r)6e\ev, eVt Aa^ot? Be TO 

1 irpbs MSS. : Christ would delete. 
520 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxviii. 18-24 

Colchis and to have it in secure possession, reasoning 
that this would be advantageous to the Persian 
empire in many ways. In the first place they would 
have Iberia in security forever afterwards, since the 
Iberians would not have anyone with whom, if they 
revolted, they might find safety ; for since the most 
notable men of these barbarians together with their 
king, Gourgenes, had looked towards revolt, as I 
have stated in the preceding pages, 1 the Persians from 
that time on did not permit them to set up a king 
over themselves, nor were the Iberians single-minded 
subjects of the Persians, but there was much 
suspicion and distrust between them. And it was 
evident that the Iberians were most thoroughly dis- 
satisfied and that they would attempt a revolution 
shortly if they could only seize upon some favourable 
opportunity. Furthermore, the Persian empire would 
be forever free from plunder by the Huns who lived 
next to Lazica, and he would send them against the 
Roman domains more easily and readily, whenever 
he should so desire. For he considered that, as 
regards the barbarians dwelling in the Caucasus, 
Lazica was nothing else than a bulwark against 
them. But most of all lie hoped that the subju- 
gation of Lazica would afford this advantage to the 
Persians, that starting from there they might over- 
run with no trouble both by land and by sea the 
countries along the Euxine Sea, as it is called, and 
thus win over the Cappadocians and the Galatians 
and Bithynians who adjoin them, and capture 
Byzantium by a sudden assault with no one opposing 
them. For these reasons, then, Chosroes was 
anxious Lo gain possession of Lazica, but in the Lazi 

1 Cf. Book I. xii. 5 ff. 

521 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



25 0apaelv o>9 tffcio-ra et%ei>. eTreiorj yap ' 
etc T/79 Aafytcf)? dve%a>pr)crav, A.a%a>v TO 
rg Tlepawv apxfj errLeiKws rj^dero, 

yap, etrrep aXXot Tivis, ol Hepcrat, et'crt /cat rd e? 

26 rrjv Siairav VTrepdyav <rK\rjpoi. KOI atrot? oi 
re vofJiOi SvcnrpocroSoi elcrt Trpo? Trdvrwv d 

KOI ra eTTirdyfiara ovBafj,ij dvKT(i. TT/JO? 

Kal 8ia<f>ep6vra)^ TO Bta\\d(T(rov TT)? Te 
del KOL Trjs SiaiTrjs Trapa TTO\V Sia- 
<f>aiveTai, evret Aa^ot fAev Xpia-navoi elai irdvrwv 
/jLd\icrra, Tlepaais 8e avr' evavrias avTwv rd 69 TO 

27 Oelov cnravra e'et. &>Jt9 Se TOVTCDV 



yvovrat, ov fjbrjv ovre <rT09 

28 oijTe oti/09 ouT6 Ti aX,Xo dyadov (jiverai. etc 8e 
'Pwfiaicov rwv TrapaXiwv aTravra Tat9 vavcrlv 
e-rreio-ep-^eTai o-<f>iai, Kal ravra ov %pva-iov rot? 
(TV/ji{3d\\ov(Ti Trpoie/jLevois, d\\d Seppeis re Kal 
dv&paTTO&a Kal et ri a\\o evravOa Kara TTO\V 

29 Trepieivai %v/j,/3aivei. rovrov re, a>9 TO etVo9, 
d7roKeK\et<Tfjievoi TO \onrbv ija"%a\\ov. wv Srj 6 
Xoo7?o?79 al(T06fjLvo<; Trporeprja-ai %vv rw acr^aXet, 
rrpLv Ti 69 avrbv vea)repi<reiav, 1 ev cnrovSfj el^e. 

30 Kal ol /3ov\evofj,ev(a gv/jujjopcorarov eSogev elvai 
Tovftd&v rbv Aa^wz/ ftacrikea eKTroSciiv on 
rd^iara Troirja-a^eva) Aabi>9 evOevSe 
dvaffrijcretv, ovra) re TIepa-as Kal d\\a drra 
j*vvoiKieiv ev ravrrj rf) 

31 Tavra 6 Xo<7/)07/9 /3 

ft>9 7Tt Trpeo-fteia Brjdev rq> \6y<a 9 
ffre\\ei, Kal ol TIepo-wv dpia-rivSrjv drro\e^dfji 

1 vfoi-rfpiffeiav Dindorf : vfiarepiffttv MSS. 
522 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxviii. 24-31 

he had not the least confidence. For since the time 
when the Romans had withdrawn from Lazica, the 
common people of the country naturally found the . 
Persian rule burdensome. For the Persians are 
beyond all other men singular in their ways, and 
they are excessively rigid as regards the routine 
of daily life. And their laws are difficult of access 
for all men, and their requirements quite unbearable. 
But in comparison with the Lazi the difference of 
their thinking and living shows itself in an al- 
together exceptional degree, since the Lazi are Chris- 
tians of the most thorough-going kind, while all the 
Persian views regarding religion are the exact oppo- 
site of theirs. And apart from this, salt is produced 
nowhere in Lazica, nor indeed does grain grow there 
nor the vine nor any other good thing. But from 
the Romans along the coast everything is brought in 
to them by ship, and even so they do not pay gold to 
the traders, but hides and slaves and whatever else - 
happens to be found there in great abundance ; and 
when they were excluded from this trade, they were, - 
as was to be expected, in a state of constant vex- 
ation. When, therefore, Chosroes perceived this, 
he was eager to anticipate with certainty any move 
on their part to revolt against him. And upon con- 
sidering the matter, it seemed to him to be the most 
advantageous course to put Goubazes, the king of 
the Lazi, out of the way as quickly as possible, and to 
move the Lazi in a body out of the country, and 
then to colonize this land with Persians and certain 
other nations. 

When Chosroes had matured these plans, he sent 
Isdigousnas to Byzantium, ostensibly to act as an en- 
voy, and he picked out five hundred of the most 

523 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



Trevratcocrovs vve7refj,-rev, etcrreta? aai ye- 
veaffai /J,ev ev TroXet Aapa?, ev oliciais 8e xara- 
XOerai 7roXXat9, raina^ re vvKTcap dirdcras 
i, KO\ 'Putp-aiwv dfjL<pl TO Trvp TOVTO 
0)9 TO et^ro?, airdvToav avovyvvvai 
fj,ev ra? TruXa? eiidvs, rf) &e jro\et_ TO aXXo 

32 Tlepa-wv (TTpdrev/ia Be^acrdai. irpoeiprjro yap 

Ntcrt/3tSo9 TToXew? ap^ovrt 

ayxicrrd 7nj e<yKpv(f)idovTi ev 
e^eiv. ovra) <yap avrovs wWo XocrpoT;? ov8ei>l 
TTOVW f Pa>//,ai'ou<? re asncLvras Siaxprjcreadai l /ecu 
TTJV TTO\IV Aapa? ey /3e/3ata> KaraXa/Sovras 

33 aj^rjaeiv. d\\d Tt? eu etSco? TX Trpacraofieva, 
( Pa>/j,alo<? /j,ev dvrjp, auTO//.oXo9 8e 0X17 w irporepov 
69 IIep<Ta9 tf/cwv, TOV irdvra \6yov Tewpyim 
(frpd^ei, evravOa Tore Sicnpiftrjv ej(ovn, ov Srj ev 
rot9 efjiTrpoadev \6yots efjivijcrdrjv, are 



TOU9 ev rw ^tcravpvrov 
[j,evov<$ (fjpovpiqi) <r^>a9 avrovs evSovvai ' 

re KOI Tlepawv 

aTravTijcras TO> Trpeaftevrf) TOVTW etyacrfcev 
ov Kara TT peer fteiav rd Troiovfjueva elvat, KOI ov 
Trore Tlepcras rocrovrovs TO 7T\f)8os ev 7ro\ei 

35 'P(0jMii,(i)v av\i(ra<T0ai. Xpijv yap Tot9 fJ*V aX- 
Xoi/9 diravTas ev j^wpiw 'A/iyu-tSt09 d7ro\i7Teiv, 
ain& 8e vv 0X170^9 nalv 69 

36 e&iTrjrd elvai. 6 fiev ovv 'Icr6Vyoucrw9 rf 

re Kal Svo-fopov/jievfp eptcei, are Trepiv/3pi(r/jLevo<; 
ov Seov, Kalrrep eVt Trpeaftelq rrapd TOV 'Pw/Miicav 

37 /3a(Ti\ea <TT\\6fjLevo<f. Yempyios oe ol ov rrpocr- 
%(i>v TOV vovv r/ypiMiAevfiy SieartMraTO Trjv 

1 Siaxpya'acrOai VG. 
524 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxviii. 31-37 

valorous of the Persians and sent them with him, 
directing them to get inside the city of Daras, and 
to take their lodgings in many different houses, and 
at night to set these all on fire, and, while all the 
Romans were occupied with this fire, as was natural, 
to open the gates immediately, and receive the rest 
of the Persian army into the city. For word had 
been sent previously to the commander of the city 
of Nisibis to conceal a large force of soldiers near by 
and hold them in readiness. For in this way 
Chosroes thought that they would destroy all the 
Romans with no trouble, and seizing the city of 
Daras, would hold it securely. But someone who 
knew well what was being arranged, a Roman who 
had come to the Persians as a deserter a little 
earlier, told everything to George, who was staying 
there at the time ; now this was the same man whom 
I mentioned in the preceding pages l as having per- 
suaded the Persians who were besieged in the 
fortress of Sisauranon to surrender themselves to the 
Romans. George therefore met this ambassador at 
the boundary line between Roman and Persian soil 
and said that this thing he was doing was not after 
the fashion of an embassy, and that never had so 
numerous a body of Persians stopped for the night in 
a city of the Romans. For he ought, he said, to 
have left behind all the rest in the town of Ammo- 
dios, and must himself enter the city of Daras with 
some few men. Now Isdigousnas was indignant and 
appeared to take it ill, because he had been insulted 
wrongfully, in spite of the fact that he was dispatched 
on an embassy to the Roman emperor. But George, 
paying no heed to him in his fury, saved the city 

1 Book II. xix. 23. 

525 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

'P&)fj.aioi<i. vv yap dvBpdcriv eiKoat fiovois rfj 
TroXet TOV 'lo~Siyov(Tvav eSe^aro. 

>S TauT779 ovv Tijf Tfeipas dTTOTv%(t>v 6 /3dp/3apo<; 
OUTO9 a>9 Trpeaftevwv e*9 T&v^dvriov rj\6e, TTJV re 
yvvaifca teal dvyarepaf eirayofjLevo^ 8vo (TOVTO 
yap r)v auTc3 TO TrapcnreTCHr/uia TOV vi>\r) 
6/z.tXof), TO) Te /SacrtXet 9 O^TLV rjicwv d/j 
rwv (TTrovBaiwv Tivl ov juLeja ov juitpov l 
elireiv, tcaiTrep ovy r/acrov f) fj,tjva<f Sexa icara- 

39 T/oti/ra9 ev 'Patfj.aitov rf) yfj. ra p,evroi Batpa 
jrapa Xocr/aoou, yirep eWiaTai, /cal <ypd/j,jj.aTa 
/3aai\,ei eSa>K6, Si" wv 6 ^iocrporjs; 'lovcrrivtavov 
/3acrt\ea a-ijfMrjvai rjj;iov ei oi TO craiyna vyieias 

40 irept a>9 apicrTa e^ot. TOVTOV pevToi TOV 'IcrSt- 
yovavav 'lovtrnviavos /3acrtXeu9 /j,d\icrTa irpecr- 



(f)i\o(f>poo-vvr} elSe ical oia Ttyu.^9 Ifcavws 

41 oHTTe Kal rjv'iKa Srj avTov ecrTKOt), RpaSovtciov, 
oo~7Tp avT& ep[Arjvi>s evrrTO, vv avTo> evrt T^9 
<7Tf/3a8o9 KaTetcXive, Trpdy/jia TrwiroTe ov 76701/09 

42 irpoTepov etc TOV TTCIVTOS %p6vov. epfirjvea yap 
ovSe T&tv TIVI fcaTaBeecrTepcov dp^ovTwv, /^rj TI ye 
Br) /SacriXet ofioTpaTre^ov yeyovoTa ovSeis TTOTC 

43 elSev. d\\a Kal p,eya\OTrpeTricrTepov rj KaTa 
TrpecrftevTrjv TOV av&pa TOVTOV eSe^aTO re /cal aTre- 
Trefjb-fyaTO, tcaiirep TT' ovSevl epya> TJJV Trpecrfteiav, 

44 wcnrep poi eipijTat, TreTroirjftevov. r/v yap T9 ra9 
Te oaTrdvas SiapidfiijcraiTO /cal TO, owpa ocra 
evOevoe fce/co/juo-fjievos 'laoiyovo-vas aTricav co^eTo, 
TT\eov avTa tcaTaTeivovTa rj e9 %pvcrov KevTijvdpia 
Se/ca evprfcrei. TO, fjiev ovv T^9 9 Aa/)a9 

7ri(3oV\f/$ TO) XoO*/)077 69 TOVTO eT\VTa. 

526 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxviii. 37-44 

for the Romans. For he received Isdigousnas into 
the city with only twenty men. 

So having failed in this attempt, the barbarian 
came to Byzantium as if on an embassy, bringing 
with him his wife and two daughters (for this was 
his pretext for the crowd which had been gathered 
about him) ; but when he came before the emperor, 
he was unable to say anything great or small about 
any serious matter, although he wasted no less than 
ten months in Roman territory. However, he gave 
the emperor the gifts from Chosroes, as is customary, 
and a letter, in which Chosroes requested the 
Emperor Justinian to send word whether he was 
enjoying the best possible health. Nevertheless the 
Emperor Justinian received this Isdigousnas with 
more friendliness and treated him with greater 
honour than any of the other ambassadors of whom 
we know. So true was this that, whenever he 
entertained him, he caused Braducius, who followed 
him as interpreter, to recline with him on the couch, 
a thing which had never before happened in all time. 
For no one ever saw an interpreter become a table- 
companion of even one of the more humble officials, 
not to speak of a king. But he both received and 
dismissed this man in a style more splendid than 
that which befits an ambassador, although he had 
undertaken the embassy for no serious business, as I 
have said. For if anyone should count up the money 
expended and the gifts which Isdigousnas carried 
with him when he went away, he will find them 
amounting to more than ten centenaria of gold. 
So the plot against the city of Daras ended in this 
way for Chosroes. 

5 2 7 



PROCOPIUS OF CARS AREA 
XXIX 



1 "Ei<; re Aa^iKrjV Trpwra pev v\a rca^ri\!Y]Qr] 9 
vrj&v TToirjcriv emrri$eiw<i e^ovra eTre^-^rev, ovbevl 
(frpdffas e<' ortp $r) avrd Tre/jityeiev, 

\oya) /jirj^avd<? ev Her pas TW Tre/Jt/QoXw 

2 (Tofievos ravra ecrre\\ev. eVetra Be TIepawv 
fj,a^i/Jt,ovif rpiaKocriovf uTroXe^d/jievos, 

re, ovTrep aprlws eTrejjivijo-Otjv, avrois 

evrav6a areX'X.et, co Sr) einj'yyeXh.e Tovftdfyv co? 

\adpai6rara SiaxprfaaaQat' TO jap 

3 /AeXqcreiv. ra jjiev ovv %v\a raura eTret e? 



rpia- 

69 Aafyfcrjv d(f)tKo/Jievo<? eTrpaacrev 6V&>9 
Sr) d/j,<f>l Tov/3dr) ra Trpbs rov Xocr/ooou Trr)<yye\- 

4 fieva vTToreXoirj. ervy^ave Se rwv ris ev KoX^oi9 
\oji/Ma>v, <>apcrdvcrr)<; ovojj,a, ru> Fov/Sd^r) Trpocr- 
K/cpovKCt)<; 69 /Jja re 01 arc* avrov ejJLrrercrwK^ 
6^09 teal a>9 ffKiara Oapcrwv r&> /3acri\ei 9 o^riv 

o rjKeiv. orrep errel 6 4>a/3/ji^o9 eyvco, rov ^apadvarjv 
fj,eTa7refj,tydfj,evo<> l KOivo\oyeiro re teal rov arcavra 
\6yov e^evejKfav averrvvOdvero rov dvdpcoTrov orcrf 

6 ol eTTi'^eip'rjrea 69 rrjv Trpd^iv itj. Soi;e roivvv 
cr<})i(Tiv errl Koivrjs /SovXeva-a/jLevois <&d{ 
ev Tier pa rfiTToXeL yeveadai, ^erarrefji^racrdai 
Tovftd^rjv evravOa, O7ra)9 ol dyye\\oi oera 
/SacrtXet d]ut,<pl rw gvvoi<rovri Aa^ot9 Borcovvra 
' 1 aXX' o <$>apadvcrr)<i fcpv(pa r> Yovftd^ 

1 /j.erairenfyd/j.fvos VG : /ifTa/ca\e<ra/ue'os P. 
528 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxix. 1-7 



XXIX 

His first move against Lazica was as follows. He 
sent into the country a great amount of lumber , 
suitable for the construction of ships, explaining to 
no one what his purpose was in so doing, but 
ostensibly he was sending it in order to set up 
engines of war on the fortifications of Petra. Next he 
chose out three hundred able warriors of the Persians, 
and sent them there under command of Phabrizus, 
whom I have lately mentioned, ordering him to 
make away with Goubazes as secretly as possible ; as 
for the rest, he himself would take care. Now when 
this lumber had been conveyed to Lazica, it happened 
that it was struck suddenly by lightning and reduced 
to ashes. And Phabrizus, upon arriving in Lazica with 
the three hundred, began to contrive so that he might 
carry out the orders received by him from Chosroes 
regarding Goubazes. Now it happened that one of 
the men of note among the Colchians, Pharsanses r- 
by name, had quarrelled with Goubazes and in con- 
sequence had become exceedingly hostile to him, 
and now he did not dare at all to go into the 
presence of the king. When this was learned by 
Phabrizus, he summoned Pharsanses and in a con- 
ference with him disclosed the whole project, and 
enquired of the man in what way he ought to g'o 
about the execution of the deed. And it seemed 
best to them after deliberating together that 
Phabrizus should go into the city of Petra, and 
should summon Goubazes there, in order to announce 
to him what the king had decided concerning the 
interests of the Lazi. But Pharsanses secretly 

5 2 9 

VOL. I. MM 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAHKA 



rd Trpacrao/Aeva. Bio Brj Yov^d^t]^ irapd fj,ev 
Qdftpi^ov ovBafj,?) rj\6ev, eK Be rov ep(f>avov<f 69 

8 aTTocrrao-iv elBe. <&d{3pi%o<$ Be Tlepo-ais yu-ev rot? 
aXXot9 rov ev HeTpa <f)V\.aKTriplov eVt/ieXetcr^at 
Trdar) Swa/met eVeo-reXXe ai ra 69 iroXiopKiav &>? 
dff(j)a\ea-Tara e^aprvecrOai, avro<f Be %vv rots 
Tpiaicocriois CTT" OIKOV dirpaKro^ dve^utprjcre. 

9 Tovftdfas Be dveveytcwv e<? 'lovcrrtviavbv /SacriXea 
TO, irapovra <7<t<rt TWV fikv rd irporepa 7r7Tpa<y- 

Aa^ot? eBeiro crwyyvtanova elvai, dyJvvai Be 
Bvvd/jLei rfj 7rd<rrj d-jraXka%elov(Ti T^? 
V dp%f]<;. ov yap Kara //.oi/a? BwrfcrecrOat, 
OU9 aTTOKpovcracrdat rrjv Tlepcrwv Bvva-fjLiv. 

10 TaOra eVet /3ao-f\eu9 'IoucrTa>ai;o9 rjicovcre, 
7repi^apr)<; ^evo/Jievo^ avBpa? e7rraKicr^i,\iov<i teal 
AaytcrQaiov dp^ovra teal Tdvov<$ %i\i,ov<; 9 eVt- 

11 Kovpiav Aa^bt9 eirep,"^ev. o't Brj ev yf) rf) Ko\%i8i 

a/ia Aa^ot9 re teal ra> Tovftd^r) eva-rpa- 
fttyl TOV Herpas irepifto\ov 9 

12 Tro^iopKiav KaOLcnavro. Tlepcrwv Be T>V evravOa 
OVTWV Kaprepcarara e/c TOV 7repi/36\ov d/j.vvo/j.evwv, 
%povov rfj Trpoo-eBpeia iro\vv Terpi<j>0ai ^vve^r), 
eVet Kal rd eB(b8ifj,a evairode/Jievoi o~(f)io~iv ol Tlep- 

13 o-ai Biaprcw erv^ov. rovrois Be 6 Xoo-/30^9 %vv- 
rapaxdels o-rpartdv Tro\\r)v linrewv re Kal TTC^WV 
eV avrovs eare\\ev, 0*9 Brj dp^ovra Mep/jLeporjv 
e7rearr)o-ev. wvrrep 6 Tov(Sdty)s atV^o/i6vo9 T&> 
Aayt(r0ai(i) eTTiKoiva /3ov\evo-d/jt,evo<; ejroiei rdBe. 

14 Bo9 o TTora/jiof eeio~iv dy^tcrrd TTTJ rwv 

530 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxix. 7-14 

revealed to Goubazes what was being prepared. 
He,, accordingly, did not come to Phabrizus at all, 
but began openly to plan a revolt. Then Phabrizus 
commanded the other Persians to attend as carefully 
as they could to the guarding of Petra, and to make 
everything as secure as possible against a siege, and 
he himself with the three hundred returned home- 
ward without having accomplished his purpose. 
And Goubazes reported to the Emperor Justinian 
the condition in which they were, and begged him 
to grant forgiveness for what the Lazi had done in 
the past, and to come to their defence with all his 
strength, since they desired to be rid of the Median 
rule. For if left by themselves the Colchians would 
not be able to repel the power of the Persians. 

When the Emperor Justinian heard this, he was :.4si.\.n. 
overjoyed, and sent seven thousand men under the t 
leadership of Dagisthaeus and a thousand Tzani to 
the assistance of the Lazi. And when this force 
reached the land of Colchis, they encamped together 
with Goubazes and the Lazi about the fortifications 
of Petra and commenced a siege. But since the 
Persians who were there made a most stalwart de- 
fence from the wall, it came about that much time 
was spent in the siege ; for the Persians had put 
away an ample store of victuals in the town. And 
Chosroes, being greatly disturbed by these things, 
dispatched a great army of horse and foot against 
the besiegers, putting Mermeroes in command of 
them. And when Goubazes learned of this, he 
considered the matter together with Dagisthaeus 
and acted in the manner which I shall presently set 
forth. 

