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"The most honored of Professors is Professor Blot." ,
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1^ PROF. BLOT'S 1 i
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THE SUBSTAl^CE OF S
DELIVERED IN MERCANTILE, , JIALL,
- ' ' AllD , HE^OfcTa J>- WIT U. C EJ£ AT '^AEifi. '
PBIIfTEBS AND STERUOTVl'Eitfl^
>V*^^l7ton St., Boston.
BE-OTH, SOUPS, &c.
1. — BROTH.
The following is a stock for soups and gravies :
Put three pounds of lean beef — any part of the ani-
mal — in about three quarts of cold water, salt and
place it over a lively hre. When at a boiling point
ta'ie off with a skimmer the scum on the surface ; af-
terward add a small quantity of cold water together
with half a middling sized carrot, cut into small
pieces ; a small piece of turnip — half as much as of
carrot ; one leek ; an onion with two cloves stuck in
it ; a stalk of celery cut into several pieces, and a bay
leaf. Care must be taken in allowing the broth to
boil gently, and for the space of five hours. Good
broth is as clear as spring water ; milky-colored broth
is the result of allowing it to boil too much. When
the broth has boiled for the time indicated, the onion,
clove and celery are to be taken out and cast aside,
and the whole strained before serving. Burnt sug^r
is sometimes used in giving the liquid color.
For inferior broth take a pound of any kind of bones,
two quarts of cold water, a small carrot, small turnip,
one leek, one onion with two cloves stuck in it, a piece
of celery, salt, &c. Simmer six to eight hours, skim-
ming carefully at intervals. Strain carefully and keep
In summer you should not attempt to keep broth
over two days, as it will sour.
2. POT AGE JULIENNE.
The Julienne Soup, the making of which is given
below, becomes Potage a la Colbert when one forced
4: BROTH, SOUPS, ETC.
egg is added for every person. To make it Potage
Printanier, to carrots and turnips given below must
be added asparagus tops, iialf a dozen small radishes,
two tablespoonl'uls of green peas. To make it Potage
au Riz take two tablespoonfuls of rice, boil gently
till tender in a pint of water, drain through a culan-
der, and put the rice into the Julienne ten minutes
before taking off the fire.
To make the Julienne for eight persons take two
carrots and two turnips, cut them into thin slices, put
into a saucepan, with one tablespoonful of butter,
and fry. When ^'t is stewed, a small leek cut up and
put in and stirred again. Add nearly a quart of broth,
and simmer gently till the vegetables are done.
3. SOUP CONSOMME.
Take three quarts of broth, strain it through a sieve
or a strainer (not a culander). Put one, two, three
or four chickens in whole, and simmer two and a half
hours. Take out the chickens, and your potage is
done. The pot must be skimmed in simmering. You
need not have very young chickens or fat ones.
4. POTAGE AU CHASSEUR
May be made with game or rabbits. When these
are scarce you can use a pigeon.
When you use rabbit take head, neck, heart, &c.,
and if you have cold fowl bones break them up and
throw them in.
If you use pigeon, the end of the legs and wing are
cut off, then the skin on the back of the neck, take
out the crop and clean it. Cut the pigeon open a
little on the side to clean it, just under the leg. When
you cook birds whole always clean them so. Brown
the pieces, liver, breast, &c., in a pan with butter.
Add broth, and let it boil.
Simmer an hour and a half, skimming off the fat.
Take it off and turn it through a strainer.
5.^— MOCK TURTLE SOUP.
One table spoon of butter in a saucepan on the fire,
BROTH, SOUPS, ETC. O
add one table spoon of flour, stir, and when it browns
add one quart of broth and one onion, with two cloves
stuck in it. After simmering ten or fifteen minutes,
put in one gill of wine, according to taste, or three gills.
When it is done, turn it in a soup dish. In the dish
half of a lemon cut in small slices, and one egg boiled
hard and cut in small slices. Some use more eggs.
Just before serving add a gill of rum or brandy. Cut
into it some dice of calfs' head boiled.
6. POT AGE AUX NOUILLES.
Put half a pound of flour on the board, mix it with
an egg, salt, a teaspoonfull of choj^ped i^arsley. It
makes a thick, dry paste. Roll it with a pin, sprink-
ling flour to keep it from sticking, till it is thick as
possible. Roll it flat, and hang it over a chair back
to dry. When it has dried half an hour, cut the paste
in small narrow strips like a pencil.
Put a pot of broth on the fire. When it boils drop
in the nouilles strips.
7. POT AGE YELOUTE.
Three yolks of eggs in a soup dish, stirred up.
Turn in a quart of hot broth, stirring fast. You may
use more eggs, if you like.
8. POTAGE TAPIOCA.
Put four tablespoons of tapioca in a saucepan, with
three pints of warm broth. Simmer, stirring occa-
You may prepare a soup in exactly the same way
with corn-starch, or arrow-root, or fecula, or sago,
Burnt sugar is sometimes used to color broth or
9. POTAGE AU RIZ.
Soak your rice in cold water to wash it. Put four
ounces of rice and half a pint of cold water on the
fire. At the first boiling add a little more than a
pint of milk, and keep it on the fire.
6 BROTH, SOUPS, ETC,
As it cooks add another pint of milk, gradually, as
needed. Barley or vermicelli may be prepared the
10. POTAGE PUREE.
Use either one or more of asparagus, carrots, cauli- .
flowers, celery, cucumbers peeled and seeded, beets,
lettuce, parsnips, turnips, squash, sorrel, tomato,
Jerusalem artichoke, or other vegetable. Cauli-
flowers are blanched in hot water, with a little flour
to keep them white. The other things in hot water
only. They are cut in small pieces when used.
When made with peas it is called potage puree a
la chantilly, — with carrots, a la crecy, — with red
beans, a la conde.
You may make a puree with water and butter, but
broth is better.
Take peas, shell a proper quantity, simmer in a
quart of broth till done. Break into the soup some
pieces of bread, browned, when you serve.
11. POTAGE JULIENNE MAIGRE.
Carrot and turnips in thin fillips, asparagus tops in
small pieces, and green peas.
Put a tablespoon ot butter in a saucepan on the fire.
When melted add the vegetables, and stir a little.
When partly fried add a quart of water, and- then put
in the peas and asparagus. As the water boils away
add a little more warm water. Salt and pepper to
12. — TOMATO SOUP.
Throw them in boiling water for a minute ; skin
them ; mash them through a strainer or seive so as
to clear skins or seeds, and finish with boiling in
broth, like a puree potage.
13. POTAGE AU FROMAGE.
When maccaroni is cooked tender, turn it into
broth, on the fire.
Put cheese grated in the soup dish, and turn the
macaroni soup over it. Yermicelli may be used the
14. TURTLE SOUP.
You must have the turtle alive. Cut the head off
and let it bleed to death. Boil the turtle till the shells
can be separated, and the meat is cooked. Take off
the gall bladder, and if you find a black ball (if there
is any) throw it away.
Put butter and flour in a saucepan, and the pieces
of turtle, and cook a little. Pour in some broth.
Put in your dish a lemon cut in slices, an egg
boiled and cut up. Pour over it the soup and meat,
15. BAKED FISH.
After washing, a shad is wiped dry, inside and out-
side, next buttered, salted and peppered, with bread
crumbs, a little chopped parsnip and the juice of half
a lemon squeezed on the outside ; then place in a
bake-pan and put in the oven.
Halibut, haddock, cod, or other fish, do the same
way. Eat with cream of flour, butter, &c.
16. BOILED FISH.
Take a fish of dark flesh. Put in a pan and just
cover with cold water, two or three slices of carrot,
the same of onion, two stalks of parsley and thyme,
a clove of garlic. After it arrives at the boiling point
boil only two minutes.
17. SAUCE GENEVOISE.
Fry a piece of onion chojDped fine in half a table-
spoonful of butter. When browned add a teaspoon-
ful of flour and brown it. Add a gill of the water
the fish was boiled in, a half a gill of white wine or
a teaspoonful of yinegar, shred in some miishrooms,
and cook a little while.
Have a frying pan full of hot fat on the fire. Put
a skewer through them at the gills, and lay them
in the pan, half a dozen on the skewer, the ends of
the skewer resting on the edge of the pan.
19. FISH, CAPER SAUCE.
Take a bass. Pour boiling water over it, and in a
few moments the scales will scrape off easily. Put
the bass on the fire, just covered with cold water,
with a little jDcpper and salt, slice of onion and car-
rot, and one clove of garlic.
A little butter and Hour on the fire. When melted,
add half a pint of the fish water and stir, with a little
touch of vinegar. Throw in your capers just as you
are ready to turn it over the fish.
20. — CODFISH, WITH EGG SAUCE.
Chop two or three hard boiled eggs fine. Put a
lump of butter as large as an e<rg in a saucepan on
the (ire. When melted add a little lemon juice, and
the chopped eggj and after stirring a little turn it
over the fish.
Always put a fish in cold water ; when it boils, let
a two-pound fisii cook two or three minutes, a six-
pound fish six or eight minutes.
21. BAKED FISH.
Put fish in a bakepan with a little water, a few
slices of onion and carrot, which add their sugar to
the sauce. No good gravy can be made without
these two vegetables. Parsley, thyme and bay leaf
(see veal). If the fish water dries too fast while
baking, add a little warm water. A fork will tell
when the fish is done by its flaking. Take out the
fish and simmer the pan on the fire to make gravy.
A little broth is an addition.
22. — FISH A LA BECHAMEL.
Take cold water, salt, and the thyme and parsley
seasonmg, and put your halibut in just covered.
When it boils, let itjj.oil but two minutes.
Take a tablespoon of butter and one of flour, and
mix well on the lire. Add a pint of the fish water.
A few drops of lemon juice will give a pique to the
sauce bechamel. The lish will be dished, and the
sauce poured over it.
23. — FISH STUFFED.
Take bread and soak it in milk, and then squeeze
it out. Mix in an egg and a little parsley and sea-
Take your fish and draw it from a cut just under
the head so as not to cut the stomach. Put the bread
into the fish and put the fish on a bakepan with a little
butter under and on top. Salt and pepper. Put a
little broth to cover the bottom of the pan, and set it
in the oven.
Fish to bake requires fifteen to twenty minutes.
Then put a little lemon juice in the gravy.
24. FISH A LA MAITRE d'hOTEL.
Take a fresh mackerel (or other fish). Split it
down the back, and put it in a pan in the oven with-
out anything with it or on it, and cook ic. ^Yll^n fish
comes ofi'the bones easy with a fork it is done.
For sauce a small tablespoon of butter and a tea-
spoon and a half of chopped parsley in a saucepan
on the fire ; the juice of half a lemon.
25. — FISH, AXCHOYY SAUCE.
Put two pounds black-flesh fish on the fire, just
covered with cold water, slices of onion and carrot,
parsley, thyme and a bay leaf, salt and pepper.
After it begins to boil keep it on two minutes.
Put half a tablespoon of butter and flour in a pan ;
when melted, stir in a gill of the fish water ; then a
tablespoon of essence of anchovy.
26. FISH, MAYONNAISE SAUCE.
If you have cold fish left over from a previous
day's cookery use it.
