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Full text of "Prof. Blot's cookery. : The substance of his "immensely popular" course of lectures delivered in Mercantile Hall, and reported with great care"

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"The most honored of Professors is Professor Blot." , 

^ - — • * : ; 

1^ PROF. BLOT'S 1 i 

COOKERY. 

-. ' • ■ ■] 

THE SUBSTAl^CE OF S 



LECTURES 

DELIVERED IN MERCANTILE, , JIALL, 

- ' ' AllD , HE^OfcTa J>- WIT U. C EJ£ AT '^AEifi. ' 



BOSTON: 

J^OTtUSG^ Fxiblisliex-- 

1866. 



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PBIIfTEBS AND STERUOTVl'Eitfl^ 

>V*^^l7ton St., Boston. 



BE-OTH, SOUPS, &c. 



1. — BROTH. 

The following is a stock for soups and gravies : 

Put three pounds of lean beef — any part of the ani- 
mal — in about three quarts of cold water, salt and 
place it over a lively hre. When at a boiling point 
ta'ie off with a skimmer the scum on the surface ; af- 
terward add a small quantity of cold water together 
with half a middling sized carrot, cut into small 
pieces ; a small piece of turnip — half as much as of 
carrot ; one leek ; an onion with two cloves stuck in 
it ; a stalk of celery cut into several pieces, and a bay 
leaf. Care must be taken in allowing the broth to 
boil gently, and for the space of five hours. Good 
broth is as clear as spring water ; milky-colored broth 
is the result of allowing it to boil too much. When 
the broth has boiled for the time indicated, the onion, 
clove and celery are to be taken out and cast aside, 
and the whole strained before serving. Burnt sug^r 
is sometimes used in giving the liquid color. 

For inferior broth take a pound of any kind of bones, 
two quarts of cold water, a small carrot, small turnip, 
one leek, one onion with two cloves stuck in it, a piece 
of celery, salt, &c. Simmer six to eight hours, skim- 
ming carefully at intervals. Strain carefully and keep 
for use. 

In summer you should not attempt to keep broth 
over two days, as it will sour. 

2. POT AGE JULIENNE. 

The Julienne Soup, the making of which is given 
below, becomes Potage a la Colbert when one forced 



4: BROTH, SOUPS, ETC. 

egg is added for every person. To make it Potage 
Printanier, to carrots and turnips given below must 
be added asparagus tops, iialf a dozen small radishes, 
two tablespoonl'uls of green peas. To make it Potage 
au Riz take two tablespoonfuls of rice, boil gently 
till tender in a pint of water, drain through a culan- 
der, and put the rice into the Julienne ten minutes 
before taking off the fire. 

To make the Julienne for eight persons take two 
carrots and two turnips, cut them into thin slices, put 
into a saucepan, with one tablespoonful of butter, 
and fry. When ^'t is stewed, a small leek cut up and 
put in and stirred again. Add nearly a quart of broth, 
and simmer gently till the vegetables are done. 

3. SOUP CONSOMME. 

Take three quarts of broth, strain it through a sieve 
or a strainer (not a culander). Put one, two, three 
or four chickens in whole, and simmer two and a half 
hours. Take out the chickens, and your potage is 
done. The pot must be skimmed in simmering. You 
need not have very young chickens or fat ones. 

4. POTAGE AU CHASSEUR 

May be made with game or rabbits. When these 
are scarce you can use a pigeon. 

When you use rabbit take head, neck, heart, &c., 
and if you have cold fowl bones break them up and 
throw them in. 

If you use pigeon, the end of the legs and wing are 
cut off, then the skin on the back of the neck, take 
out the crop and clean it. Cut the pigeon open a 
little on the side to clean it, just under the leg. When 
you cook birds whole always clean them so. Brown 
the pieces, liver, breast, &c., in a pan with butter. 
Add broth, and let it boil. 

Simmer an hour and a half, skimming off the fat. 
Take it off and turn it through a strainer. 

5.^— MOCK TURTLE SOUP. 

One table spoon of butter in a saucepan on the fire, 



BROTH, SOUPS, ETC. O 

add one table spoon of flour, stir, and when it browns 
add one quart of broth and one onion, with two cloves 
stuck in it. After simmering ten or fifteen minutes, 
put in one gill of wine, according to taste, or three gills. 
When it is done, turn it in a soup dish. In the dish 
half of a lemon cut in small slices, and one egg boiled 
hard and cut in small slices. Some use more eggs. 
Just before serving add a gill of rum or brandy. Cut 
into it some dice of calfs' head boiled. 

6. POT AGE AUX NOUILLES. 

Put half a pound of flour on the board, mix it with 
an egg, salt, a teaspoonfull of choj^ped i^arsley. It 
makes a thick, dry paste. Roll it with a pin, sprink- 
ling flour to keep it from sticking, till it is thick as 
possible. Roll it flat, and hang it over a chair back 
to dry. When it has dried half an hour, cut the paste 
in small narrow strips like a pencil. 

Put a pot of broth on the fire. When it boils drop 
in the nouilles strips. 

7. POT AGE YELOUTE. 

Three yolks of eggs in a soup dish, stirred up. 
Turn in a quart of hot broth, stirring fast. You may 
use more eggs, if you like. 

8. POTAGE TAPIOCA. 

Put four tablespoons of tapioca in a saucepan, with 
three pints of warm broth. Simmer, stirring occa- 
sionally. 

You may prepare a soup in exactly the same way 
with corn-starch, or arrow-root, or fecula, or sago, 
or semoulina. 

Burnt sugar is sometimes used to color broth or 
gravy. 

9. POTAGE AU RIZ. 

Soak your rice in cold water to wash it. Put four 
ounces of rice and half a pint of cold water on the 
fire. At the first boiling add a little more than a 
pint of milk, and keep it on the fire. 



6 BROTH, SOUPS, ETC, 

As it cooks add another pint of milk, gradually, as 
needed. Barley or vermicelli may be prepared the 
same. 

10. POTAGE PUREE. 

Use either one or more of asparagus, carrots, cauli- . 
flowers, celery, cucumbers peeled and seeded, beets, 
lettuce, parsnips, turnips, squash, sorrel, tomato, 
Jerusalem artichoke, or other vegetable. Cauli- 
flowers are blanched in hot water, with a little flour 
to keep them white. The other things in hot water 
only. They are cut in small pieces when used. 

When made with peas it is called potage puree a 
la chantilly, — with carrots, a la crecy, — with red 
beans, a la conde. 

You may make a puree with water and butter, but 
broth is better. 

Take peas, shell a proper quantity, simmer in a 
quart of broth till done. Break into the soup some 
pieces of bread, browned, when you serve. 

11. POTAGE JULIENNE MAIGRE. 

Carrot and turnips in thin fillips, asparagus tops in 
small pieces, and green peas. 

Put a tablespoon ot butter in a saucepan on the fire. 
When melted add the vegetables, and stir a little. 
When partly fried add a quart of water, and- then put 
in the peas and asparagus. As the water boils away 
add a little more warm water. Salt and pepper to 
taste. 

12. — TOMATO SOUP. 

Throw them in boiling water for a minute ; skin 
them ; mash them through a strainer or seive so as 
to clear skins or seeds, and finish with boiling in 
broth, like a puree potage. 

13. POTAGE AU FROMAGE. 

When maccaroni is cooked tender, turn it into 
broth, on the fire. 
Put cheese grated in the soup dish, and turn the 



FISH. 7 

macaroni soup over it. Yermicelli may be used the 
same way. 

14. TURTLE SOUP. 

You must have the turtle alive. Cut the head off 
and let it bleed to death. Boil the turtle till the shells 
can be separated, and the meat is cooked. Take off 
the gall bladder, and if you find a black ball (if there 
is any) throw it away. 

Put butter and flour in a saucepan, and the pieces 
of turtle, and cook a little. Pour in some broth. 

Put in your dish a lemon cut in slices, an egg 
boiled and cut up. Pour over it the soup and meat, 
and serve. 



FISH. 



15. BAKED FISH. 

After washing, a shad is wiped dry, inside and out- 
side, next buttered, salted and peppered, with bread 
crumbs, a little chopped parsnip and the juice of half 
a lemon squeezed on the outside ; then place in a 
bake-pan and put in the oven. 

Halibut, haddock, cod, or other fish, do the same 
way. Eat with cream of flour, butter, &c. 

16. BOILED FISH. 

Take a fish of dark flesh. Put in a pan and just 
cover with cold water, two or three slices of carrot, 
the same of onion, two stalks of parsley and thyme, 
a clove of garlic. After it arrives at the boiling point 
boil only two minutes. 

17. SAUCE GENEVOISE. 

Fry a piece of onion chojDped fine in half a table- 
spoonful of butter. When browned add a teaspoon- 
ful of flour and brown it. Add a gill of the water 
the fish was boiled in, a half a gill of white wine or 



8 FISH. 

a teaspoonful of yinegar, shred in some miishrooms, 
and cook a little while. 

18. SMELTS. 

Have a frying pan full of hot fat on the fire. Put 
a skewer through them at the gills, and lay them 
in the pan, half a dozen on the skewer, the ends of 
the skewer resting on the edge of the pan. 

19. FISH, CAPER SAUCE. 

Take a bass. Pour boiling water over it, and in a 
few moments the scales will scrape off easily. Put 
the bass on the fire, just covered with cold water, 
with a little jDcpper and salt, slice of onion and car- 
rot, and one clove of garlic. 

A little butter and Hour on the fire. When melted, 
add half a pint of the fish water and stir, with a little 
touch of vinegar. Throw in your capers just as you 
are ready to turn it over the fish. 

20. — CODFISH, WITH EGG SAUCE. 

Chop two or three hard boiled eggs fine. Put a 
lump of butter as large as an e<rg in a saucepan on 
the (ire. When melted add a little lemon juice, and 
the chopped eggj and after stirring a little turn it 
over the fish. 

Always put a fish in cold water ; when it boils, let 
a two-pound fisii cook two or three minutes, a six- 
pound fish six or eight minutes. 

21. BAKED FISH. 

Put fish in a bakepan with a little water, a few 
slices of onion and carrot, which add their sugar to 
the sauce. No good gravy can be made without 
these two vegetables. Parsley, thyme and bay leaf 
(see veal). If the fish water dries too fast while 
baking, add a little warm water. A fork will tell 
when the fish is done by its flaking. Take out the 
fish and simmer the pan on the fire to make gravy. 
A little broth is an addition. 



FISH. y 

22. — FISH A LA BECHAMEL. 

Take cold water, salt, and the thyme and parsley 
seasonmg, and put your halibut in just covered. 
When it boils, let itjj.oil but two minutes. 

Take a tablespoon of butter and one of flour, and 
mix well on the lire. Add a pint of the fish water. 

A few drops of lemon juice will give a pique to the 
sauce bechamel. The lish will be dished, and the 
sauce poured over it. 

23. — FISH STUFFED. 

Take bread and soak it in milk, and then squeeze 
it out. Mix in an egg and a little parsley and sea- 
soning. 

Take your fish and draw it from a cut just under 
the head so as not to cut the stomach. Put the bread 
into the fish and put the fish on a bakepan with a little 
butter under and on top. Salt and pepper. Put a 
little broth to cover the bottom of the pan, and set it 
in the oven. 

Fish to bake requires fifteen to twenty minutes. 
Then put a little lemon juice in the gravy. 

24. FISH A LA MAITRE d'hOTEL. 

Take a fresh mackerel (or other fish). Split it 
down the back, and put it in a pan in the oven with- 
out anything with it or on it, and cook ic. ^Yll^n fish 
comes ofi'the bones easy with a fork it is done. 

For sauce a small tablespoon of butter and a tea- 
spoon and a half of chopped parsley in a saucepan 
on the fire ; the juice of half a lemon. 

25. — FISH, AXCHOYY SAUCE. 

Put two pounds black-flesh fish on the fire, just 
covered with cold water, slices of onion and carrot, 
parsley, thyme and a bay leaf, salt and pepper. 
After it begins to boil keep it on two minutes. 

Put half a tablespoon of butter and flour in a pan ; 
when melted, stir in a gill of the fish water ; then a 
tablespoon of essence of anchovy. 



10 FISH. 

26. FISH, MAYONNAISE SAUCE. 

If you have cold fish left over from a previous 
day's cookery use it. 