The river Boas rises close to the territory of the 

53' 

M M '2 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

OpLO)V eV 'ApfJ,ViOl<> 01 OT) dfji(f)L TO 

ov wKijvrai. KCU ra pep Trpwra ev Seia 
e?rl 7rXe4O"Toi> %a>pei, j3pa%v<t re lotv KOI TTOVM 
ovSevl yivouevos ecr/Saro9 drracnv a-%pi 69 %wpov 
ov S?) ev Be^ia fjiev 'Ifttfpaiv ra opid ecrri, icarav- 

15 riKpv Se reXeura 0/309 o Kau/eatro?. evravda 
Wvt] a\\a re 7ro\\a KCU 'AXa^ot re /cat 'A/3acr<yoi 
MKTjvrai Xpiariavoi re /ecu 'Pa>/j,aioi<; (f)i\oi CK 
7ra\aiov ovres, Zrj^oi re /cal per avrovs Qvvvoi, 

16 ot ^d^eipoi 67riica\ovvTai. eTreiSdv 8e 6 TTora^io^ 
OUTO9 d(f>ifCT)Tai, 'iva Br) rov re KaiMcacrou KOL 
'lyS-^yota? ra opid eariv, evravOa eTriyivofievayv ol 
KOI a\\<ov vBdrtov p^el^wv re irapa jrokv yiverai 
KOI Oaat? dvrl Boa TO evdevoe Ka\ov/j.evos (frepe- 
rai, vavcflrcopo^ <ye < yevr){jLevos axpi e? TOP Rv^eivov 
Ka\ov/j,evov rrovrov, ov 01] ol icai ra? e/c/SoXa? f/t- 
{3aivei elvai, KCU avrov e</>' eKarepa Aa&Kij e<rriv. 

17 aXX' ev Segia jj,ev fu/iTracra eVi rrXelarov rj yapa 
TTyoo? rwv rfjSe av6 pcairwv oltceirai fJ>e%pi rwv 

18 'Iy3?7/3ta9 opitov. Kw^aL re yap ai Aa^wv rcaaai 
rov 7Torctfj,ov evrbs evravdd elcn KOI TroXtcr/iara 
eK rraXaiov o-(f>icri ravrrj rcerroL^vrai, ev rot9 'A/j- 



e~)(ypwrrri ovcra, eao-TOTro re 
evravda KOI TO ITiTfoi}i'T09 <f>povpi6v ecrrt, "2,Kdvoa 



evravdd elai 'Po- 
19 6o?roXt9 teal Mo^/7/oi7crf9. TOI) oe Trorapov ev 
dpio-repq Aa^t/c?}9 jJ-ev ra opid ecm f^e^pi 9 rjfLepas 
ooov ev^tovw dvopi, ept]^ov Be ^vpftalvei dvdpa)- 
rrjv %(opav elvai. ravrrjv rrpoo~oiKOvo~i 



532 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxix. 14-19 

T/ani among the Armenians who dwell around 
Pharangium. And at first its course inclines to the 
right for a great distance, and its stream is small 
and can be forded by anyone with no trouble as far 
as the place where the territory of the Iberians lies 
on the right, and the end of the Caucasus lies directly 
opposite. In that place many nations have their 
homes, and among them the Alani and Abasgi, who are 
Christians and friends of the Romans from of old ; 
also the Zechi, and after them the Huns who bear 
the name Sabeiri. But when this river reaches the 
point which marks the termination of the Caucasus 
and of Iberia as well, there other waters also are 
added to it and it becomes much larger and from 
there flows on bearing the name of Phasis instead of 
Boas l ; and it becomes a navigable stream as far as 
the so-called Euxine Sea into which it empties ; and 
on either side of it lies Lazica. Now 011 the right of 
the stream particularly the whole country for a great 
distance is populated by the people of Lazica as far 
as the boundary of Iberia. For all the villages of 
the Lazi are here beyond the river, and towns have 
been built there from of old, among which are 
Archaeopolis, a very strong place, and Sebastopolis, 
and the fortress of Pitius, and Scanda and Sarapanis 
over against the boundary of Iberia. Moreover there 
are two cities of the greatest importance in that 
region, Rhodopolis and Mocheresis. But on the left 
of the river, while the country belongs to Lazica as 
far as one day's journey for an unencumbered 
traveller, the land is without human habitation. 
Adjoining this land is the home of the Romans who 

1 Procopius seems to have confused two separate and 
distinct rivers. 

533 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



rrjv %(i)pav 01 Tlovri/col 

20 ev fj,ev ovv rot? Aafyrcrj? opiois, 1 evOa Srj dvOpwrcoi 
ovoapri wKrjvro, Herpav 'Iov<rriviavbs [o] /3a<rt- 

\V$ rr)V 7TO\IV l> T019 KCLT /i %/OOVOt? eSei/ittTO. 

21 ovirep ^\u>dvvt]^, 6 T^t/9o9 67UKa\ov/j,evo<;, TO 
fj,ovoTT(i>\iov KaTacrrr]o-d/j,evo<;, &<nrep /not eV rot? 
efj,Trpocr6ev \6yois epprjOrj, amo<? 

22 Aa^bt? yeyovev. e/c Se Herpa? TroXeeo? i'oim 
7T/309 avejAOV VOTOV ol 'Pa>/j,aia>v opoi f 

%wpla re TroXvdvOpwjra evravffd ecrrt, TO re 
ri^alov KaXovpevov KOI 'A.0r]vai aX\a re drra 

23 p^XP 1 T/Mwre^JpviTAftW. qvifca fjikv ovv eTnjydyovro 
Xocrporjv Aa^bt, Boay rcora^ov Bia/Sdvres rov re 
<&dcriv ev &e]~ia e%ovres e? Tierpav rj\6ov, ra> jjiev 
\6jy rrpovorjcrovres eb? pr] %p6vq> re /cal rcovw 
TTO\\(O Siarropd/AevecrOai dvajfcdfovrai vroraftbv 
3>d<nv, ov /3ov\6[J,evoi &e rd (T^erepa ol/cla ITep- 

24 o~at? ev&eiicvvo-ffai. icalror SvcroSos 



j ecrriv evros re KOI e/CTo? rrora^iov 

25 809. cnc6rre\oi yap vrrepfyvels e<' etcdrepa rijs 
^wpa? ovres arevwrrovs erri juucporarov evravda 
TTOiovvrar rc\etcrovpa<> e\\r)VL%ovre<> rds roiavras 

26 68ou9 'P</u.at04 KoKovcriv. aXX,' eVet ToVe Aafyfcrj 
d<f)v\.aKro<; ervy\avev ovaa, paara Srj ev Tlerpa 
%vv T0t9 r/yefj,6(Ti, Aa^ot9 eyevovro Tlepaai. 

27 NOf Se o rov/3a^9 /Aa0(i)v rrjv Hep&wv e<f>oBov 
ra> Aayi<r8ai(0 eVe'crTeXXe Tre/n^ai /j,ev rtvas ot 
d>v\dov<Ti rov crrevwrrov icryvporara 09 eT09 

i. ' C^ " ' \ / C- ' 

<Pao-too9 Trorafjiov ecrri, rrjv fievroi rrpoaeopeiav 



1 Apiois P : x w P' ols V(.J. 

2 /caiVoi Dindorf : /coi TI P. 



534 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxix. 19-27 

are called Pontic. Now it was in the territory of 
Lazica, in the part which was altogether uninhabited, 
that the Emperor Justinian founded the city of Petra 
in my own time. This was the place where John, 
surnamed Tzibus, established the monopoly, as I have 
told in the previous narrative, 1 and gave cause to the 
Lazi to revolt. And as one leaves the city of Petra 
going southward, the Roman territory commences 
immediately, and there are populous towns there, 
and one which bears the name of Rhizaeum, also 
Athens and certain others as far as Trapezus. Now 
when the Lazi brought in Chosroes, they crossed the 
River Boas arid came to Petra keeping the Phasis on 
the right, because, as they said, they would thus 
provide against being compelled to spend much time 
and trouble in ferrying the men across the River 
Phasis, but in reality they did not wish to display 
their own homes to the- Persians. And yet Lazica 
is everywhere difficult to traverse both to the right 
and to the left of the River Phasis. For there are 
on both sides of the river exceedingly high and 
jagged mountains, and as a result the passes are 
narrow and very long. (The Romans call the roads 
through such passes " clisurae " when they put their 
own word into a Greek form. 2 ) But since at that time 
Lazica happened to be unguarded, the Persians had 
reached Petra very easily with the Lazi who were 
their guides. 

But on this occasion Goubazes, upon learning of 
the advance of the Persians, directed Dagisthaeus to 
send some men to guard with all their strength 
the pass which is below the River Phasis, and he 

1 Cf. Book II. XT. 11. 

2 Latin daiisura, " a narrow shut-in road." 



PROCOP1US OF CAESAUEA 

o>9 iJKKTTa \veiv, e&>9 rrjv re TLerpav Kai Ilepcra? 

28 Tot/9 evravda e^e\eiv &vva>vrai. avrbs Se Travrl 
T<p KoA^eoy <rrpar& e? ra Aa%i/cf)<; ecr^ara rj\0ei>, 
a>9 TOI/ evravda arevwjrov Sia(f)V\do)v $vvdjj,ei rfj 

29 Trdcrrj. ervy^ave $e vroXXw rrporepov 'AXa^ov? re 
at Sa/3et/50i'9 e? ^v fJifia^Lav eVayoyu.ei'o?, otWe/) 
a)fio\6ryrj(rav Kevrrjvapiwv rpiwv ov% ocrov abywrov 
Aabi? v/ji<>v\di;iv rrjv yrjv, dX\a ical '\ftripiav 
ovra> KaraarrjfTecrOai dvBp&v eprfpov co? /i^Se 
Ilepcrai? evffev&e TO \OITTOV tevai Svvara ecrecrOai. 
ravrd re a^ia-t ra %pij(j,ara /3acrtXea Tov^d^ijf; 

30 vTrea-^ero Soacreiv. auro? yu,ev ovy dveveyKonv e? 

'lovcrriviavbv ra ^wyfcei/jteva rots re 
ra ^pijfiara ravra l/cereve TrepTreiv 
KOI Aa^ot? a7y /ce/ea/cco/iez/ot? irapa-^rv^riv 

31 TrpoeaOai rivd. <f>acrKe Se at ot avrw TO 
Srjftocriov TO.? avvrd^eis o<j)i\iv eviavrwv Seica, 
7ret ev rols <ri\evnapioi<; ev ira\ari(a racrcrbfJievos 
ovSev KeKOfjiia/jievos evdevSe eirj, eg ov Brj e? 

32 TT;I/ KoA/)ta Xocrpo?;? r)\6e. 1 /SacrtXeu? 8e ' 

7rire\e(Teiv fj,ev Bievoeiro rrjv 

8e oi da")^o\ia^ rivbs OVK erre^e rw 
KaOrjKovrt, %p6vu) ra ^prj/Jiara. FofySa^)/? fj,ev 
ovv ravra eVot'et. 

33 Aayicrflatos Se (TJV <ydp ris veavias rcb\ep,6v re 
Sievey/celv ^[tjStKov ovSapfj d^io^peci)^} Tot? 

34 Trapovo-iv OVK eTTirtiSeiax; evpfiro. Seov ovv 

, \ N . ~ ' ~ *% , > 

afie\ei TO rc\ei(rrov rov crrparov 69 TOV (rrevatTTOv 
<rrel\ai, Ttt^a S' av TTOU eu avrbv ro) epyti) 
rovrw Trapayevecrdai, 9 Karbv avbpas, warrep 
rt Trdpepyov Sta^eipL^wv, eTre/jL^jre pMVovf avrbs 

1 ^\6e YGP : t<rn\0e W. 

536 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxix. 27-34 

bade him not on any account to abandon the siege 
until they should be able to capture Petra and the 
Persians in it. He himself meanwhile with the 
whole Colohinn army came to the frontier of Lazica, 
in order to devote all his strength to guarding the 
pass there. ' Now it happened that long before he 
had persuaded the Alani and Sabeiri to form an 
alliance with him, and they had agreed for three 
centenaria not merely to assist the Lazi in guarding 
the land from plunder, but also to render Iberia so 
destitute of men that not even the Persians would 
be able to come in from there in the future. 'And 
Goubazes had promised that the emperor would give 
them this money. So he reported the agreement 
to the Emperor Justinian and besought him to send 
this money for the barbarians and afford the Lazi 
some consolation in their great distress. He also 
stated that the treasury owed him his salary for ten 
years, for though he was assigned a post among the 
privy counsellors in the palace, he had received no 
payment from it since the time when Chosroes came 
into the land of Colchis. And the Emperor Justinian 
intended to fulfil this request, but some business 
came up to occupy his attention and he did not send 
the money at the proper time. So Goubazes was 
thus engaged. 

But Dagisthaeus, being a rather young man and 
by no means competent to carry on a war against 
Persia, did not handle the situation properly. For 
while he ought to have sent certainly the greater 
part of the army to the pass, and perhaps should 
have assisted in person in this enterprise, he sent 
only one hundred men, just as if he were managing 
a matter of secondary importance. He himself, 

537 



PROCOPIUS OF CAKSAREA 

Be TleTpav Tc6\iopKwv Travrl ray en-parro ovBev 
rjvvcre, Ka'iTiep TWV 7ro\efj,ia)v oXiywv OVTOJV. 
tear* dp%a<; pev jap ov% ^trcrof? rj Trevra- 

35 Koaioi fcal p^iXtot rjaav, 7rpo9 ( Pa)fJ,aia>v 
Be real Aa^wv ev ^povu> 7ro\\a> rei^o^a^ovvrMv 
/3a\\6/jLvoi re Kal dperrjv e-mSetrcvvpevoi fj,d\urTa 
Trdvrcov <av 17/^649 ta-^ev, 0vijcrKOV<ri re TroXXol 
Kal afyiaiv e? 0X1701^9 KO/J,iBrj dTTOKetcpiadai 

36 ^vveTrecre. TLepcrai fj,ev ovv e9 dTroyvaxriv re /cal 
('nropiav e/i.7re7TT&)OTe9 

Be d/jL(f)\ TO T6t^O9 

TreTToirjvrai, o re ravrr) 7rept/9o\09 ev6v<; eTrecrev. 

37 aXXa ^vvefir] rovrov Brj TOV ^wpov evrbs oiKiffjua 
elvai ovSev TOV 7Tpt/36\ov Bt(TTr)Ko<$, o Brj 

38 ej;iKveiTO 9 TO TfeTCTWKOs e(fee^f)<f 6\ov Kal dvT\ 
TOV T6/^ou9 7ro\iopKov/jievoi<> <yev6[jvov ev TW 

39 acr^aXet ovBev TI ^craov avTovs KaOicrTi), oirep 
'Pw/jiaiovs vvTapdl;ai ov8afj,fj ecr^ev. ev yap 
elBoTes ft>9 avTO Btj TOVTO erepwOi 

Trjv TTO\,LV pacrTa alprjcrovcnv, eve\7riBes 

40 eTi fj,d\\ov eyevovTO. Bio Brj o 

ySacriXet fjuev TO, ^vvevexdevTO, eBtjXov, a6\a Be 
01 r>79 viKr)$ ev Trapao-Kevfj elvai irpovTeiveTo, 
ari/jLijvas o<rois Brj avTov re Kal TOV dBe\*j)ov TOV 
avTov xprjv /SacrtXea ButprfaaaOai' TleTpav yap 

41 aipr/a-eiv ov TroXXw vcrTepov. Tlepo~ai /J,ev ovv 



Trapa av 
42 d7ro\e\ei/j,fjievoi 9 dyav. eTrel Be 'Pw/iatot 

/ia^oO^T69 ovBev ijvvov, CTTI TO Biopvcraeiv avOis 

CTpaTTOVTO. 69 TOCTOV T TOV CpyOV TOVTOV d(f)L- 

538 






HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxix. 34-42 

moreover, though besieging Petra with the whole 
army, accomplished nothing, although the enemy 
were few. For while they had been at the begin- 
ning not less than fifteen hundred, they had been 
shot at by Romans and Lazi in their fighting at the 
wall for a long time, and had made a display of 
valour such as no others known to us have made, so 
that many were falling constantly and they were 
reduced to an exceedingly small number. So while 
the Persians, plunged in despair and at a loss what 
to do, were remaining quiet, the Romans made a 
trench along the wall for a short space, and the 
circuit-wall at this point fell immediately. But it 
happened that inside this space there was a building 
which did not stand back at all from the circuit-wall, 
and this reached to the whole length of the fallen 
portion ; thus, taking the place of the wall for the 
besieged, it rendered them secure none the less. 
But this was not sufficient greatly to disturb the 
Romans. For knowing well that by doing the same 
thing elsewhere they would capture the city with 
the greatest ease, they became still more hopeful 
than before. For this reason Dagisthaeus sent word 
to the emperor of what had come to pass, and pro- 
posed that prizes of victory should be in readiness for 
him, indicating' what rewards the emperor should 
bestow upon himself and his brother ; for he would 
capture Petra after no great time. So the Romans 
and the Tzani made a most vigorous assault upon the 
wall, but the Persians unexpectedly withstood them, 
although only a very few were left. And since the 
Romans were accomplishing nothing by assaulting 
the wall, they again turned to digging. And they 
I went so far in this work that the foundations of the 

539 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

KOVTO a>9 fjurjKeri eV eSa<ou9 ra rov irepifto\ov 
0ejj,eXia elvai, dX\? eVl tcevov etc rov ejrl -rrXet- 
arov ecrrdvai, Trevovfjieva, o>9 TO elicos, avriica 
43 Brj fj,d\a. Kal el pev Aayia'8a'io? ev0v<; ijdeXe 
jrvp TOt9 6ep,e\ioi<s evdifrai, ot/xat evOvwpov afyicrL 
rr)v TToh-iv d\S)vai' vvv 8e ra? etc /3a<nXe&>? 
\Tri8a<; j,e\\(t)v re del KCU 



rov %povov ri&vx epeve. ravra fjiev ovv ev rw 
arparoTreSa* eirpdcraero rfjSe. 



XXX 



Se, eirel rou? *\ftr]pia<; opov<; jravrl 
T&> MrjBtov arrpary r//zef^re, irpoaw e^atpei, Trora- 
fj,ov QCLGIV ev Seia jljftav &ia yap rwv 7rl 
Aa^tAC/}? ywpltdv ievai ovBa/jif) ijdeXe, rov pi] 

2 rL 01 ravrrj e'//,7ro8fcryLta viravridcrai, Tlerpav 
yap 3ro\,iv Kal Ile/ocra? TOU? evravda 8ia<7(a- 
rraaQai ev (rTrovSy el%e, Kairoi KCU polpd rt? 

3 rov 7repij36\ov Kara7re7rra)Ket ea7rivaia)s. rjcopr]- 
ro <ydp, wcTTrep JJLOL eiprjrai' avSpes re rov 'Pa>- 
/m,ai(t)v crrparov e? nevrrjKovra ede\ovcrioi ev rfj 
TroXet yevofiievot ySacrtXea 'lovcrnviavbv dveftocav 

4 Kct\\ivifcov. r/yelro Be avrwv veavias ris 'Ap/j,e- 
vio$ yevos, 1 'lajdvvrjs ovo/ui, <yu,a vios, ovTrep 

5 Tovtyv e7TiK\ri(TLV eKa\.ovv. ovro<f 6 Oco/ia? 

rwv a//,0l rrjv Aafy/crjv o^vpwfjbdrwv 
/SacrtXetu? 01 eTrayyetXavros, Kal ra>v 
err par tear wv rjp^ev, ep.fypwv re ftacri\ei 
fi eSoev elvai. 6 [J,ev ovv ']a)dvvrj<>, Tleptr&v o-<f>iaiv 

1 yffos P : yev6/j.fvos VG. 

54 



HISTORY OF THR WARS, IJ. xxix. 4 2-xxx. 6 

circuit-wall were no longer on solid ground, but 
stood for the most part over empty space, and, in the 
nature of things, would fall almost immediately. 
And if Dagisthaeus had been willing immediately to 
apply fire to the foundations, I think that the city 
would have been captured by them straightway ; 
but, as it was, he was awaiting encouragement from 
the emperor, and so, always hesitating and wasting 
time, he remained inactive. Such, then, was the 
course of events in the Roman camp. 



XXX 

BUT Mermeroes, after passing the Iberian frontier 
with the whole Median army, was moving forward 
with the River Phasis on his right. For he was 
quite unwilling to go through the country of Lazica, 
lest any obstacle should confront him there. For he 
was eager to save the city of Petra and the Persians 
in it, even though a portion of the circuit-wall had 
fallen down suddenly. For it had been hanging 
in the air, as I have said ; and volunteers from the 
Roman army to the number of fifty got inside the 
city, and raised the shout proclaiming the Emperor 
Justinian triumphant. These men were led by a 
young man of Armenian birth, John by name, the 
son of Thomas whom they used to call by the sur- 
name Gouzes. This Thomas had built many of the 
strongholds about Lazica at the direction of the 
emperor, and he commanded the soldiers there, 
seeming to the emperor an intelligent person. Now 
John, when the Persians joined battle with his men, 



PHOCOPIUS OF CAKSARKA 



e? TO trrpaTOTTe&ov dve^toprjcrev, e-Tret 
ol T&V etc TOV 'PwpaLtov (rrparov erepo? 

7 dfjtvvcav r/\0e' HepcrijS 8e dvrjp, Mippdvrjs ovofjia, 
oo-Tre/j TOV ev Her pa (f>v\aKTr)piov r/pxev, d/j.<f)l 
rff TroXei Seicra?, Tlepcrais p,ev Tracriv eTrecrreXXe 
T?)<;^~<f>V\aKr)<i e? TO a/cpt^Se? f^aXicna e^ecrOai, 
auTo? Se irapa Aayiffdatov aTaXet? ^eoTra? Te 
/cat d'Trarrf^ov^ TrpovreiveTO \6<yovs, ov&evl irbvq> l 
6fjLO\oja)V ov TToXXcS vcrTpov evSwcreiv rrjv 
ravrr) re wapaKpovarao-dat la-^va-ev, eo? 

rrjv iro\iv avriica rw 'Ptouaiwv arparat 

9 

etvai.- 

8 Ot 8' dfj,(j}l Mep/aepoT/y eVetS?) dfy'iicovTO e? 
TOf (rrevwTTov, evTav&a <r<f>icri TO 'Pw^aiaiv 
<f>v\aKTi)piov virrjVTLa^ov e? eKarbv ovres, fcap- 

Tpa)<? T rjfJLVVOVTO, KOI TOl/5 T% 66CToSoU 7TO- 

9 jreipco/jievovs dveareXKov. Tlepcrai Se ovSafj-ov 
vTre^copovv, d\\a TOV? KreivofAevovs del eTepot 
K8e%6fj,evoi irpoaw e^(t)povv f iravrl affevei Trjv 

in eiaoSov /3ia%6/j,evoi. Ovrja-Kovai /j,ev Tlepcrai 7r\eov 
rj XL\IOI, KTecvovTes Se 'Pa)/j,aioi aTrelirov, TOV Te 
6/uXou o"0a? ftia^ofAevov vTre^faprjadv TG Kai e? 
TWV eiceivr) opwv Ta? v'irep(3o\a < $ dvaSpa/j(,6vT6<> 

11 ecrcoffrjcrav. TavTO, Aayicrdaios fJiaOutv avTiKa 
TTJV TrpocreSpeiav SieXvcrev, ovBev TU> aTpaTu> 3 
7ricrTei\a<f, eVl Qaaiv Te iroTapJov JjXavve' Kal ol 
'PwfJMiot vfj,7ravT$ eiirovTO, TO, cr<f)eTpa avTwv 

12 ev T> (TTpaTOTreSo) aTroXtTroWe?. Tlepcrai 8e TO, 
7roiovp.eva KaTtSovTes Tas Te TriyXa? dveuxyov Kal 



1 ir&vtf GP : \6yia V. 2 elvai Maltretus : itvcu MS. 

lf ffrparf VP : ffrparoTreSia G. 