Put two yolks of eggs in a bowl, and add four or
five tablespoons of olive oil as 3'ou stir, little by little.
It is best to do this in a cool place, or on a window,
opened. When it is thick put in one half tablespoon-
ful of vinegar, some salt and pepper. Add mustard
if you like.
Spread the cream over the cold fish or over meat
of»any kind, and serve.
27. — SOLE NORMANDE.
As there are no soles, use a flounder. Remove
the skin and pull off the flesh from the backbone in
four long fillets. There will be two large and two
small fillets. Butter a flat pan and put in the lillets.
Chop some onion fine and spread over the fish.
Then pour in a gill of claret and less of sherry or
other light wine. Salt and pepper. Add a gill of
broth (soup stock.) Place it in the oven.
28. COURT BOUILLON.
Take any ] " " ^-i-nV fleshed fish. Lay it on a
r):in on ci;-.- ""^ '^" cover it
place It m a ui^x., . ^ im^ pap
,_...v ix v'li LiiL' lire.
29. SAUCE BOUILLON.
Take the fish water, add a few slices of carrot or
turnip, a bunch of parsley, thyme, &c., and when
cooked down reasonably pour it over the fish.
30. — BISQUE OF LOBSTER.
Always buy lobsters alive, if possible. A lobster
is poisonous "^if boiled after dead. Put the lobster
alive in a fish kettle of cold water, and put it on a
sharp fire. The lobster drowns before the water
gets warm. When it turns red, twenty minutes or
more, it is done. Break it in the middle, and drain
in a culander. Split the tail part in two and take
the black vein out. Take the claws for a salad.
Take off the red (coral) meat. Pound the shells and
body and legs, &c., and put it in a pot of water.
After cooking ten minutes add a pint of broth, and
simmer ten minutes more. Add either water or
broth, and simmer longer.
Strain the liquor through a culander, and put the
liquor back on the fire, with a few toasts of bread,
and simmer it. Press it and the bread through a
culander. Mix the coral and the greyish part of the
lobster with butter, and put it in the soup dish.
A bisque may also be made with crabs, and further
South with crawfish.
31. LOBSTER FARCI (STUFFED.)
Take off the shells of a boiled lobster carefully.
Chop a piece of onion and fry it with a little butter.
When it is partly fried, add a teaspoon of flom\
Chop your lobster fine and put that in the pan, and
stir so as partly to fry. Add half a pint of milk and
stir again. Stir it frequently to keep it from burn-
ing. Add pepper and salt. Lay the pieces of the
body shell in a pan, and fill them with the mixture.
Also the large claws. Bake them in an oven.
32. — OYSTERS A LA POULETTE.
One pint of oysters, and juice, on the fire, in a
saucepan. Skim as the scum rises.
Take another pan. Mix a tablespoonful of butter
and one of flour, on the fire ; when melted, stir in
half a pint of milk.
When the oysters boil up, put in the milk, and salt
to taste, and serve.
Clean some large oyster shells, and serve the pou-
lette in them ; when so served it is called huitres en
33. — MATELOTE.
Take any kind of black flesh fish. Take eels and
bass for instance. Cut them in small pieces about
two inches long. Put a lump of fat in a saucepan.
When melted put in the fish. Add a bunch of sea-
soning composed of parsley, thyme and garlic.
To make it really excellent make it three or four ,
days before eating, and warm it every day by setting
the pan in boiling water.
Put a small tablespoonful of flour into the pot, gill
of claret wine, and a little over a gill of broth, for a
pound of flsh. Also an onion.
34. BREAKFAST STEAK.
The fire must be quick, and three minutes is suffi-
cient for both sides.
For two pounds of steak half a tablespoonful of
butter is sufficient. The steaks are salted and pep-
pered before being put into the pan. Sprinkle water
cress with salt, pepper and vinegar, and dress around
the steak after it is dished.
This is not frying. To fry is to immerse in fat.
Doughnuts are fried.
35. BAKED BEEF.
The mode of baking beef was very similar to that
usually practiced here, with salt, pepper and butter,
and an oven not too quick. When sauce piquante is
used w4th it, the same should be mixed with the beef
36. SAUCE PIQUANTE.
Fry a piece of onion chopped fine in a half table-
spoonful of butter. When brown add a teaspoonful
of flour and brown that. Then add two tablespoons
each of vinegar and broth. Heat in it some small
slices of cold meat. Add a little chopped parsley
37. — FILLET OF BEEF.
This piece was from the round, three and a half
pounds. It was a flat piece, and the top was stuck
thickly with little pegs of new salt pork, put into
little slits made in the beef. This is called larding.
Put it in a pan. A little butter on the beef, salt and
pepper. A little broth, just to cover the bottom of
the pan. Put the pan in the oven.
When you bake meat, the oven is generally
warmest on the top. You can grease a jDaper and
lay on top of the meat. It prevents the steam from
rising, and keeps the top of the meat or bird moist.
You need only to baste the paper .occasionally, not
the meat, to keep it from burning. Some meats re-
quire less time than others. Pork and veal, to be
healthy, should always be overdone.
38. SAUCE FOR THE BEEF.
Put in a small saucepan a table spoon of butter
and melt it. Add one spoonful of flour. When
turning brown add a little over half a pint of broth.
Stir. Afterwards not quite a gill of white wine.
Two teaspoons of vinegar may be used instead of
wine, but it is inferior. (This was Sauterne) . Put
in a little bunch of seasoning (see veal), three or
four mushrooms, &c.
39. BOILED BEEF IN MIROTON.
You may take the beef you have boiled for broth.
A remnant of roast or baked beef will do as well.
Slice two large onions for each pound of beef.
Put the onions in a saucepan with a tea spoonful of
butter, a little salt and pepper. When turning
brown, add a little broth, to simmer.
Cut the beef in small slips or slices. When the
onions are nearly cooked, salt and pepper, and add
the beef. After some cooking put in a teaspoonful .
40. — BEEF BOILED, HOLLANDAISE SAUCE.
Take a pound or more of beef, as in miroton (see
above) and cut it in fillets (slips like a half a pencil).
Put a small tablespoonful of fat in a saucepan, and
when melted put the fillets of beef in. Stir so as to
fry the pieces. Then just cover the beef with broth.
After cooking stir a little lemon juice and a teaspoon-
ful of chopped parsley, boil up once and it is done.
For sauce stir one yolk of egg with a little lemon
juice and turn in.
41. — BEEF AU GliATIN.
Take cold beef, either boiled or roasted, and cut it
in thin slices. Grease a tin pan with butter, dust
with bread crumbs, put in a little chopped parsley,
and lay on the slices of beef. Put salt and pepper
and parsley on top, dust with bread cnunbs, drop on
lemon juice, a little broth just to cover the bottom
of the pan, and place it in the oven.
42. BEEF A LA MODE.
Take a piece of thick meat, two or two and a half
inches thick. Run slips of salt pork through from
side to side, by cutting slits.
Put a teaspoon of butter in a saucepan. Melt.
Put in the beef. When fried a few minutes turn it
over. When browned on both sides add one gill of
broth. Then set where it will only simmer, or boil
After a vvhile add a half pint more broth, salt and
butter, a bunch of seasoning (parsley, bay leaf, and
one clove of garlic,) one onion whole, with three
cloves stuck in it. Simmer on both sides, for some
43. STUFFED SHOULDER OF VEAL.
Cut in straight and take out the bones, which will
do for soup next day. For stufiing take one pound
of sausage meat, chopped and mixed with two
ounces of bread, the bread to be soaked in water
and squeezed dry with the hand : one teaspoonful of
chopped parsley, salt and pepper as best suits the
taste, one egg, a clove of garlic, chopped fine ; mix
with a wooden spoon. Some persons prefer to use
onions in stuffing. Put the stuffing into the bone
hole and sew ujd.
The meat thus prepared, with the first bone re-
maining in it, spread over with a small quantit}^ of
butter, with a sprinkling of salt and pepper, the
pan must contain just broth enough to keep the
meat wet at the bottom. During the process of
baking more broth is added to supply the place of
that which evaporates.
44. TEAL IN BLANQUETTE.
Cut veal in small pieces. Say from the neck and
breast, three pounds. Soak in cold water, fifteen to
thirty minutes. Put it in a saucepan, and cover it
with cold water. Boil. Skim the scum. Add two
whole onions with a clove to each ; then two stalks
of parsley, one of thyme, and a small bay leaf, tied
together in a little bunch ; add salt.
Mix well in a bowl a teaspoon of butter, one of
flour. Take a little of the veal water, and mix in so
as to melt the butter and mix the flour. Then turn
it into the saucepan and simmer.
Just before serving, a few drops of lemon juice
may be added. Also a yolk of egg mixed in a bowl
with some of the gravy. Your dish is then ready.
^ 45. VEAL IN GALANTINE.
Take a piece of veal, say three pounds, the leaner
the better. Cut it in small slices, and rather thin.
The spices used are, four or five stalks of parsley
and a little piece of onion, chopped fine.
Put-a layer of slices of pork, thin as possible, on
the bottom of a pan. Then a layer of veal, then the
chopped parsley and onion, and a little salt and pep-
per. Another layer of salt pork, one of sausage
meat, (and, if you like it, one of ham).
Another layer of veal and parsley. Then another
16 MEATS. # •
of salt pork. Thus far, to fill the mould we have
used two and a half pounds of veal, one of sausage
meat, and one half pound of pork. Add a wine
glass of brandy and a little broth. Then place in a
This dish may be eaten cold for breakfast.
46. VEAL IN RAGOUT.
Take the bony ends of chops or piece of the neck,
cut in small pieces, and put them in a pan on the fire
with a little butter, and stir so as to brown. After-
ward add a little fiour and stir. Add a half pint of
broth and stir again. Salt and pepper. Two small
onions, two cloves, bunch of seasoning. Simmer.
Cut six new potatoes in moderate, walnut-sized
pieces, and put them in the pan with the veal.
47. — CHOPS (veal) in papillotes.
Take the good j)art of the chop left from the ragout.
Cut sheets of white letter paper in heart shape as
large as possible. Fry the chop on both sides, till
three-quarters done, with salt and pepper. Any
kind of small bird can be treated so b}^ splitting, and
a 2)rairie hen by being cut in nine pieces. Grease
the paper with a little'olive oil.
ILive a mixture of bread crumbs and chopped
paisl("y, with salt and pepper. Put a little of this on
one side of the paper, lay on a chop, cover with the
other half of the paper, and double down the edges.
Put the papered chops in a bake pan. Pour over
them a gravy made by stu'ring a little broth in the
pan in which they were fried. Put the bake pan in
The chops are served as they are, in the paper — a
cho]) to each plate.
48. — fricandeau.
This is made always with veal. The piece used
here weighed three pounds. It was a thick slice
from the upper part of the leg. Take out the round
bone. Lard one side of it by sticking in little slits
all over it slips of salt pork.
Place in a bakepan an ounce or thereabout of salt
pork, and broth enough to cover the pan a fourth of
an inch. Lay in the veal. Place the pan in the
oven. After some time baste and salt the top.