Put two yolks of eggs in a bowl, and add four or 
five tablespoons of olive oil as 3'ou stir, little by little. 
It is best to do this in a cool place, or on a window, 
opened. When it is thick put in one half tablespoon- 
ful of vinegar, some salt and pepper. Add mustard 
if you like. 

Spread the cream over the cold fish or over meat 
of»any kind, and serve. 

27. — SOLE NORMANDE. 

As there are no soles, use a flounder. Remove 
the skin and pull off the flesh from the backbone in 
four long fillets. There will be two large and two 
small fillets. Butter a flat pan and put in the lillets. 

Chop some onion fine and spread over the fish. 
Then pour in a gill of claret and less of sherry or 
other light wine. Salt and pepper. Add a gill of 
broth (soup stock.) Place it in the oven. 

28. COURT BOUILLON. 

Take any ] " " ^-i-nV fleshed fish. Lay it on a 
r):in on ci;-.- ""^ '^" cover it 

. Add 



place It m a ui^x., . ^ im^ pap 
,_...v ix v'li LiiL' lire. 

29. SAUCE BOUILLON. 

Take the fish water, add a few slices of carrot or 
turnip, a bunch of parsley, thyme, &c., and when 
cooked down reasonably pour it over the fish. 

30. — BISQUE OF LOBSTER. 

Always buy lobsters alive, if possible. A lobster 
is poisonous "^if boiled after dead. Put the lobster 
alive in a fish kettle of cold water, and put it on a 
sharp fire. The lobster drowns before the water 



FISH. 11 

gets warm. When it turns red, twenty minutes or 
more, it is done. Break it in the middle, and drain 
in a culander. Split the tail part in two and take 
the black vein out. Take the claws for a salad. 
Take off the red (coral) meat. Pound the shells and 
body and legs, &c., and put it in a pot of water. 
After cooking ten minutes add a pint of broth, and 
simmer ten minutes more. Add either water or 
broth, and simmer longer. 

Strain the liquor through a culander, and put the 
liquor back on the fire, with a few toasts of bread, 
and simmer it. Press it and the bread through a 
culander. Mix the coral and the greyish part of the 
lobster with butter, and put it in the soup dish. 

A bisque may also be made with crabs, and further 
South with crawfish. 

31. LOBSTER FARCI (STUFFED.) 

Take off the shells of a boiled lobster carefully. 

Chop a piece of onion and fry it with a little butter. 
When it is partly fried, add a teaspoon of flom\ 
Chop your lobster fine and put that in the pan, and 
stir so as partly to fry. Add half a pint of milk and 
stir again. Stir it frequently to keep it from burn- 
ing. Add pepper and salt. Lay the pieces of the 
body shell in a pan, and fill them with the mixture. 
Also the large claws. Bake them in an oven. 

32. — OYSTERS A LA POULETTE. 

One pint of oysters, and juice, on the fire, in a 
saucepan. Skim as the scum rises. 

Take another pan. Mix a tablespoonful of butter 
and one of flour, on the fire ; when melted, stir in 
half a pint of milk. 

When the oysters boil up, put in the milk, and salt 
to taste, and serve. 

Clean some large oyster shells, and serve the pou- 
lette in them ; when so served it is called huitres en 
coquilles. 

33. — MATELOTE. 

Take any kind of black flesh fish. Take eels and 



12 MEATS. 

bass for instance. Cut them in small pieces about 
two inches long. Put a lump of fat in a saucepan. 
When melted put in the fish. Add a bunch of sea- 
soning composed of parsley, thyme and garlic. 

To make it really excellent make it three or four , 
days before eating, and warm it every day by setting 
the pan in boiling water. 

Put a small tablespoonful of flour into the pot, gill 
of claret wine, and a little over a gill of broth, for a 
pound of flsh. Also an onion. 



MEATS. 



34. BREAKFAST STEAK. 

The fire must be quick, and three minutes is suffi- 
cient for both sides. 

For two pounds of steak half a tablespoonful of 
butter is sufficient. The steaks are salted and pep- 
pered before being put into the pan. Sprinkle water 
cress with salt, pepper and vinegar, and dress around 
the steak after it is dished. 

This is not frying. To fry is to immerse in fat. 
Doughnuts are fried. 

35. BAKED BEEF. 

The mode of baking beef was very similar to that 
usually practiced here, with salt, pepper and butter, 
and an oven not too quick. When sauce piquante is 
used w4th it, the same should be mixed with the beef 
gravy. 

36. SAUCE PIQUANTE. 

Fry a piece of onion chopped fine in a half table- 
spoonful of butter. When brown add a teaspoonful 
of flour and brown that. Then add two tablespoons 



MEATS. 13 

each of vinegar and broth. Heat in it some small 
slices of cold meat. Add a little chopped parsley 
before usmg. 

37. — FILLET OF BEEF. 

This piece was from the round, three and a half 
pounds. It was a flat piece, and the top was stuck 
thickly with little pegs of new salt pork, put into 
little slits made in the beef. This is called larding. 
Put it in a pan. A little butter on the beef, salt and 
pepper. A little broth, just to cover the bottom of 
the pan. Put the pan in the oven. 

When you bake meat, the oven is generally 
warmest on the top. You can grease a jDaper and 
lay on top of the meat. It prevents the steam from 
rising, and keeps the top of the meat or bird moist. 
You need only to baste the paper .occasionally, not 
the meat, to keep it from burning. Some meats re- 
quire less time than others. Pork and veal, to be 
healthy, should always be overdone. 

38. SAUCE FOR THE BEEF. 

Put in a small saucepan a table spoon of butter 
and melt it. Add one spoonful of flour. When 
turning brown add a little over half a pint of broth. 
Stir. Afterwards not quite a gill of white wine. 
Two teaspoons of vinegar may be used instead of 
wine, but it is inferior. (This was Sauterne) . Put 
in a little bunch of seasoning (see veal), three or 
four mushrooms, &c. 

39. BOILED BEEF IN MIROTON. 

You may take the beef you have boiled for broth. 
A remnant of roast or baked beef will do as well. 

Slice two large onions for each pound of beef. 
Put the onions in a saucepan with a tea spoonful of 
butter, a little salt and pepper. When turning 
brown, add a little broth, to simmer. 

Cut the beef in small slips or slices. When the 
onions are nearly cooked, salt and pepper, and add 
the beef. After some cooking put in a teaspoonful . 
of vineo:ar. 



14 MEATS. 

40. — BEEF BOILED, HOLLANDAISE SAUCE. 

Take a pound or more of beef, as in miroton (see 
above) and cut it in fillets (slips like a half a pencil). 

Put a small tablespoonful of fat in a saucepan, and 
when melted put the fillets of beef in. Stir so as to 
fry the pieces. Then just cover the beef with broth. 
After cooking stir a little lemon juice and a teaspoon- 
ful of chopped parsley, boil up once and it is done. 

For sauce stir one yolk of egg with a little lemon 
juice and turn in. 

41. — BEEF AU GliATIN. 

Take cold beef, either boiled or roasted, and cut it 
in thin slices. Grease a tin pan with butter, dust 
with bread crumbs, put in a little chopped parsley, 
and lay on the slices of beef. Put salt and pepper 
and parsley on top, dust with bread cnunbs, drop on 
lemon juice, a little broth just to cover the bottom 
of the pan, and place it in the oven. 

42. BEEF A LA MODE. 

Take a piece of thick meat, two or two and a half 
inches thick. Run slips of salt pork through from 
side to side, by cutting slits. 

Put a teaspoon of butter in a saucepan. Melt. 
Put in the beef. When fried a few minutes turn it 
over. When browned on both sides add one gill of 
broth. Then set where it will only simmer, or boil 
lightly. 

After a vvhile add a half pint more broth, salt and 
butter, a bunch of seasoning (parsley, bay leaf, and 
one clove of garlic,) one onion whole, with three 
cloves stuck in it. Simmer on both sides, for some 
time. 

43. STUFFED SHOULDER OF VEAL. 

Cut in straight and take out the bones, which will 
do for soup next day. For stufiing take one pound 
of sausage meat, chopped and mixed with two 
ounces of bread, the bread to be soaked in water 



MEATS. 15 

and squeezed dry with the hand : one teaspoonful of 
chopped parsley, salt and pepper as best suits the 
taste, one egg, a clove of garlic, chopped fine ; mix 
with a wooden spoon. Some persons prefer to use 
onions in stuffing. Put the stuffing into the bone 
hole and sew ujd. 

The meat thus prepared, with the first bone re- 
maining in it, spread over with a small quantit}^ of 
butter, with a sprinkling of salt and pepper, the 
pan must contain just broth enough to keep the 
meat wet at the bottom. During the process of 
baking more broth is added to supply the place of 
that which evaporates. 

44. TEAL IN BLANQUETTE. 

Cut veal in small pieces. Say from the neck and 
breast, three pounds. Soak in cold water, fifteen to 
thirty minutes. Put it in a saucepan, and cover it 
with cold water. Boil. Skim the scum. Add two 
whole onions with a clove to each ; then two stalks 
of parsley, one of thyme, and a small bay leaf, tied 
together in a little bunch ; add salt. 

Mix well in a bowl a teaspoon of butter, one of 
flour. Take a little of the veal water, and mix in so 
as to melt the butter and mix the flour. Then turn 
it into the saucepan and simmer. 

Just before serving, a few drops of lemon juice 
may be added. Also a yolk of egg mixed in a bowl 
with some of the gravy. Your dish is then ready. 

^ 45. VEAL IN GALANTINE. 

Take a piece of veal, say three pounds, the leaner 
the better. Cut it in small slices, and rather thin. 

The spices used are, four or five stalks of parsley 
and a little piece of onion, chopped fine. 

Put-a layer of slices of pork, thin as possible, on 
the bottom of a pan. Then a layer of veal, then the 
chopped parsley and onion, and a little salt and pep- 
per. Another layer of salt pork, one of sausage 
meat, (and, if you like it, one of ham). 

Another layer of veal and parsley. Then another 



16 MEATS. # • 

of salt pork. Thus far, to fill the mould we have 
used two and a half pounds of veal, one of sausage 
meat, and one half pound of pork. Add a wine 
glass of brandy and a little broth. Then place in a 
moderate oven. 
This dish may be eaten cold for breakfast. 

46. VEAL IN RAGOUT. 

Take the bony ends of chops or piece of the neck, 
cut in small pieces, and put them in a pan on the fire 
with a little butter, and stir so as to brown. After- 
ward add a little fiour and stir. Add a half pint of 
broth and stir again. Salt and pepper. Two small 
onions, two cloves, bunch of seasoning. Simmer. 

Cut six new potatoes in moderate, walnut-sized 
pieces, and put them in the pan with the veal. 

47. — CHOPS (veal) in papillotes. 

Take the good j)art of the chop left from the ragout. 
Cut sheets of white letter paper in heart shape as 
large as possible. Fry the chop on both sides, till 
three-quarters done, with salt and pepper. Any 
kind of small bird can be treated so b}^ splitting, and 
a 2)rairie hen by being cut in nine pieces. Grease 
the paper with a little'olive oil. 

ILive a mixture of bread crumbs and chopped 
paisl("y, with salt and pepper. Put a little of this on 
one side of the paper, lay on a chop, cover with the 
other half of the paper, and double down the edges. 

Put the papered chops in a bake pan. Pour over 
them a gravy made by stu'ring a little broth in the 
pan in which they were fried. Put the bake pan in 
the oven. 

The chops are served as they are, in the paper — a 
cho]) to each plate. 

48. — fricandeau. 

This is made always with veal. The piece used 
here weighed three pounds. It was a thick slice 
from the upper part of the leg. Take out the round 
bone. Lard one side of it by sticking in little slits 
all over it slips of salt pork. 



MEATS. 17 

Place in a bakepan an ounce or thereabout of salt 
pork, and broth enough to cover the pan a fourth of 
an inch. Lay in the veal. Place the pan in the 
oven. After some time baste and salt the top. 

When the broth is nearly baked out add half a gill 
more. After half an hour or so baste a second time. 

If there is not gravy enough after you dish add a 
little broth to the pan. 

It may be served with ** spinach au jus" or with 
sorrel. 

49 . COTELETTES. 