542 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxx. 6-12 

was wounded and straightway withdrew to the camp 
with his followers, since no one else of the Roman 
army came to support him. Meanwhile the Persian 
Mirranes who commanded the garrison in Petra, 
{'earing for the city, directed all the Persians to keep 
guard with the greatest diligence, and he him- 
self went to Dagisthaeus, and addressed him with 
fawning speeches and deceptive words, agreeing 
readily to surrender the city not long afterwards. 
In this way he succeeded in deceiving him so that 
the Roman army did not immediately enter the 
city. 

Now when the army of Mermeroes came to the pass, 
the Roman garrison, numbering one hundred men, 
confronted them there and offered a stalwart re- 
sistance, and they held in check their opponents who 
were attempting the entrance. But the Persians by 
no means withdrew, but those who fell were .con- 
stantly replaced by others, and they kept advancing, 
trying with all their strength to force their way in. 
Among the Persians more than a thousand perished, 
but at last the Romans were worn out with killing, 
and, being forced back by the throng, they with- 
drew, and running up to the heights Of the mountain 
there were saved. Dagisthaeus, upon learning this, 
straightway abandoned the siege without giving any 
commands to the army, and proceeded to the River 
Phasis ; and all the Romans followed him, leaving 
their possessions behind in the camp. And when the 
Persians observed what was being done, they opened 



543 



PROCOPTUS OF CAESAREA 



ra)v 

13 rj\6ov, ft>9 TO crrparoTreBov eaipijo-ovre<>. T^dvoi 
Be (ov yap AayicrOaiq) emcnrofievot. erv)(ov} 
ej3or}0ovv evravda Bpofjiy, rpe-fydpevoi re rrovw 

14 ovBevl Tot9 7roXe/uov9 7roXXou9 etcreivav. Hepcrai 
fj,ev ovv (frevyovTes evro? TOI) Trept/SoXoi/ eyevovro, 1 
T^dvoi 8e ~\,rjicrd/j,voi TO 'Pci)fjutia)v crrparoTreSov 
evffv rov 'Piicuou ^(i)pr)(rav. evdev Be e? 'A^ra? 
e\66vT<> Bid TpaTre^ovvricov TT' ottcov direicop,i- 



15 Mepjuepot)? Be KOL o MijBcav a-Tparbs evravOa 
rj\0ov r)/jiepa f^erd rrjv Aayicrffaiov vTraycoyrjv 
evdrrj' ov Brj d7ro\e\eifiiJ,evov<? etc rov Tlepcr&v 
<f)v\aKrr)pt,ov rpavparias fj,ev teal diropA^ov^ 
rye<yev>nj,evov<$ rcevn]Kovra /cat rpiaxocriovs evpov, 
dicpai<l>vel<s Be Trevrrjicovra teal eicarbv povovs- ol 

16 ydp aXXot aTra^Te? eredvrjKecrav. wvirep rd 
<rc6/iaTa ol irepiovres rov 7repi/36\ov eT09 ov8afj,f) 
eppi^rav^ aXXa Tc3 T^9 oor/u.^9 Bvcr&Bei drcorcvi- 
jofievot, Trapd 86^av dvrel^ov, a>9 pr) rtva 69 TO 
troXiopKeiv 7rpo0vfj,iav rols 7roXe/itot9, are rwv 

17 ir\el<7ra>v d7ro\(o\6r(av (T<f)icri, 7rape%(ovrai. o re 
Mepfieporj^ emrw6d^(av Batcpvcov re teal Oprjvwv 
d^lav 'Pa>/jiai(0v rrjv TroXireiav etyacrteev elvai, o?9 
76 Br) e9 rovro curOeveia? Trepiecrnjicei rd rrpd<y- 
fiara, a>9 rrevrijtcovrd re teal etcarbv drei^icrrovf; 

18 IIepo-a9 iJirjBe^ia fjurf^avr] ee\elv BeBvvrjcrdai. teal 
rov [lev rrepiftokov dvoucoBo/Jirjcraadai o<ra tcara- 
TreTrrto/eei ev cnrovSf) ercoielro- eVet Be ovre 
riravov ev rq> rrapavriiea ovre ri aXXo rwv 69 rrjv 
oitcoBofAiav eTTirrjBeiwv ev Trapaa-teevfj el%ev, errevoei 

1 fytvovro P : tKretvav VG. 

544 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxx. 12-18 

their gates and came forth, and approached the tents 
of the enemy in order to capture the camp. But the 
T/ani, who had not followed after Dagisthaeus, as it 
happened, rushed out to defend the camp, and they 
routed the enemy without difficulty and killed many. 
So the Persians fled inside their fortifications, and 
the Tzaiii, after plundering the Roman camp pro- 
ceeded straight for Rhizaeum. And from there they 
came to Athens and betook themselves to their 
homes through the territory of the Trapezuntines. 

And Memieroes and the Median army came there 
on the ninth day after the withdrawal of Dagisthaeus; 
and in the city they found left of the Persian garrison 
three hundred and fifty men wounded and unfit for*; 
fighting, and only one hundred and fifty men unhurt ;-* 
for all the rest had perished. Now the survivors 
had in no case thrown the bodies of the fallen out- 
side the fortifications, but though stifled by the evil 
stench, they held out in a manner beyond belief, 
in order that they might not afford the enemy any 
encouragement for the prosecution of the siege, by 
letting them know that most of their number had 
perished. And Mermeroes remarked by way of a 
taunt that the Roman state was worthy of tears 
and lamentation, because they had come to such a 
state of weakness that they had been unable by any 
device to capture one hundred and fifty Persians 
without a wall. And he was eager to build up the 
portions of the circuit wall which had fallen down ; 
but since at the moment he had neither lime nor any 
of the other necessary materials for the building 
ready at hand, he devised the following plan. 

545 

VOL. I. N N 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

19 raSe, OvXdicovs \ivovs, ot? Brj Tlepaat rd 

&(f>i(riv eo-efcofAio-avro e<? yijv rrjv Ko 

V euTr\r)crd/jievos e<? r&v \l6wv rr)V 

erLOero, ot Brj evravOa /3a\.\u/j.evoi dvrl rov 

20 Toi%ov l eyivovTO. teal Tpia-^i\.iov<; p,ev TWV ^a^ifjuov 
diroke^dpAvos avrov etaa-ev, olaTrep ra e&(i>8if4a OVK 
9 %povov tcaredeTo /j,r)Kos, e7rt(TT/Xa? TOV irepi- 

Se 



jravr r au> crTpaTO) omcr&> 

21 'EiTrei re ol oSy rfj avrfj evdevBe lovn ovSels rwv 
dva<yKaid)v eyivero Tr6po<t, ajravra ev Her pa 
\i7rovri airep 7ri(f)p6fjLevo<> e 'lyS^/ota? 6 crrparbs 
erv%ev, a\\r]v riva iropeiav Ikvai Bid ra>v ravnj 
opwv Bievoetro, iva Srj dvd poyirovs OLKCIV fj,a0ev, 

22 07r&>9 Xiji^of^evoi dTTO^ijv Svvwvrat. ev ravry rfj 
iropeLa 'r&v Ti? ev Aa^o?? Xoyifiwv, 4W/3eXt<? 
ovojjia, Ilepcra? av\io/jivov<; evijBpevae, Aayi- 
aOalov apa 'Pco/Jiaicov Si<T%i\ioi$ eTrayo/mevos, ot 
Sr) r&v Hepo-tov e' 7ri8pofj,fi<; ITTTTOVS veuovrds 
rivas etcreivav, ITTTTOVS re \r)tcrd/jLvoi 81 0X1701* 
rrjv dva^atprjatv eiroujcravro. ovrw /J-ev 6 Mep- 
/iepo?;? TW M.rj&wv (rrparw evdevBe rjei. 

23 'O 8e rou/Sa^?, fiaOcov oaa Brj 'P<yu.atot9 ev re 
rfj Tlerpa /cat r& arevwirw j;vvr)ve%0r) 

ovS" W9 eBetcrev, ovSe rr)v ev rw tear* avrov 
(f>v\afcr)v ia<rev, evravOa <r<j)i(ri rrjv 

24 6\7rtSo9 oio/jievos elvai. ei]Tricrraro yap a>9, f)V KOI 
f P&)/u,a/ou9 e/fT09 QdoriBos Trora/zoO ftiacrdfjievot 
Ilepaai rov (rrevwirbv Sia/3fjvai, /tal ev Tlerpa 

1 roixov GP : relxovs V. 
546 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxx. 18-24 

Filling with sand the linen bags in which .the 
Persians had carried their provisions into the land of 
Colchis, he laid them in the place of the stones, and 
the bags thus arranged took the place of the wall. 
And choosing out three thousand of his able fighting 
men, he left them there, depositing with them 
victuals for no great length of time, and commanding 
them to attend to the building of the fortifications ; 
then he himself with all the rest of the army turned 
back and marched away. 

But since, if he went from there by the same road, 
no means of provisioning his army was available, 
since he had left everything in Petra which had been 
brought in by the army from Iberia, he planned to go 
by another route through the mountains, where he 
learned that the country was inhabited, in order that 
by foraging there he might be able to live off the 
land. In the course of this journey one of the 
notables among the Lazi, Phoubelis by name, laid an 
ambush for the Persians while camping for the night, 
bringing with him Dagisthaeus with two thousand of 
the Romans ; and these men, making a sudden 
attack, killed some of the Persians who were grazing 
their horses, and after securing the horses as plunder 
they shortly withdrew. Thus, then, Mermeroes with 
the Median army departed from there. 

But Goubazes, upon learning what had befallen 
the Romans both at Petra and at the pass, did not 
even so become frightened, nor did he give up the 
guarding of the pass where he was, considering that 
their hope centred in that place. For he understood 
that, even if the Persians had been able by forcing 
back the Romans on the left of the River Phasis to 
cross over the pass and get into Petra, they could 

547 

N N '1 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

yevea6ai BeBvvyvrai, ovBev dv evdevBe Aa&> r?i 



e^ovres, aXXa>9 re Kal vrjwv ov 

25 rrapovcr&v (rtyicriv. 6 yap Trora/Lto? ovros fta@oi)S 
/j,ev etrrep Ti9 aXXo? iKavcoTara e%ei, evpovs Be ejrl 

26 TT\icrrov Bujfcei, TI}<> fj,evroi pvfj,r)<$ avT& TO<TOV- 
rov Trepiecrriv ware Br) e9 TIJV QaXaaaav efc/3d\(ibv 
e?ri nafcpoTarov Kara fjiovaf ^capel, ov8a/j,r) ravTy 

vSmp a/j,e\ei Trorifiov rots erceivy 
vSpevea-Qai Trdpeariv ev 

27 TreXdyei. teal (f>v\a/cri]pia /jLevroi rov 
ei/ro9 "7re7roir)i>Tai iravraj^odi Aa^ot, rov 
I'aval BiaTTopd/jievopevois rot9 7roXe/iUH9 arro- 
ftacriv 9 rrjv yrjv elvai. 

28 Ba<riXei;9 Be 'lovarivtavbs Sa/8etp<wj/ fj,ev TU> 
eBvei ra i~vy/ceifj,eva ^prj^ara eirepsfye, Tovftdtiji' 

29 Be teal Aa^bi'9 xprfftacnv aXXtU9 BeBwprjrai. ervy- 
'%ave Be TroXXw rrporepov teal aXXo arrpdrevp.a 
\6yov d^Lov 69 AafyKrjv 7re/ii|r'a9, ot ovirw d<f)ifco- 
fievoi evravda erv^ov. rjpx e Beavrwv'PeKiffayyos 
etc /!>aAcr/9, dvrjp ^ffero9 re /cal dyaOos rd iro\e- 



ravra pev ovv ravry TTVJ et%e. 

30 Tevoiievos Be 6 M.ep^eporj<; ev rofc opecriv, &a- 
rrep fwt eipyrai, Herpav evffevBe rwv eTririjBeiwv 
efiTfiir\dvai ev cnrovBy elders. eTraptce<reiv yap r& 
evravda fyvXaKrrjpiw 9 rpiar^iXiov^ ovn rd 
eBcoBifia ovBa/j,rj were drrep el&Ko/jbia-dfjLevoi %vv 

31 aurot9 erv^ov. aXX' eVet rd ev rroal cr<f>i(n yivo- 
ueva /x.oXt9 aTre'Xprj 9 rrjv Barrdvriv rfj crrpand 
ravrrj, ov^ rjcrcrov r) rpiarfj,vpioi<; l overt,' 2 /cat d?r' 

1 rpiff^vplots G : rpifffj.vpl(mv VP. 2 oSffi VG : oKai\ P. 

548 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxx. 24-31 

thereby inflict no injury upon the land of the Lazi, 
since they were utterly unable to cross the Phasis, in 
particular because no ships were at their disposal. 
For in depth this river is not inferior to the deepest 
rivers, and it spreads out to a great width. More- 
over it has such a strong current that when it 
empties into the sea, it goes on as a separate stream 
for a very great distance, without mingling at all 
with the sea- water. Indeed, those who navigate iu 
those parts are able to draw up drinking water in 
the midst of the sea. Moreover, the Lazi have 
erected fortresses all along the right bank of the 
river, in order that, even when the enemy are ferried 
across in boats, they may not be able to disembark 
on the land. 

The Emperor Justinian at this time sent to the 
nation of the Sabeiri the money which had been 
agreed upon, and he rewarded Goubazes and the 
Lazi with additional sums of money. And it hap- 
pened that long before this time he had sent another 
considerable army also to Lazica, which had not yet_ 
arrived there. The commander of this army was 
Rhecithancus, from Thrace, a man of discretion and 
a capable warrior. Such then was the course of 
these events. 

Now when Mermeroes got into the mountains, as 
I have said, he was anxious to fill Petra with provi- 
sions from there. For he did not by any means 
think that the victuals which they had brought in 
with them would suffice for the garrison there, 
amounting to three thousand men. But since the 
supplies they found along the way barely sufficed for 
the provisioning of that army, which numbered no 
less than thirty thousand, and since on this account 

549 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

avrov ovBev o TI KOL \6yov aiov Trefjureiv e? rijv 
Tlerpav oloi re fjaav, \oytcr df^evos evpicrice afyiaiv 
af^eivov elvat TO pev ir\eov rov crrparov cura\- 
\dcra' ead at etc 7779 rfjs KoX^iSo9, 0X1701/9 Be nvas 
evravOa /jieivai, 01 &r) e/j,\\ov TWV 7Tirr}BLci)v ot? 
av evrv^oiev 7ro\\a pev e? TO ev Tier pa <f>v\atc- 
rijpiov ecricofjii^ecrOai, rots Be aXXot? avroi Siapicws 

32 %pfj(T0ai' av8pa<$ ovv e? 7revraKia"^i\iov^ airo- 
\ei;dpevo<> avrov ecacrev, ols Brj ap^ovra^ a\\ov 9 

33 re rpeis KOI <>d/3pi%ov /carecrTijcraTO. 7T\etou9 <yap 
evravOa \eiTrecrdai ov ol e&oev eTrdvcvytces elvai, 
7ro\fii(0v ovSa/jif) OVTWV. avros Be TO> aXXro 

? rrjv Tlpa~ap/j,eviav e\6(t)v rjffvj^a^ev ev 



34 Ol oe TrevraKia-^Xtoi, 7rel eyyvrepa) ro)v 
Aafyicrjs ea-^drcov rfKOov, -jrapa Trora/jtov 3>a<rtv 
effrpaTO-TreBeva-avTO airavres, evOev TC fear 6\i- 

35 701/9 7repu6vT<; eXrji^ovro ra eiceivr) ^topia. wv 
Brj 6 rofySa^J/9 aiffffofjievo*; T& &ayicr0ai<p eVe- 
<TT\\ fiorjOeiv evravffa cnrovSfj' Bpda-eiv jap 
(T(f>i<Ti TOW 7roA,e/xtoy9 icatcov TL fteya Svvara 

36 ecreffOai. 6 Be Kara ravra eTroiei, travri, re rat 
'Patfjiatcov crrpara) eTriTrpocrOev fjei, ev dpicrrepa 
e%a)v irora/j.bv Qaviv, ea)9 9 ^wpov dtyiicero 'iva 
Brj ol Aabl ecrrparoTreSevovro ev rjj erepa rov 

37 TTOTa/tioO o^Brj. ervy^ave Be ravrrj o 4>acrt9 
m/3aT09 &v, ojrep rwfjbaloi fj,ev ical Tlepcrc 
aTreipia rtav eicelvr) xoopitov a>9 ij/CHrra inrert 
Tra^ov, Aab! pevroi e^eTriard/jLevoi evravOa 
Bie/Srjcrav e^aTnvaiws teal avefwywvro r&> 'Pra- 
liaiwv arparSt' Tlepcrai Be avBpas %Ckiov<i rwv 
ev fffylcri Botcifjifov a7roXea//,eyo errep.'^rav, a>9 

550 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, 11. xxx. 31-37 

they were able to send nothing at all of consequence 
to Petra, upon consideration he found it better for 
them that the greater part of the army should 
depart from the land of Colchis, and that some few 
should remain there, who were to convey to the 
garrison in Petra the most of the provisions which 
they might find, while using the rest to maintain 
themselves comfortably. He therefore selected five 
thousand men and left them there, appointing as 
commanders over them Phabrizus and three others. 
For it seemed to him unnecessary to leave more men 
there, since there was no enemy at all. And he 
himself with the rest of the army came into Persar- 
menia and remained quietly in the country around' 
Doubios. 

Now the five thousand, upon coming nearer to the 
frontier of Lazica, encamped in a body beside the 
Phasis River, and from there they went about in 
small bands and plundered the neighbouring country. 
Now when Goubazes perceived this, he sent word 
to Dagisthaeus to hasten there to his assistance : for 
it would be possible for them to do the enemy some 
great harm. And he did as directed, moving forward 
with the whole Roman army with the River Phasis 
on the left, until he came to the place where the 
Lazi where encamped on the opposite bank of the 
river. Now it happened that the Phasis could be 
forded at this point, a fact which neither the Romans 
nor the Persians suspected in the least because of 
their lack of familiarity with these regions ; but the 
Lazi knew it well, and they made the crossing 
suddenly and joined the Roman army. And the 
Persians chose out a thousand men of repute among 
them and sent them forth, that no one might advance 

55* 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 

pi] ri<? errl TO crrparoTreBov KaKovpyr)aa)v 101. 
8 wvrrep Bvo 7rl KaraerKorrfi rrporeprjcravres teal 
rrapa Bo^av e<? rovs TroXe/cuoi"? epLrrerrruiKbres rov 
( .) jrdvra \6yov e(njyyei\av. Bib Brj 'Pw/Jiaioi re 
fcai Aabl rot? %tXtot? e^amvalws eTreo-rrjo-av, 
re avr&v 8ia(j)vyeiv ecr%ev, dXX' ol p.ev 
t 8ie(f>0dprjo-av, nvas Se aiirwv real foyprf- 
o'i re ajjufa Tovftdtyv teal Aayierdaiov TO 
f^erpov rov M^Swy arparov KOI TO rfjs 6Bov 
futdetv laxycrav, Kal OTTTJ Trore avrois ra 

40 Trapovra e%oi. apavres ovv rravrl rq> arparu> 
eV avrovs yea-civ, 8iapi0/j,ov[jivoi O7rft)9 rfoppm 
rrov rwv vvicrwv emrreaoiev a$iai' rerpaKta-^t- 

41 Xtot Be Kal fjuvptoi rjaav. ol /JLCV ovv Tlepffat 
7ro\e/j,iov ovBev ev vw e^ovre<; /jia/cpov riva vrrvov 
Ka0evBov rov re yap Trorajjibv arfopevrov (oovro 
elvai Kal rov<? ^iXiov?, ovBevbs cr<f>icriv vTravrid- 

42 o-ai/TO?, eVi fiatcporarov ret] 6B<a levai. 'Ptofutiot 
Be auTot? Kal Aa^ol opOpov /Sa^eo? dTrpocrBoKrjrot 
eTwrecrbvres TOU? p,ev ert VTTVOV alpovjievovs 
evpov, TOU? Be dprt % VTTVOV eyrjyep/jievov^ Kal 

43 ryvfAVOvs errl rwv (rrpwfjbdrayv Ket^evov^. Bib BTJ 
avrwv ovBevl e<? d\Kr)V IBeiv ^vvrjve^drj, aXX' 
01 fiev 7r\eicrroi Kara\a/j,/3avb/j,evoi edvrjaKov, 
rivas Be Kal e^coyprjcrav ol no\ifjiioi, ev Tot? 
Kal rwv ap^ovrwv era rerv^rjKev elvai, b\iyoi 

44 Be nve<? ev crKorro Biatfievyovres eawOrjaav. TO 
re (rrparbireBov 'Pa>/j,a'ioi Kal Aabi aipovcri Kal 
ra crrj/jieia rcdvra, oVXa re TroXXa Kal %pij/j,ara 
/jieydXa eXijicravro, Kal 'imrwv re Kal r^ibrMV 

45 [teya ri %pf)i*,a. err\ /MiKpbrarov Be ri]v Bico^iv 

Kal 'I/3?;/3ta? rrbppa) d<j)iKovro. ev6a 



55 2 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxx. 37-45 

against the camp to harm it. And two of this force, 
who had gone out ahead of their fellows to recon- 
noitre, fell unexpectedly into the hands of the enemy 
and informed them of the whole situation. The 
Romans, therefore, and the Lazi fell suddenly upon 
the thousand men, and not one of them succeeded 
in escaping, but the most of them were slain, while 
some also were captured ; and through these the 
men of Goubazes and Dagisthaeus succeeded in 
learning the numbers of the Median army and the 
length of the journey to them and the condition in 
which they then were. They therefore broke camp 
and marched against them with their whole army, 
calculating so that they would fall upon them well on 
in the night ; their own force amounted to fourteen 
thousand men. Now the Persians, having no thought 
of an enemy in their minds, were enjoying a long 
sleep ; for they supposed that the river was impassable, 
and that the thousand men, with no one to oppose 
them, were making a long march somewhere. But 
the Romans and Lazi at early dawn unexpectedly 
fell upon them, and they found some still buried in 
slumber and others just roused from sleep and lying 
defenceless upon their beds. Not one of them, 
therefore, thought of resistance, and the majority 
were caught and killed, while some also were captured 
by the enemy, among whom happened to be one of 
the commanders ; only a few escaped in the darkness 
and were saved. And the Romans and Lazi captured "\ 
the camp and all the standards, and they also 
secured many weapons and a great deal of money as / 
plunder, besides great numbers of horses and mules. 
And pursuing them for a very great distance they 
came well into Iberia. There they happened upon 

553 



P11OCOP1US OF CAESAREA 

Srj Kal aXXo49 rial Tlepcrwv evrv^ovres 7roXXou9 

46 etcreivav. ovrw /j,ev e/c AaiKrj$ Tipper at, aTTjyXXa- 
3~av, 'Pw/juiloi Se Kal Aabl rd re aXXa. eTririj&eia 
Kal d\evpa 7rafj,Tr\r]drj evravffa evpovres arravra 
eKava-av arrep eg 'Ifirjpias ol fidpftapot irr)<yd- 

47 yovro ec^)' o5 e? TLeTpav eaKo/jLiaovTai. 1 Aa^coy 
re TroXXoi/9 eXiTrovro ev T& a-revwTra), to? fAvjKen 
Ilepo-ai? e? IleT/oav ra e-rririjSeia aKo/j,i%(T@ai 
Svvara ettj, j~vv re rf} a\\r) \eia Kal rot9 at%//.a- 

48 XcwTOt? dve(TTp<f>ov. Kal reraprov ero? er\evra 

TT}? e? ITe/io-a? eVe^ei/ota?, rpirov Kal 
ero? 'lovffTiviavov /3acn\a><; rrjv avro- 
Kpdropa dp%r)V e^ovro^. 