When the broth is nearly baked out add half a gill
more. After half an hour or so baste a second time.
If there is not gravy enough after you dish add a
little broth to the pan.
It may be served with ** spinach au jus" or with
49 . COTELETTES.
Cutlets, or mutton chops. Simmer a few thin
slices of carrots and turnips in a little water. Put
in butter, w^hen it is melted add the chops. Fry
them on both sides a little. Then take out the chops
and vegetables. Put in the pan a teaspoonful of
flour and stir it. When the flour is turning brown
add a gill of broth. Stir it a while, and then put
back the chops, carrots and turnips, and cook till
50. LEG OF MUTTON BOILED, CAPER SAUCE.
Wrap the leg up in a towel, over and over, tying
up the ends. Put it in boiling water. A leg of
mutton or an old turkey are the only fresh meats
that are not spoiled by boiling. When done, take
off the towel and dish it.
Set a tablespoonful of butter in the pan with the
same of flour and stir. In two minutes set it a little
aside, so it will not boil. Tlien put in a teasjDoonful
or more ot capers, and at once turn it over the mut-
51. KIDNEY SAUTE.
This is a breakfast dish. Any kidney will do. If
you use a pork kidney, it must be cut in half and
soaked in warm water.
Take a beef kidney for instance. Cat it in small
pieces. Put a little butter in a pan ; add a pinch of
chopped onion. When well colored by frying, add
the kidney. Afterward stir in half a teaspoonful of
flour fast, and half a gill of white wine mixed in a
bowl with some of the juice. A teaspoonful of
chopped parsley may be added to the simmering
52 . SAYEETBREAD.
Soak sweetbread in cold water for about half an
hour. Pick out the little veins and skin. Throw in
boiling water for three minutes. Then put them
under a board for half an hour, with a board on to
flatten them. Cut slits in and insert slivers of salt
pork over the top.
Put them in a bakepan with a little salt pork, and
broth to cover the bottom of tlie pan. Put them in
When baked (say an hour or more) add a little
broth, and in a few minutes serve.
53. — calf's head a la poulette.
Soak it in cold water two or three hours, to get
out the blood. Put it in a pan on the fire and cover
it with cold water. Salt, pepper, carrot, an onion
with two cloves in it, one turnip, two or three stalks
of parsley, one of thyme, a bay leaf, and boil it all
gently till done, say about two hours.
For sauce a tablespoon of butter and flour, stirred
in a pan on the fire, and add a little over a pint of
the water in which the head was cooked. Stir. A
teaspoon of j^arsley, chopped, a little lemon juice.
If not thick enough, add a little butter and flour
which has been mixed in a bowl, and wetted with a
little of the hot broth. Cook a little and turn it over
the head with a few drops of lemon juice.
54. — SUCKING riG.
Soak the soft part of the head and squeeze it out
with the hand. Mix it in a bowl with two pounds of
sausage meat. Choj^ fine five or six stalks of parsley
and a little onion, and mix it in the bowl. Salt and
pepper. Two eggs broken in. When well mixed,
put it in the pig and sew it up.
(In whiter, a good stuffing is boiled chestnuts,
with the skins peeled off. Cooked rice makes a good
Put a stone in the pig's mouth to keep it open.
After it is baked you send it to the table with a red
apple in the mouth. After the head is cut off, the
best piece in the animal is the next cut on the neck,
and so on.
Before putting it in the oven, put salt and pepper
on the top of the beast. The pig must be turned
when browned, and three hours will bake well.
Serve it with maitre d'hotel sauce or currant jelly.
55. MUTTON IN HARICOT.
Take a neck or breast piece cut in chunks. Put a
half tablespoon of butter in a pan, and then the
mutton. Cook it till it browns. Stir in a table spoon
of flour. Put in two onions, some broth, a bunch of
parsley and thyme seasoning, a bay leaf, salt and
pepper to taste.
Add live raw potatoes, cut in quarters. If the
broth has boiled away, add a little more. When the
potatoes are cooked the haricot is done.
56. YENISON A LA RE^aOOTE.
Pork may be j^repared in the same way, as we
have no venison here. Two pounds of pork, half a
tablespoon of butter, salt and pepper, in a pan on
the fire. When the pork browns a little, turn it over.
When browned on both sides put it in the oven.
Venison must be underdone and pork overdone.
The revigote sauce. Slice a medium sized onion
and set it on the fire with a gill of vinegar. Good
cider vinegar is as good as you can get. Pure wine
vinegar cannot be had for three times the price they
charge for wine vinegar.
In another pan half a tablespoon of butter and
flour each, ^nd when it browns add half a pint of
broth and stir a little. When the vinegar in the first
pan is nearly eva])oratrd, turn them in together, stir,
and then strain the ^vhole back into the second pan
to separate the onion, and it is done.
57. VENISON, ROBERT SAUCE.
In the absence of venison, take beef or pork. The
professor used a piece of pork. Put the pork in a
bakepan, with a little salt. Its own fat will keep it
from burning. (Beef and venison will want a little
brolh in the bottom.) Put it in the oven. After
half an hour's cooking turn it over.
The pork must be left in the oven till overdone.
Venison must always be underdone. Dish and pour
over it the Kobert sauce.
58. ROBERT SAUCE.
One gill of vinegar and two onions on tlie fire till
the vinegar has boik'd away. Put a tal;lespoon of
butter and one of Hour in another pan and stir ; when
it browns i)ut in a little broth and stir. Turn it into
the i)an with the onion, and then the whole back
again into the second pan.
59. BOILED HAM.
Soak the ham in cold water from tbree to six
hours, according to its saltness. Put it in the kettle
and entirely cover it with cold water. Put in a
bunch of seasoning, an onion and four cloves. A
half pint of white wine will improve the taste. Also
a little hay. When cooked, let it cool in the water,
and take- off the end of the bone. Garnish it by
sticking cloves in it.
GO. BAKED FRESH RORK.
Take a leg of fresh pork, skin it, jiut it in a vessel.
Take salt, pepper, two tablespoons of vinegar, four
tablespoons of sweet oil, four bay leaves, four sage
leaves, and a gill of white wine, and with this mix-
ture baste the leg several times a day, for three days
or so, and then bake it, well done. ^
FOWLS, GAME, ETC. 21
FOWLS, GAME, &c.
61. CHICKEN FKICASSEE.
A chicken anywhere under a year old will do.
Cut it in small pieces, put them in a saucepan,
just cover them with cold water, throw in a pinch of
salt, and cook. Any bird, or a rabbit may be used.
For gravy, a small onion with two cloves planted
in it ; a bunch of seasoning, made of parsley, bay-
leaf, &c. ; salt and pepper to taste ; half a spoonful
of butter ; half spoonful of flour ; mix well together
and turn in with the chicken. Some of the juice of
the chicken may be turned into the bowl containing
the butter and flour to avoid having any lumps in
the flour. A few drops of lemon juice may be
squeezed into the pan, and those who choose may
stir in the yolk of an egg.
62. CHICKEN SAUTE.
Cut a tender young chicken in fourteen or fifteen
pieces. Put half a tablespoonful of butter in a
saucepan on the fire ; when melted, put in the chick-
en, and stir so as to color or cook the pieces all over.
Add half a pint of broth, and not quite a gill of white
wine, claret or saaterne. Sherry will do for a sub-
stitute for white wine, but less must be used.
After simmering put in a bunch of seasoning,
(parsley, thyme, and a bay leaf), and several mush-
rooms. A little broth added will improve the sauce.
Serve warm. Any bird or a rabbit may be used.
63. PIGEON IN CRAPAUDINE.
Take the pigeon, split it down the back, and cut
off the ends of the legs and of the wings. Fhitten it
out and dr}' it with a cloth. Mix bread crumbs with
a little chopped parsley, salt and pepper. WeX the
pigeon lightly with sweet oil, and roll it in the
crumbs. Broil it on a gridiron.
22 FOWLS, GAME, ETC.
For sauce, melt a teaspoonful of butter in a sauce-
pan, i)ut in a tablespoon of flour, and stir till brown.
Then a little onion chopped line, and stir it till fried.
Add three tablespoons of vinegar. Afterward, half a
teaspoon of chopped parsley, broth, salt and pepper.
64. CHICKEN BONED.
Any bird is boned in the same way, the larger the
better. Take a dry picked chicken. Cut oft* the
legs at the first joint. Split the back skin from the
neck to the rump. Break the wing joint, and the
wing comes oft" with the rest. With a small, sharp
knife, peel off" all the flesh, cutting close to the bone.
You get oft* the flesh and skin in one piece, with the
logs and wings on. Then cut out the leg bones and
the wing bones.
The chicken weighed 3 1-2 pounds. There was
also used 3-4 pounds of ham, 3 sheeps' tongues, 1 1-2
pounds of sausage meat, and 1-4 pound of salt pork.
Tlie ham, pork, and tongue are cut in fillips. The
tongue may be either fresh or salted, best fresh, and
must have been boiled w^ell.
Spread the chicken flat. Lay on a layer of sau-
sage meat. Then a layer of fillets of ham and pork.
Tlien a layer of sausage meat. Another of fillets,
till you can get enough to fill the chicken. You can
put in the legs and wings and a few fillets of truffles
if you wish. Fold up the chicken so as to cover the
meat, &c., and sew up, and leave a little space open
so that you can see in. Roll it up in a large towel.
Put it in a pot, with the same seasoning as for broth,
and cover with cold water. Boil gently three hours.
It will sink at first, and when cooked it will rise
above the water. You may put the bones and trim-
nungs of the same chicken in to make broth if you
choose. When cooked take it off" in the pot and let
the pot cool with the chicken in it. Take it out, lay
it on its breast, towel and all, with a weight on it,
over night. That will flatten it, and next day lay it
on a plate, breast up.
FOWLS, GAME, ETC. 23
65. — PATE.
A pie usually made with game. In the absence of
that we use sl pigeon. When cleaned put it in a
bakepan. Lay a slice of salt pork on the breast and
place it in the oven for an hour or more.
For the paste. We have four ounces of flour, two
of butter, a pinch of salt, half a gill of cold water,
mixed to a paste. Line the bottom and sides of a
flat pan with the paste. The bird is carved as if for
the table, and the pieces laid in, and paste covered
over the top. Put a little broth or gravy inside, and
leave an opening in the top for the steam to escape.
Color the top with a yolk of egg and bake. It may
be eaten either hot or cold, and will keep a week or
ten days, as wanted.
Tiiiffles may be baked in a pate, two ounces to a
pound of meat, but in that case it is best to have no
bones in the pan, only clear meat.
66. — DUCK WITH TURNIPS.
Clean the duck. Cut off the end of the legs. Run
a trussing needle and twine through the body and
wings, so as to tie the wings down, and do the same
with the legs. Always take out the crop by cutting
off the neck and cutting a slit in the back of the
neck, so as not to spoil the look of the breast.
Put a piece of butter as large as a walnut in the
saucepan. When melted lay in the duck, and keep
turning it till browned. Take out the duck and put
' a teaspoonful of flour in the pan and stir. When
the flour is browned, add half a pint of broth and
stir, and put the duck back into the pan, a bunch of
seasoning, (two stalks of parsley, one of thyme, and
a bay leaf,) a whole onion with two cloves, one clove
of garlic, and simmer.