Cutlets, or mutton chops. Simmer a few thin 
slices of carrots and turnips in a little water. Put 
in butter, w^hen it is melted add the chops. Fry 
them on both sides a little. Then take out the chops 
and vegetables. Put in the pan a teaspoonful of 
flour and stir it. When the flour is turning brown 
add a gill of broth. Stir it a while, and then put 
back the chops, carrots and turnips, and cook till 
done. 

50. LEG OF MUTTON BOILED, CAPER SAUCE. 

Wrap the leg up in a towel, over and over, tying 
up the ends. Put it in boiling water. A leg of 
mutton or an old turkey are the only fresh meats 
that are not spoiled by boiling. When done, take 
off the towel and dish it. 

Set a tablespoonful of butter in the pan with the 
same of flour and stir. In two minutes set it a little 
aside, so it will not boil. Tlien put in a teasjDoonful 
or more ot capers, and at once turn it over the mut- 
ton. 

51. KIDNEY SAUTE. 

This is a breakfast dish. Any kidney will do. If 
you use a pork kidney, it must be cut in half and 
soaked in warm water. 

Take a beef kidney for instance. Cat it in small 
pieces. Put a little butter in a pan ; add a pinch of 
chopped onion. When well colored by frying, add 



18 MEATS. 

the kidney. Afterward stir in half a teaspoonful of 
flour fast, and half a gill of white wine mixed in a 
bowl with some of the juice. A teaspoonful of 
chopped parsley may be added to the simmering 
mass. 

52 . SAYEETBREAD. 

Soak sweetbread in cold water for about half an 
hour. Pick out the little veins and skin. Throw in 
boiling water for three minutes. Then put them 
under a board for half an hour, with a board on to 
flatten them. Cut slits in and insert slivers of salt 
pork over the top. 

Put them in a bakepan with a little salt pork, and 
broth to cover the bottom of tlie pan. Put them in 
the oven. 

When baked (say an hour or more) add a little 
broth, and in a few minutes serve. 

53. — calf's head a la poulette. 

Soak it in cold water two or three hours, to get 
out the blood. Put it in a pan on the fire and cover 
it with cold water. Salt, pepper, carrot, an onion 
with two cloves in it, one turnip, two or three stalks 
of parsley, one of thyme, a bay leaf, and boil it all 
gently till done, say about two hours. 

For sauce a tablespoon of butter and flour, stirred 
in a pan on the fire, and add a little over a pint of 
the water in which the head was cooked. Stir. A 
teaspoon of j^arsley, chopped, a little lemon juice. 
If not thick enough, add a little butter and flour 
which has been mixed in a bowl, and wetted with a 
little of the hot broth. Cook a little and turn it over 
the head with a few drops of lemon juice. 

54. — SUCKING riG. 

Soak the soft part of the head and squeeze it out 
with the hand. Mix it in a bowl with two pounds of 
sausage meat. Choj^ fine five or six stalks of parsley 
and a little onion, and mix it in the bowl. Salt and 



MEATS. 



19 



pepper. Two eggs broken in. When well mixed, 
put it in the pig and sew it up. 

(In whiter, a good stuffing is boiled chestnuts, 
with the skins peeled off. Cooked rice makes a good 
stuffing.) 

Put a stone in the pig's mouth to keep it open. 
After it is baked you send it to the table with a red 
apple in the mouth. After the head is cut off, the 
best piece in the animal is the next cut on the neck, 
and so on. 

Before putting it in the oven, put salt and pepper 
on the top of the beast. The pig must be turned 
when browned, and three hours will bake well. 

Serve it with maitre d'hotel sauce or currant jelly. 

55. MUTTON IN HARICOT. 

Take a neck or breast piece cut in chunks. Put a 
half tablespoon of butter in a pan, and then the 
mutton. Cook it till it browns. Stir in a table spoon 
of flour. Put in two onions, some broth, a bunch of 
parsley and thyme seasoning, a bay leaf, salt and 
pepper to taste. 

Add live raw potatoes, cut in quarters. If the 
broth has boiled away, add a little more. When the 
potatoes are cooked the haricot is done. 

56. YENISON A LA RE^aOOTE. 

Pork may be j^repared in the same way, as we 
have no venison here. Two pounds of pork, half a 
tablespoon of butter, salt and pepper, in a pan on 
the fire. When the pork browns a little, turn it over. 
When browned on both sides put it in the oven. 
Venison must be underdone and pork overdone. 

The revigote sauce. Slice a medium sized onion 
and set it on the fire with a gill of vinegar. Good 
cider vinegar is as good as you can get. Pure wine 
vinegar cannot be had for three times the price they 
charge for wine vinegar. 

In another pan half a tablespoon of butter and 
flour each, ^nd when it browns add half a pint of 



20 MEATS. 

broth and stir a little. When the vinegar in the first 
pan is nearly eva])oratrd, turn them in together, stir, 
and then strain the ^vhole back into the second pan 
to separate the onion, and it is done. 

57. VENISON, ROBERT SAUCE. 

In the absence of venison, take beef or pork. The 
professor used a piece of pork. Put the pork in a 
bakepan, with a little salt. Its own fat will keep it 
from burning. (Beef and venison will want a little 
brolh in the bottom.) Put it in the oven. After 
half an hour's cooking turn it over. 

The pork must be left in the oven till overdone. 
Venison must always be underdone. Dish and pour 
over it the Kobert sauce. 

58. ROBERT SAUCE. 

One gill of vinegar and two onions on tlie fire till 
the vinegar has boik'd away. Put a tal;lespoon of 
butter and one of Hour in another pan and stir ; when 
it browns i)ut in a little broth and stir. Turn it into 
the i)an with the onion, and then the whole back 
again into the second pan. 

59. BOILED HAM. 

Soak the ham in cold water from tbree to six 
hours, according to its saltness. Put it in the kettle 
and entirely cover it with cold water. Put in a 
bunch of seasoning, an onion and four cloves. A 
half pint of white wine will improve the taste. Also 
a little hay. When cooked, let it cool in the water, 
and take- off the end of the bone. Garnish it by 
sticking cloves in it. 

GO. BAKED FRESH RORK. 

Take a leg of fresh pork, skin it, jiut it in a vessel. 
Take salt, pepper, two tablespoons of vinegar, four 
tablespoons of sweet oil, four bay leaves, four sage 
leaves, and a gill of white wine, and with this mix- 
ture baste the leg several times a day, for three days 
or so, and then bake it, well done. ^ 



FOWLS, GAME, ETC. 21 

FOWLS, GAME, &c. 



61. CHICKEN FKICASSEE. 

A chicken anywhere under a year old will do. 

Cut it in small pieces, put them in a saucepan, 
just cover them with cold water, throw in a pinch of 
salt, and cook. Any bird, or a rabbit may be used. 

For gravy, a small onion with two cloves planted 
in it ; a bunch of seasoning, made of parsley, bay- 
leaf, &c. ; salt and pepper to taste ; half a spoonful 
of butter ; half spoonful of flour ; mix well together 
and turn in with the chicken. Some of the juice of 
the chicken may be turned into the bowl containing 
the butter and flour to avoid having any lumps in 
the flour. A few drops of lemon juice may be 
squeezed into the pan, and those who choose may 
stir in the yolk of an egg. 

62. CHICKEN SAUTE. 

Cut a tender young chicken in fourteen or fifteen 
pieces. Put half a tablespoonful of butter in a 
saucepan on the fire ; when melted, put in the chick- 
en, and stir so as to color or cook the pieces all over. 
Add half a pint of broth, and not quite a gill of white 
wine, claret or saaterne. Sherry will do for a sub- 
stitute for white wine, but less must be used. 

After simmering put in a bunch of seasoning, 
(parsley, thyme, and a bay leaf), and several mush- 
rooms. A little broth added will improve the sauce. 
Serve warm. Any bird or a rabbit may be used. 

63. PIGEON IN CRAPAUDINE. 

Take the pigeon, split it down the back, and cut 
off the ends of the legs and of the wings. Fhitten it 
out and dr}' it with a cloth. Mix bread crumbs with 
a little chopped parsley, salt and pepper. WeX the 
pigeon lightly with sweet oil, and roll it in the 
crumbs. Broil it on a gridiron. 



22 FOWLS, GAME, ETC. 

For sauce, melt a teaspoonful of butter in a sauce- 
pan, i)ut in a tablespoon of flour, and stir till brown. 
Then a little onion chopped line, and stir it till fried. 
Add three tablespoons of vinegar. Afterward, half a 
teaspoon of chopped parsley, broth, salt and pepper. 

64. CHICKEN BONED. 

Any bird is boned in the same way, the larger the 
better. Take a dry picked chicken. Cut oft* the 
legs at the first joint. Split the back skin from the 
neck to the rump. Break the wing joint, and the 
wing comes oft" with the rest. With a small, sharp 
knife, peel off" all the flesh, cutting close to the bone. 
You get oft* the flesh and skin in one piece, with the 
logs and wings on. Then cut out the leg bones and 
the wing bones. 

The chicken weighed 3 1-2 pounds. There was 
also used 3-4 pounds of ham, 3 sheeps' tongues, 1 1-2 
pounds of sausage meat, and 1-4 pound of salt pork. 
Tlie ham, pork, and tongue are cut in fillips. The 
tongue may be either fresh or salted, best fresh, and 
must have been boiled w^ell. 

Spread the chicken flat. Lay on a layer of sau- 
sage meat. Then a layer of fillets of ham and pork. 
Tlien a layer of sausage meat. Another of fillets, 
till you can get enough to fill the chicken. You can 
put in the legs and wings and a few fillets of truffles 
if you wish. Fold up the chicken so as to cover the 
meat, &c., and sew up, and leave a little space open 
so that you can see in. Roll it up in a large towel. 
Put it in a pot, with the same seasoning as for broth, 
and cover with cold water. Boil gently three hours. 

It will sink at first, and when cooked it will rise 
above the water. You may put the bones and trim- 
nungs of the same chicken in to make broth if you 
choose. When cooked take it off" in the pot and let 
the pot cool with the chicken in it. Take it out, lay 
it on its breast, towel and all, with a weight on it, 
over night. That will flatten it, and next day lay it 
on a plate, breast up. 



FOWLS, GAME, ETC. 23 

65. — PATE. 

A pie usually made with game. In the absence of 
that we use sl pigeon. When cleaned put it in a 
bakepan. Lay a slice of salt pork on the breast and 
place it in the oven for an hour or more. 

For the paste. We have four ounces of flour, two 
of butter, a pinch of salt, half a gill of cold water, 
mixed to a paste. Line the bottom and sides of a 
flat pan with the paste. The bird is carved as if for 
the table, and the pieces laid in, and paste covered 
over the top. Put a little broth or gravy inside, and 
leave an opening in the top for the steam to escape. 
Color the top with a yolk of egg and bake. It may 
be eaten either hot or cold, and will keep a week or 
ten days, as wanted. 

Tiiiffles may be baked in a pate, two ounces to a 
pound of meat, but in that case it is best to have no 
bones in the pan, only clear meat. 

66. — DUCK WITH TURNIPS. 

Clean the duck. Cut off the end of the legs. Run 
a trussing needle and twine through the body and 
wings, so as to tie the wings down, and do the same 
with the legs. Always take out the crop by cutting 
off the neck and cutting a slit in the back of the 
neck, so as not to spoil the look of the breast. 

Put a piece of butter as large as a walnut in the 
saucepan. When melted lay in the duck, and keep 
turning it till browned. Take out the duck and put 
' a teaspoonful of flour in the pan and stir. When 
the flour is browned, add half a pint of broth and 
stir, and put the duck back into the pan, a bunch of 
seasoning, (two stalks of parsley, one of thyme, and 
a bay leaf,) a whole onion with two cloves, one clove 
of garlic, and simmer. 

Put some fat on the fire in a pan. When hot turn 
in your turnips cut in moderate sized pieces. When 
browned put the turnips in the pan where the duck 
is. Skim off the fat well. When done (an horn- and 



24 FOWLS, GA3IE, ETC. 

a half or so) take out the duck and untie it ; take out 
the bunch of seasoning. 

67. ^PIGEON IN CHARTREUSE. 

When there are no partridges or prairie hens at 
hand, use a pigeon. Cut carrot and turnip in small 
pieces, and boil till done. Take a mould and grease 
it. Line it with the pieces or squares of carrot and 
turnip in regular form. 