49 'ItyawT?? oe o KaTTTraSo/c?;? eviavry irporepov 
/3acri\i e? Bufai'Ttoi/ ^teTa7re^t7TT09 77X^6. TTyrt- 
/CttSe ^a/) OeoSaipa T^ /3acri\iSi eTreyevero r) 

50 TeXeto<? rjjjuepa TOV ftiov. TWV p,evroi irpocrdev 

dvacrwa-aa-dai ouS' OTIOVV 



(f)dvra(Tfia rcS avdptairw eyeyovei 7roXXtt#t<? eu? 

51 et? /3a(Ti\iav d(j>i^erai. (f>i\el ydp TO Batfj,6vtov, 

07Tp 5 T0l? dvOpUtTTOV^ ODpat%<T0ai 7T<f)VKV, 

(nro /jieiQovmv re Kal vtyijXorepwv e\7riS(ov Kpe/jidv 
049 ^ OUAC eVt <rreppa<; <^uo-ea>9 rr/y Sidvotav 

52 ecrrdvai ^v/nftatvei. Kal rovry jovv rc3 ']a)dvvr) 
aXXa9 re 7roXXa9 reparo\6yot <f>avrd<rei<; 69 ael 
rfpov\e<yov Kal &>9 Xp^^ avrov TO TOW A.VJOVCTTOV 

53 d/jL7ria-^(T0aL cr^?}/ia. ^y Se Tt9 lepevs ev Bu- 
%avriq), Avyova-ros ovofia, 09 S^ TWV Keifj,i]\i(i)v 

54 TOU Tr)? ^O(pia<f lepov <j>v~\aKrjv el%ev. 
roivvv 'Iwdvvrjs dTroOpi^d/nevos rrjs 

1 effKO/jLlffofTOii VP : iffKo^.i<T<avra.i G. 

554 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxx. 45-54 

certain others of the Persians also and slew a great 
number. Thus the Persians departed frqni Lazica ; 
and the Romans and Lazi found there all the supplies, 
including great quantities of flour, which the bar-**" 
barians had brought in from Iberia, in order to 
transport them to Petra, and they burned them all. 
And they left a large number of Lazi in the pass, so 
that it might no longer be possible for the Persians 
to carry in supplies to Petra, and they returned with 
all the plunder and the captives. And the fourth 
year of the truce between the Romans and Persians 
came to an end, being the twenty-third year of the 549 A.D. 
reign of the Emperor Justinian. 

And John the Cappadocian one year before this 
came to Byzantium at the summons of the emperor. ' 
For at that time the Empress Theodora had reached 
the term of her life. However, he was quite unable 
to recover any of his former dignities, but he 
continued to hold the priestly honour against his ~ 
will ; and yet the vision had often come to the man 
that he would arrive at royalty. For the divine 
power is accustomed to tempt those whose minds are 
not solidly grounded by nature, by holding before 
their vision, on great and lofty hopes, that which is 
counted splendid among men. At any rate the 
marvel-mongers were always predicting to this John 
many such imaginary things, and especially that he 
was bound to be clothed in the garment of Augustus. 
Now there was a certain priest in Byzantium, 
Augustus by name, who guarded the treasures of the 
temple of Sophia. So when John had been shorn 

555 



PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA 



/3t'a, ov jap rjv avrw ecrdrjf iepel 
Trovaa, rovrov Brj rov A.vyou(rrov, eyyvs TTIJ 
ovros, TOV re <f>atv6\r)v KOL rbv ^iroiva evSi&v- 

(TK(T0CU 7T/009 TWV Tft) pj(f> e<f>(TTCt)T(0V rjVCLJ- 

Kacrro, e? TOUTO re avTw aTTCfcpidr), olfiaL, rj 



556 



HISTORY OF THE WARS, II. xxx. 54 

and declared worthy of the priestly dignity by force, 
inasmuch as he had no garment becoming a priest, 
he had been compelled by those who were in charge 
of this business to put on the cloak and the tunic 
of this Augustus who was near by, and in this, I 
suppose, his prophecy reached its fulfilment. 



557 



INDEX 



Abandanes, secretary of Chosroes, 
sent to Belisarius, II. xxi. 1 ff. ; 
his report, H. xxi. 13, 14 

Abasgi, their location, n. xxix. 15 ; 
friends of the Romans, ib. 

Abochorabus, ruler of the Saracens 
of Arabia, presents the Palm 
Groves to Justinian, I. xix. 10 ff. 

Aborrhas River, protects one side 
of Circesium, n. v. 2 ; near 
Theodosiopolis, II. xix. 29 

Abramus, becomes king of the 
Homeritae, i. xx. 3 ; his servile 
origin, I. xx. 4 ; defeats two 
Aethiopian armies, I. xx. 5-7 ; 
pays tribute to the Aetliiopians, 

I. xx. 8 ; his idle promises to 
Justinian to invade Persia. I. xx. 
13 

Abydus, city opposite Sestus on 
the Hellespont, II. iv. 9 

Acacius, father of Adolius, II. xxi. 2 ; 
denounces Amazaapes to the em- 
peror, 11. iii. 4 ; slays him trea- 
cherously, ii. iii. 5 ; his shame- 
less career as governor of Arme- 
nia, n. iii. 6, 7 ; slain by the 
Armenians, II. iii. 7 

Adarbiganon, Chosroes halts there 
with his army, u. xxiv. 1 ; the 
fire-sanctuary located there, n. 
xxiv. 2 ; abandoned by Chosroes, 

II. xxiv. 12 
Adergoudounbades, made " chana- 

ranges " by Chosroes, I. vi. 15, 
18 ; saves Cabades from the 
hand of Chosroes, I. xxiii. 7 II. ; 
betrayed by his son, I. xxiii. 13 ; 
his death, I. xxiii. 21 
Adolius, son of Acacius, an Arme- 
nian, urges severe treatment of 
Armenians, 11. iii. 10 ; com- 
mander of Roman cavalry, 

PROCOP. I. 



II. xxi. 2, 18, 20 ; commands 
a detachment in an army to 
invade Persia, II. xxiv. 13 ; 
killed by a stone, H. xxv. 36 
Adonachus, commander in Chalcis, 

n. xii. 2 

Adrastadaran Salanes, an office 
In Persia of high authority 
(lit. " Leader of the Warriors "), 
I. vi. 18, xi. 25 ; held only by 
Seoses, i. xi. 38 

Adulis, in Aethiopia, the city and 

" harbour, distance from Auxomis, 
I. xix. 22 ; home of a certain 
Roman trader, i. xx. 4 

Aegypt, its topography, I. xix. 3 ; 
John the Cappadocian an exile 
there, I. xxv. 43 ; the pesti- 
lence there, n. xxii. 6 

Aeimachus, a butcher of Antioch, 
his encounter with a Persian 
horseman, n. xi. 8 ff. 

Aelas, on the " Red Sea," I. xix. 
3. 19, 24 

Aethiopians, location of their 
country, i. xix. 17 ; the ships 
used there, I. xix. 23 ; iron not 
produced there nor imported s 
from elsewhere, I. xix. 24. 25 ; 
sought as allies by Justinian, 
I. xix. 1, xx. 9 ff n. iii. 40; 
unable to buy silk from the 
Indians, I. xx. 12 

Agamemnon, father of Iphigenia, 
I. xvii. 11 

Agesta, i.e., "agger," employed by 
the Persians in besieging Edessa, 
n. xxvi. 29 

Aigan, Massagete chief, in the 
Roman army at the battle of 
Daras, I. xiii. 20, xiv. 39, 44 

Alamoundaras, son of Sacclee, 
king of the Saracens, marches 

559 



INDEX 



with the Persian army, i. xvii. 1 ; 
his character and services to the 
Persians, i. xvii. 40 ff. ; advises 
Cabades to invade' f Roman terri- 
tory south of the Euphrates 
River, i. xvii. 30 ff. ; retires 
with Azarethes before Belisarius. 
I. xviii. ff. ; brings charge 
against Arethas of violating boun- 
dary lines, ii. i. 3 : war with 
Arethas, n. xxviii. 12-14 ; sacri- 
fices to Aphrodite the son of 
Arethas, n. xxviii. 13 ; sought 
as an ally by Justinian, II. i. 13, 
iii. 47; accused by Justinian 
of violating the treaty, II. iv. 21 ; 
a menace to Syria and Phoe- 
nicia, II. xvi. 17 ; also to Leba- 
non, n. xix. 34 

Alani, their location, II. xxix. 15 ; 
friends of the Romans, ib. ; 
neighbours of the Sunitae, I. xv. 
1 ; persuaded by Goubazes to 
ally themselves with him, n. 
xxix. 29 

Albani, a people near the Taurus, 
I. x. 1 

Alexander, son of Philip, fortified 
the Caspian Gates, I. x. 9 ; Justi- 
nian compared with him, II. ii. 
15 

Alexander, ambassador to the 
Persians, I. xxii. 1 

Alexandria, visited by the pesti- 
lence, n. xxii. 6 ; citizens of, 
accused by John the Cappa- 
docian, I. xxv. 44 

Amazaspes, nephew of Symepn, 
made ruler of certain Armenian 
villages, II. iii. 3 ; denounced to 
the emperor, II. iii. 4 ; treacher- 
ously slain, ii. iii. 5 

Ambazouces, a Hun, offers to sell 
to Anastasius the control of the 
Caspian Gates, I. x. 10 ; his 
death, I. x. 12 

Ambrus, a Saracen Christian, saves 
Sergiopolis from capture by 
Chosroes, n. xx. 10, 14 

Amida, a city on the border 
between Armenia and Mesopo- 
tamia, I. xvii. 24 ; distance from 
Martyropolis, I. xxi. 6 ; distance 
from the Nymphius River, I. viii. 
22 ; from Siphrios, I. viii. 10 ; 



from Endielon, I. vil. 5 ; from 
Thilasamon, I. ix. 14 : besieged 
by Cabades, I. vii. 3, 12 ff. ; 
bravely defended, I. vii. 4, 12 ff. ; 
captured by Cabades, i. vii. 29 ; 
besieged by the Romans. I. ix. 
1 --4 ; recovered by the Romans 
by purchase, i. ix. 20, 23 ; cap- 
tives of, generously treated by 
Chosroes, I. vii. 34 ; citizens 
relieved of taxes, i. vii. 35 

Aminodios s , a place near Daras, 
I. xiii. 15, 38 ; II. xxviii. 35 

Anastasius, Roman emperor, uncle 
of Hypatius, I. viii. 2, xi. 24 : 
of Probus. i. xii. 6 ; and of 
Pompeius, I. xxiv. 19 ; refuses 
to purchase from Ambazouces 
the control of the Caspian Gates. 
I. x. 10, 11, xvi. 4; insurrection 
raised against him by Vitalianus. 
I. viii. 3, xiii. 10 ; refuses request 
of Cabades for a loan, I. vii. 1,2; 
shews favour to citizens of 
Amida, I. vii. 35 ; sends succour 
to Amida, I. viii. 1 ; fortifies 
Daras, I. x. 13 ; placates Cabades, 
I. x. 17 ; fortifies Theodosio- 
polis, i. x. 18, 19 ; his death, 
i. xi. 1 

Anastasius of Daras, overthrows 
tyranny there, I. xxvi. 8, ii. iv. 
15 ; bears a letter from Justinian 
to Chosroes, II. iv. 16 ; detained 
by Chosroes, n. iv. 26 ; dismissed 
by Chosroes, II. v. 27 ; present - 
with Chosroes at the sack of 
Sura, n. Ix. 10 

Anatolius, General of the East, 
averts danger to the empire by 
courtesy to the Persian king, 

I. ii. 12-15 

Andreas, of Byzantium, his ex- 
ploits in single combat, i. xiii. 
30 ff. 

Anglon, village in Persarmenia. 

II. xxv. 5 ; Roman armies 
routed there, II. xxv. 23 ff. 

Aniabedes, sent by Chosroes to 
capture Petra, n. xvii. 4- im- 
paled by Chosroes, Ii. xvii. 11 

Antinous, city of, in Aegypt, 
John the Cappadocian im- 
prisoned there, I. xxv. 43 

Antioch, its importance, I. xvii. 



INDEX 



36, II. vlii. 23. ix. 3. x. 5 ; situa- 
tion, 11. vi. U), viii. 21 ; ease 
with which it might be cap- 
tured, i. xvii. 38 ; character 
of the inhabitants, I. xvii. :i7, 
n. viii. 6 ; distance from Beroea, 
n. yii. 2 ; from Seleucia, II. xi. 1 ; 
visited by an earthquake, n. 
xiv. 6 ; the citizens propose to 
buy off Chosroes, n. vi. 16 ; 
besieged by Chosroes, n. viii. 
1 If. ; the wall stormed by 
Chosroes, n. viii. 8 ff . ; cap- 
tured by Chosroes, n. viii. 20 ff . ; 
plundered by Chosroes, n. ix. 
14ff. ; burnt, n. ix. 17, 18; 
young men of, check the victor- 
ious Persians in a street fight, 
II. viii. 28, 29, 32, ix. 5 ; citizens 
of, massacred by the Persians, 
II. viii. 34 ; church of. robbed 
of great treasures by Chosroes, 
II. ix. 15, 16 ; spared in the 
burning of the city, n. ix. 18, 
x. 6 ; citizens of, receive portent 
of coming misfortunes, n. x. 
1 ff. ; xiv. 5 ; two women of, 
their sad fate at the capture of 
the city, n. viii. 35 ; captives 
of, offered for sale by Chosroes, 
n. xlii. 2 ff. : settled by Chosroes 
in a newly built city under 
special laws, n. xiv. 1 ff. 

Antioch of Chosroes, special laws 

concerning it, n. xiv. 3, 4 
Lntonina, wife of Belisarius, brings 
about the downfall of John the 
Cappadocian, I. xxv. 13 ff. ; 
departs to the East, i. xxv. 23 
hamea, city of Syria, n. xi. 2, 4 ; 
' wood of the Cross preserved 
there, n. xi. 14 ; it gives forth 
a miraculous light in the church, 
II. xi. 17, 18 ; visited by Chos- 
roes, n. xi. 14 ff. ; entered by 
Chosroes and robbed of all its 
treasure, n. xi. 24 ff . ; a citizen 
of, accuses a Persian of having 
violated his daughter, n. xi. 36 

Aphrodite, son of Arethas sacri- 
ficed to, ii. xxviii. 13 

Apion, an Aegyptian, manager 

**of finances in the Roman 

__parmy, i. viii. 5 

Arabia, its location, I. xix. 20 



I'lioroi 1 . \oi.. I. 



Arabian Gulf, called " Red Sea " 
by Procopiua, I. xix. 2 ; its de- 
scription, I. xix. 2 ff. 

Aratius, in company with Narses 
defeats Sittas and Belisarius, 
I. xii. 21, 22 ; deserts to the 
Romans, I. xii. 22, xv. 31 ; sent 
to Italy, I. xii. 22 

Arcadius, Roman emperor, when 
about to die makes provision for 
the safety of his heir, I. ii. 1 tf. 

Archaeopolis, a strong city of 
Lazica, n. xxix. 18 

Arepbindus, son-in-law of Olyv- 
rius, Roman general, I. viii. 1 ; 
flees with his army before Cabades , 
I, viii. 10, 11 ; summoned to 
Byzantium, i. ix. 1 

Ares, House of, portion of the 
imperial residence in Byzan- 
tium, I. xxiv. 9 

Arethas, son of Oabalas, made 
king of the Saracens of Arabia 
by Justinian and pitted against 
Alamoundaras, I. xvii. 47, 48 ; 
with the Roman army, I. xviii. 
7 ; at the battle on the Euphrates, 

I. xviii. 26, 35 ; quarrels with 
Alamoundaras, n. i. 3-7 ; joins 
Belisarius in Mesopotamia, n. 
xvi. 5 ; sent by Belisarius to 
plunder Assyria, n. xix. 11, 
15 ff. : returns another way, 

II. xix. 26 ff. ; wages war against 
Alamoundaras, n. xxviii. 12-14 ; 
son of, sacrificed to Aphrodite, 
n. xxviii. 13 

Argek. a guardsman, his effective 
lighting against the Persians at 
Edessa, n. xxvi. 26, 27 

Armenia, considered by some to 
extend as far as Amida, i. xvii. 
24 ; Armenians wage war with 
Persia, I. v. 10 ff. ; History of 
the Armenians, I. v. 9, 40 

Arsaces, lung of Armenia, progeni- 
tor of the Arsacidae, n. iii. 32 ; 
his abdication, n. iii. 35 

Arsaces, king of Armenia, wages 
a trucelesa war with Persia, 
I. v. 10 ff. ; slandered to Pacu- 
rius, I. v. 16 ; victim of strate- 
gem of Magi, betrays himself to 
Pacurius, I. v. 19 ff. ; confined 
in the Prison of Oblivion, I. 

S6l 



v. 29 ff. ; kills himself, I. v. 
39 

Arsaces, last king of Armenia, 
gives his kingdom to Theodosius^ 
n. iii. 35 

Arsaces; commander in Sura, killed 
while valiantly defending the 
city, n, v. 11 

Arsacidae, descendants of the 
Armenian king, Arsaces, II. iii. 
32 ; their privileges, n. iii. 35 

Arsinus River, tributary to the 
Euphrates, I. xvii. 21 

Artabanes, son of John, of the 
Arsacidae, slays Sittas, n. iii. 25 

Artace, suburb of Cyzicus, I. xxv. 
31 

Artemis among the Taurians, 
sanctuary of, in Celesene, I. xvii. 
11; a sanctuary of, founded by 
Orestes in Pontus, I. xvii. 15 ; 
another in Cappadocia, I. xvii. 18 

Arzamon, in Mesopotamia, dis- 
tance from Constantina, i. viii. 10 

Arzanene, district of Armenia 
beyond the River Nymphius, 
I. viii. 21, n. xv. 7 ; invaded by 
Celer, I. viii. 21 

Ascan, a Massagete chief, at the 
battle of Daras, I. xiii. 21, xiv. 44; 
his exploits at the battle on the 
Euphrates and his death, I. xviii. 
38 

Asia, entered from the Hellespont 
by the Huns, 11. iv. 9 

Aspebedes, uncle of Chosroes, I. xi. 
5, xxiii. 6 ; negotiates a treaty 
with Celer, I. ix. 24 ; shares 
command of invading army, 
I. xxi. 4 ; put to death by 
Chosroes, I. xxiii. 6 

Aspetiani, their alliance with Sittas 
frustrated by a misunderstand- 
ing, n. iii. 12-18 

Assyria, plundered by Arethas, 
n. xix. 15 ff. 