Put some fat on the fire in a pan. When hot turn
in your turnips cut in moderate sized pieces. When
browned put the turnips in the pan where the duck
is. Skim off the fat well. When done (an horn- and
24 FOWLS, GA3IE, ETC.
a half or so) take out the duck and untie it ; take out
the bunch of seasoning.
67. ^PIGEON IN CHARTREUSE.
When there are no partridges or prairie hens at
hand, use a pigeon. Cut carrot and turnip in small
pieces, and boil till done. Take a mould and grease
it. Line it with the pieces or squares of carrot and
turnip in regular form.
Throw cabbage or cabbage sprouts in water at its
first boiling, and when that is cooked, drain in a
culander. Fry the cabbage in a little butter. Put a
la^'er of cabbage in the mould.
Bake the pigeon quick, without anything in the
pan. Cut up the pigeon and lay on the mould in the
cabbage some pieces of the pigeon. Another layer
of cabbage. Use only salt and pepper. Pour the
juice from the bakepan over the whole. It is more
an ornamental dish than a tasteful one. Set the
mould in a pan, half-deep in boiling water, and set
in the oven.
G8. CHICKEN A LA MARENGO.
After the battle of Marengo, Napoleon wanted a
chicken saute, and for want of butter oil was used.
Cut the chicken in a dozen pieces. Put four table-
spoons of olive oil in a saucepan on the fire, and fry
the chicken in it. When bro^vned take out the pieces
and put them in another saucepan without the oil.
Put in with the pieces a tablespoon of flour, and stir.
Add a gill of wine and a gill of broth. Salt and pep-
per to taste. Put in two stalks of parsley and two
cloves of garlic, tied together, and a bay leaf.
Put the oil back on the fire. Fry small square
slices of bread in it till they are brown. Also, one
or two eggs, and serve with the bird.
May be made with any wild bird or with a duck.
Cooked bird must be used, cold or warm.
FOWLS, GAME, ETC. 25
Put butter and flour in a pan. When melted, add
a little warm water or broth, a bay leaf, and a bunch
of parsley and thyme. Tut in the bird in reasonable
70. — CIVET.
May be made with rabbits, venison or goose. A
tablespoon ot butter in a saucepan. Cut your goose
in pieces and put it in. It is better to skin the goose
and remove the fat. Stir so as to brown the pieces.
Put in a little llour and stir. Then warm water, and
a gill of claret wine, two onions, a bunch of season-
ing made of parsley, thyme, bay leaf and garlic tied
together. Alter a while add two mushrooms.
71. — ^STUFFED CHICKEN.
Half a pound of sausage meat set on the lire in a
saucepan and stir. Then a handful of bread soaked
in water, and squeezed out. Two stalks of parsley
chopped line. After stirring a little add one i^gg,
and take it off. Stuff the chicken with the mixture.
Any kind of bird may be stuffed in the same way.
Sew the bird up, truss it as when you roast, and
This is served either as an entree or a roast piece.
A chicken may be stuffed with whole roasted chest-
nuts or with truffles.
72. JELLY FOR BOXED CHICKEN.
Take four calfs feet. Set on the lire wath two and
a half qts. of cold water. Boil till tender. Strain
through a culander. Put the juice on the hre. Beat
two whites of eggs and lour ounces of iiver chopped
fuie, and put it in the jelly. Put the whole into a
jelly bag. The jelly may be spread over a chicken
boned, in small pieces or any other way.
Should be thrown into boiling hot water, salted,
and boiled till three-quarters cooked. Longer boil-
ing makes them tasteless. A spoonful of butter and
flour melted in a pan, with half a pint of hot water
added and stewed, makes a good sauce.
74. FRIED ASPARAGUS.
Four tablespoonfuls of floui% salt, cold water,
stirred together in a bowl to a thick batter. Beat
two whites of eggs to a stiff froth, and stir in with
Throw the tops of asparagus in boiling water,
with a little suet, till half done. Then throw them
in the batter, hook them out and fry with hot fat.
75. ASPARAGUS IN PETIT FOIS.
These tops were broken in small pieces like peas,
and put in a saucepan. Put in boiling water, with
salt, and cook till three-quarters done. Always use
the water as soon as it boils, for there is more alkali
and gases in it then than afterward.
As soon as done, put them in a culander and drain.
A teaspoonful of butter and Hour mixed on the fire.
Put In a gill of the asparagus. Stir it. Then mix it
in the asparagus. Salt and pepper to taste.
7G. — POTATOES IN CROQUETTE.
The potatoes were cooked by steaming. Peel and
mash through a culander. Put them in a saucei^an
on the fire, with an ugg-sized piece of butter to six
potatoes. Salt and pepper. Take oil* the fire. Mix
in three eggs, lu two minutes take them out into a
dish and cool.
Koll lumps of the mashed potato in lluur, then dip
in egg to make the outside sticky, then roll in bread
crumbs, and cook in hot fat on the fire.
77. MASHED POTATOES.
Wash clean with a scrubbing brush. Do not peel
before cooking. The potatoes may be steamed, then
put in cold water and boiled, mashed through a cul-
ander, the yolks of three eggs mixed in, a table-
spoonful of granulated sugar added, then the beaten
whites of the eggs. Put in tin pans in the oven till
ready for use.
78. POTATOES A LA PAPJSIENNE.
When you prepare the potatoes scrape them, drop
them in cold water, to keep them white. Cut in thin
slices. (When cut into fillets or thin slips like a
pencil, it makes potatoes Francaise) .
Cook the iDotatoes in hot fat, and take them off
when three-quarters done. After a few minutes jDut
them again in the same fat, and in a short time take
them off with a skimmer, and pepper, and serve
The object in taking the potatoes out of the fat
when they were three-quarters done, was to allow
them to swell, and render them better eating. Pota-
toes swell considerably.
79. POTATOES A LA LYOXNAISE.
Steam the potatoes with the skin on. Peel. (Boil
them, if you can do so better).
With eight potatoes, put one, two, or three large
onions. Fry the onions sliced, with butter, in a pan.
AVhen browned, put in the potatoes in slices.
80. POTATOES A LA DUCHESSE.
Steam three or four potatoes till well done ; peel
them, and mash them thi'ough a culander, into a
bowl ; mix in two eggs, and a piece of salt.
Grease a pan with butter. Put in the potatoes with
a spoon in separate lumps, flattened out, and put
them into an oven.
81. — POTATOES IN SALAD.
Butter, vinegar, salt, pepper and chopped parsley.
'Slice hot potatoes, and turn them into a frying pan
in which there is a little butter. When fried take
them off and spread over them the parsley mixture,
Throw them in boiling water, a little salt, and boil
till tender. Chop it up. Add a spoonful of butter
and stir, salt and pepper to taste, a little grated nut-
meg, and stir. A table spoonful of flour next, stirred
well in. Then stir in a gill of broth.
At the first boiling of the water put in a quart or
so of spinach, and a little salt, and boil some. Take
out, and press in a culander, to get out the water.
Then sjiread on a board and chop a little. Put on
tlie fire a pan, with a little butter. When melted,
stir in a tablespoonful of flour, and afterward the
spinach. Salt and pepper to taste. A little grated
nutmeg. Some persons add sugar. Cook. Add a
gill of milk. Cream is better.
84. DANDELION STEWED.
Dandelions thrown into boiling water, and when
cooked, drain in a culander, and chop them up.
Put half a tablespoonful of butter and flour in a
pan on the fire, and stir till browned. Add the
chopped dandelion, a little broth and stir.
85. TURNIPS AND SUGAR.
Slice the turnip in dice in a saucepan, and throw
in boiling water to blanch them. When three-quar-
ters done, take them out. Put them on the fire Avith
a teaspoonful of butter, stir, and leave it simmering
till (lone. Then spread sugar on it, and serve.
Turnips glacis are made the same, only butter is
put on them with the sugar, and they are finished in
8Q. TURNIPS A LA POULETTE.
Cut the turnips in dice in a saucejDan. When
boiled tender turn them in a eulander. Put a little
butter and flour in a saucepan, and stir. Add a gill
of milk and stir, then the turnips, and salt and i^ep-
per to taste.
87. — LETTUCE STUFFED.
Put lettuce (or cabbage) in boiling water to blanch
it. In five minutes take it from the water and drain.
Place sausage meat between the leaves. Tie the
ball of lettuce up with a string. Put it in a small
saucepan, with half an inch of broth, on the fire.
88. PEAS AU NATUREL.
Take half a peck of peas. Shell them. If old,
blanch them in boiling water for a minute. Young
peas do not need it. Take out the peas with a eul-
ander. Put them in a pot on the fire, with a little
salt, two teaspoons of sugar, a head of lettuce. Tie
together three stalks of parsle}^ and a bay leaf, and
put in. Also a piece of butter the size of an egg.
Stir once in a while.
Cut small pieces of carrot and turnip in water,
with salt, &c., and boil gently till tender. Strain off
the water through a eulander.
Put half a tablespoon of butter and flour in a pan
on the fire ; add half a gill of broth ; turn in the car-
rot and turnip, and simmer a little.
90. TO KEEP TOMATOES.
Set them on the fire with a little salt, and reduce
one half. Let it cool, and put it in claret bottles.
Cork, and tie down the corks. Set the bottles on
the fire in cold water, and boil four hours. Take
them off, and let them cool in the water. Afterward
keep the bottles in a dark place.
Throw it in boiling water, with a bit of soft bread,
to blanch it. In a few minutes, when done, take ic
from the fire, and drain through a culander. It can
be served as a salad.
Cauliflower may be fried in butter, as asparagus is.
92. CUCUMBER STUFFED.
Split them in two down the centre, and soak in
cold water an hour or more. Then dig out most of
the inside of each half. Put the inside in a towel
and wring the water out. Chop the inside fine with
some sausage meat, salt and pepper to taste. Then
fill the outer halves or shells with the mixture. Put
them in a pan open part up. A little slip of skin cut
off the bottom will make them stand straight and
secure. Sprinkle a little salt and pepjDer and put
them in the oven.
93. BEANS AU JUS.
Soak a pint of white beans in cold water twenty-
four hours. Then set them on the fire with a quart
of water and a little salt. AVhen cooked turn them
in a culander. Then in\t them on the fire again,
with a little broth, chopped parsley, salt, j^epper,
boil slightly, dish and serve.
94. GENERAL REMARKS.
Cucumbers sliced for the table should always lay
with salt on them fifteen minutes, and then the water
be thrown away.
To make the toughest greens tender, soak them in
water twenty-four hours before cooking.
To boil carrots, parsnips and turnips, in slices, put
either in cold or warm Avater and boil gently (with
salt) till tender.
CAKE, PASTRY, ETC. 31
CAKE, PASTRY, &c.
95. — PUFF PASTE^
Puff paste requires good dry flour, if not dry
enough dry it in a warm place, not a hot one ; have
good butter, and if salt it can be worked out in cold
water ; it is best to roll puff paste on marble, and
the cooler the better to keep the butter from leaking
out; the rolls may be cooled on ice.