Throw cabbage or cabbage sprouts in water at its 
first boiling, and when that is cooked, drain in a 
culander. Fry the cabbage in a little butter. Put a 
la^'er of cabbage in the mould. 

Bake the pigeon quick, without anything in the 
pan. Cut up the pigeon and lay on the mould in the 
cabbage some pieces of the pigeon. Another layer 
of cabbage. Use only salt and pepper. Pour the 
juice from the bakepan over the whole. It is more 
an ornamental dish than a tasteful one. Set the 
mould in a pan, half-deep in boiling water, and set 
in the oven. 

G8. CHICKEN A LA MARENGO. 

After the battle of Marengo, Napoleon wanted a 
chicken saute, and for want of butter oil was used. 

Cut the chicken in a dozen pieces. Put four table- 
spoons of olive oil in a saucepan on the fire, and fry 
the chicken in it. When bro^vned take out the pieces 
and put them in another saucepan without the oil. 
Put in with the pieces a tablespoon of flour, and stir. 
Add a gill of wine and a gill of broth. Salt and pep- 
per to taste. Put in two stalks of parsley and two 
cloves of garlic, tied together, and a bay leaf. 

Put the oil back on the fire. Fry small square 
slices of bread in it till they are brown. Also, one 
or two eggs, and serve with the bird. 

69. SALMIS 

May be made with any wild bird or with a duck. 
Cooked bird must be used, cold or warm. 



FOWLS, GAME, ETC. 25 

Put butter and flour in a pan. When melted, add 
a little warm water or broth, a bay leaf, and a bunch 
of parsley and thyme. Tut in the bird in reasonable 
sized pieces. 

70. — CIVET. 

May be made with rabbits, venison or goose. A 
tablespoon ot butter in a saucepan. Cut your goose 
in pieces and put it in. It is better to skin the goose 
and remove the fat. Stir so as to brown the pieces. 
Put in a little llour and stir. Then warm water, and 
a gill of claret wine, two onions, a bunch of season- 
ing made of parsley, thyme, bay leaf and garlic tied 
together. Alter a while add two mushrooms. 

71. — ^STUFFED CHICKEN. 

Half a pound of sausage meat set on the lire in a 
saucepan and stir. Then a handful of bread soaked 
in water, and squeezed out. Two stalks of parsley 
chopped line. After stirring a little add one i^gg, 
and take it off. Stuff the chicken with the mixture. 
Any kind of bird may be stuffed in the same way. 
Sew the bird up, truss it as when you roast, and 
bake it. 

This is served either as an entree or a roast piece. 

A chicken may be stuffed with whole roasted chest- 
nuts or with truffles. 

72. JELLY FOR BOXED CHICKEN. 

Take four calfs feet. Set on the lire wath two and 
a half qts. of cold water. Boil till tender. Strain 
through a culander. Put the juice on the hre. Beat 
two whites of eggs and lour ounces of iiver chopped 
fuie, and put it in the jelly. Put the whole into a 
jelly bag. The jelly may be spread over a chicken 
boned, in small pieces or any other way. 



26 VEGETABLES. 

VEGETABLES. 



73. ASPAKAGUS. 

Should be thrown into boiling hot water, salted, 
and boiled till three-quarters cooked. Longer boil- 
ing makes them tasteless. A spoonful of butter and 
flour melted in a pan, with half a pint of hot water 
added and stewed, makes a good sauce. 

74. FRIED ASPARAGUS. 

Four tablespoonfuls of floui% salt, cold water, 
stirred together in a bowl to a thick batter. Beat 
two whites of eggs to a stiff froth, and stir in with 
the rest. 

Throw the tops of asparagus in boiling water, 
with a little suet, till half done. Then throw them 
in the batter, hook them out and fry with hot fat. 

75. ASPARAGUS IN PETIT FOIS. 

These tops were broken in small pieces like peas, 
and put in a saucepan. Put in boiling water, with 
salt, and cook till three-quarters done. Always use 
the water as soon as it boils, for there is more alkali 
and gases in it then than afterward. 

As soon as done, put them in a culander and drain. 
A teaspoonful of butter and Hour mixed on the fire. 
Put In a gill of the asparagus. Stir it. Then mix it 
in the asparagus. Salt and pepper to taste. 

7G. — POTATOES IN CROQUETTE. 

The potatoes were cooked by steaming. Peel and 
mash through a culander. Put them in a saucei^an 
on the fire, with an ugg-sized piece of butter to six 
potatoes. Salt and pepper. Take oil* the fire. Mix 
in three eggs, lu two minutes take them out into a 
dish and cool. 

Koll lumps of the mashed potato in lluur, then dip 



VEGETABLES. 27 

in egg to make the outside sticky, then roll in bread 
crumbs, and cook in hot fat on the fire. 

77. MASHED POTATOES. 

Wash clean with a scrubbing brush. Do not peel 
before cooking. The potatoes may be steamed, then 
put in cold water and boiled, mashed through a cul- 
ander, the yolks of three eggs mixed in, a table- 
spoonful of granulated sugar added, then the beaten 
whites of the eggs. Put in tin pans in the oven till 
ready for use. 

78. POTATOES A LA PAPJSIENNE. 

When you prepare the potatoes scrape them, drop 
them in cold water, to keep them white. Cut in thin 
slices. (When cut into fillets or thin slips like a 
pencil, it makes potatoes Francaise) . 

Cook the iDotatoes in hot fat, and take them off 
when three-quarters done. After a few minutes jDut 
them again in the same fat, and in a short time take 
them off with a skimmer, and pepper, and serve 
warm. 

The object in taking the potatoes out of the fat 
when they were three-quarters done, was to allow 
them to swell, and render them better eating. Pota- 
toes swell considerably. 

79. POTATOES A LA LYOXNAISE. 

Steam the potatoes with the skin on. Peel. (Boil 
them, if you can do so better). 

With eight potatoes, put one, two, or three large 
onions. Fry the onions sliced, with butter, in a pan. 
AVhen browned, put in the potatoes in slices. 

80. POTATOES A LA DUCHESSE. 

Steam three or four potatoes till well done ; peel 
them, and mash them thi'ough a culander, into a 
bowl ; mix in two eggs, and a piece of salt. 

Grease a pan with butter. Put in the potatoes with 
a spoon in separate lumps, flattened out, and put 
them into an oven. 



28^ VEGETABLES. 

81. — POTATOES IN SALAD. 

Butter, vinegar, salt, pepper and chopped parsley. 
'Slice hot potatoes, and turn them into a frying pan 
in which there is a little butter. When fried take 
them off and spread over them the parsley mixture, 
and serve. 

82. SPINACH. 

Throw them in boiling water, a little salt, and boil 
till tender. Chop it up. Add a spoonful of butter 
and stir, salt and pepper to taste, a little grated nut- 
meg, and stir. A table spoonful of flour next, stirred 
well in. Then stir in a gill of broth. 

83. SPINACH. 

At the first boiling of the water put in a quart or 
so of spinach, and a little salt, and boil some. Take 
out, and press in a culander, to get out the water. 
Then sjiread on a board and chop a little. Put on 
tlie fire a pan, with a little butter. When melted, 
stir in a tablespoonful of flour, and afterward the 
spinach. Salt and pepper to taste. A little grated 
nutmeg. Some persons add sugar. Cook. Add a 
gill of milk. Cream is better. 

84. DANDELION STEWED. 

Dandelions thrown into boiling water, and when 
cooked, drain in a culander, and chop them up. 

Put half a tablespoonful of butter and flour in a 
pan on the fire, and stir till browned. Add the 
chopped dandelion, a little broth and stir. 

85. TURNIPS AND SUGAR. 

Slice the turnip in dice in a saucepan, and throw 
in boiling water to blanch them. When three-quar- 
ters done, take them out. Put them on the fire Avith 
a teaspoonful of butter, stir, and leave it simmering 
till (lone. Then spread sugar on it, and serve. 

Turnips glacis are made the same, only butter is 
put on them with the sugar, and they are finished in 
the oven. 



VEGETABLES, 29 

8Q. TURNIPS A LA POULETTE. 

Cut the turnips in dice in a saucejDan. When 
boiled tender turn them in a eulander. Put a little 
butter and flour in a saucepan, and stir. Add a gill 
of milk and stir, then the turnips, and salt and i^ep- 
per to taste. 

87. — LETTUCE STUFFED. 

Put lettuce (or cabbage) in boiling water to blanch 
it. In five minutes take it from the water and drain. 
Place sausage meat between the leaves. Tie the 
ball of lettuce up with a string. Put it in a small 
saucepan, with half an inch of broth, on the fire. 

88. PEAS AU NATUREL. 

Take half a peck of peas. Shell them. If old, 
blanch them in boiling water for a minute. Young 
peas do not need it. Take out the peas with a eul- 
ander. Put them in a pot on the fire, with a little 
salt, two teaspoons of sugar, a head of lettuce. Tie 
together three stalks of parsle}^ and a bay leaf, and 
put in. Also a piece of butter the size of an egg. 
Stir once in a while. 

89. MACEDOINE. 

Cut small pieces of carrot and turnip in water, 
with salt, &c., and boil gently till tender. Strain off 
the water through a eulander. 

Put half a tablespoon of butter and flour in a pan 
on the fire ; add half a gill of broth ; turn in the car- 
rot and turnip, and simmer a little. 

90. TO KEEP TOMATOES. 

Set them on the fire with a little salt, and reduce 
one half. Let it cool, and put it in claret bottles. 
Cork, and tie down the corks. Set the bottles on 
the fire in cold water, and boil four hours. Take 
them off, and let them cool in the water. Afterward 
keep the bottles in a dark place. 



30 VEGETABLES. 

91. CAULIFLOWER. 

Throw it in boiling water, with a bit of soft bread, 
to blanch it. In a few minutes, when done, take ic 
from the fire, and drain through a culander. It can 
be served as a salad. 

Cauliflower may be fried in butter, as asparagus is. 

92. CUCUMBER STUFFED. 

Split them in two down the centre, and soak in 
cold water an hour or more. Then dig out most of 
the inside of each half. Put the inside in a towel 
and wring the water out. Chop the inside fine with 
some sausage meat, salt and pepper to taste. Then 
fill the outer halves or shells with the mixture. Put 
them in a pan open part up. A little slip of skin cut 
off the bottom will make them stand straight and 
secure. Sprinkle a little salt and pepjDer and put 
them in the oven. 

93. BEANS AU JUS. 

Soak a pint of white beans in cold water twenty- 
four hours. Then set them on the fire with a quart 
of water and a little salt. AVhen cooked turn them 
in a culander. Then in\t them on the fire again, 
with a little broth, chopped parsley, salt, j^epper, 
boil slightly, dish and serve. 

94. GENERAL REMARKS. 

Cucumbers sliced for the table should always lay 
with salt on them fifteen minutes, and then the water 
be thrown away. 

To make the toughest greens tender, soak them in 
water twenty-four hours before cooking. 

To boil carrots, parsnips and turnips, in slices, put 
either in cold or warm Avater and boil gently (with 
salt) till tender. 



CAKE, PASTRY, ETC. 31 

CAKE, PASTRY, &c. 



95. — PUFF PASTE^ 

Puff paste requires good dry flour, if not dry 
enough dry it in a warm place, not a hot one ; have 
good butter, and if salt it can be worked out in cold 
water ; it is best to roll puff paste on marble, and 
the cooler the better to keep the butter from leaking 
out; the rolls may be cooled on ice. 

Take half a pound of flour, make a hole in the 
middle, put in salt, and a gill of water, and mix a 
thick paste or dough. Roll it out a quarter of an 
inch thick. Spread a half pound of butter over it. 
Fold it from each side toward the centre, so it will 
be folded three folds, then from each end likewise. 
Set it in a cool place for some minutes. Then roll 
out and fold again. Repeat this folding and rolling 
out four times, at intervals. The last time you roll 
out, you can sprinkle flour if it sticks. This is your 
puff paste. 

Puff paste requires a very hot oven. After putting 
it in do not oj)en the oven for ten minutes, or it will 
fall. The oven used by the Professor marked 400 
degrees. 