Athens, a city near Lazica, II. 
xxix. 22, xxx. 14 

Attachas, place in Armenia, dis- 
tance from Martyropolis, I. xxi. 
9 

Augarus, toparch of Edessa, n. 
xii. 8 ; friend of Augustus, n. xii. 
8, 9 ; his visit to Rome, n. xii. 
9 ff. ; with difficulty persuades 

562 



Augustus to allow him to return, 
II. xii. 11 ff. ; receives from 
Augustus the promise of a 
hippodrome for Edessa, n. xii. 
18; his enigmatic reply tu the 
enquiries of the citizens, n. xii. 
19 ; stricken with gout, seeks 
relief from physicians, n. xii. 
20, 21 ; invites Christ to come 
to Edessa, II. xii. 24 : cured 
upon receiving the reply of 
Christ, n. xii. 28 ; son of, an 
unrighteous ruler, delivers over 
Edessa to Persia, II. xii. 28 

Augustus, Roman emperor, his 
affection for Augarus, H. xii. 8-19 

Augustus, priest in Byzantium, 
II. xxx. 53, 54 

Auxomis, capital city of the 
Homcritae, i. xix. 17 : dis- 
tance from Adulis, I. xix. 22 ; 
from Elephantina and the Roman 
boundary, I. xix. 27 

Auxomitae, name applied to some 
of the Aethiopians, I. xix. 17 

Azarethes, Persian general, invades 
Roman territory, I. xvii. 1, xviii. 
1 ; retires before Belisarius. i. 
xviii. 9 ff. ; exhorts the Persian 
army, i. xviii. 27 ff. ; arrays 
them for battle, I. xviii. 30 ; dis- 
honoured by Cabades, i. xviii. 
51 ff. ; at the siege of Kdr*s:i, 
II. xxvii. 41 

Baradotus, priest of Constantina, 
his godliness, II. xiii. 13 ; per- 
suades Cabades to spare Con- 
stantina, II. xiii. 14, 15 

Barbalissum, fortress on the Eu- 
phrates, distance from Obbane, 
II. xii. 4 

Barbarian Plain, The, near Sergio- 
polis, II. v. 29 

Baresmanas, Persian general, at 
the battle of Daras, I. xiii. 1C. 
xiv. 32, 45 ; standard bearer 
of, attacked and killed by 
Sunicas, i. xiv. 47-50 

Barlaus, Gate of, in the wall of 
Edessa, II. xxvii. 44 

Basilides, appointed quaestor in 
place of Tribunianus, I. xxiv. 18 

Basiiius, father of John of E 
n. xxi. 27 



INDEX 



Basaaces, son-in-law of John, 
accompanies him on a mission 
to Bonzes, II. iii. 29 ; escapes 
with his companions from an 
ambush, Ji. iii. 30; leads an 
embassy to the Persian king, 
n. iii. 31 ; conies with Arme- 
nians to Byzantium, II. xxi. 34 

BassiciuSj trusted friend of the 
Armenian king Arsaces, i. v. 17 ; 
flayed by Pacurius, I. v. 28 

Batne, fortress one day's journey 
distant from Edessa, II. xii. 31 

Belisarius, married to Antonina, 
1. xxv. 11 ; in company with 
Sittas invades Persarmenia, i. 
xii. 20, 21 ; defeated by Narses 
and Aratius, i. xii. 22 ; ap- 
pointed commander of troops in 
Daras with Procopius his adviser, 
i. xii. 24 ; at the command of 
Justinian undertakes to build a 
fortress in Mindouos, I. xiii. 2, 3 : 
prevented by the Persians. I. xiii. 
4 ft'. ; made General of the East, 
I. xiii. 9 ; in company with Her- 
mogenes prepares to meet the 
Persians at Daras, i. xiii. 12 If. ; 
at the battle of Daras, I. xiii. 
19 ff. ; sends letters to Mirranes, 
I. xiv. 1 ff., 7 ; address to his 
soldiers, i. xiv. 20 ff. ; arrays 
the army on the second day of 
the battle of Daras, I. xiv. 28 ; 
wins a brilliant victory, I. xiv. 
47 ff. ; recalls the Romans from 
the pursuit of the Persians, I. xiv. 
53 ; hurries to meet the invading 
army of Azarethes. i. xviii. 4 ; 
follovvs the retiring Persian army, 
i. xviii. 9 ff. ; ridiculed by his 
army, I. xviii. 12 ; attempts to 
dissuade the Romans from battle, 
I. xviii. 16 ff. ; insulted by his 
army, I. xviii. 24 ; arrays them 
for battle, I. xviii. 25, 26 ; fights 
valiantly after most of the 
Roman army had been routed, 
I. xviii. 41 ff. ; returns to By- 
/.intiiiiii iii order to go against 
the Vandals, I. xxi. 2 ; his share 
in quelling the Nika insurrection, 
I. xxiv. 40 ff. ; made General of 
the East and sent to Libya, i. 
xxvi. 1 ; victorious in Italy, n. 



i. 1 ; brings Vittigis to Byzan- 
tium, n. iv. 13 ; shares the com- 
mand of the East with Bouzfs, 
II. vi. 1 ; summoned from Italy 
to Byzantium, II. xiv. 8 ; sent 
against Chosroes, II. xiv. 8, 13 ; 
gathers an army in Mesopotamia , 
ii. xvi. 1 ff. ; invades Persia. 
II. xviii. 1 ff. ; defeats Nabedea 
at Nisibis, II. xviii. 24, 25 ; sends 
Arethas into Assyria, n. xix. 15; 
attacks Sisauranon, n. xix. 4 ff. ; 
captures it, II. xix. 24 ; holds 
consultation with commanders, 
II. x_ix: 35 ff. ; returns to Roman 
territory, n. xix. 45 ; recalled t<> 
Byzantium. II. xix. 49 ; journeys 
swiftly to the East to confront 
Cliosroes, n. xx. 20 ; gathers an 
army at Europum, n. xx. 24 If. ; 
receives Abandanes, the envoy 
of Chosroes, I. xxi. 2 ff. ; forces 
Chosroes to retire, 11. xxi. 21 ; 
gives John of Edessa as a 
hostage, n. xxi. 27 : his great 
fame, n. xxi. 28, 29 ; summoned 
to Byzantium, II. xxi. 34 

Berqea, a town of Syria between 
Hierapolis and Antioch. II. vii. 2 ; 
distance from Chalcis, II. xii. 1 ; 
Chosroes demands money from 
the inhabitants, n. vii. 5 ; the 
citizens retire to the acropolis, 
ii. vii. 7 ; the lower city entered 
by Chosroes and a large part of 
it fired, ir. vii. 10, 11 ; acropolis 
valiantly defended against Chos- 
roes, II. vii. 12 ; miserable 
plight of the besieged, H. vii. 13 ; 
citizens capitulate to Chosroes, 
II. vii. 35 

Beros, an Erulian leader, encamps 
near Mart inns. 1 1. xxiv. 14 ; 
with Philemouth follows Peter 
into Persia, ii. xxiv. 18 

Bessas, a Goth, officer in the 
Roman army, I. viii. 3 ; com- 
mander in Martyropolis, i. xxi. "> 

Bithyniaus, on the Euxine Sea, 
II. xx viii. 23 

Black Gulf, II. iv. 8 

Black Sea, See " Euxine." 

Biases, brother of Perozes, chosen 
king in place of Cabades, 
deposed, i. v. 2 ; imprisoned 

5 6 3 
o o 2 



INDEX 



and Winded by Cabades, I. vi. 
17 

Blemyes, a people of upper Aegypt, 
I. xix. 28 ; receive annual pay- 
ment from the Roman emperor, 
I. xix. 32, 33 ; Diocletian pur- 
poses to hold them in check by 
means of the Nobatae, I. xix. 30 ; 
their religion, I. xix. 35, 36 

Bleschames, commander of the 
Persian soldiers in Sisauranon, 
ii. xix. 3 ; sent to Byzantium 
by Belisarius with Persian cap- 
tives, ii. xix. 24 ; sent to Italy 
by Justinian, n. xix. 25 

Blue Faction, their struggles with 
the Green Faction, I. xxiv. 2-6 ; 
favoured by Justinian, n. xi. 32 ; 
in the Nika insurrection, I. xxiv. 
7 ff. ; also called the " Veneti " 

Blue Colonnade, in Byzantium, 
I. xxiy. 49 

Boas River, considered by Proco- 
pius the upper portion of the 
Phasis, II. xxix. 14-16 

Boes, a Persian general, I. xii. 10 
, Bolum, fortress in Persarmenia, 
near which were the gold mines 
of the Persian king, I. xv. 18 ; 
betrayed to the Romans by 
Isaac, I. xv. 32. 33 ; its return 
demanded by Chosroes, I. xxii. 
3 ; given up by the Romans, 
I. xxii. 18 

Boraedes, nephew of Justinian, 
assists in making Hypatius 
prisoner, I. xxiv. 53 

Bosporus, a city on the Euxine, 
I. xii. 7 ; citizens of, put them- 
selves under the sway of Justi- 
nus, I. xii. 8 ; Justinian accused 
of seizing it, n. iii. 40 

Bouzes, brother of Coutzes, com- 
mander in Lebanon, i. xiii. 5-; 
sent to support Belisarius at 
Mmdouos, ib. ; commander in 
Martyropolis, I. xxi. 5 ; at the 
battle of Daras, I. xiii. 19, 25 ff. ; 
sent against the Armenians, II. 
iii. 28 ; his offers of friendship 
distrusted by them, n. iii. 28, 29 ; 
slays John treacherously, ii. iii. 
31 ; shares the command of the 
East with Belisarius, ii. vi. 1 ; 
makes suggestions as to the de- 



fence of Hierapolis, II. vi. 2 ff. ; 
abandons the city, ii. yi. 7, 8; 
prevents the citizens of Edrssu 
from ransoming the captives of 
Antioch, II. xiii. 6 ; favours in- 
vasion of Persia by Belisarius. u. 
xvi. 16 ; takes refuge with 
Justus in Hierapolis, II. xx. 20 ; 
they invite Belisarius to join 
them, II. xx. 21 ff. ; but later 
come to him at Europum, II. xx. 
28 

Braducius, interpreter of Isdi- 
gousnas, ii. xxviii. 41 

Bronze Gate, in the emperor's 
palace in Byzantium, i. xxiv. 47 

Bulicas, harbour of the Homeritae 
I. xix. 21 

Byzantium, Nika insurrection, I. 
xxiv. 1 ff. ; suburbs ravaged 
by Huns, Ii. iv. 4 ; visited by the 
pestilence, II. xxii. 9 ff. ; Chos- 
roes contemplates its capture by 
way of the Euxine, n. xxviii. 23 

Cabades, youngest son of Perozes, 
I. iy. 2 ; chosen king of Persia, 
i. iv. 34 ; introduces innova- 
tions into the Persian govern- 
ment displeasing the people, 
i. v. 1 ; cast into the Prison of 
Oblivion, I. v. 7 ; escapes from 
it, I. vi. 7, 8, 10 ; enters Persia 
with an army of Ephthalitae, 
I. vi. 10-17 ; appoints Adergou- 
dounbades " chanaranges " . I. 
vi. 15, 18 ; deposes Biases, I. vi. 
17 ; institutes a new office, i. vi. 
18, 19 ; appeals to Anastasius 
for a loan, i. vii. 1 ; invades 
Roman territory, I. vii. 3 ; grants 
request of Jacobus, the hermit, 
I. yii. 9-11 ; besieges Amida, 
I. vii. 12-29 ; captures Amida, 
I. vii. 29 ; puts Clones in com- 
mand of the city, I. vii. 33 ; 
his treatment of the captives 
of Amida, I. vii. 34 ; routs the 
Roman armies near Amida, 
I. viii. 8-19 ; shews kindness 
to Baradotus by sparing Con- 
stantina, n. xiii. 13 ; desirous 
of capturing Edessa and Con- 
stantina, n. xiii. 8 ; abandons 
his purpose of capturing Edessa, 



5 6 4 






INDEX 



n. xiii. 9 ff. ; retires in order to 
meet an invasion of the Huns, 
I. viii. 19 ; seizes the Caspian 
Oates, r. x. 12 ; protests at the 
fortification of Daras, I. x. 16 ; 
solicitude as to his successor, 
i. xi. 2 ff. ; cured by Stephanus 
of Edessa, n. xxvi. 31 ; hates 
his oldest son Caoses, I. xi. :j, 
n: ix. 12 ; requests Justimis to 
adopt Chosroes, I. xi. 9, 20 ff. ; 
unwilling to save Seoses, i. xi. 
36, 37 ; tries to force the Ibe- 
rians to adopt the Persian reli- 
gion, I. xii. 2 ff. ; sends an army 
against them, I. xii. 10 ; sends 
an army into Roman Armenia, 
I. xv. 1 ; his gold mine at Pha- 
rangium, I. xv. 27 ; deprived of 
the revenue therefrom, i. xv. 
28, 29 ; treats with the ambas- 
sador Rufinus at Daras, I. xvi. 
1 ff. ; punishes Perozes, I. xyii. 
26 ff . ; plans a new campaign 
against the Romans, I. xvii. 29 ; 
advised by Alamouudaras, I. 
xvii. 30 ff. ; adopts the sugges- 
tion of Alamoundaras, I. xviii. 1 ; 
dishonours Azarethes, i. xviii. 
51 ff. ; refuses to negotiate with 
Hermogenes, I. xxi. 1 ; bought 
pearl from the Ephthalitae, i. 
iv. 16 ; his last illness, I. xxi. 
17 ff. ; his ability as a ruler, 
i. vi. 19 

C'abades, son of Zames, plot to set 
him on the Persian throne in 
place of Chosroes, I. xxiii. 4 ; 
ordered to be killed by Chosroes, 
I. xxiii. 7 ; escapes by the help 
of the chanaranges, I. xxiii. 9 ff. ; 
one claiming this name enter- 
tained by Justinian in Byzan- 
tium, I. xxiii. 23, 24 

Cadiseni, in the Persian army at 
the battle of Daras, I. xiv. 38, 39 

Caesar, the title used by the Per- 
sians to designate the Roman 
pinperor, n. xxi. 9, xi. 35 

Caesarea, the home of Procopius, I. 
i. 1 

Caisus, a Homrritc, of captain's 
rank, a fugitive because of 
murder committed by him, 
I. xx. 9, 10 



Callinicus, city of Mesopotamia, 
II. xi. 28 ; on the Euphrates, 
I. xviii. 13 ; Roman army 
conveyed thither by boats after 
the battle on the Euphrates, 
i. xviii. 50 ; taken by Chosroes, 
n. xxi. 30 ff. 

Candidus, priest of Sergiopolis, 
makes agreement with Chosroes. 
n. v. 31 ; punished by Chosroes 
for failing to keep his agree- 
ment, n. xx. 2 ff., 15, 16 

Caoses, oldest son of Cabades, 

I. xi. 3 ; hated by his father, 

II. ix. 12; claims the throne 
of Persia upon the death of 
Cabades, i. xxi. 20 ; prevented 
by Mebodes from becoming 
king, i. xxi. 22 

Cappadocia, country of Asia em- 
bracing a portion of the Taurus, 

I. x. I ; desired by Chosroes, 

II. xxviii. 23 ; visited by Orestes, 

I. xvii. 16 

Carrhae, city of Mesopotamia, citi- 
zens of, offer money to Chosroes, 

II. xiii. 7 ; able to see the smoke 
of the burning " agger " at 
Edessa, n. xxvii. 15 

Caspian Gates, their location ,an<l 
strategic importance, i. x. 1 ff. : 
fortified by Alexander, I. x. 9 ; 
offered to Anastasius by Ainba- 
zouces, I. x. 10 ; seized by 
Cabades, i. x. 12, xvi. 4, 7. xxii. 
5 ; guarded by the Persians, 
II. x. 21 

Cassandria, known in ancient 
times as Potidaea, captured 
by the Huns, n. iv. 5 

Catholicos, title of the priest of 
Doubios, ii. xxv. 4 

Caucasus Mountains, I. xv. 26 ; 
inhabited by Huns, n. xv. 3, 
29, xxviii. 22; by Alani, etc., 
n. xxix. 15; barbarians In. 
held in check by Lazica, ii 
xxviii. 22 

C'cler, Roman general, I. viii. 2 : 
invades Arzanene, I. viii. 21. 
II. xv. 7 : with Patricius and 
Hypatius besieges Amida, i. ix. 
1 ; negotiates a treaty with 
Aspebedes, I. ix. 24 

Celesene, district in Armenia, i. 

565 



INDEX 



xvii. 11, 21 ; sanctuary of 
Artemis there, I. xvii. 11 

Cerataeum, a district of Antioch, 
H. x. 7 

Chalcis, city in Syria, distance 
from Gabbouton, I. xviii. 8 ; 
from. Beroea, n. xii. 1 ; saved 
from Chosroes fey money pay- 
ment, it. xii. 1, 2 

Chanaranges (lit. ' Commander of 
the Frontier Troops "), Persian 
term for " general," 1. v. 4, vi. 
12, xxiii. 7 

Chanaranges, Persian general, 
shares command of invading 
army, I. xxi. 4 ; besieges Martyr - 
opolis, I. xxi. 14, 15 ; retires, 
i. xxi. 27 

Cherson, a city at the limits of 
Roman territory on the Euxine, 
I. xii. 7 

Chersonesus, its wall assailed by 
the Huns, II. iv. 8 

Chorzianene, place in Armenia, 
Eruli encamp there, n. xxiv. 14 

Chosroea, third son of C'abades, 
I. xi. 5 ; Cabades proposes to 
Justinus that he adopt Chosroes, 
I. xi. 6 ff. ; Ch. awaits outcome of 
negotiations regarding his adop- 
tion by Justinus, I. xi. 27 ; re- 
tires in anger to Persia, I. xi. 30 ; 
declared by Cabades in his tes- 
tament successor to the throne 
of Persia, I. xxi. 17 ff. ; his 
election to the kingship, I. xxi. 
22 ; meets Roman ambassadors 
on the Tigris, i. xxii. 1 ff. ; fail- 
ure of their negotiations, i. xxii. 
12 ff. ; grants the prayer of 
Ruflnus, I. xxii. 15 ; concludes 
the " endless peace." I. xxii. 16, 
17 ; his unpopularity among the 
Persians, i. xxiii. 1-3 ; plot to 
dethrone him, I. xxiii. 3 ff. ; 
slays Zames and other male rela- 
tives, I. xxiii. 6 ; orders the 
Chanaranges to slay C'abades, 
son of Zanies, I. xxiii. 7 ; hears 
from Varrames how Cabades 
had been spared, I. xxiii. 13 ; 
his punishment of Adergou- 
dounbades, I. xxiii. 14 ff.: de- 
stroys Mebodes, I. xxiii. 25 ff. ; 
vexed at Roman successes in 



Libya, I. xxvi. 2 ; demands his 
share of the spoils, I. xxvi. 3 ; 
desires to break the treaty with 
the Romans, II. i. 1 ; charges 
Justinian with having broken the 
treaty, n. i. 12-14, x. 13, 16; 
hears with favour the ambas- 
sadors of \ 7 ittigis, n. ii. 12 ; 
receives an embassy from the 
Armenians, n. Hi. 32 ff. ; decides 
to open hostilities against the 
Romans, n. iii. 55 ; admonished 
by Justinian by letter, n. iv. 
17 ff. ; detains Anastasius, II. 
iv. 26 ; dismisses him, n. v. 27 : 
first invasion of Roman territory, 
II. v. 1 ; marches towards Syria, 
II. v. 4 ; refrains from attacking 
Zenobia, II. v. 7 ; arriving at 
Sura, besieges the city, n. v. 8 ff.; 
captures it by a strategem, n. v. 
22 ff. ; marries Euphemia, II. v. 
28 ; releases captives for ransom, 
II. v. 20 ; hears the plea of Megas, 
ii. vi. 18 rf. ; exacts money from 
the Hierapolitans, II. vi. 22-24 ; 
promises to depart from the East 
for ten centenaria of gold, n. vi. 
25 ; demands money from the 
Beroeans, II. vii. 5 ; enters 
Beroea and fires a large portion 
of it, ii. vii. 10, 11 ; besieges 
the acropolis, n. vii. 11 ff. ; 
reproached by Megas, n. vii. 10 ; 
his reply, ii. vii. 20 ff. ; allows 
the Beroeans to capitulate, II. 
vii. 35 ; moves against Antioch, 
ii. viii. 1 ; demands money from 
the citizens of Antioch, n, viii. 
4 ; hears the ambassadors, II. 
viii. 5 ; insulted by the citizens, 
II. viii. 6 ; storms the city wall, 
II. viii. 8 ff. ; captures Antioch, 
n. viii. 20 ; reproached by 
Zaberganes, IT. viii. 30 ff. ; ad- 
dresses the ambassadors, ii. ix. 
1 ff. ; his hesitation in allowing 
the Persians to enter Antioch, 
II. viii. 22-24, ix. 7 ; his character 
II. ix. 8-12; orders the plunder 
of Antioch, II. be. 14 ; burns the 
city, n. ix. 17, 18 ; addressed 
by the ambassadors, n. x. 10 ff. ; 
demands money from them, ii. 
x. 19 ff. ; agrees upon terms for 



5 66 



INDEX 



peace, n. x. 24 ; visits Seleucia, 
ir. xi. 1 ; visits Daphne, n. xi. 
5 ff. ; burns the sanctuary of 
Michael at Daphne, n. xi. 12, 
13 ; proceeds to Apamea, II. xi. 
14 ; enters the city and seizes 
its treasures, 11. xi. 24 ff. ; be- 
comes a spectator in the hippo- 
drome, n. xi. 31 ff. ; impales a 
Persian adulterer, n. xi. 37, 38 ; 
exacts money from the citizens 
of Chalcis, n. xii. 1,2; crosses 
the Euphrates by a bridge, n. 
xii. 3 ff. ; eager to capture Edessa 
because of the belief of the Christ- 
iana that it could not be cap- 
tured, n. xii. 6 if., 29, 31 ; de- 
mand* and receives money from 
the citizens, n. xii. 33, 34 ; upon 
receipt of a letter from Justinian 
prepares for departure, n. xiii. 
1, 2 ; protests at the offer of 
money by the citizens of Carrhae, 
H. xiii. 7 ; accepts money from 
the citizens of Constantina, n. 
xiii. 8; claims Constantina as 
his possession by inheritance, ib., 
ii. xiii. 15 ; besieges Daras, li. xi. 
28, xiii. 16 ; abandons the siege 
of Daras upon receipt of money, 
n. xiii. 28 ; charged by Justinian 
with breaking the treaty, 11. xiii. 
29 ; provides a home for the 
captives of Antioch, n. xiv. 1 ff. ; 
called in by the Lazi, n. xv. 1, 
12 ff. ; prepares to invade Lazica, 
H. xv. 31-35 ; Belisarius sent 
against him, n. xiv. 8 ; invades 
Lazica, II. xvii. 1 ff. ; commands 
an attack to be made on Petra, 
n. xvii. 4; impales Aniabedes, 
ii. xvii. 11 ; besieges Petra, n. 
xvii. 13 ff. ; captures Petra, II. 
xvii. 27 ; retires from Lazica, 
u, xix. 48 ; third invasion of 
Roman territory, n. xx. 1 ff . ; 
besieges Sergiopolis in vain, n. 
xx. 11 ff. ; punishes Candidus, 
the priest of Sergiopolis, II. xx. 
2 ff., 15, 16 ; takes much trea- 
sure from Sergiopolis, II. xx. 7 ; 
sends envoy to Belisarius, II. 
xxi. 1, 23 ; retires before Beli- 
sarius, n. xxi. 15 ff. ; crosses the 
Euphrates by a bridge, ii. xxi. 21 ; 



takes Callinicus, II. xi. 28, xxi. 
30-32 ; receives the hostage 
John, II. xxi. 27 ; awaits the 
Roman envoys at Adarbiganon. 
II. xxiv. 1 ff. ; his army visited 
by the pestilence, it. xxiv. 8, 12 ; 
retires from Adarbiganon into 
Assyria, n. xxiv. 12 ; fourth 
invasion of Roman territory, 
II. xxvi. 1 ff. ; makes an attempt 
upon Edessa, II. xxvi. 5 ff. ; 
comes to terms with the citizens 
of Edessa, II. xxvii. 46 ; arranges 
a five-year truce with Constan- 
tianus and Sergius, n. xxviii. 
7 ff. ; lays plans to capture 
Daras and secure his possession 
of Lazica, II. xxviii. 15 ff. ; 
attemps to capture Daras by a 
ruse, II. xxviii. 31 ff. ; plans to 
build a fleet in the Euxine. II. 
xxix. 1 ; sends Phabrizus into 
Lazica to destroy Goubazes, n. 
xxix. 2 ff. ; sends an army to 
relieve Petra, n. xxix. 13 

Christ, suffered in Jerusalem, II. 
xi. 14. See " Jesus." 

Christians, converted two temples 
into churches, I. xvii. 18 ; boast 
that Edessa cannot be captured, 
II. xii. 7 ; reverence especially 
the feast of Easter, 1. xviii.15: 
the Lazi and Iberians devout 
Christians, i. xii. 3, n. xxviii. 26 ; 
among the Homeritae, abused 
by Jews, i. xx. 1 

Cilicia, the refuge of Ephraemius, 
II. vii. 17 : and Germanus, n. 
vii. 18 

C'ilicians, the objective of Chos- 
roes' invasion, n. v. 4, vi. 21 

Cilician screens, used at the siege 
of Edessa, n. xxvi. 29 

Circesium, Roman stronghold on 
the Euphrates, II. v. 2 ; its 
excellent defences, II. v. 3 

Citharizon, fortress in Armenia, 
four days from Theodosiopolis, 
II. xxiv. 13 

Colchis, the old name for I.ar.ica 
(q.v.), I. xi. 28, etc. 