Take half a pound of flour, make a hole in the
middle, put in salt, and a gill of water, and mix a
thick paste or dough. Roll it out a quarter of an
inch thick. Spread a half pound of butter over it.
Fold it from each side toward the centre, so it will
be folded three folds, then from each end likewise.
Set it in a cool place for some minutes. Then roll
out and fold again. Repeat this folding and rolling
out four times, at intervals. The last time you roll
out, you can sprinkle flour if it sticks. This is your
Puff paste requires a very hot oven. After putting
it in do not oj)en the oven for ten minutes, or it will
fall. The oven used by the Professor marked 400
96. MADELINE CAKE.
Half a pound of eggs (four) , half a pound of but-
ter, half a pound of sugar, half a pound of flour.
Mix the butter, sugar, and yolks of the eggs thor-
oughly, then add the flour and mix again, then the
wliites of the eggs beaten to a thick froth. Grate in
a little lemon rind. Put it in little dishes, filling
each about one-third full, and bake till done.
In these cakes the butter and sugar were thor-
oughly mixed, and the yolks of the lour eggs added
one at a time. The flour was afterwards rubbed in.
32 CAKE, PASTRY, ETC.
Take puff paste for the top. For the bottom crust
take a half pound of flour, half a tablespoonful of
butter, a little salt, and mix with cold water till thick
enough. Roll it very thin. Spread it in your pan
or plate. Put in your preserves or fruit, always
cooked before-hand. Spread puff paste on the top.
Color the top i)aste w^ith the 3"olk of an egg, and
bake in a quick oven. Do not open the oven for ten
98. BOUCHEES DE CREME.
To make Bouchees, after puff paste is rolled out,
cut ^yith a cutter little cakes with a hollow in the
centre, and place on pans. Color the top with a
little yolk of egg mixed with water, and bake in a
The Petites Bouchees may be filled either with
sweetmeats or fruit, or with patisserie or frangipanni.
This can be served as it is, cold, as a dessert, or as
an entremet. Put two ounces of flour in a clean
saucepan (on the table), and mix m two eggs; grate
in a little orange or lemon rind to flavor it, then stir
in two ounces of sugar ; then one quart of milk ; an
egg beater is good to mix with. Now set it on the
lire, and stir it constantly. This was on seven
100. CAKE WITH ALMONDS.
Pound two ounces of sweet blanched almonds with
two ounces of line white sugar. Mix in a bowl two
ounces of sugar, and four 3'olks of eggs. Mix the
almond paste into the bowl little by little. The
almonds may be blanched or skinned by being
dipped a short time in boiling water, Avhen they peel
easily. Wash the mixture in your bowl well. The
four whites beat to a stiff froth and mix in w^ell with
the rest. Mix in four ounces of flour, silled, and
CAKE, PASTRY, ETC. 33
dried in a gentle heat. Put all in a butter-greased
mould. Put it in the oven. It need not be Yei7
101. — ANOTHER CAKE.
Four ounces of butter, four ounces of sugar, mixed
in a bowl. Mix in four whole eggs broken into the
bowl. Then four ounces of flour, essence to flavor ;
mix well and bake.
If you add two to four ounces of almonds, pound-
ed with a little sugar, you have a third kind of cake.
When your almond cake is done cover the mould
with a damp cloth.
102. PATE A CHOUX.
This is more diflicult to make than puff paste.
Put three gills of cold water on the fire in a sauce-
pan, and when it boils throw in two ounces of butter,
a pinch of salt, and soon after add six ounces of dried
flour. Work the flour over the fire. If the fire is
too hot remove it a little. Work it till it will not
stick to the finger on touching, and is soft as velvet.
Let it cool in a large bowl on the table. Grate in
lemon or orange rind to taste. Mix. Break in an
egg. Mix well. Three more eggs, one at a time,
mixing after each.
Grease a bakepan with a little butter. Put the
paste in in little round balls, with spoon and finger,
balls well apart, and the size of a black walnut;
cover the top with yolk of egg and feather. Bake
in a quick oven (say 400 degrees) .
After you take them from the oven let them cool.
Cut a piece off the top, fill up the inside with the
cream patissiere, and put on the top again.
103. CREAM PATISSIERE.
One teaspoonful of flour in a saucepan on the
table, with one gill of milk, and mix. Strain through
a sieve. Set it on the fire, with a little orange rind
to flavor, and keep stirring. Add soon another gill
of milk, and boil a few minutes till thick. Stir con-
34 CAKE, PASTRY, ETC.
stantly. Hare four yolks of eggs in a bowl, and
turn in the milk and flour, stirring fast. Put them
back into the pan with two ounces of pulverized
sugar, put on the fire and stir, and in a minute more
turn it out into a bowl, and it is made.
104. CREIVIE RENVERSE.
One quart of milk, with a little lemon mixed, and
three ounces of sugar, in a pan on the fire.
In another small pan (tin mould) two tablespoons
of sugar and two of water, and brown on the fire,
so that it is not quite burned. Turn the mould in all
directions till the browned sugar lines the whole
mould, warming it to keep it soft, so you can com-
plete the operation. Cool it.
The pan of milk must be kept stirring till it boils
up once. Put in a bowl about fire eggs, and turn in
the milk little by little, beating with an egg beater
at the same time. Turn it into the brown mould with
a strainer. Set the mould in a pan of boiling water,
and put the pan in the oven.
In this case the pan was kept in the oven twenty-
three minutes, then taken out and put away to cool.
105. — GATEAU DE PTTHIVIERS.
Take two ounces of blanched almonds and chop
them fine. Put them in a bowl with two ounces of
sugar, two ounces of butter, and mix. Put in two
yolks of eggs and mix. Grate in orange rind, to
flavor, or a few drops of essence. Then four maca-
roons, broken up, and mix again.
Roll out your puff paste to a quarter of an inch in
thickness. Place it in a tin plate, spread the mixture
over it, and cover the mixture with puff paste. Go
around the edges with a pressure, so as to make
them stick together. Put in a warm oven, not too
Put on the board a half pound of flour; add one
ounce of butter, lemon rind, two eggs, and a table-
CAKE, PASTRY, ETC. 35
spoon of sugar: mix. Add a third egg; mix well.
Roll out ; cut into squares or circles, or rather shapes,
as large as you want them ; cut slits across the
squares, nearly from end to end.
Have hot fat on the fire. When it steams it is hot
enough, or when a drop of water hisses. Fry the
croquignolles in it. Xone of the fat goes into them.
When browned to suit, put in a culander to drain.
Beat up the whites of eight eggs in a bowl to a
stiff froth. Add one ounce of white sugar to each
egg (half a pound in all), and mix in little by little
Grease a bakepan with a little sweet oil. Then
dust it with flour, and turn it upside down, to get
the loose flour off.
Put the mixture in spots over the pan, an inch or
two apart, with a spoon. If you want them small,
use a teaspoon, if large a larger spoon. Place the
pan in a mild oven (300 degrees or less).
Beat some cream to a froth, and skim the froth
into a bowl. Put gelatine, with a little cold water,
on the tire. Melt it and stir it into the bowl of
cream. One ounce of gelatine answers for a pound
When the Meringues are baked and cool, cut out
the bottom, fill with the cream, and j^ut two together,
tops out. Put no flour in the cream.
Five ounces of butter warmed. Mix into it in a
warm bowl six ounces of sugar. Mix in five ounces
of flour. Then brenk in and mix six eggs, one at a
time. A teaspoonful of Jamaica rum. Work it
Grease a shallow tin pan with a little butter. Pour
in your paste to the depth of a third of an inch. Set
it in a quick oven, but not too quick. When baked
twenty minutes or more, turn it over into another
36 CAKE, PASTRY, ETC.
pan, and put it back in the oven. In a few minutes
it will be done. Then let it cool.
The genoise is cut in pieces of any shape or size.
109. CREME AU CHOCOLATE.
Cream with chocolate, or chocolate custard. One
pint of milk and two ounces of chocolate, boiled a
little. Mix four yolks and two whites of eggs, and
mix with the milk. Set the cups in a pan of hot
water, and put the pan in the oven. AYhen cooked,
take out the pan and set it m a cool place.
110. CREME AU CAFE.
Cream with coffee — a coffee custard. Beat to-
goth(;r two yolks of eggs and two whole eggs in a
bowl, with a tablespoon fnl of sugar. Add one pint
of cold milk and a half gill of very strong li(]uid
coffee. INIix it all and pass it through a strainer into
cups. Set the cups in a pan of hot water, which
comes half way up the sides of the cups, and put
the pan in the oven. When baked take out the cups
111. CREME AU CITRON.
Cream with lemon, or lemon custard. One pint
of milk in a saucepan on the fire, with a couple of
pieces of lemon rind. When the milk rises, add two
tablespoons of sugar, and stir a little. After you
have made it once, you can tell whether you want
more or less of lemon or sugar. Beat the whites of
four eggs and the yolks of two in a bow], and tr(\at
the whole as you did the creme au cafe or coffee
112. — CREME AU THE.
Cream with tea, or tea custard. One pint of milk
in a small saucepan. When it rises take it off, and
put in a tablespoon of dry tea (never use green).
Let it stand on the table some minutes to draw.
Take three tablespoonfids of sngar, four yolks and
two whites of eggs, mixed in a bowl, and add them
CAKE, PASTRY, ETC. 37
to the tea, and stir well. Then strain into a mould
or cups, and bake them in the same way as the creme
with coffee, or coffee custard.
113. JELLY AYITH STRAWBERRIES.
Three ounces of gelatine in a tin saucepan, with
four sticks of cinnamon, a little grated nutmeg, and
one quart and half a pint of cold water. Cut into
it the rind of a lemon, and squeeze in the juice.
Add half a pound of sugar.
Four whites of egsfs are beaten to a stiff froth,
- and also the shells. Turn this into the pan with the
rest. Set it on a brisk fire, and stir with an egg
beater slowly. In ten minutes take it oft", and set it
on a slower part of the fire fifteen or twenty minutes.
Strain it through a coarse bag seyeral times till quite
For strawberry jelly add a little Madeira wine.
Fill the mould one-third full, and set it on ice to
harden a little.
When cool press a layer of strawberries into the
jelly, and pour on more jelly, and set it to cool. If
desirable, a second layer of strawberries may be
added before filling up the mould.
114. JELLY MACEDOIXE.
Prepare your jelly as in the case of strawberries.
After your mould is one-third full, put in a wineglass
of rum and set the mould on ice.
In the rest of the jell}^ put in two tablespoons ot
burnt sugar, and fill the mould another third and
cool. Then add more sugar to the rest of the jelly,
fill up the mould and cool again. By doing this
with fifths instead of thirds, you can make the color
gradual from the top to the bottom, or shaded.
115. PROFITEROLLES AU CHOCOLATE.
The paste for these is made the same as for the
beignets or for choux, and baked in small cakes.
When done, open one side, anu fill with chocolate, as
they are hollow. The chocolate is prepared by being
38 CAKE, PxVSTRY, ETC.
melted with water, and thinned with hot milk to a
paste, and a little sugar. The melting of the choco-
late requires a teaspoon of water to a couple of
ounces, on the fire.