96. MADELINE CAKE. 

Half a pound of eggs (four) , half a pound of but- 
ter, half a pound of sugar, half a pound of flour. 
Mix the butter, sugar, and yolks of the eggs thor- 
oughly, then add the flour and mix again, then the 
wliites of the eggs beaten to a thick froth. Grate in 
a little lemon rind. Put it in little dishes, filling 
each about one-third full, and bake till done. 

In these cakes the butter and sugar were thor- 
oughly mixed, and the yolks of the lour eggs added 
one at a time. The flour was afterwards rubbed in. 



32 CAKE, PASTRY, ETC. 

97. PIE. 

Take puff paste for the top. For the bottom crust 
take a half pound of flour, half a tablespoonful of 
butter, a little salt, and mix with cold water till thick 
enough. Roll it very thin. Spread it in your pan 
or plate. Put in your preserves or fruit, always 
cooked before-hand. Spread puff paste on the top. 
Color the top i)aste w^ith the 3"olk of an egg, and 
bake in a quick oven. Do not open the oven for ten 
minutes. 

98. BOUCHEES DE CREME. 

To make Bouchees, after puff paste is rolled out, 
cut ^yith a cutter little cakes with a hollow in the 
centre, and place on pans. Color the top with a 
little yolk of egg mixed with water, and bake in a 
quick oven. 

The Petites Bouchees may be filled either with 
sweetmeats or fruit, or with patisserie or frangipanni. 

99. FRANGIPANNI. 

This can be served as it is, cold, as a dessert, or as 
an entremet. Put two ounces of flour in a clean 
saucepan (on the table), and mix m two eggs; grate 
in a little orange or lemon rind to flavor it, then stir 
in two ounces of sugar ; then one quart of milk ; an 
egg beater is good to mix with. Now set it on the 
lire, and stir it constantly. This was on seven 
minutes. 

100. CAKE WITH ALMONDS. 

Pound two ounces of sweet blanched almonds with 
two ounces of line white sugar. Mix in a bowl two 
ounces of sugar, and four 3'olks of eggs. Mix the 
almond paste into the bowl little by little. The 
almonds may be blanched or skinned by being 
dipped a short time in boiling water, Avhen they peel 
easily. Wash the mixture in your bowl well. The 
four whites beat to a stiff froth and mix in w^ell with 
the rest. Mix in four ounces of flour, silled, and 



CAKE, PASTRY, ETC. 33 

dried in a gentle heat. Put all in a butter-greased 
mould. Put it in the oven. It need not be Yei7 
quick. 

101. — ANOTHER CAKE. 

Four ounces of butter, four ounces of sugar, mixed 
in a bowl. Mix in four whole eggs broken into the 
bowl. Then four ounces of flour, essence to flavor ; 
mix well and bake. 

If you add two to four ounces of almonds, pound- 
ed with a little sugar, you have a third kind of cake. 

When your almond cake is done cover the mould 
with a damp cloth. 

102. PATE A CHOUX. 

This is more diflicult to make than puff paste. 
Put three gills of cold water on the fire in a sauce- 
pan, and when it boils throw in two ounces of butter, 
a pinch of salt, and soon after add six ounces of dried 
flour. Work the flour over the fire. If the fire is 
too hot remove it a little. Work it till it will not 
stick to the finger on touching, and is soft as velvet. 
Let it cool in a large bowl on the table. Grate in 
lemon or orange rind to taste. Mix. Break in an 
egg. Mix well. Three more eggs, one at a time, 
mixing after each. 

Grease a bakepan with a little butter. Put the 
paste in in little round balls, with spoon and finger, 
balls well apart, and the size of a black walnut; 
cover the top with yolk of egg and feather. Bake 
in a quick oven (say 400 degrees) . 

After you take them from the oven let them cool. 
Cut a piece off the top, fill up the inside with the 
cream patissiere, and put on the top again. 

103. CREAM PATISSIERE. 

One teaspoonful of flour in a saucepan on the 
table, with one gill of milk, and mix. Strain through 
a sieve. Set it on the fire, with a little orange rind 
to flavor, and keep stirring. Add soon another gill 
of milk, and boil a few minutes till thick. Stir con- 

B 



34 CAKE, PASTRY, ETC. 

stantly. Hare four yolks of eggs in a bowl, and 
turn in the milk and flour, stirring fast. Put them 
back into the pan with two ounces of pulverized 
sugar, put on the fire and stir, and in a minute more 
turn it out into a bowl, and it is made. 

104. CREIVIE RENVERSE. 

One quart of milk, with a little lemon mixed, and 
three ounces of sugar, in a pan on the fire. 

In another small pan (tin mould) two tablespoons 
of sugar and two of water, and brown on the fire, 
so that it is not quite burned. Turn the mould in all 
directions till the browned sugar lines the whole 
mould, warming it to keep it soft, so you can com- 
plete the operation. Cool it. 

The pan of milk must be kept stirring till it boils 
up once. Put in a bowl about fire eggs, and turn in 
the milk little by little, beating with an egg beater 
at the same time. Turn it into the brown mould with 
a strainer. Set the mould in a pan of boiling water, 
and put the pan in the oven. 

In this case the pan was kept in the oven twenty- 
three minutes, then taken out and put away to cool. 

105. — GATEAU DE PTTHIVIERS. 

Take two ounces of blanched almonds and chop 
them fine. Put them in a bowl with two ounces of 
sugar, two ounces of butter, and mix. Put in two 
yolks of eggs and mix. Grate in orange rind, to 
flavor, or a few drops of essence. Then four maca- 
roons, broken up, and mix again. 

Roll out your puff paste to a quarter of an inch in 
thickness. Place it in a tin plate, spread the mixture 
over it, and cover the mixture with puff paste. Go 
around the edges with a pressure, so as to make 
them stick together. Put in a warm oven, not too 
quick. 

106. CROQUIGNOLLES. 

Put on the board a half pound of flour; add one 
ounce of butter, lemon rind, two eggs, and a table- 



CAKE, PASTRY, ETC. 35 

spoon of sugar: mix. Add a third egg; mix well. 
Roll out ; cut into squares or circles, or rather shapes, 
as large as you want them ; cut slits across the 
squares, nearly from end to end. 

Have hot fat on the fire. When it steams it is hot 
enough, or when a drop of water hisses. Fry the 
croquignolles in it. Xone of the fat goes into them. 
When browned to suit, put in a culander to drain. 

107. MERINGUES. 

Beat up the whites of eight eggs in a bowl to a 
stiff froth. Add one ounce of white sugar to each 
egg (half a pound in all), and mix in little by little 
by beating. 

Grease a bakepan with a little sweet oil. Then 
dust it with flour, and turn it upside down, to get 
the loose flour off. 

Put the mixture in spots over the pan, an inch or 
two apart, with a spoon. If you want them small, 
use a teaspoon, if large a larger spoon. Place the 
pan in a mild oven (300 degrees or less). 

Beat some cream to a froth, and skim the froth 
into a bowl. Put gelatine, with a little cold water, 
on the tire. Melt it and stir it into the bowl of 
cream. One ounce of gelatine answers for a pound 
of cream. 

When the Meringues are baked and cool, cut out 
the bottom, fill with the cream, and j^ut two together, 
tops out. Put no flour in the cream. 

108. GEXOISES. 

Five ounces of butter warmed. Mix into it in a 
warm bowl six ounces of sugar. Mix in five ounces 
of flour. Then brenk in and mix six eggs, one at a 
time. A teaspoonful of Jamaica rum. Work it 
well. 

Grease a shallow tin pan with a little butter. Pour 
in your paste to the depth of a third of an inch. Set 
it in a quick oven, but not too quick. When baked 
twenty minutes or more, turn it over into another 



36 CAKE, PASTRY, ETC. 

pan, and put it back in the oven. In a few minutes 
it will be done. Then let it cool. 

The genoise is cut in pieces of any shape or size. 

109. CREME AU CHOCOLATE. 

Cream with chocolate, or chocolate custard. One 
pint of milk and two ounces of chocolate, boiled a 
little. Mix four yolks and two whites of eggs, and 
mix with the milk. Set the cups in a pan of hot 
water, and put the pan in the oven. AYhen cooked, 
take out the pan and set it m a cool place. 

110. CREME AU CAFE. 

Cream with coffee — a coffee custard. Beat to- 
goth(;r two yolks of eggs and two whole eggs in a 
bowl, with a tablespoon fnl of sugar. Add one pint 
of cold milk and a half gill of very strong li(]uid 
coffee. INIix it all and pass it through a strainer into 
cups. Set the cups in a pan of hot water, which 
comes half way up the sides of the cups, and put 
the pan in the oven. When baked take out the cups 
and cool. 

111. CREME AU CITRON. 

Cream with lemon, or lemon custard. One pint 
of milk in a saucepan on the fire, with a couple of 
pieces of lemon rind. When the milk rises, add two 
tablespoons of sugar, and stir a little. After you 
have made it once, you can tell whether you want 
more or less of lemon or sugar. Beat the whites of 
four eggs and the yolks of two in a bow], and tr(\at 
the whole as you did the creme au cafe or coffee 
custard. 

112. — CREME AU THE. 

Cream with tea, or tea custard. One pint of milk 
in a small saucepan. When it rises take it off, and 
put in a tablespoon of dry tea (never use green). 
Let it stand on the table some minutes to draw. 
Take three tablespoonfids of sngar, four yolks and 
two whites of eggs, mixed in a bowl, and add them 



CAKE, PASTRY, ETC. 37 

to the tea, and stir well. Then strain into a mould 
or cups, and bake them in the same way as the creme 
with coffee, or coffee custard. 

113. JELLY AYITH STRAWBERRIES. 

Three ounces of gelatine in a tin saucepan, with 
four sticks of cinnamon, a little grated nutmeg, and 
one quart and half a pint of cold water. Cut into 
it the rind of a lemon, and squeeze in the juice. 
Add half a pound of sugar. 

Four whites of egsfs are beaten to a stiff froth, 
- and also the shells. Turn this into the pan with the 
rest. Set it on a brisk fire, and stir with an egg 
beater slowly. In ten minutes take it oft", and set it 
on a slower part of the fire fifteen or twenty minutes. 
Strain it through a coarse bag seyeral times till quite 
clear. 

For strawberry jelly add a little Madeira wine. 
Fill the mould one-third full, and set it on ice to 
harden a little. 

When cool press a layer of strawberries into the 
jelly, and pour on more jelly, and set it to cool. If 
desirable, a second layer of strawberries may be 
added before filling up the mould. 

114. JELLY MACEDOIXE. 

Prepare your jelly as in the case of strawberries. 
After your mould is one-third full, put in a wineglass 
of rum and set the mould on ice. 

In the rest of the jell}^ put in two tablespoons ot 
burnt sugar, and fill the mould another third and 
cool. Then add more sugar to the rest of the jelly, 
fill up the mould and cool again. By doing this 
with fifths instead of thirds, you can make the color 
gradual from the top to the bottom, or shaded. 

115. PROFITEROLLES AU CHOCOLATE. 

The paste for these is made the same as for the 
beignets or for choux, and baked in small cakes. 
When done, open one side, anu fill with chocolate, as 
they are hollow. The chocolate is prepared by being 



38 CAKE, PxVSTRY, ETC. 

melted with water, and thinned with hot milk to a 
paste, and a little sugar. The melting of the choco- 
late requires a teaspoon of water to a couple of 
ounces, on the fire. 

A little more baking smooths the chocolate. 

Petits pains au chocolate — Tiiis is made by filling 
the cakes with a mixture of half chocolate and half 
patissiere cream. 

Petits pains a la reine — This is filling the cakes 
with ])each preserve and chopped almonds, mixed. 

Eclair au Chocolate — This is made by filling the 
cakes with frangipanni. A little sweetmeat on the 
top, covered with chocolate. 

Eclair aux Praises — Fill the cakes with strawber- 
ries, either fresh or jellied, with chocolate on the top. 

Eclair au Cafe — Fill the cakes with any kind of 
cream, mixed with a little very strong coffee or es- 
sence, and covered with chocolate. 

1 1 G. CHARLOTTE RUSSE. 

One ounce of gelatine, two tablespoons of water, 
on the fire to melt. Beat one pint of pure cream in 
, a bowl till it is thick or frothy. Put in two table- 
spoons of sugar and stir. If your cream is not very 
thick you may add the melted gelatine. Flour or 
not, as suits you. 