Comana, called " Golden Comana," 
a city of Cappadocia founded 
by Orestes, I. xvii. 10 

Comana, city in Pontus, founded 

567 



INDEX 



by Orestes, not the one " Among 
the Taurians," I. xvii. 12 

Comet, The, its appearance hi the 
heavens, n. iv. 1, 2 ; various 
explanations of the meaning 
of the phenomenon, n. iv. 3 

C'ommagene, old name for Eu- 
phratesia, I. xvii. 2, 23. n. xx. 
17 ; invaded by the Persians, 

I. xviii. 2 

Constantianus, an Illyrian, n. xxiv. 
4 ; envoy to Chosroes with 
Sergius, II. xxiv. 3 ; appointed 
general, II. xxviii. 2 ; sent as 
envoy to Chosroes with Sergius 
a second time, n. xxviii. 3 ff. 

Constantina, city in Mesopotamia, 
r. xxii. 3 ; distance from Arza- 
mon, I. viii. 10 ; Cabades de- 
sirous of capturing the city, 

II. xiii. 8 ; spared by Cabades 
owing to the entreaties of Bara- 
dotus, n. xiii. 13 ff. ; claimed 
by Chosroes as an inherited 
possession, n. xiii. 8, 15 ; citizens 
of, their offer of money accepted 
by Chosroes, II. xiii. 8 

Constantino, Forum of, in Byzan- 
tium, I. xxiv. 9, 24 

Coutzes, Eoman general, brother 
of Bouzes, sent to support 
Belisarius at Mindouos, I. xiii. 5 ; 
captured by the Persians, I. 
xiii. 8 

Ctesiphon, town on the Tigris, 
n. xxviii. 4-5 ; distance from 
the Antioch of Chosroes, n. 
xiv. 1 

Cyril. Roman commander at the 
battle of Daras, I. xiii. 21 

Cyrus, king of the Persians, n. 
ii. 15 

Cyzicus, John the Cappadocian 
exiled thither, I. xxv. 31 

Dagaris, a Roman spy, captured 
by Huns, I. xv. 6 ; returned to 
the Romans, I. xxii. 18 ; his 
later services to the Romans, 
i. xxii. 19 

Dagisthaeus, commands an army 
to succour the Lazi, n. xxix. 
10 ; with Goubazes besieges 
Petra, n. xxix. 11 ff. ; sends 

. an insufficient force to guard 

5 68 



the pass into Lazica. II. xxix. 
33-34 ; his incompetent con- 
duct of the siege of Petra, H. 
xxix. 34 ff. ; deceived by Mir- 
ranes, n. xxx. 7 ; abandons 
Petra, n. xxx. 11 ; with Phoube- 
lis attacks Mermeroes, n. xxx. 
22 ; with Goubazes attacks 
and almost annihilates the Per- 
sians, n. xxx. 39 ff. 

Daphne, suburb of Antioch, II viii. 
25 ; visited by Chosroes, II. xi. 
5 ff. ; the portent of the up- 
rooted cypresses, n. xiv. 5 

Daras, a city in Mesopotamia, 
fortified by Anastasius, I. x. 13 ; 
distance from Nisibis and the 
Persian boundary, i. x. 14 ; 
from Ammodius, i. xiii. 15 ; 
its formidable defences, n. xiii. 
17 ; a menace to the Persians, 

I. xvi. 6 ; battle of, I. xiii. 12 ff. ; 
the Persians demand that its 
walls be demolished, I. xvi. 7 ; 
its abandonment by the Roman 
army a condition of the " end- 
less peace," I. xxii. 10 ; the 
tyranny of John, I. xxvi. 5-12 ; 
besieged by Chosroes, n. xi. 28, 
xiii. 1 6 ff. ; citizens of, make 
a settlement with Chosroes, 

II. xiii. 28 ; Chosroes plans to 
capture it by a ruse, n. xxviii. 
17 ; failure of the attempt, II. 
xxviii. 31 ff. 

Death, Gate of, in Byzantium, 
I. xxiv. 52 

Diocletian, Roman emperor, read- 
justs the Roman boundary in 
Aegypt, I. xix. 29 ff. ; builds the 
fortress of Philae, I. xix. 34, 35 

Diogenes, a guardsman, com- 
mander of cavalry, n. xxi. 2, 
18, 20 

Domentiolus commands a detach- 
ment of an army to invade 
Persia, II. xxiv. 15 

Dorotheus, a Roman commander 
at the battle of Daras, I. xiii. 21 

Dorotheas, general of Armenia, 
attacks invading Persian army, 
I. xv. 3 ff. ; makes a sally from 
Satala upon the Persian army, 
i. xv. 11 ff. 

Doubios, district in Persarinenia, 



INDEX 



u. xxv. 1,2; its trade with 
India, II. xxy. 3 ; distance from 
Theodosiopolis, n. xxv. 1 ; Mer- 
meroes stops there with his army, 
II. xxx. 33 ; priest of, called 
Catholicos, II. xxv. 4 ; sent to 
urge the Romans to make peace, 
n. xxiv. 6, 7 

Easter, its especial observance by 
the Christians, I. xviii. 15 

Edessa, the centre of so-called 
Osroene, I. xvii. 24 ; in Meso- 
potamia, II. xxiv. 4 ; Augustus 
promises to build a hippodrome 
in the city, n. xii. 18; the 
story of its to parch Augarus, 
H. xii. 8 ff. ; citizens of, con- 
vinced that the city could not 
be captured by barbarians, n. 
xii. 7, 26, 30; the letter of 
Christ to Augarus inscribed on 
the city wall, n. xii. 26 ; given 
over to the Persians by the son 
of Augarus, n. xii. 28 ; citizens 
of, destroy the Persian guards 
and give back the city to the 
Romans, n. xii. 29 ; citizens 
pay Chosroes two centenaria, 
II. xii. 34 ; their zeal to ransom 
the captives of Antioch frus- 
trated by Bouzes, n. xiii. 3 ff. ; 
Cabades desirous of capturing 
the city, n. xii. 6, 7, 31, xiii. 8 ; 
abandons his purpose upon 
reaching it, n. xiii. 9 ff. ; at-' 
tacked by Chosroes, n. xxvi. 
5 ff. ; the home of Sergius, 
H. xxiv. 4 

Eirenaeus, Roman general, sent 
to Lazica, i. xii. 14 

Elephantina, city in Aegypt, on 
the Roman boundary, I. xix. 27; 
near Philae, I. xix. 34, 35 

Endielon, place near Amida, I. 
vii. 5 

Ephraemius, chief priest of An- 
tioch, accused of treason by 
Julian, n. vii. 16 ; retires to 
Cilicia, n. vii. 17 

Ephthalitae Huns, called White 
Huns, their manners and cus- 
toms, I. iii. 1,2; wage war with 
Perozes, I. iii. 1 ff. ; entrap the 
Persian army, I. iii. 8 ff. ; in a 



second war with Perozes com- 
pletely destroy his army, I. iv. 
1 ff. ; force the Persians to pay 
tribute, I. iv. 35 ; receive 
Cabades after his escape from 
the Prison of Oblivion, I. vi. 10 ; 
Cabades owes their king money, 
I. vii. 1,2; punished for impiety 
towards Jacobus, the hermit, 

I. vii. 8 ; eight hundred Eph. 
killed by the Persians. I. viii. 13 

Eruli, accustomed to fight without 
protective armour except a 
shield, n. xxv. 27, 28; in the 
Roman army, 11. xxi. 4 ; in the 
Roman army at the battle of 
Daras, I. xiii. 19, xiv. 33, 39 ; 
under Mundus, I. xxiv. 41 ; in 
the army of Valerianus, II. xxiv. 
12 ; with the army of Martinus, 

II. xxiv. 14 ; follow Peter into 
Persia, n. xxiv. 18 ; in the 
battle of Anglon, H. xxv. 20 ff. 

Esimiphaeus, established as king 
of the Homeritae, I. xx. 1 ; 
deposed by insurgents, I. xx. 3 ; 
makes idle promise to Justinian, 
I. xx. 9 ff. 

Euphemia, daughter of John the 
Cappadocian, I. xxv. 13 

Euphemia, captive of Sura, married 
by Chosroes, II. v. 28 

Euphratesia, ancient name of 
Commagene, I. xvii. 2, 23, n. xx. 
17, 20 ; chosen by Azarethes 
as the starting point for an in- 
vasion of Roman territory, I. 
xvii. 2 

Euphrates River, its source in 
Armenia, i. xvii. 4 ; disappears 
in a strange marsh, i. xvii. 6 ff. ; 
its course from Celesene as far 
as the junction with the Tigris, 
I. xvii. 21, 22 ; receives the 
waters of the Aborrhas, II. v. 2 ; 
protects one side of Circesium, 
tb. ; important battle on its 
banks, I. xviii. 30 ff. 

Europe, invaded by the Huns, 
TI. iv. 4 ff. 

Europum, on the Euphrates, head- 
quarters of Belisarius while 
recruiting his army, H. xx. 24, 
27,28 

Eusebius, Roman ambassador to 

569 



INDEX 



the Persian king Perozes, i. iii. 8 ; 

warns Perozes of the stratagem 

of the Ephthalitae, I. iii. 13 
Eusebius, bishop of Cyzicus, mur- 
dered by the citizens, I. xxv. 

37, 38 
Euxine Sea. receives the waters 

of the Phasis, II. xxix. 16 ; 

Chosroes desires an outlet to it, 

II. xxviii. 23 
Evaris, builder of a temple of 

Michael at Tretum, near An- 

tioch, II. xi. 7 

Florentinus, a Thracian, distin- 
guishes himself at the battle of 
Satala, I. xv. 15, 16 

Gabalas, a Saracen, father of 

Arethas, I. xvii. 47 
Galatians, on the Euxine, n. 28, 

23 
Gabboulon, distance from Chalcis. 

I. xviii. 8 

Gaza, limit of Arabia hi olden 
times, I. xix. 20 

Gelimer, brought captive to Byzan- 
tium by Belisarius, II. xxi. 28 

George, confidant of Belisarius. 
persuades the inhabitants of 
Sisanranon to capitulate, II. xix. 
22, 23 ; saves the city of Daras, 

II. xxviii. 33 f. 

Germanus, nephew of Justinian, 
ii. vi. 9 ; commander at the 
battle of Daras, I. xiii. 21 ; sent 
to meet the invasion of Chosroes, 
II. vi. 9 ; establishes himself in 
Antioch and inspects the forti- 
fications, ii. vi. 10 ; retires into 
Cilicia, II. vii. 18 

Clones, a Persian, in command of 
the garrison in Amida, I. vii. 33 ; 
destroyed by a stratagem, I. ix. 
5-17 ; son of, I. ix. 4, 18 

Godidisklus, a Goth, an officer in 
the Roman army, I. viii. 3 

Gorgo, city of the Ephthalitae, 
against the Persian frontier, 
I. iii. 2, iv. 10 

Goths ; march with Belisarius 
against Chosroes, II. xiv. 10, 
xviii. 24, xxi. 4 

Goubazes, king of La/.ica, privy 
councillor of Justinian in ab- 



sentia, H. xxix. 31 ; gives him- 
self and his people over to 
Chosroes, II. xvii. 2 ff. ; plotted 
against by Phabrizus, n. xxix. 
2 ff. ; begs Justinian to succour 
the Lazi, II. xxix. 9 ; with 
Dagisthaeus besieges Petra, n. 
xxix. 11 ff. ; defends one pass 
against the Persians, II. xxix. 
28 ff. ; asks Justinian to send 
money to the Alani and the 
Sabeiri, n. xxix. 30 ; Chosroes 
plans to put him out of the way, 
II. xxviii. 30, xxix. 2 ff. ; re- 
warded with money by Justi- 
nian, n. xxx. 28 ; with Dagis- 
thaeus attacks and almost anni- 
hilates the Persians, II. xxx. 
39 ff. 

Gourgenes, king of Iberia, revolts 
from the Persians, I. xii. 4 ff., 
n. xv. 6, xxviii. 20 ; retires before 
the Persian army into Lazica, 
I. xii. 11, 12 

Gousanastades, " chanaranges," 
counsels the execution of Ca- 
bades, I. v. 4 ; put to death by 
Cabades, i. vi. 18 

Greece, plundered by the Huns, 
n.iv. 11 

Greeks, The, I. xix. 35 

Green Faction, their struggles 
with the Blue Faction, I. xxiv. 
2-6; in the Nika insurrection, 
I. xxiv. 7 ff. ; favoured by 
Chosroes at Apamea, II. xi. 32 

Hebrews, of lotabe, formerly au- 
tonomous, become subject to the 
Romans. I. xix. 4 

Helen, palace named from, in 
Byzantium, I. xxiv. 30 

Hellenic faith, The, I. xx. 1, xxv. 10 

Hellestheaeus, king of the Aethio- 
pians, his expeditions against 
the Homeritae, I. xx. 1 ff. ; his 
vain promises to Justinian, I. 
xx. 9 ff. 

Hermogenes, Roman general, sent 
to assist Belisarius. I. xiii. 10 ; 
in company with Belisarius pre- 
pares to meet the Persians at 
Daras, I. xiii. 12 ff. ; at the 
battle of Daras, I. xiii. 19 ff. ; 
forbids Andreas to engage in 



57 



INDEX 



single combat, i. xiii. 35 ; inter- 
chauge of letters with Perozes, 
I. xiv. 1 ff. ; address to the 
troops. I. xiv. 20 tf. ; arrays the 
army on the second day of the 
battle of Daras, i. xiv. 28 ; 
at the battle of Daras, i. xiv. 44 : 
recalls Romans from pursuit of 
the Persians, i. xiv. 53 ; returns 
to Byzantium. I. xvi. 10 ;.sent as 
ambassador by the emperor, 
I. xviii. 10 ; negotiates un- 
successfully with Chosroes, i. 
xxi. 1 ; accompanies the army 
of Sittas as ambassador, I. xxi. 

10, 23 ; ambassador to Chos- 
roes with Ruftnus, i. xxii. 16 

Hestia. i.e. Vesta, identified with 
the Persian fire-divinity, II. xxiv. 

Hierapolis, city on the Euphrates, 

I. xiii. 11, xvii. 22; distance 
from Beroea and Antioch, 11. 
vii. 2 ; Bonzes and the Roman 
army stationed there, H. vi. 2 ; 
suggested plan for its defence, 

11. vi. 3 ff. ; deserted by Bonzes, 
ii. vi. 7, 8 ; saved from Chosroes 
by payment of money, II. vi. 
22-24 ; Justus and Bouzes take 
refuge there, n. xx. 20 

Homeric bowmen, compared with 
bowmen of Procopius' time, I. i. 
0-11 

Homeritae, people of Arabia, sought 
as allies by Justinian, i. xix. 1, 
xx. 9 ff. ; location of their coun- 
try, i. xix. 15 ; domestic con- 
flicts and intervention of Helles- 
theaeus, I. xx. 1 ff. 

Honoring. Emperor of the West, 
uncle of Theodosius II, unable to 
assist him, I. ii. 4 

Huns, a nomadic people, of ugly 
countenance, I. iii. 4 ; their 
homes, i. x. 6, xii. 7, II. xv. 3, 
xxviii. '22 ; their war with 
Oabades, I. viii. 19, ix. 21. x. !.">. 

II. xvi. 3: Justinian attempts to 
win their support, n. i. 14, iii. 47, 
x. U> ; capture a Roman spy, I. 
xv. 6; attack of, feared by the 
I'crsijins ;it Martyropolis. I. xxi. 
27 ; invade Roman territory, I. 
xxi. 28; often defeated by Da- 



garis, I. xxii. 19 ; receiving an- 
nual payments from the Romans, 
n. x. 23 ; held back by the 
Lazi, ii. xv. 3 ; in the army 
of Chosroes, n. xxvi. 5 ; assist 
the Romans in the defence of 
Edessa, n. xxvi. 25, 26 ; 
invade Europe, ii. iv. 4 ff. ; 
cross the Hellespont into Asia. 
II. iv. 9 ; plunder Illyricuni and 
Thessaly and Greece as far as 
the Isthmus, ii. iv. 10-12 
Hypatius, nephew of Anastasius, 
I. viii. 2 ; his army routed by 
Cabades, I. viii. 10-18 ; his 
escape, I. viii. 19 ; sent as envoy 
to the Persians, i. xi. 24 ; slan- 
dered by Runnus, I. xi. 38 ; his 
punishment, I. xi. 39 ; sent from 
the palace by Justinian, i. xxiv. 
19-21 ; declared emperor by 
the populace, and conducted 
to the hippodrome, I. xxiv. 22 f. ; 
his wife Mary, i. xxiv. 23 ; takes 
the emperor's seat in the hippo- 
drome, I. xxiv. 42 ; brought 
before Justinian as a prisoner, 
I. xxiv. 53 ; meets his death 
bravely, I. xxiv. 55, 56 

Iberia, Iberians, a Christian 
people, side with the Romans, 

I. xii. 2 ff., II. xy. 6 ; come to 
Byzantium, i. xii. 14; given 
choice of remaining in Byzan- 
tium or returning to their 
homes, I. xxii. 16 ; dissatisfied 
with Persian rule, II. xxviii. 
20, 21 

Ildiger, in the army of Martinus, 

ii. xxiv. 13 
Illyricum, invaded by the Huns, 

II. iv. 5, 10 

Immortals, a detachment of the 
Persian army, I. xiv. 31 ; at the 
battle of Daras, i. xiv. 44 ff. 

India, washed by the " Red Sea," 
I. xix. 3 ; boats in, tale to 
account for their construction 
without iron, I. xix. 23, 24 ; 
iron not produced there nor 
imported from elsewhere, I. xix. 
24-26 ; silk export. 1. xx. 9, 12 ; 
its trade with Doubios, II. xxv. 3 

Ionian Gulf, n. iv. 4 

571 



INDEX 



lotabe, an island in the " Red Sea," 
I. xix. 3 

Ipbigenia, the story of her flight 
from the sanctuary of Artemis, 
I. xvii. 11 ff. ; temple dedicated 
to her by Orestes, I. xvii. 18 

Iris River, in Pontus, I. xvii. 14 

Isaac, brother of Narses, betrays 
Bolum to the Romans and comes 
as a deserter to Byzantium, I. 
xv. 32, 33 ; commander in 
Armenia, II. xxiv. 14 ; carries 
his brother Narses out of the 
battle of Anglon, n. xxv. 24 

Isaurians, in the Roman army, 

I. xviii. 5 ; commanded by 
Longinus and Stephanacius, I. 
xviii. 7 ; at the battle on the 
Euphrates, I. xviii. 38 ; their 
inexperience in war, I. xviii. 39 

Isdigerdes, Persian king, guardian 

of Theodosius. I. ii. 7 ff. 
Isdigousnas, high Persian official, 

II. xxviii. 16 ; employed by 
Chosroes for the furtherance 
of his plans, II. xxviii. 17 ; at- 
tempts to capture Daras for 
Chosroes by a ruse, n. xxviii. 
31 ff. ; continues to Byzan- 
tium as an envoy, II. xxviii. 
38 ff. 

Isis, worshipped by the Blemyes 

and Nobatae, I. xix. 35 
Italy, subdued by Belisarius, II. 

i. 1 

Jacobus, a holy man among the 
Syrians, I. vii. 5 ff. 

Jason, the tale of his adventure 
with Medea in Colchis, II. xvii. 2 

Jerusatem, the scene of Christ's 
suffering, II. xi. 14 ; its trea- 
sures desired by Chosroes, n. 
xx. 18 

Jesus, his life and work in Pales- 
tine, II. xii. 22, 23 ; invited by 
Augarus to come to Edessa, 
II. xii. 24 ; his reply, in which 
he promises health to Augarus, 
II. xii. 25. See also " Christ." 

Jews, oppress the Christians among 
the Homeritae, 1. xx. 1. See 
also " Hebrews." 

John, father of Artabancs, of the 
Arsacidae, n. iii. 25; treacher- 

572 



ously slain by Bouzes, n. iii. 
29-31 

John, son of Basilius, a notable of 
Edessa, given as a hostage to 
Chosroes, I. xxi. 27, 33 
John, an Armenian, son of Thomas 
Gouzes, in the Roman army, 
II. xxx. 4 

John the Cappadocian, praetorian 
prefect, I. xxiv. 11 ; his character 
and ability, I. xxiv. 12-15, xxv. 
8-10 ; highly esteemed by Justi- 
nian, I. xxv. 5, 25, 33 ; dis- 
missed from office, I. xxiv. 17 ; 
restored to office, I. xxv. 1 ; 
hated by Theodora, I. xxv. 4-7 ; 
hostility to Belisarius, I. xxv. 
12 ; entrapped by Antonina, I. 
xxv. 13 ff. ; .forced to become 
a priest and exiled to Cyzicus, 
i. xxv. 31 ; looks forward con- 
fidently to becoming emperor, 
I. xxv. 8, 19, 44, n. xxx. 50 ; 
his easy lot in Cyzicus, I. xxv. 
34, 35 ; accused of the murder 
of Eusebius, I. xxv. 39 ; his 
treatment at the trial, I. xxv. 
40 ; his punishment, I. xxv. 
42, 43 ; imprisoned in the city 
of Antinous in Aegypt, 1. xxv. 
43 ; returns to Byzantium, II. 
xxx. 49, 50 ; the grotesque 
fulfilment of his dreams, it. xxx. 
54 ; his daughter Euphemia, 
I. xxv. 13 

John, son of Lucas, Roman officer, 
captured by Alamoundaras, I. 
xvii. 43, 44 

John, commander of troops in 
Mesopotamia, arrests the in- 
terpreter of Vittigis' envoys, 
n. xiv. 12; attacked by the 
Persians before Nisibis, n. xviii. 
16 

John, son of Nicetas, Roman 
commander at the battle of 
Daras, I. xiii. 21 ; urges Beli- 
sarius to retire from Mesopo- 
tamia, n. xix. 36 ff. ; com- 
mands a detachment of an army 
to invade Persia, II. xxiv. 15 

John, son of Rufinus, sent as am- 
bassador to Chosroes, n. vii. 15, 
ix. 1, x. 10, 18 ff. 