A little more baking smooths the chocolate.
Petits pains au chocolate — Tiiis is made by filling
the cakes with a mixture of half chocolate and half
Petits pains a la reine — This is filling the cakes
with ])each preserve and chopped almonds, mixed.
Eclair au Chocolate — This is made by filling the
cakes with frangipanni. A little sweetmeat on the
top, covered with chocolate.
Eclair aux Praises — Fill the cakes with strawber-
ries, either fresh or jellied, with chocolate on the top.
Eclair au Cafe — Fill the cakes with any kind of
cream, mixed with a little very strong coffee or es-
sence, and covered with chocolate.
1 1 G. CHARLOTTE RUSSE.
One ounce of gelatine, two tablespoons of water,
on the fire to melt. Beat one pint of pure cream in
, a bowl till it is thick or frothy. Put in two table-
spoons of sugar and stir. If your cream is not very
thick you may add the melted gelatine. Flour or
not, as suits you.
Line the bottom of a tin mould with sponge cake,
baked thin and flat for the purpose, and also the
sides. Pour in the cream described above, and set
it aside, or on ice, till cold. If you desire you may
take off the top crust, and substitute for it cream
renverse or patissiere, or any other cream.
117. BEIGNLETS SOUFFLES.
Three gills of cold water on the fire, with two
ounces of butter. When it boils stir in six ounces
of flour gradually, and stir fast till it does not adhere
to the finger, and is soft. Take off and bowl it.
Let it cool a little. Stir it some. Stir in four or five
CAKE, PASTRY, ETC. 39
When your fat in the pan is hot enough drop the
paste in in little lumps. As they brown they will
turn themselves over in the fat. They will naturally
swell live times their size.
118. — ^RICE CAKE (or PUDDING).
Take a tin pan and grease it so as to make bread
crumbs stick to the inside all over.
Wash four ounces of rice and put it in another
vessel with a pint and a half of milk, on the fire.
When cooked, add three tablespoons of sugar. Sim-
mer five minutes more. Put the rice in a bowl to
cool. Stir in four or five yolks of eggs. Beat the
four whites to a stiff froth, and mix it in. Put it in
the pan spoken of at first, and put it in the oven.
Grease a piece of paper if yom' oven is too hot, and
lay it on top of the cake.
119. SAUCE FOR THE RICE.
A small tablespoon of butter and one of flour
stirred on the fire. Then a tablespoon of sugar and
a gill of water, a little piece of lemon rind. Drop
in a little white wine and the sauce is done.
120. — SPONGE CAKE.
Ten yolks of eggs in a bowl, with a pound of
powdered sugar, and mix well. A few drops of
essence, or rind of lemon or orange, or a little nut-
meg, to flavor. IVlix in half a pound of flour.
Afterward mix in the whites of ten eggs beaten to a
stiff froth. Bake in a pan or mould.
121. — BISCUIT GLACE A LA ROY ALE.
Two tablespoons of powdered sugar, and half the
white of an egg worked in a bowl. Add occasion-
ally a drop of lemon juice. It makes the sugar
Bake sponge cake in a mould, and when done turn
it out and spread the sugar on top, and place it in
the oven to glaze the suorar.
40 CAKE, PASTRY, ETC.
122.— BAB A.
Mix in a bowl twelve ounces of butter, twelve
ounces of flour, nine eggs, four tablespoons of yeast.
Mix it in a cool place, to keep the butter cool. Mix
it hard with the hand. Add four ounces of currants,
four of raisins, four ounces of citron cut in small
fillets, lemon or orange rind to flavor, and a glass of
whiskey, brandy, wine or other liquor, to taste, a
little salt. Set it to rise twelve to twenty hours in
the bowl. Bake.
123. COCOA-NUT CAKE
Is made just like macaroons, using cocoa blanched,
instead of almonds.
Twelve ounces of flour in a bowl, with twelve
ounces of butter, nine eggs, four tablespoons of
yeast, and mix well. The success depends on the
working of it. Put in a little salt. Mix it hard with
the hand. It must be set aside to rise, from twelve
to twenty hours. It is best to make it in the even-
ing. Set it to rise in the bowl.
Four ounces of sweet almonds, a little water, a
teaspoon of sugar, a few drops of white of egg,
pounded in a mortar. When well pounded add six
ounces of sugar, one white of egg not beaten, and
Dip your hands in a bowl of cold water, roll your
mixture in little balls, and put them in a pan without
any grease. Put it in a slow oven, as they must dry
a great deal.
For a quart of water you may take anywhere from
an ounce to half a pound, as you please. Two
ounces of Rio, two of Mocha, two of Martinique, to
a pound of Java, makes a good mixture. To those
who can roast it well at home, it is best t© try the
whole beny. Keep your roasted coffee in tin, tightly
stopped, and grind it daily. It is impossible to roast
coffee properly by steam. Dealers buy coffee at
forty-five cents, sell it for forty cents, and make large
profits. Coffee loses l-6th of its weight in roasting.
Different kinds of coffee take different lengths of
time to roast. But the dealers moisten their coffee
while roasting, to keep its weight. It is best to roast
coffee without taking the cover oft' the stove. Wood
is best to roast with.
Take five tablespoons of the above coffee mixture
to a quart of water. He used in this case the new
Old Dominion coffee pot. Put the coffee in the sieve
chamber of the pot.
At the first boiling of the water turn enough into
the pot just to wet the grounds, and then cover it up
again. In a minute pour in your boiling water, and
set it aside, and after standing a minute or two to
settle, it is clear, and read}^ for use.
If you boil coffee it dissipates the aroma, and ex-
tracts the volatile oil, and spoils the taste.
The best time to take coffee after dinner is twenty
or thirty minutes after. It is stimulating, and is said
to assist digestion. In the morning it is used with
milk. If you find indigestion after breakfast, aban-
don coffee altogether. J^ever use tea at breakfast.
Rye is bad. Roast wheat instead, pound it in a mor-
tar, do not gi'ind, and then use it as coffee.
Pour boiling water into the tea pot to warm it.
Empty out the water. Put in the tea and a table-
sjDOon of boiling water. Leave it so one minute, to
wet the leaves. Then pour in your hot water. Let
it stand three to five minutes, but never longer before
using. If it stands longer it becomes too astringent,
and the flavor is gone.
Never use tea for breakfast. It is too exciting.
Some people think they cannot work without it.
That is because they have accustomed themselves to
it as a stimulant. By habit we can bring ourselves
to use jDoison enough to kill three persons.
Tea is good in damp climates, to keep off fever
and ague, after a meal.
128. — CHOCOLATE.
Grate the chocolate. A tablespoon of water to
four ounces of chocolate. Put it on a gentle fire
some time. When melted pour on hot milk, and it
is ready for use. A half pint of milk to an ounce
of chocolate is a good average.
This is half coffee and half chocolate, with milk,
and is said to have been devised by Voltaire.
1 3 0. B AVAROISE.
Take an ounce of chocolate and half a pint of
milk for each person. Make it as per directions
given for making chocolate. Put in a few drops of
cold tea, and some sugar, and beat. Orange essence
is a good flavor. It is excellent to eat cold before
going to bed.
131. ICE CREAM.
A pint and a half of milk in a tin saucepan, with
two ounces of sugar, and two eggs, and stir with
an egg-beater as soon as you get it on the fire.
Continue stiiTing steadily, and take it off as soon as
it is going to boil up. Put it in a bowl to cool, and
when cool put the whole in a freezer.
Ice around a freezer is better with one-third salt
than with less.
To make strawbeny cream you squeeze the juice
out of strawberries and add it to the milk at iirst.
The riper the strawberries the richer the color. In
w inter cochineal is used to color. It may be ob-
tained of the leading confectioners.
132. ROMAN PUNCH.
Infuse an ounce of tea over night in half a pint of
One pound of sugar and three gills of water must
be boiled in a saucepan. When cool put it in a bowl
with the rind of two lemons and one of orange, cut
in pieces. Also the juice of four lemons and two
oranges, and add a little cold water. Beat well, add
a little of the tea, and as much rum (one to five
gills) as you please. Put it in a freezer and freeze.
Some people prefer two or three eggs added, beaten
to a frotii.
Punch is served at different times during dinner,
in different connections.
133. PLUM PUDDING.
Cut four ounces of beef suet fine, and mix it with
four ounces of bread crumbs. Four ounces of rais-
ins and seed them, four of currants, one ounce of
citron cut small. Essence or lemon rind to flavor, a
little nutmeg grated, two ounces of sugar (some
prefer brown) .
Beat four eggs with two tablespoons of milk.
Mix the whole ingredients above stated into it, and
incorjjorate every thing thoroughly. Put in two
tablespoons of rum, a teaspoon of salt.
Dip a clean towel in boiling water, sprinkle flour
over it. Put the mixture in. Double up the corners
of the towel. Tie it as tight as possible. Boil this
size three hours . The longer you boil the lighter it is .
When you serve it, pour brandy or rum over it, l
and send it to the table burning. Serve it in slices, i
A little butter, flour, sugar, and wine, mixed to-
gether on the fire, makes a good sauce. \
134. BREAD AND ROLLS.
One half pound of potatoes, steamed with skins
on. When cooked mash them with half a jDOund of
flour, half an ounce of salt, half a pint of tepid
water, and set it in a warm place for about an hour.
Then mix into it half a pint either of baker's or
brewer's yeast. Pass the whole through a sieve or
strainer, to get out the potato skins.
This leaven takes generall}" ten or twelve hours to
rise. As soon as it begins to fall you strain it to get
out the potato skms.
After straining you mix with it two pounds of
flour, one ounce of s.alt, and half a pint of tepid
"w^ator; keep it in a warm place an hour or so, un-
covered, till it cracks on the top. Then j'ou knead
with it on a board six pounds of flour, and tepid
water enough to make an ordinary dough.
Take five eggs, beat them in a good sized bowl,
season them with salt and pepp<n', and throw in a
teaspoonful of chopped parsley. Take a frying-pan,
put a piece of butter in it, and wh(^n melted pour in
the liquid egg, and stir with a table-fork, because
they cook rapidly-.
136. OMELET AU RUM.
Four eggs, salt and pepper, beat a little with a
fork, a teaspoonful of sugar beat in. Put a little
piece of butter in a pan. When the butter m^lts on
the fire, turn the eggs in and stir.
When browned, dished, and sugared afterward, it
is an omelet au sucre, or sugar omelet.
To make rum omelet, burn a wine-glass of rum,
and stir it in.
137. EGGS AU FROMAGE.
Pat two tablespoons of grated cheese in a sauce-
pan on the table, with a teaspoon of butter, four
eggs broken in ; set it on the fire, and stir two or
three minutes. Dish.
138. — EGGS A LA NEIGE fSNO\Y) .
One quart of milk on the fire in a tin pan. Beat
four whites of eggs to a stiff froth. When the milk
comes to a boil, stir in two tablespoons of sugar,
and then the eggs. They must be turned over, and
when well curded, taken out with a spoon.