Line the bottom of a tin mould with sponge cake, 
baked thin and flat for the purpose, and also the 
sides. Pour in the cream described above, and set 
it aside, or on ice, till cold. If you desire you may 
take off the top crust, and substitute for it cream 
renverse or patissiere, or any other cream. 

117. BEIGNLETS SOUFFLES. 

Three gills of cold water on the fire, with two 
ounces of butter. When it boils stir in six ounces 
of flour gradually, and stir fast till it does not adhere 
to the finger, and is soft. Take off and bowl it. 
Let it cool a little. Stir it some. Stir in four or five 
eggs gradually. 



CAKE, PASTRY, ETC. 39 

When your fat in the pan is hot enough drop the 
paste in in little lumps. As they brown they will 
turn themselves over in the fat. They will naturally 
swell live times their size. 

118. — ^RICE CAKE (or PUDDING). 

Take a tin pan and grease it so as to make bread 
crumbs stick to the inside all over. 

Wash four ounces of rice and put it in another 
vessel with a pint and a half of milk, on the fire. 
When cooked, add three tablespoons of sugar. Sim- 
mer five minutes more. Put the rice in a bowl to 
cool. Stir in four or five yolks of eggs. Beat the 
four whites to a stiff froth, and mix it in. Put it in 
the pan spoken of at first, and put it in the oven. 
Grease a piece of paper if yom' oven is too hot, and 
lay it on top of the cake. 

119. SAUCE FOR THE RICE. 

A small tablespoon of butter and one of flour 
stirred on the fire. Then a tablespoon of sugar and 
a gill of water, a little piece of lemon rind. Drop 
in a little white wine and the sauce is done. 

120. — SPONGE CAKE. 

Ten yolks of eggs in a bowl, with a pound of 
powdered sugar, and mix well. A few drops of 
essence, or rind of lemon or orange, or a little nut- 
meg, to flavor. IVlix in half a pound of flour. 
Afterward mix in the whites of ten eggs beaten to a 
stiff froth. Bake in a pan or mould. 

121. — BISCUIT GLACE A LA ROY ALE. 

Two tablespoons of powdered sugar, and half the 
white of an egg worked in a bowl. Add occasion- 
ally a drop of lemon juice. It makes the sugar 
white. 

Bake sponge cake in a mould, and when done turn 
it out and spread the sugar on top, and place it in 
the oven to glaze the suorar. 



40 CAKE, PASTRY, ETC. 

122.— BAB A. 

Mix in a bowl twelve ounces of butter, twelve 
ounces of flour, nine eggs, four tablespoons of yeast. 
Mix it in a cool place, to keep the butter cool. Mix 
it hard with the hand. Add four ounces of currants, 
four of raisins, four ounces of citron cut in small 
fillets, lemon or orange rind to flavor, and a glass of 
whiskey, brandy, wine or other liquor, to taste, a 
little salt. Set it to rise twelve to twenty hours in 
the bowl. Bake. 

123. COCOA-NUT CAKE 

Is made just like macaroons, using cocoa blanched, 
instead of almonds. 

124. BRIOCHE. 

Twelve ounces of flour in a bowl, with twelve 
ounces of butter, nine eggs, four tablespoons of 
yeast, and mix well. The success depends on the 
working of it. Put in a little salt. Mix it hard with 
the hand. It must be set aside to rise, from twelve 
to twenty hours. It is best to make it in the even- 
ing. Set it to rise in the bowl. 

125. MACAROONS. 

Four ounces of sweet almonds, a little water, a 
teaspoon of sugar, a few drops of white of egg, 
pounded in a mortar. When well pounded add six 
ounces of sugar, one white of egg not beaten, and 
pound again. 

Dip your hands in a bowl of cold water, roll your 
mixture in little balls, and put them in a pan without 
any grease. Put it in a slow oven, as they must dry 
a great deal. 



VARIETIES. 41 

YAEIETIES. 



126. COFFEE. 

For a quart of water you may take anywhere from 
an ounce to half a pound, as you please. Two 
ounces of Rio, two of Mocha, two of Martinique, to 
a pound of Java, makes a good mixture. To those 
who can roast it well at home, it is best t© try the 
whole beny. Keep your roasted coffee in tin, tightly 
stopped, and grind it daily. It is impossible to roast 
coffee properly by steam. Dealers buy coffee at 
forty-five cents, sell it for forty cents, and make large 
profits. Coffee loses l-6th of its weight in roasting. 
Different kinds of coffee take different lengths of 
time to roast. But the dealers moisten their coffee 
while roasting, to keep its weight. It is best to roast 
coffee without taking the cover oft' the stove. Wood 
is best to roast with. 

Take five tablespoons of the above coffee mixture 
to a quart of water. He used in this case the new 
Old Dominion coffee pot. Put the coffee in the sieve 
chamber of the pot. 

At the first boiling of the water turn enough into 
the pot just to wet the grounds, and then cover it up 
again. In a minute pour in your boiling water, and 
set it aside, and after standing a minute or two to 
settle, it is clear, and read}^ for use. 

If you boil coffee it dissipates the aroma, and ex- 
tracts the volatile oil, and spoils the taste. 

The best time to take coffee after dinner is twenty 
or thirty minutes after. It is stimulating, and is said 
to assist digestion. In the morning it is used with 
milk. If you find indigestion after breakfast, aban- 
don coffee altogether. J^ever use tea at breakfast. 
Rye is bad. Roast wheat instead, pound it in a mor- 
tar, do not gi'ind, and then use it as coffee. 



42 VARIETIES. 

127.— TEA. 

Pour boiling water into the tea pot to warm it. 
Empty out the water. Put in the tea and a table- 
sjDOon of boiling water. Leave it so one minute, to 
wet the leaves. Then pour in your hot water. Let 
it stand three to five minutes, but never longer before 
using. If it stands longer it becomes too astringent, 
and the flavor is gone. 

Never use tea for breakfast. It is too exciting. 
Some people think they cannot work without it. 
That is because they have accustomed themselves to 
it as a stimulant. By habit we can bring ourselves 
to use jDoison enough to kill three persons. 

Tea is good in damp climates, to keep off fever 
and ague, after a meal. 

128. — CHOCOLATE. 

Grate the chocolate. A tablespoon of water to 
four ounces of chocolate. Put it on a gentle fire 
some time. When melted pour on hot milk, and it 
is ready for use. A half pint of milk to an ounce 
of chocolate is a good average. 

129. CHOCA. 

This is half coffee and half chocolate, with milk, 
and is said to have been devised by Voltaire. 

1 3 0. B AVAROISE. 

Take an ounce of chocolate and half a pint of 
milk for each person. Make it as per directions 
given for making chocolate. Put in a few drops of 
cold tea, and some sugar, and beat. Orange essence 
is a good flavor. It is excellent to eat cold before 
going to bed. 

131. ICE CREAM. 

A pint and a half of milk in a tin saucepan, with 
two ounces of sugar, and two eggs, and stir with 
an egg-beater as soon as you get it on the fire. 
Continue stiiTing steadily, and take it off as soon as 



VARIETIES. 43 

it is going to boil up. Put it in a bowl to cool, and 
when cool put the whole in a freezer. 

Ice around a freezer is better with one-third salt 
than with less. 

To make strawbeny cream you squeeze the juice 
out of strawberries and add it to the milk at iirst. 
The riper the strawberries the richer the color. In 
w inter cochineal is used to color. It may be ob- 
tained of the leading confectioners. 

132. ROMAN PUNCH. 

Infuse an ounce of tea over night in half a pint of 
cold water. 

One pound of sugar and three gills of water must 
be boiled in a saucepan. When cool put it in a bowl 
with the rind of two lemons and one of orange, cut 
in pieces. Also the juice of four lemons and two 
oranges, and add a little cold water. Beat well, add 
a little of the tea, and as much rum (one to five 
gills) as you please. Put it in a freezer and freeze. 
Some people prefer two or three eggs added, beaten 
to a frotii. 

Punch is served at different times during dinner, 
in different connections. 

133. PLUM PUDDING. 

Cut four ounces of beef suet fine, and mix it with 
four ounces of bread crumbs. Four ounces of rais- 
ins and seed them, four of currants, one ounce of 
citron cut small. Essence or lemon rind to flavor, a 
little nutmeg grated, two ounces of sugar (some 
prefer brown) . 

Beat four eggs with two tablespoons of milk. 
Mix the whole ingredients above stated into it, and 
incorjjorate every thing thoroughly. Put in two 
tablespoons of rum, a teaspoon of salt. 

Dip a clean towel in boiling water, sprinkle flour 
over it. Put the mixture in. Double up the corners 
of the towel. Tie it as tight as possible. Boil this 
size three hours . The longer you boil the lighter it is . 



44 VARIETIES. 

When you serve it, pour brandy or rum over it, l 
and send it to the table burning. Serve it in slices, i 

A little butter, flour, sugar, and wine, mixed to- 
gether on the fire, makes a good sauce. \ 

134. BREAD AND ROLLS. 

One half pound of potatoes, steamed with skins 
on. When cooked mash them with half a jDOund of 
flour, half an ounce of salt, half a pint of tepid 
water, and set it in a warm place for about an hour. 
Then mix into it half a pint either of baker's or 
brewer's yeast. Pass the whole through a sieve or 
strainer, to get out the potato skins. 

This leaven takes generall}" ten or twelve hours to 
rise. As soon as it begins to fall you strain it to get 
out the potato skms. 

After straining you mix with it two pounds of 
flour, one ounce of s.alt, and half a pint of tepid 
"w^ator; keep it in a warm place an hour or so, un- 
covered, till it cracks on the top. Then j'ou knead 
with it on a board six pounds of flour, and tepid 
water enough to make an ordinary dough. 

135. OMELET. 

Take five eggs, beat them in a good sized bowl, 
season them with salt and pepp<n', and throw in a 
teaspoonful of chopped parsley. Take a frying-pan, 
put a piece of butter in it, and wh(^n melted pour in 
the liquid egg, and stir with a table-fork, because 
they cook rapidly-. 

136. OMELET AU RUM. 

Four eggs, salt and pepper, beat a little with a 
fork, a teaspoonful of sugar beat in. Put a little 
piece of butter in a pan. When the butter m^lts on 
the fire, turn the eggs in and stir. 

When browned, dished, and sugared afterward, it 
is an omelet au sucre, or sugar omelet. 

To make rum omelet, burn a wine-glass of rum, 
and stir it in. 



VARIETIES. 45 

137. EGGS AU FROMAGE. 

Pat two tablespoons of grated cheese in a sauce- 
pan on the table, with a teaspoon of butter, four 
eggs broken in ; set it on the fire, and stir two or 
three minutes. Dish. 

138. — EGGS A LA NEIGE fSNO\Y) . 

One quart of milk on the fire in a tin pan. Beat 
four whites of eggs to a stiff froth. When the milk 
comes to a boil, stir in two tablespoons of sugar, 
and then the eggs. They must be turned over, and 
when well curded, taken out with a spoon. 

Take the flour yolks in a bowl. Pour over them 
as you stir, the milk left from cooking the whites. 
Set on the fire and stir fast, for a minute or more, 
and when it begins to thicken pat it in a dish, passing 
it through a strainer or not, as you choose. Then 
lay the curded whites in the dish and serve cold. 

139. LAIT DE POULE. 

Put in a tumbler one or two yolks of eggs ana a 
I little sugar. Pour boiling water gradually over it, 
I stirring so as not to cook too fast. It is very light, 
1 for a sick person, or for a late luncheon. 

140. — calf's brain stewed. 

Soak the brain in cold water two hours. (Any 
i other brain will do as well) . Take it out and take 
I oft* the skin and the red veins. Then put it in the 
I saucepan at the same time with the broth and wine. 
Add a bunch of seasoning, parsley, thyme, and a bay 
! leaf, and salt and pepper to taste. 

A good way to cook brain is to fiy it in batter. 

141. — calf's tongue. 

Scald it in boiling water ten minutes. Take it out 
and scrape off the skin with a knife. Lard it with 
pork. Bake or roast, and serve it with either a 
revigote or a piquante, same as with the gravy. 



46 VARIETIES. 

142. SALAD. 

This is always sent to the table with the roast 
piece or with the chicken. First wash the lettuce, 
and be particular to drain it of all the water — for 
good salad cannot be made with water. A table- 
spoonful of oil, and half as much of vinegar ; salt 
and pepper to taste ; stir thoroughly. 