John Tzibus, governor of Lazlca, 



INDEX 



bin origin and character, II. xv. 
9 ; persuades Justinian to build 
Petra, II. xv. 10 ; monopolises 
the retail trade, li. xv. 11, xxix. 
21 ; valiantly defends Petra, 
li. xvii. 5 tf. ; killed by a missile, 
u. xvii. 16 

John, serving in the Roman in- 
fantry, his tyranny at Daras, 
I. xxvi. 5-12 ; his 'death, I. xxvi. 
12 

John the Glutton, a guardsman, 
sent with Arethas into Assyria, 
ii. xix. 15 ff. ; commands a 
detachment in an army to in- 
vade Persia, II. xxiv. 15 
Julian, sanctuary of, in Antioch, 

n. x. 8 

Julian, brother of Summas, envoy 
to the Aethiopians and Homer- 
itae, I. xx. 9, li. i. 10 ; private 
secretary of Justinian, sent as 
ambassador to Chosroes, n. vii. 
15 ; forbids giving money to 
Chosroes and denounces Ephrae- 
mius, n. vii. 16 

Justinian, nephew of Justinus, I. 
xi. 10 ; his great love for his 
wife Theodora, I. xxv. 4 ; favours 
adoption of Chosroes by his 
uncle Justinus, I. xi. 10 ; as 
general, I. xi. 16, xii. 21 ; be- 
comes emperor upon the death 
of Justinus, I. xiil. 1 ; orders 
the building of a fort in Min- 
douos, I. xiii. 2 ; appoints Beli- 
sarius General of the East, I. 
xiii. 9 ; makes Arethas com- 
mander of many tribes, I. xvii. 
47 ; pits Arethas against Ala- 
moundaras, I. xvii. 47. 48 ; 
orders demolition of Philae, I. 
xix. 36 ; endeavours to secure 
the alliance of the Aethiopians 
and Homeritae, I. xix. 1, xx. 
9 ff. ; receives the Palm Groves 
as a present from Abochorabus, 
I. xix. 10 ff. ; recalls Belisarius 
and sends Sittas to the East, 
I. xxi. 2, 3 ; receives information 
from a Persian spy, I. xxi. 13 ; 
concludes the " endless peace," 
I. xxii. 16 ; receives in Byzan- 
tium the Cabades who claimed 
to be the son of Zanies, I. xxiii. 



24 ; his conduct during the Nlka 
insurrection, I. xxiv. 10 if. ; his 
affection for John the Cappa- 
docian, i. xxv. 5, 25, 33 ; de- 
nounced by the Armenian em- 
bassy before Chosroes, n. iii. 
37 ff. ; refuses to sanction treaty, 
n. xiii. 29 ; summons Belisarius 
from Italy and sends him against 
Chosroes, n. xiv. 8 ; commands 
Belisarius to invade Persia, II. 
xvi. 5 ; sends him again against 
Chosroes, u. xx. 20 ; summons 
Belisarius from the East in order 
to send him to Italy, n. xxi. 34 ; 
takes measures for the relief 
of the victims of the pestilence, 
n. xxiii. 5 ff. ; attacked by the 
pestilence, II. xxiii. 20 ; orders 
Valeria n us and Martin us with 
others to invade Persia, II. xxiv. 
10 ; appoints Marcellus and 
Constantianus generals, II. xxviii. 
2 ; sanctions the five-year peace, 
II. xxviii. 11 ; receives Isdi- 
gousnas with especial honour, 
n. xxviii. 38 ff. ; sends succour 
to the Lazi, n. xxix. 10 ; neg- 
lects to send money requested 
by Goubazes, n. xxix. 30-32 ; 
finally sends the money for the 
Sabeiri, and gifts of money to 
Goubazes, u. xxx. 28 ; sends 
John Tzibus to Lazica, n. xv. 9 ; 
founds Petra in Lazica, n. xv. 
10, xxix. 20 ; makes a present 
of money to Chosroes, I. xxvi. 
4 ; considers the question of 
Strata, u. i. 7 ff. ; accused of 
tampering with Alamoundaras, 
n. i. 12-14, iii. 47, x. 16 ; advises 
Chosroes not to wage war, n. 
iv. 17 ff. ; sends Germanus to 
Syria, n. vi. 9 ; sends ambas- 
sadors to Chosroes, n. vii. 15; 
favours the Green Faction, n. 
xi. 32 ; writes to Chosroes, n. 
xiii. 1 ; the years of his reign 
noted, I. xvi. 10, xxii. 17, II. iii. 
56, v. 1, xxviii. 11, xxx. 48 
Justinus, uncle of Justinian. I. xi. 
10 ; an officer in the Koman 
army, I. viii. 3 ; becomes em- 
peror, I. xi. 1 ; declines to adopt 
Chosroes, i. xi. 6 ff. ; reduces 

573 



INDfcX 



Hypatius from authority, I. xi. 
39 ; captures Peter of Arzanene 
during Oder's invasion, 11. xy. 
7 ; supports the Iberians in 
their revolt from the Persians, 
I. xii. 5 ff. ; makes Justinian 
partner in the royal power, I. 
xii. 21 ; appoints Procopius 
adviser to Belisarius, I. xii. 24 ; 
his death, I. xiii. 1 
Justus, nephew of Justinian, assists 
in making Hypatius prisoner, 

I. xxiv. 53 ; takes refuge with 
Bouzes in Hierapolis, n. xx. 20 ; 
they invite Belisarius to join 
them, II. xx. 21 ff. ; but later 
come to him in Europum, II. xx. 
28 ; commands a detachment 
of an army to invade Persia, II. 
xxiv. 1 5 ; invades Persia apart 
from the other commanders, II. 
xxiv. 20 ; invades the country 
about Taraunon with Peranius, 

II. xxv. 35 ; his death, II. xxviii. 
1 

Lazica, Lazi, later names for 
Colchis and Colchi (<j.v.), I. xi. 
28 ; its cities, n. xxix. 18 ; an 
unproductive country, I. xii. 17, 
n. xxviii. 27 ; imported salt and 
other necessities of life, II. xv. 
5, xxviii. 27 ; many fortresses 
there, n. xxx. 27 ; difficult to 
traverse, n. xxix. 24, 25 ; bul- 
wark against the barbarians of 
the Caucasus, .11. xxviii. 22; its 
importance to Persia, n. xxviii. 
18 ff. ; the scene of the s_tory 
of Jason and Medea, n. xvii. 2 ; 
the Lazi in ancient times allies 
of the Persians, n. xv. 15 ; be- 
come allies of the Romans, n. xv. 
16 ; the people Christian, n. 
xxviii. 26; Lazica claimed by 
the Persians, I. xi. 28 ; forts 
of, abandoned by the Romans 
and occupied by the Persians, 
I. xii. 19 ; Chosroes refuses to 
return them to the Romans, I. 
xxii. 3 ; finally given up by 
the Persians, I. xxii. 18 ; invaded 
by Chosroes, i. xxiii. 12. II. xv. 
1, xvii. 1 ff. ; limited subjection 
of the Lazi to the Romans, n. 

574 



xv. 2-4 ; placed under a Roman 
magistrate, II. iii. 30 ; become 
discontented by reason of Roman 
misrule, n. xv. (i IT. ; appeal to 
Chosroes, II. xv. 1, 12 ff. ; de- 
manded from Chosroes by the 
Roman envoys, it. xxviii. (i ; 
Chosroes plans to populate it 
with Persians, u. xxviii. 17 ; 
Lazi hostile to Persian rule, II. 
xxviii. 25 

Lebanon, I. xiii. 5, n. viii. 2, xvi. 
17, xix. 33 

Libelarius of Thrace, Roman 
general, invades Mesopotamia, 
I. xii. 23 ; reduced from ortice, 
I. xii. 24 

Libyans, n. iii. 42 

Ligurians, envoys of Vittigis to 
Chosroes, n. ii. 1 

Longinus, commander of Isaurians, 
i. xviii. 7 

Lucas, father of John, I. xvii. 44 

Lycaones, in the army of Belisarius, 

I. xviii. 40 

Macedonians, founders of Seleucia 
and Ctesiphon, II. xxviii. 4 

Maddeni, tribe of Saracens in 
Arabia, subject to the Homer- 
itae, I. xix. 14, i. xx. 9 

Magi, advise Perozes to deceive 
the Kphthalitae, I. iii. J8 ff. ; 
entrap Arsaces, I. v. 19 If. ; 
advice to Cabades at the siege 
of Amida, I. vii. 19 ; announce 
to Chosroes that he will capture 
Sura, II. v. 9 ; answer Cabadt-s' 
enquiry with regard to Edessa, 

II. xiii. 9, 10; guardians of the 
fire-sanctuary, n. xxiv. 2 

Mamas, priest of Daras, assists in 
overthrowing the tyranny of 
John, i. xxvi. 8 

Marcellus, nephew of Justinian, 
appointed general, II. xxviii. 2 

Marcellus, Roman commander at 
the battle of Daras, I. xiii. 21 : 
commander of palace guards, 
sent by Theodora to assassinate 
John the Cappadocian, I. xxv. 
24 ff. ; wounded in the encoun- 
ter, I. xxv. 29 

Martinus, given as a hostage to 
the Persians, I. xxi. 27 ; sent 



INDEX 



to the East, 11. xiv. ; defends 
Itai.-is against Chosroes, n. xiii. 
id it. ; ordered to invade Persia 
with Yalerianus, II. xxiv. 10 ; 
(Jeneral of the East, encamps 
at Citharizon, II. xxiv. 13 ; 
follows Peter in invading Persia, 
II. xxiv. 19 ; commands the 
centre at the battle of Anglon, 
II. xxv. 17 ; with Peter and 
Peranins defends Edessa against 
Chosroes, II. xxvi. 25 ff. ; de- 
ceived by the Persian com- 
manders, ii. xxvi. 44 ff., xxvii. 
5, 6 ; arranges a settlement 
with Chosroes, II. xxvii. 45, 46 

Mnrtyropolis, near the River Nym- 
phius, i. viii. 22 ; distance from 
Amidu, I. xxi. 6; besieged by 
.the Persians, I. xxi. 5 ff. ; fears 
of Sittas and Hermogenes con- 
cerning its safety, I. xxi. 23 ; 
siege abandoned by the Persians, 
I. xxi. 27 ; near Phison, 11. xxiv. 
15 

Mary, wife of Hypatius, tries to 
prevent her husband from going 
to the hippodrome, I. xxiv. 23, 24 

Massagetae, reported to be pre- 
paring to join the Persians, i. xxi. 
13. See also " Huns " 

Mebodes, a Persian official, sent as 
envoy to the Romans, i. xi. 25 ; 
slanders Seoses, I. xi. 31 ; per- 
suades Cabades to leave a written 
declaration concerning Chosroes, 
I. xxi. 17-19 ; opposes the claim 
of Caoses, I. xxi. 20 ; secures the 
election of Chosroes as king, 
I. xxi. 22 ; his tragic death, I. 
xxiii. 25 tf. 

Medea, the tale of her adventure 
with Jason in Colchis, n. xvii. 2 

Medes, the name used by Proco- 
pius as an equivalent for " Per- 
sians " (i?.r.) 

Medic garments, called in Proco- 
pius' time " seric," I. xx. 9 

Megas, bishop of Beroea, sent to 
Chosroes, II. vi. 17 ; begs him 
to spare the Roman cities, II. 
vi. 18 ff. ; goes to Antioch, II. 
vii. 1 ; fails to persuade the 
citizens of Antioch to pay money 
to Chosroes, n. vii. 14 ; his con- 



ference with Chosroes at Beroea, 
n. vii. 19ff. 

Melitene, chief city of Armenia 
Minor, I. xvii. 22 

Mermeroes, Persian general, in- 
vades Roman Armenia, i. xv. 
1 ff. ; driven back by l^orotheus 
and Sittas, i. xv. 8 ; invades 
Roman territory a second time, 
I. xv. 9 ; defeated at Satala, 

I. xv. 1 2 ff. ; shares command 
of an invading army, I. xxi. 4 ; 
leads an army to the relief of 
Petra, II. xxix. 13, xxx. 1 tf. ; 
forces the pass into Iberia, n. 
xxx. 8-10 ; reaches Petra, n. 
xxx. 15 ; taunts the Romans 

II. xxx. 17 ; leaving a garrison 
in Petra, starts back. n. xxx. 20 ; 
attacked by Phoubelis and Gou- 
bazes, n. xxx. 22 ; departs from 
Lazica with the greater 'part of 
his army, II. xxx. 32, 33 

Mesopotamia, bounded by the 
Tigris and the Euphrates, I. xvii 
23 ; its hot climate, H. xix. 31 ; 
Persians accustomed to invade 
Roman territory from here, I. 
xvii. 25 ; avoided by invading 
Persian army, i. xvii. 2 ; in- 
vaded by the Persians, I. xxi. 
4ff. 

Michael, sanctuary of, in Daphne, 
burned by Chosroes, II. xi. 6, 12, 
13 ; temple of, at Tretum, n. 
xi. 7, 13 

Mindouos, place near the Persian 
border, Justinian attempts to 
fortify it, I. xiii. 2, xvi. 7 

Mirranes, a Persian term (lit. 
" Mithra-son," denoting properly, 
not an office, but a patrician 
family) ; see Perozes 2 ; also, com- 
mander in Petra, deceives Dagis- 
thaeus, n. xxx. 7 

Mocheresis, important city of 
Lazica, II. xxix. 18 

Molatzes, commander of troops in 
Lebanon, brings succour to 
Antioch, n. viii. 2 ; flees pre- 
cipitately with the soldiers, II. 
viii. 17-19 

Monks, distinguished for piety, I. 
vii. 22, 24 

Moore, H. ii. 8, iii. 46 

575 



INDEX 



Mopsuestia, a city of Cilicia, n. 
x. 2 

Muudus, general in Illyricuni, 
assists in quelling the Nika 
insurrection, I. xxiv. 40 ff. 



Nabedes, commander of the Persian 
soldiers in Nisibis, n. xviii. 9 ; 
attacks the Roman troops before 
the city, II. xviii. 19 ff. ; general 
in Persarmenia, takes measures 
to urge the Romans toward 
making peace, 11. xxiv. 6 ; takes 
up his position in Anglon, n. xxv. 
6 ; defeats the Roman armies, 
II. xxv. 20 ff. 

Narses, a Persarmeuian, the em- 
peror's steward, receives Narses 
and Aratius when they desert 
to the Romans, I. xv. 31 ; a 
eunuch, I. xxv. 24 ; sent by 
Theodora to assist in the assassi- 
nation of John the Cappadocian, 
ib. : overhears his conversation 
with Antonina, I. xxv. 26 

Narses, a Peraarmenian, in com- 
pany with Aratius defeats Sittas 
and Belisarius, I. xii. 21, 22 ; 
deserts to the Romans, I. xv. 31 ; 
dismantles the sanctuaries in 
Philae at Justinian's order, I. 
xix. 37 ; encamps with Valeria- 
nus near Theodosiopolis, n. xxiv. 
12 ; leads the attack at Anglon, 
ii. xxv. 20 ; dies bravely, n. 
xxv. 24; brother of Isaac, n. 
xxiv. 14 

Nicetas, father of the general John, 
I. xiii. 21, n. xix. 36, xxiv. 15 

Nika insurrection, in Byzantium, 
I. xxiv. 1 ff. ; significance of the 
name, I. xxiv. 10 

Nile River, the Nobatae dwell 
along its banks, I. xix. 28, 29 ; 
the island of Philae in it, I. xix. 
34 

Nisibis, distance from the Tigris, 

I. xi. 27 ; from Daras, I. x. 14 ; 
from Sisauranon, II. xix. 2 ; 
bulwark of the Persian empire, 

II. xviii. 7 ; its capture by the ' 
Persians, I. xvii. 25 ; its territory 
invaded by Libelarius, I. xii. 23 ; 
by Belisarius, n. xviii. 1 ff. ; 

57* 



negotiations with Chosroes there, 
I. xxii. 10 

Nobatae, a people of upper Aegypt, 
I. xix. 28 ; settled along the Nile 
by Diocletian, I. xix. 29 ft. ; 
receive annual payment from 
the Roman emperor, I. xix. 32, 
33 ; their religion, i. xix. 35 

Nymphius River, near Martyro- 
polis, I. viii. 22, xxi. 6 ; forms 
boundary between the Roman 
and Persian territory, I. xxi. 6 ; 
boundary of Arzanene, I. viii. 
21, II. xv. 7 

Oasis, city in upper Aegypt, former 
home of the Nobatae, I. xix. 30 

Obbane, on the Euphrates, dis- 
tance from Barbalissum, II. xii. 4 

Octava, place in Armenia, dis- 
tance from Satala, i, xv. 9 

Odonathua, ruler of the Saracens, 
husband of Zenobia, II. v. 5 ; his 
services to the Romans, n. v. 6 

Oenochalakon. place in Armenia, 
n. iii. 15 

Olyvrius, emperor of the West, 
father-in-law of Areobindus, I. 
viii. 1 

Orestes, the story of his flight from 
Tauris, 1. xvii. 11 ff. 

Origenes, a senator, counsels mo- 
deration, I. xxiv. 26 ff. 

Orocasius. highest part of the city 
of Antioch, n. vi. 10 

Orontes River, flows along by 
Antioch, n. vi. 10, viii. 3, 35 

Osiris, worshipped by the Blemyes 
and Nobatae, I. xix. 35 

Osroene, name applied to country 
about Edessa, I. xvii. 24 ; its 
strongly fortified cities, I. xvii. 
34 

Osroes, ancient king of Edessa, 
I. xvii. 24 

Pacurius, king of Persia at the time 
of the truceless war with the 
Armenians, I. v. 10 ; entraps 
Arsaces, I. v. 16 ff. ; confines 
Arsaces in the Prison of Obli- 
vion, I. v. 29 ; flays Bassicius, I. 
v. 28 ; grants favour to a friend 
of Arsaces, I. v. 30 ff . 

Palestine, bounded by the " Red 



INDEX 



Sea," i. xix. 2 ; Saracens dwell- 
ing in it, I. xix. 10 ; the objec- 
tive of Chosroes' third invasion, 
ii. xx. 18 ; visited by the pesti- 
lence, II. xxii. 6 

Palm Groves, held by Saracens of 
Arabia, I. xix. 8, 9, n. iii. 41 ; 
presented to Justinian, I. xix. 
10 ff. 

Palmyra, city of Phoenicia, n. i. 6 

Parthians, their connection with 
the first Arsaces, n. iii. 32 

Patriciolus, an officer in the Roman 
army, I. viii. 3 

Patricius, the Phrygian. Roman 
general. I. viii. 2 ; his army 
routed by Cabades, i. viii. 10-18 ; 
his escape. I. viii. 19 ; entraps 
Qlones with two hundred Per- 
sians, I. ix. 5-18 

Paulus, interpreter of Chosroes, 
n. vi. 22 ; a Roman reared in 
Antipch, II. vi. 23; presents the 
Persian demands at Hierapolis, 
n. vi. 22 ; at Beroea, n. vii. 5 ; 
at Antioch, n. viii. 4 ; where he 
exhorts the citizens to abstain 
from their folly, n. viii. 7 ; at 
Chalcis, ii. xii. 1 ; at dessa, 
n. xii. 33 ; a second time at 
Kdessa, n. xxvi. 14, xxvil. 24, 
45 

Pearl, story of the, I. iv. 17-31 

Peloponnesus, escapes plunder by 
the Huns, n. iv. 11 

Pelusium, in Aegypt, the starting 
point of the pestilence, ii. xxii. 6 

Peranius, son of Gourgenes, king 
of Iberia, I. xii. 11 ; commands 
a detachment of an army to 
invade Persia, n. xxiv. 15 ; in- 
vades the country about Tarau- 
non with Justus, ii. xxv. 35 ; 
with Peter and Martinus defends 
Edessa against Chosroes, n. xxvi. 
25 ff., xxvii. 42 ; Chosroes de- 
mands that he and Peter be 
surrendered to him. n. xxvi. 38 ; 
his death, n. xxvilL 1 

Perozes, Persian king, wages war 
against the Ephthalitae, I. iii. 
1, 8 ; entrapped by the Ephtha- 
litae, i. iii. 10 ff. ; escapes with 
his army, I. iii. 22 ; his second 
expedition, I. iv. 1 ff. ; des- 



PROCOP.-t-VOL. I. 



troyed with his army by the 
Ephthalitae, I. iv. 14 ff. ; his 
famous pearl, I. iv. 14 

Perozes, Persian general, I. xiii. 16 ; 
interchange of letters with Beli- 
sarius and Hermogenes, I. xiv. 
1 ff. ; address to his troops, 
I. xiv. 13 ff. ; defeated by Beli- 
sarius, I. xiv. 28 ff. ; punished 
by Cabades, i. xvii. 26 ff. 

Perozes, sons of, murder Symeon, 
n. iii. 3 

Persarmenia, its trade with India, 
n. xxv. 3 ; devastated by Sittas 
and Belisarius, r. xii. 20 

Persarmenians, in the Persian army, 
i. xv. 1 

Persians, worship the rising sun, 
i. iii. 20 ; their fire-worship, 
n. xxiv. 2 ; do not bury the dead, 
I. xi. 35, xii. 4 ; their set cha- 
racter. II. xxviii. 25 ; their trade 
in Indian silk, I. xx. 9 ; the arro- 
gance of their officials, i. xi. 33 ; 
their custom of counting an 
army before and after a cam- 
paign, I. xviii. 52 ff. ; their in- 
fantry inefficient, I. xiv. 25 ; 
their bowmen quick, but inferior 
to those of the Romans, I. xviii. 
32 ; their skill in bridging rivers, 
ii. xxi. 22 ; maintain spies at 
public expense, i. xxi. 1 1 ; suffer 
a severe defeat at the hands of 
the Ephthalitae, I. iv. 13, 14 ; 
pay tribute to the Ephthaiitae 
for two years, I. iv. 35 ; make 
peace with Theodosius, I. ii. 16 ; 
unable to prevent the fortifica- 
tion of Diiras, I. x. 15 ; capture 
Amida, i. vii. 29 ; receive money 
from the Romans and give back 
Amida, I. ix. 4 ; wage war with 
the Huns during the seven- 
years' peace with the Romans, 
i. ix. 24 ; seize certain forts in 
Lazica, i. xii. 19 ; prevent the 
fortification of Mindouos. I. xiii. 
7, 8 ; defeated in battle at Daras, 
i. xiv. 47 ff. ; defeated in Persar- 
menia, i. xv. 8 ; and hi Armenia, 
i. xv. 16 ; refrain from entering 
Roman territory by Mesopo- 
tamia, i. xvii. 25 ; victorious 
in the battle on the Euphrates, 

577 
p P 



INDEX 



i. xviii. 37 ; invade Mesopo- 
tamia, I. xxi. 4 ; besiege Martyro- 
polis in vain, I. xxi. 5 ff. ; make 
peace with the Romans, I. xxii. 
17, 18 ; capture Sura, n. v. 25 ; 
and Beroea, n. vii. 12 ff. ; cap- 
ture and destroy Antioch, n. 
viii. 20 ff. ; capture Petra, n. 
xvii. 27 ; besiege Edessa in vain, 
n. xxvi. 5 ff., xxvii. 46 ; save 
Petra from capture by the 
Romans, n. xxix. 41 ff. ; suffer 
a severe defeat in Lazica, n. 
xxx. 39 ff. 