Take the flour yolks in a bowl. Pour over them
as you stir, the milk left from cooking the whites.
Set on the fire and stir fast, for a minute or more,
and when it begins to thicken pat it in a dish, passing
it through a strainer or not, as you choose. Then
lay the curded whites in the dish and serve cold.
139. LAIT DE POULE.
Put in a tumbler one or two yolks of eggs ana a
I little sugar. Pour boiling water gradually over it,
I stirring so as not to cook too fast. It is very light,
1 for a sick person, or for a late luncheon.
140. — calf's brain stewed.
Soak the brain in cold water two hours. (Any
i other brain will do as well) . Take it out and take
I oft* the skin and the red veins. Then put it in the
I saucepan at the same time with the broth and wine.
Add a bunch of seasoning, parsley, thyme, and a bay
! leaf, and salt and pepper to taste.
A good way to cook brain is to fiy it in batter.
141. — calf's tongue.
Scald it in boiling water ten minutes. Take it out
and scrape off the skin with a knife. Lard it with
pork. Bake or roast, and serve it with either a
revigote or a piquante, same as with the gravy.
This is always sent to the table with the roast
piece or with the chicken. First wash the lettuce,
and be particular to drain it of all the water — for
good salad cannot be made with water. A table-
spoonful of oil, and half as much of vinegar ; salt
and pepper to taste ; stir thoroughly.
Professor Blot incidentally remarked that sorrel,
a sourish vegetable, is the best thing to eat in the
Spring, when prepared similar to lettuce. The dan-
delion also was an excellent field plant. The latter
was designed for our use. In the order of nature it
was the hrst palatable vegetable that comes forth in
the Spring season, and man should eat it.
These are a sort of mince meat dumpling. Take
some cold veal, chicken, lobster, or tender cold beef,
Put a half tablespoon of butter in a saucepan on
the fire. When melted, put in a piece of onion
chopped fine. Fry a little. Add half a tablespoon
of fiour. When it browns put in the minced meat.
Stir it steadily and add salt and pepper. Then add
a gill and a half of broth, and set the pan a little
off the fire to simmer.
Chop three stalks of parsley fine, and mix it in on
the fire, stirring all the time. Then break in two
eggs, stirring faster. In two or three minutes take
it from the fire and set it to cool. Thus fiir has
occupied about ten minutes.
When the meat is cold sift some flour on the board ;
take a lump of the mince the size of an egg, or
larger, roll it in the fine flour, dip it in a cup of
beaten egg, drain it and roll it in bread crumbs.
Have a quantity of boiling suet or drippings in a
frying pan, and fry the croquettes in them for a cou-
ple of minutes, till brown. Put in a culander, and
let the fat drain off.
144. LOBSTER SALAD.
Cut the flesh in small pieces. Stir in pepper, salt,
mustard, olive oil. Spread the salad over the top,
and also mayonnaise sauce. Also the coral of the
lobster, and boiled eggs cut in fancy shapes. Put
flowers around to ornament.
145. CHICKEN SALAD.
Put raw chicken flesh in a pan with butter, and
brown it. Then half cover it with warm water.
Cut half a middling sized onion and carrot in slices,
two or three stalks of parsley, two cloves, salt and
pepper. Boil gently two hours or more. When
cold, cut the flesh in small pieces. Cold chicken or
other bird left from the day before will do as well.
To make a large dish you can add veal. A very
good salad is one-third veal, one-third chicken, and
one-third celery, cut up and mixed. Put in olive
oil, mustard, &c. Lay it on a dish. Spread mayon-
naise sauce over it. Decorate with boiled eggs,
sprigs of parsley, beets cut in shapes, slices of
lemon, shaped, carrot boiled and sliced in shapes,
&c., or a rose or two.
146. — FRITTERS.
Use any kind of fruit or berry, or banana. Cut
the banana in slices.
Flour, water and salt mixed to a thick batter.
Beat two whites of eggs to a stiff froth, and mix
with the batter. A little liquor or wine of any kind
will improve it. The slices of fruit are dipped into
the butter and cooked in hot fat.
A pint of warm water, a large table spoonful of
butter on the fire. Add sugar to taste and a pint of
milk. Beat in a bowl one or two or three yolks of
eggs, with a little milk, and turn it into the pot, and
it is done.
148. — B U R N E D SUGAR.
Put a little sugar on the fire, and a little water,
and let it burn. Then add water and bottle it. It
keeps any length of time.
149. PMN PERDU (lost BREAD).
Take stale bread. Cut it in thin slices, and quar-
ter the slices so as to make them a couple of inches
square. Turn boiling milk, well sugared, over it.
A little butter in a fr} ing pan on the fire. Dip the
bread in egg, then in crumbs, and fry.
150. VOL AU VENT %
Is made with putf paste, and baked. One pint of
oysters in juice on a saucepan on the fire. Skim off
the white scum as it rises. Boil up once.
Mix a tablespoon of butter and one of flour in a
saucepan on the table. Add one i:>int of milk, and
set on the fire and stir. Salt and pepper. When it
begins to thicken, put in the oysters without theii
iuice, stir a little, and set it a little off the fire to keep
Roll puff paste to half an inch in thickness. Cut
^ i small or large cakes. Lay a strip around the edge,
a^ul put another fiat cake on the top, and bake in a
pan. When baked open the top and fill in with the
oyster and milk mixture. To make more room
inside two strips of pufi* paste ma}^ have been baked
instead of one, in making the cake.
151. OMELETTE SOUFFLEE.
Take a tin mould or pan. Grease it with butter.
^Mix in a bowl five yolks of eggs and three ounces
of sugar. Beat five whites to a stifi" froth, and mix
them with the yolks and sugar.
Pour the whole into the i)an and set the pan in the
pan in the oven. An omelette soufilee must be made
just before serving, as it falls very soon.
152. BREAD PUDDING.
Soak a five-penny loaf in milk for ten minutes.
Squeeze the milk out by hand, put the bread in a bowl,
and mix in four yolks of eggs, then four ounces
ot raisins. Beat the four whites to a stiff paste, and
mix it with the rest.
Grease a mould with butter, and fill it two-thirds
with bread. Set the mould into boiling water for
twelve minutes. Set it in the oven, and bake.
153 . MACARONI.
Put half a tablespoonful of butter, and the same
of flour, in a pan, and mix on the fire. Then a little
more than half a pint of milk, and stir. Add salt.
This is the sauce.
The macaroni has been boiled in a pan, with a
little butter and salt, drained in a culander, and the
sauce is poured over it on a dish.
154. MACARONI AU GRATIN.
Cover macaroni with cold water, a little suet, a
little butter, and boil till tender.
Spread butter on the bottom of the dish. Dust it
with grated cheese. Then a layer of macaroni.
Then a layer of cheese, and so on, as many layers
as you choose, the cheese always on top. Salt and
pepper, and pieces of butter on toj)* Put it in the
155. — PUREE FOR FISH OR MEAT.
Set a pint of peas in cold water on the fire, cover-
ed. When cooked mash them through a culander,
and put them back on the fire, with a little butter.
Chopped parsley may be mixed with it.
It can be poured over salt fish, or any other kind
of fish or meat, mackerel, &c.
50 FRUIT, BERRIES, ETC.
FRUIT, BERRIES, &c.
Put a quart of water, half pound of sugar, piece of
cinnamon in a tin vessel, boil till it honies. Put in
a quart of cranben-ies, shake up to mix, boil fifteen
minutes, shaking occasionally.
Raw cranberries can be kept perfectly fresh for
three or four weeks by simply putting them in cold
water, changing the water every two or three days.
157. — APPLES WITH BUTTER.
Core the peeled apples with a corer. Place in a
tin dish. Fill the core hole with sugar. Put a lump
of butter on top of the hole, and a little sugar over
that again. A little water to cover the bottom of the
dish and put in the oven.
158. CHARLOTTE OF APPLES.
Put one quart of cored and peeled apples, half
table spoon of sugar, half gill of water, piece of
cinnamon, in a saucepan. Cook. Then strain it
through a culander.
Line a tin mould with bread crumbs, using melted
butter to stick them on. Put in the apple. Put bread
crumbs on top ; and set in the oven.
When well baked reverse the pan or mould on a
dish and the apple comes out shaped, ready to serve.
159. — APPLES MERINGUEE.
Apples are peeled, cored, seeded. Put them in a
saucepan with a table spoon of water, three table-
spoons of sugar, and stick of cinnamon. When the
apples are done mash them through a culander, and
Three whites of eggs beaten to stiff froth. Mix in
FRUIT, BERRIES, ETC. J.g'f 51
one tablespoon of sugar spread over the apples.
Set in the oven a short time to glaze,
160. CROQUE EN BOUCHE (CAXDIED FRUIT).'r
Separate an orange or other fruit into pieces, tie a
thread to each piece, and put them in the oven to dry.
Dip them in a white of egg and roll in sugar lightly.
Take currants, on the stalk, wash them, dry them,
dip them in a mixture of egg and water and then roll
them in sugar. When dry the sugar will stick, and
the currants may be served in that form.
Strawberries may be treated in the same way.
They may be made in forms around a cup, by the use
of eggs to stick them together, sugared, and the cup
being drawn out by reversing it, the form will stand.
You put four ounces of sugar and not quite a gill
of cold water on the fire, and boil till it s^^rups. Dip
your fruit, currants, oranges, or other articles in,
and hang them up by the string to candy or dry.
161. — A QUESTION ANSTVERED.
A lady sent up a piece of paper with the question,
**Is a cook a chemist?"
The Professor's reply was :
**A cook is a person whose duty it is to keep in
order the animal mechanism. A*' chemist is called
when that mechanism is out of order."
162. — ON ROASTING.
When you roast beef put it as near as you can .to
the fii-e, till there is a crust all round. Baste first
52 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.
with a little butter. When that crust is formed,
remove it further from the fire by degi'ees. Baste
and turn often. Do the same for mutton.
Yeal and lamb must be put further from the fire,
as they will burn quick. If it be very young lamb,
it may be wrapped in greased paper, set close, and
basted over the paper.
In roasting birds, always envelope them in paper.
Remove the paper ten or fifteen minutes before tak-
ing them from the fire, so as to brown them.
To roast quails, roll them up and tie in grape vine
leaves. Put slices of thin pork over the leaves and
tie again. Then put the quails in the oven. When
done serve as they are.
A fish may be roasted, and served after meat.
Pickerel or eels roast well.
163. A WORD ABOUT FISH.
Fish having white flesh are — cod, cusk, haddock,
hake, halibut, pollock and whitefish. Sauces used
with white flesh fish, when baked, boiled or broiled,
are — anchovy, caper, mayonnaise, bechamel, egg
sauce, scup and maitre d'hotel. Fish with black
flesh are — bass, bluefish, eels, hemngs, mackerel,
perch, pickerel, salmon, scup, shad, tautog or black-
fish and trout. For these use anchovy, tomato,
caper, genevoise, maitre d'hotel, mayonnaise, scup
or court bouillon sauce. Flounders and smelts.
Smelts arc always fried.
Fish when done will flake off easily when you try
it with a fork.