Professor Blot incidentally remarked that sorrel, 
a sourish vegetable, is the best thing to eat in the 
Spring, when prepared similar to lettuce. The dan- 
delion also was an excellent field plant. The latter 
was designed for our use. In the order of nature it 
was the hrst palatable vegetable that comes forth in 
the Spring season, and man should eat it. 

143. CROQUETTES. 

These are a sort of mince meat dumpling. Take 
some cold veal, chicken, lobster, or tender cold beef, 
chopped fine. 

Put a half tablespoon of butter in a saucepan on 
the fire. When melted, put in a piece of onion 
chopped fine. Fry a little. Add half a tablespoon 
of fiour. When it browns put in the minced meat. 
Stir it steadily and add salt and pepper. Then add 
a gill and a half of broth, and set the pan a little 
off the fire to simmer. 

Chop three stalks of parsley fine, and mix it in on 
the fire, stirring all the time. Then break in two 
eggs, stirring faster. In two or three minutes take 
it from the fire and set it to cool. Thus fiir has 
occupied about ten minutes. 

When the meat is cold sift some flour on the board ; 
take a lump of the mince the size of an egg, or 
larger, roll it in the fine flour, dip it in a cup of 
beaten egg, drain it and roll it in bread crumbs. 
Have a quantity of boiling suet or drippings in a 
frying pan, and fry the croquettes in them for a cou- 
ple of minutes, till brown. Put in a culander, and 
let the fat drain off. 



VA.RIETIES. 47 

144. LOBSTER SALAD. 

Cut the flesh in small pieces. Stir in pepper, salt, 
mustard, olive oil. Spread the salad over the top, 
and also mayonnaise sauce. Also the coral of the 
lobster, and boiled eggs cut in fancy shapes. Put 
flowers around to ornament. 

145. CHICKEN SALAD. 

Put raw chicken flesh in a pan with butter, and 
brown it. Then half cover it with warm water. 
Cut half a middling sized onion and carrot in slices, 
two or three stalks of parsley, two cloves, salt and 
pepper. Boil gently two hours or more. When 
cold, cut the flesh in small pieces. Cold chicken or 
other bird left from the day before will do as well. 
To make a large dish you can add veal. A very 
good salad is one-third veal, one-third chicken, and 
one-third celery, cut up and mixed. Put in olive 
oil, mustard, &c. Lay it on a dish. Spread mayon- 
naise sauce over it. Decorate with boiled eggs, 
sprigs of parsley, beets cut in shapes, slices of 
lemon, shaped, carrot boiled and sliced in shapes, 
&c., or a rose or two. 

146. — FRITTERS. 

Use any kind of fruit or berry, or banana. Cut 
the banana in slices. 

Flour, water and salt mixed to a thick batter. 
Beat two whites of eggs to a stiff froth, and mix 
with the batter. A little liquor or wine of any kind 
will improve it. The slices of fruit are dipped into 
the butter and cooked in hot fat. 

147. PAXADE. 

A pint of warm water, a large table spoonful of 
butter on the fire. Add sugar to taste and a pint of 
milk. Beat in a bowl one or two or three yolks of 
eggs, with a little milk, and turn it into the pot, and 
it is done. 



48 VARIETIES. 

148. — B U R N E D SUGAR. 
Put a little sugar on the fire, and a little water, 
and let it burn. Then add water and bottle it. It 
keeps any length of time. 

149. PMN PERDU (lost BREAD). 

Take stale bread. Cut it in thin slices, and quar- 
ter the slices so as to make them a couple of inches 
square. Turn boiling milk, well sugared, over it. 

A little butter in a fr} ing pan on the fire. Dip the 
bread in egg, then in crumbs, and fry. 

150. VOL AU VENT % 

Is made with putf paste, and baked. One pint of 
oysters in juice on a saucepan on the fire. Skim off 
the white scum as it rises. Boil up once. 

Mix a tablespoon of butter and one of flour in a 
saucepan on the table. Add one i:>int of milk, and 
set on the fire and stir. Salt and pepper. When it 
begins to thicken, put in the oysters without theii 
iuice, stir a little, and set it a little off the fire to keep 
varni. 

Roll puff paste to half an inch in thickness. Cut 
^ i small or large cakes. Lay a strip around the edge, 
a^ul put another fiat cake on the top, and bake in a 
pan. When baked open the top and fill in with the 
oyster and milk mixture. To make more room 
inside two strips of pufi* paste ma}^ have been baked 
instead of one, in making the cake. 

151. OMELETTE SOUFFLEE. 

Take a tin mould or pan. Grease it with butter. 
^Mix in a bowl five yolks of eggs and three ounces 
of sugar. Beat five whites to a stifi" froth, and mix 
them with the yolks and sugar. 

Pour the whole into the i)an and set the pan in the 
pan in the oven. An omelette soufilee must be made 
just before serving, as it falls very soon. 

152. BREAD PUDDING. 

Soak a five-penny loaf in milk for ten minutes. 



VAEIETIES. 49 

Squeeze the milk out by hand, put the bread in a bowl, 
and mix in four yolks of eggs, then four ounces 
ot raisins. Beat the four whites to a stiff paste, and 
mix it with the rest. 

Grease a mould with butter, and fill it two-thirds 
with bread. Set the mould into boiling water for 
twelve minutes. Set it in the oven, and bake. 

153 . MACARONI. 

Put half a tablespoonful of butter, and the same 
of flour, in a pan, and mix on the fire. Then a little 
more than half a pint of milk, and stir. Add salt. 
This is the sauce. 

The macaroni has been boiled in a pan, with a 
little butter and salt, drained in a culander, and the 
sauce is poured over it on a dish. 

154. MACARONI AU GRATIN. 

Cover macaroni with cold water, a little suet, a 
little butter, and boil till tender. 

Spread butter on the bottom of the dish. Dust it 
with grated cheese. Then a layer of macaroni. 
Then a layer of cheese, and so on, as many layers 
as you choose, the cheese always on top. Salt and 
pepper, and pieces of butter on toj)* Put it in the 
oven. 

155. — PUREE FOR FISH OR MEAT. 

Set a pint of peas in cold water on the fire, cover- 
ed. When cooked mash them through a culander, 
and put them back on the fire, with a little butter. 
Chopped parsley may be mixed with it. 

It can be poured over salt fish, or any other kind 
of fish or meat, mackerel, &c. 



50 FRUIT, BERRIES, ETC. 

FRUIT, BERRIES, &c. 



156. CRANBERRIES. 

Put a quart of water, half pound of sugar, piece of 
cinnamon in a tin vessel, boil till it honies. Put in 
a quart of cranben-ies, shake up to mix, boil fifteen 
minutes, shaking occasionally. 

Raw cranberries can be kept perfectly fresh for 
three or four weeks by simply putting them in cold 
water, changing the water every two or three days. 

157. — APPLES WITH BUTTER. 

Core the peeled apples with a corer. Place in a 
tin dish. Fill the core hole with sugar. Put a lump 
of butter on top of the hole, and a little sugar over 
that again. A little water to cover the bottom of the 
dish and put in the oven. 

158. CHARLOTTE OF APPLES. 

Put one quart of cored and peeled apples, half 
table spoon of sugar, half gill of water, piece of 
cinnamon, in a saucepan. Cook. Then strain it 
through a culander. 

Line a tin mould with bread crumbs, using melted 
butter to stick them on. Put in the apple. Put bread 
crumbs on top ; and set in the oven. 

When well baked reverse the pan or mould on a 
dish and the apple comes out shaped, ready to serve. 

159. — APPLES MERINGUEE. 

Apples are peeled, cored, seeded. Put them in a 
saucepan with a table spoon of water, three table- 
spoons of sugar, and stick of cinnamon. When the 
apples are done mash them through a culander, and 
dish. 

Three whites of eggs beaten to stiff froth. Mix in 



FRUIT, BERRIES, ETC. J.g'f 51 

one tablespoon of sugar spread over the apples. 
Set in the oven a short time to glaze, 

160. CROQUE EN BOUCHE (CAXDIED FRUIT).'r 

Separate an orange or other fruit into pieces, tie a 
thread to each piece, and put them in the oven to dry. 
Dip them in a white of egg and roll in sugar lightly. 

Take currants, on the stalk, wash them, dry them, 
dip them in a mixture of egg and water and then roll 
them in sugar. When dry the sugar will stick, and 
the currants may be served in that form. 

Strawberries may be treated in the same way. 
They may be made in forms around a cup, by the use 
of eggs to stick them together, sugared, and the cup 
being drawn out by reversing it, the form will stand. 

You put four ounces of sugar and not quite a gill 
of cold water on the fire, and boil till it s^^rups. Dip 
your fruit, currants, oranges, or other articles in, 
and hang them up by the string to candy or dry. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 



161. — A QUESTION ANSTVERED. 

A lady sent up a piece of paper with the question, 
**Is a cook a chemist?" 

The Professor's reply was : 

**A cook is a person whose duty it is to keep in 
order the animal mechanism. A*' chemist is called 
when that mechanism is out of order." 
162. — ON ROASTING. 

When you roast beef put it as near as you can .to 
the fii-e, till there is a crust all round. Baste first 



52 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

with a little butter. When that crust is formed, 
remove it further from the fire by degi'ees. Baste 
and turn often. Do the same for mutton. 

Yeal and lamb must be put further from the fire, 
as they will burn quick. If it be very young lamb, 
it may be wrapped in greased paper, set close, and 
basted over the paper. 

In roasting birds, always envelope them in paper. 
Remove the paper ten or fifteen minutes before tak- 
ing them from the fire, so as to brown them. 

To roast quails, roll them up and tie in grape vine 
leaves. Put slices of thin pork over the leaves and 
tie again. Then put the quails in the oven. When 
done serve as they are. 

A fish may be roasted, and served after meat. 
Pickerel or eels roast well. 

163. A WORD ABOUT FISH. 

Fish having white flesh are — cod, cusk, haddock, 
hake, halibut, pollock and whitefish. Sauces used 
with white flesh fish, when baked, boiled or broiled, 
are — anchovy, caper, mayonnaise, bechamel, egg 
sauce, scup and maitre d'hotel. Fish with black 
flesh are — bass, bluefish, eels, hemngs, mackerel, 
perch, pickerel, salmon, scup, shad, tautog or black- 
fish and trout. For these use anchovy, tomato, 
caper, genevoise, maitre d'hotel, mayonnaise, scup 
or court bouillon sauce. Flounders and smelts. 
Smelts arc always fried. 

Fish when done will flake off easily when you try 
it with a fork. 

164. GARNISHES. 

Puree may be served under any kind of meat or 
fish. Spread it in the dish and lay the meat on it. 
If you have gravy from the meat, you may mix it 
with the puree. 

You may also, for garnishing, use truffles, pota- 
toes a la Duchesse, potatoes in croquette, water-cress. 

Meat may be served with its own gravy, garnished 
with salad. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 53 

165. PHYSIOLOGICAL REMARKS. 

It is proved by physiologists that it is the contrac- 
tion of the muscles *^that produces wrinkles. Good 
lV)od makes the skin clear, develops good forms, and 
makes people look younger. 

Animals are more careful of the selection of their 
food. Man looks after the food of his pet horse 
more than he- does after his own. 

Food should be prepared according to season. In 
winter we want more fatty matter. Greens eaten 
freely in spring purifies the blood and removes the 
extra bile. 

Solid meat is better in summer than soups, ragout, 
&c. Good roast meat will best supply the waste of 
substance. The amount we eat is not what benefits 
us, but the amount we digest. A little is better 
digested than a great deal. A great deal of food 
stops digestion. 

A man's stomach and his mind cannot work to- 
gether. A half hour's quiet, or onh- light conversa- 
tion after dinner, will do very well. Never eat 
when angry, or immediately after a long walk. Be 
gay as possible at dinner. 

Eat at regular hours good and well prepared food, 
enough, but not too much. Eat slowly, and masti- 
cate well. Never eat anything that does not taste 
good. Drink slowly, and only moderately. Always 
leave table with a little appetite. 

There is a great difference between rich food and 
high seasoned food. Chocolate is not too rich, if 
you add water. Kich food is not stimulating or ex- 
citing ; hot or seasoned food is. 