Pestilence, The, devastates the 
whole world, 11. xxii. 1 ff . ; in 
Byzantium, n. xxii. 9 ff. ; in 
Persia, n. xxiv. 8, 12 

Peter, captured as a boy in Arza- 
nene by Justinus, n. xv. 7 ; 
Roman general, sent to Lazica, 
I. xii. 9 ; summoned to Byzan- 
tium, I. xii. 14 ; bodyguard of 
Justinian, commander of in- 
fantry, I. xviii. 6 ; at the battle 
on the Euphrates, I. xviii. 42 ; 
favours invasion of Persia by 
Belisarius, n. xvi. 16 ; attacked 
by the Persians before Nisibis, 
n. xviii. 16 ff. ; commands a 
detachment in an army to invade 
Persia, n. xxiv. 13 ; precipi- 
tately enters Persia, n. xxiv. 18 ; 
commands the right wing at the 
battle of Anglon, n. xxv. 17 ; 
with Martinus and Peranius 
defends Edessa against Chosroes, 
n. xxvi. 25 ff. ; Chosroes de- 
mands that he and Peranius 
be surrendered to him. II. xxvi. 
38 ; his base character and 
misrule in Lazica, n. xv. 6-8 

Petra, built by Justinian hi Lazica, 
n. xv. 10, xvii. 3, xxix. 20 ; its im- 
pregnable defences, n. xvii. 18 ff . ; 
attacked by the Persians, n. xvii. 
4 ff . ; besieged by Chosroes. u. 
xvii. 13 ff. ; captured by Chos- 
roes, II. xvii. 26 ; fortified with 
a garrison, n. xix. 48 ; besieged 
by the Romans and Lazi, n. xxix. 
11 ff. ; the siege abandoned, 
n. xxx. 11 : valour of the Persian 
defenders, n. xxix. 35 ; mono- 
poly established there by 

578 



John Tzibus, n. xv. II, xxix. 
21 

Petrae, ancient capital of the Arabs, 
I. xix. 20 

Phabrizus, high Persian official, 
n. xxviii. 16 ; employed by 
Chosroes for the furtherance 
of his plans, u. xxviii. 17 ; 
attempts to destroy Goubazes. 
U. xxix. 2 ff. ; left as com- 
mander in Lazica by Mermeroes, 
n. xxx. 32: his forces almost 
annihilated by the Lazi, n. xxx. 
42 ff. 

Pliarangium, fortress in Persar- 
menia, occupied by the Romans, 
I. xv. 18 ; gold-mines of the 
Persians there, I. xv. 27, 29 ; 
given over to the Romans. 
I. xv. 29, n. ill. 1 ; its return 
demanded by Chosroes, I. xxii. 3 ; 
given up by the Romans, I. xxii. 
18 ; near the source of the Boas 
River, n. xxix. 14 

Pharas, an Erulian chief, at the 
battle of Daras, I. xiii. 19, 25 ff., 
xiv. 32, 33, 39 

Pharesmanes, of Colchis, an officer 
in the Roman army, I. viii. 3 

Pharsanses, a man of note in 
Lazica, u. xxix. 4 ; his friend- 
ship sought by Phabrizus, n. 
xxix. 5 ; saves Goubazes, n. 
xxix. 7 

Phasis River, its source in the 
Taurus, I. xxv. 21 ; its course 
through Lazica, II. xxix. 16 ; 
its size and strong current, n. 
xxx. 25, 26 ; strongly defended 
by the Lazi, n. xxx. 27 ; forded 
by 1>he Lazi, n. xxx. 37 

Philae, fortress established by 
Diocletian on an island in the 
Nile near Elephantina, i. xix. 
34-36 ; its temples dismantled 
by Justinian, I. xix. 36, 37 

Philemouth, an Erulian chief, 
encamps near Martinus, I. xxiv. 
14 ; with Beros follows Peter 
into Persia, n. xxiv. 18 

Phison, place in Armenia near 
Maxtyropolis, n. xxiv. 15 

Phocas, made pretorian prefect in 
place of John the Cappadocian, 
I. xxiv. 18 



INDEX 



Phoenicia, II. xvi. 17 

Phoubelis, a notable among the 
Lazi, with Dagisthaeus attacks 
Mermeroes, 11. xxx. 22 

Pitius, a fortress In Lazica, II. 
xxix. 18 

Pityaxes, Persian general at the 
battle of Daras, I. xiii. 16, xiv. 
:;L'. 38 

Plac illianae, palace in Byzantium, 
i. xxiv. 30 

Pompeiua, nephew of Anastasius, 
sent from the palace by Justinian, 
I. xxiv. 19-21 ; brought before 
Justinian as a prisoner, I. xxiv. 
53 ; his death, i. xxiv. 56 

Pontic Romans, their location, 
n. xxix. 19 

Pontus, visited by Orestes, I. xvii. 
14 

Potidaea, known in later times as 
Cassandria, captured by the 
Huns, II. iv. 5 

Priapus, worshipped by the Blemyes 
and Nobatae, I. xix. 35 

Prison of Oblivion, in Persia, reason 
for the name, i. v. 8 ; law re- 
garding it suspended once in the 
case of Arsaces, I. v. 9-29 ; 
Cabades confined therein, i. v. 7 

Probus, nephew of Anastasius, sent 
by Justinus to Bosporus to 
collect an army of Huns, I. xii. 
6, 9 

Proclus, quaestor, dissuades Jus- 
tinus from adopting Chosroes, 
I. xi. 11 ff. 

Procopius of Caesarea, author of 
the History of the Wars, I. i. 1 ; 
eye-witness of the events de- 
scribed, I. i. 3 ; chosen adviser 
; to Belisarius, I. i. 3, xii. 24 ; in 
Byzantium at the time of the 
pestilence, II. xxii. 9 ; had seen 
i Cappadocia and Armenia, I. xvii. 
17 ; his frankness in writing, 
I. i. 5 

Pylades, the story of the flight with 
, Orestes from Tauris, I. xvii.ll ff. 



hied Sea, its location, extent, 
I harbours, etc. (confused by 
Procopius with the Arabian 
I Uulf), I. xix. 2 ff., n. iii. 41 



Rhecinarius, envoy to Chosroes. n. 
xxyii. 24, 25 

Rhecithancus, of Thrace, com- 
mander of troops in Lebanon, 
objects to invading Persia with 
Belisarius, n. xvi. 17 ff. ; eager 
to return to Lebanon, n. xix. 
33, 34 ; commands an army sent 
to Lazica, II. xxx. 29 

Rhizaeum, a city near Lazica, n. 
xxix. 22, xxx. 14 

Rhodopolis, important city of 
Lazica, n. xxix. 18 

Romans, used by Procopius to 
designate the subjects of the 
empire of Byzantium, and men- 
tioned constantly throughout ; 
lack of discipline in Roman 
armies, I. xiv. 14 ; their bowmen 
more efficient than those of 
the Persians, i. xviii. 34 ; mam- 
tain spies at public expense, I. 
xxi. 11 

Ruflnianae, suburb of Byzantium, 
I. xxv. 21, 23 

Rufinus, son of Silvanus, sent as 
an envoy to the Persians, I. xi. 
24 ; slanders Hypatius, I. xi. 
38 ; sent as ambassador to 
Hierapolis, I. xiii. 11 ; treats 
with Cabades at Daras, I. xvi. 
1 flf. ; reports to the emperor 
I. xvi. 10 ; meets Chosroes on 
the Tigris, I. xxii. 1 ; sent to 
Byzantium, I. xxii. 7 ; false 
report of his death. I. xxii. 9 ; 
persuades Chosroes to give back 
the money brought by the 
ambassadors and postpone the 
war. I. xxii. 13, 14 ; slandered 
to the emperor, I. xxii. 15 ; sent 
again as ambassador to Chosroes, 
I. xxii. 16 ; brother of Timos- 
tratus, I. xvii. 44 ; father of 
John, the ambassador, n. vii. 15 

Sabeiri Huns, their location, n. 
xxix. 15 ; in the Persian army, 
I. xv. 1 ; persuaded by Goubazes 
to form an alliance with him, 
n. xxix. 29 ; deceive promised 
money from Justinian, II. xxx. 
28 

Saccice, mother of Alamoundaras, 
I. xvii. 1 

579 



INDEX 



Samosata, city on the Euphrates, 
I. xvii. 22 ; on the boundary of 
Euphratesia, I. xvii. 23 

Saracens, experts at plundering, 
but not at storming cities, n. 
xix. 12 ; in Persia, all ruled by 
Alamoundaras, i. xvuV45 ; some 
in alliance with the Romans, i. 
xviii. 46 ; their king Odonathus, 
n. v. 5 ; of Arabia, ruled by 
Arethas, I. xvii. 47 ; receiving 
annual payments from the Ro- 
mans, ii. x. 23 ; settled in 
the Palm Groves, I. xlx. 7, 8 ; 
and in Palestine, I. xix. 10 ; 
cannibals in Arabia, I. xix. 15 ; 
never mentioned in treaties, rr. 
i. 5 ; observe a religious holiday 
at the_ vernal equinox, n. xvi. 
18 ; dispute possession of Strata, 
n. i. 6 ; in the army of Chosroes, 
n. xxvii. 30 ; in the army of 
Azarethes, i. xvii. 1, xviii. 30 ; 
with the army of Belisarius, I. 
xviii. 7, 26, 35, 36, n. xvi. 5 ; 
wage war among themselves, n. 
xxviii. 12-14 

Sarapanis, a city of Lazica, n. xxix. 
18 

Sarus River, in Cappadocia, I. xvii. 
17 

Satala, city in Armenia, its location, 
i. xv. 9, 10 ; battle of, I. xv. 12 ff. 

Scanda, a city in Lazica, n. xxix. 18 

Sebastopolis, a fortress of Lazica, 
n. xxix. 18 

Seleucia, city on the Tigris, founded 
by the Macedonians, 11. xxviii. 4 

Seleucia, distance from Antioch, 
n. xi. 1 ; visited by Chosroes, ib. 

Senecius, body-guard of Sittas, 
given as a hostage to the Persians, 

I. xxi. 27 

Seoses, rescues Cabades from the 
Prison of Oblivion, I. vi. 4, 10 ; 
receives the office of " adras- 
tadaran salanes," I. vi. 18, 19 ; 
sent as envoy to the Romans, I. 
xi. 25 ; slandered by Mebodes 
and brought to trial, I. xi. 31 ff. ; 
condemned to death, I. xi. 37 

Sergiopolis, city in Mesopotamia, 

II. v. 29 ; citizens of, give much 
treasure to Chosroes, u. xx. 7 ; 
saved from capture by Ambrus, 

580 



n. xx. 10 ; besieged in vain by 
Chosroes, n. xx. 11 ff. 

Sergius, an illustrious saint, II. 
v. 29 

Sergius, of Edessa, n. xxiv. 4 ; 
envoy to Chosroes with Con- 
stantianus, n. xxiv. 3 ; a second 
time envoy to Chosroes with 
Const., n. xxviii. 3 ff. 

Sestus, city opposite Abydus on 
the Hellespont, n. iv. 9 

Silentiarius, a title given to certain 
officials in the palace at Byzan- 
tium, " privy councillors, it. 
xxii. 1, n. xxix. 31 

Silvanus, father of Ruflnus, I. xi. 
24, xvi. 4 

Simmas, Massagete chief, in the 
Roman army, I. xiii. 21, xiv. 44 

Siphrios, a fortress, distance from 
Amida, I. viii. 10 

Sisauranon, fortress in Mesopo- 
tamia, n. xix. 2 ; attacked by 
Belisarius, n. xix. 4 ; capitu- 
lates to Belisarius, n. xix. 23, 24 

Sittas, Roman general, in company 
with Belisarius invades Persar- 
menia, I. xii. 20, 21 ; defeated 
by Narses and Aratius, I. xii. 22 ; 
attacks the Persian army invad- 
ing Armenia, I. xv. 3 ff. ; occu- 
pies the hills about Satala, I. xv. 
10 ; attacks the Persian army 
unexpectedly, I. xv. 12 ; defeats 
the Tzani in battle and then wins 
them over by kindness, I. xv. 24, 
25 ; proceeds to the East, i. xxi. 
3 ; awaits the Persian army at 
Attachas, I. xxi. 9 ; opens nego- 
tiations with the Persians before 
Martyropolis, I. xxi. 23 ff. ; sent 
against the Armenians, II. iii. 
8 ff. ; his death, n. iii. 25 ; his 
valour and achievements, II. iii. 
26 

Snail, Gate of the, in the palace in 
Byzantium, I. xxiv. 43 

Soinian Gate, in the wall of Edessa, 
n. xxvii. 41 

Solomon, an Armenian, according 
to one report slew Sittas, II. iii. 
27 

Sophanene, district in Armenia, 
I. xxi. 6 

Sophia, sanctuary of, destroyed by 



INDEX 



fire in the Nika insurrection, 
i. xxiv. 9 ; its treasures guarded 
by the priest Augustus, n. xxx. 53 

Stephanacius, commander of Isau- 
rians, I. xviii. 7 

Stephanus, a physician of note, 
begs Cho8roes to spare Edessa, 
II. xxyi. 31 ff. 

Strata, its possession disputed by 
the Saracens, u. i. 6 ; meaning 
of the name, n. i. 7 ; unpro- 
ductive, n. i. 11 

Strategius, guardian of the royal 
treasures, sent as an envoy by 
Justinian, II. i. 9 ; his advice 
concerning Strata, II. i. 11 

Summus, father of Julian, com- 
mander in Palestine, sent as an 
envoy by Justinian, n. i. 9, 10 ; 
his advice concerning Strata, n. 
i. 11 

Sunicas, Massagete chief, in the 
Roman army, I. xiii. 20, xiv. 39, 
40, 44 ; charges the standard 
bearer of Baresmanas, I. xiv. 47 ; 
kills Baresmanas, i. xiv. 50 

Sunitae, march hi the Persian 
army, I. xv. 1 

Sura, a city on the Euphrates, I. 
xviii. 14, n. v. 8 ; distance from 
Sergiopolis, n. v. 29 ; besieged 
by Chosroes, n. v. 10 ff. ; bishop 
of, begs Chosroes to spare the 
city, II. v. IS ff. ; captured by a 
stratagem and destroyed, II. v. 
22 ff. ; a woman of, made cap- 
tive by a barbarian in sight of 
Chosroes, n. Ix. 9, 10 

Sycae. a suburb of Byzantium, 
modern " Galata," II. xxiii. 9 

Symeon, Sanctuary of, at Amida, 
burned, I. ix. 18 

Symeon, manager of the Persian 
gold-mine at Pharangium, I. xv. 
27 ; goes over to the Romans, I. 
xv. 28, 29 ; presented with cer- 
tain Armenian villages, II. iii. 1 ; 
murdered by the sons of Perozes, 
n. iii. 2 ; uncle of Amazaspes, 
n. iii. 3 

Syria, open to invasion by the 
Persians, i. xvii. 34 ff., n. xvi. 17, 
xix. 34 ; attacked by Chosroes, 
II. v. 4, vi. 21 

Syriac tongue, II. ii. 3 



Taraunon, a district in Persarmenia, 
invaded by Justus and Peranius, 
II. xxv. 35 

Tatianus, of Mopsuestia, quarter- 
master of the camp in Antioch, 
witnesses the portent of the 
standards. 11. x. 2 

Taurians, The, in Celesene, I. xvii. 
11 ff., 21 

Taurus Mountains, The, their size 
and extent, I. x. 1, 2, xv. 20, 
xvii. 17 

Theoctistus, commander of troops 
in Lebanon, brings succour to 
Antioch, n. viii. 2 ; flees pre- 
cipitately with the soldiers, n. 
viii. 17-19 ; objects to invading 
Persia with Belisarius, II. xvi. 
17 ff. ; eager to return to Leba- 
non, n. xix. 33, 34 ; commands 
a detachment m an army to 
invade Persia, n. xxiv. 13 

Theodoric, leader of the Goths, I. 
viii. 3 

Theodora, wife of Justinian, greatly 
beloved by him, I. xxv. 4 ; her 
hatred of John the Cappadocian, 
ti. ; counsels firmness in dealing 
with the Nika insurrection, I. 
xxiv. 33 ff. ; encourages Anto- 
nina in her plan to entrap John 
the Cappadocian, I. xxv. 22 ; 
succeeds in punishing him, I. 
xxv. 30 ; her death, n. xxx. 49 

Theqdorus, a citizen of Darns, 
skilled hi mechanics, n. xiii. 26 

Theodorus, an official in the palace 
in Byzantium, superintends the 
work of providing burial for the 
victims of the pestilence, II. xxiii. 
6ff. 

Theodosiopolis, its location, I. x. 
18, xv. 2, H. xxiv. 12 ; near the 
sources of the Euphrates and 
Tigris, I. xvii. 4 ; fortilied by 
Anastasius, I. x. 19 ; nearBolum, 
i. xv. 32 ; distance from Doubles, 
II. xxv. 1 ; from Citharizon, II. 
xxiv. 13 

Theodosiopolis, city near the Abor- 
rhas River, II. xix. 29 

Theodosius II., son of Arcadius, 
as a child is made the ward ot 
the Persian king Isdigerdes, I. 
ii. 1 ff. ; sends Anatolius as 



INDEX 



envoy to the Persians, i. ii. 12 ; 
makes peace with the Persians, 
i. ii. 15 ; Arsaces' abdication of 
the kingship of Armenia in his 
favour, II. iii. 35 

Thermopylae, attacked by the 
Huns, n. iv. 10 

Thessaly, plundered by the Huus, 
II. iv, 10 

Thilasamon, village near Amida, 
I. ix. 14 

Thomas, chief priest of Apamea, 
displays the wood of the cross, 
n. xi. 16 ff. ; goes before Chos- 
roes, n. xi. 20 ff. ; saves the 
wood of the cross, n. xi. 29, 
30 

Thomas, ambassador to the Per- 
sians, meets Chosroes on the 
Tigris, I. xxii. 1 

Thomas Gouzes, commander in 
Lazica, n. xxx. 5 

Thrace, Thracians in the army of 
Belisarius, n. xix. 32, xxi. 4 ; 
home of Coutzes and Bouzes, 
I. xiii. 5 

Timostratus, brother of Ruflnus, 
Roman officer, captured by 
Alamqundaras, I. xvii. 43, 44 

Tigris River, its source in Armenia, 
I. xvii. 4 ; its course into Assyria, 
I. xvii. 5, 6 ; distance from 
Nisibis, I. xi. 27 ; its junction 
with the Euphrates, I. xvii. 22 ; 
flows between Seleucia and 
Ctesiphou, n. xxviii. 5 

Trajan, a guardsman, sent with 
Aretnas into Assyria, n. xix. 
15 ff. ; they return by another 
route, n. xix. 28 ff. 

Trapezus, city on the Euxine, ii. 
xxix. 22, xxx. 14 

Tretum, a place near Antioch 
where was a temple of Michael, 
n. xi. 7 

Tribunianus, a Pamphylian, quaes- 
tor, I. xxiy. 11 ; his dexterity in 
manipulating laws, i. xxiy. 16 ; 
dismissed from office, I. xxiv. 17 ; 
restored to office, i. xxv. 1, 2 ; 
his death, I. xxv. 2 

Tribunus, a physician, beloved by 
Chosroes, n. xxviii. 8 ff. 

Tripod, before the palace of the 
Persian king, where all must sit 

582 



who fell under the king's dis- 
pleasure, I. xxiii. 28 

Tripurgia, a place at Edessa, n. 
xxyii. 41 

Tzani, called Sani in early times, 
I. xv. 21 ; the source of the Boas 
River among them, n. xxix. 14 : 
conquered by the Romans, I. xv. 
19 ff. ; become Christian, I. xv. 
25 ; reduced to subjection, II. 
iii. 39 ; with the Roman army 
at Petra, n. xxix. 10, 41 ; defend 
the Roman camp, n. xxx. 13 ; 
return to their homes, n. xxx. 14 

Valerianus, appointed general of 
Armenia, n. xiv. 8 ; receives 
Persian envoys, II. xxiv. 6-8 ; 
reports to Justinian, n. xxiv.'9 ; 
ordered to invade Persia with 
Martinus, II. xxiv. 10 ; encamps 
near Theodosiopolis, n. xxiv. 12 ; 
follows Peter in invading Persia, 
ii. xxiv. 19 ; commands the 
left wing at the battle of 
Anglon, n. xxv. 17 

Vandals, ii. ii. 8, iii. 46 

Vararanes, Persian king, invades 
Roman territory, i. ii. 11 ff. ; 
concludes peace with the Romans, 

I. ii. 15 

Varizes, title of a Persian general 
(lit. "victorious," properly a 
family name), I. xii. 10 

Varrames, son of Adergoudoun- 
bades, shares the secret of the 
sparing of C'hosroes, I. xxiii. 10 ; 
reveals to Chosroes the true 
story, I. xxiii. 13 ; made chana- 
ranges, I. xxiii. 22 

Veneti, name of one of the factions, 
i. xxiv. 2-6 ; supported by Justi- 
nian, ii. xi. 32 ; also called the 
Blue Faction, ib. 

Venetian Colonnade, The, in By- 
zantium, I. xxiv. 49 

Veredi, the government post horses, 

II. xx. 20 
Vesta, see Hestia 

Vitalianus, son of Patriciolus, an 
officer in the Roman army. i. 
viii. 3 ; becomes tyrant, ib. ; 
his hostility to Anastasius, I. 
xiii. 10 ; his adviser Hermo- 
genes, ib. 



INDEX 



Vittigis, king of the Goths, sends 
ambassadors to Chosroes, n. ii. 1 ; 
they address Chosroes, II. ii. 4 ff. ; 
brought to Byzantium by Beli- 
sarius, n. iv. 13, xxi. 28 ; re- 
mains in Byzantium, II. xiv. 10 ; 
envoys of, one dies, the other 
remains in Persia, n. xiv. .11 ; 
their interpreter captured, ii. 
xiv. 12 

White Syrians, old name for the 
inhabitants of Armenia Minor, 
I. xvii. 21 

Zaberganes, misrepresents Mebodes 
to Chosroes, I. xxiii. 25, 26 ; re- 
proaches Chosroes, n. viii. 30 ff. ; 
at the bidding of Chosroes re- 
ceives the envoys of Edessa, n. 
xxvi. lfr-19 



/.nut's, son of Cabades, disqualified 

from succeeding his father. I. 

xi. 4 ; II. ix. 12 ; plot to put him 

in power in place of Chosroes, 

I. xxiii. 4, 5 ; slain by Chosroes, 

I. xxiii. 6 

Zechi, their location, n. xxix. 15 
Zenb, Roman emperor at the time 

of the Persian king Arsaces, I. 

iii. 8 
Zenobia, city on the Euphrates, 

n. v. 4 ; founded by Zenobia, 

n. v. 5 ; Chosroes refrains from 

attacking it, n. v. 7 
Zenobia, wife of Odonathus, 

founder of the city of Zenobia, 

n. v. 5 
Zeuxippus, Baths of, destroyed by 

fire in the Nika insurrection, I. 

xxiv. 9 



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