Puree may be served under any kind of meat or
fish. Spread it in the dish and lay the meat on it.
If you have gravy from the meat, you may mix it
with the puree.
You may also, for garnishing, use truffles, pota-
toes a la Duchesse, potatoes in croquette, water-cress.
Meat may be served with its own gravy, garnished
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 53
165. PHYSIOLOGICAL REMARKS.
It is proved by physiologists that it is the contrac-
tion of the muscles *^that produces wrinkles. Good
lV)od makes the skin clear, develops good forms, and
makes people look younger.
Animals are more careful of the selection of their
food. Man looks after the food of his pet horse
more than he- does after his own.
Food should be prepared according to season. In
winter we want more fatty matter. Greens eaten
freely in spring purifies the blood and removes the
Solid meat is better in summer than soups, ragout,
&c. Good roast meat will best supply the waste of
substance. The amount we eat is not what benefits
us, but the amount we digest. A little is better
digested than a great deal. A great deal of food
A man's stomach and his mind cannot work to-
gether. A half hour's quiet, or onh- light conversa-
tion after dinner, will do very well. Never eat
when angry, or immediately after a long walk. Be
gay as possible at dinner.
Eat at regular hours good and well prepared food,
enough, but not too much. Eat slowly, and masti-
cate well. Never eat anything that does not taste
good. Drink slowly, and only moderately. Always
leave table with a little appetite.
There is a great difference between rich food and
high seasoned food. Chocolate is not too rich, if
you add water. Kich food is not stimulating or ex-
citing ; hot or seasoned food is.
Pork and veal, to be healthy, should always be
Speaking of triclminae in meat, the Professor said
that if the meat is overcooked there was no danger
from it. Many people have eaten diseased meat
without injury. A whole brigade of the French
army, in 1783, — and it was an historical fact, — was
fed on diseased meat for four or five months ; and at
54 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.
the end of that time the men were apparently as
healthy as those of other brigades, who ate whole-
some meat. The fact of it was, the diseased meat
was over-cooked, and the men did not know the
The Professor could not recommend diseased
meat, but the object of referring to the subject was
simply to show the importance, sometimes, of over-
166. QUENCHING THIRST.
As to drinking, when you eat you do not feel the
effect of it at once. If you drink when warm you
do. Wet your hands if you are warm, and then
your forehead. Sip the water with a teaspoon.
This would have saved many lives of those who die
from colds, inflammations, &c., on account of over
drinking, or of cold fluids. The thirst is best
quenched so, and with one-third of the water other-
wise used. Hot coffee or liquor do not quench thirst.
By reaction they increase it.
167. CLASSES OF FOOD.
There are two classes of food, vegetable and
animal, which may be subdivided thus: Milk, escu-
lent grains, vegetables, meat, flsh, fruit and egg?>.
In addition to these we have turtle and frogs.
There are only eight ways of preparing food, viz :
Baking, boiling, broiling, frying, roasting, saute,
simmering, and stewing.
HINTS AND ITEMS. 55
HINTS AND ITEMS.
Raw oysters are not proper to use at dinner where
soup is used, as they spoil the taste of the soup.
In making up a bill of fare, serve in the following
order — soup, fish, beef, mutton, veal,- poultry, game,
Every kitchen should have a clock in it. Always
write down your bill of fare, and the time to begin
each article, and put it near the clock — that is, where
you have a number of dishes. Have a good cook
book, though you do not follow it. It is good for
reference in small matters, such as seasoning.
Professor Blot disapproves of self-raising flour
and patent yeasts.
A dinner a la Russe, is carved in the kitchen. A
dinner a la Francaise, looks better, as it is carved on
the table. Thiers said when he went to the latter he
always dined before leaving home.
Brazing is a process used where they have no
ovens. It is done in a pan with a hollow cover,
which is set on coals, and coals heaped on the cover.
Richelieu devised the Mayonnaise sauce.
Calf s or sheep's feet may be prepared the same as
calf s head a la poulette.
Beef suet should always be melted on a slow fire.
Any strong tasted bird may have its taste changed
by a sage leaf or two inside, and one or two in the
In cooking use cast iron pans, galvanized with tin
linings. A China lining will crack soon, and the
food be spoiled. Copper requires a good deal of
work, and often in little crevices generates verdigris.
Boiling water and washing soda used with a brush
will keep clean the galvanized iron.
To make bread crumbs, dry stale bread in the
56 HINTS AND ITEMS.
oven, break it up, roll it with a pin, and pass it
through a coarse sieve.
When you cook salt fish, soak it in warm water an
hour, to get the salt out. Boil it in cold water.
When half cooked, throw the water away, and renew
with warm water.
A very good dish may be made by cutting bread
into dice, and frying it in fat.
Never eat lobster at or after supper ; it is heavy.
Vegetables and fried fish are always entremets.
An omelette may be made more flakey by being
Bet in the oven as soon as done.
No matter what sauce or gravy you make, always
Bkim the top clean, strain the fat into ajar, and keep
it for cooking.
Alwaj^s make your own pickles, if you would be
sure that there is no poison in them. The beautilul
green of some is produced by poisonous substances.
The bes^ part of a potato is that nearest the skin.
The centre leaf of a radish should always be left
on, and eaten with it, as there is something therein
that corrects the radish, and prevents indigestion.
The most difficult part of cooking is mixing and
In boiling any kind of green vegetable, always
put it in when the water first begins to boil.
It does not accelerate cooking to boil fast. ^
The harder meat is boiled the poorer it will be.
Intense boiling not only closes the j^ores of the meat,
but suffers the real goodness to be lost in evapora-
In putting any kind of ingredients into a given
quantity of base, only one at a time should be mixed,
as It is impossible to thoroughly mix a number of
6ul)stances at one and the same time.
To lieat eggs most quickly into a stiff* froth, is to ^
have fresh eggs ; and when the bowl is exposed to a
draft or is put on ice, it will become stiff:" much
Always grease dough pans with a feather. It is a
HINTS AND ITEMS. 57
great saving of butter. It requires scarcely any
butter for this purpose. It is not only dangerous
but costly to use the fingers, especially when butter
is high. The best fat to use for cooking purposes is
The Professor considers it wicked to use soda,
saleratus, or cream of tartar in making bread or
A single bay leaf is an addition to a pot of soup.
Bay leaves come often on boxes of figs, as a sur-
face covering, and also in other ways.
Never eat melon for dessert. It should be eaten
When you buy a coffee pot, shorten the coffee
holder a little, and have a gauze put on the bottom
instead of the bars or perforated tin. It draws
French cookeiy is somewhat Italian in its nature.
Catherine de Medicis was an Italian. She brought
with her into France her mode of cook'.jg, as well
as some of her other customs. The Italians bor-
rowed their customs from the Romans, and tliey, in
turn, from the Greeks. A French cook, as soon as
he or she discovers a good dish, adopts it, no matter
w^here it may come from. As an instance of this, in
France the cranberry is used, but it is a borrowed
dish — perhaps American. Mock turtle and plum
pudding are English dishes.
A very good soup may be made by boiling turnips,
carrots, &c., in broth, and breaking in pieces of dry
toasted bread before serving.
Wooden spoons are best for mixing dough.
In cooking never salt your articles fully. People
can alw^ays salt to suit themselves, at the table.
Many people are disgusted with highly salted
food, while others want salt in everything.'
Immediately after a substantial meal a person
should take half an hour of perfect rest. Do not
read. Light, trivial conversation is advisable — any-
thing that rests body and mind together.
HINTS AND ITEMS.
Manual labor does not have so injurious an effect
as labor of the brain, after eatino- ^ ^^
No kind of drink ought to be taken before eatin-.
Drinking when the stomach is empty causes the
evaporation of the gases, irritates the Lmach! and
dylpejsk """^ ^^ '^' "^^ ^^ indigestion and
nf3v^r-^''^''''\' """"f """^ of taking a cup of black coffee
aitei dinner, has been adopted every where. Coffee
IS a stimulant ; it produces agreeable sensations
and excites the faculties of the mind. It helps
digestion, after a substantial dinner. It neutralizes
the fermentation of alcoiiol in the stomach to a ffreat
extent. Its undue use deranges the liver. Never
drink anything too hot or too cold.
It is known in physiology that alcohol causes the
lood to ferment in the stomach, and partly paralyzes
the nervous system, and consequently stops the
stomach in its hidden and wonderful work When
wine is used duruig dinner, it should be with three-
lourths water, with few exceptions. The true gas-
tronomer, if he drinks wine, never drinks it pure
till he comes to the dessert. White wines are the
least hurtful, if pure.
Too free use of any beverage, in a warm day,
•wx^akens the stomach. A tablespoonful of cool
water at intervals of an hour or two, will enable a
person to feel stronger and cooler on the whole.
Overloading the stomach with fluids in hot weather,
causes lassitude, indigestion, and many other un-
pleasant feelings. Water taken into the mouth
freely and ejected will do a good deal to quench
Many people think they are not fond of sweet oil
as food, but like Jard. This is all imagination.
Great quantities of lard are shipped to Nice, and one
or two other places in the south of France, and after
certain preparation the lard is returned as olive oil.
Three-quarters of the substance of the olive oil of
commerce is lard*
Almond Cake, 99, 100
Apple, with butter, 157
»» Meringue, 159
Charlotte of, 158
Asparagus, 74, 75, 76
Bouehees de Creme, 98
Biscuit Glace, 121
Burned Sugar, 148
'* Fried, 149
** Pudding, 152
Breakfast Steak, 34
Beef, Baked, 35
*' Boiled, 40
** in Miroton, 39
** Fillet, 37
** au Gratin, 41
** a la mode, 42
Beans au jus, 93
Cream Renverse, ^ 104
** Frangipanni, 99
** Patissiere, 103
** Ice, 131
Croon e en Bouche, 160
Cocoa-nut Cakes, 123
Charlotte Russe, 116
of Apples, 158
Coffee, 126, 129
Chocolate, 128, 130
Calf s Brain, stewed, 140
** Tongue, 141
Caper Sauce, 50
Chicken fricasee, 61
** Boned, 64
*« Marengo, 68
Cucumber, 92, 94
Candied Fruit, 160
Chicken Salad, 145
Eggs au from age,
*' a la neige,
Fruit fritters, 146
French rolls, 134
Fish, hints about, 163
Fish, 15 to 33
Fillet of Beef, 37
** for Chicken,
Lait de Poule,
Leg of Mutton,
Rice in Milk,
* * au rum,
** with cheese,
Pork, 56, GO
Pigeon in crapaudine, 63
*' in chartreuse, 67
48, 50, 55
Pate a choux,
1 to 14
77 to 81
Soups, 1 to 14 ,
Sauce, Genevoise, 17 >
*' Bechamel, 22
** Maitre d'hotel, 24 .
** Anchovy, 25 (
** Caper, 10 •
** Egg, i:ui
** Piquante, 36
** for Beef, 38 ,'
** Hollandaise, 40 }
** Robert, 58
Sponge Cake, 120/
Salads, 142, 144, 145
Strawberr}^ Jelly, 113
Vol au Vent,
44 to 48
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