Pork and veal, to be healthy, should always be 
overdone. 

Speaking of triclminae in meat, the Professor said 
that if the meat is overcooked there was no danger 
from it. Many people have eaten diseased meat 
without injury. A whole brigade of the French 
army, in 1783, — and it was an historical fact, — was 
fed on diseased meat for four or five months ; and at 



54 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

the end of that time the men were apparently as 
healthy as those of other brigades, who ate whole- 
some meat. The fact of it was, the diseased meat 
was over-cooked, and the men did not know the 
difference. 

The Professor could not recommend diseased 
meat, but the object of referring to the subject was 
simply to show the importance, sometimes, of over- 
cooking meat. 

166. QUENCHING THIRST. 

As to drinking, when you eat you do not feel the 
effect of it at once. If you drink when warm you 
do. Wet your hands if you are warm, and then 
your forehead. Sip the water with a teaspoon. 
This would have saved many lives of those who die 
from colds, inflammations, &c., on account of over 
drinking, or of cold fluids. The thirst is best 
quenched so, and with one-third of the water other- 
wise used. Hot coffee or liquor do not quench thirst. 
By reaction they increase it. 

167. CLASSES OF FOOD. 

There are two classes of food, vegetable and 
animal, which may be subdivided thus: Milk, escu- 
lent grains, vegetables, meat, flsh, fruit and egg?>. 
In addition to these we have turtle and frogs. 
There are only eight ways of preparing food, viz : 
Baking, boiling, broiling, frying, roasting, saute, 
simmering, and stewing. 



HINTS AND ITEMS. 55 

HINTS AND ITEMS. 



Raw oysters are not proper to use at dinner where 
soup is used, as they spoil the taste of the soup. 

In making up a bill of fare, serve in the following 
order — soup, fish, beef, mutton, veal,- poultry, game, 
&c. 

Every kitchen should have a clock in it. Always 
write down your bill of fare, and the time to begin 
each article, and put it near the clock — that is, where 
you have a number of dishes. Have a good cook 
book, though you do not follow it. It is good for 
reference in small matters, such as seasoning. 

Professor Blot disapproves of self-raising flour 
and patent yeasts. 

A dinner a la Russe, is carved in the kitchen. A 
dinner a la Francaise, looks better, as it is carved on 
the table. Thiers said when he went to the latter he 
always dined before leaving home. 

Brazing is a process used where they have no 
ovens. It is done in a pan with a hollow cover, 
which is set on coals, and coals heaped on the cover. 

Richelieu devised the Mayonnaise sauce. 

Calf s or sheep's feet may be prepared the same as 
calf s head a la poulette. 

Beef suet should always be melted on a slow fire. 

Any strong tasted bird may have its taste changed 
by a sage leaf or two inside, and one or two in the 
pan. 

In cooking use cast iron pans, galvanized with tin 
linings. A China lining will crack soon, and the 
food be spoiled. Copper requires a good deal of 
work, and often in little crevices generates verdigris. 
Boiling water and washing soda used with a brush 
will keep clean the galvanized iron. 

To make bread crumbs, dry stale bread in the 



56 HINTS AND ITEMS. 

oven, break it up, roll it with a pin, and pass it 
through a coarse sieve. 

When you cook salt fish, soak it in warm water an 
hour, to get the salt out. Boil it in cold water. 
When half cooked, throw the water away, and renew 
with warm water. 

A very good dish may be made by cutting bread 
into dice, and frying it in fat. 

Never eat lobster at or after supper ; it is heavy. 

Vegetables and fried fish are always entremets. 

An omelette may be made more flakey by being 
Bet in the oven as soon as done. 

No matter what sauce or gravy you make, always 
Bkim the top clean, strain the fat into ajar, and keep 
it for cooking. 

Alwaj^s make your own pickles, if you would be 
sure that there is no poison in them. The beautilul 
green of some is produced by poisonous substances. 

The bes^ part of a potato is that nearest the skin. 

The centre leaf of a radish should always be left 
on, and eaten with it, as there is something therein 
that corrects the radish, and prevents indigestion. 

The most difficult part of cooking is mixing and 
seasoning. 

In boiling any kind of green vegetable, always 
put it in when the water first begins to boil. 

It does not accelerate cooking to boil fast. ^ 

The harder meat is boiled the poorer it will be. 
Intense boiling not only closes the j^ores of the meat, 
but suffers the real goodness to be lost in evapora- 
tion. ""^ 

In putting any kind of ingredients into a given 
quantity of base, only one at a time should be mixed, 
as It is impossible to thoroughly mix a number of 
6ul)stances at one and the same time. 

To lieat eggs most quickly into a stiff* froth, is to ^ 
have fresh eggs ; and when the bowl is exposed to a 
draft or is put on ice, it will become stiff:" much 
quicker. 

Always grease dough pans with a feather. It is a 



HINTS AND ITEMS. 57 

great saving of butter. It requires scarcely any 
butter for this purpose. It is not only dangerous 
but costly to use the fingers, especially when butter 
is high. The best fat to use for cooking purposes is 
beef suet. 

The Professor considers it wicked to use soda, 
saleratus, or cream of tartar in making bread or 
cake. 

A single bay leaf is an addition to a pot of soup. 

Bay leaves come often on boxes of figs, as a sur- 
face covering, and also in other ways. 

Never eat melon for dessert. It should be eaten 
before dinner. 

When you buy a coffee pot, shorten the coffee 
holder a little, and have a gauze put on the bottom 
instead of the bars or perforated tin. It draws 
better. 

French cookeiy is somewhat Italian in its nature. 
Catherine de Medicis was an Italian. She brought 
with her into France her mode of cook'.jg, as well 
as some of her other customs. The Italians bor- 
rowed their customs from the Romans, and tliey, in 
turn, from the Greeks. A French cook, as soon as 
he or she discovers a good dish, adopts it, no matter 
w^here it may come from. As an instance of this, in 
France the cranberry is used, but it is a borrowed 
dish — perhaps American. Mock turtle and plum 
pudding are English dishes. 

A very good soup may be made by boiling turnips, 
carrots, &c., in broth, and breaking in pieces of dry 
toasted bread before serving. 

Wooden spoons are best for mixing dough. 

In cooking never salt your articles fully. People 
can alw^ays salt to suit themselves, at the table. 

Many people are disgusted with highly salted 
food, while others want salt in everything.' 

Immediately after a substantial meal a person 
should take half an hour of perfect rest. Do not 
read. Light, trivial conversation is advisable — any- 
thing that rests body and mind together. 



68 



HINTS AND ITEMS. 



Manual labor does not have so injurious an effect 
as labor of the brain, after eatino- ^ ^^ 

No kind of drink ought to be taken before eatin-. 
Drinking when the stomach is empty causes the 
evaporation of the gases, irritates the Lmach! and 
dylpejsk """^ ^^ '^' "^^ ^^ indigestion and 

nf3v^r-^''^''''\' """"f """^ of taking a cup of black coffee 
aitei dinner, has been adopted every where. Coffee 
IS a stimulant ; it produces agreeable sensations 
and excites the faculties of the mind. It helps 
digestion, after a substantial dinner. It neutralizes 
the fermentation of alcoiiol in the stomach to a ffreat 
extent. Its undue use deranges the liver. Never 
drink anything too hot or too cold. 

It is known in physiology that alcohol causes the 
lood to ferment in the stomach, and partly paralyzes 
the nervous system, and consequently stops the 
stomach in its hidden and wonderful work When 
wine is used duruig dinner, it should be with three- 
lourths water, with few exceptions. The true gas- 
tronomer, if he drinks wine, never drinks it pure 
till he comes to the dessert. White wines are the 
least hurtful, if pure. 

Too free use of any beverage, in a warm day, 
•wx^akens the stomach. A tablespoonful of cool 
water at intervals of an hour or two, will enable a 
person to feel stronger and cooler on the whole. 
Overloading the stomach with fluids in hot weather, 
causes lassitude, indigestion, and many other un- 
pleasant feelings. Water taken into the mouth 
freely and ejected will do a good deal to quench 
thu'st. 

Many people think they are not fond of sweet oil 
as food, but like Jard. This is all imagination. 
Great quantities of lard are shipped to Nice, and one 
or two other places in the south of France, and after 
certain preparation the lard is returned as olive oil. 
Three-quarters of the substance of the olive oil of 
commerce is lard* 



INDEX. 



59 



INDEX. 



Almond Cake, 99, 100 

Apple, with butter, 157 

»» Meringue, 159 

Charlotte of, 158 

Asparagus, 74, 75, 76 

Bouehees de Creme, 98 

Biscuit Glace, 121 

Baba, 122 

Brioche, 124 

Burned Sugar, 148 

Bread, 134 

'* Fried, 149 

** Pudding, 152 

Bavaroise, 130 

Breakfast Steak, 34 

Beef, Baked, 35 

*' Boiled, 40 

** in Miroton, 39 

** Fillet, 37 

** au Gratin, 41 

** a la mode, 42 

Beans au jus, 93 

Cotelettes, 49 

Civet, 70 

Cream Renverse, ^ 104 

** Frangipanni, 99 

** Patissiere, 103 

** Ice, 131 

Croon e en Bouche, 160 

Croquignolles, 106 
Custards, 109-112 

Cocoa-nut Cakes, 123 



Charlotte Russe, 116 

of Apples, 158 
Coffee, 126, 129 

Chocolate, 128, 130 

Choca, 129 

Calf s Brain, stewed, 140 
** Tongue, 141 

** HeadalaPoulette53 
Caper Sauce, 50 

Chicken fricasee, 61 

Saute, 62 

** Boned, 64 

*« Marengo, 68 

Stuffed, 71 

Croquettes, 143 

Cucumber, 92, 94 

Cauliflower, 91 

Cranberries, 156 

Candied Fruit, 160 

Crullers, 106 

Chicken Salad, 145 



Eclair, 

Eggs au from age, 
*' a la neige, 



115 

137 
138 



Fruit fritters, 146 

French rolls, 134 

Fish, hints about, 163 
Fish, 15 to 33 

Fricandeau, 48 

Fillet of Beef, 37 



Genoises, 
Garnishes, 



108 
164 



60 



INDEX. 



Jelly, Strawberry, 
*' Macedoine, 
** for Chicken, 

Kidney Saute, 

Lait de Poule, 
Lobster, 144, 

Leg of Mutton, 



30, 



113 
lU 

72 

51 

139 
31 

50 



Panade, 

Peas, 

Potatoes, 

Puree, 

Rice in Milk, 

*' Pudding, 
Roman Punch, 
Roasting, 



Lettuce, 
Madeline Cakes, 



87, 144 
95 



Meringues, 

Macaroons, 

Macaroni, 

JMutton, 

Matelotte, 

Macedoine, 

Omelet, 

* * au rum, 
** with cheese, 
** soutllee, 

Oysters, 3 

Pate, 

Pork, 56, GO 

Pigeon in crapaudine, 63 

*' in chartreuse, 67 



107, 159 

125 

153, 154 

48, 50, 55 

33 

89 



135 
136 
137 
151 
150 



65 



Pota2:es, 

Puff Paste, 

Pie, 

Pate a choux, 

Profitorolles, 

Pudding, Plum, 
Bread, 
Rice, 

Petits pains, 



1 to 14 

94 

96 

102 

115 

133 

152 

9, 118 

115 



147 

88 
77 to 81 
139 
9 
118 
132 
162 



f 



Soups, 1 to 14 , 

Sauce, Genevoise, 17 > 

*' Bechamel, 22 

** Maitre d'hotel, 24 . 
** Anchovy, 25 ( 

** Caper, 10 • 

** Egg, i:ui 

** Piquante, 36 

** for Beef, 38 ,' 

** Hollandaise, 40 } 
** Robert, 58 

Sponge Cake, 120/ 

Salads, 142, 144, 145 

Strawberr}^ Jelly, 113 



Sweetbread, 

Sucking Pig, 

Salmis, 

Spinach, 

Turtle Soup, 

Tea, 

Thirst, 

Turnips, 

Tomatoes, 

Vol au Vent, 

Veal, 

Venison, 



82, 



54 

54 

69 

83 

14 

127 

166 

85, 86 

90, 12 

150 

44 to 48 

5Q, 57 



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